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The birth of the Frederic Wood Theatre -- how the early development of the University of British Columbia… Benson, Marilyn Leigh 1991

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THE BIRTH OF THE FREDERIC WOOD THEATRE How The E a r l y Development o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia F o s t e r e d the E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Theatre Department and the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre By MARILYN LEIGH BENSON B.F.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1991 (c) M a r i l y n L e i g h Benson, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT I t has been s a i d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r o f an i n s t i t u t i o n i s l a r g e l y determined by i t s h i s t o r y and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s that shaped i t . I f t h i s i s so, the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre has much to draw on, f o r i t was founded i n the s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n and promise. This t h e s i s t r a c e s the beginning o f the u n i v e r s i t y from the o r i g i n a l p e t i t i o n f o r i t s formation, through i t s e a r l y s t r u g g l e to be e s t a b l i s h e d . Concurrent with t h i s expansion i s the growth of t h e a t r e a t the u n i v e r s i t y , a development which helped to int r o d u c e the i n s t i t u t i o n throughout the pro v i n c e . The c u r r e n t F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre i s the outgrowth of a t r a d i t i o n o f t h e a t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The beginning of t h i s h i s t o r i c a l r e t r o s p e c t i v e i s the o r i g i n a l p e t i t i o n f o r the founding o f the u n i v e r s i t y . Subsequent to th a t i n i t i a l and f a i l e d attempt, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was c r e a t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n through the e f f o r t s o f Henry Esson Young, the "Father o f the u n i v e r s i t y " , and by o r g a n i z a t i o n through the works of Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook, i t s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t . P r o f e s s o r F r e d e r i c i i i Wood, a founding member of the f a c u l t y i n 1915, formed the Pl a y e r s ' C l u b which pr o v i d e d the u n i v e r s i t y i t s t h e a t r i c a l f o undation f o r the next t h i r t y years. Dorothy Somerset, a D i r e c t o r o f the P l a y e r s ' C l u b and the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre ( a l s o co-founded by Prof. F r e d e r i c Wood) e s t a b l i s h e d a c c r e d i t e d t h e a t r e courses a t the u n i v e r s i t y and founded the Summer School o f the Theatre. In 1952, these achievements won her the u n i v e r s i t y ' s f i r s t l e g i t i m a t e t h e a t r e : the F r e d e r i c Wood. With single-minded purpose, Dorothy Somerset f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d the Department of Theatre i n 1958, b u i l d i n g the present 410 seat F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre f i v e years l a t e r i n 1963. More than a p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g , the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre i s a dynamic process responding to the energies and i n f l u e n c e s o f i t s p r i n c i p a l s . Seven i n d i v i d u a l s (out of hundreds) who were fundamental i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the accomplishments o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre are intr o d u c e d : Henry Esson Young, ''Father o f the U n i v e r s i t y ' ; Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook, f i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; P r o f e s s o r F r e d e r i c G.C. Wood, founder of the P l a y e r s ' Club; Dorothy Somerset, founder o f the Department of Theatre; J e s s i e Richardson, i n whose honour years l a t e r , the J e s s i e Awards were c r e a t e d ; Norman Young, stage manager, p u b l i c i z e r and l o b b y i s t , and John Brockington, Head of the Theatre Department for 23 years, the man who guided and developed i t s academic and degree g r a n t i n g programs. Few people r e a l i z e how g r e a t a r o l e the t h e a t r e has played i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f P l a t e s v i Acknowledgements v i i CHAPTER ONE E a r l y Attempts to E s t a b l i s h a U n i v e r s i t y 1 CHAPTER TWO The Founding o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 4 CHAPTER THREE F r e d e r i c Wood and the P l a y e r s ' Club 17 CHAPTER FOUR Dorothy Somerset and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 38 CHAPTER FIVE The F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre 62 APPENDICES 88 A F a c u l t y H i r e d by Wesbrook 88 B P l a y e r s ' Club Productions 90 C Cast o f T r i a l o f a C i t y 93 D O r i g i n a l FWT Productions 94 E F a c u l t y of Theatre Dept 97 F Cast of Salad Days 117 G FWT Productions 1963-91 119 H Former UBC Theatre Students 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY 130 LIST OF PLATES A l l photographs are reproduced c o u r t e s y o f the U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s , UBC. PLATE PAGE I Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook 15 II A r c h i t e c t u r a l Drawings o f UBC 16 I I I F r e d e r i c G.C. Wood 34 IV The P l a y e r s ' Club On Tour 35 V Scene From Pyqmalion 36 VI L i n e up a t the Orpheum 37 VII Dorothy Somerset i n 1938 Newspaper C l i p p i n g 57 VIII O r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre 1952 58 IX Tea Party f o r Workers 59 X Somerset and Wood on Stage 60 XI F.G.C.Wood and E a r l e Birney 61 XII F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre 1963 83 XIII C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Revo l v i n g Stage 84 XIV Wood, Ross, Somerset, MacKenzie 85 XV Scene From Salad Days 86 XVI Newspaper C l i p p i n g o f Salad Days 87 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Dorothy Somerset f o r her pa t i e n c e and g e n e r o s i t y d u r i n g our many i n t e r v i e w s together. I t was with kindness, humour and a s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t t h a t she shared with me her knowledge and experience i n the development of the a t r e a t the u n i v e r s i t y . In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to thank B e a t r i c e Wood who l i k e w i s e provided every p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n r e s e a r c h i n g her husband's long a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e a t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I a l s o wish to thank lone Mclntyre and S t u a r t Jamieson f o r t h e i r encouragement when I needed i t most. 1 CHAPTER ONE E a r l y Attempts to E s t a b l i s h a U n i v e r s i t y The f i r s t o f f i c i a l request f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y o r i g i n a t e d i n 1872,(1) when Vancouver was a few shacks along the B.C. c o a s t : a town with a j a i l but no s c h o o l . At that time, John Jessop, Superintendent of Educat i o n and headmaster of the Boy's Department of V i c t o r i a C e n t r a l School, expressed a need f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n h i s F i r s t Annual Report, made under the P u b l i c School Act of the same year.(2) Nineteen years l a t e r , when Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n numbered 13,709, a group o f c i t i z e n s took i t upon themselves to v o l u n t a r i l y meet and advocate the need f o r higher e d u c a t i o n i n the prov i n c e . ( 3 ) They signed a r e g i s t e r i n the 1. Harry T. Logan, Tuum E s t : A H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press , L t d . , 1958), p . l . 2. I b i d . p.2. 3. I b i d . , p.3. 2 o f f i c e of the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , thereby c o n s t i t u t i n g the f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y c o nvocation. The p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h i s task were that they a l l be graduates of a u n i v e r s i t y i n the Empire, and r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a minimum of two months p r i o r to December 31, 1891.(4) The combined e f f o r t s of these men succeeded i n persuading the L e g i s l a t u r e i n V i c t o r i a to pass an Act f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g the standard of higher e d u c a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e . One s t i p u l a t i o n of the enactment was that the f i r s t meeting o f the Senate would be h e l d w i t h i n one month. A b i t t e r debate took place between the I s l a n d e r s , who wanted the u n i v e r s i t y i n V i c t o r i a , and those from the Mainland who d i s a g r e e d . Because of the c o n t r o v e r s y , the C h a n c e l l o r waited u n t i l the l a s t day to c a l l a meeting, with the r e s u l t that i t was impossible to e s t a b l i s h a quorum i n attendance. Thus, the f i r s t attempt to e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y f a i l e d . ( 5 ) T h i s r i v a l r y between V i c t o r i a and Vancouver 4. The R e g i s t e r of Members of Convocation, 1890, g i v e s the permanent r e s i d e n c e , degrees h e l d , and u n i v e r s i t i e s of a l l who r e g i s t e r e d and i s i n c l u d e d i n F r e d e r i c H. Soward, The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia, t y p e s c r i p t , 1930. pp.380-8, UBC S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 5. For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the events t h a t l e d to the demise of the f i r s t U n i v e r s i t y Act, see Soward, " E a r l y H i s t o r y , " and Logan Tuum E s t , pp. 8-12. 3 over the l o c a t i o n of the permanent campus delayed the establishment o f UBC f o r a q u a r t e r of a century. E i g h t years l a t e r , a p l a n was conceived by the teaching s t a f f of the Vancouver High School under the P r i n c i p a l J.C. Shaw, to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r students to take M c G i l l ' s F i r s t Year A r t s courses a t Vancouver High School. M c G i l l agreed to the p r o p o s a l , and the s t a f f i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p l a n formed what was known as Vancouver C o l l e g e . In 1903, V i c t o r i a adopted a s i m i l a r p l a n thus c r e a t i n g V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e which opened with a c l a s s of seven students, one of whom was F r e d e r i c Wood.(6) In 1906, Lemuel F. Robertson, a M c G i l l graduate who taught a t Vancouver C o l l e g e , l o b b i e d to form a U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia which would grant degrees under the c h a r t e r of M c G i l l . As a r e s u l t , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia, was e s t a b l i s h e d . I t remained i n o p e r a t i o n u n t i l the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia opened i n 1915, and i n i t s l a s t year o f e x i s t e n c e , i t had 292 students e n r o l l e d i n Vancouver, and 72 students i n V i c t o r i a . Most of these people became the f i r s t students of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 6. Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , r e f e r e n c e s to F r e d e r i c G.C.Wood are based upon numerous i n t e r v i e w s conducted with h i s wife, B e a t r i c e Wood i n Vancouver, B.C., between September, 1987 and A p r i l , 1989. CHAPTER TWO The Founding o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia was founded p r i m a r i l y because o f the e f f o r t s of two men - Henry Esson Young and Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook - both of whom were medical d o c t o r s . The f i r s t man h i r e d the second, and t h e i r combined d e t e r m i n a t i o n to c r e a t e t h i s U n i v e r s i t y was the for c e which u l t i m a t e l y nursed i t i n t o e x i s t e n c e . "The Father o f the U n i v e r s i t y " - Henry Esson Young: Henry Esson Young, B.A.,M.D.,C.M.,L.L.D. came to B r i t i s h Columbia when he was t h i r t y - n i n e years o l d , and f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e he devoted h i m s e l f to improving the q u a l i t y o f h e a l t h care and e d u c a t i o n throughout the pro v i n c e . Young was born i n Quebec, on February 24, 1862. He graduated with a degree i n Medicine from M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1888. A f t e r s t u d y i n g i n S i r W i l l i a m O s i e r ' s c l i n i c s i n 5 the U.K. and p r a c t i c i n g medicine i n the United S t a t e s , he moved to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1901, where he was e l e c t e d to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e two years l a t e r a t the age of 41. He accepted the p o s i t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and M i n i s t e r o f Education i n the c a b i n e t of S i r Richard McBride i n 1907, with "the inducement h e l d out to him by the Premier... that he should have a fr e e hand i n founding a U n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia."(1) His f i r s t a c t was to introduce a b i l l which e s t a b l i s h e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d the u n i v e r s i t y . Two of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act of 1908 ( s l i g h t l y amended i n 1912) were that the i n s t r u c t i o n would be f r e e to a l l students i n the A r t s c l a s s e s , and t h a t the female students would have e q u a l i t y of p r i v i l e g e with male students.(2) News of the proposed u n i v e r s i t y a g a i n t r i g g e r e d c o n t r o v e r s y as to i t s l o c a t i o n , with V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and New Westminster being the h o t l y debated c h o i c e s . The q u e s t i o n was f i n a l l y decided i n 1910 when a U n i v e r s i t y S i t e Commission recommended the P o i n t Grey area. "The d e c i s i o n 1. Harry T. Logan, "Makers of the U n i v e r s i t y - Henry Esson Young," U.B.C. Alumni C h r o n i c l e , Vol.9, No.2, (Summer 1955) p.16. 2. The 1908 Act a l s o s t a t e d t h a t women were e l i g i b l e f o r membership i n the Board of Governors and the Senate. This was a b o l d d e c i s i o n s i n c e i t was not u n t i l 1917 t h a t women were allowed to vote. 6 was h a i l e d with joy by Vancouver, with b i t t e r disappointment by V i c t o r i a and with t o l e r a n t or unconcerned s a t i s f a c t i o n elsewhere i n the Province."(3) In Search of a P r e s i d e n t : In 1912, Dr. Young s a i l e d to Europe to a t t e n d the F i r s t Congress of the U n i v e r s i t i e s of the Empire. The purpose of h i s v i s i t was c l e a r : he was i n search of a p r e s i d e n t f o r h i s nascent u n i v e r s i t y . Months l a t e r , on the evening of Feb.16, 1913, he was able to make the f o l l o w i n g announcement to the L e g i s l a t u r e i n V i c t o r i a : What we wanted was f i r s t o f a l l a Canadian, young enough to take charge v i g o r o u s l y , a man thoroughly capable f o r the hardest job o u t s i d e that of the Premier i n B r i t i s h Columbia. And I say t o n i g h t we are g e t t i n g that man. He i s a man i n the prime of l i f e . He i s a Canadian. Dr. Wesbrook i s h i s name, and he i s a t present Dean of the Medical F a c u l t y of the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, a man who has fought h i s way up and holds an academical r e p u t a t i o n second to none.(4) Young f e l t t h a t i n f i n d i n g Wesbrook h i s "dream was about to become a r e a l i t y . " ( 5 ) He immediately announced a Canada-wide a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the b u i l d i n g p l a n 3. I b i d . , p. 41 4. I b i d . , p. 42 5. W i l l i a m C. Gibson, Wesbrook and His U n i v e r s i t y ( V i c t o r i a , M o r r i s s P r i n t i n g Co., 1973), p. 52. 7 of the U n i v e r s i t y . The committee a d j u d i c a t o r s , chose Messrs. Sharp and Thompson of Vancouver as the winners of t h i s c ompetition.(6) Great e x p e c t a t i o n s were h e l d by the Government and by the people of the Province f o r the c r e a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y . Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n had grown to 120,000 i n number, and the c i t y was prosperous. F i v e years had passed s i n c e the U n i v e r s i t y Act o f 1908 had been approved, and the province was eager to have i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n o f higher l e a r n i n g . A generous budget, based on a f i v e - y e a r p l a n , was guaranteed from the government f o r the u n i v e r s i t y : an amount of $7,500,000 was to be allowed f o r b u i l d i n g and maintenance, i n a d d i t i o n to which the Premier promised $2,800,000 over a two-year p e r i o d . Furthermore, P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook had secured the promise "that the U n i v e r s i t y would be completely immune from p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . " ( 7 ) I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g with the c o n d i t i o n s such as these that Dr. Wesbrook was w i l l i n g to leave h i s r e s p e c t e d p o s i t i o n as Dean of Medicine of the U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota. 6. Framed p i c t u r e s o f t h e i r p l a n may be seen i n the Student Union C a f e t e r i a , and on the 8th f l o o r of Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 7. Logan, Tuum E s t , op. c i t . , p.45. 8 Born i n Brant County, O n t a r i o , on J u l y 12, 1868, Frank. F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook M.A.,M.D.,C.M.,,L.L.D., graduated from the U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba with a B.A. a t the age of 19, and at the age of 22, with the degrees of Doctor o f Medicine and Master of A r t s . Before l e a v i n g to undertake post-graduate s t u d i e s i n surgery i n Chicago, he took a summer job as a surgeon f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n Banff. This minor d e c i s i o n was to change the course of events o f h i s l i f e . While a t t e n d i n g an i n j u r e d trainman, he i n c u r r e d an i n f e c t i o n i n the t h i r d f i n g e r o f h i s l e f t hand which d i d not respond to treatment. When i t was apparent there was no other s o l u t i o n , h i s f i n g e r was amputated: h i s c a r e e r as a surgeon was over before i t had begun.(8) Undaunted by t h i s setback, he i n s t e a d chose to study pathology and b a c t e r i o l o g y i n the U.K. "The a b i l i t y to adapt to changing circumstances and a remarkably o p t i m i s t i c temperament were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Wesbrook throughout h i s l i f e . " ( 9 ) While pursuing h i s s t u d i e s i n Europe, Wesbrook r a r e l y missed a chance to at t e n d the t h e a t r e . In New York, w a i t i n g to make h i s t r a n s - A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g , he saw Sarah Bernhardt i n C l e o p a t r a , and a London page from h i s d i a r y reads, "Put on evening dress and went to Sims Reeves' f a r e w e l l c o n c e r t 8. Gibson, op. c i t . , p.4. 9. I b i d . , p.4. 9 ...heard Reeves and Henry I r v i n g ... tremendous crowd. Royal A l b e r t H a l l f u l l . " ( 1 0 ) He continued to see London p l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y The G o n d o l i e r s which he saw three times.(11) Wesbrook's c o n t i n u i n g love o f the t h e a t r e l a t e r p r o vided support and encouragement to the newly formed P l a y e r s ' Club. At the age of twenty-four, he r e t u r n e d to Winnipeg where he was appointed P r o f e s s o r of Pathology a t the Manitoba Medical C o l l e g e . Within months he was awarded the John Lucas Walker F e l l o w s h i p a t G o n v i l l e and Caius C o l l e g e , Cambridge, and so r e t u r n e d to England f o r three more years of study, a f t e r which i n 1895, a t the age of 28, he accepted an o f f e r f o r the p o s i t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r of Pathology, B a c t e r i o l o g y and P u b l i c Health a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. His years a t the Medical School a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota earned Wesbrook a r e p u t a t i o n o f renown. One who knew him then wrote o f him i n 1943: I c o n s i d e r t h a t Wesbrook was r e s p o n s i b l e more than any other man, l i v i n g or dead, f o r medical undergraduate t e a c h i n g i n Minnesota ... 10. I b i d . , p.8. 11. I b i d . , pp.8-11. 10 He b l u e p r i n t e d the p r o s p e c t i v e development of our Medical School. The i n f l u e n c e of t h i s g r e a t c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y became apparent e a r l y . ...He was the most a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y I have ever met...He was a gentleman to the core.