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Some aspects of the socialist movement in British Columbia, 1898-1933 Grantham, Ronald 1942

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lftf>  at?  fin;  5C  Some A s p e c t s of the S o c i a l i s t . . Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  1898 - 1953.  by Ronald" Grantham  A t h e s i s submitted i n - p a r t i a l fulfillment for  of the requirements  the degree of Master- of A r t s  i n the Department of H i s t o r y .  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h September S3, 1942  Columbia  Flt.-Sgt. Ron Grantham •C C FC a n d i d a t e Shelburne-Yc  th-CIare  •did  O ffers  A Personal Message to The People of This Constituency  Fellow Citizens: HUNDRED YEARS AGO, Joseph Howe denounced the government of Nova Scotia as an oligarchy of rich merchants, bankers and lawyers, ruling as it pleased. He demanded that it be made responsible to the people. Naturally, this ruling group hired propagandists to try to deceive the people. "Heed not such worthies,". Howe advised. "They are the same batch of Halifax officials, Tory merchants, village lawyers, and their friends and dependents, who at every step in advance which you have made ... have endeavored to terrify you with the idea that you are treading on dangerous ground" and that only'their wisdom could save the country.  A  :  If the people willed it, the monopolists must give up their, power, Howe said. "You have to decide between two sets of men and two sets of principles." Joseph Howe won his fight. . We -know today, 'however, that his* political victory was' not 'enough. So long as powerful private interests dominate the land, financiing political parties and influencing governments, we cannot enjoy the full benefits o f democracy. We are' now in the second phase of our struggle. . We must win ' "re- ' sponsible business". , Monopolies Dominate  Canada  The situation today is'remarkably like that of a century ago. Great monopolies and semi-monopolies have come to dominate Canada. Their chief concern is with making big. and quick profits. . Though the people want plenty of goods and low prices, a condition of scarcity and high prices suits • these monopolists. Hon. H. H.' Stevens' Price Spreads Probe exposed this situation. Mr. Stevens was so shocked that he formed the Reconstruction Party to contest the 1935  .election, and warned us that powerful and selfish corporations waxing fat while the people suffered, were strangling democracy. Ironically,, these corporations are paying for a deluge of propaganda about a mythical "free enterprise" and about the alleged horrors of socialism. Socialism is simply the extension of democracy into the economic field. Naturally, the monopolists do not like it. "Heed not such worthies". t  Re-Confederation -Needed  j  '-The growth'of monopoly capitalism has heen accomplished by a concentration of wealth and economic power in central Canada. Other regions such as the Maritimes, have felt the ill effects of • this tendency. The Carroll Report oh the partial closing of,the Trenton Steel Works, and the Dawson Report on conditions in Nova Scotia, have during the past year given us "ample ground • for demanding a new deal within Confederation. The Dawson Report, for one thing, speaks bitingly of the "inexcusable neglect" ,by Ottawa of our fishing industry. Yet Nova' Scotia had many Liberal members in parliament; The fact is, however, that the old political parties are now but the tools of big business. There is little difference between them. The Beauharnois scandal showed how big corporations give hundreds "of thousands of dollars to party slush funds .'in return for more privileges and greater power. . '• Canada needs a people's, movement which shall, take power away from these profiteering corporations, Such a movement has long been in the making. At the request of friends of the CCF, I am.here as a missionary, just as my great-grandfather came here as a missionary in earlier times. .Your own experience and knowledge, to(  T  gether with the educational work of the . co-operative movement, have prepared you for the mes-' sage of the CCF. In. 1932, many farmer, labor, socialist, middle class, and intellectual organizations federated for. .'the purpose of building a co-operative commonwealth. . This Cooperative Commonwealth Federation has grown stronger year by year, forcing concessions from the old parties, drivingthem together. :'• It is now ready to govern Canada.  prehensive health services, better Pi») education, and the other benefits in. the CCF program. Denmark, . New Zealand, and, our own CCF province of Saskatchewan have . been pioneering the way. „ All • Canada can follow. C C F Extends Democracy  You can see now that wrong ideas about the CCF—such as, that it would "take over every-thing", destroy democracy, and so on, are spread just to frighten you. The CCF wants more democracy, hot less; to build, not to - •• ^ • ^ D e v e l o p t h e C o u n t r y destroy; to enable the mass of . The CCF has no magic,'no curecitizens to.have not less prosperall. It simply- says that, since the ity, but more. It fosters conold political parties and the old sumers' and producers' councils .economic order could* not meet v and marketing boards, labor unour needs during prolonged deions, credit unions, c o - o p e r a t i v e 3 , . pression, we must have political public utilities. It calls on the reform j W i t h economic changes in people to do more for themselves. -. the direction of more co-operaThis great war has made it our ' tion, more social control, more duty to go all out for victory on decentralization of industry ac- . . the home front. Every Canadian cording to plans for developing all. who died wanted a better Canada. parts of the country. Furthermore, he believed he was - The CCF takes note that the fighting for democracy. We must war has given us a purpose (to therefore clean up political conwin) and a market (the war maditions—put an end to bribery, chine). With control and plangraft, and all forms of corruption ning (though piecemeal and un—refuse to be frightened or indemocratic), we h a v e forced capi-' timidated—have the courage to. talism to produce 'for war. We ' take part in the struggle here at nave,had plenty of work, and.the home, to speak our minds, to ' '•national income has trebled. For carry out our duties as democrats. .the future, let us adopt a new The CCF believes further that purpose (to raise the standard of fascism is a world-wide disease of 'life) and cater to that hungry a dying capitalist order—the last, " market, pur own homes. . most violent stand of big business :• .The CC)F believes we must swing and its henchmen. , It believes, the. balance of economic power therefore, that .we must deliberover to the people. That sector ately set our course for the coof the economy now held by monoperative commonwealth. . opplistic corporations " must be brought under public and co-op"Power In Y o u r Hands -/erative control. Then, with demOn June 11, the power will be • bcratic planning, we can keep in your hands to set this course,. ' production -at a high level, with' or to'let'us drift back into the old j ':' plenty of j^bs and opportunities, order which brought . us misery ; and with a well-distribute'd na-' and which is a menace to democtional income. Then, too, we can racy and to the future peace of afford full' social security, comthe world. Let us say to our (  r  1  1  •i -  -'•A  ' ' -'.  returning servicemen: "The peo- If you .wish. I will givp you good ple are in control.here now.. We public service and will, work hard have broken the stranglehold of to bring the CCF program into private .monopoly. Canada Be- effect. When I am elected, you longs to all of us. Welcome need not congratulate me. You can congratulate yourselves, for home." I make no personal request for it will be your victory. Youri sincerely, your votes. I should be happy to R O N A L D G R A N T H A M , F.-S. return to a less complicated life.  Grantham Is Needed ..  ^  ,.  By Earle Beattie  EDITOR, M A R I T I M E C O M M O N W E A L T H  Flight Sergeant Ron Grantham is one of those men m a r k e d f r o m the b e g i n n i n g for public service. As a student,'high school teacher, journalist and airman, he has shunned mere i i i o n e y - m a k i n g pursuits to w o r k i n p o l i t i c a l education. I n the time that I have k n o w n h i m I.have never met his equal for persistent, detailed work. I n no s m a l l measure, the present strength' o f the C C F movement i n N o v a Scotia is due to the .unflagging ef. forts of R o n G r a n t h a m . . .This, is not the first time that G r a n t h a m has stood, '.for election;. .In 1940, as a high school teacher i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G r a n t h a m was C C F federal candidate •for N a n a i m o and came, w i t h i n inches of v i c t o r y . . . R o n . received his B a c h e l o r of A r t s and M a s t e r decrees i n . V a n c o u v e r . ^ J o i n i n g the R . C A . F , aircrew ' then, he -/was re-mustered as a clerk educational and, fortunately for N o v a Scotia, eventually landed i n H a l i f a x . N o w he is back i n the stamping grounds of his father and grandfather. It was Charles T . . G r a n t h a m who managed and expanded Cosmos I m p e r i a l M i l l s m a n y «years ago. . ; '; R o n G r a n t h a m is pledged to the C C F P r o g r a m of P l a n n e d P r o d u c t i o n . for F u l l E m p l o y m e n t , Decent .Wages and Prices, P u b l i c Ownership of K e y Industries, Social S e c u r i t y and E d u c a t i o n for A l l . G i v e h i m a chance, to show what he can do. M a r k y o u r ballot X after Fit. Sgt. Ron Grantham on J u n e 11, Published by CCF District Council, Sh'elburne-Yarmouth-Clare Beattie Printing & Editorial Services, Bridgewater, N.S. •  (Union Label 'Applied, For)  Some Aspects of the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h 1898 Introduction  -  1933  Table of Contents Part  Page  One  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Before the Great War  Columbia  Chapter  One  : The E a r l y S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia  Chapter  Two  : The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada  Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4  Columbia.  10  : The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y In Development : S o c i a l i s t A c t i v i t y i n the L e g i s l a t u r e : A Labor Yiew of P u b l i c A f f a i r s and of Socialism : The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y at the Height of i t s influence Part  SO 20 30 38 45  Two  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the Great War to the Great Depression  86 / 87*  Chapter  Three  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y During the Great War  Chapter  Four  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y i n the Post-War Situation  109  Chapter F i v e  The D e c l i n e of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  123  Chapter S i x  New M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of S o c i a l i s t A c t i v i t y i n the 1920's; the Communist P a r t y . 150 Part  Three  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h the Great Depression (to 1933).  Columbia  During  158  Chapter Seven : Impact of Economic Depression upon S o c i a l Thought Section Section Section Section  1 2 3 4  Chapter E i g h t  159 166 176  Capitalism i n Eclipse R e v o l t i n the Middle C l a s s Movements f o r S o c i a l Change The Regina M a n i f e s t o and Growth of the CCF. The C C F .  210  i n 1933; 222  The P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n Conclusion:  235  Bibliography.  243  •7  APPENDICES  1.  The B r i t i s h Element i n the P o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  2.  P l a t f o r m of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada - ,1910, 1920.  3.  Some S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada  4.  Some l i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d or r e t a i l e d P a r t y of Canada*  5.  A Manifesto  6.  Manifesto  7.  The Common Good  8.  Manifesto  9*  A New Oxford  Group.  10.  Unemployment  i n British  11.  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Co-operative (B. C. s e c t i o n ) , 1933.  12i  C.C.F. (B.C.) P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m , 1933.  13.  Some notes from newspaper r e p o r t s and comments b e a r i n g upon the C.C.F. i n the B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , 1933*  14.  C.C.F. Candidates,  15.  Some b i o g r a p h i c a l notes on C.C.F. candidates i n the 1933 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n (B. C.) and on others prominent i n the Movement.  locals* hy the S o c i a l i s t  from Youth i n R e v o l t .  of the Young S o c i a l i s t League. Co-operative.  of the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y  (B.C.)  Columbia. Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ,  B. C. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , 1933.  Some Aspects o f the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h 1898  Columbia.  - 1955  Introduction The s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been i n f l u e n t i a l f o r f o r t y years, making i t s e l f t h i s p r o v i n c e hut throughout  Canada.  War, the s o c i a l i s t movement enjoyed  f e l t not o n l y i n  Before the f i r s t World a widespread  support, and  i n the 1935 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o c i a l i s t candidates r e c e i v e d more votes than d i d the candidates of any other p a r t y i n the province. When i t i s considered t h a t Canada i n g e n e r a l has lagged f a r behind other c o u n t r i e s i n the development of l a b o r and s o c i a l i s t thought lation,  and i n the development of s o c i a l  i t i s remarkable  that i n these r e s p e c t s B r i t i s h  legisCol-  umbia s h o u l d have been e m p h a t i c a l l y i n the f o r e f r o n t . In an estimate of the f a c t o r s i n t h i s  s i t u a t i o n , the  a d j e c t i v e " B r i t i s h " i n the name of the p r o v i n c e has g r e a t  sig-  nificance. The  C o l o n i a l h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h  Columbia was i n t i m -  a t e l y bound up with t h a t of the Hudson's Bay Company, and most r e s i d e n t s on the shores of the P a c i f i c than to any Canadian c i t y .  f e l t c l o s e r t o London  The g r e a t e s t f i g u r e i n the p u b l i c  l i f e of the time, Governor S i r James Douglas, son's Bay Company c h i e f  had been a Hud-  factor.  The Cariboo gold rush made the p o p u l a t i o n more c o s -  2. mopolitan,  and,  together with general trade connections by sea,  introduced a strong United States i n f l u e n c e . States were near neighbors;  The ¥festern  E a s t e r n Canada was,  by  comparison,  a stranger. B r i t i s h Columbia became a p r o v i n c e of Canada r a t h e r u n w i l l i n g l y , and not without moments of xvishing to r e t r a c e the step.  1  For a long time the p r o v i n c e was more B r i t i s h Canadian.  than  Topography cut i t o f f from the r e s t of the country,  and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was years a f t e r c o n f e d e r a t i o n . were, mostly  not completed  u n t i l many  In other p r o v i n c e s , the  people  Canadians of o l d e r stock or immigrants from  lands than B r i t a i n , but i n B r i t i s h Columbia a- l a r g e r t i o n of the people  other  propor-  were of comparatively r e c e n t B r i t i s h  origin.  Moreover, although B r i t i s h Columbians were i n l a r g e measure i s o l a t e d from' t h e i r f e l l o w Canadians, Canadians were, by comparison, the world.  their fellow  i n l a r g e measure i s o l a t e d  B r i t i s h Columbia looked out upon the P a c i f i c ,  from and  through her p o r t s went to and f r o not only the goods of trade, but a l s o people - and i d e a s . 1.  For example: "Hands o f f B.C." was the Conservative E l e c t i o n c r y i n 1907, and The Vancouver P r o v i n c e (February 4, 1 9 0 7 ) " r e j o i c e d that the McBride v i c t o r y showed that B r i t i s h Columbia was not going to be an appendage of Ottawa or t o t o l e r a t e the designs of the Grand Trunk Paci f i c R a i l r o a d upon the p u b l i c domain."  In B r i t a i n of the l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h  and e a r l y twen-  t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , l a b o r and s o c i a l i s t i c movements had become very s t r o n g .  The Fabians were spreading  collectivist  thought, and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the f o r m a t i o n  of a Labor p a r t y , 2  governments i n s t i t u t e d a long s e r i e s of reforms. Because of t h e i r c l o s e connections  with B r i t a i n , many  B r i t i s h Columbians were w e l l informed about these developments —indeed, Hardie,  many of them had l i s t e n e d t o Robert B l a t c h f o r d , K e i r  L l o y s George, and had been a c t i v e i n trade union, co-  operative,  or s o c i a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ;  immigration from the  Old Country c o n s t a n t l y renewed the i n f l u e n c e of B r i t i s h thought and a c t i v i t y i n the P a c i f i c  province.  B r i t i s h Columbians were i n touch, too, with  the labor  movements i n A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, and e s p e c i a l l y i n the United  States. Again, B r i t i s h Columbia has never been p r i m a r i l y an  a g r i c u l t u r a l province.  