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The poetic theory and practice of Huang Tingjian Du, Liang 1991

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THE POETIC THEORY AND PRACTICE OF HUANG TINGJIAN BY LIANG DU B.A., HUNAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY, 1982 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Asian S t u d i e s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF JULY, (C) LIANG BRITISH COLUMBIA 1991 DU, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^,A-A! S>Tc/P>/gS The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Huang T i n g j i a n ffKpK<1045-1105) i s one of the most important poets of the Song Dynasty. He i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with h i s contemporary Su Shi|||^ , j u s t as the Tang Dynasty's most important poets Du Fu and L i Bai ^ are l i n k e d . Huang founded the J i a n g x i School which ex e r t e d 150 years of i n f l u e n c e _ i upon the c r e a t i v e theory and p r a c t i c e of succeeding g e n e r a t i o n s of poets. Huang i s a l s o one of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l poets i n Chinese h i s t o r y . His p o s i t i o n i n p o e t i c h i s t o r y and the c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding him, make i t worthwhile to analyze h i s p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . T h i s t h e s i s attempts to summarize the main p r i n c i p l e s of Huang's p o e t i c theory, the main content of h i s poetry, and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i s p o e t i c techniques. I begin with a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h of Huang; i t focuses on h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e er, and the p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s which i n f l u e n c e h i s l i f e . Chapter One presents an overview of Huang's p o e t i c theory and the p r i n c i p l e s of h i s p o e t i c technique. Therein, I mainly d i s c u s s h i s view of the content of poetry and i t s p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m , and a l s o provide a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of h i s i d e a s on p o e t i c s t y l e . In d i s c u s s i n g h i s i d e a s of p o e t i c technique, I examine h i s method as an organic u n i t , and then a f t e r a n a l y z i n g h i s comments on i m i t a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n , I summarize the i p r i n c i p l e s of h i s method. Chapter Two i s an a n a l y s i s of Huang's p o e t i c content. Through a survey of Huang's poetry, I e x p l o r e the c h i e f t o p i c s of h i s poetry. By comparing Huang's general view of poetry with the content he s e l e c t s , we w i l l a s c e r t a i n whether or not there i s c o n s i s t e n c y between h i s p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . Chapter Three i s a d i s c u s s i o n of Huang's p o e t i c technique. The d i s c u s s i o n i s dominated by what has been c a l l e d by many c r i t i c s Huang's " q i " ^ ( s t r a n g e n e s s ) . What may be p r o p e r l y j understood as the p r i n c i p l e s of h i s technique p r o v i d e the f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s outstanding o r i g i n a l i t y . The aspects of t h i s o r i g i n a l i t y t h a t i s d i s c u s s e d are b a s i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with h i s method which i s ex p l o r e d i n Chapter One. Therefore, t h i s chapter can be seen as an examination of Huang's view on p o e t i c technique from the p e r s p e c t i v e of p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . T h i s chapter concludes with a survey o f Huang's p o e t i c s t y l e which develops the d i s c u s s i o n of s t y l e touched upon b r i e f l y i n Chapter One. The summation of h i s p o e t i c s t y l e i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the a n a l y s e s o f h i s p o e t i c content and technique i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s and chapters. The c o n c l u s i o n i s a summation of Huang's p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . I summarize the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e i n g e n e r a l and h i s major c o n t r i b u t i o n to Chinese c l a s s i c a l poetry. i i TABLE OF CONTEHTS Abstract ..................1 Biography 1 Chapter One A Survey of Huang's Poetic Theory 6 I. Huang's General Views about Poetic Theory ...7 II. Huang's Theory of Poetic Technique 26 A. The Content of Huang's Method 28 B. The Sources of Method 36 C. The P r i n c i p l e s of Method . 41 Chapter Two Poetic Theory and Pra c t i c e : Poetic Content 47 I. Self-Expression 48 II. Nature 61 III. Daily L i f e 64 IV. Philosophy i n Huang's Poetry .68 Chapter Three Poetic Theory and Practice: Poetic Technique 74 I. The Strangeness of Poetic Structure 75 II. The Strangeness of Poetic Sentences 82 III. The Strangeness of Tone Pattern, Rhyme Scheme and Rhythm 102 IV. The Strangeness of A l l u s i o n 119 V. A Survey of Huang's Poetic Style 128 i i i Conclusion Abbreviations Bibliography Biography Huang T i n g j i a n ( z i ^ S h a n g u jlj-j^  ; haos j^Shanqu Daoren tij^ jIS/^  and Fuweng ), was born i n Fenning i n Hongzhou (modern X i u s h u i i n J i a n g x i province) i n the year 1045- When he was 14, h i s f a t h e r died. His f a t h e r ' s death brought him a hard l i f e at h i s young age. In h i s l e t t e r t o L i Jizhong , he wrote: "I l o s t my f a t h e r at a young age and became poor. I o f t e n s u f f e r e d from hunger and c o l d . Owing t o the poverty of h i s f a m i l y , he was sent t o l i v e with h i s uncle L i Chang ( h i s mother's b r o t h e r ) , who was well-educated and a c o l l e c t o r o f books. During h i s s t a y with h i s uncle, he was educated by h i s un c l e and aunt, and b e n e f i t e d from r e a d i n g h i s uncle's books. A l s o h i s u n c l e brought him to t r a v e l Huainan jjljffi and to v i s i t many s c h o l a r s and poets, which helped him expand h i s mind. Thus, i t can be s a i d t h a t h i s e a r l y education was completed under h i s u n c l e ' s guidance. Huang p r a i s e d h i s uncle i n an elegy f o r h i s 2 u n c l e : " I t i s you my uncl e who brought up and educated me." In 1067, Huang passed the i m p e r i a l examination t h a t enabled him t o s t a r t h i s o f f i c i a l career. Next year, he was appointed 1. S i Bu Cong Kan HojlJ&fllj (abbreviated SBCK), Huang T i n g j i a n , Yu Zhang Huang Xian Sheng Wen J i # # # 4 $ f & (abb r e v i a t e d YZHXSWJ), vol.19, p. 198. M¥-«AiA7t> 2. YZHXSWJ, vol.21, p. 232. 1 Xian Wei ( D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c S e c u r i t y ) of X i e County t r } ' ^ . In 1072, the emperor Shenzong (1068-1085 ) s e t t n e examination t o s e l e c t t e a c h e r s f o r the Guo Z i J i a n JU^Ia (the Im p e r i a l C o l l e g e ) . Huang passed the examination with an e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t , and was appointed Zhu J i a o | | . | f ( A s s i s t a n t I n s t r u c t o r ) of the Imperial C o l l e g e . For e i g h t years from 1072 to 1080, Huang was s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Imperial C o l l e g e , and was promoted J i a o Shou ( I n s t r u c t o r ) . In the year of 1078 when he was conducting h i s t e a c h i n g , he began h i s f i r s t contact with Su S h i through correspondence. An important p o l i t i c a l event with a l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e on many o f f i c i a l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s took p l a c e i n China when Huang enjoyed h i s t e a c h i n g without worries. T h i s event can be t r a c e d s u b m i t t i n g an o u t l i n e o f reform to the down Wang Anshi's j£^7j emperor Renzong f l ^ . i n 1058. A f t e r Shenzong became the emperor i n l 1068, he h i r e d Wang Anshi as h i s Z a i Xiang ( premier ), and agreed with him to c a r r y out Xin Fa (New P o l i c i e s ) which i s h i s t o r i c a l l y c a l l e d Wang Anshi's Bian Fa J % | j ^ f $ ( W a n g Anshi's Reform). Since then, most Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s were d i v i d e d i n t o two wings--Xin Dang ||^(New Party or Reformer Party) and J i u Dang Party or C o n s e r v a t i v e Party) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards Reform. Those i n favour Reform are named New Party, and the o p p o s i t e Old Party. The two wings c o n f l i c t e d u n t i l the end of the North Song Dynasty. For such a long p e r i o d , Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' d e s t i n y was up and down along with the changes of people who were i n power i n the i m p e r i a l c o u r t . Although Huang h i m s e l f d i d not d i r e c t l y or a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e , he was i n v o l v e d due to h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o some members of Old Party, such as Sima GuangjjJ]^ , Su S h i , Qin G u a n | | and e t c . I n 1080, he ended h i s term of t e a c h i n g i n the Imperial C o l l e g e , and was appointed a county magistrate of Taihe i n J i z h o u J^fj (modern Taihe ^$J;in J i a n g x i >. In 1083, he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Deping ^ jffi i n Dezhou j^ jfj!<modern Shanghe i n Shandong as a J i a n Zhen Guan ( S u p e r v i s o r ) . In Deping, h i s c o l l e a g u e Zhao T i n g z h i j|(|f,£: wanted to pursue S h i Y i Fa iff (a p o l i c y of managing market by government) i n order t o f i t i n with h i s immediate a d m i n i s t r a t o r . Yet, Huang thought t h a t i t was not a p p r o p r i a t e to adopt the p o l i c y because people i n town were very poor. Huang and Zhao had a heated argument about t h i s matter, which became one of reasons t h a t Huang was e x i l e d i n the f u t u r e . Zhezong ascended the throne a f t e r the emperor Shenzong d i e d i n 1085. Zhezong was only 10 then, and, a c t u a l l y , h i s grandmother Gaoshi , who was a supporter of Old Party, r u l e d the s t a t e . She h i r e d the key f i g u r e of Old Party, Sima Guan as premier, so t h a t most members and f o l l o w e r s of Old Party were promoted and New Party was r e t a l i a t e d . Appointed as an E d i t o r of Mi Shu Sheng H^-^j <the Imperial L i b e r a r y ) , Huang went to the c a p i t a l B i a n j i n g (modern Kaifeng j fj^ i n Henan ). Afterwards, he was appointed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n w r i t i n g Shenzonq Shi Lu ^^^•p' (The V e r i t a b l e Records of Shenzonq). A f t e r t h i s book was completed, he was promoted to Qi Ju She Ren jjjjj^^ (the Recorder of the emperor's words and deeds) because of h i s achievement i n t h i s book. A f t e r Gaoshi d i e d i n 1093, a group of f o l l o w e r s of New Party c o n t r o l l e d the emperor Zhezong, who was only 17. In order t o exclude Old Party, New Party l i s t e d more than one thousand of p o l i t i c a l e r r o r s s e l e c t e d from The V e r i t a b l e Records of Shenzonq. As one of the e d i t o r s of t h i s book and a sympathizer of Old Party, Huang was i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d i s a s t e r . In 1095, a l l e d i t o r s of t h i s book were r e l e g a t e d i n a charge of " s l a n d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s emperor". Huang was e x i l e d to Qianzhou 1^ (modern Pengshui £>-^jin Sichuan )BjJ||j). In 1097, he was t r a n s f e r r e d t o Rongzhou ^jtj (modern Y i b i n ^ j|^;in Sichuan). In 1100, the emperor Zhezong d i e d and Huizong ^*became the emperor. In f a c t , Huizong's mother Xiang S h i h e l d court. The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n changed to be advantageous to Old Party. Many members of Old Party, such as Sima Guang and Su S h i took a f a v o u r a b l e t u r n . In 1100 and 1101, Huang was a l s o appointed to s e v e r a l p o s t s i n the c a p i t a l , but p o l i t e l y d e c l i n e d them and asked t o be appointed a l o c a l o f f i c i a l i n T a i p i n g Zhou T^ j^tJ; (modern D a n g t u ^ ^ ; i n Anhui ) or Wuwei Jun j^v}^  (Wuwei^^Jjin Anhui) because of h i s worries about the change of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n , or because of h i s poor h e a l t h . In 1102, he was appointed ZhizhouM j n (Executive) of T a i p i n g . In the same year, the emperor Huizong took over the power and h i r e d C a i J i n g , a member of New Party, as premier. C a i J i n g launched a crackdown on New Party. In the crackdown, Huang was more s e r i o u s l y punished. As recommended by Cai j i n g , Zhao T i n g z h i , whom Huang off e n d e d before, was h i r e d as v i c e premier. Zhao charged Huang with s l a n d e r i n g the s t a t e by choosing some words i n Huang's w r i t i n g . T herefore, a f t e r Huang worked i n T a i p i n g f o r only nine days, he was t r a n s f e r r e d to Hongzhou with a nominal t i t l e , where he was asked to wait f o r h i s next placement. At t h i s time, a l s o the l a s t time, Huang was e x i l e d t o Yizhou < modern Yishan Guangxi f*^), which was thousands of k i l o m e t r e away from the c e n t r e of China and was u n c i v i l i z e d . In 1145, Huang d i e d where he was e x i l e d . of 5 Chapter One A Survey o f Huang's P o e t i c Theory Huang T i n g j i a n was not a t h e o r e t i c i a n . He d i d not i n t e n d to c r e a t e a s y s t e m a t i c p o e t i c theory, nor d i d he leave behind any monographs on p o e t i c s . Yet, as a poet Huang not on l y made a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Chinese l i t e r a t u r e , but a l s o provided h i s p o s t e r i t y with a c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o e t i c theory found s c a t t e r e d throughout h i s remarks i n l e t t e r s , prose, poems, and r e c o r d s of h i s a c t i v i t i e s l e f t by h i s contemporaries. One of the main reasons t h a t vehement con t r o v e r s y has a r i s e n over Huang's p o e t i c views i s they are o f t e n understood out of the context of h i s i n d i v i d u a l w r i t i n g s , and out of the context of h i s work seen as a whole. I t i s more s e n s i b l e to analyze Huang's p o e t i c theory as an o r g a n i c u n i t . Therefore, i n t h i s chapter we w i l l compare some t y p i c a l i d e a s c r i t i c s have about Huang's main p o e t i c views, and an a l y z e them through c l o s e examination of t h e i r o r i g i n a l context. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n an o v e r a l l view of Huang's p o e t i c theory, we w i l l a l s o survey two major as p e c t s : 1) Huang's own gen e r a l i d e a s about p o e t i c theory; and 2) h i s theory of p o e t i c technique. By doing t h i s , we hope to o b t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y a c c urate p i c t u r e o f h i s p o e t i c theory, e s p e c i a l l y h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o e t i c views, and see how w e l l Huang's p o e t i c theory i s i n t e g r a t e d , t h a t i s , whether Huang maintains a balance between h i s p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . 6 I. - Huang's General V i e v s about P o e t i c Theory Among a l l the remarks Huang makes, the most important and comprehensive comments on p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s are presented i n h i s A f t e r Wang Z h i z a i ' s Random Impressions about Ju H i l l ) : P oetry i s an e x p r e s s i o n of human emotion and nature. I t should not [have the s t y l e o f ] an i n t e n s e debate w i t h i n the I m p e r i a l court, of abusive complaints shouted i n the s t r e e t , or of the angry c u r s i n g of one's neighbours or guests. A poet should be l o y a l , honest, s i n c e r e , r e s p e c t f u l , and l i v e by embracing the Way. When a poet runs counter t o the times, when he f e e l s sorrow or joy at something t h a t he has experienced, when even the one next t o him i n the same bed cannot understand him, when he cannot i n t e r a c t with h i s contemporaries, and when he can no lon g e r c o n t a i n h i s emotions, he r e l e a s e s them by producing a tune t h a t e i t h e r groans or laughs. By t h i s he r e l e a s e s h i s heart, and those t h a t hear him are thereby, t o some extent, urged and exhorted. I t i s the beauty of poetry [t h a t these tunes] can then be sung i n harmony with musical laws and danced t o with s h i e l d s and f e a t h e r fans. As f o r [some people who] f u r t h e r t r y t o s l a n d e r or make i n s u l t s with such poetry, [so t h a t they] s t i c k t h e i r necks out under the b a t t l e axe, or remove t h e i r armour before arrows i n order t o r e l e a s e t h e i r anger of the moment, such d i s a s t e r s are c o n s i d e r e d by everyone t o be c r e a t e d by poetry. Yet, t h i s i s because the poet has missed the p o i n t of poetry, and i t i s not the f a u l t of poetry i t s e l f . 1 Huang's remarks c o n t a i n s e v e r a l l e v e l s of meaning. F i r s t o f a l l , Huang expresses h i s general view about poetry by answering the e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n : What i s poetry? As f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of poetry, t h e r e were two major viewpoints i n Chinese p o e t i c theory before Huang's time. "Shu Wang Z h i z a i Ju Shan Za Yong Hou" ( I n s c r i b e d 1 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p.296. 7 One, which James L i u suggests be c a l l e d Expressionism \£ , ^  emphasizes the s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n of a poet's nature and emotions. In one of the e a r l i e s t Chinese books, Shu J i n g (Th Book of H i s t o r y ) , poetry was d e f i n e d i n the well-known phrase "Poetry expresses i n t e n t " ( Jf§]^  The i d e a was developed, an more c l e a r l y expounded i n "Da Xu" of S h i J i n g jf§ The Book of  Songs) : Poetry i s where the i n t e n t of the heart goes. Lying i n the heart, i t i s " i n t e n t " ; when u t t e r e d i n words, i t i s "poetry". When an emotion s t i r s i n s i d e , one expresses i t i words; f i n d i n g t h i s inadequate, one s i g h s over i t ; not content with t h i s , one s i n g s i t i n poetry; s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d , one unconsciously dances with one's hands and f e e t . 4 2 James J.Y. L i u , Chinese Theories o f L i t e r a t u r e , Chicago and London: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1975, p.67. L i u t h i n k s t h a t "Chinese e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s . . . a r e p r i m a r i l y f o c u s e d on the r e l a t i o n between the w r i t e r and the l i t e r a r y work...the o b j e c t of e x p r e s s i o n i s v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d with u n i v e r s a l human emotions, or personal nature, or i n d i v i d u a l g enius or s e n s i b i l i t y , or moral c h a r a c t e r . " E x p r e s s i o n i s m i s only the term which L i u borrows from E n g l i s h t o d e f i n e Chinese e x p r e s s i v e t h e o r i e s . Although, as L i u p o i n t s out, Chinese Expressionism p r i m a r i l y i n d i c a t e s a s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n of an author's emotions or nature, the concept should be understood i n terms of the development and environment of Chinese l i t e r a r y theory. Therefore, d i f f e r e n t from German Ex p r e s s i o n i s m i n the e a r l y 20 century, Chinese Expressionism i s a concept c o n t r a s t i n g Chinese Pragmatism or P o l i t i c a l C r i t i c i s m (see f o o t n o t e 5), which i s formed under the i n f l u e n c e of C o n f u c i a n i d e o l o g y . The use of the concept Expressionism enables us t o d i s t i n g u i s h the l i t e r a r y view of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n from a dominant l i t e r a r y theory i n China--Pragmatism. 3 Zeng Y u n q i a n ^ ^ ^ ; , Shanq Shu Zheng Du jjBj-^ jE^  » p. 26. Trans L i u , o p . c i t . , p.69. 4 Chen Huan r Shi Mao S h i Zhuan Shu )ffi$$?i8 » vol.1, p . l Trans. L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 69. 8 Another viewpoint, suggested by L i u i s Pragmatism j£ , ^  which i s an emphasis on the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and moral f u n c t i o n of poetry. T h i s viewpoint was more p r e v a l e n t than Expressionism, and has dominated Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e o l o g y and the f i e l d of Chinese l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s viewpoint c o n t a i n e d i n the commentary to The Book of Songs i s : Therefore, nothing approaches the Book of Poetry [The Book  of Songs] i n m a i n t a i n i n g c o r r e c t standards f o r success or f a i l u r e [ i n government], i n moving Heaven and Earth, and i n a p p e a l i n g to s p i r i t s and gods. The former Kings used i t t o make permanent [the t i e between] husband and wife, to p e r f e c t f i l i a l reverence, to deepen human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o b e a u t i f y moral i n s t r u c t i o n , and t o improve s o c i a l customs. During the Three Kingdoms Cao P i fU1* 187-226 A. D. ) i .! c o n s i d e r e d l i t e r a t u r e an e f f e c t i v e means to r u l e the s t a t e . He wrote i n h i s "Dian Lun"J|]&!(On L i t e r a t u r e ) : "For l i t e r a t u r e i s a i i g r e a t task [ t h a t concerns] the governing of the s t a t e , a s p l e n d i d •7 e n t e r p r i s e t h a t w i l l never p e r i s h . " L a t e r , d u r i n g the Tang 5 L i u , o p . c i t . , p.106. L i u t h i n k s t h a t "Pragmatic t h e o r i e s . . . a r e based on the concept of l i t e r a t u r e as a means to a c h i e v e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , moral, or e d u c a t i o n a l purposes." Pragmatism i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept, which L i u borrows from E n g l i s h t o d e f i n e a l i t e r a r y theory i n China. The l i t e r a r y theory, Pragmatism or more p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d as P o l i t i c a l C r i t i c i s m , s t r e s s e s the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e , and advocates l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t l y i n t e r f e r i n g i n p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y . Pragmatism i s based on Confucian i d e o l o g y and has the s t r o n g e s t and l o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e upon Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s and l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s . 6 Chen Huan, op. c i t . , v o l . 1, p. 1. Trans. L i u , op. c i t . , p. 112. i 7 Bai Bu Cong Kan ^ B ^ f l j ) ( a b b r e v i a t e d BBCK), Cao P i , Dian Lun, 1 - l a . Trans. L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 113. 9 1 dynasty, Bai J u y i J~f|f-|j (772--846 A. D. ) developed t h i s viewpoint i n h i s "Yu Yuan J i u Shu" - ^ T f . j ^ ( L e t t e r to Yuan J i u ) : "Prose should be w r i t t e n f o r the times, and poetry f o r c u r r e n t 8 a f f a i r s . " During the Song dynasty, when Neo-Confucian phi l o s o p h y arose and came to dominate the f i e l d of ideology, the p h i l o s o p h e r Zhou Dunyi J|||jg|; (1017-73) s t r e s s e d the p o l i t i c a l and moral f u n c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e to the extreme, and r a i s e d the c a l l : " L i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t by which one c a r r i e s the Way. " ( j^ j^ Hjftl ^  Thus, we can see that Huang's d e f i n i t i o n of poetry i s simply a r e p e t i t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l view, without i n n o v a t i o n . Yet, i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t Huang c l e a r l y says, "Poetry i s an e x p r e s s i o n of human emotion and nature, i n s t e a d of h o l d i n g the Pragmatist view, which a l s o had a great impact on most Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l i d e o l o g y and indeed f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g Huang's l i f e . The importance of Huang's d e f i n i t i o n of poetry i s to t e l l us t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h a t he i s more E x p r e s s i o n i s t than Pragmatist, and he pays more a t t e n t i o n to s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n than s o c i a l r e a l i t y or p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m . Also, Huang's p l a y i n g down of Pragmatism can be e x p l a i n e d 8 Wan You Wen Ku H^X^\ ( a b b r e v i a t e d WYWK), Bai J u y i , Bai  Xlanqshan J i » ed. , Wang Yunwu j^T^jjjij t T a i p e i : Taiwan Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1965, vol.2, p.27. 9 Cong Shu J i Cheng, (ab b r e v i a t e d CSJC), Zhou Dunyi, Zhou L i a n X i J i H^jl$ , Shanghai: Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan j&&H4ffff» 1936, vol.6, p.117. T r a n s . L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 114. H/JTUltt; 10 SBCK, YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p.296. 10 by h i s b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry i n the phrase, "he r e l e a s e s them by producing a tune t h a t e i t h e r groans or laughs. By t h i s he r e l e a s e s h i s heart, and those that hear him are thereby, to some extent, urged and exhorted."(see p.2) Huang here d e l i b e r a t e l y uses the r e s t r i c t i v e phrase "you suo" (to some extent) to express the l i m i t a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f poetry. The use of the verb compound "quan mian" (to urge and exhort), i n s t e a d of more emphatic verbs such as 1 | . "feng yuan" ^ ^ j ( t o s a t i r i z e and complain), " j i a o " |^i(to educate) or "zheng"j£! (to c o r r e c t ) which are o f t e n used by the f o l l o w e r s of Pragmatism, i s an i n d i r e c t negation of the views of h i s contemporary, Zhou Dunyi. Although Huang's r e f e r e n c e to the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry might l e a d us to b e l i e v e t h a t he indeed to some extent acknowledges the n e c e s s i t y of Pragmatism because o f the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of Confucianism upon him, h i s a t t i t u d e towards Pragmatism might be more p r o p e r l y e x p l a i n e d by L i u ' s a n a l y s i s of the development of Confucian Pragmatism: From the time Confucianism was e s t a b l i s h e d as the orthodox i d e o l o g y of China i n the second century B. C. down to the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, the pragmatic concept of l i t e r a t u r e remained p r a c t i c a l l y sacrosanct, so t h a t c r i t i c s who b a s i c a l l y b e l i e v e d i n other concepts r a r e l y dared to r e p u d i a t e i t openly, but p a i d l i p s e r v i c e t o i t while a c t u a l l y f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on other concepts, or i n t e r p r e t e d Confucius's words i n such a way as to l e n d support to nonpragmatic t h e o r i e s , or simply kept s i l e n t about the pragmatic concept while d e v e l o p i n g o t h e r s . ^ 11 L i u , o p . c i t . , p. 111. 11 Huang's a t t i t u d e towards the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry brought s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m from some l a t e r c r i t i c s , such as Huang C h e H $ l ( 1 2 A - D - ) ' Zhang J i e ^ H ( 1 2 A.D. ), and Wang Ruoxu (1174--1243). Huang i s e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c i z e d by s c h o l a r s of the People's R e p u b l i c of China (PRC) l i k e L i u D a j i e ^ ^ . ^ (1904--1977) who i n a 1964 a r t i c l e l e v e l s a most s e r i o u s charge a g a i n s t Huang i n Maoist terms t h a t he "pays l e s s a t t e n t i o n to the content Cof po e t r y ] , escapes r e a l i t y , avoids p o l i t i c s , and ign o r e s the s o c i a l 12 f u n c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e . " Of course, i n a l l f a i r n e s s t o L i u D a j i e he does not misrepresent Huang's a t t i t u d e towards the cont e n t and f u n c t i o n of poetry, and i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t he would r e j e c t Huang's a t t i t u d e from h i s Maoist p e r s p e c t i v e . S i n c e 1949 Huang has been regarded as a " x i n g s h i zhuyi' 13 ( f o r m a l i s t ) i n China c h i e f l y because of h i s emphasis on p o e t i c technique and h i s unde r v a l u a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f 12 L i u D a j i e , "Huang T i n g j i a n De S h i Lun" ffj§S||ifi£ (the P o e t i c Theory o f Huang T i n g j i a n ) , Wen Xue Ping Lun V:£$$ ( L i t e r a r y Review). Feb. 1, 1964, p. 65. A T J T & ; 13 The viewpoint can be found i n the f o l l o w i n g widely-used c o l l e g e textbooks: 4* ta Zhong Guo Wen Xue S h i f S A - f A . (Chinese H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a t u r e ^ ed. Zhong Guo She Ke Yuan Wen Xue Yan J i u Suo tJTJ|j ^ L $ T K X " T W T T X M I ( T h e l i t e r a t u r e Research I n s t i t u t e of Chinese S o c i a l S c i e n c e Academy), B e i j i n g : Ren Min Wen Xue Chu Ban She J^ |j£ j(-^ |f}$||ijj 1962, p. 602. v y - M t a * ! T±f' S-^-fr' _ tYou Guoeng |fj||& , , Wang Qi I i . , Xiao D i f e i MWIh , J i Zhenhuai ^ %\% , and F e i Zhengang , Zhong Guo Wen Xue Sh i ^BJt?.^ (Chinese H i s t o r y of L i t e r a t u r e ) , v o l . 3 , B e i j i n g : Ren Mm Wen" Xue Chu Ban She, 1982 p. 61, p. 63. M . . ' Guo S h a o y u ^ g J , Zhong Guo Wen Xue P i Ping S h i ft @ X 4-!FliLrf T (Chinese H i s t o r y of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c ) , Shanghai: Shanghai Gu J i Chu Ban She J^$|j£|§|]j | ^ ' 1 9 7 9 ' pp. 210-211. 12 poetry. Yet, s i n c e the l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of China's academic c i r c l e s i n the l a t e 1970's, another p o i n t of view has developed. Some s c h o l a r s have attempted to r e h a b i l i t a t e Huang by a s s e r t i n g t h a t he accepts Pragmatism. In "Su S h i Huang T i n g j i a n Shi. Ge L i Lun Z h i B i J i a o " #8f l i l t t S $ 2 M ( A Comparative Study on P o e t i c T h e o r i e s of Su S h i and Huang T i n g j i a n ) , which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1983 i n China's most p r e v a l e n t j o u r n a l of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m - - W e n Xue Ping Lun ( L i t e r a r y R e v i e w ) , 1 4 Zhou Yukai Hfffff j quotes some l i n e s of Huang's most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d poems 1 5 t o prove h i s Pragmatism: "The f u n c t i o n o f [my] l i t e r a r y works does not help manage s o c i e t y , / J u s t l i k e beads of dew d e c o r a t i n g a s p i d e r web. and "[My] l i t e r a r y works do not f u n c t i o n t o manage s o c i e t y , / and have the s t y l e of mist i n 1 7 southern h i l l s . " The f i r s t example i s most o f t e n misused as can be seen i f we look at the whole poem: 14 Zhou Yukai, "Su S h i Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Ge L i Lun Z h i B i J i a o " , Wen Xue Ping Lun, 4 Sep., 1983, p. 89. 15 Contemporary s c h o l a r s Zhang Bingquan J l ^ f t .and Mo L i f e n g |JJ!J||jalso quote the same l i n e s as examples to prove Huang's Pragmatism i n t h e i r books. „ A i See Zhang Bingquan, Huang Shanqu De J i a o You J i Zuo Pin $ ( l l j ^ l t "XwMfrlfJ ' (Huang T i n g j i a n ' s F r i e n d s h i o and Works), Hong Kong: Zhong Wen Da Xue Chu Ban S h e l j l ^ 4 ; ^ ^ ^ ^ , 1978. p. 117. Mo L i f e n g , J i a n g x i S h i P a i Van J i u M ^ f l t f l T t < A S t u d y o f t h e J i a n g x i S c h o o l ) , J i n a n : Qi Lu Shu She 'i 1986, p. 198. 16 Guo Xue J i Ben Cong Shufi-ft&^M"$i ( a b b r e v i a t e d GXJBCS), Huang T i n g j i a n , Shan Gu S h i Zhu \ (a b b r e v i a t e d SGSZ), ed. Wang Yunwu TiC J ' » N e i j i t f j l | : , vol.6,' T a i p e i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1968, p. 103. ^ 17 SGSZ, W a i j i H v o l . 