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Municipal regulation of home-based work Dmitrasinovic, Alexandra Katarina 1991

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MUNICIPAL REGULATION OF HOME-BASED  WORK  by ALEXANDRA KATARINA  DMITRASINOVIC  B . A . ( F i n e A r t s ) , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  MASTER OF  OF  ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL  W e accept this thesis as  PLANNING  conforming  to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  O c t o b e r 1991 ® Alexandra Katarina Dmitrasinovic,  1991  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for an  advanced  degree at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e it freely  available  for  reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t  permission  extensive c o p y i n g of this thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes m a y be g r a n t e d b y t h e of m y D e p a r t m e n t , or by his or her representatives.  for Head  It is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n permission.  S c h o o l of C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver, B C Canada  7th October  1991  ii ABSTRACT T h e h o m e has b e c o m e  a c o m m o n w o r k place.  Yet municipal planning,  w h i c h is b a s e d o n the p r i n c i p l e of s e p a r a t i n g homes f r o m c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , does n o t recognize t h e prevalence of h o m e - b a s e d  work.  Zoning bylaw  p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h g o v e r n h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s are c l e a r l y o u t d a t e d , a n d r e v i s i n g t h e m i n v o l v e s a r e a p p r a i s a l of c u r r e n t  conventions regarding neighbourhood  land  use  planning. R e a s o n s for the g r o w i n g interest i n the concept of w o r k i n g at h o m e i n c l u d e t h e p o t e n t i a l freedom of self-regulated w o r k a n d the f l e x i b i l i t y to a c c o m m o d a t e n o n w o r k r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s , p e r h a p s c o m b i n e d w i t h the i n d e p e n d e n c e of selfemployment. which  have  O t h e r factors i n c l u d e changes i n e m p l o y m e n t a n d business c o n d i t i o n s l e d to  the g r o w t h  in part-time  work, multiple jobs, and  c o n t r a c t i n g of c o r p o r a t e services p r e v i o u s l y done in-house.  the  sub-  W i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e of  t h e e c o n o m y s h i f t i n g i n e m p h a s i s f r o m i n d u s t r i a l to service sectors, a n d f r o m goods to  knowledge-based  telecommunications Inexpensive  services, technology  microcomputers,  advances have  in  facilitated  facsimile  electronic the  machines,  e q u i v a l e n t facilities i n - h o m e as i n c o n v e n t i o n a l offices.  equipment  decentralization etc.,  afford  of  and work.  homeworkers  E s t i m a t e s of t h e size of the  h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force v a r y w i d e l y due t o d e f i n i t i o n a l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n i d e n t i f y i n g a n d c a t e g o r i z i n g the v a r i o u s types of h o m e w o r k e r s .  H o w e v e r , the  consensus i n the l i t e r a t u r e is t h a t the n u m b e r of h o m e w o r k e r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a is substantial and increasing. T w o a p p r o a c h e s were t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e l a n d use p l a n n i n g a n d r e g u l a t i o n in relation to home-based work.  T h e l i t e r a t u r e review synthesizes A m e r i c a n a n d  B r i t i s h sources a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y since C a n a d i a n p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e subject is l i m i t e d .  It s h o w s t h a t some j u r i s d i c t i o n s h a v e m o v e d b e y o n d r e c o g n i t i o n of  iii h o m e - b a s e d w o r k to encourage i t , often as p a r t of a n effort to reduce a u t o m o b i l e use.  In a d d i t i o n , h o m e businesses  expand  employment  c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of e c o n o m i c development, strategies.  opportunities  and  are  In z o n i n g t e r m s , this has  been m a n i f e s t e d i n m o v i n g f r o m e n u m e r a t i n g p e r m i t t e d a n d p r o h i b i t e d types of home-based  work  occupations.  to  outlining  performance  standards  imposed  on  all  home  F o c u s s i n g on several m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r area,  the other i m p o r t a n t source of d a t a comes f r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n i n g officials a n d reviews of c u r r e n t policies a n d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n l o c a l bylaws.  zoning  A m o n g t h e selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , few interviewees h a v e r e c o g n i z e d the  social a n d e c o n o m i c benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k , a n d m a n y refuse to q u e s t i o n t h e long-held  p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e of s p a t i a l l y - s e p a r a t e d  land  uses.  Many  land  use  p l a n n e r s seem u n a w a r e of changes i n society w h i c h are affecting the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the h o m e a n d w o r k place. G e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s d e a l w i t h the d i s c r e p a n c i e s a m o n g c u r r e n t e c o n o m i c , social, a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l realities, p l a n n e r s ' r h e t o r i c a b o u t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , a n d land  use  regulations  which  affect  home-based  work.  Specific  policy  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o u t l i n e h o w z o n i n g b y l a w s r e g u l a t i n g the h o m e w o r k sector need to be r e v i s e d .  IV TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF T A B L E S  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION S o c i e t a l changes R e g u l a t i o n a n d enforcement  vii 1 2 3  CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ON HOME-BASED WORK Introduction Segment size I n f l u e n t i a l factors Corporate restructuring E m e r g i n g service sector Technological advancements R i s e of t h e s m a l l business sector G o v e r n m e n t a l support W o m e n i n the w o r k force E m p l o y m e n t flexibility Q u a l i t y of life Summary  5 5 6 10 10 12 13 15 16 18 21 22 23  CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF PLANNING LITERATURE Introduction Regulatory literature A d v a n t a g e s of i n t e g r a t i n g h o m e a n d w o r k place P l a n n i n g issues C o n f l i c t over n e i g h b o u r h o o d values S t r a i n o n m u n i c i p a l services T a x loss a n d unfair c o m p e t i t i o n M u n i c i p a l regulations Official p l a n Zoning bylaw Performance standards E x t e r n a l effects I n t e n s i t y of use Traffic a n d p a r k i n g N u i s a n c e aspects a n d use of e q u i p m e n t Licensing H o m e w o r k e r s ' perspective Enforcement Review underway Summary  25 25 25 26 28 28 29 30 30 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 37 38 41  V CHAPTER FOUR: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Introduction E x t e n t , n a t u r e , a n d significance of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s N u m b e r of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s C h a n g i n g n a t u r e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s S i g n i f i c a n c e of h o m e e m p l o y m e n t P l a n n i n g issues M e t h o d s of r e g u l a t i o n Occupational limitations U s e of performance s t a n d a r d s R e g u l a t o r y approaches Control Accommodate Tolerate Enforcement A d e q u a c y of regulations Summary  43 43 44 • 45 45 46 48 48 50 52 56 56 58 59 61 63 64  C H A P T E R FIVE: CONCLUSIONS A N D RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction R e - e x a m i n a t i o n of z o n i n g Benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k Regulatory amendments Recommendations on regulations C o n c l u d i n g remarks  66 66 66 68 69 72 76  BIBLIOGRAPHY  78  APPENDIX A L i s t of I n f o r m a n t s  88  APPENDIX B Q u e s t i o n s u s e d to guide d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n f o r m a n t s  89  VI LIST O F T A B L E S T a b l e 1:  O v e r v i e w of i n f o r m a n t s ' c o m m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e age a n d design of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s  49  T a b l e 2: P e r m i t t e d a n d p r o h i b i t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d i n z o n i n g b y l a w s  51  T a b l e 3: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - e x t e r n a l effects  52  T a b l e 4: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - i n t e n s i t y of use  54  T a b l e 5: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - traffic, a n d p a r k i n g  55  T a b l e 6: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - n u i s a n c e aspects a n d use of e q u i p m e n t  56  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT O n c o m p l e t i o n of m y thesis, I gratefully a c k n o w l e d g e : t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t of m y  close friends  and wonderful family,  p a r t i c u l a r l y m y M u m w h o kept  me  s u p p l i e d w i t h h o m e b a k i n g ; the c o m p a n i o n s h i p of m y cat w h o r e c l i n e d o n m y desk e v e r y d a y t h r o u g h o u t this s o m e w h a t s o l i t a r y j o u r n e y ; a n d the i n v a l u a b l e assistance of m y long-suffering spouse, wizardry  greatly  assisted  M i k e G a g e l , whose r e a d i n g of drafts  i n p r o d u c i n g this  document.  I would  and  computer  l i k e to  thank  D r . P e n n y G u r s t e i n for her c o m m e n t s o n the f i n a l draft of the thesis, a n d e x t e n d a special  appreciation  encouragement  to  D r . H e n r y C . H i g h t o w e r for  throughout  his  continued  support  and  the P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m ; his w i s d o m a n d d e d i c a t i o n to  p l a n n i n g m a d e h i m a n excellent a c a d e m i c a n d thesis a d v i s o r .  1 C H A P T E R ONE: In recent  INTRODUCTION  years, m a n y b o o k s , articles, a n d  conference papers  w r i t t e n a b o u t the future of w o r k i n p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l society.  have  been  Several authors  have  addressed t h e p r o f o u n d e c o n o m i c changes, s o c i a l forces, d e m o g r a p h i c t r e n d s ,  and  technological  and  advances  d i s t r i b u t i o n of j o b s .  which  have  affected  the  design, structure,  nature,  O u t of necessity a n d interest, " n e w p a t t e r n s of w o r k " ( H a n d y ,  1984, p . i x ) are o c c u r r i n g . M a n y are " e m b r y o n i c trends w h i c h are l i k e l y to b e c o m e a c c e p t e d a n d c o m m o n p l a c e o p t i o n s i n b o t h w o r k i n g careers a n d w o r k o r g a n i z a t i o n " ( C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985a, p . x i ) . T h i s thesis e x a m i n e s a n "emerging w o r k o p t i o n , " h o m e based w o r k " , from an u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d m u n i c i p a l regulatory perspective. Considerable "accessory  use  of  interest the  i n home-based  dwelling  unit  for  work  or  gainful  "home  occupations",  employment  involving  the the  m a n u f a c t u r e , p r o v i s i o n or sale of goods a n d / o r services" ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 7), has g i v e n rise to n u m e r o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s . "how-to"  books popularize the  A n e c d o t a l articles i n p o p u l a r m a g a z i n e s a n d  v i e w of h o m e - b a s e d  opportunity w i t h work autonomy, flexibility  w o r k as offering  and minimal  financial  unlimited  investment -  e n t i c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o w o r k f r o m h o m e i n t h e i r o w n h o m e - b a s e d businesses.  In  t e r m s of s c h o l a r l y research a n d s t u d y , scattered c o n t r i b u t i o n s by w r i t e r s , a c a d e m i c s a n d c o n s u l t a n t s c o m p r i s e t h e a c a d e m i c , p u b l i c p o l i c y a n d business l i t e r a t u r e o n home-based work.  T h e extent of this l i t e r a t u r e c a n be l i k e n e d to t h a t of t e l e w o r k ,  w h i c h H u w s et a l . c a l l e d :  a m o t l e y c o l l e c t i o n , i n w h i c h the s l i g h t a n d s e n s a t i o n a l r u b s shoulders w i t h t h e serious a n d s c h o l a r l y , w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l a n e c d o t e c l a i m s e q u a l status w i t h b r o a d s u r v e y (1990, p . x v ) .  2 Societal changes R e n e w e d interest changes  i n home-based  in contemporary  society.  w o r k has been s t i m u l a t e d by significant  C h a p t e r 2 of this thesis reviews the  literature  w h i c h addresses the extent, n a t u r e a n d p o t e n t i a l significance of h o m e - b a s e d a n d identifies the factors  i n f l u e n c i n g its a d o p t i o n as a w o r k o p t i o n .  work  Structural  changes i n t h e e c o n o m y (i.e., g r o w t h of the service sector assisted b y t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s ) , c o r p o r a t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d changes i n employment, c o n d i t i o n s , w o r k force d e m o g r a p h i c s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d w o r k a n d leisure h a v e p r e c i p i t a t e d the rise i n i m p o r t a n c e of the s m a l l business sector a n d h a v e l e d t o the b o o m i n the business sector w h i c h exists o n the  "respectable"  fringe b e t w e e n  home  the f o r m a l a n d  i n f o r m a l economies ( H a n d y , 1984). I n c r e a s i n g l y , m a n y people are c h o o s i n g or are h a v i n g to create t h e i r o w n jobs  which  often  take  originate in the home.  the  f o r m of free-lance  w o r k or  s m a l l businesses  A s s i s t i n g m a n y of those w h o create p r o d u c t s  or  which render  services are e l e c t r o n i c office devices a n d advances i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h are also e n a b l i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l b u t f a s t - g r o w i n g segment of the b a s e d w o r k force ( " t e l e c o m m u t e r s " ) to t h e h o m e . they  are  not  homeworkers  home-  to shift a l l or p a r t of t h e i r j o b s f r o m the office  W h i l e " h o m e w o r k e r s " are l a b e l l e d b y the l o c a t i o n of t h e i r w o r k p l a c e , a homogeneous vary  group;  in employment  involved  status  and  i n a w i d e r a n g e of work  situation.  occupations,  Such  self-  or  c o r p o r a t e - e m p l o y e d workers are i n v o l v e d either p a r t - t i m e or f u l l - t i m e i n the homebased  economic activity from which  they  d e r i v e t h e i r p r i m a r y or  supplemental  income. O b s e r v e r s speculate a b o u t the significance of h o m e - b a s e d  w o r k as a l o n g -  t e r m e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d since the a c t u a l profile of the p h e n o m e n o n is b l u r r e d due t o i n a d e q u a t e s t a t i s t i c a l sources a n d l i m i t e d research o n the subject.  However, with  3 the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of w o r k , i.e., i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d for p e r s o n a l a n d k n o w l e d g e b a s e d services, the "cottage i n d u s t r y " is m a k i n g a c o m e b a c k a n d b e c o m i n g a m o r e v i s i b l e feature of the e c o n o m y .  C o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h is a n t i c i p a t e d i n the m o v e m e n t  throughout  the  1990s a n d b e y o n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d  businesses.  I n 1989, i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1 5 % of the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o r k force  o p e r a t e d o u t of the h o m e , w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t i n g t h a t percentage to d o u b l e b y the year 2000 ( H o m e - b a s e d businesses, 1989). Regulation and enforcement D e s p i t e consensus  t h a t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s are  " l i k e l y to b e c o m e a  more  c o m m o n feature of the u r b a n f a b r i c " ( O n t a r i o , 1987, p . 26), r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research has  been  conducted  on  the  public  policy  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  home-based  work.  C h a p t e r 3 discusses the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h generally focuses o n the m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . A s h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e m o r e p r e v a l e n t , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e a m e n d e d t h e i r z o n i n g b y l a w s w h i c h g o v e r n l a n d use to accommodate  people  municipalities  have  engaged neglected  in to  home  business  review their  ventures.  outdated,  However,  confusing, and  other biased  r e s t r i c t i o n s o n the use of space i n t h e h o m e , e m p l o y e e s , sales, storage, a d v e r t i s i n g , a n d traffic, etc., w h i c h often i n h i b i t t h e g r o w t h of l e g i t i m a t e h o m e - b a s e d businesses, r e s u l t i n g i n m a n y h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s o p e r a t i n g t h e i r businesses i l l e g a l l y . some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are home occupations  and  presently  e x p e r i e n c i n g difficulty  i n enforcing relevant  regulations.  Hence,  i n monitoring existing Generally,  municipal  r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to g u i d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s d o not s u p p o r t the new interest i n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k . I n d e e d , l o c a l m u n i c i p a l l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s reflect a lack of r e c o g n i t i o n of c o n t e m p o r a r y realities a b o u t h o m e - b a s e d w o r k .  C h a p t e r 4 is a c o m p i l a t i o n of d a t a  o b t a i n e d f r o m meetings h e l d w i t h seven senior a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d p l a n n e r s w h o s e  4 w o r k i n v o l v e s t h e r e g u l a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r area. understanding with  an  T h e v a r i e t y of r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h e s used a n d levels of  a b o u t the w o r k - a t - h o m e p h e n o m e n o n  analysis  of l o c a l  zoning bylaws  whose  are discussed i n c o n j u n c t i o n  adequacy  in  regulating  home  o c c u p a t i o n s is c r i t i q u e d . H o m e occupations they  offer  community.  significant  are g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d n e g a t i v e l y b y p l a n n e r s ;  social  and  economic  benefits  to  the  however,  homeworker  C h a p t e r 5 concludes this thesis by d i s c u s s i n g the p l a n n e r ' s  and  role i n  d e v e l o p i n g l a n d use policies a n d d e s i g n i n g r e g u l a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h  support  t h e g r o w i n g p r e v a l e n c e of h o m e - b a s e d  effective  management offered.  of h o m e  occupations  work.  R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for the  ( i n c l u d i n g the  design of z o n i n g b y l a w s )  are  5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ON HOME-BASED  WORK  Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r takes t h e f o r m of a n e x t e n d e d l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a n d addresses t h e extent, n a t u r e , a n d significance of the h o m e - b a s e d business p h e n o m e n o n i n the c o n t e x t of i n t e r a c t i n g e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , d e m o g r a p h i c , a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l forces w h i c h are i n f l u e n c i n g the a d o p t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k i n general.  D a t a f r o m a v a r i e t y of  sources i n d i c a t e t h a t w o r k i n g at h o m e emerged as a significant t r e n d a m o n g b o t h self-employed 1989;  and  salaried w o r k e r s d u r i n g the  P r a t t , 1987a; S m i t h , 1987).  home-based  work  force  which  1980s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( B a c o n ,  A n a l y s t s expect c o n t i n u e d s t e a d y g r o w t h i n the is  composed  of:  self-employed  entrepreneurs;  i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r s (or "free-lancers") i n h i g h s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s i n the service sector; piece-rate m a n u f a c t u r e r s (or " o u t w o r k e r s " ) ; a n d s a l a r i e d c o m p a n y employees w h o w o r k at h o m e o n or off c o m p a n y t i m e ( " t e l e w o r k e r s " ) ( B a c o n , 1989; S t a n w o r t h a n d S t a n w o r t h , 1989).  H o w e v e r , m u c h of t h e research  h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e , a n d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e serious  research  on home-based has  been  w o r k is  conducted  on  h o m e - b a s e d businesses, the fastest-growing s u b - c a t e g o r y of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k ( C u U y - G a m , 1989).  Sources used are a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y A m e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h due to  t h e l i m i t e d a m o u n t of C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e o n the subject. W h i l e i m p o r t a n t , v a r i o u s o t h e r aspects of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k are t a n g e n t i a l t o t h i s thesis a n d are not discussed, s u c h as: w o r k ( B o r i s , 1988; B o r i s a n d  t h e h i s t o r y of i n d u s t r i a l h o m e - b a s e d  D a n i e l s , 1989); e m p l o y m e n t  standards (Boris and  D a n i e l s , 1989; N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1985); c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h o m e w o r k e r s or t h e i r w o r k m o t i v a t i o n s ( A m b r y , 1988; B a c o n , 1989; D y k e m a n , 1989; H a k i m , 1987); or the p s y c h o - s o c i a l benefits a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s s o c i o - s p a t i a l consequences  of the h o m e - b a s e d  lifestyle or its  o n either the self-employed or t e l e c o m m u t i n g e m p l o y e e  6 a n d t h e i r families ( A h r e n t z e n , 1989; B e a c h , 1989; C h r i s t e n s e n ,  1985; K i n s m a n ,  1987; R a m s o w e r , 1985; S a l o m o n a n d S a l o m o n , 1984; S h a m i r a n d S a l o m o n , 1985).  Segment size The interlocked  variability problems  i n home-based of t e r m i n o l o g y  employment (i.e.,  the  estimates  use  of  results  diverse  from  the  definitions  of  homeworking) a n d from methodological problems i n identifying a n d characterizing home-based  workers ( H a k i m ,  1984a; H o r v a t h , 1986; K r a u t , 1988; P r a t t ,  1987b).  B o t h c o n s e r v a t i v e a n d o v e r l y - o p t i m i s t i c speculators h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e current  number  development difficult  of businesses  o p e r a t i n g f r o m homes  of the work-at-home  t o define,  a n d even  trend.  a n d to forecast  However, homework  small adjustments  interchangeably i n the literature) is: either  exclusively i n the home  employment  future  is n o t o r i o u s l y  to the definition adopted  d r a m a t i c a l l y affect a n y estimates p r o d u c e d ( H a k i m , 1987). w h i c h c a p t u r e s t h e e n t i r e t y of " h o m e - b a s e d  the  can  A compiled definition  w o r k " or " h o m e w o r k "  (terms  used  a n y p a r t - t i m e or f u l l - t i m e p a i d w o r k done  o r based  o u t of t h e h o m e ,  s t a t u s of the w o r k e r ( C h r i s t e n s e n ,  regardless  1988b) w h o p r o d u c e s  of t h e  goods or  services ( K r a u t , 1988) a n d is referred t o as a " h o m e w o r k e r " , " h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r " , " h o m e - b a s e d e n t r e p r e n e u r " , etc. D e p e n d i n g u p o n the inclusiveness of the d e f i n i t i o n u s e d for " w o r k - a t - h o m e " ( H a k i m , 1984b; K r a u t , 1988), estimates o f t h e n u m b e r of h o m e w o r k e r s v a r y w i d e l y , a n d r a n g e f r o m 8 t o 2 3 % o f t h e U n i t e d States w o r k force ( P r a t t , 1987b). L o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a o n t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f h o m e - b a s e d w o r k are n o t c o n c l u s i v e , a n d s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t trends are difficult t o i d e n t i f y .  Researchers g e n e r a l l y disclose  t h e results of s u r v e y s a n d offer s o m e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a t h a t is a v a i l a b l e ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b; H o r v a t h , 1986; K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h , 1987).  Often  frustrated  w i t h the " m u d d l e o f i n c o m p a t i b l e d a t a " ( P r a t t , 1987b, p . 50) t h a t s u r v e y s p r o d u c e ,  7 researchers experience difficulty i n e s t i m a t i n g the n u m b e r s  comprising particular  sub-sets of the h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force (e.g., h o m e - b a s e d businesses) f r o m aggregate data.  T h e size a n d  impact  of the  work-at-home  movement  h a v e been  largely  o v e r l o o k e d , often because h o m e - b a s e d businesses h a v e been " l u m p e d " together w i t h other types of h o m e w o r k or a l l s m a l l businesses (Orser, 1991; W o l f g r a m , 1984). Most  quantitative  research  o n h o m e w o r k is based  on  "benchmark  data"  s u p p l i e d b y large surveys c o n d u c t e d i n the early 1980s i n the U . S . ( H o r v a t h , 1986; K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h , 1987). l i v i n g , s u r v e y questions  P h r a s e d to m a t c h " t r a d i t i o n a l " w a y s of w o r k i n g a n d  do not take into account  e v o l v i n g definitions of " w o r k "  a r i s i n g f r o m c h a n g i n g w o r k p a t t e r n s a n d l a b o u r force a r r a n g e m e n t s ( K r a u t G r a m b s c h , 1987; P r a t t , 1987b).  and  K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h (1987) a n a l y z e d the d a t a o n  p l a c e of w o r k f r o m the 1980 U . S . C e n s u s a n d f o u n d 2.2  m i l l i o n people w o r k e d  e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m h o m e , 1.2 m i l l i o n of w h o m were self-employed.  (Homeworkers  were i d e n t i f i e d i f t h e y i n d i c a t e d o n a "means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to w o r k " q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e y w o r k e d at h o m e as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l p l a c e of w o r k . )  E x p e r t s agree t h a t the  figures were t o o l o w ; m a n y p e o p l e were u n w i l l i n g to report t h a t t h e y w o r k e d at h o m e or were confused a b o u t w h a t c o n s t i t u t e d w o r k at h o m e (Herbers, 1986). T h e h o m e - b a s e d subsector of the w o r k force is difficult t o s u r v e y d u e to its i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e a n d obscure n a t u r e -  a g r o w i n g , heterogeneous, s h i f t i n g p o p u l a t i o n of e m p l o y e e s , m o o n l i g h t e r s , a n d business operators [who] at different times i n t h e i r lives, w o r k at h o m e , p a r t time or full-time, overtime, intermittently and seasonally ( P r a t t , 1987b, p . 53).  M e a s u r e m e n t challenges i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n arise f r o m d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , measurement  of a c h a n g i n g p o p u l a t i o n , u n d e r c o u n t s of segments of the w o r k force,  a n d possible h i g h non-response  rates ( P r a t t ,  1987b).  