(12) The E a r l y Days o f the U n i v e r s i t y : Wesbrook. a r r i v e d i n Vancouver eager to s e t about b u i l d i n g the u n i v e r s i t y . He e n v i s i o n e d c r e a t i n g a f i r s t c l a s s s c h o o l , i n h i s own words - "a Cambridge on the P a c i f i c " . His f i r s t task upon a r r i v a l i n 1913, was to take an o f f i c e on Hastings S t r e e t . ( 1 3 ) In l e s s than a year c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Science (now Chemistry) B u i l d i n g began on the P o i n t Grey campus. C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n to every aspect of the b u i l d i n g o f the u n i v e r s i t y . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l i b e r a t i o n Wesbrook chose a coat o f arms and c r e s t f o r the u n i v e r s i t y , and a f t e r s o l i c i t i n g suggestions fo r a motto from s e v e r a l sources, he chose "Tuum E s t " - x I t 12. Logan, "Makers of the U n i v e r s i t y - Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook," op. c i t . , p.16. 13. I t i s c u r i o u s now, i n the l a s t decade of t h i s c entury, with over 25,000 students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, to see the o l d envelopes i n the l i b r a r y ' s a r c h i v e s with the p r i n t e d address: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1130 W. Hastings S t r e e t , Vancouver. B.C. 11 i s yours' - a f i t t i n g motto f o r a U n i v e r s i t y that was to be fr e e to a l l students i n the A r t s c l a s s e s . ( 1 4 ) The shot that was x h e a r d round the world' which k i l l e d the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, h e i r to the Austro-Hungarian empire, was f i r e d i n June, 1914. Austria-Hungary d e c l a r e d war on R u s s i a ; Germany a t t a c k e d France through Belgium; and B r i t a i n j o i n e d France with her Commonwealth c o l o n i e s soon to f o l l o w . Canada was a t war and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s which were promised to the u n i v e r s i t y now r e v e r t e d to the P r o v i n c i a l Treasury. Work was stopped on the Science B u i l d i n g . Expenditures were cut . Hopes of b u i l d i n g the u n i v e r s i t y a t P o i n t Grey were destroyed. Despite the setbacks c r e a t e d by the outbreak o f war, Wesbrook was determined t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y would open the f o l l o w i n g September. Of paramount importance to him was the matter o f s c h o l a s t i c standards, and the c h a l l e n g e o f a t t r a c t i n g a f i r s t - c l a s s t e a c h i n g s t a f f to a U n i v e r s i t y which d i d not y e t e x i s t . He t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s Canada and to the U.K. to r e c r u i t a t e a c h i n g s t a f f , and by d i n t o f h i s r e p u t a t i o n and personal charisma, he was s u c c e s s f u l i n engaging a f a c u l t y o f genuine e x c e l l e n c e . (See Appendix A 14. Among "The P r e s i d e n t ' s Papers", U.B.C. A r c h i v e s , are i n c l u d e d Wesbrook's sketches and n o t a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t c o a t s o f arm, and L a t i n phrases. Wesbrook's t r a n s l a t i o n o f Tuum E s t , " I t i s yours", has been modified through the years to " I t ' s up to you." 12 fo r a l i s t o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d f a c u l t y members h i r e d by P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook.. ) Before a c c e p t i n g the appointment to the Presidency, Wesbrook had made every e f f o r t to ensure that f i n a n c i a l t r o u b l e s would not be one of h i s concerns. Now, l e s s than a year a f t e r he had assumed o f f i c e , he was f a c i n g f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s . He urged the L e g i s l a t u r e to allow him to b u i l d temporary wooden shacks on the P o i n t Grey s i t e . He was re f u s e d . Despite the promise made to him which guaranteed $2,800,000 to be spread over two years, and perhaps ten m i l l i o n i f need be, i n the end, he r e c e i v e d $175,000. Wesbrook r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to opening the u n i v e r s i t y i n the b u i l d i n g s i n F a i r v i e w , by the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l between Oak and L a u r e l s t r e e t s and Tenth and Twelfth Avenues - the same b u i l d i n g s which had been used by M c G i l l C o l l e g e of B.C. Lec t u r e s commenced on Sept. 30, 1915. A small newspaper item on page 9 of the next day's Vancouver Sun s t a t e d : U n i v e r s i t y C l a s s e s Assemble For Work With 320 students e n r o l l e d , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia opened t h i s morning without ceremony ... I t was the wish of Dr. Wesbrook, P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y , t h a t no ceremony be performed a t the opening of the c l a s s e s t h i s morning owing to war c o n d i t i o n . 13 To the present day, i n memory of t h i s sad beginning, the undergraduate academic gowns have khaki b r a i d on them as a reminder of the wartime c o n d i t i o n s under which t h i s u n i v e r s i t y s t r u g g l e d to be born. At the age o f 50, b a r e l y three years a f t e r s t a r t i n g the u n i v e r s i t y . P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook d i e d on October 17, 1918, a f t e r an i l l n e s s o f s e v e r a l months. He d i d not l i v e to see h i s u n i v e r s i t y on the P o i n t Grey s i t e . As to the f a c u l t y , i t was a constant amazement throughout academic c i r c l e s , t h a t he c o u l d induce "so many s c h o l a r s to come from assured and w e l l p a i d p o s i t i o n s to assume p o s i t i o n s a t a u n i v e r s i t y which, i n r e a l i t y s c a r c e l y e x i s t e d . " ( 1 5 ) One o f the f a c u l t y members h i r e d by Wesbrook - and the o n l y one n a t i v e to B r i t i s h Columbia - was F r e d e r i c Gordon Campbell Wood, a r e c e n t Harvard graduate whose p a s s i o n f o r t h e a t r e would soon i n f l u e n c e c o u n t l e s s people a t the u n i v e r s i t y , i n the c i t y of Vancouver, and throughout the p r o v i n c e . Wesbrook's philosophy t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y should serve the needs o f the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e , c r e a t e d a r e c e p t i v e environment i n which the P l a y e r s ' Club c o u l d f l o u r i s h and 15. Gibson, op. c i t . , p.184. 14 develop.(16) I t was the P r e s i d e n t who f i r s t suggested that the P l a y e r s ' Club go on tour.(17) His love o f t h e a t r e and hi s d e s i r e to make the u n i v e r s i t y and i t s work a c c e s s i b l e to those beyond academic c i r c l e s c r e a t e d a s t r o n g endorsement from the P r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e f o r the P l a y e r s ' Club - an endorsement which pr o v i d e d the encouragement and support f o r the c l u b to grow s u c c e s s f u l l y , as indeed i t d i d . Wesbrook made c o u n t l e s s speeches t h a t p o r t r a y e d UBC as "the people's u n i v e r s i t y [which] must meet the needs of a l l the people."(18) His e f f o r t s to democratize the appeal o f the u n i v e r s i t y , and F r e d e r i c Wood's d e s i r e to promote the P l a y e r s ' Club, c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e which f o s t e r e d t h e a t r e both at the u n i v e r s i t y and throughout the pr o v i n c e . 16. Frank F. Wesbrook, "The P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y i n Canadian Development," speech g i v e n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Nov. 1913, c i t e d i n Gibson, Wesbrook. According to Gibson, t h i s philosophy o f Wesbrook i n c u r r e d s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e i n academic c i r c l e s . Gibson, Wesbrook, pp. 75-78. 17. In i t s e a r l y h i s t o r y the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbians b e l i e v e d the u n i v e r s i t y was an e l i t i s t indulgence which c o s t taxpayers money to educate the sons and daughters of the r i c h . 18. Gibson, o p . c i t . , p.164. P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook d u r i n g h i s f i r s t year a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. An e a r l y p l a n of Sharp and Thompson A r c h i t e c t s showing proposed expansion of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 17 CHAPTER THREE F r e d e r i c Wood a n d The P l a y e r s ' C l u b "I am s u r e t o o t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e P l a y e r s ' C l u b h a s w i d e n e d t h e i n t e r e s t i n a n d made many s t a u n c h f r i e n d s a n d s u p p o r t e r s f o r o u r u n i v e r s i t y . " L e t t e r f r o m F . F . W e s b r o o k t o F . G . C . W o o d J u n e 1 3 , 1916 F r e d e r i c G . C . Wood was c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s " F r e d d i e " t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r a l t h o u g h he was r a r e l y , i f e v e r , c a l l e d t h i s t o h i s f a c e by h i s s t u d e n t s . "He was a l o n g d r i n k o f w a t e r . V e r y p e d a n t i c , b u t w i t h a h e a r t o f g o l d , " r e c a l l s one o f h i s s t u d e n t s . " ( 1 ) A t a l l , t h i n man. Wood wore s p e c t a c l e s a n d h a d a c e n t r e p a r t i n h i s h a i r . He was famous f o r h i s b i t i n g s a r c a s m , a n d e a c h f r e s h m a n c l a s s c o u l d e x p e c t t o be g r e e t e d by h i m l e a n i n g f o r w a r d , arms down by h i s s i d e , s a y i n g s t e r n l y , " Y o u ' r e a s 1. I n t e r v i e w w i t h M a r g a r e t ( " M a r g a " ) L e w i s , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . A p r i l 2 3 , 1987 . 18 green as the bench you s i t on!"(2) His tendency to be c a u s t i c was understood by most to be i n the i n t e r e s t of q u a l i t y . Three years a f t e r h i s f a m i l y moved west from Nova S c o t i a , F r e d e r i c Gordon Campbell Wood, B . A . ( M c G i l l ) , M.A. (Harvard) was born January 26, 1887, i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Throughout h i s long l i f e , e i t h e r by h i s own c r e a t i o n or by cl o s e a s s o c i a t i o n , he was a part of the beginning of many events and thus enjoyed a r e p u t a t i o n f or being at the f o r e f r o n t of educational and t h e a t r i c a l f r o n t i e r s . As a youth. Wood was forced to earn the funds f o r h i s f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g because h i s f a t h e r , who had been i n the hardware business, passed away when the boy was nine years o l d . A f t e r one year at V i c t o r i a College where he was a member of i t s f i r s t c l a s s , Wood taught at a one-room school i n El k Lake on Vancouver I s l a n d . In 1910, a f t e r three years of study at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Wood was e l e c t e d P r esident of h i s graduating c l a s s , and winner of the Shakespeare Medal. He received h i s Bachelor of Arts degree i n E n g l i s h that year, and returned to B r i t i s h Columbia to teach at V i c t o r i a High School. Four years l a t e r , i n 1914, he attended Harvard U n i v e r s i t y to study p l a y w r i t i n g and 2. Interview with Lewis. 19 theatre history under Professor George Pierce Baker (1866-1935), a man who taught such notables as Eugene O'Neill and Robert Edmond Jones.(3) Professor Baker proved to be a key influence not only on Frederic Wood, but also i n d i r e c t l y , on those whom Wood la t e r taught. The renaissance of theatre in Europe, the theatre of Shaw, Galsworthy and Strindberg, was just then being f e l t in America. Following the example of the independent theatres of Europe, small theatres l i k e the Provincetown Players (of Massachusetts and la t e r New York), and the Washington Square Players (New York), were created to stage o r i g i n a l plays. Wood was introduced to this "new stagecraft" as i t was c a l l e d i n America, and i n turn helped to introduce this movement to the West Coast. The Players' Club: In 1915, at the age of twenty-eight, Frederic Wood was hired by President Wesbrook as an Instructor in English. Five weeks after classes opened on Sept. 30, 1915, he started the Players' Club - a club which became the most popular and prestigious club at the university for the next forty years. O r i g i n a l l y started with a membership of t h i r t y - f i v e , the Players' Club soon grew to a limited 3. In 1925, Professor Baker established the drama department at Yale where Wood's daughter Angela l a t e r studied. 20 membership of sixty students. The club produced four one-act plays at Christmas, and one f u l l length play each spring. The club's f i r s t f u l l length t h e a t r i c a l production, Jerome K. Jerome's comedy Fannie and the Servant Problem, was chosen because i t had many female roles, a necessary consideration when so many male students were e n l i s t e d i n the war. It was performed on Friday, February 18th, 1916, at the Avenue Theatre on Main Street i n Vancouver, for the benefit of the University Red Cross. In i t s review of this student production, the Vancouver Daily World (Feb.19, 1916, p.9.) published a photograph and stated, "Rarely has an amateur performance of so much merit been given i n Vancouver." The play was repeated by popular request in V i c t o r i a , New Westminster and Vancouver, and another review in The Daily Province (Feb. 21) commented on the audience: the i n t e l l e c t u a l s were there i n force, and the rest of the crowd were not friv o l o u s , but good common sense c i t i z e n s , t h e i r sons, wives and daughters. The only f a u l t that could possibly be found with any members of the audience was that they sometimes laughed in the wrong place, and occasionally greeted the most d e l i c a t e l y pathetic passages with a unifi e d t i t t e r , i f not with a guffaw. If there i s anything that i s disconcerting, i t i s this f a i l u r e to recognize fine a r t i s t i c touches of sentiment. It was during the war years that the f i r s t Players' Club productions were performed, and as such, the club 21 raised over $6000 for the University Red Cross, the Western University Battalion and the Shaughnessy M i l i t a r y Hospital. The Players' Club later raised $1500 towards a University War Memorial. In i t s second year of operation. President Wesbrook asked the Players' Club to take i t s spring play on tour. For the f i r s t three years, t h i s tour consisted of V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, in addition to the Vancouver performances at the Avenue theatre. By 1920, however, the Players' Club had expanded i t s tour to include the Okanagan. The Kootenays were added two years l a t e r , and by 1928, the spring production toured 20 towns and c i t i e s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.(4) The club's 1923 production, George Bernard Shaw's You Never Can T e l l , which toured for f i f t e e n performances, was a memorable play not only because i t enjoyed a successful run, but also because i t ushered in two of the most prominent marriages to come out of the Players' Club. They were the marriages of Frederic Wood to Beatrice Fordham Johnson, a graduate of UBC's f i r s t Nursing c l a s s ; and that of Jack Clyne, a man who ultimately became Chancellor of the University, to Betty Somerset, star of many plays and s i s t e r 4. See Appendix B for a l i s t of the annual Players' Club productions each year between 1916-1955. 22 to Dorothy Somerset, who l a t e r founded the Department of Theatre a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. In those e a r l y days when the a c t i v i t i e s o f UBC were l i t t l e known, the annual tour o f the P l a y e r s ' Club through the p r o v i n c e generated an awareness o f the u n i v e r s i t y i n r u r a l areas. The c l u b won the he a r t s and approval o f people because the tour gave them the onl y t h e a t r e they c o u l d a t t e n d . In the r o l e o f ambassador, the P l a y e r s ' Club generated an enormous amount o f p o s i t i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y by showing p l a y s l i k e The Importance of  Being E a r n e s t , The Playboy o f the Western World. A l l o f these e a r l y tours were planned, conducted and accompanied by Prof . F r e d e r i c Wood. The P l a y e r s ' Club on the P o i n t Grey Campus: The year 1925 marked the long awaited move to the P o i n t Grey campus. Although i t i s now one o f the most b e a u t i f u l u n i v e r s i t y campuses i n the world, t h a t year i t was a sea of mud. The P l a y e r s ' Club made the t r a n s i t i o n with keen a n t i c i p a t i o n because they now had t h e i r own t h e a t r e - the New Auditorium. During i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o f . Wood had been c o n s u l t e d e x t e n s i v e l y f o r suggestions about the de s i g n of the stage and the audi t o r i u m . The P l a y e r s * Club had donated the blue and go l d c u r t a i n s f o r the stage. For t h e i r 23 f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n a t P o i n t Grey, the P l a y e r s ' Club chose George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion. I t was performed i n the New Auditorium on March 4th, 5th and 6th, 1926. Harry Warren played C o l o n e l P i c k e r i n g and I s o b e l Barton (now Morrison) played E l i z a D o o l i t t l e . The p r o d u c t i o n d e l i g h t e d the audience not o n l y because of the n o v e l t y of the new t h e a t r e , but a l s o because Wood i n s i s t e d on r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t s : there was " r e a l r a i n " on stage, and a r e a l c a r . Harry Warren met the c h a l l e n g e of the r o l e o f C o l . P i c k e r i n g and, i n a d d i t i o n , was chosen by Wood to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making i t r a i n on stage: F r e d d i e had to have i t r e a l i s t i c , and i n the f i r s t scene i n the church yard, Freddie i n s i s t e d on having proper r a i n . A v e r i t a b l e downpour. And o f course i t c o u l d n ' t harm the stage. F r e d d i e was very i n s i s t e n t on t h a t . Freddie was a hard taskmaster. Well, I d e v i s e d a canvas trough with b i g heavy ropes - and the r a i n f e l l i n t o t h a t . On tour F r e d d i e was very i n s i s t e n t t h a t we s t i l l have t h i s r a i n . . . I remember that I had to scrounge a hose from the good c i t i z e n s of Salmon Arm to b r i n g water to the stage. I'd stand o u t s i d e and wave my arms to have the water turned on a t the r i g h t time. I don't think many i n the audience ever r e a l i z e d what we a l l went through. I hauled that c o n t r a p t i o n a l l over B.C. and we had r a i n a t every p r o d u c t i o n except B r i t a n n i a . There, the stage was too s m a l l . Freddie r e l u c t a n t l y agreed to no r a i n . We had to imagine i t . ( 5 ) 5. Interview with Harry V. Warren, P r o f e s s o r Emeritus o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (1973), Rhodes S c h o l a r , 1926 Queen's C o l l e g e , Oxford. (Vancouver, May, 1989.) 24 I s o b e l Barton r e c a l l e d with d e l i g h t t h i s f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n on the P o i n t Grey campus: " I t was e x c i t i n g to be i n t h a t Auditorium. We were t h r i l l e d to have a Green Room and a r e a l t h e a t r e . ... For the assembly i n September, a l l the students s a t on the s l o p i n g f l o o r s . I don't t h i n k the seats came i n u n t i l Christmas."(6) I t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t Wood d i d not h e s i t a t e to choose what was modern and c o n t r o v e r s i a l from the European t h e a t r e . The r o l e o f Shaw's E l i z a D o o l i t t l e had been made famous on l y ten years e a r l i e r i n London by Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell who shocked London audiences with E l i z a ' s "coarse" language. She {Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell) was now, perhaps, too o l d to look the p a r t of E l i z a the f l o w e r - g i r l , being f o r t y - n i n e i f she was a day. Yet no one who saw her i n the f i r s t run, or even i n the l a t e r r e v i v a l s has ever remarked -leastaways to me - on t h i s patent f a c t . The g e n e r a l tendency has been simply to say - she was marvelous i n i t . ( 7 ) Indeed, as mentioned above, Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell was always annoyed a t the r e a c t i o n t h a t the famous l i n e , " n o t bloody l i k e l y " brought. She claimed, "The x b l o o d y ' almost 6. Interview with I s o b e l Barton, A r t s '26, (Mrs. Hugh M o r r i s o n ) , Vancouver, May 1989. 7. A l a n Dent, Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell (London, Museum Press L t d . ) , p.254. 25 ruined the play; people laughed too much."(8) Isobel Barton agreed. Laugh? They roared and roared and stamped t h e i r feet with that l i n e . In f a c t , the s c r i p t c a l l e d f o r her to respond to "May I walk with you across the park?" by saying," Not bloody l i k e l y , I'm going to take a t a x i . " W e l l, there was pandemonium the minute I s a i d , "Not bloody l i k e l y " and I had to wait too long to say "I'm going i n a t a x i , " because we had a r e a l car on stage and I got i n a r e a l t a x i . So Freddie changed i t t o , "When there are t a x i s ? Not bloody l i k e l y ! " I t worked and I could j u s t leave.