12, p. 272. To Kong Y i f u For Fun Guan Chengzi [a brush] i s not lucky enough to eat meat, Kong Fangxiong Ccopper-money] sent me a l e t t e r breaking o f f our f r i e n d s h i p . The f u n c t i o n of Cmy] l i t e r a r y works does not help manage s o c i e t y , J u s t l i k e beads of dew d e c o r a t i n g a s p i d e r web. O f f i c i a l s l i k e e d i t o r s or w r i t e r s are f r e q u e n t l y c o n f e r r e d and promoted, Only i f you know how to step onto a c a r t and greet people! Suddenly, I r e c a l l our having simple food seated on a monk's bed, Even i n my dream. I r e t u r n to East Lake with the autumn swan-geese. T h i s i s a poem i n which Huang d e s c r i b e s h i s l i f e and d e s i r e s to h i s f r i e n d i n a j o c u l a r tone. Huang r i d i c u l e s h i m s e l f as an i n t e l l e c t u a l who i s not l u c k y enough to become an o f f i c i a l , and get r i c h . His own w r i t i n g s do not help manage s o c i e t y and are o n l y l i k e "beads of dew d e c o r a t i n g a s p i d e r web". The reason why he c o u l d be e n t i t l e d to be a minor o f f i c i a l such as an e d i t o r and w r i t e r i s t h a t such a p o s i t i o n only r e q u i r e s one to know how t o get i n a c a r t and greet people. As f o r h i s own d e s i r e s , he hopes to r e t u r n to h i s home town and l i v e the simple l i f e . I t i s obvious that the f i r s t , second, and t h i r d c o u p l e t s are Huang's self-mockery of h i s d e s t i n y , w r i t i n g , and c a r e e r as an o f f i c i a l . In the second c o u p l e t he does not s e r i o u s l y s t a t e h i s l i t e r a r y views, but only by f o l l o w i n g the s u b j e c t i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t ( s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n ) f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f as a 18 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 12, p. 272. The a l l u s i o n s i n t h i s poem are d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three, pp.129-131. 14 poet who w r i t e s without attempting to manage s t a t e or s o c i e t y . T h erefore, the meaning of the two l i n e s should be understood as Huang's summation of h i s own p o e t i c content and f u n c t i o n , but not as Huang's l i t e r a r y views, as Zhou Yukai and o t h e r s misrepresent them out of context. Zhou Yukai's second example i s e x t r a c t e d from the tenth poem of Huang's " J i Chao Yuanzhong Shi Shou" | j i ^ ^ j j P - t | | which reads: . i Ten Poems to Chao Yuanzhong O v e r l o o k i n g the r i v e r , CI] am a f f e c t e d with emotion, S p i r i t u a l communication can be obtained by i n n e r awakening. [My] l i t e r a r y works do not f u n c t i o n to manage s o c i e t y , and have the s t y l e of mist i n southern h i l l s . Metamorphosing i n s e c t s s i g h f o r seasons, They have t h e i r own reasons f o r being happy and being sad. I have no h e s i t a t i o n , The cuckoo persuades me to r e t i r e . T h i s i s a poem e x p r e s s i n g the poet's outlook on l i f e . Although the s u b j e c t i n the f i r s t l i n e i s not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to say t h a t i t i s the f i r s t person " I " , which i n Chinese i s c u s t o m a r i l y omitted. T h i s i s f u r t h e r proven by the I use of the phrase " l i n chuan" '(overlooking the r i v e r ) which i i n t r o d u c e s the w r i t e r ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n of h i s past or the w r i t e r s i g h i n g over h i s l i f e . From both the context and t i t l e we can surmise t h a t Huang i s t e l l i n g h i s f r i e n d about h i m s e l f i n t h i s group of poems. Therefore, i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t Huang i s d i s p l a y i n g h i s own 15 awareness of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of l i f e through a d e s c r i p t i o n of T a o i s t " s p i r i t u a l communication" between man and nature. To be above w o r l d l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s without doubt h i s main poin t . The second c o u p l e t i s the second one of the f o u r steps < j|( >/j^  > : i n t r o d u c t i o n , e l u c i d a t i o n of the subject, t r a n s i t i o n t o another viewpoint, and summation) i n the composition of a Chinese c l a s s i c a l poem. He t h i n k s that h i s w r i t i n g s "do not f u n c t i o n to manage s o c i e t y " and c l e a r l y compares h i s p o e t i c s t y l e to Tao I Yuanming's p||jjifjj( 372?--427) by using the metaphor of "mist of i q southern h i l l s " . So, corresponding to the f i r s t c ouplet, the second c o u p l e t f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s h i s T a o i s t outlook on l i f e . The t h i r d c o u p l e t s h i f t s to the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s of people through the use o f a metaphorical i n s e c t , which helps to present h i s f r i e n d with h i s f i r m d e t e r m i n a t i o n to be a hermit i n the l a s t c o u p l e t . There i s no doubt t h a t Huang i s e v a l u a t i n g h i s own w r i t i n g s by borrowing p r e v a l e n t pragmatic standards i n the two poems. He i n d i c a t e s t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s do not f i t pragmatic standards, but does not t h i n k that t h i s d e v i a t i o n i s a s e r i o u s matter. 19 "South h i l l s " , where Tao Yuanming l i v e d i n s e c l u s i o n , appeared i n Tao's most remembered p o e t i c sentence: " P i c k i n g up chrysanthemums under e a s t e r n fence, / L e i s u r e l y , c a t c h i n g a s i g h t of Southern h i l l s " |y||;$|~f, j§||j|ff ^ l)- • x t n a s become a code i n Chinese l i t e r a t u r e to imply ah i d e a l e r e m i t i c p l a c e . In our t r a n s l a t i o n above, we s l i g h t l y r e v i s e Hightower's " P i c k i n g chrysanthemums by the e a s t e r n hedge/ I c a t c h s i g h t of the d i s t a n t southern h i l l s : " See James Robert Hightower, The  Poetry of T'ao Ch'ien. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1970, p.130. 16 Conversely, i t seems to make us f e e l t h a t h i s a t t i t u d e i s p o s i t i v e towards h i s own w r i t i n g even when he i s w r i t i n g humour-ous l y . With t h i s understanding, the two poems can be c o r r e c t l y e x p l a i n e d because h i s own e v a l u a t i o n of h i s w r i t i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with h i s i d e a l s t a t e of r e c l u s i o n , which i s s t r e s s e d i n the endings of the two poems. Otherwise, t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between each example and the endings of the poems i f we understand each example as s t a t i n g h i s l i t e r a r y views, because i t i s improbable t h a t he would a c t i v e l y advocate i n f l u e n c i n g s o c i e t y through poetry w h ile wishing t o become a r e c l u s e i n the same poem. There i s another example a l s o quoted by Zhou and other c r i t i c s t o show Huang's pragmatism i n the b r i e f p r e f a c e to h i s " C i Yun Yang Mingshu S i Shou" $g$$§$Ji{|Bi"f• > w h e r e h e s t a t e s , " W r i t i n g i s a v e h i c l e of the Way as words are the ornaments of 20 deeds." The i d e a i n t h i s sentence seems to be j u s t a \ r e p e t i t i o n of Zhou Dunyi's view. So, i t i s very easy to mistake Huang as a t y p i c a l Pragmatist when r e f e r r i n g to t h i s sentence out of context. The e n t i r e p r e f a c e reads: Rhyming with Yang Mingshu Yang Mingshu, please favour me with your poems i n which o l d con v e n t i o n i s washed away from m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n and the meanings of the words. I am so happy about your achievement t h a t I cannot go to sleep. [ Y e t ] , w r i t i n g i s a v e h i c l e of the Way as words are the ornaments of deeds. [Therefore, I hereby] repay you by rhyming with you i n my four poems i n 20 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.12, p. 221. 17 order to plow deeply the f i e l d o f l i y i H J j ^ ( p r o p r i e t y ) . Your words and deeds are i n the r i g h t way. As an o f f i c i a l you are capable and comfort common people. I p l a c e high hopes on you. A f t e r r e a d i n g the f o u r stanzas which Huang wrote to Yang, we may say t h a t the content i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the Way, and t h i s 21 i n c l u d e s Buddhism and Taoism i n Huang's mind. His c r e a t i o n of t h i s poem has c e r t a i n l y been i n f l u e n c e d by "tan chan" ( d i s c u s s i n g Buddhism and Taoism) i n Song poetry, and shows h i s i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g Buddhism and Taoism through poetry. Yet, i n the p r e f a c e t o the poem, Huang begins by applauding h i s f r i e n d ' s p o e t i c techniques (which i n t e r e s t him most). He then suddenly s h i f t s t o i n t r o d u c e the Way which he goes on to d i s c u s s i n the poem. How does he b r i d g e the gap between the beginning of the p r e f a c e and the s u b j e c t of the poem (the Way)? A common tech n i q u e i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g i s t o use well-known s a y i n g s or remarks as t r a n s i t i o n s . For such an e r u d i t e i n t e l l e c t u a l as Huang, i t would not be unusual i f he adopted such a t e c h n i q u e i n order to show h i s e r u d i t i o n . The p r e f a c e may l o g i c a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two paragraphs t h a t more c l e a r l y show the poet's t r a i n of thought. There i s a n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n a f t e r the f i r s t two sentences, where Huang 21 Although the Way seems l a r g e l y Confucian i n t h i s p r e f a c e , i n f a c t , Huang b a s i c a l l y d i s c u s s e s Buddhism and Taoism i n h i s f o u r stanzas. T h i s p o e t i c s t y l e which was popular i n Huang's time i s "shuo l i s h i " j^Hifi » which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s c u s s i o n s mainly of Buddhism and Taoism i n poetry, but a l s o i n c l u d e s some d i s c u s s i o n of Confucianism. 18 suddenly s h i f t s from p r a i s e of Yang's poem to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s own poem: "W r i t i n g i s a v e h i c l e of the Way as words are the ornaments of deeds". T h i s popular phrase p e r f e c t l y b r i d g e s the gap between the two p a r t s of the preface, with the f i r s t p a r t r e f e r r i n g t o Yang's p o e t i c form, and the second part r e f e r r i n g to the content of Huang's own poem, or "plowing the f i e l d of l i y i " . A l s o , the use of the c o n j u n c t i o n "gu" |j( ( t h e r e f o r e ) makes a c l e a r t r a n s i t i o n between the phrase and what f o l l o w s . The use of the phrase p l a y s a t r a n s i t i o n a l r o l e and shows why he wants to d i s c u s s the Way. Therefore, the phrase f u n c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y as a t r a n s i t i o n w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of the preface, and s e c o n d a r i l y as an embellishment of the t e x t . I t i s hard t o b e l i e v e t h a t here Huang s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t i o n between p o e t i c form and content. Luo Genze , (1900--1960 ) analyzes t h i s use of the phrase i n o t h e r terms. He wrote, "As Huang does not c r e a t e 22 'argumentative w r i t i n g s and i s opposed to poetry t h a t would 23 " s l a n d e r or i n s u l t , he says "Writing i s a v e h i c l e of the Way' j u s t t o keep up appearances by borrowing an o l d i d e a . " ^ 4 Obviously, Luo does not t h i n k Huang has made a s e r i o u s l i t e r a r y 22 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 208. 23 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p. 296. 24 Luo Genze, Zhonq Guo Wen Xue P i Ping S h i A^r* A ^ f f A* (Chinese H i s t o r y of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c ) , v o l . 3 , Shanghai: Gu Dian Wen Xue Chu Ban She *!&*T , 1961. p. 135. 19 statement e i t h e r . The d i f f e r e n c e i s that our c o n c l u s i o n comes from a c l o s e a n a l y s i s of the t e x t of the preface, but Luo o b t a i n s h i s by d e t e c t i n g a c o n f l i c t between Huang's use of a popular phrase and an o v e r a l l p o e t i c view. Yet, Zhou i g n o r e s the e n t i r e p r e f a c e and the content of the poem to i n t e r p r e t one sentence, and conclude t h a t Huang expresses the same idea i n the phrase as Zhu Xi's./jv^ , i . e . , "The Way i s the essence of prose; prose i s 25 the embellishment of the Way." Therefore, Zhou's understanding obscures the d i s t i n c t i o n between Confucian Pragmatism and the concept of "the Way" i n Huang's t e x t , which should be understood i n Buddhist or T a o i s t terms. In s h ort, Huang h a r d l y expresses any i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry beyond the c o n v e n t i o n a l except f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of how "to some extent" s o c i e t y i s "urged and exhorted". Conversely, he o f t e n d i s p l a y s the o p p o s i t e view. For example, " W r i t i n g i s the most t r i f l i n g a c t i v i t y i n Confucian-26 ism, " and "Put away the game of w r i t i n g , / a n d engage i n the 27 e n t e r p r i s e of s a v i n g the n a t i o n . " In these remarks, he c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e s h i s low e s t i m a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry. T h e r e f o r e , although Huang might acknowledge t h a t poetry has "to 25 Zhou Yukai, o p . c i t . , p.89. For the o r i g i n a l source of Zhu X i ' s remark, see GXJBCS, Zhu X i , Zhuzi Yu L e i it2&% , vol.8, p. 279. *TW*: 26 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 204. 27 SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.17, p. 396. 20 some ex t e n t " a p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n , and he does not p u b l i c l y oppose Pragmatism; Huang's p o e t i c views negate the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f poetry. There i s another i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i n Huang's comment quoted above (see p.2) which r e l a t e s to the f u n c t i o n of poetry. Huang wrote: "By t h i s (to r e l e a s e emotions by producing a tune), he r e l e a s e s h i s heart, and those that hear him are thereby, t o some extent, urged and exhorted. " Here i t i s worth noting t h a t the poet and the reader are r e l a t e d i n an i n t e n t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e sequence. Acco r d i n g t o the conventions of Chinese n a r r a t i v e , the most important p o i n t i s presented f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a minor one and so on, th a t i s i f the l a s t p o i n t i s not s p e c i f i e d as the most important one. So, from the emphatic order of t h i s quote we can see t h a t the impact of w r i t i n g poetry upon the poet, r a t h e r than the impact of poetry upon the reader, i s underscored. The meaning of the second l e v e l d i s p l a y e d i n Huang's comment above (see p.2) i s h i s view of p o e t i c s t y l e . T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d by many s c h o l a r s as Huang's p o s i t i o n on p o e t i c content, or the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry. Thus, before we examine h i s view of p o e t i c s t y l e , i t i s necessary t o c l a r i f y Huang's o r i g i n a l meaning i n t h i s comment. A f t e r Huang d e f i n e d poetry, he wrote: " I t should not [have the s t y l e o f ] an i n t e n s e debate w i t h i n the Imperial court, o f abusive complaints shouted i n the s t r e e t , or of angry c u r s i n g of one's neighbours or guests." L i u D a j i e e x p l a i n s Huang's words with, "He t h i n k s t h a t poetry i s an e x p r e s s i o n of human emotion and nature, and cannot be employed to c r i t i c i z e p o l i t i c s and "As f o r Csome people who] f u r t h e r t r y to s l a n d e r or make i n s u l t s w ith such poetry, [so t h a t they] s t i c k t h e i r necks out under the b a t t l e axe, or remove t h e i r armour before arrows i n order to r e l e a s e t h e i r anger of the moment...", he wrote, " I f poetry e x p r e s s e s s l a n d e r i n g or usurping p o l i t i c s , [the poet] w i l l s u f f e r 29 d i s a s t e r under the axe and before arrows..." I t i s obvious t h a t L i u D a j i e understands Huang's words as comments on p o e t i c content. Zhou Yukai quoted Huang's words i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s p o e t i c theory. He t h i n k s t h a t Huang's meaning i s r e l a t e d t o "The way i n which poetry i n t e r f e r e s with r e a l i t y . " Although he c o r r e c t l y p o i n t s out t h a t Huang's view a g a i n s t " s l a n d e r i n g or i n s u l t i n g with such poetry" i s a s s o c i a t e d with Huang's a e s t h e t i c t a s t e , he b e l i e v e s even more t h a t Huang's o r i g i n a l meaning i s "to 31 c o u n t e r a c t s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m of c u r r e n t a f f a i r s w i t h i n p o e t r y." So, i n f a c t , Huang's words are understood by Zhou as mainly commenting on the l a c k of p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry. 28 L i u D a j i e , o p . c i t . , p. 65. d i s c u s s r i g h t and wrong. ,28 And when L i u e x p l a i n e d the quote, 29 I b i d . 30 Zhou Yukai, o p . c i t p. 90. 31 I b i d . 22 Yet, what Huang c h i e f l y d i s c u s s e s i n the words quoted by L i u and Zhou i s p o e t i c s t y l e . In other words, Huang d i s c u s s e s how a poet should express h i s thoughts and emotions i n h i s poetry, not what should be expressed i n poetry or how poetry f u n c t i o n s f o r readers, which have both a l r e a d y been touched upon i n Huang's d e f i n i t i o n of poetry and i n h i s comment "those t h a t hear him are thus, t o some extent, urged and exhorted". A c l o s e r look at the t e x t might help us to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y Huang's o r i g i n a l meaning. We know from the f i r s t sentence quoted above that Huang t h i n k s human emotions and nature should be expressed as p o e t i c content. In the second sentence, Huang a p p l i e s human manners d i s p l a y e d i n debating, shouting, or c u r s i n g as metaphors f o r a p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m i n which p o e t i c content should not be expressed. In the next sentence, Huang's d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s i d e a l poet as one who "should be l o y a l , honest, s i n c e r e , and r e s p e c t f u l , " not only d e l i n e a t e s the moral q u a l i t i e s and c u l t u r e which a poet should have, but a l s o i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n between poet and p o e t i c s t y l e . In Huang's opinion, o n l y a poet with moral q u a l i t i e s can w r i t e poetry i n an elegant s t y l e . Then, i n a p o s i t i v e way, Huang more c l e a r l y s t a t e s h i s p r e f e r r e d p o e t i c s t y l e by using human manners as metaphors--"to r e l e a s e them [human emotion and nature] by producing a tune that e i t h e r groans or laughs." So f a r , Huang's view of p o e t i c s t y l e i s d i s p l a y e d through a sharp c o n t r a s t between negative words ("debating, s h o u t i n g and c u r s i n g , " ) and p o s i t i v e words ("a tune t h a t e i t h e r 23 groans or laughs.") In the d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s the t o p i c becomes p o e t i c content and p o e t i c s t y l e through the t r a n s i t i v e phrase " q i f a wei" (As f or. .. f u r t h e r . . . ) . Huang's purpose i s t o e x p l a i n that even p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m expressed i n an extreme way can be a p o e t i c d i s a s t e r . From the a n a l y s i s above, i t may be concluded t h a t p o e t i c s t y l e i s the major t o p i c d i s c u s s e d i n the comment. Also, Huang f a v o u r s an e l e g a n t s t y l e of poetry. T h i s view of p o e t i c s t y l e i s a very important aspect of Huang's theory of poetry, which r e l a t e s t o h i s low e s t i m a t i o n of Pragmatism, and i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p e a t e d i n h i s other comments. For example, i n "Ba Gao Zimian i S h i " ItitT^jf j * ^ n s c r ^ - k i n g Gao Zimian's Poems), he p r a i s e s Gao' s e l e g a n t s t y l e , "You e n r i c h your poems with your e r u d i t i o n , and 32 c r e a t e them i n a g e n t l e and r e s p e c t f u l manner. " In a l e t t e r r e p l y i n g t o Hong Jufu ^^J^L he c r i t i c i z e s Su S h i ' s p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m , and suggests t h a t Hong should not f o l l o w i t saying, i "Dongpo's I l i t e r a l works are the most s u b t l e i n the world, but h i s weakness i s t h a t he tends to curse the world. You must 33 be c a r e f u l not to f o l l o w h i s example." Perhaps the reason Huang d i s l i k e s p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m of 34 p o e t r y i s t h a t i t c o n f l i c t s with the o b l i q u e s t y l e he favours. 32 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p.298. 33 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p.203. 34 Huang's i m p l i c i t p o e t i c s t y l e i s examined i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three. 24 In h i s l e t t e r t o Chao Yuanzhong ^ J ^ ^ > p r a i s i n g Chao's avoidance of s o c i a l problems, Huang c l e a r l y expresses h i s fondness of an o b l i q u e p o e t i c s t y l e , "I r e c e i v e d your poems which are profound and s i g n i f i c a n t i n an o b l i q u e way, and do not touch the 35 s e n s i t i v e s u b j e c t s o f the times..." A l s o i n h i s l e t t e r t o Wang Guanfu j£]jj|Jj » he rep e a t s the same idea, " A l l the new poems you 36 sent me are s i g n i f i c a n t and profound i n an o b l i q u e way." The r e f l e c t i o n o f Huang's o b l i q u e p o e t i c s t y l e i n h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e i s a c c u r a t e l y p o i n t e d out by K o j i r o Yoshikawa, " E a r l i e r poets have g i v e n f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e i r passion--even the i n t r o v e r t e d Tu Fu--but t h i s type of emotional e x p r e s s i o n Huang 37 T ' i n g - c h i e n d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided." A t h i r d l e v e l of meaning i n the comment above (p.2) i s Huang's concern with p o e t i c tunes and rhythm. He says, " I t i s the beauty of poetry that these tunes can then be sung i n harmony with m u s i c a l laws and can be danced to with s h i e l d s and f e a t h e r f a n s waving. " In a r e l a t e d comment found i n a l e t t e r t o a f r i e n d he wrote, " A l l the new poems you sent me are s i g n i f i c a n t and profound i n an o b l i q u e way, but the language i s r i g i d and does 35 I b i d . , p.196. 36 I b i d . , p.201. 37 K o j i r o Yoshikawa, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Sung Poetry, t r a n s . Burton Watson, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969, p. 126. 25 not f i t musical laws. „38 In "Zai Yang Qian Yun Zeng Zimian S i Shou " B B S U B ^ t t H f . (Rhyming with Z imian Again), he wrote, "Behaviour should be a l t e r e d to compete with the l i g h t of the sun and moon,/ Poetry should be sung and matched to a s t r i n g e d be m u s i c a l and r h y t h m i c a l , and t h i s i s how the beauty of p o e t i c form s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d . According to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chinese c l a s s i c a l poetry, the tone of words, rhyme, l i n e caesuras, and m e t r i c p a t t e r n should comprise the main elements of music and rhythm. Therefore, these elements became o b j e c t s which Huang c o n c e n t r a t e d on i n h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . Although Huang does not t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s c u s s how to use these elements to produce p o e t i c music and rhythm, he c o n s i d e r s p o e t i c form from an a e s t h e t i c angle, r e a l i z e s the importance of music and rhythm i n poetry, and c a r r i e s out a remarkable experiment i n the i n n o v a t i o n of Chinese p o e t i c form which we s h a l l d i s c u s s i n Chapter Three. I I . Huang's Theory o f P o e t i c Technique Huang i s remembered mainly f o r h i s theory o f p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e which i n f l u e n c e d generations of poets who came a f t e r him and brought about the formation of the J i a n g x i School. In h i s book o f p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m , Yan Yu (13 A.D. ), a Song instrument and song. • 39 Thus, i n Huang's o p i n i o n poetry should 38 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 201. 39 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 296. 26 dynasty l i t e r a r y c r i t i c , comments on Huang's i n f l u e n c e on the J i a n g x i School, " A f t e r Dongpo CSu S h i ] , Shangu [Huang] wrote poems based on h i s own ideas so that the s t y l e of the Tang Dynasty was changed. He concentrated h e a v i l y on p o e t i c s k i l l s . L a t e r on, h i s method became p r e v a l e n t i n the whole country and [ h i s f o l l o w e r s ] were known as the J i a n g x i School. " 4 (^ Also, L i u Kezhuang ^jj^jj^ 1187--1269) another well-known Song Dynasty c r i t i c and poet, wrote of Huang, "He absorbed a l l the advantages of the p o e t i c p a t t e r n s of the hundred of s c h o o l s of poetry, and made a thorough e x p l o r a t i o n of the changes i n p o e t i c form through the ages. He e s t a b l i s h e d h i s own s t y l e i n c r e a t i n g a n c i e n t verse and r e g u l a t e d verse by hunting f o r [queer] w r i t i n g s and something unheard-of. He does not [ r a s h l y ] w r i t e poetry, even a word or h a l f a sentence, and he was the f a t h e r of the c u r r e n t dynasty's 41 s c h o o l of poetry." Here, both c r i t i c s c h a r a c t e r i z e Huang n e i t h e r by h i s p o e t i c content nor by h i s g e n e r a l view of poetry, but h i s p o e t i c technique. Although t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s are generated from t h e i r a n a l yses of Huang's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e , the t h e o r y of p o e t i c technique c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to Huang's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e i s not neglected. P o e t i c technique was e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d as a major aspect 40 Yan Yu, Canq Lang Shi Hua mm , T a i p e i : Dong Sheng Chu Ban S h i Ye You Xian Gong S i J f Uj J$ftf |^f| i ' 1980, P-24. 41 SBCK, L i u Kezhuang, Hou Cun Xian Shenq Da Quan J i j f lH^^X j l vol.95, p. 823. 27 of Huang's p o e t i c theory i n h i s w r i t i n g s . Yet, what does Huang's theory c o n s i s t of? What i s i t s essence? In t h i s chapter, we w i l l attempt to answer these q u e s t i o n s mainly through an a n a l y s i s of Huang's own remarks. A. The Content of Huang's Method In Huang's w r i t i n g s , he o f t e n mentions f a du or f a j ^J j^ ^ * (method) and l i . f ( o r d e r ) . For example, i n h i s "Da He J i n g Weng Shu" Mji^ fif'u'! (Reply He Jingweng), he wrote, "In your d i s c u s s i o n o f the a n c i e n t s , the meaning i s profound and b r i e f l y s t a t e d . T h i s i s the c r e a t i v e method ( f a _ _ d u ) . " 4 2 In h i s "Yu Wang Guanfu Shu San Shou" .^ j j l j j l j^• (Three Poems To Wang Guanfu), he wrote, "to s t r i v e to make unusual words i s c e r t a i n l y a d e f e c t of l i t e r a r y works. W r i t i n g should take order (li_) as a p r i n c i p l e . With order ( l i _ ) , the use of words and sentences i s smooth, and 43 w r i t i n g i s n a t u r a l l y out of the common run." In Huang's mind, i t i s obvious t h a t f a or l _ i i s the method which a poet should f o l l o w . Although Huang does not d e f i n e h i s method i n h i s w r i t i n g s , we can see what most concerns him are zhanq f a j ( p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ) , ,ju f a ^ j|^;(line s t r u c t u r e ) , and z i f a (the r u l e o f key words). Indeed, Huang's method b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s o f these three elements. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , we 42 43 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 198. I b i d , p.201. 28 w i l l examine these i n gr e a t e r d e t a i l and analyze the r e l a t i o n among them. i . P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e Huang's zhanq f a means " p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e " . Huang t h i n k s t h a t p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e should have a convoluted s t y l e and produce a s u r p r i s i n g e f f e c t . Once he employed za ju ( p o e t i c drama) t o embody the design. W r i t i n g a poem i s l i k e making a dramatic performance. One must f i r s t s e t the stage, and then t h a t having been done, one must t e l l a proper joke (da hun JT$?- *» only then can the performance begin. • Acc o r d i n g t o Wang J i s i j£^|| (1906-- ), an expert i n Yuan Dynasty za ju, da hun i s an impromptu i n t e r l u d e of two r o l e s i n za .ju. 4 5 In da hun. one ac t o r i n a r o l e named can ,jun I s j * , f i r s t makes comic gest u r e s and remarks. Then another a c t o r i n a r o l e named canq hu ^ q u e s t i o n s him, and the can jun g i v e s an unexpected e x p l a n a t i o n . Here, Huang compares a part of p o e t i c 44 Wang Z h i f a n a iMlf] , "Wang Z h i f a n g S h i Hua" ij[/f$£j§ ' , Song Sh i Hua J i Y l /jfjf JSjjfJj! , ( a b b r e v i a t e d SSHJY) ed. Guo Shaoyu, B e i j i n g : Ha Fu Van' J i n g Xue She ltfl||&^]i 1 ' 1937, p. 14. T r a n s l a t e d i n A.A.Richett's "Method and I n t u i t i o n : The P o e t i c T h e o r i e s o f Huang Ting-chien", Chinese Approaches to L i t e r a t u r e , ed. , R i c h e t t A.A., P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978, p. 100. .45 ... Wang J i s i , "Da Hun, Can Chan Yu J i a n g x i S h i P a i " fffli&jl! Ig^ ISiiiK . , Yu Lun Xuan Qu Lun XU}tl^U)] , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu J u " i l W ' 1 9a0, p.242. -ML,,*!*: 29 s t r u c t u r e to da hurt. As a p p l i e d to p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , the part i s a d e l i b e r a t e d i g r e s s i o n i n p o e t i c w r i t i n g . By using i t , a poet a v o i d s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s t y l e . Also, a f t e r the d i g r e s s i o n i s s u b t l y responded to, an unexpected e f f e c t i s produced, e i t h e r s u r p r i s e , excitement, or humour. Although the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the q u o t a t i o n above might be questioned, t h e r e are other s i m i l a r c l a r i f i c a t i o n s which enable us t o see Huang's views on p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e : The arrangement of w r i t i n g must be c a r e f u l l y designed. When I meet the young, I always show them the convoluted e x p r e s s i o n o f meaning i n Yuan Dao ( {). 4 ^ Every time a poem or prose i s w r i t t e n , a w r i t e r must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h the ge n e r a l meaning. A lengthy work should be achieved t o express the meaning through i n t r i c a t e c o n v o l u t i o n . ^ Here, Huang c l e a r l y s e t s the standard of p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e as " i n t r i c a t e c o n v o l u t i o n " and "the convoluted e x p r e s s i o n of meaning," which can be considered p r a c t i c a l techniques to achieve an unexpected e f f e c t . Thus, comparing Huang's p o i n t of view i n the two comments with h i s point i n the f i r s t one, we f i n d t h a t he p r e f e r s an o b l i q u e and i n t r i c a t e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e to a simple, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d one (more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three). Here 46 SSHJY, Fan Wen, "Qian X i S h i Yan" ${fjfi§|J[ j, p. 399. 47 SSHJY, Wang Zhifang, o p . c i t . , p. 4. In my t r a n s l a t i o n above, I c o n s u l t e d R i c h e t t ' s E n g l i s h e x p l a n a t i o n of Huang's remark i n her Chinese Approaches to  L i t e r a t u r e , p.100. 30 i t reminds us of d i s c u s s e d above, r e f l e c t e d i n h i s p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e Huang's fondnes In a sense, h i p o e t i c c r e a t i o n s f o r an o b l i q u e s o b l i q u e p o e t i c through an o b l i q p o e t i c s t y l e s t y l e i s ue and i n t r i c a t e i i . L i n e S t r u c t u r e Among the three elements of Huang's method, 1u f a ( l i n e s t r u c t u r e ) i s most o f t e n mentioned i n h i s w r i t i n g s . We h a r d l y f i n d any Chinese poet throughout the ages who s t r e s s e s .1u f a as much as Huang. He c o n s i d e r e d i t an important measure to e v a l u a t e p o e t i c value, and s a i d , "The new poems which you sent me are mellow and show l i n e s t r u c t u r e . " He t h i n k s t h a t " I f a poet does not know l i n e s t r u c t u r e , " he i s not capable of w r i t i n g a l i n e as good as Xie T i a o ' s I "The c l e a r r i v e r l i e s as smooth as s i l k . " 5 0 Mo L i f e n g t h i n k s that "Huang T i n g j i a n ' s p a t t e r n ( ^|^^|^ i > named by h i s c r i t i c s b a s i c a l l y r e f e r s to h i s l i n e s t r u c t u r e . " ^ I t i s j u s t t h i s " p a t t e r n " t h a t i s t r e a t e d l i k e a v a l u a b l e t r e a s u r e by Huang's f o l l o w e r s i n the J i a n g x i School. Thus, we can see the importance of j u f a i n Huang's p o e t i c theory 48 YZHXSWJ, v o l . 