Geography has made i t a land of great  basic i n d u s t r i e s — m i n i n g ,  l o g g i n g , f i s h i n g — a n d upon these,  secondary i n d u s t r i e s have been b u i l t - smelters, canneries. munities  sawmills,  Men who work i n such i n d u s t r i e s and l i v e i n com-  a r e the most l i k e l y to conceive  and t o share  about t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e and to organize  ideas  for social,  c u l t u r a l and economic betterment. 2. Cole, G.D.H., and Postgate, Raymond: The Common People; 1746-1938. Methuen & Co., S e c t i o n V I I I .  The s t r e n g t h and outlook of the trade union movement was  a f a c t o r f a v o r a b l e t o the development  ment i n B r i t i s h Columbia. movement had c r y s t a l i z e d ,  of a s o c i a l i s t move-  Before any d i s t i n c t l y  socialist  l a b o r had begun to o r g a n i z e .  Trade  t  union a c t i v i t y caused many u n i o n i s t s t o d e s i r e more knowledge of s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s , and others to see a need f o r p o l i t i c a l action.  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , as such, d i d not con-  cern i t s e l f w i t h matters of the hours,, wages,, and of work under c a p i t a l i s m *  "...  conditions  I t r a t h e r approved  of i t s  members being a c t i v e i n trade unions as i n d i v i d u a l s , and many l a b o r l e a d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p e r i o d b e f o r e the Great War,  were S o c i a l i s t s .  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y drew much of i t s  membership from the trade unions, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the miners;  many Western F e d e r a t i o n of M i n e r s unions had  their  l o c a l s of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y . 3.  W i l l i a m Bennett, i n " B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia", g i v e s a dramatic account of the e a r l y l a b o r movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A c c o r d i n g to him, t h e r e were c r a f t unions i n Y i c t o r i a as e a r l y as 1868; l o g g e r s took an a c t i v e p a r t i n the f i r s t Vancouver c i v i c e l e c t i o n , 1886; The Workingmen's P a r t y had candidates i n Nanaimo and V i c t o r i a i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1886; the Knights of Labor i s s u e d an e l e c t i o n manifesto f o r the Vancouver c i v i c e l e c t i o n s i n 1887. In the 1890's, the Trades and Labor C o u n c i l (A.F.of L.) became i n f l u e n t i a l i n Vancouver. In the 1890's, l a b o r sponsorship secured e l e c t i o n of two men t o the L e g i s l a t u r e , and two to the House o f Commons (one b e i n g Ralph Smith of Nanaimo). Bennett d e s c r i b e d how i n 1899 the Western F e d e r a t i o n of Miners won a s t r i k e against Slocan V a l l e y mine owners who had d e f i e d the e i g h t - h o u r day r e g u l a t i o n . He says  Footnote c o n t d . that the F.F.M., was avowedly s o c i a l i s t i n o b j e c t i v e . He d e s c r i b e s a s t r o n g I n d u s t r i a l u n i o n sentiment i n the Trades and Labor Congress. The I n d u s t r i a l Workers o f the World secured a f f i l i a t i o n of t h e . l . F. M., and o t h e r unions i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Bennett s t a t e s that i t began as a s o c i a l i s t movement, but became a n a r c h o - s y n d i c o l i s t ( i . e . , s t r e s s e d the union as the weapon f o r change and eschewed politics). The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of Labor, formed i n 1910, f a v o r e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and b e l i e v e d the f u t u r e belonged t o "the o n l y u s e f u l people i n human soci e t y - the w o r k i n g - c l a s s " , says Bennett, p. 45; its first convention r e p r e s e n t e d 14,000 workers, i t always endorsed i n d u s t r i a l unionism and s o c i a l i s m . The Federated Labor P a r t y was launched i n 1916, and absorbed the S o c i a l Democ r a t i c P a r t y . The F e d e r a t i o n merged i n t o the One B i g Union. Bennett mentions the f o r m a t i o n of the S o c i a l i s t Labor P a r t y , 1899, which s e t up i t s "economic arm", the S o c i a l i s t Trades and Labor A l l i a n c e . I t gave two o u t s t a n d i n g men t o the' l a b o r movement. Frank Rogers and W i l l M c C l a i n . They l e d the g r e a t fishermen's s t r i k e s of 1900-1901, when Indians w i t h t h e i r band i n the towns and t h e i r war canoes at sea were j o i n e d with the white s t r i k e r s , and the m i l i t i a occupied S t e v e s t o n . During the U n i t e d Brotherhood o f Railway Employees' s t r i k e i n 1903, Frank Rogers was shot to death by C.P.R. p o l i c e In Vancouver as he was t a k i n g a t u r n on the p i c k e t l i n e . Bennett has an i n t e r e s t i n g chapter on the g r e a t miners' s t r i k e on Vancouver I s l a n d , 1912-13. The Canadian Annual Review of P u b l i c a f f a i r s , 1902, p. 86, s a y s : "as the Labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s have g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n B. C., than elsewhere In Canada, t h e i r proceedings and o p i n i o n s a r e of some importance."  Another f a c t o r i n the s i t u a t i o n was  a certain clash  of i n t e r e s t s between E a s t e r n and Western Canada. i c a l i s m " has heen accounted  for partly  P r a i r i e "rad  ( i f not l a r g e l y ) by  the  farmers* h o s t i l i t y to the h i g h t a r i f f p o l i c i e s f o s t e r e d by 4 E a s t e r n Canadian i n d u s t r y .  A s i m i l a r f a c t o r operated  in Brit  i s h Columbia, where f r e i g h t r a t e s have o f t e n been the s u b j e c t of stormy controversy, and i n d u s t r y was  where i t has been f e l t  that Eastern  on the one hand hampering the development of com-  p e t i t i v e i n d u s t r i e s i n the p r o v i n c e , and  on the o t h e r hand  en-  j o y i n g undue p r o s p e r i t y thanks to h i g h e r p r i c e s made p o s s i b l e by the  tariff. Then, too, the p r o v i n c e was  being developed  -  and,  i n view of many, r u t h l e s s l y e x p l o i t e d - mainly hy E a s t e r n Cana d i a n or f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . 4.  I n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on " p r a i r i e r a d i c a l i s m Is thrown by Leonard T. C a l v e r t i n "C.C.F.: A H i s t o r y . o f Recent Canadian S o c i a l i s m " ( P r i n c e t o n , 1941). He says (V - 21) that a d e p r e c i a t e d c u r r e n c y would t e m p o r a r i l y s t i m u l a t e the s a l e of g r a i n abroad; d e v a l u a t i o n of the d o l l a r would s h i f t the i n c i d e n c e of d e p r e s s i o n to the r e c i p i e n t s of f i x e d income and r i g i d p r i c e s . Schemes of monetary reform appeal g r e a t l y to the debt burdened p r a i r i e farmer as he s t r i v e s to g e t a f a i r p r i c e f o r h i s g r a i n . C a l v e r t p o i n t s out that B r i t i s h Columbia, with a more v a r i e d economic l i f e , has a more cosmopoli t a n outlook on economic problems (IV - 10); he shows p a r t of the e x p l a n a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's grudge a g a i n s t E a s t e r n Canada when he notes t h a t In 1933 the p r o v i n c e had a f a v o r a b l e f o r e i g n trade balance of 20 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , but an u n f a v o r a b l e balance of trade with E a s t e r n Canada of 26 m i l l i o n s (IV - 1 ) . , r  7 CapJJjalism was B r i t i s h Columbia  i n a stage of r a p i d expansion i n  i n the decades b e f o r e 1914;  ^  r a i l r o a d s were  b u i l t - the Canadian P a c i f i c was f o l l o w e d by the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo, the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n , the K e t t l e the Grand Trunk, developed.  the Canadian Northern;  new  Valley,  i n d u s t r i e s were  These e n t e r p r i s e s r e c e i v e d government h e l p , con-  s i d e r e d by some over-generous  i n certain  cases.  Many of them  were c o n t r o l l e d a t l o n g range, and t h e r e f o r e were the more impersonal i n r e l a t i o n s w i t h employees and of them were h o s t i l e to l a b o r unions;  the p u b l i c .  Most -  l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of  such workers as l o g g e r s , miners and c o n s t r u c t i o n men  were  extremely bad, wag;es were low, and improvements had to be fought f o r ;  companies f a v o r e d cheap l a b o r , the C.P.R. b r i n g -  ing l a r g e numbers of Chinese to the p r o v i n c e f o r r a i l w a y construction;  i n time of s t r i k e s ,  the companies used  strike-  b r e a k e r s and o f t e n invoked the a i d of the armed f o r c e s of the state .  5  Because of the nature and s i z e of these  industrial  developments companies were o f t e n l a r g e , wealthy, and 5.  powerful  Reynolds, L l o y d G.: The B r i t i s h Immigrant: H i s S o c i a l and Economic Adjustment to Canada. Oxford, 1935. At p. 37, Reynolds says that the Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n maintained a permanent immigration o f f i c e i n Britain; i n 1905, workers were imported to break the Winnipeg p r i n t e r s ' s t r i k e . I t may be added that d u r i n g the Vancouver I s l a n d miners' s t r i k e , 1912-13, s t r i k e breakers were brought from a l l over American and from Britain; some B r i t i s h t r a d e u n i o n i s t s were, d e s p i t e p r e c a u t i o n s , informed of the s i t u a t i o n , and r e f u s e d to act as s t r i k e - b r e a k e r s .  8. so that as a r e s u l t the wage-earning c l a s s was. numerous. thermore, many of the o p e r a t i o n s were temporary, l i k e  Fur-  construc-  t i o n , a f a c t which aggravated unemployment and d i s c o n t e n t . Finally,  although B r i t i s h Columbia's towns are s c a t -  tered over a v a s t t e r r i t o r y ,  there i s one great c i t y ,  the p o r t  of Vancouver, predominantly the meeting p l a c e and the d i s t r i b u t i n g p o i n t of products, money, p e o p l e — a n d , a g a i n , o f i d e a s . In the development of the p r o v i n c e ,  the r o l e of Vancouver has  been v e r y g r e a t . These f a c t o r s h e l p to account f o r the development of 6 the s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  T h i s development w i l l he f o l l o w e d , i n g e n e r a l , chronologically,  and w i l l i n c l u d e , as w e l l as broader p i c t u r e s and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , many f a c t s and d e t a i l s which, i t i s hoped, w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding of the atmosphere, the attitudes,  the o o n d i t i o n s , and the events, of the p e r i o d under  review.  6.  For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the B r i t i s h element i n the popul a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, see Appendix 1.  9.  Some Aspects of the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h 1898 - 1933  Part  1  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Before the Great War.  Columbia  Columbia,  10 Chapter  One,  The E a r l y S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Articles  Columbia  i n The Western C l a r i o n , s o c i a l i s t paper,  t r a c e e a r l y developments 1  i n the s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. In the 1880's a S o c i a l i s t Labor P a r t y made good way  In the i n d u s t r i a l  head-  c e n t r e s of O n t a r i o , but t i e d i t s e l f to  trade unions which, i n the view of some, became a m i l l s t o n e around i t s neck* ing  The Canadian S o c i a l i s t League f o l l o w e d ,  hav-  a reform program f e a t u r i n g government ownership; i t t h r i v -  ed f o r a time, and died out.  A s i m i l a r People's P r o g r e s s i v e  P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia appeared and then v a n i s h e d . A r t h u r Spencer, a member of the S o c i a l i s t i n Hamilton, Ontario, and a C.P.R. employee,  Labor P a r t y  secured a t r a n s -  f e r t o B r i t i s h Columbia and i n December, 1898,  organized a  branch o f the S o c i a l i s t Labor P a r t y i n S u l l i v a n H a l l , ver.  An "economic  ance, was s e t up.  arm",  the S o c i a l i s t  "The S.L.P. was  Vancou-  Trades and Labor  Alli2 3 never more than a s e c t . " '  1.  The Western C l a r i o n , January 12, 1907: " B r i e f H i s t o r i c a l Re view", and. September 3, 1910, a r t i c l e by C.M.O'Brien.M.L.A. (Alberta). These are the c h i e f sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s c h a p t e r . O'Brien was a member of The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y .  2.  Bennett, W i l l i a m : B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia; p. 135. On p. 40, Bennett says t h i a group went i n t o the I.W.W. i n 1905  3.  A c c o r d i n g to Mr. George Morgan of Vancouver, the S o c i a l i s t Trades and Labor A l l i a n c e was a s e c t i o n of a movement organ  /  11. In  1900, t h e U n i t e d S o c i a l i s t Labor P a r t y  split  f r o m t h e S.L.P., h u t t h e two g r o u p s h e l d a j o i n t c o n v e n t i o n i n a h a l l t h e y h a d b u i l t on W e s t m i n s t e r Avenue ( M a i n S t r e e t ) , couver.  Van-  D e l e g a t e s w e r e p r e s e n t f r o m Nanaimo, N e w ' W e s t m i n s t e r ,  R e v e l s t o k e , N e l s o n , R o s s l a n d , D e l t a , and V i c t o r i a .  The Red. 4  Flag flew over the convention h a l l , The  despite police  c o n v e n t i o n o r d e r e d members o f t h e g r o u p s  ions. first  I n the p r o v i n c i a l Socialist  hostility.  t o j o i n t r a d e un-  e l e c t i o n of 1900, t h e s e groups r a n t h e  c a n d i d a t e i n C a n a d a , an E n g l i s h m a n named  Will  M c C l a i n , a memher o f t h e M a c h i n i s t s ' U n i o n a n d a n o f f i c i a l o f the  T r a d e s and L a b o r C o u n c i l .  3.  Contd.  The p r o g r a m i n c l u d e d  initiative  i z e d b y De L e o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; I t was e x t r e m e l y d o c t r i n a i r e , and c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a r l y o r g a n i z e d u n i o n s . ( I n t e r v i e w , summer o f 1 9 3 7 ) . N o t e on De L e o n : 1852-1914; b o r n Curacao; l a w , Columbia; i n K n i g h t s of L a b o r , S o c i a l i s t L a b o r P a r t y - f o r w h i c h he e d i t e d The P e o p l e ; a t t a c k i n g c o r r u p t i o n i n t h e l a b o r u n i o n s , he f o r m e d t h e S o c i a l i s t T r a d e s and L a b o r A l l i a n c e i n 1 8 9 5 , h u t i t c o l l a p s e d I n 1899, o w i n g t o h i s d i c t a t o r i a l a t t i t u d e ; a f o u n d e r o f t h e I.W.W. i n 1 9 0 5 ; t r a n s l a t e d some o f M a r x . ( W h e e l e r , P r e s t o n ; A m e r i c a n B i o g r a p h i e s ; H a r p e r , 1940) 4.  The r e d o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t emblem r e p r e s e n t s human b l o o d a n d s y m b o l i z e s t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f a l l mankind. The r e d f l a g was f i r s t u s e d d u r i n g t h e 1830 r e v o l u t i o n i n P a r i s , when t h e w o r k e r s h e l p e d t h e b o u r g e o i s i e get r i d o f C h a r l e s X; i t xias r a i s e d i n P a r i s d u r i n g t h e J p e r i o d o f t h e Commune, 1 8 7 0 .  12. and referendum,  government ownership,  and  (significant  i a l i s t attitude), a minimum wage f o r o r i e n t a l s . ceived 684 v o t e s ;  of soc-  MacGlain r e -  the h i g h e s t f o r any candidate was  1,799; two  candidates of the Trades and Labor C o u n c i l p o l l e d 856 and 726. " In  the 1900  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , labor party forces  fused with the L i b e r a l s ;  Nanaimo sent Ralph Smith to Ottawa;  he and A. W. P u t t e e of Winnipeg were the f i r s t l a b o r Members of Parliament, i n Canada. Around manifested i t s e l f  the t u r n of the century, C h r i s t i a n  socialism  i n Nelson, where the Rev. A.E.Smith  (later-  s e c r e t a r y of the Canadian Labor Defense League) conducted a l a b o r forum,  and i n V i c t o r i a , where E l l i o t  S. Rowe, a Methodist  l o c a l preacher, o r g a n i z e d S o c i a l i s t Leagues i n V i c t o r i a Sandon.  Rowe was  and  appointed to the Royal Commission i n v e s t i g a t -  ing  the U n i t e d Brotherhood o f Railway Employees and Western 7 F e d e r a t i o n of M i n e r s s t r i k e s , and h i s leagues l a n g u i s h e d .  5.  Bennett, W i l l i a m :  B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia;  p.  137.  6.  Bennett, W i l l i a m :  B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia;  p.  138.  7.  op. c i t . ; p. 121, 136. Also: The Canadian Annual Review of P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1902, p. 483, mentions t h a t "Rev. Dr. E l l i o t S. Rowe" was among speakers welcoming Hon. R i c h a r d McBride to V i c t o r i a .  13.. The George Wrigley and  Canadian S o c i a l i s t League (1901-02) l e d "byand  G. Weston Wrigley,  Country, e s t a b l i s h e d a few  B r i t i s h Columbia. Ontario.  publishers of C i t i z e n  branches i n the ?/est and  in  I t s more than 60 branches were m o s t l y i n  In 1901,  the Vancouver l o c a l was  converted  into a  p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e committee, with E r n e s t Brown as s e c r e t a r y treasurer.  