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Women office workers in contrasting suburban centres Challis, Lynda Ann 1991

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WOMEN OFFICE WORKERS IN CONTRASTING SUBURBAN CENTRES By LYNDA ANN CHALLIS B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1972  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  The  Department of Geography  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard.  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1991 ©  Lynda Ann C h a l l i s , 1991  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  by  his  or  her  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted or  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  G? e o c ^ t x p y M j  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  Suburban  employment  workplaces  centres  f o r suburban  have  i n c r e a s i n g l y become  women without  consideration  s p e c i f i c requirements of these workers.  needs  relationship District's  of  women  between  the  (GVRD)  employees Greater  objectives  of t h e  T h i s t h e s i s examines  the a b i l i t y of suburban employment c e n t r e s particular  major  t o respond t o the by  analyzing  Vancouver  f o r suburban  the  Regional  centres  and t h e  needs of women o f f i c e workers.  This  thesis  suburban  firms  Columbia. that  includes  case  located  studies  i n Burnaby  of  female  and Richmond,  The r e s e a r c h p o i n t s t o the s p e c i f i c  can c o n t r i b u t e  to  providing  workers  women  at  British  considerations  with  employment  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a q u a l i t y working environment.  The  thesis  stresses  perspective  the n e c e s s i t y  i n urban r e s e a r c h ,  f o r including  a  gender  such as the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n of  o f f i c e s and employment.  Background and  information  Regional  description  on the GVRD's L i v a b l e Region  Town Centres of t h e i r  strategy  objectives,  i s provided, successes  Program  including a  and weaknesses,  p a r t i c u l a r l y as they p e r t a i n t o suburban o f f i c e workers.  The  growth of suburban o f f i c e s and employment, and s p e c i f i c a l l y , the  development  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Richmond town c e n t r e s a r e a l s o  presented.  the Burnaby  and  The in  empirical research suburban  their  offices  involved interviews  i n Burnaby  actions, perceptions  office  location.  The  o f women working  and Richmond  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  interview  to establish  regarding  responses  their  indicated  that  t h e r e i s as much s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e between t h e women working  i n Burnaby and Richmond, as t h e r e  i s between  those  working  i n town c e n t r e  locations.  Many  and non-town c e n t r e  of t h e women p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis on the type of work than on  the l o c a t i o n  transit, wanted  of the o f f i c e  s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s . basic  amenities  and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  G e n e r a l l y , most women o n l y  (banking,  postal  services  and a  convenience s t o r e ) and a p l e a s a n t , r e l a x i n g environment.  The  f i n d i n g s from the i n t e r v i e w s a r e analyzed  i n accordance  w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the GVRD's L i v a b l e Region Program and Regional Town Centres  strategy.  Recommendations a r e made f o r  e n s u r i n g t h a t the GVRD's o b j e c t i v e s a r e more c o g n i z a n t o f the requirements  of women o f f i c e workers.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES APPENDICES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH  CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2  2.3 2.4 2.5  3.3  3.4  FOCUS PROBLEM OBJECTIVES OUTLINE SUBURBAN OFFICES AND WOMEN EMPLOYEES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  INTRODUCTION THEMES IN SUBURBAN OFFICE LITERATURE 2.2.1 Theme 1: Understanding Suburban O f f i c e and Employment Growth 2.2.2 Theme 2: Suburban O f f i c e Formation and Location 2.2.3 Theme 3: Technology and Communications 2.2.4 Theme 4: Suburban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Commuting P a t t e r n s 2.2.5 Summary CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF FEMALE OFFICE WORKERS A GENDER PERSPECTIVE CONCLUSION  CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2  WOMEN IN SUBURBAN OFFICES  THE LIVABLE REGION AND REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES  i i iv vi v i i viii ix 1 1 1 4 5 7 7 7 8 10 13 15 17 18 24 26 28  INTRODUCTION 28 BACKGROUND 28 3.2.1 L i v a b l e Region Program and Regional Town Centres 28 3.2.2 Reviews of the L i v a b l e Region Program and Regional Town Centres S t r a t e g y , 1978-1990 . . •'• 35 OBJECTIVES OF THE LIVABLE REGION PROGRAM AND THE REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES STRATEGY 41 3.3.1 Balance o f Jobs t o P o p u l a t i o n 42 3.3.2 T r a n s i t O r i e n t e d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System 47 3.3.3 V a r i e t y o f S e r v i c e s and An I n t e r e s t i n g Working Environment 50 CONCLUSION 53  V  Page CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3  4.4  5.4  5.5  PERCEPTIONS OF FEMALE SUBURBAN OFFICE WORKERS  INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY PRESENTATION OF INTERVIEW RESULTS 5.3.1 P r o f i l e of the Interviewees 5.3.2 Work Context 5.3.3 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Work 5.3.4 Workplace L o c a t i o n and Surrounding Area ANALYSIS OF ACTIONS AND PERCEPTIONS 5.4.1 Balance of Jobs t o P o p u l a t i o n 5.4.2 T r a n s i t O r i e n t e d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System 5.4.3 V a r i e t y of S e r v i c e s and An I n t e r e s t i n g Working Environment 5.4.6 Summary CONCLUSIONS  CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4  55  INTRODUCTION GROWTH IN SUBURBAN OFFICES AND EMPLOYMENT 4.2.1 O f f i c e and Employment Growth i n Burnaby 4.2.2 O f f i c e and Employment Growth i n Richmond .... REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES 4.3.1 Burnaby's Regional Town Centre (Metrotown) 4.3.2 Richmond's Regional Town Centre CONCLUSION  CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3  SUBURBANIZATION OF OFFICES AND EMPLOYMENT: BURNABY AND RICHMOND  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  INTRODUCTION RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS  55 55 60 64 67 67 72 79 81 81 81 83 84 85 88 91 100 100 102 103 108 109  I l l I l l 112 116 122  FOOTNOTES  124  BIBLIOGRAPHY  125  vi LIST OF TABLES  Table 1:  G r e a t e r Vancouver P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates  59  Table 2:  Percentage  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Age Group  84  T a b l e 3:  Percentage  D i s t r i b u t i o n by M a r i t a l  T a b l e 4:  Percentage  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Family o r  Status  L i v i n g Arrangement T a b l e 5:  Percentage  Percentage  Percentage  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Length of  Percentage  86  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Previous  Work L o c a t i o n T a b l e 8:  84  85  Employment w i t h Firm Table 7:  84  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Type o f  Work Table 6:  ...  87  D i s t r i b u t i o n by Length o f  T r i p t o Work  89  vii LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1:  Regional  Town Centres  F i g u r e 2:  R a t i o of Employed Labour Force t o Resident Labour Force  34  44  F i g u r e 3:  Share of Commercial  Space  56  F i g u r e 4:  Burnaby's Major O f f i c e L o c a t i o n s  63  F i g u r e 5:  Metrotown  68  F i g u r e 6:  Richmond Town Centre L o c a t i o n  72  F i g u r e 7:  Richmond Town Centre  74  viii APPENDICES  Appendix A:  D e f i n i t i o n of Commercial F l o o r s p a c e  Appendix B:  L e t t e r Requesting Employee  Firm's Cooperation f o r  Interviews  Appendix C:  L e t t e r Requesting  Appendix D:  Interview Questions D i r e c t e d Office  Workers  Employee's  Participation t o Women Suburban  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like  t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n  and  Gerry P r a t t f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e  the  development of t h i s t h e s i s .  for  his recognition  t o Walter  and guidance  throughout  I a l s o want t o thank Walter  of the t i m e - c o n s t r a i n t s  s t r e s s faced by a part-time  Hardwick  and a d d i t i o n a l  student w i t h a f u l l - t i m e job.  I am g r a t e f u l t o Sonja Leberer and Ian C a s t l e whose t e c h n i c a l assistance  and advice  greatly contributed  t o the p r e p a r a t i o n  of t h i s f i n a l document.  I want t o acknowledge my parents who have always i n s t i l l e d i n me  the b e l i e f  that  I could  accomplish  whatever  I  really  wanted.  Finally, with  a  I e s p e c i a l l y thank role  model  as w e l l  Kari  Huhtala  as  offering  f o r providing the support  enthusiasm necessary f o r me t o complete t h i s t h e s i s .  me and  1 CHAPTER 1 WOMEN IN SUBURBAN  OFFICES  1.1 RESEARCH FOCUS  This  thesis  examines  the a b i l i t y  of suburban  employment  c e n t r e s t o respond t o the p a r t i c u l a r needs of women employees by a n a l y z i n g Regional and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  District's  t h e needs  Based  on case  firms,  this  the G r e a t e r  (GVRD) o b j e c t i v e s  and e x p e c t a t i o n s studies  Town  of women  of female workers  Centres  improving  the q u a l i t y  recommendations  strategy  of l i f e are  and  centres  office  workers.  a t four  suburban  of t h e GVRD's  i t s objectives  f o r female o f f i c e  suggested  Vancouver  f o r suburban  study e v a l u a t e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  Regional  Some  between  for  in  employees.  improving  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Regional Town Centres s t r a t e g y .  1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM  In  the e a r l y  1970s,  the GVRD  undertook a  "Livable  Region  Program" w i t h the major o b j e c t i v e "to manage growth and change so as t o m a i n t a i n o r enhance the l i v a b i l i t y of the Region" (GVRD, 1972/73, p . 4 ) . As  part  regional  of t h i s town  employment  program,  centres  required  one s t r a t e g y  to attract  much  was  to  establish  of t h e i n c r e m e n t a l  t o balance the suburban p o p u l a t i o n  with  2  suburban centres  jobs. were  also  environment". expectations  Besides p r o v i d i n g expected  The about  jobs,  to provide  policy-makers the r e g i o n a l  of  town  the r e g i o n a l a  "quality  the  day  centres  town  working  had  high  d e v e l o p i n g as  c e n t r e s of employment l o c a t e d i n a l i v a b l e environment.  However,  the  definition in  suburban  process  lacked  types of people t h a t  One group i n p a r t i c u l a r  the largest  for regional by  planning  of the d i f f e r e n t  these new c e n t r e s .  represent the  GVRD's  working i n  Consequently, the GVRD's  recognizing  the s p e c i f i c  work  i s women who  town c e n t r e s may not be a c h i e v e d .  not e x p l i c i t l y  would  component of the employees  centres.  adequate  objectives  Furthermore,  needs  of women  w i t h i n t h e R e g i o n a l Town Centre s t r a t e g y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the  GVRD  t o ensure  that  i t i s providing  women  with the  q u a l i t y o f working environment t h a t i s r e q u i r e d .  The  literature  includes  on suburban employment  suburban  centres,  gender c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . and  employment  growth  transportation,  d i v e r s e , and  demographics and  Research about s u b u r b a n i z i n g  tends t o focus  and l o c a t i o n a l  i s quite  offices  on understanding t h e i r  features.  Demographic  changes  size, along  w i t h concerns about growth management a r e o f f e r e d as reasons for  the development  employment.  and expansion of suburban  o f f i c e s and  Suburban c e n t r e s have i n c r e a s i n g l y been  as a s i g n i f i c a n t component of suburban o f f i c e  growth.  featured  3 While t h e needs and requirements of suburban f i r m s and t h e i r employers  are frequently  employees  are often  employees,  that  discussed,  ignored.  exists,  opportunities.  As  a  Such  suggests  o f f i c e workers, many jobs  the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r research  that,  on  at least  suburban f o r women  o f f e r lower wages and fewer  consequence,  these  jobs  career  may  not be  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o an improved q u a l i t y of l i f e .  The  literature  patterns  on  suburban  provides  mixed  messages  While i t acknowledges t h a t work  closer  networks  t o home,  a r e unable  inter-suburb traffic  The  needs  employees.  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  cope w i t h  the increasing  T h i s s i t u a t i o n has worsened  provides that  suburban  as r e s t r i c t e d  by the time  importance  of  employment  i s that  required  dealing  differently.  with  research issues  insight  be  into the  relevant  centres.  t o the  Women a r e  by a lower l e v e l of m o b i l i t y and  constraints  providing  some  should  a  imposed  by t h e d u a l  t o perform. gender  and p o l i c y i s a l s o s t r e s s e d  conclusion is  instances  t o adequately  of women  are frequently  research  i n many  on women  of  characterized  they  f o r suburban  commuting  congestion.  development  limited  and  suburban o f f i c e s may be p r o v i d i n g  commuting p a t t e r n s .  literature  special  transportation  roles  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  perspective  to  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  urban The  cannot be gender n e u t r a l when i t that  can a f f e c t  men  and women  4  This  thesis  attitudes  extends  of  female  office  location  their  working  contributes Centres  previous employees  and t h e i r  research about  by  about  some  the  suburban  the quality this  o f t h e GVRD's  providing  p e r s p e c t i v e o f women o f f i c e  in a  Furthermore,  to the evaluations  strategy  examining  working  perceptions  environment.  by  thesis  Regional  insight  of  from  Town the  workers.  1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  The  o  objectives  Identify  the  suburban  o  perceptions  o f f i c e workers  and  expectations  regarding  the location  of the working  Determine  town  whether  effective  regional  than  other  t h e needs  of female suburban  Describe  the  livability policies  o  study are t o :  employment and t h e q u a l i t y  less  o  of this  Outline of  in  GVRD's the  suburban office  approach region  to  through  of the L i v a b l e Region  the quantitative  centres  of  female  of suburban  environment;  have b e e n  locations  at  more o r meeting  workers;  managing the  growth  and  objectives  and  Program;  and t h e q u a l i t a t i v e  expectations  t h e GVRD's R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s t r a t e g y ; a n d  5  o  Recommend level  changes  which  could  the o b j e c t i v e s  i n policy improve  a t the l o c a l  and r e g i o n a l  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i n matching  of the Regional Town Centre s t r a t e g y  with  the requirements of women workers.  1.4 RESEARCH OUTLINE  The f i r s t chapter i n t r o d u c e s the r e s e a r c h focus, t h e problem, the o b j e c t i v e s and the o u t l i n e of t h i s study.  L i t e r a t u r e on s u b u r b a n i z i n g o f f i c e s and employment, and women workers  i s reviewed  i n Chapter  2.  The purpose  of  this  chapter i s t o i d e n t i f y the emphasis and c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n s i n suburban o f f i c e l i t e r a t u r e ; t o determine t h e s p e c i a l needs of women workers; t o r e l a t e  the needs  of women workers  t o the  development of suburban o f f i c e s ; and t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r the gender p e r s p e c t i v e .  Chapter 3 d e s c r i b e s the GVRD's L i v a b l e Region Program and t h e Regional  Town  Centres  (RTC)  strategy.  This  chapter  i d e n t i f i e s the o b j e c t i v e s of the RTC s t r a t e g y as they p e r t a i n t o women suburban o f f i c e  Chapter  4 provides  office  development  within  the G r e a t e r  employees.  an overview and  of the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n of  employment  Vancouver  i n two  region,  municipalities  the C o r p o r a t i o n  of  Burnaby and the C i t y of Richmond [ 1 ] / i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of each town c e n t r e .  6 The  empirical  presented and  research  i n Chapter 5.  perceptions  Burnaby and studies.  of  the  This  with  chapter  female  Richmond who  The  associated  this  describes  suburban  office  were i n t e r v i e w e d  thesis the  is  actions  employees  i n the  four  in  case  i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e women working i n town c e n t r e  and non-town c e n t r e o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s .  Chapter  6  linking  the  expectations  draws  conclusions  female with  the  from  employees Regional  recommends p o s s i b l e adjustments of the Region and the two  the  study  actions, Town Centres to the  perceptions objectives,  policies  municipalities.  findings  and  by and and  actions  7 CHAPTER 2 SUBURBAN OFFICES AND WOMEN EMPLOYEES: A LITERATURE REVIEW  2.1 INTRODUCTION  T h i s c h a p t e r reviews two f i e l d s of w r i t i n g , suburban and  office  the  l i t e r a t u r e review i s t o :  o  employment, and working women.  Identify on  the themes emphasized  suburban  offices,  noting  The o b j e c t i v e o f  i n the c u r r e n t their  offices  relevance  literature f o r women  o f f i c e workers; and  o  Determine  special  characteristics  and  requirements  of  women workers.  The  chapter  supporting  concludes  the need  with  references  to include  to  the  a gender-based  literature analysis i n  urban r e s e a r c h .  2.2 THEMES IN SUBURBAN OFFICE LITERATURE  There  a r e four  literature office  identifiable  pertinent  employment.  themes  which  t o the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n This  section  of  reoccur  i n the  of o f f i c e s  the c h a p t e r  and  briefly  8 d i s c u s s e s each of the f o l l o w i n g themes:  o  Theme 1: Understanding suburban  o f f i c e and employment  growth; o  Theme 2: Formation and l o c a t i o n of suburban  o  Theme 3: Role of technology and telecommunications;  o  Theme 4: Suburban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commuting p a t t e r n s .  2.2.1  offices;  Theme 1: Understanding Suburban O f f i c e  and  and  Employment Growth  A  common  theme  understanding Suburban  throughout  of  office  the  the  growth  growth  has  literature  of  offices  frequently  is in  been  seeking  the  suburbs.  associated  the expansion of the s e r v i c e s e c t o r s of the economy 1985;  Dowell,  1987;  Kutay,  1986)  and  an  with  (Daniels,  related  to  the  development of a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y  (Hartshorn & M u l l e r ,  1986;  1983).  Bell,  1974;  characteristics change  in  the  noticeable the  Gershuny  of  the  amount  of  office  Miles,  post-industrial  structure  consequences  and  of  industry  of t h i s space  One  society  and  the  has  the been  employment,  change b e i n g an and  of  with  increase i n  movement  in  office  l o c a t i o n s t o areas away from the t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s i n the downtown  or  urban  core.  The  growth  of  the  s o c i e t y has o c c u r r e d along w i t h a dramatic s h i f t types  of  employment  offices.  In  including  finance,  which  particular,  are  growth  insurance and  located i n the real  information towards  the  predominantly  in  employment  estate,  and  sectors business  9 and  personal  corresponding  services, increases  have  been  in office  accompanied  space  for  with  accommodating  these a c t i v i t i e s .  Since  the  Second  significant occurring  World  population  War,  North America  growth,  with  been  shifts  new  the  1970s and  job formation  1980s,  contributed  that  and  formation,  the suburbs were the  i n both t r a d i t i o n a l  t o the i n c r e a s e  growth  i n the p a i d work  and  force.  focus f o r  blue and white  o c c u p a t i o n s (Hartshorn & M u l l e r , 1986). have  of  experienced  At the same time,  i n household s i z e  an i n c r e a s e i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n During  much  i n the suburbs of l a r g e c i t i e s .  t h e r e have  has  collar  A l l of these f a c t o r s  i n suburban employment  and  suburban o f f i c e s .  Some of the  suburban  offices  have  appeared  or expanded  in  response t o the needs of an i n c r e a s i n g l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n .  In  a d d i t i o n , the growing number of s i n g l e person households and the  rise  helped  i n female p a r t i c i p a t i o n provide  additional  i n the  employees  labour  force  necessary  for  have the  expanding suburban o f f i c e employment.  Besides the been  population-related  economy,  the  growth  development  encouraged  by  of  specific  and  structural  suburban  shifts  offices  government  has  in also  policies.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , w i t h e x p l i c i t support f o r suburban c e n t r e s , has  frequently  been  adopted as a growth management  ( D a n i e l s , 1982 & 1986; Ley, 1985).  strategy  In an e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l  10 commercial  expansion i n c i t y c e n t r e s ,  local  governments have  adopted r e s t r i c t i v e p o l i c i e s t o l i m i t growth and/or  provided incentives  s e l e c t a suburban  Furthermore, suburban congested  as  with  new  development  to  location.  some o f f i c e  areas  t o encourage  i n the downtown  a  both  firms  result  have  chosen  of: c i t y  traffic  and  to  relocate  c e n t r e s becoming  people;  increased  to  more  business  l e a s i n g and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s ; and growing commuting d i s t a n c e s . Other  firms  have  moved  only  certain  components  of  the  b u s i n e s s , such as the back o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s , t o the suburbs.  2.2.2  The  Theme 2: Suburban  O f f i c e Formation and L o c a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t o f f i c e l o c a t i o n ,  suburban  offices,  positions.  One  has  been  body of l i t e r a t u r e  office  s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n and  office  development,  suburban  office  researchers  analyzed  employment  have  on  emphasize  suburban  the  office  selecting Frequently,  location  either the  criteria  a  A  the  central  focus of t h i s  the city  distinctive  of  suburban  case s t u d i e s second  spatial  of  group  of  analysis  of  T h i s r e s e a r c h has tended  influencing and  to  the p r o c e s s of  patterns  specific  centres.  c o n c e n t r a t e d on  two  discusses  o f f i c e space and o f f i c e employment. to  from  the v a r i o u s  o f t e n based  as i t p e r t a i n s  the  selection  rationale or  work has  a  for  suburban  of  a  offices site.  been i n response  to  p o l i c y - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , such as the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e space.  11 Suburban o f f i c e an  and  employment  e v o l u t i o n a r y process  1986;  Leinberger,  (Daniels,  1990)  as  process  (Langdon, 1990).  stages  of  process  i n which many of  suburban  growth has  well  the  Hartshorn  &  Muller,  as  consciously  planned  a  and M u l l e r  growth  as  (1986) see  an  suburban business  centres  1970s emerged from the r e t a i l  the  to  evolve.  and,  Leinberger  i n his typology a l s o progress recognizes much  up  the  present  day,  (1990) i n c l u d e s  of urban cores  through stages  and  are  suburban  centres  of  continuing  to  office  centres  well-designed  he  prefers  suburban c e n t r e  the  process  t h a t can  cores  While Langdon (1990)  t h a t some suburban downtowns emerge, b u i l t  coordination,  that  observes t h a t urban  of growth.  the  evolutionary  appeared d u r i n g the 1960s  as  1986;  Hartshorn  employment  been d e s c r i b e d  of  provide  a  the  without planned,  diversity  r e q u i r e d t o serve the e n t i r e community.  Suburban  centres  significant 1986;  component  Hartshorn  Leinberger,  have  increasingly of  & Muller,  1990).  For  suburban 1986;  been  office  Langdon,  instance,  Daniels  featured growth 1990;  as  a  (Daniels,  Pivo,  (1986)  1990;  suggests  t h a t such " c e n t r e s o f f e r the prospect o f , f i r s t l y , improved access to a range of o f f i c e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s for suburban r e s i d e n t s ; secondly, minimizing the number of work t r i p s by p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t because adequate p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t networks are more l i k e l y t o be made v i a b l e when s e r v i n g l a r g e employment nodes; and, thirdly, improved business efficiency (both private and public sector) as a result of agglomeration economies." (p.32) Suburban town c e n t r e s ,  as  they  have f r e q u e n t l y been  called,  12 are a l s o seen as p l a c e s which o f f e r a mixture of i n c l u d i n g housing, facilities, other  accessible  designation  of  an  by  suburban  Edmonton  distribution was  entertainment, parks  public  of  and  public  centres Denver,  office  transportation.  in cities was  employment  each  such  intended and  travel  as to  The  Toronto, ensure  patterns  a  that  balanced w i t h i n the r e g i o n , t o support the development of efficient  public  transportation  negative  impact  of  the  growth on  1987;  C i t y of Toronto, 1986;  1977;  Denver, 1980).  Often  presented  along  system, the  office corridors 1974;  Erickson,  the  along freeways and  (Hartshorn & M u l l e r , 1986; Langdon,  1990).  As  Pivo  process  low  throughout  density the  of  minimize (Christy,  suburban  office  The p a t t e r n s i n c l u d e  or major a r t e r i a l s  office  or  business  L e i n b e r g e r , 1990;  (Manners, clusters  Cervero,  1989b;  (1990) suggests, most m e t r o p o l i t a n  areas are a c t u a l l y a combination some  to  Regional M u n i c i p a l i t y of Ottawa,  with  1983)  and  environment  growth are i t s p a t t e r n s of development.  The  and  a l l of which are w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of  and  Ottawa,  shopping,  activities,  office  of both p a t t e r n s as w e l l  development  spread  as  randomly  suburbs.  l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s i n g the s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of  suburban o f f i c e s i s more e x t e n s i v e .  