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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The image of the peasant woman in selected works of Berthold Auerbach and Jeremias Gotthelf Shinnors, Mary Bernice 1992

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THE IMAGE OF THE PEASANT WOMAN IN SELECTED WORKS OF BERTHOLD AUERBACH AND JEREMIAS GOTTHELF By MARY BERNICE SHINNORS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of U l s t e r , 1984 Dip.Ed., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y of B e l f a s t , 1985 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y College London, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF GERMANIC STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1992 © Mary Bernice Shinnors, 1992 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n a p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of GERMANIC STUDIES The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1873 East M a l l Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1W5 Date: A p r i l 30. 1992 ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n seeks t o achieve three o b j e c t i v e s : (1) to draw a t t e n t i o n t o the genre of the "Dorfgeschichte," (2) t o examine "Dorfgeschichten" which were h i g h l y acclaimed i n nineteenth century Germany, but are dismissed by l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p today, (3) and most importantly, t o adjust decades of i n v e t e r a t e and mis l e a d i n g c r i t i c a l responses w i t h regard t o the w r i t e r s B e r t h o l d Auerbach and Jeremias G o t t h e l f . Although Auerbach's Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten were received with great enthusiasm by the l i t e r a t i i n nineteenth century Germany, h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the genre i s diminished by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s and h i s t o r i a n s today. Some, such as Hermann Boeschenstein, c l a i m t h a t the author "was merely ... sugar-coating the r e a l i t i e s of peasant l i f e , while having no r e a l contacts w i t h i t . " On the other hand, although the m a j o r i t y of G o t t h e l f s s h o r t e r n a r r a t i v e works r e c e i v e l i t t l e s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n , the consensus of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n regard t o the author i s t h a t he possessed an "unexcelled i n s i g h t i n t o the peasant's inner l i f e . " On the b a s i s of my c l o s e a n a l y s i s of Auerbach's and Go t t h e l f s r e s p e c t i v e t e x t s : Schwarzwalder Dorfgeschichten (1843-1854), and K l e i n e r e Erzahlunaen (1838-1852), I conclude t h a t l i t e r a r y conunentators and h i s t o r i a n s a l i k e have, c o n s i s t e n t l y , and i t appears without independent r e e v a l u a t i o n of the authors' w r i t i n g s , d r i v e n Auerbach and G o t t h e l f i n t o two o v e r s i m p l i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s . The focus of my d i s s e r t a t i o n , with p a r t i c u l a r reference t o the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of female characters i n the works of both authors, i s t o dispute the aforementioned, misguided c r i t i c a l responses. In the case of Auerbach, I contend t h a t the a l l e g a t i o n t h a t the w r i t e r sugar-coated h i s peasants i n order t o appeal t o popular t a s t e i s a d i s t o r t e d , indeed a f a l s e c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . I hope t o have demonstrated t h a t , contrary t o prevalent o p i n i o n , the d e p i c t i o n of the woman i n Auerbach's works i s f a r from i d y l l i c and sentimental, and, when compared t o the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l sources which t r e a t t h i s p e r i o d , represents a con v i n c i n g and r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t of the nineteenth century peasant woman. Likewise, I have endaevoured t o show t h a t G o t t h e l j ' s p o r t r a y a l of the woman i s not as r e a l i s t i c as the c r i t i c s purport, f o r i n s t e a d of p r e s e n t i n g the average nineteenth century peasant woman, the l a t t e r emerges as a mere composite of extreme good or e v i l q u a l i t i e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of Obj e c t i v e 3 "Dorfgeschichte" as Genre 18 Some R e f l e c t i o n s on Feminist W r i t i n g s 2 6 CHAPTER ONE - GERMANY AND SWITZERLAND: AN HISTORICAL, CULTURAL OVERVIEW OF THE WOMAN IN THE COURSE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 43 CHAPTER TWO - THE PEASANT WOMAN AND HER BACKGROUND DURING THE 1800s 85 CHAPTER THREE - REDISCOVERING A FORGOTTEN LITERARY PIONEER 109 Auerbach's Women: Young and Old 110 Daughters, Fathers, Lovers 135 Marriage: For b e t t e r or f o r worse 165 Rich and Poor: A Study of the Peasant Woman 175 Page CHAPTER FOUR - REEVALUATING AN ESTEEMED LITERARY FIGURE 203 Women as Negative Examples 204 G o t t h e l f s E x c e p t i o n a l Women: "Sain t s and Paragons" 256 "Demons and R e j e c t s " 270 CONCLUSION - SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 290 BIBLIOGRAPHY 308 APPENDIX I - BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES: BERTHOLD AUERBACH 336 JEREMIAS GOTTHELF 341 APPENDIX I I - SYNOPSIS OF WORKS: CHAPTER THREE 346 CHAPTER FOUR 355 APPENDIX I I I - SOME COMMENTS ON THE CRITICS 364 GLOSSARY - TERMS USED IN CHAPTER FOUR 374 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS H e a r t f e l t thanks t o Pro f e s s o r Marketa Goetz-Stankiewicz f o r her i n v a l u a b l e guidance, and f o r the many i n s p i r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , which made the w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n such a rewarding and enjoyable experience. I a l s o wish t o thank M i k a e l f o r h i s constant f a i t h , support and encouragement. INTRODUCTION The opening s e c t i o n of my d i s s e r t a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s of unequal l e n g t h : i n t r o d u c t i o n , chapter one and chapter two. The f i r s t segment of the i n t r o d u c t i o n -Statement of Ob j e c t i v e - e s t a b l i s h e s the context f o r my a n a l y s i s . The remaining p o r t i o n s of the i n t r o d u c t i o n are composed of a b r i e f comment on the genre of the "Dorfgeschichte", and a s e l e c t i v e survey of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m . I should note, i n t h i s connection, t h a t my own d i s c u s s i o n of the l i t e r a r y t e x t s , i n chapters three and four, i s kept i n t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y terms, although as w i l l be observed, I examine some areas which are of concern to f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m . Chapters one and two are an h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l overview of the woman i n Germany and Sw i t z e r l a n d during the nineteenth century. While the above inter-connected p e r s p e c t i v e s ( f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m and the h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l ) could not be c l o s e l y , and ob v i o u s l y , i n t e g r a t e d i n t o my a n a l y s i s of Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s t e x t s , i t was e s s e n t i a l t o have i n v e s t i g a t e d these p e r s p e c t i v e s , and t o have them i n d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n my d i s s e r t a t i o n f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: the knowledge which t h e i r study y i e l d e d enabled me t o gain a more a s t u t e understanding of the l i t e r a r y t e x t s i n question. and helped me mould the m a t e r i a l f o r the main focus of my d i s s e r t a t i o n , which i s an attempt t o r e c t i f y the misguided c r i t i c a l responses i n respect t o Auerbach and G o t t h e l f , as discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE When the f i r s t volume of B e r t h o l d Auerbach's Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten appeared i n 1843, i t was h a i l e d by the w r i t e r , Gustav Freytag, " a l s ^Erlosung' von der oden Salonliteratur"-*- and acknowledged " a l s Verbindung von 'hoher' und ' V o l k s l i t e r a t u r ' zur N a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r . A t approximately the same time, Jeremias G o t t h e l f was being recognized as "the f i r s t and g r e atest exponent of peasant f i c t i o n i n German l i t e r a t u r e . " ' ^ L i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s and c r i t i c s a l i k e have long hackled over the i s s u e as t o who the " r e a l founders" of the "Dorfgeschichte" were. Regardless of the " v i c t o r " the r e c e p t i o n which the w r i t e r s of the "Dorfgeschichte" r e c e i v e d was overwhelming, as H.A. Glaser, the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n , p o i n t s out: "Die L i t e r a t u r k r i t i k war b e g e i s t e r t , das Publikum nahm d i e neue Kost b e g i e r i g auf, und Ferdinand F r e i l i g r a t h sah i n den Geschichten den Beginn e i n e r neuen, am Leben gewonnenen Dichtung" (1980, 186). Gustav Freytag, Gesammelte Aufsatze ( L e i p z i g : H i r z e l , 1888) 45. 2 K a r l Gutzkow, Beitràge zur Geschichte der neuesten L i t e r a t u r ( S t u t t g a r t : B a l z , 1836) 22. ^ E.K. Bennett, A H i s t o r y of the German Novelle (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1934) 213. The achievements wrought by the w r i t e r s of the "Dorfgeschichte" were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t : "Die Dorfgeschichten-Schreiber t r a t e n e r f o l g r e i c h gegen den Salonroman auf, z e i g t e n dafi auch im Bauernleben Poésie und P h i l o s o p h i e zu f i n d e n s i n d , und schufen Edelnaturen im B a u e r n k i t t e l , d i e den a d e l s t o l z e n Salonmenschen ebenbiirtig waren."'^ Hermann Boeschenstein c r e d i t s both G o t t h e l f and Auerbach, i n p a r t i c u l a r , with evoking widespread i n t e r e s t i n the genre: "With the impetus given by G o t t h e l f and Auerbach r e g i o n a l w r i t i n g began to spread over the whole of Germany, A u s t r i a and S w i t z e r l a n d " (1969, 83). Given such r e c o g n i t i o n , at home and abroad, i t i s noteworthy i n the case of Auerbach t h a t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the "Dorfgeschichte" should be v i r t u a l l y f o r g o t t e n by s c h o l a r s and l i t e r a r y commentators today. I t i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o f i n d a complete c o l l e c t i o n of h i s Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten (1843-1854) . In the research r e p o r t , which I conducted p r i o r t o the submission of my d i s s e r t a t i o n p r o p o s a l , I could only o b t a i n , i n t o t a l , three c r i t i c a l t e x t s from the numerous l i b r a r i e s I c onsulted i n Canada, the U.S.A. and the United Kingdom. Furthermore, I consulted the L i b r a r y of Congress Catalog ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) from 1950 t o the present, but I could not uncover a s i n g l e t e x t on Auerbach i n t h a t p e r i o d . B r i e f reference i s made to the author i n t e x t s , such as Die ^ Jiirgen Hein, Dorfgeschichte ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1976) 67. deutsche Novelle im 19. Jahrhundert (1970) by Josef Kunz, which dea l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the " N o v e l l e " or "Dorfgeschichte" and i n some l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s , but having s t u d i e d numerous such t e x t s , I found t h a t information p e r t i n e n t t o Auerbach was at best p a l t r y . In a d d i t i o n , I undertook a thorough search of d i s s e r t a t i o n theses to see what was a v a i l a b l e on Auerbach's work - the f i n d i n g s were minuscule. Among them are: J a h r e s v e r z e i c h n i s der deutschen H o c h s c h u l s c h r i f t e n (1889 -p r e s e n t ) , Gesamtverzeichnis o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e r D i s s e r t a t i o n e n (genesis - p r e s e n t ) , the L i s t of Higher Degree Theses i n U n i v e r s i t i e s of Great B r i t i a n and I r e l a n d (1716 - p r e s e n t ) , the U.S.A. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s I n t e r n a t i o n a l (1861 -1989), Canadian D i s s e r t a t i o n s A b s t r a c t s (1947 - p r e s e n t ) . Union L i s t of Higher Degree Theses i n A u s t r a l i a n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r i e s (1959 - present) and A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l (1977 - p r e s e n t ) . I a l s o consulted the MLA I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i b l i o g r a p h y (1960-1991), and the B i b l i o g r a p h i e der deutschen Sprach - und L i t e r a t u r w i s s e n s c h a f t (1957-1984), but found very few s c h o l a r l y a r t i c l e s on Auerbach. In regard t o G o t t h e l f more research has been conducted by s c h o l a r s as one might expect from the sheer volume of the author's work, but such research centres l a r g e l y upon h i s novels. More d o c t o r a l theses have been w r i t t e n on G o t t h e l f , but c o n s i d e r i n g h i s r e p u t a t i o n the number i s s t i l l n o t i c e a b l y s m a l l . As i n Auerbach's case very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o G o t t h e l f s "Dorfgeschichten"^ except i n c e r t a i n t e x t s which are cast s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s genre. I a l s o consulted the L i b r a r y of Congress Catalog f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s on G o t t h e l f and found t h a t , i n the l a s t 30 years, r e l a t i v e l y few books d e a l i n g w i t h h i s work have been published (see Works C i t e d 33-34) . Furthermore, I examined the most recent G o t t h e l f b i b l i o g r a p h y p u b l i s h e d i n 1983 (see Works Cited) and discovered a dearth of l i t e r a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n reference t o the v i l l a g e t a l e s . J o s t Hermand's summary of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s accurate: "Mit der bedeutenden Ausnahme von Die schwarze Spinne s i n d auBerhalb der Gesamtdarstellungen E i n z e l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n von G o t t h e l f s Erzahlungen s p a r l i c h " (1967, 273). This, i n my view, i s lamentable s i n c e , i n the f i r s t i n stance, the "Dorfgeschichte" as a s p e c i f i c a l l y German genre has been neglected and underestimated f o r too long and, secondly, the subject matter, i n the case of both Auerbach and G o t t h e l f s work, deserves n o t i c e . Both authors provide a wealth of v a l u a b l e , and untapped, i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the nineteenth century peasantry which i s of i n t e r e s t t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e readership. Not only i s the m a t e r i a l I intend t o explore of i n t e r e s t t o the l i t e r a r y ^ For f u r t h e r explanation of t h i s term i n reference t o G o t t h e l f s work, see "Dorfgeschichte" as Genre p. 18. ^ In 1834, the w r i t e r , Theodor Mundt, r e f e r r e d t o the German Novelle as a "Deutsches Hausthier" [ s i c ] i n Moderne Lebenswirren. B r i e f e und Zeitabenteuer eines S a l z s c h r e i b e r s ( L e i p z i g : n.p., 1834) 156. s c h o l a r , but the keen layman i s presented with a r e a l i s t i c and comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the peasant woman, my focus of i n t e r e s t , i n nineteenth century Germany and S w i t z e r l a n d . Moreover, i n the l a s t f i v e years h i s t o r i a n s from d i f f e r e n t c ontinents have begun to t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the subject of European peasantry (see Works C i t e d ) , which i n d i c a t e s an i n t e r e s t , i n t h i s f i e l d , from various academic d i s c i p l i n e s at present. G o t t h e l f s l i t e r a r y legacy, h i s novels such as U l i der Knecht (1846), i n p a r t i c u l a r , appear to have withstood the t e s t of time, and l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s who are i n f l u e n c e d , t o an extent, by f l u c t u a t i o n s i n popular t a s t e and s o c i e t a l values, b e t t e r than Auerbach's. I w i l l analyze and seek to i l l u m i n a t e the f a c t o r s which account f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n my d i s s e r t a t i o n , but I would l i k e , at t h i s p o i n t , t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o one of the major complaints by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s i n regard t o Auerbach, one which has l e d t o decades of unfavourable c r i t i c a l review f o r the author. Auerbach and h i s f a m i l y moved away from Nordstetten, the Black F o r e s t , where s e v e r a l of Auerbach's ^ I am aware t h a t the terms and concepts: " r e a l i t y " , " r e a l i s m " , and " r e a l i s t i c " i n reference t o l i t e r a t u r e , are d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n , as the s c h o l a r Walter S i l z remarks: " A l l l i t e r a t u r e i s r e a l i s t i c , i n the sense that i t t r i e s t o d i s c e r n and d e p i c t the r e a l t r u t h of l i f e . But d i f f e r e n t ages, and t h e i r poets, have d i f f e r e d as t o what they considered the ' r e a l t h i n g s ' t o be" (15) and f u r t h e r : "The e s t i m a t i o n of ' r e a l i t y ' i s of course subject t o h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s ... i n our own 20th century, much of r e a l i t y has become u n r e a l , or suspect as a mere p r o j e c t i o n of the consciousness" (13). "Dorfgeschichten" are s e t , when Auerbach was i n h i s teens and he e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n B e r l i n at the height of h i s fame. This has l e d l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s such as Hermann Boeschenstein, w r i t i n g i n 1969, t o immediately adopt a harsh a t t i t u d e towards Auerbach and t o dismiss him as "a c i t y d weller, an anaemic i n t e l l e c t u a l " (67) without t r u e knowledge of r u r a l l i f e . E.K. Bennett, the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , condemns Auerbach's peasants as "drawing room peasants, mere p r o j e c t i o n s of a l i t e r a r y mind" and f u r t h e r : "His peasants are turned out so smartly, and are so p o l i s h e d , they have the ideas of an Uhland and an Auerbach and are q u i t e adapted f o r the world of refinement, but - they are no longer Swabian - they are Swabians t r a n s f i g u r e d " (1961, 118). And as regards Auerbach's m o t i v a t i o n i n w r i t i n g , Boeschenstein claims t h a t "he was merely e x p l o i t i n g a f a s h i o n and sugar-coating the r e a l i t i e s of peasant l i f e , w h ile having no r e a l contacts w i t h i t " (67). In s p i t e of Auerbach's i n s i s t e n c e i n 1844: "Ich w i l l f o r t a n f u r das sogenannte niedere Volk schreiben, un m i t t e l b a r f u r d i e Bauern; es f e h l t e i n Mann, der ihrem Herzen L u f t macht"^, c r i t i c s such as E.G. Roedder contend t h a t : "Auerbach wrote f o r the same general readers of f i c t i o n as the then f a s h i o n a b l e w r i t e r s d i d " (1914, 6). This c l a i m i s , i n any case, obsolete s i n c e as Jiirgen Hein remarks In "Vorreden spart Nachreden", the preface t o the 1843 e d i t i o n of the Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten. the "Dorfgeschichte", as a genre, was a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a : Die Dorfgeschichte wendet s i c h an k e i n bestimmtes Publikum, sondern an den e i n f a c h fiihlenden und denkenden Menschen iiberhaupt. Ihr L e s e r k r e i s umfasst ve r h a l t n i s m a f i i g b r e i t e Schichten, denn i h r e I n h a l t e s i n d dem ungebildeten Leser ebenso muhelos v e r s t a n d l i c h wie dem l i t e r a r i s c h g e b i l d e t e n , d.h., d i e gesamte Haltung der Dorfgeschichte i s t a l s v o l k s t u m l i c h anzusprechen (1976, 22) . In t h i s connection, E.K. Bennett suggests t h a t Auerbach d i d not w r i t e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a r u r a l d w e l l e r : In Auerbach's t a l e s of country l i f e , the p o i n t of view i s t h a t of the l i t e r a r y man, t o whom the i n c i d e n t s and characters are copy, but copy which, as a l i t e r a r y man, he f e e l s must be touched up a l i t t l e i n order t o make i t r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . So he strengthens the sentiment i n one p l a c e , heightens the dramatic t e n s i o n i n another, u n d e r l i n e s o d d i t i e s of psychology i n a t h i r d (117-118) . He elaborates f u r t h e r and, i n the s e c t i o n which t r e a t s Auerbach and G o t t h e l f s p e c i f i c a l l y , he i m p l i e s t h a t the l a t t e r i s the more aut h e n t i c w r i t e r : Two main types of w r i t e r s of v i l l a g e s t o r i e s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : the w r i t e r who i s country born and bred, and though him s e l f not a peasant i n the s t r i c t e s t sense of the term, i s i n such c l o s e contact with the l i f e of the peasant th a t the circumstances of h i s subject matter are part of h i s immediate experience; and secondly the town-bred w r i t e r , the l i t e r a r y man by p r o f e s s i o n , who discove r s the peasant world as a source of subject matter, which can be drawn upon with f r u i t f u l r e s u l t s (119-120) . I t appears t h a t both Roedder and Bennett, r e s p e c t i v e l y , overlook the f a c t t h a t Auerbach grew up i n the countr y s i d e , and, as the son of a v i l l a g e p e d l a r , had ample opportunity t o gain experience of the r u r a l m i l i e u . Furthermore, u n l i k e G o t t h e l f who came from a prosperous, e s t a b l i s h e d background, Auerbach was subjected t o an impoverished upbringing and, thus, had f i r s t hand knowledge of the r u r a l poor. Otto Brahm's statement: "Auerbach war e i n Dorfk i n d . Hiermit i s t d i e Kernwurzel seines Dichtens bezeichnet" (7) i s , t h e r e f o r e , a more accurate and j u s t i f i a b l e a p p r a i s a l . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , Auerbach was h a i l e d i n h i s day as " I n i t i a t o r der Dorf g e s c h i c h t e " ^ and enjoyed i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame. There were, however, some who d i d not share i n h i s p r a i s e . For inst a n c e , the w r i t e r F r i e d r i c h Hebbel, a contemporary of Auerbach's, i s s a i d t o have r e f e r r e d t o h i s work as "Bauern-Verhimmlung"and J.G.Th. Grâfîes was a l s o d e r i s i v e of Auerbach's "Dorfgeschichten", a l l u d i n g t o them as "angeblich treue B i l d e r aus dem Volksleben des Schwarzwaldes, d i e ... doch nur I d y l l e n sind.""'"^ I t i s noteworthy t h a t , s i n c e Auerbach's death, l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s have been extremely begrudging of h i s fame. Many do not appear t o accept Auerbach's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the genre and f e e l o b l i g e d t o make excuses f o r G o t t h e l f ' s l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n . Roedder, f o r in s t a n c e , remarked i n 1914: "The Swiss w r i t e r d i d not gain immediate r e c o g n i t i o n i n the world of l e t t e r s , and the c r e d i t r i g h t f u l l y belonging t o him f e l l [...] t o B e r t h o l d Auerbach" (5). Others such as Eda Sagarra (1971), more than h a l f a century l a t e r , express the argument that the Swiss d i a l e c t i n much of G o t t h e l f s work, and h i s seeming i n d i f f e r e n c e t o accepted canons of form, stood i n Q Uwe Baur, Dorfgeschichte: zur Entstehung und g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Funktion e i n e r l i t e r a r i s c h e n Gattung im Vormarz (Mlinchen: Fink, 1978) 20. Quoted i n Jurgen Hein, Dorfgeschichte ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1976) 79. Quoted i n Uwe Baur, Dorfgeschichte: zur Entstehung und g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Funktion e i n e r l i t e r a r i s c h e n Gattung im Vormarz (Munchen: Fink, 1978) 14. the way of wider r e c o g n i t i o n and ensured Auerbach a bigger audience (46). F r i t z M a r t i n i ' s c r i t i c i s m of Auerbach's "Dorfgeschichten", i n h i s well-known t e x t Deutsche L i t e r a t u r im b u r a e r l i c h e n Realismus 1848-1898 (1964), was harsh: Sie kamen auf Kosten des r e a l e n Z e i t g e h a l t e s und der k u n s t l e r i s c h e n Substanz weit mehr dem Zeitgeschmack entgegen. Denn i n ihnen zeichnete s i c h jene F l u c h t i n das I d y l l i s c h - Einfache und Friedsam - Harmonische ab, d i e im Biedermeier b e r e i t s i n d i e T r i v i a l l i t e r a t u r abgesunken war und nach 1848/49 d i e b i i r g e r l i c h e n Neigungen erneut anzog (463) . C l i f f o r d A l b r e c h t Bernd appears t o confirm the view t h a t Auerbach compromised r e a l i t y i n h i s work: "His r e a l i t y holds up s o l e l y under the guise of l o c a l c o l o u r , and i t breaks down a b r u p t l y on being t r a n s p o r t e d t o the broad, a c t u a l l i f e of the general p u b l i c " (1981, 23). Others, such as the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , W. H o l l e r e r , i n Studien zur T r i v i a l l i t e r a t u r , are e q u a l l y s c a t h i n g and seek to negate Auerbach's l i t e r a r y legacy: Eine Untersuchung t r i v i a l e r Heimat-L i t e r a t u r mufi mit B e r t h o l d Auerbach beginnen, der mit seinen "Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten" und seinen l e i c h t sûfîlichen, den Geschmack des stàdtischen Leserpublikums g e s c h i c k t t r e f f e n d e n "BarfuBele" - Erzahlungen eine Mode der Heimat-Erzahlungen auslôste (1976, 37). Most r e c e n t l y , Udo Kôster, the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g i n 1989 r e l u c t a n t l y concedes t h a t Auerbach's work was of importance t o German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y : " B e r t h o l d Auerbach gehort nur der Augenblick; aber d i e s e r Augenblick s e i n e r Erfindung der Dorfgeschichte war f u r den Gang der L i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e so f o l g e n r e i c h wie wenige" (194). On the other hand, M.I. Zwick, one of the few s c h o l a r s who have devoted an e n t i r e t e x t t o an a n a l y s i s of Auerbach' s work, s t r e s s e s the e t h i c a l component i n h i s t e x t s : Den D i c h t e r Auerbach bewegte zuerst immer das e t h i s c h e Motiv, n i c h t das poetische F a r b e n s p i e l und d i e "Lust zu f a b u l i e r e n . " Ihm war das Dichten k e i n s e l b s t g e f a l l i g e s S p i e l mit bunten B i l d e r n , d i e nur das Auge ergôtzen und das Herz k a l t l a s s e n (1933, 9) . And more contemporary l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s , while again merely skimming the surface of Auerbach's oeuvre, are more gracious towards him. Glaser w r i t i n g i n 1980, f o r i n s t a n c e , s t a t e s : Auerbach d r i n g t auf den authentischen Charakter s e i n e r e r z a h l t e n Dorfwelt: Er s p r i c h t von einem bestimmten Dorf, er s c h i l d e r t aus der eigenen Anschauung Land und Leute, das Brauchtum, d i e Abfolge e i n e r Dorfkirmes oder e i n e r P r i e s t e r w e i h e , das uberkommene L i e d e r -und Sagengut - allés das i s t im Gedachtnis gegenwartig oder genau r e c h e r c h i e r t , nachpriifbar, w i r k l i c h k e i t s g e t r e u (186). L i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s , i n c o n t r a s t , have been c o n s i s t e n t l y zealous i n t h e i r p r a i s e of G o t t h e l f . Hermann Boeschenstein r e f e r s t o " G o t t h e l f s immense knowledge of human nature - Shakespeare i n the garb of a v i l l a g e p r i e s t " (76), while Roedder speaks of " h i s u n e x c e l l e d i n s i g h t i n t o the peasant's inner l i f e " (4). Furthermore, Robert Godwin-Jones, a G o t t h e l f s c h o l a r , maintains: L i k e Dickens, w i t h whom he has o f t e n been compared, G o t t h e l f c o n s t r u c t s a t o t a l l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d f i c t i o n a l world which, while being p r e c i s e l y l o c a l i z e d , takes on u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e through the author's p e n e t r a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s i n t o b a s i c human emotions and passions (1984, I n t r o ) . Based upon my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of both Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s t e x t s , I conclude t h a t l i t e r a r y commentators and h i s t o r i a n s a l i k e have, c o n s i s t e n t l y , and i t appears without independently r e e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r w r i t i n g s , d r i v e n Auerbach and G o t t h e l f i n t o two o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s . G o t t h e l f i s h a i l e d f o r h i s r e a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n of country l i f e and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , while Auerbach i s condemned f o r appealing t o popular t a s t e by sugar-coating h i s peasants. I t i s the object of my d i s s e r t a t i o n t o r e c t i f y t h i s f a c i l e approach by undertaking a c l o s e a n a l y s i s of the re s p e c t i v e t e x t s and t h e i r c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s . In the case of Auerbach I contend t h a t , a f t e r i n depth e x p l o r a t i o n of the Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten (1843-1854), the above i s a d i s t o r t e d , indeed a f a l s e c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . I w i l l demonstrate t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n , the p i c t u r e of peasant l i f e which Auerbach presents, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference t o the peasant woman, i s f a r from i d y l l i c and sentimental, and when compared t o the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l sources conveys a conv i n c i n g and r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t of the nineteenth century peasant woman. I purpose t o show tha t M a r t i n i ' s a p p r a i s a l of Auerbach's work: "Er b l i e b auf das i d y l l i s c h e Kleinformat beschrankt, da s e i n B e g r i f f der V o l k s l i t e r a t u r naturgemaJi auf eine Abschirmung gegen d i e Problemgehalte der Z e i t angewiesen war" (1964, 464) i s indeed erroneous. And furthermore, t h a t Auerbach achieved the o b j e c t i v e s he o u t l i n e d i n "Vorreden spart Nachreden", a preface t o the 1843 e d i t i o n of h i s Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten : "Allé Se i t e n des j e t z i g e n Bauernlebens s o l l t e n h i e r môglichst G e s t a l t gewinnen" and Ich habe es versucht, e i n ganzes Dorf gewissermaJBen vom e r s t e n b i s zum l e t z t e n Hause zu s c h i l d e r n ; d i e vorkommenden S i t t e n und Gebrauche s i n d dem w i r k l i c h e n Leben entnommen, so wie auch d i e L i e d e r aus k e i n e r gedruckten Sammlung, sondern, so v i e l mir bekannt, b i s h e r noch ungedruckt s i n d . In regard t o G o t t h e l f , I s t r o n g l y disagree with E.K. Bennett's e v a l u a t i o n of h i s work: "There i s no attempt on the p a r t of G o t t h e l f t o i d e a l i z e or t o s e n t i m e n t a l i z e " (113). I a l s o dispute Roedder's c l a i m t h a t G o t t h e l f s work was so r e a l i s t i c and " h i s adherence to the p r i n c i p l e N a t u r a l i a non sunt t u r p i a i s indeed so s t r i c t t h a t at times a s e n s i t i v e reader i s tempted to h o l d h i s nose" (5) and: "to a l l i n t e n t s and purposes G o t t h e l f must be regarded as the precursor of n a t u r a l i s m " (5). I f u r t h e r contest E. Roggen's o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y because G o t t h e l f d e p i c t e d the peasant i n such a r e a l i s t i c f a s h i o n t h a t he d i d not achieve the same success as Auerbach: Nur wenige Dorfgeschichten-Schreiber hàtten s i c h getraut, den w i r k l i c h e n Bauern vorzufvihren mit a l l seinen niedern Leidenschaften, seinem ungebildeten Wesen, s e i n e r groben Sprache und dem Schmutz der t a g l i c h e n A r b e i t , sondern Rucksicht auf das ge b i l d e t e Lesepublikum genommen. Deshalb habe auch G o t t h e l f , obwohl seine Dorfgeschichten f r i i h e r a l s d i e Auerbachs erscheinen, weniger Anklang beim Publikum gefunden; das Ve r d i e n s t Auerbachs s e i es, der Dorfdichtung auf b r e i t e r Front zum Durchbruch v e r h o l f e n zu haben.-'-^ I hope t o demonstrate, i n my d i s s e r t a t i o n , t h a t G o t t h e l f s d e p i c t i o n of the peasant woman i s not as convincing or as r e a l i s t i c as the c r i t i c s purport, f o r i n s t e a d of pre s e n t i n g an average nineteenth century peasant he o f f e r s two extremes. The woman i s e i t h e r "good" or "bad": an exemplary housekeeper or a shoddy custodian of her farm, ( f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be examined i n chapter four) she i s , l a r g e l y , d e f i n e d and appraised by G o t t h e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o such f a c t o r s . I was unable t o obtai n E. Roggen's d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n "Die Motive i n Auerbachs Dorfgeschichten" (1913) through I n t e r - L i b r a r y loan. The reference I use i s quoted i n Jurgen Hein, Dorfgeschichte ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1976) 67. "DORFGESCHICHTE" AS GENRE E.K. Bennett has added t o the vexed t o p i c of the "Novelle" by r e f e r r i n g t o the "Dorfgeschichte" as "the Novelle of country l i f e " (119). I t i s not my i n t e n t , i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , t o f u r t h e r aggravate the complex debate as to what c o n s t i t u t e s a t r u e "Novelle", s i n c e the term cannot j u s t i f i a b l y be a p p l i e d t o e i t h e r G o t t h e l f s or Auerbach's oeuvre, G o t t h e l f h i m s e l f d i d not u t i l i z e the a p p e l l a t i o n "Novelle" t o d e s c r i b e h i s s h o r t e r works, as Waidson notes: G o t t h e l f was probably unaware of the development of the N o v e l l e i n Germany as a l i t e r a r y genre t h a t set i n w i t h Goethe and the Romantics. He d i d not use the word hi m s e l f , u s u a l l y c a l l i n g h i s s h o r t e r n a r r a t i v e works B i l d e r , Sagen, Geschichten, Erzahlungen - p i c t u r e s , legends, s t o r i e s , t a l e s (204) . Roedder a l s o confirms the author's d i s i n t e r e s t i n the area of l i t e r a r y theory and a e s t h e t i c s : "As a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t G o t t h e l f shows b a r e l y any progress i n h i s whole career, and i n t e n t i o n a l l y so. Few w r i t e r s of note have been so p e r f e c t l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o matters of form" (5). In Auerbach's case the s i t u a t i o n i s l e s s i n v o l v e d s i n c e he designated the volumes of h i s work, which appeared between 1843-1854, "Dorfgeschichten." In view of the above f a c t o r s , I w i l l not, t h e r e f o r e , devote time or space t o a d e l i n e a t i o n of the "Novelle", but I t h i n k i t expedient t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the major d i f f e r e n c e between the genres as o u t l i n e d by Bennett: I f the Nov e l l e be compared with the t a l e [ D o r f g e s c h i c h t e ] , i t w i l l be seen t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two genres c o n s i s t s i n the presence of ... one centre of i n t e r e s t i n the Novelle which i s not e s s e n t i a l to the t a l e . The form of a t a l e i s indeed merely t h a t of a short n o v e l : a proceeding from one given p o i n t along a more or l e s s d i r e c t path to another (200). Towards a D e f i n i t i o n of the "Dorfgeschichte" The "Dorfgeschichte" as a genre has, however, posed some d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n and c r i t i c . The m a j o r i t y of those who have researched the genre, from i t s i n c e p t i o n t o the present day, have concentrated on e s t a b l i s h i n g a d e f i n i t i o n of the "Dorfgeschichte." In reference t o an a n a l y s i s of i t s form, the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e was expressed by M. Zahlbruckner i n 1952: "Sie v e r f o l g e keine "formal k i i n s t l e r i s c h e n A b s i c h t e n . "•'• D e f i n i t i o n s of the "Dorfgeschichte", throughout the nineteenth and i n t o the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, have been loose at best, as Jurgen Hein remarked i n 1976: "Schon Ende der v i e r z i g e r Jahre [1840s] konnte aber "Dorfgeschichte" allés s e i n , was s i c h zwischen S k i z z e und Roman a l s Formen b a u e r l i c h e r Epik einordnen l i e B " (68). The only consensus of agreement among e a r l y l i t e r a r y commentators, i n reference t o the "Dorfgeschichte", was tha t the r u r a l m i l i e u should c o n s t i t u t e the focus of i n t e r e s t . E. Riid, w r i t i n g i n 1909, defines the "Dorfgeschichte" as f o l l o w s : "Unter Dorfgeschichte verstehen w i r nur eine Geschichte s p e z i e l l b a u e r l i c h e n Inhalts,"'^ while L. Lasser maintained i n 1907 that "jede D a r s t e l l u n g des Dorflebens bzw. des Bauerstandes" must be i n c l u d e d under "Dorfgeschichte."^ Bennett's d e f i n i t i o n , i n 1961, was more explanatory i n nature : ^ I was unable t o obta i n M. Zahlbruckner's d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n "Echte und unechte Dorfdichtung" (1952) through I n t e r - L i b r a r y l o a n . I must, t h e r e f o r e , r e l y on the reference i n Jurgen Hein, Dorfgeschichte ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1976) 26. p E. Rud's d i s s e r t a t i o n "Die deutsche Dorfgeschichte b i s auf Auerbach" (1909) was a l s o u n a v a i l a b l e through I n t e r -L i b r a r y l o a n . My reference to h i s study i s quoted i n Hein, Dorfgeschichte 21. I i n c u r r e d the same problem with L. Lasser's t e x t : Die deutsche Dorfdichtung von i h r e n Anfàngen b i s zur Gegenwart (1907). Therefore, the reference I use i s quoted i n Hein, Dorfgeschichte 21. The N o v e l l e of country l i f e b r i n g s a whole new type of subject matter i n pla c e of the f a n c i e s of the l a t e r Deutschland w r i t e r s . I t opens up the whole world of the Bauerntum, a s e l f -contained world c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s own laws, customs and t r a d i t i o n s reaching back i n t o the Middle Ages and having s t i l l abated nothing of t h e i r r i g i d i t y at the time i n which i t becomes the obj e c t of l i t e r a r y e x p l o i t a t i o n (119). F r i e d r i c h A l t v a t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the "Dorfgeschichte" i n 1967, i s , however, recognized as the f i r s t systematic attempt t o de s c r i b e the genre: Die Dorfgeschichte s p i e l t im Dorf und handelt von Bauern. Dies i s t d i e e i n z i g e F e s t s t e l l u n g d i e w i r f u r d i e gesamte Dorfepik machen konnen. In der D o r f l i t e r a t u r g i b t es zwar auch den Gegensatz Stadt-Land und Hutte-SchloJJ, d i e e i g e n t l i c h e Dorfepik h a l t s i c h jedoch mehr oder weniger st r e n g an d i e b a u e r l i c h e S c h o l l e a l s Schauplatz (10). Later d e f i n i t i o n s of the "Dorfgeschichte" became more t h e o r e t i c a l . In 1976, Hein o u t l i n e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the genre as f o l l o w s : Dorfgeschichte a l s eigenwertiger B e z i r k der Erzâhlkunst zeichnet s i c h aus durch Volkstûmlichkeit ( E i n f a c h h e i t , K l a r h e i t ) , bàuerliche Erzâhlperspektive und pâdagogische Tendenz; Hauptmotive s i n d : (1) Der Hof, (2) Die Dorfgemeinschaft, (3) Stadt-Land, (4) S i t t e n k r i t i k (Laster und Leidenschaften) (22). Uwe Baur added t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n 1978: "Hier f a s z i n i e r t n i c h t der e i n z i g a r t i g e Ausnahmefall, das psychologisch und i n t e l l e k t u e l l E x k l u s i v e des Individualromans, sondern "das c h a r a k t e r i s t i s c h Allgemeine e i n e r h i s t o r i s c h bestimmten g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Gruppe" (122). Emergence and Reception of the "Dorfgeschichte" Baur i n h i s t e x t Dorfgeschichte: zur Entstehung und g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n Funktion e i n e r l i t e r a r i s c h e n Gattung im Vormarz (1978) c i t e s an anonymous author, w r i t i n g i n the 1840s, who saw the b i r t h of the "Dorfgeschichte" being brought about "durch d i e Umbildung unseres Bauernstandes und seine neu gewordene Bedeutung im p o l i t i s c h e n und s o z i a l e n Leben" (14). This c l a i m , and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the image of the peasant i n nineteenth century German l i t e r a t u r e , w i l l be analyzed, i n some d e t a i l , i n chapter two. The advent of the "Dorfgeschichte", as s t a t e d i n the preceding pages, was greeted w i t h great enthusiasm by the l i t e r a t i i n Germany. K a r l Gutzkow, w r i t i n g i n Der Grenzbote i n 1843, welcomed the new l i t e r a t u r e wholeheartedly: Es i s t e i n Genre erfunden worden, auf dessen weitem Felde d i e erschôpften Talente s i c h starken konnen; eine Fundgrube des r e i c h s t e n U n t e r h a l t u n g s s t o f f e s t h u t s i c h vor unseren Augen auf, e i n neuer Stufengang i s t angebrochen, der d i e edelste n M e t a l l e zu Tage ford e r n kann (3). Furthermore, Baur repo r t s t h a t a reviewer f o r the same paper wrote, i n reference t o the appearance of the "Dorfgeschichte", i n an e x c i t e d r h e t o r i c a l tone: Dieser ganze L i t e r a t u r z w e i g i s t e i n so v o l l i g neuer, daB w i r weder s e i n e r Form noch s e i n e r Anschauungs- und Darstellungensweise nach i n der b i s h e r i g e n S c h r i f t w e l t Analogien a u f f i n d e n mogen. 1st h i e r L y r i k , i s t h i e r Epik, i s t h i e r D i d a k t i k , i s t h i e r N a turschilderung vorschlagend? Sind es Novellen, s i n d es Romane? 