19, p. 198. 49 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.4, p. 76. 50 BBCS, X i e Tiao, X i e Xuancheng J i t v o l . 3 , p.11. 1 51 Mo L i f e n g , o p . c i t . , p.50. 31 and p r a c t i c e . Yet, what does Huang's .ju f a c o n s i s t of? F i r s t , o r i g i n a l i t y i s a key p o i n t . He wrote i n a poem to Su S h i : "You c r e a t e such a unique law i n l i n e s t r u c t u r e , even a f o r t i f i e d c i t y would 52 sur r e n d e r to you," and "Heard of Huangzhou's CSu S h i ] new l i n e s t r u c t u r e , / Even the o l d man CHuang h i m s e l f ] r e a l l y wants to 53 r a i s e a white f l a g . " Thus, i n Huang's ,ju f a he emphasizes what i s "unique" and "new". Secondly, Huang t h i n k s the power of p o e t i c sentences i s an important element of h i s l i n e s t r u c t u r e . He p r a i s e s Yu Xin ' s j ^ j p powerful p o e t i c sentences, " I t i s Yu K a i f u ' s (Yu Xin) advantage that he would r a t h e r c o n t r a d i c t p o e t i c r e g u l a t i o n than make a weak p o e t i c sentence. " ^ 4 A s i m i l a r , view i s a l s o s t a t e d i n h i s l e t t e r t o L e i T a i j i a n , "His CLei T a i j i a n ] l i n e s t r u c t u r e i s sharp and s t r i c t , yet m i l d . " ^ Besides, he t h i n k s t h a t "Line s t r u c t u r e should be p r e t t y , g r a c e f u l , c l e a r , and f r e s h . " ^ He t o l d h i s student "Only by s t u d y i n g Du Zimei's poems w r i t t e n a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l at Kuizhou, can you f i n d t h a t h i s p o e t i c sentences become so p l a i n t h a t a 57 g r e a t s u b t l e t y i s produced." From these comments, we can t e l l 52 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 5 , p. 85. 53 I b i d . , vol.17, p. 320. 54 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p. 295. 55 I b i d . , p.294. 56 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 297 57 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 202. t h a t c l e a r n e s s and p l a i n are a l s o r e q u i r e d by Huang. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , these p o i n t s can be c o n s i d e r e d as the p r i n c i p l e of Huang's ,ju f a . Yet, most s c h o l a r s analyze Huang's ,1 u f a from the angle of p o e t i c p r a c t i c e , s i n c e Huang does not t h e o r e t i c a l l y touch upon a l l the r u l e s of l i n e s t r u c t u r e t h a t are r e f l e c t e d i n h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . Zhang Bingquan g e n e r a l i z e s Huang's r u l e s of l i n e s t r u c t u r e from h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e as "the method of o r g a n i z i n g c h a r a c t e r s or words i n 58 p o e t i c sentences or c o u p l e t s . " "The method" c o n s i s t s of t h r e e elements: powerful p o e t i c sentences, a t t e n t i o n to the " j u y a n " ^ 59 ( s e n t e n t i a l eye), and an emphasis on the c o u p l e t . Mo L i f e n g a l s o p o i n t s out the importance of Huang's r u l e s of l i n e s t r u c t u r e and t h i n k s i t c o n s i s t s of the harsh t o n e , ^ condensed, new and s t r a n g e meanings, and a p r o s a i c tendency i n s e n t e n t i a l grammar.^ Comparing Zhang's view with Mo's, the emphasis on the c o u p l e t and the harsh tone should be c o n s i d e r e d to be Huang's fondness f o r i m i t a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g Du Fu's ao l u (the i n n o v a t i v e form of r e g u l a t e d verse [examined i n Chapter T h r e e ] ) . The power o f the p o e t i c sentence and condensed, new and s t r a n g e 58 Zhang Bingquan, o p . c i t . , p. 22. 59 I b i d . , pp.126-128. 60 We w i l l examine Huang's "harsh tone" i n our d i s c u s s i o n of h i s s t r a n g e n e s s of s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e and sound forms i n Chapter Three. 61 Mo L i f e n g , op. c i t . , p. 49. 33 s e n t e n t i a l meanings are, no doubt, Huang's p u r s u i t of the a r t i s t i c e f f e c t , which we have examined above. As f o r the p r o s a i c tendency i n s e n t e n t i a l grammar, i t i s c e r t a i n l y a c r e a t i v e t r a i t of Huang's, which r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of Han Yu Yet, the elements pointed out by Zhang and Mo are Huang's means to r e a l i z e powerful and o r i g i n a l sentences i n h i s poetry. i i i . The Rule of Key Words Huang's z i f a (the r u l e of key words) b a s i c a l l y means a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of c e r t a i n important words i n a poem, which i s a l s o known as l i a n z i (to r e f i n e words). He s t a t e s i n h i s comment on Yu Xin's poem that Yu " p r e f e r s 62 i r r e g u l a r i t y when us i n g words, not words t h a t are common." i T h i s t e l l s us t h a t Huang i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the use of o r i g i n a l words because an outstanding p o e t i c e f f e c t can be 63 produced i f "the arrangement of a word i s marvellous." Accurate s e l e c t i o n and proper arrangement of a s i g n i f i c a n t word i s another standard of Huang's r u l e of key words. He s a i d , "The use of a l l u s i o n i s f i r m l y grounded and a p p r o p r i a t e , and the use of words i s e x p r e s s i v e . " ^ 4 The standard i s used by him as a s c a l e t o judge h i s student's poems, as i n "His [ L e i T a i j i a n ] use 62 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p. 295. 63 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p.298. 64 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p. 298. 34 of words i s f i r m l y grounded and meaningful." Als o , Huang t h i n k s that " P o e t i c words should draw upon v a s t s e l e c t i n g p o e t i c words should not be l i m i t e d . C o n s i d e r i n g Huang's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e , he indeed gleans p o e t i c words from a l l kin d s of sources, i n c l u d i n g c o l l o q u i a l i s m s , r e l i g i o u s terms, and he i s e s p e c i a l l y fond of c l a s s i c a l works. By doing t h i s , the p o e t i c language becomes f r e s h and vigourous. "Ju yan" ( s e n t e n t i a l eye) was d i s c o v e r e d by Huang i n Du Fu's poetry. He says, "The Reminder's (Du Fu) verses had eye, [The M a g i s t r a t e o f ] P'eng-tse's (Tao Yuanming) meaning l a y i n a 67 s t r i n g l e s s l u t e [ z i t h e r ] . " " S e n t e n t i a l eye" means a key word i n a p o e t i c sentence, which i s c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and o r i g i n a l . " S e n t e n t i a l eye" can h i g h l i g h t the meaning of a p o e t i c sentence and b r i n g the a r t of i t to l i f e as Huang says, "To arrange a word 6a t o f u n c t i o n as the key to a door." In s h o r t , i t seems that we may say that Huang's r u l e s o f key words are based on accurate s e l e c t i o n from e x t e n s i v e sources, and t h e i r proper arrangement i n a p o e t i c sentence. A key word sh o u l d d i s p l a y a poet's o r i g i n a l i t y . And " s e n t e n t i a l eye" i s the crux 65 I b i d . , p.294. res o u r c e s , and be r e f i n e d . „66 By t h i s , Huang means the range of 66 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 297 67 p.106. SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 295. Trans. R i c h e t t , o p . c i t 68 YZHXSWJ, vol.26 , P . 298. 35 which a poet should pay a t t e n t i o n to. B. The Source of Method Huang's theory of poetry not o n l y brought out the method d i s c u s s e d above, but a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a way to grasp t h i s method. That way i s simply to l e a r n from a n c i e n t poets. Huang p a r t i c u l a r l y underscored reading the works of the a n c i e n t s . P r a i s i n g Su S h i ' s works he s a i d , " I f Ca poet] does not have 10, 000 volumes of books i n mind, and h i s brush has t r a c e s of t h i s eg v u l g a r world i n i t , how can he c r e a t e such works?" He thought the reason t h a t Wan Guanfu c o u l d not w r i t e good poetry was t h a t he d i d "not read to t a t t e r s 10,000 volumes, and d i d not get 70 a l l the deeper meaning i n h i s r e a d i n g of the ancient poets." In another comment c r i t i c i z i n g Wang Kuanfu's poems, he p o i n t s out, "[your] language i s r i g i d and does not f i t musical laws, and the f l a v o u r of your words does not s u i t the o r i g i n a l meaning," because you "have not read the works of the a n c i e n t poets 71 c a r e f u l l y and e x t e n s i v e l y . " Huang i n s t r u c t e d h i s nephew Hong Jufu, " I f you p a i d more a t t e n t i o n to reading the works of the a n c i e n t poets, i t would be e a s i e r f o r you to reach the [ h e i g h t s 69 I b i d . , p.293. 70 I b i d . , p.292 71 I b i d . , vol.19, p. 201. 36 of the] a n c i e n t poets. " *" In a d d i t i o n to these general comments, Huang a l s o d i s c u s s e d l e a r n i n g from the a n c i e n t poets i n terms of the three elements of h i s own method: p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ; l i n e s t r u c t u r e ; and key words. In an e x p l a n a t i o n of p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , Huang took Han Yu's Yuan Dao as an example f o r h i s d i s c i p l e s , and analyzed Du Fu's "Zeng Wei J i a n s u " *To Jiansu) i n order to d e s c r i b e how Du Fu 73 expressed h i s i n t e n t i n a convoluted way. As f o r l i n e s t r u c t u r e , he asked h i s students to study Du Fu's poems i n order t o g a i n "the p l a i n of p o e t i c sentences" and produce "great i s u b t l e t y . " 7 4 He thought that Chen Shiyong and Chen Luchang i a ^ s o b e n e f i t e d from the a n c i e n t poets: "You sent me p e n t a s y l l a b l e poems,/ They show t h a t your l i n e s t r u c t u r e f o l l o w s Bao Zhao's ( &(|jf I). " ^ "His CChen Luchang] poems o r i g i n a t e d from Old Du's l i n e s t r u c t u r e . The present poets cannot compete with 76 you. " As f o r the r u l e of key words, Huang thought the reason "Gao Zimian used an a l l u s i o n l i k e a m i l i t a r y order and arranged a word to f u n c t i o n l i k e a key to a door," was t h a t "He takes Du 72 I b i d . , p. 203. 73 SSHJY, Fan Wen, o p . c i t . , p. 399. 74 See Footnote 58 at page 28. 75 SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.10, p. 223. 76 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p.199 37 77 Zimei's poetry f o r h i s standard of c r e a t i o n . " In the preceding examples, Huang c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the source of h i s method i s to l e a r n from the a n c i e n t s . Yet, how does a poet l e a r n from a n c i e n t poets? To answer t h i s question, Huang proposes " e v o l v i n g from the embryo and changing the bone" h i s t o r y . The members of the J i a n g x i School saw t h i s approach as a v a l u a b l e technique. Conversely, c e r t a i n c r i t i c s curse i t as s t e a l i n g a t r i c k , as Teng Chung Lung j^)^^ • a modern s c h o l a r i n Hong Kong, wrote, "The s o - c a l l e d ' e v o l v i n g from the embryo and changing the bone', i s a c t u a l l y j u s t l i k e a c a r t h i e f i n a c i t y who s t e a l s a c a r and r e p a i n t s i t . "®^ Wang Ruoxu J^ jii; , J i n ^ Dynasty poet and c r i t i c , s t r o n g l y advocated the view t h a t Huang's phrases were only fancy terms f o r p l a g i a r i s m : In L u z h i ' s CHuang] p o e t i c comments, there are metaphors of s o - c a l l e d " e v o l v i n g from the embryo and changing the bone,' and "changing i r o n i n t o g o l d " which are c o n s i d e r e d mottos. In my o p i n i o n , they are only good-sounding names f o r p l a g i a r i s m . L u z h i l o v e s t o exceed others, and i s ashamed 77 YZHXSWJ, v o l . 26, p.298. 78 Bai Bu Cong Shu J i Cheng >A|[|!k1^^ » ( a b b r e v i a t e d BBCSJC) Hui Hong Leng Zhai Ye Hua fljffixim , v o l . 1 , p. 8. Trans. James L i u , The Art of Chinese Poetry, Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1962, p.78. 79 YZHXSWJ, vol.26, p. 289. Trans. L i u , i b i d . , p. 78. 80 Teng Chung Lung, Song Sh i Chu Tan ,^$f|J$$ (A Study of the Poetry of the Sung Dynasty i n China), Hong Kong: Zhong Guo Wen Xue Yan J i u She tyjjj^jfjjjj • ' 1985, P-76. 38 t h a t h i s own verses uses lame arguments We cannot deny t h a t some of Huang's poems are i m i t a t i o n s of a n c i e n t poets, but Huang's main tendency i s to apply h i s approach to c r e a t e i n n o v a t i o n s of a n c i e n t poems and to i l l u s t r a t e h i s o r i g i n a l i t y . We w i l l not attempt to argue here whether or not Huang i s s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s approach, f o r the p o i n t we want t o make c l e a r i s t h a t Huang's idea s i n these two phrases can be c o n s i d e r e d as a way to l e a r n l i n e s t r u c t u r e and the use of key words from a n c i e n t poets. Now l e t us look at the c o n t e x t s of the two phrases: When Du Fu wrote poetry and Han Yu wrote prose, there was not a s i n g l e word that d i d not have an o r i g i n i n some p l a c e ; now l a t e r men have not done much re a d i n g and so they say Han and Tu made up these phrases themselves. Those who wrote i n the o l d days were t r u l y a b l e to mold 10,000 t h i n g s ; even though they s e l e c t e d the s t a l e words of the a n c i e n t s , once they a p p l i e d brush and ink, i t was j u s t l i k e a g r a i n of the e l i x i r of i m m o r t a l i t y changing i r o n i n t o gold. The meaning of poetry i s u n l i m i t e d , but man's t a l e n t has a l i m i t . Even a T'ao Ch'ien or a Tu Fu could not seek u n l i m i t e d meaning with l i m i t e d t a l e n t . Thus not to change the meaning but to c r e a t e one's own words to express i t i s c a l l e d the method of changing the bone; to i n t r o d u c e one's own meaning but Cuse the o r i g i n a l words] to d e s c r i b e i t i s c a l l e d the method of e v o l v i n g from the embryo.®^ d e r i v e from the c l a s s i c a l poets, so he and i n v e n t s fancy terms. 81 CSJC, Wang Ruoxu, Fu Nan Y i Lao J i j}jtjjj^J[ • » vol.4, 1935, p.257. 82 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 204. Trans. L i u , i b i d . , p. 78. 83 BBCS, Hui Hong, o p . c i t . , v o l . 1 , p.8. Trans. L i u i b i d . , p. 78. 39 In the f i r s t t e x t , Huang suggested how anc i e n t poets made s t a l e words i n n o v a t i v e i n t h e i r poetry and prose. In other words, he d e s c r i b e d how a poet might l e a r n from a n c i e n t poets i n terms of the use of key words, even though he o v e r s t a t e d that "there was no s i n g l e word t h a t d i d not have an o r i g i n i n some p l a c e . " In the second t e x t , Huang a l s o d i s c u s s e d how to borrow the meaning of a word or sentence from ancient poets t o c r e a t e h i s own word or sentence, and how a poet could g i v e h i s own meaning to the word or sentence o f the anc i e n t poet. C l e a r l y , t h i s approach r e f e r s t o the r u l e s of key words and l i n e s t r u c t u r e s . The main p o i n t o f the two phrases i s the i n n o v a t i o n of the works of a n c i e n t poets, not simply i m i t a t i o n . Thus, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , Wang Ruoxu misrepresented Huang's meaning. P r a c t i c a l l y , Wang o v e r s t a t e d Huang's i m i t a t i o n of a n c i e n t poets. Furthermore, the second quote a l s o d e f i n e s h i s reason f o r h i s approach. The reason (as f u l l y quoted above) i s "The meaning of poetry i s u n l i m i t e d , but man's t a l e n t has a l i m i t . Even a T'ao Ch'ien (Tao Qian) or a Tu Fu (Du Fu) cou l d not seek u n l i m i t e d meaning with l i m i t e d t a l e n t . " In one sense, Huang i s c o r r e c t , because i f the meaning of poetry i s l i m i t e d , poetry c o u l d have h a r d l y s u r v i v e d i n the world f o r thousands of years o f p o e t i c e x p l o r a t i o n . Also, an i n d i v i d u a l can never exhaust the meaning of poetry no matter how o r i g i n a l or v e r s a t i l e he i s . Yet, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether the premise f o l l o w s from Huang's conclusion--"changing the bone and e v o l v i n g from the embryo." There are many ways to make up f o r 4 0 " l i m i t e d t a l e n t " to c r e a t e poetry, and Huang's approach i s one of them. C. The P r i n c i p l e o f Method Huang's method and approach t o gr a s p i n g the method make s e v e r a l modern s c h o l a r s c a s t him as a p l a g i a r i s t . Guo Shaoyu, a well-known c r i t i c of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , takes Wang Ruoxu's comment (see p.35) about Huang as the " f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n on Shangu's poetry". L i u D a j i e t h i n k s that " I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t [Huang] has taken the road upon which he only i m i t a t e d the p o e t i c form of a n c i e n t poets." Yet, i t seems to me t h a t these s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s ignore Huang's o r i g i n a l i t y . I f Huang were on l y a poet who r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , he would not have become a great one. In f a c t , he i s "not w i l l i n g t o be a 86 man f o l l o w i n g b u f f a l o . " In our d i s c u s s i o n of the content of Huang's method, we have seen him h i g h l i g h t o r i g i n a l i t y i n the r u l e of key words and l i n e s t r u c t u r e . In our d i s c u s s i o n of the source of Huang's method, we have a l s o shown h i s emphasis on i n n o v a t i o n when l e a r n i n g from the a n c i e n t s . As f o r Huang's dominant idea s i n h i s theory of poetry, he s t r e s s e s o r i g i n a l i t y more than l e a r n i n g from the a n c i e n t s . He 84 85 86 Guo Shaoyu, Zhong Guo Wen Xue P i Ping Shi, p.211 L i u D a j i e , o p . c i t . , p. 69. SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 294. wrote, " W r i t i n g i s a kind of a r t of the mind,/ There i s no 37 d e f i n i t e t r a c k s i n c e the o l d days." He opposes simply i m i t a t i n g the a n c i e n t s , saying "One i s behind others i f you take the p r i n c i p l e of c r e a t i o n to be i m i t a t i o n , / T h e only t h i n g r e a l i s 8fi to c r e a t e your own s t y l e . " These show a d i f f e r e n t s i d e of Huang. He reminds us of poets l i k e L i Bai and Su S h i who c r e a t e d poetry by t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t . Yet, how can we j o i n these two seeming o p p o s i t e s o f o r i g i n a l i t y and l e a r n i n g from the anc i e n t s ? How does Huang maintain a balance between the two. In order to c l e a r up t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t i s necessary f o r us to explo r e what Huang l e a r n e d from the anc i e n t poets. Huang's i n t e n t i s very c l e a r , he wants to l e a r n the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s o f p o e t i c c r e a t i o n from the an c i e n t s . In "Da Hong Jufu Shu" j (Reply to Hong J u f u ) , he wrote: "Your prose i s good, but l a c k s the c a r p e n t e r ' s l i n e marker Crule and r e g u l a t i o n ] o f anc i e n t w r i t e r s . " Thus, to Huang there are some r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of poetry which must be acq u i r e d from the a n c i e n t poets. Some of the content of h i s method i s the r e f l e c t i o n of these a n c i e n t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . Huang's remark reco r d e d i n Fan Wen's "Qian X i S h i Yan" ififjSj|I g i v e s us 87 SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.12, p. 270. 88 SGSZ, W a i j i Bu vol.2, p. 46. 89 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 203. 42 \ the c l e a r e s t answer to our questions. A f t e r an a n a l y s i s of a poem by Du Fu, Huang remarked; T h i s poem was recorded by former worthies as the very best of poetry; t h a t i s to say, i t s arrangement i s most c o r r e c t i n form, j u s t as the v a r i o u s kinds of government o f f i c e s , mansions, h a l l s , and side-rooms each have t h e i r set p l a c e and cannot be s c a t t e r e d about h e l t e r - s k e l t e r . Han Yu's "Yuan Dao" and the "Canon of Yao" i n the Shang Shu are s i m i l a r i n t h i s ; a l l the r e s t can be c a l l e d "changed form." Now changed form i s l i k e moving clouds, f l o w i n g water; i n the beginning they have no d e f i n i t e substance. They come f o r t h from the s u b t l y mysterious, are wrested from heavenly c r e a t i o n , and cannot be sought i n a mold. But i f we take c o r r e c t form as the b a s i s , then n a t u r a l laws operate i n them. For example, i n d e p l o y i n g troops both i r r e g u l a r and c o r r e c t movements w i l l occur. I f , i n the beginning, one does not know what i s c o r r e c t but r a t h e r i s s i d e t r a c k e d i n t o an i r r e g u l a r t a c t i c , c o n f u s i o n w i l l r e s u l t and i n the end, d e f e a t . " 9 0 Here, Huang c l e a r l y p o i n t e d to the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of p o e t i c c r e a t i o n w i t h i n a n c i e n t works, and the r e l a t i o n between these r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and o r i g i n a l i t y . He used two concepts to d e s c r i b e the c r e a t i v e methods of poetry. One i s 90 SSHJY, Fan Wen, o p . c i t . , p.399-400. Trans., R i c k e t t , op. c i t . , p. 104. Concerning Huang's concepts " c o r r e c t form", "changed form", and " n a t u r a l laws" as t r a n s l a t e d by R i c h e t t : "Correct form" b a s i c a l l y means the common r u l e s of l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , such as the f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e , rhyme scheme, use of a n t i t h e s i s , and m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n i n a r e g u l a t e d verse. "Changed form" means a poet's i n n o v a t i v e v a r i a t i o n of common r u l e s . Yet, a poet cannot c o m p l e t e l y change the common r u l e s as he wishes, and a poet's v a r i a t i o n s must f o l l o w " n a t u r a l laws". "Nat u r a l laws" can never be r e g u l a t e d but are accepted f o r e v e r , because they agree with common r u l e s , but go beyond common r u l e s of l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . S i n c e "bian t i " ^>j|j (changed form) c h i e f l y means a poet's i n n o v a t i v e v a r i a t i o n of common r u l e s , i t might be b e t t e r to t r a n s l a t e t h i s term as " v a r i a t o n " . 43 " c o r r e c t form", which he speaks of as " c o r r e c t movement"; the other i s "changed form", which he speaks of as " i r r e g u l a r movement". "Correct form" i s the "carpenter's l i n e marker," or the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s of p o e t i c c r e a t i o n . " C o r r e c t form" i s unchangeable, and can be acquired because t h e r e are " n a t u r a l laws o p e r a t i n g i n them." Huang uses an example from the works of the a n c i e n t poets to sum up " c o r r e c t form". His purpose i s to demonstrate what a poet should l e a r n from a n c i e n t poets. As f o r "changed form", Huang t h i n k s t h a t i t i s not acquired, but comes from a poet's c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . With "changed form", " c o r r e c t form" i s no longer t o be found i n poetry; as Huang s a i d "Looking at the poems w r i t t e n by Du Fu a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l at Kuizhou, and the prose w r i t t e n by Han T u i z h i (Han Yu) a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o the i m p e r i a l court from Chaozhou, they are n a t u r a l l y 91 j o i n e d t o g e t h e r without b o t h e r i n g t o f o l l o w p o e t i c r u l e s . " Huang a l s o c l e a r l y e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i o n between " c o r r e c t form" and "changed form." "An i r r e g u l a r t a c t i c " i s the " p e r f e c t realm" which can be reached through a poet's o r i g i n a l i t y . But, " c o r r e c t form" i s the b a s i s of " i r r e g u l a r t a c t i c " which comes from a s k i l f u l mastery of " c o r r e c t form". A poet must "understand the o l d law i n order to produce what i s new and 92 s t r a n g e . " Without " c o r r e c t form", "confusion w i l l r e s u l t , and 91 92 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 201. SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.7, p. 122. 44 i n the end d e f e a t . " T h i s i s why Huang always advised h i s f r i e n d s and d i s c i p l e s to a t t a i n " c o r r e c t form". Yet, a f t e r mastering " c o r r e c t form", a poet should not adhere to i t . Huang wrote, "As f o r a w r i t e r who wants to l i f t up h i s l e v e l of w r i t i n g to the h e i g h t of T a i Mountain which r i s e s a b r u p t l y and s t e e p l y , c l o u d s hanging i n the sky, who wants to empower and magnify h i s w r i t i n g , as waves of a r i v e r i n the e i g h t h month, and a huge f i s h which f r e e l y swims the seas and can swallow a boat, he should not s t i c k t o a c a r p e n t e r ' s l i n e marker which would make h i s w r i t i n g 93 v u l g a r . " In Huang's mind, "changing coarse i n t o e x q u i s i t e , changing o l d i n t o new" i s "to be ever v i c t o r i o u s " and shows "a poet's uniqueness." Huang, at the age of s i x t y , summarized h i s c r e a t i v e experience by d e s c r i b i n g the go a l he pursued f o r h i s whole l i f e : " T i n g j i a n ' s brush i s o l d . I begin to be aware of the d i f f i c u l t y o f a r r a n g i n g verses and sentences. I t i s most important t o f i n d some place the a n c i e n t poets have not pa i d 95 a t t e n t i o n t o . Then, my v o i c e can go beyond o t h e r s . " In c o n c l u s i o n , Huang's theory b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s of h i s method, the source of h i s method, and the p r i n c i p l e of h i s method. The method c o n s i s t s of the t h r e e elements: p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , l i n e s t r u c t u r e , and the r u l e of key words. The 93 YZHXSWJ, vol.19, p. 204. 94 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.21, p. 224. 95 SSHJY, C a i Tao "Xi Qing S h i Hua" fjj] p.364. 45 method can be grasped through l e a r n i n g from the a n c i e n t s . Yet, the p r i n c i p l e - - a poet's o r i g i n a l c r e a t i v i t y - - s h o u l d come through i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the method and the process of l e a r n i n g from the a n c i e n t s . 46 Chapter Two P o e t i c Theory and P r a c t i c e : P o e t i c Content The t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of Huang's p o e t i c views i n Chapter One has prepared us to survey Huang's p o e t i c theory through h i s s c a t t e r e d remarks, and to c l e a r up s e v e r a l d i s p u t e s r e g a r d i n g t h i s theory. However, our approach i s f a r from p e r f e c t , f o r we have run the r i s k of d i v o r c i n g Huang's theory from h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e to a r r i v e at the c o n c l u s i o n s i n Chapter One. Ther e f o r e , i n order to c o r r e c t t h i s d e f e c t , we w i l l examine Huang's p o e t i c p r a c t i c e i n the f o l l o w i n g two chapters to f u r t h e r support our a n a l y s i s of Huang's p o e t i c theory. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l f o c u s on Huang's p o e t i c content t o correspond to our . d i s c u s s i o n of h i s g e n e r a l views of poetry, i , e . , h i s views on p o e t i c content and p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n . By doing t h i s , not onl y w i l l we underscore our c o n c l u s i o n s on h i s p o e t i c views, but we w i l l a l s o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l view of h i s dominant p o e t i c content. Compared to other Chinese poets, Huang i s p r o l i f i c . Besides poems t h a t are l o s t or that he burned himself, t h e r e are 1,956 e x t a n t poems.^ Although Huang wrote a huge amount of poetry d u r i n g h i s l i f e , h i s major s u b j e c t s are f a i r l y l i m i t e d . C e r t a i n l y they are not as f a r - r e a c h i n g as Du Fu's and Bai J u y i ' s , both of whom r e f l e c t e d p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and r e a l i t y . There are 1 Mo L i f e n g , o p . c i t . , p. 24. 47 c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s w h i c h he f r e q u e n t l y a d o p t s ar.d w h i c h we may r o u g h l y d i v i d e i n t o f o u r m a j o r a r e a s : s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ; d e s c r i p t i o n s of nature; d e p i c t i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e ; and d i s c u s s i o n s of philosophy. I- S e l f - e x p r e s s i o n Many s c h o l a r s t h i n k that Huang i s an i n t r o v e r t e d poet because he observes h i s i n t e r n a l world more than the e x t e r n a l one. Therefore, as he h i m s e l f d e f i n e s poetry as an e x p r e s s i o n of human emotion and nature, a great many of h i s poems express h i s own f e e l i n g s and thoughts. These are d i s t i n c t from poetry t h a t has the d e f i n i t e aim of r e f l e c t i n g p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . From these poems of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n we can o b t a i n i n s i g h t i n t o Huang's dominant p o e t i c content, as w e l l as Huang hi m s e l f . Although there i s great v a r i e t y i n the s u b j e c t s Huang uses f o r h i s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , we might d i v i d e these s u b j e c t s i n t o s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t of a l l , Huang o f t e n d i s p l a y s moral c h a r a c t e r , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n d i f f e r e n c e to w o r l d l y a f f a i r s . He r e a c t s t o w o r l d l y a f f a i r s with an open mind and the approach o f one who sees the world as i l l u s o r y . Moreover, he shows us he i s a person who pursues the s p i r i t u a l realm i n s t e a d of fame and fortu n e . T h i s i s the opposite of those i n t e l l e c t u a l s whose ambition f o r o f f i c e i s molded by Confucianism. C l e a r l y , Huang's go a l s were i n f l u e n c e d by the concepts o f Buddhist Emptiness tyM and T a o i s t I n a c t i o n ^ ' . They were a l s o i n f l u e n c e d 48 by Tao Yuanming's poetry which r e f l e c t s Tao's experiences i n the world, and h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e to i t which i s viewed by Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a v i r t u e . Here i s an excerpt from "Xi Shang Y i n " I^ J^ Hy ( R e c i t i n g Beside a Steam) which shows Huang's i n d i f f e r e n c e to worldly a f f a i r s . You uphold your r e p u t a t i o n and moral i n t e g r i t y i n l i f e , Rush about as a moth d a r t i n g i n t o a flame. When you repent what you have done, E v e r y t h i n g w i l l be i n a grave covered with weeds. 2 In t h i s poem, the poet exposes h i s i n t e r i o r thoughts. He measures the l i m i t of human l i f e a g a i n s t w o r l d l y a p p e t i t e s i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the worthlessness of pursuing fame and gain. Another example of t h i s theme i s found i n the f o l l o w i n g poem: Pure B r i g h t n e s s F e s t i v a l Peach and plum f l o w e r s s m i l e d d u r i n g t h i s happy f e s t i v a l time, The w i l d s and d e s e r t e d f i e l d s brought people sadness. The S p r i n g thunder awakened dragon and snake from h i b e r n a t i o n . With abundant r a i n f a l l , t r e e s and grass i n the suburbs turned s o f t . A f t e r begging f o r l e f t o v e r o b l a t i o n s , one bragged 2 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 1 , p. 2. 