Often t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s  p r e s e n t e d i n the context of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and the movement of  offices  out  of  the  CBD  (Fernie,  1977;  Schwartz,  1979;  13 Daniels, large  1982; Armstrong & M i l d e r ,  extent,  factors all  that  of  this  literature  influence  i t s activities  a  1984;  Dowell, 1987).  emphasizes  firm's  the push  decision  i n a suburban  and  to locate  rather  than  To a pull  part  a  or  central  city location.  A segment office  of the  literature  location decisions  1985;  Erickson,  1983;  emphasizes  on workers  Dowall,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s (Nelson,  1987).  For  of  1982;  Baran,  instance,  Nelson  (1982) regards suburban o f f i c e jobs as p r i m a r i l y f o r suburban workers,  therefore  office  suburbs becomes a l o s t Dowell  (1987),  although often  suburban  it  also  opportunities  2.2.3  The  Baran  employment  opportunity (1985) and  offices  provide  offers  lower  moves  f o r inner c i t y Nelson  wages  Theme 3: Technology and  to  and  close  discussed  the  fewer  each  have  Telecommunications  i n the next s e c t i o n are f r e q u e n t l y  received  enough  warrant s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e  Technological  change  and  locations.  individual  in this  the  career  e s p e c i a l l y women.  telecommunications theme and  l i t e r a t u r e dealing with o f f i c e  that  t o home,  the  theme, suburban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commuting p a t t e r n s , is  the  residents.  (1982) comment  employment  f o r suburban employees,  t e c h n o l o g y and  which  fourth which  included  in  However, they  attention  that  they  chapter.  growth  of  telecommunications  14 have  been  identified  office  activities  1984;  Drucker,  current  as  enabling  (Goddard 1989;  &  Pye,  been  divergent  opinions,  of  technology  decisions.  One  major concern has  office activities may the  1984;  be  may  of  1979;  by  Dowall,  Hyde, because  foresee  workplaces that  at  of  least  technology, face-to-face  based  about  office  location  Hutton  on  &  an e n t i r e  ultimately contact Ley,  Drucker  firm,  (Schwartz,  1987).  As  work  maintenance  being  technological  change  also  changes.  technology as i n c r e a s i n g i t s impact  the  future.  one-third  (1989), who  contracted  activities.  of  Olmstead  (Dart,  a l l employees  does not  agree t h a t  out,  Hartshorn  similar  to  (Husted,  t h a t telecommuting w i l l become more popular as systems become overloaded, and increase.  a  Edgington (1982) suggest  1990)  will  the  cleaning  1990)  be  coming trend  i s toward i n d i v i d u a l s working at home, expects an i n c r e a s e office  of  suffers  working at home, at l e a s t on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , i n the century.  the  been t h a t the s e p a r a t i o n  (1977) and  require organizational  the  however,  suburban  1987;  Pye  location decisions  states  1986)  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  important  Other r e s e a r c h e r s on  on  facilitated  loss  Gad,  or the  response, Goddard and that  Muller,  1981;  to be i n c l o s e p h y s i c a l (Smith & Selwood, 1983,  influence  from  &  Downs,  of  telecommunication systems  have  which  decentralization  1977;  Hartshorn  "no longer r e q u i r e o f f i c e s p r o x i m i t y to one another" p.304) . There  the  in and  predicts  transportation  commuting d i s t a n c e s  and  times  15 Telecommuting and  i s also  disadvantages  seen  to  to  both  provide  potential  employers  and  advantages  employees.  For  example, f o r the employee, telecommuting may  reduce commuting  time  increasing  and  cost,  while  at  flexibility,  residential  interaction  and  employees may  the  be  overriding  2.2.4  same  location  community  isolation  Commission, 1989;  the  and  time  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  ties.  Conversely,  distraction  negative  of  features  family  for  working  (National  work  some  at  home  Capital  McQuarrie, 1990).  Theme 4: Suburban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  Commuting  Patterns  Congested c i t y s t r e e t s and regarded offices  as important  i n c r e a s i n g t r a v e l time t o work are  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o the movement of  out to the suburbs.  suburban  office  strategy  that  transportation researchers  centres was  was  part  intended  network  have  For some c i t i e s  and  to to  suggested  of  a  growth  improve reduce  that  the  the c r e a t i o n of  the  management metropolitan  congestion.  A  suburbanization  few of  o f f i c e s p r o v i d e s workers w i t h good t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s h o r t e r commuting  times  Richardson  and  the  (Dowell, Gordon  1987;  Richardson  (1989) observe  that  & Gordon,  1989).  f o r work t r i p s  U.S. "work t r i p s are not g e t t i n g longer. Commuters increasingly value commuting-time savings and congestion i s being relieved as both firms and households r e l o c a t e to shorten t h e i r work t r i p s . " (P-7)  in  16 However, offices  many have  Daniels' that  other  researchers  created  transportation  (1972) study  of firms  private transportation  employees  at  postulates private  that  abundance  of  are generally parking,  offices. workers'  i s related  free  problems  suburban  of t h e i r  was of i n c r e a s e d  the suburban  which  that  own.  moving out of London,  the d e c e n t r a l i z e d  automobile  centres,  are f i n d i n g  importance f o r Cervero  (1989b)  dependence  on t h e  t o the d e s i g n low-density, poor  found  road  of  and  suburban  include  facilities,  an and  inadequate l e v e l s of suburban t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s .  According  to Orski  (1987),  "surveys of suburban o f f i c e complexes i n d i c a t e t h a t even b u i l d i n g s t h a t a r e w e l l served by t r a n s i t (those w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of r a p i d t r a n s i t s t a t i o n s ) are over-whelmingly auto-dependent." (p.474) One  explanation  provided  f o r the u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of t r a n s i t  by suburban workers i s t h a t many of t h e i r commutes a r e suburb to  suburb  Gordon,  (Orski,  1987; Cervero  1989; Fox, 1986; Dubin,  & Hall,  1989; Richardson &  1991), w h i l e  i n most  cases  t r a n s i t systems have remained o r i e n t e d t o t r a n s p o r t i n g people between  the suburbs  suburbs must lower  levels  rely of  and the c i t y  on fewer p u b l i c service  Hartshorn & M u l l e r ,  1986).  Orski  suggests  (1987)  suburban traffic  also  centres increases  often  centre; transit  (Daniels,  that  1972;  the r a p i d  d i d not a l l o w  therefore,  the  a l t e r n a t i v e s and Manners,  1974;  development  adequate  of  time f o r  t o be accommodated, w h i l e Cervero  (1989b)  17 adds t h a t the suburb t o suburb commuting p a t t e r n has r e s u l t e d in  a  saturated  suburban  road  network.  Cervero  (1989a)  proposes t h a t "the b a l a n c i n g of job and housing growth c o u l d do as much t o improve r e g i o n a l m o b i l i t y as any mix o f t r a f f i c management o r roadway expansion programs" (p. 148), although  in  order  for  this  strategy  to  be  effective  communities would need t o ensure t h a t t h e r e i s a d i v e r s i t y o f housing o p p o r t u n i t i e s  2.2.5  Summary  To  degrees,  varying  chapter  refers  available.  each  of the themes  to implications  workforce, which a r e summarized  o  suburban  facilities,  offices  t o the  as f o l l o w s :  population  which  requires  additional  s e r v i c e s and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  The p r o c e s s e s and p a t t e r n s of suburban o f f i c e  development  are  l e s s concerned about workers, although the l i t e r a t u r e  on  suburban  residents' economic  o  of suburban  i n this  The growth of suburban o f f i c e s i s seen as r e s p o n d i n g t o an increasing  o  discussed  The  centres  includes  employment  needs  references  as w e l l  to  as o t h e r  fulfilling social  and  objectives.  literature  emphasizes  on  office  the l o c a t i o n  location  decisions  requirements of f i r m s ,  primarily although  18  some w r i t e r s  have c o n s i d e r e d the i m p l i c a t i o n  of l o c a t i o n  d e c i s i o n s f o r s p e c i a l groups, such as women and t h e poor.  o  Technology on  and telecommunications  t h e workforce  by broadening  provide d i r e c t  the range  impacts  of o p t i o n s f o r  where, how, and by whom work i s done.  o  The r e s e a r c h on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commuting p a t t e r n s has p l a c e d t h e g r e a t e s t emphasis on i d e n t i f y i n g and a d d r e s s i n g the a c t i o n s and requirements of workers.  The  next  section  characteristics  identifies  of women workers  some which  t h e i r d i s t i n c t requirements as suburban  2.3  of  the  specific  may be r e l e v a n t t o workers.  CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF FEMALE OFFICE WORKERS  There i s a d e f i c i e n c y of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h women working i n suburban o f f i c e s . comments i n t h i s  Consequently, most of t h e  s e c t i o n a r e taken from the l i t e r a t u r e  about  women i n the workforce i n g e n e r a l .  The common o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e substantially force  and  Although  increased  accordingly  their  i s t h a t women have  participation  altered  their  t h e m a j o r i t y of women continue  role  i n the labour in  society.  t o be employed i n  traditional teaching,  occupations  (i.e. clerical,  o r h e a l t h and r e l a t e d been  slight  occupations)  (Shea,  1985;  Shea, 1990) with n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e number of  trend  in  (Little,  indicate  that  male workers and remain (Statistics  t o be slow,  professional  long-term d i r e c t i o n  Statistics  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s .  i s expected  participating  of jobs  1990),  have  this  i n the type  sales,  there  women i n managerial  shifts  services,  Canada,  with  careers  However,  additional  workers.  As Nelson's  as  a  1988).  women  continue  t o earn  less  than  o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n low s t a t u s jobs  1986).  [2] employment  women  described  Wekerle  and R u t h e r f o r d  observe t h a t much of the growth i n the white c o l l a r sector  (Baran,  i n the suburbs research  (1989)  secondary  i s dominated by female  (1982) i n the San F r a n c i s c o  area r e v e a l s , many of the women who a r e p a r t of t h e suburban l a b o u r market  a r e secondary  are  to  married  consider position  their  primary  wage e a r n e r s , t h a t  wage  suburban  i n the workforce  earners.  i s women who  Nelson  employment  as  but r a t h e r  views  does not  improving many  their  of these  women as an e x p l o i t e d r e s o u r c e .  A r e o c c u r r i n g theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e about employed women i s the  disadvantages  they  experience  r e s t r i c t i o n s and time c o n s t r a i n t s . having  restricted  consequently  have  access reduced  to  due  to  transportation  Working women a r e seen as  private  employment  transportation  opportunities.  and  Access  20 to  suburban  automobile Nelson,  jobs  i s seen  ownership  as  being  heavily  dependent  (Hartshorn & M u l l e r , 1986; Baran, 1985;  1986; Pickup,  1988; L i t t l e ,  the j o b s e a r c h of some women.  1988) thereby  limiting  S t u d i e s have shown t h a t women  who have access t o a c a r choose suburban work t o reduce travel  time  commuting  (Dubin,  journeys  on  1991) o r than  are able  women  without  to  their  make  longer  to  a car  access  (Pickup, 1988).  Women a r e u s u a l l y must  use t r a n s i t  users  have t r i p s  (Rutherford  transit  systems  more t r a n s i t  that  & Wekerle, that  dependent  and t h e women who  a r e twice  1988a).  Additionally,  a r e not designed  acknowledge women passengers  as l o n g as c a r  and  public  operated  to  have f u r t h e r l i m i t e d women's j o b  o p p o r t u n i t i e s by not c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r s a f e t y and convenience requirements  Married  women  automobiles the  (Rutherford and Wekerle, 1988b).  first  Rutherford  found  to  have  less  access  to have  c h o i c e of c a r use (Michelson, 1985; Pickup, 1988; & Wekerle, mobile  selected  husband's  been  f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e use because men u s u a l l y  residentially often  have  1988b).  because the l o c a t i o n  with  j o b (Madden  P r a t t , 1988a).  M a r r i e d women a r e a l s o  respect & Chui,  Michelson's  to  the  of t h e i r  location  less  home i s  of  their  1990; Fox, 1986; Hanson  (1985) r e s e a r c h found t h a t  "married women choose work l o c a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , p l a c i n g l o g i s t i c a l ease h i g h e r i n p r i o r i t y than c a r e e r development" (p.121).  &  Single  women can a l s o  they a r e more l i k e l y tenure  i s often  Rutherford,  be l e s s  to rent  less  residentially  their  available  mobile  because  housing and t h i s  form o f  i n the suburbs  (Wekerle and  1989).  Hanson and P r a t t ' s  (1988a) r e s e a r c h confirmed t h a t  "women's j o b s i t e s a r e c l o s e r t o home than men's, women tend t o t r a v e l s h o r t e r times and d i s t a n c e s t o work and a r e more l i k e l y t o work w i t h i n t h e l o c a l community" (p.307). Numerous  other  studies  support  the f i n d i n g s  that  women  commute a s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e than men (Madden, 1981; R u t h e r f o r d &  Wekerle,  women's  1988a;  travel  Johnston, duration  Hanson  times  &  Johnston,  are shorter  1985).  than  Generally  men's  (Hanson  1985; Gordon  et a l ,  1989),  although  of the t r i p s  can be  longer  f o r women  &  often the who a r e  dependent on t r a n s i t  ( R u t h e r f o r d and Wekerle,  Nelson  (1986), Dubin  (1991) and Michelson (1985) a l l c o n s i d e r  women  as  geographically restricted  employment due t o t h e i r Wekerle  and  household  Rutherford  (1989)  1988a).  i n their  search f o r  responsibilities, report  from  a  although study  by  V i l l e n e u v e and Rose " t h a t household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l o s i n g ground...in i t s e f f e c t s on work t r i p l e n g t h " (p.147). The  study  concludes  home because  that  women a r e choosing  work  close to  of the type of work a v a i l a b l e not because  household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  r e q u i r e them t o work nearby.  their  22 Dubin  (1991)  greatest the  that  the female  single  parent  has t h e  i n c e n t i v e t o economize on commuting because she has  greatest  that  notes  demand on her "non-work" time.  Fox (1986) adds  female-headed households a r e f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d  by low  income which l i m i t s t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y .  Many  of t h e time  discussions "dual  about  role"  perform  constraints  women's journey  of many women.  at  Michelson's  that  least  two  t o work  Women  jobs  (1985) r e s e a r c h  are r e f e r r e d  -  result  are often  employee  to i n  the  from t h e  expected t o  and  homemaker.  shows t h a t  "women, even i f employed, s t i l l do the g r e a t e s t share of household and c h i l d c a r e a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 62). The  employed  more than  time  women t h a t  on household  their  he i n t e r v i e w e d activities,  husbands.  limitations  placed  when he s t a t e s  spent  3 t o 5 times  childcare  and marketing  Michelson  on women  (1985)  emphasizes  by c h i l d c a r e  the  responsibilities  that  "women have t o f i t the temporal o r g a n i z a t i o n and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of c h i l d c a r e i n t o e v e r y t h i n g else they have t o do d u r i n g the day." (p.4) Furthermore, more t r i p s  h i s research  found  that  women  i n general  t o s a t i s f y a wider range of a c t i v i t i e s  made  and t a s k s  than men.  However,  some  children  on t h e l e n g t h  Johnston, not  empirical  work  of women's work  1985) and s t u d i e s  significantly  questions  the i n f l u e n c e trips  have concluded  that  of  (Hanson and c h i l d r e n do  a f f e c t the d i f f e r e n t commuting p a t t e r n s of  23 men and women (Madden, 1981; Gordon e t a l , 1989).  Other has  researchers  increased  women's need (Little, major  observed  1988; Wekerle,  egalitarian  and  (Little,  (1986)  stress  1985).  1988).  two r o l e s  proposes  towards  could  her d u a l  role  been  described  as  of  a  more  long-term  In o t h e r words, women w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r the f o r e s e e a b l e  that  activities  the r i s e  women  accept  future.  lower  Nelson  paid  employment t o s a t i s f y the demands of t h e i r dual  Wekerle  from  Women c o n t i n u e t o c a r r y t h e  the t r e n d has  routine  results  f o r c h i l d c a r e and domestic  families  fulfill  women's d a i l y  t o save time i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l l  1991),  process  that  i n complexity, and t h a t  responsibilities  (Ogle,  to  have  suburban  roles.  (1985) suggests t h a t the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s benefit  women  v a r i e t y of tasks.  who  a r e attempting  women  neighbourhood Women's  local  a  F o r suburban women, s t r e s s can be c r e a t e d  "by t h e s e g r e g a t i o n of land uses environment" (Wekerle, 1985, p.90), therefore  t o accomplish  have  come  to  f o r many of t h e i r neighbourhood  i n the suburban  rely  social  has  been  on  their  local  and economic  needs.  found  to  play  an  important r o l e i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r employment and women o f t e n r e l y more on t h e i r s o c i a l network,  their  f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ,  when they a r e seeking a j o b (Hanson and P r a t t ,  As  the l i t e r a t u r e  identifiable  i n this  differences  section between  1988a).  demonstrates, women  and  men  there are workers.  24 Besides levels tend  working  i n different  o f remuneration to  carry  types of jobs o f t e n  and r e c o g n i t i o n ,  the primary  including  Differences  between men and women  the care of c h i l d r e n  do, t h e i r mode and l e n g t h of t r i p of household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s receive  more  distinct  policy/decision-makers. presents  some  women workers  responsibility  activities,  also  f o r domestic  and t h e e l d e r l y .  i n the type of work they t o work, and t h e i r  levels  suggest t h a t each group s h o u l d  consideration The f i n a l  additional  f o r lower  by  researchers  section  arguments  i n this  f o r applying  and  chapter a  gender  perspective to t h i s research t h e s i s .  2.4  A GENDER PERSPECTIVE  Both academics and p r a c t i t i o n e r s have r e c o g n i z e d t h e need f o r a  gender  perspective  1985;  Little,  1977;  Strong-Boag,  t o urban  1988; P r a t t , 1991).  research  and p o l i c y  1990; MacKenzie, There have been  (Baran,  1988; Hapgood,  major  changes i n  women's a s p i r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s but "planners and others involved in community development decisions have tended to perpetuate t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l p a t t e r n s without q u e s t i o n i n g them even though many of our assumptions a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the f a c t s . " (Hapgood, 1974, p.1-2) There has a l s o been a tendency f o r p u b l i c p o l i c y t o c o n t i n u e to assume " t h a t women a r e p r i m a r i l y mothers and housewives who remain i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l environment." ( I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Geographers, 1984, p.67) One  explanation  f o r why gender  issues  are often  ignored i s  25 t h a t t h e male view has predominated and men tend t o view t h e world 1988).  differently Little  t o women  (1988)  (Little,  explains  1988; Andrew & M i l r o y ,  t h a t women's d a i l y  l i v e s are  q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from men's, "i.e. women and men perceive environments d i f f e r e n t l y . " (p.7) As  an  example,  identified  the concept  as d i f f e r e n t  1988a; MacKenzie, place  away  of home  1988; L i t t l e ,  1988).  explanation  The dual f o r why  role  women's  has &  been  Pratt,  F o r men the home i s a  are t h e i r  of women lives  their  (Hanson  of r e l a x a t i o n .  the home and workplace  environments.  use  and work  t o men and woman  from work, a p l a c e  women both  and  Whereas, f o r usual  provides  a  are d i f f e r e n t  working further t o men.  Women a r e performing a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a v a r i e t y of  locations.  Because  of t h e i r  different  perceptions  about  t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , changes t o the environment which may meet the  needs of men may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women.  Research i s o f t e n "gender b l i n d " comes  to  dealing  implications  with  (Baran, 1985, p.147) when i t  topics  f o r women workers  which  may  have  (Baran, 1985).  special  F o r example,  i s s u e s such as t r a n s i t s e r v i c e and c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , have not  received  issues that 1988). the  the p r i o r i t y  that  they a r e  a r e of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o women (Mackenzie,  However, M c L a f f e r t y  racial  i s r e q u i r e d because  and e t h n i c  and Preston  differences  (1991)  remind us o f  between women and s t r e s s  t h a t gender s t u d i e s must be c a r e f u l  not t o r e p l a c e a gender  blind  embraces  perspective  with  one  that  a  concept  of  26 " u n i v e r s a l womanhood".  2.5  CONCLUSION  The  preceding  literature  review  has shown  that  there  have  been a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s i n the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n of o f f i c e s and o f f i c e employment. dealt  sparingly  with  To a l a r g e degree t h i s l i t e r a t u r e has the i m p l i c a t i o n s  almost f o r g o t t e n the l a r g e s t On  the o t h e r  additional this  body  hand,  on women o f f e r s  about women o f f i c e  of l i t e r a t u r e  and has  share of o f f i c e workers, women.  the l i t e r a t u r e  information  f o r workers  provides  limited  workers, a l t h o u g h  material  about women  that  a l s o a p p l i e s t o women working i n o f f i c e s .  Arising  out of t h i s  literature  review  a r e the f o l l o w i n g  q u e s t i o n s which t h i s t h e s i s attempts t o address:  o  Do suburban o f f i c e s p r o v i d e d women workers w i t h employment l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o home?  o  Do women have  a preference  f o r work near home over o t h e r  f e a t u r e s such as c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r s a l a r y ?  o  Are suburban employed  o  transportation  i n suburban  Can suburban  office  systems  adequate  f o r women  offices?  centres  assist  women  i n performing  27 dual  roles  by p r o v i d i n g a wide  range  of f a c i l i t i e s  and  activities?  The  next two chapters p r o v i d e the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l  i n which t h i s  study was undertaken.  Chapter  context  3 d e s c r i b e s the  e f f o r t s by the G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t t o manage growth  in  livability, Region  as  Program  achieving offices  the  this  and  Vancouver well  as  region  office  as  to  maintain i t s  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  and the Regional objective.  so  Chapter  employment  Town  Centres  4 outlines  i n the r e g i o n  the L i v a b l e strategy to  the growth of with  special  emphasis on the two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Burnaby and Richmond.  28 CHAPTER 3 THE  LIVABLE REGION AND REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES  3.1 INTRODUCTION  This  chapter  District's  describes  Livable  the  Region  Greater  Program  and  Centres s t r a t e g y which i s a c r i t i c a l The  chapter  introduces  the  Vancouver  the R e g i o n a l  the p a s t  fifteen  years,  Town  element of t h a t program.  Livable  Region  Regional Town Centres, summarizes the reviews over  Regional  and concludes  Program  and  of the Program by  highlighting  the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e of most r e l e v a n c e t o the s u b j e c t of this  thesis.  3.2 BACKGROUND  3.2.1  L i v a b l e Region  Program and Regional Town Centres  During the 1960s the annual had  growth r a t e i n G r e a t e r Vancouver  been over 2.5 percent, and t h i s high l e v e l o f growth was  expected  t o continue  response  t o concerns  region,  the GVRD's  i n t o the 1970s and 1980s. about  Board  rapid  population  In 1971, i n  growth  i n the  of D i r e c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d as one o f  the t h e i r major o b j e c t i v e s a program "to manage growth and change so as t o m a i n t a i n o r enhance the l i v a b i l i t y of the Region" (GVRD, 1972/73, p.4)  29 The  L i v a b l e Region  Program  (LRP) was  developed  as a s t r a t e g y  f o r growth management i n the r e g i o n and by l a t e 1972  the GVRD  Board  regional  had endorsed  a number of p o l i c y statements  p l a n n i n g r e l a t e d t o the  LRP.  The  phase  Program's  initial  meetings h e l d t o g a i n  input and  the r e g i o n ' s communities. at  the  about  meetings  quality  recognized guidance  were  series from  of  the  sentiments  public  people  The most common f e e l i n g s  in  expressed  and  concerns  From the p u b l i c ' s comments the GVRD  regional  emphasizing  a  insight  anti-growth  of l i f e .  that  included  on  development  the f o l l o w i n g two  needed  specific  additional  policies:  o  "Provide maximum o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r people t o l i v e c l o s e t o where they work, or t o work c l o s e t o where they l i v e .  o  " R e g i o n a l l y c o n t r o l and develop " o f f i c e c e n t r e s " or "Regional Town Centres" o u t s i d e of downtown, and attempt t o d e c e n t r a l i z e some downtown growth t o those c e n t r e s . " (GVRD, 1972, p.9)  These p o l i c i e s  formed the b a s i s f o r the GVRD's Regional Town  Centres  (RTC)  strategy.  proposed  to  also  transportation  and  address to  economic needs of l o c a l  The  Regional  earlier  respond  to  the  policy  about growing  was  regional social  Planning  not  new.  Ten  Regional P l a n n i n g Board,  Regional P l a n  Regional  Centres  concerns  p r o p o s a l was  the Lower Mainland  Mainland  Town  and  communities.  Town Centres  of the O f f i c i a l  system  Regional  f o r the Lower Mainland  Board,  1963),  had  years  as p a r t (Lower  proposed  of town c e n t r e s as a means of d i r e c t i n g urban  a  growth.  