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An evaluation of an experimental science enrichment program : "Light and illusion", Vancouver School… Letcher, Marshall 1982

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No Title PageABSTRACT This study evaluated an experimental program i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g , " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n , " developed by the Vancouver School Board i n cooper-a t i o n w i t h the A r t s and Sciences Centre of Vancouver. A m a i l q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was developed based upon a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d to the Vancouver School Board teachers who v i s i t e d the workshop w i t h t h e i r students. The study was conducted over a three month p e r i o d ; 94 of the 150 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out were returned (69% r e t u r n ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e sought to determine which teachers (grade l e v e l and subject area) used the workshop, how teachers used the workshop, what teachers l i k e d and d i s l i k e d about the workshop, and what suggestions they had f o r f u t u r e workshops. The r e s u l t s were reported as percentage responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. In a d d i t i o n , a s e r i e s of observa-t i o n s and recommendations were made. In p a r t i c u l a r t h e study showed tha t 90% of the a t t e n d i n g teachers were h i g h l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the work-shop as a l e a r n i n g experience f o r t h e i r students. They commented f a v o r a b l y on the q u a l i t y of the e x h i b i t s , freedom of cho i c e , and the n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n student i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e . Elementary teachers rated the workshop more h i g h l y than d i d secondary teachers, although both i n d i c a t e d they b e n e f i t e d by seeing t h e i r students work i n a novel environment. Teachers thought that f u r t h e r i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g workshops should be o f f e r e d to students through the cooperation of the Vancouver School Board and the A r t s and Sciences Centre. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON INFORMAL LEARNING . . . . 3 I I THE LIGHT AND ILLUSION WORKSHOP: ORIGIN, SETTING AND OPERATION 10 I I I THE WORKSHOP IN ACTION: REPORT OF SURVEY DATA . . . . 14 IV AN ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE WORKSHOP EXPERIENCE AS REPORTED BY TEACHERS OF VISITING CLASSES 30 1. Workshop Strengths 31 2. Workshop Weaknesses 32 3. Novelty i n the Informal Learning Environment . . 33 4. A c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Learning Environment 38 5. Choice and Guidance i n the Informal Learning Environment 40 V LIGHT AND ILLUSION: PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS 45 1. The I n t e g r a t i o n of A r t and Science 45 2. Age Le v e l Appropriateness 46 3. Teachers as Learners 48 4. S i n g l e V i s i t s 49 5. The Expl a i n e r ' s / O r g a n i z e r ' s View 51 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 54 1. Dimensions I d e n t i f i e d from the L i t e r a t u r e . . . . 54 A. A c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n 54 B. Novelty 55 C. Free Choice 55 D. Guidance 56 i i i 2. Personal Observations on Dimensions I d e n t i f i e d by Teachers Responding to the Survey 56 V I I RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER ACTION 58 REFERENCES 61 APPENDICES 65 i v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Class V i s i t Data v INTRODUCTION This study i s an e v a l u a t i o n of an experimental workshop program, " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n , " developed by the Vancouver School Board i n cooper-a t i o n w i t h the A r t s and Sciences Centre of Vancouver. The workshop program presented m u l t i s e n s o r y , hands-on e x h i b i t s i n a school s e t t i n g f o r grades 5, 8, and 11 during the year 1980/81. The L i g h t and I l l u -s i o n e x h i b i t s were on loan from the A r t s and Sciences Centre of Vancouver."'" The e v a l u a t i o n was conducted by survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see Appendix) presented t o , and completed by teachers of c l a s s e s v i s i t i n g L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . 2 The venture, although s i m i l a r to programs o f f e r e d by other c e n t r e s , was unique i n Vancouver, and represents a major c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the A r t s and Sciences Centre w i t h the Vancouver School Board, and so i s one worthy of study. The e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s venture i n terms of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s and v a l u e as viewed by teachers, was conceived and planned t o provide data on the experimental program, to gain i n s i g h t i n t o l e a r n i n g i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environments, and to a s s i s t i n the development of s i m i l a r pro-j e c t s i n the f u t u r e . "*"The e x h i b i t s o r i g i n a l l y were on d i s p l a y at the A r t s and Sciences Centre "extended i " Preview E x h i b i t i o n at the Vancouver Museum, from February to May, 1980. The o b j e c t i v e of the e x h i b i t i o n was to provide an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , m u l t i s e n s o r y and p a r t i c i p a t o r y experience f o r the p u b l i c i n a museum s e t t i n g . 2 E.g., The Exploratorium (San F r a n c i s c o ) , Ontario Science Centre (Toronto). 1 2 T h e s t u d y a d d r e s s e s f o u r m a j o r a r e a s a n d e a c h w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l : 1. a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g ; 2. t h e o r i g i n , s e t t i n g , a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e w o r k s h o p ; 3. t h e w o r k s h o p i n a c t i o n , i t s v a l u e a n d i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s p e r c e i v e d b y t e a c h e r s ; 4. a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s t u d y . CHAPTER I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON INFORMAL LEARNING As a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g the program, L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was defined (and conceptualized) as an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment i n con-t r a s t to the school which i s viewed as a formal l e a r n i n g environment. The phrase 'in f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment' i s used i n the l i t e r a t u r e to def i n e the type of l e a r n i n g which might occur i n a museum type of en v i r o n -ment. Informal l e a r n i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r e e cho i c e , l a c k of pre-r e q u i s i t e s and c r e d e n t i a l s , heterogeneity of l e a r n e r groups i n background and i n t e r e s t s , and importance of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as part of the v i s i t (Laetsch, 1980). While i t i s acknowledged that schools may a l s o provide Informal l e a r n i n g experiences the d i s t i n c t i o n between formal and i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g i s seen as a fundamental one and s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of both the goals and outcomes. In a d d i t i o n , research f i n d i n g s i n the psy c h o l -ogy of l e a r n i n g w i l l be examined to make evident some v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t the outcomes of i n f o r m a l experiences. The r o l e of t r a d i t i o n a l museums has been described as the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the a r t i f a c t s of c u l t u r e . For n e a r l y two c e n t u r i e s museums have c o l l e c t e d and di s p l a y e d o b j e c t s from the past, t r a n s m i t t e d the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and engaged i n research, to f u r t h e r knowledge. They have f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e d on these f u n c t i o n s without regard f o r the v i s i t i n g p u b l i c and with, l i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n p a i d to educational programming (Danilov, 1976). 3 4 In recent years museums and a new form of p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n , the science c e n t r e , have responded to an i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c demand f o r educa-t i o n a l programming to supplement that o f f e r e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l school s e t t i n g (Danilov, 1976; Eason, 1976). Science c e n t r e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , emphasize education over c u r a t i o n and f r e q u e n t l y cooperate w i t h l o c a l school systems to develop i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences f o r c h i l d r e n . Science and technology centres may o f f e r p e r s o n a l i z e d e x h i b i t s f o r the teaching of important s c i e n t i f i c concepts and t h i n k i n g s k i l l s (Thier & L i n n , 1976). In t h i s context a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s defined as "the a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t p h y s i c a l l y w i t h o b j e c t s and to manipulate v a r i a b l e s " (Laetsch, 1980). Science centres are among the most r a p i d l y developing i n s t i t u t i o n s i n contemporary s o c i e t y , and the number of v i s i t o r s to these centres i s great e r than to any other s i n g l e type of museum (Kimche, 1978). Through e x h i b i t s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , and edu c a t i o n a l programs, museums of science and technology are f r e q u e n t l y used by teachers to supplement science education (Beardsley, 1975). Alexander (1980) s t a t e s that a 1972 study of North American museums i d e n t i f i e d 24 p a r t i c i p a t o r y ( i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g ) programs f o r young people, predominantly f o r f o u r t h through s i x t h grades. The programs included " h a n d s - o n " . a c t i v i t i e s , i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s , and "touch-i t rooms." However, d e s p i t e the expanding ed u c a t i o n a l r o l e of museums and science centres,"'" few s t u d i e s of the edu c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of museum e x h i b i t s and programs have been conducted. Indeed, some poten-t i a l l y meaningful v a r i a b l e s have not yet been considered. The m a j o r i t y "*"So as to avoid constant r e p e t i t i o n of museums and science c e n t r e s , t h i s paper w i l l d e f i n e museums to i n c l u d e both i n s t i t u t i o n s ; t h i s i s co n s i s t e n t w i t h terminology of the ASTC which members i n c l u d e both " t r a d i -t i o n a l museums" and "science c e n t r e s . " 5 of e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s are concerned w i t h demographic surveys and v i s i t o r responses r a t h e r than e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s (Kimche, 1978). Borun (1977) s t a t e s that a m a j o r i t y of past s t u d i e s of museum based l e a r n i n g i n d i c a t e that " l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r between an e x h i b i t and a v i s i t o r occurs during casual v i s i t s . " However, Borun goes on to s t a t e that the a n a l y s i s of s t u d i e s shows that i n some cases the l a c k of measurable l e a r n i n g may be due to the use of i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t i n s t r u -ments. For example, Borun s t a t e s that p e n c i l and paper t e s t s cannot detect performance based outcomes such as the a b i l i t y to manipulate l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s to solve problems. In c o n t r a s t , Borun, using mechan-i c a l t e s t i n g d e v i c e s , found that the average casual v i s i t o r to a science centre knew over h a l f of the t e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n content of the e x h i b i t s . L i n n (1976) has a l s o shown e v a l u a t i o n of c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e e x h i b i t s can increase understanding of the i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. Linn's and other s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d that p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s produce more p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r a l outcomes than do s t a t i c n o n - p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s . For example, v i s i t o r s comment more favourably about p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s than about n o n - p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s . Screven (1976) considers that p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of a r t , s c i e n c e , or a r t i f a c t s are three dimensional t e a c h e r / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s that may a f f e c t the knowledge, v a l u e s , a t t i -tudes, or i n t e r e s t s of the people who use them. Wholer (1976) t h i n k s that the museum v i s i t o r d e s i r e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v e , p e r s o n a l i z e d l e a r n i n g process, w h i l e S h e t t e l (1973) s t a t e s that a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been shown to heighten the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . Screven (1976) has demonstrated that v i s i t o r l e a r n i n g was improved when i n t e r a c t i v e devices were added to s t a t i c e x h i b i t s . L i n n (1976) hypoth-e s i z e s about these l e a r n i n g gains by reference to her study of the Science 6 Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS). Linn's study revealed that e x p e r i e n t i a l science programs are b e t t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l book-oriented programs i n f o s t e r i n g s c i e n t i f i c reasoning and l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the value of e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t e s has been demon-s t r a t e d by Piaget (Kaufman, 1971), whose t h e o r i e s on how c h i l d r e n l e a r n form a b a s i s f o r a v a r i e t y of recent science education programs. L i n n (1976) s t a t e s that the work of Piage t and Inhelder i m p l i e s that a program emphasizing concrete experiences are e s s e n t i a l to a c h i l d ' s understanding of science. D u T e r r o i l (1975) has st a t e d that a c t i v i t y centre behavior i s i n keeping w i t h P i a g e t ' s b e l i e f s that ". . . c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to de a l w i t h broad concepts of space, time, matter, and c a u s a l i t y depends on l e a r n i n g that develops sl o w l y from the c h i l d r e n ' s d i r e c t sensory e x p e r i -ences." Thier and L i n n (1976) s t a t e that research i s a l s o r e q u i r e d to determine what happens when students are allowed to choose t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s i n a f r e e choice s e t t i n g . They consider that a c t i v i t y designers need to know what s o r t of in f o r m a t i o n should be presented along w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s , and what l e a r n i n g i s l i k e l y to take place i n a f r e e choice environment. Indeed, Shulman (1968) s t a t e s that controversy e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the question of how much and what kind of guidance ought to be provided to students i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Gennaro (1981) has reviewed s t u d i e s which suggest that c a r e f u l l y designed c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s and "advance o r g a n i z e r s " can be e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g new in f o r m a t i o n . Studies reviewed by Barnes and Clawson (1976) which reported r e s u l t s f o r students of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d that no trends were i d e n t i f i e d ' that would suggest such forms of guidance as "advance o r g a n i z -e r s " have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g f o r students of low, average, 7 and high a b i l i t y . Thier and Linn (1976) found that i n chemical e x h i b i t s free choice was not enough and that without i n s t r u c t i o n students were unable to explain t h e i r i n t e r e s t s any more c l e a r l y than, for example, "I want to work with chemicals." A study by Van Rennes (1978) has shown that students learn more about an exhibit when they are provided with a program to d i r e c t t h e i r inquiry. Shulman (1968) has shown that contro-versy indeed e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the question of how much and what kind of guidance ought to be provided to students i n a learning s i t u a t i o n . Falk (1978) also found that subjects i n an unfamiliar environment f a i l e d to benefit d i r e c t l y from a structured educational a c t i v i t y . Despite t h e i r stated preference for a structured introduction to new learning experiences, Thier and Linn (1976) have reported that personal-ized i n t e r a c t i v e experiences can have educative value because learners can choose to work on something that i n t e r e s t s them. They also state that free choice allows c h i l d r e n to work at t h e i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l and so progress i n s c i e n t i f i c reasoning. The School i n the Exploratorium Program (SITE)"*" described by Newsom (1978) i s an example of a free choice introduction to a new learning experience. The SITE program of science enrichment was organized so that the f i r s t of f i v e workshop sessions at the science centre was a f i e l d t r i p during which c h i l d r e n were free to explore the e x h i b i t area on t h e i r own. Newsom reports that the SITE program i s highly regarded by both v i s i t i n g classes and t h e i r teachers. "'"SITE i s a workshop program for elementary school classes v i s i t i n g The Exploratorium Science Centre i n San Francisco. 8 L i n n (1976) has a l s o s t a t e d that l e a r n i n g of science content i s only a part of the outcomes of a v i s i t to a science c e n t r e . He suggests museums should be more concerned w i t h s t i m u l a t i n g v i s i t o r s ' i n t e r e s t than i n i n s u r i n g that f a c t u a l l e a r n i n g has occurred during a v i s i t . Another researcher, Screven (1976), d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the 't e a c h e r - l e a r n i n g ' aspects of an e x h i b i t (what an e x h i b i t p o t e n t i a l l y can teach or communi-cate) and i t s ' m o t i v a t i o n a l aspects' (which determines the amount of a t t e n t i o n an e x h i b i t r e c e i v e s ) . He goes on to s t a t e that e f f e c t i v e e x h i b i t s should i n t e g r a t e both l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n a l aspects. Laetsch (1980) suggests that more research i n t o the f r e e choice l e a r n i n g environment i s r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which e l i c i t c u r i -o s i t y and motivate people to attend a c t i v i t i e s long enough f o r l e a r n i n g goals to be r e a l i z e d . Research s t u d i e s (Berlyne, 1966; Travers, 1972; Kaplan, 1978) have shown that n o v e l t y and complexity are v a r i a b l e s which w i l l a t t r a c t and hold a l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n to i n f o r m a t i o n being presented, w h i l e G o t t f r i e d (1979) s t a t e s that novel l e a r n i n g environments promotes e x p l o r a t o r y behavior, which i s p r e r e q u i s i t e to higher forms of l e a r n i n g behavior. However, s t u d i e s have a l s o shown that r e a c t i o n s to a p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g experience vary from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l ( G o t t f r i e d , 1979; Bruner, 1966). A survey by Peterson (1976) of museum v i s i t s by school groups i n d i c a t e d that some c h i l d r e n " l o v e e x h i b i t s " w h i l e others found the same e x h i b i t s " b o r i n g . " L i n n (1976) has suggested a number of v a r i a b l e s to account f o r the d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s , such as l e n g t h of exposure to an e x h i b i t , the v i s i t o r ' s age, previous science courses, or other v a r i a b l e s yet to be i d e n t i f i e d . I t has a l s o been demonstrated ( G o t t f r i e d , 1979) that i n t e r a c t i o n 9 between v i s i t o r and e x h i b i t and i n t e r a c t i o n between v i s i t o r s and other people i n the museum environment c o n t r i b u t e s to the l e a r n i n g which occurs. Cone (1978) r e p o r t s that c h i l d r e n i n a f a m i l y u n i t v i s i t i n g a museum l e a r n about e x h i b i t s l a r g e l y through explanations o f f e r e d by parents. G o t t f r i e d (1979) r e p o r t s that s o c i a l f a c t o r s such as group s i z e and peer teaching i n f l u e n c e d e x p l o r a t o r y behavior and l e a r n i n g . Among a r t museum goers who answered the N a t i o n a l Research Centre's New York State survey, 77% c i t e d the importance of f a m i l y f r i e n d s or teachers i n c r e a t i n g c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s (Newsom, 1978). Newsom (1978) a l s o s t a t e s that the "most important audience of a l l f o r the museum educator" may w e l l be the classroom teacher. A teacher has charge of a school c l a s s s e v e r a l hours a day, and a good teacher o f t e n has a l i f e l o n g e f f e c t on h i s students. However, v a r i o u s s t u d i e s have shown that teachers are sometimes uncomfortable on a f i e l d t r i p to a museum w i t h students because they l a c k the s k i l l s to adequately pre-pare and guide students through a f i e l d t r i p experience (Alexander, 1980; Newsom, 1978). Thus, a v a r i e t y of museums and r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s have undertaken i n s e r v i c e programs to b e t t e r equip teachers to de a l w i t h the museum s e t t i n g (Newsom, 1978). Teachers reported that t r a i n i n g sessions helped them to "know what to expect from the museum and to get e x c i t e d about i t " (Newsom, 1978). This review i d e n t i f i e s a number of b a s i c i s s u e s and concerns which formed the b a s i s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the ques t i o n n a i r e and the a n a l -y s i s of the data. CHAPTER I I THE LIGHT AND ILLUSION WORKSHOP: ORIGIN, SETTING, AND OPERATION In t h i s chapter, the o r i g i n , s e t t i n g , and operation of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop,''" i t s aims and o b j e c t i v e s , p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l , and other a s s i s t a n c e to v i s i t i n g teachers and p u p i l s w i l l be d e s cribed. 2 The d e s c r i p t i o n i s based on the Vancouver School Board d r a f t r e p o r t on L i g h t and I l l u s i o n and on personal observations. The L i g h t and I l l u s i o n workshop was the product of c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the Vancouver school system and the A r t s and Sciences Centre, an o r g a n i z a t i o n devoted to the development of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g f a c i l i -t i e s and experiences. S i m i l a r cooperative e f f o r t s have been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Newsom's st u d i e s (1978) of the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of museums have shown that the most s u c c e s s f u l programs are those which are based on c l o s e and c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h the l o c a l school sys-tems. Danilov (1976) s t a t e s that science and technology centres have broadened the e d u c a t i o n a l .roles of museums. They have made edu c a t i o n a l programming an i n t e g r a l p a r t of museum op e r a t i o n s , f r e q u e n t l y i n cooper-a t i o n w i t h l o c a l school systems, and have expanded the c u l t u r a l scope of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , sometimes beyond science and technology. L i g h t and "'"Throughout the remainder of t h i s study, the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Work-shop w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . " 2 The Vancouver School Board w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d to as the "VSB". 