(9) I s o b e l Barton c r e d i t s coaching from D'Arcy Marsh as being i n v a l u a b l e for the r o l e . "D'Arcy Marsh taught me to speak with a cockney accent. I don't t h i n k we could have done that w e l l without him. He played D o o l i t t l e , E l i z a ' s f a t h e r , the dustman. He was p e r f e c t . " When asked to r e c a l l her memory of Wood's s t y l e of coaching, she r e p l i e d u n h e s i t a t i n g l y : He r u l e d with a strong hand. We were a l l a l i t t l e a f r a i d of him. I laughed on stage once and got an awful c a l l i n g down for that. He s a i d that was the most unprofessional t h i n g to do. I th i n k i t was Nelson... I had to say "you 8. Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell, My L i f e and Some L e t t e r s (New York, Benjamin Blom I n c . ) , p.375. 9. Interview with Morrison. (Vancouver, May 1989.) 26 gr e a t b r u t e " and I s t a r t e d laughing. Freddie always was on hand to feed me my l i n e s . I c o u l d hear him g i v i n g me my cue - but I c o u l d n ' t speak, I was laugh i n g so hard.(10) F o l l o w i n g the opening o f Pygmalion. The Vancouver Province (March 5, 1926. p. 17) p r a i s e d the p r o d u c t i o n : Welcoming the guests of the P l a y e r s * Club o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia to the annual performance o f the c l u b i n the New Auditorium a t P o i n t Grey on F r i d a y n i g h t was perhaps the high water mark i n the l i f e o f P r o f e s s o r F.G.C. Wood as a t h e a t r i c a l producer.(11) The Vancouver D a i l y World (March 6, 1926) pl a c e d a he a d l i n e on the s o c i e t y page s t a t i n g : " P l a y e r s Score Great Success In Pygmalion - a masterly a f f a i r , a s p a r k l i n g comedy s p l e n d i d l y presented by the students a t UBC." The Vancouver  Province (March 6, 1926) devoted h a l f a page and f i v e photographs under the c a p t i o n : "UBC PLayers i n Pygmalion -Students Score Notable success i n C l e v e r Shaw P r o d u c t i o n . " The March 9th e d i t i o n o f The Ubyssey c a r r i e d a h e a d l i n e s t a t i n g : "Large Audiences Vote Pygmalion the Best P r o d u c t i o n Ever Put On by the U n i v e r s i t y P l a y e r s * Club." A review i n the same e d i t i o n p r a i s e s I s o b e l Barton's performance i n the r o l e o f E l i z a : 10. Interview with Morrison. (Vancouver, May 1989.) 11. The Vancouver Pr o v i n c e, November 20, 1925, p.9. 27 Isobel Barton took the leading role, and f i l l e d i t not with capability but with genius .... Her performance was so good i t dwarfed those of other members of the cast, whose renderings, i f given in other years, would have stood out. Not a l l the c r i t i c s concurred however. In Grand Forks, the local newspaper. The Grand Forks Gazette, printed a damning review (May 7, 1926) after which the club was banned from performing in that town for several years. In the same way that the Players' Club generated positive public relations on behalf of the university, in this instance, the entire school was regarded with suspicion because of the club's performance: Pygmalion Is Serious Reflection On the UBC There was a fair-sized audience went to the Empress on Friday and witnessed amid shocks the presentation of Pygmalion by a group of stage artists from the UBC, styled the University Players. Let us assume their histrionic art was perfect. To a person who had not made himself familiar with Bernard Shaw's type of literature and the degenerate character reflected by Pygmalion, the outbreaks of blasphemy and consistently suggestive characterizations of the show was the most amazing perpetration on one's conception of respectability and decency. Such a production might be excusable in a third or fourth class bowery theatre, but to have the guttersnipe language of lower London flaunted from a stage in the name of Art by a group of young university players, passeth understanding. Even i f such l i f e exists in any part of London, what excuse is there for 28 f l o u r i s h i n g i t i n the face of people here? And presuming t h a t the average audience w i l l recover a s i n g l e o f f e n c e , i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n of l e a r n i n g would become a p a r t y to a group of i t s students becoming i n o c u l a t e d with such degenerate c o n c e p t i o n of e x i s t e n c e which i s o f n e c e s s i t y t h e i r s as they become s a t u r a t e d with Pygmalion tone by repeated performances ... i t i s time t h a t the heads of a U n i v e r s i t y t h a t c o s t s hundreds of thousands o f people's money every year were acquainted with the f a c t t h a t decent people s e r i o u s l y o b j e c t to having t h i s drab type of e d u c a t i o n i n c u l c a t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The Grand Forks r e a c t i o n was s i n g u l a r i n i t s d i s a p p r o v a l . Headlines from other r u r a l newspapers about the same tour read: " P l a y e r s Win Favour Again : Young People From U n i v e r s i t y Present Witty P l a y . " - Salmon Arm News, (May 3, 1926.) "Pygmalion E x c e l l e n t ! " - Cranbrook Herald, ( A p r i l 17, 1926) "Big Attendance At Pygmalion Comedy" C l o v e r d a l e News ( A p r i l 24, 1926) " U n i v e r s i t y P l a y e r s Score Huge Success L a s t Night" T r a i l Free Press, ( A p r i l 20, 1926) News o f the Grand Forks column reached Vancouver i n The Vancouver Province (May 30, 1926, p.17.) i n "The Common Round" by J . B u t t e r f i e l d : The g i f t e d dramatic c r i t i c o f the v a l u a b l e Grand Forks Gazette has b u r s t upon an a s t o n i s h e d world with the most remarkable p i e c e of dramatic c r i t i c i s m . . . n othing l e s s than n e a r l y h a l f a column o f i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t the P l a y e r s ' Club o f the u n i v e r s i t y o f t h i s p r o v i n c e f o r d a r i n g to a s s a u l t the f i n e r f e e l i n g s o f the people o f Grand Forks by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r s p r i n g p l a y , Pygmalion 1 29 The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e d i d n o t a l w a y s d e f e n d t h e P l a y e r s ' C l u b . A l t h o u g h t h e h i g h q u a l i t y o f t h e P l a y e r s ' C l u b p r o d u c t i o n s a l m o s t a l w a y s e a r n e d i t s members f a v o u r a b l e r e v i e w s i n t h e p r e s s . The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e ( M a r c h 8 , 1935 , p . 3 ) p r i n t e d a c o l u m n by E d g a r B r o w n a b o u t t h e s o c i a l e l i t i s m o f t h e c l u b : % U B C P l a y e r s ' C l u b F i n d s T h a t S n o b b e r y P a y s ' W i t h o u t a d o u b t t h e most s n o b b i s h g r o u p o n t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus i s t h e P l a y e r s ' C l u b . F o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t w e n t y y e a r s t h e members o f t h i s d i g n i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v e m a i n t a i n e d a n a t t i t u d e o f c o n d e s c e n d i n g a l o o f n e s s t o w a r d t h e o t h e r a n d l e s s f a v o u r e d s t u d e n t s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . T h e y h a v e m i n g l e d C u l t u r e w i t h S o c i e t y a n d A r t a n d A r i s t o c r a c y . A n d t h e y h a v e made g o o d t h e i r b o a s t o f s o c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y by t h e d e l i c a t e b a r o m e t e r o f G r e e k l e t t e r s o c i e t i e s . L e t a f r e s h m a n be a d m i t t e d i n t o m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e P l a y e r s ' C l u b a n d he i s i m m e d i a t e l y p e r s o n a g r a t a t o a l l t h e f r a t e r n i t i e s o n campus . . . T h a t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e c l u b a d m i t s a s o c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t d u m b e l l a n d e x c l u d e s a t a l e n t e d n o n e n t i t y . N o , i t i g n o r e s t h e s o c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t d u m b e l l s a l o n g w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r d u m b e l l s . A n d t h e n o n e n t i t i e s who a r e a d m i t t e d a r e q u i c k l y r a i s e d t o t h e s t a t u s o f t h e s o c i a l l y e l e c t o n c a m p u s . T h i s a t t i t u d e was f o s t e r e d , p e r h a p s u n c o n s c i o u s l y , by P r o f e s s o r F . G . C . Wood - t h e famous x F r e d d i e ' - who b e g a n t h e c l u b i n 1915 a n d g u i d e d i t w i t h l o v i n g c a r e u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t a s h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t i n 1931 . F r e d d i e , l o n g n o t e d f o r h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y c o m p l e x , i n o c u l a t e d t h e c l u b w i t h t h e same p h i l o s o p h y a n d saw i t f l o u r i s h u n d e r t h e t r e a t m e n t . ( 1 2 ) 12 . E d g a r B r o w n , V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 8 , 1 9 3 5 . 30 The above comments are not an exaggeration, for the Players' Club was not only the oldest club on campus, but also the club with the most sought-after membership by university students. Between the years 1919 to 1930, more than 2100 students graduated from UBC, of which seventy-five per cent were registered in the Arts. Among the varsity organizations on campus, the Players' Club occupied a position of unrivaled prominence as being the most desirable and exclusive club to join.(13) Full page announcements of the current spring production, including professional photographs of the "stars", were featured each year on the society pages of downtown daily newspapers. Each year headlines such as, "Players' Club Scores Again!, "Players' Club Presents Successful Comedy!", "UBC Players Score Hit in Light Comedy", continued to promote the success and popularity of the club. Frederic Wood Retires; In 1931, after being at the helm for seventeen years, Frederic Wood was forced to retire as Director of the Players' Club due to health reasons, although he continued to serve on its Board. After his retirement as the Director, an enormous job to which he had volunteered his 13. Logan, Tuum Est, op. c i t . , p.99. 31 e f f o r t s , he was r e p l a c e d by a p a i d D i r e c t o r a n d s e c r e t a r y . He c o n t i n u e d t o t e a c h p l a y w r i t n g a n d t h e n o v e l , w i t h h i s a c e r b i c humour a n d demand f o r t h e b e s t . The 1942 T o t e m , t h e a n n u a l y e a r b o o k , r e p o r t s : S i l e n t a n d s t u n n e d E n g l i s h 2 c l a s s e s h e a r d o n Wednesday t h a t t h e r e w i l l be t h r e e i n s t e a d o f two l e c t u r e s a week. R e a s o n s f o r t h e c h a n g e were g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r G . G . S e d g e w i c k . " R e s u l t s o f t h e C h r i s t m a s e x a m i n a t i o n s were t e r r i b l e , " he s a i d . "I w a r n y o u t h a t t h e axe w i l l f a l l i n A p r i l u n l e s s most o f y o u i m p r o v e . " P r o f e s s o r F . G . C . Wood a l s o t o l d t h e men t h a t he w o u l d s e e t o i t t h a t t h e y i m p r o v e . "You a r e l u c k y t o h a v e a n i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n l i k e m y s e l f i n f r o n t o f y o u , " He s a i d . "Many o f y o u a r e i n t h e l a s t s t a g e s o f p a r a l y s i s a n d i t w i l l t a k e me t o p u l l y o u o u t o f i t . " As a member o f t h e E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t d u r i n g i t s " G o l d e n E r a " when t h e d e p a r t m e n t i n c l u d e d G a r n e t S e d g e w i c k , F r a n c i s C o x W a l k e r , a n d I r a D i l w o r t h , Wood was famous f o r i n s i s t e n c e o n c l a s s a t t e n d a n c e . The l a t t e r was a s s u r e d by c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s t o s t u d e n t a b s e n t e e i s m , f o r e x a m p l e , b y o p e n i n g a l e c t u r e w i t h t h e s a l u t a t i o n , " S t u d e n t s - a n d M i s s B u r n s . " On o c c a s i o n , he a s k e d s t u d e n t s t o a p p l a u d t h e r e t u r n o f a n e m b a r r a s s e d t r u a n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e g o o d a t t e n d a n c e h i s c l a s s e s commanded , no one w o u l d d a r e t o d o z e , w h i s p e r o r s l u m p , b e c a u s e h i s p e n e t r a t i n g g l a n c e d o m i n a t e d e v e r y p a r t o f t h e r o o m . H i s l e c t u r e s were p a c k e d w i t h s o l i d 32 information which made note-taking a joy. He was merciless to slackers, but kindly to those who worked hard.(14) After he retired from the university in 1950, Wood remained active in theatre, both in Vancouver in capacities such as regional auditioner for the American Academy of Arts, and at the Playhouse in Laguna Beach, California, where he wintered each year. His wife Beatrice was also very active in the theatre at Laguna Beach, and five times won their "Victor" award for her performances. Wood's pioneering efforts in starting the Players' Club in 1915, and his co-founding the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre in 1921, laid the cornerstone for theatre in British Columbia. E. Blanche Norcross wrote in The Vancouver Province, B.C.Magazine, (Aug.11, 1956, p.7) "To many generations of UBC students, Professor F.G.C.Wood WAS drama." On the opening night of the Frederic Wood Theatre in 1963, Professor Harry Warren, the man who made i t rain in the New Auditorium thirty-seven years earlier, and now an esteemed faculty member of the Geology department said: Freddie came out and gave a speech - and I frankly wept. It was Freddie reincarnated from years ago...(15) 14. Constance M. Baird, "In My Small Corner", essay. Private papers of Mrs. F.G.C.Wood. 15. Interview with Harry Warren, (Vancouver, May 1989) 33 In 1971, Professor Frederic Wood was given an honorary degree by the university and a special reception in the Dorothy Somerset Studio. Frederic G.C. Wood passed away on June 3, 1976. F m i r r i c G . C . Woud, l iu t r iu tof in English, i ^ y i ^ i h F r e d e r i c Gordon Campbell Wood d u r i n g the x F a i r v i e w days' of UBC. 1 T 3 Toi P L A Y E R S ' C L U E IN T H E O R O L L C O M E D Y THE ROMANTIC YOUNG LA "A J • U l l i l l Prof. Wood ( t h i r d from the l e f t ) on tour with the P l a y e r s ' Club i n 1928. D'Arcy Marsh as A l f r e d D o o l i t t l e , I s o b e l Morrison as E l i z a , and Honor Kidd as Mrs. Pearce i n the 1926 p r o d u c t i o n of Pygmalion. A l i n e - u p on G r a n v i l l e to see a P l a y e r s ' Club p r o d u c t i o n a t the Orpheum. (ft.d.) 38 CHAPTER FOUR D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t a n d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The t h i n g t h a t was p a r a m o u n t t o a l l o f us was t h e e x c i t e m e n t ! The d i s c o v e r y o f t h e a t r e ! r t h a d h a p p e n e d i n E u r o p e - t h e new s c h o o l o f w r i t e r s - a n d we were d o i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r C a n a d a ! We were g o i n g t o make i t l i v e . The b e s t o f i t s k i n d . P e o p l e w o r k e d w i t h o u t p a y . A c t o r s w o r k e d w i t h o u t p a y . We a l l o f u s , S y d n e y , J e s s i e , N o r m a n , e x p e n d e d o u r s e l v e s b e y o n d a n y c a l l o f d u t y . The o n l y word I h a v e f o r i t now i s i n t o x i c a t i o n . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t I n t e r v i e w , O c t . 2 9 , 1987 The f i r s t h e a d o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e a t r e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t . I t was u n d e r h e r d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood T h e a t r e was c r e a t e d i n 1952 . E l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t 410 s e a t t h e a t r e o f t h e same name was o n c e a g a i n u n d e r h e r d i r e c t i o n . S o m e r s e t ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n 39 the Players' Club, the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, the Dominion Drama Festival, the Extension Department, and the English Department culminated in both the creation of Canada's f i r s t university degree granting program in Theatre, and the establishment of the Frederic Wood Theatre at the University of British Columbia. Anyone who has met Dorothy Somerset, or been fortunate enough to hear her teach, will attest to the magnetic quality of her personality, and particularly, to the beauty and strength of her speech. Her voice is rich, educated, and eloquent; her tone, surprisingly deep. Her stories sparkle with words like " t h r i l l i n g " , "splendid" and "magnificent." Her way of speaking - vibrant and smooth, with a suggestion of a British accent - brings v i t a l i t y and l i f e to anything she says. Born June 9, 1900 in Perth, Australia, of Ontario born parents, young Somerset travelled extensively with her family. In addition to her early schooling in Australia, she attended school in Switzerland, where she took her studies in French, and in England, where she attended school in London. When she was fifteen, she moved to Vancouver with her sister Betty and their mother. 40 I g u e s s p e r h a p s i t was a p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d h o o d . I t was t h e g o l d e n age o f y o u t h . Ue were s e c u r e , t h e w o r l d was w o n d e r f u l . T h e r e was no w o r r y . ( 1 ) I n V a n c o u v e r , h e r f o c u s n a r r o w e d t o a s e r i o u s s t u d y o f t h e p i a n o w i t h M r s . C o u l t h a r d , m o t h e r o f c o m p o s e r J e a n C o u l t h a r d . A t age s e v e n t e e n , S o m e r s e t went t o R a d c l i f f e i n C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , t o e n t e r u n i v e r s i t y a n d c o n t i n u e p i a n o s t u d i e s . I t was h e r e t h a t s h e f i r s t " t r o d t h e b o a r d s ' by j o i n i n g t h e R a d c l i f f e I d l e r S o c i e t y , a d r a m a g r o u p w h i c h w o r k e d w i t h t h e H a r v a r d D r a m a t i c C l u b . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r L i t t l e T h e a t r e : S o m e r s e t g r a d u a t e d w i t h a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s , f r o m R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e , a n d r e t u r n e d t o V a n c o u v e r i n 1 9 2 1 , where she became a c t i v e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r L i t t l e T h e a t r e , a company i n w h i c h F r e d e r i c Wood was one o f t h e f o u n d e r s . A f t e r f i r s t u s i n g T e m p l e t o n H a l l , t h e company b o u g h t t h e Y o r k T h e a t r e , a t 639 C o m m e r c i a l , where t h e y p e r f o r m e d f o r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t a c t e d i n t h e L i t t l e T h e a t r e ' s f i f t h p r o d u c t i o n i n May 1922 , a t T e m p l e t o n H a l l . No d o u b t due t o 1. A l l q u o t a t i o n s o f D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t a r e f r o m n u m e r o u s i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h h e r b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 1987 a n d A u g u s t 1990 i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 41 her Impressive diction and remarkable voice, she was asked to play the part of Harriet, "a cultured woman" in Overtones by Alice Gerstenberg. The year previous, she had accepted a position teaching First Year French at the University of British Columbia where she taught for two years at the ^Fairview shacks', and two years at the new campus at Point Grey. In addition to her teaching - both French at the University, and Mime at her studio in the West End, she continued to act and direct from 1921 to 1929. In 1930, Somerset went to London where she studied at the London Central School of Speech Training, a school which has trained outstanding actors such as Peggy Ashcroft and Laurence Olivier. "I was older, so I took the classes in speech, movement and mime, more with a view to seeing how they were taught." Somerset says of her class with Elsie Fogarty, who was head of the school: It was the most t h r i l l i n g class I have ever taken in my l i f e . Elsie Fogarty was the head of Central School, and as far as teachers go, she was outstanding. She was just as famous as a personality as she was a teacher. Her class was in the speaking of verse. It was in Albert Hall, in the side rooms going around Albert Hall. It was in a very, very long room. She sat down at one end. You got up at the other end, on a l i t t l e platform, and you spoke that poem to Elsie Fogarty, and she would make criticisms on the interpretation of the poem, on your speech, on anything. She 42 gave me f i r s t of a l l a sonnet. And the t h r i l l , the absolute t h r i l l of conquering, at least making i t your own - that particular poem. And then getting up there, free to speak your own soul through that poem - but make the poem as a poem l i v e ! I've never known anything like i t . Eventually I moved up to a very long poem, and oh, I can't t e l l you how t h r i l l i n g i t was to feel that you were part of that poem, that you were speaking i t . And she liked what I did. ... After she saw the scene, she said, xIt's good. You're very good. But you're too old to take up an acting career.'