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The achievements of Captain George Vancouver on the British Columbia coast 1941

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THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST. by William J . Roper A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISTORY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1941 THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST TABLE Off CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Chapter I. Chapter II. Chapter III. Chapter IV. Chapter V. Chapter VI. Chapter VII. Chapter VIII. Chapter IX. Chapter X. Appendix I. Appendix II. Appendix I I I . Appendix IV. Bibliography- Apprenticeship. Page 1 The Nootka Sound Controversy. Page 7 Passage to the Northwest Coast. Page 15 Survey—Cape Mendocino to Admiralty I n l e t . Page 21 Gulf of Georgia—Johnstone Straits^-Nootka. Page 30 Quadra and Vancouver at Nootka. Page 47 Columbia River, Monterey, Second Northward Survey, Sandwich Islands. Page 57 Third Northern Survey. Page 70 Return to England. Page 84 Summary of Vancouver's Ac hi evement s. Page 88 Letter of Vancouver to Evan Nepean. ' Page 105 Controversy between Vancouver and Menzies. Page 110 Comments on.Hewett's Notes. Page 113 Hydrographic Surveys of the Northwest Coast. Page 115 Page I* INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION I wish to take t h i s opportunity to express my thanks to Dr. W. N. Sage, Head of the Department of History of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for his h e l p f u l suggestions and a i d i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I. APPRENTICESHIP THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST CHAPTER I. APPRENTICESHIP What were the achievements of Captain Vancouver on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast? How do his achievements compare with those of Captain Cook and the Spanish explorers? Why was an expedition sent to the northwest coast at t h i s time? What q u a l i f i c a t i o n s did Vancouver have f o r the pos i t i o n of commander of the expedition? These and other pertinent questions w i l l receive consideration i n t h i s t h e s i s . George Vancouver was born on 22 June, 1757, of Anglo- 1 Dutch descent, at King*s Lynn, worfolk. His t r a i n i n g com- menced at an early stage, f o r , at the age cof thirteen, he joined the B r i t i s h Navy. His apprenticeship under Captain Cook, a master tutor, was very thorough. In 1772 Captain Cook began his second circumnavigation. On t h i s voyage of exploration to the south Seas there appeared on the muster r o l l of the Resolution, among the A. B ^ s , the name of George Vancouver. On t h i s voyage, Cook attempted to f i n d the mys- terious continent of the geographers and he made an unparal- l e l e d voyage i n the Southern Hemisphere. What eff e c t did t h i s voyage have on Vancouver? Vancouver In t h i s second voyage of Captain Oook's had circumnavigated the globe, seen many strange lands and learned much of the art of seamanship from Captain oook and 1. on the coast of Alaska Vancouver named a high promontory Point Couverden, i n honor of his paternal ancestors. 2 the men of the Resolution. "Throughout his l i f e thereafter, as w i l l be seen, Cook was Vancouver*s model as man and sea- man; he venerated his memory u n t i l the l a s t , l o s t no ohance of paying t r i b u t e to his work as explorer and navigator, and reveals i n his own great Voyage of Discovery a whole hearted l o y a l t y and jealousy for Cook's good name as man and as nav- igator that touch the heart of the reader, over and over 2 . again." Vancouver also learned that scurvy could be con- quered by a s c i e n t i f i c diet including such foods as sauer- kraut and portable broth. In addition Vancouver must have been taught much s c i e n t i f i c knowledge by the astronomer, William Wales, who accompanied the expedition. In 1776, Vancouver, now a midshipman, s a i l e d on Cook's t h i r d and l a s t voyage* The B r i t i s h government had offered twenty thousand pounds for the f i r s t ship to navigate the Northwest Passage and Cook's t h i r d expedition attempted to solve the mystery. Theories about the Northwest Passage ex- ist e d due to the fact that Columbus and Cabot thought that they had reached A s i a . Later on, of course, i t was r e a l i z e d that great land masses blocked the.route to the easti Grad- u a l l y the idea developed that there might be gaps i n the bar- r i e r , a northwest or a southwest passage. Magellan discovered the southwest passage during his circumnavigation. The at- 3 tempt to discover the Northwest Passage lasted for centuries. 2. Godwin, George, Vancouver. A L i f e , New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1930, p. 10. 3. The Northwest Passage was f i n a l l y discovered by the Roald Amundsen expedition—1903--07. In the sixteenth century Martin Irobisher, S i r Humphrey Gilbert and «)ohn Davis made unsuccessful attempts to d i s - cover such a passage by way of the north A t l a n t i c Ocean. Later a theory developed that on the northwest coast of America there were s t r a i t s c a l l e d the S t r a i t of Juan de jfuca, the S t r a i t of Admiral de jronte and the S t r a i t of An- ian, which might communicate with Hudson Bay. The Spaniards t r i e d , i n vain, to locate these s t r a i t s , ihe B r i t i s h govern- ment offered a prize f o r the f i r s t ship to discover these mythical s t r a i t s . Cook's expedition l e f t jsngland i n 1776* After rounding the Cape of Good Hope the ships reached Mew Zealand, the So- c i e t y islands, and discovered Christmas Island and the Sand- wich i s l a n d s , irom the l a t t e r the ships s a i l e d for the north- west coast, sighted the shores of New A l b i o n and arrived at Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver i s l a n d . Later on Cook s a i l e d as f a r north as 69° 36 1 but abandoned his search for the Northwest Passage; xhen he s a i l e d for the Sandwich islands where he met his death at the hands of na- t i v e s * This voyage undoubtedly added greatly to Vancouver's knowledge of seamanship and navigation and prepared the way for his voyage to the northwest coast. i n 1780 Vancouver was appointed as a lieutenant i n the sloop martin. Later on he joined the lame and had his one experience of active service with a f l e e t under Hodney i n the West Indies. Vancouver then returned to isngiand and was 4 transferred to the Europa. he served i n the West Indies f o r two years during which time he surveyed port Koyal and King- ston Harbour i n Jamaica. In 1789 he s a i l e d to jsngland i n the Europe. irom that time on Vancouver's l i f e was devoted to exploration. i n 1789 the B r i t i s h government decided to send a scien- t i f i c expedition to the South Seas. Captain Henry Roberts was appointed the commander; Vancouver was second i n command. 4 The admiralty bought a new ship, the Disoovery. but the ex- 5 pedition was cancelled due to trouble with Spain. Vanoouver describes the series of events as follows: Toward the end of A p r i l the Discovery was, i n most respects, i n a condition to s a i l down the r i v e r , when i n t e l l i g e n c e was received that the Spaniards had committed depredations on the coast of northwest 4. Howay, j r . W., "Some notes on Cook's and Vancouver's ships", The Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Seattle, University of Washington rress, October, 1930. j r . W. Howay furnishes a note on the ships of Cook and Vancouver which were both named "Discovery". 5. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 27. "Vancouver, w r i t i n g i n the i n t r o - duction to his voyage of Discovery, s u r p r i s i n g l y says that towards the end of A p r i l 1790, the Disoovery was nearly ready for sea and i n most respects i n a condition to pro- ceed down the r i v e r , i h i s suggests that within a week of the presentation of the Cabinet address to the King, that led four days l a t e r to an ultimatum to Spain, the peaceable expedition to the South Seas was s t i l l a c t i v e l y going forward. We know, however, that i t was not, f o r i n March, .Lord u r e n v i l l e had sent a despatch to Governor j ^ h i l l i p of j^ort Jackson, New Holland, o u t l i n i n g an en- t i r e l y new expedition i n which the Discovery, the HOTROU and the S i r i u s were to take part i n the establishment of an English settlement on the North-west coast; and i t was to be a settlement prepared to meet with foroe any interference from natives or Spaniards. Hitherto t h i s projeoted m i l i t a r y expedition, which l i k e the i n i t i a l pa- c i f i c enterprise, came to nothing, has been overlooked." 5 America, and that they had seized on the English vessels and f a c t o r i e s i n Nootka sound. This i n - t e l l i g e n c e gave r i s e to disputes between the courts of .London and Madrid which wore the threat- ening appearance of being terminated by no other means than those of r e p r i s a l , xn consequence of t h i s an armament took place, and the further pa- c i f i c equipment of the Discovery was suspended; her stores and provisions were returned to the respective o f f i c e s and her o f f i c e r s and men en- gaged i n more active service. On t h i s occasion i. resumed my profession under my highly esteemed frie n d S i r Alan Gardner, then oaptain of the Cour- ageous, where 1 remained u n t i l the 17th of November following, when 1 was ordered to repair to town 6 f o r the purpose of attending to the commands of the board of Admiralty. The uncommon c e l e r i t y and un- paralled dispatch which attended the equipment of one of the noblest f l e e t s that Great B r i t a i n ever saw, had probably i t s due influence upon the court of Madrid, for i n the Spanish Convention, which was consequent upon that armament, r e s t i t u t i o n was offered to t h i s country f o r the capture and aggres- sions made by the subjects of his Catholic Majesty; together with an acknowledgment of an equal r i g h t with Spain to the exercise and prosecution of a l l commercial undertakings i n those seas, reputed be- fore to belong only to the Spanish Crown. The ex- tensive branches of the f i s h e r i e s , and the fur trade to China being considered as objects of very material importance to t h i s country, i t was deemed expedient, that an o f f i c e r 7 ' should be sent to Noot- ka to receive back, i n form, a r e s t i t u t i o n of the t e r r i t o r i e s on which the Spaniards had seized and also to make an accurate survey of the coast, from the 30th degree of north l a t i t u d e north-westward toward Cook's Kiver; and further, to obtain every possible information that could be collected re- specting the natural and p o l i t i c a l state of that country. The outline of t h i s intended expedition was communicated to me, and i had the honour of 6. .London. 7. Captain henry Koberts was on duty i n the Mediter- ranean so Captain Vancouver was the l o g i c a l choice to lead the expedition. 6 8 being appointed to the command of i t . " What were the causes and events of the r i v a l r y between Spain and Great B r i t a i n on the northwest coast of America? 8* Vancouver, Captain George, A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c ucean and Hound the World, London, 1798, volume I., p. 11, CHAPTER I I . THE NOOTKA SOUND CONTROVERSY CHAPTER I I . THE NOOTKA SOUND CONTROVERSY The Nootka Sound controversy was based on the r i v a l claims for the sovereignty of B r i t a i n and Spain on the northwest coast of Amerioa. Spain's claims were based partly on early exploration, on her sovereignty i n the South Seas which had been bestowed by Pope Alexander VI. i n his famous B u l l of 1493 d i v i d i n g the New World between Spain 1 and Portugal, and to the "blanket claim" established to the whole P a c i f i o coast l i n e of the two Amerioan continents by Balboa i n 1513. In 1542 Juan Rodriquez C a b r i l l o discovered San Diego Bay and l a t e r his p i l o t , Bartolome Ferrelo seems to have reached as far north as 43? In 1603 Sebastian V i z - caino sighted Cape Mendocino. However Spain did not follow up the northern discoveries with settlement and a f t e r V i z - caino no further Spanish attempt was made at northern ex- plo r a t i o n for more than a century and a h a l f . Meanwhile Vitus Bering and Alexei C h i r i k o f f discovered the Alaskan coast and established the Russian olaim to northwest America. News of Russian a c t i v i t y spurred Spain on to a resumption of explor- ation. The Santiago, under Juan Perez, l e f t San Bias, Mexico, i n January, 1774, on a northern voyage, "On July 18, land was sighted. It was the coast of the Queen Charlotte I s- lands and Perez may be acclaimed as the discoverer of B r i t i s h 1. In 1494 by the treaty of T o r d e s i l l a s between Spain and Portugal, the "Pope's l i n e " was changed and Portugal was given t i t l e to her l a t e r disooveries on the B r a z i l i a n coast. 7 8 a Columbia." However Perez was unable to land. On August 8, Perez named San Lorenzo, a roadstead on the ooast of Van- couver Island (usually admitted to have been near Cape Istevan at the entranoe to Nootka Sound) but once again was unable to land. The Santiago reached San Bias on November 2, 1774. Two Franoisoan f r i a r s who were on t h i s expedition wrote di a r i e s which the Spanish government neglected to publish at once, hence Perez was robbed of h i s fame as discoverer of the B r i t i s h Columbian coast. In 1775 another expedition, t h i s time with Bruno Heceta on the Santiago (Perez was second i n commandj and Bodega y Quadra on the Sonora. was sent out. They anchored at Point Grenville and took formal possession for Spain. Heceta a f t e r reaching the v i c i n i t y of Nootka returned to Monterey sighting the mouth of the Columbia en route. The Sonora reached the Alaskan coast, was unable to land, and due to bad weather and trouble with scurvy, the expedition returned to Monterey. In 1779 Arteaga and Quadra s a i l e d north, sighted Mount Saint E l l a s , and on August 1 Lieutenant Quiros landed on Regla Is- land and took possession. Thus the Spaniards had done con- siderable exploratory work but they did not follow up t h e i r claims i n the northern area by settlement. S i r Francis Drake i n 1579, on his famous circumnavigation 2. Sage, Walter N., "Spanish Explorers of the B r i t i s h Columbian Coast", The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, December, 1931, p. 391. 9 s a i l e d up the Oregon coast and r e f i t t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , named by him New Albion. He took possession o f C a l i f o r n i a i n the 3 name of Queen Elizabeth. Captain Cook was the next B r i t i s h explorer to v i s i t t h i s coast; "The a r r i v a l of Captain Cook at Nootka on March 29, 1788, was fated to change the whole 4 history of the north west coast." The sea otter skins which Cook and his men obtained from the natives at Nootka, were, aft e r Cook's death, traded i n China. The maritime fur trade was born. Many fur trading expeditions sought to share i n the l u c r a t i v e p r o f i t s of the fur trade. In 1785 Captain James Hanna made a successful round t r i p between China and Nootka. In 1786 at le a s t eight ves- sels were i n quest of the sea otter * There were the Captain Cook and Experiment, the King George and Queen Charlotte, under Captains Portlock and Dixon, the Sea Otter, the Lark and the Nootka under John Meares. A l l of these voyages were not successful but hardships and p r i v a t i o n f a i l e d to c u r t a i l the fur trading enterprises. In 1788 Martinez and Haro v i s i t e d the Russian s e t t l e - ments i n Alaska and learned that the Russians were planning a trading-post on Nootka Sound. Spain decided to f o r e s t a l l the Russian advance and on February 17, 1789, Martinez l e f t 3. Drake may have reached the coast of Vancouver Island but t h i s i s doubtful, c f . Capt. R. P. Bishop, "Drake's Course i n the Northern P a c i f i c " . The B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, July, 1939, pp. 151—182. 4. Sage, l o c . c i t . , p. 393. 10 San Bias to take formal possession of Nootka and. to s t a r t a settlement there. The r e s u l t i n g clash between Martinez and B r i t i s h traders was i n e v i t a b l e . In 1788 Meares i n command of the F e l i c e and Douglas i n oharge of the Iphigenia s a i l e d for Nootka where they intended to erect a post and b u i l d a small vessel for the coasting trade. At Nootka, the Indian chief, Maquinna consented to grant them ground on which to bu i l d a house. In September, 1788, Meares launched the Northwest America. the f i r s t ship ever b u i l t and launched on the northwest coast. Then Meares s a i l e d for China leaving Captain Douglas i n charge of the establishment at Nootka. In May, 1789, Martinez and Haro arrived at Nootka and although they were instructed not to give offence they seized the Iphigenla but released her l a t e r . When the Northwest America returned to Nootka she was seized by Martinez and her crew held as prisoners. On June 24, 1789, the Spaniards formally took possession of Nootka. In July, 1789, Martinez seized the Arg&uQut under Captain Colnett, who was at Nootka i n the inter e s t s of a joint stock company owned partly by Meares. Later on he seized the Princess Royal which belonged to the same company. These seizures were serious blunders which 5 nearly precipitated war between Spain and England. 5. Manning, W. R., "The Nootka Sound Controversy", Report of the American H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1904, pp. 279—471. A detailed account on the Nootka Sound controversy. 11 The f i r s t i n k l i n g of these events reached England i n January, 1790 by means of a l e t t e r from Anthony Merry, B r i t i s h Charge d'affaires at Madrid. In February 1790, an o f f i c i a l l e t t e r was sent from Marquis del Campo which re- counted inaccurately the Spanish occupation of Nootka and which hoped that i n the future the English would not i n - trude i n those regions. The Duke of Leeds forwarded a reply, stating that the seized vessels must be restored and that the 6 whole subjeot must be examined thoroughly. Meanwhile, Meares who had learned of the events went post haste to England where his Memorial was considered by the cabinet. Although Meares' account of the events i s untrustworthy i t brought 7 matters to a head. The B r i t i s h government, with the advantage of a strong navy, which had been strengthened through the e f f o r t s of William P i t t the younger, and with the promised a i d of Hol- land and Prussia, held the whip hand. Spain demanded a i d from France under the terms of the Family Compact of 1761 and also t r i e d to obtain an a l l i a n c e with A u s t r i a and Russia. However the autocratic powers of Louis XVI. of Prance had been diminished by the National Assembly, and t h i s assistance 6. Rose, J . Holland, William P i t t and National Revival, London, G. B e l l and Sons, Ltd., 1911, p. 566. The claim i s made that the o r i g i n a l draft of t h i s l e t t e r was written by P i t t . 7. Howaj|y, F. W., ed., Dixon Meares Controversy, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1929, pp. 4—8. The editor exposes the untrustworthy statements of Meares. 12 was doubtful. The B r i t i s h cabinet continued to press for r e s t i t u t i o n and indemnification. On July 24 a Declaration signed by Count F l o r i d a Blanca and a Counter Declaration signed by Alleyne Fitzherbert provided for r e s t i t u t i o n of the vessels and indemnification of the parties interested. The next and most important point to be considered was that of the right of sovereignty to the northwest coast. Fitzherbert presented to Count F l o r i d a Blanca a draft of f i v e a r t i c l e s whioh dealt with t h i s problem. The l a t t e r pleaded for delay but P i t t forced the issue by an ultimatum which demanded an answer within ten days. B r i t a i n had the upper hand, Spain was forced to give way re l u c t a n t l y and on October 28, 1790, Hing Charles of Spain signed the Nootka Sound Convention. The a r t i c l e s of the Nootka Sound Convention provided that the land and buildings should be restored to the B r i t i s h subjects who had suffered l o s s , that reparation should be made to the said B r i t i s h subjects, that trade could be car- r i e d on at any points on the coast where no occupation by the opposing nation had been made, that equal r i g h t s of trade should be enjoyed by both nations at Nootka and at any other points occupied by either power subsequent to A p r i l , 1789. What was the significance of these terms? B r i t i s h ships had secured the ri g h t to s a i l the Seven Seas without the fear of Spanish intervention. Any thought of exclusive S p a n i s h * t i t l e to the navigation of the p a c i f i c 13 and South Oceans was frustrated by the Convention; The freedom of the P a c i f i c , except i n Spanish t e r r i t o r i a l waters, had been established. Spain had d e f i n i t e l y abandoned the doctrine of Mare Clausum. The Spanish conception of sovereignty i n the P a c i f i c had been dealt a smashing blow; "In i t s essence the Nootka incident was the inevitable c o n f l i c t between the i r r e c o n c i l - 8 able B r i t i s h and Spanish p r i n c i p l e s of c o l o n i a l sovereignty." The Spanish claim to sovereignty had been based on the Papal B u l l of 1493, the Treaty of T o r d e s i l l a s of 1494, and by p r i o r discovery. However proper p u b l i c i t y was not given to the discoveries and formal acts of possession were not f o l - lowed hy settlement. Opposed to t h i s was the B r i t i s h p r i n - c i p l e that discovery must be followed by use and settlement. It was the recognition of t h i s p r i n c i p l e which marked the important B r i t i s h gain at the Convention* "It was the f i r s t express renunciation of Spain's ancient claim to exclusive sovereignty over the American shores of the P a c i f i c Ocean 9 and the South Seas." One i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of the Nootka Sound Convention was to secure the present B r i t i s h Columbia for the B r i t i s h Em- p i r e . I f the B r i t i s h had not put for t h a challenge, Spain 8. M i l l s , "Sjg. Lennox, The R i a l Significance of the Nootka Sound Incident, The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, univer- s i t y of Toronto Press, 1925, volume VI., p. 113. 9. Manning, W. R., The Nootka Sound Controversy, Report of the American H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1904, p. 462. 14 and Russia might have divided the northwest coast i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . However P i t t did not have a v i s i o n of an outlet on the P a c i f i c . The object of the B r i t i s h government at the time was to make the coast a Wo Man's Land, open to a l l ; i t s future destiny and ownership to remain undecided. There was no r e a l thought of t e r r i t o r i a l a c q u i s i t i o n but i n the l i g h t of l a t e r events the gains won at the Nootka Sound Convention helped to fashion the keystone of the arch of Empire on the northwest coast. As a matter of fa c t there i s evidence i n B r i t i s h Admiralty correspondence that B r i t a i n ^ main purpose was not to develop the northwest coast but to defend her honour. Paper unsigned. Probably Lord G r e n v i l l e — My idea of Nootka i s as follows^- I think Captain Vancouver was very nat u r a l l y induced from the nature of his in s t r u c t i o n s and a r e c o l l e c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l Ground of Quarrel to hesitate and ultimately to decline c l o s i n g the transaction on the teraas suggested by the Spanish Commandant. I regret however that i t was not olosed on those terms, f o r we would have been i n possession and under those circumstances would have been on a better footing f o r negotiating at home than when the Spaniards are i n possession and when they may f e e l a Point of Honour not to depart from the Ground assumed by t h e i r commandant. A l l that we r e a l l y are anxious about i n t h i s par- t i c u l a r part of the Business i s the Safety of our national honour which renders a Re s t i t u t i o n neces- sary. The extent of that R e s t i t u t i o n i s not of much moment, and i n truth the only evidenoe which either party can resort, w i l l j u s t i f y the claim of either side. 10 Home Off i c e . C. 0. 5—87. 10. Correspondence between the Court of Spain and Great B r i t a i n r e l a t i v e to the settlement of the Nootka Controver and Claims A r i s i n g Therefrom, 1789—1798, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C , volume 2, pp. 632—633. CHAPTER I I I . PASSAGE TO THE NORTHWEST COAST CHAPTER I I I . PASSAGE TO THE NORTHWEST COAST. The lands at Nootka which had been seized must be formally returned to t h e i r o r i g i n a l owners according to the terms of the Nootka Convention. Don Bodega y Quadra and Captain George Vancouver were selected by t h e i r re- spective governments to act as commissioners to see that the terms of the restoration would be carried out properly. Vancouver had been appointed second i n command of the projected voyage of 1789 to the South Seas. However due to the Nootka controversy t h i s voyage had been cancelled. Vancouver was now put i n oommand of the expedition to the northwest coast of America* This expedition had two pur- poses. "The extensive branches of the f i s h e r i e s and the fur trade to China, being considered as objects of very material importance to t h i s country, i t was deemed ex- pedient, that an o f f i c e r should be sent to Nootka to receive back i n form, a r e s t i t u t i o n of the t e r r i t o r i e s on which the Spaniards had seized and also to make an accurate survey of the coast from 30th degree of north l a t i t u d e north-westward toward Cook's r i v e r ; and further, to obtain every possible information that could be c o l l e c t e d respecting the natural 1 and p o l i t i c a l state of that country." This was a tremen- dous task as Vancouver was c a l l e d on to be i n two places at once—to do survey work and also to be at Nootka. "This oommand of the Nootka expedition was the turning-point of 1. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 11. 