10 11 I l l u s i o n may represent the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of outreach programs o f f e r e d by the A r t s and Sciences Centre of Vancouver. L i g h t and I l l u s i o n operated f o r nine months during school hours, from October 1980 to June 1981 and c o n s i s t e d of 23 p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i -b i t s , 13 framed p r i n t s , and a c o l l e c t i o n of 61 s l i d e s , a l l r e l a t i n g to l i g h t and c o l o r i n an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A r t/Science approach. The workshop was housed i n a converted Home Economics room at David Thompson Secondary School i n Vancouver. Class s i z e was l i m i t e d to 34 p u p i l s per v i s i t i n g group, based "on room s i z e , number of e x h i b i t s , and f o r m a nagability." One c l a s s could v i s i t the d i s p l a y per s e s s i o n . The workshop was made a v a i l a b l e to a l l VSB Elementary and Secondary schools. The VSB expected that Grades 5, 6, 8, and 11 science teachers and grades 5 through 12 a r t teachers would be the most frequent p a r t i c i -pants because of s i m i l a r i t i e s between workshop concepts and the school c u r r i c u l u m . P r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s were prepared f o r v i s i t i n g students and t h e i r teachers. A Teacher's Guide provided the teacher w i t h an i n t r o -d u c t i o n of the d i s p l a y , w i t h ideas f o r p r e p a r a t i o n and follow-up, a d e s c r i p t i o n of each e x h i b i t , and a g l o s s a r y . A Student's Guide summar-i s e d the e x h i b i t s and provided some ideas and suggestions f o r a c t i v i t i e s they could do before, d u r i n g , or a f t e r the workshop. A Guide to the  G a l l e r y of P a i n t i n g s discussed the a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s of the p r i n t s , provided background i n f o r m a t i o n on the a r t i s t and h i s / h e r work, and g u i d e l i n e s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p a i n t i n g s . An i n f o r m a t i o n sheet on the photographic s l i d e s was a l s o provided which i d e n t i f i e d the a r t i s t , the t i t l e of the work, and gave a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to each of the 12 seven themes i l l u s t r a t e d by the s l i d e collection.""" In a d d i t i o n to the p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s , other forms of a s s i s -tance were made a v a i l a b l e to teachers of v i s i t i n g c l a s s e s . I n s e r v i c e 2 workshops were conducted by the coordinator of the p r o j e c t at the beginning of the school year i n an e f f o r t to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t and a l l o w teachers to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the d i s p l a y p r i o r to t h e i r c l a s s v i s i t . 3 The " p r o j e c t manager/staff a s s i s t a n t " was the one on " s i t e - s t a f f member present at the workshop f o r each v i s i t . The r o l e of the " e x p l a i n e r " was defined i n the rep o r t as that of a " f l e x i b l e resource person who could provide teachers w i t h v a r y i n g amounts of a s s i s t a n c e i n order to f a c i l i t a t e a productive v i s i t . " The e x p l a i n e r began each v i s i t w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the workshop during which the theme and layout of the workshop e x h i b i t s were b r i e f l y described. Students were then permitted to i n t e r a c t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s . The e x p l a i n e r provided a s s i s t a n c e to students during the r e s t of the work-shop by answering questions about e x h i b i t s . During the nine month run of L i g h t and I l l u s i o n , 314 c l a s s e s v i s i t e d the workshop. Table 1 4 shows c l a s s e s by age range and subj e c t . ''"The seven themes i l l u s t r a t e d by the s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e d : 1. l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s ; 2. l i g h t , time, atmosphere; 3. l i g h t i n g c o n d i -t i o n s ; 4. o p t i c a l mixing of c o l o u r s ; 5. r e f l e c t i o n of l i g h t ; 6. i l l u s i o n ; 7. l i g h t i n a r t , as a r t . 2 The coordinator f o r L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was the VSB Science Consul-tant . 3 The p r o j e c t manager/staff a s s i s t a n t w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s study as the " e x p l a i n e r . " The term " e x p l a i n e r " i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n the l i t e r a t u r e to des c r i b e science centre s t a f f a s s i s t a n t s . 4 A Report on the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n D i s p l a y , October 1980-June 1981. Table 1 Class V i s i t Data Elementary Secondary Grades 4 and 5 49 Science 8 57 Grades 6 and 7 63 Physics 11 12 A r t 15 A r t 15 E • S • L • 9 E « S • Li • 29 Enrichment 9 Enrichment 5 S p e c i a l Education 3 Business 6 French 10 E n g l i s h 6 Grades 2 and 3 11 E.L.C. 15 T o t a l 169 T o t a l 145 CHAPTER III THE WORKSHOP IN ACTION: REPORT OF SURVEY DATA This study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Light and I l l u s i o n Workshop. The writer sees the primary task of evaluation, as does Linn (1976) as the s e l e c t i o n of questions that need to be answered and the adaption of evaluation s k i l l s to answer these questions, so as to improve programs, e x h i b i t s , and products to better serve the target population. Borun (1977) states that to measure the effectiveness of museum exh i b i t s a clear d e f i n i t i o n of workshop objectives must be made. The p r i n c i p l e objective of "Light and I l l u s i o n " as stated i n the VSB d r a f t report, was to "stimulate i n t e r e s t , teach basic concepts of r e f l e c t i o n , c o l o r mixing, perception, and the physics of lasers.""'" In t h i s study, teachers v i s i t i n g with t h e i r classes were surveyed by questionnaire to determine to what extent these goals were, achieved. As i n previous studies of museum programs (Borun, 1977), the writer u t i l i z e d teachers as respondents because of t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y with the i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s of t h e i r students and because they could observe student behavior both i n the exhibit h a l l and i n the classroom following museum v i s i t s . "^A Report on the Light and I l l u s i o n Display, October 1980-June 1981, p. 4. 14 15 Teachers were asked to evaluate a number of p o t e n t i a l l y meaningful v a r i a b l e s based on the st a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of the workshop and on r e l e v a n t questions i d e n t i f i e d from previous s t u d i e s ( C a r l i s l e , 1980; G o t t f r i e d , 1979; Borun, 1977), which have been shown to a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of museum education programs. From t h i s base a s e r i e s of f i v e statements were derived to help guide the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e and sub-sequent a n a l y s i s . 1. The f r e e choice environment created i s a v a r i e d and s t i m u l a t i n g one i n which students are encouraged to explore according to t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s ; 2. the e x h i b i t s are p a r t i c i p a t o r y on many l e v e l s . They i n v i t e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n from c a s u a l contemplation, through the manipulation of p h y s i c a l m a t e r i a l s , to encourage f u r t h e r study; 3. the a l l o t t e d time i s s u f f i c i e n t to permit v i s i t o r f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and experimentation; 4. the workshop was developed to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of v a r i o u s grade l e v e l s i n both science and a r t ; 5. the p r o v i s i o n of an expert guide ( e x p l a i n e r ) enhances the e x p l o r a t o r y behavior and f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g of v i s i t o r s ; the supplemental guide m a t e r i a l s were designed to prepare teacher and student f o r the workshop and help maximize t h e i r use of i t . Teachers were requested to observe t h e i r students f o r at l e a s t one week f o l l o w i n g the f i e l d t r i p before completing the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . These l a t t e r data t h e . w r i t e r considers most important and as Borun (1977) notes, the understanding of the nature of the long l a s t i n g e f f e c t s of museum v i s i t s i s one of the most important f u n c t i o n s of museum e v a l u a t i o n s . I f t h i s study employs many of the q u a l i t i e s of what i s r e f e r r e d to as 16 " n a t u r a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n " which, according to Wolf (1980), r e l a t e s n a t u r a l behaviors and expressions to the context i n which they a r i s e and i n s u r e s that persons i n v o l v e d i n the program i n question have an oppor-t u n i t y to d e s c r i b e and assess t h e i r experiences and to comment on what those experiences mean to them (op. c i t . ) . While such s t u d i e s do not c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrate s p e c i f i c l e a r n -in g outcomes i n the c o g n i t i v e domain ( f a c t a c q u i s i t i o n , concept and s k i l l development), they can i d e n t i f y s i t u a t i o n s i n which such l e a r n i n g can occur. In a d d i t i o n , n a t u r a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n s preserve the comments and impressions of p a r t i c i p a n t s which i n d i c a t e changes i n the a f f e c t i v e domain ( i n t e r e s t , m o t i v a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s ) that may have occurred as a r e s u l t of a given s i t u a t i o n (op. c i t . ) . . The w r i t e r has described the teacher's perception of the value of the c h i l d r e n ' s experiences, r a t h e r than going to the students d i r e c t l y , f o r , as Borun s t a t e s , teachers can o b t a i n an e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experience on t h e i r students by watching t h e i r r e a c t i o n s over a s u i t a b l e p e r i o d of time. In the development of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the format and i n d i v i d u a l items were reviewed by three f a c u l t y members of the F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. On the b a s i s of t h e i r comments and recommendations, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m o d i f i e d , p r i n t e d , and d i s t r i b u t e d to teachers v i a VSB m a i l s e r v i c e (Appendix A). Although 314 c l a s s e s v i s i t e d " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n , " the t a r g e t sample c o n s i s t e d of the 150 Vancouver School D i s t r i c t teachers who v i s i t e d the workshop w i t h t h e i r students.on one or more occasions. Ninety-four q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (69%) of the 150 sent out were returned. T h i s response r a t e compares f a v o r a b l y w i t h the 30% considered to be an e x c e l l e n t r e t u r n f o r mail-back 17 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Borun, 1977). The survey was conducted over a three month pe r i o d from A p r i l to June, 1981. Teachers who d i d not respond to the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were sent a second copy and a follow-up phone c a l l was made to encourage t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of 19 m u l t i p l e choice items, two sub-j e c t i v e questions and one semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l item. The f i r s t page of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of f i v e questions designed to produce a p r o f i l e of the v i s i t i n g c l a s s e s , as t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was considered essen-t i a l i n the a n a l y s i s of the data. Respondents were a l s o requested to add t h e i r personal comments regarding t h e i r choice of answers to the o b j e c t i v e questions. The a d d i t i o n a l comments were requested so that the teachers would have an opportunity to i d e n t i f y dimensions of the experience beyond those i d e n -t i f i e d i n the qu e s t i o n n a i r e items. In a d d i t i o n , teachers were requested to score the workshop experience on a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e designed to measure the a b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r experience to s t i m u l a t e or arouse i n t e r e s t i n an observer or p a r t i c i p a n t (Mehrabian, 1974). The survey data were hand tab u l a t e d and percentage responses were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each item of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . This simple a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t i n g percentage responses f o r each i n d i v i d u a l statement i s an e f f e c t i v e measure of o p i n i o n (Best, 1970). A summary of w r i t t e n comments made by teachers i s a l s o included as the m a j o r i t y of teachers commented on the operation of the workshop, o f f e r e d suggestions f o r improving the e x i s t i n g format, and i d e n t i f i e d t o p i c s f o r f u t u r e programmes. 18 Questionnaire Response Report Item 1: What grade l e v e l d i d you b r i n g to the workshop? Primary Intermediate Secondary Grade l e v e l 1,2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 T o t a l Number of c l a s s e s 7 3 10 25 17 17 22 1 9 111 Percentage of T o t a l 6 3 9 23 15 15 20 1 8 100 I t should be noted that " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n " was o r i g i n a l l y planned f o r Grade 5, 8, and 11 students; v i s i t s by other grades were a l s o permitted. The t o t a l number of c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e d i n Item 1 (111) exceeded the t o t a l responses f o r other questions items (94) because some v i s i t s i n c l u d e d mixed c l a s s e s of d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s . The data i n d i c a t e that more elementary than secondary teachers chose to v i s i t L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . Item 2: Which of these d e s c r i b e s your c l a s s ? Subject Area Number of Classes Percentage of T o t a l Science 51 54 General 16 17 Eng. as a sec. lang. 10 11 A r t and science 4 7 Enrichment 4 4 Art 3 3 E n g l i s h 3 3 Learn. A s s i s t . Centre 1 < 1 General Business 12 1 < 1 French Immersion 1 < 1 T o t a l 94 100 19 Item 3: How many students were i n the c l a s s which attended the workshop? Class Size under 10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 over 30 T o t a l Number of c l a s s e s Percentage of t o t a l 3 < 3 3 < 3 14 15 31 33 31 33 13 14 95 100 Item 4: How many f i e l d t r i p s away from your school w i l l you take with t h i s c l a s s during the school year 1980-81? Number of F i e l d T r i p s more than 5 Tota l Number of classes 17 7 26 16 10 18 94 Percentage of t o t a l 18 7 28 17 11 19 100 Item 5: What was the purpose of the v i s i t ? Purpose Number of Teacher Responses Percentage of Tota l Review work studied i n c l a s s 21 18 Provide enrichment 80 67 Introduce a new unit 14 12 Teach core subject matter 4 3 T o t a l 119 100 20 Two teachers s t a t e d that the purpose of t h e i r v i s i t was to arouse i n t e r e s t and st i m u l a t e c u r i o s i t y . One teacher reported the purpose of the f i e l d t r i p was f o r "students to see m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to t h e i r c u r r i c -ulum and enjoy themselves." The t o t a l number of responses (119) exceeded the number of r e p l i e s (94) because some teachers i n d i c a t e d more than one purpose f o r t h e i r c l a s s v i s i t . Item 6: Was the time a l l o c a t e d f o r your students' v i s i t s u f f i c i e n t ? Response Number of Classes Percentage of T o t a l Time a l l o c a t e d was s u f f i c i e n t 90 96 Time a l l o c a t e d was not s u f f i c i e n t 4 4 Undecided 0 0 T o t a l 94 100 Teachers who stat e d that there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the v i s i t a l s o commented that t h e i r c l a s s e s were so l a r g e that not a l l students were able to see a l l of the e x h i b i t s i n the a l l o t t e d time p e r i o d . Item 7: Did t h i s workshop meet the o r i g i n a l expectations you had f o r y o u r s e l f ? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 84 90 No 7 7 Undecided 3 3 T o t a l 94 100 21 The m a j o r i t y of the w r i t t e n comments (8%) i n d i c a t e d that the workshop "turned out b e t t e r than expected." Teachers reported that t h e i r expec-t a t i o n s about the workshop were based upon comments from colleagues and the p r e l i m i n a r y l i t e r a t u r e (teachers and students guides) d i s t r i b u t e d p r i o r to the c l a s s v i s i t . One teacher expressed disappointment because of the l a c k of formal teaching and s t r u c t u r e during the workshop p e r i o d . Item 8: Did t h i s workshop meet the o r i g i n a l expectations you had f o r your students? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 84 90 No 3 3 Undecided 7 7 T o t a l 94 100 Although few teachers (7%) i n d i c a t e d that they were undecided, i t i s suspected that t h i s question may have caused some confusion i n the minds of the respondents. For example, two teachers s t a t e d i n t h e i r w r i t t e n comments that they could not understand the d i f f e r e n c e between questions 7 and 8. Item 9: I n what ways d i d t h i s workshop experience d i f f e r from what you could provide i n your classroom? A s i g n i f i c a n t number of teachers (34%) i n d i c a t e d that they lacked the f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l resources to present m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r classrooms such as those i n L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . I n a l l 27% c i t e d a l a c k of a v a i l -a ble equipment w h i l e 7% s t a t e d that there was l i t t l e o pportunity f o r hands-on work i n the classroom. 22 Item 10: How would you rate the o v e r a l l value of t h i s workshop? Response Frequency Percentage of Total Excellent 61 65 Good 31 33 F a i r 2 2 Poor 0 0 To t a l 94 100 Further examination of response to t h i s item shows that 63% of elementary teachers rated the workshop excellent, 50% of secondary teachers rated the workshop as excellent. Item 11: Were the exhibits appropriate for the age l e v e l of your class? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 86 91 No 3 3 Undecided 5_ 6 To t a l 94 100 In written responses to t h i s item, 16% of: teachers reported that the workshop e x h i b i t s were appropriate for t h e i r classes because they were p a r t i c i p a t o r y . Five percent of the respondents (grade 4, 5, 6 teachers) reported that the "exhibit theory was too complex for t h e i r students to understand." Three percent of the responses stated that the e x h i b i t s were appropriate because they " r e l a t e d to the classroom 23 curriculum. 1 1 One grade 11 teacher commented that the workshop was "appropriate for the f i r s t v i s i t , but a l i t t l e elementary f o r a d d i t i o n a l v i s i t s . " A comment by a teacher of grades 1 and 2 was t y p i c a l of those made by the few primary teachers (.9%) who attended. She stated: "Although t h i s (Light and I l l u s i o n ) was designed for older, more experi-enced c h i l d r e n , i t provided a great deal of fun, exposure, and awareness for the younger chil d r e n . The fac t that they were free to t r y everything on t h e i r own was a great experience for them." Item 12: Mean Information Rate Scores by Grade Level (see Appendix B) Grade Level Primary Intermediate Secondary Grade mean 6.6 12.2 9.9 N 5 43 28 The data indicated intermediate teachers thought that t h e i r students were being provided with a higher information rate (Appendix B) than did eith e r secondary or primary teachers. Item 13: Have you noticed any p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on your students as a r e s u l t of your v i s i t to the exhibition? Response Frequency Percentage of To t a l Yes 69 73 No 12 13 Undecided 13 14 Tot a l 94 100 24 T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a s u m m a r y o f c o m m e n t s . F o u r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s : ( 1 0 e l e m e n t a r y , 3 s e c o n d a r y ) r e p o r t e d e n h a n c e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f f a c t s , c o n c e p t s a n d v o c a b u l a r y f o l l o w -i n g t h e w o r k s h o p e x p e r i e n c e . E l e v e n p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m f o r some o f t h e w o r k s h o p c o n -c e p t s ( e . g . , l a s e r s , l i g h t , i l l u s i o n s ) . E i g h t p e r c e n t m a d e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o a p p l y t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o e v e r y d a y l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . F o u r e l e m e n t a r y a n d t w o s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s b e c a m e m o t i v a t e d t o p u r s u e l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h i n d e p t h a n d s c i e n c e - f a i r t y p e o f p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o w o r k s h o p t o p i c s . S i x t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e m o s t n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t o f t h e w o r k s h o p w a s t h e g e n e r a l i m p r o v e -m e n t i n t h e t o n e a n d l e v e l o f s t u d e n t d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d t o p i c s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I t e m 1 4 : H a v e y o u n o t i c e d a n y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o n y o u r s t u d e n t s a s a r e s u l t o f y o u r v i s i t t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n ? R e s p o n s e F r e q u e n c y P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Y e s 1 1 No 8 6 9 1 U n d e c i d e d 7 8 T o t a l 94 1 0 0 O n l y o n e t e a c h e r ( p h y s i c s 1 1 ) r e p o r t e d a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e w o r k s h o p v i s i t , s t a t i n g t h a t " s o m e s t u d e n t s ( a m i n o r i t y ) w e r e b o r e d w i t h t h e w o r k s h o p . " 25 Item 15: Do you think that the printed guide material provided was appropriate for your class? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 70 74 No 16 17 Undecided 8 9 T o t a l 94 100 As already stated, the printed guides were developed to a s s i s t both teachers and students to prepare for the workshop. One comment stated: "I was pleased to receive the material so I knew what to expect and was able to prepare the c l a s s for the concepts displayed." Eight elementary and one secondary teacher thought that the conceptual and reading l e v e l of the materials was too high for the students. However, a few teachers (.8%) wrote that the student printed materials were of more use to them as aids i n preparing the c l a s s for the workshop rather than as materials to be used by the students d i r e c t l y . Item 16: Do you think that the assistance provided by the explainers was appropriate to your class? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 87 93 No 6 6 Undecided 1 1 T o t a l 94 100 26 The importance of t r a i n e d o n s i t e a s s i s t a n t s ( e x p l a i n e r s ) to the success of the workshop i s i n d i c a t e d by the high r a t i n g given to the r o l e of the e x p l a i n e r (93%) i n comparison to the r a t i n g given to the p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l (70%). The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample of the numerous comments on the a s s i s t a n c e provided by the e x p l a i n e r : "We had an e x c e l -l e n t e x p l a i n e r who found almost immediately the l e v e l of understanding w i t h these students." "The e x p l a i n e r was very h e l p f u l not only i n e x p l a i n i n g but t r a n s f e r r i n g her enthusiasm to her students." "The lady i n charge was able to e x p l a i n everything that the c h i l d r e n wished to know at the c o r r e c t l e v e l . " The p r i n c i p l e e x p l a i n e r was o n s i t e f o r 90% of c l a s s v i s i t s . At other times a v a r i e t y of s u b s t i t u t e s were a v a i l a b l e . Three teachers thought that there should be a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a i n e r s s t a t i o n e d at v a r i o u s d i s p l a y s to a s s i s t the students' i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the e x h i b i t s . Three teachers suggested that "not enough d i r e c t i o n " was provided during the workshop. One remarked " . . . thus u n d i r e c t e d , young students wander from e x h i b i t to e x h i b i t , 'playing at l e a r n i n g ' r a t h e r than ' l e a r n i n g w h i l e p l a y i n g ' . " Item 17: Did you i n v o l v e your students i n any follow-up a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom a f t e r the workshop? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 70 74 No 24 26 T o t a l 94 100 27 Class d i s c u s s i o n about the workshop a c t i v i t i e s and student experimen-t a t i o n were the two most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned follow-up a c t i v i t i e s (74%) by both elementary and secondary teachers. Other student a c t i v i t i e s considered as ..follow-up were: the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a periscope, m i r r o r experiments, and drawing of o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s . Only four teachers c l e a r l y c a t e g o r i z e d the follow-up a c t i v i t i e s as a r t r e l a t e d , r e f l e c t i n g the strong science b i a s i n the sample. Item 18: Did the follow-up a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested i n the guidebook help you extend the workshop experiences i n the classroom? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 26 29 No 31 34 Undecided 34 37 T o t a l 91 100 Although 74% of the respondents i n d i c a t e d some type of follow-up a c t i v i t y r e s u l t e d from the workshop, the guidebook was used as a resource by only 29% of those teachers. Item 19: I f i t were p o s s i b l e , would you b r i n g the same c l a s s back to t h i s workshop? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 49 52 No 31 33 Undecided 14 15 T o t a l 94 100 28 A s i g n i f i c a n t number of teachers (19%) reported that a s i n g l e v i s i t was adequate and that a repeat v i s i t would be "too r e p e t i t i v e , " "unneces-sary," or " b o r i n g . " Eleven percent of the teachers i n d i c a t e d they would r e t u r n w i t h the same c l a s s f o r a more comprehensive study of s p e c i f i c t o p i c s (e.g., p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g the c o l o r w a l l ) . Item 20: I f i t were p o s s i b l e , would you b r i n g another c l a s s to t h i s workshop? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 91 97 No 1 1 Undecided 2 2 T o t a l 94 100 Item 21: How best could your students be prepared f o r a workshop such as t h i s ? T his item e l i c i t e d the g r e a t e s t number of w r i t t e n responses. Twenty-one percent prepared students f o r L i g h t and I l l u s i o n by making them f a m i l i a r w i t h c u r r i c u l u m t o p i c s r e l a t e d to the workshop. Other teachers (30%) emphasized the importance of l e a r n i n g about the e x h i b i t s themselves by using the prepared guide books sent to schools p r i o r to the a c t u a l f i e l d t r i p . Four percent of teachers thought that audio v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s such as f i l m s t r i p s about the workshop should have been provided f o r student l e a r n i n g before t h e i r v i s i t . A p r e l i m i n a r y v i s i t to the workshop by the teacher was mentioned by 9% of the respondents. Others (9%) thought that a p r e l i m i n a r y v i s i t by the teacher to the workshop would have been u s e f u l . 29 Item 22: Would you l i k e your c l a s s to attend workshops of t h i s type on other t o p i c s ? Response Frequency Percentage of T o t a l Yes 88 94 No 1 1 Undecided 5 5 T o t a l 94 100 Seven percent of the teachers i n d i c a t e d that any workshop of the 'hands-on' v a r i e t y would be a worthwhile experience f o r students. The f o l l o w i n g i s a t y p i c a l comment: "Anything that takes l e a r n i n g away from books and i n t o the k i d s ' hands i s bound to be more i n t e r e s t i n g and w i l l be r e t a i n e d . " F i v e percent ( a l l ) elementary teachers requested f u t u r e workshops on any 'science t o p i c . ' S p e c i f i c suggestions f o r f u t u r e workshop t o p i c s were: photography, f i l m making, a r t and p e r s p e c t i v e , h e a l t h ( f i t n e s s , n u t r i t i o n ) , e a r t h science h i s t o r y , f o r c e s and energy, sound, and b i o l o g y . CHAPTER IV AN ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE WORKSHOP EXPERIENCE AS REPORTED BY TEACHERS OF VISITING CLASSES In t h i s chapter, the value of the workshop (as reported by teachers i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses) i s examined. The p o i n t of view i s taken that L i g h t and I l l u s i o n i s an example of an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experience, and i s thus c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r e e c h o i c e , l a c k of p r e r e q u i s i t e s and c r e d e n t i a l s , heterogeneity ofT.learner groups i n background, i n t e r e s t s , and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In l i e u of a d d i t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the percentage responses, together w i t h w r i t t e n comments provided by teachers responding to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i s examined to make evident what teachers consider to be workshop s t r e n g t h s , weaknesses, and fea t u r e s which c o n t r i b u t e to l e a r n i n g i n the i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. The que s t i o n n a i r e was constructed to e l i c i t responses to s p e c i f i c questions but a l s o to encourage a d d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n comments by teachers. The a n a l y s i s t h e r e f o r e , i s based on a review of the que s t i o n n a i r e data together w i t h reference to the l i t e r a t u r e . By t h i s chosen methodology those i s s u e s and concerns which could not be a n t i c i p a t e d i n advance are made evident. Comments which i n d i c a t e the p o i n t of view of at l e a s t 10% of the respondents w i l l be considered as s i g n i f i c a n t , although comments r e p r e -senting d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of view w i l l a l s o be presented. F i n a l l y , 30 31 v a r i o u s dilemmas, paradoxes and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s made obvious by a review of the data w i l l be discussed and the w r i t e r ' s viewpoint w i l l be presented. 1. Workshop Strengths I f p o p u l a r i t y i s an i n d i c a t i o n of success, then L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was very s u c c e s s f u l . N i n e ty-eight percent of v i s i t i n g teachers rated the workshop as e i t h e r " e x c e l l e n t " or "good." O r i g i n a l l y planned f o r grades 5, 8, and 11 a r t and science c l a s s e s , the workshop a l s o hosted students i n languages, enrichment, s p e c i a l needs, business, and primary c l a s s e s . The s u i t a b i l i t y of the experience i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that 90% of the teachers attending reported the workshop met t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , and over 70% i n d i c a t e d that the e x h i b i t s , guide m a t e r i a l s , and on s i t e a s s i s t a n c e were appropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . Ten percent of teachers s t a t e d that the workshop was a l e a r n i n g experience f o r them as w e l l as f o r t h e i r students. Twenty-eight percent s t a t e d that the workshop gave students a r a r e opportunity to work w i t h very expensive, s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment which would "never" be a v a i l a b l e i n a r e g u l a r classroom. Thus, t h i s workshop provided many teachers w i t h an opportunity to observe the e f f e c t s of an unusual l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n on t h e i r students' behavior. Another st r e n g t h reported by .teachers (11%) was the opportunity f o r students to r e c e i v e more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n than normally a v a i l a b l e i n the r e g u l a r classroom. Since students had freedom to c i r c u l a t e at w i l l through the workshop, the e x p l a i n e r and teacher were f r e e to o f f e r a s s i s -tance to i n d i v i d u a l students or small groups. Eleven percent of v i s i t i n g teachers s t a t e d they would b r i n g the same c l a s s back f o r another v i s i t , w h i l e 97% stat e d they would b r i n g 32 other c l a s s e s to the workshop. Thus, the workshop may have provided an important break from the r o u t i n e of day to day c l a s s work. However, teachers may a l s o have considered the workshop to be small enough f o r t h e i r students to make use of i n j u s t one v i s i t . Twenty-seven percent of r e p o r t i n g teachers i n d i c a t e d that L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was a "novel" experience both i n type and i n l o c a t i o n . These data p a r a l l e l the l i t e r a t u r e — n o v e l t y s t i m u l a t e s both c u r i o s i t y ; , and i n t e r e s t and encourages e x p l o r a t o r y behavior. T h i r t y - e i g h t percent of teachers a l s o reported that students had more i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g about science i n the classroom f o l l o w i n g the workshop experience. So, both i n terms of s u i t a b i l i t y and b e n e f i t d e r i v e d , the workshop can be con-sid e r e d a p o s i t i v e and rewarding experience. 2. Workshop Weaknesses Workshop weaknesses are considered to be those fe a t u r e s described by teachers as i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . In t h i s context, the major problems reported by v i s i t i n g teachers were i d e n t i f i e d as incom-p l e t e or i n a p p r o p r i a t e a s s i s t a n c e during the workshop, or incomplete or in a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s sent to them p r i o r to the workshop. However, i t should be noted that complaints were few i n r e l a t i o n to the p o s i t i v e comments made about the workshop. S i x percent of the teachers would have p r e f e r r e d an a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a i n e r to a s s i s t students, 13% i n d i c a t e d that the guide m a t e r i a l was too complex f o r t h e i r students, and a few teachers (4%) were disappointed at the 'lack of teaching' during the workshop. Four percent of the teachers would have appreciated some a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l to e x p l a i n e x h i b i t f u n c t i o n s before the v i s i t , and 12% would have p r e f e r r e d a v i s i t from the e x p l a i n e r to the classroom 33 to a s s i s t p r e p a r a t i o n . Such comments suggest that teachers may be 'missing the p o i n t ' i n regard to the nature of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n s . They may regard L i g h t and I l l u s i o n as a r e p l i c a t i o n of classroom a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e i n f a c t the workshop planners; attempt to develop a d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g environment. The misconception would seem to l i e i n the communication of the goals and expectations of the workshop to the teacher through the p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s . Although one o b j e c t i v e of the workshop was s t a t e d to be the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about l i g h t and i l l u s i o n s , few i n d i c a t i o n s of c o g n i t i v e gains were reported. How-ever, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h i s should be considered a weakness of the workshop i n l i g h t of r e p o r t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e that c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g i n i n f o r m a l environments are p o o r l y understood and are d i f f i c u l t to measure using conventional t e s t i n g procedures. 3. Novelty i n the Informal Learning Environment In t h i s study, teachers were requested to describe how the workshop experience d i f f e r e d from what was o f f e r e d i n the classroom. In t h i s s e c t i o n , i t w i l l be shown that teachers considered L i g h t and I l l u s i o n to be a novel experience f o r t h e i r students which s t i m u l a t e d c u r i o s i t y and encouraged e x p l o r a t o r y behavior, thus meeting a major o b j e c t i v e which the c o o r d i n a t o r s had formulated f o r the workshop. This f i n d i n g p a r a l l e l s s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which i n d i c a t e novel l e a r n i n g experiences are a n a t u r a l and necessary part of the l e a r n i n g process. Kimche (1978) s t a t e s that people go to science centres to s a t i s f y t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about science and to experience new and i n t e r e s t i n g phenomena. Borun (1977) notes that teachers value a c l a s s v i s i t to a science centre as a means to s t i m u l a t e c h i l d r e n to seek f u r t h e r 34 i n f o r m a t i o n . H e b b ( 1 9 7 8 ) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e n e e d f o r n o r m a l s t i m u l a t i o n o f a v a r i e d e n v i r o n m e n t i s f u n d a m e n t a l . K a p l a n ( 1 9 8 0 ) h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f t h e e f f e c t o f n o v e l s t i m u l i o n b e h a v i o r a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r i o s i t y i s a r o u s e d b y n o v e l s t i m u l i a n d t h a t c u r i o s i t y a n d e x p l o r a -t i o n e n c o u r a g e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n l i k e l y t o f o s t e r s u r v i v a l i n a n i n f o r m a t i o n - o r i e n t e d o r g a n i s m . K a u f m a n ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t a t e s t h a t P i a g e t h a s o b s e r v e d t h a t ( t y p i c a l ) b e h a v i o r o f p r i m a r y a g e d c h i l d r e n , a t " p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l s , " c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f r a n d o m o b s e r v a t i o n a n d n a m i n g o f c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s . F o r c h i l -d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y a g e , h o w e v e r , P i a g e t s u g g e s t s t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n o f n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s i s m o r e p u r p o s e f u l a n d i s u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h a c o g n i t i v e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s . I n t h i s s t u d y 27% o f ^ r e p o r t i n g t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e n o v e l f e a t u r e s o f t h e w o r k s h o p . T h e y n o t e d : 1 . t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d e q u i p m e n t a n d m a t e r i a l s e x c e e d e d t h a t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . T e a c h e r s c o m m e n t e d : " ( e x h i b i t ) t e c h n o l o g y w a s f a r m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o m e q u i p m e n t " ; " i t p r o v i d e d a m u c h g r e a t e r s c o p e o f m a t e r i a l s " ; " f a n c y e q u i p m e n t a n d e x a m p l e s o f l i g h t e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m " ; " g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e m a t e r i a l s t h a t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o s e t u p i n t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . " 2 . t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s e x c e e d e d t h a t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . T e a c h e r s c o m m e n t e d : " t h i s k i n d o f ' s e n s o r y ' a p p r o a c h w o u l d b e n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d u p l i c a t e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m " ; " o b v i o u s l y a c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e - ' i s v e r y l i m i t e d c o m -p a r e d t o t h e w e a l t h o f ' h a n d s - o n ' a c t i v i t i e s " ; " c h i l d r e n c o u l d t o u c h a n d e x p e r i e n c e m a t e r i a l s we c a n n o t h a v e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m " ; 35 " t h i s workshop gave the students a f i r s t - h a n d look and f e e l f o r the things we had been d i s c u s s i n g . " 3. the opp o r t u n i t y f o r students to move f r e e l y i n the workshop exceeded that of the classroom. Teachers commented: "the workshop allowed students to move f r e e l y which they enjoyed"; "the students could work by themselves"; "the c h i l d r e n had more chance to experiment on t h e i r own w i t h p h y s i c a l instruments." A s i g n i f i c a n t number of teachers (23%) reported that the a l l o t t e d time f o r the c l a s s v i s i t was almost t o t a l l y taken up w i t h student e x p l o r -a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a t o r y workshop e x h i b i t s . The teachers' observa-t i o n s p a r a l l e l those reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e which i n d i c a t e that c h i l d r e n ' s c u r i o s i t y s t i m u l a t e s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . As Peterson (1979) s t a t e s : through c o o r d i n a t i o n of sense organs w i t h p h y s i c a l movement ( r e f e r r e d to as sensory motor responses), c h i l d r e n approach novel o b j e c t s they encounter i n t h e i r environment and reach out to explore by touching, tasting-, s m e l l i n g , l i s t e n i n g , l o o k i n g and perhaps by r e o r g a n i z i n g p a r t s of these o b j e c t s i n some way. Teachers provided other i n d i c a t i o n s that the students found the experience more i n t e r e s t i n g than the classroom s e t t i n g . A s i g n i f i c a n t number (.19%) of teachers s t a t e d that students asked more questions about the e x h i b i t s than they asked about r e g u l a r classroom assignments. This increased r a t e of questioning G o t t f r i e d (1979) c o n s i d e r s / t o be an exten-s i o n of e x p l o r a t o r y behavior i n a novel environment. A d d i t i o n a l l y , 38% of v i s i t i n g teachers reported that students "were more i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about sc i e n c e " i n the classroom f o l l o w i n g the workshop than they were before the f i e l d t r i p . So as to o b t a i n f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of how i n t e r e s t i n g teachers and t h e i r students considered L i g h t and I l l u s i o n ,to be, teachers were 36 requested to complete a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e i n the ques t i o n n a i r e which measures in f o r m a t i o n r a t e (Appendix B). Studies of in f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e that f o r any s i t u a t i o n , an optimum l e v e l of mult i s e n s o r y stimu-l a t i o n e x i s t s which produces maximum arou s a l or i n t e r e s t . However, the use of in f o r m a t i o n r a t e to measure i n t e r e s t l e v e l s i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y and the l i t e r a t u r e does not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e how such scores should be evaluated. Indeed, very few comparisons are a v a i l a b l e to enable evalua-t i o n of the data produced by t h i s study. One study (Mehrabian, 1974) does describe a mean in f o r m a t i o n r a t e of -2.2 f o r a s e r i e s of a u d i o v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s which r e q u i r e d l i t t l e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the,viewer-s u b j e c t s . In comparison, the present study shows a mean score of 9.6. Based on t h i s s i n g l e comparison, i t might be suggested that L i g h t and I l l u s i o n i s a more i n t e r e s t i n g experience than passive observation of classroom a u d i o v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Indeed, i t i s l i k e l y that the inf o r m a t i o n r a t e score f o r L i g h t and I l l u s i o n i s higher than most classroom a c t i v i t i e s . However, no data e x i s t at t h i s time to support t h i s contention. This present study a l s o shows that the workshop was scored higher on the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scale by elementary teachers (12.2) than by secondary teachers (9.9). This d i f f e r e n c e i n scores may i n d i c a t e e l e -mentary teachers found L i g h t and I l l u s i o n to be a more i n t e r e s t i n g exper-ience than d i d secondary teachers., s i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e i s defined as a measure of i n t e r e s t or a r o u s a l l e v e l . Since s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e i n t e r e s t i s sti m u l a t e d by n o v e l t y and complexity, t h i s w r i t e r suggests that the d i f f e r e n c e i n in f o r m a t i o n r a t e scores may a l s o i n d i c a t e that elementary teachers considered the n o v e l t y and complexity of L i g h t and I l l u s i o n of more value than d i d secondary teachers. 37 One would be u n w i l l i n g to speculate about the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s f i n d i n g . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s f i n d i n g p a r a l l e l s s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Borun, 1977) which suggest that i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences such as provided by L i g h t and I l l u s i o n are more popular w i t h elementary aged students than w i t h any other age group evaluated. In a d d i t i o n , Peterson (1979) s t a t e s that "fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n the classroom f o r the expression of c u r i o s i t y than e x i s t e d i n the s i x t i e s " and i m p l i e s that t h i s d e f i c i e n c y r e s u l t s from a renewed "emphasis on the 3-R's" and the "development of i n s t r u c t i o n which r a r e l y i n c l u d e s performance o b j e c t i v e s which p e r t a i n to the expression of c u r i o s i t y . " I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s same d e f i c i e n c y could a l s o e x i s t i n c e r t a i n elementary B r i t i s h Columbia classrooms. The " B r i t i s h Columbia Elementary Science I n t e r i m Guide" l i s t s three programs authorized f o r use i n B r i t i s h Columbia elementary science classrooms: M a t e r i a l Based U n i t s , which emphasizes "involvement of students i n s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and e x p l o r a t i o n s " and two other programs, Space, Time, Energy and Matter (STEM) and E x p l o r i n g Science, both of which are described by the guide as "textbook programs." C u r r e n t l y , most teachers are encouraged to use the two "textbook programs" (STEM and E x p l o r i n g Science) i n t h e i r classrooms ( C a r l i s l e , 1981). However, t h i s study i n d i c a t e s that other programs, such as the M a t e r i a l Based U n i t s , may b e t t e r meet what Peterson (1975) s t a t e s as the "need f o r a wider v a r i e t y of c o n d i t i o n s under which p u p i l s are permitted to explore i n order to accommodate what appear to be d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e f e r -ences or modes of expressing c u r i o s i t y among c h i l d r e n of elementary school age." 38 4. A c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Learning Process In t h i s study, teachers were asked to comment on the appropriateness to t h e i r students of the preparatory and follow-up m a t e r i a l s , the workshop e x h i b i t s , and on s i t e s t a f f a s s i s t a n c e . I t has been shown that teachers considered t h e i r students to have had more i n t e r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n the workshop than i n the r e g u l a r classroom, that these i n t e r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s were a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e of the workshop, and that i n t e r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s occurred i n the classroom f o l l o w i n g the workshop. These are s i g n i f i c a n t outcomes which correspond to s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which i n d i c a t e that a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . Thier and L i n n (1976) s t a t e that the value of a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g process has been demonstrated by Piaget and Inhelder whose t h e o r i e s on how c h i l d r e n l e a r n are the b a s i s of some science c u r r i c -ulum developments p r o j e c t s (e.g.. Science 5-13, Science Curriculum Improve-ment Study). Inhelder s t a t e s that c o g n i t i v e development stems essen-t i a l l y from an i n t e r a c t i o n between the subject and the environment and t h a t l e a r n i n g i s a by-product of one's i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s environment. Indeed, many p s y c h o l o g i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Kaufman (1971) d e f i n e l e a r n i n g as a change of behavior brought about by experience. Thier and L i n n (1976) s t a t e that when i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r a c t w i t h p h y s i c a l m a t e r i a l s i n an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment they gather a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of evidence than when they hear or read about something. The i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n e r manipulates o b j e c t s , explores v a r i a b l e s and u t i l i z e s the evidence obtained i n reaching a personal conclusion; about the s i t u a t i o n i n v e s t i -gated. In the museum s e t t i n g , Screven (1976) found that i n t e r a c t i v e devices tended to increase v i s i t o r m o t i v a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n more time spent attending to an e x h i b i t and greater e f f o r t to master content 39 (Screven, 1976). S h e t t l e (1973) a l s o r e p o r t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n increases the, a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n . This study shows that a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was regarded by 38% of v i s i t i n g teachers to be a ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' p a r t of the workshop experience, although only 10% of teachers reported observable c o g n i t i v e gains (e.g., a c q u i s i t i o n of f a c t s and co n c e p t s ) i n t h e i r students f o l l o w i n g the work-shop experience. This low percentage of teachers r e c o r d i n g c o g n i t i v e gains i s p u z z l i n g . However, Screven (1976) s t a t e s that- l e a r n i n g cannot be d i r e c t l y observed. Learning must be i n f e r r e d , u s u a l l y from observed changes, i n what an i n d i v i d u a l can do before and a f t e r exposure to an in f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . This study would i n c l u d e not only the c o g n i t i v e gains reported by teachers to be l e a r n i n g outcomes but a l s o other outcomes such as increased i n t e r e s t i n workshop t o p i c s and the emergence of new a c t i v i t i e s such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of simple pieces of apparatus, d i s p l a y s , e t c . In f a c t , a v a r i e t y of.1 a c t i v i t i e s described as new and unique f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s were reported by teachers to have •' occurred i n the classroom f o l l o w i n g the workshop. F o r t y - f o u r percent of v i s i t i n g teachers reported t h e i r students constructed simple pieces of s c i e n t i f i c equipment using p r i n c i p l e s i l l u s -t r a t e d by the e x h i b i t s . The most common piece of apparatus to be con-s t r u c t e d i n the classroom (10% of v i s i t i n g c l a s s e s ) was a simple p e r i -scope made out of a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s such as cardboard tubes and m i l k cartons. One p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e grade 5 c l a s s followed the f i e l d t r i p w i t h such new classroom a c t i v i t i e s as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of simple tube per i s c o p e s , p a i n t mixing to produce a v a r i e t y of new pigments and hues, and a l s o the drawing of o r i g i n a l o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s . Thus t h i s study i n d i c a t e s a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g outcomes of the 40 i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences i n a d d i t i o n to the c o g n i t i v e gains reported by teachers. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the range of l e a r n i n g outcomes i s much wider than those reported. No doubt w i t h a d d i t i o n a l experience a l e x i c o n of d e s c r i p t o r s of l e a r n i n g outcomes could be developed. This l e x i c o n would be important, not only f o r the teachers but a l s o the e x h i b i t planners. 5. Choice and Guidance i n the Informal Learning Environment Teachers v i s i t i n g L i g h t and I l l u s i o n w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e d " f r e e choice" was a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the workshop experience. T h i r t y - f o u r percent of the teachers reported that v i s i t i n g students manip-u l a t e d e x h i b i t s of t h e i r choice and 30% of the teachers reported t h a t " f r e e choice" increased the v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r students. Eleven percent of v i s i t i n g teachers reported that students " d i d not see a l l of the e x h i b i t s because of the time spent w i t h s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t s of t h e i r c hoice," although the m a j o r i t y of teachers a l s o reported that the time a v a i l a b l e i n the workshop f o r t h e i r c l a s s was appropriate. A l l these f i n d i n g s are s i g n i f i c a n t and they p a r a l l e l r e p o r t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , as i n Laetsch (1980), who s t a t e s , " f r e e choice i s b a s i c to what can happen i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environments." Laetsch has a l s o reported science centre v i s i t o r s "shop around" before f i n d i n g an i n t e r e s t -i n g e x h i b i t where they w i l l spend most of t h e i r time. Other s t u d i e s ( G o t t f r i e d , 1979; Bowen, 1977) i n d i c a t e that choice of d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , procedures, pace, and sequence of a c t i v i t i e s encourages e x p l o r a t o r y behavior which i s a n a t u r a l and necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e to a n a l y t i c a l l e a r n i n g . Oppenheimer (1972) s t a t e s t h a t : 41 I n d i v i d u a l s v i s i t museums i n d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n s , but f r e q u e n t l y they f i r s t survey what i s there and l a t e r :return to s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n s to become more deeply i n v o l v e d . Their second look i s more d e l i b e r a t e and enables the v i s i t o r to a p preciate the d e t a i l s of the e x h i b i t s as w e l l as t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another and to the general landscape. By presenting a m u l t i -p l i c i t y of examples, i n a v a r i e t y of c o n t a c t s , of an a b s t r a c t i o n such as wave motion or energy or randomness, the museum can b u i l d up the v i s i t o r ' s i n t u i t i v e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h such concepts. Hawkins (1965) s t a t e s that when the mind i s i n v o l v e d w i t h a b s t r a c -t i o n s which w i l l lead to p h y s i c a l comprehension, " a l l of us must cross the l i n e between ignorance and i n s i g h t many times before we t r u l y under-stand." The L i g h t and I l l u s i o n o f f e r e d three forms of guidance f o r v i s i t i n g students: p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s , an on s i t e e x p l a i n e r , and e x h i b i t graphics. Seventy percent of v i s i t i n g teachers found the guide m a t e r i a l s provided p r i o r to the f i e l d t r i p a ppropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . One teacher commented, " I was pleased to r e c e i v e the m a t e r i a l so I knew what to expect and was able to prepare the c l a s s f o r the concepts d i s p l a y e d . " However, 9% of the teachers suggested the'.guide m a t e r i a l s "could have provided more d e t a i l as e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the v a r i o u s phenomena" and "could have included more in f o r m a t i o n on the p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n c e . " A few teachers (4%) commented on e x h i b i t graphics. Three teachers stated the graphics were "too complicated" and "confusing" f o r t h e i r students. One s t a t e d that the graphics " d i d not have enough i n f o r m a t i o n to e x p l a i n the e x h i b i t s . " This comment i s i n t e r e s t i n g as a study by Eason (1976) i n d i c a t e s that "few v i s i t o r s bother to read e x h i b i t graphics before i n t e r -a c t i n g w i t h the e x h i b i t s , " and "most v i s i t o r s read graphics only i f they cannot f i r s t o b t a i n a meaningful response from an e x h i b i t by t r i a l and e r r o r . " Eighty-seven percent of the r e p o r t i n g teachers i n d i c a t e d that the 42 a s s i s t a n c e provided by the e x p l a i n e r was appropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . Eleven percent of the teachers i n d i c a t e d that the most important r o l e of the e x p l a i n e r was that of "adapting the workshop experience to the i n t e r -e s t s and grade l e v e l of each v i s i t i n g c l a s s . " However, 12% of r e p o r t i n g teachers expressed a d e s i r e f o r more s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g . For example, teachers commented, "a l i n e a r layout would have a s s i s t e d i n c l a s s manage-ment; the c h i l d r e n s c a t t e r e d around the room and missed many important f e a t u r e s of the e x h i b i t s , " and "there was not enough d i r e c t i o n , the e x p l a i n e r s d i d not take the i n i t i a t i v e i n e x p l a i n i n g e x h i b i t s . " Teachers may express a preference f o r a more s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g environment than that o f f e r e d by L i g h t and I l l u s i o n because they are accustomed to teacher-centred l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom. Research shows that two-t h i r d s of the t r a d i t i o n a l classroom t a l k i s done by the teacher, of which 50% c o n s i s t s of presenting i n f o r m a t i o n , o p i n i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s , and c r i t i -cisms (Bowyer, 1978). In a d d i t i o n , there are s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which support teacher s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g and s t u d i e s which support f r e e choice (student s t r u c t u r e d ) l e a r n i n g . Research by Thier and L i n n (1976) show that an i n t r o d u c t i o n to s c i -ence concepts a s s i s t s c h i l d r e n to s t r u c t u r e t h e i r experiences i n a f r e e choice s i t u a t i o n . They a l s o show that a " s t r u c t u r e d i n t r o d u c t i o n to each set of equipment i s u s e f u l . " Okey (1978) notes Ausubel's sugges-t i o n that " r e l e v a n t and i n c l u s i v e " i n t r o d u c t o r y m a t e r i a l , which he c a l l s " o r g a n i z e r s , " should be presented p r i o r t o a l e a r n i n g task to f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n of meaningful m a t e r i a l . However, Hawkins (1965) has s t a t e d that a l e a r n i n g experience should begin with, a p e r i o d of f r e e and unguided e x p l o r a t o r y work, which he c a l l s "messing about" during which c h i l d r e n are given m a t e r i a l s and equipment and are allowed 43 to c o n s t r u c t , t e s t , probe, and experiment without superimposed questions or i n s t r u c t i o n s . Hawkins a l s o s t a t e s t h a t e x p l o r a t o r y work i n the classroom provides s u f f i c i e n t acquaintance w i t h phenomena against which a more a n a l y t i c a l set of knowledge can take form and make sense. Kaufman (1971) r e f e r s to Piaget and Inhelder's b e l i e f that an impor-tant f a c t o r i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge i s experience which i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the c h i l d ' s p r e d i c t i o n s f o r the outcome f o r a p a r t i c u l a r event. For example, 30% of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n e x h i b i t s i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s which Oppenheimer (1972) d e s c r i b e s as e x p e r i -ences which present ambiguous or c o n f l i c t i n g cues, f o r c i n g the viewer to search f o r a p l a u s i b l e hypothesis so that he can understand what he i s seeing. Bruner (.1966) a l s o values perceptual c o n f l i c t and provides c o n t r a s t s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s i n order to get the c h i l d , because of h i s discomfort, to t r y to r e s o l v e the d i s e q u i l i b r i u m by making some dis c o v e r y . To Bruner (1966) disc o v e r y i s an accommodation to achieve a new balance by modifying the previous c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . These educators see the child:.as the p r i n c i p l e a c t o r i n h i s own education. This study has shown that a m a j o r i t y of the teachers found the v a r i o u s forms of guidance a v a i l a b l e f o r students at L i g h t and I l l u s i o n a p p ropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . This i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g because the workshop i s a " f r e e choice" i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experience which d i f f e r s from teacher centred formal l e a r n i n g environments of most classrooms, and recent research shows that " f r e e choice" s i t u a t i o n s a s s i s t e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g i n c h i l d r e n . However, t h i s study a l s o suggests that teachers may value " f r e e choice" experiences f o r reasons (e.g., i n c r e a s i n g student i n t e r e s t ) other than those s t r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and thus more research, i s : r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y and examine outcomes of T f r e e choice i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences considered d e s i r a b l e to classroom teachers. As Coombs (1978) s t a t e s , "the challenge f a c i n g educators i s to develop the f u l l range of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t i e s and place c o n t r o l of the l e a r n i n g process as much as f e a s i b l e i n the student's hands." CHAPTER V LIGHT AND ILLUSION: PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS 1. The I n t e g r a t i o n of A r t and Science The p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l f o r L i g h t and I l l u s i o n d e s c r ibes the workshop as an " i n t e g r a t i o n of the a r t s and sc i e n c e s . " However, t h i s study has shown that the workshop d i d not encourage teachers'.to present the study of a r t and study of science from an i n t e g r a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e . This contention i s based upon evidence from data which i n d i c a t e that f o l l o w i n g the workshop v i s i t , teachers continued to c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the l e a r n i n g environment as e i t h e r " a r t " or " s c i e n c e . " Teachers c l a s s i f i e d the m a j o r i t y of the e x h i b i t s as "s c i e n c e " ; other teachers l a b e l l e d d i s p l a y s of p r i n t s and a s l i d e production as examples of " a r t . " The m a j o r i t y of the teachers v i s i t i n g L i g h t and I l l u s i o n (71%) described t h e i r c l a s s e s e i t h e r as "s c i e n c e " or as a general c l a s s v i s i t i n g as "part of the science u n i t . " A s i g n i f i c a n t number of teachers (42%) a l s o c l a s s i f i e d the behaviors observed during the workshop and i n the classroom a f t e r the f i e l d t r i p as s c i e n c e - r e l a t e d . Follow-up a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom, such as d i s c u s s i o n s , l i b r a r y r esearch, and p r o j e c t b u i l d i n g were almost e x c l u s i v e l y described as "science a c t i v i t i e s . " Teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the a l l o t t e d time a t the workshop f o r each c l a s s was taken up w i t h e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . This e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t y of the e x h i b i t s "provides an extremely n a t u r a l way of l i n k i n g a r t 45 46 and science s i n c e both of these i n f l u e n c e the way i n which people pe r c e i v e t h e i r environment" (Oppenheimer, 1972). Yet students d i d not t a l k of a r t s and science nor d i d t h e i r teachers. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the time made a v a i l a b l e f o r each c l a s s was too short to permit students to progress much beyond the e x p l o r a t i o n of a . n o v e l environment to consider the k i n d of complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s inherent i n the concept of an i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t and science. Perhaps the problem of p e r c e i v i n g the u n i t y of a r t and science l i e s w i t h the teacher and not w i t h the student. Kurd (1973) s t a t e s that c h i l d r e n under the age of eleven (which c o n s t i t u t e s the m a j o r i t y of v i s i t i n g students) "perceive t h e i r environment as a u n i t y and not as a c o l l e c t i o n of phenomena separated i n t o subject compartments." Chisman (1973) t h i n k s that the problems of i n t r o d u c i n g i n t e g r a t e d science (and supposedly other i n t e g r a t e d schemes) are p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r teachers. He s t a t e s t h a t science teachers are " t r a i n e d i n a subject d i s c i p l i n e approach" and " t o b r i n g about change i n v o l v e s a major task o f . r e t r a i n i n g and r e o r i e n t a -t i o n . " F i n a l l y , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that teachers, accustomed to s p e c i a l i z e d subject areas of l e a r n i n g , perceive an i n t e g r a t i v e theme i n a r t and science a c t i v i t i e s to be a weakness r a t h e r than a s t r e n g t h , and t h e r e f o r e chose to de-emphasize that aspect of the workshop experience. Indeed, i n our s o c i e t y the sciences and the a r t s are seen to be separate and t h e i r proponents as belonging to separate c u l t u r e s . 2. Age L e v e l Appropriateness This study shows that elementary teachers considered L i g h t and I l l u s i o n to be more appropriate f o r t h e i r students than d i d secondary teachers. The workshop was rated as e x c e l l e n t by 58% of the elementary 47 teachers as compared to 47% of the secondary teachers. The study a l s o shows that elementary teachers considered L i g h t and I l l u s i o n more i n t e r e s t -in g than d i d secondary teachers. Elementary teachers r a t e d the workshop higher on an i n f o r m a t i o n r a t e s c a l e than d i d secondary teachers. One p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e i n inf o r m a t i o n r a t e scores i s that the novel experiences o f f e r e d by the workshop lacked the complexity r e q u i r e d to s t i m u l a t e the adolescent mind. One might a l s o speculate that o l d e r students saw the workshop as l e s s complex, l e s s n o v e l , than t h e i r younger counterparts. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that the workshop appealed more to elementary c l a s s e s because the sensory s t i m u l a t i o n provided by novel e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s w i t h concrete o b j e c t s was b e t t e r s u i t e d to elementary students. For secondary p u p i l s maybe the experience was l e s s n o v e l , l e s s complex, and lacked extension i n t o more a b s t r a c t , symbolic content. Piaget would contend that younger c h i l d r e n p r e f e r to operate at the concrete l e v e l of thought w h i l e adolescents p r o g r e s s i v e l y p r e f e r more a b s t r a c t thought and arguments. The L i g h t and I l l u s i o n e x h i b i t s are t y p i c a l of those found i n science centres and s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g . Borun (1977) has reviewed many s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e that such f a c i l i t i e s commonly appeal more to elementary-aged students than to secondary students. Perhaps e x h i b i t s l i k e those used i n L i g h t and I l l u s i o n would appeal more to adolescents i f they o f f e r e d greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n use of e x h i b i t components w i t h extensions i n t o other i n f o r m a t i o n sources, such as supplementary t e x t m a t e r i a l , e x h i b i t g r a p h i c s , and p r i n t e d e x h i b i t guides. Teachers a l s o commented th a t preparatory m a t e r i a l s to be used by students sent by the workshop p r i o r to the v i s i t were used more by the 48 teachers themselves to a s s i s t i n l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . Thus many students were provided w i t h a unique l e a r n i n g resource only a f t e r i t was "packaged" i n t o a form considered appropriate by the teacher. In l i g h t of such evidence, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that teachers appear to view the value of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g to be l e s s than the value of formal l e a r n i n g experiences, as discussed i n another s e c t i o n o f : t h i s study. Nor should there be much s u r p r i s e at the almost complete l a c k of reference by teachers to one of the major themes of the workshop, the i n t e g r a t i o n of the a r t s and sciences. This study, as others (Newsom, 1978) i d e n t i f i e s areas of-disagreement between teachers and workshop s t a f f regarding the form of guidance most app r o p r i a t e f o r students i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environments. This d i s -agreement may r e s u l t from a l a c k of understanding of each other's goals and needs, which suggests that more communication between teachers and s t a f f of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environments may a s s i s t i n the planning of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences more s a t i s f a c t o r y to both p a r t i e s . 3. Teachers as Learners This study i n d i c a t e s that teachers t r i e d to adapt the workshop experience to f i t the demands of the school c u r r i c u l u m and the r o u t i n e of the classroom. Teachers commented (17%) that the workshop,was a ' l e a r n i n g experience' f o r them as i t provided an opportunity to observe t h e i r students i n a c t i o n i n an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. Newsom (.1978) a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t teachers of c l a s s e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs at the Exploratorium get as much out of the experience as do the c h i l d r e n and that the Exploratorium course introduces them to some new concepts as w e l l as some new ways to teach them. However, 11% of teachers reported that they wanted more than the one e x p l a i n e r made a v a i l a b l e f o r each c l a s s , to a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s or small groups of s t u -dents so that they would "have a b e t t e r understanding of the e x h i b i t s . " Such comments suggest that teachers p r e f e r r e d a more s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n than what was o f f e r e d by the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n workshop. Alexander (1980) a l s o r e p o r t s how s o c i a l s t u d i e s teachers use museums and notes that teachers worry about the r e l a x a t i o n of d i s c i p l i n e i n the museum, the tendency of museum i n s t r u c t o r s to move too f a s t or to use terms that are u n f a m i l i a r to the c h i l d r e n , or the f a i l u r e of museum educators or docents to t r y to understand the l e a r n i n g process i n c h i l -dren. 4. S i n g l e V i s i t s The L i g h t and I l l u s i o n workshop was planned as a s i n g l e v i s i t f o r elementary and secondary school c l a s s e s , although r e t u r n v i s i t s were permitted i f ..requested by the classroom teacher. This study has shown tha t teachers p r e f e r one-shot f i e l d t r i p s f o r t h e i r students. The d e s i r e f o r s i n g l e v i s i t s apparently does not i n d i c a t e d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h f i e l d - t r i p s or w i t h the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n workshop. N i n e t y - s i x percent of teachers v i s i t i n g L i g h t and I l l u s i o n r a t e d the workshop good or e x c e l l e n t . Ninety-seven percent of teachers v i s i t i n g L i g h t and I l l u s i o n i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e to r e t u r n to the workshop w i t h another c l a s s . Fewer teachers (11%) s t a t e d they would want to b r i n g the same c l a s s back to the workshop f o r a repeat v i s i t . These teachers commented that a repeat v i s i t would be "unnecessary," " b o r i n g , " or " u n n e c e s s a r i l y r e p e t i t i o u s . " In a d d i t i o n , over two-thirds of the v i s i t i n g teachers reported some form of p o s i t i v e changes i n classroom 50 behavior f o l l o w i n g the s i n g l e workshop v i s i t and 27% of the r e p o r t i n g teachers s t a t e d that " n o v e l t y " was a " s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the workshop" and o f f e r e d "hands-on a c t i v i t i e s " and " s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment" which was not a v a i l a b l e i n the classroom. The emphasis which teachers have placed on n o v e l t y suggests that f i e l d t r i p s may be valued as novel experiences which increase student i n t e r e s t and as a change from the normal classroom environment. Perhaps teachers p e r c e i v e repeat v i s i t s to be l e s s novel and t h e r e f o r e l e s s i n t e r -e s t i n g f o r t h e i r students. This contention i s supported by s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Laetsch (1980) r e p o r t s . t h a t most teachers view science centre f i e l d t r i p s as enrichment a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a new environment and not as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of classroom l e a r n i n g . S i d u l (1976) s t a t e s that the major j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f i e l d t r i p s should be the unique outcomes that a r i s e from the f i e l d t r i p s e t t i n g ( f o r example, i n t e r e s t , m o t i v a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e j u v i n a -t i o n f o r teachers and s t u d e n t s ) . However, as discussed elsewhere i n t h i s paper, n o v e l t y can provide an important stimulus to l e a r n i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e that (because they are novel experiences) s i n g l e f i e l d t r i p experiences subsequently improve student l e a r n i n g i n the classroom. This statement i s supported by the f a c t that over t w o - t h i r d s of the v i s i t i n g teachers reported some form of p o s i t i v e changes i n the classroom behavior f o l l o w i n g the workshop. To summarize comments reported elsewhere i n t h i s study, the i n t e r e s t gener-ated during the workshop may c a r r y over i n t o the classroom as a motiva-t i o n a l f a c t o r which spurred d i s c u s s i o n , l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , l a b o r a t o r y experimentation and p r o j e c t b u i l d i n g . These are s i g n i f i c a n t outcomes which, suggest "one-shot" f i e l d t r i p s may c o n t r i b u t e to l e a r n i n g and 51 i n d i c a t e more research i s r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y other ways teachers can use such experiences f o r t h e i r students. 