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Home economics education in British Columbia 1903-1939 : proving its worth DeZwart, Mary Leah 1991

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Home  Economics  E d u c a t i o n  i n  B r i t i s h  P r o v i n g  I t s  Columbia  1903—1939:  Worth  by Mary  B.  S c .  (Household  A  THESIS  Leah  Economics),  SUBMITTED  THE  DeZwart  U n i v e r s i t y  IN  PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  Master  of  THE  o f  A l b e r t a ,  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  A r t s  i n THE  FACULTY Home  We  accept to  THE  OF  GRADUATE  Economics  t h i s t h e  t h e s i s  OF  A p r i l , (c)  Mary  E d u c a t i o n  r e q u i r e d  UNIVERSITY  Leah  STUDIES  as  c o n f o r m i n g  s t a n d a r d  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1991 DeZwart,  1991  OF  1968  In  presenting this  degree  thesis in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  for an advanced  agree that permission for extensive  of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted  department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is  by the head of my  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  McT+h-  Science  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  £duCfltlOn  ii ABSTRACT T h i s study focused on p u b l i c s c h o o l home economics e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1903-1939. The aim was t o examine how home economics educators o f t h i s time p e r i o d worked t o have home economics r e c o g n i z e d as a compulsory s c h o o l s u b j e c t , and how t h e i r accomplishments were i n f l u e n c e d by contemporary events and p r o g r e s s i v e education i d e a l s . Documents were analyzed, compared and s y n t h e s i z e d t o form as accurate a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e p l a c e of home economics i n t h e s c h o o l system was j u s t i f i e d . Sources used i n c l u d e d annual r e p o r t s o f the p u b l i c schools, c u r r i c u l u m documents, newspapers and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t p u b l i c a t i o n s , and r e l e v a n t writings of the p r i n c i p a l actors. The time p e r i o d 1903-1939 was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e sections. In t h e formative years (1903-1924) home economics was d i r e c t e d towards g i r l s ' v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as homemakers. E a r l y home economics educators viewed t h e s u b j e c t as a means of t e a c h i n g about the m i d d l e - c l a s s "home i d e a l " through the i n c u l c a t i o n of good h a b i t s o f c l e a n l i n e s s , exactness and order. A problem arose because home economics, l i k e other forms of p r a c t i c a l education, was marginal, not c e n t r a l t o the s c h o o l system. I t was not viewed s e r i o u s l y or made a p r i o r i t y except as i t r e l a t e d t o g i r l s ' education. Advocates of home economics d e c i d e d t h a t home economics would g a i n l e g i t i m a c y i f i t were more r e g u l a t e d and accepted f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n c r e d i t , and worked toward t h i s end. The 1924-25 survey of the B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system by J.H. Putman and G. M. Weir and the r e s u l t i n g Putman-Weir Report (1925) cemented many p r o g r e s s i v e education ideas. The Report p l a c e d home economics i n an ambivalent p o s i t i o n by promoting i t as a means of t e a c h i n g both c u l t u r a l and v o c a t i o n a l values and c r i t i c i z i n g i t f o r l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o o r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . The Putman-Weir Report r e a f f i r m e d contemporary ideas about the r o l e o f home economics i n s o c i a l i z i n g female students and b u i l d i n g a h e a l t h y n a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s kept t h e implementation of the Report on h o l d f o r e i g h t years, with the. e x c e p t i o n of the appointment o f J e s s i e McLenaghen as f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l , D i r e c t o r of Home Economics f o r t h e Department of Education i n 1926. J e s s i e McLenaghen s e t about p r o v i n g t h e worth o f home economics and e n s u r i n g i t s p l a c e i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. The student p o p u l a t i o n of home economics changed from elementary t o secondary s c h o o l students accompanied by i n c r e a s e d f o r m a l i z a t i o n such as examinations and use o f a textbook. Home economics at the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l r e q u i r e d t e a c h e r s with u n i v e r s i t y degrees but t h e r e was no C h a i r o f Home Economics at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia t o t r a i n them. Consequently t h e r e were many u n q u a l i f i e d teachers. A p r e s c r i p t i v e c u r r i c u l u m and-teacher i n s p e c t i o n s were seen as necessary t o counteract t h i s . The  111  end r e s u l t was an overemphasis on standards and t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n under t h e g u i s e of promoting worthy home membership. A f t e r t h e c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n of 1936, home economics was i n t h e ambivalent s t a t e o f a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t i n an academic s e t t i n g , f o r c e d t o conform t o 40-50 minute p e r i o d s and examinations. I t was female-dominated i n an e d u c a t i o n system o r i e n t e d t o male v a l u e s and a f i e l d which c o n t a i n e d t e c h n i c a l knowledge as w e l l as moral and e t h i c a l standards. J e s s i e McLenaghen's a c t i o n s of u n i f y i n g and r e c o n c i l i n g t h e home economics c u r r i c u l u m had ensured i t s s u r v i v a l , but i n a t r u n c a t e d form. Home economics d i d not l a s t as a compulsory s u b j e c t past the Chant Commission of 1960 when many New E d u c a t i o n ideas were d i s c a r d e d . Conformity was emphasized over'the r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n homes and f a m i l i e s , and t h e p r a c t i c a l importance o f home economics was submerged. In summary, a c h a l l e n g e i s presented f o r home economics t o re-examine and r e c l a i m i t s p r a c t i c a l r o o t s . Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r study are made.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i i  Acknowledgments Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Purpose o f study Procedure Definitions Related research L i m i t a t i o n s o f study S i g n i f i c a n c e o f study T h e s i s overview Endnotes  vi 1 2 7 11 18 19 20 21  Chapter 2 Home economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia Home economics p i o n e e r s Promotion and expansion Retrenchment and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r home economics Endnotes  1903-1924 22 30 44 53 60  Chapter 3  Columbia  Putman and Weir Survey the B r i t i s h  School System P r e l u d e t o the Survey A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Survey Content o f the Putman-Weir Report R e a c t i o n s t o the Putman-Weir Report Endnotes  64 68 71 82 88  Chapter 4 Home economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1926-1939 J e s s i e McLenaghen 90 1926-1929 "Making haste s l o w l y " 97 1929-1933 "From expansion t o c o n t r a c t i o n " 107 1933-1936 " S e n t i n e l s of the new o r d e r " 108 The C u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n o f 1936-1937 113 A teacher-proof curriculum 121 Epilogue 126 Endnotes 130 Chapter 5 Ambivalence r e v i s i t e d 1903-1924 Putman-Weir Report J e s s i e McLenaghen Discussion Conclusions Implications Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study  132 138 140 143 146 148 152  References  155  V  Acknowledgments I would l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my mother, H i l d a M i l l i g a n , who was a p i o n e e r t e a c h e r and who i n s t i l l e d i n me a b e l i e f i n the value of e d u c a t i o n . I would l i k e t o acknowledge the s u b s t a n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. L i n d a P e t e r a t who helped me c l a r i f y and understand the meaning of home economics. In a d d i t i o n , Dr. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d was a great i n s p i r a t i o n . My f a m i l y , Kees, D a n i e l and E r i n were p a t i e n t and i n t e r e s t e d throughout my study, and I owe them thanks as well.  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  A h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of home economics begins years  education  with my own r e l a t i o n s h i p t o home economics. o f classroom  low-status subject.  teaching,  I p e r c e i v e d home economics as a  academic s u b j e c t and a h i g h - s t a t u s Students and parents  which s e l f - e s t e e m  In my  practical  valued t h e s u b j e c t as one i n  and p e r s o n a l competence v i s i b l y  On t h e other hand, i t was d i s p e n s a b l e ;  students  increased.  were o f t e n  withdrawn from home economics c l a s s e s by c o u n s e l l o r s or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s so t h a t they c o u l d concentrate "necessary"  subjects.  These concerns have been t r a n s f e r r e d  to a broader sphere by P e t e r a t economics as "marginal,  (1989) who d e s c r i b e s home  not mainstream" and p r o c l a i m s  a " b a s i c c h a l l e n g e t o pedagogical knowledge i n s c h o o l s "  on more  i t as  p r a c t i c e s and forms of  (p. 73). H i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y i n t o the  means by which home economics became p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system promised i n s i g h t  i n t o i t s present  ambivalent p o s i t i o n .  Purpose o f Study The education  study  focused on p u b l i c school home economics  i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1903 and 1939. I t s  purpose was t o examine how e a r l y educators  worked t o j u s t i f y  the p l a c e o f home economics i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and how t h e i r accomplishments were i n f l u e n c e d by contemporary events and p r o g r e s s i v e education  ideals.  Ambivalency r e f e r s t o t h e co-  e x i s t e n c e o f opposing ideas w i t h i n home economics; low-  2  s t a t u s v e r s u s h i g h - s t a t u s and a c a d e m i c / c u l t u r a l v e r s u s practical/vocational. The years between 1903 and 1939 were chosen because they encompassed  the f o l l o w i n g e d u c a t i o n a l events: the  appointment o f t h e f i r s t  q u a l i f i e d home economics  (1903); t h e Putman-Weir School Survey and Report  teacher (1925)  which r e c o g n i z e d home economics as a worthwile s c h o o l s u b j e c t ; t h e appointment o f J e s s i e McLenaghen as f i r s t D i r e c t o r o f Home Economics f o r t h e B r i t i s h Department  Columbia  o f E d u c a t i o n (1926); the e l e v a t i o n o f home  economics t o m a t r i c u l a t i o n and compulsory s t a t u s i n stages from 1928-1936; and the 1936 c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n implemented many o f t h e recommendations Report  (1925).  which  of the Putman-Weir  1939 was s e l e c t e d as the end date because  J e s s i e McLenaghen had an a s s i s t a n t a f t e r t h a t date. Second World War d e t r a c t e d from any s i g n i f i c a n t  The  school  accomplishments u n t i l McLenaghen's r e t i r e m e n t i n 1946.  Procedure H i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y was used t o conduct t h e study.  I  analyzed primary documents w i t h r e l e v a n c e t o home economics i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m documents,  newspaper  accounts, annual r e p o r t s of p u b l i c s c h o o l s , u n p u b l i s h e d correspondence and a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l at S p e c i a l  Collections  D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , t h e C i t y of  Vancouver A r c h i v e s , t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h  Columbia and t h e Macdonald  I n s t i t u t e Papers a t t h e  3  U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph.  In a d d i t i o n t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s were  conducted w i t h persons who knew J e s s i e McLenaghen i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r i v a t e r o l e s .  Secondary  sources were  c o n s u l t e d f o r g e n e r a l home economics h i s t o r y and p r o g r e s s i v e education h i s t o r y . Documents were chosen p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e ;  f o r a n a l y s i s t o g i v e as broad a  subsequently they were c r i t i q u e d and  c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d f o r a u t h e n t i c i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f information.  Each p a r t i c u l a r source has i t s own s t r e n g t h .  A r t i c l e s w r i t t e n f o r the p u b l i c ,  such as newspaper a r t i c l e s  and annual r e p o r t s , have more "contemporary impact" 1984, fit  (Tosh,  p. 34) but they a l s o c o n t a i n only what was c o n s i d e r e d  f o r p u b l i c consumption.  sources were used. Annual  Therefore several  different  F o r example, i n t h i s study I balanced  Reports of the P u b l i c Schools i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  w i t h newspaper a r t i c l e s and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t accounts as t h e B.C. Teacher  such  and Western Women's Weekly i n order t o  amass as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e .  By u s i n g v a r i o u s  sources and comparing one a g a i n s t the other "there i s at l e a s t a chance t h a t  [the end r e s u l t ] w i l l r e v e a l t h e t r u e  f a c t s - or something  very c l o s e t o them" (Tosh, 1984, p.  58) . The base o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y used i n t h i s study i s an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p model, or i n other words, one l e a r n s how t o do h i s t o r i c a l Tosh,  i n q u i r y by doing i t .  "History", according to  " i s c o l l e c t i v e memory, the storehouse o f e x p e r i e n c e  through which people develop a sense of t h e i r  social  4  i d e n t i t y and t h e i r f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s " His concept  (Tosh,  1984, p. 1) .  of h i s t o r i c a l inquiry i s that h i s t o r i c a l  knowledge has t o be produced. With t h e f o r e g o i n g i n mind, my second step was t o e x p l o r e and i n t e r p r e t the meaning of each document or composite o f documents. but as Blumer  F l e x i b i l i t y o f focus i s e s s e n t i a l ,  (1978) p o i n t s out, t h i s does not mean t h a t the  i n q u i r y has no d i r e c t i o n :  " I t means t h a t the focus i s  i n i t i a l l y broad but becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y sharpened as t h e i n q u i r y proceeds"  (p. 39). Research f o r t h i s study began  with t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n  (and thereby  home economics) i n t o t h e schools as a means of i n t e g r a t i n g mental, moral and p h y s i c a l aspects of l e a r n i n g .  I t narrowed  to t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of home economics s i t u a t e d i n i t s d e v e l o p i n g h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s . "Presentism"  i n h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y i s a genuine  concern  which o v e r r i d e s other f a c e t s of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . It i s g e n e r i c a l l y d e f i n e d as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of past events  i n the l i g h t  maintains  of present-day  that presentism  knowledge.  i s a necessary  Hodysh  (1987)  condition of  h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , and any attempt t o e l i m i n a t e i t "denies the interdependence  of the past and the p r e s e n t "  (p.  141).  Tosh e x p l a i n s the s i t u a t i o n e l o q u e n t l y : We can never r e c a p t u r e the a u t h e n t i c f l a v o u r of a h i s t o r i c a l moment as i t was experienced by people of the time because we, u n l i k e them, know what happened next,  and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e which we a c c o r d t o a  5  p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t i s i n e s c a p a b l y c o n d i t i o n e d by t h a t knowledge.  (Tosh,  1984, p. 58)  In t h i s l i g h t the h i n d s i g h t of h i s t o r i c a l  i n q u i r y i s an  advantage because i t o f f e r s the means by which the past can be i n t e r p r e t e d through our own p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the s u b j e c t of our i n q u i r y . A p r o b l e m a t i c area i n h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e .  My  p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h i s study i n c l u d e s a view of e d u c a t i o n as a system, and home economics as a p o l i t i c a l  subject within  t h a t system answerable t o community v a l u e s .  By "system", I  mean a s e r i e s of i n t e r l o c k i n g p a r t s , i n which movement i n one area a f f e c t s a l l other areas. "the s u b j e c t of how value"  (Wills,  By " p o l i t i c a l " ,  communities l i v e  1990).  I mean  [and] what they  should  Home economics, as the study of homes  and f a m i l i e s , r e f l e c t s community values at t h e i r most b a s i c level. Cornbleth  (1988) p l o t s the h i s t o r i c a l development of  formal, mass e d u c a t i o n i n t h r e e s t e p s :  expansion and  e x t e n s i o n t o serve more people f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s of time, f o l l o w e d by more s p e c i a l i z e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s , and accompanied by i n c r e a s i n g complexity bureaucratization. may  and  The l i n e a r sequence of the above steps  seem t o c o n t r a d i c t the i d e a of a system u n t i l  acknowledge, as C o r n b l e t h and others Goodlad) have, the "conservatism"  we  (most n o t a b l y John  of the s c h o o l system which  makes s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i o n an o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e .  A major  6  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i o n i s the reluctance t o change because both p a r t i c i p a n t s and b e n e f i c i a r i e s have a stake i n t h e maintenance and p o s s i b l e expansion o f t h e s t a t u s quo.  Home economics became p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n  "system" between 1903 and 1939. M a r j o r i e Brown claims  that  i n a d d i t i o n i t became " f r o z e n i n t o p a t t e r n s o f thought and a c t i o n that p r e v a i l e d at the beginning century"  (1984, p. 51). In a s i m i l a r v e i n , P e t e r a t  notes t h a t although great  of the twentieth (1983)  home economics was founded i n a time o f  i d e a l s f o r women, i t " u l t i m a t e l y served a c o n s e r v a t i v e  purpose i n t h e s c h o o l s , a f f i r m i n g t h e s t a t u s quo f o r women" (p. 69). I f t h e u l t i m a t e goal i s r e n e g o t i a t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n of home economics i n the education  system, then we  r e q u i r e knowledge of how the p o s i t i o n was formed i n t h a t system.  Goodson c o n t r i b u t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g thought: " I f  c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s s u b s t a n t i a l l y ignore the h i s t o r y and s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m , m y s t i f i c a t i o n and reproduction easier"  of " t r a d i t i o n a l  1  form and content  become  (1990, p. 310). H i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y o f f e r s t h e r e f o r e  both t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  t o e x p l o r e t h e past and analyze  present  concerns. Peterat  (1983) e x t r a c t s three r e c u r r i n g themes t h a t  dominate t h e l i v e s of home economics educators; education,  t o be i n  t o be female, and t o be i n home economics.  She  claims t h a t these three themes "pose q u e s t i o n s and contradictions that challenge  [home economics  educators]  p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y " (p. 67). Home economics i s a  7  female-dominated f i e l d  i n a system o r i e n t e d t o male v a l u e s ,  norms and assumptions.  I t c o n t a i n s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and  v a l u e s as w e l l as moral and e t h i c a l v a l u e s , such as t e a c h i n g for  "right  living".  Finally,  home economics  i s a field  which attempts t o achieve v a l u e and c r e d i b i l i t y l e g i t i m a t e academic  as a  s u b j e c t w h i l e r e t a i n i n g an e s s e n t i a l  d i f f e r e n c e i n i t s p r a c t i c a l focus.  These t h r e e themes frame  t h i s study.  Definitions For  t h e purposes o f t h i s study, t h e f o l l o w i n g  d i s t i n c t i o n s are made c o n c e r n i n g commonly used terms i n home economics e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r y . 1. Manual t r a i n i n g  - was the term used t o d e s c r i b e  e d u c a t i o n meant t o i n t e g r a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and physical learning.  The use of the term began w i t h the i  w r i t i n g s of P e s t a l o z z i . Macdonald-Robertson of  I t was a p p r o p r i a t e d by t h e  Movement which funded the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  manual t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s across Canada.  In B r i t i s h  Columbia, manual t r a i n i n g i n i t i a l l y r e f e r r e d t o boys' i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and g i r l s '  domestic s c i e n c e  classes.  The S u p e r v i s o r of Manual T r a i n i n g f o r t h e B r i t i s h Department  Columbia  o f E d u c a t i o n was n o m i n a l l y i n charge o f both  boys' and g i r l s '  work u n t i l a Home Economics D i r e c t o r was  appointed i n 1926. 2.  Domestic S c i e n c e and Home Economics  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s study.  are used  A d e l a i d e Hoodless, p i o n e e r  8  worker i n t h e home economics movement argued f o r domestic s c i e n c e i n Canadian schools on the grounds t h a t i t would c o n t r i b u t e t o " r i g h t l i v i n g " and stronger,  healthier  f a m i l i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o occupying t h e g i r l s while t h e boys r e c e i v e d manual t r a i n i n g  (1898).  T h i s somewhat narrow view  of home economics was broadened by Marion T a l b o t . ^  She  contended t h a t home economics should be "awakening and c u l t u r a l as w e l l as v o c a t i o n a l " Saidak  (Talbot, 1913, p.  235).  (1987) suggests t h a t the need f o r home economics  arose from the need t o r e c o n s t r u c t a s o c i e t a l p l a c e f o r women whose r o l e s had been d i m i n i s h e d by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . " A t t a c h i n g * home  1  to economics s  1  was a p u r p o s e f u l  synthesis  meant t o r e c l a i m the p l a c e o f economics w i t h i n t h e domestic sphere and t o acknowledge the interdependence o f home and market economics" 3.  (Saidak, 1987, p. 127) .  Manual a r t s - was d i s t i n g u i s h e d from manual t r a i n i n g and  home economics by grade l e v e l i n t h e 1927 and 1937 B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n s .  "Manual a r t s " d e s c r i b e d t h e  content taught t o g i r l s and boys i n grades 1-6.  Home  economics was s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o g i r l s i n grades 7-12 and manual t r a i n i n g t o boys i n those grades. 4.  P r a c t i c a l a r t s - was the umbrella term used f o r manual  a r t s , manual t r a i n i n g and home economics i n t h e 1937 B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n .  The term " p r a c t i c a l  arts"  p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d with the F a c u l t y o f P r a c t i c a l A r t s at Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, which  9  t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s i n household  arts,  industrial  arts,  p h y s i c a l education and other a l l i e d s u b j e c t s . 5.  New E d u c a t i o n - was the term i n g e n e r a l use i n Canada  f o r t h e American term " p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n " .  New  Education had both s o c i a l and e d u c a t i v e a s p e c t s . I t s e d u c a t i v e s i d e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis on p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g through Selleck  concrete r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t examples.  (1968) c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l education,  education,  technical  i n d u s t r i a l education, whole education, hand and  eye e d u c a t i o n and manual t r a i n i n g t o be one and t h e same as New E d u c a t i o n .  Cremin  (1961) presented  a social  definition  of p r o g r e s s i v e education, c l a i m i n g t h a t i t "began as P r o g r e s s i v i s m i n e d u c a t i o n : a many-sided e f f o r t t o use t h e s c h o o l s t o improve the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s "  (p. v i i i ) .  the Putman-Weir Report  (1925) the term " p r o g r e s s i v e  e d u c a t i o n " r a t h e r than  "New E d u c a t i o n " was used.  t h e r e are some debatable  Although  d i f f e r e n c e s , the terms are used  interchangeably i n t h i s 6.  In  study.  M o r a l - i n the context of t h i s study r e f e r s t o  " e x p r e s s i n g or t e a c h i n g a conception of r i g h t  behaviour"  r a t h e r than the more common d e f i n i t i o n of " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of r i g h t and wrong behaviour" Dictionary,  1971).  (Webster's T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l  I t s most frequent use was i n r e f e r e n c e  to the proper household m i d d l e - c l a s s standards  which would t e a c h t h e p r e v a i l i n g of r i g h t l i v i n g .  r i g h t and wrong behaviour d e f i n i t i o n of "moral"  Considerations of  i s the more common home economics  i n use today.  I t i m p l i e s t h e use of  10  moral reasoning t o reach an e t h i c a l l y - s o u n d d e c i s i o n which best f u l f i l s one's v a l u e s and b e l i e f s without  infringing  upon o t h e r s ' b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . 7.  P r a c t i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s - are  initially  d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the study i n the f o l l o w i n g way. " V o c a t i o n a l " v a l u e s are those values a s c r i b e d t o education which i s s k i l l s - t r a i n i n g or j o b - t r a i n i n g of immediate use t o the student. of  In B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s d e f i n i t i o n l o s t some  i t s meaning when students began spending more years at  s c h o o l , but were s t i l l skills.  supposedly  learning job-oriented  The word " p r a c t i c a l " came i n t o use t o d e s c r i b e  t e c h n i c a l or s k i l l - o r i e n t e d aspects of e d u c a t i o n  coupled  with the a b i l i t y t o take t h a t t e c h n i c a l knowledge and i t t o a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . r e c i p e or i n s t r u c t i o n sheet.  apply  An example i s the use of a T e c h n i c a l knowledge of a  r e c i p e i s of l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l use u n l e s s one knows how  to  adapt t h a t r e c i p e t o v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n s . a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of v o c a t i o n as a " c a l l i n g " C o l l e g e D i c t i o n a r y , 1989,  p. 521)  An  (Canadian  reminds us t h a t i n the  time p e r i o d 1903-1939 homemaking (and by a s s o c i a t i o n home economics) was  f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as a woman's v o c a t i o n ,  i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o her a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e l i f e 8.  role.  A c a d e m i c / c u l t u r a l v a l u e s - academic v a l u e s are d e f i n e d  as the "worth given t o s c h o l a r l y study and a b s t r a c t thought t h a t i s not of p r a c t i c a l r e l e v a n c e " Dictionary,  1990,  p. 6).  "the r e f i n e d understanding  (Concise Oxford  C u l t u r a l values are d e f i n e d as of human i n t e l l e c t u a l  achievement  11  and development"  (Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y ,  1990, p.282).  I t was assumed t h a t t h e academic and l i b e r a l a r t s  subjects  taught t h e v a l u e s of the c u l t u r e through t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of important b e l i e f s and t r a d i t i o n s . L a t i n were academic and c u l t u r a l , relevance.  Thus, s u b j e c t s such as although not o f p r a c t i c a l  The terms are p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f u s i n g because  p r a c t i c a l means c o u l d a l s o be used t o teach about values.  cultural  T h i s was c e r t a i n l y the case i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  home economics t o t e a c h young g i r l s t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n of I m p e r i a l i s t the Putman-Weir Report  or m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e s .  After •  (1925), home economics was viewed as  a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t which taught c u l t u r a l  values.  R e l a t e d Research The e a r l y h i s t o r i e s of home economics e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e events and dates i n u n c r i t i c a l f a s h i o n , d e s c r i b i n g how o p p o s i t i o n t o home economics was overcome.  L i g h t f o o t and Maynard  (1971) chronologued t h e  development o f home economics e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1896 t o 1941 u s i n g the metaphor storm".  of "weathering t h e  In t h e i r view, hard-working home economics  s u p p o r t e r s had overcome every d i r e c t i o n .  a d v e r s i t y t o expand the program i n  L i g h t f o o t and Maynard r e p o r t e d t h a t  communities were much q u i c k e r t o adopt manual t r a i n i n g than home economics, a t t r i b u t e d t o "the f a c t t h a t manual t r a i n i n g was not l e a r n e d at home, and home economics was supposed t o be"  ( L i g h t f o o t and Maynard,  1971, p. 25). O p p o s i t i o n t o  12  home economics o c c u r r e d a t a l l l e v e l s :  a t one time t h e  U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club o f Vancouver w i t h h e l d membership from women who had o b t a i n e d a u n i v e r s i t y degree with home economics as p a r t o f t h e i r course 1971,  ( L i g h t f o o t and Maynard,  p. 17). L i g h t f o o t and Maynard d i d not p l a c e home  economics i n context with other New Education s u b j e c t s . Home economics was p o r t r a y e d as v i c t o r i o u s a f t e r a legitimacy battle.  The r e l e v a n c e of home economics t o t h e  e d u c a t i o n o f young g i r l s was taken  f o r granted.  J.F.K. E n g l i s h (1937) used annual p u b l i c s c h o o l r e p o r t s f o r most o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l account  of the development o f  home economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  He concluded  economics had been implemented slowly i n areas  t h a t home  outside  Vancouver and V i c t o r i a because i t was p e r c e i v e d as a step backward t o a time when women's formal e d u c a t i o n " c o n s i s t e d of t h e i r becoming p r o f i c i e n t homemaking" ( E n g l i s h ,  i n the a r t s and c r a f t s of  1937, p. 2 ) . The r e f o r m i s t m i s s i o n o f  home economics permeated E n g l i s h ' s w r i t i n g : Home economics has not been accepted without  a steady  p r e s s u r e by those engaged i n spreading the gospel nor i s i t s present p o s i t i o n being maintained  without  constant v i g i l a n c e on the p a r t of the Present D i r e c t o r [ J e s s i e McLenaghen] who e x e r t s a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n each o f t h e 78 c e n t r e s "  (English,  1937, p. 21) .  J e s s i e McLenaghen promoted a s i m i l a r theme o f " p r o v i n g i t s worth" i n her own b r i e f h i s t o r y of home economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1926-1939.  F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of  13  McLenaghen s work takes p l a c e l a t e r i n t h i s study.  For the  1  moment, examples of McLenaghen's phrases such as "home economics outgrew the a c c u s a t i o n t h a t i t was an u n p r e p a r e d ' v  subject"  (McLenaghen, 1939a) prepare us f o r t h e p i c t u r e of a  s u b j e c t under s i e g e . A l l t h r e e e a r l y s t u d i e s p o r t r a y home economics education  i n a tenuous p o s i t i o n but do not p l a c e i t w i t h i n a  p r a c t i c a l education  context.  Concerns about l e g i t i m a c y were  not r e l a t e d t o the ambivalent s t a t e o f home economics as a female-dominated s u b j e c t i n an education male v a l u e s , setting.  system o r i e n t e d t o  or as a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t i n an academic  The compromises r e q u i r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e  p u b l i c s c h o o l system were not acknowledged. More c r i t i c a l  r e s e a r c h of home economics i n B r i t i s h  Columbia has come from the p r o t r a c t e d examinations of home economics c u r r i c u l u m by Wilson  (1985) and Thomas  (1986).  These w r i t e r s both d e s c r i b e p e r c e i v e d inadequacies economics throughout i t s h i s t o r y .  Wilson  (1985)  i n home analyzed  home economics c u r r i c u l u m documents and d e s c r i b e d t h e apparent dimensions of p r a c t i c e as customary, interpretive, to  Wilson,  and r e f l e c t i v e .  instrumental,  Customary p r a c t i c e , a c c o r d i n g  dominated home economics education  in British  Columbia from 1896 t o 1926 and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e teacher  as source  of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e female  as homemaker-in-training.  The refinement  home economics was equated with framework  "upholding  [of the f a m i l y ] " (Wilson,  of s k i l l s the moral  1985, p.  114).  student within  14  I n s t r u m e n t a l  p r a c t i c e  e x e m p l i f i e d c o n t r o l  of  O f f e r i n g t h a t  by  programs  i s  the  from  i n  stage  of  than  p r a c t i c e between A  c a t e g o r i e s  are  o r i e n t a t i o n s  e v o l u t i o n s  c u r r i c u l u m  i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l s  p r o c e s s .  Thomas  members  e x p r e s s e d  " c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n f l u e n c e c u r r i c u l a r  and  development  r e a c t i o n  i n i t i a t i v e "  changes  and  the  the  than  home  between  the  p o l i t i c a l  had  of  and  home  i n f l u e n c i n g  between to  which  c u r r i c u l u m more  home  1912-1985. home change  i n f l u e n c e  as  as  p o l i c y - m a k e r s .  or  " i n s t r u m e n t a l " ,  economics  c o n f o r m i t y  by  be r a t h e r  p e r s p e c t i v e  e x t e n t  they  (Thomas,  e l u c i d a t e d  the  f o r c e s  "customary" t h a t  and  Columbia  t h a t  almost  undeveloped.  the  groups  words  concern  by  of  events.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n f l u e n c e d  of  c o u l d  broader  B r i t i s h  co nclu d e d  the  a  concerned  economics  Thomas  and  e x p l o r a t i o n  q u e s t i o n  u s i n g  l a r g e  p r e s e n t e d  economics  not  v e r y  quo  a n a l y s i s  i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  e d u c a t i o n a l  c u r r i c u l u m  the  W i l s o n ' s  other  to  argued  c u r r i c u l u m  from  are  her  of  and  beyond  l a s t  as  s t a t u s  i n  While  documents  s u b j e c t s  (1986)  or  f e a t u r e  p a r t i c u l a r  economics  i n d i v i d u a l s  the  to  e d u c a t i o n a l  g u i d i n g  and  W i l s o n  advance  The  s o c i a l  Her  1912  not  1946,  Economics.  e v i d e n c e ,  d i d  and  p r i n c i p l e s  Home  p r a c t i c e .  a s c r i b e d  Thomas  as  of  i n  v a l u e s  1926  s c i e n t i f i c  c r i t i c a l  i s o l a t e d  between  D i r e c t o r  c u r r i c u l u m  p r a c t i c e ,  c o n s i d e r e d  a  of  documents  1979.  view  W i l s o n ' s  v i a  economics  i n s t r u m e n t a l  h o l d  a d d i t i o n  c u r r i c u l a r  home  r e v i s i o n  the  took  1986,  Thomas  a c t i o n s  r a t h e r p.  3).  supported  were  than The her  i d e a  15  t h a t home economics has been i n f l u e n c e d by a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e s o f p r o g r e s s i v i s m and t r a d i t i o n a l i s m . B u i l d i n g upon Thomas' work, p o t e n t i a l l i n k s between the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f home economics as a s u b j e c t area and t h e p r e v a i l i n g p r o g r e s s i v e or t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y can be e x p l o r e d .  However, t o view home economics as trapped  i n instrumentalism,  or d e f i c i e n t i n p o l i t i c a l  will,  means t o  examine i t out o f context with contemporary e d u c a t i o n a l concerns.  Home economics education h i s t o r y needs t o be  s t u d i e d as p a r t of the broader  f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n  history.  Continuing discourse i s e s s e n t i a l to confront c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n d e r l y i n g assumptions. Ambivalency surrounding t h e purpose of home economics e d u c a t i o n has been present from i t s e a r l i e s t y e a r s .  Vaines  (1984) p r o v i d e d s u b s t a n t i a t i n g evidence  i n her content  a n a l y s i s of t h e Lake P l a c i d conferences  on home economics  h e l d around t h e t u r n of the century.  Her r e s e a r c h  indicated  t h a t about t w o - f i f t h s of the o r i g i n a l d i s c u s s i o n was s k i l l s o r i e n t e d and t h e remainder r e s e a r c h , theory and p h i l o s o p h y directed.  Vaines  concluded  from her study t h a t home  economics l a c k s "centredness".  Saidak  (1987) s t u d i e d home  economics development i n the context o f the e a r l y f e m i n i s t movement i n Canada between 1890 - 1910 and suggested  that  the ambivalence of home economics was brought about by t h e " l a c k o f o r i g i n a l consensus of meaning, problems and p r o f e s s i o n a l boundaries"  (p.  iii).  16  B r i t i s h  w r i t e r s  emphasized  the  i n i t i a t i n g  home  g i v e s  v a r i a b l e  e v i d e n c e  s t a n d a r d s  of  v e r s u s  moral  economics,  a c c o r d i n g  refuge 1978,  p.  make  up  an  c o u l d  and  to  Domestic  the  " p e r c e i v e d  h o u s e h o l d s "  who  d i d  of  1978,  domestic  view  p.  not  s u b j e c t s  be  domestic  s c i e n c e  Through  domestic  s c i e n c e ,  the  from  which  was  of  m i d d l e  m i d d l e -  t h r i f t to  and  be  the  would  be  n e c e s s a r y  to  c l a s s  p r o p e r l y r e v i e w  r e i n f o r c e d  e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s  a  (Dyhouse,  h i s t o r i c a l  1870  Home  two  w o r k i n g  daughters  s i n c e  " f e m i n i n e "  s t r e e t "  of  (1985)  t e c h n i c a l a  through  the  (1978)  1870-1963.  e d u c a t i o n  t o o l  of  home,  t h e i r  a  h i g h  was  i n a d e q u a c i e s  as  f o r  m i s s i o n  of  and  Dyhouse  study  c u r e d  the  B r i t a i n  of  of  between  P u r v i s '  i n  reason  s c h o o l s .  her  l u r e  t e a c h  297).  a  o r i g i n a t e d  s c i e n c e  f o r  (Dyhouse,  i n  of  the  c o n c l u s i o n s  messages  "women's  g u a r d i a n  a n t i d o t e  297).  p u b l i c  Dyhouse,  "poverty  s p i r i t u a l  and  i n  as  s c h o o l g i r l s  to  housekeeping"  and  " c l a s s "  goodness  E n g l i s h  b e l i e f s :  moral  of  s i m i l a r  c o n t r a d i c t o r y  f o r  c a r e f u l  drawn  economics  c u r r i c u l u m  c l a s s  have  c o u l d  the  r e f o r m . t r a i n  | i  w o r k i n g and  be  c l a s s  a v a i l a b l e  h o u s e h o l d purposes t h a t  g i r l s  work  f o r  more  ( P u r v i s ,  w o r k i n g  to  be  domestic p l e a s a n t  1985,  p.  p r e s e n t  150).  the  l a t t e r  taught  (Purvis,  of  s k i l l s . women  1985,  p.  to  It  P u r v i s  w i t h  o b l i g a t i o n  wives  An  150).  were  i n s i d i o u s  With  a  agreed  taught knowledge moral  "home very  make  male  Dyhouse  ornamental  p r o v i d e  mothers  a l s o  serve  and  g i r l s  and  would  u l t i m a t e l y ,  c l a s s  o c c u p a t i o n a l  was  and  m i d d l e  r a t h e r  the  s e r v i c e .  