(2) After two years abroad, where she studied under some of the leading actors and directors of the day, Somerset returned to Vancouver to the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, where she directed the Garden of Eden scene from Shaw's Back to  Methuselah. This experience became one of the highlights of her career because the production won the Best English award in the Dominion Drama Festival, a nation-wide competition. The Dominion Drama Festival: The s p i r i t of a nation, i f i t is to find f u l l expression, must include a National Drama. The Earl of Bessborough April 24, 1933. On October 29th, 1932, His Excellency the Governor General of Canada, the Earl of Bessborough, invited approximately sixty men and women who were interested in 2. Dorothy Somerset interview, October 21, 1987. 43 theatre, to meet with him at Government House in Ottawa. A man with a keen interest in theatre. His Excellency chose to use his influence to encourage theatre groups throughout Canada to pursue a higher standard of excellence. His hope was to create a festival which would provide an incentive to study and produce a high quality of theatre. In addition, i t was hoped that participation in a national competition would provide a focus to encourage and inspire amateur theatre groups in their a c t i v i t i e s . The festival was also intended to bring together members of the dramatic communities across Canada. In the minds of many, i t was considered to be a stepping stone towards a national theatre. At the meeting at Government House, the f i r s t step was taken by the appointment of a committee to create a drama festival for the Dominion of Canada. It was decided that each province would constitute a region, with Ontario being divided into three regions and Quebec two. Regional committees were subsequently formed to organize regional competitions. Frederic Wood was on the committee for British Columbia. The final competition was to take place from April 24th to April 29th, at The L i t t l e Theatre in Ottawa. 44 I n i t i a l l y , ninety one act plays in English and twenty in French were f i r s t performed at the level of regional competition. Adjudicators for these regional festivals were appointed by the Dominion Committee. The winning entry for the British Columbia Dominion Drama Festival was the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre entry directed by Dorothy Somerset. She cast three friends for this production: Beatrice Wood, wife of Professor Frederic Wood; Betty Somerset, her sister, who was now married to J.V. Clyne; and Jack (J.V.) Clyne, lawyer, and ultimately Chancellor of the University of British Columbia. Somerset recounted i t s beginning: I remember very well - staying with my Aunt and Uncle on Beach Avenue, and Bea Wood and Jack and Betty were there. The Dominion Drama Festival was about to start. And Bea, of course, loved acting, and so did Betty and Jack. And one day at dinner, at my Uncle's table, Bea said, "Why doesn't the L i t t l e Theatre enter a play in the Dominion Drama Festival? Dorothy, why don't you direct a play?" So we thought - what should we do? And Bea said "Well I know what I think we should do, because I remember seeing i t in London and i t was a beautiful production. It was the Garden of Eden scene from Back to  Methuselah. Why don't you direct i t - with Betty and Jack and me?" And so we did. And we rehearsed in my b i l l i a r d room studio. ... It was the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre entry in the provincial elimination festival for the Dominion Drama Festival. Well, we won it.(3) 3. Dorothy Somerset interview, November 18, 1987. H i g h p r a i s e was g i v e n t h i s V a n c o u v e r L i t t l e T h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n by t h e d a i l y n e w s p a p e r s . B u t one o f t h e most v a l u e d w o r d s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n came t o B e a Wood i n a l e t t e r f r o m G o v e r n m e n t H o u s e , i n V i c t o r i a , w r i t t e n by A r c h i e F a i r b a i r n , S e c r e t a r y t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r : . . . t h e w h o l e t h i n g was one o f t h o s e r a r e b r i l l i a n t gems o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d a c t i n g w h i c h one i s f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o s e e p e r h a p s h a l f a d o z e n t i m e s i n a l i f e t i m e . I t w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n i n my m i n d a s p e r h a p s t h e mos t v i v i d a n d f l a w l e s s "one a c t " I h a v e e v e r s e e n , a n d y o u r own p o r t r a y a l o f t h e s e r p e n t was t h e k e y n o t e t o t h e h a r m o n i c w h o l e . . . ( P e r s o n a l P a p e r s o f B e a t r i c e Wood) The B . C . w i n n e r s t r a v e l l e d t o O t t a w a f o r t h e f i n a l C a n a d i a n c o m p e t i t i o n where e a c h n i g h t , a f t e r t h e a u d i e n c e was s e a t e d , a m a g n i f i c e n t . V i c e R e g a l c h a i r was b r o u g h t i n a n d p l a c e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t r e a i s l e t o s e a t L o r d B e s s b o r o u g h . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t r e c a l l s t h a t e v e n i n g : We h a d a v e r y s p e c i a l s e t t i n g - j u s t c u r t a i n s a n d t h i s t r e e , t h a t I s o b e l W l n t e m u t e d e s i g n e d f o r u s . A n d i t h a d t o h a v e s p e c i a l l i g h t s o n i t . I w a n t e d t h e l i g h t s n o t t o be r e a l , b u t a m e t h y s t c o l o u r e d . Now, t h e c o m p e t i t i o n was a t n i g h t . You h a d y o u r d r e s s r e h e a r s a l i n t h e d a y , a n d y o u went o n t h a t n i g h t , a n d t h e r e were t h r e e p l a y s e a c h n i g h t . W e l l , T o r o n t o H a r t House h a d h a d t h e i r c o m m u n i t y t h e a t r e p r o g r a m f o r a g e s , a n d t h e r e was one " l e a d i n g l i g h t " i n T o r o n t o who was t h e h e a d o f i t . And he h a d h i s d r e s s r e h e a r s a l b e f o r e m i n e , a n d he s a i d , *I want t h a t l i g h t 46 there to f a l l here and so forth, and I want this colour gel and I want that colour gel'... well he got i t a l l set up for him. Then we came on with our rehearsal, and we were supposed to have what we wanted, and I started in on the lighting. I said "I want a light on that tree, such and such a colour". They said, "I'm awfully sorry, you can't use that light because Mr. X has i t for his show." I said, "What? Does he get what he wants, and I can't get what I want?" Well, I was furious, absolutely furious. And I spoke to a darling woman named Dorothy White , in charge of props. We had met socially, so she knew us and took an interest in us. I said, "Look this is not f a i r . " And she said, "What do you want?" I said, "He won't give me the light I must have on the tree to create the feeling of the Garden of Eden." She said, "Tell me exactly what you want and I ' l l see i f I can get i t . " Well, she didn't dare to over-ride the lighting man, so she went to a photographer in Ottawa who was a friend, and got his lights - four of them for us, and made the lighting man give me the coloured gels I wanted. She rescued our scene. The winning entries from the regions across Canada were presented. Three prizes were the coveted honour: the Bessborough Trophy, the Best English and the Best French. British Columbia's entry of Back to Methuselah won the Best English, and a l l principals involved, Dorothy Somerset, Bea Wood, and Betty and Jack Clyne were alumni of UBC's Players' Club. Photographs by Karsh have recorded this historical moment. Fifty-five years later Dorothy Somerset suggested: "I think the Dominion Drama Festival the impetus i t had in the thirties - was the beginning of professional Canadian Theatre." 47 The Players' Club: Frederic Wood retired as director of the Players' Club in 1931 to be replaced by Sydney Risk. Because of an opportunity to try professional theatre in England,(4) Sydney Risk vacated the position in 1933, and recommended Dorothy Somerset for the position, largely due to her directorial success at the Dominion Drama Festival. Somerset recalled that when she was approached for the position, i t was suggested that a meeting be held to discuss the matter on "neutral" ground at the Hotel Vancouver with a panel of three people from the Players' Club: Tommy Lea, Polly Sargent and Nancy Symes, who was the President. When asked i f she would be prepared to direct Shaw's Caesar and  Cleopatra, she said, "in silent fear and trembling I agreed." She was chosen for the directorship, a position which she held for five years, directing five major spring productions.(5) 4. Sydney Risk, Arts '30, author of Fog, a one act play which won the 1930 annual prize for the best written play by an undergraduate. Fog was produced by the BBC in London in 1935. Risk returned to become the Director of the Players' Club again in 1939-40. 5. These five productions were: Caesar and Cleopatra by George Bernard Shaw; Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen; She  Stoops to Conquer by Oliver Goldsmith; The Brontes by Alfred Sangster, and The Playboy of the Western World by J.M.Synge. 48 The Players' Club spring production of 1934 deserves special mention because i t was a remarkably ambitious accomplishment. The production was so elaborate, and the cast so large, that i t was impossible to tour that year. Furthermore, a technical milestone was achieved because i t was the f i r s t time that the entire set was built by students. Tommy Lea, with the assistance of Pat Larsen, directed the lighting and the building of the set, which was an innovation, because Frederic Hood had always hired professionals to do the scenery. The memory of the f i r s t Players' Club production which she had directed, prompted Somerset to re c a l l : It was beautifully done. I wanted pyramids - the general idea of pyramid forms; and I wanted texture. I'd seen a texture in Italy that I liked very much. Canvas with burlap on top of i t , so that i t picked up the light in a wonderful way. And we had a sphinx... And I had one big fight with Tommy. He won. I wanted red moonlight, and he wouldn't give i t to me. (laughs) And I s t i l l want red moonlight desert moonlight... A further departure which marked this production as innovative was the fact that Frederic Wood and Sydney Risk's scenery had always been r e a l i s t i c . The European emphasis on realism had given rise to expressionism, a term originally coined in France to describe the work of Van Gogh and 49 G a u g u i n a n d l a t e r u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a n y d e p a r t u r e f r o m r e a l i s m o n s t a g e . ( 6 ) D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t was p a r t o f t h i s c h a n g e : s h e d i d n o t want t o r e s t r i c t h e r s e l f t o " r e a l " l i f e . She w a n t e d mood , a s u g g e s t i o n , a s e m b l a n c e o f t h e p y r a m i d s a n d r e d m o o n l i g h t . The U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t : By 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e g a n t o r e s p o n d t o t h e n e e d s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by e x p a n d i n g i t s c u r r i c u l u m t o i n c l u d e a p r o g r a m t o o f f e r n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s t o p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e D o m i n i o n Drama F e s t i v a l h a d b e e n t h e i m p e t u s f o r d r a m a g r o u p s s p r i n g i n g up i n r u r a l towns a n d c i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a e m p l o y e d M r . B u l l o c k - W e b s t e r , a r e t i r e d a c t o r f r o m E n g l a n d , t o f o r m t h e B . C . Drama A s s o c i a t i o n i n o r d e r t o o r g a n i z e t h e a t r e f e s t i v a l s . The f e s t i v a l s s o o n b e g a n t o t a k e p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d t r i g g e r e d a n e v e n g r e a t e r demand f o r h e l p f r o m t h e l o c a l t h e a t r i c a l g r o u p s , who i n t u r n , c o n t a c t e d F r e d e r i c Wood b e c a u s e o f t h e r e p u t a t i o n he 6 . A c c o r d i n g t o B r o c k e t t , e x p r e s s i o n i s m o p p o s e d r e a l i s m a n d n a t u r a l i s m b o t h o f w h i c h r e l i e d h e a v i l y o n o b s e r v a b l e d e t a i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g f i x e d t r u t h s . E x p r e s s i o n i s t s s o u g h t t o f o c u s more o n i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y : " t r u t h " l a y i n t h e s u b j e c t i v e p l a n e . O s c a r G . B r o c k e t t , H i s t o r y o f t h e T h e a t r e , ( A l l y n a n d B a c o n , I n c . 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 5 0 9 . 50 h a d e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s t h e P l a y e r s * C l u b h a d t o u r e d t h e p r o v i n c e . Wood s u b s e q u e n t l y p a s s e d t h e s e r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e o n t o t h e n e w l y f o r m e d E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t . T h u s i n 1 9 3 7 , R o b e r t E n g l a n d , f i r s t H e a d o f t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t , a s k e d D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t t o t r a v e l t o I n v e r m e r e t o t e a c h " a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e a t r e " f o r two w e e k s . She a c c e p t e d a n d g a v e c l a s s e s d a y a n d n i g h t i n a c t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , s p e e c h , t h e m a k i n g o f p a p i e r - m a c h e m a s k s , a n d p r o p e r t i e s . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e c o u r s e s , M r . B u l l o c k - W e b s t e r v i s i t e d I n v e r m e r e t o a t t e n d a f i n a l b a n q u e t , a n d t h e d r a m a g r o u p ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f a s c e n e f r o m S h a k e s p e a r e ' s J u l i u s C a e s a r . A c c o r d i n g t o D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t , "The u n i v e r s i t y p a i d my s a l a r y , my t r a v e l e x p e n s e s , a n d my m a t e r i a l e x p e n s e s . The town p r o v i d e d me w i t h my a c c o m m o d a t i o n a n d my m e a l s . . . a n d t h a t was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d r a m a p r o g r a m o f t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t . " Summer S c h o o l o f t h e T h e a t r e ; I n 1 9 3 7 , S o m e r s e t c o n t i n u e d t o r e s p o n d t o a p p e a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e a t r i c a l t r a i n i n g : she t r a v e l l e d t o r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s s t a y i n g i n t h e homes o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e , e a t i n g where a n d when t h e y s u g g e s t e d , a n d o f f e r i n g c l a s s e s i n a number o f d r a m a t i c d i s c i p l i n e s d a y a n d n i g h t : 51 Everywhere I went they were asking for more instruction.... I had model scenery, flats glue, a salt water dimmer where you put the two nodes an anti and a positive and tie i t into a switchboard and then you can dim the lights. I had wig making supplies, paraphernalia for different scenes - and I had nothing in which to carry i t a l l . Shoe-string budget! So, I got two big cartons that paper towels came in and one big wooden box. I remember once on a train when I had a l l my equipment in the section in front of me and a salesman approached me and said," What are you travelling in?" Late in 1937, Somerset approached Dr. Gordon Shrum who had succeeded Robert England as Head of the Extension Department, and suggested that the university create a Summer School of the Theatre. "And so we had a six weeks Summer School of Theatre. I was given a budget of twelve hundred dollars; and we got a perfectly marvelous director -Ellen Van Volkenburg. We had eighty students turn up." Somerset taught mime and speech, and Ellen Van Volkenburg, a well known theatrical personality in the U.S., and an expert on Greek theatre, taught directing, and personally directed the students in Euripides' tragedy The Trojan Women. The  Vancouver Province (August 12, 1938) stated "this was a landmark in the a r t i s t i c development of Vancouver. " Somerset recalled, "It really was t h r i l l i n g ! " 52 Towards a National Theatre: In addition to teaching at the Summer School of Theatre, and travelling around the province for the Extension Department, Dorothy Somerset continued with her involvement in the Dominion Drama Festival by working on the Board as one of the Governors of the festival. When World War II broke out, the Dominion Drama Festival was discontinued for several years, during which time Somerset participated in forming a Western Canada Theatre Conference, which held educational workshops for dramatic groups in the absence of the Dominion Drama Festival competition. After the war was over, the Dominion Drama Festival resumed its ac t i v i t i e s , at which time the Western Theatre.Conference merged with them, on the condition that a conference be continued. For three years, Dorothy Somerset was Chairman of the Theatre Conference of the Dominion Drama Festival, which focused on scene design, children's theatre, and Canadian playwriting. She was also Vice Chairman of the Dominion Drama Festival. As a consequence of her association with the Dominion Drama Festival, Somerset was selected to be a member of the Dominion Drama Festival committee which was chosen to set up the National Theatre School. This committee, which consisted of representatives from different provinces, met for several years at Stratford, Ontario. A l l agreed that 53 t h e y w a n t e d t h e new s c h o o l b a s e d o n t h e I d e a s o f M i c h e l S a i n t - D e n i s , ( 7 ) who i n 1946 d i r e c t e d t h e t h e a t r e s c h o o l o f t h e O l d V i c . T h e i r recommended p r o g r a m was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a n d l a t e r became t h e b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t h e N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e S c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d . R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n : I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 4 0 s , t h e R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n f u n d e d a s t u d y o f t h e r o l e o f t h e a t r e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . As p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e y c o m m i s s i o n e d a r e p o r t o f t h e t h e a t r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m e a c h p r o v i n c e were i n v i t e d t o a t h e a t r e c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n New Y o r k , w i t h D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t , S y d n e y R i s k a n d M r . B u l l o c k - W e b s t e r a t t e n d i n g t o r e p r e s e n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t o f t h e R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n was t h e r o l e o f t h e a t r e s t u d i e s i n a u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m . B a s e d o n S o m e r s e t ' s work f o r t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t d u r i n g t h e summer d i r e c t i n g t h e Summer S c h o o l o f t h e T h e a t r e , a n d i n t h e w i n t e r , t r a v e l l i n g "on t h e r o a d " t o towns t h r o u g h o u t 7 . M i c h e l S a i n t - D e n i s was t h e nephew o f J a c q u e s C o p e a u who was a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o n F r e n c h t h e a t r e b e t w e e n t h e War y e a r s . I n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , t h e s c h o o l - t h e C o m p a g n i e d e s Q u i n z e - was f o r m e d a n d d i r e c t e d by S a i n t - D e n i s . A f t e r t h i s s c h o o l d i s b a n d e d , he o p e n e d t h e T h e a t r e S t u d i o o f L o n d o n ' s O l d V i c T h e a t r e . He u l t i m a t e l y became a d i r e c t o r o f t h e R o y a l S h a k e s p e a r e Company w i t h P e t e r H a l l a n d P e t e r B r o o k . 