5. The E x p l a i n e r ' s / O r g a n i z e r ' s View In t h i s s e c t i o n of the study, the d r a f t report^" on L i g h t and I l l u s i o n i s reviewed to i d e n t i f y the strengths and weaknesses of the workshop as perceived by s t a f f and o r g a n i z e r s , and to compare the percep-t i o n s of s t a f f and organizers w i t h perceptions of the v i s i t i n g teachers described elsewhere i n t h i s study. With t h i s comparison i t i s intended to o b t a i n another view of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the workshop as an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experience. The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s of the workshop are described i n the.report as "the use of e x h i b i t s to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t , teach b a s i c concepts, and extend and e n r i c h student knowledge." The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t some of the above o b j e c t i v e s have been met more completely than others. Both t h i s study and those reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e f i n d l i t t l e evidence f o r student l e a r n i n g of b a s i c concepts i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. However, the s t i m u l a t i o n of student i n t e r e s t through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s was noted i n the VSB r e p o r t and i n t h i s study as a major s t r e n g t h of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n experience. Teachers' comments reported i n t h i s study correspond to the VSB r e p o r t ' s c o n t e n t i o n that students would have b e n e f i t e d from more guidance from a d u l t s during the f i e l d t r i p . However, some d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between teachers and s t a f f as to how that guidance could best be provided. Teachers reported that a d d i t i o n a l e x p l a i n e r s were needed or that e x p l a i n e r s "*"The Vancouver School Board (VSB) d r a f t r e p o r t on L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was prepared by the workshop s t a f f and d escribes the o p e r a t i o n and out-comes of the p r o j e c t . 52 should have "spent more time e x p l a i n i n g the e x h i b i t s to i n d i v i d u a l students." The s t a f f , however, i n d i c a t e that " i t was d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n the f u n c t i o n of an e x h i b i t unless students already understand b a s i c p r i n -c i p l e s ( f o r example, r e f l e c t i o n , r e f r a c t i o n ) i l l u s t r a t e d by the e x h i b i t s . " The s t a f f a l s o reported that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a workshop v i s i t increased when the v i s i t i n g teacher: 1. prepared the students i n the classroom before the v i s i t ; 2. p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h the students during the workshop v i s i t ; 3. provided students w i t h an assignment to be completed during the v i s i t . The comment made by s t a f f about the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g students w i t h "an assignment during the v i s i t " deserves s p e c i a l mention. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of "assignments" may be described as a form of e x t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n which according to the l i t e r a t u r e can c o n f l i c t w i t h the out-comes ( i n t r i n s i c motivation) of the i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g process (Kaufman, 1971). E x t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n occurs i n the form of a reward of some type f o r the completion of a l e a r n i n g task. I n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y connected to obvious e x t e r n a l i n c e n t i v e s . Bruner (1961) s t a t e s t h a t d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g f r e e s the c h i l d from the c o n t r o l of e x t r i n s i c i n c e n t i v e s and that d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g a l l o w s the c h i l d to achieve g r a t i -f i c a t i o n ( I n t r i n s i c motivation) from "coping w i t h problems a r i s i n g ' f r o m the a c t i v e manipulation of h i s environment." Perhaps the need perceived by s t a f f and teachers f o r adu l t s u p e r v i s i o n to a s s i s t students to "under-stand" the concepts and p r i n c i p l e s which the e x h i b i t s were supposed to i l l u s t r a t e may i n d i c a t e that the e x h i b i t s themselves do not communicate e f f e c t i v e l y to the students who use them. Brown (.1979) has st a t e d that e x h i b i t s are the primary source of inf o r m a t i o n i n an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g environment. The:frequent comments 53 reported i n t h i s study and i n the s t a f f r e p o r t regarding the need f o r sup-plemental i n f o r m a t i o n sources (preparation f o r the workshop i n the c l a s s -room, a d d i t i o n a l on s i t e e x p l a i n e r s ) may add support to the suggestion made elsewhere i n t h i s study that the e x h i b i t s themselves are d e f i c i e n t as l e a r n i n g devices. I t i s p o s s i b l e that some of the o b j e c t i v e s of the workshop s t a t e d i n the s t a f f r e p o r t were u n a t t a i n a b l e using the e x h i b i t s on d i s p l a y at L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . These e x h i b i t s were borrowed from a previous e x h i b i t i o n which may have re q u i r e d e x h i b i t designs based on o b j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e n t from those of L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . T his contention i s supported by s t u d i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e which show that e x h i b i t s can produce d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g outcomes when designed'to meet c a r e f u l l y defined l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In t h i s s e c t i o n , data generated by the survey w i l l be summarized and conclusions about teachers' perceptions of the value of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop as an i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experience w i l l be drawn. W r i t t e n concerns expressed by at l e a s t 10% of responding teachers have been considered as s i g n i f i c a n t and thus are included i n t h i s summary. These are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the four dimensions ( a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , n o v e l t y , f r e e choice, and guidance) i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e which are considered important aspects of the i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n -ment. A d d i t i o n a l dimensions i d e n t i f i e d by teachers are noted and the w r i t e r ' s personal observations on these dimensions are given. 1. Dimensions I d e n t i f i e d from the L i t e r a t u r e A. A c t i v e P a r t i c i p a t i o n From teachers' comments i n response to item nine of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was regarded by 38% of ..reporting v i s i t i n g teachers to be a " s i g n i f i c a n t part of the workshop experience." In response to items t h i r t e e n , seventeen, and eighteen of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 48% of v i s i t i n g teachers reported that f o l l o w i n g the workshop t h e i r students constructed simple pieces of s c i e n t i f i c equipment using p r i n -c i p l e s i l l u s t r a t e d by the e x h i b i t s . From these data i t can be concluded t h a t teachers considered the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n to be 54 55 a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop and that f o r some c h i l d r e n new forms of a c t i v i t i e s emerged i n the classroom f o l l o w i n g the workshop experience. B. Novelty In items nine and eleven of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 27% of .-reporting teachers s t a t e d that the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop was a "novel" experience and i d e n t i f i e d three such novel f e a t u r e s of the workshop. They noted t h a t : 1. the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment and m a t e r i a l s exceeded that of the classroom; 2. the opportunity to p a r t i c i -pate i n i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n i n g environments exceeded that of the classroom; 3. the opportunity f o r students to work and move more f r e e l y i n the work-shop space exceeded that of the classroom. In a d d i t i o n , 19% of teachers i n d i c a t e d that students asked more ques-t i o n s about the e x h i b i t s than they asked about r e g u l a r classroom a s s i g n -ments. F u r t h e r , i n response to item t h i r t e e n , 38% of teachers reported that students were "more i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about science i n the c l a s s -room f o l l o w i n g the workshop than they were before the f i e l d t r i p . " In response to item twelve, elementary teachers rated the workshop higher on an i n f o r m a t i o n r a t i n g s c a l e (12.2) than d i d secondary teachers (9.9) implying that elementary students found the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Work-shop to be more i n t e r e s t i n g than d i d secondary students. From the above data, i t can be concluded that the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop was considered by teachers to be a novel experience f o r t h e i r students and s t i m u l a t e d t h e i r c u r i o s i t y . C. Free Choice In response to personal comments s o l i c i t e d i n item n i n e , 34% of r e p o r t i n g teachers reported that t h e i r students manipulated e x h i b i t s of 56 t h e i r choice and 33% of teachers who responded to items n i n e , eleven, and t h i r t e e n reported that f r e e choice increased the v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r students. In response to item s i x , 11% com-mented that students d i d not see a l l of the e x h i b i t s of t h e i r choice. I t can thus be concluded that teachers considered " f r e e c h o i c e " to be a " s i g n i f i c a n t " f e a t u r e of the workshop experience. D. Guidance From the comments s o l i c i t e d by item s i x t e e n , 87% of teachers empha-s i z e d that the a s s i s t a n c e provided by the e x p l a i n e r was "very appropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . " Eleven percent i n d i c a t e d that the most important r o l e of the e x p l a i n e r was that of "adapting the workshop experience to the i n t e r e s t s and grade l e v e l of each v i s i t i n g c l a s s . " In response to item f i f t e e n , 70% reported that the guide m a t e r i a l provided p r i o r to the f i e l d t r i p was appropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . Thus i t i s concluded that a m a j o r i t y of teachers found the v a r i o u s forms of guidance f o r work-shop experience to be appropriate f o r t h e i r c l a s s e s . 2. Personal Observations on Dimensions I d e n t i f i e d by Teachers  Responding to the Survey a. The survey d i d not produce data to show that teachers were encour-aged by the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop to present the study of a r t and science from an i n t e g r a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e . b. Responses to item twelve imply that elementary teachers considered L i g h t and I l l u s i o n to be more app r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r students than d i d secondary teachers. c. Responses to items seven, e i g h t , n i n e , t h i r t e e n , and seventeen i n d i -cates that teachers appear to value i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences more as an opportunity to i n c r e a s e student i n t e r e s t than to acquire f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . d. Responses to items f i f t e e n , seventeen, eighteen, and twenty-one show that teachers : t r i e d to adapt v a r i o u s p a r t s of the workshop experience to f i t the school c u r r i c u l u m and the r o u t i n e of the classroom. They mentioned the p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s , the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e x h i b i t s , and the suggested follow-up a c t i v i t i e s . e. In response to item twenty, teachers p r e f e r r e d s i n g l e f i e l d t r i p s as n o v e l experiences which i n c r e a s e student i n t e r e s t and as a change from the normal classroom environment. Teachers appeared to perceive repeat v i s i t s to be l e s s novel and l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e i r students. However, the i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t i e s d i s p l a y e d by students suggest that s i n g l e f i e l d t r i p s motivate and thus increase l e a r n i n g i n the classroom. A d d i t i o n a l research, i s r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y other success-f u l ways i n which teachers may use s i n g l e f i e l d t r i p s f o r t h e i r students. f. Responses to item s i x t e e n i m p l i e s that some e x h i b i t s themselves do not communicate e f f e c t i v e l y to the students who use them and more adult s u p e r v i s i o n beyond that o f f e r e d by the workshop i s needed. The L i g h t and I l l u s i o n e x h i b i t s were borrowed from a previous e x h i b i t i o n which, may have r e q u i r e d e x h i b i t designs based on o b j e c t i v e s d i f f e r e n t from those of the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop. CHAPTER V I I RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER ACTION In t h i s s e c t i o n recommendations f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n are made which, according to the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, may increase the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of both the i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences and of formal l e a r n i n g i n the classroom. In a d d i t i o n , a l i s t of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e workshop t o p i c s i d e n t i f i e d by r e p o r t i n g teachers w i l l be provided. 1. Conclusion: Hands-on, f r e e choice l e a r n i n g experiences are popular w i t h teachers and students. Recommendations: A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s should continue to be o f f e r e d to teachers and t h e i r students. 2. Conclusion: Novel l e a r n i n g experiences may increase student i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g and encourage e x p l o r a t o r y behavior. Recommendation: That novel l e a r n i n g experiences be made a v a i l a b l e to students and that students be provided w i t h oppor-t u n i t i e s to explore novel l e a r n i n g environments i n a f r e e choice s i t u a t i o n . 3. Conclusion: The time a l l o t t e d f o r each c l a s s ' v i s i t to L i g h t and I l l u s i o n was s u f f i c i e n t to permit v i s i t o r f a m i l i a r i z a -t i o n and experimentation. Recommendation: Future i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences which are s i m i l a r to L i g h t and I l l u s i o n should adopt the schedule 58 59 of time periods used f o r L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . Conclusion: Teachers i n d i c a t e d that secondary students found i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s at the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n Workshop to be l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than d i d elementary students. Recommendation: That l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s at the formal operations l e v e l which extend beyond which i s o f f e r e d by the e x h i b i t s be provided as part of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g experiences f o r secondary students. Conclusion: Teachers commented that the p r o v i s i o n of a t r a i n e d guide ( e x p l a i n e r ) and p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s enhances e x p l o r -a t o r y behavior and f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g of students, and a s s i s t e d teachers' p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f i e l d t r i p s . Recommendation: That e x p l a i n e r s and p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l s be pro-vided to a s s i s t teachers and students i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n -ing environments. Conclusion: Teachers d i d not r e f e r to the i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t and science although, i t was a major theme of L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . Recommendation: Teacher i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g should be o f f e r e d to encourage the development of i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom. Conclusion: Teachers i n d i c a t e d i n t e r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are not a re g u l a r p a r t of classroom a c t i v i t y . Recommendation: I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r teachers should be encour-aged to i n v o l v e t h e i r students i n i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom. 60 8. Conclusion: Teachers p r e f e r r e d s i n g l e f i e l d t r i p s to repeat v i s i t s to L i g h t and I l l u s i o n . Recommendation: That f i e l d t r i p s to museum workshops s i m i l a r to that presented by L i g h t and I l l u s i o n be organized around the m a t e r i a l s a n d . a c t i v i t i e s that can be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d i n one v i s i t . More complex workshops than c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d by L i g h t and I l l u s i o n should be made a v a i l a b l e to encourage m u l t i p l e v i s i t s . Some suggestions o f f e r e d by teachers f o r a d d i t i o n a l workshops i n f u t u r e programs are : 1) photography 2) f i l m making 3) a r t and p e r s p e c t i v e 4) h e a l t h ( f i t n e s s , n u t r i t i o n ) 5) sound 6) b i o l o g y 7) e a r t h science 8) h i s t o r y 9) f o r c e s and motion 10) s o c i a l s t u d i e s 11) magnetism 12) e l e c t r i c i t y 13) e v o l u t i o n 14) colour 61 REFERENCES Books A Report on the L i g h t and I l l u s i o n D i s p l a y , October 1980-June 1981 ( D r a f t ) , Vancouver School Board Program S e r v i c e s , 1981. Best, J . W. Research i n education. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1969. Borun, M. Measuring the immeasurable: A p i l o t study of museum e f f e c -t i v e n e s s . 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Systematic procedures i n science i n s t r u c t i o n . Science  Education, 1978, 62(1), 109-117. Oppenheimer, F. The Exploratorium: A p l a y f u l museum combines per c e p t i o n and a r t i n science education. American J o u r n a l of P h y s i c s , 1972, 40(7), 978-984. Otto, J . Learning about "neat s t u f f " : One approach to e v a l u a t i o n . Museum News, November/December 1979. Peterson, R. W. Changes i n c u r i o s i t y behavior from childhood to adoles-cence. J . of Res, i n S c i . Teach., 1979, 16(3), 185-192. 64 Peterson, R i t a W. The d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of an a d u l t ' s presence on the c u r i o s i t y behavior of c h i l d r e n . J . of Res, i n S c i . Teach., 1975, 12(3), 199-208. Peterson, R. W., and Lowery, L. F. The use of motor a c t i v i t y as an index of c u r i o s i t y i n c h i l d r e n . J . of Res, i n S c i . Teach., 1972, j?(3) , 193-200. P i e r o t t i , Ray. Be, see, touch, respond. Museum News, 1973, 52(4), 43-48. R i c e , M., and L i n n , M. C. Study of student behavior i n a f r e e choice environment. Science Education, 1978, j>2_(3) , 365-376. Screven, C. G. A b i b l i o g r a p h y on v i s i t o r education research. Museum  News, M a r c h / A p r i l , 1979. Screven, C. G. E x h i b i t e v a l u a t i o n — a goal-referenced approach. Curator, 1976, 19(4), 271-290. S h e t t e l , H. H. E x h i b i t s : A r t form or ed u c a t i o n a l medium. Museum News, 1973, 52(1), 32-34. Shulman, L. S. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n the teaching of science and mathematics. The Science Teacher, September 1968. Th i e r , Herbert D., and L i n n , M. C. The value of i n t e r a c t i v e l e a r n i n g experiences i n a museum. Curator, 1976, 19(3), 233-245. Van Rennes, E. C. Educational techniques i n a science museum. Curator, 1978, 21(4), 289. Whitman, J . More than buttons, buzzers and b e l l s . Museum News, Septem-ber/October, 1978. Wolf, R. W. A n a t u r a l i s t i c view of e v a l u a t i o n . Museum News, J u l y / August, 1980. DO NOT COPY LEAVES 65-72 - . ' " 65 APPENDIX A LIGHT AND ILLUSION TlC AC HER QUESTIONNAIRE In order to evaluate the effectiveness and value of the workshop to you and to your students, we ask you f o r a few minutes of your time to complete t h i s questionnaire. Please observe your students i n the classroom f o r one school week before completing the questionnaire. Your response i s completely c o n f i d e n t i a l . The data w i l l be used only by the researcher and the r e s u l t i n g report w i l l be written to guide further action. I n d i v i d u a l teachers, schools and school d i s t r i c t s w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d . The code number on the questionnaire i s • so l e l y f o r follow-up purposes. Please return the completed questionnaire i n the s e l f -addressed envelope by . DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 66 PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS BY PLACING A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS MAY BE MADE ON THE BACK OF EACH PAGE. 1) What grade l e v e l d i d you b r i n g to the workshop? Grade 5 Grade 8 Q Grade 1 1 \ ~ ] 2 ) Which o f these d e s c r i b e s your c l a s s ? T i c k one box or p l e a s e s p e c i f y . S c i e n c e C l a s s Q A r t C l a s s Q Other, p l e a s e s p e c i f y . -3 ) How many s t u d e n t s were i n the c l a s s which a t t e n d e d the workshop? Under 10 p] 1 1 - 1 5 O 1 6 - 2 0 [~j 2 1 - 2 5 Q 2 6 - 3 0 P] Over- 30 k) How many f i e l d t r i p s away from your s c h o o l w i l l you take w i t h t h i s c l a s s d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 ? i • 2 • 3 Q ^ • 5 • more than 5 • 5) What was the purpose of t h i s v i s i t ? Review work s t u d i e d i n c l a s s [ j P r o v i d e enrichment •Q I n t r o d u c e a new u n i t Q^ j Teach core s u b j e c t matter j [ Other, p l e a s e s p e c i f y . 6) Was the time allocated for your students' v i s i t sufficient Yes ! i No | j Undecided Please comment. 7) Did this workshop meet the original expectations you had for yourself? ' Yes ; ' No Q Undecided Please comment. 8) Did this workshop meet the original expectations you had for your students? Yes 1 i No ' Undecided Please comment. 9) In what ways d i d t h i s workshop experience d i f f e r from what you c o u l d p r o v i d e i n your classroom? 10) How would you r a t e the o v e r a l l v a l u e of t h i s workshop? E x c e l l e n t ; Good F a i r Q Poor j j 11) Were the e x h i b i t s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the age l e v e l of your c l a s s ? Yes ! j No j ~ i Undecided P l e a s e g i v e examples. 12) P l e a s e use the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e p a i r s to d e s c r i b e the " L i g h t and I l l u s i o n " workshop. Each of the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e p a i r s h e l p s to d e f i n e the e x h i b i t i o n o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the' v a r i o u s e x h i b i t s . Put a check-69 mark somewhere al o n g the l i n e (example: to i n d i c a t e what you t h i n k i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n . varied simple novel ' small scale similar .- dense intermittent • usual -' heterogeneous . uncrowded asymmetrical immediate common patterned redundant complex familiar large scale contrasting sparse continuous surprising homogeneous crowded symmetrical distant rare random Have you n o t i c e d any p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on your students as a r e s u l t o f your v i s i t to the e x h i b i t i o n ? Yes : _ j No | Undecided 1 \ P l e a s e i n d i c a t e those p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . Have you n o t i c e d any n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on your students as a r e s u l t o f your v i s i t to the e x h i b i t i o n ? Yes P No H~ Undecided ^ ~ P l e a s e i n d i c a t e those n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . Do you t h i n k t h a t the p r i n t e d guide m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r your c l a s s ? Yes _ j No ! ~ Undecided P l e a s e comment. 