I t s platform contained  Nanaimo i n f l u e n c e was the a i d of $50.,  some twenty  "palliatives."  strongly f o r a revolutionary basis.  With  from Ontario, o r g a n i z e r s , e s p e c i a l l y J . Camer-  on, formed e i g h t or t e n l o c a l s of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada,  which i n c l u d e d three or four e x i s t i n g Leagues.  Vancouver, l i t t l e work was erature.  done except the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  During  a miners' s t r i k e i n the Kootenays f o r an  day,  R. P. P e t t i p i e c e , p u b l i s h e r of the Lardeau  eight-hour Eagle  Outside  at Ferguson, took a vigorous  tendencies,  and h i s paper was  stand.  He had  made the o f f i c i a l  lit-  socialistic  organ of  the  party. In 1902,  The  Eagle was  Country moved to Vancouver as The  disposed  Canadian S o c i a l i s t ;  i d e a l i s t i c movement In Ontario petered The  s o c i a l i s t p l a t f o r m of 1901  ty q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r • —<• v o t e r s and  and the  out.  l e g i s l a t i o n ; proportional representation;  elections;  of; C i t i z e n  called for: direct a b o l i t i o n of  candidates  proper-  i n municipal  a b o l i t i o n of cash d e p o s i t s i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s ;  a d u l t s u f f r a g e ; minimum wage of two  d o l l a r s a day;  a 44-hour  week;  p r o v i n c i a l ownership and o p e r a t i o n of c o a l mines i n the  i n t e r e s t s of the people; land;  a graduated  land tax, as i n New  f r e e medical attendance to a l l needing  it;  Zea-  scientific  and p r a c t i c a l management of f i s h e r i e s , f o r e s t s , and waterways, i n the i n t e r e s t s : of the p r o v i n c e ; employment of the unemployed on u s e f u l p r o d u c t i v e work; palities;  free,  s e c u l a r , and  age of f o u r t e e n ; necessary; traffic;  e x t e n s i o n of the powers of munici-" compulsory e d u c a t i o n under the  f r e e text books, meals, and  c l o t h e s , when  m u n i c i p a l i z a t i o n and p u b l i c c o n t r o l of the a b o l i t i o n of the p o l l and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y  liquor taxes;  no more bonusing of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s or c o r p o r a t i o n s with land grants or cash s u b s i d i e s . There was  a d e s i r e to develop  a program more i n •  l i n e with t h a t of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t movement. D i f ference of o p i n i o n developed"; the R e v o l u t i o n a r y  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , with branches i n Vancouver,  N o r t h f i e l d , and  Ladysmith.  The  acquired.  C l a r i o n , was  Nanaimo withdrew and formed  An anemic Nanaimo l a b o r paper,  The paper experienced  difficulties;  Pettipiece  became s o l e owner of The Western S o c i a l i s t . J". H. Hawthornthwaite, Independent Labor M.L.A., for  Nanaimo, had  espoused the  practical politics.  s o c i a l i s t cause, making I t  In the f a l l of 1902,  the  Revolutionary  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y entered Parker W i l l i a m s , a miner, i n an I s land who  by-election. had  H i s c h i e f opponent was  j o i n e d the P r i o r c a b i n e t ;  he was  W.W.B. Mclnnes, c a l l e d the a b l e s t  15.  campaign Western won,  orator Clarion,  with  fects  of  Master Marx  40  per  sound  in  the  the  by  the  cent  This  the  socialist  British  be  drew  been  backed,  "The  were  states  Parker  The  Williams  battering-ram  speedily  regarded  as  a  felt  ef-  by  the  victory, for  1902,  to  was was  The the  date  the  American of  band  held,  and  adopted.  spring and  of  the The  the  two  program  wings  of  Socialist  Clarion,  from  life  the  Party  English  which  S.P.  The  owners, the  evolution  profit-hungry  the  Conditions  mine  Company,and  "Nanaimo may  force."  dream."  capitalist of  convention  Western  confused  under  an  tail  "a  a  of  formed.  termed  been  to  from, t h e  of  i t s Inspiration  good  out  to  then,  section  C o l u m b i a was  previously  up  votes.  teachings  was,  was  corporations.  the  movement  Island  propriately  sold  of  f a l l  According  had  coal  and  socialism.  Vancouver  first  province,  economic  class."  In of  in  the  wolves".  C, had  the  Island  these  owners  enterprise  to  of  movement on  but  ap-  was-  "Yanked  f o r e f r o n t " by  The  result  was  "an the  8 So©ialist  Party How  and  active  itical  e f f o r t s was  1902,  c a l l e d by  much  "jockeying"  a.  The  the  Western  election  socialists shown  the  at  a  Western  prevented Clarion,  of  were labor  a  Socialist  In  April  14,  unions  convention  Federation  socialist  trade  of  and  in  i n Kamloops  Miners.  control. 1906  M.L.A.  A  Only  Provincial  polin  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was formed.  9  \  By 1903 the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y had 21 l o c a l s ; convention  i n t h a t year,  liatives".  i t took a s t r o n g stand  At a  againat  "pal-  I n t h i s can he seen the i n f l u e n c e of E. T. K i n g s -  l e y , a c r i p p l e d p r i n t e r , who had come from the U n i t e d  States  and was f o r many years to be prominent i n the S o c i a l i s t  Party.  In i t s uncompromisingly M a r x i s t stand a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m , t h i s p a r t y had become d i s t i n c t from a l l o t h e r s . The  coming of the S o c i a l i s t Labor P a r t y i n 1898 has  a l r e a d y been mentioned. u n t i l 1907.  An Independent Labor P a r t y e x i s t e d  The S o c i a l Democrats, seeking support from  church-  es, trade unions and the a n t i - A s i a t i c L e a g u e , were, l a t e r a c t i v e :  f o r a -few years, drawing s t r e n g t h from some who abandoned the uncompromising stand of the S o c i a l i s t E a r l y i n 1903 occurred  Party.  the L i m i t e d Brotherhood of  Railway Employees s t r i k e i n Vancouver, f o l l o w e d by s t r i k e s i n the Ladysmith and•Cumberland mines.  The " n o t o r i o u s " Ralph  Smith, who had "wormed" h i m s e l f i n t o the House o f Commons upon "professed l o y a l t y " to l a b o r , "while s e c r e t l y and s i l e n t l y s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s of the Nanaimo Coal C o r p o r a t i o n and 9.  Bennett, W i l l i a m : B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia; p. 138. Program of the P r o v i n c i a l P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y , as given i n The Canadian Annual Review, 1902, i n c l u d e d : government ownership of r a i l w a y s , s m e l t e r s , and r e f i n e r i e s ; woman franchise; compulsory a r b i t r a t i o n o f l a b o r d i s p u t e s ; gradual s h i f t i n g o f a l l taxes from producers t o the l a n d ; compulsory e d u c a t i o n to 16.  17 s i m i l a r p i r a t i c a l bands",  obtained a Royal Commission on the 10  cause of labor d i s p u t e s I n B r i t i s h . Columbia. c l a r e d t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s t  The r e p o r t de-  " i s e v e r compassing  the embarrassment or r u n o f the employed" but admitted t h a t "the l a b o r problem was i n c a p a b l e of f i n a l s o l u t i o n . . . as long as present c i v i l i z a t i o n  endures."  During the U n i t e d Brotherhood of Railway strike,  Employees'  The C l a r i o n and The Canadian S o c i a l i s t merged as The  Western C l a r i o n .  A l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y company was formed and  other means were t r i e d , but the paper suspended p u b l i c a t i o n a t the end of 1903. In the f a l l o f 1903 came the "triumphant" e l e c t i o n of J". H. Hawthornthwaite c a s t l e , Vancouver  i n Nanaimo and Parker W i l l i a n s I n Few-  I s l a n d c o a l mining a r e a s .  by a few votes i n Greenwood* showings" elsewhere.  Ernest M i l l s  lost  S o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s made "good  "The f o u l p o l i c y of the D.unsmuir and  other i n t e r e s t s i n d r i v i n g the- miners of Nanaimo and Ladysmith 11 o f f t h e i s l a n d had o n l y r e s u l t e d i n s p r e a d i n g the i n f e c t i o n . " Miners who had been newly brought i n proved as i n d o c i l e as those e x p e l l e d i 10. Quotations are from -.The Western C l a r i o n , January 12, 1907, and express the s o c i a l i s t p o i n t of view, Doubtless Mr. Smith f e l t h i s motives t o be worthy. 11.  Ibid.  The name, chosen by J . H. Hawthornthwai te, who had owned the Nanaimo " C l a r i o n " , was c o p i e d from Robert B l a t c h f o r d ' s  18  11.  Contd. " C l a r i o n " i n England. B l a t c h f o r d was what M a r x i s t s c a l l ed a " s e n t i m e n t a l s o c i a l i s t " ; he was i n the E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n of r a d i c a l i s m - C a r l y l e , Ruskin, W i l l i a m M o r r i s , and the Fabians, were among the i n f l u e n c e s upon h i s f o l lowers; h i s "Merrie Englande" was.a best s e l l e r ; many B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l i s t s had been I n f l u e n c e d by B l a t c h f o r d , but the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e was s t r i c t l y Marxist. C. J . G. Morgan, Vancouver, i n t e r v i e w , September 27, 1942. Mr. Morgan h i m s e l f came from E d i n burgh; he belonged to Kyndman's S o c i a l Democratic Federa t i o n , which was M a r x i s t and was h o s t i l e to the Fabianism, and the Labor P a r t y ; Mr. Morgan belonged t o the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y In Manitoba before coming t o Vancouver; like many s o c i a l i s t s , he was a trade u n i o n i s t , being twice p r e s i d e n t of the plumbers* union i n Vancouver; he was f o r years a l e a d e r i n the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y ; at h i s c l a s s e s on Marx* " C a p i t a l " on Sunday evenings, an attendance of 150 was not uncommon. Commenting on the number o f Scotsmen i n the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y In B r i t i s h Columbia, Mr. Morgan suggested the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t t h e Scots are l i k e l y to be s t r i c t and strenuous i n whatever they undertake; perhaps f o r these men Marx had taken the p l a c e of John Knox.)  19' * The Slooan V a l l e y miners, f a r i n the i n t e r i o r , e l e c t e d W i l l i a m Davidson, an e a r n e s t Labor r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who  worked with the two S o c i a l i s t s i n s u p p o r t i n g measures de-  s i t e d by  labor. The h i s t o r i c a l survey i n The Western C l a r i o n  cluded with the f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s : made a good showing i n the 1904 t i o n at the end of 1904  were now  and  federal election;  candidates the  conven-  voted to spread the movement as the 12  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada; appeared,  five socialist  con-  job p r i n t i n g was  i n January, 1905, a l s o done;  The C l a r i o n r e  l o c a l organizations  (1910) s c a t t e r e d from the Yukon to Newfoundland; the  Toronto l o c a l was  the most'abtive o u t s i d e of B r i t i s h  union of L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s was would r e v e a l these p a r t i e s i n t h e i r  Columbia;  expected soon, which  true c o l o r s as the r e p r e s -  e n t a t i v e s o f the i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l i s m a g a i n s t Labor,  and  then the c o n c l u s i o n of the s t r u g g l e would be ?;ithin easy reach s o c i a l i s m had gone through a t r a n s i t i o n from humane sentimenta l i s m to a g g r e s s i v e m a t e r i a l i s m . 12.  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y p l a t f o r m was adopted In the f a c e of o p p o s i t i o n . The Toronto League j o i n e d the S.P. of C. (Weston Wrigley; Western C l a r i o n , December 2, 1905). W i l l i a m Bennett (p. 140) says "Geordie" Morgan and E.T. Kings l e y moved the motion t h a t launched the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  20. Chapter  Two.  The  Section  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada  1: The  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y i n Development  In 1904, Canada was  as has been shown, the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of  organized.  w i l l be given of how p o s i t i o n , and how  In the f o l l o w i n g pages, i t developed  its strictly  i t applied i t s d i a l e c t i c  u a t i o n s as they a r o s e .  illustrations socialist  t o i s s u e s and  sit-  From the founding of the p a r t y u n t i l  i t s w i t h e r i n g i n the post-war years, there were s p o r a d i c e f A  forts  to change the p o s i t i o n , and  o f t e n i n d i v u a l s or groups  f e l l away, but the dominant group held f i r m l y to t h e i r tude..  Because that a t t i t u d e was  great h i s t o r i c in  i n f l u e n t i a l , and indeed  the e a r l i e r years, pains w i l l be taken to ensure t h a t the g i v e s the f u l l substance  On a number of matters, ern C l a r i o n ,  and  f l a v o r of i t .  the p a r t y paper, The__West-  soon made c l e a r the S o c i a l i s t  attitude.  The Western C l a r i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y proclaimed  (  of  importance, i n the post-war p e r i o d as w e l l as  m a t e r i a l presented  was  atti-  "Published i n the I n t e r e s t s of the Working C l a s s  that i t Alone."  21. I t was  p r i n t e d by the Western S o c i a l i s t P u b l i s h i n g  i t e d at the  o f f i c e o f the U n i v e r s a l P r i n t i n g T r u s t , F l a c k  basement, 165 bia.  H a s t i n g s S t r e e t West, Vancouver, B r i t i s h  E d i t o r was  S u b s c r i p t i o n was that The  Company Lim-  E. T. K i n g s l e y , $1.00  a year.  and  Manager, R.  On August 6,  Block  Colum-  P. P e t t i p i e c e .  i t was  reported  C l a r i o n reached more than 2,000 wage earners weekly. On the f r o n t page of the number of Saturday, June  18,  1904., was  an  a r t i c l e on The  must do t o f r e e h i m s e l f i s t s were c o n f u s e d ^ i t had  Workingman's P o s i t i o n ; what he  from s l a v e r y .  s a i d , but  United  B r i t i s h Columbia  powers of government and wealth p r o d u c t i o n  The  socialists  workers must s e i z e c o n t r o l of  body.  as a c o l l e c t i v e  ed the employment of f i s h t r a p s , but  always v i o l e n t l y  The  time took a long view of the matter.  traps  body to  1  Labor i n B r i t i s h Columbia has  this  the  t r a n s f e r ownership i n the means of  from c a p i t a l i s t s  workers as a c o l l e c t i v e  oppos-  Y/estern C l a r i o n at The  advent of f i s h  promised to make fishermen's l i v i n g s more  precarious,  the t r a p s , as p a r t of up-to-date machinery o f wealth pro-  duction,  were i n l i n e w i t h progress,  u n t i l the worker l e a r n e d owned and  1.  social-  the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n , a c l e a r - c u t umcompromising a t t i t u d e ,  a s h o r t sharp program.  but  States  how  and  must be borne with  such a p p l i a n c e s  ought to be  both  used.  This was the M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e , i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. CJJT  to be f u r t h e r  elaborated  22. An e d i t o r i a l on the resumption of p u b l i c a t i o n s a i d that the paper would not I t was  deplorable  p r i n t news of labor-employer d i f f e r e n c e s .  but t r u e that there was  the Russo-Japanese war master c l a s s and The  of course, t h a t the  d o c t r i n e s and  indigestible;  he was  problems of wages and ested  than i n "the s t r u g g l e at home between  slave c l a s s . "  f a c t was,  the M a r x i s t  l e c t u r e s of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  rather  immediate  c o n d i t i o n s of work, and he was  more i n t e r -  e s p e c i a l l y the dramatic, happenings i n  than i n the a b s t r a c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of broad economic  problems and P a r t y had  average worker found  much more i n t e r e s t e d i n the  i n the a c t u a l , and  the world  greater i n t e r e s t i n  not  approach was  of the m a t t e r of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  The  Socialist  learned the a r t s of s u c c e s s f u l propaganda. d i r e c t and  Its  academic.  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n that p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s express c l a s s i n t e r e s t s the paper r e f e r r e d to the  s i t u a t i o n i n Colorado where,  a f t e r a long s t r u g g l e f o r the eight-hour publicans J u l y 3,  had  1903,  day,  and. a f t e r the  broken pledges, Denver smeltermen had and  C r i p p l e Creek miners had  On  s a i d The  P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were:  0. Lee  R.P.Pettlpiece,  Charlton,  use  their  Clarion.  the p r o v i n c i a l executive  L.T.English,  on  j o i n e d them. M i l i t i a  were used to suppress the s t r i k e s . Workers should votes i n t e l l i g e n t l y ,  struck  Re-  committee of the  Socialist  A.R.Stebbings, John Dubberly,  E . T . K i n g s l e y , a l l of Vancouver;  V i c t o r i a ; E.S.Emhree, Greenwood.  