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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Origin and development of newspapers in Vancouver Lamb, Bessie 1942

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Origin and Development of Newspapers i n Vancouver by Bessie Lamb A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of HISTORY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1942 Table of Contents Page Preface i i i Chapter 1 The Vancouver Weekly Herald and North 1 P a c i f i c News II The Vancouver Daily Advertiser 6 III The Vancouver News 14 IV The News-Advertiser 23 V The World 34 VI The Daily Telegram 44 VII The Vancouver Daily Province 49 VIII The Saturday Sunset and J.P.'s Weekly 60 IX The Vancouver Sun 67 X The Vancouver Star 73 XI The News-Herald and the Vancouver News 81 XII Development i n t4*k*-**p 86 XIII Conclusion "" ' 9 4 Bibliography A. Books 97 B. Periodicals 100 C. Pamphlets 102 D. Newspapers 103 I Table of Contents Appendices Page I Excerpt of l e t t e r re F. L. Carter-Cotton 1.06. II Excerpt of l e t t e r re J". P. McConnell 106 III Letter from Charles Campbell 107, IV Heading from e d i t o r i a l page of the "Morning Star" 109. V A r t i c l e i n connection with some of Vancouver's smaller publications 111 VI\ ^General location of Newspaper f i l e s 112 i i Preface I t i s true that the history of Vancouver i s s t i l l spann-ed by the memory of l i v i n g c i t i z e n s , yet as the years pass i t w i l l be to the l o c a l newspaper f i l e s that h i s t o r i a n s must turn f o r much source material. Vancouver's j o u r n a l i s t i c f i l e s are a daily diary of i t s h i s t o r i c growth. The e a r l i e s t papers are p r i c e l e s s . The e d i t o r i a l s , p o l i t i c a l a r t i c l e s , and l o c a l news items provide a very intimate picture of Vancouver's early business and s o c i a l l i f e . This thesis i s a pioneer study i n the f i e l d of Vancouver newspapers. I t can not therefore attempt a complete study of the contributions made by the newspapers to the economic and s o c i a l development of Vancouver. Neither does i t deal with the s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects of journalism. The "press" as a whole has doubtless had a r e a l influence on the l i f e of the c i t y . To attempt an assessment and int e r p r e t a t i o n of that influence with a l l i t s p o l i t i c a l d i stortions has seemed to the writer to be beyond the scope of her subject. The aim i s simply to chronicle the history of news-paper enterprise i n Vancouver, sketching the history of the chief papers v/ith reference to the personnel of t h e i r s t a f f s and the general trend of e d i t o r i a l policy and business management. No attempt has been made to include the h i s t o r i e s of the c i t y ' s more than f i f t y smaller publications such as the " K i t s i l a n o Times", the "Point-Grey Gazette", and i i i the " B r i t i s h Columhia Worker's News" as they do not pertain to Vancouver as a whole hut to s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t s , labor organizations or r e l i g i o u s denominations. Thanks are due to the members of the History Department for t h e i r constructive c r i t i c i s m and kindly suggestions. Gratitude i s also extended to the various other people who w i l l i n g l y gave Information valuable to the writer in making thi s study. B. L. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1942. iv Summary-Vancouver Newspapers Newspaper The Herald The Advertiser The Vancouver News The News-Advertiser The World The Telegram The Vancouver Daily Province The Saturday Sunset The Vancouver Sun The Vancouver Star The News-Herald Published Founder or Owner Issued 1886-1888 William Brown 1886-1887 John Hay & William Macdougall J. Ross & 1886- 1887 N. Harkness . . 1887- 1917 F. L. Carter-Cotton 1910 J.S.H. Matson 1888- 1924 J. C. McLagan 1901 Mrs. J.C.McLagan 1905 L.D.Taylor 1915 John Nelson 1921 Charles Campbell 1890-1892 W.J. Gallagher Hewitt Bostock & 1898- W. C. Nichol 1924 Southam Co. 1907-1915 J.P. McConnell & R.S. Ford 1912- J.P.McConnell & R.S. Ford 1914 F.C.Wade K.C. 1917 R.J. Cromie 1924-1932 Charles E. Campbell 1924 V i c t o r Odium Daily & Weekly Daily D a i l y Daily Daily Daily Daily We ekly Daily Daily 1933- Co-operative Organ- Daily i z a t i o n v Chapter 1" '. The Vancouver Weekly Herald and North P a c i f i c News On January 15, 1886, f i v e months before i t was destroyed by f i r e , Vancouver greeted i t s f i r s t newspaper. Copies of the paper, a weekly, were placed i n the Deighton House, the Sunnyside Hotel, Joe Mannion's Granville Hotel and other favourite rendezvous, and old-timers d r i f t e d i n eager to see what kind of a paper " B i l l " Brown had produced from his hand-press brought from Toronto and so recently i n s t a l l e d i n his C a r r a l l Street o f f i c e between Powell and Oppenheimer Streets (Cordova Street East). As Granville was i n the process of having i t s name changed to Vancouver the new paper was c a l l e d the Vancouver Weekly Herald and North P a c i f i c News. Major J . S. Matthews, c i t y a r c h i v i s t has a copy of the f i r s t issue of the Herald. It i s thought that there may be another copy somewhere as a copy of the World, Souvenir Edition, dated June 1896 contains a facsimile of the f i r s t issue of the Herald. Markings on the facsimile show that i t was not made from the copy now i n the City Archives. This copy (Volume 1, Number 1) now f r a g i l e at the age of f i f t y - s i x years has had a strange preservation. It went down at sea i n the sinking of the S. S. Prince Rupert i n Swanson Bay, September 1920, and i t was found 1 : The Vancouver j Weekly !%alch N O R T H P A O T F I C : NEWS. i* *U « * * » _ , _ » • ! c.P. a H<;tc(, "' 0« Me site where The Vancouver Daily Province now stands, 56 years ago stood the offices, pictured at top, of the city's first newspaper, the Vancouver Weekly Herald. Lower picture shows a portion of Page 1 of the first edition of the Herald. Tremise^ of Vancouver's -First newspaper Tacsirotle print of l/ancoui/ers first newspaper. s t i l l i n tact and without blur to mar i t s reading when that l ship was raised i n January 1921. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the fact that the "Herald" was t r u l y Vancouver's f i r s t newspaper becomes apparent when the reader glances over the advertisements. Some of the advertisers are not yet accustomed to giving t h e i r place of residence as "Vancouver" and use the older names of "Coal Harbor" and " G r a n v i l l e " . The Granville Hotel gives i t s address as Water Street, Vancouver, and i n brackets, "Coal Harbor". The f i r s t "Vancouver Herald" was a four-page hand-set l i t t l e journal. The pages had seven columns. Merchants l a v i s h l y used nine columns for advertisements i n the f i r s t issue. Probably the most important notice appearing i n the f i r s t paper was to the e f f e c t that at the next session of the Legislature application would be made to incorporate the c i t y . I t was signed by P.. H. Alexander as Chairman and A. W. Ross as secretary. The e d i t o r i a l page had a further a r t i c l e dealing with the fact that "Granville" was shortly to become "Vancouver"—the terminal c i t y of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway on the P a c i f i c coast. The a r t i c l e points out that the beauties 1. Vancouver Daily Province, Dec. 13. 1941. 2» Vancouver Herald, January 15, 1886. 3. (a) R. H. Alexander was secretary and l o c a l manager of the B r i t i s h Columbia M i l l s , Timber and Trading Company. He became trustee and Secretary of f i r s t school board. (b) A. W. Ross was Real Estate Broker, Water Street Later he became M. P. i n the Manitoba Legislature. 2 of Burrard Inlet w i l l shortly be disturbed by the march of progress and the rush of the iron horse. Mention was also made of a meeting addressed by Honourable John Robson, p r o v i n c i a l secretary, and the editor quotes him as saying, " I t i s impossible to form any conception of the future of t h i s new c i t y but with the Dominion and England at i t s back the p r o b a b i l i t i e s are that i t w i l l soon become a place of importance. I t i s the c i t y on the P a c i f i c Coast and towards i t many eyes are turned." Other a r t i c l e s of interest i n the f i r s t paper included', "Unemployment problem of 1886," "Railway Company Building F i r s t Dock," and "Indians hold dance near Hastings M i l l " . Shipping news recorded 36 ships i n the harbor during 1885 and that lumber shipments aggregated 20,000,000 feet. Another news item reported that some primroses had been plucked i n George Black's garden at Hastings by s Sam Brighouse. William Brown's venture i n the newspaper f i e l d looked very promising at f i r s t and i n a few months he was able to equip his establishment on C a r r a l l Street (east side between Powell and Oppenheimer) with a new p r i n t i n g o u t f i t . His intention was to publish his paper tri-weekly but when the f i r e occurred which l a i d the c i t y i n ashes and the "Herald" went \ip i n smoke, Brown l o s t everything including his investments i n new equipment. Following 4. Vancouver Herald. January 15, 1886. 5. Note: George Black was proprietor of Brighton Hotel. :-3 the f i r e , arrangements were made to print a small weekly e d i t i o n i n the Columbian o f f i c e , New Westminster, u n t i l a new plant and a building could be procured. The f i r e was a great f i n a n c i a l blow to the "Herald" but by September 3, 1886 Brown resumed publication of his weekly from a l i t t l e frame building on the southeast corner of Hastings and Cambie Streets. The "Weekly Herald" was continued up to June 1, 1887,..when a d a i l y "•edition-"The Daily Herald was added and published every afternoon except Sunday. Considerable space i n the da i l y paper v/as given to advertisements. The name, Evening Herald was used from Wednesday, October 12, 1887 u n t i l June 1888 when publica-t tion ceased. Brown did not receive the f i n a n c i a l support necessary to continue publication on a paying basis. This was lar g e l y due to the fact that a r i v a l d a i l y , the News-Advertiser (the amalgamated News and Advertiser) was o f f e r i n g too strong an opposition. Brown did not r e t i r e from public l i f e , however, but continued to serve his c i t y for many years as an alderman, as a school trustee, and as chairman of the waterworks committee. A Native of F i f e , Scotland, William Brown was born i n 1827. A f t e r migration to Canada he owned and published the Walkerton Herald, Bruce County, Ontario. He became known as the "dean of the p r i n t i n g industry" from h i s 6. Evening Herald, October 12, 1887. 7. Pr o v i n c i a l Archives - Notes 4 work i n Vancouver. Following his retirement from the pr i n t i n g business and from an active career as one of Vancouver's pioneer business men, he spent the remainder of his l i f e quietly at his home, 21£3 Main Street, Mount Pleasant. He died i n September 1917. S. News-Advertiser June 29, 1913. 9. P i l e s Vancouver Public Library. 5 Chapter IT The Vancouver Daily Advertiser The second newspaper to appear was the Vancouver Daily Advertiser. The f i r s t issue was printed May 8, 1886 and had the honour of being, not only the f i r s t d a i l y published i n the c i t y of Vancouver but the f i r s t d a i l y i published on the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t o f f i c e was located on the north side of Powell Street and west of Columbia, the s i t e being about opposite to where a. the Europe hotel now stands. The l o c a t i o n as printed i n the Advertiser was simply, Burrard I n l e t , B r i t i s h Columbia. The o r i g i n a l Daily Advertiser s t a f f was composed of John Hay, owner; William Macdougall editor and manager} J . J . Randolph, foreman; "Jerry" Maxwell, W. E. Peck, W. B. M i l l e r , Colonel P h i l l i p s and E. K. Sargison, p r i n t e r s . The paper was published each morning on a Washington hand-press, which, after an active l i f e of 56 years, i s today being used as a proof press i n the Vancouver Sun Job 4 P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . The subscription price of the Advertiser was eight dollars per year or f i v e cents a copy. The Daily Advertiser began as a five-column four-page journal. At least half of each page was devoted to the 1. Vancouver Daily Advertiser, May 11, 1886. 2. Vancouver Daily Province, September 2, 1917. 3. Loc. c i t 4. City Archives—From l e t t e r — G e o r g e Bartley. 6 display of cl o s e l y packed advertisements. Occasionally a complete page was given to advertising. Front page news included a number of mail and telegraph despatches from important world centres. Of special importance i n the Advertiser of May 11, 1886 i s the complete record of the f i r s t meeting of the Vancouver City Council held on May 10, 1886. This includes the inaugural address of Vancouver's f i r s t mayor, M. A. MacLean. Macdougall names the address "The F i r s t C i v i c Spike". The inside pages of the Advertiser which contain sev-e r a l a r t i c l e s copied from other newspapers, also report th a r r i v a l and departure of steamers and stages. The l a s t page i s devoted to the c i t y news and i s la b e l l e d , "Our Daily Local G r i s t of Interesting Items i n and about Town"f The f i r s t item of thi s nature i n the above issue i s , "Rain Rain'.'. Rain'.'.'." Then .follow <-. numerous personal notes. On May 14, 1886 the editor,. W. B. Macdougall*. announced through the Advertiser that a great Indian "Potlatch" v/ould take place at the Second Narrows opposite s to George Black's Hotel the following week commencing on Sunday and that a Tyee, known to his friends as "Big George" planned to give away blankets and b i s c u i t s to his numerous friends. The editor suggests i t w i l l be an old Indian custom worth seeing, e s p e c i a l l y as the authorities have forbidden any more celebrations of that nature. 5. The Brighton Hotel, Hastings, B. I. 7... The journal describes the Potlatch~in the issue of May 22, 1886. There were over 4000 Indians present and the program consisted of dancing, y e l l s and screeches as the grabbers fought and tu s t l e d for the hides and blankets. Macdougall announced on May 31, 1886 that i n place of the evening paper a morning daily would be issued. The reason given was that the journal was determined to keep pace with Vancouver's progress and that a morning paper was an advertisement f o r a c i t y . That the above paper was progressing with the c i t y seemed evident i n the larger "Current comment" a r t i c l e s and i n the announcement that an enlarged newspaper would appear at an early date. The announcement was further emphasized i n the "City News" column which carried two small news items announcing the above change i n a pleasing manner—one, "Good morning Vancouver Daily Advertiser," and the other "Last day of May, 1886. F i r s t issue i n Vancouver of a morning d a i l y newspaper." Incidentally the f i r s t issue of a new r i v a l morning da i l y , the News was to be published the following day. The Daily Advertiser paid i t s respects to the News on June 2, 1886. The editor wrote, "We received yesterday morning the i n i t i a l number of the Vancouver News a morning l o c a l competitor but a creditable sheet. Any imperfections w i l l be remedied of course, the f i r s t number being always a t r i a l and t r i b u -l a t i o n to the poor publisher. I f Vancouver w i l l stand i t , the c i t y has a t h i r d good advertising medium. The descriptive matter r e f e r r i n g to our c i t y ' s l o c a l prospects was excellent and. throughout the new paper i s a cred i t to any community. ".8 W. B. Macdougall was always clear through his columns as to his p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . He was a d e f i n i t e suppor-ter of the Macdonald government and had l i t t l e use for the "rousing G r i t " p o l i t i c i a n s . In an a r t i c l e hy the Ottawa Citiz e n , published i n the Daily Advertiser, the former paper expressed every encouragement to the f i r s t d a i l y published on the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia and added that they knew the i r old f r i e n d Macdougall would be a supporter of the present government. An amusing e d i t o r i a l appeared i n the Advertiser on June 10, 1886 with the t i t l e "Nova Scotia's Cry of Secess-ion". Macdougall had l i t t l e sympathy for the inhabitants of New Scotland and stated that they were a "psychological 7 study". He concluded by saying that t h e i r desire to secede was nothing but a touch of spring fever. Other outstanding a r t i c l e s r e l a t e d to the Canadian — American Fishery Dispute and also to a detailed history of the progress and prospe.cts of Vancouver's i n d u s t r i e s . The l a t t e r was e s p e c i a l l y written i n order to publicize Vancouver to the Eastern provinces and to the'United States. The f i r e which destroyed Vancouver on Sunday a f t e r -noon June 13, 1886, completely destroyed the premises and plant of the Daily Advertiser. Just sixteen days 6. The Daily Advertiser. June 6, 1886 (1st Sunday publication) 7. Daily Advertiser, June 10, 1886. 9 l a t e r , however, on Tuesday June 29, 1886 the Advertiser was again issued from i t s own plant i n a tent which had been erected on C a r r a l l Street between Cordova and Hastings. Within a short time i t moved into a frame bui l d i n g on the east side of C a r r a l l Street between Cordova and Water Streets. The Advertiser was the f i r s t paper printed and issued i n Vancouver aft e r the f i r e . Though the News was s e l l i n g on the streets at an e a r l i e r date i t had been printed i n New Westminster. The e d i t o r i a l i n the journal of June 29, 1886 contained " these optimistic words, "Our immediate prospects are in d e s t r u c t i b l e . We w i l l r i s e again superior to a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s . F o r t i s i n arduis." In September the dai l y paper was dropped for a weekly edition of the Advertiser, which had the additional t i t l e of the P a c i f i c Coast Canadian. Macdougall stated that the amount of news available at that time did not seem to warrant the publication of a d a i l y but that a dail y would be resumed again shortly. There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, but that the absence of the daily paper was due to the fact that Macdougall's s t a f f were at the time d i s s a t i s f i e d . Wages had not been forthcoming. The weekly Advertiser, l i k e the daily was composed 8. Daily News-Advertiser June 6, 1913. 9. Daily Advertiser June 29, 1886. 10. Vancouver Daily Province, June 20, 1936. 10 of four pages of f i v e columns each. I t was published on Thursday and sold at the yearly rate of two d o l l a r s . The d a i l y issue was resumed December 20, 1886 and published as the Evening Advertiser. There was a d e f i n i t e change of policy and a change of s t y l e . The arrangement of material was a l i t t l e more, modern and the price was now seven dollars per year. The e d i t o r i a l i n the new evening issue mentioned the advantages of an evening paper over a morning paper and made reference to the Morning News. There followed a b r i e f review of the Advertiser* s previous experiences together v/ith i t s intention to increase the size of the paper i n order to more adequately set fo r t h selected reading matter and the la t e s t world news. The issue of December 21, 1886 reported that a new era i n the history of international communication had dawned with the completion of the "Telegraphic C i r c u i t " known as the "Mackay--Bennett and Canadian P a c i f i c 13 Railway System." Actually t h i s was the Canadian l i n k with the A t l a n t i c Cable. On December 20, .1886 New Westminster and "Old" Westminster used the cable service to exchange greetings. The messages and story 11. The Vancouver Advertiser and P a c i f i c Coast Canadian September 2, 1886. 12. Daily Advertiser, December 20, 1886. 