A s a result,  comparisons  8 b e t w e e n surveys c a r r i e d out at different times a n d for different purposes c o n f l i c t i n g reports  of t r e n d s i n h o m e - b a s e d  w h e n the  sources  a n d v a r i e t y of c r i t e r i a b e h i n d the  compared  (Pratt,  1987b).  Definitional  produce  w o r k , w h i c h s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g  differences  c o l l e c t i o n of the  between  surveys  data  means  are that  e q u i v a l e n t segments of the diverse h o m e - b a s e d p o p u l a t i o n are n o t i d e n t i f i e d ( P r a t t , 1987b).  Each  s u r v e y counts  different  subsets of the  work-at-home  population  ( P r a t t , 1987b), a n d characterizes t h e m a c c o r d i n g to e m p l o y m e n t status (e.g., wage and  salary, s e l f - e m p l o y e d , a n d  unpaid family  w o r k e r s ) or classifies t h e i r  r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a l categories  or i n d u s t r y , w h i c h  workhinders  c o m p a r i s o n a n d produces inconsistencies i n the figures w h i c h researchers derive. Estimates valuable data, corporations  available from  but  due  [Bailyn,  secondary  to t h e i r  1988]  or  small  sources  sample  magazine  and  sizes  subscribers  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h e i r f i n d i n g s is q u e s t i o n a b l e .  private  studies  produce  (e.g., s a m p l i n g of [Christensen,  selected  1988c]),  the  P r a t t (1987b) notes t h a t too m a n y  of the w o r k - a t - h o m e estimates q u o t e d i n the m e d i a are e d u c a t e d f r o m sources t h a t are u n a v a i l a b l e t o verify m e t h o d o l o g y .  guesses, or  are  S o m e estimates are based  o n p r o p r i e t a r y sources t h a t are n o t g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e , s u c h as t h e 1982 A m e r i c a n T e l e p h o n e a n d T e l e g r a p h m a r k e t i n g s t u d y w h i c h e s t i m a t e d t h a t a staggering m i l l i o n people  (including moonlighters  [who operate 'side' businesses  from  23  their  homes] a n d v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s ) , p e r f o r m e d j o b - r e l a t e d , i n c o m e - p r o d u c i n g w o r k at home, representing  2 3 % of the U . S . l a b o u r force, of w h i c h 7 m i l l i o n are i n  the  " b u s i n e s s - a t - h o m e " sector ( P r a t t , 1987b). A somewhat May  1985  Current  s m a l l e r e s t i m a t e of t h e h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force is based o n a P o p u l a t i o n S u r v e y b y the  U . S . B u r e a u of L a b o r  Statistics.  R e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t there were n e a r l y 18 m i l l i o n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s ; of these, 8.4 m i l l i o n p e o p l e w o r k e d at h o m e for 8 h o u r s or m o r e per week as p a r t or e x t e n s i o n of  9 their  primary,  non-farm  (unincorporated),  job.  employees  O f this  figure,  3.6  million  of t h e i r o w n c o r p o r a t i o n s  were  self-employed  ( i n c o r p o r a t e d ) , or u n p a i d  f a m i l y w o r k e r s ( P r a t t , 1987b). Expecting home-based  continued growth, L I N K ,  w o r k trends,  estimated  a market-research  that the  firm which  w o r k - a t - h o m e segment  l a b o u r force has been e x p a n d i n g b y 7 to 9% y e a r l y since 1987.  tracks  of the U . S .  The  segment,  e s t i m a t e d at 26.6 m i l l i o n A m e r i c a n s engaged i n j o b - r e l a t e d w o r k at h o m e at least part, of the t i m e i n 1989, is e x p e c t e d (Bacon,  1989).  Although many  to e n c o m p a s s  31 m i l l i o n people b y  are f u l l - t i m e employees  (5.5 m i l l i o n ) w h o  formal arrangements w i t h their corporate  e m p l o y e r s to w o r k at  growth  from  in  home-based  work  has  come  1992  entrepreneurs  had  h o m e , the  setting  up  real small  businesses, of w h i c h there were 13.1 m i l l i o n i n 1989 (de S a n t i s , 1989). R e s e a r c h results h a v e s h o w n t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n (50 to 70%) of homeworkers  operate  their  o w n home-based  businesses  or  "cottage  industries"  ( B a c o n , 1989; H o r v a t h , 1986), a n d s u c h e n t r e p r e n e u r s represent b e t w e e n 9 a n d 1 3 % of t h e t o t a l e m p l o y e d p o p u l a t i o n ( D y k e m a n , 1989; Orser, 1991).  Few Canadian  statistics o n t h i s segment are a v a i l a b l e ( O r s e r , 1991) since neither S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a n o r the C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d of C a n a d a keep records o n the n u m b e r of C a n a d i a n s w h o w o r k at h o m e (de S a n t i s , 1989); h o w e v e r , a n e s t i m a t e d  2 0 % of the l a b o u r force  w o r k o u t of t h e i r houses, w i t h forecasts t h a t b y the year 2000, u p to' 4 0 % of t h e l a b o u r force, m o s t l y self-employed people, w i l l be w o r k i n g at h o m e ( K u c h a r s k y , 1990).  A conservative estimate  home-based  businesses  b y the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t  is easily o v e r s h a d o w e d  of 130,000  b y p r i v a t e guesses w h i c h peg  n u m b e r as h i g h as 280,000 ( H o m e - b a s e d businesses, 1989).  the  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 12,000  to 15,000 h o m e businesses start u p e a c h year i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( D y k e m a n , 1989).  10 D e s p i t e s i g n i f i c a n t research o n h o m e w o r k i n g b y B r i t i s h researchers s u c h as H a k i m , l i t t l e research has been c o n d u c t e d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of h o m e w o r k e r s w h o are p r o p r i e t o r s , or on the p r o p o r t i o n of s m a l l businesses w h i c h are h o m e - b a s e d ( H u w s et a l . , 1990).  Q u a n t i t a t i v e estimates of t h e g r o w t h of s m a l l  businesses are also rare, due to p r o b l e m s of d e f i n i t i o n a n d because of the existence of a t h r i v i n g u n d e r g r o u n d e c o n o m y ( H u w s et a l . , 1990).  C a n a d i a n researcher O r s e r  also notes t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t " d a t a g a p s " exist i n the h o m e - b a s e d business a n d selfe m p l o y m e n t fields of research due to  d e f i n i t i o n a l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s of research, ...[the] l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n a n d s u p p o r t of these s m a l l businesses b y researchers a n d government policy m a k e r s , a n o b s c u r e d w o r k force...often r e l u c t a n t to reveal i n f o r m a t i o n to researchers, a n d . . . t h e r e l a t i v e i n f a n c y of the i n d e p e n d e n t , p r o f i t a b l e home-based business (1990, p . 1).  W h a t e v e r the  differences  i n exact estimates of the e x t e n t  of  home-based  e m p l o y m e n t or s m a l l businesses b a s e d i n the h o m e i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y , there is a clear consensus i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t b o t h are f l o u r i s h i n g , w i t h further g r o w t h i n d i c a t e d ( H u w s et a l . , 1990; P r a t t , 1987a). Influential factors T h e increased v i s i b i l i t y a n d c o m m e r c i a l c r e d i b i l i t y of h o m e - b a s e d reflect  the  interaction  of m a c r o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  forces  and  numerous  businesses situational  factors w h i c h influence the a d o p t i o n of this w o r k o p t i o n ( D o n n i s o n , 1985; O r s e r , 1991). Corporate restructuring  times  H o m e - b a s e d enterprise  c a n be seen as a b y - p r o d u c t of c h a n g i n g e c o n o m i c  (Orser,  combination  1991).  The  of  corporate  restructuring  and  high  11 u n e m p l o y m e n t h a v e created a " p u s h " t o s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t , w i t h d e m a n d for c o n t r a c t services " p u l l i n g " i n n o v a t o r s i n t o the s m a l l business sector ( H u w s et a l . , 1990).  A lot of people h a v e been d r i v e n out of their f u l l - t i m e j o b s a n d are t r y i n g to start s o m e t h i n g u p , p e r h a p s i n a n e w k i n d of business, a n d t h e y do t e n d to start it u p at h o m e ( M o w b r a y , 1986, p . 54).  M a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c i n g difficult}^ i n a d a p t i n g to r a p i d economic, and  technological  change,  restructuring programmes  have  been  obliged  to  embark  on  organizational  (or " d o w n s i z i n g " ) t o cope w i t h business  uncertainties.  T o i m p r o v e t h e i r i n t e r n a l f l e x i b i l i t y a n d cost-effectiveness, c o m p a n i e s h a v e c h a n g e d the w a y i n w h i c h t h e y e m p l o y , o r g a n i z e , a n d develop h u m a n resources ( C r o s s , 1985; H a n d y , 1984; L o z a n o , 1989; P r a t t , 1987a).  A s a result, there has been a n increase  i n t h e s u b - c o n t r a c t i n g of a w i d e r a n g e of services w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y been c a r r i e d o u t in-house ( B a i l y n , 1988; C l a r k , 1982; H u w s et a l . , 1990; W a l s h , 1990).  Fewer  s a l a r i e d m a n a g e r i a l employees are b e i n g h i r e d a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s are securing o u t p u t t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t e d w o r k r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l free-lancers a n d  independent  s m a l l businesses, p r o d u c i n g a m o r e flexible, v a r i a b l e - c o s t , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l w o r k force of core a n d p e r i p h e r a l workers w h i c h c a n e x p a n d a n d c o n t r a c t w i t h f l u c t u a t i n g w o r k l o a d s ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b; H u w s et a l . , 1990; P r a t t , 1987a).  M u c h white-collar  w o r k (professional, m a n a g e r i a l , c l e r i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d sales [ B a i l y n , 1988]) i n t h e k n o w l e d g e - b a s e d e c o n o m y (where i n f o r m a t i o n is generated or collected, a n a l y z e d , a n d e x c h a n g e d ) c a n be easily a c c o m m o d a t e d at remote w o r k sites b y the g r o w i n g number  of " c o n t i n g e n t  workers".  These  autonomous  and  mobile  "knowledge  w o r k e r s " (Orser, 1991), free-lancers, or c o n s u l t a n t s , i n contrast to the core r i n g of f u l l - t i m e wage a n d salaried e m p l o y e e s , f o r m the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g of p a r t - t i m e  or  12 temporary  employees  or w o r k e r s h i r e d as i n d e p e n d e n t  contractors  (Christensen,  1988a; C l a r k , 1982). A n e w e m p l o y m e n t p r a c t i c e w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i.e., t h e increased use of contingent  w o r k e r s , is one aspect of the s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the w a y w o r k is  o r g a n i z e d - h o w , where, w h e n , a n d w h y we w o r k - a n d the p l a c e it occupies i n o u r lives  (Handy,  1984).  "'Work'  [has]  started  to  mean  other  things  besides  the  c o n v e n t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e j o b " ( H a n d y , 1984, p . i x ) . E m e r g i n g service sector I n f l u e n c i n g the g r o w t h of h o m e - b a s e d  w o r k is the shift to a n i n f o r m a t i o n  a n d service-oriented e c o n o m y ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985) w h i c h has b r o u g h t a n e w w a v e of e n t r e p r e n e u r i s m home  businesses  are  (Ambry,  "undergoing  1988; C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985b; P r a t t , a  quiet  revolution from  contract  basis  and  other  self-employed  i m p o r t a n t w o r k site ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b).  i n d i v i d u a l s , the  and  cottage i n d u s t r y  o w n e r s h i p b y w h i t e - c o l l a r professionals" ( R o n a l d , 1989, p . C 4 ) . a  1987a),  to  F o r those h i r e d o n home  becomes  an  S o m e 6 0 % of the h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force  were w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s i n 1989 ( B a c o n , 1989). Kraut  and  G r a m b s c h (1987)  state t h a t  revolve around t w o conflicting images: homeworkers  (many  using  employment that home-based  computer  discussions of h o m e - b a s e d  work  a n o p t i m i s t i c one b a s e d o n case studies of technology)  where  the  flexibility  in  w o r k p r o v i d e s is e m p h a s i z e d ( G o r d o n , 1988; N i l l e s  et a l . , 1976; O l s o n , 1983; P r a t t , 1984; Toffler, 1980); a n d a p e s s i m i s t i c one, r o o t e d i n l a b o u r h i s t o r y , w h i c h emphasizes t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n t h a t i n d u s t r i a l h o m e w o r k e r s or "outworkers" (typically women) have traditionally endured (Allen and W o l k o w i t z , 1987;  Boris,  1988;  W e s t o v e r , 1989).  Boris  and  D a n i e l s , 1989; D o n n i s o n , 1985;  Pennington  and  13 D e s p i t e the "traditional" conclusion"  persistent  manufacturing (Hakim,  1984b,  and  p o p u l a r i m a g e of the h o m e w o r k e r engaged  work  at  home,  p . 10), consistent  Hakim with  draws  the  American  h o m e w o r k is r e l a t i v e l y rare ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8% of h o m e - b a s e d white-collar predominate. reflects  the  and  service  home-based  work  (both  "inescapable  research  ( E h r e n h a l t , 1986; H o r v a t h , 1986; K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h , 1987), t h a t  findings  manufacturing  w o r k i n the  traditional  in  and  U.K.);  new)  now  T h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of the o c c u p a t i o n s of the h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force long-term  reversal  of the  relative importance  of m a n u f a c t u r i n g  in  r e l a t i o n to service sector i n d u s t r i e s ( s u c h as professional, f i n a n c i a l a n d business, a n d p e r s o n a l services) ( H a k i m , 1984b), a n d the i m p a c t of new t e c h n o l o g y is e x t e n d i n g the  variety  of jobs  done  by  businesses or t a k e w o r k " p u t  homeworkers out"  i n c l u d i n g those w h o r u n  by employers  (Francis and  their  Schneider,  own 1989;  H a k i m , 1984b; H a k i m , 1987). Technological  advancements  " T e l e w o r k " , p r o m o t e d since the energy crisis of the early 1970s as a n e w f o r m of h o m e w o r k w h i c h is c o m p u t e r - m e d i a t e d , is defined as " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w o r k t h a t is p e r f o r m e d o u t s i d e of the n o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l confines of space a n d t i m e " ( O l s o n , 1983, p . 182).  S o m e p r i v a t e sector c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d p u b l i c sector  h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t e l e w o r k assists i n t h e r e c r u i t m e n t  agencies  a n d r e t e n t i o n of people  w i t h scarce s k i l l s , a n d h a v e i n s t i t u t e d so-called " f l e x i p l a c e " (flexible w o r k place) p r o g r a m s ( C r a w f o r d , 1989; S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a A s s o c i a t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t s , 1985; S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a A s s o c i a t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t s , 1986; S u t t o n , 1989; W a l s h , 1990). C o r p o r a t e employees or c o n t r a c t w o r k e r s (e.g., clerical a n d c o m p u t e r w o r k e r s ) , i n l i e u of c o m m u t i n g to a w o r k site, p e r f o r m c o m p a n y tasks ( " r e m o t e w o r k " ) f r o m t h e i r homes or at a n e i g h b o u r h o o d or satellite w o r k centre ( F r a n c i s a n d S c h n e i d e r , 1989; H u w s et a l . , 1990).  14 With  their  employers'  sanction,  many  home-based  workers  are  " t e l e c o m m u t i n g " (Nilles et a l . , 1976) due to t h e ease of electronic d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t b y i n n o v a t i o n s i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y ( C r a w f o r d , 1989). T h e cost typically  and  burdens  dividing  of c o m m u t i n g t o  t h e i r w o r k week  ( B a c o n , 1989; W a l s h , 1990). (such  as  computers  printers with  and  an  between  the  central  with  office a n d  employees their  home  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other e l e c t r o n i c office devices  facsimile machines),  appropriate  office are r e d u c e d  sophisticated  affordable, software,  easily-operated  linked  by  personal  modem  to  the  c o r p o r a t e d a t a base, give employees w o r k i n g o u t s i d e of the c o r p o r a t e office access a n d the a b i l i t y to m a n i p u l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n as q u i c k l y a n d professionally as i f t h e y were i n t h e office ( B a c o n , 1989). However,  telework  optimistic boosters"  "has  not  met  the  ( W a l s h , 1990, p . A 7 ) due  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resistance)  projections  of  some  of its  more  t o c o n s t r a i n i n g forces ( i n c l u d i n g  ( G o r d o n , 1988; K i n g , 1989; O l s o n , 1988; O l s o n ,  1989).  R e c e n t s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t the e x p a n s i o n i n size of t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r h o m e - b a s e d w o r k force engaged i n t e l e w o r k a n d its p o t e n t i a l to c o n s t i t u t e a l o n g - t e r m t r e n d has l e d a u t h o r s to express c a u t i o u s e n t h u s i a s m for " e l e c t r o n i c c o t t a g i n g " p a r t i c u l a r l y for c o r p o r a t e e m p l o y e e s ( B l a n d y , 1984; C r o s s a n d R a i z m a n , 1986; H u w s , 1984a; H u w s , 1984b; H u w s et a l , 1990; N o b l e , 1986; O l s o n , 1989; O l s o n a n d P r i m p s , 1984; P r a t t , 1984; P r o b e r t a n d W a j c m a n , 1988; S t a n w o r t h a n d S t a n w o r t h , 1989). W h i l e t e l e w o r k a c c o u n t s for o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n of a l l e m p l o y m e n t et a l . , 1990), the i m p o r t a n c e of c o m p u t e r s is o b v i o u s i n the h o m e business  (Huws segment  of the w o r k force w h i c h spends $5.7 b i l l i o n ( U S ) per year o n office e q u i p m e n t supplies ( A m b r y , 1988).  and  U s i n g t e c h n o l o g y as a t o o l to f a c i l i t a t e the o p e r a t i o n of  t h e i r ventures ( H u w s et a l . , 1990; R o n a l d , 1989), a g r o w i n g n u m b e r of w h i t e - c o l l a r professional, m a n a g e r i a l , a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s are r e l y i n g o n t h e i r t r a i n i n g a n d  15 contacts to l a u n c h t h e i r o w n h o m e - b a s e d businesses - "seeking a place...[to] create a healthier  balance  between  their  career  and  personal  a m b i t i o n s , where l e i s u r e l y  f a m i l y life c a n f l o u r i s h - ...[and] so c a n p r o f i t s " ( C o r m i e r , 1990, p . 36). R i s e of the s m a l l business sector T h e b o o m i n s m a l l business p a r t i a l l y stems f r o m " a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t w o r k i n g for a large f i r m is i n m o s t cases no longer the l i f e t i m e o p t i o n it u s e d to be, a n d t h a t there m a y be greater s t a b i l i t y of e m p l o y m e n t i n t a k i n g one's d e s t i n y i n t o one's o w n h a n d s " ( C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985b, p . 7). N e w s m a l l businesses, m a n y of w h i c h are i d e a l l y s u i t e d to be o p e r a t e d  from home  (Pratt,  1987a), are  almost  a l l i n the  service  i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s sell a c q u i r e d skills ( C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985b) - often c a t e r i n g t o professionals w o r k i n g i n t h e h o m e ( P r a t t , 1987a).  C o m p a n i e s have recognized  the g r o w i n g d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n skills a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d d e m a n d ( B u r e a u of N a t i o n a l Affairs, 1990; O l s o n , 1989), a n d are p r e p a r e d t o p a y e x t r a for c e r t a i n q u a l i t y skills i n the service i n d u s t r y ; "the r e a l l y g o o d e m p l o y e e i n a n y o c c u p a t i o n c a n g e n e r a l l y m a k e m o r e o n t h e o p e n m a r k e t [as a n i n d e p e n d e n t contractor] t h a n as a t r a d i t i o n a l e m p l o y e e " ( C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985b, p . 7). Numerous  researchers  report  the  growth  of  small  businesses  as  an  i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t sector of the e c o n o m y ( D y k e m a n , 1989; P r a t t , 1987a).  In  recent years, t h e s m a l l business sector has been the b a c k b o n e of e c o n o m i c g r o w t h i n C a n a d a a n d t h e U . S . ( D y k e m a n , 1989). p r o v i d e d b y s m a l l business,  T h e greatest n u m b e r of jobs are b e i n g  which stimulate regional and  d e v e l o p m e n t ( D y k e m a n , 1989; O n t a r i o , 1987). represent  a  multi-million  dollar  segment  of  community economic  T h e s e m o s t l y one-person the  economy  businesses  (Kucharsky,  1990).  S t a t i s t i c s s h o w t h a t m o r e t h a n 5 0 % of a l l C a n a d i a n businesses are s t a r t e d out of the h o m e ( D y k e m a n , 1989; K u c h a r s k y , 1990), as it often acts as a n e n v i r o n m e n t ( A m b r y , 1988; D y k e m a n , 1989; P r a t t ,  1987a).  Many  incubatory  entrepreneurs  16 use the h o m e as a n i n c u b a t o r before r e l o c a t i n g i n bona-fide c o m m e r c i a l or i n d u s t r i a l premises increase.  once  the  business  becomes  financially  secure  space  requirements  ( H i g h l y successful c o r p o r a t i o n s l a u n c h e d f r o m the h o m e i n c l u d e A p p l e  Computers,  Amway,  [Home-based home-based  Baskin-Robbins, Hallmark Cards, and  businesses, businesses,  1989; K u c h a r s k y , 1990].) h o w e v e r , refuse  A  Purdy's  Chocolates  s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of  to g r o w larger a n d r e m a i n i n the  ( H a n d y , 1984; H i l b o r n , 1988; H o m e - b a s e d businesses, 1987a).  and  home  1989; O n t a r i o , 1987; P r a t t ,  B e n e f i t s , s u c h as m i n i m a l i n i t i a l risk a n d l o w o v e r h e a d costs, s u c h as office  rent, enable the testing of a business i d e a w i t h o u t seeking o u t s i d e c a p i t a l ( P r a t t , 1987b).  Modified  tax  l e g i s l a t i o n e n a b l i n g generous  write-offs  and  cost  savings  ( A l b e r t a , 1986; E l d e r , 1988; H o m e - b a s e d businesses, 1989; J a c k s , 1990), w h i c h c a n be reflected i n the p r o d u c t price or service fee, often m a k e the h o m e business m o r e c o m p e t i t i v e ( M o w b r a y , 1986). M a n y " t r a d i t i o n a l " types of cottage i n d u s t r i e s exist, b u t t h e y represent a s m a l l percentage of the types of w o r k n o w b e i n g d o n e at h o m e ( W o l f g r a m , 1984). T o d a y , cottage i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e a v i r t u a l l y l i m i t l e s s list of diverse f r o m a range of categories w h i c h i n c l u d e : resource-based trade,  retail  occupations  arts a n d crafts, f a r m - b a s e d  activities,  a c t i v i t i e s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , wholesale trade,  services  to  home,  sports/recreation,  management/business  services; p e r s o n a l services, t o u r i s m , e d u c a t i o n a l , c h i l d r e n ' s p r o d u c t s  and  services,  a n d c o m p u t e r services. Governmental support M a n y c o m m u n i t y development  p o l i c y a d v i s o r s regard s m a l l business as a  w a y of b r o a d e n i n g e m p l o y m e n t choices ( C l a r k , 1982).  T h e y have "latched onto"  s m a l l business as the " w a v e of t h e f u t u r e " as a m e a n s to assist e c o n o m i c recovery a n d s t i m u l a t e the l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , a n d n a t i o n a l economies ( D y k e m a n , 1989, p . 4 ) .  17 Public  policy  assistance  attention  programs,  governments  across  has  and  led  to  the  initiatives by  Canada  formulation federal  (Dykeman,  1989;  of n e w  agencies Orser,  and  policies, several  1991).  As  business provincial  well,  U.S.  g o v e r n m e n t agencies recognize the e c o n o m i c p o t e n t i a l of the cottage i n d u s t r y w h i c h is considered to be t h e m o s t p r o m i s i n g area of e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n states s u c h as O r e g o n ( W o l f g r a m , 1984).  In l i g h t of its d e c l i n i n g fish a n d t i m b e r i n d u s t r i e s ,  a n d u p o n the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of a n e c o n o m i c c o m m i s s i o n , O r e g o n is e n c o u r a g i n g t h e g r o w t h of h o m e businesses t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of i n i t i a t i v e s ( W o l f g r a m , 1984). The  British  Columbia  aggressive  in  businesses  ( D y k e m a n , 1989).  businesses  to  "opportunity  Canada  the  in  British  government  terms  of  providing  to  policy  be  the  support  most  active  for  area"  economy,  and  home-based  is focussing o n t h e m  ( D y k e m a n , 1989, p . 12).  and  home-based  It has r e c o g n i z e d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of  Columbia  development  appears  as  an  C o m m i t t i n g itself  to  h e l p i n g l e g i t i m i z e t h e h o m e as a business i n c u b a t o r a n d e n h a n c i n g the success r a t e of  home-based  businesses,  the  Ministry  of  Development,  Trade  and  i n s t i t u t e d its H o m e - B a s e d B u s i n e s s P r o g r a m i n A p r i l 1988 ( K l y n e , growth  of  home-based  businesses  is  being  encouraged  through  Tourism  1991). a  The  variety  of  i n i t i a t i v e s w h i c h assist the i n d i v i d u a l i n successfully s t a r t i n g a n d m a n a g i n g s u c h a n enterprise  (Klyne,  1991).  I n a d d i t i o n t o s p o n s o r i n g a p r o v i n c i a l conference  to  increase awareness a b o u t the subject, the P r o g r a m sponsored the first t w o issues of the  B . C . H o m e Business Report, a magazine  entrepreneur Program's  designed  especially for t h e  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (now a t h r i v i n g independent comprehensive  services  include the  home  publication).  p u b l i c a t i o n of several  The  self-study  m a n u a l s a n d t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of a t e l e p h o n e " h o t l i n e " to p r o v i d e basic i n f o r m a t i o n and  c o u n s e l l i n g to  homeworkers.  Regular home  business  seminars  on  proven  business p r a c t i c e s are offered t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e ( s i m i l a r to those courses a n d  18 workshops  available  in  Continuing  Education  departments  at  post-secondary  i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , a n d the f o r m a t i o n of c o m m u n i t y n e t w o r k i n g groups of h o m e - b a s e d business owners to p r o v i d e m u t u a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l meetings is u n d e r w a y (Klyne,  1991).  With  Southex  Exhibitions,  N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e M i n i s t r y sponsors  a  trade  show  producer  the t w i c e - y e a r l y B . C . C r e a t i v e A r t s  in  Show  w h i c h helps h o m e - b a s e d businesses m a r k e t t h e i r p r o d u c t s at the wholesale level i n the larger p r o v i n c e - w i d e , n a t i o n a l , a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena. The Ministry believing that  the  is c u r r e n t l y c h a r t i n g the  home-based  p o t e n t i a l ( K l y n e , 1991).  