16 Vancouver's career, because i t was his great opportunity , 2 and he took i t . " The Discovery and the Chatham, which had been destined f o r the South Sea expedition, were now made ready for ser- v i c e . The Disoovery. copper fastened, sheathed with plank and coppered over, was of 340 tons burthen, and c a r r i e d a 3 complement of 100 men. The armed tender, the Chatham, sheathed only with copper, was of 135 tons burthen and carried a complement of 45 men. Vancouver had with him i n the Discovery three lieutenants, Zachariah Mudge, Peter Puget and Joseph Baker. Lieutenant Broughton was i n com- mand of the Chatham. The stores selected were of the best quality. These included such stores as sauerkraut, port- able soup, malt and spruce, wheat, and dried yeast, which were to prove invaluable as an aid to the health of the men. Also they carried a r t i c l e s f o r trade and fireworks to amuse 2. Godwin, op; c i t . , p. 29. 3. i b i d . , p. 187. "The Discovery was completed i n 1789 at the yards of Randall and Brent, on the Thames. She was a sloop, 99 feet 2 inches i n length-and her de- signer gives her burden as 330 tons. (The Admiralty reoords have i t as 337, and Vancouver as 340.) She was copper fastened, sheathed with plank, and coppered over, mounted ten four-pounders, and ten swivels. A f t e r her return from the great voyage she was con- verted into a bomb, or monitor. In 1801 she was com- manded by tiohn Conn, Nelson's cousin, who l a t e r com- manded the Dreadnought at Trafalgar. In 1808 she was made into a convict ship and transferred to the Secretary of State's Department. In 1834 she was broken up at Deptford." 1? the natives* On board was a Sandwich Islander, Toweroo or T.owraro, whom Vancouver "was instructed to r e p a t r i a t e . This native had been brought to England by a f u r trader. The Wavy Board provided mathematical instruments while the Board of Longitude provided two chronometers used by Captain Cook on his l a s t voyage. This use of instruments i s i n d i c a t i v e of the progress, i n the eighteenth century, of s c i e n t i f i c n a u t i c a l methods. An important advance was the invention, by an Englishman, John Harrison, of the f i r s t chronometer with compensatory apparatus f o r correcting errors a r i s i n g from c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s . Cook and Vancouver were among the f i r s t of the great s c i e n t i f i c navigators whose interest i n the use of u&@=©# s c i e n t i f i c methods i n n a u t i c a l astronomy produced the great charts which superseded the incomplete ones of the e a r l i e r men. By January 7, 1791, Vanoouver had received his i n - structions and on that day the Disoovery went down the Thames from Deptford. They experienced rough weather i n the Eng- l i s h Channel, so Vanoouver had repa i r s made at Spithead while he returned to London. He rejoined his command at Portsmouth and s a i l e d for Falmouth where he discovered from Broughton that the Chatham was unsatisfactory. "He i n - formed me that they had experienced a very boisterous pas- sage from Spithead, and that the Chatham had proved to be very crank, as, i n some instances to occasion considerable alarm." Gn Friday, A p r i l 1, 1791, the expedition l e f t 4. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 4. 18 England. The voyage was to be a long one, round the Cape of Good Hope, across the Indian Ocean to A u s t r a l i a and the South Sea Islands, then to the Sandwich Islands and from there to the western coast of North America whioh they were to examine from l a t i t u d e 30° to 60° north. Surveys and maps were to be made of t h i s region i n order, i f possible, t o solve the myth of the Northwest Passage* Ear l y during the voyage Vanoouver started his r i g i d regime for looking after the health of the ship's company. The storerooms were washed i n vinegar, the ship was smoked, and f i r e s were lig h t e d between decks to keep up the oirou- l a t i o n of a i r . With these measures and also the use of sauerkraut and portable soup Vanoouver kept his men i n rea- sonably good health. A stop was made at Tene r i f f e , on the 5 Canary Islands, where fresh stores were taken on board. Be- fore the ships had arrived at the Cape of Good Hope, Vancouver, being free to choose his own course, had deoided to v i s i t the south west coast of New Holland. 5; Godwin, op. o i t . , p. 40. Here ocourred a rather amusing incident which Vancouver negleotedto recount i n his Journal. In a l e t t e r from J . Johnstone to T. Berteret dated August 22, 1791, there i s t h i s excerpt: "On the Sunday a f t e r our a r r i v a l we dined with an Englishman, and both ships had l i b e r t y , i n consequence of which a l l hands got drunk, and Insulted everyone, even the Spanish sentinels. The Spanish guard was oalled out, and some of our men were forced down to t h e i r boats rather roughly, when the Captain who heard of the attack just as he had finis h e d his coffee, came down, and was i n s t a n t l y thrust ' by the butt end of a musket into the sea." 19 The ships l e f t the Gape on August 17, 1791. In case the Chatham, which s a i l e d poorly, should become separated, Vancouver gave Broughton a copy of his instructions and further directions under his own hand. On September 26, the Chatham sighted the southwest coast of New Holland. The conspicuous promontory f i r s t seen was named Cape Chatham. Vancouver spent l i t t l e more than a month on his survey of the southwest ooast of A u s t r a l i a . He surveyed about three hun- dred miles of coast east of King George the Third's Sound, of which he took possession i n the king's name. Some of the names which he gave to various points i n t h i s region are Gape Chatham, Cape Howe, Termination Island, Mount Gard- ner, Oyster Bay. In Chapter I I I . Volume I. of his Journal he gives a description of the animals, birds, w i l d l i f e and deserted habitations which he saw i n t h i s area. However the time passed quickly and Vancouver was forced to discontinue t h i s , the f i r s t survey of the southwest coast. "I was there- fore compelled to r e l i n q u i s h with great reluctance, the fav- o r i t e project of further examining the coast of t h i s unknown though i n t e r e s t i n g country; and, d i r e c t i n g our route over an hitherto untraversed part of these seas, we proceeded with- 6 out further delay towards the p a c i f i c ocean." The ships, then, passed to the southward of Tasmania and on November 2, entered Dusky Bay, New Zealand. November 13, 14, and 15 were spent examining the upper reaches of 6* Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 44. 20 Dusky Bay. This part had not been examined by Captain Cook who c a l l e d i t 'Nobody Knows What'. The heads of these arms Vancouver jokingly c a l l e d , 'Some Body Knows What*. On No- vember 22 the vessels onoe again stood out to sea. In a bad storm the two vessels were separated, but Matavai Bay i n Otahiti had been f i x e d upon as the next rendezvous. En route Vancouver discovered and named the islands, the Snares. They also v i s i t e d an i s l a n d which Vancouver named Oparo. On Deoember 25, they were i n sight of Matavai where they found the Chatham had arrived. January was spent r e f i t t i n g and overhauling the ships, receiving v i s i t s from chie f t a i n s and replenishing the food supply. V/hile here, Toweroo, the native of the Sandwich Is- lands, beoame enamoured of the daughter of Poenp, the chief of Matavai and bestowed most of his worldly possessions on her. However Vanoouver had been instructed to put Toweroo o f f at the Sandwich Islands and broke o f f the wooing by foroing the native to return to the ships. On January 24, the vessels set s a i l and on March 1 Owhyhee came into s i g h t . Since fur traders had used the Sandwich Islands as a convenient stopping place or half-way house between the northwest coast and China, the islands had deteriorated. The natives had been furnished with firearms and c i v i l wars were frequent; While here, Tianna, a chief, offerred Toweroo a house and land so Vancouver decided to leave his charge there. On March 16, 1792, the expedition s a i l e d for the northwest coast of America. CHAPTER IV. SURVEY—CAPE MENDOCINO TO ADMIRALTY INLET CHAPTER IV. SURVEY—CAPE MENDOCINO TO ADMIRALTY INLET On A p r i l 17, 1792, the Discovery made a l a n d f a l l south of Gape Mendocino. From there northward Vancouver began his survey of the coast. Vancouver's method of surveying was character- i s t i c . He pushed his ships as far into un- charted coastal waters as he deemed i t safe, where they served as temporary bases, and then carr i e d out his surveys by boat p a r t i e s , under Whidbey, master of the Discovery. Lieutenants Baker, Puget, Mudge, Broughton, Hanson, and Johnstone, the Chatham's master. He took nothing for granted, and everywhere checked the claims of other navigators....Even so, i n making of the Great Chart, an achieve- ment that gives him a place of permanent im- portance i n the history of discovery, he f a i l e d to detect two of the greatest r i v e r s on the P a c i f i c coast, and of recent years these f a i l r - ures have brought his reputation for sagacity into question*1 On A p r i l 27, 1792, the ships were o f f Cape Disappoint- ment with Deception Bay to the south of i t . "On the south side of t h i s promontory was the appearance of an i n l e t , or small r i v e r , the land behind not i n d i c a t i n g i t to be of any great extent; nor did i t seem accessible for vessels of our burthen, as the breakers extended from the above point two or three miles into the ocean, u n t i l they "joined 2 those on the beach nearly four leagues further south." Later Vancouver notes "The sea had now changed from i t s natural to r i v e r coloured water; the probable consequence of some streams f a l l i n g into the bay, or into the ocean 1. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 63. 2. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p; 209. 21 22 to the north of i t , through the low land. Not consid- ering t h i s opening worthy of more attention, I continued our pursuit to the North-West, being desirous to embrace the advantages of the now p r e v a i l i n g breeze and pleasant 3 weather, so favorable to our examination of the coast." Thus Vancouver passed the estuary of the Columbia with- out suspecting the existence of a great r i v e r . Vancouver knew his r i v e r signs but he f a i l e d to read 4 them co r r e c t l y . The breakers and the current i n the es- tuary were considerable and Vancouver possibl^y wished to avoid the danger of having his ships damaged, as he had the mission to perform at Nootka and also an extensive examination of the coast. He also wished to pass on to explore the mythical inland sea of the t h e o r e t i c a l geo-r graphers. "The serenity of the weather, although very pleasant was rendered excessively irksome by the want of wind; our progress was slow and our c u r i o s i t y was much excited to explore the promised expansive mediterranean ocean, which, by various accounts, i s sa i d to have exis- 5 tence i n these regions." There i s no doubt that Vancouver 3. Vancouver, op. c i t , , volume I., p. 210. 4; i b i d . , p. 46. Vancouver notes that driftwood and d i s - colored water are r i v e r signs. Also on page 201, "When abreaft of Rocky point the colour of the sea suddenly changed from the oceanic hue to a very l i g h t r i v e r coloured water, extending as f a r ahead as could be discerned*" 5* i b i d . , p. 212. 33 can be censured for missing the Columbia River but along with censure, praise must be added f o r his accurate work. On A p r i l 29, the expedition met the ship Columbia, commanded by Captain Robert Gray, an American, who l a t e r discovered and named the Columbia River. Gray was the man whom Meares claimed had s a i l e d round the land upon which the Nootka settlement was situated. Vancouver di s - covered that Gray had been only f i f t y miles into the s t r a i t s . "He likewise informed them of his having been o f f the mouth of a r i v e r i n the l a t i t u d e of 46° l o ' , where the outset or reflux was so strong as to prevent his entering f o r nine days. This was probably the opening passed by us on the forenoon of the twenty-seventh; and was apparently inac- cessible, not from the current, but from the breakers that extended across i t . " On May 11, 1792, Gray discovered and 7 named the Columbia River. Why did Captain Vancouver pass by t h i s r i v e r without closer examination? The most s a t i s f a c t o r y reason i s that shoal waters and breakers impeded the movements of the ships. Vancouver makes reference to the breakers and 8 Archibald Menzies refers to the danger of shoal water. . 6* Vancouver, op. c i t , , volume I., p. 215* 7. Gray named i t the Columbia River a f t e r the name of his ship. 8. Archibald Menzies—a S c o t t i s h botanist and explorer who accompanied the expedition as a botanist. He and Puget were sent on board the Columbia to obtain information. 2& About noon seeing some whitish water ahead induced us to haul the wind to the North West o f f the land to avoid the apparent danger of getting into shoal water. The exterior edge of t h i s water l i k e the former we met with made a defined l i n e with the other and appeared muddy l i k e the overflowings of a con- siderable r i v e r . . . . ! could see at t h i s time from the Mast head the appearance of a r i v e r or i n l e t going i n on the south side of t h i s rocky point which I took to be what Mr. Meares named Cape Disapoint- ment, i t i s by us i n l a t i t u d e 46° 19'N and longitude 236° 4*East. In the afternoon our distance from the land was too great to have a d i s t i n c t or s a t i s - factory view of the shore opposite to us which ap- peared to be defended by a long reef of breakers and some shallow water. 9 Captain Gray had been previously, for nine days o f f the r i v e r mouth but had been unable to enter. In other words Vancouver did not consider the r i v e r large enough to merit attention and desiring to continue his examination of the coast and especially to reach the mediterranean ocean, s a i l e d up the coast. Vancouver knew the common r i v e r signs but he should have r e a l i z e d that the " r i v e r coloured water" was not due to "streams" but to a mighty r i v e r . Of course at no stage i n his n a u t i c a l career had he been able to see an estuary of a large r i v e r such as the Columbia. He made his mistake when he underestimated the size of the r i v e r . I f the Chatham had t r i e d to cross the l i n e of breakers the honor of the dis-? covery of t h i s r i v e r would have belonged to England. 9. Menzies' Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, A p r i l to October, 1792. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Memoir No. V., V i c t o r i a , 1923. p. 12. 25 Vancouver deserves blame for underestimating the r i v e r signs and hence f a i l i n g to explore the r i v e r mouth s a t i s - f a c t o r i l y . Vancouver's expedition continued northward to Cape F l a t t e r y . This name had been given by Captain Cook but he had been blown from his course by a gale and thus missed the entrance to the s t r a i t whose existence he denied. Gap- t a i n Barkley, i n 1787, was the f i r s t to see the opening and suggest that i t was the s t r a i t supposed to have been d i s - 10 covered by Juan de Fuca. Meares and Gray had entered the s t r a i t but, as these men were pre-oocupied with the fur trade, they had not penetrated f a r . Vancouver's examin- ation of the s t r a i t and inland waterways was very thor- ough*. Vancouver named Mount Baker i n compliment to the t h i r d lieutenant, New Dungeness, Protection Island and Port Dis- covery; At Port Discovery the ships underwent a general overhaul and r e f i t t i n g * The s a i l s were repaired, the powder aired, water casks f i l l e d , spruce beer brewed, ri g g i n g and caulking checked. On May 7 Vancouver decided to take the 10. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate fact from f i c t i o n i n the story of Juan de Fuca. He was a Greek who entered the Spanish marine. He claimed to have been sent by the Vice- roy of Mexico to f i n d the S t r a i t s of Anian. He said that he had s a i l e d into an inland Sea between 47° and 48° of lati t u d e * He t o l d his story to Captain John Douglas and Michael Lok i n Venice. The l a t t e r wrote about the ex- p l o i t s of Juan de Fuca and of how he went to the Spanish court to be rewarded but without success; The Spanish Archives, apparently f a i l to make any reference either to the expedition or to Juan de Fuca. 26 yawl, launch and cutter on a t r i p of exploration to the east where he named Port Townsend and Mount Rainier. Following the example of Cook, Vancouver took personal charge of many boat p a r t i e s . This procedure was hard on his health f o r the boat parties were exposed to the force of the elements but i t shows his personal and painstaking interest i n the sur- veying work. Vancouver named the i n l e t which had been ex- plored by Johnstone, Hood's Channel. On May 15 the boat par- t i e s returned to the ships. On May 20 the Discovery anchored i n a cove near the point where Hood Canal branches o f f from the main continuation of what we know to-day as Puget Sound. Lieutenant Puget and Whidbey l e f t with the launch and cutter to complete the exploration. Vancouver named the part where they explored Puget Sound i n honour of the lieutenant i n charge of the work* Later on t h i s name was used to denote the whole inland waterway although, at f i r s t , i t was only a l o c a l name. Vanoouver took possession of New Albion from l a t i t u d e of 39° 20' north and longitude 236° 26' east, to the supposed s t r a i t s of Juan de Fuca. He named the "Gulph of Georgia" and the continent binding the said "gulph" and 11 extending southward to the 45° of north l a t i t u d e , New Georgia. 11; Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I;, p* 289. "On Sunday a l l hands were employed i n f i s h i n g with tolerably good success, or i n taking a l i t t l e recreation on shore; and on monday they were served as good a dinner as we were able to provide them, with double allowance of grog to drink the King*s health, i t being the anniversary of His Majesty*s b i r t h ; on which auspicious day, I had long since designed to take formal possession of a l l the countries we had 27 Vancouver's survey i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca and i n the present Puget Sound was very thorough. However, his expedition was not the f i r s t to explore these regions. The Spaniards were a c t i v e l y engaged i n delineating these shores prior to Vancouver's a r r i v a l . Quadra, while waiting for Van- couver, had sent out reconnaissance voyages up and down the coast. On May 31, 1790, the Quimper expedition set s a i l from Nootka for the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. Afte r reaching Sooke Inlet , on the north shore of the s t r a i t the expedition crossed to the south shore. On July 8 Quimper took possession of a bay, c a l l e d l a t e r by Vancouver^ New Dungeness. Garfasco was sent on a reconnoiterlng expedition which took him to the l a t e l y been employed i n exploring, i n the name of, and f o r His Britannio Majesty, his heirs and suc- cessors. "To execute t h i s purpose, accompanied by Mr. •Broughton, and some of the o f f i c e r s , I went on shore about one o'clock, pursuing the usual f o r m a l i t i e s which are generally observed on such occasions, and under the discharge of a r o y a l salute from the ves^ se l s , took possession accordingly of the: coast, from that part of New Albion, i n £he la t i t u d e of 39° 20 north, and longitude 236° 26 east, to the entrance of t h i s i n l e t of the sea, said to be the supposed s t r a i t s of Inan de Fuca; as likewise a l l the coast islands, etc., within the said s t r a i t s , as w e l l on the northern as on the southern shores; together with those situated i n the i n t e r i o r sea we had d i s - covered, extending from the said s t r a i t s , i n various directions, between the north west, north, east and southern quarters; which i n t e r i o r sea I have hon-̂ ored with the name of the Gulph of Georgia, and the continent binding the said gulph, and extending southward to the 45th degree of north l a t i t u d e , with that of New Georgia, i n honor of His present Majesty.?' 28 present Rosario S t r a i t which he named 'Boca de Pidalgo*. He took notice of the present Admiralty Inlet and named i t •Ensenada de Caamano* but did not explore i t . He also d i s - covered Port Disoovery which he named 'Bodega y Quadra*. Later on Quimper discovered Esquimault harbor which he c a l l e d Cordova. In other words the Spaniards preceded Van- couver i n t h i s region; However the Quimper expedition was hurried and the Spanish work here does not compare i n thor- oughness with that of Vancouver. Gn May 4, 1791, the E l i z a expedition l e f t Nootka. E l i z a had been ordered to s t r i k e land near Mount St. E l i a s and then follow the coast southwards but as the season was well advanced he s a i l e d for Clayoquot Sound on the west coast of the present Vancouver Island. A f t e r entering the S t r a i t s of Juan de Puoa, Pantoja, one of his men, s a i l e d the schooner and longboat up the present Haro S t r a i t , then crossed to the northeast end of the San Juan group and possibly at- tempted to s a i l through Rosario Channel. He had divined that the San Juan group was an archipelago. Later the schooner and longboat, under the command of Narvaez, l e f t Port Dis- covery, passed up Rosario S t r a i t , examined the various bays on the continental side and then advanced to a point short of the north end of Texada Island. Narvaez then crossed over to the other side of the Gulf of Georgia and followed the Vanoouver Island side south exploring various passages. The Spanish expedition l e f t Port Discovery without taking the 29 time and trouble to explore and discover Puget Sound, The r e s u l t of the explorations of t h i s year was to obtain f a i r l y r e l i a b l e information about the east end of the s t r a i t , the Rosario and haro S t r a i t s , the Gulf of Georgia as f a r north as Tex- ada Island and the coast of Vancouver Island from a point about south of Hornby and Demman Islands, Numerous channels were discovered on the B r i t i s h Columbia mainland coast but none of them was ex^ amined, so far as i a now known.12 In other words Vancouver was not the f i r s t white ex- plorer i n the waters of the Gulf of Georgia. The E l i z a ex- pedition preceded Vancouver's expedition by a year. However the Spanish examination of the continental shore was not as detailed as that of the B r i t i s h . Vancouver, i n the following year, gave new names to most of the places v i s i t e d by E l i z a or his men although he had a copy of E l i z a ' s map* Two of E l i z a ' s place names which have survived are Port Angeles and Texada Island. 12. Wagner, Henry R., The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America to the Year 1800, Berkeley, University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1937, volume I*, p. 224. CHAPTER V. GULP OP GEORGIA—JOHNSTONE STRAITS—NOOTKA CHAPTER V. GULF OP GEORGIA--JOHNSTONE STRAITS—NOOTKA The expedition l e f t Admiralty I n l e t and proceeded north- ward naming Possession Sound, Point Partridge, Point Wilson, and Strawberry Bay. On June 10 the boats returned from a three day survey during which WMdbey's Island was named aft e r the master of the Disoovery. A new station for the vessels was found just below the present Point Roberts. Vancouver i n the yawl accompanied by Puget i n the launch directed t h e i r researches up the main i n l e t of the gul f . They l e f t on June 12, with a week's pro-? v i s i o n s i n each boat. Vancouver described and named Point Roberts a f t e r h i s esteemed fri e n d and predecessor i n the Discovery* They continued up the gulf but found that a shoal kept them i n the middle of the channel that separates the mainland from Vancouver Island. "Along the edge of this bank we had soundings from ten to one fathom, as we increased or decreased our distance from the eastern shore; to approach which a l l our endeavours were exerted to no purpose, u n t i l nine i n the evening, when the shoal having forced us nearly into the middle of the gulf, we stood over to i t s western side, i n order to land for the night, and to cook our pro- visions for the ensuing day, which being always performed by those on watch during the night, prevented any delay on 1 that account, i n the day time." On June 13 they landed on the low b l u f f point which Vancouver c a l l e d Point Grey, i n 1. Vancouver, op. c i t ; , volume I,, p. 299. 30 31 compliment to Captain George Grey of the navy. Between Point Grey and Point Roberts, the intermediate space i s occupied by very low land, apparently a swampy f l a t , that r e t i r e s several miles, before the country r i s e s to meet the rugged snowy mountains, which we found s t i l l continuing i n a d i r e c t i o n nearly along the coast. This low f l a t being very much i n - undated, and extending behind point Roberts, to jo i n the low land i n the bay to the eastward of that point, gives i t s highland, when seen at a distance, the appearance of an island; t h i s , however, i s not the case, notwithstanding there are two openings between t h i s point and point Grey. These can only be navigable f o r canoes, as the shoal continues along the coast to the distance of seven or eight miles from the shore, on which were lodged, and e s p e c i a l l y before these openings, logs of wood and stumps of trees innumerable." Once again Vancouver had f a i l e d to read the r i v e r signs c o r r e c t l y . The shoal apparently had forced the boats into the middle of the gulf and hence the estuary of the 3 Fraser River was missed. I t remained for Simon Fraser, superintendent of the d i s t r i c t of I\iew Caledonia, to lead an expedition which reached the mouth of t h i s r i v e r , on July 2, 1808, The o f f i c e r s of the Worth West Company named the r i v e r a f t e r Simon Fraser. 2. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 300* 3. Walbran, Captain John T., B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Karnes, 1592—1906, Ottawa, Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, 1909, p. 190. "This r i v e r , though not recorded as ever a c t u a l l y d i s - covered by the Spaniards;-was named by E l i z a , i n 1791, through report of i t s existence from the Indians, Rio Blanoa, a f t e r the then prime minister of Spain, Don Josef Monino, Count of F l o r i d a Blanoa, p r i n c i p a l secretary of state." 