30 But  no s p e c i f i c  a c t i o n s were taken on d e v e l o p i n g  By 1975 the c r e a t i o n of Regional of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e  the c e n t r e s .  Town Centres had become  s t r a t e g i e s that  one  the GVRD had proposed  f o r managing growth and a c h i e v i n g l i v a b i l i t y i n the r e g i o n : 1. Achieve Region.  residential  growth  2. Promote a balance of jobs the Region. 3. Create  Regional  targets  i n each  to population  part  of the  i n each p a r t of  Town Centres.  4. Provide a t r a n s i t - o r i e n t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system l i n k i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas, r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s and o t h e r major work areas. 5. P r o t e c t p.l)  The  and develop  principal  decentralize and  cultural  regional  objective  a significant activity  that  of  open space."  the  amount was  RTC  (GVRD,  strategy  of the o f f i c e concentrating  1975b,  was  employment in  downtown  Vancouver t o the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s which would each major areas seen and  of the Region.  as e n a b l i n g educational  The r e g i o n a l  the p r o v i s i o n of jobs, opportunities  closer  town c e n t r e s leisure  t o people's  t h a t r e s i d e n t s would not be r e q u i r e d t o t r a v e l to meet t h e i r v a r i o u s economic and s o c i a l  Specifically o  to  long  serve were  activities homes  so  distances  needs.  the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s were intended t o :  "Bring jobs, shopping and c u l t u r a l opportunities c l o s e r t o people, so t h a t t r a v e l t o these a c t i v i t i e s does not consume as much time, e f f o r t , energy and money.  31 o  C r e a t e more i n t e r e s t i n g a n d u r b a n a r e a s t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d f o r p e o p l e r a t h e r than s c a t t e r i n g and s p r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l l over.  o  Avoid aggravating traffic congestion, crowding, a i r pollution, and other problems associated with over c o n c e n t r a t i n g c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n downtown V a n c o u v e r .  o  L o c a t e l a r g e a c t i v i t y c o m p l e x e s where t h e y c a n b e p r o v i d e d essential urban services, particularly public transportation, more effectively and e c o n o m i c a l l y . . . " (GVRD, 1974c, p . l )  To  help  GVRD  define  released  provided  what  a policy  some  guiding  a regional report  quantitative  t h e growth that  a sizable  between  the  mid-1970s  regional  The  GVRD  employees  that feet  amount  target. of  Furthermore, related  and  the  employment  of office  space  1,500-2,000  t o community  1975b)  mid-1980s  that  about  would  contain  retail  jobs  services  growth  would  be  to  the  i n Vancouver.  of  centres  space would  that  T h e GVRD  be a t t r a c t e d  targets  town  the  criteria for  centres.  i tcould  I t was e s t i m a t e d  office  be,  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e employment  f o rself-sustaining  significant  town  instead of locating  recommended  should  and q u a l i t a t i v e  Therefore,  town c e n t r e s  centre  i n 1975 (GVRD,  of regional  suggested  "site-flexible".  town  7,000-10,000  b u t noted  that a  be r e q u i r e d t o meet one m i l l i o n 5,000  square  employees.  a n d 1,000-2,000  and c u l t u r a l  activities  jobs were  anticipated.  There  should  be 2,000-3,000  dwelling  units  within  walking  32  d i s t a n c e of the Centre, people who various  housing between s i x and  nine  thousand  c o u l d work i n the Centre or take advantage of i t s  activities.  The  town c e n t r e s were expected t o  serve  a market of at l e a s t 100,000-150,000 people.  The  GVRD r e c o g n i z e d  jobs and  that  population  i t would be  impossible  i n every p a r t of the r e g i o n .  to  balance  But  i t felt  t h a t promoting a balance at l e a s t made an e f f o r t to p r o v i d i n g people a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y  The  regional  town c e n t r e s  pedestrian-oriented The  i n t e n t i o n was  to  and  around  convenient of the  and  to l i v e c l o s e r to work.  were a l s o  well-served  envisioned by  transit  t h a t the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n the  transit  f u t u r e was  centre service.  or The  seen as being  access light  as  compact,  facilities.  c o u l d e a s i l y walk  the  centre  through  rapid transit  integrated with  the  system region's  town c e n t r e s .  Other f e a t u r e s were recommended t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e t o each town c e n t r e ' s advised  to  unique c h a r a c t e r .  develop  a  c o n d i t i o n s and provided the  centre.  The  GVRD i d e n t i f i e d  design  which  The  town c e n t r e s  reflected  a pedestrian-oriented,  seven  potential locations  the  were local  human s c a l e t o  for  town c e n t r e s but r e a l i z e d t h a t i t would be i m p o s s i b l e of the c e n t r e s  the  regional for a l l  to be s e l e c t e d and developed at the same time.  33  Therefore,  the GVRD  reviewed  each  locale  based  on t h e  f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a :  o  Areas where r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s were most needed the  o  because  population/employment imbalance was g r e a t e s t ; and  Areas where t h e r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e would be e a s i e s t t o develop because of e x i s t i n g p l a n s , s e r v i c i n g and i n t e r e s t .  Based on these c r i t e r i a ,  Burnaby-Central Park (Metrotown) and  New Westminster were chosen because they would be e a s i e s t t o develop,  and  Surrey  and the Coquitlam  area  because they were most necessary due t o t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Downtown  New  were  chosen  areas'  faster  ( F i g u r e 1)  Westminster  and Burnaby  Metrotown  were  also  i d e n t i f i e d as the f i r s t two r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s t o be developed. New Westminster was an e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t e r . was  already  prepared  attracting  a concept  plan  development, outlining  and the c e n t r e  c o n t i n u e d development. and Metrotown  included  Metrotown  the m u n i c i p a l i t y  Metrotown s 1  town c e n t r e , t h e area had the p o t e n t i a l service,  Burnaby  growth  f o r improved  sufficient  had as a  transit  vacant l a n d f o r  The GVRD agreed t h a t New Westminster  should be developed as s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g  regional  town c e n t r e s by 1980.  The of  GVRD s t a f f  recommended a g a i n s t  p u r s u i n g t h e development  a r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e i n Richmond (Brighouse) because t h e  m u n i c i p a l i t y a l r e a d y had a s u r p l u s of jobs, t h e r e f o r e i t was  34  F i g u r e 1: R E G I O N A L T O W N  CENTRES  Source: G V R D , 1990d  not necessary t o seek a balance of p o p u l a t i o n and jobs.  Some  additional  Richmond  town  between a  town  arguments  against  were  centre  and the expansion of the a i r p o r t , and the a n t i c i p a t e d cost  of  providing  and n o i s e  a  centre  high  the t r a f f i c  encouraging  a  light  conflict  rapid  transit  route  to  Brighouse.  In order in  t o accomplish the o b j e c t i v e s  regional  town  centres,  the  GVRD  f o r encouraging growth presented  program which i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g elements:  an  action  35 "to r e s e r v e Regional Town Centre s i t e s u n t i l plans can be prepared, t o p r o v i d e f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g , t o acquire land, and to establish a development management process that i s capable of actually building Regional Town Centres according to plan."(GVRD, 1975b, p.34) In c o n j u n c t i o n with the a c t i o n p l a n , the GVRD a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the  need t o work with  the C i t y  of Vancouver t o c o n t r o l and  manage downtown growth.  3.2.2  Reviews of the L i v a b l e Region Program and the Regional Town Centres  The  LRP  and  RTCs have  S t r a t e g y , 1978-1990  undergone  numerous reviews  mid-1970s.  In t h i s  s e c t i o n the  three  periods  reflecting  time  reviews  the  s i n c e the  are c o n s i d e r e d  different  economic  in and  s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n the r e g i o n .  1976-1981 Reviews  The  Livable  strategy  were  population 1970s,  Region  and  both  considerably  Program  developed economic  the  during growth.  population  resulting  and  in  and less  the a  Regional period  economic  growth  commitment  c e n t r e s , New  Metrotown, had experienced  of  only modest  and  Centres  increasing  However by the end  c r e a t i n g r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s as o r i g i n a l l y 1980 the f i r s t p r i o r i t y  Town  had  of the slowed  effort  to  envisioned.  By  Westminster and growth.  Burnaby  36 According region's  t o a study  by Goldberg  and Horwood  ( 1978)  of t h e  commercial development, the s i t u a t i o n was not helped  "by t h e l a c k of commitment t o a p o s i t i v e t r a n s i t program f o r the r e g i o n and an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of the C i t y of Vancouver t o the idea of d e f l e c t i n g t h e i r o f f i c e development and p u b l i c l y s u p p o r t i n g the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e program of the LRP." (p.14) Goldberg  and  (population market  Horwood  growth  conditions  impacting  saw  rates,  changes  household  and commercials  the success  strategy.  the  size trends  of the L i v a b l e  Based on t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n s  activity  up t o 1986, Goldberg  in  demographics  and c o m p o s i t i o n ) , as  Region  significantly Program's RTC  for regional  and Horwood  (1978)  commercial concluded  t h a t t h e RTCs would b e n e f i t from " i n c r e a s e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n among a l l GVRD p o l i c i e s t h a t impinge upon r e g i o n a l development p a t t e r n s and g o a l s " (p.40) and  increased  emphasis  on  including  housing,  providing  r e c r e a t i o n and park space t o f u r t h e r the q u a l i t y of l i f e of residents  and workers,  and p r o v i d i n g  a d i v e r s i t y o f access  modes.  During the  1980-81, the GVRD (GVRD, 1980a) undertook a review o f  first  directions LRP  was  five  years  of  f o r the Program.  experiencing  efficient  centres  were  public  considered  future  t o t h i s review, t h e  and weaknesses.  While t h e  s t r i d e s towards t h e development o f  transportation  beginning  and  According  successes  Program was making great an  the LRP  t o emerge,  system,  regional  town  and the r e g i o n a l  park  system was seen as s u c c e s s f u l , the review concluded  that  37 "the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the program, the b a l a n c i n g of p o p u l a t i o n t o labour f o r c e i n order t o reduce t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and the need f o r c o s t l y new f a c i l i t i e s , i s not being r e a l i z e d . " (GVRD, 1980a, p.17) Office  jobs  were  continuing  to  concentrate  in  Vancouver, thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a worse o v e r a l l balance  in  the  region  and  reinforcing  the  downtown  employment  patterns  of  commuting t o the downtown from the suburbs.  During  the same  commercial found  period,  development  that  between  the GVRD  undertook  i n the r e g i o n  1970  and  development d i d not concentrate  1979  during  a  review  of  the 1970s and  the suburban  commercial  i n the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s  and " d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o focus C e n t r e s , the p r o p o r t i o n growth i n those c e n t r e s p.13) .  the GVRD and i t s member growth i n the Regional Town of t o t a l suburban commercial remained unchanged" (GVRD, 1981,  Furthermore, whereas o f f i c e growth i n the C i t y of Vancouver was focussed  in  i t s downtown,  municipalities  was  occurring  office  growth  outside  their  in  the  major  suburban  commercial  centres.  In  1981, a  survey  of developers  (GVRD,  1981) concluded  that  o f f i c e development i n the suburban c e n t r e s was c o n s i d e r e d more risky  and t h a t  most  of the demand  remained  f o r new  offices  l o c a t e d i n a p r e s t i g i o u s l o c a t i o n w i t h a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of other  offices.  38 1986-1987 Reviews  In  1986, a f u r t h e r review  of the r e g i o n ' s  commercial  centres  (GVRD, 1986) i n d i c a t e d t h a t between 1980 and 1985 t h e r e g i o n a l town  centres'  with  the increase  were  commercial  attracting  component  i n local  had grown  population,  development  away  from  i n conjunction  not because  t h e RTCs  Vancouver  or  their  neighbouring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The  GVRD's r e p o r t  (GVRD, 1986) o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g  for  the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s  during  the decade  prospects  from  1986 t o  1996 :  o  Each town c e n t r e w i l l  evolve a t a d i f f e r e n t r a t e and w i t h a  unique c h a r a c t e r ; o  There  will  be l i m i t e d  d e f l e c t i o n of o f f i c e  tenants  from  downtown t o the town c e n t r e s ; o  The o v e r a l l  r a t e of commercial development w i l l  be slower;  and o  Many businesses  will  continue.to  seek o f f i c e space  outside  the town c e n t r e s .  By  1987 the GVRD  (GVRD,  1987) began t o r e a l i z e  that  t h e LRP  would r e q u i r e adjustments i f i t was t o remain r e l e v a n t i n t o t h e next c e n t u r y . population employment  The GVRD r e c o g n i z e d  and  economic  and housing  growth,  locations  t h a t changes such as slower increased  dispersion  due t o suburban  of  employment  39 growth and a d d i t i o n a l two-worker households, and an i n c r e a s e i n c r o s s - r e g i o n a l commuting  a l l needed t o be addressed.  G e n e r a l l y , t h e 1987 review (GVRD, 1987) supported the framework and  many  of t h e themes  from  the o r i g i n a l  proposal  for  the  L i v a b l e Region Program, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s :  o  The new  strategy  would  need  regional  economic  development,  t o emphasize unlike  support f o r  the o r i g i n a l  LRP  which emphasized the d i s t r i b u t i o n of j o b growth; o  Increased  emphasis  would  be  placed  on  preserving  the  environmental and economic w e l l - b e i n g of t h e r e g i o n ; and o  The r e g i o n a l include  town  Richmond  centres  concept should  be expanded t o  Centre and the Lonsdale area  i n North  Vancouver ( F i g u r e 1 ) .  1989-1990 Reviews  By  1989 G r e a t e r  Vancouver  was again  experiencing  economy, a growth i n m i g r a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d and  a  create  construction a  boom.  development  The GVRD  strategy  buoyant  l e v e l s of investment  renewed  for a  a  i t s efforts  livable  region  to  which  i n c l u d e d v i a b l e r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s .  During  early  1990 the GVRD commissioned  review  features  of the L i v a b l e  numerous  Region Program,  r e f e r r e d t o as the L i v a b l e Region S t r a t e g y (LRS).  studies to  which was now Two of these  40 studies  are  Centres.  of  One  Region's  particular study  "Living  objective.  The  relevance  to  1990c)  focused  (GVRD,  Close  to  Work"  f i n d i n g s of  strategy  this  study  d e t a i l i n the next s e c t i o n of t h i s  The  second  study  (GVRD,  r e v i e w i n g the RTC  the  Regional on  was  are  whether  s t r a t e g y as one  achieving i t s  discussed  i n more  specifically  directed  t h a t the GVRD and  this  Besides  amount and  share of commercial, r e t a i l ,  o f f i c e and  such  mixture  and  as  the  character  connections.  of The  looking at  study  also considers  of uses and  level  of a c t i v i t y ,  centre,  study  evaluations  of  the  development  of  office  and  rightly  performance and  retail  the  movement  notes of  that  RTCs  aspects  the  scale  patterns  previously  have  paid  and most  emphasized  f l o o r s p a c e and  the  residential  the  the  Town  attempts to p r o v i d e a q u a l i t a t i v e  a quantitative evaluation.  i n each c e n t r e ,  Unlike  assessment of Regional  as w e l l as  development  at  i t s member  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should continue to support i n the 1990s.  Centre development up to 1989  the  chapter.  1990b) was  most of the p r e v i o u s reviews,  Town  the  little  a t t e n t i o n to a s s e s s i n g the c e n t r e s ' q u a l i t a t i v e elements.  A c c o r d i n g t o the study  (GVRD, 1990b), the  "continued development of the RTC P o l i c y i s one of the most c r i t i c a l elements i n the l a r g e r LRS" ( p . i i i ) and  the GVRD must  After  reviewing  development that  g i v e higher p r i o r i t y  the  of the  various  trends  to  which  RTCs i n the can  r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s , the  1990s.  influence study  the  concludes  41 "an i n c r e a s i n g share of commercial development can be expected t o occur i n suburban l o c a t i o n s " (GVRD,1990b, P-39) but  t o encourage growth  i n the centres  f u t u r e w i l l r e q u i r e a more p r o a c t i v e  The  RTC review  support  (GVRD,  framework  centres.  1990b) proposes  economic  the p a t t e r n  needs,  strategies,  urban  section  regional  of t h i s  and  design  strategy.  framework t o  of a network o f s t r o n g  hierarchy  within of  requirements,  government  housing r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e t h n i c mix,  next  a policy  Some of the elements c o n s i d e r e d  include:  transportation  The  and v i s i o n a r y  and encourage the development  regional  the RTC p o l i c y o f the  structure,  this  centres, regional j o b and  and marketing.  chapter  examines  i n more  detail  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of the LRP and RTC s t r a t e g y as they p e r t a i n t o women working i n suburban  3.3  centres.  OBJECTIVES OF THE LIVABLE REGION PROGRAM AND REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES STRATEGY  Based  on t h e q u e s t i o n s  discussed  raised  from  some  of t h e l i t e r a t u r e  i n Chapter 2 ( i . e . Do suburban o f f i c e s p r o v i d e women  workers w i t h employment l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o home?), t h e f o l l o w i n g three  objectives  relevance o  have been chosen because of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  t o women working i n suburban o f f i c e s :  "Promote a balance of jobs t o p o p u l a t i o n to Work)" (GVRD, 1975b, p . l ) ;  (Living Close  42 o  "Provide a t r a n s i t - o r i e n t e d transportation system l i n k i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas, r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s , and o t h e r major work a r e a s " (GVRD, 1975b, p . l ) ; and  o  "Increase the v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s i n suburban a r e a s , providing a focus f o r c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s c l o s e r t o where people l i v e , and more i n t e r e s t i n g working environments f o r suburban employees" (GVRD, 1990b, p . l ) .  This  section  reviews the success of each  and e s t a b l i s h e s some of the c r i t e r i a of  satisfaction  non-town c e n t r e  3.3.1  live  used t o measure t h e l e v e l  i n the town  centre  versus  locations.  employment region  of p r o v i d i n g  the maximum o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r people  c l o s e t o work o r t o work c l o s e t o home was one o f t h e  principal  goals  of the LRP.  and p o p u l a t i o n  was i d e n t i f i e d  livability and  objectives  Balance of Jobs t o P o p u l a t i o n  The o b j e c t i v e to  of women working  of these  The growing  growth  i n different  as c o n t r i b u t i n g  of the r e g i o n  automobile-related  imbalance  between  parts  of the  to a reduction  through i n c r e a s e d  a i r pollution.  in  the  t r a f f i c congestion  Also,  the a d d i t i o n a l  time t h a t workers spent t r a v e l l i n g t o and from work was seen as having sought  a n e g a t i v e impact to  address  these  on t h e i r  quality  concerns  from  of l i f e . two  The GVRD  approaches,  i n c r e a s i n g the jobs i n the suburbs so fewer workers would to  commute  employment  into  the c i t y ,  centres.  and by i n c r e a s i n g  The GVRD (GVRD,  by have  the housing near  1975b) a l s o  acknowledged  t h a t t h e housing near employment c e n t r e s should be s u i t a b l e f o r a mixture of incomes, household types and l i f e s t y l e s .  A study by Ley (1985) of employees a t B.C. T e l p r o v i d e s  support  f o r t h e GVRD s t r a t e g y i n i t s f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e r e were changes in  the r e s i d e n t i a l  the  head  office  distribution  moved  of the f i r m ' s workforce  after  from downtown Vancouver t o Burnaby.  A  g r e a t e r number of the employees l i v e d c l o s e r t o work (almost 20 percent  o f t h e employees  adjacent 1989  lived  t o the workplace).  i n the f i v e  Further  postal  districts  a n a l y s i s by B.C. T e l  in  found t h a t a f t e r a 60 percent i n c r e a s e i n s t a f f , a s i m i l a r  p r o p o r t i o n of the s t a f f that  the Region's  l i v e d nearby.  s t r a t e g y might  These r e s u l t s  be e f f e c t i v e ,  suggested  at least for  B.C. T e l employees.  The not  f i r s t evidence been  totally  t h a t the " L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work" s t r a t e g y had effective  came  Region's "Place of Work" study change  i n the r e g i o n ' s  increase  from  the r e s u l t s  of the  (GVRD, 1985), which i n d i c a t e d a  commuting  patterns,  a  significant  i n suburb t o suburb commuting and out-commuting  from  the c i t y of Vancouver, as w e l l as the emergence of Burnaby and Richmond as net importers of workers.  In  1990 t h e GVRD commissioned  t o Work"  entirely  reviewing  the "Living  It  t h a t the GVRD Program l a c k e d s p e c i f i e d  noted  Close  a study  strategy  focussed  (GVRD,  on  1990c).  criteria for  measuring t h e success of the o b j e c t i v e s of t h e " L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work" s t r a t e g y .  The study a l s o noted  t h a t the GVRD's s t r a t e g y  focussed on b a l a n c i n g the growth of labour f o r c e and employment  44  but f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r the importance of o t h e r f a c t o r s , such as housing  prices  and  transportation  costs,  i n influencing  an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e of house l o c a t i o n .  Based on the f o l l o w i n g s e t of measures: r a t i o of jobs t o l a b o u r f o r c e by area, average journey t o work t r a v e l time, and housing price,  the study  concluded  that  s t r a t e g y had not been e f f e c t i v e .  the " L i v i n g Although  Close  to  Work"  some of the suburban  areas such as Burnaby, Richmond and New Westminster had a r a t i o of  employed  regional  labour  average,  force  to resident  other  areas,  labour  specifically  force  above the  Coquitlam  and  D e l t a , had shown v i r t u a l l y no improvement between 1971 and 1986 i n t h e i r low r a t i o  (Figure 2 ) .  F i g u r e 2: R A T I O S O F E M P L O Y E D L A B O U R F O R C E T O R E S I D E N T L A B O U R F O R C E , 1971-1986 Ratio 1.3  r  Van  Bby  Source: G V R D , 1990c  Rmd  NW  Del  Coq  45 "On the whole, t h e r e have been o n l y minor improvements i n the balance of employment t o l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h i n the GVRD." (GVRD, 1990c, p.S-3) The  study found t h a t the average  the r e g i o n has  region's  Consistent  f o r work t r i p s  continued t o be between 20 and  the mid-1970s and the  t r a v e l time  t h e r e has  work  with  trips  the  24 minutes s i n c e  been an i n c r e a s e i n the number of  that  1985  occur  between  municipalities.  "Place of Work" study  the " L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work" study e x p l a i n s t h i s to more suburb Vancouver. and  1986  t o suburb  Furthermore,  t h e r e was  (GVRD,  1985),  i n c r e a s e as  t r i p s and more r e v e r s e commuting the 1990  a decrease  f o r c e l i v i n g and working  study found t h a t between  i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the  1971  labour  i n the same suburb.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  were a l s o  the  areas  jobs  (Vancouver,  where housing  Burnaby,  c o s t s have been  the f a s t e s t and housing a f f o r d a b i l i t y has  fallen  increasing  significantly.  where housing i s most a f f o r d a b l e are the areas w i t h the  the  i n employment.  outer  suburbs  Vancouver  and  the  lifestyle  choices  tend inner by  The to  study  be  larger  suburbs,  larger  noted  that  than  households  that  living  there  and  lowest  households  those  suggesting  the  Richmond)  C o n v e r s e l y , the areas w i t h the g r e a t e s t growth i n housing  increases  due from  F i n a l l y the study's r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the areas w i t h greatest  in  may  preclude  in in be  living  c l o s e t o work.  The  "Living  C l o s e t o Work" study concluded by  GVRD's p o l i c y of encouraging and recommending t h a t :  reaffirming  a balance of jobs t o l a b o u r  the  force  46 o  The p o l i c y be broadened t o i n c l u d e its  effectiveness  and  to  criteria  recognize  that  f o r measuring variations  in  households w i l l r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; o  Affordable  housing  be  encouraged  in  areas  of  high  is  both  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; o  Development  of  a  transportation  system  that  a c c e s s i b l e and a f f o r d a b l e be encouraged; and o  The GVRD's neighbouring r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s be encouraged t o adopt a " L i v i n g Close  Although explains  this  study  that  population  t o Work" s t r a t e g y .  includes  the growth  growth  result  of an  rates,  i t does  gender  i n resident  i n the C i t y  increase  a  labour  of Vancouver  i n female  not i n c l u d e  reference  labour  any other  force  when i t over the  i s p r i m a r i l y the  force p a r t i c i p a t i o n  specific  references  v a r i a t i o n s i n the workforce's composition o r e x p l i c i t l y the  implications  the  " L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work" s t r a t e g y .  Some  features  of the changing  of  the  "Living  particularly  relevant  to  Chapter  women's  time  2,  labour  Close  women  force  constraints  As and  address  composition f o r  t o Work"  workers.  to  strategy indicated  are in  transportation  r e s t r i c t i o n s suggest they would b e n e f i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h i s strategy.  