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The poetic theory and practice of Huang Tingjian Du, Liang 1991

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THE POETIC THEORY AND PRACTICE OF HUANG TINGJIAN BY  LIANG DU B.A., HUNAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY,  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  1982  FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS i  IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department o f A s i a n  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  to the required  as  STUDIES  Studies)  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH JULY,  (C)  1991  LIANG DU, 1991  COLUMBIA  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  his  or  her  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  is  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be  permission.  Department of  ^,A-A!  S>Tc/P>/gS  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  the  that  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  permission for extensive  granted  by the  understood  head  that  allowed without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  Huang T i n g j i a n poets  o f t h e Song D y n a s t y .  contemporary important the  ffKpK<1045-1105) i s one  Su  Shi|||^ , j u s t  poets  Jiangxi  He  Du  Fu  and  School  o f t h e most  important  i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with  his  as t h e Tang D y n a s t y ' s most L i Bai ^  are  which e x e r t e d  linked. 150  Huang  founded  years of i n f l u e n c e  _i upon t h e c r e a t i v e of  poets.  Huang i s a l s o one  Chinese history. controversy poetic  t h e o r y and  and  This thesis  I  begin  his  political  his  life.  and  the  make i t w o r t h w h i l e t o a n a l y z e  t h e main c o n t e n t  and  the p o l i t i c a l  p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w  style.  also  comments on  affairs  his  of  and  the  provide a b r i e f  which i n f l u e n c e  Therein,  and  I  mainly  i t s political  d i s c u s s i o n of h i s ideas  In d i s c u s s i n g h i s i d e a s o f p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e ,  i m i t a t i o n and  and  then  after  i n n o v a t i o n , I summarize i  on  o f Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y  of poetry  e x a m i n e h i s method a s an o r g a n i c u n i t , his  of h i s poetry,  of h i s poetic technique.  d i s c u s s h i s view o f t h e c o n t e n t  poetic  the  a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f Huang; i t f o c u s e s  career,  and  in  of h i s poetic techniques.  principles  criticism,  and  a t t e m p t s t o summarize t h e main p r i n c i p l e s  with  C h a p t e r One  in poetic history  poets  practice.  Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y , characteristics  him,  generations  o f t h e most c o n t r o v e r s i a l  His position  surrounding  theory  p r a c t i c e of succeeding  on I  analyzing the  principles  o f h i s method.  Chapter  Two i s an a n a l y s i s o f Huang's p o e t i c c o n t e n t .  Through a survey his  poetry.  content  By c o m p a r i n g  he s e l e c t s ,  consistency  I explore the chief topics of  Huang's g e n e r a l v i e w o f p o e t r y w i t h t h e  we w i l l  ascertain  between h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y  Chapter The  o f Huang's p o e t r y ,  whether o r n o t t h e r e i s and p r a c t i c e .  T h r e e i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f Huang's p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e .  d i s c u s s i o n i s d o m i n a t e d by what has been c a l l e d  critics  Huang's " q i " ^ ( s t r a n g e n e s s ) . j  understood  What may be p r o p e r l y  as the p r i n c i p l e s o f h i s technique  foundation f o r h i s outstanding o r i g i n a l i t y . originality  that i s discussed are b a s i c a l l y  method w h i c h i s e x p l o r e d i n C h a p t e r can from  be s e e n a s an e x a m i n a t i o n  One.  provide the The a s p e c t s o f t h i s  a s s o c i a t e d with h i s  Therefore,  this  o f Huang's v i e w on p o e t i c  chapter  technique  the perspective of poetic practice. This chapter  which d e v e l o p s Chapter  One.  concludes  with a survey  the discussion of style  sections The  o f Huang's p o e t i c  touched  style  upon b r i e f l y i n  The summation o f h i s p o e t i c s t y l e  the analyses o f h i s p o e t i c content  and t e c h n i q u e  i s facilitated  by  i n the previous  and c h a p t e r s . c o n c l u s i o n i s a summation o f Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y and  practice. and  by many  I summarize t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  practice  classical  between h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y  i n g e n e r a l and h i s major c o n t r i b u t i o n  poetry.  ii  t o Chinese  TABLE  OF  CONTEHTS  Abstract  ..................1  Biography Chapter  1  One  A Survey o f Huang's P o e t i c Theory  Chapter  6  I.  Huang's G e n e r a l Views about P o e t i c Theory  II.  Huang's Theory o f P o e t i c Technique  26  A.  The Content o f Huang's Method  28  B.  The Sources o f Method  36  C.  The P r i n c i p l e s o f Method .  41  Two  P o e t i c Theory and P r a c t i c e : P o e t i c Content  Chapter  ...7  47  I.  Self-Expression  48  II.  Nature  61  III.  Daily Life  64  IV.  P h i l o s o p h y i n Huang's P o e t r y  .68  Three  P o e t i c Theory and P r a c t i c e : P o e t i c Technique  74  I.  The Strangeness o f P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e  75  II.  The Strangeness o f P o e t i c Sentences  82  III.  The Strangeness o f Tone P a t t e r n ,  Rhyme Scheme  and Rhythm  102  IV.  The Strangeness of A l l u s i o n  119  V.  A Survey o f Huang's P o e t i c S t y l e  128  iii  Conclusion  Abbreviations Bibliography  Biography  Huang T i n g j i a n and  Fuweng  Xiushui 14,  ), was b o r n i n Jiangxi  h i s father  died.  at  h i s young age.  "I  lost  jlj-j^  i n Fenning  i n Hongzhou  province) i n the year H i s f a t h e r ' s death  In h i s l e t t e r  from  he was s e n t t o l i v e  brought  During  u n c l e and aunt,  and b e n e f i t e d from  s c h o l a r s and p o e t s , can  him a h a r d  be s a i d  u n c l e ' s guidance.  I often  (his  and a c o l l e c t o r o f he was e d u c a t e d  Huainan  jjljffi  and t o v i s i t  w h i c h h e l p e d him expand h i s mind. e d u c a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d  Huang p r a i s e d  by h i s  r e a d i n g h i s u n c l e ' s books.  him t o t r a v e l  that h i s early  life  , he w r o t e :  w i t h h i s u n c l e L i Chang  h i s stay with h i s uncle,  A l s o h i s u n c l e brought  When he was  Owing t o t h e p o v e r t y o f h i s  m o t h e r ' s b r o t h e r ) , who was w e l l - e d u c a t e d books.  (modern  1045-  t o L i Jizhong  hunger and c o l d .  tij^jIS/^  ; haos j^Shanqu Daoren  my f a t h e r a t a young age and became p o o r .  suffered family,  (zi^Shangu  many  Thus, i t  under h i s  h i s u n c l e i n an e l e g y f o r h i s 2  uncle: In him  " I t i s you my u n c l e who b r o u g h t 1067, Huang p a s s e d  to start  hisofficial  the imperial career.  up and e d u c a t e d examination  Next y e a r ,  1. S i Bu Cong Kan HojlJ&fllj ( a b b r e v i a t e d SBCK), Yu Zhang Huang X i a n Sheng Wen J i # # # 4 $ f & YZHXSWJ), v o l . 1 9 , p. 198. M¥-«AiA7t> 2.  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 1 , p. 232. 1  that  me." enabled  he was a p p o i n t e d  Huang T i n g j i a n , (abbreviated  Xian  Wei  1072,  (Director  t h e emperor  select  Shenzong  (1068-1085 )  s  t e a c h e r s f o r t h e Guo  Huang p a s s e d  S e c u r i t y ) o f X i e County t r } ' ^ .  of Public  Z i Jian  the examination  Zhu J i a o | | . | f ( A s s i s t a n t  College.  For eight  y e a r s from  his instruction  Shou his  t  t  n  examination  e  (the Imperial  w i t h an e x c e l l e n t  appointed  in  JU^Ia  e  result,  1072 t o 1080,  In t h e y e a r o f 1078  t e a c h i n g , he began h i s f i r s t  to  College). and  was  I n s t r u c t o r ) of the Imperial Huang was  i n t h e I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e , and was  (Instructor).  In  successful  promoted  when he was  Jiao  conducting  c o n t a c t w i t h Su S h i t h r o u g h  correspondence. An i m p o r t a n t many o f f i c i a l s enjoyed  political  event  and i n t e l l e c t u a l s  h i s teaching without  with a l a s t i n g took  worries.  down Wang A n s h i ' s j£^7j s u b m i t t i n g emperor  Renzong f l ^ . i n  1058.  p l a c e i n China T h i s event  an o u t l i n e  After  influence  on  when Huang  c a n be t r a c e d  o f reform  to the  Shenzong became t h e emperor i n  l  1068,  he h i r e d  agreed  w i t h him t o c a r r y  historically Reform). into  called  o u t X i n Fa  Wang A n s h i ' s  S i n c e then,  two w i n g s - - X i n  Dang  (New  B i a n Fa  most C h i n e s e  ( p r e m i e r ), Policies)  J%|j^f$  intellectuals  ( W a  ng  were  and  which i s Anshi's divided  Dang ||^(New P a r t y o r R e f o r m e r P a r t y ) and J i u  Party or Conservative Party) according t o t h e i r  attitude Party, until  Wang A n s h i a s h i s Z a i X i a n g  t o w a r d s Reform.  T h o s e i n f a v o u r R e f o r m a r e named  and t h e o p p o s i t e O l d P a r t y . t h e end o f t h e N o r t h  Chinese  intellectuals'  The two w i n g s  Song D y n a s t y .  d e s t i n y was  For such  New  conflicted a long period,  up and down a l o n g w i t h t h e  changes of Although in  the  p e o p l e who  Huang h i m s e l f  political  relationship ,  Su  Shi,  In  were i n power i n t h e  struggle,  he  directly was  Qin  G u a n | | and  he  and  was  Party,  ^jffi  t o Deping  Shandong  as  his  Zhao T i n g z h i  colleague  i n Dezhou  not very  poor.  j|(|f,£:  matter,  t o adopt the  Huang and  Imperial  of Taihe  In  1083,  j^jfj!<modern  in  he  was  Shanghe In  in Deping,  wanted t o p u r s u e S h i Y i Fa  government) i n o r d e r Yet,  iff  to f i t i n  Huang t h o u g h t t h a t  i t  was  p o l i c y b e c a u s e p e o p l e i n town were  Zhao had  w h i c h became one  i n the  (Supervisor).  h i s immediate a d m i n i s t r a t o r . appropriate  close  s u c h as Sima GuangjjJ]^  >.  a J i a n Zhen Guan  (a p o l i c y o f managing market by with  to his  a county magistrate  J i z h o u ^Jfj (modern T a i h e ^$J;in J i a n g x i transferred  due  etc.  ended h i s term o f t e a c h i n g appointed  court.  or a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e  involved  t o some members o f O l d  1080,  College,  d i d not  imperial  a h e a t e d argument a b o u t  of reasons t h a t  Huang was  this  exiled in  the  future. Zhezong died  ascended the  i n 1085.  Zhezong was  grandmother Gaoshi the  state.  premier,  She  so  p r o m o t e d and of  Mi  Shu  capital  that New  was  key  10  Party  was  then,  and,  Shenzong  actually, his  a supporter  of Old  Party,  f i g u r e of Old  Party,  Sima Guan  most members and  Sheng H^-^j  Bianjing  only  , who  h i r e d the  t h r o n e a f t e r t h e emperor  f o l l o w e r s of Old  retaliated.  <the I m p e r i a l  Appointed  Party as  an  ruled  were Editor  L i b e r a r y ) , Huang went t o  (modern K a i f e n g jfj^ i n Henan  ).  as  the  Afterwards,  he  was  appointed to participate  (The V e r i t a b l e completed, of  Records o f Shenzonq).  he was  t h e emperor's  this  promoted  Gaoshi died  controlled  t h e emperor  exclude Old Party, political  errors  New  i n 1093,  Ren  this  S h i Lu  book  jjjjj^^  ^^^•p'  was  (the Recorder  because of h i s achievement i n  Party  selected  f r o m The  Party,  Huang was  inevitably  of t h i s  "slandering  In  1100,  In f a c t ,  political  situation  Zhezong  changed  favourable  Anhui)  turn.  posts  t o be  I n 1100  in this  appointed a local  D a n g t u ^ ^ ; i n Anhui because  situation,  Shenzonq.  and  exiled  t o Qianzhou  he was  transferred  Huizong ^ * b e c a m e  Xiang S h i  Huang was  official  held  court.  to Old  Party.  the The  Guang and Su S h i t o o k a  but p o l i t e l y  also  appointed to  declined  i n Taiping  t h e change  o r because o f h i s poor h e a l t h .  them  and  Zhou T^^jtJ;  ) o r Wuwei J u n ^jv}^  o f h i s w o r r i e s about  1095,  Sichuan).  died  1101,  In  i n a charge of  I n 1097,  s u c h a s Sima  i n the c a p i t a l ,  to  thousand of  disaster.  t o be a d v a n t a g e o u s  and  In o r d e r  Records of  Huang was  H u i z o n g ' s mother  Many members o f O l d P a r t y ,  (modern  Veritable  involved  Y i b i n ^j|^;in  t h e emperor  17.  more t h a n one  book were r e l e g a t e d  (modern  emperor.  only  Party  book and a s y m p a t h i z e r o f O l d  t h e p r e v i o u s emperor".  Rongzhou ^jtj  asked  was  P e n g s h u i £>-^jin S i c h u a n )BjJ||j).  (modern  several  who  listed  of the e d i t o r s of t h i s  editors  a g r o u p o f f o l l o w e r s o f New  Zhezong,  As one  to  After  t o Q i J u She  words and d e e d s )  Shenzonq  book. After  all  i n writing  (Wuwei^^Jjin  of the  I n 1102,  he  political was  1^  appointed the  ZhizhouMjn  emperor Huizong took  member o f New on  New  offended with  days,  as premier.  As recommended before,  Therefore,  last  to wait  time,  a crackdown  seriously  Zhao T i n g z h i ,  premier.  , a  whom Huang  Zhao c h a r g e d  Huang  some words i n Huang's  Huang worked i n T a i p i n g f o r o n l y  t o Hongzhou w i t h a n o m i n a l  f o r h i s next  Huang was e x i l e d  placement.  t o Yizhou  title,  At t h i s < modern  nine where  time,  also  Yishan  w h i c h was t h o u s a n d s o f k i l o m e t r e away from t h e  centre of China was  as v i c e  Cai Jing  launched  Huang was more  by c h o o s i n g  after  he was t r a n s f e r r e d  was a s k e d  Cai Jing  by C a i j i n g ,  was h i r e d  In t h e same y e a r ,  t h e power and h i r e d  I n t h e crackdown,  G u a n g x i f*^),  he  over  slandering the state  writing.  the  Party,  Party.  punished.  he  (Executive) of Taiping.  and was u n c i v i l i z e d .  exiled.  5  I n 1145, Huang d i e d where  of  Chapter A Survey Huang T i n g j i a n create  was n o t a t h e o r e t i c i a n .  monographs on p o e t i c s . contribution  posterity  individual  an  p o e t i c theory prose,  provided h i s  found s c a t t e r e d  poems, and r e c o r d s o f  by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  are o f t e n understood  One o f t h e main over  Huang's p o e t i c  out of the context  w r i t i n g s , and o u t o f t h e c o n t e x t  of h i s  o f h i s work s e e n  as a  I t i s more s e n s i b l e t o a n a l y z e Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y  organic unit.  Therefore,  typical  ideas c r i t i c s  analyze  them t h r o u g h  In o r d e r will  but a l s o  t h a t vehement c o n t r o v e r s y has a r i s e n  views i s they  whole.  left  any  Huang n o t o n l y made a  literature,  h i s remarks i n l e t t e r s ,  activities  reasons  t o Chinese  He d i d n o t i n t e n d t o  n o r d i d he l e a v e b e h i n d  Yet, as a poet  with a c o n t r o v e r s i a l  throughout his  o f Huang's P o e t i c T h e o r y  a s y s t e m a t i c p o e t i c theory,  unique  One  also  we w i l l  c l o s e examination  of their  original  p o e t i c theory;  doing  this,  and 2) h i s t h e o r y  p o e t i c theory,  and  s e e how  especially  a balance  practice.  6  general  we  ideas By  accurate picture of  his controversial  w e l l Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y  w h e t h e r Huang m a i n t a i n s  context.  of p o e t i c technique.  we hope t o o b t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y  his  and  view o f Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y ,  two major a s p e c t s : 1) Huang's own  about  compare some  have a b o u t Huang's main p o e t i c v i e w s ,  t o o b t a i n an o v e r a l l survey  i n t h i s chapter  as  poetic  views,  i s integrated, that i s ,  between h i s p o e t i c t h e o r y and  I.  - Huang's G e n e r a l V i e v s a b o u t Among  Poetic  a l l t h e r e m a r k s Huang makes, t h e most i m p o r t a n t and  c o m p r e h e n s i v e comments on p o e t i c "Shu  Wang Z h i z a i  After  Theory  principles  are presented  J u Shan Za Yong Hou"  Wang Z h i z a i ' s Random I m p r e s s i o n s  in his  (Inscribed about  Ju H i l l ) :  P o e t r y i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f human e m o t i o n and n a t u r e . I t s h o u l d n o t [ h a v e t h e s t y l e o f ] an i n t e n s e d e b a t e w i t h i n the I m p e r i a l court, o f abusive complaints shouted i n t h e s t r e e t , o r o f t h e angry c u r s i n g o f one's neighbours o r guests. A p o e t s h o u l d be l o y a l , h o n e s t , s i n c e r e , r e s p e c t f u l , and l i v e by e m b r a c i n g t h e Way. When a p o e t r u n s c o u n t e r t o t h e t i m e s , when he f e e l s s o r r o w o r j o y a t s o m e t h i n g t h a t he has e x p e r i e n c e d , when even t h e one n e x t t o him i n t h e same bed c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d him, when he c a n n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and when he c a n no l o n g e r c o n t a i n h i s e m o t i o n s , he r e l e a s e s them by p r o d u c i n g a t u n e t h a t e i t h e r groans or laughs. By t h i s he r e l e a s e s h i s h e a r t , and t h o s e t h a t h e a r him a r e t h e r e b y , t o some e x t e n t , u r g e d and e x h o r t e d . I t i s t h e beauty o f poetry [that these t u n e s ] c a n t h e n be sung i n harmony w i t h m u s i c a l l a w s and d a n c e d t o w i t h s h i e l d s and f e a t h e r f a n s . As f o r [some p e o p l e who] f u r t h e r t r y t o s l a n d e r o r make i n s u l t s w i t h s u c h p o e t r y , [so t h a t they] s t i c k t h e i r necks out under t h e b a t t l e axe, o r remove t h e i r armour b e f o r e a r r o w s i n o r d e r t o r e l e a s e t h e i r a n g e r o f t h e moment, s u c h d i s a s t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by e v e r y o n e t o be c r e a t e d by p o e t r y . Yet, t h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e p o e t h a s m i s s e d t h e p o i n t o f p o e t r y , and i t i s not the f a u l t of poetry i t s e l f . 1  Huang's r e m a r k s c o n t a i n s e v e r a l Huang e x p r e s s e s essential As  h i s g e n e r a l view about  f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l  YZHXSWJ,  First  of a l l ,  p o e t r y by a n s w e r i n g  the  q u e s t i o n : What i s p o e t r y ?  major v i e w p o i n t s  1  l e v e l s o f meaning.  vol.26,  i n Chinese  definition poetic  p.296. 7  o f p o e t r y , t h e r e were two  t h e o r y b e f o r e Huang's  time.  One,  which  James L i u  suggests  be  called  Expressionism  \£ , ^ e m p h a s i z e s t h e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n o f a p o e t ' s emotions.  In one  of the e a r l i e s t  Book o f H i s t o r y ) ,  poetry  "Poetry  i n t e n t " ( Jf§]^  expresses  more c l e a r l y  was  expounded i n "Da  Chinese  books,  defined i n the The Xu"  nature  Shu  Jing  well-known  i d e a was  of Shi Jing  and (Th  phrase  developed, jf§  The  an  Book o f  Songs) : P o e t r y i s where t h e i n t e n t o f t h e h e a r t goes. Lying i n the h e a r t , i t i s " i n t e n t " ; when u t t e r e d i n words, i t i s "poetry". When an e m o t i o n s t i r s i n s i d e , one e x p r e s s e s i t i words; f i n d i n g t h i s i n a d e q u a t e , one s i g h s o v e r i t ; n o t c o n t e n t w i t h t h i s , one s i n g s i t i n p o e t r y ; s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d , one u n c o n s c i o u s l y d a n c e s w i t h o n e ' s hands and feet. 4  2 James J.Y. L i u , C h i n e s e T h e o r i e s o f L i t e r a t u r e , C h i c a g o and L o n d o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975, p.67. L i u t h i n k s t h a t "Chinese e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s . . . a r e p r i m a r i l y f o c u s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e w r i t e r and t h e l i t e r a r y work...the o b j e c t of e x p r e s s i o n i s v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d with u n i v e r s a l human e m o t i o n s , o r p e r s o n a l n a t u r e , o r i n d i v i d u a l g e n i u s or s e n s i b i l i t y , or moral c h a r a c t e r . " E x p r e s s i o n i s m i s o n l y t h e term w h i c h L i u b o r r o w s from E n g l i s h to d e f i n e Chinese expressive t h e o r i e s . A l t h o u g h , as L i u p o i n t s out, C h i n e s e E x p r e s s i o n i s m p r i m a r i l y i n d i c a t e s a s e l f e x p r e s s i o n o f an a u t h o r ' s e m o t i o n s o r n a t u r e , t h e c o n c e p t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and e n v i r o n m e n t o f Chinese l i t e r a r y theory. T h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t f r o m German E x p r e s s i o n i s m i n t h e e a r l y 20 c e n t u r y , C h i n e s e E x p r e s s i o n i s m i s a c o n c e p t c o n t r a s t i n g Chinese Pragmatism o r P o l i t i c a l C r i t i c i s m (see f o o t n o t e 5), which i s formed under the i n f l u e n c e o f Confucian ideology. The use o f t h e c o n c e p t E x p r e s s i o n i s m e n a b l e s us t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e l i t e r a r y view o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n from a dominant l i t e r a r y t h e o r y i n China--Pragmatism. 3 Zeng Y u n q i a n ^ ^ ^ ; , Liu, op.cit., p.69.  Shanq  4 Chen Huan r S h i Mao T r a n s . L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 69.  Shu  Zheng  Du  S h i Zhuan Shu 8  jjBj-^jE^  »  )ffi$$?i8  p. 26.  Trans  » vol.1, p . l  Another which of and  i s an  poetry. has  Chinese  e m p h a s i s on t h e s o c i a l , T h i s v i e w p o i n t was  dominated literary  contained  by  viewpoint, suggested  L i u i s Pragmatism political,  An  i n t h e commentary  moral  function  more p r e v a l e n t t h a n E x p r e s s i o n i s m ,  Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l criticism.  and  j£ , ^  i d e o l o g y and  the f i e l d  explanation of this  viewpoint  t o The  of  Book o f Songs i s :  T h e r e f o r e , n o t h i n g a p p r o a c h e s t h e Book o f P o e t r y [The Book o f Songs] i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o r r e c t s t a n d a r d s f o r s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e [ i n g o v e r n m e n t ] , i n moving Heaven and E a r t h , and i n a p p e a l i n g t o s p i r i t s and gods. The f o r m e r K i n g s used i t t o make permanent [ t h e t i e b e t w e e n ] h u s b a n d and w i f e , t o p e r f e c t f i l i a l r e v e r e n c e , t o d e e p e n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o b e a u t i f y m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and t o i m p r o v e s o c i a l customs.  During  the Three  Kingdoms  Cao  P i fU*  i  considered wrote  literature  an e f f e c t i v e  i n h i s " D i a n Lun"J|]&!(On  187-226 A. D. )  1  .!  means t o r u l e  Literature):  the state.  "For l i t e r a t u r e  He is a  i  i  great  task  [that  concerns] the governing of the state,  a  splendid  •7  enterprise  that  will  never  perish."  Later,  d u r i n g t h e Tang  5 L i u , o p . c i t . , p.106. L i u t h i n k s t h a t "Pragmatic t h e o r i e s . . . a r e b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f l i t e r a t u r e as a means t o a c h i e v e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , moral, o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . " Pragmatism i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept, which L i u borrows from E n g l i s h t o d e f i n e a l i t e r a r y theory i n China. The l i t e r a r y t h e o r y , P r a g m a t i s m o r more p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d a s P o l i t i c a l C r i t i c i s m , s t r e s s e s t h e p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , and a d v o c a t e s l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t l y i n t e r f e r i n g i n p o l i t i c s and society. P r a g m a t i s m i s b a s e d on C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y and has t h e s t r o n g e s t and l o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e upon C h i n e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s and l i t e r a r y theories. 6  Chen Huan, op. c i t . , v o l . 1, p. 1. T r a n s . L i u , op. c i t . , p. 112. i 7 B a i Bu Cong Kan ^ B ^ f l j ) ( a b b r e v i a t e d BBCK), Cao P i , D i a n Lun, 1-la. T r a n s . L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 113.  9  1  dynasty, in  his  should  Bai  "Yu be  J~f|f-|j  Juyi  (772--846 A. D. ) d e v e l o p e d  Yuan J i u Shu" - ^ T f . j ^ w r i t t e n f o r the  this  viewpoint  ( L e t t e r t o Yuan J i u ) : " P r o s e  times,  and  poetry  for  current  8 affairs."  During  the  Song d y n a s t y ,  when N e o - C o n f u c i a n  p h i l o s o p h y a r o s e and came t o d o m i n a t e t h e f i e l d o f i d e o l o g y , t h e p h i l o s o p h e r Zhou D u n y i (1017-73) s t r e s s e d t h e p o l i t i c a l and  J|||jg|;  moral  f u n c t i o n of  "Literature Thus,  we  i s t h a t by  can  repetition  of  worth n o t i n g  see  and  w h i c h one  a traditional  nature,  indeed  a great  the  r a i s e d the  Way.  "(  of poetry  without  says,  and  "Poetry  impact  on  f l o u r i s h e d during  Huang's d e f i n i t i o n  theoretically  t h a t he  of  i s an  Also,  the  i t is of  Pragmatist intellectual  i s to t e l l  i s more E x p r e s s i o n i s t t h a n  Yet,  a  expression  Huang's l i f e .  p a y s more a t t e n t i o n t o s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n t h a n  political  i s simply  most C h i n e s e  poetry  call:  j^j^Hjftl ^  innovation.  instead of holding  importance of  he  extreme,  carries  view,  t h a t Huang c l e a r l y  w h i c h a l s o had  ideology  to the  t h a t Huang's d e f i n i t i o n  human e m o t i o n and view,  literature  The us  Pragmatist,  social  reality  and or  criticism. Huang's p l a y i n g down o f  Pragmatism  can  be  explained  8 Wan You Wen Ku H^X^\ ( a b b r e v i a t e d WYWK), B a i J u y i , Bai Xlanqshan J i » ed. , Wang Yunwu j^T^jjjij t T a i p e i : T a i w a n Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1965, vol.2, p.27. 9 Cong Shu J i Cheng, ( a b b r e v i a t e d C S J C ) , Zhou D u n y i , Zhou L i a n X i J i , S h a n g h a i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan 1936, v o l . 6 , p.117. T r a n s . L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 114. H/JTUltt;  H^jl$  10  SBCK, YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  j&&H4ffff  p.296. 10  by  his brief  phrase, or him  "he  r e f e r e n c e to the p o l i t i c a l releases  laughs.  By  this  are thereby,  Huang h e r e  them by he  producing  function a tune  deliberately  uses  and  of poetry.  (to urge  and  "feng or  The  groans hear  exhorted."(see  p.2)  phrase  of the  use o f t h e v e r b compound  "you  suo"  political "quan  mian"  e x h o r t ) , i n s t e a d o f more e m p h a t i c v e r b s s u c h as 1 | . y u a n " ^ ^ j ( t o s a t i r i z e and c o m p l a i n ) , " j i a o " | ^ i ( t o e d u c a t e )  "zheng"j£! ( t o c o r r e c t ) which a r e o f t e n  Pragmatism,  i s an  contemporary, political  indirect  Zhou D u n y i .  function  used  by t h e f o l l o w e r s  n e g a t i o n of the views Although  o f p o e t r y might  lead  us t o b e l i e v e  t o some e x t e n t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e n e c e s s i t y  because  of the strong influence of Confucianism  attitude  t o w a r d s Pragmatism might  analysis  of  of h i s  Huang's r e f e r e n c e t o  indeed  Liu's  either  those that  the r e s t r i c t i v e  ( t o some e x t e n t ) t o e x p r e s s t h e l i m i t a t i o n function  that  r e l e a s e s h i s h e a r t , and  t o some e x t e n t , u r g e d  of poetry i n the  of  the  that  he  Pragmatism  upon him,  his  be more p r o p e r l y e x p l a i n e d by  o f the development o f C o n f u c i a n  Pragmatism:  From t h e t i m e C o n f u c i a n i s m was e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e o r t h o d o x i d e o l o g y o f C h i n a i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y B. C. down t o t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, the pragmatic concept of l i t e r a t u r e r e m a i n e d p r a c t i c a l l y s a c r o s a n c t , so t h a t c r i t i c s who b a s i c a l l y b e l i e v e d i n o t h e r c o n c e p t s r a r e l y d a r e d t o r e p u d i a t e i t o p e n l y , but p a i d l i p s e r v i c e t o i t w h i l e a c t u a l l y f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on o t h e r c o n c e p t s , o r i n t e r p r e t e d C o n f u c i u s ' s words i n s u c h a way as t o l e n d s u p p o r t t o nonpragmatic t h e o r i e s , or s i m p l y kept s i l e n t about t h e pragmatic concept w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g o t h e r s . ^  11  Liu,  op.cit.,  p. 111. 11  Huang's a t t i t u d e brought C h e  H$l  towards the p o l i t i c a l  strong c r i t i c i s m ( 1 2  A  - - ' D  )  (1174--1243). People's  Huang i s e s p e c i a l l y  R e p u b l i c o f China  Maoist  poetry],  some l a t e r  terms that escapes  critics,  such  a s Huang  Zhang J i e ^ H ( 1 2 A.D. ), and Wang Ruoxu  who i n a 1964 a r t i c l e in  from  function o f poetry  (PRC) l i k e  levels  by s c h o l a r s o f t h e  L i u D a j i e ^ ^ . ^ (1904--1977)  a most s e r i o u s c h a r g e  he "pays l e s s  reality,  criticized  attention  avoids p o l i t i c s ,  a g a i n s t Huang  t o t h e content Cof  and i g n o r e s t h e s o c i a l  12 function Dajie  of literature."  Of c o u r s e ,  he d o e s n o t m i s r e p r e s e n t  content reject  Huang's a t t i t u d e  and f u n c t i o n o f poetry, Huang's a t t i t u d e from  Since  i na l l fairness t o L i u towards t h e  and i t i s l o g i c a l  that  he would  h i s Maoist p e r s p e c t i v e .  1949 Huang h a s been r e g a r d e d  as a "xingshi zhuyi'  13 (formalist) technique  i n China  chiefly  b e c a u s e o f h i s e m p h a s i s on p o e t i c  and h i s u n d e r v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  function of  12 L i u Dajie, "Huang T i n g j i a n De S h i L u n " ffj§S||ifi£ Poetic Theory o f Huang T i n g j i a n ) , Wen Xue P i n g Lun ( L i t e r a r y R e v i e w ) . Feb. 1, 1964, p. 65.  (the  V:£$$ ATJT&  ;  13 T h e v i e w p o i n t c a n be f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g widely-used college textbooks: 4* ta Zhong Guo Wen Xue S h i f S A - f A . (Chinese H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e ^ e d . Zhong Guo She Ke Yuan Wen Xue Yan J i u Suo tJTJ|j ^L$TKX"TWTTXMI l i t e r a t u r e Research I n s t i t u t e o f Chinese S o c i a l S c i e n c e Academy), B e i j i n g : Ren Min Wen Xue Chu Ban She j(-^|f}$||ijj 1962, p. 602. v y - M t a * T±f' S-^-fr' _ tYou Guoeng |fj||& , , Wang Q i I i . , X i a o D i f e i MWIh , J i Z h e n h u a i ^ %\% , a n d F e i Zhengang , Zhong Guo Wen Xue S h i ^BJt?.^ ( C h i n e s e H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e ) , v o l . 3 , B e i j i n g : Ren Mm Wen" Xue Chu Ban She, 1982 p. 61, p. 63. . . ' Guo S h a o y u ^ g J , Zhong Guo Wen Xue P i P i n g S h ift@ X 4-!FliLrf T (Chinese H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c ) , Shanghai: S h a n g h a i Gu J i (  T  h  e  J^|j£  !  M  Chu  Ban She  J^$|j£|§|]j  | ^  '  1  9  7  ' pp. 210-211. 12 9  poetry.  Yet, s i n c e  circles  i n t h e l a t e 1970's,  Some s c h o l a r s that Lun  the l i b e r a l i z a t i o n  another point  T h e o r i e s o f Su S h i and Huang  Hfffff j  Yukai 1 5  Xue P i n g Lun  Tingjian),  T i n g j i a n Shi. Ge L i  which  journal  was of  manage s o c i e t y , / J u s t  decorating  web.  literary 1 4  Zhou  most f r e q u e n t l y  t o p r o v e h i s P r a g m a t i s m : "The f u n c t i o n  works d o e s n o t h e l p  function  asserting  (Literary Review),  q u o t e s some l i n e s o f Huang's  a spider  by  C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y on  ( A  i n 1983 i n C h i n a ' s most p r e v a l e n t  criticism--Wen  poems  I n "Su S h i Huang  #8f l i l t t S $ 2 M  Zhi Bi Jiao"  published  o f view has d e v e l o p e d .  have a t t e m p t e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e Huang  he a c c e p t s Pragmatism.  Poetic  o f C h i n a ' s academic  like  and "[My] l i t e r a r y  o f [my]  cited  literary  b e a d s o f dew works do n o t  t o manage s o c i e t y , / and have t h e s t y l e o f m i s t i n 17  southern h i l l s . " can  The f i r s t  example i s most o f t e n  misused as  be s e e n i f we l o o k a t t h e whole poem:  14 Zhou Y u k a i , "Su S h i Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Ge J i a o " , Wen Xue P i n g Lun, 4 Sep., 1983, p. 89.  