and  -  about  competent  c l a s s  d i f f e r e n t l y than  more  sweet  s t r o n g  message home" gender  17  and  c l a s s  entrenchment,  s t e r e o t y p e d  n o t i o n s  s e r v e d . . . t o  d e p r e s s  d e f i n e  s u b j e c t s  p.  such  about  women  [female] as  s u b j e c t s and  "have  embodied  f e m i n i n i t y  e d u c a t i o n a l  e s s e n t i a l l y  t h a t  have  a m b i t i o n  f e m i n i n e "  [and]  ( P u r v i s ,  1985,  170). S h a p i r o  s p i r i t  of  (1986)  i n q u i r y World  kept  economics  home  (Shapiro,  f o r  something i n v o l v e s p r o d u c t  p.  the  a l i v e  was  219).  of  S h a p i r o  notes  t h a t  l e a d e r s  i n  A  221).  y e l l o w The  q u a l i t y ,  f o o l p r o o f  v i s i o n  home  p r o d u c e d  the  e f f o r t s l i f e .  to  c o n t r i b u t e d  of  the of  were  the  r a t h e r  r e s u l t s  by  c o r n home  themes  home.  Mrs.  A b e l  team  s p l e n d o r  had to  no guide  reward"  (Shapiro,  y e l l o w  pudding  i l l u s t r a t e s  d o i n g The  economics. t h e i r  jobs  q u e s t i o n  improvement  of  The and i s  women  1986, the  who  c o n t r i b u t i n g  whether  homes  of  every  at  k i t c h e n  moral  a  The  from  and  d o i n g S h a p i r o  by  the  p r e p a r a t i o n  or  sex"  than  1940's.  s t r e s s e d  the  i t s  "what  s u b s t i t u t e d  r e l a t e d  R i c h a r d s  and  own  home  s o c i e t y . to  i t s  but  pudding  mid  pudding  Mrs.  was  of  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  knowledge  the  n u t r i t i o n a l  example  product  i n  y e l l o w  economics]  pudding  content  i t s  a c c e p t a n c e  d e v e l o p e d  example  u n i f o r m  " u n l i k e  of  An  methods  everyday  t h e i r  the  i t s  l o s t  g e n e r a l  something,  "new"  k i t c h e n  d e v e l o p e d  and  p a r t i c u l a r  a  i t s  economists  " d o i n g "  of  economics  l e a d e r s  not  Home  home  a f t e r  new  s o m e t h i n g " .  package,  them.  No  e x p e r i m e n t a l  s t a n d a r d s  [early  One.  c r e a t i o n  who  t h a t  c r i t i c i s m  a c t i v i s m ,  "about  e c o n o m i s t s h i g h  War  1986,  a c t i v i t y -  contended  and  f o l l o w i n g  p.  domestic  and  t h e i r f a m i l y  18  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 1.  I n f o r m a t i o n  sources the  were  B r i t i s h  used  to  are  c o n s u l t e d  on  form  the  Columbia  i n s t a n c e s  the  s o u r c e s  extent  home  i n c o m p l e t e e a r l y  p r o g r e s s i v e  home  the  or  g e n e r a l  p o l i t i c a l  sources  are  s u b j e c t  to  r e a d e r 2.  who  The  Endnotes  wishes  scope  development  of  as  i n  the  3.  i n  a  For  the  economics  an  purposes  An  important  1987).  The  e d u c a t i o n and than  p a r t view  e n a b l e d  the  of  the  s c h o o l  of of  home  me  to  f e m i n i s t  c e n t u r y .  economics  as  p a r t  of  home  second  i n  B r i t i s h  the  range have  c o u l d  as  the more  reform reason  a  of the  be  i t s  Columbia. r o l e  were  p a r t i c u l a r l y  of  t h i s  l o c a t e d  study. home  e d u c a t i o n  made  t h a t  i t  i s  movement  (Saidak,  subset  p r a c t i c a l  of  e x a m i n a t i o n apparent  movement f o r  to  consumer  economics,  f e m i n i s t  p r o g r e s s i v e  and  t h e s e  l i m i t e d  p r o g r e s s i v e  the  are  A m e r i c a ,  d i r e c t  of  on  were  S t a t e s  was  the  economics  which  to  I  case  focus  U n i t e d  study,  e a r l y  s o c i a l A  of  t h i s  N o r t h  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  s u b j e c t  beyond  s t r o n g the  v a l u e s  t w e n t i e t h  but  some  s o u r c e s  Therefore  study  of  i n  f o r  study.  c r e a t i o n  context  e q u a l l y  v o c a t i o n a l i n  p e r i o d ,  the  i n c l u d e d  f u r t h e r  economics  the  i n  been  and  i n  P r i m a r y  a v a i l a b l e  Secondary  p a r t i c u l a r  development  w i t h i n  movement.  and  c o n t e n t ,  e v e n t s .  have  seek  p u b l i c  the  I n t e r w a r  to home  C o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n important  the  were  h i s t o r y  movement  and  l i m i t a t i o n .  they  m i s s i n g .  economics  e d u c a t i o n  a u t h o r s .  that  economics  Canada,  t h e i r  f i r s t  of  i n the  r e g a r d i n g  e d u c a t i o n  i s  of  to  c u l t u r a l  e d u c a t i o n e a r l y home r e i n f o r c e  19  i t s  sense  r a t h e r  of  than  S o c i a l  4.  economics As  p a r t  i n t o  c l a s s  of  be  i n  the  i s  not  the  response a  c l a s s i s t :  lower  s t a n d a r d s .  and  Thus  f o r  f u r t h e r  of  e d u c a t i o n ,  the  d i s s e m i n a t i o n  focus  of  t h i s  economics  was  to  quest  e d u c a t i o n  a  p u b l i c  assumed l e s s  the  f o r  p o w e r f u l ,  the  would  outset be  DeZwart,  the  what  i n f l u e n c e  i n t e r e s t s  home  of  which  d e c i d e  under  taught  d i s c u s s i o n  and  to  i n d u s t r i a l  home  i n t r o d u c e d  (Peterat power  of  study.  home  from  D e t a i l e d  i n  c e n t r a l  v e s t e d  c l a s s e s  h i s t o r y  h i s t o r y .  d i v e r s e  s o c i a l l y  reformers  1986).  a  a r t s ,  to  e n t i r e  dimension  E d u c a t i o n i s t s  (Tomkins,  suggested  to  women's  a  p r a c t i c a l  f o r  s o c i a l  and  as  r e l e v a n t  b e s t  to  e d u c a t i o n  p r e s s ) .  was of  s o l e l y  s c h o o l i n g  c o u l d in  b e l o n g i n g  economics  was  m i d d l e - c l a s s  the  c l a s s  v a l u e s  i s s u e  i s  study.  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study The and  study  n e c e s s a r y  (1989)  f o r  suggested  between  home  grounded home  p r o v i d e s  i n  p r a c t i c a l  r e s e a r c h t h a t  a l l  economics  and  h i s t o r i c a l  economics  e d u c a t i o n  r e s t r i c t i o n s  w i t h  c u r r e n t  on  r e s e a r c h other  of  the  s c h o o l  the  o f f e r s  c o n s t r a i n t s  c h a l l e n g e s  of  home  i s  s u b j e c t s  b e t t e r  of  P e t e r a t  s h o u l d  the of  work  be of  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  guidance  economics.  u s e f u l  r e l a t i o n s h i p  i d e o l o g y  and  which  p r a c t i c e .  E x a m i n a t i o n  through  movement  and  background  c l a s s r o o m  study.  p i o n e e r s  past  e s s e n t i a l  f o r  of  d e a l i n g  20  T h e s i s Overview Chapter i n  B r i t i s h  programs and made  Two  C o l u m b i a ,  of  the  E l i z a b e t h to  s e t s  the  out  the  b e g i n n i n g  f i r s t  B e r r y .  Through  p r a c t i c a l  i n  e x t e n s i v e  growth  of  home  Columbia  i s  o u t l i n e d  these  economics from  c o m b i n a t i o n  of  survey  the  Columbia  and  G.M.  (1925)  Weir. i s  e d u c a t i o n f o c u s e s  and  economics  J e s s i e f o r  the  d e t a i l e d  p r o v i d e d  to  g i v e  e c o n o m i c s .  r e q u i r e d B r i t i s h  f o r  home  Columbia  what  i t  B r i t i s h study the In  a  to  system  U n i t e d  to  sense  g a i n are  when  r e s u l t e d  The  by  i n  J.H.  i n  a a Putman  Report  p r a c t i c a l  D i r e c t o r  Chapter of  Department  of  home  e d u c a t i o n  Putman-Weir  an  are  S t a t e s .  1924,  system  1939,  c o n c l u d i n g  economics s c h o o l  i n  McKeand  e a r l y  g e n e r a l  about  f i r s t  ends  and  p a r t i c u l a r .  Columbia  reader the  s a i d  i n  McLenaghen,  the  and  c o n n e c t i o n s  f o r c e s  s c h o o l  Three  f o r  A l t h o u g h  home  Chapter  home  1903  community  examined  on  Economics  In  the  and  economics  W i n n i f r e d  women,  and  home  p h i l o s o p h i e s  movement  Canada  p o l i t i c a l  B r i t i s h  the  of  t e a c h e r s ,  e d u c a t i o n  i n s t i t u t i o n s  of  w i t h  q u a l i f i e d  economics  B r i t i s h  f o u n d a t i o n s  Home  of  E d u c a t i o n .  e p i l o g u e  l a t e r  c h a p t e r ,  has  happenings the  l e g i t i m a c y d i s c u s s e d  Four  been i n  compromises i n  and  the e v a l u a t e d .  21  Chapter One Endnotes 1. Johann H e i n r i c h P e s t a l o z z i (1746-1827) was a Swiss e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r who was i n f l u e n c e d b y R o u s s e a u ' s i d e a s of developmental l e a r n i n g and concept of n a t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . P e s t a l o z z i saw e d u c a t i o n as h a v i n g t h r e e s t r a n d s : i n t e l l e c t u a l ("head"), manual ("hand"), and moral ( " h e a r t " ) . He a i m e d t o r e p l a c e t h e p a s s i v e f o r m s of o l d e d u c a t i o n w i t h a c t i v e i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t of t h e s t u d e n t . Two s a y i n g s c r e d i t e d t o P e s t a l o z z i would n o t be out of p l a c e i n a c u r r i c u l u m statement today: 1. I n s t r u c t i o n does n o t c o n s i s t of t e a c h i n g p u p i l s about thought b u t t e a c h i n g them how t o t h i n k , and 2. O b s e r v a t i o n i s t h e a b s o l u t e b a s i s of a l l knowledge. F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , s e e : Centenary (8),  p.  H e a f f o r d , P h i l l i p s , Canada.  of  P e s t a l o z z i .  (1927)  .  B . C .  Teacher.  (1927)  .  6_  3 8 - 3 9 . M. C E .  (1967).  P e s t a l o z z i .  (1957) .  Toronto:  Gage.  The p p .  London:  Development  of  Methuen. E d u c a t i o n  i n  412-414.  2. M a r i o n Talbot was a protege of E l l e n R i c h a r d , and a member of t h e S a n i t a r y S c i e n c e Club c h a i r e d by M r s . R i c h a r d s i n 1885. Her c a r e e r as t h e f i r s t Dean o f Women a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago extended from 1892 t o 1925. The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Department of Household A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c h a i r e d by Talbot at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e v a i l i n g b e l i e f i n t h e s y n t h e s i s of c u l t u r a l and v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s i n home e c o n o m i c s . Through home economics study s t u d e n t s were t o be g i v e n a g e n e r a l view of t h e p l a c e of t h e h o u s e h o l d i n s o c i e t y as a means of l i b e r a l c u l t u r e , and t o r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n t h e r a t i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e home a s a s o c i a l u n i t . F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , s e e : Annual Reports of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s .  (1911-1912).  Norton, A . P . (1925). M a r i o n Economics, 17 (9), 479-483.  of  T a l b o t .  J o u r n a l  Home  3. The home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s c u r r e n t l y i n t h e p r o c e s s of r e v i s i o n (1991) by a committee of home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s c h a i r e d b y L e s l i e P a r i s , Burnaby School D i s t r i c t . Other committee members and t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e Keren Farquharson, Burnaby; Sandra Hodgson, South Okanagan; E v e l y n K e r r , Vancouver; Karen L a r s e n , Langley; B a r b a r a Raynor, Windermere; and Gale Smith, Kamloops. N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d are u n r e p r e s e n t e d .  22  CHAPTER  II  In home the  t h i s  v a r i o u s  t a i l o r  a  were  moral  t h e  e d u c a t i o n  i n t e r e s t  i n  t h e  ECONOMICS  c h a p t e r ,  economics  economics  They  HOME  t h e  g i v e n  t h e  c o n t e x t  t h e  mandate  s u b j e c t  f o c u s .  s u c c e s s  v a r i e d .  i n s t r u c t o r  s i g n i f i e d and  home  took  w i l l  V i c t o r i a  p o l i t i c a l  In  t h e  years  i n  p u p i l s .  One other  B r i t i s h  Two i n  c o n d i t i o n s  t h e  was  s c h o o l  t h a t  that  i t  system  home  which became  economics  s h o u l d  p r e s e r v e  i n  and  from home  home i t s  1903 groups s c i e n c e  1924,  240  t o  over  economics  i n c r e a s i n g l y  s h o u l d t h e  i n  t h e  domestic  1903  expanded  under  f o r  women's  of  between  Columbia  s k i l l s  domestic  Board  by  g i r l s .  f o r  as  t o  system.  c l e a r ,  School  footwork  t r i e d  s a c r i f i c i n g  McKeand  of  home  e d u c a t o r s  become  a p p r e c i a t i o n  apparent.  the  without  W i n n i f r e d t h e  i n t r o d u c e d  l e g i t i m a c y  and  p l a c e  t h e  toward  of  e x a m i n a t i o n  t e c h n i c a l  i n  i t s  and  As  1903-1924  e d u c a t i o n  i n t e r e s t  economics  11,000  f o r  s u c c e s s f u l  growing  t r a i n i n g  of  h e l p e d  t e a c h i n g  academic  p r a c t i c a l  s c i e n c e  of  worked  appointment  through  economics  and they  e s s e n t i a l  The  which  COLUMBIA  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  m a l e - o r i e n t e d  as  of  and  e x p l o r e d  Home  economics  degrees  an  i s  groups  t o  BRITISH  expansion  s c h o o l s .  program  IN  be  p r a c t i c a l ,  c u l t u r a l  v a l u e s  of  n a t i o n .  Home Economics P i o n e e r s T e c h n i c a l i m m e d i a t e l y The  D a i l y  s k i l l s  seen  as  C o l o n i s t  a  taught means  h a i l e d  through of  t h e  home  i m p r o v i n g p r e s e n c e  of  economics homes  and  W i n n i f r e d  were f a m i l i e s . McKeand  23  as  e v i d e n c e  the  of  t e a c h i n g  on  of]  s c i e n t i f i c p.8).  1903, Boston She  by  536).  The  t h e o r y  of  t h e  means  When  t h e  f u n d i n g  f o r  was  t o  c o n t i n u e M i n u t e s (LCW)  r e q u e s t  were  anxious  t h e  the  i f  a r e  t h e  t h a t  of  Women  b o a r d  Margaret  T r u s t e e s ,  a s s u r e d  Board  t h e i r c o u l d  t h e  pay  t h e  t o  one  of  she  With  base  agree.  The  four  known  i n t o  Canada.^  B r i t i s h b o a r d t o  T r u s t e e s of  Board who  s a i d  was  grounds, s c i e n c e  f o r  a  Board  " h e a r t i l y  c o v e r e d ,  hundred  want",  d o m e s t i c s a l a r y  they  s c i e n c e  f i n a n c i a l  S c h o o l  Women  t o  ("Trustees  t h e  t h e  be  d o m e s t i c  on  p.  1951,  opening  C o u n c i l  y e a r ' s  d e p u t a t i o n every  t o  S c h o o l  taught  equip a  (White,  i n  Cookery.  s c h o o l  C o u n c i l s  t h e  t r a i n i n g "  h a l f  J e n k i n s ,  o b j e c t s " . o n l y  o f f e r e d  a  t h e  of  S c h o o l  L o c a l  o p p o s i t i o n  of  government  of  Women's be  at  s c h o o l  V i c t o r i a  g i r l s  manual  would  t h e  s e i z e d  The  t h e  taught  t e a c h e r .  w i t h  and V i c t o r i a  s c h o o l " ,  S c h o o l  t r a i n i n g  Board  management  graduate  t r a i n i n g  The  t h e  came  p r o v i n c i a l  1903).  from  a  they  1903,  (Vancouver  s c i e n c e .  i n  movement  as  [through  h o u s e h o l d  S c o t i a  manual  i n  t h e  A n t i c i p a t i n g  2).  C o u n c i l  room  ask  d e p u t a t i o n  boys p.  1903,  t o  Vancouver  a  "  undertaken  M o n t r e a l  manual  out  M i n u t e s ] ,  r e c e i v e d  as  r u n  program  d o m e s t i c  " a s  boys'  of  as  Nova  s c h o o l s  i n t r o d u c i n g  d e c i d e d  [VBST  i n  of  due  t h e  t h e  P i c t o u ,  "Macdonald  t h e  o f f i c i a l s  i n t r o d u c e d and  be  s c i e n c e  Macdonald-Robertson  were  Columbia  was  i n  t o  and p r a c t i c e  Cookery  taught  work  ("Domestic  McKeand  a l s o  funded  important  l i n e s "  S c h o o l  h a d  " t h e  t h e  d o l l a r s  i n  a c c o r d  S c h o o l r e q u i r e d  24  to  equip  the  d o n a t i o n s  room  ( L i g h t f o o t  McKeand s c i e n c e  t h a t  happy  s c h o o l " ,  "the  of  the  i n  t r a i n i n g  A the  s c i e n c e taught  a  of  the w i t h  i n t o  minds  the  have  t h r o u g h a t t e n d e d  as  the of  p o s i t i v e  the  who  i s  ever  l i k e l y  s c i e n c e  i n s t r u c t i o n  r e l a t e d of  to  had  two  s u g g e s t . . . .  Through  great  the  c h i l d ,  8).  c h i l d  i n  to  the  the  mind  and  ("Domestic  c o n t i n u a l  would  l e a r n  l i g h t e n e r s  F e b r u a r y Even l a r g e  of  the  The  h a b i t s  t e c h n i c a l had  of  1904  though l i s t  c i t y "  c l e a n l i n e s s ,  p u p i l s .  r e p o r t e r  of  t e a c h i n g "  are  " a l r e a d y  m i d d l e - c l a s s of  s c i e n c e  t h i s  s c i e n c e .  " i n c u l c a t i n g  a p p l i c a t i o n  t h i s  and  the  i n  s c h o o l s  the  which  t h a t  of  work  p l e a s u r e " .  r e p o r t  the  p u b l i c  of  p.  would and  ("Domestic  eye  r e s u l t  h e a l t h y  s c i e n c e  a l l  end  made  o b s e r v a t i o n  1903,  domestic  p r o p e r  by  and  a p p l y  be  g i r l  which  c l e a n l i n e s s  encumbered i n  s i d e  d o m e s t i c  to  The  s h o u l d  home"  n e a t n e s s ,  C o l o n i s t  c r e d i t e d  to  and  . . . a n d  every  a  p e r s o n a l  her  s t u d e n t s  methods  Domestic  s c h o o l " ,  o r d e r  D a i l y  p e o p l e  a p p l i c a t i o n  [is]  v i r t u e s  of  do  t h a t  homemaking.  t e a c h  to  C o l o n i s t  s i m p l e  mind  through  1971).  enable  the  8).  the  the  i n  work  can  hand  " r e g u l a r i t y and  of  the  p.  p r a c t i c a l  s c i e n c e  would  e d u c a t i o n a l  development t r a i n i n g  D a i l y  of  l a r g e l y  Maynard,  manageress  1903,  p a r t s :  the  of  economy  the  &  the  homes  means  d o m e s t i c  r a i s e d  knowledge  "the  by  become  t o l d  i n s t r u c t i o n  t h e o r e t i c a l be  was  young  of  e x t r a s was  e x a c t n e s s  and  female  knowledge. a  domestic  McKeand  i m p r e s s e d  i n c l u d e d  e x t o l l e d  f u l l  o r d e r "  p u p i l s  upon The  b e i n g  were  them l e s s o n  l e c t u r e  on  the  25  p a r t s  of  a  wheat  a p p a r e n t l y 20  was  mixed the  i n n o v a t i v e  d i v i d e d the  egg  and  of  s p r e a d on  Vancouver W.P.  to  c o o k i n g  on  t h e i r  McKeand  t o l d  i s  of  b e f o r e  a  S c i e n c e " , t r a i n e d young  D a i l y  way the  1904).  audience and  too  t h a t  e a r l y  Domestic  g i r l s  were  n a t u r a l l y  m a i n t a i n i n g her  a  young  hand  an  domestic to  s e c t i o n one  f o r  beat  b a k i n g "  1904,  of  p.  were  and  gave  H a l l  a  i n  of  Women.  S c h o o l s ,  s c h o o l  t h a t  aprons  A  age"  on  the  mixed,  n o b l e s t cannot  ("Lecture was  i n  c o n j u n c t i o n home  p o i n t i n g was  p l a t f o r m  o c c u p a t i o n be  brought  Domestic " s i n c e and  i t  as [ t h i s  t h a t  i n e x p e n s i v e ,  j u d i c i o u s l y  and  l e s s o n .  work out  gas  kneaded  on  important  i n  l e c t u r e  l a r g e  s e c o n d - y e a r  i d e a l '  room  the  d e m o n s t r a t i o n "  12).  p l a c e d  "woman's  and  McKeand  p r a c t i c a l  A f t e r  s c i e n c e  V i c t o r i a  C o u n c i l  r e p o r t e d  by  work  i n  S t r e e t  L o c a l  i n t e r e s t e d  work  of  a t t e n d e d .  s c i e n c e  d i f f i c u l t " .  p u p i l s  the  "home  to  an  c l a s s  each  pan  1904,  Pender  t y p i c a l  the  of  the  of  members  a  and  not  of  caps  mind  was  the  t a b l e s  ;through  homemaker at  at  s c i e n c e " ,  i n  The  s c i e n c e  A p r i l  P r o v i n c e  s e v e r a l  and  i n g r e d i e n t s ,  g r e a s e d  i n t e r e s t i n g  g i r l s  "one  Superintendent  LCW  g l u t e n  6) .  In  the  t r a i n i n g ]  set  and  and  domestic  a u s p i c e s  more  and  c h i l d  of  Vancouver  young  s t i r r e d  p.  s c i e n c e  domestic  stove  twelve  1904,  f o r  a c t i v i t y .  g e n e r a l  f o u r t h  s u c c e s s  Vancouver  ("Lecture  t h a t  the  the  Vancouver.  the  "much  s e c t i o n s ,  and  the  t e s t  m u f f i n - m a k i n g  mixed  t e a c h e r s  made  p r a c t i c a l  one  domestic  Argue,  The  and  the  under  t r u s t e e s ,  was  m i l k  a  f i v e  S c i e n c e " ,  Word  l e c t u r e  i n t o  f l o u r ,  ("Domestic  soon  g r a i n ,  produced  McKeand a  26  b a t c h of hot buns f o r the audience. have been c o n v i n c i n g .  A p e t i t i o n from the Vancouver Women's  C o u n c i l re domestic s c i e n c e was School Board s i x weeks l a t e r February 25, 1905,  The e n t i r e e f f o r t must  r e c e i v e d by the  Vancouver  (VBST Minutes, 1904).  On  a motion was made t h a t the M i n i s t e r of  E d u c a t i o n be requested t o i n c l u d e i n the allowance f o r teachers,  " s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s such as manual t r a i n i n g ,  domestic s c i e n c e , e t c . " (VBST Minutes, 1905a). was  o f f e r e d by W.P.  f o r Vancouver  who  Male support  Argue, C i t y Superintendent of Schools e x p l a i n e d t h a t domestic s c i e n c e was b e i n g  i n t r o d u c e d i n order t h a t "the g i r l s would r e c e i v e a t r a i n i n g s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the boys"  [ i . e . manual t r a i n i n g ]  Report of the P u b l i c Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia  ( Annual  [ARPS],  1903-04, p. A55).  In J u l y of 1905,  E l i z a b e t h B e r r y of Mildmay, O n t a r i o  wrote t o Mary U r i e Watson, her former P r i n c i p a l at  Macdonald  I n s t i t u t e , Guelph, O n t a r i o , t o announce t h a t she had been appointed t o the p o s i t i o n of domestic s c i e n c e t e a c h e r f o r the Vancouver 1905b).  School Board  (Berry, 1905a; VBST Minutes,  There had been great excitement at Guelph t h a t  s p r i n g of 1905 when the Vancouver  School Board advertisement  f o r a domestic s c i e n c e t e a c h e r f i r s t  appeared i n the Toronto  papers  E l i z a b e t h Berry  ( L i g h t f o o t & Maynard, 1971).  competed a g a i n s t u n i v e r s i t y graduates f o r the p o s i t i o n (Berry, 1905a).  Her s p e c i a l i s t ' s c e r t i f i c a t e from  Macdonald  I n s t i t u t e had taken only one year i n s t e a d of the u s u a l two  27  because she had a l r e a d y been t e a c h i n g s c h o o l f o r seven (Watson, 1904; Berry,  years  1905e).  A s e r i e s o f l e t t e r s over the next few months c h r o n i c l e d Berry's d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a brand-new department.  They a l s o r e v e a l e d t h e p o l i t i c a l  stratagems  t h a t Mary U r i e  Watson c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f home economics.  Watson suggested  would be dropouts  c l a s s e s o f 24 p u p i l s ;  there  over the year and " i t i s wise f o r p i o n e e r s  to make t h e money expended cover as many c h i l d r e n as possible" two  (Watson, 1905a).  I f a u t h o r i t i e s demurred about  hour l e s s o n s , Watson counseled Berry t o o f f e r t o t e a c h  sewing i n a d d i t i o n t o cookery;  "[the School Board] w i l l be  charmed with t h e i d e a and you w i l l 1905a).  Although  difficulties  get your way" (Watson,  were encountered  replicating  the equipment she had used at Guelph, E l i z a b e t h B e r r y d i d not c o n s i d e r adapting some o f those requirements conditions  (Berry, 1905b; Berry, 1905c).  on t h e source of the i n d i v i d u a l burners to  to local  She q u e r i e d Watson considered e s s e n t i a l  t h e "hollow square" classroom arrangement.^  Watson  r e p l i e d t h a t , having been unable t o f i n d s u i t a b l e ones on the market, she had designed them h e r s e l f and her b r o t h e r s i n Ayr, O n t a r i o made them stoves were f i n a l l y of  everyday  domestic  (Watson, 1905b).  The l i t t l e  o b t a i n e d but they were c l e a r l y not p a r t experience.  The students c o u l d have  managed with r e g u l a r stoves, but t h i s would not have p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t academic s t a t u s .  I t was more  t h a t t h e s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y be emulated.  important  28  Through Mary U r i e Watson, l i n k s can be made t o s e v e r a l ongoing events  i n home economics a t the t u r n of t h e century.  Watson had graduated and Teachers domestic  from the P h i l a d e l p h i a Cooking  C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y .  School  She had been a  s c i e n c e t e a c h e r i n St. L o u i s , M i s s o u r i and  Hamilton,  Ontario  ("Elected O f f i c e r s " ,  1909) .  Watson was  h i r e d by A d e l a i d e Hoodless t o teach at the O n t a r i o Normal School o f Domestic A r t and Science i n Hamilton 1987,  p. 59). T h i s began a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with  founder  Hoodless,  o f t h e Women's I n s t i t u t e and e a r l y p i o n e e r o f p u b l i c  s c h o o l domestic field  (Saidak,  science education.^  intended f o r females,  Home economics was a  with Watson s u b s c r i b i n g t o  Hoodless'  n o t i o n t h a t domestic  daughters  o f t h e country what was b e i n g done f o r the farmers  and t h e i r sons" through 1906,  p.  a g r i c u l t u r a l education  (Watson,  90).  As t h e f i r s t 1920,  s c i e n c e should "do f o r the  Dean of Macdonald I n s t i t u t e from 1903-  Watson became w e l l known n a t i o n a l l y and i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , the West I n d i e s , Great B r i t a i n and South A f r i c a (Guild, was  1926).  She attended the Lake P l a c i d Conferences and  e l e c t e d t h i r d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the American Home  Economics A s s o c i a t i o n ; buy  she recommended t h a t E l i z a b e t h Berry  t h e Lake P l a c i d r e p o r t s f o r "ammunition f o r argument as  w e l l as t e a c h i n g "  (Watson, 1905a).  One o f Watson's l e g a c i e s  t o home economics education may have been her pragmatic attitude,  r e f l e c t e d i n her statement  about t h e honesty o f  29  the s k i l l  of sewing.  "When you express y o u r s e l f by making  t h i n g s , and not by u s i n g words, i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s s i m u l a t e your vagueness or ignorance by (Watson, c i t e d i n Ross, 1974,  p.  ambiguity"  75).  The t e a c h i n g of the " g e n t l e a r t of cooking" regarded as a "new  and r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e " by the Vancouver  D a i l y P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e r who domestic 1905,  s c i e n c e classroom  p. 13).  was  visited  E l i z a b e t h Berry's  ("Vancouver g i r l s t o l e a r n " ,  The w e l l appointed classroom was  modern i n e v e r y t h i n g with the conveniences  d e s c r i b e d as  t h a t would be  found i n "every household where the matron e x e r c i s e s proper and e f f i c i e n t foremost  control".  S a n i t a t i o n and hygiene were  considerations.  The t a b l e s f o r the hollow  arrangement were so smoothly crack  [was]  visible  p u p i l had her own jurisdiction  planed t h a t  so t h a t d i r t  cannot  square  "not a s i g n of a accumulate".  Each  l i t t l e desk stove and a b s o l u t e  over one drawer.  r e s u l t s of domestic  The r e p o r t e r c l a i m e d t h a t  the  s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g would be a p p r e c i a t e d  not o n l y by the g i r l s and t h e i r parents but i n the f u t u r e when "many a man  w i l l d o u b t l e s s b l e s s the Board of School  Trustees f o r i t s thoughtful a t t e n t i o n " learn",  ("Vancouver g i r l s t o  1905).  Both Berry and McKeand s t r e s s e d t h a t domestic e d u c a t i o n should i n c l u d e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l  science learning.  A.G.E. Hope of the O n t a r i o Normal School summed up the b a s i c method of i n s t r u c t i o n :  "School g i r l s cannot be crammed with  30  theory f o r good r e s u l t s .  The  i n s t r u c t i o n should  be  p r a c t i c a l , but the reason f o r each process must be explained"  ("A Wide-Awake Convention",  1900,  p. 76).  By  b e i n g a c a d e m i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e , home economics c o u l d be a legitimate p r a c t i c a l subject. promoted domestic way  experience  J u s t as John Dewey had as a p a r t i c u l a r l y  t o l e a r n i n h i s Laboratory  School,  5  meaningful  so d i d McKeand and  Berry c a p i t a l i z e on the n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t of young p u p i l s i n home work to promote homemaking as woman's p l a c e i n l i f e . They supported v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g of g i r l s i n order t o improve the homes of the n a t i o n . Conversely,  manual t r a i n i n g f o r boys was  v o c a t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c and was grounds.  Harry Dunnell,  d e f i n e d the primary "broader  j u s t i f i e d on  different  Inspector of Manual T r a i n i n g ,  ends of manual i n s t r u c t i o n as the  education of ' l e a r n i n g by doing'...  development of a boy's f a c u i t i e s " . . . [and] of a boy's e d u c a t i o n ' " mention was  less  v  the  "the a l l - r o u n d rounding  (ARPS, 1909-1910, p. A34).  out  No  made of the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t women would b l e s s  the Board of School Trustees f o r t h e i r husbands having l e a r n e d woodwork. requirement  Manual t r a i n i n g d i d not have the moral  expected  from home economics.  Promotion and Expansion The p a r t i c i p a n t s at the f i r s t  o f Home Economics Home Economics S e c t i o n of  the P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e f o r Teachers sewing should be a s c h o o l s u b j e c t  d i s c u s s e d whether  ("Second Day",  1906).  31  Only two  domestic  s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s were present  (Lightfoot &  Maynard, 1971), but the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women was represented.  S e v e r a l women i n c l u d i n g W i n n i f r e d McKeand  spoke i n favour of s p e c i a l i s t s f o r the s u b j e c t . group decided, life"  should be  at home.  One  i n s c h o o l because i t might not  "because i t came i n very  handy to s a i l o r s , miners and lumbermen" The  be  woman even proposed t h a t sewing should  be taught t o boys as w e l l as g i r l s  p. 8).  Sewing, the  "part of a l l g i r l s ' equipment f o r  and had t o be taught  taught  well  ("Second Day",  190 6,  d i s c u s s i o n s i g n a l l e d the r o l e of p r a c t i c a l  e d u c a t i o n as an "add-on"; a means of enhancing or a e s t h e t i c education of females, "housewifely"  the  cultural  and r e p l a c i n g  s e r v i c e s f o r males.  Domestic s c i e n c e continued to expand a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l warm r e c e p t i o n .  Within two  months of her a r r i v a l , E l i z a b e t h  Berry r e p o r t e d t o Mary U r i e Watson t h a t Superintendent was  t a l k i n g about having more rooms equipped  course  (Berry, 1905d).  In the f i r s t  year of  Argue  and a l o n g e r domestic  s c i e n c e i n Vancouver, Berry r e c e i v e d over f o u r hundred visitors  ( L i g h t f o o t & Maynard, 1971).  The Vancouver  School  Board had made attendance  compulsory f o r f o u r t h and  grade g i r l s at the outset  ("Vancouver g i r l s t o l e a r n " ,  1905) .  When t r a n s p o r t i n g p u p i l s t o woodwork and  c e n t r e s became too c o s t l y , the Vancouver School d e c i d e d to p r o v i d e accommodation i n a l l new  fifth  cookery Board  schools f o r  these s u b j e c t s and r e q u i r e the i n s t r u c t o r s to move about  32  (ARPS, 1906-1907, p. A38). was  deemed worthy  Sewing i n the elementary  of a s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r , A l i c e Boorman, by  the V i c t o r i a School Board i n 1907 By 1909  (ARPS, 1906-1907, p. A41).  E l i z a b e t h Berry had a p p a r e n t l y charmed the  school trustees s u f f i c i e n t l y ,  (ARPS, 1909-1910, p.A36). s c h o o l s t o more advanced  Vancouver  t o use Mary U r i e Watson's  phrase, t o have sewing o f f e r e d i n the Vancouver  high schools  The movement from elementary domestic s c i e n c e programs i n h i g h  s c h o o l s p a r a l l e l e d advanced 1907-1908,  grades  manual t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s  (ARPS,  p.B34).  The aim of the domestic s c i e n c e p u b l i c s c h o o l program between 1903 t o improve  and 1916  was  to teach p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s  i n order  l i v i n g standards; t o "develop those household  a r t s upon which depends so much the w e l f a r e , p r o s p e r i t y even the happiness of the f a m i l y " p. 8).  Through  home economics  ("Domestic S c i e n c e " ,  conditions.  A p u p i l of sewing i n 1915  of f a b r i c with the needle" r e p o r t e r t o a Vancouver was  Conformity and  over r e l e v a n c e t o r e a l  t o gather a s i x - y a r d p e t t i c o a t  1903,  i n s t r u c t i o n the l i v e s of  i n d i v i d u a l s i n f a m i l i e s would be improved. o r d e r l i n e s s took precedence  and  frill  life  recalled learning  by " s t r o k i n g every  (Gibbon, 1989).  how fold  A visiting  domestic s c i e n c e classroom i n  1912  c a p t i v a t e d by the u n i f o r m i t y of a " c l a s s i n omelets". My  omelet dream came t r u e l a s t week when I had the  p l e a s u r e of v i s i t i n g  [a domestic s c i e n c e c l a s s ]  and  watching s i x t e e n young g i r l s make s i x t e e n d i s t i n c t separate omelets.... t o anyone who  and  had gone t o s c h o o l i n  33  the  days  when  housekeeping were and  p a s s e d  t h e were  i n  a  a r i t h m e t i c ,  i n t e r e s t i n g c l a s s e s making  i n  w h i t e s  t o  t e s t " ,  t h e  " c a t e c h i s m g o a l s  a p p a r e n t l y would  of  b e i n g  m o t i v a t e A  sewing  r e p o r t e r  h a d  The  Comment",  c e r t a i n  t h e i r  main  and  o b s e r v e r ,  was  i n  t h e  A l l  h a d  f a r  b e h i n d  . . . a s  S u p e r v i s o r  [said]  of  been  i t  i s  an  t e l l s  me  wonders  i n  t h a t  s e l f - r e l i a n t .  t o  t h e i r  and  r a i s i n g An a  t h e  garments,  enough  were  t h e  which  home  everyone  d o l l ' s  same  t h a t  some economics  t o  i n t e r m e d i a t e  sewing  t o  i n t e r e s t . by  that  desks  s u b j e c t  t h e i r l a t e r  "put  wearisome  i n d i c a t e d  was  t h e  sewing  c l a s s  undergarments.  a c c o r d i n g  t o  t h e  c o l o u r .  white  t o  t o  be  one  n e a t n e s s . . . . Some  t h a t  week  1912b)  f u l l  and  s p e l l i n g  d e c i d e d  B e r r y  l e g i t i m a t e  s t a n d a r d .  five)  i n  a  a  i n s t r u c t i o n  standards  hands  d i f f e r e n c e  a  i s  seemed  and m a i n t a i n  attended  m i d d l e - c l a s s four  eggs"  was  It  hours  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  r e t u r n e d  met.  t h e  and  9)  g i r l s  s c i e n c e  sewing  w r i t i n g ,  worked  c l e a n l y p.  and when  of  M i s s  have  domestic  ("Casual  t e a c h e r s  then  r e g a r d i n g  c l a s s  l a c k e d  (grades  and  students  s t u d e n t s  d e s i r e d  and  s i x t e e n  the  and  omelets"  s c i e n c e  neat  t h e  of  w a t c h . . . .  1912a,  which  but  i n  Comment",  i n  c o o k i n g  r e p e t i t i o n  c l a s s t o  p u p i l s  manner  a  " a  of  thought  weary  t h i n g  The  answer  not  domestic  t h e  ("Casual  t e a c h i n g  s t a r t  w i t h  d e s c r i b e d must  keep  c h i l d r e n  unpleasant  duty  a r e t o  but  some  only  as  h a r p i n g so  had  t o  so  g r i m y . . . T h e on  u n t i d y  have  f a l l e n  t h i s and  bend  s u b j e c t u n c l e a n over  34  them, they  and  one  must  have.  i n s t r u c t . The  reasons  been  as  hands  s i m p l e  s u i t a b l e  As  t h e as  home  home  s o r t  a r e  a  Comment",  d i f f e r e n c e s  whether  r e c e s s ,  what  Others  ("Casual  f o r  a f t e r  wonders  b u t  a  d e l i g h t  i n  t h e h a d  became  E l i z a b e t h  Berry  complained  t h a t  many  of  h e r  v i s i t o r s  mean  c o o k i n g  "no  more  p r o c e s s h e r  document  Department  of  course  of  Department  of  i n c l u d e d  c l e a r  t h e  t o w e l  a n d  c o u l d  h i s  t o  o r  have  h e r about  equipment f o r  This  p r a c t i c a l have  grades,  see  p l a n s move  by  f o r t o  She  t h e  a r e  a p p l i c a t i o n  set  i n  i s  memory"  t h e  f i r s t  r e l a t i n g  t r a c k  of  h a v i n g one  one  c i t y ,  a p p r o v a l  t o  and t h e  f o r m a l i z a t i o n  needlework c a p ,  apron,  completed t h e  only  i n  t h e  s l e e v e s ,  [ f i r s t ] . . . . A s mordant  p r i n c i p l e s  an  Columbia  r u l e s  i n  t o  w r i t i n g  1912  expenses,  s c h o o l s  t a k i n g  that  " p r a c t i c a l  t h e  of  Watson  s c i e n c e  ( B r i t i s h  k e e p i n g  U r i e  1905e).  By  of  p r e s c r i p t i o n :  been  and p o t - h o l d e r  t h i n g s  a l l  Mary  s u b j e c t  l i s t  and  problems  domestic  t h e  A  i n c l u d e d  E d u c a t i o n .  t o  (Berry,  w r i t t e n  and b u i l d i n g  p u p i l s  p r e v i o u s  a t  judgments  b l a c k b o a r d .  1912).  r e c o g n i z e d  c o u r s e  If  t h e  c e n t r e s  s u b m i t t i n g  a  on  h a d been  v i s i t o r s , work  l e s s "  f o r m a l i z i n g  E d u c a t i o n ,  s c i e n c e  a t t e n d a n c e ,  look  9)  encountered  c o n s i d e r e d  and no  of  course  c u r r i c u l u m  domestic  mothers  environments.  d e f i n i t i o n .  of  p.  moral  i t  o u t l i n e  t o  washed  grew,  t h e  and  garments  economics  s t a r t e d  homes  1912b,  c h i l d  they  of  s h o u l d  which be  w i l l taught  t o  35  i n  c o n j u n c t i o n  q u i c k , must  f r e e  be  a c t i v e  t o  ( B r i t i s h  1912,  38)  appointments  Vancouver of  s c h o o l s  and Annie  V i c t o r i a Mary  p u p i l s .  was  p u t  i n  U r i e  i n  Nova  School 1964)  of and  (Wilson, home i n  have  been  1913-14,  Over  a d d i t i o n  E d u c a t i o n h i g h  Annie i n  3000  p.  t h e  at  t h e  s c i e n c e  t h e  t h e t h e  i n  s t a t u s  t h e  of  l i k e  s e v e r a l  Dean  C o l l e g e  f i r s t G i r l s '  Textbook  and  i n  Macdonald  were  and  Vancouver  s c h o o l  of  t h e  (Rowles,  A g r i c u l t u r a l  manual  Free  i n  J u n i p e r ,  a  t h e  E d u c a t i o n ,  work  and h a d been  wrote  of  e x p e r i e n c e  A 4 3 ) .  Manitoba  of  of  d o .  c l o s e l y  s u p e r v i s o r s  much  at  as  t o  departments  j u n c t u r e  Columbia,  c o p i e s  l e s s o n s  i n c r e a s e  Macdonald  J u n i p e r  by  of  Cooking  a b i l i t y  s u p e r v i s e d  domestic  t h e  B r i t i s h  C o l l e g e  textbook Home  Manual,  r e p o r t e d  Branch  f o r  t o  (ARPS,  A 7 4 ) .  t o  attendance p r o v i s i o n  c u r r i c u l u m  s c h o o l  lady  1905)  S c i e n c e  an  s c i e n c e  had worked  (Beckwith,  a t  other  Develop  l e s s o n s .  Department  1910-11,  She  d i s t r i b u t e d p.  of  a l l  t h e  B e r r y  " a  c o o k e r y . . . .  c h i l d  i n d i c a t e d  p e r s o n i f i e d  1966).  Compulsory i n  (ARPS,  S u p e r v i s o r  i n  domestic  charge  Domestic  economics  1913.  of  e v e n t s .  t h e  Columbia  E l i z a b e t h  i n  1911  S c o t i a  done  of  i n  a r t i c u l a t e  J u n i p e r  Watson,  e d u c a t i o n a l  a c t i o n  and V i c t o r i a  numbers  s k i l l "  p r a c t i c e  g i v i n g  those  s c h o o l .  The b o t h  work  s h o u l d  p o s s i b l e  p.  t h e  independent  E x p l a n a t i o n s as  w i t h  entrance]  of  s t a t e d from  and e x a m i n a t i o n s a  t e x t .  t h a t  The  "female  s c h o o l s  where  were  i n i t i a t e d  Department  of  c a n d i d a t e s  [ f o r  domestic  s c i e n c e  36  i n s t r u c t i o n  has  diplomas  f u l f i l  or  attendance  and  E d u c a t i o n ,  1912,  I n s p e c t o r  of  i n f l u e n c e  upon  c l a s s e s " account  f o r  of  needlework  of  phases  of  the  Annual  Report  monthly the  B e r r y ' s was  f o r  and  p l a c e  Manual  r e p o r t . e n t r e a t e d  of  the  w e l l  Vancouver  as  t r a i n i n g as  and  t e a c h e r s  a c c e p t e d .  Harry  T r a i n i n g  v o i c e d  In  a  them  d i r e c t not  to  that  p.  A62).  c o n c e r n  i n  g r a d u a l l y p r a c t i c a l and  other  School  p.  Trustees  63).  appear t h i s  B e r r y  on  step  the would  course  i t  of  " e d u c a t i v e  the  about  g i v e  d e s e r v e s " .  l e g i t i m a t i o n  of  s i d e " home  i n s t r u c t i o n . economics  i n  t h i s  statement two  t e a c h e r s  a d d i t i o n  D u n n e l l ,  leave  of  to  academic  home  i n t o  i n s t r u c t i o n  would  1913,  s c h o o l  p r a c t i c a l  t r a i n i n g ]  1913-14,  Board  e x i s t e n c e  f o r  "wholesome  c l o t h i n g  s c i e n c e  our  the  need  i n  of  t a k e n  t e c h n i c a l  R e p o r t ] ,  s p e c u l a t e d i n  a  . . . [ i n c l u d i n g ]  t a s t e  •  Vancouver  e x p r e s s e d  t e a c h e r s  domestic  to  manual  b e i n g  (ARPS,  on  s i d e  Annual  c a r d  of  the  good (  and  was  as  the  r e p o r t e d  r e p o r t ,  spent  that  s u b j e c t "  r e c o g n i z e d  s u b j e c t s of  b e i n g  [VBST  as  Manual be  1913  her  r e c o g n i t i o n  economics  to  i n  t e x t i l e s ,  e v i d e n c e  work  S c i e n c e  Department  l a t e r  s c i e n c e  e n t r a n c e  e d u c a t i v e  "the  years  Gordon,  y e a r ' s  hoped  r e p o r t  s u b j e c t  J . S .  