32 Menzies, who had access to Puget*s journal, states that, "After going round Cape Roberts they soon had a clear and uninterrupted view of the great North West Arm, the Northern Shore of which took a Westerly d i r e c t i o n f o r about 4 miles and then they met with an extensive shoal laying along shore the outer edge of which they pursued for about f i f t e e n miles i n a North West d i r e c t i o n and found i t much indented with small s p i t s ; i t s greatest extent from the shore was about three leagues and the land behind was low and woody; i n two places they saw the appearance of large Rivers or Inlets but could not approach them even i n the 4 Boats." In a l l fairness i t must be admitted that to ap̂ - proach closely the mouths to the Praser r i v e r , i n a yawl and launch, would be a d i f f i c u l t task. Even from Point Grey i t wouid be impossible to detect accurately the ex- istence of a great r i v e r . Captain Vancouver thought that the two openings were navigable only f o r canoes because of the shoal; He did not interpret the r i v e r signs such as * stumps of trees' and he did not taste the water to see i f i t was fresh. The expedition then went through what i s known how as the F i r s t Narrows, where they met about f i f t y Indians i n t h e i r Canoes; The boats landed for the night about half a league from the head of the i n l e t . The north arm of t h i s 4. Menzies, op. c i t i , p. 60. 5. Near loco or more probably near Port Moody, Burrard I n l e t . 33 i n l e t was not explored. Most of the men slept i n the boats but "some of the young gentlemen, however, prefer^ r i n g the stony beach f o r t h e i r couchj without duly con- sidering the l i n e of high water mark, found themselves incommoded by the flood t i d e , of which they were not ap-r prized u n t i l they were nearly a f l o a t ; and one of them slept so soundj that I believe he might have been conveyed to 6 some distance, had he not been awakened by his companions." 7 8 Vancouver named t h i s i n l e t Burrard*s Channel. A f t e r 9 leaving Burrard*s Channel Vancouver explored and named 6; Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 302. 7; Walbran, op. c i t * , p. 507. "Vancouver the growing and prosperous c i t y on Burrard i n l e t , owes i t s existance to the building of the Ganadian P a c i f i c Railway, of which i t i s the western terminus. Before the railway was con- structed a small c o l l e c t i o n of houses was named Granville but when i t was decided that the Ganadian P a c i f i c Railway would make t h i s point the terminus the v i l l a g e sprang into prominence and i n 1886 the c i t y was incorporated under the name of 1 Vancouver* i n honor of the man who ninety four years before had explored and named Burrard i n l e t ; " 8. i b i d ; , p. 72. "The Spanish o f f i c e r s Galiano and Valdes examined t h i s i n l e t about the same time as Vancouver, and named i t Canal de Sasamat, which was understood to be the Indian name, and i t i s thus given on t h e i r chart of 1792. E l i z a , another Spanish o f f i c e r on his exploring voyage i n 1791 had named the i n l e t Boca de F l o r i d a Blanco, and t h i s name Galiano adopted on the large copy of his chart dated 1795*" 9; Godwin, op. c i t ; , p. 212. " S i r Harry Burrard, i n whose honour Vancouver named Burrard*s Channel, was born 1765, entered the Navy, 1778. He was present at the reduction of Charleston i n A p r i l , 1780; thereafter serving i n the Chatham and Perseverance as acting lieutenant. As l i e u - tenant he served i n the Expedition, the Southampton and the Vict o r y . Lord Hood*s flags h i p . He oame into promin- ence during the great mutiny at the N 0re, when his crew refused to mutiny and; was attacked by the mutineers. Later Neale commanded the roy a l yacht; i n 1804 he was at the Admiralty; the next year he commanded a squadron and captured the Frenoh ships Maringo and Bellepoule;" 34 Howe's Sound. In the v i c i n i t y of t h i s sound such names as Point Atkinson, Passage Island, A n v i l Island and Point Gower were given. The boat part i e s continued there ex- ploration and Vancouver named J e r v i s ' s Channel i n honour of Admiral S i r John J e r y i s . The boats then were directed to the station where the ships had been l e f t . 10 As they were rowing on the morning of Friday, June 22, for Point Grey they saw two vessels at anchor under the land. Vancouver went on board and learned that these Span- i s h vessels, the S u t i l under Senor Don Dionisio Galiano and the Mexicana, under Senor Don Gayetano Valdes, had arr i v e d at Nootka on A p r i l 11, and had s a i l e d to these regions to complete the examination of th i s i n l e t , which had, i n the preceding year been partly surveyed by the E l i z a expedition. Vanoouver was disturbed when he learned of previous Spanish exploration* I cannot avoid acknowledging that, on t h i s oc- casion, I experienced no small degree of morti- f i c a t i o n i n finding the external shores of the gulf had been v i s i t e d , and already examined a few miles beyond where my researches during the ex- cursion, had extended, making land I had been i n doubt about, an island; continuing nearly i n the same di r e c t i o n , about four leagues further than had been seen by us; and, by the Spaniards, named Pav i d a . l l The channel, between i t and the main, 10. Sage, op. c i t . , p. 403. Dr. W. N. Sage shows that Cap- t a i n Vancouver had come around the Cape of Good Hope and had crossed the International date l i n e without taking o f f a day* Thus the date should be J**±VT21. 11* i b i d . , p, 404. "Favida or Feveda was another name fo r Texada Island, i t appears on E l i s a ' s and Galiano's charts as Texada." 35 they had c a l l e d Ganal d e l Neustro Signora del Rosario,12 whose western point had terminated t h e i r examination, which seemed to have been e n t i r e l y confined to the exterior shores as the extensive arms, and i n l e t s , which had occupied so much of our time, had not claimed the least of t h e i r attention.13 Vancouver learned from the Spaniards that Senor Quadra awaited h i s a r r i v a l at Nootka. The Spaniards seemed sur- prised that Vancouver had not found a r i v e r said to exist i n t h i s region and named by one of t h e i r o f f i c e r s Rio 14 Blancho. "From these new and unexpected friends we directed our course along the shoal already noticed, which I now c a l l e d Sturgeon Bank, i n consequence of our having purchased of the natives some excellent f i s h of that kind, weighing 15 from fourteen to two hundred pounds each*" This should have been another clue to the existence of the Fraser River. In returning, the boats made a c i r c l e to avoid the bank and thus once again l o s t the opportunity of seeing t h e F r a s e r v On 12; Vancouver's statement i s incorrect; The Spaniards c a l l e d the present Gulf of Georgia 'Gran Ganal de Neustra Sra del Rosario'. c f . Wagner, H. R., Spanish Explorations i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, Santa Ana, Fine Arts Press, 1933, map facing page 141. 13. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 312. 14. Denton, V* L., The Far West Coast, Toronto, J . M. Dent and Sons, 1924, p. 247. "It must i n fairness be remarked, that the E l i z a expedition of 1791 had read aright the signs at the mouth of the Fraser, and had bestowed upon i t the name of Rio Blanca. However neither Galiano nor Valdes had been able to locate the Rio Blanca. Evidently they were with Vancouver equally at a loss to solve the r i d d l e of the huge sand-bank whioh lay between Point Grey and Point Roberts." 15. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 314. 36 June 23, the boats reached the ships, a f t e r having traversed about 330 miles. Before leaving t h i s region Vancouver named Bellingham's Bay and Bir c h Bay. On June 24, 1792, the B r i t i s h ships, accompanied by the Spanish, l e f t B i r c h Bay and directed t h e i r course through the Gulf of Georgia. Thus the Spanish and B r i t i s h parties were joined i n the continuation of the survey. Was i t a joint .exploration whereby they cooperated whole-heartedly i n the task ahead? The Galiano Valdes expedition was part of the Spanish 16 campaign of 1792. They had l e f t Nootka on June 5, 1792, had proceeded up Rosario S t r a i t to Bellingham Bay and a few days l a t e r to Boundary Bay; Vancouver met them on July 21, 1792, near Point Grey; Galiano claimed that Vancouver asked the Spaniards to j o i n them but Vanoouver and Menzies suggest the 16. There are at least three translations of the voyage of the S u t i l and Mexicana. (a) Wagner, Henry R;, Spanish Explorers of the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, pp; 228-^-299. Voyage of the S u t i l and Mexicana. (b) Account of the voyage made by the schooners S u t i l and Mexicana i n the year 1792 to survey the S t r a i t of Fuca with an introduction containing a notice of the ex- peditions previously carried out'by the Spaniards i n search of the North West passage of America. By order of the King, Madrid, Royal P r i n t i n g Of f i c e , 1802. Translated by G. F; Berwick, October 1911; Copy i n Library of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. (c) A Spanish Voyage to Vancouver and the North West Coast of America, (narrative of the S u t i l and Mexicana translated from the Spanish with an introduction by C e c i l Jane), London, Arganout Press, 1930. 37 opposite. However the B r i t i s h and Spanish s a i l e d these waters together t i l l July 13. It was not a j o i n t explor- ation: although the parties were on f r i e n d l y terms, neither would accept the r e s u l t s of the other. As the B r i t i s h expedition continued the work Vancouver named Harwood's Island and Savary*s Island, to the north of Texada Island. From then on there was to he some un- pleasant navigation because of the great number of isla n d s . "The i n f i n i t e l y divided appearance of the region into which we had now entered, promised to furnish ample employment 17 for our boats." Lieutenant Puget and Whidbey, i n the Discovery* s launch and cutter, were sent to examine the continental shore while Johnstone, i n the Chatham*s cutter, accompanied by Swaine i n the launch^ were sent to investigate a branoh of the sound where they were anchored. Their stay i n t h i s region was not pleasant, the s i t u a t i o n being gloomy and dismal. Vancouver did not go on these surveying expeditions as he had to arrange the charts of the d i f f e r e n t surveys, take further angles and to acquire some knowledge of the main channel of the gulf. On June 30 the launch and cutter returned from a bpat expedition during which the party had v i s i t e d an abandoned Indian encampment, with dire r e s u l t s . Whilst examining these abandoned dwellings, and admiring the rude c i t a d e l projected f o r t h e i r 17. Vancouver, op; e i t . , volume I.,' p. 320. 38 defence, our gentlemen were suddenly a s s a i l e d by an unexpected numerous enemy, whose legions made so furious an attack upon,eaoh of t h e i r persons* that unable to vanquish t h e i r foes, or to sustain the c o n f l i c t , they rushed up to t h e i r necks i n water. This expedient, however, proved i n e f f e c t u a l ; nor was i t t i l l a f t e r a l l t h e i r clothes were boiled, that they were di s r engaged from an immense horde of f l e a s , which they had disturbed by examining too minutely the f i l t h y garments and apparel of the l a t e inhabitants.18 This i s a rather ponderous account of the episode but one whioh shows evidence of a sense of humor; On July 1 Puget and Whidbey were again dispatched, t h i s time to gain some information about the southern side of the g u l f . On July 2, Johnstone returned and Vancouver named the channel which Johnstone had explored, Bute's Channel. The work of the boat parties continued. The weather being t o l e r a b l y f a i r , Mr. Johnstone and Mr. Swaine were the next day, Wednesday the 5th, again dispatched with a week's provisions, to examine the continental shore through the narrow passage from whence they had returned; by the means of which, and the survey then pro- secuting under Lieutenant Puget and Mr; Whidbey, who were to oommence t h e i r i n q u i r i e s i n an oppo- s i t e point, the whole extent of the gulf would be f i n a l l y determined; or, i n the event of the Indians' information being correct i t s further navigable communication to the northward would be discovered. 1 9 On July 5, when the launch and cutter returned, the of- f i c e r s reported that they had entered an i n l e t whose eastern side was formed by a long narrow peninsula. The southern 18. Vancouver, op; c i t . , volume I;, p. 325. 19. i b i d * , p. 327. 39 extremity of t h i s peninsula Vancouver named Point Mudge, "after my f i r s t lieutenant, who had also discovered the i n l e t from the top of a mountain he had ascended i n t h i s 30 neighborhood," They had pursued up t h i s channel about three or four leagues and then returned. On Point Mudge they saw a large v i l l a g e of Indians who conducted them- selves with great c i v i l i t y . Vancouver, at the st a t i o n i n Desolation Sound, anxiously awaited the return of John- stone, the master of the Chatham. "The week, f o r which Mr. Johnstone and his party were furnished with supplies, having been expired some time, I began to be anxiously s o l i c i t o u s for t h e i r welfare; when, about two i n the morning of Thurs- day the 12th, I had the s a t i s f a c t i o n of having t h e i r a r r i v a l announced, a l l well, and that a passage leading into the 21 P a c i f i c Ocean to the northward had been discovered." The c a r e f u l and tedious work of the boat parties had been worthwhile. This expedition was very important as the P a c i f i c Ocean had been seen and the problem of the tortuous Inland navigation had been solved. This must have been a happy and ex c i t i n g moment for Vancouver and his men. Van- couver was now able to connect the explorations northward from Point Mudge with the southernmost point reached by Johnstone and therefore decided to t r y the southern passage into Johnstone S t r a i t s . 20. Vancouver, op. c i t * , volume I., p. 327. 21. i b i d . , p i 329. 40 The ships l e f t on July 13, without the company of the Spaniards who said that t h e i r vessels could not keep up with the B r i t i s h expedition. Vancouver named Johnstone's S t r a i t s and Hardwicke's Island. Lieutenant Puget and Whid- bey were sent ahead from Cape Mudge to examine the chan- nel as to i t s communication with-Johnstone*s S t r a i t s ; On July 14 the boats returned and reported that the passage ahead to Johnstone*s S t r a i t s seemed to have no v i s i b l e 22 obstruction; En route Vancouver named Point Chatham, Thurlow*s Island and Point N/tville. In t h i s v i c i n i t y they 23 v i s i t e d the v i l l a g e of an Indian chief c a l l e d Cheslakees. The Indians of the v i l l a g e brought sea otter skins i n exchange for sheetr-copper, and blue c l o t hi Their houses, t h i r t y - f o u r i n number, were arranged i n regular s t r e e t s . Vancouver and his party must have enjoyed the v i s i t to the v i l l a g e a f t e r the arduous work on the ships. His i n q u i r i n g nature enabled him to note much about the l i f e of the Indians. "As Inquiries into the laudable ingeniuty of others are not to be s a t i s f i e d i n the c i v i l - ized world without some expence, so investigations of the 22. After the consort of the Discovery; 23. Y/albran, op» c i t . , p. 90. "Gheslakee, Mmpkish r i v e r , Broughton S t r a i t , Vancouver Island. A populous In- dian v i l l a g e when v i s i t e d by Vancouver i n June, 1792; mentioned i n his Journal as Gheslakee's v i l l a g e , and the name adopted on his chart. The terraces where the houses stood are s t i l l to be seen on the west bank of the r i v e r , but the s i t e has been abandoned for years." 41 l i k e nature amongst the uncultivated regions were not to be had In t h i s society without due acknowledgements, which were s o l i c i t e d by these female ertizans i n every house we entered; and so abundant were t h e i r demands, that although I considered myself amply provided for the occasion with beads, hawk's b e l l s , and other t r i n k e t s ; my box, as well as my pockets, and those of the gentlemen who were of the 24 party, were soon nearly emptied." The Indians were much amused with the effect of the sun's rays through the read- ing glass and the extraordinary quality of the q u i c k s i l v e r . Vancouver noticed that i n most of the houses there were two or three muskets, which appeared to be Spanish. He also found that the sea otter skins were purchased much dearer than formerly* "Iron was become a mere drug; and when we refused them f i r e arms and ammunition, which humanity, prudence, and p o l i c y directed to be w i t h h e l d , nothing but large sheets of copper and blue woollen c l o t h engaged t h e i r attention i n a commercial way; beads and other t r i n k e t s they accepted as presents, but they returned nothing i n 25 exohange." From July 21 t i l l July 27, Vancouver awaited the return of the Chatham which had been exploring the continental shore* On his return Lieutenant Broughton reported that he had explored and named, C a l l ' s Channel, Hnight's Canal, 24* Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I,, pp. 346—348* A descrip- t i o n of Cheslakees's v i l l a g e . 25. i b i d . , p* 349. 42 and Deep Sea B l u f f , Vanoouver gave the name of Broughton's Archipelago to the many islands and rocks which the l a t t e r had explored. On July 31 Vanoouver and Broughton i n the yawl, Lieutenant Puget i n the launch, and Whidbey i n the cutter, continued the work of exploration; On August 3 the yawl returned to the ships while the launch and cutter were l e f t to carry on the survey. On August 6, due to the prevalence of foggy weather, the Discovery grounded on a bed of sunken rocks but on the flood tide the ship righted. On August 7 the Chatham grounded but was heaved o f f . By August 9 Vancouver writes, "We now appeared to have reached the part of the coast that had been v i s i t e d and named by several of the traders from 26 Europe and India." He states that the Experiment under Wedgborough; i n August, 1786, honoured the i n l e t through which they had passed "Queen Charlotte's Sound". Also he added that Hanna had named Smith's I n l e t , Pitzhugh's Sound, V i r g i n and Pearl Rocks, i n the above cases Vancouver adop- ted these names. On August 11, the yawl, launch and two cutters set out on another boat expedition; The following quotation shows the hardships which the Captain, o f f i c e r s and men underwent i n these boat p a r t i e s . "Having dined, and dedicated a short i n t e r v a l of sunshine to the drying of our wet clothes, we made the best of our way towards the ship; where, about 26; Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I*, p. 369. 43 midnight, we arrived most exoessively fatigued; the i n - clemency of the weather having, on t h i s occasion, been 27 more severely f e l t than i n any of our former expeditions." On August 17, while awaiting the return of the de^ tached survey parties they met the b r i g Venus, of Bengal under Captain Shepherd. "By him we received the pleasant tidings of the a r r i v a l of the Daedalus store-ship, laden with a supply of provisions and stores f o r our use, and he acquainted Mr. Baker that Senor Quadra was waiting with the greatest impatience to d e l i v e r up the settlement 28 and t e r r i t o r i e s at Nootka." The impatience of Quadra i s not to be wondered at . On June 22; Galiano and Valdes had informed Vancouver of Quadra's a r r i v a l at Nootka i n May. It was now August 17. Possibly Vancouver found the work of exploration more to his taste than that of a com^ missioner and delayed the l a t t e r as muoh as possible. On August 18 the launch and cutter returned. Vancouver named River's Canal, Sabetis Gove and Point Menzies* From Gap- t a i n Shepherd, Vancouver learned that Lieutenant Hergest, the commander of the Daedalus, had been murdered at Woahoo. Thus Vancouver had many reasons f o r abandoning the survey for the season. Having the greatest reason to be s a t i s f i e d with c the result of our summer's employment, as i t had 27 i Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume l . , p. 369* 28* i b i d . , p. 375* 44 by the concurrence of the most fortunate c i r - cumstances enabled us f i n a l l y to trace and de- termine the western continental shore of North America, with a l l i t s various turnings, windings, numerous arms, i n l e t s , creeks, bays, etc., etc., from the la t i t u d e of 3905* longitude 236^56* to point Menzies i n l a t i t u d e 52°18 , longitude 232° 55 ; we took our leave of these northern s o l i t a r y regions, whose broken appearance presented a pros- pect of abundant employment f o r the ensuing season, and directed our route through the passage above- mentioned, i n order to make the best of our way towards Nootka.29 From A p r i l t i l l August, 1792, a tremendous amount of surveying work had been carried on. The use of boat p a r t i e s , although d i f f i c u l t and tedious, had made the work accurate. Admiralty Inl e t , Puget Sound, Hood's Ganal, the Gulf of Georgia and the numerous canals on the continental shore had been traced and the i n s u l a r i t y of Vancouver Island had been proved* The two gla r i n g errors are, of course, the f a i l u r e to discover the Columbia and the Fraser Rivers, Apart from t h i s the work had been well done. Menzies summed up the achievement as follows: In this s i t u a t i o n of a f f a i r s Captain Vancouver resolved on c l o s i n g the f i r s t seasons^examination of the Coast, and go to Nootka with both vessels to j o i n the Store Ship; for the weather was now become so cold* wet and uncomfortable that the men were no longer able to endure the fati g u i n g hardships of distant excursions i n open Boats, exposed to the cold rigorous blasts of a high northern s i t u a t i o n with high dreary snowy mount- ains on every side, performing toilsome labor on t h e i r oars i n the day and a l t e r n a t e l y watching for t h e i r own safety at night, with no other couch to repose upon than the cold stony beach or the wet mossy t u r f i n damp woody si t u a t i o n s , 29* Vancouver, op. c i t * , volume I., p. 387. 45 without having shelter s u f f i c i e n t to screen them from the inclemency of boisterous weather, and enduring at times the tormenting pangs of both hunger and t h i r s t , yet on every occasion strug- g l i n g who should be the most forward i n executing the orders of their superiors to accomplish the general i n t e r e s t of the Voyage. In short i t i s but justice to say that on t h i s arduous service both O f f i c e r s and Men were hourly exposed to various hardships and dangers, yet went cheer- f u l l y through the fatiguing operations of the summer without murmur. And i f we look back on the d i f f e r e n t winding Channels and armlets whioh the Vessels and Boats traversed i n following the Continental Shore ever since they entered De Puca's Straights, i t w i l l be r e a d i l y allowed that such an i n t r i c a t e and laborious examination could not have been accomplished i n so short a time without the cooperating exertions of both Men and Officers whose greatest pleasure seemed to be i n performing t h e i r duty with a l a c r i t y and encountering the dangers and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c i - dental to such service with a persevering i n - t r e p i d i t y and manly steadiness that afforded a most pleasing omen to the happy issue of our gQ future endeavours i n this arduous undertaking. " How does the work of the Vancouver expedition i n t h i s region compare with that of Galiano.and Valdes* The B r i t i s h and Spanish parties had separated on July 13, 1792. Van- couver's ships s a i l e d through Discovery Passage into John- stone S t r a i t s * Galiano, although he must have r e a l i z e d that t h i s offered a quicker e x i t , refused to j o i n Vancouver and i n s i s t e d on continuing his examination of the B r i t i s h C o l- 31 umbian mainland coast. As a r e s u l t the Spaniards did not a r r i v e at Nootka t i l l September 1 whereas Vancouver's 20. Menzies, op. c i t . , p. 103. 31. Wagner, op. cit.,'volume I., p. 232. An account of the Spaniard's survey work af t e r parting company with Vancouver's expedition. 46 expedition arrived on August 27. Thus Vancouver deserves credit for f i r s t establishing as a f a c t , the i n s u l a r i t y of Vancouver Island. I t can be f a i r l y stated that he was not the f i r s t to circumnavigate Vancouver i s l a n d . Galiano and Valdes had l e f t from Nootka, circumnavigated the i s l a n d and returned to Nootka* On the other hand Vancouver had started at the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca dnd arrived at Nootka and hence had not examined from Nootka to the S t r a i t . Hence the Span- is h expedition, i n the -naapa?ew sense of the term, was the f i r s t to oireumnavigate Vancouver Island* Both the Spanish and B r i t i s h expeditions had carried on useful survey work among the labyrinthine channels i n t h i s region. The B r i t i s h had better resources at t h e i r com- mand; fo r example they had four boats and the Spaniards had only two; The Spanish ships were also much smaller than 38 the B r i t i s h and they c a r r i e d a meagre complement. Each party endowed i t s work, afte r leaving Point Sarah with i t s own set of names. However the Spanish authorities were not anxious to broadcast news of t h e i r explorations and Van- couver' s names are dominant on present day maps. 32. A Spanish Voyage to Vancouver and the North West Coast of America (narrative of the S u t i l and Mexicana trans- lated from the Spanish with an introduction by C e c i l Jane), London, Argonaut Press, 1930, p. 9. S u t i l and Mexicana--Length 50' 3"; Beam 13' 10"; Crew 17, CHAPTER VI. QUADRA AND VANCOUVER AT NOOTKA CHAPTER VI. QUADRA AND VANCOUVER AT NOOTKA On August 28, 1792, the expedition ar r i v e d at Nootka and Vanoouver was received with the greatest c o r d i a l i t y by Quadra. On August 29 Quadra v i s i t e d the Discovery and thus began a series of v i s i t s and discussions which lasted f o r some time. Vancouver, on the same day, dined with Quadra and 1 met Maquinna who was indignant about the way he was treated. Maquinna, who was present on thi s occasion, had early i n "the morning, from being unknown to us, been prevented" coming on board the Discovery by the centinels and the o f f i c e r on deck, as there was not i n his appearance the smallest i n d i c a t i o n of his superior rank. Of t h i s indignity he had complained i n a most angry manner to Senor Quadra, who very o b l i g - ingly found means to sooth him, and a f t e r re- ceiving some presents of blue cloth, copper, etc., at breakfast time he appeared s a t i s f i e d of our f r i e n d l y intentions; but no sooner had he drunk a few glasses of wine, than he renewed the subject, regretted the Spaniards were about to quit the place, and asserted that we should presently give i t up to some other nation; by which means himself and his people would be con- stantly disturbed and harassed by new masters.2 On August 30 Vancouver received an o f f i c i a l l e t t e r from Quadra regarding the r e s t i t u t i o n of the t e r r i t o r y . Luckily Vancouver found a young gentleman, Dobson by name, of the a Daedalus, who spoke and translated Spanish; Quadra's l e t t e r 1. This was the same Maquinna, chief of the Nootka Indians, who, In 1788, had sold a t r a c t of land to Meares; Later Maquinna developed a high handed attitude to fur traders at Nootka and i n 1803 massacred a l l except two of the men on the Amerioan ship Boston. 