16) Do you t h i n k t h a t the a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by the e x p l a i n e r s was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r your c l a s s ? Yes ~ No P l e a s e Comment. Undecided 17) D i d you i n v o l v e your students i n any followup a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom a f t e r the workshop? Yes f j No Q P l e a s e g i v e examples. 18) Did the f o l l o w u p a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested i n the guidebook h e l p you extend the workshop experiences i n the classroom? Yes No Q j Undecided P l e a s e g i v e examples. 19) I f i t were p o s s i b l e , would you b r i n g the same c l a s s back to t h i s workshop? Yes F] N o C] Undecided [j P l e a s e comment•* 20) I f i t were p o s s i b l e , would you b r i n g another c l a s s to t h i s workshop? Yes Q No Undecided | | P l e a s e comment. 21) How best c o u l d your students be prepared f o r a workshop such as t h i s ? 22) Would you l i k e your c l a s s to a t t e n d workshops of t h i s type on o t h e r t o p i c s ? Yes No PJ Undecided P l e a s e comment„ 73 APPENDIX B Treatment of Data Obtained from Item 12 of the Questionnaire Teachers were requested to score the workshop experience on a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e (item 12) designed to measure the a b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r experience to s t i m u l a t e or arouse i n t e r e s t i n an observer or p a r t i c i p a n t (Mehrabian, 1974). With respect to these a f f e c t i v e responses, P i e r o t t i (1973) has found that v i s i t o r s to museums are unable to d i r e c t l y v e r b a l i z e f e e l i n g s and ideas about t h e i r experience. So i n order to e l i c i t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s necessary to use standardized p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures such as the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . Each po i n t of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e (item 12, questionnaire) was given a value from one to ni n e . Scales marked (.-) were given a negative score; s c a l e s marked (+) were given a p o s i t i v e score; the (+) and (-) markings were omitted from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n the survey. The t o t a l semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l score f o r each respondent was c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g the sum of the negative scores from the sum of the p o s i t i v e scores. The mean score f o r intermediate teachers (n=43) and the mean score f o r secondary teachers (n=28) were then c a l c u l a t e d . The scores of the primary teacher group (n=5) were omitted from t h i s sample due to the small number of primary teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s survey. Eighteen teachers who responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not complete item 12. Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scores f o r I n d i v i d u a l Teachers by Grade L e v e l , N=76 Primary Subgroup (Gr. 1-3) m = 5 p Intermediate Subgroup (Gr. 4-7) m ± = 43 Secondary Subgroup (Gr. 8-12) n = 28 S + 8 + 13 + 6 + 9 + 9 + 11 + 14 + 16 + 8 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 11 + 11 + 15 + 7 + 28 + 14 + 3 + 6 - 1 + 2 + 1 + 7 + 10 + 22 + 5 + 5 + 9 + 16 + 21 + 8 + 9 + 11 + 8 + 9 + 5 + 26 + 13 + 19 + 5 + 28 + 7 + 30 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 12 + 10 + 12 + 8 + 24 + 10 + 21 + 4 + 19 + 11 + 23 + 5 + 5 + 16 + 10 + 12 + 5 + 17 + 12 + 16 + 20 + 9 + 9 + 6 + 15 + 16 + 13 + 9 - 3 T o t a l subgroup score 33 524 278 subgroup mean t o t a l sub-group score n m = P 33 5 6.6 m. 524 43 = 12.19 m = s 278 28 = 9.93 mean score f o r a l l teachers t o t a l scores _ 835 N " 7 6 = 9.57 Note: n i l response f o r item 12 = 18 (19%) DO NOT COPY LEAVES 75-96a Copyright © 1980 Vancouver School Board No p o r t i o n of t h i s book may be reproduced i n any form or by any means without permission i n w r i t i n g . 76 T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e I n t r o d u c t i o n i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s i i E x h i b i t s 1 F o r T e a c h e r s 2 L i g h t a n d C o l o u r 3 L i g h t - R e f l e c t i o n a n d R e f r a c t i o n 15 L i g h t - I m a g e s 21 I l l u s i o n s 36 G l o s s a r y o f C o l o u r T e r m i n o l o g y a n d D e f i n i t i o n s 39 B r i e f n o t e s c o n c e r n i n g c h e m i s t s / p h y s i c i s t s d e a l i n g w i t h c o l o u r e x p e r i m e n t s 43 77 LIGHT AND ILLUSION I n t r o d u c t i o n A r t and Science both provide us with t o o l s that extend the boundaries of our experience, h e l p i n g us to perc e i v e , understand and manipulate the world we l i v e i n . O p t i c a l devices such as the microscope and the telescope become an extension of our eyes. The periscope enables us to see around corners. L a s e r s , invented and used by s c i e n t i s t s , are a l s o used by a r t i s t s to produce three-dimensional images c a l l e d holograms. I l l u s i o n s are used by s c i e n t i s t s to i l l u s t r a t e l i m i t a t i o n s of observation and by a r t i s t s to create dramatic e f f e c t s . In " Light and I l l u s i o n " an attempt has been made to provide teachers and students with an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y experience. A r t and science are not r e a l l y d i s t i n c t but merely r e f l e c t i o n s of how humans with d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s perceive the world. Cary Chien N e i l Prinsen Betty Wellburn John Worobec Jo hn Za pp av i g na David Thompson K i l l a r n e y VSB A r t Coordinator VSB Consultant Mount Pleasant i - 3 - 79 A. LIGHT AND COLOUR The science of colour p e r c e p t i o n i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . How the eye c o l l e c t s c o l o u r i n f o r m a t i o n i s now known, but how the b r a i n processes i t i s a matter of con t r o v e r s y . Much of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d has come from a r t i s t s , to whom the knowledge i s of supreme importance. General Goal: The student w i l l develop some understanding of the nature and the pr o p e r t i e s of l i g h t and c o l o u r . Notes on Colour COLOUR: The study of c o l o u r f a l l s w i t h i n the f i e l d s o f p h y s i c s , p h y s i o l o g y and psychology. Physics s t u d i e s the r a d i a n t energy of l i g h t which s t i m u l a t e s v i s i o n and i n general the o b j e c t i v e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the stimulus s i t u a t i o n . A s p e c i a l branch i s the study of pigments and dyes i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r colour producing p r o p e r t i e s . Physiology s t u d i e s the e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the nerves and i n general the processes which take place i n the eye and b r a i n when a stimulus s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n an experience of c o l o u r . Psychology s t u d i e s the awareness of colour as an element of v i s u a l experience. D i f f e r e n t concepts of c o l o u r are based i n these f i e l d s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the subject have o f t e n been complicated by f a i l u r e to keep them d i s t i n c t . A l l three have a bearing on the problems of colour i n r e l a t i o n to a r t . a. For the purposes of teac h i n g young people about c o l o u r we could p o i n t out such p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches as: 1. Warm and cool c o l o u r s . 2. Advancing and receding c o l o u r s . 3. Symbolic use of c o l o u r . 4. Expressive c o l o u r s . b. In the p h y s i c a l approach, l e s s o n s or e x e r c i s e s c o u l d be used that deal w i t h : 1. The prism. (White l i g h t and the spectrum). 2. The Primary, Secondary, T e r t i a r y and Complementary c o l o u r s . 3. Mixing of c o l o u r s . 4. P o i n t i l l i s t s and M o s a i c i s t s . 5. Texture or d i f f u s i o n of l i g h t e.g. (mat, t r a n s l u c e n t , g l o s s y , transparent c o l o u r s ) . - A -The psychophysical approach could i n c l u d e : 79a Organs of v i s i o n , b r a i n processes, o p t i c a l pathways, c o l o u r - v i s i o n t h e o r i e s ; e.g. c o n t r a s t of colours i n r e l a t i o n to other c o l o u r s , hue, s a t u r a t i o n , b r i g h t n e s s , j u x t a p o s i t i o n , s p a t i a l f a c t o r s , l o c a l or n a t u r a l c o l o u r . Included i n t h i s u n i t are some ideas f o r lessons from the aforementioned approaches. These are s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n s which can be adapted f o r d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s . Colour i s an extremely important A r t Element, and i f p o s s i b l e , the t h e o r i e s presented should be reviewed i n each year of the c h i l d ' s a r t education. A. 1. Colour W a l l Red, blue and green l i g h t s p r o j e c t coloured shadows of the viewer against a white w a l l . Most of our experience of mixing colours comes from mixing p a i n t or food c o l o u r i n g . Pigments assume t h e i r colours because of a b s o r p t i o n ; they s u b t r a c t from the white l i g h t s t r i k i n g them and r e f l e c t only c e r t a i n c o l o u r s . When two pigments are mixed, two s u b t r a c t i o n s take place. Less l i g h t and fewer c o l o u r s are r e f l e c t e d . The primary c o l o u r s f o r p a i n t are red, blue and yellow. Green can be produced by adding blue p i g -ments to y e l l o w pigments - This combination w i l l s u b t r a c t a l l c o l o u r s from w h i t e l i g h t except green which i s r e f l e c t e d . The mixing of pigments or dyes i s a com- • p l i c a t e d matter and t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s s i m p l i f i e d . Colours can a l s o be made by mixing l i g h t , whose primary c o l o u r s are red, blue and green. Our eyes are s e n s i t i v e to these three b a s i c c o l o u r s ; when we see other c o l o u r s we are Mixing L i g h t responding to a mixture of these. Mixing l i g h t i s d i f f e r e n t from mixing p a i n t . In ^ t h i s case, the c o n t r i b u t i o n s add equal parts of red plu s green to make y e l l o w . This k i n d of c o l o u r mixing takes place on the screen of a c o l o u r t e l e v i s i o n , which when i l l u m i n a t e d i s a mosaic of dots or s t r i p e s i n the primary c o l o u r s of red, blue and green. Learning Outcome: The student may understand the a d d i t i v e p r i n c i p l e of mixing c o l o u r . For f o l l o w - u p : - 5 - 80 1 . An Experiment w i t h rainbow c o l o u r s . Here i s an experiment which shows 'white' l i g h t . You w i l l see how s i x d i f f e r e n t c o l o u rs blend i n t o one colour when they are moving at a great speed. You w i l l need: a c i r c l e of white cardboard about the s i z e of a small saucer, two pieces of s t r i n g about one metre long, b r i g h t crayons i n the s i x c o l o u r s of the rainbow and a sharp p e n c i l . Step 1: Step 2: Draw s i x l i n e s on one side of the c i r c l e so that you have s i x equal s e c t i o n s . Colour each s e c t i o n w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c o l our crayon. C a r e f u l l y p r i c k two holes i n the centre of the c i r c l e w i t h a p e n c i l . Thread a d i f f e r e n t s t r i n g through each h o l e . Knot the two s t r i n g s together at the ends. Step 3: T w i r l the c i r c l e u n t i l the s t r i n g s are t i g h t l y t w i s t e d P u l l the s t r i n g s outwards, then draw them inwards to make the c i r c l e s p i n . - 6 - 80a 2. Colours of Objects i n Coloured L i g h t . You w i l l need: f l a s h l i g h t ; piece of green, red, or blue cellophane; tape; v a r i e t y of c o l o u r f u l things, such as books, marbles, and coloured paper. 1. Tape the cellophane over the end of the f l a s h l i g h t as p i c t u r e d . 2. In a dark room, shine the f l a s h l i g h t on each object. 3. Have your partner write down what colours he/she sees when each object i s il l u m i n a t e d . 4. Then have the people w r i t e down what colours they think the objects would be i n white l i g h t . 5. Take the cellophane o f f the f l a s h l i g h t . 6 . Shine the f l a s h l i g h t on the objects. Object Colour Under Green Light Colour Under Red Light Colour Under Blue L i g h t Colour Under White Light - 7 -81 .3. Make Your Own Prism i l l need: s m a l l , f l a t m i r r o r ; of water; white piece of paper.. Place the m i r r o r i n the g l a s s of water as p i c t u r e d . Put the gl a s s i n the s u n l i g h t so that the m i r r o r faces the sun. Put the paper a t a s l a n t i n f r o n t of the g l a s s . Move the paper u n t i l you can see the colours c l e a r l y . 1. What colours do you see? 2. Why can you see them? Tap the glass l i g h t l y . 3. What happens to the colours? Why? 4. Use prisms: a) to break white l i g h t i n t o i t s colours and b) to make white l i g h t from the spectrum created by the f i r s t pr i sm. 5. Make your own colour wall using various means: e.g. f l a s h l i g h t s and large onion skin paper. 6. Discuss the ad d i t i v e p r i n c i p a l of mixing colour l i g h t . 7. Try to explain how the colour i s mixed on the screen of a colour t e l e v i s i o n . A.2 Mixing Primary Pigments The three primary pigment colours are red, yellow and blue. The mixtures of any two of these hues forms a secondary c o l o u r . The secondary colours are orange, green and v i o l e t . Mixing Pigments On the colour wheel, when a primary colour (e.g. red) i s mixed with i t s adjacent secondary colour (e.g. orange), a t e r t i a r y colour i s formed (e.g. red-orange). Colour can have hue, satu r a t i o n and l i g h t n e s s . Hue i s the degree of co l o u r , i t i s r e a l l y another word f or co l o u r . Saturation i s the amount of colour, i . e . i t s i n t e n s i t y , or brightness or du l l n e s s . Lightness or darkness of colour i s c a l l e d i t s value; i . e . t i n t s and shades. COLOUR RELATIONSHIPS — SUB TRACTIVE Subtractive: Process of taking away: of PIGMENT COLOUR: where combination of colour produces black. The Subtractive PRIMARY COLOURS are RED/YELLOW/BLUE. RED YELLOW BLUE - 9 -82 The PRIMARY COLOURS CAN NOT BE MIXED. Other c o l o u r s can be mixed from the primary c o l o u r s i . e . the SECONDARY COLOURS. YELLOW ORANGE YELLOW GREEN VIOLET Learning Outcomes: The student may understand the s u b t r a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of mixing c o l o u r pigments. The student should r e a l i z e that there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a d d i t i v e and s u b t r a c t i v e colour mixing p r i n c i p l e s . For Follow-up: - 1 0 -82a 1 . Mixing Colour Pigments Colours can be mixed to create s p e c i f i c new c o l o u r s . Suggested a r t a c t i v i t i e s : - This l e s s o n i s not meant to be simply mixing of c o l o u r s to get other c o l o u r s . I t should be done c a r e f u l l y and p r e c i s e l y . I t i s here the mixing of the primary colours - r e d , ye l l o w , blue - are intr o d u c e d , e.g. - "What c o l o u r w i l l we get when we mix yellow and red?" - "What co l o u r w i l l we get when we mix yellow and blue?" - "What c o l o u r w i l l we get when we mixed blue and red?" - Display a colour c h a r t of the primary and secondary colours (colour wheel). Have i t c o n t a i n a t r i a n g l e forming the primary c o l o u r s and an i n v e r t e d t r i a n g l e forming the secondary c o l o u r s . Note that the "warmer" tones are on one side of the wheel, i . e . red, y e l l o w , and the " c o o l e r " tones are on the. other s i d e . See f i g u r e 1 . FIGURE 1. WARM COOL Have an overhead p r o j e c t o r , transparencies and o v e r l a y s that show the mixture of primary c o l o u r s producing secondary c o l o u r s . Three p e t r i dishes and l i q u i d food c o l o u r i n g w i t h eye droppers can be used. Make a math game w i t h equations f o r the_ c h i l d r e n t o s o l v e . Y = Yellow, B = Blue, R = Red, G = Green, 0 = Orange, P = Purple. Put these equations on the chalkboard and have c h i l d r e n solve them: Y + R 0 - R B + Y Y + ? ? ? 1 0 - I I -- Have c l a s s p a i n t a p i c t u r e using only the primary c o l o u r s plus b l a c k and white. The c i r c u s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y good theme f o r t h i s . - Use o i l p a s t e l s - encourage the c h i l d r e n t o draw strands of the primary c o l o u r s , purposely o v e r l a p p i n g them, so that the r e s u l t i n g secondary colour appears between the c o l o u r s . - P r i n t s that could be used f o r t h i s concept: " M i l e . V i o t t e " - by Redon "Women i n a Garden" - by Monet "Rebus" - by Robert Rauschenberg "Madam Cezanne i n a Red Ch a i r " and "The L i t t l e Bridge" -by Paul Cezanne - F i l m s t r i p : "The Yellow B a l l o o n " . - Books: " H a i l s t o n e s and H a l i b u t Bones" and "The Adventures of Three Colours"* 2. Suggested a r t a c t i v i t i e s : - Discuss the importance of colour i n e v e r y t h i n g we do - i n nature, i n food, i n c l o t h i n g , i n homes, even i n the way we f e e l . ^ - The concept of secondary and t e r t i a r y c o l o u r s should be int r o d u c e d - a f u l l c o l our wheel such as "Grumbacher 1s Colour Compass" could be d i s p l a y e d . - Introduce the science concept: A l l c o l o u r s i n l i g h t mixed together make white and the absence of c o l o u r makes bla c k . Use a prism and a l i g h t source to demonstrate c o l o u r formation. Remember: Primary colours i n l i g h t d i f f e r from primary colours i n pigment, ( p a i n t s or dyes). - Do vocabulary e x e r c i s e s u s i n g a l l c o l o u r s , i . e . y e l l o w , amber, topaz, e t c . - Have c l a s s c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own colour wheel on a b u l l e t i n board. Use c o l o u r s that are as pure as p o s s i b l e . Have c h i l d r e n place the c o r r e c t colour i n i t s area of the c o l o u r wheel. - Use p r i n t s to study t h i s concept. - 12 -- Suggested a r t reproductions. "Apples and Oranges" - by Cezanne "Composition 1963" - by Miro "Tamaracks" - by Tom Thompson "The Elements" - by J.E.H. Mac Donald "Beamsville" - Frank Johnson "Entrance to H a l i f a x Harbour" - by A.Y. Jackson 3. Examine a colour photograph i n a magazine w i t h a magnifying g l a s s to see the i n d i v i d u a l coloured dots. 4. Study "Animal Camouflage" by reading; making notes and models. 5. Design an experiment to t e s t the comparative v i s i b i l i t y of v a r i o u s car c o l o u r s . A.3 L i q u i d C r y s t a l s The p a r t i c i p a n t creates coloured patterns by touching l i q u i d c r y s t a l sheets. Most people are f a m i l i a r w i t h l i q u i d c r y s t a l s i n the form of mood r i n g s , temperature s t r i p s and other commercial products. Thousands of organic molecules have a l i q u i d c r y s t a l phase, which i s intermediate between s o l i d c r y s t a l s and o r d i n a r y l i q u i d s . L i q u i d c r y s t a l molecules do not have f i x e d p o s i t i o n s , so the m a t e r i a l can flow l i k e a l i q u i d . But the fo r c e s between the molecules are s u f f i c i e n t to maintain c e r t a i n alignments between them. Some types of l i q u i d c r y s t a l molecules a l l p o i n t i n one d i r e c t i o n ; the molecules of other kinds group themselves i n l a y e r s . In one type, c a l l e d c h o l e s t e r i c ( a f t e r c h o l e s t e r o l ) r o d - l i k e molecules are arranged i n l a y e r s , w i t h the rods i n each l a y e r p o i n t i n g i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n , l i k e an array of s p i r a l s t a i r c a s e s . Because the f o r c e s between l i q u i d c r y s t a l molecules are weak, the o r i e n t a t i o n s are e a s i l y m o d i f i e d by heat, pressure, and e l e c t r i c and magnetic f i e l d s , changing the c o l o u r and other p r o p e r t i e s of the l i q u i d c r y s t a l . L i q u i d c r y s t a l s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , i d e a l candidates f o r sensors and are the bases of such items as the fever headband on s a l e i n drug s t o r e s . They are a l s o used f o r d i s p l a y s i n pocket c a l c u l a t o r s , because i t takes very l i t t l e energy to m a i n t a i n the colour change, and so b a t t e r i e s l a s t longer. Learning outcome: The student should observe the c o l o u r of l i q u i d c r y s t a l s change w i t h temperature change. For follow-up: 1. C o l l e c t p i c t u r e s and o b j e c t s which demonstrate the use of l i q u i d c r y s t a l s . Set-up a d i s p l a y i n your classroom. 2. Find the meaning of the f o l l o w i n g words: molecule, c r y s t a l , property and sensor. - 13 -84 A.4 L i g h t i n g Three types of s t r e e t lamps (sodium vapour, mercury vapour and incandescent) produce very d i f f e r e n t c olour e f f e c t s . In today's energy-conscious world, i t seems s e n s i b l e ' t o use the most e f f i c i e n t l i g h t i n g system a v a i l a b l e to l i g h t our c i t i e s . Sodium lamps produce c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i g h t per k i l o w a t t than mercury lamps, which i n turn are more e f f i c i e n t than incandescent lamps, which give o f f and waste a l o t of heat r a d i a t i o n . But there are a l s o a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Incandescent lamps produce l i g h t of a l l wavelengths, and t h e i r l i g h t i s warm and n a t u r a l . At the other extreme, low-pressure sodium lamps emit a pure yellow c o l o u r . Coloured s u r f a c e s that happen to absorb t h i s wavelength look b l a c k . High pressure sodium lamps emit some red l i g h t . Mercury lamps emit mainly yellow-green, green, and blue l i g h t . Learning Outcome: The student should observe the co l o u r of v a r i o u s o b j e c t s that w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the source of the l i g h t . For Follow-up: 1. A c t i v i t y " S t r e e t L i g h t s " Lightness and darkness at v a r i o u s l e v e l s may i n f l u e n c e how colours are seen. Suggested a r t a c t i v i t i e s : - D i s p l a y a r t p r i n t s and photographs showing v a r y i n g degrees of l i g h t and darkness. I f p o s s i b l e have two p i c t u r e s of the same scene - one at n i g h t and one i n d a y l i g h t . - Discuss sources of l i g h t , e.g. sun, moon, candle, neon, s t r e e t l i g h t s , f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t s and t h e i r a f f e c t on c o l o u r s . - Use s e v e r a l coloured scarves - some opaque and some transparent -to drape over o b j e c t s to show the e f f e c t of f i l t e r i n g l i g h t . - E x h i b i t p r i n t s showing d i f f e r e n t times of day and of n i g h t . - Read "Hide and Seek Fog" by T r e s s e t t . - Discuss the a f f e c t s of fog on c o l o u r s i n comparison w i t h c l e a r , sunny day. - Create a drawing, a p a i n t i n g , or a c o l l a g e suggesting a p a r t i c u l a r time of day or o b j e c t s seen i n a s p e c i f i c k i n d of dim l i g h t . - Suggested p r i n t s : "Rockets and Blue L i g h t s " - by Turner "Dancing C l a s s " - by Degas "Boats at A r g e n t e u i l " - by Monet LEARNING OUTCOME: P u p i l s w i l l demonstrate t h e i r awareness of the concept by t h e i r i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n (with s p e c i a l focus .on the accuracy of h i s v e r b a l responses). Vocabulary: c l e a r , sunny, m i s t y , foggy, dim, l i g h t , t ransparent, opaque. The colours of some objects d i f f e r i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of white l i g h t . You w i l l need: things w i t h a v a r i e t y of c o l o u r s , such as c l o t h e s and books; incandescent lamp; f l u o r s c e n t lamp; s u n l i g h t . Look at each object under each k i n d of l i g h t . 1. Is each c o l o u r d i f f e r e n t under each k i n d of white l i g h t ? If so, why? 2. How i s each colour d i f f e r e n t ? 85 - 15 -B. LIGHT - REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Things are not always what and where they appear to be. You may have great d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g your way out of a maze of m i r r o r s a t a c a r n i v a l . A c o i n dropped i n a swimming pool may not be l o c a t e d e x a c t l y where you t h i n k i t i s . A puddle may appear to e x i s t at some d i s t a n c e down a p e r f e c t l y dry highway on a hot summer day. These are examples of r e f l e c t i o n and r e f r a c t i o n . There are many other examples of r e f l e c t i o n and r e f r a c t i o n i n the e x h i b i t s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . General Goal: the student w i l l experience the nature of r e f l e c t i v e and r e f r a c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of l i g h t . B . 