13. Ibid December 21, 1886. of the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the telegraph system are,.also reported i n the News of the same date. The Advertiser v/as never very prosperous, i t s short l i f e being one embarrassment aft e r another. At one time the employees grew t i r e d of not receiving t h e i r wages and started an opposition paper c a l l e d the Evening Register, of v/hich two issues appeared i n October 1886. Meanwhile " B i l l y " Macdougall (known as Wandering W i l l i e ) managed to f i n d some funds. The s h o r t - l i v e d Register went out of existence and the employees went, back to their old jobs on the Advertiser. Newspaper competition was extremely keen i n 1886 and 1887. Something of the r i v a l r y that existed between the Advertiser and the News can be noticed throughout many issues of the former as the editor d i r e c t s remarks and c r i t i c i s m s at the News. The population of Vancouver at the time could not adequately support more than one l o c a l paper. Macdougall made a desperate e f f o r t to re- e s t a b l i s h his paper on a sound basis but the s t r a i n proved too great. He was obliged to s e l l his interest to F. L. Carter-Cotton who on March 51, 1887, amalgamated the Advertiser and the News which he had also purchased, under the name of News-Advertiser. 14. Vancouver Daily Province June SO, 1936. 12 Macdougall was never a successful j o u r n a l i s t . Previous to h i s experience with the Advertiser he had had some j o u r n a l i s t i c work e d i t i n g the Nanaimo, Westward Hoi When the Advertiser was forced to cease publication Macdougall was for a time employed by Carter-Cotton. His name does not appear again on available records and i t i s believed that when he l e f t Vancouver he also l e f t public l i f e . 15. Interview—Roy W. Brown. Sun Publishing Co. 13-Chapter I I I The Vancouver News The Vancouver News appeared as a morning d a i l y , June 1, 1886. It was published by N. Harkness and J . H. i Ross, with W. Rogers and Percy Whitworth as pr i n t e r s . The o f f i c e was located on the west side of Abbott Street between Water and Cordova. The News which began with four large pages sold at eight d o l l a r s per year. The f i r s t of the f i v e columns on the front page was used to display advertisements,—the remainder reported the news of Vancouver. The introductory e d i t o r i a l i s conclusive proof of the editor's f a i t h i n the young c i t y . I t reads, "For the News we have only to say that i t i s a business enterprise . Understanding that i n d i v i d u a l prosperity depends upon general progress, their primary aim w i l l be to advance and maintain the interests of the c i t y of Van-couver; to make known to v i s i t o r s and impress upon r e s i r -dents i t s splendid prospects and unparalleled p o s s i b i l i t i e s . In p o l i t i c s the News w i l l be independent, the organ of no party or fact i o n ; aiming simply to promote honesty, economy and progress i n municipal, p r o v i n c i a l , and Dominion a f f a i r s . We s h a l l always be on the side of morality and law and order and opposed to the e v i l influences which too often become predominate i n new and rapidly growing towns. Our aim w i l l be to improve as the town improves, to keep pace with i t s progress, however rapid; to make the paper at a l l times worth i t s p r i c e . The public s h a l l judge whether that e f f o r t i s successful." *• Vancouver Daily Province, September 2, 1917. 2. The Vancouver News, June 1, 1886. 1-4. On the f i r s t page of the issue June 1, 1886, coupled with an outline of the history of that great national undertaking, the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, there i s general information about the c i t y and i t s prospects. There i s also the suggestion to American c i t i z e n s that hex*e are inducements f o r c a p i t a l and enterprise unequalled elsewhere on the continent. Another item of special interest to jo u r n a l i s t s i s the hi s t o r y of Vancouver newspapers to date. This a r t i c l e concludes by saying that the News was the second daily and that they believed i t was the intention of William Brown to commence publishing a da i l y at an early date. The News continued to be an enthusiastic booster of Vancouver u n t i l i t s publication ceased. I t continually advocated the promotion of the young c i t y . The following headlines are t y p i c a l . "Vancouver Terminus Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Central Point on the Great Route from Liverpool to Hong Kong." "The most promising Young C i t y i n America", "Vancouver's destiny enwrapped with the greatest undertaking of the 19th Century." To i l l u s t r a t e the value of e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supporting home industries, the News dated June 8, 1886, displayed a copy of a Northern P a c i f i c r a i l r o a d t i c k e t with a coupon stating, "Good for Three meals and one night's lodging at the "Taeoma Hotel", Taeoma, W. T. The News 3. The Vancouver News, June 8, 1886. considered the l a t t e r was good advertising. Vancouver papers did not f a l l f a r short of t h e i r American neighbours however, i n advertising t h e i r business prospects. Among some of the advertisements appearing i n the News are (a) "Vancouver Hotel, C a r r a l l Street Thomas McDonald, Proprietor. Superior Location. Meals .25$ Lodging .25# to .500 F i r s t - C l a s s accomodation i n every respect. Special f a c i l i t i e s f or the tr a v e l i n g public. No Chinese employed." (b) "C.P.R. Hotel—Hastings St. D. McPherson Prop. This new and commodious hotel i s now open for the reception of guests. The table supplied with the best the market affords. Bar supplied with choice liquors and cigars." V Day a f t e r day more and more r e a l estate advertisements appear. There i s also a very noticeable v a r i a t i o n of print and spacing i n the advertisements to draw the attention. In fact the p r i n t becomes so s t a r t l i n g with i t s v a r i a t i o n s i n size, shape, and horizontal, diagonal, and curving l i n e s that the re s u l t s become most d i s t o r t i n g to the eye. No doubt there were advertisers who f e l t some form of r e l i e f was necessary i n the advertisement columns for on Friday, August 9, 1886 a Cigar Store Advertisement appeared with a good-sized picture of i t s proprietor. This was the f i r s t use made of p o r t r a i t s i n 4. The Vancouver News, June 8, 1886 16 Vancouver's l o c a l newspapers. Some of the "City notes" i n the News are quite amusing. Evidently James Ross v/as l i v i n g up to his promise to r i d the c i t y of e v i l when he published, "A pl a i n drunk was run into the cooler yesterday." Several l a t e r papers made mention of the use made of the"cooler". The News had only issued twelve copies when i t was destroyed by the great f i r e , yet on June 17, 1886 just four days l a t e r , a small e d i t i o n was s e l l i n g i n Van-couver. Its t i t l e was simply, The Daily News. The paper a double sheet approximately eight by ten inches had been printed i n New Westminster on the B r i t i s h Columbian presses by "Sid" Peake, the type being set by "Bob" Matheson, now a dentist i n Kelowna. The following item i n the f i r e issue of June 17, 1886, shows what a t e r r i b l e disaster had be f a l l e n Vancouver. The News 'grandiloquently" states, "Probably never since the days of Pompeii and Herculaneum was a town L*Wiped Out Of Existence* so completely and suddenly as was Vancouver on Sunday." The story of the catastrophe was then t o l d i n d e t a i l . The report was followed by an optimistic a r t i c l e stating that the disaster could 5. Vancouver Daily Province, June 13, 1926. Note: Sidney Peake worked as compositor for the Daily News-Advertiser i n 1888 and for the Vforld i n 1889. He l a t e r went as a missionary to the Orient. Vancouver City D irectories March, 1888 and Jan. 1889. ,„ scarcely impede the progress of Vancouver at a l l and that i n a few months or even weeks i t would he restored. One page l i s t s several buildings, including a new o f f i c e for the News, which were already under construction. At least f o r t y names are given, together with l o c a t i o n and nature of business. The l a s t page consists e n t i r e l y of small notices and applications for licenses for hotels and saloons. Mr. B. A. McKelvie writing about the June 17 copy of the News stated that i t was a story of Vancouver's s p i r i t , her courage and enterprise of four decades ago, for i n that f i r s t appearance of the paper a f t e r the destruction of the c i t y were recorded the preparations already made to reconstruct Vancouver from her ashes. James Ross again published a large sized paper on July 23, 1886 from his new o f f i c e i n Vancouver. The name of Harkness does not appear i n t h i s issue. He had sold his interest and had l e f t for C a l i f o r n i a a short time before the p r i n t i n g of the News was resumed i n Van-7 couver. The issue of July 26, 1886 reported Maurice E. Kenealy as c i t y editor. The paper which was now an evening journal carried the former t i t l e of The Vancouver News. James Ross expressed his appreciation of .6. Vancouver Daily Province, June 13, 1926 7. City Archives—George Bartley's l e t t e r to Ma j or Ma thews, Ar ch i v i s t.' August 13, 1940 18 Honorable John Robson i n the e d i t o r i a l of July 23, 1886 when he wrote, "In p o l i t i c s we s h a l l pursue an independent course givi n g our general support to the present P r o v i n c i a l Government and to Hon. John Robson who so f a i t h f u l l y represents the New Westminster d i s t r i c t i n which Vancouver i s included. So f a r as the Dominion Government i s concerned we s h a l l do i t f u l l j u s t i c e , supporting i t when we consider i t i s on the ri g h t side, and s h a l l not f a i l when i n our opinion i t i s pursuing the wrong to c a l l attention to i t s short-comings." r Mention was made i n the same issue of the approaching extension of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway from Port Moody to Vancouver and of the prospect of a v i s i t from William Van Horne, general manager. The News became a morning paper again on July 29, 1886. A Vancouver weather report reached the press and was published i n the News August 6, 1886. Daily weather reports followed i n the succeeding papers. The issue of Thursday, September 14, 1886 begins the i n t e r e s t i n g story of "Gassy Jack", which i s continued i n the next issue. The editor i n introducing the story of the eccentric char-acter who gave Granville the name of t'Gastown" states that he i s wri t i n g the story for the benefit of future historians, seeking the truth of "Gassy Jack's"'.career. This a r t i c l e i s well worth reading. Ross quotes Deighton's own explanation for his voluminous con-versation. 8. The Vancouver News. July 23, 1886. »9. Note: JeUh DoV^Min vuwi mcknem*<J CraMf Jack 19 The history of the Vancouver News would not he complete without a more personal reference to that pioneer J. p. Ross who with his partner N. Harkness began Van-couver's second daily newspaper. Ross spent his boyhood i n B e l l e v i l l e , Ontario, but as a young man the West cal l e d him. He went f i r s t to Winnipeg where he worked i n a p r i n t i n g o f f i c e and then l a t e r held a position with the Winnipeg Free Press. He came to Vancouver before the r a i l s had reached i t . He was i n Vancouver in charge of the News when the f i r s t t r a i n arrived May 23, 1887 carrying so many distinguished o f f i c i a l s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Ross faced many t r i a l s and d i f f i c u l t i e s during his stay i n Vancouver. He was attending church service on the morning of the f i r e , when his partner came and t o l d him that t h e i r home was in^immediate danger. Rushing out, Ross was just i n time to a s s i s t his wife and baby daughter to escape to Hastings M i l l wharf. His residence and a l l his earthly possessions including the p r i n t i n g plant f e l l before the flames that swept on leaving desolation i n t h e i r wake. He spent that memorable Sunday night s i t t i n g outside a fisherman's shack at Moodyville, just across the I n l e t , while his wife and c h i l d slept on the fisherman's cot. Next morning he went to V i c t o r i a and purchased a p r i n t i n g plant from J. B. Ferguson who owned a book and stationery store i n that c i t y . Ross also consulted his friend John Robson 20 and through his influence generous arrangements were made whereby the "Columbian" i n New Westminster would p r i n t the Daily News u n t i l such time as Ross could get his own plant functioning i n Vancouver. The next day Ross returned to Vancouver, borrowed a horse and rode bare-back to New Westminster. He arrived there i n the evening, worked a l l night w r i t i n g up the story of the f i r e and on the afternoon of the t h i r d day he had his paper s e l l i n g i n Vancouver. Ross continued to publish i n t h i s strenuous manner for a few months but the s t r a i n was great, r i d i n g to New Westminster to get the paper out, working f e v e r i s h l y , then returning to s e l l i t . By July 23, 1886 he had a new plant functioning i n Vancouver. The o f f i c e was s i t -uated i n a one-storey building about where the Manitoba Hotel now stands on Cordova Street. The investments made by James Ross were not very productive f i n a n c i a l l y and i n the spring of 1887 he decided to s e l l out to Messrs. ACotton and Gordon. The l a s t copy of the Vancouver News dated March 30, 1887, carried the notice of sale. Ross went east after his business deal was completed, with the intention of remaining only a short time but i t 10. Vancouver Daily Province, December 20, 1935. 11. Vancouver Daily Province, December 5, 1926. 12. Vancouver News, July 23, 1886. 13. Vancouver News, March 30, 1887. 2 * . . wasn't long before he found himself engrossed i n journalism i n Smith F a l l s Ontario, where he bought out the Independent. He continued to control and edit that paper for several years. When he eventually sold his interests i n Smith F a l l s , Ross bought the Winchester Press, at Winchester, Ontario. This weekly he controlled u n t i l his death on December 18, 1935. The l i v e s of pioneers are colored with many i n t e r e s t -ing incidents. The l i f e of Ross was no exception. In an early paper he described the scene when Hon. John Robson came to Vancouver and addressed an open-air meeting. As the speaker delivered his address from a large burned stump he was continually interrupted by a man named "Moody" from Moodyville. The next morning the News said some severe things about the interrupter. The remarks so angered Moody, that he came over from Moodyville i n the afternoon with a big horsewhip intending to thrash the editor. Fortunately Ross was i n V i c t o r i a and escaped chastisement. Moody evidently "cooled o f f " for he did not return the second time. 14. Vancouver Daily Province. December 20, 1935. 15. The i d e n t i t y of the man "Moody" now appears to be unknown. He was not "Sue" Moody of Moodyville. The l a t t e r was drowned i n 1874. 16. Vancouver Daily Province, December 20, 1935. 22 Chapter fK The News-Advertiser In the spring of 1887 the News-Adverti ser was formed hy the purchase and amalgamation of the two e x i s t i n g d a i l y journals, the News and the Advertiser. With the f i n a n c i a l assistance of R. W. Gordon, F. L. Carter-Cotton, became the proprietor. Under the l a t t e r ' s managing editorship the News-Advertiser acquired the reputation of being the most -reliable journal i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Carter-Cotton's policy was to publish the news as he received i t . I f he had any comment he made i t through the e d i t o r i a l columns. The paper commenced publication March 31, 1887 under the t i t l e The Vancouver News and (sub-heading) the Daily Advertiser. The l a t e r series e n t i t l e d The Daily  News-Advertiser v/as begun May 13, 1887. The paper, at f i r s t four pages, soon became an eight page seven column journal. Like i t s predecessors, the NewrAdvertiser became an important advertising medium. Brokers and r e a l estate agents sometimes used as much as h a l f a page each i n order to boost Vancouver's new sub-divisions as they were placed on the market. There were numerous small advertisements and the reader notes that they begin to be l a b e l l e d ahd placed i n various columns according to t h e i r nature. This i s the f i r s t step toward c l a s s i f i e d ad-v e r t i s i n g as we know i t today. 23. Carter-Cotton was a remarkable man. He was English by b i r t h and had l i t t l e knowledge of Canada and i t s trad-i t i o n s . He had no previous newspaper t r a i n i n g but he had an unusual business a b i l i t y coupled with r i g i d ideas of honesty and e t h i c a l conduct. It was the above factors which entered into the management of the News-Advertiser and made of i t such an outstanding paper i n the province for many years. The News-Advertiser was above a l l , noted for i t s painstaking accuracy, i t s high l i t e r a r y s t y l e , and i t s hard-shelled Conservatism. I t exerted a strong p o l i t i c a l influence i n every phase of c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . So voluminous were i t s reports of the proceedings of the pr o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e that the News-Advertiser was nick-a. named the "Hansard" of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was Carter-Cotton's business i n s t i n c t which prompted him to adopt every means possible to guard his enterprise against competition. He accomplished th i s by securing a monopoly of the press service furnished by the Telegraph Company 3 to morning newspapers. The value of such a concession i n a new c i t y can easily be understood. It became almost impossible for a r i v a l to gain a. foothold. With such security against competition i n the morning f i e l d he was 1. Kerr, J . B. "Journalism i n Vancouver," The B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, V l l June 1911 2. Vancouver Daily Province, September 2, 1917. 3. Note: Research not followed up re the Telegraph Company. Believed to be the'Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Tele-graph. 24 able to turn his attention to l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s , becoming one of the province's most i n f l u e n t i a l men. The News-Advertiser operated a bindery business i n the Herald building. The land on which the building stood belonged to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and as thi s company refused to grant a lease the owners of the Ne'ws-Advertiser were compelled to purchase i t . The old Herald building was l a t e r occupied by the la t e M. S. Rose, as a plumbing and tinsmith's shop. I t had various other tenants u n t i l i t was f i n a l l y demolished to make way for the Carter-Cotton B u i l d i n g . The f i r s t o f f i c e of the News-Advertiser was a one-storey frame building on the spot now covered by the rear portion of the Dominion Bank. In 1890 the o f f i c e was moved into a building at the north-east corner of Cambie and Pender Streets. This building was constructed by the News-Advertiser at a cost of some $20,000. Although a barn-like structure i t was considered a notable addition to the c i t y i n those early days. The bindery was located at the corner of Cambie and Pender Streets, Mr. G. A. Roedde, s t i l l i n business i n Vancouver, was i n charge of that department. The l a t e John L. Powell was the foreman of the job pr i n t i n g room which was located behind the bindery. The business o f f i c e was situated to the l e f t of the entrance. William Keene, one of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n North Vancouver 4. Vancouver Daily Province, A p r i l 5, 1924. 