L i Lun  Zhi Bi  15 C o n t e m p o r a r y s c h o l a r s Zhang B i n g q u a n J l ^ f t .and Mo L i f e n g |JJ!J||jalso q u o t e t h e same l i n e s a s e x a m p l e s t o p r o v e Huang's P r a g m a t i s m i n t h e i r books. „ i S e e Zhang B i n g q u a n , Huang Shanqu De J i a o You J i Zuo P i n $ ( l l j ^ l t "XwMfrlfJ ' H u a n g Tingjian's Friendshio and Works), Hong Kong: Zhong Wen Da Xue Chu Ban S h e l j l ^ ; ^ ^ ^ ^ , 1978. p. 117. Mo L i f e n g , J i a n g x i S h i P a i Van J i u M^fltflTt <A S t u d y o f t h e J i a n g x i S c h o o l ) , J i n a n : Q i Lu Shu She 'i 1986, p. 198. A  (  4  16 Guo Xue J i Ben Cong Shufi-ft&^M"$i (abbreviated GXJBCS), Huang T i n g j i a n , Shan Gu S h i Zhu \ ( a b b r e v i a t e d SGSZ), ed. Wang Yunwu TiC J ' » N e i j i t f j l | : , vol.6,' T a i p e i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1968, p. 103. ^ 17  SGSZ, W a i j i  H v o l . 12, p. 272.  To  Kong Y i f u  For  Fun  Guan C h e n g z i [a b r u s h ] i s n o t l u c k y enough t o e a t meat, Kong F a n g x i o n g Ccopper-money] s e n t me a l e t t e r b r e a k i n g o f f our f r i e n d s h i p . The f u n c t i o n o f Cmy] l i t e r a r y works d o e s n o t h e l p manage s o c i e t y , J u s t l i k e beads o f dew d e c o r a t i n g a s p i d e r web. O f f i c i a l s l i k e e d i t o r s or w r i t e r s are f r e q u e n t l y c o n f e r r e d and promoted, O n l y i f you know how t o s t e p o n t o a c a r t and g r e e t people! S u d d e n l y , I r e c a l l o u r h a v i n g s i m p l e f o o d s e a t e d on a monk's bed, E v e n i n my dream. I r e t u r n t o E a s t Lake w i t h t h e autumn swan-geese.  This his  i s a poem i n which Huang d e s c r i b e s h i s l i f e friend  i n a j o c u l a r tone.  intellectual get  rich.  only he  like  could  writer get to  who  i s not  H i s own  entitled  decorating  t o be  and  greet  people.  i s obvious that the  Huang's s e l f - m o c k e r y official. literary  In the views,  live  first,  second c o u p l e t  but  only  by  he  s u c h as  f o r h i s own the  simple  second,  of h i s destiny,  The  r e q u i r e s one  and  f o l l o w i n g the  an  SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 12, p. 272. The d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three,  and are  reason  why  editor  and  d e s i r e s , he  to hopes  life. third  couplets  career  as  are an  seriously state  subject  i n the  ( s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n ) further characterizes himself  14  an  t o know how  w r i t i n g , and does n o t  to  official,  a s p i d e r web".  As  as  manage s o c i e t y and  a minor o f f i c i a l  r e t u r n t o h i s home town and It  18 are  help  i s t h a t such a p o s i t i o n o n l y  in a cart  couplet  not  desires  himself  enough t o become an  w r i t i n g s do  "beads o f dew be  lucky  Huang r i d i c u l e s  and  allusions in pp.129-131.  his  first as  this  a  poem  poet  who  w r i t e s without  Therefore,  attempting  t h e meaning o f t h e  Huang's summation o f h i s own a s Huang's l i t e r a r y them o u t  of  lines  should  poetic content  as Zhou Y u k a i  be  and  and  society.  understood  function,  others  as  but  not  misrepresent  context.  Zhou Y u k a i ' s of  views,  two  t o manage s t a t e o r  second  example i s e x t r a c t e d f r o m  Huang's " J i Chao Yuanzhong S h i Shou"  Ten  which  |ji^^jjP-t|| .  t h e t e n t h poem reads:  i  Poems t o Chao Yuanzhong  O v e r l o o k i n g t h e r i v e r , CI] am a f f e c t e d w i t h e m o t i o n , S p i r i t u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by i n n e r awakening. [My] l i t e r a r y works do n o t f u n c t i o n t o manage s o c i e t y , and have t h e s t y l e o f m i s t i n s o u t h e r n h i l l s . Metamorphosing i n s e c t s s i g h f o r seasons, They have t h e i r own r e a s o n s f o r b e i n g happy and b e i n g sad. I have no h e s i t a t i o n , The c u c k o o p e r s u a d e s me t o r e t i r e . This the  i s a poem e x p r e s s i n g t h e p o e t ' s s u b j e c t i n the f i r s t  reasonable Chinese  t o say  line  i s not  outlook  on  life.  Although  clearly  identified,  i t is  t h a t i t i s the f i r s t  i s c u s t o m a r i l y omitted.  person  " I " , which i n  This i s further  proven  by  the  I  use  of the  phrase  " l i n chuan"  '(overlooking the r i v e r )  which  i  introduces  the w r i t e r ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n  sighing  over  his life.  From b o t h  surmise  t h a t Huang i s t e l l i n g  of h i s past or the w r i t e r  the context  his friend  about  and  title  we  can  himself in t h i s  g r o u p o f poems. Therefore,  i n the f i r s t  c o u p l e t Huang i s d i s p l a y i n g  15  his  own  awareness of Taoist  the  "spiritual  above w o r l d l y The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of l i f e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n " between man  considerations  second couplet  i s the  another viewpoint, classical  poem.  and He  s e c o n d one  manage s o c i e t y " and  of the the  summation) i n t h e  thinks  that  clearly  and  nature.  i s w i t h o u t doubt h i s main  i n t r o d u c t i o n , e l u c i d a t i o n of  :  through a d e s c r i p t i o n of  < j|( >/j^ >  transition  composition  his writings  "do  be  point.  four steps  subject,  To  not  of a  Chinese  function  compares h i s p o e t i c s t y l e  to  to  to  Tao  I  p||jjifjj 372?--427) by  Yuanming's  (  using  the  metaphor o f  "mist  of  iq  southern h i l l s " . second c o u p l e t third the  couplet  use  friend  of  So,  corresponding  further explains s h i f t s to the  a metaphorical  with  to the  first  h i s T a o i s t outlook  different  on  t o be  to present  a hermit  the  life.  i n t e r e s t s of people  i n s e c t , which h e l p s  h i s firm determination  couplet,  i n the  The  through his last  couplet. T h e r e i s no by  borrowing  indicates does not  doubt t h a t  prevalent  that think  Huang i s e v a l u a t i n g  h i s own  pragmatic standards i n the  h i s w r i t i n g s do that t h i s  not  two  writings poems.  f i t pragmatic standards,  deviation i s a serious  He but  matter.  19 "South hills", where Tao Yuanming lived in seclusion, a p p e a r e d i n T a o ' s most remembered p o e t i c s e n t e n c e : " P i c k i n g up c h r y s a n t h e m u m s under e a s t e r n f e n c e , / L e i s u r e l y , c a t c h i n g a s i g h t o f S o u t h e r n h i l l s " |y||;$|~f, • become a c o d e i n C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e t o i m p l y ah i d e a l e r e m i t i c p l a c e . In our t r a n s l a t i o n above, we slightly revise Hightower's " P i c k i n g chrysanthemums by t h e e a s t e r n hedge/ I c a t c h s i g h t o f the d i s t a n t southern h i l l s : " See James R o b e r t H i g h t o w e r , The P o e t r y o f T'ao C h ' i e n . O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1970, p.130.  j§||j|ff ^l)-  16  x t  n  a  s  Conversely, positive ously.  i t seems t o make us f e e l  towards  h i s own  With t h i s  explained  poems.  b e t w e e n e a c h example understand  evaluation  state of reclusion,  e n d i n g s o f t h e two  poems can be  of h i s writing  which  correctly  i s consistent  i s stressed  Otherwise, there i s a  humour-  i n the  contradiction  and t h e e n d i n g s o f t h e poems i f we  e a c h example  improbable that  his attitude i s  even when he i s w r i t i n g  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e two  b e c a u s e h i s own  with h i s i d e a l  is  writing  that  as s t a t i n g  he would  his literary  actively  views, because i t  advocate i n f l u e n c i n g  society  t h r o u g h p o e t r y w h i l e w i s h i n g t o become a r e c l u s e i n t h e same poem. T h e r e i s a n o t h e r example  a l s o q u o t e d by Zhou and  critics  t o show Huang's p r a g m a t i s m  "Ci  Yang M i n g s h u  Yun  "Writing  S i Shou"  i n the b r i e f  $g$$§$Ji{|Bi"f•  i s a v e h i c l e o f t h e Way  >  w  h  e  other  preface to h i s r  e  h  e  states,  as words a r e t h e o r n a m e n t s  of  20 deeds."  The  idea  i n t h i s s e n t e n c e seems t o be j u s t  a  \ repetition  o f Zhou D u n y i ' s view.  Huang a s a t y p i c a l of context.  The  So,  i t i s very easy to mistake  P r a g m a t i s t when r e f e r r i n g  entire  to t h i s sentence out  preface reads:  Rhyming w i t h Yang  Mingshu  Yang Mingshu, p l e a s e f a v o u r me w i t h y o u r poems i n which o l d c o n v e n t i o n i s washed away f r o m m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n and t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e words. I am s o happy a b o u t y o u r a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t I c a n n o t go t o s l e e p . [Yet], writing i s a v e h i c l e of t h e Way as words a r e t h e o r n a m e n t s o f deeds. [Therefore, I h e r e b y ] r e p a y you by r h y m i n g w i t h you i n my f o u r poems i n 20  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.12,  p. 221. 17  o r d e r t o plow d e e p l y t h e f i e l d o f l i y i H J j ^ Y o u r words and deeds a r e i n t h e r i g h t way. you a r e c a p a b l e and c o m f o r t common p e o p l e . h o p e s on you.  After may  say  (propriety). As an o f f i c i a l I place high  r e a d i n g t h e f o u r s t a n z a s w h i c h Huang w r o t e t o Yang,  that  the content  i s a discussion  o f t h e Way,  and  we  this  21 includes this  Buddhism and  poem has  (discussing interest in  Taoism  certainly  i n Huang's mind.  been i n f l u e n c e d  Buddhism and  i n e x p l o r i n g Buddhism and  Taoism  t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e poem, Huang b e g i n s poetic  techniques  suddenly  shifts  t o i n t r o d u c e t h e Way  t h e poem.  the  How  p r e f a c e and  technique  (which  interest  writing  s a y i n g s o r r e m a r k s as t r a n s i t i o n s . intellectual a technique The that  as Huang,  shows h i s  poetry.  Yet,  applauding h i s him  most).  He  then  between t h e b e g i n n i n g ( t h e Way)?  i s t o use  For such  i t would n o t be  an  unusual  of  A common  well-known erudite  i f he  adopted  such  i n o r d e r t o show h i s e r u d i t i o n .  p r e f a c e may  more c l e a r l y  natural  and  w h i c h he g o e s on t o d i s c u s s  t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e poem classical  of  chan"  through by  does he b r i d g e t h e gap  i n Chinese  "tan  Taoism) i n Song p o e t r y ,  friend's  in  by  His creation  division  logically  be d i v i d e d  show t h e p o e t ' s t r a i n after  the f i r s t  two  into  two  of thought.  sentences,  paragraphs There  is a  where Huang  21 A l t h o u g h t h e Way seems l a r g e l y C o n f u c i a n i n t h i s p r e f a c e , in fact, Huang b a s i c a l l y d i s c u s s e s Buddhism and Taoism in his four stanzas. T h i s p o e t i c s t y l e w h i c h was p o p u l a r i n Huang's time i s "shuo l i s h i " j^Hifi » which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s c u s s i o n s m a i n l y o f Buddhism and T a o i s m i n poetry, but also i n c l u d e s some d i s c u s s i o n o f C o n f u c i a n i s m . 18  suddenly his  own  shifts  referring  the  of  use  transition the  two  the  transition an  parts  popular phrase p e r f e c t l y bridges  the  form,  the  embellishment  the  Huang s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s e s  text. the  second  first  part  the  phrase f u n c t i o n s preface,  relation  use  he  liyi".  of  wants  to  p r i m a r i l y as  and  I t i s hard to  of  to  makes a c l e a r  The  shows why  of  part  referring  field  what f o l l o w s .  s t r u c t u r e of the  of the  the  |j( ( t h e r e f o r e )  r o l e and  the  as  with  "plowing  "gu"  p h r a s e and  Therefore,  within  and  poem, o r  a transitional  Way.  preface,  Way  presentation the  conjunction  between t h e  the  words a r e  of the  Huang's own  phrase plays  discuss  This  of the  o f Yang's poem t o  i s a v e h i c l e of the  t o Yang's p o e t i c  content  Also,  as  deeds".  between t h e  the  praise  poem: " W r i t i n g  ornaments of gap  from  a  secondarily  believe  between p o e t i c  that form  here and  content. Luo in  Genze  other  terms.  , (1900--1960 ) a n a l y z e s t h i s He  wrote,  use  "As  Huang d o e s n o t  and  i s opposed t o p o e t r y  of  the  phrase  create  22 'argumentative w r i t i n g s 23 "slander just  or  insult  t o k e e p up  Obviously,  Luo  , he  says  a p p e a r a n c e s by does not  think  22  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  p. 208.  23  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  p. 296.  "Writing  would  i s a v e h i c l e of the  b o r r o w i n g an Huang has  that  old  idea."^  made a s e r i o u s  Way'  4  literary  24 Luo Genze, Zhonq Guo Wen Xue P i P i n g S h i A^r* A ^ f f A* ( C h i n e s e H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c ) , v o l . 3 , S h a n g h a i : Gu Dian Wen Xue Chu Ban She *!&*T , 1961. p. 135. 19  statement from his  either.  a close by  The  analysis  difference of the t e x t  detecting a conflict  phrase  and  preface  an  and  overall  and  conclude  that  Zhu  Xi's./jv^ , i . e . ,  our  c o n c l u s i o n comes  o f the p r e f a c e , but  between Huang's use  poetic  the content  i s that  view.  Yet,  of a  "The  Way  obtains  popular  Zhou i g n o r e s t h e  o f t h e poem t o i n t e r p r e t  Huang e x p r e s s e s  Luo  one  entire  sentence,  t h e same i d e a i n t h e p h r a s e  i s the essence  of prose;  as  prose i s  25 the embellishment obscures concept in  the d i s t i n c t i o n of  " t h e Way"  Buddhist In  o f t h e Way."  T h e r e f o r e , Zhou's  between C o n f u c i a n P r a g m a t i s m and  i n Huang's t e x t ,  or T a o i s t  function  the d i s c u s s i o n exhorted".  w h i c h s h o u l d be  the  understood  terms.  s h o r t , Huang h a r d l y e x p r e s s e s  political  understanding  any  interest  i n the  o f p o e t r y beyond t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l e x c e p t  o f how  " t o some e x t e n t " s o c i e t y  Conversely,  i s "urged  for  and  he o f t e n d i s p l a y s t h e o p p o s i t e view.  For  example, " W r i t i n g i s t h e most t r i f l i n g a c t i v i t y i n C o n f u c i a n 26 ism, " and "Put away t h e game o f w r i t i n g , / a n d engage i n t h e 27 enterprise expresses Therefore,  of saving the n a t i o n . " h i s low  In t h e s e r e m a r k s ,  e s t i m a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l  although  function  Huang m i g h t a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t  he  clearly  of poetry.  p o e t r y has  "to  25 Zhou Y u k a i , o p . c i t . , p.89. F o r t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e o f Zhu Xi's remark, s e e GXJBCS, Zhu X i , Z h u z i Yu L e i it2&% , vol.8, p. 279. *TW*: 26  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  27  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  p. 204.  vol.17,  p. 396. 20  some e x t e n t "  a political  oppose Pragmatism; function  of  Huang's p o e t i c  "By t h i s  releases extent,  urged  of poetry.  and t h o s e t h a t  quoted Huang  a tune),  h e a r him a r e t h e r e b y ,  Here i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g  he  t o some  that the  and t h e r e a d e r a r e r e l a t e d i n an i n t e n t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e According point  s o on, t h a t  important  one.  see  that  the  impact The  above  t o the conventions o f Chinese n a r r a t i v e , the i s presented  i s i f the l a s t  first,  point  t h e impact  level  displayed  of  style,  After  o f poetry.  Thus,  than  style.  i n Huang's comment This  i s considered  a s Huang's p o s i t i o n on p o e t i c c o n t e n t ,  function  meaning i n t h i s  rather  i s underscored.  ( s e e p.2) i s h i s view o f p o e t i c  poetic  o f t h i s q u o t e we c a n  upon t h e poet,  upon t h e r e a d e r ,  meaning o f t h e s e c o n d  by a m i n o r one  i s n o t s p e c i f i e d a s t h e most  o f w r i t i n g poetry  o f poetry  many s c h o l a r s  followed  So, f r o m t h e e m p h a t i c o r d e r  political  the  i n Huang's comment  e m o t i o n s by p r o d u c i n g  and e x h o r t e d . "  most i m p o r t a n t  by  interesting point  (to release  h i s heart,  sequence.  and  views negate the p o l i t i c a l  ( s e e p.2) w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e f u n c t i o n  wrote:  poet  and he d o e s n o t p u b l i c l y  poetry.  There i s another above  function,  before  i t i s necessary t o c l a r i f y  or the  we examine h i s v i e w Huang's  original  comment.  Huang d e f i n e d  s t y l e o f ] an i n t e n s e  poetry,  he w r o t e :  debate w i t h i n  " I t should  the Imperial  not [have court,  of  a b u s i v e c o m p l a i n t s shouted i n t h e s t r e e t , o r o f angry c u r s i n g o f one's neighbours o r guests."  L i u Dajie  explains  Huang's words  with, and  "He t h i n k s t h a t p o e t r y  nature,  discuss "As with  and c a n n o t  f o r Csome p e o p l e such  battle  be employed  and wrong. ,28  right  poetry,  their  expresses  And  to c r i t i c i z e  p o l i t i c s and  when L i u e x p l a i n e d t h e q u o t e ,  who] f u r t h e r  [so that they]  axe, o r remove t h e i r  release  i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f human e m o t i o n  t r y t o s l a n d e r o r make stick  their  insults  necks o u t under t h e  armour b e f o r e a r r o w s i n o r d e r t o  a n g e r o f t h e moment...", he wrote,  slandering or usurping p o l i t i c s ,  " I f poetry  [ t h e poet]  will  suffer  29 disaster that  u n d e r t h e a x e and b e f o r e a r r o w s . . . "  L i u D a j i e understands  I t i s obvious  Huang's words a s comments on p o e t i c  content. Zhou Y u k a i poetic  theory.  quoted  Huang's words i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s  He t h i n k s t h a t Huang's meaning i s r e l a t e d  way i n w h i c h p o e t r y  i n t e r f e r e s with r e a l i t y . "  Although  t o "The he  correctly  p o i n t s o u t t h a t Huang's v i e w a g a i n s t " s l a n d e r i n g o r  insulting  with  taste,  p o e t r y " i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Huang's  he b e l i e v e s e v e n more t h a t Huang's o r i g i n a l  counteract So,  such  strong c r i t i c i s m  i n fact,  commenting  of current a f f a i r s  Huang's words a r e u n d e r s t o o d  on t h e l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l  28  L i u Dajie, op.cit.,  29  Ibid.  30  Zhou Y u k a i ,  31  Ibid.  op.cit  p. 65.  p. 90.  22  aesthetic  meaning i s " t o 31  within  poetry."  by Zhou a s m a i n l y  f u n c t i o n of poetry.  Yet, and  what Huang c h i e f l y  Zhou i s p o e t i c s t y l e .  poet  should express  d i s c u s s e s i n t h e words q u o t e d I n o t h e r words,  h i s thoughts  Huang d i s c u s s e s how a  and e m o t i o n s i n h i s p o e t r y , n o t  what s h o u l d be e x p r e s s e d  i n p o e t r y o r how p o e t r y  readers,  a l r e a d y been t o u c h e d  w h i c h have b o t h  definition thus,  of poetry  and i n h i s comment  t o some e x t e n t ,  text  urged  We know f r o m  the f i r s t  clarify  sentence  t h i n k s human e m o t i o n s and n a t u r e content.  In t h e second  displayed  i n debating,  political  criticism  expressed. ideal  poet  a s one who  quoted  Huang's d e s c r i p t i o n  be l o y a l ,  honest,  style  and c u l t u r e  implies a relation  between  I n Huang's o p i n i o n , o n l y a p o e t  can w r i t e poetry  way, Huang more c l e a r l y  i n an e l e g a n t s t y l e .  with Then,  in a  states h i s preferred poetic  by u s i n g human manners a s m e t a p h o r s - - " t o r e l e a s e them  [human e m o t i o n and n a t u r e ] or  but a l s o  of h i s  s i n c e r e , and  s h o u l d have,  positive  as p o e t i c  s h o u l d n o t be  which a poet  moral q u a l i t i e s  meaning.  o r c u r s i n g as metaphors f o r a  not only d e l i n e a t e s t h e moral q u a l i t i e s  and p o e t i c s t y l e .  look at the  a b o v e t h a t Huang  respectful,"  poet  him a r e  Huang a p p l i e s human manners  sentence,  "should  A closer  Huang's o r i g i n a l  i n which p o e t i c c o n t e n t  In t h e next  t h a t hear  s h o u l d be e x p r e s s e d  sentence, shouting,  functionsf o r  upon i n Huang's  "those  and e x h o r t e d " .  m i g h t h e l p us t o f u r t h e r  by L i u  laughs."  through shouting  by p r o d u c i n g  a tune  that either  So f a r , Huang's v i e w o f p o e t i c s t y l e  a sharp  c o n t r a s t between n e g a t i v e words  and c u r s i n g , " ) and p o s i t i v e  23  words  groans  i s displayed ("debating,  ("a t u n e  that  either  groans or  laughs.")  becomes p o e t i c phrase is  content  and  " q i f a wei"  to explain  e x t r e m e way  that  can  From t h e style  In t h e  i s the  favours a very  an  be  to  repeated  (As  even p o l i t i c a l a poetic  criticism  h i s low  i t may  be  the  topic  transitive  Huang's p u r p o s e  expressed  concluded  i n the  in  of  comments.  This  view o f  an  and  example,  poetic  Also,  Huang  poetic  of poetry,  Pragmatism, For  that  comment.  o f Huang's t h e o r y  estimation  i n h i s other  the  disaster.  s t y l e of poetry.  aspect  follows  f o r . .. f u r t h e r . . . ) .  major t o p i c d i s c u s s e d  elegant  that  p o e t i c s t y l e through  a n a l y s i s above,  important  relates  discussion  style i s  which  i s consistently  i n "Ba  Gao  Zimian  i Shi"  ItitT^jf  elegant  j *^  style,  n s c r  "You  ^-king  Gao  enrich  Z i m i a n ' s Poems),  he  praises  y o u r poems w i t h y o u r e r u d i t i o n ,  Gao' s and  32 create  them i n a g e n t l e  replying  t o Hong J u f u  criticism,  and  and  r e s p e c t f u l manner. "  ^^J^L  he  suggests that i  criticizes  Hong s h o u l d  Su  not  In  Shi's follow  a  letter  political i t  saying,  "Dongpo's I literal b u t h i s weakness i s t h a t  works a r e t h e most s u b t l e i n t h e w o r l d , he t e n d s t o c u r s e t h e w o r l d . You must  be  his  33 c a r e f u l not  to follow  Perhaps the  example."  r e a s o n Huang d i s l i k e s  political  criticism  of  34 poetry  i s that  i t conflicts  with the  32  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  p.298.  33  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  p.203.  34 Huang's i m p l i c i t Chapter Three.  poetic  oblique  style  he  favours.  s t y l e i s examined i n more d e t a i l 24  in  In  his letter  of  social  oblique and  t o Chao Yuanzhong ^ J ^ ^ > p r a i s i n g  problems,  poetic  Huang c l e a r l y  style,  significant  "I r e c e i v e d  Chao's  avoidance  expresses h i s fondness your  i n an o b l i q u e way,  o f an  poems which a r e p r o f o u n d  and do n o t t o u c h t h e 35  sensitive Guanfu  s u b j e c t s o f the times..."  j£]jj|Jj  Also i n h i s l e t t e r  » he r e p e a t s t h e same i d e a ,  t o Wang  " A l l t h e new poems you 36  sent  me a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  reflection is  and p r o f o u n d  o f Huang's o b l i q u e p o e t i c  accurately  p o i n t e d o u t by K o j i r o  have g i v e n f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e i r introverted  Tu F u - - b u t  T'ing-chien  deliberately  A third  level  Huang's c o n c e r n t h e beauty with  he  wrote,  profound  i n h i s poetic  Yoshikawa,  "Earlier  practice poets  passion--even the  avoided."  o f meaning i n t h e comment  of poetry that  f a n s waving. "  style  The  t h i s t y p e o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n Huang 37  with p o e t i c tunes  m u s i c a l laws  i n an o b l i q u e way."  above  and rhythm.  (p.2)  He s a y s ,  t h e s e t u n e s c a n t h e n be sung  and c a n be danced  In a r e l a t e d  comment  t o with s h i e l d s found  is "It i s  i n harmony  and f e a t h e r  in a letter  to a friend  " A l l t h e new poems you s e n t me a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and i n an o b l i q u e way, b u t t h e l a n g u a g e  35  Ibid.,  p.196.  36  Ibid.,  p.201.  37 K o j i r o Y o s h i k a w a , An Burton Watson, Cambridge, P r e s s , 1969, p. 126.  i s rigid  and d o e s  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Sung P o e t r y , trans. Massachusetts: Harvard University  25  not  laws. „38  f i t musical  BBSUB^ttHf.  Shou "  "Behaviour and  should  In  (Rhyming w i t h Z i m i a n  be a l t e r e d  moon,/ P o e t r y  should  and song. • 39  be  and r h y t h m i c a l ,  form  should  Chinese  caesuras,  poetry,  and m e t r i c  Again),  t o compete w i t h  Thus,  be r e a l i z e d .  classical  Yun Zeng Z i m i a n S i  and t h i s According t h e tone  these  o f words,  on i n h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e .  poetry,  of Chinese  II.  Although  which  Huang  elements t o  he c o n s i d e r s p o e t i c f o r m f r o m an  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u s i c and rhythm i n  out a remarkable experiment  p o e t i c form  line  e l e m e n t s became o b j e c t s  d i s c u s s how t o u s e t h e s e  realizes  and c a r r i e s  rhyme,  c o m p r i s e t h e main e l e m e n t s o f  Huang c o n c e n t r a t e d  p r o d u c e p o e t i c m u s i c and rhythm,  should  to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Therefore,  angle,  o f t h e sun  i s how t h e b e a u t y o f p o e t i c  m u s i c and rhythm.  aesthetic  the l i g h t  i n Huang's o p i n i o n p o e t r y  pattern should  does not t h e o r e t i c a l l y  he wrote,  be sung and matched t o a s t r i n g e d  instrument musical  " Z a i Yang Q i a n  which we s h a l l  i n the innovation  d i s c u s s i n Chapter  Three.  Huang's T h e o r y o f P o e t i c T e c h n i q u e Huang i s remembered m a i n l y  technique  f o r h i s theory  which i n f l u e n c e d g e n e r a t i o n s  him  and b r o u g h t  his  book o f p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m ,  38  YZHXSWJ,  39  SGSZ,  about t h e f o r m a t i o n  vol.19,  Neiji,  Yan Yu  p. 201.  vol.16,  p. 296. 26  of poetic  o f poets  who came a f t e r  o f the J i a n g x i School. (13 A.D. ), a Song  In  dynasty  literary  Jiangxi  School,  critic,  " A f t e r Dongpo  poems b a s e d  on  Dynasty  changed.  Later [his  was  on,  comments on  h i s own  ideas He  CSu so  Huang's i n f l u e n c e  S h i ] , Shangu  that  the  concentrated  h i s method became p r e v a l e n t  followers]  were known as  the  i n the  the  [Huang] wrote  style  heavily  on  of on  the  Tang  poetic  skills.  whole c o u n t r y  J i a n g x i School. " ^  and  Also,  4(  Liu  K e z h u a n g ^jj^jj^ 1187--1269) a n o t h e r well-known Song D y n a s t y and  poet,  poetic  wrote of  patterns  of  Huang, the  thorough e x p l o r a t i o n ages.  He  established  regulated  verse  unheard-of. half  by  He  of  the  a l l the  he  advantages of  of poetry,  changes i n p o e t i c  h i s own  hunting  and  absorbed  hundred of s c h o o l s  does not  a sentence,  "He  style  for  was  poetry,  f a t h e r of the  and  the  made a  form through  [queer] w r i t i n g s  the  and  in creating ancient  [rashly] write  critic  the  verse  and  something  e v e n a word  current  or  dynasty's  41 school  of  neither but  poetry."  by  his poetic  his poetic  from t h e i r  theory  poetic  practice  i s not  Poetic  both c r i t i c s  content  technique.  generated of  Here,  nor  by  characterize  his general  Although t h e i r  analyses  of  view o f  conclusions  Huang's p o e t i c  Huang poetry,  are  practice,  t e c h n i q u e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Huang's  the  poetic  neglected.  technique  was  extensively  40 Ban  Yan Yu, Canq Lang S h i S h i Ye You X i a n Gong S i  41  SBCK, L i u Kezhuang, v o l . 9 5 , p. 823.  Hou  Hua  discussed  mm  27  Xian  a major  '  aspect  , T a i p e i : Dong Sheng i 1980, P-24.  J f Uj J$ftf |^f| Cun  as  Shenq  Da  Quan J i  Chu  jflH^^Xjl  of  Huang's p o e t i c  theory will of  consist  attempt  of?  What i s i t s e s s e n c e ?  In t h i s c h a p t e r , through  we  an a n a l y s i s  remarks.  The Content o f Huang's Method In  Huang's w r i t i n g s ,  Mji^fif'u'!  Shu"  Shu  wrote,  .^jjljjlj^•  (fa__du)."  works.  order  (li_),  Writing  4 2  and b r i e f l y  Weng  discussion stated.  I n h i s "Yu Wang G u a n f u  ( T h r e e Poems To Wang G u a n f u ) ,  " t o s t r i v e t o make u n u s u a l  literary With  method  i n h i s "Da He J i n g  he wrote, "In y o u r  t h e meaning i s p r o f o u n d  i s the creative San Shou"  F o r example,  ( R e p l y He J i n g w e n g ) ,  the ancients,  This  m e n t i o n s f a du o r f a j ^ J j ^ ^ *  he o f t e n  (method) a n d l i . f ( o r d e r ) .  of  Yet, what d o e s Huang's  t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s m a i n l y  Huang's own  A.  theory i n h i s writings.  he  words i s c e r t a i n l y a d e f e c t o f  should take order  (li_) as a p r i n c i p l e .  t h e u s e o f words and s e n t e n c e s  i s smooth, and  43 writing it  i s naturally  i s obvious that  follow.  Although  writings, (poetic (the  o u t o f t h e common r u n . "  f a o r l _ i i s t h e method which a p o e t Huang does n o t d e f i n e  we c a n s e e what most c o n c e r n s  structure),  Indeed,  o f t h e s e t h r e e elements.  42  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 , p. 198.  43  Ibid,  p.201. 28  should  h i s method i n h i s him a r e zhanq  ,ju f a ^ j | ^ ; ( l i n e s t r u c t u r e ) ,  r u l e o f key words).  consists  I n Huang's mind,  fa  j  and z i f a  Huang's method b a s i c a l l y In t h e f o l l o w i n g  sections,  we  will  examine t h e s e  i n greater  detail  and a n a l y z e  the r e l a t i o n  among them.  i.  Poetic  Structure  Huang's z h a n q that  f a means " p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e " .  p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e should  a surprising effect.  have a c o n v o l u t e d  Once he e m p l o y e d  za ju  Huang style  thinks  and p r o d u c e  ( p o e t i c drama) t o  embody t h e d e s i g n .  W r i t i n g a poem i s l i k e making a d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e . One must f i r s t s e t t h e s t a g e , and t h e n t h a t h a v i n g been done, one must t e l l a p r o p e r j o k e ( d a hun JT$?- *» o n l y t h e n c a n the performance begin. •  According  t o Wang J i s i j£^||  (1906--  D y n a s t y z a j u , da hun i s an impromptu za  .ju.  4  5  I n da hun. one a c t o r  makes c o m i c g e s t u r e s role  named c a n q  unexpected  hu ^ q u e s t i o n s  explanation.  Here,  i n Yuan  i n t e r l u d e o f two r o l e s i n  i n a role  and r e m a r k s .  ), an e x p e r t  named c a n ,jun  Then a n o t h e r a c t o r  I s j *  ,  first  ina  him, and t h e c a n j u n g i v e s an Huang compares a p a r t o f p o e t i c  44 Wang Z h i f a n a iMlf] , "Wang Z h i f a n g S h i Hua" ij[/f$£j§ ' , Song Shi Hua J i Y l /jfjf JSjjfJj! , ( a b b r e v i a t e d SSHJY) ed. Guo Shaoyu, B e i j i n g : Ha Fu J i n g Xue She ltfl||&^]i ' 1937, p. 14. Translated i n A.A.Richett's "Method and I n t u i t i o n : The P o e t i c T h e o r i e s o f Huang T i n g - c h i e n " , C h i n e s e A p p r o a c h e s t o L i t e r a t u r e , ed. , R i c h e t t A.A., P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978, p. 100.  Van'  .45  1  fffli&jl!  ... Wang J i s i , "Da Hun, Can Chan Yu J i a n g x i S h i P a i " ] , Yu Lun Xuan Qu Lun XU}tl^U) , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu "ilW' a 0 , p.242. -ML,,*!*:  Ig^ISiiiK . J  u  1 9  29  structure  t o da hurt.  As a p p l i e d  a deliberate digression  i n poetic  avoids  a straightforward  subtly  responded  surprise,  questioned,  style.  structure,  writing. Also,  By u s i n g  i t , a poet  i s produced,  either  o r humour.  the authenticity of the quotation there  the part i s  after the digression i s  an u n e x p e c t e d e f f e c t  excitement,  Although  us  to,  to poetic  are other  above might be  similar clarifications  t o s e e Huang's v i e w s on p o e t i c  which  enable  structure:  The a r r a n g e m e n t o f w r i t i n g must be c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d . When I meet t h e young, I a l w a y s show them t h e c o n v o l u t e d e x p r e s s i o n o f meaning i n Yuan Dao ( {). ^ 4  E v e r y t i m e a poem o r p r o s e i s w r i t t e n , a w r i t e r must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h t h e g e n e r a l meaning. A l e n g t h y work s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d t o e x p r e s s t h e meaning t h r o u g h i n t r i c a t e convolution.^ Here,  Huang c l e a r l y  "intricate  sets the standard  convolution"  and " t h e c o n v o l u t e d  m e a n i n g , " w h i c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an the  unexpected e f f e c t .  an o b l i q u e  straightforward  46  Thus,  SSHJY,  practical  comparing  two comments w i t h h i s p o i n t  prefers  and i n t r i c a t e  s t r u c t u r e as  expression  poetic  47  o f view i n  one, we f i n d  structure  to a  i n Chapter Three).  " Q i a n X i S h i Yan"  of  techniques to achieve  Huang's p o i n t  i n the f i r s t  one (more d e t a i l  F a n Wen,  of poetic  ${fjfi§|J[  t h a t he  simple,  Here  j, p. 399.  