L o c a l Vancouver N o . l h e l d b u s i n e s s meetings every Wednes-  23. day a t 8 P.M.  i n headquarters-,  I n g l e s ! de Block, 313  Gamble  S t r e e t . E d u c a t i o n a l meetings were on Sundays In O d d f e l l o w s ' H a l l , S u l l i v a n Block, Cordova S t r e e t .  O.P.  M i l l s was  secretary.  There were t h i r t e e n a c t i v e locals-. E f f o r t s were being made to a f f i l i a t e with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labor Bureau a t B r u s s e l s (the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) .  Mrs.  B. M e r r i l l Burns was  c i a l s e c r e t a r y , and E r n e s t Burns was  provin-  t r e a s u r e r - about $400 had  come i n and had been spent between January:! and May  10.  F u t u r e numbers of t h i s paper were to be much the same i n content - news of the movement, and a r t i c l e s g i v i n g in socialism.  education  Considerable a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to the  t e n t s of seme of these a r t i c l e s ,  con-  because, as had been s a i d , i t  i s p a r t of the present purpose to convey the a t t i t u d e s and p r i n c i p l e s of S o c i a l i s t P a r t y members. Only by  the  understanding  these can the s i g n i f i c a n c e and the h i s t o r i c r o l e of the p a r t y be a p p r e c i a t e d . 2 The Cariboo  June 25 Issue r e p o r t e d t h a t the comrades  (Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Phoenix - a t t h a t time  f l o u r i s h i n g mining candidate.  towns) were to convene to name a f e d e r a l  Revelstoke  (C.P.R. r a i l r o a d  centre) was  At the V i c t o r i a C r y s t a l Theatre, Dr. H.F.Titus had spoken on "How  the R i c h Get R i c h " .  f e c t s of machinery and ers; 2.  i n Yale-  active. of S e a t t l e  He d e s c r i b e d the e f -  the a c q u i s i t i o n of a s u r p l u s by the own-  lower wages meant g r e a t e r p r o f i t s . "Comrades": c o n v e n t i o n a l term always used i n the S.P. C , and l a t e r o f f i c i a l usage i n the C.C.F.  of  E r n e s t Burns wrote a l e t t e r a t t a c k i n g c r i t i c i s m of the Chicago p l a t f o r m of the American S o c i a l i s t  Party.  Columbia, he s a i d , needed a statement o f l e g i s l a t i o n pressed f o r here and now; p a r t y of n e g a t i o n ; stepping  British t o be  the m a j o r i t y would not support a  immediate improvements c o u l d be used as  stones. T h i s view was i n c o n t r a s t with the view taken i n  articles  i n the June 18 number, and through the y e a r s much  debate and d i s s e n s i o n was to c e n t r e around the q u e s t i o n of whether or not the p a r t y should sponsor immediate  reforms.  The dominant s c h o o l o f thought h e l d that s o c i a l i s t s  should  educate, and workers,- i n so f a r as they d i d not l e a r n from such education, to  would have to l e a r n by p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e ;  advocate reforms would be t o i n c u r the danger of l o s i n g  s i g h t of p r i n c i p l e s and o f t h e o b j e c t i v e , the danger of becoming a v o t e - c a t c h i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n unable t o p r o v i d e  sound  leadership. The  J u l y the F i r s t parade i n Vancouver was c r i t i c 3  ized  as a d i s p l a y of the power of r e p r e s s i o n .  p a r t i c i p a n t s ?/ere • d e s c r i b e d as "shallow-pated with d e a t h - d e a l i n g  Some of the beardless  weapons", and i t was reported  youths  that the  crowd was s i l e n t w h i l e the " d i s g u s t i n g d i s p l a y " was p a s s i n g . (This c r i t i c i s m was t y p i c a l  of S o c i a l i s t  a t t i t u d e toward m i l -  i t a r i s m and d i s p l a y s of the power of the stat:e.) 3. The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 9, 1904.  25.. The or patch the  editor declared  that:  "They who  expect to  reform  present system i n t o a more k i n d l y treatment  i t s exploited  c l a s s are the w i l d e s t  t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s t was of power, and  not U t o p i a n .  o f dreamers."  revolu-  He would capture the  destroy the wage system..  ical Socialist  The  of  (Here, again, was  reins a  typ-  attitude.)  Locals  named i n the  J u l y 16 number were:  Vancouver,  V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, Ferguson, Nelson, Slocan, Revelstoke, Phoenix, Greenwood, Ladysmith, N o r t h f i e l d , F e r n i e , Hedley. land, New and  Grand Forks and  Camborne, were  Cumber-  E h o l t , Denoro, Mother Lode,  disorganized.  e d i t o r termed a r b i t r a t i o n a " f a s h i o n a b l e  asked whether there was  i t a l and  Anda were i n a c t i v e , and  Westminster, M i c h e l ,  The but  Van  Kaslo,  labor.  anything to a r b i t r a t e bet?;een cap-  Wages could  "with market c o n d i t i o n s .  theory"  not be f i x e d ; they f l u c t u a t e d  "The  only  while i s the r e i n s of government."  court of a r b i t r a t i o n worth Given power, s o c i a l i s t s  would wipe out the wage system. The  editor gloated  t i o n o v e r t u r e s by "The  over L i b e r a l r e j e c t i o n of  the A u s t r a l i a n Labor P a r t y  l i v e r y of labor may  government).  be used to serve c a p i t a l i s m , , but  sooner or l a t e r the f r a u d w i l l be  exposed."  On the matter o f c o n f i s c a t i o n , the view that  (the  coali-  the s o c i a l i s t i s the  poses c o n f i s c a t i o n because he  only one  who  would r e s t o r e  e d i t o r took  the  unalterably  op-  to the  rightful  owners the means of wealth Mrs.  production.  B. M e r r i l l Burns warned women t h a t " f r e e d s l a v e s  make the most t y r a n n i c a l masters";  t h e r e f o r e women should  pre-  pare themselves i f they wanted p o l i t i c a l and economic freedom. The Premier  (August  13 number, 1904) was pledged  to g i v e women  the vote whenever a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e for i t . A long front-page a r t i c l e on August 13 e x p l a i n e d "What the C l a s s S t r u g g l e I s " .  The workers must s e i z e c o n t r o l  of wealth p r o d u c t i o n i n order to l i f t gory of merchandise.  l a b o r out of the c a t e -  The employer-Worker r e l a t i o n s h i p was one  o f : buyer versus s e l l e r , the p r i c e being determined  by market  conditions. Export t r a d e was condemned as t r a f f i c (i.e.,  In surplus wealth  produced i t ) . be c a r r i e d  i n plunder  t h a t was denied to the workers who  P r o d u c t i o n should be f o r use,  and trade should  on as a convenience. P a r t y members were not t o vote f o r candidates of  other p a r t i e s . The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada p l a t f o r m was r e p r i n t ed. ^  I t d e c l a r e d a l l e g i a n c e to the p r i n c i p l e s and program  of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l working c l a s s . wealth, and t o l a b o r i t should tem must be a b o l i s h e d . 4.  "Labor produces a l l  j u s t l y belong."  The wage s y s -  C a p i t a l i s t p r o p e r t y i n the means of  op. c i t . , March 4, 1905.  F  o  r  1  9  1  0  p l a t f o r m , see Appendix  wealth p r o d u c t i o n must be made i n t o c o l l e c t i v e or workingclass property.  The. c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s was c u l m i n a t i n g  i n a struggle f o r possession The  r e q u i r e d program was:  of the power of government.  1.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  as p o s s i b l e of c a p i t a l i s t p r o p e r t y 2.  to c o l l e c t i v e  as r a p i d l y property.  Thorough and democratic o r g a n i z a t i o n and management o f  i n d u s t r y by workers. sible  of p r o d u c t i o n  3.  Establishment  as s p e e d i l y as pos-  f o r use i n s t e a d of f o r p r o f i t .  U n t i l the present  system was a b o l i s h e d ,  the S o c i a l -  i s t P a r t y would make the answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i t s g u i d ing r u l e j  W i l l t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n advance the i n t e r e s t s of  the working c l a s s and a i d workers i n t h e i r c l a s s s t r u g g l e against  capitalism? L e s t i t be, assumed t h a t a l l reform measures c o u l d  be endorsed a f f i r m a t i v e l y , i t should t h i s was not the case,  be s t a t e d here t h a t  and l a t e r the argument of some s o c i a l  i s t s a g a i n s t such measures as compensation and s t a t e i n s u r ances w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . ered  However, other s o c i a l i s t s  consid-  that many immediate improvements i n the l o t of the  worker were d e s i r a b l e and a t t a i n a b l e by p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . In a case l i k e  the lowering  of a candidate's  deposit,  both  s c h o o l s of thought could agree, because t h i s measure wouid make i t e a s i e r f o r i?orkers to c o n t e s t e l e c t i o n s and so to win  c o n t r o l of the s t a t e .  .28.  Such a measure was Introduced  hy Parker  Williams,  M.L.A., who asked, that the § 2 0 0 d e p o s i t be lowered to . f 5 0 ; he was. u n s u c c e s s f u l , but l a t e r J.. H. Eawthorthwaite  secured  a compromise. On March 2 5 , 1 9 0 5 , the Dominion executive S.P. of C; (headquarters  i n the Masonic Block,  were l i s t e d  R.P.Pettipiece,  as f o l l o w s :  J.G.Morgan); ganizer;  of the  Vancouver)  secretary  (later,  J . M. Cameron, chairman; E. T. K i n g s l e y , o r -  and (present a t the meeting) A. J". W i l k i n s o n ,  C. P e t e r s , John E. Dubberley, W. H. Flowers,  A l f r e d Leah.  A Dominion o r g a n i z a t i o n fund was to be opened. Jack London, i t was noted by The C l a r i o n , had thrown Berkeley, ary l e c t u r e ;  California,  i n t o an uproar by a r e v o l u t i o n -  the i n v i t a t i o n had been to " t a l k about any-  t h i n g you l i k e . "  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y c o n s i d e r e d  London's  pamphlet on " R e v o l u t i o n " to be worth p u b l i s h i n g f o r i t s members. On J u l y 1, the e d i t o r again c r i t i c i z e d U n i t e d socialists; tionary  none of t h e i r papers sounded "the c l e a r r e v o l u -  note." On September 2 , a Labor Day Souvenir  14,000  States  E d i t i o n of  copies was p u b l i s h e d , c o n t a i n i n g complimentary a r t -  i c l e s on v a r i o u s f i r m s . The  P o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver was 4 5 , 0 0 0 .  trade union movement was c r i t i c i z e d . (September  29 «• 30)  f o r endeavoring to get b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r the  organized  workers at the expense of the worst-organized  or the t o t a l l y unorganized, who r e n t s , and  s u f f e r e d most from h i g h  from the h i g h p r i c e s of c o a l , meat, and The  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and company claimed to be  cloth.  Western C l a r i o n of October 7, 1905,  to a s t r i k e at Nanaimo mines; the men  was  best-  had  referred  refused  to  from P r o t e c t i o n s h a f t , while  pay  the  the payment necessary i f the eight-hour  observed.  la?/  Deputy M i n i s t e r of Labor Mackenzie  King came to i n v e s t i g a t e .  Parker Williams,  M.L.A., wrote 5  a n g r i l y of "gas-bags and types",  and  termed Mr.  guttersnipes  of the Smith and  King  King a " s t a r f a k i r " .  In t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward f i s h t r a p s , the o l d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , m i l i t a r i s m , a r b i t r a t i o n , c o n f i s c a t i o n , trade, and  reform,  the S o c i a l i s t s i l l u s t r a t e d  a t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e theory.  the r e l e n t l e s s a p p l i c -  They would countenance no  compromise, they d e s i r e d no a m e l i o r a t i o n , amelioration, long the  f o r compromise  they b e l i e v e d , would confuse the  i s s u e and  and pro-  struggle. The  p a r t y a t t i t u d e was  yet the p a r t y was  growing i n  proving  too severe f o r some,  strength.  5.  Ralph Smith, M.P., whom Nanaimo miners used to draw through the s t r e e t s i n a carriage..  6.  W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie King, l a t e r Prime M i n i s t e r s e v e r a l times, was i n t h i s p e r i o d making a name f o r h i m s e l f as a student of s o c i a l problems and employer-labor r e l a t i o n s . Labor has always charged t h a t he had a p a r t (doubtless with the best of i n t e n t i o n s ) i n i d e v e l o p i n g the "company union" device which was so o f t e n used t o f o r e s t a l l or delay regular unionization. •  30-.  l  Chapter .Two,.  The  Section  2:  S o c i a l i s t Party  Socialist Activity  Socialists, fluence  One  i n the L e g i s l a t u r e  though few i n number, had much i n -  i n the L e g i s l a t u r e  t i e t h century.  o f Canada.  i n the e a r l y years of the twen-  They were able  t o secure many r e f o r m s .  r e a s o n f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s was that  "Some o f  the old-time p o l i t i c i a n s continued t o c l i n g t o the view that i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n  (party government, by S i r R i c h a r d  McBridg,1903) was a mistake and could  not s e t t l e down  to i t s acceptance.  n o m i n a l l y there was  a majority  While, t h e r e f o r e ,  easily  i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , the Government had t o depend  at a c r i s i s upon the S o c i a l i s t and Labour members." ^ Furthermore, the f a c t U n i t e d States bring t h e i r  corporations  influence  that many employers were  meant t h a t t h e y could  not r e a d i l y  t o bear d i r e c t l y upon the L e g i s l a t u r e .  1.  U n d e r h i l l , H. F a b i a n : Labour L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Berkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1935. Q u o t a t i o n from S c h o l e f i e l d , E.O.S., and G o s n e l l , R.E., i n " B r i t i s h Columbia, S i x t y Years of P r o g r e s s " ; B.C. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver and V i c t o r i a 1913, v o l . 2, p. 160.  2.  U n d e r h i l l , op. c i t .  31. Another f a c t o r was  the s t r e n g t h of the trade un-  ions.  A. C. G a i t , K.C.,  wrote from Rossland on March 25,  1903;  " B r i t i s h Columbia  i s a hot-bed of unionism, and i t i s  a d v i s a b l e to p r e s e r v e a l l p o s s i b l e means o f p r o t e c t i o n t o our i n d u s t r i e s , b y ' I n j u n c t i o n or o t h e r w i s e . "  He  asked f o r  d i s a l l o w a n c e of a p r o v i n c i a l A c t of 1902 p r o v i d i n g that  no  union or i t s t r u s t e e s should be l i a b l e f o r damages f o r any wrongful a c t d u r i n g a l a b o r d i s p u t e u n l e s s the a c t i o n had been o f f i c i a l l y a u t h o r i z e d .  The M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e ,  how-  ever, allowed the A c t . P r o v i n c i a l governments might n o t be e n t h u s i a s t i c about unionism, but l a b o r r e p r e s e n t e d many v o t e s . The V i c t o r i a Times, February 21, 1905, the  denounced  government as too much under the domination o f S o c i a l -  ists. R e g i s t e r e d unions were l e g a l i z e d by a f e d e r a l Trade Union A c t , 1872, law.  w i t h an amendment t o the c r i m i n a l  Other unions were u n l a w f u l u n t i l 1892, when i n a.  c o d i f i c a t i o n of the c r i m i n a l law the s e c t i o n of the Trade 3.  U n d e r h i l l , op. c i t . , p. 223, from Gisborne and F r a s e r , "Correspondence, Reports of M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , e t c . , upon the s u b j e c t of Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n , 1896-1920", p. 641.  i.  U n d e r h i l l , op. c i t .  Union A c t r e g a r d i n g freedom from c o n s p i r a c y t o r e s t r a i n trade was i n c l u d e d without the " r e g i s t e r e d " l i m i t i n g c l a u s e . the s t a t u s of unions s t i l l remained u n c e r t a i n . p i c k e t i n g had been l e g a l i z e d  Yet  Peaceful  i n 1876, but i n the 1892 r e v i -  s i o n , i t had not been l e g a l i z e d .  ( I t was l e g a l i z e d i n 1934.)  The B r i t i s h Columbia A c t of 1902 has been mentioned. A f t e r h i s e l e c t i o n as a Labor member i n 1900, J.H. Hawthornthwaite began t o study s c i e n t i f i c  s o c i a l i s m and i n  the L e g i s l a t u r e advocated Soc i a l i s m as the only hope f o r the . 6 workers. Among amendments i n t r o d u c e d by Hawthornthwaite a t that time was one t o prevent employment of u n s k i l l e d miners 7 such as Chinese, who endangered l i v e s as w e l l as wage l e v e l s . This was adopted "but not w e l l e n f o r c e d " . Dunsmuir,  Lieutenant-governor  i t was s a i d , was u s i n g hundreds of Chinese, Japanese,  and Hindus a t Cumberland. 5.  Underhill,  op. c i t .  6.  (A correspondent t o The Western C l a r i o n of January 5, 1907, s a i d that Hawthornthwaite had been e l e c t e d f i r s t as c a n d i date o f the Independent Labor P a r t y of Nanaimo; this I.L.P. had been r e p u d i a t e d by'the I.L.P. o f V i c t o r i a as not being p a r t o f the I.L.P. o f Canada. In public l i f e , s a i d the w r i t e r , Mr. Hawthornthwaite found "a gang of g r a f t e r s " , and r e f u s e d to b e t r a y l a b o r to s u i t Ralph Smith, who had Hawthornthwaite d i s c h a r g e d by the Western F u e l Company.)  