business  future  movement  d i r e c t i o n of the  has  not  Program,  yet reached  its  R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s c o n t i n u e to g r o w i n  n u m b e r s a n d v a r i e t y , the P r o g r a m is u p d a t i n g its d a t a b a s e of 8,000  home-based  businesses b y c o m p i l i n g a p r o v i n c i a l director}' of a l l types of s u c h businesses every  region  in  full  British  Columbia.  Through  information  obtained  from  from  the  p r o v i n c e ' s 180 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h r e s p o n d e d to t h e i r D e c e m b e r 1990 q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e g a r d i n g m u n i c i p a l h o m e - b a s e d business issues, t h e P r o g r a m i n t e n d s o n d e v e l o p i n g initiatives  to  increase  awareness  of the  benefits  of h o m e - b a s e d  businesses  in  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h m a y require assistance i n r e g u l a t i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ( K l y n e , 1991).  In a d d i t i o n , the first n a t i o n a l conference o n h o m e - b a s e d business is p l a n n e d  for A p r i l 1992 i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , B C . W o m e n i n the w o r k force A l o n g w i t h the g r o w i n g percentage of w o m e n i n t h e w o r k force over the last t w o decades, t h e r e has been a c h a n g e i n t h e i r business roles ( C r o s s a n d R a i z m a n , 1986).  W o m e n , seeking alternatives to t r a d i t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985;  C l u t t e r b u c k , 1985b; L a n g w a y et a l , 1984; Orser, 1991; P r a t t , 1987a; T a y l o r , 1986), are s t a r t i n g n e w enterprises  at t h r e e times the r a t e of m e n (Jones,  p h e n o m e n a l m o v e m e n t is fuelled b y w o m e n whose desire for career  1991).  The  advancement  19 has been f r u s t r a t e d 1985).  i n the c o r p o r a t e  arena  ( A m b r y , 1988; Jones,  1991; L a w s o n ,  Often stifled b y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r i g i d i t y , s o m e of the best e d u c a t e d a n d m o s t  h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d w o m e n are d r o p p i n g out of the c o r p o r a t e m a n a g e r i a l w o r k force a n d are d e c i d i n g t o w o r k for themselves  ( L a w s o n , 1985; P r a t t ,  1987a),  "seeking  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a d v e n t u r e as a s o l u t i o n for w o r k p l a c e w o e s " ( T a y l o r , 1986, p . 19). The number  of self-employed w o m e n increased f r o m 2.1 m i l l i o n i n 1980 to  2.6  m i l l i o n i n 1985 ( T a y l o r , 1986), w i t h one w o m a n i n four a sole p r o p r i e t o r ( C r o s s a n d R a i z m a n , 1986).  T h e h o m e p r o v i d e s a n i m p o r t a n t w o r k p l a c e for m a n y w o m e n i n  business for themselves; of a l l sole p r o p r i e t o r s h i p s i n C a n a d a a n d the U . S . o p e r a t e d f r o m p r i v a t e residences, m o r e t h a n 7 0 % of these businesses are m a n a g e d b y w o m e n ( B a c o n , 1989; D y k e m a n , 1989; K u c h a r s k y , 1990; P r a t t , 1987b).  P r a t t states  "the  ' t y p i c a l ' h o m e - b a s e d entrepreneur of the 1980s is a m a r r i e d , w h i t e w o m a n of m i d d l e age", w e l l - e d u c a t e d a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l , w i t h p r e v i o u s w o r k experience (1987a, p . 12). M a n y researchers note the significant n u m b e r of female h o m e - b a s e d (Boris,  1988;  Boris  and  Daniels,  1989;  Christensen,  1985;  workers  Christensen,  1988c;  G e r s o n a n d K r a u t , 1988; H a k i m , 1987; H i l b o r n , 1988; L a n g w a y et a l , 1984; P r a t t , 1987a) for w h o m the w o r k o p t i o n is often p r o m o t e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y v i a b l e ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988c; L a n g w a y et a l , 1984; P r a t t , 1987a). observers  point  out  that  home-based  occupations  may  have  some  Some  negative  consequences for w o m e n ' s l o n g - t e r m career goals b y fostering a " n e w underclass of h i d d e n female w o r k e r s " ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 4). home phenomenon  is n o t e x c l u s i v e l y a w o m e n ' s m o v e m e n t  H o w e v e r , the w o r k - a t ( W o l f g r a m , 1984)  as  e q u a l n u m b e r s o f m e n a n d w o m e n are f o u n d a m o n g h o m e w o r k e r s (de S a n t i s , 1989; Orser,  1991).  The  most  significant  difference  between  genders  is  that  men  p r e d o m i n a t e a m o n g those w h o w o r k f r o m h o m e as a base, w h i l e w o m e n f o r m t h e  20 great m a j o r i t y of those w o r k i n g at h o m e f u l l - t i m e ( H a k i m , 1987; H o r v a t h , 1986; P r a t t , 1987a). W h i l e traditional boundaries  between w o m e n ' s w o r k a n d m e n ' s w o r k h a v e  c h a n g e d ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b), m a n y w o m e n experience c o n t i n u i n g conflict between career goals a n d f a m i l y goals ( A m b r y , 1988; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985; Jones, 1991; P r a t t , 1987a; T a y l o r , 1986) a n d seek f l e x i b l e w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s for p e r s o n a l , e c o n o m i c or career reasons.  A p p a r e n t l y , the d e m a n d s of r a i s i n g a f a m i l y are d r i v i n g w o m e n o u t  of the c o r p o r a t i o n ( T a y l o r , 1986). trends  and  (including  s o c i e t a l changes, w o r k i n g mothers)  D u e to i n a d e q u a t e p l a n n i n g for  i n c l u d i n g the and  changes  growing number in  A m e r i c a n families ( B u r e a u of N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , Taylor,  1986),  few  companies  have  instituted  the  "size  of female  and  shape"  1990; C r o s s a n d policies  demographic  on  workers of  North  R a i z m a n , 1986;  "work  and  p r o g r a m s " , s u c h as c h i l d care, " f l e x t i m e " , w o r k - a t - h o m e , t e l e c o m m u t i n g ,  family  shortened  w o r k weeks, or j o b s h a r i n g ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b). H a k i m (1984b) has f o u n d t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of h o m e - b a s e d workers are married  women,  and  notes the  significance of m a r r i a g e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h appear to b e greater for w o m e n  and  associated  homeworkers  family  than  men.  K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h (1987) c o n c u r , f i n d i n g m a r r i e d w o m e n w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n were  overrepresented  among  homeworkers,  as  were  unmarried  men  without  c h i l d r e n ; t h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t w o m e n , n o t m e n , use h o m e w o r k as a m e c h a n i s m combine  family  obligations  with  paid  employment.  For  many  women,  to the  t r a d i t i o n a l caretakers of the f a m i l y , s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t a l l o w s for greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n w o r k i n g a n d c h i l d care a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a n does the c u r r e n t l a b o u r m a r k e t , e n a b l i n g t h e m to j u g g l e w o r k a n d f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988c; C u - U y - G a m , 1989; H a k i m , 1980; L a n g w a y et a l , 1984; O l s o n , 1989).  21 Employment  flexibility  S i g n i f i c a n t changes i n w o r k i n g p a t t e r n s i n c l u d e the g r o w t h of p a r t - t i m e w o r k and  the  long-term  decline  of f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t ,  with  self-employment  an  a l t e r n a t i v e to f u l l - t i m e w o r k for a n e m p l o y e r ( C l a r k , 1982). H u w s et a l . w r i t e :  for m a n y w o r k e r s , a p e r m a n e n t f u l l - t i m e j o b w i l l cease t o be a n a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n ; the choice w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y b e between a n e v e r - w i d e n i n g range of different c a s u a l , t e m p o r a r y or p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t o p t i o n s w h i c h m a y be c a r r i e d out o n a s e l f - e m p l o y e d , a g e n c y or e m p l o y e e basis...the opportunities for entrepreneur s h i p will e x p a n d , m a n y of t h e m created b y the gaps ...[resulting] f r o m the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of large o r g a n i z a t i o n s or state services (1990, p . 222).  P a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t emerged as one of the m o s t v i s i b l e forms of w o r k t i m e changes i n the e c o n o m y i n the 1980s ( O r s e r , 1991; P r a t t , 1987a) w i t h m o r e 40%  than  of the e c o n o m i c g r o w t h i n C a n a d a b e t w e e n 1979 a n d 1986 i n p a r t - t i m e j o b s  (Orser, 1991).  T h e o p p o r t u n i t y to w o r k p a r t - t i m e w i t h flexible h o u r s is c i t e d as t h e  p r i m a r y m o t i v e for m a n y h o m e - b a s e d entrepreneurs, independent  as i n d i c a t e d b y the m a j o r i t y of  h o m e business owners w h o w o r k less t h a n 40 h o u r s per week i n t h e  service sector ( K r a u t , 1988). Home-based attractive  work  employment  option  for:  can  those  increase with  employment  limited  work  flexibility  options  due  and to  is  an  family  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s u c h as households w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( A l b e r t a , 1986; C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985;  C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988c; K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h , 1987; W a l k e r , 1989), or p h y s i c a l  c o n s t r a i n t s , s u c h as the d i s a b l e d ( P o l l a c k , 1981; P r a t t , 1987a; P r o c t o r , 1986); those i n u r b a n a n d r u r a l areas w h o are u n a b l e to f i n d c o n v e n t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t i n the f o r m a l e c o n o m y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n recessionary t i m e s ( B a c o n , 1989; B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985; B y e , 1984; H a n d y , 1984); or those w h o d o n o t w i s h to be e m p l o y e d  22 f u l l - t i m e i n t r a d i t i o n a l p a i d w o r k o u t s i d e of the h o m e , s u c h as older people ( B a c o n , 1989; P r a t t , 1987a). Working  at  home  is b e c o m i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e  o p t i o n for  older  p e o p l e ( G a r d n e r , 1990; K r a u t , 1988; P r a t t , 1987a), w i t h a m i d - 1 9 8 0 s s u r v e y f i n d i n g t h a t n e a r l y one-fifth of a l l f u l l - t i m e h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s were o v e r 55 years of age, a g r o u p t h a t a c c o u n t s for o n l y o n e - e i g h t h of a l l e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s ( H o r v a t h , 1986). Many  early  retirees  and  seniors  start  their  own  home-based  businesses,  and  a p p l y i n g t h e i r experience, w o r k c o n t a c t s , a n d k n o w l e d g e ( a n d often early r e t i r e m e n t a l l o w a n c e s ) , m a r k e t t h e i r skills or t u r n a serious h o b b y i n t o a v o c a t i o n ( G a r d n e r , 1990; R o n a l d , 1989). F o r r u r a l residents profitable employment  businesses  i n sparsely s e t t l e d areas, h o b b i e s also often t u r n  which  opportunities  or  supplement  family  inadequate  income  f a r m i n g ) ( G a l a n t e , 1986; O r s e r , 1991). rural  areas  than  urban  areas  incomes, from  M o r e home-based  (Dykeman,  1989;  Kraut  reflecting  traditional  into  limited  work  (e.g.,  businesses are f o u n d i n and  Grambsch,  1987).  D i f f e r i n g i n t h e services a n d p r o d u c t s offered ( K r a u t a n d G r a m b s c h , 1987), owners of r u r a l cottage i n d u s t r i e s t e n d to rely o n t r a d i t i o n a l resource-based or farm-related skills r a t h e r t h a n o n a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g y , often h i r i n g other h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s as t h e i r businesses g r o w ( D y k e m a n , 1989; G a l a n t e , 1986). Q u a l i t y of life P e o p l e of a l l ages, f r o m y o u n g a d u l t s to retirees, are l a u n c h i n g h o m e - b a s e d businesses, a n d t h e " p r i z e " t h e y are c h a s i n g is q u a l i t y of life ( A m b r y , 1988). Americans  are  reappraising  the  commonly held  "assumptions,  meanings,  p r a c t i c e s of t h e w o r k p l a c e a n d w o r k force" a n d are r e t h i n k i n g the division between the home and work place  North and  traditional  ( M i l l e r , 1988, p . i x ) . A f t e r a c e n t u r y of  s e p a r a t i n g business f r o m the h o m e , p r o f o u n d a t t i t u d i n a l changes  regarding work  23 and  quality  of  entrepreneurship  life  have  led  to  an  and  self-employment  increasing  interest  and  commitment  b y p e o p l e d e s i r i n g greater a u t o n o m y  to over  their o w n t i m e , w o r k i n g style a n d c o n d i t i o n s ( A m b r y , 1988; B a c o n , 1989; D y k e m a n , 1989; Orser, 1991; S a c h s , 1986).  L i b e r a t i o n f r o m the d a i l y g r i n d of c o m m u t i n g to a  9 to 5 j o b a n d office pressures, a n d the  e l i m i n a t i o n or r e d u c t i o n i n c h i l d  expenses c a n be s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e s to e x p e r i m e n t w i t h h o m e - b a s e d  care  work (Horvath,  1986); it is seen as a n a t t r a c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e g r a t e one's w o r k a n d  family  lives a n d p u r s u e n e w e d u c a t i o n a l , leisure, a n d c o m m u n i t y interests ( B a c o n , 1989; H u w s et a l . , 1990; P r a t t , 1987a).  B a s i n g w o r k at h o m e , "the one e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t  m o s t of us c a n s t i l l c o n t r o l " ( F a r m a n f a r m a i a n ,  1989, p . 38), is p a r t of the lifestyle  t r e n d of " c o c o o n i n g " ( K u c h a r s k y , 1990) i n w h i c h a new e m p h a s i s is p l a c e d o n the h o m e as the centre of society r e s u l t i n g i n greater c o m m u n i t y s t a b i l i t y a n d b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y (Toffler, 1980). A l t h o u g h not everyone c o u l d or w o u l d w i s h to earn a l i v i n g b y w o r k i n g at h o m e , for some it is the " i d e a l w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t " ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 1), with  "technological  conditions,  economic  incentives,  c o n v e r g i n g t o create a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e " ( H e r b e r s , reasons, the  opportunity,  need,  and  desire  and  political  1986, A 1 8 ) .  t o w o r k i n the  support  Whatever  home  has  the  increased  ( A l b e r t a , 1986), a n d " h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s are here to s t a y " ( K l y n e , 1991; L o n g h i n i , 1984, p . 28).  Summary Despite definitional and methodological problems studies  p r o d u c i n g v a r y i n g estimates of the  segment of t h e number  w o r k force, the  of p e o p l e  engaged  S e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t factors  general  numbers  w h i c h have resulted  c o m p r i s i n g the  consensus i n the  in home-based  are fuelling t h e r e n e w e d  interest  home-based  literature  w o r k is s u b s t a n t i a l  is t h a t  and  i n the  in  the  increasing.  work-at-home  24  concept.  Forces  affecting  the  n a t u r e of h o m e - b a s e d  adoption include technological advancements  work and  i n f l u e n c i n g its  w h i c h h a v e assisted i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g  the e c o n o m y r e s u l t i n g i n the e x p a n s i o n of the service sector a n d rise i n i m p o r t a n c e of the s m a l l business sector.  D e m o g r a p h i c t r e n d s , s u c h as the significant n u m b e r of  w o m e n i n the w o r k force, e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c o r p o r a t e d o w n s i z i n g a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d a t t i t u d i n a l changes are p r o p e l l i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a n s to choose home-based  w o r k as a v i a b l e , a l t e r n a t i v e w o r k o p t i o n .  H o m e - b a s e d w o r k offers  significant benefits i n c l u d i n g e x p a n d e d e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , freedom of selfregulated work,  flexibility  to a c c o m m o d a t e n o n - w o r k r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s ,  a n d r e d u c e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a n i n c u b a t o r e n v i r o n m e n t for new enterprises a n d c r e a t i n g new j o b s . While  certain  forces  are  fostering  the  establishment  of  home-based  businesses, other factors are s a i d to affect t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a n d i m p e d e t h e i r g r o w t h ; the issues s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s are e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r 3.  25 CHAPTER THREE:  REVIEW OF PLANNING  LITERATURE  Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r reviews t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y l i t e r a t u r e o n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k w h i c h , l i k e a n y e m p l o y m e n t , is g o v e r n e d b y a v a r i e t y of l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s .  T h e most  immediate  as  control  over  home-based  enterprises,  usually  referred  to  "home  o c c u p a t i o n s " i n u r b a n areas, are m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y l a w s ( A l b e r t a , 1986; O n t a r i o , 1987;  Staples,  governments  1988).  Such p l a n n i n g regulations  are  used  by  almost  all local  ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985; P r a t t , 1987a) a n d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m  one l o c a l i t y t o a n o t h e r , b o t h i n t h e i r c o n t e n t a n d i n the degree t o w h i c h they enforced ( H u w s et a l . , 1990).  are  T h e l i t e r a t u r e focuses o n the d e s i g n of z o n i n g b y l a w s ,  w h i c h reflect t h e concerns a n d a t t i t u d e s of l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t officials a n d  planners  w h o m u s t b a l a n c e c o m p e t i n g interests i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s (Staples, 1988). Due  to l i m i t e d space a n d excellent coverage elsewhere, this thesis w i l l n o t  discuss i n d e t a i l other s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d issues:  the s p a t i a l i m p a c t of n e w  t e c h n o l o g y a n d i n f o r m a t i o n - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s o n h o u s i n g a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d design ( A h r e n t z e n , 1989); settlement p a t t e r n s a n d u r b a n i z a t i o n processes ( B r o t c h i e , 1984; B r o t c h i e et a l . , 1985; C a s t e l l s , 1989; F r a n c i s a n d 1976); or the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  Schneider,  1989; N i l l e s et a l . ,  tradeoff h y p o t h e s i s  (Francis  and  S c h n e i d e r , 1989; G o r d o n a n d V a n A r s d a l e , 1986; H u w s et a l . , 1990; J a n e l l e , 1986; N i l l e s et a l , 1976). Regulatory literature R e g u l a t o r y perspectives authors. about  on home-based  enterprise are p r o v i d e d b y several  T w o A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s h a v e been  t h e subject:  one b y T o n e r (1976) w h i c h focuses o n t h e  produced  design of h o m e  o c c u p a t i o n o r d i n a n c e s ; a n d t h e o t h e r b y B u t l e r a n d Getzels (1985) w h i c h gives a n o v e r v i e w of t h e state of l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , discusses a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d  26 enforcement  procedures, a n d concludes w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  of z o n i n g b y l a w s .  r e g a r d i n g the design  P r a t t (1987a) examines the l e g a l barriers to h o m e - b a s e d  work,  w h i l e B u t l e r (1988) focuses o n t h e l o c a l z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s w h i c h govern i t . Canadian impact  on  research  residential  conducted  by  Municipal  Affairs  m u n i c i p a l policies o n  communities  Alberta's  ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  on  is  Inter-Agency  ( A l b e r t a , 1986)  lacking. Planning  and  Ontario's  home  businesses  However,  studies  Branch  of  Ministry  the  their  have  been  Department  of M u n i c i p a l  of  Affairs  B o t h recognized the g r o w i n g p u b l i c interest, m u n i c i p a l c o n c e r n i n  m a n a g i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d the l a c k of c l a r i t y s u r r o u n d i n g undertook  and  studies  to  provide  an  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were e x p e r i e n c i n g .  overview  of  the  situation  the issue, their  and  respective  I n a d d i t i o n , Staples (1988) specifically e x a m i n e s  the r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o w a r d h o m e - b a s e d businesses used i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A d v a n t a g e s of i n t e g r a t i n g h o m e a n d w o r k p l a c e L a n d use is c o n t r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h official p l a n s a n d the passage of z o n i n g b y l a w s b y m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , w h i c h designate r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s as areas d i s t i n c t f r o m c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s i n their c o m m u n i t i e s . reinforce the  S u c h devices  w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e of s p a t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d l a n d uses  ( O n t a r i o , 1987) w h i c h enhances r e s i d e n t i a l a m e n i t y w e l l - b e i n g of c o m m u n i t i e s ( T h o m a s , 1986). recognize t h a t  residential and  a n d facilitates the  economic  However, m a n y m u n i c i p a l governments  c o m m e r c i a l uses are not necessarily  incompatible.  T h e y realize t h e need a n d desire of people to w o r k at h o m e , m a n y of w h o m are engaged i n s m a l l - s c a l e business ventures w h i c h c o u l d not be s u s t a i n e d if c o m m e r c i a l quarters were leased or w h i c h , d e p e n d i n g o n the n a t u r e of the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n , could  not  development  be  expanded  into  full-scale  control, allowing home-based  enterprises work  (Porter,  1986).  i n residential  areas  Through can  be  a  27 p o s i t i v e , even  necessary,  p o l i c y for a c o m m u n i t y  ( A l b e r t a , 1986; B u t l e r , 1988;  O n t a r i o , 1987; P r a t t , 1987a). Besides offering e x p a n d e d e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d i n c u b a t i n g s m a l l businesses w h i c h create j o b s , h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o the efficient use of major  urban  resources,  ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  such  as  land, housing, and  the  transportation  system  W i t h the j o u r n e y t o w o r k r e d u c e d or e l i m i n a t e d for h o m e w o r k e r s ,  r e d u c e d energy c o n s u m p t i o n a n d i m p r o v e d air q u a l i t y m a y be r e a l i z e d , a n d fewer pressures m a y be p l a c e d o n the r o a d s y s t e m , d a m p e n i n g d e m a n d s for facilities (e.g., p a r k i n g ) .  auto-related  A m o r e efficient, i n t e n s i f i e d use of l a n d m a y result f r o m  the i m p r o v e d u t i l i z a t i o n of e x t r a d o m e s t i c floor space t o a c c o m m o d a t e t w o diverse uses - the f a m i l y a n d business ( D y k e m a n , 1989).  In a d d i t i o n , home-based economic  a c t i v i t y is l i k e l y to strengthen t h e sense of c o m m u n i t y a n d e n h a n c e n e i g h b o u r h o o d q u a l i t y due to the easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y to n e i g h b o u r h o o d services a n d facilities w i t h i n close p r o x i m i t y i n a h i g h e r - d e n s i t y , m i x e d - u s e , p e d e s t r i a n 1987; T h o m a s ,  1986; T o n e r ,  1976).  In  a d d i t i o n , the  environment  presence  of  (Ontario,  home-based  w o r k e r s k e e p i n g flexible d a y t i m e h o u r s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e general v i t a l i t y a n d safety of  neighbourhoods  (Butler  and  Getzels,  1985);  with  greater  neighbourhood  s u r v e i l l a n c e , p o t e n t i a l c r i m e m a y be deterred ( A h r e n t z e n , 1989; C r a m , 1990; P r a t t , 1987a;  Staples,  domestic/labour  1988).  The  arrangement"  neighbourhood are  speculative  implications but  of  suggest  "this  new  "tighter-woven  c o m m u n i t i e s " t h a n presently found i n most residential developments  (Ahrentzen,  1989, p . 273). Some  communities  have  altered  their  zoning  restrictions  and  adopted  i n n o v a t i v e b u i l d i n g codes to a c c o m m o d a t e p e o p l e w h o w a n t to w o r k at h o m e a n d h a v e m a d e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d feature.  W h i l e t h e c o n v e r s i o n of  e x i s t i n g premises t o a c c o m m o d a t e h o m e - b a s e d w o r k is u s u a l , there are a n u m b e r of  28 small-  and  medium-scale  purpose-built  residential  combine residential living w i t h home-based shopping  centre/housing  connected  to  (Wolfgram,  studios 1984);  project  and  an  in  shops  Oak  work. Creek,  whose  designed  Examples include: WI  entrances  architecturally-controlled  developments  consisting  face  a  of  a small 20  common  subdivision  to  homes pathway  development  in  L y n w o o d , I L w h e r e one-acre lots are " d u a l z o n e d " to a c c o m m o d a t e b o t h a single f a m i l y residence a n d a separate business b u i l d i n g i n the rear of the lot ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985); a n d a m u l t i - p h a s e , " s m a r t h o u s i n g " d e v e l o p m e n t ( w h i c h was never built) in Foresthill,  C A in which  the  360 homes  t e l e c o m m u t i n g , a n d were to be e q u i p p e d  were designed  w i t h computers  specifically  and related  for  electronic  e q u i p m e n t to be used b y resident w r i t e r s , engineers, c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s ,  and  other creative professionals ( C r o s s a n d R a i z m a n , 1986; P e r r y , 1985).  Planning issues D e s p i t e t h e benefits created b y h o m e - b a s e d w o r k , there m a y also be negative aspects  which  planning  impact  staffs,  communities  development  and  officers, a n d  1989; O n t a r i o , 1987; T h o m a s , 1986). guard  against  neighbours. management  undesirable Other  changes  possible  concern  merchants  strain  for  problems on  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s u c h as the loss of p r o p e r t y  m u n i c i p a l councils,  ( A l b e r t a , 1986; D y k e m a n ,  H o m e occupations  in neighbourhood  community-based  include  cause  are r e g u l a t e d  character  which  are  municipal  related  services,  t a x revenue  and  so as  to  nuisance  to  to m u n i c i p a l and  financial  and impacts on  other  businesses ( A l b e r t a , 1986; O n t a r i o , 1987; T o n e r , 1976). C o n f l i c t over n e i g h b o u r h o o d values T h e d i l e m m a faced b y m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a n d staff is h o w to c o n t r o l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s so t h a t the c o m m u n i t y c a n a v a i l itself of the a d v a n t a g e s offered  by  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g the i n t e g r i t y of the r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  29 W i t h o u t a d e q u a t e l o c a l z o n i n g controls i n place, conflict arises between people w h o use p a r t of t h e i r homes for business purposes a n d n e i g h b o u r s w h o prefer to l i v e i n e x c l u s i v e l y r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m u n i t i e s ( P r a t t , 1987a; T o n e r , 1976). T h e most  frequently  mentioned  issue r e g a r d i n g h o m e  n u i s a n c e factor ( A l b e r t a , 1986; B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985). can b e c o m e a n n o y e d b y nuisances created b y h o m e - b a s e d  occupations  Immediate  is  the  neighbours  businesses, p a r t i c u l a r l y  those w h i c h generate r e c o g n i z a b l e e x t e r n a l effects, s u c h as noise, o d o u r s , a n d o t h e r nuisances i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n a l traffic a n d p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s ( A l b e r t a , 1986; B u t l e r , 1988;  Toner,  1976).  