SSHJY, Wang Z h i f a n g , o p . c i t . , p. 4. In my translation above, I consulted Richett's English explanation o f Huang's remark i n her Chinese Approaches t o L i t e r a t u r e , p.100. 30  it  r e m i n d s us  discussed  above,  reflected  in  poetic  ii.  any  much as poetic  He and  o b l i q ue  style is  and  know l i n e  silk."  5  intricate  the  i t an new  structure,"  Xie  i n his writings.  Tiao's  a g e s who important  He he  I "The  We  hardly .1u f a  measure t o  thinks  i s not  (line  stresses  poems which you  structure."  thinks  his critics  i s just  treasure  "The  fa  sent  that  "If a  capable of  clear river  me  lies  evaluate are poet  writing as  as  a  smooth  0  Lifeng  named by  said,  1u  Huang's method,  mentioned  considered  show l i n e  good as  Mo  elements of  C h i n e s e poet throughout  value,  as  can  three  Huang.  does not  we  poetic style  c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h an  i s most o f t e n  mellow and  It  oblique poetic  Structure  structure)  as  h is o b l i q u e  In a s e n s e ,  his poetic  Among t h e  line  f o r an  structure  Line  find  fondness  o f Huang's  by  see  this  that  "Huang T i n g j i a n ' s  basically  "pattern"  the  importance of  48  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 19,  49  SGSZ,  Neiji,  50 p.11.  BBCS,  Xie  51  Mo  i s treated i n the  like  Jiangxi  structure."^  a  valuable  School.  Thus,  j u f a i n Huang's p o e t i c  theory  Xie  p. 76. Xuancheng  t  Ji 1  Lifeng,  ( ^|^^|^ i >  p. 198.  vol.4,  Tiao,  r e f e r s to h i s l i n e  that  Huang's f o l l o w e r s  pattern  op.cit. ,  p.50. 31  vol.3,  and  practice. Yet,  is  what d o e s Huang's .ju f a c o n s i s t o f ?  a key p o i n t .  unique  First,  originality  He w r o t e i n a poem t o Su S h i : "You c r e a t e  law i n l i n e  structure,  even a f o r t i f i e d  city  such a  would  52 t o you," and "Heard o f Huangzhou's CSu S h i ] new  surrender  structure,/  E v e n t h e o l d man  CHuang h i m s e l f ]  really  line  wants t o  53 raise is  a white f l a g . "  "unique"  poetic  i s an i m p o r t a n t  also stated  in his letter  line  Besides,  he t h i n k s  graceful,  Huang t h i n k s  structure  clear,  that  he would r a t h e r  i s s h a r p and s t r i c t , "Line  He t o l d  that  " I t i s Yu poetic  A s i m i l a r , view  4  , "His CLei yet  s t r u c t u r e should  and f r e s h . " ^  structure.  contradict  to L e i Taijian  Du Z i m e i ' s poems w r i t t e n  you f i n d  sentences,  sentence. " ^  what  t h e power o f  element o f h i s l i n e  t h a n make a weak p o e t i c  Taijian]  can  Secondly,  (Yu X i n ) a d v a n t a g e t h a t  regulation  studying  i n Huang's ,ju f a he e m p h a s i z e s  Yu X i n ' s j ^ j p p o w e r f u l p o e t i c  He p r a i s e s  is  and "new".  sentences  Kaifu's  Thus,  mild."^  be p r e t t y ,  h i s student  after his arrival  "Only by at Kuizhou,  h i s p o e t i c s e n t e n c e s become s o p l a i n t h a t a 57 i s produced." From t h e s e comments, we c a n t e l l  great  subtlety  52  SGSZ,  53  Ibid.,  54  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  55  Ibid.,  56  SGSZ,  57  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  Neiji,  vol.5,  vol.17,  p. 85.  p. 320. p. 295.  p.294. Neiji,  vol.16,  p. 297  p. 202.  that  clearness  and  p l a i n are  Theoretically, principle  of  ,1 u f a f r o m  theoretically that  are  these points  Huang's ,ju f a .  the  also required  angle of touch  can  Yet,  poetic  Huang's r u l e s o f  practice  "the  as  method o f  most s c h o l a r s since  r u l e s of  r e f l e c t e d in his poetic  Huang.  considered  practice,  upon a l l t h e  generalizes  be  by  line  structure  organizing  the  analyze  Huang's  Huang does  line  practice.  as  not  structure  Zhang from  Bingquan his  characters  or  poetic words i n  58 poetic  sentences or  couplets."  elements: powerful poetic  "The  sentences,  method" c o n s i s t s o f  attention  to the  three  "ju  yan"^  59 (sentential  eye),  Lifeng  points  also  structure new  and  and  and  the  out  thinks  emphasis on  the  the  couplet.  and  the  a prosaic  harsh t o n e , ^ tendency  Comparing Zhang's v i e w w i t h  couplet  and  the  harsh tone s h o u l d  be  innovative  [examined  The  power o f  58  Zhang  59  Ibid.,  the  of  regulated  poetic  Bingquan,  verse  s e n t e n c e and  op.cit.,  Mo  Du  the  emphasis  Fu's  to ao  i n Chapter  condensed,  new  and  be lu  (the  Three]). strange  p. 22.  pp.126-128.  60 We w i l l e x a m i n e Huang's " h a r s h t o n e " his strangeness of syntactical structure Chapter Three. 61  condensed,  considered  developing  line  in sentential  Mo's,  Huang's f o n d n e s s f o r i m i t a t i n g and form  Mo  i m p o r t a n c e o f Huang's r u l e s o f  i t c o n s i s t s of  s t r a n g e meanings,  grammar.^ on  an  Lifeng,  op. c i t . , p. 49. 33  i n our d i s c u s s i o n and sound f o r m s  of in  sentential artistic prosaic  meanings a r e ,  effect,  w h i c h we  tendency  creative  trait  Yet,  no  Huang's p u r s u i t  have examined above.  in sentential  o f Huang's,  grammar,  and  by  of  As  the  f o r the  i t i s certainly  which r e f l e c t s t h e  the elements p o i n t e d out  means t o r e a l i z e p o w e r f u l  iii.  doubt,  a  influence  Zhang and  Mo  o r i g i n a l sentences  o f Han  are  Yu  Huang's  i n h i s poetry.  The Rule o f Key Words Huang's z i f a  careful poem,  selection  which  states  (the r u l e and  i s also  o f key  words) b a s i c a l l y means a  arrangement o f c e r t a i n  known as l i a n  i n h i s comment on  Yu  zi  important  (to r e f i n e  X i n ' s poem t h a t  Yu  words i n a  words).  He  "prefers 62  irregularity  when u s i n g words,  not  words t h a t  are  common."  i  This  tells  original  us t h a t  Huang i s e s p e c i a l l y  words b e c a u s e an  interested  outstanding poetic  i n t h e use  e f f e c t can  of  be  63 produced  i f " t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f a word i s m a r v e l l o u s . "  Accurate  selection  word  i s another  "The  use  use  and  standard  of a l l u s i o n  proper  o f Huang's r u l e  i s firmly  o f words i s e x p r e s s i v e . " ^  scale  t o judge  62  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  63  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  64  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  arrangement o f a s i g n i f i c a n t  h i s student's  g r o u n d e d and 4  The  standard  p.298.  p. 298. 34  words.  He  said,  a p p r o p r i a t e , and i s used  poems, as i n " H i s  p. 295.  vol.16,  o f key  by him  [Lei Taijian]  the as  a  use  o f words i s f i r m l y Also,  Huang  resources, selecting Huang's  and  r e f i n e d . „66  and be  p o e t i c words s h o u l d  poetic practice,  he i s e s p e c i a l l y  including  He s a y s ,  Huang  n o t be l i m i t e d . gleans  works.  and  draw upon v a s t  means t h e r a n g e o f Considering  p o e t i c words from a l l  colloquialisms,  fond of c l a s s i c a l  "Ju yan" ( s e n t e n t i a l  Magistrate  By t h i s ,  he i n d e e d  l a n g u a g e becomes f r e s h  poetry.  meaningful."  t h i n k s t h a t " P o e t i c words s h o u l d  kinds of sources,  poetic  grounded  religious By d o i n g  terms,  this,  the  vigourous.  e y e ) was d i s c o v e r e d by Huang  i n Du F u ' s  "The R e m i n d e r ' s (Du Fu) v e r s e s had eye,  o f ] P'eng-tse's  and  [The  (Tao Yuanming) meaning l a y i n a  67 stringless in  lute  a p o e t i c sentence,  "Sentential and  [zither]."  " S e n t e n t i a l e y e " means a key word  which i s c a r e f u l l y  eye" can h i g h l i g h t  selected  and  original.  t h e meaning o f a p o e t i c  bring the a r t of i t to l i f e  a s Huang s a y s ,  sentence  "To a r r a n g e  a word  6a t o f u n c t i o n as t h e key t o a In s h o r t ,  i t seems t h a t we may  words a r e b a s e d their  proper  display  Ibid.,  66  SGSZ,  67 SGSZ, p.106. 68  s a y t h a t Huang's r u l e s  on a c c u r a t e s e l e c t i o n  from  originality.  And  o f key  extensive sources,  arrangement i n a p o e t i c sentence.  a poet's  65  door."  "sentential  A key word  and  should  eye" i s the crux  p.294. Neiji, Neiji,  YZHXSWJ,  vol.16,  p. 297  vol.16,  vol.26,  p. 295.  P. 298.  35  Trans.  Richett,  op.cit  which  B.  a poet should  The  Source of  pay  Method  Huang's t h e o r y discussed That  way  above,  Praising 10, 000  of poetry  but  i s simply  particularly Su  not  only  also introduced  to l e a r n from  underscored Shi's  a t t e n t i o n to.  the  said,  v o l u m e s o f books i n mind,  a way  ancient  reading  works he  brought  out  the  method  to grasp t h i s  poets.  Huang  works o f t h e  ancients.  " I f Ca p o e t ] d o e s n o t and  method.  h i s b r u s h has  have  traces of  this  eg  vulgar the  reason  that all In  he the  i n i t , how  t h a t Wan  did  "not  can  he  create  Guanfu c o u l d  read  to t a t t e r s  not  "[your]  language i s r i g i d  carefully Jufu,  "have n o t  and  extensively."  " I f you  ancient  read  the 71  w r i t e good p o e t r y  of the  and  Ibid.,  p.293.  70  Ibid.,  p.292  71  I b i d . , vol.19,  d i d not  ancient  poets."  suit  original  works o f t h e  ancient  get 70  points laws,  and  meaning," poets  Huang i n s t r u c t e d h i s nephew Hong  i t would be e a s i e r f o r you  69  and  f i t musical  the  thought  was  does not  p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o r e a d i n g  poets,  He  Wang K u a n f u ' s poems, he  f l a v o u r o f y o u r words does n o t  b e c a u s e you  such works?"  10,000 volumes,  d e e p e r meaning i n h i s r e a d i n g  a n o t h e r comment c r i t i c i z i n g  out, the  world  p. 201. 36  the  works o f  to reach  the  the  [heights  of  the]  a n c i e n t p o e t s . " *"  In a d d i t i o n learning his  from  own  I n an  t o t h e s e g e n e r a l comments,  the a n c i e n t poets  Huang a l s o  i n terms of the  method: p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ;  discussed  three elements  of  line  structure;  and  key  words.  explanation of poetic structure,  Huang t o o k  Han  Yu's  Yuan  Dao  as an  example f o r h i s d i s c i p l e s ,  Wei  Jiansu"  *To  and  analyzed  Du  Fu's  J i a n s u ) i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e how  "Zeng Du  Fu  73 expressed  his intent  structure, to  gain  he  asked  "the p l a i n  i n a convoluted  way.  As  h i s students to study of p o e t i c sentences"  Du  and  for  Fu's  line  poems i n o r d e r  produce  "great  i  subtlety. " i ^ a  s  He  7 4  t h a t Chen S h i y o n g  b e n e f i t e d from  o  pentasyllable Bao Old  thought  and  the a n c i e n t p o e t s :  poems,/ They show t h a t y o u r  "You  line  Chen L u c h a n g  sent  me  structure follows  Z h a o ' s ( &(|jf I). " ^ " H i s CChen L u c h a n g ] poems o r i g i n a t e d f r o m Du's l i n e s t r u c t u r e . The p r e s e n t p o e t s c a n n o t compete w i t h 76  you. " "Gao  As Zimian  f o r t h e r u l e o f key used  an  allusion  word t o f u n c t i o n l i k e  72  Ibid.,  p. 203.  73  SSHJY,  Fan  74  See  75  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  76  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  Wen,  Footnote  58  a key  like  a t page  p. 399. 28.  p. 223.  p.199 37  Huang t h o u g h t  a military  to a door,"  op.cit.,  vol.10,  words,  was  the  o r d e r and that  "He  reason  arranged  takes  Du  a  Zimei's  poetry  In t h e source  preceding  examples,  of c r e a t i o n . " Huang c l e a r l y  o f h i s method i s t o l e a r n from t h e  does a poet  l e a r n from  Huang p r o p o s e s  history.  The  a valuable stealing  members o f t h e  technique.  wrote,  changing the steals  bone',  and  p h r a s e s were o n l y  certain ^j)^^  Yet,  answer t h i s  question,  changing the  saw  this  critics  just  r e p a i n t s i t . "®^  critic,  like  the  how  bone"  approach  curse  as  i t as  • a modern s c h o l a r i n  s o - c a l l e d ' e v o l v i n g f r o m t h e embryo  i s actually  fancy  ancients.  J i a n g x i School  Conversely,  "The  To  77 indicates that  embryo and  a s Teng Chung Lung  a c a r and  Dynasty poet  a n c i e n t poets?  " e v o l v i n g from t h e  a trick,  Hong Kong,  who  f o r h i s standard  a car t h i e f  Wang Ruoxu  s t r o n g l y advocated the  J^jii;  and  in a  city  , Jin  view t h a t  ^  Huang's  terms f o r p l a g i a r i s m :  In L u z h i ' s CHuang] p o e t i c comments, t h e r e a r e m e t a p h o r s o f s o - c a l l e d " e v o l v i n g f r o m t h e embryo and c h a n g i n g t h e bone,' and " c h a n g i n g i r o n i n t o g o l d " which a r e c o n s i d e r e d m o t t o s . In my o p i n i o n , t h e y a r e o n l y g o o d - s o u n d i n g names f o r plagiarism. L u z h i l o v e s t o e x c e e d o t h e r s , and i s ashamed 77  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 26,  p.298.  |[|!k1^^  78 B a i Bu Cong Shu J i Cheng >A » ( a b b r e v i a t e d BBCSJC) H u i Hong Leng Z h a i Ye Hua fljffixim , v o l . 1 , p. 8. T r a n s . James L i u , The A r t o f C h i n e s e P o e t r y , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1962, p.78. 79  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 6 ,  p. 289.  Trans.  Liu, ibid.,  p. 78.  80 Teng Chung Lung, Song S h i Chu Tan ,^$f|J$$ (A S t u d y o f P o e t r y o f t h e Sung D y n a s t y i n C h i n a ) , Hong Kong: Zhong Guo Xue Yan J i u She tyjjj^jfjjjj • ' 1985, P-76. 38  the Wen  t h a t h i s own v e r s e s d e r i v e from u s e s lame a r g u m e n t s and i n v e n t s  We  cannot  ancient  the c l a s s i c a l f a n c y terms.  deny t h a t some o f Huang's poems a r e  poets,  to create  but  Huang's main t e n d e n c y  innovations  originality.  We  will  of ancient not  considered  as  a way  words f r o m a n c i e n t the  two  Now  two  p o i n t we  his  look  the  at the  not  want  p h r a s e s can  s t r u c t u r e and  l e t us  he  approach  to i l l u s t r a t e  f o r the  i n these  to l e a r n l i n e poets.  his  t o a r g u e h e r e whether o r  Huang i s s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s a p p r o a c h , make c l e a r i s t h a t Huang's i d e a s  so  i m i t a t i o n s of  i s to apply  poems and  attempt  poets,  use  to be  of  contexts  key of  phrases:  When Du Fu w r o t e p o e t r y and Han Yu w r o t e p r o s e , t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e word t h a t d i d n o t have an o r i g i n i n some p l a c e ; now l a t e r men have not done much r e a d i n g and so t h e y s a y Han and Tu made up t h e s e p h r a s e s t h e m s e l v e s . Those who w r o t e i n t h e o l d d a y s were t r u l y a b l e t o mold 10,000 t h i n g s ; e v e n t h o u g h t h e y s e l e c t e d t h e s t a l e words o f t h e a n c i e n t s , o n c e t h e y a p p l i e d b r u s h and i n k , i t was j u s t l i k e a g r a i n o f t h e e l i x i r of immortality changing i r o n i n t o gold. The meaning o f p o e t r y i s u n l i m i t e d , b u t man's t a l e n t has a limit. E v e n a T'ao C h ' i e n o r a Tu Fu c o u l d not s e e k u n l i m i t e d meaning w i t h l i m i t e d t a l e n t . Thus n o t t o c h a n g e t h e meaning b u t t o c r e a t e o n e ' s own words t o e x p r e s s i t i s c a l l e d t h e method o f c h a n g i n g t h e bone; t o i n t r o d u c e o n e ' s own meaning b u t Cuse t h e o r i g i n a l w o r d s ] t o d e s c r i b e i t i s c a l l e d t h e method o f e v o l v i n g f r o m t h e e m b r y o . ® ^  81 CSJC, p.257.  Wang Ruoxu,  82  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  83 p. 78.  BBCS,  Hui  Hong,  Fu  Nan  p. 204.  Yi  Lao  Trans.  op.cit.,  39  Ji  j}jtjjj^J[  Liu, ibid.,  vol.1,  p.8.  • » vol.4,  1935,  p. 78.  Trans.  Liu  ibid.,  In t h e f i r s t  text,  words i n n o v a t i v e described the no the  Huang s u g g e s t e d  i n their  how a p o e t might  u s e o f key words, s i n g l e word t h a t second  text,  poetry  and p r o s e .  l e a r n from  Huang a l s o d i s c u s s e d  or  sentence,  and how a p o e t c o u l d  word o r s e n t e n c e o f t h e a n c i e n t  not simply  Ruoxu m i s r e p r e s e n t e d overstated  give  imitation.  reason  (as f u l l y  in  t h e world  an  individual  how o r i g i n a l  from  The main  o f t h e works o f theoretically,  Practically, poets.  Wang  Wang  Furthermore, t h e  f o r h i s approach.  The  not seek u n l i m i t e d  I n one s e n s e , i s limited,  poetry  can never exhaust  t h e embryo."  meaning  with  Huang i s c o r r e c t , b e c a u s e i f t h e  f o r thousands o f years  or versatile  Even a T'ao C h ' i e n (Tao  could  have h a r d l y  t h e meaning o f p o e t r y  he i s .  survived  of poetic exploration.  Yet, i t i s d o u b t f u l  p r e m i s e f o l l o w s f r o m Huang's c o n c l u s i o n - - " c h a n g i n g evolving  In  above) i s "The meaning o f p o e t r y i s  Q i a n ) o r a Tu Fu (Du Fu) c o u l d  meaning o f p o e t r y  was  approach  structures.  Thus,  b u t man's t a l e n t h a s a l i m i t .  talent."  "there  Clearly, this  Huang's i m i t a t i o n o f a n c i e n t  quote a l s o d e f i n e s h i s reason  limited  that  h i s own meaning t o t h e  poet.  second  unlimited,  poets i n terms o f  p o e t s t o c r e a t e h i s own word  Huang's meaning.  quoted  words, he  i n some p l a c e . "  o f t h e two p h r a s e s i s t h e i n n o v a t i o n poets,  stale  how t o borrow t h e meaning  t o t h e r u l e s o f k e y words and l i n e  ancient  In o t h e r  ancient  d i d n o t have an o r i g i n  a word o r s e n t e n c e f r o m a n c i e n t  point  p o e t s made  even t h o u g h he o v e r s t a t e d  of  refers  how a n c i e n t  Also,  no m a t t e r whether t h e  t h e bone and  T h e r e a r e many ways t o make up f o r  40  "limited  t a l e n t " to create  poetry,  and Huang's a p p r o a c h  i s one o f  them.  C.  T h e P r i n c i p l e o f Method Huang's method and a p p r o a c h t o g r a s p i n g  several  modern s c h o l a r s  Shaoyu,  a well-known c r i t i c  Ruoxu's comment on  cast  t h e method make  him as a p l a g i a r i s t . of l i t e r a r y  history,  L i u Dajie  thinks  that  [Huang] h a s t a k e n t h e r o a d upon w h i c h he o n l y of ancient  scholars only not  poets."  and c r i t i c s  a poet  who  t a k e s Wang  ( s e e p.35) a b o u t Huang a s t h e " f i n a l  Shangu's poetry".  form  Guo  rigidly  h a v e become a g r e a t  "It i s certain imitated  Yet, i t seems t o me t h a t  ignore  Huang's o r i g i n a l i t y .  followed one.  conclusion  the poetic  these  I f Huang  r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ,  In f a c t ,  that  were  he would  he i s "not w i l l i n g  t o be a  86 man  following In  seen  our d i s c u s s i o n of the content  him h i g h l i g h t o r i g i n a l i t y  structure. have a l s o  In o u r d i s c u s s i o n shown  ancients. he  buffalo."  i n t h e r u l e o f key words and  h i s emphasis on i n n o v a t i o n  originality  more t h a n  84  Guo Shaoyu, Zhong Guo Wen  85  Liu  86  SGSZ,  Dajie,  vol.16,  ideas  learning  p. 294.  we  when l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e  i n h i s theory  Xue P i P i n g  o p . c i t . , p. 69.  Neiji,  line  o f t h e s o u r c e o f Huang's method,  As f o r Huang's d o m i n a n t  stresses  o f Huang's method, we h a v e  of  poetry,  from t h e a n c i e n t s .  S h i , p.211  He  wrote,  "Writing  i s a kind  o f a r t o f t h e mind,/ T h e r e i s no 37  definite  track  imitating the  the o l d days."  the ancients,  principle  to c r e a t e  since  saying  y o u r own  like  individual opposites  this  learned  and  s i d e o f Huang.  of originality  a balance  the ancient  i s good,  clear,  remark r e c o r d e d  ancient  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  vol.12,  88  SGSZ, W a i j i Bu  89  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 ,  to clear  what Huang  the ancients.  t o Hong J u f u ) ,  writers."  line Thus,  marker  42  Crule  w h i c h must be a c q u i r e d  p. 270.  p. 203.  "Your  t o Huang t h e r e a r e  p. 46.  from  o f h i s method i s t h e  r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .  vol.2,  In "Da  he w r o t e :  i n F a n Wen's "Qian X i S h i Yan"  87  How  he wants t o l e a r n t h e r u l e s  Some o f t h e c o n t e n t  o f these  In order  f o r us t o e x p l o r e  but lacks the carpenter's  regulation] of ancient  reflection  own  poets.  j (Reply  poets.  by t h e i r  two s e e m i n g  between t h e two.  i t i s necessary  Shu"  ancient  He r e m i n d s us o f  and l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e a n c i e n t s ?  some r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f p o e t r y the  thing real i s  these  Y e t , how c a n we j o i n  r e g u l a t i o n s o f p o e t i c c r e a t i o n from  prose  only  talent.  from  Hong J u f u  i f you t a k e  poetry  Huang's i n t e n t i s v e r y and  others  L i B a i and Su S h i who c r e a t e d  question,  simply  style."  d o e s Huang m a i n t a i n up  "One i s b e h i n d  o f c r e a t i o n t o be i m i t a t i o n , / T h e 8fi  T h e s e show a d i f f e r e n t poets  He o p p o s e s  Huang's  ififjSj|I  g i v e s us  \  the  clearest  poem by  Du  answer t o  Fu,  Huang  our  questions.  After  an  analysis  of  a  remarked;  T h i s poem was r e c o r d e d by f o r m e r w o r t h i e s as t h e v e r y b e s t o f p o e t r y ; t h a t i s t o say, i t s a r r a n g e m e n t i s most c o r r e c t i n form, j u s t as t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f government o f f i c e s , m a n s i o n s , h a l l s , and s i d e - r o o m s e a c h have t h e i r s e t p l a c e and c a n n o t be s c a t t e r e d about h e l t e r - s k e l t e r . Han Yu's "Yuan Dao" and t h e "Canon o f Yao" i n t h e Shang Shu are s i m i l a r i n t h i s ; a l l t h e r e s t can be c a l l e d "changed f o r m . " Now c h a n g e d f o r m i s l i k e moving c l o u d s , f l o w i n g w a t e r ; i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e y have no d e f i n i t e s u b s t a n c e . They come f o r t h from the s u b t l y mysterious, are wrested from heavenly c r e a t i o n , and c a n n o t be s o u g h t i n a mold. But i f we t a k e c o r r e c t f o r m as t h e b a s i s , t h e n n a t u r a l l a w s o p e r a t e i n them. F o r example, i n d e p l o y i n g t r o o p s b o t h i r r e g u l a r and c o r r e c t movements w i l l o c c u r . I f , i n the beginning, one d o e s n o t know what i s c o r r e c t but r a t h e r i s s i d e t r a c k e d into an i r r e g u l a r t a c t i c , c o n f u s i o n w i l l r e s u l t and i n t h e end, defeat." 9 0  Here, poetic these  Huang c l e a r l y p o i n t e d creation rules  and  within  ancient  regulations  concepts to describe  to  the  and  the  rules  works,  and  and the  originality.  creative  methods o f  regulations  of  r e l a t i o n between He  used  poetry.  two One  is  90 SSHJY, Fan Wen, op.cit., p.399-400. Trans., Rickett, op. c i t . , p. 104. C o n c e r n i n g Huang's c o n c e p t s " c o r r e c t form", "changed f o r m " , and "natural laws" as translated by Richett: "Correct form" b a s i c a l l y means t h e common r u l e s o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , s u c h as the four-part structure, rhyme scheme, use of a n t i t h e s i s , and m e t r i c a l pattern i n a regulated verse. "Changed f o r m " means a p o e t ' s i n n o v a t i v e v a r i a t i o n o f common r u l e s . Yet, a p o e t c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y c h a n g e t h e common r u l e s as he w i s h e s , and a p o e t ' s v a r i a t i o n s must f o l l o w " n a t u r a l l a w s " . " N a t u r a l l a w s " can n e v e r be r e g u l a t e d but a r e a c c e p t e d f o r e v e r , because they agree with common r u l e s , but go beyond common r u l e s o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . Since "bian t i " ^>j|j (changed f o r m ) c h i e f l y means a p o e t ' s innovative v a r i a t i o n o f common r u l e s , i t might be better to t r a n s l a t e t h i s t e r m as " v a r i a t o n " .  43  "correct other  form",  which  i s "changed  movement". the r u l e s  ancient  and  form"  "irregular  i s the "carpenter's l i n e  because  marker," o r  "Correct  there  form" i s  are "natural  laws  Huang u s e s an example f r o m t h e works o f t h e  p o e t s t o sum  up  "correct  form".  what a p o e t s h o u l d l e a r n  As f o r "changed form",  i s no  H i s purpose  from a n c i e n t  Huang t h i n k s t h a t  b u t comes f r o m a p o e t ' s c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . "correct  form"  "Looking  a t t h e poems w r i t t e n  Kuizhou,  and  return  movement"; t h e  he s p e a k s o f as  c a n be a c q u i r e d  i n them."  demonstrate  which  "correct  r e g u l a t i o n s of poetic creation.  unchangeable, operating  form",  "Correct and  he s p e a k s o f as  i s to  poets.  i t i s not  With  "changed  acquired, form",  l o n g e r t o be f o u n d i n p o e t r y ; as Huang by Du  the prose written  t o the i m p e r i a l  court  Fu a f t e r  by Han  his arrival  Tuizhi  f r o m Chaozhou,  (Han  Yu)  they are  said  at  after his naturally 91  joined  t o g e t h e r without bothering  Huang a l s o form"  and  realm"  from  poetic  e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i o n  "changed f o r m . "  which  "correct  clearly  to follow  "An  irregular  rules. "  between  tactic"  "correct  i s the  "perfect  c a n be r e a c h e d t h r o u g h a p o e t ' s o r i g i n a l i t y .  form"  a skilful  i s the basis of " i r r e g u l a r mastery  of "correct  form".  tactic"  which  But,  comes  A p o e t must  " u n d e r s t a n d t h e o l d law i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e what i s new and 92 strange." W i t h o u t " c o r r e c t form", " c o n f u s i o n w i l l r e s u l t ,  91  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 1 9 , p. 201.  92  SGSZ,  Neiji,  vol.7,  p. 122. 44  and  in and  t h e end d e f e a t . " disciples  "correct for  to attain  form",  a poet  " c o r r e c t form". should  up h i s l e v e l  o f T a i M o u n t a i n which r i s e s  hanging  his friends  mastering  Huang wrote,  "As  of writing to the  a b r u p t l y and s t e e p l y ,  clouds  i n t h e s k y , who wants t o empower and m a g n i f y h i s w r i t i n g ,  waves o f a r i v e r  freely  Yet, a f t e r  not adhere t o i t .  a w r i t e r who wants t o l i f t  height  as  T h i s i s why Huang a l w a y s a d v i s e d  i n t h e e i g h t h month,  swims t h e s e a s  to a carpenter's  and a huge f i s h  and c a n s w a l l o w a boat,  line  he s h o u l d  which not s t i c k  marker which would make h i s w r i t i n g  93 vulgar."  I n Huang's mind,  changing poet's  o l d into  new" i s " t o be e v e r  uniqueness."  creative  difficulty  of arranging verses to find  attention  to.  method.  I begin  and s e n t e n c e s .  and shows "a summarized h i s  my v o i c e c a n go beyond  o f h i s method,  basically  for his  t o be aware o f t h e I t i s most  some p l a c e t h e a n c i e n t p o e t s  Then,  the source  victorious"  i s old.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , Huang's t h e o r y method,  into exquisite,  by d e s c r i b i n g t h e g o a l he p u r s u e d  " T i n g j i a n ' s brush  important  coarse  Huang, a t t h e age o f s i x t y ,  experience  whole l i f e :  "changing  have n o t p a i d 95  others." consists ofh i s  and t h e p r i n c i p l e  ofh i s  The method c o n s i s t s o f t h e t h r e e e l e m e n t s : p o e t i c  structure,  line  s t r u c t u r e , and t h e r u l e  93  YZHXSWJ,  vol.19,  94  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  95  SSHJY,  The  p. 204.  vol.21,  C a i Tao  o f key words.  p. 224. " X i Qing 45  S h i Hua" fjj]  p.364.  method the in the  c a n be g r a s p e d  principle--a  through  learning  poet's o r i g i n a l  the a p p l i c a t i o n  from  the ancients.  creativity--should  come  Yet, through  o f t h e method and t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g  ancients.  46  from  Chapter Poetic The  T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e : P o e t i c  theoretical discussion  Chapter  One h a s p r e p a r e d  through  h i s scattered  regarding  this  perfect,  h i s poetic  One.  Therefore,  Huang's p o e t i c  f o c u s on Huang's p o e t i c  o f Huang's p o e t i c  of h i s general  content  we u n d e r s c o r e o u r c o n c l u s i o n s  will  also  a general  are lost  extant  poems.^  during  his life,  Certainly  they  or that  Mo  Lifeng,  chapter,  to our .  By d o i n g  this, views, poetic  Huang i s p r o l i f i c .  he b u r n e d  examine  i , e . , h i s v i e w s on  view o f h i s d o m i n a n t  himself,  there  not  only  b u t we content. Besides  a r e 1,956  A l t h o u g h Huang w r o t e a huge amount o f p o e t r y h i s major s u b j e c t s  are f a i r l y  a r e not as f a r - r e a c h i n g  b o t h o f whom r e f l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l  1  we w i l l  In t h i s  on h i s p o e t i c  Compared t o o t h e r C h i n e s e p o e t s ,  i n Chapter  to correspond  function.  theory  two c h a p t e r s t o f u r t h e r  theory.  content  will  poems t h a t  Huang's  defect,  views o f poetry,  and p o l i t i c a l  obtain  this  i n the following  we  poetic  of divorcing  i n order to correct practice  disputes  o u r a p p r o a c h i s f a r from  p r a c t i c e to a r r i v e at the conclusions  our a n a l y s i s  discussion  theory  and t o c l e a r up s e v e r a l  However,  support will  views i n  us t o s u r v e y Huang's p o e t i c  remarks,  theory.  Content  o f Huang's p o e t i c  f o r we have r u n t h e r i s k  from  Two  op.cit.,  a s Du F u ' s and B a i J u y i ' s ,  affairs  p. 24. 47  limited.  and r e a l i t y .  There are  certain  subjects  roughly  divide  descriptions of  I-  which  into  he  four  o f nature;  frequently major  areas:  depictions  think  that  Therefore,  self-expression;  of daily  life;  and d i s c u s s i o n s  the d e f i n i t e  w o r l d more t h a n t h e e x t e r n a l  defines  a great  own f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s .  dominant  Although there  political  i s great  several  categories.  character, affairs.  of a l l ,  He r e a c t s t o w o r l d l y  whose a m b i t i o n Huang's g o a l s  From  Huang  displays  foroffice  these  uses  into moral  by an i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w o r l d l y with  an open mind and t h e  as i l l u s o r y .  who p u r s u e s t h e s p i r i t u a l  This  that  himself.  Huang o f t e n  affairs  a p p r o a c h o f one who s e e s t h e w o r l d  fame and f o r t u n e .  affairs.  v a r i e t y i n the subjects  which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  shows u s he i s a p e r s o n  from p o e t r y  we might d i v i d e t h e s e s u b j e c t s  First  of  i n s i g h t i n t o Huang's  a s w e l l a s Huang  h i s self-expression,  a s an e x p r e s s i o n  These a r e d i s t i n c t  aim o f r e f l e c t i n g  p o e t i c content,  poetry  many o f h i s poems e x p r e s s h i s  poems o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n we c a n o b t a i n  of  may  Huang i s an i n t r o v e r t e d p o e t  a s he h i m s e l f  human e m o t i o n and n a t u r e ,  for  we  Self-expression  b e c a u s e he o b s e r v e s h i s i n t e r n a l  has  ar.d w h i c h  philosophy.  Many s c h o l a r s  one.  adopts  i s the opposite  Moreover, realm  o f those  he  instead  intellectuals  i s molded by C o n f u c i a n i s m .  Clearly,  were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o n c e p t s o f B u d d h i s t  E m p t i n e s s tyM and T a o i s t  Inaction^'.  48  They were a l s o  influenced  by  Tao  Yuanming's p o e t r y which  world,  and  his indifference  intellectuals Yin"  I^J^Hy  as a v i r t u e .  (Reciting  indifference  this  to worldly  order  i s viewed  by  Here i s an e x c e r p t from  Chinese " X i Shang  shows Huang's  affairs.  r e p u t a t i o n and m o r a l i n t e g r i t y i n l i f e , moth d a r t i n g i n t o a f l a m e . what you have done, be i n a g r a v e c o v e r e d w i t h w e e d s . 2  his interior  o f human l i f e  to i l l u s t r a t e  Another  t o i t which  poem, t h e p o e t e x p o s e s  measures the l i m i t  Tao's e x p e r i e n c e s i n the  B e s i d e a Steam) w h i c h  You u p h o l d y o u r Rush a b o u t as a When you r e p e n t Everything w i l l In  reflects  against  thoughts.  He  worldly appetites i n  t h e w o r t h l e s s n e s s o f p u r s u i n g fame and  example o f t h i s  theme i s f o u n d  Pure  i n the f o l l o w i n g  gain.  poem:  Brightness Festival  Peach  and plum f l o w e r s s m i l e d d u r i n g t h i s happy f e s t i v a l time, The w i l d s and d e s e r t e d f i e l d s b r o u g h t p e o p l e sadness. The S p r i n g t h u n d e r awakened d r a g o n and snake f r o m hibernation. W i t h a b u n d a n t r a i n f a l l , t r e e s and g r a s s i n t h e s u b u r b s turned soft. A f t e r b e g g i n g f o r l e f t o v e r o b l a t i o n s , one bragged  2  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  vol.1,  p. 2.  