3 A person of Q_i_ s t a t e o f t e n went out to beg f o r l e f t o v e r o b l a t i o n s . A f t e r he came back f u l l of food and drink, he bragged to h i s wife and concubine that he had dinner with men of wealth and consequence. From the s t o r y , Mencius t e l l s us, "few of a l l those who seek wealth and p o s i t i o n f a i l t o g i v e t h e i r wives and concubines cause to weep with shame." See SBCK, Mengzi | ^ , Mengzi j?^- , v o l . 8, p. 71. and t r a n s . D.C.Lau, Mencius. Hong Kong: The Chinese U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1984, v o l . 1 , book. 4, pp. 175-177. 49 about i t to h i s wife and concubine, 4 Another gentleman would r a t h e r be burned to death than become a high o f f i c i a l . Who should be seen as a worthy or a f o o l through the ages? The grave mounds covered with grasses, which both are d e s t i n e d to share, meet the eye everywhere. 5 T h i s poem c o u l d be considered as one t h a t expresses the poet's i m p r e s s i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f e s t i v a l . Even though i n the f i r s t two c o u p l e t s Huang d e s c r i b e s the f e s t i v a l atmosphere and the season, the focus of the poem i s what thoughts the f e s t i v a l i n s p i r e w i t h i n him. Therefore, whatever the d e s c r i p t i o n of the f e s t i v a l atmosphere, or r e c o l l e c t i o n of the f e s t i v a l ' s o r i g i n s , they a c t u a l l y s erve to d i s p l a y Huang's deep pondering over t h i s world and the v a l u e of l i f e . Huang expresses h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o wealth and fame through a l l u s i o n s , and denies t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t a ndards i n terms of i n e v i t a b l e death as i n the above poems. By doing t h i s , he shows us one who i s above p o l i t i c s and w o r l d l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The second aspect of Huang's s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n can be found i n h i s f r e q u e n t l o n g i n g f o r s e c l u s i o n . T h i s i s , of course, c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e to w o r l d l y a f f a i r s . Chinese . t u i V 4 Here r e f e r s to J i e Z h i t ;. A f t e r he helped the k i n g of J i n s t a t e J i n Wengong ^o r e b u i l d J i n s t a t e , he s e c l u d e d h i m s e l f i n the mountains. He r e f u s e d J i n Wengong's o f f e r of o f f i c i a l t i t l e so t h a t he was burned to death i n the mountain. ; r * « , j A ' See Chun Qlu Zuo Zhuan Zhu I T ^ T X R I I ' E D * Y A N C J Bojun f§ | H « & , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1981, pp. 418-419. • 5 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 1 , p. 10. 50 i n t e l l e c t u a l s were f o r c e n t u r i e s drawn to spending time i n s e c l u s i o n w r i t i n g poetry, and t h i s was most a p p r o p r i a t e l y summarized by Tao Yuanming's d e p i c t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s l i f e as a hermit, " P i c k i n g up chrysanthemums under the eastern fence, / L e i s u r e l y , c a t c h i n g s i g h t of the southern h i l l s , " ^ These i n t e l l e c t u a l s not only took refuge i n s e c l u s i o n when t h e i r o f f i c i a l c a r e e r s were i n t r o u b l e , but they b e l i e v e d they gained g r e a t moral q u a l i t i e s by removing themselves at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s from the world. In s e c l u s i o n they c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e the n a t u r a l beauty of the world, be f r e e from involvement i n p o l i t i c a l I c o n f l i c t , and pursue t h e i r s p i r i t u a l g oals. As L i Shangyin ^|||| i (813-858) wrote, "Always remember to r e t u r n to the lake with grey h a i r , / Longing t o withdraw from the world and r e t u r n to the boat [ t h a t w i l l take you back t o the l a k e ] . " I t i s obvious t h a t Huang's p o e t i c c r e a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by t r a d i t i o n a l ideas. Even when he was a young man and had not yet experienced much s u f f e r i n g from h i s o f f i c i a l career, he expressed a lo n g i n g f o r s e c l u s i o n . We see t h i s i n a poem he wrote when he was only 25 years o l d : Rhyming with My Classmate P e l Zhongmou In the s p r i n g breeze, we met each other i n c a r t s 6 See f o o t n o t e 19 i n Chapter one at p.9. 7 L i Shangyin, L i Shanqyin S h i J i Shu Zhu ^ |||f jf , B e i j i n g : Ren Ming Chu Ban She, 1985, p.330. 8 Those who appear i n the same examination grade l i s t f o r the i m p e r i a l exams address each other as Tonq Nian pj'J^  (classmate). beside Ru River, Bed to bed at the inn, we i n t i m a t e l y t a l k e d on f e l t o f mcnk sheets. I t was onl y about one hundred l i . between Wuyang and Xie, Then you and I were both young. As i f from seeds, grey h a i r w i l l appear on our heads, We lov e to r e t u r n to the green mountains, but we have no money to buy land. What a hazy, sandy, bamboo-covered Jiangnan shore! g But, i t has been y i e l d e d t o s l e e p i n g e g r e t s . The poem i s i n s p i r e d by h i s f r i e n d s h i p to P e i Zhongmou. I t begins by r e c a l l i n g t h e i r f i r s t encounter beside the Ru River, a f t e r he and h i s f r i e n d both had taken o f f i c i a l p osts i n Xie If and Wuyang ffH}counties, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e l i n e s c o n t i n u e by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and c l o s e c o n t a c t s . Images l i k e i "chun fe n g " ( s p r i n g breeze) and the use of words l i k e " j u shao n i a n " (both young) evoke an atmosphere of joy. Yet, from the f i f t h l i n e onward the poem suddenly s h i f t s t o a sad mood as i f t o c r e a t e a sharp c o n t r a s t with the f i r s t p a r t of the poem. Although the poet should have been vig o r o u s and ambitious at h i s age (as i m p l i e d i n the f i r s t f o u r l i n e s ) , what he unburdens t o h i s c l o s e f r i e n d i s h i s inne r d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o h i s home town, d e s c r i b e d as an i d e a l and p o e t i c place, and enjoy i t s n a t u r a l beauty and a p e a c e f u l l i f e . Huang more c l e a r l y and s t r o n g l y d i s p l a y s h i s pe r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n s e c l u s i o n i n the poem below w r i t t e n at the mature 9 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 1 , p. 13. Climbing Pleasant Tower The i d i o t s e t t l e d s t a t e business, Walked east and west on Pleasant Tower, l e a n i n g on the c l e a r evening sky. Above thousands of mountains with withered t r e e s , the sky i s vast, Above a l i n e o f the transparent r i v e r , the moon i s c l e a r and b r i g h t . A red s t r i n g of my z i t h e r has b r o k e n ^ , f o r my B e a u t y ^ i s absent, I r e l u c t a n t l y show my welcoming eyes only because of good wine. H o p e f u l l y I w i l l play a f l u t e i n the boat home, I have made a covenant with the white g u l l s , 13 The t i t l e o f the poem t e l l s us t h i s i s a poem d e s c r i b i n g denq gao * a (ascending a h e i g h t ) . Ascending a height i s a t r a d i t i o n a l custom and a common t o p i c of Chinese poetry. A poet 10 "A red s t r i n g of my z i t h e r " a l l u d e s to Zhong Z i q i Bo Ya |||^ . Bo was a good p l a y e r of the z i t h e r and Zhong was on l y one who c o u l d understand Bo's p l a y i n g . A f t e r Zhong dead, Bo broke h i s z i t h e r , and no longer played because t h e r e no one l e f t who understood t h i s music. See Lu Buwei's ftX^r: Lu S h i Chun Qiu J i a o Y i Y i n Zhongrong^f&ll , Tad i p e i ; 3. Zhong Hua Cong Shu Wei Yuan Hui and the was was ed. 11 In Chinese c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g . Beauty i s o f t e n used to imply a c l o s e f r i e n d . 12 "Welcoming Eyes", l i t e r a l l y , i s "Black Eyes", which a l l u d e s to Ruan J i | j £ | | j . I t i s s a i d t h a t Ruan s t a r e d at someone with h i s p u p i l s i n the middle of h i s eyes, or "Black Eyes", which expresses h i s good impression on someone. Showing the whites of the eyes, or "White Eyes", expresses d i s d a i n . See Fang X u a n l i n §|"£|| Ju, 1974, p.1361. J i n Shu # B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu 13 SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.11, p. 249. 53 c o u l d produce a l o f t y i d e a l and f o r g e t mundane a f f a i r s by e n j o y i n g a d i s t a n t view at a height, j u s t as Du Fu wrote, "Upon r e a c h i n g the summit,/ A l l mountains w i l l be s m a l l from a b i r d s -14 eye view." The theme of Huang's poem d e p i c t s how he was i n s p i r e d upon ascending a height. In the f i r s t two l i n e s , Huang compares h i m s e l f to an i d i o t who i s burdened by b o r i n g o f f i c e work. He i s happy to have an o p p o r t u n i t y to enjoy nature by c l i m b i n g a tower. T h i s might a l s o be understood as the poet's escape from the mundane world to the s p i r i t u a l realm with the mundane l e f t behind on the ground. The t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s d e p i c t a view of n a t u r a l beauty that i s open and d i s t a n t , which prepares one f o r the r e v e l a t i o n of the poet's l o f t y s p i r i t u a l realm i n the l a s t c o u p l e t . In the t h i r d c o u p l e t , Huang expresses h i s weariness of the mundane world, which may be seen as a p o e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s remark--"even the one next to him [the poet] i n the same bed cannot understand him, he cannot i n t e r a c t with h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . " 1 5 As a r e s u l t , he hopes t o r e t u r n t o nature to l i v e a f r e e , easy l i f e , as he i n d i c a t e s through the image of p l a y i n g a f l u t e i n the boat home, and the symbol of nature--white g u l l s i n the l a s t c o u p l e t . In the l a s t l i n e Huang expresses h i s f i r m , l i f e t i m e d e s i r e f o r s e c l u s i o n by the use of word the menq IPi J( make a IS. , 14 Du Fu, Du S h i Xiang Zhu jtlfffH , ed. , Qiu Zhaoao ftlEfi, , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1979, vol.1, p.4. 15 See f o o t n o t e 1 i n Chapter One at p.2. 54 covenant), and from the im p l i e d time which I have t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the p e r f e c t tense (have made). The whole poem i m p l i e s t h a t the poet, by going from a low p l a c e to a high p l a c e to look out at nature has with each step ascended the h e i g h t s both p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . Su S h i ' s comments on Huang f u r t h e r h elp us to understand Huang's thoughts d i s c u s s e d above. Su once wrote to Huang; To Judge your behaviour from r e a d i n g your w r i t i n g , I t h i n k t h a t you must be a person who i g n o r e s mundane a f f a i r s and conducts h i m s e l f with d i g n i t y . A person such as you cannot be a p p r e c i a t e d by the gentlemen of today. L a t e r on, the more of your l i t e r a r y works I read when I dropped by L i Gongze's i n Jinan, the more I knew your p e r s o n a l i t y . I t h i n k t h a t you are f r e e and n a t u r a l , without even a l i t t l e involvement i n the worldly dust, so t h a t you detach y o u r s e l f from the mundane world, and you r i d e on wind and harness a i r to enable you to t r a v e l with the c r e a t o r . Not only can you not be a p p r e c i a t e d by the gentlemen of today, but even someone l i k e me--Su Shi, who i s u n r e s t r a i n e d , who has no urge t o make progress, and who removes h i m s e l f from the world, cannot make f r i e n d s with you. ^ Herein, Su c h a r a c t e r i z e s Huang as a hermit based on the dominant theme of h i s p o e t i c content. I t i s obvious t h a t Su a l s o c o n s i d e r s s e c l u s i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t of Huang's w r i t i n g . "To detach from the mundane world" and " t r a v e l with the c r e a t o r " , which Su uses t o d e s c r i b e Huang are e x p r e s s i o n s f o r s e c l u s i o n . The l a s t s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of Huang's s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s an e x p r e s s i o n of u n i v e r s a l human emotions, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s f e e l i n g s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . L i k e most Chinese 16 WYWK, Su Shi, v o l . , 5, p. 109. 55 i n t e l l e c t u a l s , Huang was educated with Confucian textbooks s i n c e the time he was a c h i l d . Thus, i t i s n a t u r a l that Confucian moral values, such as f i l i a l p i e t y and l o y a l t y to f r i e n d s , s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Huang. Furthermore, Huang's c h a r a c t e r was very kind, and he was l o y a l to h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . His moral c h a r a c t e r might have developed t h i s way because h i s f a m i l y members had to depend on each other f o r s u r v i v a l due to h i s f a t h e r ' s death when he was very young. Su Shi, i n a l e t t e r of recommendation, p r a i s e d Huang with: "[Huang's] f i l i a l and f a i t h f u l a t t i t u d e towards h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s can be compared t o v i r t u e s of the a n c i e n t s ; [ h i s ] w r i t i n g s , l i k e Jade, 17 are t he most s u b t l e of a l l i n these times." The f o l l o w i n g poem i l l u s t r a t e s these tendencies. Impressions on E a t i n g Lotus Seeds i n Ganshang Lotus seeds are as b i g as thumbs, D i v i d i n g these sweet seeds reminds me of Mother's a f f e c t i o n . The tops of seeds p r o t r u d i n g crowded i n the seedpod, Deepens my l o n g i n g f o r my brothers. I n s i d e a seed i s a t i n y sprout, With f i s t s l i k e an i n f a n t ' s hand, That reminds me of my c h i l d r e n . Who meet me at the gate to ask f o r pears and jujubes. A seed sprout c e r t a i n l y i s b i t t e r , How can I expect sweetness while e a t i n g the sprout? With sweet t h i n g s I am a f r a i d of poison. With p l a i n t h i n g s I f e e l ashamed. Though a l o t u s grows i n mud. I t has not the same s t y l e as mud. Who does not enjoy e a t i n g sweet l o t u s seeds? How many r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the t a s t e ! I l i v e near Shuangjing pond, 17 I b i d . , v o l . , 12, p. 88. 56 T h e autumn w i n d b r i n g s me t h e f r a g r a n c e o f l o t u s . How c a n I f i n d f r i e n d s w i t h t h e same p r e f e r e n c e , To r e t u r n home t o make l o t u s c l o t h e s 18 19 From the t i t l e , we know that Huang i s i n s p i r e d by e a t i n g l o t u s seeds to w r i t e the poem. As l o t u s seeds grow i n the south of China, t h i s i s a reminder of the poet's home town. Also, the Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a of sha r i n g comforts with r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , makes e a t i n g l o t u s seeds a reminder o f Huang's f a m i l y . In the f i r s t e i g h t l i n e s , the poet employs some f r e s h and unique images t o d i s p l a y how much he misses h i s mother, brother s , and c h i l d r e n . At f i r s t , the sweet t a s t e of seeds i s s u b t l y used t o embody "Mother's a f f e c t i o n " . The a f f e c t i o n i s i m p e r c e p t i b l e , but once i t i s compared t o the p e r c e p t i b l e sweetness, human emotion i s p e r c e i v e d . With the second image, the poet draws a p i c t u r e of h i m s e l f and h i s b r o t h e r ' s l i v i n g at home, and the t h i r d image d e l i n e a t e s the shape o f an i n f a n t ' s hand. There, f r a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l l o v e are conveyed by crowded seeds i n a seedpod and by the tenderness o f a seed sprout. The images harbouring the poet's f e e l i n g s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s are so v i v i d and moving t h a t an a f f a b l e image of the poet i s presented. 18 "Lotus c l o t h e s " a l l u d e s to Qu Yuan's < 4 B.C.) L i Sao ^ "To make a j a c k e t from water c a l t r o p , / To c o l l e c t l o t u s t o make a s k i r t . " ^ !• i ^ p g 1 S e e ^ J i a n g L i a n g f u f ^ A , » Chonq Ding Qu Yuan Fu J i a o Zhu J E J J M J I i t ' t l l i , T i a n j i n : ' T i a n j i n Gu J i Chu Ban She £§f; £11T* S?!!'' ' 1987, p. 38. WW M i l 19 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 1 , p. 8. 57 In the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , while keeping the theme of the l o t u s seeds (the b i t t e r n e s s of the l o t u s seeds, and the environment i n which they grow), the poet s h i f t s h i s message to express h i s weariness with o f f i c i a l l i f e and h i s wish to r e t u r n home with h i s bosom f r i e n d s . Even though t h i s new t o p i c seems to d e v i a t e from the former e x p r e s s i o n of the poet's f e e l i n g s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s , the two s e c t i o n s are l i n k e d by the theme of the l o t u s . T h e r e f o r e , not only does the poem present Huang's s i n c e r e and k i n d a t t i t u d e s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , but i t ends with the i d e a of s e c l u s i o n , as do many of h i s other poems. During Huang's e n t i r e l i f e he had a very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r Huang D a l i n . His br o t h e r accompanied him thousands of k i l o m e t r e s away from home to d i s t a n t Qianzhou Huang recorded the event i n an essay e n t i t l e d "Shu Ping x i a n g Xian T i n g B i " ^ ^Jlfff! ( I n s c r i b i n g the Wall of County Court of P i n g x i a n g ) ; [My b r o t h e r ] stayed here f o r s e v e r a l months and was r e l u c t a n t to sep a r a t e from me. Thanks to my c o l l e a g u e ' s c o n s o l a t i o n and persuasion, he f i n a l l y agreed to leave. At our departure, we wiped our te a r s , held each o t h e r ' s hands, and thought t h a t we would part i n a d i s t a n t l a n d without any chance t o meet a g a i n . ^ He a l s o wrote the f o l l o w i n g poem d e s c r i b i n g h i s f e e l i n g s about t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n . Rhyming and Re p l y i n g t o Yuanming's S e e i n g - o f f i n Qiannan 20 YZHXSWJ, vol.20, p. 218. 58 Face to face, we f o r g e t we had stayed i n the inn thousands of l i away from home. The monkey's c r y ^ made our t e a r s drop i n t o the f a r e w e l l wine cups. P r e v i o u s l y , we dreamed of ascending to heaven as a morning cloud, When w i l l we again be bed to bed l i s t e n i n g to the evening r a i n ? 23 Wagtails were s i d e by s i d e i n heavy snow, Swan geese broke t h e i r l i n e 2 4 i n a sudden wind. You f r e q u e n t l y look back i n your d i s t a n t boat home, From now on, w r i t e to me c o n t i n u o u s l y to c o n s o l e my 25 broken heart. The poem opens with a sharp c o n t r a s t between Huang's happiness and sadness, which i s r e v e a l e d by missing h i s brother. He i s 21 Reference to Yuefu %$^\ ( f o l k songs) "the Wu Gorge i s the l o n g e s t one among the t h r e e gorges i n the east Ba,/Heard the monkey's c r y t h r i c e , one's t e a r s wet h i s c l o t h e s . " See L i Daoyuan f|j§7kJ Shui J i n g Zhu , "Jiang Shui Zhu", Shanghai: Shanghai Guo Xue Zheng L i She, 1936, vol.34, p. 6. 22 "A morning c l o u d " a l l u d e s to Chu Huaiwang ' s jgffijj s t o r y . In h i s dream, he met a f a i r y maiden who served him f o r a n i g h t . When she l e f t him, she s a i d t h a t she l i v e d i n Wu mountain on the s i d e of Wu Gorge, and appeared as a cloud i n the morning and as r a i n i n the evening. By using the s t o r y r e l a t e d to Wu Gorge, Huang i m p l i e s he i s "a morning cl o u d " who t r i e d t o o b t a i n a high o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n as tlje, f a i r y maiden reached the king. Song Yu % \ \ " G a o Tana. Fu* g j j j j l j , ed. , Zhu B i l i a n ^ | | J § i , Song Yu C i Fu  Y i J i e /fc3?$|J!ff)!$*' t B e i j i n g : Zhong Guo She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She t l f iMfM! " ' 1 9 8 7- p- 7 3-23 "Wagtails" a l l u d e s to The Book of Songs, which says,"When w a g t a i l s appear i n the f i e l d , / Brothers are i n urgent t r o u b l e . " From t h i s source, the use of " w a g t a i l s " o f t e n i m p l i e s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between br o t h e r s . SBCK, The Book of Songs, vol . 9 , p. 66. 24 "Swan geese broke t h e i r l i n e " a l l u d e s to "A f a t h e r ' s t r a c e i s f o l l o w e d , / An e l d e r b r o t h e r ' s t r a c e i s l i k e the l i n e of the swan geese" i n L i J i "Wang Z h i " . Therefore, "Swan geese" symbolizes brotherhood. See Wang Fuzhi i, L i J i Zhang Ju % ffff T a i p e i : Guang Wen Shu Dian j ^ j ^ j g j , 1957, v o l . 5 , p. 30. , U > U' T' 25 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.12, p. 215. 59 happy because h i s brother has accompanied him f o r thousands of l i , but he i s sad because h i s brother has to leave him. At t h i s moment, Huang r e g r e t s that he dreamed of being i n v o l v e d i n an o f f i c i a l c a r e e r which has r e s u l t e d i n h i s present e x i l e to a post f a r away from h i s home. In the t h i r d couplet, Huang f u r t h e r uses " w a g t a i l s " and " h e a v i l y snowing" to imply the two b r o t h e r s ' past mutual help i n a d v e r s i t y , and "swan geese" and "sudden wind" to symbolize t h e i r present s e p a r a t i o n . The only t h i n g that they can do t o c o n s o l e each other i s to correspond f r e q u e n t l y . From t h i s poem, we can see t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Huang and h i s b r o t h e r i s j u s t as L i u Weizhong d e s c r i b e s , " T i n g j i a n and h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r have a devoted r e l a t i o n s h i p . In a d v e r s i t y , they depend on each oth e r ; at departure, they miss each o t h e r " . " Moreover, we can see how Huang expresses h i s i n n e r f e e l i n g s i n h i s poems. In s h o r t , Huang's i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w o r l d l y a f f a i r s , l o n g i n g f o r s e c l u s i o n , and f e e l i n g s towards h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s comprise the major content of h i s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . In f a c t , t hese themes make up the most s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of h i s poetry. Compared with the other themes i n h i s poetry, Huang's poetry of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n d i r e c t l y express h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , Huang's poetry of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , agrees with h i s own views on p o e t i c theory, which we saw i n Chapter One are more (A C r i t i c a l Bioqrapny of Huang T i n g j i a n ) , T a i p e i : L i Ming Wen Hua S h i Ye Gu Fen You Xian Gong S i i^A^fW&HfJ^ ' ' 1 9 8 1 ' p* 1 4 6 ' 60 26 L i u E x p r e s s i o n i s t than Pragmatic. I I . Nature As e a r l y as more than 2,500 years ago, nature was taken as a s u b j e c t of poetry i n China. In the The Book of Songs, nature was e x t e n s i v e l y d e s c r i b e d . In Huang's poetry, nature i n the form of landscapes, animals, p l a n t s , seasons, and time i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . D i f f e r e n t from some e a r l i e r shan s h u i (landscape) J poets, whose d e s c r i p t i o n s of nature dominate t h e i r p o e t i c ! c r e a t i o n s , (such as X i e Lingyun jg ' i n the S i x Dynasties p e r i o d or Wang W e i i n the Tang), Huang's poetry on nature mainly s e r v e s t o imply h i s own f e e l i n g s and thoughts. The f o l l o w i n g poem i s one which i s most o f t e n taken as an example of h i s nature poems. Poem on Snow f o r Duke Guangping The sky with f a l l i n g s p r i n g snow i s as c l e a r as i f washed, Suddenly, i t reminds me of sand v i s i b l e on the bottom of a transparent r i v e r . At night, I heard i t snowing t h i c k and t h i n , In the morning, I saw i t snowing s t r a i g h t or angled. The snow f l a k e s danced with the c i r c l i n g wind, C l e v e r heaven can c r e a t e snow blossoms i n a minute. Even i f i t l e t s i t snow as much as i t can, so the co l d n e s s c h i l l s us t o the bone, S t i l l i t does not bother peach and plum f l o w e r s from e n j o y i n g wonderful days. As a Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l symbol of happiness, snow impresses us 27 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 6 , p. 97. here with the beauty of nature. We can f e e l the poet's j o y f u l f e e l i n g s from the d e s c r i p t i o n of snow too, which p e r f e c t l y match the symbol of happiness. Huang achieves t h i s e f f e c t not o n l y by s u b t l y d e s c r i b i n g snow through h i s imagination, and through the senses of hearing and s i g h t , but a l s o by blending h i s f e e l i n g s with the d e s c r i p t i o n of snowing. The beauty cannot simply be measured by p h y s i c a l p e r c e p t i o n , but must be a p p r e c i a t e d through a higher l e v e l - - s p i r i t u a l communication with nature. Although "the coldness [of enow] c h i l l s us t o the bone", i t does not i n t e r f e r e with the enjoyment of wonderful days by peach and plum f l o w e r s . Therefore, the poet's j o y f u l f e e l i n g s i n s p i r e d by the beauty of nature are r e v e a l e d through the use of t r a d i t i o n a l symbols, and these images were c a r e f u l l y chosen. L e t us look at one more example at how Huang s u b t l y expresses h i s own f e e l i n g s through a d e s c r i p t i o n of f l o w e r s . With g r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Wang Congdao's present of f i f t y n a r c i s s u s e s , which I wrote t h i s poem t o p r a i s e . 28 The f a i r y maiden r i d i n g the wave wears s i l k gauze socks s t a i n e d with specs of dust. She l i t h e l y s t r o l l s on the water under the pale moonlight. Who on e a r t h brought such pathos. And implanted i t i n t h i s c o l d - r e s i s t a n t flower to embody h i s deep sadness? Her white, c l e a n , f r a g r a n t form charms people, 28 "The f a i r y maiden r i d i n g the wave" a l l u d e s to Cao Z h i ' s "Luo Shen Fu" j^^ K <Ode to F a i r y Maiden i n Luo R i v e r ) , which says, "The f a i r y maiden r i d i n g the wave steps gently,/Her s i l k gauze socks s t a i n e d with dust. " ^irfrsa1 J See Zhao Youwen , "Luo Shen Fu" ffijffiCao Z h i J i J i a o Zhu ffjf HJ|$ , Taipei:'' Ming Wen Shu Ju ^^r| , 1985, p. 284. 62 Rue i s her younger brother, and plum her e l d e r one. S i t t i n g f a c i n g i t , l o n e l y , I am r e a l l y d i s t u r b e d , I walk out the door and laugh, f o r the b i g r i v e r l i e s below me.-D e p a r t i n g from d i r e c t p r a i s e of the n a r c i s s u s i n d i c a t e d i n the t i t l e , Huang unexpectedly begins with a d e l i c a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of i a well-known f i g u r e i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l poetry, Luo Shen ^jjtjf > who i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the n a r c i s s u s . From t h i s image we can see n a r c i s s u s e s standing i n a pot with water, and even the f e r t i l e s o i l attached to the n a r c i s s u s ' f i b r o u s r o o t s i s p i c t u r e d n i c e l y . We are s t r u c k by t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n not only because the c o n v e n t i o n a l approach i s to compare a person with a flower, not v i c e - v e r s a , but a l s o because Huang's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n helps us to p i c t u r e the b e a u t i f u l shape and growing environment of n a r c i s s u s . In the second couplet, by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the n a r c i s s u s grows from the s o u l of Luo Shen, the poet combines Luo Shen and the n a r c i s s u s i n t o one. Since the n a r c i s s u s o b t a i n s the s p i r i t o f Luo Shen, i t i s n a t u r a l that i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s e n t i m e n t a l as Luo Shen i s . N a r c i s s u s i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d by i t s e x t e r n a l form i n the f i f t h l i n e . Upon to t h i s p oint, the n a r c i s s u s has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a female image, and a feminine nature. Yet, i n b r o t h e r ) r e v e a l s the s u b t l e change of the poet's f e e l i n g while he l i n e s i x the use of " d i " (younger brother) and "xiong" 29 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.15, p. 280. 6 3 was l o o k i n g with a p p r e c i a t i o n at the n a r c i s s u s . F i n a l l y , the poet b r i n g s h i m s e l f i n t o the poem and l e t s us know he i s not s a t i s f i e d with j u s t viewing the n a r c i s s u s as i t makes him f e e l l o n e l y and s e n t i m e n t a l . Then when he leaves, t h e r e before him i s a m a g n i f i c e n t view of a b i g r i v e r which b r i n g s him joy and r e l e a s e s h i s f e e l i n g o f melancholy. The imagery i n the poem changed from a feminine one i n the beginning to a masculine one i n the end. The poet's view changed from narrow t o open, and h i s f e e l i n g s changed from sentimental to c h e e r f u l . We sense t h a t even though the poet enjoys the beauty and g e n t l e nature o f the n a r c i s s u s , he i s not w i l l i n g to be s p o i l e d by such f i n e emotions, and hopes t o pursue an open and broad realm. The examples above show us that Huang i s very s k i l f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g nature. Yet, h i s i n t e n t i s not only t o present the reader with beauty, a change of nature, and so on, but h i s emphasis i s on conveying h i s f e e l i n g s and i n t e r e s t s through a d e s c r i p t i o n o f nature. His f e e l i n g s i n h i s poetry on nature might not be d i s p l a y e d as o b v i o u s l y and d i r e c t l y as those on s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , but they both serve a mutual g o a l - - t o express human emotions and nature. I I I . Daily L i f e In h i s An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Sung Poetry, Yoshikawa K o j i r o p o i n t s out t h a t the concern f o r d a i l y l i f e i s an important t r a i t 64 TO i n Song poetry so t h a t mundane matters are taken up as themes. T h i s concern s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n l arges the range of s u b j e c t s of Song poetry. Huang's poetry apparently bears the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h i s group of poems makes up the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of Huang's poetry i n terms of h i s p o e t i c q u a n t i t y . He takes any n e g l i g i b l e t h i n g from d a i l y l i f e f o r h i s p o e t i c s u b j e c t s . He uses both t r i v i a l o b j e c t s (such as a brush, a p i c t u r e , t e a ) , and t r i v i a l events (such as r e c e i v i n g a g i f t , awakening from a dream, and asking f o r f l o w e r s ) . For example, the f o l l o w i n g poem, "Qi Mao" jmigh.t be c o n s i d e r e d a c l e v e r t r i f l e : P e t i t i o n i n g A Cat When autumn came, r a t s , b e n e f i t i n g by my c a t ' s death, Peeped i n j a r s , turned over dishes, and d i s t u r b e d my n i g h t ' s r e s t . I heard your puss gave b i r t h to a l i t t e r , So I bought f i s h s t r u n g along a willow branch to i n v i t e a l o c u s t - e a t e r . ^ There i s no deep s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s simple poem, but s t i l l Huang makes the t r i f l i n g d e l i g h t f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g through h i s use o f simple, c o l l o q u i a l language. Also, the poet i n t e n t i o n a l l y uses a c h a i n of verbs to d e s c r i b e both the r a t ' s behaviour, ("peep", "turn over", " d i s t u r b " ) , and the poet's behaviour ("buy", " s t r i n g " , " i n v i t e " and " b i t e " ) , so t h a t the 30 31 K o j i r o Yoshikawa, o p . c i t . , pp 14-19. SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 7 , p. 150. 