7.  The Western C l a r i o n of January 12, 1907, reviewed l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e 1900, and m a t e r i a l i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s taken from t h i s s o u r c e .  In 1902, Hawthornthwaite proposed, an amendment to provide f o u r consecutive hours f o r v o t i n g ; ed.  t h i s was adopt-  A f t e r a memorable f i g h t , d u r i n g which I t was s a i d t h a t  the measure would d e s t r o y i n d u s t r i e s , the Workmen's Compens a t i o n A c t was obtained  i n 1902.  The 1902 Trade Union A c t  already r e f e r r e d t o , had the e f f e c t of s e t t i n g a s i d e , so f a r as B r i t i s h Columbia was concerned, the B r i t i s h T a f f Yale d e c i s i o n , by which unions were made l i a b l e f o r damage done during a s t r i k e , whether or not. they had been d i r e c t l y r e sponsible .  .  A measure o f 1903, to impose a p e n a l t y not exceeding $1,000., on an employer who d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t a trade u n i o n i s t , was defeated 24-4. In 1903-04, the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y gained the L e g i s l a t u r e . date's  deposit  that plans  a foothold, i n  Parker W i l l i a m s ' motion to reduce a c a n d i -  from §200 to §50 was d e f e a t e d .  of mines be posted  H i s amendment  i n conspicuous p l a c e s was adopt-  ed., but the Union Coal Company (Dunsmuir) "had to be f o r c e d " to comply.  An amendment to l e t employees e l e c t i n s p e c t o r s  (.who, miners have always charged, sometimes a r e l e n i e n t with companies d u r i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a c c i d e n t s , an a t t i t u d e that could r e s u l t i n f u r t h e r p r e v e n t a b l e i n g l y defeated.  d i s a s t e r s ) was overwhelm-  Hawthornthwaite's S e t t l e r s ' R i g h t s Act,  P r o t e c t i o n Act, measure f o r an eight-hour  Bird  day i n c o a l mines,  Game P r o t e c t i o n Act, b o i l e r i n s p e c t i o n amendment, were a l l  carried.  To stop a "cheap hut common method of p e t t y 'bribery"',  Hawthornthwaite moved that t r a n s p o r t a t i o n passes f o r M.L.A.'s a s s e s s o r s , and but  others i n public service,  t h i s measure was  defeated.  be made o b l i g a t o r y ,  (The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y had  ceded- that e l e c t e d members should use  con-  these passes.)  In the 190 5 s e s s i o n , Hawthornthwaite moved an eight-hour law f o r smelters, to strengthen the c o a l mine Q  eight-hour law,  8.  but the motion was  lost,  26-12.  A s o c i a l i s t view of an opponent was expressed Western C l a r i o n w r i t e r i n t h i s connection:  by  The  "Macdonald, the l e a d e r of the a l l e g e d opp o s i t i o n , r e f u s e d to vote on the b i l l ... He claimed the men had never asked f o r i t and a f t e r l y i n g i n every p o s s i b l e manner to damage i t , sneaked out i n a most cowa r d l y f a s h i o n . Never b e f o r e i n the provi n c e have Labor r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had to contend a g a i n s t such a dangerous and Imp l a c a b l e foe as the gentleman i n q u e s t i o n . Cold-blooded by nature and p r o f o u n d l y h y p o c r i t i c a l , what a b i l i t y and l e g a l t r a i n i n g he has i s r e m o r s e l e s s l y used to d e s t r o y any e f f o r t s i n b e h a l f of the worker and a t the same time to cover' up his- own t r a c k s . " ( I t may be noted here that the language of p o l i t i c a l cont r o v e r s y b e f o r e the Great War was more g e n e r a l l y and more v i o l e n t l y abusive than i t i s today.) The r e f e r e n c e was to J . A. Macdonald, K.C., l e a d e r of the L i b e r a l s ; The Canadian Annual Review, 1905, pays t r i b u t e to Mr. Macdonald' s a b i l i t i e s but says he d i d not i n s p i r e g r e a t popularity; i t quotes him as not approving a twelve-hour day but not convinced the men'needed or wanted an e i g h t hour day.  35. Hawthornthwaite•s amendment to the Coal Mines Regu l a t i o n s Act to s e t a p e n a l t y f o r v i o l a t i o n of the e i g h t hour day  i n mines v/as defeated 17-13;  threatened  James Dunsmuir^"had  t o c l o s e the mines" if, i t passed.  waite, noted  as an o r a t o r , r e c e i v e d applause  Hawthornthfrom the  gal-  lery. Parker W i l l i a m s ' amendment on the d e p o s i t was  lost  again. Hawthornthwaite's E x p l o s i v e s R e g u l a t i o n Act, r e quiring  the stamping of date of manufacture and  of e x p l o s i v e , was  percentage  carried.  W i l l i a m s s u c c e s s f u l l y amended the School Act to p r o t e c t farmers  i n the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway  belt  from a m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s e i n the tax f o r e d u c a t i o n . (The E. & N. lands, given to the Dunsmuir i n t e r e s t s , were exempt from t a x a t i o n f o r education, but the s e t t l e r s were not.) Hawthornthwaite secured an amendment t o reduce the r a t e of assessment on farms valued at $2,000 or under. H i s amendment to i n c r e a s e compensation allowance  was  defeat-  ed, J . A. Macdonald saying that the House s h o u l d "avoid anyt h i n g l i k e l y to discourage In 1906,  investment."  Hawthornthwaite took several- hours to i n -  troduce, no doubt very e l o q u e n t l y , an Act to extend c h i s e to women. two  Liberals.  He  was  supported  The Act was  the  by W i l l i a n s and by one  " s i l e n t l y r e j e c t e d " , 24-10.  franor  3E. Hawthornthwaite succeeded date's d e p o s i t reduced Act,  to $100,  i n g e t t i n g the c a n d i -  a compromise.  H i s Ambulance  to compel p e t t y mine o f f i c i a l s ; t o pass a f i r s t  aid test  (and t o r e q u i r e an ambulance box f o r every hundred men)  was  adopted. W i l l i a m Davidson's was  eight-hour day i n smelters  bill  defeated, 19-17, W i l l i a m s ' amendment to the Master and Servant Act,  to  enforce a bi-weekly pay day,  seven L i b e r a l s  turned  was  carried,  but f i v e of  a g a i n s t i t i n committee and " s t r a n g l e d "  it. On March 17, 1906, old  Parker W i l l i a m s ' r e s o l u t i o n  age pensions and a c c i d e n t pensions \ms  ruled  on  out of order.  A f t e r a b i t t e r s t r u g g l e , an amendment to the S m a l l Debts Act to a b o l i s h garnishment  o f a workman's wages,  was  defeated. The Western C l a r i o n d e c l a r e d i n a c c u r a t e an  editorial  i n the Vancouver "World" s t a t i n g t h a t the McBride government was  kept i n power f o r three and a h a l f years by the votes of 9  three S o c i a l i s t s . S o c i a l i s t s , and  one  The f a c t was  s a i d to be that L i b e r a l s ,  Independent Labor member t o t a l l e d  with the Conservatives having 22.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , with p a r t y  l i n e s not so s t r i c t l y drawn as l a t e r ,  one  can surmise t h a t  the votes of the S o c i a l i s t s must have been important. 9.  January/9,  1907.  20,  The Western C l a r i o n ivas u n e n t h u s i a s t i c about the concessions  won.  I t quoted from the p a r t y p l a t f o r m :  "So l o n g as the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s remains i n p o s s e s s i o n  of  the r e i n s or government, a l l the powers of the s t a t e w i l l be used to p r o t e c t and defend means of wealth duct of l a b o r . "  10.  January 7,  p r o d u c t i o n and 1 0  1907.  t h e i r p r o p e r t y r i g h t s i n the t h e i r c o n t r o l of the  pro-  38.  Chapter Two. .  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada.  S e c t i o n 3:  A Labor View of P u b l i c A f f a i r s and of S o c i a l i s m .  A labor weekly  of d i s t i n c t  i n d i v i d u a l i t y , The  Ledge ( l a t e r The Ledger, with a S o c i a l i s t page), was publ i s h e d a t P e r n i e i n one of the major c o a l mining r e g i o n s of western Canada, d u r i n g the p e r i o d under review. ence t o i t i s h e l p f u l i n a c h i e v i n g  Some r e f e r -  an understanding of the  atmosphere and events of the time, from the l a b o r p o i n t of view, and an understanding both of the s i t u a t i o n i n which the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y was working and of c e r t a i n commonly-levelled c r i t i c i s m s of t h a t p a r t y . R. T. Lowery was the humorous and f e a r l e s s " E d i t or and F i n a n c i e r " . t a i n e d the customary  Vol. X l l ,  No. 13, January 4, 1905, con-  assurance:  "You w i l l become l i k e  Sol-  omon i f you read The Ledge r e g u l a r l y . " An e d i t o r i a l on "the Chinks" with r e f e r e n c e t o a Nelson News l e t t e r e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e t o have Chinese i n the mines, said : " I t i s n o t l a b o r that has caused the dep r e s s i o n i n many of the mining camps of B r i t i s h Columbia, but the ma®ipuul&tmnsi of crooked p r o -  39.. motors and g e n e r a l jobbers i n w i l d - c a t schemes. We have been cursed with a c l a s s of crooks who p r e f e r to mine the public, i n s t e a d of the ground. In order to square themselves with t h e i r v i c t i m s , they blame i t upon the hard-handed f e l lows who h i t the d r i l l . " A l s o , there were many incompetent mine managers. " I f a l l the d i s h o n e s t promoters that have p e s t e r e d t h i s p r o v i n c e had been roped and s t r u n g up i n t r e e s along with the dead f l e s h put i n as managers, we would seldom hear a yawp about f l o o d i n g the country wi th Chinks." • • On February  8, i t announced:  The Ledge stands f o r m u n i c i p a l and government ownership. I t b e l i e v e s t h a t the people should own a l l r a i l r o a d s , express, telephone and t e l e g r a p h l i n e s , mines, banks, and insurance. I t b e l i e v e s that everybody should work f o r a l i v i n g while, they are able, and that a l l aged and h e l p l e s s people should be kept i n p l e n t y and comfort by the n a t i o n . Other views expressed vile of  were:  t h a t the press i s s e r -  to a d v e r t i s e r s , e s p e c i a l l y governments; there was  an independent p r e s s .  itics,  There should be education i n p o l -  f o r Canadians were the r e v e r s e of honest  they were concerned  need  t o f e a t h e r t h e i r own  r e l a t i v e s at. the expense of the  and  nests and  educated; to h e l p  country.  D i s t r i c t 18, U n i t e d Mine Workers of America, had  con-  demned the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company f o r i t s monopoly and its it  c l o s e d towns ( M i c h e l , Coal Creek, Carbonado), c a l l i n g upon to open the towns and s e l l p l o t s to tradesmen and workmen. On August 2, The Ledge was  s o l d to D.V.Mott, becoming  4©. The  Ledger. I t fought a " p l o t  to rob us of our water  and the Crow's Nest Pass E l e c t r i c o f f e r was  L i g h t and Power Company's  not r a t i f i e d by the v o t e r s .  was v e r y moderate, however, was  franchise",  That the new  attitude  soon shown, the paper  stating  that c a p i t a l and labor must go hand i n hand, l e a r n i n g the 1 value of t o l e r a t i o n i n the s c h o o l of e x p e r i e n c e . On February 21, the e d i t o r c r i t i c i z e d  the  socialists.  "To c a l l the p r e s e n t government a t V i c t o r i a a government of the people, f o r the people, and by the people, vrould be the w i l d e s t k i n d of f i c t i o n . "  He  n e s s " of the m i n i s t r y , and  to the " r e g r e t t a b l e  socialistic  element  objected to the " t r i c k y  a t t i t u d e of the  which pretends to r e p r e s e n t the  of the l a b o u r i n g man  interest  ... as a g a i n s t the greed of the monopo-  l i s t s " but never antagnozed won't endanger i t . "  shifti-  the government "except when they  They voted w i t h the government"whenever  such deals as the Dewdney d i s t r i c t a f f a i r i n i q u i t y come b e f o r e the House." government f o r any c l a s s was  or the Kaien i s l a n d  The only way  to i n s i s t  t o get honest 2 on i t f o r a l l .  1.  January 17,  1906.  2.  The K a i e n i s l a n d a f f a i r , said' The Ledger, arose out of a leak of news r e g a r d i n g t r a n s f e r of lands at one d o l l a r an a c r e to the Grand Trunk; t h e r e was a complicated s t o r y of land grabbing and s p e c u l a t i o n .  On J u l y 11,  the e d i t o r agreed, with  waite that a l l wealth was  the product  J.H.Hawthornth-  o f l a b o r , but  critic-  i z e d him f o r jumping t o the statement t h a t 5,000,000 wage earners produce i t a l l and The  get o n l y a f i f t h  i n return.  F e r n i e Free P r e s s h a v i n g r e f u s e d t o p u b l i s h a  l o n g l e t t e r from John H a r r i n g t o n a speech by Mr.  on " m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s "  of  Hawthornthwaite, The Ledger p u b l i s h e d i t  ( J u l y 25), but on August 22 expressed  the o p i n i o n that i f  Hawthornthwaite were s i n c e r e "he must be slow", f o r the government was  making a "stupendous a s s " of him;  he was  s a y i n g t h a t the C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and YiTorks, Mr.  Green, was  supported  Hon.  u n f i t to hold o f f i c e , yet Hawthornthwaite  the government "while  the p r o v i n c e was  m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s worth of the p u b l i c domain." a t i o n h o l d on B r i t i s h Columbia was A full-scale  robbed The  g e t t i n g stronger,  have nothing  Labor  of  it. s a i d . fol-  convention*  t o gain and much t o l o s e . i t  a l l y i n g themselves with  had-  corpor-  a t t a c k was made on the S o c i a l i s t s ,  lowing t h e i r "capture" of the Trades and Union men  now  s a i d , by  "that band of c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s  revol-  u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s t s known as the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada, a p a r t y that by i t s extreme methods has  earned the 3  of the t h i n k i n g union men  3.  November 7,  1906.  of the  country."  contempt  The aggressive,  S o c i a l i s t s "are g r i n d i n g away a t t h e i r c o l d ,  academic formula about  r  c l a s s war', 'economic de-  terminism', 'a c l a s s - c o n s c i o u s p r o l e t a r i a t ' , and everyone who does not agree with degree or o t h e r . "  them i s a f a k i r  or a scoundrel  of seme  Many S o c i a l i s t s were aware of the f o l l y of  t h i s a t t i t u d e , the a r t i c l e s a i d , but no one was a b l e t o stand a g a i n s t the dominating f a c t i o n .  I t continued:  A s p l i t and the f o r m a t i o n of a Canadian independent labor p a r t y would be the s a l v a t i o n of S o c i a l i s m i n t h i s country. The barrenness of the present S o c i a l i s t propaganda i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where i t s success appears to be most marked. This province i s r i p e f o r S o c i a l i s m and l a b o r . Miners compose the bulk of i t s e l e c t o r s . I t s lands have been p i l f e r e d by corrupt l e g i s l a t o r s , and i t s r e s o u r c e s a r e i n the hands of one of two m o n o p o l i s t s . This i s the f i r s t Canadian p r o v i n c e to develop the economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a t e from which a l a b o r and S o c i a l i s t movement l i k e ours grew up. W i t h i n t e n years the l e g i s l a t u r e could be dominated by our own people. But u n l e s s there i s 'a change, o n l y a w i l d seething s t r i f e w i l l be kept up. The S o c i a l i s t s w i l l continue t o p l a y i n t o the hands o f the r e a c t i o n a r i e s , and the m a g n i f i c e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l never be seized -upon. ' P r o b a b l y L i b e r a l s and Conservatives  would u n i t e  everywhere a g a i n s t the S o c i a l i s t s , The Ledger s a i d .  After  a S o c i a l i s t d e f e a t and the g e t t i n g r i d of some of the f r e n z i e d l e a d e r s , an Independent l a b o r p a r t y l e d by moderate and p r o g r e s s i v e men would have a good chance i n many c o n s t i t u e n cies. The  Ledger r i d i c u l e d the i d e a that a m i n e r s '  4@, strike  i n southern A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia  American o p e r a t o r s .  to h e l p  In n e a r l y every case, i t s a i d , the i n -  t e r n a t i o n a l union has d e a l t with here was  was  to r e s t r a i n the local".  (The  charge  commonly made i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n time of  strike.) The number o f December 22, 1906,  quotes  The Win-  nipeg Free P r e s s and The Winnipeg Tribune exchanging of c o r r u p t i o n and  of robbery of the p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s by the  p a r t i e s they r e s p e c t i v e l y supported. " s t e a l " was  charges  The  Crow's Nest  Pass  termed the most " c o l l o s a l and d i s g r a c e f u l " i n  Canadian h i s t o r y ;  "a l i t t l e r i n g o f g r a f t e r s " had  s e s s i o n of c o a l lands worth  got  pos-  billions.  