2; Vancouver, op; c i t . , volume I., p. 384. 3. It was fortunate that Dobson was available otherwise the carrying oh of the negotiations would have been very d i f f i c u l t . 47 48 showed that he had not been i d l e while at Nootka. He had arranged for ships to make voyages of inspection along the coast and he had obtained as much information as possible about the Spanish side of the argument. In the l e t t e r he stated that Martinez had found no establishment, that Meare's i n j u r i e s were ohimerioal and that Martinez did not v i o l a t e the laws of h o s p i t a l i t y . These circumstances duly considered, adds Senor Quadra, i t i s evident that Spain has nothing to deliver up, nor damage to make good; but that.as he was desirous of removing every obstacle to the establishment of a s o l i d and permanent peace, he was ready, without prejudice to the legitimate ri g h t of Spain, to cede to England the houses, o f f i c e s and gardens, that had with so much labor been erected and cul t i v a t e d , and that himself would r e t i r e to Fuca; observing at the same time, that Nootka ought to be the l a s t or most north- wardly Spanish settlement, that there the di^- vid i n g point should be fix e d , and that from thence to the northward should be free for en- trance, use and commerce to both parties, con-* formably with the f i f t h a r t i c l e o f the oonven-^ tio n ; that establishments should not be formed without permission of the respective courts, and that the English should not pass to the south of Fuca. 4,4a In other words Quadra held out the b a i t of temporary pos- session of the houses and o f f i c e s with the proviso that the English should not pass to the south of Fuca. The documents 4. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 388. 4a. Wagner* Henry R., Spanish Explorations i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, p. 60. Wagner shows evidence that Quadra had been advised to l e t England have Nootka while the Spaniards could propose that the English should not pass south of a proposed Spanish settlement on the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca at Neah Bay; Some attempt was made to e s t a b l i s h t h i s settlement but i t proved abortive. 49 cl~#o company ing t h i s l e t t e r were copies of correspondence between Quadra and the commander of the Iphigenia. and Gray and Ingraham, commanders of the Columbia and Wash- ington. Vancouver, i n reply to Quadra's l e t t e r , quoted A r t i c l e s one and f i v e of the convention and stated that Port St. Prancisco was the northernmost settlement oc- cupied by Spain i n A p r i l , 1789, and that therefore from that point north there should be free access to both nations. Quadra inquired who Vancouver intended to leave i n possession of the t e r r i t o r i e s and on being informed that i t would be Broughton, took Vancouver on a tour of the store houses and buildings. Vanoouver had been ordered to receive the t e r r i t o r i e s but he had not been instructed how to r e t a i n them. Concluding that Great B r i t a i n wished to develop trade there he determined to leave the t e r r i t o r y i n possession of Broughton while awaiting further in s t r u c t i o n s . On September 4 Quadra accompanied Vancouver i n the yawl and with a small boat party of o f f i c e r s v i s i t e d Maquinna at his royal residenoe seven leagues up the sound. Maquinna received them with pleasure and entertained them with a sample of Indian warlike achievements. Vanoouver adds, "We were not backward i n contributing to the amusements of the day, some songs were sung, which the natives seemed much to admire, and being provided with drums and f i f e s , our s a i l o r s concluded the afternoon's diversion with r e e l s and 50 5 country dances." Such expeditions helped to knit the bond of personal friendship e x i s t i n g between Quadra and Vancouver. In our conversation whilst on t h i s l i t t l e ex- cursion, Senor Quadra had very earnestly re- quested that I would name some port or i s l a n d a f t e r us both, to commemorate our meeting and the very f r i e n d l y intercourse that had taken place and subsisted between us. Conceiving no spot so proper f o r t h i s denomination as the place where we had f i r s t met, which was nearly i n the center of a tract of land that had f i r s t been circumnavigated by us, forming the South- western sides of the gulf of Georgia, and the southern sides of Johnstone's s t r a i t s and Queen Charlotte's sound. I named that country the i s l a n d of Quadra and Vancouver; with which compliment he seemed highly pleased. 6, 6a On September 6, Maquinna with his party, returned the v i s i t . "They had not been long on board when I had great reason to consider my r o y a l party as the most consummate beggars I had ever seen; a d i s p o s i t i o n which seemed gen- e r a l l y to p r e v a i l with the whole of t h i s t r i b e of Indians, and which probably may have been fostered by the i n d u l - 7 gences shewn them by the Spaniards." Fortunately Vancouver had everything necessary to s a t i s f y the demands of the In- dians. In addition he entertained them with a display of 5. Vancouver, op; c i t . , volume I., p. 396. 6. i b i d . , p. 397. 6a. The joint name continued t i l l about the middle of the nine- teenth century, of. Wagner, Henry R., Spanish Explorers of the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, p. 54. "Perhaps the great- est i n j u s t i c e ever done to the Spaniards on the northwest coast was i n omitting Quadra's name, which had been joined with that of Vancouver by Vancouver himself, as the name of Vancouver Island. Whether the name was too long or whether the p a t r i o t i c f e e l i n g s of the B r i t i s h got the best of them, the fact i s that the Quadra part of the name soon disappeared from the charts." 7* Vanoouver, op. c i t . , volume I.,, p. 397. 51 fireworks which they greeted with wonder and admiration, mixed with apprehension. Captain Cook had discovered pre- viously that the Nootkans were greedy. During his stay at Nootka Sound he natu r a l l y thought that there would be no d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining grass to feed the animals on board and also to replenish the wood and water supply. He d i s - covered that the natives demanded payment for these neces- s i t i e s i "However I was mistaken, for the moment that our men began to cut, some of the inhabitants interposed, and would not permit them to proceed, saying they must Bmakook"; 8 that i s , must f i r s t buy i t . " Captain Cook f i n a l l y managed to bargain with the natives f o r t h i s grass. Both Cook and Vancouver discovered that the natives were shrewd bargainers. On September 2 a l e t t e r was received from Quadra but, due to i n d i s p o s i t i o n , Dobson did not translate i t t i l l Sep- tember 10. Vancouver was surprised at i t s contents f o r now Quadra claimed that Meares* hut was not i n existence on the a r r i v a l of Martinez. Quadra suggested that i f no agreement could be reached they should r e f e r the dispute back to t h e i r respective courts and await i n s t r u c t i o n s . In the meantime he offered to leave Vancouver i n possession of what Meares had occupied and also the property of the Spaniards. Van- couver r e p l i e d stating that he agreed to the proposal of awaiting further instructions; "This l e t t e r I concluded by 8. Cook, Captain, A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, Volumes I. and I I . , by Captain James Cook, london, printed by ?/and A i Strahan, 1784, volume I I . , p. 284. 52 again repeating that I was s t i l l ready to receive from Senor Quadra the t e r r i t o r i e s i n question, agreeably to the f i r s t a r t i c l e of the convention, and the l e t t e r of Count 9 F l o r i d a Blanca.' 1 This was Vancouver's duty and he could not be dislodged from his stand. Quadra requested a person- a l conversation on the subject so with the assistance of some of the gentlemen who spoke French t h i s was carried on. Quadra reviewed the Spanish case and once again said Van- couver was at l i b e r t y to take possession of the small parcel of land on which Meares' house had been b u i l t * Vanoouver said that under these circumstances he could not enter into further discussion. I t was then mutually agreed that each should present h i s case before his respective court and await t h e i r deoision. Meanwhile Quadra proposed to leave Vancouver i n possession of these t e r r i t o r i e s . On September 13 Vancouver was surprised to receive a l e t t e r from Quadra s t i l l o f f e r i n g to d e l i v e r up only the ter^- r i t o r y occupied by Meares. Vancouver r e p l i e d that the t e r r i - 10 tory to be restored meant Nootka, i n toto and Port Cox. Senor Quadra gave an immediate answer to my l e t t e r of the 13th, but as he therein did not depart from the terms of his l a t e o f f e r of leaving me i n pos- session only, not formally restoring the t e r r i t o r y of Nootka to the King of Great B r i t a i n ; i t became necessary on my part to demand a categorical and d e f i n i t e answer from Senor Quadra, whether he would 9. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 400. 10. Port Cox i s about sixteen leagues south of the port of Nootka. 53 or would not restore to me f o r His Britannic Majesty the t e r r i t o r i e s i n question, of which the subjects of that realm had been dispossessed i n A p r i l , 1789." 11 In a l l these l e t t e r s and discussions the two men, although they could not see eye to eye on the terms of %he convention, did not allow t h e i r differences to become personal. As Van- couver says, " I t was a matter of no small s a t i s f a c t i o n , that although on t h i s subject such manifest difference arose i n our opinions, i t had not the least e f f e c t on our personal intercourse with each other, or on the advantages we derived 12 from our mutual good o f f i c e s . . . . " Quadra would not a l t e r his stand so the negotiations were ended; Before Vancouver l e f t Nootka he obtained from Robert Duffin, who had been there with Meares i n 1788, the informa- t i o n that Meares had bought the whole of the land that forms Friendly Cove i n Nootka Sound, from Maquinna and Calieum, for eight or ten sheets of copper and some t r i f l i n g a r t i c l e s . What was the net r e s u l t of the negotiations between Quadra and Vancouver? Over a month had been spent t r y i n g to s e t t l e the problem but no settlement had been reached. Quadra was anxious to keep as much t e r r i t o r y and prestige as possible for Spain. He reviewed the Spanish case; said that when Mar- tinez had arrived Meares' hut was not i n existence, and there- fore claimed that Spain had nothing to d e l i v e r up. He offered to leave Vancouver i n possession of the houses and gardens of 11. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I., p. 402. 12. i b i d . , p. 403. 54 the Spaniards at Nootka i f the English would r e f r a i n from coming south of Nootka. Vancouver wisely quoted A r t i c l e s one and f i v e of the Convention. He could not be dislodged from his r i g h t f u l stand. Quadra then offered to leave Vancouver i n possession of what Meares had once occupied but asked that each should r e f e r the case back to his respective government and wait for instructions. In other words, Quadra, a master stra t e - g i s t , did not intend to delive r the Nootka Sound region to B r i t a i n . Vanoouver refused to trade temporary possession of Nootka Sound i n exchange for his acknowledgement of Spanish r i g h t s from San Francisco to the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca* However he did agree to submit the negotiation back to his government. Then Quadra said he would restore the exact spot on which Meares' hut had been located but leave the owner- ship of the whole region to be decided by the courts. Van- couver had been sent out with d e f i n i t e i nstructions to carry out the terms of the Convention. He could not be diverted by anything short of the terms of the Convention. He asked Quadra outright whether or not he would restore the t e r r i t o r y of Nootka Sound. Quadra refused so Vanoouver indicated that further negotiations were f u t i l e . Despite t h e i r differences i n opinion the two commission- ers acted l i k e gentlemen and had great mutual respect for each other. Quadra r e a l l y had gained his point. He had 55 su.ooeed.ed. i n delaying the restoration of the t e r r i t o r y , possibly i n the hope that England might change her stand. Vancouver had carried out his duty. He had been commis- sioned to receive back the buildings and t r a c t s of land "of which the subjects of His Britannic Majesty were d i s - possessed about the month of A p r i l , 1789", Quadra would not abide by the s t r i c t a r t i c l e s of the (convention so van^ couver had no al t e r n a t i v e but to refer, the ease to his gov- ernment. He was not instructed to take back the lands, he was instructed to receive them so. he took the honourable oourse and agreed to await i n s t r u c t i o n s . He r e a l i z e d that he was not an expert s t r a t e g i s t but he did attempt to carry out the terms of the convention to the l e t t e r . It i s f o r - tunate that he d i d not weaken. I f he had weakened Great B r i t a i n ' s case for the ownership of these and surrounding regions would have been d i f f i c u l t to uphold; Vancouver's p o s i t i o n was a d i f f i c u l t one. He had not been sent out to a r b i t r a t e the case;"he had been commissioned to receive back lands, buildings, etc. Quadra refused to make a formal r e s t i t u t i o n of the t e r r i t o r y i n question and hence Vancouver had no al t e r n a t i v e but to r e f e r the dispute 13, 13a back to his government. The interviews between the two 13. The controversy was not s e t t l e d u n t i l 1795 when two new commissioners were sent to Nootka. Manning, W. R., The Nootka Sound Controversy, Report of the American H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1904, p. 471. "The Englishman was S i r Thomas Fierce; the Spaniard Manuel de Alava. They met at Nootka and on the appoin^- ted day, Maroh 23, 1795, car r i e d out the above 56 commissioners had f a i l e d but i t was not Vancouver's f a u l t . The B r i t i s h government had not taken s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r - est i n the case. Vanoouver had received only very b r i e f orders from the B r i t i s h government. Instructions were sent aboard the Daedalus transport but they did not c l a r i f y the 14 s i t u a t i o n . In addition as Vancouver points out even i f he had obtained possession of the t e r r i t o r i e s he had not been given i n s t r u c t i o n s as to how to keep possession. Be had been instructed to make a survey of the coast and to act as a commissioner. In other words he had been t o l d to accomp- l i s h the impossible, to be i n two places at once. It was fortunate that he d i d not agree with Quadra's in t e r p r e t a t i o n and that the whole issue was sent back f o r further considera- tio n * Vancouver now was free to r e l i n q u i s h the ro l e of com- missioner and to return to his f i r s t love, the continuation of the survey work. agreement. A f t e r the prescribed ceremonies had been performed both the Spanish and the English deserted the place." 13a. c f . iforsyth, <) *, Documents connected with the f i n a l settlement of the Nootka dispute", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Second Report, 1924, pp. 3 3 — 35. Copies of Admiralty documents on the f i n a l s e t t l e - ment . 14* Appendix I., p.105 . Letter of Vancouver to Svan Nepean. CHAPTER VII» COLUMBIA RIVER MONTEREY SECOND NORTHWARD SURVEY SANDWICH ISLANDS CHAPTER VII. COLUMBIA RIVER. MONTEREY. SECOND NORTHWARD SURVEY. SPANISH SETTLEMENTS. SANDWICH ISLANDS On September 22 Quadra s a i l e d from Priendly Gove f o r Monterey which had been appointed as a rendezvous for Van- couver and himself. Vancouver secured a passage f o r Mudge on board the Fenis and St. Joseph, bound f o r China, from whence he was to proceed to England. Mudge was entrusted with parts of the •journal and a copy of the survey of the coast which they had explored. Vanoouver hoped that he would return with further instructions from the B r i t i s h government. On October 12, 1792, Vancouver, with his f l e e t of three ves- sel s , Discovery. Daedalus and Chatham s a i l e d out of Nootka Sound bound for the rendezvous at Monterey. The Daedalus was sent to examine Gray's Harbor; the Chatham to examine the mouth of the Columbia River. As the Chatham drew less water than the Discovery she was sent to attempt to get through the l i n e of breakers at the mouth of the Columbia River. The Disoovery a f t e r some f u t i l e attempts l e f t for San Eranoisoo Bay, Under Lieutenant Broughton the Chatham entered the mouth of the Columbia River. By means of boat parties eighty-four miles were charted i n the usual thorough manner. Suoh names as Young's River, Gray's Bay, Puget's Island, Swaine's River, Walker's Island, Mt. C o f f i n , Pt. Vancouver, Mt. Hood were bestowed on parts of t h i s region. Lieutenant Broughton formally took possession of the r i v e r and the adjacent country. He claimed that Gray was never within f i v e leagues of the 57 58 r i v e r ' s entrance. Gray had barely reaohed the true mouth of the Columbia River but he was the f i r s t explorer to d i s - cover that a r i v e r existed there. Broughton, however, must be given cre d i t for being the f i r s t to chart the lower reaches o f the r i v e r as f a r as Point Vancouver. The r i v a l claims of Gray and Broughton, which were revived l a t e r on i n the Oregon boundary dispute, w i l l be discussed i n the f i n a l chapter. On November 14, 1792, the Disoovery entered San Fran- cisco Bay. Vanoouver was not impressed by the progress of Spanish settlements there. "This sketch w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t without further comment to oonvey some idea of the inactive s p i r i t of the people and the unprotected state of the es- tablishment at t h i s port which I should conceive ought to be a p r i n c i p a l object of the Spanish crown, as a key and b a r r i e r to t h e i r more southern and valuable settlements 1 on the borders of the north p a c i f i c . " On November 23 the Chatham arrived and on November 26 the expedition ar r i v e d at Monterey where the Daedalus had already reached. 2 Quadra welcomed them and treated them magnificently. Vancouver sent Lieutenant Broughton to London v i a San Bias 1. Vancouver, Captain George, A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean and Round the World, London, 1798, volume I I . , p. 9. 2. Vanoouver did not see Quadra again. The l a t t e r died the next year. The new commander Arrillag®. was very inhos- p i t a b l e to Vancouver on h i s next v i s i t to the Spanish settlements* 59 and Vera Cruz, with copies of charts and the negotiations at Nootka. On December 29 the Daedalus l e f t for Port Jack- 3 son i n New South Wales* On January 14, 1793, the Discovery l e f t , followed the next day by the Chatham now under the command of Lieutenant Puget. The ships, on February 22, 4 anchored i n Karakakooa Bay and on March 30 the Discovery l e f t the Sandwich Islands bound f o r Nootka. On May 20 the Disoovery reached Friendly Cove, Van- couver discovered that the Chatham had arrived there on A p r i l 15 and had l e f t on May 18 i n order to lose no time i n prosecuting the survey. Before he l e f t Vancouver sent a l e t t e r to the Lords of the Admiralty containing an ab- stract of transactions since the beginning of 1793, On May 26 the Discovery joined the Chatham i n Fitzhugh's Sound. Once again the laborious work of charting the serrated coastline commenced. On May 29 Johnstone was sent i n the Chatham's cutter to oarry on the exploratory work. On May 30 Vancouver i n the cutter accompanied by Lieutenant Swaine i n the yawl examined the main arm of what he c a l l e d , a f t e r 3. A f t e r the loss of the Amerioan colonies the Amerioan plantations were closed to B r i t i s h criminals. Great B r i t a i n then decided to form a penal settlement i n Aus- t r a l i a . On January 18 Captain P h i l l i p who lerd the ex^ pedition f o r t h i s purpose arr i v e d at Botany Bay and then decided to e s t a b l i s h a colony at Port Jackson. 4. Godwin, op; c i t . , Appendix, pp. 289<—296. Thomas Edgar's story shows that Vancouver, as a midshipman, was present at Karakakooa Bay where Captain Cook met his death. 60 the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, Burke * s Ganal, Incessant r a i n hampered progress and added to the discomfort of the boat p a r t i e s . Despite t h i s obstacle the work progressed i n a persistent manner and Dean's Ganal and Caseade Canal were explored and named. I f Johnstone's boat party had been six weeks l a t e r i n these regions they would have met the members of Alexander Mackenzie's overland expedition. Alexander Mackenzie's account of obtaining information about Vancouver's ships from the Indians i s of i n t e r e s t . Under the land we met with three canoes, with f i f t e e n men i n them, and laden with moveables, as i f proceeding to a new s i t u a t i o n or returning to a former one. They manifested no kind of mis- tr u s t or fear of us but entered into conversation with our young man, as supposed, to obtain some information concerning us. I t did not appear that they were the same people as those we had l a t e l y seen, as they spoke the language of our young chief with a d i f f e r e n t accent. They then examined everything we had i n the oanoe, with an a i r of indifference and disdain. One of them i n p a r t i c u l a r made me understand, with an a i r of insolence, that a large canoe had l a t e l y been i n t h i s bay, with people i n her l i k e me and that one of them whom he c a l l e d "Macubah" had f i r e d on his friends and that "Bensins" had struck him on the back with the f l a t part of his sword, He also mentioned another name, the a r t i c u l a t i o n of which I could not determine. At the same time he i l l u s t r a t e d these circumstances by the a s s i s - tance of my gun and sword and I do no doubt but he well deserved the treatment which he described. He also produced several European a r t i c l e s which could not have been long i n h i s possession. From his conduct and appearance I wished very much to be r i d of him, and f l a t t e r e d myself that he would prosecute his voyage, which appeared to be i n an opposite d i r e c t i o n to our course. 5. Mackenzie, Alexander, Voyages from Montreal on the r i v e r St. Lawrence through the Continent of Worth America to the Frozen and P a c i f i e Oceans, London, 1801, p. 344. 61 What a strange coincidence t h i s might have been; the chance meeting of boat party and Mackenzie with his hardy voyageurs. Mackenzie had l e f t Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabaska on July 10, 1792. On July 22, 1793 the expedition had made the f i r s t overland journey to the P a c i f i c ooast. Mackenzie l e f t a record of t h i s f i n e achievement i n the following manner. "I now mixed up some vermilion i n melted grease, and inscribed i n large characters, on the south east faoe of the rock on which we had slept t h i s b r i e f mem- o r i a l , 'Alexander Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one thousand seven hundred and 6, 6a ninety-three! .'" On Johnstone's next boat t r i p a seaman died as a re- s u l t of eating mussels. Johnstone explored and Vancouver named Carter's Bay i n memory of the man who had died. Next the ships passed through Millbank Sound, which had been named previously by Duncan, a fur trader. Gape Swaine was named a f t e r the t h i r d lieutenant of the Disoovery. Whidbey explored and Vancouver named Gardner's Canal. The tedious inland navigation continued by means of boat parties under Whidbey and Johnstone, Whidbey went from Nepean's Sound to Point Hunt and thence to Cape Ibbetson. Vancouver named 6. Mackenzie, op. c i t . , p. 349. 6a. Bishop, Captain R. P., Mackenzie's Rock, Department of the I n t e r i o r , p. 18. "There need then be no hesitat i o n i n d i s - carding the footnote penned some years a f t e r his v i s i t to the coast, i n which Mackenzie, i n r e f e r r i n g to the l o c a t i o n of the rock, says, 'This I found to be on the cheek of Van- couver's Cascade Canal'. This a r t i c l e identifies'Mackenzie*s Rock'." 62 P i t t ' s Archipelago, a f t e r the Right Honorable William P i t t , then the Prime Minister of Great B r i t a i n . Whidbey returned past Point Hunt through the same channel by which they had 7 advanced. This channel was named Grenville's Canal aft e r the 8 Right Honorable Lord G r e n v i l l e . Vancouver decided to reach 7. On t h i s boat expedition Whidbey missed the mouth of the Skeena River. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 104, claims that Captain Vancouver T a i l e d to recog- nise the presence of a great r i v e r even though he stood within i t s mouth and named there Port Essington, he f a i l e d to r e a l i z e the dimensions of the Skeena". This i s incorrect for Captain Vancouver was not with Whidbey*s boat expedition. Walbran, op. c i t . , p. 459, furnishes the follow- ing correct summary, "Mr, Whidbey, master of the Disoovery. with two boats, examined the estuary and neighborhood of the Skeena i n July, 1793 and came to the mistaken conclusion the opening was of no importance. He r e f r a i n e d from examining farther than the Raspberry islands which were given that name by him, and,.on his return to the ves- sels then l y i n g o f f G i l island, reported to Van- couver that t h i s r i v e r was a small stream and the i n l e t to which i t entered not worth examination above the islands, being e n t i r e l y f i l l e d from thence with sandbars and boulders. Thus the Skeena was overlooked much i n the same way as the Praser, from ignorance as to what the entrance of a large r i v e r would be l i k e when deploying into the sea,... .It seems strange that Vancouver, an o f f i c e r of such observing nature should miss noting the three large r i v e r s , Praser, Skeena and Biass yet such i s the case; but i t must be remembered that i n the examination of these shores Vancouver personally examined but a small portion; his o f f i c e r s did the work of examination i n the boats of the Discovery and the Chatham and he ac- cepted t h e i r reports. Captain Vancouver himself was never within t h i r t y miles of the Skeena, pass- ing the neighborhood of the r i v e r with h i s vessels i n what i s now known as Hecate S t r a i t . " 8. Lord G r e n v i l l e was transferred to the Upper House i n Great B r i t a i n i n 1789. In 1806 he organized a govern- ment afte r the death of P i t t . Thomas P i t t , who was on the Vancouver expedition was his nephew. 63 the ocean by means of Principe Canal, which he claimed had been named by the Spaniard Camano. On July 20 the expedition met three fur trading ships, the Butterworth, the Prinoe Lee Boo and the J a o k a l l . Vancouver named Brown's passage, a f t e r the commander of the Butterworth, Dundas's Island, and Pt. Maskelyne, a f t e r the astronomer royal. On July 24 Vancouver i n the launch and Puget i n the yawl set o f f on an extensive and exciting boat excursion. The Indians i n t h i s region were savages as shown by the following quotation from Vancouver's Journal ...we had however put o f f from the rocks, and had pa r t l y got the use of our oars, without being o b l i - ged to resort to any h o s t i l e measures, when the largest of the canoes, under the steerage of an old woman, with a remarkably large l i p ornament, l a i d us on board, across the bow; t h i s vixen i n s t a n t l y snatched up the lead"line that was l y i n g there, and lashed her canoe with i t to the boat; whilst a young man, appearing to be the chief of the party, seated himself i n the bow of the yawl, and put on a mask, resembling a wolf's face, compounded with the human countenance." Vanoouver attempted to calm the In- dians and would have been successful except f o r vooiferous e f f o r t s of t h e i r female conductress. "Her language appeared to have the most e f f e c t upon those who were towards the stern of our boat, and who were likewise greatly encouraged by a very f e r - ocious looking old man i n a middling sized canoe. This old fellowj a s s i s t e d by h i s companions seized hold of our oars on the starboard side, and pre- vented t h e i r being used. The Indians continued t h e i r warlike e f f o r t s but, "by t h i s time, however, which was about ten minutes from my return to the boat, the launch had arrived within p i s t o l shot; and being now thoroughly s a t i s f i e d that our f o r - bearance had given them confidence, and that our desire for peace had rather stimulated them to acts of temerity than dissuaded them from t h e i r h o s t i l e intentions; and seeing no alternative l e f t for our preservation against numbers so superior, but by making use of the coercive means we had i n our power, I gave directions to f i r e ; t h i s i n - stantly taking e f f e c t from both boats, was to my 64 great astonishment, attended with the desired e f f e c t , and we had the happiness of f i n d i n g ourselves re- l i e v e d from a s i t u a t i o n of the most imminent danger." 9 In t h i s region Vancouver named Escape Point, T r a i t o r ' s Gove, Pt. Higgins, Pt. Vallenar, the Island of R e v i l l a Gigedo ( a f t e r the viceroy of New Spain), Behm's Canal, Pt. Davison, Pt. Percy, Gape Northumberland and Portland's Canal ( i n honour of the noble family of Bentinck). On August 16 they returned to the vessels. Much to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a l l p a r t i e s , as we had now been almost i n t i r e l y confined to the boats for twenty-three days; i n which time we had traversed upwards of seven hundred geogra-= phieal miles, without having advanced our p r i - mary object, of t r a c i n g the continental shore, more than 20 leagues from the station of the vessels. Such were the perplexing, tedious, and laborious means, by which alone we were enabled by degrees to trace the north-western l i m i t s of the American continent. 10 The survey work continued painstakingly. Vancouver named Observatory Inlet and Salmon Cove at which place the vessels were stationed. He named Pt. Wales "after my much esteemed f r i e n d Mr. Wales of Christ's Hospi- t a l ; to whose kind Instruction i n the early part of my l i f e , I am indebted f o r that information which has enabled me to 11 traverse and delineate these.lonely regions." Moira's Sound (aft e r the e a r l of that t i t l e ) , Wedge Island, Chol- 12 mondeley's Sound and Cape Caamano were also named. 9i Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I . , pp. 359—360. 10. i b i d . , p. 371. 11. i b i d . , p. 379 12. Jacinto Caamano had been sent to t h i s region as part of the Spanish campaign of 1792. Wagner, H. R., The 65 On August 23 Whidbey i n the Disoovery's large cutter and Lieutenant Baker i n the launch l e f t to explore the con- t i n e n t a l shore. Johnstone was ordered to return to Cape Caamano and examine the starboard shore of the northwest branch u n t i l i t communicated with the ocean. On September 4 Johnstone returned and although he had not a c t u a l l y d i s - covered a passage to the ooean he had brought back evidence that such a passage existed* On September 5 the boats l e f t Port Stewart and on September 10 and 11 Johnstone continued his exploration of the supposed continental shore. Captain Duncan had named 13 Prinoess Royal's Islands and Vancouver adopted t h i s name. Vancouver named the continental shore from Point S t a n i f o r t h to Desolation Sound, New Hanover. He named Duke of Clarence's S t r a i t , Prince of Wales's Archipelago, Cape Decision, and northward from Gardner's Canal to Point Rothsay, New Corn- w a l l . On September 21 the expedition l e f t for the south a l - though Vancouver was not s a t i s f i e d with the summer's work. On October 5 the expedition reached Nootka where Saavadra, the commander of the port t o l d them that no news had arrived from Europe or New Spain and that the Daedalus had not arrived. On October 8 the expedition l e f t Nootka and s a i l e d Cartography of the Northwest Coast, volume I., p. 235. "Vancouver obtained a copy of Caamano*s chart and thus a few of Caamano*s names were perpetuated i n t h e i r Spanish forms." 13* Walbran, op. c i t . , p. 157. Account of Captain Charles Duncan. 66 to the south* As a r e s u l t of the second northern survey the coast- l i n e was surveyed to 56° north l a t i t u d e * Burke Channel, Dean Channel and Bentinck Arm were-explored during early June. Then the i n t r i c a t e waterways of Car^M^er Canal and Douglas Channel were delineated. Whidbey*s boat excursion had f a i l e d to explore the estuary of the Skeena but Cap- t a i n Vancouver should not be blamed f o r t h i s error. Then Portland Canal and Observatory Inlet were charted. As Vancouver and his men penetrated these f i o r d s surely they must have conjectured that at l a s t they had found a s t r a i t leading to the A r c t i c or Hudson's Bay. However the im-r penetrable mountain b a r r i e r proved that no such passage existed. One by one the non existence of the fabled s t r a i t s became evident. Captain'Vancouver had shown that the exis- tence of the fabled S t r a i t s of Juan de Fuca and Admiral de Fonte was a myth* Vancouver was not s a t i s f i e d with the ex- tent of t h i s second survey but the i n t r i c a c i e s of the coast had delayed progress. The work had been well done* The Disoovery reached San Francisco on October 16. Meanwhile the Chatham had been directed to examine Port Bodega. Vancouver had anticipated the usual c o r d i a l wel- come and assistance that had hitherto been given by the Spaniards. However the Spaniards made the r u l e that no one was to go on shore, except to obtain wood and water, except Vancouver and a midshipman. Captain A r r i l l a g a , the Governor 67 General of the province, stationed at Monterey, was re- sponsible f o r putting the rules against foreigners into e f f e c t , Quadra had not enforced the obnoxious rules re- garding foreigners. However Quadra who had l e f t for San Bias died i n 1793. The new commandant A r r i l l a g a adopted the r e s t r i c t i o n s against foreigners putting into e f f e c t the Spanish determination to keep them away from C a l i f o r - n i a and a l l other Spanish t e r r i t o r y . Vancouver attempted an appeal for better treatment but to no a v a i l . Apparently the idea was to keep the outside world ignorant of the re- sources and state of defence of the Spanish settlements. Vancouver decided to make a personal appeal to Captain A r r i l l a g a so the ships l e f t San Francisco Bay on October 24 and arrived at Monterey on November 1. A r r i l l a g a proved to be objectionable. He would not converse with Vancouver so the expedition a f t e r v i s i t i n g Santa Barbara and San Diego set s a i l f o r the Sandwich Islands. Vancouver wrote a b r i e f account of the Spanish s e t t l e - ments i n New Albion, i n d i c a t i n g both t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r weaknesses. The Spaniards, i n doing thus much, have only cleared the way for the ambitious enterprisers of those mari- time powers, who, i n the a v i d i t y of commercial pur- su i t s , may seek to be benefited by the advantages which the f e r t i l e s o i l of New Albion seems calcu- lated to af f o r d . By the formation of such estab- lishments, so wide from each other, and so unpro- tected i n themselves, the o r i g i n a l design of s e t t l i n g the country seems to have been completely set aside, and, instead of strengthening the barrier to t h e i r valuable possessions i n New Spain, they have thrown 67 General of the province, stationed at Monterey, was re- sponsible for putting the rules against foreigners into e f f e c t . Quadra had not enforced the obnoxious rules re^- garding foreigners, however Quadra who had l e f t for San Bias died i n 1793. The new commandant A r r i l l a g a adopted the r e s t r i c t i o n s against foreigners putting into effect the Spanish determination to keep -£©r-ei-gners away from C a l i - f o r n i a and a l l other Spanish t e r r i t o r y . Vancouver attempted an appeal for better treatment but to no a v a i l . Apparently the idea was to keep the outside world ignorant of the re- sources and state of defence of the Spanish settlements. Vancouver decided to make a personal appeal to Captain A r r i l l a g a so the ships l e f t San Francisco Bay on October 24 and arrived at Monterey on November 1. A r r i l l a g a proved to be objectionable* he would not converse with Vancouver so the expedition a f t e r v i s i t i n g Santa Barbara and San Biego set s a i l for the Sandwich Islands* Vancouver wrote a b r i e f account of the Spanish s e t t l e - ments i n New Albion, i n d i c a t i n g both t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s and t h e i r weaknesses. The Spaniards, i n doing thus much, have only cleared the way for the ambitious enterprizers of those mari- time powers, who, i n the a v i d i t y of commercial pur- s u i t s , may seek to be benefited by the advantages which the f e r t i l e s o i l of New Albion seems calcu- lated to afford; By the formation of such estab- lishments , so wide from each other; and so unpro-^ tected i n themselves, the o r i g i n a l design of s e t t l i n g the country seems to have been completely set aside, and, instead of strengthening the b a r r i e r to t h e i r valuable possessions i n New Spain, they have thrown 68 i r r e s i s t i b l e temptations i n the way of strangers to trespass over t h e i r boundary. 14 The Sandwich Islands were reached i n January and on the fourteenth the three vessels anohored once more i n Karakakooa Bay where Vancouver continued to act as a law giver among the natives. He used Tamaahmaah the r u l i n g king of Hawaii as an instrument to curb c i v i l war on the islands. Vancouver made an a l l i a n c e with the king and with due ceremony the chiefs gave voluntary allegiance to the . B r i t i s h Crown. The follow- ing quotation shows Vancouver's insight i n the matter of the importance of the islands* Under a conviction of the importance of these i s - lands to Great B r i t a i n , i n the event of an exten- sion of her commerce over the p a c i f i c ocean, and i n return for the e s s e n t i a l services we had de- r i v e d from the excellent productions of the coun- t r y , and the ready assistance of i t s inhabitants, I l o s t no opportunity f o r encouraging t h e i r f r i e n d - l y dispositions towards us; notwithstanding the disappointments they had met from the traders, f o r whose conduct I could invent no apology; endeavouring to impress them with the idea, that, on submitting to the authority and protection of a superior power, they might reasonably expect they would i n future be less l i a b l e to such abuses. The long continued practice of a l l c i v i l i z e d na-̂ t i o n s , of claiming the sovereignty and t e r r i t o r i a l r i g ht of newly discovered countries, had heretofore been assumed i n consequence only of p r i o r i l y of seeing, or of v i s i t i n g such parts of the earth as were unknown before; but i n the case of Nootka a material a l t e r a t i o n had taken place, and great stress had been l a i d on the cession that Maquinna was stated to have made of the v i l l a g e and f r i e n d l y cove to Sen r Martinez. Notwithstanding that on the p r i n c i p l e s of the usage above stated, no dispute could have arisen as to the p r i o r i t y of the claim 14. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I , , p. 503. 69 that England had to the Sandwich islands; yet I considered, that the voluntary resignation of these t e r r i t o r i e s , by the formal surrender of the king and the people to the power and authority of Great B r i t a i n , might probably be the means of establishing an incontrovertible r i g h t , and of preventing any a l t e r c a t i o n with other states hereafter. Under these impressions, and on a due consid- eration of a l l circumstances, I f e l t i t to be an incumbent duty to acoept for the crown of Great B r i t a i n the proferred cession, and I had therefore stipulated that i t should be made i n the most unequivocal and public manner. I 5 However the importance of Hawaii as a half way house i n the fur trade declined and the cession was never confirmed by the B r i t i s h government. During the sojourns at Hawaii Van- oouver was not i d l e ; he helped to prevent c i v i l wars, he encouraged the inhabitants to ra i s e c a t t l e , and he com- pleted a survey of the archipelago. On February 8, 1794, Lieutenant Hanson i n the Daedalus s a i l e d f or .Port Jackson. On March 15 the Discovery and Chatham set out on t h e i r l a s t northern cruise. 15. Vancouver, Captain George, A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean and Round the World, London, 1798, volume I I I . , p. 31. CHAPTER V I I I . THIRD NORTHERN SURVEY CHAPTER T i l l . THIRD NORTHERN SURVEY The plan was to str i k e the Amerioan coast i n the l a t i t u d e of Cook's River (Cook Inlet of today) and to explore along the mainland from there south to Prince of Wales Island. The t h e o r e t i c a l geographers of the eigh- teenth century claimed that the S t r a i t s of de Ponte exi s ^ ted i n these northern regions; Vancouver was determined to bl a s t the theories of the "closet philosophers". He knew that no such s t r a i t s existed from Mexico to Prince of Wales Island; Neither Captain Cook nor Russian ex- plorers had found such s t r a i t s on the Alaskan coast be- tween Kodlak Island and Icy Cape. However Captain Cook had not followed Cook's River or Prince William Sound to t h e i r respective heads. Thus the expedition had much work ahead• Soon afte r leaving the Sandwich Islands the Dis- covery l o s t touch with the Chatham but a rendezvous on the coast of America had been arranged. Ag the expedition s a i l e d north the climate became colder; on March 31 the mercury was at freezing point. E a r l y i n A p r i l Tscherikow's Island was sighted and named. On A p r i l 12 the Discovery entered Cook's River, The idea was to spend the summer at the high l a t i t u d e s and then work down the coast. "The weather now, extremely cold, (the mercury standing at 25) was very oheerful, and afforded us an excellent view of the surrounding region, composed, at a l i t t l e distance from the r i v e r , of stupendous mountains, whose rugged and romantic 70 71 forms clothed i n a perpetual sheet of ioe and snow, pre- sented a prospect, though magnifioently grand, yet dreary, 1 cold and inhospitable." D r i f t i c e proved very dangerous i n t h i s region. On A p r i l 28 Whidbey was dispatched with two boats for ten days to examine the r i v e r Turnagain, named by Captain Cook. Vancouver named Point Woronzou, Point Campbell and Point Mackenzie. On May 6 Vancouver, Baker, Menzies and some other o f f i c e r s set o f f to explore the western shore. They found no mythical s t r a i t . To the northward round by the east, and towards the southeast the nearer mountains, though of a height i n f e r i o r to those i n the opposite region, were capped with snow, and appeared to form an interrupted b a r r i e r ; the descending plains from which seemed by t h e i r apparent uniformity, to indicate no p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e i r being any where intersected by water. That which flowed between the banks of the r i v e r s t i l l retained a very considerable degree of s a l t i n e s s , and c l e a r l y proved that neither by f a l l s , f l a t s , marshes, or fens, any large body of fresh water found i t s way to the ooean by t h i s communication, and that consequently, according to the general ac^- oeptanoe of geographical terms, t h i s can be no longer considered as a r i v e r ; I s h a l l therefore d i s t i n g u i s h i t henceforth as an i n l e t . 2 Vancouver thus proved that Cook's River was an i n l e t . Be castigated the "oloset geographers" f o r assuming that a Northwest Passage existed there. "Thus terminated t h i s very extensive opening on the coast of North West America, to which had the great and f i r s t discoverer of i t , whose 1. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 100. 2. i b i d . , p. 124. 72 name i t bears, dedicated one day more to i t s further ex- amination, he would have spared the t h e o r e t i o a l navigators, who have followed him i n t h e i r closets, the task of i n - geniously ascribing to t h i s arm of the ocean a channel, through which a north west passage e x i s t i n g according to 3 t h e i r doctrines, might ultimately be discovered." On May 7 the Chatham joined the Disoovery and Vancouver learned that Puget had commenoed and continued an examination of the western side on the i n l e t from Cape Douglas to the pre- sent s t a t i o n and had found i t to be a compact shore. Both ships then s a i l e d f o r Prince Williams Sound. Once again boat p a r t i e s proved t h e i r worth i n d e l i n - eating the region. On May 26 Whidbey with the yawl and large cutter, and Johnstone with the Chatham's and Discovery's smaller cutter l e f t to carry out t h e i r respective duties. On June 2 Whidbey returned due to a seaman's injury and continued boisterous weather and on June 8 Johnstone re- 4 turned. Point Pidalgo, Point Witshed, Point Bentinck and Hawkins's Island were named. On June 11 the Chatham 3. Vancouver, op; c i t . , volume I I I . , p; 125* 4. Wagner, Cartography of the IMorthwest Coast of America to the year 1800, volume I., p. 221. "In 1794 Vanoouver explored Prince William Sound very thoroughly and, having either Pidalgo*s map or a general map on which h i s explorations had been l a i d down, retained some of his names• Valdes, Gravina and Cordova. A Puerto Pidalgo, the present Port Pidalgo, w i l l also be found on Vancouver's map, a clear proof that he had taken t h i s name also from a Spanish map." The Spaniard, Pidalgo, had been on an expedition to Alaska i n 1790." 73 departed to survey the continental shore to Point Mul- grave* On June 15 Whidbey returned and Vanoouver named Gape Puget, Port Bainbride and various points such as Point Erl i n g t o n , Point Pyke, and point Waters. The boat excursions of Whidbey and Johnstone made further work i n t h i s region unnecessary. The south point of t h i s , which i s Bligh's i s l a n d , being the station from whence Mr. Johnstone had commenced his survey, completed the examination of the whole of Prinoe William's sound, as i t respected the boundary of the continent, but the numerous islands, i n l e t s , rocks, and shoals, which are contained within t h i s space, being con- sidered as secondary objects, did not f a l l within the l i m i t s of our service f o r accurately ascer- ta i n i n g or delineating, yet these have been no- t i c e d with every degree of ciroumspeotion, as the nature of our researches would allow, without swerving from our p r i n c i p a l object, v i z the sur- vey o f the shore of the continent. 5 The Chatham was sent to explore from Prince William's Sound to Port Mulgrave. "Mr. Puget having received i n ^ structions to examine the coast minutely from hence to port Mulgrave, my attention was nnly directed to f i x i n g the l i n e of the intermediate external headlands, u n t i l any navigable branches of the sea should be found between those l i m i t s . " Captain Vancouver makes ce r t a i n references to Prinoe William's Sound which show his respect for Captain Cook and also his i n t e r e s t i n survey work; "I cannot avoid making some observations on the difference i n the delineation 5. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 187 6. i b i d * , p. 192. 74 of Prince William's Sound, as represented i n Captain Cook's l a s t voyage, and the r e s u l t of our late examination, par- t i c u l a r l y with respect to Montagu island, which i s therein described to be seven miles longer, and. to be placed ten miles more to the southward, than we found to be i t s s i t - 7 uation and extent." And also, Besides these, I have i n other instances detected some errors which are evidently of the press, but i t i s a circumstance not e a s i l y to be reconciled with such high geographical authority, that the above mentioned errors should have taken place i n the construction of the chart; and notwith- standing that I entertain the highest respect and veneration for the Right Reverend and learn- ed editor of those volumes, yet I am of opinion that had Captain Cook survived to have superin- tended the publication of his own labours, these errors would have been r e c t i f i e d ; and I am led to believe, that they must have arisen from some writing, or authentic document, r e l a t i v e to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r part of his researches, having been los t or mis l a i d . Vancouver named Cape Hammond, after S i r Andrew Snape Hammond, Point Riou and Point Manby. On July 2 the expe- d i t i o n saw Manby, master of the Chatham, i n an Indian oanoe. Vancouver learned from a l e t t e r from Puget that the Chatham had reached Port Mulgrave on June 29, the coast having been examined from Gape Hinchinbrook to Port Mulgrave. On July 3 a strange s a i l was eeen which proved to be the J a c k a l l under the command of Brown, a fur trader. 7 i Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 193. 8. The editor was the Reverend Dr. Douglas, l a t e r Bishop of C a r l i s l e . 9. Vancouver, op* c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 193. 75 From, Mm we received the l a t e s t accounts of the state of Europe that had appeared i n China be- fore his s a i l i n g * These contained not only the melancholy i n t e l l i g e n c e of the death of Louis XVI. and of the anarchy whioh existed i n France but of the attempts which the discontented were making i n Great B r i t a i n , by the promulgation of French doctrines, to subvert our inestimable co n s t i t u t i o n . 10 On July 7 the Discovery entered Cross Sound where the Cha- tham rejoined her on July 8 af t e r having surveyed from Prince William's Sound to Cross Sound. The examination of Cross Sound and i t s environs was a hard task. Since our a r r i v a l on the coast t h i s season, the state of my health had been too i n d i f f e r e n t to allow of my taking any share i n the several d i s - tant boat excursions; but as i t seemed to be highly probable, from the appearance of t h i s ex- tensive opening i n the coast, that Mr. Whidbey might be led to a great distance, inland, by pursuing the continental shore, and by that means be precluded from examining the various islands that appear to l i e before i t , and to form the external boundaries of t h i s sound; and considr- ering myself now s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c r u i t e d to be equal to that task, early i n the morning of the fourteenth I set out f o r that purpose, but by noon I was obliged to return, i n consequenoe of being seized with a most vio l e n t i n d i s p o s i - t i o n which terminated i n a b i l i o u s c h o l i c , that confined me for several days to my apartments. H The arduous l i f e at sea had played havoc with Vancouver's health. Whidbey had, on July 10, been sent on survey work. "To guard as much as possible against accidents, I directed that instead of two boats as heretofore, three should be 10. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 307 11. Ibid., p. 238. 