25 was the bookkeeper. The late H. N e v i l l e Smith-was i n charge of c i r c u l a t i o n and delivery, and many leading professional and business men of today gained an intimate knowledge of the business as route boys. The e d i t o r i a l room was next to the o f f i c e . In t h i s room for many years Carter-Cotton v/ould be found every night remaining at his desk u n t i l the paper had gone safely to press. The e d i t o r i a l room too, served as a grand r a l l y i n g place for prominent p o l i t i c i a n s during those s t i r r i n g elections of the 90's. The reporters' room with J . B. Kerr i n charge of the l o c a l work adjoined the e d i t o r i a l room. "Husky" Jack Wilson, k i l l e d i n the Boer Vfeir was proofreader. Thomas Spink, l a t e r of Port Haney was the foreman i n the composing\ room.. Between the composing room and the job room was the press room, the late George Pound being i n charge of that department, while old "Pete" Atkinson ran the newspaper press. Among the other pioneers of the s t a f f were R. E. Gosnell, W. A. Calhoun, Colonel Wornsnop, J . Powell, / G. F. Pound Sr., D. Jameson, J . Wright, Harry Dodds,^^ Robert Holloway, George Bartley,'Thomas Spink,^W. S. Armstrong, J . A. Clark, W. M . Waters and W. J . Gallagher. S t i l l others who were associated with the News-Advertiser included Senator Taylor of New Westminster., Mrs. J u l i a Henshaw, pioneer woman j o u r n a l i s t , N. C. Schon, for many 26 years reeve of Burnaby, J . H. MacG-ill, l a t e r a p r a c t i s i n g b a r r i s t e r , E. J . Harrison, who l a t e r became correspondent for the London Times and for the Harmsworth press i n Japan, Roy W. Brown, l a t e r of the World, of the Province f o r over t h i r t y years, and now of the Sun, and F. J . Burdr managing director of the Province. J . D. McNiven who became Deputy Minister of Labour for B r i t i s h Columbia also worked with the News-Advertiser. John Nelson who was managing director of the News-Advertiser for f i v e years under the ownership of J . S. H. Matson w i l l receive further mention i n connec-t i o n with the World. Soon a f t e r i t s establishment the News-Advertiser open-ed an agency i n New Westmenster with F. Bourne as agent and correspondent. He was succeeded by Alexander P h i l i p , l a t e r of North Vancouver. The News-Advertiser was conveyed each morning to New Westminster i n a two-wheeled cart drawn by two horses. The vehicle was driven r a i n or shine if for many years by "Charlie" Jones. Excellent pictures of "Charlie" and his r i g may be seen i n the City Archives. The story of F. L. Carter-Cotton's f i r s t and only "Special E d i t i o n " i s often referred to by Vancouver's early j o u r n a l i s t s . John Warren, the veteran news and job s p e c i a l i s t of Western Canada had arrived in Vancouver i n February 1889. He had heard of the proposed new street 5. Vancouver Daily Province, June, 1936. passim 2? car system which was to have consisted of horse cars. As he walked around he saw the new News-Advertiser building and mistook i t for the street car stables. On enquiry, however, he found that i t was the spot he was seeking. George Pound, the pressman, was there wrestling with the 1888 Christmas Number of the News-Advertiser. Due to the extreme cold the Christmas edition was s t i l l i n the press. C o a l - o i l lamps were used to keep the presses warm. That was the l a s t " s p e c i a l e d i t i o n " ever attempted by Carter-Cotton. It was no easy task to publish a newspaper i n the early days of Vancouver's h i s t o r y . There were both finan-c i a l and mechanical d i f f i c u l t i e s to be faced. •In 1890 and for many years afterwards Vancouver's population of 15,000 had no less than three d a i l y papers. Competition was keen and the f i n a n c i a l depression of the early 90's which followed the r a i l r o a d boom days made the publishing of a daily paper a very r i s k y venture. The f i r s t type was set by hand and the paper was printed on a "Country Campbell"press, two pages at a time so that an eight-page paper had to be put through the press four times and then the sheets folded by hand. Power was at one time supplied by an e l e c t r i c motor, the News-Advertiser making the undisputed claim of being the f i r s t paper on t h i s continent to use e l e c t r i c i t y for i t s press. r6. Vancouver Daily Province. A p r i l 5, 1924. 28 A f t e r the street cars v/ere started, however, the current v/as of too great a Voltage and could not he used. A v/ater wheel v/as then i n s t a l l e d i n the Cambie Street building 7 with a steam engine for reserve power. In January 1893 Vancouver experienced one of the coldest periods i n i t s hist o r y . The thermometer went down to four degrees below zero and the News-Advertiser almost missed publication. Setting type by hand i n a building not constructed f o r cold weather was l i k e handling chunks of i c e with bare hands. The type cases had to be crowded into the reporters' room where the men managed to set up the type while Tom Spink wrapped up i n his overcoat made up the forms i n the c h i l l y composing room. P r i n t i n g the paper under such conditions was a d i f f i c u l t task. The f r o s t was on the r o l l e r s and use had to be again made of the oil-lamps placed under the ink wells. Nevertheless the paper, though some hours late f i n a l l y appeared. Typesetting machines were f i r s t used i n 1893 by the V i c t o r i a Times and the News-Advertiser, These papers.- were the „ B r i t i s h Columbia paper*to use them. A s t r i k e of the printers occurred i n Vancouver and lasted a week, but not a single issue of the News-Advertiser was missed. The paper was brought out by members of the e d i t o r i a l and business s t a f f . The s t r i k e was r e a l l y an i l l - a d v i s e d attempt to prevent the use of the "Rogers" typesetting machines 7>. City Archives Notes. 29 and was staged with, reluctance hy the News - Ad v er t i s er s t a f f , as Garter-Cotton* s relations with his employees were at a l l times of the most f r i e n d l y nature. The "Old Man" as he was termed, was highly esteemed hy a l l members of his s t a f f . An e r r a t i c and expensive telegraph service was obtained i n the early days over the government telegraph l i n e s to the United States, v i a New Westminster to Vancouver, but as soon;.as the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had completed the i r telegraph l i n e to the coast i t provided good news service. U n t i l the o f f i c e on Hastings street was b u i l t the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway telegraph operators were located on the top f l o o r of the New York Block on Gr a n v i l l e Street. Messages were delivered at night by a man some-what advanced i n years. The messenger usually had many duties to perform and very often the delivery of press despatches to the News-Advertiser was delayed. Very often too, on the occasion of some important news item a member of the paper s t a f f made several t r i p s from Cambie to Granville Street and climbed up to the fourth f l o o r (there were no elevators) to secure the despatches i n time for publication. This was quite a.task on stormy nights. In 1896 on the occasion of the Dominion e l e c t i o n which returned S i r Wilfred Laurier to power for the f i r s t time, the News-Advertiser had a Canadian P a c i f i c Railway telegraph wire strung into i t s building and received the returns d i r e c t . The l a t t e r was considered a great achievement. 8. See footnote P.24- :„ ' 9. Vancouver Daily Province A p r i l 5, 1924. 30 Space w i l l not permit the r e c a l l of a l l the many t r i a l s of early journalism that the News-Advertiser success-f u l l y overcame. S u f f i c e i t to say that with the returned prosperity of the years 1897 and 1898 the newspapers received t h e i r share of success. The News-Advertiser expanded to th e i r new building on the corner of Pender and Hamilton i n 1907. This building was l a t e r occupied by the Morning Star. J . S. H. Matson purchased the newspaper from Carter-Cotton i n A p r i l 1910 and John Nelson became manager with S. D. Scott editor. Later A. Lineham was appointed manager and his successor v/as P. J . S a l t e r . The plant was moved to Pender Street just.opposite the present "Sun Tower". The policy of the paper changed with the ownership. Although always Conservative i n p o l i t i c s - i t .-now-became'the o f f i c i a l organ of the P r o v i n c i a l Conservative party. The e d i t o r i a l s were of the old school of Toryism saturated with S i r John A Macdonald's national p o l i c y . When the Bowser government v/as thrown out of o f f i c e i n the elections of 1916 the News-Advertiser l o s t a great deal of influence. A l l former patronage from the government v/as cut o f f and i t was placed i n circumstances where i t must sooner or la t e r collapse. Competition becoming stronger, Matson sold out, on September 1, 1917, to the Morning Sun, then owned by R. J. Cromie. The News-Advertiser dated August 31, 1917 carried i n i t s e d i t o r i a l the announcement of sale. Matson wrote, "I have sold the News-Advertiser to the Sun Publishing Company, and today's_issue w i l l be the l a s t of that paper which i s to be amalgamated with the Sun. It has been known for some years that one morning paper would f u l l y supply the demands of the c i t y of Vancouver and I'm sure the Sun w i l l meet the requirements." He expressed his gratitude to the patrons of the paper, to his business s t a f f , and to the editor S. D. Scott whose lo y a l t y , devotion, mature judgment, and f o r c e f u l a r t i c l e s had guided the paper for so many years. He added that i t was his ov/n intention to devote his entire time to the V i c t o r i a Colonist v/hich he owned and controlled. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note Carter-Cotton's prominence outside the realm of journalism. For 26 years save for a b r i e f i n t e r v a l he was member of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e being the representative of Vancouver i n 1890-1900 and f o r Richmond i n 1903. During that period he held at various times the o f f i c e s of minister of finance and ag r i c u l t u r e , 1898-1900, chief commissioner of lands and works 1899-1900 and president of the council 1904-1910. In 1913 he became president of the Board of Trade, of which he v/as a charter member. He was chairman of the f i r s t board of harbor commissioners i n 1913. He v/as also, i n 1912, the f i r s t chancellor of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and although not a college graduate, he devoted himself to i t s support. He died i n Vancouver, November 20, 1919. J . S. H. Matson, who owned the News-Advertiser for seven_years 1910-1917, died suddenly November 1, 1931, i n 32 V i c t o r i a . Matson was born A p r i l E l , 1869 i n York County, Ontario. He was educated i n that province but when s t i l l a young man h e went to Michigan with the purpose of learning the lumbering business. He met with an accident while i n charge of a logging operation and when he had s u f f i c i e n t l y recovered he l e f t that occupation and came to V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. He then entered the insurance and brokerage business. On July 13, 1906, Matson acquired control of the Colonist. He decided i n 1910, to expand his operations i n the j o u r n a l i s t i c f i e l d by the ac q u i s i t i o n of the News-Advertiser i n Vancouver and the Nanaimo Herald of that c i t y . A f t e r seven years he disposed of both the l a t t e r properties, concentrating his newspaper endeavours upon the development of the Colonist. 10. The Daily Colonist, V i c t o r i a , B. C. November.3, 1931. 33 Chapter V.*..'. The World. The Vancouver World was established September 29, 1888 by J . C. McLagan who had previously assisted i n the establishment of the V i c t o r i a Times. The o r i g i n a l o f f i c e was located i n the old Masonic H a l l , on Cordova Street, between Homer and Cambie Streets. It moved into i t s own building near the corner of Pender and Homer on May 24, 1891 from which place i t continued to be published u n t i l i t again moved into i t s l a s t home, the st a t e l y World Building at Pender and Beatty s t r e e t s . McLagan was assisted i n the above enterprise by J.M. O'Brien and R. A. Anderson, ex-mayor. O'Brien, who had pre viously been associated with D. W. Higgins on the Colonist V i c t o r i a , became editor. He was a clever writer but unfortunately i l l n e s s forced him to leave the World and return to his native New Brunswick where he died. The World, i n opposition to i t s morning r i v a l the News-Advertiser. tedded to be L i b e r a l i n p o l i t i c s . Since Carter-Cotton had astutely secured a monopoly of news services the World had many d i f f i c u l t i e s to face. McLagan made the World a standard both for the c i r c u l a t i o n of i t s - news and for the expression of opinion that has to do with 1. News-Advertiser, June 29, 1913. 2. Interview with Roy W. Brown, The Vancouver Sun. 34 the shaping of public thought and action. In his f i r s t e d i t o r i a l he stated that the World proposed to conserve the very best interests of Vancouver and that i t would cater more especially to Vancouver c i t i z e n s . He added further that the World would endeavour to b u i l d up the material, moral, and s o c i a l l i f e of the c i t y . McLagan s t r i c t l y adhered to t h i s p o l i c y u n t i l h i s death i n 1901. His widow, Mrs. McLagan with the assistance of her brother Fred MeClure from Matsqui assumed charge of the 4 paper from McLagan's death u n t i l 1905. MeClure acted as business manager and O'Brien continued as e d i t o r i a l writer during the time that Mrs. McLagan was i n control of the paper. Higgins who had been at one time the owner of the V i c t o r i a Colonist also served as editor for Mrs. McLagan and l a t e r for L. D. Taylor. Higgins, an outstanding personality wrote with a powerful pen. He had had journal-i s t i c experience before coming to B r i t i s h Columbia i n that he had founded the San Francisco Chronicle some years earl^-i e r . While acting as editor for the World he also served as speaker of the Legislature for approximately two years. Higgins was noted for his a b i l i t i e s as an author. He wrote several books on B r i t i s h Columbia, two of which are important studies. They are "The Passing of a Race" and "The Mystic Spring." 3. The World, September 29, 1888 4. Sun F i l e s . 35 Mrs. McLagan had the honour.of being the f i r s t woman editor i n Canada of a d a i l y paper. For four strenuous years she followed the dictates, of a high i d e a l as to the educative and regulative force a paper should s t r i v e to exert for the good of a community. She maintained the standard her husband had set, despite opposition. The story i s t o l d that at one time, i n order to prevent r w l unauthorized copy finding i t s way into the paper surreptitiously, Mrs. McLagan exercised a vigorous censor-ship as proofreader and i n this matter she ran counter to an international law of the Typographical Union, s s t i p u l a t i n g the employment of a union worker. In 1905 the World was purchased by Ex-Mayor L.D. Taylor and Mrs. A. H. Berry, the daughter of Jonathan M i l l e r , the c i t y ' s f i r s t postmaster. V i c t o r Odium, shared i n the financing of the transaction whereby he became a partner i n the ownership of the paper. Apparently there were numerous f i n a n c i a l complications which th i s essay w i l l not attempt to solve. I t can be said however, that General Odium's share i n the World as partner and as reporter was his f i r s t venture i n the newspaper business. In 1924, as owner of the Star he took a more active place i n Vancouver's j o u r n a l i s t i c f i e l d . When the r e a l estate boom came to Vancouver about 5. Biographical, Vancouver. IV: 1191 36 1910 the World quickly became a money making proposition. Business and c i r c u l a t i o n grew r a p i d l y . The paper was f i l l e d with display advertisements. Riding on the "crest of the wave" the proprietors of the World b u i l t one of Vancouver's f i r s t skyscrapers i n 1912. This structure, l a t e r known as the Bekins Building, and now as the "Sun Tower" was-named the "World Building". - For many years the World boasted that t h e i r 17-storey structure was the highest i n the B r i t i s h Empire. The boom burst i n 1913 and as depression set i n the 1 big building was forced into bankruptcy. The World news-paper was purchased by a group of men led by the l a t e John Nelson. Nelson had had previous newspaper experience. He was f i r s t c i t y editor of the V i c t o r i a Times and when Matson bought the News-Advertiser i n Vancouver he brought Nelson from V i c t o r i a to manage i t . Nelson remained managing director of the News-Advertiser u n t i l 1915 when he became publisher of the Vancouver World. The purchase of the World May 4, 1915 was completed only after many leg a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and i t s f i n a l a c q u i s i -tion came after a dramatic " f i n a n c i a l episode" famous i n the h istory of journalism i n Vancouver. In one night John Nelson and s t a f f moved the whole plant, machinery, 6. Vancouver Daily Province. June 20, 1936. 7» Vancouver Daily Province. June 20, 1936. 8 * Vancouver Daily Province. January 25, 1936. 37 books, and equipment from the o f f i c e s i n the famous "World Building" to new headquarters at Hastings and Richards Streets. During the year i t again moved to a more spacious lo c a t i o n at the corner of Richards and Pender Streets. Under Nelson'a management the World claimed to be indepen-dent i n p o l i t i c s . The Daily Province, January 25, 1936 states however, that for a time i t became the o f f i c i a l organ of the Prohi b i t i o n party which was an important force i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s . On May 1, 1921 Nelson sold the World to Charles E. Campbell who had already held several newspaper positions. Campbell was unable to revive the paper on a paying basis and on March 11, 1924 he sold out to the Morning Sun which took over the World's evening f i e l d . The following notice to the public and signed by Campbell (owner and publisher) appeared on the front page of the World's l a s t issue. "Realizing the advantages to readers and the economies to advertisers of a consolidation of newspapers i n Vancouver I have today accepted an a t t r a c t i v e o f f e r for the Vancouver  Daily World..from Robert Cromie, editor, and publisher of the Vancouver Sun/' Campbell thanked the public for past support and wished his readers and the new Vancouver Evening Sun every success. 9. Vancouver Daily Province. March 11, 1924. 10. Vancouver Daily Province. January 25, 1936. 11. The World, March 11, 1924 states that the World has been sold to R. J . Cromie for $475,000 and that c Charles E. Campbell had purchased that naper i n 1921 f o r $250,000. 38 In a h i s t o r i c a l sense the passing of the World was an outstanding event i n Vancouver. A veteran paper, a survivor of the e a r l i e s t days of the ci t y had disappeared. But what of i t s noted pioneer journalists? John C. McLagan, the World's founder had died A p r i l 10, 1901, but old-timers i n the c i t y love to r e c a l l the s t e r l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of his l i f e . This beloved pioneer, as stated e a r l i e r , was fo r many years a central figure of journalism, as the founder, publisher, and editor of the Vancouver World. McLagan was born i n Perthshire Scotland, July 22, 1838 and came to Canada i n early l i f e . He began journalism as a p r i n t e r i n the Sentinel o f f i c e at Woodstock, Ontario, and from"1862 u n t i l 1870 was associated with James Innes i n the publication of the Guelph Mercury. After severing connections with the Mercury he entered the sewing machine business i n Guelph. McLagan came west to Winnipeg i n 1880 and while there he operated the job pr i n t -ing department of the Free Press. In 1882 he came further west to V i c t o r i a where he not only assisted i n the establish meht of the Times and became i t s editor but he also formed a partnership and set up a re a l estate and brokerage business under the name of Robertson and McLagan. His connection with journalism i n Vancouver began with the founding of the World. McLagan gave the World readers the best that circum-stances would j u s t i f y . His energy up to the time of his f a t a l i l l n e s s was remarkable. Even when he was dying he 39 -had his correspondence sent to his bedside so nothing would go amiss. He had f a i t h i n Vancouver and he j u s t i f i e d h i s faith, by his works. As a c i t i z e n McLagan's purposes were always honorable. He was a Mason of high order, a. member of the old St. Andrew's Church, and an honorary member of the Vancouver Board of Trade and of the L i b e r a l Association. He never forgot his Scottish o r i g i n and became one of the f i r s t members of the St. Andrew's and the Caledonian Societies of Vancouver. Louis Dennison Taylor, now l i v i n g in retirement led a vigorous l i f e as mayor of Vancouver for several years and as owner of the World for nearly eleven years. This pioneer j o u r n a l i s t u n i v e r s a l l y known as "L.D." was born >z i n the then small university town of Ann Arbor, Michigan. His f i r s t taste for the publication business came, as a boy, by way of d i s t r i b u t i n g almanacs for a small p r i n t i n g establishment of the Ann Arbor Courier. The lure for publication a c t i v i t i e s led him on u n t i l a f t e r many exper-iences, he found himself i n Vancouver working i n the c i r c u l a t i o n department of the Province for Walter Nichol. In 1905 L.D. Taylor became deeply involved i n jour-nalism when he took over the publishing of the World. He 12. Vancouver Dally Province February 28, 1939. 