Open  unwelcome by-products.  storage  areas a n d  unsightly  signage  may  also  T h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of u n r e g u l a t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  be may  p r e c i p i t a t e a c h a n g e i n the c h a r a c t e r of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h r o u g h a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of its aesthetic q u a l i t y ( O n t a r i o , 1987), a decline i n p r o p e r t y values ( T h o m a s , 1986), and  interference  with  residential environment  residents'  perception  and  enjoyment  ( O n t a r i o , 1987; T o n e r , 1976).  of their  I n extreme  home  cases,  and  certain  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s m a y p r o m o t e a change of l a n d use t o a c o m m e r c i a l n a t u r e d u e t o the e x p a n s i o n a n d i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l uses ( B u t l e r , 1988; O n t a r i o , 1987; T h o m a s , 1986). S t r a i n o n m u n i c i p a l services H o m e occupations  c a n p l a c e a d d i t i o n a l strains o n m u n i c i p a l services  facilities, s u c h as roads, w a t e r s u p p l y , sewers, g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n , etc.  and  Planned,  c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d p r o v i d e d to a c c o m m o d a t e n o r m a l r e s i d e n t i a l usage, s u c h  "hard"  services m a y n o t be able to w i t h s t a n d increased usage associated w i t h c o m m e r c i a l operations a n d m a y l e a d to d e m a n d s services w h i c h ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  for the e x p a n s i o n or i m p r o v e m e n t of these  has f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s for t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d t h e  taxpayer  30 T a x loss a n d unfair c o m p e t i t i o n A n o t h e r f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n m a y be the loss of m u n i c i p a l revenue due to differing p r o p e r t y t a x rates for c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y .  B e c a u s e of the  difficulty i n m o n i t o r i n g h o m e businesses, officials suspect t h a t m a n y operate  covertly  W o l f g r a m , 1984). and  and  pay  residential  versus  business  taxes  homeworkers  (Ontario,  1987;  I n a d d i t i o n , those businesses s i t u a t e d i n d e s i g n a t e d c o m m e r c i a l  i n d u s t r i a l areas w h i c h p a y  business  taxes argue t h a t  allowing  home-based  businesses to o p e r a t e c o n s t i t u t e s u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985; B y e , 1984;  Home-based  suggests businesses  that  businesses,  home-based  1989;  Ontario,  enterprises  are  1987).  H o w e v e r , "Staples  complementary  to  (1988)  commercial  w i t h the former v e r y l i k e l y m e e t i n g the needs of a n e n t i r e l y  area  different  m a r k e t f r o m t h a t served b y the latter.  Municipal regulations A n estimated  9 0 % of U . S . c o m m u n i t i e s regulate  home-based  employment  ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985; P r a t t , 1987a) t h r o u g h the c o m b i n e d use of r e g u l a t o r y m e t h o d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e official p l a n , z o n i n g b y - l a w , a n d l i c e n s i n g . Official p l a n An  official  plan  states  m u n i c i p a l i t y i n its d e v e l o p m e n t .  general  objectives  and  policies  to  It m a y p r o v i d e a n e n a b l i n g s t a t e m e n t  o u t l i n e s the m u n i c i p a l policies o n h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d describe t h e used to i m p l e m e n t the p o l i c i e s .  guide  the  which  mechanisms  B y l a w s m u s t t h e n c o n f o r m to the g o a l a n d p o l i c y  s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e official p l a n . Zoning bylaw T h e z o n i n g b y l a w is t h e o c c u p a t i o n s ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  most  c o m m o n l y used t o o l for r e g u l a t i n g  home  M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s h a v e t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to  pass b y l a w s t o regulate the use of l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g s , a n d therefore, are able to  31 restrict  or  prohibit  specific  uses  (including home  b u i l d i n g s l o c a t e d w i t h i n specifically designated zones. contains  a section w h i c h  defines  "home  occupations)  in  residential  T h e typical zoning bylaw  occupation", and  m a y p r o v i d e lists of  p e r m i t t e d a n d p r o h i b i t e d uses or types of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h statements w h i c h outline performance  standards.  M a n y c o m m u n i t i e s i n c o r p o r a t e lists i n t h e i r z o n i n g b y l a w s to specify types  of o c c u p a t i o n s ,  trades,  professions,  or  businesses  that  are  acceptable  p r o h i b i t e d as h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n some or a l l of t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  or  A list of  p e r m i t t e d uses gives t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s of t h o s e w h i c h c a n be c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n l i m i t s of r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d b y p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s ( T o n e r , 1976).  the  the  Prohibited  uses are g e n e r a l l y those w h i c h , b y the n a t u r e of the i n v e s t m e n t or o p e r a t i o n , h a v e a pronounced  tendency  to r a p i d l y increase b e y o n d the l i m i t s p e r m i t t e d  for  home  o c c u p a t i o n s ( s u c h as b e a u t y p a r l o u r s , a u t o r e p a i r , m e d i c a l or d e n t a l offices) a n d t h e r e b y i m p a i r t h e use a n d v a l u e of a r e s i d e n t i a l l y z o n e d area for d w e l l i n g purposes ( T o n e r , 1976). Performance standards A n o t h e r c o m m o n element i n c l u d e d i n z o n i n g b y l a w s is a series of c o n d i t i o n s or c r i t e r i a w h i c h are a p p l i e d to the o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d are w i d e l y referred to as p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s .  ( S t r i c t l y defined, p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s are  a c t u a l l y the q u a n t i t a t i v e measures of the effects or characteristics of a p a r t i c u l a r use t h a t m a y n o t be exceeded [ B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985]).  These standards allow home  o c c u p a t i o n s to exist subject t o specific c o n d i t i o n s t h a t , w h e n m e t , ensure t h a t t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n starts a n d r e m a i n s s e c o n d a r y or i n c i d e n t a l t o the r e s i d e n t i a l use of the  dwelling  and  does not  change  the  residential character  of the  surrounding  n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( O n t a r i o , 1987; T o n e r , 1976).  " T h e precise m a n n e r i n w h i c h these  c o n d i t i o n s are  homeworker,  met  m a y be left  up  to  the  and  t h u s a degree of  32 flexibility  is a l l o w e d " ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 15). W h i l e some restrictions are  o b v i o u s l y necessary a n d desired, m a n y "needlessly interfere w i t h v a l u a b l e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y a n d h a v e n o a p p a r e n t v a l i d social p u r p o s e " ( P r a t t , 1987a, p . i i i ) . E x a m p l e s of p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s i n c l u d e l i m i t s o n the f o l l o w i n g : E x t e r n a l effects Bylaws  usually  require  that  the  exterior  appearance  of the  p r o p e r t y be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h o u t a n y e v i d e n c e of a s e c o n d a r y use, a n d  residential structural  alterations or a d d i t i o n s to the exterior of a d w e l l i n g of a c o m m e r c i a l n a t u r e are disallowed (Staples,  1988).  T h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n is u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to  operate  w h o l l y w i t h i n the residence, w i t h the use of a garage or accessory b u i l d i n g often p r o h i b i t e d ( P r a t t , 1987a). materials,  or  P r o h i b i t i o n of the o u t s i d e storage of business e q u i p m e n t ,  merchandise  is u s u a l , w i t h  inventory a n d materials possible (Pratt,  restrictions 1987a).  on  the  i n s i d e storage  of  Most bylaws prohibit outdoor  signs or the e x t e r n a l d i s p l a y of m e r c h a n d i s e , a n d m a y l i m i t t h e size a n d message of a n i n d o o r s i g n t o a s m a l l , u n i l l u m i n a t e d t y p e ( S t a p l e s , 1988), often i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h sign by-law provisions. I n t e n s i t y of use To  regulate  the  i n t e n s i t y of use, t h e  bylaw may  allow  o n l y one  home  o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h m u s t r e m a i n c l e a r l y accessory t o the p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l use of the property.  R e s t r i c t i o n s are i m p o s e d o n the a m o u n t of floor area t h a t c a n be used for  business purposes, e.g., one r o o m or a c e r t a i n percentage of t h e i n t e r i o r floor space (Pratt,  1987a).  O f t e n the  number  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the  home  o c c u p a t i o n is  r e s t r i c t e d to a c t u a l residents of the d w e l l i n g or " f a m i l y " m e m b e r s (Staples, 1988), a l t h o u g h a l l o w a n c e s m a y be m a d e for t h e e m p l o y m e n t of one or t w o o u t s i d e staff. Usually,  the  dwelling  cannot  be  used  to  assemble  employees  d i s p a t c h to o t h e r l o c a t i o n s , or other purposes ( P o r t e r , 1986).  for  instruction,  O p e r a t i n g hours for  33 b o t h i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r a c t i v i t i e s m a y be r e s t r i c t e d ( P r a t t ,  1987a).  Often  the  n u m b e r of clients or customers a l l o w e d o n t h e premises at one t i m e or o n a n y g i v e n d a y m a y be l i m i t e d , or p r o h i b i t e d altogether ( S t a p l e s , 1988). goods p r o d u c e d are u s u a l l y p r o h i b i t e d ( P r a t t , 1987a). the address of the h o m e - b a s e d  business  O n - s i t e r e t a i l sales of  Advertisements that supply  are also u s u a l l y p r o h i b i t e d ( B u t l e r a n d  G e t z e l s , 1985). Traffic and parking T r a f f i c is often r e g u l a t e d b y r e q u i r i n g t h a t the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n not create a n y a d d i t i o n a l p e d e s t r i a n or v e h i c u l a r traffic i n t o or out of t h e premises i n excess of t h a t n o r m a l l y f o u n d i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . or courier deliveries ( P r a t t , vehicles u s e d prohibited.  i n conjunction  1987a), with  and  the  L i m i t s are sometimes p l a c e d o n t r u c k the  home  parking and occupation  storage of t r u c k s  are  often  restricted  or or  R e s t r i c t i o n s o n the extent of on-street p a r k i n g a n d the p r o v i s i o n of off-  street p a r k i n g are designed to restrict the flow of traffic to h o m e - b a s e d  businesses  ( S t a p l e s , 1988). N u i s a n c e aspects a n d use of e q u i p m e n t M o s t m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y l a w s a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l t h e n u i s a n c e aspects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d often restrict emissions of s m o k e , d u s t a n d o t h e r p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r (Staples, 1988).  Offensive a n d o b n o x i o u s o d o u r s , dangerous emissions, a n d  noise a n d v i b r a t i o n s are p r o h i b i t e d . restricted.  Often  the  E l e c t r i c a l interference,  i n s t a l l a t i o n , use  or  repair  of  heat, a n d glare  mechanical  or  are  electrical  e q u i p m e n t o t h e r t h a n t h a t c u s t o m a r i l y e m p l o y e d i n a d w e l l i n g u n i t for d o m e s t i c or household  purposes  is  prohibited  (Pratt,  1987a)  c o m p u t e r s a n d f a c s i m i l e m a c h i n e s [Herbers, 1986]).  (this  may  include  personal  34 Licensing Licensing  systems  for  home  occupations  provide  a  quick  means  of  a u t h o r i z i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985), g i v i n g the c o m m u n i t y m o r e c o n t r o l over h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ( T o n e r , 1976). business  license r e q u i r e m e n t  occupations  (Ontario,  is v i e w e d as o n e w a y to keep  1987),  serving  as  the  o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 5 ) .  The  records  on  home  "monitoring backbone"  of  home  In British C o l u m b i a , any  enterprise  u n d e r t a k e n for t h e p u r p o s e of g a i n or profit w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e e x c h a n g e of m o n e y for goods o r services qualifies as a business a n d is u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o be licensed b y t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h m a y i m p o s e differential business license fees ( O r s e r , 1991; S t a p l e s , 1988). and  subject  to  U p o n a p p l i c a t i o n for a business license w h i c h is t e m p o r a r y  periodic  review, the  applicant  is m a d e  aware  of t h e  zoning  r e q u i r e m e n t s r e l e v a n t to h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985).  Case-by-  case,  with  administrators  determine  compliance of the home-based  business  z o n i n g , b u i l d i n g , h e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n , a n d business b y l a w s (Staples, 1988).  the  Inspection  of t h e premises b y staff of one or m o r e c i t y d e p a r t m e n t s m a y b e necessary ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985). revocation  of  imprisonment,  a  V i o l a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e z o n i n g b y l a w is g r o u n d s for  business  license;  however,  etc., is u s u a l l y unnecessary  such  drastic  a n d infractions  action,  e.g.,  fines,  are u s u a l l y resolved  r e a d i l y ( B u t l e r , 1988). Homeworkers' perspective I n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g d e b a t e d i n courts a n d t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l c h a n n e l s are t h e p l a n n i n g regulations (typically zoning b y l a w s ) a n d the licensing requirements which  the  home  work  site  and  worker  are  subject  (Pratt,  1987a).  to  While  e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p a n d s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t are p r o m o t e d p o l i t i c a l l y b y federal a n d m a n y provincial  governments  (Dykeman,  1989;  Orser,  1991),  current  municipal  35 r e g u l a t i o n s do not s u p p o r t t h e n e w interest i n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k ( P r a t t , While  some  municipalities have  regulations  which  encourage  home  1987a). business  o w n e r s h i p , others discourage i t , a n d a n u m b e r of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s v i r t u a l l y p r o h i b i t a l l h o m e - b a s e d businesses because "[they are] j u s t too h a r d to p o l i c e " ( C r a m , 1990, p . 6).  H o m e - b a s e d business o w n e r s c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e y  are u n a b l e to  develop  satisfactory business g r o w t h d u e to o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e , " a r c h a i c " z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s (e.g., o n signage, c l i e n t / c u s t o m e r visits, t h e sale of p r o d u c t s , i n v e n t o r y storage, allowances for employees, etc.) w h i c h " p l a y h a v o c w i t h t h e i r business p l a n s " ( C r a m , 1990, p . 6) a n d  unduly limit  the  o p e r a t i o n of t h e i r i n c o m e - p r o d u c i n g a c t i v i t i e s  ( P r a t t , 1987b).  C u r r e n t l y , t h e h o m e w o r k e r is " l i t t l e m o r e t h a n a s o l i t a r y m o l e ,  s c u t t l i n g o u t of his h o m e " ( M o w b r a y , 1986, p . 54).  Such restrictions can t h w a r t  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l e g i t i m a t e h o m e - b a s e d businesses a n d " t h r e a t e n  to stifle a n  i m p o r t a n t a n d g r o w i n g sector of t h e economy...[placing] obstacles i n the w a y of the e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l goals" of a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of people ( P r a t t , 1987a, p . i i i ) . C o n c e r n s h a v e been expressed t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s are c o n f u s i n g a n d b i a s e d . " M a n y of these r e g u l a t i o n s are p o o r l y w r i t t e n , a d m i n i s t e r e d a r b i t r a r i l y , o b s c u r e to the p u b l i c , a n d seem m o r e t r o u b l e s o m e t h a n the excesses t h e y are i n t e n d e d p r e v e n t " ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 4). regulations,  can  unintentionally  cause  D e f i n i t i o n s , a c r i t i c a l element i n h o m e o c c u p a t i o n  interpretation  including  to  housework  problems and  due  hobbies)  to  their  (Toner,  vagueness 1976),  or  (often can  be  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y b y i n c l u d i n g a m b i g u o u s terms s u c h as " t r a d i t i o n a l " or " p r o f e s s i o n a l " (Ontario,  1987).  While  p r o h i b i t e d uses t e n d  they  may  to be difficult  interpret t h e m ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  provide examples,  lists  to a d m i n i s t e r due to t h e  of p e r m i t t e d time required  and to  T h e y d o n o t p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e t o z o n i n g officials i n  e v a l u a t i n g p r o p o s a l s for n e w , u n p r e c e d e n t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ( B u t l e r , 1988), a n d often act as a deterrent to the legal e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s due to  36 the c o m p l e x i t y a n d t i m e i n v o l v e d i n r e q u e s t i n g a n a m e n d m e n t to a b y l a w ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  If t h e  "overhaul"  z o n i n g b y l a w has  not. been  these lists ( B u t l e r a n d  challenged, the  G e t z e l s , 1985), w h i c h  tendency  are  is not  cumbersome  to and  a w k w a r d tools to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t h e b y l a w ( O n t a r i o , 1987). C u r r e n t z o n i n g b y l a w s often do n o t reflect the r a p i d e m p l o y m e n t  changes  w h i c h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e w i t h i n the last, several years ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985), a n d m a n y people t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s are h i n d e r e d or p r e v e n t e d f r o m pursuing particular occupations.  M o s t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were drafted a n d e n a c t e d  i n different e c o n o m i c times (most p r e d a t e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i n t r o d u c e d i n the late 1970s a n d e a r l y 1980s [ B u t l e r , 1988]), a n d  have  n o t been r e v i s e d t o reflect changes i n the n a t u r e of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g r o w i n g n u m b e r of p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n w h i t e - c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s at h o m e . bylaws  do n o t  contain  p r o v i s i o n s for  "high-tech"  occupations  e n v i s i o n e d w h e n the b y l a w s were w r i t t e n ( P r a t t , 1987a). list  historically  accepted  professionals,  such  as  were  not  F o r e x a m p l e , some b y l a w s  doctors  p r o h i b i t i n g n e w types of professionals or c o n s u l t a n t s  which  Most  and  lawyers,  while  w h o w o u l d l i k e t h e i r office  s i t u a t e d i n t h e h o m e , s u c h as c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s or p l a n n e r s ( H e r b e r s , 1986). L i s t s m a y be too r e s t r i c t i v e a n d a r b i t r a r y , l e g a l i z i n g some businesses excluding conducted  others, in  the  and  may  home  limit in  permitted  that  locale  occupations (Butler,  to  1988).  those  and  "customarily"  Often  unintended  consequences o c c u r , s u c h as t h e p r o h i b i t i o n of p o t e n t i a l l y desirable services due to t h e i r o m i s s i o n f r o m t h e list of p e r m i t t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( B u t l e r , 1988).  Also, anything  n o t l i s t e d as a p r o h i b i t e d use is p e r c e i v e d to be p e r m i t t e d , w h i c h is n o t l i k e l y t o be the i n t e n t of t h e b y l a w ( O n t a r i o , 1987). Home-based  workers  are  often  unaware  of or u n c l e a r  about  zoning  and  business b y l a w s w h i c h regulate t h e i r w o r k ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985) or are reticent  37 to c o n f o r m i n g to c o m p l e x restrictions or p a y i n g steep license or d e v e l o p m e n t ( C o o n e y , 1989; D y k e m a n , 1989). t h e i r businesses  A s a result, m a n y h o m e - b a s e d  i l l e g a l l y , " p u t t i n g those w h o stay  within  fees  workers operate  the l a w at  an  unfair  d i s a d v a n t a g e " (Herbers, 1986, p . A 1 8 ) .  Enforcement A p p a r e n t l y , m a n y h o m e businesses  o p e r a t e i n v i o l a t i o n of r e g u l a t i o n s  but  w i t h o u t interference f r o m a u t h o r i t i e s .  T h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n is p e r h a p s the m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y v i o l a t e d section of the entire z o n i n g ordinance. Mass civil disobedience and lax enforcement attest to its weakness ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 2).  A great m a n y of t h e restrictions o n h o m e - b a s e d drafted  home  occupation  ordinances  hinder  w o r k are difficult, to enforce; i l l officials  r e g u l a t i o n s ( B u t l e r , 1988; B y e , 1984; O n t a r i o , 1987).  in  enforcing  their  own  M o r e often t h a n n o t , z o n i n g  b y l a w s a n d l i c e n s i n g requirements are not enforced o n a p r o - a c t i v e basis due to a l a c k of staff ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985). M u n i c i p a l officials a d m i t t h a t it is i m p o s s i b l e to m o n i t o r a l l e x i s t i n g h o m e occupations;  most  do  not  bother  with  business  licenses  ( M o w b r a y , 1986),  u n o b t r u s i v e , d o not generate m u c h traffic a n d often go u n d e t e c t e d .  are  P r o b l e m s are  h a n d l e d p r i m a r i l y o n a c o m p l a i n t - b y - n e i g h b o u r basis ( O n t a r i o , 1987).  Generally,  t h e " u n w r i t t e n r u l e i n the enforcement of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n m o s t c o m m u n i t i e s is t h a t i f no o n e c o m p l a i n s , there is n o p r o b l e m " ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 21). N e i g h b o u r s g e n e r a l l y tolerate  home-based  businesses  and  only complain if they  i m p i n g e o n t h e a m e n i t y of the area, for e x a m p l e , due to some v i s i b l e or a u d i b l e aspect of t h e o p e r a t i o n of the business ( O r s e r , 1991; P r a t t , 1987a; T h o m a s , 1986).  " N e i g h b o u r s . . . c a n p o l i c e the n e i g h b o u r h o o d better t h a n the enforcing  department  c o u l d ever h o p e t o " ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 21).  Review underway M a n y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e resisted a c c o m m o d a t i n g h o m e - b a s e d w o r k , fearing t h a t "the  whole residential character  of [their c o m m u n i t i e s ] w i l l be  threatened"  ( C r a m , 1990, p . 6).  H o w e v e r , a s u r v e y of 1,100 l o c a l p l a n n i n g agencies b y  American  Association  Planning  dissatisfied  with  their  home  found  that  occupation  many  local  ordinances,  governments  considering  the were  them  to  be  i n a d e q u a t e t o regulate the c u r r e n t m u l t i t u d e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ( B u t l e r , 1988). A s t h e n u m b e r of people w h o w o r k at h o m e rises, m a n y l o c a l are  determined  to  preserve  the  residential  qualities  governments  of n e i g h b o r h o o d s  i m p e d i n g t h e r e v i v a l of cottage i n d u s t r y ( H e r b e r s , 1986).  without  T h e r e has been a g r a d u a l  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e the p o t e n t i a l to really a n n o y n e i g h b o u r s , c h a n g e the c h a r a c t e r  of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d , s t r a i n p u b l i c services, or  c o m p e t e against businesses i n c o m m e r c i a l areas ( T o n e r , 1976). Some businesses  municipalities  have  t o the l o c a l e c o n o m y  recognized and  the  importance  are engaged  of  home-based  i n p r o m o t i n g better  business  e n v i r o n m e n t s for t h e m .  T h e effects of z o n i n g b y l a w s o n h o m e businesses a n d t h e i r  economic  communities  impacts  on  have  become  a  national  issue  with  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m u l t i p a r t i t e c o m m i t t e e u n d e r the federal I n d u s t r i a l A d j u s t m e n t Service P r o g r a m .  It was i n s t i g a t e d b y the F e d e r a t i o n of C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  w h i c h c a l l e d for research to assist p o l i c y m a k e r s i n p r o t e c t i n g " t r a d i t i o n a l qualities in  the  c o m m u n i t y w h i l e fostering  establishments"  ( M o w a t , 1991).  e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y done (Mowat,  1991), the  at  the  the  e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g of s u c h c o m m e r c i a l  " B e g i n n i n g to home-based  entrepreneurship  see  that  there is a  business  level  than  office of t h e  federal  first  Ministry  of  lot  more  imagined" Industry,  39 Science a n d T e c h n o l o g y agreed to b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e " N a t i o n a l H o m e - B a s e d B u s i n e s s P r o j e c t " w h i c h was l a u n c h e d i n J a n u a r y 1991.  Its m a n d a t e is to research  the n a t u r e a n d extent of h o m e - b a s e d business i n C a n a d a , e x a m i n e its p o t e n t i a l for g r o w t h a n d i m p a c t o n society, a n d p r e p a r e g u i d e l i n e s for l o c a l leaders to  assist  t h e m i n " c r e a t i n g a p o s i t i v e c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t for t h i s h o m e - b a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y " ( P r i e s n i t z , 1990, p . 6).  A report c o m p i l i n g the results f r o m this t i m e l y  research is to i n c l u d e p r o - a c t i v e p l a n n i n g guidelines (e.g., s a m p l e b y l a w s ) ( M o w a t , 1991).  