However, the f i n d i n g s t h a t  housing a f f o r d a b i l i t y i s  mismatched w i t h employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s to  female  single  housing c o s t s .  parents  who  are more  i s e s p e c i a l l y relevant susceptible  to  high  47 Although there  i s agreement t h a t i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e  a balance of jobs  to population,  e s p e c i a l l y with the increased  number of two-income households the  Vancouver  region,  GVRD's L i v a b l e Region  3.3.2  An  the o b j e c t i v e  house p r i c e s i n  remains  critical  t o the  Strategy.  T r a n s i t Oriented  underlying  and v a r i a b l e  Transportation  rationale  System  f o r the o b j e c t i v e  of p r o v i d i n g  a  t r a n s i t o r i e n t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system was the GVRD's i n t e n t i o n to Two  reduce  the region's  o f the e a r l y  dependence on the p r i v a t e  policies  proposed  automobile.  f o r the L i v a b l e  Region  Program i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i n t e n t i o n : o  "More e f f o r t should be d i r e c t e d t o c o n t r o l automobile usage i n urban areas.  o  Discourage autos e n t e r i n g downtown and p r o v i d e b e t t e r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n alternatives."(GVRD, 1972, p.28)  The  GVRD r e a l i z e d t h a t  the  road  network,  contribute would the  an  be a major increased  city  streets expected  traffic  costly additions to  use of automobiles  a i r q u a l i t y and noise  consumer of energy caused  by  p o l l u t i o n , and  resources. the  would  Furthermore,  automobile-dependent  the l i v a b i l i t y of many suburban as w e l l  neighbourhoods as a l t e r n a t i v e s that  requiring  increasing  t o worsening  commuters was r e d u c i n g as  besides  as  more  commuters  t o the crowded  a transportation  system  o r i e n t e d towards t r a n s i t would provide w i t h a reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e .  used  residential  arterials. that  was more  The GVRD heavily  the people i n t h e r e g i o n  48 A GVRD p o l i c y r e p o r t on the Regional specifically  identified  important  feature  that  was  LRT  customers transit,  Light  required  to attract  t o the c e n t r e s .  (GVRD, 1975b)  Transit  firms  To encourage  (LRT) as  said  [ 3 ] , workers  and  the use of p u b l i c  long term p a r k i n g  development  of suburban  a l l o w businesses suburbs while  downtown business transit  should  i n the town c e n t r e s .  a c t i v e i n the r e g i o n ,  confirmed t h a t a r a p i d t r a n s i t  (GVRD, 1981)  system would be c r u c i a l  commercial  an  The r e p o r t  t h e r e p o r t recommended t h a t automobile p a r k i n g  A 1980 survey of developers,  rapid  Rapid  f o r r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s .  be l i m i t e d t o discourage  the  Town Centres  centres  because  t o the  i t would  t o take advantage of the lower l e a s e r a t e s i n maintaining people.  were based  their  face  t o face  F o r the developers solely  contact  with  the advantages of  on the c o n t r i b u t i o n i t would  make t o the o p e r a t i o n of b u s i n e s s e s .  By  1987 t h e GVRD was suggesting  t h e i r emphasis on p u b l i c t r a n s i t formed.  The  increased pattern  fastest  felt  that  use of t r a n s i t of increasing  workplaces transit.  GVRD  made Also,  that  had s h i f t e d s i n c e t h e LRP was a  significant  had become  dispersion  i t more  f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons  t o serve  people,  growing age group, a l r e a d y  likely  of r e s i d e n t  difficult  middle-aged  less  shift  who  had high  towards  because  a  l o c a t i o n s and the region  a r e the  by  region's  c a r ownership and  use t r a n s i t i n f r e q u e n t l y .  Furthermore,  the GVRD  saw  the high  costs  associated  with  49  extending deficit  the Skytrain  system  and the i n c r e a s i n g  operating  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the bus s e r v i c e as s t r o n g d e t e r e n t s t o  improving  the public  however, transit  that  some  system  alternative,  transit  emphasis  to provide  system.  should  The GVRD  remain  concluded,  on d e v e l o p i n g the  transportation to riders  the young, the e l d e r l y and the poor.  with  no  The e l d e r l y  were seen as being a growing segment of the r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n who  were  growing  more  reliant  on t r a n s i t .  number o f workers  a l s o dependent on t r a n s i t  The poor  i n low paying  included the  service  for a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  jobs who a r e  T r a n s i t was s t i l l  i d e n t i f i e d as a necessary component f o r d e v e l o p i n g the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s .  Although  the l i t e r a t u r e  i n Chapter  2 identified  group t h a t i s more h i g h l y dependent on t r a n s i t ,  women  as a  i t i s notable  t h a t none o f the GVRD's p u b l i s h e d work r e c o g n i z e s women as one of and  t h e disadvantaged requirements.  needs women  groups w i t h  Unless  she i s poor  a r e not r e c o g n i z e d , in  two  worker  special  although  households  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n because the household  The  findings  has  been  increased  a growth  i n suburb  out-commuting  conclusions region's  of the " L i v i n g  that  transit  from  or e l d e r l y ,  there that  a woman's  a r e , f o r example,  require  alternative  o n l y has one c a r .  C l o s e t o Work" study,  that  there  t o suburb  commuting  as w e l l as  the c i t y ,  confirms  t h e GVRD's  i t i s becoming more needs.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs  The expanding  difficult  t o serve the  variety  of t r i p s a r e  50 becoming  more  difficult  to service  with  traditional  transit  solutions.  3.3.3  V a r i e t y of S e r v i c e s and An I n t e r e s t i n g Working Environment  At t h e time t h a t the RTC s t r a t e g y was being recognized  that  the character  developed, the GVRD  of the Town  Centres  was an  important element f o r t h e i r development and t h e i r acceptance by the  community.  The GVRD  also  realized  that  character  can  include "many q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e not measurable, i n c l u d i n g a sense of h i s t o r y , o r newness; views; t h e b u s t l e of a c t i v i t y , o r l a c k of i t ; sounds, smells and t a s t e s ; and whether the p l a c e i s f u n , o r dangerous, o r e x c i t i n g t o be in."(GVRD, 1974b, p.20) As t h e GVRD's d e s c r i p t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s , an  i n t e r e s t i n g working  assortment of o b j e c t i v e s examples  of  how  this  r e i n f o r c e d over the past  In 1975,  environment"  " v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s and actually  f o r the RTCs. objective fifteen  encompasses  an  The f o l l o w i n g a r e some  has  been  described  and  years.  proposed p o l i c i e s f o r the R T C s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  statements: o  "Regional town centres w i l l be l a r g e complexes w i t h a variety of a c t i v i t i e s , including large offices, department s t o r e s and s p e c i a l t y shops, restaurants, l i b r a r i e s and e x h i b i t s , meeting h a l l s and t h e a t r e s , h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , education and " c l o s e - i n " housing.  o  Each r e g i o n a l town centre should be unique, responding i n c h a r a c t e r and q u a l i t y t o i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and the needs of the communities i t serves.  51 o  The  Regional town c e n t r e s should be i n t e r e s t i n g and urbane areas f o r people. I n t r u s i o n of t r a f f i c , l a r g e areas without a c t i v i t y and other d e t r a c t i o n s from i n t e r e s t and u r b a n i t y have no p l a c e i n r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s . " (GVRD, 1974c, p.4) GVRD  report  1975, i n c l u d e d  presenting  criteria  the L i v a b l e  f o r the "design  Region  Proposals  perspectives"  in  f o r the  RTCs: o  A strong pedestrian o r i e n t a t i o n - a c t i v i t i e s and facilities should be w i t h i n comfortable walking distance of one another along a pleasant and i n t e r e s t i n g s t r e e t - l e v e l environment.  o  A w i d e l y v a r i e d but balanced mixture of a c t i v i t i e s - a regional town centre should be a l i v e with many different activities from morning t o midnight ( o r l a t e r , depending on l o c a l p r e f e r e n c e ) . I t should not be dominated by one a c t i v i t y l i k e o f f i c e parks o r shopping c e n t r e s .  o  A human s c a l e - b u i l d i n g s should not g i v e people a "boxed i n " f e e l i n g and should not block the sun o r views. (GVRD, 1975c, p.19)  A promotional  brochure prepared  the  comments  following  by the GVRD i n 1982 i n c l u d e d  i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t r a c t i v e  f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s : " S t o r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s and s e r v i c e o u t l e t s w i l l a t t r a c t customers from nearby offices and homes... People employed i n r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s w i l l b e n e f i t from a s m a l l e r s c a l e , convenience o r i e n t e d environment...The range o f shopping, d i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e d u r i n g lunchtime and a f t e r work..." (GVRD, 1982c)  A 1987 GVRD r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e d the RTCs c h a l l e n g e s  f o r t h e 1990s  as "continuing to increase the l e v e l and mix of uses...and improving the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n t o p r o v i d e a  52 more p.51) And  cohesive  finally,  town  the  centre  most recent  atmosphere."  (GVRD,  review of the  1987,  RTCs r e a f f i r m s  the  need "to adopt high q u a l i t y design g u i d e l i n e s i n terms of use, activity, size, movement, variety, and c h a r a c t e r . " (GVRD, 1990b, p.45) The  recognition  services  and  that  an  the  RTCs  i n t e r e s t i n g working  confirmed by r e s u l t s from two the  region's  concluded park  space  that  the  in  order  RTCs must to  could  a  the  suburban  attract  discovered low  that  level  a  environment  by Goldberg and be  further  supported the  by  variety are  further  A review  Horwood  life  of  (1978)  recreation  q u a l i t y of  of  of  and  their  workers.  Ley's (1985) r e s e a r c h selected  provide  additional studies.  commercial centres  r e s i d e n t s and  should  of B.C.  T e l employees found t h a t the  l o c a t i o n with  its  employees.  B.C.  Tel's  of  services  high  amenities  Although,  his  management s t a f f that  were  to  firm  which i t  study  also  were c r i t i c a l  available  around  of  their  suburban o f f i c e l o c a t i o n .  The  GVRD's e x p l a n a t i o n  interest  i s that  residents help  centre  workers.  will  Also  t o complement each other.  various the  and  the  f o r c r e a t i n g RTCs t h a t o f f e r v a r i e t y  needs and  RTCs w i l l  the GVRD has  benefit  specific  be  the  more a t t r a c t i v e to  mixture  of  and  firms,  activities  will  However, d i f f e r e n t groups have provided groups.  very  few  d e t a i l s on  Some of  the  how  academic  53 research tasks  on women workers  that  women must  concentration activity  suggests  perform,  of a c t i v i t i e s  patterns  that  due t o t h e m u l t i p l e  women c o u l d  that  an RTC  i n the urban  benefit  from the  can o f f e r  environment  are  i f  the  suitably  organized.  3.4  CONCLUSION  The  LRP and RTCs have been p r o g r e s s i n g  with  t h e r e s u l t being  Their  major  there  success  continuing  a mixture  has been to  be  a  through changing  of successes  their  ability  commitment  times,  and weaknesses. to survive,  by  the  with  region's  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o both the LRP and RTCs.  There a r e t h r e e particular however, For  objectives  interest  of the LRP and RTCs t h a t may be o f  t o women  working  each  of these  objectives  the f i r s t  objective  (balancing  i n suburban  are s t r u g g l i n g jobs  t o be met.  to population),  remains an imbalance between r e s i d e n t workers and jobs communities.  For  transit-oriented  the  second  objective  transportation  variety  of services  town c e n t r e s  there  i n most  (providing  system),  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has remained automobile-oriented t o work has not d e c l i n e d .  offices;  a  suburban  and t h e journey  For the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e  (providing a  and an i n t e r e s t i n g work environment), t h e  have been  s t r u g g l i n g t o provide  includes  a  wide  of  designed  environment  that  activities.  Furthermore, women have not been r e c o g n i z e d  important component of each o b j e c t i v e .  range  a well  services  and as an  54 Although  most  studies  and r e p o r t s  from  t h e GVRD  have not  s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed o r i d e n t i f i e d g e n d e r - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , the GVRD has sponsored two surveys of r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s  ( i n 1973  and  toward a  1990) t h a t  provide insight  range of economic, 1990  Vancouver  which  i s part  includes  social,  Urban  into  their  attitudes  m o b i l i t y and l i f e s t y l e  Futures survey  of the GVRD's  (Hardwick  "Choosing  i n f o r m a t i o n on the gender  issues.  e t a l , 1990),  Our F u t u r e s "  differences  The  evident  Program, i n the  answers.  Before c o n s i d e r i n g the responses from women working i n Burnaby and in  Richmond about detail  employment  t h e i r working  a t the t r e n d s  toward  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  the development  environment,  Chapter 4 looks  suburbanizing o f f i c e s of Burnaby  of t h e i r town c e n t r e s .  and  and Richmond and  55 CHAPTER 4 SUBURBANIZATION OF OFFICES AND EMPLOYMENT: BURNABY AND RICHMOND  4.1 INTRODUCTION  This  chapter  employment  examines  in  municipalities  two  the s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n  Vancouver  region  of Burnaby and Richmond  of  offices  municipalities.  and The  were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s  study because they p r o v i d e the r e g i o n ' s major amount o f o f f i c e space and employment o u t s i d e the C i t y of Vancouver, and because they both have designated r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s .  The  chapter  focussing and  begins  on the growth  Richmond.  offices  by p r o v i d i n g of o f f i c e s  Following  and employment  a  some  i n both  c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  regional  context  and employment  general town  i n Burnaby  observations  centres,  before  about  the d i s c u s s i o n  development and a t t r i b u t e s .  4.2 GROWTH IN SUBURBAN OFFICES AND EMPLOYMENT  Region's Commercial  Floorspace  The r e g i o n ' s commercial f l o o r s p a c e ( d e f i n i t i o n of  which  offices  significantly  during  are  a  major  the past  component,  two decades.  i n Appendix A ) , has Between  increased 1970 and  56 1979  the r e g i o n ' s  commercial  floorspace  grew  from  36  t o 74  m i l l i o n square f e e t (GVRD, 1981).  By 1989 there were over 111  million  square  space  1990a) .  More  f e e t of commercial than  C i t y o f Vancouver. was  growing  municipality population grew  by  half  of t h a t  occurred  faster  than  population  i n the r e g i o n .  percent.  From  1980  while  Throughout  in  every  t o 1985  1970s  suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a l s o saw an i n c r e a s e the r e g i o n ' s  commercial f l o o r s p a c e  and  city  floorspace 1980s,  Vancouver-53.5%  1979  Source: G V R E B & G V R D , 1979 and G V R D , 1990b  the  i n t h e i r share o f  (Figure 3).  'Suburbs--39.0%  and  region's  F i g u r e 3: S H A R E O F C O M M E R C I A L S P A C E  Vancouver-61.0%  the  floorspace  the  i t s commercial  the  (GVRD,  outside  Between 1971 and 1986 commercial  grew by 1.4 percent,  6.2  growth  i n the r e g i o n  Suburbs--46.5% 1989  57 However, most of the r e g i o n ' s  additional  commercial  space  was  f o r o f f i c e uses and the m a j o r i t y of t h i s space was  added i n the  C i t y of Vancouver, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the downtown.  Between  and  1981  region  almost  was  Outside  the C i t y the  During  the  in  the  1970s  was  in  office  of O f f i c e  Inconsistency  i n the  of changes  (City  uses  of  began  and  built  i n the  Vancouver,  shopping  increasing  1984) growth  centres.  their  share of  development.  Space  data  available  has  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  G r e a t e r Vancouver Region. i n suburban  space  most of the commercial  retail  1980s the suburbs  Distribution  growth  city.  of Vancouver,  r e g i o n ' s new  analysis  percent of the o f f i c e  located  during  the  70  1971  offices  prevented  a  precise  of o f f i c e space i n the  T h e r e f o r e , any c o n c l u s i o n s about the have been  developed from a  variety  of s o u r c e s .  In  1971,  [4]  33 p e r c e n t of the o f f i c e space  was  located  Vancouver, space (GVRD,  in  outside  1984). 1989,  1990a)  the  City  Vancouver  (City  CMA of  A c c o r d i n g to the GVRD's i n v e n t o r y of o f f i c e  the  region's  Although  suburban  these  share was  figures  comparable, they o f f e r an i n d i c a t i o n the  of  i n the Vancouver  are  36 not  percent. directly  t h a t the suburbs' share of  r e g i o n ' s o f f i c e space has i n c r e a s e d but not d r a s t i c a l l y .  58 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Suburban Firms  In  the  early  1980s, a  1982c) i d e n t i f i e d who  were  located  concentrated  in  Shore) r e q u i r e d such  the  as  survey of following  i n the the  suburbs.  inner  and  located  in  the  population-serving c o n s t r u c t i o n and  town  choosing  location,  by  office  Consequently, outside built  the  the  North  included  firms  tended  as  The to  offices be  although  some  l o c a t i o n , such as  of  their  or  accessibility,  space i n a v a r i e t y of majority  the  throughout  of  the  office  space  1970s and  following  information  built  1980s,  was  rather  centres.  Canada,  (Statistics  be  suburban l o c a t i o n s .  The  Canada  for  could  suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i n the suburban  for a  reasons  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates  the  more  offices  R e g i o n a l Changes i n Labour Force and  provide  firms  s p e c i f y a preference  C i t y of Vancouver d u r i n g  of  and  these  medical  new  than c o n c e n t r a t i n g  Censuses  highly  Richmond,  wide area.  the  scattered  were  Many of  suburbs  such  firms  transportation  or p r o v i n c e  surveyed d i d not  a suburban  fulfilled  that  (Burnaby,  services.  outer  firms,  (GVRD,  development f i r m s .  firms  centre  firms  agents,  consulting  were s e r v i n g a m e t r o p o l i t a n  Most of the  The  suburbs  manufacturing  firms  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the  access to the e n t i r e r e g i o n and  communications.,  that  suburban o f f i c e  about  the  1971,  1981,  labour  force  1986) and  59 employment 1971  and  changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d 1986  although  most  Vancouver. labour  the of  Over  force  labour the  85  force  growth  percent  occurred  throughout  occurred the  the  outside  increase  suburban  Between  the  region, City  i n the  of  region's Also  d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , the i n c r e a s e i n the Vancouver CMA's  labour  Besides  the  grew  region.  municipalities.  f o r c e (56%) was  in  of  i n the  g r e a t e r than the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n  there  being  the composition  more workers,  t h e r e was  of those workers.  By  also a  (28%).  change i n  the mid-1980s women  had  assumed a more predominant p o s i t i o n i n the r e g i o n ' s  workforce.  Whereas  the  male  there  were  there  participation  were  no  rates  significant  between  changes  1971  and  in  1986,  s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the female r a t e s (Table 1). the  female  participation  percent between 1971 in  the  outer  and  suburbs.  rate  1986. Surrey,  increased The  from  Region-wide  43.3  to  greatest increases occurred  for  example,  had  the  largest  i n c r e a s e i n female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s which went from 35.3 55.7  p e r c e n t , an i n c r e a s e of over 50 percent  Table 1:  Burnaby  in fifteen  GREATER VANCOUVER PARTICIPATION RATES  Vancouver, City -  Male 1971  Male 1986  75.2  75.0  47.6  60.1  78.1  43.9  59.6  82.0  44.1  80.3  Female 1971  Female 1986  Richmond  84.2  Surrey  77.7  78.1  35.3  63.0 55.7  North Vancouver  89.1  82.3  45.0  64.9  Rest of CMA  77.0  79.0  37.0  57.0  Vancouver, CMA  77.7  77.9  43.3  59.6  Source: Statistics Canada, 1971  and  1986  59.6  to  years.  60 Changes i n Employment  Between 1971 and 1986, changes i n the type of work became more evident.  More people  sector jobs.  were working i n white c o l l a r and s e r v i c e  In 1971, l e s s than  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e workers  i n t h e r e g i o n were employed i n the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r , however, by 1986,  this  Ninety  f i g u r e had i n c r e a s e d t o f o u r of every  percent  of the new jobs  were i n the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r . in  new  jobs  was  five  workers.  c r e a t e d between 1971 and 1986  Furthermore, most of t h i s  i n services;  finance,  insurance  growth  and  real  e s t a t e ; and government s e r v i c e s .  During  this  white c o l l a r  same p e r i o d , jobs.  there  was a 90 percent  The l a r g e s t  share  the  managerial  and  1986, women went from h o l d i n g  of t h i s  the r e g i o n ' s m a n a g e r i a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j o b s . women continued occupations: services.  i n c r e a s e was i n  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s . 15 percent  increase i n  Between 1971  t o 32 percent of However, i n 1986,  t o dominate f o u r of the r e g i o n ' s white  teaching, Also  medical  during  the  and  same  health,  time  clerical,  period,  i n c r e a s e d t h e i r share of c l e r i c a l occupations  collar  women  and had  from 73.4 t o 79.1  percent.  4.2.1  In  O f f i c e and Employment Growth i n Burnaby  the mid-1970s,  Region  Program,  when  there  the GVRD was d e v e l o p i n g  was minimal  office  i t s Livable  development  outside  61 the  City  of  Vancouver.  In  1971,  Burnaby  had  only  322,000  square f e e t of o f f i c e space i n b u i l d i n g s over 5,000 square [5]  (Real  remainder  Estate  Board  of  Greater  of the o f f i c e uses  Vancouver,  i n Burnaby  was  feet  1971).  The  located either i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r uses, such as i n d u s t r y , o r i n v e r y s m a l l o f f i c e developments  along major  arterials.  During the 1970s, although the amount of suburban o f f i c e remained  low,  Burnaby  was  one  of  the  two  municipalities  (Burnaby and Richmond) t o r e c e i v e the m a j o r i t y of new office  development.  office  Between  1971  and  1979,  growth  the  suburban amount  space, i n b u i l d i n g s l a r g e r than 5,000 square f e e t ,  by 500 p e r c e n t i n Burnaby t o almost 2 m i l l i o n square f e e t Estate  Board  represented  of  Greater  Vancouver,  1979).  7 p e r c e n t of the r e g i o n ' s t o t a l  This  office  of  grew (Real  amount  space  and  p r o v i d e d Burnaby w i t h the second l a r g e s t amount i n the r e g i o n .  Burnaby's  overall  greater.  From 2.25  1974, The  Burnaby  grew t o 9.7 share  accordingly  square  office  feet)  use.  commercial  floorspace of commercial  was  even  space i n  m i l l i o n square f e e t of space by  from  of  of  the  1987).  Burnaby's  Between  region's  1983  and  By  1986,  commercial 1987,  1986.  commercial  3 percent i n 1974  ( C o r p o r a t i o n of Burnaby,  million for  in  m i l l i o n square f e e t  municipality's  increased 1986  growth  over  space  to 9 percent i n 48 p e r c e n t floor  space  800,000  (4.7 was  square  f e e t of o f f i c e space was  b u i l t i n Burnaby  G r e a t e r Vancouver,  and by the end of the 1980s t h e r e were  1987)  (Real E s t a t e Board of  62 over 6 m i l l i o n  square f e e t  of o f f i c e  space l o c a t e d  i n Burnaby  (GVRD, 1989).  During the 1970s and 1980s, much of the o f f i c e Burnaby  was  spread  municipality. and  office  development  i t saw  function.  several  locations  The l o c a l m u n i c i p a l government  commercial  because  among  each  area  in  number  as s e r v i n g  Besides Metrotown,  development  a  i n two  development i n  an  of  throughout  the  supported  office  different  areas  important  and  useful  Burnaby p e r m i t t e d and encouraged  suburban business  centres  (Central  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Area and Willingdon/Freeway Centre) ( F i g u r e 4 ) , numerous commercial a r t e r i a l s , such as Hastings S t r e e t , and the industrial  By 1986, in  areas.  32 percent of Burnaby's o f f i c e  industrial  areas  (Corporation  f l o o r s p a c e was  of Burnaby,  1987).  located However,  the  M u n i c i p a l i t y expected t h a t the emphasis would begin t o move  to  Metrotown  and  Burnaby's o f f i c e on  a  the  two  suburban  office  centres  because  and commercial s e r v i c e s were expected t o take  region-serving  role  requirements of the l o c a l  as  their  growth  exceeded  the  population.  Although Burnaby's p o p u l a t i o n grew by 16 percent and i t s l a b o u r force  increased  municipality's force  by  42  share  declined.  of  percent  between  the  region's  Meanwhile,  Burnaby  1971  and  population saw  an  1986, and  the  labour  increase  employment and an i n c r e a s e i n i t s share as the p l a c e of work  in  63  F i g u r e 4: B U R N A B Y ' S M A J O R O F F I C E  f o r the r e g i o n ' s r e s i d e n t s . residents employed 1981,  worked  i n Burnaby  LOCATIONS  Whereas,  9 percent o f the r e g i o n ' s  i n 1971, by  1981  Burnaby  firms  10.5 percent of the r e g i o n ' s workers (GVRD, 1985).  over  commuters,  60 percent  of the jobs  t h a t i s workers who  lived  i n Burnaby  were  held  In by  i n another m u n i c i p a l i t y .  64 In  1986,  there  Burnaby  were  had  over  Clearly  with  a  people  living  69,000 jobs  73,000  large in  within  employed  number  other  of  the  municipality  residents  (GVRD,  Burnaby's  jobs  municipalities  many  1990a).  