40 forged s t e a d i l y ahead though the path was often stormy. Through his e f f o r t s i n combatting the o r i g i n a l Canadian P a c i f i c monopoly on news for Canadian papers, that railway f i n a l l y suggested a conference—the outcome of which was /a the formation, of the Canadian Press. The World became one of the o r i g i n a l shareholders and was the f i r s t paper i n Canada to obtain direct wire service. While owner of the World Taylor experienced both boom years and depression years. He was always a f r i e n d of labour and i n that connection he took a strong stand i n his paper. He took the same stand as the c i t y ' s chief magistrate for eleven years. He was not always successful i n his mayoralty campaigns,- but i n his younger days he was usually found i n the midst of c i v i c elections. On December 15, 1936 he made his seventeenth attempt to be elected mayor. Taylor has been the host for many royal v i s i t o r s — his autograph book, now being one of his prized possessions. When speaking of his own public l i f e "L.D." recently wrote, "I have had a l o t of grief and a l o t of fun. I have made enemies but I have made more frie n d s . " John Nelson who controlled the World i n the years 1915-1921 occupies a warm place i n the hearts of a l l who knew him, not only i n Vancouver, but across Canada and i n other lands. He made his influence f e l t i n many i n t e r -13. Note: L.D. Taylor's e f f o r t s were accentuated by the fact that the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway o f f i c i a l s had refused to cash one of his cheques. 14. Vancouver Daily Province, September 18, 1936. national f i e l d s and died i n January 1936 while attending a trustees meeting of the Rotary International Foundation i n Chicago. Nelson was born i n Paisley, Ontario, and came to the coast i n 1898 where he became f i r s t c i t y editor of the V i c t o r i a Times. Mention has already been made of his j o u r n a l i s t i c work while i n Vancouver. When he sold the World i n 1921 he did not immediately leave the publishing f i e l d but remained for a short time i n the weekly f i e l d as publisher of the B. C. United Farmer. T i r i n g of "printer's ink" i n 1925?' he became supervisor of the public r e l a t i o n s department of the Sun L i f e Assurance Company of Canada. This p o s i t i o n took him to Montreal h i s place of residence when he died January, 1936. At one time Nelson conducted a r a c i a l survey covering the entire P a c i f i c coast from the Mexican boundary to, and including Alaska. As director of the Western Associated Press he took a foremost part in the co-operative movement of Western Canadian d a i l y newspapers for the c o l l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of news. He was instrumental i n the bringing of the B r i t i s h Columbia d a i l y newspapers into the "W. A. P." f o l d . Altogether his work took him around the world, to Honolulu and to Japan i n 1929. Nelson had a pleasing personality. He was an excellent conversationalist and a good public speaker with an inex-haustible fund of s t o r i e s . His contribution to Canadian 42 >' * and international l i f e w i l l long be remembered. Gharles E. Campbell, owner and manager of the World during the l a s t three years of i t s l i f e i s another noted j o u r n a l i s t . He was born May 16, 1885 i n Des Moines, Iowa, his parents having migrated from Woodville, Ontario for a short time. Campbell came to Vanoouver with his parents in May, 1898 and attended the Vancouver schools. He began his newspaper career as a newsboy s e l l i n g papers a f t e r school hours. As a young man he worked with h i s father's business, "Campbell's Storage Company, Limited" from January 1910 u n t i l the business was sold i n 1921 to the Mainland Transfer Company. Campbell became a shareholder i n the Vancouver Sun in 1912 and l a t e r became one of the directors. Following a quarrel with Cromie i n 1921 over policy, Campbell purchased the Vancouver World from i t s then owners, "Cameron and Davidson" contractors. He sold the World to Cromie i n 1923 and i n 1924 he founded the Star but sold i t to V i c t o r Odium af t e r a month and a h a l f . Campbell purchased the Edmonton B u l l e t i n i n 1925 and has remained AT owner and publisher of that paper to the present time. # S e o L -tke S u n January I13L 15. See appendix Letter from Charles E. Campbell, Edmonton B u l l e t i n . :43 Chapter VT ' The Daily Telegram An inte r e s t i n g paper i n Vancouver's early days was the Telegram which began about June 7, 1890. W. J . Gallagher, a former member of the News-Advertiser s t a f f organized the company which supported the venture. The Telegram was financed by Mayor David Oppenheimer, J . W. Home ( an ex M.P.P.), C. D. Rand and other prominent c i t i z e n s who were annoyed by the i n s i s t e n t attacks made by the News-Advertiser upon the po l i c y pursued by the c i v i c government. The Telegram was designed to counteract Carter-Cotton's influence with the public. The existence of the Telegram was not j u s t i f i e d by the population of the c i t y , then about 17,000, but the men behind the paper believed that i f the paper was well managed i t might obtain a foothold and eventually t h r i v e at the expense of both the News-Advertiser and the World. The Telegram however, could not exist by p o l i t i c a l animosity alone. The public was unimpressed. As i s usually the case when an enterprise i s under the control of a committee, no consistent p o l i c y was pursued and the Telegram organization lacked personal vigor. I l l - f e e l i n g 1. News-Advertiser June 29, 1913. 2. Kerr, J . B. Journalism i n Vancouver The B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine VII 576-579 June, 1911. 44 arose among the directors due to personal attacks made by the News-Advertiser at the c i v i c government, the important members of which were members of the Telegram. Gradually the f i r s t enthusiasm of the Telegram s t a f f diminished. After two years duration W. J . Gallagher found himself doing the work of the o f f i c e boy and yet being unable to make even an o f f i c e boy's salary. late- i n 1092' the : Telegram q u i e t l y ceased":publication.,, ... The f i r s t copy of the Vancouver Daily Telegram to be preserved i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives i s number 47 and i s dated July 31, 1890. This journal, comprised of four large pages was issued d a i l y from i t s o f f i c e on Homer Street u n t i l July 3, 1891 when i t was moved to the New Horne Block, Cambie Street. A large proportion of the front page of each issue carries long l i s t s of small advertise-ments under such headings as l e g a l , society, professional, l o s t , to rent, and for sale. Many large advertisements appear on the inside pages, several occupying the f u l l width of the paper and from one quarter to one t h i r d of i t s depth. The issue dated October 12, 1891, as well as several succeeding issues display a very large advertisement advocating the use of "Home Refined Sugars". I t emphatic-a l l y discourages the use of "Chinese sugar" by depicting 3. Interview—Lynn Brown of K i t s i l a n o Times. 4. The Telegram, July 31, 1890 .. 45 two large insects with numerous legs, and with the suggestion that they are only one of the many foreign e n t i t i e s to be found i n that brand of sugar. The advertise-ment states further that t h i s ugly l i t t l e animal may be carrying leprosy or some other equally loathsome Oriental disease. There seems l i t t l e doubt but that readers of the Telegram would immediately discontinue the use of Chinese sugar. Other advertisements show a d e f i n i t e experimenta-t i o n i n form, type, and general arrangement. Pictures i l l u s t r a t i n g the benefits to be derived from c e r t a i n patent medicines are equally amusing. The Telegram resembled the two e a r l i e r papers, the News and the Advertiser with i t s general e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s dealing with the commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Vancouver. A l i t t l e of the f e e l i n g of enmity which existed between the Telegram and the News-Advertiser i s revealed S i n the issue of October 13, 1891. In that paper W. J . Gallagher published a l e t t e r to Thomas F.McGuigan, Clerk of the City of Vancouver. The l e t t e r - s t a t e d that the News-Advertiser was spreading i t s advertisements instead of keeping the words s o l i d and thereby i t was using more space and receiving higher revenues from the public than was just. Gallagher, not only charged the News-Advertiser with i r r e g u l a r i t i e s but persuaded the World to do likewise through the columns of the Telegram. 5. The Telegram, October, 13, 1891. •46 The weakening of the Telegram became apparent October 14, 1891 when a notice of a general meeting of the shareholders for purposes of increasing the c a p i t a l stock of the Company, was c a l l e d . The notice appeared i n the Telegram dated October 14, 1891 and was signed by J. W. Home, W. J . Gallagher and R. W. H a r r i s — t r u s t e e s . S o r t l y a f t e r the date of notice the Telegram did not appear. I t had f a l l e n into the hands of a receiver a f t e r a struggle which lasted nearly two years. The Telegram had made the mistake of issuing as a morning paper when the News-Advertiser already had a monopoly of the regular morning news service and so was forced to pay a high price for a special service. The decease of the Telegram made i t easier for the World and the Advertiser but they did not begin to enjoy any r e a l prosperity u n t i l the Yukon gold rush occasioned a business r e v i v a l . W. J . Gallagher did not cease newspaper work with the passing of the Telegram. He brought a weekly paper, The Monitor into being i n the autumn of 1892 but i t only r lasted a few issues. Gallagher then moved to Nanaimo where he operated a paper there by the name of the 1 Nanaimo Daily Telegram. Some time i n 1894 W. J . Gallagher l e f t Nanaimo for the Hawaiian Islands. He published a 6. The Telegram, October 14, 1891. 7. Kerr,.op c i t . • 579. 8. The News-Advertiser July 6, 1913. 9. B r i t i s h Columbia Directory 1893. P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 47 paper i n Honolulu known as the F i n a n c i a l Times, He died i n Honolulu December 1898. His wife, and son "Rex" who was la born i n Honolulu May 2, 1897 returned to Vancouver i n 1899. The Telegram was never very outstanding as a news-paper. Its history does point out, however, something of the c i v i c struggle that took place i n Vancouver's early administration and something of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the c i t y ' s early journalism. 10. Interview July 10, 1942. Rex V. Gallagher 1875 Yew St. Vancouver and Major Matthews, City A r c h i v i s t . 48 Chapter III The Vancouver Daily Province The Vancouver Daily Province began publication i n th i s c i t y on March 26, 1898. I t developed from the weekly journal The Province which had been established i n V i c t o r i a four years e a r l i e r on March 3, 1894, under the editorship of A. H. Schaife. The l a t t e r paper received i t s f i n a n c i a l support from Hewitt Bostock, a wealthy young Englishman who had come to B r i t i s h Columbia a short time previously and who, having p o l i t i c a l aspirations, regarded a news-paper a l l y as an important factor i n advancing his ambitions. The weekly Province with i t s sub-heading "A province I w i l l give thee. Ant. & Cleo.," was a bright l i t t l e magazine of eighteen pages and about ten by twelve inches i n s i z e . The f i r s t two and the l a s t two pages were given e n t i r e l y to advertising, reserving a l l the two-columned inside pages for news and e d i t o r i a l discussions. The f i r s t t page of the magazine proper was e n t i t l e d , "Men and Things". Under this heading the happenings of V i c t o r i a were d i s -cussed i n a general manner. The Province contained other a r t i c l e s under such headings as, "Parliament and Bar", "Agriculture, Commerce and Labor", "The Library", "Music and Drama", "Prize Puzzles", and "Short S t o r i e s " . 1. The Province, V i c t o r i a , B. C. March 3, 1894. 49. The salutatory appearing i n the f i r s t issue, Saturday March 3, 1894, compares the f i r s t appearance of the new paper to that of a gladiator entering an amphitheatre. It reads, "The debut of a newspaper upon the j o u r n a l i s t i c stage of today may be likened i n some degree to the f i r s t appearance of a gladiator in the amphitheatre of old The public scan the fresh a r r i v a l with curious and none too f r i e n d l y glance. Should he make his entrance into the arena with, proud and l o r d l y a i r he i s i n s t a n t l y dubbed an upstart, presuming upon their patronage, and meriting a n n i h i l a t i o n . Should his demeanour on the other hand be modest and unassuming he i s a fellow of mean s p i r i t , a churl of low degree, unworthy of their support The Province has a decided advantage over the gladiator. We have entered the l i s t s prepared and determined to win our way to public approval, i f necessary through many encounters No weekly journal, precisely on the li n e s l a i d down by our paper i s published on t h i s side of the Rocky Mountains. We think there i s room and further that there i s need of such a pub l i c a t i o n . The outcome of our opinion i s the present issue of the Province. Untrammelled as we are by t i e s of party, uninfluenced by vested or other interests, bound to no spe c i a l denomination we trust that our pages may prove of general u t i l i t y and offer a medium for the v e n t i l a t i o n of opinions, from whatever source they may emanate, provided only that they are put forward with a view to the advancement of B r i t i s h Columbia. There i s , however, one point upon which we desire that there should be no mistake as to our view. We are opposed to protection i n every shape and form, and we advocate the adoption of free trade, or as near an approach to i t as may be consistent with the requirements of revenue on a basis of greatest economy." F i n a n c i a l l y , the Province proved a heavy burden. Bostock was ca l l e d upon to contribute to the extent of $10,000, a year to keep up the running expenses of pr i n t i n g and machinery. He was keenly f e e l i n g the drain on his purse when, i n the spring of 1897 a young Canadian 2* T h e Province, V i c t o r i a , B. C. March 3, 1894. JS0 j o u r n a l i s t W. C. Nichol,;from Ontario, 'appeared.on the scene. The l a t t e r had been attracted to the West by the gold rush. Schaife, t i r i n g of the proposition was on the point of leaving for England and Bostock was desirous of seeing i f a trained newspaperman could not transform the paper into a f i n a n c i a l success. After some negotiations Nichol was persuaded to take over the editorship of the 3 Province. He assumed that p o s i t i o n on October 1, 1897. Shortly after Nichol took over the editorship of the Province, he and Bostock decided i t would be of advantage to turn the weekly paper into a d a i l y and publish i t i n Vancouver, i t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the former that at the time th i s decision v/as reached he had a l l his plans made with-friends i n the East to begin the issue, of a da i l y newspaper i n Vancouver whether Bostock came i n with him or not. As i t was, the ownership of the new publication was evenly divided when on March 26, 1898, the f i r s t number of the new daily paper was issued i n Van-couver from the Province building on Hastings Street. Although both were newspapermen, the basic interests of Bostock and Nichol ran i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The former was engrossed i n p o l i t i c s and public problems generally. He was a strong L i b e r a l and was esteemed by Laurier, who l a t e r appointed him to the Dominion Senate 3. Vancouver Daily Province, January 9, 1904. *51 where he ultimately became speaker and government leader. Nichol, on.the other hand, although deeply interested i n public a f f a i r s was primarily a newspaperman. He foresaw that the successful publications of the day would be those which maintained t h e i r independence of a l l party organizations and gave unbiased p u b l i c i t y to the views and . a c t i v i t i e s of a l l . Circumstances arose within a few years which led to Bostock*s i n t e r e s t s being thrown on the market where they were immediately acquired by Nichol. The l a t t e r then became sole owner of the Daily Province for a quarter of a century. When the f i r s t number of the Daily Province was placed on the streets i n Vancouver the residents regarded the undertaking as f o o l i s h i n view of the fact that the c i t y was already served by two d a i l y papers, the News-Advertiser and the World. The Daily Province presented i t s e l f nevertheless, i t s owners f i r m l y convinced that here i n Vancouver was a t h r i v i n g expanding population. The da i l y paper proved a success from the beginning when ten boys were s u f f i c i e n t to deliver the f i r s t issue. I ts c i r c u l a t i o n went up so quickly that the press could barely p r i n t the paper fas t enough. The f i r s t e d i t o r i a l bears record of i t s general independence, making no promises and s o l i c i t i n g no favors. 4 * Vancouver Daily Province, May 18, 1933. Note: An a r t i c l e concerning Bostock*s Liberalism by the " P a c i f i c Monthly Magazine" was rewritten and published i n the Vancouver Daily Province, January 9, 1904. 52 I t states, "The Province has no occasion to introduce i t s e l f to the public. Everybody knows i t and i t i s hoped that everybody w i l l come to l i k e i t i n daily form so well that l i f e without i t w i l l seem f l a t and worthless. It has no promises to make as to what i t means to be and do no elaborate programme and declaration of p r i n c i p l e s to f l y at the e d i t o r i a l masthead. I t s own pages from day to day w i l l form the best evidence of i t s intentions and of the zeal and courage and a b i l i t y which i t s duty to the public i s performed. Whatever i t s merits and demerits be, there i s t h i s to be said for the paper and that i s , that i t i s f i r s t and l a s t a business enterprise. It i s believed that there i s room i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia for a paper of t h i s character, for a paper that w i l l always endeavour to print the news of the day b r i g h t l y and a t t r a c t i v e l y ; that w i l l t r y to take the world philosophic-a l l y and good-naturedly as i t finds i t and seeks to get the best out of l i f e that l i f e affords. If. people expect to see t h i s paper going around a l l the time with the corners of i t s mouth drawn down as i f i t had a pain i n i t s stomach, they are very much mistaken." r The front page of that f i r s t Daily Province carried the headline, "Mr. Gladstone Dying". To present readers those words seem symbolic of the passing of the V i c t o r i a n age. Some of the names of the advertisers appearing i n that f i r s t issue have remained well-known advertisers i n the Province of today. Such names as Hudson's Bay Company, W. H. Malkin and Company and McLennan, McPeely and Company are quite f a m i l i a r . Nichol confessed that his greatest source of worry i n those early days was over the securing of an adequate telegraphic news service. At the time the only telegraphic channel between Eastern and Western Canada was supplied 5. Vancouver Daily Province, March 26, 1898. 53 by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway telegraph system and was of a very inadequate character. The necessity of ampler telegraphic communication was accentuated by the outbreak of the South African War. The s i t e chosen for the Daily Province i n 1898, was s t i l l p a r tly covered with forest and faced a narrow vehicle road, now Hastings Street. Occasionally the post-master, Jonathan M i l l e r , would use t h i s road as he drove through the suburbs with h i s fast horse. The f i r s t building acquired by the Province was a portion of the older section of i t s present premises, located midway between Abbott and Cambie Streets. The building was then used as a l i t h o -graphing establishment turning out salmon canning labels and similar work on the ground f l o o r while the second f l o o r was rented to roomers. The Province opened their business o f f i c e on the ground f l o o r . It consisted of a room ten by twelve feet and out of t h i s was a small corner b u i l t off for Nichol's private use. The composing room, press room, and e d i t o r i a l o f f i c e s were above. I t was not long before larger quarters were urgently needed. The remainder of the second f l o o r was taken over and the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f was separated from the mechanical section by a p a r t i t i o n . The press continued to be operated upstairs for several years. In 1916 the eight-storey Carter-Cotton building adjoining the Province o f f i c e and f r o n t i n g on Cambie and Hastings Streets was purchased and used to house the production departments. The Edgett building which fronts on Cambie and extends back to Pender was purchased i n 1925. The two buildings were connected by bridging the a l l e y and tunnelling under the lane. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Province occupies what may be term-ed a "newspaper corner". The s i t e was occupied i n 1886 by the Herald which was published in a one-storey frame structure on the corner of Hastings and Gamble Streets. The News-Advert!ser used the o r i g i n a l building before the erection of the Carter-Cotton and Edgett buildings on these l o t s . The f i r s t issues of the Province were printed on a second-hand flat-bed Wharfdale press which had a capacity of 1000 copies per hour. This machine was replaced after a few months by a more modern Goss press. V/ith the Goss, the f i r s t regular eight-page six-column paper was issued on June 50, 1898, although an eight-page paper had previously been published on the "death of Gladstone" on May 14, 1898. Necessary betterments required the purchase of a t h i r d p r e s s — a Campbell-Potter, before the end of the year and with t h i s press the f i r s t sixteen page Province. was issued. Many other presses were secured and t r i e d as business expanded. In 1918, 32-plate Tubular plate presses were i n s t a l l e d . Expansion has also been notable i n the composing 6. Vancouver Daily Province, March 26, 1918. 55 room. The Province had started i n 1898 with one linotype, one man s e t t i n g the advertisements while acting as an apprentice. There was, within a few years, a battery.of linotypes and many men employed i n day and night s h i f t s . Big presses, worked by e l e c t r i c i t y , could be seen a f t e r twenty-five years through plate-glass windows. The sight bore evidence to Vancouver cit i z e n s that the pioneer days had passed. Nichol was born i n Goderich, Ontario, October 15, 1866. His boyhood was spent i n his native province where he very early showed an i n c l i n a t i o n towards journalism. His f i r s t attempt was the edit i n g of a small monthly devoted to c y c l i n g . At the age of f i f t e e n he joined the st a f f of the Hamilton Spectator and i n the years that followed he formed a friendship with William Southam of that journal. After leaving Hamilton, Nichol went to Toronto where he joined the s t a f f of the News and l a t e r the s t a f f of the Saturday Night. He won for himself on the l a t t e r publica-tio n , an enviable reputation as a writer of humorous prose as well as commentator on more serious tojjics. Nichol returned to Hamilton i n 1889 and accepted the editorship of the Herald. He held t h i s p o sition eight years and then went to London, Ontario, as manager of the London News. While i n London he met Miss Quit a. Moore, daughter of Dr. C. G. Moore, a well-known physician. They were married in 1887. Nichol did not remain long with the London News. He decided to come to B r i t i s h Columbia, and s e t t l e d at 56 Kaslo i n the Kootenay D i s t r i c t . He l e f t Kaslo to form a partnership with the future Senator Bostock of "Victoria. Though Nichol's greatest interest was i n journalism his personal influence was f e l t along the l i n e s of education and public welfare. In recognition of his work i n the cause of the former he was honoured by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia with the degree of LL.D. Nichol was appointed to the position of Lieutenant-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1920 and shortly afterwards sold the Vancouver Daily Province to the Southam Company. The Vancouver Dally Province had other able e d i t o r i a l writers, namely, Dr. S. D. Scott, Roy W. Brown, And D. A. McGregor. Dr. Scott, father of C e c i l and Sydney Scott of the present s t a f f , came to the- Province from the News-Advertiser the day following that paper's l a s t publication. He remained with the Province u n t i l his death on December 9, 1923. Born at Westbrooke, Nova Scotia on January 6, 1851, Snowdon Dunn Scott received h i s higher education at Mount A l l i s o n College. He held many i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l i s t i c positions i n the Maritime Provinces before he entered the services of the News-Advertiser i n 1910. Scott was editor of the H a l i f a x Mail from 1882 to 1885. In 1885, he became editor of the St. John Sun and remained head of th that paper for 21 years. The l a s t sixteen years of that period he reported the sessions of Parliament at Ottawa for his paper as well as for other Maritime journals. Dr. Scott became deeply interested i n h i s t o r i c a l 57 research as a very young man, and never missed an opportunity to hear Joseph Howe speak during the Confed-eration campaign. He became president of the St. John H i s t o r i c a l Society in l a t e r years after w r i t i n g numerous a r t i c l e s on early explorations i n the Maritime provinces. Scott had an intimate knowledge of Canadian p o l i t i c a l and cons t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y . The l a t t e r was r e f l e c t e d i n h i s column of casual comment, "The Week-End" which he had begun i n the iMews-Advertiser i n 1915 and which h e wrote under the pen name of "Lucian". He continued to write the same column for the Province. S.D. Scott was granted an honourary degree of LL. D in 1913 at Mount A l l i s o n College. He was a distinguished member of the Board of Governors of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for a number of years. He remained a c l a s s i c a l scholar throughout h i s entire l i f e and was never too busy to keep up his reading of Greek and" L a t i n texts. Dr. Scott was recognized as one of the ablest e d i t o r i a l writers i n Canada. D. A. McGregor, chief e d i t o r i a l writer of the Province succeeded Dr. Scott. He was born i n Ottawa, October 50, 1881, and came west as a young man to Vancouver. McGregor was awarded the/\gold medal i n 1927 for the best e d i t o r i a l dealing v/ith Confederation, i t s purposes and objects. He has also made himself an authority on P a c i f i c a f f a i r s , having attended 5^_^''s ess ions in connection with P a c i f i c Relations. For more than a ' 58 generation he has wielded a powerful and understanding pen, especially i n p o l i t i c a l matters of which he i s an authority. An exceedingly modest man, Mr. McGregor has served the Van-couver Province for nearly fo r t y years. Something of Roy • Brown's contribution to journalism w i l l be discussed i n the chapter dealing with the Vancouver Sun. The Vancouver Province of today belongs to the Southam Company. The Southams now own, besides the Daily  Province, the Ottawa C i t i z e n , morning and evening, the Hamilton Spectator, the Winnipeg Tribune, the Calgary Herald and the Edmonton Journal. These papers vary i n d i v i d u a l l y though they are i n the hands of a family corporation. Five of the Southam papers have i n general supported the Conservative party. Five carry the following wording at th e i r "mastheads". "The (name of the paper) aims to be an independent, clean newspaper for the home, devoted to public service." The Calgary Herald makes no masthead declaration. A l l the Southam papers are des-cribed i n newspaper d i r e c t o r i e s as eit h e r Independent or Independent-Conservative. 59 Chapter V.III The Saturday Sunset and J. P.'s Weekly The B r i t i s h Columbia Saturday Sunset, a bright' weekly commenced publication June 15, 1907, from i t s o f f i c e located at 711 Seymour Street. The publishers were John P. McConnell editor, and R. S. Ford, business manager. ^ e Saturday Sunset was a cred i t to i t s publishers. It contained twenty pages and included many columns of i n t e r -esting matter touching p o l i t i c s , society, finance,. f i c t i o n , and western l i f e and development. McConnell had been i n \ the employ of the Toronto Saturday Night before coming to Vancouver and he modelled the Saturday Sunset after the Toronto paper which he admired. The following a r t i c l e s published by the Walkerton Telescope and the P e t r o l l a  Advertiser and which were quoted i n the Saturday Sunset of July 6, 1907, serve as excellent introductions to the founders of the l a t t e r paper. "Our v e r s a t i l e but somewhat r e s t l e s s f r i e n d , John P. McConnell i s into a new venture, that of founding a new paper at Vancouver, B. C. Some years ago Mr. McConnell held a position on the Toronto Saturday Night and that '• paper so impressed him that "Saturday Night"-may'.be discovered i n every page of the new production from the cartoon on the front page to the bucking broncho on the l a s t page. "Saturday Night" made E. E. Sheppard, who started i t , a r i c h man i n a very few yearf:, and the ^Saturday Sunset* w i l l we hope do the same for Mr. McConnell. Mr. Sheppard always wrote i n the f i r s t person singular, that i s instead of using the e d i t o r i a l "we" 60 i n r e f e r r i n g to himself, he used the pronoun " I " and i t seemed to give force to everything he wrote. Mr. McConnell i s doing the same. Mr. Sheppard used "Don" for a pen name. Mr. McConnell i s doing honour to the old county i n which he was raised by signing himself "Bruce". We wish Mr. McConnell every success i n his new venture." Walkerton Telescope. "There i s a new weekly published at Vancouver on the l i n e s of the Toronto Saturday Night. What makes i t of more than ordinary inte r e s t to our reader and us i s the fact that i t i s published by the Ford-McConnell Co., and that means Mr. Richard S. Ford who for several years conducted here the best dry goods business i n Ontario west of London, and who l a t e l y sold out to Mr. Ferguson, i s responsible l a r g e l y for the new publication, the f i r s t issue of which appeared on the 15th i n s t . and has just come to hand. I t contains the kind of reading matter that w i l l gain the paper much favor and make i t indispensable to the people of the P a c i f i c province, and we s h a l l be much disappointed i f i t f a i l s to meet remarkable success. Newspaper people w i l l be much suz-prised to read i n the columns of the "Sunset" that i t i s on a paying basis from the start and to f i n d that i t proves i t by pointing to i t s advertisement columns and rates. We who know Mr. Ford, the business manager f e e l no surprise at the statement for he has for years been the strongest believer i n advertising that we have met, and amply j u s t i f i e d his b e l i e f s by acts and r e s u l t s . He could not f a i l to i n s t i l h is b e l i e f s into the business men on the Coast and having done that he and the Saturday Sunset cannot be other than a great success. Every business man and person i n P e t r o l i a was sorry to lose Mr. Ford from the business l i f e of t h i s community i n which he stood so high i n the estimation of a l l classes. P e t r o l i a Advertiser. The f i r s t issue of June 15, 1907, displayed a large appropriate cartoon on the f i r s t page. I t was the picture of the b i r t h of the Saturday Sunset portrayed by a small c h i l d walking out of the sunset on the rays of l i g h t , across the mountains and the water to Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia's outstretched hands. The remainder of the front page was given over to a lengthy e d i t o r i a l by McConnell, who signed i t with the pen name "Bruce". 61 McConnell followed a s i m i l a r plan for every front page of the issues which followed. The cartoons were usually i n keeping with the e d i t o r i a l s . A good example of the l a t t e r i s to he found i n the issue for June 13, 1907. The cartoon was e n t i t l e d , " S h a l l we gather at the r i v e r where the milkman's feet have trod?" The e d i t o r i a l i n t h i s case related to a current milk problem. McConnell made his policy clear i n his f i r s t e d i t o r i a l when he wrote, "For the benefit of the would be wise ones who l i k e to follow clews and pose as the custodians of mysterious and useless information I w i l l here make a p l a i n statement as to the ownership of the B r i t i s h Columbia Saturday Sunset, although i t i s not necessarily a public matter. But for the benefit of one or two blatherskites who have had something to say about i t I w i l l say that f o r the present i t belongs to Richard S. Ford and the undersigned, s o l e l y , exclusively, and as much stronger as i t may be s a i d . . . . . . Our future course w i l l be to simply publish the B r i t i s h Columbia Saturday Sunset, making i t as i n t e r e s t i n g , readable, and welcome to the homes of B r i t i s h Columbia as we know how to make i t . As editor of the paper I s h a l l keep i t s columns clean and f i t for decent people to read . and without bias or cant."' In a l l his e d i t o r i a l s "Bruce" threshed out current and l o c a l problems, never once h e s i t a t i n g to say what he wished. The inside pages were devoted to a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t i n g topics. The formation of the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra was reported and elaborated upon i n the f i r s t paper. A page e n t i t l e d "Be i t Ever so Humble There's no Place l i k e Home" gave the news i n Eastern s o c i a l c i r c l e s . No doubt this page would be eagerly sought and read i n 1. The B.C. Saturday Sunset., June 15, 1907. 62 Vancouver's e a r l i e r days. Considerable space too was given to f i c t i o n , jokes, and verse, both humorous and otherwise. Many l i t t l e d i t t i e s such as : "My Bonnie l i e s under the auto My Bonnie l i e s under the car, Please send to the garage for someone, For i t s lonesome up here where I are." appeared i n the ".lighter vein" sections. Many of the longer poems most l i k e l y made excellent r e c i t a t i o n s for use i n the " l i t t l e red schoolhouse." Apart from these more entertaining magazine a r t i c l e s the Saturday Sunset did not avoid the serious problems of the day. "Bruce" was well known by his breezy but caustic comments on men and events, and by his furious tirades on what he conceived to be wrongs. Such comments were a joy to the readers, even including those who suffered from the writer's barbs. National news was also discussed. 'An a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "French crowding us on the East Coast— Japs gathering on the West Coast—the l o t of English speaking races i s anything but promising'.', quickly, draws the attention of the present day reader. McConnell's early L i b e r a l tendencies v/ere apparent throughout the Sunset as he directed many attacks toward the McBride government. E s p e c i a l l y i s this so i n one of his l a t e r e d i t o r i a l s i n which "Bruce" urges the L i b e r a l s 2. The B. C. Saturday Sunset, July 13, 1907. 63 to organize i n order to e f f i c i e n t l y oppose the McBride government. The organization was carried out and headed by McConnell and Ford, who gave up' t h e i r interests i n the Saturday Sunset and founded the Morning Sun February 12, 1912, for the express purpose of more e f f e c t i v e l y s e t t i n g forth the p o l i t i c a l theories of the L i b e r a l organization to the public. The Saturday Sunset continued to appear u n t i l July 17, 1915, but not with McConnell as editor. In 1911 the Saturday Sunset had passed into the hands of the Burrard Publishing Company and became subject to the 5 control of a board of directors, mostly lawyers. F. C. Wade, K.C. was president of the company. As McConnell was not i n agreement with the Burrard Publishing Company, he ceased e d i t i n g and ex-Alderman Walter Hepburn took over that duty u n t i l the Sunset eventually died. McConnell, l e f t the Sun i n the autumn of 1914 and form-a l l y withdrew from the L i b e r a l party March 30, 1915. Pol-i t i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y there had been "wheels within wheels" and McConnell together with William Carswell, a newspaperman in the Sun organization who had also severed connections with that paper, founded an opposition weekly paper known as J.P.'s Weekly. McConnell was editor, and William Carswell was manager. In the l a t t e r journal McConnell states that 3. The B. C. Saturday Sunset, A p r i l 29, 1911. 4. P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a 5. J.P.'s Weekly, January 1, 1916. (Mr. R. L. Reid's Library) 64 "Bruce" i s again free to write what he wants and how he wants without fear of any party r e s t r a i n t s . "Bruce" did so. The largest proportion of J.P.'s Weekly was devoted to p o l i t i c a l discussions. Numerous p o l i t i c a l controversies were aired f r e e l y . Though McConnell claimed to have no party a f f i l i a l tions there were no more opposing remarks about the McBride administration. McConnell's p o l i t i c a l support had been ent i r e l y withdrawn from the L i b e r a l organization. His former partner R. S. Ford, from whom he severed connections, remained with Wade and his associates. J.P.'s Weekly composed of sixteen pages of three columns each, continued publication u n t i l October 7, 1916, when i t bid "au r e v o i r " to i t s readers f o r the time being. The reason given was that owing to the war i t was imposs-i b l e to buy good paper and the editor refused to use p l a i n newsprint i n a weekly journal. McConnell joined the s t a f f of the Vancouver Province i n the autumn of 1916, where he again displayed his talent for short story writing. As a columnist for the Province he made frequent t r i p s into various d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia where he studied the natural resources and l o c a l problems. Many of his a r t i c l e s dealing with B r i t i s h Columbian pioneer l i f e appeared i n the columns of the Province. He was very fond of outdoor l i f e and many of 7 his t r i p s into the h i l l s were made on a packhorse. One of 7. Note: J.P. McConnell f i r s t came to Vancouver by packhorse, having crossed the mountains and the Province by that means. 65 his expeditions v/as over the Hope mountain t r a i l and the data he secured on that occasion served him as material for a series of a r t i c l e s where a public discussion arose 8 as to the best route for the K e t t l e Valley l i n e . At a l a t e r date McConnell went with "Tommy" Burns, the Canadian heavyweight boxer, on a placer mining ex-pedition to Antler Creek. No minerals were obtained but both men returned, the richer i n experience for the winter spent i n the Cariboo h i l l s . Shortly after the above mining episode McConnell went east where he entered the advertising business i n Toronto, under the firm name of McConnell and Ferguson. He died i n Toronto, July 8, 1926, 9 at the age of 53, following a sudden c r i t i c a l operation. 8. Vancouver Daily Province, July 8, 1926. 9. Letter, from h i s daughter Edith Denton (Mrs. Ivan Denton) Vancouver. 66 Chapter zl The Vancouver Sun The Vancouver Sun claims the honour of being the oldest newspaper published i n Vancouver,—that i s oldest by inheritance through the absorption of the News-Advertiser and the World. I t thus dates back through the Advertiser~ : to May, 1886. The actual founding of t h i s paper, however, goes back only to February 12, 1912, when the Morning Sun was f i r s t originated and published by J. P. McConnell and i R. S. Ford, who had e a r l i e r founded the Saturday Sunset. B r i e f l y , the succeeding history of the Sun (morning and evening) may be traced as follows. Early i n 1914 the Morning Sun passed into the hands of int e r e s t s represented by F. C. Wade, K. C. In 1917 i t was purchased by Robert J. Cromie who also purchased the News-Advertiser September 1, 1917 and amalgamated that paper v/ith the Sun. After several years' successful operation of the Sun as a morning paper, Cromie purchased the evening World, March 11, 1924 from Charles Campbell and published both morning and i afternoon editions for a period of two years. On February 1, 1926, negotiations took place by which Cromie sold the Morning Sun to Major-General Odium and bought and 1. The Sun F i l e s . 2. Reference made to the transactions i n previous chapter. 3. Vancouver Daily Province, March II, 1924. 