54 B.C. to offer theatrical workshops, coupled with her work for the Dominion Drama Festival, the Players* Club, and the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, the head of cultural programs for the Rockefeller Foundation travelled to the University of British Columbia to propose a grant to the university which would allow someone to travel in the United States and study American universities, on the condition that in turn, the University of British Columbia would henceforth give accredited courses in theatre. The individual selected to receive the Rockefeller grant was Dorothy Somerset. The Rockefeller Foundation proposal was put to Garnet Sedgewick of the English Department who agreed to the plan. Frederic Wood made the formal proposal to the Senate, asking for their approval for university accreditation of theatre courses. Dorothy Somerset was also invited to speak before the Senate. "When asked... as to why we should offer theatre courses as part of an academic program, well, I found lots of answers for that." The Rockefeller proposal was passed. For Wood, the new resolution was the successful completion of years of effort in introducing and promoting theatre at the University of British Columbia. For Somerset, i t was yet another beginning. She recalled: 55 " S o , I r e c e i v e d my s c h o l a r s h i p - e i g h t h u n d r e d d o l l a r s f o r t h r e e months - a n d b e l i e v e i t o r n o t , i t was e n o u g h ! C a n y o u b e l i e v e i t i n t h i s d a y a n d g e n e r a t i o n ? I t p a i d f o r my f a r e s a n d f o r my b o a r d a n d l o d g i n g . I v i s i t e d f i v e u n i v e r s i t i e s , some o f them I s t a y e d o n l y f o r a week; i n one I s t a y e d t e n d a y s , when t h e p r o g r a m was v e r y i n t e n s i v e a n d c o u l d s e e what t h e y were t e a c h i n g a n d how t h e y were o r g a n i z i n g . " The E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t : I n 1 9 4 6 , S o m e r s e t a c c e p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h t o t e a c h T h e a t r e , w h i c h now r e c e i v e d c r e d i t f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y . I n i t i a l l y , two c o u r s e s were s e l e c t e d : H i s t o r y o f T h e a t r e a n d S p e e c h a n d A c t i n g . One c o u r s e was t a u g h t e a c h y e a r , w i t h t h e c o u r s e s u b j e c t a l t e r n a t i n g e v e r y o t h e r y e a r . S y d n e y R i s k t o o k o v e r t h e w i n t e r p r o g r a m i n t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p a r t m e n t , b u t S o m e r s e t r e m a i n e d a c t i v e i n t h e Summer S c h o o l o f t h e T h e a t r e . As t h e i n s t r u c t o r o f t h e a t r e a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , she was g i v e n a b u d g e t o f $2000 a y e a r t o p r o d u c e a p l a y . H e r f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n , Man a n d t h e M a s s e s by E r n s t T o l l e r , was s t a g e d i n t h e A u d i t o r i u m . I t s p o p u l a r s u c c e s s p r o m p t e d P r e s i d e n t Norman M a c K e n z i e t o h a n g a p i c t u r e o f t h a t p r o d u c t i o n i n h i s o f f i c e . ( 8 ) 8. Norman A . M . M a c K e n z i e was P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1944 - 1962 . S o m e r s e t ' s m e m o r i e s o f t h e t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e E n g l i s h D e p a r t m e n t a r e warm: T h o s e were g l o r i o u s d a y s . . . . t h e o b j e c t was n o t o n l y t o g i v e s t u d e n t s a c h a n c e t o a c t a n d t o l e a r n , b u t a l s o t o p r e s e n t p l a y s t h a t s h o u l d be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c . T h i s i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s p a r t o f t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e F r e d d i e Wood - t o p r e s e n t p l a y s f o r t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a s w e l l a s f o r t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t ' s l o v e o f t h e a t r e , a n d h e r u n f l a g g i n g d e v o t i o n t o p r o m o t i n g i t s c a u s e h a d f i n a l l y s u c c e e d e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c c r e d i t e d t h e a t r e c o u r s e s O ) a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . By a c h i e v i n g t h i s , she h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e f i r s t s t e p i n c r e a t i n g what w o u l d be f u l f i l l e d s i x y e a r s l a t e r : n a m e l y , t h a t i n 1958 , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d become t h e f i r s t C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t y w h i c h w o u l d o f f e r a d e g r e e i n T h e a t r e . 9 . D o r o t h y S o m e r s e t r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y t o t h e t e r m " d r a m a " . On more t h a n one o c c a s i o n s h e s a i d t h a t " d r a m a " r e f e r r e d t o t h e w r i t t e n l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e t h e a t r e . She f e l t t h a t a n y c o u r s e r e l a t e d t o a c t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , l i g h t i n g e t c . s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o a s a " t h e a t r e " c o u r s e . Newspaper announcement of Dorothy Somerset and the P l a y e r s ' Club i n 1938. £1 Tea p a r t y o r g a n i z e d by Dorothy Somerset to pay t r i b u t e to the u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f who had devoted t h e i r time and labour to c r e a t i n g the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. Second from the l e f t i s B e a t r i c e Wood, wife o f Prof. Wood who i s standing f o u r t h from the r i g h t . bo Dorothy Somerset and F r e d e r i c Wood on the stage of the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre, 1952. 61 offici.illu O P C I K O on \\i H . - . u - . : KM mail possible anilributiotvi from \v Vxmrii* of Sritoh tfoluii "lif Alumni Association ttnhtm* anii Fi'toqte s of the |Frtirric l U V o o F r e d e r i c Wood and E a r l e B i r n e y i n f r o n t o f the s c r o l l o f the names of f r i e n d s and patrons o f the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. 62 CHAPTER FIVE The F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre "Would you o b j e c t to- having a th e a t r e named a f t e r you? " Telegram to F r e d e r i c Wood at Laguna B e a c h , C a i i f o r n i a from Dorothy Somerset, 1952 --The 1924 P l a y e r s ' Club tour o f Shaw's You Never Can  T e l l was d i s t i n g u i s h e d c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y by the announcement of two marriages: Mr.and Mrs. F r e d e r i c Wood, and Mr.and Mrs J.V.Clyne. Twenty-seven years l a t e r i n 1951, the same p l a y , staged by the Summer School o f the Theatre and d i r e c t e d by Dorothy Somerset, a g a i n p r o v i d e d a memorable moment i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e a t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. As the c u r t a i n was about to go up f o r the p r o d u c t i o n i n the Auditorium one evening, Somerset r e c a l l e d how Walter Gage, Dean of A r t s , appeared a t the stage door to speak to her: 63 ^Dorothy, I want to show you something.' I s a i d % I can't go now, the c u r t a i n i s about to go up i n ten minutes.' He s a i d ^ I t won't take you more than f i v e . Come with me.' He took me from the Auditorium up the West Mall where the Totem Canteen had been i n those two huts, and he s a i d , xYou've j u s t been g i v e n t h i s f o r a t h e a t r e , and you have two thousand f i v e hundred with which to convert i t . • And you can imagine how bowled over I was f There wasn't time to do much d i s c u s s i o n there, but I c o u l d immediately see the p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; i t was the proper shape f o r an a u d i t o r i u m and a stage.(1) To a r e s o u r c e f u l o p t i m i s t , the Totem Canteen which c o n s i s t e d of two quonset huts p o s i t i o n e d together to form a % T ' shape, c o u l d suggest a stage space with an auditorium. Somerset was g i v e n one year to transform the modest canteen i n t o a t h e a t r e f o r the U n i v e r s i t y : she accepted the c h a l l e n g e with enthusiasm. A grant from the U n i v e r s i t y , donations from the Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n , and funds from the patrons of the U n i v e r s i t y and from the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation made t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l e . Many people o f f e r e d t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , but two i n d i v i d u a l s who devoted enormous energy i n t o every aspect of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n were Sidney Risk and C l i f f Robinson. A s e t p a i n t e r , Robinson decided to p a i n t the e x t e r i o r of the hut green and the s h u t t e r s Arbutus Red, a c o l o u r combination which aroused 1. Dorothy Somerset i n t e r v i e w , October 23, 1987. 64 c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . He p a i n t e d the i n t e r i o r w a l l s green as w e l l . A counter a t the back, was b u i l t to s e l l t i c k e t s f o r latecomers/ and serve c o f f e e a t i n t e r m i s s i o n . The trunk o f the T-shaped b u i l d i n g h e l d the f o y e r , audience and stage, and the wings h i d s e t s , p r o p e r t i e s , l i g h t i n g and two small d r e s s i n g rooms. A l a r g e p o r t r a i t o f P r o f e s s o r F r e d e r i c Wood which had been p a i n t e d a t Laguna Beach was hung along with p i c t u r e s o f pre v i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s . Although darkness provided the stage c u r t a i n f o r the f i r s t year, c u r t a i n s , a cyclorama, and a l i g h t i n g system designed by Tommy Lea e v e n t u a l l y were added. The move to c r e a t e a u n i v e r s i t y t h e a t r e out o f the Totem Canteen was acclaimed and won the support o f everyone asked to a s s i s t : f a c u l t y members c o n t r i b u t e d a d v i c e , the Department of B u i l d i n g s and Grounds generously gave t h e i r support, and the alumni o f the P l a y e r s ' Club a d v i s e d on l i g h t i n g and stage d e s i g n . With the common weal o f v o l u n t e e r s and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the c a r p e n t e r s , e l e c t r i c i a n s , and p a i n t e r s o f the U n i v e r s i t y , Dorothy Somerset succeeded i n producing a t h e a t r e t h a t year - a year which she d e s c r i b e d long a f t e r as one of the most rewarding and e x c i t i n g years o f her l i f e : A f t e r the opening we had a s p e c i a l tea pa r t y a t f i v e o ' c l o c k f o r the workmen. I wanted to pay t r i b u t e to them. I f they hadn't done i t , w e l l - you see, they were on s t a f f -so that a l l I had to pay was the m a t e r i a l s . To me t h a t ' s very important - the p a r t those workmen play e d . . . We worked together and they were some of my best f r i e n d s . (2) One o f the multitude o f d e t a i l s to be c o n s i d e r e d was s e a t i n g d e s i g n . Somerset's hope was f o r something f l e x i b l e which c o u l d convert i n t o a t h e a t r e - i n - t h e - r o u n d f o r experimental p r o d u c t i o n s . T h i s was achieved by working out a system of s e a t i n g p l a t f o r m s which c o u l d be moved to the back of the auditorium. We looked f o r c h a i r s and we came acr o s s a l l s o r t s o f c h a i r s without arms, but f i n a l l y i n one o f the wholesale, second-hand p l a c e s downtown, we found about 120 c h a i r s with a cushion a t the back.(3) To s o l i c i t f u r t h e r funds, Somerset made an a p p l i c a t i o n to the Board of Governors to c r e a t e a F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre Foundation. She wrote to people, a s k i n g f o r a donation o f f i f t y d o l l a r s to endow a c h a i r f o r the new F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. The response was forthcoming. Today the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre Foundation s t i l l e x i s t s , having been p a r t o f 2. Dorothy Somerset's i n f l u e n c e with P r e s i d e n t Norman ("Larry") MacKenzie r e s u l t e d i n favourable c o o p e r a t i o n from a v a r i e t y o f needed sources. 3. Interview Dorothy Somerset, October 23, 1987. 66 the o f f i c i a l funding appeal o f the u n i v e r s i t y f o r many years. In t o t a l , the funding which was r a i s e d f o r the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre was: $3500 from seventy donors who became patrons o f the t h e a t r e ; $1500 from the UBC Alumni Fund; and $2500 from the UBC Board o f Governors. So g r e a t was the need f o r t h i s t h e a t r e , t h a t before i t was even completed i t was i n use. The Summer School o f the Theatre used i t r e g u l a r l y f o r c l a s s e s , and with o n l y temporary s e a t i n g accommodation, the school presented one of i t s major p r o d u c t i o n s . The House o f Bernarda Alba. Winter t h e a t r e c l a s s e s met there r e g u l a r l y and presented s i x performances o f Shaw's Candida. In November, i n v i t a t i o n s went out f o r the o f f i c i a l opening. The o f f i c i a l opening o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre was held on Saturday, December 6, 1952 a t 8:30 p.m. and i n c l u d e d the guests o f honour: P r o f e s s o r and Mrs. F r e d e r i c Wood, C h a n c e l l o r and Mrs. Sherwood L e t t ( 4 ) , P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie, and patrons and f r i e n d s o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre."(5) 4. B r i g a d i e r Sherwood L e t t , C.B.E., D.S.O., M.C., E.D., K.C., B.A., LL.D., Rhodes Scholar a t T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Oxford, f i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f the Alma Mater S o c i e t y i n 1915, and member o f the f i r s t g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s i n 1916. He became C h i e f J u s t i c e o f the Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 5. A l a r g e s c r o l l o f the names o f f r i e n d s and patrons who had endowed a c h a i r or c o n t r i b u t e d i n k i n d was made f o r t h i s o c c a s i o n . 67 One hundred and t h i r t e e n were i n v i t e d to a t t e n d , which was the maximum s e a t i n g once ten cushions were p l a c e d on the f l o o r a t the f r o n t . A r e a d i n g o f a new p l a y T r i a l o f a C i t y , w r i t t e n by P r o f e s s o r E a r l e Birney, was performed by members o f the P l a y e r s ' Club Alumni, students from the Summer School o f Theatre and downtown p r o f e s s i o n a l r a d i o a c t o r s . Dorothy Somerset d i r e c t e d the c a s t . (See Appendix C f o r l i s t o f the members o f the c a s t o f t h i s opening n i g h t p r o d u c t i o n ) . A p r e s s i n g demand f o r the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre continued year round. In summer and winter, the E n g l i s h Department taught courses there and workshopped student shows. The u n i v e r s i t y students were not the o n l y b e n e f a c t o r s o f the new t h e a t r e : at the request of Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s , c l a s s e s i n c r e a t i v e t h e a t r e were o f f e r e d every Saturday,morning to elementary and high school students. The unexpected demand for i t s use s u r p r i s e d even those who had l o b b i e d f o r i t s need. In a d d i t i o n to being the t h e a t r e f o r the campus a c t i n g c l a s s e s i n the E n g l i s h department, and the Summer School o f the Theatre, the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre soon housed a t h i r d group: The Holiday Theatre, which was founded by Joy C o g h i l l , J e s s i e Richardson and Sidney Risk i n 1956. T h i s t h e a t r e company, formed at Dorothy Somerset's i n v i t a t i o n . 68 o f f e r e d p r o d u c t i o n s each Saturday f o r c h i l d r e n . The int i m a t e s i z e o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre s u i t e d i t s e l f i d e a l l y f o r t h i s purpose, s i n c e i t allowed the young audience to be c l o s e to the scene o f the a c t i o n . J e s s i e Richardson: The success o f the pro d u c t i o n s a t the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre was due i n no small p a r t to J e s s i e Richardson, who co-produced many pr o d u c t i o n s with Dorothy Somerset. A v e r s a t i l e woman, Richardson was i n v o l v e d with numerous aspects o f the p r o d u c t i o n s . Her involvement went beyond producing and a c t i n g to i n c l u d e c r e a t i n g and p e r s o n a l l y sewing c o u n t l e s s , e l a b o r a t e costumes f o r the Summer School of the Theatre and the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre, i n a d d i t i o n to the H o l i d a y Theatre For C h i l d r e n . As a member of the Holiday Theatre For C h i l d r e n , her p a r t as costume m i s t r e s s was e s s e n t i a l . Costumes f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o d u c t i o n s proved to be c h a l l e n g i n g not o n l y because they were f r e q u e n t l y animal o u t f i t s , but a l s o because they had to be w e l l made to endure t r a v e l l i n g i n the t o u r s . Born J e s s i c a Goford i n 1896 i n London, England, J e s s i e Richardson came to Canada i n 1919 as the war b r i d e o f Herbert H. Richardson. She f i r s t acted i n the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre i n 1937 a t the age of f o r t y - o n e , p l a y i n g Mrs. 69 Higgins i n Shaw's Pygmalion. The next year, while a c t i n g i n A r s e n i c and Old Lace, her s k i l l a t producing a bishop's costume and mi t r e s out of cardboard, prompted others to urge her to assume the p o s i t i o n o f wardrobe m i s t r e s s o f the company. In 1939, she undertook to c r e a t e costumes f o r the Ex t e n s i o n Department of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the Summer School o f the Theatre. In time, her involvement i n c r e a s e d u n t i l she was co-producing many pr o d u c t i o n s . She remained v i g o r o u s l y a c t i v e a c t i n g , producing and c r e a t i n g costumes f o r the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre f o r the next 26 years. She was a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n being a key support f o r Dorothy Somerset i n many ways. A small woman, J e s s i e Richardson was v i v a c i o u s , e n e r g e t i c and r e s o u r c e f u l . S t r i k i n g i n her personal d r e s s , she was a f a m i l i a r f i g u r e i n evenings i n her f a v o u r i t e , emerald green, v e l v e t cape. "Whenever you went anywhere with her, everyone threw t h e i r arms around her."(6) Whenever she was presented with any a p p a r e n t l y " i m p o s s i b l e " t h e a t r i c a l problem, "you c o u l d see the wheels t u r n i n g , then suddenly - there was the s o l u t i o n . " ( 7 ) In an 6. Interview with Nora Gregory, May 21, 1989, Vancouver. 7. Interview with G e r a l d i n e Richardson, A p r i l 24, 1989, Vancouver. 70 i n t e r v i e w i n 1964 (Vancouver Times, Sept.30) J e s s i e Richardson s a i d : Every time a p l a y i s over I t h i n k I've f i n a l l y s o l v e d every costuming problem that c o u l d ever come up, then a new p l a y s t a r t s and b r i n g s problems I never dreamed o f f In a d d i t i o n to her i n d e f a t i g a b l e support o f t h e a t r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y , Richardson a l s o c r e a t e d costumes f o r the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l , a s s i s t e d by her daughter-in-law, G e r a l d i n e Richardson. G e r i e , who says she's been answering to " J e s s i e " f o r years r e c a l l e d : We s t a r t e d i n my basement a t 13th and Sasamat, which worked out q u i t e w e l l . J e s s i e wouldn't work unl e s s there was a window. In f a c t when they were b u i l d i n g the F r e d d i e Wood Theatre, i t was d i s c o v e r e d there wasn't a window i n the wardrobe room. Norman Young had to go back to them and convince them to put a window i n f o r J e s s i e . ( 8 ) In 1965, J e s s i e Richardson r e t i r e d from the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. She had been P r e s i d e n t of the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre and Chairman o f the Dominion Drama F e s t i v a l , and had c r e a t e d costumes f o r the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e s t i v a l , the Holiday Theatre For C h i l d r e n , the Playhouse Theatre, and both F r e d e r i c Wood Theatres. In r e c o g n i t i o n o f 8. Interview with G e r a l d i n e Richardson, A p r i l 24, 1989. 71 her t h e a t r i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s and her generous s p i r i t , Norman Young and ot h e r s c r e a t e d the J e s s i e Awards i n 1983 to be awarded a n n u a l l y by the Vancouver P r o f e s s i o n a l Theatre A l l i a n c e f o r o u t s t a n d i n g performances i n major and sup p o r t i n g r o l e s , d i r e c t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n o f a p l a y or musi c a l , costume d e s i g n , and s e t design. These awards are a coveted p r i z e i n the th e a t r e world o f Vancouver. Mentioned at the 1985 J e s s i e Richardson Awards was the f o l l o w i n g comment which encapsulates the essence o f t h i s woman: J e s s i e Richardson was an e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n d i v i d u a l , whose s u p p o r t i v e involvement i n Vancouver t h e a t r e spanned over four decades... J e s s i e was known not only f o r her s k i l l with needle and thread but a l s o f o r her genuine love and support o f the a r t s . Her c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the growth and v i t a l i t y o f Vancouver's t h e a t r e scene has enhanced the q u a l i t y o f the th e a t r e we have today. J e s s i e was a woman of u n f a i l i n g charm and energy; her warmth and g e n e r o s i t y w i l l not soon be f o r g o t t e n . ( 9 ) A member of the A r t s '37 c l a s s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia who worked with J e s s i e Richardson and Dorothy Somerset i n p r o p e r t i e s was Nora Gibson. O r i g i n a l l y a c t i v e i n the P l a y e r s ' Club, working with Somerset i n Caesar  and C l e o p a t r a i n 1934, Gibson's t h e a t r i c a l c a r e e r continued with the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, the E x t e n s i o n Department 9. Excerpt from the program f o r the T h i r d Annual  J e s s i e Richardson Theatre Awards, 1985. 