3 A p e r s o n o f Q_i_ s t a t e o f t e n went o u t t o beg f o r l e f t o v e r oblations. A f t e r he came back f u l l o f f o o d and d r i n k , he b r a g g e d t o h i s w i f e and c o n c u b i n e t h a t he had d i n n e r w i t h men o f w e a l t h and c o n s e q u e n c e . From t h e s t o r y , M e n c i u s t e l l s us, "few o f a l l t h o s e who s e e k w e a l t h and p o s i t i o n f a i l t o g i v e t h e i r w i v e s and c o n c u b i n e s c a u s e t o weep w i t h shame." See SBCK, M e n g z i | ^ , M e n g z i j?^- , v o l . 8, p. 71. and trans. D.C.Lau, M e n c i u s . Hong Kong: The C h i n e s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984, v o l . 1 , book. 4, pp. 175-177. 49  about i t t o h 4 i s w i f e and c o n c u b i n e , Another gentleman would r a t h e r be b u r n e d t o d e a t h t h a n become a h i g h o f f i c i a l . Who s h o u l d be s e e n as a worthy o r a f o o l t h r o u g h t h e ages? The g r a v e mounds c o v e r e d w i t h g r a s s e s , which b o t h a r e d e s t i n e d t o s h a r e , meet t h e eye everywhere. 5  This  poem c o u l d  impression first the  two  of a t r a d i t i o n a l  and  wealth  Chinese f e s t i v a l .  T h e r e f o r e , whatever or r e c o l l e c t i o n  serve to display  the value of l i f e .  and  standards doing  him.  atmosphere,  actually  world  expresses the Even  fame t h r o u g h i n terms  this,  he  poet's  though  i n the  atmosphere  t h e f o c u s o f t h e poem i s what t h o u g h t s  within  festival they  that  c o u p l e t s Huang d e s c r i b e s t h e f e s t i v a l  season,  inspire  be c o n s i d e r e d as one  the  festival  the d e s c r i p t i o n  of the f e s t i v a l ' s  and  of  the  origins,  Huang's deep p o n d e r i n g o v e r  this  Huang e x p r e s s e s h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e  allusions,  and  denies t r a d i t i o n a l  social  o f i n e v i t a b l e d e a t h as i n t h e above poems.  shows us one  who  i s above p o l i t i c s  to  By  and w o r l d l y  considerations. The his  second  a s p e c t o f Huang's s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  frequent longing  related  for seclusion.  to his indifference  This  c a n be f o u n d i n  i s , of course,  to worldly a f f a i r s .  closely  Chinese  V  4 H e r e r e f e r s t o J i e Z h i.tt u ii ;. A f t e r he h e l p e d t h e k i n g of Jin s t a t e J i n Wengong ^o r e b u i l d J i n s t a t e , he secluded h i m s e l f i n t h e mountains. He r e f u s e d J i n Wengong's o f f e r o f o f f i c i a l t i t l e so t h a t he was b u r n e d t o d e a t h i n t h e mountain. r*«,jA ' See Chun Q l u Zuo Zhuan Zhu IT^TXRII ' * J Bojun f§|H«& , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu J u , 1981, pp. 418-419. • ;  E  5  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  vol.1,  p. 10. 50  D  Y  A  N  C  intellectuals seclusion  were f o r c e n t u r i e s  writing  summarized  Leisurely,  "Picking  from  not o n l y took  qualities  t h e world.  hills,"^  refuge i n s e c l u s i o n  by r e m o v i n g  In s e c l u s i o n  o f t h e world,  appropriately  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s  of the southern  c a r e e r s were i n t r o u b l e ,  moral  beauty  was most  time i n  life  up chrysanthemums u n d e r t h e e a s t e r n f e n c e , /  catching sight  intellectuals  great  and t h i s  by Tao Yuanming's d e p i c t i o n  as a hermit,  official  poetry,  drawn t o s p e n d i n g  but they  when  believed  themselves  These their they  at regular  gained intervals  they c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t h e n a t u r a l  be f r e e from  involvement  in political I  conflict,  and p u r s u e  (813-858) wrote, hair,/ boat  Longing  [that  will  Huang's p o e t i c  their  spiritual  goals.  "Always remember t o r e t u r n  t o w i t h d r a w from  the world  i s influenced  t o the lake with  and r e t u r n  t a k e y o u back t o t h e l a k e ] . " creation  As L i S h a n g y i n ^|||| i  to the  I t i s obvious  by t r a d i t i o n a l  grey  ideas.  that Even  when he was a young man and had n o t y e t e x p e r i e n c e d much suffering seclusion.  from  hisofficial  We s e e t h i s  c a r e e r , he e x p r e s s e d  a longing f o r  i n a poem he w r o t e when he was o n l y 25  years o l d : Rhyming w i t h My C l a s s m a t e In 6 7 Ren  the spring  breeze,  P e l Zhongmou  we met e a c h  See f o o t n o t e 19 i n C h a p t e r  other i n carts  one a t p.9.  L i S h a n g y i n , L i S h a n q y i n S h i J i Shu Zhu ^|||f jf Ming Chu Ban She, 1985, p.330.  , Beijing:  8 T h o s e who a p p e a r i n t h e same e x a m i n a t i o n g r a d e l i s t f o r t h e i m p e r i a l exams a d d r e s s e a c h o t h e r a s Tonq N i a n pj'J^ ( c l a s s m a t e ) .  b e s i d e Ru R i v e r , t o bed a t t h e i n n , we i n t i m a t e l y t a l k e d on f e l t o f mcnk s h e e t s . I t was o n l y a b o u t one h u n d r e d l i . between Wuyang and Xie, Then you and I were b o t h young. As i f f r o m s e e d s , g r e y h a i r w i l l a p p e a r on o u r heads, We l o v e t o r e t u r n t o t h e g r e e n m o u n t a i n s , b u t we have no money t o buy l a n d . What a hazy, sandy, bamboo-covered J i a n g n a n shore! g But, i t h a s been y i e l d e d t o s l e e p i n g e g r e t s . Bed  The by and  poem i s i n s p i r e d by h i s f r i e n d s h i p t o P e i Zhongmou. I t b e g i n s recalling  their  his friend  ffH}counties, by  first  encounter beside  b o t h had t a k e n o f f i c i a l respectively.  describing  their  t h e Ru R i v e r ,  posts  The f o l l o w i n g  a f t e r he  i n X i e I f and Wuyang  three  lines  f r i e n d s h i p and c l o s e c o n t a c t s .  continue  Images  like  i  "chun f e n g " nian" the if  ( s p r i n g b r e e z e ) and t h e u s e o f words l i k e (both  fifth  line  to create  Although  onward t h e poem s u d d e n l y  a sharp contrast  t h e poet should  age  (as i m p l i e d  his  close friend  described beauty  young) evoke an a t m o s p h e r e o f j o y .  i n seclusion  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  lines),  shao  Yet, from  t o a s a d mood a s  part  o f t h e poem.  and a m b i t i o u s  ath i s  what he u n b u r d e n s t o  desire to return  and p o e t i c p l a c e ,  Huang more c l e a r l y  9  four  i s h i s inner  and a p e a c e f u l  interests  with the f i r s t  have been v i g o r o u s  i n the f i r s t  a s an i d e a l  shifts  "ju  t o h i s home town,  and e n j o y  i t s natural  life. and s t r o n g l y  displays  h i s personal  i n t h e poem below w r i t t e n  vol.1,  p. 13.  a t t h e mature  Climbing  P l e a s a n t Tower  The i d i o t s e t t l e d s t a t e b u s i n e s s , Walked e a s t and west on P l e a s a n t Tower, l e a n i n g on t h e c l e a r e v e n i n g sky. Above t h o u s a n d s o f m o u n t a i n s w i t h w i t h e r e d t r e e s , the sky i s vast, Above a l i n e o f t h e t r a n s p a r e n t r i v e r , the moon i s c l e a r and b r i g h t . A r e d s t r i n g o f my z i t h e r has b r o k e n ^ , f o r my B e a u t y ^ i s absent, I r e l u c t a n t l y show my w e l c o m i n g e y e s o n l y because good wine. H o p e f u l l y I w i l l p l a y a f l u t e i n t h e b o a t home, I h a v e made a c o v e n a n t w i t h t h e w h i t e g u l l s , 13  The denq  gao  title  o f t h e poem t e l l s  * a (ascending  traditional  custom  and  us t h i s  a height).  i s a poem  Ascending  a common t o p i c  of  describing  a height i s a  of Chinese  poetry.  A  poet  10 "A r e d s t r i n g o f my z i t h e r " a l l u d e s t o Zhong Z i q i Bo Ya |||^ . Bo was a good p l a y e r o f t h e z i t h e r and Zhong was o n l y one who c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d Bo's playing. After Zhong dead, Bo b r o k e h i s z i t h e r , and no l o n g e r p l a y e d b e c a u s e t h e r e no one l e f t who u n d e r s t o o d t h i s music. See Lu B u w e i ' s Lu S h i Chun Q i u J i a o Y i Yin Zhongrong^f&ll , Tadi p e i ; Zhong Hua Cong Shu Wei Yuan H u i 3.  ftX^r:  11 In C h i n e s e a close friend.  classical  writing.  Beauty  i s often  used  to  and the was was ed.  imply  12 "Welcoming E y e s " , l i t e r a l l y , i s " B l a c k E y e s " , which a l l u d e s t o Ruan J i | j £ | | j . I t i s s a i d t h a t Ruan s t a r e d a t someone w i t h h i s pupils i n the middle of h i s eyes, or "Black Eyes", which e x p r e s s e s h i s good i m p r e s s i o n on someone. Showing t h e w h i t e s o f t h e e y e s , o r "White E y e s " , e x p r e s s e s d i s d a i n . J i n Shu # See Fang X u a n l i n §|"£|| B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1974, p.1361. 13  SGSZ,  Waiji,  v o l . 1 1 , p. 249. 53  could  produce  a lofty  ideal  view  and  forget  mundane a f f a i r s  enjoying  a distant  at a height, j u s t  reaching  t h e summit,/ A l l m o u n t a i n s w i l l  as Du be  by  Fu wrote,  s m a l l from  "Upon  a  birds-  14 eye  view."  inspired  The  upon a s c e n d i n g  In t h e f i r s t who  i s burdened  opportunity be  by  realm  third  fourth  poet's  be  seen  "even t h e one understand  boat  next  him,  a result,  life,  as he  he  He  from  depict  a view  w h i c h p r e p a r e s one realm  as a p o e t i c t o him  he c a n n o t  i s happy t o have  behind  interact  through  desire for seclusion  line by  t h e ground. beauty  couplet.  also the The  that i s of  In t h e  the third  o f t h e mundane w o r l d , o f h i s remark--  i n t h e same bed  with h i s  cannot  contemporaries."  to nature to l i v e  a free,  t h e image o f p l a y i n g gulls  a flute  i n the  Huang e x p r e s s e s h i s f i r m ,  t h e use  an  T h i s might  f o r the r e v e l a t i o n  t h e symbol o f n a t u r e - - w h i t e  In t h e l a s t  on  of natural  interpretation  [the poet]  idiot  t h e mundane w o r l d t o  i n the l a s t  hopes t o r e t u r n  indicates  home, and  couplet.  work.  Huang e x p r e s s e s h i s w e a r i n e s s  w h i c h may  As  boring o f f i c e  spiritual  was  Huang compares h i m s e l f t o an  w i t h t h e mundane l e f t  distant,  lofty  couplet,  lines,  lines  he  a height.  as t h e p o e t ' s e s c a p e  spiritual and  two  how  t o e n j o y n a t u r e by c l i m b i n g a tower.  understood  open and  theme o f Huang's poem d e p i c t s  1 5  easy i n the  last  lifetime  o f word t h e menq IPi J( make a IS. ,  14 Du Beijing: 15  See  Fu, Du S h i X i a n g Zhu jtlfffH , ed. , Q i u Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1979, v o l . 1 , p.4. f o o t n o t e 1 i n Chapter  One  54  at  p.2.  Zhaoao  ftlEfi, ,  covenant), the p e r f e c t poet,  and from tense  (have  by g o i n g from  n a t u r e h a s w i t h each and  the implied made).  time  which  I have t r a n s l a t e d  The whole poem i m p l i e s  into  that the  a low p l a c e t o a h i g h p l a c e t o l o o k o u t a t step ascended  the h e i g h t s both  physically  spiritually. Su  S h i ' s comments  Huang's t h o u g h t s  on Huang f u r t h e r  d i s c u s s e d above.  h e l p us t o u n d e r s t a n d  Su o n c e w r o t e t o Huang;  To J u d g e y o u r b e h a v i o u r f r o m r e a d i n g y o u r w r i t i n g , I t h i n k t h a t you must be a p e r s o n who i g n o r e s mundane a f f a i r s and conducts h i m s e l f with d i g n i t y . A p e r s o n s u c h as you c a n n o t be a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e g e n t l e m e n o f t o d a y . L a t e r on, t h e more o f y o u r l i t e r a r y works I r e a d when I d r o p p e d by L i G o n g z e ' s i n J i n a n , t h e more I knew y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y . I t h i n k t h a t you a r e f r e e and n a t u r a l , w i t h o u t even a l i t t l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e w o r l d l y d u s t , s o t h a t you d e t a c h y o u r s e l f f r o m t h e mundane w o r l d , and you r i d e on wind and h a r n e s s a i r t o e n a b l e you t o t r a v e l w i t h t h e c r e a t o r . Not o n l y c a n you n o t be a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e g e n t l e m e n o f t o d a y , b u t even someone l i k e me--Su S h i , who i s u n r e s t r a i n e d , who has no u r g e t o make p r o g r e s s , and who removes h i m s e l f from t h e w o r l d , c a n n o t make f r i e n d s w i t h you. ^ Herein,  Su c h a r a c t e r i z e s Huang as a h e r m i t  theme o f h i s p o e t i c  content.  considers seclusion  as a s i g n i f i c a n t  "To  detach  from  w h i c h Su u s e s The an  I t i s obvious  t h e mundane w o r l d "  that  on t h e d o m i n a n t Su  also  s u b j e c t o f Huang's  and " t r a v e l  writing.  with the creator",  t o d e s c r i b e Huang a r e e x p r e s s i o n s f o r s e c l u s i o n . significant  expression of universal  feelings  16  last  based  a s p e c t o f Huang's s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s human e m o t i o n s ,  towards h i s r e l a t i v e s  more s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s  and f r i e n d s .  WYWK, Su S h i ,  L i k e most  Chinese  v o l . , 5, p. 109. 55  intellectuals, the  time  moral  he  was  very kind,  His  moral  his of  and  Huang. he was  c h a r a c t e r might  members had  Thus,  as f i l i a l  influenced  was  educated  a child.  values, such  strongly  family  Huang was  i t i s natural  piety  and  loyal  have d e v e l o p e d  praised  that to  this  Confucian friends,  and  way  friends.  because  other f o r s u r v i v a l  v e r y young.  Su  attitude  his relatives  compared  t o v i r t u e s of the a n c i e n t s ;  and  Shi, i n a  f r i e n d s can  [his] writings,  his  due  to  letter  Huang w i t h : " [ H u a n g ' s ] f i l i a l  faithful  since  Huang's c h a r a c t e r  to h i s r e l a t i v e s  t o depend on e a c h  towards  loyalty  Furthermore,  f a t h e r ' s d e a t h when he was recommendation,  with Confucian textbooks  and be  like  Jade,  17 are  t h e most s u b t l e o f a l l i n t h e s e t i m e s . "  illustrates  The  following  these tendencies.  I m p r e s s i o n s on E a t i n g  L o t u s S e e d s i n Ganshang  L o t u s s e e d s a r e as b i g as thumbs, D i v i d i n g t h e s e sweet s e e d s r e m i n d s me o f M o t h e r ' s affection. The t o p s o f s e e d s p r o t r u d i n g crowded i n t h e seedpod, Deepens my l o n g i n g f o r my b r o t h e r s . I n s i d e a seed i s a t i n y sprout, W i t h f i s t s l i k e an i n f a n t ' s hand, T h a t r e m i n d s me o f my c h i l d r e n . Who meet me a t t h e g a t e t o a s k f o r p e a r s and j u j u b e s . A seed sprout c e r t a i n l y i s b i t t e r , How c a n I e x p e c t s w e e t n e s s w h i l e e a t i n g t h e s p r o u t ? W i t h sweet t h i n g s I am a f r a i d o f p o i s o n . W i t h p l a i n t h i n g s I f e e l ashamed. T h o u g h a l o t u s grows i n mud. I t h a s n o t t h e same s t y l e as mud. Who d o e s n o t e n j o y e a t i n g sweet l o t u s s e e d s ? How many r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e t a s t e ! I l i v e n e a r S h u a n g j i n g pond, 17  Ibid. ,  vol.  , 12,  p. 88.  56  poem  The autumn wind b r i n g s How c a n I f i n d f r i e n d s T o r e t u r n home t o make  From t h e t i t l e , seeds  to write  China,  this  we know t h a t t h e poem.  In  embody  is  "Mother's  himself  paternal  t h e sweet  With  brothers,  t a s t e o f seeds i s s u b t l y  and  used t o  The a f f e c t i o n i s i m p e r c e p t i b l e , human  but  emotion  t h e s e c o n d image, t h e p o e t draws a p i c t u r e o f  t h e shape  love  family.  some f r e s h and u n i q u e  t o t h e p e r c e p t i b l e sweetness,  and h i s b r o t h e r ' s  delineates  living  a t home, and t h e t h i r d  o f an i n f a n t ' s hand.  a r e conveyed  by crowded  tenderness o f a seed sprout.  poet's f e e l i n g s towards that  c o m f o r t s w i t h r e l a t i v e s and  t h e p o e t employs  affection".  i t i s compared  Also, the  l o t u s s e e d s a r e m i n d e r o f Huang's  lines,  At f i r s t ,  perceived.  the  of sharing  t o d i s p l a y how much he m i s s e s h i s mother,  children.  once  eight  lotus  As l o t u s s e e d s grow i n t h e s o u t h o f  idea  makes e a t i n g  the f i r s t  images  Huang i s i n s p i r e d by e a t i n g  i s a r e m i n d e r o f t h e p o e t ' s home town.  Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l friends,  me t h e f r a g r a n c e o f lotus. w i t h t h e same preference, l o t u s c l o t h e s 18 19  There,  f r a t e r n a l and  seeds i n a seedpod  The images  image  and by  harbouring the  h i s r e l a t i v e s are so v i v i d  and moving  an a f f a b l e image o f t h e p o e t i s p r e s e n t e d .  18 " L o t u s c l o t h e s " a l l u d e s t o Qu Yuan's < 4 B.C.) L i Sao ^ "To make a j a c k e t f r o m w a t e r c a l t r o p , / To c o l l e c t l o t u s t o make a s k i r t . " ^ !• i ^ p g S e e ^ J i a n g L i a n g f u f ^ A , » Chonq D i n g Qu Yuan Fu J i a o Zhu J E J J M J I it'tlli , T i a n j i n : ' T i a n j i n Gu J i Chu Ban She £§f; £11T* 1987, p. 38. WW M i l 1  S?!!''  19  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.1,  p. 8.  57  '  In t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s ,  while  seeds  (the b i t t e r n e s s of the lotus  which  they  weariness bosom the  grow), with  friends.  t h e poet  official  shifts  life  keeping seeds,  and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n  h i s message t o e x p r e s s h i s  and h i s w i s h t o r e t u r n home w i t h h i s  Even t h o u g h t h i s new  former expression  t h e theme o f t h e l o t u s  o f the poet's  topic  seems t o d e v i a t e  feelings  relatives,  t h e two s e c t i o n s a r e l i n k e d  Therefore,  n o t o n l y d o e s t h e poem p r e s e n t  from  towards h i s  by t h e theme o f t h e l o t u s . Huang's s i n c e r e and  kind  a t t i t u d e s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s  with  t h e i d e a o f s e c l u s i o n , a s do many o f h i s o t h e r  poems.  During  relationship  with  Huang's e n t i r e  h i s elder brother  accompanied  Court  he had a v e r y  Huang D a l i n  .  Huang r e c o r d e d Xian  Ting B i "  the event  ^^Jlfff!  b u t i t ends  close  His brother  him t h o u s a n d s o f k i l o m e t r e s away f r o m  Qianzhou Pingxiang  life  and f r i e n d s ,  home t o d i s t a n t  i n an e s s a y  (Inscribing  entitled  the Wall  "Shu  o f County  of Pingxiang);  [My b r o t h e r ] s t a y e d h e r e f o r s e v e r a l months and was r e l u c t a n t t o s e p a r a t e f r o m me. Thanks t o my c o l l e a g u e ' s c o n s o l a t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n , he f i n a l l y a g r e e d t o l e a v e . At o u r d e p a r t u r e , we w i p e d o u r t e a r s , h e l d e a c h o t h e r ' s hands, and t h o u g h t t h a t we would p a r t i n a d i s t a n t l a n d w i t h o u t any c h a n c e t o meet a g a i n . ^ He a l s o w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g poem d e s c r i b i n g h i s f e e l i n g s their  separation.  Rhyming and R e p l y i n g 20  about  YZHXSWJ, v o l . 2 0 ,  t o Yuanming's S e e i n g - o f f i n Q i a n n a n  p. 218. 58  F a c e t o f a c e , we f o r g e t we had s t a y e d i n t h e i n n t h o u s a n d s o f l i away from home. The monkey's c r y ^ made our t e a r s d r o p i n t o t h e f a r e w e l l wine c u p s . P r e v i o u s l y , we dreamed o f a s c e n d i n g t o h e a v e n as a morning c l o u d , When w i l l we a g a i n be bed t o bed l i s t e n i n g t o t h e evening rain? 23 Wagtails were s i d e by s i d e i n heavy snow, Swan g e e s e b r o k e t h e i r l i n e i n a sudden wind. You f r e q u e n t l y l o o k back i n y o u r d i s t a n t b o a t home, From now on, w r i t e t o me c o n t i n u o u s l y t o c o n s o l e my 25 broken heart. 2 4  The  poem o p e n s w i t h  and  sadness,  which  a sharp c o n t r a s t i s revealed  by  between Huang's  missing  h i s brother.  happiness He  is  21 R e f e r e n c e t o Y u e f u %$^\ ( f o l k s o n g s ) " t h e Wu G o r g e i s t h e longest one among t h e t h r e e g o r g e s i n t h e e a s t Ba,/Heard the monkey's c r y thrice, one's t e a r s wet his clothes." See Li Daoyuan f|j§7kJ S h u i J i n g Zhu , " J i a n g S h u i Zhu", Shanghai: S h a n g h a i Guo Xue Zheng L i She, 1936, v o l . 3 4 , p. 6. 22 "A m o r n i n g c l o u d " a l l u d e s t o Chu Huaiwang ' s jgffijj s t o r y . In his dream, he met a f a i r y maiden who served him f o r a night. When s h e l e f t him, s h e s a i d t h a t she l i v e d i n Wu m o u n t a i n on t h e s i d e o f Wu Gorge, and a p p e a r e d as a c l o u d i n t h e m o r n i n g and as r a i n i n t h e e v e n i n g . By u s i n g t h e s t o r y r e l a t e d t o Wu Gorge, Huang i m p l i e s he i s "a m o r n i n g c l o u d " who t r i e d t o o b t a i n a h i g h o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n a s tlje, f a i r y maiden r e a c h e d t h e k i n g . Song Yu % \ \ "Gao Tana. Fu* g j j j j l j , ed. , Zhu B i l i a n ^ | | J § i , Song Yu C i Fu Yi J i e t B e i j i n g : Zhong Guo She H u i Ke Xue Chu Ban She  /fc3?$|J!ff)!$*''  tlfiMfM! " '  1987  -- p  73  23 "Wagtails" a l l u d e s t o The Book o f Songs, w h i c h says,"When w a g t a i l s appear i n the f i e l d , / Brothers are i n urgent t r o u b l e . " From t h i s s o u r c e , t h e use o f " w a g t a i l s " o f t e n i m p l i e s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b r o t h e r s . SBCK, The Book o f Songs, vol.9, p. 66. 24 "Swan g e e s e b r o k e t h e i r l i n e " a l l u d e s t o "A f a t h e r ' s t r a c e i s f o l l o w e d , / An e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s t r a c e i s l i k e t h e l i n e o f the swan geese" i n L i J i "Wang Z h i " . Therefore, "Swan geese" s y m b o l i z e s b r o t h e r h o o d . See Wang F u z h i i, L i J i Zhang J u % ffff T a i p e i : Guang Wen Shu D i a n j ^ j ^ j g j , 1957, v o l . 5 , p. 30. ' ' , U > U  25  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.12,  p. 215. 59  T  happy b e c a u s e h i s b r o t h e r li,  but  he  i s sad  has  accompanied  because h i s b r o t h e r  has  him  f o r thousands  t o l e a v e him.  moment, Huang r e g r e t s t h a t he dreamed o f b e i n g official far  career  away f r o m  "wagtails"  symbolize do  h i s home.  and  mutual help  resulted  their  can  present  see  brother  have a d e v o t e d  i s to correspond  relationship.  each other;  at departure,  we  can  Huang e x p r e s s e s  for  how  these  themes make up the  self-expression Therefore, v i e w s on  Ye  Gu  the  other  they  frequently.  miss each o t h e r " . "  Bioqrapny You  Xian  Gong S i  and  depend  longing friends  In  fact, poetry.  Huang's p o e t r y and  i n Chapter  One  Taipei:  of  feelings. with are  his  1981  own  more  L i Ming Wen  i^A^fW&HfJ^ ' '  60  his his elder  affairs,  of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , agrees  o f Huang T i n g j i a n ) ,  this  Moreover,  part of h i s  h i s thoughts  can  i n h i s poems.  of h i s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .  saw  to  From  In a d v e r s i t y , t h e y  towards h i s r e l a t i v e s  which we  past  "sudden wind"  his inner feelings  express  post  only t h i n g t h a t they  themes i n h i s p o e t r y ,  directly  p o e t i c theory,  Fen  brothers'  between Huang and  most s i g n i f i c a n t  Huang's p o e t r y  Liu (A C r i t i c a l  26  Shi  feelings  major c o n t e n t  Compared w i t h  two  Huang's i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w o r l d l y  s e c l u s i o n , and  comprise the  to a  a s L i u Weizhong d e s c r i b e s , " T i n g j i a n and  on  In s h o r t ,  The  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s just  the  exile  Huang f u r t h e r u s e s  "swan g e e s e " and  separation.  each o t h e r  brother  see  couplet,  " h e a v i l y snowing" t o imply  this  i n v o l v e d i n an  i n h i s present  In t h e t h i r d  i n a d v e r s i t y , and  to console  poem, we  w h i c h has  At  of  '  p  *  146  Hua  '  Expressionist  II.  than  Pragmatic.  Nature As  subject  early  as more t h a n 2,500 y e a r s ago, n a t u r e was t a k e n  o f poetry i n China.  extensively  described.  landscapes,  animals,  detail.  Different  nature  was  In Huang's p o e t r y , n a t u r e i n t h e form o f  plants,  from  I n t h e The Book o f Songs,  as a  seasons,  some e a r l i e r  and t i m e shan  i s described i n  shui  (landscape) J  poets,  whose d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e d o m i n a t e t h e i r  poetic  !  creations,  (such as X i e Lingyun  o r Wang W e i i n s e r v e s t o imply  t h e Tang),  jg ' i n t h e S i x D y n a s t i e s  Huang's p o e t r y on n a t u r e  h i s own f e e l i n g s  poem i s one w h i c h i s most o f t e n  and t h o u g h t s .  period  mainly  The f o l l o w i n g  t a k e n a s an example o f h i s n a t u r e  poems. Poem on Snow f o r Duke G u a n g p i n g The  s k y w i t h f a l l i n g s p r i n g snow i s a s c l e a r as i f washed, S u d d e n l y , i t r e m i n d s me o f sand v i s i b l e on t h e b o t t o m o f a t r a n s p a r e n t r i v e r . At n i g h t , I h e a r d i t snowing t h i c k and t h i n , I n t h e m o r n i n g , I saw i t snowing s t r a i g h t o r a n g l e d . The snow f l a k e s danced w i t h t h e c i r c l i n g wind, C l e v e r h e a v e n c a n c r e a t e snow b l o s s o m s i n a minute. E v e n i f i t l e t s i t snow a s much as i t c a n , s o t h e c o l d n e s s c h i l l s us t o t h e bone, S t i l l i t d o e s n o t b o t h e r peach and plum f l o w e r s from e n j o y i n g w o n d e r f u l days. As  27  a Chinese  traditional  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  symbol o f h a p p i n e s s ,  v o l . 6 , p. 97.  snow i m p r e s s e s  us  here  with  feelings  the beauty from  of nature.  the d e s c r i p t i o n  by  subtly  through  the senses  feelings simply  be  nature.  and  by  traditional us  expresses  the poet's  which  sight,  p e r c e p t i o n , but  a higher l e v e l - - s p i r i t u a l  "the c o l d n e s s  effect  b u t a l s o by The  must  the beauty symbols,  l o o k a t one  h i s own  these  us t o t h e  joyful  images were c a r e f u l l y  more example a t how  f e e l i n g s through  cannot  communication  of nature are r e v e a l e d through  and  Huang  a description  days  She Who And Her  with bone", by  feelings t h e use  of  chosen.  subtly of flowers.  W i t h g r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Wang Congdao's p r e s e n t f i f t y n a r c i s s u s e s , w h i c h I w r o t e t h i s poem t o p r a i s e . The  and  be  i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e enjoyment o f w o n d e r f u l the poet's  not  blending h i s  beauty  [ o f enow] c h i l l s  Therefore,  joyful  perfectly  his imagination,  o f snowing.  physical  plum f l o w e r s .  inspired  Let  through  Although  does not  peach  o f h e a r i n g and  measured by  feel  Huang a c h i e v e s t h i s  snow t h r o u g h  with the d e s c r i p t i o n  appreciated  it  describing  can  o f snow t o o ,  match t h e symbol o f h a p p i n e s s . only  We  of  28 f a i r y maiden r i d i n g t h e wave wears s i l k gauze socks s t a i n e d with specs of dust. l i t h e l y s t r o l l s on t h e water under t h e p a l e moonlight. on e a r t h b r o u g h t s u c h p a t h o s . implanted i t i n t h i s c o l d - r e s i s t a n t flower to embody h i s deep s a d n e s s ? w h i t e , c l e a n , f r a g r a n t form charms p e o p l e ,  28 "The f a i r y maiden r i d i n g t h e wave" a l l u d e s t o Cao Z h i ' s "Luo Shen Fu" ^j^K <Ode t o F a i r y Maiden i n Luo R i v e r ) , which s a y s , "The f a i r y maiden r i d i n g t h e wave s t e p s g e n t l y , / H e r silk gauze socks s t a i n e d with dust. " ^irfrsa J See Zhao Youwen , "Luo Shen F u " Z h i J i J i a o Zhu HJ|$ , Taipei:'' Ming Wen Shu J u ^^r| , 1985, p. 284. 1  ffijffiCao  62  ffjf  Rue i s her younger b r o t h e r , and plum h e r e l d e r one. S i t t i n g f a c i n g i t , l o n e l y , I am r e a l l y d i s t u r b e d , I walk out t h e d o o r and l a u g h , f o r t h e b i g r i v e r l i e s below me.Departing title,  from  d i r e c t praise of  Huang u n e x p e c t e d l y  the  narcissus  indicated in  the  begins with a d e l i c a t e d e s c r i p t i o n  of i  a  well-known  who  i s the  can  see  f i g u r e i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of  narcissuses  fertile  soil  nicely.  We  standing  attached are  conventional  the  struck  by  this  picture  b e a u t i f u l s h a p e and  the  grows from the of  the  Shen,  sentimental  line.  s i x the  s o u l o f Luo i n t o one.  as  characterized line  Luo  and  only  image  even  fibrous roots  d e s c r i p t i o n not  i n d i c a t i n g that  Shen,  Since  the  the  that  i s pictured the  use  of  obtains  to  narcissus.  i t i s characterized  Shen  the  and  spirit  as  by  i t s external  the  narcissus  a f e m a l e image,  and  a feminine nature.  of " d i " the  subtle  vol.15,  has  form  point,  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  us  narcissus  p o e t c o m b i n e s Luo  narcissus  not  Shen i s .  Upon t o t h i s by  the  we  the  because  growing environment  i s further described  brother) reveals  29  by  i t i s natural  Narcissus fifth  From t h i s  a l s o b e c a u s e Huang's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n h e l p s  second couplet,  narcissus Luo  Shen ^jjtjf >  a p p r o a c h i s t o compare a p e r s o n w i t h a f l o w e r , but  the  Luo  w i t h water,  narcissus'  vice-versa,  In  narcissus.  i n a pot  to the  poetry,  ( y o u n g e r b r o t h e r ) and change o f t h e  p. 280. 63  in  the  been Yet,  in  "xiong"  poet's f e e l i n g while  he  was l o o k i n g w i t h poet  a p p r e c i a t i o n at the n a r c i s s u s .  brings himself into  satisfied lonely  with  just  changed  from  t h e end. feelings  even  and  which b r i n g s him j o y and The i m a g e r y  one i n t h e b e g i n n i n g  The p o e t ' s  view c h a n g e d f r o m  c h a n g e d from  though t h e poet  narcissus,  Then when he l e a v e s , t h e r e b e f o r e him i s  o f melancholy.  a feminine  enjoys  he i s n o t w i l l i n g  with  nature.  the beauty  beauty,  description  by s u c h  his feelings His feelings  but they  both  fine  that  of the emotions,  skilful in  i s not only t o present t h e and so on, b u t h i s  and i n t e r e s t s i n h i s poetry  n o t be d i s p l a y e d a s o b v i o u s l y and d i r e c t l y  self-expression,  We s e n s e  realm.  a change o f n a t u r e ,  o f nature.  one  narrow t o open, and  and g e n t l e n a t u r e  t o be s p o i l e d  Yet, h i s i n t e n t  e m p h a s i s i s on c o n v e y i n g  might  t o a masculine  e x a m p l e s above show us t h a t Huang i s v e r y  describing reader  i n t h e poem  sentimental to cheerful.  h o p e s t o p u r s u e an open and b r o a d The  us know he i s n o t  t h e n a r c i s s u s a s i t makes him f e e l  view o f a b i g r i v e r  releases h i s feeling  his  viewing  and s e n t i m e n t a l .  a magnificent  in  t h e poem and l e t s  F i n a l l y , the  through  a  on n a t u r e  a s t h o s e on  s e r v e a mutual g o a l - - t o  express  human e m o t i o n s a n d n a t u r e .  III.  Daily In  Life  h i s An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Sung P o e t r y ,  p o i n t s out that the concern  for daily  64  life  Yoshikawa  Kojiro  i s an i m p o r t a n t  trait  TO in  Song p o e t r y s o t h a t  This  concern  poetry. It  significantly  are taken  e n l a r g e s the range  said  significant quantity.  that  portion He  He  t e a ) , and  awakening from the f o l l o w i n g  themes.  characteristics.  o f poems makes up t h e most  negligible  uses  both  trivial  a dream, poem,  group  as  o f Huang's p o e t r y i n t e r m s o f h i s p o e t i c  t a k e s any  subjects.  a picture,  this  up  o f s u b j e c t s o f Song  Huang's p o e t r y a p p a r e n t l y b e a r s t h e same  c o u l d be  poetic  mundane m a t t e r s  and  thing  trivial  events  from  daily  o b j e c t s ( s u c h as a b r u s h ,  ( s u c h as r e c e i v i n g  asking f o r flowers).  " Q i Mao"  l i f e for his  For  jmigh.t be c o n s i d e r e d a  a  gift,  example, clever  trifle: P e t i t i o n i n g A Cat When autumn came, r a t s , b e n e f i t i n g by my c a t ' s d e a t h , Peeped i n j a r s , t u r n e d o v e r d i s h e s , and d i s t u r b e d my night's rest. I h e a r d y o u r p u s s gave b i r t h t o a l i t t e r , So I b o u g h t f i s h s t r u n g a l o n g a w i l l o w b r a n c h t o i n v i t e a locust-eater. ^ There  i s no  deep s i g n i f i c a n c e  Huang makes t h e t r i f l i n g use  of simple,  intentionally behaviour, behaviour  delightful  colloquial uses  30  Kojiro  31  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  language.  