67 r amalgamated the Evening Star which Odium was then publish-ing with the Evening Sun. Since the l a t t e r transaction the Sun has gone st e a d i l y forward. Following Cromie's death i n 1936, P. J . Salter became president and general manager. Other members of the management included Robert Cromie II vice-president, Roy W. Brown, e d i t o r i a l director, Herbert Sallans, managing editor, Herbert Gates, c i r c u l a t i o n manager, and A. H. Middleton, national advertising manager. Some changes i n management were announced recently. P. J . Salter, president since 1936 announced his r e t i r e -ment on July 4, 1942. Robert E. Cromie, vice-president resigned the same day. The new president and publisher of the Vancouver Sun i s Mrs. W. R. McKay, widow of Robert J . Cromie, while Donald Cromie, younger brother of Robert E. L Cromie, has now become general manager. Donald Cromie has spent four of the past f i v e years i n various e d i t o r i a l capacities with the Sun. He was on the s t a f f of the Toronto Star during 1941. One name of the Sun management, that of Roy W. Brown deserves special mention. He began mewspaper work as an o f f i c e boy on the News-Advertiser. He also served for a time as cub reporter on the World but returned to the News-Advertiser. As a youth he gained the attention of 4. Vancouver Sun, February 1, 1926. 5. The Sun F i l e s . 6* Vancouver Daily Province, July 6, 1942. 6,8 W. C. Nichol of the Province, by his accuracy and fine writing, and Nichol persuaded him to j o i n the Province s t a f f in May 1901. Roy Brown l i t e r a l l y grew up with the Province and served that paper for over t h i r t y - f i v e years, for the greater period being vice-president and e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f . He r e t i r e d from the Province May 26, 1938, but after a few months the Vancouver Sun persuaded him to re-enter the active newspaper f i e l d as e d i t o r i a l director of that paper. He took up his new duties with the Sun, September 3, 1938, where he continues to be known for his t i r e l e s s energy, his vast understanding of human nature, his exceptional n 7 knowledge of public a f f a i r s and his remarkable memory. The story of J". P. McConnell's early connection with f the Sun has already been written but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to trace..the l i f e and work of the jo u r n a l i s t s who followed McConnell as owners or publishers of the Vancouver Sun. Wade, who became editor and president of the Vancouver Sun Company early i n 1914y- holds a prominent place among the names of Canadian lawyers, statesmen, and j o u r n a l i s t s . He was born i n Bowmanville, Ontario, February 26, 1860, and afte r a broad college education became a b a r r i s t e r i n the province of Manitoba, 1886. In 1897 he v i s i t e d Dawson Ci t y following which he set up an active, lav/ practice in. Vancouv-er, becoming the head of the l e g a l firm of Wade, Whealer 7« The Daily Colonist, V i c t o r i a . May 17, 1938. 8. See Chapter X. '69 and McQuarrie. He was an active p o l i t i c i a n from his early years, attaching himself to the L i b e r a l party. I t was as p r e s i -dent of the Young L i b e r a l Association i n Vancouver that he also came to be president of the Vancouver Sun, the early mouthpiece of the L i b e r a l organization. Wade held many f i r s t place positions i n l o c a l clubs and organizations As a c i t i z e n he was deeply interested i n benevolent and charitable projects and gave them his whole support. He took the i n i t i a l steps i n a movement, i n 1903, for the erection of a memorial to General James Wolfe at the tomb of the hero i n St. Alfeges Church i n Greenwich, England. He was agent-general i n London for B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1920. He died November 9, 1924, after a very active l i f e . As a newspaperman F. C. Wade did his f i r s t e d i t o r i a l writing for the Toronto Daily Globe, while he was attending college. He became, i n Winnipeg, the chief e d i t o r i a l writer for the Manitoba Free Press, and he remained editor and president of the Vancouver Sun from 1914 to 1917 when the Sun was purchased by R. J . Cromie. Robert J . Cromie secured control of the Sun lar g e l y through the f i n a n c i a l backing given to him by the Company known as "Foley, Welch and Stewart," builders of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway. As a young man of a b i l i t y he worked as private secretary for General Stewart i n the o f f i c e of Foley, Welch, and Stewart, railway contractors. The l a t t e r , active-Liberaloinapolitipspossessed a.large f i n a n c i a l share of the Vancouver Sun, which v/as then published i n opposition to the Conservative morning, News-Advertiser. General Stewart solved his problem of what to do with the Sun with i t s c i r c u l a t i o n of 10,000, by turning i t over to Robert Cromie, who consolidated i t with the News-Advertiser, September 1, 1917, under the name Vancouver Sun. His purchase of the World came March 11, 1924, and with i t he began a morning and an evening publication with a t o t a l to c i r c u l a t i o n of 41,800. The following e d i t o r i a l appeared i n the evening Sun Wednesday, March 12, 1924. "The consolidation of the World, oldest and one of the most highly respected d a i l i e s i n the West, into the Evening Sun, does not mean that the old i s bowing i t s head to the new. It means rather that the old i s being reborn i n the new." Cromie, as mentioned e a r l i e r , disposed of the morning Sun February 1, 1926, by some negotiations with Odium whereby the l a t t e r bought the morning Sun and i n re-turn sold his evening Star to Cromie. By thi s consolidation Cromie made a better evening paper for his readers and l e f t the morning f i e l d open to Odium. The o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n of the Sun was 711 Seymour Street, i n a small building l a t e r torn down to make way for the Strand Theatre. Its next lo c a t i o n was 125 West Pender Street, where the plant was swept by f i r e which damaged i t to the extent of $200,000, on March 22, 1937. On May 17, 1937 the Vancouver Sun purchased the Bekins Building. This 17-storey structure which was onee the pride 9. The Vancouver Sun, May 12, 1936. 10. The Sun P i l e s . 71 of the World i s now the home of the Sun and i s known as the "Sun Tower." 72 Chapter X. The Vancouver Star * The Vancouver Star had i t s beginning i n the evening f i e l d , June 2, 1924. It was founded by Charles E. Campbell as sole owner and publisher a few months after the l a t t e r had sold the World to the Sun Publishing Company. This d a i l y carried the heading, "The Only Independent Daily Newspaper i n B r i t i s h Columbia", immediately below the t i t l e The Vancouver Star. It began as an eight-column paper of ten pages. The words "lo" only, pay no more" appeared i n large print i n brackets on the upper r i g h t hand corner of the f i r s t page. Charles Campbell held that a moderately priced paper would be supported. His announcement, which appeared on the front page of the f i r s t issue made the l a t t e r fact c l e a r . He stated that, the publisher planned to publish a "Peoples' Paper" that would enable every person i n Vancouver and B r i t i s h Columbia to obtain a modern daily paper at a modern p r i c e . The editor stated further that he supported no p o l i t i c a l party, and that he would be dictated by exigencies as they arose with no party f e a l t y . He intended to support a l l progressive l e g i s l a t i v e measures. Campbell added that the Star was a paper fo r the masses,' i t s only creed being, "The greatest . 1. The Vancouver Star, June 2, 1924. '••7-3 good for the greatest number". Pie used the slogan, " I f i t w i l l help to make a greater Vancouver the Star i s for i t . " Charles E. Campbell believed i n the support of the wage earner as well- as the men who furnished the c a p i t a l to develop the natural resources, and. he made t h i s truth clear through the columns of the Star. He v/as opposed to further invasions of B r i t i s h Columbia by Orientals and advocated the elimination of Asiatic's from a l l industries dealing with the natural resources of the province. World news was well covered i n the Star but i t was published i n a more or less condensed form. The e d i t o r i a l columns were rel a t e d to various phases of the growth and development of B r i t i s h Columbia's industries as well as to current happenings of the world. L. D. Taylor had a column on the e d i t o r i a l page for the f i r s t fev/ issues together with his photograph. This column doesn't appear a f t e r the f i r s t week. Besides the world news and e d i t o r i a the Star had special features for everyone, including a r t i c l e s by noted v/riters, s o c i a l news, and pictures, comic s t r i p s and plenty of advertising. The Star apparently did not offer a t t r a c t i v e f i n a n c i a l prospects because after a period of a month and a half Campbell had figured i n a series of deals which made V i c t o r W. Odium, the manager of the paper. ' 0<j/u»n . \: i h a d been a partner of ex-Mayor Louis D. 7:4 Taylor in the property of the old fJorld newspaper twenty years e a r l i e r . He had dropped out to enter other business, following which he had gone to war. After his return he again f e l t the urge to handle print e r ' s ink and the Star gave him the opportunity. The issue of the Star dated July 19, 1924, c a r r i e s the following announcement signed by V i c t o r Odium. "I have today with the f i n a n c i a l assistance of my father, Professor E. Odium, completed the purchase of the Vancouver Star from i t s owner and publisher (Charles E. Campbell), I am assuming personal d i r e c t i o n of the paper forthwith. My father w i l l be associated with me as president of the Company and as contributor to the Star's columns."* Odium then r e c a l l e d his f i r s t newspaper work as reporter on the World when i t had been owned by Mrs. McLagan and added that he welcomed the opportunity to return to newspaper work afte r an absence of several years. He also stated that the Star would r e t a i n the chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with which Charles Campbell had endowed i t , that i t would continue to be a popular priced journal and that i t would remain completely independent, supporting no p o l i t i c a l party but advocating only modern democracy. The only change which General Odium immediate-l y planned was to a l t e r the motto s l i g h t l y so as i t would read, " I f i t makes for a greater, a better, and a cleaner Vancouver the Star i s for i t . " The Star dated Monday, July 21, 1924, bore the names Professor E. Odium, President and Victor W. Odium, 2. The Vancouver Star, July 19, 1924. 7.5 Managing Director, The new management continued to operate from the same location, 303 Pender Street West, and charged the same rate of 300 a month or one cent per copy. Odium car r i e d on the Evening Star publication for nearly^ two years when another series of' negotiations took place. This time R. J . Cromie of the. Sun and Victor Odium of the Star decided to exchange publications. R. J . Cromie bought the Evening Star and consolidated i t with his own Evening Sun. V i c t o r Odium i n . turn bought Cromie's; Morning Sun and i n doing so took over the morning f i e l d . Notice of the consolidation of the evening newspapers was published i n the Evening Sun, February 1, 1926. A similar announcement signed by Victor Odium appeared i n the f i r s t issue of the Morning Star. Odium stated, " I t gives me great pleasure today to be able to announce the successful termination of the Star's negotiations to purchase Vancouver's exclusive morning 3 newspaper f i e l d . " He continued by saying that the deal had been consummated on the preceding Saturday and that in place of the Morning Sun, the Morning Star would hence-forth make i t s appearance regularly, bringing the world's news fresh to the breakfast table of the business man and to people i n every walk of l i f e throughout the province. 3. The Vancouver Star, February 1, 1926. Odium also expressed his regret of l o s i n g his old sub-scribers but added that they would now receive the Evening Sun.' The general p o l i c y o f the Morning Star as stated i n that paper was to be f a i r i n a l l things, even p o l i t i c s , also accurate, and thoroughly B r i t i s h but Canadian f i r s t of a l l . I t was the intention of the Morning Star to b u i l d a strong l o c a l organization v/hich would publish a complete morning news by means of f u l l telegraphic services. The paper would also include a great assortment of s p e c i a l features s i m i l a r to the features printed i n the recent Evening Star• The price was to be r a i s e d to 750 monthly. The heading of the Morning Star e d i t o r i a l page i s worthy of sp e c i a l mention for i n i t the editor now traces, by means of a diagram, the history of that paper through inheritance and amalgamations back to the Advertiser and the News of 1886. The claim i s based upon the fact that the above papers became the News-Advertiser i n 1887., that the Morning Sun absorbed the News-Advertiser in.1912 and f i n a l l y that the Morning Sun had become the Morning Star i n 1926. The editor wrote that the Morning Star had taken up the t r a d i t i o n s of the past and the task of the future. On December 11, 1926, "Victor Odium t r i e d the experiment of adding i t s f i r s t rotogravure supplement to the Morning Star. This consisted of a 32-page 4. See appendix. p i c t o r i a l presentation of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t s basic industries, natural resources, scenic a t t r a c t i o n s and i t s s o c i a l , c i v i l , and recreational l i f e . The Morning Star, l i k e i t s predecessor now i n the Sun evening f i e l d was destined to a checkered career. Continued losses attended the enterprise, making i t imposs-i b l e to obtain more than a modest l i v i n g . Indeed the editor, doubting the future success of the paper sold out to George B e l l , publisher of the Calgary Albertan on • t, September 14, 1929. B e l l had had a long and successful newspaper career as president of the Leader Publishing Company of Regina i n 1922, as one of the managers of the Saskatoon Star and as owner of the Northern Mail i n Le Pas i n 1926. The publication of the Vancouver Star under George B e l l ' s management proved "rough going" and after l o s i n g something l i k e f300,000, i n his venture B e l l handed the paper back to i t s former proprietor and r e t i r e d to the sole management of his home paper i n Calgary. Odium resumed control of the Star i n May 1931 but due to the e x i s t i n g depression i n business he was unable to ever get i t back on a paying basis. So severe did the losses become that early i n 1932 the management decided that only by a cut of 15% i n wages could the paper be kept going. The proposition was put 5. The Vancouver Star, December 11, 1926. 6. The Vancouver star, September 14, 1929. :78 before the s t a f f but the unions refused to agree to a reduction i n the wage scale s u f f i c i e n t to meet the si t u a t i o n . Odium appeared adamant. He had decided that unless he could p r a c t i c a l l y "balance the budget" he would not attempt to continue operation of the paper. He said that as he did not choose to operate with a non union s t a f f he had no alternative but to cease publication. The Daily  Province of February 12, 1932, carried the news that the Star might not issue the following day, and added that i f the paper f a i l e d to appear i t would be the f i r s t time i n more than forty years that Vancouver had not had i t s morning news. The next day the Province published an e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d , "Adieu to the Star". The Province paid t r i b u t e to the Star by saying that i t had been a decent, s e l f -respecting newspaper, giving the news without color or misrepresentation, and giving i t s opinions honestly oh the side of the decent and honest thing. The Province stated further that the Star had i n spite of i t s troubled b r i e f existence, placed i t s name among the l i s t of Vancouver's p r i n c i p a l newspapers. Unfortunately i t had had to face hard times and thus for a great part of the time was a losi n g concern. Journalism for Victor Odium however, had only been a s i d e l i n e . Speaking of the Star a few years l a t e r he 79 remarked that to him newspaper work had been an i n t e r e s t i n g form of relaxation and that he had f u l l y enjoyed a l l his press connections. For the most part his has been, and remains a m i l i t a r y career. As a youth under m i l i t a r y age he went as a private to the South A f r i c a n War. He went off to the Great War as second i n command of a b a t t a l i o n and returned i n command of a brigade. During the f i r s t Great War he became Brigadier General Odium, G. B., G. M. G., D. S. 0. At the present time he i s serving his country i n A u s t r a l i a as Canadian High Commissioner, having f i r s t gone to England as commander of the second d i v i s i o n . He was raised "ot.©- tne-".r;afik-3pf>iMa>^or*Ge.ne6ail i n England i n 1940. In the i n t e r v a l of peace 1918-1939 Odium held many positions other than j o u r n a l i s t i c . He was i n the employ of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company i n various capacities and he was a. partner i n the bondhouse of Victor W. Odium, Brown, and Company. He became the L i b e r a l representative for Vancouver i n the Legislature i n 1924, and a member of the board of governors for the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1935. . .'Victor Odium was never without numerous business i n t e r e s t s . When i n 1932, the Star which he owned and edited ceased publication he turned his attention elsewhere. 8Q Chapter XI The News-Herald and The Vancouver News A l l of the newspapers discussed i n the preceding chapters originated and were operated as private f i n a n c i a l enterprises. Capital was supplied hy the owners and backers who usually sought patronage through "party p o l i t i c s " . Those papers which have survived now openly disavow any p o l i t i c a l a f f i l -i a t i o n s and term themselves "independent". The News-Herald, founded on A p r i l 84, 1935 began however, as a joint-stock company composed of the s t a f f of the paper. Most of the founders had been former members of the recent Star organ-i z a t i o n . When, on the night of February IE, 193E, V i c t o r Odium had t o l d them that publication was suspended a number of his ex-employees decided to organize a newspaper.. This group project came into being i n A p r i l of the next year. Meanwhile another group, headed by G. S i v e r t z , managing director and J . Edward Norcross, editor, (both had been former members of the Star) had begun a paper c a l l e d , The Vancouver News. This l i t t l e morning paper commenced publication from 614 ?\fest Pender Street, on November 1, 193S 81 but succumbed A p r i l 8, 1933 after a period of only f i v e i months. The News had saluted the public i n i t s f i r s t issue with the explanation of the obvious need of a new d a i l y i n Vancouver. The owners stated that they had come to-remove a reproach that Canada's t h i r d c i t y had no morning paper, and furthermore they were going to furnish employment to a number of former employees of the defunct Star. This attempt by the News was doomed to f a i l u r e . Business men did not support the endeavour with s u f f i c i e n t advertising. The paper which was issued Saturday, A p r i l 8th, was r e a l l y an eleventh hour appeal for more f i n a n c i a l support. I t was not forthcoming and the Saturday issue was the end of the News enterprise. But what of the f i r s t mentioned group headed by Roy Harold Eobichaxd and J. Noel K e l l y , who had determined on a co-operative paper? Forty i n number they had combed Vancouver for funds, credit, advertisements, and c i r c u l a t i o n . For several weeks pr i o r to publication the News-Herald s t a f f had the d i f f i c u l t assignment of t r y i n g to s e l l something that didn't e x i s t . The psychological element played i t s part and set people talking, making many decide to give the sponsors a chance. At least 10,000 subscribers had signed up, even before they had any notion of the sort of paper they would receive. 1. The Vancouver News, November 1, 1932. 2. Ibid A p r i l 8, 1933. 