72 and the Dominion Drama F e s t i v a l o f which she became Vice P r e s i d e n t . Dorothy Somerset r e c a l l e d : Nora was important. The h a n d l i n g o f p r o p e r t i e s f o r those shows was a t e r r i f i c j o b, because you had to get f u r n i t u r e , you had to borrow i t , you had to see to g e t t i n g i t there. Sometimes you had to put on a meal with four courses f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p l a y . And Nora Gregory was i n charge o f p r o p e r t i e s i n the e a r l y days f o r a good many years. She can t e l l some h a i r - r a i s i n g s t o r i e s ! In 1987, Nora Gibson, now Mrs. Nora Gregory, a c t i v e on b e h a l f o f the Koerner Foundation, was awarded The Vancouver P r o f e s s i o n a l Theatre A l l i a n c e Award f o r her out s t a n d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t h e a t r i c a l community of Vancouver. F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre P r o d u c t i o n s : For e l e v e n years, from 1952 u n t i l 1963, the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre was home to over s i x t y a d u l t p l a y s and fo u r t e e n c h i l d r e n ' s p r o d u c t i o n s . The i n t e n t i o n s o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre were s t a t e d c l e a r l y on a 1957 announcement o f the season's p l a y s : I t i s with a f e e l i n g o f a f f e c t i o n t h a t the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre addresses i t s e l f a t the beginning o f a new season to the pat r o n and f r i e n d s who have so generously supported i t i n the past. I t i s with p r i d e and g r a t i t u d e t h a t i t welcomes the Vancouver d i r e c t o r s and a c t o r s who w i l l p resent the p l a y s t h a t have been s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s year's workshop programme. 73 The F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre presents a "workshop" programme because, under t h a t t i t l e , i t hopes to preserve an adventurous s p i r i t , to i n c l u d e among i t s o f f e r i n g s the i n f r e q u e n t l y seen, the unusual or the experimental. I t i s deeply g r a t e f u l to the audiences, d i r e c t o r s and a c t o r s who have encouraged i t i n t h i s endeavour.(10) I f one c o n s i d e r s the modest s i z e of the f a c i l i t i e s , the p l a y s that were produced i n the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre were remarkably ambitious. Furthermore, a f i r s t c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l degree o f success was achieved. When asked to comment on a memorable p r o d u c t i o n , Somerset o f f e r e d : I t h i n k John Brockington's p r o d u c t i o n o f Beckett's Waiting f o r Godot was o u t s t a n d i n g . A b s o l u t e l y o u t s t a n d i n g ! And the f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n t h a t we put on i n the F r e d d i e Wood Theatre, the c l o s i n g p r o d u c t i o n - a g a i n he produces i t - i t was Shaw's M i s a l l i a n c e . I t was almost an e n t i r e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l c a s t . A b e a u t i f u l p r o d u c t i o n ! B e a u t i f u l l y a c t e d ! Those two p r o d u c t i o n s of John's stand out i n my mind. Joy C o g h i l l ' s p r o d u c t i o n of The S e a g u l l was a b s o l u t e l y f a n t a s t i c ! Marvelous, marvelous production.(11) There were l o t s o f i n t e r e s t i n g p r o d u c t i o n s . Venus Observed d i r e c t e d by Sam Payne, that was a very good show. And The Sleep  of P r i s o n e r s , t h a t I d i d , i t was a good show. 10. The opening remarks p r i n t e d on the pamphlet f o r the 1957-58 F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre Workshop Programme. 11. By way o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d i r e c t i n g t h i s p l a y , Joy C o g h i l l s t u d i e d K o n s t a n t i n S t a n i s l a v s k y ' s prompt book of The S e a g u l l f o r the Moscow A r t t h e a t r e i n 1896. I t had been S t a n i s l a v s k y ' s s t y l e to do a c a r e f u l study, making d e t a i l e d notes o f each p l a y before r e h e a r s a l s began. 74 Joy C o g h i l l d i r e c t e d Chekov's The S e a g u l l f o r the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre i n 1953. The day a f t e r i t opened The Vancouver Province (Mar. 17) r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g review: . . . A r t i s t i c a l l y "The S e a g u l l " was a thorough success... The t h e a t r e needs d i r e c t o r s and a c t o r s l i k e these to develop the medium... i t i s a s p l e n d i d t h i n g to see people who s t r e s s q u a l i t y above e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . What they o f f e r e d was e a g e r l y accepted by those out f r o n t . T e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which o c c a s i o n a l l y arose because o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e circumstances d i d not deter Dorothy Somerset. In 1954, she d i r e c t e d the P l a y e r s ' Club p r o d u c t i o n of O ' N e i l l ' s The Great God Brown with P h i l K e a t l e y , Peter Haworth, Joanne Walker and Louise De Vick i n the l e a d i n g r o l e s . On opening n i g h t , due to stormy weather, the power f a i l e d i n the P o i n t Grey area. Undaunted, Somerset a l e r t e d members of the c a s t to "Bring c a n d l e s ! " to serve as f o o t l i g h t s . Costumes and makeup were done by f l i c k e r i n g c a n d l e l i g h t ; however, ten minutes before the c u r t a i n was to go up, the power was r e s t o r e d . The p l a y s which were performed i n the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre were p l a y s by Chekov, Ibsen, Beckett, S t r i n d b e r g , Shaw, Brecht and 0'Casey. They were p l a y s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to Somerset, "the p u b l i c should see." (See Appendix D f o r a 75 l i s t o f the p l a y s which were performed i n the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre.) The p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t y o f the p r o d u c t i o n s , the bo l d c h o i c e o f p l a y s , supported by the e n t h u s i a s t i c response of the students and the gen e r a l p u b l i c , e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need f o r a Theatre Department. The Establishment o f the Department of Theatre: The i n i t i a l impetus f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a Theatre department was Dorothy Somerset's concern t h a t so many of her students i n the E n g l i s h department c o u l d not speak poetry. P l a y t e x t s are meant to be spoken. Poetry i s v o c a l music, and speech i s p a r t o f the need fo r b r i n g i n g to l i f e the poem.(12) To address t h i s need, she made a request to teach a course i n spoken poetry i n the E n g l i s h Department. T h i s request was denied. As a consequence o f t h i s . P r o f e s s o r Roy D a n i e l l s o f the E n g l i s h Department suggested to Somerset t h a t she form a t h e a t r e department. With h i s encouragement, she made a formal a p p l i c a t i o n to the F a c u l t y which went to the Senate to make a p l e a f o r the formation o f such a department, s t a t i n g t h a t students s t u d i e d Racine, M o l i e r e , Shakespeare and Greek drama, a l l of which were w r i t t e n to be 12 Interview with Dorothy Somerset, October 29, 1987. 76 spoken. Despite an o b j e c t i o n by Senate that a t h e a t r e department was a v o c a t i o n a l endeavour and not s u i t a b l e i n a u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g , with the support o f Gordon Shrum and Roy D a n i e l l s , the motion was u l t i m a t e l y passed. In 1958, Somerset was g i v e n a budget to appoint a s e c r e t a r y and two people to teach the H i s t o r y and C r i t i c i s m of Theatre and A c t i n g . In 1959 the Department o f Theatre came i n t o being with Dorothy Somerset as i t s f i r s t head. Somerset r e t i r e d from t h i s p o s i t i o n i n 1965, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an honorary Doctorate from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, however she c o n t i n u e d to l e c t u r e as A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Emerita f o r one more year. John Brockington, the f o l l o w i n g Head of the v Theatre Department, h e l d the p o s i t i o n f o r the next twenty-three years. Although Dorothy Somerset c r e a t e d the Theatre Department, John Brock i n g t o n developed the academic program which u l t i m a t e l y o f f e r e d undergraduate and graduate degrees i n a c t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , t h e a t r e h i s t o r y , t h e a t r e d e s i g n and f i l m . The development o f the Theatre Department i s e v i d e n t by i t s steady growth i n f a c u l t y s i z e over the years. In 1959, i t s t a r t e d with two people, Dorothy Somerset and her a s s i s t a n t , and g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d i n s i z e u n t i l by 1982, i t 77 had nineteen f a c u l t y members on s t a f f . For a l i s t o f f a c u l t y members from 1959 to 1991, see Appendix E. In an i n t e r v i e w i n 1990, Somerset r e c a l l e d : I took the department so f a r , but i t was under John that we got a c c r e d i t e d f o r an M.A. and a Ph.D and the B.A. i n A r t s . The academic development was due to him. I t was under John t h a t the d e c i s i o n was made th a t f u t u r e F r e d d i e Hood pr o d u c t i o n s would be students o n l y . I t was the r i g h t d e c i s i o n . And o f course he was a superb d i r e c t o r f o r the Freddie Hood productions....(13) Somerset f e l t she had the two key people to nurture the development of the department. On the one hand, John Brocki n g t o n who d i r e c t e d p l a y s and e s t a b l i s h e d the academic programs, and on the o t h e r , Norman Young who produced the p l a y s and became the v o i c e of the u n i v e r s i t y i n the community o f f campus. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s support, i t must a l s o be noted t h a t Dorothy Somerset enjoyed a warm ra p p o r t with P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie who subsequently supported her endeavours. His endorsement helped to make p o s s i b l e the i n c r e a s e d course o f f e r i n g s , the es t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department o f Theatre, and the b u i l d i n g of both the o r i g i n a l and the present F r e d e r i c Hood Theatres. The present F r e d e r i c Hood Theatre was i n f a c t , p a r t of a newly c r e a t e d Norman MacKenzie Fine A r t s Centre named i n honour o f the 13 Interview with Dorothy Somerset, August 19, 1990. 78 P r e s i d e n t . I t was planned that t h i s c e n t r e would i n c l u d e the F r e d e r i c L a s s e r r e B u i l d i n g f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e , the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre, the proposed music b u i l d i n g and a proposed a r t g a l l e r y and museum. The New F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre; Jack Richards i n The Vancouver Sun (August 30, 1963) hea d l i n e d h i s column, " I t ' s An Old Name For A New Theatre." The opening n i g h t o f the new "Freddie Wood" i n some r e s p e c t s was a r e p e t i t i o n o f the opening o f the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. Once again , the Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n , patrons o f the U n i v e r s i t y , and the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation gave generously to the esta b l i s h m e n t o f the t h e a t r e . Once again, Norman MacKenzie was present f o r the o f f i c i a l opening, and again F r e d e r i c Wood was present to be honoured. To complete t h i s s y n c h r o n i c i t y , the f i r s t a c t o r to walk on the stage f o r the opening n i g h t performance was again B i l l Buckingham. September 19th, 1963 was the opening n i g h t o f the new 410 seat t h e a t r e . I t was very much a g a l a a f f a i r with an impressive l i s t o f p l a t f o r m guests i n c l u d i n g Dr.Norman A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t Emeritus o f the U n i v e r s i t y , Dr. P h y l l i s G.Ross, C h a n c e l l o r o f the U n i v e r s i t y , Dean Chant, Dean of 79 the F a c u l t y o f A r t s , guest l e c t u r e r John Mason Brown(14) from New York and P r o f e s s o r F r e d e r i c Wood and Dorothy Somerset. Much thought was g i v e n to the s e l e c t i o n o f the opening p l a y to be performed. The o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre with a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y one qua r t e r the s i z e o f the new t h e a t r e , had c u l t i v a t e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r "academic" p l a y s which were p a t r o n i z e d by a l o y a l and devoted f o l l o w i n g . With t h i s thought i n mind, coupled with the awareness that the opening n i g h t would be accompanied by numerous speeches, the d e c i s i o n was made to stage a pl a y which was " l i g h t e r " i n tone as a way o f i n t r o d u c i n g the new F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre to a new and l a r g e r audience. The f i r s t c h o i c e c o n s i d e r e d was The Threepenny Opera, however, i t was not p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n the r i g h t s f o r t h i s p l a y . As a r e s u l t , i t was decided to produce Salad Days, by J u l i a n Slade and Dorothy Reynolds. In an i n t e r v i e w i n A p r i l , 1987, John Brockington looked back a t h i s d e c i s i o n : Even though i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l to open a th e a t r e with something l i k e Hamlet, I thought, l e t ' s do something with a b i t more entertainment v a l u e . Something f r i v o l o u s and 14 John Mason Brown, d i s t i n g u i s h e d American drama c r i t i c and author, p u b l i s h e d c r i t i c i s m s i n the New York  World-Telegram, the Saturday Review and Theatre A r t s  Monthly, and was a member o f the New York Drama C r i t i c s ' C i r c l e . 80 1 i g h t h e a r t e d a f t e r a l l those speeches... I t was the r i g h t show i n r e t r o s p e c t . His c h o i c e was applauded; i t was 9:40 pm before the c u r t a i n went up. Salad Days which c a l l s f o r a v a r i e t y of r o l e s to be performed by each member of the c a s t , proved to be the p e r f e c t v e h i c l e to i n t r o d u c e people to the t h e a t r e . I t was so w e l l r e c e i v e d that a c c o r d i n g to The Vancouver Sun (September 20, 1963) "the audience (a f u l l house) was c l a p p i n g i n unison with the c l o s i n g number f o r ten minutes." The newspaper column went on to s t a t e that the " c a s t was loaded with t a l e n t e d people who enjoyed t h e i r work." (See Appendix F f o r a l i s t o f the c a s t . ) Salad Days was h e l d over fo r one week, and many people who came to see i t thus d i s c o v e r e d the e x i s t e n c e and the l o c a t i o n of the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the p o p u l a r i t y o f t h i s p l a y e s t a b l i s h e d the "Freddie Wood" as a source of entertainment, a r e p u t a t i o n which has continued to t h i s day. Since i t s opening n i g h t , the t h e a t r e has enjoyed a popular r e p u t a t i o n and years of f u l l houses to season t i c k e t h o l d e r s . (See Appendix G f o r a l i s t o f the p l a y s produced by the Theatre Department at the present F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre.) I t stands today, a monument to the e f f o r t s of c o u n t l e s s i n d i v i d u a l s who o f f e r e d t h e i r time because of t h e i r love of t h e a t r e . In an i n t e r v i e w on Oct 18, 1990, Dorothy Somerset summed up the h i s t o r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n which l e d to the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre i n the f o l l o w i n g words: I f i t hadn't been f o r Fr e d d i e ' s p r o d u c t i o n s throughout the pro v i n c e - the p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the p l a y s - i f i t hadn't been f o r the pr o d u c t i o n s o f the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, i f i t hadn't been f o r my p r o d u c t i o n o f Back to Methuselah, i f i t hadn't been f o r the Summer School o f Theatre e x t e n s i o n p r o d u c t i o n s - there never would have been a F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. The I n f l u e n c e o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre: Through the years, the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre and the Theatre Department have pr o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g f o r c o u n t l e s s students. The f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y to o f f e r an undergraduate degree and l a t e r a graduate degree i n t h e a t r e s t u d i e s , UBC has proven i t s e l f to be a leader i n g e n e r a t i n g students who have made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to p r o f e s s i o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l t h e a t r e i n Canada. Although the e a r l y days of the P l a y e r s ' Club were c o n f i n e d to an e l i t i s t group who enjoyed f u l l page coverage i n the s o c i e t y pages of the c i t y newspapers, those days are i n the past. Today, students a t the Theatre Department o f UBC r e f l e c t a wide c r o s s s e c t i o n o f c u l t u r e s , and t h e i r impact, i n t u r n , i s u l t i m a t e l y f e l t i n a multitude o f t h e a t r i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s a c t i n g , d i r e c t i n g , a r t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s e t de s i g n , costume d e s i g n , t h e a t r e management, w r i t i n g , b r o a d c a s t i n g and teach i n g . The e a r l y e f f o r t s o f the pioneers o f UBC - Young and Wesbrook - combined with the t h e a t r i c a l endeavours o f F r e d e r i c Wood and Dorothy Somerset, succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the foundation f o r a u n i v e r s i t y department which s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Canadian theatre.(15) The b u i l d e r s and supporters o f the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre can be proud o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s - not onl y to the academic community, but a l s o to every category o f t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n i n Canada today. 