Domestic  requirements  s c h o o l  time  p l a n s  h o l d  Columbia  Two  [domestic  the  "the  knowledge  noted  39).  the  and  i n c o r p o r a t e  a l s o  ( B r i t i s h  S c h o o l s ,  h i g h  must  Departmental  p.  B e r r y ,  amount  g i v e n  work"  because  E l i z a b e t h the  been  the  concern to  h a v i n g  p r o v i n c i a l i n  s c h o o l  members  to  s t r u g g l e d  h i s  t h e i r S u p e r v i s o r  1914  annual  p r i n c i p a l s , of  t h e i r  s t a f f  D u n n e l l out  37  of  t e a c h e r s '  s c i e n c e any  i n s t r u c t o r s .  d i r e c t  w i l l  do  o t h e r ' s  meetings  b e a r i n g  n e i t h e r work,  1913-14,  p.  on  a l l  A59).  f o r  boys,  the  i n f e r i o r i t y  the  "Many  any are  Even  i t  manual of  t h e i r  p a r t y  as  men  -  of  your  work"  harm  to  s t r i v i n g though  encountered p r a c t i c a l  t r a i n i n g  domestic  d i s c u s s i o n s wrote  f o r  not  "but  i n t e r e s t e d  the  same  was  academic  b i a s  have i t  i n  end"  t r a i n i n g  same  s u b j e c t s  may  D u n n e l l ,  become  manual  the  and  each  (ARPS, t a u g h t  by  about  t h a t  p l a g u e d  home  home  economics  economics. The  r o l e s  changing  i n  the  i n t e g r a t i n g t h a t  i t  e d u c a t i o n and  t h e i r  to  i n t e g r a t i o n  -  through  of  use  economics  and  l e g i t i m a t e  Home  Her  the  the  a  system,  s c h o o l  whole  1907)  the  formal  academic  Yet, were  of  i n  s u b j e c t s  had  drawn  and had  s c h o o l  to  without  to  of  to  adapt  to  e d u c a t i o n  p e r s o n a l i z e -  head,  to the  heart  v a l i d a t e v e r y  i n d i v i d u a l  and  p r o o f  of  worth  e x a m i n a t i o n s . be  were  the  p r a c t i c a l  order  c o n f o r m i t y ,  t r a i n i n g  b e i n g  they  to  a n t i t h e s i s  textbooks  than  i n d i v i d u a l l y ,  c h i l d  .  t e a c h e r s  r e g u l a t i o n ,  manual  proponents  students  the  were  and  Rather  o r i g i n a l  "send  which  t r a i n i n g  system.  motivate  s u b j e c t s ,  p r a c t i c a l  i n  (Robertson,  t e c h n i q u e s  w i t h  s c h o o l  The  and  hand"  manual  f a c t o r s  system.  i n t e n d e d  of  Home  r e c o g n i z e d  l o s i n g  t h e i r  as e s s e n t i a l  f o c u s .  economics unexpected  presence  and  i n  B r i t i s h  r e s i d e n c y  c r e d e n t i a l s  Columbia of  A l i c e  measurably  r e c e i v e d R a v e n h i l l i n c r e a s e d  a  boost  i n the  1 9 1 1 .  7  s t a t u s  38  of  home  economics  R a v e n h i l l Women LCW an  M i n u t e s ] ,  t h e  one  L o c a l  1911a,  honourary  member  h i r e d  A l i c e  domestic  hundred  1912a).  Columbia  her  view  home  The  V i c t o r i a  d i g n i t y p l a c e  o f  i n  p h y s i c a l t h i s ,  be  1931,  p . By  b u t  t h i n g s w e l l  share  pure  home  a  whole  only  be  o f  t h e  were  Every i n  of  as  o f  o f  t h e  d i g n i f i e d f o r  Because  t h e  h o u s e h o l d  of  l i f e .  something  o f  s e r v i c e "  speech  speech  a  s e t " .  inmate  t h e  o f  o f  M i n u t e s , A  f o u n d a t i o n s  regarded  sum  e v i d e n c e  terms  h a d  1912  s e c t i o n  t h a t  i n  home  where  known.  p h i l o s o p h y  spoke  t h e  (VBST  gave  i n  l a r g e  economics  account  b e i n g  love  n o t  F e d e r a t i o n  that  s h o u l d  h i s  f o r  t h e  r a t h e r  made  School  l e c t u r e s  s a l a r y  i s  she was  o f  " f a r  home  s h o u l d  o p e r a t i o n s ,  ("Home  b a s i s  n o t " ,  7). such o f  supported  t h e  the  n o t  w a s h i n g . . .  take  d i m e n s i o n  "the  o f  economics  payment  as  argued  s p i r i t u a l  t o  t o  newspaper  a n d  d i s h  l e c t u r e s  Teachers  scheme  mere  h e r  l a t e r  t h e  taught  f o r  of  t h e  o f  [Vancouver  Vancouver  f i v e  month's  C o u n c i l  where  The  p r e s e n t  a  L o c a l  1911d)  f o r  1986) .  Minutes  a r r i v a l .  t o  almost  t h e  Women  1911c, on  economics  b u t  of  t e a c h e r s  " R a v e n h i l l  l i f e  home  beyond  -  C o l o n i s t  t h a t  i n  almost  years  B r i t i s h  i n d i c a t e d  i n v o l v e d  C o u n c i l  s c i e n c e  the  o f  (Tomkins,  1911b,  content  many  p r o v i n c e  R a v e n h i l l  d o l l a r s  The  d e l i v e r e d  t h e  r a p i d l y  (Vancouver  Board to  became  i n  b a s i s  means, home  o f  p r o f e s s i o n  R a v e n h i l l  economics  fundamental n a t i o n a l which  i s  made  i n  e x p l i c i t  B r i t i s h  importance  h e a l t h , pursued  as by  a  of  Columbia. home  b r a n c h n o t  t h e  l e s s  moral She  economics  o f  c i v i c s  than  90  as  and p e r  as cent  39  of  the  women  i n  the  w o r l d "  R a v e n h i l l ' s  d e f i n i t i o n ,  development  of  of  human  " r i g h t  l i f e  c a r e  A l i c e f e m i n i s t home  makes than  and  more  r e p r e s e n t e d  sense  compare  t u r n  of  economics of  a  p r a c t i c a l  the  to  look  her  l i f e  at day  Columbia to  a  improve  c o n t i n u a l  163).  The n a t u r e .  m a t e r n a l  the  of  work  w i t h  view  f o r  argue,  i t  context  feminism  c o n t r i b u t e d  h e a l t h  b e l i e f  and  to  t h a t  s o c i a l  study  i n  the  s t r o n g  w i l l i n g n e s s  i n  a  (1985)  R a v e n h i l l was  p.  n a t i o n ' s  and  feminism  What  c u l t u r e  as  c h o i c e  B a y l i s s  c e n t u r y .  a  to  and  economics  and  s o l u t i o n  and  e x p r e s s i n g  D a n i e l s  B r i t i s h  home  f o r  In  "the  B r i t i s h  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  47)  163).  care  1924,  as  p r e s e n t  the  i n  s t a n d a r d s  p. a  r i g h t  undoubtedly  been  1990,  the  p.  i n c l u d e d  ( R a v e n h i l l ,  was  has  p r o v i d e d  However,  to  r o l e  c u l t u r e "  1924,  economics  through  home"  R a v e n h i l l  economics  women.  the  and  the  (Stewart,  problems  home  e f f i c i e n c y i n  ( R a v e n h i l l ,  of  to  i n  home  the  hygiene  b o l s t e r  i t s  p o s i t i o n . B r i t i s h R a v e n h i l l ' s K i n g ' s  to  U n i v e r s i t y  of  at  of  UBC  a  Economics. p r a c t i c a l  of  B r i t i s h i n  the  such  d e l a y  F a r r i s t r a i n i n g  the  of  i n  C h a i r  days as  of  women  to  documents F a r r i s  attainment the  r e c o g n i z e  at  the  to  t h e i r  of  o p p o s i t i o n economics  C h a i r  i n t r o d u c t i o n  " i m p e r i l l e d  the study  home a  at  t h a t  (1990)  how  of  s c i e n c e  use  Economics  S t e w a r t ' s  t h a t  to  h o u s e h o l d  and  Home  E v l y n  the  b e l i e v e d f o r  f a i l u r e  London,  Columbia.  e a r l y  women  c r u c i a l  a  was  e s t a b l i s h i n g  U n i v e r s i t y  e s t a b l i s h  i n f l u e n t i a l  caused  l o s s  achievement  C o l l e g e ,  e x p e r t i s e  women  C o l u m b i a ' s  of  Home  of  i n t e l l e c t u a l  40  development l e a r n i n g " debate  and  (Stewart,  w i t h  l i b e r a l  l i b e r a l  the  h e a l t h  R a v e n h i l l ,  a r t s  u n t i l  overcome  w i f e  m a s t e r ' s  of  work  and  l i t t l e a f t e r  to  do  about  w i t h  i n  b e n e f i t e d  a  E l i z a b e t h  B e r r y .  economics  c o n f e r e n c e  1912a)  from  " f i l l e d was t o New  which  w i t h  p o s s i b l y t a k e York  1912b).  a  new  a  from A f t e r  of  argued  e d u c a t i o n ,  a  t h a t  why  i f  were  R a v e n h i l l ' s  F a r r i s '  c o n c e r n s ,  Economics  f i n a l l y  r e p u t a t i o n , power  and  but became  R a v e n h i l l  of  E v l y n  p o s s e s s o r  on  the  Columbia her  Board  a t t e n t i o n s  U n i t e d  to  S t a t e s . i n  1989).  the  One  of  a  t o g e t h e r  S e a t t l e  (Vancouver t h a t  to  1912  r e t u r n ,  she  f u r t h e r i n g t h a t  a t t e n d to  B e r r y  to  wrote  system  p r o b a b l y was  home  LCW  M i n u t e s ,  would  r e t u r n  of  l e d  t h e i r  her  home  work".  E l i z a b e t h  1913 i n  r e l a t i v e l y  p r e s e n c e a  Columbia  A p r i l ,  I n s t i t u t e  s c h o o l  who  R a v e n h i l l ' s  i n f l u e n c e  absence  September,  the  had  of  M i n u t e s ,  Women's  p e r s o n  t r a v e l l e d  f o r  LCW  p u b l i c  They  r e p o r t e d  Governors  She  from  i n  A l i c e  of  (Vancouver  d e a l  i d e a s  her  t u r n  p o l i t i c a l  economics  B e r r y  of  Home  seat  the  R a v e n h i l l ' s  l e a v e  b e n e f i t s  low?  over  newspaper  p h i l o s o p h y .  (Smith,  g r e a t  i n  A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  home  1915  of  l o c a l  t u r n e d  l e c t u r i n g  out  1914  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  B r i t i s h  R a v e n h i l l  so  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  a  i n  e f f e c t i v e  C h a i r  d e n i e d  of  In  R a v e n h i l l  won  her  of  u p h e l d  Canada  the  i n  b e i n g  U n i v e r s i t y  1912b),  i n  a  the  degree  A f t e r the  when  D e s p i t e  not  so  v a l u e  45).  F a r r i s  e v e n t u a l l y  1943  permanent.  F a r r i s ,  were  the p.  A l i c e  s t a n d a r d s  p r a c t i c a l i t y  c o u l d  1990,  e d u c a t i o n .  the  not  endangered  B e r r y  U n i v e r s i t y (VBST  It  i n  M i n u t e s ,  annual  r e p o r t  41  t h a t  "the  courses 1913,  of  p.  A  f u t u r e study  b e g i n s  p e r s o n  Columbia  O r g a n i z e r  f o r  the  c u l t u r a l  a e s t h e t i c s P a r t  domestic  and  u n t i l  as  were  (VBST  of  our  Annual  p o l i t i c a l l y  A l e x a n d e r  r e g a r d e d  c o n t r i v e Dove  might  be  t e a c h  drawing  language K y l e  met  and  Report,  ways  the  and  e i g h t  had  p.  though  not  Even  of  by  the  the  to  had the  the  and  the  (ARPS, c i t i e s  the  only  of  were  p.  to School and  expense  a b l e  A39).  to  t e a c h e r , In  1915  r u r a l  c e n t r e s  of  added  s c i e n c e  1915-1916,  m a j o r i t y  had  I n s p e c t o r  t e a c h e r  s c i e n c e  o b t a i n i n g  f a v o u r a b l y  domestic  s c i e n c e  s e t t i n g  c e n t r e s .  i t .  nine  boards  c e n t r e s .  of  of  s u p p o r t e r s  s c i e n c e  s c h o o l  expense  problem  and  added  domestic  e s t a b l i s h  t r a i n i n g  K y l e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the  very  a f t e r  economics.  d i f f i c u l t y  s c i e n c e  domestic to  home  i n c l u d e d  Vancouver  that  domestic  a c c e s s i b l e  t e a c h  e s t a b l i s h i n g  s c i e n c e  l i t e r a t u r e  r e p o r t e d  to  l o c a l  and  manual  e d u c a t i o n  background,  economics  of  of  g r a c e s  order  suggested  i f  a r t  i n  E d u c a t i o n  of  domestic  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s A88).  i n  economics  T e c h n i c a l  c o n s t r a i n e d  Home  home  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and  rooms  manouevre  to  good  V i c t o r i a  t e a c h e r s .  s t i l l  b r i g h t "  p o s i t i o n  The  the  q u a l i f i e d  John  school]  department  reason  K y l e ' s  on  r e g i o n s  i n s p e c t o r s  a  s c i e n c e .  1913  K y l e ,  e x t e n s i v e  p r o p e r l y - e q u i p p e d  t r i e d  [high  i n f l u e n c e d  John  h i s  of  r e s t e d  O u t l y i n g up  look  p r o v i n c i a l  Through  c e n t r e s  b r a n c h  to  who  was  1915.®  f o r  t h i s  64).  second  B r i t i s h  f o r  had  (ARPS, expanded,  s t u d e n t s .  1914-15, i t  was  F i g u r e s  42  o b t a i n e d t h a t of  from  about  3912)  about  were  e n r o l l e d  h a l f a  i n  t o  t h e  sewing grade by  were  thought  t e a c h i n g  was s e t  of  t h e i r  i n  some  1915-16, Vancouver  a l t h o u g h  f o r  any  subject"(VBST  n o t e d f i r m  t h a t  an  T r a i n i n g V i c t o r i a e x p r e s s l y  from  f o r  The  and A l i c e  r u r a l  t o  t e a c h e r s  c o u r s e ,  Boorman,  among  6000 home  out  access  i t .  In  t o  t o  under  t h e  g u i d a n c e  A74).  K y l e  s e v e r a l of  was  and  p r o v i d e d amount  program  taught  w o r k i n g  t h e  no  more  f o r p.  t e a c h i n g  6 3 ) .  depended  She on  a  i n s t r u c t i o n .  d o m e s t i c i n  Annie  o t h e r s ,  E l i z a b e t h  f o r  i m p e r a t i v e .  f e a t u r e d  t h e  t e c h n i c a l  was  than  1917,  s c h o o l  by  up  Sewing  sewing  was  1915-16  s u p e r v i s o r .  Report,  than  workshops. s e t  "vast  a  r u r a l  had  be  of  economics l e s s  sewing  taught  a t t e n d a n c e  t h a t  s c h o o l  1914  t h a t  program,  i n d i c a t e d  s h o u l d a  t h e  under  and V i c t o r i a  t e a c h e r s of  i n  (801  e l e m e n t a r y  Ridge  p.  elementary  S c h o o l  d i r e c t e d  a  Annual h i g h  s t u d e n t s  t r a i n i n g  elementary  advanced  Summer  s p e c i a l i s t s . B e r r y  t e a c h i n g  f o u n d a t i o n  by  t h e of  a v a i l a b l e  s c h o o l s  t r a i n i n g  sewing,  had  i n d i c a t e  s t u d e n t s  p a r t  (just  f i g u r e s  manual  m a i n t a i n e d  In  Assuming  and Maple  n e c e s s a r y o t h e r  s c i e n c e  made up  (ARPS,  t e a c h e r s  s t a n d a r d s B e r r y  i n  t e a c h e r s  grade  t h e  C h i l l i w a c k  c l a s s e s  a l l  p o p u l a t i o n  grant t o  of  1914-15  s c h o o l  l a r g e r  5 2 , 0 0 0 ) .  g i r l s ,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t  of  s c h o o l  government  n o t e d  d o m e s t i c  h i g h  f o r  s c i e n c e .  t h e  cent  Report  a l l  domestic  p e r  p o p u l a t i o n  of  of  c o n s t i t u t e d  e l e v e n  l i m i t e d  S c h o o l s  p e r c e n t  t a k i n g  w h i c h  o n l y  was  P u b l i c  twenty  were  s c h o o l s ,  s c h o o l  t h e  The  f i r s t  s c i e n c e  d i s t r i c t s  w i t h  J u n i p e r ,  E l i z a b e t h  a c c o u n t e d  f o r  113  no  out  43  of  the  p.  A56).  the  t o t a l  Domestic  new  Normal who  summer  V i c t o r i a S c h o o l  w i s h e d  a l l o w e d (ARPS,  to  q u a l i f y  do  so  about  i n d i c a t e d  t h a t  one  year,  Winnipeg (Kyle, of  or  i s  and  s i m i l a r  School] made  to  t h a t on  be  u s e d  c r e d i t  was  John i t s  from  the  K y l e ' s  e x p a n s i o n .  of  f o r  some  of  take  the  s c i e n c e and  the  be  found  the  w i l l  be  p r o m i s e ; School  c h e c k i n g  f i e l d i n g  a  School  He  d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g f o r  i n  the  at  l e a s t  S c h o o l  "Such  a  U n i v e r s i t y , and  to  when  K i n g  1918-19,  p.  of  a  t h i s  g i r l s  to  Edward A78).  economics  t r a i n i n g .  New  one of  enable  [at  i n  Toronto  U n i v e r s i t y  home  and  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  l e v e l .  course  (ARPS,  c l a s s e s  A g r i c u l t u r a l  completed  Home-makers  t e a c h e r s  Saturday  grades  England the  Vancouver  q u a l i f i e d .  f o r  to  be  and  Columbia  i n t o  added  t e a c h e r s  t e a c h e r ' s  u n i v e r s i t y i n  the t h a t  become  c a l l e d  U n i v e r s i t y ,  h i s  to  1914-15,  were  i n c l u d e d  o r d i n a r y at  to  suggested  M a s s e y - T r e b l e  at  High K y l e  c r e d i t s  M a t r i c u l a t i o n  away.  support He  and  becoming  t r a i n i n g  Normal  years  1915  r e g u l a r  i n  (ARPS,  f a c i l i t i e s  job  route  i n s t i t u t i o n "  p a r t  513  o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e  i n t r o d u c e d  arrangements  good  c o u l d  London  of  s c h o o l  r e p e a t e d l y  to  i s  n i g h t  K y l e ' s  L i l l i a n  a l r e a d y  m a t r i c u l a t e  domestic  taught  s c i e n c e  n a t u r e  P r o v i n c e  as  to  K y l e  a l s o  K y l e  approved  s p e c i a l  1921).  course  John  p r o c e s s  was  the  h o u s e h o l d  York  the  h a v i n g get  ^  A74).  the  t e a c h e r  a f t e r  i n  through p.  t e a c h i n g  School  o b t a i n e d  e n q u i r i e s  then  1928.  to  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  enrolment  s c i e n c e  Normal  i n  1915-16,  s c i e n c e  s c h o o l  of  w i l l i n g l y  home  economics  t r a v e l l e d  was  around  c r u c i a l the  to  p r o v i n c e  44  s p e a k i n g w e l l  as  on  1922,  importance  p r a c t i c a l  p r o g r e s s i v e d o i n g ;  t h e  e d u c a t i o n  r e a d i n g p.  l i n e s "  1).  about K y l e  one  w i t h  e d u c a t i o n (Kyle, f o r  women's t o  1922,  g i r l s  second  p.  K y l e  t h e  g i v e s  e v i d e n c e  and  1).  1).  domestic  a l o n g l i n e s  An  h i s  e d u c a t i o n a l  i n c u l c a t e s  eye  and mind  the  work  not  t e c h n i c a l  of  t o  t o  a  t h i s  t h e  them  adjustment  e d u c a t i o n  i s  t h e i r  and  e d u c a t i o n s c i e n c e . . . and  Cowichan on  (Kyle,  Leader  manual  t r a i n i n g  make  t h e  i n i t i a t i v e f o r  human  c a l l e d  i s  s i m p l y  added].  of  economics Columbia  e f f e c t s  e d u c a t i o n u n t i l  of  t h e  developed  economic  F i r s t  World  c o n f i d e n t l y  r e c e s s i o n  i n  i n  1916.10  home  B r i t i s h when  and  e d u c a t i o n ,  (Kyle,  War,  hand,  young,  Retrenchment and D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e  and  good  adjustments  t h e  [emphasis  i n  date)  D e s p i t e  " a t  n a t u r e s "  e n d . . . . P r i d e  which  when  was  o c c u p a t i o n "  develops  i n t e n d e d  t r a i n e d  s t a t e  w i t h  a s :  p r a c t i c a l  q u a l i t i e s  t h e  household  f o r  a m b i t i o n ,  changed  of  by  (Kyle,  h a d  l i n e s  p e r s p e c t i v e  viewed  be  two  l e a r n s  o r d e r "  i n  as  s u p p o r t e d  o p p o r t u n i t y  i n d u s t r i a l  He  c i t i z e n s h i p . . . . N a t u r e  of  f o r  of  w r i t t e n  f i r e s  those  some  i n  i m p l a n t e d  l i n e s  Deweyan  means  work  demands  He  f i r s t  work  i n t e r e s t  " a r t i s t i c  1915).  l a s t  a c c e p t e d  t h e of  s c i e n c e .  c r e a t i v e  t h e  a l o n g  c h i l d  women's  powers  a r t i c l e  of  " t h e comes  j u s t i f i a b l e t h e  p.  M i n u t e s ,  how  develop  1922,  (VBST  methods  a n d how  - " f i r s t  a l o n g  e d u c a t i o n  i d e a l s :  noted  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  of  t h e  no  45  p r o v i n c i a l  c o f f e r s  economics  which  of  Boards  School  move  of  t h e  of  t h e  M i n u t e s ,  of  t o  Gordon,  s c i e n c e  t h e  f o u n d , "  s t a f f  of  t h e  wrote  t e a c h i n g  1914-15,  p.  t h e  " s i n c e  L o c a l  C o u n c i l  departments  i n  t h e  t h e  e n t i r e  p r e s e n t  both  s i d e s  anyway,  w i t h  t h e  (VBST of  M i n u t e s ,  p r a c t i c a l  i n t r o d u c t i o n Board.  An  of had  1916a). e d u c a t i o n and  t o  t o  manual been  had  i n t e r e s t i n g  means  s p i t e  t h e  t h e  of  consequence  at of  t o  w e l l "  LCW  d i s m i s s a l s  (ARPS,  t o  s c i e n c e  as  t h e  whim  these 1916b).  meeting took i t s  s e n s i t i v e  t h e  do  impending  M i n u t e s ,  r e i n f o r c e d .  was  a b l e  e s t a b l i s h i n g  an  an  "We  o b l i g a t e d  "retrenchment"  been  domestic  domestic  LCW  p o l i t i c a l l y  1915  of  were as  was  t h a t  s c h o o l .  and  attended  i s s u e ,  In  s u p e r v i s o r s  f e l t  (Vancouver  c o n t i n u a t i o n  d i s m i s s a l s  and  i n  t h e  LCW  t r a i n i n g  of  Women  drew  f o r  h i g h  word  The  1916  Schools  t h e  t r a i n i n g  c i t i n g  t h e  s u p e r v i s i n g  of  t h e  i n  s u p e r v i s o r s  Board  The  of  another  C o u n c i l  g o o d w i l l  s u p e r v i s o r s .  by  r e c e i v i n g  t h e  f o r  home  a l l  (Vancouver  r e q u i r e d  t h e  as  f r i l l s ' .  d i s m i s s  manual  t h e i r  School  Board  t h e  p l a n n e d been  and  s u b j e c t s  reason  i n  s c h o o l s "  of  t o  such  f i n a n c i a l  "fads  I n s p e c t o r  " t h a t  Upon  t h e  Women  of  work  not  a t t e n d  i n t e r e s t s  t h e  A l t h o u g h  and  as  of  t h e  programs  Gordon,  t h e  of  w e l l  had  A 4 9 ) .  d i s m i s s a l s , guard  so  on  Board  C o u n c i l  t h a t  s u b j e c t s  e d u c a t i o n  M u n i c i p a l  been  i n  expansion  School  competency  r e p o r t e d  had  i n c r e a s e  a t t a c k e d  Part  t h e  d e p l e t e d , h e a v i l y  p r a c t i c a l  1916a).  Vancouver  the  were  Vancouver  a t t r i b u t e d J . S .  depended  Vancouver  s u p e r v i s o r s i r e  became  t o  p l a c e reason  p o s i t i o n  I t s of  whole  t h e  School  matter  was  a  46  l a t e r  request  from  appoint  t o  w i l l  competent  be  s c h o o l s "  t h e  t h e  p r o v i n c i a l  (VBST  t o  M i n u t e s ,  John  Columbia  DeLong,  h o u s e h o l d academic  year,  c l a s s "  s i n c e  at  anyway  t o o  e a r l y  domestic  an  age  s c i e n c e  t o  t h e t o  May  (ARPS,  1917-18,  p .  was  ambiguous.  commented  on  p r a c t i c a l  work  i n  who  t h e  High of  i n  p.  of  t o  In  t o  f o r  o f  t h e  t h e  same  commencing  extend  d i s t r i c t  boys  o f  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  c o o k i n g  e f f o r t a  g i r l s demanded  D19).  i n  I n s p e c t o r ,  meet  about  S a a n i c h ,  o f f e r e d  a s k i n g  d i d n o t  complained l a c k  School  geometry  1917-18,  s c h o o l i n g  where  s i x  years  p r a c t i c a l Dove,  e d u c a t i o n t h e  " r e s t l e s s  i n  t h e  I n s p e c t o r  c r i t i c i s m  o f  f o r t h e  s c h o o l  system  Kamloops p r e s s "  about  s u b j e c t s .  I n s i s t e n c e  h a s been  l a i d  on  more  e d u c a t i o n  s h o u l d  be  made  c u r r i c u l a  s h o u l d  be  denuded  c o n v e r t i b l e p r a c t i c a l the  woman  t o  D 2 3 ) .  A . J . t h e  E d u c a t i o n  " a  e d u c a t i o n  t h e  course  g i r l s  h a d been  o f  economics  "wisdom  and t h e  t r a i n i n g  r o l e  of  i n s p e c t o r s  The  cover  t h e  manual  The  M i n i s t e r  p r a c t i c a l  (ARPS,  W.H.  of  home  was growing.  c l a s s e s  I n s p e c t o r  s t a f f  w i t h  a r t s  t h e  1916b).  q u e s t i o n e d  r e q u i r e m e n t s  t o  i n s p e c t  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n B r i t i s h  Board  b e s t  d o l l a r s  e d u c a t i o n o f  merely  puts  18,  D31)  p .  t o  t h e a  man  t o o l  i s  of  s u g g e s t i o n  t h a t  " p r a c t i c a l ' .  Our  a l l s t u d i e s  n o t  and c e n t s . . . . [ I n  fact]  t h a t  t h e  [ s i c ] i n  t h e  which  h i m s e l f ,  h i s hand  f o r  makes n o t  t h a t  l i v i n g .  d i r e c t l y t h e  most  most a n d  which (ARPS,  1917-  47  C o u l d  p r a c t i c a l  t e a c h  a  taught  t e c h n i c a l i n  a  I n s p e c t o r "human  an  t e a c h e r s s u b j e c t  are  K y l e t o  p e d a g o g i c a l l y  r e p o r t e d  a  economics  year  b e i n g were  l a t e r t o  d u r i n g  f r e q u e n t l y K y l e  noted  (ARPS,  p l a n  t h e i r  f i r s t  a  c e r t a i n  r e p e t i t i o n  and a  t h a t  i s  known".  needed  i n  order  the  wearing  the  h i r i n g  home  1918-19, of  of o f  economics  a l r e a d y  a l r e a d y  i n p .  q u a l i t y  t o  develop  aprons, a  who would  C 8 4 ) . i n  as  domestic  be w e l l  Other  l a c k  In  h a b i t s  caps  p .  t o  of  and t h i m b l e s .  as  organize  i n s p e c t o r s  s c i e n c e  o f  t o  t o  a  t h r e e t h a t  K y l e  s u i t  t h e i r  t h e o r y  study  1918-19,  p a i d  unknown more  Kyle  t o upon  care  r e p r o a c h "  was r e g a r d i n g  c a l l e d t e a c h e r  i n s p e c t  t h e  new c l a s s e s "  l a c k  was  o f  (ARPS,  a t t r i b u t e d  c l a s s e s  t h e i r  home  p r o g r e s s i v e t o  D31).  s c i e n c e  c o u r s e s  t h e  "above  competent  p .  a t t e n t i o n  a d d i t i o n  t r a i n e d  themselves  l e s s o n s  much  graded" of  t h a t  D 6 5 ) .  g i v e n  and t h e  b u i l d i n g  "thoroughly  e x i s t e n c e  year  o u t  of  Too  and p o o r l y  " j u d i c i o u s which  course  courses  s e t t i n g ?  l e g i t i m a t e  mapping  them.  i n  domestic  would  be  important  1917-18,  of  freedom  a g a i n s t  h i g h l y  s t u d i e s  (ARPS,  a  by  t o  1917-18,  t h e  "scrappy  s t a t i n g  t h e  "marshal  t h e  f u r t h e r  t h a t  t h a t  h a d worked  taught  C 8 4 ) .  t o  s c h o o l  f a i l u r e  urged  sound"  t e a c h e r s  communities  p.  order  He  d i d n o t  a r t i f i c i a l  p r a c t i c a l  standards  i t  s k i l l s  l e a d i n g  t h e  i f  c o u l d  v a l u e "  c r i t i c i z e d  i n  an  i s s u e  t h a t  a c a d e m i c a l l y .  course  i n  t h e  "human  m a i n t a i n  p r a c t i c a l  A l t e r n a t e l y ,  l i b e r a l ,  b u t  i n s u f f i c i e n t  John  year  was  v a l u e " ,  t r u l y  sense  confused  e d u c a t i o n "  be  s k i l l ?  p r a c t i c a l  Dove  " p r a c t i c a l had  e d u c a t i o n  t h e o f  f o r o f  c l a s s e s (ARPS,  d e c l i n e  s u p e r v i s i o n d u t i e s  by  1917-18,  f o l l o w i n g  E l i z a b e t h  B e r r y  one was very  p r a c t i c a l  a r t s  Elementary t h r i l l e d  from  [The]  Enderby  f o r  h i g h  s c h o o l  a l l t h e  cooked  f u l l y  o f  r e g u l a r  sewing  t e a c h i n g  s u p e r v i s o r  e n t e r  p e r f e c t l y (ARPS,  examples  cooked  of  l i k e l y  a  Gibson t h e  (ARPS,  s e r v e d f o r  a  o f  of  t h e  b r a n c h  t h a t  perhap  e d u c a t i o n  t h e  t r a i n i n g d i n n e r were  f a t t e n e d ,  o f  of  p r a c t i c a l  which  how q u i c k l y  t e a c h e r s  t o  f o r t y  grown  k i l l e d ,  s c h o o l .  i n  t h e  p l u c k e d  The  meal  and w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y o f  s t u d i e s .  meal  would  A  be  t h e  more  h a r d  t o  f i n d  A62)  l e a r n i n g golden  a  r e p o r t  and manual  a n d savory p.  a  nature  D i r e c t o r  s u p e r v i s i o n  fowl  t h i s  t h e  In  c i t e d  c h i l d r e n  i n t o  1917-18,  Gibson,  v e g e t a b l e s  t h e  i n t e g r a t i v e  E d u c a t i o n .  and t h e  by  t h e  students  demonstrated  p u p i l s  J.W.  s c i e n c e  s c h o o l  garden,  w i t h  under  domestic  g u e s t s ,  and  except  Robertson,  a g r i c u l t u r a l ,  was  a n d t h e  happy  A g r i c u l t u r a l J.W.  p r o j e c t  i t  resumption  A 4 0 ) .  No  Such  t h e  by  d o i n g  moment  of  were  t h e  r a r e .  F o r  Gibson,  s h o r t - l i v e d  s c h o o l  p r o j e c t s  nature  1 1 garden  movement.  study,  manual  the  way  seasons, s c h o o l  i n t e g r a t e d  and domestic  o p e r a t e d .  p r a c t i c a l  s c i e n c e  C o n s t r a i n e d  e d u c a t i o n  s i m p l y  by  i n  r a n  c o n t r a r y  f a c i l i t i e s  d i d n o t  f i t  t o  a n d  i n t o  t h e  system.  V i c t o r i a  examples  t r a i n i n g  s c h o o l s  R i l e y ' s i n  T r u l y  o f  1984  study  s c h o o l s t h e  o f  women  between  d i f f i c u l t i e s  1910 of  who took  domestic  and 1930  g e n e r a t e d  l i n k i n g  home  a n d  s c i e n c e v a r i o u s  s c h o o l  49  p r a c t i c e .  As  w e l l  i m p o s i t i o n  of  m i d d l e  respondents  to  was  home  because  nuts  ( R i l e y ,  B e r r y  1984,  of  Board  two  course  major  f o r  c l o t h i n g  language  and  s t u d e n t s  l e a d i n g Events  i n  Board  as  v a l u e  i n c l u d e d  making,  home  and  to  the i n  c o l l a r s  and  to  a r t  1921, the  The  were  of  f o o d ;  never  buy  and  made  c e l e r y  only C h a i r ,  1922  on  l a c k  had  the  had i n to  at or  of  1921,  very  a  K i n g  Edward  "Open  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  by  f l o w e r s  to  c o u r s e s  i n  f o r e i g n p.  l i t t l e ,  " b l i n d  Report,  s a t i n  economics  a t t r i b u t e d  worth  s t a n d a r d s  1921,  Annual  c u f f s ,  the  of  d i e t e t i c s ,  one  (VBST  the  She  r e c o g n i t i o n  t h a t  foods,  b e i n g  Vancouver  i n t e n d e d  Report,  grown  the  home  been  b a s i s  E l i z a b e t h  26).  and  r e p l a c e  i t s  p u b l i c i z i n g  f o r  p.  c r e d i t  Annual  47  1921,  t h r e e - y e a r  s h o u l d  (VBST  i n  s u p e r v i s o r  s a n i t a t i o n ,  course  p r a c t i c a l  dabs"  s a l a d  a f f o r d  School  u n i v e r s i t y  the  economics.  s t u d e n t s  and  improved  The  High  u n i v e r s i t y "  such  p o l i t i c a l It  1917  School to  i n  not  the  r e q u i r i n g  home;  Waldorf  problems;  geometry  enrolment  home  as  d i b s  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  h y g i e n e ,  cookery,  at  Report,  Edward  g i r l s  a  f u l l t i m e  at  p h y s i o l o g y ,  Moody,  a  Annual  a  i n  about  172).  t h e m s e l v e s .  K i n g  of  c o u l d  c o u r s e s  p r e p a r e  The  as  as  than  c o n d i t i o n s  (VBST  economics  the  p.  r e h i r e d  e n c o u n t e r e d home  f a m i l y  q u e s t i o n s  s c i e n c e  " f i n i c k y  r e s u l t  economic  was  School  the  domestic  only  the  r a i s e d  standards  equipment  p r e p a r e  i n d i g e s t i o n  When  more  study  c l a s s  r e c a l l e d  c o n s i d e r a b l y a l l o w e d  the  1920, House"  of the and  home  72). from  by  Irene  a l l e y , p. had  12)  not .  g r e a t  economics.  s t u d e n t s the  17  on  p r o p e r  h a t way  50  to  make  a  1922).  bed  An  i n  a r t i c l e  e x h o r t a t i v e r e c o g n i z e d  as  a  " s c i e n t i f i c  1922,  p.  f i v e  about  the  the  Edward  event  need  to  High  ended  have  s u b j e c t  because  s y s t e m a t i z e d "  and  v a l u e  i t s  ("King  Edward  S c h o o l " ,  w i t h  home  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  a g r i c u l t u r e "  second  t h a t  t e a c h e r s ,  problem  elementary  y e a r s  c l a s s e s  ("King  s e v e r a l  economics  i t  had  was  been  e q u i v a l e n t  High  S c h o o l " ,  10).  The found  minutes  p u b l i c i z i n g  columns  " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y to  f i v e  of  no  S.L. and  was  s t a n d a r d s .  sewing  had  s u p e r v i s i o n .  Mutch,  had  d e t e r m i n e d  E l i z a b e t h  g r e a t l y  d e t e r i o r a t e d  One  of  the  surveyed  41  elementary  t h a t  B e r r y  28  were  d o i n g  vary  from  "bad  home  a f t e r  economics sewing  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  work: The  m a t e r i a l  e d u c a t i o n a l i s  worse  the of  m a t e r i a l s b o t h  J . S .  the  d i f f e r e n t  and  from  wasted.  f o r  because [and]  c l o s e r  of  move  f r e q u e n t l y "  H i g h e r  u s e l e s s  and  u n i f o r m i t y  t e c h n i c a l  a  The  of  l i f e  w o r s e the  -  Annual  i n  12  c a s e s 1920,  c o n s e q u e n t l y  have  d i f f e r e n t  (VBST  s t a n d a r d s  Annual were  i n  a  e s s e n t i a l system  Report, seen  as  they p.  know 80)  s u p e r v i s i o n . from  d e s i r a b l e  spent  o f f e r e d  come  i s  an  knowledge  t e a c h e r s  s u p e r v i s i o n  As  s t a n d p o i n t  S c h o o l s  of  .  l a c k  Report,  Vancouver  1  time  monetary  r e i n t r o d u c t i o n  "the  to  t e a c h e r s  p r a c t i c e  (VBST  I n s p e c t o r  measure so  c h i l d ' s  n o t h i n g .  p l a c e s [that]  the  are  r a t i o n a l e  n e c e s s a r y  i n  theory  Gordon,  f o l l o w i n g  methods  f a c t o r  than  a b s o l u t e l y  was  r e s u l t s  so  to  where  1921,  p.  e s s e n t i a l  the It  many i d e a s  and  s e c u r e  the  c h i l d r e n 26) f o r  .  51  uniformity.  Berry i n c l u d e d an a d d i t i o n a l message i n u r g i n g  g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n between s c h o o l departments:  "The  home economics i s not simply t e a c h i n g "sewing' and alone but Report,  [also] t o teach " r i g h t l i v i n g ' "  1921,  p.  Questions  "cooking'  (VBST Annual  were being r a i s e d about academic l e g i t i m a c y .  r e s o l u t i o n at i t s 1923  annual  F e d e r a t i o n supported  convention  i t proper m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g  a  a s k i n g t h a t the  present home economics course work be r e c o g n i z e d by  I t was  of  72).  The B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher  1923) .  aim  ("Resolutions  giving  passed",  f e l t t h a t t h i s step would r a i s e homemaking i n  the e s t i m a t i o n of a l l g i r l s .  " I f the c r e d i t g i v e n i s not  commensurate with other branches  [of education]  i s i t any  wonder [home economics] i s not h e l d i n much r e s p e c t ? " ("Matriculation c r e d i t " ,  1923,  p. 4).  The  supporters of the  r e s o l u t i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t "[home economics] was e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound as any course and moreover was of  our g i r l s "  i n the g e n e r a l h i g h s c h o o l  a b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the l i f e  ("Recognition  Home economics was values.  of most  of Home Economics", 1923,  a l s o expected  p. 4).  t o t e a c h c e r t a i n moral  The V i c t o r i a C o u n c i l of Women was  "[domestic  as  concerned  science] as taught has not been up to the  that present  as u s e f u l as i t might be to the n a t i o n " ( " V i c t o r i a L o c a l Council",  1924,  p. 3).  A s s o c i a t i o n asked economics q u e s t i o n The  r e s u l t was  The Kelowna  Parent-Teacher  f o r a mass meeting to d i s c u s s the home ("Matriculation c r e d i t " ,  a request to S.J. W i l l i s ,  1923,  p. 4 ) .  Superintendent  of  52  E d u c a t i o n t e a c h i n g u n i f o r m home  f o r of  an  home  The  end  of  K y l e ,  a  homes  The  can  An a  importance  of  the  be  c l a s s ,  and at  was  to  made t h a t  c o u r s e s  run  i n  a  committee  Woman's  home the  r e q u e s t  mothers  r u t " made  o n l y  the up  ("Home t h r e e  to  i n  s c h o o l s  the  the  U n i v e r s i t y  l e v e l  w h i l e 1924,  recommendations:  compulsory  of  home  economics  e c o n o m i c s " ,  t h a t  f o r  they f o r  date  a p p o i n t e d ,  course  was  John  what  home  be  a  of  want  s u p e r v i s o r  t h a t  Weekly,  economics  "the  kept  w i t h  p r a c t i c a l  determine  are  a  c o n f o r m i t y  to  t h a t  the  3).  of on  i n  s e l e c t i n g  e s s e n t i a l  and  t r a i n i n g  These  made  formed,  i n  p.  committee  r e v e a l e d  a p p o i n t e d  e s t a b l i s h e d  was  to  be  Western  p a r e n t s  i n c l i n e d  would  by  A  u s e d  view  r e p o r t e d  s y s t e m a t i c g i v e .  a  1924,  survey  p r o v i n c i a l  economics second  of  methods  . . . w i t h which  economics.  survey  are  p . 4 ) .  the  one  the  e c o n o m i c s " ,  p a r e n t s  g i r l s  c o u r s e  t h a t  of  and  wanted. t h e i r  ("Home  home  t e a c h e r s  and  r e s u l t ,  r e c o g n i t i o n  i n t o  economics  s y l l a b u s ,  methods"  f o c u s  " e n q u i r y  home f i r s t  economics  ("Home  and  be  e c o n o m i c s " ,  1924). The  a c t i o n  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t m a t r i c u l a t i o n (cookery, and  f u l l  of  i n  c r e d i t  p l a c e  ( " R e c o g n i t i o n m a t r i c u l a t i o n  s t u d e n t s  to  go  to  by  S . J .  E d u c a t i o n ,  d i e t e t i c s ,  design)  paper  t a k e n  W i l l i s , i n  r e s o l u t i o n d r e s s m a k i n g of of  the home  c r e d i t . Normal  P r o v i n c i a l  response was  to  and  j u n i o r  School  but  the  accept  four  m i l l i n e r y ,  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  e c o n o m i c s " , J u n i o r  to  1923).  m a t r i c u l a t i o n geometry  was  papers  and  drawing  geometry This  was  e n a b l e d s t i l l  not  r e q u i r e d  f o r  u n i v e r s i t y  q u e s t i o n a b l e  whether  s u b j e c t  as  such  p e n - a n d make  a  These  paper  s t u d e n t s '  m i l l i n e r y t e s t .  p r a c t i c a l concerns  e n t r a n c e .  s u b j e c t  were  not  w e l l ,  knowledge  c o u l d  Did  As  the  be  i t  of  a  adequately  mere  f a c t  e q u i v a l e n t  to  of an  was p r a c t i c a l examined  b e i n g  i n  a  examinable  academic  one?  a d d r e s s e d .  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Home Economics i n t h e Schools Between  1903  economics  i n  and  a t t r i b u t e s .  moral  about  the  v a l u e  S u p e r v i s o r Teacher  the  and  of  s c h o o l  of  Home  a r t i c l e  t r a i n e d  u n i v e r s i t y  c o u r s e  to  those  would  "never  (Mackay, B.C.  who  f e e l  1924,  Teacher,  p.  the  system A l i c e  domestic  home  i n i n  a  the  embraced  c l e a n i n g ,  needlework  best  much and  more  i n c l u d e d  b i o l o g y ,  c h e m i s t r y ,  a s p i r e  to  a  than  r e s o u r c e s  to  the  of  a  scope  s u f f i c e  f o r  t h e i r  up  of  of  the  the  home  c o o k i n g , T h e r e f o r e  some " f o r  A  l i v e l i h o o d "  of  p h y s i o l o g y s u i t  B.C.  perhaps  u n i v e r s i t y  might  a  be  open  e d i t o r  c r a f t s  i n  s c h o o l .  t h e i r  h o u s e w i f e r y .  would  p r e p a r a t i o n  who  the  the  p h y s i c s ,  s c h o o l s  u n i v e r s i t y  thorough  than  and  debate  Mackay,  c o u l d  merely  e a r n i n g  the  argued  t e c h n i c a l  i t  t h a t  p r a c t i c a l  Ida  Grey  would  l e t t e r  g e n e r a l  the  l e s s  a  of  r e t o r t e d  r e q u i r e d  T e c h n i c a l  1924.  t e a c h e r s  a f f o r d  home  r e - e n t e r e d  P o i n t  economics  t e a c h i n g  n o t h i n g  f o r  f o r  academic,  i n  economics  In  R a v e n h i l l  a r c h i t e c t u r e .  s c i e n c e  n e c e s s i t y  184).  economics  assumed  w e l l - o r g a n i z e d  home  c o u l d  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  R a v e n h i l l  Economics  t h a t  a d e q u a t e l y  f i e l d  1924,  i t s  which and p e o p l e , those  but  who  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  54  as  homemakers,  m a n a g e r s . . . and  who  are  l a i d  t e a c h e r s ,  who  are  r e a l i z e i n  s c h o o l  Manual  grounds  i t s  r a t h e r Home  than  economics  f u t u r e women  c l a i m e d system  c i v i c t h a t  t r a i n i n g  had  view  p a r t l y  f o r  been  of  s c h o o l  p r i n c i p a l  p r a c t i c a l : we  w h i l e the 10)  i n  g i r l s  p u p i l s "  "In  the  the  cookery to  be  as  most and good  sewing  c u l t u r a l  " c h a r a c t e r " (Wilson,  example, i t s  J.W.  p l a c e  v a l u e " ,  1985).  w i t h  p.  metalwork, forms  of  s c h o o l  manual  on  the  C49).  -  h i g h  s c h o o l  concept  academic  and  and  drawing  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , we  mothers"  are  t r a i n i n g  (Herd,  1923,  . A  Vancouver  v i e w p o i n t  to  the  t e a c h e r ,  M.E.  growing  t r e n d  Pope, of  i n  g e n e r a l  A  s c i e n c e  p h y s i o l o g y and  the  j o b - p r e p a r a t i o n  h i g h  s i d e s  Gibson  i n  but  i n f l u e n c e s  two  housewives  on  f o r  j u n i o r  and  p r a c t i c a l  t r a i n i n g  found  v a l u a b l e  of  defended  workers  1919-20,  woodwork,  forms  of  which  p r o v i d i n g  For  h a v i n g  i d e o l o g y  f o r  to  the  the  r e a l i t i e s  t r a i n i n g  c u l t u r a l  d e f e n d i n g  the  i n d i v i d u a l  " p a r t l y  (ARPS,  163).  of  other  e f f i c i e n c y  v o c a t i o n a l  p r a c t i c a l  i t s  s c h o o l i n g  c u l t i v a t e  as  i n t r o d u c e d  f o r  powers  d e s c r i b e d  i t s  p.  some  i n d u s t r i a l  s c i e n c e  n a t i o n a l  u s u a l l y  b u i l d  a d d i t i o n  domestic  the  to  j u s t i f i e d i n  1924,  from  was  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of  e x p l i c i t  r e s p o n s i b l i t y .  " c h i e f l y  and  made  economics  f u t u r e  homemakers i n  i t  i n s t i t u t i o n  c i v i c  i g n o r e d  t r a i n i n g  was  t h e i r  f o u n d a t i o n s  c a p a c i t y  t r a i n  workers,  ( R a v e n h i l l ,  but  home  e d u c a t i o n . f o r  to  statement  system,  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  the  home"  R a v e n h i l l ' s the  a l i v e  t h a t  the  s o c i a l  p r o v i d e d  e m p h a s i z i n g  an  a l t e r n a t e  s o c i e t a l  p.  55  reasons g i r l s out  f o r  had  t e a c h i n g  l o s t  s t u d e n t s  advocated  them  to  i n t e r e s t  a l l  the  r e c o g n i t i o n  h e a l t h  happiness  eat,  the  we  l i v e "  the  E l l e n  c l o t h e s  (Pope,  E l i z a b e t h i n  own  s u c c e s s f u l l y  Echoing  we  of we  1923, B e r r y  c u r r i c u l u m  to  what  appeals  1922,  p.  2).  