82 Walter Sampson, writing i n Macleans Magazine said of the founders, "They rented a small downtown o f f i c e as headquarters, r o l l e d up t h e i r sleeves, cleaned, scrubbed, dusted and began It was a step i n the dark with l i t t l e to lose and everything to gain. A l l who joined the enterprise had an equal chance to share i n the p r o f i t s . The Mews-Herald which had such a modest beginning i n A p r i l 1933, i s now a leading morning d a i l y . I t enjoys the fact that i t has proven i t possible to s t a r t a metropolitan newspaper on a "shoestring" and that from the beginning the paper has been a -.j.oint-stock business. At i t s masthead every day the News-Herald publishes the l i n e , "Owned and controlled by the.staff." When the founder-stockholders made a f i n a n c i a l report i n November 1936, they discovered that from t h e i r o r i g i n a l $5,000, investment they then had 103 employees earning $125,000, annual p a y r o l l , 250 c a r r i e r s earning $3,000, a month, an annual business turnover of $250,000, and a c i r c u l a t i o n of almost 20,000, largest of 4 any Canadian morning paper west of Toronto. Besides Roy H. Robichand and James Noel K e l l y , the o r i g i n a l business organization included such names as Major Gus Si v e r t z , David Duguid, Harold B e l l , H. E. Bendie'kson and AI.Williamson. In addition to the above t h e ' e d i t o r i a l s t a f f 3. Sampson, Walter, "Owned by the S t a f f , " Maclean's Magazine LI: 23,51 4. Time, December 14, 1936 V o l . 28, 49. 83 consisted of Evelyn.. A. Caldwell, Beatrice Green, Everett L e s l i e , A. Cromar Bruce, Jack Scott, Himie Koshevoy and Jimmie Dyer. The founders of the News-Herald had to face many t r i a l s and hardships before success was t h e i r s . Lacking finances • they had to start p r i n t i n g with an ancient press which they dug out from under a p i l e of rubbish and bought from a job plant on terms for $1,100. They turned i t over by hand when i t f a i l e d to function on the f i r s t 1,000 copies of the paper's f i r s t run. Another d i f f i c u l t y which the young paper organization had to contend, lay i n the fact that while i t s e d i t o r i a l and business s t a f f worked on boxes and kitchen tables i n one building, i t s composing room was a block away, and i t s old press and mailing room were outside the c i t y . Business was carried on i n th i s manner u n t i l finances allowed the Q.ompony .. to purchase a suitable building and adequate mechanical equipment. The editor who p i l o t e d the News-Herald through i t s 7 most d i f f i c u l t days was James Noel K e l l y . He was born on the I s l e of Man and had been a world wanderer u n t i l he settled i n Vancouver. Editor K e l l y gave his s t a f f a d e f i n i t e formula i n connection with l o c a l news. Re a l i z i n g that subscribers to the morning paper were also readers of 5. News-Herald f i l e s . 6. Time, December 14, 1936. Val. 28, 49. 7. Ibid 49. 84 at least one of the e vening ^papers, K e l l y said at the be-ginning that they would carry no "rewrites" and that the morning paper would be a new paper. He declared that the News-Herald would avoid p o l i t i c s and long continued a r t i c l e s . Instead, a l l news items v/ould be b r i e f and to the point and thereby suited to the hurried morning reader. I t i s nearly ten years since the News-Herald was founded as a combined s t a f f enterprise but i t has not remained on that business basis. Approximately three years ago this organization found i t s e l f unable to meet i t s f i n a n c i a l obligations and accepted assistance from D. A. Hamilton who now owns the major portion of the shares. Several of the o r i g i n a l founders are s t i l l shareholders. 85 Chapter X I I Development i n Make-up r A study of Vancouver newspapers reveals gradual but constant progress i n general form and appearance. Forward movement may be observed from year to year i n the increased number of pages making up an issue, i n the number of columns on a page, and i n the size and variety of type used. Change i s evident too i n the use made of blank space and i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The part of each'paper reserved for adver-tisements, e d i t o r i a l s , and news items, also provides evidence of t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance as far as the owner of the paper was concerned. A few observations w i l l now serve to i l l u s t r a t e the above changes. Each of Vancouver's early papers, the Herald, the News, and the Advertiser was simply a folded sheet making four pages i n a l l . The News-Advertiser added more pages as advertising grew and as world news became easier to obtain. Later newspapers, the Yforld and the Province also made modest beginnings as far as the number of pages was concern-ed, but within a r e l a t i v e l y short space of time the number of pages issued for each paper was considerably increased. By the end of the f i r s t years' operation in Vancouver the Daily Province was issuing a sixteen page paper. Today the Province and the Sun publish papers which contain t h i r t y or more pages. The present morning paper, the News-Herald i s 86 r not so large. I t averages twelve pages. Early preferences of portions of papers to be used for advertisements seem to indicate that newspapers were read for t h e i r news rather than for th e i r features. The r e s u l t v/as that the front pages of the Herald, the News and the Advertiser were plastered with advertisements. One of the main functions of the early Vancouver papers v/as to t e l l the v/orld how ra p i d l y the c i t y was growing and what opportunities i t offered for large c a p i t a l investments. The Advertiser and the News both carried daily columns devoted to descrip-t i v e matter concerning the c i t y ' s economic prospects, i t s geographic position, i t s magnificent harbor and i t s scenic beauties. These columns and e d i t o r i a l s were c l e v e r l y placed between blocks of r e a l estate advertisements v/hich set forth the great advantages of the immediate purchase of sub-div i s i o n s and l o t s . The other advertisements i n the l o c a l papers of 1886 and 1887 were simply l i s t s of Vancouver's business concerns. Each advertiser set fo r t h his p a r t i c u l a r business as brightly as possible and mentioned every d e t a i l that might be the means of at t r a c t i n g another customer. A l l these advertisements were, arranged i n a compact manner leaving very l i t t l e blank space. No attention was given at that time to the value of form, contrast, or i s o l a t i o n , i n their arrangement. As the advertisements grew i n number i t became more and more evident to the producer that the public might not "Bee- •  his p a r t i c u l a r notice, so use was 87 made of d i f f e r e n t styles of type. Attention was gained too by the placing of the typed words v e r t i c a l l y or diagonally across the assigned space. The Hastings Sawmill advertise-ment i n the News featured v e r t i c a l p r inting, the reading of which necessitated the turning of the newspaper. The years 1887 to 1890 were d e f i n i t e l y years of experiment as f a r as newspaper advertising was concerned i n the l o c a l c i t y papers. "Position" seemed at f i r s t to be the most important factor. On January 11, 1887 the Daily  Advertiser t r i e d the i n s e r t i o n of business advertisements alternately among the l o c a l c i t y news items. The idea was evidently not successful as i t only lasted a few issues. Gradually more attention was given to such elements as motion, contrast, i s o l a t i o n , pictures, trade-marks, and slogans. The use of pictures was at f i r s t noticeably crude, especially i n connection with dentistry and patent medicine advertisements. The World on December 13, 1913 carried a novel dentistry advertisement by Dr. Lowe who published photostats of grateful patients' l e t t e r s . A l a t e r dentistry advertisement ca r r i e d the following slogan printed i n big red l e t t e r s , " I f i t hurts don't pay."' The demand i n the 1890's fo r larger advertising space occasioned an increase i n the s i z e of newspaper pages. As business developed the producer r e a l i z e d that he must att r a c t the attention of people to his s p e c i a l product and 1. The World, September 1914. : as influence them to buy i t . R e alizing that most people read a newspaper h a s t i l y the producer saw the advantage of advertisements which were short, simple, and so i s o l a t e d as to catch the readers' notice. More use was made of blank space, and i n turn such innovations as slogans, j i n g l e s , trade-marks and money-back guarantees, but the advertise-ments no longer occupied a l l the front page. The publishers, becoming s u f f i c i e n t l y entrenched i n business, could afford to reserve the front page for news and remove a large proportion of the advertisements to inside pages. The manner of displaying world news varied v/ith the editors but i n general i t s form underwent a similar change to that of advertising. At f i r s t the news was c l o s e l y typed and spaced so as not to waste any paper. There was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the size of type even for the t i t l e s . Real headlines did not make th e i r appearance i n Vancouver u n t i l 1904 and 1905. The World used small headings at the top of the f i r s t page i n 1904 but by 1906 one s o l i d large red headline was stretched across the paper. The following year big black headlines v/ere i n use, but the World returned to the use of "red" on October 1, 1913 and continued u n t i l A p r i l 30, 1915. Following the l a s t date black print was again used. From May 1, 1915 u n t i l October 1, 1921 the World ceased the use of headlines, with one exception. The words "Lusitania Sinks" were used i n the issue of May 7, 1915. Several experiments with the size, number of words, 89 and arrangement of headlines followed the f i r s t use. They were used i n colour and i n s c r i p t . The l a t t e r may be seen i n the Morning Sun of January 1, 1922, the headline being placed above the t i t l e of the paper. This p a r t i c u l a r headline reads, "Rule of the Road Changes January 1. Keep to the Right." The Daily Province began the use of head-l i n e s on December 24, 1913, using three small headings across the top of the paper. With a few exceptions for s p e c i a l editions, the Province does not make a practice of using too s t a r t l i n g headlines. No matter how important or extensive a news event may be, however, i t can at best constitute only a part of the contents of a newspaper. No story has ever been important enough to e n t i r e l y crowd: d out l o c a l sports, finance, or s o c i a l news. The wheels of business and s o c i a l l i f e must be kept turning even i f the clash of war makes a l l else seem to be of secondary importance. The saying that a l l humanity i s aboard a lumbering stagecoach bound for the grave may be true but newspapers have decided the t r i p might as well be as gay as possible. Because the average journal i s forced to carry a sorry l o t of passengers, death, murder, suicide, robbery, warfare and crookedness, i t must supply r e l i e f by a r t i c l e s of a l i g h t e r l i t e r a r y nature. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to r e c a l l at this point that the-August 3, 1887, issue of the Herald, Vancouver's f i r s t &• The Sun, January 1, 1922. .9.0 paper, l a b e l l e d the b i r t h , death, and marriage columns "come", "gone" and "fixed to stay". Modern newspaper streamlining has meant the introduction of more l e g i b l e type, picture maps and action photographs. It has meant the gathering, sorting, and reproduction of world news i n an e f f i c i e n t and expeditious manner. The general development has included the reservation of more and more space for syndicated materials, the most widely read of which are the "comic s t r i p s " . The f i r s t appearance of the l a t t e r i n the l o c a l papers came with the f i r s t issue of the Morning Sun February 12, 1912. The s t r i p s published were "Mutt and J e f f " and "Mr. Twee Deedle". "Mutt and J e f f " was also the f i r s t "comic s t r i p " published by the Daily Province, appearing on February 20, 1913, nearly two years after i t had been featured by the Sun. Many of the best known s t r i p s had t h e i r beginning l o c a l l y i n 1914. "Foxy Grandpa" with "Buster Brown" occupied a space i n the World on February 7, 1914. "Bringing up Father" or "Jiggs" as the s t r i p i s f a m i l i a r l y known appeared i n the Province January 10, 1914. That paper gave Vancouver readers, " L i t t l e Orphan Annie", "Gasoline A l l e y " and the "Gumps" on September 1, 1925. The "Gumps" had already made an e a r l i e r appearance i n the Sun, February 24, 1921. Vancouver papers have continued to make da i l y use of the "comic s t r i p s " and have added a weekly of several coloured pages along with the magazine section. Cartoons f i r s t found t h e i r way into the l o c a l papers as 91 humorous barbs directed at unpopular c i v i c administrative p o l i c i e s . J. P. McConnell of the Saturday Sunset made constant use of cartoons to i l l u s t r a t e h is front page e d i t o r i a l s which were often attacks at l o c a l undesirable practices. The f i r s t cartoon to appear i n a daily paper was used by the Province i n December 1912 and was re l a t e d to Christmas shopping. The second to appear i n that paper referred to a current False Creek by-law and was published March 8, 1913. After t h i s date cartoons began to appear in a l l the l o c a l papers at frequent i n t e r v a l s . J . B. F i t z Maurice, popularly known as " F i t z " was Vancouver's f i r s t outstanding cartoonist. He was born i n England i n the year 1875 and received a good education i n that country. After trying many occupations i n Canada he f i n a l l y found his "niche" i n l i f e as cartoonist for the Vancouver Daily Province. F i t z Maurice was noted for his fi n e type of humour. Bis cartoons portraying the voter, the taxpayer, the gardener and a l l the l i t t l e joys and vexations of family l i f e were tremendously popular. More d r o l l than witty, h i s characters seemed to move on the picture page. One of his best cartoons depicting pioneer members of the Province s t a f f and including himself, hangs in a prominent place today i n the Vancouver Province r e f e r -ence room. F i t z Maurice died i n Vancouver January 17, 1926 at the age of 51. His good fri e n d B u t t e r f i e l d then author of "The Common Round" paying him hi s l a s t respects wrote, 92 "One moment he would be discussing from a high plane the eternal v e r i t i e s of l i f e , the relations of man and man as expressed i n r e l i g i o n , culture, j u s t i c e , love, and other high matters and the next moment would f i n d him making mental mud pies with you upon such t r i v i a l i t i e s as p o l i t i c s , horse-racing, b i l l i a r d s , and bootlegging."Z B u t t e r f i e l d closed his humble tribute with the words, "Goodbye F i t z " . Jack Boothe, the present popular and l i v e l y cartoonist for the Province i s carrying on the work begun by F i t z Maurice. There i s a chunky l i t t l e owl i n Boothe*s drawings which comments on the "goings-on" i n the cartoons. The owl is an amusing, convenient, and unusual symbol for "general common sense". Originals of cartoons by Jack Boothe which have appeared i n the Province have been displayed i n the Vancouver Art Gallery. 3. Vancouver Daily Province, January 19, 1926. 93 Chapter XIII Conclusion Regarded from the point of view of their business organization, Vancouver newspapers show an int e r e s t i n g development. The f i r s t publications, the Herald, the Advertiser, and the News, were owned, edited, and published by their respective owners. Serving a pioneer community thei-e was l i t t l e need for an elaborate organization or a , large e d i t o r i a l s t a f f . The main ambition of the owner was to earn a l i v e l i h o o d , a task which was extremely d i f f i c u l t i n a young c i t y only beginning to explore i t s i n d u s t r i a l and commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Indeed, when the above newspapers made their appearance Vancouver was but a logging area. Even i f the community could have supported a larger newspaper i n the years 1886 and 1887, the owner of such a paper would have required considerable c a p i t a l to i n s t a l a suitable press. Feeling the need of security owners of a l l the early newspapers were forced to r e l y upon either p o l i t i c a l or f i n a n c i a l interests i n order to be sure of some support. As Vancouver's population grew and as commerce developed the journals continued to accept the f i n a n c i a l backing derived from p o l i t i c a l interest, r e a l estate agencies, and land speculators. Most of Vancouvers e a r l i e r newspapers were a f f i l i a t e d with some p o l i t i c a l party, some ori g i n a t i n g as a means of p u b l i c i t y for p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l platforms. This was 94 especially true in the case of the Sun organization which was founded by a group of strong L i b e r a l s . The Saturday  Sunset, the Sun's predecessor, was also a strong L i b e r a l publication. P o l i t i c a l connections may be noted too i n the history of the News-Advertiser and of the World. The former w :is always a Conservative organ although begun by private c a p i t a l while the l a t t e r supported very strongly a l l opposition to the Conservatives. The two chief papers of the present day, the Province and the Sun, however, profess to.be independent of a l l p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . This i s now c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most large metropolitan papers, the reason being that a newspaper now requires a large amount of c a p i t a l ; i t i s consequently run on the same p r i n c i p l e s as any other large business. The e a r l i e s t publications of t h i s c i t y segving as they did a. r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d pioneer settlement, devoted the largest proportion of space to l o c a l news, l o c a l advertise-ments, and l o c a l p o l i t i c a l arguments. This seems obvious i n view of the fact that communication with the outside world at that time was very e r r a t i c . With improved telegraphic service, outside news began to occupy more and more space i n the newspapers. With the increasing amount of world news available came an increasing e d i t o r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n selection and reproduction. Increase of e d i t o r i a l work 1. Angell, ttorman, The Press and the Organisation of  Society. The Labour Publishing Company Ltd., London. 1922. 95 coupled with the general expansion i n newspaper equipment required larger s t a f f s . This i n turn brought a d i v i s i o n of newspaper services into e d i t o r i a l and business manage-ment respectively. To the business section went the adver-t i s i n g , the most productive source of newspaper revenue. Growing steadily since the founding of the f i r s t newspaper, advertising i s now divided into two main parts, "display" and " c l a s s f i e d " . Although the former was used l a r g e l y i n Vancouver's f i r s t papers, yet the c l a s s i f i e d sectioh began i n a simple way as early as 1887 and t h i s section has s t e a d i l y developed into the present detailed but orderly arrangement. Vancouver newspapers have strive n to keep pace with the constant technical innovations which have affected the daily press everywhere. Syndicated news has come to occupy a large proportion of each issue. Many other technological influences such as the invention of the telephone, the radio, and the p r i n t i n g telegraph machines have a l l been of v i t a l importance i n the evolution of Vancouver's newspapers. The same i s true of the great news-gathering organizations, the Associated Press, the United Press, and the International News Service, which now supply the bulk of the non-local news. Vancouver newspapers, however, while supplying t h e i r subscribers with the l a t e s t d a i l y world happenings never omit l o c a l economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l news.' A l l these r e f l e c t the d a i l y l i f e of the community and make an intimate appeal to l o c a l readers. 96 Books 1. Anonymous L i s t s of Voters i n the several E l e c t o r a l  D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , September 1876. .2. " The Newspaper as an Advertising Medium, New York, The Bureau of Advertising American .Newspaper Publishers Association, 1940. 3. " Vancouver City Directory, 1888. 4. ". Vancouver City Directory, 1889. 5. " Manuscript Volumes, City Archives. • 6. " Canadian Club of Vancouver, Addresses and Proceedings. 1909/10—1912/13 7. " B r i t i s h Columbia, Biographical, The S. J . Clarke Publishing Company, Vancouver, Portland San Francisco, Chicago, V o l . I l l and IV, 1914. 8. Bleyer, W. G. Newspaper Writing and Editing, Boston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Houghton M i f f l i n Company (1923). 9. Burtt, H. E. Psychology of Advertising, Boston, New York, Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Riverside Press, Cambridge, (1938). 