76 equipped for t h i s service, with a fortnight's supply of provisions, under the directions of Mr. Whidbey, who had my orders to go back to cape Spenoer, as we had to that place now traced the continental boundary eastward from Cook's I n l e t , and there to commence and prosecute i t s 12 examination, so long as t h e i r provisions would hold out." The boats returned on July 26. In the region examined by Whidbey, Vancouver named Point Wimbledon, Point Dundas, 13 Point Couverden, "after the seat of my ancestors", Point 14 15 Seduction and Lynn Canal. Gn t h i s occasion i t may not be improper to re- mark that the upper part of t h i s arm, which afte r the place of my n a t i v i t y , the town of Lynn i n Norfolk, obtained the name of Lynn Canal, ap- proaches nearest to those i n t e r i o r waters of the continent, which are sa i d to be known to the traders and t r a v e l l e r s from the opposite side of 12. Vancouver, op. o i t . , volume I I I . , p. 214. 13. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 2. "John Jasper Vanoouver c e r t a i n l y knew of his Dutch o r i g i n , for the children were t o l d that t h e i r paternal ancestors came from Couverden i n the Province of Drenkte, Holland, and they were proud of i t . As a boy, George Vancouver heard the story many times, no doubt, and that he stored i t away i n his orderly mind we know, for on the coast of Alaska, pointing a finger southwards into Chatham S t r a i t , i s the high promontory upon which he conferred the name Point Couverden i n honour of his paternal ancestors, as he himself set down." 14. This name was given because of the a r t f u l character of the Indians, 15. Walbran, op. o i t . , p. 503. "Lynn Canal he named af t e r his birthplace and Couverden point, the west point of entrance to the canal a f t e r the seat of his ancestors, which plaoe i s i n North Holland." 77 America, than we found the waters of the north p a c i f i c penetrate i n any former instance. This approximation i s towards the southwest side of the Arathapescow lake,IS as l a i d down i n Cap- t a i n Cook's chart, from which distance i s about three hundred and twenty geographical miles, but from the close connection and continuation of the l o f t y snowy b a r r i e r , so frequently before adverted to, southeastward, l i t t l e p r o b a b i l i t y can remain of there being any navigable com-?- munication, even f o r canoes between such waters and the north p a c i f i c ocean without the i n t e r - ruption of waterfalls, cataracts and various other impediments. 17 The expedition under Whidbey had accomplished much, before returning to Cross Sound. In the morning of the 23rd the weather was again dark and gloomy; i t however permitted them to see, that the surrounding regions were too much divided by water to admit of the most distant p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e i r being able to complete t h e i r survey up to Cape Decision, during t h i s expedition, the party having already been absent the length of time for which they had been provided, and being now distant upwards of one hundred and twenty miles from the vessels Mr. Whidbey was therefore obliged to decline any further prosecution of his researches, and to make the best of his way back to Cross Sound. 18 In about f i f t e e n days, more than f i v e hundred miles had been covered. On July 29 the main expedition then proceeded southward along the exterior coast of King George I l l ' s archipelago. The remaining survey work was to be carried on by boat pa r t i e s 16. Lake Athabaska. Captain Cook's estimate of the distance from Lake Athabaska to the P a c i f i o was very inadequate. 17. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 294, 18. i b i d . , p. 258. 78 at two given points, Gape Decision and Gape Gardner. Tne one was cape Decision, where our ex-r amination of the continent had fini s h e d the for - mer season, and the other was Point Gardner, from whence Mr. Whidbey had returned on his l a s t excursion from Gross Sound. Mr. Whidbey was d i - rected to recommence his researches from that point, whilst Mr. Johnstone proceeded to Gape Decision, there to begin his examination along the eastern shore of the sound northward, u n t i l the two parties should meet, or be otherways i n - formed by notes which each party was to leave i n conspicuous places for the government of the other, describing the extent of t h e i r respective surveys. 1* On August 2, 1794, the Discovery's yawl and large cutter, under Whidbey and Swaine, and the Chatham's cutter and the Discovery's small cutter, under Johnstone and Carrie, l e f t on t h e i r respective missions. Their f a i l u r e to return by August 15 caused anxiety on the ships as the Indians i n t h i s region proved to be treacherous. Whilst we endured th i s irksome anxiety, i t i s a tri b u t e that i s j u s t l y due to the meritorious exertions of those under my command, that i should again acknowledge the great consolation I derived on a l l p a i n f u l occasions l i k e t h i s , by having the most i m p l i c i t confidence i n the di s c r e t i o n and a b i l i t i e s of my o f f i c e r s , and the exertions and ready obedience of my people. These happy re- f l e c t i o n s l e f t me no grounds for entertaining the most distant idea that any-precaution would be wanting to guard against, or ef f o r t unexerted to avert, so f a r as human prudence could dictate, the threatening dangers to which I was conscious they must necessarily be exposed. 20 However the boat parties performed t h e i r services well and returned to the ships on August 19 where t h e i r achievements 19* Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I * , p. 267. 30. i b i d . , p. 271. 79 were rewarded. In order that the valuable crews of both vessels, on whom great hardships and manual labour had f a l l e n , and who had uniformly encountered t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s with unremitting exertion, cheer- fulness, and obedience, might celebrate the day, that had thus terminated t h e i r labours i n these regions; they were served such an a d d i t i o n a l allowance of grog as was f u l l y s u f f i c i e n t to an- swer every purpose of f e s t i v i t y on the occasion. This soon prompted a desire for mutual congrat- ulations between the two vessels, expressed by three exulting cheers from each; and i t may be e a s i l y conceived by more heart f e l t s a t i s f a c t i o n was scarcely ever more r e c i p r o c a l l y experienced, or more o o r d i a l l y exchanged. 2 1 The boat parties had met before returning to the ships. On t h i s ocoasion Mr. Whidbey remarks, that i t i s not possible for language to describe the joy that was manifested i n every, countenance, on thus meet- ing t h e i r comrades and fellow adventurers, by which happy circumstance, a p r i n c i p a l object of the voyage was brought to a conclusion and the hearty congratulations that were mutually ex- changed by three cheers, proclaimed not only the pleasure that was l e f t i n the accomplishment of t h i s laborious service but the zeal with which i t had been carried into execution, and the laudable pride that had been entertained by both parties, i n having been instrumental to the attainment of so grand an object. 2 2 "In the course of the evening no small portion of facetious mirth passed among the seamen, i n consequence of our having s a i l e d from old England on the f i r s t of A p r i l , for the purpose of discovering a northwest passage, by following up the discoveries of De Fuca, De Fonte, and 23 numerous t r a i n of hypothetical navigators." Following 21. Vancouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 272. 22. i b i d . , p. 284. 23. i b i d . , p; 285. 80 Vancouver's orders possession was taken of the adjacent lands. In the event of the two pa r t i e s meeting and con- sequently a f i n i s h i n g stroke being put to the ex- amination of the shores of North West America, within the l i m i t s of my commission, Mr. Whidbey had my directions to take possession of the s a i d oontinent, from New Georgia northwestward to Cape Spencer, as also, of a l l the adjacent islands we had discovered within those l i m i t s , i n the name : of, and f o r , His Britannic Majesty, his heirs and successors* This, on the parties stopping to dine, was carried into execution; the colours were displayed, the boats's crews drawn up under arms, and possession taken under the disoharge of three v o l l i e s of musketry, w i t h a l l the other for m a l i t i e s usual on such occasions, and a double allowance of grog was served to the respective crews, for the purpose of drinking His Majesty's health. The happy meeting of the two part i e s , having taken place on the birthday of His Royal Highness Frederick Duke of York, the Sound i n which they met I honored with the name of Prince Frederick's Sound, and the adjaoent continent, north west from New Cornwall to Cross Sound, with that of New Norfolk. 2 4 As a re s u l t of Johnstone's survey, Port Malmesbury, Point H a r r i s , Point S u l l i v a n , Point Kingsmill, Point Corn-? w a l l i s , Point Camden, Point Macartney were named. Van- couver named the s t r a i t between King George the Third's Sound and Admiralty Island, Chatham's S t r a i t , a f t e r Lord Chatham. The coast of North America as fa r north as Cook's Inlet had been explored but no Northwest Passage had been discovered. The p r i n c i p a l object which His Majesty appears to have had i n view, i n d i r e c t i n g the undertaking of t h i s voyage having at length been completed, 24. Vanoouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I * , p. 285. 81 I t r u s t the prec i s i o n with which the survey of the coast of North West America has been car r i e d into e f f e c t , w i l l remove every doubt, and set aside every opinion of a north west passage, or any water communication navigable f o r shipping e x i s t i n g between the north p a c i f i c and the i n - t e r i o r of the American continent, within the l i m i t s of our researches; 2 5 Vancouver gave c r e d i t for the excellent exploratory work to his subordinates. For t h i s reason I have considered i t es s e n t i a l to the i l l u s t r a t i o n of our survey, to state very exactly not only the track of the vessels when navigating these regions, but likewise those of the boats when so employed, as we l l when I was present myself, as when they were conducted by Mr. Whidbey or Mr. Johnstone, on whom the ex- ecution of that laborious and dangerous service p r i n c i p a l l y f e l l , end to whom I f e e l myself i n - debted for the zeal with which they engaged i n i t on a l l ocoasions. The perusal of these parts of our voyage to persons not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r - ested, I am conscious w i l l a f f o r d but l i t t l e entertainment, yet I have been induced to give a detailed account, instead of an abstract of our proceedings, f o r the purpose of i l l u s t r a t - ing the charts accompanying t h i s journal, of shewing the manner i n which our time, day by day had been employed; and f o r the a d d i t i o n a l purpose, of making the history of our tran- sactions of the north west coast of America, as conclusive as possible, against the spec- u l a t i v e opinions respecting the existence of a hyperborean or meditteranean ocean within the l i m i t s of our survey. 2 6 The t h i r d northern survey started at Cook's River and worked south to Prince of Wales Island and Gape Decision, i n order to connect up with the work of the second survey. Cook's River was explored and the name ohanged to the more 25. Vanoouver, op. c i t . , volume I I I . , p. 294, 26. i b i d . , p. 295. 82 appropriate t i t l e of Cook's I n l e t , Prince of Wales Sound and Cross Sound were then explored. On the area from New Cornwall to Cross Sound Vancouver bestowed the name of New Norfolk. In t h i s region the b a r r i e r s of ice and mountains were impenetrable and within the l i m i t s of his surveys, no mythical s t r a i t s or Northwest Passage had been found. The work of charting the coastline had been laborious but i t had been well done. On September 2 the expedition arrived at Nootka where Vanoouver learned of the death i n March of Don Quadra. The new governor, Don Alava, said that instructions regarding the cession were expected from San Bias but as no word oame 27 Vancouver l e f t on October 16. Don Alava arranged to meet 27. Report of the Public Archives Department of the Pro-r vinee of B r i t i s h Columbia for the Year ended December g l , 1913, p. 258. Vancouver: Disoovery. Nootka Sound Oct. 2, 1794. To Mr. Sykes: "We arrived here t h i s day month a l l i n high health and s p i r i t s having t r u l y determined the non existence of any water communication between t h i s and the opposite side of America within the l i m i t s of our investigation beyond a l l doubt or disputa- t i o n hence I expected no further detention i n t h i s hemisphere not doubting but the business respecting these t e r r i t o r i e s must have been s e t t l e d a s u f f i c i e n t length of time for a vessel to have arrived by whome we might be relieved and proceed on our route to- wards Old England i n hope to partake of some shair i n the glorious and honorable cause her f l e e t s and armies are at present engaged, but i n these ex^ pectations we were disappointed no v e s s e l l having arr i v e from England to that e f f e c t nor have I re- ceived any information i n answer to my dispatches 83 them at Monterey. Governor A r r i l l a g a had resigned, so the members of the expedition received much better t r e a t - ment during t h e i r stay i n C a l i f o r n i a . Don Alava arrived l a t e r but s t i l l there was no word from the Admirality. Since Vancouver had l e f t i n 1791 no s p e c i f i c instructions concerning the negotiations, had been sent from the Ad- mira l t y . He had sent home important dispatches but no acknowledgement came back. sent home by Mudge and Broughton as I expected by way of New Spain but are s t i l l i n expectation of some news from that quarter, as a pacquet was wait- ing i n readiness at St Bless to forward the di s - patches respecting the Res t i t u t i o n of t h i s country etc but has not yet ar r i v e d . " CHAPTER IX. RETURN TO ENGLAND CHAPTER IX. RETURN TO ENGLAND On December 2 the Disoovery and Chatham s a i l e d south, bound fo r Cape Horn;, I t was now three years, eight months since the expedition had l e f t Falmouth. In that time they had s a i l e d round the Cape of uood hope to the south of A u s t r a l i a , then to New Zealand and the Sandwich Islands. Then three seasons had been spent exploring and oharting the coast of North America from C a l i f o r n i a to Cook's In- l e t . This survey work marks the main achievement of the expedition. From January 23 to 27 the ships were at anchor o f f the i s l a n d of Cocos. On March 25 a stop was made at V a l - paraiso Harbor i n order to repair the ships and also to cope with the problem of scurvy; At the end of about six weeks the ships l e f t f o r the rendezvous at Saint Helena where they arrived f i f t y - e i g h t days l a t e r after a bois t - erous passage. The Chatham was sent to the coast of B r a z i l with naval despatches. On July 16 the Discovery s a i l e d for home. On September 12 the homeland was seen at l a s t . Vanoouver, on September 13, a f t e r leaving Lieutenant Baker i n oommand of the Discovery, set out for London, Soon a f t e r he applied to the Admiralty for a court-martial 1 of Archibald Menzies for breach of certa i n A r t i c l e s of War at sea on July 28, 1795. When the Discovery arrived at London Menzies apologized to Vanoouver and the l a t t e r 1. Appendix I I . , p. 111. 84 86 withdrew his a p p l i c a t i o n for a court-martial. Vancouver h a d - s t i l l much o f f i c i a l business to carry out. He had to send to the Admiralty a l l logs, journals, sketches and 2 charts, Then Vancouver l e f t f o r B r i s t o l Hot Baths to 2. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 271. Vanoouver: Discovery, Deptford. 23rd Oct. 1795. To Evan Nepean Esq. Sir,--Agreeable to the directions of my Lords Commis-r sioners of the Admiralty I transmit to you the several Log-Books and Journals kept by the Of f i c e r s and other persons on board His Majesty's Sloop under my command, during her l a t e voyage, which w i l l be delivered by Mr. Robert Barrie, and of which the enclosed i s a l i s t . And I am to request you w i l l be pleased to move th e i r Lordships to grant an order to dispense with the production of such as might be otherwise neces- sary, at the Navy Office, for the purpose of passing my accounts and those of the O f f i c e r s : as well as for those of the midshipmen which are usually required pre vious to passing t h e i r examination. I have the honor to be, S i r , t Your very humble Serv Geo. Vancouver Enclosure Discovery's Log-Books and Journals Lieutenant Joseph Baker " Spelman Swaine " Thomas Manby Mr. Joseph Whidbey, Master Mr. Robert Barrie " Jn. Sykes " Jn. Stewart Honble Charles Stuart Mr. Robert Pigot " George Charles McKenzie " Edwin Charlton Harris " Volant Vashon B a l l a r d " Thomas James Dobson " Jn. A i s l e y Brown " Edward Roberts " Henry Masterman Orehad 86 recuperate at t h i s spa; Two months l a t e r he was c a l l e d upon to defend himself against charges made against him through the Spanish .embassy. The viceroy of Mexico charged that Vancouver had acted unscrupulously i n the matter of money due for the maintenance of deserters; Vancouver, however, was able to s a t i s f y the Admiral!ty that he had acted honorably, The Admiralty requested Vancouver to prepare f o r pub- l i c a t i o n a f u l l account of the voyage; He chose Richmond as a retreat to write his journal and worked hard despite f a i l i n g health. The o r i g i n a l manuscript of Vancouver's journal has been l o s t , unlike some discoverers Vanoouver wrote his 3 own account; he did not employ anyone to embellish i t , The f i r s t e d i t i o n appeared i n 179©; the second edition, i n s i x volumes, i n 1801; a French t r a n s l a t i o n a year l a t e r . Exoept f o r the f i n a l part the record was put on paper cor- rected by Vancouver. "When i t i s borne i n mind that the writing of t h i s book was undertaken by Vancouver when far advanced i n disease, that i t embraces every aspect of his f i v e years* voyage and runs to something l i k e h a l f a mil-r l i o n words; and, l a s t , when i t i s remembered that a f t e r more than a century very few inaccuracies have been detected 3; When Cook returned from his second voyage there ware many unauthorized publications of logs and journals by the ships company. Due possibly to fear of t h e i r com- mander the men who kept logs i n the Vancouver expedition prevented i l l i c i t p ublication. 87 In. I t s pages, the a b i l i t y , no l e s s than the courage and 4 fo r t i t u d e of i t s author, become t r u l y impressive." Van- couver l e f t f i v e volumes completed by the time of his death i n May, 1798. The s i x t h volume was completed by his brother John Vancouver, and dedicated by him to the King. The f i r s t volumes, except the introduction and as f a r as page 288 of the l a s t volume, were printed before his death. Vancouver had also prepared the introduction and a further part of the Journal as f a r as page 408 of the l a s t volume. Although the writing i s somewhat prosy i t reveals a keen s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , an inquiring mind and indominable courage. Captain Vancouver died at Petersham, i n May, 1798. 5 Mr. V. L. Denton suggests that he died of tuberculosis, a disease which would be aggravated by the arduous l i f e at sea. Vancouver was buried i n the churchyard of St. Peter's, Petersham, Riohmond. The parish b u r i a l r e g i s t e r contains the entry: 'Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy, aged 40 of t h i s parish. Bd. May 18th, 1798.' At f i r s t the grave was neglected but now i t i s cared f o r by the people of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two c i t i e s and an is l a n d bear his name, Vancouver, Washington, Vanoouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island. 4. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 160. 5. Denton, op. c i t . , p. 289. CHAPTER X. SUMMARY OF VANCOUTER'S ACHIEVEMENTS CHAPTER X. SUMMARY OF VANCOUVER'S ACHIEVEMENTS In summarizing Vancouver's achievements on the B r i - t i s h Columbia coast several points must be considered; Vancouver was sent to carry out two s p e c i f i c undertakings. He was commissioned to act as the B r i t i s h agent i n the res t o r a t i o n of land and property at Nootka Sound, and to survey the coast of America from the t h i r t i e t h degree of north l a t i t u d e northwestward toward Cook's I n l e t . How well did he carry out t h i s twofold mission? The attempts of the B r i t i s h and Spanish commissioners to reach an agreement on the rest o r a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y at Nootka Sound ended i n f a i l u r e . Quadra and Vancouver i n - terpreted the terms of the Nootka Convention i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Each commissioner strove to protect the inte r e s t s of his own country. Vancouver had been sent not to debate B r i t a i n ' s oase but to accept a formal Spanish r e s t i t u t i o n of the land i n question. Quadra refused to make a formal restoration and succeeded i n delaying the transfer of t e r r i t o r y . Vancouver would not retreat from his i n t e r - pretation of the a r t i c l e s of the Nootka Convention and chose the sensible course of r e f e r r i n g the oase to the V B r i t i s h government; D e s p i t e the f a c t that Mudge and Brough- ton had been sent to England with copies of the negotiations at Nootka Sound no further i n s t r u c t i o n s were received. Faced with t h i s apparent lack of in t e r e s t on the part of the B r i t i s h government Vancouver did what he considered was his duty i n thus postponing the f i n a l settlement. 88 89 Although Quadra and Vancouver f a i l e d to s e t t l e t h e i r differences as commissioners they were firm f r i e n d s . One reason for t h i s was t h e i r common interest i n discovery and exploration. Most of Vancouver's l i f e was spent a f l o a t . A f t e r his apprenticeship under Captain Cook and his b r i e f active service he had tackled the project of the examination of the northwest coast of America. Quadra also had much service at sea to his c r e d i t . Although not a C a s t i l i a n j he had r i s e n to the top by v i r t u e of his a b i l i t y , i n 1775 he was second i n command of the Heceta expedition. In 1792 he was appointed to go to Nootka Sound as the Span- i s h commissioner. The interest i n exploratory work and a recognition of each others a b i l i t y helped to cement the friendship of these two men. Vancouver's main interest was not i n negotiation but i n survey work. Captain Vancouver's survey work must be compared with the surveys of Captain Cook, Alexander Mackenzie, the 1 Spanish explorers and the Maritime fur traders. Captain Vancouver's work lacks the extent of Captain Cook's. In 1759 Cook surveyed the channel of the St. Lawrenoe River; i n 1761-62 he charted Halifax harbor. From 1763 to 1767 he did accurate work as marine surveyor of the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1768 Cook was appointed to 1. Appendix IV. Parizeau, H. D., Hydrographic Survey of the North West Coast of B r i t i s h North America from the E a r l i e s t Discoveries to the Present Time. 90 command an expedition to observe the t r a n s i t of Venus i n the P a c i f i c Ocean. This expedition reached T a h i t i , c i r - cumnavigated New Zealand and examined the east coast of A u s t r a l i a . Prom 1772 to 1775 Gook commanded an expedition which proved the non existence of a great southern con-? tinent within the temperate zone. It was during t h i s expedition that Gook used a s c i e n t i f i c diet to prevent scurvy. In 1776 Gook was dispatched on a voyage to attempt to discover a Northwest Passage. A f t e r rounding the Gape of Good Hope and reaching New Zealand and the Sandwich Islands the expedition sighted the northwest coast of America at 44° N. l a t i t u d e , i n a running survey of the o * coast as f a r as 70 44 north Nootka Sound was v i s i t e d but storms probably prevented the discovery and examination of the mouth of the Columbia River and the S t r a i t s of ,iiuan de Fuca. In February, 1778, Captain Cook was k i l l e d i n a fracas between his men and natives at Karakakooa Bay on the Hawaiian islands, under the command of Captain Clarke the expedition s a i l e d north to Bering S t r a i t . Later the vessels reached Macao, a Portuguese trading post near Can- ton, China, and here discovered the high value of the sea o t t e r skins which had been obtained at wootka. This heralded the beginning of the maritime fur trade on the northwest coast of America. Thus Captain Cook deserves acclaim as a great ex- plorer of the P a c i f i c . However hi s work on the B r i t i s h 91 Columbia ooast, was rather inadequate. For example Cook's expedition did not follow Cook's Inlet to i t s head. He concluded that the fresh water proved the existence of a r i v e r . U n t i l we got thus f a r , the water had retained the same degree of saltness at low, as at high water; and, at both periods, was as s a l t as that i n the ocean. But now the marks of a r i v e r displayed themselves. The water taken up t h i s ebb, when at the lowest, was found to be considerably fresher, than any we had hitherto tasted; i n - somuch that I was convinced that we were i n a large r i v e r , and not i n a s t r a i t communicating with the Northern Seas. 2 He should have r e a l i z e d that the g l a c i e r s i n t h i s region would account f o r the fresh'water. I f , as Captain Van- couver points out, he had spent one more day i n t h i s re- gion, he would have proved that i t was an i n l e t . Cook thought that there was no large s t r a i t i n t h i s area and as the season was advancing, proceeded without following 3 Cook's i n l e t to i t s head. In contrast Vancouver proved, without the shadow of a doubt, that Cook's River was an i n l e t . Cook then was a great P a c i f i c explorer but his work on the northwest coast, p a r t l y due to bad weather, was sketchy. Vancouver's work was not as extensive as Cook's but he surveyed the northwest coast i n d e t a i l . How does Vancouver's work compare with that of Alexander Mackenzie? 