1st h i e r K l a s s i k , i s t ' s Romantik? (14). C o n t r i b u t o r s t o the Genre I t i s not of great s u r p r i s e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t , i n the wake of such a "discovery", there ensued, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d but not discussed, a considerable f r a c a s concerning the "founder" of the "Dorfgeschichte." Since t h i s i s of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t t o my t o p i c , I w i l l p rovide a b r i e f synopsis of the views of the l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s and c r i t i c s on t h i s i s s u e . Hein a t t r i b u t e s the use of the term "Dorfgeschichte", around 1840, t o Auerbach: "Zum erstenmal wurde s i e wohl von B e r t h o l d Auerbach benutzt, der mit "Dorfgeschichte" einen neuen i n h a l t l i c h - s t o f f l i c h und formal bestimmten E r z a h l t y p meinte" (68), w h i l e Baur h a i l s the l a t t e r as "der bewufite d i c h t e r i s c h - l i t e r a r i s c h e Organisator der Dorfgeschichte" (20). Upon Auerbach's decease, the notable l i t e r a r y f i g u r e , F r i e d r i c h Theodor V i s c h e r e x t o l l e d the author's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the genre i n a commemorative speech: "Du h a t t e s t V o r l a u f e r , v e r e i n z e l t i s t diese Form vor d i r dagewesen; aber Schopfer heifît, wer eine Form r e i c h l i c h e n t w i c k e l t und a l s bleibende Gattung a u f s t e l l t im Saale der Dichtkunst" (Baur, 15) . More recent l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p cannot agree as t o the "founder" of t h i s genre. A l t v a t e r maintained, i n 1967, t h a t " d i e gattungsmaBig echte Dorfgeschichte setze mit G o t t h e l f e i n " (4), while K.I. F l e s s a u r e f e r s t o H e i n r i c h Zschokke " a l s e i n e r der wesentlichen Begrunder der Schweizer Dorfgeschichte." The l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r , Emil Ermatinger, on the other hand, i s of the view: "Die d r e i Begriinder der Dorfgeschichte s i n d W e i l l , Auerbach and Rank" (79). This d i v e r s i t y of opinion i s perhaps due t o the l a c k of research which has been conducted on the "Dorfgeschichte" as Hein, w r i t i n g i n 1976, e x p l a i n s : "Das Gebiet der D o r f l i t e r a t u r (bauerlichen E p i k ) , insbesondere der Dorfgeschichte i s t b i s h e r kaum systematisch untersucht" (1). I f one considers the small number of t e x t s (see Works C i t e d ) , which have the "Dorfgeschichte" as t h e i r s p e c i f i c focus of i n t e r e s t , there appears t o have been l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the genre i n the course of the t w e n t i e t h century. By the 1970s i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d s c h o l a r l y m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t t o the "Dorfgeschichte", although two very h e l p f u l t e x t s by Jurgen Hein and Uwe Baur, which I have made reference t o i n t h i s s e c t i o n , appear i n t h i s p e r i o d . The l a s t decade has proven even more bleak, a f t e r a thorough search of a l l a v a i l a b l e sources, I was unable t o f i n d a s i n g l e t e x t i n reference t o the "Dorfgeschichte" i n Germany. Jurgen Hein quotes K.I. Flessau i n h i s t e x t Dorfgeschichte, but he does not provide a reference t o Flessau's work. The reference I use i s quoted i n the above t e x t , p. 61. SOME REFLECTIONS ON FEMINIST WRITINGS I am aware t h a t any study p e r t i n e n t t o the woman, at present, i s not only t o p i c a l , but according to the tenor of today's l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p , many w r i t e r s and c r i t i c s , who t r e a t the aforementioned s u b j e c t , adopt a f e m i n i s t approach and argue from an i d e o l o g i c a l l y f e m i n i s t p o i n t of view i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , mine i s not a f e m i n i s t d i s s e r t a t i o n , although I w i l l be t r e a t i n g issues which are of i n t e r e s t t o the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n and l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r . Josephine Donovan, a f e m i n i s t c r i t i c , has underscored the importance of t a k i n g the s o c i a l and l e g a l background of the woman i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n order t o a r r i v e at a f u l l understanding of her char a c t e r i n f i c t i o n . In Donovan's view, f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m i s u l t i m a t e l y c u l t u r a l c r i t i c i s m (10). Chapters one and two could then be conceived as c u l t u r a l i n Donovan's sense of the word, f o r they are devoted, i n p a r t , t o an account of the s o c i a l and l e g a l p o s i t i o n of the woman i n nineteenth century Germany and Sw i t z e r l a n d . However, i n my d i s c u s s i o n of Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s t e x t s I have not adopted the t o o l s of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m . As s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the primary object of my d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o r e c t i f y the myopic approach which l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s and sch o l a r s have assumed i n regard t o Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s d e p i c t i o n of country l i f e , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference t o the peasant woman. When I decided upon my d i s s e r t a t i o n t o p i c . The Image of the Peasant Woman i n Se l e c t e d Works of B e r t h o l d Auerbach and Jeremias G o t t h e l f , I took the above f a c t o r s i n t o account. F e e l i n g i n t i m i d a t e d by the vast debate i n f e m i n i s t l i t e r a r y theory and c r i t i c i s m , I attempted t o f a m i l i a r i z e myself w i t h the l a t t e r and t o e l i c i t a model of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m . I found however, t h a t f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m and theory, as of 1991, i s i n a s t a t e of f l u x , various stances v i r t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t i n g each other. In the f o l l o w i n g s pages I report on my f i n d i n g s . I t i s not the aim of my d i s s e r t a t i o n t o engage i n a polemic with f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m , but I would l i k e t o p o i n t out c e r t a i n f a c t o r s , through a b r i e f , h i s t o r i c a l overview of fe m i n i s t theory, which have l e d me t o the above c o n c l u s i o n . Today, the m a j o r i t y of French and Anglo-American f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s r e j e c t the p i o n e e r i n g work of the 1960s as Janet Todd, the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n , remarks: "The e a r l y s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m t h a t i s now denigrated formed the base and c o n d i t i o n of l a t e r study, was i n a way the begetter of us a l l , and so i n e v i t a b l y , l i k e a mother, appears naive i n the l i g h t of changing modes" (1988, 1). The o r i g i n s of fe m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m appear a r c h a i c by the standards of today's complex, t h e o r e t i c a l debate. Todd comments on t h i s issue as f o l l o w s : Feminist c r i t i c i s m begins, I suppose, when the f i r s t woman became aware of her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o language and conscious of h e r s e l f as w r i t e r , speaker, reader or a u d i t o r . But i t probably gets under way i n our time with V i r g i n i a Woolf's A Room of One's Own (1928) and w i t h Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex (1949), With much s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and compression, these two books may be seen as b e g e t t i n g the American and French l i n e s of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m (18). The e a r l i e s t phase of f e m i n i s t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m was l a r g e l y based on, and i n f l u e n c e d by, the tenets of the American Women's Movement i n the l a t e 1960s. As a r e s u l t , e a r l y f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m was p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v i s t i n nature i t c a l l e d f o r equal opportunity f o r women i n a l l areas of l i f e . Feminist c r i t i c s such as Kate M i l l e t t i n the United St a t e s , f o r in s t a n c e , saw the aim of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m t o be the subversion of p a t r i a r c h y , t h a t r u l e of the f a t h e r s . ^ Josephine Donovan, ed.. Feminist L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m (Kentucky: U of Kentucky P, 1975) 1. Janet Todd, Feminist L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y : A Defence (Oxford: P o l i t y P ress, 1988) 2. Other proponents of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m such as P a t r i c i a Spacks, w r i t i n g i n the 1960s, understood f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m "to i n c l u d e any mode tha t approaches a t e x t w i t h primary concern f o r the nature of female experience i n i t " (1981, 14). Josephine Donovan, w r i t i n g i n 1975, developed a more elaborate theory. She d i v i d e d f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t s u b d i v i s i o n s : (1) The a n a l y s i s of the "image of women," ne a r l y always as i t appears i n works by male authors; (2) The examination of e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m of female authors; (3) " P r e s c r i p t i v e " c r i t i c i s m - which was s t i l l i n need of form u l a t i o n , but one which she saw as the f u t u r e crux of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m . This form of c r i t i c i s m would attempt t o set standards f o r l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s "good" from a f e m i n i s t viewpoint (2). In her t e x t Feminist L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Theory (1975), she suggested t h a t , i n order t o win f e m i n i s t approval, l i t e r a t u r e must f u l f i l one or more of the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : "(1) Serve as a forum f o r women; (2) Help t o achieve c u l t u r a l androgyny; (3) Provide r o l e models; (4) Promote s i s t e r h o o d ; and (5) Augment consciousness-r a i s i n g " (19). Feminist f i c t i o n , as E r i c a Jong remarked, would r e j e c t " a l l those s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i s t novels i n which women are dep i c t e d as h e l p l e s s victims."-^ By the l a t e 1970s, i n a harsher " p o l i t i c a l " and academic c l i m a t e , Todd r e p o r t s t h a t "the seeming n a i v e t y of E r i c a Jong, " V i s i o n a r y Anger," Feminist Studies (1973): 34. American f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m was abandoned, and i t turned t o enter the t h e o r e t i c a l storms" (38) which were beginning to rage i n France. I n t e r e s t was d i r e c t e d towards a new c r i t i c i s m "termed i n d i s c r i m a t e l y p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s m and decon s t r u c t i o n " (Todd 38). This new tr e n d was a s s o c i a t e d with Jacques Derrida i n France, and sch o l a r s such as J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , Paul de Man, and Geoffrey Hartmann at i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United S t a t e s . The new methods began t o i n f i l t r a t e American f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s . E l a i n e Showalter, one of the most prominent American f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s i n the 1970s, who had formerly been condemned by the Fra n c o p h i l e c r i t i c s ^ f o r her s o c i o - c u l t u r a l approach, acknowledged the new methods i n an essay "Towards a Feminist P o e t i c s " which she p u b l i s h e d i n 1979. By the 1980s new developments were t a k i n g p l a c e i n f e m i n i s t l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n America. A s e r i e s from the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Women i n Cu l t u r e and So c i e t y , presented by Catherine Stimpson, was ins t r u m e n t a l i n these new developments. I t in c l u d e d works such as E l l e n P o l l a k ' s The P o e t i c s of Sexual Myth, Gender and Ideology i n the Verse of S w i f t and Pope (1985). In reference t o these new c r i t i c s , Todd s t a t e s : The aim, t y p i c a l of the newer k i n d of c r i t i c s , i s then, t e x t u a l and ^ Janet Todd repor t s t h a t F r a n c o p h i l e c r i t i c s such as Mary Jacobus makes a d i r e c t a t t a c k on Showalter i n her t e x t Reading Woman. She describes the l a t t e r ' s work as "untheorized, experimental and l i t e r a r y - h e r s t o r i c a l . " i d e o l o g i c a l , f o r m a l i s t i n the sense th a t works are viewed as v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e s , but going beyond formalism i n the d e s i r e t o prove that questions of i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c , t e x t and context, u l t i m a t e l y converge. The hope i s , as E l l e n P o l l a k w e l l expresses i t , t o u n i t e formal and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l concerns so as t o avoid the a h i s t o r i c a l danger i n d e c o n s t r u c t i o n and the naive view of e m p i r i c a l n e u t r a l i t y i n h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m (70). Today there i s , i n essence, no r e a l agreement among f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s . Only one c l e a r c r i t e r i o n t o d e f i n e various f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n s appears t o e x i s t , as Todd e x p l a i n s : " A t t i t u d e s t o V i r g i n i a Woolf become the r e a l a c i d t e s t of c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s " (36). This l a c k of agreement i s not unusual i n i t s e l f , f o r as Donovan s t a t e s : "Female r e a l i t y i s not m o n o l i t h i c , but has many nuances and v a r i a t i o n s " (13). The f e m i n i s t c r i t i c , R. Bowlby, w r i t i n g i n 1988, elaborates f u r t h e r : Feminism i s a f a r from u n i t a r y concept f o r f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s today, ranging as i t does from a f f i r m a t i o n s of a n a t u r a l but suppressed female d i f f e r e n c e t o an i n s i s t e n c e on the precariousness of a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n s of gender, from claims f o r an "indigenous" female l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t o the question of a c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y mode ( I n t r o ) . Furthermore, as Terry L o v e l l , e x p l a i n s i n reference t o the major schools of f e m i n i s t l i t e r a r y theory: The d e n i a l of n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s c a r r i e s d i f f i c u l t i e s of i t s own. I n t e r n a t i o n a l movements such as feminism and s o c i a l i s m develop along s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l i n e s which can be r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l contexts (1990, 3 ). The c u l t u r a l gap, f o r in s t a n c e , between the French and Anglo-American approaches i s wide. A l i c e J a r d i n e , the Francophile c r i t i c , a p t l y summarizes the major d i f f e r e n c e s as f o l l o w s : The Anglo-Americans emphasize "oppression", the French " r e p r e s s i o n " , the Anglo-Americans wish t o r a i s e consciousness, the French explore the unconscious; the Anglo-Americans discu s s power, the French p l e a s u r e ; the Anglo-Americans are governed by humanism and empiricism while the French have developed an ela b o r a t e debate on t e x t u a l theory.^ B r i t i s h feminism i s yet another matter and has been described as "a f a r l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i e t y " (Todd 17). In B r i t a i n the f e m i n i s t c r i t i c a l e f f o r t i n the past and present, u n l i k e France and America, i s not on the whole t a k i n g p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t i s o c c u r r i n g i n s t e a d among independent w r i t e r s , j o u r n a l i s t s and i n the p o l y t e c h n i c s . Despite the apparent l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n fe m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m i n B r i t i s h academe, f e m i n i s t p u b l i s h i n g has f l o u r i s h e d . M i c h e l l e B a r r e t t and Cora Kaplan are j u s t two examples of w r i t e r s who are making an impact i n B r i t a i n . Furthermore, B r i t i s h f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m cannot be viewed i n i s o l a t i o n from s o c i a l i s m . Hence i t stands i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t to recent American models as Todd, i n a somewhat s i m p l i f i e d manner, e x p l a i n s : " B r i t i s h feminism has always had an un-American l i n k with Marxism and p o l i t i c s of the L e f t : i t made a commitment t o the c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t and i n s i s t e d on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m i n the wider c r i t i q u e of s o c i e t y " (86-87). As s t a t e d by Todd both V i r g i n i a W o o l f s A Room of One's Own (1929) and Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex (1949) may be regarded as the forerunners of the American and French l i n e s of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m (18). Since both authors ^ A l i c e J a r d i n e , The Future of D i f f e r e n c e , eds. Hester E i s e n s t e i n and A l i c e Jardine (Boston: H a l l , 1980) x x v i . have been repeatedly h a i l e d as the pioneers of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m , i t i s worthwhile t o consider what f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s have had to say about them, and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t o examine what the authors themselves had t o say i n regard t o t h e i r works. In reference t o the f e m i n i s t debate, Todd commented, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, " a t t i t u d e s t o V i r g i n i a Woolf become the r e a l a c i d t e s t of c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s " (36). This would appear to be the case, f o r f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s and c r i t i c s blow e i t h e r hot or c o l d on the subject of Woolf. Jane Marcus, a f e m i n i s t c r i t i c , who has e d i t e d s e v e r a l t e x t s on V i r g i n i a Woolf, i s glowing i n her p r a i s e of the author. In New Feminist Essays on V i r g i n i a Woolf (1981), which c o n s i s t s of 12 essays by f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o the author, Marcus claims Woolf as the common denominator i n the vast tangle of f e m i n i s t d i f f e r e n c e s : "Our methodologies d i f f e r , as do our t r a i n i n g and our ages and our s t y l e s . We are l i n k e d by sex and a sense th a t something has been miss i n g i n V i r g i n i a Woolf s c h o l a r s h i p . As a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , V i r g i n i a Woolf i s the mother of us a l l " ( I n t r o ) . Marcus a t t r i b u t e s Woolf with the disc o v e r y of a language through which women could express themselves: "She r a i d e d the p a t r i a r c h y and trespassed on male t e r r i t o r y , r e t u r n i n g t o share her s p o i l s with other women: women's words, the feminine sentence, and f i n a l l y the appr o p r i a t e female form" ( I n t r o ) . Furthermore, Marcus considers Woolf's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Women's Movement t o be of paramount importance: "As a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c and n o v e l i s t , V i r g i n i a Woolf thought not only back through her mothers but a l s o sideways through her s i s t e r s . I t was a c o l l e c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l e f f o r t and an a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l e f f o r t of committed s o c i a l i s t feminism" ( I n t r o ) . In s t a r k c o n t r a s t t o Marcus' a d u l a t i o n of Woolf, Jane Wheare, i n her t e x t V i r g i n i a Woolf; Dramatic N o v e l i s t (1989), r e p o r t s : "Many c r i t i c s - amongst them l e f t - w i n g poets of the 1930s and some f e m i n i s t s i n more recent years -have condemned her [Woolf] as an amoral n o v e l i s t who places t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n above s o c i a l commitment i n her w r i t i n g " (3). E l a i n e Showalter i s one such c r i t i c . In A L i t e r a t u r e of Their Own (1978) she r e f e r s t o W o o l f s n o v e l : A Room of One's Own as "an extremely impersonal and defensive book" (282-283). She j u s t i f i e s t h i s statement by m a i n t a i n i n g that the i m p e r s o n a l i t y , which she perceives i n the aforementioned t e x t , i s a s i g n of weakness on the p a r t of Woolf t o take a f i r m f e m i n i s t stance. Showalter f u r t h e r deprecates W o o l f s novel by s t a t i n g t h a t the author's concept of "androgyny" was i n f a c t "the myth t h a t helped her evade c o n f r o n t a t i o n with her own p a i n f u l femaleness and enabled her t o choke and repress her anger and ambition" (282-3). Other f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s , Naomi Black among them, c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t that Woolf could not have been a f e m i n i s t s i n c e she r e j e c t e d the very word and r e f e r r e d t o i t i n Three Guineas as "an o l d word, a v i c i o u s and corrupt word, t h a t has done much harm i n i t s day and i s now o b s o l e t e . " Black, however, i s not as scathing of Woolf as i s Showalter. In the case of Simone de Beauvoir she has been h a i l e d as "a pioneer of the Women's Movement",^ and f u r t h e r : "Simone de Beauvoir has c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably t o the progress and the strengthening of women's conscience and emancipation.""^ Her novel The Second Sex (1949) i s described s e v e r a l l y as "the e a r l i e s t c o n s i s t e n t manifesto e s t a b l i s h i n g women's role"° and as "a c l a s s i c i n f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e . " A l i c e Schwarzer, the f e m i n i s t c r i t i c , r e f e r s t o de Beauvoir's novel as f o l l o w s : "The Second Sex, her p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , economic and h i s t o r i c a l study of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y of women i n a male-dominated world, i s a p i o n e e r i n g work without p a r a l l e l " (23) , Jean Leighton elaborates f u r t h e r on de Beauvoir's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Women's Movement: Her p e r c e p t i o n of how the male-dominated c u l t u r e t r i e s t o transform woman i n t o an "o b j e c t " who e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y t o please men has had profound r e v e r b e r a t i o n s and has been taken over by the Women's L i b e r a t i o n movement as p a r t of i t s ^ Konrad Bieber, Simone de Beauvoir (Boston: Twayne, 1979) 103. Bieber, De Beauvoir 103. p Jean Leighton, Simone de Beauvoir on Woman (London: A s s o c i a t e d UP, 1975) 219. Q Leighton, De Beauvoir on Woman 219. eloquent indictment of the inhumanity of man t o woman. Above a l l , her attempt t o d e l i n e a t e how woman's oppression does not depend so much on l e g a l e x c l u s i o n (they can vote, can't they?) as on massive s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g of male and female so t h a t "sexism" dominates a l l of our judgements, represents a pioneer advance i n the f e m i n i s t movement (220) . While such accolades have been heaped upon de Beauvoir by decades of f e m i n i s t s , she makes her p o s i t i o n on feminism c l e a r i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The Second Sex; For a long time I have h e s t i t a t e d t o w r i t e a book on woman. The subject i s i r r i t a t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t o women; and i t i s not new. Enough ink has been s p i l l e d i n the q u a r r e l i n g over feminism, now p r a c t i c a l l y over, and perhaps we should say no more about i t . I t i s s t i l l t a l k e d about, however, f o r the voluminous nonsense u t t e r e d during the l a s t century seems t o have done l i t t l e t o i l l u m i n a t e the problem. De Beauvoir's a t t i t u d e towards the f e m i n i s t s , at tha t time, was not lau d a t o r y ; "We should consider the arguments of the f e m i n i s t s w i t h ... s u s p i c i o n , however, f o r very o f t e n t h e i r c o n t r o v e r s i a l aim deprives them of a l l r e a l value" ( I n t r o ) . And f a r from exonerating women i n her novel, de Beauvoir placed the blame f o r t h e i r dilemma not on the male sex, but on women themselves: " I f woman seems t o be the i n e s s e n t i a l which never becomes the e s s e n t i a l , i t i s because she h e r s e l f f a i l s t o b r i n g about t h i s change" ( I n t r o ) . The author saw her book as an attempt t o change the status quo by encouraging women t o demand t h e i r r i g h t s : What f a t e awaits our younger s i s t e r s , and what d i r e c t i o n s should they take? I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t books by women on women are i n general animated i n our day l e s s by a wish t o demand our r i g h t s than by an e f f o r t toward c l a r i t y and understanding. As we emerge from an era of excessive controversy, t h i s book i s o f f e r e d as one attempt among others t o confirm t h a t statement ( I n t r o ) . I t i s t r u e t h a t de Beauvoir l a t e r a l t e r e d her p o s i t i o n on feminism and the Women's Movement. In a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s , conducted with A l i c e Schwarzer between 1972-1982, she e x p l a i n s : " I t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l f o r women t o take t h e i r d e s t i n y i n t o t h e i r own hands. That i s why I have now j o i n e d the Women's L i b e r a t i o n Movement" (32). In r e a c t i o n t o Schwarzer's question about not having developed t a c t i c s f o r the l i b e r a t i o n of women i n The Second Sex, de Beauvoir responds: "That's r i g h t . I admit i t was a shortcoming i n my book. I f i n i s h w i t h vague confidence i n the f u t u r e , the r e v o l u t i o n and s o c i a l i s m . I have changed my views now. As I've been t e l l i n g you, I r e a l l y am a f e m i n i s t " (42) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, th a t when asked by Schwarzer as t o her opi n i o n of the new breed of r a d i c a l , m i l i t a n t f e m i n i s t s , she dis t a n c e d h e r s e l f from them i n one v i t a l p o i n t : " I b e l i e v e t h a t although the women's s t r u g g l e i s unique, i t i s c e r t a i n l y l i n k e d t o the s t r u g g l e women have to conduct along w i t h men. As a r e s u l t , I r e j e c t the t o t a l r e p u d i a t i o n of men" (33), and f u r t h e r "There are some f e m i n i s t s who do not accept t h a t one may conduct the same st r u g g l e as they do, i f one i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with one man; I do not agree" (2 9). While i t i s c l e a r t h a t de Beauvoir became more of a confirmed f e m i n i s t , at l e a s t i n some res p e c t s , l a t e r on i n l i f e , I would have t o agree with Konrad Bieber's a p p r a i s a l of de Beauvoir's o b j e c t i v e i n w r i t i n g The Second Sex: Simone de Beauvoir d i d not set out t o " f r e e women." Her aim was f a r more modest: by e x p l a i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l l y , b i o l o g i c a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y what women's c o n d i t i o n has been through the ages, she has e v e n t u a l l y equipped the combative champions of women's r i g h t s i n our day with the weapons t o be used i n the continued f i g h t f o r e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e , as i t turned out not only f o r women but f o r a l l human beings t r e a t e d u n f a i r l y (114) . The South A f r i c a n w r i t e r , Doris L e s s i n g , i s f r e q u e n t l y included along with V i r g i n i a Woolf and Simone de Beauvoir as a pioneer i n f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m and the Women's Movement. Mona Knapp reports t h a t many l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s describe The Golden Notebook (1962) as Lessing's magnum opus (53), while R. Whittaker s t a t e s , i n reference t o the book, t h a t " i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t has been s e i z e d on as a polemic by var i o u s movements" (75) . Knapp goes on t o describe The Golden Notebook as "a c l a s s i c i n every f e m i n i s t l i b r a r y " (53). In her view a f e m i n i s t reading of the work i s r e i n f o r c e d by Lessing's d e l i b e r a t e emphasis on the r o l e of s e x u a l i t y i n Anna's (the female p r o t a g o n i s t ' s ) r e f l e c t i o n s (59). Whittaker a l s o s t r e s s e s the r o l e of female s e x u a l i t y i n the t e x t : "The Golden Notebook broke new ground i n i t s open d i s c u s s i o n of female s e x u a l i t y from the p o i n t of view of a woman w r i t e r " (69) and f u r t h e r : There i s a great d e a l about men's sexual inadequacies i n t h i s book, from l o v e r s who are t e c h n i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t but emotio n a l l y detached, t o those who are simply i n e p t . What Mrs. L e s s i n g r e i t e r a t e s i s the d i f f e r e n t nature of the sexual act f o r a woman i f i t i s i n the context of love (69). J.Taylor a l s o supports the view t h a t L e s s i n g forged new ground i n t h i s area: "But no one before The Golden Notebook had so a c c u r a t e l y captured the d i f f e r e n t moods and ambiguity of women's sexual f e e l i n g s " (51). In view of these remarks i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e r e s t i n g to note Lessing's own r e a c t i o n t o the r e c e p t i o n of her book. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to The Golden Notebook she s t a t e s : "Emerging from t h i s c r y s t a l l i s i n g process, handing the manuscripts to p u b l i s h e r and f r i e n d s , I learned that I had w r i t t e n a t r a c t about the sex war, and f a s t discovered t h a t nothing I s a i d then could change that d i a g n o s i s . " The author was not pleased with t h i s narrow reading of her work: "Yet the essence of the book, the o r g a n i s a t i o n of i t , e v erything i n i t , says i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y , t h a t we must not d i v i d e t h i n g s o f f , must not compartmentalise" ( I n t r o ) . And more s i g n i f i c a n t l y perhaps, her p o s i t i o n on feminism was decidedly lukewarm: I don't t h i n k t h a t Women's L i b e r a t i o n w i l l change much though - not because there i s anything wrong with t h e i r aims, but because i t i s already c l e a r t h a t the whole world i s being shaken i n t o a new p a t t e r n by the cataclysms we are l i v i n g through: probably by the time we are through, i f we do get through at a l l , the aims of Women's L i b e r a t i o n w i l l look very small and quaint ( I n t r o ) . What I have attempted t o demonstrate, i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i s t h a t the authors on whom the f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s and c r i t i c s have pinned t h e i r e n t i r e debate were not f e m i n i s t s i n the contemporary sense of the word. Furthermore, i t has s u i t e d some f e m i n i s t c r i t i c s t o a l t e r n a t e l y h a i l and abandon the "pioneers" at the s l i g h t e s t w h i f f of a new and t r e n d i e r theory. And while the whole f i e l d of f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m and theory i s , without question, f a s c i n a t i n g , i t appears t h a t i t s t i l l has a long way t o go before a convincing and d e f i n i t i v e model may emerge, which would i l l u m i n a t e the scho l a r who searches f o r i t i n earnest. CHAPTER ONE GERMANY AND SWITZERLAND: AN HISTORICAL, CULTURAL OVERVIEW OF THE WOMAN IN THE COURSE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY In order t o place t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the nineteenth century-*- German woman i n a meaningful s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l context, i t i s c l e a r l y necessary, t o have some grasp of the woman's l i f e i n Germany, i n preceding c e n t u r i e s . She, of course, does not e x i s t i n an hermetic vacuum, but i s a product of i n f i n i t e l y complex h e r e d i t a r y i n f l u e n c e s and forces which determine, t o some degree, how she must l i v e her l i f e . Therefore, i n t h i s s e c t i o n I attempt a b r i e f overview of the l i f e of the woman i n German speaking areas (Germany and Switzerland) from the o l d e s t sources a v a i l a b l e t o me up t o the century i n question, which w i l l be t r e a t e d i n more d e t a i l . One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n I am cognizant of the f a c t t h a t the woman (and her circumstances) i n 1895 d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from t h a t of her counterpart i n 1805. In t h i s chapter and i n chapter two, I present an h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l overview of the woman i n the course of the nineteenth century. In chapters three and four which d e a l w i t h Auerbach and G o t t h e l f , who were w r i t i n g the works which are under d i s c u s s i o n i n the aforementioned chapters between 1838-1854, my focus i s d i r e c t e d at the mid-nineteenth century woman. t h i s task, with p a r t i c u l a r reference t o the p e r i o d p r i o r t o the s i x t e e n t h century, i s the l a c k of p e r t i n e n t sources as Margaret Ker, the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n , e x p l a i n s : "So few women who l i v e d i n western Europe between 600 and 1500 have l e f t us any d e t a i l e d records of how they saw themselves i n r e l a t i o n t o the s o c i e t y i n t o which they were born" (1987, 7) . In t h i s connection, i t was a l s o exceedingly d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d m a t e r i a l on the subject of women i n nineteenth century S w i t z e r l a n d . I consulted numerous s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s i n search of re l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , but the r e s u l t s were meagre. The c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , Walter S o r e l l , w r i t i n g i n 1972 lapses i n t o gross exaggeration, when he contends t h a t S w i t z e r l a n d as an h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l e n t i t y has not entered the f o r e i g n e r ' s consciousness (116). But, at the same time, he makes an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t , which may perhaps account, t o a degree, f o r the l a c k of h i s t o r i c a l sources on Swiss women, when he s t a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e Switzerland's many i n s t i t u t i o n s the only one t h a t i s known i s the disfranchisement of women (119). The m a t e r i a l I was able t o o b t a i n , i n reference t o t h i s area, I found i n t e x t s which deal s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the h i s t o r y of women i n Germany. I t would appear, t h a t i n the minds of a v a r i e t y of h i s t o r i a n s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n between Germany and the German speaking canton of S w i t z e r l a n d i s so strong that no l i n e of demarcation i s drawn i n the d i s c u s s i o n of German and Swiss women. This l i n k i s perhaps not so s u r p r i s i n g i f one considers t h a t , o r i g i n a l l y , the Swiss Confederation formed, by descent, language and sense of belonging, a part of the German Reich. The Swiss c a l l e d themselves " A l t e r grofier Bund i n oberdeutschen Landen." Though Switzerland's f u l l independence from the Reich was p r a c t i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d at the Peace of Basle i n 1499 and o f f i c i a l l y recognized i n the Peace of Westphalia i n 1648, the r u l i n g c l a s s i n the Confederation continued t o t h i n k of themselves as German (Lowie 16). In regard to a l l of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s chapter, I must underscore t h a t I am p r e s e n t i n g an array of a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s which, I r e a l i z e , may not always be " o b j e c t i v e . " In order t o combat t h i s p o t e n t i a l problem, I have endeavoured t o produce a wide range of m a t e r i a l , which spans a considerable number of years (1865-present), from a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s : h i s t o r i a n s , t r a v e l l e r s and w r i t e r s with d i s s i m i l a r p o i n t s of view i n the hope th a t as unbiased an account as p o s s i b l e w i l l emerge. In reference t o the importance of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l context f o r an a n a l y s i s of the peasant woman i n l i t e r a t u r e , which i s my focus of i n t e r e s t , I agree with Josephine Donovan's statement ( r e f e r r e d t o i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n ) made i n 1975: "To understand a female author -or c h a r a c t e r - completely, the c r i t i c must take i n t o account the s o c i a l and l e g a l s t a t u s of the woman i n her s o c i e t y " (10). Since my d i s s e r t a t i o n r e s t s upon an a n a l y s i s of Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s d e p i c t i o n of the nineteenth century peasant woman, i t i s imperative t o consider the rel e v a n t h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l i n order t o evaluate Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s work. Furthermore, i t i s important, i n t h i s connection, t o t r a c e the development of the woman back i n time, so t h a t a meaningful h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e may be e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o l l o w i n g pages are an attempt t o achieve t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Some of the e a r l i e s t a u t h o r i t i e s on the subject and p o s i t i o n of women among Germanic peoples c i r c a 450 BC are J u l i u s Caesar and C o r n e l i u s T a c i t u s . According t o Caesar, German women were h e l d i n great respect when compared t o t h e i r G a u l i s h counterparts. German matrons were esteemed as prophetesses and no b a t t l e was waged unless the women had f i r s t given assurance of a v i c t o r o u s outcome. In t h i s connection, T a c i t u s reported t h a t the Sitones, a people of Northern Germany, a l s o bestowed the r o y a l power on the female sex f o r they b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r d i v i n e p r o p e r t i e s , hence t h e i r respect f o r them as prophetesses.^ In the opi n i o n of the h i s t o r i a n , Hugh Puckett, "Frauendienst", the c u l t of c h i v a l r y , e l e v a t e d women t o a new p o s i t i o n of eminence" (1930, 17). But, however e x a l t e d the woman's stat u s may have been i n theory, she was ^ Eugene Hecker, A Short H i s t o r y of Women's Rights 2nd ed. (New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1914) 78-79. accorded, i n Germanic law, a very d i f f e r e n t rank from t h a t enjoyed by men, Eda Saggara, a c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , e x p l a i n s : "From the moment of her b i r t h , when the symbolic ceremonies a t t r i b u t e d a l e s s e r value t o her than t o a male c h i l d , and i n matters of law and i n h e r i t a n c e , a g i r l was t r e a t e d l e s s favourably" (1977, 405). From e a r l y childhood onward, the woman was e n t r u s t e d t o the guardianship of a male and consequently l o s t any independence she might have enjoyed. Under t h i s arrangement, she had t o seek her guardian's consent i n a l l matters and stood t o l o s e her property, i f she acted without h i s approval. In reference t o the choice of spouse, f o r instance, the appointed custodian arranged the marriage f o r h i s charge as he saw f i t . I f the woman, whether young or ol d , v i r g i n or widow, married without h i s permission, she l o s t the r i g h t t o i n h e r i t the goods of her r e l a t i v e s . Furthermore, the f e e l i n g of caste was very strong; a woman was not perm i t t e d t o marry below her s t a t i o n . In keeping with a law of the V i s i g o t h s , she who sought t o marry her own slave was burned a l i v e , and i f she attempted i t with another's bondman, she r e c e i v e d one hundred lashes as punishment (Hecker 83). The woman upon marrying became subject t o the power of her husband "according t o the Sacred S c r i p t u r e " , and he, subsequently, acquired l o r d s h i p over her e n t i r e property (Hecker 84). Moreover, the husband had f u l l power of l i f e and death over h i s spouse and t h e i r mutual c h i l d r e n . I f upon the decease of her husband there were s u s p i c i o n s regarding the manner of h i s death however, the r e s p e c t i v e wife was submitted t o i n q u i s i t o r i a l t o r t u r e and burnt at the stake i f judged g u i l t y of h i s murder (Hecker 78). Apart from her r o l e as wife and mother the woman d i d not work out s i d e the f a m i l y as Eugene Hecker, the s o c i a l commentator, notes: "In the h a l f - c i v i l i s e d s t a t e of th i n g s which then obtained there was no such t h i n g as women engaging i n business; indeed, not even men of any prete n s i o n d i d so; war was t h e i r work" (1914, 88) . In Puckett's view "knighthood gave way t o a bourgeois c u l t u r e which saw a d i f f e r e n t m ission f o r women. The treatment accorded them i n d i c a t e s the tone of the age. Instead of the pedestal f o r them, the chimney corner" (19). On the b a s i s of more recent h i s t o r i c a l research i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o agree with such f u l l - b l o o d e d p r a i s e of the Renaissance (1450-1600) . I t would appear from the accounts of the h i s t o r i a n . Merry E. Wiesner, t h a t women d i d not f a r e any b e t t e r i n t h i s p e r i o d . She r e p o r t s i n reference t o the matter of wi f e abuse f o r i n s t a n c e : "Even i n cases i n v o l v i n g the most gruesome wife beating or c r u e l t y , c i t y c o u n c i l s u s u a l l y ordered women t o remain w i t h t h e i r husbands" (1986, 19). Furthermore, the women's l e g a l p o s i t i o n was of a very tenuous and ambiguous nature: "Women were simultaneously independent l e g a l persons (they owned property, i n h e r i t e d wealth, r e c e i v e d wages, p a i d taxes) and dependent p a r t s of a l e g a l e n t i t y , the f a m i l y , whose f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s they d i d not o f f i c i a l l y c o n t r o l " (Wiesner 31). On the one hand, a woman could draw up her own w i l l without o u t s i d e impediment, but, on the other, i f she claimed rape she was o b l i g e d t o prove t h a t she had r e s i s t e d and t h a t she had a good r e p u t a t i o n . In the f a m i l y arena i t s e l f women were s t i l l denied l e g a l guardianship of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the Renaissance p e r i o d . In the event t h a t the husband died, the c h i l d r e n were entrusted t o a male guardian, who became re s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r w e lfare, even i f the mother was s t i l l l i v i n g (Wiesner 22-23). In an e f f o r t t o maintain t h i s law, appeals were made i n the s i x t e e n t h century t o the a u t h o r i t y of St. Augustine, who decl a r e d t h a t woman i s a creature n e i t h e r d e c i s i v e nor constant."