1 Periscope A l a r g e periscope for over-the-shou v i e w i n g . This periscope has two f l a t m i r r o r s angled at 45 degrees to d i r e c t the l i g h t back i n t o the viewer's eyes. I t i s d i f f e r e n t from the toy periscope you may have seen, because i t a l s o has a t r a n s l u c e n t screen mounted between the m i r r o r s , and a l e n s that focuses an image on the screen. This makes the instrument a p e r i s c o p i c "camera". Focusing i s accomplished by t u r n i n g the submarine-style handlegrips. V i s i t o r s should t r y to understand why the screen must be moved up and down to focus on a nearer o b j e c t . Learning Outcomes: - the student should understand that the periscope extends t h e i r v i s i o n by the use of r e l e c t i o n and r e f r a c t i o n of l i g h t . - the student should experience f o c u s i n g an image on a screen. l d e r ft • tf or For Follow-up: - 16 -85a 2. Use your periscope to extend your v i s i o n . e.g. look around corners and over the top of counters. B.2 Walk-in Kaleidoscope A w a l k - i n k a l e i d o s c o p e , w i t h l a r g e m i r r o r s arranged i n an e q u i l a t e r a l t r i a n g l e , r e f l e c t s an i n f i n i t y of images. The e f f e c t i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from that seen i n a toy ka l e i d o s c o p e , which has a p a i r of angled m i r r o r s that p«>duce a symmetric s i x - s i d e d p a t t e r n . Standing i n s i d e the ka l e i d o s c o p e , the v i s i t o r i s surrounded by d u p l i c a t e s of himself standing i n s i d e t r i a n g u l a r boxes and f a c i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s (see f i g . ) . WALK-IN KALEIDOSCOPE Learning Outcome: The student should experience and/or understand the formation of m u l t i p l e images through the r e f l e c t i o n of l i g h t i n three m i r r o r s . - 17 - 86 For follow-up: 1 . Make a Kaleidoscope. B e a u t i f u l m u l t i p l e images can be obtained from a kaleidoscope. To make one, tape t o -gether three long r e c t a n g l u l a r m i r r o r s , a l l of the same s i z e , to form a t r i a n g l e w i t h the r e f l e c t i n g s u r faces on the i n s i d e . Metal camp m i r r o r s , cut w i t h t i n shears or a hacksaw, can a l s o be used. S p r i n k l e tiny-p i e c e s of coloured paper on a pane of g l a s s set on two blocks of wood. Set the kaleidoscope over the paper b i t s on the g l a s s . S i x - s i d e d p a t t e r n s w i l l be seen. Tap the glass or t u r n the kaleidoscope to change the p a t t e r n shape and colour combinations. Repeat the experiment, u s i n g coloured beads, b i t s of coloured g l a s s , coloured yarn, or t i n y pieces of coloured r i b b o n . 2. Try to c r e a t e other arrangements of m i r r o r s that w i l l r e s u l t i n m u l t i p l e images. B.3 Star T r a c i n g The v i s i t o r t r i e s to t r a c e the o u t l i n e of a s t a r viewed i n a m i r r o r . The game t e s t s a d a p t a t i o n to c o n t r a d i c t o r y sense i n p u t s . The v i s u a l i n p u t s are reversed i n space and c o n f l i c t i n a most f r u s t r a t i n g way w i t h the sensations communicated by muscles i n the'hand and arm. The d i s p l a y reminds us that there are more than the f i v e t r a d i t i o n a l senses of s i g h t , h e a r i n g , t a s t e , s m e l l and touch. Others i n c l u d e the sense of p o s i t i o n and movement used here. Learning Outcome: The student, experiences how e a s i l y the b r a i n can be f o o l e d by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t . For follow-up: 1. Images i n m i r r o r s are reversed. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s w r i t e your name on a piece of paper and hold the paper up to a m i r r o r . Is the image reversed or i s your b r a i n confused? Discuss t h i s w i t h your classmates. 2. Stand f a c e t o face w i t h a classmate. One student should play the p a r t of the m i r r o r , the other should move t h e i r hands or f e e t . 3. Make a drawing or a p a i n t i n g which.includes a r e f l e c t i o n . - 18 -86a B.4 T i l i n g s Coloured t i l e s and a m i r r o r e d p l a y i n g surface. The symmetry of t i l i n g p a t t e r n s and the pleasure of seeing d i f f e r e n t shapes f i t t e d n e a t l y together have s t i m u l a t e d a r t i s t s and a r c h i t e c t s to i n c l u d e t i l i n g s i n t h e i r designs. Mathematicians use t i l i n g p a t t e r n s to explore geometric puz z l e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s e x h i b i t can p l a y many d i f f e r e n t games with the t i l e s , or simply t r y to create a t t r a c t i v e patterns. The t i l e s can be combined to form p l e a s i n g geometric shapes, to examine p r i n c i p l e s of geometry or to d e p i c t animals, p l a n t s and even faces. Learning Outcome: The student should create a symmetrical p a t t e r n using t i l e s and m i r r o r s . For Follow-up: 1. Create a s i m i l a r l i g h t t a b l e i n your own classroom using an overhead p r o j e c t o r and two m i r r o r s . B. 5 F r e s n e l Lens In t h i s e x h i b i t F r e s n e l lenses are mounted f o r see-through viewing, as are samples of headl i g h t lenses and other a p p l i c a t i o n s . The curved s u r f a c e of any le n s does the work, because that i s where the l i g h t i s bent from i t s o r i g i n a l path. A F r e s n e l (pronounced F r e n - e l l ) l e n s i s a c l e v e r way of keeping the surfaces and g e t t i n g r i d of most of the i n s i d e . In the F r e s n e l c o n s t r u c t i o n , the le n s i s s l i c e d i n t o c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s and each r i n g i s c o l l a p s e d to be as t h i n as f e a s i b l e (see f i g . ) The r e s u l t i n g l ens works w e l l f o r rays t r a v e l l i n g p a r a l l e l to the a x i s of the l e n s , but, of course, rays coming i n a t an angle w i l l "see" the cut s u r f a c e s , producing a de-graded image. F r e s n e l l e n s e s are used where l i g h t n e s s , space and cost are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s are automobile h e a d l i g h t lenses and the large aperture l e n s i n overhead p r o j e c t o r s or s p o t l i g h t s . Learning Outcome: the student should understand how the th i c k n e s s and weight of a lens can be reduced by the F r e s n e l P r i n c i p l e . - 19 - 87 B.6 You And Me Two people s i t on opposite s i d e s of a one-way m i r r o r . They adjust the l i g h t l e v e l so both see a composit face: h a l f t h e i r s and h a l f t h e i r p a r t n e r ' s . That i s what people c a l l a one-way m i r r o r — except that i t works both ways. The mi r r o r i s s i l v e r e d so h a l f the l i g h t that s t r i k e s i t passes through and h a l f i s r e f l e c t e d . If the l i g h t l e v e l i s b r i g h t on one s i d e the r e f l e c t i o n swamps the r e l a t i v e l y weak t r a n s m i t t e d image. On the dim side the reverse occurs; the b r i g h t s i d e i s seen c l e a r l y and the r e f l e c t i o n i s not n o t i c e a b l e . (A spy su s p e c t i n g he i s being observed through such a one-way mirror could t r y to spot h i s observers by c a r e f u l l y darkening the room before l o o k i n g i n t o the m i r r o r . ) When the l i g h t l e v e l s are e q u a l , the r e f l e c t e d and t r a n s m i t t e d images are equal i n i n t e n s i t y and the viewer has the d i s c o n c e r t i n g sense of h i s own f e a t u r e merging with someone e l s e ' s . Learning outcome: The student should understand t h a t i f the l i g h t l e v e l i s b r i g h t on one s i d e and dim on the other, then the student on the b r i g h t s i d e w i l l see h i s own r e f l e c t i o n and the student on the dim s i d e w i l l see the other person through the m i r r o r . B.7 Real Image A quarter seems to be there f o r the t a k i n g , but i t ' s j u s t a convincing i l l u s i o n . A p a i r of concave m i r r o r s — one with a hole i n i t — form the image of an a c t u a l q u a r t e r . They a c t l i k e a l e n s , sending the l i g h t rays from each part of the quarter to a matching spot i n the c i r c u l a r opening. When a l l the rays are seen together, i t i s as i f there were a second quarter hanging i n the a i r . This i s a s t r i k i n g example of s o - c a l l e d r e a l image. The a c t u a l q u a r t e r , l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y beneath the image, can be seen only w i t h e f f o r t . Learning outcome: The student should understand the d i f f e r e n c e between a r e a l image and a r e a l o b j e c t by d i r e c t experience. REAL IMAGE - .20 -87a B.8 Anamorphic A r t Another k i n d of d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e , which can be viewed properly only In a c y l i n d r i c a l m i r r o r . These p i c t u r e s can only be viewed with a s p e c i a l m i r r o r . The m i r r o r converts a co-ordinate transformation p a i n s t a k i n g l y a p p l i e d by the a r t i s t , i n t o a r e c o g n i z a b l e image. This d i s p l a y i s an example of anamorphic (Greek ana: again and morphe: form) a r t , a s t y l e that was popular i n Europe and the O r i e n t i n the 17th and 18th c e n t u r i e s . Sometimes the s t y l e was used to hide messages of p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t , but mostly the p i c t u r e s were made simply f o r the wonder of the e f f e c t . Learning outcome: The student should experience how the s p e c i a l m i r r o r a f f e c t s a co-ordinate t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p a i n s t a k i n g l y a p p l i e d by an a r t i s t . For f o l l o w - u p : Students could t r y to produce some simple anamorphic a r t . A m i r r o r shaped l i k e a cone could be used i n s t e a d of a c y l i n d r i c a l m i r r o r . B.9 Curved M i r r o r s Curved m i r r o r s produce e f f e c t s they curve. A concave m i r r o r forms convex m i r r o r forms a s m a l l e r image to B.8 Anamorphic A r t . Learning outcome: Students should understand why curved m i r r o r s d i s t o r t s t h e i r images. For f o l l o w - u p : 1. A d i s p l a y of curved m i r r o r s could be set up i n the classroom. They could i n c l u d e a metal c o f f e e pot, shaving m i r r o r , r e a r -view m i r r o r and o t h e r s . determined by the d i r e c t i o n i n which a l a r g e r image of an o b j e c t , w h i l e a of an object. The e f f e c t i s opposite 2. Look up the words convex and concave. - 21 -88 B. 10 Transparent, Translucent and Opaque When a r t i s t s use paints f o r p a i n t i n g or g l a z e s f o r ceramics, they pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to t r a n s p a r e n t , t r a n s l u c e n t and opaque techniques and m a t e r i a l s . Learning outcome: The student should understand that a r t i s t s use the p r i n c i p l e s of t r a n s p a r e n t , t r a n s l u c e n t and opaque l i g h t i n t h e i r work. C. LIGHT-IMAGES Images can be r e a l or v i r t u a l . An image i s r e a l when l i g h t rays a c t u a l l y do meet to reproduce the o b j e c t , w h i l e an image i s v i r t u a l when l i g h t rays do not pass through i t . I n t e r e s t i n g images are produced with l a s e r l i g h t and with p o l a r i z e d l i g h t . The images viewed through a zoetrope g i v e the i l l u s i o n of movement. General Goal: • The student w i l l understand that p a i n t i n g , photography and other v i s u a l a r t s are concerned with the m a n i p u l a t i o n of l i g h t . C.1 L a s e r s A low-power l a s e r r e f l e c t e d by two s p i n n i n g m i r r o r s t r a c e s f i g u r e s on a screen. Laser l i g h t i s e x c e p t i o n a l f o r two reasons: i t s wave-length i s very p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d ( a l l the waves are v i b r a t i n g at the same r a t e ) , and the i n d i v i d u a l waves i n a burst of l a s e r l i g h t are t i g h t l y i n phase with each other (when one wave goes up, they a l l go up). This i s a consequence of how the l i g h t i s produced. The l a s i n g atoms are "pumped" i n t o an e x c i t e d s t a t e by a b u r s t - o f o r d i n a r y l i g h t . Then they r e t u r n to t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e , e m i t t i n g l i g h t as they go. They do so by " s t i m u l a t e d emission", which means th a t each atom i s t r i g g e r e d to e m i t . l i g h t by the l i g h t of another atom. The chain r e a c t i o n i s l i k e a row of f a l l i n g dominoes. Each atom " f a l l s " the same d i s t a n c e , so a l l the l i g h t has the same wavelength. Because each wave i s t r i g g e r e d by another, a l l the waves are i n phase. P a r t i a l l y - s i l v e r e d m i r r o r s a t e i t h e r end of the l a s e r chamber i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t by d i r e c t i n g the l i g h t back and f o r t h w h i l e l e t t i n g a l i t t l e of i t escape as the l a s e r beam. "Laser" i s ah acronym sta n d i n g f o r L i g h t A m p l i f i c a t i o n by Stimulated Emission of R a d i a t i o n . 88a Learning Outcome: - The student should experience an enjoyable f u n c t i o n of the l a s e r . - The more advanced student should understand i n general terms how a l a s e r f u n c t i o n s . For follow-up: Students could do l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g the use of l a s e r s . A number of a r t i c l e s have r e c e n t l y appeared i n sc i e n c e magazines. C.2 Polaviewer Experiments w i t h p o l a r i z e d l i g h t . Light waves v i b r a t e sideways. To be more p r e c i s e , l i g h t propagates as ele c t r o m a g n e t i c waves o s c i l l a t i n g i n planes which are at r i g h t angles to the d i r e c t i o n of propagation. This s t i l l makes many d i f f e r e n t planes of o s c i l l a t i o n p o s s i b l e (see f i g . ) . A beam of l i g h t p o i nted at the c e i l i n g has some waves v i b r a t i n g n o r t h to south, some east to west, and so on. P o l a r i z e d l i g h t can be generated by a m a t e r i a l that t r a n s m i t s only l i g h t v i b r a t i n g i n one p a r t i c u l a r plane. The s u r f a c e of the l i g h t table i n the e x h i b i t i s covered w i t h such a p o l a r i z i n g axes p a r a l l e l to .the a x i s of the f i l m on the t a b l e , they appear t r a n s -parent. When they are r o t a t e d so t h e i r a x i s are at r i g h t angles to the t a b l e ' s , they appear bl a c k , because a l l the remaining l i g h t i s being f i l t e r e d out. C e r t a i n k i n d s of m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c s under s t r e s s , change The p o l a r i z a t i o n of l i g h t p a s s ing through them. I f a clothespeg i s viewed between crossed p o l a r o i d s , s t r e s s l i n e s and co l o u r p a t t e r n s appear when i t i s opened. Learning Outcome: The student should understand that p o l a r i z e d l i g h t can be generated by a m a t e r i a l t h a t t r a n s m i t s o n l y l i g h t v i b r a t i n g on one p a r t i c u l a r plane. U N P O L A R I Z E D L I G H T : A L L P L A N E S POLAVIEWER For follow-up: - 23 -89 1. P o l a r i z e d L i g h t A r t P o l a r i z e d P o l a r i z e d T r a n s p a r e n t T a p e D e s i g n o n T r a n s p a r e n t M a t e r i a l - U s i n g t r a n s p a r e n t t a p e m a k e a d e s i g n u s i n g d i f f e r e n t l a y e r s o n a p i e c e o f t r a n s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . - P u t t h i s d e s i g n o v e r a p o l a r i z e d g l a s s a n d l o o k t h r o u g h y o u r o t h e r p o l a r i z e d g l a s s a t y o u r d e s i g n . - Why d o t h e c o l o u r s a p p e a r a n d w h y d o t h e c o l o u r s c h a n g e ? - 24 -89a C.3 HOLOGRAMS Four holograms, i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r three-dimensional c h a r a c t e r and t h e i r a b i l i t y to reproduce various o p t i c a l e f f e c t s : - A scene i n c l u d i n g a moire screen, which superimposes contour l i n e s on a model. - A double exposure of some ping pong b a l l s , w i t h and without a weight on top. The i n t e r f e r e n c e causes s t r a i n contours to stand out. - A s t o p - a c t i o n moving hologram (see C.4.). - A hologram r e f l e c t e d i n a m i r r o r . A t y p i c a l hologram image i s made by s h i n i n g a l i g h t on a f i l m covered w i t h a f i n e p a t t e r n of l i n e s , smudges and blobs. The seemingly random p a t t e r n i s r e a l l y a very c l e v e r code that records every d e t a i l of the o r i g i n a l scene. I t i s made by s p l i t t i n g a beam of l a s e r l i g h t and r e -f l e c t i n g h a l f of i t o f f the scene to be photographed. The r e f l e c t e d beam and the undisturbed beam are then brought together, and the r e s u l t i n g i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s recorded on the f i l m . When a hologram i s i l l u m i n a t e d w i t h another l a s e r beam (or even, i n some cases, with a beam of white l i g h t ) , i t s c a t t e r s the beam to produce images of the o r i g i n a l scene. The success of the hologram depends on the p r e c i s e i n t e r f e r e n c e between the s c a t t e r e d beam and the undisturbed r e f e r e n c e beam. Laser l i g h t i s used because i t i s coherent, and great care i s taken i n s e t t i n g up the l a s e r photo t o avoid v i b r a t i o n or movement. The hologram i s not a simple two-dimensional p r o j e c t i o n . I t i s an approximate r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the a c t u a l wave-front coming from the scene, so i t i s three-dimensional and the viewer can look behind o b j e c t s i n the scene. A c u r i o u s f e a t u r e of the hologram r e c o r d i n g i s that any piece cut out of the hologram can reproduce the e n t i r e scene. Learning Outcome: The student should experience the hologram n o t i n g the three-dimensional r e a l image and the r e s u l t s of moving around the image. - 25 -90 C.4 Moving Hologram Holograms that move as the viewer changes p o s i t i o n . These holograms are s i m i l a r to an o r d i n a r y motion p i c t u r e . A s e r i e s of holograms r e c o r d i n g the a c t i o n i s p r i n t e d on a curved s t r i p of f i l m . As the viewing angle changes, f i r s t one scene and then another appears. Each image i s s t a t i o n a r y as long as i t i s v i s i b l e , so no s h u t t e r s are necessary to block out the view w h i l e the frames are changing (as i s the case with a c o n v e n t i o n a l movie p r o j e c t o r ) . Learning Outcome: The student should understand that the image i n t h i s moving hologram a c t u a l l y moves as the viewer changes p o s i t i o n . - 26 -90a AN INTRODUCTION TO HOLOGRAPHY (EXHIBIT REFERENCE NUMBER: A.7, 8, 9.) W r i t t e n by Rick Gibson, l o c a l holographer f o r the A r t s and Sciences Centre Preview E x h i b i t i o n February 15 - May 19, 1980 The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s o n l y a general o u t l i n e o f holographic theory, w i t h c e r t a i n p o i n t s being s i m p l i f i e d f o r the sake of b r e v i t y . For the reader who wishes a more comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n , there is a reading l i s t at the end of t h i s a r t i c l e . WHAT IS LIGHT? Gen e r a l l y speaking, l i g h t i s energy. One theory, which e x p l a i n s some of the behaviour of l i g h t , i s c a l l e d "The Wave Theory" because i t compares l i g h t w i t h waves. A wave patter n can be symbolized as f o l l o w s : OHM' FIG. tt\ The wave theory i s used to d e s c r i b e the d i f f e r e n c e s between various c o l o u r s . Blue l i g h t ! s s a i d to have a shorter wavelength than green l i g h t which has a sho r t e r wavelength than red l i g h t . / V W \ *<*•' F I G . n The white l i g h t coming from the s u T o r ^ f r o m a l i g h t bulb c o n t a i n s a mixture o f bl u e , green and red l i g h t (known as the v i s i b l e spectrum) and when white l i g h t i s passed through a prism i t i s separated i n t o i t s various wavelengths. - 27 -91 LIGHT RAYS If you were t o s t u d y a shadow t h a t was c a s t by an o b j e c t t h a t was i l l u m i n a t e d by the sun, you w o u l d be s t u d y i n g one example o f how l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s o r r a y s . F I G . L i g h t ; however, can be b e n t around c o r n e r s . One method i s the l i g h t ' r a y by u s i n g a m i r r o r . O b j e c t s a l s o r e f l e c t l i g h t . t o r e f l e c t FIG. Two o t h e r methods o f b e n d i n g l i g h t a r e by r e f r a c t i o n and d i f f r a c t i o n . A l i g h t ray can be r e f r a c t e d by a l l o w i n g i t t o pass t h r o u g h a c l e a r s u b s t a n c e such as g l a s s o r w a t e r . L i g h t rays can be d i f f r a c t e d by p a s s i n g them t h r o u g h t i n y h o l e s ( s m a l l e r than the h o l e s i n n y l o n s t o c k i n g s ) . REFRACTION As a ray o f m onochromatic l i g h t ( o n l y one c o l o r ) e n t e r s and p a s s e s through a p i e c e o f g l a s s i t w i l l be bent as i n F i g . #5. I f t h e p i e c e o f g l a s s i s c u t and shaped i n t o a p r i s m , i t w i l l bend a l i g h t r a y as i n F i g . #6. FIG. #5 FIG. When two prisms are mounted on top of each other as in F i g . £ 7 , tne l i g h t rays are focused in fr o n t of them. The point where the rays meet is c a l l e d the " r e a l image". When the two prisms are mounted as in F i g . r r B , the l i g h t rays seem to be focused behind the prisms. This imaginary f o c a l point i s c a l l e d the " v i r t u a l image" and i t i s seen by looking i n t o tne prisms. FIG. // 7 FIG. H 8 The prisms in F i g . I'l can be p o l i s h e d i n t o a convex lens. This type of lens i s found insi d e a camera and i t i s used to take photographs. The prisms in F i g . £8 can a l s o be p o l i s h e d to make a concave lens. When you look through t h i s lens, o b j e c t s appear to be smaller than t h e i r a c t u a l s i z e . This lens is used as a s e c u r i t y window on apartment doors because ot i t s wide angle ot view. F I G . DIFFRACTION As a ray of monochromatic l i g h t passes through a small hole, some of the l i g h t goes through i t as i f unbent, w h i l e some of the l i g h t seems to be bent to e i t h e r side. - 29 -If a bundle of rays (a beam) is allowed to pass through a group of holes or s l i t s ( c a l l e d a " d i f f r a c t i o n grat ing") much the same happens. The above d i f f r a c t i o n gra t ing can be changed in order to focus the l ight passing through i t . * As before some of the l i gh t passes through undef lected whi le some of the l ight is focused in f ront of the gra t ing and some of the l i gh t appears to be focused behind the g r a t i n g . It we take the above gra t ing and look at it from the front instead . o t . from the s i d e , it appears as fo l lows: Th is type of gra t ing is c a l l e d a "zone p l a t e " . A zone p la te is a l s o a simple hologram. As can be seen by comparing re f rac t ion with d i f f r a c t i o n , a zone plate behaves somewhat l i k e a combination of a concave and a convex lens. - 30 -92a If I want to make a convex lens so that I can take a photograph, I would have to gr ind a piece of g lass into the shape of a lens . If I want to make a zone p la te , or a hologram, I can use a l a s e r . WHAT IS A LASER? Both a l igh t bulb and a laser are sources o f l i g h t . A l aser , however, d i f f e r s from a regular l i g h t bulb in two ways. F i r s t , most l igh t bulbs emit white l i g h t , in other words, l ight comprised o f a va r i e ty o f wave-lengths or c o l o u r s . A l a s e r , on the other hand, is capable of emit t ing a very s p e c i f i c wavelength. Secondly, a l i g h t bulb is l i k e a bomb with l igh t exploding randomly from the surface of tue f i lament ins ide i ts g l a s s c a s i n g . ^ V , 4 FIG, n 15 The l igh t coming from a l aser , however, is far more organized since a l l of the emitted l ight rays are synchronized ( in-phase) wi th each other . Th is means that l ight is emitted by the laser , f i r s t as a s e r i e s of c r e s t s , then as a s e r i e s of troughs and so on . FIG. ti 16 Since the l igh t coming from a laser is both monochromatic a id in-phase, it is sa id to be temporally and s p a t i a l l y coherent . It i s because of the laser beam's coherence, a property not e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e from other l i g h t sources , that making a hologram of a three dimensional scene is p o s s i b l e . - 31 -93 HOW TO USE A LASER TO MAKE A HOLOGRAM A wavelength of l i gh t can be symbolized with dark and br ight bars, Br ight bars indicate c res ts and dark bars ind ica te troughs. FIG. # 17 Thus the l ight coming out of a laser can be represented as: FIG. # 18 l a s e r ' s beam can be d iv ided into two parts by a beam s p l i t t e r (a s p e c i a l mirror) which allows some of the l i g h t to pass through it and some of the l ight to be r e f l e c t e d . If these two beams of l ight are al lowed to cross paths (with the aid of mirrors) a moire pattern r e s u l t s , An o p t i c a l moire pattern is produced when two coherent beams of l i g h t i n t e r f e r e with each other . FIG. # 19 riLrr) When two l ight waves meet each other in-phase ( i e . , the c res ts and troughs of one l ight beam s i t exact ly on top of the c res ts and troughs o f another l ight beam) the resu l t i s one l i gh t beam whose br ightness is the sum of the brightnesses of the two ind iv idua l beams. This is c a l l e d " c o n s t r u c t i v e in te r fe rence" . FIG. # 20 - 32 - 93a When two l i g h t beams and t h e i r