Teachers  d e a l t  w i t h  economics,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . as  a  s o c i a l  a u t h o r i t a t i v e e d u c a t i o n B e r r y ' s had  o p i n i o n s  begun  emphasized f a m i l i e s ,  a f t e r  w i t h  l a t e r  to  them  i n  are  the had  the  the  i n  p a s t ,  up  t e a c h  "the  i n  p r o c e s s e s  of  of  the i n  foods which  d e n i e s  s o l v i n g  which f a m i l y  a  F i r s t  of the  the  (Berry, had and  merely sewing,  p r o d u c t i o n ,  v a l u e  home  would  d i r e c t  of  a  economics  maintenance  own  i n  f a m i l y  1922)  War  b e n e f i t  f o r  c o o k i n g  good o f f e r e d  women's problems.  movement  (Dyhouse,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e i r  to  B e r r y ,  b a c k - t o - t h e - h o m e World  economics  matter"  i n c l u d i n g  one  (Berry,  home  " r i g h t  s a i d  "no  f o r c e "  of  s u b j e c t  Because  of  send  l i f e  m o n e y . . . [ a n d ]  study  r e g a r d l e s s  to  t h a t  bound  p l a c e  the  moral  to  s t u d e n t s '  economics  wrote  t h a t  Pope  s u r r o u n d i n g s  and  women's  "aimed  i n d i v i d u a l  a r t  the  i t  m o l d " .  home  the  n e c e s s i t y  echoed  concerned  d e v e l o p i n g  Pope  n a t i o n  women  i n f o r m a t i o n  toward  and  [educational]  the  same  f o r  and  was  11).  m e c h a n i c a l  r e c o g n i z e d  hygiene,  home  of  the  needs,  wear,  She  because  s c h o o l  the  because  r i g h t  the  from  j u s t i f i e d  j u s t  now  share  s c h o o l  R i c h a r d s ,  p.  t h e i r  but  i n  h i g h  t h e i r  problems. and  economics.  p a t t e r n e d  j u n i o r  of  cope  home  f o r  i n t e r e s t s .  1978). h e a l t h y  which It  56  A n o t h e r was  common  engendered  m i d d l e  c l a s s  the  poor  and  through  the  of  motive  i n  of  P r o v i n c i a l  Economics why  economy  i n  t h i s  was  t e a c h i n g p r o v i n c e  an  The  of  twenty  the  i s  l i v e s  p r o m i s c u i t y and  a  M i n i s t e r  p a r t i c u l a r  Economics  ("Report  a  of  240).  f r i l l  of  R o s a l i n d e  one-time  p.  when  of moral  S e c t i o n Home  Young  a b s o r b i n g  s c i e n c e ago,  t h i n g .  asked  i t  i n c l u d e d  i n t e r e s t  has  expanded  t r e a t e d  from  put  to  our  an  F r i l l i s t s  only  hope  f o r  h i g h  i d e a l s  Do  you  to  of  course want  t e l l  us  f o r e i g n  home  s h o u l d  the  are  born  to  on  a  i s  l i f e . do.  as  to  Home  and  proper  b a s i s  i s  A n t i - F r i l l i s t s  race  keep  and  means  Good  economic  and  j u s t  c o o k i n g but  mean  i n  imbueing  This Have  Anglo-Saxon  t h a t  i n a u g u r a t e d  sewing,  to  homes  our  was  These  t h a t  S t a t i s t i c i a n s Anglo-Saxon  the  81).  Home  In  s c i e n c e  r a c e ?  of  P r o t e s t a n t  s e x u a l  w i t h  1924,  years  whole  s u b j e c t  fundamental.  of  the  domestic  a s p e c t . . . . To  domestic  s c i e n c e  t o p i c s  s c i e n t i f i c  w i t h  p.  s c i e n c e  "a  p r a c t i c e s  Young,  c o n s i d e r e d  and  young  and  I n s t i t u t e  Membership  The  improve  1990,  to  domestic  c o n t i n u e d :  were  agree.  to  h y g i e n i c  Esson  "two  She  c l e a n i n g end.  of  of  movement;  l i q u o r  M e e t i n g s " ,  h e a l t h ,  the  of  d e l i v e r e d  s c i e n c e  g e n e r a t i o n " .  sought  Teachers'  worth  g o s p e l  domestic  S e c t i o n a l  and  When  Henry  speech  domestic  which  the  (Patterson,  p r o v i d e d a  s o c i a l  promotion  w i f e  E d u c a t i o n )  about  combatting  m o r a l i t y "  (the  the  the  movement  through  C h r i s t i a n Young  by  i d e a  to  the i t  i s  you  what no  a  p r i d e  s u r v i v e ?  p r o p o r t i o n i s  the  now  of  every  57  woman  must  bear  s h o u l d  f e e l  of  r a c e .  the  Young's c l a s s i s t r o o t e d 1 9 2 0 ' s ,  (Roy,  Canadian  p.  t e a c h i n g  poor  improve the  the t h e i r  "home'  economics  was  c i t i z e n s ,  when  the  domestic  economics  i n  minds  h o u s e h o l d s " ,  t h a t  i t  the  "most  for  h i g h  the  i t s  s i m i l a r  a d d i t i o n  s t a n d i n g  to  how  to  t h o u g h t , Home  r e s p o n s i b l e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y B r i t i s h  e d u c a t i o n  t h a t  of  the  s o l u t i o n .  V i c t o r i a  "to  of  to  the  h i s t o r y "  e d u c a t i o n  p r e v a i l i n g  The  i n  was  examples  r e p r e s e n t e d  s o c i a l l y  i n  During  Canadian  moral  economics  s c h o o l  d i g n i t y  and  produce  home  economics  v i r u l e n t  p r o g r e s s i v e  the  home  c u l t u r e  lower  f a i l e d  from  s c h o o l  d i f f e r e n c e s w r i t e r  system was  to  s c i e n t i f i c ,  s u p e r i o r i t y .  o p i n i o n s  problem  Nurses.  the  the  contemporary s c h o o l  W i t h i n  betterment  or  was  mode. was  p r o v i d e d  to  by  the  LCW  advocated  home  accommodate  n a t u r a l l y  the  such  s e r v i c e "  ( " S e t t i n g  our  1924).  Because i n d i v i d u a l  of  t e a c h i n g  the  of  the  economic,  I m p e r i a l i s t  s e r v i c e ,  the to  had  i n d i v i d u a l  21)  of  A s i a n  those  home  reason  Order  young  and  i n t e n d e d  V i c t o r i a n  of  l i v i n g  toward  t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  B r i t i s h  both  p.  f o r  Young's  d i v e r g e n t  A n o t h e r p r o v i d e  i n  l i v e s .  was  c u l t u r a l l y  motives  285).  of  1924,  p i c t u r e  Columbia  p r e s e r v a t i o n  Each  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f e a r  i n t o l e r a n c e 1990,  c h i l d r e n .  (Young,  eugenic  B r i t i s h  r a c i a l  t h i s  composite  and  i n  four  f o r  i n  p o p u l a t i o n became Western  t u r n i n g  because  the  out  a  had  f a c t o r Woman's  "so  many  e d u c a t i o n a l  g r e a t l y i n  i n c r e a s e d ,  e d u c a t i o n .  Weekly  condemned  m i s f i t s " ,  system  A the  c l a i m i n g  p r a c t i c a l l y  58  f o r b i d  f r e e  e n q u i r y ,  endeavouring  i n s t e a d  r a t h e r  than  thought"  and  "knowledge  l i v e l i h o o d " a  l i f e "  f o r  r a t h e r  home  means  than  of  the  p r o c l a i m e d  by  means  of  would  i n c u l c a t e  g o a l  of  s t i l l the  honest  "home  of  as  home  a  the  concept  had  many  woman's  economics  Watson,  unambiguous g i r l s  " r i g h t today,  the  of  home  way  of  to  the  the  economics  w i t h  such  as  w i t h  i m p l i c a t i o n s and  e d u c a t i o n  economics  exemplary Some  a  of  i n  1924?  o f f e r e d  Home  w i t h  t h e s e  the  c o n c e p t s  c l e a n l i n e s s  s c h o o l but  home  i t f o r  home  example  i n  the  c o n t r a d i c t o r y of  conform the  home to  of  v a l u e s .  and  many  economics  attempts v a l u e  s u f f i c i e n t  Women's  groups  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  s c h o o l  i d e a s ;  economics  academic  P r a c t i c a l  system. the  of  v a l u e  would  economics  w i t h  s c h o o l to  a l o n e  equate was  s t a t u s  were  d e c i s i o n s  the were  i n  t e a c h i n g i m p r o v i n g If  of  t e c h n i c a l  moral  s t u d e n t s  d i d  s k i l l s  s t a n d i n g not  r e a c h  to  was meet  d e s i r e d  promoted  as  m i d d l e - c l a s s t e c h n i c a l  the  most made  men.  means  a  economics  h a b i t s  o r d e r l i n e s s ,  development  geometry.  g i v e  s u p p o r t e r s  of  p r a c t i c a l  t h a t  to  m a l e - o r i e n t e d  The  a  " l i v i n g  v o c a t i o n  e x p r e s s i o n .  l i v i n g " .  i n c l u s i o n  W i t n e s s ,  i n s u f f i c i e n t  v o c a l  This  l i v i n g "  b o t h  U r i e  young  e x p e c t a t i o n  s t a n d a r d s .  by  and  s i g n a l l e d  r e c o g n i t i o n  home  a  1).  as  b e l i e f  i d e a l " .  However,  the  Mary  p l a c e  p.  "produce  s o c i e t y .  s t a t e  a c h i e v i n g  f i n d  system  seen  i m p r o v i n g  was  1923, "making  economics,  What As  (Prenter,  t r e a t i n g  to  the  59  s t a n d a r d s , four  the  sewing  a t t r i b u t e d  c l a s s to  Comment",  home  was  to  t h e i r  blamed;  keep  t h e i r  i n f e r i o r  l e g i t i m a c y  home  f o r  economics  t h e i r  s u b j e c t  s u b j e c t  conforming  E l i z a b e t h  B e r r y ' s  s o l u t i o n  a f t e r  mastery  focus  of  E l i z a b e t h  B e r r y  was  of  home  of  the  p r i s t i n e  and  of  equipment,  o b l i g a t i o n  to  i n t e g r a t e  w i t h i n to  grade  was  mothers  ("Casual  of  the  to  t e a c h e r s  p r a c t i c a l  to  w i t h  and  the  of  a  " e d u c a t i v e "  A l i c e  Whereas  s u c c e s s o r  a c h i e v e  s t a n d a r d s .  s k i l l s .  concerned  to  ambivalency  emphasize  economics.  her  s t r u g g l e d  academic  t e c h n i c a l  m a i n l y  k i n d  moral  homes  was  u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n i n g  p r a c t i c a l  r i g h t  sewing  s u p p o r t e r s  p r a c t i c a l  promoted  f a i l u r e  1912b).  P i o n e e r  a s p e c t s  the  i n  R a v e n h i l l  broaden i n  the  1905  o b t a i n i n g 1925  c u l t u r a l  had  the an  v a l u e s  i n  a  c o n t e x t . At  the  o c c u p a t i o n s , B r i t i s h  t i m e ,  i n c r e a s i n g  p o p u l a t i o n  Columbia  i n e v i t a b l e . B r i t i s h  same  A  made  reform  m a l a i s e  Columbia  and  growth  a  had  of  come  e d u c a t i o n  and  economic  the over  s t o c k - t a k i n g  s c h o o l  r e q u i r e m e n t s changes system  e d u c a t i o n was  i n  i n  o r d e r .  f o r  i n almost  g e n e r a l  i n  60  Chapter Two Endnotes 1. James Robertson (1857-1930), S c o t t i s h emigrant, cheesemaker, P r i n c i p a l of Macdonald C o l l e g e and chairman of the Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n [RCITTE] was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the s p r e a d of manual t r a i n i n g i n Canada. With S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald, the t o b a c c o m i l l i o n a i r e , Robertson c o n c o c t e d a scheme to r e s t o r e r u r a l v a l u e s and a r r e s t r u r a l decay, f i r s t i n a s e e d - g r o w i n g c o m p e t i t i o n and l a t e r i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of 24 m a n u a l t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s a c r o s s Canada b e g i n n i n g i n 1900. Teachers' s a l a r i e s were p a i d f o r the f i r s t t h r e e years a f t e r which t i m e many c e n t r e s c o n t i n u e d under t h e i r own steam. S u t h e r l a n d (1976) r e p o r t e d the growth of manual t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia from four i n 1900-01 to f i f t y e i g h t i n 1918-19. R o b e r t s o n ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r manual t r a i n i n g , d e l i v e r e d to the Ottawa School Board i n 1899, s t a t e d t h a t "the main endeavour s h o u l d be to l e a d out the mind by n o u r i s h i n g i d e a s , r a t h e r than to cram i n u n p r o f i t a b l e f a c t s " (Robertson, 1899). Much f a s c i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Robertson can be g a t h e r e d from the Robertson Papers housed i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . Upon h i s death, condolences were sent from (among others) Annie J u n i p e r and J.H. Putman of whom m e n t i o n w i l l be made p r e s e n t l y . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see: Pavey, E.J. (1971). James and Educator. U n p u b l i s h e d B r i t i s h Columbia.  W i l s o n Robertson, m a g i s t r a l t h e s i s .  R o b e r t s o n , J.W. (1899) . Manual t r a i n i n g i n The M a c d o n a l d s c h o o l s l o y d f u n d . Robertson C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h L i b r a r y .  P u b l i c Servant U n i v e r s i t y of  p u b l i c s c h o o l s : p a p e r s , S p e c i a l Columbia  S u t h e r l a n d , N. (1976). C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , (pp. 182-201). 2. The L o c a l C o u n c i l s o f Women (LCW) and t h e i r parent body the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women o f Canada (NCWC) are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to the s p r e a d o f home e c o n o m i c s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. Strong-Boag (1977) s t a t e s t h a t the immediate impulse b e h i n d the f o r m a t i o n of t h e NCWC w a s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women who met at the Chicago W o r l d ' s F a i r i n 1893. U n d e r l y i n g the f o r m a t i o n of the NCWC was t h e b e l i e f t h a t the s t a t e , under the i n f l u e n c e of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n was weakened at i t s most v u l n e r a b l e p o i n t - the f a m i l y . Lady I s h b e l Aberdeen, f i r s t P r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , had c l o s e l i n k s to  61 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . She a n d h e r husband, t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l of Canada, owned C o l d s p r i n g Ranch near Vernon, B . C . a n d Lady Aberdeen h e l p e d f o u n d t h e V i c t o r i a LCW i n 1 8 9 4 . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e : F r e n c h , of Lady S o c N T  D o r i s . (1988). I s h b e l a n d t h e Aberdeen. Toronto a n d O x f o r d :  t r o n g - B o a r g a n i z a t i e n t u r y . e g l e c t e d o r o n t o :  g , V. (1977). S e t t i n g t h e o n a n d t h e women's movement, I n S . M . T r o f i m e n k o f f & A. P r M a j o r i t y : Essays i n Canadia M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart.  3. The " h o l every s t u d e n square, i n c l Macdonald I n  Empire: Dundurn  A Biography P r e s s .  s t a g e : N a t i o n a l i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h e n t i c e (Eds.) The n Women's H i s t o r y .  l o w square' p r o v i d e d i n d i v i d u a l equipment f o r t . One o f t h e b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e h o l l o w u d i n g photographs o f rooms a n d equipment a t s t i t u t e , Guelph, i s l o c a t e d i n :  K i n n e , H e l e n . (1911). Equipment f o r Teaching S c i e n c e . B o s t o n : Whitcomb & Barrows.  Domestic  Kinne a d d r e s s e d t h e problem of group v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n terms which a r e a p p l i c a b l e today: [In i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n ] t h e p u p i l s l a c k a o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e a l i n g i n t h e normal q u a n t i t used i n t h e f a m i l y . In t h e group method t h e c h i l d never h a s f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from b e g i n n i n g t o e n d f o r any one a r t i c l e . S m a l l q u a n t i t i e s g i v e t h e p u p i l l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y develop s k i l l ; y e t a normal q u a n t i t y i s c o s t l (Kinne, 1911, p. 7 0 ) . K u S u  l l y  t o y .  inne ends w i t h a quote: "As M r s . Kedzie h a s s a i d , " K i t c h e n t e n s i l s c o s t l e s s than c o f f i n s ' " (p. 7 6 ) . E d i t h Rowles impson (1964) a l s o r e f e r s t o M r s . K e d z i e , an a p p a r e n t l y n r e c o g n i z e d home e c o n o m i c s p i o n e e r .  4. the  Much h a s been w r i t t e n f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s f o r  Crowley, Hoodless Canadian McDonald, Toronto:  about A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s . d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s :  C o n s u l t  T. (1986). Madonnas b e f o r e Magdalenes: A d e l a i d e a n d t h e making of t h e Canadian Gibson g i r l . H i s t o r i c a l Review, 67 (4), 520-547. C. (1986). A d e l a i d e Dundurn P r e s s .  H o o d l e s s :  Domestic  c r u s a d e r .  Crowley i s c r i t i c a l of Hoodless a n d r a i s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Mary U r i e Watson "ghostwrote' A d e l a i d e H o o d l e s s ' home economics t e x t Domestic McDonald's b i o g r a p h y i s  S c i e n c e i n t h e s y m p a t h e t i c t o  P u b l i c S c h o o l H o o d l e s s .  (1898).  62  5. are  Of a w e a l t h of i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o home  John Dewey, economics:  two  s o u r c e s  D e P e n c i e r , I. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The h i s t o r y of t h e L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago 1896-1965. C h i c a g o : Quadrangle Books. Dewey, John. M a c m i l l a n .  (1938).  E x p e r i e n c e  and E d u c a t i o n .  New  York:  6. Annie J u n i p e r was a f o u n d i n g member of t h e Manitoba Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1911 (Wilson, 1966, p. 177) which e v e n t u a l l y f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n . A former Manitoba student d e s c r i b e d h e r as " w e l l - b r e d , c u l t u r e d and c l e v e r " (Wilson, 1966, p . 41). The G i r l s ' Home M a n u a l b e c a m e a w e l l - b e l o v e d f i x t u r e i n many V i c t o r i a homes J u n i p e r l e f t V i c t o r i a t o a s s i s t a t home i n England d u r i n g t h e F i r s t World War b u t l a t e r r e t u r n e d t o B.C. She went on t o become a p i o n e e r i n New Z e a l a n d home economics and f i n a l l y P r i n c i p a l of Leeds C o l l e g e of H o u s e c r a f t , England (Daily C o l o n i s t , August 26, 1926, p. 1). A l e t t e i n c l u d e l i k e La s p i r i t " U n i v e r s  r of condolence t o J.W. R o b e r t s o n ' s widow, J e n n i e , d t h e w h i m s i c a l s u g g e s t i o n t h a t M r s . Robertson might, dy Conan Doyle, "commune w i t h h e r d e a r h u s b a n d i n (Robertson Papers, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , January 16, 1931).  Annie J u n i p e r was warmly remembered i n V i c t o r i a a f t e r death i n December, 1933 (Daily C o l o n i s t , February 11, p. C7) .  h e r 1934,  7. A l i c e R a v e n h i l l (1859-1954) was an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l p i o n e e r i n home e c o n o m i c s , t h e f i r s t woman t o b e c o n f e r r e d a f e l l o w s h i p of t h e Royal S a n i t a r y I n s t i t u t e i n England, and an a u t h o r i t y on p u b l i c h e a l t h , noted f o r h e r s t i m u l a t i n g p u b l i c l e c t u r e s " (Smith, 1989, p. 10). She was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o u r s e s i n h o u s e h o l d s c i e n c e a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y of London. At t h e age of f i f t y , and a t t h e peak of h e r c a r e e r , she e m i g r a t e d w i t h f a m i l y members t o Shawnigan Lake on Vancouver I s l a n d . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see R a v e n h i l l ' s a s s o r t e d papers i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , i n c l u d i n g h e r autobiography, p u b l i s h e d when she was over n i n e t y years o l d : R a v e n h i l l , A. (1951). E d u c a t i o n a l P i o n e e r .  A l i c e R a v e n h i l l : Toronto: Dent.  The  Memoirs  of  an  63 A source which o u t l i n e s R a v e n h i l l ' s c a r e e r "wasted l i f e as a p i o n e e r housewife" i s :  b e f o r e  D a n i e l s , C. and B a y l i s s , R. (1985). A l i c e e c o n o m i s t , 1859-1954. Westminster J o u r n a l 21-36.  R a v e n h i l l , home of E d u c a t i o n , 8^,  For  a  Canadian  Smith, M. G a l e . p i o n e e r i n home  p e r s p e c t i v e  on  R a v e n h i l l ,  h e r  s e e :  (1989). A l i c e R a v e n h i l l : I n t e r n a t i o n a l economics. I l l i n o i s Teacher, 33 (1), 10-14.  8. John K y l e was born at Hawick, S c o t l a n d on Sept. 7, 1871 to Andrew and Agnes (Waugh) K y l e . He w a s a p p r e n t i c e d t o a watchmaker b u t showed an e a r l y a p t i t u d e f o r d r a w i n g . Through n i g h t s c h o o l he managed t o o b t a i n an a r t t e a c h e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e and was awarded a s c h o l a r s h i p t o t h e London C o l l e g e of A r t , f r o m w h i c h he was made an A s s o c i a t e o f t h e Royal Academy of A r t i n 1900. K y l e taught at H u d d e r s f i e l d , Y o r k s h i r e and A l l o a , S c o t l a n d , a n d came t o V a n c o u v e r i n 1905 as t h e S u p e r v i s o r of Drawing. Subsequently he was made Night S c h o o l D i r e c t o r a n d i n 1914 became D i r e c t o r of T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e . H i s background p r o b a b l y l e d t o h i s i n t e r e s t i n and promotion of home economics p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a r t and d e s i g n . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e : S l i n n , Edward H. (1979). U n p u b l i s h e d major paper. 9. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n Normal S c h o o l s , c o n s u l t :  John K y l e Vancouver, about  t h e  -  A Short B . C .  V i c t o r i a  Calam, J . (1984). Teaching t h e t e a c h e r s : e a r l y y e a r s of t h e B . C . p r o v i n c i a l normal S t u d i e s , 61 (Spring), 3 0 - 6 3 . 10. See Ormsby (1971) and Robin i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e 1916 economic  B i o g r a p h y .  and  Vancouver  E s t a b l i s h m e n t s c h o o l s . B . C .  and  (1972) f o r more s p e c i f i c and p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s .  11. Examples of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e s c h o o l garden movement c a n be found i n S u t h e r l a n d (1976), p p . 186189. See a l s o : Jones, D a v i d . (1978). "We c a n n o t a l l o w i t t o be r u n by t h o s e who do n o t u n d e r s t a n d e d u c a t i o n " A g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l i n g i n t h e Twenties. B . C . S t u d i e s , 39 (Autumn), 3 0 60.  64  CHAPTER  III  PUTMAN  AND  WEIR  SURVEY  SCHOOL The by  J . H .  1924-25 Putman  Canadian f i r s t  s u r v e y s ,  of  of  s p r i n g t h e  t h i s  George  1925.  School  demographics survey  and  survey  i s  r e d e f i n e d  new  Putman  of  c h a p t e r  n o t  They i n  e d u c a t i o n ,  study and  i n  economics  survey  has  been  w i t h i n  t h e  p r o g r e s s i v e  developed  order  e d u c a t i o n  p.  t h e  f a l l  Report  on  t h e  t h e  way  of  t h e  1924  t h e  Survey  R e p o r t ,  and  i n  of  t h e  The  which  p a r t i c u l a r l y  i t  u s e f u l  f o r  p r a c t i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l  Background t o  and  9 9 ) .  of  recommendations.  e d u c a t i o n . i n  i d e a s  1990,  t h e  a  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i n  and  of  o f  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i s  system  i n  "one  document  p o l i t i c s  f o r  a c a d e m i c / c u l t u r a l  v a l u e s  as  c o n s i d e r i n g  economics  t h i s  and  t h e  School  recommend  t h e i r  p r e v a i l i n g  p r a c t i c a l  home  In  Columbia,  home  COLUMBIA  landmark  out  (Patterson,  conducted  t o  upon  and  p u b l i s h e d  t h e  a  o f f i c i a l  c o n d i t i o n s  1925.  B r i t i s h  stands  d i s c u s s  and Weir  Columbia  become  I t  important  e l a b o r a t i n g  has  f i r s t ,  t o  t h e  e x p l o r e s  s p e c i f i c  B r i t i s h  e d u c a t i o n "  System  of  t h e Weir  t h e  BRITISH  SYSTEM  h i s t o r y .  examines  which  of  e d u c a t i o n t h e  c h a p t e r  survey  i f  of  p r a c t i c e s  and  and  e d u c a t i o n a l  department  This  survey  THE  l o c a t e  f o r  home  t h e  economics  movement.  P r e l u d e t o t h e School Survey The 1921.  campaign  The  Union  t h a t of  l e d t o  B r i t i s h  t h e  survey  Columbia  a c t u a l l y  began  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  made  i n t h e  65  f i r s t  move  campaign s c h o o l  t o  have  the This  the  v a r i o u s  p o w e r f u l  l o c a l  t o  take  group  the  a  p u b l i c  more  wanted  base  r e l a t i o n s  a c t i v e to  p r o v i n c i a l  r a t e p a y e r  p r e v i o u s l y ,  v o l u n t e e r  a s s o c i a t i o n s  The  second  c o n f e r e n c e  i n  1922  C o n v e n t i o n  of  the  (BCTF). be  The "a  happy  Most  purpose  of  of  of  r o l e  s h i f t  of  f u n d i n g  i n  s c h o o l  government  r a t h e r  (Wood,  how  r e d u c t i o n  i n  two  at  of  the  i n  the  E a s t e r  F e d e r a t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  s i g n  seemed  " o f . . . t r e m e n d o u s  ("Second  A n n u a l " ,  1922,  m e e t i n g  c e n t r e d  around  the  w i t h  change  w i t h  Teachers'  the  and  E d u c a t i o n a l  c o n j u n c t i o n  p r a c t i c a l  survey  a  to  e n t e r e d  whole keep  i n  r e p o r t e d  i t .  and  s u p p o r t e d  P a r e n t - T e a c h e r  between  surveys  as  t h r o u g h  completed  a l s o  community  s p e a k e r s 1915  and  r e f e r r i n g the  t o  p. the  the  f o r t h c o m i n g  survey.  was  s c h o o l .  e d u c a t i o n a l  Columbia  d i s c u s s i o n  concern  p u b l i c  the  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s "  s c h o o l  E d u c a t i o n  who  h e l d  B r i t i s h  s c h o o l  s c h o o l  p r i n c i p a l  was  augury  the  Saskatchewan S e a t t l e  annual  c o o p e r a t i o n  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  o l d s  e x t e n s i v e  government  i n d i c a t e d  s c h o o l s .  1).  an  . As  to  undertook  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  m a i n t a i n  1985)  i t  r e f o r m .  f i n a n c i a l than  when  the Of  a  r e f o r m i s t  s t u d e n t s  under  dropout  r a t e .  the  the  had  f o l l o w i n g  s c h o o l  t h o s e ,  T h i r t y - e i g h t  went  went  s c h o o l A  on  i n  1903,  on  to  to  and  of 600  h i g h  a  major  i n f l u e n c e  Vancouver  s t a t i s t i c s :  system  300  s t a n c e ,  s c h o o l  1000  s i x - y e a r  f i n i s h e d  s c h o o l  u n i v e r s i t y ,  and  and  14  111  66  graduated i n d i c a t e of  ( S p a r l i n g , a  l o t  of  e d u c a t i o n .  f o r  the  work  t h a n . . . i n The s c h o o l  the  S e c t i o n  by  s e n d i n g  the  f o r  s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l u m  u n i v e r s i t y . . .  not  p r o v i d e  c a n d i d a t e s p.20)  by  H.B.  Major  to  Senior  p r o v i s i o n p r e s e n t i n  f o r  c e r t a i n  t e a c h "  "more  p.  2).  Department  The  High  i n  a of  School  S e c t i o n  each  c u r r e n t  h i g h  not  Normal  s u b j e c t s  ("Easter  need  r e q u e s t e d  s t u d e n t s  course  i n f l u e n c e  the  "the  to  Vancouver  1922,  Grades  t h a t  the  was  of  F e d e r a t i o n  grounds  t h a t  the  c u r r e n t  1923,  f i r s t  the  under O l i v e r .  l e g i s l a t u r e  survey.  K i n g  L e g i s l a t u r e  John  to  (Sherman,  1922).  and  Columbia  s c h o o l  i n  purpose s c h o o l  " s t o c k - t a k i n g " In  no  t h e r e  s t r e e t s  r e s o l u t i o n s  the  the  asked  B r i t i s h a  the  the  Teachers  i n s t r u c t i o n  were  i n i t i a t e  i t  made  t h a t  beyond  seemed  g o i n g  s c h o o l  on d i d  which  C o n v e n t i o n " ,  1922,  . The  the  on  and  f o r  i n  C o n v e n t i o n " ,  survey  s t a t i s t i c s  c o m p l e t e l y  A f r i c a "  P r i n c i p a l s  c a l l e d  to  a  of  Such  d e c l a r e d  Columbia  ("Easter  and  1).  were  w r i t e r  j u n g l e s  survey  p.  m i s s i o n a r i e s  B r i t i s h  E d u c a t i o n  people  One of  1922,  Consequently,  appeared  b e f o r e  November  of  of  a  but  ( " E d i t o r i a l -  H.C.  had  Brewster  There  were  was  i n  r e l u c t a n t a  d e l e g a t i o n  headed  Committee  an  to  to  e f f o r t  to  f i n d  be  L e g i s l a t u r e " , i n  to  M u n i c i p a l  not  r a t h e r  the  been  the  1923  survey  system,  L i b e r a l s  was  power  f o r  and  then  under  the  many  more  p r e s s i n g  of  c o n v i n c e  weaknesses  viewed 1924, seven  as  i n  a  p.  97).  y e a r s ,  p r e m i e r s h i p f i n a n c i a l  of  67  concerns  than  the  u n d e r t a k i n g  of  a  comprehensive  s c h o o l  1 s u r v e y .  ±  D e s p i t e e d u c a t i o n a l p o s i t i v e l y  the  system to  s t a t i s t i c s .  the The  p o p u l a t i o n . ^ groups work  to  to  main  the  of  i n  Canada  d i f f e r e n c e  o r g a n i z e  f o r  p o l i t i c a l  p r e s e r v e  s i s t e r  i n t e r a c t i o n  c o n s i d e r a b l y of  a  to  1917 to  the  the  change  f i r s t  of  i s s u e  set  not  the  women's  i n c i d e n t a l l y  e d i t e d  by  Western Amy  K e r r  p o w e r f u l  p o l i t i c s  and  women's  c o n t r i b u t e d  economics  out  immigrant  c h a r a c t e r .  magazine  home  e d u c a t i o n  v o l u n t e e r  the  between  the  1924,  and  and  B r i t i s h  t h e i r  compared  l a r g e r  many  e x e m p l i f i e d  Columbia  cause  the  newsmagazine  Pogue,  B r i t i s h  h e a l t h  i n s p i r e d  Vancouver  t h a t  p r o v i n c e  was  e s s e n t i a l l y  A l i c e  i n  From  the  Columbians  i n f e r i o r ,  have  and  foreword  r e s t  B r i t i s h  may  Weekly,  groups.  was  of  This  Woman's her  concern  e d u c a t i o n .  m i s s i o n  of  The  the  p u b l i c a t i o n : The  g r e a t  may  a s s u r e  i n  the  p u b l i c . the  need  i n t e r e s t s Men  use of  o f f i c e  ( " I n t r o d u c t o r y The Columbia  women  u n i f i c a t i o n  purpose  s i m i l a r  of  of  today and  and  the  f o r  Woman's  f o r  the  women  i s s u e " ,  1917)  announcement  was  i n  made  the  Western  o f f i c i a l  A p r i l  of  a  medium  whereby  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  f o r  p r e s s  i s  of 1924  a  betterment t h e i r Weekly  of  of  but  t h e i r  aims  the  p u r p o s e s . . . . It to  B r i t i s h  s c h o o l  of  they  p e r f o r m  a  Columbia.  survey  P r e m i e r  i s  f o r  B r i t i s h  O l i v e r  d e l a y e d  68  announcing the  the  g e n e r a l  names  e l e c t i o n  George  Weir  survey  i n t e n d e d  of  were  e d u c a t i o n  1924,  p.  d e f e a t e d ,  were  of  power  m i n o r i t y  a  p r i o r i t y l i q u o r  i n  the  a  a  was  J.  an  W.  u n t i l  the  eve  Putman  and  Dr.  to  conduct  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  and  F a r r i s  of  survey.  The  c o n t r o v e r s i e s  s c h o o l  every  p a r t y  E l l e n  angle  of  Survey",  L i b e r a l s  r a i l w a y ,  (Robin,  the  l e a d e r s  Smith,  e d u c a t i o n  w i t h  a  of  announcement,  t h r e e  Mary  but  beset  the  a l l  and  government,  of  ("Announcement  days  h e l d  s c h o o l  act  J.H.  commissioners  few  government  c o n t r o l  Dr.  Columbia"  W i t h i n  s u p p o r t e r s i n  June. as  commissioners  "embrace  e l e c t i o n as  m  B r i t i s h  172).  p r o v i n c i a l  the  named to  i n  of  L i b e r a l  h e l d was  onto  not  t i m b e r  a and  1972).  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the School Survey John School old  H a r o l d  Survey  f r i e n d  E d u c a t i o n at  the  by to  or  "handwork"  any  Summer B.C.  Putman  i n  the  s k i l l i n  human  the  Putman  (ARPS,  as  the  had  that  v a l u e s ,  hand  ever  i n t e l l i g e n c e "  by  h i s  a l r e a d y p.  of  (Putman,  and  man  was  i n  Survey",  1924,  e d u c a t i o n  s t a t i n g  gone  taught  C64)  p r a c t i c a l  c u l t u r a l has  the  A g r i c u l t u r a l  q u a l i f i e d  ("Announcement  s t r o n g l y  of  1921-22,  "most  of  p o s i t i o n  1961).  job"  the  f o r  Chairman  S u p e r v i s o r  School  i n s t i l l w i t h  1940),  B.C.  Teacher the  -  recommended  b e l i e v e d  would  advance  (1866  4  (Gibson,  undertake  172).  w i t h  B.C.  the  p.  " p r o g r e s s  been  Gibson,  V i c t o r i a  g r e e t e d Canada  had  J.W. i n  Putman  step  t h a t by  1938,  step p.  69  93).  Putman  v a l u e s  i n  saw  v a l u e  h i s t o r y . . . . W e  102)  and  "We  j u s t  t e a c h  B r i t i s h  Weir^  Columbia  E d u c a t i o n  at  as  we  a  of  i n  and  they  g i v e  power"  v o c a t i o n a l  s c h o o l . . . f o r  l i t e r a t u r e  because  sense  c u l t u r a l  c r a f t s  t e a c h  c a l l e d  i n  Dominion"  the  assembled  to  " r e s e a r c h  (1885-1949) i n  the  (1924)  1924,  Weir  (p.  h e l p and  Weir  t h e i r  or i n t e l l e c t u a l  (Putman,  i s s u e s  P r i n c e  George  C i t i z e n  1924). Putman  Other and  1985).  b e i n g  Weir  t u r n e d  h e l d the i n t o  1938,  p.  was  open  s e s s i o n  the  D a i l y  w i t h  the  upon  t h e i r  the  s t u d e n t s  i n  no  open  s e s s i o n s  was  of  u n b i a s e d C o l o n i s t Club  d i g n i t y  s p e c i a l i s t s ^  Wood  An  and  now",  (Wood,  f a c t - f i n d i n g ,  At  t h a t  the  o u t s i d e  months  e d u c a t i o n ,  u s u a l l y  the  Putman  t e a c h e r s  l a b o r  i n  p r o c e e d i n g s .  be  r e s e a r c h e r . r e p o r t e d  the  Survey  four to  of  and  a c t u a l  i n  about  of  was  termed  a r t i c l e  c i t i e s  the  supposed  t h a t  (1985)  methods  ("School  out  R o t a r y the  the  whether  e q u a l l y  e d u c a t o r s  151).  i m m e d i a t e l y .  e x h o r t a t i o n s  who  (p.  of  Hawkes  p o p u l a r  of  what  of  Department  most  came  Survey  Putman  of  m i s s i o n "  r e s i d e n t  C o l u m b i a .  committee i n  a  the  the  Putman  t r e a t e d  from  view  of  q u e s t i o n e d  215  of  B r i t i s h  A  almost  c r i t i c i s m s  A l t h o u g h  o f t e n  and  a l r e a d y  i n f l e x i b i l i t y  became  were  of  "one  propaganda and  was  charge  1284).  survey  d i s t r i c t s  i n  U n i v e r s i t y  George  I n e q u a l i t y  i t  t e a c h  c r a f t s  develop  between  . George  a  c o n f u s i o n  e d u c a t i o n :  e d u c a t i o n a l  s t i m u l u s  no  s h o u l d  the  v a l u e  f i r s t "agreed impress of  70  p r a c t i c a l not p.  f i t 1).  h a v i n g  f o r  h i s  The  D a i l y  of  e f f i c i e n t  to  a v a i l a b l e of  what  the A  on  and  s i x  p.  2).  months, that  have  ( " E d i t o r i a l " ,  survey  Department  of  E d u c a t i o n  the  parameters  of  the  the  commissioners  Weir  e x p l a i n e d  developed, of  the  s c h o o l  survey  was  system" to  e d u c a t i o n ,  Weir  survey  t h e i r  commissioners  1925.  and  and  to  of  as love  a  l a b o r  was  not  1925,  the  t h e i r  "growing  p.  l i n e "  i n  and some  l i k e  the of  changes  and  system  a  out  and  Putman  Topsy". of  had The  been  p a r t i c i p a n t s  of i n  d e f e n s i v e n e s s . the  aim  p r o v i n c i a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  i n  to  p o p u l a t i o n ,  q u e s t i o n s  Having  t h e i r  l a c k  t h e i r  s c h o o l  i i i ) .  s e t t i n g  own.  improvement  commended  c o o p e r a t i o n that  of  p r e s e n t e d  A f t e r  mandated  Columbia  " p o s s i b l e  Putman  a d m i t t e d  than  C o l o n i s t  f i n a l l y  d e s c r i b i n g  n i n e t e e n  metaphor  the  "hew  o u t l a y s l o n g e r  enquiry]  l a b o r  May,  B r i t i s h  (Report,  i n s t r u c t e d  f o r  the  the  A  was  recommendations  u s i n g  took  e d u c a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n i s t s  r e p o r t  i n  survey  answered  how  of  d e l i v e r e d .  s c h o o l  s i x t e e n  1924,  n o t i o n s " s t a t e  D a i l y  [the  2).  was  c o m m i s s i o n e r s  f i n a n c i a l  were  undertaken  the  p r o v i d e d  the  survey  V i c t o r i a  p.  t h i s . . .  s h o u l d " ,  making  on  the  "there  1924,  commissioners  of  check  When the  do  p r e c o n c e i v e d  o b j e c t i v e a  not  a c c u s e d  w i t h  p r o v i d i n g  d i d  ("Education  l a t e r  t a s k  the  out  who  p o s i t i o n "  the  would  556-page  t e a c h e r  C o l o n i s t  p o i n t  who  l o v e "  her  1924,  p r o j e c t e d  hastened  Any  f u l f i l l i n g  ( " E d i t o r i a l " , the  or  "embarked  i n s t e a d more  knowledge.  s c h o o l  the The system  71  would  i n e v i t a b l y  c o u l d  j u s t l y  i t s  be  and  r e l a t i v e l y c a l l e d  an  p o s s i b l e  r e q u i r e d ,  h e l d  e v o l u t i o n "  e v a l u a t e  be  r e s p o n s i b l e  (Report,  i n d i c t  l i t t l e  1925,  the  what  "no f o r  p . 5 ) .  s c h o o l  change  e s s e n t i a l l y and  but  and  the  the  e f f e c t s  then  w h i l e  p r o d u c i n g  what  In W e i r , '  the the  f i r s t  four  commissioners  assumptions  and  f i v e  o p i n i o n  the  p u b l i c c e n t r e  1925,  p.  of  use  of  and  adoption e d u c a t i o n  achievement  was  has t h i s  economics?  w r i t t e n  and  Weir  themselves  who  were  the  p l a t o o n  f o r  (1978)  by  George  framework,  Putman  of  to  Report  t h e i r  p l a c e d  of  g i r l s  i n  as  c o n s t r u c t e d s q u a r e l y  f a v o u r  i n  of  system, w e l l  and  i n t e l l i g e n c e  key  concept  as  boys  t e s t s  and  (Report,  14).  o b j e c t i v e s  and was  Weir  s i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r  of  the  home  v a r i a b l e s ,  e d u c a t i o n :  s a i d  " p r a c t i c a l  d e f i n i t i o n  c r u c i a l  out  p r o g r e s s i v e s  v o c a t i o n a l  Putman  Their  groups  guidance,  s y s t e m a t i c  l a i d  d e f e c t s  proceeded  How  presumably  j u s t i f i c a t i o n s .  group  v o c a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e d  c h a p t e r s ,  or  Mann  home  Content o f the Putman-Weir  government  promoting  document. upon  or  m e r i t s  They  system,  c o n s e r v a t i v e  were  o f f i c i a l  the  e f f i c i e n c y "  educated  economics  c u l t u r a l  and  person because  i n  g e n e r a l  (Report, had i t  p r a c t i c a l  1925,  f  s c h o o l p.  36)  .  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e g r a t e d  v i e w p o i n t s  two on  i  72  Any  w e l l - r o u n d e d  d i f f e r e n c e s paramount  s h o u l d  duty  development complete moral  w i t h  r e f i n i n g  p o l i t i c ]  w i l l  more  i n  are  and h i s  p r a c t i c a l c u l t u r e  r e p l a c e d c o n c r e t e  i n  of  to  any no  an  and  of  and  to  e s t i m a t e  the of  s h o u l d  p r a c t i c a l  1925, the  p.  the  of  t h i s  \  r e a l i s t  word  as  .  s o - c a l l e d  which  w e l l  38)  t r u e  The  i n  h i s  purposes  "the  a d j e c t i v e  s e l f ,  the  a p p l i e s  between  as  as  complementaries  r e a l i s t  f o r  these  of  antagonism  ways".  i n s t r u c t i o n  w e l l  and  No  n e g l e c t  f e l l o w s  are  (Report,  p r a c t i c a l  to  t r u e  c u l t u r a l  v i e w p o i n t s "  as  as  o n e ' s  t h a t  e x i s t  such  emotions,  i n  t r u e  the  development  r e a l i s m  ways  s h o u l d  a f f o r d  the  o u t s t a n d i n g  " v o c a t i o n a l ' types  and  degree  o b l i g a t i o n s . . . .  o t h e r s  b a s i c  The  p r a c t i c a l  and  of  s o - c a l l e d  l i f e .  antagonism  of  i n d i v i d u a l  h a r m o n i z i n g  [ i . e .  obvious  I d e a l i s m  of  can  d u t i e s  are  be  the  statements  "no  o n e ' s  which  between  c u l t u r e  had  of  w e l l - r o u n d e d  a p p l i e s  v a l u e s  and  v i e w p o i n t s .  c u l t u r a l  e d u c a t i o n  e n r i c h i n g  e x i s t  study:  of  e m p h a s i z i n g  g r e a t e r  needs  s e r v i c e  l i f e . . . . I t  Two  s o c i a l  the  body  a  i n  f o r  a p p r e c i a t i o n  w h i l e  importance  s p i r i t u a l  i n t e l l e c t the  s t r e s s  and  system  and  e d u c a t i o n  " p r a c t i c a l '  d e s c r i b e d  s i g n i f y i n g  j j  t h a t  ';  i s c h o o l i n g  was  i n t e n d e d  f o r  more  than  j o b - t r a i n i n g .  It  had  to  |  I c o n t r i b u t e (Report, have  a  to  1925,  broad  " c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g p.  39).  c u l t u r a l  A base  p r o p e r l y r e l a t e d  and  s o c i a l  a l l o t t e d to  u s e f u l n e s s " c u r r i c u l u m  p r e s e n t  and  I s h o u l d  f u t u r e  73  problems  and  a d d r e s s e d  home  m e a n i n g f u l everyday  l i f e . i s  "to  make  The  supreme  whole" be  a  l i f e  Canadian be,  to  s o c i a l  and  v e r s i o n do,  had of  to  Support p o l i t i c a l  b a s i s  The  commissioners  W.J.  a  of  c r i t i c i s m  see  an  been  added]"  i n  what  (Report,  d e m o c r a t i c  the  and  see  a  i t c o u l d  more  as  g e n e r a t i o n . was  the  p. a  The  "freedom  to  social  58).  W h i l e  chance  e d u c a t i o n  c o n t e n t i o n  s u b j e c t s  as  4).  