15 T h i s i n f l u e n c e i s acknowledged to the extent t h a t the term "UBC mafia" i s common i n t h e a t r i c a l c i r c l e s a c r o s s the country. See Appendix H f o r a l i s t o f some o f the students o f the Department o f Theatre who have gone on to make c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e a t r e . The F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 1963. Columbia The r e v o l v i n g stage of the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre under c o n s t r u c t i o n . Prof. F.G.C.Wood, Dr. P h y l l i s G. Ross, C h a n c e l l o r o f UBC, Dorothy Somerset, and Dr. Norman A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t Emeritus, a t the opening of the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. Scene from Salad Days, the opening p r o d u c t i o n of the F r e d e r i c Hood Theatre. %1 LOTS OF CHICKEN wai provided for hit Salad Dayi by thorn three atari of the show which opened at Freddy Wood Theatre on UBC campus Thursday night S h o w n a re M a r g u e r i t e S t a n l o w ( w i t h ha t ) , Yvonne O ' S u l l i v a n a n d John S p a r k s . A u d i e n c e applauded lor 10 minu tes d u r i n g c l o s i n g c u m b e r . Salad Days Proves Hit With Cast and Audience By JACK Rlt HARDS Hr wai followed by preltj It runs through Oct. 5 and) You cent make chicken and pleasant voiced Yvonne 'or some strange reason tt is salad without chicken they O'Sullivan aa Jane the polish- l o w U ^ l m * beginning « »:* say. But the musical Salad ^ A m n r m r „ „ . „ „ , h / ~ „ , evening. Days which opened the new , Frederic Wood Theatre on the ' University of BX. campus sura can tool a lot of people. ( Maybe tt wai because the v ' V rllent east had so r rd dancer Regan aa the mute T r o p p o and accomplished s Johnny Sparks as Timothy. Everyone elae played c wide "variety of rates, alt of them • the opportunity to clown nnd up the E | Jimmy Johnston had two ' hilarious bits, one as a bishop Salad Days Newspaper c l i p p i n g - The Vancouver Sun Sept. 2 0 , 1963. APPENDIX A L i s t e d below are some of the notable f a c u l t y members h i r e d by P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook.. H.Ashton, B.A. (Cantab.), Des L. (Univ. P a r i s ) . D . L i t t . (Birmingham), O f f i c i e r de 1 • I n s t r u c t i o n Publique ( F r a n c e ) , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of French. Theodore H.Boggs, B.A. (Acadia and Y a l e ) . M.A., Ph.D. ( Y a l e ) , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of Economics. P.A.Boving, Cand.Phil. (Malmo, Sweden), Cand.Agr. Alnarp A g r i c . (Sweden), A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f Agronomy. Reginald W.Brock, M.A. (Queen's), F.G.S.,F.R.S.C. Dean of the F a c u l t y o f A p p l i e d Science and P r o f e s s o r of Geology. Robert H. C l a r k , M.A. (Tor.),Ph.D. ( L e i p z i g ) , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of Chemistry. Mack Eastman, B.A. ( T o r . ) , Ph.D. (Columbia), A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of H i s t o r y . T.C.Hebb, B . S c , M.A. ( D a l . ) , Ph.D. (Chicago), A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f P h y s i c s . Leonard S . K l i n c k , B.S.A. (Guelph), M.S.A., (Ames) Dean of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e and P r o f e s s o r o f Agronomy. Harry T. Logan, B.A. ( M c G i l l and Oxon.), I n s t r u c t o r i n C l a s s i c s . I s a b e l Maclnnes, M.A. (Queen's), I n s t r u c t o r i n Modern Languages. John R i d i n g t o n , A c t i n g L i b r a r i a n and Cataloguer. Lemuel F. Robertson, M.A. ( M c G i l l ) , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of C l a s s i c s . George E. Robinson, B.A. ( D a l . ) , Dean of the F a c u l t y o f A r t s and A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of Mathematics. Garnet G. Sedgewick, B.A. ( D a l . ) , Ph.D. (Harvard), A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h . J.M.Turnbull, B.A.Sc. ( M c G i l l ) , P r o f e s s o r of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y and Head o f the Department. F r e d e r i c G.C.Wood, B.A. ( M c G i l l ) , M.A. (Harvard) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h . 90 APPENDIX B PLAYERS' CLUB PRODUCTIONS The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f the annual p r o d u c t i o n s performed by the P l a y e r s ' Club between 1916 - 1958. The numbers of performances are i n d i c a t e d wherever p o s s i b l e . 1 9 1 6 Fanny and the Servant Problem, by Jerome K. Jerome - four times 1917 Merely Mary Ann, by I s r a e l Z a n g w i l l - four times 1918 A l i c e S i t - b y - t h e - F i r e . by S i r James M. B a r r i e -four times 1919 The Importance o f Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde -three times 1920 Green S t o c k i n g s , by A.E.W. Manson - ten times 1921 Sweet Lavender, by S i r Arthur P i n e r o - twelve times 1922 Mr. Pirn Passes By. by A.A. Milne - seventeen times 1923 You Never Can T e l l , by George Bernard Shaw -f i f t e e n times 1924 The World and His Wife, by J . Echegaray -e i g h t e e n times 1925 You and I by P h i l i p Barry - twenty times 1926 Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw - e i g h t e e n times 1927 The Romantic Young Lady by G. Martinez S i e r r a -e i g h t e e n times 1928 P o l l y With a Past by George Middleton and Guy B o l t o n - twenty-three times 1929 R o l l o ' s Wild Oat, by C l a r e Kumner - twenty times 91 1930 F r i e n d Hannah, by Paul Kester - twenty-three times 1931 The Young Idea, by Noel Coward - t w e n t y - f i v e times 1932 A l i c e S i t - b y - t h e - F i r e by S i r James B a r r i e -n i n e t e e n times 1933 A l i b i by Agatha C h r i s t i e and Michael Morton -seventeen times 1934 Caesar and C l e o p a t r a by George Bernard Shaw -four times. 1935 Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen - e l e v e n times. 1936 She Stoops To Conquer by O l i v e r Goldsmith - seven times. 1937 The Brontes by A l f r e d Sangster - nine times. 1938 The Playboy o f the Western World by J.M.Synge -f o u r t e e n times. 1939 The C u r t a i n R i s e s by Benjamin Kaye - f i f t e e n times. 1940, P r i d e and P r e j u d i c e adapted by Helen Jerome. 1941 Candida by George Bernard Shaw. 1942 The R i v a l s by R i c h a r d Sheridan. 1943 George and Margaret by G e r a l d Savory. 1944 Dover Road by A.A. Milne. 1945 The Taming o f the Shrew by W i l l i a m Shakespeare. 1946 Berkeley Square by John L. B a l v e r s t o n . 1947 What Every Woman Knows by S i r James B a r r i e . 1948 The School For Scandal by Richard Sheridan. 1949 Twelfth Night by W i l l i a m Shakespeare. 92 1950' An Inspector C a l l s by J . B . P r i e s t l e y . 1951 The Male Animal by James Thurber and E l l i o t t Nugent. 1952 Much Ado About Nothing by W i l l i a m Shakespeare. 1953 Shadow and Substance by Paul Vincent C a r r o l l . 195.4 Major Barbara by George Bernard Shaw. 1955 The B a r r e t t s o f Wimpole S t r e e t by Rudolf B e s i e r . 1956 A Hundred Years Old by S e r a f i n and Joaquin Quintero. 1957 Twelfth Night by W i l l i a m Shakespeare. 1958 The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde. 93 APPENDIX C Cast of T r i a l o f a C i t y w r i t t e n by E a r l e Birney and performed on the opening n i g h t of the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre on December 6th, 1952. D i r e c t e d by Dorothy Somerset M i n i s t r y of H i s t o r y -C l e r k o f the Hearing Miss Take, steno -P.S.Legion, counsel f o r Vancouver G a b r i e l Powers, counsel -f o r Future Capt. George Vancouver -Headman o f Snow-Kee S a l i s h Dr.E.O.Seen, Pr o f . Geology Gassy Jack L o n g w i l l (author, " P i e r s -Ploughman") Mrs. Anyone -W i l l i a m Buckingham Don Withrow E l i z a b e t h K e a t l e y P h i l K e a t l e y Don E r i k s o n A l l a n Ainsworth Arthur Sager B l a i r B a i l l i e E r i c Vale James Johnston Nancy Woodworth T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e : V a l e n t i n e Clyne and Donal Wilson i 94 APPENDIX D PRODUCTIONS IN THE ORIGINAL FREDERIC WOOD THEATRE L i s t e d below are p l a y s which were produced i n the o r i g i n a l F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre which opened December 6, 1952. The complete program o f p l a y s o f f e r e d i n 1953-54 i s not determined. The C r u c i b l e by The R i v e r l i n e by The Old L a d i e s by Volpone by The Enchanted by The Spook Sonata by L i l i o m by Rosmersholm by Rheba Without Tears by Colombe by The L i v i n g Room by T a r t u f f e by Venus Observed by The Cherry Orchard by 1954 - 1955 Arthur M i l l e r C h a r l e s Morgan Rodney Ackland Ben Jonson Jean Giraudoux August S t r i n d b e r g 1955 - 1956 F. Molnar Henrik Ibsen Poppy MacKenzie Jean A n o u i l h Graham Greene 1956 - 1957 Je a n - B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e C h r i s t o p h e r F r y Anton Chekhov The Grass Harp by C. Richardson Yerma by F r e d e r i c o G a r c i a Lo: 1957 - 1958 Ever Since P a r a d i s e by J . B . P r i e s t l e y The P o t t i n g Shed by Graham Greene The Chalk Garden by En i d Bagnold A Sleep of the P r i s o n e r s bv C h r i s t o p h e r Frv The Three S i s t e r s by Anton Chekhov Peer Gynt by Henrik Ibsen 1958 - 1959 No E x i t by Jean Paul S a r t r e Anatol by Arthur S c h n i t z l e r Look Back In Anger by John Osborne I Am a Camera by John van Druten L i t t l e E y o l f by Henrik Ibsen 1959 - 1960 The Dinosaurs' Wedding by Donald Soule Summertime by Ugo B e t t i Martine by Jean Bernard Waiting f o r Godot by Samuel Beckett Arms and the Man by George Bernard Shaw The B i r d s by Aristophanes 1960 - 1961 Separate Tables by Terence R a t t i g a n The Bacchae by E u r i p i d e s Heartbreak. House by George Bernard Shaw The F i r s t b o r n by C h r i s t o p h e r Fry The Good Woman of Setzuan bv B e r t o l t Brecht 1961 - 1962 Cockadoodle Dandy by Sean 0'Casey Fable For Frauds by Donald Soule You Never Can T e l l by George Bernard Shaw F i v e F i n q e r E x e r c i s e by Peter S c h a f f e r The Winter's Tale by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1962 - 1963 Two For The Seesaw by W i l l i a m Gibson Rhinoceros by Eugene Ionesco A Taste o f Honey by Shelagh Delaney M i s a l l i a n c e by George Bernard Shaw Henry IV P a r t I by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 97 APPENDIX E Members o f the f a c u l t y o f the Department o f Theatre and F i l m from 1959 - 1991 1959 - 1960 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department Dorothy Somerset, A.B., ( R a d c l i f f e ) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r Sidney Bennett, M.F.A., (Boston) 1960 - 1961 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department Dorothy Somerset, A.B. ( R a d c l i f f e ) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r Darwin Reid Payne, B . S c , M.F.A. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) 1961 - 1962 A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) I n s t r u c t o r J a n i e Stevenson, L.R.A.M.,L.S.S.M.,A.L.A.M. (London) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) 1962 - 1963 A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) I n s t r u c t o r J a n i e Stevenson, L.R.A.M.,L.S.S.M.,A.L.A.M. (London) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) 1963 - 1964 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department Dorothy Somerset, A.B. ( R a d c l i f f e ) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r A r i s t i d e s Gazetas, B.A. (C.C.N.Y.), M.F.A.(Boston) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Part-time L e c t u r e r Joy C o g h i l l , B.A. ( B r i t . C ol.) M.F.A. (A r t I n s t i t u t e , Chicago) 1964 - 1965 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department Dorothy Somerset, A.B. ( R a d c l i f f e ) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r A r i s t i d e s Gazetas, B.A. (C.C.N.Y.), M.F.A. (Boston) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r Joy C o g h i l l , B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.F.A. ( A r t I n s t i t u t e , Chicago) Senior I n s t r u c t o r J a n i e Stevenson, L.R.A.M., L.G.S.M., A.L.A.M. 1965 - 1966 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department Dorothy Somerset, A.B. ( R a d c l i f f e ) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r A r i s t i d e s Gazetas, B.A. (C.C.N.Y.), M.F.A.(Boston) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Ja n i e Stevenson, L.R.A.M.,L.S.S.M.,A.L.A.M. (London), A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r from the F a c u l t y o f Educat i o n 1966 - 1967 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) I n s t r u c t o r S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) L e c t u r e r s Dorothy Somerset, A.B. ( R a d c l i f f e ) , L.L.D. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Emerita K e i t h Simpson, B.A., B.Ed. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.A. (Washington) 1967 - 1968 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Darwin Reid Payne, B . S c , M.F.A. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) L e c t u r e r K e i t h Simpson, B.A., B.Ed. ( B r i t . C o l , ) , M.A. (Washington) 1968 - 1969 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) W i l l i a m Thomas Wheatley, B.A. ( J a c k s o n v i l l e ) , M.F.A. (Columbia), Ph.D. (NYU) Rich a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sta n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Part-time L e c t u r e r s Jane Benson, L.G.S.M. Peter F r a n k l i n White 1969 - 1970 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) W i l l i a m Joseph L o u i s , M.A.(Boston) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) St a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Part-time L e c t u r e r s S h e i l a Ovens, L.A.A.M. Peter F r a n k l i n White 1970 - 1971 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s H.David Lumsden, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) 102 I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Kurt Wilhelm, Diploma (Goodman Memorial Theatre) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) 1971 - 1972 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s R i c h a r d Hornby, B.S. (M.I.T.), M.A., Ph.D. (Tulane) H.David Lumsden, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Irene Prothroe, B.A.B.Ed. ( A l b e r t a ) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Kurt Wilhelm, Diploma (Goodman Memorial Theatre) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) 1972 - 1973 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) 103 A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) Irene Prothroe, B.A.B.Ed. ( A l b e r t a ) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Co r a l y n Sheldon, N.C.C.S.D.,L.R.A.M.,L.U.D.D.A. (London) Kurt Wilhelm, Diploma (Goodman Memorial Theatre) T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r and L e c t u r e r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) A s s o c i a t e T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Ian C. P r a t t 1973 - 1974 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Raymond C l a r k e , Diploma (R.A.D.A., London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) Irene Prothroe, B.A.B.Ed. ( A l b e r t a ) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) David L. L o v e t t , N.D.D. (Wimbledon School o f A r t , London) C o r a l y n Sheldon, N.C.C.S.D.,L.R.A.M.,L.U.D.D.A. (London) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) L e c t u r e r Ian C. P r a t t , A s s o c i a t e T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r 1974 - 1975 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C ol.) David L. L o v e t t , N.D.D. (Wimbledon School of A r t , Londo Irene Prothroe, B.A.B.Ed. ( A l b e r t a ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C ol.) L e c t u r e r Ian C. P r a t t , A s s o c i a t e T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r Al Sens 1975 - 1976 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) I n s t r u c t o r s Jane Heyman, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) David L o v e t t , N.D.D. (Wimbledon School o f A r t , London) Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) David L. L o v e t t , N.D.D. (Wimbledon School o f A r t , London M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) L e c t u r e r Ian P r a t t , A s s o c i a t e T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Peter L. Bryant, B.A. (Simon F r a s e r ) Pamela Hawthorn, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.F.A. (Yale) David Latham D o r i s Peyman, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Al Sens 1976 - 1977 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) David L. L o v e t t , N.D.D. (Wimbledon School o f A r t , London Jane Heyman, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Peter L. Bryant, B.A. (Simon F r a s e r ) David Latham Do r i s Peyman, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Al Sens 1977 - 1978 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) I n s t r u c t o r s Jane Heyman, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Ian C. P r a t t . T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r L e c t u r e r David Latham Part-time L e c t u r e r s Peter Bryant, B.A. (Simon F r a s e r ) A l Sens 1978 - 1979 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) B r i g i t t e S i t t e , M.F.A. ( U . S . I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y ) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s E l i z a b e t h B a l l , Assoc. i n Drama, L i c e n t i a t e i n Drama (London) Peter Bryant, B.A. (Simon F r a s e r ) Al Sens 1979 - 1980 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) B r i g i t t e S i t t e , M.F.A. ( U . S . I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y ) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Peter Bryant, B.A. (Simon F r a s e r ) A l Sens 1980 - 1981 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) R i c h a r d Kent Wilcox, A.B. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) , M.F.A. (Yale) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Raymond J . H a l l Ronald J . P r e c i o u s L i n d a D. Rubin A l Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1981 - 1982 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Raymond J . H a l l L i n d a D. Rubin Al Sens 1982 - 1983 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (E c o l e Jacques Lecoq) V i s i t i n g P r o f e s s o r T e r r y Bennett, B.A. (Baylor) M.F.A. (Texas) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern 111inois) Raymond J . H a l l B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Al Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) L e c t u r e r from another department E r r o l Durbach, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h 1983 - 1984 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) I l l A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (E c o l e Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s J . A . D a r n a l l , B.Sc. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.A. (Hawaii, Honolulu), M.F.A. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern 111inois) Raymond J . H a l l John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r s Moyra K. Mulholland, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s A l Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) L e c t u r e r from another department E r r o l Durbach, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h 1984 - 1985 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) Donald E. Soule, B.A. ( Y a l e ) , M.A. (Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) 112 A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s J . A . D a r n a i l , B.Sc. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.A. (Hawaii, H o n o l u l u ) , M.F.A. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Raymond J . H a l l John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r I n s t r u c t o r Steven Thorne, B.F.A. (York) Part-time L e c t u r e r s Al Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1985 - 1986 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Raymond J . H a l l John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) 113 Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r I n s t r u c t o r Steven Thorne, B.F.A. (York) L e c t u r e r C a t h e r i n e Caines, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.F.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Part-time L e c t u r e r s Al Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1986 - 1987 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P y o f e s s o r s E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern 111inois) Raymond J . H a l l John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r L e c t u r e r Rod Menzies Part-t i m e L e c t u r e r s Al Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1987 - 1988 A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) P r o f e s s o r s E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A.Joan Reynertson, M.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Ph.D. (Stanford) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s B r i a n Jackson, (Old V i c Theatre School, London) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Don Davis, B.S. (Southwestern M i s s o u r i ) , M.S. (Southern I l l i n o i s ) Robert Ga r d i n e r , B.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e ) , M.F.A. (Washington) Raymond J . H a l l Rod Menzies, M.F.A. (York) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s A l Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1988 - 1989  P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , Switzerland) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s Robert Gardiner, B.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e ) , M.F.A. (Washington) Mara G o t t l e r , M.A. (Windsor) Raymond J . H a l l Rod Menzies, M.F.A. (York) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Part-time L e c t u r e r s Al Sens Joanne Yamaguchi B.A.,M.A.,Ph.D. (Colorado) 1989 - 1990  P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s C h r i s G a l l a g h e r , B.F.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) Robert Gardiner, B.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e ) , M.F.A. (Washington) Mara G o t t l e r , M.A. (Windsor) Raymond J . H a l l Rod Menzies, M.F.A. (York) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) S t a n l e y A. Weese, B.A. (Minn.), M.A. ( I l l i n o i s ) John Wright, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.A. (Stanford) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) 116 Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Adjunct P r o f e s s o r P h i l i p K e a t l e y , B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) 1990 - 1991  P r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department E r r o l Durbach, M.A. (Rhodes), M.A. (Cantab.) Ph.D. (London) A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s John Brockington, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , D.F.A. (Yale) Raymond J . H a l l Peter L o e f f l e r , D . P h i l . ( B a s e l , S w i t z e r l a n d ) C h a r l e s S i e g e l , B.A. ( B r a n d e i s ) , M.F.A. (Yale) Klaus Strassman, Ph.D. (Stanford) Arne Zaslove, B.F.A. (Carnegie - M e l l o n ) , Diploma (Ecole Jacques Lecoq) A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s C h r i s G a l l a g h e r , B.F.