The Ledger r e p r e s e n t e d a s e c t i o n of l a b o r o p i n i o n , which d i s l i k e d  the dogmatic and uncompromisi:ng Marxian  atti-  tude of the S o c i a l i s t p a r t y , yet, b e l i e v i n g t h a t much of the wealth of the province had come i n t o a few hands by means that were o f t e n unscrupulous, f a v o r e d p o l i t i c a l l a b o r , w i t h a program of reforms and c e r t a i n measures.  a c t i o n by  socialistic  The two views as r e p r e s e n t e d by The Ledger  the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , were at odds throughout  and  the world.  With-  i n a g e n e r a t i o n , events were to supply evidence to support each view.  On the other hand, there would be the u n i n s p i r i n g  r e c o r d of the B r i t i s h L a b o r - P a r t y and  the temporary  set-back  g i v e n by the f i n a l d e f e c t i o n of some of i t s l e a d e r s ; weaknesses of the S o c i a l Democrats i n Germany; the  the  growing  success of f a s c i s t and r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e s i n many land's; on the other hand, l a b o r was o f t e n to g a i n s o c i a l and economic l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would improve the h e a l t h and morale o f the worker, l e g i s l a t i o n he would not w i l l i n g l y see and  abandoned,  i n some c o u n t r i e s s o c i a l democracy was t o be able, as  i n Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and New Zealand!, t o go a long way toward the c o - o p e r a t i v e  commonwealth without n o t i c e a b l e  r u p t i o n or t h r e a t o f f a s c i s m .  dis-  45. Chapter  •  .,T.WCUJ.  The  S e c t i o n 4:  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada.  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y a t the Height of its.Influence. In the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d , the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y r e a c h -  ed a peak of a c t i v i t y and of - e l e c t o r a l support  i n 1909.  Then i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r n a l t r o u b l e s began to a f f e c t the p o l i t i c a l work of the p a r t y a d v e r s e l y . c o n d i t i o n s worsened, people  wanted  F u r t h e r , as economic immediate r e l i e f , r a t h e r  than academic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of events. of  course,  regarded  The S o c i a l i s t s ,  e l e c t i o n s as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r educa-  t i o n r a t h e r ^ t h a n as p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e s i n which v i c t o r y was the primary concern. support  This being the case, the degree o f  they received" was remarkable,  and many of t h e i r  candidates, though o f t e n defeated, were to make t h e i r mark upon p u b l i c thought v a r i o u s spheres  and, l a t e r ,  t o 'play prominent p a r t s i n  of p u b l i c l i f e . •  S o c i a l i s t s d i d not expect legislature, served  to achieve much i n the  but a t l e a s t , The C l a r i o n e d i t o r once ob-  (February 10, 1906), they could expose "the u t t e r  incompetency and impotency of the p o l i t i c a l hacks o f capitalism."  .As a matter of f a c t ,  they  achieved not-a  little.  46. The  Western C l a r i o n on January 6,  1906  (No.  354),  printed, the M a n i f e s t o of S o c i a l i s t candidates i n the Vancouver School Board e l e c t i o n .  It outlined  the program of R e v o l u t i o n -  ary S o c i a l i s m .  Poverty i n i t s e n t i r e t y and  of  and  crime, v i c e ,  wretchedness, were the  hy a p r i v i l e g e d m i n o r i t y of the e s s e n t i a l duction.  In the  i n t e r e s t s of the  health  r e s u l t of ownership t o o l s of wealth pro-  utensils;  services;  texts  on h i s t o r y ,  posed c u l t i v a t i o n or the i f i c a t i o n o f murder and conquest.  ethics,  and  kinder-  j i n g o and  i t especially  military spirit,  robbery under the  said that  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y had  run  5,000 votes (24  cent) i n these r i d i n g s .  were e l e c t e d ,  one  was  were i n second p l a c e . lost their deposits. Giving Western C l a r i o n  and Go&in.  cent. 15,  (1903) the  candidates i n ten r i d i n g s , p o l l i n g  defeated by  Two  old-party  John Davidson, Labor, was  said that The  Socialists  eleven v o t e s , and  Three of the  more d e t a i l e d  socialism,in decline  and  op-  glor-  Western C l a r i o n on September  i n the l a s t p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n  per  and  guise of war  Vancouver c i v i c vote f o r S o c i a l i s t s v/as 13 per a r t i c l e i n The  and  political  Candidates were "Wilkinson, Burns, P a r r ,  An 1906,  free  e x t e n s i o n of manual t r a i n i n g , domestic s c i e n c e ,  economy from the w o r k i n g - c l a s s s t a n d p o i n t ;  The  portion  working c l a s s , i t then pro-  ceeded to demand f r e e t e x t books and gartens;  the major  others  candidates elected.  r e s u l t s on November 3,  The  Vancouver World haddeclared  since Hawthornthwaite s speech i n T  the  Grand Theatre, when he had expressed  the hope of s e e i n g the  red f l a g on the Parliament B u i l d i n g s , was dead;  Nanaimo and  Lady smith were p r e p a r i n g t o throw o f f the yoke, and t h e "conservative-socialist"  government would be defeated.  In June, 1900, the t o t a l S o c i a l i s t i n October,  1903, 5,000;  vote had been 684;  now (1906) i t was 4,792 i n t e n r i d -  i n g s , 8 per cent of the t o t a l f o r a l l r i d i n g s ,  24 p e r c e n t  of the t o t a l f o r the ten r i d i n g s , an i n c r e a s e of 550 p e r cent, Socialist  candidates and t h e i r  Vancouver: Victoria: Vancouver: • Nanaimo: ' Greenwood: Ladysmith: Ferguson(Kaslo-Slocan): Revelstoke: Grand F o r k s :  John T. Mortimer: 1,338 J . C. Watters: 699 A. R. Stebbings: 950 J.H.Hawthornthwaite: 486 ( e l e c t e d ) Ernest M i l l s : 332 (defeatedby9) Parker W i l l i a m s : 208 ( e l e c t e d ) S. Shannon: 179 J . W. Bennett: 152 John Riordan: 242  Scorn and r i d i c u l e Labor  votes were:  were heaped on the i d e a of a  Party. S o c i a l i s t P a r t y candidates i n the p r o v i n c i a l  tion  ( C l a r i o n , February 2 and 9, 1907) were:  elec-  Alberni Comox Fernie Grand Forks Greenwood The I s l a n d s Nanaimo Newcastle Nelson Okanagan Revelstoke Richmond Rossland Simi lkameen Slocan Vic t o r i a Vancouver  James Cartwright George Richards ¥. H. Ivloore John Mclnnes Edgar W. Dynes W. J . Ledingham J . H. Hawthornthwaite Parker Williams Frank P h i l l i p s J . W. S. Logie W. 1. Lefeaux C. K i l b y A r c h i e F. B e r r y George E . Winkler W i l l i a m Davidson J . C. Watters A. R. Stebbings R. P. P e t t i p i e c e J . S. Dubberley J . H. McVety E. T. K i n g s l e y  230 319 344 259 96 86  (elected) (elected) (elected) (incomplete)  98 .441  In Slocan, Davidson was defeated, many of h i s supp o r t e r s h a v i n g l e f t the v a l l e y . The vote i n Vancouver, where the S o c i a l i s t s r a n a f u l l s l a t e f o r the f i r s t time, was: dilates,  about 3,000^  Socialists,  Liberals,  C o n s e r v a t i v e s , 5 can-  2 candidates,  2,300ft  5 candidates, 600£<XA4*-  The  S o c i a l i s t vote had doubled  i n three and a h a l f  years. Hawthornthwaite and W i l l i a m s were g i v e n a vote asl a r g e as t h a t of both opponents combined. plimented  The e d i t o r com-  t h e men of Nanaimo and Newcastle f o r conducting  the campaign themselves.  S e l f - r e l i a n c e , and not an o r a t o r i c a l  Moses, would enable the-workers t o f i n d the way out ;©f "the  49, swamp of c a p i t a l i s m . " (26 C o n s e r v a t i v e s were e l e c t e d , 13 L i b e r a l s , 3 S o c i a l i s t s ) . As the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1909 approached, 20 , 00 0 copies of The C l a r i o n were p r i n t e d on November 13. On December 4, e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were F i g u r e s f o r 1909 were Comox Cranbrook Fernie Grand Forks Greenwood Nanaimo Newcastie Nelson Okanagan Revel stoke Rossland Skeena Sloean Victoria Ymir Vancouver  incomplete.  el.:  1907  1909.  James Cartwright J.W.Fitch John H a r r i n g t o n John Mclnnes George Heatherton J.H.Hawthornthwaite Parker W i l l i a m s J.H.Matheson J.F.Johnson H. Kempster George Casey T.Y. McKay W i l l i a m Bennett George O l i v e r A. M. O l i v e r P. Garvie E.T.Kingsley W.M.Mackenzie M. McGregor R.P.Pettipiece  (Vancouver average  published.  194 101 813 328 ani 311 782 e l . 379 e l . 148 242 207 160 137 130 691 152 1,227 1,883 1,231 1,218 1,428  285 323 e l . 176 455 e l . 259 e l . 96 92 94 98 119 404 623 622 620)  1,400  elected. Those e l e c t e d were t w o - S o c i a l i s t s , two L i b e r a l s ,  36 C o n s e r v a t i v e s ;  two seats were d o u b t f u l .  Hawthornthwaite  and Williams were r e t u r n e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d m a j o r i t i e s . wright l o s t by a score of v o t e s .  In Rossland,  vote rose from 98 i n 1907 to 219, w i t h almost  Cart-  the S o c i a l i s t the same t o t a l  S'Q.  number o f b a l l o t s , Revelstoke  and the candidate was w i t h i n 20 of v i c t o r y .  and Okanagan S o c i a l i s t votes i n c r e a s e d n o t a b l y . In  the f o u r t e e n country d i s t r i c t s ,  s a i d The C l a r i o n ,  were that the S o c i a l i s t vote was more than The it  Clarion editor rejoiced;  indications  twice the L i b e r a l . the P a r t y ' s  "take  or leave i t " a t t i t u d e had been j u s t i f i e d , he f e l t .  T o t a l vote In the p r o v i n c e was about 50,000. |n Vancouver, some 19.000 c o u l d vote, and about h a l f of/them d i d . Malcolm I s l a n d , s i t e of a s o c i a l i s t i c F i n n i s h colony at S o i n t u l a , gave a l l i t s 28 votes t o the S o c i a l i s t Party. C l o s e r a n a l y s i s of the Newcastle r e s u l t  showed  the f o l l o w i n g : Ladysmith South Cedar South W e l l i n g t o n Northfield Extension  Socialist 225 23 34 70 27 379  Conservative 211 17 4 17 25 274  Liberal 47 4 8 4 4 67  Total votes: 720. S o c i a l i s t per cent: 52.5 ( i n 1907, 46.5 per cent, with a t o t a l vote of 555). T h i s area has always given s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s one of the h i g h e s t per centage votes i n the p r o v i n c e and i n Canada. The people are miners, l o g g e r s , and farmers. The Western C l a r i o n had a s u r p l u s i n November and December - perhaps due t o e l e c t i o n  interest.  E l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were g i v e n on A p r i l 6 and 13, 1912.  They were as f o l l o w s : (The L i b e r a l s had only 18 candidates  f o r 42 seats.)  51.  Newcastle Nana imo Comox Skeena Slocan Victoria Esquimalt Pernie Greenwood Nelson Okanagan Rossland Vancouver  SocialConserist. vative ; Parker W i l l i a m s 388 e l . 373 Jack P l a c e 621 e l . 578 W.W.Lefeaux 388 634 M-H-Montgomery 218 649 A. Shi H a n d 128 174 V. Midgley 66& 3, 228 George O l i v e r 24 398 799 1,112 Wm.Davidson . G-eo.Heatherton 563 103 . A.W.Harrod 117 528 George S t i r l i n g 194 968 G.B.Casey 336 95 1,272 . J.A.Macdonald W.A.Pritchard 1,069 W i l l i a m Bennett 1,150 John Reid 1,154 J.P.Lord . 1,126 Other candidates received.:  toria,  620;  Esquimalt,  188,96;  Liberal Social 1909 37§ . 786 375 206 432 163 172 2,043 691 156 813 311 148 188 168 16 0  Skeena, 83 votes;  Nelson,  Vic-  190.  I n V i c t o r i a , the Conservative was S i r R i c h a r d McB r i d e , who defeated 1916-18).  the L i b e r a l , H. C. Brewster ( l a t e r  Premier,  In Vancouver, the Conservative, w i t h the h i g h e s t vote  was W. J . Bowser, with 5,077;  Ralph Smith, L i b e r a l , had 3,248.  In the S o c i a l i s t vote o f 1909 i n Vancouver, E. T. K i n g s l e y was h i g h e s t , with 1,883, and M. McGregor lowest,  with  1, 218.(Bpwser.Conservative,5.380; Senkler, h i g h e s t l i b e r a l , 4 , $ 1 0 . ) 40 Conservatives were e l e c t e d , and 2 S o c i a l i s t s , of whom, P l a c e , was of the S o c i a l Democratic p a r t y . was, s a i d The C l a r i o n , l i t t l e  There  g a i n on the S o c i a l i s t vote of  1909. The  one  B. C. F e d e r a t i o n i s t s e l e c t i o n e d i t o r i a l was r  52. called. "The Breaking S t r a i n " ;  the workers, i t s a i d , would  win c o n t r o l of the means of wealth p r o d u c t i o n .  This was  the Trades and Labor C o u n c i l paper, and r e f l e c t e d l a b o r ' s continued  concern with a s o c i a l i s t g o a l . The F e d e r a t i o n i s t ' s t a b u l a t i o n or the S o c i a l i s t v  vote gave S k i l l a n d  177, S t i r l i n g  373, Harrod  177.  Other  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by The F e d e r a t i o n i s t f o l l o w s : In Skeena, a Labor candidate, Montgomery, r e c e i v e d 249 v o t e s .  He had been nominated before a S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y c h a r t e r had been o b t a i n e d . waite d i d not r u n ;  Jack P l a c e ,  In Nanaimo, Hawthornthcandidate  of the S o c i a l  Democratic P a r t y , was e l e c t e d ; the S o c i a l Democratic endorsed  Midgley  Party  in Victoria.  Comparison was made (on A p r i l 5) with 1909 S o c i a l ist  election results.  D i s t r a c t i o n had been caused by i n -  t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the P a r t y , gration, and s p e c u l a t i o n .  and by a p e r i o d of Immi-  In 1909, with 18 candidates, the  p a r t y had p o l l e d 5,681 votes.  I n 1912, w i t h 16 candidates,  p l u s an independent S o c i a l i s t i n Skeena and the S o c i a l Democrat i n Nanaimo, the t o t a l was 4,844. The v i g o r of the members had f a l l e n o f f , s a i d the a r t i c l e , and there had been an I n f l u x of " i l l - i n f o r m e d f r e a k s " , howling  about democracy, b i g o t r y , broadmindedness,  and so on - "bourgeois  c l a p - t r a p " - " f i n e - s o u n d i n g phrases"  the o r g a n i z a t i o n was degenerating  i n t o "a bunch of sloppy,  -  53. c ompr omi s ing Incomp et ent s". The p i t t i n g one to m i s l e a d  I.W.T/. and  the unions,  the a r t i c l e  set of workers a g a i n s t another, and  s a i d , were helping  the workers i n t o a b e l i e f t h a t they had  e s t s i n common with On May  6,  the  employers.  the S o c i a l i s t vote was  g i v e n a s 5,518.  The h i g h e s t vote f o r a S o c i a l i s t In Vancouver was The  inter-  S o c i a l i s t s were never agreed about the  a b i l i t y of t a k i n g p a r t In M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s .  1,273. desir-  Those In  f a v o r , argued t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be good f o r educa t i o n ( f a v o r i t e argument of W.W.Lefeaux) and K i n g s l e y h e l d , S o c i a l i s t s needed experience tion. 1912  So f a r as L o c a l No. was  unfavorable  1 was  t h a t , as  E.T.  i n administra-  concerned, the vote i n  by 13 to 11.  1  S o c i a l i s t members, of the L e g i s l a t u r e continued press f o r l e g i s l a t i o n b e n e f i c i a l t o l a b o r , and f o r t s met  with some f u r t h e r Hawthornthwaite and  at the entrance  3 hyena"'.  their ef-  successes. John Mclnnes r e f u s e d t o r i s e  of Lieutenant-governor  the opening of the L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1907. waite had  to  James Dunsmuir at (Hawthornth-  once p u b l i c l y d e s c r i b e d James Dunsmuir as a "human S i r R i c h a r d McBride was October 12,  quoted as f i n d i n g  1.  B.C.Federationist,  1912  2. 3.  The Western C l a r i o n , March 16, 1902 B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t , J u l y 13, 1912.  0 )  this  54. member's speeches " i n t e r e s t i n g " and " e n t e r t a i n i n g " . ^ 4  H a i l e d as a s i g n a l triumph f o r the S o c i a l i s t s , hour B i l l  f o r s m e l t e r s passed without o p p o s i t i o n .  were mustered f o r Mclnnes* General E i g h t - h o u r  the e i g h t -  Four  votes  Bill.  During the s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e i n the s p r i n g of 1910,  the S o c i a l i s t s ' s u g g e s t i o n t h a t m e d i c a l I n s p e c t i o n of  schools be conducted  o n l y by q u a l i f i e d medical men was  accepted.'  An amendment t o the Companies A c t to take away power to make or handle vants  a l l kinds of s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d by a company or i t s s e r (e.g.miners)  the l i m i t  was defeated, as was an amendment to remove  on compensation s e c u r a b l e from i n s o l v e n t  companies.  An amendment t o the L i q u o r A c t to i n c l u d e b r i d g e amoung the proh i b i t e d games i n l i c e n s e d premises lish  was l o s t .  An A c t to estab-  an eight-hour day i n a l l underground workings was d e f e a t e d ,  as was an A c t f o r a g e n e r a l eight-hour day.  An amendment to the  Health Act requiring  s a n i t a r y i n s p e c t i o n of l o g g i n g , r a i l r o a d  saw m i l l ,  camps i n January, May, and September, was  and mining  defeated, but assurance was g i v e n that the p r i n c i p l e would be embodied i n a l a t e r r e v i s i o n .  An A c t to Prevent D i s c r i m i n a t i o n  a g a i n s t Members of Trade Unions was lost.. In 4.  