f o r  demanded  a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  c o n s t i t u t e d  d e c l a r e d  the  p.  j u s t  1925,  i n c l u d e d  of  more  s c h o o l  subordinated  America  f o r  High  democracy  be  sentiment  minimum",  \  p a r a p h r a s e  through  p r e v i o u s  f o r  s o c i a l  s c h o o l  that  the  of  1924,  s t e a d i l y  p r a c t i c e  when duly  i n  (Pitman,  c u r r i c u l u m .  f o r  s h o u l d  Chairman  e l e v a t e d  \  aphorism  a d d i t i o n a l  l i f e  Such and  Dewey's  Pitman,  t h a t  purposes  e d u c a t i o n  l i v i n g "  "to  apparent  r e q u i r e m e n t s  t h a t  p r o v i d e d  Canadian  f o r  John  " i r r e d u c i b l e  i n c r e a s e was  quoted  43).  democracy  and  S h o r t t ' s  was  become  betterment,  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  r e a l - l i f e  e d u c a t i o n  [emphasis f o r  i n  make  the  Report  grounded  e x t e n s i v e  be  The  p r o c l a i m i n g  Board  p.  p a s t .  by  l i f e .  to  the  d i r e c t l y  c u r r i c u l u m  s c h o o l  obligations e d u c a t i o n  to  to  i n d i c a t e  f o r "  1925,  would  elementary  to  o b j e c t i v e  t r a n s f e r r e d  as  Report  and  (Report,  e d u c a t i o n  was  School  comprehensive  to  The l i f e "  George  w e l l  economics  " p r e p a r a t i o n  P r i n c e  as  e d u c a t i o n  " e d u c a t i o n than  needs  changed an  f a l l a c i o u s  i n t e l l e c t u a l  t h a t w i t h  educated  the the  c i t i z e n .  P r o f e s s o r  i n i t i a t i v e  t i m e s  and  ;  Adam b r e a d t h  74  of  v i s i o n  of  i n c r e a s e such  i n  the the  a  the  c h i l d  much  was  r e c o g n i z e d of  modern  f i f t y  s c h o o l  d i f f e r e n c e s " P u r p o s i v e  p a r t  of  the  i n t o  to  p u p i l s  had  and  past  to  l a y  be  a c t i v i t i e s "  had  of  h i g h e r  such  as  w i t h  the  the  to  the  s a i d  s c h o o l and  s c h o o l  a r t s  now  c u r r i c u l u m .  b e t t e r  r e s u l t s  to  The  because  but  i t  the  i n d i v i d u a l  c h a r a c t e r  the  an  p r a c t i c a l  i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  on  of  environment  manual  s e n s i t i v e  s t r e s s  s p i t e  when  s h i f t e d and  part  more  time  c o n t a c t  produced  of  more  a  i n  commissioners  e d u c a t i o n a l  s c i e n c e a  The  of  d a i l y  e s s e n t i a l years  d e c l i n e d  t e a c h e r s .  household  so  r e s t r i c t e d  of  had  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n  as  p u p i l  r e m i n i s c e n t  brought  Much  p a r t i c u l a r l y  s c h o o l  were  s m a l l e r  p u r s u i t s .  was  number  c o m p l a i n t s  was  average  p r o j e c t  development.  method  would  Q  develop j u n i o r  i n i t i a t i v e h i g h  average of  the  Weir,  and  s c h o o l  c u r r i c u l u m  i n t e l l i g e n c e past  but  had  the  the  the  change  means  the  a d o l e s c e n t s handwork  of a  c r u c i a l l i v e d  was  p u p i l s end  means.  School  "Handwork', c o n s i d e r e d  of same  wrong  suggested,  r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s .  In  Survey  t h i s  s c h o o l i n g , f a v o u r i t e f o r  i n  a  term  w o r l d ,  t h a t  had  s o c i a l  v a l u e .  commissioners  had  recommended  because  lowered.  Putman-  way,  as  (1978)  J.  they  manual  s c h o o l s  by  Mann i t  sought  to  ends. H.  Putman,  development.  For  The  proposed  the of  the  ones  c o n s e r v a t i v e :  not  a d o l e s c e n t r e a l  been  the  was  d i v e r s i f i e d  e s s e n t i a l  had  as  A  had  e a r l i e r a r t s  was  \^  Because  to  engage  grades,  more  on  the  i n the l i n e  of  75  a r t  and  advanced  between  g i r l s  apparent between  Manual  arose  of  i n c l u d e d down  on  r i g i d ,  waste,  Survey the  of  the  a p p o i n t e d . r e l a t i o n s  the  at  of  of  g e t t i n g  home  i t  l e v e l s  at  which  s h o u l d  be  made  The  s c i e n c e  second  between  the  q u e s t i o n h i g h  of  B r i t i s h  Columbia",  1924,  Report.  for  the  economics A  broad  programme  of  B r i t i s h  was  p.  i n  p.  a  some  75)  and would  p r e -  p r a c t i c a l  e d u c a t i o n  accommodation,  c u t t i n g  i n f l u e n c e  1925,  p.  76)  q u e s t i o n s  of  the  The  q u e s t i o n  f i r s t  economics  the  asked  and  p r o v i n c e d i r e c t l y  household  Columbia  of  . School  s h o u l d i f  about  s c i e n c e  \  q u e r i e d be  a  s h o u l d  ("School  .  new  e d u c a t i o n  them  o b l i g a t o r y ,  s c h o o l  1925,  Improving  of  home  f o r  more  " b a n e f u l  (Report,  mandated  be  " r e a l  housed  g i v e  the  d i f f e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p  (Report,  s c h o o l  economics.  domestic  would  p r a c t i c a l  of  might  because  were  b e n e f i t s  r i d  the  h i g h .  and  e x i s t i n g  U n i v e r s i t y  the  through  Other  the  Home  j u n i o r  s c h o o l  n i n e t e e n  s c h o o l  whether  s u p e r v i s o r  economics  e x a m i n a t i o n s "  concerned  p u b l i c  t a k e n ,  and  and  w r i t t e n Two  problems  e d u c a t i o n . use  was  l i f e  l o n g e r  b e t t e r  counted  of home  handwork  d i f f e r e n c e  problems  c u r r i c u l u m  c h i l d r e n  that  home  out and  The  and  s c h o o l i n g ,  the  v o c a t i o n a l  but  What  work  t r a i n i n g  e n r i c h i n g  boys  r e a l .  s c h o o l  d i v i s i o n  keep  and  than  e d u c a t i o n "  p a p e r - f o l d i n g .  be  the course  survey  f o r  228).  d i s c u s s e d  under  and  e l a s t i c  the  i n t e r m e d i a t e  s e v e r a l  c u r r i c u l u m or  was  j u n i o r  c a t e g o r i e s  i n  recommended h i g h  s c h o o l .  ''  7  E n g l i s h ,  geography,  p h y s i c a l  e x e r c i s e ,  boys  were  J u n i o r  to  h i g h  elementary -  i t  was  t h a t  and  would  h i g h  be  p.  to  91).  i n t e n d e d  r a t i o n a l e ;  p r o v i d e  to  i n s t r u c t i o n  and  fundamental  to  b u i l d i n g  and  p.  91)  i n  home-making  and  home  and  those  a  to  t e c h n i c a l  work  s i m p l e use  between r a t i o n a l e  s i m p l e and  t o o l s  s h e l t e r "  economics s k i l l s  f o r  c o u r s e : .  b r i d g e  c l o t h i n g  f o r  " s y s t e m a t i c  p r a c t i c e  " h e a l t h y  i m p l i e s  what  was  w i t h  a  more moral  w e l l - d i r e c t e d  a c t i v i t i e s  t h e r e f o r e  which  are  fundamental  p r e s e r v i n g  a  h e a l t h y  n a t i o n "  a  reason  f o r  home  has  c a l l e d  the  u n d e r l y i n g  Wood  e d u c a t i o n i s t s  e x e r t e d aim  t e a c h  l e a r n  shop  t h r e e - y e a r  had  food,  b a s i s  and  e s s e n t i a l  work  to  p r o v i d e  to  g i r l s  h y g i e n e ,  n a t i o n "  f o r  (Report,  1925,  .  A  of  up  order  s c i e n c e ,  the  an  Shop  The  p r e s c r i p t i v e ,  f o r  p r o v i d e  " i n  man  c i v i c s ,  throughout  s c h o o l .  taught  1925,  and  economics  compulsory  e n a b l e d  (Report,  home  s c h o o l s  to  have  be  h i s t o r y  of  s t r o n g  those  s i m p l y  the  such  V i c t o r i a  L o c a l  domain  of  of  Report  b e l i e v e  John on  e d u c a t i o n  i n f e r i o r  study The  as  i n f l u e n c e s  of  m i s s i o n .  We  (1985)  p r o g r e s s i v e  and/or  as  d a i l y  that woman,  of  the and  and  G.  Putman  and  was  improve  to  e u g e n i c i s m  S t a n l e y  Weir.  An  the  H a l l ,  lower  Home  economics  was  l i f e  r e a l  o b j e c t s .  It  or  from  Women home  i s  the to  the  the  t h e r e f o r e  p r e s e n t a t i o n survey  n a t u r a l that  home  who  u n d e r l y i n g  m o r a l s .  quoted  C o u n c i l  Watson  economics  by  c l a s s e s not  had  a  the  commission: and  r i g h t f u l  economics,  the  77  s c i e n c e  of  l o g i c a l  study  d i f f e r e n t  the  f o r  the  v a r y i n g  the  s e x . . . . M a n y  the  d i g n i t y  stamina,  the  depends  tomorrow. The  o b j e c t i o n  was  Let  the  e d u c a t i o n  c u l t u r a l .  The  a  p r a c t i c a l  c l a i m i n g and  c u l t u r a l  s o - c a l l e d  them  by  any  other  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l were  s u b j e c t s  means"  sense,  A c c o r d i n g  the  Report,  f u l f i l l e d  the  e x p e c t a t i o n  t h a t  scope  minds  solved]  upon  the  of  when  the  p h y s i c a l  m o t h e r s - t o -  l i f e  of  i t  t h a t  too  m a t e r i a l i s t i c  economics.  w h o l l y  they  not  attempted i n  r e c e i v e  1925,  p. and  337). manual  consensus  by  economics v a l u e s  be  g i v e n  In  an  t r a i n i n g  c u l t u r e . economics  would  be  a  had  and i n  home  not  and  t a u g h t  c u l t u r a l  c o u l d  and  t r a i n i n g  were  v a l u e s  One  i d e a l i s t i c  manual  which  the  home  o b j e c t i o n s  t h a t  economics of  the  ample  home  because  (Report,  v a l u e s  i n  and  be  was  s t u d i e s  the  be  of  main  were  c h i l d r e n  t r a n s m i t t i n g to  two  i n s t e a d  home  i s  and  339)  p r a c t i c a l  " A l l  t h a t  b r i l l i a n t  t h e . . . v e r y  commissioners  and  v o c a t i o n a l  t h a t  t r a i n i n g  o b j e c t i o n  t r a i n i n g .  from  o u t l i n e d  most  f i b r e  of p.  proper  adequately  moral  1925,  The  i s  t h e r e  [ w i l l  f o r g e t  w o r t h l e s s  manner.  both  manual  were  and  s h o u l d  second  economics  not  manual  the  the  problems  the  b e l i e v e  s u b j e c t of  c h a r a c t e r  about  p r a c t i c a l ;  home  us  mental  t h a t  t h i s  home-making  (Report,  had  p r e - e m i n e n t l y  a b i l i t i e s  commissioners  r a t e p a y e r s  of  s o c i a l  of  r e c o g n i z e d . . . .  i s  womankind....We  branches  f o r  be,  home,  not  l e g i t i m a t e  78  academic  s u b j e c t  t e a c h e r s  were  demanding  e x p e n s i v e  p r o f e s s i o n a l  a  c h i d e d  d e m o n s t r a t i n g  The  w i t h  the  f o r  worth  of  had  sewing  c o u l d  do  the  done  (Report, almost  one p.  1925,  complete  to  or  by  the  o p e r a t o r  the  s e p a r a t i o n  time  that  of  when  more  other  departments  s u b j e c t s  were  f u l l y  i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o  would  as  p r e d i c t e d  e x c r e s e n c e  i n  they the  s p e c i a l  diploma  c o u r s e s  i n  area  of  c o n c e r n .  p a r t  of  the  the  secure  h i g h  t w i c e ,  i n  The i t s  c l a i m  p r e s e n t e d  f o r  manual  s c h o o l  handwork  s c h o o l  the  the  p r o p e r "  be  the  the  they  to  s u b j e c t s  home  c r e d i t e d  were  from  not  were  the  the  Putman k i n d  and  of The  99).  completed  was  p u p i l s  l e s s - a b l e  another o f f i c i a l l y noted  who  t h a t  d i d  not  p e n a l i z e d  view.  economics toward  commissioners  "a  commissioners  w i t h h e l d The  economics  was  U n t i l  s c h o o l s , were,  g i r l s "  manual  who  the  the  and  s t u d e n t s  A l t h o u g h  of  d e f e c t  p.  home  e n t r a n c e .  twenty  1925,  and  were  the  (Report,  g i v e n  c u r r i c u l u m ,  r o t a r y  s c h o o l s .  t r a i n i n g  c o m m i s s i o n e r s '  q u e s t i o n to  remain  handwork  diplomas s c h o o l  i n  m a t e r i a l s .  gramaphone  economics  from  and  s c r i b b l i n g  a  s e r i o u s  t r a i n i n g  Weir  by  by  academic and  "a  and  done  home  time  spent  boards of  Poor  of  t e a c h e r ,  Another  98).  i n s t e a d  waste  t e x t i l e s ,  c o o k i n g ,  w i t h  l e d  economics  s c h o o l  s u b j e c t .  on  i n  d u p l i c a t o r  o u t f i t t i n g t h e i r  Home  away  commented  notes  work  f o c u s .  f r i g h t e n i n g  k i t c h e n  t r a i n i n g  c o m m i s s i o n e r s  p r a c t i c a l  w i t h  i n  the  u n i v e r s i t y a  problem.  h i g h  s c h o o l  and  m a t r i c u l a t i o n Because  the  79  survey  commission  r e q u i r e m e n t s " , be  a  to  " g r a t u i t o u s  recommendation and  h i g h  had  comment  was  s c h o o l  i n  B r i t i s h  q u a l i f i e d  t e a c h e r s .  i n t e r n a l : i t s e l f ,  1925, as  every  p r e s e n t p.  the  School  had  a l l  i t  the  quo.  d i d  which  and  two  e d u c a t i o n ,  of  r e c e i v e i n  i t  was  as not  met the  f o r  " a c t u a l  at  l i f e  such  Edward  High  but  i n  g i r l s  geometry.  r e q u i r e d  geometry  saw  means  changing  but an  home not  of  economics  to  e s s e n t i a l  equal  to  be  geometry.. f a c t  c e r t a i n  i n  c o u r s e s  K i n g  v a l u e ,  was  (Report,  t h a t  i n s t r u c t i o n  t h a t  terms  s u b j e c t s  students  conceded  no  and  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  the  program  home  i n  Canada  s c i e n c e s  t o u t e d  i t s  p r a c t i c a l  recommended  was  f i n d  The  numbers  s u b j e c t  t e s t  to  s c h o o l  p r o v i d e  s u f f i c i e n t  i t  economics  commissioners  economics  to  164).  m i d d l e  to  a  seemed  p.  Every  The  u n i v e r s i t y  c r e d i t  1925,  j u s t i f y  commissioners  not  s e t t i n g  ought  unsound.  i n  c u l t u r a l  to  to  p r o s p e c t i v e "  home  They  were  ought  u n i v e r s i t i e s  e q u i v a l e n t  g i r l ' s  way  The  h i g h  i n  e n t r a n c e ,  home  and  t h r e e - y e a r  Because  as  the  165).  e n r o l l e d  s t a t u s  s u b j e c t  (Report,  Columbia  t h e r e  was  w i t h  p h r a s e d .  However,  c r e d i t s  through  needs,  where  do  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  c a r e f u l l y  c o u r s e s  u n i v e r s i t y  on  to  i m p e r t i n e n c e "  economics  of  " n o t h i n g  of  f o r the  ^  acceptedj A l t h o u g h  ;  every  academic  s u b j e c t s . The s h o u l d At  t h i s  Report  i n s t r u c t p o i n t  recommended the  the  t h a t  students  students  i n  would  the  c l a s s r o o m  manual be  a r t s  t e a c h e r s  u n t i l  d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y  grade ready  f i v e . f o r  r e a l  t h i n g s  and  s h o u l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  e x p r e s s e d  p r a c t i c a l  i n  recommendations c u l t u r a l  and  The  as  a  be  i s  not  g i v e s  r e q u i r i n g  her  p r o j e c t s . v a l u e s  If  g r e a t e r  spending  the  mathematics  s c h o o l  a c t i v i t y  s c h o o l  t r a i n i n g  (Report, The v a l u e s ,  1925,  Report l o o s e l y  was  a  " A l l  the  e d u c a t i o n  i s  p r o c l a i m e d  the  complete  l i v i n g  the  p.  to  a t t i t u d e  get  a  the down  be  of  i n  from have  study  economics  p l e a  some  work  r e c e i v e d L a t i n t h i s  by  i t s  to  degree,  i t  by  w i t h  r e a l  c u l t u r a l from  or  Greek  s u b j e c t  because  elementary  measured  f o r  them  l i f e  t h i s  f o r  i s  l a u n d r e s s e s  d e a l  c o m p l e t e l y a l l  t r a i n  and  of  about them  as  the the  i n  and  or  as  of  between  a  a  h i g h  c u l t u r a l  d e f i n i t i o n l i n k s  a  separate  toward  problems  would on  t h i n g s  l i f e "  v a l u e  337).  vague  d e f i n i n g  r i g i d l y  or  not  v a l u e  must  "worthwhile  seamstresses  l i f e  then  breaks  a  to  these  she  time  as  programme...  sane  does  than  same  a n a l y s i s  or  s o l v e  h i g h e r  f i n a l  as  i n  t r a i n i n g . . . . Home  d o i n g  she  making  s c h o o l  g i r l to  The  v a l u e s  a x i o m a t i c  e d u c a t i o n  attempt  cooks  w h i l e the  was  economics.  f o r  any  the  or  p r a c t i c a l  v o c a t i o n a l "  of  academic  on  s p e c i a l i s t s .  s t a t i n g :  w i t h  and  because  a l s o  i s  p r e p a r a t i o n  housemaids  but  home  c o n c e p t i o n  v o c a t i o n a l  by  and  e d u c a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n  i n c o n s i s t e n t  g i r l s  c u l t u r a l  f u r t h e r  modern  w e l l  taught  r e g a r d i n g  a l l  c o m m i s s i o n e r s ,  be  c u l t u r a l c u l t u r e  81  and  s k i l l .  " o n l y a  workman  because  f i n e  some  A  he  the  n o t i o n  g o i n g  s c h o o l .  to  "handedness" d i v i s i o n p l a c e d  on  r a t h e r  economics  economics  Survey  the  the  due  aim  and  now  genuine  s c h o o l , of  was  another"  u l t i m a t e  p r i v a t e  h a v i n g  a  addressed  by  of  woman"  to  and  d i r e c t  economics  phrase  had  and  the  Home  Teachers ("Home have  to  F e d e r a t i o n  economics be  p r a c t i s i n g  S e c t i o n  i n  t h e i r  s e c t i o n " ,  p r i n c i p l e s  w i t h  l e a d e r s h i p ,  by  the and  of  p u b l i c , above  economy"  of  1924). w i t h  the  good  338).  of  home  p r o v i n c i a l  (p.  (ARPS,  B r i t i s h  The a  p.  f a c t o r  to  She  338).  The  1918-1919)  School  d i r e c t o r  Survey would  u n d e r s t a n d i n g would  a b i l i t y , and  T r a n s l a t e d  competent  Columbia  the  new  good  judgment  The  " t h o r o u g h l y  K y l e  e d u c a t i o n . e x e c u t i v e  a l l (p.  John  a  s u b m i s s i o n  u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d  p r o g r e s s i v e d e a l i n g  Economics  used  1925,  c o m m i s s i o n e r s .  appointment  been  emphasis  p u b l i c .  the  a l r e a d y  Any  P o t e n t i a l l y ,  recommended  home  of  (Report,  Report  o r g a n i z e  heart  e d u c a t i o n .  s u p e r v i s o r  the  In  and  i n t e g r a t i n g  and  woman  and  "degree  d i s t i n c t i o n s .  the  337).  and  J . W . R o b e r t s o n ' s  hand  p r o g r e s s i v e  on  p.  "headedness"  the  q u a l i t y  i n t e l l i g e n c e  to  head,  to  h i g h  1925,  back  of  of  of  (Report,  c h i l d ,  was  item  degree  i n t e g r a t i o n  two  an  harkened  whole  p r o v i d e  matter  h i g h  to  than  and  a  fundamental  one  c o u l d  home  The home  was  produce  beauty"  The  between  now  between  of  has  of  School  o r i g i n a l  337),  [sic]  a p p r e c i a t i o n  ways  c o u l d  have  of  " t a c t  t r a i n i n g  f o r  a  f o r  i n t o  g e n i u s a c t i o n ,  the  i n  82  new  d i r e c t o r would have t o " i n s i s t  on a wise expenditure  of  money, a l l o w no waste of e i t h e r p u p i l s ' time or m a t e r i a l , and c o - o r d i n a t e l e s s o n s i n home economics with other s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s on the one hand and with the home l i f e of the p u p i l s on the o t h e r "  (Report, p.  339).  Reactions t o the Putman-Weir Report The  School, o f f i c i a l  organ of the O n t a r i o  Teachers'  A s s o c i a t i o n had s e v e r a l e n t h u s i a s t i c r e f e r e n c e s t o the School Survey to  i n the f i r s t few months a f t e r i t was  the Department of E d u c a t i o n .  "important section  findings":  One  B.C.  presented  writer tabulated four  recommendations f o r a j u n i o r h i g h  ( sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as 6-3-3) and a more e l a s t i c  h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , e q u a l i z i n g of the tax burden, i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s through extended t e a c h i n g and the development of an i n t e n s i v e programme  ( W i n g f i e l d , 1925).  The  practice  testing  School Survey  was  described  as a showcase f o r c u r r e n t tendencies i n e d u c a t i o n a l theory as they were a p p l i e d by "men  of wide p r a c t i c a l  experience".  "There i s not a d u l l page i n the volume" p r o c l a i m e d e d i t o r of The  School  ( " E d i t o r i a l Notes", 1925,  p. 320) .  Subsequent observers of education i n B r i t i s h have f e l t  Columbia  a f a s c i n a t i o n with the Putman-Weir Report  w r i t t e n about i t i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . (1986) saw  the main e f f e c t of the Report  the  as b e i n g  and  Sutherland  83  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e thought.  In  reform  s p i t e  " f o r m a l i s m "  was  p r e s e n t e d  s t r o n g  s c h o o l  c l a s s e s  B r i t i s h which  a  M u s i c ,  was  a r t ,  somewhat brought  i t  never  d i m e n s i o n ,  f i e l d ,  (Sutherland,  Report work  as  1976,  (1979)  c o n t r i b u t i o n s the  Report  c l a s s e s the  as  the  p.  which  and  the  f a c t  to  t h a t  most i n  method  formal promoted.  economics  were  s t u d e n t s  r a t h e r  " o f t e n  than  187).  Home  because  of  i t s  content  i t  q u i c k l y  that  S u t h e r l a n d  p r o j e c t  because  r e l e v a n t  i n  u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d  i t s changed grew  i n t o  a  women  . the  v o c a t i o n a l work  system masses,  c i t i z e n s "  promoted  home  t h a t  p a s s i v e l y  or  c l a s s r o o m  way  by  and The  1986,  s t a y e d  c o m m i s s i o n e r s ,  to  c o n t e n t i o n  e x p l a i n e d and  e d u c a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n ,  a l t e r n a t i v e  the  of  h i s  i n  commissioners  1950's.  an  i n t e r p r e t e d  e d u c a t i o n  open  to  190)  favour  The  e f f i c i e n t s c h o o l s  i n  as  taught p.  p r i m a r i l y  s k i l l s  t r a i n i n g .  t i m e s ,  the  f o r m a l l y  the  other  p a r t i c u l a r  changing  support  (Sutherland,  p r a c t i c a l  of  e d u c a t i o n  competence  i n  Dunn  to  advancement  p r o g r e s s i v e  adequately  than  t h e r e "  p r o f e s s i o n a l  to  proposed  economics  w i t h  c l a i m s  i n t o  i n d u s t r i a l  t h e i r  than  conducted  w e l l  l i v e l i e r  l e a r n i n g  the  case  were  Report  d i s c i p l i n e  of  anathema  Columbia  the  r a t h e r  as so  i n  the  of  the  sense  d i s c i p l i n e s  Putman-Weir  of  and  d e - e m p h a s i z i n g c i t i z e n s h i p  a c c o r d i n g  to  "one  comprehensive  w i t h  c h i l d r e n  (Dunn,  v o c a t i o n a l  e f f e c t  1979,  t r a i n i n g  Dunn,  c o u l d p.  To  would  an  h i g h  maximize  246).  which  d e f i n e d  t h e i r  t h i s " h e l p  end  84  s t u d e n t s thus  accept  enhancing  r e s u l t  was  e d u c a t i o n would  be  prepare  more  broad  sarcasm  best  u n d e r s t a n d  e x p r e s s e d and the  E x p e r i e n t i a l but Wood was  growth  the  motives  of  i n d i v i d u a l everyone out,  as  Putman  the  many  and  t h a t  a f t e r  as  c h i l d  a  and  e d u c a t i o n  were  the  V o c a t i o n a l p l a c e  the  the  and  h e a v i l y 1988).  p r o g r e s s i v e The  only  s c h o o l  p l a c e  l i f e  Putman-Weir  her  aims  p o s s i b l e .  r e c e n t r e d  the  bent of As  upon  to  e d u c a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n  Rather,  the  r e d u c i n g  s c h o o l i n g Wood  c h i l d r e n  r e l a t i o n s h i p  environment.  s o c i a l ,  known  s o c i a l l y .  R e p o r t ,  complex  equated  them.  o r g a n i z e d  to  (1982,  became  f o r  about  f o r  e d u c a t i o n  be  and  work  laden Wood  were  as  the  Report  p r o g r e s s i v e  "normal'  c o u r s e s  i n  Putman-Weir  to  The  r e c e i v e d  o c c u p a t i o n a l  c e n t r a l  or  the  v o c a t i o n a l  i n c r e a s i n g l y  R e p o r t .  the  h i s  to  ( S t o r t z ,  r e c i p r o c a l ,  d i f f e r e n c e s .  Weir  the  economic  was  of  t r a i n i n g  t h e i r  1978)  of  However,  p l a c e  253).  became  cases  development  regarded  between  i n  knowledge  contends not  i n  r e s u l t  s o c i a l  and  (Mann,  1  s o c i e t y ,  home.  n e g a t i v i t y  a  the  f o r  the  " e d u c a t i o n as  1  (p.  c r i t i q u e d  terms  and  t h a t  " s c h o o l i n g  p h i l o s o p h y  have  the  r e l a t e d  g i r l s  i m p o r t a n t l y ,  w r i t e r s  c l a i m s  the  m a r g i n a l l y  to  extremely  w i t h  "only  i n d u s t r i a l  253).  i n  because  sought  but  1985)  s c h o o l s "  new (p.  ambiguity  r e f o r m e r s "  c y n i c i s m ,  as  p u b l i c  the  e f f i c i e n c y "  by  Other i t s  s o c i a l  i n  o f f e r e d  g i r l s  w o r l d ,  p l a c e s  " c o n t i n u i n g  i n  o f t e n  p r o m i s e s f o r  a  t h e i r  so  e d u c a t i o n  were  to  c l e a r l y of  make p o i n t s  B r i t i s h  85  Columbia Report the  i n  was  t h e i r the  b e n e f i t s  of  the  c h i l d r e n  c a u t i o n s  a g a i n s t  t h e o r y If  can  q u a l i t y the w i t h  the  those  a c t u a l l y  who  The  p.  of  s u b j e c t s . home  a f t e r  a l l ,  so  i n t e g r a t e d would  was  to  i n t e n d e d movement 223).  to  b r i n g  to  a l l  S u t h e r l a n d  i d e n t i f y  the and  the  our  i t  q u a r r e l  [and]  to  g e n e r a l l y p i e c e s  t o g e t h e r  the  than  n a i v e t e  of  ramshackle  Canadians  c a l l e d  s u r e l y  l e s s  w i t h  s h o u l d  something  i t  i s  [those]  have  who  d i s c e r n e d  b e t t e r .  i t s  (Sutherland,  as  was  l e g i t i m a t e  u n d e r s c o r e d C u l t u r a l  Report  the  and  i t s  academic  ambivalent  v o c a t i o n a l  s t a t e  e d u c a t i o n ;  the  h i s  c u l t u r e  p r a c t i c a l  [sic] had as  be  upgraded  p a r t i c u l a r l y  Ideology  r e g a r d i n g  between  improved  to  i n  boys  and  i n s t r u c t i o n  t r u e  and  n e e d f u l  the  v a l u e  g i r l s . i n  of  v a l u e s  p r a c t i c a l  out  s h a r p l y  r e c e i v e  Putman-Weir  e d u c a t i o n  s k i l l s  s i n g l e d  r e s o u r c e s .  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  i n  apply  economics  e x p e c t e d  then  i t  e d u c a t i o n .  t e c h n i c a l  and  of  d o i n g  T h e r e f o r e  time  to  Putman-Weir  e d u c a t i o n :  b i t s  t u r n e d  p r a c t i c a l  economics be  hoc  put  l e g a c y  In  would  ad  p.  The  224)  main  promotion  and  1976,  c r i t i c i z e  implemented  weaknesses 1976,  and  e d u c a t i o n ,  1  e d u c a t i o n  h i n d s i g h t  p r a c t i c a l  see  of  "new  p r a c t i c a l  u s i n g  i d e o l o g y .  b l u e p r i n t "  (Sutherland,  b e h i n d  we  p r o g r e s s i v e  " s o p h i s t i c a t e d  Canadian  the  own  r e a l i s t , ways.  home i n of  use  of  handwork  G i r l s  a c t i v i t i e s  were  86  fundamental t o  l e a r n  to  the  use  e s s e n t i a l ,  but  t r a i n i n g .  A  seamstress  but  not  h i r e d  not  t o  s t a t u s to  New  accomplishments p r o g r e s s i v e  beyond  McLenaghen  c o u l d  e d u c a t i o n  i n  and  and  s u b j e c t  B r i t i s h  and  be a  were  a  economics a c r o s s  competent  i n  C o l u m b i a .  t o  the  to  p o l i t i c a l  not  C o l u m b i a .  The do  the  p a r t i c u l a r  next  f o r  t o  and  i t  Canada. woman" s h a r e d  o r i g i n a l Her  r e s t r i c t i o n s economic  c h a p t e r  home  l i f e .  because  recommendations, w i t h  j o b -  or  a t t i t u d e  p h i l o s o p h y B r i t i s h  p r o v i d e  l a u n d r e s s  sane  home  e x p e c t e d  were  would  r e q u i r e m e n t s  c o n t r o l . c o u l d  to  they  economics  E d u c a t i o n  her  to  boys  p r o j e c t s  " t h o r o u g h l y  home  e d u c a t i o n  t h a t  develop  d e n i e d  the  the  R e a l  l e a r n  u n i v e r s i t y  were  c o n d i t i o n s  extent  i n s t e a d was  n a t i o n ;  t o o l s .  not  background  of  h e a l t h y  the  McLenaghen,  c o n s i d e r a b l e  of  t o  would  implement  proponents  a  s i m p l e  would  conform  J e s s i e  of  g i r l  M a t r i c u l a t i o n d i d  b u i l d i n g  d e t a i l s  economics  what  87  Endnotes 1. Robi B.C. gov 1916 a s R i c h a r d f i n a n c i a  n (1972) d e s c r i b ernment i n h e r i t e " i n a shambles" M c B r i d e a n d W. B l improvement d i  e d t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e d by John O l i v e r and t h e L i b e r a l s i n and c r e d i t e d i t t o t h e p r o f l i g a c y of owser. Ormsby (1971) a s s e r t s t h a t d n o t come about u n t i l 1922.  2. V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n m u l t i p l i e d f i v e - f o l d between 1901 and 1921 (Canada Year Book, 1926). The i n c r e a s e was t h r e e times g r e a t e r t h r o u g h m i g r a t i o n than n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e (Urquhart, 1965, p . 2 2 ) . Of t h e 1 1 7 , 0 0 0 V a n c o u v e r r e s i d e n t s i n 1926, 38,000 were of B r i t i s h b i r t h (Canada Year Book, 1926, p . 1 1 3 ) . N i n e t y p e r c e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l i n 1921, c o m p a r e d t o 61% o f C a n a d a a s a whole. The i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e was t h e lowest i n Canada, 5 6 . 5 p e r 1000 b i r t h s (Canada Year Book, 1926, p. 127) v e r s u s O n t a r i o ' s r a t e of 91.2 (4). See: Urquhart, Toronto:  M. (Ed.) (1965). M a c m i l l a n .  H i s t o r i c a l  s t a t i s t i c s  of  Canada.  3. The p r e s s and o p p o s i t i o n a c c u s e d t h e government of g r u d g i n g l y a s s e n t i n g t o an event which was l o n g overdue. Irene Moody, a prominent C o n s e r v a t i v e and former Vancouver School Board C h a i r , a l l e g e d t h a t O l i v e r h a d t r e a t e d t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s w i t h contempt. "If John O l i v e r ' s f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e survey, " t o l e t Mary E l l e n [a r e f e r e n c e t o M a r y E l l e n Smith] do i t ' h a d been c a r r i e d o u t " s n i f f e d Moody, "they might j u s t as w e l l have brought up a c l e r k from a d r y goods s t o r e i n Vancouver t o r e o r g a n i z e a farm on t h e d r y b e l t " ("Conservative m e e t i n g " , 1924). Mary E l l e n Smith (1861-1933) was e l e c t e d t o t h e Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e as an Independent from Vancouver 1918, t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y r e p r e s e n t e d by h e r l a t e husban Smith. S h e w a s t h e f i r s t woman C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r i n t B r i t i s h Empire (1921) . A contemporary d e s c r i b e d Smit b e i n g " a s much a t home i n t h e k i t c h e n a s o n t h e f l o o r l e g i s l a t u r e . . M r s . Smith i s a f i r s t - c l a s s cook and housekeeper, and i t i s n o t h e r p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s b u t h e r home t h a t has been t h e b i g f o r c e i n h e r l i f e " (W Woman's Weekly, 1918, 1 (30), p. 1). F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e :  B r i t i s h i n d R a l p h h e h as of t h e  C o n s e r v a t i v e  p.  m e e t i n g .  H a l e , L. (1980) . s u f f r a g i s t s and s o (Eds.) In h e r own i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i  (1924,  June  2 0 ) .  Vernon  News,  l o v e of estern  3.  P r o f i l e s of prominent B r i t i s h Columbia c i a l r e f o r m e r s . In B. Latham & C. Kess r i g h t : S e l e c t e d e s s a y s on women's h i s t o r y a . V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e .  88  4. For more r u r a l w o r l d v An e d u c a t i o n i w r i t t e n accou  i n f iew s t nt  o r m a t i o n on J . H . Putman and h i , s e e h i s own b o o k F i f t y year l o o k s at l i f e (1938). A p a r t i of Putman's l i f e and p h i l o s o p h  Wood, B. Anne (1985). I d e a l i s m p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t o r . K i n g s t o n Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . See a l s o : R o b e r t s , C . G . D . who. T o r o n t o :  & T u r n e l l , A. Trans-Canada  s i d e a l i s t s at s c h o o l : c u l a r l y w e l l y i s found i n :  t r a n s f o r m e d : The making of and M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l and  (1937-38). P r e s s .  The  Canadian  a  who's  5. George W e i r was remembered more f o r h i s attempts to e s t a b l i s h u n i v e r s a l h e a l t h i n s u r a n c e than h i s e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s . The Canadian Who's Who s t a t e d t h a t Weir had "the a b i l i t y to marshal p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour of s o c i a l betterment p r o j e c t s w h i c h he has at h e a r t ' (Roberts & T u r n e l l , 1938-39). Mann's (1978) c l a i m was t h a t Weir had a s t r o n g a n t i p a t h y toward e a s t e r n Canada and f e l t i t was the r o l e of the West to l e a d the way f o r the r e s t of Canada ( p . 4 3 ) . I d i d not f i n d evidence to support t h i s view. Ormsby (1971) g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d W e i r ' s o r a t o r y s k i l l s i n the L e g i s l a t u r e (pp. 456-457). For f u r t h e r b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n see: R o b e r t s , C . G . D . who. T o r o n t o :  & T u r n e l l , A. Trans-Canada  C a r t e r , S.M. (1947-48). Vancouver: A u t h o r . V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t George M o i r Weir. 6. Of the perhaps the the U n i v e r s e p i t o m i z i n g about p r o g r of Toronto, e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n  (1938-39). P r e s s .  Who's  (1949,  r e s e a r c h team, P e most i n f l u e n t i a l i t y of Manchester the j u n c t u r e of e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n S a n d i f o r d wrote p s y c h o l o g y which s t i t u t i o n s . See:  who  i n  The  Canadian  B r i t i s h  December  6).  who's  Columbia.  O b i t u a r y  f o r  t e r S a n d i f o r d (1882-1941) was . He r e c e i v e d h i s t r a i n i n g at and Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , thus American and E n g l i s h thoughts i n Canada. From the U n i v e r s i t y s e v e r a l landmark t e x t s on were used w i d e l y i n t e a c h e r -  W a l l a c e , W.S. (1978). The M a c m i l l a n d i c t i o n a r y b i o g r a p h y (4th ed.) Toronto: M a c m i l l a n .  of  7. S e c t i o n s of W e i r ' s Survey of n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n i d e n t i c a l to the Report, i n c l u d i n g the same c l i c h e s "Topsy" and " p e r f o r m i n 1 powneys".  Canadian  (1932) about  are  89  8. W.H. K i l p a t r i c k (1918) d e f i n e d t h e p r o j e c t " w h o l e h e a r t e d p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y p r o c e e d i n g i environment". He o r i g i n a t e d t h e c o n c e p t from P e s t a l o z z i and h i s e a r l y s c h o o l t e a c h i n g e x p e r (1921) p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t method would c h i l d ' s p a r t was l i m i t e d only t o t h e e x e c u t i o n r a t h e r than i n c l u d i n g t h e i r p l a n n i n g . As r e a d f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s w i l l d i s c o v e r , t h e p r o j e c t s ends i n themselves and t h e p r o j e c t method d i d o r i g i n a l , i f u n d e f i n e d i n t e g r a t i v e a i m .  method as n a s o c i a l h i s r e a d i n g s of i e n c e . Mossman f a i l i f t h e of p r o j e c t s e r s of t h e o f t e n became not f u l f i l i t s  Chipman, D. (1977). Young K i l p a t r i c k i d e a . H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y ,  and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e 17 (Winter), 407-415.  D i c k i e , D. (1940). T o r o n t o : Gage.  Theory  The  K i l p a t r i c k , W.H. (1918). C o l l e g e Record, 19 (4),  E n t e r p r i s e  i n  The p r o j e c t 319-335.  method.  and  P r a c t i c e .  Teachers  Mossman, L. (1921). The p r o j e c t method i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l and h o u s e h o l d a r t s . Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 22 (4), 322-328. Tomkins, G. (1986). A common c o u n t e n a n c e : S t a b i l i t y change i n t h e Canadian c u r r i c u l u m . Scarborough, ON: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . p p . 190-196.  and  90  CHAPTER  IV  HOME  ECONOMICS  J e s s i e  McLenaghen  peak  of  c a r e e r  Home  Economics  h e r  E d u c a t i o n . Honourable as  t o  o n l y  A r t h u r  Prominent  People  was  t a s k s  p.  "on  b u t  of  not  home  t h e  a  The  job  were  Department  h i s  Canada  Manitoba  McLenaghen,  j o b  of  t o  an  h i s  way  t h e  home o u t s e t r e q u i r e d  expense.  The  t h e  c u r r i c u l u m ,  new  i n t e g r a l  as  make  and u n i f y i n g  became  term  and  t h e  r e c o n c i l i n g  i n i t i a t i n g  t h e  Putman-Weir  from  e x t r a  s c h o o l  on  p u t t i n g  e x p e c t e d  of  1989).  (Pioneers  o r  p u b l i c  s h o r t  w e l l  t h e  t h e  c o u s i n  second  d e s c r i p t i o n was  Her  was  at  of  ( M i t c h e l l ,  McLenaghen  tough  and  D i r e c t o r  c o n t r o v e r s y  economics program,  f i r s t  s p e c i f i e d by  McLenaghen  economics  of  1925).  f a c e d  o l d ,  i m p e c c a b l e .  e n t e r e d  of  woman"  c r e a t e  h e r  home  p u b l i c i z i n g  h a d  M a n i t o b a ,  338)  a p p o i n t e d  were  1926-1939  COLUMBIA  y e a r s  Columbia  Osborne  t r a c k " .  a w a i t i n g  p r o v i n c i a l  t h a t  James  c o n t r a d i c t o r y ;  changes,  B r i t i s h  M i n i s t e r  competent  (1925,  economics  was  A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  " t h o r o u g h l y Report  she  Meighen,  Prime  b r o t h e r  becoming  t h e  BRITISH  f o r t y - t h r e e  c o n n e c t i o n s  C o n s e r v a t i v e  Her  when  f o r  Her  was  IN  i d e a s , p a r t  of  and  e n s u r i n g  t h e  c u r r i c u l u m . J e s s i e Economics  McLenaghen's  c a n be  c o r r e s p o n d  t o  Columbia.  From  c o n f i d e n c e  as  r o u g h l y  p o l i t i c a l 1926  t o  McLenaghen  accomplishments d i v i d e d and 1929 s e t  i n t o  economic t h e  t h r e e events  program  about  as  D i r e c t o r p a r t s i n  Home  w h i c h  B r i t i s h  expanded  i m p l e m e n t i n g  of  w i t h  t h e  changes  91  recommended From and  by  t o  1929  t h e  rebounded  on  The  e r a ,  p r a c t i c a l  McLenaghen t h e  1946,  when  Canadian  t h e  t o  1934 when  School was  changed  e f f e c t s  of  Survey  t h e  came  of War  Economics  f a m i l y  of  E l s p e t h  a  seven  one-room  O n t a r i o  s c h o o l  (McLenaghen,  t e a c h e r  t r a i n i n g  Manitoba  i n  School  J e s s i e  r e c o r d e d  box" study  at  and  Normal  domestic  f o r  an  S c h o o l , s c i e n c e  "Golden  Age"  i d e a l s  of  A l t h o u g h  from  other  t o  than  manual  t h e  i n  of  t h e J e s s i e  u n t i l  any  f o u n d i n g  of  t h e  1939.  McLenaghen  (1883-1968) g i r l s of of  and  was  one  B a l d e r s o n n i n e t e e n  t h e .  She  h e r  u n l i k e  (McLenaghen,  h e r  was  at  not  Jen  and  of  John  C o r n e r s ,  f a m i l y  c o u r s e .  t r a i n i n g  boy)  farm  d i d  s i s t e r  t h i r d - b o r n  J e s s i e  f a m i l y  McLenaghen  and  but  t h e  a t t e n t i o n  eighteen-week  t a k i n g  26).  d i v e r t e d  1903-1906)  she  p.  1933,  B r a n c h  age  t h e  D e p r e s s i o n  Economics  ( s i x  c l o s e  u n t i l  1904  Normal  t h e  " c o n t r a c t i o n  Great  Report,  mandate.  Home  McLenaghen At  of  f r u i t i o n .  A s s o c i a t i o n  c h i l d r e n  O n t a r i o .  t h e  h e r  p r o g r e s s i v e  t o  t h e  McLenaghen  (Mcllquam)  County, i n  L o u i s e  one  c o n s t i t u t e d  Jessie J e s s i e  t o  1939,  accomplishments  Home  of  w i t h i n  Annual  many  World  Report  (VBST  D i r e c t o r  Second  s i g n i f i c a n t  tone  e d u c a t i o n  a r t s ,  Putman-Weir  t h e  1933,  p e r p l e x i t y "  t h i r d  Putman-Weir  s i s t e r ,  t e a c h i n g  she  1903-1906).  f o r m a l  t o  t o  h e r  making  and  P e r t h ,  moved  In  a  Lanark  r e c e i v e  went  i n  Winnipeg d i a r y ,  a  " l i t t l e  d i d  not  McLenaghen's  92  d i a r y  r e v e a l s  l o v e d  to  but  a  t h a t  "nag  (McLenaghen, d e v e l o p e d a  an  k i n d s  of  J e s s i e  who  i n t e r e s t  who  seen  the  as  you  do  was  c o r r e c t  i t "  J e s s i e s c h o o l  i n  a t t e n d e d i n  the  but  d i d  Annie  and not  L a i r d ,  members  of  Upon  the  r e t u r n  to  S u p e r v i s o r  same  t h a t  o t h e r  home  as who  a  who  c e r t a i n l y  human" had  t h r e e  1989).  (Gibbon, by  she  (Gibbon,  "always  c o n v i c t i o n "  ensure  p o i n t  of  " f i b b e d "  l o t "  To  who  McLenaghen  "very  governed  few  and  the  f o r  a  who  change  the  Weir  i n  noted and  " a l l  p e r s o n  one  grade  In  she  1917  Domestic  S c i e n c e  .  1924)  Household  home  This S c i e n c e ,  e c o n o m i s t s  of  the  such  as  f o u n d i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n . McLenaghen  Saskatoon  Normal  P r i n c i p a l .  s u p e r v i s o r s ,  of  (Laird,  degree  to  was  t e a c h i n g  School  c l a s s  D i e t e t i c  the  years  Saskatchewan.  p r o f e s s o r  f o r  but  hand"  to  c a p a b l e  when  p e o p l e ' s  on  Saskatchewan,  George  economics  a and  McLenaghen  A s s i s t a n t time  of  American  c l e a r  her  M a s s e y - T r e b l e  a s s o c i a t e  a  p e r s o n  1989).  spent  s u f f i c i e n t  p u p i l  p e r s o n  a t t e n t i o n  head  or  economics.  