UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Deaf education and the claims of the deaf Hole, Rachelle Deanne 1994

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DEAF EDUCATION AND THE CLAIMS OF THE DEAF by RACHELLE DEANNE HOLE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1989 B.S.W., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1994 ©Rachelle Deanne H o l e In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment • of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 5obi&l U/pf~l<> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date fe^.Al J4J DE-6 (2/88) Deaf Education and the Claims of the Deaf A b s t r a c t H i s t o r i c a l l y d e a f e d u c a t i o n has been dominated by an on g o i n g s t r u g g l e between i n t e r e s t groups r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication. I t i s a c o n t e x t where t h e c l a i m s o f d i f f e r e n t groups have had d i s p a r a t e i n f l u e n c e on p o l i c y . The c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf, t h e l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group, have been s i l e n c e d i n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . A d o p t i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f c l a i m s m a k i n g t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e a c h e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g communication p o l i c y . N i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t h r e e major communication methods used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n ( a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s m , t o t a l communication, and b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m ) were i n t e r v i e w e d . I t was found t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r o c e s s e s o f r e a c h i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v i e w s were s u b j e c t i v e , b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by such f a c t o r s as t h e i r v i e w o f d e a f n e s s , t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y as h e a r i n g o r d e a f , t h e i r w o r l d v i e w , t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s f i n d i n g p o i n t s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x a m i n i n g how t h e i r own c u l t u r e , e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s t o r y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e l i e f s w h i c h i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s p r a c t i c e . I n a d d i t i o n t h e f i n d i n g s h i g h l i g h t t h e r e a l i t y t h a t t h e Deaf a r e t h e o n l y ones i n s o c i e t y w i t h f i r s t h a n d knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f what i t means t o be d e a f i n a h e a r i n g s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e Deaf can o f f e r v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t about t h e needs o f d e a f c h i l d r e n and s h o u l d be c r i t i c a l a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y development. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i Acknowledgement i v INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r One H i s t o r i c a l C o n t e x t 8 C h a p t e r Two Claimsmaking and t h e Deaf 25 1. W e l f a r e t h e o r y and Cl a i m s m a k i n g 25 2. C l a i m s m a k i n g and t h e Deaf 35 C h a p t e r Three R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t 42 1. L i t e r a t u r e Review 42 2. Methods 47 C h a p t e r Four F i n d i n g s 55 C h a p t e r F i v e D i s c u s s i o n and I m p l i c a t i o n s 86 1. D i s c u s s i o n o f Themes 87 2. F i n d i n g s and a Cl a i m s m a k i n g Approach 109 3. P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s 113 4. P r a c t i c e I m p l i c a t i o n s 117 5. F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 120 6. Summary 121 R e f e r e n c e s 123 Ap p e n d i c e s C o n t a c t L e t t e r 129 I n t e r v i e w Guide 130 Consent form 131 C h a r t One 132 E t h i c s A p p r o v a l C e r t i f i c a t e 133 i i i Acknowledgements I am i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I would l i k e t o t h a n k my committee members - Dr. Stephen Carey, o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Dr. G l e n n D r o v e r , o f t h e C i t y P o l y t e c h n i q u e i n Hong Kong and Dr. P a u l e M c N i c o l l , o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia - f o r t h e t i m e and energy t h a t t h e y s p e n t i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h t h o u g h t f u l i n p u t r e g a r d i n g my t h e s i s . I would s p e c i f i c a l l y l i k e t o thank Dr. P a u l e M c N i c o l l f o r h e r o n g o i n g s u p p o r t , t i m e and i n s i g h t f u l feedback d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . I n a d d i t i o n t o my committee members I would l i k e t o t h a n k Roger C a r v e r f o r h i s s u p p o r t and c o n s u l t a t i o n . L a s t l y , I would l i k e t o thank my husband, Tony, and my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r encouragement and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o c e s s . i v Deaf Education and the Claims of the Deaf E i g h t y e a r s ago I was i n t r o d u c e d t o a community o f p e o p l e w i t h a r i c h h e r i t a g e , a b e a u t i f u l language and a r e m a r k a b l e c u l t u r e - t h e d e a f community. As my c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s community has i n c r e a s e d , my d e s i r e t o l e a r n more about t h i s community has been c u l t i v a t e d . Thus, e i g h t y e a r s ago, I began an o n g o i n g j o u r n e y o f exp a n d i n g my u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e deaf community, t h e i r language and t h e i r c u l t u r e . My i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h members o f t h i s community t o o k p l a c e when I began v o l u n t e e r work a t t h e M a n i t o b a P r o v i n c i a l S c h o o l f o r t h e Deaf. I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t I began s t u d y i n g A m e rican S i g n Language (A.S.L.) t a u g h t by Deaf a d u l t s . Then, i n 1989, I became a r e s i d e n t i a l c o u n s e l l o r a t a s c h o o l f o r t h e d e a f i n O n t a r i o . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A.S.L., t h e d e a f community, d e a f c u l t u r e and t h e e d u c a t i o n system, b r o u g h t t o my a t t e n t i o n an on g o i n g c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g t h e language o f t h e Deaf: whether S i g n s h o u l d be used i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . I q u i c k l y became aware o f c o n f l i c t i n g p o s i t i o n s . There were t h o s e who a s s e r t e d t h a t d eaf c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o speak and l i p r e a d , t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method; t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d t h e use o f a l l methods ( i . e . , g e s t u r e , ASL, s i g n e d E n g l i s h , speech, l i p r e a d i n g ) , t h e " t o t a l communication" method; and t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d f o r t h e " n a t u r a l " language o f t h e Deaf, A m e r i c a n S i g n Language (ASL), t o be used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f d e a f c u l t u r e i n c u r r i c u l u m and t h e h i r i n g o f d e a f s t a f f as i m p o r t a n t r o l e models, t h e b i l i n q u a l / b i c u l t u r a l method. 1 T h i s l e d me t o q u e s t i o n i n g why p r o f e s s i o n a l s s e r v i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r r i v e a t s uch d i s s i m i l a r and d i v i d e d p o s i t i o n s ? How do t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r r i v e a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s ? And f u r t h e r m o r e , what i n f l u e n c e s p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' b e l i e f s about d e a f e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g communication methods? These q u e s t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o my m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h s t u d y w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e b e l i e f s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , as my c o n t a c t w i t h Deaf p e o p l e has i n c r e a s e d and my s t u d y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has expanded, I have become aware o f a f u r t h e r o n g o i n g s t r u g g l e u n d e r l y i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e Deaf i n s o c i e t y , w h i c h m o t i v a t e d my d e s i r e t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s r e s e a r c h . T h i s c o n f l i c t c e n t r e s around t h e i d e n t i t y o f Deaf p e o p l e . My c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s m i n o r i t y group i n s o c i e t y has i n t r o d u c e d me t o a new v i e w o f h e a r i n g l o s s , one h e l d by t h e Deaf. I was s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n t h a t t h e Deaf do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s d i s a b l e d , b u t v i e w h e a r i n g l o s s as a d i f f e r e n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e Deaf do n o t v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as a d i s a b i l i t y group b u t as a c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group. T h i s c l a i m i s r o o t e d i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l model o f d e a f n e s s and a d v o c a t e s c o - e x i s t e n c e and i n t e g r a t i o n , n o t a s s i m i l a t i o n . The Deaf d e s i r e t o i n t e g r a t e i n s o c i e t y , and be r e s p e c t e d as d i f f e r e n t . As Doe (1994) e x p l a i n s , "Deaf c u l t u r e wants h e a r i n g p e o p l e t o be s e n s i t i v e t o and accommodating o f d i f f e r e n c e s " ( 4 ) . 2 Deaf p e o p l e do n o t want t o be f i x e d (Doe, 1994; C a r v e r , 1993; B i e n v e n u , 1989). However, a c o n f l i c t e x i s t s . The c l a i m o f t h e Deaf t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group, c o -e x i s t s w i t h a competing v i e w o f d e a f n e s s . T h i s r i v a l p o s i t i o n i s h e l d by t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y who v i e w h e a r i n g l o s s a s an i m p a i r m e n t , a d e v i a t i o n from t h e n o r m a l , h e a l t h y s t a t e : h e a r i n g . Emphasis, t h e r e f o r e , i s p l a c e d on r e m e d i a t i o n and n o r m a l i z a t i o n - on overcoming h e a r i n g l o s s t o r e s t o r e "normal" f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s emphasis m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n f a c t , t h e competing c o n s t r u c t s o f d e a f n e s s a r e a t t h e c o r e o f t h e methods o f communication debate (Lane, 1992; G r e g o r y and H a r t l e y , 1991). T h i s o n g o i n g c o n t r o v e r s y r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i o u s and competing c l a i m s o f i n t e r e s t g roups h i s t o r i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t c l a i m s have d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s ; and I wanted t o g a i n a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r i v a l c l a i m s i n d eaf e d u c a t i o n . A l s o , t h e a p p a r e n t magnitude o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g a i n i n g a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n v o l v e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , as a h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l I b e l i e v e d t h a t e n g a g i n g i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s would encourage me t o l o o k a t my own b e l i e f s on t h i s i s s u e . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , I d i r e c t e d t h e e n q u i r y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h around t h e methods o f communication d e b a t e . T h i s s t u d y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n . H i s t o r y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e d e a f community's 3 c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f deaf c h i l d r e n have had l i t t l e , i f any i n f l u e n c e i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y development (Lane, 1984; Sa c k s , 1989). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group c h a r g e s t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n system has f a i l e d t o e d u c a t e d e a f c h i l d r e n e q u i t a b l y (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989). The d e a f community v i e w s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n system as i n t e g r a l t o t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r community (Lane, 1992). Thus, s o c i a l work's p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment t o e n h a n c i n g o r r e s t o r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s ' , g r o u p s ' o r communities' c a p a c i t i e s f o r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g and t o c r e a t e s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i r g o a l s (NASW, 1973) i s a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . T h i s r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r s t h e v o i c e and g o a l s o f t h e d e a f community. L a s t l y , s o c i a l work has a r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g , development, a n a l y s i s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y w h i c h has a p o t e n t i a l impact on d i f f e r e n t groups i n s o c i e t y (BCASW Code o f E t h i c s ) . T h i s r e s e a r c h a d d r e s s e s q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p o l i c y w h i c h d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e w e l f a r e and w e l l -b e i n g o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , t h e i r f a m i l i e s and t h e d e a f community. The b e n e f i t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e many. T h i s t h e s i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work r e s e a r c h and t o r e s e a r c h about d e a f n e s s . I t h i g h l i g h t s t h e f a c t t h a t p o l i c y , d e v e l o p e d a t a macro l e v e l , i m p a c t s i n d i v i d u a l s and communities. I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n encourages t h e r e a d e r t o r e a c h f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h i s a v a l u a b l e p r a c t i c e f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s . A l s o , shaped by a c l a i m s m a k i n g a p p r o a c h , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n encourages a q u e s t i o n i n g o f w h i c h a c t o r s s h o u l d be 4 i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y . The d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t o f a c l a i m s m a k i n g p e r s p e c t i v e a l l o w s f o r a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t c r i t i q u e o f c l a i m s , s t r e s s i n g t h a t m u l t i p l e meanings and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f e v e n t s , b e h a v i o u r s and phenomena e x i s t ( i . e . h e a r i n g l o s s ) . S o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s m v i e w s knowledge as temp o r a r y , i n s c r i b e d i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n t e x t , and s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y m e d i a t e d . I t i s a v i e w w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h a t m u l t i p l e and competing " t r u t h s " e x i s t (Grennon Brooks and B r o o k s , 1993). C o n s t r u c t i v i s m f o c u s e s on t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h p e o p l e c o n s t r u c t knowledge and b e l i e f s . Thus, i f t h e way b e l i e f s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i s s u b j e c t i v e and c u l t u r a l l y m e d i a t e d , t h e n t h i s work h i g h l i g h t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f q u e s t i o n i n g how our b e l i e f s , b i a s e s , and ass u m p t i o n s shape our v i e w s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and/or communities we work w i t h . Thus, t h i s t h e s i s i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h s t u d y w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e l i e f s about communication p o l i c y i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . I t f o c u s e s on b e l i e f s , and how b e l i e f s become c o n s t r u c t e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , I w i l l use a c a p i t a l t o s i g n i f y t h e d i f f e r e n c e between d e a f , an a u d i o l o g i c a l h e a r i n g l o s s w h i c h o b s t r u c t s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o h e a r o r u n d e r s t a n d speech, w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e use o f a h e a r i n g a i d ( S t o r y , 1989), and Deaf, an i n d i v i d u a l who i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e Deaf, c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group (Sacks, 1989). T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s v a l u a b l e f o r t h e r e a r e t h o s e deaf i n d i v i d u a l s ( t h e o r a l d eaf) 5 who i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e h e a r i n g c u l t u r e f o r any number o f r e a s o n s : maybe t h e y l o s t t h e i r h e a r i n g l a t e r i n l i f e , a f t e r language and speech had been a c q u i r e d , o r perhaps t h e y were r a i s e d o r a l l y , i n t e g r a t e d w i t h h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e t h o s e Deaf i n d i v i d u a l s who a u d i o l o g i c a l l y may be c l a s s i f i e d as h a r d o f h e a r i n g , who however, may i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as c u l t u r a l l y Deaf and v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as p a r t o f t h e d e a f community. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group. Thus, t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s p a per cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n c l u d e a l l p e o p l e w i t h a h e a r i n g l o s s . I n a d d i t i o n , as w i t h any group i n s o c i e t y t h e d e a f community does n o t r e p r e s e n t a c o h e s i v e , homogeneous group. I n f a c t t h e d e a f community i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s and t h e r e f o r e , t h e f i n d i n g s s h o u l d n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e v i e w s o f a l l d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s who v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as p a r t o f t h e d e a f community. The f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r o v i d e a summary o f t h e h i s t o r y o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s an a r e a where t h e c l a i m s o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e Deaf c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s (Lane, 1984; 1992). The second c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r e s e n t a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g as d e v e l o p e d by D r o v e r and Kerans (1993). The p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e o r y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d ; t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f a c l a i m s m a k i n g approach w i l l be d i s c u s s e d ; and f i n a l l y , t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s t h e o r y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n o f 6 t h e Deaf i n s o c i e t y w i l l be e x p l o r e d . The t h i r d c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r e s e n t a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e b e l i e f s o f n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s about t h e methods o f communication used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t an o v e r v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e and p r e s e n t t h e methodology used i n t h e s t u d y . D i f f e r e n t c l a i m s have d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s . Thus, t h i s s t u d y , i n e x p l o r i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' b e l i e f s about communication methods, e x p l o r e s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e b e l i e f s o f t h e v a r i o u s a c t o r s have e v o l v e d . The f o u r t h c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y . The themes wh i c h emerged t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and s u p p o r t e d w i t h v e r b a t i m quotes from t h e n i n e q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s . F i n a l l y , t h e f i f t h c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . The f i n d i n g s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e and t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f c l a i m s m a k i n g w i l l be examined. F i n a l l y , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n r e l a t i o n t o p o l i c y , p r a c t i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 7 Chapter One H i s t o r i c a l Context P r i o r t o 1750, t h e Deaf were t r e a t e d by law and s o c i e t y as i m b e c i l e s because o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o speak, and t h e y were t h o u g h t t o be i n c a p a b l e o f r e a s o n . By law, t h e d e a f were d e n i e d a l l l e g a l r i g h t s and i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, t h e y were t h o u g h t t o be b a r r e d from heaven because t h e y c o u l d n o t say t h e sacraments (Baynton, 1993). I n a d d i t i o n , s o c i e t y v i e w e d t h e d e a f as u n e d u c a b l e ( P l a n n , 1993). D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, A r i s t o t l e ' s t e a c h i n g s were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e (Pahz and Pahz, 1978). A r i s t o t l e was s a i d t o have equated d e a f n e s s w i t h an i n c a p a c i t y f o r r e a s o n i n g ( C a r v e r , 1988). " S i n c e A r i s t o t l e ' s w r i t i n g s were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e M i d d l e Ages, t h o s e who were d e a f were c o n s i d e r e d u n r e a c h a b l e , f o r no e d u c a t e d man would waste h i s t i m e on an acknowledged i m p o s s i b i l i t y " ( I b i d , p. 5 ) . I t s h o u l d be remembered, however, t h a t e d u c a t i o n , even f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , was l i m i t e d . As Kenneth Hodgson (1954) p o i n t e d o u t , "a w o r l d w h i c h saw n o t h i n g wrong i n abandoning most o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n t o u n t u t o r e d i g n o r a n c e n a t u r a l l y d i d n o t remark t h e n e g l e c t o f t h e d e a f . The i d e a o f abandoning t h e d e a f was n o t o n l y t o l e r a t e d , any o t h e r n o t i o n would have seemed a b s u r d " (Pahz and Pahz, 1978, p. 6 ) . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t s o c i e t y , t h e law and t h e c h u r c h a l l had a r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e d e a f from s o c i e t y . I n t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y , a r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e c l a r a t i o n was made by G i r o l a m o Cardono o f M i l a n . He s t a t e d t h a t "we can a c c o m p l i s h 8 t h a t a deaf-mute [ s i c ] h e a r by r e a d i n g and speak by w r i t i n g " (Pahz and Pahz, 1978, p. 6 ) . T h i s p r o c l a m a t i o n d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f A r i s t o t l e and a movement t o c o n s i d e r t h e d e a f as e d u c a b l e was under way. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e d e a f , however, was a s l o w p r o c e s s . I n t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s , e d u c a t i o n was o n l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e w e a l t h y ( I b i d ) . Because e n d u r i n g laws r e c o g n i z e d p e r s o n s who were deaf b u t c o u l d speak, e d u c a t i o n f o c u s e d on t e a c h i n g speech (Pahz and Pahz, 1978). Thus, t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f i n t h e 1 6 t h and 1 7 t h c e n t u r i e s was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e a c h i n g speech as a means o f e n s u r i n g t h e l e g a l r i g h t s and p r o p e r t y o f a r i s t o c r a c y who were d e a f (Lane, 1984). The 1 8 t h c e n t u r y saw t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e f i r s t permanent s c h o o l s f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . A F r e n c h C a t h o l i c c l e r i c , l'Abbe de l ' E p e e , founded t h e f i r s t p u b l i c s c h o o l f o r t h e d e a f , w h i c h a c c e p t e d b o t h t h e w e a l t h y and t h e poor, i n 1750. I t i s h e l d t h a t t h e Abbe was m o t i v a t e d by h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f h i s d e a f p u p i l s (Lane, 1984; Pahz and Pahz, 1978). U n l i k e o t h e r s b e f o r e him, however, he c o n s i d e r e d s i g n t o be t h e "mother tongue" o f t h e deaf and saw no r e a s o n t o t e a c h them a r t i c u l a t i o n [speech] ( I b i d ) . He t h e r e f o r e s t u d i e d and s y s t e m a t i z e d t h e g e s t u r e s o f h i s d e a f p u p i l s and used t h i s mode o f communication t o educate them (Lane, 1984). The s u c c e s s o f t h i s method q u i c k l y s p r e a d and b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , i n 1789, de l'Epee had s t a r t e d 21 s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f i n 9 F r a n c e . I t was a t t h e s e s c h o o l s t h a t many Deaf d i s c o v e r e d communication f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . One o f l'Abb£ de l ' E p e e ' s s t u d e n t s , D e s l o g e s , has w r i t t e n about S i g n : [ i t ] made our i d e a s a c c u r a t e , e x t e n d i n g o u r comprehension by g e t t i n g us t o form t h e h a b i t o f c o n s t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . T h i s language i s l i v e l y ; i t p o r t r a y s s e n t i m e n t , and d e v e l o p s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . No o t h e r language i s more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o n v e y i n g s t r o n g and g r e a t e m o t i o n s . ( S a c k s , 1989, p. 20) A n o t h e r h e a r i n g man o f t h i s t i m e , a f t e r o b s e r v i n g a g a t h e r i n g o f Deaf men a t a banquet, has w r i t t e n t h i s about S i g n : I t seems [wrote t h e c h r o n i c l e r , o b v i o u s l y d a z z l e d ] , t h a t 60 men d e p r i v e d o f h e a r i n g and speech s h o u l d have c o n s t i t u t e d a p a i n f u l and g r i e v o u s s i g h t ; b u t no, n o t i n t h e l e a s t . The human s p i r i t so animated t h e i r f a c e s , most o f w h i c h a r e t r u l y b e a u t i f u l , i t s h i n e s f o r t h from t h e i r l i v e l y e y e s , i t b l a z e s i t s way so r a p i d l y t o t h e t i p s o f t h e i r f i n g e r s , t h a t i n s t e a d o f p i t y i n g them, one i s tempted t o envy them. When, i n t h e c o u r t r o o m , i n t h e p u l p i t , i n t h e t h e a t r e , and i n s o c i e t y , we so o f t e n h e a r words w i t h o u t t h o u g h t s , i t i s r a t h e r a g r e e a b l e t o see, a t l e a s t once a y e a r , t h o u g h t s w i t h o u t words. I t i s no e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t none o f t h e o r a t o r s we most admire c o u l d even r e m o t e l y compete w i t h B e r t h i e r , F o r e s t i e r , o r L e n i o r f o r t h e g r a c e , t h e d i g n i t y , and t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e i r g e s t u r e s . I n t r u t h , s e e i n g t h e speeches t h a t t h e s e t h r e e young men d e l i v e r i s enough, I t h i n k , t o make us w i s h we c o u l d u n l e a r n speech. ( M o t t e z , 1993, p. 35 - 36) The s u c c e s s e s o f t h e Abbe's method began t o become v i s i b l e and S i g n began t o g a i n t h e a p p r o v a l o f e d u c a t o r s and o t h e r s . I n 1816, Abbe de l'Epe'e's method o f e d u c a t i n g t h e d e a f s p r e a d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . One o f h i s f o r m e r s t u d e n t s who was Deaf, L a u r e n t C l e r c , came t o t h e U.S. w i t h Thomas H o p k i n s G a l l a u d e t and, t o g e t h e r , t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t U.S. s c h o o l f o r t h e Deaf i n H a r t f o r d i n 1817 (Lane, 1984). A t t h i s s c h o o l , 10 a l l t h e t e a c h e r s were f l u e n t i n American S i g n Language (ASL) and many o f t h e t e a c h e r s were t h e m s e l v e s Deaf ( I b i d ) . "The r i s e o f d e a f l i t e r a c y and de a f e d u c a t i o n was as s p e c t a c u l a r i n t h e U.S. as i t had been i n F r a n c e , and soon s p r e a d t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d " ( S a c k s , 1989, p. 2 4 ) , i n c l u d i n g Canada, where t h e f i r s t s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1856. T h i s p e r i o d i n t i m e , from 1750 t o 1880, saw t h e emergence o f t h e Deaf from n e g l e c t and o b s c u r i t y , t h e i r e m a n c i p a t i o n and e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , and t h e i r r a p i d appearance i n p o s i t i o n s o f eminence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - Deaf w r i t e r s , Deaf e n g i n e e r s , Deaf p h i l o s o p h e r s , Deaf i n t e l l e c t u a l s . What was t h o u g h t p r e v i o u s l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e was s u d d e n l y a r e a l i t y ( S a cks, 1989). I t was d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d i n deaf e d u c a t i o n when n e a r l y a l l e d u c a t o r s (many o f whom were Deaf) c o n s i d e r e d s i g n language i n d i s p e n s a b l e (Baynton, 1993). "They [ e d u c a t o r s ] r e s p e c t e d and admired s i g n language, c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r s i g n i n g s k i l l s w i t h c a r e and p r i d e , and w r o t e l e a r n e d t r e a t i s e s on i t s n a t u r e and p r o p e r u se" ( I b i d , p. 9 3 ) . However, a l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y movement t o p r o h i b i t s i g n language i n t h e s c h o o l s d r a m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f de a f p e o p l e ( I b i d ) . S l o s s Luey (1987) s u g g e s t s a few p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r o w i n g c o u n t e r -c u r r e n t t o manual approaches. One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r may have been g r o w i n g r e p o r t s o f s u c c e s s f u l o r a l programs i n Europe ( I b i d ) . . S e c o n d l y , S l o s s Luey (1987) p r o p o s e s t h a t i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n t o younger d e a f c h i l d r e n , day s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . I n t h e s e 11 programs, s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d p r e s s u r e t o t e a c h communication s k i l l s w h i c h would be r e l e v a n t i n t h e h e a r i n g w o r l d , (p. 2) A n o t h e r f a c t o r argued by Baynton (1993) was t h e g r o w i n g prominence o f e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s . He s t a t e s : The r e a s o n s f o r t h e t u r n a g a i n s t s i g n language were many and complex, b u t among them was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e new t h e o r i e s o f e v o l u t i o n . E v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y f o s t e r e d a p e r c e p t i o n o f s i g n l anguages as i n f e r i o r t o spoken l a n g u a g e s , f i t o n l y f o r "savages" and n o t f o r c i v i l i z e d human b e i n g s , (p. 93) S i g n language had been supers e d e d by speech l o n g ago, so i t was n e c e s s a r i l y i n f e r i o r and d e s e r v i n g o f e x t i n c t i o n ( I b i d ) . An example o f t h i s t h e o r y ' s i n f l u e n c e i s de m o n s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g quote o f an o r a l p roponent: A r t i c u l a t e language i s s u p e r i o r t o s i g n , because i t i s t h e method employed by n a t u r e . Modern s c i e n c e t e a c h e s us t h a t what i s n a t u r a l ends up w i t h t h e upper hand... No doubt s i g n s a r e o f t e n animated and p i c t u r e s q u e b u t t h e y a r e a b s o l u t e l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r a b s t r a c t i o n . (Lane, 1991, p. 119) T h i s t h i n k i n g had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . " J u s t as s i g n language had been s u p p l a n t e d by speech i n t h e advance o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , so t o o was t h e use o f s i g n language i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n - l i k e a l l t h e i d e a s o f a c r u d e r and l e s s advanced age - b e i n g r e n d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y by p r o g r e s s " (Baynton, 1993, p. 101) . R e l a t e d t o t h e g r o w i n g prominence o f e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s , t h e o r a l i s t approach began t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f p r e s t i g i o u s , p o w e r f u l men whose c l a i m s were r o o t e d i n e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s (Baynton, 1993; S l o s s Luey, 1987; Lane, 1984). A d v o c a t e s o f t h e o r a l a pproach c l a i m e d t h a t t h e g o a l o f e d u c a t i n g t h e d e a f s h o u l d 12 be t e a c h i n g t h e d e a f t o speak. They i n s i s t e d n o t o n l y t h a t t r a i n i n g i n o r a l communication be o f f e r e d , b u t a l s o t h a t a l l c l a s s e s be c o n d u c t e d s o l e l y by o r a l means. O r a l i s t s c h a r g e d t h a t t h e use o f s i g n language damaged t h e minds o f d e a f p e o p l e , i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y o f d e a f c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , and r e d u c e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f d e a f s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e d i f f i c u l t b u t , i n t h e i r v i e w , c r u c i a l t a s k o f l e a r n i n g t o communicate o r a l l y . ( Bayton, 1993, p. 93 - 94) The o r a l i s t s argued f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e " o l d f a s h i o n e d " S i g n Language Asylums and f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f " p r o g r e s s i v e " o r a l i s t s c h o o l s (Sacks, 1989). L a u r e n t C l e r c (a prominent Deaf l e a d e r ) was w e l l aware o f t h i s movement t o undermine h i s e f f o r t s . I know what's g o i n g on. I m p o r t a n t p e o p l e , d i s t i n g u i s h e d gentlemen, a r e r e p u d i a t i n g t h e cause t o w h i c h I have d e v o t e d my l i f e . Endowed w i t h t h e s a c r e d t r u s t o f my p e o p l e ' s w e l f a r e , t h e y seek, w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g u s , t o p r e v e n t our w o r s h i p , m a r r i a g e , and p r o c r e a t i o n , t o s t u l t i f y o ur e d u c a t i o n , and t o b a n i s h o u r mother tongue s i m p l y because o u r way and o u r language a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r s . (Lane, 1984, p. 3) One o f t h e " i m p o r t a n t p e o p l e , d i s t i n g u i s h e d gentlemen" t o whom C l e r c r e f e r s was A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l ; and i t i s argued t h a t t h e s c a l e s o f t h e debate between o r a l i s m and s i g n were f i n a l l y o v e r b a l a n c e d and t i p p e d when A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l t h r e w a l l t h e w e i g h t o f h i s immense a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e i n t o t h e advocacy o f o r a l i s m ( S a c k s , 1989). A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l was an i n f l u e n t i a l a d v o c a t e o f o r a l i s m and " e u g e n i c s " . Backed up by h i s w e a l t h and fame a r i s i n g from h i s t e l e p h o n e i n v e n t i o n , he campaigned a g a i n s t s i g n language and i n t e r m a r r i a g e among t h e d e a f , p u s h i n g f o r 13 c o m p u l s o r y s t e r i l i z a t i o n i n deaf g i r l s ( C a r v e r , 1988, p. 8 4 ) . A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l spoke a t c o n f e r e n c e s p r o c l a i m i n g t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f o r a l i s m (Lane, 1984). As A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l p u t i t , t o "ask t h e v a l u e o f speech, i s l i k e a s k i n g t h e v a l u e o f l i f e " ( B e l l , 1884, p. 178). I n f a c t , he p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n and t h e f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n o f methods, o r a l i s m would p r e v a i l as t h e " s u p e r i o r " method ( B e l l , 1898). As a r e s u l t o f A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l ' s e f f o r t s many de a f t e a c h e r s l o s t t h e i r j o b s i n s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f , l e g i s l a t i o n was e n a c t e d i n some s t a t e s p r o v i d i n g f o r c o m p u l s o r y s t e r i l i z a t i o n o f deaf g i r l s and an o r a l communication regime imposed on de a f s t u d e n t s f o r many y e a r s ( C a r v e r , 1988; Lane, 1984; M i t c h e l l , 1971). One o f t h e most infamous c o n g r e s s e s on d e a f e d u c a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1880 i n M i l a n . A t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f E d u c a t o r s o f t h e Deaf i n M i l a n , a v o t e was h e l d t o s e t t l e t h e o r a l / m a n u a l debate. Many s p e a k e r s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . One Deaf man s p e a k i n g f o r t h e Deaf s e c t i o n s h a r e d : We have no o b j e c t i o n t o t h e s e a r c h f o r improvements i n t h e o r a l method. Why would we?...we ask o n l y one t h i n g : t h a t o u r n a t u r a l language, t h e language o f s i g n s , be n o t s a c r i f i c e d f o r spoken language. A b i r d am I ! B e h o l d t h e wings by w h i c h I f l y , Nor, c r u e l , them t o me deny. (Lane, 1984, p. 410) D e s p i t e t h e c h o r u s o f v o i c e s w h i c h d e c r i e d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f s i g n s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f , t h e o r a l method o v e r w h e l m i n g l y won. P r i o r t o h o l d i n g t h e v o t e i t was d e c i d e d 14 t h a t t h e Deaf, whom c o m p r i s e d an e s t i m a t e d 41 p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f w o r l d w i d e , were t o be e x c l u d e d from t h e v o t e ( S a c k s , 1989). Thus, t h e c l a i m o f t h e o r a l i s t s ( h e a r i n g e d u c a t o r s ) , t h a t t h e g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g t h e d e a f t o speak, won. B e l l , commenting on t h e M i l a n p r o c e e d i n g s , a g r e e d w i t h e x c l u d i n g t h e d e a f from t h e c o n g r e s s d e l i b e r a t i o n s : " I t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g t h a t t h o s e who a r e t h e m s e l v e s u n a b l e t o speak a r e n o t t h e p r o p e r j u d g e s o f t h e v a l u e o f speech t o t h e d e a f " (Lane, 1984; 410). On t h e o t h e r hand, G a l l a u d e t , a proponent o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s method 1, r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e as a " s t a c k e d deck", where t h e v o t e f o r o r a l i s m was p r e o r d a i n e d ( W i n e f i e l d , 1987, p. 3 5 ) . A f t e r M i l a n , s u p p o r t f o r t h e o r a l method grew among h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . By t h e end o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , o r a l i s m was t h e o f f i c i a l l y p r e f e r r e d method o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n (Pahz and Pahz, 1978). "By 1900, n e a r l y 40 p e r c e n t o f American d e a f s t u d e n t s s a t i n c l a s s r o o m s from w h i c h s i g n language had been e n t i r e l y banned; o v e r h a l f were t a u g h t o r a l l y f o r a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e day. By t h e end o f World War I , n e a r l y 80 p e r c e n t o f d e a f s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t s i g n l a n guage" (Baynton, 1993; 9 4 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a d r a m a t i c d e c l i n e i n t h e number o f Deaf e d u c a t o r s ( S l o s s Luey, 1987). The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f Deaf t e a c h e r s from deaf e d u c a t i o n was a symptom t h e method w h i c h promotes s i g n e d E n g l i s h and spoken E n g l i s h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 15 o f and a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f S i g n language. I n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e between 1900 - 1970 was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o r a l d o m i n a t i o n ( S l o s s Luey, 1987). C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s t e a d y growth o f o r a l i s m were t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments o f a m p l i f i e d sound a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y (Pahz and Pahz, 1978). T e c h n o l o g i c a l i n v e n t i o n s opened o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s t o use t h e i r r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f o r a l language ( S l o s s Luey, 1987). T h i s f a i t h i n t e c h n o l o g y t o remedy o r d i m i n i s h t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a r i n g l o s s w a s / i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e gro w i n g predominance o f and f a i t h i n t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Something a k i n t o a mythology has accompanied t h e i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l prominence o f b i o m e d i c i n e , an o p t i m i s m founded on an unwavering f a i t h i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r i n v a s i v e s o l u t i o n s t o i n f i r m i t i e s and o t h e r m o r t a l " f a i l i n g s . 