C o p i e s w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a n d p l a n n i n g staffs to g u i d e  t h e m i n a m e n d i n g t h e i r current r e g u l a t i o n s to foster h o m e - b a s e d business a c t i v i t y i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s ( M o w a t , 1991). For  most  c o m m u n i t i e s , the  " k n o t t y " p r o b l e m ( T o n e r , 1976).  r e g u l a t i o n of h o m e  occupations  has  been  a  Officials h a v e a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t is it difficult to  devise w o r k a b l e z o n i n g b y l a w s w h i c h r e q u i r e a m i n i m a l a m o u n t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n yet  differentiate  between  desirable  satisfaction o f a l l ( B u t l e r , 1988). based  work,  occupations"  undesirable  home  occupations  to  the  R e s p o n d i n g to the i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d t o w a r d h o m e -  zoning administrators, (Butler and  and  "who  have  grown  more  tolerant  G e t z e l s , 1985, p . 5), are r e v i e w i n g a n d  of  home  revising their  c u r r e n t , o v e r l y - r i g i d or v a g u e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , often at t h e request of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s w h o receive c o m p l a i n t s f r o m p r o p o n e n t s  of h o m e  occupations  ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985). F r u s t r a t e d w i t h z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , some h o m e business owners h a v e f o u n d it  advantageous  to  band  together  associations w h i c h p r o m o t e , s u p p o r t ,  and  form  home-based  and nurture  business  networking  the g r o w t h of h o m e  business.  O p e r a t i n g w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y t h a t the self-employed h a v e greater c l o u t w h e n t h e y act c o l l e c t i v e l y ( B a c o n , 1989), m a n y associations h a v e a d o p t e d a c t i v e p o l i c y m a k i n g roles l o c a l l y a n d n a t i o n a l l y ( P r a t t , 1987a).  M a n y " v e h e m e n t l y f a v o u r " the lifting of  40 restrictions o n the use of h o m e as w o r k place ( H u w s et a l . , 1990, p . 54). C o l u m b i a , some g r o u p s  In B r i t i s h  h a v e successfully l o b b i e d t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  amend  t h e i r b y l a w s t o reflect the c h a n g i n g needs of l o c a l , h o m e - b a s e d residents, m a n y of w h o m are u n a b l e to e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y as l e g i t i m a t e businesses due to z o n i n g a n d business b y l a w restrictions ( C r a m , 1990). Having  realized  that  the  practice  p r o h i b i t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s is o u t d a t e d  of  listing  specifically  permitted  and  ( T o n e r , 1976), m a n y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d i v e r s i t y a n d v o l u m e of h o m e - b a s e d businesses b y s i m p l i f y i n g t h e i r zoning bylaws. "professionals"  Some municipalities have found and  "customary  uses"  is  that favoured  unreasonable,  s t a t u s g i v e n to  discriminatory  and  challengeable, a n d " c a n n o t be j u s t i f i e d o n the basis t h a t these uses p r o d u c e less h a r m f u l consequences 1988, p . 193).  to a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h a n o t h e r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s " ( B u t l e r ,  S u c h terms are a n " i n a p p r o p r i a t e surrogate" for the r e g u l a t i o n of  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , as are p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h l i m i t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n employees  to  " f a m i l y m e m b e r s " ( B u t l e r , 1988, p . 193). Without  imposing arbitrary  restraints,  some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e  changed  t h e i r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n restrictions t i e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l categories a n d are a l l o w i n g v i r t u a l l y a n y h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s as l o n g as t h e y c o n f o r m to s t i p u l a t e d  performance  s t a n d a r d s w h i c h are enforced o n l y w h e n n e i g h b o u r s c o m p l a i n ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985).  T h e use of clear a n d concise p e r f o r m a n c e  measurable,  allowable  effects  of  various  s t a n d a r d s w h i c h describe  occupational  activities"  (Cross  "the and  R a i z m a n , 1986, p . 26) is r e c o g n i z e d to be the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e a n d effective m e t h o d i n c o n t r o l l i n g the i m p a c t of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s o n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d 1984).  (Longhini,  N u i s a n c e s , s u c h as noise, o d o u r , etc., are h a r d to measure, a n d enforcing  s u c h p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s takes c o n s i d e r a b l e staff t i m e .  However, quantitative  measures of traffic flow, p a r k i n g spaces, the n u m b e r of employees a n d  customers,  41 a n d floor area usage c a n ensure h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s r e m a i n i n c i d e n t a l a n d accessory uses w i t h i n t h e d w e l l i n g ( B u t l e r a n d G e t z e l s , 1985).  A z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e t h a t takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the effect of a h o m e o c c u p a t i o n o n traffic p a t t e r n s , p a r k i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y , aesthetics a n d nuisances i n general is a reasonable ordinance for maintaining residential c h a r a c t e r ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 13).  Avoiding  easily  misinterpreted  words  or  ambiguous  language,  "the  o r d i n a n c e . . . s h o u l d be l i m i t i n g a n d e x p l i c i t , so t h a t q u i c k , effective a t t e n t i o n c a n be p a i d to those few n u i s a n c e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t c o m e t o the p l a n n i n g agency's attention"  and  decisions  b a c k g r o u n d reports  can  be  made  ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 1).  without  extensive  investigation  Certain "undesirable" home  or  occupations  w h i c h are l i k e l y t o generate a lot of v e h i c u l a r traffic or noise are a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s a l l o w e d because t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s of t h e o r d i n a n c e c o u l d never be met ( L o n g h i n i , 1984).  Summary W i t h o u t r e g u l a t i o n , v i r t u a l l y a n y e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y c o u l d be c a r r i e d from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s home. those w h i c h  T h e r e f o r e , it is essential t o l i m i t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s to  are c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the  ensure m i n i m a l  negative  out  impacts  residential nature of neighbourhoods.  o n the  neighbourhood  or its residents,  To many  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s use a r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h l i c e n s i n g procedures a n d a p p r o v a l of t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n based o n c o n d i t i o n s specified i n the z o n i n g b y l a w w h i c h restrict the use of the h o m e as w o r k p l a c e . suggests t h a t considerably  the  design a n d effectiveness  between  municipalities.  literature  of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s  Many  experience  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d i n enforcing r e l e v a n t r e g u l a t i o n s . drafted  H o w e v e r , the  z o n i n g b y l a w s can h i n d e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  difficulty  vary  in monitoring  Vague, outdated, and i l l -  a n d o p e r a t i o n of l e g i t i m a t e  42 h o m e businesses  a n d result i n t h e i r i l l e g a l o p e r a t i o n .  Some municipalities have  recognized t h e benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k to the i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o m m u n i t y a n d have updated increasing  t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s t o reflect the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of h o m e w o r k  numbers  of  homeworkers.  Reasonable,  well-designed  and  performance  s t a n d a r d s t h a t are i m p o s e d o n a l l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s seem to be a w o r k a b l e t o o l i n c o n t r o l l i n g a b r o a d range of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . F o r c o m p a r a t i v e purposes, work-at-home  trend  and  discussed i n C h a p t e r 4.  the  a l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o n the  methods  used  to  regulate  significance of  home  occupations  the is  43 C H A P T E R FOUR:  A LOCAL  PERSPECTIVE  Introduction Since m o s t of the l i t e r a t u r e o n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k is s p e c u l a t i v e a n d b a s e d o n A m e r i c a n e x a m p l e s , i t was necessary to o b t a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the l o c a l h o m e - b a s e d business s i t u a t i o n .  L e t t e r s o u t l i n i n g this research e n d e a v o u r were sent to p l a n n i n g  directors of eight selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r area chosen for illustrative telephone  rather and  than  representative  purposes.  i n - p e r s o n discussions were h e l d  M e e t i n g s were with  seven p l a n n e r s  arranged and  by  senior  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w h o s e w o r k i n v o l v e s p l a n n i n g for a n d r e g u l a t i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . A p p e n d i x A lists the i n f o r m a n t s w h o were: departmental  planners  a d i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g ( C o q u i t l a m ) ,  (New Westminster,  City  of  North Vancouver,  W e s t V a n c o u v e r a n d P o r t C o q u i t l a m ) , a chief license i n s p e c t o r ( B u r n a b y ) , a n d a z o n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r ( V a n c o u v e r ) . T h e m e m b e r of m u n i c i p a l staff i n R i c h m o n d , to w h o m the research letter was f o r w a r d e d , was u n r e s p o n s i v e to several telephone calls p l a c e d to a r r a n g e a m e e t i n g . A  set of questions  ( A p p e n d i x B ) g u i d e d the s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , e x p l o r a t o r y  c o n s u l t a t i o n s to ensure t h a t each i n f o r m a n t addressed  the same aspects of the  h o m e - b a s e d w o r k issue; a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t was u s e d to gather i n f o r m a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s were asked a b o u t t h e a c t u a l a n d perceived extent of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e i r n a t u r e , a n d n u m e r i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c significance to municipality.  I n f o r m a n t s were asked to:  the  describe the l o c a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h o m e  o c c u p a t i o n s o n t h e p a r t of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , c i t i z e n s , a n d the business c o m m u n i t y ; specify the p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g the o p e r a t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d businesses; e l a b o r a t e o n the m e t h o d s u s e d b y p l a n n i n g staff t o regulate t h e m ; a n d discuss impacts.  the  adequacy Informants  of these  regulations  in minimizing  supplied information about  negative  enforcement  comnmnity  issues  including  44 business license p r o c e d u r e s , the frequency a n d n a t u r e of c o m p l a i n t s , enforcement policies, a n d p r o s e c u t i o n i n c i d e n t s . reasons for past, c u r r e n t ,  Q u e s t i o n s were asked a b o u t the n a t u r e of a n d  and proposed amendments  to the zoning bylaw,  and  a b o u t the l o c a l p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l t e r n a t i v e w o r k o p t i o n s s u c h as h o m e b a s e d w o r k , i.e., p o s s i b l e changes i n the w a y p l a n n i n g ( p a r t i c u l a r l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g ) is c o n d u c t e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Comments made  by planners  about  the issue i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  discussed i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a n a l y s i s of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n z o n i n g b y l a w s s u p p l i e d b y the i n f o r m a n t s .  F o r reference p u r p o s e s , t a b u l a t e d  data  are  p r o v i d e d , a n d the legend o n page 49 is to be u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g a l l tables f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t the text. E x t e n t , n a t u r e , a n d significance o f h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s It is difficult for m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to o b t a i n a n a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the n u m b e r a n d n a t u r e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , even t h o u g h a l l use business licenses  as  a  occupations  " c o n t r o l feature".  are  not  O f t e n , past  available or  cannot  be  year  licensing  accessed  records  without  on  home  extensive  work  ( N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) , m a k i n g it difficult to m o n i t o r a n d e s t a b l i s h trends o n h o m e b a s e d businesses.  D u e to i n a d e q u a t e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , its storage, a n d m o n i t o r i n g , a l l  estimates of the n u m b e r a n d types of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s were b a s e d o n c u r r e n t year business license i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s . Actual  data  on home  occupations operating  m u n i c i p a l licensing departments business  licenses  issued.  i n c o m m u n i t i e s is  limited;  g e n e r a l l y m a i n t a i n v e r y b a s i c d a t a bases for a l l  Depending  upon  the  classification  system  utilized,  statistics specific t o h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s m a y n o t be a v a i l a b l e ( B u r n a b y , V a n c o u v e r ) as  they  are  in  West Vancouver).  other  areas  (Coquitlam,  New Westminster,  North Vancouver,  I n a d d i t i o n , m a n y h o m e - b a s e d business o w n e r s d o not  bother  45 w i t h business home-based  licenses.  owners  O n l y two informants  operating  illegally  i n their  ventured  to guess the n u m b e r of  communities; the  planners  from  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r e s t i m a t e d t h a t 5 0 % of the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g were d o i n g so w i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t e licenses. N u m b e r of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s T h e general consensus  a m o n g those i n t e r v i e w e d was t h a t the n u m b e r of  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s was i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , w h i c h verifies c l a i m s m a d e i n the l i t e r a t u r e . had  H o w e v e r , one p l a n n e r felt t h a t the n u m b e r of h o m e  stabilized and  he  was  not  a n t i c i p a t i n g the  establishment  businesses  of m a n y  more  (North Vancouver). A v a r i e t y of reasons were s u p p l i e d as factors c o n t r i b u t i n g to the increase i n the n u m b e r of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . such  as  a  downturn  i n the  Some informants identified economic conditions,  economy  or u n e m p l o y m e n t  (Burnaby, Coquitlam,  W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) or c o r p o r a t e d o w n s i z i n g ( W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) , w h i l e one p l a n n e r felt that  business  a c t i v i t y was  generated  during  "good  times"  (New Westminster).  A n o t h e r felt t h a t t h e n u m b e r of h o m e businesses was i n c r e a s i n g due to p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e i r r e s p e c t i v e of e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) . that technological advances  i n business  Some  mentioned  and communication equipment,  such  as  c o m p u t e r s a n d c e l l u l a r p h o n e s , were m a k i n g i t easier for p e o p l e t o engage i n service industries from the home (New Westminster, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) . C h a n g i n g n a t u r e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s The  literature  suggests t h a t  the  type  of h o m e  occupations  is c h a n g i n g .  H o w e v e r , n o n e of the i n f o r m a n t s t h o u g h t t h a t changes were o c c u r r i n g i n t h e n a t u r e of the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y f o u n d i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . W h i l e m e n t i o n was made  of  "some  "overgrown  women  hobbies"  at  home  which  with  have  their  children"  developed  into  and  others  successful  who  have  businesses  46 ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , the p l a n n e r s i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r report the  prevalence  of  professionals,  consultants,  and  related  service  occupations.  H o w e v e r , other m u n i c i p a l staff were u n a b l e to i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t of the different t y p e s of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . F r e q u e n t l y p e r c e i v e d as p r e v a l e n t were  craftspeople  Vancouver),  and  which  is  contractors in  accordance  (Burnaby, with  the  Coquitlam, two-tier  New Westminster,  home  business  license  categories u t i l i z e d i n these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to c h a r g e differential rates for homecraft o c c u p a t i o n s a n d for those i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w o r k i n or out of t h e i r h o m e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of h o m e e m p l o y m e n t W h i l e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a p p e a r to be a p e r m a n e n t , o n - g o i n g p h e n o m e n o n i n the  residential setting  and  not  a passing fad, most  informants  were generally  u n c o n v i n c e d a b o u t the significance of h o m e - b a s e d businesses i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . M a n y p e r c e i v e d t h a t the e c o n o m i c a n d social benefits of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s accrue o n l y to t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n ( C o q u i t l a m , N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) . F o r e x a m p l e , h o m e c r a f t o c c u p a t i o n s are v i e w e d as p r i m a r i l y p a r t - t i m e which  provide  a  secondary  source  of  income  enterprises  (New Westminster, Vancouver).  D e s p i t e 1981 S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a d a t a o n W e s t V a n c o u v e r e m p l o y m e n t ( s u p p l i e d b y t h e i n f o r m a n t ) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t 7.8% of the l a b o u r force (or 1,480  people)  w o r k e d at h o m e ( w h i c h compares w i t h the 1,470 employees at the largest single e m p l o y e r o n the N o r t h Shore - L i o n s G a t e H o s p i t a l ) , a n d the c u r r e n t estimates t h a t 50 t o 7 5 % of s m a l l businesses i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r are h o m e - b a s e d , the c i t y p l a n n e r r e p o r t e d , nevertheless, t h a t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e n o i m p a c t o n the c o m m u n i t y (West Vancouver). H o w e v e r , beneficial  aspects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  to t h e  community  are  a c k n o w l e d g e d b y some of the p l a n n e r s w h o w e l c o m e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h o m e b a s e d businesses  which  c o n t r i b u t e to the  local economy b y generating  spin-off  47 demand  for  goods  department  in  and  services  Port Coquitlam,  (Burnaby, currently  North Vancouver). amending  its  The  zoning  planning  bylaw  which  p r o h i b i t s a l m o s t a l l h o m e - b a s e d w o r k , a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t h o m e - b a s e d businesses  will  p r o v i d e a n "ever i n c r e a s i n g source of e m p l o y m e n t " . H o w e v e r , there exist c o n f l i c t i n g business  i n the  enterprises  to  home.  Some informants  incubate  North Vancouver,  opinions about  before  recognize the  relocating  Vancouver).  the  Municipal  to  i n c u b a t i o n of s m a l l  need  commercial councils  in  of some  districts both  fledgling (Burnaby,  Burnaby  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r are a p p a r e n t l y s u p p o r t i v e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , w h o s e "are  not  tacitly,  but  (North Vancouver). viable  place  to  fully  accepted  members  of  the  business  and  operators  community"  H o w e v e r , o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s d o not consider the h o m e t o be a start  West Vancouver).  It  and  was  "grow"  stated  that  a  small  business  business  (New Westminster,  license a p p l i c a n t s  "testing  the  m a r k e t " s h o u l d do so i n a c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t ( N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) . C o n t r a r y to allegations i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i n f o r m a n t s report t h a t the business c o m m u n i t y is g e n e r a l l y u n t h r e a t e n e d  b y h o m e - b a s e d businesses, " p r o b a b l y because  t h e y are n o t a w a r e of t h e i r e x t e n t "  (Vancouver).  V i r t u a l l y no complaints from  business c o m p e t i t o r s a b o u t u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n h a v e been received b y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h h a v e s e e m i n g l y a t t e m p t e d to pacify business owners o p e r a t i n g i n c o m m e r c i a l districts.  I n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l core i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , some  municipalities  have  been  "adamant"  (New Westminster)  and  "hard  line"  ( C o q u i t l a m ) i n refusing to a m e n d t h e i r z o n i n g b y l a w s to a l l o w professionals to w o r k at h o m e .  V i e w i n g p l a n n i n g as t h e s e p a r a t i o n of i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d uses b y zones,  o n e p l a n n e r s t a t e d t h a t it was u n a c c e p t a b l e "to go i n t h r o u g h t h e b a c k d o o r " t o create  c o m m e r c i a l zones  (e.g.,  rezoning (New Westminster).  by  allowing  professional  home  offices)  without  It was feared t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g a n d l e a s i n g of office  48 space w o u l d be affected, cause c o n c e r n for the  w h i c h c o u l d p e r h a p s w e a k e n the c o m m e r c i a l core  business  community (New Westminster).  p o s s i b i l i t y of c o m p l a i n t s f r o m the business  and  T o reduce  the  c o m m u n i t y i n B u r n a b y , professional  h o m e offices are c h a r g e d the same license fee as those businesses l o c a t e d i n bonafide c o m m e r c i a l areas ($382 i n i t i a l l y , $123 r e n e w a l ) .  T h e planner i n N o r t h Vancouver  believes t h a t smaller-scale h o m e businesses generally c a n n o t c o m p e t e v o l u m e - w i s e w i t h businesses i n c o m m e r c i a l areas due to m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s  which  often l i m i t t h e types of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h c a n be p u r s u e d a n d affect operation  through  restrictions  on  retail  sales,  use  of  outside  their  employees,  etc.  I m p o r t a n t l y , the p l a n n e r s f r o m N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r report t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of h o m e - b a s e d businesses i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s do n o t use the h o m e as a n i n c u b a t o r b u t as a l o n g - t e r m site for t h e i r businesses; it is p e r c e i v e d t h a t m o s t owners  do not  intend  o n e x p a n d i n g t h e i r businesses  beyond the  home  due  to  lifestyle c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) . Planning  issues  M e t h o d s of r e g u l a t i o n A l l municipalities contacted  employ more than  one m e t h o d  of r e g u l a t i n g  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d use a c o m b i n a t i o n of z o n i n g a n d business b y l a w s .  Among  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , h o w e v e r , the z o n i n g b y l a w p r o v i s i o n s relevant t o h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n age, c o n t e n t ,  and clarity, with  some m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n s  n o t i c e a b l y m o r e refined ( B u r n a b y , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) t h a n other c o m m u n i t i e s . following variability  tables in  the  are  provided  design  for  of h o m e  comparative occupation  purposes  to  demonstrate  provisions among  The the  municipalities  contacted. T a b l e 1 p r o v i d e s a n o v e r v i e w of i n f o r m a n t s ' general c o m m e n t s a b o u t the age and  d e s i g n ' of h o m e  occupation  provisions in their  municipal zoning  bylaws.  49 A l t h o u g h h o m e - b a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y is p e r m i t t e d i n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t a c t e d (except  Port  C o q u i t l a m ) , the  o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y w h o s e official  c o n t a i n s a reference to h o m e - b a s e d  w o r k is W e s t V a n c o u v e r (one i n f o r m a n t  uncertain about  s u c h a reference i n his m u n i c i p a l i t y [ B u r n a b y ] ) .  occupations  those  to  community plan  compatible  with  the  primary  Limiting  residential  was home  function  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p e r m i t w h a t t h e y consider to be desirable  of  home-  b a s e d businesses i n a l l r e s i d e n t i a l zones p r o v i d e d t h e y are s m a l l - s c a l e , u n o b t r u s i v e a n d d o n o t cause a n u i s a n c e .  LEGEND H B W = home-based work HO = home occupations O C P = official community plan Z B L = zoning bylaw V - yes X = no ? = interviewee did not know Empty box = not addressed in Z B L  a = permitted § = restricted • = prohibited A = excluded in certain areas * = cited as examples in Z B L <0> = has separate provisions in Z B L \ — proposed amendments (3 = regulated using business bylaw  T a b l e 1: O v e r v i e w of i n f o r m a n t s ' c o m m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the age a n d d e s i g n of home occupation provisions  Bby  Descriptors  Coq NewW NVan PoCoU  H B W reference i n O C P  ?  X  H O p e r m i t t e d i n a l l zones  v  v  Y e a r Z B L enacted  ?  1971  pre '60s  1987  1991  Z B L defines H O / s i m i l a r t e r m  V  X  Lists performance standards  V  v  Z B L last revised re:  HO  7  7  Z B L lists p e r m i t t e d H O uses Z B L lists p r o h i b i t e d H O uses  X 7  7  X v  7  v  7  WVan  X  X  X  v  1967  1979  ?  