Manitoba  was  i n t r o d u c e  of  h e r s e l f  (Gibbon,  L i l l i a n  time  economics,  r e c a l l  home  c a l l  s o u t h e r n  was  i n  e n e r g e t i c  same  not  " i d e a l i s t ,  McLenaghen  Toronto  study  her  by  an  i s  "improve  k i n d  made  the  slow"  home  to  knew  b e l i e v e d  would  i n  m i s s i o n  c o o k i e s  to  at  It  t h o r o u g h l y had  was  1903-1906).  1989),  was  e n t h u s i a s t i c ,  too  Those  ( M i t c h e l l ,  an  was  l i f e l o n g  1989).  as  t e a s e ,  w h i p p i n g  had  her  J e s s i e  worked  as  S c h o o l  With worked  two on  at or  a  the t h r e e  t h r e e -  93  week  i t i n e r a n t  s c h o o l s the a  b a s i s ,  d u r i n g  e v e n i n g .  graduate  Columbia  the  t e a c h i n g  day  Fannie  of  and  g i v i n g  Twiss,  Macdonald  U n i v e r s i t y  d o m e s t i c  the  s h o r t  Home  I n s t i t u t e  who  b e l i e v e d  i n  c o u r s e s  f o r  Economics  and i n  s c i e n c e  a d u l t s  D i r e c t o r ,  Teachers  g r a s s  the i n  was  C o l l e g e ,  r o o t s  p r o m o t i o n  of  i home  e c o n o m i c s .  " a c t i v e  and  worthy  (Saskatchewan 84). to  She  i t  of  i s  Department  not  enough  name  the  q u e s t i o n s  a r e :  knowledge  g a i n e d ? "  Do  Report,  r e c e i v e d Watson,  so  Twiss  a s p e c t s  of  home  degree  went  F a c u l t y  a of  Annual  emphasis are  apply  77).  S t a t e s  p a r t i c u l a r P r a c t i c a l  as  may  one f o r l u r e  A r t s  of  Normal  had  of  many  home been  matter  t h i n k  l i v e s  a l s o  Mary  U r i e  p o l i t i c a l i n s p i r e d  S c h o o l  i n  1924  f o r  U n i v e r s i t y .  Canadian  e d u c a t o r s  ( P a t t e r s o n , economics up  the  B e r r y  the  set  p.  E d u c a t i o n  Columbia  t r a i n i n g f o r  t o  own  from  to  have  C o l l e g e ,  s u b j e c t  E l i z a b e t h  McLenaghen  1920,  [important]  t h e i r  stratagems  Saskatoon  was  i n  Report,  v a r i o u s  Department  Just  She  Teachers  make  as  community"  coming  p r i n c i p l e s . . . . The  p u p i l s  can  s c i e n c e  the  from  food  the  U n i t e d  and  p u p i l s  e c o n o m i c s .  t o  h o u s e h o l d  home  "Teachers  i n t r o d u c e d  McLenaghen  had  the  i n  p o l i t i c a l  J e s s i e the  i n  of  E d u c a t i o n  s h i f t  p.  i n  at  r o l e  (Saskatchewan  leave  t r a i n i n g  Columbia I t s  to  the  t h a t  the  1921,  t r a i n i n g  McLenaghen  a  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n .  d i s h e s . . . a n d  Annual  saw  membership  a n t i c i p a t e d  method  t h a t  Twiss  f o r  who  1970). t e a c h e r s . the  94  s p e c i f i c a l l i e d  t a s k  of  the  e x p r e s s e d  w r i t t e n  by  Cooley,  Cora  s u b j e c t  i n  The  e d u c a t i o n  as  of  l a n d ,  home-making"  and  one  Cooley i n  i n d i v i d u a l  the  i n d u s t r y " modern  a  both any  economics  as  et  an  and  and  chosen  p a r t  two  can  the  p.  v i i ) .  the  The  c a r e e r s ,  Home  boys'  t o g e t h e r  50).  c l o s e l y  s t u d e n t s "  of  men  a  the  problems  of  authors  one  Therefore  make  w i t h i n they  the  must  be  b o t h .  a l .  " t r u e  w r i t t e n  p r o v i d e d to  l i f e "  needs.  l i f e  as  The  a  f o r  the  Teachers  r a t i o n a l e  f a s h i o n ,  f o r  s u b j e c t ,  the  and  as  may  be  i t  may  a t t a i n . . .  i n  (Cooley  et  a l . ,  t e a c h i n g  1918a,  p.  d i c t a t e d  i t  i n  i s  which  127). the  C o l l e g e  t e a c h i n g  r e s p o n s i v e  i t  to  of  p.  o c c u p a t i o n .  p l a n e  methods  the  u n d e r s t a n d  1919,  have  t h r o u g h  1919,  and  Anna  J o s e p h i n e  p r a c t i c e to  (1919)  members;  and  M a r s h a l l ,  s h o u l d  a l . ,  would  v a l u e  C o l l e g e  Economics  " o n l y  and  "Women  both  et  Spohr  e s s e n t i a l  g i r l s ' :  Teachers  Home  t h a t  r e a l  at  f a c u l t y  theory  and  a r t i c l e s  student  " r e f l e c t  h i g h e s t  a  f o r  e a r l i e r  economics  as  women  i n  w e l l - p r e p a r e d  Record,  d e c l a r e d  Spohr,  (Cooley  t h a t  economics W i l h e l m i n a  promoted w e l l  our  suggested  home  . . . h a v e  W i n c h e l l , was  In  Teaching  textbook  i n v o l v i n g  economics  s h o u l d  home  a  authors  matter  (Cooley,  home  of  p h i l o s o p h y  W i n c h e l l ,  c o u r s e  homes  t e a c h e r s  p r e v a i l i n g  s e v e r a l  M a r s h a l l . woven  t r a i n i n g  s u b j e c t s . ^  Some was  of  It end  of  home  to  a u t h o r s ' when  eyes,  r a i s e d  to  h o m e s . . . o r was the  argued time  t h a t when  95  the  t e a c h e r  The  a l t e r n a t i v e  o r g a n i z e d  c o u l d  was  t o  authors  advocated  s t u d e n t s '  be  so  s h o r t c u t s  arrange  t h e  and  on  work t h e  i n  method  method,  that et  t h e  a l . ,  of  w i t h  p u p i l  i n s t r u c t i o n " .  s u b j e c t had  1918a,  whenever  on  deaden  t h e  problem.  economics  was  p.  a  matter  d e f i n i t e  129).  p o s s i b l e  approximate  r e a l  homes  must  be  made  which  w i l l  h e l p  t h e  t o  towards  t h e  p.  To  end,  t h i s  meal  as  a  of  t h e  food i s  t o  The  m a i n t a i n  et  v e h i c l e  that  e x a l t i n  a l . ,  p r a c t i c e  f o r  a l . ,  1918a,  c e n t r e s  of  l i f e  and  problems t h e  of  women  l i f e "  f o l l o w i n g  o t h e r w i s e p.  379)  e d u c a t i o n  et  and  p.  f o r  s h o u l d "The  i n f l u e n c e s  a  (Cooley  t h e  124).  good  w i t h  aims  t e c h n i c a l  f u l f i l l i n g  (Cooley  men  t h e  an  1918b,  "modern  sewing  p r i n c i p l e  t o  i n t e r e s t  (Cooley  develop  a t t i t u d e  a  each  n a t u r a l  tenet  l i f e "  b a s i s  of  i n  viewed  e d u c a t i o n  t h e  study  c o m b i n a t i o n  p r o g r e s s i v e  were  problem  (Cooley  a b s o r b i n g  5 8 ) .  " p o u r i n g  m o t i v a t i o n :  b e f o r e . . .  Home  t h e  s o l v e d  p i e c e . . . o r  aim  a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  problem  To  o f f e r  r i g h t et  a l . ,  home  1919,  economics  promoted: (1).  t o  l i v i n g ,  t e a c h (2)  t h e t o  t h e  s o c i a l  s c i e n t i f i c , art  o u t s i d e  t h e  t h e  s t r e n g t h e n  toward  through  g i r l  r e l a t i o n  of  i n  as  of  t h e  and  and  a  home  h e a l t h f u l sane t o  work  i n  consumer,  a t t i t u d e  economic,  s p i r i t u a l  woman's  producer  of  g i r l  modern  a e s t h e t i c ,  a p p r e c i a t i o n home  the  p r i n c i p l e s  problems t h e (3)  home t o  and t r a i n  96  the  g i r l  to  o r i g i n a l ] These be  moral  c e n t r e  t o  r o l e s  (Cooley  i n t e r p r e t e d of  f u l f i l were  l e s s  by i s ,  the  h i g h  presumably  q u a l i t y )  i n  Putman-Weir of  mind  p r o b l e m s " . foresaw the  some  drudgery d u t i e s (Cooley  and  et  When B r i t i s h  a  home  g i r l  cannot a l . ,  the  from  1919,  was  be  of  was  would  seen  members.  c u l t u r a l  combining  worthy  of  home  membership.  s h o u l d  to  to  f a c u l t y  " f r e e  harassment  engage  the  t h e i r  the  of  the  term  " r e a l  not  a  term  s e n s i b l e  C o l l e g e  f o c u s  h o u s e h o l d of  (that  The  Teachers  d i d  done  a t t i t u d e ,  use  s o l v e  at  economics  s h o u l d  " r i g h t '  i n d i c a t e  have  h i g h  c o m p l e t i o n  worthy  (1925)  p r a c t i c a l  p r o j e c t s  the  p r e d a t e d  g i r l s  homemaking  and  The  the  Boys'  " a p p r e c i a t e "  of  as  t e a c h  w i t h  the  p.  e d u c a t i o n  done  home  f u l l y  p o s i t i o n  Columbia  o n l y  economics i f  home  home  of  i n  120)  s t a n d a r d s .  economics  economics  women  worthy  [emphasis  economics  The  s i t u a t i o n  Report  problems  Home  t h a t  toward  p.  home  t o g e t h e r  be  why,  economics  moral  but  know  s h o u l d  not  home  t h a t  The  home.  w i t h  s h o u l d  to  of  as  they  d i f f i c u l t  p o i n t e d  to  1918a,  home  a  a p p l i e d  frame  and  w e l d i n g  "sane" the  a l . ,  p l a c e s  s t a n d a r d s  as  ambiguously.  c l e a r ;  s t u d e n t s  of  et  The  c r e a t e d  t e c h n i c a l  w e l l  v i s i o n s  l i f e ,  t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n . v a l u e s  as  i d e a l i s t i c  c o u l d  how  do  round  beyond  t a s k s of  time  and  Home  Economics  from p e t t y  i n t e l l e c t "  65).  D i r e c t o r  c r e a t e d  i n  of  1926,  J e s s i e  f o r  McLenaghen  had  97  been  employed  C o l l e g e  at  graduated t e a c h i n g  f o r  w i t h  a  diploma  J e s s i e  f o r  the  r e t i r e d  f a m i l y ,  l e f t  1972)  .  the  New  ("News  from  the  F i e l d " ,  B a c h e l o r  of  George  to  what  Weir  year  as  M64).  J e s s i e ,  of  the of  w r i t i n g  and  i n c l u d i n g  areas  of  home  McLenaghen the  grade  l a c k to  r e v i s i o n  of  l e v e l  i n t e r e s t  i n t r o d u c e  that  than  on  of  mere  "those  i n  r e s u l t s ,  McLenaghen  and  a  Her  recommended had  c l o s e  environment  to  her  i n  New  Columbia  a  (Robin,  t e c h n i c a l  hand-sewing  w i t h  r e s u l t i n g p a r t  doubt"  of on  (ARPS,  r e p o r t e d ,  under  b e i n g  c h i l d " .  1926-27,  were  d e c i d e d  and g u i s e  a l l f i r s t .  overdone  Her  p.  i n  and  e x p e r i m e n t a l  complete  the  t a c k l e d  " w e a r i n e s s  the an  was  a  p.  c l a s s e s  p r o c e s s e s " were  f i r s t  1926-27,  s c h o o l  manual  areas  her  i n c l u d e d  h i g h  r e c i p e  f o r  (ARPS,  year  j u n i o r  Content  m a c h i n e - s e w i n g  c o n v i n c e  had  A r t s  1925.  motto  s l o w l y "  that  the  She  p a r e n t s  B r i t i s h  f i r s t  i n c l u d e  economics.  observed s i x  of  haste  p u b l i s h i n g  "more  i n  .  always  s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d  "Make  to  her  e n r i c h i n g  muddle"  Teachers'  "Making haste s l o w l y "  McLenaghen's was  an  i n  p o s s i b l y  and  Accomplishments  c u r r i c u l u m  q u i t e  Vancouver l i k e l y  1926)  U n i v e r s i t y  r a t e ,  was  State  P r a c t i c a l  any  " p o l i t i c s  D i r e c t o r  i n  At  1926-1929 J e s s i e  York  S c i e n c e  Columbia  p o s i t i o n .  a l r e a d y  the  year  from  c o l l e a g u e ,  f o r  at  Albany  former  York  one  at  g e n e r a l answer  b a s i s  M65).  i n c r e a s e s  to The i n  was  98  i n t e r e s t ,  p r a c t i c a l  s i t u a t i o n s  t h a t  J e s s i e to  food  meant i t s i t  over  each  r e l a t i o n  study  and  p r e v i o u s l y p r a c t i c e  product  d e f i n i t e  McLenaghen  enable  spent  number  the  a p p r o a c h . ^ s h o u l d  meal, urged  M65).  t e a c h e r s  c o p y i n g  be  t e a c h e r s  to  The  and  by  when  home  economics  i n f o r m a t i o n  from  the  McLenaghen  set  the  manual:  r e c i p e  home  economics  E d u c a t i o n push  to  prove of  n u t r i t i o n  monthly  i s  R e c i p e  i n s t i t u t i o n and  out  r e p o r t  the  her "It not  i s an  Manual,  1927,  e i g h t  i n c l u s i o n  c a r d s  (ARPS,  asked  t e a c h e r s  to  would  g a i n  i n t e l l i g e n t  "an  s t r e s s  most  the  c l e a r l y  worth  i ) . of  departmental of  home  192 8 - 2 9,  food  the  t h a t 1  Other  home  i s  a b l e  done p.  by  M64)  foreword  we  "  be  prove  economics  were  e x a m i n a t i o n s marks  R54).  i n on  t h a t  of  so  t h a t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  the  the foods the  s t u d e n t s reasons  of the  McLenaghen  p r i n c i p l e s  .  to  (Department  i n s t a n c e s  economics p.  "as  1926-27,  i n  s u b j e c t  McLenaghen  would  page  (ARPS,  a d v i s a b l e  p.  home.  p u p i l s  p r i n t e d  "unprepared  academic  grade and  i n t e n t i o n s  r e c i p e  s t i m u l a t e  of  s u b j e c t s "  food  a l s o  day  academic  i n  would  the  o t h e r  " s t i m u l a t e  time  a n t i c i p a t e d  of  n u t r i e n t s  save  l a b o r a t o r y "  s t u d e n t s  the  of  to  " n a t u r a l  t h e i r  by  n e w l y - w r i t t e n  i t  t h i s  because  e x p e r i m e n t i n g  p u p i l s  r e c i p e s ;  approach  p r a c t i c e ,  p r e p a r e d than  the  get  i n  r a t h e r  i n  to  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n " p.  of  developed.  l o g i c a l  1926-27,  would  the  advocated  encourage  (ARPS,  manual  a  and  be  the  food  to  c o n t a i n e d .  i n q u i r y  c o u l d  McLenaghen  work  t h a t  v a l u e  99  u n d e r l y i n g  v a r i o u s  merely  a  " r u l e  words,  home  of  about  l e a r n i n g  p a s s e d  on set  economics  j u n i o r  An  Through  h i g h  a p t i t u d e s  and  r e c o g n i z e d ,  ( B r i t i s h  Columbia  S t u d i e s  f o r  1927,  5).  p.  the  P r a c t i c a l economics, economics f a m i l y g i r l s  to  f o c u s e d  l e a r n  g r a d u a l l y worthy o t h e r s ,  a r t s ,  It  on  the  High  of  v i r t u e s  membership  a s s u r e  of  and  was  of  background of  on  worthy  of  i n d u s t r i a l  a r t s  a  moral  home  obeying  of S t u d i e s ] ,  and  l i s t . to  home Home  home  and  i n j u n c t i o n  f o r  through  A c t i v i t i e s  p l e a s a n t l y o n e ' s  and  s o l i d a r i t y "  membership  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . s p e a k i n g  i d e a s  Programme  a t t i t u d e s  i n  d i f f e r e n c e s  of  r i g h t  study  i n t e r e s t s ,  s o c i a l  s u b j e c t  to  h i g h  [Programme  the  need  of  t h e i r  of  a c r o s s  j u n i o r  i n d i v i d u a l  E d u c a t i o n  i n v o l v e  f a u l t - f i n d i n g ,  of  r e v i s i o n  the  c o u r s e s  d i s c o v e r  both  i n c l u d e d  forms  u n i f o r m i t y  reason  Schools  to  other  type  c u r r i c u l u m  attainment  d e v e l o p i n g  home  1927  common  c o n s t a n t s  appeared  the  a v o i d i n g  "that  that  not  daughter.  t h e i r  i n c l u d i n g as  i n c r e a s i n g  home  would  have  f o r  to  as  i s  In  i n t u i t i v e  such  c u r r i c u l a  p u p i l s  J u n i o r  the  Cookery  n e w l y - i n t r o d u c e d  Department  appeared  l i f e .  the  r e c e i v e  past  c o m p e l l i n g  e n r i c h e d  n e c e s s a r y  to  i n t e n t  a b i l i t i e s ,  and  e x p e r i e n c e  motion  f o r  s c h o o l s ,  r e p l a c e  mother  the  t h a t  1939a).  management,  e q u a l l y  c u r r i c u l u m  s c h o o l s .  i n  w i t h  p r o v i n c e .  p r o v i d e  would  from  p r o v i n g  (McLenaghen,  h o u s e h o l d  McLenaghen  the  thumb'"  economics  l e a r n i n g  home  p r o c e d u r e s ,  to  p a r e n t s ,  f o r  100  c o n s i d e r i n g  o t h e r s ,  those  which  t a s k s  (Programme  of  were  not  were  encouraged  (p.  44).  (1925) care  and  u n i t w i l l  57).  The  as  s e l e c t , (  p.  prove  s h o u l d  55).  and  Boys  t a k i n g  l e a r n  about  " s o c i a l l y  t e n d e n c i e s  to  m a n i p u l a t e  the  i n  Putman-Weir  grade  to  was  a t t r i b u t e d  c u r r i c u l u m  the  seven g i r l s  o r g a n i z e d  about  serve  foods  as  g i v e  home Report  I  c h i l d  "background (p.  problems  may  s u i t a b l e  A  mothers"  home  t h a t  b r e a k f a s t s  to  a  f u t u r e  around so  m a t e r i a l s "  r e v i s i o n .  to  but  u s e f u l  v a l u e s the  i n d u s t r i a l  manners,  i n  i n  know  to  p e r f o r m i n g  advancement  develop  i n  u s e f u l  I  p.  t r a i n i n g  i n c l u d e d  f a i t h f u l l y  p e r s o n a l  d i f f e r i n g  e x p r e s s e d  p r e p a r e  be  f o r  such  a b l e  my  to  f a m i l y ? "  52). By  group  f a r  s q u a r e s " change  the  r a t h e r  k i t c h e n s " ,  by  the  c u r r i c u l u m  "What  to  and  to  r e q u i r e d  i n n a t e  manual  was  which  1927,  i n s t e a d  t h e i r  were  l e a d  s i m i l a r l y  Thus,  economics  c h e e r f u l l y  would  S t u d i e s ,  a r t s  d i r e c t i o n s  and  most  than  i n d i v i d u a l  equipped  where  r e v o l u t i o n a r y  f o r  four  change  work.  In  student  had  n e c e s s i t a t e d  s p e c i a l  i n s e r v i c e  C h a r l o t t e  B l a c k  of  economics  s e c t i o n " ,  the  work  g i r l s  f a m i l y - s i z e assumption  i n  the  (ARPS,  her  K i t s i l a n o  1928).  " f a m i l y  r e c i p e s was  the  u n i t s "  i n  1927-28, f o r  the  the  the  i n s t r u c t i o n  were r e a l p.  High  The to  s i t u a t i o n s  economics  " u n i t  t e a c h e r s  S c h o o l  The to  on  " h o l l o w  encouraged  V57).  focus  f i r s t  equipment.  J u n i o r  home  i n  r e p l a c e d  own  Teachers  n e c e s s i t y  1927  s t u d e n t s ,  each  was  to and  ("Home have serve  u n d e r l y i n g r a i s e  the  101  s t a n d a r d s  of  home  v a l u e s ,  i n  s k i l l s ,  u s i n g  i n  i n t o  1929 f o r  became  c l a s s e s "Only  a c t u a l  l i k e l y  stove  i n  to a  p a t c h i n g ,  not  samples. the  be  by  taught  as  much  r e v i s i o n ,  motives  the  s o c i a l ,  only  economics  s t u d e n t s s e t t i n g . elements  and  p l a c e  f o r  c l a s s e s  j u n i o r  consumer  as  or  than  f o r  boys  of  and  purpose  c h i l d r e n  the  "home  e d u c a t i o n :  were  on  of  p a r t i d e a l "  i n  the  (1985)  Putman-Weir the  best  and  s o c i e t y .  s o c i a l i z i n g the  c u r r i c u l a  students  garments,  Wood  about  i n  d a r n i n g  economics  i d e a l s . a f t e r  of  r e a l  home  the supposed  Methods  l e a r n  s c h o o l  The  d o i n g  c o n s i d e r e d  to  t h e i r  h i g h  g i r l s  done  b e i n g  Columbia  equipment:  c l a s s e s  e d u c a t i o n  i n  t e a c h e r - d e m o n s t r a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n  p l a y e d  B r i t i s h  p o s s i b l e .  the  which  1975a).  two  be  d i v i d e d  economics.  s i m p l e  The  to  s c h o o l  r e p l i c a t i n g  Both of  the  of  w i t h  one  were  t h a t  Home  v o c a t i o n a l  program,  n e c e s s i t a t e d  observed  the  c u l t u r a l  was  home  (Irvine,  1975a).  example  1927  g e n e r a l  c r e d i t  p r o g r e s s i v e  o f t e n  sense  r e v i s i o n  U n i v e r s i t y  m i r r o r e d  were  l e a r n  through  moral  t h r e e - y e a r  only  (Irvine,  f o r  a  d i r e c t l y  Report  more  and  the  room  r e a l - l i f e  and  With  by  f o l l o w e d  c o o k i n g "  emulate  r e v i s i o n ,  c u r r i c u l u m  was  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  c l a s s  a  economics  economics  were  one  the  home  s c h o o l  a c c e p t e d  p a r t i a l  i n  1  would  a r t s . h i g h  home  G i r l s  c u r r i c u l u m  " v o c a t i o n  1927  s p e c i a l  S p e c i a l  to  1927  i n d u s t r i a l The  to  the  e x p e r i e n c e .  were  s c h o o l had  to  s t r o n g compare  102  home-made  to  ready-made  m a r k e t i n g ,  home  to  p a i d  to  the  (Programme  of  S t u d i e s ,  be  were  f u e l s  recommended  E n g i n e e r i n g While  was  and  home  share  as  E l i z a b e t h Before  economics  t e a c h e r s  a c c o r d i n g  to  p r o g r e s s i v e  e d u c a t i o n  had  an  r e c o r d s and  and  r e p o r t e d t o u r on a  of  a a  Japanese  Cunningham's to  good  four  f o r  i n  p r o c e s s e s , a  food,  and  c i t i z e n s h i p ,  i n  adapt  In  s t u d i e s  Household  t h e i r  r e s u l t  of  course  based  p r e s e n t .  v o c a t i o n a l  home  on  home  s o c i a l  Report  to  Mossman  economics.  In  u t e n s i l s ,  the  had  h i s t o r y  by  the  i n c l u d e d  Japanese  s t u d e n t s  p r o j e c t s  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  i n t e r e s t  (1921)  Cunningham  which  Such  or  t e a c h e r s  s h e l t e r ,  demonstrations  i n  Vancouver  grades.  i n  her  programs  r e l a t i o n  p r o j e c t  the  School  Vancouver  and  boost  Vancouver  the  c l o t h i n g , i n  to  c o n t r i b u t e d  the  1925  c u l m i n a t i n g  Christmas  o p i n i o n ,  Cunningham  p a r t i c u l a r  Japanese  s t o r e  was  produce  p r o v i n c i a l l y  t r a i n i n g  s e l e c t e d  grade  item  a r t s  t o o l s  s i l k - m a k i n g s i l k  to  i n  s t u d i e d  a t t e n t i o n  book  appointment,  "problems'  geography  F r e d e r i c k ' s  recommendations  manual  were  and  foods  Time-and-motion  s u c c e s s o r  begun  i n d u s t r i a l  and  seasonable  worked  thought.  a r t ,  compared  53).  M i l d r e d  the  c l o t h i n g  r e f e r e n c e s .  McLenaghen's had  i n  of  p.  many  B e r r y ' s  e i t h e r  c o u r s e ,  cost  C h r i s t i n e  economics,  D i s t r i c t .  the  be  McLenaghen  of  i n t e g r a t e d  to  1927,  o n e . o f  image  which  were  r e l a t i v e  J e s s i e  p i l o t e d  p r o d u c t s  and  a  a  women making  would,  i n  l e a d i n g  " r i c h e r  103  c u l t u r a l (VBST  background  Annual  making  Report,  E f f i c i e n c y  i n  1926, home  the  s t i n g i n g  i n d i c t m e n t  was  improved  through  d i s h e s  i n s t e a d  f a m i l y - s i z e Upgrading  no  t r a i n i n g .  of  economics of  the  and  Meetings  as  use  of  homemaking"  was  p r e s e n t e d  a  taught  t r a i n  s t r e s s e d  Report.  i n  the but  these  to  r e c i p e s . problem.  s u b j e c t they  use  washing  q u a n t i t i e s  s p e c i a l  a f t e r  Time  s t u d e n t s  mimeographed  s u p e r v i s o r  to  s i x  i n c r e a s e  t e a c h e r s  sewing  c l a s s e s  such  the  standards  a  e f f e c t i v e  Putman-Weir  t w e n t y - f o u r ,  c l a s s r o o m eye  more  p . 7 5 ) .  schemes  r e c i p e s ,  sewing  Elementary w a t c h f u l  of  f o r  under  the  f r e q u e n t l y  t e a c h e r s  had  were  i n s t i t u t e d .  Other  s t a n d a r d s  r e q u i r e d  s h a p i n g  the  p u b l i c  work  on  the  improvement  s i n g l e d  out  the  problem  of  1926-27,  A  t r a i n i n g  M65).  The  s p e c i a l i s t ;  c o n c u r r e n t  e f f o r t  B r i t i s h  Columbia  $80,000  towards  the  home  such  U n i v e r s i t y  t h e r e  c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n  her  i n t e r e s t  C o u n c i l s of  a  B r i t i s h i n  McLenaghen  home  f i r s t  as  a  i n  Women  C h a i r  of  Columbia  a (ARPS,  home Vancouver.  F e d e r a t i o n of  had  r e p o r t  had  e x i s t e d  began  She  t e a c h e r s  School  P a r e n t - T e a c h e r  of  A f t e r  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  p o s i t i o n  L o c a l  w e l l .  J e s s i e  Normal  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  at  as  economics  c o n t r a s t "  the  the  Economics was  the  and  of  t e a c h e r  V i c t o r i a no  by  c u r r i c u l u m ,  of  " c o n s i d e r a b l e  p.  economics  s c h o o l  c o r r e c t i o n  to  of r a i s e  Home meant  economics  t h a t  e d u c a t i o n .  104  Any  improvement i n teacher  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would i n c r e a s e t h e  p r e s t i g e of home economics i n J e s s i e McLenaghen's eyes; h i r i n g o f f o u r t e e n new i n s t r u c t o r s with b a c h e l o r ' s out o f seventeen i n 1927 " s p e l l e d success" M65).  the  degrees  (ARPS, 1926-27, p.  Concerns about teacher t r a i n i n g were f r e q u e n t l y  expressed  by home economics teachers  i n the f i e l d who were  w e l l aware o f t h e commonly h e l d i d e a t h a t "any woman who was a good cook and seamstress c o u l d teach home economics" (Murphy, 1989) .  The Home Economics S e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h  Columbia Teachers F e d e r a t i o n home economics vacancies c e n t e r s which p r o v i d e  requested  at one p o i n t t h a t a l l  be a d v e r t i s e d i n "the press o f  f o r t r a i n i n g o f home economics  t e a c h e r s " b e f o r e an u n q u a l i f i e d person was h i r e d s e c t i o n a l r e p o r t s " , 1922, p.  ("Convention  47).  With t h e e n t r y of home economics i n t o j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , teachers By  were expected t o have more t r a i n i n g .  1929 departmental r e g u l a t i o n s demanded t h a t a l l h i g h  school teachers R52).  hold a bachelor's  degree  (ARPS, 1928-29, p.  J e s s i e McLenaghen was e l a t e d with t h e acceptance of  home economics by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia as a matriculation credit  i n June of 1929, w r i t i n g t h a t  "this  p r i v i l e g e has done more than any other one f a c t o r t o r a i s e home economics above the p o s i t i o n of the C i n d e r e l l a of t h e High School  curriculum"  partial victory.  (ARPS, 1928-29, p. R52). I t was a  Home economics counted f o r only h a l f of a  105  r e g u l a r  s u b j e c t  and  c o u l d  the  G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ' s  her  aim  of  t h r o u g h  f u l l  d e f t  s t u d e n t s  even  h i g h e r  1956,  p.  Home  29,  p.  at  the  McLenaghen 1931-32,  of the  by  1934  "no  been  L35),  the  a p p l i e d  By  1934,  c r e d i t to  f o r  to  of  the  method  t h o r o u g h l y C h a i r  was  c a n c e l l a t i o n to  The  other  i n d i c t m e n t  r e g a r d i n g  the  i n s p e c t i o n  of  one  p o i n t  she  and  a p p l i e d  of  a  the  uneven  onset  a l l a l s o  a r t  home  l o c a l  of  economics  marked  p r o j e c t s  a l l  home  (Murphy,  1928-  the  D e p r e s s i o n  by  she to  to  1931-32,  be complete  P.  r e s u l t e d  McLenaghan. foods,  When  L35).  (1925)  economics  .  (ARPS,  e f f o r t s  Report  twelve  1989)  of  s t u d e n t s  c e n t r e s  grade  (ARPS,  o p t i m i s m ,  (ARPS,  Putman-Weir  standards  o u t - o f -  postponement  f u n d - r a i s i n g  u n i v e r s i t i e s the  1929.  1931.  the  at  h i r i n g  i n  of  i n  from  t r a i n i n g  C h a i r  r e s c i n d e d  i n t e r e s t  t h e i r  the  Stewart  as  a s s i s t  was  by  a r r a n g e d  to  o b t a i n e d  Columbia  of  A r t s  r e c o u n t e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  b u r s a r i e s  of  had  n e c e s s a r y "  With  as  Dean  (McLenaghen,  of  B r i t i s h  be  a c h i e v e d  t e a c h e r s  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  1939a).  d i s t r i b u t e d  the  mathematics  u n q u a l i f i e d  f o r  economics  c r e d i t s  (McLenaghen, f o r  c o m p e t i t i o n  home  economics  l o n g e r  a t t r i b u t a b l e  to  McLenaghen  prove  s c h o o l  Economics  viewed  be  U n i v e r s i t y  would has  Home  p.  w i t h  t h a t  t e a c h e r s As  h i g h  the  s t a t e d  home  problem  r e s o l v e d  R52).  (1990),  i n  The  Economics  p r o v i n c e  s t a t i s t i c s  p r e s e n t i n g  10).  McLenaghen  of  s c o r e s  t e m p o r a r i l y  M e d a l .  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  use  t h a t  not  i n At  c l o t h i n g  " M i s s  106  McLenaghen"  came  to  i n s p e c t  you,  the  w o r l d  almost  seemed  to  s t o p . S h e ' d  be  i n t o  morning  and  she  day  you  were  and  through p u p i l  would  and  room  was  She  done  a f t e r  c l a s s r o o m  your  s t u d e n t s . . . not  1926-27 the  11,429  number to  t h r e e to  1927,  i n  888). of  Three  accounted 1926-27;  44%  ARPS,  seven  l a t e r  of  a l l  1929-30).  and  e i g h t  i n  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l thus  d i s t o r t e d  program. i n  her  the  McLenaghen  r e p o r t s .  She  d i d  very  i n s p e c t  r e a l  s h i f t  came  i n  home  economics  The  reason  j u n i o r changes  was  h i g h i n  of  acknowledge  p r e f e r r e d  to  57  i n  (from  grade i n  l e v e l ;  h i g h p u p i l s (ARPS,  i n c l u s i o n  of  s c h o o l s .  the  e x p a n s i o n  1989).  enrolment  enrolment the  i n  bake  from  s c h o o l  t h a t  t h r o u g h  p u p i l s  p u p i l s - w e r e h i g h  but  (Murphy,  the  a  f i n d  i n c r e a s e , 400  and  i t , to  i n c r e a s e d  o n l y  g o i n g  the  c l e a n  l e s s o n  ALL  upset  taught  to  by  j u n i o r  and  to  take  had  [how  t h i s  economics  not  you  your  D e s p i t e  to  t h e r e  ever  e x p e c t e d  t e a c h i n g  to  not  the  were  t a l k i n g  a b l e  what  you  i n  c r i t i c a l  She  through  apparent  and  would  be  i n c r e a s e d  home  years  f o r  i t  The  a l l  of  you  1929-30. had  be  not  s t a r t e d  s c h o o l ,  [ c l a s s ] .  c e n t r e s  years  11, 19%  s c h o o l .  grades  83  of  day  She  might  examples  d o i n g  c l a s s  ALL  a f t e r  t e a c h e r  your  The  t h e r e  c o u r s e w o r k ] .  the  but  b e f o r e  t h e r e  c l a s s .  be  boards]  i n  [the  i n  t e a c h e r  i n  the  e n t i r e the  s c h o o l  home  changes  a t t r i b u t e  the  system  economics of  t h i s  i n c r e a s e  type i n  107  numbers  of  c e n t r e s  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . d o u b l e d  by  e n r o l l e d p u p i l s  the  i n  of  e f f i c i e n t  In  1929  the  h i g h e s t  i n  q u i c k l y .  T o l m i e  dogged  the  and  a  by  massive The  McLenaghen no  School  and as  of  Home  Board  c l a i m e d  Columbia 1936,  p.  t h a t  took 54)  (from  at  a c t u a l l y 11,429 c e n t r e s  i n  Economics  every  g i r l  l e a s t  two  who years  .  i n  Tolmie  brought  to  power  the  i n  1972)  '29,  B r i t i s h but  r a i l w a y  the  1972,  Columbia  t h a t  p r e s i d e d  C o n s e r v a t i v e  "under  government"(Robin,  income  of  1928  changed  over  very  problems,  g u i s e  p. was  235). the  very dark  l a n d  days,  s c a n d a l s  d e f i c i t . of  c l a i m e d Board  s c h o o l  S u p e r v i s o r  government  the  o b v i o u s .  t h e r e f o r e a  106  F r a s e r  c r a s h  e f f e c t s  i m m e d i a t e l y  i n  A l l e n ,  had  were  12,672  (Robin, s  p u p i l s  to  e l e c t i o n  c a p i t a  1  more  c e n t r e s  1926-27  b u s i n e s s - l i k e  Canada  10%  of  "From expansion t o c o n t r a c t i o n "  Simon  per  number  1926-27  ( A l l e n ,  p r o v i n c i a l of  the  and  i n  B r i t i s h  1929-1933  government  i n  program  than  School  economics  A  only  Mabel  Vancouver  home  improved  example but  c e n t r e s  s c h o o l  the  economics  S t i l l ,  a t t e n d e d of  home  57  1937-38). f o r  For  1937-38,  i n  i n  to  "we  In  t h a t  had  her home  d i s p e n s e d  have  s u b j e c t  D e p r e s s i o n  1930-31  w i t h  be  the  c a l l e d  e d u c a t i o n  annual  economics  o u t l i v e d  might  upon  a  had  home stage a  were  r e p o r t , s u r v i v e d  not  J e s s i e the  t e s t ;  economics  program  when  economics  " f r i l l  1  "  home (ARPS,  1930-  108  31,  p.  L40).  P r o g r e s s  McLenaghen's "prepared home  m i s s i o n  McLenaghen 1939a). 1932  H i n c h c l i f f e ,  the  m u n i c i p a l  from  domestic "fads  i n  or  p u b l i c  through  i t s  a p p r e c i a t i o n  (from  i n  the  power  h i s  to  the p.  1931-32  as  1932  i n  work  home  r e s u l t  L35).  One 72  i n  when i n  s t i l l  to  come,  the  worst  t e a c h e r s  p a r t s and  of  the  the  Joshua to  g i v e  boards  t r a i n i n g ,  was  economics  of  economic  the  e i g h t  c i t y  c o n s i d e r e d  way  i t s  c e n t r e s  i n  which  r e g r e t had  and  been  p o s i t i o n s  shut  were  1934-35).  1933-36 " S e n t i n e l s o f the New A l t h o u g h  of  H i n c h c l i f f e  " e x p r e s s e d  done"  f o r  s c h o o l  g e n e r a l l y  acknowledged had  which  when  manual  1980).  a  25%  attempted  but  take  L28).  p r o h i b i t  attempt,  c l o s e  to  i n  courses  Jones,  p e t i t i o n s  of  to  s u b j e c t s &  p.  to  e n r o l l e d  almost  Education  McLenaghen  1931-32, 81  of  other  i n  s t a r t e d  the  l o s t  d i m i n i s h e d  a b l e  a  (McLenaghen,  t e a c h e r s  1931-32,  i n  was  1930,  Canada  c l o t h i n g ,  (ARPS,  (Wilson  J e s s i e  (ARPS,  i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g  and  i n  economics  outlook  d i s t r e s s .  down  home  s t a l l e d  soon  " f i r s t "  course  f r i l l s '  t e m p o r a r i l y  a  M i n i s t e r  s c i e n c e  and  c e n t r e s  s t a r t i n g  was  1933  economics  correspondence  c o u n c i l s  c o n t i n u i n g  home  and  were  number  p o s i t i v e  t h a t  1930  students  s c h o o l  employed  between  s c h o o l  Twenty-two  The  and  by  made  prove  High  thought  summer  t o t a l  to  s u b j e c t ' .  economics  was  the  Order"  D e p r e s s i o n  e d u c a t i o n i s t s  had  were  reason  p r o b a b l y f o r  hope  109  i n  1933.  Thomas  The D u f f e r i n  E d u c a t i o n of  1933  i n  M i n i s t e r  t e a c h e r s  B r i t i s h  as  " s e n t i n e l s  of  i n t e r e s t s  of  t e a c h e r s ,  t h a t i t  f a r  p o s i t i v e .  to  o u t s t a n d i n g  the  h i s t o r y  most  of  B r i t i s h  457).  Harry  v i s i o n  of  a  C h a r l e s w o r t h , "square  ( " E d i t o r i a l " , Weir  1933,  had  an  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n v i c t i o n s added  the  n u r s i n g and  1931.  Seven of  the  d e a l p.  about  of To  worth  of  h e a l t h .  e d u c a t i o n  i n  Canada  C a r d i n a l other  the  of  the i n  the t o l d  was  the  gloomy  to  Weir  man  BCTF,  was  " d e s t i n e d  i n  C o l u m b i a " ,  e d u c a t i o n "  s o c i a l  concept  Weir  of  E d u c a t i o n  ( " B r i t i s h  s e c r e t a r y f o r  mind. the  of  as  as  He  r e a c t i o n  h a i l e d  1933  the  1934a, saw  W e i r ' s  p.  the  appointment  3).  agenda  i n  The  New  the  15,  1).  of  p o s i t i o n  them  c o n d i t i o n  M i n i s t e r  Columbia"  p.  of  to  g u a r d i a n s  1933,  was  the  message  g r e e t e d  economic  He  to  November  and  h o p e l e s s .  u n d e r s t a n d a b l y be  Order  (Weir,  t h e i r  from  h i s  government  a r c h i t e c t  Weir,  f i r s t  a f t e r  S o c i a l  L i b e r a l  the  George  E d u c a t i o n  Canada"  w h i l e  was  of  the  and  W e i r ' s  Columbia  new  Young  power  Columbia,  M i n i s t e r the  brought  to  E d u c a t i o n .  B r i t i s h  appointment  enough,  P a t t u l l o  of  of  e l e c t i o n  supported O b j e c t i v e s  o b j e c t i v e s "  h i s of  reform  p r e v i o u s l y p r o g r e s s i v e  It  came  conducted  h e a l t h s i n c e (Weir,  and  as i t  from by  the  e d u c a t i o n a l  s t r o n g l y e d u c a t i o n the  Weir  p.  most  42)  c o u l d  survey between  important  " c o n d i t i o n s  1932,  h e l d  .  the  be  of 1929 of  the  attainment  110  The  s c h e d u l e  e d u c a t i o n a l l e i s u r e t h a t  f i n a n c e  ( " B r i t i s h  e d u c a t i o n  p r a c t i c a l v a l u e "  and  a  i n  B r i t i s h  a  pronounced  the  p h i l o s o p h y  or  r a t h e r  than  s c h o o l  1936,  p. An  a  on  become  e d u c a t i o n a l  u n i v e r s i t y  of to  e d u c a t i o n "  a  a  no  r e q u i r e m e n t s of  c u r r i c u l u m  the  w i t h  " t e r r i b l y  i n e q u a l i t y  our  system  a d v i s o r ,  inadequate  on  and  was  Weir  t e c h n i c a l as  c u l t u r a l  e d u c a t i o n  v a l u e s . the  "more  i t s  Survey;  e d u c a t i o n ,  needs  of  f o r  p r e d i c t e d  Thus  of  n e i t h e r  nor  our  l e a r n e r . . . H a l f  much  g r e a t e r  (King,  c i t e d  of  degree i n  the than  L o g i e ,  25). amendment  to  the  P u b l i c  compulsory  i n  s y s t e m .  4  This  marked  of  major  o p t i o n s  would  School  of  e d u c a t i o n Weir  824).  system  b e n e f i t  secondary  p.  as  demands,  c o u l d  of  l e s s e n i n g  r e a s s e s s e d  based  the  r e s t r u c t u r i n g  640).  p r a c t i c a l  s c h o o l  economics  the  the  K i n g ,  p r e s e n t  f o c u s e d  from  and  p.  years  the  s c i e n c e  i n d i v i d u a l  i s  of  H.B.  c u r r i c u l u m  "At  t e n  1934c,  which  e x i s t i n g  p o p u l a t i o n  p r e s e n t  c u l t u r a l  r e p o r t  1934b,  without  concept  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  next  C o l u m b i a " ,  a p p l i e d  o p p o r t u n i t y . t e a c h i n g  the  Columbia.  m a l a d j u s t e d "  the  r e a l i s t i c  i n t e g r a t e d  i n c l u d e d  C o l u m b i a " ,  major  commissioned  reform and  over  ( " B r i t i s h  i n t r o d u c e d which  of  i n  achievement  event  t e n e t s  of  s c h o o l i n g . of  the  School  i n  B r i t i s h  Columbia  a  step  major  p r o g r e s s i v e J e s s i e  compulsory  Act  home  economics  made  p u b l i c  toward  e d u c a t i o n ,  McLenaghen  193 6  s c h o o l  a c h i e v i n g  • one  b r o a d e n i n g  i n t e r p r e t e d to  home  mean  e q u a l  the s t a t u s  Ill  w i t h  academic  t h i s  department  (ARPS,  depend  1935-36,  achievement other  s u b j e c t s :  p.  to  compulsory economics School  of  home and  manual  D i s t r i c t  worked  r e g u l a r hands  was  to  out  economics  7,  accompanied t e a c h e r s , t h e i r  f o r  to  by  f o r  the  the  e n t i r e  e d u c a t o r s  who At  p u p i l s  from two  M a c C o r k i n d a l e manual  course  of  study  p r o v i n c e  (VBST  home  to  so  24.  economics  as  and  s u b j e c t s ,  was  and  home  i n  i n t o  put  was  on  i n  room  the  of  c o u l d  Report, i n  "coming  taught  f a c i l i t i e s was  s c h o o l  b a s i s  of  a r t s  c o u r s e  E d u c a t i o n be  p.  a t t i t u d e out  had  a u t h o r i z e d  1933,  up  the  the  manual  Department  change  these  elementary  new  i t  f i n a n c e  rearrangement  r e p o r t e d ,  that  Vancouver  a r t s "  foods The  The  home  1-6  worked  hundred  p r o t e c t e d  of  t r a i n i n g  Annual the  were  to  i n c o r p o r a t e d  grades  time,  the  t h e r e  c o n t r i b u t e d  i n  " p r a c t i c a l  a r t s .  that  r e f e r r e d  were  f o r  same  to  s u c c e s s f u l  toward  they  p r e v i o u s l y  the  the  the  c e n t r e s  the had  when  c l o s i n g  a r t s "  community"  but  had  problems  manual  f o r  McLenaghen  1933  9  by  had  immense  whereby  of  M a c C o r k i n d a l e ,  S c h o o l s ,  i n  the  t e a c h e r s ,  H.N.  and  32  chosen,  so  of  i n s e r v i c e  a p t i t u d e s  proven  asked  and  of  r e t e n t i o n  a t t r i b u t e d  her  t e a c h e r s  s c h o o l s .  expanded  of  the  M a c C o r k i n d a l e  f a c i n g  "Manual  t e a c h e r s  elementary  had  8  of  t r a i n i n g  system  c l a s s r o o m  grades  were  a  does  a t t i t u d e  Vancouver  I n s t e a d  c l a s s e s .  of  work  economics.  accommodation. he  the  support  the  l o n g e r  McLenaghen  hard  The  Superintendent  upon  H80).  the  r e a s o n s .  "No  of  26). of the  112  basement". l o c a t i o n the  of  i n t e n d e d  the  home  p r e s t i g e  McLenaghen s a y i n g i n "  of  (McLenaghen, by  p r i n c i p a l l a u d e d  J .  home  knowledge t h r o u g h  p.  f u t u r e  w h a t . . .  746).  but  the  same  j u s t  time  one  Home system"  but  not  economics  days  f o r  seven  home and  was  had  treatment  i n  unique  the  a  same  t i m e .  f o r  i s  been  -  a l l  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  gave  way to  to  t e a c h of  Home  system.  a  who  l i t t l e not  o n l y  environment,  who  are  p.  at  the  176).  At  economics] j u s t  to  i n  as,  the  Equal i t .  means  and  no  f o r t y  or  economics  h a l f -  minute  below  grade  r e q u i r e d  r e c e i v e d  s t a t u s  f o r  former  f i f t y  c h i l d r e n  s c h o o l  s t a t u s  The  l e g i t i m a t i o n  I t s  an  (p.177).  " i n  a t t a c h e d  a l l  from  Senate  1936,  t r e a t e d  -  s c h o o l  home  "[home  s u b j e c t "  came  him,  those  as  s c h o o l  o n l y  f o r  p r o p e r  t h a t  and  p o l i t i c s  s c h o o l  a  had  (Sanderson,  have  o p p o r t u n i t y The  h i g h  do  11).  p r i n c i p a l "  U n i v e r s i t y 1  t y p i f i e d  p.  q u o t a t i o n  man  basement  "which  secondary  c o u l d  d e c l a r e d  compromise. the  the  economics  p r i c e  economics  l o s t . and  may  u s u a l  1956,  Vancouver  through  other  without  the  s a c r i f i c e  at  any  the  "mere  s u b j e c t s  economics  home  p e r i o d s  many  from,  a  s o c i e t y "  Sanderson  among  d i f f e r e n t l y  our  the  s c h o o l  The  of  "If  w o u l d . . . d e m a n d . . . h o m e of  i n  home-making  stomach,  f o u n t a i n h e a d  h i g h  i s  member  to  (McLenaghen,  Sanderson,  economics:  of  h i s  1941,  was  l a b o r a t o r i e s  "Vancouver  economics  Roy  and  s u b j e c t "  a  "home  a l l u s i o n  economics  the  quoted  t h a t  a r t i c l e  he  Her  was  ambivalent  e q u a l  and  113  The C u r r i c u l u m The  1936-37  n e c e s s i t a t e d E d u c a t i o n " i n  the  B.C. the  (ARPS,  P a c i f i c  and  i t s  main  ("New  High the  d i r e c t  of  [Programme was  to  b e i n g  P r a c t i c a l  and  a  c u r r i c u l u m III  a r t s ,  v a r i a b l e  had  b u l l e t i n  s p e c i f i c  pages a r t s  f o r  " C h a r a c t e r  f o r  a  as  constant  grade  n i n e .  