2. Gook, Captain, A Voyage to the p a c i f i c Ocean, London, Printed by W. And A. Strahan, 1784, volume I I . , p. 391. 3. Lord Sandwich, not Captain Cook, bestowed the name, Cook's River. 92 One of the main objectives of Vancouver's expedition was to attempt to discover a Northwest Passage between the North P a c i f i c and the i n t e r i o r of the American oontinent. Vancouver claimed that, within the l i m i t s of his researches no such passage existed. However, p r i o r to the work of Vancouver, the non existence of such a passage had been proved by the expedition of Alexander Mackenzie to the Ar o t i c Ocean. On June 3, 1789, Alexander Mackenzie, a young Scot employed by the North West Company, l e f t Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabaska, followed the Slave River northward to Great Slave Lake and thence to the r i v e r which bears his name. The party reached the A r c t i c Ocean i n l a t i t u d e 69° N. on July 15, 1789. On July 10, 1792, Mackenzie l e f t Fort Chipewyan and on July 22, 1793, completed the f i r s t success- f u l overland expedition to reach the P a c i f i c Ocean. By the f i r s t expedition Mackenzie had proved, for the f i r s t time, that between 52° and 69° north l a t i t u d e , there was no North- west Passage. However, Mackenzie's achievements were not made known t i l l the pub l i c a t i o n of the account of his voy- ages i n 1801. Vancouver died i n May, 1798, and there i s no evidence of any communication with Maokenzie. Henoe Van- oouver claimed p r i o r i t y i n proving the non existence of the Northwest Passage as f a r as 69° north l a t i t u d e ; In the l i g h t of present knowledge credit for t h i s disoovery must go to Alexander Mackenzie. What was the r e l a t i o n of Vancouver's work on the 93 northwest ooast to that of the Spaniards? The work of the early Spanish explorers such as C a b r i l l o and Vizcaino was not very extensive and Spain neglected to e s t a b l i s h s e t t l e r ments. A f t e r the time of Vizcaino there was a hiatus of exploration for more than a century and a h a l f . Spain desired to keep the rest of the world i n ignorance of the coast. However the explorations of the Russians caused Spain to launch a programme of exploration. In 1774 Perez discovered the coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands but did not land on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. Following i n his footsteps came Heceta, Quadra, and Arteaga. The work of the Spaniards up to t h i s time was not thorough survey work but exploration, and t h e i r discoveries were not f o l - lowed by settlement. The renewed Spanish e f f o r t s around the year 1790 were, i n contrast, extensive hydrographio surveys. In 1790 Pidalgo explored and surveyed parts of the Alaskan coast. While Quadra was at Nootka several re- connaissance surveys were directed to the environs of the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. The f i r s t of these, the Quimper expedition, although p r i o r to Vancouver's does not oompare with his i n thoroughness. The E l i z a expedition preceded Vancouver's work i n the Gulf of Georgia by a year but once again the Spanish work was not as detailed as h i s . The Galiano and Valdes expedition of 1792 did r e l i a b l e survey work e s p e c i a l l y on the mainland coast. Although Vancouver f i r s t proved the i n s u l a r i t y of Vancouver Island t h i s 94 Spanish expedition completed the f i r s t circumnavigation. I f the B r i t i s h had not sent the Vancouver expedition on the important survey work the Spaniards might have heen the f i r s t to survey the entire northwest coast and to bestow t h e i r place names on the charts. Due p a r t l y to Vancouver's work B r i t i s h place names are dominant on the B r i t i s h Col- umbian coast. He did perpetuate many Spanish names on his charts e s p e c i a l l y i n those areas explored by Jacinto Caa- mano i n 1792 and by Salivador Fidalgo i n 1790. Why were the achievements of the Spaniards not ack- nowledged immediately? The Spanish government must be held responsible f o r the lack of p u b l i c i t y f o r these voyages. This was i n accordance with the Spanish p o l i c y of keeping the world i n ignorance of Spain's work i n the New World, In contrast the journals of Cook, Mackenzie and Vancouver enjoyed a wide c i r c u l a t i o n . Vancouver's maps were used and copied by the famous En g l i s h cartographer Arrowsmith and l a t e r by the B r i t i s h i A d m i r a l i t y . In addition the dom- inant p o s i t i o n of B r i t a i n ' s sea power ensured p u b l i o i t y for the explo i t s of men such as Cook and Vancouver. Thus the Spaniards had accomplished a considerable amount of survey work p r i o r to the time of Vancouver. However t h e i r work was piecemeal. Map comparison indicates the fact that 4 Vancouver's work was thorough and complete. The discovery 4. Wagner, H. R., The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America to the Year 1800, volumes I. and I I ; These v o l - umes contain many maps which are valuable f o r a comparison of the achievements of various explorers. 95 surveys of the maritime fur traders were also not detailed. • Discovery surveys by maritime fur" traders helped to extend the knowledge of the coast but these men were i n - terested i n fur trading, not i n survey work. In 1785 Captain James Hanna i n the Sea Otter crossed Queen Char- l o t t e ' s Sound and named Smith and Fltzhugh's Sound. In 1787 Portlock and Dixon were i n the environs of King William's Sound. In 1787 Captain Berkley discovered the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. In 1787-88 Dunoan named Milbanke Sound and Princess Royal Islands. Between the years 1787— 9E Gray v i s i t e d the Queen Charlotte Islands and also d i s - covered the Columbia River. Thus previous to the work of Vancouver the work of trading oaptalns had furnished a sketchy knowledge of the northwest coast. Vancouver's survey gave a detailed knowledge of the coast and a f t e r his time only the gaps remained to be f i l l e d i n . Since Vancouver's time the work of completing these gaps has been carried by many surveyors. From 1795 to 1845 the survey work on the coast was neglected. The Ore^- gon and San Juan boundary disputes revived B r i t i s h interest i n the surveying f i e l d . Prom 1857 to 1863 Captain Richards on the Plumper surveyed part of the San Juan Islands, Van- couver Island and the mainland. These surveys were com- pleted i n 1870 by Commander Pender on the Beaver. From 1871-98 there were some unattached surveys by H. M. Naval O f f i c e r s at Esquimault and i n 1910 the Canadian government 96 took over the survey work. Modern surveyors have advan- tages which Vancouver lacked. As one authority shows Vancouver sometimes made errors but t h i s was partly due . 5 to fa u l t y instruments; In contrast another authority com- ments on the accuracy of Vancouver's work. Perhaps the main purpose of t h i s survey i n the minds of the Admiralty o f f i c e r s was to s e t t l e once and for a l l the question of the fabulous North-west Passage, for the discovery of which the reward of L20,000 s t i l l stood. That Van- couver was the man to carry out the second part of the instructions was obvious from his t r a i n i n g with Captain Gook, and from his extraordinary preoccupation with his chronometers, astronom- i c a l instruments, and his observations during the long years he was to spend i n exploration. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Vancouver had with him the Kendall chronometer which Cook had used on his second and t h i r d voyages and praised highly. He also had two chronometers made by John Arnold, one of the best-known i n - strument-makers of the time* Owing to his well known capacity i n surveying and navigation, i t was not considered necessary to carry observers on t h i s voyage. He took the greatest pains to 'get positions as accurately as possible. As many as 199 sets of observations at one place and time were noted, the mean being accepted as the f i n a l r e s u l t . Notwithstanding t h i s great care, the l i m i t a t i o n s of the method of lunar distanoes, depending f i n a l l y on the accuracy of the moon's tables, which were uncertain i n the eighteenth century, made occasional errors of as much as 20 minutes of arc, 12 to 15 miles, possible. Vancouver became a great s c i e n t i f i c navigator, advancing the science by demonstrating the value of new methods suoh as chronometer longitudes, then i n infancy. ° 5. Wagner, H. H., The Cartography of the North West Coast, volume I.., p. 250. Wagner shows that Captain Belcher i n the Sulphur and S t a r l i n g , which l e f t England i n 1835, d i s - covered errors i n Vancouver's work at r o r t Etches and Cape Suckling. 6. Plaskett, J . S., The Astronomy of the Explorers, B r i t i s h Columbia./Historical quarterly, A p r i l , 1940, p. 68. 97 Thus Vancouver's survey work was reasonably accurate a l - though he f a i l e d to discover the Columbia and Eraser Rivers. This survey was his main achievement, his work was more thorough and extensive than that of Captain Cook, the Span- iards and the maritime fur traders. In the charts previous to h i s there were many gaps. Vancouver's chart was a Cook's In l e t , h i s work was used to support B r i t a i n ' s case i n the Oregon Boundary dispute. This boundary dispute had i t s roots i n past his t o r y . As a r e s u l t of the Nootka Sound Convention Spain had aban- doned her claim of sovereignty, leaving the coast between the Spanish and Russian settlements, a No Man's Land. In 1803 France sold Louisiana to the United States and thus the United States inherited the vague Spanish claims of sovereignty. In 1818 a convention between Great B r i t a i n and the United States fixed the northern l i m i t of L o u i s i - ana at the forty-ninth p a r a l l e l from the i-ake of the Woods to the Rockies. In 1819 a treaty between the United States and Spain set the northern l i m i t s o f Spanish t e r r i t o r y at 42° and the former acquired Spain's r i g h t s beyond that l i n e . Hence the t e r r i t o r y from the coast to the Rocky Mountains o o ' between the 42 and 54 40 became a bone of contention. Both B r i t i s h and American fur companies were interested i n from 30° north l a t i t u d e to 7 7. In 1762 i n the preliminary agreements of the Treaty of P a r i s , France had ceded Spain the t e r r i t o r y west of the M i s s i s s i p p i . In 1800 Spain had returned t h i s area. 98 parts of t h i s area but with the advent of s e t t l e r s matters reached a c r u c i a l stage. Both sides attempted to prove the ju s t i c e of t h e i r claims by reference to past his t o r y . The United States' claim was based on the discovery of the Columbia River by Gray i n 1792; by the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-06; and on the work of the P a c i f i c Fur Company at A s t o r i a . Also they claimed the ri g h t of inheritance to Spain's vague claims of sovereignty. On the other hand B r i t a i n ' s claims were based on the work of Captain Gook and the maritime fur traders; the explorations of Mackenzie and Thompson; Broughton's work on the Columbia; and the existence of trading posts on the upper reaches of the Columbia. B r i t a i n claimed the Colum- b i a River as the boundary while the United States i n s i s t e d on the forty-ninth p a r a l l e l . The B r i t i s h also used as ev- idence Broughton's and Vancouver's thesis that Gray had 8 not discovered the Columbia River proper. They also claimed 8. E l l i o t t , T. C , The Northern Boundary of Oregon, The Quarterly of the Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society, March, 1919, December, 1919, p. 32. T. C. E l l i o t t shows that there i s evidence i n a document sent to the Honorable George Canning by Governor P e l l y of the Hudson Bay Company that Great B r i t a i n wished to make the most of Vancouver's work. c f . "In compliance with a wish expressed by you at our l a s t interview Gov- ernor Simpson when at Columbia abandoned Fort George on the South side of the River and formed a new E s t a b l i s h - ment on the North side about 75 miles from the mouth of the River at a place c a l l e d by L t . Broughton Bellevue Point. Governor Simpson named the new establishment 'Fort Vancouver' i n order to i d e n t i f y our claim to the s o i l and trade with L t . Broughton*s discovery and survey." 99 that Gray, a fur trader, did not take possession of the region for the United States* However, i n my opinion, there i s no doubt that Gray deserves c r e d i t for the discovery of the Columbia River, a factor which aided the United States i n the boundary dispute. Captain Vancouver, i n f a c t , per- petuated the discovery by the name Columbia River on his great chart; On June 15, 1846, the Treaty of Washington, usually termed the Oregon Treaty, set the boundary as the f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l . In addition to discussing Vancouver's achievements i n negotiation and survey work several points must be brought to l i g h t . In the journal, In the treatment of his men, i n his preoccupation i n survey work, there i s much evidence of the personality of Captain Vancouver. Unlike many explorers Vancouver wrote his own account of the voyage* Except f o r the f i n a l part he wrote and cor- rected h i s own journals. These journals reveal a keen i n - terest i n the regions v i s i t e d by the expedition* Although the work i s prosy i t furnishes a detailed account of the voyage. As Vanoouver had been at sea since his youth he must have been a s e l f educated man* His descriptions of the various coasts, the natives and the f l o r a and fauna reveal much l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y . Although he was a stern leader he possessed a rather heavy sense of humor. For example Vanoouver changed one of Cook's names i n Hew Zeal- and from 'Nobody Knows What*, to 'Somebody Knows What'. Also the description of the young gentlemen being 100 incommoded by the ti d e i n Burrard Inle t furnishes evidence of t h i s sense of humor; Vancouver was an e f f i c i e n t leader for the expedition. The success of the voyage i s a t r i b u t e to the work of Van- couver, who was appointed commander at the age of t h i r t y - three. By using anti-scorbutic measures he kept his men i n reasonably good health considering the exposure to the elements, hard work and sea v i c t u a l l i n g . As a r e s u l t there was but one outbreak of scurvy. He praised the work of his 9 subordinates who took part i n the survey work. He was not 9. c f . Godwin, op. c i t . , pp. 170-173. The following are b r i e f notes on Vancouver's o f f i c e r s : 1; Barrie who had often acted as Vancouver's clerk was made a lieutenant i n 1795; He then pursued an exc i t i n g career i n active service; 2. Broughton, aft e r returning to England with despatches, returned to the P a c i f i c as commander of the Province and explored the A s i a t i c coast. Later he served i n active service i n the West Indies. 3; Puget saw active service before he served as a lieutenant with Vanoouver. He then returned to active service and i n 1821 was promoted Rear-Admiral of the Blue. 4. Zachary Mudge, af t e r his return to England, sa i l e d with Broughton to the A s i a t i o coast. A f t e r t h i s voyage he saw servioe on the coast of America and the West Indies. 5. Baker, one of Vancouver's ablest o f f i c e r s , reached the rank of captain. 6. Johnstone, a f t e r his service with Vanoouver, was made a captain i n 1806. He, l i k e Baker, played an important part i n survey work on the Vanoouver expedition. 7. Manby, l a t e r served i n the West Indies. 8. Swaine continued at sea u n t i l an advanoed age. In 1846 he was promoted Rear-Admiral ( r e t i r e d ) . 101 content to direct operations from the ship while his men did a l l the spade work. Despite i n d i f f e r e n t health he took part i n many boat expeditions. He drove himself as hard as he drove his men. The following description of Captain Vancouver In the catalogue of the National P o r t r a i t Gallery i n London sheds some l i g h t on his appearance: "Eyes dark yellow grey, f a i r complexion, smooth cheeks, red l i p s , double chin. Eyebrows broad, very dark, arched and remarkably 10 11 short. Countenance rather youthful." This painting i n - dicates that Vancouver was stern and autocratic. Van- 12 couver must have r e a l i z e d the danger of mutiny and his d i s c i p l i n e was harsh, but f a i r . He was responsible f o r the conduct of men some of whom were tough characters who re- sponded only to harsh treatment. To command an expedition for such long distances and for such a long duration c a l l e d f o r stern, unrelenting d i s c i p l i n e . The Logs of both the Disoovery and the Chatham give evidence of the treatment meted out for offences such as insubordination, drunken- ness, theft and f i g h t i n g . 10. Meany, Edmond S., Vancouver's Discovery of .puget Sound, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1907, p. 19. 11. i b i d . , ( f r o n t i s p i e c e ) , copy from the painting of Lem- uel P. Abbott, Engraving made i n England. 12. Vancouver knew the story of the "Bounty" which had sa i l e d from England i n 1787 and had reached Matavia i n 1788. Part of the crew, de s i r i n g to l i v e the lotos l i f e , mutineed. 102 Monday—May 5—1794 Punished John Rose Marine with 3 dozen Lashes f o r Theft and Contempt. 13 May 26—1791 Punish*d Jn° Classpole (Marine) with 24 lashes for Theft. 1 4 August 17—11792 Punished James iSnglehart with 4 dozen lashes for embezzling of King's Stores, henry Hawkins with 1 dozen f o r the same. 1 4 The crew must have known the penalties and i t was t h e i r own f a u l t i f they had to submit to d i s c i p l i n e . At any rate Van- couver's d i s c i p l i n e , harsh though It was, produced few major disputes with his men. The main dispute was between Vancouver and Archibald 15 Menzies, the botanist and surgeon. It would not be f a i r to cast the entire blame f o r the dispute on either party. The simple fact of the case seems to be that t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s clashed and hence the series of undignified episodes, i n hisstreatment of the Hon. Thomas P i t t I think Captain Van- couver can be j u s t i f i e d . Hon. Thomas P i t t , l a t e r Lord Camelford, who had serr- Ved as a midshipman i n the Discovery was discharged by Vancouver, i n 1794, while the expedition was at the 13. Log of the Chatham, Thomas Manby (Master) , Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C. 14. Log of the Disoovery, Z. Mudge, Transcript i n Provin- c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C. 15. Appendix I I . , Controversy between Captain Vancouver and Archibald Menzies. 103 Sandwich Islands. Vancouver cannot be blamed for this incident because P i t t ' s whole career labels him as un- balanced and eccentric. A f t e r the return of the expe- d i t i o n Lord Camelford challenged Vancouver. The l a t t e r offered to s e t t l e the dispute honorably but Lord Camelford refused. Lord Camelford's conduct f i n a l l y became so un- bearable that Vancouver applied to the Lord Chancellor for protection. There i s also some evidence of possible strained r e- la t i o n s between Vancouver and George Goodman Hewett, a 16 surgeon. The in t e r e s t i n g notes of Hewett, i n a copy of Vancouver's "Voyages", have been transcribed by the L i - brary S t a f f of the P r o v i n c i a l Library, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Although there may be some tr u t h to Hewett's assertions I think that a comparison with other a u t h o r i t i e s shows 17 that he exaggerates. Thus i n my opinion Vancouver was an e f f i c i e n t leader for the expedition. His d i s c i p l i n e was harsh but there were some members of his crew who deserved rigorous pun=- ishment. There i s evidence, toward the end of the voyage, that Vancouver was i n f a i l i n g health and became subject to f i t s of passion and temper. Possibly t h i s fact accounts for c e r t a i n traces of severity i n the treatment of his men. 16. Notes i n Vancouver's Voyages by George Goodman Hewett. (Transcribed from Hewett's-original notes by Library Staf f , P r o v i n c i a l Library, V i c t o r i a , B. C. 17. Appendix I I I . 104 In M s attitude to the survey work Vancouver's character stands out i n bold r e l i e f . He adopted a stubborn methodical approach to his main task. He was c r i t i c a l of the work of the Spaniards and he castigated the theories of the 'closet geographers' unmercifully. He had a f i n e contempt f o r those philosophers who conjured up mythical s t r a i t s and passages. I f Cook and Vancouver had discovered a Northwest Passage they would have been e l i g i b l e for the twenty thousand pound reward offered by the B r i t i s h govern- ment fo r such a discovery. However both men seemed more anxious to blast the theories about the existence of such a s t r a i t than to c o l l e c t the reward. This speaks highly of t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of surveying. Vancouver's achievements must be weighed i n comparison with those of other explorers. He was a stern commander but he kept the expedition functioning smoothly. Vancouver had been sent to perform two tasks. His duties as a com- missioner were performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y considering the negligent attitude of the B r i t i s h government i n the matter of the r e s t i t u t i o n of t e r r i t o r y at Nootka Sound. However his survey work was his monument. Despite the previous work- of the Spaniards, of Captain Cook and the maritime fur traders Captain Vancouver obeyed h i s instructions by conducting the f i r s t extensive survey of the northwest coast of America from 30° north l a t i t u d e to Cook's I n l e t . This survey was h i s main achievement on the B r i t i s h Col- umbia coast* APPENDIX I. LETTER OF VANCOUVER TO EVAN NEPEAN APPENDIX I. Report of the Public Archives Department of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia ffor the Year ended December 31, 1913. Captain George Vancouver to Evan Nepean, Esq., His Majesty's Ship Discovery. Monterey, 7th January, 1793. Discoverey Monterrey. Janry. ye 7th. 1793. Dear S i r * In addition to the M o r t i f i c a t i o n I experienced at Nootka i n the unhappy and unaccountable accident which occasioned the loss of my much esteemed and very worthy f r i e n d Hergest who I believe you knew and were acquainted with I f e l t no small degree of disapointment i n not re- ceiving a single l i n e either o f f i c i a l l y or p r i v a t e l y from your o f f i c e or from yourself.... You(r) own l e t t e r to me dated Whitehall 17 March 1791 likewise informs me thus-- "Hls Lordship (Ld. Grenville) has directed me to acquaint you that i t i s conceived to be material that the vessel intended to follow you with stores and provisions should leave England i n the course of the present season i n order to carry out to you directions which i t may be Necessary to give on the subject of the r e s t i t u t i o n of Nootka and any other buildings of Land on the N. W. Coast of America which may be to be restored to His Majesty's 105 106 Subjects i n consequence of the l a t e Convention." I s h a l l now refer to the only orders I received on that Subject by the said Vessel being the Daedalus Trans- port and are as follow "and where as you w i l l receive here a duplicate of a l e t t e r of the Count F l o r i d a Blanco to the Spanish Officer commanding at Nootka (together with a t r a n s l a t i o n thereof) signafying His Catholic Majesty's orders to cause such o f f i c e r as may be appointed on the part of His Britannic Majesty to be put into possession of the Buildings and D i s t r i c t s or Parcels of Land th e r e i n described which were occupied by His Majestys Subjects i n the month of A p r i l 1789 agreeable to the f i r s t a r t i c l e of the late Convention etc etc; Which description states thus. "you w i l l give directions that His Britannick Majestys O f f i c e r who w i l l d e l i v e r t h i s l e t t e r s h a l l immediately be put into possession of the Buildings and D i s t r i c t s or parcels of Land which were occupied by the subjects of that Sovereign i n A p r i l 1789 as well i n the Port of Nootka or of St Lawrence as i n the other said to be ca l l e d Port Cox and to be situated about sixteen Leagues distant from the former to the Southward and that a l l such parcels or D i s t r i c t s of Land of which the English subjects were d i s - possessed be restored to the said o f f i c e r etc etc." Now from the above quotations there cannot possibly appear 107 any d i s t i n c t or clear s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the Parts to be restored and what I have considered and understand as the Buildings d i s t r i c t s or parcels of Land which were occupied etc etc as well i n the Port of Nootka or of St. Lawrence as i n the other said to be c a l l e d Port Cox etc etc. i s the whole and intoto the Lands and t e r r i t o r i e s appertaining to the above Ports and not a small chasm i n the rockey shores of the spacious Port of Nootka; which chasm not a hundred yards i n extent i n any one d i r e c t i o n being the exact space which the house and brestwork of Mr. Mears occupied can t h i s chasm possibly be considered as the d i s t r i c t s or parcels of Land etc intended to be ceeded to me on the part of His Britannic Majesty. No— there can be l i t t l e doubt I should either proved myself a most consummate f o o l or a t r a i t o r to have acceeded to any such cession without p o s s i t i v e directions to that e f f e c t . The di f f e r e n t opinion however prevaild with Senr. Quadra who from the words of the l e t t e r , of the Count of F l o r i d a blanca's has considered himself only authorized and directed to ceed that small pittence of rocks and sandy beach such being the only space i n the Port of Noot ka the English occupied i n A p r i l 1789, the arguments by each side on t h i s subject are j u s t l y represented i n my Journal and i t s appendix therefore as I have already ob- served requires no r e p e t i t i o n here. 108 l t therefore now becomes necessary to point out the motives of t h i s discussion which I intend should convey such information as w i l l point out to you the embarras- sment I have labourd under i n the whole of my transactions at Nootka not only i n respect to the cession of that t e r - r i t o r y but likewise had such cession been made agreeable to what I