s i m p l e poem,  and  but  interesting  Also,  the  "turn  over",  "string",  Yoshikawa,  "disturb"),  "invite"  op.cit.,  vol.7,  pp  p. 150.  65  and  and  "bite"),  14-19.  still  through  his  poet  a c h a i n of verbs to d e s c r i b e both  ("peep", ("buy",  to t h i s  the  the  rat's  poet's  so t h a t  the  rats'  d i s t u r b a n c e and t h e p o e t ' s  action,  which  p r o d u c e s a humorous  Among t h i s  :  a s s o c i a t e d with  appreciation.  i n verbs o f  effect.  g r o u p o f poems about d a i l y  many t i hua s h i ^||}| (poenis be  a n x i e t y a r e embodied  inscribed  life,  Huang  on p a i n t i n g s ) .  Huang's c a l l i g r a p h i c  talent  composes This  and g r e a t  might  artistic  L e t us l o o k a t one o f h i s "poems i n s c r i b i n g  a  painting". Inscribing  a P a i n t i n g o f Bamboo, Rock,  and B u f f a l o e s  Zizhan < j ) drew a bunch o f bamboo and a r o c k o f g r o t e s q u e s h a p e ; B o s h i ( jfi^j > added a b u f f a l o boy on t h e back o f a b u f f a l o i n the f r o n t slope. These a r e v e r y meaningful. I w r o t e t h i s poem i n j e s t . I n t h e f i e l d i s a j a g g e d r o c k o f g r o t e s q u e shape, B e s i d e i t , g r e e n bamboo l e a n on one a n o t h e r . A b u f f a l o boy h o l d s a whip t h r e e c h i l o n g , - To d r i v e an o l d b u f f a l o . I l o v e t h e r o c k s o much, Do n o t a l l o w b u f f a l o e s t o r u b t h e i r h o r n s on i t . I c o u l d r e l u c t a n t l y a c c e p t them r u b b i n g t h e i r h o r n s , But n e v e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f my bamboo f r o m f i g h t i n g buffaloes. 3 2  This  i s also  poet  starts  this  poem, we know t h a t s t a t i c  are  an i n t e r e s t i n g by e x h i b i t i n g  s h o r t poem.  h i s impressions  t h r e e major o b j e c t s i n t h e p a i n t i n g .  buffalo's  a c t i o n s which t h e poet  between s t a t i c  "bamboo",  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  of the painting.  bamboo, r o c k ,  t h r e e o b j e c t s a r e independent.  32  Facing a painting, the  "rock",  v o l . 9 , p. 174.  imagines,  and dynamic b u f f a l o s  I n one s e n s e ,  Yet, through  these  the description of  the interaction  and dynamic  From  "buffalo" i s  created. rock  In d o i n g  and bamboo,  so, t h e p o e t  presents  h i s cherished  and h i s humour w h i c h was  Chen Bogu a l s o  points  out that  the poet  between s t a t i c  and dynamic o b j e c t s ,  i n s p i r e d by  shows  trifles.  "the r e l a t i o n  between w h i c h t h e r e  i s no  33 relation,  so t h a t  As f o r t h i s beauty in  t h e poem becomes  poem w h i c h d i s p l a y s  i n a humorous  China,  thinks  discovers  that  mood, Chen Yongzheng more s e r i o u s  Ruoxu's comment on t h i s what k i n d  and s i g n i f i c a n t  into this  employed  of implied  scholar  meaning.  He  poetry  on d a i l y  affairs  poem.  that  I t seems t h a t  Wang  " I t i s a good poem, 35  s i g n i f i c a n c e does i t have?"  life,  or r e a l i t y .  t h e major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  which n e i t h e r Generally  h a v e no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i e t y ,  reflect  speaking,  i n t h e s e poems a r e t h e t r i v i a l i t i e s  themes o f t h e s e poems a r e o f o r d i n a r y that  modern  a  Yet, I t h i n k  poem i s more f i t t i n g :  The e x a m p l e s above r e p r e s e n t  political  treasuring  f$JJtj£ »  f e e l i n g s about p o l i t i c s . "  Chen r e a d s h i s p r e c o n c e p t i o n  Huang's  t h e poet  t h e poem " c i r c u i t o u s l y e x p r e s s e s t h e p o e t ' s 34  contradictory  but  vivid."  nor  criticize  the"subjects  of daily  life.  The  human f e e l i n g s o r t h o u g h t s and t h e moods o f t h e poems  show b o t h " g r o a n i n g and l a u g h i n g " . 33 Chen Bogu |Hfti-§ » Song S h i Xuan J i a n g JffTtjj-tff; , ( S e l e c t e d R e a d i n g i n Song P o e t r y ) , Hong Kong: The S h a n g h a i Book Co., p.58. 34 Chen Yongzheng, C o l l e c t i o n o f Huang's 1980, p.170. 35  Wang Ruoxu,  Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Xuan P o e t r y ) , Hong Kong: J o i n t  op.cit.,  p.258. 67  tfK§Hf.J2 i Publishing  <A Co.,  IV.  P h i l o s o p h y i n Huang's P o e t r y S i n c e Zhou D u n y i ,  t h e Cheng b r o t h e r s  1032-1085,  Cheng Y i HH 1033-1107),  to develop  Chinese  (Cheng Hao  and Zhu X i made g r e a t  f|ff  efforts  p h i l o s o p h y , l i xue ( $§!S Neo-Conf u c i a n i s m )  became p r e v a l e n t i n t h e Song D y n a s t y . not  |§tk)r.5|  write so-called  shuo l i s h i  Thus, few Song p o e t s d i d  |^+3jj|  , (poems t a l k i n g o f  36 li).  Furthermore,  Taoism,  and Buddhism,  Huang was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d so t h a t  i t s h o u l d n o t s u r p r i s e us t h a t  w r o t e many poems d i s c u s s i n g37 h i s p h i l o s o p h y . a t h i s " Y i Xuan S h i ' as an example. S l l t i H  considered  by Mo L i f e n g  i n Confucianism, he  L e t us t a k e a l o o k T h i s poem i s  t o be " p u t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t e r m i n o l o g y 38  of Confucianism,  Buddhism,  and T a o i s m  without  much v a l u e . "  Poems on Y i Xuan I r o n and r o c k a r e n o t moved by t h e waves. The s p i r i t o f p i n e and bamboo c a n be r e a l i z e d i n the c o l d season. Pondering t h i s mortal world, I r e t u r n t o o b s e r v e my i n n e r mind.  36 Here l i , mainly Conf ucianism, including Buddhism.  refers to those principles of Neod o c t r i n e s o f C o n f u c i a n i s m , Taoism, and  37 " Y i " ||,means "maintenance of health" and "Xuan" means "veranda". Huang q u o t e s t h e s i x - w o r d e x p l a n a t i o n o f " Y i " f r o m the Y i Jinq (The Book o f C h a n g e s ) , e.g. t o o b s e r v e Cthe] maintenance from Cthe] demand [ f o r ] a p p e t i t e s [ a n d ] f o o d . He f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t t o "observe [ t h e ] maintenance" means t o o b s e r v e what i s m a i n t a i n e d ; and t h a t "from [ t h e ] demand [ f o r ] a p p e t i t e s [ a n d ] f o o d " means t o o b s e r v e how one m a i n t a i n s h i m s e l f . 38  Mo L i f e n g ,  op.cit.,  p. 28. 68  To know c o n t e n t m e n t i s t h e m i r a c l e t u r t l e , A l l - a c c e p t a n c e i s a gourmet's l u c k [maintenance]. T h i n k i n g a l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s w i t h an empty h e a r t . Hot and c o l d come f r o m t h e f o u r s e a s o n s . No f o r m i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t . Which i s where s i x r o o t s come from. I f you c a n know o r i g i n a l n a t u r e , Buddha w i l l l o o k d i f f e r e n t . The most shamed i s one w i t h many d e s i r e s , The most happy i s one w i t h no demands. One i n h i s whole l i f e s h o u l d s t u d y h a r d . Days p a s s f a s t l i k e moving water. The key i s t o t a k e a c t i o n w i t h o u t h u r r y . F o o d s h o u l d n o t be d e l i c i o u s . F i s h e r m e n a r e d e s t r o y e d by f i s h i n g , G e n t l e m e n a r e d e s t r o y e d by a p p e t i t e s . Muddy J i n g R i v e r d o e s n o t p o l l u t e c l e a r Wei P l a n t i n g p e a c h c a n n o t h a r v e s t plum [ f o o d ] . C u l t i v a t e t h e h e a r t and d i s c a r d t h e d u s t . Then b r i g h t n e s s w i l l be b o r n i n t h e h e a r t . As  Mo  p o i n t s out,  terms.  Also,  the s i x stanzas  i t i s not  by  artistic  it  t o d i s c u s s ideas taken  example, stanza  standards.  really  the  idea of  i s taken  from  As  "To  indeed  i n c l u d e many  v a l u a b l e i f we  a poem " t a l k i n g from  religious  Dao  De  judge  religious  t h e poem o n l y  about l i . " ,  classical  know c o n t e n t m e n t "  the T a o i s t  River,  Huang  works.  .in the  wrote For  second  J i n g jgift^ |? ° t h e  idea of  4  4--as I "the o r i g i n a l Dao  Yuan's  the  idea of  nature  J§J|j<ll "study  i n the t h i r d  A. D. ) J i n g  De  s t a n z a i s from  Zhuan Deng Lu  the  &ltff tlJK  hard"  !in the f o u r t h s t a n z a i s from p.191.  39  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.11,  40  WYWK, L a o z i ,  L a o z i Ben  41  SBCK, Dao  Yuan,  Jing  De  Y i .jt-f#lff ' . v o l . 3 6 , Zhuan Deng Lu, 69  Buddhist ;  4 1  the  p. 53.  vol.30,  p.10.  and  L i J i filr*, • ~  Confucian indeed the  easy  i n poetry,  i ti s  t o be " i n d a n g e r o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e p o e t i c harmony o f  work. " ^  Y e t , poems l i k e  4  explore  In d i s c u s s i n g p h i l o s o p h y  Huang's t h o u g h t s .  whether they  favour  condemn  important  this  this  one are- v e r y  Those s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s ,  o r a r e a g a i n s t Huang, poem.  Huang's v i e w o f t h e p o l i t i c a l In t h e f o r e w o r d  In f a c t ,  no m a t t e r  o f t e n n e g l e c t o r even  t h e poem c l e a r l y  reflects  f u n c t i o n of poetry.  t o t h e poem, Huang i n d i c a t e d  "I w r i t e t h i s  poem by u s i n g s i x w o r d s - - o b s e r v e ,  from,  a p p e t i t e s , and f o o d - - t o  demand,  valuable to  h i s purpose: maintenance,  e n c o u r a g e and a d v i s e  44 readers."  Even t h o u g h Huang p l a y s w i t h  inserting poetic  intent  discuss his  one o f them i n t o i s t o teach  the fourth stanza  these  s i x words by  each o f t h e s i x s t a n z a s , people  how  in detail  t o behave. t o s e e how  Huang's  Here, Huang  l e t us  instructs  readers. In t h e f i r s t  couplet of this  stanza,  importance of the idea of non-craving negative  aspects.  originates second  simply  in  t h e Book o f R i t e s  42  Wang F u z h i ,  43  Kojiro  both  p o s i t i v e and  44  SGSZ,  and d o m i n a t e s a l l s i x s t a n z a s . repeats the t r a d i t i o n a l ( L i J i ) , which s a y s  op.cit.,  Yoshikawa, Neiji,  from  states the  T h i s i d e a , o r t h e theme o f t h e poem,  i n Taoism,  couplet  t h e poet  vol.41, p . l b .  op,cit.,  vol.11,  p. 21.  p. 191. 70  that  actually  The  idea that  appears  "A g e n t l e m a n must  study  hard  expresses  day and n i g h t t o p r e p a r e h i s ideas d i r e c t l y  sentences.  used  persistent his  the idea of non-craving theme o f s e c l u s i o n .  i n almost  i s closely  Also,  Huang  normal  o f Huang's  related  self  to the  the i d e a o f hard  study i s  v i e w o f Huang's w h i c h we d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s o u r c e s o f  method and p o e t i c  Huang u s e d  and f r a n k l y  C o n s i d e r i n g our p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n  expression, often  t o be q u e s t i o n e d . "  content.  These a r e j u s t  the ideas  that  t o e n c o u r a g e and a d v i s e h i s r e a d e r s i n h i s shuo l i  shi. Huang's shuo l i s h i may Buddhist,  Taoist,  and C o n f u c i a n  poems a r e n o t c l o s e l y expression recognize  related  ideas.  that  his creation results  at that  time,  from  as expounding  I t i s obvious  Y e t , we  o f a g r e a t number  which few p o e t s  what he b e l i e v e s i n w i l l  should  of this  kind of  avoided.  benefit  Furthermore,  persuade and  people  Confucian  sufferings  45  function  of poetry.  to believe  other people.  Thus, h i s  diligent  study,  and c r i t i c i z i n g  Y e t , what he m a i n l y  i n i s Buddhist instead  political  and T a o i s t  of r e f l e c t i n g affairs.  Wang F u z h i , op. c i t . , v o l . 41, p. l b .  in  i n , and h o p e s  shuo l i s h i seems t o be t h e g r o u p o f h i s poems w h i c h most the p o l i t i c a l  these  the strong influence of the poetic  t h e s e poems he d i s c u s s e d what he i s i n t e r e s t e d that  that  t o h i s i d e a s o f p o e t r y b e i n g an  o f human e m o t i o n and n a t u r e .  poems c h i e f l y fashion  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  shows  wants t o  non-craving people's  We  have o b t a i n e d  poetry can  the  from  the  indifference  the sincere f e e l i n g s  expression  he h a s f o r h i s r e l a t i v e s  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s view t h a t o f human n a t u r e  and e m o t i o n " .  i n a more i n d i r e c t  poetry  mainly  on d a i l y  through  the d e s c r i p t i o n  conflict As  life  of d a i l y  h i s creation  Su out,  interests  S h i , who  "To r e a d  insignificant  related  on  nature  feelings  these  themes do  Huang's shuo l i s h i  t o h i s E x p r e s s i o n i s t views.  o f h i s time,  h a s deep i n s i g h t  Luzhi's poetry  Huang's p o e t r y  and i n s p i r e d  into  Huang's p o e t r y ,  points  i s t o meet Lu Z h o n g l i a n ^f^^| < %i!t\ * not t a l k  seems n o t t o a p p l y  o f Su S h i ' s " n o t t o a p p l y  Huang d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y  by h i s  and m o r a l i t y .  d o e s n o t mean i t d o e s n o t h e l p t h e w o r l d  46  i s . an  views.  we d a r e  understanding  friends  Even t h o u g h h i s  trivialities,  i n philosophy  and Although  seclusion,  o f shuo l i s h i i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e  poetic style  individual  and  His poetry way.  part of h i s poetry,  seems n o t t o be d i r e c t l y  prevalent  expresses  with h i s p o e t i c  an i m p o r t a n t  "Poetry  We  self-  to worldly a f f a i r s ,  exposes h i s f e e l i n g s  Yet,  Huang's  d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e poems above.  including  are c l o s e l y  not  of  content  s e e t h a t t h e major themes o f Huang's p o e t r y on  expression, and  of  an o v e r v i e w  reflect  about  t o t h e world,  a t a l l „46 .  72  :  that  My  t o the world"  and c r i t i c i z e  BBCS, Su S h i , Donqpo T i Ba $;  vulgarities.  i s that  political  , v o l . 2 , p. 36.  affairs  in  h i s poetry,  in  one s e n s e ;  so t h a t  h i s p o e t r y does n o t f u n c t i o n  Su's "does n o t mean t h e y do n o t h e l p t h e w o r l d a t  all"  means t h a t  like  non-craving  t h e moral and h a r d  sense  i n Huang's p o e t r y ,  industry,  and s o on, s t i l l  that  not t a l k  about  Huang i m p r e s s e s  who p u r s u e s  d i s c u s s e d i n Huang's shuo l i s h i ,  study,  expressed  "we d a r e  i n the world  and human e m o t i o n s and n a t u r e  like  benefit  seclusion,  faith,  h i s readers.  vulgarities"  piety,  The r e a s o n  why  after reading h i s poetry i s  us a s one who h a s n o r m a l human e m o t i o n s and  the perfection  o f h i s own m o r a l  73  qualities.  Chapter P o e t i c T h e o r y and In  this  theory to  and  further  practice,  chapter,  practice  of  by  understand and  technique. Chapter  we  we  we  Yet,  c o n t i n u e our  the r e l a t i o n  will  Poetic  Technique  comparison  o f Huang's  l o o k i n g at h i s p o e t i c technique,  also  concluded  h i s method.  Practice:  will  between h i s t h e o r y  examine h i s a p p l i c a t i o n  In t h e a n a l y s i s  One,  Three  of h i s theory  and  of p o e t i c  of p o e t i c technique  that o r i g i n a l i t y  most C h i n e s e  i n order  critics  i s the b a s i c have  in  principle  regularly I  identified  him  with  the phrase  " s t r a n g e Huang" ^f^fj (and j  paired first  i t with used  by  " u n r e s t r a i n e d Su" Wu  Huang's s t r a n g e n e s s his  method  be  original,  technique "The  i s basically  i n every  a reflection  p o s s i b l e way.  The  my  was  opinion.  of the p r i n c i p l e  In o t h e r words,  i n order  of  to  Wu  Ke,  a paper Critics",  As Lu Z h e n g h u i j ~ [ j E l | w r i t e s , f o c u s e s on  particular  making h i m s e l f d i s t i n c t l y  BBCSJC,  In  phrase  Huang d o e s h i s utmost t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e h i s p o e t i c  p o i n t which Huang T i n g j i a n  School), Literary  dynasty. 1  in his poetic creation.  poetry unusual."  1  ) ever s i n c e t h i s  t h e Sung  often  1  and  different  Canq H a l S h i Hua  presented 1976, p. 5.  in 74  i s how  intentional  from  pursuit  other poets  fjlfffiffi  the  t o make h i s  first  , p. 14,  panel  of  results  in  p. 80.  of  "Chinese  his  poetry  even  being  marked by t r a c e s o f s t r a n g e n e s s .  t h o u g h he a l s o w r o t e poems i m i t a t i n g  based  ^}J^j$  Dongshu  h a s most a p t l y  (1772-1851),  surprise  and o r i g i n a l i t y  creative  intention  jj^-^l  we w i l l  we w i l l  "Fuweng  allusions  [Huang] c o n s i d e r s  poetic  i n meaning,  style.  His  style,  and s o u n d s . . .  h i s strangeness  realm I n what  1 , 3  as a . f o c a l p o i n t from  which  i n h i s method and i n t h e  techniques.  i n Poetic Structure  we know, t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i n t h e o f Chinese  regulated verse normally  s t r u c t u r e ( s e e p. 12).  limited  Yet, a p o e t ' s  follows the four-  creative ability  by c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , and he m i g h t f e e l  give f u l l  play to h i s talent.  intentionally naturally look  words,  take  of other  Strangeness  creation part  and/or  been p o i n t e d o u t by Fang  a s marks o f h i s s t r a n g e  e x a m i n e how i t i s r e f l e c t e d  application  As  who wrote,  i s f a r from o t h e r s  3, s e n t e n c e s ,  follows,  I.  poets,  on c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c r u l e s .  Huang's s t r a n g e n e s s  [  other  This i s true,  unable t o  S i n c e Huang i s t h e p o e t  pursues strangeness  c a n be  who  i n p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , he  does not conform t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s .  a t an example o f Huang's c r e a t i o n o f u n u s u a l  Here, l e t  poetic  structure:  On C u r v i n g  Bamboo P a i n t e d by Huang  Binlao  3 Fang Dongshu, Zhao Wei Zhan Yan 1^^,11 d '• , ed. , Guo Shaoyu, B e i j i n g : Ren M i n Wen Xue Chu Ban She, 1961, v o l . 1 0 , p.225. 75  P o u r i n g wine i n t o y o u r h e a r t c a n n o t drown y o u r emotions, You s p a t o u t d a r k g r e e n , a n c i e n t bamboo, t h a t i s l o f t y even i n t h e w i n t e r .  4  L i k e a s l e e p i n g dragon, t h u n d e r c a n n o t awaken i t , You and bamboo b o t h f o r g e t a b o u t y o u r b o d i l y f o r m s . The image o f t h e b r i g h t window has f a l l e n i n t o t h e i n k i n the hollow of your inkstone. The r a b b i t - h a i r b r u s h , w h i t e as f r o s t , s w e l l s f u l l w i t h j u s t one s l i g h t d r o p o f t h e p i n e - t a r i n k . The bamboo has been t w i s t e d a r o u n d t h r e e r o c k s i n t h e middle of the p a i n t i n g . F o r t h e p a i n t e r f e a r s t h e bamboo might f l y o f f ^ when completely p a i n t e d . 7  This  i s a poem d e s c r i b i n g  Intentionally  deviating  Huang B i n l a o ' s  f r o m t h e t o p i c announced  Huang b e g i n s by d e s c r i b i n g bamboo.  The  painter's  painting  the painter's  emotions  in a lively,  i n the  title,  mood w h i l e p a i n t i n g  a d o p t i o n o f t h e v e r b s " p o u r " and  inflamed  o f bamboo.  "spat"  intense  way.  4 Huang o f t e n compares bamboo t o d r a g o n s i n a s i n h i s "Cong B i n l a o Q i Ku Sun" j ^ ^ ^ l f Bamboo S h o o t s f r o m B i n l a o ) , and "He S h i h o u Z a i (Reply t o Shihow's P l a n t i n g Bamboo). The use a l l u d e s t o F e i Changfang's s t o r y . See BBCSJC, Ge X i a n Zhuan jjjtjjjjj^ , v o l . 9 , p. 4.  depicts  the the  In t h e  h i s poems, s u c h (Begging B i t t e r Zhu" jf{Jjlf Jffjftff of comparison H o n g | | | | j , Shen  5 "Wang x i n g " \ t o f o r g e t a b o u t someone's b o d i l y f o r m ) , which originates from Zhuangzi, refers to someone who concentrates on something so intensively that he forgets e v e r y t h i n g , even h i s b o d i l y e x i s t e n c e . See B u r t o n Watson, The C o m p l e t e Works o f Chuang T s u , New York and L o n d o n : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968, p.317. (  6 The l a s t s e n t e n c e a l l u d e s t o Zhang Sengyou's $\jfj|| story, w h i c h s a y s t h a t Zhang p a i n t s a d r a g o n w i t h o u t e y e s b e c a u s e t h e d r a g o n w i l l f l y a s s o o n as i t s e y e s a r e p a i n t e d . The a l l u s i o n i s o f t e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e how good a p a i n t e r ' s s k i l l i s . _^ See BBCSJC, Zhang Yanyuan » L i D a i Ming Hua J i Djff$jBjJj|. » vol. 7, p. 6b. ml^L. 7  SGSZ,  Neiji,  v o l . 1 2 , pp  228-229. 76  second couplet,  t h e poet s h i f t s t o r e v e a l the s p i r i t u a l  b o t h p a i n t e r and p e r s o n i f i e d bamboo, a s s e r t i n g t h a t consider point, and  their  b o d i l y forms s i g n i f i c a n t  the organic  any l o n g e r .  unity of the a r t i s t i c  neither At t h i s  effect of the painting  the painter's idea i s built. Unexpectedly,  surroundings and  i n the third couplet  t h e poet imagines t h e  i n w h i c h t h e p a i n t e r composed t h e c u r v i n g bamboo,  t h e t o o l s he u s e d .  Finally,  i n t h e l a s t c o u p l e t , Huang  d e s c r i b e s t h e c u r v i n g bamboo e x p l i c i t l y . appropriate be  state of  allusion  (i.e.,  t h e bamboo when c o m p l e t e l y  s o p e r f e c t i t m i g h t come t o l i f e ) ,  marvellous  By b o r r o w i n g an  t h e poet t e l l s  c l e v e r l y adopts a multi-angled he i n d i r e c t l y  approach t o b u i l d  b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t e r a n d t h e bamboo. a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the surroundings  of th  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  T h i r d l y , t h e poet s h i f t s t o  i n which t h e p a i n t e r c r e a t e s .  he comes b a c k t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e a p p r e c i a t o r o f  seated  multi-angled  directly  i n front of the painting.  " I t i s very  many l e v e l s .  The u s e o f t h i s  approach i n such a s h o r t p o e t i c form l e a v e s  t r a n s i t i o n a l gaps between t h e angles. out,  i t s structure.  Then, c u r v i n g bamboo i s c o m p a r e d  w i t h t h e p a i n t e r ' s mood f r o m t h e a n g l e  art,  Huang  d e s c r i b e s t h e p a i n t i n g from t h e angle  p a i n t e r ' s mood w h i l e p a i n t i n g .  Finally,  u s how  the painting i s .  Now l e t u s e x a m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s poem.  First.,  drawn w i l  important  many  As F a n g Dongshu p o i n t s  t h a t a s h o r t p i e c e o f w r i t i n g have  A few s e n t e n c e s s h o u l d 77  a f f e c t u s a s much a s a l o n g  paragraph, distant  and t h e gap between t h e s e s e n t e n c e s s h o u l d  as ten-thousand  l i .  Most o f Shangu's  [short  be as poetry]  Q  bears t h i s  trait."  personified  I t i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p i r i t  curving  bamboo t h a t  internal  coherence that  not  that  feel The  bridges  the structure  effectively  short  serves  relationship  poem,  i n t o focus  bamboo.  between p a i n t e r  of, the painting  poetic  Therefore,  out),  we do  enriches the  but a l s o  fervour,  the  and p a i t i n g , and t h e c r e a t i v e are hidden within,  are not included  just  o r happen  i n the painting.  i n t h e poem t h r o u g h  Huang t a k e s f u l l  language t o i n c l u d e  Thus,  Huang's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  The p a i n t e r ' s  that  these elements a r e contained approach.  approach not only  (Fang p o i n t s  surroundings of the painter outside  to the  o f t h e poem i s t o o l o o s e .  to bring  of the curving  t h e main c l u e  a l l o f t h e s e gaps.  use o f the multi-angled  meaning o f t h i s  spirit  provides  of the  the  Yet,  multi-angled  advantage o f the a r t o f  what t h e a r t o f p a i n t i n g  does n o t  express. In  short,  commonly  we c a n s e e t h a t  this  i n s c r i b e d on p a i n t i n g s ,  subject--matter  of the paintings  e s c a p e s from t h e normal c o n t e n t behind  the four-part  Furthermore,  8  structure  he c r e a t e s  F a n Dongshu,  poem d i f f e r s  which a r e l i m i t e d themselves.  by t h e  Huang n o t o n l y  o f s u c h poems, b u t a l s o s u c h poems u s u a l l y  h i s own s t r u c t u r e ,  op.cit.,  f r o m t h e poems  vol.11, 78  p. 239.  leaves  follow.  one t h a t  aptly  reveals  his  original In o u r  we  content. a n a l y s i s of  indicated  meaning".  Huang's p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i n C h a p t e r  his preference  T h i s can  f o r "convoluted  a l s o be  considered  which  Huang c r e a t e s o r i g i n a l i t y  point  m i g h t be  "Shuangjing  illustrated  Cha  Upon S e n d i n g  a Gift  as an  approach  of through  in his poetic structures.  most a p t l y  Song Z i z h a n "  expression  by  j^H^H^H  One,  h i s poem t o Su  The  Shi,  :  of Shuangjing  Tea  to  Zizhan  The  wind and s u n o f t h e m o r t a l w o r l d do n o t r e a c h t h i s place, J a d e H a l l i n Heaven, f o r e s t e d w i t h s t a c k s o f r a r e books. I can v i s u a l i z e t h e f o r m e r H e r m i t o f E a s t S l o p e . W i e l d i n g h i s w r i t i n g brush, pouring f o r t h hundreds o f b u s h e l s o f b r i g h t p e a r l - l i k e words. I n my home town o f J i a n g n a n , we p i c k t h e f e r t i l e clouds of tea leaves, Which a r e g r o u n d a s f i n e as powdered snow, and f a l l t h i c k l y f r o m u n d e r our g r i n d s t o n e s . S t i r r i n g up w i t h i n you y o u r dream o f Huangzhou. Of p i l o t i n g , a l o n e , a s k i f f t o w a r d s Wu L a k e . 9  After  a brief  pieced  reading  together  a n n o u n c e d by opening  with  of t h i s  poem, i t a l m o s t  irrelevant  the t i t l e  (sending  couplet appears suddenly  seems as  fragments.  After  t e a t o Su  S h i ) , the  t o be a c e l e s t i a l  the  i f i t is subject  subject  of  academy.  9 Wu L a k e JIU a l l u d e s t o t h e s t o r y o f Fan L i who r e t i r e d t o t h e s e c l u s i o n o f Wu L a k e a f t e r h e l p i n g K i n g Yue conquer the s t a t e o f Wu. T h e r e a f t e r , Wu Lake became a symbol o f r e t i r e m e n t from the world. See CSJC, Guo Yu J | j | § , T a i p e i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1937, v o l . 2 1 , p. 239. 1  ;  10  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.6,  p. 99.  79  Without  t h e knowledge t h a t  fanciful no  idea  description  t h e poet  in  Huangzhou.  he  was an o f f i c i a l  (The  clouds,"  of  i s going t o say next.  abruptly shifts  He a l s o  Hermit).  announced  the  o f where Su S h i i s w o r k i n g ,  what t h e p o e t  couplet,  t h e I m p e r i a l Academy i s a c t u a l l y  g e n t l y reminds  i n exile  i s touched  which r e f e r s  Su S h i w r i t i n g  Su S h i t h a t  the third  upon w i t h  the reader has  In t h e second  f o r m e r l y when  couplet that the  "We p i c k  to harvesting tea.  the  fertile  In t h e f o u r t h c o u p l e t ,  " c o n v o l u t e d " p a t h o f t h e poem t a k e s an a b r u p t t u r n Su S h i ' s d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n g  Huang's p u r p o s e Our  only  o f t h e poem a p p e a r s  locations,  "Huangzhou" t o " J i a n g n a n " through  the present,  journey  through  clear  sight.  The r e a d e r i s n o t  but i s a l s o taken "Jade Lake".  Hall"  i n heaven t o  The p o e t  p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . and t i m e  i s not found  l e a d s us An o r d e r l y  i n this  between l o c a t i o n s  b r i d g e s from  to different  poem.  appear  one t o a n o t h e r .  t o be q u i t e  L e t us t a k e a  t h e poet  b u i l d s up  structure.  the f i r s t  Immortals,  expresses  how s i n u o u s t h e  l o o k a t t h e poem t o s e e how c a r e f u l l y  the poetic In  space  t o "Wu  the transitions  s u d d e n and l a c k closer  at f i r s t  The l o c a t i o n s c h a n g e from  Furthermore,  t o a dream  i n s e n d i n g t e a t o Su S h i .  led to different  times.  i n Huangchou t h a t  s u r f a c e r e a d i n g has i l l u s t r a t e d  structure  poetry  " j u s h i " Jjj^-^  he t o o k t h e e p i t h e t  I t i s not u n t i l  topic  to r e c a l l  a  c o u p l e t , t h e realm o f non-mortals,  i s evoked.  In f a c t ,  this  80  or the  image c o n t r a s t s an e r e m i t i c  existence official  w i t h Su  Shi's return  position.  previously couplet,  had  himself  as  surface  appear  connected  This position  when he  t h e poet "The  was  implicitly  Hermit"  possess  who  lives  where he  higher than  o f Huangzhou.  S h i , who  accepted t h e one  out of o f f i c e .  t e a s e s Su  t o be u n c o n n e c t e d  i f we  was  forced  had  here:  in eremitic  second  styled  T h e r e f o r e , what on  locations,  are  "Would you  an  he  In t h e  the  actually  knowledge o f Su S h i ' s c a r e e r .  seems a q u e s t i o n i s i m p l i e d hermit  to society  Also, i t  want t o be  e x i s t e n c e with a high  the  official  position?" In of  the t h i r d  Jiangnan.  previous from his  c o u p l e t , the poet  This i s thematically  images which a r e d e s i g n e d  society,  yet the i n t e n t  home town i n S i c h u a n .  reverts  alone"  classical poet  (which  i s encouraging  Thus,  the  Su S h i t o  the retire,  Su S h i t o l o n g f o r  metaphor o f " t h e f e r t i l e  and  internal  In t h e l a s t  society  clouds"  Su  sums up  to elucidate  that  his exile  have u n c o v e r e d . intention  t h e theme, which i n t u r n  81  The to  i n Huangzhou.  t h e whole poem i s s u b t l y  Even though  "piloting  i n Chinese  S h i t o keep t o h i s f o r m e r  not f o r g e t  structure.  t h e theme we  of  c o u p l e t Su  i n n a t u r e by  i s a code f o r s e c l u s i o n  i t c a n be s e e n  structure  mountain.  r e f u g e from  literature),  become a h e r m i t ,  in  t o remind  to  b a c k t o t h e p r e v i o u s images o f Immortals i n heaven and  dream o f f i n d i n g  a skiff  in juxtaposition  i s t o encourage  The  Su S h i i n h i s c l o u d - s h r o u d e d Shi's  d i r e c t s us t o h i s home town  arranged  binds together  t h e l i n k s between l i n e s  and  couplets rich of  are i m p l i c i t ,  allusion.  A l l of these  poet's  characterize unity  and  four-part  words,  abrupt,  there i s a  images,  and  p r o v i d e the reader  two  poems above we  with  seemingly  abrupt  that are s u b t l y linked. stick  We  and  hidden  may  use clues  then  p.40)  original  convoluted  have s e e n  Huang has  how  frequentl  yet s k i l f u l l y  alters  o b v i o u s l y mastered i t i n order  s t a t e d g o a l o f c o o r d i n a t i n g "the c o r r e c t  poetic  the  to the c o n v e n t i o n a l f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e ,  i t considerably.  structure,  form."(see  with  Huang's p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e as p o s s e s s i n g an  Huang d o e s n o t modified  i n key  a n a l y s i s of the  coherence  transitions,  transitions  meaning.  From o u r  his  the  s u b s t r u c t u r e o f meaning  to the  has  and  form  and  Fang Dongshu's comments on Huang's  s t r u c t u r e i s most  to the  bu  this  achieve change  strange  apt:^  The s u b t l e t y o f Huang's p o e t r y i s due t o t h e way h i s poems b e g i n w i t h o u t an o b v i o u s p r e t e x t , and how t h e l i n e s and c o u p l e t s a r e l i n k e d i n u n e x p e c t e d ways. W i t h a pen as s t r o n g as a c r o s s b e a m , h i s p o e t i c t r a n s i t i o n s o c c u r w i t h the s w i f t a g i l i t y o f t i g e r s and l e o p a r d s . T e d i o u s words a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i s c a r d e d and o n l y p r e c i s e , key words a r e used. I t c a n a p p e a r t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e between e a c h l i n e i s a t h o u s a n d l i and i r r e l e v a n t . H i s w r i t i n g c a n n o t be apprehended through o r d i n a r y understanding. II.  The We  Strangeness have s e e n  sentences  11  i n our  how  of Poetic deeply  Sentences  Huang i s c o n c e r n e d  with p o e t i c  d i s c u s s i o n of h i s p o e t i c theory.  F a n g Dongshu,  op.cit.,  vol.12,  p. 314.  His concern  i  mainly  how t o make h i s ' s e n t e n c e s " u n i q u e "  following aspects:  section,  we w i l l  a) u n u s u a l  line  and "new".  explore h i s concern  structure;  In t h e  with t h r e e major  b) t h e s t r a n g e u s e o f key  words; c ) t h e s t r a n g e u s e o f a n t i t h e s i s .  a. Unusual L i n e S t r u c t u r e Huang was o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d line  structure,  structures of  a l t h o u g h Huang i s more i n t e r e s t e d  t h a n Du.  The i n f l u e n c e c a n be s e e n  Du F u ' s w e l l - k n o w n l i n e s  Fragrant Firmiana with  by Du Fu i n t h e a r e a o f i n unusual  by c o m p a r i n g  two  (lit.):  r i c e p i c k s my p a r r o t g r a i n s , t r e e p e r c h e s on p h o e n i x o l d b r a n c h . 