1968  1986  1988  1987  early '80s  1984  X  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  -v  X  Van  7  v  7  v  7  v  7  v  X  7  X v  X 7  X  7  •  v  7  v  7  X X  50 D e f i n e d i n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s except  New Westminster  a n d C o q u i t l a m , the  v a r i o u s l y - t e r m e d "homecraft, o c c u p a t i o n or b u s i n e s s " ( W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) , "accessory h o m e o c c u p a t i o n use" (Vancouver), subordinate  or to  ( C o q u i t l a m , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , "homecraft  "home  the  occupation"  principal residential  compliance w i t h zoning regulations  (Burnaby, use  or  occupation"  New Westminster)  of the  dwelling, and  must  be  is subject  to l i m i t its scale a n d i m p a c t .  to  Most zoning  b y l a w s were e n a c t e d some years ago ( t w o i n f o r m a n t s were u n c e r t a i n of t h e o r i g i n a l drafting date [Burnaby, Vancouver]), and almost extent w i t h i n t h e past ten years.  a l l h a v e been revised to  some  V a r i o u s l y - w o r d e d p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s are used  b y a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , sometimes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h lists of p e r m i t t e d or p r o h i b i t e d home occupations. Occupational limitations T a b l e 2 illustrates t h a t m a n y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a p p l y o c c u p a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s to  home-based  interpretation  businesses  in  their  zoning  bylaws.  Included  to  prevent  p r o b l e m s , some z o n i n g b y l a w s c o n t a i n lists of specifically p e r m i t t e d  a n d p r o h i b i t e d t y p e s of o c c u p a t i o n s only prohibited  occupations  i n the c o m m u n i t y ( N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) or list  i n a l l areas ( C o q u i t l a m ) or p a r t i c u l a r  areas  (North  Vancouver).  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r p r o h i b i t s a few m u l t i - c l i e n t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n its  medium and  h i g h density apartment districts, w i t h catering establishments  and  escort or d a t i n g services p r o h i b i t e d f r o m o p e r a t i n g i n a l l r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n the municipality.  I n c o n t r a s t , V a n c o u v e r a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r d o not specifically list  any permitted  or p r o h i b i t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  b u t , l i k e m o s t o t h e r areas, o u t l i n e  separate p r o v i s i o n s i n the z o n i n g b y l a w w h i c h r e g u l a t e c o m m o n h o m e s u c h as b e d a n d breakfast bylaw  lists  examples  of  a n d f a m i l y day-care o p e r a t i o n s . permitted  home  occupations,  m a n u f a c t u r i n g , w e l d i n g , a n d l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l uses.  occupations,  The Burnaby zoning and  only  prohibits  51 T a b l e 2: P e r m i t t e d a n d p r o h i b i t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s listec i n z o n i n g b y l a w s  Descriptors  Bby  Coq N e w W NVan PoCot  t a i l o r / seamstress  a*  a  d o m e s t i c crafts  a*  a  hobbies  a*  a.  music/art studio  a*  a  s m a l l a p p l i a n c e repairs  a  stenographer  a  writer  a*  bed & breakfast/lodgers  a*  0  a  0  family day-care  a*  0  0  OA  offices - p r o f 1/non-prof'l  a*  m e d i c a l / d e n t a l office beauty  parlour/barbershop  music/dance school/studio orchestra/band  practice  restaurant / catering animal kennel meeting hall t a x i / d r i v i n g school l a n d s c a p i n g business auto repair e s c o r t / d a t i n g service p r i v a t e schools manufacturing/industrial  •  • • • • A • • A • A • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A  Van  WVan  0  0  •  0  0  52 U s e of p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s Tables  3 to  6 inclusive summarize  the  prevalence  of four  categories  of  p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s c o m m o n l y f o u n d i n m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y l a w s to d e a l w i t h issues r e l a t e d to h o m e - b a s e d  work - in particular:  the e x t e r n a l effects  of h o m e  o c c u p a t i o n s , i n t e n s i t y of use c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , traffic a n d p a r k i n g effects, a n d n u i s a n c e aspects a n d use of e q u i p m e n t . T a b l e 3: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - e x t e r n a l effects  Descriptors  Bby  exterior changes to dwelling structural alterations operation within dwelling  Coq NewW NVan PoCot  • • • •  • a  a  use of garage/accessory bldg. outside storage of equipment ext'l display of merchandise inside storage of inventory  Van  •  a  WVan  a  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •P a  §  signage  §  §  §  §  T o d e a l w i t h the e x t e r n a l effects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r o h i b i t e x t e r n a l changes to the a p p e a r a n c e of t h e d w e l l i n g ( B u r n a b y , C o q u i t l a m , V a n c o u v e r ) or p r o h i b i t s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s to the d w e l l i n g of a c o m m e r c i a l n a t u r e (Burnaby, New Westminster).  O n l y h a l f of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s use  performance  s t a n d a r d s to s i t u a t e the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h some specifically p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r operation w i t h i n the residential dwelling unit ( C o q u i t l a m , N o r t h Vancouver, W e s t Vancouver).  Some  areas  allow  the  use  of  accessory  V a n c o u v e r ) w h i c h is p r o h i b i t e d i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r .  buildings  (Coquitlam,  W h i l e some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  p r o h i b i t t h e o u t s i d e storage of business e q u i p m e n t a n d m a t e r i a l s , a n d B u r n a b y a n d  53 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r p r o h i b i t the e x t e r n a l d i s p l a y of m e r c h a n d i s e , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s restrict the i n s i d e storage of m a t e r i a l s or m e r c h a n d i s e ( B u r n a b y , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) w h i c h m o s t l i k e l y frustrates  h o m e business o w n e r s .  West Vancouver's somewhat  a r b i t r a r y p r o v i s i o n s state t h a t $1,000.00 w h o l e s a l e v a l u e of s t o c k - i n - t r a d e , m a t e r i a l s , supplies or goods m a y be  "stored or k e p t o n or w i t h i n the m a i n or accessory  b u i l d i n g " w h i l e B u r n a b y a l l o w s " n o stock i n t r a d e [to] be k e p t or h a n d l e d . . . u p o n the p r e m i s e s " . W i t h respect to signage r e s t r i c t i o n s , C o q u i t l a m a l l o w s "one u n i l l u m i n a t e d n a m e p l a t e of less t h a n 0 . 2 m i n a r e a " a n d B u r n a b y p e r m i t s " a sign b e a r i n g o n l y the 2  n a m e a n d o c c u p a t i o n of t h e owners w h i c h m a y be i l l u m i n a t e d b u t n o t f l a s h i n g a n d s h a l l n o t exceed 1900 sq. c m . (2.05 sq. ft.) i n area". requires t h a t  any  sign related to the  In c o n t r a s t , W e s t V a n c o u v e r  home occupation must  comply with  the  m u n i c i p a l s i g n b y l a w w h i c h a l l o w s one four square foot fascia s i g n c o n t a i n i n g the person's n a m e a n d h o u r s of business. T o ensure t h a t the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e m a i n s as a n accessory use of the residential dwelling,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s use  s t a n d a r d s t o regulate i n t e n s i t y of use. limit  the  number  a v a r i e t y of r e s t r i c t i o n s as  performance  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r is the o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y to  of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n a d w e l l i n g t o one.  Two  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , w h i c h specifically p e r m i t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n o p e r a t i o n i n the d w e l l i n g u n i t , restrict t h e a m o u n t of i n t e r i o r floor area (20%) w h i c h m a y b e used for business purposes ( C o q u i t l a m , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , all  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s restrict  the  number  and  t y p e of p a r t i c i p a n t s  allowed  to  be  engaged i n t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n . W h i l e B u r n a b y a l l o w s a n y n u m b e r of residents of the  dwelling  to  be  actively  employed  in  the  home-based  economic  activity,  V a n c o u v e r restricts e m p l o y m e n t to o n l y one resident, a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r l i m i t s the p r a c t i c e of a h o m e o c c u p a t i o n to n o m o r e t h a n t w o persons of a n " i m m e d i a t e  54 family".  In c o n t r a s t , b o t h C o q u i t l a m a n d N o r t h V a n c o u v e r l i m i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  the h o m e business to at least one resident of the d w e l l i n g a n d n o t m o r e t h a n  a  m a x i m u m of t w o persons.  Descriptors  Coq  Bby  NewW NVan PoCof  n u m b e r of H O per d w e l l i n g a m o u n t of floor area used participants  §  §  §  §  §  §  §  §  §  • • •  employees  ^/frequency  WVan  §  §  • • • • • •  §  on-site r e t a i l sales  Van  §  §  of client visits  §  advertisements  §P  Interestingly,  N e w W e s t m i n s t e r is the o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y to a l l o w the sale of  the " p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t of the homecraft or h o m e service b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n " o n premises.  O n - s i t e r e t a i l sales of s u c h goods are p r o h i b i t e d i n a l l o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  contacted ( B u r n a b y , with  most  the  Coquitlam, North Vancouver, Vancouver, West  municipalities  including  a  simple  statement  to  prohibit  Vancouver) such  sales.  H o w e v e r , p l a n n e r s ' concern for the i m p l i c a t i o n s of traffic c o n g e s t i o n (e.g., p a r k i n g , congestion,  and  standard found  noise) b y h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  is u n d e r s c o r e d b y t h e  i n the W e s t V a n c o u v e r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n  t h a t "no g o o d s , w a r e s , m e r c h a n d i s e , or o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s upon,  or  from  inconsistencies  the are  premises". evident  p r o h i b i t i n g the o p e r a t i o n  with  With New  respect  to  Westminster  client  p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h states are s o l d d i r e c t l y i n , or and  customer  a l l o w i n g on-site sales  of h o m e offices as w o r k places; i n o t h e r  (Burnaby, North Vancouver, West  performance  visits, while  municipalities  V a n c o u v e r ) , "reverse d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " is f o u n d  55 w h e r e z o n i n g b y l a w s e x h i b i t f a v o u r a b l e bias t o w a r d professionals, etc., b y a l l o w i n g t h e m t o offer services, yet p r o h i b i t r e t a i l sales to customers - w h o need not generate m o r e traffic t h a n clients whose v i s i t s are  permitted.  T a b l e 5: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - traffic, a n d p a r k i n g  Bby  Descriptors  Coq NewW NVan PoCof  •  a d d ' l v e h i c u l a r traffic.  •  Van  WVan §  a d d ' l p e d e s t r i a n traffic  §  t r u c k / c o u r i e r deliveries  §  u s e / p a r k i n g of H O vehicles  §  §  on-/off-street p a r k i n g  Typically  hard  §  §  §  to  quantify  and  "police"  are  certain  aspects  of  home  o c c u p a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s u c h as traffic a n d t h e n u m b e r a n d frequency of client v i s i t s . Subsequently, bylaws.  most  municipalities  do  not  address  such  issues  i n their  zoning  H o w e v e r , t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r l i m i t t h e use  of vehicles i n c o n n e c t i o n statement:  w i t h the  " t h a t t h e homecraft,  home occupation,  occupation  and  i n c l u d e the  confusing  or business s h a l l n o t i n v o l v e , or  be  r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t e d to i n v o l v e a n y v e h i c l e m a k i n g deliveries t o or f r o m the premises or people m a k i n g v i s i t s associated infrequent  d e l i v e r y or v i s i t " .  w i t h the business o t h e r t h a n a n o c c a s i o n a l or  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r regulates the use a n d p a r k i n g of  c o m m e r c i a l vehicles used for h o m e - b a s e d w o r k p u r p o s e s , as does B u r n a b y z o n i n g b y l a w regulates n u i s a n c e effects a n d traffic together b y r e q u i r i n g t h a t  the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n c a r r i e d o n t h e r e i n s h a l l not p r o d u c e noise, vibration, [etc.]...other than that n o r m a l l y associated w i t h a d w e l l i n g nor s h a l l it create or cause any...traffic congestion o n the street.  whose  56 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r also p r o h i b i t s " a n y increase i n a u t o m o b i l e p a r k i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e to the use of the premises for h o m e o c c u p a t i o n " . All  municipalities prohibit  " t r a d i t i o n a l " nuisances  such  as  noise,  odour,  e l e c t r i c a l interference, etc., created t h r o u g h the o p e r a t i o n of t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n b u t n o n e a p p l y specific c o n d i t i o n s for t h e i r m e a s u r e m e n t .  R e g a r d i n g the g e n e r a t i o n  of noise, etc., b o t h B u r n a b y a n d N e w W e s t m i n s t e r i n c l u d e a p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h restricts the use of e q u i p m e n t b y the h o m e business o w n e r . B u r n a b y z o n i n g b y l a w is s o m e w h a t  standard  H o w e v e r , the  b i a s e d i n a l l o w i n g " p r o f e s s i o n a l " persons  to  w o r k at h o m e w h i l e l i m i t i n g the use of e q u i p m e n t to t h a t " o r d i n a r i l y e m p l o y e d i n p u r e l y d o m e s t i c a n d h o u s e h o l d use or for r e c r e a t i o n a l h o b b i e s , except  for s u c h  e q u i p m e n t as m a y be used for a resident p h y s i c i a n or d e n t i s t " . T a b l e 6: P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s - n u i s a n c e aspects a n d use of e q u i p m e n t  Bby  Descriptors  Coq NewW NVan PoColl  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  o d o u r , e m i s s i o n s , etc. noise, v i b r a t i o n s , etc. use of e q u i p m e n t  §  §  Regulatory Generally,  the  WVan  Van  design  attitudes t o w a r d home-based  of h o m e  approaches occupation  provisions  work, w i t h regulatory approaches  reflects  municipal  adopted  varying  among municipalities. Control Some  municipalities have  adopted  a  "control"  approach  toward  home  o c c u p a t i o n s a n d h a v e resisted m a k i n g changes to t h e i r policies to a c c o m m o d a t e  a  b r o a d r a n g e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , fearing d i s r u p t i o n i n single f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a n d  57 c o m m e r c i a l areas ( C o q u i t l a m , N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the z o n i n g b y l a w s  i n these areas h a v e been subject t o few m i n o r revisions since t h e i r i n i t i a l e n a c t m e n t . T h e p l a n n e r i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r believes t h a t the c i t y ' s b y l a w " a l l o w s for f l e x i b i l i t y " b y p e r m i t t i n g "other uses s i m i l a r i n c h a r a c t e r  to the foregoing ones".  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e 1986 a m e n d m e n t t o the N e w W e s t m i n s t e r z o n i n g b y l a w i n v o l v e d a d d i n g " b e d a n d breakfasts" "pre-1960s" r e g u l a t i o n s . "customary"  in  the  H o m e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d as p e r m i t t e d a n d d e e m e d t o be  New Westminster  "millinery",  "manufacture  "stamp  coin  and  as a n a l l o w a b l e use to w h a t t h e p l a n n e r c a l l e d its  zoning  of...handicraft  bylaw  objects  c o l l e c t i n g " , m u s i c or art  as  include:  an  "dressmaking",  extension  of a  hobby",  i n s t r u c t i o n , " s m a l l c a s u a l repairs  to  household equipment", and " p u b l i c stenographer". D e s p i t e its c o n t r o l a p p r o a c h  to h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , N e w W e s t m i n s t e r  has  i r o n i c a l l y n e g l e c t e d to address c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l aspects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n o p e r a t i o n used  by  other  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , e.g.,  accessory b u i l d i n g s .  signage  and  use  of the  dwelling  unit  and  I n a d d i t i o n , i n t e n s i t y of use g u i d e l i n e s are l a c k i n g w h i c h  are  generally a d d r e s s e d i n other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A t v a r i o u s times, C o q u i t l a m has a m e n d e d its 1971 z o n i n g b y l a w to  adopt  v a r i o u s specific p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w h i c h reinforce t h e accessory n a t u r e of h o m e occupations,  and  has  added  prohibited  home  occupation  uses,  including  "the  salvage or r e p a i r , or b o t h , of m o t o r v e h i c l e s " a n d " d a t i n g service or social escort service".  It has also clarified h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h are p r e s u m a b l y p r o b l e m a t i c  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; it has e x p a n d e d its p r o h i b i t i o n of " d a n c e s c h o o l " t o s c h o o l a n d d a n c e r e c i t a l b y m o r e t h a n one class of six c h i l d r e n , E X C E P T  "dance dancing  lessons for c h i l d r e n u n d e r 16 years o l d i n classes of s i x or fewer" a n d , earlier t h i s year, o n the a d v i c e of the m u n i c i p a l s o l i c i t o r , a m e n d e d the clause p r o h i b i t i n g " t h e sole  or  p r i n c i p a l office  of  an  architect,  lawyer,  doctor,  dentist,  optometrist,  58 c h i r o p r a c t o r , d e n t a l m e c h a n i c , or o t h e r s i m i l a r professional p e r s o n " to read:  "offices  or facilities for m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s or t r e a t m e n t , b u i l d i n g or s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n , p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a n d a d v i c e , f i n a n c i a l a n d a c c o u n t i n g services, legal services, a n d c o n s u l t i n g services" so as t o " z o n e for use, n o t t h e p e r s o n " ( C o q u i t l a m ) . Accommodate S o m e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e been progressive i n a c c o m m o d a t i n g changes i n the way  people  work;  arrangement  one  planner  believes  that  home-based  work  for some people w h o s h o u l d be a c c o m m o d a t e d  is  i n the  an  ideal  community  ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t lists of uses t e n d t o require c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t r i c t l y rely o n p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w h i c h are i m p o s e d o n a l l home  occupations  to  control  their  intrusive  or  abusive  aspects  (Burnaby,  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) . W i t h i n the last three years, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r has been successful i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e v i s i n g its 1967 h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s t o be m o r e  permissive and  has  produced  a  "model" home  occupation  ordinance.  V i r t u a l l y a l l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h c o m p l y w i t h the p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s allowed, and such occupations typically include: professionals;  studios  of  artists,  centres; a n d b e d a n d breakfast  craftspeople, operations.  are  offices for professionals a n d n o n musicians,  etc.;  family  day-care  O t h e r uses, w h i c h generally  cannot  c o m p l y w i t h t h e performance s t a n d a r d s w h i c h c o n t a i n specific guidelines to direct t h e o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , are d i s a l l o w e d , a n d are t y p i c a l l y c o m m e r c i a l or industrial in nature. Similarly,  the  performance  standards  used  in Burnaby  are  also r e a d i l y  enforceable a n d require a m i n i m a l a m o u n t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to d e t e r m i n e the i n t e n t of the r e s t r i c t i o n s o n the use of t h e d w e l l i n g for business informants  recognize  that  the  effectiveness  of p e r f o r m a n c e  purposes. standards  However, is  h i n d e r e d due to design ( B u r n a b y , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) ; p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s  often which  59 c o n t a i n a m b i g u o u s terms a n d are v a g u e , o u t d a t e d , r e d u n d a n t or b i a s e d are e n d e m i c a n d t e n d to i n v i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o b l e m s . T h e vagueness of r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e W e s t V a n c o u v e r z o n i n g b y l a w has been b r o u g h t to the a t t e n t i o n of the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t  w h i c h , over t w o years  ago, was i n s t r u c t e d b y the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l to e x a m i n e the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s h o m e o c c u p a t i o n policies due to c o m p l a i n t s f r o m  one resident  w h o perceived that  a  specific h o m e business b e i n g o p e r a t e d b y his n e i g h b o u r was v i o l a t i n g t h e z o n i n g bylaw.'  R e c o g n i z i n g m a n y r e g u l a t i o n s t o be a l m o s t unenforceable, t h e  planner  suggested a few i m p r o v e m e n t s to r e m o v e r e d u n d a n c i e s a n d i m p r o v e o n t h e b y l a w ' s objectivity  and  effectiveness.  Proposed  "needlessly  c o m p l e x " definition  amendments  of h o m e - b a s e d  include:  w o r k ; specifying  simplifying the  its  maximum  p e r m i t t e d floor area for the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n use w i t h i n the p r i m a r y d w e l l i n g a n d the use of accessory b u i l d i n g s ; d e l e t i n g its reference to " f a m i l y " p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d p e r m i t t i n g one employee; r e m o v i n g the i n d o o r storage of s t o c k - i n - t r a d e p r o v i s i o n ; a n d i n c o r p o r a t i n g specific rates of deliveries a n d visits. that  amendments  H o w e v e r , the p l a n n e r notes  to b y l a w s are t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a n d  costly, and  due  to  other  c o u n c i l p r i o r i t i e s , the necessary changes h a v e yet to be acted o n . Tolerate Some  municipalities  have  come  to  tolerate  home-based  businesses,  r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t strict r e g u l a t i o n s do n o t deter t h e i r o p e r a t i o n ( P o r t C o q u i t l a m , Vancouver). "typical  W h i l e its official c o m m u n i t y p l a n i n c l u d e s w h a t the p l a n n e r calls t h e  statement  that  commercial activities  are  to  be  located  downtown"  ( P o r t C o q u i t l a m ) , the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i n P o r t C o q u i t l a m is s u p p o r t i v e of h o m e based businesses a n d r e c e n t l y requested t h a t its first h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s be  drafted.  It  was  felt  that  council's current  businesses reflected " p o o r l y o n the c i t y "  position regarding  home-based  (Port Coquitlam), particularly with  the  60 increasing  numbers  businesses  and  illegally,  with  complaints  of enquiries  the  enforcement  unsightliness,  (Port Coquitlam).  only  and  wanting  that  to  businesses  operate  client  visits,  home-based  were b e i n g  t a k i n g p l a c e i n response  noise,  and  operated  to o c c a s i o n a l  parking  problems  R e l y i n g o n clearly w r i t t e n p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s , the p r o p o s e d  zoning bylaw provisions accommodate family  people  c o g n i z a n c e b y officials  zoning  about  from  d u p l e x zones  and  only  "accessory h o m e businesses" i n a l l single prohibit manufacturing,  welding,  or  other  i n d u s t r i a l uses. The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c u m b e r s o m e  substantially  alter  development  permit  standards  its r e g u l a t o r y requirement  approach and  regulations i n the  reducing  prompted  V a n c o u v e r to  e a r l y 1980s b y d r o p p i n g its the  number  g o v e r n i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n its z o n i n g b y l a w .  of  performance  Requiring  greater  c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e i r business b y l a w , t h e procedures u s e d b y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y are t h e m o s t u n u s u a l of a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t a c t e d .  W h i l e a p p l i c a n t s for a homecraft  business license m u s t sign a s t a t e m e n t i n r e c o g n i t i o n of five p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s , t h e y must, also c o m p l y w i t h business b y l a w p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h l i m i t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n t o 20 h o u r s per week.  (Full-time employment in a  homecraft o c c u p a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s m a n u f a c t u r i n g w h i c h is p r o h i b i t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones.)  T h e b y l a w also dictates t h a t t h e h o m e o c c u p a t i o n c a n n o t be a m a j o r source  of i n c o m e , t h a t n o a d v e r t i s i n g is p e r m i t t e d , a n d t h a t p r o d u c t s c a n o n l y be s o l d at craft  fairs  and  flea  markets.  It  is  questionable  as  to  what  extent  such  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y policies c a n be or are enforced. In c o n t r a s t , i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w a n t a h o m e office i n V a n c o u v e r m u s t a p p l y for a h o m e business license a n d sign a s t a t e m e n t to recognize t h e s o m e w h a t business license p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h are o p e n t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  vague  Engaging in actual  w o r k i n the residence is s e e m i n g l y p r o h i b i t e d . W h i l e t h e y are a l l o w e d t o a d v e r t i s e  61 i n the n e w s p a p e r ( o n l y i n c l u d i n g a t e l e p h o n e n u m b e r ) , business o w n e r s are a l l o w e d to h a v e an office i n the residence t o be used " o n l y as a m a i l i n g address, a p l a c e to receive business telephone calls a n d for k e e p i n g b o o k s a n d records i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the b u s i n e s s " .  T h e storage of " p r o d u c t s or m a t e r i a l " , signage, a n d c o n d u c t i n g  business t r a n s a c t i o n s o n the premises are d i s a l l o w e d .  T h r o u g h its business b y l a w ,  V a n c o u v e r is t h e o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n t a c t e d w h i c h p r o h i b i t s client v i s i t s o u t r i g h t . R e s u l t s f r o m the C l o u d s of C h a n g e T a s k F o r c e report i s s u e d i n J u n e 1990 l e d the V a n c o u v e r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l to direct its p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t to s t u d y a n d suggest a m e n d m e n t s  to its e x i s t i n g b y l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s so as to increase  possibility  of p e o p l e u n d e r t a k i n g  currently  "discourages  recommends  that  the  home  many  people  work  option  occupations.  