d i s c u s s i o n s on education, Hawthornthwaite urged  The Western C l a r i o n , March 16, 1907: F u r t h e r : Premier Mc. B r i d e " r e f e r r e d with p r i d e " to h i s S o c i a l i s t support, s t a t e s The Canadian Annual Review, 1904, p. 346. As f o r Parker W i l l i a m s , The Vancouver P r o v i n c e of March 29, 1912, n o t i n g h i s r e - e l e c t i o n , s a i d the new Assembly would not l o s e h i s " e n l i v e n i n g s a l l i e s " . I t remarked on the very vigorous s o c i a l i s t e l e c t i o n propaganda but s a i d there was popular d i s t r u c t of s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s .  5.  The Western C l a r i o n , March 26, 1910.  55 e l i m i n a t i o n of the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of kings and queens and o f s l a u g h t e r , and i n t r o d u c t i o n of a r t , music, and economics i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . In the L e g i s l a t u r e of 1911, J . H. Hawthornthwaite found  the new Coal Mines R e g u l a t i o n Act, a f f e c t i n g some 7,000  miners,  disappointing;  t i o n s " of no b e n e f i t was weakened.  i t contained "evasions and a l t e r a -  to the men;  the eight-hour  He secured a few changes.  provision  He a g a i n advanced g  a Trade Union D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Act, which was again d e f e a t e d . A d i s p a t c h from V i c t o r i a  (January 20, 1912) s a i d  that the constant hammering of S o c i a l i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r some years on the " b e a s t l y c o n d i t i o n s " .in the m a j o r i t y of cons t r u c t i o n and l o g g i n g camps seemed at l a s t to have  produced  i  some a c t i v i t y i n the H e a l t h Department, as i n d i c a t e d by the first  r e p o r t of the p r o v i n c i a l  l a s t year.  s a n i t a r y i n s p e c t o r , appointed  Parker Williams had i n t r o d u c e d the q u e s t i o n of 7  f i r s t a i d o u t f i t s , but h i s b i l l had a g a i n been r u l e d o u t . During the prolonged  c o a l s t r i k e , Parker W i l l i a m s  and Jack P l a c e championed the I s l a n d miners, case a g a i n s t the companies.  explaining their  W i l l i a m s c a l l e d a trade union  "the n e a r e s t approach to democracy that mankind has y e t achieved." 7. The B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t , January 20, 1912. 6. The Western C l a r i o n , February 11, 1911.  5 6. r  P l a c e i n t r o d u c e d measures to have miners* e n t a t i v e s as i n s p e c t o r s , t o g i v e women the vote 24-9),  (defeated,  to p r o v i d e a two-week maximum pay p e r i o d i n l a r g e r  works or near In  towns.  An eight-hour B i l l was  crushed,  31-2.  the L e g i s l a t u r e , Parker W i l l i a m s a g a i n f a i l e d  have h i s f o r t n i g h t l y pay measure adopted.  "smothered" on the l a s t day hy the  was  premier.  During the pre-war years, the S o c i a l i s t s  continued  expound t h e i r t h e o r i e s and r e v e a l t h e i r a t t i t u d e s - i n the 9  pages of The C l a r i o n , tures.  i n s p e c i a l booklets,  This a c t i v i t y was  there were p e o p l e who  and i n t h e i r  lec-  centred i n Vancouver but v i g o r o u s l y  supported by the i.;any p a r t y l o c a l s , and  a l l over; the p r o v i n c e  read s o c i a l i s t l i t e r a t u r e or who  had  attended the p u b l i c meetings i n Vancouver. But P a r t y was  l i t e r a t u r e other than t h a t of the  a l s o i n f l u e n c i n g people a t t h i s  Socialist  time.  Mention of the s e n s a t i o n being caused  by Upton  S i n c l a i r ' s "The Jungle, a novel a t t a c k i n g the Chicago meat 8. The B.C. F e d e r a t i o n i s t , February 17, 1912. 9. 10.  to  J . H. Hawthornth-  waite' s motion f o r a $3.50 minimum wage f o r miners Q  to  repres-  A list  of S o c i a l i s t P a r t y l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be found i n Append i x & r\.  The Western C l a r i o n , February 10, 1906. The Jungle was p u b l i s h e d by Doubleday, Page & Co.,  1906.  52. packers and becoming so popular that i t i s s a i d to have been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r enactment o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' f i r s t pure food laws, suggests that c e r t a i n w r i t e r s must have been having much i n f l u e n c e on B r i t i s h Columbians and on the f o r t u n e s of the S o c i a l i s t movement. course, based  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , of  i t s e l f m a i n l y on the w r i t i n g s of Marx and Engels,  founders of " s c i e n t i f i c  socialism".  Llany s o c i a l i s t s and sym-  p a t h i z e r s with the s o c i a l i s t cause were f a m i l i a r with the c r i t i c i s m s of c a p i t a l i s m by such w r i t e r s as Henry George ("Progress and P o v e r t y " ) , S i l l i a m Morris("News Robert B l a t c h f o r d  from Nowhere"),  ("Merria England"), and with the Sabian  essays of George Bernard Shaw, Sidney and B e a t r i c e Webb, and others.  In the  U n i t e d S t a t e s , the "muck-raking"  s c h o o l of  the " t r u s t - b u s t i n g " e r a gave ammunition t o opponents of c a p i t a l i s t monopolies.  A l l over B r i t i s h Columbia  (and are today) people who  there were  had read Edward Bellamy's  "Looking  Backward", a book ?;hich i s s a i d to have turned more North Americans  to s o c i a l i s m than has any other book.  of Upton S i n c l a i r and Prank N o r r i s ,  and some of the r e v o l u -  t i o n a r y w r i t i n g s of Jack London, were a l s o In Hay,  1906,  the s o c i a l i s t  (14,000 s u b s c r i b e r s i n Canada) was because,  as "The  The novels:  influential.  "Appeal to Reason"  banned from t h i s country  C l a r i o n " e d i t o r was  t o l d by the Post O f f i c e  Department, of an a r t i c l e by Eugene V. Debs, "Arouse,  Ye  <5& Slaves".  The C l a r i o n p r i n t e d the a r t i c l e on May  19.  It  d e a l t with the charge a g a i n s t Moyer and Haywood of a s s a s s i n a t i n g ex-Governor Steunenburg of Idaho, and a l l e g e d  a plot  by mine owners to have these Western F e d e r a t i o n of Miners o f f i c i a l s hanged on purchased p e r j u r e d ened a g e n e r a l s t r i k e and,  testimony.  I t threat- -  i f necessary, a r e v o l u t i o n .  The  11 ban-on the paper was  listed  on June  16.  A t y p i c a l Hawthornthwaite speech was The C l a r i o n  described i n  (August 18) i n the 1906 p r e - e l e c t i o n  campaign.  Hundreds were turned away from the Grand Theatre, Cordova S t r e e t , Vancouver, when J . H. Hawthornthwaite on R e v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m . and f e u d a l i s m , showing  spoke  He touched on c h a t t e l s l a v e r y  that c a p i t a l i s m was f a i r l y r e c e n t .  Wealth should belong to l a b o r .  Unions had sometimes helped  the worker to make b e t t e r b a r g a i n s .  E x i s t i n g by the sale  of labor power, the worker was a s l a v e r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n f o r s l a v e markets.  I f hethought the workers could not get eman-  c i p a t i o n by p e a c e f u l means, he Y^ould be o r g a n i z i n g a r i f l e b r i g a d e to f i g h t f o r freedom. surplus values.  Business was  a scramble f o r  Growing unemployment, growth of t r u s t s ,  and the f a c t that a l l the world except China had been  exploit-  ed, meant an i r r e s i s t i b l e movement toward the c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth. 11.  "In ten years, every man  jack of you w i l l be  Another S o c i a l i s t paper w i d e l y read i n B r i t i s h Columbia was Cotton's Weekly, coming from E a s t e r n Canada.  S o c i a l i s t s , " s a i d Mr.  Hawthornthwaite, p e r o r a t i n g with  erence to the r e d f l a g .  His speech was  r e c e i v e d with  a refenthus-  iasm. The  September 8 number r e p o r t e d  a crowded meeting  i n the Grand Theatre to hear Parker W i l l i a m s . ed as not an o r a t o r , but  He  plain, straightforward,  was  describ-  and  of a  ready wit» During the summer, propaganda meetings were held c h i e f l y on s t r e e t corners,  e s p e c i a l l y on C a r r a l l S t r e e t , Van-  couver. A f r o n t page a r t i c l e i n The  Clarion, reporting  an address by a United. S t a t e s l e a d e r , d e c l a r e d the. S o c i a l i s t P a r t y d i f f e r e n t from a l l others and  appealed t o , but  conscious  one 12  workingmen.  i n t h a t i t was  composed, of,  c l a s s i n the community, the  class-  I t knew the working people were the  o n l y u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y people, and. h e l d t h a t t h e r e f o r e a l l other c l a s s e s cumber the ground and o n l y e q u a l i t y the P a r t y wanted was I t d i d not f a v o r " d i v i d i n g " wealth; but  disappear.  e q u a l i t y of  The  opportunity.  i t appealed" not  to arms  to b r a i n s , manhood, s e l f - h e l p . What was  a S o c i a l i s t propaganda meeting  Comrade E. T. K i n g s l e y , at one  The  C l a r i o n Recorded, was  like?  the  speaker  o f Vancouver l o c a l s usual Sunday evening meetings i n  Sullivan H a l l . 12. October 27, 1 3  13.  should  March 9,  He gave "one 1906  1907 .  of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  address-  60. es".  He reviewed, the e v o l u t i o n of human s o c i e t y from  tribal  communism to c h a t t e l s l a v e r y , f e u d a l serfdom, and wage s l a v e r y . The  d r i v i n g f o r c e behind t h i s e v o l u t i o n had been the develop-  ment of the t o o l s of wealth p r o d u c t i o n .  As these changed,  s o c i e t y underwent corresponding changes.  A n a l y s i s of the  workings of the wage system showed that c a p i t a l i s m meant r o b bery of the wage worker and working farmer.a l l means of p r o d u c t i o n  The value of  r e s t e d i n the bodies of the workers.  Deeds to p r o p e r t y meant ownership of s l a v e s .  Kingsley  out-  l i n e d the r e p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n s of the s t a t e .  He demonstrated  the f u t i l i t y of reform programs t h a t l e f t the wage system untouched.  State c o n t r o l must be achieved  antee of any r i g h t s would be r e s p e c t e d .  before  To capture the c l a s s  s t a t e i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t was the m i s s i o n ary p r o l e t a r i a t .  be a t an end;  o f the r e v o l u t i o n -  S l a v e r y would then be a b o l i s h e d ;  crime, and degradation,  time s i n c e the dawn of  forth free.  A s o c i a l i s t c r i t i c i s m of the B r i t i s h was given  compensation law  i n The Western C l a r i o n of May 15, 1909.  p l o y e r d i d not have to ?;orry about r i s k s ; to speed up the work;  misery,  I n e v i t a b l e f r u i t s of s l a v e r y , would  l a b o r , f o r the f i r s t  h i s t o r y , would stand  the guar-,  insurance  he was b e t t e r  able  companies would save on court  f e e s , and while the number of claims the amount would be s m a l l e r .  The em-  p a i d would be g r e a t e r ,  Anyone a t a l l p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i -  capped would have g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g work.  In the  August number, 1911, ance, l i k e funds; it,  an a r t i c l e maintained that s t a t e i n s u r -  that i n B r i t a i n ,  cut down the expense of poor  i t i n c r e a s e d the e f f i c i e n c y of the worker; without  wages would have been higher;  a g a i n s t constant George had  d i s p u t e s with e x a c t i n g claimants.,  used a comparison with  good business  the employer was  protected Lloyd.  the brewer's horse - i t was  to take care of the horse: 14  An e d i t o r i a l  criticized  p o l i t i c a l l y unreliable.  C h r i s t i a n Socialism, as  I t doubted that C h r i s t taught  i a l i s m - i f true, the f a c t would be not a p l e a f o r the but the b l a c k e s t i n d i c t m e n t .  Were people who  socchurch,  have to be  ciliated  an a c q u i s i t i o n or a p e r i l ?  tracting  " r e s p e c t a b l e " people, "what have they done that  should make a b i d f o r t h e i r support?" S o c i a l i s t P a r t y p o l i c y to go ion;  to do  i s t s and essary,  so would be  reformists. any  As f o r the i d e a of a t -  I t was  out of the way  we  no p a r t of  to a t t a c k  to a s s a i l an e f f e c t ,  But  con-  relig-  as d i d anarch-  s o c i a l i s t s might a t t a c k , when nec-  i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t upheld c a p i t a l i s m and  misled  the worker.. In the f o l l o w i n g numbers, there was on t h i s m a t t e r . ^ How  did s o c i a l i s t s define  used the words of K a r l Marx: rapid transformation  of the  much d i s c u s s i o n  "revolution"?  They  " r e v o l u t i o n i s a more or l e s s j u r i d i c a l and  political  super-  s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y , a r i s i n g from a change i n i t s economic 14.  August,  1911.  f o u n d a t i o n s " - that i s , a complete  change.  Another i l l u s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e was g i v e n by J . H. Hawthornthwaite of the day.  when l o c a l o p t i o n was  I n an address at Vancouver  the q u e s t i o n  c i t y h a l l , he  p o v e r t y drove people t o d r i n k , and not v i c e v e r s a .  said  To take  the c o n t r a r y view was to draw a r e d h e r r i n g through the s i t 16 uatlon.  S o c i a l i s m was the only cure f o r s o c i a l The Western  view of economics,  ills.  C l a r i o n e l a b o r a t e d the Marxian  socialist  i n many long and t e c h n i c a l a r t i c l e s .  quoted "Marx* d e f i n i t i o n of v a l u e :  It  the value of a commodity  i s determined by the amount of s o c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y l a b o r power embodied i n i t (March 9 ) . i c l e s of consumption, two f u n c t i o n s :  may  Land, t o o l s , raw m a t e r i a l s ,  be c a p i t a l p r o v i d e d they perform  are used to rob the worker  of h i s product,  and are i n v o l v e d i n the p r o f i t - s e l l i n g of the product c a p i t a l i s a f u n c t i o n , a form of ownership);  Workers were a l l who  (i.e.,  the l a n d and  t o o l s of savages were simply means of p r o d u c t i o n and of use (May 11).  art-  articles  d i d u s e f u l work;  the  aim was not to rob the wealthy, but t o prevent them from robb i n g o t h e r s ( J u l y 6,  1912).  The number o f August 24, 1912, was weighty i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  particularly  An a r t i c l e d e c l a r e d t h a t  15.  The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 17,  1909.  16.  The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 31,  1909.  "Histor-  60. i c a l materialism  i s opposed d i r e c t l y t o i d e a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e  C h r i s t i a n i t y has  no place i n our p h i l o s o p h y . "  quoted Marx and Engels  as having  means to support  and,  life,  of things produced, was the f i n a l  next to p r o d u c t i o n ,  sought not i n philosophy  but i n economics.  educational,  of being understood.  P a r t y d i d not a t t a c k r e l i g i o n ;  and  religious, Socialist  conception underpinning  of a l l other  r e s t s e n t i r e l y upon a m a t e r i a l b a s i s and an economic purpose. H  exist-  s u p e r s t i t i o n - reduced these  bare stage p r o p e r t i e s to the category  fill  The  the m a t e r i a l i s t  of h i s t o r y , however, knocked the s u p e r n a t u r a l from f a i t h , mysticism,  exchange  p o l i t i c a l revolu-  t h a t the reason f o r the  ence of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s - p o l i t i c a l , capable  the  the  the b a s i s of a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ;  Another e d i t o r i a l explained  j u r i d i c a l - was  editorial  h e l d that, p r o d u c t i o n of  causes of a l l s o c i a l changes and  t i o n s were to be  An  thread-  junk that  e x i s t s s o l e l y to f u l -  S o c i a l i s t s d i d not need to a t t a c k  r e l i g i o n - modern r e s e a r c h i n t o the growth and development of s o c i e t y destroyed i t . The  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Workers, of the World was  criticized  ( J u l y 6.) on the ground that so l o n g as any movement helps keep workers from p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , i t i s a v a l u a b l e a s s e t to capitalism.  The  I.W.W.'s b l a t a n t r e p u d i a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l war-  f a r e a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m , s a i d the e d i t o r , on August 31, ed them as a n a r c h i s t s .  The essence of anarchy was  stamp-  reaction.  64. The p h i l o s o p h y  of anarchy was  the p h i l o s o p h y  of d e s p a i r . The  h i s t o r y of the I.W.W. during the l a s t seven years was broken t a l e of n o i s y b l u s t e r and  bombast on the one  overwhelming and h u m i l i a t i n g defeat on the o t h e r . the e d i t o r went on, nature  showed a c r a s s ignorance  of modern s o c i e t y and  an un-  hand  and  The I.W.W.,  of the  organic  of the needed economic and  pol-  17 i t i c a l development. One  I t v i c t o r i e s were temporary.  of the best examples of d o c t r i n a i r e S o c i a l i s t  m e n t a l i t y a t i t s c o l d e s t and most l o g i c a l was 18 No.  1 at the time of the I s l a n d  g i v e n by L o c a l  strike.  U n i t e d Mine Workers of America o r g a n i z e r  Pettigrew  asked the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y L o c a l No.l to hold a j o i n t p u b l i c meeting with the was  U.M.W.A. on the s t r i k e  situation.  