1 1 ( B i c k e n b a c h , 1993, p. 46) Thus, a predominance and r e l i a n c e on t e c h n o l o g i c a l b r e a k t h r o u g h s p e n e t r a t e d t h e pedagogy o f t h e deaf b e g i n n i n g a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a m p l i f i e d sound. I n f a c t , t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y has been r e f e r r e d t o as " t h e e r a o f e l e c t r i c a l a m p l i f i c a t i o n " i n deaf e d u c a t i o n (Pahz and Pahz, 1978). Throughout t h i s same t i m e , a s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s were promin e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . One example o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f F i r s t N a t i o n s P e o p l e s . Congruent w i t h a s s i m i l a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c e s r e l a t i n g t o d e a f c h i l d r e n have " c e n t r e d on what means o f communication s h o u l d be implemented o r i n s p i r e d i n d e a f c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r f o r 16 them t o match more c l o s e l y t h e n o r m a t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n " (Johnson, L i d d e l and E r t i n g , 1989, p. 3 ) . D e s p i t e o b j e c t i o n s from t h e de a f community and t h e i r few h e a r i n g a d v o c a t e s t h e o r a l approach dominated from t h e 1900's t o th e 1970*s. Those s u p p o r t i n g t h e use o f s i g n language i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n p r e d i c t e d a d r a m a t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l achievement o f deaf c h i l d r e n and t h e l i t e r a c y o f t h e d e a f i n g e n e r a l ( S a c k s , 1989). They c l a i m e d t h a t S i g n was t h e n a t u r a l language o f t h e d e a f , and p o i n t e d o u t t h a t d e a f p e o p l e show no n a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n w h a t s o e v e r t o speak. S p e a k i n g i s an a b i l i t y t h a t must be t a u g h t t o them and i s a l a b o u r o f y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y show an immediate and p o w e r f u l d i s p o s i t i o n t o S i g n , w h i c h as a v i s u a l language, i s c o m p l e t e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o them. (Sacks, 1989, p. 31) As Lane (1984) a s s e r t s t h e c l a i m s o f t h e de a f a r e e p i t o m i z e d by t h e words o f R o b e r t P. McGregor, d e a f o r a t o r , w r i t e r , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , and f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e Deaf: By whom, t h e n , a r e s i g n s p r o s c r i b e d ? By a few e d u c a t o r s o f t h e de a f whose b o a s t i s t h a t t h e y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d s i g n s and do n o t want t o ; by a few p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s who a r e o t h e r w i s e i g n o r a n t o f t h e langu a g e ; by p a r e n t s who do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e q u i s i t e s t o t h e h a p p i n e s s o f t h e i r d e a f c h i l d r e n and ar e i n s p i r e d w i t h f a l s e f e a r s by t h e e d u c a t o r s and p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s . These few have banded t o g e t h e r and, backed up by u n l i m i t e d w e a l t h , send f o r t h men and women who t r a v e l a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y from Maine t o C a l i f o r n i a t h e y e a r round, i n s i d i o u s l y c r e a t i n g and f o s t e r i n g everywhere a f a l s e , a f o r c e d , an a r t i f i c i a l s e n t i m e n t a g a i n s t s i g n s . They a l s o have a c c e s s t o t h e p u b l i c p r e s s and, making use o f impecunious and s e n s a t i o n a l w r i t e r s , seek t o make what i s o l d appear new and c o n v i n c e t h e u n i n i t i a t e d t h a t what i s w h i t e i s b l a c k . And w o r s t o f 17 a l l t h e y i g n o r e t h e d e a f t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r s e n s e l e s s and m i s c h i e v o u s propaganda a g a i n s t s i g n s . P r o f e s s i n g t o have no o b j e c t i n v i e w b u t t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e d e a f , t h e y e x h i b i t an u t t e r contempt f o r t h e o p i n i o n s , t h e w i s h e s , t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e d e a f ! And why s h o u l d we n o t be c o n s u l t e d i n a m a t t e r o f s u c h v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o us? T h i s i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t no man has y e t answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The utmost extreme t o w h i c h t y r a n n y can go when i t s m a i l e d hand descends upon a conquered p e o p l e i s , t h e p r o s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l language, and w i t h t h e utmost r i g o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o e r a d i c a t e i t . But a l l t h e a t t e m p t s t o s u p p r e s s s i g n s , wherever t r i e d , have most s i g n a l l y f a i l e d . A f t e r a hundred y e a r s o f p r o s c r i p t i o n i n German and A u s t r i a , t h e y s t i l l f l o u r i s h , and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f l o u r i s h t o t h e end o f t i m e . What h e i n o u s c r i m e have t h e d e a f been g u i l t y o f t h a t t h e i r language s h o u l d be p r o s c r i b e d ? (Lane, 1984, p. XVI - XVII) D e s p i t e t h e s e ongoing c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf, t h e manual p o s i t i o n w a s / i s met w i t h r e s i s t a n c e . One example o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf o c c u r r e d when t h e e d i t o r o f t h e S i l e n t Worker f George P o r t e r , p r i n t e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t o r i e s c o u n t e r i n g t h e o r a l i s t agenda d u r i n g t h e 1928 - 1929 s c h o o l y e a r (Buchanan, 1993). A t t h e s c h o o l i n New J e r s e y where t h e S i l e n t Worker was p u b l i s h e d , t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Pope, asked P o r t e r t o r e t i r e , a c c u s i n g t h e 61-y e a r o l d Deaf t e a c h e r o f " s l i p p i n g " i n h i s j o b ( I b i d ) . I n a d d i t i o n , f i v e o t h e r Deaf t e a c h e r s were f i r e d ( I b i d ) . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r i n 1929, no d e a f t e a c h e r s remained i n t h e s c h o o l ' s academic departments ( I b i d ) . L a s t l y , Pope ended p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e S i l e n t Worker ( I b i d ) . C l e a r l y , t h e r e have been c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d t o l e v y i n g c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h o s e w i t h power; and d e s p i t e t h e p r o t e s t s o f t h e deaf community t o t h e o r a l method, t h e o r a l approach c o n t i n u e d t o dominate. 18 I n t h e 1970's, however, t h e e d u c a t i o n a l use o f manual communication began t o grow. There were many h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s change i n momentum. The e d u c a t i o n a l achievement o f d e a f s t u d e n t s , as a group was e x t r e m e l y p o o r d e s p i t e t h e l a r g e monetary i n v e s t m e n t s by government t o improve t h e s i t u a t i o n (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989). C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n t h e e a r l y 1960's, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s government commissioned Dr. Homer Babbidge t o . c o n d u c t a s t u d y o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s r e s e a r c h p o i n t e d t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e o r a l method s p a r k i n g a debate o v e r communication methods ( i n p e r s o n a l communication, C a r v e r , November, 1994). I n a d d i t i o n t h e f i r s t book on S i g n was p u b l i s h e d p r o m o t i n g American S i g n Language as a n a t u r a l language ( S t o k o e , 1965). A l s o , " t h e c i v i l r i g h t s movements l e d t o i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f human d i f f e r e n c e s o f a l l k i n d s , and encouraged d e a f p e o p l e t o become a s s e r t i v e about t h e i r r i g h t s and o p i n i o n s " ( S l o s s Luey, 1987; 3 ) . These f a c t o r s p r o v i d e d t h e impetus t o f i n d new methods o f e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n . The system t h a t was d e v e l o p e d has become known as t o t a l c ommunication. "The hope was t o d e v e l o p a system w h i c h wouid o f f e r t h e advantages o f b o t h manual and o r a l systems: t h e b e n e f i t s o f knowledge o f E n g l i s h combined w i t h t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a v i s u a l system" ( I b i d ) . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , t o t a l communication had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e d e a f community. One l e a d e r i n t h e d e a f community e x p l a i n e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h i s way: 19 A t f i r s t I s u p p o r t e d s i g n s u p p o r t e d speech [ t o t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ] , t h e n s i g n e d E n g l i s h . But you have t o remember t h a t a t t h a t t i m e r e s e a r c h about ASL was v e r y , v e r y new... and a t t h a t t i m e many de a f p e o p l e s u p p o r t e d s i g n e d E n g l i s h , t o t a l communication. I t was t h e f i r s t s t e p t o a c c e p t a n c e o f s i g n language. B e f o r e t h a t t i m e you were n o t a l l o w e d t o s i g n . P e r i o d . So p e o p l e f e l t good about b e i n g a l l o w e d t o communicate w i t h t h e i r hands. I t d i d n ' t m a t t e r whether i t was ASL o r s i g n e d E n g l i s h . I t was s i g n i n g . I t was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p r o c e s s , ( i n p e r s o n a l communication, F e b r u a r y , 1994) T o t a l communication c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e predominant method o f communication used i n de a f e d u c a t i o n a t p r e s e n t . A l t h o u g h i n t h e o r y t h i s method p r o p o s e s t h e use o f a l l methods ( i . e . g e s t u r i n g , s i g n e d E n g l i s h , a u d i t o r y s k i l l s , o r a l s k i l l s , ASL) t h e predominant method used i n p r a c t i c e i s s i g n s u p p o r t e d speech. A method where t h e t e a c h e r s speak and s i g n i n e n g l i s h word o r d e r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . S i n c e t h e mid-1980's, however, a movement s u p p o r t e d by many a d v o c a t e s i n t h e deaf community has emerged - t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l method. T h i s method c a l l s f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f ASL as t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f de a f c u l t u r e i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s method i s based on t h e as s u m p t i o n t h a t ASL i s t h e n a t u r a l language o f de a f c h i l d r e n . I t a l s o s t r e s s e s t h a t l e a r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l message i s what i s i m p o r t a n t , n o t t h e form used t o e x p r e s s t h e message. Numerous f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e emergence o f t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l p r o p o s a l among t h e Deaf. F i r s t , t h e c o n t i n u e d i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o t h e e d u c a t i o n system d e s p i t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t o t a l communication i s one c o n t r i b u t i n g 20 f a c t o r . P a u l (1988) e x p l a i n s , S i n c e t h e 1970's, most deaf s t u d e n t have been e d u c a t e d i n T.C. programs i n w h i c h some form o f s i g n i n g and speech i s used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r communication and i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . D e s p i t e improvement i n t h e development o f t e s t s , e a r l y a m p l i f i c a t i o n , and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n o r p r e s c h o o l programs most s t u d e n t s a r e s t i l l f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e upon g r a d u a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l , (p. 3) Second, r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n o f d e a f p a r e n t s p e r f o r m b e t t e r a c a d e m i c a l l y t h a n do d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s ( S t e v e n s o n , 1964; S t u c k l e s s and B i r c h , 1966; Meadow,1968; Vernon and Koh, 1970; C o r s o n , 1973). One major d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b e t t e r p e r f o r m i n g group was e a r l y exposure t o ASL ( S l o s s Luey, 1987). I n a d d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h ( S u p a l l a , 1986; J o h s o n , L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989) has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s i g n e d E n g l i s h used i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n programs i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . The r e s e a r c h . has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t when a t e a c h e r s i g n s and speaks a t t h e same t i m e , t h e a u d i t o r y sense dominates w h i l e t h e s i g n e d p o r t i o n o f t h e message s u f f e r s . Thus, i t i s n o t an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t t h e s i g n e d p o r t i o n o f t h e [message] i n v i r t u a l l y a l l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , even t o s k i l l e d n a t i v e s i g n e r s . I t i s a l s o n o t an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t o f t e n t h e s i g n e d p o r t i o n o f t h e s i g n s u p p o r t e d speech i n c l a s s r o o m s i s l a r g e l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989, p. 5) A n o t h e r f a c t o r , w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e momentum and s u p p o r t f o r a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l model among t h e Deaf i s t h e g r o w i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s i g n l anguages a r e t h e n a t u r a l l anguages o f t h e Deaf. F o r example, Sweden was t h e 21 f i r s t c o u n t r y , i n 1981, t o d e c l a r e Swedish S i g n Language as t h e f i r s t language o f Deaf p e o p l e ( C a r b i n , 1993). T h i s has l e d t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t Swedish s c h o o l s f o r t h e de a f use Swedish S i g n Language (SSL) i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ( I b i d ) . The d e a f community's gr o w i n g p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s and v i s i b i l i t y i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s u p p o r t f o r a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l method. One p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n o f t h e Deaf o c c u r r e d i n 1988 when t h e Deaf s t u d e n t s o f Washington, D.C. wa l k e d o u t o f c l a s s e s and e f f e c t i v e l y s h u t down G a l l a u d e t u n i v e r s i t y f o r a week ( C a r b i n , 1993; Sa c k s , 1989). T h i s a c t i o n c a p t u r e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e World ( C a r b i n , 1993). The r e v o l t was a p r o t e s t o f t h e appointment o f a h e a r i n g p r e s i d e n t a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . Upon r e s i g n i n g , t h e h e a r i n g p r e s i d e n t i s quoted as s a y i n g , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e G a l l u a d e t u p r i s i n g : " I t ' s u n i q u e , a c i v i l r i g h t s moment i n h i s t o r y f o r Deaf p e o p l e " ( S a c k s , 1989, p. 153). The G a l l a u d e t e v e n t s p a r k e d u p r i s i n g s t o p r o t e s t t h e e d u c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n i n many r e g i o n a l communities ( C a r b i n , 1993). I n f a c t , i n J u l y o f 1989 marches f o r deaf e d u c a t i o n r i g h t s t o o k p l a c e a l l o v e r Canada i n t h e major c i t y c e n t r e s . I n O n t a r i o , f o r example, t h e "Deaf O n t a r i o Now" movement began i n i t s i n f a n c y ( I b i d ) . The p r o t e s t s and l o b b y i n g o f t h e O n t a r i o Government p l a c e d t h e i s s u e o f de a f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ( I b i d ) . I n O n t a r i o on J u l y 29, 1993, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government r e c o g n i z e d and a u t h o r i z e d , i n law, t h e use o f Ame r i c a n S i g n Language (ASL) and Langue des S i g n e s Quebecois 22 (LSQ) as languages o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r d e a f s t u d e n t s ( I b i d ) . I n a n a l y z i n g t h e r e v o l t a t G a l l a u d e t , one sees t h a t t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e de a f communities: an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r u n i q u e c u l t u r e , a sense o f Deaf p r i d e , a s t r o n g v a l u e p l a c e d on ASL. Some c l a i m t h i s g r o w i n g movement was p r o p e l l e d f o r w a r d by t h e r e s e a r c h o f W i l l i a m S t okoe (1960's) who argued t h a t ASL i s a language and who drew c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e language o f t h e Deaf and c u l t u r e . A n o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n has been B a r b a r a K a n n a p e l l , a p r o m i n e n t Deaf woman who founded an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d t o d e a f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g i n 1972 c a l l e d Deaf P r i d e ( S a c k s , 1989). I t may be argued, however, t h a t t h i s movement o f Deaf p r i d e s t a r t e d i n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y w i t h g r e a t l e a d e r s l i k e L a u r e n t C l e r c , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e h e a r i n g w o r l d r e f u s e d t o h e a r t h e v o i c e o f t h e Deaf. F i n a l l y , i n March o f 1988, h e a r i n g p e o p l e were f o r c e d t o t a k e n o t i c e . The s t r i k e a t G a l l a u d e t has been a p o l i t i c a l s t a t e m e n t t o t h o s e who t h i n k t h e y a r e i n power. One Deaf p r o f e s s o r e x p l a i n s , I t ' s v e r y s i m p l e . No Deaf p r e s i d e n t , no u n i v e r s i t y . I t i s t h e f i r s t t i m e Deaf p e o p l e e v e r r e a l i z e d t h a t a c o l o n i a l c l i e n t - i n d u s t r y l i k e t h i s c a n ' t e x i s t w i t h o u t t h e c l i e n t . I t ' s a b i l l i o n - d o l l a r i n d u s t r y f o r h e a r i n g p e o p l e . I f deaf p e o p l e don't p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e i n d u s t r y i s gone. (Sacks, 1989, p. 156) C l e a r l y , t h e r e i s a gro w i n g movement i n t h e r e g i o n a l d e a f communities t o l o b b y governments t o h e a r t h e i r c l a i m s . D e s p i t e t h e emerging v o i c e o f t h e Deaf i n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , t h e a d o p t i o n o f American S i g n Language (ASL) and t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l method i s met w i t h r e s i s t a n c e . I n f a c t , 23 t h i s i s an i n t e n s e l y d e b a t e d i s s u e and most h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p o s i t i o n s o f power and i n f l u e n c e a r e r e s i s t a n t t o i n t r o d u c i n g ASL as a language o f i n s t r u c t i o n (Lane, 1992). I n f a c t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f e d u c a t i o n programs i n N o r t h A m e r i c a c o n t i n u e t o u t i l i z e t o t a l communication models. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e c o n t i n u e s t o be a few s t r o n g o r a l programs. These methods c o n t i n u e d e s p i t e t h e o n g o i n g c l a i m s o f t h e d e a f community and t h e p r e s e n t i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n t o e d u c a t e d e a f c h i l d r e n e q u i t a b l y . C o n c l u s i o n I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e methods o f communication debate i s an o n g o i n g s t r u g g l e w h i c h has p e r s i s t e d s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h has been a t t h e h e a r t o f a l l d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e pedagogy o f d e a f c h i l d r e n (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989; Pahz and Pahz, 1978), a h i s t o r y o f p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e between i n t e r e s t groups and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a i m s . I n e x a m i n i n g t h i s s t r u g g l e , t h e power i m b a l a n c e between t h e s e groups b e g i n s t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f more c l e a r l y . I n f a c t , when e x p l o r i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e a f w i t h i n s o c i e t y , t h e method o f communication debate t a k e s c e n t r e s t a g e and i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e v i e w s and b e l i e f s o f t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y have p l a y e d t h e dominant r o l e i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c i e s (Lane, 1992; 1984). 24 Chapter Two Claimsmaking and the Deaf T h i s n e x t c h a p t e r examines t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework g u i d i n g t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n l i g h t o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e competing c l a i m s o f i n t e r e s t groups i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s r o o t e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f s o c i a l a c t i o n and s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e s on c l a i m s m a k i n g (D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993). An o v e r v i e w o f t h e t h e o r y ' s major a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d ; t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses w i l l be e x p l o r e d ; and t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s a pproach i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e a f w i l l be examined. Welfare Theory and Claimsmaking A c l a i m s m a k i n g approach assumes t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n communities a r e aware/become aware o f t h e needs and g o a l s n e c e s s a r y i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r human c a p a c i t i e s . Thus, i t i s an a p p r o a c h w h i c h t a k e s as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e c l a i m s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and communities. I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s an a p p r o a c h w h i c h v i e w s w e l f a r e n o t o n l y as r e l a t i n g t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , b u t i n f a c t e n t a i l i n g t h r e e s t a k e s : i d e n t i t y , r e s o u r c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( Drover and K e r a n s , 1993; p. 5 ) . The n e x t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine D r o v e r and Kerans•(1993) approach t o w e l f a r e . I t w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g and r e s p o n s e by o u t l i n i n g i t s v i e w o f human agency and knowledge; by e x a m i n i n g how t h i s a p p r o a c h v i e w s s o c i e t y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ; by d i s c u s s i n g t h e 25 e t h i c a l and m o r a l c r i t e r i a ; and l a s t l y , by e x p l o r i n g t h e dynamics o f c l a i m s m a k i n g . View o f Human Agency and Knowledge View o f human agency. The c l a i m s m a k i n g a p p r o a c h t o w e l f a r e a t t e n d s t o t h e most b a s i c i s s u e s o f knowledge and b e i n g . I n r e g a r d s t o i t s o n t o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s , t h i s t h e o r y moves from v i e w i n g o u r n a t u r e as f i x e d and unchanging t o a c o n c e p t o f human agency: human b e i n g s as s e l f - t r a n s f o r m i n g a g e n t s , c a p a b l e o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n ( D r o v e r and Ke r a n s , 1993). I n r e l a t i o n t o human w e l f a r e and w e l l - b e i n g t h e n , w e l f a r e i s v i e w e d as t h e development o f human c a p a c i t i e s ( I b i d , p. 6 ) . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Benhabib (1986, p. 340), Dr o v e r and Kerans (1993, p. 6) a s s e r t t h a t t h e development o f human c a p a c i t i e s e n t a i l s two l e v e l s : s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n w h i c h p o i n t s t o t h e range o f c a p a c i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e seek t o d e v e l o p , and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w h i c h i s grounded i n c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e s p e o p l e t o u n d e r s t a n d who t h e y r e a l l y a r e by d e v e l o p i n g a genuine a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n a r r a t i v e . Thus, an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g i s t h e development o f t h e s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . A n o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n o f human agency i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and r e q u i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m u t u a l i t y , r e c i p r o c i t y and t r u s t when f o r m u l a t i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g c l a i m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and i d e n t i f i e d needs ( I b i d ) . 26 View o f knowledge. E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach moves away from an e m p i r i c i s t , p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n and embraces a h e r m e n e u t i c paradigm. D r o v e r and Kerans (1993), however, do n o t r e j e c t o b j e c t i v i s m , b u t a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e o b j e c t i v i s t and s u b j e c t i v i s t a c c o u n t s o f human w e l f a r e based on e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e and s o c i a l s t r u g g l e ( I b i d , p . 2 9 ) , embracing a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g and r e s p o n s e s . I n s t a r t i n g w i t h c l a i m s , t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach l e g i t i m a t e s t h a t human c a p a c i t i e s can b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d and a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h p e o p l e name t h e i r needs ( I b i d ; p . 1 2 ) . Thus, Drover and Kerans (1993) u t i l i z e t h e t h i n - t h i c k c o n c e p t s o f needs d e v e l o p e d by F r a s e r (1989): a t h i n n o t i o n o f need i s a b s t r a c t , o b j e c t i v e and u n i v e r s a l ; and a t h i c k n o t i o n o f need i s r o o t e d i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f p e o p l e ' s e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t and h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n ( D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 11-12). R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e complementary, c o n s t i t u t i n g a continuum. By embracing a t h i c k n o t i o n o f needs as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t , however, t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach f o c u s e s on t h e p o l i t i c s o f need i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( I b i d , p. 1 3 ) . The s t r u g g l e o f need i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e n i s t h e ongoing p r o c e s s by w h i c h c l a i m s become f o r m u l a t e d , a r t i c u l a t e d and t h e n responded t o , t h e "dynamics o f c l a i m s m a k i n g " . One i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g and r e s p o n s e "presupposes a s t a b l e c i v i l s o c i e t y , 27 p r o t e c t e d by a s t a t e w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z a n t o f d i v e r s i t y and o f r i g h t s " ( D r o v e r and Kerans , 1993; p. 249). View o f S o c i e t y and I n s t i t u t i o n a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y I n t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach s o c i e t y i s v i e w e d as a system c o m p r i s e d o f o p p o s i n g groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s ( M u l l a l y , 1993). C o m p e t i t i o n between groups f o r r e s o u r c e s and power i s c o n s i d e r e d n a t u r a l . What i s u n n a t u r a l i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f power shapes whose i n t e r e s t s , g o a l s , v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s dominate ( P f o h l , 1985). Thus, s o c i e t y c o n s i s t s o f r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e d p a t t e r n s o f i n e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e p e r p e t u a t e d by s t r u c t u r e s o f l e g i t i m a t i o n and s i g n i f i c a t i o n ( Drover and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 1 5 ) . C l a i m s m a k i n g , t h e r e f o r e , o c c u r s i n an hegemonic c o n t e x t where t h e r e s p o n s e t o c l a i m s i s t o p r e s e r v e t h e hegemonic o r d e r ( I b i d , p. 1 3 ) . I n i d e n t i f y i n g a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f r e l a t i o n s where t h e hegemonic d i s c o u r s e dominates, t h i s a pproach r e c o g n i z e s t h e c o n s t r a i n i n g and o p p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, a l i b e r a t i n g element i s a l s o acknowledged ( D r o v e r and Kerans , 1993, p. 1 6 ) . D r o v e r and Kerans (1993) p o i n t o u t t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p o t e n t i a l l y o f f e r " r u l e s and r e s o u r c e s on w h i c h k n o w l e d g e a b l e a g e n t s can draw c r e a t i v e l y t o m o d i f y e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s " (p. 1 6 ) . Y e t t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach b e g i n s w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f 28 t h o s e who e x p e r i e n c e t h e o p p r e s s i v e e f f e c t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s ( I b i d , p. 16) and p r e s e n t s a framework where " t h o s e w i t h o u t power a r e h e a r d out as c a r e f u l l y as any o t h e r " ( I b i d , p. 1 3 ) . T h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t h i g h l i g h t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e damaging and o p p r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f many i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e e v e r y d a y l i v e s o f p e o p l e . The a p p r o a c h , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i e t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( s o c i a l a c t i o n ) w h i c h r e s u l t s i n e m a n c i p a t o r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n and freedom from d o m i n a t i o n ( M u l l a l y , 1993). E m a n c i p a t i o n i s n o t so much an e n d - s t a t e t o be a c h i e v e d as i t i s a demand t o p u t an end t o p r a c t i c e s t h a t can be shown t o be e x p l o i t i v e and o p p r e s s i v e (Leonard, 1990). Thus, one g o a l o f w e l f a r e , e m a n c i p a t i o n , i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t must be c o n s t a n t l y renewed.as new * l i m i t s i t u a t i o n s ' emerge ( F r e i r e , 1970). E t h i c a l and M o r a l C r i t e r i a o f Claimsmaking One o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g and r e s p o n s e i s t h e " c a p a c i t y o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , whereby a s u b j e c t a r t i c u l a t e s an a b s t r a c t need" (Drover and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s framework r e q u i r e s a " c a p a c i t y t o t a k e t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a n o t h e r , t o s a v o u r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e n t o be a b l e t o b r i d g e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h a p t communication" ( I b i d , p. 8 ) . Thus, mutual r e c o g n i t i o n , communicative competence and r e c i p r o c i t y whereby each r e c o g n i z e s t h e o t h e r as e q u a l l y an a g e n t , a r e i m p o r t a n t m o r a l c r i t e r i a f o r d e v e l o p i n g autonomy and s t r i v i n g f o r e m a n c i p a t i o n (Drover and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 8 ) . 29 Dynamics o f Cla i m s m a k i n g C l a i m s m a k i n g i s a dynamic, s o c i a l p r o c e s s . I n f a c t , D r o v e r and Kerans (1993) m a i n t a i n t h a t " p e o p l e l e a r n t o name t h e i r needs, b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , and t h a t c l a i m s a r e made a t t h e eve r y d a y l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c e " (p. 2 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , " p e o p l e become c r i t i c a l l y aware o f t h e i r needs t h r o u g h s o c i a l a c t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n " ( I b i d , p. 2 3 ) . Thus, t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g needs and making t h e s e c l a i m s p u b l i c , i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s and an o n g o i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . One i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g i n v o l v e s t h e i d e n t i f y i n g and f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e c l a i m . D r o v e r and Kerans (1993) s u g g e s t c l a i m a n t s come t o g e t h e r i n groups i n o r d e r t o name t h e i r needs and t o make t h e i r c l a i m s p u b l i c . I t i s i n t h e s o c i a l s p h e r e , networks o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m u t u a l i t y and r e c i p r o c i t y , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups come t o g e t h e r i n a s a f e space and f o r m u l a t e t h e i r c l a i m s ( I b i d ) . F o r m u l a t i n g c l a i m s i n community i n v o l v e s a p r o c e s s o f r e f i n i n g c l a i m s , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t r a t i o n a l c l a i m s t h a t have a chance o f b e i n g h e a r d ( I b i d ) . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g e n t a i l s making t h e c l a i m s p u b l i c . However, because c l a i m s m a k i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n a hegemonic c o n t e x t where s t r u c t u r e d i n e q u a l i t y i s l e g i t i m a t e d , c l a i m a n t g r o u p s , i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r needs and p u r p o s e s , must become aware o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f o p p r e s s i o n and f o r m u l a t e o b j e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s ( I b i d ) . Thus, t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g e n t a i l s a 30 s u b j e c t i v e element o f r e f l e c t i o n as w e l l as an o b j e c t i v e element o f p l a n n e d a c t i o n . The p r o c e s s o f making c l a i m s p u b l i c i s d i f f i c u l t . Because o f t h e hegemonic c o n t e x t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g , " t h e needs o f c l a i m a n t s w i l l be e x p r e s s e d i n e v i t a b l y as a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r " ( I b i d , p. 2 3 ) . The r e s p o n s e s t o c l a i m s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e t h i s o r d e r a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t o p r e s e r v e t h e hegemonic o r d e r ( I b i d , p. 1 3 ) . Thus, t h e c l a i m s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e and a t t e m p t t o change t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t r e c e i v e o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n b u t w i l l be r e f r a m e d o r c o - o p t e d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e c l a i m a n t as a s u b o r d i n a t e member o f s o c i e t y ( I b i d , p. 1 3 ) . Thus, " t h e r e i s a f i l t e r i n g p r o c e s s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p u b l i c c l a i m o f a group" ( I b i d , p. 2 5 ) . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g r o o t e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n i s t h e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n o f c l a i m a n t s . As D r o v e r and Kerans (1993) a s s e r t , " c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s a p r i n c i p a l means by w h i c h , i n modern s o c i e t y , c u l t u r a l norms a r e c o n t e s t e d and new c l a i m s a s s e r t e d " (p. 2 5 ) . T h i s f a c e t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g i n v o l v e s s o c i a l a c t i o n by groups who s t r a t e g i z e ways t o have t h e i r c l a i m s h e a r d and m o d i f y t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h b l o c k them from d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r human c a p a c i t i e s . L a s t l y , t h i s p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n enhances t h e s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e , o f t h e groups i n v o l v e d i n t h e s o c i a l a c t i o n ( I b i d ) . I n summary, t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g i s complex and dynamic. I n d i v i d u a l s and groups may become aware o f new needs as t h e y engage t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g . The s t r u g g l e f o r 31 needs i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s an ongoing one, and a d i f f i c u l t one when ac k n o w l e d g i n g t h e hegemonic c o n t e x t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g . C r i t i c a l D i s c u s s i o n One c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach i s t h a t i t l e a d s t o a dangerous l e v e l o f r e l a t i v i s m , w h i c h l e a d s t o s i m p l y an a c c o u n t o f a s t r u g g l e o v e r i n t e r e s t s (Soper, 1993, p. 7 2 ) . T h i s a l l e g a t i o n i s p o w e r f u l , i f k e p t t o t h e a b s t r a c t ; however, t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e " s u b l a t i o n o f t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e " embedded i n t h e n o t i o n o f s o c i a l a c t i o n h e l p s t o r e f u t e t h i s c r i t i c i s m ( L e o n a r d , 1990). C l e a r l y , e v e r y c l a i m cannot be r e a l i z e d , and n o t e v e r y c l a i m s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d . T h e r e f o r e , one i s a l w a y s d r i v e n back t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e as t h e ground on w h i c h knowledge c l a i m s a r e t o be v e r i f i e d ( Leonard, 1990). Judgements o f w h i c h c l a i m s a r e h e a r d w i l l depend upon t h e c l a i m s ' q u a l i t y and d e f e n s i b i l i t y , w h i l e k e e p i n g i n mind t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a c t i o n (Drover and K e r a n s , 1993). I n a d d i t i o n , d e c i s i o n s must be made i n terms a c c e p t a b l e t o t h o s e who l i v e t h e consequences o f d o m i n a t i o n (Leonard, 1990). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h o s e who a r e w i t h o u t power must be h e a r d o u t as c a r e f u l l y as any o t h e r ( D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993). A f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s approach r e f e r s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n b r i n g i n g about s o c i e t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f c l a i m s m a k i n g . There i s an o p t i m i s t i c a s s u m p t i o n i n t h i s a p p r o a c h t o w e l f a r e t h a t i f a group a r t i c u l a t e s i t s c l a i m i n a c o h e r e n t and d e f e n s i b l e way - i f a c l a i m has l e g i t i m a c y -32 and i n "an i d e a l speech s i t u a t i o n " . t h e n o t h e r groups w i l l s u p p o r t s o c i a l change i n o r d e r f o r t h i s c l a i m t o be met. However, i n a s o c i e t y where r e s o u r c e s and power a r e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e few, t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f such a g o a l i s arduous. M u l l a l y (1993) has e x p l o r e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e o r y i n p r a c t i c e . He d i s c u s s e s t h e danger i n c h a l l e n g i n g dominant groups who have v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo ( M u l l a l y , 1993). The c r i t i c i s m about t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach i s v a l i d and needs t o be c o n s i d e r e d ; however, does such a c r i t i c i s m mean t h a t one s h o u l d n o t c h a l l e n g e a system o f s t r u c t u r e d i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t p e r p e t u a t e s t h e s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n o f many i n s o c i e t y ? A l t h o u g h c l a i m s m a k e r s have t o f a c e many c h a l l e n g e s b e f o r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e i r g o a l s , a d h e r e n t s o f t h i s t h e o r y r e c o g n i z e t h a t s t r i v i n g f o r autonomy and e m a n c i p a t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y , l a b o r i o u s and ongoing p r o c e s s e s towards human w e l f a r e and w e l l - b e i n g . As F r e i r e (1970) c o n t e n d s , i t i s t h r o u g h s o l i d a r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n groups and amongst o t h e r o p p r e s s e d groups t h a t e m a n c i p a t i o n as a p r o c e s s may be u n d e r t a k e n . One o f t h e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach i s t h a t i t a v o i d s t h e danger o f p a t e r n a l i s m and e l i t i s m w h i c h i s a d m i t t e d l y found i n a needs-based approach t o w e l f a r e ( D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 5 ) . Drover and Kerans (1993) do n o t r e j e c t t h e n o t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l i s m i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w e l f a r e . I n s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e c l a i m s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , however, t h e i r a pproach 33 acknowledges t h a t p e o p l e know t h e i r needs b e s t and t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g and a u t h o r i n g one's own n a r r a t i v e i s r e l a t e d t o human w e l f a r e and human w e l l - b e i n g . T h i s p o s i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t needs a r e c u l t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t . T h i s i s a s t r e n g t h i n l i g h t o f emerging c l a i m s o f v a r i o u s groups ( i . e . f e m i n i s t s , e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups) a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e i n d e n y i n g t h e s e c i t i z e n s f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y ( G i l l i g a n , 1982). These c l a i m a n t s have argued t h a t u n i v e r s a l i s t p o l i c i e s r e f l e c t i n h e r e n t b i a s and t r e a t them i n e q u i t a b l y i n p r a c t i c e ( G i l l i g a n , 1982). U n i v e r s a l p o l i c i e s , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g advantages, do n o t r e s p e c t t h e d i v e r s i t y o f needs o f groups i n Canadian c u l t u r e . These s u r f a c i n g c l a i m s h i g h l i g h t t h a t c l a i m s a r i s e o u t o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s and c u l t u r e . A r e l a t e d s t r e n g t h o f t h e c l a i m s m a k i n g approach i s t h a t i t s e r v e s t o h i g h l i g h t how t h e dominant hegemonic d i s c o u r s e f u r t h e r s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f s o c i e t y w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e s t h e m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s groups i n s o c i e t y . The d e c o n s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t s o f a c l a i m s m a k i n g approach o f f e r r e s o u r c e s t o c r i t i q u e t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s . I n a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t needs, c l a i m s , a r e c u l t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t , a c l a i m s m a k i n g approach encourages a q u e s t i o n i n g o f how t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and v a l u e s , r e f l e c t t h e m s e l v e s i n p o l i c i e s p u r p o r t e d l y s e r v i n g m i n o r i t y groups i n s o c i e t y . L a s t l y , a c l a i m s m a k i n g approach emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e 34 o f p u t t i n g f o r w a r d t h e v o i c e s o f t h o s e groups i n p o s i t i o n s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n as t h e most r e l e v a n t ones. I t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e c l a i m s o f t h o s e who l i v e w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f o p p r e s s i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n r e v e a l ways t h a t can enhance t h e w e l f a r e and w e l l -b e i n g o f b o t h t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s o f p r i v i l e g e and s u b o r d i n a t i o n ( F r e i r e , 1970). T h i s assumes t h a t t h e un e q u a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f power and r e s o u r c e s h i n d e r s t h e development o f human w e l f a r e f o r b o t h t h e o p p r e s s o r and t h e o p p r e s s e d . Claimsmaking and the Deaf A framework o f c l a i m s m a k i n g and re s p o n s e r o o t e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n l e n d s i t s e l f t o h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e a f r e v e a l s a h i s t o r y o f o p p r e s s i o n and s i l e n c i n g by t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y (Lane 1984; 1992). Throughout t h i s h i s t o r y , however, t h e Deaf have c o n t i n u e d t o make c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h s t r i v e t o s e r v e t h e Deaf b u t , i n p r a c t i c e , p e r p e t u a t e t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n . The Deaf have made c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g t h e a u t h o r i n g o f t h e i r own i d e n t i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y have a r t i c u l a t e d c l a i m s a g a i n s t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s r e g a r d i n g t h e c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l need t o implement t h e i r " n a t u r a l " language, S i g n , i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . T h e i r c l a i m s , however, have gone unheard. Thus, t h i s t h e o r y o f c l a i m s m a k i n g has a p p l i c a b i l i t y f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e Deaf. The Emergence o f "Deaf" I d e n t i t y One i n t e g r a l component t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a i m s m a k i n g i s t h e coming t o g e t h e r i n groups and t h e development o f a s o c i a l 35 i d e n t i t y . F o r t h e Deaf, t h e development o f a s o c i a l i d e n t i t y has been a l o n g and o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . P r i o r t o t h e 1800's, t h e d e a f were i s o l a t e d from one a n o t h e r . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f , however, ( s t a r t i n g i n 1817 i n N o r t h America) p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n b r i n g i n g d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s t o g e t h e r i n community (S a c k s , 1989). "These s c h o o l s a c t e d as f o c i f o r t h e d e a f community, p a s s i n g down de a f h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e from one g e n e r a t i o n t o t h e n e x t " ( S a c k s , 1989, p. 136). Thus, n o t o n l y d i d language and l i t e r a c y s p r e a d , b u t a l s o a body o f s h a r e d knowledge, s h a r e d b e l i e f s , c h e r i s h e d n a r r a t i v e s and images - a c u l t u r e ( I b i d ) . "Now, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e r e was an " i d e n t i t y " f o r t h e d e a f , n o t m e r e l y a p e r s o n a l one, b u t a s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l one" ( I b i d , p. 136-137): one i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o t h e community's language, S i g n 2 . " S i g n f o r t h e deaf i s a u n i q u e a d a p t a t i o n t o a n o t h e r s e n s o r y mode; b u t i t i s a l s o , and e q u a l l y , an embodiment o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y " ( I b i d , p. 137). One l e a d e r i n t h e d e a f community, B a r b a r a K a n n a p e l l (1980), has s t a t e d , "my language i s me": F o r i n t h e language o f a p e o p l e r e s i d e s i t s whole t h o u g h t domain, i t s t r a d i t i o n , h i s t o r y , r e l i g i o n , and b a s i s o f l i f e , a l l i t s h e a r t and s o u l (Lane, 1984). T h i s i s t r u e f o r American S i g n Language (ASL). S i g n i s c e n t r a l t o t h e communal i d e n t i t y o f t h e Deaf ( K a n n a p e l l , 1980). 2The t e r m " S i g n " i s used t o denote t h e language o f t h e Deaf ( i . e . A m e r i c a n S i g n Language, F r e n c h S i g n Language, B r i t i s h S i g n Language). I t e x c l u d e s s i g n e d forms o f spoken l a n g u a g e s ( i . e . s i g n e d E n g l i s h ) w h i c h a r e mere t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s and l a c k t h e s t r u c t u r e o f g enuine S i g n l a n g u a g e s . 36 S i g n i s b i o l o g i c a l l y and u n s i l e n c e a b l y t h e v o i c e o f t h e Deaf (S a c k s , 1989). The d e a f community i s t h e p l a c e where d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s enhance t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y as "Deaf". These communities a r e formed p a r t l y by e x c l u s i o n (from t h e h e a r i n g w o r l d ) , and p a r t l y by t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a community and a w o r l d around a d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e . I t s own c e n t r e . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e deaf f e e l e x c l u d e d , t h e y may f e e l i s o l a t e d , s e t a p a r t , d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y form a deaf w o r l d , v o l u n t a r i l y , f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y a r e a t home i n i t , e n j o y i t , see i t as a haven and a b u f f e r . I n t h i s a s p e c t t h e de a f w o r l d f e e l s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , n o t i s o l a t e d - i t has no w i s h t o a s s i m i l a t e o r be a s s i m i l a t e d ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , i t c h e r i s h e s i t s own language and images, and w i s h e s t o p r o t e c t them (Sacks, 1989, p. 128). T h i s i s a community where language, c u l t u r e and communication a r e s h a r e d , where t h e r e a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m u t u a l i t y and r e c i p r o c i t y . T h i s i s t h e s o c i a l p l a c e where t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf a r e f o r m u l a t e d and a r t i c u l a t e d . S i n c e i t s f i r s t b e g i n n i n g s , t h e de a f community has been a p l a c e where deaf i n d i v i d u a l s became\become aware o f t h e i r Deaf i d e n t i t y ; however, t h e r e has n o t always been a c o n s c i o u s awareness o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y as l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group (Sacks, 1989). There was a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t S i g n , as a mode o f communication, d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from h e a r i n g p e o p l e ; however, s i n c e t h e f i r s t days o f deaf e d u c a t i o n , " h e a r i n g e x p e r t s " , who were n o t n a t i v e u s e r s o f t h e language, d e c l a r e d t h a t S i g n was an i n f e r i o r form o f communication t o speech and was n o t a l e g i t i m a t e language (Lane, 1984a; 1984b; 1992; S a c k s , 1989). T h i s v i e w o f p e o p l e w i t h p r i v i l e g e was i n t e r n a l i z e d by t h e Deaf 37 ( S a c k s , 1989). R e v o l u t i o n a r y r e s e a r c h ( S t o k o e , 1965) i n t h e 1960's w h i c h demonstrated t h a t S i g n was i n f a c t a language w i t h i t s own grammar and s t r u c t u r e ( I b i d ) began t o r a i s e awareness t h a t t h e d e a f c o n s t i t u t e d a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group. S i n c e t h e s e f i r s t s t u d i e s on t h e grammar o f ASL, o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( i . e . , B e l l u g i , 1980) have e x e c u t e d f u r t h e r l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s on t h e S i g n o f t h e Deaf. Thus, t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s among t h e Deaf t h a t t h e y a r e a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group. They a r e r e j e c t i n g t h e l a b e l o f d i s a b i l i t y , and c l a i m i n g an i d e n t i t y as a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group (Lane, 1984, p. 2 ) . One l e a d e r i n t h e d e a f community has p u t i t t h i s way, We need t o s t o p and t h i n k . We need n o t a c c e p t any l a b e l o t h e r t h a n Deaf. We can s u c c e e d , as we have shown i n t h e p a s t , on our own o r by j o i n i n g w i t h o t h e r m i n o r i t y language groups. Our g o a l s f o r e d u c a t i o n a r e s i m i l a r ; o u r c o n c e r n s about o p p r e s s i o n and l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e s i m i l a r . Most i m p o r t a n t , we a r e s i m i l a r because a l t h o u g h o u r numbers a r e s m a l l , we a r e p r o u d o f o u r language, c u l t u r e and h e r i t a g e . D i s a b l e d we a r e n o t ! ( B i e n v e n u , 1989, p. 1) One r e s u l t o f t h e g r o w i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e d e a f community t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group and o f t h e g r o w i n g awareness o f ASL as a l e g i t i m a t e language has been t h e Deaf's i n c r e a s i n g commitment t o see ASL implemented as t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . T h i s c l a i m based on t h e i r f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f n e s s and v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n methods ( J a c o b s , 1974) has been a r t i c u l a t e d i n a hegemonic c o n t e x t where t h e v o i c e o f t h e Deaf meets r e s i s t a n c e . 38 The C l a i m s m a k i n g C o n t e x t The c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e Deaf have a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r c l a i m has been dominated by h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who adopt a b i o m e d i c a l model. The b i o m e d i c a l model v i e w s h e a r i n g l o s s as a p h y s i c a l d e f i c i t , a d i s a b i l i t y (Lane, 1992). F o r o v e r a c e n t u r y our n a t i o n s have sought t o a d d r e s s t h e s o c i a l p roblems o f d e a f n e s s w i t h a model t h a t p a t h o l o g i z e s a l l consequences o f d e a f n e s s , t i d i l y p l a c i n g t h e blame f o r t h e i l l s o f t h e d e a f on a c r u e l n a t u r e and i n v o k i n g t h e h e a l t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o d e a l w i t h them w h i l e d i s t u r b i n g t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e (Lane, 1984, p. 2 ) . I n r e d u c i n g h e a r i n g l o s s t o m e r e l y a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y t h e b i o m e d i c a l v i e w p l a c e s t h e i s s u e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and d e n i e s a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Such r e d u c t i o n i s m i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e way N o r t h A m erican s o c i e t i e s have d e a l t w i t h s o c i a l problems. The U n i t e d S t a t e s (and Canada) has a l o n g h i s t o r y o f g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h e i l l s o f t h e body p o l i t i c by c o n s t r u i n g them as i l l n e s s e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d (Lane, 1984, p. 2 ) . The s o u r c e o f t h e problem i s l o c a t e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l - i . e . t h e s o u r c e o f poor e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i n b i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , t h e s o u r c e o f c r i m i n a l i t y i n p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r , t h e s o u r c e o f d e a f underemployment i n c o c h l e a r m a l f u n c t i o n (Lane, 1992, p. 209). The m e d i c a l model assumes t h a t t h e r e i s an o b j e c t i v e and t r a n s c u l t u r a l norm o f human w e l l - b e i n g and a b i l i t y . However, t h e r e i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f n o r m a l i t y i g n o r e s t h e s u b j e c t i v e i s s u e o f what n o r m a l i t y a c t u a l l y i s . B i c k e n b a c h (1993) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y o f d e f i n i n g what i s 'normal' depends on 39 one's frame o f r e f e r e n c e and i s i n h e r e n t l y s u b j e c t i v e . The f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e s i t u a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y o f n o r m a l i t y i s a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scheme ( O l i v e r , 1990). Lane (1992) argues t h a t n o r m a l i t y and i n t h i s c a s e , " i l l n e s s , " depends upon one's c u l t u r a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e . To a t t r i b u t e s i c k n e s s i s t o i m p l y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n o t h e r s t a t e , w h i c h i s more d e s i r a b l e (Lane, 1992, p. 210). However, i f a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s w i d e s p r e a d enough i n a community and does n o t i n t e r f e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h t h e community a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s , i t w i l l be seen as an i l l n e s s o n l y by o u t s i d e r s w i t h a d i f f e r e n t frame o f r e f e r e n c e and d i f f e r e n t g o a l s ( I b i d , p. 210). The dominance o f t h i s m e d i c a l paradigm has r e s u l t e d i n many d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s : one e f f e c t has been t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s o c i a l o r d e r where d e c i s i o n s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a r e l e f t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( h e a r i n g " e x p e r t s " ) a d o p t i n g such a m e d i c a l v i e w o f d e a f n e s s (Lane, 1992). D e c i s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , f o c u s on s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t m i n i m i z i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s a b i l i t y and i m pairment, a r a t i o n a l e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f o r a l i s m i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y (Lane, 1984; 1992; W i n e f e l d , 1987). The dominance o f t h i s v i e w has r e s u l t e d i n a d i s e a s e - c e n t r e d b i a s r e f l e c t e d i n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h have had t r a g i c consequences i n t h e l i v e s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r community (Lane, 1992). The dominance o f t h e m e d i c a l model c r e a t e s a c o n t e x t where t h e c l a i m s o f t h e c u l t u r a l l y d e a f m i n o r i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i d e n t i t y and w e l f a r e a r e n o t l e g i t i m a t e d and n o t h e a r d . The t y r a n n i z i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e m e d i c a l paradigm i n t h e systems meant 40 t o s e r v e t h e d e a f , has meant t h a t t h e " d i s a b l e d " , " i m p a i r e d " d e a f a r e p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e a t t r i b u t e d s t a t u s o f " e x p e r t " and t h e r e f o r e , s u p p o s e d l y , know what i s b e s t f o r t h e d e a f . They a r e a l l o c a t e d a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e needs o f t h e d e a f and s t r a t e g i z e ways t o meet t h e s e needs. T h i s s t r u c t u r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and i n o t h e r domains - i . e . i n employment c o u n s e l l i n g ( S a c k s , 1989). Sacks (1989) has argued t h a t a c l i e n t i n d u s t r y has been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e d eaf as c l i e n t and t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s as e x p e r t . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s a system o f s t r u c t u r e d i n e q u a l i t y where t h e v i e w s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y ( h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) dominate d e s p i t e t h e o n g o i n g c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf. Thus, a t h e o r y o f c l a i m s m a k i n g o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r w e i g h i n g t h e c l a i m s o f h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf. A t h e o r y o f c l a i m s m a k i n g r o o t e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r i s s u e s o f power and i t p u t s f o r w a r d t h a t t h e c l a i m s o f t h o s e who l i v e w i t h t h e consequences o f o p p r e s s i o n a r e r e l e v a n t and i n t e g r a l t o t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , w h i c h has t h e development o f human w e l f a r e and c a p a c i t i e s as i t s g o a l s . 41 Chapter Three Research Project T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h e x p l o r e s t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d t h e v i e w s o f n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication. I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i n v e s t i g a t e s how t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t h r e e major communication methods - o r a l i s m 3 , t o t a l c o mmunication 4 and b i c u l t u r a l / b i l i n g u a l i s m 5 - have a r r i v e d a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s . L i t e r a t u r e Review P a s s i o n a t e c o n t r o v e r s y permeates t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . An o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e s v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d v i e w s about O r a l i s m i s a p h i l o s o p h y o f communication w h i c h a d v o c a t e s t h e use o f a u d i t o r y and o r a l s k i l l s i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . I t i s a method w h i c h d i s c o u r a g e s / f o r b i d s t h e use o f s i g n s . I t promotes t h a t a g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n speech and l i p r e a d i n g , and t e a c h i n g d eaf c h i l d r e n how t o use t h e i r r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g . 4 T o t a l communication (T.C.) i s a p h i l o s o p h y o f communication w h i c h embraces a l l methods o f communication i n t h e o r y (speech, l i p r e a d i n g , a u d i t o r y s k i l l s , g e s t u r i n g , s i g n e d E n g l i s h , p i d g i n s i g n e d E n g l i s h , A m e rican S i g n Language...). However, i n p r a c t i c e t h e dominant method used i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i s t h e mode o f communication t h a t t h e t e a c h e r f e e l s most c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e method t h a t has dominated i n T.C. s e t t i n g s i s s i g n s u p p o r t e d speech: Spoken E n g l i s h w i t h manual E n g l i s h s i g n s . 5 B i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m i s an approach t o d e a f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h a d v o c a t e s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f American S i g n Language as t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y assumes t h a t ASL i s t h e n a t u r a l language o f t h e d e a f . I t promotes t h e i n c l u s i o n o f d e a f c u l t u r e and h e r i t a g e i n c u r r i c u l u m , and i t sees Deaf r o l e models as b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e deaf c h i l d ' s development o f s e l f - e s t e e m and i d e n t i t y . O t h e r communication modes a r e p e r c e i v e d as v a l u a b l e " t o o l s " ; however, t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h i s a pproach i s on making c u r r i c u l u m e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t . 42 communication p o l i c y i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n d e s c r i b e s some l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d eaf f o c u s i n g on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e p i c t s many v i e w s o f d e a f n e s s . F o r example, t h e e a r l y 1900's were marked by a p o s i t i o n o f o p t i m i s m . Deaf c h i l d r e n were v i e w e d as h a v i n g t h e same i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l as t h e i r h e a r i n g c o h o r t s ( A r n o l d , 1985). I n t h e 1920's, however, a s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e o c c u r r e d . A r e s e a r c h e r , P i t n e r , c l a i m e d t h a t t h e "deaf were r e t a r d e d " and " b r a i n damaged". T h i s v i e w dominated u n t i l t h e 1960's when r e s e a r c h e r s ( M y c k l e b u s t , 1964; Vernon, 1968; Vernon and Makowsky, 1969) began t o l o o k a t t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f d e a f n e s s . These r e s e a r c h e r s showed t h a t " t h e d eaf were members o f a m i n o r i t y and t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s amongst t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y a f f e c t e d a d eaf p e r s o n ' s c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - i m a g e " ( A r n o l d , 1985). T h i s marked a s h i f t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o e x p l o r e how t h e system o u t s i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e af p e r s o n i n f l u e n c e s h e r l i f e . Each o f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s had an i n f l u e n c e on p o l i c y makers i n v a r i o u s ways. F o r example, t h e v i e w i n t h e 1920's t h a t t h e d e a f were v i e w e d as " b r a i n damaged", p r o v i d e d a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r d eaf c h i l d r e n ' s poor academic r e s u l t s p l a c i n g t h e p r o b l e m w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d w h i l e e x c l u d i n g competing e x p l a n a t i o n s ( i . e . t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g i n a c c e s s i b l e ) ( S a c k s , 1989). I n f a c t , M y c k l e b u s t (1964) recommended 43 i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and a r e s t r i c t e d s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m based on h i s v i e w o f t h e d e a f as " r e t a r d e d " . Thus, c o n f l i c t i n g and c h a n g i n g v i e w s o f d e a f n e s s have h i s t o r i c a l l y p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e development o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . I n t h e 1980's a new name emerged i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e about t h e d e a f , H a r l a n Lane (1984; 1984; 1988; 1992). Lane (1988) c o n t r i b u t e d an i m p o r t a n t c r i t i q u e o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . By e x p o s i n g t h e poor s a m p l i n g d e s i g n s and c u l t u r a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e measures, Lane de m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e s have poor v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h he c r i t i q u e d shed more l i g h t on t h e e t h n o c e n t r i c s t e r e o t y p e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t i n g t h e s t u d y t h a n on p e r s o n s who a r e d e a f . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e 1980's and 1990's d e m o n s t r a t e s a g r o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f an a l t e r n a t e v i e w o f t h e Deaf, t h e d e a f as a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group (Lane, 1992; 1984; Ross, 1990; Padden and Humphries, 1988; Evans, 1988; 1987; Nash, 1987; Reagan, 1985). Padden and Humphries (1988) e x p l o r e two c o n t r a s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o f h e a r i n g l o s s . They i n t r o d u c e t h e i d e a t h a t p e o p l e approach h e a r i n g l o s s from d i f f e r e n t " c e n t r e s " : a h e a r i n g c e n t r e w h i c h v i e w s d e a f n e s s as a d i s a b i l i t y o r t h e Deaf c e n t r e w h i c h v i e w s d e a f n e s s as a d i f f e r e n c e . These a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l 1 s p e r s p e c t i v e about h e a r i n g l o s s i n f l u e n c e s t h e t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n she s u p p o r t s . F o r example, i f one v i e w s h e a r i n g l o s s as an impairment, t h e n a p o s s i b l e 44 i n t e r v e n t i o n may be " i n v a s i v e s u r g e r y " t o c o r r e c t t h e i n f i r m i t y (Lane, 1992). Thus, Padden and Humphries (1988) s u g g e s t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l 1 s v i e w o f d e a f n e s s i s an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e method o f communication t h e y choose. S t e w a r t (1988) s u r v e y e d t h e a d u l t Deaf (members o f t h e c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group) and documented t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s on a p p r o p r i a t e methods o f communication f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r t o Padden and Humphries' (1988) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i e w o f d e a f n e s s i n f l u e n c e s t h e method o f communication t h e y choose, S t e w a r t found t h a t , by and l a r g e , t h e d e a f community o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d s u p p o r t e d t h e use o f S i g n Language i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ( I b i d ) . He found c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s background and t h e i r s u p p o r t o f s i g n l a nguage, and he s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done t o e x p l o r e whether p e r s o n a l background p l a y s a r o l e i n one's p r e f e r e n c e o f communication methods. A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r , W i n e f i e l d (1987), d i d h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h t o e x p l o r e t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d A l e x a n d e r Graham B e l l , a proponent and a d v o c a t e o f o r a l i s m , and Edward M i n e r G a l l a u d e t , a proponent and a d v o c a t e o f t h e manual method. He found t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds, t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e d e a f and t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d d e v i a n c e were c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e men's i d e a s and a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f . W i n e f i e l d a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . He found t h a t b o t h t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s 45 r e p o r t e d h a v i n g no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f p e o p l e o r w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f p r i o r t o b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . Moreover, W i n e f i e l d found t h a t e d u c a t i o n background was i n f l u e n t i a l f o r t h e t e a c h e r s . He a l s o found t h a t t h e p a r e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' v i e w s o f n o r m a l i t y were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . L a s t l y , t h e t e a c h e r s ' g o a l s f o r e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n p l a y e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l method t h e y s u p p o r t e d . I n summary, a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h about t h e d e a f r e v e a l s many p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s v i e w about communication p o l i c i e s i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . One r e c u r r i n g theme i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e was t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i e w o f d e a f n e s s i n f l u e n c e s t h e method o f communication she/he s u p p o r t s . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t one's p e r s o n a l background may be a n o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s o f W i n e f i e l d ' s (1987) r e s e a r c h w i t h p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s c u r r e n t s t u d y . I n p a r t i c u l a r h i s f i n d i n g s t h a t a p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s e d u c a t i o n , v i e w o f normalcy, and g o a l f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , may emerge as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a l s o p r o v i d e d a r e m i n d e r t h a t c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e measures a r e i m p o r t a n t when i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t most o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o methods o f communication has 46 f o c u s e d on outcome. W h i l e such r e s e a r c h i s h e l p f u l , i t seems t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e entrenchment o f p o s i t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h p r o f e s s i o n a l s come t o s u p p o r t one p o s i t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r . Thus, i t c o n t r i b u t e s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b e l i e f s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r v i e w s o f methods o f communication. An e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t o r ' s v i e w s o f communication p o l i c y i s i m p o r t a n t because e d u c a t o r s have p l a y e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n t h e l i v e s o f f a m i l i e s w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e b e l i e f s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n f o r m i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y (Lane, 1992). T h i s c o n n e c t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l e v a n t i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s have been t h e dominant a c t o r s i n p o l i c y development, w h i l e t h e c l a i m s o f t h e c l i e n t group, t h e d eaf community - t h o s e who have f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f n e s s - have been s i l e n c e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t (Lane, 1992; S t e w a r t , 1988). Methods I wanted t o i n v e s t i g a t e how p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n a r r i v e a t t h e i r b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication i n d eaf e d u c a t i o n . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h my t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f c l a i m s m a k i n g , I b e l i e v e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t c l a i m s have d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , I f e l t t h a t e x p l o r i n g t h e s e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v a r i o u s c l a i m s would c o n t r i b u t e i n s i g h t about p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e l i e f s . I d e s i g n e d an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o g e t a p r e l i m i n a r y o v e r v i e w o f t h e s e i s s u e s . Q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s were chosen as 47 t h e method o f e n q u i r y because I b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t c o n t e x t f o r o b t a i n i n g i n - d e p t h and i n f o r m a t i o n - r i c h d a t a . The n e x t s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e methods used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . S a m p l i n g and r e c r u i t m e n t , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . S a m p l i n g and R e c r u i t m e n t T h i s s t u d y used p u r p o s i v e c r i t e r i o n and s n o w b a l l s a m p l i n g . Because o f t h e d e s i r e t o o b t a i n a range o f v i e w s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n t h e communication d e b a t e , t h e s e l e c t e d sample was hete r o g e n e o u s . N i n e i n d i v i d u a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d based on p a r t i c u l a r i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i e l d o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n who work i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f Vancouver, B.C. Three o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d were p r o f e s s i o n a l s who i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as c u l t u r a l l y Deaf and s u p p o r t a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l a p proach. Three o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were h e a r i n g e d u c a t o r s who a r e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e t o t a l communication method; and t h r e e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d were h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method. These t h r e e groups r e p r e s e n t e d t h e spectrum o f v i e w s about communication methods i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . Because o f t h e ongoing i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s d e b a t e , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s would be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e debate and w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e i r v i e w s , t h u s , p r o v i d i n g d a t a r i c h i n i n f o r m a t i o n . The a u d i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e 9 p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d 48 was an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I d e a l l y , t h e r e s h o u l d have been a t l e a s t one h e a r i n g and one de a f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n each o r i e n t a t i o n c a t e g o r y : t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l , t h e t o t a l c ommunication and t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l . However, i t has been my e x p e r i e n c e t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g i n t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y h e a r i n g . I n f a c t , I c o n s u l t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d and no one had e v e r h e a r d o f a de a f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l f i e l d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f a d h e r e n t s o f t o t a l communication, s i n c e s u p p o r t f o r t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l movement has grown, a r e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . L i k e w i s e , i t has been my e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u p p o r t e r s f o r t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l model a r e Deaf. Thus, t h e a u d i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s from w h i c h t h e sample was drawn. I began t h e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s by c o n t a c t i n g t h e d i r e c t o r s o f v a r i o u s Lower M a i n l a n d a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . The purpose o f t h e s t u d y was o u t l i n e d and t h e d i r e c t o r s were m a i l e d c o p i e s o f t h e c o n t a c t l e t t e r [see Appendix A ] . I n t e r e s t e d s t a f f were encouraged t o c o n t a c t t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s p r o c e s s y i e l d e d 4 p a r t i c i p a n t s : 1 s u p p o r t e r o f t h e A u d i t o r y / O r a l method, 2 s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e T o t a l Communication method and 1 s u p p o r t e r o f t h e B i l i n g u a l / B i c u l t u r a l method. Appointments were made w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked i f t h e y knew o f any o t h e r p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r e f e r 49 c o l l e a g u e s t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . T h i s p r o c e s s o f s n o w b a l l s a m p l i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e d e s i r e d number o f i n t e r v i e w s . Three p a r t i c i p a n t s o f each o f t h e t h r e e communication methods were i n t e r v i e w e d . Data C o l l e c t i o n Data c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . An i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was d r a f t e d , w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r a range o f p e r s p e c t i v e s t o emerge. The g u i d e p r o v i d e d f o c u s , s u p p l y i n g a framework o r map w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e a l l o w i n g f l e x i b i l i t y (Gorden, 1992). I n a d d i t i o n , i t a l l o w e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o frame t h e i r v i e w s , an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n because t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t e d v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h r e e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s who i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as c u l t u r a l l y Deaf. The i n t e r v i e w g u i d e [see a p p endix B] was d e v e l o p e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h an a d v i s o r and s e v e r a l c o l l e a g u e s . The q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n mind: what a r e t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e method o f communication u s e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n ? C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o c r e a t e a l o g i c a l f l o w i n t h e o r d e r o f q u e s t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w s d i d f l o w s m o o t h l y w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y and soundness o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . I n t e r v i e w p r o c e d u r e . P r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , I o b t a i n e d a p p r o v a l from t h e UBC E t h i c s Committee. The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e Lower M a i n l a n d accommodating t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' 50 c i r c u m s t a n c e s . E i g h t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p l a c e o f work, and one was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e s i d e n c e . A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d . I a s k e d each p a r t i c i p a n t f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o r e c o r d t h e i n t e r v i e w p r i o r t o s e t t i n g an appointment. A l l n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s a g r e e d t o t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . As opposed t o f i e l d n o t e s , r e c o r d i n g t h e e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w e n s u r e d t h a t a l l d a t a were c o l l e c t e d and e n s u r e d c o n s i s t e n c y i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a . T h i s enhanced t h e c r e d i b i l i t y and soundness o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d w h i c h has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . Because o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s e t - u p needed, I a l l o w e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e t o s e t up and p r e p a r e . The equipment was s e t up and t e s t e d p r i o r t o t h e appointment t i m e . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h e l p e d f a c i l i t a t e a smooth i n t r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d t o t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s . One p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e d u r e was t h a t my own c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y as a s i g n i n g h e a r i n g p e r s o n may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e answers o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I a t t e m p t e d t o a d d r e s s t h i s l i m i t a t i o n by s h a r i n g my own background i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g my e x p e r i e n c e i n ASL s e t t i n g s and p r o v i d i n g them o p p o r t u n i t y t o ask q u e s t i o n s . T h i s openness seemed t o be a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c i p r o c a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . However, t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h my i d e n t i t y as a h e a r i n g p e r s o n i n f l u e n c e d t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s i s an unknown v a r i a b l e and a l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . A f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t h e c o n s e n t form [see A ppendix C] 51 was d i s c u s s e d and s i g n e d , and t h e i n t e r v i e w s t a r t e d . The n i n e i n t e r v i e w s ranged from 50 t o 80 m i n u t e s , and t h e a verage l e n g t h was 63 m i n u t e s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared r e l a x e d and open i n s h a r i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s . One i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s recommended c o l l e a g u e s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h . Soundness and c r e d i b i l i t y . S e v e r a l f u r t h e r s t e p s were t a k e n t o enhance t h e soundness and c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and f i n d i n g s . F o r example, a s i n g l e i n t e r v i e w e r was used i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a w h i c h i n c r e a s e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a s i m i l a r s t y l e and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d w i t h a r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r , s e v e r a l c o l l e a g u e s , and an e d u c a t o r o f t h e d e a f , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s were c l e a r and r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . A l s o , i n f o c u s i n g on how t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r r i v e d a t t h e i r b e l i e f s , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r assumed,an open, nonjudgemental p o s i t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h i s f o c u s s h i f t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n away from t h e v a l u e - l a d e n b e l i e f s t o an e n q u i r y o f how t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e a c h e d t h e i r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o m a i n t a i n a n o n d i r e c t i v e p o s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w by a s k i n g open-ended q u e s t i o n s and a l l o w i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o frame t h e i r r e s p o n s e s from t h e i r p o s i t i o n . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h e l p e d f a c i l i t a t e a p o s i t i v e r a p p o r t w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e t o s h a r e t h e i r v i e w s o p e n l y . 52 Data A n a l y s i s Grounded t h e o r y was t h e p r o c e d u r e used t o e x t r a p o l a t e major themes from t h e d a t a . T h i s a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s was chosen because i t examines meaning i n c o n t e x t and a l l o w s f o r a range o f p e r s p e c t i v e s t o emerge. The a n a l y s i s began w i t h t h e t r a n s c r i b i n g o f t h e c o m p l e t e d i n t e r v i e w s . To e n s u r e t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s was s t r i p p e d from t h e t r a n s c r i p t s and t h e r e c o r d i n g s were k e p t i n a s a f e p l a c e a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . R e c o r d i n g s were e r a s e d a f t e r t h e r e s e a r c h was c o mpleted. The n e x t s t e p o f a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d l i n e - b y - l i n e open c o d i n g . The open codes were r e c o r d e d i n t h e m a r g i n t o t h e l e f t o f t h e d a t a . Codes were d e v e l o p e d w h i c h t o o k each l i n e o r l i n e s , t o t h e n e x t l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n w h i l e s t i l l r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e meaning i n t e n d e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . The f o l l o w i n g quote i s an example: There a r e t h o s e p e o p l e l i k e m y s e l f who p r e f e r t o t h i n k o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a h e a r i n g l o s s , c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r m e n t s , u s i n g i t as a g e n e r i c t erm, meaning from t h e m i l d e s t l o s s t o t h e most p r o f o u n d . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t was r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t "Deaf". T h i s s t a t e m e n t was coded a s : d e a f n e s s n o t a l a b e l , d e a f = a u d i o l o g i c a l s t a t e , d e a f = degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s . The r i g h t m a r g i n o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t was used t o r e c o r d memos and document emerging themes. L a s t l y , i n t e r v i e w t o p i c s were h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h a c o l o u r p e n c i l i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t . 53 A f t e r c o d i n g t h e document once, a c o l l e a g u e was c o n s u l t e d about t h e open codes. Her a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m e d some o f t h e open codes w h i l e e x p o s i n g i s s u e s t h a t were o v e r l o o k e d . T h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e open codes, t o t h e i r c l a r i f i c a t i o n and t o a g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e codes p o r t r a y e d t h e i n t e n d e d meaning. Once t h e c o d i n g o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s was c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o c e s s o f a x i a l c o d i n g / c l u s t e r i n g began. The t o p i c / q u e s t i o n was r e c o r d e d a t t h e t o p o f a paper, and t h e open codes were l i s t e d . D i f f e r e n t c o l o u r e d pens were used f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t e r v i e w s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e l i n e numbers o f t h e codes were r e c o r d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e f i n d i n g v e r b a t i m q u o t e s used f o r s u p p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s . Once l i s t e d , t h e codes were c l u s t e r e d i n t o emerging themes and d e s c r i p t i v e names were g i v e n t o t h e themes. The p r o c e d u r e o f d a t a a n a l y s i s was a p r o c e s s o f c o n s t a n t c o m p a r i s o n s and o f c o n t i n u a l r e v i s i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s were s u p p o r t e d w i t h v e r b a t i m q u o t e s t o add t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y and soundness o f t h e f i n d i n g s . However, t h e s e f i n d i n g s were n o t meant t o be g e n e r a l i z e d . A l t h o u g h e lements o f t h e f i n d i n g s may r e f l e c t t h a t o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e purpose o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s was t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 v i e w s and t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y a r r i v e d a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s . The r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e o n l y a p p l i c a b l e w i t h i n t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h i s s t u d y . 54 Chapter Four Findings T h i s n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l f o c u s on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y , and on a p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e themes t h a t emerged t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . The themes a r e elements w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . The themes a r e s u p p o r t e d by qu o t e s from t h e t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w s . The s i x i n t e r v i e w s w i t h h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e v e r b a t i m q u o t e s . The , t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s were i n t e r p r e t e d by me from ASL t o E n g l i s h , t h u s , any g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s and n o t an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' E n g l i s h competency. C h a r t 1 [Appendix C] o u t l i n e s t h e v a r i o u s themes w h i c h were e x t r a p o l a t e d from t h e d a t a , and p r e s e n t s them i n g r o u p i n g s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n t o be e x p l o r e d i s t h e p r e - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e . P r e - i n v o l v e m e n t P r o f i l e No p r e v i o u s background r e l a t i n g t o t h e d e a f . One theme t h a t emerged t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w s was t h a t a l l s i x o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d had no p r e v i o u s background r e l a t i n g t o t h e d e a f 6 . F o r example, a l l s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e i n t e r v i e w t h a t p r i o r t o becoming 6 Through t h e p r o c e s s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s , I found some themes common among t h e 6 h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . There were a l s o themes s h a r e d among t h e t h r e e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l c ommunication and t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l model. F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , where t h e r e i s agreement between g r o u p s , t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l be l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . 55 i n v o l v e d w i t h d e a f e d u c a t i o n , t h e y d i d n ' t know any i n d i v i d u a l s who were d e a f . One p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d , W e l l , I d i d n o t come i n t o t h i s f i e l d because o f a f a m i l y member o r anyone h a v i n g a h e a r i n g l o s s , ( i n t e r v i e w #001) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t i n a r t i c u l a t i n g how she became i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n s a i d , I t wasn't c o n t a c t w i t h d e a f p e o p l e g r o w i n g up. I d i d n ' t have any c o n t a c t w i t h them. ( i n t e r v i e w #006) I n a d d i t i o n t o n o t knowing any de a f i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r t o t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g an a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach a l l u d e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y e n t e r e d t h i s c a r e e r u n i n f o r m e d and unaware o f t h e i s s u e s and e n t e r e d a u d i t o r y / o r a l t r a i n i n g programs by chance: I don't know where i t came from because I t h i n k i f I had t o l o o k back I would p r o b a b l y say t h a t um, I don't even know why I went i n t o t h i s t o b e g i n w i t h . I t h i n k some guy t a l k e d me i n t o i t . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) A n o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t p u t t h i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: I went i n t o Deaf e d u c a t i o n v e r y n a i v e about t h e whole p o l i t i c a l a r e n a s u r r o u n d i n g deaf e d u c a t i o n . . . I chose t h e M c G i l l [ o r a l ] program o n l y because I wanted t o go t o M o n t r e a l ... So, I went i n , n o t knowing what t h e o r a l a pproach was a l l about, and n o t knowing a s i n g l e d e a f p e r s o n p e r s o n a l l y . ( i n t e r v i e w #003) A p p a r e n t l y , b e i n g unaware and u n i n f o r m e d o f t h e i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o d e a f e d u c a t i o n and n o t h a v i n g any p r i o r c o n t a c t w i t h d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y i n i t i a l l y happened upon an o r a l p h i l o s o p h y i n e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n . The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t a T o t a l Communication method a l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e y " f e l l i n t o " t h e p r o f e s s i o n : 56 I f e l l i n t o i t . F l u k e . ( i n t e r v i e w #004) So i t ' s something t h a t I s o r t o f j u s t f e l l i n t o , ( i n t e r v i e w #005) However, a l l t h r e e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l c ommunication worked i n s i g n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s p r i o r t o p u r s u i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g in d e a f e d u c a t i o n . Thus, t h i s e a r l y e x p osure t o S i g n i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . A l l t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d an a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach and s t a t e d t h e i r i n i t i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n s i g n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s as t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r c h o i c e . The p r e - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e o f t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s was s i m i l a r i n many ways. They a l l had/have f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n and d e a f n e s s . They a l l were exposed t o o r a l i s m i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , as w e l l as s i g n e d E n g l i s h . Now, as a d u l t s , a l l t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s c u l t u r a l l y Deaf and t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode o f communication i s American S i g n Language (ASL). S e e m i n g l y , t h i s f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r p e r s o n a l Deaf i d e n t i t y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e l i e f s and i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . P e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s as a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r . I t appeared t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f a c a r e e r i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . Two p a r t i c i p a n t s (#002 and #004) were t e a c h e r s p r i o r t o becoming i n v o l v e d i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . One o f t h e o t h e r s was a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n t e a c h i n g . 57 I went because I t h o u g h t i t would be n e a t t o be a t e a c h e r o f t h e d e a f . And urn, I a l s o wanted t o be a t e a c h e r . ( i n t e r v i e w #003) Two o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (#005 and #006) had i n t e r e s t s and background i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . And l a s t l y , one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (#001) s t a t e d t h a t h e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h speech was a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n h e r c h o i c e o f c a r e e r s : I guess I have always been and s t i l l am f a s c i n a t e d by speech. ( i n t e r v i e w #001) P e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t as a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r . A l t h o u g h t h e dea f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s s t u d y may have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i r community emerged as a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o pu r s u e a c a r e e r i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . F o r example, one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (#009) s t a t e d : When I t h i n k about t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , t h e y w i l l grow up t o be o u r n e x t g e n e r a t i o n o f Deaf l e a d e r s . That means t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i s v e r y v a l u a b l e t o me. ( i n t e r v i e w #009) One o f t h e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s (#008) s h a r e d t h a t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n was i n t e n s i f i e d when h e r de a f c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d t h e e d u c a t i o n system. Thus, i n a d d i t i o n t o h e r i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e f u t u r e o f h e r community, t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t was a l s o an i n v e s t m e n t i n h e r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . Once t h e d e c i s i o n had been made t o pu r s u e a c a r e e r i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e appears t o be s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s * v i e w s about w h i c h method t o s u p p o r t . One o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h appeared t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s * b e l i e f s was t h e i r v i e w o f d e a f n e s s . There were f i v e themes 58 w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g . View o f Deafness The h e a r i n g and Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d n o t v i e w d e a f n e s s i n t h e same way. Three themes emerged i n t h e v i e w o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s : d e a f e q u a l s a m e d i c a l term, h e a r i n g l o s s as a d i s a b i l i t y , and deaf i s n o t t h e p e r s o n ' s i d e n t i t y . The Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a l k e d about o n l y one theme: Deafness i s n o t a d i s a b i l i t y . Deaf e q u a l s a m e d i c a l term. One o f t h e themes common among t h e t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s was t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w e d t h e c o n c e p t " d e a f " as a m e d i c a l term. F o r example, one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f t h e term d e a f : When I use t h e term d e a f , i t ' s n o t a term I use v e r y o f t e n , I'm u s i n g i t t o s i g n i f y r e a l l y , r e a l l y h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t p o i n t e d o u t : The h e a r i n g l o s s i s j u s t a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , ( i n t e r v i e w #001) The d a t a seemed t o demonstrate t h a t t h e term d e a f was v i e w e d as a m e d i c a l t e r m s i g n i f y i n g a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s . T h i s theme d i d n o t emerge from t h e o t h e r s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s . H e a r i n g l o s s as a d i s a b i l i t y . A second theme w h i c h emerged r e l a t i n g t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s * v i e w s o f d e a f n e s s , was t h a t t h e s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w e d h e a r i n g l o s s as a d i s a b i l i t y . Throughout t h e i n t e r v i e w s s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s emerged w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h i s theme. F o r example, i t became c l e a r t h a t h e a r i n g 59 l o s s was seen as a b a r r i e r and a d i s a d v a n t a g e . One o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who s u p p o r t e d T o t a l Communication s t a t e d , I t i s a d i s a b i l i t y , a p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y i n t h e sense t h a t you cannot h e a r . I t h i n k t h a t because t h e d e a f community has formed a v e r y s t r o n g c u l t u r e as opposed t o b l i n d p e o p l e , i t ' s u n i q u e ... Because o f t h e language b a r r i e r t h a t has a f f e c t e d d e a f p e o p l e , um, i n g e n e r a l t h e language l e v e l i s l o w e r , t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l i s l o w e r . Um, t h a t t o me i s a b i t o f a d i s a b i l i t y because t h e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e n o t t h e r e . The e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e n o t t h e r e . So t h e r e i s n ' t t h a t b r o a d range o f any c h o i c e s t h e y want t o make. W i t h b l i n d n e s s y e s , t h e r e ' s a few t h i n g s you c a n ' t do, b u t as f a r as e d u c a t i o n , t h e language i s s t i l l t h e r e f o r them. They're h e a r i n g i t a l l and a b l e t o t a k e i t i n . A l l t h a t language t h a t makes o t h e r l e a r n i n g p o s s i b l e . W i t h d e a f n e s s t h e language i s n ' t t h e r e a l l t h e t i m e . And so, I see t h a t as a d i s a b i l i t y as f a r as um, j o b s k i l l s and e d u c a t i o n because you have t o have an i n t e r p r e t e r w i t h you when y o u ' r e d e a f . I mean you c annot go t o any form o f l e a r n i n g u n l e s s t h e p e r s o n who yo u ' r e t a l k i n g t o s i g n s o r u n l e s s t h e y have an i n t e r p r e t e r . . . But, i n t h a t r e s p e c t I see i t as a d i s a b i l i t y , because i t ' s a l i m i t a t i o n as f a r as how t h e y can p r o g r e s s . ( i n t e r v i e w #004) S i m i l a r l y , f o r t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s t s , i t became c l e a r t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s was a b a r r i e r and a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n l e a r n i n g , i n a c q u i r i n g o r a l s k i l l s , and i n d e v e l o p i n g a " n a t u r a l l a nguage". One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , C h i l d r e n have t h e i n n a t e a b i l i t y t o l e a r n t o t a l k . We know t h a t . C h i l d r e n do i t . The o n l y t h i n g t h a t i n h i b i t s a c h i l d w i t h a h e a r i n g l o s s from d o i n g i t as easy as a c h i l d w i t h normal h e a r i n g i s t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d , Deafness i s n ' t a d i s a b i l i t y . W e l l , o f c o u r s e i t i s . That s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d . W e l l , from my p o i n t o f v i e w , i f you were h a v i n g a c h i l d , would you p r e f e r i t t o be d e a f o r h e a r i n g ? ( i n t e r v i e w #002) These examples s u p p o r t t h e theme t h a t some p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w e d d e a f n e s s as a d i s a b i l i t y . 60 Deafness i s n o t t h e p e r s o n ' s i d e n t i t y . A t h i r d theme emerged from t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . F o r a l l s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , d e a f n e s s was n o t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t y . F o r t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s t s , t h e d e a f n e s s was " a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n " : d e a f n e s s r e f e r r e d t o t h e degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s , n o t t h e c h i l d ' s i d e n t i t y . F o r example, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d , I don't j u s t see d e a f n e s s o r h e a r i n g l o s s as t h e p r i m a r y t h i n g . Urn, see you have t o c o n s i d e r a l o t o f t h i n g s ... I t ' s d e f i n i t e l y one o f t h e main t h i n g s t h a t you have t o l o o k a t and c o n s i d e r . But once you g e t o v e r a few s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s ... A f t e r t h a t I t h i n k t h a t d e a f n e s s can be p u t back and l e t ' s move on t o o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s f o r t h i s c h i l d . ( i n t e r v i e w #003) The h e a r i n g l o s s i s a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I t ' s not t h e o v e r r i d i n g f a ctor...We r e a l l y don't see t h e c h i l d as t h e d e a f n e s s i s who t h e y a r e . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) The o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t had t h i s t o say about t h e deaf community's v i e w o f d e a f n e s s : I t h i n k i t becomes, h e a r i n g impairment o r d e a f n e s s i n t h a t c u l t u r e , t h e d e a f n e s s i s um, a l m o s t a badge. I t ' s a l m o s t t h e i r b e i n g . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) T h i s same p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i c u l a t e d h e r v i e w i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: I would l i k e t o t h i n k t h a t I see them as j u s t a k i d . T h i s i s j u s t a k i d . The h e a r i n g impairment i s r e a l l y way, way down. Yeah t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s t h a t we g o t t o do. There's no doubt about i t , because o f t h a t . But f o r God's sake t h i s i s a p e r s o n . And we can accommodate t h a t because we have t h e s k i l l s t o know what t o do w i t h i t . But i t ' s t h e t o t a l b e i n g t h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) S i m i l a r l y t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t T o t a l Communication d i d not v i e w d e a f n e s s as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s o n l y i d e n t i t y ; however, 61 f o r t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e d e a f n e s s may be one o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t i e s . F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d : J u s t because you've l o s t y o u r h e a r i n g d o e s n ' t mean y o u ' r e Deaf. ( i n t e r v i e w #005) She added, N a t u r a l l y I would l i k e t o see a l l k i d s g a i n a good sense o f i d e n t i t y . They can have v a r i o u s i d e n t i t i e s . They're n o t j u s t Deaf. T h a t ' s j u s t one a s p e c t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e , because t h e y may be P o l i s h , and t h e y may be C a t h o l i c , and t h e y may be v e g e t a r i a n . Deaf does n o t make them whole. I t ' s j u s t a p a r t o f who t h e y a r e . ( i n t e r v i e w #005) These examples demonstrate t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d d i d n o t v i e w d e a f n e s s as r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s whole i d e n t i t y . The t h r e e d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s who were i n t e r v i e w e d had a v e r y d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f d e a f n e s s . I n f a c t , one o f t h e themes t h a t emerged t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s was t h a t d e a f n e s s i s n o t d i s a b i l i t y . D eafness n o t a d i s a b i l i t y . A l l t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r t i c u l a t e d t h i s v i e w o f d e a f n e s s , t h a t i t i s u n i q u e and n o t a d i s a b i l i t y . One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d i t t h i s way: When you p u t Deaf p e o p l e t o g e t h e r , d i s a b i l i t y d i s a p p e a r s . They're normal. You have no sense o f d i s a b i l i t y . D i s a b i l i t y i s a q u a l i t a t i v e c o n c e p t . I f you have a h e a r i n g p e r s o n who do e s n ' t know how t o s i g n , and you p u t t h a t p e r s o n i n a group o f d e a f p e o p l e t h e h e a r i n g p e r s o n i s d i s a b l e d , t h e p e r s o n f e e l s l o s t . I t d o e s n ' t work t h e same way w i t h o t h e r d i s a b i l i t y g r oups. I f you p u t a r e g u l a r p e r s o n w i t h w h e e l c h a i r p e o p l e , t h e y s t i l l f e e l d i s a b l e d and t h e r e g u l a r p e r s o n d o e s n ' t f e e l d i s a b l e d . The d e a f community i s v e r y u n i q u e , a u n i q u e group. The r u l e s o f d i s a b i l i t y don't a p p l y t o them. However, because o f t h e way t h e w o r l d i s , t h e Deaf must say t h e y ' r e d i s a b l e d t o g e t s e r v i c e s , money ... So, o f t e n Deaf 62 p e o p l e have t o s w a l l o w t h e i r p r i d e and say yes t o d i s a b i l i t y . They know i f t h e y say "no we're n o t . We a r e a c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group", s o c i e t y won't a c c e p t t h a t . So, d i s a b i l i t y i s a l a b e l t h a t i s f o r c e d upon us by s o c i e t y ... The p o i n t i s t h a t i f you a l l o w Deaf p e o p l e t o be more i n c o n t r o l , what would happen t o t h e i r l i f e . I f t h e y had t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l how t h e y a r e l a b e l l e d , I s u s p e c t t h a t problems would d i m i n i s h , t h e problems o f d i s a b i l i t y w ould d i s a p p e a r . T h a t ' s my o p i n i o n . ( i n t e r v i e w #007) C l e a r l y , t h i s theme o f d e a f n e s s as n o t a d i s a b i l i t y d i f f e r s from p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d t h r e e themes, y e t a l l t h e themes h i g h l i g h t t h a t how one v i e w s o f d e a f n e s s i s a f a c t o r when i t comes t o b e l i e f s about methods o f communication. F o r example, i f one v i e w s h e a r i n g l o s s as a u d i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a d i s a b i l i t y , t h e n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n chosen w i l l f o c u s on m i n i m i z i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s becomes an i n t e g r a l v a r i a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e method o f communication. One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , The c h i l d who l o s t t h e i r h e a r i n g a t age 2 i s n o t t h e same as t h e c h i l d who was b o r n d e a f . So um, a c h i l d who i s h a r d o f h e a r i n g i s n o t t h e same as a c h i l d who i s p r o f o u n d . You c a n ' t j u s t - I mean I've h e a r d " i f y o u ' r e d e a f , y o u ' r e Deaf. L e a r n ASL." ... I f a l l t h e m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d i n ASL, I mean i f y o u ' r e t a l k i n g t o a p r o f o u n d l y d e a f group o f c h i l d r e n who use ASL as t h e i r p r i m a r y language, t h e n f i n e . But i f you t a k e a h a r d o f h e a r i n g c h i l d t h e n t h a t would n o t be h e l p f u l f o r them. ( i n t e r v i e w #005) F o r t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t t h e degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s , o n s e t o f h e a r i n g l o s s , e t c . i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e method o f communication. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e v i e w o f t h e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a t d e a f n e s s i s a d i f f e r e n c e and n o t a d i s a b i l i t y s u p p o r t s t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f American S i g n Language, t h e language o f t h e N o r t h American d e a f community. One o f t h e d e a f 63 p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d , ASL i s t h e language t h a t most n a t u r a l l y f i t s w i t h d e a f p e o p l e ' s needs ... ASL i s c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d f o r d e a f p e o p l e . I t ' s t h e i r , i t f i t s t h e i r needs, and i t ' s t h e language t h a t d e a f p e o p l e f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . I t ' s good f o r t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t . They can f o c u s on s u b s t a n c e , n o t form. Most o f t h e t i m e e d u c a t i o n programs f o c u s on form, b u t n o t on s u b s t a n c e , ( i n t e r v i e w #007) A p p a r e n t l y , how t h e s e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w d e a f n e s s p l a y s an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n t h e i r b e l i e f s about methods o f communication. A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h emerged as s h a p i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e f s about methods o f communication were i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Four themes i n t h e d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g . I n f l u e n t i a l E x p e r i e n c e s Under t h e h e a d i n g o f i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e were f o u r themes w h i c h emerged: e d u c a t i o n a l background, p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h key p e o p l e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . H e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background, e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h key p e o p l e and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i l e t h e major s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e f o r t h e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s were t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o r a l i s t s and t o t a l communication p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h key p e o p l e . The f i r s t group's e x p e r i e n c e s were marked by c o n t a c t w i t h h e a r i n g " e x p e r t s " . The second group p o i n t e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Deaf p e o p l e as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s about S i g n . 64 E d u c a t i o n a l background. The p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t an a u d i t o r y / o r a l a pproach a l l made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n as a f a c t o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s i n t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method. Two o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s Were t r a i n e d i n s t r i c t a u d i t o r y / o r a l programs. They b o t h s t a t e d t h i s t r a i n i n g as a f a c t o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s . F o r example, I was t r a i n e d o r a l l y . . . b e c a u s e I was i n t h e o r a l program I n a t u r a l l y became a s u p p o r t e r o f t h a t o p t i o n , ( i n t e r v i e w #003) Su r e , o f c o u r s e coming from M c G i l l and t h e o r a l program t h a t I d i d , we r e a d a l o t o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h e o r a l a p proach, and we saw on paper how s u c c e s s f u l i t can be. ( i n t e r v i e w #003) The o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t was t r a i n e d i n an o r a l a pproach and a manual approach. She a l s o i n f e r r e d t h a t h e r e d u c a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d h e r , a l t h o u g h she s t a t e d t h a t she was t u r n e d o f f t h e manual approach because o f h e r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i t . I n r e f e r e n c e t o h e r manual e x p e r i e n c e she s a i d , I t was l i k e a h o r r o r f i l m . And t h e o l d e r i t g o t , t h e worse i t g o t . I t ' s okay t o see t h e s e c u t e l i t t l e k i d s r u n n i n g around s i g n i n g , b u t as t h e y g o t o l d e r I r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y were l i t e r a l l y d o i n g grade one p r i m a r y s t u f f i n my mind and t h e y were 14. ( i n t e r v i e w #002) The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t a T o t a l Communication method, a l l knew p r i o r t o p u r s u i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g , t h a t t h e y would use s i g n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . However, t h e y a l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e emphasis on s i g n e d E n g l i s h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about what k i n d o f manual communication t o use. F o r example one p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d : 65 The u n i v e r s i t y a t t h e t i m e , s i g n e d E n g l i s h was d e f i n i t e l y more o f t h e f o c u s . That i n f l u e n c e d me. ( i n t e r v i e w #006) I n a d d i t i o n , one o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t s T o t a l Communication e x p r e s s e d t h a t h e r t r a i n i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n A m erican S i g n Language, i n f l u e n c e d h e r b e l i e f s about ASL and i t s i m p o r t a n c e as one o f t h e methods used i n e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n M o n t r e a l , I t o o k a c o u r s e w i t h [name], an i n s t r u c t o r o f A m erican S i g n Language, and t h a t had q u i t e an i n f l u e n c e on me... I t was a g r e a t c o u r s e , b u t a v e r y h a r d c o u r s e because we were s t u d y i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c s o f a n o t h e r language. And I c o u l d n ' t q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d what ASL was, and i t was h a r d t o r e a l l y change my mind frame and come a t i t from s t u d y i n g t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a s p e c t r a t h e r t h a n f a l l i n g i n t o i t w i t h t h e s i g n i n g . However t h a t d i d change my c o u r s e o f t h i n k i n g and s i g n i n g . . . T h e more you know about t h e language, you know, t h e more i t makes sense t o use i t . ( i n t e r v i e w #005) T h e r e f o r e , t h e e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about methods o f communication used i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . The t h r e e d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d n o t e x p r e s s t h a t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s ; however, t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s were emphasized as b e i n g h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r p r e s e n t b e l i e f s . P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . One a s p e c t o f t h e d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods i s t h e i r f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system. F o r example, I t h i n k my e x p e r i e n c e s g r o w i n g up have i n f l u e n c e d me. B e i n g exposed t o d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l systems, d i f f e r e n t ways o f communicating and v a r i o u s c l a s s e s . 66 ( i n t e r v i e w #009) T h i s same p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d , Some c h i l d r e n a r e s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h e o r a l method. T h a t ' s f i n e , b u t r e a l l y t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o m i s s o u t on a l o t . I'm a v i c t i m o f t h a t . One y e a r o f s c h o o l I went t o a p r i v a t e s c h o o l ... I was t h e o n l y d e a f s t u d e n t . There was no i n t e r p r e t e r , n o t h i n g . That one y e a r o f s c h o o l was a waste f o r me. I d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g ... Even f o r t h o s e p e o p l e who have good o r a l s k i l l s , c an speak w e l l , t h e y s t i l l m i s s o u t on a l o t . ( i n t e r v i e w #009) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s w i t h d i f f e r e n t systems when d i s c u s s i n g h i s b e l i e f s about communication methods. So I had some exposure t o b o t h o r a l i s m and ASL when I was g r o w i n g up. A t age 10, I was mainstreamed and r e a l l y "bought i n t o " o r a l i s m . I s t a r t e d t o p i t y t h o s e d e a f c h i l d r e n who were s t u c k i n t h e d e a f s c h o o l ... But when I l e f t s c h o o l t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y , I once a g a i n began t o q u e s t i o n my p e r s p e c t i v e . When I went t o u n i v e r s i t y , I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what t h e t e a c h e r s were s a y i n g . . . W e l l , I s t a r t e d t o q u e s t i o n m y s e l f -Why am I g o i n g t o c l a s s ? Because I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g t h a t was b e i n g s a i d i n t h e c l a s s . So, I asked my p r o f e s s o r s i f r a t h e r t h a n g o i n g t o c l a s s I c o u l d do my a s s i g n m e n t s , show up f o r exams, and t h e y c o u l d g i v e me e x t r a r e a d i n g s . They s a i d f i n e no problem. You don't have t o come t o c l a s s . And I s t a r t e d t o ask m y s e l f - what am I d o i n g i n t h a t u n i v e r s i t y ? ... W e l l , a l s o , a t t h e same t i m e I had de a f f r i e n d s o u t s i d e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y who used S i g n language. And t h e y s t a r t e d t o w e l l , q u e s t i o n me, and t h e more I s o c i a l i z e d w i t h them, t h e more I s t a r t e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t I was m i s s i n g something. I had some h e a r i n g f r i e n d s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e I was a v e r y l o n e l y p e r s o n ... A t t h a t same t i m e my d e a f b r o t h e r , he was a t G a l l a u d e t U n i v e r s i t y . He asked me t o come and v i s i t him ... Anyways, my b r o t h e r t o o k me t o h i s c l a s s e s t o see and t o v i s i t . W e l l , I went i n t o t h e c l a s s and I r e a l l y f e l t l i k e I b e l o n g e d . I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d what t h e t e a c h e r was s a y i n g . I c o u l d f o l l o w t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n . Everyone was s i g n i n g ... And t h e n a f t e r , a l l t h e d e a f were s o c i a l i z i n g . And a t t h a t p o i n t I f e l t l i k e I b e l o n g e d t h e r e ... So, I went back and a p p l i e d f o r a t r a n s f e r and I went t o G a l l a u d e t . And I s t a r t e d t o change how I v i e w e d 67 communication methods. ( i n t e r v i e w #007) Ot h e r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s were a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l . One woman s h a r e d t h a t w a t c h i n g h e r d eaf c h i l d r e n mature has been i n f l u e n t i a l : P e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s have i n f l u e n c e d my b e l i e f s about ASL. I have 2 c h i l d r e n o f my own. Now t h e y ' r e [ a g e s ] . But a t t h e t i m e t h e y were b a b i e s I would go t h r o u g h books w i t h them. A t f i r s t I i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t s t h e n r e l a t e d them t o S i g n . They u n d e r s t o o d so q u i c k l y . I t was so d i f f e r e n t from my e x p e r i e n c e . They p i c k e d t h i n g s up q u i c k l y ... r e a l l y my own e x p e r i e n c e s g r o w i n g up and t h e n my own k i d s have been t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on me. ( i n t e r v i e w #008) A l s o , one o f t h e d e a f p a r t i c i p a n t s t a l k e d about h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h h e a r i n g p e o p l e as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i s b e l i e f s about communication methods: The a t t i t u d e o f h e a r i n g p e o p l e . Whenever I meet h e a r i n g p e o p l e t h e y a l w a y s , t h e y don't l o o k a t me as [name]. They l o o k a t me as a d e a f p e r s o n who can t a l k ... Most o f t h e t i m e when I meet p e o p l e and t a l k w i t h them, t h e y always say, "Oh [name], you have such w o n d e r f u l speech." And I f e e l l i k e , y e s , b u t what about what I s a i d , n o t how I s a i d i t ? They o n l y l o o k a t t h e form, t h e y don't l o o k a t t h e s u b s t a n c e , what I s a i d . And I s t a r t t o f e e l - t h e whole t h i n g i s j u s t appearance. And now when I l o o k back I r e a l i z e t h a t t h e o r a l approach i s j u s t a sham. They're o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e appearance. They're n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n what's happening i n t h e d e a f c h i l d ' s mind. How t h e d e a f c h i l d i s t h i n k i n g . How t h e d e a f c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g . And t h a t ' s how I f e e l now. ( i n t e r v i e w #008) A p p a r e n t l y , t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s were f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about methods o f communication used i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . E x p e r i e n c e s w i t h key p e o p l e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a l l t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s who s u p p o r t an a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach d i s c u s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s who had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s . Thus, e x p e r i e n c e s 68 w i t h key p e o p l e seemed t o be an emerging theme. F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , I've met some v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e i n t h e a u d i t o r y / v e r b a l f i e l d as w e l l . P r o f e s s i o n a l s who a r e w e l l p u b l i s h e d . And I worked w i t h one f o r s i x weeks i n Ottawa. And she d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d me. ( i n t e r v i e w #003) A n o t h e r o f t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s p o i n t e d t o one o f h e r p r o f e s s o r s . The p r o f e s s o r who headed up t h e department was known i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y as a p i o n e e r i n t h e f i e l d f o r t h e f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n who had a h e a r i n g l o s s c o u l d l e a r n t o t a l k . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) Thus, i t appears t h a t r o l e models p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication used i n e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n . The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t a T o t a l Communication approach a l l mentioned c o n t a c t and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h d e a f a d u l t s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r v i e w s about communication methods. F o r example one p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d i n r e s p o n s e t o e n q u i r y about what has i n f l u e n c e d h e r b e l i e f s , Deaf c o l l e a g u e s t h a t I've worked w i t h ... Deaf a d u l t s , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and I t h i n k t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s t h a t t h e y ' v e had by b e i n g f o r c e d t o communicate i n a c e r t a i n way t h a t i s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t way f o r them. ( i n t e r v i e w #004) S i m i l a r l y , a n o t h e r o f t h e T.C. p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d , And j u s t c o n t a c t w i t h Deaf p e o p l e and s o r t o f - I guess i t ' s a m a t t e r o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r l a n g u a g e , ( i n t e r v i e w #005) L a s t l y , one o f t h e T.C. p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a r e d , I t h i n k my c o n t a c t w i t h d eaf a d u l t s a g a i n has v e r y much been a f a c t o r . I t h i n k t h a t when y o u ' r e s e p a r a t e d from t h e d e a f community o r t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h Deaf p e o p l e , i t ' s v e r y h a r d t o g e t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e o r 69 t h a t e x p o s u r e . And um, you j u s t , i t ' s j u s t l i k e d e a l i n g w i t h anybody, i f you've g o t t h a t c o n t a c t t h e n you l e a r n more. And you u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r . So i t ' s l i k e p r e j u d i c e . I f p e o p l e a r e n o t i n c o n t a c t , you know, y o u ' r e n o t s u r e about " t h o s e p e o p l e " . I f you u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y do t h e t h i n g s t h e y do, o r you know what's common about t h e i r c u l t u r e , t h e n you u n d e r s t a n d more. So yeah, c o n t a c t w i t h Deaf a d u l t s h e l p s a g r e a t d e a l . ( i n t e r v i e w #006) Among t h e d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d , two o f t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s mentioned r o l e models who i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r t h i n k i n g about methods o f communication. F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d , I can remember 2 p e o p l e i n p a r t i c u l a r who have had a l o t o f i n f l u e n c e on me and how I v i e w m y s e l f as a d e a f p e r s o n . F i r s t , t h e r e was a Deaf woman ... She s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g about m y s e l f as a deaf p e r s o n . A t t h a t t i m e I was v e r y o r a l ... I remember t a l k i n g w i t h h e r about how w o n d e r f u l O r a l i s m was. She would c o r r e c t me and e x p l a i n t o me t h a t f o r some de a f c h i l d r e n , i t can b e , w o n d e r f u l , b u t f o r most, i t ' s n o t . She e x p l a i n e d h e r e x p e r i e n c e and what she had seen up t o t h a t p o i n t as a t e a c h e r . She e x p l a i n e d t h a t most d e a f c h i l d r e n who s t a r t o ut o r a l , t h e y t e n d t o be messed up l a t e r on. She e x p l a i n e d t h a t many de a f who s i g n e d d i d w e l l . She t o l d me about G a l l a u d e t . She s t a r t e d me e x a m i n i n g m y s e l f , and I began t o change, and f e e l d i s c o n n e c t e d t o o r a l i s m . B e f o r e t h a t t i m e I d i d n o t q u e s t i o n o r a l i s m . I j u s t a c c e p t e d i t . I d i d n ' t a n a l y z e i t . She s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g about i t , c h a l l e n g i n g i t . She t a u g h t me t o s t a r t q u e s t i o n i n g . A n o t h e r p e r s o n was a man I met i n [ c i t y ] ... Anyways, when I f i r s t moved t o [ c i t y ] , I was n o t Deaf - b i g D Deaf. I was s t i l l s m a l l d d e a f . But he s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g about m y s e l f as a b i g D Deaf. The two o f us would d i s c u s s , d e b a te what was b e s t f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n , what was good f o r them. He would c h a l l e n g e my v i e w s . And he s t a r t e d me t h i n k i n g about deaf p e o p l e as a group. The i d e n t i t y o f d e a f p e o p l e . Because o f him I became more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e d e a f community and d e a f c u l t u r e , ( i n t e r v i e w #007) P r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The l a s t theme t h a t emerged as an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w s o f methods o f communication was t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . A l l t h r e e o f 70 t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g an a u d i t o r y / o r a l method s t a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w , " I see t h e r e s u l t s . " One p r o f e s s i o n a l s a i d , I have seen t h e r e s u l t s . I n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s and i n t h e i r p a r e n t s , i n t h e i r growth as p a r e n t s o f a c h i l d w i t h a h e a r i n g l o s s . . . A n d t h e r e s u l t s i n t h e c h i l d r e n : t h a t t h e y can do i t . They can g e t o u t t h e r e . And I always say t h e p r o o f i s i n t h e p r o d u c t , i f you want t o p u t i t i n t h o s e b l u n t t e r m s . Not t h a t we t h i n k o f our c h i l d r e n as p r o d u c t s , b u t i f p e o p l e want t o come see what we're d o i n g t h e y ' r e welcome. We say i t ' s a c h i e v a b l e . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l background. One p a r t i c i p a n t r e l a t e d : Through my p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e f o r t h e d e a f , I saw a l o t o f v e r y s u c c e s s f u l k i d s g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e r e . ( i n t e r v i e w #003) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t r e c o u n t e d h e r e x p e r i e n c e as an a u d i t o r y / o r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l . Um, my background i n d e a l i n g w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d back i n [name o f c i t y ] . And t h e n I t a u g h t t h e b a b i e s . And t h e n moved o u t h e r e and became i n v o l v e d i n t h e [ o r g a n i z a t i o n ] . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t went on t o d e s c r i b e h e r p r e s e n t employment r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t she "sees t h e r e s u l t s . " I t seems t h a t t h e s e employment e x p e r i e n c e s , b e i n g exposed t o " s u c c e s s f u l o r a l c h i l d r e n " , has p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e i r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach. S i m i l a r l y , t h e t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g a t o t a l c ommunication method r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r v i e w s o f methods o f communication used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , 71 I t h i n k m o s t l y my e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g w i t h k i d s who have come from o r a l programs. Where t h e y ' v e been p u t i n an o r a l s e t t i n g and a r e g e t t i n g a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g o u t o f i t , and urn, have been s w i t c h e d o v e r . And I've seen how t h e l i g h t s have come on a l l o f a sudden. They r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e i s a way t o communicate, t o e x p r e s s t h e i r t h o u g h t s and t o l e a r n . I guess t h a t ' s what's k e p t me g o i n g . ( i n t e r v i e w #004) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d , J u s t because o f my e x p e r i e n c e o v e r t h e y e a r s o f s e e i n g c h i l d r e n who, uh, who a r e even q u i t e a u d i t o r y . One g r a d u a t e d from o ur program l a s t y e a r . You can have a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h e r , b u t she r e l i e s on s i g n i n g f o r a l o t o f h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and t o make t h e message c l e a r , ( i n t e r v i e w #005) She added l a t e r i n t h e i n t e r v i e w , I l o o k a t t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t I've worked w i t h o r who have gone t h r o u g h o u r program i n o u r method and t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t we g r a d u a t e . And t h a t t o me i s p r o o f o f something w o r k i n g , b u t I don't know what. ( i n t e r v i e w #005) L a s t l y , t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o c i t e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods. One o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s h a r e d , When I see t h e k i d s i n our program communicating w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a t t h a t l e v e l , I f e e l e n v i o u s o f them. I f e e l t h a t i f t h e deaf can communicate f l u e n t l y , s m o o t h l y , c l e a r l y w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h a t ' s w o n d e r f u l . I don't t h i n k o r a l i s m i s t h e way t o go w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . We s h o u l d g i v e them a lang u a g e , communication t h a t can be used t h e f a s t e s t and e a s i e s t way ... I've seen t o o many deaf c h i l d r e n s t a r t i n g i n an o r a l program and by t h e t i m e t h e y ' r e 4 o r 5, t h e y don't have a u s e f u l language. They have o n l y words. Maybe some v o c a b u l a r y , maybe 30 - 40 words, b u t t h e y don't have s e n t e n c e s . ( i n t e r v i e w #007) These examples demonstrate t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n p l a y a r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s * v i e w s about methods o f communication. 72 Upon r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , i t appeared t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e i r v i e w s o f methods o f communication. T h e i r v i e w s o f language and forms o f communication, t h e i r v i e w s o f t e c h n o l o g y i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , and t h e i r v i e w s about t h e g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n a r e a l l themes w h i c h s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s 1 e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g w h i c h method t h e y s u p p o r t . E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y The e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e l i e f s about methods o f communication. Three themes emerged i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s : t h e i r v i e w o f language and forms o f communication, t h e i r v i e w o f t e c h n o l o g y i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , and t h e i r v i e w about t h e g o a l o f deaf e d u c a t i o n . The a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s t s and t h e two o t h e r g r o u p s , t h e t o t a l c ommunication and t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l s u p p o r t e r s , d i f f e r i n g v i e w s about t h e g o a l o f e d u c a t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y . The t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by d e a f c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g t h e communication mode o f t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y , speech. T h e r e f o r e , S i g n i n c r e a s e s b a r r i e r s and i s a d i s a d v a n t a g e . The o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s a s s e r t e d t h a t d e v e l o p i n g l i t e r a r y s k i l l s , knowledge and good s e l f - e s t e e m p r o v i d e s d e a f c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e and i n t e g r a t e i n s o c i e t y . Thus, t h e c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t n o t t h e form. 73 View o f language and forms o f communication. A l l n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d d i s c u s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n t forms o f communication used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n and d i s c l o s e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about them. The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s u p p o r t an a u d i t o r y / o r a l method s t r e s s e d t h e i r v i e w t h a t t h e method o f communication has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h l i t e r a c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . They e x p r e s s e d t h a t speech enhances l i t e r a c y and e n a b l e s " i n t e g r a t i o n " . One p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d i n r e g a r d s t o spoken E n g l i s h v e r s u s manual communication: You have t o have language. I t ' s [ o r a l i s m ] a v e r y f u n c t i o n a l language and i t ' s n o t s t i l t e d . I t ' s t a u g h t i n an environment where t h e language i s f u n c t i o n a l , where i t works. And an a u d i t o r y e nvironment does a l l t h e s e t h i n g s and t h e y j u s t come out w i t h some b e a u t i f u l , b e a u t i f u l language, r a t h e r t h a n t h i s s o r t o f " I go s t o r e . " That doesn't make i t . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d : I a l s o do have s t r o n g b e l i e f s about t h e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f c h i l d r e n who have b e t t e r E n g l i s h s k i l l s , um speech, o r a l k i n d o f s k i l l s . I b e l i e v e t h a t i n terms o f l i t e r a c y t h e y have an advantage o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t a r e manual, ( i n t e r v i e w #003) Thus, t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p a r e n t l y v i e w o r a l s k i l l s as p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e development o f language and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . C o n v e r s e l y t h e t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g an a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach communicated t h e v i e w t h a t manual communication i n c r e a s e s b a r r i e r s t o a c h i e v i n g i n t e g r a t i o n . One p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d , They don't have v e r b a l communication s k i l l s , so t h e y ' r e much l i m i t e d i n b e i n g a b l e t o communicate i n a m e a n i n g f u l way w h i c h does have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r j o b s 74 t h a t t h e y can do. I t does have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , who t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h and be c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h and be a b l e t o r e l a x w i t h . I t depends on o t h e r s b e i n g a b l e t o communicate v i a t h e method t h a t t h e y use. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r l d i s h e a r i n g . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t i n r e f e r e n c e t o o r a l s k i l l s went on t o s t a t e : I f you can g i v e t h e c h i l d r e n t h e advantage o f d o i n g t h a t , - o f making speech and language d e v e l o p i n them l i k e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n and a p p l y s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s as needed f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , i t has t o be f o r t h e c h i l d ' s advantage t o be a b l e t o use t h e most commonly used form o f communication i n t h e community, ( i n t e r v i e w #001) These q u o t e s a r e examples w h i c h demonstrate t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s see a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l s k i l l s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o s h a r e d a common v i e w t h a t S i g n language i s n o t t h e " n a t u r a l language" o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . F o r example, one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d , They don't have i t , t h e y have t o l e a r n i t . And t h e y have t o p r a c t i c e i t . And i t ' s n o t something t h e y g e t i m m e d i a t e l y . And many p a r e n t s don't l e a r n i t e f f e c t i v e l y . So t h e r e ' s a b a r r i e r and t h a t ' s n o t n a t u r a l . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) The r e m a i n i n g s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t e r v i e w e d d i f f e r e d i n b e l i e f s from t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s t s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g T o t a l Communication as w e l l as t h e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l l e x p l a i n e d t h a t communication was t h e p r i o r i t y n o t t h e form. F o r example one Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d : F o r t h e young d e a f c h i l d , I don't c a r e i f ASL i s u sed o r n o t . What i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , v a l u a b l e i s t h a t t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d have good c l e a r communication. Where b o t h f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e and communicate f r e e l y . ASL, s i g n e d E n g l i s h , w h a t e v e r , ( i n t e r v i e w #007) 75 However, t h e s e s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l l a g r e e d t h a t some form o f s i g n i n g was e s s e n t i a l t o t h e development o f e a r l y communication and e a r l y language. One d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l d e s c r i b e d h i s b e l i e f s t h i s way, The b i g g e s t d i s a d v a n t a g e o f o r a l i s m i s t h a t i t u s e s t h e weakest sense o f t h e d e a f c h i l d t o d e v e l o p language. I t ' s n o t l o g i c a l . When a d e a f c h i l d a p p e a r s , t o make use o f t h e i r weakest s e n s e , i s n o t l o g i c a l . I f you had a b l i n d c h i l d , you don't f o c u s on i m p r o v i n g t h e i r v i s i o n . . . A g a i n t h e r e ' s a d i f f e r e n c e between d e a f and b l i n d c h i l d r e n , and t h a t ' s l a n g uage... F o r t h e d e a f c h i l d I p r e f e r t o use t h e i r s t r o n g e s t a b i l i t i e s t o d e v e l o p language. W i t h t h e o r a l a pproach, i t ' s l i k e y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o b u i l d a house w i t h t h e weakest s u b s t a n c e s . When you f i n i s h t h e house t h e r e a r e many gaps. I t ' s n o t f i n i s h e d . I would n ' t want t o l i v e i n t h a t house. I t ' s a l o u s y b u i l d i n g , l o u s y c o n s t r u c t i o n . But w i t h S i g n language, v i s u a l communication, y o u ' r e g i v i n g t h e d e a f c h i l d c o m plete and b e t t e r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . That house would l o o k d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r house. I t ' s s t i l l v e r y l i v e a b l e , v e r y u s e f u l . And i t ' s more s a f e t o l i v e i n t h a n t h e o t h e r house, ( i n t e r v i e w #007) I n a d d i t i o n , a l l s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n as opposed t o o r a l s k i l l s . F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t who s u p p o r t s T o t a l Communication e x p l a i n e d h e r v i e w s a s , I would r a t h e r be t e a c h i n g them how t o r e a d and w r i t e , t o u n d e r s t a n d w r i t t e n language, how t o r e a d and w r i t e i t because t h a t ' s how t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o s u c c e e d i n l a t e r l i f e , i f t h e y can r e a d E n g l i s h . Because l e t ' s f a c e i t , t h a t ' s what t h e w o r l d i s a l l about when i t comes t o r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . I f you can r e a d and w r i t e i n E n g l i s h t h e n you can l o o k a f t e r y o u r s e l f . ( i n t e r v i e w #004) Thus, t h e s e s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e m p h a s i z i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ; and d i s a g r e e d t h a t a u d i t o r y / o r a l s k i l l s were i m p o r t a n t f o r 76 i n t e g r a t i o n : Throughout t h e y e a r s many, many d e a f p e o p l e have had s u c c e s s f u l j o b s . Speech i s n o t i m p o r t a n t . I t ' s t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p e r s o n t h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t . Not t h e speech. ( i n t e r v i e w #009) These s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l s , however, d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r v i e w s about how t o t e a c h t h e s e i m p o r t a n t E n g l i s h s k i l l s . The t h r e e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g T o t a l Communication a l l a g r e e d about t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f A m e r i c a n S i g n Language as one method o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; however, t h e y a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was n o t t h e o n l y method. F o r example, W e l l , I c e r t a i n l y f e e l t h e r e ' s more room t o use ASL as a language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I t h i n k t h a t p a r t o f t h e t h i n g t h a t has h i n d e r e d m y s e l f and a l o t o f o t h e r p e o p l e as w e l l , i s n o t h a v i n g enough background i n ASL...I t h i n k more ASL c o u l d be added, b u t I'm s t i l l n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t s t r i c t l y ASL i s t h e way t o t e a c h a l l d e a f c h i l d r e n . ( i n t e r v i e w #004) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d r e g a r d i n g ASL, Not as t h e o n l y language b u t i t ' s an i m p o r t a n t language i n t h e r e t o o . ( i n t e r v i e w #006) The t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l l a g r e e d t h a t ASL i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f s c h o o l communication p o l i c i e s . However, one p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d h e r b e l i e f t h a t s i g n e d E n g l i s h i s i m p o r t a n t i n t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . The o t h e r two d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r t i c u l a t e d t h e v i e w t h a t ASL become t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f . They communicated a s t r o n g emphasis on E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , and a d v o c a t e d t h a t ASL become t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . ASL makes t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s i b l e . The d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d n o t have t o s t r u g g l e t o g e t a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . And t h a t i s t h e advantage o f u s i n g t h e language o f t h e d e a f . ( i n t e r v i e w #007) 77 I p r e f e r t o use t h e communication system t h a t i s most w i d e l y used by t h e deaf community. That means ASL. ( i n t e r v i e w #007) L a s t l y , a l l t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h e y were n o t opposed t o i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r o r a l s k i l l s , b u t t h e y emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h o i c e . F o r example one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , I t ' s a good t o o l , o r a l i s m . "A" t o o l , n o t "THE" t o o l . So, i f a d e a f p e r s o n wants t o d e v e l o p o r a l s k i l l s , t h e y c a n, f o r whatever r e a s o n . Go ahead. There's n o t h i n g s t o p p i n g them. ( i n t e r v i e w #007) A l t h o u g h t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t v i e w s about language and modes o f communication, i t became c l e a r i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v i e w s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' v i e w s r e g a r d i n g language and t h e method o f communication s u p p o r t s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r v i e w s on communication. View o f t e c h n o l o g y i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . One theme w h i c h emerged r e l a t e d t o t h e t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y was t h e i r v i e w o f t e c h n o l o g y and i t s r o l e i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . The t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l p o i n t e d t o t h e improvements, w i d e r a p p l i c a b i l i t y and b e n e f i t s , as b e i n g i n f l u e n t i a l t o t h e i r v i e w s o f an a u d i t o r y / o r a l a pproach. I t seemed t h a t t h e y p o i n t e d t o t e c h n o l o g y as a form o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h d i m i n i s h e d t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f h e a r i n g l o s s , making o r a l s k i l l s a c h i e v a b l e . One p a r t i c i p a n t 78 s a i d t h i s , You know a n o t h e r t h i n g around when you a s k e d t h a t q u e s t i o n about what might i n f l u e n c e my p o s i t i o n , w e l l , t h e r e has been such improvement i n t e c h n o l o g y t h a t g i v e s c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g l o s s e s a c c e s s t o sound t h a t p r e v i o u s l y t h e y c o u l d n o t have had. ( i n t e r v i e w #001) The o t h e r two p a r t i c i p a n t s a r t i c u l a t e d s i m i l a r v i e w p o i n t s about t e c h n o l o g y . Thus, t e c h n o l o g y and i t s use i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n p l a y s an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' v i e w s about methods o f communication. The two o t h e r groups o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s and h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g T o t a l Communication d i d n o t mention t e c h n o l o g y as something w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . However, t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d a r t i c u l a t e an o b j e c t i o n t o c o c h l e a r i m p l a n t s on d e a f c h i l d r e n . F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s h a r e d , I'm r e a l l y opposed t o c o c h l e a r i m p l a n t s . Suppose a d e a f c h i l d i s b o r n and g i v e n an i m p l a n t . That c h i l d i s n a i v e and i n n o c e n t . Who makes t h e d e c i s i o n ? The p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I p r e f e r t h a t t h e c h i l d be a b l e t o grow t o 16, 17 y e a r s o l d , mature and l e a r n about d e a f c u l t u r e . Then i f t h e y d e c i d e t o have a c o c h l e a r i m p l a n t , f i n e . I s u p p o r t t h a t . But a s m a l l c h i l d ? I don't a g r e e . ( i n t e r v i e w #008) View about t h e g o a l o f deaf e d u c a t i o n . One predominant theme w h i c h emerged i n t h e d a t a was t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w s about t h e g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n was a f a c t o r i n t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods. The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g an a u d i t o r y / o r a l method e x p r e s s e d t h a t an i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n was t h e development o f speech, and o r a l s k i l l s i n 79 o r d e r t o a s s i m i l a t e d e a f c h i l d r e n i n t o h e a r i n g s o c i e t y . F o r example, one o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d : W e l l , my p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t t o e n a b l e a c h i l d t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g s o c i e t y , t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method i s t h e one t h a t g e t s them t o l i s t e n , t o g e t them t o f o c u s and g e t them t o have n a t u r a l l anguage. And my g o a l i s t o i n t e g r a t e them s u c c e s s f u l l y : s o c i a l l y , a c a d e m i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and a l l t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g , ( i n t e r v i e w #002) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t e l u d e d t o t h i s g o a l when d i s c u s s i n g t h e advantages o f t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l approach. She s t a t e d : Why n o t g i v e them t h e f a c i l i t i e s t o use (speech) l i k e any o t h e r p e o p l e ? Secondary t o a l l t h a t , i t does have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r j o b s , what work you can do...So, i t opens up t h e d oor t o j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t opens up a w i d e r range o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , i t ' s g o i n g t o have an i m p act on them p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , how t h e y see t h e m s e l v e s and how t h e y g e t i n f o r m a t i o n . And i t ' s g o i n g t o impact them academically...We*ve t a l k e d about t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s t h e most commonly used t o o l o f communication. I f t h e y can have t h a t t o o l t h e n why n o t ? Can anybody t h i n k o f a r e a s o n why n o t ? You know, i f t h e y can have i t . And t h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s . ( i n t e r v i e w #001) C l e a r l y , a s s i m i l a t i o n i s a g o a l o f d eaf e d u c a t i o n . These p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e communication method and language o f t h e m a j o r i t y , spoken E n g l i s h as a p r i o r i t y i n a c h i e v i n g i n t e g r a t i o n . The o t h e r s i x i n t e r v i e w s , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n , f o c u s e d more on e q u i p p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h language and knowledge, n o t on form o f communication. I t was t h r o u g h d e v e l o p i n g a good s e l f - c o n c e p t , l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and knowledge t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n would b e s t i n t e g r a t e i n s o c i e t y . F o r example, one Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p r e s s e d , 80 Because f o r t h e d e a f c h i l d t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s g e t t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o them, when t h e y ' r e s m a l l and as t h e y ' r e g r o w i n g up. When t h e y ' r e b o r n i n t o a h e a r i n g f a m i l y t h e y m i s s o u t on a l o t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n around them, i n f o r m a t i o n from f r i e n d s , r a d i o , T.V. I t ' s i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o g i v e them t h e language t o g e t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . R e a d i n g and w r i t i n g a r e n e c e s s a r y t o o , t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r example, from t h e newspaper. So t h e b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l method argues t h a t ASL makes c o n t e n t most a c c e s s i b l e f o r t h e d e a f c h i l d . They s h o u l d have t h e same o p p o r t u n i t y as h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I f you had a bunch o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n and you d i d n o t a l l o w t h e t e a c h e r t o use t h e i r v o i c e , j u s t s i g n , t h o s e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n would be m i s s i n g a l o t o f f a c t s . They'd have t o s t r u g g l e t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e t e a c h e r was s a y i n g . The same t h i n g f o r t h e d e a f c h i l d . ASL makes t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s i b l e . The d e a f c h i l d s h o u l d n o t have t o s t r u g g l e t o g e t a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . And t h a t i s t h e advantage o f u s i n g t h e language o f t h e d e a f . The c h i l d r e n can e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d w i t h o u t t h e s t r u g g l e . B i / b i a l s o g i v e s t h e c h i l d s e l f - e s t e e m , a good s e l f - c o n c e p t . R e s e a r c h a l r e a d y shows t h a t a p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m i s t h e most c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r a good e d u c a t i o n . ( i n t e r v i e w #007) One o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s t a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : I want t o meet t h e needs o f t h a t c h i l d . Not t o p l e a s e t h e d e a f community b u t meet t h e needs o f t h a t c h i l d and h e l p them l e a r n i n t h e b e s t way t h a t t h e y c a n. G e t t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c r o s s as c l e a r l y as you can. And i f t h a t means s t r a i g h t ASL t h e n I guess you go t h a t way. But i t might mean f o r some t h a t you have t o go q u i t e E n g l i s h . So i t ' s u s i n g a s i g n method b u t n o t a s t r i c t must be c e r t a i n way. ( i n t e r v i e w #004) A n o t h e r one o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p l a i n e d : My a t t i t u d e i s t o r e a l l y h e l p some o f t h e s e k i d s t o f e e l p r oud o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h a t t h e y a r e t o be o u t t h e r e , and c r e a t e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . My j o b i s t o p r o v i d e them w i t h as much r i c h language e x p o s u r e as p o s s i b l e so t h a t t h e y can f u n c t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a d e f i c i t . Everybody may n o t u n d e r s t a n d them by s i g n i n g b u t i t ' s j u s t l i k e t h e o r a l i s t s , n o t everybody u n d e r s t a n d s t h e i r speech e i t h e r . And t h e y p r o b a b l y have t o communicate a l o t by w r i t i n g . These k i d s w i l l be a b l e t o w r i t e and r e a d and a l l k i n d s o f s t u f f . ( i n t e r v i e w #005) I t a ppears t h a t an i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e s e 81 s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s t o e q u i p t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h language and knowledge t o s u c c e e d i n s o c i e t y . They d i d n o t a r t i c u l a t e t h e v i e w t h a t o r a l s k i l l s were a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f i n t e g r a t i o n f o r f u n c t i o n i n g i n s o c i e t y . W o r l d View Through t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s and upon f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s i t became c l e a r t h a t an i n t e g r a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e l i e f s was t h e i r w o r l d v i e w . I n f a c t , i t seems t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s l i n k e d t o many o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d themes and g r o u p i n g s . A g a i n , one o f t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d a c l e a r example o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h e r w o r l d v i e w i n h e r b e l i e f s about o r a l i s m . She e x p l a i n e d , I t h i n k i t depends v e r y much on how you v i e w t h e whole s o c i e t y t h i n g . I t h i n k t h a t i f y o u r u l t i m a t e aim o r g o a l , i s t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r a b i l i t y a l l o w t h i s y o u n g s t e r o r p r o v i d e t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s y o u n g s t e r t o l i v e i n t h e h e a r i n g community. And c e r t a i n l y d e a f c u l t u r e wants them t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f d e a f c u l t u r e , w h i c h i s f i n e , b u t my g o a l i s t o i n t e g r a t e them s u c c e s s f u l l y . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) She l a t e r added, I h a t e s e g r e g a t i o n o f any k i n d o f group. I t h i n k i t ' s r i d i c u l o u s . I mean, and t h e deaf c u l t u r e s a y s t h a t , would say t h a t o r a l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p e o p l e a r e e l i t i s t . I t h i n k i t ' s a l m o s t t h e o t h e r way around, t h a t t h e y r e a l l y s h u t everyone e l s e o u t . And t h a t , t o me i s an e l i t i s t s o c i e t y , when you e n c l o s e y o u r s e l v e s and p r e v e n t o t h e r s from e n t e r i n g i n and o u t o f y o u r community. ( i n t e r v i e w #002) Two themes w h i c h emerge from t h e s e quotes w h i c h were s h a r e d by t h e o t h e r two a u d i t o r y / o r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n and an a n t i p a t h y f o r s e g r e g a t i o n . Such a 82 p e r s p e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s how t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s come t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e g o a l s o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . One o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t h e r w o r l d v i e w and v a l u e s p l a y e d a r o l e i n h e r b e l i e f s . She s t a t e d , The d e a f community, I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y n i c e t h a t t h e y ' v e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , and t h e y have t h e i r community. I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y n i c e . I don't t h i n k t h a t a c h i l d j u s t because t h e y ' r e d e a f , I don't t h i n k t h a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y means t h a t t h e y have t o be p a r t o f t h a t community. I know i t goes a g a i n s t what I b e l i e v e , ( i n t e r v i e w #003) The o t h e r two groups o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s s i m i l a r l y were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r w o r l d v i e w s . F o r example, t h e d e a f p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e l i e f s embraced d i v e r s i t y and d i f f e r e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e t h r e e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g T o t a l Communication, w h i l e a r t i c u l a t i n g a d e s i r e f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n t o i n t e g r a t e i n s o c i e t y , e x p r e s s e d an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r d e a f c u l t u r e and e q u a l i t y . F o r example, one o f t h e T o t a l Communication p r o f e s s i o n a l s m a i n t a i n e d , I t ' s n e v e r been my g o a l t o make d e a f k i d s l i k e h e a r i n g k i d s . ( i n t e r v i e w #005) She a l s o a r t i c u l a t e d , I t ' s j u s t t h a t everybody i s e q u a l . ( i n t e r v i e w #005) A p p a r e n t l y , t h e w o r l d v i e w o f t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s seemed t o p l a y an o v e r a r c h i n g r o l e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g t h e method o f communication used i n deaf e d u c a t i o n . 83 P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y The l a s t theme w h i c h emerged from t h e d a t a was t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y as a h e a r i n g o r Deaf p e r s o n , p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e i r v i e w s about methods o f communication. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t w i t h t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s . F o r example, a l l t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n r e l a t i n g t h e i r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication went back t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as a way o f communicating t h e i r v i e w s . A l s o , t h e y e x p l i c i t l y t a l k e d about t h e i r i d e n t i t y as c u l t u r a l l y Deaf a d u l t s . One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , R e a l l y I p r e f e r ASL. I s u p p o r t ASL. You know why? W e l l , I was b o r n deaf and my f i r s t language i s ASL. ( i n t e r v i e w #008) A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d when e x p l a i n i n g h i s g r o w i n g awareness o f d e a f i d e n t i t y and t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o ASL, A t t h a t t i m e , deaf p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f , began t o d e v e l o p an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f who we a r e , and we began t o l o o k more c l o s e l y a t ASL. Now I'm c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h ASL. I t ' s t h e language o f t h e d e a f community. T h a t ' s who I am. ( i n t e r v i e w #007) C l e a r l y , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f d e a f n e s s and t h e i r p e r s o n a l Deaf i d e n t i t y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r v i e w s o f methods o f communication. O n l y two o f t h e h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s a r t i c u l a t e d an c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t h e i r h e a r i n g i d e n t i t y o r l a c k o f d e a f i d e n t i t y i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s . F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a n t s a i d , I ' l l n e v e r know u n l e s s I become d e a f t o t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e , how i t i s b e i n g d e a f . ( i n t e r v i e w #006) 84 A n o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t e x p r e s s e d , I admit t h a t I'm . . . I mean i t would be i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o be c o m p l e t e l y u n b i a s e d about t h e d e a f community j u s t because I'm n o t d e a f . And I don't have r e a l l y d e a f , I don't know anyone i n t h e d eaf community p e r s o n a l l y . I've met p e o p l e , you c a n ' t h e l p b u t meet p e o p l e i n t h i s f i e l d . But I don't have any d e a f f r i e n d s and f a m i l y i n v o l v e d . So i t ' s , I'm d e f i n i t e l y u n i n f o r m e d , a n d . . . A l l I know i s what I know about t h e h e a r i n g w o r l d and t h e k i n d s o f advantages t h a t I f e e l t h a t I've had because I've been a b l e t o be a p a r t o f t h a t w o r l d . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t so, i t ' s e a s i e r f o r me t o s u p p o r t i t . ( i n t e r v i e w #002) Thus, i t appears t h a t , f o r f i v e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y p l a y s a p r o f o u n d r o l e i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f method o f communication. The o t h e r f o u r h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s may a l s o have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p e r s o n a l h e a r i n g i d e n t i t y , b u t t h i s theme was n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e themes t h a t emerged seemed t o group n a t u r a l l y i n t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c l u s t e r s . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r , however, i s n o t l i n e a r . I n f a c t i t a ppears t h a t t h e g r o u p i n g s o f themes a r e v e r y i n t e r - r e l a t e d and o v e r l a p p i n g . 85 Chapter Five Discussion/Implications T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n de a f e d u c a t i o n a r r i v e a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication used i n de a f e d u c a t i o n . Throughout t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y two o v e r a r c h i n g f i n d i n g s emerged. F i r s t , t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w and d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s e s i t became e v i d e n t t h a t a l l n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d a r e c a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , committed t o t h e c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s t h e y s e r v e . A l l n i n e i n d i v i d u a l s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o see t h e c h i l d r e n t h e y s e r v e grow i n t o h e a l t h y , f u n c t i o n i n g a d u l t s , a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n s o c i e t y . What d i f f e r e d among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was how t h e y see t h i s g o a l b e i n g a c h i e v e d . The second encompassing f i n d i n g was t h a t t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r r i v e d a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b e l i e f s was s u b j e c t i v e . The e x p r e s s e d b e l i e f s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p r e -i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e , t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y - h e a r i n g o r d e a f , - t h e i r w o r l d v i e w , i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , and t h e i r v i e w o f d e a f n e s s . D e s p i t e t h e s e s i m i l a r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r r i v e d a t d i f f e r i n g and competing p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication used i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f deaf c h i l d r e n . T h i s p o i n t s t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f b e l i e f s : t h a t b e l i e f s a r e r e l a t i v e t o p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s , v a l u e s , 86 c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y . T h i s n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t by d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s themes. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o c l a i m s m a k i n g w i l l be e x p l o r e d ; p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be h i g h l i g h t e d ; and l a s t l y , s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l be o f f e r e d . 1. D i s c u s s i o n o f Themes. P r e - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e . The p r e - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e o f t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s was found t o be a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' b e l i e f s . As i n W i n e f i e l d ' s (1987) s t u d y , t h e h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s had no p r e v i o u s background w i t h d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r t o becoming i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t b e f o r e p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n t h e s e h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s had l i t t l e , i f any, knowledge about t h e d e a f community as a c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y group o r about American S i g n Language (ASL). W i n e f i e l d (1987) a s s e r t s t h a t " p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y come t o t h e f i e l d w i t h o u t an i n t e l l i g e n t l y d e v e l o p e d o p i n i o n about communication methods. R a t h e r t h a n choose a t r a i n i n g program t o f i t a p h i l o s o p h y , many d e v e l o p a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e f i t s t h e norms o f t h e t r a i n i n g program" (p. 104). T h i s f i n d i n g p o i n t s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o c r i t i c a l l y examine t h e i r b e l i e f s and p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s , f o r t h e s e have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on p r a c t i c e and c l i e n t g r oups. U n l i k e t h e s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t e r e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a c u t e l y aware o f t h e d e b a t e s 87 i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . They have l i v e d them. A l l t h r e e have f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f d e a f n e s s and v a r i o u s communication methods i n t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n background. T h i s f i r s t h a n d knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f n e s s i s a r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' v i e w s r e g a r d i n g communication methods t o be used i n e d u c a t i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n . P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . Each p a r t i c i p a n t e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i d e n t i t y as h e a r i n g o r Deaf, and i t became c l e a r t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e was one o f t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e l i e f s . Lane (1992) argues t h a t t h i s i d e n t i t y i s an o n g o i n g f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g how i n d i v i d u a l s v i e w h e a r i n g l o s s and communication methods. Padden and Humphries (1988) p o i n t o u t t h a t h e a r i n g and Deaf p e o p l e approach h e a r i n g l o s s from d i f f e r e n t " c e n t r e s " . Each " c e n t r e " i n f l u e n c e s how one e x p e r i e n c e s t h e w o r l d , how one v i e w s h e a r i n g l o s s , and i n e v i t a b l y , how one v i e w s d e a f p e o p l e ( I b i d ) . F o r example, Padden and Humphries (1988) r e l a t e t h e s t o r y o f Howard, a Deaf man whose f a m i l y - h i s p a r e n t s and b r o t h e r as w e l l as a u n t s and u n c l e s - a r e Deaf. Howard t o l d an a u d i e n c e t h a t h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d was s p e n t among Deaf p e o p l e . However, h i s w o r l d changed when he was s i x . H i s p a r e n t s t o o k him t o a s c h o o l f o r Deaf c h i l d r e n . *Would you b e l i e v e , ' he s a i d , * I n e v e r knew I was deaf u n t i l I f i r s t e n t e r e d s c h o o l ? ' Padden and Humphries (1988) e x p l a i n , 88 Howard c e r t a i n l y knew what 'deaf' meant. The s i g n DEAF was p a r t o f h i s eve r y d a y v o c a b u l a r y ; he would r e f e r t o DEAF p e o p l e whenever he needed t o t a l k about f a m i l y and friends...When Howard a r r i v e d a t s c h o o l , he found t h a t t e a c h e r s [ h e a r i n g ] used t h e same s i g n he used f o r h i m s e l f a t home, DEAF. But i t d i d n o t t a k e l o n g t o d e t e c t a s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e ways t h e y u sed t h e s i g n . The c h i l d u s e s DEAF t o mean ' u s 1 , b u t he meets o t h e r s f o r whom ' d e a f means 'them, n o t l i k e u s 1 . He t h i n k s DEAF means ' f r i e n d s who behave as e x p e c t e d 1 , b u t t o o t h e r s i t means 'a r e m a r k a b l e c o n d i t i o n ' (p. 8 ) . Not h e a r i n g f o r t h i s boy was n o t an impairment n e e d i n g t o be m i n i m i z e d o r f i x e d , r a t h e r i t was p a r t o f h i s e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e : h i s c u l t u r e . F o r t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y as Deaf emerged as a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s . A l l t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s k e p t g o i n g back t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s as a Deaf p e r s o n and t o what i t means t o be de a f i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d . The h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s were l i k e w i s e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r h e a r i n g i d e n t i t y . W o r l d v i e w . The w o r l d v i e w o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l s o emerged as a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e l i e f s . A few themes emerged i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' w o r l d v i e w . One theme e x p r e s s e d by some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was an ab h o r r e n c e t o t h e co n c e p t o f s e g r e g a t i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t seemed t o be e i t h e r a s s i m i l a t i o n o r i n t e g r a t i o n . The l a s t theme w h i c h emerged i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' w o r l d v i e w was t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e i r b e l i e f s . The t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s who were i n t e r v i e w e d 89 communicated t h a t t h e y d i d n o t v a l u e s e g r e g a t i o n , b u t v a l u e d " i n t e g r a t i o n . " They used t h e word " i n t e g r a t i o n " ; however, I f e l t t h e y were communicating a c o n c e p t o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , o f making t h e de a f c h i l d r e n l i k e t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y . The g o a l o f t e a c h i n g o r a l s k i l l s t o deaf c h i l d r e n i s , i n e f f e c t , t o conform t o t h e form o f communication and language used by t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y , spoken E n g l i s h . Thus, t h e g o a l i s t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f " h e a r i n g impairment". I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r v i e w o f t h e de a f community as a s e g r e g a t e d and i n s u l a t e d community. I n f a c t , one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , " I h a t e s e g r e g a t i o n o f any k i n d . " T h i s was on t h e h e e l s o f e x p r e s s i n g h e r v i e w s o f t h e deaf community. The v i e w t h a t t h e deaf community i s an " i n s u l a t e d , s e g r e g a t e d " community i s not c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e l i v e s o f Deaf p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y . The m a j o r i t y o f deaf p e o p l e do n o t l i v e i n a dea f community. They have h e a r i n g n e i g h b o u r s , h e a r i n g c o l l e a g u e s a t work and h e a r i n g f a m i l y members; t h e y l i v e , as i t i s commonly s a i d , i n a " h e a r i n g w o r l d " (Hynes, 1988, p. 5 ) . However, i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d , deaf p e o p l e a r e c o n s t a n t l y reminded o f t h e i r s t a t u s as " o u t s i d e r s " ( H i g g i n s , 1980, p. 7 9 ) . I t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e de a f community forms t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f many Deaf p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . T h i s community c o n s i s t s o f p e o p l e who s h a r e a common language, a common c u l t u r e and common e x p e r i e n c e s . The t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y e x p r e s s e d a v i e w t h a t t h e de a f community i s a r e s o u r c e , p e r s o n a l l y and f o r d e a f 90 c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s see t h e d eaf community a d v o c a t i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e and p r o m o t i n g c o - e x i s t e n c e and i n t e g r a t i o n , n o t s e g r e g a t i o n (Doe, 1994). As Doe, a Deaf woman, e x p l a i n s , t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e o f most m u l t i - c u l t u r a l a d v o c a t e s i s n o t a s s i m i l a t i o n , b u t c o - e x i s t e n c e and i n t e g r a t i o n ... M i n o r i t y groups (they) want what m a j o r i t y (we) C anadians have. Power. Money. P r i d e ? ... M u l t i -c u l t u r a l ism i n v o l v e s making p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l aware and a c c e p t i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e s . Deaf c u l t u r e wants h e a r i n g p e o p l e t o be s e n s i t i v e t o and accommodating o f d i f f e r e n c e s . Deaf p e o p l e want t o have t h e i r own s c h o o l s where Deaf t e a c h e r s and Deaf s t u d e n t s can communicate and l e a r n n o t o n l y an e d u c a t i o n , b u t an i d e n t i t y . M u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m promotes t h e l e a r n i n g o f " m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e s " (Doe, 1994, p. 17).. Congruent w i t h Doe (1994), t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m v a l u e i n t e g r a t i o n , b u t v i e w i n t e g r a t i o n from a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h embraces d i f f e r e n c e , i n c l u d i n g h e a r i n g l o s s . Thus, h e a r i n g l o s s i s n o t an impairment n e e d i n g t o be f i x e d , b u t a d i f f e r e n c e . The t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s u p p o r t i n g a t o t a l communication approach a l s o v a l u e i n t e g r a t i o n and e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t Deaf r o l e models, d e a f c u l t u r e and American S i g n language a r e p o s i t i v e r e s o u r c e s f o r d eaf c h i l d r e n . However, t h e y a l s o e x p r e s s e d a f e a r about t h e g r o w i n g p o w e r / i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d e a f community. A l l t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l c ommunication s h a r e d t h a t t h e y f i n d t h e v i e w s o f t h e d e a f community "extreme", and t h a t t h e y f e a r t h e "pendulum" s w i n g i n g t o o f a r - i . e . , t h e a d o p t i o n o f ASL as t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . L a s t l y , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v a l u e s , w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o 91 t h e i r w o r l d v i e w , p l a y an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' b e l i e f s ; As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l l v a l u e h e a r i n g . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e t h r e e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s v a l u e n o t h e a r i n g . I t i s p a r t o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y and how t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h e w o r l d . These v a l u e s p l a y an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n s h a p i n g how t h e s e n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s v i e w h e a r i n g l o s s . Padden and Humphries (1988) p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e language we use t o t a l k about h e a r i n g l o s s r e f l e c t s t h e s e v a l u e s . F o r example, t h e y s h a r e t h a t t h e term " a - l i t t l e - h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g " has d i f f e r e n t meanings depending upon one's " c e n t r e " , d e a f o r h e a r i n g . The h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y v a l u e s h e a r i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s t e r m r e f l e c t s t h i s v a l u e . The term means one who can h e a r , b u t has some h e a r i n g l o s s . I n d e a f c u l t u r e i t i s j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e . " A - l i t t l e - h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g " means c l o s e r t o d e a f : someone who i s c l o s e r t o no h e a r i n g . S i m i l a r l y , t h e language c h o i c e s used by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y a t t i m e s r e f l e c t e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v a l u e s , c u l t u r e , and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y as e i t h e r h e a r i n g o r Deaf. F o r example, t h e Deaf p r o f e s s i o n a l s spoke o f c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g l o s s e s as Deaf, a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l t e rm. The t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s , when u s i n g t h e term d e a f , u sed i t t o s i g n i f y " r e a l l y d e af c h i l d r e n " , s i g n a l l i n g a degree o f h e a r i n g l o s s . A l l s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s used, t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h e t e r m " h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d " , a term o f t e n u t i l i z e d by t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y b u t r e j e c t e d by t h e Deaf l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group. I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' w o r l d 92 v i e w s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s , i s i n t e r c o n n e c t e d t o a l l t h e o t h e r f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . A p e r s o n ' s v a l u e s and v i e w s o f s o c i e t y p l a y an i n t e g r a l r o l e , i n f l u e n c i n g one's b e l i e f s . I n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l had i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods. As i n W i n e f i e l d ' s (1987) s t u d y , t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s o n a l background and e d u c a t i o n background p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e communication system t h e y s u p p o r t e d . One n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s i x h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s was t h a t t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l c ommunication a l l mentioned c o n t a c t w i t h d e a f c o l l e a g u e s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r commitment t o a manual system i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . They d i s c l o s e d an awareness o f t h e i r Deaf c o l l e a g u e s n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n o r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , and a g r o w i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r deaf c u l t u r e and A m erican S i g n Language. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h e y do n o t have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e d e a f community o r p e r s o n s who c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s c u l t u r a l l y Deaf. They were i n f l u e n c e d , i n s t e a d , by p r o m i n e n t h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s can l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d awareness o f o t h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s and c u l t u r e . T h i s i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h l i t e r a t u r e a d d r e s s i n g t h e t o p i c o f " u n l e a r n i n g r a c i s m " (Sawyer, 1989; B o l a r i a and L i , 1988). T h i s l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f o t h e r s t h r o u g h c o n t a c t and e x p osure promotes c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g and can 93 f a c i l i t a t e u n l e a r n i n g r a c i s t b e l i e f s (Sawyer, 1989; Crompton and G a l l o w a y , 1989). A n o t h e r s t r i k i n g theme w h i c h emerged under t h e h e a d i n g o f i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s was p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e a f n e s s , a l l had d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method i n t h e i r c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . I t was i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e f a c t o r s t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s c u s s e d t h e i r c u r r e n t b e l i e f s w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e a u d i t o r y / o r a l i s m as t h e method o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . L i k e o t h e r b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l a d v o c a t e s (Lane, 1992; E r t i n g , 1992; A s c h e n b r e n n e r , 1992; Johnson, L i d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989; P a u l , 1988; Reagan, 1985) t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s emphasized t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y communication w i t h f a m i l y , a method o f communication w h i c h makes c o n t e n t e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , Deaf r o l e models, exposure t o deaf c u l t u r e and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , none o f t h e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s were a g a i n s t a u d i t o r y and speech t r a i n i n g . However, t h e y v i e w e d o r a l s k i l l s as a communication t o o l t o be d e v e l o p e d o u t s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n , i f t h e c h i l d and f a m i l y so choose. T h i s p o s i t i o n echoes t h e e a r l y v i e w s o f t h e Deaf a t t h e M i l a n Congress when t h e Deaf d i d n o t p r o t e s t t h e p r o g r e s s i n o r a l methods, b u t o b j e c t e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f S i g n from t h e c l a s s r o o m (Baynton, 1993; Lane, 1984) . 94 E d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . The e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s emerged as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods. A l l n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s d e s i r e d t o see t h e c h i l d r e n t h e y work w i t h d e v e l o p i n t o h e a l t h y a d u l t s w i t h a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . How t h e y saw t h i s h a p p e n i n g , however, d i f f e r e d . The t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s s u p p o r t i n g t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l method argued t h a t s u c c e s s i s a c h i e v e d by t h e c h i l d d e v e l o p i n g t h e communication system used by t h e m a j o r i t y (Lane, 1992; G r e g o r y and H a r t l e y , 1991). As one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d , i n d e v e l o p i n g a u d i t o r y / o r a l s k i l l s " t h e r e a r e i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s " ( i n t e r v i e w #002). I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s p o s i t i o n a s s e r t s t h a t o r a l s k i l l s enhance l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and f a c i l i t a t e i n t e g r a t i o n . The problem w i t h t h i s p o s i t i o n i s t h a t i t assumes s u c c e s s and r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t n o t a l l c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n o r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s " s u c c e e d " (Lane, 1992). I n f a c t , t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l communication and t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m a l l p o i n t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n who had moved from o r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t o manual e n v i r o n m e n t s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f manual communication. They t a l k e d about t r o u b l e d c h i l d r e n who c o u l d n o t communicate and whose f r u s t r a t i o n l e s s e n e d upon d i s c o v e r i n g c ommunication. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a r e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s i n o r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t 95 S i g n i s n o t t h e n a t u r a l language o f t h e d e a f and i s a " c o n c r e t e " language. One p a r t i c i p a n t gave an example o f how S i g n i s c o n c r e t e . She s t a t e d " X I go s t o r e * d o e s n ' t c u t i t " ( i n t e r v i e w #002). T h i s v i e w o f S i g n was a f a c t o r i n t h e i r b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication. However, t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f A m erican S i g n Language i s based on t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n . Lane (1992) ar g u e s t h a t e d u c a t o r s w i t h p a s s i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h ASL have t h o u g h t i t p r i m i t i v e . They have been m i s l e d by w o r d - f o r - w o r d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f s i g n e d u t t e r a n c e s ; t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n y i e l d s a s e r i e s o f words t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y v i o l a t e s t h e r u l e s o f t h e r e a d e r ' s language and makes t h e s o u r c e appear p r i m i t i v e and u n g r a m m a t i c a l . F o r example, t h e A m e r i c a n S i g n Language f o r " a b e a r k i l l e d my f a t h e r ' s geese; f a t h e r s h o u l d e r e d h i s gun and went t o l o o k f o r i t " i s , word f o r word: GEESE, FATHER HIS, BEAR CATCH EAT; FATHER, GUN SHOULDER-ON, GO-LOOK-FOR BEAR. That t h i s i s no more e v i d e n c e f o r p r i m i t i v e n e s s t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n from L a t i n - "Bear, F a t h e r ' s geese my k i l l e d ; gun s h o u l d e r l e a n e d a g a i n s t and went so b e a r might s e a r c h f o r " - s h o u l d be o b v i o u s b u t i s n o t , g i v e n t h e e d u c a t o r s ' b i a s a g a i n s t t h e v e r y i d e a o f manual language (p. 121). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s v i e w o f ASL c o n t r a d i c t s t h e i n c r e a s i n g amount o f r e s e a r c h (Stokoe, 1965; 1987) w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t A m e rican S i g n Language i s a l e g i t i m a t e language w i t h i t s own grammar and s y n t a x . L a s t l y , t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p o s i t i o n emphasizes t h e d e s i r e d l o n g - t e r m g o a l s o f p a r e n t s . A l l t h r e e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d t h a t " t h e l o n g - t e r m g o a l s a r e what's i m p o r t a n t . " One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d : That i s why I keep on coming back t o what i s y o u r l o n g - t e r m g o a l o r g o a l s ? Not t h e s h o r t term. We a r e n o t t r y i n g t o a d v o c a t e t h a t when u s i n g an a u d i t o r y approach t h a t t h e 96 c h i l d w i l l have as much language as p o s s i b l e i n t h o s e f i r s t few y e a r s . T h a t ' s n o t o u r g o a l . They c a n ' t have good language i n t h o s e e a r l y y e a r s , b u t we're n o t l o o k i n g j u s t a t t h o s e y e a r s . We're l o o k i n g beyond t h a t t o where you want t o g e t , and how t o g e t t h e r e ( i n t e r v i e w #001). O r a l i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e deaf c h i l d ' s language a c q u i s i t i o n has t o be d e l a y e d ( W a l l i n , 1993, p. 3 ) . T h i s v i e w however, may o v e r l o o k t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y communication i n t h e s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o g n i t i v e development o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . One r e s e a r c h e r , Schum (1991), e x p l o r e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e l a y e d language development i n deaf c h i l d r e n . He argu e s t h a t language i s a c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s o f de a f c h i l d r e n . The major t h e s i s i n a p p l y i n g t h i s model i s t h a t because o f t h e i r communication l i m i t a t i o n s , some d e a f c h i l d r e n do n o t r e c e i v e t h e f u l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g (Schum, 1991, p. 321). He s u g g e s t s t h a t a language system i s i m p e r a t i v e t o e n a b l e t h e c h i l d t o p r o c e s s , code and m a n i p u l a t e e x p e r i e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . " I f a deaf c h i l d s h a r e s an e a r l y communication system w i t h h e r p a r e n t s , and i f t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o d e v e l o p a f u l l and complex language system as she grows up, t h e n i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t she w i l l f i x a t e a t one o f t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n " (p. 326). I t i s argued t h a t young deaf c h i l d r e n need t o have t h e communication t o o l s t o d e a l w i t h complex i s s u e s t h a t c o n f r o n t them as t h e y d e v e l o p ( C a r v e r , 1994). F o r example, as d e s c r i b e d by C a r v e r (1994), two 3-year o l d Deaf boys i n a l o c a l p r e s c h o o l 97 program who had r e c e n t l y l o s t one o f t h e i r p a r e n t s were o b s e r v e d s a y i n g (ASL p r e s e n t e d i n E n g l i s h g l o s s e s ) : Boy 1: MY DADDY LIKES GRAPES S t a f f : DO YOU LIKE GRAPES? Boy 2: MY DADDY GONE. Boy 1: MY MOMMY GONE. S t a f f : THAT'S RIGHT. MOMMY'S GONE. Boy 1: MOMMY HAS WINGS. SHE FLIES. S t a f f : HIS DADDY HAS WINGS, TOO. Boy 2: MY DADDY WALKS UPSTAIRS ( p o i n t i n g s k y w a r d ) . GOD TOOK MY DADDY. Boy 1: YES GOD TOOK MY MOMMY. MY MOMMY DIED ( p o i n t i n g a l s o skyward) C a r v e r (1994) a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e r e i s no way t h a t young Deaf c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o s i g n language would be a b l e t o d i s c u s s such i s s u e s , even among t h e m s e l v e s and a t t h e age o f t h r e e " (p. 2 ) . I n s u p p o r t o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t r e s e a r c h ( W i l l i a m s , 1993) comparing t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f o r a l d e a f p r e s c h o o l e r s and s i g n i n g d e a f p r e s c h o o l e r s , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e o r a l c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t e d i n f r e q u e n t l y w i t h one a n o t h e r as t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s c h o o l t a s k . The s i g n i n g c h i l d r e n , i n co m p a r i s o n , i n t e r a c t e d f r e e l y and f r e q u e n t l y among t h e m s e l v e s ( W i l l i a m s , 1993, p. 267). The o r a l i s t v i e w may have s e r i o u s consequences f o r t h e c h i l d ' s u p b r i n g i n g : D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f a c h i l d ' s l i f e t h e need f o r a means o f e x p r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y . I f t h i s need i s n o t met t h e c h i l d w i l l become r e s t l e s s , d i s h a r m o n i o u s , f r u s t r a t e d and have f r e q u e n t t a n t r u m s . T h i s i s something t h a t a g r e a t many de a f p e o p l e remember v i v i d l y . W i t h o u t a c c e s s t o a language t h e c h i l d w i l l e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communicating f e e l i n g s . I t w i l l be h a r d t o t e l l t h e p a r e n t s t h e re a s o n s f o r f e e l i n g sad o r happy, and i t w i l l be e q u a l l y h a r d t o r e c e i v e answers t o a l l q u e s t i o n s . I f th e p a r e n t s become happy o r angry t h e c h i l d w i l l f r e q u e n t l y n o t u n d e r s t a n d why. When e.g. t h e c h i l d has done something wrong t h e r e w i l l be no o r v e r y meagre e x p l a n a t i o n s as t o what was wrong ( W a l l i n , 98 1993, 3 ) . Communication i n a n a t u r a l language, S i g n , empowers p a r e n t s o f young d e a f c h i l d r e n i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y can e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e d e a f c h i l d r e n and u n d e r s t a n d what t h e c h i l d r e n a r e t r y i n g t o say ( C a r v e r , 1994). R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r i a l problems a r e much h i g h e r among de a f c h i l d r e n t h a n among h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n (Meadow and T r y b u s , 1979). C a r v e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t a t t h e r o o t o f t h i s p r o blem i s t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e deaf c h i l d t o make h i m s e l f [ h e r s e l f ] u n d e r s t o o d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a l o w e r i n c i d e n c e o f e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r problems among d e a f c h i l d r e n whose f a m i l i e s communicate i n n a t u r a l s i g n language ( C a r v e r , 1994; 1984; Meadow and S c h l e s i n g e r , 1972; Corson, 1973). The p r e v a l e n c e o f e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o u r problems among deaf c h i l d r e n o f d e a f p a r e n t s i s f a r l o w e r t h a n t h a t among de a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s i n g e n e r a l (Schum, 1991). One o f t h e s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s i s t h e c l e a r , s h a r e d communication system between d e a f c h i l d r e n and deaf p a r e n t s . I n t r i g u i n g i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s who communicated w i t h them i n s i g n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o speech, showed b e t t e r m e n t a l h e a l t h t h a n d e a f c h i l d r e n whose h e a r i n g p a r e n t s used o n l y t h e o r a l a pproach (Meadow and S c h l e s i n g e r , 1972). Thus, a l t h o u g h some de a f c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n o r a l e n v i r onments w i l l d e v e l o p o r a l s k i l l s , t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e l a y e d language a c q u i s i t i o n may be g r e a t . 99 The s i m i l a r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l communication and b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m were s u r p r i s i n g t o me. Both t h e s e groups e x p r e s s e d a commitment t o a c c e s s i b l e communication. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y b o t h emphasized e a r l y , a c c e s s i b l e communication as i m p e r a t i v e t o t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l , and c o g n i t i v e development o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y v i e w i n t e g r a t i o n b e i n g a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e development o f p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t e l l e c t u a l growth and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . One way t h e s e two groups d i f f e r e d was t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u p p o r t i n g t o t a l communication v i e w e d s i g n e d E n g l i s h as i m p o r t a n t t o t h e development o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y commented on t h e i r v i e w t h a t s i g n e d E n g l i s h f i t s f a m i l i e s 1 needs b e t t e r . I t f o l l o w s E n g l i s h word o r d e r ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s e a s i e r f o r f a m i l i e s t o l e a r n and use. However, s u p p o r t e r s o f b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m argue t h a t s i g n e d E n g l i s h i s c o n f u s i n g t o d e a f c h i l d r e n . I t b r e a k s t h e r u l e s o f n a t u r a l language (Lane, 1992). I n a d d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h ( S u p a l l , 1986; J o h s o n , L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989) has demonstrated t h a t s i g n e d E n g l i s h u s ed i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n programs i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . The r e s e a r c h has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t when a t e a c h e r s i g n s and speaks a t t h e same t i m e , t h e a u d i t o r y sense dominates w h i l e t h e s i g n e d p o r t i o n o f t h e message s u f f e r s (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989; 5 ) . B i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l i s m , i n r e s p o n s e t o b o t h o r a l i s m and t o t a l communication argue t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t have t o 100 s t r u g g l e t o g e t a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . One p a r t i c i p a n t d e m o n s t r a t e d how u n e q u i t a b l e such an arrangement i s . He e x p l a i n e d how r i d i c u l o u s i t would be t o p l a c e a group o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n a room where a t e a c h e r c o n d u c t e d a l e s s o n on s c i e n c e w i t h o u t u s i n g h e r v o i c e ( i n t e r v i e w #007). Thus, t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s a d v o c a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f ASL i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . One p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d about S i g n , One advantage i s t h a t ASL i s r e a l l y a c o n t e n t r i c h l anguage. A l s o , ASL i s t h e language t h a t most n a t u r a l l y f i t s w i t h d eaf p e o p l e ' s needs..ASL i s c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d f o r deaf p e o p l e . I t ' s t h e i r s , i t f i t s t h e i r needs, and i t ' s a l s o t h e language t h a t d e a f p e o p l e f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . I t ' s good f o r t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t . They can f o c u s on s u b s t a n c e n o t form. Most o f t h e t i m e e d u c a t i o n programs f o c u s on form b u t n o t on s u b s t a n c e , ( i n t e r v i e w #007) The t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a r n i n g t h e language o f t h e h e a r i n g m a j o r i t y , b u t t h e i r emphasis was on making c u r r i c u l u m a c c e s s i b l e . Lane a s s e r t s (1992), The members o f t h e s e language m i n o r i t i e s a r e u s u a l l y r e a l i s t i c about language and power; t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n need t o know t h e m a j o r i t y language t o g e t ahead. They g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r an e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r most f l u e n t l anguage, t h e language o f t h e i r m i n o r i t y , b u t an e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l make t h e c h i l d r e n b i l i n g u a l (p. 103). I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l a d v o c a t e s , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s argued t h a t ASL i s t h e n a t u r a l language o f t h e d e a f ( C a r b i n , 1993; Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989). ASL has d e v e l o p e d i n a community o f u s e r s s h a r i n g a common c u l t u r e and common communication needs. Thus, i t has d e v e l o p e d o v e r t i m e t o match t h e communication needs o f t h e d e a f and makes 101 c o n t e n t a c c e s s i b l e (Lane, 1992). View o f d e a f n e s s . The r e s u l t s show t h a t one's v i e w o f d e a f n e s s i s an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a p e r s o n ' s b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g communication methods. As i n r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e (Lane, 1992; Gregory and H a r t l e y , 1991; Padden and Humphries, 1988; W i n e f i e l d , 1987), t h i s s t u d y found t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h e a r i n g l o s s as a d i s a b i l i t y o r d i f f e r e n c e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t h e y s u p p o r t e d . G r egory and H a r t l e y (1991) e x p l a i n t h a t t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two c o n s t r u c t s o f d e a f n e s s : t h e a u d i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e o t h e r , t h e Deaf p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y a l l a r t i c u l a t e d t h e v i e w t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s i s an a u d i o l o g i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . T h i s p o s i t i o n f i n d s i t s r o o t s i n a b i o m e d i c a l model o f d i s a b i l i t y - one t h a t emphasizes an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a u d i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s . Thus, i t i s a model w h i c h assumes t h a t i l l n e s s i s o b j e c t i v e t r u t h w h i c h i s knowable and t e s t a b l e ; and i t assumes an o b j e c t i v e norm e x i s t s a g a i n s t w h i c h n o r m a l i t y o r a b i l i t y can be d e t e r m i n e d ( B i c k e n b a c h , 1993; O l i v e r , 1990). The b i o m e d i c a l model o f d i s a b l e m e n t has b o t h s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. F i r s t , t h e b i o m e d i c a l model, i n i t s p u r s u i t t o d i s c o v e r p h y s i c a l c auses f o r d e a f n e s s , has r e p l a c e d m o r a l innuendos about p e o p l e w i t h d i s a b i l i t i e s - t h a t t h e y were t a i n t e d and i l l - f a t e d s i n n e r s , b e i n g p u n i s h e d by v e n g e f u l gods f o r unknown s i n s - w i t h t h e ( p u t a t i v e l y ) v a l u e - f r e e and 102 o b j e c t i v e d i s c o u r s e o f s c i e n c e ( B i c k e n b a c h , 1993). A second b e n e f i t o f t h i s t h e o r y has e v o l v e d from t h e emphasis g i v e n t o making one's l i f e as 'normal' as p o s s i b l e . T h i s emphasis has l e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments, e n h a n c i n g t h e l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e d e a f ( i . e . TTY's, f l a s h i n g l i g h t s , and c l o s e d c a p t i o n i n g m a c h i n e s ) . A t h i r d s t r e n g t h o f t h i s t h e o r y a c c o r d i n g t o B i c k e n b a c h (1993) i s t h e c l a i m t h a t t h i s t h e o r y r e f l e c t s t h e b e n e v o l e n t i m p u l s e s o f humanity: i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n p u b l i c p o l i c y d e s i g n a t e s t h o s e who occupy t h e ' s i c k r o l e ' as d e s e r v i n g o f c h a r i t y and c a r e . T h i s c l a i m , however, has been c h a l l e n g e d by c r i t i c s r e v e a l i n g t h e d e v a s t a t i n g impact and i n j u s t i c e s t h a t have been c a r r i e d out i n t h e name o f b e n e v o l e n c e , o r a r g u a b l y s e l f - i n t e r e s t . Lane (1992) argues t h a t i t has been t h e o p p r e s s i v e b e n e v o l e n c e o f h e a r i n g " e x p e r t s " a d o p t i n g t h e b i o m e d i c a l model who have d i s a b l e d t h e d e a f community. I n a d d i t i o n , G r e g o r y and H a r t l e y (1991) argue t h a t w i t h i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e an i d e o l o g y o f d i s a b i l i t y has l e d t o a f o c u s on i n a d e q u a c y and has g e n e r a t e d a c a r i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c model o f w e l f a r e . T h i s t h e o r y l e n d s i t s e l f t o f u r t h e r n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . One such c r i t i q u e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s model i s d e f i c i t -c e n t r e d and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . By f i x i n g t h e 'problem' w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s t h e o r y i g n o r e s t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t can have d i s a s t r o u s p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l consequences ( B i c k e n b a c h , 1993). As Lane (1992) 103 e x p l a i n s , By l o c a t i n g t h e s o u r c e o f t h e problem i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l - t h e s o u r c e o f poor e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i n b i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t , t h e s o u r c e o f c r i m i n a l i t y i n p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r , t h e s o u r c e o f dea f underemployment i n c o c h l e a r m a l f u n c t i o n - m e d i c a l d i s c o u r s e m y s t i f i e s ; i t s c r e e n s t h e s o c i a l o r i g i n s o f t h e s e problems. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a r e a s s u r i n g a u r a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence t o s o l v e them. M e d i c a l i z a t i o n i s t h e t r a n q u i l l i z e r we t a k e t o p u t o u r s o c i a l p roblems o u t o f mind. (p. 2 09) T h i s t h e o r y m e d i c a l i z e s t h e pr o b l e m and t r e a t s i t as a p a t h o l o g y n e e d i n g t o be f i x e d . T h i s d i s e a s e - c e n t r e d b i a s i s r e f l e c t e d i n dea f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y (Lane, 1992). A second c r i t i q u e o f t h i s model i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e as s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an o b j e c t i v e and t r a n s c u l t u r a l norm o f human w e l l - b e i n g and a b i l i t y . The r e i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e a o f n o r m a l i t y i g n o r e s t h e s u b j e c t i v e i s s u e o f what n o r m a l i t y a c t u a l l y i s . The f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e t h e s i t u a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y o f n o r m a l i t y i s a s e r i o u s o m i s s i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scheme ( O l i v e r , 1990) and has f a r r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . S c h o l a r s h i p does n o t p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e g u i d e s on where t o draw t h e l i n e between v a l u a b l e d i v e r s i t y and t r e a t a b l e d e v i a n c e . I n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y , h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s and s c i e n t i s t s have l a b e l l e d v a r i o u s groups b i o l o g i c a l l y i n f e r i o r : t h e s e i n c l u d e women, S o u t h e r n Europeans, b l a c k s , gay men and l e s b i a n s , and c u l t u r a l l y d e af p e o p l e . (Lane, 1992, p. 28) T h i s quote h i g h l i g h t s t h e e t h i c a l dangers i n assuming an o b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t o f normal. Lane (1992) a l s o a s s e r t s : When t h e po w e r s - t h a t - b e succeed i n a p p l y i n g t h e i n f i r m i t y model t o any one c u l t u r a l and language m i n o r i t y , a l l m i n o r i t i e s a r e i n g r e a t e r danger: i f members o f t h e deaf community can be d e c l a r e d d e f e c t i v e , i t i s much e a s i e r t o do t h e same t o 104 A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n s , gays, Jews (p. 2 8 ) . u n l e s s one measures up t o t h e d e f i n e d m e a s u r i n g s t i c k o f n o r m a l i t y , t h e n one ru n s t h e r i s k o f s t i g m a t i z a t i o n . C l e a r l y , d e s p i t e t h e h i s t o r i c a l b e n e f i t s o f t h e m e d i c a l model, t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r many n e g a t i v e consequences e x i s t s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . G r e g o r y and H a r t l e y (1991) p o i n t o u t , however, t h a t "few p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s o f d e a f n e s s a r e based w h o l l y on a u d i o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , most t a k e a t l e a s t some a c c o u n t o f s o c i a l f a c t o r s " (p. 2 ) . T h i s i s t r u e f o r t h e s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . They a r t i c u l a t e d an a u d i o l o g i c a l v i e w o f h e a r i n g l o s s , b u t a l l t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t some s o c i a l f a c t o r s , some more t h a n o t h e r s . However, G r e g o r y and H a r t l e y (1991) c o n t i n u e t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e s o c i a l f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p e r s o n s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , whether t h e y a r e h e a r i n g o r de a f . From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f h e a r i n g p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y , d e a f p e o p l e have been p e r c e i v e d as d i s a b l e d , i m p a i r e d w h i c h has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n (Lane, 1992; Gr e g o r y and H a r t l e y , 1991; and Padden and Humphries, 1988). A l l s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s emphasized m i n i m i z i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s a b i l i t y when w o r k i n g w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . G r e g ory and H a r t l e y (1991) a s s e r t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s who have adopted a d i s a b i l i t y model have emphasized t h e need f o r deaf p e o p l e t o a c q u i r e t h e language w h i c h i s t h e v e h i c l e o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y ; most c l e a r l y seen i n t h e development o f an o r a l 105 approach (p. 2 ) . The emphasis i s on t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f d e a f p e o p l e i n t o a h e a r i n g - d o m i n a t e d w o r l d . Lane (1992) a r g u e s t h a t i t i s t h e monopoly o f a d i s a b i l i t y and a u d i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h d r i v e s a m e d i c a l emphasis i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . However, an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n e x i s t s , u n d e r p i n n e d by a p l u r a l i s t i c v i e w o f s o c i e t y . The a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t o f d e a f n e s s , h e l d by t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y , i s t h e Deaf p e r s p e c t i v e , r o o t e d i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l model. T h i s c o n s t r u c t poses t h a t h e a r i n g l o s s i s n o t a d i s a b i l i t y when v i e w e d from t h e Deaf p e r s p e c t i v e . " I t a d v o c a t e s a b i l i n g u a l model o f i n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f d e a f n e s s w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o i n c o r p o r a t e i d e a s o f c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " (Gregory and H a r t l e y , 1991; p. 2 ) . H e a r i n g l o s s i s v i e w e d as a d i f f e r e n c e , n o t an impairment. The Deaf a r e v i e w e d as a c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group, s h a r i n g a common language, v a l u e s , norms, and e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e w o r l d : a s h a r e d c u l t u r e . T h i s c u l t u r a l model o f d e a f n e s s can be seen t o u n d e r p i n b i l i n g u a l approaches t o deaf e d u c a t i o n and t h e empowerment model o f s o c i a l work (Gregory and H a r t l e y , 1991, p. 3 ) . R e l a t e d t o t h e c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e Deaf i s i d e n t i t y . A l l t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s p o i n t e d t o t h e i r own Deaf i d e n t i t y as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s about communication methods. They argued t h a t t h e development o f a p o s i t i v e s e l f -c o n c e p t , i d e n t i t y , i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e development o f t h e d e a f c h i l d . The i d e n t i t y t o w h i c h t h e y r e f e r r e d was a Deaf i d e n t i t y . 106 Human development t h e o r i e s see i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n as a c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f human development ( G i l l i g a n , 1982; E r i k s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) ) . The s t o r y o f a Deaf woman, [ L i z ] , w h i c h was r e c o u n t e d t o me r e c e n t l y by a Deaf c o l l e a g u e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s t o t h i s i s s u e o f i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n : [ L i z ] grew up i n [a major c i t y c e n t r e ] . She had a t w i n d e a f s i s t e r and t h e y b o t h were r a i s e d o r a l l y . A t t h e age o f 11 h e r s i s t e r d i e d . Through h e r teenage y e a r s [ L i z ] was i n t e g r a t e d i n a h e a r i n g s c h o o l and she ne v e r saw any Deaf a d u l t s . [ L i z ] s h a r e d t h a t she grew up t h i n k i n g she was g o i n g t o d i e a t age 18 because she had n e v e r seen a Deaf a d u l t ( i n p e r s o n a l communication, November 1, 1994). H a r r i s and S t i r l i n g (1986) e x p l o r e d t h e c o n c e p t o f i d e n t i t y . They i n t e r v i e w e d d eaf s t u d e n t s a t t h e K e n d a l l D e m o n s t r a t i o n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l (KDES) r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t and i d e n t i t y . T h e i r r e s e a r c h u n c o v e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g common p e r c e p t i o n s o f d e a f s t u d e n t s : * They t e n d t o l a b e l d e af t e a c h e r s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s as h e a r i n g because t h e y do n o t wear h e a r i n g a i d s . * They i d e n t i f y anyone w i t h good s i g n i n g s k i l l s as d e a f . * They s w i t c h i d e n t i t i e s : d e a f , h a r d o f h e a r i n g , h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , o r h e a r i n g , because t h e y a r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d about t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s . * Some b e l i e v e t h e y w i l l become h e a r i n g because t h e i r o t h e r h e a r i n g f a m i l y members a r e h e a r i n g . * Some b e l i e v e t h a t i l l n e s s c o u l d r e duce o r r e s t o r e t h e i r h e a r i n g . * Most d e a f c h i l d r e n o f h e a r i n g p a r e n t s t e n d t o f o c u s on hopes o r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e y w i l l become h e a r i n g o r h a r d o f h e a r i n g as a p a r t o f t h e "moving up" p r o c e s s , (p. 43) H a r r i s and S t i r l i n g (1986) a s s e r t t h a t "Deaf c h i l d r e n need t o know who t h e y a r e f i r s t b e f o r e t h e y can p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n non-deaf s o c i e t y " (p. 4 6 ) . R e l a t e d t o t h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d (NIB) (1984): " I t a d v o c a t e s 107 t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e s w h i c h would p r o v i d e f o r p e r s o n a l development n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i a l and economic achievement. The NIB e x p l a i n s : T h i s p e r s o n a l development i s a c h i e v e d when an i n d i v i d u a l knows h i m s e l f f u l l y : H i s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , d i g n i t y and p o t e n t i a l " ( i n C a r v e r , 1989, p. 6 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y e x p r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t and i d e n t i t y as r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n and human growth, and v i e w e d b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n as f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e development o f a h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t and i d e n t i t y . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e s i x h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a t h a t d e a f n e s s i s t h e c h i l d ' s i d e n t i t y . What i s s t r i k i n g , however•, i s t h a t t h e l a b e l s g i v e n by t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e t o t h e Deaf r e f l e c t t h a t d e a f p e o p l e a r e " d i f f e r e n t from" t h e m a j o r i t y (Lane, 1992). F o r example, " h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d , " " h e a r i n g h a n d i c a p p e d , " and " d i s a b l e d " p r e s u ppose a normal s t a t e o f h e a r i n g . We l a b e l them as d i f f e r e n t from us and t h e n say, t h a t ' s n o t t h e i r i d e n t i t y . However, i t has been argued t h a t i t i s what d i s t i n g u i s h e s m i n o r i t y groups as d i f f e r e n t from t h e m a j o r i t y t h a t becomes a major f a c t o r i n t h e i r communal i d e n t i t y ( B o l a r i a and L i , 1988). S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow (1972) n o t e , As i n t h e c a s e o f b l a c k s , o r i m m i g r a n t s , t h e most s u c c e s s f u l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s may o c c u r i n t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a c c e p t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s imposed by c o l o u r , language, o r m i n o r i t y group mores. The s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l may t h u s l i v e i n many w o r l d s ; t h e a l i e n a t e d i n d i v i d u a l may be a s t r a n g e r i n a l l (p. 115) . 108 Of c o u r s e , i n any group t h e r e i s d i v e r s i t y , and c a u t i o n must be t a k e n n o t t o s t e r e o t y p e . However, a d i f f e r e n c e from t h e m a j o r i t y i s a u n i f y i n g f o r c e i n communities, c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y and power. Moreover, t h i s c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e o n g o i n g s o c i a l movement o f t h e Deaf and i t s r e l a t e d c l a i m s (Drover and K e r a n s , 1993). T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a r e consequences i n t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t d e a f n e s s does n o t c o n s t i t u t e t h e p e r s o n ' s i d e n t i t y . I n c o n c l u s i o n , a t l e a s t two v i e w s o f d e a f n e s s e x i s t w h i c h i n f l u e n c e one's b e l i e f s about methods o f communication. A d d i t i o n a l l y , one's v i e w o f d e a f n e s s i n f l u e n c e s how one v i e w s t h e i d e n t i t y o f d e a f p e o p l e and v a l u e s t h i s i d e n t i t y . 2. F i n d i n g s and a Claimsmaking Approach. The a n t i t h e t i c a l c l a i m s o f t h e t h r e e groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y p o i n t t o t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t . o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n where an h i s t o r i c a l c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n has e x i s t e d . When p l a c e d i n t h i s l a r g e r c o n t e x t , t h e v a r i a b l e o f power becomes fundamental i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h c l a i m s and w h i c h a c t o r s have i n f l u e n c e d and c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e e d u c a t i o n o f deaf c h i l d r e n . F o r t h e r i g h t t o d e f i n e a p roblem and t o l o c a t e i t w i t h i n one s o c i a l domain r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r - t o c o n s t r u e i t as a p r o b l e m o f m e d i c i n e , e d u c a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s - i s d e c i d e d by power (Lane, 1992, p. 2 5 ) . The h i s t o r y o f t h e d e a f community i s marked by a l o n g h i s t o r y o f s t r u g g l e between d e a f p e o p l e and t h e h e a r i n g p e o p l e who p r o f e s s t o s e r v e them. 109 The t h r e e p o s i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t a r e d i s s i m i l a r and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Y e t , one p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e Deaf p e r s p e c t i v e , p r e v i o u s l y and c u r r e n t l y , has had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . One g l a r i n g example o f t h i s , was when t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l Drug and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n approved c o c h l e a r e a r i m p l a n t s . Lane (1992; 1994) u n c o v e r s t h a t n o t one Deaf p e r s o n was c o n s u l t e d on t h e i s s u e . I n f a c t , The p a n e l w h i c h r u l e d on t h e f a t e o f i n n u m e r a b l e d e a f c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s i n t h e decades t o come, c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y o f h e a r i n g p e o p l e : f i v e e a r d o c t o r s , an a u d i o l o g i s t , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i m p l a n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and a "consumer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " - n o t a de a f p e r s o n , mind you, o r t h e p a r e n t o f a d e a f c h i l d , b u t a h e a r i n g e d u c a t o r o f d e a f c h i l d r e n (Lane, 1992, p. 2 0 4 ). " I n A m e r i c a t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r d e a f p e o p l e where d e c i s i o n s about d e a f l i v e s a r e b e i n g made" (Lane, 1992, p. 204). T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t h e "coup de g r a c e " f o r t h e d e a f community ( S t e w a r t , 1988). J a c o b s (1974) e x p l a i n s , What makes t h i s s a d d e r and more i n f u r i a t i n g t o t h e d e a f a d u l t s i s t h a t t h o s e e d u c a t o r s [and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n ] , who have n o t b e t t e r t h a n secondhand e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h d e a f n e s s , s h o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y where t h e y have i n f l u e n c e d t h e development o f u n t o l d t housands o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . . . T h e y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u p e r i o r s and p a r e n t s , have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e d t o l i s t e n t o , l e t a l o n e c o n s u l t t h e o n l y p e o p l e who have been t h r o u g h t h e m i l l - t h e d e a f t h e m s e l v e s (p. 200). A c l a i m s m a k i n g approach t o w e l f a r e r e c o g n i z e s t h a t s o c i e t y i s a system c o m p r i s e d o f o p p o s i n g groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s where t h e i n t e r e s t s , g o a l s , v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w i t h power dominate ( M u l l a l y , 1993). C l a i m s m a k i n g , t h e r e f o r e , o c c u r s i n an hegemonic c o n t e x t 110 where t h e r e s p o n s e t o c l a i m s i s t o p r e s e r v e t h e hegemonic o r d e r (D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993, p. 1 3 ) . The c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e Deaf have a r t i c u l a t e d t h e i r c l a i m s has been dominated by an a u d i o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t o f d e a f n e s s , based i n t h e b i o m e d i c a l model o f d i s a b i l i t y (Gregory and H a r t l e y , 1991). Thus, t h e i r c l a i m s have met r e s i s t a n c e . D r o v e r and Kerans (1993) p o i n t out t h a t c l a i m s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r w i l l be responded t o i n such a way as t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . One r e s p o n s e t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf by t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power has been t o h i g h l i g h t t h e m i n o r i t y o f d e a f p e o p l e who do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s p a r t o f d e a f community -i . e . t h e o r a l d e a f . These i n d i v i d u a l s v i e w t h e i r h e a r i n g l o s s as an h e a r i n g impairment and v i e w t h e m s e l v e s as p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r h e a r i n g s o c i e t y . T h i s r e s p o n s e a t t e m p t s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf. A s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y i s employed i n r e s p o n s e t o a s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o f p o v e r t y : t h e m i n o r i t y who make i t o u t o f p o v e r t y a r e h e l d up t o demonstrate t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f overcoming p o v e r t y w i t h " h a r d work". Such a r e s p o n s e i n d i v i d u a l i z e s t h e s o c i a l p roblem and n e g a t e s a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e problem. These r e s p o n s e s l e g i t i m a t e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . One o f t h e a u d i t o r y / o r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h implemented t h i s r e s p o n s e . When I v o i c e d a c r i t i c i s m t h a t I have h e a r d from members o f t h e d e a f community, she t o l d me I s h o u l d speak t o 111 some o f h e r forme r o r a l d e af s t u d e n t s . A n o t h e r r e s p o n s e i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l one. The c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements d i c t a t e a s c e n a r i o where o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g t h e Deaf r e c e i v e government s u p p o r t , money, t h r o u g h government br a n c h e s w h i c h s e r v e communities w i t h d i s a b i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l needs (Lane, 1992). T h i s t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement p l a c e s t h e Deaf i n a p o s i t i o n where i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e f u n d i n g t h e y must a c c e p t a l a b e l o f d i s a b l e d , t h e r e f o r e , p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t o f d e a f n e s s as a d i s a b i l i t y . T h i s r e s p o n s e has m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . F o r example, a r e c e n t Deaf a r t i c l e commenting on t h e Americans w i t h D i s a b i l i t i e s A c t , ADA G i v e s R i g h t s t o Deaf P e o p l e , comments t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t Deaf p e o p l e a r e d e f i n e d as d i s a b l e d (Lane, 1994). L i k e w i s e , t h e Deaf i n A u s t r i a a p p l i e d f o r f u n d i n g f o r t h e i r n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g . The government agreed b u t o n l y i f t h e Deaf group would t a k e money from an u m b r e l l a d i s a b i l i t y group ( I b i d ) . A n o t h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf has been t o a c t i v a t e t h e dominant v a l u e s and d i s c o u r s e o f s o c i e t y . I n l i b e r a l s o c i e t i e s , members v a l u e freedom o f c h o i c e . Thus, one r e s p o n s e t o c o u n t e r t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf community i s t o m o b i l i z e t h e language o f c h o i c e . F o r example, a u d i t o r y / o r a l a pproaches i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n employ t h e language o f c h o i c e . They t a l k about t h e im p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a r e n t s * " c h o i c e " i n d e c i d i n g what communication " o p t i o n " i s b e s t f o r t h e i r c h i l d ( i n t e r v i e w #001). I n a c t i v a t i n g t h e dominant d i s c o u r s e , t h e 112 c l a i m s o f t h e d e a f community a r e embraced p a r t i a l l y f o r t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a n o t h e r " c h o i c e " , however, t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s . Thus, i n a hegemonic c o n t e x t , t h e dominant paradigm remains i n t a c t . A system o f s t r u c t u r e d i n e q u a l i t y c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t where t h e v i e w s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y ( h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) dominate d e s p i t e t h e o n g o i n g c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf. The d e a f community's c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y - t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a l i n g u i s t i c m i n o r i t y group, n o t a d i s a b i l i t y group - and t h e i r c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , a r e grounded i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g d e a f , o f v a r i o u s communication systems i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , and o f l i v i n g i n a h e a r i n g w o r l d . A c l a i m s m a k i n g approach t a k e s as i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e c l a i m s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and communities who l i v e t h e consequences o f o p p r e s s i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n (Drover and K e r a n s , 1993). A c l a i m s m a k i n g approach assumes t h a t t h e Deaf a r e aware and a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e needs and g o a l s n e c e s s a r y i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r human c a p a c i t i e s ( D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993) and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , can c o n t r i b u t e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t t o t h e a r e a o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n . Thus, t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf d i r e c t us t o p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . 3. P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h h i g h l i g h t s t h e f a c t t h a t f o r m u l a t e d c l a i m s can be competing and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The t h r e e p o s i t i o n s e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y p o i n t t o t h i s r e a l i t y . The q u e s t i o n t h e n 113 becomes: on what b a s i s a r e t h e v a r i o u s c l a i m s a d j u d i c a t e d ? T h i s s t u d y , p l a c e d i n a c l a i m s m a k i n g framework, o f f e r s s u g g e s t i o n s i n g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n . F i r s t , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y p o i n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f b e l i e f s . There were numerous f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . I f t h e c l a i m s a r e r e l a t i v e , we a r e l e f t w i t h few r e s o u r c e s t o mediate t h e c l a i m s , and t h e r e s u l t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c l a i m s have d i v e r s e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o l i c y . T h i s r e s e a r c h , however, s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t d e a f i n d i v i d u a l s a r e t h e o n l y group o f p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y who have f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge o f d e a f n e s s . Thus, t h e y a r e e x p e r t s on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h e a r i n g l o s s and can c o n t r i b u t e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t about t h e needs o f deaf c h i l d r e n . A c l a i m s m a k i n g approach, t h e r e f o r e , p o s i t s t h a t t h e d e a f - t h o s e w i t h f i r s t h a n d knowledge o f d e a f n e s s - s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Based on t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge o f d e a f n e s s , t h e t h r e e Deaf p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y a r t i c u l a t e d s p e c i f i c c l a i m s r e g a r d i n g p o l i c y . The f i r s t i s t h a t A m erican S i g n Language be r e c o g n i z e d as t h e language o f t h e Deaf and t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f deaf c h i l d r e n be c o n d u c t e d i n A m e r i c a n S i g n Language. S e c o n d l y , d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f . T h i r d l y , d e a f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be t a u g h t E n g l i s h , u s i n g ASL, w r i t t e n E n g l i s h and manual E n g l i s h . F o u r t h , d e a f c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n 114 c u r r i c u l u m . L a s t l y , i n i t i a t i v e s s h o u l d be s e t i n m o t i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f Deaf r o l e models i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n , Deaf t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f . T h i s l i s t i s n o t comprehensive and i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h c l a i m s o f o t h e r d e a f l e a d e r s ( C a r b i n , 1993; Bi e n v e n u , 1989). The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a c t o r s who I b e l i e v e s h o u l d be i n f l u e n t i a l i n p o l i c y i s s u e s a r e t h e p a r e n t s , t h e f a m i l i e s o f de a f c h i l d r e n . The p a r e n t s a r e t h e e x p e r t s on t h e i r f a m i l i e s ' needs. However, a problem e x i s t s . The c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a r e n t s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n and t h e Deaf i s n o t as i t s h o u l d be. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been i n f i l t r a t e d by t h e m e d i c a l model and by h e a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who have i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h p a r e n t s . N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f d e a f c h i l d r e n a r e b o r n i n t o h e a r i n g f a m i l i e s . T y p i c a l l y , a d e a f c h i l d i s t h e f i r s t d e a f p e r s o n t h a t t h e members o f h i s [ s i c ] f a m i l y have e v e r e n c o u n t e r e d . F o r such p a r e n t s , h a v i n g a d e a f c h i l d i s g e n e r a l l y u n e x p e c t e d and t r a u m a t i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r f i r s t a d v i c e u s u a l l y comes from a p a e d i a t r i c i a n o r an a u d i o l o g i s t , many o f whom do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a r l y s i g n language a c q u i s i t i o n (Johnson, L i d d e l l , E r t i n g , 1989, p. 1 ) . The i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l s who do n o t know about o r d i s r e g a r d t h e v a l u e o f t h e d e a f community t o f a m i l i e s w i t h a deaf c h i l d , s e t s up a r e l a t i o n s h i p where t h e p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e deaf community rema i n unknown o r o v e r l o o k e d . F o r example, A t t h e 1991 m e e t i n g convened i n Bo s t o n by t h e C o c h l e a r C o r p o r a t i o n t o promote c h i l d h o o d i m p l a n t s , a d e a f l e a d e r a sked an o t o l o g i s t a t h e r o s t r u m whether h i s i m p l a n t team i n f o r m e d p a r e n t s , whose de a f c h i l d r e n were c a n d i d a t e s f o r s u r g e r y , about t h e d e a f community 115 and ASL as a l t e r n a t i v e s t o i m p l a n t a t i o n . The o t o l o g i s t r e p l i e d w i t h a d m i r a b l e candour: "We t e n d t o p r e s e n t t h i n g s from o u r p o i n t o f v i e w . " The p a r e n t s meanwhile a r e i n c r i s i s and u n l i k e l y t o be c r i t i c a l o f t h a t v i e w . I f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n does d e s c r i b e t h e d e a f community, i t may w e l l be i n terms t h a t a r e so c o n c i s e t h a t t h e p a r e n t s do n o t r e a l l y g r a s p an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s s t a t u s and d e s t i n y (Lane, 1992, p. 2 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , h e a r i n g p a r e n t s s h a r e a v a l u e o f h e a r i n g w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r v i e w s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and n a t u r a l dreams f o r t h e i r d e a f c h i l d . Most o f us a r e n o t aware o f t h e c u l t u r a l p r e m i s e s t h a t g u i d e o u r l i v e s ; we a r e e t h n o c e n t r i c and n a t u r a l l y s o , f o r s o c i a l l i f e would be i m p o s s i b l e i f e v e r y a c t i o n r e q u i r e d o u r r e f l e c t i o n . We have an u n c o n s c i o u s m e n t a l model o f o u r c u l t u r e t h a t makes most o f o u r c h o i c e s f o r u s , l e a v i n g us f r e e t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e ones t h a t remain. Our i d e a s about w e a l t h , f a m i l y , s e x u a l i t y , and d i s a b i l i t y , f o r example, a l l seem more o r l e s s g i v e n and a p p r o p r i a t e . We know a b s t r a c t l y and v a g u e l y t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e l i v e i n o t h e r ways; b u t we do n o t know t h e p r e m i s e s b e n eath t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s ; we do n o t see t h e w o r l d from a n o t h e r v a n t a g e p o i n t (Lane, 1992, p. 161 - 162). Thus, h e a r i n g p a r e n t s ' c u l t u r a l v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g h e a r i n g l o s s and d i s a b i l i t y p l a y a r o l e i n t h e c h o i c e s p a r e n t s make f o r t h e i r d e a f c h i l d r e n (Lane, 1992). The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d e a f community and h e a r i n g p a r e n t s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n i s t h a t i t needs t o change. I n o r d e r f o r t h e g o a l i n p o l i c y development f o r t h e a c t o r s t o be h e a r d o u t as c a r e f u l l y as any o t h e r ( D r o v e r and K e r a n s , 1993), t o o c c u r , a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m u t u a l i t y and r e s p e c t must be e s t a b l i s h e d between p a r e n t s and t h e d e a f community. T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e . 116 4. P r a c t i c e I m p l i c a t i o n s . As d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , h e a r i n g f a m i l i e s a r e i n a complex p r e d i c a m e n t . Most f a m i l i e s have n e v e r met a de a f p e r s o n p r i o r t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s h e a r i n g l o s s (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989). Thus, t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n o f n e e d i n g t o know and a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y , i n o r d e r t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r d eaf c h i l d and t h e i r f a m i l y . One recommendation r e g a r d i n g s e r v i n g f a m i l i e s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n i s t o network them w i t h Deaf p e o p l e , t h e d e a f community. Deaf a d u l t s can p l a y a s p e c i a l r o l e f o r h e a r i n g p a r e n t s : They can p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e b o r n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge o f deaf p e o p l e , and o f t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . They can g e t i n f o r m a t i o n about community s e r v i c e s . They a r e a l i v i n g example o f how t h e c h i l d one day may be a knowledgeable a d u l t and c o n t r i b u t i n g member i n s o c i e t y (Lane, 1993). I n a d d i t i o n , e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n programs c e n t r e d on t h e needs o f t h e f a m i l y s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n . These s e r v i c e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a home v i s i t i n g program f o r t h e f a m i l y w h i l e t h e c h i l d i s an i n f a n t , f a m i l y s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , s p e c i a l i z e d p r e s c h o o l programs w i t h q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s ( i n c l u d i n g Deaf s t a f f ) , and s i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e f a m i l y ( p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , e xtended f a m i l y ) . L a s t l y , f a m i l i e s s h o u l d be o f f e r e d c o u n s e l l i n g and s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t o examine what t h i s change w i l l mean f o r t h e f a m i l y and t o work t h r o u g h t h e g r i e f w h i c h i s a normal r e s p o n s e i n h e a r i n g p a r e n t s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n (Johnson, L i d d e l l and E r t i n g , 1989). D u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e , p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e f a m i l y (Hynes, 1988). T h i s 117 s i t u a t i o n p o i n t s t o p r a c t i c e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s s t u d y p r o b e s o u r commitment t o t o l e r a n c e by e x p l o r i n g how f a r we a r e r e a d y t o go i n r e s p e c t i n g t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f a l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t y t h a t a r i s e s from a p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d i f f e r e n t from our own (Lane, 1992, p. x i i ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , what p l a c e do we want t o make i n o u r s o c i e t y f o r t h e many d i s t i n c t communities t h a t c o n s t i t u t e i t ? The f i n d i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x a m i n i n g and r e a c h i n g f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i f f e r e n c e . I n congruence w i t h Lane (1992) I a s s e r t : F o r t h o s e who t h i n k we'd b e s t g e t on w i t h making t h e p l u r i b u s unum. measures t h a t seem t o acknowledge and even r e i n f o r c e our d i f f e r e n c e s , such as b i l i n g u a l and b i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , appear d a n g e r o u s l y d i v i s i v e . F o r t h o s e who t h i n k , as I do, t h a t t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f o u r s o c i e t y i s i t s most v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e , t h e g r o w i n g use o f t e c h n o l o g y from t h e b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o m i n i m i z e and even o b l i t e r a t e o u r d i f f e r e n c e s i s a l a r m i n g i n d e e d (p. x i i ) . These v a l u e s a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h s o c i a l work g o a l s and v a l u e s . A n o t h e r p r a c t i c e i m p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s p o i n t t o i s t h e danger o f " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " . One o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e s e a r c h p o i n t e d t o t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t and agenda t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s have i n t h e a r e a o f d e a f e d u c a t i o n . He s t a t e d , Many p r o f e s s i o n a l s have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e d i s a b i l i t y s t a t u s o f t h e d e a f . Suppose t h e system was t o change o v e r n i g h t . Where Deaf p e o p l e were l o o k e d upon as a c u l t u r a l group, a l l o w e d t o use A S L . . . W e l l t h e n , many thousands o f p e o p l e would be out o f work... Those p e o p l e a r e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power. They s t i l l a r e i n c o n t r o l . They r e s i s t change. They r e s i s t t h e i d e a t h a t Deaf p e o p l e a r e n ' t a d i s a b l e d group. The f a c t t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e a r e i n c o n t r o l makes Deaf p e o p l e more d i s a b l e d . I t i n c r e a s e s t h e 118 d i s a b i l i t y o f t h e d e a f . . . I f e e l t h a t i f t h e system was t o change o v e r n i g h t thousands and thousands o f d o l l a r s would be saved. Money s p e n t f o r r e m e d i a l a p p r o a c h e s , t o f i x t h e problem... t h e l i s t goes on... The p o i n t i s , i f you a l l o w Deaf p e o p l e t o be i n more c o n t r o l what would happen t o t h e i r l i f e ? I f t h e y had t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l how t h e y a r e l a b e l l e d , I s u s p e c t t h a t problems would d i m i n i s h ( i n t e r v i e w #007). An e n t r e n c h e d commitment t o one i d e o l o g y and p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l o n g o i n g a n a l y s i s can l e a d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m where i n d i v i d u a l s d e f e n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n o u t o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t o r e t h n o c e n t r i c v a l u e s and b e l i e f s (Lane, 1993). The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s awareness o f how t h e i r own b e l i e f s have been shaped by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , v a l u e s , c u l t u r e , and h i s t o r y , i s i m p o r t a n t . V a l u e s , b e l i e f s and p r o f e s s i o n a l commitments do i n f l u e n c e o u r p r a c t i c e . These i m p l i c a t i o n s have r e l e v a n c e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . They d i r e c t us t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e awareness o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( s o c i a l w o r k e r s , a u d i o l o g i s t s , speech t h e r a p i s t s , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n ) r e g a r d i n g t h e c l a i m s o f t h e d eaf community. T h i s can be done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e f f o r t s around m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and u n l e a r n i n g r a c i s m . Thus, t h e s e f i n d i n g s p o i n t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m on d eaf c u l t u r e and t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development and e d u c a t i o n . One c a u t i o n , however, t h a t such e d u c a t i o n may undermine t h e o n g o i n g s o c i a l movement o f t h e Deaf t o i n c l u d e such c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g t a c t i c s w i t h i s s u e s o f d i s a b i l i t y , a c o n s t r u c t w h i c h has had t y r a n n i z i n g i n f l u e n c e i n t h e l i v e s o f Deaf p e o p l e . 119 5. F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . Some i m p o r t a n t a r e a s emerged i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w h i c h p o i n t t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i d e a s . One a r e a o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i s around how p a r e n t s make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i r d e a f c h i l d . G i v e n t h e p r e s e n t b a r r a g e o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o p a r e n t s , r e s e a r c h p r o v i d i n g c l a r i t y about t h e needs o f p a r e n t s upon d i a g n o s i s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s h e a r i n g l o s s would be v a l u a b l e . Thus, one s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would be t o e s t a b l i s h a s o c i a l a c t i o n r e s e a r c h group o f p a r e n t s t o l o o k a t t h e needs o f p a r e n t s i n a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge i n o r d e r t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e i r d e a f c h i l d and f a m i l y . A f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h i s i s s u e , would be t o e x p l o r e t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r e n t s d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g communication methods f o r t h e i r f a m i l y . An second a r e a where a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h would be advantageous i s i n e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between methods o f communication and i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n between method o f communication and q u a l i t y o f l i f e would p r o v i d e i n s i g h t o n t o t h e method o f communication debate. L a s t l y , r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n s e r v i n g t h e de a f would be u s e f u l . F o r example, a s u r v e y o f c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e Deaf, and how i t has been used and r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s . Connected t o t h i s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l t o be used i n 120 t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s about t h e c l a i m s o f t h e Deaf would p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . 6. Summary. I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d how n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n come t o s u p p o r t t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g communication methods i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s p o i n t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t f o r t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s many f a c t o r s a r e i n f l u e n t i a l , and t h e p r o c e s s o f a r r i v i n g a t t h e i r b e l i e f s a p pears s u b j e c t i v e . T h e i r p r e - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o f i l e , t h e i r p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , t h e i r w o r l d v i e w , i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and t h e i r v i e w o f d e a f n e s s were a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h emerged as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s 1 b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication used i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r r i v e d a t d i v e r s e and c o n f l i c t i n g p o s i t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h d i d n o t a d d r e s s how a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s come t o v i e w methods o f communication, however, i t d i d e x p l o r e how t h e n i n e p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s s t u d y came t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v i e w s on communication methods. Elements o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s may r e p r e s e n t t o v a r y i n g degrees o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s * p r o c e s s e s , however, t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e . The f i n d i n g s do, however, p o i n t t o t h e need t o examine how our own p r o c e s s e s o f b e l i e f s and knowledge i n f l u e n c e p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e f i n d i n g s p o i n t t o t h e need t o q u e s t i o n t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n d e a f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t when one r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e Deaf, t h e 121 o n l y ones w i t h f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f d e a f n e s s , have been l a r g e l y s i l e n c e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y development. 122 References A h l g r e n , I n g e r . (1993). L e a r n i n g from t h e Deaf. 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R u t h e r f o r d , S. (1988). The C u l t u r e o f American Deaf P e o p l e . S i g n Language S t u d i e s . 59, 129-147. S a c k s , O l i v e r . (1989). S e e i n g V o i c e s . Los A n g e l e s , CA: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . Sawyer, J a n e t . (1989, J a n u a r y ) . I n t e r n a l i z e d Dominance: U n l e a r n i n g Racism. A n g l e s . S c h e i n , J . , M a l l o r y , B., and Greaves, S. (1991). Communication f o r Deaf S t u d e n t s i n Mainstream C l a s s r o o m s . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a : Western Canadian C e n t r e f o r S t u d i e s i n Deafness. S c h l e s i n g e r , H.S. (1986) T o t a l Communication i n P e r s p e c t i v e . I n Deafness i n P e r s p e c t i v e . San Diego, CA: C o l l e g e H i l l P r e s s . S l o s s Luey, H. (1987). New Dimensions i n E d u c a t i o n . San F r a n c i s c o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a C e n t e r on Deafness. Soper, K a t e . (1993). 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W i l l i a m s , C. (1993). L e a r n i n g t o w r i t e : S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among p r e s c h o o l a u d i t o r y / o r a l and t o t a l c ommunication c h i l d r e n . S i g n Language S t u d i e s . 80, 267-284. W i n e f i e l d , R i c h a r d . (1987). Never t h e Twain S h a l l Meet: B e l l . G a l l a u d e t and t h e Communications Debate. Washington, D.C: G a l l a u d e t U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 128 Appendix B INTERVIEW GUIDE 1) G i v e n t h e many models o f communication i n Deaf e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h a r e you a proponent o f ? P: T.C., O r a l i s m , B i / B i 2) Can you d e s c r i b e how y o u r b e l i e f s about have e v o l v e d t h r o u g h o u t y o u r c a r e e r ? 3) What has i n f l u e n c e d y o u r t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g methods o f communication? P: E x p e r i e n c e , E d u c a t i o n , C o l l e a g u e s , R e s e a r c h , E v e n t , c o n t a c t w i t h deaf community, w o r l d v i e w 4) What do you t h i n k about o t h e r methods o f communication? P: Advantages, D i s a d v a n t a g e s 130 Appendix D C h a r t One; The Factors Influencing Professionals' B e l i e f s Regarding Methods of Communication i n Deaf Education Types/Dimensions/Conditions (Themes) Properties Stages No previous background Personal interest as a motivating factor Personal investment as a motivating factor Pre Involvement P r o f i l e Pre-Involvement Stage Deaf = a medical term Hearing loss i s not the person's i d e n t i t y Hearing loss as a d i s a b i l i t y Deafness not a d i s a b i l i t y View of Deafness Education/training Personal experiences Experiences with key people Professional experiences I n f l u e n t i a l Experiences View of language and forms communication View of technology i n deaf education View about the goal of deaf education Educational Philosophy B e l i e f i n a Method of Communication Integration valued Segregation disadvantage Personal beliefs/values World View Deaf i d e n t i t y Hearing i d e n t i t y Personal Identity 132 

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