being of  but  held  by  Burnaby's  r e s i d e n t s were r e q u i r e d to go o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y to work.  4.2.2  O f f i c e and Employment Growth i n Richmond  Richmond has been d e s c r i b e d  as  "well-favoured f o r a v a r i e t y of o f f i c e activities, both a n c i l l a r y to i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s , and also "independent" and f r e e - s t a n d i n g , due to such f a c t o r s as i t s r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y to the C i t y of Vancouver and i t s CBD, the s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . . . over the l a s t decade, and the l o c a t i o n of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t w i t h i n Richmond's m u n i c i p a l boundaries." (Ley & Hutton, 1983, p.12)  In  1971,  Richmond had  115,000 square  f e e t of  office  space  b u i l d i n g s over 5,000 square f e e t (Real E s t a t e Board of Vancouver, of o f f i c e grew by feet. share  As  space,  over Also,  600  However, between 1971 i n buildings greater percent  between  and  1981,  i n Burnaby, a l a r g e share  office  primarily business  1970s and  i n the parks  or  focused  outside  the  the  airport.  amount  almost 900,000 square  Richmond  quadrupled  its  percent.  development  o u t s i d e i t s town c e n t r e . town  m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s numerous near  the  of Richmond's o f f i c e  1980s was  development  197 9,  Greater  than 5,000 square f e e t ,  i n Richmond to  1971  and  of the r e g i o n ' s o f f i c e s from .9 to 4.1  d u r i n g the The  1971).  in  centre  has  industrial  Between  1985  located  areas and  and 1989,  65 more than 50 percent of Richmond's new in  industrial  zones  because  the  o f f i c e space was  municipality  percent o f f i c e use i n some i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . the  1980s, t h e r e were about  space  i n Richmond  (GVRD,  4.8  million  located  permits  100  By the end  square  feet  1989), p r o v i d i n g the  of  of  office  region's  third  l a r g e s t s t o c k of o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e .  From 1971  t o 1986  population  and  r e s i d e n t labour  75 p e r c e n t , w h i l e 1990c).  Richmond underwent s u b s t a n t i a l growth i n i t s  Richmond  the  labour  also  force.  The  p o p u l a t i o n grew  f o r c e grew by  increased  129  i t s share  of  employed labour f o r c e , from 6 percent i n 1971 1986, to  7.6  as w e l l as percent  increase  force. were  (GVRD,  in  municipality  kept  1985  pace  &  in  establishments  1990c).  At  to 8.8  the  opportunities  with  the decade  the  (GVRD,  region's  percent i n  of the r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n , from 6  employment  During added  i t s share  percent  by  the  from  Richmond  and  i n c r e a s e d by  over  located  growth  1971  in  to  1981,  during  the  250  same time,  percent  the  in  resident  the labour  32,000 new 1980s  jobs  business  (Corporation  of  Richmond, 1989).  A  1985  1985)  origin-destination indicated  did  labour not  Furthermore, t h i s study workers, t h a t  undertaken by  t h a t Richmond was  the p r o p o r t i o n of municipality  study  the  force l i v i n g decrease  the  GVRD (GVRD,  o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y where and working  between  1971  i n the and  same 1985.  r e v e a l e d Richmond as a net importer  i s more workers were commuting i n t o  Richmond  of to  66 work than were commuting out t o jobs elsewhere Over 55 percent  i n the region.  of Richmond's jobs were h e l d by commuters i n  1981.  In  1986, the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s  resident  employed  labour  force  i n c l u d e d 56,000 workers, and i n 1987, the m u n i c i p a l i t y had jobs for  58,000  employees (GVRD,  jobs  had i n c r e a s e d t o 65,000  The  majority,  following  over  1990a).  ( C o r p o r a t i o n of Richmond, 1989).  two-thirds,  industries:  By 1989, t h e number o f  of  the jobs  S e r v i c e s ; Trade;  Finance,  were  i n the  Insurance and  Real E s t a t e ; and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  By  t h e mid-1980s,  women  had s u b s t a n t i a l l y  increased  participation  i n the Richmond workforce.  in  f o r c e had grown from 44.1 percent  the labour  percent  participation i n 1971 t o 63  i n 1986. More i m p o r t a n t l y , Richmond's women were more  strongly in  Their  their  represented  among the r e s i d e n t s h o l d i n g jobs  the m u n i c i p a l i t y [6].  Whereas women formed  located  43 percent of  Richmond's r e s i d e n t labour f o r c e , they occupied 48.6 percent of the  local  percent clerical  jobs  h e l d by r e s i d e n t s (GVRD,  o f Richmond's occupations,  female  resident  but 81 percent  1985). labour  Seventy-eight force  were i n  of the c l e r i c a l  jobs i n  Richmond were h e l d by women who l i v e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The c o r o l l a r y of these  observations  i s t h a t fewer women l i v i n g i n  Richmond were commuting out of the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o work men.  than  67 4.3 REGIONAL TOWN CENTRES  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Region  Program  3, i n the mid-1970s t h e GVRD's L i v a b l e  (LRP) i d e n t i f i e d  Burnaby,  New  Westminster,  mid-1980s  two more c e n t r e s  four  regional  Coquitlam,  and  town  centres:  Surrey.  had been added,  By t h e  one on t h e North  Shore and one i n Richmond.  The  development of the r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s d i d not occur as  rapidly  as the GVRD had a n t i c i p a t e d .  A GVRD r e p o r t  concluded  t h a t by t h e end of the 1970s "suburban office growth has y e t t o produce the concentrations of o f f i c e employment required to s t i m u l a t e growth i n the a s s o c i a t e d s e r v i c e , r e t a i l o r shopping centre facilities. Nor has i t been c o n c e n t r a t e d enough t o c r e a t e s i g n i f i c a n t m u n i c i p a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o c i . " (GVRD, 1981, p.18)  4.3.1  At  Burnaby's Regional Town Centre  t h e same  Burnaby's  time  (293 miles  the GVRD's  Municipal  Kingsway/Central Metrotown  as  Council  (Metrotown)  LRP was was  being  designating  the  Park area as a major development c e n t r e c a l l e d  (Figure  5).  The designated  h e c t a r e s ) , of which 238 acres  area  a r e park,  covers  3 illustrates  735 acres  and i s l o c a t e d 6  (9.5 k i l o m e t r e s ) from downtown Vancouver.  Chapter  developed,  As F i g u r e 1 i n  Burnaby's Metrotown i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e s t of the r e g i o n .  68  F i g u r e 5:  METROTOWN  As mentioned i n Chapter a designated develop. and  was  1973, of  3, Metrotown was  town c e n t r e p r i m a r i l y  chosen by the GVRD as  because i t would be easy  to  I t had been designated m u n i c i p a l l y as an urban c e n t r e already a t t r a c t i n g  o f f i c e s and  other development.  the C e n t r a l Park area had over h a l f a m i l l i o n square  commercial  selection  as  space.  A  a designated  the proposed LRT  route.  further  argument  town c e n t r e was  for  In feet  Metrotown's  i t s location  along  69 The  GVRD a n t i c i p a t e d  t h a t Metrotown would be  self-sufficient,  i n c l u d i n g more than one m i l l i o n square f e e t of o f f i c e space, by 1980.  However, by  the  end  of the  1970s, Burnaby's  Metrotown  had o n l y reached s l i g h t l y more than h a l f a m i l l i o n square of o f f i c e  space.  During the p e r i o d  62 p e r c e n t of the o f f i c e  1971  t o 1979,  growth i n Burnaby was  Metrotown (GVRD, 1981). c e n t r e was  from  feet  almost  located outside  Even so, the o f f i c e growth i n the town  equal t o more than twice the t o t a l amount of  office  space t h a t e x i s t e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y a t the b e g i n n i n g of the 1970s.  In  1985,  space,  Metrotown  and  increased  by to  1990b).  the 25  The  occurred  in  commercial  end  of  percent,  largest  since  Transit)  contained  1980s,  of  million  burst  in  commercial  of the ALRT  almost  added.  3.3 By  Burnaby's  Metrotown's  1.6  with  development  the  percent  or  the opening  1986,  21  square  share  feet  (GVRD,  million 1991,  Light  square  the  year  either  under  Burnaby,  The  Other  B.C.  construction  currently or  being  over  835,000  proposed  of had and,  million square  by  feet  ( C o r p o r a t i o n of  1991).  largest  the  t h e r e are  Rapid  Metrotown  f i g u r e i s p r o j e c t e d t o reach over 2.6  2006,  has  feet  grown t o i n c l u d e almost 1.7 m i l l i o n square f e e t of o f f i c e s although t h i s  had  development  (Advanced  early  office  single  amount of o f f i c e  Telephone  significant  Company  office  space  headquarters  developments  i n Metrotown (644,000  include  i s at  sq.ft.).  Metrotown P l a c e  70 (293,700 s q . f t . ) and of  Metrotower  (308,000 s q . f t . )  (Corporation  Burnaby, 1991) .  Metrotown i s estimated  to be home to almost 17,000 people,  a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 3 m i l e s of the c e n t r e . town  centre  Based on  is  The  multiple  150,000 to 200,000 l i v i n g  m a j o r i t y of the housing  family  the c u r r e n t zoning,  housing,  over  with  within  within  10,000  the  units.  the m u n i c i p a l i t y a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t  t h e r e w i l l be an a d d i t i o n a l 4,000 people  living  i n the area  by  2006.  There are two as  well  centre's major  as  ALRT s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the Metrotown over  three  public  10,000  shopping  parking malls.  initiatives,  Besides  including a  additional  public  these  also  facilities  spaces,  information  (for  facilities,  provided  148  kiosks,  contains  by  the  children), and  the some  r e c r e a t i o n complex,  there  are sector  These i n c l u d e  community  plazas  a  parking  private  w i t h i n Metrotown's core commercial developments. daycare  with  square and a m u n i c i p a l  public  amenities  associated  Metrotown  major r e f e r e n c e l i b r a r y , a c i v i c facility.  spaces  area,  meeting  accentuated  with  s c u l p t u r e s and water f e a t u r e s .  Guiding  the  development  Community P l a n  of  (Corporation  Metrotown of Burnaby,  is  Burnaby's  1987)  that  Official identifies  the town c e n t r e as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r o f f i c e development w i t h i n the  municipality.  Within  this  plan,  the  municipality  has  71 incorporated Program, the  the  that  objective  i s t o balance  GVRD's o b j e c t i v e s  of  the  jobs  GVRD's  Livable  and p o p u l a t i o n .  Similar to  f o r Regional Town Centres,  Burnaby  sees Metrotown as p r o v i d i n g more t o the community employment Community  opportunities. Plan  To t h i s  identifies  regard,  the development  than  Burnaby's of  Region  also  simply  Official  Metrotown  as  p r o v i d i n g some of the f o l l o w i n g b e n e f i t s : o  "Development of an i n t e g r a t e d and i d e n t i f i a b l e focus of commercial, s o c i a l , and r e s i d e n t i a l components t h a t w i l l form t h e b a s i s of the primary urban core f o r t h e Municipality  o  I n t e n s i f i e d urban c h a r a c t e r of Metrotown w i l l broaden the range of r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, employment, entertainment and c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e Municipality  o  Provision of s u b s t a n t i a l employment opportunities w i t h i n Metrotown w i l l a s s i s t i n the maintenance o f a balanced employment/population r a t i o . . .  o  Produce r e c i p r o c a l b e n e f i t s w i t h S k y t r a i n providing e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r users of Metrotown who i n turn provide a d d i t i o n a l r i d e r s h i p f o r the S k y t r a i n system". ( C o r p o r a t i o n of Burnaby, 1987, p.38)  Based on t h e c u r r e n t 1990s should the call  centre.  development proposals  see an i n c r e a s e i n the mixture of uses i n c l u d e d i n Future  plans  f o r the c i v i c  f o r t h e development of other  a r t g a l l e r y o r performing a r t s  Future  f o r Metrotown, t h e  Municipal  plans  Metrotown's p e d e s t r i a n of t h e p e d e s t r i a n  also  network.  civic  centre,  facilities  such as an  centre.  include  further  upgrading  to  Up t o t h i s p o i n t , t h e m a j o r i t y  improvements have been focused  s i d e of t h e c e n t r e ' s  f o r example,  on t h e south  major commercial developments and adjacent  72 to  the t r a n s i t  developments.  system,  and t o the i n t e r i o r  However,  municipal  staff  o f the commercial hope  to  include  improvements t o the p e d e s t r i a n f a c i l i t i e s along Kingsway i n the f u t u r e development p r o p o s a l s f o r the area.  4.3.2  Richmond's Regional Town Centre  F i g u r e 6: R I C H M O N D T O W N C E N T R E  Richmond's  town  centre  LOCATION  development  d u r i n g the mid-1970s i n the Brighouse to the completion  was  originally  Core Area  s e t out  Study.  of t h i s study, two major shopping  Prior  c e n t r e s had  73 been developed, and  the  the  Richmond  Lansdowne Centre,  Centre,  built  constructed  d i s p e r s e d development of these two  i n the  i n the  mid-1960s,  mid-1970s.  c e n t r e s was  The  i d e n t i f i e d as  a  problem which has c o n t i n u a l l y hindered the c o h e s i v e development of the Richmond Town Centre.  However as F i g u r e 6  the  centrally  Richmond  portion  of  Town the  120,000 people  During for town  the  the  centre  "downtown"  1980s the  centre.  mid-1970s.  o  I t was  o  It  serving  a  in  the  population  was  too  subarea  municipality refined  Richmond large  of  215  urban  of  over  recognized  (1,100  acres  acres)  and  its  concepts  that  the  original  and  designated  within  that  a  a  "downtown  ( F i g u r e 7).  As mentioned i n Chapter areas  located  i n the Richmond m u n i c i p a l i t y alone.  c o r e " of 43 acres  four  is  municipality,  early  town  Centre  illustrates,  designated  3, Richmond was by  the  GVRD  not one of the  as  a  The Richmond Town Centre was  town  original  centre  in  the  not chosen because:  a l r e a d y d e v e l o p i n g without d e s i g n a t i o n ;  would  be  too  expensive  to  provide  rapid  transit  to  Richmond; o  There  would  be  traffic  and  noise  conflict  between  d e v e l o p i n g town c e n t r e and an expanding a i r p o r t ; o  The  competition  between  commercial  p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land and  be c o n t r a r y t o r e g i o n a l p o l i c y  development the  a  and and  the  f l o o d p l a i n would  (GVRD, 1974c & 1987).  74 However, the GVRD its  list  formally  added  the Richmond Town Centre t o  of RTCs i n 1987 i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the c e n t r e ' s  strong  commercial p o s i t i o n i n the r e g i o n .  F i g u r e 7: R I C H M O N D T O W N  CENTRE  S e a Island W a y  —7 Cambie Rd  B tlj  Town Centre Downtown Downtown C o r e  Westminster H w y  Granville A v e  Blundell R d Source: Richmond, 1989a and 1991  " C e r t a i n l y , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of r e l a t i v e market performance i n the years subsequent t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of the L i v a b l e Region P l a n , Richmond might have presented a b e t t e r c h o i c e as a designated RTC than Burnaby o r New Westminster" (Ley & Hutton, 1983, p . 7 ) . When Ley and Hutton  ( 1983)  wrote  this  statement i n t h e e a r l y  1980s, t h e i r comments were based p r i m a r i l y on Richmond's population  growth  rates  during  share of the m e t r o p o l i t a n  Over 38 percent 1971  and  more  than  T h i s was ten  was By  because  restricted  the  1.4  by  highrise  the  municipality's Airport.  Brighouse  1970s, the of  office  area  (280,000  Brighouse area  space  (GVRD,  had  1981).  end  of  million  the  square  1980s, the feet  or  Richmond almost  type  office  municipality's by  the  to  developments  requirement  height  proximity  been l e s s dramatic  that  restrictions  the  than  have  30  all  parking  imposed  Vancouver  storey of  office mainly  o n l y been d u r i n g taller as  two  and  last  few  developers the  December 1989, towers  begin  by  were 23  awaiting  storey  to  town  centre  buildings.  It  to is has  begun t o  o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s appear on i t s use  more  parking  creative  by  the  designs  requirements.  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r 12  approval  the  International  years t h a t Richmond has  municipality's  there  Richmond's  three  ( s i x to nine storey)  accommodate  The  the  buildings,  in  been  Whereas Burnaby's Metrotown accommodates some ten  comprised  1990).  the  i n Richmond has  above grade and  office  increasing  of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s o f f i c e space (GVRD, 1990b).  Burnaby  skyline  in  feet  By  contained  O f f i c e development  see  its  stock.  of the  square  previously.  centre  twenty  and  double the amount of space i n the e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y  percent  be  located  the end  500,000  years  town  office  1970s  of the o f f i c e space growth i n Richmond, between  1979,  square f e e t ) .  the  strong  to  municipality  15  to In  storey  (Godley,  m u n i c i p a l i t y expects t h a t h i g h - r i s e commercial  and  76 residential  towers w i l l become common a d d i t i o n s t o the Richmond  s k y l i n e as the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n  d e n s i t i e s continue to  increase.  Based  on the c u r r e n t  town  centre,  the  development  1990s  will  developments which i n c l u d e in  July  the  1989, four  Richmond  included  town  office,  see  retail,  supportive  offer of  a  increase  i n mixed-use  component.  F o r example,  a  applications i n  mixture  residential  and  of uses  hotel  space p r o v i d e d ,  combination  the o b j e c t i v e s  f o r the Richmond  development  proposed  Depending on the type of o f f i c e developments  an  an o f f i c e  out of eleven centre  proposals  of  of  the  which  activities.  the mixed-use  activities Regional  which  are  Town  Centre  (Richmond,  1986)  Program.  The  Richmond  recognizes  Official  the  development  town  within  Community  centre the  as  a  Plan focal  municipality.  point More  for  office  recently,  the  m u n i c i p a l i t y has i d e n t i f i e d the town c e n t r e as the l o c a t i o n f o r increased expect  residential  that  the m a j o r i t y  w i l l be focussed  Like  Burnaby,  Livable  provides  growth  as  of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s  well. future  Program  adopted  the o b j e c t i v e s  and Regional  and p o p u l a t i o n ,  growth  of the GVRD's  Town Centre  and t o c r e a t e  strategy, to  a town c e n t r e  a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  range of people.  They  on the c e n t r e .  Richmond  Region  balance jobs  and p o p u l a t i o n  The emphasis of Richmond's f i r s t  that  f o r a wide "Town Centre  77 Area  Plan"  (Corporation  development,  although  of  Richmond,  1989b)  i t recognized  that  was  there  on  office  are  other  e s s e n t i a l elements as i n d i c a t e d i n the goals below: "To create, i n Richmond, an accessible central l o c a t i o n f o r urban a c t i v i t i e s , i n order t o develop high quality working and living environments, s a t i s f y i n g both economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s of the community and the r e g i o n . To c r e a t e a downtown w i t h i n the Town Centre t h a t increases employment opportunities; increases shopping, recreational, cultural, educational, community, and s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; promotes housing o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; s t i m u l a t e s an i n c r e a s e i n the use of public transit; and develops an a c t i v e and v i t a l p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d c e n t r e f o r Richmond." (p.7) When  the  Town  prepared  in  Centre's  the  Official  mid-1980s,  working  i n the Town Centre  living  in  1989b).  6,300  By  dwelling  1991, there  there  units  were  unit the  of the d w e l l i n g s  developments. total  units. capacity  over  people  being  12,000  (Corporation  22,000  was  people  of 10,000 of  living  people  Richmond, and  13,000  ( C i t y of Richmond, 1991).  i n the town c e n t r e  In 1985,  residential  were  Plan  and a p o p u l a t i o n  working i n the Town Centre area majority  Community  are i n m u l t i p l e  the m u n i c i p a l i t y estimated  capacity  i n the town  The  centre  The m u n i c i p a l i t y i s c u r r e n t l y reviewing  was  that 10,000  the r e s i d e n t i a l  f o r the Town Centre and a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t the  Centre's  r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d t r i p l e w i t h i n the next 20 years t o over 60,000  people.  The Richmond Town Centre has tended t o i n c l u d e a s t r o n g component. Richmond's  In 1989, the Town Centre retail  space,  and  contained  i n 1990,  an  retail  40 percent  additional  of  160,000  78 square  feet  o f commercial  Square/Richmond  Centre  space  Malls.  v a r i e t y of o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , college,  was  added  t o t h e Richmond  The Town Centre  also  offers  a  i n c l u d i n g a h o s p i t a l , a community  a recreation/activity  c e n t r e , the m u n i c i p a l h a l l ,  a  l i v e t h e a t r e and two group daycare c e n t r e s .  The Town Centre P l a n a l s o have y e t t o be f u l l y centre.  identifies  a number of f e a t u r e s t h a t  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the development o f t h e  Consistent with  the GVRD's  prescription  f o r regional  town c e n t r e s , t h e Richmond Town Centre w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e region's  rapid  Centre  is  transit  currently  system. in  c o n s t r u c t i o n was expected 1995.  Delays  the  Rapid  transit  planning  to  t h e Town  phase.  Initially,  t o begin i n 1992 w i t h completion by  i n the p l a n n i n g  phase  have  now  pushed  the  a n t i c i p a t e d completion date back t o 1997.  Richmond r e c o g n i z e s t h a t as the Town Centre develops i t should become l e s s dependent on automobile t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . this  objective,  requirements  the  municipality  f o r higher  Centre's downtown c o r e . percent downtown  f o r the t r a n s i t subarea,  local  employment  local  service.  Another  area  Richmond's  relaxed  development  the in  parking  the  Richmond has a l s o s e t a t a r g e t modal  of 10  t h e Town  Centre's  and has r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  the Town  Centre's  emphasis  Centre,  as  split  Town  into  opportunities  of  Town  density  has  To f u r t h e r  require  f o r the noted  an  improved  future  earlier  level  of  development  of  with  Burnaby, i s  79 improvement to t h i s end, and  the  centre's  the m u n i c i p a l i t y has  guidelines  development various  f o r the  of  a  space,  such  as  routes;  and  the  Finally,  reduction  of  has  system  including the  and  CONCLUSION  The  majority  of  employment and and  the  bicycle  from the  Centre.  that  for a  Greater  Richmond.  experiencing  d i v e r s i t y of  Vancouver  Region's  suburban  However, the  two  municipalities  less  town c e n t r e s of  centres. growth  population  i n the  office  two  space  Both town centres in  features, centres  the  employment such  have  as  growth  than  and  office  become  located  i n the  population. floorspace  established  In  and  town  offering  the  complete  the  almost  50  town  significant quantitative  employment,  centres;  range  market.  six regional  have been e x p e r i e n c i n g  and  Richmond.  municipalities contain  each r e q u i r e f u r t h e r improvements before centres  offer  Burnaby i s a more mature m u n i c i p a l i t y  Burnaby's employment i s s e r v i n g a more r e g i o n a l labour  percent  future  o f f i c e space i s l o c a t e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of  different profiles.  The  open  of  recognized  Town Centre must allow  the  linking  parks  creation  through t r a f f i c  explicitly  stress:  income groups.  4.4  is  also  pedestrian  plazas;  To  design p r i n c i p l e s  Future plans  centre  and  i n the  c u l t u r a l and  the  miniparks  Richmond  development  centre.  in  urban d e s i g n .  been p r e p a r i n g  comprehensive  activities  Burnaby  human s c a l e and  the  however,  two they  they w i l l become v i t a l of  facilities  and  80  a c t i v i t i e s necessary t o compete with downtown Vancouver.  To determine t h e q u a l i t y  of working environment t h a t Burnaby's  Metrotown and the Richmond Town Centre office  workers  and t o e s t a b l i s h  p r e f e r r e d work l o c a t i o n s , working  a t both  Burnaby  and Richmond.  from  these  requirements office  town  interviews  whether  town  centres are  i n t e r v i e w s were conducted  centre  and non-town  The next  chapter  and p r o v i d e s  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  locations.  a r e p r o v i d i n g f o r women  of women  centre  presents  some  w i t h women  the r e s u l t s  insight  working  firms i n  into  the  i n suburban  81 CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTIONS OF  5.1  INTRODUCTION  This  chapter  employees during  presents  in  the  analyzed Livable  fall of  and  and the  Richmond  winter  i n Chapter  female suburban  to  of  interview  Region Program and  interviews  1990/91.  results,  the three Regional  the  office  conducted  Following  a  responses  are  o b j e c t i v e s of the GVRD's Town Centres  strategy,  as  examine  the  3.  METHODOLOGY  semi-structured  importance workers  of  in  they p r o v i d e  interview  work four  municipalities  the  responses of  i n accordance with  discussed  The  the  Burnaby  presentation  5.2  FEMALE SUBURBAN OFFICE WORKERS  of  format  location suburban  Burnaby  and  was  used  setting  locations.  and  Richmond  to The  were  to  female two  office suburban  selected  because  the l a r g e s t share of suburban o f f i c e employment i n  Vancouver  area  and  they  each  include  a  regional  town  centre.  A  sample  of  four  cross-referencing within  the  of  firms  was  randomly  a GVRD i n v e n t o r y  municipalities  of  Burnaby  of  selected  a l l office  and  Richmond  from  a  locations and  the  82 p u b l i c a t i o n "Contacts Target  Marketing" (1990) which  identifies  f i r m s by type of a c t i v i t y and s i z e , as w e l l as by l o c a t i o n .  To  ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , only firms with more than s i x employees were s e l e c t e d i n the sample. number  table.  One o f f i c e  regional  town  centre  Richmond  town  centre,  located  S e l e c t i o n was based  firm  was  (Metrotown),  on a random  selected  i n t h e Burnaby  one  chosen  and the other  was  two o f f i c e  i n Burnaby and Richmond o u t s i d e  their  i n the  firms  were  designated  town  centres.  