had conceived honorable and just; I was s t i l l l e f t t o t a l l y i n the dark what measures to persue, you may answer I was directed to be put i n possession on the part of His Britannic Majesty the afforesaid t e r r i t o r i e s — I grant that to be the case but what were to become of those t e r r i t o r i e s hereafter. I was likewise by the same i n - structions directed to prosecute a voyage of investigation i n t h i s Ocean, without receiving any instructions to persue the one and abandon the other; had Nootka been put into my possession or evacuated i n order to persue suoh as might be considered the most important object of His Majestys service intrusted to my charge and execution, i f therefore i t were necessary to r e t a i n Nootka both or at least one of the vessels were absolutely necessary to have remained there f o r that p a r t i c u l a r purpose which as i t w i l l appear i n my journal I had i n the f i r s t instanc deemd expedient and directed matters to be so arranged;*. The measures i n consequence there of which I have judged most prudent to persue have been such as my own common understanding dictated as most compatable with honor and 109. the Duty and allegiance I owe to my Sovereign and my Country whos approbation should such conduct meet; w i l l make me one of the happiest of men and t h i s explanatory l e t t e r by such event be rendered e n t i r e l y unnecessary. But should I be that unfortunate man to be deemed de- serving of censure i n executing those transaction under the above circumstances, You w i l l I hope excuse the l i b e r t y I have taken i n thus intruding on your goodness t h i s l e t t e r as a kind of s u p e r f i c i a l v i n d i c a t i o n of my conduct, though I cannot but be thoroughly convinced that I have no authority to intrude such business either on your friendship or your leesure; Nevertheless I have been induced to write you t h i s l e t t e r under the consideration of my instructions originateing i n the o f f i c e under your inspection and i n consequence of your kind o f f e r before I l e f t England to render me such services p a r t i c u l a r l y i n point of representation that 1 might require and i n the power of your o f f i c i a l capacity to execute. Dear S i r Your most obedient and devoted humble servant. Geo. Vancouver. APPENDIX I I . CONTROVERSY BETWEEN -VANCOUVER AND MENZIES APPENDIX I I . Menzies was a Scott i s h botanist, explorer and sur- geon. He had been on one of Captain Colnett's expeditions to the north P a c i f i c . The B r i t i s h government appointed him as n a t u r a l i s t to accompany Captain Vancouver i n the Discovery. S i r Joseph Banks, who had been with Cook i n 1 the Endeavour furnished Menzies with his instructions, at the request of Lord Grenville. A dispute between Captain Vancouver and Mr. Menzies occurred, at the s t a r t of the voyage, at Falmouth. The dispute was about mess dues and Menzies took umbrage at Vancouver's r e f u s a l to refer the case to "an impartial judge acquainted with the rules of the Navy". Menzies wrote b i t t e r l y to his patron S i r Joseph Banks, who had 2 no l i k i n g for Vancouver. However Vancouver s e t t l e d t h i s 1. Menzies' J.omrnal, op. cit«, p. X. "He was to keep a regular journal of a l l occurrences, which journal, together with a complete c o l l e c t i o n of specimens of the animals, vegetables, and minerals obtained, as well as a r t i c l e s of the cloths, arms, implements and manufactures of the Indians, were to be delivered to.H. M. Secretary of State or to such person as he s h a l l appoint to receive them." "Lord G r e n v i l l e , i n transmitting a copy of these instructions to the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- miralty under date of Febru 23rd, 1791, emphasizes the necessity for impressing upon the commander of the ship that he was to af f o r d every degree of a s s i s - tance to Mr. Menzies as the service he has been d i r - rected to peform " i s materially connected with some of the most impt. objects of the expedition". 2. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 201. Correspondence on th i s dispute. 110 I l l problem but disputes broke out on two l a t e r occasions. Shortly before the Discovery sighted St. Helena trouble broke out again between Vancouver and Menzies. The two men did not see eye to eye on the importance of the bo- t a n i c a l work. Due to negligence on the part of the man detailed to take care of Menzies* botanical frame, some plants were l o s t and both Vancouver and Menzies l o s t t h e i r tempers. Menzies, i n a l e t t e r to S i r Joseph Banks, claimed that when he complained of the matter to Captain Vancouver 3 the l a t t e r abused him. The next point at issue between Vancouver and Menzies was about the matter of the l a t t e r ' s journal. Before the ships reached St. Helena Vanoouver asked f o r a l l logs, journals, charts and drawings, to be delivered' up, accord- ing to the regulations. However Menzies refused to de- l i v e r up his journal. The correspondence furnishes the 4 de t a i l s of the dispute. A f t e r Captain Vancouver arrived i n London he applied to the Admiralty for a court-martial of Menzies for breach of the 19th and 22nd A r t i c l e s of War at sea on the 28th of July of that year; Menzies learned of t h i s when the Dis- covery arrived i n the Thames and immediately apologised 3. Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 141, 4. i b i d , , pp. 268-269. 112 to Vancouver. The episode was brought to a close when 5 Vancouver withdrew his a p p l i c a t i o n for court-martial. 5; Godwin, op. c i t . , p. 269; Vancouver: Discovery Deptford To Evan Nepean 24 Oct—1795. Sir,—r-Mr. Menzies, Surgeon of h i s Majesty's Sloop under my command, having made an ample apology of his conduct to me on the 28th of July l a s t ; I am to request t h e i r Lordships w i l l be pleased to per- mit me to withdraw the ap p l i c a t i o n I had made for a Court-Martial, on that acoount, I have the honor to be, S i r , Your very humble Servant Geo. Vancouveri APPENDIX I I I . COMMENTS ON HEWETT * S NOTES APPENDIX I I I . Commentary on Notes i n Vancouver's Voyages by George Goodman Hewett Surgeon. (Transcribed from Hewett's o r i g i n a l notes by Library S t a f f , P r o v i n c i a l Library, V i c t o r i a , B. C.) (The pages referre d to are those of the transcription.) While the ships were at the Cape of Good Hope some of the crew f e l l sick with dysentery which Vancouver said had been spread by a Dutch ship i n port. In contrast Hewett says, "He was t o l d at the time i t arose from want of Vege- tables which were excessively dear and not purchased by the Purser except on one or two days, three small Cabbages weighing about h a l f a pound each were put into the Soup for the Ships Company, who therefore l i v e d c h i e f l y upon animal food. The B i s c u i t bought here was so coarse, black 1 and hard i t was a long time before the Men would eat i t . " However B e l l writing i n the Log of the Chatham states that "Fresh Beef and Mutton with Vegetables and sof t Bread were served out to the Ship's Company's every day during 2 our Stay;" Another point of variance between Hewett's account and those of other observers occurs i n the treatment of the 1. Commentary on Notes i n Vancouver's Voyages by George Goodman Hewett Surgeon, p. 10. 2. Copy of the M. S. Journal kept on board the armed ten- der Chatham during Vancouver's Voyage i n the Discovery, 1791—94, p* 21. 113 114 fracas at Te n e r i f f e . Hewett claimed that Captn Vancouver just then coming down saw his men surrounded not only by the Guard but a large mob of the Townspeople and forgetting they were not within the pale of his Mighty authority began to Exercise his horsewhip they not being pleased with his Salutation seized his honour and made an Offering of him to Neptune Otherwise threw him o f f the Pier into the Sea from whence he was rescued by the Boat i n which the People also got as well as they could most of them wounded. 3 This account i s not substantiated i n the Log of the Gha- 4 5 tham, or i n Menzies' Journal. •3; Commentary on notes i n Vancouver's Voyages by George Goodman Hewett, Surgeon, p; .8. 4. Journal of the Chatham, p. 15. 5. Menzies' Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, volume I., 17—1790—93, (Transcript i n p r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C , p. 17. APPENDIX IV. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS OP THE NORTHWEST COAST APPENDIX IV Parizeau, H. D., The Hydrographie Survey of the North West Coast of B r i t i s h North America, from the E a r l i e s t Discov- eries to the Present Time, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Fourth Report and Proceedings f o r the Four Years ended October 11, 1939, pp, 30—31. '16th (Sir Francis Drake--Golden Hind—1579 Century lApostolos Valerianos, known as Juan (de Fuca, 1593. '1774—Juan Perez—Corvette "Santiago". 1775—Don Juan de A y a l a — Schooner "Sonora". Don Juan Francisco de l a Bodega y Quadra—A packet. Don Francisco Antonio Maur- e l l e — 1 s t P i l o t and Histor- ian. 1779—Don Ignaoio Arteaga-*-- Frigate "Prinoessa". Don Juan Francisco de l a Bodega y Quadra—Frigate "Q.uerida". Don Francisco Antonio M a u r e l l e — 1 s t P i l o t and Hi s t o r i a n . Discov- ery Surveys 'By Commis- sioned O f f i - c e r s Spanish 18 t h Cen- tury B r i t i s h /1778—Captain ("Resolution". James Cook-r- .French *\ Commander Charles C l e r k e — ( "Discovery". /1786—Captain Jean Francois . de l a Perousse, "La Boussole? Captain De L a n g l e — L "L'Astrolobe". By Trading O f f i - c e r s 0L785-86—Captain James Banna—small b r i g "Sea 0tter"--Sea Otter Cove; V i r g i n and Pearl Rocks; Smith and Fitzhugh Sounds. 1787—Captain Nathaniel P o r t l o c k — "King George"—Southern Alaska. 1787—Captain George Dixon—"Queen Char- lotte"—-Queen Charlotte islands. 1787—Captain William Berkley--"Imper- i a l Eagle"—Barkley Sound and Juan de Fuca S t r a i t . 1787-88—Captaln Charles Duncan— "Princess Royal"'—Juan de Pucd; M i l - banke; Port Stephens. . 1787-93—Captain Gray—"Lady Washing- ton" and"Columbla"—Columbia River. 115 116 '1788 Estevan Jose M a r t i n e z — Princessa". Gonzales Lopez de Haro— Carlos". Exploration Surveys (Don Salivador Pidalgo—"San |l790 Jcarlos". f /Don Manuel Quimper—"Princessa rSpanisW VReal". J /Don Francisco E l i z a — " S a n Carlos". [1791 VDon Jose Maria Narvaez— ("Saturnine". /'bon Jacinto Caamano—"Aranzazu". T 7 Q 9 <Don Dionisio A l c a l a G a l i a n o — 1 / v a / " S u t i l " . M)on Gayetano Valdes—"Mexicana". / (Captain Etienne Marchand—"Solide*. 1 French \1791 IGaptain Chanal—seoond i n command I (and hydrographer. . B r i t i s h fc /Captain George Vancouver—"Dis- 1792 J covery". 94 ] Lieutenant William Robert Brough- I t o n — "Chatham". Period from 1795 to 1845 second period of Dark Ages, so far as Hydrographic Survey i s concerned. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES—»LQG3. JOURNALS. DIARIES Account of the voyage, made by the schooners S u t i l and Mexicana i n the year 1792 to survey the S t r a i t of Puca with an introduction containing a notice of the expeditions previously c a r r i e d out by the Spaniards i n search of the North West passage of America. By order of the King, Madrid, Royal P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1802. Translated by G* P. Barwick, October, 1911. Copy i n Library of University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C. Browne, John Aisley.A Log of the Proceedings of His Ma- ge jesty' s Ship Discovery^—Geo Vancouver r Esq. Commander, 1 Jan. 1791r-r-26 Mar* 1795. Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Ar- chives, V i c t o r i a , B* C. Nautical observations and ship's routine i n - cluding examples of d i s c i p l i n e . Cook, Captain. A Voyage to the P a c i f i o Ocean. Volumes I and II by Captain James Cook, Volume III by Captain James King* London, Printed by W. and A. Strahan, 1784. Interesting Journal of Captain Cook's t h i r d voyage* Copy of M* S. Journal kept on board the armed tender Chatham during Captain Vancouver's Voyage i n the Discovery. 1791-1794. (Prom the O r i g i n a l i n the Library of A. H. Turnbull, Welling- ton, New Zealand. (Probably written by Edward B e l l of I II Dublin, clerk on board the Chatham*) Transcript i n Pro- v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Valuable for comparison with Vancouver's account. Correspondence between the Court of Spain and Great B r i t a i n r e l a t i v e to the settlement of the Nootka Controversy and Claims A r i s i n g Therefrom, 1789 — 1798, Volume I. and I I . Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Valuable documents on the Nootka Sound Controversy. GreenhoNi', Robert. Memoir, H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l on the Northwest Coast of North America and the adjacent t e r r i t o r i e s , 1840. Valuable for the connection between Vancouver's work and the Oregon Boundary dispute. Presents the American side. Hewett, George Goodman. Notes i n Vancouver's Voyages. Transcribed from Hewett's o r i g i n a l notes by Library S t a f f , P r o v i n c i a l Library, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Interesting notes i n his copy of Vancouver's Voyages, by Hewett, who castigates Vancouver, i n my opinion, u n f a i r l y . Manby, Thomas. The Log of the proceedings of His Majesties Armed Tender Chatham. Sept. 27, 1792— A p r i l 7, 1795. (Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. c. Nautical observations and ship's routine and examples of d i s c i p l i n e meted out to the crew. I l l Menzie's Journal of Vancouver's Voyage. Volume I., 1790—92, Volume I I . , 1793-.-94. (Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C.) An i n t e r e s t i n g journal of the voyage, Menzie's Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, A p r i l to October, 1792. B. G. P r o v i n c i a l Archives, Memoir No. V., V i c t o r i a , 1923. This portion of Menzies' Journal has been pub- li s h e d i n book form. Mudge, A. Log of the Disoovery. 1791—92. (Transcript i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C.) Nautical observations and ship's routine and type of d i s c i p l i n e on the Discovery. Mackenzie, Alexander. Voyages from Montreal on the r i v e r St. Lawrence through the continent o f North America to the Frozen and P a c i f i c Oceans i n the Years 1789 and 1793. London, 1801 Interesting Journal by Mackenzie, of h i s two ; overland expeditions. Report of the Public Archives Department of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia for the year ended December 31, 1913. Contains documents r e l a t i v e to the Nootka Sound Controversy. IV Swaine, Spelman; A Log of His Majesty's Sloop Discovery, Commanded by George Vanoouver Esquire. 26 Sept 1 7 9 2 — 2 July 1795. (Transcript i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C.) Nautical observations and ship routine and ex- amples of d i s c i p l i n e . Vancouver, George. A voyage of discovery to the North Paci- f i c Ocean and round the world. Three volumes and an a t l a s . London, Printed fo r G. S. and J . Robinson, 1798. A f u l l and interesting account of the voyage to the North P a c i f i c Ocean. SECONDARY A Spanish Voyage to Vancouver and the North West Coast of America. (Narrative of the S u t i l and Mexicana translated from the Spanish with an introduction hy C e c i l Jane.) London, Argonaut Press, 1930. This t r a n s l a t i o n i s not exactly the same as that i n Wagner, Henry R, 'Spanish Explorations i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca*, Santa Ana, Pine Arts Press, 1933. Anderson, G, H. Vancouver and his great voyage. The story of a Norfolk s a i l o r . King's Lynn, Thew and Son, 1923. A ooncise chronological treatment of Vancouver which contains some inaccuracies. Baker, J . N. L. A History of Geographical Discovery and Exploration. London, George G. Harrop and Company, 1931. The chapter on "Terra A u s t r a l i s and the P a c i f i c Ocean" i s useful for a comparison of Vancouver's . achievements with those of other explorers. Bancroft, Hubert. History of the North West Coast. Volume I., San Francisco, The History Company, 1886. The chapter on "Exploring and Commercial expe- ditio n s 1790—92" and "End of Controversy and Exploration 1792—1800" are valuable. Beaglehole, J . C. The Exploration of the P a c i f i c . London, A. and C. Black Limited, 1934. V VI A general book on the search f o r Terra A u s t r a l i s IncognitA and the main i s l a n d groups i n the p a c i f i c , Bishop, Captain R. P. Mackenzie's Rock. Department of the I n t e r i o r . Captain Bishop i d e n t i f i e s the po s i t i o n of Mackenzie's Rock.. Burpee, Lawrence J . The Search for the Western Sea. Toronto, The Musson Book Company, 1908, Part 1 and 2. This book deals with the overland expeditions of French and B r i t i s h explorers i n search of the Northwest Passage. Caughey, J . W. History of the P a c i f i c Coast. Los Angeles, P r i v a t e l y published by the author, 1933. Chapter 12, "International R i v a l r y i n the North P a c i f i c " was usef u l f o r background on the Nootka Sound Controversy. C o t t e r i l l , George P. The Climax of a World Quest, The Story of Puget Sound. Seattle, Olympic Publishing Company, 1927. In t h i s u n c r i t i c a l treatment Vancouver's Journal i s quoted extensively. Denton, V, L. The Par West Coast. Toronto, J . M. Dent and Sons, 1924. A useful book on Captains Vancouver and Cook and the maritime fur traders. VII F u l l e r , George W. A History of the P a c i f i c Northwest. New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1931 Valuable for background on the exploration of the Columbia. Godwin, George. Vancouver. A L i f e . 1757—1798. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1931. A very readable but u n c r i t i c a l biography. The appendix contains many in t e r e s t i n g and v i t a l facts about the voyage. Howay, F. W. The Making of a Province. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1928. A valuable book f o r background on the Maritime Fur Trade and the explorers on the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast. Howay, F. W. The Fur Trade i n Northwest Development. New Westminster; (Reprinted from "The P a c i f i c Ocean i n History"), H. Morse Stephens and Herbert E. Bolton, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. This a r t i c l e deals with the maritime and land fur trade. Howay, F. W. Early Relations with the P a c i f i c North- west; ( O f f i c i a l Paper read at the Cap- t a i n Cook Sesquicentennial Celebration.) August 17, 1928. This a r t i c l e deals with the Hawaiians who came on the ships, of early explorers to the northwest coast. VIII Howay, F. W. ed; Dixon—Meares Controversy. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1929. Useful to form an estimate of Meares T character. Keenleyside, Hugh L; Canada and the United States* New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1929. Useful for information on the Oregon boundary dispute. Kippis, Andrew. Captain Cook's Voyages. New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1925. This was the f i r s t l i f e on Captain Cook. It was published i n 1788., The s t y l e of writing i s s t i l t e d . Laut, A. C. Vikings of the P a c i f i c . New York, The Macmillan Company, 1905. Contains romantic accounts of many explorers. Lee, Sidney, ed. Dictionary of National Biography. Snith, Elder and Company, 1909. Useful for biographical sketches on Captain Van- couver, Lord Camelford, Alexander Mackenzie and Gaptain Cook. Levirs, F. P. The B r i t i s h a ttitude to the Oregon Question; M. A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1931. Manuscript i n U. B. C. Library. Useful for background on the Oregon Question. L i t t l e , Margaret S. Early D ays of the Maritime Fur Trade IX 1785—94. M. A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934. Manuscript i n U. B. C. Library. Useful f o r information on the work of the Mari- time Fur Traders. Meany, Edmund S, Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1907. Contains biographical sketches of Vancouver and Quadra and Vancouver's Journal i n the Puget Sound region. Newcombe, C. P. The F i r s t Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island. Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir No. I. Shows that Captain Vancouver's expedition was the f i r s t to prove the existence of Vancouver Island. Rose, J . Holland. William P i t t and National Revival. London, G. B e l l and Sons, Limited, 1911. Chapter XXV, "The Dispute with Spain" supplied background for the Nootka Sound "Controversy. S c h o l e f i e l d , E. 0. S. B r i t i s h Columbia. Volume I. Vancouver, S. J . Clarke Publishing Company. A ge©& general account of many explorers of the northwest coast* Wade, M. S. Mackenzie of Canada. London, Wm. Black- wood and Sons Limited, 1927* An i n t e r e s t i n g account of the work of Alexander Mackenzie. X Wagner, Henry R. Spanish Explorations i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca. Santa Ana, Pine Arts Press, 1933.' A hook with some valuable maps which emphasize the importance of the Spanish voyages i n the S t r a i t s of Juan de Fuca. Contains translations of Spanish Journals. Wagner, Henry R. The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America to the Year 1800. Volumes 1 and 2, Berkeley, university of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 19 37. A very valuable treatment of the work of the Span- iards and Captain Vancouver on the Northwest Coast of America. Wagner, Henry R. Spanish Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America i n the Sixteenth Century. San Fran- cisco, C a l i f o r n i a H i s t o r i c a l Society, 1929. The maps and charts show the extent of the Span- i s h Voyages; Walbran, Captain John T. B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Names, 1592— 1906. Ottawa, Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, 1909. A valuable reference book f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the o r i g i n of coast names i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Williamson, J . A . A Short History of B r i t i s h Expansion. London, Macmillan and Company, Limited, 1930, Volume 1 and 2. A general account useful for information about B r i t i s h settlements i n A u s t r a l i a . XI Woollacott, Arthur P. Mackenzie and fils Voyageurs. London, J . M. Dent and Sons Limited, 1927. A short discussion of Mackenzie's work at the coast was of i n t e r e s t . Zimmermann*s—Captain Cook. An Account of the Third Voy- age of Captain Cook Around the World, 1776--178G, by Henry Zimmermann, of Wissloch, i n the Palatine and Trans- lated from the Mannheim edition of 1781 by E l s a Michaelis and C e c i l French; Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1930. A t r a n s l a t i o n of one of the unauthorized accounts of Cook's voyage, edited by His Honour F. W. Howay. BIBLIOGRAPHY PERIODICALS Anderson, Bern* Peter Puget's Journal of the Exploration of Puget Sound. The P a c i f i c Northwest Quarterly, Volume XXX. An i n t e r e s t i n g account of Puget's Journal. Barry, J . N. Columbia River Exploration, 1792. The Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Salem, Statesman Publishing Company, 1932. An account of the work of explorers i n the en- virons of the mouth of the Columbia River; Bishop, R. P. Drake's Course i n the North P a c i f i c ; The B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, July, 1939. An attempt to analyse Drake's course i n the region of the North P a c i f i c . E l l i o t t , T. C. The Northern Boundary of Oregon. The Quarterly of the Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society, 1919. Indicates the B r i t i s h r e l i a n c e i n the Oregon boundary dispute, on the work of Vancouver, Forsyth, J . Doouments connected with the f i n a l settlement of the Nootka Dispute. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Second Report, 1924. These documents deal with the f i n a l settlement of the Nootka Sound dispute. G r e n f e l l , Captain R. The Journal of Don Jacinto Caamano; The B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, July and October, 1938. XII . XIII Deals with the work of the Spaniard "Caamano". Howay, Jf. Wi Some notes on Cook*s and Vancouver's ships. The Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Seattle, Univer- s i t y of Washington Press, October, 1930. Deals with the story of the ships of Cook and Vancouver. Howay, P. W. Vanoouver Journal. Some remarks upon the new. The P a c i f i c Northwest Quarterly, Volume VI. This a r t i c l e i s of great i n t e r e s t i n the study of Vancouver's work. Howay, P. W. The Journal of Captain James Colnett, 1789. Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Third Series, 1939. The differences i n accounts of Martinez and Colnett, as revealed i n t h e i r journals, i s dealt with i n t h i s a r t i c l e . Manning, W. R. The Nootka Sound Controversy. Report of The American H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1904. A very valuable exhaustive treatment of the Nootka Sound Controversy. M e r r i l l , Anne. Vancouvdr's Captain, Grave. The P a c i f i c Northwest Quarterly, Volume XI. Supplies information of Captain Vancouver's grave. M i l l s , Dr. Lennox. The r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Nootka Sound Incident. The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, University of Toronto Press, Volume VI., 1925. XIV This a r t i c l e indicates that Great B r i t a i n was not anxious to acquire new t e r r i t o r y i n the Nootka Sound dispute. Parizeau, H. D. Hydrographic Survey of the North West Coast of B r i t i s h North America from the E a r l i e s t Discoveries to the Present Time. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Fourth Report and Proceedings for the Four Years ended October 11, 1929. A very valuable summarized account of the various types of surveys. Plaskett, J . S i The Astronomy of the Explorers: B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, A p r i l , 1940. Indicates the methods of early surveying work of the explorers. Sage, Walter N. Spanish Explorers of the B r i t i s h Columbian Coast. The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, University of Toronto Press, December, 1931. An Interesting account of the work of the Span- i s h explorers on the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast. T R A C K O F C A ^ T - A J N V A N C O l / v e R ' S S H I P S I _ - — i — HmtmfUmM Hi o 20 

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