was  devoted  f o r  and  p a r e n t s  E d u c a t i o n "  s u b j e c t s  "improved  home  163  f o r  i n c l u d e d which  would  a  p l a c e  c o u l d  throw  i t s  (p. home  c o n t r i b u t e  to  how  and  of  the  the  B u l l e t i n  f o r A  on  s c h o o l end.  and  e i g h t  of  s e c t i o n .  s e c t i o n  that  r o l e  w i t h  p a r t  143  the  J u n i o r  The  economics;  commercial complete  the  economics  seven  v e r s u s  was  15).  s u b s t a n t i a l  o u t l i n e d  programme  through  8).  p u p i l s  grades  home  stone  Columbia  f o r  p.  i n c l u d i n g  to  a  a  a c h i e v e d  1936,  f o r  between  " C h a r a c t e r "  S t u d i e s  of  The  no  ( B r i t i s h  of  r e f l e c t e d  1933.  1).  was  S c i e n c e  not  p.  economics the  and  s o c i e t y "  A  the  r e w r i t i n g  of  l i v e s  Columbia  i n  e d u c a t i o n ,  S t u d i e s ] , the  of  i s  man  e d u c a t i o n "  d e f i n e d  was  document  248  i n d u s t r i a l  an  a r t s ,  1936,  Programme  e n r i c h  a  engaged  i n  of  1932  " t h e r e  where  g e n e r a l  E d u c a t i o n  r e s u l t  i n d u s t r i a l  of  e x p e r i e n c e s  School s c h o o l  A t l a n t i c someone  B r i t i s h  a p p a r e n t l y  1927,  that  Programme",  o b j e c t i v e  Department  H26),  of  commented  the  i n  c o n t r i b u t i o n s  p.  r e v i s i o n s  h i t t i n g  " s i g n i f i c a n t  r e v i s i o n  r e c e n t  1935-36,  w r y l y  s t u d i e s "  the  "more  c u r r i c u l u m  without of  c u r r i c u l u m  by  Teacher  R e v i s i o n o f 1936-1937  and  114  Significantly,  i n light  of p r o g r e s s i v e education i d e o l o g y ,  the r o l e o f t h e home i n education was g i v e n one paragraph out of  f o r t y pages. H.B. King, appointed c h i e f c u r r i c u l u m a d v i s o r by George  Weir, s a i d t h a t " i n t e g r a t i o n " was a major g o a l f o r t h e new curriculum.  King commented t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y  easy i n the elementary  s c h o o l s , where one t e a c h e r  every s u b j e c t , but much more d i f f i c u l t level  ( " B r i t i s h Columbia",  of  skills,  "While  at t h e h i g h s c h o o l  1937, p. 810). One s c h o o l  i n s p e c t o r commented on the d i f f i c u l t i e s practical arts:  handled  of i n t e g r a t i o n i n the  good work was done i n the development  y e t i t was d i f f i c u l t  t o secure a s a t i s f a c t o r y  c o r r e l a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l a r t s with other s u b j e c t s " (ARPS, 1937-38, p.  J61).  The g e n e r i c o b j e c t i v e f o r home economics combined a C a r d i n a l P r i n c i p l e of education with c u l t u r a l and v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , endeavouring  t o "give the student a well-rounded  c o n c e p t i o n o f the many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o worthy home membership.... and t o g a i n some knowledge of the p r o f e s s i o n o f home-making" (Programme of S t u d i e s , 1936, p. 461).  General o b j e c t i v e s supplemented the umbrella aim o f  "worthy home membership". a skills  Some of these f i t d e f i n i t e l y  category: d e v e l o p i n g an understanding  into  of the  r e l a t i o n t o h e a l t h of foods, c l o t h i n g and home s a n i t a t i o n ; d e v e l o p i n g d e x t e r i t y i n m a n i p u l a t i o n of t o o l s , machinery and  115  m a t e r i a l s ; to  and  q u a l i t y ,  s k i l l s v a l u e  a t t i t u d e s :  wise  f a m i l i e s t a s t e  appearance  and of  to  and  c l o t h i n g  l e a r n i n g  h i g h and  r i c h  i n  s o c i a l  and  a p p r e c i a t e hours ways  and  the  of  s h o u l d l i f e  Greek  c l e a r  attempt  and or  p o s s e s s i o n  and  l i b e r a l  order  f o r  l i v e s ; i n  and  the  i n  which  the  combined of  the  d e v e l o p i n g  to  had  moral  to  spend  such  of  p a r t i c i p a t e  f a m i l y ; to  and good  s e l e c t i o n  o b j e c t i v e s  the  v a l u e s  i n d i v i d u a l s  a b i l i t y  spending  to  than  l e i s u r e -  l e i s u r e - h o u r s  improvement  d e a l  of  a r t s  g i v e  (1925) and  w i t h  s k i l l  of  i n  the  that  s u b j e c t s  was  ,  due  only  to  economics  v a l u e s  from  l e a r n i n g  p r o j e c t s  used  than  337).  " p r a c t i c a l "  s k i l l s .  were  (p.  how  from  degree  t r a n s m i t  to  s o l v e  s t u d y i n g was  meaning  P r e v i o u s l y , to  the  any  student  This a  t h a t  as  T h e r e f o r e ,  home  r e a l  v a l u e s  p r o c l a i m i n g  a  word  t e c h n i c a l  1  c u l t u r a l  d i s t i n c t i o n s .  mathematics the  d e f i n e d  " s k i l l  genuine  c u l t u r a l  h i g h e r  to  and  suggested  more  the  i n  Report  c u l t u r e  (1925)  L a t i n ,  a p p r e c i a t i o n  w i t h i n  p l a c e  food  o b j e c t i v e s  r e m a i n i n g  d e s i r e  " c u l t u r e '  r a t h e r  problems  i n  of  home.  between  o b t a i n  the  a  an  q u a l i t y The  a b i l i t y  between  Report  of  c o n t r i b u t e  and  emphasis,  the  as  Putman-Weir  l i n k s  d i v i s i o n  g a i n  Other  p u r p o s e f u l  a c t i v i t i e s  home  would  i n d i v i d u a l  The  develop  the to  t h a t  and  f u r n i s h i n g s . to  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o s t .  p l a n n i n g  standards  o v e r t o n e s : work  and  the  d e v e l o p i n g  r e s o u r c e  l e a d  about  the  a beyond  academic  important  116  c u l t u r a l  b e l i e f s  economics,  a  those  i d e a s  Two home how  same  s o u r c e s  h a b i t s  of  where of  t h a t  s u b j e c t s  and  i t  to  was  The They and  had  a t t a c k e d i n  the  today  must  be  t r a i n e d  of  i t s  a  "one the  f o r  p l a c e s  c o n t r i b u t i o n economics  an  p a r t  of  p.  87)  our  years  s t a t u s wrote  of t h a t  branches  s t r e s s  came  of upon  because: women  they  c i t i z e n s toward  other  and  f i r s t  system  to  i t  McLenaghen1s  of  of  Now  of  t e a c h e r ,  the  her  r e v i s i o n  equal  S e v e r a l  work  d e s i r e d  s u b j e c t . both  the  second  between  c u r r i c u l u m  p e r i o d  the as  the  Vernon  become  and  why  s e t .  ten  be  s k i l l s .  f i r s t ,  l e g i t i m a t i o n a  home  1936,  to  s c h o o l  w i l l  were  v a l u e .  o b j e c t i v e s , i n t e g r a l  determined  home  t r a n s m i t  females,  s c h o o l  w i t h  to  q u e s t i o n e d :  the  t h a t  t e c h n i c a l  toward  had  when  of  Because  as  b e i n g  of  1936  Stevens,  economics  t h e i r  used  not  the  c u l t u r a l  A l i c e  take  be  spent  and  g i r l s  to  would  membership"  economics  v a l u a b l e  appeared  which  p r e o c c u p i e d  be  i t  only  economics  more  were  home  l e a r n i n g  home  home  economics.  d e s p i t e  d i r e c t e d  D i r e c t o r  of  were  standards  home  appeared  us"  the  as  l e g i t i m a t i n g  home  was  Now  improvement  i n e q u a l i t y  McLenaghen  appointment  c o l l e a g u e s  s u b j e c t ,  through  "worthy  J e s s i e  t r a d i t i o n s .  p r a c t i c a l  economics and  and  of  w i l l  of  both  has  j u s t i f i e d  s c h o o l  programme.  our of i t s  tomorrow. have  to  do  c o u n t r y . t h e s e p o s i t i o n (Stevens,  as  117  Mabel Vancouver home and  because  which,  homemaking  women  marry  of  and  by  i n  t r a i n i n g  w i t h  other  Home  economics  A l l e n ,  due  s e g r e g a t i o n matter"  of  which  " r i g h t  i d e a s  l o n g e r  be  i n  i n d i v i d u a l  each the home  of  and  grade  but  community" p r a c t i c e  t e s t i n g  moral  s o c i a l  boys  s t a f f "  the  a  c o u l d  l a b o r a t o r y  p l a c e  to  " f r i l l  h e l p  Home  because  1  "some  of  development" d e s c r i b e d  i t  i n c l u d e d  be  " f i t  to 1941,  develop  the  second  our  p.  needs 748).  theme. s k i l l  t h i r d ,  The i n  f o l l o w e d " s h a r e d  pp.  54-55)  s c h o o l ,  type the  c l a s s e s ,  of  form  c o u l d  no  i n t r i n s i c  p. as  the The  of  55). " u n i f o r m  requirements  home  worth  c o n c e p t s  1936,  of  the  s u b j e c t  p u p i l s  i t s  .  a c c o r d i n g  the  c u r r i c u l u m  minimum the  was  of  good  s c h o o l  h i g h e s t  ( A l l e n , the  "because  M a i n t a i n i n g  economics of  f i r s t  m a n i p u l a t i v e  1936,  the  and  55).  r e c u r r i n g to  i n  of  The  development  atmosphere  g i r l s  (p.  (McLenaghen, a  home"  the  membership  other  ( A l l e n ,  t e a c h e r  r e a l i z a t i o n  was  and  and  conduct"  because  w i t h  the  " i n f o r m a l  s o c i a l  ranked  homemakers".  s p e c i a l  the  home  i t .  " p u r e l y  c e r t a i n l y  McLenaghen  e l a s t i c "  v o c a t i o n  c o n j u n c t i o n  the  enabled  to  J e s s i e but  a  a  become  i n  c o n s i d e r e d  b r i n g i n g  f o r  worthy  f o r  o b j e c t i v e s  l e g i t i m a t e d  e n t a i l e d  of  the  view,  l o n g e r  c i v i c ,  to  her  Economics  s i m p l i f i e d  no  "most  had  four  Home  was  and  members  of  o b j e c t i v e  h e a l t h  departments  gave i n  P r e p a r a t i o n  s t a n d a r d s  to  S u p e r v i s o r  Board,  important  s k i l l s " . of  the  School  economics most  85%  A l l e n ,  f o r  s t u d e n t s  and  importance was  management  "the and  \  of  best  118  m a n i p u l a t i o n  and  a c t i v i t i e s " s u g g e s t i o n  s t i m u l a t e  (Programme was  a c t i v i t i e s .  made  that  E d u c a t i o n  Examination  of  c l a i m e d  grade  seven  c l o t h i n g  which  made  about  c o n s t r u c t i n g  t o w e l  between l i n k i n  Home  p a r t  were  p i n s  home  her  up  and  the  cookery  t h a t  d i s c u s s i o n  of  In  appearance  l e a r n a  of a  of  the  of  more  from  p r o j e c t  the  n u r s e "  i n  an  the apron  d e t a i l s headband,  i n j u n c t i o n  grade  Foods, an  seven  be  to  p u p i l  N u t r i t i o n  and  a n t i s e p t i c  c u r r i c u l u m  u n i f o r m  the  d i s t a n c e  the  resembled the  of  Exact  exact  the  b e l i e s  apron,  the  home s t r e e t .  document  D e s p i t e  45  No  one-way  U n i f o r m " .  to  f a c t ,  of  463).  f i r s t  c l o s e l y ,  care  p.  c o n s t r u c t i o n  l a y o u t .  (1935)  the  the  down  page  homemaker.  a t t r a c t i v e  suggested  " l i n k e d  (Programme  of  w i t h  S t u d i e s ,  p . 4 7 4 ) . Some  a s p e c t s  v o c a t i o n a l  v a l u e s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . p u r e l y new  on  was  c o n s i s t i n g  p r a c t i c e  s c h o o l  might  The  "Cookery  out,  i n  c u r r i c u l u m  was  u n i f o r m  Manual  than  1936,  the  u n i f o r m  worker  the  a c t u a l  f a b r i c  s c h o o l  Management  a  a  s c h o o l  homemaking  course  of  1936,  McLenaghen.  s p e l l e d  i n  a  i n  by  i n t e r e s t  S t u d i e s , the  the  f l e x i b i l i t y  and  of  home  academic  Home  (Programme  f o r of  the  w i t h  a  High or  R e l a t i o n s  p r e p a r a t i o n  of  new  c u r r i c u l u m  moral  sense  s c h o o l  b l e n d e d  of  students  c u l t u r a l  f a m i l y who  had  chosen  commercial  course  were  s t e e r e d  c o u r s e ,  enable  them  to  what  may  S t u d i e s ,  be  1936,  to  t h e i r p.  t r u e  199).  and  toward  " g a i n  v o c a t i o n Whenever  -  a the  some homemaking"  the  119  o p p o r t u n i t y something " s a t i s f y  were t h e  a t t e n t i o n the  cups  had way  urge  economics  i n  1927  t o  group",  "The  s a t i s f y i n g  an  home  p.  " d a i n t y  i n f o r m a l  A r t  a r t  By  - a  (VBST  course  a  s c h o o l s  home  economics" t h e  (ARPS,  t o  w i t h  w i t h  c e n t r e " Annual  t o  and  1927-28,  p.  f o r  economics  summer  drawing  handwork 1933-34, School  V 5 6 ) .  and  of p. of  t h e  A r t  as  t h e  f a m i l y  p.  manual In  taught  a  3 4 ) .  a r t  Department f i r s t  i n t o  by  1928-29,  a p p l i e d  a r t  had  elementary  t r a i n i n g 1935 a  was  taught  (ARPS,  of  i s  s t e p  t e a c h e r s  i n  of  " c o r r e l a t i o n  The  A r t  t o  as  a p p l i e d  t h a t  d e s i g n  N34).  g i v e n  u n i t s  1936,  C l o t h i n g  s c h o o l  s u b j e c t s  was  w i t h i n  i n c o r p o r a t e  of  of  c l o s e l y  such  Report,  School  f i l l i n g  " A p p r e c i a t i o n  d e c l a r i n g  home  t h e i r i . e .  range  r e l a t e d  t h e  " l i n k  Vancouver  was  c o u l d  teaspoon  P r a i s e  and  formal  (ARPS,  wider  do  474).  " C o - o p e r a t i o n  Vancouver  t h e  p.  t o  s t u d e n t s  -  t h e  way  1  but  s e r v i c e  1936,  problems  s t r o v e  Department  1934  h i g h  of  s o c i a l  c o c o a ,  r e v i s i o n .  matter  " r i g h t  l e s s o n  p l a c i n g  much  c u r r i c u l u m ,  t h e  i n s t i t u t e d  a  u s a g e s " ,  of  been  and  S t u d i e s ,  l i v i n g  McLenaghen  S c o t t  R 5 3 ) .  of  l i f e "  e s s e n t i a l "  M e l v i n  t o  i n c l u d e d  and  economics t h e  C h a r l e s  c a l l e d  and  home  home  J e s s i e  most  making  f u l l  t h e  i n i t i a l  by  s u b j e c t  home  customs  an  c u r r i c u l u m  which  " S o c i a l  between  be  In  about  cook"  (Programme  t h e  p o s s i b l e  the  t o  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  Home  the  admonishments  employed.  s h o u l d  c o r r e c t l y "  than  a r o s e ,  and  Grace  four-week  and  120  summer  s c h o o l  o r g a n i z e d S39)  i n  f o r  d e s i g n ,  home  c o l o u r  economics  a p p l i e d  a r t  the  manual  the  Home  t h a t  i t  i n t e r e s t  manual was  f o r  to  i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n  1934-35,  p.  be  -  c o u r s e ,  and  to  i t  the  o r g a n i c  r e q u i r e d "so  c l a s s  t h a t  u n t i l  c u l t u r a l  i ) .  Grace  "cheap  taught  l a c e ,  a s p e c t s .  The  w i l l i n g  i n  a  p o i n t  order  e f f o r t s .  to If  s l i p p e r s were  examples  have  5 ) .  u n i t  to  how  examples [and]  the  the  i n t o she of  D63).  was textbook  as  that  f i t t i n g  l e a r n  p.  to  economics  i t  to  suggested of  and  to  her  an  o p p o r t u n i t y  A d v i c e  e v i d e n t , of  the  r e l e a s e  o r i g i n a l ]  accept  i n  s u b j e c t  a r t  t e a c h e r  i n  of  A r t  g i v e n  home  i n  an  d a i l y  1940-41,  sequences  [emphasis  p.  d e s i g n  s i l v e r  w i t h  be  was  (ARPS, i n  IDEA  i n  a p p l i e d  component  planned  1940,  c o i f f u r e s "  them  implemented  themselves  make  t e a c h i n g  s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o u n t e r a c t  d r e s s  t e a c h e r  she  her  w i l l  value  M e l v i n  p r o j e c t s  moral  an  they  who  a r t  the  (Melvin,  year  s u c c e s s f u l which  out  s t u d e n t s  i t "  t h i r d  d i r e c t  c a r r y  and  p r e s e n t [ i n g ]  h y p o t h e s i s p r o v i n g  s t r o n g  c u l t u r a l  to  w h i l e  a  p.  r e a l  p r a c t i c a l  r e i n f o r c e d  1940,  a  make  of  aim  A p p l i e d  h a v i n g  of  The  the  s t u d e n t s '  i n c l u s i o n  1940.  of  t e a c h e r s  examine  i n  w r i t i n g  q u a l i t y  s u p e r v i s e  to  economics  the  the  time  as  (ARPS,  home  (Melvin,  i n  t e a c h e r s  s p e c i f i c a l l y  "improve  Economics can  was  l i v i n g "  the  s t i t c h e r y  . M e l v i n ' s  The  and  of  t e a c h e r  i n  the the  might poor  community b e s t  t a s t e  such  e l a b o r a t e l y the  s i m p l i c i t y  t e a c h e r i n  s h o u l d  d r e s s i n g  from  121  her  own  had  a  l i f e  moral  a c c o r d i n g  (Melvin,  p.  1940,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t o  p r i n c i p l e s  to  of  Home  65). improve  economics  e v e r y o n e ' s  t e a c h e r s  l i v e s  a r t .  A Teacher-Proof C u r r i c u l u m C u r r i c u l u m  development  " t e a c h e r - p r o o f . not  d i s p l a y  f i e l d . much t h e i r l i f e  J e s s i e  t r u s t  A l t h o u g h  b e t t e r  of  the  McLenaghen Vancouver imposed In  t e a c h e r  I  t h r e e  over  i n  was  p e r i o d s  McLenaghen  were  not  my  to head  to  be  b u t t e r . p e o p l e  be  M i s s r e a l l y  Pemberton  cut  e x p e c t e d  t a l e  of  the  foods  i s s u e d  an  a  to  have  (Gibbon,  a  a  It  r e a l -  c o n f o r m i n g  to  p o t a t o " . p e r i o d .  c l e a n  up.  B u t t e r  d o e s n ' t p o t a t o  f o r g o t t e n  You  p o t a t o e s  whole.  p o t a t o ,  1989)  Two  on  former  minute  baked  a l s o  whole  be  were  J e s s i e  Baked  p o t a t o .  a  40  the  chances  them.  which  of  no  e d i c t .  the  eat  took  of  i n  t e a c h e r s  and  w i t h  has  d i d  execute  were  would  committee  "Pemberton  i n  p r e p a r e ,  was  F i r s t ,  but  c a n ' t  her  she  c o n t r o l  t e n u r e  t e a c h e r s  d i f f i c u l t y  McLenaghen  p o t a t o .  p a s t ,  up  anyone  her  t h a t  t e a c h e r s .  the  to  has  s e r v e d  t h a t  the  t e a c h i n g  Miss  not  her  the was  her  r e l a t e d  s t a n d a r d s  had  what  and  economics  c l a i m e d  i n  s u b s t a n t i a t e  e x e r t e d  1936  home  than  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  McLenaghen's  McLenaghen  McLenaghen  educated  examples  d u r i n g  was  e n t e r  i n t o  w i t h o u t  t h a t  some  e s p e c i a l l y  a  122  A r o l e  second  of  George l i k e  the i n  case  c u r r i c u l u m .  1939  i t "  to  she  t h e i r  m a t e r i a l  1989).  d i s c o v e r e d as  defended  M i s s  me  to  I  s a i d . . . that  and  have  The  water  i n  P r i n c e  i t .  The  o n l y  s o f t  n o t h i n g  but  s t u d e n t s ' w o u l d n ' t the  s t u d e n t s  bugs  f a b r i c enjoy  s t u d e n t s  they  have  w i l l  s t i l l  and  had  c o u r s e  home  about  to  the  P r i n c e  "get  them  to  i n s p e c t i o n  not  of  ec  you was  i t  and  George  i s  so  water  p r e s h r u n k  s t u d i e s .  i s  sent a  The  the h a r d  b a r r e l  s t a n d  would  so  d i s c o l o u r e d  t h a t  d r e s s She  i t .  I  t h e y ' l l  made  and  a c c e p t e d  my  can and  t h a t  t h a t t r i e d  grow.  By  the  d e c i s i o n  i t . on  t h e r e ' s  d e c i d e d  have  washed  c o u r s e  you  i t ,  w i t h  I  you  l i k e  water  so  here  p a r e n t s  i n  be  me  l e g i t i m a t e  f l o a t i n g  working  f i t .  When  l i k e  knowing  t h e i r  the  sent  McLenaghen's  s t u d e n t s  by  was  economics  J e s s i e  b e l i e f s  d e c i s i o n :  prove  the  t e a c h e r  home  the  r e q u i r e d her  McLenaghen's  young  On  t h a t  McLenaghen,  asked  A  i n t r o d u c e  (Murphy,  v i s i t  t e a c h e r  i l l u s t r a t e s  the  they to  the  f i r s t  measure time time  (Murphy,  1989). Good  t e a c h e r s ,  d e c i s i o n s ,  c o u l d  c u r r i c u l u m  i n t e n d e d  c o n t a c t  was  n e w s l e t t e r s c h i l d - c a r e  or  those  d i v e r g e  who  c o u l d  a  h e a v i l y  from  j u s t i f y  to  c o n t r o l  weaker  m a i n t a i n e d  through  c l a s s r o o m  o f f e r i n g and  u p - t o - d a t e  t e x t i l e s .  There  p r e s c r i p t i v e  t e a c h e r s .  few  C o n t i n u a l  i n s p e c t i o n s  i n f o r m a t i o n were  t h e i r  on  areas  and  n u t r i t i o n , of  t e a c h i n g  i t  123  which l a s t  d i d  not  e l i c i t  communications  t e a c h e r s  to  s t u d e n t s  make  t h e i r 1945)  w r i t e  b e f o r e  her  p r e v i e w s ,  In  one  of  McLenaghen's  she  a d v i s e d  r e t i r e m e n t ,  cook  one  t r i p  under  the  t e a c h e r ' s  to  t e a c h e r ,  not  the  i n  the  f u l l  r e c i p e s ,  supply  t a b l e  s u p e r v i s i o n  her  have  and  do  a l l  of  (McLenaghen,  .  the  e d u c a t i o n a l  The  School  (p.  few  years  a r c h " , 750).  p s y c h o l o g i s t ,  P e t e r e a r l i e r ,  but  w i t h  ones,  prove  a  f a i l u r e "  c e r t a i n  to  improving  be  of  the  "promoting w h i l e  p r e s c r i p t i v e  l e s s  o s t e n s i b l e  imposing By  1939,  been  the  Home  economics  second  d e t a i l e d J e s s i e  r e c o g n i t i o n  c l a s s e s ^  was and  a l l  Columbia and  of  home  compulsory c o u l d  be  a r t i c l e  the  "With  made  i n  to  the  was  and  an  o f f e r e d  by  a  f o r (p.  accomplishment a  p r e p a r e d the  on  t e a c h e r s  r e v i s i o n  t e a c h e r s "  of  w i l l  emphasis  commented  s e l f - d i r e c t i o n  as  w e l l ;  c u r r i c u l u m  c u r r i c u l u m  c i t i e s  good  w o r l d  There  (1986)  main  f o r  phrase  work  b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d  on  of  e d u c a t i o n a l  476).  economics i n  be  cases  p r e s c r i p t i o n  McLenaghen's  1941  o r i g i n a t e d  study  Tomkins  autonomy  a  s p e c i f i c  Would  c o r n e r s t o n e  a d d i t i o n :  p.  a  i n  can  of  f o r  d i r e c t i o n ? B r i t i s h  i n  1938,  t r a i n i n g .  1937  had  programme  having  the  prominent  who  course  i n  a  s a i d  (Sandiford,  t e a c h e r  r e q u i r e  any  best  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  i n t e n d e d  i r o n y  the  who  i s  wrote  echoed  S a n d i f o r d ,  p r a c t i c a l l y  poor  programme,  McLenaghen She  t e a c h e r s ,  not  s u g g e s t i o n .  only  sewing  "The  a  a  f i r s t  correspondence  on  the  i n p u p i l s , 194). had s u b j e c t . and i n  124  l o c a t i o n s A l t h o u g h  where t h e r e  U n i v e r s i t y  of  graduates to  the  not  B r i t i s h the  Senate  b e f o r e  were  McLenaghen economics academic The c e n t r e s  a  U n i v e r s i t y  Home  t h r e e  home  Manitoba  at .  to  t e a c h  r e c e i v e d  (ARPS,1938-39).  enrolment  i n  11,429  p u p i l s  i n  1939-40  requested  1939b).  t w e n t y - e i g h t  c e n t r e s to  an  w i t h  P r i n c e  improved  i n  McLenaghen's  changing  or  l e s s e n i n g  and  McLenaghen  through  a  equal  time  of  t e a c h e r  the  Columbia.  t h a t  home  from  and  1939-40).  because l e v e l t h a t  she  of  found  i n s p e c t i o n  t h e r e  were  a s s i s t a n c e to  from  M i c h e l - N a t a l .  had  d i d  57  c e n t r e s  ARPS,  w i t h  d r a m a t i c a l l y  not  c o n s i d e r  i n s p e c t i o n .  a c h i e v e d  t e x t b o o k ,  B r i t i s h  120  Vernon  home  e d u c a t i o n  needing  she  of  of  grown  her  t e a c h e r s  the  r e c o g n i t i o n  1939  the  a d m i t t e d  t e a c h e r s  year  r e p o r t e d  from  o p i n i o n ,  i n  i n  t e a c h e r s  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  to  m a i n t a i n  Rupert,  the  economics  to  of  meaning  1926-27;  a s s i s t a n t  order  i n  at  economics been  a  had  1926-27  McLenaghen  A l t h o u g h  J e s s i e  i n  Economics  had  equal  economics  (ARPS,  d i f f i c u l t  (McLenaghen,  F a l l s  home  p u p i l s  as  a v a i l a b l e .  1939  have  development  f i n a l l y  by  In  to  t e a c h e r s  and  UBC  1939)  c e r t i f i c a t e  t e a c h e r s  i n c r e a s i n g l y  c r e d i t  course  not  of  of  r e q u i r e d  t h i s  were  C h a i r  (Mathews,  h a i l e d  McLenaghen  Ocean  a  Columbia,  f i n a l l y  s e c u r i n g  t e a c h e r s  yet  t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g  economics  i t  was  from  U n i v e r s i t y  13,944  q u a l i f i e d  l e g i t i m a t i o n  examinations, s c h o o l  day,  at  f o r  home  m a t r i c u l a t i o n the  c o s t  of  125  c o n f o r m i n g  to  McLenaghen  s h o u l d  and  s h o r t  making  McLenaghen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  minute  p e r i o d s  t e a c h e r s 1986,  f o r  home  academic  an  t a i l o r e d  d i d  c o u l d  Teachers  a g a i n s t  1918b,  not  l e n d  themselves  was  [the and  make  s k i l l  age  p u p i l s ]  them  of  toward p.  i n t e r e s t  they  made  by  any  However  to  B53).  Columbia  n a t u r a l  40  or  50  c o m p l e t i n g was  i n t r o d u c e d .  f a v o u r a b l y  by  not  have  always only  d i s l i k e  c l a s s e s  1939-40,  379).  e c o n o m i c s ] , a c t i v e l y  l a r g e  "samples"  may  t h a t  tended  b e f o r e p.  regarded  home  that  deadening  a l . ,  the  w i t h  C o l l e g e ,  et  and  i r o n i c  (ARPS,  a  economics  t r a i n i n g  most  r e a l l y them"  enjoyed nasty  (Sutherland,  189). end  r e s u l t  economics s t a t u s  elementary. w i t h  move  p e r f e c t  (Cooley  "While  p. The  to  p r o j e c t s ,  s t u d e n t s .  "any  at  i t e m  home  r e g r e t  warned  was  d i f f i c u l t i e s  p r o f e s s o r s had  p r a c t i c a l  and  the  It  t h e o r e t i c a l "  s t u d e n t s  [manual  note  system.  economics]  u s e f u l  S t i l l ,  i n f l e x i b l e  p e r i o d s  [home  f o r c i n g  an  e l a s t i c i t y . r e s p o n s i v e  i n  The  but  s c h o o l  i t  i n t o  work  focus  a c c e n t u a t e d .  to  a  r i g i d  economics  i n s p e c t i o n s  t e a c h e r  t r a i n i n g  d i d  t e a c h e r  i n s p e c t i o n .  was were  s c h o o l s  of  s t r u c t u r e expected  a  l e s s e n  the  The  achievement  need of  f o r  of out  be  i t s  of  s u b j e c t  economics  d e s p i t e to  and  s t a t u s  p r a c t i c a l  Home  c e n t r a l i z e d .  not  permanent  Attainment  secondary  ambivalency  was  was  system.  r e s u l t i n g  conform Home  McLenaghen's the  f o r c e d  academic to  of  was  supposed  l o c a l l y Improved  c o n t i n u a l  l e g i t i m a t i o n  meant  126  l o s s  of  i n d i v i d u a l  f u n d a m e n t a l l y  r e l e v a n c e  p r a c t i c a l  i n  the  s u b j e c t  endeavour  to  make  a  " a c a d e m i c " .  Epilogue In  1939  p r e s i d e n t f o u n d i n g  of  to  awarding  d e l i v e r e d competency Domestic was N  of  of an  her  and  swept  w i t h . . . a  happy  (McKenzie, 1968,  the  c r e d i t e d  d u r i n g from  s u b j e c t l e v e l s  f o r i n t o  E d u c a t i o n  a l l  b l e n d  eulogy  [which] the  the  of  i n  w i t h  the  r e c i p e  f o r l o r n  was  home  new  and  f o r  Laws In  the of  as  a  y e a r s from  was the  c i t a t i o n  her to  D e p r e s s i o n  " z e a l , defend  Years  when  i t  s o - c a l l e d  u n t r i e d . . . she  came  open-mindedness"  Report  death of  economics  the  c o n n e c t e d  degree  g r e a t l y  and  i s  are  D62).  made  and  p u t t i n g  p u b l i s h i n g  book  was  I t s  everywhere  r e t i r e m e n t  1956.  a v a i l e d  Annual  m a t r i c u l a t i o n ,  p.  of  McLenaghen's  making  e f f e c t ,  i n  c a u t i o n  A f t e r  Economics  C u r r i c u l u m  that  A s s o c i a t i o n .  Home  Doctor  mention  f i r s t  "people  McLenaghen's  Columbia  the  t h a t  1940-41,  honourary  1956).  her  J e s s i e  e l e c t e d  Economics  v i t a l l y  honour,  f r i l l ' . . . . T o w a r d  Home  (ARPS,  energy  S c i e n c e  n e a r l y  how  B r i t i s h  was  McLenaghen  l i v i n g "  of i n  to  r e a l i z e  h i g h l i g h t  U n i v e r s i t y  McLenaghen  Canadian  proof  everyday A  the  the  was  b e g i n n i n g w i t h  J e s s i e  the an  c o u r s e s f i r s t  " b e i n g  on  December  P u b l i c  19,  S c h o o l s  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  a l l  s c h o o l  Department  i n s t r u m e n t a l  of i n  r a i s i n g  127  the standard o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r home economics" (ARPS, 1968-69, p. G80). Many of the concrete items t h a t J e s s i e McLenaghen had worked f o r proved unproductive. matriculation status;  One example was  i n s p i t e of the time and r h e t o r i c  devoted t o o b t a i n i n g m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a t u s f o r home economics, only seven  students o u t s i d e Vancouver p r e s e n t e d i t f o r c r e d i t  i n 1941 (ARPS, 1940-41, p.D63).  By 1965, home economics was  no longer c o n s i d e r e d of equal s t a t u s with academic s u b j e c t s (Thomas, 1986, p. 115). The v i s i o n o f f e r e d by the 1937 c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n of e d u c a t i n g the whole c h i l d "heart  1  and "hand", was superceded  i n t e l l e c t u a l development alone. home economics enrolment  "head',  by emphasis on  There was some success i n  increases.  In 1968-69 15% o f t h e  t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n took home economics and 48% o f a l l h i g h s c h o o l students were e n r o l l e d i n at l e a s t one home economics course secondary  (ARPS, 1968-69, p. G13). Although  post-  home economics education was a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, t e a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s had not improved.  Jessie  McLenaghen had r e p o r t e d i n 1932 t h a t 55% of the home economics t e a c h e r s were u n i v e r s i t y graduates p. L31).  (ARPS, 1931-32,  In 1968, the f i g u r e was 50% (ARPS, 1967-68, p.  G63) . A p p l i e d a r t as p a r t of home economics was a c a s u a l t y i n l a t e r years.  I t was d i s c a r d e d along with many other i d e a s of  128  the  New  seven same  E d u c a t i o n  was  removed  t i m e .  A  d e c l i n e d ,  the  home  the  i n  i n s p e c t i o n s  were  P u b l i c  c r i t i c i s m s  c a r r i e d  out;  (Murphy,  1989).  f o r  of  of  r e t u r n  v i s i t s  and  as  reasons  no  t r a v e l  Branch were  had  e d u c a t i o n a l  the was  c l o s e d .  s i m i l a r  to  way  were  the  I r v i n e ,  f i v e  f i e l d  The  (Irvine,  was  and  problems  f a c e d  by  q u i t e  the  w r i t e  Branch  b e i n g  J e s s i e  the  the  Home  New  were  the  r i g i d then  to  M i n i s t r y  I r v i n e  i m p o s s i b i l i t y  It  t r a v e l l i n g  was  Home  d e n i e d , Economics  Economics  McLenaghen,  d i f f e r e n t .  There  and  o n - t h e - r o a d  the  d e c l i n e  too  c o n s u l t a n t s .  1981  f i l e s  the  A d v i s o r  1975b).  of  r e p o r t s  r e q u e s t e d  p e t i t i o n e d  by  home  i n s p e c t i o n s  to  of  the  1969-70.  of  .  t e a c h e r s  t h a t  showed  i n  t e a c h e r s ,  l o n e l i n e s s  a l l o t t e d ,  54  accused  Jean  request  to  Economics  changed  u n c e r t i f i e d  those  c l i m a t e  which  was  r e q u e s t e d  to  1989)  p o i n t  s p e c i f i c a l l y  1960-61 i n  t h a t  Columbia  the  She  economics  At  Home  at  j o i n .  ( M i t c h e l l ,  home  Grade  Chant  to  p e r m i t t e d  B r i t i s h  t i t l e  1975  number  money  from  i n  whom,  be  u n l e s s  i n s p e c t o r s  the  f o r  of  the  of  i n  l o n g e r  164  The  one  E d u c a t i o n  c i t e d  of  the  C o n s u l t a n t , of  from  past  1969.  1960.  the  was  F e d e r a t i o n  F i g u r e s  A r c h i v e s  a g a i n s t  a l l  of  economics  i n v i t e d  u n t i l  t e a c h e r s  1969).  at  time  home  was  i n s p e c t i n g  no  of  mounted  her  of  Commission  sphere  Teachers'  economics  Chant  McLenaghen  i n s p e c t o r s  ( A l l e s t e r ,  the  c o n t i n u e d  Columbia  economics  the  was  that  t r a d i t i o n  p r o v i n c e  B r i t i s h  on  and  s a y i n g  The  from  p r o t e s t  recommendations  i n  a f t e r  but  E d u c a t i o n  Branch the was  129  no  l o n g e r  l o n g e r  a  the  r e i g n i n g  c o r n e r s t o n e  of  p h i l o s o p h y the  and  p r a c t i c a l  e d u c a t i o n a l  system.  a r t s  was  no  130  Chapter Four Endnotes 1. Fannie Twiss was r e s f i r s t Domestic S c i e n c e p showed at t h e V i c t o r i a , (Saskatchewan Department 87). The manner i n whic i n Saskatchewan was p o l i would i n s p e c t t h e s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . Her v the p a r e n t s would v i s i t p r e p a r e d by t h e p u p i l s , f o r t h e next year would (Saskatchewan Department 79) .  p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e r o m o t i o n a l f i l m i n Canada w h i c h she B . C . summer s c h o o l i n 1922 of E d u c a t i o n Annual Report, 1922, p. h t h e e x t e n s i o n work was c a r r i e d out t i c a l l y i n s p i r e d . Each June, Twiss s which had had i t i n e r a n t d o m e s t i c i s i t would take p l a c e i n t h e morning, i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , and a f t e r a supper t h e q u e s t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g t h e work be d i s c u s s e d and v o t e d on of E d u c a t i o n Annual Report, 1921, p.  2. In a h i s t o r y w r i t t e n i n c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e t h i r t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y of t h e F a c u l t y of P r a c t i c a l A r t s at Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , M.A. B i g e l o w c l a i m e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c a l a r t s and l i b e r a l a r t s was o n l y i n t h e emphasis of t h e former on p r a c t i c e o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o d a i l y l i f e . The two fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r a c t i c a l a r t s were "knowledge which i s p r a c t i c a l and t h e t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y o r s k i l l t o put i t i n t o p r a c t i c e " (Bigelow, 1927, p. 766) . At t h e h e i g h t of i t s i n f l u e n c e i n 1927, t h e F a c u l t y of P r a c t i c a l A r t s had e i g h t departments. Cremin (1961) c l a i m e d t h a t up t o twenty p e r c e n t of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t r a i n e d at Teachers C o l l e g e (p. 221). See t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s f o r more d e t a i l : B i g e l o w , Teachers  M.A. (1927). T h i r t y years C o l l e g e . Teachers C o l l e g e  Cremin, L. (1961). T r a n s f o r m a t i o n P r o g r e s s i v i s m i n American e d u c a t i o n Knopf.  of p r a c t i c a l a r t s i n Record, 28 (8), 765-775. of t h e s c h o o l : 1876-1957. New  Cremin, L., Shannon, D. and Townsend, M. of Teachers C o l l e g e Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  (1954). New Y o r k :  York:  A  h i s t o r y Columbia  3. The u s e of t h e word " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " i n d i c a t e d i n f l u e n c e from E.L. T h o r n d i k e ' s Laws of L e a r n i n g , e x p l a i n e d by C l a r a Brown, a contemporary home e c o n o m i c s w r i t e r , as t h e a b i l i t y to see a problem as a whole and t h e r e f o r e not work b l i n d l y (Brown, 1927, p. 2 5 0 ) . This echoes Putman and W e i r ' s admonishment t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d " s e e l i f e s t e a d i l y and see i t whole" (Report, 1925, p. 4 4 ) . Brown advocated t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach t o s e t h i g h t e c h n i c a l s t a n d a r d s t h e r e b y e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o f e e l s a t i s f a c t i o n from d o i n g  131  a good j o b . C o n v e r s e l y , Brown suggested f a i l u r e would encourage a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , s e e : Brown, C l a r a . (1927) . of Home E c o n o m i c s , 19  The (5),  p s y c h o l o g i c a l 245-251.  4. The 1936 amendment t o t h e P u b l i c home e c o n o m i c s c o m p u l s o r y r e a d :  approach.  S c h o o l s  A c t  J o u r n a l  which  made  In grade V I I and V I I I i n t h e c i t y s c h o o l s o f t h e f i r s t and second c l a s s and i n any o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n so d i r e c t s t h e Board of School T r u s t e e s , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g equipment and c o u r s e s of study, s h a l l e s t a b l i s h i n t h e s c h o o l s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n c o u r s e s i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s , i n c l u d i n g Manual T r a i n i n g a n d Home E c o n o m i c s . ( L i g h t f o o t & Maynard, 1971, p. 37) The  r e g u l a t i o n  took  e f f e c t  i n  September,  1937.  5. F i r s t c l a s s i n d i c a t e s average d a i l y attendance not l e s s than 1 , 0 0 0 p e r s c h o o l year, w h i l e second denotes average d a i l y attendance of p u p i l s between 1,000 p e r s c h o o l year.  of p u p i l s c l a s s 250 a n d  132  CHAPTER  V  AMBIVALENCE  REVISITED:  AND The p o s i t i o n  purpose  of  of  economics  l o w - s t a t u s s u b j e c t .  home  t h i s  academic The  word  summary,  f i n d i n g s  a r e  The weaves which  c e n t r a l  t o g e t h e r  t h i s  both  "home  i d e a l "  t h e  by  W i n n i f r e d  p.  8 ) ,  rounded  and  was  worthy  home  a  of  by t h e  membership"  sense  of  a  t h i s  study  " a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  i d e a  i n t r o d u c e d  s c h o o l " ,  as  1941,  w h i c h  The  f i r s t  t h e  made.  d i s c i p l i n e  v a l u e s .  McLenaghen  (McLenaghen,  a  and  p r a c t i c a l  i n  as  c o -  e d u c a t i o n  t h r e a d ,  s c i e n c e  of In  f u r t h e r  economics  c o n n e c t i n g  many  system  e c o n o m i c s .  f o r  ambivalent  p r a c t i c a l  t h e  and v o c a t i o n a l  J e s s i e  t h e  s c h o o l  c o n c l u s i o n s  t h a t  ("Domestic  and p a r a p h r a s e d c o n c e p t i o n  home  home i s  c u l t u r a l  McKeand  conveys  s u g g e s t i o n s  study  study  and h i g h - s t a t u s  about  of  t o  p u b l i c  summarized,  concept  t e a c h e s  of  to  drawn,  was  t h e  " a m b i v a l e n t " b e l i e f s  i m p l i c a t i o n s  i n  s u b j e c t  o p p o s i n g  CONCLUSIONS  IMPLICATIONS  r e s e a r c h  e x i s t i n g  DISCUSSION,  1903,  w e l l -  c o n t r i b u t i n g  p.  7 4 8 ) .  1903-1924 In was  t h e  m a i n l y  time  d i r e c t e d  homemakers. home  The  economics  McKeand  c l e a r l y  knowledge h e a l t h y  p e r i o d  of  1903-1924,  toward  g i r l s '  home  v o c a t i o n a l  f i r s t  home  economics  more  than  cookery  as  s t a t e d  homemaking  and happy"  h e r t o  ("Domestic  t h e  homes  s c i e n c e  i n  argued  sewing.  t o  "apply of t h e  e d u c a t i o n  t r a i n i n g  t e a c h e r s  and  i n t e n t i o n s make  economics  t h e  as f o r  W i n n i f r e d t h e o r e t i c a l p e o p l e  s c h o o l " ,  1903,  133  p.  8).  E l i z a b e t h  s u p e r v i s i o n of  home  (VBST  to  s t r e s s  economics  Annual  n o t a b l y  B e r r y  d e f i n i t i o n  the  r a t h e r  Report,  A l i c e  wanted  of  home  more than  1913,  R a v e n h i l l  and  the  reasons  f o r  t e a c h i n g  improvement home  John  a r t  i n t o  the  l i f e  t h r o u g h  home  economics.  K y l e ,  t e c h n i c a l  He  i n t e n d e d  the  mind  to  t r a i n e d  when  human  t h i s  adjustment  e d u c a t i o n  "  This  about  o p i n i o n  i n s p e c t o r s d o m e s t i c  the was  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t u d e n t s the home  to  no  home  work  economics  economics  n e c e s s i t y f r e q u e n t l y  to  t r a i n i n g  t o g e t h e r of  the  of  own  everyday New from  hand,  eye  and  the  e d u c a t i o n ,  not  t e c h n i c a l  order,  p h i l o s o p h y  i n  o v e r l a i d  t r a i n  good  e x p r e s s e d  who  e d u c a t i o n ,  at  i n  young,  was  were  but  male  the at  hands  u s e f u l  e x a c t n e s s a l i g n e d  work  a  a l l and of  moral  and  mothers.  s c h o o l  p e r i p h e r y  the  and  of  c e n t r e  B e r r y  of  and  t h e i r  of  t h e i r  minds  f a s h i o n ,  and  the  w i t h wives  McKeand,  the a  by  on  were  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  aimed  development  s i m p l y  a r t  h i s  i n s e p a r a b l e  adjustments i s  important  d a t e ) .  p r i n c i p a l s  s c i e n c e  c o l l e a g u e s  c a l l e d  (Kyle,  P r a c t i c a l message  i s  the  as  espoused as  h e a l t h ,  p r o j e c t e d  t e a c h i n g  most  the  promoted  Kyle  e d u c a t i o n  "Nature  i n d i v i d u a l s ,  standards  a l s o  c o n c e p t s  i n s t r u c t i o n  broadened  l i v i n g  e d u c a t i o n : be  Other  f o r  her  " e d u c a t i v e "  R a v e n h i l l  argument  under  t e c h n i c a l  economics.  f o r  of  63).  of  b i a s  view  merely  p.  and  t e a c h e r s  l i b e r a l  economics.  hygiene  E d u c a t i o n  the  namely  c l e a n l i n e s s .  t e a c h i n g  of  through E a r l y  c u l t u r a l  134  v a l u e s  (through  t e a c h i n g  of  h a b i t s ) . was  v o c a t i o n a l  C l a s s ,  an  where  i s s u e . the  upon  1905,  13).  