65 r a t s ' d i s t u r b a n c e and the poet's a n x i e t y are embodied i n verbs of a c t i o n , which produces a humorous e f f e c t . Among t h i s group of poems about d a i l y l i f e , Huang composes many t i hua s h i ^ ||}| :(poenis i n s c r i b e d on p a i n t i n g s ) . T h i s might be a s s o c i a t e d with Huang's c a l l i g r a p h i c t a l e n t and great a r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . Let us look at one of h i s "poems i n s c r i b i n g a p a i n t i n g " . I n s c r i b i n g a P a i n t i n g of Bamboo, Rock, and B u f f a l o e s Z i z h a n < j ) drew a bunch of bamboo and a rock of grotesque shape; Boshi ( jfi^j > added a b u f f a l o boy on the back of a b u f f a l o i n the f r o n t slope. These are very meaningful. I wrote t h i s poem i n j e s t . In the f i e l d i s a jagged rock of grotesque shape, Beside i t , green bamboo lean on one another. A b u f f a l o boy holds a whip three c h i long, - To d r i v e an o l d b u f f a l o . I l o v e the rock so much, Do not allow b u f f a l o e s t o rub t h e i r horns on i t . I c o u l d r e l u c t a n t l y accept them rubbing t h e i r horns, But never the d e s t r u c t i o n of my bamboo from f i g h t i n g b u f f a l o e s . 3 2 T h i s i s a l s o an i n t e r e s t i n g s h o r t poem. F a c i n g a p a i n t i n g , the poet s t a r t s by e x h i b i t i n g h i s impressions of the p a i n t i n g . From t h i s poem, we know t h a t s t a t i c bamboo, rock, and dynamic b u f f a l o s are t h r e e major o b j e c t s i n the p a i n t i n g . In one sense, these t h r e e o b j e c t s are independent. Yet, through the d e s c r i p t i o n o f b u f f a l o ' s a c t i o n s which the poet imagines, the i n t e r a c t i o n between s t a t i c "bamboo", "rock", and dynamic " b u f f a l o " i s 32 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 9 , p. 174. c r e a t e d . In doing so, the poet presents h i s c h e r i s h e d rock and bamboo, and h i s humour which was i n s p i r e d by t r i f l e s . Chen Bogu a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the poet shows "the r e l a t i o n between s t a t i c and dynamic o b j e c t s , between which t h e r e i s no 33 r e l a t i o n , so t h a t the poem becomes v i v i d . " As f o r t h i s poem which d i s p l a y s the poet t r e a s u r i n g beauty i n a humorous mood, Chen Yongzheng f$JJtj£ » a modern s c h o l a r i n China, d i s c o v e r s more s e r i o u s and s i g n i f i c a n t meaning. He t h i n k s t h a t the poem " c i r c u i t o u s l y expresses the poet's 34 c o n t r a d i c t o r y f e e l i n g s about p o l i t i c s . " Yet, I t h i n k t h a t Chen reads h i s preconception i n t o t h i s poem. I t seems t h a t Wang Ruoxu's comment on t h i s poem i s more f i t t i n g : " I t i s a good poem, 35 but what k i n d of i m p l i e d s i g n i f i c a n c e does i t have?" The examples above re p r e s e n t the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Huang's poetry on d a i l y l i f e , which n e i t h e r r e f l e c t nor c r i t i c i z e p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s or r e a l i t y . G e n e r a l l y speaking, t h e " s u b j e c t s employed i n these poems are the t r i v i a l i t i e s o f d a i l y l i f e . The themes of these poems are of o r d i n a r y human f e e l i n g s or thoughts t h a t have no s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i e t y , and the moods of the poems show both "groaning and laughing". 33 Chen Bogu |Hfti-§ » Song S h i Xuan J i a n g JffTtjj-tff; , ( S e l e c t e d Reading i n Song Poet r y ) , Hong Kong: The Shanghai Book Co., p.58. 34 Chen Yongzheng, Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Xuan tfK§Hf.J2 i <A C o l l e c t i o n of Huang's Po e t r y ) , Hong Kong: J o i n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980, p.170. 35 Wang Ruoxu, o p . c i t . , p.258. 67 IV. P h i l o s o p h y i n Huang's Poetry S i n c e Zhou Dunyi, the Cheng b r o t h e r s |§tk)r.5| (Cheng Hao f|ff 1032-1085, Cheng Y i HH 1033-1107), and Zhu X i made great e f f o r t s t o develop Chinese philosophy, l i xue ( $§!S Neo-Conf ucianism) became p r e v a l e n t i n the Song Dynasty. Thus, few Song poets d i d not w r i t e s o - c a l l e d shuo l i s h i |^+3jj| , (poems t a l k i n g of 36 l i ) . Furthermore, Huang was very i n t e r e s t e d i n Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism, so that i t should not s u r p r i s e us t h a t he wrote many poems d i s c u s s i n g h i s philosophy. Let us take a look at h i s " Y i Xuan Shi' S l l t i H 37 as an example. T h i s poem i s c o n s i d e r e d by Mo L i f e n g t o be "put together with the terminology 38 of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism without much value." Poems on Y i Xuan Iron and rock are not moved by the waves. The s p i r i t of pine and bamboo can be r e a l i z e d i n the c o l d season. Pondering t h i s mortal world, I r e t u r n t o observe my i n n e r mind. 36 Here l i , mainly r e f e r s t o those p r i n c i p l e s o f Neo-Conf ucianism, i n c l u d i n g d o c t r i n e s of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. 37 " Y i " ||,means "maintenance of h e a l t h " and "Xuan" means "veranda". Huang quotes the six-word e x p l a n a t i o n of " Y i " from the Y i J i n q (The Book of Changes), e.g. to observe Cthe] maintenance from Cthe] demand [ f o r ] a p p e t i t e s [and] food. He f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t t o "observe [the] maintenance" means to observe what i s maintained; and t h a t "from [the] demand [ f o r ] a p p e t i t e s [and] food" means to observe how one maintains h i m s e l f . 38 Mo L i f e n g , o p . c i t . , p. 28. 68 To know contentment i s the m i r a c l e t u r t l e , A l l - a c c e p t a n c e i s a gourmet's luck [maintenance]. T h i n k i n g a l l kinds of t h i n g s with an empty heart. Hot and c o l d come from the f o u r seasons. No form i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l s p i r i t . Which i s where s i x r o o t s come from. I f you can know o r i g i n a l nature, Buddha w i l l look d i f f e r e n t . The most shamed i s one with many d e s i r e s , The most happy i s one with no demands. One i n h i s whole l i f e should study hard. Days pass f a s t l i k e moving water. The key i s to take a c t i o n without hurry. Food should not be d e l i c i o u s . Fishermen are destroyed by f i s h i n g , Gentlemen are destroyed by a p p e t i t e s . Muddy J i n g R i v e r does not p o l l u t e c l e a r Wei R i v e r , P l a n t i n g peach cannot harvest plum [food]. C u l t i v a t e the heart and d i s c a r d the dust. Then b r i g h t n e s s w i l l be born i n the heart. As Mo p o i n t s out, the s i x stanzas indeed i n c l u d e many r e l i g i o u s terms. Also, i t i s not r e a l l y v a l u a b l e i f we judge the poem only by a r t i s t i c standards. As a poem " t a l k i n g about l i . " , Huang wrote i t t o d i s c u s s i d e a s taken from r e l i g i o u s c l a s s i c a l works. For example, the i d e a of "To know contentment" .in the second s t a n z a i s taken from the T a o i s t Dao De J i n g jgift^ |? 4° the i d e a of 4- as I "the o r i g i n a l nature i n the t h i r d stanza i s from the Buddhist Dao Yuan's J§J|j<ll A. D. ) J i n g De Zhuan Deng Lu &ltff tlJK ; 4 1 and the i d e a of "study hard" !in the f o u r t h stanza i s from the 39 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.11, p.191. 40 WYWK, L a o z i , L a o z i Ben Y i .jt-f#lff ' . vol.36, p. 53. 41 SBCK, Dao Yuan, J i n g De Zhuan Deng Lu, vol.30, p.10. 69 C o n f u c i a n L i J i filr*, • ~ In d i s c u s s i n g philosophy i n poetry, i t i s indeed easy to be " i n danger of d e s t r o y i n g the p o e t i c harmony of the work. " 4 ^ Yet, poems l i k e t h i s one are- very v a l u a b l e to e x p l o r e Huang's thoughts. Those s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s , no matter whether they favour or are a g a i n s t Huang, o f t e n n e g l e c t or even condemn t h i s important poem. In f a c t , the poem c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s Huang's view of the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry. In the foreword to the poem, Huang i n d i c a t e d h i s purpose: "I w r i t e t h i s poem by using s i x words--observe, maintenance, from, demand, a p p e t i t e s , and food--to encourage and advise 44 r e a d e r s . " Even though Huang p l a y s with these s i x words by i n s e r t i n g one of them i n t o each of the s i x stanzas, Huang's p o e t i c i n t e n t i s t o teach people how to behave. Here, l e t us d i s c u s s the f o u r t h stanza i n d e t a i l t o see how Huang i n s t r u c t s h i s readers. In the f i r s t c o u p l e t of t h i s stanza, the poet s t a t e s the importance of the i d e a of non-craving from both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e aspects. T h i s idea, or the theme of the poem, a c t u a l l y o r i g i n a t e s i n Taoism, and dominates a l l s i x stanzas. The second c o u p l e t simply repeats the t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a t h a t appears i n the Book of R i t e s ( L i J i ) , which says t h a t "A gentleman must 42 Wang Fuzhi, o p . c i t . , vol.41, p . l b . 43 K o j i r o Yoshikawa, o p , c i t . , p. 21. 44 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.11, p. 191. 7 0 study hard day and n i g h t to prepare to be questioned." Huang expresses h i s ideas d i r e c t l y and f r a n k l y i n almost normal sentences. C o n s i d e r i n g our pr e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of Huang's s e l f e x p r e s s i o n , the idea of non-craving i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the o f t e n used theme of s e c l u s i o n . Also, the i d e a of hard study i s p e r s i s t e n t view of Huang's which we d i s c u s s e d i n the sources of h i s method and p o e t i c content. These are j u s t the i d e a s t h a t Huang used t o encourage and advise h i s readers i n h i s shuo l i  s h i . Huang's shuo l i s h i may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as expounding Buddhist, T a o i s t , and Confucian ideas. I t i s obvious t h a t these poems are not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o h i s idea s of poetry being an e x p r e s s i o n of human emotion and nature. Yet, we should r e c o g n i z e t h a t h i s c r e a t i o n of a great number of t h i s k i n d of poems c h i e f l y r e s u l t s from the st r o n g i n f l u e n c e of the p o e t i c f a s h i o n at t h a t time, which few poets avoided. Furthermore, i n these poems he d i s c u s s e d what he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , and hopes t h a t what he b e l i e v e s i n w i l l b e n e f i t other people. Thus, h i s shuo l i s h i seems to be the group of h i s poems which most shows the p o l i t i c a l f u n c t i o n of poetry. Yet, what he mainly wants to persuade people to b e l i e v e i n i s Buddhist and T a o i s t non-craving and C o n f u c i a n d i l i g e n t study, i n s t e a d of r e f l e c t i n g people's s u f f e r i n g s and c r i t i c i z i n g p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . 45 Wang Fuzhi , op. c i t . , v o l . 41, p. l b . We have obtained an overview o f t h e content o f Huang's po e t r y from t h e d i s c u s s i o n of h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e poems above. We can see t h a t the major themes of Huang's poetry on s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g i n d i f f e r e n c e to worldly a f f a i r s , s e c l u s i o n , and the s i n c e r e f e e l i n g s he has f o r h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s are c l o s e l y c o n s i s t e n t with h i s view that "Poetry i s . an e x p r e s s i o n of human nature and emotion". His poetry on nature exposes h i s f e e l i n g s i n a more i n d i r e c t way. Even though h i s po e t r y on d a i l y l i f e mainly expresses i n s i g n i f i c a n t f e e l i n g s through the d e s c r i p t i o n of d a i l y t r i v i a l i t i e s , these themes do not c o n f l i c t with h i s p o e t i c views. As an important p a r t of h i s poetry, Huang's shuo l i s h i seems not to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o h i s E x p r e s s i o n i s t views. Yet, h i s c r e a t i o n o f shuo l i s h i i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e v a l e n t p o e t i c s t y l e of h i s time, and i n s p i r e d by h i s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s i n philosophy and m o r a l i t y . Su S h i , who has deep i n s i g h t i n t o Huang's poetry, p o i n t s out, "To read L u z h i ' s poetry i s to meet Lu Zhonglian ^f^^| < %i!t\ * Although Huang's poetry seems not t o apply t o the world, t h a t understanding of Su S h i ' s "not to apply t o the world" i s t h a t Huang does not d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t and c r i t i c i z e p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and we dare not t a l k about v u l g a r i t i e s . does not mean i t does not help the world at a l l . „46 My 46 BBCS, Su Shi, Donqpo T i Ba $; : , vol.2, p. 36. 72 i n h i s poetry, so that h i s poetry does not f u n c t i o n i n the world i n one sense; Su's "does not mean they do not help the world at a l l " means th a t the moral sense d i s c u s s e d i n Huang's shuo l i s h i , l i k e non-craving and hard study, and human emotions and nature expressed i n Huang's poetry, l i k e s e c l u s i o n , f a i t h , p i e t y , i n d u s t r y , and so on, s t i l l b e n e f i t h i s readers. The reason why "we dare not t a l k about v u l g a r i t i e s " a f t e r r e a d i n g h i s poetry i s t h a t Huang impresses us as one who has normal human emotions and who pursues the p e r f e c t i o n of h i s own moral q u a l i t i e s . 73 Chapter Three P o e t i c Theory and P r a c t i c e : P o e t i c Technique In t h i s chapter, we w i l l continue our comparison of Huang's theory and p r a c t i c e by l o o k i n g at h i s p o e t i c technique, i n order to f u r t h e r understand the r e l a t i o n between h i s theory and p r a c t i c e , and we w i l l a l s o examine h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of p o e t i c technique. In the a n a l y s i s of h i s theory of p o e t i c technique i n Chapter One, we concluded t h a t o r i g i n a l i t y i s the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of h i s method. Yet, most Chinese c r i t i c s have r e g u l a r l y I i d e n t i f i e d him with the phrase "strange Huang" ^f^fj (and o f t e n j 1 p a i r e d i t with " u n r e s t r a i n e d Su" ) ever s i n c e t h i s phrase was Huang's strangeness i s b a s i c a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of h i s method i n h i s p o e t i c c r e a t i o n . In other words, i n order t o be o r i g i n a l , Huang does h i s utmost to i n d i v i d u a l i z e h i s p o e t i c technique i n every p o s s i b l e way. As Lu Zhenghui j ~ [ j E l | w r i t e s , "The p o i n t which Huang T i n g j i a n focuses on i s how to make h i s p o e t r y unusual." The p a r t i c u l a r and i n t e n t i o n a l p u r s u i t of making h i m s e l f d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from other poets r e s u l t s i n f i r s t used by Wu the Sung dynasty. 1 In my o p i n i o n . 1 BBCSJC, Wu Ke, Canq Hal S h i Hua fjlfffiffi , p. 14, p. 80. S c h o o l ) , a paper presented i n the f i r s t p anel of "Chinese L i t e r a r y C r i t i c s " , 1976, p. 5. 74 h i s poetry being marked by t r a c e s of strangeness. T h i s i s true, even though he a l s o wrote poems i m i t a t i n g other poets, and/or based on c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c r u l e s . Huang's strangeness has most a p t l y been p o i n t e d out by Fang Dongshu }^J^ j$ (1772-1851), who wrote, "Fuweng [Huang] c o n s i d e r s s u r p r i s e and o r i g i n a l i t y as marks of h i s strange s t y l e . H is c r e a t i v e i n t e n t i o n i s f a r from others i n meaning, s t y l e , realm [ j j ^ - ^ l 3, sentences, words, a l l u s i o n s and sounds . . . 1 , 3 In what f o l l o w s , we w i l l take h i s strangeness as a . f o c a l p o i n t from which we w i l l examine how i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s method and i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f other p o e t i c techniques. I. Strangeness i n P o e t i c S t r u c t u r e As we know, the arrangement of p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i n the c r e a t i o n o f Chinese r e g u l a t e d verse normally f o l l o w s the f o u r -p a r t s t r u c t u r e (see p. 12). Yet, a poet's c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y can be l i m i t e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , and he might f e e l unable t o g i v e f u l l p l a y t o h i s t a l e n t . Since Huang i s the poet who i n t e n t i o n a l l y pursues strangeness i n p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , he n a t u r a l l y does not conform t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . Here, l e t look at an example of Huang's c r e a t i o n of unusual p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e : On Curving Bamboo Painted by Huang B i n l a o 3 Fang Dongshu, Zhao Wei Zhan Yan 1^ ,^11 d '• , ed. , Guo Shaoyu, B e i j i n g : Ren Min Wen Xue Chu Ban She, 1961, vol.10, p.225. 75 Pouring wine i n t o your heart cannot drown your emotions, You spat out dark green, a n c i e n t bamboo, that i s l o f t y even i n the winter. 4 L i k e a s l e e p i n g dragon, thunder cannot awaken i t , You and bamboo both f o r g e t about your b o d i l y forms. The image of the b r i g h t window has f a l l e n i n t o the ink i n the hollow of your inkstone. The r a b b i t - h a i r brush, white as f r o s t , s w e l l s f u l l with j u s t one s l i g h t drop of the p i n e - t a r ink. The bamboo has been t w i s t e d around three rocks i n the middle of the p a i n t i n g . For the p a i n t e r f e a r s the bamboo might f l y o f f ^ when completely p a i n t e d . 7 T h i s i s a poem d e s c r i b i n g Huang B i n l a o ' s p a i n t i n g of bamboo. I n t e n t i o n a l l y d e v i a t i n g from the t o p i c announced i n the t i t l e , Huang begins by d e s c r i b i n g the p a i n t e r ' s mood while p a i n t i n g the bamboo. The adoption of the verbs "pour" and "spat" d e p i c t s the p a i n t e r ' s inflamed emotions i n a l i v e l y , i n t e n s e way. In the 4 Huang o f t e n compares bamboo to dragons i n h i s poems, such as i n h i s "Cong B i n l a o Qi Ku Sun" j ^ ^ ^ l f (Begging B i t t e r Bamboo Shoots from B i n l a o ) , and "He Shihou Z a i Zhu" jf{Jjlf Jffjftff (Reply to Shihow's P l a n t i n g Bamboo). The use of comparison a l l u d e s to F e i Changfang's s t o r y . See BBCSJC, Ge Hong | | | | j , Shen  Xian Zhuan jjjtjjjjj^ , v o l . 9 , p. 4. 5 "Wang x i n g " \ ( t o f o r g e t about someone's b o d i l y form), which o r i g i n a t e s from Zhuangzi, r e f e r s to someone who c o n c e n t r a t e s on something so i n t e n s i v e l y that he f o r g e t s e v e r y t h i n g , even h i s b o d i l y e x i s t e n c e . See Burton Watson, The Complete Works of Chuang Tsu, New York and London: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968, p.317. 6 The l a s t sentence a l l u d e s t o Zhang Sengyou's $\jfj|| s t o r y , which says t h a t Zhang p a i n t s a dragon without eyes because the dragon w i l l f l y as soon as i t s eyes are painted. The a l l u s i o n i s o f t e n used to d e s c r i b e how good a p a i n t e r ' s s k i l l i s . _^  See BBCSJC, Zhang Yanyuan » L i Dai Ming Hua J i Djff$jBjJj|. » v o l . 7, p. 6b. ml^L. 7 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.12, pp 228-229. 76 second c o u p l e t , t h e poet s h i f t s t o r e v e a l the s p i r i t u a l s t a t e o f bo t h p a i n t e r and p e r s o n i f i e d bamboo, a s s e r t i n g t h a t n e i t h e r c o n s i d e r t h e i r b o d i l y forms s i g n i f i c a n t any l o n g e r . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e o r g a n i c u n i t y of the a r t i s t i c e f f e c t o f t h e p a i n t i n g and t h e p a i n t e r ' s i d e a i s b u i l t . U n e x p e c t e d l y , i n t h e t h i r d c o u p l e t the poet imagines t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s i n which t h e p a i n t e r composed t h e c u r v i n g bamboo, and t h e t o o l s he used. F i n a l l y , i n t h e l a s t c o u p l e t , Huang d e s c r i b e s t h e c u r v i n g bamboo e x p l i c i t l y . By b o r r o w i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e a l l u s i o n ( i . e . , t he bamboo when c o m p l e t e l y drawn w i l be so p e r f e c t i t might come t o l i f e ) , t h e poet t e l l s us how m a r v e l l o u s t h e p a i n t i n g i s . Now l e t us examine t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s poem. Huang c l e v e r l y a d o p t s a m u l t i - a n g l e d approach t o b u i l d i t s s t r u c t u r e . F i r s t . , he i n d i r e c t l y d e s c r i b e s the p a i n t i n g from the a n g l e o f t h p a i n t e r ' s mood w h i l e p a i n t i n g . Then, c u r v i n g bamboo i s compared w i t h t h e p a i n t e r ' s mood from t h e a n g l e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a i n t e r and t h e bamboo. T h i r d l y , t h e poet s h i f t s t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s i n which t h e p a i n t e r c r e a t e s . F i n a l l y , he comes back t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e a p p r e c i a t o r o f a r t , s e a t e d d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e p a i n t i n g . The use o f t h i s m u l t i - a n g l e d approach i n such a s h o r t p o e t i c form l e a v e s many t r a n s i t i o n a l gaps between t h e a n g l e s . As Fang Dongshu p o i n t s out, " I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t a s h o r t p i e c e o f w r i t i n g have many l e v e l s . A few s e n t e n c e s s h o u l d a f f e c t us as much as a l o n g 77 paragraph, and the gap between these sentences should be as d i s t a n t as ten-thousand l i . Most of Shangu's [short poetry] Q bears t h i s t r a i t . " I t i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p i r i t of the p e r s o n i f i e d c u r v i n g bamboo that provides the main c l u e to the i n t e r n a l coherence t h a t b r i d g e s a l l of these gaps. Thus, we do not f e e l t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of the poem i s too loose. The use of the m u l t i - a n g l e d approach not only e n r i c h e s the meaning of t h i s s h o r t poem, (Fang p o i n t s out), but a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y serves t o b r i n g i n t o focus Huang's d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p i r i t o f the c u r v i n g bamboo. The p a i n t e r ' s f e r v o u r , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a i n t e r and p a i t i n g , and the c r e a t i v e s u r r o u n d i n g s of the p a i n t e r t h a t are hidden with i n , or happen o u t s i d e of, the p a i n t i n g are not i n c l u d e d i n the p a i n t i n g . Yet, these elements are con t a i n e d i n the poem through the m u l t i - a n g l e d approach. Therefore, Huang takes f u l l advantage of the a r t of p o e t i c language to i n c l u d e j u s t what the a r t of p a i n t i n g does not express. In short, we can see th a t t h i s poem d i f f e r s from the poems commonly i n s c r i b e d on p a i n t i n g s , which are l i m i t e d by the su b j e c t - - m a t t e r o f the p a i n t i n g s themselves. Huang not only escapes from the normal content of such poems, but a l s o l e a v e s behind the f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e such poems u s u a l l y f o l l o w . Furthermore, he c r e a t e s h i s own s t r u c t u r e , one that a p t l y r e v e a l s 8 Fan Dongshu, o p . c i t . , vol.11, p. 239. 78 h i s o r i g i n a l content. In our a n a l y s i s of Huang's p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i n Chapter One, we i n d i c a t e d h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r "convoluted e x p r e s s i o n of meaning". T h i s can a l s o be considered as an approach through which Huang c r e a t e s o r i g i n a l i t y i n h i s p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s . The p o i n t might be i l l u s t r a t e d most a p t l y by h i s poem to Su Shi, "Shuangjing Cha Song Ziz h a n " j^ H^ H^ H : Upon Sending a G i f t of Shuangjing Tea to Zizhan The wind and sun of the mortal world do not reach t h i s p l a c e , Jade H a l l i n Heaven, f o r e s t e d with s t a c k s of r a r e books. I can v i s u a l i z e the former Hermit of East Slope. Wielding h i s w r i t i n g brush, pouring f o r t h hundreds of bushels of b r i g h t p e a r l - l i k e words. In my home town o f Jiangnan, we p i c k the f e r t i l e c l ouds of t e a leaves, Which are ground as f i n e as powdered snow, and f a l l t h i c k l y from under our grindstones. S t i r r i n g up w i t h i n you your dream of Huangzhou. Of p i l o t i n g , alone, a s k i f f towards Wu Lake 9. A f t e r a b r i e f r e a d i n g of t h i s poem, i t almost seems as i f i t i s p i e c e d together with i r r e l e v a n t fragments. A f t e r the s u b j e c t announced by the t i t l e (sending tea to Su S h i ) , the s u b j e c t of opening c o u p l e t appears suddenly to be a c e l e s t i a l academy. 9 Wu Lake JIU a l l u d e s to the s t o r y of Fan L i who r e t i r e d t o the s e c l u s i o n of Wu Lake a f t e r h e l p i n g King Yue conquer the s t a t e of Wu. T h e r e a f t e r , Wu Lake became a symbol of r e t i r e m e n t from the world. 1 See CSJC, Guo Yu J | j | § ; , T a i p e i : Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1937, vol.21, p. 239. 10 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 6 , p. 99. 79 Without the knowledge t h a t the Imperial Academy i s a c t u a l l y a f a n c i f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of where Su Shi i s working, the reader has no i d e a what the poet i s going t o say next. In the second c o u p l e t , the poet a b r u p t l y s h i f t s to r e c a l l Su S h i w r i t i n g p o e t r y i n Huangzhou. He a l s o g e n t l y reminds Su S h i th a t f o r m e r l y when he was an o f f i c i a l i n e x i l e he took the e p i t h e t " j u s h i " Jjj^-^ (The Hermit). I t i s not u n t i l the t h i r d c o u p l e t t h a t the announced t o p i c i s touched upon with "We p i c k the f e r t i l e c l o u d s , " which r e f e r s t o h a r v e s t i n g tea. In the f o u r t h c o u p l e t , the "convoluted" path of the poem takes an abrupt t u r n t o a dream of Su S h i ' s d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n g i n Huangchou t h a t expresses Huang's purpose i n sending t e a to Su S h i . Our s u r f a c e r e a d i n g has i l l u s t r a t e d how sinuous the s t r u c t u r e of the poem appears at f i r s t s i g h t . The reader i s not on l y l e d t o d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , but i s a l s o taken t o d i f f e r e n t times. The l o c a t i o n s change from "Jade H a l l " i n heaven t o "Huangzhou" t o "Jiangnan" t o "Wu Lake". The poet l e a d s us through the present, past, present, and f u t u r e . An o r d e r l y journey through space and time i s not found i n t h i s poem. Furthermore, the t r a n s i t i o n s between l o c a t i o n s appear t o be q u i t e sudden and l a c k c l e a r b r i d g e s from one to another. Let us take a c l o s e r look at the poem to see how c a r e f u l l y the poet b u i l d s up the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . In the f i r s t c o u plet, the realm of non-mortals, or the Immortals, i s evoked. In f a c t , t h i s image c o n t r a s t s an e r e m i t i c 80 e x i s t e n c e with Su S h i ' s r e t u r n to s o c i e t y where he accepted an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s p o s i t i o n was higher than the one he p r e v i o u s l y had when he was f o r c e d out of o f f i c e . In the second c o u p l e t , the poet i m p l i c i t l y teases Su Shi, who had s t y l e d h i m s e l f as "The Hermit" of Huangzhou. Therefore, what on the s u r f a c e appear to be unconnected l o c a t i o n s , are a c t u a l l y connected i f we possess knowledge of Su Shi's c a r e e r . Also, i t seems a q u e s t i o n i s i m p l i e d here: "Would you want to be the hermit who l i v e s i n e r e m i t i c e x i s t e n c e with a high o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n ? " In the t h i r d c o uplet, the poet d i r e c t s us to h i s home town of Jiangnan. T h i s i s t h e m a t i c a l l y i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o the p r e v i o u s images which are designed to remind Su S h i to r e t i r e , from s o c i e t y , yet the i n t e n t i s to encourage Su S h i to long f o r h i s home town i n Sichuan. The metaphor of "the f e r t i l e c l o u d s " r e v e r t s back to the p r e v i o u s images of Immortals i n heaven and of Su S h i i n h i s cloud-shrouded mountain. In the l a s t c o u p l e t Su S h i ' s dream of f i n d i n g refuge from s o c i e t y i n nature by " p i l o t i n g a s k i f f a l one" (which i s a code f o r s e c l u s i o n i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ) , sums up the theme we have uncovered. The poet i s encouraging Su S h i to keep to h i s former i n t e n t i o n t o become a hermit, and not f o r g e t h i s e x i l e i n Huangzhou. Thus, i t can be seen t h a t the whole poem i s s u b t l y arranged i n s t r u c t u r e to e l u c i d a t e the theme, which i n t u r n binds t o g e t h e r the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . Even though the l i n k s between l i n e s and 81 c o u p l e t s are i m p l i c i t , and the t r a n s i t i o n s abrupt, there i s a r i c h s u b s t r u c t u r e of meaning i n key words, images, and the use of a l l u s i o n . A l l of these provide the reader with hidden c l u e s to the poet's meaning. From our a n a l y s i s of the two poems above we may then c h a r a c t e r i z e Huang's p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e as possessing an o r i g i n a l u n i t y and coherence with seemingly abrupt and convoluted t r a n s i t i o n s , t h a t are s u b t l y l i n k e d . We have seen how f r e q u e n t l Huang does not s t i c k to the c o n v e n t i o n a l f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e , bu has m o d i f i e d i t c o n s i d e r a b l y . Huang has o b v i o u s l y mastered t h i s f o u r - p a r t s t r u c t u r e , yet s k i l f u l l y a l t e r s i t i n order to achieve h i s s t a t e d g o a l of c o o r d i n a t i n g "the c o r r e c t form and the change form."(see p.40) Fang Dongshu's comments on Huang's strange p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i s most a p t : ^ The s u b t l e t y of Huang's poetry i s due to the way h i s poems begin without an obvious pretext, and how the l i n e s and c o u p l e t s are l i n k e d i n unexpected ways. With a pen as s t r o n g as a crossbeam, h i s p o e t i c t r a n s i t i o n s occur with the s w i f t a g i l i t y of t i g e r s and leopards. Tedious words are completely d i s c a r d e d and only p r e c i s e , key words are used. I t can appear t h a t the d i s t a n c e between each l i n e i s a thousand l i and i r r e l e v a n t . His w r i t i n g cannot be apprehended through o r d i n a r y understanding. I I . The Strangeness o f P o e t i c Sentences We have seen how deeply Huang i s concerned with p o e t i c sentences i n our d i s c u s s i o n of h i s p o e t i c theory. H i s concern i 11 Fang Dongshu, o p . c i t . , vol.12, p. 314. mainly how to make h i s ' s e n t e n c e s "unique" and "new". In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , we w i l l explore h i s concern with t h r e e major a s p e c t s : a) unusual l i n e s t r u c t u r e ; b) the strange use of key words; c) the strange use of a n t i t h e s i s . a. Unusual Line Structure Huang was o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d by Du Fu i n the area o f l i n e s t r u c t u r e , although Huang i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n unusual s t r u c t u r e s than Du. The i n f l u e n c e can be seen by comparing two of Du Fu's well-known l i n e s ( l i t . ) : F r a g r a n t r i c e F i r m i a n a t r e e with Huang's F l y i n g snowflakes p i l e on a p l a t e of chopped f i s h maw, B r i g h t p e a r l s measure bushel b o i l e d p r i c k l y w a t e r - l i l y s e e d s . 