from be  Finding  working  from  encouraged  to  the  that Vancouver  home",  reduce  the  the  report  need  for  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to a n e w focus o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y - s e n s i t i v e " p r o x i m i t y p l a n n i n g " ( C l o u d s of C h a n g e , 1990, p . 49). attitude,  which  until  now  has  been  one  of  Depending u p o n council's  " b e n i g n indifference", the  zoning  a d m i n i s t r a t o r feels t h a t t h e issue " c o u l d b e c o m e s i g n i f i c a n t " , a n d r e d u c t i o n s i n r e s t r i c t i o n s o n h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s m a y o c c u r ( V a n c o u v e r ) . H o w e v e r , he adds t h a t it becomes a q u e s t i o n of h o w p e r m i s s i v e c o u n c i l w a n t s t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t o be; if t h e issue is " o p e n e d u p too m u c h " , i t is a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t enforcement  may  become  costly a n d bureaucratic ( V a n c o u v e r ) . Enforcement C u r r e n t l y , v e r y few c o m p l a i n t s are received b y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a b o u t  the  o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ; u s i n g the n u m b e r s of c o m p l a i n t s as a n i n d i c a t o r , planners  p e r c e i v e the  business  owners  zoning  p r o v i s i o n s to  (West Vancouver).  While  be  "well-respected" b y  some  home-based  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s use  informal  enforcement p r o c e d u r e s to identify u n l i c e n s e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , s u c h as p e r u s i n g  62 n e w s p a p e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , etc. ( B u r n a b y , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) , they recognize t h a t t h e y c a n n o t established  m o n i t o r h o m e businesses  c o m m e r c i a l areas since m o s t  are  as closely as businesses  obscure  (New Westminster, Port C o q u i t l a m , Vancouver).  and  in  generate l i t t l e traffic  Generally, municipalities turn a  b l i n d eye to h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s d u e to l i m i t e d staff t i m e a n d b y l a w l i m i t a t i o n s . K n o w l e d g e of v i o l a t i o n s of z o n i n g b y l a w s is g a i n e d l a r g e l y o n a c o m p l a i n t basis where n e i g h b o u r s are a g g r a v a t e d b y e x t e r n a l i t i e s of adjacent l i c e n s e d or u n l i c e n s e d home occupations.  P l a n n e r s cite t h a t t h e m o s t c o m m o n c o m p l a i n t s are to d o w i t h  the use of vehicles a n d p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s ( B u r n a b y , V a n c o u v e r , W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) and  the  outside  storage of e q u i p m e n t  or  materials  (North Vancouver).  Some  i n f o r m a n t s m e n t i o n e d specific, c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t the o p e r a t i o n of a u t o r e p a i r a n d landscaping  businesses  from  the  home  (Burnaby,  New Westminster,  North Vancouver). M o s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s experience few enforcement have  found  that  complaints  are  easily resolved  (New Westminster, West Vancouver). realize t h e y m a y be affecting someone attention (Burnaby).  Informants  on  problems and a  "good  Most home-based  informants  neighbour  basis"  business owners d o not  else u n t i l t h e m a t t e r is b r o u g h t  to  their  n o t e t h a t , u p o n n o t i f i c a t i o n of a v i o l a t i o n b y a  c i t y i n s p e c t o r , h o m e - b a s e d business owners u s u a l l y c o m p l y w i t h the z o n i n g b y l a w w i t h i n a reasonable  t i m e p e r i o d before a n y further  North Vancouver).  Municipal  attempts to practices,  resolve h o m e  such  as  West Vancouver).  officials  occupation  monetary  fines,  view  a c t i o n is r e q u i r e d  prosecution  as  a last  problems  using conventional  do  achieve  not  P r o s e c u t i o n is b e l i e v e d to  be  an  compliance  onerous  task  (Burnaby,  resort  when  enforcement (Burnaby, due  to  the  difficulty i n d o c u m e n t i n g evidence of a v i o l a t i o n a n d o b t a i n i n g witnesses to testify (West Vancouver).  V e r y few i n c i d e n t s of p r o s e c u t i o n were c i t e d b y p l a n n e r s , a n d  63 those instances w h e r e the m u n i c i p a l i t y has been successful i n p r o s e c u t i o n u s u a l l y result  from  a blatant  v i o l a t i o n w h e r e the use is o b v i o u s l y of a c o m m e r c i a l or  i n d u s t r i a l n a t u r e , s u c h as a u t o r e p a i r ( B u r n a b y , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) . A d e q u a c y of r e g u l a t i o n s All  informants  felt  that  their  z o n i n g b y l a w p r o v i s i o n s were  c o n t r o l l i n g the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s of h o m e - b a s e d their communities.  N o v i s i b l e changes  businesses  on neighbourhoods in  i n their residential character  o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s were a p p a r e n t .  adequately  due to  the  A l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were i n t e n t o n  c o n t i n u i n g to use t h e i r c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h i n p r o h i b i t i n g those uses w h i c h they p e r c e i v e d to create p r o b l e m s w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g those w h i c h h a v e m i n i m a l or n o i m p a c t o n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . D e s p i t e t h e g r o w i n g n u m b e r of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , m o s t m u n i c i p a l officials c o n t a c t e d do n o t a n t i c i p a t e m a k i n g s u b s t a n t i a l revisions to t h e i r current restrictions i n t h e i r z o n i n g b y l a w s or l i c e n s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h c o n t r o l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . The  informant  in  Burnaby  anticipates  the  eventual  need  to  improve  the  m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s b u t p r e s e n t l y the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t is " v e r y b u s y " w i t h other p r i o r i t i e s ( B u r n a b y ) .  S o m e i n f o r m a n t s expect t h a t  future  changes m a y be necessary to t h e i r e x i s t i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s due lobbying  of  municipal  councils  North Vancouver, Vancouver). visits  (Vancouver),  Vancouver),  and  retail  home  business  owners  (Burnaby,  A n t i c i p a t e d are challenges to restrictions o n client  sales  restrictions to  by  to  of  products  do w i t h  made  persons  on-site  engaged  (North Vancouver,  in home  occupations  ( B u r n a b y , V a n c o u v e r ) . W h e n pressed, t h e p l a n n e r i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r suggested t h a t i f there were " c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e " , changes c o u l d be m a d e to a l l o w " c e r t a i n h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s " , e.g., b e a u t y areas.  p a r l o u r s w i t h t w o c h a i r s , i n specific r e s i d e n t i a l  64 Until  an  "issue  is  made"  (Coquitlam),  neither  New Westminster  nor  C o q u i t l a m i n t e n d o n m a k i n g a l l o w a n c e s to a c c o m m o d a t e " n e w " h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , such  as  professional  and  c o n s u l t i n g services;  "where  do  you  draw  the  line"  ( C o q u i t l a m ) w i t h these o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h "generate too m u c h traffic" d u e to client visits ( N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) a n d " b e l o n g i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s " ( C o q u i t l a m ) .  For  e x a m p l e , one p l a n n e r states t h a t i f doctors were a l l o w e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, t h e y would  not  be  "necessarily  (New Westminster).  close  It is feared  to  [other]  services  t h a t i f these types  patients  of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  legalized a n d l i c e n s e d , greater r e g u l a t i o n a n d p o l i c i n g for enforcement necessary ( C o q u i t l a m ) .  need"  ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r f o u n d this to be a n u n f o u n d e d  were  would  be  rationale  i n p r o h i b i t i n g s u c h h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas; the p l a n n e r states t h a t the  municipality  legalization.)  has  While  experienced the  planners  hardly in  any  both  difficulties  with  them  since  Coquitlam and  New  Westminster  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h a v e received a h a n d f u l of c o m p l a i n t s f r o m p o t e n t i a l h o m e office workers  about  occupational restrictions  in their  zoning b y l a w s , neither  would  a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t m a n y of these i n d i v i d u a l s m a y proceed a n y w a y a n d operate t h e i r businesses  illegally.  T h e p l a n n e r i n C o q u i t l a m d i d concede t h a t there are  "grey  areas of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i n its z o n i n g b y l a w , i n f e r r i n g t h a t d e p e n d i n g u p o n h o w the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n is described o n the business license a p p l i c a t i o n , a license m a y s t i l l be o b t a i n e d .  Summary Interviews  were h e l d w i t h  several p l a n n e r s  and  senior a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  o b t a i n a l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the h o m e - b a s e d business issue. were  the  municipal  attitudes  toward  the  significance  to  O f p a r t i c u l a r interest and  impact  of  home  o c c u p a t i o n s i n c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d t h e design a n d a d e q u a c y of z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s used to c o n t r o l t h e i r o p e r a t i o n .  A l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l  65 areas, p r o h i b i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t neighbours.  Beyond  Some  control home  overly  that,  create noise, o d o u r s , a n d  regulatory occupations  approaches while  vary  others  other  nuisances  for  between municipalities.  accommodate  them  as  a  reasonable response to e c o n o m i c a n d other s o c i e t a l factors w h i c h are r e c o g n i z e d t o be affecting t h e n a t u r e of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k .  U n d e r l y i n g t h i s research was  the  c o n c e r n t h a t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s m a y be i l l - d r a f t e d , c o n f u s i n g , o u t d a t e d , and biased. and  through  T o some extent, t h i s c o n c e r n w a s c o n f i r m e d b y p l a n n e r s ' c o m m e n t s the  review  of  home  occupation  regulations.  Except  for  N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , t h e z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s for a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are l a c k i n g i n some respects a n d e x a m p l e s are p r o v i d e d to i l l u s t r a t e b y l a w deficiencies.  Particularly  n o t e w o r t h y are z o n i n g b y l a w s w h i c h use b i a s e d language; c o n t a i n c u m b e r s o m e a n d o u t d a t e d lists of p e r m i t t e d a n d p r o h i b i t e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n uses; i n c l u d e v a g u e , u n r e a s o n a b l e or unnecessary p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s ; o r neglect to address c e r t a i n aspects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n o p e r a t i o n .  E x p e r i e n c i n g few p r o b l e m s w i t h  enforcement, m o s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e l i t t l e i n t e n t i o n to a m e n d or s i m p l i f y  bylaw their  z o n i n g b y l a w s t o s u p p o r t or encourage the e m e r g i n g interest i n h o m e - b a s e d w o r k i n their communities. Chapter 5  offers  specific  policy  recommendations  to  r e v i s i n g z o n i n g b y l a w s a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c o n t e m p o r a r y society.  guide  planners  in  66 C H A P T E R FIVE:  CONCLUSIONS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r discusses the discrepancies a m o n g c u r r e n t e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l realities, p l a n n e r s ' r h e t o r i c a b o u t r e g u l a t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k .  planning practice, and land  use  Specific p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for i m p r o v i n g t h e  d e s i g n a n d effectiveness of z o n i n g b y l a w s are o u t l i n e d . P l a n n e r s , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h p o l i c y m a k e r s a n d c o n f l i c t i n g interest g r o u p s in  society, draft  land  use policies  and  zoning bylaws.  Periodically,  municipal  policies a n d z o n i n g b y l a w s m u s t be c h a n g e d to reflect c h a n g i n g values a n d a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y , a n d be a d j u s t e d i n response t o s o c i a l forces a n d e c o n o m i c changes.  H o m e - b a s e d w o r k , w h o s e n a t u r e a n d extent i n society is c h a n g i n g , c a n be  v i e w e d p o s i t i v e l y as a w a y to a c h i e v e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g objectives a n d be used as p a r t of a n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t strategy.  H o w e v e r , m a n y of the z o n i n g b y l a w s  e x a m i n e d h a v e n o t been c h a n g e d to recognize the e c o n o m i c a n d social benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k w h i c h accrue t o b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o m m u n i t y .  I n general,  p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d are n o t p r e p a r e d to exercise l e a d e r s h i p i n this regard; t h e y d o not seem to be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t discrepancies b e t w e e n c u r r e n t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and  t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y objectives.  S o m e seem u n a w a r e of t h e significance of h o m e -  b a s e d w o r k ; t h e r e w a s a b r o a d range i n t h e degrees of awareness a b o u t the changes i n t h e n a t u r e of w o r k a n d expressed a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s o n t h e p a r t of those c o n s u l t e d .  Re-examination of zoning T h e i n c r e a s e d use of t h e h o m e as w o r k p l a c e raises questions a b o u t the role of h o u s i n g a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e s i g n a n d presents p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s for l a n d use planners.  It  implies a  " d i s t i n c t l y different  approach  to b o t h  architecture  and  p l a n n i n g " , p r o d u c i n g " e x c i t i n g n e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s for those a r c h i t e c t s a n d p l a n n e r s  67 w h o c a n grasp t h e m "  ( R o b e r t s o n , 1985, p . 174).  Y e t m a n y planners  consulted  refused to q u e s t i o n the l o n g - h e l d p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e of s p a t i a l l y - s e p a r a t e d l a n d uses. It is suggested t h a t the r i g i d s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n places of residence a n d the w o r k p l a c e , once i m p e r a t i v e for h e a l t h a n d safety reasons ( K a p l a n , 1985), a n d "one of the f o u n d a t i o n s of o u r concept of c i t y f o r m reflected i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d z o n i n g " ( C a m e r o n , 1990, p . 5), needs to be r e - e x a m i n e d i n l i g h t of " n e w p a t t e r n s of w o r k " . W h i l e some i n f o r m a n t s economy  a l l u d e d to the  (North Vancouver),  technological advancements  i m p o r t a n c e of s t r u c t u r a l changes  demographic  trends  the  (New Westminster),  ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , few i n f o r m a n t s  a p p r e c i a t e t h e significant forces i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  in  seemed  to  and truly  N o r t h A m e r i c a n society w h i c h  h a v e affected the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e w o r k p l a c e a n d h o m e . H a v i n g business a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e h o m e is not a n e w or n o v e l concept (Dykeman,  1989).  Throughout  s c h o l a r s , w r i t e r s , craftspeople,  history,  and  artists  certain  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups  h a v e w o r k e d at  home.  I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , m o s t e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y was h o m e - b a s e d . cottage i n d u s t r i e s  dominated  the  o u t s i d e the h o m e ( P r a t t , 1987a). p a t t e r n s of w o r k were altered  economy with  limited  emergence  of large  P r i o r to  as the  Agriculture and  opportunities  for w o r k  W i t h t h e a d v e n t of the i n d u s t r i a l era, t r a d i t i o n a l as i n d u s t r y m e c h a n i z e d w o r k , a n d  r e q u i r e d to w o r k as employees i n c e n t r a l i z e d w o r k places "The  such  factories,  people  were  ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1988b).  capital-intensive economies,  i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g i e s " ( A h r e n t z e n , 1989, p . 272) led t o the  and  expensive  s e p a r a t i o n of p a i d  l a b o u r f r o m t h e r e s i d e n t i a l site, a n d the i m p o r t a n c e of t h e h o m e as a w o r k p l a c e was e l i m i n a t e d . B y the e n d of W o r l d W a r II, h o m e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s were v i r t u a l l y non-existent  ( K u c h a r s k y , 1990), w i t h  the  work place a n d  temporally  existing  and  autonomous  (Christensen,  1988b,  as p . 2).  "separate In  contemporary  home physically behavioural  society, t h e  and  spheres"  g r o w i n g interest  in  68 h o m e w o r k is c h a l l e n g i n g this i d e o l o g y of separate spheres w h i c h has been reinforced b y over a h u n d r e d years of N o r t h A m e r i c a n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . Benefits of home-based work R h e t o r i c a b o u t r e d u c i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs ( W e s t V a n c o u v e r ) , the need for the efficient use of l a n d ( N e w W e s t m i n s t e r ) , a n d t h e desire t o b r i n g the h o m e a n d work  locations  closer together  ( C o q u i t l a m ) does  not  correlate  with  municipal  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h o m e - b a s e d businesses, w h o s e persistent g r o w t h has yet to garner significant  attention  b y planners.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the  work-at-home trend  has  n e i t h e r raised p l a n n e r s ' consciousness a b o u t the s o c i a l benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k o n the c o m m u n i t y n o r i m p a c t e d p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . independent  A w a r e of the t r e n d t o w a r d  e m p l o y m e n t b y i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s of residents i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r  w h o are p e r h a p s i n s p i r e d b y difficulties e n t a i l e d i n c o m m u t i n g over the b r i d g e s , the p l a n n e r i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r muses t h a t t h e y m a y be " p i o n e e r i n g a c r e a t i v e w a y to get a w a y f r o m c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y " . In general, i n f o r m a n t s d i d not v i e w t h e p r o m o t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k as a w a y t o achieve p l a n n i n g goals for n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a n d the r e g i o n . planning  for  home  occupations  from  a  regulatory  Most  viewed  with  many  perspective,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s i n g m e c h a n i s m s designed to c o n t r o l h o m e enterprise; some z o n i n g bylaws  contain vague, biased, a n d  establishment  outdated  of l e g i t i m a t e h o m e - b a s e d  restrictions w h i c h  businesses.  Other  can hinder  the  municipalities have  r e a l i z e d t h a t o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e b y l a w s c a n n o t be enforced a n d , i n s t e a d of e n d u r i n g an  underground  economy, have  accommodate home-based work. w h i c h t y p i c a l l y react  made  amendments  to  their  zoning  bylaws  to  I n f o r m a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t is m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s  to c o m p l a i n t s f r o m  residents  or l o b b y i n g b y  home-based  business o w n e r s a n d request p l a n n e r s to i n i t i a t e the r e v i e w of t h e i r c u r r e n t h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s a n d m a k e p r o p o s a l s for z o n i n g b y l a w a m e n d m e n t s .  69 F e w i n f o r m a n t s were a p p r e c i a t i v e of the v i a b i l i t y a n d benefits of the w o r k at-home  innovation  whose  social  and  economic  benefits  are  clear.  The  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h o m e - b a s e d businesses s h o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d as p a r t of m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s to reinforce oft-stated g o a l s t a t e m e n t s to do w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d values,  reduced  commuting,  d e v e l o p m e n t s , etc.  efficient  use  through  compact,  mixed-use  R a t h e r t h a n be c o n s i d e r e d m a r g i n a l e m p l o y m e n t , h o m e - b a s e d  w o r k s h o u l d be a v i t a l c o m p o n e n t strategies.  land  Importantly,  home  of l o c a l a n d r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c  occupations  are  a  development  relatively simple method  of  providing employment, particularly i n economically unstable times. Y e t h o m e - b a s e d w o r k w i l l o n l y achieve its p o t e n t i a l benefits to i n d i v i d u a l s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , a n d the e c o n o m y w h e n it is r e c o g n i z e d a n d a c c o m m o d a t e d .  The  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k is h i n g e d o n the absence of i n s t i t u t i o n a l barriers. "Whether  local  planning  authorities  wish  to  encourage  home-based  economic  a c t i v i t y or n o t , t h e y are faced w i t h the fact t h a t it does t a k e p l a c e " ( T h o m a s , 1986, p . 88) a n d is e n c o u r a g e d b y the p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t as a n i m p o r t a n t segment of British  C o l u m b i a ' s s m a l l business  sector.  It  is the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  local  p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s to p u t t o g e t h e r p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s to "cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n " a n d enable i n d i v i d u a l s a n d the c o m m u n i t y t o reap t h e benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k ( T h o m a s , 1986, p . 88).  H o m e o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d be v i e w e d i n a p o s i t i v e a n d  o p p o r t u n i s t i c l i g h t , as one w a y to s u p p o r t b o t h social a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t goals. Regulatory  amendments  P l a n n e r s seem r e l u c t a n t , h o w e v e r , to recognize t h a t t h e i r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s require i m p r o v e m e n t , p e r h a p s d u e t o t h e i r i n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  issue a n d  the  recommendations.  u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of c u r r e n t , Few municipal  staff  are  meaningful data  to  well-informed about  support the  policy  extent  of  70 h o m e w o r k i n g a n d the n a t u r e of h o m e - b a s e d businesses i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s .  They  rely o n estimates a n d p e r c e p t i o n s since official d a t a sources, s u c h as business license records, are l i m i t e d or l a c k i n g , m a k i n g m u n i c i p a l - s p e c i f i c  research o n the  issue  in  home  difficult. While  most  municipalities  experience  difficulty  monitoring  o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e y are c o m p l a c e n t i n t i g h t e n i n g enforcement policies since the few problems which preclude  rigid  arise are easily r e s o l v e d . zoning  bylaw  enforcement  Lack  of staff a n d b y l a w l i m i t a t i o n s  with  home-based  economic  activity  o p e r a t i n g o n a " b l i n d eye" basis ( T h o m a s , 1986).  T h e i n d u s t r i a l age z o n e d e v e r y b o d y . . . y o u were z o n e d w h e r e y o u l i v e d , y o u were z o n e d w h e r e y o u w o r k e d , you were z o n e d w h e r e y o u p l a y e d . . . . B u t i n the i n f o r m a t i o n age, it o v e r l a p s . A n d t h a t ' s w h y these z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a b o u t w o r k i n g at h o m e c a n ' t be enforced ( M o w b r a y , 1986, p . 54).  For  t h i s reason, the alleged deterrent effects of z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o n h o m e - b a s e d  w o r k are difficult to q u a n t i f y . validated  through  W h i l e the existence of i l l - d r a f t e d r e g u l a t i o n s was  the e x a m i n a t i o n of several l o c a l z o n i n g  bylaws (which  may  i m p e d e some i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m p u r s u i n g h o m e - b a s e d w o r k or encourage others to go u n d e r g r o u n d ) , t h e y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t o n its d e v e l o p m e n t . I n d e e d , a l l i n f o r m a n t s conceded t h a t a n u n d e t e r m i n e d n u m b e r of h o m e businesses operate illegally i n their communities. N e v e r t h e l e s s , as h o m e - b a s e d businesses b e c o m e m o r e w i d e s p r e a d , changes i n current  regulations  conventions  will  regarding  be the  required legal  (Huws  regulation  et a l . , 1990) of  building  and  uses  many will  planning  have  to  be  r e a p p r a i s e d ( D o n n i s o n , 1985). T h e b l e n d i n g of d o m e s t i c a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  71 i n the h o m e is "forcing revisions to r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h affect the f u n c t i o n of the d w e l l i n g u n i t " ( C a m e r o n , 1990, p . 5). A l t h o u g h m a n y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c u r r e n t l y experience few p r o b l e m s w i t h h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , it is t i m e l y for p l a n n e r s t o a d o p t a p r o - a c t i v e a p p r o a c h i n p r o p o s i n g zoning  bylaw  becomes  amendments  which  facilitate home-based  u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l or p r o b l e m a t i c .  work  before  the  issue  Establishing standards  for  h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones protects residents of these areas f r o m the adverse i m p a c t s of a c t i v i t i e s associated w i t h t h e i r o p e r a t i o n .  Without  p r o p e r b y l a w c o n t r o l s , h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s m a y p r e c i p i t a t e changes i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l character  of t h e  neighbourhood through  a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of its aesthetic  w h i c h m a y result i n a decline i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s .  