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Robert Gardiner, B.A. ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e ) , M.F.A. (Washington) Mara G o t t l e r , M.A. (Windsor) Stephen Malloy, B.A. (Ottawa) B r i a n M c l l r o y , B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.A. (Stanford) Rod Menzies, M.F.A. (York) John Newton, M.A. (Berkeley, San F r a n c i s c o State) John Wright, B.A. ( B r i t . C o l . ) , M.A. (Stanford) M.Norman Young, B.A. ( B r i t . Col.) Sr. I n s t r u c t o r Ian C. P r a t t , T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r Adjunct P r o f e s s o r P h i l i p K e a t l e y B.A. ( B r i t . C o l.) 117 APPENDIX F The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f the c a s t o f Salad Days which was performed on September 19, 1963 f o r the o f f i c i a l opening o f the p r e s e n t day F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre. D i r e c t e d by John Brockington B i l l Buckingham Yvonne 0 ' S u l l i v a n Dean Regan John Sparks Alan S c a r f e Marguerite Stanlow M i l d r e d F r a n k l i n James Johnston G a i l H i l l M a r j o r i e Le Strange John B r i g h t o n Karen James John Wright Roger Kennedy The Tramp Jane Troppo Timothy Mr. Dawes, the C o l o n e l , the Chelsea Pensioner, Augustine W i l l i a m s Aunt Prue, Rowena, the S a l v a t i o n Army Lass, Charmian, a S p i n s t e r Lady Raeburn, the Charlady, the T a r t y Lady, A s p h i n x i a , a S p i n s t e r The Bishop, Uncle Clam, the S a i l o r , the N i g h t c l u b Manager, the Reporter, Uncle Zed. The Tennis P l a y e r , the Nanny, the Policewoman Mrs. Dawes, H e l o i s e , the A r t y Lady, the Hearty Lady, a S p i n s t e r , a P i a n i s t , Anthea P.C.Boot, the Drunk, Ambrose Gusset, E l e c t r o d e The M a n i c u r i s t , the Bather, the B a l l e t G i r l , F i ona Fosdyke, N i g e l Danvers, the Lamplighter The B u t t e r f l y Catcher, the P o l i c e I n s p e c t o r , Tom Smith, the M i n i s t e r M u s i c a l D i r e c t i o n Choreography S e t t i n g s Costumes L i g h t i n g T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r J Stage Manager A s s i s t a n t T e c h n i c a l Costume E x e c u t i o n by John Emerson by Dean Regan by A r i s t i d e s Gazetas by J e s s i e Richardson by Norman Young Norman Young D i r e c t o r Ian P r a t t by G e r a l d i n e Richardson Jean Causey 118 P r o p e r t i e s Musicians A s s i s t a n t to D i r e c t o r A s s i s t a n t Stage Manager Stage Crew by Joyce Sobel Stan Perry - Piano J e r r y F u l l e r - Bass C h r i s t i n e Chester - r e h e a r s a l Box O f f i c e Usher P r o d u c t i o n Jane Heyman Rae Ackerman Morris A r c h i b a l d B r i a n Bueckert Joanne C a r l i n g Douglas Higgins Peter L u i g h t Anna-May McKellar John M a d i l l John Walsh Ron Whitcombe Bunny Wright K a r l Wylie M a r j o r i e Fordham Peggy Sayle J e s s i e Richardson Dorothy Somerset piano APPENDIX G PRODUCTIONS IN THE PRESENT DAY FREDERIC WOOD THEATRE L i s t e d below are the p l a y s which were produced i n the F r e d e r i c Wood Theatre by the Department of Theatre d u r i n g the school terms between 1963 - 1991. 1963 - 1964 Salad Days by J u l i a n Slade and Dorothy Reynolds The Escape A r t i s t by Donald Soule Much Ado About Nothing by W i l l i a m Shakespeare Hedda Gabler  Antigone by Henrik Ibsen by Sophocles 1964 - 1965 The F a n t a s t i c k s by Tom Jones and Harvey Schmidt Man and Superman by George Bernard Shaw The V i s i t by F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt Hamlet by W i l l i a m Shakespeare The Country Wife by W i l l i a m Wycherley The C o c k t a i l Party by Mqther Courage by Happy Days by The School For Wives  In the Rough by 1965 - 1966 T . S . E l i o t B e r t o l t Brecht Samuel Beckett Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e E r i c N i c o l , David Brock e t a l Love's Labour's Lost by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1966 - 1967 In the Rough II by E r i c N i c o l , David Brock The Servant of Two Masters by C a r l o Goldoni Marat/Sade by Peter Weiss Long Day's Journey Into Night by Eugene O ' N e i l l La P a r i s i e n n e by Henry Becque L y s i s t r a t a by Aristophanes Volpone by Measure For Measure by The P h y s i c i s t s by Waiting For Godot by The School For Scandal 1967 - 1968 Ben Jonson W i l l i a m Shakespeare F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt Samuel Beckett Richard Sheridan 1968 - 1969 The Homecoming by Harold P i n t e r Man Is Man by B e r t o l t Brecht Loot by Joe Orton The Miser by Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e Boy Meets G i r l 1969 - 1970 by B e l l a and Samuel Spewack 121 The C r u c i b l e  E x i t The King  As You L i k e I t by Arthur M i l l e r by Eugene Ionesco by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1970 - 1971 Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen Twelfth Niaht by W i l l i a m Shakespeare Oedpius the King by Sophocles Endgame by Samuel Beckett 1971 1972 The Three S i s t e r s by Anton Chekhov The Playboy of the Western World by J.M.Synge The B i r t h d a y Party by Harold P i n t e r The Duchess of M a l f i by John Webster 1972 - 1973  The Tooth of Crime by Sam Shepard T a r t u f f e by Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e S i x C h a r a c t e r s i n Search o f an Author by L u i g i P i r a n d e l l o Macbeth by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1973 - 1974 by Henrik Ibsen by Ben Jonson by Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e The Wild Duck  The Alchemist  The Misanthrope 122 The Threepenny Opera by B e r t o l t Brecht 1974 - 1975 A f t e r the F a l l by Arthur M i l l e r The Inspector General by N i k o l a i Gogol The P h i l a n t h r o p i s t by C h r i s t o p h e r Hampton The Tempest by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1975 - 1976 M i s a l l i a n c e by George Bernard Shaw Pr,. Faustus by C h r i s t o p h e r Marlowe Scapino! by Jim Dale & Frank Dunlop Spring's Awakening by Frank Wedekind 1976 - 1977 When You Comin' Back Red Ryder? by Mark Medoff The Boys From Syracuse by Rodgers and Hart A C o l l i e r ' s F r i d a y Night by D.H. Lawrence The Revenger's Tragedy by C y r i l Tourneur 1977 - 1978 A Moon f o r the Misbegotton by Eugene O ' N e i l l Much Ado About Nothing by W i l l i a m Shakespeare Deus Ex Machina by Donald Soule Purple Dust by Sean 0'Casey 123 No Man's Land  The Bacchae  Three bv Beckett 1978 - 1979 by Harold Pinter by Euripides by Samuel Beckett A l l ' s Well That Ends Well by William Shakespeare 1979 - 1980 Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead by Tom Stoppard OurTown by Thornton Wilder The Father by August Strindberg A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare 1980 - 1981 Long Day's Journey Into Night by Eugene O'Neill The Skin of Our Teeth  Brecht On Brecht  The Rivals by Thornton Wilder by Brecht/Tabori by Richard Sheridan 1981 - 1982 The Caretaker by Harold Pinter The I t a l i a n Straw Hat by Eugene Labiche The Firebugs by Max Frisch King Lear by William Shakespeare 1982 - 1983  Entertaining Mr. Sloane by Joe Orton 124 The T r o j a n Women by E u r i p i d e s S i x C h a r a c t e r s i n Search o f an Author by L u i g i P i r a n d e l l o The T i c k e t - o f - L e a v e Man by Tom T a y l o r 1983 - 1984 Waiting For Godot by Samuel Beckett Love's Labour's L o s t by W i l l i a m Shakespeare The Importance o f Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde The S u i c i d e by B.R.Erdman Look Back i n Anger  Tw e l f t h Night  The Imaginary I n v a l i d  Happy End The Glas s Menagerie Love For Love  Major Barbara  As You L i k e I t 1984 - 1985 by John Osborne by W i l l i a m Shakespeare by Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e by B r e c h t / W e i l l 1985 - 1986 by Tennessee Williams by W i l l i a m Congreve by George Bernard Shaw by W i l l i a m Shakespeare Blood R e l a t i o n s The C r u c i b l e The School f o r Wives 1986 1987 by Sharon P o l l o c k by Arthur M i l l e r by Jean B a p t i s t e M o l i e r e 125 The Winter's Tale by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1987 - 1988 A D o l l ' s House by Henrik Ibsen The C o l l e c t e d Works o f B i l l v the K i d by Michael Ond< Juno and the Paycock by Sean 0'Casey A F l e a i n her Ear by Georges Feydeau 1988 - 1989 J u s t Between Ourselves by Alan Ayckbourn Jacques and His Master by M i l a n Kundera Yerma by F r e d e r i c o G a r c i a Lorca Henrv IV P a r t I by W i l l i a m Shakespeare 1989 - 1990 The S e a g u l l by Anton Chekhov Bloody Poetry by Howard Brenton She Stoops to Conquer by O l i v e r Goldsmith Herr P u n t i l a by B e r t o l t Brecht Sweeney Todd by Sondheim and Wheeler 1990 - 1991 A View From the Bridae by Arthur M i l l e r You Can't Take I t With You by Kaufman and Hart Our Country's Good by Timberlake Wertenbaker Hamlet by W i l l i a m Shakespeare APPENDIX H ACTIVITIES OF FORMER UBC THEATRE STUDENTS The following l i s t comprised by Norman Young i s a representative l i s t , and i s by no means complete. It i s intended to i l l u s t r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of former UBC Theatre students who are involved in professional and educational theatre i n Canada from coast to coast. A r t i s t i c Directors of Companies Rex Buckle John Cooper Ian Fenwick Dennis Foon Ken Grass Marcus Handman Pamela Hawthorn Jane Heyman Ken Kramer Larry L i l l o Kenneth Livingstone Alan L y s e l l Gordon McCall Ray Michal B i l l M i l l e r d Richard Ouzounian Brian Paisley George Plawski Scott Swan Jace Vanderveen Arts Administrators Ray Ackerman Brian Arnott Bernie B a r t l e t t Ann C h i s l e t t Stephen Chitty Edgar Dobie Robert Dubberley G i l l i a n Dusting Wayne Fipke Sue Bigson Peter Guilford Marti Kulich Peter Laight David Y.H.Lui Douglas McCallum Patrick Olenick Nick Orchard Gregory Plant Gary Rupert David Valdes John Wright Actors Dave Adams Ed Astley Jane Baker Rodger Barton Gary Basaraba Tris h Barclay Diana Belshaw Sidonie B o l l John Brighton Robyn B r i t t o n Ken Brown Gordon Cavers Ann C h i s l e t t Donna C h r i s t i e Anne Clark Bruce Clayton Kathryn Daniels Craig Davidson Richard Donat P a t r i c i a Donovan Ross Douglas Todd Duckworth E r i c Epstein Kevin Fatkin Michelle Fisk Ian Forsyth Dena Foster Angela Gann Frank Glassen Linda Goranson Keith Gordey Bruce Gordon Robert Graham Montgomery Brown Robert Carey Brent Carver N i c o l a Cavendish Bet t y Haworth Pamela Hawthorn Dermot Hennelly Jane Heyman G a i l H i l l S c o t t Hylands Susan Jones Randy Kelm N i c h o l a s K e n d a l l Lome Kennedy Derek Keurvorst E l i z a Knott Ken Kramer Peggy Lewis L a r r y L i l l o John L i n t o n P a t r i c i a Ludwick B r i d g e t Lunn C h r i s Malcolm Sam Mancuso J u d i t h Mastai Gordon McCall Maurene McRae Steve M i l l e r C a m i l l e M i t c h e l l Chip M i t c h e l l Barbara Duncan Anthony Dunn D a n i e l l e Dunn Roger Dunn H i l m i Mohamed Ann M o r t i f e e Jane M o r t i f e e Robin Mosley B i l l Murdoch E l i z a b e t h Murphy S t u a r t Nemtin Jeremy Newson Ruth N i c h o l Coleen O ' N e i l l R i chard Ouzounian M o r r i s Panych Susan Payne Paul P e r s o f s k y E r i c Peterson David Peterson Michael Puttonen Pamela Rabe N i c h o l a s Rice Wayne Robson Pat Rose Bruce Ruddell Robert Ruttan Ken Ryan Richard S a l i A l an S c a r f e A l l a n Gray John Gray Quinn Hal f o r d C a r o l H a r r i s o n Pamela Schwartz G o l d i e Semple P i a Shandel Maureen S h e e r i n C h r i s t i n e Smith Miriam Smith Anna Spencer Kim Stebner Hank S t i n s o n Jane Stokes V i r g i n i a S t o h l b e r g Margaret Surtees S c o t t Swanson L a u r i e Thain C o l i n Thomas Reg Tupper Mariko VanCampen Roy Vine Matthew Walker Donna White Netty Wild Leueen Willoughby P a t r i c i a Wilson C o l l e e n Winton V i c t o r Young K a r i n Bergman M i c h e l l e Bjornson P h i l l i p C l a r k s o n David F i s c h e r Stephen Geaghan Designers B r i a n Haigh Douglas Higgins A s t r i d Janson John M a d i l l Molly March E l l i s Pryce-Jones Sharon Romero D i r e c t o r s Rex Buckle C a t h e r i n e Caines John Cooper Kenneth Dyba E r i c E p s t e i n Dean F o s t e r A l l a n Gray John Gray Pamela Hawthorn Jane Heyman L a r r y L i l l o A l a n L y s e l l R i c hard Ouzounian Michael Puttonen Alan S c a r f e S v e t l a n a Smith S c o t t Swan Jace Vanderveen 128 Harry Gadbow Ken Gass Frank Glassen K i c o Gonzalez Gordon McCall B i l l Murdoch H i l l a r y N i c h o l l s Matthew Walker Kathleen Weiss John Wright Stage Managers & T e c h n i c i a n s Derek A l l e n Teddy Babichuck Janet B i c k f o r d Sherry Darcus David Dewar Gayle Doren Rae Ford Donald G r i f f i t h s R ichard I r w i n M a r i e t t a Kozak Kim MacKenzie C h r i s t i n a MacLeod Cameron M c G i l l B r i a n Parker Katherine Robertson Peter S c h e l l Drama C r i t i c s , W r i t e r s , P l a y w r i g h t s Bob A l l e n George Bowering Kenneth Dyba Dennis Foon Kico Gonzalez John Gray Marcus Handman M. H o l l i n g s w o r t h C h r i s t o p h e r M i l l e r Grant Morrison Jeremy Newson Ni c h o l a s Read Pat Rose Bruce Ruddell C h e r i e Stewart Peter E l i o t Weiss T e l e v i s i o n and Radio Br o a d c a s t e r s Michael C l i f f e P i a Shandel Bruce Gordon Sarah Warren U n i v e r s i t y and C o l l e g e Teachers Tony B a n c r o f t Bernard Bense Penny C o n n e l l Ian Fenwick F r e d e r i c k Galloway B r i a n Haigh Robin Lake Kenneth L i v i n g s t o n e Perry Long John M a d i l l Michael Matthews Susan Mendelson Dawn Moore B i l l Murdoch B r i a n Parkinson E l l i s Pryce-Jones V. Raghunathan John Rapsey V a l e r i e S t u a r t Lee T a y l o r Mariko VanCampen Kerry White K a r l Wylie C h r i s t o p h e r Johnson FILM AND TELEVISION F i l m / T e l e v i s i o n S t u d i e s courses w i t h i n the Department of Theatre began i n 1969. By 1971, the c u r r i c u l u m had been developed i n t o a f u l l major program, gr a d u a t i n g i t s f i r s t student i n 1974. E x e c u t i v e P r o d u c t i o n P o s i t i o n i n F i l m / T e l e v i s i o n Anthony Baker Marion B a r l i n g Thomas Braidwood Robert F r e d e r i c k s Laurence Keene David Mauro Ni c h o l a s Orchard Robert Zajtmann P r o d u c t i o n P o s i t i o n i n F i l m / T e l e v i s i o n John Buckley Robert Cowan Peter Dashkewytch Nathan Enns Douglas F i e l d F r e d e r i c k Frame Ian Gilmore A l l a n Jones Judy Koonar Tenzin Lhalungpa N e i l Maclvor Paul M a r t i n Michael McGee Richard W i l l i a m S t a n l e y R i c h a r d P a r i s Roxborough Sawczyszyn Saxton Cai Schumiatcher Brenton Spencer R e g u l a r l y Make Fil m s f o r CBC and/or NFB John Cook Richard M a r t i n Cai Schumiatcher S t u r l a Gunnarson Ri c h a r d Payment K i r k Tougas Jan-Marie M a r t e l l Working i n Community Film/TV or BC Government Agency Michael Black Richard P a r i s Peter Von Puttkamer Robyn B r i t t o n K i r k Tougas Kenneth Webber J u d i t h Downes P o s i t i o n i n U n i v e r s i t y or C o l l e g e P a t r i c i a Knox Jan-Marie M a r t e l l C a r o l e T r e p a n i e r SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES Located in UBC Archives or Special Collections Division UBC Library, unless otherwise noted. Brockington, John. Taped interview. Apri l 21, 1987. Gregory, Nora (nee Gibson). Taped interview. June 17, 1989 Jackson, Brian. Taped interview. Apri l 27, 1987. Lett , Evelyn, (nee Story). Taped interview. March 30, Lewis, Gwyn. Taped interview. Apri l 16, 1987. Lewis, Margaret. Taped interview. Apri l 16, 1987. McGill University College of Br i t i sh Columbia. Annuals 1908 1914. — . Calendars. 1906-15. Morrison, Isobel (nee Barton). Taped interview. June 16, Richardson, Gerraldine. Taped interview. Apri l 24, 1989. Somerset, Dorothy. Taped interviews between October 1987 -August 1990. Players' Club Papers, 1915 - 1950. Ross, Alex. Interviewed. May 5, 1989. UBC Alumni Chronicle. 1931 - 1956. UBC Annuals. 1915 - 1950, also called Totem from 1926. UBC Calendars. 1915- 1950. 1987. 1987. 131 UBC Scrapbooks (newspaper c l i p p i n g s ) . Nos. 4 - 11. Ubyssey. 1916 - 1950. P r i o r to 1919 the student newspaper was known as Anonymous and Ubicee. warren, Harry V. Taped i n t e r v i e w . May 10, 1989. Wesbrook, Frank, F a i r c h i l d Papers. The P r e s i d e n t ' s Papers Wood, B e a t r i c e (nee Johnson). Taped i n t e r v i e w s between September 1987 - A p r i l 1989. Wood, F r e d e r i c G.C. Papers. NEWSPAPERS and MAGAZINES Vancouver News-Advertiser. Vancouver News Herald. Vancouver Province. Vancouver Sun.  Vancouver World. V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t .  V i c t o r i a Times. SECONDARY SOURCES B a i l y , L e s l i e . Scrapbook 1900-1914. London: F r e d e r i c k M u l l e r L t d . , 1957. Barman, Jean A. Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Boys  i n P r i v a t e School. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1984. 132 B r o c k e t t , Oscar G. H i s t o r y o f the Theatre. Toronto: A l l y n & Bacon, Inc. 1987. C a r t e r , P a ul. Backstage Handbook. New York: Broadway Press, 1988. Clyne, J.V. Jack of A l l Trades: A Busy L i f e . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1985. C o l t o n , J o e l G. Twentieth Century. New York: Time-Life Books, 1968. Davis, Chuck. The Vancouver Book. Vancouver: J.J.Douglas L t d . , 1976. and Mooney, S h i r l e y . Vancouver, An I l l u s t r a t e d Chronology. B u r l i n g t o n : Windsor Pub., 1986. Dent, Alan. Mrs. P a t r i c k Campbell. New York: Benjamin Blom, Inc., 1984. Evans, Harold. F r o n t Page H i s t o r y . London: Q u i l l e r P r e s s , 1984. F r i e s e n , J . and R a l s t o n , H.K., eds. H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1976. Gibson, W i l l i a m . Wesbrook and His U n i v e r s i t y . M o r r i s s P r i n t i n g Co. L t d . , V i c t o r i a , 1973. Johnson, F. Henry. A H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. K i n g - H a l l , Stephen. Our Times. New York: Horizon P r e s s , 1961. Kloppenborg, A. Ed., Vancouver's F i r s t Century. Vancouver: J.J.Douglas L t d . , 1977. Laurence, Dan H. Bernard Shaw - C o l l e c t e d L e t t e r s . London: Max Reinhardt L t d . , 1985. Logan, Harry T. Tuum E s t : A H i s t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P ress, 1958. Morly, Alan. Vancouver From M i l l t o w n to M e t r o p o l i s . Vancouver: M i t c h e l l Press, 1961. 133 N i c o l , E r i c . Vancouver. Toronto: Doubleday, 1978. R a v e n h i l l , A l i c e . Memories o f an Educated Pioneer. Toronto: J.M.Dent, 1951. Roy, P a t r i c i a E. Vancouver, An I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y . Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1980. Shrum, Gordon. Gordon Shrum; An Autobiography, with Peter S t u r s b e r g ; C l i v e Cocking, ed. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1986. UBC Alumni C h r o n i c l e . The Way We Were: A C e l e b r a t i o n of Our  U.B.C. He r i t a g e . Vancouver: UBC Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987. Waite, P.B. Lord of P o i n t Grey: L a r r y MacKenzie o f UBC. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1987. Wilson, J . Donald, ed. An Imperfect Past:, E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y i n Canadian H i s t o r y . Vancouver: Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. Woodcock, George. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986. ARTICLES AND ESSAYS Angus, Henry F. " C r i t i c a l Review of UBC H i s t o r y . " UBC Alumni  C h r o n i c l e 10:2 (Summer 1956) pp. 16-17. Coleman, B r i a n . " M c G i l l B r i t i s h Columbia 1899 - 1915." M c G i l l J o u r n a l o f Education, 11:2 (Autumn 1976) pp.179-89. Gibson, W.C. "Makers o f the U n i v e r s i t y - Henry Esson Young", U.B.C. C h r o n i c l e , Vol.9, No.2. Summer 1955. Harvey, I s o b e l . "Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook", U.B.C. Graduate  C h r o n i c l e , May, 1932. 134 Larsen, T. Ed., "The H i s t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia", Graduate C h r o n i c l e . Alumni Assoc. of U.B.C. May, 1936. Logan, Harry T. "Makers of the U n i v e r s i t y - Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook", U.B.C. Alumni C h r o n i c l e , Vo1.9, No.3. Autumn 1955. Ward, W. Peter. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n Western Canada 1901 -1971." In The Developing West, ed. John E. F o s t e r . Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a Press, 1983. pp.155-77 UNPUBLISHED PAPERS "The Kidd Report - Henry Angus", S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. "Returned Veterans of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia", S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Soward, F r e d e r i c H. "The E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia." S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. T y p e s c r i p t 1930. "U.B.C. During the Depression", Olga V o l k o f f . S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. "U.B.C - 21st An n i v e r s a r y " , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 

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