waves a r e o u t of phase ( i e . , the c r e s t s o f the one beam c o i n c i d e w i t h the t r o u g h s o f t h e o t h e r beam), " d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e " o c c u r s and the r e s u l t i n g beam i s l e s s b r i g h t than e i t h e r o f the two o r i g i n a l beams. F I G . # 21 r \ / r \ j B a l C o n s t r u c t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e a r e s y m b o l i z e d by the d a r k and b r i g h t bands wh ich form the o p t i c a l m o i r e p a t t e r n . The t h i c k d a r k bands r e p r e s e n t d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e whereas t h e l i g h t e r s p a c e s between them r e p r e s e n t c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e (see F i g . #19). S i n c e l i g h t waves a r e v e r y sma l l ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5x10-7m.) t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n i s a l s o v e r y s m a l l . However, i f p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m i s p l a c e d in the p a t h o f the i n t e r s e c t i n g l i g h t beams, i t w i l l be a b l e t o r e c o r d the m o i r e p a t t e r n w h i c h c o u l d l a t e r be v i e w e d under a m i c r o s c o p e . P o i n t s of c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i l l e x p o s e t h e f i l m whereas p o i n t s o f d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i l l l e a v e the f i l m a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y u n e x p o s e d . So i f an i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n o f l i g h t e x p o s e s a p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m , w h i c h i s d e v e l o p e d l i k e a b l a c k and w h i t e n e g a t i v e , the r e s u l t w i l l be a " p i c t u r e " which w i l l l o o k v e r y s i m i l a r t o a d i f f r a c t i o n g r a t i n g . If a beam o f monochromat ic l i g h t i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h i s p h o t o g r a p h , some o f the l i g h t beam w i l l pass t h r o u g h as i f u n d e f l e c t e d and some o f the l i g h t w i l l appear to be bent t o e i t h e r s i d e ( s e e F i g . #12). Thus by u s i n g a l a s e r , sane m i r r o r s and p h o t o g r a p h i c f i l m i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make a s i m p l e d i f f r a c t i o n g r a t i n g . By i n t r o d u c i n g a l e n s i n t o t h i s s e t - u p i t is p o s s i b l e t o make a zone p l a t e (or h o l o g r a m ) . If a c o l l i m a t e d o r p a r a l l e l beam o f l a s e r l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h a convex l e n s , i t w i l l be f o c u s e d t o a p o i n t and then i t w i l l be s p r e a d out t o form a " s p h e r i c a l w a v e f r o n t ' O 1 • • ! i ' 1 i 1 F I G . # 22 1 u To make the s i m p l e d i f f r a c t i o n g r a t i n g , two c o l l i m a t e d beams were a l l o w e d t o i n t e r f e r e . If one o f the c o l l i m a t e d w a v e f r o n t s i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h a l e n s , t u r n e d i n t o a s p h e r i c a l w a v e f r o n t and a l l o w e d to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the o t h e r beam, a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t m o i r e o r i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n i s f o r m e d . - 33 - 94 F i g . #23 The above i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n i s o n l y p a r t o f a l a r g e r i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n formed when a s p h e r i c a l w a v e f r o n t meets a c o l l i m a t e d w a v e f r o n t , F i g . #2^+ shows the above p a t t e r n in r e l a t i o n t o the l a r g e r o n e . . The l a r g e r p a t t e r n i s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f a zone p l a t e FIG. #21+ If t h i s in ter ference pattern is recorded photograph ica l ly and a beam of monochromatic l igh t is t ransmit ted through the photograph o f the zone p la te (or only £ part of the zone p l a t e ) , some o f the 1ight wi11 seem to pass through undef lected , some of the l i g h t w i l l be focused in f ront of the zone p la te and some of the l i g h t w i l l appear to be focused behind i t (see F i g . #13). If a complex object i s i l luminated with a co l l imated laser \beam, the rays of l i gh t r e f l e c t e d by that object w i l l be re la ted to the shapeand s i z e o f that ob jec t . - 34 -F i g . #26 i s a d i a g r a m o f a s e t - u p f o r making a h o l o g r a m o f a complex o b j e c t o r s c e n e . 9^a F I G . #25 fiLtt\ F I G . #26 The complex w a v e f r o n t c o m i n g f rom the o b j e c t . n t e r f e r e s w i t h a c o l l . m a t e d w a v e f r o n t . T h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n i s shown in F i g . #27. As c a n be seen the i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n i s c o m p r i s e d o f s e v e r a l z o n e p l a t e s . F I G . #27 - 35 -Once th is inter ference pat tern has been recorded photographica l ly and i l luminated with a beam of laser l i g h t , the l i gh t is d i f f r a c t e d by th is complex grat ing in such a way that some of the l i gh t passes through it as i f nothing has happened to i t , some of i t i s d i f f r a c t e d so that when viewers look into the hologram they w i l l see the v i r t u a l image o f the ob jec t and i f they look in f ront of the ho lographic p late they w i l l see the real image of the same object focused in space (most d i s p l a y holograms, however, are made so that only one image, e i t h e r the v i r t u a l or real image, can be seen at any one t ime) . The image of a lens is three d imensiona l . Taking a photograph of the image of a lens is to record only one aspect of that image. To focus on an image is to move t h e photographic f i l m through the image. A hologram is a c t u a l l y a complex array of " l e n s e s " (zone plates) which are able to focus l i gh t and thereby reconstruct the image of the o r i g i n a l scene in a l l of i t s three dimensions. FOR FURTHER READING Dowbenko, G . , "Homegrown Holography", Amphoto, Garden C i t y , N .Y . , 1978 Kock, W . E . , "Lasers and Holography", Anchor, Garden C i t y , N.W., 1969. L e i t h , E.N. & Upatnicka, J . , "Photography by Laser" , S c i . Amer., V o l . 212, #6, J e . '65 - 36 - 95a C. 5 Zoetrope V i s i t o r s draw t h e i r own cartoons and view them i n the spinning zoetrope. The s l i t s i n , a zoetrope act l i k e the s hutter i n a movie p r o j e c t o r , a l l o w i n g each s u c c e s s i v e image to be seen f o r the moment that i t i s i n the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n , and then blanking the screen w h i l e the next image moves i n t o p l a c e . This d e v i c e , a l s o known as the "wheel of l i f e " , was invented almost 150 years ago, long before motion p i c t u r e s , but i t i s based on the same i d e a . The i l l u s i o n of motion a r i s e s from the p e r s i s t e n c e of v i s i o n . When our eyes record an image, we continue to see i t for a short time, even i f the image disappears r i g h t away. I f a succession of such images i s presented, the b r a i n i n t e r p r e t s - the s i t u a t i o n as one of smooth movement, provided the images come at the r a t e of 16 per second or so. Modern motion p i c t u r e s are projected at a r a t e of 24 frames per second, which e l i m i n a t e s the annoying f l i c k e r e v i d e n t i n pioneering movies and i n the zoetrope. Learning Outcome: The student should understand that the Zoetrope operates s i m i l a r l y to a motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r . D. ILLUSIONS "Seeing i s b e l i e v i n g . " This saying r e f l e c t s our f a i t h i n what we see. In f a c t , our eyes give us an amazingly d e t a i l e d and accurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the world, but e r r o r s can occur. When we see, the world i s p r o j e c t e d on our r e t i n a s as a two-dimensional image. Our b r a i n s r e c o n s t r u c t the three-dimensional world on the b a s i s of depth cues. Normally, these depth cues a l l o w the b r a i n to judge d i s t a n c e a c c u r a t e l y , but p s y c h o l o g i s t s and a r t i s t s can juggle these cues, making patterns and objects that t r i c k the b r a i n or overwork the i n t r i c a t e system. P s y c h o l o g i s t s use v i s u a l i l l u s i o n s to study how v i s i o n works. A r t i s t s use them to create dramatic e f f e c t s . General Goal: The student should understand that s e e i n g i s c o n d i t i o n e d by what we know. The p e r c e p t i o n of what we see i s a f f e c t e d by both n a t u r a l and (human) made i l l u s i o n . ^' The student should understand that a r t i s t s use v i s u a l ' i l l u s i o n s to create dramatic e f f e c t s and that s c i e n t i s t s recognize t h a t v i s u a l i l l u s i o n s can l e a d our eyes away from an accurate o b s e r v a t i o n of the world. - 37 - 96 D . l . Railway Track I l l u s i o n One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s i l l u s i o n i s that the b r a i n t r i i n t e r p r e t the l i n e s as a three-dimensional scene, so n people see one box as l a r g e r than the other. D.2 Background/Foreground Reversal In t h i s drawing, i t i s not c l e a r whether the background i s glack or w h i t e , because the p i c t u r e makes sense both ways. The b r a i n thoroughly wipes out the wine g l a s s when someone sees two f a c e s , and v i c e v e r s a . D.3 Arrowhead I l l u s i o n A cue of l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e provided by the arrowheads (see f i g . ) makes the v e r t i c a l l i n e on the r i g h t appear longer than the l i n e on the l e f t , even though they are e x a c t l y the same l e n g t h . D.4 T i l t e d L i n e s In i l l u s i o n s of t h i s k i n d , s t r a i g h t l i n e s can be "bent" by a set of i n t e r s e c t i n g l i n e s . In the three examples the h o r i z o n l i n e s are r e a l l y s t r a i g h t , the c i r c l e i s r e a l l y round and the square i s a true spuare. D.5 Twisted Cord Marks that s l a n t i n toward the c e n t r e make c i r c l e s appear s l a n t i n to the centre and look l i k e a s p i r a l . In another i l l u s i o n the s l a n t i n g marks make l e t t e r s look crooked: bu they a r e n ' t . D.6 Ames Chair A c o l l e c t i o n of s t i c k s becomes a c h a i r . When we l o o k a t an o b j e c t , i t c a s t s a f l a t image i n s i d e our eye. The b r a i n has t o f i g u r e out the true shape, u s i n g whatever c l u e s are a v a i l I f i t gets a m i s l e a d i n g but very strong clue ( I am a chair'.) can make a mistake. D.7 Impossible T r i a n g l e R e a l i z e d The makers of t h i s e x h i b i t had to cheat a l i t t l e . One of the corners of the t r i a n g l e i s n ' t r e a l l y a corner. The t r i a n g l e i s broken open, but without strong depth cues, the b r a i n c l o s e s i t up. Another p a r t of the b r a i n , the t h i n k i n g p a r t , r e a l i z e s something i s wrong, but can't undo the i l l u s i o n . - 38 -9 6 a D. 8 S p i r a l Spin When an i n d i v i d u a l looks at the spinning s p i r a l f o r a long time, the c e l l s i n h i s v i s u a l system that detect t h i s k i n d of motion become overworked. When he looks at the s t a t i o n a r y s p i r a l , there i s a rebound e f f e c t and i t seems to s p i n the opposite way. The rebound w i l l a f f e c t other patterns too. D.9 Three-Dimensional Reversing Cube This works when the viewer shuts one eye and s t a r e s at the cube. Our two eyes see the world from s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s . This allows the b r a i n to s o r t out distance r e l a t i o n s h i p s to create a v i v i d sense of depth. When one eye i s c l o s e d , i t i s e a s i e r to confuse the b r a i n about depth. A GLOSSARY OF COLOUR TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 97 LIGHT V i s i b l e l i g h t comprises wavelengths of r a d i a t i o n within the e l e c t r o -magnetic spectrum. The v i s u a l colour spectrum seen when "white" l i g h t i s s p l i t by a prism shows i t i s composed of wavelengths from RED/ORANGE/ YELLOW/GREEN/BLUE/VIOLET. ADDITIVE Proceeding by a d d i t i o n : of LIGHT, the process by which colour l i g h t s combine to produce white l i g h t due to absorption of 2/3rds of the v i s i b l e spectrum. ADDITIVE PRIMARIES Of l i g h t : RED LIGHT/BLUE LIGHT/GREEN LIGHT, when combined equal WHITE. ADDITIVE SECONDARIES Of l i g h t : RED + GREEN = YELLOW GREEN + BLUE = CYAN RED + BLUE = MAGENTA SUBTRACTIVE Process of taking away: of PIGMENT COLOUR - where combination of colour produces black by absorption of l/ 3 r d of v i s i b l e spectrum. SUBTRACTIVE PRIMARIES Of pigments: RED/YELLOW/BLUE. • SUBTRACTIVE SECONDARIES Of pigment: ORANGE/GREEN/VIOLET, t h e o r e t i c a l l y produced from above. SUBTRACTIVE TERTIARIES Of pigment: RED ORANGE/YELLOW ORANGE etc. located between primaries and secondaries. TRI-CROMATIC PRIMARIES Of pigment dyes: YELLOW/MAGENTA/CYAN employed as transparent inks i n p r i n t i n g when combined with the a d d i t i o n of BLACK produce appearance of f u l l colour range. PIGMENT (GENERAL) Mat e r i a l organic or inorganic present i n a l l objects, according to composition i t w i l l absorb or r e f l e c t various parts of l i g h t spectrum causing the eye to see i t as a colour. PIGMENT (PAINT) Selected materials which when ground and mixed with a MEDIUM such as o i l / s y n t h e t i c s can be used as p a i n t . Each pigment i s known as a s p e c i f i c name which stands w i t h i n each colour family or hue. HUE D i s t i n c t i o n between f a m i l i e s of colour i n pure st a t e ; e.g., HUE of RED, HUE of YELLOW, HUE of BLUE. Each hue includes a l l types of i t s colour family whether WARM or COOL ap p l i e s a l s o to secondary/tertiary hence: CONTRAST OF HUE; examples from opposing hues placed together. - 40 -97a WARM D i s c r i m i n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of colour s t i m u l i : i n gene r a l terms; RED/ORANGE/YELLOW are a s s o c i a t i v e of WARM BLUE/GREEN/VIOLET are a s s o c i a t i v e of COOL COOL In p a r t i c u l a r terms as a l l hues comprise d i f f e r i n g degrees of c o l o u r , i t f o l l o w s t h a t ; e.g., reds may be warm and c o o l ; i . e . , a WARM RED w i l l tend towards ORANGE, w h i l s t a COOL RED w i l l tend towards VIOLET et c . Hence, c o n t r a s t of W/C: w i t h i n one hue or between hues. SATURATION Degree of p u r i t y of given c o l o u r : Maximum S a t u r a t i o n means colour I s i n i t s p u r e s t , most intense form, u n d i l u t e d by any other c o l o u r . Hence CONTRAST OF SATURATION: between hues i n t h i s s t a t e . DESATURATION Colour i n an impure s t a t e , by the a d d i t i o n of other c o l o u r s . Degrees of d e s a t u r a t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n one hue. LIGHT DARK i ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of hues of col o u r when compared i n t h e i r most s a t u r -ated form: Yellow i s i n h e r e n t l y LIGHT, V i o l e t i s i n h e r e n t l y DARK. i i ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of PIGMENT sources: i n n a t u r a l s t a t e c e r t a i n p i g -ments appear DARK and t h e i r colour c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are hidden. Light/Dark contrast can be a confusing element i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the other c o n t r a s t mentioned. TONE/TONAL i ) D e s c r i p t i o n of degree of Light/Dark tendency of co l o u r . i i ) D e s c r i p t i o n of degree of mo n o - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c range e s p e c i a l l y , black/white grey. TINT A d d i t i o n of white to a co l o u r . SHADE A d d i t i o n of bla c k to a col o u r . COMPLEMENTARY R e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i r s of c o l o u r s which are t o t a l l y opposite i n terms of hue and degree of warm and c o o l , so that they mutually enhance each other. Found d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite on COLOUR CIRCLE. A complementary p a i r when mixed tends towards a n e u t r a l grey. HARMONIC Range of intermediate values produced when any two c o l o u r s are pro-g r e s s i v e l y mixed w i t h each o t h e r ; e.g., red p l u s 1 p a r t green/2 p a r t s / e t c . u n t i l equal q u a n t i t i e s are mixed, then r e t u r n i n g to green. Some-times r e f e r r e d to as BROKEN c o l o u r . DISCORD R e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i r s of c o l o u r s where the NATURAL ORDER has been s l i g h t l y i n v e r t e d : e.g., ye l l o w which i s n a t u r a l l y l i g h t p a i r e d w i t h blue which i s n a t u r a l l y darker would d i s c o r d i f they aTe adjusted so that the blue becomes f r a c t i o n a l l y l i g h t e r and the y e l l o w f r a c t i o n a l l y darker. - 41 -98 ADJACENT DISCORD Above r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between adjacent c o l o u r s ; i . e . , green-b l u e e t c . A l s o r e f e r r e d to as CLASSICAL DISCORD. COMPLEMENTARY DISCORD Discord r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between p a i r s of col o u r s l y i n g d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e on the COLOUR CIRCLE. Dlscord^elSlonBhip e s t a b l i s h e d between a l t e r n a t e c o l o u r s ; b l u e - y e l l o w ALTERNATING DISCORD Disc e t c . SIMULTANEOUS CONTRAST Of p e r c e p t i o n : the a b i l i t y of the eye t o generate the complementary c o l o u r of any gi v e n c o l o u r s t i m u l i , thus an area of c o l o u r w i l l appear to have a complementary edge. I f a s e r i e s of grey areas are placed w i t h i n areas o f s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r , the eye w i l l i n v e s t the grey w i t h a tendency towards the a p p r o p r i a t e complementary. AFTERIMAGE P h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n w i t h i n the eye a f t e r receptors of i t s r e t i n a have been exposed t o a range of i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t or c o l o u r , the r e -ceptors so exposed become f a t i g u e d and t h e i r photo pigment i s temporar-i l y bleached producing a complementary image. Afterimage can a l s o be produced from d i r e c t i o n and movement. INTERACTION Elements or f o r c e s which act r e c i p r o c a l l y , act on each o t h e r . d e s c r i p t i v e of c e r t a i n c o l o u r s i t u a t i o n s . REACTION Respond to s t i m u l i ; undergo change due to some i n f l u e n c e . CONTRACT GENERAL Set up r e l a t i o n s h i p between elements: o p p o s i t i o n which a l l o w s compar-a t i v e e f f e c t s t o be judged. INTENSITY Measure of degree of q u a l i t y , (sometimes used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h SATURATION) GRADUATION Measure of q u a n t i t i t e s : s c a l e or p r o g r e s s i o n demonstrating t h i s . NATURAL ORDER R e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of s u b t r a c t i v e c o l o u r s , i n s a t u r a t e d s t a t e to inherent l i g h t / d a r k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a l s o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as i n COLOUR CIRCLE. COLOUR CIRCLE Or g a n i z a t i o n of s u b t r a c t i v e colours i n continuous r i n g to char t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between them. COLOUR SPHERE Or g a n i z a t i o n of s u b t r a c t i v e c o l o u r s i n the equator of a sphere, w i t h grey i n the core, and white and b l a c k at the p o l e s . A l l o w i n g the c h a r t i n g of Harmonics/Tints/Shades e t c . - 42 -98? CHROMATIC Of the f u l l s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r spectrum, d e r i v e d from Primary/Secondary/ T e r t i a r y ranges. ACHROMATIC Free from colou r : t r a n s m i t t i n g l i g h t w i thout decomposing i t . MONOCHROMATIC Of one wavelength ( c o l o u r ) o n l y , range l i m i t e d to one hue. QUALITATIVE Concerned w i t h , depending on q u a l i t y , hence d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of degrees of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o l o u r . QUANTITATIVE Measured or measurable by concerned w i t h q u a n t i t y , amount, e t c . , hence: comparison of s c a l e and area of c o l o u r , sometime l i n k e d w i t h CONTRAST OF EXTENSION. CONTEXT CONTEXTURAL Observation of a p a r t seen r e l a t i v e to a s s o c i a t e d and/or r e l a t e d elements, r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which one t h i n g i s a f f e c t e d by the other. JUXTAPOSITION To place things s i d e by s i d e , may i n v o l v e p l a c i n g one element i n d i f f e r -i n g contexts to observe i t s r e l a t i v e appearance. PHYSIOLOGICAL Science of the phenomena and f u n c t i o n i n g apparatus of l i v i n g organisms, hence P h y s i o l o g i c a l aspect of co l o u r d e a l s w i t h the human sensory apparatus and how i t i s a f f e c t e d and i n t e r p r e t s c o l o u r . PSYCHOLOGICAL Science of nature, f u n c t i o n s and phenomena of the human mind. Psycho-l o g i c a l aspect of c o l o u r deals w i t h human i n t e r p r e t i v e and a s s o c i a t i v e responses. PHYSICAL Of matter: m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s or q u a l i t i e s of elements c o n s t i t u t i n g matter. P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of colour/pigment i n v o l v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f ; e.g., transparency, t r a n s l u c e n c y , o p a c i t y , e t c . , e t c . , which may a m p l i f y or d e t r a c t from the r e q u i r e d s e n s a t i o n . S N E L L D E S C A R T E S HUYGENS NEWTON ROEMER K E P L E R MAYER L A M B E R T GOETHE YOUNG RUNGE C H E V R E U L S C H O P E N H A U E R F E C H N E R H E L M H O L T Z OSTWALD MAXWELL H E R R I N G M U N S E L L P A U L K L E E I T T E N A L B E R S - 4 3 -99 B R I E F NOTES C O N C E R N I N G C H E M I S T S / P H Y S I C I S T S D E A L I N G WITH COLOUR E X P E R I M E N T S 1 6 2 1 One o f t h e f i r s t m a t h e m a t i c i a n s t o i n v e s t i g a t e l a w s o f r e f r a c t i o n . 1 5 9 6 - 1 6 5 0 . 1 6 3 2 p u b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d w o r k i n r e f r a c t i o n o f l i g h t a l s o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o s i z e a n d s h a p e c o n s t a n c y . 1 6 2 9 - 1 6 9 5 T h e o r i e s o n w a v e l e n g t h s a s p u l s e s t h r o u g h t h e t h e r . 1 6 4 2 - 1 7 2 7 F i r s t t o e x p l a i n c o m p o s i t i o n o f " w h i t e " l i g h t a s t h e s p e c t r u m . P u b l i s h e d i n h i s " O p t i k . " 1 6 4 4 - 1 7 1 0 C a l c u l a t e d t h e s p e e d o f l i g h t . 1 5 7 1 - 1 6 3 0 E a r l y e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h r e t i n a o f e y e . 1 7 2 3 - 1 7 6 2 D e v i s e d t h r e e c o l o u r t r i a n g l e . 1 7 2 8 - 1 7 7 7 I n v e n t e d c o l o u r p y r a m i d . 1 7 4 9 - 1 8 2 3 A f t e r i m a g e e x p e r i m e n t s , s u b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e m e n t o f c o l o u r p r o p o r t i o n s , b a s e d o n f e e l i n g . 1 7 7 3 - 1 8 2 9 D e v e l o p e d t h e t h r e e c o l o u r r e c e p t o r h y p o t h e s i s o f v i s i o n . 1 7 7 7 - 1 8 1 0 I n v e n t e d c o l o u r s p h e r e t o e x p l a i n c o l o u r p i g m e n t o r d e r s . 1 7 8 6 - 1 8 8 9 C h e m i s t , r e s e a r c h i n t o p i g m e n t a n d d y e l e a d t o c l a s s i c w o r k o n t h e L a w s o f S i m u l t a n e o u s C o n t r a s t o f c o l o u r p e r c e p t i o n . 1 7 8 8 - 1 8 6 0 F u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d c o l o u r a s s e n s a t i o n . 1 8 0 1 - 1 8 8 7 E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s t i m u l u s / s e n s a t i o n ( W e b e r / F e c h n e r L a w ) . 1 8 2 1 - 1 8 9 4 P h y s i o l o g i c a l O p t i c s e x p e r i m e n t s . 1 8 5 3 - 1 9 3 2 O r i g i n a t o r o f t h e O s t w a l d C o l o u r S y s t e m , now l o o k e d o n w i t h some s u s p i c i o n ( s t i l l e m p l o y e d b y W i n s o r a n d N e w t o n ) . F o u n d e r o f t h e o r y o f E l e c t r o M a g n e t i c S p e c t r u m . D i s c e x p e r i m e n t s . 1 8 3 4 - 1 9 1 8 F o u r c o m p l e m e n t a r y c o l o u r s w i t h b l a c k a n d w h i t e c o u l d p r o d u c e a l l c o l o u r d e r i v a t i v e s . 1 8 5 6 - 1 9 1 8 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f s y s t e m t o f i x c o l o u r , v a l u e a n d c h r o m a i n s c a l e s ( M u n s e l l R e f e r e n c e S y s t e m ) . 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 4 0 T h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s o f c o l o u r a n d e x p e r i m e n t s a t B a u h a u s ( T h i n k i n g E y e , e t c . ) . 1 8 8 8 - 19 W r i t i n g s o n c o l o u r s y s t e m s a n d e x p e r i m e n t s . A l s o t a u g h t a t B a u h a u s . 1 8 8 9 - 19 W r i t i n g s a n d e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h c o l o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d s t r u c t u r e . ( S e e b o o k C o l o u r a n d h i s own p a i n t i n g s . ) 

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