quality  W i t h o u t revision, inadequate and  s u b j e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l o n l y h e i g h t e n f r u s t r a t i o n , n e i g h b o u r h o o d conflict,  and  enforcement p r o b l e m s as m o r e i n d i v i d u a l s choose or are forced to be self-employed and  pursue  home  occupations.  Municipalities  requested  c o m m i t t e e to  examine how municipalities can  balance  interests  the  communities.  the  Significantly,  of  establishment  both  residents  of a  the  Federation  of  national, multipartite  Canadian research  improve their zoning bylaws  and  home-based  workers  in  to  their  L o c a l l y , awareness of the changes i n the n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t of h o m e -  b a s e d w o r k has  led to t h e a m e n d m e n t  of z o n i n g b y l a w s i n some areas ( N o r t h  Vancouver, Port Coquitlam, West Vancouver).  P e r h a p s some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h a v e  recognized t h a t a s y s t e m w h i c h functions o n t h e basis of b e n i g n neglect of b y l a w enforcement  is i n h e r e n t l y o p e n t o abuse a n d a r b i t r a r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d is p o o r  public policy. Home-based  businesses  impact  communities  and  neighbourhoods  p o s i t i v e l y a n d n e g a t i v e l y ; as w e l l , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t policies a n d r e g u l a t i o n s have  positive and  negative  impacts  for  the  success  of h o m e - b a s e d  both can  businesses  72 ( D y k e m a n , 1989).  T o encourage the p u r s u i t of a b r o a d r a n g e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e s of the r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s need to be a d e q u a t e l y r e g u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e use of carefully d e s i g n e d z o n i n g b y l a w s t h a t successfully b a l a n c e the r i g h t s of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k e r s w i t h t h e concerns of n e i g h b o u r h o o d residents,  a n d p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e to z o n i n g regulators  b a s e d business p e o p l e ( B u t l e r , 1988). e.g.,  business  licenses,  zoning  and  home-  C o m b i n e d w i t h other r e g u l a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s ,  bylaws  are  an  important  tool  in  conserving  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , "not to keep t h e m i n r e s i d e n t i a l s t r a i g h t j a c k e t s , b u t to c o n t r o l the r a t e of c h a n g e " ( T o n e r , 1976, p . 3). A d m i t t e d l y , i t is difficult  t o draft  workable regulations w h i c h  require  a  m i n i m a l a m o u n t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d are a p p l i c a b l e to the b r o a d range of h o m e occupations.  S u c h o c c u p a t i o n s are not l i m i t e d t o t y p i c a l l y u n o b t r u s i v e a c t i v i t i e s  s u c h as m a k i n g q u i l t s , w o r d p r o c e s s i n g , or r e n d e r i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s b u t i n c l u d e n o i s y o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h as f u r n i t u r e r e f i n i s h i n g a n d w o o d w o r k i n g ( B u t l e r , 1988). R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on regulations H o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , c a n be m a n a g e d successfully. T o d e a l w i t h the m u l t i t u d e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , a n u m b e r of specific r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are suggested as guidelines for a p l a n n i n g p o l i c y o n h o m e - b a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y : (1) T h e p r a c t i c e of i s s u i n g m u n i c i p a l business licenses to h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d be u s e d to c o n t r o l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n  generate revenue.  A  change i n license fee s t r u c t u r e m a y be r e q u i r e d as steep business license fees act as a deterrent to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l e g i t i m a t e h o m e - b a s e d businesses.  Municipalities  s h o u l d t a k e the o p p o r t u n i t y to m a k e the h o m e - b a s e d business c o m m u n i t y f a m i l i a r w i t h the need to c o m p l y w i t h z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s p e r t i n e n t to business o p e r a t i o n , a n d the i m p o r t a n c e a n d benefits of o b t a i n i n g a business license. W e l l - i n f o r m e d , h e l p f u l  73 m u n i c i p a l staff are necessary to assist t h e business license a p p l i c a n t .  In addition,  a n i n f o r m a t i o n sheet w h i c h describes a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d enforcement procedures to do w i t h h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s w o u l d increase p u b l i c awareness a n d p o t e n t i a l l y reduce the n u m b e r  of enforcement  requests.  F o r e x a m p l e , guidelines s u p p l i e d b y  the  B u r n a b y l i c e n s i n g d e p a r t m e n t o u t l i n e z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s p e r t i n e n t to t h e o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s . (2) O c c a s i o n a l l y , c e r t a i n h o m e - b a s e d businesses m a y need to o b t a i n p l a n n i n g permission  due  to  questionable  compliance with  the  zoning bylaw.  If z o n i n g  p r o v i s i o n s are clearly drafted, t h e l i c e n s i n g d e p a r t m e n t ' s h o u l d n o t n e e d t o refer m a n y a p p l i c a n t s to the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t or h a v e to exercise m u c h d i s c r e t i o n i n j u d g i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of a h o m e o c c u p a t i o n . for the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t  It is i n a p p r o p r i a t e a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e  to expect the l i c e n s i n g d e p a r t m e n t  to i n t e r p r e t  and  enforce o u t d a t e d , ill-drafted h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . (3) T h e c u r r e n t enforcement p o l i c y of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d w h e r e a c t i o n is n o r m a l l y t a k e n o n the basis of n e i g h b o u r c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t z o n i n g bylaw violations. (4) T h e m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g z o n i n g b y l a w s s h o u l d i n v o l v e the i n c l u s i o n of e x p l i c i t c o n d i t i o n s as a p p r o p r i a t e to safeguard r e s i d e n t i a l a m e n i t y . s h o u l d be enforceable a n d defensible i f c h a l l e n g e d i n c o u r t .  Regulations  Since municipalities  t y p i c a l l y h a v e l i m i t e d finances a n d staff resources, it is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t z o n i n g b y l a w s be a m e n d e d to focus o n the c o n t r o l of e x t e r n a l i t i e s of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n r e s t r i c t i n g h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s t o those l i s t e d as p e r m i t t e d or p r o h i b i t e d uses.  B e c a u s e it is i m p o s s i b l e to m o n i t o r a l l h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , c o m m u n i t i e s .should  s t r i c t l y rely o n w e l l - d e s i g n e d p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s o c c u p a t i o n s i n a l l p e r m i t t e d r e s i d e n t i a l zones.  w h i c h are i m p o s e d o n h o m e  74 Depending municipal  staff  upon may  the  have  age, to  content,  introduce  and  clarity  reasonable  of e x i s t i n g conditions  to  regulations, deal  with  p r e v i o u s l y - n e g l e c t e d aspects of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n , a n d / o r clarify e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s to r e m o v e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s (e.g., a l l o w clients a n d c u s t o m e r s ) , lessen d e f i n i t i o n a l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s (e.g., b y r e m o v i n g a m b i g u o u s a n d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t e r m s ) , a n d m a k e r e g u l a t i o n s p o t e n t i a l l y m o r e enforceable.  T h e design of the z o n i n g b y l a w  is t h e k e y to its effectiveness. Guidelines i n redesigning home occupation provisions include: (a) e n s u r i n g i n c l u s i o n of a d e f i n i t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n or s i m i l a r which  can be i n t e r p r e t e d  provisions, and  independently from  is flexible e n o u g h  the  to e n c o m p a s s  rest of the  home  term  occupation  a w i d e v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s  w i t h o u t n a m i n g t h e m specifically; a n d (b) o u t l i n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s w h i c h i m p o s e reasonable c o n t r o l s o n t h e n a t u r e of w o r k a c t i v i t i e s a l l o w e d i n t h e h o m e business p u r p o s e s .  i n t e n s i t y of its use  for  T o ensure t h a t the h o m e business r e m a i n s s e c o n d a r y t o  the  p r i m a r y r e s i d e n t i a l use  and  that  the  a n d the  residential character  of the  dwelling  and  n e i g h b o u r h o o d be r e t a i n e d , each p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d w i t h i n the set s h o u l d c l e a r l y specify q u a n t i f i a b l e a n d t a n g i b l e means w h i c h p r o v i d e for t h e m e a s u r e m e n t i n t e n t of the p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d .  of the  T h i s w o u l d reduce s u b j e c t i v i t y a n d p r o b l e m s  w i t h the " p e r c e p t i o n " of n u i s a n c e a n d w o u l d not necessarily require m o r e " p o l i c i n g " t h a n t h a t w h i c h c u r r e n t l y takes p l a c e . After  conducting  examining numerous  extensive  research,  consulting  many  individuals,  e x a m p l e s of l o c a l a n d A m e r i c a n z o n i n g b y l a w s , t h e  and  author  r e c o m m e n d s t h a t the f o l l o w i n g aspects of the o p e r a t i o n of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s  be  specifically a d d r e s s e d i n the m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y l a w t h r o u g h the use of p e r f o r m a n c e standards:  75 (i) e x t e r i o r changes to t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a p p e a r a n c e of the d w e l l i n g or accessory s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s of a c o m m e r c i a l n a t u r e w h i c h i n d i c a t e the o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e of a h o m e o c c u p a t i o n ; (ii) t h e o p e r a t i o n of the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n , e.g., w h o l l y w i t h i n t h e d w e l l i n g a n d l i m i t e d use of p e r m i t t e d accessory structures; (iii) t h e e x t e r i o r storage of e q u i p m e n t or m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n ; (iv) t h e d i s p l a y of p r o d u c t s v i s i b l e f r o m the o u t s i d e of the d w e l l i n g ,  the  e x t e r n a l d i s p l a y of m e r c h a n d i s e , a n d the use of o u t d o o r signage; (v) i n d o o r signage of specified t y p e a n d size w i t h guidelines o n the p e r m i t t e d c o n t e n t of message; (vi) t h e percentage of i n t e r i o r floor area of the d w e l l i n g w h i c h m a y be used for business purposes ( i n c l u d i n g storage of i n v e n t o r y , etc.); (vii) t h e n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d employees a l l o w e d to be engaged i n the a c t i v i t y , i n c l u d i n g residents of the d w e l l i n g ; ( v i i i ) specific per d i e m n u m b e r of client or c u s t o m e r v i s i t s ; (ix) t h e on-site p u r c h a s e  of goods p r o d u c e d or services r e n d e r e d  on  the  premises; (x) t h e c o n t e n t of m e d i a a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; (xi) t h e g e n e r a t i o n of n u i s a n c e s s u c h as noise, o d o u r , etc. w h o s e detectable m a x i m u m s m a y be s t i p u l a t e d i f d e e m e d necessary for m e a s u r e m e n t  purposes;  (xii) specific per d i e m rates of t r u c k o r courier deliveries; (xiii) the  parking and  storage  of c o m m e r c i a l vehicles b l a t a n t l y u s e d  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n ; a n d ( x i v ) r e q u i r e d off-street p a r k i n g spaces for clients o r c u s t o m e r s .  in  76 Unnecessary a n d unjustified performance include: are  s t a n d a r d s w h i c h c a n be o m i t t e d  r e s t r i c t i o n s o n the i n s i d e storage of m a t e r i a l s a n d i n v e n t o r y if ( i i i ) a n d (vi)  addressed;  limitations on  d o m e s t i c or h o b b y purposes  the  use  of e q u i p m e n t  other  than  that  used  for  as l o n g as ( x i ) is p r o v i d e d ; a n d restrictions o n  the  n u m b e r of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a l l o w e d t o operate w i t h i n the d w e l l i n g p r o v i d e d t h a t a l l r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h restrict the scale a n d n a t u r e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s n o t e d a b o v e are l i s t e d . Although  it  would  be  handy,  the  development  of one  set  of  specific  s t a n d a r d i z e d h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s • for use b y a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o u l d inappropriate  and  potentially  municipality  dictate  the  inclusion  r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the p r o v i s i o n s . h o m e o c c u p a t i o n uses w h i c h community  (e.g.,  ineffective; of  the  certain  specific special  circumstances allowances  or  of  be  each  necessary  F o r e x a m p l e , it m a y be necessary to i n c l u d e a list of are e x c l u d e d i n p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n  apartment  zones  due  to  density  the  considerations  [North Vancouver]). Concluding  remarks  H a v i n g e x t e n d e d m u c h t i m e a n d effort t o e s t a b l i s h a h o m e - b a s e d v i r t u a l l y a l l owners respect h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s ; b e i n g residents  business, themselves  w i s h i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e g r i t y of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e y g e n e r a l l y act a c c o r d i n g to a "code of g o o d n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s "  ( T h o m a s , 1986, p . 89).  The  t h r e a t of business closure a n d n e i g h b o u r a n i m o s i t y are p o w e r f u l forces i n e n s u r i n g compliance with zoning bylaws.  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Daniels (Eds.), Homework: perspectives o n p a i d l a b o u r at h o m e .  Historical and  In  contemporary  U r b a n a , I L : U n i v e r s i t y of Illinois Press,  p p . 215-230. Olson, Margrethe computers: Ontario.  (1987).  H . and  Sophia B . Primps.  W o r k a n d n o n - w o r k issues. H o m e occupations.  Special Projects B r a n c h .  (1984).  W o r k i n g at  home  with  J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, 40(3): 97-112.  M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l Affairs.  Research and  85 Orser, B a r b a r a J . home-based  (1990).  business.  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l issues of research  on  P a p e r p r e s e n t e d to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o n S m a l l  B u s i n e s s - C a n a d a Conference, R e g i n a . Orser, B a r b a r a J . based  (1991). M a c r o e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors  work.  Unpublished  paper.  a n d the m y t h s of h o m e -  Ryerson  Polytechnical  Institute,  Toronto, O N . Pennington,  Shelley  and  Belinda  Westover.  H o m e w o r k e r s i n E n g l a n d , 1850-1985. Perry, Tekla 22(5):  S.  (1985).  Eaglecrest:  (1989).  A  hidden  work  force:  U . K . : MacMillan Education. A commuter's  dream.  IEEE  Spectrum,  69-73.  Pollack, Andrew.  (1981, M a r c h 12).  w h o w o r k at h o m e . Porter, John.  (1986).  R i s i n g t r e n d of c o m p u t e r age:  Employees  New Y o r k Times, pp. A l , D 6 . A n o t e o n the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n code, C i t y of E u g e n e , O R .  In P . W a l s h , K . T h o m a s a n d J . P o r t e r , H o m e - b a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y - the legal  and  town  planning  implications.  Oxford:  Oxford  Polytechnic,  D e p a r t m e n t of T o w n P l a n n i n g , W o r k i n g P a p e r N o . 94, p p . 106-117. Pratt,  Joanne  H.  (1984).  Home  teleworking:  A  T e c h n o l o g i c a l F o r e c a s t i n g a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e , 25: Pratt, Joanne H .  (1987a).  study  of  its  pioneers.  Dallas:  National  1-14.  L e g a l barriers t o h o m e - b a s e d  work.  C e n t e r for P o l i c y A n a l y s i s , R e p o r t N o . 129. Pratt, Joanne H . w o r k force.  (1987b).  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n s u r v e y i n g the  T e c h n o l o g i c a l F o r e c a s t i n g a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e , 31: 49-60.  Priesnitz, W e n d y .  (1990, W i n t e r ) . L e t ' s t a l k .  Probert, Belinda and J u d y Wajcman. of w o r k .  home-based  (1988).  H o m e B u s i n e s s A d v o c a t e , 23:  6.  T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e a n d the  future  J o u r n a l of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , 30(3):  432-448.  86 P r o c t o r , Steve.  (1986,  i n d u s t r y prospects.  October  effects of w o r k i n g at h o m e . (1985).  the i n d u s t r i a l age. Ronald, Marilyn.  H e r b a l vinegars, oils a d d  z i n g to  cottage  H a l i f a x C h r o n i c l e H e r a l d , p . 22.  R a m s o w e r , R e a g a n M . (1985).  Robertson, James.  9).  Telecommuting: T h e organizational and behavioral A n n Arbor:  Future work:  U M I Research Press. J o b s , s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t a n d leisure after  U . K . : Gower Publishing.  (1989, M a r c h 6).  H o m e businesses are o n t h e rise.  Calgary  Herald, p. C 4 . Sachs, Stephen.  (1986).  W o r k i n g at h o m e :  W o r k p l a c e D e m o c r a c y , 54: Salomon, Ilan and perspective.  Meira  Salomon.  Telecommuting:  T e c h n o l o g i c a l F o r e c a s t i n g a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e , 25:  (1987).  A m e r i c a , 12(5): Southern  (1985).  California  California  phenomenon:  15-28.  W o r k - a t - h o m e a n d the q u a l i t y of w o r k i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n of  455-464.  Governments.  W o r k in  (1986).  Evaluation  report:  Los Angeles, C A .  A s s o c i a t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t s .  Overview and evaluation.  (1985).  The  telecommuting  Los Angeles, C A .  (1989, N o v e m b e r ) .  Home truths  about  P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e m e n t , p p . 48-52.  Staples, L o r e n a P .  (1988).  H o m e - b a s e d enterprises:  T h e regulatory  P a p e r p r e s e n t e d at the " C o n t r o l Y o u r O w n D e s t i n y : British  employee's  4-5.  Stanworth, John and Celia Stanworth. teleworking.  The  W o r k at h o m e grows a m i d d e b a t e o n its benefits.  T e l e c o m m u t i n g p i l o t project. Southern  (1984).  A c a d e m y of M a n a g e m e n t R e v i e w , 10(3):  S m i t h , Peter.  self-management.  13.  Shamir, Boas and Ilan Salomon. life.  E x p l o i t a t i o n or  C o l u m b i a " Conference,  Home-Based Business i n  P r i n c e G e o r g e , B C , M a y 12.  B . C . M i n i s t r y of R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t .  perspective.  Unpublished.  87 Sutton, S.D.  (1989).  Telework i n the N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l Region.  Ottawa:  National  W h y w o m e n m a n a g e r s are b a i l i n g out.  Fortune,  Capital Commission. Taylor, Alex.  (1986, A u g u s t 18).  p p . 16-23. Thomas, Keith.  (1986).  T o w n p l a n n i n g aspects of h o m e - b a s e d  economic activity.  In P . W a l s h , K . T h o m a s a n d J . P o r t e r , H o m e - b a s e d e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y - the legal  and  town  planning  implications.  Oxford:  Oxford  Polytechnic,  D e p a r t m e n t of T o w n P l a n n i n g , W o r k i n g P a p e r N o . 94, p p . 62-105. Toffler,  Alvin.  (1980).  The  third  wave.  New York:  William  Morrow  and  Company. Toner, W i l l i a m .  (1976).  P l a n n i n g for h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s .  A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of  P l a n n i n g Officials, P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Service R e p o r t N o . 316. Walker, J .  (1989).  P r o d u c t i o n of e x c h a n g e values i n the h o m e .  P l a n n i n g A , 21: Walsh, Katherine.  685-688. (1990, A p r i l 16).  employees w a n t i n g to w o r k at h o m e . Wolfgram, Tammara. F u t u r i s t , 18(3):  Environment and  (1984). 31-34.  U n c l e S a m is l a u n c h i n g p i l o t p r o g r a m  for  W a l l Street J o u r n a l , p . A 7 .  W o r k i n g at h o m e :  T h e g r o w t h of cottage i n d u s t r y .  88 APPENDIX A L i s t of I n f o r m a n t s B u r n a b y - M r . T e r r y J o h n s t o n , C h i e f L i c e n s e I n s p e c t o r , M a y 13, 1991 C o q u i t l a m - M r . D o n B u c h a n a n , D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , M a y 8, 1991 N e w W e s t m i n s t e r - M r . P e r c y P e r r y , D e p u t y C i t y P l a n n e r , M a y 9, 1991 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , C i t y of - M r . F r a n c i s C a o u e t t e ,  Administrative Coordinator -  D e v e l o p m e n t Services D e p a r t m e n t , M a y 9, 1991 P o r t C o q u i t l a m - M s . J a n e t L e e , J u n i o r P l a n n e r , M a y 21, 1991 V a n c o u v e r - M r . R i c k Scobie, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r - Z o n i n g D i v i s i o n , M a y 22, 1991 West Vancouver M a y 10, 1991  -  Mr. Graham  Stallard,  Planner  -  Policy  and  Development,  89 APPENDIX B Q u e s t i o n s used to g u i d e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n f o r m a n t s E x t e n t , n a t u r e , a n d significance of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k • Is the h o m e - b a s e d business issue s i g n i f i c a n t i n y o u r c o m m u n i t y ? • Is t h e n u m b e r of h o m e - b a s e d businesses i n c r e a s i n g / d e c r e a s i n g / s t a b l e / d o n ' t k n o w ? W h y do y o u t h i n k this m a y be so? • Is there a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of business license a p p l i c a t i o n s ? • H o w m a n y h o m e - b a s e d businesses are licensed?  C o u l d y o u e s t i m a t e the n u m b e r  of businesses o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t a business license? • W h a t are the m o s t p r e v a l e n t h o m e - b a s e d businesses i n y o u r c o m m u n i t y ? H o w p r e v a l e n t are craft i n d u s t r i e s ? • Is the t y p e of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s c h a n g i n g ? D o y o u perceive a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of h o m e - b a s e d professional offices? • H o w i m p o r t a n t are h o m e - b a s e d businesses e c o n o m i c a l l y to y o u r c o m m u n i t y ? • D o y o u c o n s i d e r h o m e - b a s e d businesses to be a t r e n d or fad?  Why?  • W h a t are t h e benefits of h o m e - b a s e d w o r k ? Attitudes toward home-based work • W h a t is m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d h o m e - b a s e d w o r k ? • W h a t is the general consensus a m o n g citizens a b o u t the issue? • W h a t is the a t t i t u d e of the business c o m m u n i t y t o w a r d h o m e businesses?  Are  s u c h businesses c o n s i d e r e d u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n ? • A r e y o u aware  of a n y h o m e - b a s e d  business  n e t w o r k i n g associations i n y o u r  community? M e t h o d s of r e g u l a t i o n • Is there a reference to h o m e - b a s e d w o r k or h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s i n y o u r community plan?  official  90 • A r e there h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n y o u r z o n i n g  bylaw  t o do w i t h  the  o p e r a t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d businesses? • When  were s u c h p r o v i s i o n s first e s t a b l i s h e d ?  When  were t h e y last  revised?  W h a t changes were m a d e ? • I n w h i c h zones are h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a l l o w e d ? • A r e your  current  home  occupation  provisions adequate  in  managing  home  occupations? • Is a c u r r e n t r e v i e w of y o u r h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s u n d e r w a y ? n a t u r e of t h e p r o p o s e d changes?  W h a t is the  W h a t l e d t o this r e v i e w process t a k i n g place?  • If n o changes are r e q u i r e d n o w , do y o u a n t i c i p a t e a n y future changes to the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n the z o n i n g b y l a w ? • A r e business licenses r e q u i r e d of h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s ? • W h a t is t h e p r o c e d u r e i n o b t a i n i n g a business license? W h a t are the categories of licenses a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g cost? application?  Is t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t  n o t i f i e d of the  A r e s p e c i a l forms used for h o m e business license a p p l i c a t i o n s ?  • D o y o u use o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y m e t h o d s , e.g., sign b y l a w s , to direct the o p e r a t i o n of h o m e - b a s e d businesses? • H o w w o u l d y o u describe the r e g u l a t o r y a p p r o a c h t o w a r d h o m e - b a s e d w o r k i n y o u r c o m m u n i t y ? Is it to p r o m o t e , a c c o m m o d a t e , c o n t r o l , or...? M o n i t o r i n g a n d enforcement issues • D o y o u h a v e a s y s t e m to t r a c k or m o n i t o r h o m e - b a s e d businesses? • H a v e there  been  many  complaints about  home  businesses?  What  t y p e of  c o m p l a i n t s h a v e b e e n received f r o m c i t i z e n s , n e i g h b o u r s of h o m e business o w n e r s , a n d business c o m p e t i t o r s ? • Is enforcement l a r g e l y done t h r o u g h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t alleged v i o l a t i o n s of the z o n i n g b y l a w ?  91 • A r e i n f o r m a l m e t h o d s used to locate u n l i c e n s e d h o m e businesses, newspaper advertisements i n the  e.g.,  perusing  newspaper?  © H a v e there been a n y difficulties i n e n s u r i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the h o m e o c c u p a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s i n the z o n i n g b y l a w ? A n y p r o s e c u t i o n i n c i d e n t s ? o H a v e a n y h o m e businesses adversely i m p a c t e d the character  of a n y  residential  neighbourhoods? • H o w i n f o r m e d is t h e p u b l i c a b o u t the a p p r o v a l process to start a h o m e  business?  D o you provide an information brochure? o A r e you aware  of the  Home-Based  Business  P r o g r a m operated  by  the B . C .  M i n i s t r y of D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e a n d T o u r i s m ? P l a n n i n g issues o A r e alternative  work options,  such  as  home-based  work  and  telecommuting,  c h a n g i n g the w a y n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g is d o n e i n y o u r c o m m u n i t y ? • A r e m i x e d use d e v e l o p m e n t s b e i n g b u i l t ? • What  planning  I n w h a t areas?  i m p l i c a t i o n s of h o m e - b a s e d  changes i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  work  do  you  see?  What  about:  needs, greater c o n s i d e r a t i o n for n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g ,  e.g., e n s u r i n g p r o v i s i o n of services a n d amenities i n a p e d e s t r i a n  environment?  

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