^ P r i s c i l l a Robertson, the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , w r i t i n g i n 1982 contends t h a t there was l e s s emphasis on sexual r o l e s i n the eighteenth century and tha t the Age of Reason ushered i n a p e r i o d of considerable i n t e l l e c t u a l e q u a l i t y and s o c i a l freedom f o r women. She claims t h a t women, while not encouraged t o advance i n the same way as men, were not forbidden from doing so simply by reason of t h e i r sex. To support her argument she s t a t e s t h a t women were teaching i n I t a l i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s up u n t i l the 1820s (4). In my research I found t h a t there were some outstanding achievements by German women i n the 1700s. Dorothea von Schlozer, f o r ins t a n c e , was awarded a Dr. P h i l , from the U n i v e r s i t y of ^ Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, t r a n s . H. M. Par s h l e y . (New York: Knopf, 1953) I n t r o . Gôttingen at the age of seventeen, but as Ute F r e v e r t , the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , r e p o r t s i n 1989 "she was a most exc e p t i o n a l case and the object of astonishment and r i d i c u l e " (34). Furthermore, as Margaret Hunt, the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n , remarks i n respect t o s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the woman i n t h i s p e r i o d : C e r t a i n l y the p o l a r i t i e s of the v i r g i n / w i t c h myth became l e s s s t a r k , but the ambiguity about the female nature was no l e s s i n t e n s e , and i t was but t r e s s e d even more f i r m l y by a physiology which s t r e s s e d the r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t of mind and body - women's bodies having a greater sway over t h e i r minds than men's (1984, 4 ) . Some Pe r s p e c t i v e s on Childhood I t was my i n t e n t t o t r a c e the s o c i a l , and ed u c a t i o n a l development of the woman, from childhood t o adulthood, w i t h i n the aforementioned time frame, but, upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I found t h a t p e r t i n e n t sources are again exceedingly r a r e . In t h i s s e c t i o n , I attempt t o provide some background on t h i s area beginning w i t h the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n at tha t time. In 1983 Linda P o l l o c k , the s o c i o l o g i s t , s t a t e s i n regard t o the treatment of c h i l d r e n i n Europe p r i o r t o the nineteenth century: "The f u r t h e r back i n h i s t o r y one goes, the lower the l e v e l of c h i l d care, and the more l i k e l y c h i l d r e n are t o be k i l l e d , abandoned, beaten, t e r r o r i z e d and s e x u a l l y abused. Century a f t e r century of b a t t e r e d c h i l d r e n grew up and i n t u r n b a t t e r e d t h e i r own c h i l d r e n " (19). The a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d r e n up t o the end of the seventeenth century has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " a u t o c r a t i c , indeed f e r o c i o u s " (Pollock 8). O f f s p r i n g were viewed by t h e i r parents as v e s s e l s f u l l of O r i g i n a l S i n and i t i s reported t h a t , i n some p a r t s of Europe, c h i l d r e n were not b r e a s t - f e d because they were regarded as p a r a s i t e s who would d r a i n the mother. In the l a t e seventeenth century a new and more enlig h t e n e d s o c i a l a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d r e n began to p r e v a i l . Parents no longer considered t h e i r young as " s p r i g s of o l d Adam whose w i l l s had t o be broken" (P o l l o c k 9), but a l l t h i s s i g n i f i e d , i n e f f e c t , was they were more i n favour of s h u t t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n dark cupboards, r a t h e r than be a t i n g them (Po l l o c k 9). During the eighteenth and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s a t t i t u d e s towards c h i l d r e n continued t o change as John Fout, the h i s t o r i a n , e x p l a i n s : "These [the c h i l d r e n ] were no longer regarded as a k i n d of w i l d animal, but as a s o r t of human being, s t i l l steeped i n s i n i t i s t r u e - t h e i r t a i n t e d o r i g i n n e c e s s i t a t e d t h a t - but capable of s a l v a t i o n by copious doses of r e l i g i o n " (1980, 129). The p r a c t i c e of "swaddling" (wrapping newborn i n f a n t s i n bandages up t o eight f e e t t o c u r t a i l t h e i r movements) was s t i l l customary (Randall 209). Mothers continued t o be advised t h a t excessive handling of the i n f a n t was unhealthy. The emphasis f o r a s t r i c t r o u t i n e i n r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , from the time of t h e i r b i r t h , and on the need t o teach h a b i t s of order, c l e a n l i n e s s and s e l f - c o n t r o l , c h a r a c t e r i z e d advice about c h i l d - c a r e r i g h t through t h i s era (Gorham 67). D i s c i p l i n e continued t o be regarded as the most c e n t r a l question i n c h i l d management. The c h i l d ' s behaviour was seen as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t s e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n , and the l a t t e r was considered as of much gre a t e r importance than i t s happiness, or i t s p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . C h i l d punishment was s t i l l rampant and became more p u b l i c . In England, f o r i n s t a n c e . The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine p u b l i s h e d i n 1847, over a s i x month p e r i o d , an interchange of correspondence between mothers, comparing va r i o u s methods of t h r a s h i n g t h e i r daughters (Randall 216). Over time the f a m i l y s l o w l y became c h i l d - o r i e n t e d and began t o value i t s c h i l d r e n . This change f i r s t manifested i t s e l f i n the landed and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s , who were able t o a f f o r d the l u x u r y of sentimental concern f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The poorer s e c t o r s of the p o p u l a t i o n , on the other hand, remained i n d i f f e r e n t , f o r the most p a r t , t o t h e i r o f f s p r i n g f o r some time to come. Auerbach, as the son of a poor v i l l a g e p e d l a r , had f i r s t - h a n d experience of t h i s s o c i a l problem. He r e f l e c t s on t h i s i s s u e i n two of h i s works: BarfuBele, and F l o r i a n und Kreszenz (dates and a n a l y s i s f u r n i s h e d i n chapter t h r e e ) . Thus there were d i s t i n c t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n the methods of r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n during t h i s p e r i o d which are o u t l i n e d by P o l l o c k as fo l l o w s : (a) Higher court a r i s t o c r a c y : these showed a neg l i g e n t mode wit h the care of c h i l d r e n given t o nurses and teachers. (b) Upper c l a s s e s : these cared f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n but b e l i e v e d i n p h y s i c a l punishment, (c) P r o f e s s i o n a l and landed c l a s s e s : these demonstrated a permissiveness and very a f f e c t i o n a t e mode of r e a r i n g . (d) P u r i t a n s , non-conformist b o u r g e o i s i e and upper a r t i s a n s : these showed concern and love f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , s u b s t i t u t i n g prayers, m o r a l i s i n g and t h r e a t s of damnation f o r bea t i n g s . (e) Lower a r t i s a n s : these d i d want t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o have a sound education; but t r e a t e d them b r u t u a l l y . (f) Poor: these were b r u t a l , e x p l o i t a t i v e and i n d i f f e r e n t towards t h e i r o f f s p r i n g (9). Developments i n Education f o r Women In regard t o the matter of female education, which i s my focus of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , as Puckett remarks, t h a t i t s h i s t o r y bears a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to the r i s e and f a l l of women's power and r e c o g n i t i o n i n s o c i e t y i n general (161). I t i s noteworthy, i n t h i s connection, t h a t some of the o l d e s t Germanic l i t e r a r y monuments, such as the "Minnesang", speak h i g h l y of women, who, at t h a t time, were c r e d i t e d w i t h p r o f i c i e n c y i n whatever branch of l e a r n i n g that was then current. Women, i n f a c t , stood a greater chance of being educated i n the Middle High German p e r i o d , as Puckett comments : "The l a d i e s were often more l i t e r a t e than t h e i r swashbuckling g a l l a n t s ; f o r to read and w r i t e was considered womanish and monkish" (161). Indeed, women teachers (Lehrfrauen) are recorded i n tax records as e a r l y as the fourteenth century i n the c i t i e s of Speyer, Bern, Regensburg, Mainz, Z u r i c h and F r a n k f u r t (Wiesner 79). The s i x t e e n t h century h e l d f u r t h e r promise of a m e l i o r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r women. Luther himse l f , and h i s a s s o c i a t e P h i l i p Melanchton, spoke on t h e i r b e h a l f . The p u b l i c school became a recognized i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the f i r s t time i n t h i s p e r i o d , and w h i l e the t r a i n i n g of boys was s t i l l the primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n , there were instances where g i r l s a l s o shared i n the b e n e f i t s . A case i n p o i n t i s the town of Memmingen which, between 1556-1600, e s t a b l i s h e d two primary schools f o r g i r l s which approximated the s t r u c t u r e and r e g u l a t i o n s of schools designed f o r boys (Wiesner 82). Although the seventeenth century was pervaded by the unholy s t r i f e of the T h i r t y Years War there were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n education, i n general, i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of Germany. In 1694 the U n i v e r s i t y of H a l l e was founded, which, i n the view of M.E. Sadler, the e d u c a t i o n a l i s t , was "the f i r s t U n i v e r s i t y t o be based on the p r i n c i p l e of freedom of thought and teaching, and t h e r e f o r e , the f i r s t t o a s s i m i l a t e modern philosophy and sci e n c e " (108). The p r i n c i p l e of compulsory attendance, as a c i v i c duty, f o r both sexes at elementary schools, was e s t a b l i s h e d by the School Regulations of Weimar i n 1619. And i n 1642 the Schul-Methodus l a i d down by Ernest the Pious of Gotha, gave more systematic e f f e c t t o the p r i n c i p l e of State a u t h o r i t y i n education (Sadler 107). But i t i s i n l a r g e p a r t t o a r e l i g i o u s group, the P i e t i s t s , t h a t c r e d i t must be a t t r i b u t e d f o r the r e t u r n of i n t e r e s t i n b e t t e r schools f o r women. Hermann Francke e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1698, i n H a l l e , the f i r s t high school f o r g i r l s i n Germany. His p l a n , p r o j e c t e d i n tha t year, was not r e a l i z e d f o r another ten years, however, and so h i s concept of "higher education" f o r women was a c t u a l l y a p a r t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l development of the eighteenth century (Puckett 19). But most imp o r t a n t l y perhaps, the P i e t i s t s played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n awakening p u b l i c consciousness t o the sor r y s t a t e of popular education, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to women, and t o the s o c i a l duty of improving i t . The eighteenth century saw the founding of the U n i v e r s i t y of Gottingen (1737) . The predominance which the study of theology had enjoyed at H a l l e f e l l i n Gottingen t o the study of law and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . In Sadler's o p i n i o n "the i n f l u e n c e of these two U n i v e r s i t i e s transformed academic l i f e i n Germany" (107). In P r u s s i a , school attendance was made compulsory by Royal Order w i t h the promulgation of the R e s c r i p t s of 1716 and 1717. This p o l i c y was consummated by the Allgemeine Landrecht of 17 94, which f o r m a l l y d e c l a r e d schools and U n i v e r s i t i e s i n P r u s s i a t o be State i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e i r establishment p e r m i s s i b l e only with the State's p r i o r knowledge and approval. The same ordinance r e q u i r e d a l l p u b l i c schools and educ a t i o n a l establishments i n P r u s s i a t o be under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the State and t o be sub j e c t , at a l l times, t o i t s examination and i n s p e c t i o n (Sadler 107). Grammar schools, however, remained c l o s e d t o g i r l s , and other s t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l establishments, above elementary l e v e l , were a l s o e x c l u s i v e l y f o r boys. F r e v e r t comments on t h i s discrepancy as f o l l o w s : Whereas t h e i r brothers l e f t home t o take ever more comprehensive and d e t a i l e d courses of study i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c areers, the education and t r a i n i n g of m i d d l e - c l a s s g i r l s continued to take p l a c e predominantly i n the home (36) . Female Education i n Germany: The Nineteenth Century In respect t o education i n Germany i n the nineteenth century, which i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o my study, there was no l a c k of new ideas s t i r r i n g among the i n t e l l e c t u a l s throughout the century.^ Sadler sees the h i s t o r y of education i n Germany during t h i s century as f a l l i n g i n t o , and being i n f l u e n c e d by, three d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . These he o u t l i n e s as f o l l o w s : The f i r s t p e r i o d , which extended from the beginning of the century t o about 1840, was, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s e a r l i e r years, an era of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n s p i r e d by p a t r i o t i c enthusiasm and by a passionate b e l i e f i n the p o l i t i c a l value of i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement. The second p e r i o d , which extended from 1840 t o the foundation of the German Empire i n 1871, was an era of c o n s o l i d a t i o n , marked by some r e a c t i o n from the h i g h - p i t c h e d hopes of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d , and a l s o by the growth of r e a l i s m i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The t h i r d p e r i o d , which has extended from the foundation of the ^ For a sampling of nineteenth century e d u c a t i o n a l theory, see Wilhelm von Humboldt, S c h r i f t e n zur Anthropologie und B i l d u n g s l e h r e . Ed. Andreas F l i t n e r . Dusseldorf: Kiipper, 1964 . German Empire to the present day, [he was w r i t i n g i n 1912] as being an era of renewed advance, b r i l l i a n t i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e achievement and i n i t s systematic readjustment of e d u c a t i o n a l arrangements to modern needs (103). In Sadler's view, the i n t e l l e c t u a l foundations of modern Germany were l a i d w i t h i n the f i r s t f o r t y years of the nineteenth century. In regard t o higher education four U n i v e r s i t i e s ( B e r l i n , 1810; B r e s l a u , 1811; Bonn, 1818; and Miinchen, 1826) were founded or re-organized during t h i s p e r i o d . S t r i d e s were a l s o made i n higher t e c h n i c a l education at approximately the same time (110) . Moreover, new gymnasia were e s t a b l i s h e d , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h "the aim of imparting general c u l t u r e and an a l l - r o u n d education t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e of German boyhood." Further down the s c a l e elementary education was a l s o being revamped wi t h a new g o a l : "The u p l i f t i n g of each human being t o a higher plane of moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom" (110). The second p e r i o d (1840-1870) was, i n c o n t r a s t , "an era of r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n c h i l l e d and darkened by r e a c t i o n . " Progress at the u n i v e r s i t i e s slackened as s p e c u l a t i v e philosophy and neo-humanistic p h i l o l o g y l o s t t h e i r e a r l i e r f i r e . The secondary schools a l s o s u f f e r e d as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s harked back to the i d e a l s of the Reformation. And innovations i n elementary school education were impeded as attempts were made to r e s t o r e i t t o "an antique s i m p l i c i t y of reading, w r i t i n g , elementary a r i t h m e t i c and s t r i c t l y dogmatic r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n " (Sadler 110-111). On the b a s i s of numerous h i s t o r i c a l sources^ i t appears that the woman's chance of any k i n d of decent education, i n the nineteenth century, was extremely u n l i k e l y . Puckett, i n regard to the q u a l i t y of education a v a i l a b l e t o German women during t h i s p e r i o d , remarks: " I t was w e l l enough t o react from [ s i c ] the hothouse i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m of the Gottschedian days. But what can be s a i d i n defense of the p r i m i t i v e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l t r a i n i n g , i n f a c t , a l l e x i s t e n c e of woman, i s of value only i n so f a r as i t b e n e f i t s man?" (164) . I t was l e f t t o the f a m i l y t o organize the education f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In a f f l u e n t f a m i l i e s the g i r l s attended a p r i v a t e , sometimes co-educational, preschool elementary school. I n s t r u c t i o n would take up approximately an hour i n the morning, and an hour i n the afternoon, f o r c h i l d r e n between the ages of three and eigh t (Gorham 20). Thereafter, the g i r l s proceeded t o p r i v a t e "Tochterschulen." In most cases the education r e c e i v e d by the female, at such i n s t i t u t i o n s , was of poor q u a l i t y , unmethodical, and not e s p e c i a l l y comprehensive. G i r l s were given a s u p e r f i c i a l t r a i n i n g i n showy "accomplishment": a smattering of French, music and drawing, and fancy needlework (Gorham 21). In ^ For a sampling of such sources see Hans Kohn, The Mind of Germany: The Education of a Nation. New York: S c r i b n e r , 1960; Robert H. Lowie, The German People: A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t t o 1914. New York: F a r r a r , 1945. schools which p r i d e d themselves on a higher standard of female education, the main emphasis f o r g i r l s was i n v a r i a b l y on l i t e r a t u r e , r e l i g i o n , f o r e i g n languages, and h i s t o r y . Science, mathematics, and c l a s s i c a l languages, the core of higher education f o r boys i n the nineteenth century, were not i n c l u d e d (Fout 211). In the rare event t h a t the more a f f l u e n t , p r i v a t e l y -t u t o r e d woman succeeded i n g a i n i n g something more than the conventional and meagre ed u c a t i o n a l d i e t , the popular conception of what a woman needed t o prepare her f o r l i f e never got f a r from Jean Jacques Rousseau's (1712-1778) c l a i m : "La femme est f a i t e pour p l a i r e à l'homme" (Robertson 36). And as f a r as German s o c i e t y was concerned "the only examination which a woman has t o pass i s on the subjects of dress, manners, dancing and music" (Puckett 27). In c l o s e r connection t o my subject matter, working c l a s s and peasant g i r l s had poor, but equal t r a i n i n g with the boys i n the "Volkschule." They were taught reading, w r i t i n g , a r i t h m e t i c and r e l i g i o n . They, however, had no opportunity t o prepare themselves f o r the economic s t r u g g l e which the i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the country t h r u s t upon them, f o r nowhere i n the country could a g i r l o b t a i n the f u l l post-elementary, p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g which was a v a i l a b l e t o the boys (Rosier 112). Auerbach draws a t t e n t i o n to t h i s t o p i c by h i g h l i g h t i n g the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y standards of education f o r r u r a l women i n works such as B r o s i und Moni and B e f e h l e r l e s . Courtship and Marriage i n the Course of the Nineteenth Century The course of women's l i v e s was determined and c o n t r o l l e d by the s i n g l e d e c i s i o n of whom they would marry. This i s a theme i n approximately h a l f of G o t t h e l f s t a l e s , which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n chapter four, w h i l e Auerbach a l s o t r e a t s t h i s subject i n works such as Die K r i e g s p f e i f e , Tonele mit der gebissenen Wanae and Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n . The d e c i s i o n t o marry was most oft e n made before the age of twenty, f o r as the h i s t o r i a n , Rona Ra n d a l l , e x p l a i n s "by twen t y - f i v e her chances on the matrimonal market were considered t o be over" (1989, 197). Robertson rep o r t s t h a t German p a t r i o t s h e a r t i l y endorsed the myth t h a t t h e i r s was the only land where marriage was holy (28). But w r i t e r s , such as H e i n r i c h Heine, disputed t h i s c l a i m : "German marriage i s no t r u e marriage. The husband has no wi f e , but a serving-maid, and he s t i l l goes on l i v i n g h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i s o l a t e d l i f e even i n the midst of h i s f a m i l y " (Robertson 162). Indeed, the e n t i r e approach t o c o u r t s h i p and marriage i n Germany appears t o have been of an extremely u t i l i t a r i a n nature. Henry Mayhew, an E n g l i s h w r i t e r and t r a v e l l e r , who l i v e d i n Germany f o r many years during the mid-nineteenth century, reported: "Such t h i n g s as marriages f o r love are almost u t t e r l y unknown i n Saxony" (110). The woman, i t seems, was pursued by the man, not because of her s t e r l i n g c h aracter, e x c e l l e n c e as a human being, or p h y s i c a l beauty. but r a t h e r i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the s i z e of her p r o s p e c t i v e dowry. Thi s , as we s h a l l observe, i s confirmed i n Auerbach's Des Schlofibauers V e f e l e and B a r f i i f i e l e , and i n Der Notar i n der F a l l e and Der Besuch auf dem Lande by G o t t h e l f . Mayhew goes on to e x p l a i n : Almost every unmarried male sets a p r i c e upon h i m s e l f ; and one gentleman, w i t h very white t e e t h and an i n c i p i e n t b a l d head, was candid enough to inform us t h a t he appraised h i m s e l f at 7000 t h a l e r s , and would not t h i n k of walking with the p r e t t i e s t g i r l i n C r e a t i o n i f she possessed a groschen l e s s than t h a t sum (112) . Mayhew proceeds t o describe the apparent d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , i n respect t o t h i s manner of c o u r t s h i p , on the p a r t of the female sex and t h e i r complaint "that they were looked upon as l i t t l e b e t t e r than beasts of burden by t h e i r husbands, and t r e a t e d as such; and t h a t marriage con t r a c t s were entered i n t o merely as a means f o r men to get money and f u r n i t u r e enough t o s t a r t i n l i f e " (132). But there was l i t t l e women could do t o a l t e r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s and, indeed, there appears t o have been a t a c i t agreement of s o r t s between both sexes on the subject of c o u r t s h i p and l o v e . A conversation between a wealthy German mother and her engaged daughter, n a r r a t e d i n 1857, supplies some i n s i g h t on t h i s matter: " I sometimes f e a r . Mamma, I am not as p a s s i o n a t e l y i n love as I ought to be. Do you t h i n k so. Mamma?" "Quite, my love. A t r u e woman's love i s , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , mainly composed of g r a t i t u d e and p i t y . G r a t i t u d e f o r h i s a f f e c t i o n and p i t y f o r h i s l o n e l i n e s s " (Cunnington 161). Despite t h i s r a t h e r desolate p o r t r a i t of a high s o c i e t y marriage, i n the nineteenth century, the a l t e r n a t i v e as F r e v e r t describes i t : "Eking out a bleak and empty e x i s t e n c e as an " o l d maid" merely t o l e r a t e d by the parents or unmarried s i b l i n g s w i t h whom she was forced t o l i v e " (108) - was not a l l u r i n g . T h i s , as we s h a l l see, i s a matter which G o t t h e l f t r e a t s i n Der Notar i n der F a l l e . S o c i a l commentators, M. Walker among them, maintain that the s i t u a t i o n f o r women d e t e r i o r a t e d f u r t h e r a f t e r marriage. Mayhew recounts the response from a German male, whom he i n t e r v i e w e d i n the 1850s, when asked the length of the honeymoon p e r i o d i n Germany: Oh, yes! I do remember t h a t i s your name f o r what we c a l l the " F l i t t e r w o c h e . " "But", s a i d we, "do you r e a l l y l i m i t the happiness of newly-married l i f e t o one week only ? . "Ja Wohl!" our f r i e n d answered, "and I should t h i n k a man has p l e n t y of i t by that time; and has been married long enough, too, t o repent of h i s bargain (131). This male a t t i t u d e was f u r t h e r r e f l e c t e d i n the husband's expectations of h i s w i f e . C.W. Cunnington, the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g i n 1936 e l u c i d a t e s : "The two sexes l i v e d i n worlds remote from each other. They shared common i n t e r e s t s , but not thought, f o r the more secret regions of t h e i r minds were kept apart" (95). Women were not required or d e s i r e d as i n t e l l e c t u a l companions. The prevalent male stance, i n t h i s regard, was, as Cunnington i r o n i c a l l y quips: "To be p e r f e c t l y pure, the female mind must be p e r f e c t l y blank" (90). And there was c e r t a i n l y no de s i r e on the p a r t of the male f o r i t t o be any other way, as Robertson argues: " I t i s p o s s i b l e t o be extremely fond of a l i t t l e woman confined t o Kinder, Kuche, und K i r c h e , and yet s t a r t l e d when the same woman asks f o r a l a r g e r share of your l i f e " (200). Consequently, i n Cunnington's view, many women i n the nineteenth century simply d r i f t e d through l i f e , being occupied with p e t t y matters, the shape of a bonnet, the making of a d i s h , her gr e a t e s t occupation being the perpetual need t o humour him whom she had sworn t o love, honour and obey (94). W i l l i a m Thackeray's Mr. Brown's L e t t e r s t o a Young Man about Town (1853), although p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t i v e of the B r i t i s h p u b l i c , a l s o sounds the German's a t t i t u d e towards h i s w i f e : An e x q u i s i t e s l a v e i s what we want f o r the most p a r t ; a humble, f l a t t e r i n g , s m i l i n g , tea-making, p i a n o f o r t e - p l a y i n g being, who laughs at our jokes, however o l d they may be, coaxes us and wheedles us i n a l l our humours, and fon d l y l i e s t o us through l i f e (24). The m a j o r i t y of women were not merely denied i n t e l l e c t u a l f e l l o w s h i p , but, according t o h i s t o r i c a l sources, they were a l s o sadly neglected. In t h i s connection, an E n g l i s h woman, who had l i v e d i n Germany i n the 1850s, remarked t o Mayhew: "There are .two creatures i n Germany whose l o t I do not envy, the cows and the married women" (Mayhew 131). She goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t i t was not uncommon f o r the husband t o spend each evening out of the home, while h i s wife stayed up u n t i l "he staggered home from the beerhouse an hour or two before midnight" (193). This s t a t e of a f f a i r s was considered normal. A w i f e , i f she were a decent one, was expected t o send her husband t o the inn every evening so tha t he could s t r i k e up business acquaintances! Women had t h e i r own "Kaffee K l a t s c h e " , but the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s matter i s t h a t man and woman, wife and husband d i d not i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y e i t h e r at home or i n the community. Many wives were not only s o c i a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y o s t r a c i z e d by t h e i r husbands, they were a l s o p h y s i c a l l y abused by them. Again, the f i c t i o n of the day appears t o a t t e s t t o t h i s , Auerbach, f o r i n s t a n c e , describes male v i o l e n c e t o the woman i n Tonele mit der gebissenen Wange and Der Lehnhold. Old German law, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , had permitted the husband, as head of the household, t o use c o r p o r a l punishment on h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d r e n , and h i s servants. This was confirmed as l a t e as the s i x t e e n t h century by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s , and p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o nineteenth century Germany. Wife abuse was more common i n the lower than i n the upper c l a s s e s , but was, nonetheless, prevalent i n Germany. I t a l s o v a r i e d from province t o province w i t h i n Germany. Bavarian common law s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the husband must only c h a s t i z e h i s wife i n moderation, while i n Hamburg the man could decide how much was f i t t i n g (Robertson 163). As l a t e as the 1860s, a husband was e n t i t l e d t o take h i s wife t o the p o l i c e s t a t i o n t o be beaten. I t was p u b l i c knowledge th a t husbands beat t h e i r wives. Mayhew recounts that even wel l - t o - d o , educated males, ranking as gentlemen i n the land, boasted i n the beerhouse of the "Maulschellen" or "Karbatschen" which they had i n f l i c t e d upon t h e i r wives the n i g h t before (132). I n f l u e n t i a l p u b l i c f i g u r e s , such as W.H. R i e h l , f u r t h e r aggravated t h i s s i t u a t i o n by c i t i n g with approval i n h i s book Die F a m i l i e (1855) the d i f f e r e n t standards of punishment f o r a h a r r i d a n and a wife beater. In the former case, the neighbours t i e d the woman to a donkey and l e d her through the v i l l a g e s t r e e t s , i n the l a t t e r the clergyman simply reprimanded the husband (Sagarra 1977, 410) . The wife was i n a very v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n , and could only c l a i m p r o t e c t i o n from the s t a t e i f blood flowed when her husband beat her. To add t o t h i s s o r r y s t a t e of a f f a i r s , many husbands are reported t o have deserted t h e i r wives i n t h i s p e r i o d . S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t men, who were no longer content with t h e i r spouses, procured money from them f o r the voyage t o America, promising t h a t they would send f o r them, but i n nine cases out of ten, never c o n t a c t i n g t h e i r f a m i l y again (Mayhew 132) . As i n the case of wife abuse, Auerbach's f i c t i o n would appear t o support t h i s c l a i m . In Erdmute, f o r i n s t a n c e , Cyprian deserts h i s daughter at the port once he has acquired her f o r t u n e . Women who found themselves i n unfavourable s i t u a t i o n s had l i t t l e recourse. Divorce was not an optio n f o r an unhappy wife i n Randall's view: F a l l from her p e d e s t a l , and where would she land? Any property she owned on marriage had become her husband's. In r e t u r n , he had contracted t o support her. One lapse from grace on her p a r t , no matter how extenuating the circumstances, and t h a t support would be withdrawn. She would be dismissed from h i s home and denied access t o h i s c h i l d r e n , f o r they were h i s c h i l d r e n , not hers. Her property would a l s o remain h i s . In short, she was trapped. To break her marriage vows would mean a broken l i f e , r e j e c t e d by f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , without money or any means of support (189-190) . German women i n the nineteenth century shared c e r t a i n common problems, whether they were duchesses or tradesmen's wives. Law and custom placed them a l l under t h e i r husbands' domination, f i n a n c i a l l y and s e x u a l l y . The only r o l e women were pe r c e i v e d as having was i n the home, a theme which i s r e i t e r a t e d i n G o t t h e l f s works i n chapter f o u r . In t h i s context, German women had a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad l o t as Thomas Smith, an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r i n Germany i n the 1850s, remarked: " P l a y t h i n g and drudge d e f i n e her p o s i t i o n only too t r u l y " (97). Robertson elaborates f u r t h e r upon t h i s c l a i m : "The masculine sex was t o t a l l y dependent on women f o r p h y s i c a l care, food, c l e a n l i n e s s , comfort, and c o n s o l a t i o n . These came as t h e i r r i g h t , and they d i d not have t o pay f o r them with any p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n " (132). Compared wi t h E n g l i s h households, the German housewife of the 1850s, i n her quest t o tend t o her husband, appeared to work much harder and lacked many crea t u r e comforts. The E n g l i s h , i t i s reported, were perplexed by the amount of work which German mi d d l e - c l a s s women were w i l l i n g t o undertake themselves. Anna Mary Howitt, one of the f i r s t E n g l i s h g i r l s t o study a r t i n Munich i n 1854, e x p l a i n e d t h a t the s i g h t of a "Frau Geheimràthin" hanging out c l o t h e s i n the garden was " t r u l y German" (Robertson 141) . And whereas the E n g l i s h woman would normally delegate the tasks t o her two or three servants, the German f a m i l y of comparable stat u s would g e n e r a l l y make do wit h a s i n g l e m a i d - o f - a l l work. Robertson describes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mis t r e s s of the household and her servant as f o l l o w s : I t was p o l i c y t o keep b r e a t h i n g down the maid's neck - check her every quarter-hour, and keep a l l the s u p p l i e s locked up - thus b e t r a y i n g a l a c k of t r u s t . On the other hand, i t was assumed that a German servant who never saw her mis t r e s s i n the k i t c h e n would despise her as a poor housekeeper and would probably s t a r t t h i e v i n g (139). This mutual enslavement f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d any degree of independence the wife might have enjoyed i n her domestic domain, as Smith notes: "With ^sparen' as her motto she devotes and sometimes s a c r i f i c e s h e r s e l f t o the household and her c h i l d r e n ' s m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e . She accepts c o n d i t i o n s as they are, i s too d o c i l e and u n a s s e r t i v e , and sets too low a p r i c e upon h e r s e l f " (516) . The f i r s t years of the nineteenth century f u r t h e r compounded the lowly p o s i t i o n of women i n s o c i e t y . A f t e r the Napoleonic Wars, s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a l l across Europe promoted a r e t r e a t i n t o p r i v a t e l i f e as w e l l as a search f o r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . In Germany, the concept of " f a m i l y l i f e " , which had been somewhat of a misnomer i n the eighteenth century, was now rejuvenated (Robertson 13). The " r a t h e r stunted sentiments of motherhood" of the previous p e r i o d (which Hunt a t t r i b u t e s t o the woman's i n c r e a s i n g involvement i n the p u b l i c sphere)" were rep l a c e d by the b e l i e f t h a t women not only belonged i n the home, but a l s o had exceedingly important d u t i e s t o attend t o t h e r e . To f u l f i l l these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would not be a confinement so much as a l i b e r a t i o n i n t o a new sphere of importance f o r the woman, a c o n v i c t i o n which G o t t h e l f seeks t o i n s t i l throughout h i s work, as w i l l be observed i n chapter f o u r . This new sentiment was i d e n t i f i e d i n the p u b l i c mind wi t h the w r i t i n g s of Jean Jacques Rousseau. Robertson, i n respect t o the l a t t e r ' s views upon the woman's r o l e , comments: " I t i s a fam i l y fête which he c e l e b r a t e s ; i t i s a mother which he presents t o the adoration of the world, seated near a cr a d l e , a b e a u t i f u l c h i l d on her bosom, her countenance beaming wi t h joy beneath the tender looks of her husband" (11) . In Germany t h i s mood was known s e v e r a l l y as Biedermeier, R e s t o r a t i o n or pre-March e r a . The p r i n c i p l e of the German Biedermeier was, i n b r i e f , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the home town with nature and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of both with v i r t u e . The advent of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and with i t the imminent encroachment by the c i t y were, i n c o n t r a s t , new and, t h e r e f o r e , regarded as unnatural and t h r e a t e n i n g . The Biedermeier i d e a l arose out of t h i s awareness of man-made change and "to s a t i s f y the n o s t a l g i a f o r a simple, p a s t o r a l past amid the r e a l i t i e s of the urban, i n d u s t r i a l present" ^ Margaret Hunt, Women and the Enlightenment (New York: The Haworth Press, 1984) 9. (Gorham 37). The concept of "home" represented changelessness and s t a b i l i t y i n the m a j o r i t y of people's minds. Hence the small town became the German n a t i o n a l i d y l l , although as Walker p o i n t s out: "In r e a l i t y the small town has always been from time out of mind t h a t s o c i o c u l t u r a l l o c a t i o n where i n e r t i a and malice, pedantry, prudery, and s p i r i t u a l narrowness have grown rank out of a marsh of stunted s o u l s " (65-66). The Biedermeier was a c u l t u r e of the qu i e t and o r d e r l y i n t e r i o r . At the heart of t h i s was the woman, but a new woman bearing no resemblance t o the r a t h e r independent, i n t e l l e c t u a l eighteenth century f i g u r e . The new image was s p e c i f i c a l l y German; a motherly woman who was j u s t i f i a b l y proud of her t h r i f t , yet f u l l of g i r l i s h innocence. Deborah Gorham, the h i s t o r i a n , underscores the importance of t h i s innocence t o the above image: "She was a l s o t o remain permanently c h i l d l i k e even i n m a t u r i t y " (7). In German l i t e r a t u r e women were presented as mothers and s i s t e r s t o t h e i r menfolk, r a r e l y as wives and l o v e r s : the i d e a l of feminine p u r i t y was i m p l i c i t l y asexual (Gorham 7). The German g i r l and woman was u n s p o i l t ; any t r a c e of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n was f o r e i g n t o her. She was simply r e q u i r e d to be the "sunbeam t h a t made eve r y t h i n g g l a d " (Franingham 2). Both i n l i t e r a t u r e and l i f e i n the mid-nineteenth century, she found her whole " r a i s o n d'être" i n her husband and f a m i l y ; she had no substance out of t h i s r o l e , which i s confirmed by G o t t h e l f s mother f i g u r e s i n Wie J o g a e l i eine Frau sucht. Wie C h r i s t e n eine Frau aewinnt and Michels Brautschau. The f a m i l i a r image of the German "Hausfrau" i s a c r e a t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d , a source of complacency t o s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y ; she was r a r e l y the object of s a t i r e i n German w r i t i n g . The "Hausfrau" was not confined t o one s o c i a l c l a s s , but seems t o have been accepted as the feminine i d e a l by v i r t u a l l y a l l c l a s s e s , i n c l u d i n g the a r i s t o c r a c y . This new image i n f i l t r a t e d every area and l e v e l of s o c i e t y . Even a f t e r the establishment of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Workers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n London i n 1864, whose goal was t o ensure women the r i g h t t o work, i t s German chapter p u b l i s h e d a d i s c u s s i o n document i n 1866, which revealed i t s r a t h e r dubious p o l i c y on working women: The r i g h t f u l work of women and mothers i s i n the home and f a m i l y , c a r i n g f o r , s u p e r v i s i n g , and p r o v i d i n g the f i r s t education f o r the c h i l d r e n , which, i t i s t r u e , presupposes th a t the women and c h i l d r e n themselves r e c e i v e an adequate t r a i n i n g . Alongside the solemn d u t i e s of the man and f a t h e r i n p u b l i c l i f e and the f a m i l y , the woman and mother should stand f o r the cosiness and poetry of domestic l i f e , b r i n g grace and beauty to s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and be an ennobling i n f l u e n c e i n the increase of humanity's enjoyment of l i f e . ^ Women who worked out s i d e the home i n the nineteenth century were employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e , t e x t i l e and c l o t h i n g manufacture and domestic s e r v i c e . Working c o n d i t i o n s were deplorable i n most European c o u n t r i e s . Women were pai d , i n v i r t u a l l y every case, l e s s than h a l f of th a t which men earned f o r performing the same task . F r e v e r t , i n reference to what she terms "the veneration of a new type of f e m i n i t y " and i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the working woman, maintains: "The concepts of e q u a l i t y which the Enlightenment o c c a s i o n a l l y proposed stood no chance i n the face of t h i s p a r t l y modern, p a r t l y h i s t o r i c i s e d model" (19). Moreover, r e p o r t s of unbearable working c o n d i t i o n s served only t o giv e f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the p r e v a i l i n g male view t h a t women belonged i n the home. There was l i t t l e t o l e r a n c e f o r any woman who worked even i f she were f o r c e d t o do so i n order to support h e r s e l f , or i f the occupation, i n which she was invo l v e d , was deemed worthy. Florence N i g h t i n g a l e h e r s e l f , wrote t h a t when she informed her parents of her i n t e n t i o n t o become a nurse " i t was as i f I had wanted t o be a housemaid." This subject (employment i n an urban s e t t i n g ) i s not disc u s s e d by e i t h e r Auerbach or G o t t h e l f s i n c e , as st a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the r u r a l m i l i e u c o n s t i t u t e s the Der Vorbote 1866: 44 . Q Quoted i n E l i z a b e t h Walsh, Women i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenken, 1981) 215. focus of i n t e r e s t i n the "Dorfgeschichte." When the c i t y does appear, as i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n by Auerbach and Der Notar i n der F a l l e by G o t t h e l f , i t i s u s u a l l y t o h i g h l i g h t some i n e q u i t y i n the c i t y i n h a b i t a n t s and t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . M edical views concerning women, at tha t time, d i d l i t t l e t o f u r t h e r t h e i r cause. The nineteenth century medical p r o f e s s i o n propounded the theory t h a t women were t o t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i r physiology - t h e i r uterus and ov a r i e s . Men were sexual beings p a r t of the time, but women were always at the mercy of t h e i r c y c l e s and, t h e r e f o r e , emotional and i r r a t i o n a l c r e a t u r e s . Dr. K a r l von Baer's discovery of the human ovum i n 1827, and the subsequent demonstration t h a t the egg ripened each month and ruptured i t s envelope, l e d t o a more b i o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r popular o p i n i o n concerning the low worth of women (Robertson 24). In regard t o female s e x u a l i t y , W i l l i a m Acton, a medical man, w r i t i n g i n 1857, claimed: "As a general r u l e , a modest woman seldom d e s i r e s any sexual g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r h e r s e l f . She submits t o her husband's embraces, but p r i n c i p a l l y t o g r a t i f y him; and, were i t not f o r the d e s i r e of maternity, would f a r r a t h e r be r e l i e v e d from h i s a t t e n t i o n s . " ^ Moreover, the medical p r o f e s s i o n purported the view t h a t "to Quoted i n Rona R a n d a l l , The Model Wife. Nineteenth-Century S t y l e (London: The Herbert Press, 1989) 192. Ms. Randall does not provide notes, or indeed a b i b l i o g r a p h y to her book. The in f o r m a t i o n and examples she c i t e s are, nonetheless, of i n t e r e s t t o my t o p i c , and I have, t h e r e f o r e , decided t o i n c l u d e them. educate the g i r l i s t o weaken the f u t u r e mother" (Robertson 27) . Another agent which e x e r c i s e d a powerful i n f l u e n c e on the accepted r o l e of women, i n German s o c i e t y , was the Church. Indeed, Church a u t h o r i t i e s were i n no doubt as t o where woman's duty l a y . R e l i g i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s such as The O b l i g a t i o n of Married Women t o t h e i r Spouses, i n s t r u c t e d the wife t o p r a c t i s e "that l o y a l t y which she owes her master and l o r d , who alone i s l o r d and master i n the house, whom she must a i d i n the tasks of the house, but only i n the way he sees f i t t i n g " (Sagarra 1977, 408) . R e l i g i o n long remained the woman's only s