The  four  office,  firms  that  a funeral  were  selected  home operator,  r e s e a r c h and development c e n t r e . from 50 t o over than 50 percent the r e s e a r c h  The  included:  an insurance  a  union  head  company, and a  The four f i r m s ranged i n s i z e  150 employees, and women workers  formed more  of the employees a t a l l of t h e f i r m s , except a t  and development company.  f i r m i n Burnaby's Metrotown had been a t the same l o c a t i o n  for t h i r t y - f i v e years.  The other  Burnaby f i r m had been i n t h e  m u n i c i p a l i t y , a t the same l o c a t i o n s i n c e the f i r m was formed i n the  early  present  1980s.  The two Richmond  l o c a t i o n f o r l e s s than  firms  f i v e years  had been but both  at their previously  had been l o c a t e d elsewhere i n Richmond.  The by  o f f i c e manager or a d m i n i s t r a t o r letter  listing six  t o request  of t h e i r  female  the f i r m ' s  cooperation  female employees.  employees were asked  f o r each f i r m was c o n t a c t e d  Only  and t o o b t a i n  firms with  to participate.  a  more than  A sample o f  83 female and to  employees  was randomly  each woman was sent  selected  each  firm's  list  a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n and requested  p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r v i e w .  from each f i r m .  from  S i x women were  To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y ,  interviewed  the f i r m s were not  n o t i f i e d as t o which employees were chosen o r who had agreed t o participate.  The  interview  topics  covered:  the type  of work,  basic  work  h i s t o r y , t h e method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and from work, and t h e l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n with the o f f i c e l o c a t i o n , i t s surrounding area  and t h e l o c a l  followed  a  facilities  general  discussion  specific  topics  questions  were presented  At  no time  listed  during  and a m e n i t i e s .  in  format  the  that  Each  interview  focused  questionnaire.  on t h e  The  same  t o each p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e same o r d e r .  the i n t e r v i e w s  were  the names  of  other  p a r t i c i p a t i n g employees o r firms mentioned.  5.3 PRESENTATION OF INTERVIEW  T h i s s e c t i o n presents  RESULTS  a summary  of the i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s ,  some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the author.  The r e s u l t s  under the f o l l o w i n g sub-headings:  o  P r o f i l e of the Interviewees;  o  Work Context;  o  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o Work; and  o  Workplace L o c a t i o n and Surrounding Area.  with  a r e presented  84  5.3.1  The  P r o f i l e of the Interviewees  majority  (almost  50  between 25 and 34 years women  were  relationship not  either  s i n g l e parents  children  o f ' age (Table 2 ) .  married  Fewer  or  living  Two-thirds in  than  20 percent  a  were  of  the  common-law  o f t h e women were  (one lone parent p e r workplace).  15 percent  than  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Table 3) and almost one-half o f those couples d i d  have c h i l d r e n .  more  percent)  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  Only  slightly  had p r e s c h o o l age  (Table 4 ) .  Table 2: Age Group  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY A G E GROUP Burnaby  Burnaby  Richmond  Town Centre  Non-Town Centre  Town Centre  16.7  16.7  50.0 33.3  66.6 ,  33.3  16.7  50.0 16.7  15-24 yrs 25-34 yrs  33.3  35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs  33.3 33.3  Richmond Non-Town Centre  Total 8.3 45.8 29.2 16.7  55-64 yrs  Table 3:  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY MARITAL STATUS  Marital  Burnaby Town Centre  Burnaby Non-Town Centre  Richmond Town Centre  Richmond Non-Town Centre  Married  50.0  33.3 50.0  83.3  83.3  8.3 66.7  Other  50.0  16.7  16.7  16.7  25.0  Status Single  Table 4: Living Arrangement Alone  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY FAMILY OR LIVING ARRANGEMENT Burnaby Town Centre 33.3  With Parents Couple, No Child  Total  Burnaby Non-Town Centre 16.7  Richmond Town Centre  Richmond Non-Town Centre  12.5 4.2  16.7 16.7  33.3  Total  50.0  50.0  37.5  33.3  16.7  16.7  16.7  12.5  16.7  16.7  Couple with: Child < 6 yrs old  16.7  Child > 6 yrs old  16.7  16.7  16.7  16.7  Lone parent with: Child < 6 yrs old Child > 6 yrs old  16.7  85 The  respondents  profiles  o f t h e women w o r k i n g  Richmond, Burnaby  except  a l l of  differences  i n Burnaby  the single  between  i n Richmond.  the personal  5.3.2  Work  were  working i n working  women w i t h o u t  in  children  T h e r e were no n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  profiles  and those working  between t h e  and those  women  and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m a r r i e d  were w o r k i n g  centres  p r o v i d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  o f t h e women  working  i n t h e non-town c e n t r e  i n town  locations.  Context  T y p e o f Work  The  participants  major and  types  Other  represented  women  of industry: Finance,  Services.  office  Insurance  and  (Table 5).  Almost  jobs  and a  large  firm  l o c a t e d i n t h e B u r n a b y town c e n t r e .  Type of Work  and R e a l  Administrative; 50 p e r c e n t  and  the C l e r i c a l  of the participants  portion of the c l e r i c a l  jobs  two  Estate; i n the  categories  held were  clerical with the  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY TYPE OF WORK Burnaby Town Centre  Burnaby Non-Town Centre  100.0  33.3  Clerical Technical Prof'l/Mgr'l  Richmond Town Centre  Richmond Non-Town Centre  33.3. 66.7  33.3 16.7 .  66.7  The  women w o r k i n g  in  clerical  operating  from  T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s were c o n c e n t r a t e d  Managerial  Table 5:  workers  activities.  funeral  homes  45.8 20.6  - 50.0  a t the union The were  headquarters women  primarily  were  employed  Total  33.3  a l linvolved at  the  firm  involved i n accounting  86  and  bookkeeping work, w h i l e the women a t the i n s u r a n c e  company  h e l d p o s i t i o n s as c l e r k s and claims a d j u s t e r s .  Those women who  worked  represented the  a t the r e s e a r c h  widest  range  of  and development f i r m  jobs,  including  computer  specialists,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e managers and c l e r k s .  Length of Employment  The employees* l e n g t h of employment with t h r e e months t o t h i r t y years; firms  was  three  years.  the f i r m s ranged  however, the median f o r a l l t h e  The  length  of  employment  s u b s t a n t i a l l y between the four firms (Table 6 ) . the  varied  The median a t  f i r m l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the Burnaby town c e n t r e was one year,  while  Richmond's  employees, w i t h  non-town  centre  the median being  firm  corresponded  with  r e c e n t expansion short  While,  had the most  long-term  seven and a h a l f y e a r s .  median l e n g t h of employment a t both  the  from  town c e n t r e  firms  closely  the median f o r a l l f i r m s , t h r e e y e a r s . of Burnaby's non-town c e n t r e  length  of employment  t h e p r e s t i g e of working  f o r many  The  The  f i r m may e x p l a i n  of i t s  employees.  f o r Richmond's non-town  centre  f i r m may account f o r i t long-term employees. T a b l e 6: Length of Employment  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT WITH FIRM Burnaby  Burnaby  Richmond  Richmond  Town Centre  Non-Town Centre  Town Centre  Non-Town Centre  50.0  33.3  50.0  33.3 16.7  Less than 1 yr 1-3 yrs  33.3  3-5 yrs 5-10 yrs  33.3 16.7'  More than 10 yrs  16.7  16.7  Total 20.8 29.2  33.3  20.8  33.3  12.5  33.3  16.7  87 Previous  All to  Employment  o f t h e women i n t e r v i e w e d had worked o u t s i d e t h e home p r i o r receiving their  had  moved  current  directly  exceptions  noted,  j o b , and a l l but two of t h e women  from  one  job to  the next.  were a woman who had taken  The two  a maternity  leave  between j o b s , and a woman who had r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l t o f u r t h e r her  education.  actively  Slightly  seeking  employment. through  The  other  more  than  a new j o b when remainder means,  of  half  they  of t h e women  acquired  the women  primarily  their  found  through  were  current  their  jobs  personal  and  professional contacts.  Of a l l the women i n t e r v i e w e d , about 50 percent had been working previously previously workers  i n Vancouver i n Richmond  had  worked  20  over  (Table 7 ) .  previously  o n e - t h i r d had worked  and  percent  In Burnaby, a t h i r d i n the  worked of the  same  municipality,  i n Vancouver, and t h e r e s t  had worked i n  o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o r o u t s i d e the r e g i o n . half  had  of t h e employees  interviewed  In Richmond,  had p r e v i o u s l y worked i n  Vancouver and one t h i r d had worked i n Richmond. T a b l e 7:  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY PREVIOUS WORK LOCATION Burnaby Town Centre  Burnaby Non-Town Centre  Vancouver  33.3  33.3  Burnaby  33.3  33.3  Previous Work Location  16.7  Richmond North Shore New West Other  Richmond  Total  Town Centre  Richmond Non-Town Centre  50.0  66.7  45.8 16.7  50.0  16.7  20.8 4.2  16.7  4.2  16.7 16.7  16.7  over  8.3  88 Work L o c a t i o n Preference  Whereas  only  25  percent  of  the  Burnaby employees  which was  p r e f e r a b l y l o c a t e d i n Burnaby, h a l f  employees  stated  All  a  preference  for  of the Burnaby workers who  finding  seeking  work  Richmond  in  Richmond.  p r e f e r r e d work i n Burnaby worked Almost a l l of the  had a l s o c o n s i d e r e d working i n Vancouver when l a s t  work,  interviewed  of the  work  at the f i r m i n the non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n . workers, who  sought  now  worked  looked  in  Burnaby.  specifically  for  None  work  in  of a  the  women  town  centre  location.  The  most  common reason  was  the  type  Although their  of  given  work.  for accepting  The  second  reason  current  was  the  job  salary.  the l o c a t i o n of the job, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  home, was  of  less  importance,  common reason g i v e n  for accepting t h e i r  other  were  reasons  that  i t was  the  third  c u r r e n t job.  f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d were  work and e x i s t i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h the  5.3.3  their  The  the  most only  hours  of  firm.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n to Work  Car Usage  For a l l employees the p r i n c i p a l means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work was  by  car.  Two-thirds  c a r p o o l e d or shared  drove  themselves  a r i d e w i t h someone e l s e .  and Only  one-third 25  percent  89  of t h e women who shared a r i d e worked i n Burnaby. women who shared a r i d e worked i n Richmond. g r e a t e s t number of c a r p o o l e r s was l o c a t e d  Most o f t h e  The f i r m w i t h t h e  i n t h e Richmond town  c e n t r e , where t w o - t h i r d s of the women i n t e r v i e w e d shared a r i d e t o work.  The employees a t the non-town c e n t r e f i r m i n Richmond  noted t h a t  t h e i r employer  encouraged  c a r p o o l i n g by p r o v i d i n g a  r i d e s h a r i n g n o t i c e board.  T r i p Time  The  length  ranged  of t r i p s  t o work  from 5 t o 60 minutes,  time b e i n g 20 minutes travelled time  f o r a l l the women i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h the median l e n g t h o f t r a v e l  (Table 8 ) .  The women employed i n Burnaby  l o n g e r than those i n Richmond.  The median l e n g t h o f  f o r the Burnaby employees was over 25 minutes,  Richmond  i t was l e s s  than  15 minutes.  while f o r  The women working a t  Burnaby's non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n had the l o n g e s t t r i p s w i t h a median  travel  Richmond's  time  town  of 30 minutes.  centre  The women a t t h e f i r m i n  had the most  consistent  travel  w i t h a l l but one employee t r a v e l l i n g f o r 15 minutes  times  or less to  work. T a b l e 8: Travel Time  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY LENGTH OF TRIP TO WORK Burnaby  Burnaby  Richmond  Richmond  Town Centre  Non-Town Centre  Town Centre  Non-Town Centre  Total  < 15 min.  33.3  16.7  83.3  66.7  50.0  15-30 min.  66.7  33.3  16.7  16.7  33.3  16.7  12.5 4.2  30-45 min.  33.3  45-60 min.  .16.7  90 Two  of t h e women working  noted  that  rushhour  their  trip  traffic  women s a i d traffic.  that  c o u l d sometimes take  going they  i n Burnaby and one working  into  l o n g e r due t o t h e  the Vancouver.  came t o work e a r l y  The two Burnaby  to avoid the heavier  A l l but one of the firms had e i t h e r  compressed work week which helped  i n Richmond  reduce  flex-time  employees  or a  travelling  time.  Almost of  a l l o f t h e women's t r i p  home was by the same method and  t h e same l e n g t h as i t was t o work.  Only t h r e e women, two i n  Burnaby and one i n Richmond, s p e c i f i e d t h a t they sometimes made stops on t h e i r way home from work.  One Richmond woman s a i d she  u s u a l l y stopped a t the b a b y s i t t e r s t o p i c k up her c h i l d .  Transit  Less  than  50  alternative  method  occasionally was  percent  used  of  the  interviewees  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n another  ever  t o work.  method most used  used  an  Of those  who  transit,  fewer than 25 percent of the women i n t e r v i e w e d .  but t h a t The women  who o c c a s i o n a l l y used t r a n s i t a l l worked i n e i t h e r t h e Burnaby or  Richmond  restricted trip car.  town  centres.  t o bad weather  was a t l e a s t  In a l l cases,  The t r a n s i t  transit  transit  trip  use was  (snow) and they complained  two o r more times  transportation resulted home.  Their  as  usually that the  longer than t r a v e l l i n g by  the a l t e r n a t i v e  i n a longer t r a v e l lengths ranged  method  of  time t o work o r t o  from  30 minutes  to 2  91 hours.  The median t r a n s i t t r i p lengths were 30 minutes  Richmond women and 60 minutes the women working  i n either  ever used t r a n s i t because  f o r the Burnaby woman. of the non-town c e n t r e  f o r the None o f  locations  i n most cases i t was not a v a i l a b l e o r  the t r i p was t o o l o n g .  Most of t h e women s a i d travelling  that  c a r was t h e i r p r e f e r r e d method o f  t o work, however, on f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n many o f  the women (almost 50 percent) admitted t h a t they might c o n s i d e r transit  i f the system was more convenient  (better connections,  fewer t r a n s f e r s ) and the t r i p was s h o r t e r .  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e s  Fewer than (one  woman i n Burnaby  percent riders  sometimes  and one i n Richmond) and l e s s  travelled  both worked  facilities safe  10 percent of the women o c c a s i o n a l y walked  t o work by b i c y c l e .  i n Richmond  f o r cyclers  and complained  (i.e. insufficient  road  than 10  The b i c y c l e  about  t h e poor  allowance f o r  travel).  5.3.4  Workplace L o c a t i o n and Surrounding Area  Location  Satisfaction  The  t o work  final  series  satisfaction  of q u e s t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e d on each  or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  the l o c a t i o n  employee's of  their  92 workplace. said  Overall,  they  were  the m a j o r i t y  either  location  of t h e i r  slightly  more  satisfied  place  essentially  than  woman  satisfied  the Richmond  was  asked  to identify  her s a t i s f a c t i o n  the f e a t u r e s  The f e a t u r e s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d  interviewees  open  surrounding were  as being  available,  or  time  lunchtime  as l e a s t  facilities,  facilities  important  the t r a v e l  space,  with  that  the l o c a t i o n  were  could of her  by almost  the amount  a l l of of f r e e  between home and work, a eating  facilities,  area t h a t f e e l s s a f e and secure.  regarded  eating  but the  locations.  workplace.  park  women,  were  The o v e r a l l l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n was  to  parking  with the  The Burnaby women  contribute  the  (75 percent)  the same f o r the women working i n town c e n t r e and  non-town c e n t r e  Each  o r very  of work.  satisfied  d i f f e r e n c e was m a r g i n a l .  of the women  o r not important entertainment  and  a  The f e a t u r e s t h a t  included  activities,  dinnertime education  f o r e i t h e r the employee o r her f a m i l y , and daycare.  P a r k i n g and T r a v e l Time  Almost  a l l of the women were s a t i s f i e d  was a v a i l a b l e t o them. to  t h e i r employees.  time  with  the parking  A l l of the firms p r o v i d e d  free  parking  Most of the women were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e  i t takes them t o t r a v e l between t h e i r home and t h e i r  i r r e s p e c t i v e of the l e n g t h of t h e i r journey. who were d i s s a t i s f i e d the l o n g e s t d i s t a n c e .  that  work  The few employees  a l l worked i n Burnaby and were commuting  93 Parks and Open Space  Most o f t h e women who were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r access t o park and open space worked i n Burnaby. were d i s s a t i s f i e d , town c e n t r e . centre  particularly  Most of t h e Richmond workers  the women working o u t s i d e t h e  A l l but one of the women a t Richmond's non-town  location  were  dissatisfied  with  the  open  space  available.  Lunch  For  Facilities  almost  satisfied  a l l firms  with  the lunchtime  them.  The g r e a t e s t  centre  locations  although town  there  centre  the m a j o r i t y eating  dissatisfaction  where  facilities  was i n t h e two non-town  some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  as w e l l  were not  available to  a l l of the women were  was a l s o  locations  of the women  (one-third  dissatisfied,  i n both  of the  of t h e Burnaby and  Richmond town c e n t r e employees were d i s s a t i s f i e d ) .  S a f e t y and S e c u r i t y  Over  half  of the women  were  satisfied  with  the f e e l i n g  s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y i n the area around t h e i r workplace. women who were not s a t i s f i e d , in  Richmond's non-town c e n t r e  like felt  the i s o l a t i o n that  pedestrians.  traffic  Of t h e  a l l but one worked f o r t h e f i r m location.  of the workplace,  the t r u c k  of  made  These  especially the area  women d i d  not  a t n i g h t and dangerous f o r  94 Contributing  The  Features  o n l y f e a t u r e about t h e i r workplace t h a t some women f e l t may  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o accept was  "the time t h a t i t takes  and  t h e i r home", although  a  primary  seeking  t h e i r current job  them t o t r a v e l between t h e i r work  as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y t h i s was not  consideration  f o r the m a j o r i t y  o f t h e women when  employment.  Workplace Area D e s c r i p t i o n s  As  an i n d i c a t o r  of t h e i r  satisfaction  with  t h e area  t h e i r workplace was l o c a t e d , each woman was asked the  area.  The women's d e s c r i p t i o n s a l l tended  the  physical  descriptions  character  of the areas,  were more  s u b j e c t i v e than  i n which  to describe  t o emphasized  however,  some  of t h e  others.  F o r example,  some women s a i d t h a t "the area i s p l e a s a n t and p e a c e f u l " , w h i l e o t h e r s commented t h a t "the area has l o t s of t r e e s " .  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s given  more  positive  than  women working  by the women working  those  given  i n Metrotown  peace and q u i e t  of t h e park  by the Richmond  commented  Burnaby's  natural  non-town  setting  centre  and the neighbouring  location  but a l s o saw the area  b e i n g l o c a t e d i n the middle of nowhere.  women.  on the n i c e  a r e a , and the t r a f f i c and n o i s e of Kingsway. in  i n Burnaby  were The  park, t h e residential  The women working  appreciated  the area's  as n o n - d e s c r i p t  and as  95 The  women  centre  working  i n the Richmond  locations described  business  districts.  poor p e d e s t r i a n  town  centre  and non-town  the surrounding areas as i n d u s t r i a l  Both areas were a l s o d e s c r i b e d  f a c i l i t i e s and heavy t r u c k  as having  traffic.  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s  The  women  were  presently distance  asked  available  t o them  also  unavailable  but t h a t  asked  the women working most  both  the f a c i l i t i e s  (within  a  that  t e n minute  were  walking  from t h e i r o f f i c e ) and how o f t e n they used them.  women were  the  to identify  recognize  they would  the a c t i v i t i e s  like  access  i n the two town c e n t r e  facilities  town  to identify  centres  as being there  were  t o . As expected  locations  a v a i l a b l e t o them.  were  that  The  identified However, i n  some women workers who d i d  some of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s  as being  not  available to  them.  In  t h e Burnaby  restaurants,  town  centre  medical  everyone  and d e n t a l  agreed  facilities,  space, and outdoor s e a t i n g areas nearby. a l s o recognized stores  that  for their  the  women  clothing  service.  d i d not t h i n k  c h i l d r e n ' s needs, s t o r e s salon,  drycleaning,  there  parks  were  and open  Most of these women  they had access t o s t o r e s  own  daycare and p o s t a l  that  and p e r s o n a l  for groceries, needs,  banking,  However, more than 50 percent of they  had  access  to  f o r browsing, t h e a t r e s ,  educational  facilities,  stores f o r  library,  fitness,  hair indoor  96  seating these Six  areas  o r other  business  activities,  although  some o f  f a c i l i t i e s were w i t h i n a t e n minute walk of t h e i r  of t h e f a c i l i t i e s  as being  a v a i l a b l e were used  by more than h a l f of the women i n t e r v i e w e d  a t t h e Burnaby town  centre  firm.  These  identified  office.  included stores  f o r groceries, stores f o r  c l o t h i n g , r e s t a u r a n t s , banking, the park, and outdoor s e a t i n g . Because t h e women working f o r the f i r m i n Burnaby's town c e n t r e o n l y had t h i r t y minutes f o r lunch, and y e t most women s a i d t h a t their  use o f l o c a l  their  lunch  facilities  would  hour, may have l i m i t e d  occur  their  primarily  during  awareness and use of  the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e t o them.  The  women working  level  i n the Richmond town  of awareness, although  centre  had a  there was o n l y one item  of the women agreed was a c c e s s i b l e , a nearby park.  similar that a l l  The o t h e r  f a c i l i t i e s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d by the m a j o r i t y of the women as being  located  restaurants,  nearby a  were  library,  stores medical  f o r children's and  dental  services,  educational f a c i l i t i e s  (a community c o l l e g e i s nearby),  facilities,  and outdoor s e a t i n g areas.  these  facilities  Richmond's used  and indoor  town  a r e used centre  by a t l e a s t  to  fitness  Very few of  by any of the women i n t e r v i e w e d a t  firm.  50 percent  d e n t a l s e r v i c e s and the park. area's  needs,  The o n l y  facilities  of the women were  that  medical  were and  Some of the women noted t h a t t h e  poor p e d e s t r i a n environment was not conducive t o walking  p l a c e s d u r i n g t h e i r lunch hour.  97 The women working a t the firms i n the non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d very  few f a c i l i t i e s  what they i d e n t i f i e d . and  t h e outdoor  as being  In Burnaby everyone used t h e nearby park  s e a t i n g areas  t h i s use was s e a s o n a l .  around t h e i r  Richmond's used the  only  one  non-town  activity  centre  that  firm  and t h a t was the f i t n e s s firm  outdoor women  complained  that  identified  Half  was p r o v i d e d  that  the area  The  as a v a i l a b l e and  t h a t were p r o v i d e d by also  by the employer, was  at  noisy  used  but t h e  due t o a i r p l a n e  farms.  Required  number of f a c i l i t i e s  related  working  of the women  t r a f f i c and s m e l l y because of the l o c a l  S e r v i c e s and F a c i l i t i e s  facility.  the women  facility  f o r i t s employees.  seating  although  Most of the other women  seemed unaware of the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s  was  building,  Only one woman i d e n t i f i e d and used t h e  f i t n e s s f a c i l i t i e s a t the nearby YMCA.  There  a v a i l a b l e but a l l used  t h a t the women i d e n t i f i e d as r e q u i r e d  i n v e r s e l y t o the number they  saw as a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e .  The women working o u t s i d e the Burnaby and Richmond town c e n t r e s i d e n t i f i e d t h e g r e a t e s t number of a c t i v i t i e s as being The  required.  m a j o r i t y of the women i n Burnaby's non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n  wanted s t o r e s drycleaning,  f o r g r o c e r i e s , s t o r e s f o r browsing, banking,  Everyone  wanted  banking f a c i l i t i e s , even i f i t was o n l y a bank machine.  Almost  everyone wanted a post  and a  office.  post  office.  restaurants,  98 The  women  working  i n Richmond's  non-town  centre  location  i d e n t i f i e d t h e most f a c i l i t i e s t h a t they would l i k e t o see near their  workplace.  banking  Like  facilities.  library.  Everyone  Some added  t h e i r work.  the women i n Burnaby,  that  The other  the  women  included  and  other  personal  medical and d e n t a l  also  access  needs,  they  wanted  would  to a l i b r a r y  facilities  stores  said  everyone  would  use a benefit  requested by t h e m a j o r i t y of  f o r groceries, stores  stores  f o r clothing  f o r browsing,  restaurants,  s e r v i c e s , daycare, a post  o f f i c e and a park  or other a c c e s s i b l e open space.  The  women working  additional working they  i n Burnaby's town c e n t r e  facilities.  i n Richmond's  wanted  to  On the other town c e n t r e  see a v a i l a b l e  required  almost no  hand, a few of t h e women  identified  that  facilities  that  existed.  For  already  example, h a l f of the women requested banking although t h e r e a r e a  number  of f i n a n c i a l  institutions  located  Centre M a l l about a ten minute walking  Overall  the f a c i l i t i e s  lacking  by  facilities, household  a post  the  office  necessities.  interviewed the post  a l l of  which  were  women  than  distance.  most  often  interviewed  and s t o r e s  More  a t t h e Richmond  identified were  f o r groceries  50  percent  banking and other  of t h e women  s a i d they r e q u i r e d these f a c i l i t i e s and,  except f o r  o f f i c e , they s a i d they would use these f a c i l i t i e s  regular basis.  