1 3 These l i n e s are almost completely incomprehensible when t r a n s l a t e d l i t e r a l l y . A c t u a l l y , i n Chinese, they are not e a s i l y understood e i t h e r , and t h i s i s due to t h e i r unusual l i n e s t r u c t u r e s . In both Du and Huang's sentences, the normal order between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i s i n v e r t e d . Furthermore, i n Huang's l i n e , the s u b j e c t m o d i f i e r s , " F l y i n g snowflakes" and " B r i g h t p i c k s my p a r r o t g r a i n s , perches on phoenix o l d branch. 12 12 13 Qiu Zhaoao, op. c i t . , v o l . 4, p. 1497. SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 7 , p. 135. 83 p e a r l s , " are separated from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b j e c t s , "chopped f i s h maw" and " b o i l e d p r i c k l y w a t e r - l i l y seeds". When the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n above i s rearranged i n t o a more coherent s t r u c t u r e , the l i n e s read: P a r r o t p i c k s my f r a g r a n t g r a i n s of r i c e , Phoenix perches on o l d branch of f i r m i a n a t r e e . and, Chopped f i s h maw l i k e f l y i n g snowflakes are p i l e d on a p l a t e , B o i l e d seeds o f w a t e r - l i l y l i k e b r i g h t p e a r l s can be measured by the bushel. From these, we see Du's i n f l u e n c e on Huang. Yet, each poet has h i s own purpose i n c r e a t i n g unusual sentences. Du, who wants t o express h i s l o n g i n g f o r the capital--Changan, by r e m i n i s c i n g about " f r a g r a n t r i c e " and "green p a r a s o l " , breaks the normal grammar by p u t t i n g two o b j e c t s i n the beginning of the l i n e s . Huang, l i k e Du, a l s o s t r i v e s to h i g h l i g h t h i s s u b j e c t s through p u t t i n g h i s s u b j e c t m o d i f i e r s i n the beginning of the l i n e s . By doing so, he emphasizes that " f i s h maw" i s l i k e "snowflakes" and " p r i c k l y w a t e r - l i l y seeds" are l i k e " p e a r l s " . Both s i m i l e s r e p r e s e n t a h e d o n i s t i c joy i n o r d i n a r y food. T h i s s e t s the tone f o r h i s next l i n e , "To indu l g e i n pl e a s u r e one's whole l i f e i s not t h a t bad." Here i s another example of Huang's wonderful p o e t i c l i n e s t h a t are o f t e n a l l u d e d t o by c r i t i c s ( l i t . ): 8 4 Peach plum s p r i n g wind a cup of wine. R i v e r la k e evening r a i n ten years of l a n t e r n . -At f i r s t s i g h t , we e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e how strange the l i n e s t r u c t u r e i s . Each of the two l i n e s c o n s i s t s of noun phrases without verbs. Upon read i n g such sentences, normal techniques of comprehension do not work due to a l a c k of p a r t s of speech i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n most sentences, i . e . , subject, p r e d i c a t e , and o b j e c t . Of course, Huang i s not the i n v e n t o r of t h i s strange l i n e s t r u c t u r e . Wen T i n g j u n (812-870) i s acknowledged as the f i r s t one who s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e d t h i s l i n e s t r u c t u r e i n h i s l i n e s : "Cock's crow thatched i n n moon,/People t r a c e wooden b r i d g e f r o s t . " ^ A f t e r Wen many poets i m i t a t e d h i s l i n e s t r u c t u r e , but few were s u c c e s s f u l . For example, Ouyang Xiu jy[{tq||j p r a c t i c a l l y i m i t a t e s Wen's l i n e s i n the poem,* G "Guo Zhang Z h i Mi Xiao Gui Zhuang" (Passing by S e c r e t a r y Zhang Z h i ' s V i l l a g e ) : " B i r d s s i n g plum inn r a i n , / Willow c o l o u r w i l d b r i d g e s p r i n g . " However, Huang i s a b s o l u t e l y not j u s t an i m i t a t o r of Wen. ! As Huang's contemporary Zhang L e i (1054-1114) poi n t e d out. 14 SGSZ, N a i j i , vol.2, p. 26. 15 Wen Tingjun, "Shang Shan Cao Xing" $fli}^ MT| » Wen F e i g i n q S h i  J i J i a n Zhu §^§§if ' e d * Z e n a Y i ®tj> ' Shanghai: Shanghai Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1980, p.'155. * f f i ; 16 See WYWK, Ouyang Xiu, Ouyang Yonq Shu J i KJ^Jt-Kjl' ' v o 1 , S ' p. 56. 85 1 1 t h i s c o u p l e t i s " r e a l l y unique." Yet, we might say that the words Huang uses here are q u i t e common, i f not hackneyed, i n poetry. I f t h i s i s so, what makes these l i n e s unique? I t i s the employment of commonly-used words i n a unique s t r u c t u r e t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s Huang's o r i g i n a l i t y . The l i n e s work as sentences g r a m m a t i c a l l y because the words are so commonly used that t h e r e i s a subtext of meaning and connectedness i n the mind of the reader upon s e e i n g these words, and t h i s holds the sentence t o g e t h e r . By matching commonly-used words with a strange and unique l i n e s t r u c t u r e , he f u l f i l s the requirement t h a t poetry be r e f i n e d and p i t h y . Furthermore, an a t t i t u d e , or mood, i s c r e a t e d i n the r e a d e r s mind by the use of these common phrases: i n the f i r s t l i n e d e l i g h t i s evoked by the phrases "tao l i " t peach (j i . I and plum], "chun feng" j [ s p r i n g wind], and " y i b e i j i u " — ' H ^ j [a cup of wine]; while i n the second l i n e an o p p o s i t e mood of sadness i s cre a t e d , by the use of the words " j i a n g hu" tT3§ I C r l v e r and l a k e ] , "ye yu" Mfg [evening r a i n ] , and " s h i nian deng" -j^ijlj^T! Cten years under a l a n t e r n ] . By condensing'the happiness and sadness of human l i f e i n t o these two l i n e s , Huang s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t s the two extremes of human experience. He a l s o l e t s us know t h a t he i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t there i s more sadness i n l i f e than happiness by u s i n g " y i " ~' {(one cup of wine) i n c o n t r a s t t o " s h i " -t |(ten years under the l a n t e r n ) . 17 Wang Zhifang, o p . c i t . , SSHJY, vol.1, p. 64. 86 B y comparing Huang's use of strange l i n e s t r u c t u r e with Wen's, and l o o k i n g at a bad i m i t a t o r of Wen, we can see how 1 A b r i l l i a n t Huang was. Through the d i s c u s s i o n above, we can see that Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y i m i t a t e s predecessors l i k e Du and Wen to achieve strangeness. Yet, though he i m i t a t e s Du and Wen i n the examples above, the f o l l o w i n g poem shows how Huang c r e a t e s h i s own s t r a n g e l i n e s t r u c t u r e , ( i n l i t e r a l A: and l i t e r a r y B: t r a n s l a t i o n ) : Rhyming with Uncle Gong Ze A: Past dream, golden m i l l e t h a l f cooked, Short t a l k white jade one p a i r . S t a r t l e d fawn d e s p e r a t e l y needs w i l d grass, C a l l i n g g u l l n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e s autumn r i v e r . B: A f t e r awaking from a dream, the golden m i l l e t i s o n l y , half-cooked, A f t e r a s h o r t t a l k [with the King] he was given a matched s e t of white jade. The s t a r t l e d fawn d e s p e r a t e l y needs w i l d grass, The c a l l i n g g u l l n a t u r a l l y longs to r e t u r n to the autumn r i v e r . ^ The poem i s w r i t t e n i n a r a r e l y - u s e d p o e t i c form, l i u yan jue ju A H D ^ ^ i ( h e x a s y l l a b l i c v e r s e ) . H e x a s y l l a b l i c verse i s c o n s i d e r e d 18 As f o r Wen's sentences, i t s t r a i t i s v i v i d l y t o p i c t u r e a q u i e t e a r l y morning through the eyes of a l o n e l y t r a v e l l e r . We might a l s o mention another good i m i t a t o r of Wen, Ma Zhiyuan 5f3J(jJt! (12 A. D. ). Ma wrote a xiao l i n g /jv^ ' by u s i n g the s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e , which i s "Withered r a t a n o l d t r e e evening crow, s m a l l b r i d g e moving water thatched cottage, a n c i e n t path west wind t h i n horse, the heartbroken one i s at the end of the world. " Guo L i Dai Wen Xue Zuo P i n Xuan Shanghai Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1982, v o l . 2," ~p\ yt>T norse, xne n e a r m r o K e n one i s a tyMfcXWM ' Shanghai: £ 19 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.1, p. 8. 87 to be a d i f f i c u l t p o e t i c form due to i t s unusual l i n e s t r u c t u r e . I t f o l l o w s a caesura p a t t e r n of s i x c h a r a c t e r s (or s y l l a b l e s ) i n t h r e e d i v i s i o n s of two words each (or a two-two-two pattern) per l i n e , i n s t e a d of the more popular caesura p a t t e r n s of f i v e or seven c h a r a c t e r s (or s y l l a b l e s ) d i v i d e d i n t o two-three or f o u r -t h r e e caesura p a t t e r n s per l i n e . In order to f i t the word p a t t e r n of two-two-two, a l l grammatical p a r t i c l e s , which u s u a l l y show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between words, phrases, and sentences are omitted. The poet can only use n o t i o n a l words, l e a v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between words i m p l i c i t or implied. Thus, the p o e t i c form o b v i o u s l y i n c r e a s e s the p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the l i n k s of p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . According to Hong Mai |( 1123-1202), onl y 38 h e x a s y l l a b l i c v e r s e s are found among about 10, 000 .jue ju poems from the Tang Dynasty. Compared with two of Huang's contemporaries, Wang Anshi only wrote f i v e and Su S h i only eleven, but Huang wrote 66 h e x a s y l l a b l i c .jue.ju out of 1,956 poems. 2 1 Let us review the content of the poem above before examining i t s l i n e s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t l i n e condenses a well-known I a l l u s i o n about a t r a v e l l e r named Lu Sheng , who while t a k i n g a nap at an inn had a dream he was a h i g h l y - p l a c e d , wealthy _____________ | 20 CSJC, Hong Mai, Ronq Zhai S h i Hua HiBf % , ed. , Wang Yunwu, Shanghai: Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, 1936, vol.4, p.61. 21 Mo L i f e n g , o p . c i t . , p.46. 88 o f f i c i a l . " Upon awakening, he found that not only was i t a dream, but i t was so b r i e f t h a t the m i l l e t , which the inn keeper was cooking f o r him was only h a l f done. The second l i n e c o n t a i n s another a l l u s i o n about Yu Qing jUjff , who was granted a s e t of white jade and a high o f f i c i a l t i t l e by a king i n a f o r e i g n l a n d 23 who was impressed by Yu's eloquent speech and t a l e n t . By these a l l u s i o n s Huang shows t h a t wealth and rank, l i k e the t r a n s i e n t dream i n l i n e one, can be obtained as Yu Qing got h i s wealth i n l i n e two and are not worth p u r s u i n g f o r one's whole l i f e . The meanings i n the two l i n e s a c t u a l l y agree that wealth and rank are merely w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s . In the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s , the poet s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t s "fawn" and " g u l l " , two f r e q u e n t l y used p o e t i c symbols of s e c l u s i o n , with h i s message i n the f i r s t two l i n e s . " D esperately" r and " n a t u r a l l y " are key words t h a t underscore the poet's s t r o n g commitment to s e c l u s i o n . As f o r the l i n e s t r u c t u r e i n the poem, i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t two sentences c o n s i s t of s i x n o t i o n a l words which are c a r e f u l l y chosen to summarize the content of each a l l u s i o n . When the meaning of each sentence i s understood, the two l i n e s are c o n t e x t u a l l y l i n k e d . Although the second couplet i s c o n s t r u c t e d of two normal, complete sentences, no f u n c t i o n a l word i s used. 22 BBCS, L i B i ' $ $ ; , Zhen Zhong J i 23 Sima Qian f j ^ f j i 1 ; , S h i J i , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju Chu Ban, 1972, vol.7 , p. 2370. 89 The l i n k s and t r a n s i t i o n s between a l l l i n e s are completed the r e a d e r ' s knowledge and imagination without the a i d of r e l a t i o n a l words. through b. The Strange Use o f Key Words The strange use of key words i n Huang's poetry might be i l l u s t r a t e d by h i s l i a n z i *^.^f (to r e f i n e words), an important technique i n c l a s s i c a l poetry. Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y employs r a r e and unusual words to the p o i n t that Zhang J i e c r i t i c i z e d him f o r 24 " c o n c e n t r a t i n g on e m b e l l i s h i n g h i s poems with unusual words." Yet, i n my o p i n i o n , the unusual use of these words o f t e n a c h i e v e s an e x c e l l e n t e f f e c t . Here, we w i l l examine Huang's l i a n z i from the f o l l o w i n g a n g l e s : 1) the s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of key words i n sentences; 2) the use of i r r e g u l a r exchanges of p a r t s of speech (the use of words f o r p a r t s of speech other than t h e i r normal use, e.g., a d j e c t i v e s f o r nouns, verbs f o r a d j e c t i v e s , e t c . ) ; 3) and the c o l l o c a t i o n of words. F i r s t , l e t us look at Huang's s e l e c t i o n of key words and t h e i r arrangement i n a c o u p l e t from " C i Yun Gao Zimian Shi Shou" (Ten Poems Rhyming with Those of Gao Zimian). 25 A r t e m i s i a p i e r c e s through snow and moves. Willow asks f o r the s p r i n g and f l o u r i s h e s . 24 CSJC, Zhang J i e , S u i Han Tang S h i Hua JtJf Jj$ i» e Yunwu, Shanghai: Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan, 1939, v o l . 1 , p.6. ed Wang 25 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 294. 90 We can immediately i d e n t i f y two unusual verbs, "chu'an" ~* ( p i e r c e s ) and "suo" (asks), which l i n k the s u b j e c t s "lou hao" jj£ ( a r t e m i s i a ) and "yang l i u " (willow) to the o b j e c t s " x u e " | (snow) and "chun" ^ ( s p r i n g ) . L i k e a p a i n t e r , Huang i n the f i r s t l i n e draws a v i v i d p i c t u r e : young a r t e m i s i a i s s t r u g g l i n g t o grow up out of snow c o v e r i n g the ground i n e a r l y s p r i n g . The use of " p i e r c e s " e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t s the abundant energy of young a r t e m i s i a . Furthermore, the use of "dong" ijjj (move) e n r i c h e s the meaning of " p i e r c e s " , and a l s o b r i n g s the i n v i s i b l e growing p r o c e s s of a r t e m i s i a b e f o r e the reader's eyes. Complementing the f i r s t l i n e , the second l i n e d e s c r i b e s the scene of e a r l y s p r i n g as i n the f i r s t l i n e , but takes a d i f f e r e n t approach. Huang uses "asks" and p e r s o n i f i e s the "willow" as one who pursues s p r i n g i n o r d e r to f l o u r i s h . Although the poet does not d i r e c t l y draw how the w i l l o w s f l o u r i s h , s p r o u t i n g willow branches are evoked. Thus, the poet's joy i n the coming s p r i n g i s conveyed mainly by a s u b t l e use of verbs. The two verbs are i n the s o - c a l l e d " s e n t e n t i a l eye" (see p. 32) of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i n e s , which i n Chinese v e r s e i s u s u a l l y the t h i r d word i n p e n t a s y l l a b l e s y l l a b l e v e r s e and the f i f t h word i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c verse, and f u n c t i o n to b r i n g each sentence to l i f e . Through the s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of the two verbs, Huang indeed achieves " s e n t e n t i a l eye". The use of i r r e g u l a r exchanges of p a r t s of speech might be l i l l u s t r a t e d by the key word "sen" H ( f o r e s t e d ) i n the second l i n e i n "Upon Sending a G i f t of Shuangjing Tea to Zizhan" d i s c u s s e d above on page 82. ("Jade H a l l i n Heaven, f o r e s t e d with s t a c k s of r a r e books.") "Sen" i s u s u a l l y used as a noun meaning f o r e s t or l e s s commonly as an a d j e c t i v e meaning dense. Here, the poet changes i t i n t o a verb. I t would be meaningless i f the poet's only purpose was to exchange one p a r t of speech f o r another, but "Sen" not only d e p i c t s s t a c k s of books as t r e e s i n the f o r e s t , but a l s o a c c u r a t e l y evokes the q u i e t , secluded c i r c u m s t a n c e s which i n t r o d u c e s the theme of the poem. There are many s i m i l a r examples i n Huang's poems, such as •fti-i ! yun (rhyme) i n "As whispering of love i n a boudoir and b r i d a l i chamber,/black swallows and yellow o r i o l e s rhyme with peach and 2fi plum t r e e s , " . Here, the noun yun r e p l a c e s o f t - u s e d verbs l i k e I i he (harmonize) or x i e ^! (euphonize). The unusual use of the word v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e s the musical e f f e c t of a ruan $j[ (a plucked, s t r i n g e d instrument) being played l i k e s i n g i n g b i r d s , and combines two b e a u t i f u l images of nature ( b i r d s and t r e e s ) . The use of an unusual c o l l o c a t i o n of words i s another c r u c i a l approach of Huang's i n c r e a t i n g a strange e f f e c t . A good example of t h i s i s "Climbing Pleasant Tower":(see p.52) The i d i o t s e t t l e d s t a t e business, Walked east and west on Pleasant Tower, l e a n i n g on the c l e a r evening sky. " • I Normally, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to " y i wan q i n g " j||f|jlj|; ( l e a n on the 2S SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 9 , p. 171. 92 c l e a r evening sky). T h i s c o l l o c a t i o n o f the verb "lean o n " and "evening sky" might even be considered to be a grammatical e r r o r . Yet, i n w r i t i n g poetry which i s an a r t of language, the poet possesses s p e c i a l r i g h t s that allow him to make the i m p o s s i b l e p o s s i b l e . Compared with the most o f t - u s e d p o e t i c phrases, l i k e " y i l a n " H ^ ' ^ o l e a n on a r a i l i n g ) , or "ping chuang" ^ | B | • <t.o l e a n on a window ledge) we can see how Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y s t r o v e to be d i f f e r e n t . Also, s i n c e t h i s poem expresses the poet's d e s i r e which i s "Hopefully, I c o u l d play a long f l u t e i n the boat home,/ In my heart, I have made a covenant with white g u l l s " , " l e a n i n g on the c l e a r evening sky" i m p l i e s the poet's w i l l i n g n e s s to merge with nature. Here i s another example, i n the l a s t c o u p l e t of "Qiu Huai" ^|^! (Autumn M e d i t a t i o n ) , Huang juxtaposes "soak" and "white c l o u d s " : The l a k e soaks up white clou d s f o r no reason. My f r i e n d ' s l e t t e r s are cut o f f , not even a s i n g l e swan 27 28 goose appears. What Huang wants to say here i s he i s missing h i s f r i e n d because t h e r e has been a l o s s of communication between them. Yet, the i d e a i s i n d i r e c t l y conveyed through the d e s c r i p t i o n of the lake. 27 Swan geese as a symbol f o r c o u r i e r s o r i g i n a t e d from Su Wu's ^flrj s t o r y . < ! See Ban Gu jj|gjj , Han Shu , B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1972, v o l . 6 , p. 2466. 28 SGSZ, Waijibu, vol.2, p. 32. 93 For Huang, i t seems t h a t the lake should l o g i c a l l y r e f l e c t a f l y i n g - c r o s s of swan geese, which i s a symbol f o r c o u r i e r s who might b r i n g him news about h i s f r i e n d . Yet, the l a k e r e f l e c t s only white c l o u d s without understanding Huang's f e e l i n g s , so the la k e i s str a n g e and i l l o g i c a l i n Huang's eyes. Therefore, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o h i s preoccupation with the c o u r i e r s , Huang d e l i b e r a t e l y c a s t s the lake i n the somewhat negative l i g h t of soaking up the clouds, r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i n g the c r o s s of swan geese i n the sky t h a t Huang so d e s i r e s . The unusual j u x t a p o s i t i o n of "soak up" and "white c l o u d s " emphasizes the " f o r no reason". Although i t i s im p o s s i b l e f o r the l a k e t o soak up the clouds, the unusual c o l l o c a t i o n of words corresponds t o Huang's f e e l i n g s , and thus the l a k e seems unreasonable. Such 29 examples show t h a t indeed Huang "spends much on arrangement." c. The Strange E f f e c t o f A n t i t h e s i s Another important aspect of the strangeness of Huang's p o e t i c sentences i s h i s unusual use of a n t i t h e s i s $ > [ ! | J . As a I " i very important s k i l l of r e g u l a t e d verse • » a n t i t h e s i s i s a s t r i c t form which r e g u l a t e s matching sound and sense i n a c o u p l e t . T h i s means t h a t matching sounds d i f f e r i n l e v e l and o b l i q u e tones; matching words are the same p a r t s of speech, and t h e i r meanings are l i n k e d by being o p p o s i t e s or complementary t o 29 Fu Xuanzong JHH^ R' , Huang T i n g j i a n He J i a n g x i S h i P a i Juan " ' _^Hi§i f i l j | ! ' B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1978, p. 126. 94 each other. Therefore, i t i s not very easy f o r a poet to c r e a t e an e x c e l l e n t a n t i t h e s i s because the form i s so demanding and r e s t r i c t i v e . Furthermore, the c r e a t i o n of a n t i t h e s i s had a l r e a d y been p e r f e c t e d by Tang poets, e s p e c i a l l y Du Fu, whom Huang took as h i s master. The d i f f i c u l t y i n producing o r i g i n a l i t y w i t h i n the r u l e s of a n t i t h e s i s i s apparent. Yet, Huang i l l u s t r a t e s he i s d i f f e r e n t from previous poets through the way he c r e a t e s a n t i t h e s i s . One of h i s approaches i s t o break the r e g u l a t i o n of a n t i t h e s i s w i t h i n a reasonable range. The f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t i s an example of how departs from the r e g u l a r forms of a n t i t h e s i s : Wuyang qu Xie c a i b a i l i ^ Wuyang [away] from Xie only hundred l i . I t was only about one hundred l i _ between Wuyang and Xie, j i a n z i yu gong j u shao nian Humble I and you both young age. Then you and I were both young.^® T h i s i s the second c o u p l e t of a h e p t a s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d verse, which should be w r i t t e n i n the form of r e g u l a t e d verse. In the f i r s t l i n e of the a n t i t h e s i s , "Wu Yang" ffj|J lis a proper noun (a p l a c e name), "qu"^(away from) i s a p r e p o s i t i o n , "Xie" ifj* a proper noun, " c a i " ^ *;(only) an adverb, and " b a i l i " (hundred li _ ) a noun. Acc o r d i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n of a n t i t h e s i s , the words i n the second l i n e s h ould match the p a r t s of speech i n the f i r s t 30 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . , 1, p.13. 95 l i n e . Yet, the words, which Huang uses i n the second l i n e , are a d j e c t i v e and noun " j i a n z i " (Humble I) which should be a proper noun, c o n j u n c t i o n "yu" J_J (and), pronoun "gong" Q (you), adverb " j u " jj| (both), and noun "shao nian" (young age). The p a r t s of speech i n the two l i n e s used by Huang are as f o l l o w s : L i n e 1: proper n. I prep., I proper n., I adv. , I noun. L i n e 2: a d j . and n.I conj.,I pronoun, I adv.,I noun. Obviously, the p a r t s of speech of "humble I" and "you" i n the second l i n e do not match proper nouns "Wuyang" and "Xie" i n the f i r s t l i n e . Furthermore, n e i t h e r do the meanings of the two l i n e s . The d i s t a n c e i n the f i r s t l i n e and the age i n the second l i n e are n e i t h e r o p p o s i t e nor complementary so t h a t a wide gap e x i s t s between the two l i n e s . I t i s r a r e to c r e a t e such a sudden l e a p i n a n t i t h e s i s not only i n the poetry of the Tang, but a l s o i n t h a t of the Song. Thus, i n both form and meaning Huang breaks the normal e x p e c t a t i o n of a n t i t h e s i s . However, i n t h i s c o u p l e t Huang i m p r e s s i v e l y expresses h i s f r i e n d s h i p with h i s f r i e n d . As we see, Huang chooses the s h o r t d i s t a n c e between the p l a c e s where they are f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r o f f i c i a l d u t i e s and t h e i r young ages as ways to express h i s f r i e n d s h i p with h i s f r i e n d . The short d i s t a n c e i m p l i e s t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y frequent c o n t a c t s , and the mention of t h e i r young ages d i s p l a y s the long f r i e n d s h i p they have had s i n c e e a r l y youth. Therefore, the adoption of space and time as the n a r r a t i v e 96 p e r s p e c t i v e s i s most e f f e c t i v e . Yet, Huang does not change pronouns i n the beginning of the second l i n e , which i s where i Huang b r i n g s i n the concept of time, to match proper nouns i n the beginn i n g of the f i r s t l i n e . Although the a n t i t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n i s broken here, the ex p r e s s i o n of the meaning of t h i s c o u p l e t i s achieved s u c c e s s f u l l y . As Huang s a i d , he "would r a t h e r 31 c o n t r a d i c t p o e t i c r e g u l a t i o n than make a weak p o e t i c sentence" We can a l s o examine how Huang i r r e g u l a r l y uses a n t i t h e s i s from the aspect of sound. The f o l l o w i n g c o u p l e t i s a good 32 example ("-" stands f o r l e v e l tone and "\" f o r o b l i q u e tone). - \ \ \ - \ Huang l i u bu j i e wo ming yue Yellow r i v e r can not d i r t y b r i g h t moon. Muddy Bian R i v e r can not d i r t y the b r i g h t moon, \ \ \ \ b i shu wei wo sheng l i a n g q i u Green t r e e s f o r me produce c o l d autumn. Green t r e e s make the autumn c o l d f o r me.^ Accord i n g t o the tone p a t t e r n of t h i s poem, the tones of the words i n t h i s a n t i t h e s i s should f o l l o w the p a t t e r n : 31 See f o o t n o t e 54 at p.29. 32 A l l word tones which we i n d i c a t e are from Gu J i n Z i Y i n Dui  Zhao Shou Ce " j ^ i l ^ I i ^ I l i < A Handbook of Comparative C l a s s i c a l and Modern P r o n u n c i a t i o n of Chinese C h a r a c t e r s ) , ed., Ding Shengshu T £ j # i , L i Rong , B e i j i n g : Ke Xue Chu Ban She**** j j , 1958. 4 ' " i 33 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . , 7, p.166. 97 - - \ \ - - \, \ \ - - \ \ -. 34 As we can see, Huang uses f o u r words with o b l i q u e tones and t h r e e words with l e v e l tones i n the second l i n e . The use of tones i n the second l i n e i s a g a i n s t the r e g u l a t e d p a t t e r n , and a l s o does not agree with the patten i n the f i r s t l i n e . Of course, i t i s not p o s s i b l e that Huang was ignorant of the r e g u l a t e d p a t t e r n . His i n n o v a t i o n i n the tone p a t t e r n of a n t i t h e s i s breaks the harmony and balance which people are accustomed to, and t h i s produces a new sense of sound. Here i s another example: \ \ \ \ \ qing tan luo b i y i wan z i , Elegant t a l k drop pen one wan words, E l e g a n t l y t a l k i n g , then ten-thousand words drop from h i s w r i t i n g brush, \ b a i yan White eyes Looking at three T h i s a n t i t h e s i s s hould f o l l o w the same tone p a t t e r n as the one above. Even though the word tones of the f i r s t , t h i r d , and f i f t h words are o f t e n o p t i o n a l , Huang c o n s e c u t i v e l y uses f i v e words \ - \ j u shang san b a i b e i . r a i s e wine-cup three hundred cups. 35 the world with white eves, and d r i n k i n g hundred cups of wine. 3 34 See Wang L i , Han Yu Shi Lu Xue SBJtft?' (Chinese V e r s i f i c a t i o n ) , Shanghai: Shanghai J i a o Yu Chu Ban She r~|j| t l _ K _ ' 1 9 7 9 > p p - 7 2 " 8 2 ' 35 See f o o t n o t e 13 at p. 53. 36 SGSZ, Waijibu, vol.3, p. 65. 98 with o b l i q u e tones i n the f i r s t l i n e without a corresponding change i n the second l i n e . However, the use of c o n s e c u t i v e words with o b l i q u e tones helps to form a h e r o i c v o i c e which embodies a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the person d e s c r i b e d i n the poem. We have b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d Huang's in n o v a t i o n of the meaning of a n t i t h e s i s i n our a n a l y s i s above. We would a l s o l i k e t o i l l u s t r a t e Huang's use of the p r o s a i c sentence i n a n t i t h e s i s , f o r example: s h i shang q i wu qi a n l i ma In the world, r e a l l y , no Thousand-li-steed? Is t h e r e r e a l l y no Thousa n d - l i - s t e e d i n the world? ren zhong nan de j i u fang gao Among people, hard t o f i n d a Nine-square-gao. I t i s hard to f i n d Nine-sguare-gao among people. In terms of p a r t s of speech, t h i s i s a very accurate a n t i t h e s i s . "Shi shang" f£_L- ( i n the world) matches "ren zhong" (among people) as both are nouns of l o c a l i t y , " q i " ( r e a l l y ) and "nan")! (hard) are two adverbs, and "wu" ^ (has no) and "de" ( f i n d ) are verbs. The l a s t two words "qian l i ma" ^j[5r ( T h o u s a n d - l i -steed) and " j i u fang gao (Nine-square-gao), are matched compound nouns (the name of an animal and t h a t of a person). Also, w i t h i n "Thousand-li-steed" and i n "Nine-sguare-gao", "thousand" and "nine" are numerals, " l i " and "square" are c l a s s i f i e i — m e a s u r e words, and "steed" and "gao" are nouns. I 37 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 2 . p. 29. 99 t h i n k t h a t the reason the poet choose "Nine-square-qao" but not "Bo Le" ffjjfc 3 8 to match "Thousand-li-steed" i s that he i n t e n t i o n a l l y c r e a t e d a p r e c i s e form of a n t i t h e s i s . Yet i n t h i s p e r f e c t form of a n t i t h e s i s , the meanings of the two l i n e s are n e i t h e r o p p o s i t e nor complementary. The a n t i t h e s e s , l i k e a p r o s a i c sentence, combines a q u e s t i o n and an answer which c r e a t e a l i n e a r e f f e c t r a t h e r than that o f o p p o s i t e s balancing. Fang Dongshu comments on Huang's "Climbing Pleasant Tower" (see p. 52), " T h i s s t y l e can be c a l l e d upon to s e t the tone of a s i n g l e - l i n e —ig form i n t o a p a r a l l e l - l i n e one." By t h i s , he means t h a t Huang a p p l i e s the l i n e a r tone of a n c i e n t verse or prose to r e g u l a t e d verse. H i s comment a l s o a p p l i e s t o our a n a l y s i s above. , In an a n a l y s i s of Huang's a n t i t h e s e s , the Song c r i t i c Ge The best c r e a t i o n of the middle two a n t i t h e s i s i n r e g u l a t e d v e r s e i s t h a t the meanings of t h e i r two l i n e s . h a v e a wide gap, but indeed are i m p l i c i t l y l i n k e d . . . L u z h i wrote i n h i s Da Yan H_§0$||, "Heaven's r e g u l a t i o n of a l l t h i n g s has d e s t i n e d me to be poor, /I have dedi c a t e d my i n t e l l i g e n c e to an o f f i c i a l post e n t i r e l y f o r my k i n s f o l k " ; i n h i s "Shang Shu Fu Y i  Zhong X-j^A*T^rr1' ' "The l e t t e r coming from thousands of l i _ C t e l l s me myj son and daughter are t h i n , / Walking i n the 38 WYWK, Zhuangzi |£-f\: , Zhuanqzi jrf-f- , Waipian |k|§' , vol . 3 , pp. 53-54. 1 "V I " 1 Bo Le was the best judge of horses during the S p r i n g and Autumn Pe r i o d . He i s most o f t e n used to symbolize a good judge of c h a r a c t e r i n Chinese c u l t u r e . Although Nine-square-qao ( J i u Fanggao) was a l s o a good judge of horses according t o L i e z i foj-j" d u r i n g the same p e r i o d as Bo Le, he was promoted by Bo Le, and i s not as s i g n i f i c a n t as Bo Le i n Chinese c u l t u r e . See CSJC, L i e z i l l j - ^ j , L i e z i ^ij^f . vol.8, p. 104. 39 Fang Dongshu, o p . c i t . , vol.20, p. 451. 40 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 1 , p.12. 100 mountain i n the t e n t h month, i c e and snow are deep"... Compared t o those who are proud of s t i c k i n g t o matching words l i k e "black" with "white", the meanings of the two l i n e s i n these a n t i t h e s e s depart a d i s t a n c e of a thousand l i . L u z h i has many^  a n t i t h e s e s l i k e these which cannot be completely c i t e d . ^ Now, l e t us look at how Ge's comment a p p l i e s to the examples which he g i v e s us. In the f i r s t example, the f i r s t l i n e i s a c o n v e r s i o n of Zhuangzi's statement that reads,"Heaven covers a l l without p a r t i a l i t y ; e a r t h holds up a l l without p a r t i a l i t y - h e a v e n and e a r t h s u r e l y wouldn't s i n g l e me out to make me p o o r " . T h e second l i n e a l l u d e s t o Mao Y i ' s s t o r y from Hou Han Shu, whic says t h a t f i l i a l Mao i s happy with o b t a i n i n g an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n only because h i s mother w i l l be h o n o u r e d . 