12  Huang's F l y i n g s n o w f l a k e s p i l e on a p l a t e o f chopped f i s h maw, B r i g h t p e a r l s measure b u s h e l b o i l e d p r i c k l y w a t e r - l i l y seeds. 1 3  These l i n e s  a r e almost  translated  literally.  understood  either,  structures.  Actually,  and t h i s  In both  c o m p l e t e l y i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e when i n Chinese,  i s due t o t h e i r  unusual  Du and Huang's s e n t e n c e s ,  between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i s i n v e r t e d . line,  the subject modifiers,  12  Q i u Zhaoao,  13  SGSZ,  Neiji,  they a r e not e a s i l y  "Flying  vol.7,  p. 135. 83  t h e normal  Furthermore,  snowflakes"  op. c i t . , v o l . 4, p. 1497.  line order  i n Huang's  and " B r i g h t  pearls," fish  are separated  maw"  literal  from  their  and " b o i l e d p r i c k l y  respective  w a t e r - l i l y seeds".  t r a n s l a t i o n above i s r e a r r a n g e d  structure,  the l i n e s  subjects,  "chopped  When t h e  i n t o a more  coherent  read:  P a r r o t p i c k s my f r a g r a n t g r a i n s o f r i c e , P h o e n i x p e r c h e s on o l d b r a n c h o f f i r m i a n a  tree.  and,  Chopped f i s h maw l i k e f l y i n g s n o w f l a k e s a r e p i l e d on a plate, B o i l e d s e e d s o f w a t e r - l i l y l i k e b r i g h t p e a r l s c a n be measured by t h e b u s h e l . From t h e s e , poet  we s e e Du's i n f l u e n c e on Huang.  h a s h i s own  purpose i n c r e a t i n g unusual sentences.  wants t o e x p r e s s h i s l o n g i n g reminiscing  about  "fragrant  n o r m a l grammar  by p u t t i n g  lines.  like  Huang,  through putting lines.  Du,  two o b j e c t s  by breaks the  modifiers  i n the beginning of the maw"  i s like  w a t e r - l i l y seeds" are l i k e  a hedonistic  t h e tone f o r h i s next  "fish  line,  joy i n ordinary  "To i n d u l g e  "pearls". food.  i n pleasure  This one's  i s not t h a t bad."  Here i s a n o t h e r example o f Huang's w o n d e r f u l p o e t i c that  who  i n the beginning of the  so, he e m p h a s i z e s t h a t  Both s i m i l e s r e p r e s e n t  whole l i f e  and " g r e e n p a r a s o l " ,  Du,  also strives to highlight h i s subjects  " s n o w f l a k e s " and " p r i c k l y  sets  f o r the capital--Changan, rice"  h i s subject  By d o i n g  Yet, each  are often  alluded  t o by c r i t i c s  84  ( l i t . ):  lines  P e a c h plum s p r i n g wind a cup o f wine. River lake evening r a i n ten years of l a n t e r n . -  At  first  sight,  structure without  is.  we e a s i l y  recognize  E a c h o f t h e two l i n e s  verbs.  Upon  reading  do n o t work  indispensable  i n most s e n t e n c e s ,  line the  Of c o u r s e ,  structure. first  lines:  Wen  one who  After  imitates  "Birds  F o r example, i n t h e poem,*  plum i n n r a i n , /  However,  Huang  of speech predicate,  of t h i s  this  line  and  strange  structure  i n n moon,/People t r a c e  (Passing sing  phrases  (812-870) i s a c k n o w l e d g e d a s  many p o e t s i m i t a t e d  Wen's l i n e s  Zhuang"  of parts  i s not the i n v e n t o r  successfully created  were s u c c e s s f u l .  line  normal t e c h n i q u e s of  i . e . , subject,  Tingjun  Wen  the  c o n s i s t s o f noun  due t o a l a c k  " C o c k ' s crow t h a t c h e d  frost. " ^ few  Huang  strange  such sentences,  comprehension  object.  how  his line  Ouyang G  "Guo  by S e c r e t a r y  Willow c o l o u r  i s absolutely  not j u s t  in his  wooden  bridge  structure,  but  X i u jy[{tq||j p r a c t i c a l l y Zhang Z h i Mi X i a o G u i Zhang Z h i ' s wild  bridge  an i m i t a t o r  Village): spring." of  Wen.  !  As Huang's  14  SGSZ,  c o n t e m p o r a r y Zhang L e i  Naiji,  vol.2,  (1054-1114) p o i n t e d  out.  p. 26.  15 Wen T i n g j u n , "Shang Shan Cao X i n g " $fli}^MT| » Wen F e i g i n q S h i J i J i a n Zhu §^§§if ' e d * Z e n a Y i ®tj> ' S h a n g h a i : S h a n g h a i Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1980, p.'155. * ; f f i  16 See WYWK, Ouyang p. 56.  X i u , Ouyang  85  Yonq Shu  J i  KJ^Jt-Kjl' '  v o 1 ,  S  '  1  1  this  couplet  is "really  unique."  Yet,  words Huang u s e s h e r e a r e q u i t e common, poetry.  If this  employment  because  i f n o t hackneyed,  The  l i n e s work a s  upon s e e i n g  together. unique  By  line  refined  t h e s e words,  matching  structure,  and  pithy.  the in  I t i s the that  sentences  t h e words a r e so commonly u s e d t h a t  a s u b t e x t o f meaning and c o n n e c t e d n e s s  reader  say t h a t  words i n a u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e  Huang's o r i g i n a l i t y .  grammatically  might  what makes t h e s e l i n e s u n i q u e ?  o f commonly-used  illustrates  is  i s so,  we  and  commonly-used he f u l f i l s  Furthermore,  there  i n t h e mind o f t h e  t h i s holds the  sentence  words w i t h a s t r a n g e and  the requirement that an a t t i t u d e ,  poetry  be  o r mood, i s c r e a t e d  i n t h e r e a d e r s mind by t h e use o f t h e s e common p h r a s e s : i n t h e f i r s t l i n e d e l i g h t i s evoked by t h e p h r a s e s " t a o l i " t peach (j i . I and p l u m ] , "chun f e n g " j [ s p r i n g w i n d ] , and " y i b e i j i u " — ' H ^ j [a  cup  o f wine]; w h i l e i n the second  sadness  i s created,  line  an o p p o s i t e mood o f  by t h e use o f t h e words " j i a n g  hu"  tT3§  I  Crlver  and  lake],  "ye y u " Mfg  -j^ijlj^T! Cten y e a r s u n d e r and  sadness  know t h a t than  he  a lantern].  o f human l i f e  c o n t r a s t s t h e two  [evening r a i n ] ,  h a p p i n e s s by u s i n g  "shi"  -t |(ten y e a r s u n d e r  17  Wang Z h i f a n g ,  lines,  o f human e x p e r i e n c e .  i s of the opinion that  op.cit.,  86  He  sharply  also  lets  us  in  life  o f wine) i n c o n t r a s t  lantern).  SSHJY,  Huang  vol.1,  p. 64.  deng"  happiness  t h e r e i s more s a d n e s s  " y i " ~' {(one cup the  " s h i nian  By c o n d e n s i n g ' t h e  i n t o t h e s e two  extremes  and  to  By  comparing  Wen's, and  Huang's use  l o o k i n g a t a bad 1  brilliant  Huang  Through the  of strange  i m i t a t o r o f Wen,  d i s c u s s i o n above,  strangeness.  Yet,  line  t h o u g h he  (in literal  we  can like  i m i t a t e s Du  f o l l o w i n g poem shows how  structure,  we  can  with  see  how  was.  i m i t a t e s predecessors  the  structure  A  intentionally  above,  line  A:  and  Rhyming w i t h  see Du and  that  and  Huang  Wen  Wen  to  achieve  i n the  examples  Huang c r e a t e s h i s own literary  Uncle  Gong  B:  strange  translation):  Ze  A:  P a s t dream, g o l d e n m i l l e t h a l f cooked, S h o r t t a l k w h i t e j a d e one p a i r . S t a r t l e d fawn d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d s w i l d g r a s s , C a l l i n g g u l l n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e s autumn r i v e r .  B:  A f t e r a w a k i n g f r o m a dream, t h e g o l d e n m i l l e t i s o n l y , half-cooked, A f t e r a s h o r t t a l k [ w i t h t h e K i n g ] he was g i v e n a matched s e t o f w h i t e j a d e . The s t a r t l e d fawn d e s p e r a t e l y needs w i l d g r a s s , The c a l l i n g g u l l n a t u r a l l y l o n g s t o r e t u r n t o t h e autumn r i v e r . ^  The  poem i s w r i t t e n i n a r a r e l y - u s e d p o e t i c form,  D^^i  A H  (  h e x a s y l l a b l i c verse).  l i u yan  H e x a s y l l a b l i c verse  is  jue  ju  considered  18 As f o r Wen's s e n t e n c e s , i t s t r a i t i s v i v i d l y to p i c t u r e a q u i e t e a r l y morning through the eyes o f a l o n e l y t r a v e l l e r . We m i g h t a l s o m e n t i o n a n o t h e r good i m i t a t o r o f Wen, Ma Z h i y u a n 5f3J(jJt! (12 A. D. ). Ma w r o t e a x i a o l i n g /jv^ ' by u s i n g t h e similar s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h i s " W i t h e r e d r a t a n o l d t r e e e v e n i n g crow, s m a l l b r i d g e m o v i n g w a t e r t h a t c h e d c o t t a g e , a n c i e n t p a t h west wind t h i n ho or rs se e, , xne the h k ee nn one n ne ea a rr tmb rr oo K one i is s aa t t h e end o f t h e w o r l d . " Guo L i D a i Wen Xue Zuo P i n Xuan S h a n g h a i Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1982, Shanghai: £ v o l . 2," ~p\ yt>T  tyMfcXWM ' 19  SGSZ,  Neiji,  vol.1,  p. 8.  87  to  be  a difficult  It  follows  poetic  a caesura  three  d i v i s i o n s of  line,  i n s t e a d of the  seven c h a r a c t e r s three  caesura  pattern  of  show t h e  pattern  two  more p o p u l a r  The  per  poet  can  line.  caesura  increases  poetic structure.  38  h e x a s y l l a b l i c verses  but  use  of  five  the  phrases,  and  or implied.  found  or four-  which  usually  sentences  Thus,  are  the the  poetic  i n the  links  |( 1123-1202),  among a b o u t  Compared w i t h wrote f i v e  per  word  leaving  t o Hong Mai  Wang A n s h i o n l y  Huang w r o t e 66  particles,  potential difficulties  According are  to f i t the  n o t i o n a l words,  Tang D y n a s t y .  contemporaries,  (or s y l l a b l e s ) i n  patterns  In o r d e r  between words i m p l i c i t  the  structure.  ( o r a two-two-two p a t t e r n )  a l l grammatical  only  of  poems f r o m  line  (or s y l l a b l e s ) d i v i d e d i n t o two-three or  patterns  form o b v i o u s l y  10, 000  .jue j u  two  Huang's  and  Su  of Shi  h e x a s y l l a b l i c .jue.ju o u t  of  only  only 1,956  2 1  Let its  i t s unusual  six characters  words e a c h  two-two-two,  relationship  poems.  of  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p between words,  omitted.  eleven,  form due  us  line  review  the  structure.  content  The  of the  first  line  poem above b e f o r e condenses a  examining  well-known  I  allusion a nap  about a t r a v e l l e r  a t an  i n n had  named Lu  a dream he  was  Sheng  a highly-placed,  _____________ 20 CSJC, Hong Mai, Ronq Z h a i S h i Hua HiBf S h a n g h a i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1936, vol.4, 21  Mo  Lifeng,  op.cit.,  p.46. 88  , who  %  while  taking  wealthy  | , ed. , Wang Yunwu, p.61.  official. dream, was  "  but  Upon awakening, i t was  so b r i e f  c o o k i n g f o r him  another white  allusion  j a d e and  was  about  he  that  found  a high o f f i c i a l  not o n l y was  the m i l l e t ,  only half Yu Q i n g  that  done.  jUjff  , who  title  which  i t a  the i n n  keeper  The  second  was  granted a set of  by a k i n g  line contains  in a foreign  land  23 who  was  impressed  allusions  two  and  one,  wealth  and  and  rank,  a r e not worth lines  talent.  like  c a n be o b t a i n e d as Yu Q i n g  m e a n i n g s i n t h e two merely  e l o q u e n t speech  Huang shows t h a t  dream i n l i n e line  by Yu's  the  By  transient  got h i s wealth i n  p u r s u i n g f o r one's whole l i f e . actually  agree that  these  wealth  The  and  rank  are  worldly possessions.  In  the t h i r d  and  fourth  two  lines,  frequently  the poet s h a r p l y  "fawn" and  "gull",  used  poetic  seclusion,  w i t h h i s message i n t h e f i r s t  two  contrasts  symbols lines.  of  "Desperately"  r  and  "naturally"  commitment As two  to  f o r the l i n e  contextually  22 23 Ban,  underscore the poet's s t r o n g  structure  i n t h e poem, i n t h e f i r s t  of s i x notional  words which  t o summarize t h e c o n t e n t o f e a c h  meaning o f e a c h  two  words t h a t  seclusion.  sentences consist  chosen  of  a r e key  sentence  linked.  normal,  i s understood,  Although  complete  allusion. t h e two  the second  sentences,  no  are  couplet  carefully  When t h e  lines  are  couplet i s constructed  functional  word i s used.  BBCS, L i B i ' $ $ ; , Zhen Zhong J i Sima Q i a n f j ^ f j i ; , S h i J i 1972, v o l . 7 , p. 2370.  , Beijing:  1  89  Zhong Hua  Shu  Ju  Chu  The  links  and  transitions  between a l l l i n e s  t h e r e a d e r ' s knowledge and relational  b.  The  illustrated  and  Use  o f Key  s t r a n g e use  technique  imagination without  completed through the a i d of  words.  Strange  The  are  by  o f key  words i n Huang's p o e t r y  h i s l i a n z i *^.^f ( t o r e f i n e  in classical  unusual  Words  poetry.  words),  an  Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y  words t o t h e p o i n t t h a t  might  be  important employs r a r e  Zhang J i e c r i t i c i z e d  him  for 24  "concentrating Yet, an  i n my  on  e m b e l l i s h i n g h i s poems w i t h u n u s u a l  o p i n i o n , the unusual  excellent  effect.  the f o l l o w i n g  ( t h e use  n o r m a l use, etc.);  3)  First, their  will  examine Huang's l i a n z i  2)  the use  and  arrangement of  of i r r e g u l a r  a d j e c t i v e s f o r nouns,  the c o l l o c a t i o n  l e t us  from key  exchanges of p a r t s o f  o f words f o r p a r t s o f s p e e c h  e.g.,  and  we  o f t h e s e words o f t e n a c h i e v e s  a n g l e s : 1) t h e s e l e c t i o n  words i n s e n t e n c e s ; speech  Here,  use  words."  other than  their  verbs f o r adjectives,  o f words.  l o o k a t Huang's s e l e c t i o n  o f key  words  and  a r r a n g e m e n t i n a c o u p l e t from " C i Yun Gao Z i m i a n S h i 25 Shou" (Ten Poems Rhyming w i t h T h o s e o f Gao Z i m i a n ) . A r t e m i s i a p i e r c e s t h r o u g h snow and moves. W i l l o w a s k s f o r t h e s p r i n g and f l o u r i s h e s .  24 CSJC, Zhang J i e , S u i Han Tang S h i Hua Yunwu, S h a n g h a i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1939, 25  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.16,  p. 294. 90  JtJf Jj$ i» ed v o l . 1 , p.6. e  Wang  We  can  immediately  (pierces) jj£  and  line up  "suo"  (artemisia)  (snow) and  of  (asks),  and  "chun" ^  draws a v i v i d  out  i d e n t i f y two  (spring).  Furthermore, "pierces",  process of  artemisia  as  line,  i n the  "asks" order the  ground  the  and  line,  line  the  but  a subtle  "sentential  use  of  " w i l l o w " as the  i n the  verbs.  The  willow  two  Chinese verse  i s usually  the  third  v e r s e and  fifth  arrangement of  the  the  the  one  who  verbs,  Huang i n d e e d  of  young  early  the  the  spring  Huang  uses in  directly  how  draw  evoked.  i s conveyed i n the  verse,  lines,  and  which  in  syllable  function  selection achieves  mainly  so-called  word i n p e n t a s y l l a b l e  Through t h e  grow  pursues s p r i n g  their respective  life.  use  Complementing  scene of  verbs are  to  growing  branches are  word i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c  two  invisible  coming s p r i n g  of  each sentence t o  The  first  (move) e n r i c h e s  p o e t does n o t  32)  the  (see  spring.  ijjj  "xue"|  Huang i n t h e  reader's eyes.  p.  bring  eye"  "dong"  hao"  objects  t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t approach.  sprouting  poet's joy  of  "lou  abundant energy o f  describes  Although  willows f l o u r i s h ,  the  the  ~*  i s struggling  in early  also brings  p e r s o n i f i e s the  flourish.  use  b e f o r e the  second  first  Thus, by  the  and to  the  subjects  a painter,  p i c t u r e : young a r t e m i s i a  meaning o f  first  the  "chu'an"  (willow) to  Like  e f f e c t i v e l y represents  artemisia.  verbs,  which l i n k  "yang l i u "  snow c o v e r i n g  "pierces"  unusual  to  and "sentential  eye". The  use  of  i r r e g u l a r exchanges of  parts  of  s p e e c h might  l  illustrated  by  the  key  word  "sen" H  (forested)  i n the  second  be  line  i n "Upon S e n d i n g  discussed stacks  above on  a Gift  page 82.  o f r a r e books.")  ("Jade H a l l  "Sen"  meaning f o r e s t  or  Here,  changes i t i n t o  if  the  the  poet's  another, the  poet  but  forest,  less  of Shuangjing  but  circumstances  not  also  Zizhan"  used  as  f o r e s t e d with a noun  a d j e c t i v e meaning  a verb.  o n l y p u r p o s e was "Sen"  as an  to  i n Heaven,  i s usually  commonly  Tea  I t would be  t o exchange one  dense.  meaningless  p a r t of speech  for  o n l y d e p i c t s s t a c k s o f b o o k s as t r e e s i n  a c c u r a t e l y evokes the q u i e t ,  w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s t h e theme o f t h e  T h e r e a r e many s i m i l a r  secluded  poem.  e x a m p l e s i n Huang's poems, s u c h  as  •fti-i !  yun  (rhyme) i n "As  whispering  of love i n a boudoir  and  bridal  i  chamber,/black plum he  s w a l l o w s and  yellow  orioles  rhyme w i t h  peach  and  2fi trees," . Here, t h e noun yun r e p l a c e s o f t - u s e d v e r b s l i k e I i ( h a r m o n i z e ) o r x i e ^! ( e u p h o n i z e ) . The u n u s u a l use o f t h e  word v i v i d l y stringed  instrument)  c o m b i n e s two The crucial  d e s c r i b e s the musical  use  being played  beautiful  effect like  collocation  a p p r o a c h o f Huang's i n c r e a t i n g  example o f t h i s  i s "Climbing  $j[ (a  singing birds,  images o f n a t u r e  o f an u n u s u a l  of a ruan  plucked,  and  ( b i r d s and  trees).  o f words i s  another  a strange effect.  P l e a s a n t Tower":(see  A  p.52)  The i d i o t s e t t l e d s t a t e b u s i n e s s , Walked e a s t and west on P l e a s a n t Tower, l e a n i n g on t h e c l e a r e v e n i n g sky.  " Normally, 2S  i t i s impossible to  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  " y i wan  v o l . 9 , p. 171. 92  qing"  •I  j||f|jlj|;  (lean  on  the  good  clear  evening  "evening Yet,  sky"  sky).  i n w r i t i n g poetry  possible.  lan" H ^ ' ^ o  l e a n on  a window l e d g e ) we  be  different.  the  which  boat  gulls",  Also,  the  see  i s "Hopefully,  " l e a n i n g on  how  the  or  language,  the  t o make t h e  poet  impossible like  c h u a n g " ^ | B | • <t.o  the  a long  strove  lean to  poet's  flute  I have made a c o v e n a n t sky"  and error.  p o e t i c phrases,  "ping  play  on"  "lean  a grammatical  poem e x p r e s s e s  c l e a r evening  t o merge w i t h  in  with  implies the  white  poet's  nature.  H e r e i s a n o t h e r example, ^|^! (Autumn M e d i t a t i o n ) ,  him  verb  Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y  I could  heart,  t o be  most o f t - u s e d  a railing),  can  the  a r t of  allow  since this  home,/ In my  willingness  w h i c h i s an  with  on  desire  considered  r i g h t s that  Compared  of  collocation  might even be  possesses special  "yi  This  i n the  last  couplet  Huang j u x t a p o s e s  of  "soak" and  "Qiu  Huai"  "white  clouds": The l a k e s o a k s up w h i t e c l o u d s f o r no r e a s o n . My f r i e n d ' s l e t t e r s a r e c u t o f f , n o t e v e n a s i n g l e swan g o o s e 27 a p p e a r s . 28 What Huang wants t o s a y there idea  has  h e r e i s he  i s missing  his friend  been a l o s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n between them.  is indirectly  conveyed  through the  27  d e s c r i p t i o n of  because  Yet, the  the lake.  Swan g e e s e a s a symbol f o r c o u r i e r s o r i g i n a t e d f r o m Su < ! See Ban Gu jj|gjj , Han Shu , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu 1972, v o l . 6 , p. 2466.  ^flrj s t o r y .  28  SGSZ, W a i j i b u ,  vol.2,  p. 32.  93  Wu's Ju,  For  Huang,  i t seems t h a t  flying-cross might  bring  the lake should l o g i c a l l y  o f swan geese, him news about  clouds without  which  his friend.  only  white  lake  i s s t r a n g e and i l l o g i c a l  corresponding deliberately soaking geese  casts  Yet, t h e l a k e  i n Huang's e y e s .  reason".  Huang s o d e s i r e s .  o f "soak up" and " w h i t e Although  Therefore, Huang of  t h e c r o s s o f swan  The  unusual  c l o u d s " emphasizes t h e " f o r  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e l a k e t o soak  the clouds, the unusual Huang's f e e l i n g s ,  so t h e  negative l i g h t  up t h e c l o u d s , r a t h e r t h a n r e f l e c t i n g  i n t h e sky t h a t  who  reflects  u n d e r s t a n d i n g Huang's f e e l i n g s ,  t h e l a k e i n t h e somewhat  a  for couriers  t o h i s preoccupation with the c o u r i e r s ,  juxtaposition no  i s a symbol  reflect  collocation  up  o f words c o r r e s p o n d s t o  and t h u s t h e l a k e seems u n r e a s o n a b l e .  Such 29  e x a m p l e s show t h a t  c.  i n d e e d Huang  The Strange E f f e c t Another  poetic  important  sentences  "spends much on a r r a n g e m e n t . "  of Antithesis a s p e c t o f t h e s t r a n g e n e s s o f Huang's  i s h i s unusual  use o f a n t i t h e s i s  $ > [ ! | J .  "  I  very  important  strict  form  couplet. oblique  skill  of regulated verse  which r e g u l a t e s matching  T h i s means t h a t tones; matching  meanings a r e l i n k e d  29  F u Xuanzong  " ' _^Hi§ifilj|  • » antithesis  sound and s e n s e  sounds d i f f e r  is a  in a  i n level  and  words a r e t h e same p a r t s o f s p e e c h ,  their  !  matching  As a  i  and  by b e i n g o p p o s i t e s o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o  JHH^R' , Huang T i n g j i a n He J i a n g x i S h i P a i J u a n ' Beijing:  Zhong Hua Shu J u , 1978, p. 126. 94  each  other.  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not v e r y easy f o r a p o e t  an e x c e l l e n t  antithesis  restrictive. already  Furthermore,  been p e r f e c t e d  Huang t o o k  within  Huang i l l u s t r a t e s he  creates  regulation following forms  of  by  The  antithesis.  couplet  of a n t i t h e s i s  difficulty  of a n t i t h e s i s  i s different  of a n t i t h e s i s  i s so demanding  Tang p o e t s , e s p e c i a l l y  the rules he  the form  the c r e a t i o n  as h i s m a s t e r .  originality  way  because  One  from  Du  create and  had  Fu, whom  i n producing i s apparent.  Yet,  previous poets through  of h i s approaches  i s t o break  w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e range.  i s an example o f how  to  d e p a r t s from  the the  The the  regular  antithesis:  Wuyang qu Xie c a i bai l i ^ Wuyang [away] f r o m X i e o n l y h u n d r e d l i . I t was o n l y a b o u t one hundred l i _ between Wuyang and X i e , jian z i yu gong j u shao nian Humble I and you b o t h young age. Then you and I were b o t h young.^® This  i s the second  couplet  of a h e p t a s y l l a b i c  which  s h o u l d be w r i t t e n  first  line  place  name),  noun,  " c a i " ^*;(only) an a d v e r b ,  noun. in  30  i n t h e form o f r e g u l a t e d  of the a n t i t h e s i s , "qu"^(away  "Wu  SGSZ,  line  Waiji,  Yang"  ffj|J l i s  and  verse.  "bai l i " of antithesis,  "Xie"  p.13. 95  ifj*  the (a  a proper  (hundred  li_) a  t h e words  s h o u l d match t h e p a r t s o f s p e e c h  v o l . , 1,  In  a p r o p e r noun  from) i s a p r e p o s i t i o n ,  According to the regulation  the second  regulated verse,  i n the  first  line.  Yet,  adjective  the  and  proper  noun,  adverb  " j u " jj|  parts Line Line  noun  1: 2:  line line.  lines.  the  noun  two  pronoun  used by  are  be  "gong" Q  "shao n i a n "  lines  line,  Humble I) w h i c h s h o u l d  "yu" J_J (and),  parts not  of speech of  match p r o p e r  Furthermore,  The  are  exists  (  second  a  (you),  (young a g e ) .  Huang a r e  as  The  follows:  p r o p e r n. I p r e p . , I p r o p e r n., I adv. , I noun. a d j . and n.I c o n j . , I pronoun, I adv.,I noun.  do  first  zi"  and  of speech i n the  second  in  "jian  (both),  the  leap  which Huang u s e s i n t h e  conjunction  Obviously,  line  words,  distance  first  nor  between t h e  two  lines.  in antithesis  not  only  that  of the  Song.  Thus,  normal e x p e c t a t i o n However,  friendship  in this  with  between t h e  official  d u t i e s and  friendship  with  previously  frequent  the  Therefore,  the  places  the  complementary so  age that  I t i s rare to create poetry  of the  "Xie" i n  the  two  i n the  second  a wide  gap  such a sudden  Tang,  but  also  meaning Huang  Huang i m p r e s s i v e l y As  we  see,  where t h e y  The  fulfilling  breaks  f r i e n d s h i p they  the  have had  o f s p a c e and  96  implies  mention of t h e i r since early  t i m e as t h e  his short  their  ways t o e x p r e s s  short distance  and  expresses  Huang c h o o s e s t h e are  young ages as  contacts,  adoption  and  the  antithesis.  his friend.  long  in  meanings o f t h e  i n b o t h f o r m and  couplet  their  the  line  i n the  his friend.  distance  displays  of  "you"  nouns "Wuyang" and  n e i t h e r do  i n the  neither opposite  "humble I " and  his their young youth.  narrative  ages  perspectives  i s most e f f e c t i v e .  pronouns i n the beginning  Y e t , Huang does n o t change  o f t h e second  line,  which i s where  i Huang b r i n g s beginning is  i n the concept  of the f i r s t  broken here,  achieved  o f time,  line.  nouns i n t h e  Although the a n t i t h e t i c a l  the expression  successfully.  t o match p r o p e r  o f t h e meaning o f t h i s  As Huang s a i d , he "would  pattern  couplet i s  rather 31  contradict  p o e t i c r e g u l a t i o n t h a n make a weak p o e t i c  We c a n a l s o examine how Huang i r r e g u l a r l y from  the aspect  o f sound.  sentence"  uses a n t i t h e s i s  The f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t  i s a good 32  example  ("-" s t a n d s f o r l e v e l t o n e and "\" f o r o b l i q u e t o n e ) . \ \ \ \ Huang l i u bu j i e wo ming yue Y e l l o w r i v e r c a n n o t d i r t y b r i g h t moon. Muddy B i a n R i v e r c a n n o t d i r t y t h e b r i g h t moon, \  \  \  \  bi shu wei wo s h e n g liang qiu G r e e n t r e e s f o r me p r o d u c e c o l d autumn. G r e e n t r e e s make t h e autumn c o l d f o r m e . ^ According words i n t h i s  31  t o the tone p a t t e r n a n t i t h e s i s should  See f o o t n o t e  o f t h i s poem, t h e t o n e s o f t h e  follow the pattern:  54 a t p.29.  32 A l l word t o n e s w h i c h we i n d i c a t e a r e from Gu J i n Z i Y i n D u i Zhao Shou Ce " j ^ i l ^ I i ^ I l i Handbook o f C o m p a r a t i v e C l a s s i c a l and Modern Pronunciation o f Chinese Characters), ed., D i n g S h e n g s h u T £ j # i , L i Rong , B e i j i n g : Ke Xue Chu Ban She**** j j , 1958. ' " i <  A  4  33  SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . , 7, p.166.  97  \  As  we  \  \ \ - - \  c a n see,  \  \, -. 34  Huang u s e s  words w i t h l e v e l line  four  words w i t h o b l i q u e  t o n e s i n the second  the  second  not  agree with the p a t t e n i n the f i r s t  not  possible  His  innovation  harmony and produces  i s against  line.  that  Huang was  ignorant  pattern,  line.  sense of  Here i s a n o t h e r  three  use o f t o n e s i n and  also  does  Of c o u r s e , i t i s  of the r e g u l a t e d  pattern.  i n the tone p a t t e r n of a n t i t h e s i s breaks  b a l a n c e which  a new  the regulated  The  t o n e s and  p e o p l e a r e accustomed  t o , and  the this  sound.  example:  \ \ \ \ \ qing tan luo bi y i wan z i , E l e g a n t t a l k d r o p pen one wan words, E l e g a n t l y t a l k i n g , t h e n t e n - t h o u s a n d words from h i s w r i t i n g brush,  drop  \ \ \ bai yan ju shang san bai bei. White eyes r a i s e wine-cup t h r e e hundred cups. Looking at 35 t h r e e the w o r l d w i t h white eves, and d r i n k i n g hundred cups of w i n e . 3  This  antithesis  above.  Even  should follow  though  words a r e o f t e n  t h e same t o n e p a t t e r n  t h e word t o n e s o f t h e f i r s t ,  optional,  Huang c o n s e c u t i v e l y  34 See Wang L i , Han Yu S h i Lu Xue V e r s i f i c a t i o n ) , S h a n g h a i : S h a n g h a i J i a o Yu  t l _ K _  '  35  See  f o o t n o t e 13 a t p. 53.  36  SGSZ,  1 9 7 9 >  p p  -  7 2  "  8 2  '  Waijibu, vol.3,  p. 65. 98  Chu  as t h e  third,  uses f i v e  and  one fifth  words  SBJtft?' (Chinese Ban She r~|j|  with  o b l i q u e tones  i n the f i r s t  change i n t h e second with  o b l i q u e tones  characteristic  line.  antithesis  illustrate  without  However,  h e l p s t o form  of the person  We h a v e b r i e f l y of  line  a corresponding  t h e use o f c o n s e c u t i v e  words  a h e r o i c v o i c e which e m b o d i e s a  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e poem.  d i s c u s s e d Huang's i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e meaning  i n our a n a l y s i s  above.  We would a l s o  Huang's u s e o f t h e p r o s a i c s e n t e n c e  like to  i n antithesis, f o r  example: s h i shang qi wu q i a n l i ma I n t h e w o r l d , r e a l l y , no T h o u s a n d - l i - s t e e d ? I s t h e r e r e a l l y no T h o u s a n d - l i - s t e e d i n t h e w o r l d ? r e n zhong nan Among p e o p l e , h a r d I t i s hard t o f i n d  de j i u fang gao t o f i n d a Nine-square-gao. N i n e - s g u a r e - g a o among p e o p l e .  In terms o f p a r t s o f speech, " S h i s h a n g " f£_Lpeople) (hard)  as both  n  a r e nouns o f l o c a l i t y ,  and " j i u f a n g  within  "thousand"  and "wu" ^  gao  "qi"  (among  (really)  ( h a s no) and "de"  (Nine-square-gao),  ( t h e name o f an a n i m a l  antithesis.  "ren zhong"  two words " q i a n l i ma" ^j[5r  and "nan")! (find)  (Thousand-lia r e matched  and t h a t o f a p e r s o n ) .  " T h o u s a n d - l i - s t e e d " and i n " N i n e - s g u a r e - g a o " ,  and " n i n e " a r e n u m e r a l s ,  classifiei—measure  words,  37  v o l . 2 . p. 29.  SGSZ,  i s a very a c c u r a t e  t h e w o r l d ) matches  The l a s t  compound nouns Also,  i  a r e two a d v e r b s ,  are verbs. steed)  (  this  Waiji,  "li"  and " s q u a r e " a r e  and " s t e e d " and "gao" a r e nouns.  99  I  think "Bo  that  t h e r e a s o n the poet choose  L e " ffjjfc  3  t o match  8  intentionally  created  perfect  form  neither  opposite  prosaic  sentence,  a linear  "Thousand-li-steed"  a p r e c i s e form  effect  style  i s that  nor complementary.  of a n t i t h e s i s .  The  combines a q u e s t i o n  rather  than t h a t  c a n be c a l l e d  and  but  Yet lines  antitheses,  like  an answer w h i c h  of opposites Pleasant  not  he  o f a n t i t h e s i s , t h e meanings o f t h e two  Dongshu comments on Huang's " C l i m b i n g "This  "Nine-square-qao"  balancing. Tower"  upon t o s e t t h e t o n e o f a  in  this  are a create Fang  ( s e e p. 5 2 ) ,  single-line  —ig  form  into a parallel-line  one."  By  the l i n e a r  verse.  H i s comment a l s o a p p l i e s t o o u r a n a l y s i s above. , an  verse  he means t h a t  applies  In  tone of ancient  this,  a n a l y s i s o f Huang's a n t i t h e s e s ,  or prose t o  Huang  regulated  t h e Song c r i t i c  Ge  The b e s t c r e a t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e two a n t i t h e s i s i n r e g u l a t e d v e r s e i s t h a t t h e meanings o f t h e i r two l i n e s . h a v e a wide gap, b u t i n d e e d a r e i m p l i c i t l y l i n k e d . . . L u z h i w r o t e i n h i s Da Yan "Heaven's r e g u l a t i o n o f a l l t h i n g s has d e s t i n e d me t o be poor, / I have d e d i c a t e d my i n t e l l i g e n c e t o an o f f i c i a l p o s t e n t i r e l y f o r my k i n s f o l k " ; i n h i s "Shang Shu Fu Y i Zhong X-j^A*T^rr ' ' "The l e t t e r coming f r o m t h o u s a n d s o f l i _ C t e l l s me myj s o n and d a u g h t e r a r e t h i n , / W a l k i n g i n t h e  H_§0$||,  1  38 WYWK, Z h u a n g z i |£-f\ , Z h u a n q z i jrf-f- , W a i p i a n |k|§' , v o l . 3 , pp. 53-54. "V I " Bo Le was the best judge o f h o r s e s d u r i n g the Spring and Autumn P e r i o d . He i s most o f t e n u s e d t o s y m b o l i z e a good j u d g e of character i n Chinese c u l t u r e . Although Nine-square-qao ( J i u F a n g g a o ) was a l s o a good j u d g e o f h o r s e s a c c o r d i n g t o L i e z i foj-j" d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d as Bo Le, he was promoted by Bo Le, and i s n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t as Bo Le i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r e . See CSJC, L i e z i l l j - ^ j , L i e z i ^ij^f . v o l . 8 , p. 104. :  1  39  Fang  Dongshu,  40  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  1  o p . c i t . , vol.20, vol.1,  p.12. 100  p. 451.  m o u n t a i n i n t h e t e n t h month, i c e and snow a r e deep"... Compared t o t h o s e who a r e p r o u d o f s t i c k i n g t o m a t c h i n g words l i k e " b l a c k " w i t h " w h i t e " , t h e meanings o f t h e two l i n e s i n these a n t i t h e s e s depart a d i s t a n c e of a thousand li. L u z h i has many^ a n t i t h e s e s l i k e t h e s e which c a n n o t be completely cited. ^  Now,  l e t us  w h i c h he  gives  conversion without and  position  line.  In t h e  earth  filial only  Mao  are  41  example,  holds  sources,  In f a c t ,  up  out  Yi's  allusion  be  unrelated difficult  i n the  second  vol.8,  line, line.  For  the  Han  he  Shu,  whic  official The  4 4  things  two  from  to join  allusion  poet puts forward first  is a  p o o r " . T h e  honoured.  have t r a n s l a t e d the  l i n k e d through c a u s a l i t y .  