10. Dibble, G. Binney, The Newspaper, London, Williams and Norgatel (no date) . A good discussion of syndicate service as an important part of journalism. 11. Floherty, John J . Your Daily Paper, Philadelphia, London, New York, Lippincott Company, 1938. Describes the gathering of the news and of the placing of i t before the people. 12. Gosnell, R. E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1897. Contains an a r t i c l e "The Reminisc-ences of the Press" by D. W. Higgins. 13. Gosnell, R. E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia. Compendium. V i c t o r i a , 1897-1901. 97 Books 14. Gosnell, R. E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia and Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information. V i c t o r i a , 1903. L i s t s the newspapers of the province. 15. Gosnell, R. E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1911 Contains a r t i c l e s on the early history of B r i t i s h Columbia. 16. Greene, B. M. Who's Who i n Canada, Toronto, International Press Limited, 1927. Short biography of W. C. Nichol on P. 1481. 17. Harrington, Harry F. and Watson E. Scott. Modern Feature Writing, New York and London, Harper and Bros. 1935. This book t e l l s what the public expects of the modern newspaper. 18. Henshaw, Mrs. F. G. (-Julian Durham). "The C i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver" i n Hopkins, J . C a s t e l l , Canada, The Llnscott Publishing Co., (1895) Vo l . 5, pp. 273-277. 19. Higgins, D. W. The Mystic Spring, Toronto, William Briggs, 1904. Useful as a source of information about pioneer days i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One story describes the sinking of the S.S. P a c i f i c 1874. "Sue" Moody from Moodyville was one of the passengers-. 20. Higgins, D. W. The Passing of a Race, Toronto William Briggs, 1905. Useful only for background reading on the early days. 21. Howay, F. W. and S c h o l e f i e l d E. 0. S. B r i t i s h Columbia from the e a r l i e s t times to the present. Winnipeg, Montreal, Chicago, S. J . Clarke Publishing Company 1914. Vols. 1 and 2. 22. Eerr,:-J, B* Biographical, Dictionary, of -.well known B r i t i s h • Columbians..- • - Vancouver, Kerr---and-B.eggi--rl'89;0i' ' • 98 Books 23. McMurtie, Douglas C. The F i r s t P r i n t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Chicago, P r i v a t e l y printed, 1929. 24. McNaught, Carlton. Canada Gets the News. Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1940 25. Roberts, Charles G. D. and Tunnell, Arther L (editors) Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Toronto,,- ' Trans-Canada Press, 1938. -J 26. Ross, V i c t o r , The History of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1920 V o l . 1. Chapter 5 deals with the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia. Many facts r e l a t i n g to the early history of Vancouver are included i n t h i s chapter. 27. Thompson, Denys, Between the Lines, or How to Read a Newspaper, London, Frederick Muller Ltd., 1939. A good book on newspaper observation. 28. Walkem, W. W. Stories of Early B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, News-Advertiser, 1914. Contains several extremely i n t e r e s t i n g narra-tives of pioneer days. One story, "Christmas Thirty-Eight Years Ago" i s a v i v i d descrip-t i o n of "Gastown" i n 1877. 29. Williams, R. T. British'Columbia Directory, , V i c t o r i a , Williams' Publisher, 1882-83. 30. Williams, R. T. V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo C i t i e s Directory, V i c t o r i a , Williams Publisher, 1890. 31. Williams, R. T. B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, V i c t o r i a , 1892. 32. Wrigley's B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, Vancouver Wrigley's Directories Ltd. 1918. Contains an H i s t o r i c a l Review. 99 Periodicals 1. Anonymous "Coast Co-operative", Time, XXVIII, 49, December 14, 1936 2. 1 " "Twenty Years of Skeezix", News Week XVII, 71, February 17, 1941 3. Black, Robson, "Canadian Journalism", The Canadian Magazine. XXXII, 434-440 March 1909. 4. Clark, J. T. "The Daily Newspaper", The Canadian Magazine. VII, 101-104, June 1896. 5. Coyne, Joan, "Five M i l l i o n for Pictures." Scholastic, XXXII, 10-11, 32, 37, March 26, 1938. 6. Forsythe, John. "Early Newspapers of B r i t i s h Columbia. B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Association Reports, 22-8, 1925. ' 7. Foster, Mrs. Garland "The F i r s t Mayor of Vancouver." Art, H i s t o r i c a l , and S c i e n t i f i c Association Vancouver Museum Notes, 111, 11-13, September 1928. 8. Howay, F. W. "Early Shipping i n Burrard I n l e t . " The .. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, 1, 3-20, January 1937. 9. Howay, F. W. "Early settlement on Burrard I n l e t . " The B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, 1, 101-114, A p r i l 1937. 10. Kerr, J . B. "Journalism i n Vancouver", The B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, VII, 576-579. June 1911. 11. Lunberg, Ferdinand. "Tomorrows Headlines." Publishers' Weekly, CXXXIII, 1542-3, A p r i l 9, 1938. 12. Lunn, Jean. "Bibiography of the History of the Canadian Press." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review XXII, 416-433, December 1941. 13. McDougall R. J . "Vancouver Real Estate for 25 Years." B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine. VII, 597-607, June 1911. 14. McGregor, Donald. "The Marvel of Vancouver." B r i t i s h Columbia. Magazine, VII, 457-472, June 1911. 15. Morgan, Gene. "Behind the Front Page." Scholastic, XXXII, 10-15, 32, 37, March 26, 1938. 100 Periodicals 16. Owens, Dewey M. "The Associated Press." The American Mercury XI, 385-393, A p r i l 1927. 17. Owens, Dewey M. "Syndicate St u f f . " The American Mercury, XI, 212-219, June 27, 1927. 18. Rudd, Martin, "The World's Freest Press and Forces that effect what i t P r i n t s . " Scholastic, XXXII, 255-285, March 26, 1938. 19. Sage, W. N. "Vancouver: The Rise of a Ci t y . " Dalhousie Review, XVII, 49-54, A p r i l 1937. 20. Sampson, Walter. "Owned hy the S t a f f . " Macleans Magazine, LI 23, 51, June 15, 1938. 101 Pamphlets and Other Sources, 1. Campbell, Charles E. Letter to writer of t h e s i s . July 1942. 2. Canada's Most Progressive Metropolis—Greater Vancouver i l l u s t r a t e d . Dominion I l l u s t r a t i n g Company 1908. 3. Canada's Diamond Jubilee of Confederation 1867-1927. Confederation Celebration Committee, Greater Vancouver, B. C. (1927) 4. 1000 Pacts about V a n c o u v e r , Vancouver Tourist Association. Vancouver A p r i l 1938. 5. Gomery, Darrel, "History of Early Vancouver"--B. A. graduating essay 1936. ft 7.B.C. Library) 6. McLachlan, C. W. "History of Vancouver up to 1900"— An essay. 1935. 7. Morley, Alan Palmer—"The Romance of Vancouver"— Vancouver Sun Clippings, 2 scrapbooks, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 8. Romance of Vancouver, Vancouver Tourist Association ( ) 9. Romance of Vancouver, Native Sons of B r i t i s h Columbia, Jubilee Edition, November 1936. 10. Vancouver News-Advertiser, Christmas Number I l l u s t r a t e d . . December 1889. 11. Vancouver Then and Now. 1886-1927. Gehrkes Ltd., 1927. 12. Vancouver's Golden Jubilee O f f i c i a l P i c t o r i a l Souvenir Programme. 1886-1936. 10.2 Newspaper F i l e s The Vancouver Weekly Herald, and North P a c i f i c News. The Advertiser The News News-Advertiser The World The Telegram Vancouver Daily Province Saturday Sunset J.P.'s Weekly. Vancouver Sun The Star The News-Herald. Special Newspaper A r t i c l e s Vancouver Daily Province. January 9, 1904 Rise and progress of the Province. June 10, 1905 F i r e June 24, 1905 Shapers of Destiny—A rapid glance at early journalism on the P a c i f i c Coast. March 26, 1918 Daily Province Celebrates Twentieth Birthday. August 12, 1922 Vancouver i n '84 was City of Liverpool. March 26, 1923 Progress of Vancouver During Quarter Century—Phenomenal March 11, 1924 E. J . Cromie Buys World. February 11, 1925 Big P r e s s — H i s t o r y A p r i l 19, 1925 F i r s t Empress Arrived A p r i l 28, 1891 December 5, 1926 J . H. Ross, Pioneer Journalist January 17, 1927 Old Newspapers August 14, 1927 The passing of Old Vancouver. March 26, 1928 Pioneer Vancouver Newspapermen. A p r i l 15, 1928 Mr. Gosnell r e c a l l s some early B. C. papers. February 24, 1929 The Province Round the World. September 14, 1929 Morning Star S o l d — 103 Special Newspaper A r t i c l e s cont. Vancouver Daily Province cont. January 25, 1929 February 13, 1932 May 18, 1933 January 19, 1955 June 12, 1955 December 20, 1935 May 21, 1936 June 20, 1936 March 26, 1938 August 4, 1939 February 25, 1939-December 15, 1941 A survey of the c i t y . Adieu to the Star. Daily Province here since '98. "Lets a l l go-gown to the Drive" "The Town Pump" Death of James Ross Jubilee Supplement Daily Province has grown with the c i t y . Pender Street i n Vancouver saw plenty of excitement i n old-time newspaper days. Forty Years of World cris e s embodied i n the f i l e s . Weeklies with prizes. •-March 17, 1939 L. D. Taylor t e l l s his story. Story of the c i t y ' s f i r s t Newspaper Vancouver Sun. May 12, 1956 Robert Cromie Daily Advertiser June 29, 1886 Account of the Fire, The Moodyville T i c k l e r July 20, 1878 F i r s t copy News-Adver t i s er June 29, 1913 July 6, 1913 January 1, 1889. Story of Vancouver's Newspapers Story of Vancouver's Newspapers Sketch of the progress and future of Vancouver c i t y . The News September 14, 1886 Begins the story of John Deighton, (Gassy Jack) 104 Special Newspaper A r t i c l e s cont. The News-HeraId ( A p r i l 24, 1936 , City Anniversary E d i t i o n The Daily Colonist, V i c t o r i a November 3, 1931 J . S. H. Matson Daily World 1890 Souvenir Ed i t i o n 1922 Souvenir E d i t i o n - B r i t i s h Columbia Development. / 105 Excerpt. Letter from George Bartley to Major Matthews. Aug. 13, 1940. "The l a t e Hon. P. L. Garter-Cotton arrived i n Vancouver v i a Port Moody about a month after the Great E i r e ; i n the f a l l of 1886 he purchased the Advertiser, and became i t s managing editor. Early i n 1887, I believe Messrs Gordon and Cotton purchased the "News" af t e r which the News and Advertiser were consolidated and became the News-Advertiser, being issued from the building on Cambie Street, corner of the lane, i n the rear of which the present Dominion building i s now situated." -City Archives f i l e s . Re- the l a t e J . P. McConnell from a l e t t e r by Edith Denton(Mrs. Ivan Denton), daughter of J. P. McConnell to writer. "One of the best known cases was the l i b e l suit John Emerson, the lumberman, launched against my father. He (J.E.) had b u i l t a fence which covered up not only the lower windows but the second story windows of the house of the man next door—having an argument with him. My father wrote i t up and Emerson sued him. He won 50 damages and an apology was demanded. My father wrote the apology—and a l l the old-timers say i t was ten times more damaging than the o r i g i n a l e d i t o r i a l , but so written that he could not be sued for l i b e l . Years l a t e r Emerson and my father met on an old logging r o a d — . Emerson said he would punch my father's head i f they ever met. They were both big men. Anyway they just laughed and shook hands." :i06 F O U N D E D IN 1 8 8 0 B Y H O N . F R A N K O L I V E R cAlbertas Oldest TVewspaper , 0J^fl*?»Ala^ C H A R L E S E . C A M P B E L L v r r ( P R I V A T E E X C H A N G E ) P U B L I S H E R H 6 I 2 I J u l y 22, 1942. Miss B. Lamb, Vancouver, B. G. Dear Miss Lamb: I received a l e t t e r from Miss Kay Snedden, asking i f I would give you a few fact s about myself, as you were writing a the s i s e n t i t l e d "History of Vancouver Newspapers". I am glad to comply with her request and give you the following f a c t s : -Charles.Edwin Campbell, son of ex-alderman, J . B. Campbell and Mary E. Campbell. Born May 16th, 1885, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A. Parents, Canadian from Woodville, Ontario, who were i n the United States f o r a short time and returned to Canada - Vancouver, B. C. - i n May, 1898. Attended Central Public School and Vogel's Business College. Sold newspapers i n 1898-99 and 1900 a f t e r school. In J u l y , 1900, worked f o r the C o r t i c e l l i S i l k Comp-any i n the o f f i c e and l a t e r as a salesman, u n t i l December, 1909. At that time, was salesman i n Alberta and part of Saskatchewan, with headquarters i n Calgary. In January, 1910, joined my father's business, Camp-b e l l ' s Storage Company Limited, u n t i l i t was sold i n 1921 to the Mainland Transfer Company Limited. Became interested i n the newspaper business, as a Shareholder i n the founding of the Vancouver Sun i n 1912. Later on, was a Director of the Vancouver Sun and purchased the assets with Robert J . Cromie, i n 1918. The Sun Publishing Company then purchased the assets of the Vancouver News-Advertiser, which was incorporated into the Vancouver Sun, then publishing the only morning newspaper i n Vancouver. (over) A D D R E S S A L L C O R R E S P O N D E N C E T O T H E P A P E R A N D N O T T O I N D I V I D U A L S . -2-Following a quarrel with the la t e Robert J. Cromie i n 1921 over p o l i c y , purchased the Vancouver Daily World from i t s then owners, Cameron and Davidson, Contractors. Published the Vancouver Daily World and retained in t e r e s t i n the Vancouver Sun u n t i l 1923. The Vancouver Daily World was sold to the Sun Pub-l i s h i n g Company Limited. The Sun then was publish-ing a morning, evening and Sunday e d i t i o n . Later, i n 1923, sold my interest i n the Vancouver Sun t o Robert J . Cromie. • Following sale of newspaper i n t e r e s t s i n Vancouver, went to Mexico and was interested i n an o i l venture f o r a year and a h a l f , returning to Vancouver, i n the Spring of 1925. In December, 1925, purchased the Edmonton B u l l e t i n , Alberta's Oldest Newspaper, from the Hon. Frank O l i v e r , who founded The B u l l e t i n i n 1880. In 1926, purchased the Calgary Albertan from the late W. M. Davison and s o l d i t one year l a t e r , to the late George Ixu. B e l l of Regina. In June, 1928, founded the Regina Da i l y Star and s o l d i t to the Rt. Hon. R. B. Bennett, K. C., then Prime Minister of Canada, i n May, 1933. Have remained Owner and Publisher of the Edmonton B u l l e t i n , since 1925 up to the present time. If there i s any fur t h e r information I can give you that may be of help to you, I w i l l be glad to do so. Yours sincerely, C.E.C./DD Publisher. From the heading on the e d i t o r i a l page of the Morning Star. MORNING STAR Published at the Port of Vancouver Founded as the Advertiser 1886 An independent journal with t r a d i t i o n s of service and respon-s i b i l i t y aiming to be f a i r , accurate and l o y a l to Canada and to the Empire. Published every week day by the Vancouver Star Ltd., Vic t o r W. Odium, publisher, at the Star Building, 303 Pender Street West. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Per month 750 Year $5.00 The Advertiser The News 1886 1886 News-Adv er t i s er Morning Sun 1887 1912 Morning Star 1926 109 Excerpt. "News-Advertiser" Vancouver, B. C. Sunday July 6, 1913. From an a r t i c l e by L. E. Dennison. "In addition to the foregoing daily and weekly publications, "The Peoples' Journal" existed a few months i n 1893 as the mouthpiece of the new Independent party of the Lower Main-land. Mr. George Leaper was manager and Mr. J . M. Duval editor. "The Monitor" a weekly was brought into being by Mr. R. G. Gallagher upon the suspension of "The Telegram" and lasted only a short time. "The Mainlander" also a weekly, by Mr. John A. Fulton and Mr. J . S. Scott with ex-Alderman N. C. Schon as editor, was published a year or so as a family journal i n the early 90's. Its p o l i c y was the interests of the mainland as against the island; the Re-d i s t r i b u t i o n B i l l being a burning question at the time. Mr. William B a i l l i e , an old-time Western j o u r n a l i s t estab-lish e d the "Ledger" i n 1894 removing the plant of the defunct "Daily Ledger" of New Westminster to t h i s c i t y . This paper flourished for a time and then joined the s i l e n t majority, the press now being part of Mr. E. T. Kingsley's plant i n the basement of the Labor Temple. In the spring of 1894 "The Idea" with the l a t e Mr. Seneca Garnet Ketchum as editor, Mr. Percy Whitworth as manager, and Mr. John A. Fulton as mechanical superintendent (according to the firmJs o f f i c e stationery) was established on a joint c a p i t a l of $'3.50. This paper/'a humorous Weekly, the late Mr. Ketchum being one of the brightest and most humorous p r i n t e r -j o u r n a l i s t s i n ?/estern Canada. This paper also went out of existence after a short time. "The Weekly B u l l e t i n " l a t e r on a change of ownership became "The Budget" and was published for a few months during 1895 by Messrs. William B a i l l i e , W. M. Wilson, and Thomas H. Hawson. "The Wasp" molded upon the l i n e s of the Toronto "Grip" was the next to enter the f i e l d , the publisher being the late Mr. J . Gordon, who had previously been connected with "The Telegram". In 1907 "The Morning Guardian" was established and published for a period by a l o c a l syndicate, Mr. S. J . Gothard being editor and manager. The o f f i c e was i n the basement vacated by Messrs. Evans and Hastings, on Hastings Street. There came i n 1902, "The Monday Morning Ledger," Dr. Reynolds, publisher. This paper was printed i n an o f f i c e i n the basement of the Flack Block. It moved l a t e r to Granville Street, opposite the old post o f f i c e , where i t continued as a morning daily for a year or so. "The Ozonogram" by Messrs. R. T. Lowery and Vv'illiam McAdam ex-ist e d a short while i n 1906. "The Mainland News" published as a Monday morning paper was started i n 1907 by Messrs. W. McAdam, George Farrow, and J . A. Macdonald, and lasted .110 Excerpt. "News-Advertiser" cont. only a short time. A l l these per i o d i c a l s though> of only ephemeral existence exerted a strong influence on the public questions of the day. "The Independent" a labor organ was started i n 1900 by Mr. George Bartley and ran for over f i v e years. The S o c i a l i s t party came into existence about t h i s time and Messrs. G. W. Wrigley and R. P. Pettipiece launched "The Canadian S o c i a l i s t " afterwards becoming the "Western Clarion" and i s s t i l l i n existence. The "Trades Unionist" by S. J . Gothard was launched i n 1906 but had a b r i e f existence. In February 1909, "The Wage Earner" made i t s appearance with Mr. J . H. McVety as editor. This was the f i r s t paper pub-lishe d i n Canada by a trades and labor council. It was succeeded i n November 1911 by "The B r i t i s h Columbia Fed e r a t i o n a l i s t " a bi-monthly, with Mr. R. P. Pettipiece at the helm. On June 8, 1912, "The Federationist" made i t s appearance i n i t s present form. The publication of "Man-to-Man" a monthly magazine was begun i n 1910, and afterwards became the " B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine" of which Mr. J . S. Raine i s at present the editor .The Eburne "News" was started i n A p r i l 1908 by Mr. A. H. Lewis, afterwards changing to the Point Grey "Gazette" i n November 1908 v/ith Mr. J . A. Paton assuming control i n December 1908. The "Western Catholic", Rev. Austin Bonner, editor, made i t s appearance i n July 1909. "The Western C a l l " was ixistituted i n May 1909 by Messrs. G. W. Dean and A. S. Goard. The South Vancouver "Chinook" was started i n May 1912 with Mr. H. A. Stein as editor. In addition to these there are various denominational and f r a t e r n a l publications v/hich are part of Vancouver's j o u r n a l i s t i c world and enjoy the confidence of the reading public i n th e i r respective spheres." — f r o m News-Advertiser Sunday July 6, 1913. I l l General location of Newspaper f i l e s The Herald Year 1886— City Archives July 1887-June 1888-Provineial Archives The Advertiser The Vancouver News The News-Advertiser The Telegram The World The Star The Vancouver Sun The Vancouver Daily The News-Herald University Library P r o v i n c i a l Archives City Archives- incomplete P r o v i n c i a l Archives - incomplete Province Vancouver Public Library P r o v i n c i a l Archives The Saturday Sunset Vancouver Sun Library P r o v i n c i a l Archives J. P.'s Weekly Mr. R.L. Reid's private l i b r a r y , 1736 Westbrook Cresent. Each of the l o c a l e d i t o r i a l o f f i c e s have complete f i l e s of t h e i r own papers. A copy of Burrard I n l e t ' s f i r s t newspaper—the " T i c k l e r " published at Moodyville, i s located i n the City Archives. 112 

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