4 4 The two l i n e s seem to express two completely u n r e l a t e d t h i n g s from d i f f e r e n t sources, making i t r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o j o i n the two l i n e s even though we have t r a n s l a t e d the a l l u s i o n i n the second l i n e . In f a c t , a f t e r the poet puts forward h i s conversion of Zhuangzi's viewpoint i n the f i r s t l i n e , he shows h i s o p i n i o n by u s i n g the a l l u s i o n i n the second l i n e . Therefore, the two l i n e s are l i n k e d through c a u s a l i t y . For the purpose of c l e a r e r 41 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 8 , p. 155. 42 CSJC, Guo L i f ang, Yun Yu Yang Qiu fijtttPHiij , ed. , Wang Yunwu Shanghai: Shang Wu Y i n Shu Guan, -1939. v o l . 1 , p. 6. 43 Burton Watson, o p . c i t . , 1968, p. 91. 44 Fan Hua , Hou Han Shu, B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju 1973, vol.53, pp.1746-1748. 101 e x p l a n a t i o n , we might t r a n s l a t e t h i s a n t i t h e s i s i n t o a p r o s a i c sentence l i k e "The law of heaven d e s t i n e s me to be poor, because I am happy with o b t a i n i n g an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n only so my mother w i l l be honoured, but not to make me r i c h and famous." The a n t i t h e s i s not only has a wide range of meaning, but a l s o a p r o s a i c s t r u c t u r e . In the second example, the f i r s t l i n e expresses d i f f i c u l t y i n communication, and t h i n k i n g of a famil y . The second l i n e suddenly s h i f t s t o d e s c r i b e the season and the hardships of a t r i p . I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r us to read these two l i n e s as a n t i t h e s i s because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a l i n k between them. Yet, the i n t e r n a l l i n k can be understood i f we use our im a g i n a t i o n s . We might c o n s i d e r t h i s a n t i t h e s i s as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l ' s emotional and p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g , which i s d i s p l a y e d r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the s e p a r a t i o n from h i s f a m i l y i n the f i r s t l i n e , and i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f hardship i n a c o l d season and d i f f i c u l t circumstances. I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l method of matching i n t r a d i t i o n a l a n t i t h e s i s i s completely abandoned here. T h i s i s why Huang's a n t i t h e s i s c r e a t e s such a wide d i s t a n c e between l i n e s . I I I . The Strangeness o f Tone P a t t e r n , Rhyme Scheme, and Rhythm Huang's concerns about the sound of poetry are expressed i n " I t i s the beauty of poetry Cthat these tunes] can then be sung i n harmony with musical laws and can be danced to with s h i e l d s 102 and f e a t h e r f a n s . " (p.2) I f we say that h i s t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint i s based on a t r a d i t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c sense, which i s concerned with harmonious music and balanced rhythm, then the t r a i t r e f l e c t e d by h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e breaks through the t r a d i t i o n a l , r e g u l a r sounds of poetry. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he attempts to c r e a t e strangeness by breaking the r e g u l a r forms i n tone p a t t e r n s , rhyme schemes, and rhythms. We w i l l d i s c u s s these t h r e e a s p e c t s i n d e t a i l below. A. Tone Patterns The strangeness of tone p a t t e r n s i n Huang's p o e t i c c r e a t i o n i s mainly r e f l e c t e d i n h i s adoption of ao l u ( i r r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n i n r e g u l a t e d verse, e s p e c i a l l y i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d v e r s e ) . In an a n a l y s i s of the reasons Huang i s fond of c r e a t i n g h i s p o e t r y i n ao l u , Liang Kun p o i n t s out, "From the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Song Dynasty to Ou CYangxiu] and Su [ S h i ] , a l l r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s w r i t t e n by poets were i n the r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n . These v e r s e s i n the r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n are smooth and g e n t l e , yet do not show any o r i g i n a l i t y . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , Shangu [Huang] more o f t e n w r i t e s h i s r e g u l a t e d verse i n ao l u t o d i s p l a y h i s u n i q u e n e s s . " 4 5 Besides Du Fu's i n f l u e n c e on Huang, th e r e might be another reason. Although Du i s the f i r s t poet who c r e a t e d ao l u poetry, Du only wrote 19 ao l u poems, and 45 L i a n g Kun , Song Sh i Pai Bie Lun ^| | |^^J^ i , Changsha: Shang Wu Ying Shu Guang, 1938, p. 85. 103 they are not as i r r e g u l a r as Huang's. Huang wrote 153 ao l u poems out of 310 h e p t a s y l i a b l e r e g u l a t e d v e r s e s . 4 ^ And some of Huang's ao l u poems are h a r d l y acceptable according to c o n v e n t i o n a l standards because of t h e i r "awkward" sound. However, Huang i s very brave i n h i s experiments with ao l u , and manages t o d i s p l a y a s p e c i a l beauty t h e r e i n . In h i s a n a l y s i s of Huang's ao l u , Liang Kun has i n d i c a t e d t h r e e ao l u methods: dan ao J^ jyJ1; shuanq ao and wu__ti_Sj^.. "Dan ao i s the exchange between the l e v e l and o b l i q u e tones i n the f i r s t l i n e of a c o u p l e t ; shuanq ao i s the exchange between the l e v e l and o b l i q u e tones between two l i n e s i n a c o u p l e t ; and wu t i i s t h a t the tones of words i n the second l i n e of every c o u p l e t are changed to agree with the changes of those tones i n the f i r s t l i n e , and the f i f t h word i n every second l i n e i s f i x e d with the l e v e l tone i n order to harmonize the changes of 47 tones above." Here, we s h a l l take one of Huang's poems as an example of how Huang i n t e n t i o n a l l y c r e a t e s ao l u , and how he uses these t h r e e ao l u methods. The symbols of the tone p a t t e r n used by Huang are presented p a r a l l e l to the symbols of a r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n f o r c o n t r a s t : , x i n g guan you kong he s h i luo The c e l e s t i a l body t r a v e l l i n g the sky, what time f e l l ? 46 S i Ku Shan Ben Cong Shu K^f'^^"! ( a b b r e v i a t e d SKSBCS), Fang Hui - j g| , Y i n Kui Lu S u i j|J||||j , vol.25, pp. 1-2. 47 L i a n g Kun, o p . , c i t . , p.86. 104 \ \ \ \ - \ -zhuo d i y i hua wei bao fang Dropping on ground, then changed i n t o a f i n e monastery \ - \ \ s h i ren zhou y i n shan ru zuo Poetry w r i t e r day chants, the mountain takes seat, \ \ \ \ - \ z u i ke ye e j i a n g han chuang Drunk v i s i t o r n i ght s t a r t l e s , the r i v e r shakes the bed. \ - \ \ - \ \ mi fang ge z i k a i you hu Honey comb one by one opens the window and door, \ \ \ \ -y i xue huo meng feng hou wang Ant nest maybe dream e n t i t l e d the duke and king, \ - - - \ \ bu z h i qing yun t i j i j i Not know blue clouds, s t e p s how many? \ \ \ - - \ geng j i e shou teng xun shang fang Then l e n d t h i n w i s t e r i a t o s e a r c h the upper p l a c e . 4 8 When d i d the c e l e s t i a l body t r a v e l l i n g the sky f a l l ? Dropping on the ground, i t changed i n t o a f i n e monastery. The poet d a i l y chanted h i s poems. The drunk v i s i t o r was s t a r t l e d at n i g h t as the r i v e r shook h i s bed. Windows and doors of [monks' rooms l i k e ] honeycombs opened one a f t e r another. In such an ant nest, one may dream of being e n t i t l e d Duke or king. I do not know, how many s t e p s w i l l reach those blue clouds? I would need to be supported by a t h i n cane to v i s i t t h a t high place. Huang's tone p a t t e r n : Regular tone p a t t e r n : SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.,8, p.190. 105 \ \ \ \ - \ \ -- - \ \ - - \ \ \ - - \ \ -- - \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ -\ \ - - - \ \ - - \ \ \ - -\ - \ \ \ \ \ \ - - \ \ - - \ \ \ - - \ \ -\ - - -\ \ \ -\ \ \ -\ \ - - - \ \ - - \ \ \ - -From t h i s comparison, we can see t h a t not one l i n e i n Huang's tone p a t t e r n accords with those of the r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n . In the f i r s t c o u p l e t , Huang c o n s e c u t i v e l y uses s i x words with l e v e l tones; the f o u r t h word should be an o b l i q u e tone, a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s o f r e g u l a t e d verse. In order t o make up f o r the monotony of the f i r s t l i n e , he c o n s e c u t i v e l y uses f o u r words with o b l i q u e tones i n the second l i n e . There Huang changes the l e v e l tone o f the f o u r t h word i n t o on o b l i q u e tone to correspond to the change of the f o u r t h word i n the f i r s t l i n e , and t h i s i s c a l l e d shuanq ao. In the second couplet, the tone o f the f i r s t and second words i n the f i r s t l i n e exchange with the tone of the t h i r d and f o u r t h words, which i s c a l l e d dan ao. The tone of the f i r s t two words i n the second l i n e i s changed i n t o the o b l i q u e tone from the l e v e l tone t o correspond t o the changes of the tones o f the f i r s t two words i n the f i r s t l i n e . The same changes takes p l a c e with the tones o f the s i x t h words of the f i r s t and second l i n e s i n the t h i r d c o uplet, and the tones o f the second words of the 106 f i r s t and second l i n e s i n the l a s t c o u p l e t . Looking at the tone p a t t e r n of the whole poem, the tones of many words i n every second l i n e i n every c o u p l e t are changed i n o r d e r t o correspond with changes of those tones i n every f i r s t l i n e . Also, the tone of the f i f t h word i n every second l i n e i s kept l e v e l . Therefore, t h i s poem i s a t y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of wu t i . As f o r the sound e f f e c t , c h a n t i n g t h i s poem sounds harsh and disharmonious because of the c o n s e c u t i v e use of many words with the same tones i n the same l i n e and the breaking o f the r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r those who are used to the smooth and r e g u l a r tone p a t t e r n , f o r the i r r e g u l a r use of tone p a t t e r n s can evoke i n them an uncomfortable f e e l i n g . In h i s a n a l y s i s o f the sound e f f e c t s o f wu t i , Guo Shaoyu says, " . . . i n c h a n t i n g a poem i n wu t i , a roughness i s produced i n i t s i r r e g u l a r s y l l a b l e s , so t h a t people f e e l an uneven, harsh, and 49 u n c o n v e n t i o n a l e f f e c t . " "The uneven, harsh, and unconventional e f f e c t " , i s the very strangeness which Huang pursues i n h i s use o f ao l u . B. Rhyme Scheme The rhyme scheme of a poem depends on i t s p o e t i c form i n 49 Wen Xue Yan Jou Cong Bian j^ -J^%}^% \ , v o l . , 1, publ. by Gu Jun ]j§|§ i , Guo Shaovu._.__."Lun Zhongguo Wen Xue Zhong De Yin J i e L i t e r a t u r e ) , T a i p e i : nu uuo unu Ban She » 1981, p. 71. 107 Chinese c l a s s i c a l poetry. There are two main p o e t i c forms: a n c i e n t verse and r e g u l a t e d verse. Ancient verse has f i v e or seven ( o c c a s i o n a l l y f o u r ) c h a r a c t e r s t o each l i n e , and does not r e g u l a t e the number of l i n e s . Even though rhyming i n a n c i e n t verse u s u a l l y occurs at the end of even-numbered l i n e s , a poet can e i t h e r use one rhyme throughout or change the rhyme as he wishes. Therefore, a poet has much freedom i n the use of rhyme because a n c i e n t verse does not have s t r i c t t o n a l p a t t e r n s or rhyme schemes. Conversely, r e g u l a t e d verse must have f i v e or seven c h a r a c t e r s to each l i n e , and f o u r or e i g h t l i n e s i n a poem. A poet must f o l l o w s t r i c t t o n a l p a t t e r n s and rhyme schemes. Rhyming has to occur at the end of even-numbered l i n e s , and t h e r i s the o p t i o n only to i n s e r t t h i s rhyme i n the f i r s t l i n e . T h e r e f o r e , the use of rhyme i n r e g u l a r verse i s s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d . Huang o f t e n s k i l f u l l y takes advantage of the freedom of a n c i e n t v e r s e t o vary h i s rhyme schemes, and d e l i b e r a t e l y makes use of d i f f i c u l t rhymes i n order t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f from o t h e r poets. Let us examine how f l e x i b l y he uses a n c i e n t verse t o a c h i e v e an i n n o v a t i v e , unconventional rhyme scheme i n the f o l l o w i n g : Watching Bo S h i Draw a House Y i luan gong zhang tao s h i xing, R i t e - b i r d o f f e r t e n t v o r a c i o u s l i c e swarm, 108 Han l i n s h i x i n bao zhu sheng, I m p e r i a l Academy wet firewood f i r e w o r k sound, Feng l i a n guan zhu l e i zong heng. Wind c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l candle t e a r l e n g t h breadth. Mu chuan s h i pan wei qu tou, Wood d r i l l rock p l a t e no completely through, Zuo chuang bu ao l i n g ren shou, S i t window no out make person t h i n , P i n ma b a i x i a n feng y i dou. Poor house hundred l e f t o v e r meet one bean. Yan ming j i a n c i yu hua zong, Eyes b r i g h t see t h i s jade flower steed, J i n g s i zhuo bian s u i s h i weng, Immediately t h i n k wave whip f o l l o w p o e t i c o l d man, Cheng x i ye tao xun x i a o hong. C i t y west w i l d peach seek s m a l l r e d . 5 ^ The l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s poem i s : V o r a c i o u s l i c e swarm around i n v i s i t o r ' s t e n t s of the Department of P r o t o c o l , Burning wet firewood sounds l i k e f i r e w o r k s i n the Imperial Academy, F a c i n g c u r t a i n and candle, t e a r s w e l l up. Wood cannot d r i l l through rock. Imprisoned at a window, not going out, can make a person t h i n , L i k e a poor horse found one bean i n hundreds of p i l e s of l e f t o v e r forage. My eyes become b r i g h t upon s e e i n g the j a d e - c o l o u r e d steed, I immediately want to wave my crop to f o l l o w you, o l d poet. To look f o r those red peach blossom west of the c i t y . T h i s poem c o n s i s t s of nine l i n e s with a rhyme change every t h r e e l i n e s . Each of the three u n i t s use rhyme words from the 50 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.9, p. 158. 109 f o l l o w i n g s u b c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y : 1) ba qenq J\]ft * l ^ v e l tone; 2) er s h i l i u you , o b l i q u e tone; 3) y i donq — , l e v e l t o n e . ^ The design of rhyme scheme here c r e a t e s the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the poem, and makes the arrangement of i d e a s i n each s e c t i o n c l e a r e r and more independent. The i n s e r t i o n of an o b l i q u e - t o n e rhyme i n the second s e c t i o n between the f i r s t and t h i r d s e c t i o n s which have l e v e l tones e f f e c t i v e l y a voids making the poem sound monotonous. Also, the poet v a r i e s the c o n v e n t i o n a l rhyme scheme, i n which rhyme occurs at the end of the even numbered l i n e s and l i n e s are w r i t t e n i n p a i r s . Hu Z a i tfjff !( 12 A. D. ) comments on t h i s poem with saying, "The p a t t e r n i s 52 very new and h a r d l y used by other poets. " And Huang d i s p l a y s h i s i n g e n u i t y through the c a r e f u l design of the r a r e l y used rhyme scheme. 51 In order to f i n d rhyming words e a s i l y , Chinese c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s wrote rhyming d i c t i o n a r i e s , i n which Chinese c h a r a c t e r s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the f o u r tones i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese p r o n u n c i a t i o n - - p i n q shenq y ^ ^ l e v e l tone), shanq shenqj^ j S i ( f a l l i n g - r i s i n g tone), qu shenq iljlj ( f a l l i n g tone), and r u shenq \P\ ( e n t e r i n g tone). In each category, c h a r a c t e r s are f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s u b c a t e g o r i e s based on t h e i r simple or compound vowels i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese p r o n u n c i a t i o n , sometimes with a t e r m i n a l "n" or "ng". The terms we quoted above are s u b c a t e g o r i e s . The rhymes "xi n g " i l l "sheng'^i . and "heng"|^j which Huang uses i n the poem belong to ba qenq j^j^j; "tou" l ^ i , "shou" ^ , and "dou" ^ er s h i l i u you - ' " I'Alf a n c ' " z o 4 i r ' " ' e n 9 * f | i ' a n c ' "bong" f f j y i d o n q - j | See S n i Yun TsfHj VPoetic Rhyme), r e v i s e d from Zenq Guanq S h i Yun  Quan B ij $ r ^ | f HJ£JJ ! ' S n a n 9 h a i : Shanghai Gu J i Chu Ban She, 1983, v o l . 2 , p .3(J; voT.. 4, p. 47; v o l . 1 , p . l . 52 ..... CSJC, Hu Z a i , T i a o X i Yu Yin Cong Hua Qian Hou J i *t , v o l . 48. p. 329. ~ 110 Huang's fondness f o r using c i yun s h i (poems rhyming with o t h e r s ) and xian yun |j»g-j ("dangerous" rhyme or rhymes f o r 53 which t h e r e are few common words) might be c o n s i d e r e d as an approach through which he i n c r e a s e s the d i f f i c u l t y of rhyming t o show h i s strangeness. Since a poet who c r e a t e s c i yun s h i must use e x a c t l y the same rhyme scheme as ones used i n the poem, u s u a l l y from a poet's f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e , the poet i s more r e s t r i c t e d i n e x p r e s s i n g h i s ideas. Yet, Huang wrote 567 c i yun 54 s h i , which i s more than one t h i r d of h i s poems. As Pan Boying J , ^ j j j j l i jpoints out, "Based on t h e i r wide reading, abundant sources, and s k i l f u l techniques, Su and Huang avoid being t r o u b l e d by rhyme. They w r i t e poems f r e e l y , and overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e x p r e s s i n g s u b t l e ideas, even though they w r i t e many poems t h a t rhyme with o t h e r s ' w o r k s . " 5 5 I t i s very d i f f i c u l t f o r a poet to c r e a t e a poem by adopting unusual rhymes, because he runs the r i s k of u s i n g words i n a clumsy way or l i m i t i n g h i s ideas due to an extremely narrow range of rhyming words a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g shows 53 A c c o r d i n g to the amount of Chinese rhyming words i n a subcategory i n a rhyming d i c t i o n a r y , a l l s u b c a t e g o r i e s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g f o u r groups: kuan yun ( r i c h rhyme), zhong yun tjr|j|j (medium rhyme), z h a i yun < f ew rhyme), and x i a n yun. Xian yun i n c l u d e s those s u b c a t e g o r i e s which c o n t a i n the l e a s t rhyming words among the f o u r s u b c a t e g o r i e s . See Wang L i ' s Han Yu S h i Lu Xue, p.44. 54 Mo L i f e n g , op. c i t . , p. 54. 55 Pan Boying, Huang T i n g j i a n S h i Xuan $ t^_tf$ , Hong Kong: Zhong L i u Chu Ban She ' i 9 5 S > P- 4 7 -how Huang uses unusual rhymes to rhyme with a work by Su S h i : Zizhan's CSu S h i ] poetry i s e x q u i s i t e nowadays, but he says t h a t he i m i t a t e s my p o e t i c s t y l e . He only uses h i s poems to make jokes, j u s t as T u i z h i played with w r i t i n g poems to i m i t a t e Meng J i a o a n d F a n Z o n g s h i ^ ^ ! J | . I am a f r a i d t h a t the young do not understand Zizhan' s / r e a ' i meaning, so I w r i t e a poem to e x p l a i n i t by rhyming with h i s poem. Zizhan wrote i n "Seeing o f f Meng Rong","My home town i s i n the n o r t h of Emei Mountain,/ I t i s i n the same s t a t e as yours. " I f o l l o w t h a t rhyme. My poetry i s l i k e Cao and Kuai, Too meagre to be s t a t e s . Yours i s l i k e s t r o n g Chu, Embracing f i v e lakes, three r i v e r s . F l u t i n g i n a s l i g h t wind and c l e a r moon at C h i b i , In Jade H a l l , mist d r i f t s around the windows. You c r e a t e such a unique law i n l i n e s t r u c t u r e , Even a f o r t i f i e d c i t y would surrender to you. As a dry pine f a l l i n g i n t o a deep r a v i n e . Being dashed by waves. Thousands of oxen cannot move the pine, But you can c a r r y i t by y o u r s e l f . Some people g e s t i c u l a t e and laugh at me: "Can you rank with Chao and Zhang!" Only with f r i e n d s h i p , I can stay with them, As Kong Ming bowed to Old Pang. I do not know what my son w i l l be, My f r i e n d s p r a i s e him as f a i t h f u l and honest. I f he r e a l l y deserves to be engaged to your A Xun, I w i l l go t o buy a red ribbon to twine the wine v a t . 5 ^ From the p r e f a c e of t h i s poem, we can see t h a t t h i s i s a c i yun  s h i . There are ten rhyming words i n the poem, which are "bang ( s t a t e ) , " j i a n g " j ( r i v e r ) , "chuang" jj| j ( window ), "xiang" ( s u r r e n d e r ) , "zhuang" j^'(dash), "kang" jj ( c a r r y ) , "shuang (rank), "Pang" jj£;< surname ), "pang" jj^  ( honest), and "gang" |jf£!(vat). A l l rhyming words belong to the subcategory san j i a n g o f x i a n 56 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 5 , p. 85. 112 yun. There are only 50 rhyming words i n t h i s subcategory of san 57 ,1 i a n q as opposed to about 460 words in a more common rhyme such, as s i z h i E H t . 5 * Furthermore, 37 words among them are e x c e e d i n g l y rare, such as "mang" jjj^ (mole c r i c k e t ) and "gang" |j[ (name of a bean), but Huang uses e i g h t out of 13 common words a v a i l a b l e t o him, which almost exhausts a l l v i a b l e word o p t i o n s j u s t i n one poem. Huang's t a l e n t s u r p r i s e d L i u XunJdj^H^ 1240-1319) so much th a t he says, " I n Shangu's p o e t i c c r e a t i o n , the use o f some r a r e rhymes i s too wonderful f o r words...Just i n the case o f the word 'xiang' {of; (surre n d e r ) , who c o u l d manage to use i t as a rhyme and c r e a t e the a i r of strangeness and power which i s 59 brought out by the rhyming words. " Upon c l o s e examination we can understand how the poet i s c h a l l e n g e d by rhyme schemes. For example, i n the tenth and f o u r t e e n t h l i n e s above, the poet i n v e r t s the normal order of a sentence and p l a c e s the verbs "zhuang" (dash) and "shuang" (rank) at the ends of t h e i r sentences as rhyming words. In the s i x t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h l i n e s , we see how s k i l f u l l y Huang uses h i s knowledge of h i s t o r y and Chinese c h a r a c t e r s to overcome, the d i f f i c u l t y of rhyming by quoting a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , " l a o Pang" ^ ( o l d Pang), and using the r a r e expression, "dun pang" f i 57 S h i Yun, o p . c i t . , v o l . 1 , pp.10-11. 58 i b i d . , vol. 1 , pp.11-21. 59 BBCS, L i u XunjIjjjJij > Y i n Ju Tonq Y i 113 IX; t v o l . a, p. 16. ( f a i t h f u l and honest). In f a c t , Huang d i d not have to f o l l o w Su S h i ' s rhyme to express h i s ideas. Even i f he d i d , he d i d not have to choose Su's poem with i t s "dangerous" rhyme f o r h i s model. Yet he i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e s a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h i s c r e a t i o n . The reason why he does so seems to be that he wants to i l l u s t r a t e h i s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . C. Rhythm Caesura and s t r e s s ( i n t e n s i t y of emphasis given to a s y l l a b l e ) are the most important elements of the caesura p a t t e r n s i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l poetry. Since Chinese i s a monosyllabic language, with each c h a r a c t e r a s y l l a b l e , the p o s i t i o n of caesura and s t r e s s i n a Chinese p o e t i c form are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the number of c h a r a c t e r s i n each l i n e . For example, i n p e n t a s y l l a b l e v e r s e a caesura u s u a l l y occurs a f t e r the f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s i n each l i n e , and a s t r e s s on the t h i r d s y l l a b l e . T h i s caesura p a t t e r n i s c a l l e d a "two-three p a t t e r n " , s t a n d i n g f o r the number of s y l l a b l e s before and a f t e r a caesura. In popular hepta-s y l l a b i c verse, caesuras u s u a l l y occur a f t e r the f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s , or a f t e r the f o r t h s y l l a b l e , and t h e r e i s a s i n g l e s t r e s s a f t e r each caesura. T h i s caesura p a t t e r n i s c a l l e d a two-two-three p a t t e r n , s t a n d i n g f o r the number of s y l l a b l e s (2-2-3) d i v i d e d by two caesuras. Yet, Huang does not f o l l o w the r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s . The f o l l o w i n g examples are given i n both l i t e r a l and l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n s so that we can o b t a i n some idea Huang uses h i s own rhythms. (/ stands f o r caesura) of how Gong ru / da guo chu, Yours l i k e huge s t a t e Chu, Yours i s l i k e Strong Chu, Tong / wu hu san j i a n . Swallow f i v e l a k e s three r i v e r s . Embracing f i v e lakes, three r i v e r s . SO Qing bo l i /pen cha / q i a n cen. Green g l a s s b a s i n penetrate thousands h i l l s , Thousands of h i l l s penetrate the r i v e r as i f i t were a green g l a s s basin. Xiang j i a n g / s h u i b i / wu gu j i n . Xiang J i a n g water c l e a r no past today. T h i s Xiang J i a n g River has been c l e a r through the In the f i r s t example, which i s e x t r a c t e d from h i s p e n t a s y l l a b l e poem quoted e a r l i e r , the second l i n e f o l l o w s a one-four p a t t e r n (caesura a f t e r the f i r s t s y l l a b l e ) i n s t e a d of the common two-th r e e p a t t e r n . In the second one w r i t t e n i n h e p t a s y l l a b i c form, Huang r e p l a c e s the common two-two-three p a t t e r n with the three-two-two i n the f i r s t l i n e . These unusual changes of rhythmic p a t t e r n might be thought t o d e s t r o y the harmony and balance o f t r a d i t i o n a l rhythmic p a t t e r n s . Yet, we f e e l t h a t a new a t t r a c t i o n i s c r e a t e d by breaking the t r a d i t i o n a l rhythm because Huang s k i l f u l l y makes h i s i n n o v a t i o n serve h i s e x p r e s s i o n 60 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 5 , p. 85. 61 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.20, p. 359. 115 of meaning i n the poem. As we know, the t h i r d word i n the p e n t a s y l l a b l e verse and f i f t h word i n the h e p t a s y l l a b i c verse are u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as key words. The main reason i s that they are both p o s i t i o n e d as s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , or are the f i r s t s y l l a b l e s a f t e r a caesura. In the examples above, Huang c l e v e r l y a p p l i e s t h i s r u l e to h i s i n n o v a t i o n . In the f i r s t example, Huang attempts to p r a i s e Su's m a j e s t i c and powerful p o e t i c s t y l e . The de s i g n of one-four p a t t e r n s t r e s s e s "wu" _ ( f i v e ) as the f i r s t s y l l a b l e a f t e r c a e s u r a and "tun" Jff j(swallow) as a rhythmic u n i t with only one s y l l a b l e . Yet the two words s t r e s s e d i n rhythm are j u s t the ones which are e f f e c t i v e l y able to convey Huang's f e e l i n g because "tun" i m p l i e s a powerful a c t i o n and "wu" d e s c r i b e s a vast range. Fang Dongshu says o f Huang, "As f o r s y l l a b l e s , he uniquely c r e a t e s the high, t w i s t i n g , strange and uneven sounds, along with 62 h i s s t y l e . " a ^ Here, we can r e a l l y i d e n t i f y Huang's h e r o i c s t y l e through h i s arrangement of key words. The second example i s ex t r a c t e d from Huang's poem which d i s p l a y s h i s f e e l i n g i n ascending a height. At the beginning of the poem a c o u p l e t d e s c r i b e s a lake and the mountains over i t from a d i s t a n c e . I t i s c e r t a i n that the use of "pen" ^  i(basin) and " q i a n " \ '.(thousands) p o r t r a y s the d i s t a n t view from which the la k e i s seen as s m a l l as a bas i n and the mountains as numerous. 62 Fang Dongshu, op. c i t . , v o l . 10, p. 225. 116 Therefore, Huang adopts the three-two-two rhythmic p a t t e r n to p o s i t i o n "pen" and "qian" as s t r e s s s y l l a b l e . As a r e s u l t , these two key words, which are p r o p e r l y underscored, help p o r t r a y a d i s t a n t scene. Huang a l s o a p p l i e s i n n o v a t i o n of rhythmic p a t t e r n s to the r a r e l y used p o e t i c f o r m - - h e x a s y l l a b i c verse, which we d i s c u s s e d i n terms of l i n e s t r u c t u r e e a r l i e r . Here, l e t us look at a poem w r i t t e n i n h e x a s y l l a b i c form i n order to examine i t s rhythmic p a t t e r n . I n s c r i b i n g Zhen Fan's C o l l e c t e d P i c t u r e huichong/yan yu / gui yan, Huichong mist r a i n r e t u r n i n g swan geese, Huichong's swan geese are r e t u r n i n g i n the mist and r a i n , zuo wo/xiaoxiang/dongting. A r r i v e my X i a o x i a n g Dongting. B r i n g me to Xiaoxiang River and Dongting Lake. yu 'huan/pian zhou/gui qu. W i l l c a l l l i t t l e boat go back, I w i l l c a l l a l i t t l e boat to take me home, gu ren / yan shi/dan qing. Old f r i e n d says i s p i c t u r e . 63 My o l d f r i e n d reminds me i t i s only a p i c t u r e . From the word p a t t e r n of the poem we know th a t the rhythmic p a t t e r n of t h i s poem has a caesura a f t e r two s y l l a b l e s , and two caesuras per l i n e . T h i s two-two-two rhythmic p a t t e r n should be c o n s i d e r e d standard f o r h e x a s y l l a b i c verse. Compared with the 63 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 7 , p. 128. f a m i l i a r two-three or two-two-three pa t t e r n s , the two-two-two rhythmic p a t t e r n i s more even and well-balanced. Yet Huang doe. not s a t i s f y the requirement of standard m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s of thi r a r e l y - u s e d form. bu yuan z i / t a n g t a n g qu, Not complain you f r e e l y go, I do not complain about you l e a v i n g f r e e l y , g a i n i a n qun/dede l a i . Only hope you h a p p i l y come. But only hope t h a t you come here h a p p i l y . ^ 4 gu y i n g / f e i Huange xiang. Bone hard not Huange luck. With hard bone [ u n y i e l d i n g ] , you w i l l not be lucky l i k e Huange yan q i n g / j i a n Baipingzhou. Eyes b r i g h t see Baipingzhou. With welcoming eyes, one can see Baipingzhou The f i r s t example shows that Huang changes the two-two-two p a t t e r n s i n t o a t h r e e - t h r e e and a two-four, with both having on one caesura. In the f i r s t example, the arrangement of rhythm ( f r e e l y ) and "dede" $fff ( h a p p i l y ) i which have been emphasized through r e p e t i t i o n , so t h a t a person h e l p s t o s t r e s s "tangtang" manner i s v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d . In the second example, " f e i " $ (not) and " j i a n " (see) placed a f t e r caesuras d e l i n e a t e a person's f i r m a t t i t u d e . When we chant the two poems, we 64 65 SGSZ, B i e j i , vol.2, p. 39. SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.14, p. 258. 118 n a t u r a l l y i n t o n e Huang's rhythmic design s t r e s s i n g these key words without any awkwardness of sound. The reason i s t h a t Huang s u b t l y and p r o p e r l y expresses meaning i n h i s poems through the d e v i c e of i n n o v a t i v e rhythm. Through the a n a l y s i s above, we can see that Huang not o n l y c r e a t e s strangeness through changing o r d i n a r y rhythms, but a l s o makes changes t h a t help him to express himself. IV. The Strangeness of Allusion The use of a l l u s i o n i s one of the most apparent but c o n t r o v e r s i a l t r a i t s of Huang's p o e t i c technique. He adopts many a l l u s i o n s i n h i s poetry p a r t l y because he i s to q u i t e an extent i n f l u e n c e d by the Xikun S t y l e jH^ )^ !^  i , ^  which was a p r e v a l e n t p o e t i c f a d i n the e a r l y days of the Song, and p a r t l y because of h i s I n t e r e s t i n "changing the bone and e v o l v i n g from the embryo." Besides, i t cannot be denied t h a t h i s e r u d i t i o n i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l books helped develop t h i s fondness. H i s use of a l l u s i o n i s c r i t i c i z e d by many s c h o l a r s s i n c e he sometimes goes to extremes i n the p u r s u i t of unique e f f e c t s . Indeed, some of Huang's poems are h a r d l y understood because of the adoption of too many strange and r a r e a l l u s i o n s . 