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  t o make me  o b t a i n i n g an  completely  i n the  line  partiality-heaven  s t o r y f r o m Hou  i s happy w i t h  the  first  a l l without  making i t r e a l l y  after  the  examples  t h a t reads,"Heaven covers a l l  b e c a u s e h i s mother w i l l  e v e n t h o u g h we  the  first  a l l u d e s t o Mao  Zhuangzi's viewpoint using  comment a p p l i e s t o t h e  s u r e l y w o u l d n ' t s i n g l e me  seem t o e x p r e s s two  different lines  us.  Ge's  of Zhuangzi's statement  line  says that  lines  a t how  partiality;  earth  second  look  the  i n the  two second  h i s conversion  of  shows h i s o p i n i o n  Therefore,  the  two  by  lines  purpose of c l e a r e r  p. 155.  42 CSJC, Guo L i f ang, Yun Yu Yang Q i u fijtttPHiij , ed. , Wang Yunwu S h a n g h a i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, -1939. v o l . 1 , p. 6. 43  B u r t o n Watson,  o p . c i t . , 1968,  44 1973,  Fan Hua , Hou Han v o l . 5 3 , pp.1746-1748.  Shu,  101  p. 91. Beijing:  Zhong  Hua  Shu  Ju  explanation, sentence  we might  like  translate  "The law o f heaven  I am happy w i t h o b t a i n i n g will  be honoured,  antithesis prosaic  not only  suddenly  shifts  and  link  line,  s o my mother The  but a l s o a  line  expresses  difficulty  The s e c o n d  line  t h e s e a s o n and t h e h a r d s h i p s o f a  to find  consider  this  antithesis  as a d e s c r i p t i o n  suffering,  which i s  o f hardship i n a cold  It i s certain  in traditional  w i d e d i s t a n c e between  between them.  i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n from h i s f a m i l y  circumstances.  This  a link  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i f we u s e o u r  and i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  abandoned here.  antithesis  that  i n the season  the conventional  i s completely  i s why Huang's a n t i t h e s i s c r e a t e s s u c h a lines.  T h e S t r a n g e n e s s o f Tone P a t t e r n , Huang's c o n c e r n s a b o u t  in  o f meaning,  e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l  method o f m a t c h i n g  "It  only  and famous."  of a family.  i ti sdifficult  respectively  difficult  III.  position  because  i m p o s s i b l e f o r u s t o r e a d t h e s e two l i n e s a s  We might  an o f f i c i a l ' s  displayed  the f i r s t  to describe  the internal  first  h a s a wide r a n g e  and t h i n k i n g  because  imaginations. of  a prosaic  d e s t i n e s me t o be poor,  an o f f i c i a l  example,  I t i s almost  antithesis Yet,  into  structure.  communication,  trip.  antithesis  b u t n o t t o make me r i c h  In t h e second in  this  t h e sound  Rhyme Scheme, a n d Rhythm  of poetry are expressed i n  i s t h e b e a u t y o f p o e t r y C t h a t t h e s e t u n e s ] c a n t h e n be sung harmony w i t h m u s i c a l laws and c a n be danced  102  to with  shields  and is  feather based  with  on  regular create  three  his poetic  sounds of  the  trait  p r a c t i c e breaks through  the  traditional,  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  and  the  regular  rhythms.  We  reflected  In  poetry  an  verse,  especially  a n a l y s i s of the  i n ao  l u , Liang  o f ao  Kun  points  all  verses  w r i t t e n by  regulated  to  poet  These v e r s e s yet  do  not  i n the  show any  [Huang] more o f t e n  there  who  discuss  m i g h t be  created  45 L i a n g Kun Shang Wu Y i n g Shu  ao  these  writes  out,  "From  tone p a t t e r n  Besides  another reason. Du  only  , Song S h i P a i B i e Guang, 1938, p. 85.  103  tone  Du  of  creating  the Su  are  verse  Fu's  regulated  [Shi],  regular  Considering  his regulated  4 5  creation  (irregular  C Y a n g x i u ] and  originality.  l u poetry,  lu  p o e t s were i n t h e  regular  display his uniqueness."  Huang,  will  r e a s o n s Huang i s f o n d  Song D y n a s t y t o Ou  lu  to  forms i n tone  in heptasyllabic  of the  Shangu  attempts  i n Huang's p o e t i c  establishment  gentle,  he  below.  i n h i s adoption  i n regulated  pattern.  i s concerned  Patterns  mainly  verse).  viewpoint  then  rhythm,  strangeness of tone patterns  pattern  his theoretical  balanced  breaking  in detail  that  which  rhyme schemes,  aspects  The  by  say  a e s t h e t i c sense,  poetry.  strangeness  Tone  his  I f we  a traditional  by  patterns,  is  (p.2)  h a r m o n i o u s m u s i c and  reflected  A.  fans."  tone  smooth this,  in  ao  influence  A l t h o u g h Du  i s the  w r o t e 19  l u poems,  Lun  ao  ^|||^^J^  and  i,  on  first and  Changsha:  they  are  not  poems o u t  as  of  Huang's ao  310  as  Huang's.  standards  hardly  Huang i s v e r y  "Dan  ao  i s the  the  first  line  the  level  and  wu  t i i s that  couplet the  are  first  with  the  ao  shuanq  t o n e s between two  the  fifth  tone i n order  the  has and  and  i s the lines  t o n e s o f words i n t h e  and  Kun  1  changed t o agree with  level  l u , Liang  of a couplet;  line,  some o f  to  ao  lu,  and  beauty t h e r e i n .  level  the  lu  "awkward" sound.  e x c h a n g e between t h e  oblique  according  ao J^jyJ; shuanq ao  l u methods: dan  ao  And  4  brave i n h i s experiments with  I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f Huang's ao ao  verses. ^  acceptable  because of t h e i r  manages t o d i s p l a y a s p e c i a l  three  Huang w r o t e 153  heptasyliable regulated  l u poems a r e  conventional However,  irregular  second  indicated wu__ti_Sj^..  oblique  tones i n  exchange  between  i n a couplet; line  of  every  changes o f those  word i n e v e r y  second  to harmonize the  tones i n  line  changes  and  i s fixed  of  47 t o n e s above." example o f these by  how  three  ao  Huang a r e  pattern  Here,  47  shall  take  Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y l u methods.  presented  The  one  o f Huang's poems as  creates  ao  symbols of the  parallel  to the  l u , and  how  Si  Ku  used  symbols o f a r e g u l a r  tone  you kong body t r a v e l l i n g t h e  K^f'^^"!  he shi luo sky, what t i m e  Shan Ben Cong Shu (abbreviated Y i n K u i Lu S u i j|J||||j , v o l . 2 5 , pp. 1-2.  Kun,  uses  ,  Hui-jg|, Liang  he  an  tone p a t t e r n  for contrast: xing guan The c e l e s t i a l  46 Fang  we  op.,cit.,  p.86. 104  fell?  SKSBCS),  \  \  zhuo Dropping  \  di ground,  on  \  yi then  -  hua changed  \  shi Poetry  \  \  \  -  the  \  \  \  \  \  xue Ant  huo nest  \ bu Not  zhi qing yun know b l u e c l o u d s ,  \  \  \  \  \  kai you hu opens t h e window and d o o r ,  \  \  \  zuo seat,  jiang han chuang t h e r i v e r s h a k e s t h e bed.  -  yi  fang monastery  \  -  \  zi by one  -  shan ru mountain takes  zui ke ye e Drunk v i s i t o r n i g h t s t a r t l e s ,  mi fang ge Honey comb one  \  bao a fine  -  ren zhou y i n w r i t e r day c h a n t s ,  \  wei into  -  meng feng hou maybe dream e n t i t l e d t h e \ t i j i s t e p s how  -  \ j i many?  -  geng j i e s h o u teng Then l e n d t h i n w i s t e r i a  wang duke and k i n g ,  \  xun shang t o s e a r c h the upper  fang place.  4 8  When d i d t h e c e l e s t i a l body t r a v e l l i n g t h e s k y f a l l ? D r o p p i n g on t h e ground, i t c h a n g e d i n t o a f i n e monastery. The p o e t d a i l y c h a n t e d h i s poems. The d r u n k v i s i t o r was s t a r t l e d a t n i g h t as t h e r i v e r shook h i s bed. Windows and d o o r s o f [monks' rooms l i k e ] honeycombs opened one a f t e r another. I n s u c h an a n t n e s t , one may dream o f b e i n g e n t i t l e d Duke o r k i n g . I do n o t know, how many s t e p s w i l l r e a c h t h o s e b l u e clouds? I w o u l d need t o be s u p p o r t e d by a t h i n c a n e t o v i s i t that high place. Huang's t o n e  SGSZ,  Waiji,  pattern:  vol.,8,  Regular  p.190. 105  tone  pattern:  \  \  \  \  \  \ -  \  \  \  \ \  \ \  \ \  \ -  \ \ - - - \ \ - - \ \ \ - -  \ \  \  \ \  \ \  \ \ \  \ - - \ \ \ From t h i s  comparison,  tone p a t t e r n the  first  tones; the  oblique the  In  i s called t h e second  with in  tone  n o t one l i n e  i n Huang's  tone p a t t e r n .  u s e s s i x words w i t h  he c o n s e c u t i v e l y  In level  according to  line.  There  u s e s f o u r words w i t h  Huang c h a n g e s  on o b l i q u e t o n e t o word i n t h e f i r s t  c o u p l e t , the tone o f t h e f i r s t line  line,  i s called line  and s e c o n d  exchange w i t h t h e t o n e o f t h e t h i r d a n d dan ao.  The t o n e o f t h e f i r s t  i s changed i n t o  t h e o b l i q u e tone  two  from  t o correspond t o t h e changes o f the tones o f t h e  two words i n t h e f i r s t the tones o f the sixth  the third  \ -  shuanq ao.  words, w h i c h  level  first  line,  t o t h e change o f t h e f o u r t h  words i n t h e s e c o n d the  - \ \  I n o r d e r t o make up f o r t h e  t o n e o f t h e f o u r t h word i n t o  words i n t h e f i r s t fourth  verse.  tones i n t h e second  this  \ -  word s h o u l d be an o b l i q u e t o n e ,  of the f i r s t  correspond and  we c a n s e e t h a t  of regulated  level  \ -  \ \ - - - \ \ - - \ \ \ - -  c o u p l e t , Huang c o n s e c u t i v e l y  rules  \  accords with those o f t h e regular  the fourth  monotony  \ -  - \ \ - - \ \ - - \ \ -  line.  T h e same c h a n g e s t a k e s p l a c e  words o f t h e f i r s t  and s e c o n d  c o u p l e t , and t h e t o n e s o f t h e s e c o n d  106  lines  words o f t h e  first  and s e c o n d Looking  lines  i n the l a s t couplet.  a t t h e t o n e p a t t e r n o f t h e whole poem, t h e t o n e s  of  many words i n e v e r y s e c o n d  in  order t o correspond  line. kept  Also, level.  l i n e i n e v e r y c o u p l e t a r e changed  with changes o f t h o s e tones  t h e tone o f the f i f t h  i n every  word i n e v e r y s e c o n d  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s poem i s a t y p i c a l  first  line i s  application  o f wu  ti. As  f o r t h e sound e f f e c t ,  disharmonious  because  chanting t h i s  poem s o u n d s h a r s h and  o f t h e c o n s e c u t i v e u s e o f many words w i t h  t h e same t o n e s  i n t h e same l i n e and t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e r e g u l a r  tone  This i s especially  pattern.  t r u e f o r t h o s e who a r e u s e d t o  t h e smooth and r e g u l a r t o n e p a t t e r n , tone  f o r the irregular  p a t t e r n s c a n evoke i n them an u n c o m f o r t a b l e  a n a l y s i s o f t h e sound e f f e c t s chanting  syllables,  so t h a t  feeling.  o f wu t i , Guo Shaoyu s a y s ,  a poem i n wu t i , a r o u g h n e s s  irregular  use o f  people  i s produced  In h i s "...in  ini t s  f e e l a n uneven,  h a r s h , and  49 unconventional effect", of  B.  effect."  "The uneven,  harsh,  and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  i s t h e v e r y s t r a n g e n e s s w h i c h Huang p u r s u e s  i n h i s use  ao l u .  Rhyme Scheme The  rhyme scheme o f a poem d e p e n d s on i t s p o e t i c  j^-J^%}^% \  ]jj§|§  49 Wen Gu J u n  Literature),  Xue Yan J o u Cong B i a n i , Guo Shaovu._.__."Lun Zhongguo Taipei:  nu uuo unu Ban She 107  Wen  form i n  , v o l . , 1, p u b l . by Xue Zhong  De Y i n  » 1981, p. 71.  Jie  Chinese  classical  ancient  verse  Ancient  poetry. and  v e r s e has  T h e r e a r e two  regulated five  c h a r a c t e r s t o each l i n e , lines.  Even though rhyming  the  o f even-numbered  end  throughout  o r change t h e  i n ancient verse a poet  rhyme as he  can  either  wishes.  is  does  and  the  use  or  four or e i g h t l i n e s  a t t h e end  option only to i n s e r t  Therefore,  rhyme  o f rhyme b e c a u s e a n c i e n t v e r s e  must f o l l o w s t r i c t t o n a l p a t t e r n s and  the  one  at  poet  r e g u l a t e d v e r s e must have f i v e  to occur  of  a  h a v e s t r i c t t o n a l p a t t e r n s o r rhyme schemes.  Rhyming has  use  Therefore,  not  c h a r a c t e r s t o each l i n e ,  number  usually occurs  much f r e e d o m  poet  use  four)  r e g u l a t e the  has  Conversely,  i n the  (occasionally  does n o t  lines,  forms:  verse.  or seven  and  main p o e t i c  i n a poem.  A  rhyme schemes.  o f even-numbered  this  seven  lines,  rhyme i n t h e f i r s t  o f rhyme i n r e g u l a r v e r s e  and  ther  line.  is strictly  regulated. Huang o f t e n s k i l f u l l y t a k e s ancient use  to vary  h i s rhyme schemes,  and  poets.  achieve  an  L e t us examine how  flexibly  innovative, unconventional  he  freedom  himself  Yi l u a n gong Rite-bird offer  zhang tent  verse  rhyme scheme i n t h e  S h i Draw a House tao shi xing, v o r a c i o u s l i c e swarm,  108  makes  from  uses ancient  following: W a t c h i n g Bo  of  deliberately  o f d i f f i c u l t rhymes i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h  other to  verse  advantage of the  Han lin shi xin bao zhu sheng, I m p e r i a l Academy wet f i r e w o o d f i r e w o r k sound, Feng l i a n guan zhu l e i zong heng. Wind c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l c a n d l e t e a r l e n g t h breadth. Mu chuan Wood d r i l l Zuo chuang S i t window Pin ma P o o r house  shi pan wei qu tou, r o c k p l a t e no c o m p l e t e l y through, bu ao l i n g ren shou, no o u t make p e r s o n t h i n , bai xian feng y i dou. h u n d r e d l e f t o v e r meet one bean.  Yan ming j i a n c i yu hua zong, Eyes b r i g h t see t h i s jade f l o w e r s t e e d , Jing si zhuo b i a n sui shi weng, I m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k wave whip f o l l o w p o e t i c o l d man, Cheng x i ye tao xun xiao hong. C i t y west w i l d peach s e e k s m a l l r e d . ^ 5  The  literary  translation  of t h i s  poem i s :  V o r a c i o u s l i c e swarm a r o u n d i n v i s i t o r ' s t e n t s o f Department o f P r o t o c o l , B u r n i n g wet f i r e w o o d s o u n d s l i k e f i r e w o r k s i n t h e I m p e r i a l Academy, F a c i n g c u r t a i n and c a n d l e , t e a r s w e l l up.  the  Wood c a n n o t d r i l l t h r o u g h r o c k . I m p r i s o n e d a t a window, n o t g o i n g out, c a n make a person t h i n , L i k e a p o o r h o r s e f o u n d one bean i n h u n d r e d s o f p i l e s of l e f t o v e r f o r a g e . My  e y e s become b r i g h t upon s e e i n g t h e j a d e - c o l o u r e d steed, I i m m e d i a t e l y want t o wave my c r o p t o f o l l o w you, o l d poet. To l o o k f o r t h o s e r e d p e a c h b l o s s o m west o f t h e city. T h i s poem c o n s i s t s o f n i n e lines.  50  Each o f the t h r e e  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.9,  lines  with  u n i t s use  p. 158.  109  a rhyme c h a n g e e v e r y  rhyme words f r o m  the  three  following  r e s p e c t i v e l y : 1)  subcategories  tone;  2)  level  tone.^  e r s h i l i u you The  , oblique  design  overall  s t r u c t u r e of the  in  each  section clearer  an  oblique-tone  third the  conventional the  poem, and and  monotonous.  tfjff !(  12  makes t h e  second  *  The  the  lines  A. D. ) comments on  this  are  l — ,  of  ideas  insertion  poet  the  and  making  at the  end  written in pairs.  Hu  s a y i n g , "The  of  first  avoids  poem w i t h  e  the  effectively varies  v  y i donq  arrangement  i n w h i c h rhyme o c c u r s  and  l ^  s e c t i o n between t h e  tones  Also,  rhyme scheme, lines  3)  tone;  more i n d e p e n d e n t .  rhyme i n t h e  e v e n numbered  J\]ft  qenq  o f rhyme scheme h e r e c r e a t e s  s e c t i o n s w h i c h have l e v e l  poem s o u n d  ba  of Zai  pattern i s  52 very his  new  and  hardly  used  by  i n g e n u i t y through the  other  careful  poets. " design  And of the  Huang d i s p l a y s rarely  used  rhyme  scheme.  51 I n o r d e r t o f i n d r h y m i n g words e a s i l y , C h i n e s e classical s c h o l a r s wrote rhyming d i c t i o n a r i e s , i n which C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s according to the four tones i n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n - - p i n q shenq y ^ ^ l e v e l tone), s h a n q shenqj^jSi ( f a l l i n g - r i s i n g t o n e ) , qu shenq iljlj ( f a l l i n g t o n e ) , and r u s h e n q \P\ ( e n t e r i n g t o n e ) . In each c a t e g o r y , characters a r e f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s u b c a t e g o r i e s b a s e d on t h e i r simple o r compound v o w e l s i n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n , s o m e t i m e s w i t h a t e r m i n a l "n" o r "ng". The t e r m s we q u o t e d above a r e s u b c a t e g o r i e s . The rhymes " x i n g " ill "sheng'^i . and "heng"|^j which Huang u s e s i n t h e poem b e l o n g t o ba qenq j^j^j; " t o u " l ^ i , " s h o u " ^ , and "dou" ^ e r s h i l i u you  -'"I'Alf  ' " 4ir'" ' 9*f|i' ' "bong" f f j y i d o n q - j | See S n i Yun TsfHj V P o e t i c Rhyme), r e v i s e d f r o m Zenq Guanq S h i Yun Quan j $ r ^ | f H J £ J J ! ' 9 S h a n g h a i Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1983, vol.2, p.3(J; voT.. 4, p. 47; vol.1, p.l. B i  52  a n c  z o  a n c  e n  S  n  a  ..... CSJC, Hu Z a i , T i a o * , v o l . 48. p. 329.  n  h  a  i  :  X i Yu  Yin  t  110  Cong Hua  Qian  Hou  Ji  ~  Huang's f o n d n e s s f o r u s i n g c i yun with  others)  and  xian  shi  (poems  rhyming  yun |j»g-j ("dangerous" rhyme o r rhymes f o r 53  which  there  approach  are  few  through  common words)  w h i c h he  show h i s s t r a n g e n e s s . use  e x a c t l y the  usually  from  a poet's  friend  shi,  which  i s more t h a n  J,^jjjjli  j p o i n t s out,  rhyme.  "Based on  techniques,  third their  Su  and  s u b t l e ideas,  rhyme w i t h  others'  i s very  unusual  difficult  rhymes, way  of rhyming  or  the  Yet,  i n the poet  wide r e a d i n g ,  Huang a v o i d and  to  poem,  i s more  As  ci  Pan  abundant  being  an  s h i must  Huang w r o t e 567 54  o f h i s poems.  yun  Boying sources,  troubled  by  overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  w r i t e many poems t h a t  5 5  f o r a poet  b e c a u s e he  limiting  o n e s used  as  of rhyming  c r e a t e s c i yun  even t h o u g h t h e y  works."  considered  difficulty  or r e l a t i v e ,  T h e y w r i t e poems f r e e l y ,  It  who  his ideas. one  expressing  clumsy  a poet  same rhyme scheme as  i n expressing  skilful  i n c r e a s e s the  Since  restricted  and  might be  runs the  t o c r e a t e a poem by risk  h i s i d e a s due  o f u s i n g words i n a  t o an  words a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n .  adopting  extremely The  narrow  range  f o l l o w i n g shows  53 According t o t h e amount o f C h i n e s e r h y m i n g words i n a subcategory in a rhyming dictionary, a l l subcategories are classified i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r g r o u p s : kuan yun (rich rhyme), z h o n g yun tjr|j|j (medium rhyme), z h a i yun < f ew rhyme), and x i a n yun. X i a n yun i n c l u d e s t h o s e s u b c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e l e a s t r h y m i n g words among t h e f o u r s u b c a t e g o r i e s . See Wang L i ' s Han Yu S h i Lu Xue, p.44. 54  Mo  L i f e n g , op. c i t . , p. 54.  55 Pan B o y i n g , Zhong L i u Chu Ban  Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Xuan $ t ^ _ t f $ She ' > P- i 9 5 S  4 7  , Hong Kong:  how  Huang u s e s u n u s u a l  rhymes t o rhyme w i t h  a work by  Su  Shi:  Z i z h a n ' s CSu S h i ] p o e t r y i s e x q u i s i t e nowadays, but he s a y s t h a t he i m i t a t e s my p o e t i c s t y l e . He o n l y u s e s h i s poems t o make j o k e s , j u s t as T u i z h i p l a y e d w i t h w r i t i n g poems t o i m i t a t e Meng J i a o Z o n g s h i ^ ^ ! J | . I am a f r a i d t h a t t h e young do n o t u n d e r s t a n d Z i z h a n ' s r e a ' i meaning, so I w r i t e a poem t o e x p l a i n i t by r h y m i n g w i t h h i s poem. Zizhan w r o t e i n " S e e i n g o f f Meng Rong","My home town i s i n t h e n o r t h o f Emei M o u n t a i n , / I t i s i n t h e same s t a t e as y o u r s . " I f o l l o w t h a t rhyme. a  n  d  F  a  n  /  My p o e t r y i s l i k e Cao and K u a i , Too meagre t o be s t a t e s . Y o u r s i s l i k e s t r o n g Chu, Embracing f i v e lakes, three r i v e r s . F l u t i n g i n a s l i g h t wind and c l e a r moon a t C h i b i , I n J a d e H a l l , m i s t d r i f t s a r o u n d t h e windows. You c r e a t e s u c h a u n i q u e law i n l i n e s t r u c t u r e , E v e n a f o r t i f i e d c i t y would s u r r e n d e r t o you. As a d r y p i n e f a l l i n g i n t o a deep r a v i n e . B e i n g d a s h e d by waves. T h o u s a n d s o f oxen c a n n o t move t h e p i n e , But you c a n c a r r y i t by y o u r s e l f . Some p e o p l e g e s t i c u l a t e and l a u g h a t me: "Can you r a n k w i t h Chao and Zhang!" O n l y w i t h f r i e n d s h i p , I can s t a y w i t h them, As Kong Ming bowed t o O l d Pang. I do n o t know what my son w i l l be, My f r i e n d s p r a i s e him as f a i t h f u l and h o n e s t . I f he r e a l l y d e s e r v e s t o be engaged t o y o u r A Xun, I w i l l go t o buy a r e d r i b b o n t o t w i n e t h e wine v a t . ^ 5  From t h e p r e f a c e o f t h i s shi.  "jiang"  (surrender), (rank),  56  can  see  that this  is a ci  T h e r e a r e t e n r h y m i n g words i n t h e poem, w h i c h a r e  (state),  All  poem, we  j(river),  "zhuang" j^'(dash),  "Pang"  jj£;< surname ),  r h y m i n g words b e l o n g  SGSZ,  "chuang" jj| j ( window ),  Neiji,  "kang" jj  "pang"  (carry),  jj^ ( h o n e s t ) ,  to the subcategory  v o l . 5 , p. 85. 112  san  and  yun  "bang  "xiang" "shuang "gang"  j i a n g o f  |jf£ (vat). !  xian  yun.  a r e o n l y 50  There  rhyming  words i n t h i s s u b c a t e g o r y o f  san  57 ,1 i a n q  as opposed  460  t o about  as s i z h i E H t . *  Furthermore,  exceedingly  such  5  rare,  as  words i n a more common rhyme such, 37  words among them  are  "mang" jjj^ (mole c r i c k e t )  and  (name o f a bean),  b u t Huang u s e s e i g h t  available  which  just  i n one  1319) of  t o him, poem.  almost  exhausts  Huang's t a l e n t  s o much t h a t  he  "In  says,  o u t o f 13  common words  a l l viable  surprised  "gang" |j[  word o p t i o n s  L i u XunJdj^H^  1240-  Shangu's p o e t i c c r e a t i o n ,  some r a r e rhymes i s t o o w o n d e r f u l  f o r words...Just  the  i n the  use case  oaf rhyme t h e word ia an d manage o use i is t as and c' rx e t ge ' t{of; h e ( as ui rrr eo nfd esrt)r,a n who g e n e cs os u land power twhich  59 brought  o u t by t h e r h y m i n g  Upon c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n  words. " we  challenged  by rhyme schemes.  fourteenth  lines  sentence at  and  his  and  ^  o f rhyming  ( o l d Pang),  and  and  the poet i s  i n t h e t e n t h and  (dash)  s e n t e n c e s as r h y m i n g  eighteenth lines,  how  i n v e r t s the normal  p l a c e s t h e v e r b s "zhuang"  knowledge o f h i s t o r y  difficulty  F o r example,  above, t h e p o e t  t h e ends o f t h e i r  sixteenth  can u n d e r s t a n d  we  s e e how  and  words.  order of a  "shuang"  (rank)  In t h e  skilfully  Huang  uses  C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s t o overcome, t h e  by q u o t i n g a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e ,  u s i n g t h e r a r e e x p r e s s i o n , "dun  " l a o Pang"  pang"f  i  57  S h i Yun,  58  ibid.,  59  BBCS, L i u XunjIjjjJij > Y i n Ju Tonq Y i  op.cit.,  vol.1,  vol.1,  pp.10-11.  pp.11-21.  113  IX;  t  v o l . a,  p. 16.  (faithful In  honest).  fact,  express Su's  and  Huang d i d not  h i s ideas.  poem w i t h  intentionally The  reason  his  creative  C.  Rhythm  syllable) in  language,  i n c l u d e s a l l these he  and  stress  classical  (intensity  poetry.  pattern of  and  syllabic  two-three divided  by  patterns.  Yet  he  creation.  wants t o  illustrate  elements of the caesura  Since Chinese  line.  occurs a f t e r the  a "two-three  caesuras  or a f t e r  after  choose  o f emphasis g i v e n t o a  p o e t i c form  a s t r e s s on  b e f o r e and  verse,  syllables, stress  usually  i s called  syllables  have t o  in his  t h a t he  each c h a r a c t e r a s y l l a b l e ,  i n a Chinese  a caesura line,  difficulties  does so seems t o be  number o f c h a r a c t e r s i n e a c h  each  d i d not  ability.  with  stress  verse  d i d , he  a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t  Chinese  and  Even i f he  S h i ' s rhyme t o  i t s " d a n g e r o u s " rhyme f o r h i s model.  why  Caesura  have t o f o l l o w Su  after  third  each caesura.  monosyllabic  the p o s i t i o n  are c l o s e l y  related  F o r example, the f i r s t syllable.  a caesura. occur  two  to  the  syllables  This  In p o p u l a r  number  hepta-  and  there i s a  two single  pattern i s called  p a t t e r n , s t a n d i n g f o r t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s two  caesuras.  Huang d o e s not  The  f o l l o w i n g examples a r e g i v e n i n both  in  caesura  the f i r s t  syllable,  caesura  in pentasyllable  after  This caesura  Yet,  of  pattern", standing f o r the  usually  the f o r t h  is a  patterns  a  two-  (2-2-3)  f o l l o w the r e g u l a r literal  and  literary  t r a n s l a t i o n s so t h a t  Huang u s e s h i s own rhythms.  we c a n o b t a i n  some  idea of  how  (/ s t a n d s f o r c a e s u r a )  Gong r u / da guo chu, Y o u r s l i k e huge s t a t e Chu, Y o u r s i s l i k e S t r o n g Chu, Tong / wu hu san jian. Swallow f i v e l a k e s t h r e e r i v e r s . E m b r a c i n g f i v e l a k e s , t h r e e r i v e r s . SO  Qing bo l i /pen c h a / qian cen. Green g l a s s b a s i n penetrate thousands h i l l s , T h o u s a n d s o f h i l l s p e n e t r a t e t h e r i v e r a s i f i t were a green g l a s s basin. Xiang j i a n g / s h u i b i / wu gu j i n . X i a n g J i a n g water c l e a r no past today. T h i s Xiang J i a n g River has been c l e a r through t h e  In  the f i r s t  poem q u o t e d (caesura  example, earlier,  after  three  pattern.  Huang  replaces  which i s e x t r a c t e d t h e second l i n e  the f i r s t  syllable)  follows  instead  I n t h e s e c o n d one w r i t t e n  a one-four  rhythmic pattern  line.  i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c form,  rhythmic p a t t e r n s .  i s created  b e c a u s e Huang s k i l f u l l y  by b r e a k i n g  SGSZ,  Neiji,  vol.5,  61  SGSZ,  Neiji,  vol.20,  p. 85. p. 359. 115  t h e harmony and  Y e t , we f e e l  the t r a d i t i o n a l  makes h i s i n n o v a t i o n  60  with t h e  These unusual changes o f  m i g h t be t h o u g h t t o d e s t r o y  balance of t r a d i t i o n a l  pattern  o f t h e common two-  t h e common t w o - t w o - t h r e e p a t t e r n  three-two-two i n the f i r s t  new a t t r a c t i o n  from h i s p e n t a s y l l a b l e  serve  that a  rhythm  h i s expression  of  meaning As  fifth  we know, word  words.  the t h i r d  word i n t h e p e n t a s y l l a b l e  i n the h e p t a s y l l a b i c  The main r e a s o n  stressed In  i n t h e poem.  verse are u s u a l l y  i s that  they  a r e both  s y l l a b l e s , or are the f i r s t  t h e e x a m p l e s above,  innovation. majestic  example,  and p o w e r f u l p o e t i c "wu" _  positioned  style.  The d e s i g n  caesura  and " t u n " ff j ( s w a l l o w ) a s a r h y t h m i c u n i t  "tun"  ( f i v e ) as the f i r s t  Y e t t h e two words s t r e s s e d  implies  of one-four  syllable after  J  able  i n rhythm  with only  one  a r e j u s t t h e ones  t o c o n v e y Huang's f e e l i n g b e c a u s e  a powerful action  and "wu" d e s c r i b e s  a vast  F a n g Dongshu s a y s o f Huang,  "As f o r s y l l a b l e s , he  creates  s t r a n g e and u n e v e n sounds,  t h e high,  as  Huang a t t e m p t s t o p r a i s e Su's  stresses  which a r e e f f e c t i v e l y  a s key  this rule toh i s  pattern  syllable.  treated  s y l l a b l e s a f t e r a caesura.  Huang c l e v e r l y a p p l i e s  In t h e f i r s t  v e r s e and  twisting,  range.  uniquely along  with  62 his  style." ^ a  through The displays the from and lake  62  Here,  we c a n r e a l l y  i d e n t i f y Huang's h e r o i c  style  h i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f key words. second  example  i s extracted  from  Huang's poem  h i s f e e l i n g i n ascending a height.  poem a c o u p l e t a distance. "qian"  describes  a lake  I t i s c e r t a i n that  \ '.(thousands) p o r t r a y s  i s seen as s m a l l  F a n g Dongshu,  as a b a s i n  which  At the beginning o f  and t h e m o u n t a i n s o v e r i t t h e u s e o f "pen" ^  the d i s t a n t  i(basin)  view f r o m w h i c h t h e  and t h e m o u n t a i n s a s numerous.  op. c i t . , v o l . 10, 116  p. 225.  Therefore, position two  Huang a d o p t s t h e "pen"  key  words,  distant  scene.  and  "qian"  which are  as  three-two-two rhythmic stress syllable.  properly  underscored,  Huang a l s o a p p l i e s i n n o v a t i o n rarely in  used  written  line  structure earlier.  i n h e x a s y l l a b i c form  verse, Here,  i n order  to  a result,  help  w h i c h we  l e t us  these  portray  of rhythmic p a t t e r n s  poetic form--hexasyllabic  terms of  As  pattern  to  a  the  discussed  look  a t a poem  t o examine i t s r h y t h m i c  pattern.  Inscribing  Zhen F a n ' s C o l l e c t e d P i c t u r e  huichong/yan yu / g u i yan, H u i c h o n g m i s t r a i n r e t u r n i n g swan geese, H u i c h o n g ' s swan g e e s e a r e r e t u r n i n g i n t h e rain, zuo wo/xiaoxiang/dongting. A r r i v e my X i a o x i a n g D o n g t i n g . B r i n g me t o X i a o x i a n g R i v e r and  Dongting  yu 'huan/pian z h o u / g u i qu. W i l l c a l l l i t t l e b o a t go back, I w i l l c a l l a l i t t l e boat to take gu Old My From t h e pattern caesuras  r e m i n d s me  word p a t t e r n of t h i s per  of the  poem has  line.  standard  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  i t i s only  poem we  a caesura  home,  63 a picture.  know t h a t t h e  a f t e r two  rhythmic  syllables,  T h i s two-two-two r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n f o r h e x a s y l l a b i c verse.  vol.7,  p. 128.  and  Lake.  yan shi/dan qing. says i s picture.  old friend  considered  63  ren / friend  me  mist  and  two  should  Compared w i t h  be  the  familiar  two-three  rhythmic  p a t t e r n i s more even and  not  satisfy  rarely-used  or two-two-three p a t t e r n s , the  the requirement  two-two-two  well-balanced.  of standard metrical  Yet  p a t t e r n s o f thi  freely,  gai nian qun/dede lai. O n l y hope you h a p p i l y come. But o n l y hope t h a t you come h e r e h a p p i l y . ^  gu y i n g / f e i Huange x i a n g . Bone h a r d n o t Huange l u c k . W i t h h a r d bone [ u n y i e l d i n g ] , l i k e Huange  The  first  patterns one  doe.  form.  bu yuan z i / t a n g t a n g qu, Not c o m p l a i n you f r e e l y go, I do n o t c o m p l a i n about you l e a v i n g  yan Eyes With  Huang  you  will  qing/ j i a n Baipingzhou. b r i g h t see Baipingzhou. w e l c o m i n g eyes, one can s e e  example shows t h a t into  caesura.  helps to stress  n o t be  lucky  Baipingzhou  Huang c h a n g e s t h e two-two-two  a t h r e e - t h r e e and In t h e f i r s t  4  a two-four,  example,  t h e arrangement o f  (freely)  "tangtang"  with both h a v i n g  and  "dede"  on  rhythm  $fff ( h a p p i l y ) i  w h i c h h a v e been e m p h a s i z e d manner i s v i v i d l y (not)  and  person's  "jian" firm  described.  SGSZ,  65  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  Bieji,  repetition,  In the second  (see) p l a c e d a f t e r  attitude.  64  through  When we  chant  v o l . 2 , p. 39. vol.14,  p. 258. 118  so t h a t  example,  a  "fei"  caesuras delineate t h e two  poems,  person  we  a  $  naturally  i n t o n e Huang's r h y t h m i c d e s i g n s t r e s s i n g  words w i t h o u t subtly  and  any  awkwardness o f sound.  properly  creates  reason i s that  Huang the  rhythm.  t h e a n a l y s i s above,  we  can see t h a t  strangeness through changing  makes c h a n g e s t h a t  key  e x p r e s s e s meaning i n h i s poems t h r o u g h  device of innovative Through  The  these  h e l p him  ordinary  Huang n o t o n l y  rhythms,  but  also  to express himself.  IV. The Strangeness o f A l l u s i o n The  use  of a l l u s i o n  controversial allusions  his  by  the Xikun S t y l e  fad i n the e a r l y  Interest  Besides, classical  days  i n "changing  i t cannot  jH^)^!^  i , ^  t h e bone and  which  was  He  adopts  many  an e x t e n t  a prevalent  partly  evolving  from  because the  of  embryo."  i n Chinese  fondness. by many s c h o l a r s  i n the pursuit  some o f Huang's poems a r e h a r d l y  t h e a d o p t i o n o f t o o many s t r a n g e and  but  i s to quite  his erudition  is criticized  sometimes goes t o extremes  he  o f t h e Song, and  be d e n i e d t h a t  of a l l u s i o n  technique.  because  books h e l p e d d e v e l o p t h i s  H i s use  Indeed,  o f t h e most a p p a r e n t  o f Huang's p o e t i c  i n h i s poetry partly  influenced poetic  traits  i s one  rare  of unique understood  since  he  effects. because  of  allusions.  