as  on a  99  Other  facilities  which  were  requested  by almost  women i n t e r v i e w e d were s t o r e s c a t e r i n g  half  of t h e  t o women's c l o t h i n g o r  o t h e r p e r s o n a l needs, s t o r e s f o r browsing o r window shopping, a library  and a d r y c l e a n e r s .  requested  these  facilities  However,  most  of the women who  s a i d they would use them o n l y on an  occasional  basis.  Almost a l l of the women s a i d  facilities  near work would occur  their  use o f  p r i m a r i l y d u r i n g work  hours,  such as t h e i r lunch break.  P e d e s t r i a n Environment  Because the p r e c e d i n g questions c o n c e n t r a t e d  on the f a c i l i t i e s  t h a t the women c o u l d walk t o , i t was important the  women  workplace.  perceived In almost  the p e d e s t r i a n  t o e s t a b l i s h how  environment  around  their  a l l s i t u a t i o n s , the p e d e s t r i a n e x p e r i e n c e  was d e s c r i b e d as a n e g a t i v e one.  The  women  satisfied  a t Burnaby's with  their  these women admitted  non-town  centre  p e d e s t r i a n experience,  were  t h e most  although  most of  t h a t they d i d not do v e r y much w a l k i n g i n  the area because t h e r e was nowhere t o go. Burnaby's town c e n t r e d e s c r i b e d walking unpleasant  but a p p r e c i a t e d  offered  a  more  walking  through  most o f the l o c a l  firm  relaxing  the nearby pedestrian  the r e s i d e n t i a l facilities.  areas  The women working i n  along Kingsway as v e r y residential  experience. would  areas Of  that  course,  not g e t them t o  100 At both Richmond f i r m s the women had no p o s i t i v e comments about walking around  t h e adjacent area.  They noted t h a t t h e l a c k of  sidewalks and t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s d i s c o u r a g e d them from around  the areas.  walking  The women a t Richmond's non-town c e n t r e f i r m  a l s o commented t h a t the l a c k of any d e s t i n a t i o n s a l s o  prevented  them from walking i n the area.  5.4  ANALYSIS OF ACTIONS AND PERCEPTIONS  The  following  analysis  i s presented  under  sub-headings  which  correspond t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s used t o analyze t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the GVRD's Regional Town Centres Program.  o  Balance of jobs t o p o p u l a t i o n ( L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work);  o  Transit-oriented transportation  system;  o  Variety  more  of  environment  5.4.1  services  and  a  interesting  working  f o r suburban employees.  Balance of Jobs t o P o p u l a t i o n ( L i v i n g C l o s e t o Work)  Only 25 p e r c e n t of the Burnaby workers were l i v i n g i n Burnaby. More  Burnaby  employees  lived  i n Coquitlam  than  i n Burnaby.  Meanwhile, 66 percent of the Richmond women employees l i v e d as w e l l as worked i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Almost  80 p e r c e n t  important  of the women  t o work near home.  interviewed  thought  But most of t h e women  i t was indicated  101 that the  when seeking  their  current  job t h e i r  main concerns  type of work and the s a l a r y o f f e r e d and t h a t  c l o s e t o home was a lower p r i o r i t y .  were  f i n d i n g work  For most of the women t h e  l o c a t i o n of the job was a secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  All  o f t h e women had worked a t previous  which had  had been worked  remained still  Coquitlam),  employment allowing  Burnaby  women  from  the s h i f t  or  some of t h e women  the outer  i n the number Burnaby  closer  suburbs (eg. a r e commuting and  and  t o home.  i n employment  as w e l l  had  range  of  Richmond i s  The  interview  from t h e C i t y of  as s u p p o r t i n g  t h e GVRD's  (GVRD, 1985) t h a t Burnaby i s i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming an t o Vancouver  as a p l a c e  of work  f o r some of t h e  residents.  overall  distribution  of t r i p  times  f o r t h e Burnaby and  Richmond women was s i m i l a r t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n surveyed  Richmond  of the women  i n both  t o work  the m a j o r i t y of  However, the women who  Although  most  increase  t o the suburbs,  alternative region's  overall  The  also confirm  findings  i n t o work  opportunities  more  Vancouver  The  i n either  i n those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  distance.  results  i n Vancouver.  previously  a r e commuting  Surrey, less  located  jobs,  by the Vancouver Urban Futures  al,  1990).  for  the  project  Furthermore, the median l e n g t h women  consistent with  interviewed  in  Burnaby  the t r a v e l times r e p o r t e d  C l o s e t o Work", averaging  a t 23 minutes.  f o r t h e women (Hardwick e t  of journey and  t o work  Richmond  was  i n the study " L i v i n g However, the m a j o r i t y  102 of  t h e Burnaby  women  interviewed  had t r i p s  longer  than  minutes and t h e m a j o r i t y of the Richmond workers had t r i p s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y s h o r t e r than 23 minutes. sample  reflects  municipalities working  the  provide  regional two very  i n Richmond a r e l i v i n g  that  Although t h e t o t a l  patterns, different  23  the  individual  examples. The women  c l o s e t o work but most o f t h e  women working i n Burnaby a r e n o t .  5.4.2  As  T r a n s i t O r i e n t e d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System  the interviews  i n d i c a t e d , none  regularly to travel the  town c e n t r e ,  working  served  under  limited  regarded  would  only  t o work  town  the women  centres,  which a r e  using  A l l of  (downtown)  transit  t h e women  The women i n Richmond who  ( w i t h i n a 15 minute d r i v e )  s e r v i c e as inadequate.  outside  Even  consider  conditions.  as i n c o n v e n i e n t .  the c e n t r a l  transit  and Burnaby  (emergency)  use t r a n s i t  For the Richmond workers  was not a v a i l a b l e .  by t r a n s i t ,  transit  close  transit with  transit  i n t h e Richmond  better  lived  t o work.  of the women  described the  These responses a r e c o n s i s t e n t focus  of  Greater  Vancouver's  s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g routes and s c h e d u l i n g ,  and confirms  the i n c r e a s e d need f o r i n t e r / i n t r a suburban t r a n s i t s e r v i c e .  When f i r s t questioned  about t r a n s i t most of the women s a i d  they  would not c o n s i d e r u s i n g t r a n s i t but f u r t h e r enquiry  indicated  that  with the  their  existing  response  service.  was based  on t h e i r  experience  Some of the women s a i d they  would  consider  103 transit  as  an  substantially.  alternative  Women  i f  the  a t the Richmond  suggested t h a t a s h u t t l e - t y p e  service  non-town  improved  centre  firm  s e r v i c e , f o r example, c o u l d be an  improvement.  5.4.3  V a r i e t y of S e r v i c e s  and A More I n t e r e s t i n g Working  Environment  As noted i n Chapter 3, the GVRD's o b j e c t i v e provide  "a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s  environment"  encompasses  characteristics.  Therefore,  this  is  objective  an  town  centres  and a more i n t e r e s t i n g working assortment  f o r the purpose  analyzed  that  within  the  of  features  of t h i s  and  section,  following  three  subcategories:  o  A v a i l a b i l i t y of S e r v i c e s  o  A t t r a c t i v e L o c a t i o n ; and  o  Pedestrian  Environment.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of S e r v i c e s  The range o f s e r v i c e s town c e n t r e  and Amenities;  and Amenities  and amenities a v a i l a b l e t o t h e women a t  and non-town c e n t r e  The women i n t h e town c e n t r e  l o c a t i o n s v a r i e d a great  deal.  l o c a t i o n s had almost any s e r v i c e  or amenity t h a t they might r e q u i r e , although the women were not always aware of what was a v a i l a b l e . not  Many of these women d i d  use r e g u l a r l y most of t h e s e r v i c e s  and a m e n i t i e s .  Women  104  working  in  facilities fewer  Metrotown  were  and s e r v i c e s  items  as  the  most  available  directly  satisfied  but they  contributing  to  with  also  the  identified  their  level  of  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r workplace.  The  women  available  a t the non-town i n the way  centre  firms  of s e r v i c e s  had almost  or amenities.  Richmond's non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n were t h e most with  what  was  available  and i d e n t i f i e d  p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t o r s t o improving  nothing Women i n  dissatisfied  the most  items  as  t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  l o c a t i o n of t h e i r workplace.  The  women who had the s e r v i c e s and amenities  did  not use them.  Whereas,  available  often  the women who had few s e r v i c e s  a v a i l a b l e had h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s about u s i n g t h e s e r v i c e i f i t was  provided.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e the f o u r common e x p l a n a t i o n s  f o r why t h e s e r v i c e s near work were not used:  o  Prefer  t o use s e r v i c e s  t h e i r home.  and amenities  located  F o r example, l a t e n i g h t shopping  women w i t h a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u l f i l l  closer to  has p r o v i d e d  their multiple  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r dual r o l e s .  o  Pedestrian  facilities  limit  their  access  to  services  because the route i s n o i s y , dangerous o r incomplete.  o  Short lunch breaks  l i m i t the d i s t a n c e t h e employee c o u l d go  105  or  restrict  the number  of  activities  that  could  be  accommodated.  o  Lunch  break  relaxation  There that  were, most  o n l y used  f o r eating  lunch and p e r s o n a l  (eg. going f o r a walk).  however,  a core group  of the women  workplace.  their  These  felt  included  convenience/grocery s t o r e .  of s e r v i c e s  would  be  banking,  and a m e n i t i e s  beneficial  a  post  near t h e  office  and a  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h some of t h e women's  d e s i r e not t o spend t h e i r lunch breaks running e r r a n d s , many of the  women a l s o  specified  that  a variety  of lunchtime  eating  p l a c e s and parks o r outdoor open space a r e a l s o v e r y d e s i r a b l e near t h e workplace.  Noticeable  by i t s absence  facilities  near  children  or  although expressed  any of the workplaces.  with  unnecessary.  A  none,  about  available,  and c h i l d c a r e  o f f i c e s i n Burnaby's  who  include  was  at least  available  be  had  of daycare  Burnaby's  without  daycare  i t might  the few women  although  f o r daycare  The women  regarded  said  the absence  need  Few of the women r e a l i z e d  Richmond Town Centre each centres,  children  of women  including  a concern  daycare  older  couple  near the workplace. any  was an expressed  useful  children, facilities  t h a t t h e r e was  Metrotown two group  a t t h e YMCA  non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n .  as  and t h e daycare near t h e  106 The women who home or had  d i d have young c h i l d r e n e i t h e r used daycare  near  c h i l d c a r e p r o v i d e d by o t h e r f a m i l y members.  women noted t h a t they d i d not want an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  Some  form of  daycare but p r e f e r r e d the more p e r s o n a l i z e d daycare o f f e r e d i n a f a m i l y ' s home w i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . women  specifically  mentioned  the  cost  Although none of the of  childcare,  i t is  important t o note t h a t many of the women i n t e r v i e w e d l i k e l y d i d not  earn s a l a r i e s s u f f i c i e n t  which  can  Vancouver  cost  as  much  as  t o support l i c e n s e d group  daycare  $12,000  Greater  per  year  in  the  area (Ward, 1991).  Attractive Location  The  women were  workplace. tended  As  t o be  negative. according  mentioned  positive  The to  a l l asked  to  describe  previously,  and  the  area  around  the Burnaby  varied  by  workplace  was  t o be  municipality in a  their  descriptions  i n Richmond they tended  descriptions  whether  the  town  and  more not  centre or  non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n .  The  Burnaby  general while  quality  the  attributes highway. the  workers'  women  appearance  of  Richmond e.g. I t was had  descriptions the  area  workers  industrial,  p l a c e d more emphasis  e.g.  the  p l e a s a n t or n o n - d e s c r i p t ,  tended poor  on  to  emphasis  pedestrian  the  specific  facilities,  near  apparent by some of the responses t h a t some of previously  not  of the area around  given  their  much  office,  thought  to  the  w h i l e o t h e r women  107  were v e r y aware of t h e i r surrounding  The  area.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Metrotown area  contribution Kingsway. include  of  Central  Park  stressed the p o s i t i v e  and the n e g a t i v e  impacts  of  The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Richmond town c e n t r e d i d not any  describing  words  that  could  an a t t r a c t i v e  be  location.  vaguely  interpreted  as  The area was d e s c r i b e d as  f l a t , b o r i n g and u g l y .  P e d e s t r i a n Environment  The  women were asked  the  area  t o d e s c r i b e the experience  near t h e i r workplace.  described  negatively  The p e d e s t r i a n experience was  f o r every  location.  area  except  non-town  centre  location  i n c l u d e d a p e d e s t r i a n overpass  The p e d e s t r i a n  women worker's access t o nearby open  Some  of  t h e comments  of  frequently  and the experience described  uninteresting.  Kingsway  as  busy,  f o r Burnaby's  facilities  which  at this  f a c i l i t a t e d the  space.  the women  l o c a t i o n s h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i r concerns environments,  of walking i n  working  i n the other  about t h e poor p e d e s t r i a n of going  for a  noisy,  was d e s c r i b e d  walk  dangerous  as a  problem  i n the Burnaby town c e n t r e .  Besides  and  there  of harassment  passing d r i v e r s .  was  the added  problem  and  by t h e  women working traffic,  was  the noise by  108 For t h e women a t the f i r m i n Richmond which was w i t h i n t h e town centre,  i t was  almost  impossible  because of the heavy t r a f f i c Richmond's business  non-town  park,  centre  lacked  t o walk  around  the area  and the l a c k of sidewalks. firm,  basic  Even  which was l o c a t e d i n a new  pedestrian  facilities,  such  as  sidewalks.  5.4.4  Summary  Based on t h e responses the  town  their  centres  of the women i n t e r v i e w e d , i n most  have  been  no more  s t a t e d o b j e c t i o n s as they  cases  successful at achieving  apply  t o employees  than  have  the non-town c e n t r e l o c a t i o n s .  The o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g jobs  close  effective  t o home has been  more  i n Richmond  than i n  Burnaby i r r e g a r d l e s s of whether the jobs a r e l o c a t e d i n a town centre  or  a  non-town  centre  location.  Transit  i s more  a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e women working i n the town c e n t r e o f f i c e s but is s t i l l fact  used v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y and i s not h i g h l y regarded.  t h e women  i n the town  o p t i m i s t i c about t r a n s i t offices  because they  centre  offices  may  be  In less  than the women i n the non-town c e n t r e  have had more negative  experiences  using  the system.  There the  are c e r t a i n l y  women  facilities  more  i n the town a r e used  s e r v i c e s and amenities  centre  offices,  however,  available to many o f t h e  i n f r e q u e n t l y and o f t e n t h e r e i s a l a c k o f  awareness about what s e r v i c e s and amenities a r e a v a i l a b l e .  The  109  women  i n t h e non-town  centre  offices  may be more  about t h e s e r v i c e s they would use, i f a v a i l a b l e , are  looking  a t an i d e a l ,  rather  than  optimistic  because  an a c t u a l ,  they  situation.  There a r e some s e r v i c e s and amenities however t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  the women a t a l l l o c a t i o n s c o n s i d e r as necessary.  Some women do not r e q u i r e an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n o t h e r women t h i s i s an important  f o r work. F o r  f e a t u r e although not r e q u i r e d .  The  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a l o c a t i o n may be i t s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r  or  i t s atmosphere.  a t t r a c t i v e than other  Town  centres  were  not seen  as  more  locations.  Almost a l l of the women a t a l l l o c a t i o n s were i n t e r e s t e d i n an area w i t h going  some p e d e s t r i a n f e a t u r e s .  Passive a c t i v i t y ,  f o r a walk, was h i g h l y regarded  much more so than a c t i v i t i e s  such  by many of the women,  as shopping.  environment must be s a f e and a c c e s s i b l e . c e n t r e s were h i g h l y regarded  such as  The p e d e s t r i a n  N e i t h e r o f t h e town  for their pedestrian  facilities.  5.5 CONCLUSION  The and  i n t e r v i e w responses difference  show t h a t t h e r e  between  the women  i s as much  working  similarity  i n Burnaby and  Richmond, as t h e r e i s between those working i n town c e n t r e and non-town c e n t r e  locations.  None of t h e women s p e c i f i c a l l y  sought work w i t h  a town c e n t r e  110  r a t h e r than a non-town c e n t r e f i r m , whereas some o f t h e women definitely  had  municipality.  a  preference  Contrary  to  f o r work  what  some  in  of  the  a  specific literature  suggests, many women p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on t h e type of work and  i t s related  work  f e a t u r e s than  and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  However, secondary  the l o c a t i o n  they  do on the l o c a t i o n  to transit,  of t h e i r  of the  services or amenities.  workplace  i s important  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and should c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r  as a  working  life.  The  f i n a l chapter recommends p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s t h a t t h e GVRD  and  the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  improve t h e q u a l i t y in  particular  of l i f e  women working  should s t r i v e towards i n o r d e r t o f o r the workforce i n suburban  Vancouver and i t s Regional Town Centres.  i n g e n e r a l , and  offices  i n Greater  Ill  CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  6.1 INTRODUCTION  The  research  on women workers  Burnaby  and  offices  located  satisfied  Richmond  with  i n suburban  has r e v e a l e d  i n the town the l o c a t i o n  There  are four  objectives  that  centres  women  located i n employed  a r e no more  of t h e i r  working i n o t h e r suburban o f f i c e  offices  workplace  o r no than  in less  women  locations.  t o the f i n a l  responds t o the four q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d  chapter.  First, i t  i n the l i t e r a t u r e review  i n Chapter 2:  o  Do suburban o f f i c e s  p r o v i d e women workers w i t h employment  l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o home?  o  Do women have  a preference  f o r work near home over  other  f e a t u r e s , such as c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r s a l a r y ?  o  Are suburban employed  o  transportation  systems  adequate  f o r women  i n suburban o f f i c e s ?  Can suburban o f f i c e c e n t r e s a s s i s t women i n p e r f o r m i n g d u a l roles  by  activities?  providing  a  wide  range  of  facilities  and  112 Second,  this  academic  c h a p t e r addresses e x i s t i n g  assumptions  the  l i t e r a t u r e about women workers needs and requirements.  T h i r d , i t recommends adjustments to the GVRD's RTC w e l l as l o c a l  municipalities'  t o meet the s p e c i f i c Chapter  from  6  suggests  literature  on  needs the  implementation of t h a t  of women o f f i c e  contributions  suburban  s t r a t e g y , as  offices,  of  women  strategy,  workers. this  Finally,  thesis  workers  to  and  the  gender  research.  6.2  RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS  The p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t of t h i s t h e s i s has been whether town  centres  environment less  provide  that  that  opportunities  office  workers  with  i s more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r needs  centralized  suggests  women  office  locations.  suburban closer  offices  to  home.  Some  of  provide  the  workers  Furthermore,  regional  a  working  than o t h e r literature employment  suburban  are seen t o p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of o t h e r s e r v i c e s and  centres  facilities  t o workers.  The  literature  activities  suggests  will  benefit  that  a  women  by  spatial allowing  concentration them  m u l t i p l e t a s k s w i t h i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d of time. is  no  guarantee  opportunities,  or  that  women  even  seek  t h a t a town c e n t r e may  offer.  will the  take  perform  However, t h e r e  advantage  concentration  to  of  of  of  these  facilities  113  This  thesis  increased  shows  that  suburban  offices  are providing  women  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c l o s e r t o t h e i r homes i n t h e  suburbs, thereby reducing i n the c i t y centre.  the need t o commute t o jobs  The r e s e a r c h  located  indicates that, at least f o r  the women working i n Burnaby, the jobs  may be c l o s e r but they  are not c l o s e t o home.  The  research  their  work  itself.  important jobs  that  than  sufficient benefits.  s p e c i f i c a l l y with  features  of t h e i r  of the job  offer  a reasonable  Although t h i s  work  salary  t h e s i s has not  the q u a l i t y of the work being  women working i n suburban o f f i c e s , the  the f e a t u r e s  are i n t e r e s t i n g or challenging,  advancement o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  include  dealt  i s less  Women want  provide and  a l s o concludes t h a t f o r many women the l o c a t i o n o f  done by  t h e i r expressed i n t e r e s t i n  indicates  that  they  may  not be  w i l l i n g t o accept lower q u a l i t y jobs i n order t o work c l o s e r t o home.  According system  has proven  offices. poorly working  t o the r e s e a r c h ,  the region's  inadequate  f o r women  O f f i c e s located outside  served, in  inconvenient  town  because  centres  transportation  working  the town c e n t r e s  i f a t a l l , by p u b l i c the  public  transit.  find  of t h e system's  the routing  i n suburban are usually  Even  the women  transit  system  and frequency.  Consequently, women i n the r e g i o n who a r e t r a n s i t dependent may be r e s t r i c t e d them.  i n the range  and l o c a t i o n of jobs  available to  114 Although  t h e town  centres  provide  a variety  of s e r v i c e s and  a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e s e a r c h found t h a t i n most cases the women who had  access  t o the town c e n t r e s  facilities  to f u l f i l l  interested  whom  their  by not  t h e i r domestic tasks d u r i n g working hours.  Many of  because  f o r some  dual  Some women seemed separate  p r e f e r r e d t o use t h e i r  perhaps  advantages of t h e  t h e i r multiple tasks.  i n keeping  performing  d i d not take  roles  breaks  of them  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r such a p e r s o n a l  f o r rest this  time  and r e l a x a t i o n , was t h e i r  only  activity.  There a r e assumptions about working women t h a t the r e s u l t s of this  research  requirements daily  seem  to  contradict.  A  tendency  f o r the  of women's dual r o l e s t o o v e r l a p and consume t h e i r  routines  i s not confirmed.  keep t h e i r two r o l e s separate  Many of t h e women want t o  and do not want t o f u l f i l l  household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r lunch o r c o f f e e The  low number of women with  may  have  adversely  c h i l d r e n i n the r e s e a r c h  a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s  by  their breaks. sample  underrepresenting  the women who have the g r e a t e s t number of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  No  outstanding  need  f o r daycare  a v a i l a b i l i t y are reported. sample  with  influenced interviewed statistics  preschool  these  results.  concerns  Again, the shortage age  children  Fewer than  had c h i l d r e n under i n d i c a t e that  or  may  of women i n t h e have  20 percent  6 years  about i t s  o f t h e women  of age.  i n 1989, 62 percent  negatively  Meanwhile,  of t h e working  women i n B.C. had p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n , and estimates  of B.C.  115 preschool  c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g daycare show t h a t over 80  of  children  these  currently  receive  non-licensed  percent  care  (Ward,  priority  on t h e  1991) .  A  further  assumption  that  women p l a c e  higher  l o c a t i o n of t h e i r work over the f e a t u r e s of the j o b i t s e l f is  not borne  out by t h i s  becoming more also  research.  firmly established  a r e becoming  more  Perhaps,  i n the p a i d  concerned  about  also  as women a r e  workforce,  their  they  position  as  employees.  The  conclusion  neither  that  confirmed  interviewed employees,  there  women  live  closer  nor c o n t r a d i c t e d . i s no comparable  although  the r e s u l t s  t o work Because  data  from  than no  available  men i s  men  were  f o r male  the Vancouver  Urban  Futures p r o j e c t r e v e a l t h a t men who t r a v e l t o work by c a r tend to  have  longer  trip  times  than women  (Hardwick e t a l , 1990).  I f 1985's average journey time f o r a l l workers (GVRD, 1990c) i s used f o r comparison, women working i n Burnaby l i v e f u r t h e r away than  t h e average  worker  and women working  c l o s e r t o work than the region's  In  the  family  available,  situations  the research  i n Richmond  live  average.  where  verified  there that  was  only  the husband  one c a r was t h e  p r i n c i p a l user and these women u s u a l l y r e l i e d on s h a r i n g a r i d e or u s i n g other means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work.  116 Many women r e f e r r e d t o the s t r e s s t h a t they have t o cope w i t h because of t h e i n c r e a s e d  complexity of t h e i r  lives.  6.3 RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS  Underlying  many  associated  with  of  the r e g i o n a l  the Regional  implicit  expectation  residents  of the Greater  environment these  within  often  Town  these  Centres  policies  such  as  strategy, will  fail  the members  of t h e i r  daily  t o recognize of every  lives.  recognition  of needs  the  livable  the v a r i a t i o n  community.  