p.  the  not  power  a  "home  a  i d e a l " )  (through s p e c i f i c  change  an  e x e r c i s e s  proper  and  economics  P r a c t i c a l which  Department  w i l l  of  t r a i n i n g  set  Education  i n  proper  t h i s  i n f e r i o r  home  e f f i c i e n t  of  t h i n g s  the  of  ("Vancouver  a p p l i c a t i o n  w i t h  focus  to  home  "mordant  Columbia 38)  The  of  v a l u e s  w h i l e  "matron  bestowed  as  promotion  g i r l s  i n  Courses  the of  i n t o  one  c o n t r o l "  to  s k i l l s  study,  was  l e a r n " ,  was  s t r e s s e d  memory" Study,  ( B r i t i s h  1912,  p.  . The  i n i t i a l  t r a i n i n g  t e a c h e r s  advantage were  other t h a t  and  a  from  but  d i s c a r d e d . t r a p p i n g s  p r a c t i c a l  danger  was  unique  nature  student  the  of  home  r e s t  of  d i s a d v a n t a g e .  autonomous  e a s i l y  s e p a r a t i o n  r i s k e d  s u b j e c t s  t h a t  these  of  a  of  economics  supported  Vancouver  School  s c h o o l  would  be  a c t i o n s  p r a c t i c a l  i n d i v i d u a l i t y  Acceptance  b e i n g  r e g u l a r  and  r e p o r t  t h e i r  programs  c a r d s  i n s t i t u t e d  taken  more  s e r i o u s l y .  p o t e n t i a l l y which of  the  t h e i r  economics  was  immediately  a t t a c k e d  home  economics  was  i n t e n d e d  improve  a  f a m i l y  The the  f o r  only  so When  n e c e s s a r y as  so  needs.  c u r r i c u l u m .  home  and  d e s t r o y  a l l o w e d  l a s t e d  an  t e a c h e r s  were  retrenchment  to  b o t h  work  e d u c a t i o n i n  manual  e d u c a t i o n  monthly  c o u l d  d i v e r s i t y  was  or  r e c o g n i t i o n  found  s t a f f  and  i g n o r e d  s u b j e c t  p r a c t i c a l  Board  the  P r a c t i c a l  Examinations,  of  economics  i n  f r i l l . l i f e ,  l o n g  as  the 1916, Although  i t  was  135  seen  as  expendable  been  an  e f f e c t i v e  at  t h e  f o r c e  p r e c i s e  i n  time  h e l p i n g  t h a t  i t  f a m i l i e s  c o u l d  have  through  h a r d  t i m e s . A  growing  p r a c t i c a l m a l a i s e  e d u c a t i o n  about  p r e v i o u s l y the  d e f i n e d  r e a l  i f  was  l i f e ,  at  t o  not  have  same  (1951)  t r a i n i n g manual  manual  and  i n f l u e n c e s "  powers  t h e  of  t r a i n i n g would t h a t  d i d  have t h e  r e s u l t i n g  i f  end  p u p i l s " not i t  manual about e a r l y  t h e  (ARPS,  that  t h e  i t s  t r u l y  home  the  of  on  C 4 9 ) .  t r a d e  union  v o c a t i o n a l .  and  t o  content  not h a d .  manual a s p e c t s  t o  of As  a  t h e " g e n e r a l  Manual f i e l d ,  White  manual  d i d  economics  t h e  p.  t o  This  a s p e c t s .  r e f e r  had  t o  p r a c t i c a l  p o s s i b l e  which  c u l t u r a l  c o u l d  s u b j e c t  d e t r i m e n t a l method  as  p r a c t i c a l  use  used  whereby  proponents  1919-20,  had  of  be  t r a i n i n g  i n s p e c t o r s  i n t o  u n i f o r m i t y  not  arose  i t  been  any  s e a m s t r e s s e s .  that  was  and  o r  exaggerated  been  s c h o o l  would  g e n e r a l  because  workmen  t r e s p a s s  r e s u l t  inadequate at  a  immediate  c l o s e l y  downplayed  " c u l t u r a l  of  as  that  t r a i n i n g  was  and  had  r e l a t e  urgency  d e l i b e r a t e l y  by  e d u c a t i o n  compromise  favoured  observed  t r a i n i n g  r e s u l t ,  t r a i n  moral  was  years  economics  compounded  t h a t  r e c e i v e d  supposed  i n i t i a l l y  White  they A  approach t h e  more  a l l .  but  home  V o c a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g  spending  w i t h  e v i d e n t ,  p e r s p e c t i v e  t r a i n i n g  i m m e d i a t e l y e d u c a t i o n  as  This  were  v o c a t i o n a l  became  e d u c a t i o n .  s t u d e n t .  s t u d e n t s  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  as  c l a i m e d  t r a i n i n g .  c r e a t e d  i t  " a  The slow  136  i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n a s p e c t s form"  of  s t a g n a t i o n " of  manual  u t i l i t a r i a n 1951,  p.  and  of  a  (1986) and  was  i t s  upon  as  a  graduates  s t a t u s  advocates Home  of  the  t e a c h i n g women  However,  i n  i s  had  home  a  g i v e n  s t e r i l e  "more  f i r s t "  (White,  as  a  u s e f u l  v a l u a b l e i n  t e a c h i n g  was  by  m a r g i n a l l y  1986,  number  i n t e r e s t s  economics  was  and  s i m i l a r  s m a l l  and  a  long  "unable  t e a c h i n g  In h i g h  Tomkins  c u r r i c u l u m  L a t i n ,  i n  s t a b i l i t y  s u b j e c t  a f t e r  i t  which was  employment to  o b t a i n  became p.  82).  to  L a t i n  of  i n  i n c r e a s i n g  through  p r o v i d i n g  who  a  i t s  f a c t o r  p r o f e s s i o n .  e x p l a i n  (Tomkins,  v e s t e d  was  (1983)  s c h o o l s  to  by  c o m p l i c a t i n g  l e g i t i m a t i o n  to  L a t i n ,  assumed  who  was  Goodson  r e t a i n e d  s u b j e c t "  was  i t  female  h i g h  t u r n e d  economics  was  the  economics  sought  i n  was  employment,  c u l t u r a l i n t o  a c c e p t e d  second  i l l u s t r a t i o n  u n i v e r s i t y  j o b s .  home  s t a t u s "  Status  t r a i n e d  the  used  r e l e v a n t .  from  because  c r e d i t .  i t s  hand  r e a d i l y  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  Their  other  worthwhile  m a i n t a i n e d  i t s  of  " s u b j e c t  on  A n o t h e r  .  v a l u e s  t h i s ,  years  616).  s k i l l s .  proponents  change.  g a i n f u l  the  e d u c a t i o n  p.  " d e g e n e r a t i o n  190)  more  homemaking  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  s c h o o l  on  1951,  c o n c e n t r a t i n g  was  p.  p r a c t i c a l  g i r l ' s  f o u n d a t i o n  a d d i t i o n  1976,  It  F o l l o w i n g  of  t r a i n i n g  s c i e n c e  616).  v o c a t i o n a l  the  e f f e c t  (Sutherland, Domestic  p a r t  the  (White,  f o r other  staunch  i n  t h a t  u n i v e r s i t y -  p r e s e r v i n g  s u b s t a n t i a l l y  more  t h e i r  137  r e l e v a n t l i k e d  to  home  because  i t  "run  a  i n The  was  12).  ("Home  i t s  l o n g e r  a  Goodson  examinable m a t e r i a l s u b j e c t  a l s o  h i g h - s t a t u s . of  s o c i a l  C o u n c i l s  of  b e l i e v e d  t h a t  about  w i t h  and  l i f e "  f o r  ways  to  s t a n d a r d s  many  B e r r y c a l l s  a  improve  as and was were  John  which  terms  1924,  p.  of  r e h i r e d f o r  s t a t u s  of  over  of  the to  the  a  p r o v i n c i a l  was  as  a  the  L o c a l  w i t h  Proponents  h i g h  c a s t  Some  r e a l  i n s t r u c t i o n . S u p e r v i s o r  i t  t h e m s e l v e s  young  s t a t u s .  as  as  t e a c h e r s  21).  each  r e s o u r c e s ,  such  the  It p.  e d u c a t i o n  groups  an  1920,  C o n t r a r i l y , saw  and  r e s p e c t .  a v a i l a b l e  "imbue  thought  as  the  b a t t l e  would  K y l e ,  s u b j e c t  s t a t u s  over  economics  e d u c a t i o n a l  methods  made  In  m i d d l e - c l a s s  (Young,  the  Report,  a  to  home  Annual  l o w - s t a t u s .  home  f o r  more  c o n f l i c t  i n c l i n e d  4).  promote  p r o s p e c t s  s o c i e t y  the  p.  daughters  were  r e c e i v e d  403).  economics  home  E l i z a b e t h and  In  home  such  p.  homes  Through  (VBST  c a r e e r  g e n u i n e l y  t h e i r  c r e d i t  to  " e s s e n t i a l l y  a l r e a d y  of  o b s e r v e r s ,  as  reform,  Women  way  c o n s i d e r e d  f o r  1924,  economics  (1983,  was  w h i l e  f o c u s .  a l l e y "  and  community"  a  Students  i t  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  home  r e s o u r c e s  wanted  date"  o f f e r e d  knowledge  economics  i d e a l s  of  (1983)  L a t i n .  e c o n o m i c s " ,  " b l i n d  home  means  to  p r a c t i c a l  s u b j e c t ,  than  mothers  "up  o s t e n s i b l y  r e t a i n  no  kept  achievement  examinable was  l i v i n g  e c o n o m i c s ;  r u t "  economics s t i l l  everyday  problem  was  Consequently of  Home  Economics  s u p e r v i s o r .  138  A n o t h e r the  g r a d u a l  s c h o o l  as  a  f e a t u r e  of  the  years  adoption  of  the  p r o g r e s s i v e  means  improving  s o c i a l i z a t i o n . New  was to  The  E d u c a t i o n  (Young,  reform  became  1924,  p.  r e q u i r e d the  of  i n  Some  order  n a t i o n "  to  of  homes  L o c a l  Putman-Weir  economics  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y so,  i t  who  " i n d i v i s i b l e  saw  1  ,  home i t  of  the mass  i n  the  economics  be  1924,  more p.  " u s e f u l  3).  Report muddied  d e c l a r i n g  thought  f i r s t  c h i l d "  go  " h a n d 1 ,  of  b a s i s "  the a l l  waters  and  to  of  home  e d u c a t i o n  p r a c t i c a l / v o c a t i o n a l .  "whole  " h e a d  s c h o o l  p r o d u c t s  survey  of  the  by  b e l i e f  c i t i z e n s  t h a t  economics  a  surge  was  grown  of  s k i l l s  i n t e r e s t  c o u l d  which  p r e s e r v i n g  a  survey  supposed  h e a l t h y  By  d o i n g  p r o c l a i m e d  by  J.W.  s c h o o l ,  " h e a r t ' "  were  be  -  of  (Robertson,  a  f o r  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  the i n  i n f l u e n c e  n a t i o n " to  out  system  r e c o g n i z e d  homemaking  was  had  s c h o o l  accompanied  Home  l i n e  the  i n t o  and  by  view  economics  of  was  through  proper  t h a t  1924  . The  the  the  (1925)  reform  c u l t u r a l  c o n t i n u e d  Robertson  1907)  Report  e d u c a t i o n a l  a  C o u n c i l " ,  The Putman-Weir The  l i v e s  home  on  demands  and  e d u c a t i o n  r e d e f i n i t i o n  meet  ( " V i c t o r i a  1903  i n d i v i d u a l  m i s s i o n  " p u t t i n g  21).  between  i t s  students  women's  "fundamental (Report,  -  r i g h t s  e d u c a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y  1925,  s t o c k - t a k i n g .  f o r p. It  w i t h  and  the  outcomes.  to  t e a c h  b u i l d i n g 91). v e r i f i e d  g i r l s up  and  The events  139  f o r  home  the  matter  f i r s t i t  economics of  a  Putman  f i r e d and  by  i t s  Weir  d i d  Rather,  t e n d e n c i e s  and  p r o c l a i m e d  her  to  seemed  Report  c u l t u r a l  would  ground  r e c e i v e  s t u d i e s  i n s t e a d d e a l  337). t r a i n  give  w i t h  r e a l  the  e d u c a t i n g  only  g i r l s .  t h e r e the  were  were  years  to  the  Board  i n  was  1916  a f t e r  1916a).  i n f o r m a t i o n  and  example,  s u p e r v i s o r  c o n f i r m e d  e d u c a t i o n  to  B r i t i s h  e x i s t i n g  '  not  g i v e n  c u l t u r a l  and  economics  g i r l  f o r  "sane  a  (p.  purposes  There  r e s o u r c e s  J e s s i e  McLenaghen  basement  l o c a t i o n  were  by  i n  the  p u r p o s e s .  any  other  a  i s  c u l t u r a l  o c c u p a t i o n l i f e  home  Report  by  home  to  but  r e q u i r i n g  approach economics i g n o r e d  examinations  dry  s o -  P r a c t i c a l  e d u c a t i o n  a c c o r d i n g a  38).  This  of  the  made of  to  337).  a d d i t i o n ,  o p e r a t i n g . of  s p e c i f i c  the  It  s o - c a l l e d  taught  a t t i t u d e  p r o j e c t s "  In  a l l  the  e d u c a t i o n .  r e a l - l i f e  from  i n  between (p.  v a l u e s be  b e l i e f i n  e x i s t  i n  Home  a  s t r o n g v a l u e s  s h o u l d  c o u l d  i s  a  v i e w p o i n t s "  v o c a t i o n a l  a l l o t m e n t s  s u b j e c t .  a  her  mask  s c h o o l s  For  M i n u t e s ,  p r a c t i c a l  c u l t u r a l  e d u c a t i o n (p.  a l l  which  to  way  and  p r a c t i c a l  not  new  f e a t u r e d  and  would  (VBST  d i r e c t e d  c u l t u r a l  v o c a t i o n a l "  would  they  antagonism  m e a n s . . . . A l l  School  p r e s e n t  "no  v o c a t i o n a l  economics  Vancouver  not  o c c u r r e d .  o p i n i o n s .  of  c h i l d r e n  mode  home  t h a t  e d u c a t i o n " A l l  a l r e a d y  s u p e r v i s o r  Putman-Weir  i n t e g r a t i o n  c a l l e d  the  own  Columbia.  The  had  p r o v i n c i a l  suggested  had  t h a t  the  r e f e r e n c e economics  i n the  and s t a t u s i n  of  l a t e r  140  l a b o r a t o r y  as  (McLenaghen, W e i r ,  1956,  a s s e s s e d  D e s p i t e a  " t y p i f y i n g  i t s  s c h o o l  became  the  had  i t  p r e s t i g e  She  s i t u a t i o n  which  no  of  home  s o c i a l  the  i f  s u b j e c t " not  economics  system  r e c e i v e  Putman  c o n f l i c t e d  such  a  w i t h  Home  c l a s s e s . as  and  r e a l i s t i c a l l y .  e f f i c i e n c y .  h a l f - d a y  s c h o o l  l o n g e r  the  economics  demanded  enjoyed  of  l e a s t ,  home  i n t o  c o u l d  at  a s p e c t s ,  p r e v i o u s l y  i n t e g r a t e d  s u b j e c t ,  8).  p r a c t i c a l  system  economics  p.  the  As  i t  r e g u l a r  s p e c i a l  t r e a t m e n t .  J e s s i e McLenaghen The  Putman-Weir  a p p o i n t e d  as  p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e  s u p e r v i s o r p r i n c i p l e s  and  p r o b a b l y  Her  a  B r i t i s h  Columbia  t h a t  major  McLenaghen  U n i v e r s i t y home  was  develop  i n  New  work  and  i n her  of  l i f e "  a t t i t u d e  embodied  to  at  p.  " w i t h  s o c i a l  a et  of  that  a l . ,  be  she  had  251).  1907  The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  p. and  moved  to  Columbia  i d e a l s .  i n f l u e n c e s  1919,  Fergus  p h i l o s o p h y  C o l l e g e ,  E d u c a t i o n  and  Norman  l a t e r  a t t i t u d e  the  t h i s  between  who  of  McLenaghen's  " u b i q u i t o u s  good  r i g h t  woman  J e s s i e  Teachers New  a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e o r i s t  1986,  source  (Cooley,  good  the  complemented the  t h a t  Saskatchewan  E d u c a t i o n  women  problems  a  i n d i c a t e d  encountered  as  had  e d u c a t i o n .  (Tomkins,  1924  viewed men  of  i n t r o d u c e d  B l a c k " ,  r e q u e s t e d  who  e d u c a t i o n  q u a l i f i c a t i o n . 1924  Report  The  w h i c h  towards 58).  the  The  c o n c e r n  would  f o r  r i g h t the  141  w e l f a r e  of  et  1918a,  a l . ,  s o c i e t y p.  (1925)  on  t e n u r e . the  s c h o o l of  Deprived  economics  were  capped  made  home  undoubtedly e d u c a t i o n  The between  work.  R a t h e r  p.  i t  8).  1936  means.  change  major  was  of  as  home  i t s She  1934c,  on  the  and  (ARPS,  of  p.  w i t h  of  t r a n s i t i o n  h i s  or  the  and  s t a t u s  worth  a  i n at  formal  p.  and  have  1934  Act  t h a t  H80). economics.  Education s t a t e d  to  l e g i t i m a c y  School  home  by  the  manoeuvring  of  r e a l i s t i c  i n  1933  b e l i e f  i n  c u l t u r a l "  824). was  one  i n d i v i d u a l  r e d i r e c t e d  augmenting  t e x t  1935-36,  of  Report  i n  "proved a  the  McLenaghen's  p l a c e  P u b l i c  p r e d e c e s s o r s , the  kept  economics  e f f o r t s  advance  " f a m i l y "  her  the  M i n i s t e r  e f f e c t  J e s s i e  p o l i t i c a l  i n  the  " p r a c t i c a l ,  t r a i n i n g  a  m a i n t a i n  compulsory  McLenaghen  was  promised  McLenaghen's  i n f l u e n c e d  McLenaghen  i n t e n t i o n  of  m a t r i c u l a t i o n  emphasis  When  to  years  f u l l  a  (Cooley,  Putman-Weir  r e c e i v e  Columbia",  to  had  the  and  had  precedence  few  s t a t u s  appointment  t h a t  ( " B r i t i s h  the  of  1927  the  f a m i l y  c o n d i t i o n s  i n  events  W e i r ' s  economic  p r o v i s i o n  1956, by  the  through  economics  P o l i t i c a l  f i r s t  i n s t r u m e n t a l  document  (McLenaghen,  the  by  economics"  c u r r i c u l u m  George  the of  and  p h i l o s o p h y  McLenaghen  system  home  home  p o l i t i c a l  f o r  through  .  e d u c a t i o n  h o l d  R e p o r t ,  e x p r e s s e d  119)  Unfavourable p r o g r e s s i v e  as  the  major who  student  f o c u s ,  r e c i p r o c a t i n g  between  the  had  i t  d i f f e r e n c e g i v e n over was  f a m i l y  t r a n s m i s s i o n  group  not  w i t h  v a l u e s . of  142  k n o w l e d g e a s a "one-way movement i n t e n d e d t o i n c u l c a t e t h e student and  i ncertain skills  and v a l u e s "  (Miller,  1 9 8 7 , p. 9 4 )  t h e t r a n s a c t i o n o f knowledge, f o c u s i n g on " p r o b l e m  s o l v i n g and c o g n i t i v e growth"  (p. 9 5 ) . P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , f o r  e x a m p l e , was a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r b e h i n d machine-sewing a t t h e grade s i x l e v e l M65).  the introduction of (ARPS,  However, i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  i n McLenaghen's p u r s u i t o f h i g h s t a n d a r d s t h a t home e c o n o m i c s was a " p r e p a r e d  p.  was n o t p e r m i t t e d i n order t o prove  subject.  1  1926-27,  The b e s t  e x a m p l e o f t h e l a c k o f c h o i c e was i n t h e 1 9 3 6 c u r r i c u l u m revision. concerns  L e g i t i m a t i o n and p r o o f f o r McLenaghen.  w h i c h was u n d e r f r e q u e n t operated  o f w o r t h were o v e r r i d i n g j  They were i m p e r a t i v e f o r a s u b j e c t a t t a c k as a f r i l l .  on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t p r o o f  o f t h e academic v a l u e o f  home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n w o u l d s e c u r e curriculum. was  i t s place i n the  I t was n o t v a l u e d f o r i t s p r a c t i c a l w o r t h .  quite contrary t o the stated beliefs  Report  (1925)  which had given equal  academic s u b j e c t s .  This  o f t h e Putman-Weir  s t a t u s t o p r a c t i c a l and  A l e s s p r e s c r i p t i v e c u r r i c u l u m might have  r e s u l t e d i f t h e Report o c c u r r e d more c l o s e l y  and t h e 1 9 3 6 c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n had together.  M c L e n a g h e n was s t y m i e d  i n h e r moves t o i m p r o v e  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s b e c a u s e no l o c a l l y - t r a i n e d graduates  McLenaghen  teacher  university  i n home e c o n o m i c s were a v a i l a b l e .  I f home  e c o n o m i c s was t o be c o n s i d e r e d a c a d e m i c , i t w o u l d h a v e t o b e  143  t a u g h t  at  the  h i g h  s c h o o l  u n i v e r s i t y  g r a d u a t e s .  m e a n i n g f u l  p r a c t i c a l  s e r i o u s l y was  economics  as  I n s p e c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y The  If  a  problem  by  40  h i g h a  s c h o o l  came  i n  50  t r y i n g  f o r  p r a c t i c a l  value  emphasis  standards  and  achieve  w i t h  to  t e c h n i c a l  i t  a  would  be  The  r e s u l t  of  were  seen  home form.  as  u n q u a l i f i e d  end  of  t r u n c a t e d  academic  the  c o n s i s t  s u r v i v a l  i n  c u r r i c u l u m of  were  p e r i o d s .  the  but  numbers to  was  minute  opted  the  who  a c t i v i t i e s ,  s u b j e c t ,  m a i n t a i n i n g on  t e a c h e r s  and  p r e s c r i p t i v e  c o u n t e r a c t  by  economics  or  McLenaghen  and  to  home  p r o j e c t s  c o n s t r a i n e d  p a r a d o x i c a l :  l e v e l  t e a c h e r s .  s t a t u s  w h i l e  b e i n g  o v e r -  r e s u l t  i n s t r u c t i o n .  Discussion The as  a  p e r s p e c t i v e  system,  t h a t  system  p e r s p e c t i v e one  the have  of  C h a i r been  economics p r o v i n g been  i s  Home  n e a r l y  u s e f u l g o a l  was  a b l e  to  a c t u a l l y  of  to  worth  when  a  been pay  had  g o a l ,  upon been  1990,  more  a  as  home  the  i s  t h a t  p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s . how  other  i n  and  or  1931, to  maintenance  to  1920  of  as  i t  t h a t  i f  a  might  i n s t e a d  m a t r i c u l a t i o n a  If  home  p r a c t i c e  If  a c h i e v e  e v e n t s .  f a i l i n g  whether  w i t h i n  systems  McLenaghen  s c h o o l  s u b j e c t .  i n  e d u c a t i o n  s u b j e c t  The  e s t a b l i s h e d 48),  of  f a i l u r e  s e v e r a l  a t t e n t i o n  s c h o o l  and  a  p.  r e s c i n d e d  l i n k e d  study  d i s c u s s i n g  impinged  as  t h i s  community  (Stewart,  not  i n  economics  Economics  had  i t s  l e s s  home  answerable  p a r t i c u l a r  C h a i r v e r y  and  taken  s t r o n g  of had  144  elementary  s c h o o l  program  a c a d e m i c / p r a c t i c a l i n  h i g h  s c h o o l  might  geometry  f o r  have  remained  v i a b l e  The the  way  much  which  community.  such  home  k i t c h e n . a l o n g  s i z e "  have  s c h o o l  at  the  the  i t  of  and  and  I n s t e a d  s t u d e n t s ,  home  of  the  t h i s  k i t c h e n "  r e c i p e s  r e c i p r o c i t y  i n  Home a  as  superceded  e v i d e n t  the  viewed  r e f l e c t e d  " h o l l o w  the  i n  e d u c a t i o n  was  was  the  by  as  square"  h o l l o w  square,  i d e a s  of  u s i n g  s c h o o l i n g  economics  students  would  make  home  s e t t i n g "  and  but  s c h o o l .  t h e r e  The  was  i n t e n t  an  i n  e d u c a t i o n  " f a m i l y  between  are  e d u c a t i o n  The  s o c i e t y .  of  a t t i t u d e  might  today.  economics  1924,  competing  taught  i s  v a l u e s  of  s t a t u s  economics  l e v e l ,  music  home  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  p r o g r e s s i v e  s u b j e c t  e x i s t e d .  economics " u n i t  the  examinable  elementary  r e f l e c t e d 1903  p r i o r i t y ,  f o r  s u b j e c t  a s p e c t s  e x p e r i e n c e ,  w i t h  reshape  as  Between  i n d i v i d u a l  not  h i g h  p o l i t i c a l i n  a  c o m p e t i t i o n  w i t h  s p e c i a l i s t s  made  to  " f a m i l y -  no  i n t e n d e d  was  to  )  i emulate  the  i d e a l  P e t e r a t the  f i e l d  f a m i l y ,  (1983)  of  home  t h r e e  and  economics.  economics  as  a  o r i e n t e d  to  comments  about  saw  i t s  p r o b l e m a t i c The  support  v a l u e s  areas  i t  a  home i n  f i r s t  e x i s t i n g of  symbols;  ambivalency f i e l d  were  g i r l s  to  i n  most be  one.  i  ambivalence  i n  p r o f e s s i o n  p r i o r i t i e s .  economics  t r a i n i n g  i s  s t a t u s  and  the  t h r e e  female-dominated  male  v a l u e  o u t l i n e d  economics;  combines home  not  an  which  women,  e d u c a t i o n ,  i n v o l v e d  home  e d u c a t i o n  D i s c u s s i o n s o f t e n  good  made  wives  by  and  system i and men  who  mothers.  145  The  p r o f e s s o r s  Columbia home  P r a c t i c a l  U n i v e r s i t y  i s s u e s ,  J e s s i e  of  but  "marriage  of  i n v i t e d view  had  l i k e l y  home  d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n  e a r l y  i n e f f i c i e n c y  of  the  l i m i t e d  budget"  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f i r m l y  h e l d  p l a c e d i n  c a s e s  worth  s t a n d a r d s h e a l t h to  be  had  and  or  e t h i c a l  due  to  35).  i n  a l t e r n a t e  l a t e  t h a t  e q u a l l y  A l t h o u g h  as  many  to  1964 of  t h a t  the  the  adequate  p.  meals  Women's  standards  be  view,  i s s u e s .  Home  i s  than  problem imposing s t i l l  t e a c h e r s grounds  "good of a  w i t h  as that  but  u n t i l  hygiene  the  the  was  on  a  moral a  t e n e t  the  i m p o s i t i o n  how  w i l l i n g  had  been  l e v e l  economics  of  to  a c h i e v e  s t a n d a r d . McLenaghen much to  a  as  McLenaghen  to  a c q u i e s c e (Murphy,  or  accounted e d u c a t o r s  a  judgment  f o r wanted  !  The saw  \  McLenaghen  c e r t a i n  •' u n i v e r s i t y  R a v e n h i l l  broader  >"  t e c h n i c a l  h o u s e k e e p e r s " .  answer,  exposure  a  of  made  standards  adequately  moral us.  J e s s i e  was  p e r s o n a l  invoked  more  i n  d e c i s i o n s  which  without  the  as  s t a n d a r d s .  f i r s t  reached  s t a n d a r d  of  e v i d e n t  standards  not  w i t h  on  a l s o  j u s t i f i a b l e  w r e s t l e d  her,  was  moral  c o n s i d e r e d  t r a i n i n g  p r e p a r i n g  been  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  us  are  household  McLenaghen's  c o u l d  share  McLenaghen.  where In  t e l l  l i f e  to  exposure  wrote  m a i n t a i n  t e c h n i c a l  1989). of  over  she  C o l l e g e ,  s u s t a i n e d .  1964,  Ambivalence t e c h n i c a l  men  r e c e i v e d  m a r r i e d i n  and  not  f r e q u e n t l y  wife  Teachers  (McLenaghen, to  by  was  economics,  c o u n s e l l o r s  at  women  t h e i r  McLenaghen  c o n c e p t i o n s  A r t s  range  b e f o r e of  146  s u b j e c t s  would  have  a  l i b e r a l i z i n g  e f f e c t  and  be  a  source  of  c r e d i b i l i t y . This  l e a d s  economics f o c u s . i n  as  To  the  a  be  l o g i c a l l y c r e d i b l e  both  s c h o o l  s c h o o l  system.  s c h o o l  system,  i t  d i s p e n s a b l e  was  McLenaghen home  was  d o i n g  so,  i n  times  ambivalency  s u b j e c t  w i t h  d i f f e r e n t  an  of  to  e l u d e d  l o g i s t i c s  of  home  p r a c t i c a l  an  s u b j e c t s  i n f l e x i b l e  p a r t  of  the  c l a s s e s ,  but  r e s t r a i n t .  academic  those  of  other  h a l f - d a y  f i n a n c i a l the  a  from  o f f i c i a l  enjoyed  improve  had  the  t h i r d  conforming  becoming  to  which  a l t e r e d  and  economics  able  economics  to  r e q u i r e s  Before home  the  academic  equal  system  to  c r e d i b i l i t y  before  her,  but  of  i n  t e a c h i n g .  Conclusions Between B r i t i s h  1903  Columbia McLenaghen  i t  p a r t  of  U n f o r t u n a t e l y d i s c a r d e d 1976).  m i l i e u .  The  p r e s s i n g  c l e a r  to  f o r  me  of  the  1960  and  importance now t h a t  as  i t  a of  was  S a i d a k ' s  s u b j e c t  f o r  of  home  b r i n g i n g Marion  l e g i t i m a t i o n .  economics  1960  meaning T a l b o t  has i n to  i n  the  were  (Sutherland,  s u b j e c t  of  because  E d u c a t i o n  economics  d e s c r i p t i o n  i n  package.  New  of  p r a c t i c a l  to  home  the  Commission 1991  s u r v i v a l ,  w i t h  e d u c a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n  ideas  Chant  economics  s t a t u s  p r o g r e s s i v e  the  Between  s t r u g g l i n g  as  many  home  d i r e c t l y  a c h i e v e d  the  a f t e r  1939  d e a l t  J e s s i e was  and  a g a i n an  d a i l y 1913.  been  academic l i f e It  " i n g r a i n e d  i s i s  147  ambivalence" viewed f o r  as  home  Saidak  of  p a r t  of  and  t h a t  t h e r e f o r e  h o u s e h o l d  l a b o r  development  and  v o c a t i o n a l They was  made f o r  study  or  her  " l i v i n g The  d a i l y To  own a  sense,  l i f e  answer moral l i f e " f o r  pudding" i t  t e c h n i c a l s t a n d a r d s .  warns  l a b o r  a  me  (1925)  standards  movement  means  i t  i s  n e c e s s a r y , Home  of  h e a l t h of  as  movement.  191).  p l a c e d  e x p r e s s e d  would  q u e s t i o n ,  "making which  l e g i t i m a t i n g  and  a  human  h e a l t h y ,  a  to  each of  the  the  p.  t h a t  home look  other  person  (Prenter, the  of  q u e s t i o n i n g  e d u c a t i o n . economics  l i k e k i n d  must  d i f f e r e n c e  In  the  of h i s  between 1923,  a  i f  e x p l o r e  d i f f e r e n c e  221).  p i t f a l l s  and  p r a c t i c a l  any  l i v i n g "  1986,  c u l t u r a l  e d u c a t i o n  i l l u s t r a t e s  without  as  assumption  e q u i v a l e n t  about  p. a  economics  l i f e .  (Shapiro, me  i s  home  " s o c i a l l y  (1987,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  i s  p a r t  What  t h i s  f o r  f e m i n i s t  n e c e s s a r y  (male)  was  the  of  t o g e t h e r ,  only.  of  knowledge  Report  customary  metaphor  " y e l l o w  as  t r u e  e d u c a t i o n  s c h o o l s  meaningful  v a l u e s a  the  ( i n c l u d i n g  females  of  study?  i n  Putman-Weir  as  p a r t  v a l u a b l e "  concerns)  s u c c e s s f u l  as  household  e d u c a t i o n  i s  p r o g r e s s i v e  viewed  economics  The  economics  the  economics  w r i t e s  s k i l l e d  home  p. i s  1)  .  the  p r a c t i c a l  emphasizing the  m o r a l i t y  of  those  148  Implications This  study  c u r r i c u l u m t e a c h e r s t h e i r  i m p l i c a t i o n s  d e v e l o p e r s  i n  own  has  B r i t i s h  and  f u t u r e  Columbia  p r a c t i c e s  through  p i o n e e r s .  One  b e l i e f  b r o a d e n i n g  and  i n c r e a s i n g  the  on  t a u g h t .  e f f e c t  S u p e r v i s o r  of  a r t i c u l a t e d c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t  c e n t r e " Annual  d a i l y  l i f e : the  (THESA),  which  F o r m e r l y  a  much  t e x t i l e - l a b e l l i n g  to  as  " c o -  a  s o c i a l  made  to  1988  on  of a  Home  b e h a l f  of  S p e c i a l i s t  expansion  of  meaning: home  students context  food  (VBST  the  Economics  s i m i l a r  Board  p a r t i c u l a r l y  s u b m i s s i o n i n  A l l e n ,  usage",  home  /  1936  A  wider  d i e t - c o n t r o l ,  the  l i f e "  Education  a  School  home  c a t e g o r i z e  i n  has Mabel  economics  "the  whether  s a t i s f y i n g  one  our  i s  Vancouver  and  economics  a  e n u n c i a t e d  today  home  i n  of  McKeand,  example,  u n i t s  economics  echoes  s u b j e c t s  customs  i n c r e a s e d  but  a n o r e x i a ,  on  have,  analyzed  of  group",  Teachers  c o u l d  be  the  home  I  t e a c h e r s ,  Home  other  For  a l l e g e d l y  s e w i n g " ;  t o p i c s  of  of  34).  Commission  to  for  " s o c i a l  as  and  number  made  economics  W i n n i f r e d  economics  f a m i l y  p.  Chapter  A s s o c i a t i o n  and  which  1936,  Royal  Quesnel  home  " a p p r e c i a t i o n  Report  content  "new"  w i t h i n  and  S u l l i v a n the  the  i s  needs  Economics  r e v i s i o n  to  o p e r a t i o n  Home  of  McLenaghen  t h a t  what  f i n d ,  those  Berry,  home  r e s e a r c h e r s .  may  E l i z a b e t h  genuine  J e s s i e  f o r  economics  s t i l l  l e a r n  r a n g i n g  a d d i t i v e s ,  s e x u a l i t y  e d u c a t i o n  as  " c o o k i n g  about  those  from  consumerism, and  use  of  149  f a m i l y  r e s o u r c e s .  McBurney, Home  of  a c c e p t a n c e  do  the  s t u d e n t s .  l i f e "  of  content  t h a t  times  Columbia.  Both  component of  i n  complex  p.  The  of  c o n t r i b u t e  s o c i a l  the to  a  f i n d  l a u d e d  to  the  > m e a n i n g f u l  the s t u d e n t s  (p.  f o r  748).  q u a n t i t y  the  a  Why  of  h e a l t h y  which  the  order"  a  a r t s  j u s t i f i e d i n  i n  a  (ARPS,  that system  new  and  the  statement: i s  p o t e n t i a l needed  which  1935-36,  from  p r o s p e r o u s  the  the  a t t i t u d e s  r e s u l t e d  s c h o o l  Commission  p r a c t i c a l  l i v i n g  a t t i t u d e s  and  a  and  i n d i v i d u a l  and  s o c i e t y  of  p a r a l l e l s  Columbia  s k i l l s  Both  B r i t i s h  agency  s k i l l s  economic  t h e i r  the  McLenaghen  s u c c e s s f u l  c l o s e l y  i n  Royal  f o r  i n c l u s i o n  " n e c e s s a r y  f o r  B r i t i s h  reform.  S u l l i v a n  J e s s i e  and  develop  s i m i l a r i t i e s  p r o s p e r i t y  statement  knowledge, to  how  more  c o n t e n t "  r e f e r  knowledge,  Commission  l e a r n e r s the  as  of  m i s s i o n  Royal  purpose  a r t s  n e c e s s a r y  extremely  w i t h  the  c u r r i c u l u m .  i n c r e a s i n g l y  S48).  and  r e l a t i v e  types  economics  c u r r i c u l u m  recommended  the  of  may  to  Survey  p r a c t i c a l  development  a c q u i r e  l e a d  of  &  q u a l i t y ?  d e v e l o p e r s  o c c u r r e d  i n  of  themselves  " e q u i p p i n g  s t i l l  School  enable  f o r  e d u c a t o r s  e v i d e n c e  Overgaard,  Mclenaghen  economics  Putman-Weir  "The  J e s s i e  economics  ask  home  them  as  S u l l i v a n  makes  "cramming  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  are  must  than  C u r r i c u l u m  p l a c e  t e a c h e r s  1941,  home  Oberg,  35)  content  In  r a t h e r  home  p.  economics  e n l a r g i n g f o r  1988,  ( R o b i t a i l l e ,  to and  to and  to  1  s u s t a i n a b l e 1989,  p.  economy  achievement  i n  of  both  a r t s  r e v i s i o n .  The  elementary  s c h o o l s  the  o c c u p i e s  w i t h  and  day  from  microwave  ovens,  c u l i n a r y  p u r p o r t s  to  Thompson home  the but  are  t a s k . . . I t  f a m i l i e s p r a c t i c e s p r o c e s s , the  have of who  f o r  l e a r n i n g ,  between  r o o t s .  why  an  e c o n o m i s t " , i n  toward  s u s t a i n a b l e  t h a t  the  s c h o o l  the  Ottawa  b e i n g  The  system  and  economists  choose  m e a n i n g f u l .  who  expediency of  a  energy"  s k i l l s  over  s u b j e c t  Cooley  promote  et  27).  of  are i s  i n  not  a  which The  product  e x p e r i e n c e ,  area a l .  of  r e s o u r c e s (p.  demand  s o c i e t y .  jeans  time  u s i n g  which  p a i r  conserve  the  t a u g h t  a to  of  f u r t h e r  at  "Sewing  means  and  home  they  a  9  i n  and  because  i s  of  than  everyday  r i p p e d  i n  c h i l d r e n  v a l u a b l e  up  1936,  c u r r i c u l u m  ages on  the  i n  economics  1990).  r e l e v a n t a  a  the  c h i l d r e n  weren't  to  as  technology  t o d a y ' s  they  i n  p r e s s i n g  R e c e n t l y of  1991,  demands  more  advanced  connected  e s p e c i a l l y  m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s  i n t e n s e l y  home  The  even  In  p o s i t i o n  i n c l u d e  suggested  i n v e s t e d home  be  ("Home  i s  has  c o u n t e r - e n t r o p i c : t r i v i a l  to  c l e a r l y  c h i l d r e n  asked  working  (1984)  to  adeptness  s k i l l s  be  economics  mandated  f a m i l i e s ,  s k i l l s  i s  c h a l l e n g i n g .  f a m i l y  p r a i s e d  everyday  a  w i t h  appear  economist  f o r  or  s m a l l e r  d i s t a n c i n g  b a s i c  framework  c i t i z e n s h i p .  o p p o r t u n i t y  a t t r a c t i v e  p r e s e n t  p a s t ,  A  i n s t a n c e s  r e s p o n s i b l e  p r a c t i c a l  i s  2000:  i ) .  E d u c a t i o n  13  (Year  over c o n t r i b u t e  to  which  s h o u l d  be  (1919)  warned  b e g i n n i n g  151  t e a c h e r s h u r r y that her  to  and of  making  a  the  may  be  outdated,  e x p e r i e n c e today  Home  and  p u r v e y o r s  of  importance  to  work  r e c o g n i z e d  as  r i d d i n g  e s s e n t i a l l y  the have  a  the  unique  example  314).  W h i l e  e d u c a t i o n i n  was f o r  i n t e r e s t e d  l i f e  to  i n  the  h e l p  the  a c t i v i t i e s  and  have  p a r t  It  i s  of  i s  g e n e r a l  important  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  f a m i l y .  not  s u p p o r t e r s B e i n g  to  be  that  a  to  be  as  of  female  the i n  a  f e m a l e -  d i s a d v a n t a g e .  women's  advantageous  s i t u a t i o n s  done  l e g i t i m a t e  unique  type  where  by  women  of  t h e i r  d e v e l o p i n g  t e a c h i n g  or  o c c u p a t i o n .  s u b j e c t s  f e m i n i n e ,  c a p a c i t y  of  a  i n g r e d i e n t s  more  (p.  h i s t o r y .  suggests  whether  c u r r i c u l u m .  m u f f i n  i n  a  sense  of  of  more  t e c h n i c a l  d e s t r u c t i v e .  domestic  and  and  ambiguous  be  T h e i r  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n  would  be  knowledge  (1982) a  aim  done  then.  i t s  does  the  g i r l s "  women's  home  Homemaking,  m a t e r i a l s  of  p r o f e s s i o n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  f o r  must  t i m e .  p a r t i c i p a t e  was  r e t a i n  the  c r e a t e s  approach  i t  t h i n g s  e v i d e n t l y  the  and  domestic  of  G i l l i g a n ' s e t h i c s  as  p a r t  o r d e r  o r i e n t e d  l i f e  of  of out  was  growth  economics  e d u c a t i o n i n  t e a c h e r  g e t t i n g  use  measured  i n  v a l i d  both  w i s e s t  who  "The  between  than  language c h i l d  the  t e a c h e r  s t u d e n t s :  m u f f i n s  as  d i s t i n g u i s h  methods,  men,  P u r v i s  "The  l i f e  s k i l l s  to  enable  both  taught and  i n  to  be  c a l l e d  as  t e a c h i n g  b r o a d e n i n g  boys  (1985)  d e f i n i t i o n  n o n - s e x i s t and  d e s e r v e s  the  home  g i r l s  content economics  to  leave  of  152  s c h o o l  e q u i p p e d  w i t h  the  p e r s o n a l  c o n f i d e n c e  and  independence  j i  to  p a r t i c i p a t e  environment"  f r e e l y  ( P u r v i s ,  t r a n s f o r m a t i v e v a l u a b l e  a s p i r a t i o n s .  1985,  p r a c t i c a l  v a l u e .  home  economics  i n  of  f a s h i o n .  f a m i l y  can  m a t t e r s ,  r a t h e r  from  i n  h i s t o r y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s 1) i n  Canadian home  e t h i c a l  than  f o r  e d u c a t i o n ,  and  of  home  r e c o g n i t i o n  i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l to  mind:  be Mary  I n s t i t u t e ; i n  i n  and  Twiss, and  a c h i e v e d  a c c e p t a n c e  a  p l a c e  f o r  was  too  c l o s e l y  t i e d  s u r v i v e  i t s  f a l l i n g  out  c h a l l e n g e s  and  about  Study  e d u c a t i o n  are  to  the  seek  o f f e r s  the  who  s e v e r a l  worked  an  women  i n  who  f o r  of  h e l d  i n ,  s t a r t e d  the  l e g i t i m a c y Many  t h i s  study  i m m e d i a t e l y  D i r e c t o r who  p i o n e e r s  i n t e r e s t  environment.  P r i n c i p a l  J u n i p e r  more  women  apparent  f i r s t  out  develop  f o r  Three  f i r s t  Annie  to  h o s t i l e  e x p l o r e d .  Watson,  Fannie  Saskatchewan;  o f t e n  c o n n e c t i o n s  f u r t h e r U r i e  a d m i r a t i o n  economics an  academic  study.  economics  and  i t s  academic  f o r Further  need  of,  to  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  economics  f u r t h e r  due  has  a c t i v i t y - m a k i n g .  economists  p r o f e s s i o n  beg  home  to  t h a t  to  t h e i r  economics  McLenaghen1s  home  a p p r e c i a t i o n  and  of  she  system  Recommendations The  so  i d e o l o g y  l e a r n  economics  than  over  are  promoted  d o i n g  s c h o o l  e d u c a t i o n  We  home  the  t h e s e  r a t h e r  In  c o n t r o l Home  but  McLenaghen  over  p r o g r e s s i v e  e x e r t p . 7 0 ) .  n a t u r e ,  J e s s i e  to  and  p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  p r a c t i c a l  reground  i n  and  come  to  Macdonald of  Home  Economics  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  153  home e c o n o m i c s p o s i t i o n s i n Nova S c o t i a , Quebec a n d M a n i t o b a as w e l l a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  What m o t i v a t e d  these  women?  What c a n we l e a r n a b o u t e a r l y home e c o n o m i s t s a n d e a r l y feminists 2)  f r o m them?  The. c o n t e n t i o n t h a t home e c o n o m i c s was i n s t i t u t e d t o  educate those standards  o f lower  and i n f e r i o r  n e e d s t o be s t u d i e d .  classes t o middle c l a s s  This claim jeopardizes t h e  o r i g i n a l m o r a l g r o u n d i n g o f home e c o n o m i c s p r o m o t e d b y M a r i o n Talbot  a n d A l i c e Chown among o t h e r s .  Philosophical writing  by M a r j o r i e Brown h a s a s s i s t e d home e c o n o m i s t s i n acknowledging t h e ideas o f t e a c h i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and teaching moral or r i g h t historical  study,  l i v i n g through those  particularly  skills.  i n Canada, i s needed t o  d e t e r m i n e i f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t was s i m i l a r a c r o s s 3)  Do p r a c t i c a l  subjects achieve  t h a n academic ones? specifically examination education  Goodson's  s t a t u s on a d i f f e r e n t  (1983) t y p o l o g y  subjects  or i n d u s t r i a l education,  subject typology  strengthen  basis  relates  such as  a specific  By  technology  practical  may be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y .  I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f such questions to  the country.  t o t h e acceptance o f academic s u b j e c t s . of other p r a c t i c a l  More  offers the opportunity  a n d e n h a n c e t h e p o s i t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s a s a  legitimate practical  subject  and promote b e t t e r  about i t s p o s i t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n .  understanding  C o n t i n u a l d i s c o u r s e and  r e f l e c t i o n want  to  i s  mandatory;  i n t e r p r e t  economics.  and  i t  i s  r e i n v e n t  an  a s s e t ,  o n e ' s  own  not  a  meaning  l i a b i l i t y , of  home  155  References A  wide-awake 14 (2),  A l l e n ,  M a b e l . Teacher,  A l l e s t e r , Home B.C.  c o n v e n t i o n 75-77.  15  (1936). (7),  (1900).  O b j e c t i v e s 5 4 - 5 5 .  of  K i t c h e n  home  Magazine.  e c o n o m i c s .  B.C.  W. V . (1969). 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