66 The X i k u n S t y l e i s an i m p o r t a n t p o e t i c s c h o o l i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e Song. Poets of t h i s s c h o o l regard L i Shangyin H o f t h e Tang as t h e i r master, and pay g r e a t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u s e of antithesis, allusion, and f l o w e r y words in their poetic creation. 119  Occasionally, it  i s worthy  traditional extensive exhausts and  the a r t i s t i c to note  skills  that  v a l u e o f t h e poem i s d e s t r o y e d . he  successfully  in his practice.  use o f a l l u s i o n ,  As  i t might  a l l the p o t e n t i a l  First used  by  first  the r e s u l t  be s a i d  that  f u n c t i o n s of a l l u s i o n  maximizes the sources of a l l u s i o n .  e x p l o r e o n l y how  i n n o v a t e s and  Here,  we  h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s and  seeks  found  c o u p l e t i n a poem which  we  allusions  almost  i n h i s poetry, will  attempt  which  i n Chapter  to  allusion. were  i n o b s c u r e books.  quoted  develops  of the  he  Huang r e a c h e s s t r a n g e n e s s t h r o u g h  o f a l l , Huang o f t e n  Yet,  rarely  Here i s t h e One.  Guan C h e n g z i [ b r u s h ] d o e s n o t have t h e l u c k t o e a t meat, Kong F a n g x i o n g [ c o p p e r - m o n e y ] s e n t me a l e t t e r t o b r e a k o f f our f r i e n d s h i p . The  couplet contains four  Yu's  essay  "Mao  [  and  conferred  Chengzi ^ ^ - f i misfortune can  Y i n g Zhuan"  J j j j f| ]  Qin  6 7  •  b e s t o w e d on  Guan C i t y ."  allusions. -£fcgi+.  The Han  wrote,  Meng T i a n  upon him.  Thus,  he  Here Huang a p p l i e s Guan  used  as a measure word t o m o d i f y  object  such  as a w r i t i n g Jarush.  meaning above t o i m p l y t h a t  "The  i s from  was  called  Tangmu  Guan  Chengzi's  a slim,  Here t h e p o e t  Besides, long, subtly  he h i m s e l f i s a p e r s o n who  $|}$5C^)iui  Yu, Han Chang L i Wen J i J i a o Zhu > B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1964, 120  Han  emperor  [ §£]£(,'] t h e l a n d  i n b e c o m i n g an o f f i c i a l t o h i m s e l f .  be  67 Han Tongbo  f i r s t one  v o l . 8,  "guan"  round uses  the  spends  , ed. , p. 325.  his  Ma  life  on  more,  trifles  such  i t prepares  titles  second  and eat  to eat)  told  tiger-like meat.  Thus,  really  Chinese  can  be  appearance of h i s  official  found  look  fw|  coppers  will  high  able to f l y high  Bao' s -g%  "friendly  meat  official." "Qian  i n a humorous mood,  as  be  (a l o o k o f h a v i n g  l u c k t o become an  Lu,  swallow-like  [ l u c k ] of a t e n - t h o u s a n d - l i  &^f& a l l u d e s t o Lu  t h e Money God).  Chao Zhuan" J||Ijjf •  i n "Ban  I t l o o k s as i f you  " s h i rou xiang"  means " t h e  classical  Further-  Chao $fj|jif , "[You] have a  Ban  neck.  "Kong F a n g x i o n g " (On  f o r the  a w r i t i n g brush.  editor.  T h i s i s the  o f f i c i a l . "^®  m  reader  allusion  A fortune t e l l e r  and  the  as a w r i t e r and  The  chin  as p l a y i n g w i t h  Shen  Lun"  describes  as b r o t h e r s ,  and  gq  their off Xi  polite  name i s K o n g f a n g  l e t t e r " ^^^5 Kang  if§J|[  hole]."  And,  "breaking-  j a l l u d e s t o a well-known s t o r y , w h i c h i s t h a t  j wrote  •^lL)^^^^t"ft j  [square  < A  a letter,  entitled  L e t t e r Breaking  "Yu  Shan J u y u a n Jue  Jia  Shu"  R e l a t i o n s W i t h Shan J u y u a n ) ,  to  Shan Tao j^^ j. In t h e l e t t e r , X i announced t h a t he was ending h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Shan b e c a u s e he was a f r a i d t h a t Shan would 70 recommend him sources  above,  t o be we  an  can  official.  W i t h o u t t h e knowledge o f  h a r d l y comprehend t h e c o u p l e t ,  comments,  "Really, those  68  Fan  Hua,  69  Fang X u a n l i n ,  70 p. 16.  WYWK, X i  op.cit.,  lacking learning w i l l vol.47,  op.cit.,  Kang «j»  , Xi  not  as L i a n g  the Kun  understand  p. 1571.  vol.94,  p. 2437.  Zhonqsan 121  J i $j|Ta,\7fi; '' :  ,  1955,  vol.2.  what Huang means."  71  Two  allusions  uncommon--"Guan C h e n g z i " i s r a r e l y Fangxiong"  i s from  wrote by  In one  sense,  Huang's use o f a l l u s i o n  "Huang T i n g j i a n . . . o n l y  the ancients,  used  an o b s c u r e s o u r c e .  achieves strangeness. comment on  among them a r e  and  one  especially  by o t h e r p o e t s , This i s just  Wei  Tai's f|^|(ll  "Kong.  Huang  A. D. )  i s not c o m p l e t e l y wrong.  s e e k s a l l u s i o n s which  o r two  how  and  rare  a r e not  He used  words t o weave i n t o h i s  72 poetry." Now,  l e t us examine Huang's i n n o v a t i v e s k i l l  allusions directly  f i t h i s own  special  imagery.  a p p r e c i a t e d without r e f e r r i n g  be d e v e l o p e d  An o r i g i n a l  t o e x p l o r e i t s deep i m p l i c a t i o n s  allusion  effect  produces  illustrated (Two mm third  The  and  of f l e x i b l e  image c a n  t o an a l l u s i o n ,  Huang's i n n o v a t i v e a l l u s i o n s have been d e f i n e d t h e embryo."  i n making  through as  or i t can allusion.  "evolving  from  o r d o u b l e meaning i n an  Huang's s t r a n g e n e s s .  This point  o f view  can  b e s t by h i s " Y i Q i L i a n g Shou Zeng Ren Gong j i a n " Poems about P l a y i n g C h e s s Sent t o Ren G o n g j i a n ) ,  fourth  be  be  iff^n B the  lines:  Mind l i k e a p i e c e o f web d r i f t i n g i n t h e c l e a r sky, Body l i k e a c i c a d a s l o u g h o s s i f i e d on t h e w i t h e r e d branch. 7 3  There  i s no d o u b t  71  L i a n g Kun,  72  CSJC,  73  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  Wei  most r e a d e r s would be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d op. c i t . , p. 86.  T a i , L i n Han vol.2,  Y i n Ju S h i  p. 26.  Hua  these  two  images.  and  p r e c i s e image  embodied two  An  by  a b s t r a c t mental s t a t e  the  "a p i e c e o f web",  unexpected  and  a physical  "a c i c a d a s l o u g h . "  i m a g e s i s a l r e a d y good enough t o e v o k e Let  us  allusion. which  now "A  go  a step further  includes a story c i c a d a s and  withered  trunk  author  with  of Zhuanqzi  concentration man.  So  he  and  c i c a d a s l o u g h " h i d e s an  catching  how  i s visualized  of a r i c k e t y  concludes,  numerous t h e  allusion  "No  matter  ten thousand  things,  of  these  image's  Zhuanqzi,  i s good a t  p o s t u r i n g h i s body as withered  through how  use  to the  who  to i l l u s t r a t e  a s a method o f s t u d y  posture i s  look at the second  h i s arms r e s e m b l i n g i s attempting  concrete  surprise.  o l d man  a t t r a c t s them by  The  in a  the  branches.  The  the importance  of  image o f an o l d  huge h e a v e n and I'm  a  earth,  aware o f n o t h i n g  or  but  74 cicada  wings."  instead to  of  Yet,  "a r i c k e t y  d e s c r i b e a chess  "a c i c a d a s l o u g h " drifting spirit  the  from  Huang c o n v e r s e l y u s e s t h e o l d man".  p l a y e r ' s bending,  corresponds  clear  A cicada slough  sky"  to  "Mind l i k e  irrelevant  t r a c e of design.  match e a c h o t h e r  Burton  accurate  Furthermore,  a p i e c e of  web the  t h e p l a y e r ' s body.  weave some s e e m i n g l y  74  body.  i s more  which i m p l i e s t h e d e t a c h m e n t o f  Huang d i s p l a y s a s k i l f u l use  apparent  rigid  image " c i c a d a "  And  of a l l u s i o n .  allusions the  irrelevant  i n s t r u c t u r e o r meaning.  Watson,  op.cit.,  into  p.199.  He  can s u b t l y  a poem w i t h o u t allusions  any  perfectly  H e r e i s h i s most o f t e n  quoted  "He Da Q i a n Reply  Mufu Yong X i n g x i n g Kao B i " $ J ^ f t f i A ^  _IIf^  >  f o r Qian  Mufu about  Brush  o f Pongo's H a i r  L o v i n g d r i n k i n g , t h e Pongo-ape e a s i l y g e t s drunk, And c a n s p e a k human l a n g u a g e so a s n o t t o keep a secret. How many p a i r s o f s a n d a l s can i t wear i n i t s l i f e ? F i v e c a r t s o f books a r e l e f t a f t e r i t s d e a t h . The b r u s h c a n be f o u n d by r e a d i n g " L o r d s ' M e e t i n g " , The a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e b r u s h i s i n S h i Qu. P u l l i n g out a h a i r can b e n e f i t t h e world, T h i s t r u t h s h o u l d be t o l d t o Yang Z h u . 7 5  T h i s poem c o n t a i n s o f s e v e n Pongo's l o v e o f d r i n k i n g , M i n g " $_:_|ft I ( I n s c r i p t i o n loves  drinking  allusions.  The f i r s t  i s t a k e n from on P o n g o ) .  and w e a r i n g  one, t h e  P e i Yan f ^ | " X i n g x i n g  I t i s written  sandals, so that  that  t h e Pongo  some h u n t e r s p u t 7 6  drinks The says  and s a n d a l s a l o n g t h e r o a d s i d e a s b a i t  allusion  i n t h e second  "Pongo c a n speak,  line  i s taken from  but s t i l l  t o c a t c h him. L i Jiffijj^ i  i s no d i f f e r e n t  which  from an  7 7  animal."  The t h i r d  who l i k e d  one i s e x t r a c t e d from  s a n d a l s and made them h i m s e l f .  a story  about  Yuan s a i d ,  Ruan Fu " I do 7 8  not  know how many p a i r s  fourth  7 5  76 Yao vol. 77  o f s a n d a l s I c a n wear i n my l i f e . "  one a l l u d e s t o Z h u a n q z i , SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.3,  pp.  i n which Zhuangzi  said,  The  "Hui Shih  6 0 - 6 1 .  GXJBCS. P e i Yan, " X i n g x i n g Ming", Tang Wen C u i J U A ^ » Xuan , T a i p e i : T a i Wan Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1 9 6 8 , 7 8 , p. 1 2 5 9 . E  1 9 5 6 ,  L i J i Chang v o l . 1 , p. 3 .  J u , ed. Wang  7 8  Fang X u a n l i n , o p . c i t . ,  Fuzhi,  vol.49, 1 2 4  Taipei:  p.1364.  Guan  Wen  D  Shu J u ,  WW  (Zhuangzi's friend)  was  a man  o f many d e v i c e s and h i s 79  writings  would f i l l  five  "Lords' Meeting" chapter  should  be u n d e r s t o o d  i n J i Zhong Zhou Shu ^ ^ ^ ^  commentator is  carriages."  built,  Zheng Xuan ^  the King  meets a l l l o r d s  countries.  a n o t h e r term  for a library.  Du  Fu  says,  jljlfjjfl  " S h i Qu  line,  as t h e t i t l e  o f one  In t h a t  chapter, i t s  (127-200) wrote, " A f t e r  neighbouring  Xi  .  In t h e f i f t h  the King's  and t h e d e l e g a t e s  In t h e s i x t h  line,  from  "Shi Qu"^^  The s o u r c e c a n be f o u n d  (The Rhymeprose  ancient  is  i n Ban  o f The W e s t e r n C a p i t a l ) ,  i s t h e p l a c e where  city  Gu's  which  books and r e c o r d s a r e  collected". The l a s t c o u p l e t c o n t a i n s a comment on t h e f o u n d e r o f Yang Zhu S c h o o l o f C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h y o r Egoism, w h i c h i s recorded Even  i f he c o u l d  would  n o t do  We Now,  i n Mencius mT,  i t . "  8  into  a l l the a l l u s i o n s Huang  organically  t h e poem t o d i s p l a y  Watson,  op.cit.,  ^^^-{f  81  Fu",  Quan Shanq  82  " X i Du  Chao Wen ^JLjJfEitjtvwllAIHX Shu J u , 1965, v o l . 1, p. b u j . D. C.  i n t e g r a t e s the seven  brush,  meaning.  from the  p.374.  Shu -  Liu Hua  he  i n t h e above poem.  o f t h e poem--the  Zhou  Gu,  o u t one h a i r  his multi-levelled  80 SBCK, J i Zhong v o l . 7 , p. 42. Ban  "Yang T z u c h o o s e s e g o i s m .  t h e E m p i r e by p u l l i n g  of the subject  Burton  i t says  2  l e t u s examine how  Instead  79  benefit  have d i s c o v e r e d  allusions  where  Lao, op. c i t . , v o l . 2,  p. 275. 125  , ed. , Gu  San  Kong  ^.f|  Chao  D a i Q i n Han  '  B  e  i  J  i  n  9  San :  , Guo  Zhong  poet's  friend,  starts  by  sandals,  which  describing and  that  human b e i n g .  The  subject  through  i n s p i r e s him  to write  t h e Pongo's l o v e  i t k e e p s no starting  can  way,  to the w r i t i n g brush  the i n t r i c a t e  link  to  telling for  the Chinese  and  In  level  the t h i r d  i s further  line,  sandals,  w h i c h makes him  writing satire  brushes.  herein satiric  j o k e s about  death")  So  traits  and  social  meaning c o u l d petty  fondness  affairs.  The  the  first  In t h e  fourth  which shows t h e used  t o make  be u n d e r s t o o d  i n the t h i r d  could  be  line  Ruan Fu's  since  as  a  understood  meaning o f a l l u s i o n  Huang  words i n a to  ("Five c a r t s o f books are l e f t  s i n c e the o r i g i n a l  and  g a i n s , ( " H o w many p a i r s o f  the i n t e l l e c t u a l  the f o r t h l i n e  intellectuals  understood  intellectuals'  prey f o r hunters.  i t wear i n i t s l i f e ? " )  Also,  be  Pongo's l o v i n g d r i n k  t h e t o p i c from  coveting  d e l i b e r a t e l y quotes  characterize  t o Pongo t o  t h e Pongo's weakness: l o v i n g  an e a s y  Yet a deeper  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s '  mood.  the  Pongo's  could  o f t h e c a p t u r e d Pongos whose h a i r was  s a n d a l s can  its  and  the t o p i c changes t o the w r i t i n g brush,  luck  a  developed.  continuing  the poet  bad  back t o  like  i s made o f h i s h a i r .  of the Chinese  of p o l i t i c a l  couplet,  line,  which  intellectual.  one  criticism  meaning o f t h i s  i t speaks  two a l l u s i o n s .  s e c r e t s remind  drink  wearing  Pongo's t r a i t s  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Pongo's t r a i t s  symbolize  poem, t h e poem and  traced  between t h e w r i t i n g b r u s h  bridged,through Also,  be  from  Pongo's h a i r ,  is  of drink  s e c r e t s because  point  a roundabout  this  i s to  after praise  the  contribution of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  second It  level  o f meaning i n t h e f i r s t  i s noticeable  line  functions  that  the subtle  to link  Hui Shi. couplet  Therefore,  the  i s developed  here.  use o f a l l u s i o n i n t h e t h i r d  the surface  meaning and t o b r i n g  second  level  though  Huang's f o n d n e s s f o r s a n d a l s has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h  Pongo's.  o f meaning i n t h e f i r s t  Also,  the fourth  poem--the w r i t i n g written  following  implies  The  out the subject  brush--through the idea  that  even  of the  t h e book i s  t h e t o p i c o f the w r i t i n g brush,  t h e f o r e i g n s o u r c e o f t h e b r u s h which from  a foreigner  sixth line  tells  meaning,  i n a meeting  from  Ban Gu.  the f i f t h  Q i a n Mufu  might  i s to write  As f o r t h e s e c o n d  the adoption o f the chapter t i t l e - - " L o r d s '  first  line  such as a "Lords' Meeting".  us t h e b r u s h ' s f u n c t i o n  t h r o u g h an e x p l a n a t i o n  the  brings  couplets,  with a brush.  By  obtain  line  and s e c o n d  out the  a l l u s i o n and o f t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s e c o n d  famous p r o s e e x p r e s s e s t h e c h i e f a c h i e v e m e n t  books  level  Meeting" i n allusion-  o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  a book. In  the last  combined benefit  couplet,  together.  Pongo,  On t h e s u r f a c e ,  t h e w o r l d " means t h a t  make t h e b r u s h w i t h w h i c h In  t h e second  intellectuals though  level,  t h e brush,  and i n t e l l e c t u a l s a r e  " P u l l i n g out a h a i r can  p u l l i n g o u t a h a i r from  to write  books t h a t  benefit  i t means i n a humorous way  can s t i l l  t h e y a r e engaged  Pongo c a n the world.  that  make some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y i n unimportant 127  enterprises  like  even  writing  books w i t h to  think  brushes.  about  see  to  how  into  "hair"  be  to  instructs  accepted.  people  subtly  only  Here Huang  l i n k Pongo's h a i r  w e l l - k n o w n p h r a s e as  poem i s f o r m e d by of  meaning: t h e  brush  to  describes last  a whole.  to  the  Once more,  weaves some i r r e l e v a n t  an  couplet  of  the  Although  i n t e l l e c t u a l ; and  clumsy  or  clues  we  things  which p r e s e n t  which d e v e l o p s from the  The  use  of  joins  the  two  second the  level  last  levels  And  and  multi-levelled  meanings i n t h i s  i s a poem f u l l i s pieced  use of  the  successful  unrelated  allusions,  together.  1^(1724-1805) t h i n k s  of  It  poem can  i s not be  we  in  the  into  creation  a of  poem a l l r e s u l t  allusions. do  not  feel that  surprising  u s e d as  to  which  meaning  intellectual.  original  the  of  two  Pongo  allusion  an  s u b t l e and this  two  s u r f a c e one  delicately  structure  from  means o f  intellectuals.  description  is  Zi's  word  not  which  one.  levels  the  the  Huang o r i g i n a l l y and  The  the  Zhu  egoism  themselves should  uses a d i f f e r e n t brush,  Yang Z i ' s  "the  that  Ji  standard  it Yun  for  83 using  V.  allusion."  A B r i e f Survey o f Huang's P o e t i c Finally,  concluding  I would  l i k e to  remarks about  end  Style  t h i s chapter  Huang's p o e t i c  jfU\  style.  83 F a n g Hui , J i P i Y i n q K u i Lu S u i com. J i Yun £JiA> , X i a n Hua An Chong Kan Ben v o l . 2 7 , p.6. ** 4- • 9  128  with We  some can  more  Kan Wu SStilJIfftfta &$|§lfjii'i • » 1788, |  ,  clearly poetic sound  evaluate h i s poetic style practice,  patterns,  i . e . , h i s use rhythm,  now,  a f t e r our s t u d y o f h i s  of techniques  f i g u r e s of  language,  such  as  figures  "diction, of  thought,  84 and  figures  for  an  Therefore,  of h i s strangeness, line  s t r u c t u r e , and  especially allusion.  some more e x a m p l e s w h i c h w i l l formed,  i n order  style.  First,  St! •  we  o b l i q u e instead of a frank s t y l e  analysis unusual  of speech."  to provide  l e t us  take  an  show how overall  now  know h i s  of poetry  preference  through  our  in poetic structure, Here we  intend to  give  Huang's p o e t i c s t y l e  is  view o f h i s o b l i q u e  a l o o k a t h i s "Xu  Ruzi  C i Tang"|f||"f  '  85  I  The  S h r i n e o f Xu  Ruzi  T a l l t r e e s s u r r o u n d t h e r e c l u s e ' s three-nvu s h r i n e . Today, w i t h whom can t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h a t bunch o f f o d d e r be d i s c u s s e d ? Twined w i s t e r i a i s i n the ascendant, a s s a u l t i n g t h e c l o u d s and sun. Who has a mind t o t r e a t him w i t h wine d u r i n g f l u t i n g and drumming. Maybe then, no R u z i i n a hut, C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s no l a c k o f Chen F a n s i n o f f i c i a l mansions! Our f o r e f a t h e r s were u n a m b i t i o u s , and a r e d e r i d e d by our contemporaries.  84 N. F r i e d m a n and C.A. M c l a u g h l i n , P o e t r y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o I t s Form and A r t , New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1961, pp.135-143. 85 Fan Hua, o p . c i t . , v o l . 2 9 , p. 1294. , A c c o r d i n g t o Hou Han Shu, Xu Z h i ^ ^ ( z i R u z i |gj ' ) i s v e r y p o o r and s u p p o r t s h i s f a m i l y by h i s own l a b o u r . He i s r e s p e c t f u l , modest and f o r b e a r i n g , and r e f u s e s employment by t h e i m p e r i a l government. 129  Yet, In  waves i n t h e l a k e r e a c h  t h i s poem, Huang e x p r e s s e s  and  l a c k of ambition.  Huang's t y p i c a l First,  The  t h e i r former  h i s r e s p e c t f o r Xu R u z i ' s  techniques.  h i s use  of a l l u s i o n .  After a description of  " t h a t bunch o f f o d d e r " ,  When Xu c o n s o l e d  and  Bystanders  [which I  w h i c h i s f r o m Hou  the person  Xu's  Book o f S o n g s ,  action.  Guo  'A bunch o f  fodder,/  r e c e i v e s i t ] i s l i k e jade. ss am n o t v i r t u o u s enough t o d e s e r v e i t . " I n t h e s i x t h l i n e Huang u s e s a n o t h e r a l l u s i o n , Chen F a n ,  who  symbolizes]  Shu.  i n f r o n t o f t h e m o t h e r ' s tomb  d i d not understand  " I t i s r e a d i n The  Han  an  upon t h e l o s s o f h i s  put a bunch o f f o d d e r  explained,  the  c o u p l e t , Huang u s e s  his friend  m o t h e r , Xu left.  virtue  theme i s i l l u s t r a t e d by some o f  environment of the s h r i n e i n the f i r s t allusion,  marks.  [who  i s t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Nanchang jUg: and  Whenever Xu v i s i t e d  an a d m i r e r  Chen, Chen s a t Xu on a c o u c h .  Chen r e s e r v e d t h e c o u c h f o r Xu by h a n g i n g  of  87  Xu.  A f t e r Xu  left,  i t f r o m a beam, i n  o r d e r t o show h i s r e s p e c t f o r Xu. As use  i n o t h e r examples d i s c u s s e d i n the Chapter  Three,  o f a l l u s i o n s i n t h i s poem i n c r e a s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y  comprehending i t .  F o r example, i n t h e f i r s t  86  SGSZ, W a i j i ,  vol.1,  87  Chen Huan, o p . c i t . ,  88  F a n g Hua,  op.cit.,  p. 11. v o l . 4 , p. 67. p. 1294. 130  the  of  a l l u s i o n Xu's  virtue  is  delineated  also  by an a l l u s i o n  T h e Book o f Songs,  from  e n c l o s e d i n Xu's s t o r y .  The s a n d w i c h e d  t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f i t s words so t h a t  which i s  allusion  enriches  t h e poem becomes more  implicit. We a l s o coordinate  note  that  Huang e m p l o y s r h e t o r i c a l  the a l l u s i o n s  i n the f i r s t  couplets.  line,  refers  t o Guo T a i ' s e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h e c o n f u s e d b y s t a n d e r s i n  decay  story,  and a c t u a l l y  since  through  In t h e t h i r d are s t i l l admirers  o f these v i r t u e  expressed  line  like  like  i s that  through  Chen Fan.  i s expressed  an a f f i r m a t i v e  The c o m b i n a t i o n  way.  there  Ruzi, but i t i s hard t o f i n d Yet, t h e a f f i r m a t i v e  through  a negative  "no", and t h e n e g a t i v e meaning i n t h e s i x t h  negatives). further  q u e s t i o n , but not i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  many v i r t u o u s p e o p l e  expression  the times i s expressed  c o u p l e t , what Huang wants t o e x p r e s s  meaning i n t h e f i f t h  moral  Xu i s no l o n g e r r e s p e c t e d a n d  H i s n e g a t i v e mood t o w a r d  a rhetorical  superficially  e x p r e s s e s Huang's w o r r i e s a b o u t  the virtuous recluse  understood.  i s a pun, which  In t h e  second  Xu's  the q u e s t i o n sentence  and t h i r d  sentences t o  line i s  one " n o t l a c k i n g " (two  of allusion  and r h e t o r i c a l  sentence  c o m p l i c a t e s t h e poem.  Furthermore, "wisteria" officials  which s t a n d s f o r v i l l a i n s ,  i n t h e poem, f o r e x a m p l e : " t h e c l o u d s and s u n " f o r  i n h i g h p o s i t i o n s and t h e emperor,  where v i r t u e officials  many s y m b o l s a r e u s e d  lives,  live.  and " o f f i c i a l  mansion",  "hut",  the place  t h e p l a c e where  The u s e o f s y m b o l s embodies t h e p o e t ' s  feelings  in  a convoluted Finally,  that  way.  Huang ends h i s poem w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  d i s p l a y s h i s idea,  convey  h i s thoughts to  of  method,  the  either  as  judged  by  all  of  consciously of  meaning.  poetry  still or  i n the  Because of the last  p e o p l e who  as  method he  line  follow  virtue like  Xu's  can  be  scene  uses  to  implication understood  virtue regardless will  be  of  fairly  history. a n a l y s i s of  poetic  kinds  are  deride,  From t h e oblique  h i s readers.  Huang's i d e a  there  what o t h e r s '  which i s a t y p i c a l  a  that  the  poem, we  s t y l e i s f o r m e d by  poetic  skills,  we  closure  can  see  i s so  to avoid  important  usually obtain  that  Huang's  a d e l i b e r a t e and  e s p e c i a l l y the  ends h i s poem i n o r d e r The  can  the  c a r e f u l use  method w i t h a frank  which  of he  expression  i n Chinese  classical  m a j o r i d e a o f a poem  from  it. H e r e i s a n o t h e r example which shows us with  strong  how  Huang  deals  feeling: A P i c t u r e o f Ant  and  Butterflies ^ 0  7  A p a i r of b u t t e r f l i e s f l y i n g f r e e l y . Happen t o d i e i n a web. A swarm o f a n t s r u s h t o c a r r y t h e i r d r o p p e d And r e t u r n t o N a n k e ^ i n t r i u m p h .  wings.  9  89  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  vol.16,  p. 298.  90 BBCS, L i Gongzuo j. Nan Ke J i jjfflft}. I t s a y s .that Chun Y u f e n dreamed o f v i s i t i n g t h e Kingdom o f Da Huaian j^H^' * became g o v e r n o r o f t h e Nanke j (south tree) area. A l t e r awakening, he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e kingdom was o n l y an a n t n e s t u n d e r a C h i n e s e s c h o l a r t r e e on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f h i s a n a  132  T h i s might his  be a poem  t h r o u g h which Huang s t r o n g l y d i s p l a y s  anger a t the immorality  ill-fated curse,  butterflies.  his feelings  technique.  of the ants  Although  are s t i l l  considered  The theme o f t h e poem  as n a i v e  respectively. insects The only  satire  i n a mood t o poetic through  and immoral  i n nature  i n which t h e t h r e e i s embodied.  i n t h e end i s p e r f e c t and s u b t l e , f o r i t n o t  ants"  but a l s o c o n c e a l s  whose d e s i r e w i l l  has a s t r o n g  a r e i m p l i e d t h r o u g h a well-known a l l u s i o n ,  F o r Huang, e v e n  the  a fond  feelings  r e m i n d s us o f Huang's c r i t i c i s m  hatred  be o n l y  t h e poet  addition to this  Jisi  "producing  says,  began w i t h poetry.  dream.  "Nanke."  t o w a r d Su S h i ' s c u r s i n g  It  social  i f h i s a n g e r becomes w h i t e h o t , i t  oblique poetic style,  implicitly.  i t i s important  t o n o t e t h a t Huang a l s o w r i t e s many humorous poems, states  poet's  f o r t h e immoral ants, h i s  seems he would r a t h e r r e l e a s e i t i n h i s own manner In  be  people,  Although  affairs.  three  which might  a complex human r e l a t i o n s h i p  the d e s c r i p t i o n of ants,  o f "those  i n t o d e v o u r the.  s p i d e r s , and a n t s ,  T h r o u g h an a c c i d e n t  use o f a l l u s i o n  through  i s illustrated  v i c t i m s , hunters,  are involved,  fits  Huang i s a l m o s t  controlled  dominant symbols: b u t t e r f l i e s ,  who r u s h  a s he  a tune t h a t e i t h e r groans or laughs".  "The f a s h i o n o f Song p o e t s  u s i n g poems t o make  D o n g p o . . . T h e r e a r e more humorous i n t e r e s t s  Y e t , h i s humorous i n t e r e s t  house. 133  i s not as obvious  himself Wang jokes  i n Shangu's as  gi Dongpo's,  so c a r e l e s s r e a d e r s  Bingquan a l s o  o f t e n do n o t c a t c h i t . "  p o i n t s o u t t h a t Huang  Zhang  p r o d u c e s a humorous  e f f e c t by.  go  his  poetry,  might as  a s Su S h i and Tao Yuanming do.  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  poetic subjects.  sense Cat"  We  h i s adoption should  f o r Qian  of t r i f l e s  have a c t u a l l y  o f humour i n o u r a n a l y s i s and " R e p l y  H i s humorous  o f poems s u c h  Mufu on t h e B r u s h  and d a i l y  realized  Here l e t us t a k e Reply  life  Huang's  as " P e t i t i o n i n g  from  A  Pongo's H a i r " .  Most o f t h e poems he w r i t e s " f o r f u n " (x_i ^ ;) p r o d u c e a effect.  style  humorous  a l o o k a t h i s " X i Da Chen Yuanyu" $!(^t;  t o Chen Yuanyu f o r Fun  As f a r a s I have h e a r d a b o u t you Chen D i n g z h o u , H a r v e s t s y e a r a f t e r y e a r i n t h e c o u n t y r u n by you, e v e n l o c u s t s do n o t i n v a d e . We f i r s t knew e a c h o t h e r when you were g r a n t e d t h e o f f i c i a l t i t l e a t E a s t Gate, I t i s l u c k y t h a t o u r h a i r has not t u r n e d grey l i k e o l d men's. You a r e t i r e d o f f i s h and meat i n f o r m a l p a r t i e s w i t h officials, But you a r e s l e e p l e s s from d r i n k i n g t h i c k t e a , and h a v e t o f a c e t h e empty h a l l i n t h e autumn n i g h t . You s a y t h a t you do n o t dream o f Beauty any more, A l r e a d y a s d r y and i n s e n s i t i v e a s a numb p e r s o n . I am o n l y w o r r i e d t h a t t h e r e d f l o w e r w i t h a s m i l e welcomes you a t t h e door, At n i g h t , o u t s i d e t h e window, c o l d r a i n b e a t s t h e s l a n t i n g wind. T a k i n g o f f y o u r autumn c l o t h e s , d r y them on t h e fumigator with burning lignaloe. B e h i n d t h e s i l v e r s c r e e n , you t o s s about i n bed, I t i s a s h a r d t o p u l l up t h e r o o t o f y o u r a f f e c t i o n s  91  Wang J i s i ,  op.cit.,  92  Zhang B i n g q u a n ,  p. 245.  op.cit.,  p. 56. 134  go  as t o p u l l Huang w r o t e t h i s  i n charge  official  parties,  made f u n o f him. life,  Chinese  classical  on  poetic  his of  who  as we  style  Yunyi  of  poetic  by  H i s main t e n d e n c y  Of  and  any  more",  course,  we  t  and  a specialist  strangeness  humour i s a n o t h e r  and  from  i n words, especially  related  can  in  humour.  of aspect  of  to h i s emphasis  his personal that  some o f  his excessive pursuit  sentences, allusion.  i n Song p o e t r y , s a y s ,  obscurity  topic  s e r i o u s n e s s and  must n o t o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t  This results  Huang  upon Chen's  t h e main t e n d e n c y  i s closely  an  preparing food f o r  h i s humour r e f l e c t s  sound e f f e c t s ,  JIJT^JI  combining  i s o b l i q u e , and  strangeness or o r i g i n a l i t y  Hu  and  t h e poem t o u c h e s  h a v e p o i n t e d out,  poems a r e o b s c u r e .  structure,  guests  S i n c e Chen was  d i d "not dream o f Beauty  literature  technique,  interests.  roots.  Huang p r o p e r l y d e a l s w i t h t h i s s e n s i t i v e  Huang's p o e t i c style.  of receiving  Even though  private  this  onion  poem i n a humorous mood.  official  However,  out green  be f o u n d  poetic However, "The  as  defects  i n Huang's  94 poems, b u t  93  are not v e r y  SGSZ, N e i j i ,  94 Hu Poetry),  Yunyi Shanghai:  apparent."  v o l . 8 , p. 145. , Song S h i Y a n g i u ;fc|f$f;fl[. <A Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1933, 135  Study o f t h e p.91.  Song  Conclusion  In  the preceding  discussion  c h a p t e r s we  presented  o f Huang's p o e t i c t h e o r y  and  his  g e n e r a l views of poetry i n Chapter  his  concerns  about p o e t i c content,  terms of p o e t i c p r a c t i c e principles  i n Chapter  and  the r e l a t i o n  However, a s we practice  from  P a r t I - - f o c u s i n g on  We One,  analyzed  examined i n his  P a r t I I and  explored  "strangeness,"  his  we,have p r o v i d e d a  between h i s t h e o r y  h a v e m e n t i o n e d many t i m e s ,  and  viewpoint,  or p r a c t i c a l  i t i s easy  poems c r i t i c i z i n g  clear  Huang's t h e o r y  innovation  p r e s e n t s us  political  or o r i g i n a l i t y .  d e f e c t s w h i c h make him  writings.  f o r us t o a c c e p t  r e g u l a r p o e t i c p a t t e r n s , and  affairs  Based on  the f a c t and  Yet,  certainly,  a great Chinese  wrote a  poems i n  than  p o e t i c form, and  136  speaking,  to poetic  t o work on  p o e t i c technique.  any  these  Generally  T h i s l e a v e s a l a r g e r r a n g e f o r him  style,  this  i t i s not  poet.  This  tendencies  t h a t he  a few  and  with  even i m i t a t e d o t h e r s w i t h o u t  Huang p a y s l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o p o e t i c c o n t e n t technique.  use  practice.  o r e v e n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o h i s main  his theoretical  poetic  analyzed  a r e e x a m i n e d o n l y i n t e r m s o f h i s main t e n d e n c i e s .  deviations  few  We  i d e a s , h i s main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n  means t h a t i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t he  in  One,  Two.  Therefore,  l o o k a t h i s major t h e o r e t i c a l practice,  practice.  Three under t h e  major p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s .  comparative  w h i c h were f u r t h e r  o f p o e t i c method i n C h a p t e r  them i n d e t a i l of  i n Chapter  a  Thus,  his  Huang's  contribution technique. Jiangxi years, he  to Chinese Although  School  i s chiefly  h i s theory  of poetry,  and o c c u p i e s  i s known  poetry  h i s innovative poetic  influenced the formation  of the  which was p r e v a l e n t f o r s e v e r a l h u n d r e d  an i m p o r t a n t  more a s an a r t i s t  place i n Chinese  than  137  a theoretician.  p o e t i c theory,  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  BBCK--BAI BU CONG KAN |ff BBCSJC--BAI BU CONG SHU J I CHENG CSJC--CONG SHU J I CHENG GXJBCS--GUO XUE J I BEN CONG SHU SBBY--SI BU BEI YAO SBCK--SI BU CONG KAN  B^J^^  |0jffll1! pJfUJjfl] j  SGSZ--SHAN GU SHI ZHU  |  SSHJY--SONG SHI HUA J I YI J i t  WYWK- - WAN YOU WEN KU 7f|fit)IJ  (  YZHXSWJ- -YU ZHANG HUANG XIAN SHENG WEN J I  138  J8$$5fc3:XSl  :  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  Primary  Sources:  Ban Gu $_&. Han Shu $(~$ . B e i j i n g : ;  Bai  |.  Juyi  Bai  Zhong Hua Shu J u tjj-j^-^^ j, 1972  X i a n g s h a n J i mm  I  Cai  i  Tao^SR'.  Cao P i  X i Qing  ! . 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