of the v a r i e t y  i s the  However, that  In order f o r  these p o l i c i e s t o be e f f e c t i v e f o r a l l people, t h e r e increased  those  provide  Vancouver Region w i t h a more  i n a l l aspects  policies  exists  that  policies,  should be  that  must be  addressed.  Rutherford  and Wekerle (1988b) emphasized t h e need f o r g r e a t e r  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c i t y by women when they wrote t h a t "the extraordinary increase i n the l a b o r force p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women over the past decade... c r e a t e s demands and requirements on the urban system t h a t have s c a r c e l y been c o n s i d e r e d . " (p.6) At  both  efforts  the regional t o ensure  consideration  ensuring  that  there  should  be f u r t h e r  and decision-making  include  sub-groups w i t h i n the community.  of broadening  that  policy  level  f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t requirements of women and men,  as w e l l as t h e other  One method  and l o c a l  their  input  the awareness i s provided  of women's needs and i s to include  them i n  117 policy  and decision-making  should  be equal  and  To and  activities.  representation  To  provided  this  on l o c a l  end,  there  commissions  a d v i s o r y bodies throughout the r e g i o n .  oversee the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p r o v i d i n g ensuring  t h a t women's i s s u e s  equal  representation  a r e adequately d e a l t w i t h on  the p u b l i c agenda, t h i s t h e s i s recommends t h a t t h e r e  should  a r e g i o n a l l y - f o c u s s e d women's advocacy body, such as a Vancouver  Commission  Commission  should  on  Women.  focus  on  Specific  include  issues  the  be  Greater  that  this  following  policy  i s more r e s p o n s i v e  to the  recommendations:  o  Provide  a transit  service  that  needs of women.  Although the r e s e a r c h transit  as  d i d not i d e n t i f y  an a l t e r n a t i v e  method  a strong  desire f o r  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  as  M i c h e l s o n (1985) s t a t e s "The f a c t t h a t some segments of the p o p u l a t i o n do not now use p u b l i c t r a n s i t i s no reason f o r t h e i r needs t o be ignored i n transit planning." (Michelson, 1985, p.162) Women  require  additionally, transit flexible. dependent specific  a as  service Because  system this  that research  that  is  women  on a l t e r n a t i v e needs  should  future t r a n s i t planning  i s safe  suggests,  dependable,  have  secure  they  been  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , more  exercises.  consideration  T r a n s i t planning  and  require  affordable  traditionally  means  receive  and  and more their  i n any i s one  118 area  that c e r t a i n l y requires  more input  and involvement by  the major c l i e n t group, women.  Increase the range of daycare o p p o r t u n i t i e s  a v a i l a b l e a t an  affordable price.  The  group  daycare  frequently  with  necessarily require the  centres  major  that  a r e being  commercial  the p r e f e r r e d  type  provided  developments  of c h i l d c a r e  a r e not  that  same  time  private  home  concerns r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d regional  level.  care  may  not be  demand  (Ward,  1991) i n d i c a t e s  f o r daycare  identifying  what  At  providing These  i n t e r e s t and f u r t h e r emphasis a t  Although  strong  in  women  o r a v a i l a b l e a t a c o s t t h a t women can a f f o r d .  c h i l d r e n w i t h the q u a l i t y o f care t h a t they r e q u i r e .  a  more  that the  this  study  d i d not r e v e a l  opportunities,  other  f u r t h e r emphasis region's  a  research  i s necessary  women  require  to  adequately meet t h e i r c h i l d c a r e needs.  Expand t h e d i v e r s i t y and c h o i c e near  employment  incomes,  centres,  lifestyles  to  of housing types a v a i l a b l e allow  and household  women  of  composition  differing t o secure  a f f o r d a b l e housing t h a t i s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r purposes.  Besides p r o v i d i n g women with more work o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o home t h e r e more v a r i e d  should  closer  a l s o be f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i d i n g  housing o p p o r t u n i t i e s  c l o s e r t o t h e jobs.  As  119  the  research  quality  of t h e i r  Therefore, near  indicated, jobs  increasing  employment  women do not want f o r a better  the range  centres  to f o r f e i t the  workplace  of housing  would  allow  location.  opportunities  more  women  the  p o s s i b i l i t y t o l i v e c l o s e r t o work.  o  Ensure t h a t locations  basic  and a  services scale  and f a c i l i t i e s  that  i s best  are provided a t  suited  t o women's  requirements.  The  women i n t e r v i e w e d  facilities  tended t o p r e f e r  l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o home.  l o c a l plans should recognize facilities  may  using  s e r v i c e s and  Therefore,  r e g i o n a l and  t h a t c e n t r a l i z i n g s e r v i c e s and  not be an a p p r o p r i a t e  action  f o r women.  Increased e f f o r t s should go t o i d e n t i f y i n g t h e urban t h a t a r e best  The  previous  addressing the  s u i t e d t o women's a c t i v i t i e s .  recommendations  a t a broad r e g i o n a l  individual cities concerns  that  local  To t h i s  regard,  following  present  issues  recommendations  require this  further thesis  also  f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  o  Develop a promotional program t o i n c r e a s e residents  and workers  s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  between  attention  municipalities:  centre  require  There a r e a l s o more  and  town  that  l e v e l with coordination  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  locally-based level.  forms  at the  proposes t h e of t h e c i t i e s  the awareness of  of t h e wide  range of  Information should  be d i s p e r s e d  as  Information  local  firms.  areas where workers interviewed that  kiosks  could  t o frequent.  be l o c a t e d a t  Many of t h e women  were not aware of the f a c i l i t i e s  were a l r e a d y  women w i t h to  tend  t o l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s as w e l l  available.  This  and s e r v i c e s  recommendation  time c o n s t r a i n t s , such as a s h o r t  be made  aware  of what  e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o search  i s available  out t h i s  lunch  as  break,  and reduces t h e  information.  Encourage developers and employers i n remote o f f i c e to provide  enables  centres  employees w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s , such  shuttle  service  between  the c e n t r e  and p u b l i c  transit  facilities.  T h i s a c t i o n c o u l d i n c r e a s e the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a n s i t dependent women as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e GVRD's o b j e c t i v e f o r a t r a n s i t o r i e n t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  Encourage  developers  ancillary  services  of remote and  office  facilities,  centres such  as  to include a  banking  machine, p o s t a l s u b s t a t i o n , and small convenience o u t l e t .  A  significant  employment Centres, serve  share  continues  therefore  of  the  to exist some b a s i c  region's outside  suburban the R e g i o n a l  facilities  office Town  are required to  the women and other workers a t these l o c a t i o n s .  121  o  Require space  attractive  with  centres  pedestrian  a l l major  facilities  office  centres,  and  usable  whether  open  in  town  or elsewhere.  According  to the r e s e a r c h , women at a l l work l o c a t i o n s want  outdoor  areas  and  pedestrian  routes  for  relaxation  purposes.  o  Provide  a  variety  of  destinations  a c t i v i t i e s with pedestrian  when  they  had  improved p e d e s t r i a n  linking  centres  or  facilities.  Many of the women i n t e r v i e w e d walking  by  a  suggested t h a t they p r e f e r r e d  destination.  Furthermore,  network c o u l d encourage and  allow  an more  women to walk to work.  o  Include  a f f o r d a b l e housing and  a range of housing types  an i n t e g r a l component of r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e  Although  already  recommendation significant  role  discussed  is  also  that  as  a  included  local  development.  regional here  as  issue,  because  governments p l a y  in  this  of  the  providing  support f o r t h i s o b j e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The  thesis  recognizes  recommendations its  are  that  to  some  c u r r e n t l y being  member communities.  extent  pursued by  However, the  research  many  of  these  the  Region  has  found  and that  122  further  emphasis  is still  required  i n a l l of  the  areas  mentioned above.  It  i s a l s o recognized  the  conclusions  that  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  and recommendations  presented  r e s e a r c h and a r e based  interviews  of s m a l l  Therefore,  a f u r t h e r recommendation of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t more  attention  should  groups of female suburban o f f i c e  on  be focussed  within  the r e g i o n  on  workers.  identifying  the s p e c i f i c needs and requirements of i t s women workers.  Although  this  research  has  tried  to  discover  women's  s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n as w e l l as t o i d e n t i f y their  ideal  situation,  i t has been  former than t h e l a t t e r . be  undertaken  Consequently, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  to identify  the form and elements  environment t h a t a r e best personal  needs  more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h e  o f an urban  s u i t e d t o women's a c t i v i t y  and s o c i a l  responsibilities,  should  patterns,  and can p r o v i d e  them w i t h a working environment t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o an improved q u a l i t y of l i f e and i n c r e a s e d  6.4  livability.  RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS  Although  there  has been  growing  recognition  of t h e need f o r  i n c l u d i n g a gender p e r s p e c t i v e i n urban r e s e a r c h and p o l i c y , t o a l a r g e extent address research  this  the o f f i c e issue.  literature  To t h i s  regard,  c o n t r i b u t e t o the l i t e r a t u r e  employment by:  has f a i l e d  to  the f i n d i n g s  adequately of  this  on suburban o f f i c e s and  123  o  Identifying  reason's  f o r women  choosing  suburban  office  employment;  o  Offering  i n s i g h t i n t o employee's  a t t i t u d e s about  suburban  o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s ; and  o  Complimenting e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and commuting p a t t e r n s of women working i n suburban  By  linking  the requirements of women with  characteristics also  attempts  research  This  to provide  employment a  bridge  t h e f e a t u r e s and  centres,  between  this  two  thesis  fields  of  - suburban o f f i c e s and employment, and working women.  thesis  gender  of suburban  offices;  has s t r i v e d  considerations  employment. supporting  i n studies  Contributions a gender  to increase  awareness  about  for including  suburban  o f f i c e s and  a r e made t o the academic  perspective  by c o n f i r m i n g  that  literature t h e GVRD's  o b j e c t i v e s f o r town c e n t r e s c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e , as w e l l as more  relevant  component.  t o women  workers,  i f they  included  a  gender  124  FOOTNOTES [1]  Richmond was designated as a C i t y was p r e v i o u s l y The C o r p o r a t i o n Richmond.  i n December 1990. I t of t h e Township o f  [2]  Secondary s e c t o r - u n s k i l l e d blue and white c o l l a r jobs having low wages and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , poor working c o n d i t i o n s , high labour turnover and l i t t l e chance f o r advancement. (Wekerle and Rutherford, 1989, p.142)  [3]  A GVRD survey of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s ' f u t u r e locational plans identified rapid transit as a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r r e l o c a t i o n . (GVRD, 1974c)  [4]  The Vancouver CMA covers a l a r g e r area than the GVRD ( t h e region).  [5]  A 5,000 square f o o t b u i l d i n g i s approximately e q u i v a l e n t to a one and a h a l f s t o r e y b u i l d i n g on a standard c i t y l o t (33' by 120').  [6]  Comparable s t a t i s t i c s a r e not a v a i l a b l e l i v e and work i n Burnaby.  f o r t h e women who  BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, I. 1979. O f f i c e L o c a t i o n and P u b l i c P o l i c y . London: Longman. 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Contacts Target Marketing. . 1989. E v a l u a t i o n Report: Telecommuting P i l o t P r o j e c t . Southern C a l i f o r n i a A s s o c i a t i o n of Governments.  APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF COMMERCIAL FLOORSPACE  136 D e f i n i t i o n o f Commercial F l o o r s p a c e Based on t h e GVRD's d e f i n i t i o n s (GVRD, 1981) commercial f l o o r s p a c e i s d i v i d e d i n t o three broad c a t e g o r i e s : o f f i c e , r e t a i l and shopping c e n t r e s , and personal s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d examples f o r each c a t e g o r y : A. OFFICE i n c l u d e s : FINANCE - Banks, c r e d i t unions, s e c u r i t y b r o k e r s , investment companies INSURANCE REAL ESTATE MEDICAL/DENTAL - Doctors' o f f i c e s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ACCOUNTANT/LAWYERS GOVERNMENT OTHER B. RETAIL & SHOPPING CENTRES i n c l u d e : FOOD GENERAL MERCHANDISE - Department and v a r i e t y s t o r e s AUTO RELATED CLOTHING & DRY GOODS HARDWARE - B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , p a i n t , w a l l p a p e r , e t c . LUMBER SALES HOUSEHOLD FURNATURE & APPLIANCES DRUG STORES OTHER RETAIL - Secondhand, antiques, a r t d e a l e r s and s u p p l i e s , r e t a i l n u r s e r i e s , shoe s a l e s , books and s t a t i o n a r y , f l o r i s t , j e w e l l e r y , l i q u o r , tobacco, s p o r t i n g goods, photography shops. SHOPPING CENTRES - Includes a l l commercial a c t i v i t i e s l o c a t e d i n shopping centres ( r e t a i l , o f f i c e and s e r v i c e ) . They are i s o l a t e d from o t h e r r e t a i l uses because they o f t e n i n c l u d e s e r v i c e s and o f f i c e s i n a p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l environment, and p a r t l y because o f t h e i r 'lumpiness' o r tendency to develop i n l a r g e blocks over a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time. C. PERSONAL SERVICE i n c l u d e s : REPAIR SHOPS RESTAURANTS HOTELS, MOTELS TRAILER COURTS RENTAL SERVICES - F u r n i t u r e , T.V., a p p l i a n c e , c a r , t r u c k , machinery and equipment.  137  RECREATION - Theatres, bowling, b i l l i a r d s , g o l f c l u b s , t e n n i s c l u b s , h e a l t h spas, marinas, e t c . PERSONAL SERVICES - Barbers, beauty s a l o n s , laundaries, cleaners, t a i l e r s OTHER SERVICES - Radio, T.V. and e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e r e p a i r , watch and j e w e l l e r y r e p a i r , shoe r e p a i r , f u n e r a l s e r v i c e s , c a t e r e r s , b u i l d i n g and d w e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , c l u b s and lodges.  138  APPENDIX B LETTER REQUESTING FIRM'S COOPERATION FOR EMPLOYEE INTERVIEWS  139  January 15,  1991  Name Position Firm Street C i t y , Province P o s t a l Code Dear: SUBJECT:  INTERVIEW ON THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK LOCATION SETTING FOR FEMALE OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN THE VANCOUVER REGION  AND  My name i s Lynda C h a l l i s , a graduate student at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, working under the d i r e c t i o n o f Dr. Walter Hardwick. I am p r e s e n t l y conducting r e s e a r c h f o r a t h e s i s a s s e s s i n g female o f f i c e employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r suburban work p l a c e . The s p e c i f i c purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the o b j e c t i v e s of the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ' s R e g i o n a l Town Centres Program. In order to determine the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between how o f f i c e employees i n town c e n t r e s and i n other suburban l o c a t i o n s p e r c e i v e the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r work p l a c e , I w i l l be i n t e r v i e w i n g employees who work i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n Richmond and Burnaby. As a f i r m with o f f i c e employees working i n Richmond's town c e n t r e , I am r e q u e s t i n g an opportunity to i n t e r v i e w some o f your female employees. I w i l l need to i n t e r v i e w s i x employees and the i n t e r v i e w should not take more than twenty minutes. I am w i l l i n g t o schedule the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n whatever t i m e t a b l e you f e e l would be a p p r o p r i a t e . Because U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i c y r e q u i r e s w r i t t e n s u b j e c t consent f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w s , a sample consent form has been attached f o r your i n f o r m a t i o n . As the consent form i n d i c a t e s , i n d i v i d u a l survey responses w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and your employees have the r i g h t to r e f u s e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w or to withdraw at any time.  APPENDIX C LETTER REQUESTING EMPLOYEE'S  PARTICIPATION  142  January 2 8 , 1991 Firm Name Street C i t y , Province P o s t a l Code Attention: Dear: SUBJECT:  INTERVIEW ON THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK LOCATION SETTING FOR FEMALE OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN THE VANCOUVER REGION  AND  My name i s Lynda C h a l l i s , a graduate student at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, working under the d i r e c t i o n o f Dr. Walter Hardwick. I am p r e s e n t l y conducting r e s e a r c h f o r a t h e s i s a s s e s s i n g female employees' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r suburban work p l a c e . The s p e c i f i c purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ' s R e g i o n a l Town Centres Program. As a female employee o f a f i r m l o c a t e d i n Richmond, you are i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an i n t e r v i e w . Your name has been randomly s e l e c t e d from your employer's l i s t o f s t a f f . It is expected t h a t the i n t e r v i e w w i l l not take more than twenty minutes o f your time and your employer has agreed t o allow the i n t e r v i e w to occur d u r i n g your work hours. Because U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i c y r e q u i r e s w r i t t e n s u b j e c t consent f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w s , a w r i t t e n consent form has been attached. I f you agree to the i n t e r v i e w , p l e a s e f i l l i n t h i s form. I w i l l telephone you d u r i n g the week o f January 2 1 - 2 5 to determine your i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study. The i n d i v i d u a l survey responses w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and you have the r i g h t to r e f u s e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w or to withdraw at any time. A summary o f the f i n d i n g s (not i n d i v i d u a l responses) w i l l made a v a i l a b l e to you upon request. Thank you f o r your time and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study. Your Lynda  truly, Challis  be  144  APPENDIX D INTERVIEW QUESTIONS DIRECTED TO WOMEN SUBURBAN OFFICE WORKERS  145  INTERVIEW ON FEMALE OFFICE EMPLOYEES' PERCEPTIONS OF WORK PLACE ACCESSIBILITY AND SETTING (THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK LOCATION FOR EMPLOYEES')  EMPLOYEE'S WORK CONTEXT  The first group of questions are interested in what type of work you are doing, how long you have worked for this firm and why you chose this company. Some of my questions will ask for specific answers and others will be phrased as statements that I'd like you to complete. 1.  Please tell me your present occupation or job title?  2.  Now, briefly describe your job.  3. How long have you worked at "name of firm"  4.  Please tell me your reasons for accepting your job with this firm and please start with the most important reason.  146  5. When you obtained this job, had you also been looking for work elsewhere?  6. Please tell me where else you had looked for work. I would like to know which municipalities you considered working in? 1  Vancouver  2  Burnaby  3  Richmond  4  Surrey  5  Delta  6  the North Shore  7  New Westminster  8  Port Coquitlam/Coquitlara/Port Moody  9  Lower Mainland (all of the above)  10 other areas, such as...  7. Did you look for work in a town centre (such as Metrotown, Richmond Town Centre)? Which town centres did you consider?  8. Before this job did you work outside the home?  9. If you worked in the Vancouver region, please give me the nearest street intersection to your previous place of work.  147  10. How important is it for you to work near each of the following places or activities? Please tell me if it is important (1), not important (2), or neither important nor not important (3). home buses or Skytrain shopping daycare entertainment activities  11. What other activities do you think are important near work?  TRANSPORTATION TO WORK  The next set of questions are interested in how you travel to work and how long it takes for you to go from your home to the office. 1.  Please tell me how you usually travel to work and how many minutes the trip usually takes. When you travel by car do you usually travel alone? Do you drive directly to work or do you make any stops along the way?  Minutes 1  car  2  carpool or shared ride  3  transit (bus or skytrain)  4  taxi  5  motorcycle  6  bicycle  7  walking  8  other...  148  Is your trip home the same?  If you use a different method of travel home or if the trip is longer or shorter, please tell me how do you usually travel home and how many minutes does that trip normally take?  Minutes 1  car  2  carpool or shared ride  3  transit (bus or skytrain)  4  taxi  5  motorcycle  6  bicycle  7  walking  8  other...  If at least once a week you use a different means of travelling to work, please tell me how you travel and how long that trip usually takes.  Minutes 1  car  2  carpool or shared ride  3  transit (bus or skytrain)  4  taxi  5  motorcycle  6  bicycle  7  walking  8  other...  5. Are you using your preferred method of transportation? If you are not using your preferred method for travelling to work, how would you rather travel? 1  car  2  carpool or shared ride  3  transit (bus or skytrain)  4  taxi  5  motorcycle  6  bicycle  7  walking  8  other...  6. Why don't you use this method of transportation?  WORK LOCATION AND SURROUNDING AREA  Now I would like to ask you about the location of your office and the area around it. 1.  Please tell me your general level of satisfaction with the location of your current place of work. Would you say you are: Very Satisfied (1) Satisfied (2) Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied (3) Dissatisfied (4) Very Dissatisfied (5)  150  2.  The following is a list of things that could contribute to your satisfaction with where you work. For each item please tell me if you think it contributes to your workplace satisfaction and how satisfied you are now. Contribute Satisfaction 1  The time that it takes you to travel between your work and home.  2  The amount of parking available near work.  3  Access to free parking.  4  Frequent bus service to work.  5  A variety of types of stores for shopping.  6  Fitness facilities.  7  Entertainment activities.  8  Daycare opportunities for my children.  9  Educational facilities for myself.  10 Educational facilities for other members of my family. 11 A park or other outdoor open space. 12 A variety of restaurants to use at lunchtime. 13 A variety of restaurants for going to dinner after work. 14 Access to personal services, such as banks, a post office, drycleaners, or hair salons. 15 Medical or dental services. 16 Interesting places to go for a walk. 17 A surrounding area that feels safe and secure. Did any of these things contribute to your decision to accept your current job?  3.  I would use the following words to describe the area around the building that I work in:  151  4.  I have a list of activities which may be located within walking distance to your office. If any of these activities are near your office please tell me how often and when you use them. You may use them before work, during work hours such as lunchtime or coffeebreaks, after work or during other times of the week, such as weekends. Daily(1) At Least Once A Week (2) Occasionally (3) Never (4) Not Available (-)  Before Work (A) During Work (B) After Work (C) Other Times (D) QueS-4  Ques.5  stores selling groceries and other household necessities stores catering to childrens's needs stores catering to your clothing or other personal needs stores for browsing or window shopping restaurants theatres library hair salon drycleaning banking medical or dental offices educational facilities daycare post office fitness centre or facilities parks or outdoor open space indoor seating areas outdoor seating areas business activities related to your work  5.  Some of these activities are not located near your office. Ideally, would you like these activities located within walking distance of your place of work? If they were, how often and when you would use them?  152  6.  If you walk to activities near your office, what words would you use to describe the walk and the area that you walk through.  7.  Given your experience with working in your present location (or Metrotown/Richmond Town Centre), if you changed jobs would an area with similar amenities (or a town centre location) be an important requirement?  8. Please mention any additional concerns or comments that you have about the area around your office.  PERSONAL HISTORY These final few questions will provide me with some basic information about you and your family. 1.  2.  3.  Which age group are you in? 1  15-24 years  2  25-34 years  3  35-44 years  4  45-54 years  5  55-64 years  6  65 years and over  Your marital status is: 1  Single  2  Married or Common-law  3  Other (which includes separated, divorced, widowed)  How would you describe your present family or living arrangement? Do you live alone or do you live with other people? Do you live with other adults besides your husband? Are they related or not related to you? Do you have children? How old are your children? 1  Live alone  2  Live with my parent  3  Live with others who are related to me  4  Live with others who are not related to me  5  Couple with no children at home  6  Couple with at least one child under six years  7  Couple with children all over six years old  8  Lone parent with at least 1 child 6 years or under  9  Lone parent with children all over 6 years old  4.  What is your postal code?  5.  Do you have any other comments or questions about this survey?  

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