o c i a l o u t l e t and, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, the sol e reading matter a v a i l a b l e t o her was the B i b l e and d e v o t i o n a l books, as Hedwig i n Der Lauterbacher. by Auerbach, informs us. And yet, d e s p i t e her ferv e n t p i e t y and the Church's i r o n g r i p upon her l i f e , t here were, according t o Sagarra, many learned doctors of theology who, at t h a t time, denied that woman even possessed a so u l (1977, 408) . Nineteenth century thought cannot be conceived without the important vo i c e s of German p h i l o s o p h e r s . •'•^  There were a l s o a few outstanding German women, such as C a r o l i n e Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm F r i e d r i c h Hegel, and the Romantic philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and F r i e d r i c h Wilhelm Joseph von S c h e l l i n g are some examples. I t i s not v i a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e here the views p e r t a i n i n g to women propounded by the aforementioned, but as i s common knowledge, they gave l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the s p e c i f i c problems of women. S c h l e g e l - S c h e l l i n g and B e t t i n a von Armin, who were a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c sphere. Much d i s c u s s i o n of the "new woman" took place i n the salons of B e r l i n , the most famous was tha t of the Jewess Rahel L e v i n . Under the guidance of such f r e e -t h i n k i n g , s o c i a l l y adept women many p r o j e c t s f o r the am e l i o r a t i o n of the woman's l o t were designed, but the German Romantic movement, of which they were p a r t , was much le s s s o c i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y than the s l i g h t l y l a t e r French counterpart w i t h i t s s t r e s s on Utopian s o c i a l change (Robertson 355) . Furthermore, as Inge Drewitz, the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n , notes i n r e l a t i o n t o these women: "They f e l t engaged f i r s t and foremost t o t h e i r h i g h l y personal "ego" and d i d not enter the l i s t s as p r o t a g o n i s t s of women and t h e i r r i g h t s i n general" (1983, 17). Louise Otto-Peters, whom we s h a l l r e t u r n t o l a t e r , s t a t e d i n the 1840s i n regard to Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, who was a prominent salon member : Rahel war und b l i e b doch immer a l l e i n mit s i c h s e l b s t b e s c h a f t i g t , und zwar so sehr, dafî s i e t r o t z i h r e s r e i c h e n und hervorragenden Geistes es n i c h t einmal zu o b j e k t i v e n Darstellungen bringen konnte - nur B r i e f e und Tagebucher hat s i e uns h i n t e r l a s s e n , i n denen von n i c h t s d i e Rede i s t a l s von si c h . . . ^ ' ^ •^^ O r i g i n a l excerpt from the Frauen-Zeitung (1851-1852) by Louise Otto-Peters, reproduced by Ruth-El l e n B. Joeres, Many of the "romantic women" were concerned not with issues such as equal r i g h t s i n the work p l a c e , but with female e q u a l i t y i n male/female r e l a t i o n s h i p s and marriage: matters which I w i l l examine i n chapters three and four. And on the l a t t e r subject a conspicuous d i f f e r e n c e between these i n t e l l e c t u a l German women and t h e i r counterparts i n France becomes apparent. Robertson maintains t h a t French f r e e s p i r i t s f l e d from the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage, whereas German women were never r e a l l y s a t i s f i e d u n t i l they achieved matrimony (370). The marriage they propounded was, however, a r a t h e r d a r i n g b l u e p r i n t f o r the day, s i n c e i t s i g n i f i e d a union i n which the r e s p e c t i v e partners would be drawn t o one another i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y and e r o t i c a l l y : " F r i e n d s h i p , sensuousness, passion and harmony merged together i n what Romanticism c a l l e d love, and the marriage which embraced such a love was a union of independent, i n d i v i d u a l people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r themselves" (Frevert 57). Among the commentators, Puckett describes best the pe r i o d , and r o l e played by the aforementioned women i n the f i g h t f o r e q u a l i t y : The Romantic p e r i o d , the f i r s t t h i r d of the century, was a time of unrest, the germination stage f o r much of the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of the century. Viewed as an epoch i n the h i s t o r y of feminism, ed. i n Louise Otto-Peters. Die Anfànge der deutschen Frauenbewegung ( F r a n k f u r t : F i s c h e r , 1983) 112. i t o f f e r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are new, phases of woman's l i f e not appearing i n the eighteenth century. At the same time, i t belongs only t o the beginnings of feminism, since no f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n or body of d o c t r i n e r e s u l t e d . The women of the Romantic p e r i o d were s t i l l groping. They had f l a s h e s of ideas about women's r i g h t s without t h i n k i n g them through (117). A new t r e n d and i n f l u e n c e , whose impulse came from France, began i n the 1830s and 40s. The J u l y Revolution i n P a r i s (1830) and the Saint-Simonian movement helped f i r e the minds of the German p u b l i c with thoughts of human e q u a l i t y . The emancipation debate i n Germany was set i n motion by w r i t e r s such as H e i n r i c h Heine, K a r l Gutzkow, H e i n r i c h Laube and Theodor Mundt, who belonged t o the Young German movement. Members of the movement saw i n E n f a n t i n ' s (the founder of the Saint-Simonian movement) statements both the dilemma and the s a l v a t i o n of the German woman: Woman i s no longer a s l a v e , but she i s t r e a t e d as a minor; she i s s t i l l e x p l o i t e d by man as labour i s e x p l o i t e d by c a p i t a l , f o r she i s regarded as h i s i n f e r i o r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage. This i n s t i t u t i o n must be a l t e r e d , and the complete e q u a l i t y of man and woman must be proclaimed ( B u t l e r 47). Many of the members of the Young German movement caused p u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n i n t h e i r c a l l f o r women's l i b e r a t i o n . Gutzkow, f o r example, achieved n o t o r i e t y as w e l l as condemnation f o r Wally d i e Z w e i f l e r i n (1835) h i s "novel of the emancipated woman. "•^'^  In r a l l y i n g t o the woman's cause many commentators, E.H. B u t l e r among them, contend t h a t the Young German movement d i d l i t t l e t o improve women's c o n d i t i o n s , since the i n f l u e n c e of Saint-Simonianism was almost e n t i r e l y confined to the theory of the " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the f l e s h " with i t s c o r o l l a r y the r e l a t i o n between men and women (1926, 50). Drewitz a l s o concurs with t h i s view: "What f a s c i n a t e d them i n p a r t i c u l a r was the b a t t l e cry of the ^Emancipation of the F l e s h . ' Under the slogan V e ' r e p u t t i n g new s h i r t s on our wives' they compaigned against the customary marriages of convenience and pleaded f o r the " f r e e e l e c t r i c embrace" (17). Furthermore, i t d i d not help the women's cause that Saint-Simonian d o c t r i n e s came to Germany p r i m a r i l y through the novels of George Sand. This r e s u l t e d , as Robertson c o l o u r f u l l y puts i t , " i n the p u b l i c p i c t u r e of a woman with a dagger i n her g i r d l e , a c i g a r e t t e i n her mouth, and a whip i n her hand" (355) - an image which, even i f somewhat exaggerated, d i d not conform t o the dominant feminine i d e a l . •^^ Term u t i l i z e d by Henry Garland i n A Concise Survey of German L i t e r a t u r e 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1976) 68. The Genesis of the Woman's Rights Movement i n Germany The f i g h t f o r women's r i g h t s began approximately i n the middle of the nineteenth century. France had already entered the b a t t l e when Olympe Marie de Gouges countered the " d r o i t s de l'homme", or Rights of Man (1789) w i t h a manifesto of her own : The Proclamation of the Rights of Women and Female C i t i z e n s (1791), which she presented t o the P a r i s N a t i o n a l Assembly. In her view, the d e c l a r a t i o n of 1789 was incomplete unless women a l s o d e r i v e d t a n g i b l e and p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t s from i t . At approximately the same time i n England, Mary W o l l s t o n e c r a f t was making a stand f o r l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n of her sex w i t h A V i n d i c a t i o n of the Rights of Women (1789). In Germany p o l i t i c a l developments, such as the f a i l u r e of the revolutions,-^"^ a f f e c t e d the progress of women's r i g h t s . A f t e r 1760 German i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e had r a p i d l y caught up with t h a t of the more advanced West, but as the h i s t o r i a n , Hans Kohn, w r i t i n g i n 1960 r e p o r t s : " P o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y Germany remained a q u i e t backwater, u n s t i r r e d by the p o l i t i c a l storms and the s o c i a l changes sweeping the lands around the North A t l a n t i c " (22). Advocates of women's r i g h t s i n Germany were few i n number i n the nineteenth century, and were the object of i n d i f f e r e n c e or d e r i s i o n to the m a j o r i t y of both sexes. Of those who For a d i s c u s s i o n of the causes, course and repercussions of the 1848 r e v o l u t i o n see the standard work by V e i t V a l e n t i n , 1848: Chapters i n German H i s t o r y . London: A l l e n , 1940. became i n v o l v e d i n the Woman's Movement a s i g n i f i c a n t number a c t u a l l y opposed votes f o r women. The main impetus towards a Women's Rights Movement came from those concerned, as were most German reformers, w i t h education r a t h e r than l i b e r t y . Women such as Anna Schepeler-L e t t e and Jenny H i r s c h , who were acknowledged as the pioneers of women's r i g h t s i n Germany i n the 1840s, continued t o see t h e i r goals very much i n r e l a t i o n t o the male sex: "Thanks t o our u n t i r i n g labours the c o n v i c t i o n i s spreading t h a t every woman, r i c h or poor, high or low, ought to have an education such as w i l l make her, i n the highest and best sense, the helpmate and companion of man - w i f e , mother, and teacher" (Stanton 153). To f u r t h e r impede the establishment of a Women's Movement, mi d d l e - c l a s s and working-class women were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . In a d d i t i o n t o these f a c t o r s another matter f o r c o n f l i c t i n the Women's Movement was the by no means uniform image t h a t women had of themselves. This s t a t e of a f f a i r s notwithstanding, support groups d i d e x i s t i n Germany. Even i n the most menial economic p o s i t i o n s , women's a s s o c i a t i o n s were formed, f o r i n s t a n c e , the Maidservants' A s s o c i a t i o n i n L e i p z i g i n 1848. There were a l s o women champions f o r the cause among them L u i s e Miihlbach, the pseudonym of K l a r a Mundt, who was very a c t i v e between 1838 and 1849 and earned h e r s e l f the l e s s than f l a t t e r i n g r e p u t a t i o n i n her day as "an emancipated woman" (Drewitz 13). Fanny Lewald was a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l as one of the most important f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n authors of the f e m i n i s t movement. L u i s e Otto-Peters, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s h a i l e d f o r her advocacy of women's r i g h t s during and a f t e r the 1848 Revolu t i o n . She fought not only f o r equal r i g h t s i n the work environment, but f o r independent working places f o r women: "Es muB den Frauen g e s t a t t e t werden, Schneiderwerkstatten zu e r r i c h t e n , i n denen nur von Frauen f u r Frauen g e a r b e i t e t wird. Dies V e r h a l t n i s i s t e i g e n t l i c h so n a t i i r l i c h , dafî es gar k e i n e r weitern Bevorwortung bedarf."-'-^ She was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Frauen-Zeitung p u b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1849, whose foundation broke new ground f o r women as the h i s t o r i a n , Catherine M. P r e l i n g e r , comments: U n l i k e the magazines f o r women t h a t preceded i t , magazines p u b l i s h e d by men and c a t e r i n g t o the entertainment of women, the Frauen-Zeitung had as i t s major purpose t o disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o women and t o f u n c t i o n as a forum f o r opinions and di s c u s s i o n s of the r i g h t s and d u t i e s of women i n s o c i e t y (1987, 106). The motto of the newspaper ran as f o l l o w s : "Durch Bildung zur F r e i h e i t , und durch diese zum Wohlstande" (Joeres 57). O r i g i n a l excerpt from the Frauen-Zeitung (1851-1852) by Louise Otto-Peters, reproduced by Rut h - E l l e n B. Joeres, ed. i n Louise Otto-Peters. Die Anfànge der deutschen Frauenbewegung ( F r a n k f u r t : F i s c h e r , 1983) 103. In 1865 Otto-Peters founded, w i t h three other women, the Allgemeine deutsche Frauenverein and e d i t e d i t s j o u r n a l , Neue Bahnen. In S w i t z e r l a n d the f i g h t f o r women's r i g h t s was even more d i f f i c u l t as Marie Gogg, a Swiss, w r i t i n g i n the mid-nineteenth century, r e l a t e d : "Our l i t t l e country has, up t o the present moment, remained almost a stranger t o t h i s important s u b j e c t . " ^ ^ S w i t z e r l a n d was one of the l e a s t disposed of European c o u n t r i e s t o accept the idea of the c i v i l emancipation of women, and much l e s s the c o n f e r r i n g upon them of p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . There were a l s o a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s which f u r t h e r hindered the development of the Women's Rights Movement i n t h a t country. The n a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o 25 cantons each of which had i t s own l e g i s l a t i o n , and i t s own cantonal code so t h a t standardized i n n o v a t i o n was a nigh impossible t a s k . This of course made i t exceedingly d i f f i c u l t f o r women t o work toward a common end, as Gogg confirms: The d i f f e r e n c e s of n a t i o n a l i t y , of r e l i g i o n , and of l e g i s l a t i o n i n the vari o u s cantons have produced a v a r i e t y of customs, h a b i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which are extremely d i s s i m i l a r , and which render S w i t z e r l a n d a composite An o r i g i n a l essay by Marie Gogg, a p o l i t i c a l e x i l e i n Sw i t z e r l a n d during 1848-1854; reproduced by Theodore Stanton, ed. i n The Woman Question i n Europe (New York: Source Book Press, 1884) 374. having but one s o l i d bond of union, but a very s o l i d one, - a mutual v e n e r a t i o n f o r the f e d e r a l f l a g . How can anything be accomplished under such circumstances, where, i n s t e a d of one ob s t a c l e , 25 must be gotten over one a f t e r the o t h e r ? ^ ^ But there were more rudimentary and s i g n i f i c a n t reasons f o r the delay of a Women's Rights Movement i n Sw i t z e r l a n d . Chief amongst these was, i n Gogg's o p i n i o n , "the re l u c t a n c e which a woman f e e l s t o take a new step i n a l i t t l e centre where everybody knows h i s neighbour. "^ "^  She argues t h a t i n France, England and America the Women's Movements had a r i s e n i n l a r g e c i t i e s , where one i s not a slav e t o what people say, and where f r i e n d l y co-operation i s more e a s i l y secured. S w i t z e r l a n d , she contends, i s composed only of b i g v i l l a g e s and small c i t i e s and, t h e r e f o r e , d i d not enjoy the above advantages. She goes on t o s t a t e t h a t i n c o u n t r i e s such as the aforementioned, eminent and i n f l u e n t i a l men, lawyers and senators among them, l e n t t h e i r support t o the Women's Rights Movement, which was never the case i n Switzerland."'"^ Stanton, Woman Question 385. Stanton, Woman Question 384. Stanton, Woman Question 384. CHAPTER TWO THE PEASANT WOMAN AND HER BACKGROUND DURING THE 1800s In t h i s chapter I w i l l narrow the focus t o the area of my immediate i n t e r e s t : the r u r a l community (Bauern) i n Germany and S w i t z e r l a n d , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the peasant woman. In view of i t s relevance t o my d i s s e r t a t i o n t o p i c , I w i l l p rovide an h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l overview of t h i s s o c i a l stratum during the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n . By the middle of the nineteenth century t w o - t h i r d s of Germany's p o p u l a t i o n , f o u r - f i f t h s i n P r u s s i a , was s t i l l engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e , which produced more wealth than any other s e c t o r of the economy. The bulk of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n the country, i n farming communities, v i l l a g e s and small market towns. Around the year 1860, 25-30 per cent of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n were farmers, j u s t under a t h i r d owned no more than a s m a l l h o l d i n g , a f u r t h e r t h i r d no land at a l l , and 10 per cent p r a c t i s e d a non-guild c r a f t . Although the number of yeoman farmers (Vollbauern) were on the d e c l i n e as e a r l y as the 1820s, the r u r a l s o c i e t y r e t a i n e d i t s farming s t r u c t u r e w e l l i n t o the nineteenth century (Frevert 22). According t o the h i s t o r i a n , Rudolph Stadelmann: "Germany [ i n the nineteenth century] could j u s t i f i a b l y be described as an ag r a r i a n country" (1948, 24) . At approximately the same time i n S w i t z e r l a n d , some 300,000 hectares were given over t o the r a i s i n g of g r a i n ; a g r i c u l t u r e s u p p l i e d roughly 80 per cent of the country's food requirements. U n l i k e Germany, however, the d i v i s i o n s between r u r a l and urban centres of p o p u l a t i o n were not so w e l l d e f i n e d as the economist, Chester L l o y d Jones, who prepared a Trade Information B u l l e t i n on S w i t z e r l a n d i n the l a t e 1800s, reported: S w i t z e r l a n d i s so small and the communication system so w e l l developed, e s p e c i a l l y i n the plateau r e g i o n , t h a t many of those l i v i n g i n small towns may be considered i n some respects as urban or suburban p o p u l a t i o n ; however, many town dwe l l e r s who have business i n t e r e s t s are a l s o farmers i n a small way, so t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between urban and r u r a l i s hard t o make.^ L e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g r u r a l d w e l l e r s , i n both c o u n t r i e s , was i n e f f e c t throughout the nineteenth century. According t o Eda Sagarra, the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , "Peasant Emancipation i s the term used t o desc r i b e a whole s e r i e s of ^ Chester L l o y d Jones, Trade Information B u l l e t i n s on Resources and I n d u s t r i e s i n S w i t z e r l a n d ( P a r i s : U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1926) 3. land reform measures beginning i n the l a t e eighteenth century and cu l m i n a t i n g i n the October E d i c t of 1807" (1977, 343). Attempts at peasant l i b e r a t i o n had been made before the nineteenth century, but i n t e r e s t was again r e k i n d l e d through the new challenge of human r i g h t s which the Enlightenment had made popular. Modern economic views and agr a r i a n p o l i c i e s imported from England a l s o served t o f i r e i n t e r e s t i n the subject (Stadelmann 25). This exposure d i d not r e s u l t i n standardized a g r a r i a n reform i n every area of Germany however. I t was not u n t i l the Stein-Hardenberg l e g i s l a t i o n of 1807-1821 i n P r u s s i a that the f i r s t major change t o a f f e c t the German economy since the T h i r t y Years War occurred (Gagliardo 7). The reforms embodied i n the l e g i s l a t i o n of three dates, namely, 1807, 1811, and 1821, were d i r e c t e d at a l t e r a t i o n s i n the system of land h o l d i n g and a g r a r i a n c u l t i v a t i o n i n P r u s s i a . The f i r s t e d i c t of October 9, 1807 s i g n i f i e d , i n p r a c t i c e , the end of the s o c i e t y based on st a t u s s i n c e i t removed two e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : the r e s t r i c t i o n of the "Stande" to f i x e d p r o f e s s i o n s , and the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the s t a t e i n municipal a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Cohn-Bramsted 36). This document als o c a l l e d f o r the a b o l i t i o n of a l l c l a s s r e s t r i c t i o n s on the purchase of land and the a c q u i s i t i o n of s e r v i l e s t a t u s , by whatever means, was p r o h i b i t e d . In a d d i t i o n a l l peasants who possessed h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t s t o t h e i r land, together with t h e i r f a m i l i e s , were declared immediately f r e e ; and a l l s e r v i t u d e was t o be ab o l i s h e d as of St. Martin's day. November 11, 1810 (Gagliardo 19). Furthermore, the d i v i s i o n of the people i n t o three h e r e d i t a r y Estates of a r i s t o c r a c y , m i d d l e - c l a s s and peasantry was destroyed which meant, i n theory, t h a t c i t i z e n s and peasants were now f r e e t o move from the land and i n t o new occupations i f they so wished (Cohn-Bramsted 36). Attempts at peasant emancipation had already been made i n S w i t z e r l a n d i n the eighteenth century. From i t s i n c e p t i o n , the French Revolution (1789) had profound repercussions i n Swi t z e r l a n d as the h i s t o r i a n , E. Bonjour, notes : When the Revolution broke out i n France, at t h a t time Switzerland's most powerful a l l y , t h i s great c o n v u l s i o n could not f a i l t o spread t o the con f e d e r a t i o n . The country was s t i r r e d t o i t s depths, economically, s p i r i t u a l l y , and s o c i a l l y . The Re v o l u t i o n , a t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n h i s t o r y a l l over Europe, was p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n S w i t z e r l a n d (1938, 211) . When France occupied S w i t z e r l a n d i n 17 92, she sought t o win over the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n by promising the a b o l i t i o n of oppressive f e u d a l dues. I t was t h i s p o l i c y which was c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the peasant's enthusiasm f o r the r e v o l u t i o n , but he was soon t o f i n d t h a t Napoleon would not f u l f i l l h i s promises (Bonjour 225). By the nineteenth century, the peasant was g r a d u a l l y g a i n i n g complete p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y and began to dominate the s t a t e by h i s l a r g e v o t i n g power. At the same time, he gained economic independence by shaking o f f the great burden of t a x a t i o n on persons and property (Bonjour 315). In r e a l i t y , the aforementioned l e g i s l a t i o n brought l i t t l e change to the l i f e of the peasant i n e i t h e r country. Only the peasantry i n S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n had come i n contact with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In S i l e s i a , the s i t u a t i o n was at i t s most inflammable, because peasant emancipation, i n c o n t r a s t t o the o l d P r u s s i a n provinces, was impeded by the a u t h o r i t i e s at every t u r n . In other German s t a t e s , the a b o l i t i o n of " L e i b e i g e n s c h a f t " and personal s e r v i t u d e was introduced somewhat more s l o w l y than i n P r u s s i a . Furthermore, the peasants themselves were sus p i c i o u s and r e l u c t a n t witnesses of innovations designed by o f f i c i a l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s on t h e i r b e h a l f (Sagarra 1977, 344). The h i s t o r i a n , John Gagliardo, e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s subject as f o l l o w s : For various reasons - h i s i l l i t e r a c y , h i s p a r o c h i a l i s m , h i s aversion t o i n n o v a t i o n and, most important, h i s l e g a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y , and economically i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l order -the peasant was almost e n t i r e l y incapable of undertaking systematic measures f o r h i s own betterment (1969, 6) . The outcome of the land reforms d i d not always improve c o n d i t i o n s f o r the peasantry, as Gagliardo notes: In 1840, as i n the mid-eighteenth century, i t was s t i l l the s i z e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s lands which tended t o determine h i s wealth. The small p r o p r i e t o r , the peasant, was hurt i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of reforms t o h i s own land not only because of h i s ignorance of the great p o t e n t i a l of i n n o v a t i o n , but a l s o because he could not a f f o r d i t . More than ever, the peasant became incapable of i n f l u e n c i n g h i s own s o c i a l d e s t i n y (10-11) . But perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t and f a r - r e a c h i n g consequence of the reform l e g i s l a t i o n was one which had not been a n t i c i p a t e d : the r i s e of an a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o l e t a r i a t out of l a n d l e s s peasants or of those whose holdings were too meagre to provide an adequate income. Both r e s p e c t i v e groups were fo r c e d t o leave the land t o f i n d employment i n the c i t y , thus e f f e c t i n g permanent change i n the r u r a l canvas. This very i s s u e i s r e f l e c t e d i n some of Auerbach's works. He makes reference, f o r i n s t a n c e , t o country lads l e a v i n g f o r America and France i n Der Tolpatsch, Barfufiele and F l o r i a n und Kreszenz. The Changing Image of the Peasant The d i s c u s s i o n which land reform engendered d i d , indeed, have some p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r the peasant. A t t e n t i o n was drawn to h i s s i t u a t i o n which, over time, brought about a review i n the p u b l i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n of him. The seventeenth and e a r l y eighteenth century peasant was, t o those who deigned t o t h i n k of him, ignorant and b o o r i s h , a stock f i g u r e of comedy (der deutsche Michel^) and the butt of crude s a t i r e used t o give " l o c a l c o l o u r " i n l i t e r a t u r e (Gagliardo 8). This image p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o the eighteenth century. Sagarra comments on the p r e v a l e n t s o c i e t a l o p i n i o n of the peasant, at t h a t time, as f o l l o w s : "He was a b r u t i s h creature, by h i s very nature d e s t i n e d t o remain so. The p i c t u r e of the w i t l e s s t i l l e r of the s o i l , animated by low cunning, but an easy dupe of h i s s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s , p e r s i s t e d long i n t o the Age of Reason" (1977, 339-340) . This image slo w l y began to change i n the course of the nineteenth century. This was due t o a number of f a c t o r s , as Gagliardo e x p l a i n s : "The c r e a t i o n of p o s i t i v e and favourable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the peasant, or, as contemporaries might rat h e r have put i t , the 'discovery' of them, was a process inseparable from the major i n t e l l e c t u a l currents and changes of eighteenth-century Germany" (61). The s c h o l a r , Uwe Baur, concurs w i t h t h i s view: "Der grundlegende Wandel im 18. Fanny Johnson, The German Mind (London: Chapmann and Dodd, 1922) 48. Jahrhundert i n der allgemeinen Einschatzung des Nahrstandes i s t dominant okonomischen Ursprunge und e n t f a l t e t e im Einklang mit den Ideen der Aufklarung, des Naturrechts, des Rousseauismus und des P h i l a n t h r o p i n i s m u s " (1978, 63). In t h i s connection, a l a r g e number of a g r i c u l t u r a l works on the subject of "economy", as the c u l t i v a t i o n of land was then c a l l e d , began t o appear. I n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n a l reform, which was then current i n Germany and encompassed the d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l e v i l s such as a l c o h o l i s m , a l s o c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o the peasant. G o t t h e l f s Wie f i i n f Madchen im Branntwein iammerlich umkommen, a t e x t which w i l l be explored i n chapter f o u r , i s an example of a f i c t i o n a l work which was i n s p i r e d by such d i s c u s s i o n s . A l l of these f a c t o r s helped t o create a new c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n favourable t o the peasant. The Swiss, H.C. H i r z e l ' s remark was i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e towards the peasant and h i s occupation i n gener a l : One l e a r n s . . . g r a d u a l l y t o recognize t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s the mother of the human race, and consequently the source of a l l wonderworks of the human w i t , a l l i n d u s t r y of the human understanding, and g e n e r a l l y of a l l the knowledge which the understanding has acquired f o r i t s e l f , which i t has r a i s e d t o sci e n c e s , and which i t propagates upon descendants from generation t o generation."^ In a d d i t i o n t o these works there was a host of p u b l i c and i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s , who, i n the eighteenth century, had already begun to express i n t e r e s t i n the l i f e of the peasant. But i t was l i t e r a t u r e which played the most important r o l e i n p r o j e c t i n g a new, but by no means c o n s i s t e n t l y accurate, image of the German peasant. In the mid and l a t e eighteenth century some l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s became i n t e r e s t e d i n the peasant and h i s environment. A l b r e c h t von H a l l e r i n Die Alpen (1729) and Salomon Gefiner i n Die I d y l l e n (1756), f o r example, e x t o l l e d the simple v i r t u e s of the countryman and h i s way of l i f e . And p o e t i c c i r c l e s such as the Gôttingen Hainbund, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1772, were a l s o given to r h a p s o d i z i n g on the theme of the peasant's p i e t y . In an o b v i o u s l y o v e r s i m p l i f i e d manner, Sagarra speaks of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the image of the peasant "from b r u t i s h beast t o i d e a l peasant of modern times" (152). H i r z e l was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n promoting the "new" peasant: Weil er durch L i t e r a r i s i e r u n g des Bauern Jakob Guyer (1716-1785) aus Wermatswil, genannt K l e i n j o g g , ^ den Grundtypus des H.C. H i r z e l , Die W i r t h s c h a f t F s i c l eines p h i l o s o p h i s c h e n Bauers ( Z u r i c h : n.p., 1761) 62. ^ For f u r t h e r reading on " K l e i n j o g g " , see F. E r n s t , K l e i n i o q g der Meisterbauer. N.p.:.n.p., 1935; W. Guyer, K l e i n j o q q der zurcher f s i c l Bauer 1716-1785. Erlenbach-Z l i r i c h : n.p., 1972. p h i l o s o p h i s c h e n Bauern "geschaffen" hat, und damit d i e Bedurfnisse s e i n e r Z e i t so genau t r a f , daB d i e s e r a l s Socrate r u s t i q u e eine europaische Beruhmheit wurde (Baur 51). In regard t o the r o l e which l i t e r a t u r e played i n propounding t h i s image (Socrate r u s t i q u e ) , Alan Menhennet, the c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g i n 1973, comments: The p i c t u r e of the common people t h a t we see i n the l i t e r a t u r e of eighteenth-century Germany i s r a r e l y a p o r t r a i t of the r e a l i t y . I t i s u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d by some convention such as the Enlightenment i d e a l of n a t u r a l moderation or the "Sturm und Drang" v i s i o n of simple, u n s p o i l e d " n a t u r a l " humanity (41). He quotes P o l l n i t z , whom he claims had captured a t r u e r and more c o r r e c t p i c t u r e of the peasant i n h i s statement: M i s e r a b l e t o the l a s t degree... o f t e n not a b i t of bread t o eat... always t r e m b l i n g and humble (because of t h e i r constant s u b j e c t i o n ) . . . the s e v e r i t y with which these people are r u l e d i s r e a l l y t e r r i b l e , but ' t i s as t r u e on the other hand th a t gentle usage has no e f f e c t on 'em... blows are the only way to make them good f o r anything (41). This dichotomy between the i d e a l i z e d v e r s i o n of the peasant, which the nineteenth century German p u b l i c began t o embrace, and the a c t u a l peasant h i m s e l f i s explored by both Auerbach and G o t t h e l f i n Der Lauterbacher, and Der Besuch auf dem Lande r e s p e c t i v e l y . The peasantry, as i s common knowledge today, had been downtrodden, abused and maltreated throughout h i s t o r y . During the T h i r t y Years War (1618-1648), and even i n the years of peace afterwards, they had undergone gruesome s u f f e r i n g . Reports from 164 8 r e v e a l the manner i n which they were regarded by t h e i r l o r d s : "Untertanen konnen b e i Kauf und Verkauf, Pacht und Verpachtung n i c h t anders a l s nach den Praestandis Geld, Vieh oder Dienst nach P r o p e r t i e n i n Betracht kommen."^ Furthermore, Eberhard von Rochow, owner of a l a r g e e s t a t e , l e n t support t o t h i s statement by d e s c r i b i n g the peasants i n h i s n a t i v e Brandenburg as "Tiere unter T i e r e n . " ^ Counted as animals they were t r e a t e d as such. Wilhelm Wolff, w r i t i n g i n the mid 1600s, exposes, and was very c r i t i c a l of, the double standards of t h a t s o c i e t y and the p o s i t i o n of the peasant woman, i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h i n i t : Quoted i n Eda Sagarra, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y of Germany 1648-1914 (London: Methuen, 1977) 146. Sagarra, S o c i a l H i s t o r y 146. We ourselves i n our youth witnessed how a young robber k n i g h t , s e r v i n g as an apprentice i n land management t o another high noble, c u l t i v a t i n g inherent noble passion, f o r t h i s reason b r u t a l l y abused a peasant woman and c r i p p l e d her without being t r o u b l e d by anyone. They were poor people, and t o complain meant a l a w s u i t , which cost money, and a l s o c a l l e d f o r some t r u s t i n j u s t i c e . " ^ In s p i t e of the new awareness of the peasant, h i s t o r i a n s , such as Menhennet, argue t h a t the nineteenth century educated m i d d l e - c l a s s observer found i t d i f f i c u l t t o accept the peasantry as brothers i n p r a c t i c e (40). The f a c t t h a t the c i t y d w e l l e r depended on the peasant f o r sustenance d i d l i t t l e t o endear "the country bumpkin" t o him, as Gagliardo c o r r e c t l y notes: "He [the peasant] produced the nourishment f o r a l l c l a s s e s , he was the primary producer on whose e f f o r t s the e n t i r e economy depended, and, according to the more recent n a t i o n a l i s t i c i n s i g h t s , he was the c u l t u r a l core or nucleus of the n a t i o n i t s e l f " (166). The p u b l i c continued t o view the peasantry as " s u b j e c t s " , n e i t h e r f u l l y f r e e , nor f u l l y human. In t h i s connection the peasantry, as a c l a s s , appears t o have been Quoted i n Rudolph Stadelmann, S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y of the German 1848 R e v o l u t i o n , t r a n s . James G. Chastain. (Athens, Ohio: Ohio UP, 1948) 113. h a r s h l y judged i n other s o c i e t i e s at t h a t time. Even a s o c i a l l y conscious w r i t e r l i k e Maxim Gorky, remarking on the Russian peasantry i n 1915, d i d not p r a i s e h i s countryman: But where i s the good-natured, t h o u g h t f u l Russian peasant, i n d e f a t i g a b l e searcher a f t e r t r u t h and j u s t i c e , who was so c o n v i n c i n g l y and b e a u t i f u l l y d epicted i n the world of nineteenth-century Russian l i t e r a t u r e ? In my youth I searched f o r such a man across the Russian countryside and d i d not f i n d him. I met there i n s t e a d a tough, cunning r e a l i s t who, when i t was favourable t o him, knew q u i t e w e l l how to make hi m s e l f out as a simpleton. By nature the peasant i s not s t u p i d and p knows i t w e l l . In respect t o the German peasant, i t i s noteworthy t h a t he was r e c e i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n , a l b e i t of a di s p a r a g i n g nature, from f o r e i g n sources than from h i s f e l l o w countrymen. Thomas Smith, an E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r , f o r example, w r i t i n g of the German peasantry i n the mid-nineteenth century, commented: The best t h a t can be s a i d of the peasantry, i s they are a hard, b r u t a l , Q Maxim Gorky, My Childhood (Garden C i t y : Garden C i t y P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1915) 23. t h r i f t y race, p l a c i n g l i t t l e v alue upon the refinements of l i f e and seemingly possessing no i n c l i n a t i o n t o acquire them. Dour and rev e n g e f u l , quarrelsome and ever ready w i t h the k n i f e , they never a l l o w a v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l t o pass without k n i f i n g events or the smashing of beer-mugs on each other's heads being duly c h r o n i c l e d i n the l o c a l press (12). In regard t o t h e i r l i v i n g quarters and the c o n d i t i o n s i n which the German peasant l i v e d . Smith quips: "Why i s the a i r i n the country so fresh? Because the peasants never open t h e i r windows!" (12). And as t o the home being an impenetrable haven f o r the weary peasant. Smith maintains t h a t , when compared t o other European counterparts, t h i s concept was an a l i e n one f o r the German peasant. Waxing r a t h e r l y r i c a l he w r i t e s : The p r i v a c y and s e c l u s i o n which an Englishman values so h i g h l y i s under German c o n d i t i o n s unknown. No conception of the home as a s o r t of beacon l i g h t shedding i t s d i v i n e i n f l u e n c e beyond i t s own borders has ever dawned upon the Teutonic imagination. German home-life i s a loose conception and the home ex e r c i s e s l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e on Germany's sons and daughters (13). But s i n c e the Englishman has long been renowned f o r p r i z i n g h i s home as h i s c a s t l e , t h i s i s , i n my view, a r a t h e r u n f a i r and emotional e v a l u a t i o n on Smith's p a r t . In f a c t , i n the ma j o r i t y of G o t t h e l f s works, which w i l l be examined i n chapter f o u r , the upkeep of the farm and homestead i s a matter of extreme personal p r i d e t o the farmer. L i f e on the Farm Peasant l i f e was, according t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l sources, q u i t e miserable. The peasants worked long hours f o r l i t t l e reward and enjoyed, on the whole, l i t t l e r e s p e c t . Their h o r i z o n of l i f e was c o n t i n u a l l y bounded by the harsh s t r u g g l e f o r d a i l y s ubsistence, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the poorer peasants. S o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r u r a l community were more r i g i d l y d e f i n e d than i n the c i t i e s , as Stadelmann remarks: "The ^serving c l a s s ' and ^ the r u l i n g c l a s s ' faced one another very b l a t a n t l y and c l e a r l y " (30). On the farm (Bauernhof) i t s e l f , r o l e s and stat u s were f i r m l y demarcated. F i r s t and foremost, a system was i n operation on the farm which today would c l e a r l y be designated as p a t r i a r c h a l . Sagarra comments, on t h i s matter, as f o l l o w s : "The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f a m i l y and dependants, and of the household and farm servants t o the master of the house was one of r e s p e c t f u l submission" (1977, 142) . This meant t h a t "he" (the head of the household) delegated some of h i s a u t h o r i t y t o h i s wife who, i n t u r n , p r e s c r i b e d t a s k s f o r the servants. Auerbach, as we s h a l l observe i n chapter three, explores t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n h i s work. Among the farm labourers themselves there e x i s t e d gradations of rank: h i r e d help of higher and lower order -the "GroBknecht" as w e l l as the "Kleinknecht", which i s i n evidence i n Hans J o g g e l i der E r b v e t t e r by G o t t h e l f . In s p i t e of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , the economy of the peasant farm d i d not impose s t r i c t d i v i d i n g l i n e s between the work expected of a male farm servant and tha t expected of a female one, although the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v a r i e d , as o u t l i n e d by the h i s t o r i a n s below. The only area of work t h a t was e x c l u s i v e l y female was i n the house and k i t c h e n , which meant e f f e c t i v e l y that the women g e n e r a l l y worked longer hours than the men (Evans and Lee 166). R.J. Evans and W.R. Lee desc r i b e the t y p i c a l working l i f e of a woman peasant at t h a t p e r i o d : F i r s t , a g i r l 13-14 years o l d w i l l be taken on t o help the peasant's wife with the household chores and l o o k i n g a f t e r the c h i l d r e n . As she grows she i s promoted t o under-servant (Unterdirn) and s t a r t s l e a r n i n g farming t a s k s . Then she gets promoted t o middle servant, who mi l k s the cows and feeds them under s u p e r v i s i o n . F i n a l l y she becomes an upper servant, who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the animals (163). This l a t t e r task was the u l t i m a t e i n terms of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and promotion. The importance of the maid t o the we l l - b e i n g of the animals was acknowledged and rewarded, by means of a bonus p a i d by the farmers, when an animal was s o l d . I d e a l l y a female servant was i n i t i a t e d i n t o a l l aspects of women's work on the farm during her time of s e r v i c e . The hardest work was the v a r i a b l e seasonal work i n the f i e l d s , which i s a t t e s t e d i n Auerbach's Erdmute. In t h i s regard Smith, with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o l o u r f u l n e s s and pompous i n t e n s i t y , maintains t h a t the female peasant had the most d i f f i c u l t time of a l l : E s p e c i a l l y among the peasant c l a s s e s women are l i t t l e b e t t e r than beasts of burden. From morn t i l l eve, during a l l the seasons, they may be seen - young and o l d - performing the heav i e s t tasks connected with a g r i c u l t u r a l labour. On market days the woman c a r r i e s the heavi e s t load, while i n droughty summers i t i s an everyday s i g h t t o see her, bent n e a r l y double i n c a r r y i n g a v e s s e l c o n t a i n i n g about s i x b u c k e t s f u l of water, f i t t e d by straps on t o the back, considerable distances t o water the parched f i e l d s . Yet hers i s a l o t much d e s i r e d and envied by her unmarried s i s t e r s ! (6-7) . Working as a farm labourer had wider s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the woman. Being i n the employ of a farmer meant being subject t o the p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y of the household - the farm servant would have t o obey the farmer i n the same manner as d i d h i s c h i l d r e n , a r e l a t i o n s h i p which both Auerbach and G o t t h e l f d e s c r i b e i n t h e i r work. The r u l e s governing s e r v i c e a l s o d i c t a t e d t h a t the female peasant would l i v e i n the same house as the farmer and h i s wife, share the work and the ho l i d a y s w i t h them, and f i n a l l y , and t h i s continued even at the end of the century on middling peasant farms, she was expected t o eat the same food at the same t a b l e . In a l l , t h i s meant complete i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the hi e r a r c h y of the household, as Evans e x p l a i n s : "Their r i g h t s and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work of the farm d i f f e r e d from that of the farmer's own c h i l d r e n i n one fundamental way only: they were employed by him, and stood t o i n h e r i t no land from him" (161). Furthermore, the peasant woman was p a r t of a l a r g e r community, the v i l l a g e , and her p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y and the standing of tha t r e s p e c t i v e household determined her s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i n the v i l l a g e . Since, as Ernest Cohn-Bramsted, the h i s t o r i a n , informs us "the r e p u t a t i o n f o r good domestic management was the p r i d e of the women", (1964, 52) i t was, t h e r e f o r e , of utmost importance f o r the female peasant t o f i n d s e r v i c e i n a decent, reputable f a m i l y , and t o do w e l l there, f o r i t secured her respect and p o s i t i o n i n the v i l l a g e community at a l a t e r date. This was important not only because of the attendant p r e s t i g e of being respected, but every woman farmhand sought independence with good cause. Tolerance of females, who were considered an encumbrance and l i a b i l i t y t o the community, was low. Evans r e l a t e s t h a t court records from t h a t p e r i o d i l l u s t r a t e the lengths t o which a v i l l a g e would go t o r i d i t s e l f of an unemployed, or s i c k , farm servant. He c i t e s the case of Anna K. as an example. The l a t t e r was a servant who had been seve r e l y i n j u r e d i n an accident i n v o l v i n g a t h r e s h i n g machine, and there were rumours t h a t she was pregnant out of wedlock. The records r e v e a l t h a t the Mayor of the v i l l a g e a p p l i e d t o the court i n Ebersberg f o r permission to ban the woman from the community (162). This procedure was apparently common p r a c t i c e and i n d i c a t e s t h a t v i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s regarded the presence of unmarried female servants, w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , as a moral impediment. Women who l e f t t h e i r employ without customary n o t i c e were a l s o considered as subversive, u n d e s i r a b l e elements i n the community. I t was feared t h a t those women who lacked money or r e l a t i v e s would d r a i n the v i l l a g e poor fund, and would f u r t h e r endanger the p r e v a i l i n g code of sexual e t h i c s by succumbing t o p r o s t i t u t i o n to support themselves. Moreover, should pregnancy be the outcome of p r o s t i t u t i o n , the c h i l d , i n t u r n , would be e n t i t l e d t o support from the v i l l a g e ' s poor r e l i e f fund, i f the f a t h e r were a n a t i v e of the v i l l a g e (163). Auerbach i l l u m i n a t e s some of these s o c i a l i s sues i n h i s work. He t r e a t s the dilemma of the unmarried pregnant woman i n Pes Schlofibauers V e f e l e , and the v i l l a g e r s ' f e a r s that Amrei might have recourse t o the communal poor fund i n BarfuBele. Marriage i n the Rura l Community To ward o f f such a dilemma, and t o gain some s o r t of secure s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the v i l l a g e , the woman's only op t i o n was marriage. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a maid's e x i s t e n c e was e n t i r e l y o r i e n t e d towards her f u t u r e marriage. Since, as we have observed i n the previous chapter, marriage was problematic f o r women from a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a , the working peasant woman could not a f f o r d t o wait p a s s i v e l y f o r a p r o s p e c t i v e s u i t e r t o woo her, hence she strove w i t h a l l her might t o a t t r a c t him. G o t t h e l f provides an e s p e c i a l l y amusing account of women i n p u r s u i t of husbands i n Der B a l l . During her p e r i o d of s e r v i c e the peasant woman s t r u g g l e d t o amass the dowry she needed i n order t o be even considered i n the running as an e l i g i b l e marriage p a r t n e r . This a l s o a p p l i e d t o those from the poorest s e c t i o n s of the v i l l a g e . Consequently, the peer group became the f o c a l p o i n t of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y f o r unmarried s i n g l e women, who went t o dance h a l l s and on Sunday outings i n the hope of p r o c u r i n g a husband. Although the dowry was a l s o a matter of course i n other European c o u n t r i e s . Smith notes t h a t , by comparison, German women made themselves exceedingly cheap i n the marriage market. His account i s somewhat outrageous and exaggerated: " G i r l s of the lower c l a s s e s e x e r c i s e the greatest t h r i f t i n order t o procure 'eine Ausstattung' and a l i t t l e money, without which she has l i t t l e hope of f i n d i n g a Hans who w i l l make her h i s housekeeper and s l a v e . Having bought a man, her c h i e f worry i n l i f e seems t o be removed" (6). But, at the same time, t h i s statement appears t o r e f l e c t the f o r e i g n e r ' s , or, i n any case, the Englishman's a p p r a i s a l of the Germans. Reports from Germans themselves, who journeyed abroad i n the 1850s, serve t o c o l l a b o r a t e t h i s view: " T r a v e l l e r s i n England c o n t r a s t the l o t and i n t e l l i g e n c e of the peasantry i n tha t country w i t h those p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e i r own North Germany, t o the great advantage of England" (Gonner 84) . The s i t u a t i o n regarding c o u r t s h i p had f u r t h e r s o c i a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s . Because marriage was of t e n very d i f f i c u l t and engagements sometimes of years' d u r a t i o n , acceptance of pre-m a r i t a l i n t e r c o u r s e spread upward from the peasantry, where i t had always been endemic, t o higher c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y . G o t t h e l f t r e a t s t h i s i s s u e , i n some d e t a i l , i n Wie funf Madchen im Branntwein iammerlich umkommen. Again, f o r e i g n o p i n i o n , i n respect t o t h i s matter, was l e s s than favourable. Robertson r e p o r t s t h a t i n 1843 the E n g l i s h economist, Robert Vaughan, judged t h a t P r u s s i a was lower i n female c h a s t i t y than any other P r o t e s t a n t community of Europe! (71). This, i f at a l l accurate, i s h a r d l y astounding si n c e women from a l l rungs of the r u r a l h i e r a r c h y were at the mercy of a system which allowed men t o take f u l l advantage of the woman's need t o marry. In a b i d t o get h i t c h e d , young s i n g l e women were p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o sexual e x p l o i t a t i o n . In order t o capture a male many gave i n t o p r e - m a r i t a l sex i n the hope that i t would secure them a husband. Eleanor S. Riemar, the f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g i n 1980 r a i s e s an important p o i n t i n t h i s connection: Hence sexual a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , which had not been an is s u e when parents s e l e c t e d t h e i r daughters' husbands, became an important f a c t o r i n c o u r t s h i p and marriage and i n women's self-image. Popular c u l t u r e and new s o c i a l conventions encouraged women t o be sex ob j e c t s ; continued spinsterhood was a sign t h a t a woman was not s e x u a l l y appealing t o men (134). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe t h a t i l l e g i t i m a c y i n the lower and upper r u r a l c l a s s e s was not considered a scandal, i f the f a t h e r were a genuine marriage prospect: a matter r e f l e c t e d i n Pes SchloBbauers V e f e l e by Auerbach and Wie fi i n f Madchen im Branntwein iammerlich umkommen by G o t t h e l f . Both male and female farm servants o f t e n had one or even s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n by the time they married. The i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e was gauged at approximately 15 per cent even at the end of the nineteenth century, though the s t a t i s t i c s , as Evans notes, v a r i e d from region t o region w i t h i n B a v a r i a (170) . In s p i t e of t h i s t a c i t , s o c i e t a l acceptance, the s i t u a t i o n was wretched f o r the c h i l d r e n of farm servants. There was no place f o r o f f s p r i n g born on the farm and so, almost immediately a f t e r the b i r t h , the c h i l d was turned over t o f o s t e r - p a r e n t s . Consequently, the mother's only chance to v i s i t her c h i l d r e n was on her f r e e Sunday afternoons. Moreover, i f the r e s p e c t i v e female had more than one c h i l d , the c h i l d r e n were delegated t o a number of f o s t e r f a m i l i e s with the r e s u l t that many s i b l i n g s grew up s e p a r a t e l y , knowing l i t t l e of one another. In the mid 1880's economic pressure f o r c e d many workers to leave the farm: Da d i e A r b e i t s p l a t z e i n der Landwirtschaft im 19. Jahrhundert nur minimal anstiegen, d i e K i n d e r z a h l am Lande aber ebenso wie i n der Stadt rasch zunahm, mufîten d i e landlosen Bauernkinder um Taglohn a r b e i t e n , i n d i e i n d u s t r i e l l e Produktion der Stadte ausweichen oder nach den USA auswandern (Baur 54). Numerous young women from the a g r i c u l t u r a l lower c l a s s e s l e f t f o r the c i t y i n the hope of earning enough money t o marry and set up home. For others, l i f e on the farm was hard and monotonous, and j u s t as s e r v i c e i n f o r e i g n armies had had i t s appeal f o r young peasant men i n the past, so i t was that the c i t y became a s o r t of Utopian magnet which l u r e d the young with promises of quick wealth. T h i s , i n t u r n , l e d to the gradual e r o s i o n of the o l d p a t r i a r c h a l way of l i f e i n r u r a l communities. The m a j o r i t y of the women who l e f t the land, entered domestic s e r v i c e which remained the major source of employment f o r unmarried women without s k i l l s u n t i l the clo s e of the nineteenth century. L i f e i n the c i t y , however, presented new, e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t problems. Conditions f o r domestic servants were, by and l a r g e , d e p l o r a b l e . Those who di d not have l i v e - i n domestic p o s i t i o n s faced the problem of f i n d i n g a f f o r d a b l e s h e l t e r themselves. Many were fo r c e d t o rent space, i . e . p a r t of a room i n which t o sleep, with f a m i l i e s or i n a boarding house. Thus, n e c e s s i t y and low wages f o r c e d working women i n t o overcrowded, unsanitary, and dismal l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s (Riemer 132) . In l i g h t of t h i s change i n the r u r a l canvas, the "Dorfgeschichte" i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n p r o v i d i n g access t o t h i s s o c i a l stratum (the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n ) , because the w r i t e r s of t h i s genre, wh i l e c r e a t i n g f i c t i o n a l t e x t s , were drawing on t h e i r own r e f l e c t i o n s about f a c t u a l i n h a b i t a n t s and experiences of peasant l i f e . CHAPTER THREE REDISCOVERING A FORGOTTEN LITERARY PIONEER The l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , A r n o l d Bettelheim, commented, i n 1907, on the a r r a y of women i n Auerbach's works as f o l l o w s : Stark- und weichmutige Familienmutter, Frauen a l s E r z i e h e r i n n e n , a l s Vorsehung ganzer Geschlechter; Bauernmadchen, der s e l b s t l o s e s t e n , z a r t f u h l e n d s t e n Liebesempfindung fâhig, d i c h t neben h e i f i b l u t i g e n und l e i c h t f e r t i g e n - eine solche F i i l l e von N o r d s t e t t e r Landsleuten s c h i c k t e der D i c h t e r i n d i e Welt (162). A f t e r indepth i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n of Auerbach's Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten (1843-1854), I agree w i t h Bettelheim's somewhat e f f u s i v e e v a l u a t i o n . Due to the d i v e r s i t y of women presented i n the t e x t s , I have decided t o arrange the r e s p e c t i v e works i n c l u s t e r s (with no c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n t e n t i o n ) , which appeared t o share a common theme i n r e l a t i o n t o the female c h a r a c t e r . In t h i s chapter I w i l l analyze works i n each r e s p e c t i v e group, and i n accordance with my o b j e c t i v e d e l i n e a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , I w i l l demonstrate t h a t Auerbach d i d not merely sugar-coat, or deodorize h i s peasants as has been claimed; but he, i n f a c t , provides a convincing and r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t of the nineteenth century peasant woman. In c o n t r a s t t o G o t t h e l f , few of Auerbach's "Dorfgeschichten" may be regarded as "comic", or "humorous" r e n d i t i o n s of v i l l a g e l i f e . Of the ten volumes I consulted only B e f e h l e r l e s (1843) and Die K r i e a s p f e i f e (1844) t r e a t the l i g h t e r s i d e of r u r a l l i f e . I s h a l l begin my i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Auerbach's d e p i c t i o n of the peasant woman with the aforementioned works. Auerbach's Women; Young and Old I t w i l l become apparent i n the study of the woman i n Auerbach's works, t h a t the author does not provide a d e t a i l e d account of her p h y s i c a l appearance or, on occasion, of her circumstances. This i s t r u e of B e f e h l e r l e s (1843). We rec e i v e no inf o r m a t i o n concerning A i v l e ' s age, her p h y s i c a l appearance, or her standing i n the v i l l a g e h i e r a r c h y . There i s , as we s h a l l see, next t o no character development. She i s important only i n t h a t she i s c e n t r a l t o Matthes's, the male p r o t a g o n i s t ' s , "crime" and as the agent who u n w i t t i n g l y lengthens h i s p e r i o d of i n c a r c e r a t i o n . When we f i r s t encounter A i v l e , her f e i s t i n e s s of s p i r i t leads us t o the b e l i e f t h a t she may stand i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the image of the demure woman discussed i n the preceding chapters. Contrary t o the t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e , she i s shown t o act as male p r o t e c t o r when Matthes i s l e d away by the guard: "Es [ A i v l e ] erfaJJte den Matthes beim Arme, a l s w o l l t e es i h n r e t t e n " (Auerbach 1: 110).•'• But t h i s v a l i a n t gesture, on her p a r t , i s soon subjugated by her p u e r i l e helplessness which pervades the e n t i r e work: "Dieses [ A i v l e ] aber sah n i c h t s mehr, denn d i e h e l l e n Trânen standen ihm im Auge, und d i e Schurze vor das Gesicht h a l t e n d , ging es s c h n e l l zuriick i n s Haus" (110) . While Auerbach presents A i v l e as a comical f i g u r e , who e l i c i t s humour by her apparent slow-witted nature, he sounds a more s e r i o u s note by o f f e r i n g some i n s i g h t i n t o the mindset and s o c i a l standing of the "average" female of that p e r i o d . For i n s t a n c e , as a d i r e c t consequence of Matthes's a c t i o n s , A i v l e i s summoned to appear i n c o u r t . She i s p e t r i f i e d at t h i s prospect due t o her ignorance (through no f a u l t of her own) of t h i s predominantly male i n s t i t u t i o n : " A l l e r l e i S c h r e c k b i l d e r von schwarzbehangenen Gemachern standen vor s e i n e r Seele" (115) . In r e a l i t y , her f e a r s m a t e r i a l i z e , f o r she i s subjected t o the advances of the For the reader's o r i e n t a t i o n , b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n s of content f o r the works under d i s c u s s i o n i n chapters three and four r e s p e c t i v e l y may be found i n Appendix I I . In a d d i t i o n , because of the l a c k of p e r t i n e n t c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l i n reference t o Auerbach's and G o t t h e l f s treatment of the peasant woman, I do not provide the conventional review of c r i t i c s (see Appendix I I I ) . Furthermore, s i n c e G o t t h e l f i s a recognized author and Auerbach i s v i r t u a l l y unknown today, I thought i t a d v i s a b l e t o provide the reader with two short b i o g r a p h i c a l sketches of both w r i t e r s (see Appendix I ) . lecherous court o f f i c i a l who, p r e y i n g on her v u l n e r a b i l i t y as a poor, uneducated woman, seeks t o e x t o r t information from her: " A i v l e schien ihm sehr zu g e f a l i e n , denn er faBte es am Kinn, s t r e i c h e l t e ihm die heifien, roten Wangen und sagte dann: Setz d i c h nur" (117). Although f r i g h t e n e d , A i v l e i s d e p i c t e d by Auerbach as attempting t o r i s e above her f e a r s and her d i c t a t e d s o c i e t a l r o l e as an obedient, complying woman. The author demonstrates how, through the power of l o v e , an "oppressed" creature can gain a higher awareness of h e r s e l f as a conscious human being. During her i n t e r r o g a t i o n i n court, A i v l e i s momentarily transformed through thoughts of Matthes : Sein Herz k l o p f t e rasch, e i n gewisses Gefuhl des S t o l z e s erhob s i c h i n ihm, e i n Bewuiitsein, das uber allé Gefahren hinausragte, belebte s e i n ganzes Wesen, es dachte p l o t z l i c h n i c h t mehr an d i e Papiere, n i c h t mehr an den Oberamtmann, n i c h t mehr, wo es war, es dachte nur an Matthes (117) . The author a l s o r e v e a l s how d e s p i t e her brave e f f o r t s , A i v l e l a c k s the t o o l s , i . e . education, which would permit her to a s s e r t h e r s e l f as a woman s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y and t o s u c c e s s f u l l y confront the male power s t r u c t u r e . Because of t h i s , her bungling r e n d i t i o n of events, i n f a c t , makes the s i t u a t i o n l e s s favourable f o r Matthes. The ending i s abrupt. Matthes i s f u r i o u s because A i v l e ' s c o n f e s s i o n i n court condemned him t o a longer p r i s o n term, but the author, who has underscored the i n j u s t i c e s p e r p e t r a t e d upon the female (the woman i s d e l i b e r a t e l y kept i n ignorance and i s endangered by the p r e v a i l i n g power s t r u c t u r e ) throughout the work; i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , and i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s more r e a l i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n s , w i l l have a "happy end" and the love r s are r e c o n c i l e d : "Das i s t d i e Geschichte von dem Maibaum an des Wagner Michels Haus; am Hochzeitstage der beiden Liebenden ward er mit roten Bandern geschmuckt" (119) . In Die K r i e g s p f e i f e (1844) we gain more i n s i g h t i n t o K atherle's character than we d i d i n respect t o A i v l e i n the former work. K a t h e r l e , i n keeping w i t h the image of the " i d e a l " woman discussed i n chapter one, i s depi c t e d by Auerbach i n a n u r t u r i n g , mothering c a p a c i t y . She tends t o Hansjorg who has l o s t h i s f i n g e r , and ca t e r s t o numerous male needs by t a k i n g p r o v i s i o n s t o the wounded s o l d i e r s . As b e f i t t i n g the above female r o l e , she serves and waits upon the man. And although she disapproves of Hansjorg's pipe smoking, i t i s she who s t u f f s h i s pi p e . Furthermore, while she acts as the moral conscience i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , by reminding Hansjorg t h a t i t i s a t r a n s g r e s s i o n of s o c i a l duty and C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s when he shoots h i m s e l f t o avoid c o n s c r i p t i o n , she w i l l i n g l y b u r i e s the of f e n d i n g f i n g e r . And yet, Auerbach presents K a t h e r l e as a " l i b e r a t e d " woman i n some re s p e c t s . While he shows her t o be humble i n her a c t i o n s , she i s r e c a l c i t r a n t i n behaviour: "Hansjorg àrgerte s i c h g e w a l t i g uber den Eigensinn K a t h e r l e s , und er s t e i f t e s i c h immer mehr auf seine L i e b h a b e r e i " (Auerbach 1: 4 6). K a t h e r l e e x e r t s her i n f l u e n c e upon Hansjorg i n a s u b t l e , yet winning manner. She, i n f a c t , b l a c k m a i l s him by demanding t h a t he f o r f e i t h i s pipe or she w i l l w i t h o l d sexual favours: "Das e r s t e , was das K a t h e r l e immer und immer von ihm v e r l a n g t e , war: dafi er das Rauchen aufgeben s o l l e . Er d u r f t e es n i e kûssen, wenn er geraucht h a t t e , und ehe er zu ihm ging, mulite er f a s t immer seine l i e b e P f e i f e verstecken" (46). I t i s she too who coerces Hansjorg i n t o marriage, a l l of which c o n t r a d i c t s h i s and, by extension, s o c i e t y ' s c o n v i c t i o n : "Es s e i unmannlich, s i c h von einem Weibe etwas vorschreiben zu l a s s e n ; das Weib musse nachgeben" (4 6). Moreover, Auerbach places K a t h e r l e i n the p o s i t i o n where she i s seen not only t o d i c t a t e the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , but t o r e - w r i t e i t s r u l e s at w i l l . Having i n s i s t e d t h a t Hansjorg forego h i s pipe, and having achieved her g o a l : "Die beiden umarmten s i c h s e l i g , dann r i e f Hansjorg: "Mein Lebtag kommt mir k e i n ' P f e i f mehr i n den Mund" (50), she appears at t h e i r wedding with a pipe i n her mouth and o f f e r s i t t o him. Is she, l i k e some higher being, g r a n t i n g him permission t o smoke, or i s she t e s t i n g h i s vow never t o do so again? In accordance w i t h the f i r s t i d e a , she speaks t o Hansjorg as one would t o a c h i l d : "Da, nimm, du hast d i c h wacker gehalten, du kannst d i r schon was versagen," and f o r one who was so adamant about him not smoking she recants her p o s i t i o n e n t i r e l y : "Meinetwegen magst du wohl rauchen, i c h hab' k e i n b i f i l e dagegen" (53). In t h i s case the woman i s presented by Auerbach as the stronger partner and the author demonstrates t h a t a marriage can prove s u c c e s s f u l when founded on the woman's terms: "Die P f e i f e wurde a l s ewiges Andenken iiber dem Himmelbette des jungen Ehepaares aufgehangt, und Hansjorg deutet o f t darauf h i n , wenn er beweisen w i l l , daB man s i c h mit festem Vorsatz und aus Liebe allés abgewôhnen kônne" (53). In t h i s s e c t i o n I i n v e s t i g a t e works, Der Lauterbacher (1847) and Ivo, der H a i r l e (1850), i n which the peasant woman i s shown by Auerbach t o be a powerful agent i n e x e r t i n g both p o s i t i v e and negative i n f l u e n c e s upon the male p r o t a g o n i s t i n question. In t h i s connection, the preva l e n t nineteenth century peasant image, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the woman, (chapter one) i s a l s o taken t o task by Auerbach, who i n Bettelheim's view, was e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r i n g t h i s theme: V e f e l e , d i e Bauerntochter, d i e a l s V o r l a u f e r i n der Frau P r o f e s s o r i n aus dem Dorf i n s t a d t i s c h e K r e i s e , der s t u d i e r t e Lehrer aus dem Stadtchen Lauterbach, der e i n Bauernmadchen h e i r a t e n s o i l . behandeln i n Gegenstûcken das von Auerbach z e i t l e b e n s immer wieder abgewandelte V e r h a l t n i s der Naturkinder zu den Gebildeten (149) . The 7 8 year o l d Maurita i n Der Lauterbacher i s presented by Auerbach as a composite of q u a l i t i e s , which r e f l e c t both the r e a l and i d e a l image of the peasant d e l i n e a t e d i n chapter two. On the one hand, she i s cunning and i n t u i t i v e . She assesses and understands R e i n h o l t ' s (the schoolmaster) motives i n s e t t l i n g i n the v i l l a g e before he can f u l l y express them h i m s e l f : "Wenn man jung i s t , mocht' man gern allé Leut' a u f f r e s s e n , d i e einen aus L i e b ' und d i e anderen aus Ârger; wenn man a l t i s t , da lâfît man einem jeden s e i n ' Sach" (Auerbach 2: 242). Although a "simple peasant" she i s f i r s t i n a l i n e of female c h a r a c t e r s , presented by the author, t o d i s p l a y deep p s y c h o l o g i c a l understanding of the male. Indeed, her a p p r a i s a l of R e i n h o l t t o her granddaughter proves c o r r e c t : "Hedwig, er i s t e i n G ' s t u d i e r t e r , d i e haben o f t Mucken im Kopf, i c h weilJ das von meiner Schwester her; du mufit Geduld mit ihm haben; denen G'studierten gehen o f t ganz andre Sachen im Kopf 'rum, und da lassen s i e ' s am Unrechten 'naus" (282). L i k e K a t h e r l e i n the previous work, she i s shown i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e by Auerbach, when she nurtures the male. For ins t a n c e , she takes R e i n h o l t t o her bosom immediately, when he asks permission t o address her as "GroBmutter", by responding: "Rechtschaffen gern, du guter, l i e b e r Mensch, es kommt mir auf e i n Enkele mehr oder weniger n i c h t an, und i c h w i l l ' s p robieren und w i l l deine S t r i i m p f s t r i c k e n , b r i n g mir auch di e z e r r i s s e n e n " (242) , While R e i n h o l t had formerly sought s h e l t e r from the r u r a l community i n nature, Maurita i s depicted by the author as h i s l i v i n g refuge, a k i n d of human Mother Nature: "Bei a l i e n Gefuhlsverletzungen, d i e der Lehrer durch d i e A r t und Weise der Bauern empfand, wendete er s i c h aber n i c h t mehr an die Mutter Natur, sondern an d i e Grofîmutter Maurita, d i e ihm liber d i e A r t , wie d i e Menschen h i e r l e b t e n , manchen AufschluB gab" (245). She i s , t o an extent, Auerbach's " i d e a l " woman, a combination of earthy and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s . She i s not r e l i g i o u s i n the conventional sense of the word, but she i s portrayed by him as a s p i r i t u a l person: "Die Hand der a l t e n Frau s t r e i f t e ihm p l o t z l i c h uber das Gesicht, es war dem Lehrer i n der Tat, a l s ob ihn eine hohere Macht beruhrte, er saJi da mit geschlossenen Augen, und d i e Augapfel z i t t e r t e n und bebten, d i e Wangen g l i i h t e n " (242) . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , Maurita i s presented as the l i v i n g example of Mother Nature, Hedwig, her granddaughter, on the other hand, i s d e p i c t e d by the author as the epitome of the younger "Naturkind." We f i r s t encounter her, i n a v i v i d l y i d y l l i c , p a s t o r a l scene: her apron ov e r f l o w i n g with crimson b e r r i e s , a snow white chicken pursuing her. Hedwig i s shown t o d i s p l a y the r e q u i r e d Biedermeier v i r t u e s : modesty, h u m i l i t y , p i e t y and kindness of heart. L i k e the m a j o r i t y of female peasants i n Auerbach's day, Hedwig's educ a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l horizons are se v e r e l y l i m i t e d . Her only reading matter i s : "Das G'sangbuch und d i e b i b l i s c h ' G'schicht" (262). In s p i t e of t h i s " d e f i c i e n c y " Hedwig, l i k e her grandmother before her, i s portrayed by the author as capable of not only e x e r t i n g an i n f l u e n c e upon the learned schoolmaster through her n a t u r a l common sense and i n t u i t i o n (much t o h i s s u r p r i s e ) , but she i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e f f e c t i n g change i n h i s person. R e i n h o l t grapples with the emotions ensuing from t h i s u n l i k e l y t u r n of events: "An e i n ungebildetes Bauernmadchen hast du d i c h hingegeben, weggeworfen. - Nein, nein, aus diesem A n t l i t z e s p r i c h t d i e Majestat e i n e r z a r t e n , sanften Seele" (249). At the onset, R e i n h o l t , who has a very r i g i d , and by no means f l a t t e r i n g , image of the peasant, ( i n d i c a t i v e of the townsman's a t t i t u d e s i n the e a r l y nineteenth century) attempts t o j u s t i f y t o him s e l f h i s reasons f o r contact with Hedwig: "Ihre G e i s t e s b i l d u n g auf a l l e r l e i Weise zu p r i i f e n " (250) and f u r t h e r : "Er w o l l t e erproben, wie weit s i c h Hedwig ein e r f e i n e r e n B i l d u n g fugen wurde" (264). Indeed, h i s i n t e n t i o n i n s e t t l i n g i n the d i s t r i c t was t o impart t o the community h i s conception of "die reinen Freuden des G e i s t e s " (211); but i t i s Hedwig who enli g h t e n s him i n t h i s respect. Auerbach d e p i c t s her as the c a r r i e r of i n t e l l i g e n c e and s e n s i b i l i t y . Through her, R e i n h o l t g r a d u a l l y l e a r n s "daJî man wohl v i e l miteinander sprechen kann, ohne gerade Biicher gelesen zu haben" (266). He thus begins t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between experience gleaned from contact with " r e a l " l i f e and that found i n dry matter. He i s , i n e f f e c t , t r a n s p o r t e d t o a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of r e a l i t y through contact with Hedwig: "Der Lehrer war wie i n eine neue Welt v e r s e t z t " (269). Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n the v i l l a g e the thought of marriage to a countrywoman had a p p a l l e d R e i n h o l t : " I n n e r l i c h dachte er: l i e b e r eine Àffin, a l s so eine v i e r s c h r o t i g e Bauerin zur Frau" (217), but through Hedwig he now perceives the peasant female and her work, which he formerly viewed as a f u r t h e r d e n i g r a t i o n t o her s t a t u s , i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t : "Die Hoheit Hedwigs ersc h i e n ihm n i c h t e r n i e d r i g t , vielmehr erhohter durch i h r e A r b e i t " (270). He had a l s o been adamant: "Ich w i l l a l l meine K r a f t zusammenhalten, um mich gegen das Verbauern zu wahren" (218), but he now permits h i m s e l f t o be gr a d u a l l y won over. R e i n h o l t begins t o re-evaluate the peasant, which Auerbach u t i l i z e s t o negate a p r e j u d i c e i n regard both t o gender and the r u r a l community. This change manifests i t s e l f i n many ways, but most s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n reference t o R e i n h o l t ' s a t t i t u d e towards the use of d i a l e c t . On f i r s t encountering the v i l l a g e f o l k , he was repulsed when Agnes addressed him i n d i a l e c t : " A l l die Schonheit des Màdchens verschwand plôtzlich vor den Augen des Lehrers, da er diese h a r t e , i n groben Lauten vorgebrachte Rede ho r t e " (212). But, as he begins t o value Hedwig as a person who i s both shrewd and s e n s i t i v e , and as he f a l l s i n love w i t h her, he grows fond of i t : "Er ha t t e die sûJîen Worte Hedwigs so f r e u d i g aufgenommen, daB er sogar d i e Form derselben liebgewann, Er gedachte nun den D i a l e k t zu s t u d i e r e n und ihn beim U n t e r r i c h t e a l s Grundlage der Denk- und Sprechweise zu benutzen" (278) . As R e i n h o l t s e t t l e s and c a s t s o f f h i s p r e j u d i c e s towards the v i l l a g e community, he begins t o comprehend the words of the Buchmaier: "Die Leut' s i n d zwar h i e r herum e i n b i B l e grob; es i s t n i c h t so, aber es s i e h t so aus" (215). Appearances had deceived him, but now t h a t he r e a l i z e s h i s e r r o r (through the agencies of both Maurita and Hedwig) he c o n s c i o u s l y s t r i v e s t o draw c l o s e r t o the community and i s , i n t u r n , of use t o i t . Maurita's words: "Es geht auch b e i den Menschen so: "zuerst muJ5 man f u r s i c h a l l e i n etwas gewesen s e i n , ehe man i n Gemeinschaft gut a r b e i t e t und t u c h t i g i s t " (254), while f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t i n g her peasant wisdom, prove c o r r e c t i n reference t o R e i n h o l t . He begins t o understand how h i s escape i n t o h i m s e l f , through h i s d i a r y e n t r i e s , had distanced him from exp e r i e n c i n g r e a l i t y . In reference t o them he now remarks : "Wenn i c h diese B l a t t e r ansehe, i s t es mir o f t , a l s war i c h f r u h e r e i n sonderbarer E g o i s t ; i c h habe d i e Welt nur i n mich aufzunehmen, n i c h t mich an s i e hinauszugeben g e t r a c h t e t " (295). While t h i s v i l l a g e s t o r y revolves l a r g e l y around the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the schoolmaster through contact with Maurita and Hedwig, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t changes are wrought i n Hedwig through i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the former - thus i l l u m i n a t i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m of Auerbach's c h a r a c t e r s . The author, as we s h a l l observe i n other works. f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e s the motif of the m i r r o r i n s i g n i f y i n g change i n the female c h a r a c t e r . In t h i s case we are informed i n reference t o Hedwig: " A l s im Vorbeigehen i h r B l i c k i n den Sp i e g e l s t r e i f t e , wendete s i e s i c h s c h n e l l ab, s i e kam s i c h ganz wie eine andere Person vor, so fremd war i h r Aussehen" (27 6). Her ch a r a c t e r i s metamorphosized from one of extreme t i m i d i t y t o a l e v e l of independence she had not p r e v i o u s l y enjoyed. But, i n order not t o d e t r a c t from her c r e d i b i l i t y as a character, Auerbach r e v e a l s a l a t e n t s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Hedwig. For i n s t a n c e , when the teacher challenges her concerning her usage of d i a l e c t , at the onset of the work, she r e t o r t s : "Ich t a f mich i n d i e S e e l ' 'nein schamen, wenn i c h anders reden t a t ' , und es v e r s t e h t mich j a auch e i n jedes" (264). Moreover, as she continues her acquaintance with R e i n h o l t , her independence of s p i r i t becomes more obvious. The author has her go so f a r as t o challenge R e i n h o l t ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p by announcing: "Ich w i l l sehen, wer M e i s t e r wird, i c h b i n k e i n Kind mehr" (275). Auerbach t r a c e s Hedwig's development as she continues to a s s e r t h e r s e l f . A f t e r she and R e i n h o l t are married, the l a t t e r , when e x p l a i n i n g matters t o her, p e r s i s t s i n t r e a t i n g her i n a condescending manner u n t i l she p r o t e s t s i n s e l f -confidence: "Hor mal, wenn du mir was zu denken g i b s t oder sonst was anbringen w i l l s t , sags grad 'raus, mach' ke i n so Schmierale drum 'rum, i c h w i l l d i r nachher schon sagen, ob i c h ' s v e r s t e h ' , oder ob i c h ' s n i c h t mag" (298). Furthermore, u n l i k e the m a j o r i t y of G o t t h e l f s marriages, Auerbach e s t a b l i s h e s , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a r e l a t i o n s h i p based on honesty and t r u s t with the woman as the i n i t i a t o r and keeper of these elements: "Was er dachte und f u h l t e , o f f e n b a r t e er Hedwig" (294). The assurance t h a t t h e i r s i s a happy marriage i s conveyed i n the f i n a l words of the t e x t : "Mit freudigem Ernste wurde das Ehebiindnis geschlossen. - "Es s e i gesegnet" (299) . As i n the previous work, Auerbach presents, i n Ivo, der H a j r l e (1850), two female f i g u r e s ; an o l d e r and a younger woman, who are in s t r u m e n t a l i n moulding and i n f l u e n c i n g the male character Ivo a f t e r whom the t a l e i s named. Ivo's mother, C h r i s t i n e , i s a l s o important i n the respect t h a t , through her, Auerbach provides us with some i n s i g h t i n t o the l i f e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the nineteenth century peasant woman. In t h i s v i l l a g e s t o r y Auerbach focusses on the woman and her p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage which, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , appears t o be fraught with d i f f i c u l t y and unhappiness. When Ivo returns home on v a c a t i o n we are informed: "Er sah d i e nur halbverdeckte Zwietracht zwischen seinen E l t e r n " (Auerbach 1: 187). The author suggests t h a t the husband i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s , while he casts Ivo's mother i n the r o l e of peacemaker by her attempts t o p l a c a t e the former and, at the same time, by staunchly defending him t o Ivo. Moreover, she i s depicted as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s t u t e , a q u a l i t y she shares with Maurita i n Der Lauterbacher, i n her a p p r a i s a l of her husband's unhappiness: Guck, dein Vater i s t der re c h t s c h a f f e n s t e Mann, den man find e n kann, aber er hat eine u n g l u c k l i c h e Natur, er i s t mit s i c h s e l b e r unzufrieden, w e i l er h a l t manches verunschickt und n i c h t allés nach seinem Kopf geht; und da mocht' er dann grad, dafi andre a l l f o r t mit ihm z u f r i e d e n s e i n s o l l t e n (188) . In Auerbach's d e s c r i p t i o n of her perseverance with her husband, he lends her C h r i s t - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As i n Maurita's case, the author assigns her s p i r i t u a l , i f not tran s c e n d e n t a l , q u a l i t i e s : Das Paradies seines e l t e r l i c h e n Hauses war vor ihm eingesunken, nur seine Mutter schwebte noch wie e i n L i c h t e n g e l daruber, und einmal sagte er s i c h ganz l e i s e : "Sie heifît n i c h t umsonst C h r i s t i n e , s i e i s t grad wie der Heiland, s i e nimmt mit Lacheln das schwerste Kreuz auf s i c h , w i l l gar n i c h t s f u r s i c h und allés f u r andre (189). When she i s i l l , Auerbach de s c r i b e s her i n terms which suggest a metaphysical q u a l i t y : " I h r Auge schloB s i c h , aber eine l i c h t e G l o r i e schwebte auf ihrem A n t l i t z e " (231). C h r i s t i n e ' s determination i n the face of a d v e r s i t y , an a t t r i b u t e she shares with many of Auerbach's female c h a r a c t e r s , i s formidable, and serves as the guiding p r i n c i p l e f o r Ivo i n h i s d e c i s i o n t o remain a p r i e s t : "Man kann allés, wenn man nur recht w i l l , hat meine Mutter gesagt; das s o i l mein Wahlspruch s e i n " (189). When Ivo f i n a l l y r e s o l v e s t o leave the seminary h i s mother does not react as v i o l e n t l y as her husband, but she i s revealed by the author as e x e r t i n g pressure upon him i n a more s u b t l e manner: "Kannst du denn dein' Mutter so b i t t e n und b e t t e l n sehen?" (240). Ivo's mother means w e l l , but i t i s she who i n i t i a l l y implanted the idea of becoming a p r i e s t i n t o Ivo's mind at a tender age, and she has a c t i v e l y nurtured i t as he matures: "Die Mutter C h r i s t i n e aber war eine fromme und entschlossene Frau, s i e l i e B einen einmal erfaBten Gedanken n i c h t mehr so l e i c h t wieder l o s " (144) . I t i s not c l e a r whether she does so through s e l f i s h motives. We know from the t e x t , however, t h a t upon the o r d i n a t i o n of her son as p r i e s t , the r e s p e c t i v e mother i s honoured by being addressed t h e r e a f t e r as " S i e " , and as one of the v i l l a g e r s remarks i n t h i s connection: "G'wiB, d i e i s t j e t z t mehr, a l s andre Menschen" (121) . Indeed, i t i s s o l e l y on her account t h a t Ivo reverses h i s d e c i s i o n and determines to continue h i s s t u d i e s as a p r i e s t . In l i g h t of the above i n f o r m a t i o n i t could be argued t h a t , w h i l e Auerbach r e f e r s t o C h r i s t i n e as "eine fromme Frau", he a l s o underscores her human weakness by r e v e a l i n g her p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o her son. The author i n d i c a t e s t h a t her l i f e revolves e n t i r e l y around Ivo, perhaps to the detriment of both her husband and her son. She appears t o p r o j e c t her u n f u l f i l l e d needs and d e s i r e s upon Ivo by making him the s o l e object of her a f f e c t i o n . Auerbach expresses h i s d i s a p p r o v a l , to an extent, by suggesting the n o t i o n of g u i l t on her p a r t : "Er i s t mein Herzblattchen. Und wenn i c h eine Sunde damit thue, daB i c h ihn so l i e b hab', laB d i e Schuld mich entgelten und n i c h t i h n ! " (165). Furthermore, C h r i s t i n e depends upon Ivo as i f he were her husband. When she has t o undergo an operation, i n s p i t e of the presence of her husband, she t e l l s Ivo: "So, j e t z t kann i c h allés besser aushalten, wenn du da b i s t " (231) . She i s u l t i m a t e l y spared harsh judgement, however, when she i s shown to f i n a l l y renounce her own wishes i n favour of Ivo's personal happiness. She i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r sending Emmerenz (her maid and Ivo's childhood f r i e n d ) t o him, which, u l t i m a t e l y , leads t o h i s f u l f i l m e n t through marriage. The other female character of note i n t h i s work i s the servant Emmerenz. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between her and Ivo i s depicted, at the onset, as t h a t of s i b l i n g s . Ivo torments the former l i k e a brother does a s i s t e r , but he i s a l s o extremely p r o t e c t i v e of her: "So neckisch auch Ivo manchmal Emmerenz war, so l i e B er i h r doch von niemand e i n L e i d anthun" (130) . He i s so determined i n t h i s respect t h a t he i s teased by h i s peers on her account: "Obgleich Ivo deshalb von seinen ungalanten Schulkameraden "Madleschmecker" geschimpft wurde, l i e B er doch n i c h t von der Emmerenz" (127) . Just as Auerbach provides us w i t h some i n s i g h t i n t o the circumstances surrounding the m i s t r e s s of the farm; through Emmerenz, he i l l u m i n a t e s the l i f e of the poor peasant servant. For i n s t a n c e , he describes her work l i f e . At an e a r l y age she i s sent t o work i n the f i e l d s . When she i s nine she i s already earning her l i v i n g as a governness: "In einem Lebensalter, i n welchem sonst d i e Kinder nur mit der Puppe s p i e l e n , h atte Emmerenz eine lebendige anspruchsvolle Puppe zu versorgen; aber s i e t a t es meist mit k i n d l i c h e r Lust und S p i e l e r e i " (149). This statement a l s o r e f l e c t s n e g a t i v e l y on the v i l l a g e community, who surrender t h e i r o f f s p r i n g i n t o the care of governesses who are themselves c h i l d r e n . L a t e r on Emmerenz becomes a servant i n Ivo's p a r e n t a l home. The v a r i o u s stages and developments i n Emmerenz's l i f e are g lossed over, s i n c e Ivo's development i s the focus of the work. However, apart from her employment, Auerbach presents i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o Emmerenz's p r i v a t e l i f e , such as c o u r t s h i p and marriage. Her marriage prospects, as a poor servant, are l e s s than favourable and share many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h those of her counterparts o u t l i n e d i n the preceding chapter. As a p r e t t y maid she i s " d e s i r e d " by many, such as the f l i g h t y K o n s t a n t i n . He pursues her, but as he t e l l s Ivo: "Sie w i l l j a n i c h t s von mir, das i s t eben d i e Sach', d i e thut so h e i l i g und z i m p e r l i c h wie d i e deutsche Diana" (215). Konstantin's i n t e n t i o n s are not honourable and, w h i l e c l e a r l y f i c t i o n a l , they r e f l e c t f a c t u a l p a tterns i n the male's a t t i t u d e towards the female discussed i n chapters one and two. When questioned by Ivo i f h i s motives i n regard to Emmerenz are honest, he responds: "Was? e h r l i c h ? G'wiB, was denn anders? aber vom h e i r a t e n i s t j e t z t noch keine Red', kennst du noch das a l t e B u r s c h e n l i e d : Lieben, l i e b e n w i l l i c h d i c h , Ich w i l l d i c h l i e b e n , Aber h e i r a t e n n i c h t (215). Auerbach's d e s c r i p t i o n of Emmerzenz's a p p r a i s a l of her marriage prospects i s t r e a t e d more r e a l i s t i c a l l y and i r o n i c a l l y than G o t t h e l f i n h i s work. She i s shown t o c l e a r l y assess and v o c a l i z e her s i t u a t i o n , while G o t t h e l f s women, although they may f e e l the same, do not express t h i s awareness: "Was konnt' i c h kriegen? So einen a l t e n Witwer, der schon e i n paar Weiber unter d i e Erd' g e l i e f e r t hat" (223). This statement a l s o r e f l e c t s a c c u r a t e l y on the marriage dilemma as experienced by women i n tha t p e r i o d . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , e s p e c i a l l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Emmerenz, a poor servant, should win Ivo, the sol e h e i r of a wealthy farmer, as a husband. I t i s h i n t e d from the onset by Nazi (the servant) t h a t Emmerenz and Ivo are des t i n e d t o be together. Indeed, i t i s Ivo's love f o r Emmerenz which wrenches him from the pri e s t h o o d , although i t i s Emmerenz who takes i t upon h e r s e l f t o go t o Ivo at the seminary. The love r e l a t i o n s h i p between Emmerenz and Ivo i s indeed c r e d i b l e , but t h a t two i n d i v i d u a l s from such d i v e r s e ends of the r u r a l h i e r a r c h y should marry i s , of course, u n r e a l i s t i c i n terms of the s o c i a l background (see chapter one). Auerbach, however, i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s marriage i s not condoned by Ivo's f a t h e r . I t i s noteworthy t h a t Ivo does not re t u r n home t o c l a i m the farm, but through N a z i , who has come i n t o a fortune, he i s enabled t o set h i m s e l f up as a farmer i n a neighbouring d i s t r i c t and t o send f o r Emmerenz: "Er [Nazi] r e i s t e f u r ihn a l s Brautwerber i n d i e Heimat und h o l t e d i e Emmerenz, d i e s i c h vor Freude gar n i c h t zu fassen wuBte" (255) . In connection with t h i s group, and i t s theme, I would l i k e t o i n c l u d e and discuss Der Tolpatsch (1843) which, on f i r s t glance, ca s t s the woman as "femme f a t a l e " and the r u i n a t i o n of the hero. I contend t h a t t h i s i s not the case and through c l o s e r examination of the t e x t I hope t o demonstrate my p o i n t . Der Tolpatsch i s , i n essence, the s t o r y of the male character A l o y s . Again, as i n the two previous works there are two women of note i n t h i s v i l l a g e s t o r y : Marannele who works as a servant on Aloys' farm and Al o y s ' mother. Of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s work, and i n regard t o Marannele, i s Auerbach's e x p l o r a t i o n of the expectations which the male and s o c i e t y imposes upon the woman. Aloys , f o r i n s t a n c e , places f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s l i f e and happiness upon Marannele. When she pays him a t t e n t i o n he i s content: "Er war mit s i c h und der Welt z u f r i e d e n " (Auerbach 1: 24), but when she i s absent from the v i l l a g e , l i f e has no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him: "Es war ihm, a l s ob das ganze Dorf ausgestorben ware, da das Marannele den ganzen Tag d a r i n n i c h t zu finden s e i n s o l l t e " (27). Furthermore, because of a f l e e t i n g comment from Marannele concerning J o r g l i (Aloys' peer) as " e i n f l i n k e r Bursch", Aloys embarks upon a course of a c t i o n which not only destroys h i s own chance of happiness, but Marannele's a l s o . In h i s obsession with her and what he perceives as her a t t r a c t i o n t o J o r g l i , p l u s h i s own f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y towards the l a t t e r , Aloys loses s i g h t of h i s g o a l : a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Marannele. Indeed, he becomes completely absorbed w i t h J o r g l i : "Der J o r g l i war das E n d z i e l seines Unmutes" (27). I t becomes, i n f a c t , a b a t t l e not between the sexes, but r a t h e r between the two males, Aloys and J o r g l i . Auerbach ca s t s Aloys as a s e n s i t i v e youth who s u f f e r s from the r i d i c u l e of the v i l l a g e : "Aloys wurde immer em p f i n d l i c h e r gegen den Spott der Leute" (25). He i s young, and impressionable and b e l i e v e s t h a t i f he f o l l o w s i n J o r g l i ' s f o o t s t e p s , who i s a s o l d i e r , (and whom he s e c r e t l y admires) he w i l l gain acceptance w i t h h i s peers, the v i l l a g e community as a whole, and w i l l subsequently win Marannele: "Ich mufi a l s e i n ganz anderer K e r l heimkommen, dann s o i l mir noch e i n e r Tolpatsch sagen, i c h w i l l euch schon t o l p a t s c h e n " (40). Auerbach i n d i c a t e s here t h a t Aloys i s a l s o subject t o s o c i e t y ' s carven image of the male. Marannele appears t o f e e l a f f e c t i o n f o r Aloys, since she t e l l s him : "Aloys, du b i s c h t e braver Bua" (24) on a number of occasions. Despite h i s i n s e c u r i t i e s , and i n keeping w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l feminine r o l e , (chapter one) Marannele seeks t o reassure Aloys i n every p o s s i b l e way. She t r i e s t o i n v o l v e him i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s by i n v i t i n g him t o dance. His u n f a i r r e t o r t notwithstanding, "du w i l l s t mich nur foppen" (31), Marannele perseveres w i t h him. R e s i s t i n g the urge t o c a l l him "Tolpatsch" as the others do, she endeavours t o d i s p e l h i s f e a r s : "Und i c h tanz' so gern mit d i r a l s wie mit einem" (32) and f u r t h e r : "Ich l e r n ' d i r ' s ganz a l l e i n , A l o y s " , sagte das Marannele, ihn beruhigend" (32) . Auerbach suggests, however, t h a t her sentiments towards him are of a maternal and p r o t e c t i v e nature r a t h e r than the impassioned love of a woman f o r her man; but as we know from the preceding h i s t o r i c a l chapters t h i s was not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r marriage i n the nineteenth century. When Aloys goes t o Horb t o e n l i s t , Marannele gives him a Kreuzer as a good luck token i n the hope t h a t he w i l l not be r e c r u i t e d . L i k e h i s mother, she i s upset by the news t h a t he i s chosen: "Als der Aloys heimkam, gab ihm das Marannele weinend einen RosmarinstrauB mit roten Bàndern daran und nàhte ihm denselben auf seine Mutze" (37) . But when i t comes to c o u r t s h i p , she i s somewhat embarrassed by him. During a game i n which the young f o l k engage, Alo y s , cast i n the r o l e of s u i t o r , must r e c i t e a verse t o Marannele. She r e a c t s as f o l l o w s : "Das Marannele schlug zuerst d i e B l i c k e i n den SchoB aus Scham und aus Angst, der Aloys mochte i n s e i n e r Rede steck e n b l e i b e n " (29). Aloys misunderstands Marannele's behaviour. Without undue c o u r t s h i p , and no d i s p l a y of a f f e c t i o n towards her on h i s p a r t , Aloys expects Marannele to vow t h a t she w i l l not marry another wh i l e he i s away. Her answer "GewiB n i c h t " i s by no means unambigious. I t i s Aloys who appears t o assume th a t Marannele i s now h i s , a n o t i o n supported by h i s l e t t e r s to h i s mother i n which he r e f e r s t o her as h i s intended w i f e . In c o n t r a s t t o her matronly f e e l i n g s towards Aloys, Marannele appears t o be p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t e d t o J o r g l i . She i s p o r trayed by Auerbach as being s u s c e p t i b l e t o h i s dash and charm: Wenn er [ J o r g l i ] sonntags i n s e i n e r geraden, kecken Haltung, d i e FiiBe auswarts setzend und d i e Sporen k l i n g e n lassend, d i e Soldatenmutze auf dem Kopfe, mit den l e d e r b e s e t z t e n Reithosen angetan, das Dorf h i n a u f g i n g , da sagte s e i n ganzes Wesen: " i c h weiB, daB s i c h allé Màdle i n mich vergucken"; oder wenn er seine Pferde zur Trànke an des Jakoben Brunnen r i t t , da wollte dem guten Aloys fas t das Herz springen, well er sah, wie das Marannele jedesmal zum Fenster hinauslugte (25-26). But, at the same time, the author depicts her as innocent and inexperienced in regard to men, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n her attitude towards J o r g l i . When Aloys attempts to dissuade her from the l a t t e r , she does not disguise her admiration for him, which implies that she i s not d e c e i t f u l and i s also unaware of any imminent danger: "Das Marannele gab ihm [Aloys] recht, suchte ihn aber auch zu iiberzeugen, dafi er sich Miihe geben miisse, auch so ein f l i n k e r Bursch zu werden, wie der J o r g l i " (33). Furthermore, she i s shown to act with certainty and self-confidence when she deals with Aloys, but she i s unsure of hers e l f with J o r g l i , which would further suggest that she i s not worldly-wise. It i s not clear what J o r g l i f e els for Marannele, but i n his treatment of her, Auerbach highlights the power of the man over the woman. It would appear from the text that she is viewed merely as an object by him, as a perspective conquest by which to torment Aloys. His friends seem party to his scheme and, i n taunting Aloys, they display t h e i r blatant disregard for Marannele as a person and woman: "Tolpatsch", sagte der Kobbel, "was krieg' i c h Schmusgeld, wenn ich mach', dafî dich das Marannele h e i r a t e t ? " (33). Furthermore, when J o r g l i drives the r e c r u i t s to Stuttgart he asks Aloys i f he has a p a r t i n g message f o r Marannele. I t would appear t h a t i t i s not so much the budding love between the two t h a t causes J o r g l i t o f i n a l l y pursue Marannele, but Aloys' d e f i a n t response: "Du brauchst gar n i c h t s mit ihm zu schwatzen, es kann Dich auch f u r den Tod n i c h t ausstehen" (39). J o r g l i ' s r e a c t i o n : "Der J o r g l i fuhr lachend davon" (39) suggests he has accepted t h i s as a challenge. From the time Aloys leaves f o r S t u t t g a r t the author keeps Marannele from view. We hear through Aloys' mother only t h a t she has been seduced by J o r g l i , i s expecting h i s c h i l d and they have married as a r e s u l t . We sense however, that J o r g l i i s not the most a t t e n t i v e of husbands and that he has pursued Marannele i n order t o prove h i m s e l f v i c t o r over A l o y s . When Marannele i s i n q u i r e d a f t e r at the i n n , J o r g l i responds w i t h i n earshot of Al o y s : "Es s e i "unbaB", und l a c h t e dabei" (47). This s t a t e of a f f a i r s notwithstanding, i t i s not J o r g l i or A l o y s , but Marannele who appears t o be placed and judged i n a negative l i g h t . In t h i s regard i t i s perhaps somewhat unexpected t h a t another woman should have such l i t t l e sympathy wi t h the p l i g h t of a f e l l o w female and should, i n f a c t , c a s t i g a t e her as a "femme f a t a l e . " A l oys' mother t e l l s him: "Ich b i t t ' d i c h , i c h b i t t ' d i c h , schlag' d i r das Marannele aus dem Sinn, das i s t e i n k e i n n u t z i g e s Ding" (43). But from the in f o r m a t i o n the author has provided concerning Marannele and her s i t u a t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o per c e i v e her as such. I t i s tr u e t h a t she admires and i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o J o r g l i , but i n the l i g h t of what we know regarding the l a t t e r i t i s more v i a b l e t o view her as the v i c t i m , as opposed to the seductress i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p , d e s p i t e the apparent unfavourable judgement of her v i l l a g e . By h i g h l i g h t i n g these d i s c r e p a n c i e s , Auerbach's i n t e n t i o n i s c l e a r : the reader should understand t h a t both Marannele and Aloys are trapped i n s o c i e t y ' s web of f i x e d images. In t h i s connection, the n a r r a t o r appears to be biased i n favour of the hero, r e f e r r i n g t o him s e v e r a l l y as "guter Tolpatsch" (21) and " l i e b e r T o l p a tsch" (22). Furthermore, Aloys i s d e p i c t e d as having s a c r i f i c e d much on Marannele's account. I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t he j o i n e d the army, and endured a miserable l i f e t h e re, f o r her sake: "Es i s t doch k e i n recht Geschaft das Soldatenleben, man w i r d hundsrackermiid, und hat doch n i c h t s g e s c h a f f t " (41) . That she had never wanted him t o e n l i s t , and had given him the l u c k y Kreuzer i n the hope th a t he would escape recruitment, i s overlooked. Moreover, i t i s suggested t h a t because of her, Aloys must f i n a l l y leave " s e i n l i e b e s Nordstetten" (39) f o r America where he ekes out a l o n e l y e x i s t e n c e . In a l e t t e r t o h i s mother from Ohio he laments: "Was hab' i c h davon, wenn i c h so a l l e i n da b i n ? " (50) . He seems thoroughly defeated and s e l f - m o c k i n g l y r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f as "der T o l p a t s c h . " He i s again presented as the i n j u r e d p a r t y . Auerbach e l i c i t s f u r t h e r sympathy f o r him through h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o provide f o r Marannele anonymously - he cannot f o r g e t her. On the other hand, the p a r t i n g impression of Marannele, evoked i n a l i n e of the song which Aloys hums on h i s r e t u r n t o S t u t t g a r t , and which a l s o happens t o be the same tune which Marannele and J o r g l i sang together, i s a negative one; "Ach, die Rosen welken a l l ' " (49). We can only deduce that Auerbach, i n p l a y i n g d e v i l ' s advocate, i s h i g h l i g h t i n g the hypocrisy of the v i l l a g e and i t s double standards i n regard to i t s treatment of both the male and female, a theme which i s r a r e l y sounded i n G o t t h e l f ' s work. Daughters, Fathers. Lovers The m a j o r i t y of the Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten d w e l l on the darker, more elemental s i d e of r u r a l l i f e . B ettelheim r e f e r s to the characters who people t h i s sphere as " f a s t l a u t e r bose, i n d i e Tracht schwarzer Leidenschaften g e h i i l l t e Menschen" (154) . Such d i v e r s e themes as f a m i l y feuds, murder and a d u l t e r y are sounded i n these works, but c e n t r a l t o them a l l i s the f a t e of the woman and the treatment she re c e i v e s at the hands of the man. These s t o r i e s f a l l i n t o two predominant groups, the f i r s t of which presents women as v i c t i m s of the very bulwarks of the p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y i t s e l f - t h e i r f a t h e r s , and the second i n which they are depicted as v i c t i m s of those who are cloned and cond i t i o n e d to take over the p a t r i a r c h ' s r o l e - t h e i r husbands and l o v e r s . In Erdmute (1847), because of the feud and ensuing animosity between the brothers G o t t f r i e d and Cyprian, the female ch a r a c t e r of the t i t l e i s f o rbidden contact with the former's household: Der k l e i n e n zehnjahrigen Erdmute, d i e e i n derbes braunes Kind mit den dunklen Augen des Vaters war, h a t t e man das Haus des Ohms G o t t f r i e d streng verboten, s i e d u r f t e es n i c h t mehr b e t r e t e n und niemand aus demselben griiBen, j a , s i e horte Tag und Nacht d i e haJJlichsten Worte Tiber den Oheim und wuiite n i c h t anders, a l s er wolle i h r e n Vater an den Galgen bringen (Auerbach 2: 308). Erdmute i s a v i c t i m of her f a t h e r ' s hatred f o r her uncle which i s i n s t i l l e d i n t o her at an e a r l y age. This a l s o holds t r u e f o r B l a s i , G o t t f r i e d ' s son and Erdmute's f i r s t c o usin: "So war der F a m i l i e n z w i s t b i s t i e f i n d i e Kinder gedrungen" (Auerbach 309). In t h i s regard, the p o s i t i o n and power of the p a t r i a r c h , and i t s attendant r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n of both sexes, i s h i g h l i g h t e d by Auerbach : "Die beiden gingen rasch aneinander voriiber, ohne zu gruBen; anfangs war es das strenge Verbot des Vaters, was Erdmute davon a b h i e l t , b a l d aber s e t z t e s i c h eine s e l b s t s t a n d i g e F e i n d s e l i g k e i t i n i h r f e s t und ebenso i n B l a s i " (316) . The o f f s p r i n g i n t h i s work are d e p i c t e d as slaves t o t h e i r parents' d e s i r e s at the expense of t h e i r own personal happiness. Erdmute and B l a s i , f o r i n s t a n c e , had formerly been childhood f r i e n d s , but the d i s s e n t i o n between t h e i r f a t h e r s s i g n i f i e d the end of t h i s f r i e n d s h i p (a theme which has been repeated i n works such as Romeo und J u l i a auf dem Dorfe and L u c i a de Lammermore). Within the p a t r i a r c h a l domain i t s e l f , Auerbach presents the woman's p o s i t i o n as unfavourable. Erdmute i s not t r e a t e d k i n d l y at home, and i t i s suggested by G o t t f r i e d ' s wife t h a t the domestic environment i n which she l i v e s i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o her w e l l - b e i n g : "Wenn du dein Schwesterkind [Erdmute] i n s Haus nehmen w i l l s t , mir i s t ' s r e c h t s c h a f f e n r e c h t ; das Kind verkoimnt so i n dem Durcheinander und b e i der herben S t i e f m u t t e r " (301). Moreover, her f a t h e r squanders her i n h e r i t a n c e and i n v o l v e s her i n h i s shady schemes: "Nach und nach ging Cyprian w e i t e r und v e r k a u f t e , was n i c h t n i e t - und n a g e l f e s t im Hause war. Oft muJète Traudle [die Magd] , meist aber Erdmute, wenn es Nacht war, vom Vater b e g l e i t e t , k l e i n e r e Gegenstande und B e t t s t i i c k e nach der Stadt tragen" (320) . Her f a t h e r i s shown to be extremely harsh towards her and because of a minor clumsiness on her p a r t , he not only banishes her t o the servants' q u a r t e r s , but u n f a i r l y r e legates her t o the enemy camp: "Ich sehe schon, Erdmute, du b i s t G o t t f r i e d i s c h , was denen nachschlagt, paBt n i c h t unter Menschen, nur unter Vieh und aufs F e l d . Von morgen an hast du n i c h t s mehr i n der Stube zu tun, du v e r s o r g s t mit dem Knecht und der Magd unser Bauernwesen. 1st d i r ' s r e c h t ? " (315) . Erdmute, i n c o n t r a s t , i s depicted by Auerbach as not only c h e e r f u l l y accepting her l o t , but as the defender of the man who i s the cause of her s u f f e r i n g (overtones of C h r i s t i n e i n Ivo, der H a i r l e ) . She s t r o n g l y r e j e c t s G o t t f r i e d ' s o f f e r of a home: "Ich b l e i b ' i n keinem Haus, wo man so uber meinen Vater redet, er hat das beste Herz von der Welt, f r e i l i c h schwach i s t e r , aber er mufi s e l b e r am meisten darunter l e i d e n , und es hat kein e r das Recht, daruber zu schimpfen" (334). In t h i s connection, Erdmute, although very young, i s presented by the author as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y astute - she analyzes i n s t e a d of l a y i n g blame - a q u a l i t y she shares w i t h many of Auerbach's female characters as we have observed. Furthermore, when her f a t h e r demands she go t o court t o c l a i m her dead mother's fortune from G o t t f r i e d , she i s cast as the w i l l i n g agent on whom her fa t h e r depends t o r e c t i f y matters: "Sie f r e u t e s i c h wieder, dafi es i h r gegeben s e i , allés wieder gutzumachen" (324) . As a r e s u l t of t h i s a c t i o n , her f a t h e r acquires the means t o emigrate t o America, but Erdmute, who has been s e c r e t l y r e c o n c i l e d w i t h B l a s i , i s for c e d t o deny her own de s i r e s s i n c e her f a t h e r expects her t o accompany him. For a l l her obedience and f a i t h f u l n e s s , however, he abandons her at the p o r t , although she has repeatedly proven h e r s e l f as a worthy daughter, which Cyprian h i m s e l f has t o admit: "Das i s t e i n Kind, das i s t e i n wahrer Engel, i c h b i n ' s n i c h t wert, dafi i c h so e i n Kind habe" (323). Through Erdmute's predicament, Auerbach h i g h l i g h t s the dependence of the woman upon the man f o r f i n a n c i a l support and s o c i a l standing. Erdmute has no choice except t o r e t u r n immediately to the v i l l a g e , but because of G o t t f r i e d ' s anger concerning the court case she cannot d i s c l o s e her i d e n t i t y . She i s prepared to t r u s t B l a s i ' s p l a n (to masquerade as Traudle's daughter who i s unknown t o the v i l l a g e ) , f o r although betrayed by her own f a t h e r , she i s w i l l i n g t o obey another man completely, even i f he too appears e g o c e n t r i c and a u t h o r i t a r i a n : "Auch hiergegen bestand B l a s i darauf, dafi es i h r genugen s o l l e , wenn er a l l e i n wisse, wer s i e s e i , s i e brauche sonst niemand" (351). Erdmute, i n c o n t r a s t , i s d e p i c t e d as humbly accepting the s i t u a t i o n as f i t t i n g r e t r i b u t i o n f o r having l e f t B l a s i i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e : "Und hingegeben i n t r e u e r Liebe, sagte Erdmute, dafi s i e gern Bufie tue, w e l l s i e i h n v e r l a s s e n hatte, dafi s i e ihm a l l e i n angehore und ihn f o r t a n um n i c h t s mehr b i t t e n w o l l e , b i s er s e l b e r f i n d e , dafi es Z e i t s e i " (353) . I t would appear, however, t h a t Erdmute i s s e c r e t l y c r i t i c a l of B l a s i ' s schemes: "War denn diese ganze Mummerei n i c h t unnotig und grausam?", but t h a t she submits t o them te m p o r a r i l y i n order t o prove a p o i n t : "Aber B l a s i s o l l t e sehen, dafi s i e ihm unbedingt gehorchte" (352) . Moreover, Auerbach p o r t r a y s Erdmute as s t r u g g l i n g f o r independence by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t women can a l s o be mentors t o men. Hers i s a t i m i d c a l l f o r e q u a l i t y : "Ich w i l l gern von d i r l e r n e n , aber du mufit auch von mir, glaub mir, das i s t auch n o t i g " (352), a note which Auerbach c o n t i n u a l l y sounds throughout h i s work. Erdmute's attempt at s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s again i n evidence when, i n response t o B l a s i ' s angry outburst concerning the a l l e g e d g i f t of her earnings t o Traudle, she state s : Ich w i l l d i r ' s nur gestehen, i c h hab' mein Geld noch und hab' dem Traudle nur zwei Gulden geschenkt; aber w e i l du mich so mifîtrauisch gefragt hast, hab' i c h grad' umgekehrt gesagt; du mufit an mich glauben, ungefragt, wie i c h an d i c h ; i c h mein', i c h hab' d i r ' s bewiesen (363). L i k e Eve i n K l e i s t ' s Der zerbrochene Krug she asks f o r t r u s t d espite appearances t o the c o n t r a r y . Furthermore, Auerbach succeeds i n t h i s work, which i s modelled on the t r a d i t i o n a l theme of feuding parents and s t a r - c r o s s e d l o v e r s , i n i n t e g r a t i n g h i s views on the n e c e s s i t y of mutual compromise i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Despite the hardships i n c u r r e d on her r e t u r n , (Erdmute i s not only denied contact w i t h the v i l l a g e community at la r g e , she i s a l s o f o r c e d t o work as a day labourer t o support h e r s e l f ) , she appears t o f i n d happiness i n the end. She i s r e c o n c i l e d w i t h G o t t f r i e d , and wins B l a s i as a husband: "Sobald der Dispens e i n g e t r o f f e n war, noch vor der F a s t e n z e i t , wurde d i e Hochzeit Erdmutes und B l a s i s g e f e i e r t , und G o t t f r i e d , der v i e l daheim s i t z e n muiJte, hatte es am l i e b s t e n , wenn Erdmute b e i ihm b l i e b ; er sprach wenig, aber i h r e Nàhe t a t ihm wohl" (367). To complete her joy, she receives a l e t t e r from her f a t h e r begging her fo r g i v e n e s s : E i n B r i e f an G o t t f r i e d aus der neuen Welt von Cyprian v o l l e n d e t e noch im zweiten Sommer d i e Siihne. Cyprian k l a g t e b i t t e r l i c h um das ve r l o r e n e Kind, beteuerte seine Unschuld und zwar, wie er o f t wiederholte, im Angesicht des Todes. Er muJJte im Innersten zerbrochen s e i n , denn er bat G o t t f r i e d um Verzeihung f u r a l l d i e U n b i l l , d i e er ihm angetan, und immer wieder sprach er von seinem nahen Tode (367) . The c i r c l e of "Suhne" would appear complete, Erdmute had f i r s t spoken of i t and Cyprian's admission c l o s e s the c y c l e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t Auerbach avoids the f a c i l e "happy end" by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t her f a t h e r s t i l l i n s i s t s on h i s innocence: "Cyprian ... beteurte seine Unschuld" (367), although he has repeatedly sinned against h i s daughter Erdmute. From the onset of S t r a f l i n g e (1852), Auerbach h i g h l i g h t s the s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e towards women by u n d e r l i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r u r a l a t t i t u d e s i n regard t o male and female c o n v i c t s . Magdalene, the female p r o t a g o n i s t , i s s i n g l e d out from the community because she i s a woman who has been c o n v i c t e d (although not g u i l t y ) of a crime. Even Jakob, who i s g u i l t y of a much more grievous offence, views her as somehow d i f f e r e n t than he i s : " E i n Madchen mit dem Stempel des Verbrechens auf der S t i r n i s t doppelt und ewig u n g l u c k l i c h ; was s o i l aus ihm werden?" (Auerbach 2: 154). Consequently, he i s apprehensive about being seen with her i n p u b l i c . When we f i r s t encounter Magdalene i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "Die l u s t i g e Magd", she i s not presented as the hardened c r i m i n a l we may have a n t i c i p a t e d . Auerbach, i n reference t o her physique, describes her as "gar anmutig" (154). The author, as i f t o y i n g w i t h the reader, does at the same time suggest an ambigious q u a l i t y i n her p h y s i c a l appearance: "Das kugelrunde ruhige Gesicht sah aus, wie die Zuf r i e d e n h e i t s e l b e r , seltsam nahmen s i c h dabei d i e weit offenen h e l l b l a u e n Augen mit den dunkeln Wimpern aus; es schien eine Doppelnatur i n diesem Gesichte zu hausen" (154). Magdalene does e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which adhere t o t h i s n o t i o n of "Doppelnatur." On the one hand, she i s impertinent towards the v i l l a g e r s . When asked by the farmer: "Sind deine M i t s c h e l e auch f r i s c h ? " she quips: "Ja, n i c h t so altbacken wie I h r " (155). She i s a l s o abrasive towards Jakob when they f i r s t meet. But, as her l i f e s t o r y u n f o l d s , i t becomes c l e a r that she i s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t person than the image she p r o j e c t s : "Ich b i n n i c h t so aus dem Hausle, wie i c h mich o f t s t e l l ' " (157). As pa r t of t h i s r o l e - p l a y i n g , which lends f u r t h e r r e a l i s t i c elements t o her character, she uses humour t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from the scorn of the v i l l a g e : "Da b i n i c h h a l t l u s t i g " (157) and "Narr, das i s t Pfui-Courage" (157) . Her l i f e , w hile doubly hard as a co n v i c t , a l s o r e f l e c t s the c o n d i t i o n s which many peasant women had t o endure on a d a i l y b a s i s (chapter two): Es kann's k e i n Mensch auf der Welt s c h l e c h t e r haben a l s i c h : d i e halb' Nacht am Backofen stehen und verbrennen, den Tag iiber k e i n ' ruhige Minut' und n i c h t s a l s Zank und Schelten, und wenn i c h was n i c h t recht thu', da heifît's g l e i c h : Du Zuch t h a u s l e r i n , du ... da i s t k e i n Wort zu s c h l e c h t , das man n i c h t horen muB. Es i s t k e i n ' K l e i n i g k e i t , so einen Korb v o l l Brot zum Verkauf herumtragen und o f t k e i n Bissen im Magen haben (157) . Auerbach underscores the degree t o which the " c r i m i n a l " woman i s set apart from the community. Magdalene's only contact i n the v i l l a g e i s Jakob, but he i s un p r e d i c t a b l e i n h i s treatment of her. A f t e r she has r e l a t e d the events which p r e c i p i t a t e d her a r r i v a l i n the v i l l a g e he ignores her e n t i r e l y , but then a b r u p t l y demands a meeting w i t h her. She i s i n sore need of a f r i e n d and, i n s p i t e of Jakob's v o l a t i l e behaviour, she i s j o y f u l : "Wie gl a n z t e j e t z t i h r Angesicht v o l l Freude" (160) and Sie war s t i l l , aber i n n e r l i c h war s i e den ganzen Tag v o l l Jubel und S e l i g k e i t ; es kam i h r immer vor, a l s ob heute nochmals Sonntag s e i n miiBte. Auf dem Speicher und i n der Kûche f a l t e t e s i e o f t d i e Hànde und drûckte s i e f e s t aufeinander; s i e sprach k e i n Wort, aber i h r e ganze Seele war e i n Gebet v o l l Dank und Liebe (166), which i n d i c a t e s her dependence upon male approval and acceptance. L i k e Erdmute she i s not at such a low ebb tha t she i s wholly s u s c e p t i b l e t o Jakob's every whim, however, and her response d i s p l a y s her str e n g t h and attempts t o ass e r t h e r s e l f , not only as a human being, but a l s o as a woman i n t h i s h o s t i l e environment: "Nein, i c h laJi mir n i c h t befehlen, und i c h b i n k e i n so Madle, das einem n a c h l a u f t " (161) . In a manner reminiscent of l a t e r r e a l i s t i c or even n a t u r a l i s t i c w r i t i n g , Auerbach e l i c i t s sympathy f o r Magdalene by d e s c r i b i n g her l i f e p r i o r t o her c o n v i c t i o n and a r r i v a l i n the v i l l a g e . She i s robbed of her mother at an e a r l y age, and the man whom she knows as her f a t h e r abandons her t o an orphanage. L i k e the average peasant g i r l (chapter two) she i s set t o work e a r l y . She i s already earning her keep as a governess at the age of 14. Her s i t u a t i o n i s aggravated because her f a t h e r r e g u l a r l y c o n f i s c a t e s her earnings and squanders them on a l c o h o l . When he can no longer secure her wages he s t e a l s s i l v e r w a r e from the house of her employer. She i s subsequently blamed f o r the t h e f t and wrongfully convicted of a crime which her f a t h e r committed. The experiences w i t h her f a t h e r and h i s abuse of her notwithstanding, Magdalena, l i k e Erdmute, i s s t i l l prepared to have t r u s t i n a man. She i s w i l l i n g t o give Jakob a chance, even a f t e r he has admitted the charge of manslaughter t o her. L i k e the heroine i n F l o r i a n und Kreszenz, who w i l l be discussed at a l a t e r p o i n t , she has f a i t h i n him: "Aber du b i s t doch gut, und es wi r d d i r gewiJi auch noch gut gehn" (173) . Furthermore, she demonstrates t h i s b e l i e f i n Jakob by e n t r u s t i n g him with her savings which, f o r a servant i n her p o s i t i o n , i s tantamount t o r e l i n q u i s h i n g her only means out of s e r v i t u d e : "Sie uberl e g t , ob es n i c h t besser s e i , wenn s i e das Buchlein Jakob zur Aufbewahrung gebe; e i n Mann kann eher darauf acht haben" (166). This statement f u r t h e r underscores her dependence on the man and her l a c k of f a i t h i n h e r s e l f as a woman. At the same time, however, l i k e Erdmute, C h r i s t i n e , and Maurita before her, Auerbach r e v e a l s her as having a deeper understanding of " l i f e " than her male counterpart. For i n s t a n c e , when Jakob confesses h i s d e s i r e t o become part of a l a r g e , l o v i n g f a m i l y through marriage, she responds w i s e l y : "Die rechte L i e b ' i s t doch, d i e man zu Leut' hat, die n i c h t verwandt heifien; das i s t v i e l mehr" (175) . Auerbach shows t h a t i n s p i t e of her i r r e p r e s s i b l e optimism, because she has the mark of the c r i m i n a l upon her, she i s c o n t i n u a l l y v i c t i m i z e d by the v i l l a g e r s . When 80 f l o r i n s are s t o l e n from the mayor, Jakob i s immediately condemned as the g u i l t y p a r t y , and Magdalene i s a l s o a r r e s t e d . Although she i s c l e a r l y not g u i l t y , her money, which had been i n Jakob's safekeeping, i s c o n f i s c a t e d , f u r t h e r u n d e r l i n i n g the p l i g h t of a defenceless, innocent woman. No one comes t o her a i d , not even the p r i e s t who, at the onset of the work, had admonished h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s t o show mercy upon the s i n n e r : "Aber niemand h a l f i h r , s e l b s t der P f a r r e r n i c h t , der i h r z i i r n t e , w e l l s i e i h r e Unschuld beteuerte" (181) . Her t o t a l i s o l a t i o n and de s p a i r , but, at the same time, her i n c r e d i b l e s t r e n g t h i n the knowledge that she i s master of her own f a t e , i s captured by Auerbach i n a passage r e f l e c t i n g a s o r t of stream of consciousness: Dein S c h i c k s a l i s t i n deine Hand gegeben, du gehôrst und hast niemand, du b i s t a l l e i n ; allé Liebe und a l i e n Lebensunterhalt muBt du erobern, du kannst jede Minute ausgestolien werden und b i s t fremd; k e i n u n a u s l o s l i c h e s Familienband umschlingt d i c h uber allé Irrungen und Wechsel des Lebens hinweg (181) . To f u r t h e r aggravate her s i t u a t i o n , the cha r a c t e r F r i e d e r , whom Magdalena encounters i n the v i l l a g e , i s revealed as the man she b e l i e v e s t o be her f a t h e r and the t h i e f who s t o l e the 80 f l o r i n s . He i s thus the author of her misery f o r a second time, but t o add t o her g r i e f he denies p a t e r n i t y , on the b a s i s of v i l l a g e records, thereby robbing her of any remaining v e s t i g e of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y : " F r i e d e r g r i n s t e s i e hohnisch an und sagte: " P r o b i e r ' s nur, hau zu, hack mir das B e i l i n den Kopf, da, mach s c h n e l l ; du b i s t j a i n e r s t e r Ehe zur Welt kommen, im Kirchenbuche b i n i c h j a doch dein Vater n i c h t " (184) . The outcome of the s t o r y i s admittedly somewhat c o n t r i v e d . F r i e d e r , i n a drunken stupor, confesses that he s t o l e the money. He i s l e d o f f t o p r i s o n , and c l e a r s Madgalena's name before he comes t o a g r i z z l y end by hanging h i m s e l f . Magdalena f a l l s i n t o a fe v e r , but recovers when the e n t i r e v i l l a g e , who had formerly h e l d Jakob i n d e r i s i o n , welcomes him home from gaol l i k e a long l o s t hero: "Wie e i n s i e g r e i c h e r Held wurde Jakob im Dorfe empfangen. Allés drângte s i c h zu ihm heran, allés fafîte seine Hand; man nannte ihn einen braven, wackern Menschen und war iiberaus l i e b r e i c h " (189). While Auerbach concludes t h i s work with an image of a s t y l i z e d f a m i l y of s o r t s : "Dort steht e i n Mann kerzengerade und h a l t d i e zusammengewickelte Fahne; unter dem Hause steht eine Frau und hat e i n k l e i n e s Kind auf dem Arm, das d i e Hànde h i n a u s s t r e c k t i n s Weite" (192), he makes i t c l e a r t h a t the woman i s regarded by s o c i e t y as an i n s i g n i f i c a n t member i n comparison t o the man. No mention i s made of a s i m i l a r homecoming f o r Magdalena, f o r inst a n c e , or of any r e t r i b u t i o n being made t o her, who, time and time again, has been g r i e v o u s l y wronged both by var i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s and the community at l a r g e . Her reward, i t i s suggested, i s her i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o a f a m i l y u n i t - a husband and c h i l d . There i s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of female characters from the e n t i r e r u r a l h i e r a r c h y i n Der Lehnhold (1853), c h i e f among them the f i g u r e of the mother. Through her, we r e c e i v e a valuable and more d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t i n t o the circumstances of the more a f f l u e n t nineteenth century peasant woman than i n the works h i t h e r t o discussed. Auerbach, as i n Ivo, der Ha-jrle, accentuates the d i f f i c u l t i e s which the wife endures i n married l i f e : "In den b a l d v i e r z i g Jahren i h r e r Ehe hatte s i e es n i c h t vergessen, daJJ i h r das herbe und s c h r o t t e Wesen ih r e s Mannes v i e l H e r z e l e i d gemacht, aber s i e hatte s i c h daran gewohnt" (Auerbach 5: 15). Through marriage, as was often the case f o r the woman who married o u t s i d e her own v i l l a g e , she i s t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o a f o r e i g n environment with r i g i d t r a d i t i o n s of i t s own, a theme which i s repeated by Auerbach i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n : Dennoch b l i e b s i e dem oberlandischen Wesen noch v i e l f a c h fremd. Auf einem groBen einsamen Bauernhofe aufgewachsen, kam s i e a l s Frau wieder i n einen solchen, s i e kannte wenig von der Welt, aber h i e r war doch allés anders; s i e stammte aus dem v i e l mildern geschmeidigern Unterlande, h i e r oben war a i l e s wie mit der H o l z a r t zugehauen (15) . She has never become f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o her husband's community: "So sehr s i e aber dies erkannte, b l i e b s i e doch diesem Leben fremd, s i e hatte noch immer d i e S i t t e n i h r e s v a t e r l i c h e n Hauses im Sinne" (16), a statement which conveys the permanent i n f l u e n c e of the p a t r i a r c h a l model upon her l i f e . This c l a s h between p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e s has been the cause of much d i s s e n t i o n between her and her husband e a r l y on i n the marriage, but has eased over time. Mutual happiness i s not, i n any event, the cornerstone of such marriages as we know from h i s t o r i c a l sources, and as Auerbach t e l l s us here: "Bei den Bauern, besonders aber b e i den GroBbauern, i s t d i e Ehe v i e l f a c h nur e i n V e r t r a g s v e r h a l t n i s i n der ausgedehntesten Bedeutung des Wortes" (16). Enhancement of the e x i s t i n g farm i s of paramount importance t o both p a r t i e s , and i f anything should develop between them i n the way of love and a f f e c t i o n i t i s a bonus, but by no means necessary: "Die A r b e i t f i i r E rhaltung und Vermehrung des Besitztums i s t d i e Wesenheit des Lebens, dem d i e H e i l i g h a l t u n g des geschlossenen Bundes noch eine gewisse Weihe e r t e i l t , und kommen Kinder, so erbl u h t d i e V e r t r a g l i c h k e i t auch wiederum o f t zur Liebe" (16). Because of t h i s t a c i t understanding d i v o r c e i s thus out of the quest i o n : "Offene Zerwiirfnisse oder gar Trennungen aus Mangel an Liebe kommen darum im Leben der Grofibauern f a s t n i e vor" (16) . Auerbach does not imply, i n t h i s case, t h a t the woman d e s i r e s more from the marriage, but i n works such as Ivo, der H a i r l e he r e v e a l s the female as d i r e c t i n g her needs elsewhere than her husband to be f u l f i l l e d . Auerbach presents the wife as having p r a c t i c a l l y no s o c i a l o u t l e t : "Nur s e l t e n , zu einem Jahrmarkt, zu e i n e r Gevatterschaft oder Hochzeit v e r l i e B man den Hof, und d i e Bauerin horte i i b e r a l l mit B e f r i e d i g u n g , wie hochgepriesen s i e und i h r Mann waren" (16-17) . Based upon the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the previous chapters t h i s could w e l l be considered a r e f l e c t i o n upon the general l o t of the woman throughout the nineteenth century. Her l o f t y p o s i t i o n i n the farming h i e r a r c h y and her wealth do not enhance the q u a l i t y of her l i f e , which again i s i n keeping with the image of the m i s e r l y peasant propounded i n the seventeenth and eighteenth century: "Nie kam es i h r i n den Sinn, von ihrem Reichtum einen andern GenuB haben zu wollen a l s den, i h n zu e r h a l t e n und zu vermehren und, wie s i c h ' s gebiihrt, den armen Leuten der Gegend i h r e Gaben zukommen zu l a s s e n " (17). Despite the seeming narrowness of her l i f e , and what appears t o be a l o n e l y e x i s t e n c e with her husband, Auerbach re v e a l s her s t r e n g t h of character by showing her attempts to d e r i v e happiness from her l o t . She i s presented as wise and pragmatic: "Sie war eine kluge und behagliche Frau, d i e die Freude des heutigen Tages n i c h t mit Kummer um kommende Zeiten verscheuchte" (19). Amidst the v o l a t i l e home environment: "Es war nun e i n seltsam z e r s t o r t e s Leben auf dem Furchtenhofe" (18), the mother i s depi c t e d as the s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e and the p a c i f i e r between the warring males, her husband and her son Alban. Although her husband t r i e s t o manipulate her i n t o winning Alban over t o h i s p o i n t of view, she chooses t o remain i m p a r t i a l , a q u a l i t y learned from her mother: "Mein Mutter s e l i g hat n i e i n Mannshandel d r e i n geredet" (131) . I t i s i n t h i s encounter t h a t the t r u e and repressed sentiments of the husband and wife towards each other surface: "Wie von einem B l i t z durchzuckt, standen Mann und Frau plôtzlich s t i l l , s i e merkten, dafi vor den Kindern, vor fremden Menschen e i n W i d e r s t r e i t zwischen ihnen zu Tage gekommen war, der t i e f i n ihnen beiden w u r z e l t e " (131) . Auerbach d e p i c t s the woman as a v i c t i m of her husband's b r u t a l i t y when she endeavours t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f : "Der Vater h i e l t s i e zuriick und so h e f t i g , dafî s i e l a u t s c h r i e " (131) . But when she discove r s t h a t her husband has i n c a r c e r a t e d Alban, her c h i l d , i n the c e l l a r , d e s p i t e her awareness of her d i c t a t e d r o l e which r e q u i r e s obedience t o her husband, nothing can prevent her unleashing h e r s e l f against him: "Die Mutter umhalste i h r e n g e l i e b t e n mifîhandelten Sohn, und j e t z t horten d i e Kinder e i n e n t s e t z l i c h e s Wort aus ihrem Munde gegen den Vater. "Du b i s t e i n U n t i e r und k e i n Mensch", r i e f s i e ihm zu" (139). In s p i t e of her e f f o r t s t o forge peace i n her f a m i l y , she witnesses the death of both her sons through the a c t i o n s of her husband. Broken hearted, she s w i f t l y f o l l o w s them. The other mother f i g u r e i n t h i s t a l e represents the l o t of the poor peasant woman. Dominik's mother, although aged, i s s t i l l earning her keep by working i n the f i e l d s as a day labourer. Despite her years she i s not granted p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n - she i s not permitted t o pause i n her work when Dominik v i s i t s her, and she i s for c e d t o ask him f o r money i n order t o s u b s i s t . She l i v e s w ith her son and daughter-in-law who do not t r e a t her w e l l . In t h i s connection, Auerbach suggests t h a t r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the community are as s t i l t e d and unnatural as those i n the upper r u r a l echelons. He a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t the mother's s e n i o r i t y does not exempt her from the v i l l a g e mores. When Dominik returns home j o b l e s s t o h i s mother, we are t o l d of the pressure the v i l l a g e i n s i d i o u s l y exerts on personal r e l a t i o n s : "Die Mutter wagte es nur im geheimen, ihm i h r e Liebe zu bezeigen, vor den andern mufîte s i e scheinbar zu ihnen h a l t e n " (106). There are other male/female c o n f i g u r a t i o n s under the domination of the f a t h e r f i g u r e i n t h i s work which are of i n t e r e s t . Of primary importance i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Dominik, the Furchtenbauer servant, and Ameile, h i s daughter. We know from the r e l e v a n t s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l sources (chapter two) t h a t such a co u p l i n g i s not only unacceptable, but unthinkable. Auerbach r e v e a l s the v i l l a g e r ' s o p i n i o n on t h i s matter when he has Dominik s t a t e : "Das i s t e i n u n v e r z e i h l i c h e r wahnsinniger U b e r g r i f f , und sowohl um s i c h s e l b s t zu wahren, a l s auch um a l s t r e u e r Diener seines Herrn zu bestehen, sucht er [Dominik] jede Ausserung d i e s e r Zuneigung zu bekampfen" (13). Moreover, i t i s suggested t h a t such a union betokens d i s a s t e r : "Er bangte vor d i e s e r Liebe, d i e ihm nur Ungluck bringen konnte" (63). Auerbach captures the i n f l u e n c e of r u r a l convention, founded on the p a t r i a r c h a l model, by o u t l i n i n g the young Ameile's s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . As " e i n holdes, f r i s c h e s Naturkind" (78), she, l i k e her mother, i s extremely concerned about maintaining her own and her f a m i l y ' s image i n p u b l i c : "Was im Hause vorgeht, und besonders zwischen Vater und Kind, das darf n i c h t uber d i e Schwelle" (65). She i s i n f l u e n c e d and moulded by her background. Consequently, she views l i f e s o l e l y from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a young w e l l -to-do farmer and hence the u l t i m a t e compliment she can pay the Oberamtmannin, a c i t y d w e l l e r , i s : "Sie s i n d so gescheit wie d i e r e c h t e s t e Bauernfrau" (80). While Ameile i s c l e a r l y proud of her h e r i t a g e , she i s al s o aware of the r e s t r i c t i o n s her community imposes upon her. Moreover, she recognizes t h a t as a woman she i s disadvantaged i n l i f e . She imagines t h a t as a man she could gain some independence: "Hundertmal wiinschte s i e s i c h im Scherz und Er n s t , auch e i n Bursche zu s e i n , und k l a g t e , daJî be i der neuen Welt gar n i c h t s f u r d i e Madchen herauskame" (65). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t she considers the f u t u r e as ho l d i n g no promise of a m e l i o r a t i o n f o r the p o s i t i o n of the woman i n s o c i e t y . But, i n s p i t e of t h i s knowledge and her acceptance of the r o l e imposed upon her, she i s seen t o asse r t her independence as a woman i n p r a c t i c a l l y the same terms as many of Auerbach's female characters before her: "Ich b i n k e i n Kind mehr" (96). She, i n f a c t , i s the only one who d e f i e s her f a t h e r by s c o l d i n g him f o r not accepting Alban's gesture of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Furthermore, she proposes the f i r s t meeting with Dominik. In the garden love scene, Ameile declares h e r s e l f ready t o leave with him, hence i n i t i a t i n g the immense and f a r - r e a c h i n g step of breaking w i t h a l l t h a t she holds sacred. This i s f u r t h e r underscored by Auerbach when her f a t h e r d i s c o v e r s t h e i r l i a i s o n . She endures h i s wrath u n t i l he speaks i l l of Dominik, at which p o i n t she claims him as her own, thus f u r t h e r t r a n s g r e s s i n g r u r a l convention by s e l e c t i n g a partner who i s not only below her s t a t i o n , but i s a servant t o her f a t h e r : "Das l e i d ' i c h n i c h t , er i s t e h r l i c h und t r e u und r e c h t s c h a f f e n , und er hat mich n i c h t v e r f u h r t , und wir konnen vor Gott und der Welt hinstehen und f r e i aufschauen, und daB er arm i s t , das i s t k e i n ' Schand. Mein Dominik -" (108). Ameile loses her e n t i r e f a m i l y , through her f a t h e r ' s a c t i o n s , but she gains happiness w i t h Dominik. This s o c i a l l y "unequal" r e l a t i o n s h i p i s shown t o be the only p o s i t i v e and l a s t i n g one i n the work. As a w i f e , Ameile t r e a t s Dominik wi t h respect and, as he s t a t e s , she never reminds him t h a t i t i s her fortune which he c o n t r o l s : "Du kennst mich aber. und du gunnst mir was Gutes, und du hast n i c h t bang, dafi i c h d i r dein' Sach vert h u ' " (149). Despite the d e v a s t a t i o n wrought i n her f a m i l y , through adherence t o the p a t r i a r c h , Auerbach r e v e a l s t h a t Ameile continues t o be proud of her standing i n the community, which espouses a p a t r i a r c h a l system, and through her comment, although meant i n a humorous manner, i t i s c l e a r t h a t she expects Dominik to f u l f i l h i s new r o l e a l s o : "Aber du muJit auch n i e vergessen, dafi du j e t z t e i n Grofibauer b i s t " (149) . Another " i l l i c i t " r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t between Alban, the Furchtenbauer's son, and B r e n i , a day labourer on t h e i r farm. The p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e of those i n a higher p o s i t i o n i n the r u r a l h i e r a r c h y towards poor peasant women i s revealed i n the Furchtenbauer's comment concerning the l i a i s o n between B r e n i and Alban: "Der Vater hatte schon lange bemerkt, dafi Alban mit der B r e n i etwas habe, er hatte n i c h t s dagegen, dafi s e i n Sohn mit dem, wie er s e l b s t gestehen mufite, "bildsaubern Madle" seine L u s t b a r k e i t t r i e b , das d arf e i n r e i c h e r Bauernsohn" (27) . This statement a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s acceptable f o r the son t o have h i s pleasure w i t h a female servant, but i t i s not p e r m i s s i b l e f o r the daughter to have r e l a t i o n s with a male servant -harking back t o the s i t u a t i o n i n medieval times (chapter one) . The power and i n f l u e n c e of the p a t r i a r c h a l model i s a l s o evinced i n the case of Alban. He too i s c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s t h i n k i n g : "Solch e i n V e r h a l t n i s taugte n i c h t f u r i h n , er mufîte e i n s t eine Frau haben, von deren Vermôgen er b e i Ubernahitie des Hofes d i e Geschwister auszahlen konnte" (28). He t r i e s t o convince h i m s e l f of h i s f a t h e r ' s precepts: "Ein Grofîbauer hat vor alle m daran zu denken, dafi d i e Fa m i l i e i n a l t e n Ehren b l e i b t " (32) . When the l a t t e r acts as matchmaker by arranging a meeting f o r Alban w i t h an e l i g i b l e widow, Alban acquiesces and appears t o be convinced of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s s t a t i o n . When he enters her home he i s struck by h i s sense of belonging: "Und i n ihm war es wie e i n Ausspruch der Gewifiheit, dafi er h i e r s e i n L e b e n s z i e l gefunden habe" (39). He q u i c k l y f o r g e t s B r e n i and i s i n s p i r e d by the thought of h i s f a t h e r ' s approval should he be s u c c e s s f u l as s u i t o r . Once r e j e c t e d by t h i s woman, however, he f l e e s t o B r e n i f o r s o l a c e . I t nevertheless appears t h a t Alban grows t o love B r e n i . This i s manifest i n h i s behaviour towards her when she comes to work as a day labourer: Seine innere Liebe und das demutige und doch so hohe Wesen Brenis l i e f i e n ihm jeden Scherz a l s eine Entwurdigung und Roheit erschienen, zumal da das Madchen i n s e i n e r untergeordneten S t e l l u n g s i c h dagegen n i c h t h a t t e auflehnen diirfen und nur dem Spotte der Genossinnen ausgesetzt war (30). Furthermore, he makes arrangements f o r her, on h i s deathbed, which provide her with f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y . Auerbach's i n t e n t i o n i s c l e a r - by causing Alban t o r e a l i z e the innate worth of t h i s "simple" peasant woman, he unmasks r u r a l t r a d i t i o n and convention as cont r a r y t o human values. In Pes SchloBbauers V e f e l e (1843), Auerbach shows the female character of the t i t l e t o be v i c t i m i z e d by her f a t h e r from an e a r l y age. L i k e Erdmute, V e f e l e grows up i n an environment of p a r e n t a l d i s c o r d : "Per a l t e Zustand dauerte f o r t , der SchloBbauer und seine Frau l e b t e n o f t i n Unfrieden" (Auerbach 1: 60). The s i t u a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e s over time: "Ja, j e a l t e r s i e wurden, um so mehr schien s i c h eine Ubelnehmerei, eine h e f t i g e B i t t e r k e i t zwischen ihnen kundzugeben." L i k e many of the female characters i n Auerbach's works, V e f e l e i s depi c t e d as a peacemaker: "Pas Vef e l e wuBte zwar immer wieder den Frieden h e r z u s t e l l e n " (65). The e f f e c t of p a r e n t a l s t r i f e i s seen t o bear a stronger and new i n f l u e n c e upon her than on previous characters i n s i m i l a r circumstances. I t i s noteworthy that she i s the f i r s t of Auerbach's women t o vow t h a t she w i l l not marry: "Es war dann vergniigt und munter, aber im s t i l l e n weinte es o f t b i t t e r l i c h iiber das t r a u r i g e S c h i c k s a l seiner E l t e r n und liber s e i n eigenes, und dann gelobte es s i c h h e i l i g , n i e zu h e i r a t e n " (65). In t h i s work Auerbach describes the repercussions f o r the woman who i s dominated by her f a t h e r . V e f e l e i s denied contact w i t h her peers, because her f a t h e r t h i n k s himself s u p e r i o r t o the community. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s the woman who i s shown t o s u f f e r most as a consequence of t h i s i s o l a t i o n : "Die Mutter und i h r e Kinder, namentlich aber i h r e beiden Tochter Agathle und V e f e l e , l i t t e n am meisten b e i d i e s e r Trennung von der Gemeinde" (58). As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s enforced s e p a r a t i o n V e f e l e i s v u l n e r a b l e t o the ch a r l a t a n Bronner, who i s wholeheartedly welcomed by her f a t h e r because of h i s a f f e c t e d manner, as Bett e l h e i m remarks: "Die L i e b l o s i g k e i t , unter der s i e Jahre und Jahre g e l i t t e n , macht s i e doppelt empfanglich f u r d i e g l e i s n e r i s c h e n Worte des Windbeutels" (23). In h i s cajolement of her, he draws a comparison between the town and countrywoman and i m p l i e s t h a t the l a t t e r i s l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t , a theme already t r e a t e d i n Der Lauterbacher and again taken up i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n . His use of French: "Parole d'honneur, V e f e l e , S i e s i n d e i n l i e b e s Madchen und gar n i c h t wie e i n Bauernmadchen, p a r o l e d'honneur, und haben so v i e l Verstand, wie irgendeine i n der Stadt" (72-73), while designed t o b a f f l e her, a l s o r e v e a l s h i s f a l s e value judgement s i n c e the subtext of h i s remark i s a cliché. Ve f e l e i s inexperienced and succumbs t o Bronner's c i t y charm. Once he has e x p l o i t e d her, he seeks t o change her, a theme which i s r e i t e r a t e d i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n and underscores Auerbach's i n t e r e s t i n the townman's perception of the peasant: "Die e r s t e Veranderung, der s i c h nun V e f e l e unterwerfen mufîte, war eine sehr t r a u r i g e . Der Bronner s c h i c k t e ihm eines Tages eine Nàherin aus der Stadt und lieJJ ihm K l e i d e r anmessen." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the garb i n which he c l o t h e s V e f e l e i s described as t i g h t and r e s t r i c t i v e , which serves t o r e f l e c t unfavourably on the c i t y : "Vefele kam s i c h vor wie e i n Rekrut, der n i c h t mehr Herr uber s i c h i s t und s i c h i n jede b e l i e b i g e Uniform stecken l a s s e n mufi, w e i l i h n das Los so g e t r o f f e n ; es l i e f i allés ohne Widerrede aus s i c h machen" (76). Moreover, Bronner has no regard or respect f o r Vefe l e as a countrywoman and h i s e v a l u a t i o n of her conforms to the negative view of the peasantry discussed i n chapter two: "Der Bronner ... nannte das V e f e l e e i n "dummes Dorfkind, das n i c h t wisse, dali hinterm Berg auch noch Leute wohnen" (77) . Auerbach captures the p l i g h t of the s p i n s t e r , when he describes V e f e l e ' s dilemma upon the death of her f a t h e r . She has no op t i o n as an unmarried woman, but t o l i v e w ith her brother and s i s t e r - i n - l a w who t r e a t s her c r u e l l y : "Das Vefe l e h a t t e schwere Zeiten i n dem Hause M e l c h i o r s , dessen Frau e i n boser Drache war und immer t o t e Kinder gebar, so dafi d i e Leute sagten, i h r G i f t t o t e d i e Kinder im Leibe" (77). V e f e l e ' s s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l s t h a t of the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e (Anna K.), discussed i n chapter two, almost e x a c t l y . Her s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r aggravated when i t i s discovered that she i s pregnant w i t h Bronner's c h i l d : B e i alledem hatte das t r a u r i g e S c h i c k s a l V e f e l e s noch n i c h t seine hochste Hohe e r r e i c h t . A l s seine Schwagerin seinen Stand inne ward, s t e i g e r t e s i c h i h r e H a r t h e r z i g k e i t zum emporendsten Grade, s i e v e r f o l g t e und mifîhandelte V e f e l e auf jede Weise. Das aber duldete s t i l l , es sah s i c h auserkoren, das gross t e Kreuz iiber s i c h zu nehmen, und es gehorchte ohne Murren; das Doppelleben i n ihm schien es mit e i n e r g e i s t i g e n und k o r p e r l i c h e n K r a f t auszuriisten, d i e iiber jedes Ungemach unversehrt h i n w e g s c h r i t t (81) . When V e f e l e t r i e s to press Bronner t o marry her f o r the sake of t h e i r unborn c h i l d , he not only abandons her, but absconds w i t h her i n h e r i t a n c e . We know from the preceding chapter t h a t pregnancy out of wedlock was not frowned upon i f marriage ensued, but i f the woman had no marriage prospects she was viewed as l a c k i n g a l l p r o p r i e t y and stood, t h e r e f o r e , o u t s i d e the v i l l a g e p a l e . The degree to which V e f e l e has f a l l e n s o c i a l l y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the servant's o f f e r of marriage, which under any other circumstances would be considered an unspeakable i n s u l t t o the daughter of a well-to-do farmer. Auerbach i s m a s t e r f u l i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of her d e s p a i r : "Da sank das V e f e l e i n s i c h zusammen, es l a g mit dem Gesichte auf dem Boden, und e i n f u r c h t b a r e r Gedanke ging ihm durch d i e Seele, der Gedanke, daJ5 es mifîachtet und auf ewig u n g l i i c k l i c h s e i n werde" (77-78) . To add t o her dilemma she i s banished, l i k e Anna K., from the v i l l a g e by the mayor, who has long nurtured a personal grudge against her f a t h e r : E n d l i c h kam das auJierste Ungliick iiber V e f e l e . Der SchultheiB des Orts hatte i h r e n Stand erfahren, und der h a r t h e r z i g e Mann lielî nun seinen a l t e n verhaltenen Grimm aus; er l i e B V e f e l e durch den Dorfschiitzen sagen, es miisse das Dorf v e r l a s s e n und nach seinem Geburtsorte zuriickkehren, da sonst das Kind, wenn es h i e r geboren wiirde, Heimatsrechte ansprechen konnte (83). Auerbach, f a r from c a s t i g a t i n g V e f e l e , i s sca t h i n g of t h i s system, r e f e r r i n g t o the o f f i c i a l as "der h a r t h e r z i g e Mann." Vefele ' s v i r t u a l excommunication from the v i l l a g e i s accentuated by Auerbach, when Marem the Jew, him s e l f a s o c i a l o u t c a s t , o f f e r s her help . V e f e l e refuses the l a t t e r , disappears and presumably peri s h e s with her unborn c h i l d . The f i n a l words of the t e x t denote the personal as w e l l as the general d e v a s t a t i o n , wrought e s s e n t i a l l y by men, i n t h i s r espectable household: "Das vornehmste Haus des ganzen Dorfes, das gehorte e i n s t dem Vater des V e f e l e ; der Vater i s t t o t , d i e Mutter i s t t o t , d i e f i i n f Kinder s i n d t o t , und das V e f e l e i s t spurlos verschwunden" (86), and serve as a haunting end t o the r e a l i s m of the above l i n e s . In Tonele mit der gebissenen Wange (1842), Auerbach explores the consequences of the male's j e a l o u s y f o r the woman and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The author's p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the two p r o t a g o n i s t s , Tonele and Sepper, suggests t h a t they are a p e r f e c t match: Der Sepper und das Tonele waren e i n h e r r l i c h e s Paar, beide f a s t g l e i c h groiî und schlank, und beide doppelt schon, wenn s i e miteinander gingen; jedes f i i r s i c h a l l e i n war schon schon, aber beieinander waren s i e es e r s t recht, unter Tausenden heraus hatte man sagen miissen: diese zwei gehoren zusammen (Auerbach 1: 93). A l l should go w e l l , but Sepper, Tonele's intended husband, has an extremely jealous d i s p o s i t i o n . He views Tonele as an object and i n s i s t s that she speak t o no other man: "Mit dem Jager d a r f s t du h a l t k e i n Wort mehr reden" (97) and "Ich w i l l aber, du s o l l s t k e i n Wortle zu ihm sagen" (96). Auerbach demonstrates how the woman seeks t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Tonele s t r u g g l e s f o r independence by s t r e s s i n g her womanhood: "Und i c h l a s s ' mir von d i r n i c h t befehlen, mit wem i c h reden s o i l " (96) and "Ich b i n ke i n Kind, i c h weiB schon, was i c h zu tun hab" (Auerbach, 97). But Auerbach suggests, as was the case i n B e f e h l e r l e s , that i t i s impossible f o r a woman t o s u c c e s s f u l l y challenge the p r e v a i l i n g p a t r i a r c h a l system. A woman who attempts t o step outside the boundaries of her p r e s c r i b e d r o l e i s immediately and u n f a i r l y c a s t i g a t e d as " e i n h o f f a r t i g e s , f a l s c h e s Ding" (96) . In c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o Sepper's c l a i m , Tonele i s depi c t e d by Auerbach as w i l l i n g l y s u b m i t t i n g h e r s e l f to the v i l l a g e code. When Sepper's r i v a l i n lov e , the aforementioned hunter, (remains u n i d e n t i f i e d ) pursues Tonele, she does not court h i s a t t e n t i o n , thus negating Sepper's u n f a i r e v a l u a t i o n of her. Indeed, she d e c l i n e s h i s o f f e r t o accompany her through the v i l l a g e , because she i s aware of, and submits t o , the mores of her community: "Nein, das s c h i c k t s i c h n i c h t , daB Ihr mit uns durch das Dorf gehet, t u t mir den G e f a l i e n und gehet voraus zu den Buben" (95). Sepper however, has no f a i t h i n Tonele's continued assurance that she i s devoted t o him: "Auch der Sepper war hocherregt, aber er konnte es doch n i c h t unterdriicken, noch einmal von dem Jager zu sprechen. Das Tonele sagte: "Laie j e t z t den Jager, guck, es g i b t j e t z t gar n i c h t s auf der Welt a l s du" (100). Tonele, the r a t i o n a l p artner i s , i n e f f e c t , not taken at her word and i s rewarded by v i o l e n c e when Sepper, her emotional counterpart, commits h i s f i r s t v i o l e n t act against her by f e r o c i o u s l y b i t i n g her on the cheek. He then disappears from the v i l l a g e . Auerbach a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n t o a d i f f e r e n t c a l i b r e of man and h i s a t t i t u d e towards the female sex i n t h i s work, although, as i n the case of Sepper, he i s a s i m p l i f i e d type. The hunter appears to t r u l y value Tonele, and has i n d i c a t e d high regard f o r her from the onset. U n l i k e Sepper, who seeks to h u m i l i a t e her, he elev a t e s her by comparing her t o the V i r g i n Mary: "Es i s t e i n Màdle wie von Wachs, grad wie d i e Mutter Gottes i n der K i r c h e ; solang i c h mir denken mag, hab' i c h noch keines so gesehen" (93) . Even when she i s d i s f i g u r e d by Sepper he accepts her as she i s : "Bei mir t a t ' das n i c h t s , " sagte der Jager, "und wenn Ihr nur einen Backen hàttet, I h r tàtet mir doch besser g e f a l l e n , a l s allé Màdle von Nordstetten b i s P a r i s " (103). But Sepper, on h i s r e t u r n to the v i l l a g e , denies Tonele her chance of happiness with the hunter. He denigrates Tonele and, by extension, women i n general when he suggests t h a t he and the hunter p u l l straws f o r Tonele: "Du - wir wollen n i c h t lange machen, da, wir wollen Halmle ziehen, wer von uns beiden vom Tonele lassen muB; und wenn i c h ' s v e r l i e r ' , so muB i c h das Gewehr f i i r mich haben" (106). When he r e c e i v e s no s a t i s f a c t i o n , he f a t a l l y shoots the hunter and j u b i l a n t l y leaves the scene contented to have deprived Tonele of another man's l o v e . Tonele i s not only the v i c t i m of male v i o l e n c e , but of s o c i e t y ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the p o s i t i o n of a defenceless woman. Sepper i s never c a l l e d t o j u s t i c e f o r h i s crimes against Tonele whom he has abused, v i c t i m i z e d and u l t i m a t e l y destroys: "Das Tonele i s t aber e r s t nach v i e l e n Jahren einsamen Kummers vom Leben e r l o s t worden" (107). This c o n c l u s i o n i s ble a k e r than those of the aforementioned works, and would c e r t a i n l y negate the c l a i m t h a t Auerbach had a pr o p e n s i t y t o conclude h i s Schwarzwâlder Dorfgeschichten w i t h a f a c i l e "happy end." Marriage; For b e t t e r or f o r worse Many of the v i l l a g e s t o r i e s , while a l i g h t i n g on the subject of marriage, have other themes as t h e i r focus, as we have observed i n Ivo. der H a r i l e and Der Lehnhold f o r in s t a n c e . Others such as B e f e h l e r l e s . Die K r i e g s p f e i f e , Erdmute and S t r a f l i n g e end at the p o i n t where the l o v e r s embark on married l i f e . In t h i s s e c t i o n I propose t o examine Auerbach's treatment of the c o u r t s h i p and subsequent marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p , with p a r t i c u l a r regard t o the female experience, i n B r o s i und Moni (1852) and F l o r i a n und Kreszenz (1848). In the former work the f i r s t reference made t o Moni by her husband B r o s i i s not a p a r t i c u l a r l y f l a t t e r i n g one and rev e a l s the unromantic nature of t h e i r c o u r t s h i p w h i l e , at the same time, m i r r o r i n g the male/female r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t l i n e d i n the preceding chapters. B r o s i i s recounting how he met h i s wife and s t a t e s : "Ich hab' d i c h zuerst a l s Here mit dem Besen und auf dem Mi s t gefunden" (Auerbach 7: 115). As i n other works, Moni's p h y s i c a l appearance i s not described i n d e t a i l , but what i s of i n t e r e s t here i s tha t i t i s i m p l i e d from the onset t h a t she i s not as sought a f t e r as the other young female peasants: "Die Monika ware, ohne einen FuJ5 zum Tanz gesetzt zu haben, nach Hause gegangen, wenn s i c h n i c h t d i e Schneiderin von Haldenbrunn iiber s i e erbarmt und einmal mit i h r herumgetanzt h a t t e " (119). This however, may have l i t t l e or nothing t o do with the degree of her p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , s i n c e we know from Auerbach and the a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l sources t h a t i t was, i n most cases, the r i c h young farmers' daughters who were pursued, even by poorer male s u i t o r s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r appearance. Despite the l a c k of male a t t e n t i o n and the attendant dearth of favourable marriage prospects, Auerbach's women are seen to be more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t h e i r choice of mate than G o t t h e l f s . Moni does not succumb to the f i r s t male who d i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t i n her. B r o s i , l i k e Jakob i n S t r a f l i n g e , t r e a t s her i n an e r r a t i c manner, he ignores her when i t pleases him, and then suggests t h a t they should begin a c o u r t s h i p . Moni i s i r a s c i b l e : "Wir brauchen gar n i c h t zusammenkommen, gar n i c h t , " l a u t e t e d i e schnippische Antwort der Monika" (121). This however, appears t o be nothing more than female coquetry on her p a r t , f o r B r o s i wins her heart. But as i n many of Auerbach's t a l e s which r e f l e c t the m a t e r i a l presented i n the preceding chapters, the procedure of c o u r t s h i p i s q u i c k l y skipped over, and an agreement of marriage i s reached without the reader being p r i v y t o the d e t a i l s . As an i n d i v i d u a l , Moni, d e s p i t e her f e i s t i n e s s , i s made to f e e l insecure as a woman by the terms which her v i l l a g e community impose upon her. The male's expectations of marriage - a handsome dowry - and the e f f e c t s of these expectations upon the female are h i g h l i g h t e d by Auerbach, when B r o s i confesses t o Moni h i s disappointment about not marrying i n t o a wealthy f a m i l y . While she i s not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , and has no c o n t r o l over her humble background, she i n t e r n a l i z e s the l a t t e r as a r e f l e c t i o n of her worth: "Da weinte Moni b i t t e r l i c h und w o l l t e s i c h n i c h t beruhigen l a s s e n " (134) . The degree t o which Moni stands outside the v i l l a g e p ale (again f o r reasons beyond her c o n t r o l - l a c k of p h y s i c a l beauty, f i n a n c i a l resources, a n t i - s o c i a l mother) i s i n d i c a t e d i n her concern t h a t she has no f r i e n d s of her own to i n v i t e t o the wedding. At the same time, Auerbach embues Moni w i t h q u a l i t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the peasant: cunning and s a g a c i t y . For i n s t a n c e , she refuses t o leave her own wedding u n t i l she has acquired a l l of the g i f t s : " B r o s i sprach im geheimen vom Heimgehen, aber Monika hatte noch manche Leute im Auge, d i e noch k e i n Geschenk gegeben hatten, deren Weggang mufîte abgewartet werden" (139). L i k e the mother f i g u r e i n Der Lehnhold she i s depi c t e d by the author as pragmatic and capable of i n t e l l e c t u a l reasoning. When she and B r o s i l i v e w i t h her mother while she i s pregnant, B r o s i i s concerned t h a t the c h i l d they are expecting w i l l be adversely a f f e c t e d by her mother's constant bad mouthing, but Moni assures him: "Das schadet n i c h t s . Man wird j u s t n i c h t g i f t i g davon, das s i e h s t an mir, und i n fruhen Jahren zu wissen, daB n i c h t allé Menschen Lâmmer Gottes s i n d , hat auch s e i n Gutes" (142) . In some of the works h i t h e r t o discussed, Der Lehnhold and Ivo, der H a r j l e among them, the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage i s presented as a l a r g e l y negative one. In t h i s v i l l a g e s t o r y Auerbach p o r t r a y s the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as a mutually f u l f i l l i n g and l o v i n g union. Even i n the c o u r t i n g stage the author s t r e s s e s the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s , engendered through contact w i t h the woman, upon the hero: "Und noch n i e schmeckte B r o s i e i n Schoppen so gut, a l s den er mit s e i n e r Moni austrank" (132). Once married, B r o s i ' s joy i s complete and h i s statement: "WuBten denn d i e Leute n i c h t , dafî er zum erstenmal i n seinem Leben eine Heimat gefunden, und das er j e t z t e i n doppelter Mensch war, dafî er daheim eine wackere nette Frau s e i n eigen nannte?" (140) serves as a s u b t l e l y negative commentary on the concept of marriage i n that p e r i o d . Both Moni and B r o s i are depicted as l i v i n g i n a st a t e of contentment and harmony and i t i s noteworthy t h a t Auerbach, who e x t o l s the v i r t u e of work i n s e v e r a l of h i s aphorisms, s t r e s s e s t h e i r i n d u s t r y i n t h i s connection: "So weit d i e dunkle Tanne d i e hohen Berge bedeckt, gab es gewifî kein arbeitsameres und f r o h l i c h e r e s Haus a l s das von B r o s i und Moni" (143) . While B r o s i f e e l s secure and more f u l f i l l e d through Moni, she too seems t o have gained an i d e n t i t y and confidence through him which she, l i k e Hedwig i n Der Lauterbacher, had lacked. Of i n t e r e s t i s tha t Auerbach, through her, emphasizes the tenuous p o s i t i o n of the woman i n s o c i e t y and her subsequent dependence upon the male f o r some degree of s o c i a l s t a t u s and, more im p o r t a n t l y , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n : "Sie s t r a h l t e vor G l i i c k s e l i g k e i t , s i e , d i e Vereinsamte, VerstoBene, d i e nun durch i h r e n Mann i n d i e Gemeinschaft der Menschen aufgenommen war" (149) and f u r t h e r : "Da, wo der Gemeinderat s i t z t , dort saB j a i h r B r o s i ; d i e arme verstoBene Tochter des Apothekerrôsle h a t t e einen Mann, der auf der e r s t e n Kirchenbank saB" (192-193) . This f a c t notwithstanding, she l i k e K a t h e r l e i n Die K r i e a s p f e i f e i s , i n essence, the p a r t n e r who learns t o d i c t a t e the course of t h e i r domestic a f f a i r s : "So a r b e i t e t e s i e f o r t a n im geheimen mit a l l e r l e i Kunsten daran, daB i h r Mann s i c h n i c h t daran gewohne, seine Unterhaltung auBer dem Hause zu suchen" (148) . B r o s i and Moni are presented as being more equal as male and female than many of the other male/female c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n Auerbach's works. U n l i k e the m a j o r i t y of men whom Auerbach p o r t r a y s , B r o s i recognizes and acknowledges when he i s wrong. B r o s i and Moni's f i r s t argument occurs when B r o s i i s vexed w i t h h i s wife because she c r i t i c i z e s h i s foolhardy behaviour at the i n n , and informs him t h a t she w i l l no longer accompany him there, i f he continues t o act i n t h i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e manner. He expects her t o a p o l o g i s e t o him f o r her words, but she stands f i r m : "Ich b i n auf dem Glauben, daB i c h n i c h t s Boses than hab'" (150). B r o s i e v e n t u a l l y recognizes t h a t he was indeed i n e r r o r , but the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i s t h a t i t i s one of the rare occasions when Auerbach has a male cha r a c t e r admit a f a i l i n g t o a woman: "Du hast recht, du hast recht und i c h brauch' Gott n i c h t b i t t e n , dafî er d i c h gescheit macht" (151) . Auerbach a l s o h i g h l i g h t s elements of the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which are not discussed i n h i s other works, such as the demonstration of a f f e c t i o n between the p a r t n e r s . B r o s i and Moni, f o r i n s t a n c e , do not express t h e i r emotions v e r b a l l y , or d i s p l a y p h y s i c a l a f f e c t i o n towards one another. Even a f t e r B r o s i has been absent a year on "Wanderschaft" they do not v o c a l i z e t h e i r l o v e , but they consider themselves happy because of t h e i r i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y : Moni hatte v i e l zu erzahlen, und wie n a t i i r l i c h allés kunterbunt durcheinander, s c h l i e B l i c h aber kamen s i e doch immer wieder beide darauf zuriick, daB s i e g l i i c k l i c h e Menschen sei e n , n i c h t durch d i e Liebe, davon sprachen s i e n i c h t , sondern durch d i e Vermehrung i h r e s Besitztums (165). In F l o r i a n und Kreszenz (1848) Auerbach underscores the r o l e which the parents p l a y i n s e l e c t i n g the marriage p a r t n e r f o r t h e i r c h i l d and the consequences of t h i s a c t i o n . Kreszenz's parents have no regard f o r her personal happiness, and d i r e c t e d by p u r e l y s e l f i s h motives, they seek to marry her o f f t o someone of t h e i r choice: "Der r o t e Schneiderle sah schon im Geiste seine Tochter a l s Frau Obergeometerin" (Auerbach 2: 147). Her parents themselves do not enjoy a happy or peace f u l marriage: "Noch hatten s i e das Gesangbuch n i c h t aus der Hand geleg t , und schon war d i e h a B l i c h s t e Zwietracht zwischen ihnen entbrannt" (153). I t i s suggested t h a t p h y s i c a l abuse i s no stranger i n t h e i r household, although, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t i s the woman who i s cast as the p e r p e t r a t o r (she seeks t o defend her c h i l d r e n from her husband's v i o l e n c e ) : "Der Schneiderle w o l l t e auf Kreszenz l o s , seine Frau aber s t e l l t e s i c h vor ihn h i n , b a l l t e d i e Fauste, und der gestrenge Mann kroch scheu i n eine Ecke" (153). Auerbach p o i n t s t o the hypo c r i s y of the v i l l a g e r s i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Kreszenz's parents' conduct with the geometrician. They w i l l r e s o r t t o any ploy t o d i s g u i s e t h e i r animosity f o r the sake of r i d d i n g themselves of Kreszenz: "Da t r a t der Geometer e i n , Vater und Mutter machten f r e u n d l i c h e G e s i c h t e r und t a t e n , a l s ob s i e d i e Liebe s e l b e r waren" (155) and "So war allés Luge b e i Tische" (155). Despite p a r e n t a l pressure, Kreszenz, l i k e Ameile i n Der Lehnhold, i s shown t o break the p r e s c r i b e d mould by r e j e c t i n g the appointed s u i t o r and d e c i d i n g i n favour of F l o r i a n , her t r u e l o v e . In t h i s connection, Auerbach a l l u d e s that not a l l marriages were motivated by need and he focusses on the emotional dynamics i n male/female involvement. From the onset Kreszenz i s forewarned about F l o r i a n : "Aber vor dem F l o r i a n muBt du d i c h j e t z t i n acht nehmen, sonst g i b t ' s bose Sachen" (145). She, however, appears t o f i n d her i d e n t i t y i n him and i s w i l l i n g t o take the consequences upon h e r s e l f : " J e t z t weifî i c h doch wieder, wem i c h b i n , und dein b i n i c h , mag daraus werden, was w i l l " (180) wh i l e , as B e t t e l h e i m p o i n t s out: " F l o r i a n l i e b t auf seine A r t d i e Kreszenz" (152). In chapter two we discussed the p o s i t i o n of the woman under p a t r i a r c h a l guidance and domination on the farm; here we witness i t i n o p e r a t i o n . Kreszenz i s turned out of the house by her f a t h e r on account of her d e c i s i o n , which contravenes h i s wishes: Der Schneiderle kam h i n t e r d i e Entwendungen s e i n e r Tochter, und i n e i n e r stiirmischen Nacht, a l s der Wind den Regen j a g t e , v e r s t i e J i er s i e aus dem Hause und drohte i h r , s i e den Gerichten zu iibergeben, wenn s i e wiederkame. Die Mutter l a g todkrank darnieder und konnte n i c h t abwehren (183). F l o r i a n , on the other hand, i s shown to be more i n t e r e s t e d i n attempting t o maintain h i s p o s i t i o n as "der e r s t e Bursch im Dorf" (172) . He indeed seems a s e l f -absorbed, v a i n f e l l o w : "Der F l o r i a n kann s i c h fiinfmal aus -und ankleiden, s o v i e l schone K l e i d e r hat er b e i s i c h " (145) and " F l o r i a n begnugte s i c h f u r diesen Sonntag damit, Aufsehen im Dorfe zu erregen, das gelang ihm i n vollem MaBe. Allé Leute redeten nur von ihm, von s e i n e r schwarzen Samtjacke mit den s i l b e r n e n Knopfen" (156). His overweening p r i d e , a cquired while i n France, prevents him from engaging i n farm labour such as t h a t which Kreszenz and h i s peers perform, and a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t he regards the aforementioned as h i s i n f e r i o r s : "Er w o l l t e namlich blofî auf seinem Handwerke oder sonst i n einem angesehenen Geschafte a r b e i t e n , d i e F e l d a r b e i t h i e l t er unter s e i n e r Wurde; l i e b e r ware er Hungers gestorben, ehe e r , wie andre vermogenslose Menschen, Steine auf der StraBe geschlagen h a t t e " (166). And when he does not procure work i n h i s chosen f i e l d , h i s p r i d e again deters him from accepting help out of the v i l l a g e poor fund: "Gucket, l i e b e r b e s t e h l ' i c h den H e i l i g e n ; l i e b e r l e g ' i c h meine Hand da auf den Block und hack' mir s i e s e l b e r ab, eh' i c h einen B e t t e l aus der Gemeindekass' i n d i e Hand nàhm'" (190). Whereas he i s obsessed with r e t a i n i n g the image he has created f o r h i m s e l f - a s i n g l e e n t i t y , separate from the community - Kreszenz c o n t i n u a l l y surrenders h e r s e l f t o him i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s quest. Although he can f i n d farm work she at once o f f e r s t o help him by g i v i n g him her few valuables t o pawn: "Ohne e i n Wort zu reden, nahm s i e i h r e Granatenschnur samt dem Anhenker vom Halse, zog i h r e n s i l b e r n e n Ring von der Hand und r e i c h t e es ihm h i n " (184-185). In s p i t e of h i s r e f u s a l to work, her f a i t h i n him i s une r r i n g even when he turns t o crime t o support h i m s e l f . Despite her seeming naiv e t e i n regard t o F l o r i a n , Auerbach underscores her s t r e n g t h i n the face of a d v e r s i t y . When F l o r i a n i s a r r e s t e d , and l e d through the v i l l a g e i n shackles, she i s prepared to accompany him, thus p a r t a k i n g of h i s shame: "Ich geh' neben d i r durch das Dorf," sagte Kreszenz, ohne zu weinen; "du s o l l s t d i c h n i c h t a l l e i n schâmen. Tut d i r das Eisen weh? Gram d i c h nur n i c h t zu a r g " (198) . Auerbach continues t o r e v e a l her p o t e n t i a l as a human being and woman. Although we have seen her p r i m a r i l y i n a submissive stance i n regard t o F l o r i a n , i t i s she who u l t i m a t e l y emerges as the stronger p a r t n e r . Auerbach i n v e s t s her with s t r e n g t h , l o y a l t y and wisdom. L i k e Ivo's mother, C h r i s t i n e , and Erdmute she i s presented as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y astute i n her understanding of the male. During F l o r i a n ' s imprisonment, Kreszenz gives him hope and reassures him of her love and continued b e l i e f i n him: "Wenn Du auch einmal schlecht gewesen b i s t . Du b i s t doch n i c h t s c h l e c h t , das weiii i c h , S e i nur fromm und geduldig und t r a g Dein S c h i c k s a l , unser Herrgott i s t mein Zeug', i c h t a t ' D i r ' s gern abnehmen" (201) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s only at t h i s juncture t h a t the author allows F l o r i a n t o begin t o r e a l i z e her worth: " F l o r i a n f u h l t e e i n n i e gekanntes Entziicken, er konnte s e l i g weinen, er sah e r s t j e t z t r e cht, was er an der Kreszenz besali" (201) . Kreszenz i s t r u e t o her promise and waits f o r him. She a l s o provides the f i n a n c i a l backing t o enable them t o s t a r t a f r e s h when he i s r e l e a s e d : "Er wurde mit offenen Armen empfangen, Kreszenz hatte s i c h etwas Geld e r s p a r t , und nun zogen d i e beiden a l s Burstenverkaufer im Land umher" (202) . Auerbach h i g h l i g h t s the s t r u g g l e s which poor, l a n d l e s s peasants encounter i n a b i d t o support themselves. The l i f e F l o r i a n and Kreszenz l e a d i s a miserable one. devoid of comfort and s e c u r i t y . Two of t h e i r c h i l d r e n d i e and they are fo r c e d t o beg i n order t o feed the remaining f o u r . D i r e poverty tempts them t o s e l l t h e i r son t o a stranger, but Kreszenz, l i k e K a t h e r l e i n Die K r i e a s p f e i f e . acts as the moral conscience i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s unable and u n w i l l i n g t o desert him. The ending does appear t o augur some happiness f o r Kreszenz when the p r i e s t , who had former l y denied p a t e r n i t y , f i n a l l y acknowledges her as h i s c h i l d : "Mein Kind, mein Kind!" sprach der P f a r r e r mit e r s t i c k e r Stimme und warf s i c h an i h r e n Hals" (209). In order not t o j e o p a r d i z e h i s p o s i t i o n , however, he i n s i s t s t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p remain c l a n d e s t i n e and he passes her o f f as h i s niece i n p u b l i c . Auerbach's statement: "Allé truben Erinnerungen an d i e Vergangenheit s i n d ausgeloscht" (209) somehow does not r i n g t r u e , and suggests t h a t the author intended the reader t o question t h i s imposed c o n c l u s i o n . Rich and Poor: A Study of the Peasant Woman I f we examine the t i t l e s of the Schwarzwâlder Dorfaeschichten i t i s noteworthy t h a t female names c o n s t i t u t e approximately h a l f of the t i t l e s . A l l of these works t r e a t themes which are r e l e v a n t t o the woman's l i f e , but two works i n p a r t i c u l a r : Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n (1848) and Barfûfiele (1856) o f f e r d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t s i n t o the l i f e and psyche of the woman from both ends of the r u r a l h i e r a r c h y . L o r l e , the main character i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n (1848), i s de p i c t e d by Auerbach as the epitome of the "Naturkind." Reinhard's f r i e n d , i n ur g i n g him t o pa i n t her, describes her as f o l l o w s : "Hier i s t d i r e i n siifies Naturgeheimnis n a h e g e s t e l l t " (Auerbach 3: 14). L i k e Hedwig, i n Der Lauterbacher, she i s f i r s t i ntroduced as part of an i d y l l i c r u r a l canvas: "Das W i r t s t o c h t e r l e i n ging uber den Hof, l u s t i g g e k l e i d e t , ohne Jacke und barfuB. Eine Schar junger Enten umdrangte s i e schnatternd" (13) . The f i r s t encounter w i t h L o r l e f u r t h e r compounds t h i s p a s t o r a l image. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough when she i s presented t o Reinhard's f r i e n d she takes refuge, as had Hedwig, i n her apron: "GruJi Gott," antwortete das Madchen, d i e dargebotene Hand fassend, ohne aufzuschauen und ohne d i e Schurze vom Gesicht zu nehmen" (10). U n l i k e the vast m a j o r i t y of women Auerbach presents, L o r l e l i v e s a s h e l t e r e d , untroubled l i f e as the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of her r e v e a l s : Das war e i n A n t l i t z v o l l s e l i g e n , ungetriibten Friedens, eine sufie Ruhe war auf den runden Wangen a u s g e b r e i t e t ; d i e s e Ziige h atte noch n i e eine Leidenschaft durchtobt, oder e i n w i l d e r Schmerz, e i n Reuegefiihl v e r z e r r t , d i e s e r f e i n e Mund konnte n i c h t s h e f t i g e s , n i c h t s N i e d r i g e s aussprechen, eine f a s t gleichmafiige z a r t e Rote durchhauchte Wange, S t i r n und Kinn, und wie das Madchen j e t z t mit niedergeschlagenen Augen das Biigeleisen s t i l l auf der Halskrause h i e l t , war's wie der A n b l i c k eines schlafenden Kindes (14-15) . The author u s u a l l y explores the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n : mother/son, father/daughter i n h i s work. Of s i g n i f i c a n c e here i s that he takes t h i s model t o task. L o r l e ' s mother appears t o pl a y no r o l e i n her upbringing. When her husband seeks her advice concerning L o r l e ' s p r o s p e c t i v e b e t r o t h a l t o Reinhard, she f e e b l y responds: "Wie du's machst, i s t ' s r e c h t " (60). I t i s not c l e a r whether her husband i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her seeming l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n her daughter's l i f e , but he appears t o condone her dependence upon him by underscoring her submissiveness as a d e s i r a b l e female a t t r i b u t e . I t i s noteworthy t h a t a l l h i s advice t o L o r l e i s couched i n general terms as i f he were quoting a law of nature, and he f l e e s i n t o f a c i l e q u a s i -l e g a l i s t i c formulations when he approaches the male/female i s s u e : "Guck, L o r l e , so muB eine Frau s e i n , merk d i r das" (60). Furthermore, the only advice he o f f e r s her, i n regard to her behaviour towards the male sex, i s designed t o keep her i n a subordinate p o s i t i o n a l s o : " L o r l e , merk d i r das j e t z t auch, das muBt du n i c h t thun; wenn der Mann r e d ' t , muB das Weib s t i l l s e i n " (61). In accordance with h i s precepts and although he does not care f o r Reinhard h i s advice t o him, when he and L o r l e are l e a v i n g f o r the c i t y , only serves to f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e these c h a u v i n i s t i c views: "Man mufî s i e g l e i c h von Anfang merken l a s s e n , wer M e i s t e r i s t " (66). Reinhard a l s o has a f i x e d image of L o r l e . He attempts to d e f i n e her as "a woman" by t e l l i n g her who she i s and what she f e e l s . In h i s pompous d e c l a r a t i o n of love he assumes, before L o r l e has an opp o r t u n i t y t o respond, t h a t she could never d e s i r e anyone but him: "Gutes L o r l e , " erwiderte Reinhard, " i c h weiJB, I hr habt niemand auf der Welt so l i e b a l s mich. Z i t t e r e n i c h t , " fuhr er f o r t , i h r e Hand fassend, " i c h kenne dein ganzes Leben: du hast, wahrend i c h i n der Ferne umherschweifte, s t i l l meiner gedacht" (46). He witnesses her c u r i o s i t y about h i s f r i e n d , but he i s so egoce n t r i c t h a t he i n t e r p r e t s t h i s i n t e r e s t as an e f f o r t t o please him on L o r l e ' s p a r t : "Mir z u l i e b warst du so f r e u n d l i c h gegen den K o l l a b o r a t o r " (47). Contrary t o h i s b e l i e f s , L o r l e i s a t t r a c t e d t o h i s f r i e n d and p o i n t e d l y asks i f he i s s i n g l e . She however, denies her f e e l i n g s f o r him, because the concept of personal choice i s a l i e n t o her, and she b e l i e v e s h e r s e l f subject to a greater power: "Er [Reinhard] bedachte n i c h t , dafi auch L o r l e mit s i c h gekampft hatte und dafi s i e s i c h d i e s e r Liebe demiitig f ugte, a l s einem Gebote Gottes" (47) . In accordance with t h i s b e l i e f , when L o r l e agrees t o marry Reinhard, she submits h e r s e l f e n t i r e l y t o him as her f a t h e r had advised: " B e f i e h l mir nur recht und immer, was i c h thun s o i l , du guter Reinhard" (47) . Because she i s so subjugated by her fa t h e r , she i s insecure and v u l n e r a b l e . From the onset, she i s i n t i m i d a t e d by the educated Reinhard: "Ich b i n dumm, n i c h t wahr? Ihr d u r f e t ' s f r e i 'raus sagen, i c h nehm' Euch n i c h t s i i b e l " (46) , but at the same time Auerbach i n d i c a t e s t h a t L o r l e i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t enough t o assure her par t n e r that she can re c e i v e c r i t i c i s m without personal a n n i h i l a t i o n . Even i n the c o u r t i n g stage Reinhard enforces h i s w i l l upon L o r l e by i n s i s t i n g t h a t she pose as the Madonna. She remonstrates at f i r s t , but again q u i c k l y surrenders t o him: "Ich muB i n Gottes Namen allés thun, was du w i l l s t " (49). She i s aware of her l a c k of formal education and Reinhard preys upon t h i s . He does not appre c i a t e t h a t she perceives things d i f f e r e n t l y than he does and tha t her op i n i o n might enhance t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . For insta n c e , when Reinhard gives a s c i e n t i f i c d i a t r i b e about grass, L o r l e , i n her unpretentious manner, responds: "Das i s t eben Gras," erwiderte L o r l e , und Reinhard s c h r i e s i e an: "Wie du nur so was Dummes sagen kannst, nachdem i c h schon eine V i e r t e l s t u n d ' i n d i c h h i n e i n r e d e " (63). But i n s t e a d of ap p r a i s i n g h i s behaviour c r i t i c a l l y she blames h e r s e l f f o r her l a c k of knowledge, thus b e t r a y i n g the t y p i c a l female i n f e r i o r i t y complex: l a c k of t r u s t i n her own judgement and unquestioned b e l i e f i n the man - a l l propounded through male dominated s t r u c t u r e s . And yet, Auerbach i m p l i e s her streng t h and r e s i l i e n c e i n a language which i s fraught w i t h q u i e t v i c t o r y : Dieser Abend bebte wehmutig i n der Seele L o r i e s nach, s i e gab Reinhard keine Schuld, sondern ward nur f a s t i r r an s i c h ; s i e kam s i c h nun w i r k l i c h grausam dumm vor, und o f t , wenn er s i e um etwas f r a g t e , schreckte s i e zusammen, aber lugen konnte s i e n i c h t , keine Teilnahme und k e i n Verstandnis heucheln. Die Liebe aber uberwindet allés. L o r l e nahm s i c h vor, recht aufzumerken, wenn Reinhard etwas sagte, denn er war j a v i e l g e s c h e i t e r . So v e r i e r s i c h nach und nach i h r e Z a g h a f t i g k e i t wieder, und s i e war das harmlose Kind von ehedem (63). As i n Der Lehnhold. Auerbach h i g h l i g h t s the a l l consuming power of the v i l l a g e code. He c l e a r l y demonstrates how L o r l e can deal w i t h her p a i n , but she i s unable t o challenge the r u r a l mores. The only occasion L o r l e a s s e r t s h e r s e l f w i t h Reinhard, and r e j e c t s h i s wishes, i s when i t comes t o t r a n s g r e s s i n g the v i l l a g e order: "Nie war s i e zu bewegen, an einem Werktage mittags mit Reinhard spazieren zu gehen, wenn aber der Feierabend kam, dann war s i e b e r e i t ; das war der D o r f s i t t e gemaiJ, unter deren Herrschaft s i e stand" (62) . Auerbach accentuates the seeming nonchalance of the male i n regard t o the woman he purp o r t e d l y l o v e s . During the pe r i o d of c o u r t s h i p , Reinhard takes no pains t o reassure L o r l e of h i s l o v e . He sets o f f on a t r i p without informing her: "Reinhard hatte s i e durch e i n e i n z i g e s Wort beruhigen konnen, und er dachte n i c h t daran" (58). Having j u s t proposed t o her he immediately s t r i k e s a negative and sombre note which, i n essence, amounts t o a power p l a y , on h i s par t , i n respect to t h e i r marriage: "Ich kann d i c h g l l i c k l i c h machen, wie noch k e i n Weib auf Erden war, und - unendlich u n g l u c k l i c h " (48) . L o r l e , i n c o n t r a s t , embraces the prospect of marriage as the r e a l i z a t i o n of the s e l f by l i v i n g : "Nein, e r s t recht leben, lang, lang, leben" (47). Reinhard does not t r u l y consider L o r l e ' s happiness. He r e j e c t s her f a t h e r ' s suggestion t h a t she spend some time i n the c i t y w i t h a r e l a t i v e before they marry so she can become somewhat accustomed t o the l i f e t h e r e . Reinhard w i l l not agree t o t h i s and h i s response r e v e a l s h i s p e r f e c t s e l f i s h n e s s i n marrying her. I t a l s o suggests t h a t he does not want an equal partner s i n c e he denies her the opportunity of becoming "educated": "DaB L o r l e n i c h t s zu lernen habe, gerade so, wie s i e j e t z t s e i , mache s i e ihn g l l i c k l i c h " (59) . Reinhard does not t r e a t L o r l e as a woman and p r o s p e c t i v e w i f e . He continues t o address her as "Kind" i n s p i t e of her r e t i c e n t o b j e c t i o n , which c l e a r l y demonstrates her d e s i r e t o be regarded as a woman: "Nicht Kind sagen." He views her r a t h e r as an i c o n : " L o r l e war ihm e i n Topus des Urmenschlichen, des ursprûnglich Vollkommenen, an s i c h Vollendeten, unberuhrt von den Z w i e s p a l t i g k e i t e n der Geschichte und der Bi l d u n g " (88). Once i n the c i t y Reinhard does not a l l o w L o r l e time t o adju s t . He demands t h a t she sever a l l t i e s w i t h her home immediately: "S e i f r o h l i c h , lafî d i e ganze Welt h i n t e r d i r versinken; i c h habe d i c h herausgetragen aus dem Strom des gewohnten Lebens, w i r s i n d a l l e i n , ganz a l l e i n . Denk j e t z t n i c h t mehr heim" (71-72), L o r l e has never been away from her v i l l a g e before, and yet he w i l l not t o l e r a t e her t a l k i n g about i t : "Reinhard sagte z o r n i g : "Du kannst doch ewig n i c h t iiber dein Dorf hinausdenken, das i s t e i n f a l t i g " (74) - a t o t a l i t a r i a n measure on h i s pa r t - cause an i n d i v i d u a l t o for g e t h i s / h e r past and you can own t h e i r present and t h e i r f u t u r e . When she i s upset and homesick, he has no compassion upon her: "Heifie Thrànen r o l l t e n iiber d i e Wangen L o r i e s , und Reinhard l i e B s i e eine Stunde a l l e i n s i t z e n " (74). Furthermore, he never conceives t h a t she has s a c r i f i c e d e v e r y t h i n g f o r him i n l e a v i n g her v i l l a g e . But he informs her, i n no u n c e r t a i n terms, t h a t he has p a i d d e a r l y f o r her. He does not acknowledge th a t he has for c e d her t o abandon k i t and k i n i n order t o s a t i s f y h i s personal d e s i r e s f o r a home. The degree of h i s e g o c e n t r i c i t y i s betrayed by h i s f o r m u l a t i o n s : "Nie," schloB er, "hab' i c h ' s empfunden, was e i n Heimatherd i s t ; meine t i e f e Sehnsucht i s t nun e r f i i l l t , f r e i l i c h mit einem schweren Opfer, i c h habe mich i n Dienst begeben" (75) . From the onset, L o r l e i s i l l at ease i n the c i t y . This i s evident when she i s being commandeered around her new abode. Every d e t a i l i s e x p l a i n e d t o her as i f she, the country bumpkin, had never r e s i d e d i n a house. Her remark: "Das braucht I h r mir n i c h t sagen" (76) does l i t t l e to endear her t o Reinhard's f r i e n d s , but h i g h l i g h t s t h e i r hypocrisy and her honesty: "Sie sprach das i n r e i n e r E h r l i c h k e i t , s i e kannte d i e G e s e l l s c h a f t s l u g e noch n i c h t , der zufolge man s i c h unwissend s t e l l e n muJi, um dem andern i n s e i n e r Weisheit angenehm zu erscheinen; s i e w o l l t e der "guten Person" nur die unnotige Muhe ersparen" (76). Her d i r e c t n e s s and honesty, a q u a l i t y which the author s t r e s s e s repeatedly, again exposes the townfolk when at a concert she attends with Reinhard, h i s f r i e n d comments: "Du hast eine h e r r l i c h e , e i n z i g e Frau, s i e hat noch den Mut, o f f e n zu gestehen, daJJ s i e s i c h b e i Beethoven l a n g w e i l t " (82). In her s i m p l i c i t y she i s very shrewd however. Even Reinhard i s f o r c e d t o agree with her when, i n regard t o Leopoldine (a s o c i a l i t e ) , she a p t l y remarks: "Die i s t Weinessig, i s t einmal Wein gewesen" (77) . Instead of f a c i l i t a t i n g her i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h i s new environment, Reinhard begins t o neglect L o r l e : "Reinhard s t e l l t e seine Frau niemand vor, s i e bedurfte j a niemand auJier ihm, er war i h r allés" (77) . He claims t h a t he leaves L o r l e at home because he seeks t o p r o t e c t her: "Gutes Kind, du s o l l s t und w i r s t n i e erfahren, wie w i r r und kraus es i n der Welt hergeht" (80) and f u r t h e r : " S e i j e t z t nur h e i t e r , s e i f r o h , dafi du v i e l e s n i c h t weifit" (80), but h i s motives are questionable, f o r he d e l i b e r a t e l y attempts t o keep her i n ignorance of her surroundings. And the t r u e reason th a t he does not take her wit h him on s o c i a l engagements i s t h a t he i s ashamed of L o r l e . His f r i e n d s express i n t e r e s t i n meeting her, but he d e c l i n e s : "Er f u r c h t e t e z u g l e i c h , daB s i c h L o r l e n i c h t , wie er wiinschte, benehmen mochte" (86) . On the evenings t h a t he i s at home, he d e s i r e s absolute possession of L o r l e , i n s i s t i n g t h a t she s i t w i t h him, t o t a l l y unoccupied, while he p a i n t s : " S t r i c k e und nâhe n i c h t , a r b e i t e n i c h t , gar n i c h t s , wenn du b e i mir b i s t ; es i s t mir, a l s warest du n i c h t a l l e i n , n i c h t a u s c h l i e B l i c h b e i mir, a l s ware noch e i n D r i t t e s b e i uns zweien, a l s warest du nur halb b e i mir" (81). While Reinhard abandons L o r l e , he s t r i k e s up a f r i e n d s h i p with the countess Mathilde von Felseneck. The intimacy he does not enjoy wi t h h i s w i f e , he i s able t o share f r e e l y w i t h her: Von diesem Abend an g e s t a l t e t e s i c h e i n eigentumliches V e r h a l t n i s zwischen Reinhard und Mathi l d e . Wenn s i e s i c h b e i Hofe Oder i n den Salons t r a f e n , kam eine gewisse ruhige S i c h e r h e i t uber s i e ; so f o r m l i c h auch i h r b e i d e r s e i t i g e r Grufi war, es l a g etwas Z u t r a u l i c h e s d a r i n , a l s hâtten s i e s i c h ohne Verabredung h i e r e i n S t e l l d i c h e i n gegeben (85). As he continues contact w i t h the countess, Reinhard becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h L o r l e : "Seine H a u s l i c h k e i t kam ihm so eng, so k l e i n b i i r g e r l i c h v o r " (87) . The q u a l i t i e s he used to f i n d charming i n her, such as her l a c k of a f f e c t a t i o n , he now f i n d s o f f e n s i v e : Auch f i e l ihm j e t z t eine eigentiimliche Ungrazie L o r i e s auf: d i e H a f t i g k e i t und Kràftigkeit i h r e s Gebarens war nun unschon; s i e faBte e i n Glas, das L e i c h t e s t e , was s i e zu nehmen ha t t e , n i c h t mit den Fingern, sondern mit der ganzen Hand, i h r e Bewegungen hatten i n den S t a d t k l e i d e r n eine a u f f a l l e n d e Derbheit (87). Everything i n d i c a t e s t h a t he had been a t t r a c t e d by an image, not a person, and he i s now t i r i n g of h i s p r o j e c t : "Drlickte dann L o r l e mit k i n d l i c h e m S t o t t e r n i h r e Gedanken und Empfindungen aus, so horte er s e i t e n darauf und gab s i c h noch s e l t e n e r d i e Muhe, s i e zu erganzen und zu b e r i c h t i g e n ; er war es mûde, das Abc der Bildung vorzubuchstabieren" (87) . Auerbach underscores the i s o l a t i o n of the countrywoman, who i s uprooted from her n a t i v e v i l l a g e and p l a n t e d i n an environment f o r e i g n t o her. L o r l e i s t r u l y alone. Since her departure from the v i l l a g e no mention i s made of contact with her parents, and yet rumours have c i r c u l a t e d i n the v i l l a g e t h a t she i s unhappy. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s her f a t h e r who v i s i t s her, but L o r l e , i n s p i t e of her l o n e l i n e s s and m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , has been an exemplary p u p i l and i s t r u e t o Reinhard. She t e l l s her f a t h e r : "Eheleute miifîten s i c h s e l b e r verstandigen, da kônne s e l b s t der Vater n i c h t s thun" (109), a wise and independent statement, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t Reinhard has not managed to reduce her to the c h i l d which he p e r s i s t s i n seeing i n her. Despite L o r l e ' s e f f o r t s t o salvage the marriage, Reinhard r e c o i l s more and more from her. He f a l l s out of favour w i t h the whole town and s c a r c e l y evades a duel when he i n s u l t s an Englishman v i s i t i n g the c o u r t . L o r l e i s the l a s t t o d i s c o v e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , which, i n t u r n , f u r t h e r exasperates her f e e l i n g s of low self-esteem: "Bin i c h denn gar n i c h t mehr da ?" (116). Auerbach, as i n Erdmute and V e f e l e , demonstrates the power which the man, even the degenerate specie s , has upon the woman. Reinhard's l i f e s t y l e and behaviour exert such an i n f l u e n c e upon L o r l e t h a t she begins t o l o s e her way. Indeed, the verbs she u t i l i z e s to define her p o s i t i o n : " s e i n " , " s o l l e n " , "werden" are key words denoting an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s : "Ich weiB gar n i c h t mehr, b i n i c h denn noch und was s o i l i c h denn?" (92). This e s c a l a t e s t o a p o i n t of u t t e r d e s p a i r when Reinhard, doubting t h a t she can perform even the most mundane of t a s k s , attempts to s e l e c t her c l o t h e s f o r the audience with the P r i n c e : "Was s o i l denn aus mir werden?" (95). This i s one of the few occasions when L o r l e expresses anger f o r her husband: "Denk nur n i c h t immer, dal3 i c h gar n i c h t s v e r s t e h ' " (94) and f u r t h e r : "Ich b i n k e i n Kind, das hab' i c h d i r schon hundertmal gesagt" (95). At t h i s moment we are granted a glimpse of L o r l e ' s p o t e n t i a l as a person, while Reinhard i s reduced i n s t a t u r e . Auerbach has prepared t h i s c a r e f u l l y w ith the r e s u l t t h a t i t does not come o f f as p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y . For the f i r s t time Reinhard sees L o r l e as a formidable n a t u r a l f o r c e t o be reckoned w i t h : "Aber er hatte die Ziigel v e r l o r e n , um dieses N a t u r e l l zu h a l t e n , er konnte n i c h t s thun, a l s um Ruhe b i t t e n " (95). The degree of L o r l e ' s unhappiness i n her new surroundings and the t e r r i b l e r e s t r a i n t s on her development are s i g n i f i e d i n the motif of the captured b i r d , which was hi n t e d at the onset of the work: "Das L o r l e i s t grad wie e i n f e i n g o l d i g e r Kanarienvogel unter grauen Spatzen" (18), and i s continued throughout the t e x t : Eine Lerche, gewohnt und geschaffen, hinanstrebend im weiten Raum i h r e n Gesang e r s c h a l l e n zu l a s s e n , l e r n t auch im engen Kàfig singen wie i n der F r e i h e i t , aber am G i t t e r stehend bewegt s i e i h r e F l u g e l i n leisem Z i t t e r n , wahrend s i e s i n g t , und n i e wird s i e zahm, jeder betrachtende und forschende B l i c k macht, daJ3 s i e i n wildem Aufruhr s i c h gegen d i e Umgitterung w i r s t und stemmt; s i e verstummt und w i l l e n t f l i e h e n (99). This unnatural confinement i s again r e i t e r a t e d at the end of the t e x t : " L o r l e b r e i t e t e u n w i l l k i i r l i c h d i e Arme aus, s i e wiinschte s i c h F l i i g e l , s i e w o l l t e f o r t , s i e wufite n i c h t , wohin" (117). The use of the caged b i r d metaphor t o denote the r e s t r i c t e d l i f e s t y l e of nineteenth century women i s , i n the view of Mary Eagleton, the f e m i n i s t c r i t i c , a p p r o p r i a t e , i f not p r e d i c t a b l e (200). She, however, i s r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o women w r i t e r s such as C h a r l o t t e Bronte who, i n works l i k e Jane Eyre, conveyed the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n of women through the use of such metaphors. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , noteworthy t h a t Auerbach should p o r t r a y L o r l e ' s dilemma i n a metaphor which, according t o E l l e n Moer, the fe m i n i s t c r i t i c , " t r u l y deserves the a d j e c t i v e female" (Eagleton, 210). As i n F l o r i a n und Kreszenz, Auerbach shows how the woman su r v i v e s indeed blossoms, t o a degree, i n the face of numerous d i f f i c u l t i e s . Her p l i g h t notwithstanding, L o r l e seeks t o help oth e r s . When a neighbour i s unwell she tends to her d i l i g e n t l y and upon her death she cares l o v i n g l y f o r her c h i l d r e n . She i s a l s o touched by the s i g h t of the pauper s e l l i n g sand to feed h i s f a m i l y and purchases the e n t i r e load, although she has no use f o r i t . This encounter causes her t o reevaluate her s i t u a t i o n and she determines t o t r y a f r e s h w i t h Reinhard. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , although Reinhard i s on the verge of emotional and f i n a n c i a l d i s a s t e r , L o r l e i s so entrenched i n the p a t r i a r c h a l system th a t she continues t o look t o him f o r approval: "Du b i s t doch undankbar, du hast's so gut, hast dein tàglich Brot, und dein Mann lafît d i c h iiber allés M e i s t e r s e i n " (118) . And yet her i n t u i t i o n , d e s p i t e her la c k of knowledge concerning Reinhard's exact s i t u a t i o n , causes her t o sense t h a t he i s i n need of help: "Ach, er i s t j a so gut. Wenn i c h ihm nur he l f e n konnt" (118). L o r l e , d e s p i t e her good i n t e n t i o n s , i s confronted with an impossible s i t u a t i o n . However, when Reinhard e v e n t u a l l y staggers home drunk he refuses L o r l e ' s gestures of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . I t i s only at t h i s p o i n t , having exhausted every o p t i o n , t h a t she decides t o leave. Her p a r t i n g message to Reinhard contains no h i n t of b i t t e r n e s s , only thanks f o r the time they shared together. In l i g h t of Auerbach's use of the metaphor of the caged b i r d , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t L o r l e ' s d e c i s i o n t o leave R e i n h o l t p a r a l l e l s , i n mood and language, t h a t of Jane Eyre when she r e j e c t s Rochester's proposal of an i l l i c i t sexual union: " I am no b i r d ; and no net ensnares me; I am a f r e e human being with an independent w i l l , which I now exert t o leave you."^ Furthermore, Auerbach shows the consequences f o r the s o c i a l l y d i s p l a c e d woman. L o r l e returns home, but i s never t r u l y p a r t of the v i l l a g e community again. S o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l sources i n d i c a t e t h a t those who moved o f f the land or even t o adjacent farming d i s t r i c t s were not expected to r e t u r n t o t h e i r n a t i v e v i l l a g e . In the event t h a t they d i d , they were oft e n h e l d i n contempt as f a i l u r e s , or feared ^ C h a r l o t t e Bronte, Jane Evre (New York: Dodd, 1979) 302. because they might f e e l themselves s u p e r i o r . Although t h i s does not appear t o be the case w i t h L o r l e , f o r she i s fondly regarded by the v i l l a g e r s , the f i n a l image of her moving through the v i l l a g e i n c i t y a t t i r e suggests t h a t she can never f i n d her place i n a s o c i a l context again: Durch das Dorf geht eine Frau i n s t a d t i s c h e r Kleidung, von jedermann h e r z l i c h begrûfît, und f r a g t i h r , wer s i e s e i , so w i r d euch jeder mit dankendem B l i c k e sagen, daB s i e der Schutzengel der H i l f s b e d i i r f t i g e n i s t . Und i h r Name? Man nennt s i e d i e Frau P r o f e s s o r i n (120). In BarfuBele (1856) Auerbach explores two s u b j e c t s : (1) the power of the p a t r i a r c h a l model to i n s t i l an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r o l e i n s o c i e t y and (2) the p l i g h t of the orphan i n the nineteenth century. In reference t o the f i r s t theme, Amrei, who i s simply r e f e r r e d t o as "das Madchen", i s presented by Auerbach as a c a r i n g and l o v i n g s i s t e r t o her younger brother Dami. Contrary t o the usual s i b l i n g r i v a l r y , Amrei c o n s t a n t l y gives her brother the advantage i n order t o boost h i s confidence: "Das Madchen n i c k t e b e i f a l l i g und machte e i n Gesicht a l s ob s i e ihm das R a t s e l zum erstenmal aufgegeben h a t t e , wahrend s i e es doch schon o f t gethan hatte und immer wieder aufnahm, um ihn dadurch zu e r h e i t e r n " (Auerbach 6: 51). Amrei, though h e r s e l f an orphaned young c h i l d . i n s t i n c t i v e l y assumes the r o l e of mother, and does everything i n her power t o ensure she w i l l not be separated from her brother on the death of her parents. While s t r u g g l i n g t o come to terms with her own g r i e f , she vows that she w i l l p r o t e c t and care f o r Dami through l i f e : " H i e r , daJJ verspreche i c h d i r , i c h w i l l d i r mein Lebenlang allés thun, was i c h kann, und allés geben, was i c h hab'" (60). Amrei subjugates her own wishes f o r Dami's sake. When she i s o f f e r e d the chance of a home and a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e with a r i c h farmer i n the A l l g a u , she d e c l i n e s the o f f e r because i t i s not extended to Dami. She puts h i s i n t e r e s t s c o n s t a n t l y above her own. When the same farmer gives her the g i f t of a necklace, her joy i s marred because Dami receives nothing. In order t o appease h i s j e a l o u s y , however, she submits t o h i s demands by agreeing not t o wear i t : "Ich verspreche d i r was du w i l l s t ! " (59). Moreover, she does not t h i n k of her own w e l f a r e , but of Dami's : "Amrei dagegen war s t e t s z i e r l i c h und gewandt, aber s i e weinte o f t i n der Schule, n i c h t wegen der S t r a f e n , d i e s i e s e l b s t bekam, sondern so o f t Dami g e s t r a f t wurde" (65). Amrei seeks t o provide guidance f o r her brother, but, at the same time, she f e e l s at a l o s s as a woman because she cannot provide a male i n f l u e n c e i n Dami's l i f e , which she perceives as necessary: "Und f u r den Dami war's doch besser, er ware i n e i n e r Vatersgewalt; das t h a t ' i h n a u f r i c h t e n " (73). Her choice of words " f a t h e r " and "power" are r e v e a l i n g . In t h i s connection, she r e a l i z e s i n n a t e l y the importance of the male r o l e i n s o c i e t y ; thus when she i s rel e g a t e d t o goose g i r l she does not permit Dami t o a s s i s t her: "Er war e i n Mann, er s o l l t e e i n e r werden, und ihm konnte es schaden, wenn man ihm e i n s t nachsagte, dafi er vormals d i e Ganse gehutet habe" (77) . She harbours an i d e a l of "a man", acquired i t would appear from the community i n which she l i v e s , and i n accordance w i t h t h i s she i s l a t e r saddened when Dami decides t o emigrate t o America, but she i s a l s o impressed because: "Das z e i g t e doch von mannlicher K r a f t " (111). Amrei assumes such r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Dami tha t she i s cast by the community as h i s "mother": Und so groB war b e r e i t s d i e s e l b s t v e r s t a n d l i c h e Geltung BarfuBeles und so n a t i i r l i c h d i e Annahme, daB s i e f u r i h r e n Bruder sorge, daB man i h n immer nur des "BarfiiBeles Dami" hieB, a l s ware er n i c h t i h r Bruder, sondern i h r Sohn, und doch war er um einen Kopf groBer, a l s s i e , und tha t n i c h t , a l s ob er i h r Unterthan s e i (100). This sense of duty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards him does not cease when he leaves the v i l l a g e . Having made every e f f o r t t o f a c i l i t a t e Dami's move t o America, she i s w i l l i n g t o seek work i n a f a c t o r y i n Alsase i n order t o support him when he returns home p e n n i l e s s . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , Auerbach a l s o takes issue with the p l i g h t of the orphan i n the nineteenth century, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r eference t o the woman, i n t h i s work. When Amrei's and Dami's parents d i e ( i t appears simultaneously) no one e x p l a i n s t o the c h i l d r e n what has b e f a l l e n them. Several days l a t e r they are l e d t o t h e i r parents' graves and abr u p t l y informed t h a t they have d i e d . Amrei and Dami have r e l a t i v e s i n a neighbouring v i l l a g e , but they are neglected by them. When t h e i r uncle v i s i t s , w e l l a f t e r the f u n e r a l , he cannot remember Amrei's name: "Ein Gef i i h l der Verfremdung machte es z i t t e r n , w e l l der Ohm es b e i falschem Namen genannt. Es mochte fuhlen, dafi da n i c h t d i e rechte A n h a n g l i c h k e i t war, wo man seinen Namen n i c h t mehr wufite" (67). Amrei and Dami are given s h e l t e r by the v i l l a g e r s not because of any a l t r u i s t i c i n c l i n a t i o n on t h e i r p a r t . "Die schwarze Marann" gives accommodation t o Amrei out of s e l f i s h motives: "Die k l e i n e Amrei hatte s i e , wie s i e sagte, n i c h t aus Gutmiitigkeit zu s i c h genommen, sondern nur w e i l s i e e i n lebendiges Wesen um s i c h haben w o l l t e " (61). Dami's guardian, the Rodelbauer, (who i s a l s o l e g a l guardian t o Amrei) a l s o accepts him f o r u l t e r i o r motives. Auerbach i l l u s t r a t e s how the v i l l a g e community, although i t has no genuine regard f o r the c h i l d r e n , assumes i t should p l a y a r o l e i n t h e i r l i v e s . This i s suggested from the onset. When Amrei d e c l i n e s the farmer's o f f e r of a home, she i s given s t r a t e g i c advice which r e v e a l s the v i l l a g e r s ' a t t i t u d e s : "Sag' im Dorf n i c h t s davon, dafi i c h d i c h habe annehmen wollen ; es i s t auch wegen der Leute, s i e werden es d i r ' s iibelnehmen, dafi du n i c h t mit gegangen b i s t " (56). This " i n t e r e s t " by the community i s a l s o i n evidence when Amrei r e j e c t s the ducat Severin o f f e r s her: "Dieses E r e i g n i s brachte der k l e i n e n Amrei einen seltsamen Ruf im Dorfe" (64) . For a l l t h e i r c u r i o s i t y and d e s i r e t o impose t h e i r values i n such matters, Auerbach i n d i c a t e s repeatedly t h a t no one t r u l y cares f o r Amrei. She has a very i s o l a t e d e x istence i n the v i l l a g e . F i r s t l y , she i s shunned because of her lowly p o s i t i o n as orphan i n the r u r a l h i e r a r c h y and, as such, she i s viewed as a f i n a n c i a l burden. She i s f u r t h e r o s t r a c i z e d because she l i v e s with Marann, h e r s e l f an neglected o u t s i d e r : "Nur i n des Rodelbauer Haus wurde s i e noch gern geduldet, war j a der Rodelbauer i h r Vormund" (95). She i s thus l a r g e l y l e f t t o her own de v i c e s : "Aber j e mehr s i e heranwuchs, um so weniger Aufmerksamkeit wurde i h r geschenkt; denn d i e Menschen betrachten nur d i e Bluten und di e Fruchte mit teilnehmendem Auge, n i c h t aber jenen langen Ubergang, wo das eine zum andern wi r d " (66). Even her guardian (der Rodelbauer) does not care f o r her welfare, although she i s l e g a l l y h i s charge. At the dance he abuses h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards her f o r the sake of s a t i s f y i n g h i s own d e s i r e s : "Amrei afi n i c h t v i e l , und der Rodelbauer w o l l t e s i c h den Spafi b e r e i t e n , das Kind trunken zu machen" (96). She i s a l s o the object of h i s v e r b a l abuse. He repeatedly r e b u f f s her with "Du b i s t e i n dummes Kind" (67). Amrei has no r e a l contact with c h i l d r e n her own age: "Ba r f i i f i e l e l e b t e so f i i r s i c h , dafî man s i e gar n i c h t zur Jugend im Dorfe z a h l t e ; s i e war mit i h r e n Altersgenossen f r e u n d l i c h und gesprachsam, aber i h r e e i g e n t l i c h e Gespiele war doch nur d i e schwarze Marann" (101). At a wedding, one of the few s o c i a l gatherings t o which she i s i n v i t e d , no one dances w i t h her (overtones of Moni). In f a c t , she i s teased u n m e r c i f u l l y by her peers and although from the onset she i s described as shoeless, t h i s i s the f i r s t occasion when she i s r e f e r r e d t o d e r i s i v e l y as "Barfûfîele": "Mit d i r t a n z t k e i n e r , du b i s t j a das Barfûfîele" und: "Barflifîele! Barfûfîele! Barfûfîele!" s c h r i e es nur von a l i e n S e i t e n " (96). Her i s o l a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s i s complete when Dami leaves f o r America. Auerbach, as i n a number of the previous works, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n ca p t u r i n g the woman's emotions of confusion and despair, as she s t r u g g l e s t o place h e r s e l f i n some meaningful s o c i a l context: "Auf a l i e n Strafîen der Welt geht k e i n Mensch zu mir, denkt k e i n Mensch zu mir; und gehor i c h denn n i c h t auch her?" (118) and f u r t h e r : " E i n k a l t e r Schauer, der i n Wehmut ûberging, w o l l t e s i c h gar o f t Amreis bemachtigen, s i e w o l l t e weinen uber i h r S c h i c k s a l , das s i e a l l e i n , v e r l a s s e n von Vater und Mutter, h i n a u s s t e l l t e " (81) . Again, Auerbach i s very c r i t i c a l of the v i l l a g e and i t s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y i n judging from appearances only: Die Leute im Dorfe sagten: das Barfûfîele musse k e i n Herz im Leibe haben, denn es waren i h r n i c h t d i e Augen nafi geworden, a l s i h r Bruder schied, und d i e Leute wollen gerne s e l b s t d i e Thrànen sehen. Was gehen s i e d i e h e i m l i c h geweinten an? Barfûfîele aber h i e l t s i c h wach und s t r a f f (115) . Furthermore, she soon learns t h a t the v i l l a g e would g l a d l y be r i d of her a l s o : Aber s i e merkte b a l d , dafî man s i e n i c h t nur gerne gehen l i e B , sondern dafî man i h r sogar zûrnte, w e i l s i e n i c h t gegangen war [nach Amerika]. Der Krappenzacher machte i h r d i e Augen auf, indem er sagte: "Ja, Kind, du hast einen Trotzkopf, und das ganze Dorf i s t d i r bos, w e i l du dein Gluck mit Fûfîen von d i r gestofîen hast (76). They are not t r u l y concerned f o r her welfare or f u t u r e , but as the h i s t o r i c a l v i l l a g e r s i n the previous chapter, they are f e a r f u l of her d e p l e t i n g the v i l l a g e poor fund. She i s informed of t h i s i n no u n c e r t a i n terms: "Und wer d i c h ansieht, rechnet d i r vor, was du b a l d aus dem o f f e n t l i c h e n Almosen kommst" (76). I t i s at t h i s juncture t h a t she i s advised t o take over "der Gansehirtendienst" (77), the most humble and undesired of a l l p o s i t i o n s . Auerbach thus underlines the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by poor women without prospects. In a d d i t i o n t o tending the geese, Amrei a l s o works as a servant at the young Rodelbauer's i n order to support h e r s e l f . She works hard: "Sie war a n s t e l l i g zu allem und wuBte s i c h g l e i c h b e i a l i e n b e l i e b t zu machen" (98), but she i s badly t r e a t e d e s p e c i a l l y by Rosel, the daughter, who s e i z e s every opportunity t o remind Amrei of her s t a t i o n : "Und es wird auch dein e s g l e i c h e n auf dem Tanz s e i n " (120). As i n Die Frau P r o f e s s o r i n , Auerbach provides us with a d e t a i l e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e of the heroine. In t h i s i nstance he concentrates on the o u t s i d e r i n her own v i l l a g e . In s p i t e of her s i t u a t i o n , the author presents Amrei as possessing tremendous willpower: "Aber s i e gewann schon fruh eine Kunst und eine K r a f t , d i e s i c h schwer l e r n t und i i b t : d i e Thrànen hinabwurgen" (81) . In r e a l i t y , she i s very s e n s i t i v e and v u l n e r a b l e , but a l s o remarkably r e s i l i e n t , a q u a l i t y which i s evinced i n a number of Auerbach's women i n v a r y i n g circumstances: In der That war BarfuBele von a l l e m s c h n e l l t i e f e r g r i f f e n , aber s i e war dabei auch s t a r k und l e i c h t l e b i g wie e i n Kind; es war, wie damais d i e Marann' b e i ihrem e r s t e n E i n s c h l a f e n bemerkt h a t t e , Wachen und Schlafen, Weinen und Lachen hart nebeneinander; s i e ging i n jedem E r e i g n i s und jeder Empfindung v o l l auf, kam aber auch rasch wieder daruber hinweg i n s Gleichgewicht (103) . Although of poor, uneducated peasant stock she i s presented as capable of e x i s t e n t i a l questions: "Warum h i e r e i n Kind t o t , auf das d i e Mutter wartet, so z i t t e r n d , mit ganzer Seele wartet, und i c h und mein Dami wir s i n d verlorene Kinder, mochten so gerne d i e Hand der Mutter fassen, und diese Hand i s t Staub geworden?" (93). At the same time she voices Auerbach's own b e l i e f s by her determination to make the best of her l o t . In h i s aphorisms, Auerbach makes s e v e r a l references which are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o those expounded by Amrei: "Rechtschaffenes Denken i s t d i e beste Aufheiterung" (103) and: "Arbeiten und Einsammeln, das i s t das beste, und da b l e i b t man l u s t i g und gesund und g l u c k l i c h " (116). She b e l i e v e s i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e and advises Dami: "Schlag s e l b e r um d i c h ! " (110) and "Ich denke, das Reue das Diimmste i s t , was man i n s i c h aufkommen lassen kann. Wenn man s i c h den Kopf h e r u n t e r r e i f i t , man kann gestern n i c h t mehr zu heute machen" (183) . And, i n c o n t r a s t to Dami who wishes h i s l i f e away, Amrei s e i z e s the moment: "Barfûfîele kàmpfte gegen dieses ewige Hinausschauen auf eine kommende Z e i t und das Verlorengehenlassen der Gegenwart" (109) . On the other hand, Auerbach lends romantic elements to her c h a r a c t e r : "So war k l a r e s Ausschauen und traumerisches Hindàmmern i n der Seele des Kindes nahe b e i einander" (78) and f u r t h e r : "Aber uber allés menschliche Getriebe hinûber wurde Amrei doch o f t i n s Reich der Traume getragen" (7 9). She recognizes, however, t h a t there i s a discrepancy between r e a l i t y and her dreams, which f u r t h e r accentuates her dilemma: "Ach, warum i s t denn das allés n i c h t wahr? und warum hat man denn das allés ausgedacht, wenn er n i c h t wahr i s t ? " (79) . She f a n t a s i z e s t h a t the woman who gave her the necklace, the Landfriedbauer, w i l l come and c l a i m her as her own c h i l d . This leads i n t o the i n v i t a t i o n t o the dance and from t h i s p o i n t onward the t a l e begins t o l o s e some of i t s r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n and becomes, t o a degree, as one c r i t i c has described i t "the s t o r y of C i n d e r e l l a of the Black Forest."-^ From the moment the m i s t r e s s of the farm prepares her fo r the dance, Amrei, l i k e Magdalene i n S t r a f l i n a e . p lays another r o l e . The farmer t e l l s her: "Du s i e h s t aus wie d i e Tochter von der Lan d f r i e d b a u e r i n " (120), the very woman she hoped would f e t c h her. Amrei f e e l s "verzaubert" and the v i l l a g e r s who meet her on the way do not recognize her. Furthermore, at the dance, she i s chosen above a l l others by the mysterious " R e i t e r . " She throws h e r s e l f e n t i r e l y i n t o the enjoyment of the moment i n a r e f r e s h i n g , u n i n h i b i t e d f a s h i o n : "Es i s t mir j e t z t grad," sagte Amrei, "wie wenn w i r zwei Tauben waren, d i e i n der L u f t f l i e g e n " (130). But even i n the midst of t h i s r o m a n t i c a l l y charged encounter, Auerbach does not los e s i g h t of h i s g o a l : a r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of the poor peasant woman. This i s captured i n Georgina Gordon, i n t r o d u c t i o n . Sketches of Foreign N o v e l i s t s (London: Hogg and Sons, 1861). Johannes' (the r i c h stranger) r e a c t i o n when he lea r n s t h a t Amrei i s not a farmer's daughter: Nein, i c h d i e n ' , " sagte Amrei und schaute ihm f e s t i n s Auge, er aber w o l l t e das seine niederschlagen, d i e Wimper zuckte, und er h i e l t das Auge gewaltsam auf, und d i e s e r Kampf und Sieg des l e i b l i c h e n Auges schien das A b b i l d dessen, was i n ihm verg i n g ; er w o l l t e f a s t das Madchen stehen lassen (131) . Through t h i s statement, Auerbach captures Amrei's t o t a l l a c k of s o c i a l a f f e c t a t i o n on the one hand, and the r e s t r a i n t s imposed upon the male, e s p e c i a l l y a wealthy one, i n regard to h i s choice of marriage partner, on the other. Amrei i s pragmatic enough to know tha t nothing can come of t h i s and, i n keeping w i t h her p h i l o s o p h i e s , she enjoys i t f o r what i t i s : "Du hast einem armen Madchen f i i r s e i n Leben lang e i n Gutes geschenkt" (131) . And yet Auerbach, l i k e G o t t h e l f i n some of h i s works, demonstrates how male a t t e n t i o n has a profound e f f e c t upon the woman: "B a r f i i f i e l e h a t t e heute eine ganze Lebensgeschichte e r l e b t " (133) . She f e e l s acknowledged as a human being f o r the f i r s t time through t h i s experience: "Du b i s t doch j e t z t auch einmals a l s eine Person angesehen worden, du b i s t b i s daher immer nur zum Dienen und Helfen f i i r andre dagewesen. Gut Nacht, Amrei, das war einmal e i n Tag!" (136). Auerbach a l s o suggests th a t t h i s episode i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a sexual awakening i n her: "Und i n keuscher Schamhaftigkeit vor s i c h s e l b e r bedeckte s i e Busen und Hals mit beiden Hànden" (137). When Johannes comes t o court Rosel, but takes Amrei as a wife i n s t e a d , Auerbach pushes the c r e d i b i l i t y of the s t o r y too f a r . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t Johannes does not recognize Amrei, even wi t h her swollen face, since he spends time speaking with her i n the barn. But i n an i n s t a n t of r e c o g n i t i o n , he rescues her from Rosel "the ugly s i s t e r " and proposes t o her on the spot. Furthermore, Johannes i s the son of the Landfriedbauer and so Amrei's dream of being p a r t of t h a t f a m i l y becomes r e a l i t y . His parents accept her w i l l i n g l y and a l l ends w e l l : "Das war e i n g l u c k s e l i g e s Beisammensein i n der Schule, im Hof und auf dem Felde, und der Bauer sagte immer: es habe ihm s e i t Jahren das Essen n i c h t so geschmeckt wie j e t z t " (200). However, d e s p i t e t h i s r a t h e r abrupt c o n c l u s i o n , I agree with Werner Kohlschmidt's a p p r a i s a l of Auerbach's success i n c r e a t i n g a work i n which the r e a l and the unreal components are s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d : Die M i l i e u s c h i l d e r u n g n a t i i r l i c h b l e i b t es: d i e verschiedenen Bauergestalten und i h r e Frauen, d i e kauzige G e s t a l t der schwarzen Marann, BarfiiBeles Pflegemutter und G u t t a t e r i n , d i e I n d i v i d u a l i t a t des etwas w e i c h l i c h e n Bruders. Das allés i s t n i c h t i d e a l i s i e r t . A i l e s i n allem verdankt d i e Geschichte e i n e r hochst geschickten Mischung von W i r k l i c h k e i t und U n w a h r s c h e i n l i c h k e i t i h r e n E r f o l g (251). CHAPTER FOUR REEVALUATING AN ESTEEMED LITERARY FIGURE In t h i s chapter I w i l l explore G o t t h e l f s d e p i c t i o n of the peasant woman i n h i s K l e i n e r e Erzahlunaen (4 volumes). As s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the amount of research which has been conducted on t h i s subject i n these works i s , w ith the exception of Die schwarze Spinne (1842), sparse at best. L i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s such as Hans Kunzi and F e l i c i t y Ann Rodner, who have undertaken more recent and i n depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the woman i n G o t t h e l f s s h o r t e r works, tend merely t o r e i t e r a t e the more t r a d i t i o n a l views of e a r l i e r and renowned c r i t i c s , Walter Muschg and H.M. Waidson among them. Kunzi concludes h i s book. So e i n h a n d l i c h Weib (1984), f o r i n s t a n c e , by s t a t i n g : " G o t t h e l f s Frauengestalten gehoren zu den schonsten i n der W e l t l i t e r a t u r " (9), w h i l e Rodner maintains: "More o f t e n , however, G o t t h e l f s woman does not embody a s i n g l e extreme of behaviour, whether good or bad, but she i s r a t h e r a composite f i g u r e , c l o s e r t o the average person of our common experience" (1976, 66). I s t r o n g l y disagree with Rodner's e v a l u a t i o n of G o t t h e l f s women and contend t h a t the author, i n h i s p o r t r a y a l of peasant women, c o n s i s t e n t l y presents two extreme female archetypes. Furthermore, t h a t h i s statement i n Die K a s e r e i i n der Vehfreude (1850): "Denn noch b i s auf den heutigen Tag kommt vom Weibe vornehmlich das Bose und das H e i l , d i e bose Lust und d i e Liebe, Satanas oder Gott" (416-17), i n f a c t , r e f l e c t s h i s o p i n i o n and treatment of the female sex throughout the K l e i n e r e Erzahlungen. While Rodner p r a i s e s G o t t h e l f s s k i l l i n c r e a t i n g women who are " n e i t h e r s a i n t s nor demons" (67), I hope t o demonstrate t h a t , i n the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of cases, t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what G o t t h e l f presents: " s a i n t s " or "demons." I maintain, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t , i n reference t o p r o v i d i n g a convincing, r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t of the average nineteenth century peasant woman, G o t t h e l f does not, as Werner Giinther c l a i m s , reproduce l i f e "mit 'photographischer' Treue und Genauigkeit" (1958, 65) . Women as Negative Examples I w i l l begin my a n a l y s i s of t h i s subject w i t h the works which have c o u r t s h i p as t h e i r theme, and cast the woman as a p r i m a r i l y negative stereotype. Included i n t h i s group are Wie J o g g e l i eine Frau sucht (1841), Wie C h r i s t e n eine Frau aewinnt (1845), Michels Brautschau (1849), Der Notar i n der F a l l e (1848), Der B a l l (1852), Der Besuch auf dem Lande (1847), and Der Besenbinder von Rychiswyl (1852). Wie J o g g e l i eine Frau sucht (1841) i s the t a l e of J o g g e l i ' s attempts t o f i n d a wife who w i l l r e p l a c e h i s deceased mother and, hence, r