66 The Xikun S t y l e i s an important p o e t i c school i n the e a r l y days of the Song. Poets of t h i s s c h o o l regard L i Shangyin H of the Tang as t h e i r master, and pay great a t t e n t i o n t o the use of a n t i t h e s i s , a l l u s i o n , and flowery words i n t h e i r p o e t i c c r e a t i o n . 119 O c c a s i o n a l l y , the a r t i s t i c value of the poem i s destroyed. Yet, i t i s worthy to note that he s u c c e s s f u l l y innovates and develops t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s i n h i s p r a c t i c e . As the r e s u l t of the e x t e n s i v e use of a l l u s i o n , i t might be s a i d t h at he almost exhausts a l l the p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s of a l l u s i o n i n h i s poetry, and maximizes the sources of a l l u s i o n . Here, we w i l l attempt to e x p l o r e o n l y how Huang reaches strangeness through a l l u s i o n . F i r s t of a l l , Huang o f t e n seeks a l l u s i o n s which were r a r e l y used by h i s predecessors and found i n obscure books. Here i s the f i r s t c o u p l e t i n a poem which we quoted i n Chapter One. Guan Chengzi [brush] does not have the l u c k to eat meat, Kong Fangxiong [copper-money] sent me a l e t t e r to break o f f our f r i e n d s h i p . The c o u p l e t c o n t a i n s f o u r a l l u s i o n s . The f i r s t one i s from Han -£ fcg i+. Yu's essay "Mao Ying Zhuan" • Han wrote, "The emperor Qin [ J j j j f | ] bestowed on Meng Tian [ §£]£(,'] the land Tangmu and c o n f e r r e d Guan C i t y upon him. Thus, he was c a l l e d Guan Chengzi ^ ^ - f i . " 6 7 Here Huang a p p l i e s Guan Chengzi's m i s f o r t u n e i n becoming an o f f i c i a l to himself. Besides, "guan" can be used as a measure word to modify a s l i m , long, round o b j e c t such as a w r i t i n g Jarush. Here the poet s u b t l y uses the meaning above to imply t h a t he h i m s e l f i s a person who spends h i s 67 Han Yu, Han Chang L i Wen J i J i a o Zhu $|}$5C )^iui , ed. , Ma Tongbo > B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1964, v o l . 8, p. 325. 120 l i f e on t r i f l e s such as p l a y i n g with a w r i t i n g brush. F u r t h e r -more, i t prepares the reader f o r the appearance of h i s o f f i c i a l t i t l e s as a w r i t e r and e d i t o r . The second a l l u s i o n can be found i n "Ban Chao Zhuan" J||Ijjf • A f o r t u n e t e l l e r t o l d Ban Chao $fj|jif , "[You] have a s w a l l o w - l i k e c h i n and t i g e r - l i k e neck. I t looks as i f you w i l l be able to f l y and eat meat. T h i s i s the look [ l u c k ] of a t e n - t h o u s a n d - l i high o f f i c i a l . "^® Thus, " s h i rou xiang" f w | (a look of having meat to eat) r e a l l y means "the l u c k to become an high o f f i c i a l . " "Kong Fangxiong" & f^& (On the Money God). Lu, i n a humorous mood, d e s c r i b e s a l l u d e s t o Lu Bao' s -g% "Qian Shen Lun" m Chinese c l a s s i c a l coppers as " f r i e n d l y as brothers, and g q t h e i r p o l i t e name i s Kongfang [square h o l e ] . " And, "breaking-o f f l e t t e r " ^ ^ ^ 5 j a l l u d e s t o a well-known s t o r y , which i s t h a t X i Kang if§J|[ j wrote a l e t t e r , e n t i t l e d "Yu Shan Juyuan Jue J i a Shu" •^lL)^^^^t"ft j < A L e t t e r Breaking R e l a t i o n s With Shan Juyuan), to Shan Tao jj^ ^ j. In the l e t t e r , X i announced t h a t he was ending h i s f r i e n d s h i p with Shan because he was a f r a i d t h a t Shan would 70 recommend him to be an o f f i c i a l . Without the knowledge of the sources above, we can h a r d l y comprehend the c o u p l e t , as Liang Kun comments, "Really, those l a c k i n g l e a r n i n g w i l l not understand 68 Fan Hua, o p . c i t . , vol.47, p. 1571. 69 Fang Xuanlin, o p . c i t . , vol.94, p. 2437. 70 WYWK, X i Kang «j» , X i Zhonqsan J i $j|Ta,\7fi;: p. 16. ' ' , 1955, v o l . 2 . 121 71 what Huang means." Two a l l u s i o n s among them are e s p e c i a l l y uncommon--"Guan Chengzi" i s r a r e l y used by other poets, and "Kong. Fangxiong" i s from an obscure source. T h i s i s j u s t how Huang a c h i e v e s strangeness. In one sense, Wei T a i ' s f | ^ | ( l l A. D. ) comment on Huang's use of a l l u s i o n i s not completely wrong. He wrote "Huang T i n g j i a n . . . o n l y seeks a l l u s i o n s which are not used by the a n c i e n t s , and one or two r a r e words to weave i n t o h i s 72 p o e t r y . " Now, l e t us examine Huang's i n n o v a t i v e s k i l l i n making a l l u s i o n s f i t h i s own s p e c i a l imagery. An o r i g i n a l image can be d i r e c t l y a p p r e c i a t e d without r e f e r r i n g to an a l l u s i o n , or i t can be developed to e x p l o r e i t s deep i m p l i c a t i o n s through a l l u s i o n . Huang's i n n o v a t i v e a l l u s i o n s have been d e f i n e d as " e v o l v i n g from the embryo." The e f f e c t of f l e x i b l e or double meaning i n an a l l u s i o n produces Huang's strangeness. T h i s p o i n t of view can be i l l u s t r a t e d best by h i s " Y i Qi Liang Shou Zeng Ren Gong j i a n " iff^n B mm (Two Poems about P l a y i n g Chess Sent to Ren Gongjian), the t h i r d and f o u r t h l i n e s : Mind l i k e a p i e c e of web d r i f t i n g i n the c l e a r sky, Body l i k e a c i c a d a slough o s s i f i e d on the withered b r a n c h . 7 3 There i s no doubt most readers would be able to understand these 71 72 73 L i a n g Kun, op. c i t . , p. 86. CSJC, Wei T a i , L i n Han Yin Ju S h i Hua SGSZ, W a i j i , vol.2, p. 26. two images. An a b s t r a c t mental s t a t e i s v i s u a l i z e d i n a c o n c r e t e and p r e c i s e image "a p i e c e of web", and a p h y s i c a l posture i s embodied by the unexpected "a c i c a d a slough." The use of these two images i s a l r e a d y good enough to evoke s u r p r i s e . Let us now go a step f u r t h e r and look at the second image's a l l u s i o n . "A c i c a d a slough" hides an a l l u s i o n t o the Zhuanqzi, which i n c l u d e s a s t o r y of a r i c k e t y o l d man who i s good at c a t c h i n g c i c a d a s and a t t r a c t s them by p o s t u r i n g h i s body as a withered trunk with h i s arms resembling withered branches. The author of Zhuanqzi i s attempting to i l l u s t r a t e the importance of c o n c e n t r a t i o n as a method of study through the image of an o l d man. So he concludes, "No matter how huge heaven and earth, or how numerous the ten thousand things, I'm aware of nothing but 74 c i c a d a wings." Yet, Huang c o n v e r s e l y uses the image " c i c a d a " i n s t e a d o f "a r i c k e t y o l d man". A c i c a d a slough i s more a c c u r a t e to d e s c r i b e a chess p l a y e r ' s bending, r i g i d body. Furthermore, "a c i c a d a s l o u g h " corresponds to "Mind l i k e a p i e c e of web d r i f t i n g the c l e a r sky" which i m p l i e s the detachment of the s p i r i t from the p l a y e r ' s body. Huang d i s p l a y s a s k i l f u l use of a l l u s i o n . He can s u b t l y weave some seemingly i r r e l e v a n t a l l u s i o n s i n t o a poem without any apparent t r a c e of design. And the i r r e l e v a n t a l l u s i o n s p e r f e c t l y match each o t h e r i n s t r u c t u r e or meaning. Here i s h i s most o f t e n 74 Burton Watson, o p . c i t . , p.199. quoted "He Da Qian Mufu Yong Xingxing Kao B i " $ J ^ f t f i A > ^ _IIf^ Reply f o r Qian Mufu about Brush of Pongo's Hair Loving d r i n k i n g , the Pongo-ape e a s i l y gets drunk, And can speak human language so as not to keep a s e c r e t . How many p a i r s of sandals can i t wear i n i t s l i f e ? F i v e c a r t s of books are l e f t a f t e r i t s death. The brush can be found by reading "Lords' Meeting", The achievement of the brush i s i n S h i Qu. P u l l i n g out a h a i r can b e n e f i t the world, T h i s t r u t h should be t o l d to Yang Z h u . 7 5 T h i s poem c o n t a i n s of seven a l l u s i o n s . The f i r s t one, the Pongo's l o v e o f d r i n k i n g , i s taken from P e i Yan f ^ |"Xingxing Ming" $_:_|ft I ( I n s c r i p t i o n on Pongo). I t i s w r i t t e n that the Pongo l o v e s d r i n k i n g and wearing sandals, so th a t some hunters put 7 6 d r i n k s and sand a l s along the roa d s i d e as b a i t t o catch him. The a l l u s i o n i n the second l i n e i s taken from L i Jiffijj^ i which says "Pongo can speak, but s t i l l i s no d i f f e r e n t from an 7 7 animal." The t h i r d one i s e x t r a c t e d from a s t o r y about Ruan Fu who l i k e d s andals and made them himself. Yuan s a i d , "I do 7 8 not know how many p a i r s of sand a l s I can wear i n my l i f e . " The f o u r t h one a l l u d e s t o Zhuanqzi, i n which Zhuangzi s a i d , "Hui Shih 7 5 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 3 , pp. 6 0 - 6 1 . 7 6 GXJBCS. P e i Yan, "Xingxing Ming", Tang Wen Cui J U A ^ » E D -Yao Xuan , T a i p e i : T a i Wan Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan, 1 9 6 8 , v o l . 7 8 , p. 1 2 5 9 . 7 7 L i J i Chang Ju, ed. Wang Fuzhi, T a i p e i : Guan Wen Shu Ju, 1 9 5 6 , v o l . 1 , p. 3 . 7 8 Fang Xuanlin, o p . c i t . , v o l . 4 9 , p . 1 3 6 4 . 1 2 4 WW (Zhuangzi's f r i e n d ) was a man of many dev i c e s and h i s 7 9 w r i t i n g s would f i l l f i v e c a r r i a g e s . " In the f i f t h l i n e , "Lords' Meeting" should be understood as the t i t l e of one ch a p t e r i n J i Zhong Zhou Shu ^ ^ ^ ^ . In t h a t chapter, i t s commentator Zheng Xuan ^ (127-200) wrote, " A f t e r the King's c i t y i s b u i l t , the King meets a l l l o r d s and the dele g a t e s from ne i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s . In the s i x t h l i n e , "Shi Q u " ^ ^ i s another term f o r a l i b r a r y . The source can be found i n Ban Gu's X i Du Fu jljlfjjfl (The Rhymeprose of The Western C a p i t a l ) , which says, "Shi Qu i s the p l a c e where an c i e n t books and r e c o r d s are c o l l e c t e d " . The l a s t c o u p l e t c o n t a i n s a comment on the founder of Yang Zhu School of Chinese philosophy or Egoism, which i s re c o r d e d i n Mencius mT, where i t says "Yang Tzu chooses egoism. Even i f he c o u l d b e n e f i t the Empire by p u l l i n g out one h a i r he would not do i t . " 8 2 We have d i s c o v e r e d a l l the a l l u s i o n s i n the above poem. Now, l e t us examine how Huang o r g a n i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e s the seven a l l u s i o n s i n t o the poem to d i s p l a y h i s m u l t i - l e v e l l e d meaning. Instead of the s u b j e c t of the poem--the brush, from the 79 Burton Watson, o p . c i t . , p.374. 80 SBCK, J i Zhong Zhou Shu - ^^^-{f , ed. , Kong Chao ^.f| , v o l . 7 , p. 42. 81 Ban Gu, " X i Du Fu", Quan Shanq Gu San Dai Qin Han San Guo L i u Chao Wen ^ J L j J f E i t j t v w l l A I H X ' B e i J i n 9 : Zhong Hua Shu Ju, 1965, v o l . 1, p. buj. 82 D. C. Lao, op. c i t . , v o l . 2, p. 275. 125 poet's f r i e n d , which i n s p i r e s him to w r i t e t h i s poem, the poem s t a r t s by d e s c r i b i n g the Pongo's love of d r i n k and wearing sandals, and that i t keeps no s e c r e t s because i t speaks l i k e a human being. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t can be t r a c e d back to the s u b j e c t through a roundabout way, from Pongo's t r a i t s to Pongo to Pongo's h a i r , to the w r i t i n g brush which i s made of h i s h a i r . So the i n t r i c a t e l i n k between the w r i t i n g brush and Pongo's t r a i t s i s bridged,through two a l l u s i o n s . Also, the d e s c r i p t i o n of Pongo's t r a i t s c o u l d be understood to symbolize the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l . Pongo's l o v i n g d r i n k and t e l l i n g s e c r e t s remind one of the Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' fondness f o r d r i n k and c r i t i c i s m of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s . The meaning of t h i s l e v e l i s f u r t h e r developed. In the t h i r d l i n e , c o n t i n u i n g the t o p i c from the f i r s t c o u p l e t , the poet jokes about the Pongo's weakness: l o v i n g sandals, which makes him an easy prey f o r hunters. In the f o u r t h l i n e , the t o p i c changes to the w r i t i n g brush, which shows the bad l u c k of the captured Pongos whose h a i r was used to make w r i t i n g brushes. Yet a deeper meaning c o u l d be understood as a s a t i r e of i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' c o v e t i n g p e t t y gains,("How many p a i r s of s a n d a l s can i t wear i n i t s l i f e ? " ) i n the t h i r d l i n e s i n c e Huang h e r e i n d e l i b e r a t e l y quotes the i n t e l l e c t u a l Ruan Fu's words i n a s a t i r i c mood. Also, the f o r t h l i n e c o u l d be understood to c h a r a c t e r i z e i n t e l l e c t u a l s ("Five c a r t s of books are l e f t a f t e r i t s death") s i n c e the o r i g i n a l meaning of a l l u s i o n i s to p r a i s e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l Hui Shi. Therefore, the second l e v e l of meaning i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t i s developed here. I t i s n o t i c e a b l e that the s u b t l e use of a l l u s i o n i n the t h i r d l i n e f u n c t i o n s to l i n k the s u r f a c e meaning and to b r i n g out the second l e v e l of meaning i n the f i r s t and second couplets, even though Huang's fondness f o r sandals has nothing to do with Pongo's. Also, the f o u r t h l i n e b r i n g s out the su b j e c t of the poem--the w r i t i n g brush--through the id e a t h a t the book i s w r i t t e n with a brush. By f o l l o w i n g the t o p i c o f the w r i t i n g brush, the f i f t h l i n e i m p l i e s the f o r e i g n source of the brush which Qian Mufu might o b t a i n from a f o r e i g n e r i n a meeting such as a "Lords' Meeting". The s i x t h l i n e t e l l s us the brush's f u n c t i o n i s to wr i t e books through an e x p l a n a t i o n from Ban Gu. As f o r the second l e v e l meaning, the adoption o f the chapter t i t l e - - " L o r d s ' Meeting" i n the f i r s t a l l u s i o n and of the source of the second a l l u s i o n -famous prose expresses the c h i e f achievement o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l , a book. In the l a s t c o u p l e t , Pongo, the brush, and i n t e l l e c t u a l s are combined together. On the su r f a c e , " P u l l i n g out a h a i r can b e n e f i t the world" means th a t p u l l i n g out a h a i r from Pongo can make the brush with which to w r i t e books t h a t b e n e f i t the world. In the second l e v e l , i t means i n a humorous way that i n t e l l e c t u a l s can s t i l l make some c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y even though they are engaged i n unimportant e n t e r p r i s e s l i k e w r i t i n g 127 books with brushes. Yang Z i ' s egoism which i n s t r u c t s people o n l y to t h i n k about themselves should not be accepted. Here Huang uses a d i f f e r e n t the word " h a i r " to l i n k Pongo's h a i r to the brush, to Zhu Z i ' s well-known phrase as a whole. Once more, we see how Huang o r i g i n a l l y and s u b t l y weaves some i r r e l e v a n t t h i n g s i n t o one. The poem i s formed by means of two c l u e s which present two l e v e l s of meaning: the s u r f a c e one which develops from Pongo to the brush to an i n t e l l e c t u a l ; and the second l e v e l which d e s c r i b e s i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The use of the l a s t a l l u s i o n i n the l a s t c o u p l e t d e l i c a t e l y j o i n s the two l e v e l s of meaning i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n t e l l e c t u a l . And the s u c c e s s f u l c r e a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e and m u l t i - l e v e l l e d meanings i n t h i s poem a l l r e s u l t from the s u b t l e and o r i g i n a l use of u n r e l a t e d a l l u s i o n s . Although t h i s i s a poem f u l l of a l l u s i o n s , we do not f e e l t h a t i t i s clumsy or i s p i e c e d together. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that J i Yun 1^(1724-1805) t h i n k s the poem can be used as "the standard f o r 83 u s i n g a l l u s i o n . " V. A B r i e f Survey of Huang's Poetic Style F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o end t h i s chapter with some c o n c l u d i n g remarks about Huang's p o e t i c s t y l e . We can more 83 Fang Hui jfU\ , J i P i Yinq Kui Lu S u i Kan Wu SStilJIfftfta , com. J i Yun £JiA> , Xian Hua An Chong Kan Ben &$|§lfjii'i • » 1788, vol.27, p.6. **94- • | 128 c l e a r l y e v a l u a t e h i s p o e t i c s t y l e now, a f t e r our s t u d y of h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e , i . e . , h i s use of techniques such as " d i c t i o n , sound p a t t e r n s , rhythm, f i g u r e s of language, f i g u r e s of thought, 84 and f i g u r e s of speech." Therefore, we now know h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r an o b l i q u e i n s t e a d o f a frank s t y l e of poetry through our a n a l y s i s of h i s strangeness, e s p e c i a l l y i n p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , unusual l i n e s t r u c t u r e , and a l l u s i o n . Here we i n t e n d to g i v e some more examples which w i l l show how Huang's p o e t i c s t y l e i s formed, i n order to provide an o v e r a l l view of h i s o b l i q u e s t y l e . F i r s t , l e t us take a look at h i s "Xu Ruzi C i Tang"|f||"f S t ! • 8 5 ' I The Shrine of Xu Ruzi T a l l t r e e s surround the r e c l u s e ' s three-nvu s h r i n e . Today, with whom can the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h a t bunch of fodder be discussed? Twined w i s t e r i a i s i n the ascendant, a s s a u l t i n g the clouds and sun. Who has a mind to t r e a t him with wine d u r i n g f l u t i n g and drumming. Maybe then, no Ruzi i n a hut, C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s no l a c k of Chen Fans i n o f f i c i a l mansions! Our f o r e f a t h e r s were unambitious, and are d e r i d e d by our contemporaries. 84 N. Friedman and C.A. Mclaughlin, Poetry: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to  I t s Form and Art, New York: Harper & Brothers P u b l i s h e r s , 1961, pp.135-143. 85 Fan Hua, o p . c i t . , vol.29, p. 1294. , A c c o r d i n g to Hou Han Shu, Xu Z h i ^ ^ ( z i Ruzi |gj ' ) i s very poor and s u p p o r t s h i s f a m i l y by h i s own labour. He i s r e s p e c t f u l , modest and f o r b e a r i n g , and r e f u s e s employment by the i m p e r i a l government. 129 Yet, waves i n t h e l a k e r e a c h t h e i r former marks. In t h i s poem, Huang e x p r e s s e s h i s r e s p e c t f o r Xu R u z i ' s v i r t u e and l a c k o f a m b i t i o n . The theme i s i l l u s t r a t e d by some of Huang's t y p i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . F i r s t , h i s use o f a l l u s i o n . A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n v ironment o f t h e s h r i n e i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t , Huang uses an a l l u s i o n , " t h a t bunch of f o d d e r " , which i s from Hou Han Shu. mother, Xu put a bunch o f f o d d e r i n f r o n t o f t h e mother's tomb e x p l a i n e d , " I t i s r e a d i n The Book o f Songs, 'A bunch o f f o d d e r , / 8 7 [which s y m b o l i z e s ] t h e p e r s o n [who r e c e i v e s i t ] i s l i k e j a d e . ss I am not v i r t u o u s enough t o d e s e r v e i t . " I n t h e s i x t h l i n e Huang uses a n o t h e r a l l u s i o n , Chen Fan, who i s t h e m a g i s t r a t e o f Nanchang j U g : and an admirer o f Xu. Whenever Xu v i s i t e d Chen, Chen s a t Xu on a couch. A f t e r Xu l e f t , Chen r e s e r v e d t h e couch f o r Xu by hanging i t from a beam, i n o r d e r t o show h i s r e s p e c t f o r Xu. As i n o t h e r examples d i s c u s s e d i n t h e Chapter Three, t h e use o f a l l u s i o n s i n t h i s poem i n c r e a s e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f comprehending i t . F o r example, i n t h e f i r s t a l l u s i o n Xu's v i r t u e 86 SGSZ, W a i j i , v o l . 1 , p. 11. 87 Chen Huan, o p . c i t . , v o l . 4 , p. 67. 88 Fang Hua, o p . c i t . , p. 1294. When Xu c o n s o l e d h i s f r i e n d upon t h e l o s s o f h i s and l e f t . B y s t a n d e r s d i d not u n d e r s t a n d Xu's a c t i o n . Guo 130 i s d e l i n e a t e d by an a l l u s i o n from T h e Book of Songs, which i s a l s o e n c l o s e d i n Xu's s t o r y . The sandwiched a l l u s i o n e n r i c h e s the c o n n o t a t i o n of i t s words so t h a t the poem becomes more i m p l i c i t . We a l s o note t h a t Huang employs r h e t o r i c a l sentences to c o o r d i n a t e the a l l u s i o n s i n the f i r s t and t h i r d c o u p l e t s . In the second l i n e , the q u e s t i o n sentence i s a pun, which s u p e r f i c i a l l y r e f e r s t o Guo T a i ' s e x p l a n a t i o n to the confused bystanders i n Xu's s t o r y , and a c t u a l l y expresses Huang's worries about moral decay s i n c e the v i r t u o u s r e c l u s e Xu i s no longer r e s p e c t e d and understood. His ne g a t i v e mood toward the times i s expressed through a r h e t o r i c a l q uestion, but not i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way. In the t h i r d c o uplet, what Huang wants to express i s t h a t t h e r e are s t i l l many v i r t u o u s people l i k e Ruzi, but i t i s hard t o f i n d admirers o f these v i r t u e l i k e Chen Fan. Yet, the a f f i r m a t i v e meaning i n the f i f t h l i n e i s expressed through a negative e x p r e s s i o n "no", and the negative meaning i n the s i x t h l i n e i s expressed through an a f f i r m a t i v e one "not l a c k i n g " (two n e g a t i v e s ) . The combination of a l l u s i o n and r h e t o r i c a l sentence f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e s the poem. Furthermore, many symbols are used i n the poem, f o r example: " w i s t e r i a " which stands f o r v i l l a i n s , "the cloud s and sun" f o r o f f i c i a l s i n high p o s i t i o n s and the emperor, "hut", the p l a c e where v i r t u e l i v e s , and " o f f i c i a l mansion", the p l a c e where o f f i c i a l s l i v e . The use of symbols embodies the poet's f e e l i n g s i n a convoluted way. F i n a l l y , Huang ends h i s poem with a d e s c r i p t i o n of a scene t h a t d i s p l a y s h i s idea, which i s a t y p i c a l method he uses to convey h i s thoughts to h i s readers. Because of the i m p l i c a t i o n of the method, Huang's idea i n the l a s t l i n e can be understood e i t h e r as there are s t i l l people who f o l l o w v i r t u e r e g a r d l e s s of what o t h e r s ' d e r i d e , or as v i r t u e l i k e Xu's w i l l be f a i r l y judged by h i s t o r y . From the a n a l y s i s of the poem, we can see that Huang's o b l i q u e p o e t i c s t y l e i s formed by a d e l i b e r a t e and c a r e f u l use of a l l k i n d s of p o e t i c s k i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y the method with which he c o n s c i o u s l y ends h i s poem i n order to a v o i d a frank e x p r e s s i o n of meaning. The c l o s u r e i s so important i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l p o e t r y t h a t we can u s u a l l y o b t a i n the major idea of a poem from i t . Here i s another example which shows us how Huang d e a l s with s t r o n g f e e l i n g : A P i c t u r e of Ant and B u t t e r f l i e s 0 ^ 7 A p a i r of b u t t e r f l i e s f l y i n g f r e e l y . Happen t o d i e i n a web. A swarm of ants rush to c a r r y t h e i r dropped wings. And r e t u r n to Nanke 9^ i n triumph. 89 SGSZ, N e i j i , vol.16, p. 298. 90 BBCS, L i Gongzuo j. Nan Ke J i jjfflft}. I t says .that Chun Yufen dreamed of v i s i t i n g the Kingdom o f Da Huaian j^H '^ a n a * became governor of the Nanke j (south t r e e ) area. A l t e r awakening, he r e a l i z e d t h a t the kingdom was o n l y an ant nest under a Chinese s c h o l a r t r e e on the south s i d e o f h i s 132 T h i s might be a poem through which Huang s t r o n g l y d i s p l a y s h i s anger at the immorality of the ants who rush i n to devour the. i l l - f a t e d b u t t e r f l i e s . Although Huang i s almost i n a mood t o curse, h i s f e e l i n g s are s t i l l c o n t r o l l e d through p o e t i c technique. The theme of the poem i s i l l u s t r a t e d through t h r e e dominant symbols: b u t t e r f l i e s , s p i d e r s , and ants, which might be c o n s i d e r e d as naive v i c t i m s , hunters, and immoral people, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Through an a c c i d e n t i n nature i n which the t h r e e i n s e c t s are i n v o l v e d , a complex human r e l a t i o n s h i p i s embodied. The use of a l l u s i o n i n the end i s p e r f e c t and s u b t l e , f o r i t not on l y f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n of ants, but a l s o c o n c e a l s the poet's s a t i r e of "those ants" whose d e s i r e w i l l be only a fond dream. Although the poet has a s t r o n g hatred f o r the immoral ants, h i s f e e l i n g s are i m p l i e d through a well-known a l l u s i o n , "Nanke." I t reminds us of Huang's c r i t i c i s m toward Su S h i ' s c u r s i n g s o c i a l a f f a i r s . For Huang, even i f h i s anger becomes white hot, i t seems he would r a t h e r r e l e a s e i t i n h i s own manner i m p l i c i t l y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s o b l i q u e p o e t i c s t y l e , i t i s important to note t h a t Huang a l s o w r i t e s many humorous poems, as he h i m s e l f s t a t e s "producing a tune t h a t e i t h e r groans or laughs". Wang J i s i says, "The f a s h i o n of Song poets using poems t o make jokes began with Dongpo...There are more humorous i n t e r e s t s i n Shangu's poetry. Yet, h i s humorous i n t e r e s t i s not as obvious as house. 133 g i Dongpo's, so c a r e l e s s readers o f t e n do not catch i t . " Zhang Bingquan a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t Huang produces a humorous e f f e c t by. g o h i s poetry, as Su Shi and Tao Yuanming do. His humorous s t y l e might be a s s o c i a t e d with h i s adoption of t r i f l e s and d a i l y l i f e as p o e t i c s u b j e c t s . We should have a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d Huang's sense of humour i n our a n a l y s i s of poems such as " P e t i t i o n i n g A Cat" and "Reply f o r Qian Mufu on the Brush from Pongo's H a i r " . Most of the poems he w r i t e s " f o r fun" (x_i ^  ;) produce a humorous e f f e c t . Here l e t us take a look at h i s " X i Da Chen Yuanyu" $!(^ t; Reply to Chen Yuanyu f o r Fun As f a r as I have heard about you Chen Dingzhou, Harvests year a f t e r year i n the county run by you, even l o c u s t s do not invade. We f i r s t knew each other when you were granted the o f f i c i a l t i t l e at East Gate, I t i s l u c k y t h a t our h a i r has not turned grey l i k e o l d men's. You are t i r e d of f i s h and meat i n formal p a r t i e s with o f f i c i a l s , But you are s l e e p l e s s from d r i n k i n g t h i c k tea, and have to f a c e the empty h a l l i n the autumn night. You say t h a t you do not dream of Beauty any more, Already as dry and i n s e n s i t i v e as a numb person. I am o n l y worried t h a t the red flower with a s m i l e welcomes you at the door, At night, o u t s i d e the window, c o l d r a i n beats the s l a n t i n g wind. Taking o f f your autumn c l o t h e s , dry them on the fumigator with burning l i g n a l o e . Behind the s i l v e r screen, you t o s s about i n bed, I t i s as hard t o p u l l up the ro o t of your a f f e c t i o n s 91 92 Wang J i s i , o p . c i t . , p. 245. Zhang Bingquan, o p . c i t . , p. 56. 134 go as to p u l l out green onion roots. Huang wrote t h i s poem i n a humorous mood. Since Chen was an o f f i c i a l i n charge of r e c e i v i n g guests and preparing food f o r o f f i c i a l p a r t i e s , who d i d "not dream of Beauty any more", Huang made fun of him. Even though the poem touches upon Chen's p r i v a t e l i f e , Huang p r o p e r l y d e a l s with t h i s s e n s i t i v e t o p i c i n Chinese c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e by combining s e r i o u s n e s s and humour. However, as we have pointed out, the main tendency of Huang's p o e t i c s t y l e i s oblique, and humour i s another aspect of t h i s s t y l e . His main tendency i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s emphasis on p o e t i c technique, and h i s humour r e f l e c t s h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Of course, we must not overlook the f a c t t h a t some of h i s poems are obscure. T h i s r e s u l t s from h i s e x c e s s i v e p u r s u i t of s trangeness or o r i g i n a l i t y i n words, sentences, p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , sound e f f e c t s , and e s p e c i a l l y a l l u s i o n . However, as Hu Yunyi JIJT^JI t a s p e c i a l i s t i n Song poetry, says, "The d e f e c t s of p o e t i c strangeness and o b s c u r i t y can be found i n Huang's 94 poems, but are not very apparent." 93 SGSZ, N e i j i , v o l . 8 , p. 145. 94 Hu Yunyi , Song Shi Yangiu ;fc|f$f;fl[. <A Study of the Song P o e t r y ) , Shanghai: Shang Wu Yin Shu Guan, 1933, p.91. 135 C o n c l u s i o n In the preceding chapters we presented a comparative d i s c u s s i o n of Huang's p o e t i c theory and p r a c t i c e . We analyzed h i s g e n e r a l views of poetry i n Chapter One, P a r t I - - f o c u s i n g on h i s concerns about p o e t i c content, which were f u r t h e r examined i n terms of p o e t i c p r a c t i c e i n Chapter Two. We analyzed h i s p r i n c i p l e s of p o e t i c method i n Chapter One, P a r t II and explored them i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three under the "strangeness," h i s use of major p o e t i c techniques. Therefore, we,have provided a c l e a r look a t h i s major t h e o r e t i c a l ideas, h i s main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p r a c t i c e , and the r e l a t i o n between h i s theory and p r a c t i c e . However, as we have mentioned many times, Huang's theory and p r a c t i c e are examined only i n terms o f h i s main tendencies. T h i s means t h a t i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that he p r e s e n t s us with d e v i a t i o n s from or even a c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o h i s main tendencies i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l or p r a c t i c a l w r i t i n g s . Based on t h i s viewpoint, i t i s easy f o r us to accept the f a c t t h a t he wrote a few poems c r i t i c i z i n g p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and a few poems i n r e g u l a r p o e t i c p a t t e r n s , and even i m i t a t e d o t h e r s without any i n n o v a t i o n or o r i g i n a l i t y . Yet, c e r t a i n l y , i t i s not these d e f e c t s which make him a great Chinese poet. G e n e r a l l y speaking, Huang pays l e s s a t t e n t i o n t o p o e t i c content than to p o e t i c technique. T h i s l e a v e s a l a r g e r range f o r him t o work on h i s p o e t i c s t y l e , p o e t i c form, and p o e t i c technique. Thus, Huang's 136 c o n t r i b u t i o n to Chinese poetry i s c h i e f l y h i s i n n o v a t i v e p o e t i c technique. Although h i s theory i n f l u e n c e d the formation of the J i a n g x i School of poetry, which was pr e v a l e n t f o r s e v e r a l hundred years, and occupies an important p l a c e i n Chinese p o e t i c theory, he i s known more as an a r t i s t than a t h e o r e t i c i a n . 137 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BBCK--BAI BU CONG KAN |ff BBCSJC--BAI BU CONG SHU JI CHENG CSJC--CONG SHU JI CHENG GXJBCS--GUO XUE JI BEN CONG SHU B ^ J ^ ^ SBBY--SI BU BEI YAO |0jffll1! SBCK--SI BU CONG KAN pJfUJjfl] j SGSZ--SHAN GU SHI ZHU | SSHJY--SONG SHI HUA JI YI J i t WYWK- - WAN YOU WEN KU 7f|fit)IJ ( YZHXSWJ- -YU ZHANG HUANG XIAN SHENG WEN JI J8$$5fc3:XSl: 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Primary Sources: Ban Gu $_&. Han Shu $(~$;. B e i j i n g : Zhong Hua Shu Ju tjj-j^-^^ j, 1972 Bai J u y i |. Bai Xiangshan J i mm WYWK. I i C a i Tao^SR'. X i Qing S h i Hua • SSHJY. Cao P i ! . Dian Lun I f L BBCK Cao Z h i ff f| ^  Zhao Youwen /Jed. 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