A motion  made to comply, but W. Bennett moved an amendment to r e -  f u s e the request.  The  c l a s s s t r u g g l e ; i t was miners and  s t r i k e , he s a i d , was no p a r t of the o n l y a commodity s t r u g g l e ; s i n c e  the government had  the  engaged i n d i r e c t a c t i o n , he  hoped the miners would get clubbed  over the head good, and  hard. - then they might get some sense;  Cumberland l o c a l was  small, and he doubted i t s members were s o c i a l i s t s a t a l l . The 17.  amendment c a r r i e d , 16-12. The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 6, 1912.  18.  The Western C l a r i o n , November 15,  1912.  The Western C l a r i o n , though somewhat l a c k i n g , i n sense  of news v a l u e , recorded' the main developments i n p a r t y  affairs. At the beginning of 190 6, J.  G. Morgan was Dom-  i n i o n s e c r e t a r y and W. H. Flowers, p r o v i n c i a l  secretary.  The f o u r t h p r o v i n c i a l convention of the 19 i s t P a r t y of Canada opened at Nelson on October  Social-  6.  Dele-  gates came from Nanaimo, Vancouver, Revelstoke, Boundary 20 Falls,  Greenwood, Phoenix,  Rossland, F e r n i e , M i c h e l , Nelson.  General fund was balance of §119.30; The  $7 2.60;  campaign fund,  o r g a n i z a t i o n fund, $22.  i d e a of a t t a c h i n g " p a l l i a t i v e s "  ( i . e . , meas-  ures of immediate reform)  to the p l a t f o r m was  ously repudiated.  an " e x c l u s i v e l y p r o l e t a r i a n "  I t was  v e n t i o n i n p e r s o n n e l and  almost  unanimcon-  spirit.  A r e s o l u t i o n condemned the s e t t i n g up of any l a b o r p a r t y (the Dominion Trades and Labor  Congress  t o r i a had  Such a p a r t y , i t  was  taken steps i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n ) .  h e l d , would d e c e i v e , mislead, and  and b r i n g d i s a s t e r . of c a p i t a l i s t  Socialists,  confuse the  at V i c -  workers,  s t a n d i n g f o r the, a b o l i t i o n  e x p l o i t a t i o n , would run i n a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  P a r t y a c t i v i t i e s were g i v e n a l i g h t e r s i d e by occ a s i o n a l dances and s o c i a l evenings. 19. The Western C l a r i o n , October 13 and 20.  For a p a r t i a l l i s t  of l o c a l s ,  see  20,  1906.  Appendixfr.  66 . There was. some' evidence that S o c i a l i s t s as i n d i v i d u a l s were b e t t e r p o l i t i o i a n s than t h e i r p a r t y would have l i k e d to admit.  For example, a t a convention c a l l e d by  Trades and Labor Council- i n Vancouver,  The  October 29, 1906,  to  form a labor p a r t y , a r e s o l u t i o n was adopted recommending study of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada and of s o c i a l i s m  on  grounds as set f o r t h i n The C l a r i o n a r t i c l e as summarized immediately above. the vote was  A p p a r e n t l y many l e f t the meeting b e f o r e  taken, and some.seceded from the C o u n c i l , charg-  i n g , l i k e The Ledger i n F e r n i e , that the S o c i a l i s t s had 21 "captured" the c o n v e n t i o n . The S.P.  of C. Dominion f i n a n c i a l account f o r  the y e a r ending December, 1907, p e n d i t u r e s , §481.95;  was:  r e c e i p t s , §746.20;  ex-  balance, $264.25.  The P a r t y was  not unsympathetic w i t h working-  c l a s s c o n d i t i o n s abroad ( i t p a r t i c i p a t e d , f o r example, i n a mass meeting on Januarjr 21, 1906,  to commemorate the martyrs  of Bloody Sunday, and to send the money to the R u s s i a n s ; in articles,  The C l a r i o n d e s c r i b e d the h o r r o r s of t o r t u r e ?2  under the C z a r i s t regime," ) b u t I t had no high o p i n i o n of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t movement.  National executive  s e c r e t a r y J . G. Morgan, however, r e p o r t e d t o the Second In21.  The Western C l a r i o n , October 27, November 3,  22.  E. g., February 16,  1907.  1906.  S0. t e r n a t i o n a l that the  Canadian movement f e l t  s o l i d a r i t y with.  23 the u n i v e r s a l movement.  The workers, he  s a i d , were more  disposed to form a Labor P a r t y l i k e the B r i t i s h , not  p a r t i c u l a r l y sympathetic t o s o c i a l i s m , but  gave s o c i a l i s m strong  support.  clear revolutionary attitude.  The  opment of the The with the high; ist  made the  some farmer par-  Morgan gave a s h o r t account of the  S o c i a l i s t Party S o c i a l i s t Party  of Canada never d i d  affiliate  at f i r s t , the f e e s were too  c o n v i c t i o n grew that there  was  In 1904,  resentation, a t the Amsterdam Congress had Bakes, who  devel-  of Canada.  i n f l u e n c e i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l .  through Ben  the miners  Great c o r p o r a t i o n s  Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l ;  later,  were  S.P.of C. maintained a  farmers r e a l l y worse o f f than the workers; t i e s were forming.  and  too much reformf r a t e r n a l rep-  been secured  represented the Vancouver Trades  and  24 Labor  Council.  23.  " L I n t e r n a t i o n a l e Ouvriere So S o c i a l i s t e " ; Rapports soumis 3u Congres S o c i a l i s t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l de S t u t t g a r t (18-24 aout 1907 ) par l e s o r g a n i s a t i o n s s o c i a l i s t e s d'Europe, D ' A u s t r a l i e et d'Amerique sur l e u r a c t i v i t e pendent l e s annees 1904-1907; Bureau S o a i a l i s t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l , B r u x e l l e s , 1907; v o l . l,p.73: Rapport due Canada ( P a r t i S o c i a l i s t e du Canada).  24.  Bennett, W i l l i a m :  f  Builders  of B r i t i s h Columbia; p.139.  News of the movement i n the p a r t y paper d u r i n g January, 1911,  i n c l u d e d r e p o r t s on the h a l f - y e a r l y a u d i t . The  Dominion E x e c u t i v e had had J u l y 1, 1910;  a balance  r e c e i p t s , §917.05;  ures, $1,151.60;  balance,  expenditures,  t o t a l , $1,683;  $531.40.  had had $685.90 at J u l y 1, 1910; $1,106.55;  on hand of $765.95 at  The p r o v i n c i a l  balance,  By December  I . Matthews had become both  t a r y and e d i t o r , at $60.  a month.  By January 20,  1912,  s e c r e t a r y (without  who  had r e s i g n e d .  and  L. T. E n g l i s h had  E. T. K i n g s l e y was  secre-  editor  s a l a r y ) i n p l a c e of Matthews,  K i n g s l e y recalled- t h a t seven years ago  he  assumed the task of p u b l i s h i n g the  r e v i v e d i t and turned  E x e c u t i v e on November 1, 1903, enterprise.  16,  e d i t o r Kings-  l e y had r e s i g n e d , and R.  " C l a r i o n " , had  reduced  again a weekly.  In December, s e c r e t a r y Morgan and  again, and  total,  $494.30.  The Western C l a r i o n was  to pamphlet form and p u b l i s h e d monthly. however, i t was  executive  r e c e i p t s , §420.65;  $612.25;  In J u l y , 1911,  expendit- -  i t over to the Dominion  hoping  More s u b s c r i p t i o n s had  i t would be a  paying  been obtained, but more  were needed. A f f i l i a t i o n with the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l was 35 again b e i n g 25.  considered.  February  17,  1912.  ege. A l b e r t a was g i v e n c r e d i t f o r c a r r y i n g on the best organized  26 and most e f f e c t i v e propaganda i n the Dominion•  there were more C l a r i o n r e a d e r s city.  i n Winnipeg than i n any other  S u b s c r i p t i o n s were s a i d t o number 4,500; 27  more were  called for. A few months l a t e r , on November 9, E. T. K i n g s l e y announced t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n must s t o p . f i l l e d by t h e B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t 1912,  S u b s c r i p t i o n s would be  (which paper on November 15,  s a i d that i t had taken over 5,200 s u b s c r i b e r s ) . K i n g s l e y  went on to e x p l a i n that he had taken charge of The Western C l a r i o n on January 28, 1905, and i n the e i g h t years  since  then the d e f i c i t had averaged over a hundred d o l l a r s a month. From November 1908 u n t i l the end of 1911, the f i c t i o n of p a r t y ownership and maintenance was indulged the party, but K i n g s l e y  i n as a spur to h e l p  (a p r i n t e r and p u b l i s h e r by occupa-  t i o n ) had had to make good the d e f i c i t s . falling  o f f f o r some time;  C i r c u l a t i o n had been  now a halt: must be c a l l e d .  News of the S o c i a l i s t movement was f o r a time,  then,  to be obtained from The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , pub- . l i s h e d a t Vancouver on the 5th and 20th of each month.  This  newspaper was the o f f i c i a l organ o f the Vancouver Trades and Labor C o u n c i l and the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of Labor. I t was i n i t s f o u r t h year;  c i r c u l a t i o n was 5,500. I t s slogan  26.  The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 27, 1912  27.  The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y  6, 1912  70.  was:  "Industrial Unity:  Strength: P o l i t i c a l Unity: Victory ." 1  A referendum on e n d o r s a t i o n of S o c i a l i s t P a r t y p r i n ciples  had been sent t o 16,000 members and  overwhelmingly sup-  ported, s t a t e d The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t on J u l y 13, 1912. "A Page f o r S o c i a l i s t s " S o c i a l i s t P a r t y members. Western C l a r i o n : scientific  and  before your  truthful.  t h a t you 7/ere  little  time." I . Matthews was  to p u b l i s h a weekly f o r  announced on January 31,  1913.  B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t throws some l i g h t  on the c o n d i t i o n s and happenings of the years and  The  too  Your o t h e r - t h a t you were a  the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , i t was  war,  w r i t t e n by  W.W.L. wrote of the e d i t o r s of  "Your c a r d i n a l s i n was  Comrade R.  The  on November 15 was  j u s t before  the  on the attitude of a . l a r g e s e c t i o n of organized l a b o r . An e d i t o r i a l on Saturday,  the need f o r the people s o c i a l i s t would agree.)  to own The  January 6,  1912,  stressed  the machine (with t h i s ,  any  same number s a i d that. Vancouver  I s l a n d miners were to j o i n the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n of Labor, and would be f o r the f i r s t with the mainland.  Most unions  the F e d e r a t i o n , i t was Evidence  stated,  time i n the l a b o r movement,  i n the p r o v i n c e were now S e c r e t a r y was  V.  of the a c t i v i t y of s o c i a l i s t s ,  in  Midgley. as w e l l as  71. i n d i c a t i o n of some s y n d i c a l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n B r i t i s h . Columbia, ?/as contained In e x t r a c t s i n The B r i t i s h Columbia  Federation-'  i s t from an a r t i c l e i n The Chicago S y n d i c a l i s t by Jay Fox, who had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a v i s i t  to Vancouver.  Fox had  found that " S o c i a l i s t s c o n t r o l things around the Labor Temple". The Trade Union League ( S y n d i c a l i s t ) was b r a c i n g to o f f s e t the b a n e f u l i n f l u e n c e of p o l i t i c s by propaganda  of d i r e c t  methods i n d e a l i n g with economic  Fellow-workers  problems.  action  T r a i n o r , Home, Mohring, F o x c r o f t , and others, were a c t i v e , s t r e s s i n g the use of the union as a weapon. reflect not to  "These men do not  the a t t i c p h i l o s o p h y of some o l d t h i n k e r . "  Fox had  had time to accept the i n v i t a t i o n of Fellow-worker 28  Elliott  l e c t u r e a t Nelson. C o l l a p s e of the g r e a t r e a l e s t a t e boom had r u i n e d  many, and had c o n t r i b u t e d  to the widespread d i s t r e s s and un-  employment of the w i n t e r of 1912. walked  the s t r e e t s o f Vancouver; 29  P a r t y helped to o r g a n i z e them.  Twenty thousand unemployed the I.W.W. and the S o c i a l i s t The a u t h o r i t i e s undertook  to break up open-air p u b l i c meetings t h a t were held to hear speeches on t h i s  crisis.  An e d i t o r i a l i n The B r i t i s h Columbia  Federationist  denounced p o l i c e " b r u t a l i t y " i n b r e a k i n g up an unemployment meeting i n P o w e l l S t r e e t grounds, Vancouver, and spoke of 28. The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , February 2, 1913. 29. Bennett, W i l l i a m ; " B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia"(p.103)  78. "Cossale r u l e " . On February 20, great  1912,  an account was  crowd at Powell S t r e e t grounds to take p a r t i n  l a y ' s f o u r t h unpopular c i r c u s " . tops, to see  "the  People were even on  noble a r t of s k u l l c r a c k i n g " .  S o c i a l i s t speakers were heard.  This was  assembly'", " ' r i o t o u s mob'"., and previous Sunday afternoons; flammatory* ", and  the  things  D a i l y P r o v i n c e had  ing;  I.W.W.. and  the same "unlawful  " ' v i o l e n t ' " speeches were g i v e n .  shedding of much b l o o d .  become l a w f u l ;  roof-  the same " ' s e d i t i o u s ' " , " ' i n -  p o l i c e and The  "Find-  "'anarchist-gang''" as on •  Sunday, the account continued, there had  had  g i v e n of a  Last  been s c o r e s of But  a l l the  awful  raved about f o r t h r e e weeks  no a c t i o n was  pressure from " V i c t o r i a had  taken a g a i n s t  the  caused the mayor's  gather"un-  graceful retreat." R.  P. P e t t i p i e c e had  been among s e v e r a l  at a P o w e l l S t r e e t grounds meeting. defended " f r e e speech" and of "not  guilty". The  on June 8, The lockout 30.  The  the  J . W.  arrested  de B. F a r r i s  j u r y brought i n a v e r d i c t  5 0  B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t became a weekly 1912. great  - had  Vancouver I s l a n d  begun.  c o a l m i n e r s ' s t r i k e - or  Underlying issues,  s a i d the  B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , May  20,  "Federa1912.  75. t i o n i s t " , were o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a wage s c a l e , c o n d i t i o n s o f . 31 work, and enforcement of laws.  The t r o u b l e had been brew-  i n g f o r months, i t s a i d .  s h o r t of the c o l l e c t i v e  "Nothing  ownership and o p e r a t i o n o f the e n t i r e i n d u s t r y w i l l ever s o l v e the problem." Late i n November, hundreds o f s p e c i a l p o l i c e were A.  being sent t o Vancouver I s l a n d ;  m a r t i a l law was proclaimed  at Cumberland. The  I s l a n d s t r i k e s i t u a t i o n worsened;  cupied the m i n i n g towns;  m i l i t i a oc-  scores of miners were put In j a i l ,  i n c l u d i n g Jack P l a c e , M.L.A., and a son of Parker Among those f i n a l l y sentenced  Williams.  to p r i s o n was Sam G-uthrie,  miners' l e a d e r of Ladysmith, d e s c r i b e d by The Nanaimo Free' Press as "a studious and sober young man, r e p r e s e n t i n g the best 32 type of l a b o r " . The  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada and the S o c i a l Demo-  c r a t i c P a r t y of Canada were represented,  with  the F e d e r a t i o n  of Labor, the Trades and Labor C o u n c i l , the U n i t e d Mine Worke r s of America, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Workers of the World, and many c i t i z e n s , on the B.C.Miners' L i b e r a t i o n League, which a t one  of the l a r g e s t mass meetings ever held i n the p r o v i n c e , de31. The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t ,35October b-, 1912 manded. r e l e a s e o f the Imprisoned miners. 32. The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , October 13, 1913. Guthrie was e l e c t e d i n 1920 as a Labor M.L.A., and i n 1937 and 1941 as a C C F . member. -"_-.''. 33. The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , November 14, 1913.  74. At t h i s  time,  "not  i n a score of years had  i n d u s t r i a l d e p r e s s i o n and coast";  i t was The  unemployment been known on 34 d a i l y growing worse.  "To  the  F e d e r a t i o n i s t e d i t o r advised the Trades and  l a b o r Congress not to e n t e r p o l i t i c s . observed:  such  As f o r S o c i a l i s m , he  say that S o c i a l i s m i s the p o l i t i c a l  expres-  s i o n of the working c l a s s , would be t o g i v e the working  class,  as a c l a s s , c r e d i t f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e which they have not- got . . . S o c i a l i s m i s not the p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of the working c l a s s , but i t i s the p o l i t i c a l  expression of the economic i n -  35t e r e s t s of an e n l i g h t e n e d and, i n t e l l i g e n t working The merit  class."  a t t i t u d e of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y d i d not always  the a f f e c t i o n of organized", l a b o r - but  c o n s i d e r a b l e admiration, t i o n i s t witnesses,  and,  there was  I t might be  i t d i d command  as The B r i t i s h Columbia  Federa-  much l a b o r .sympathy.with i t s g o a l .  thought t h a t the o l d e r members of the  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the  severe  a t t i t u d e which caused" i n c r e a s i n g d e f e c t i o n s from the  ranks.  That t h i s .was  not e n t i r e l y so, however, was  v a l e d i c t o r y a r t i c l e b e f o r e The i n 19'Pp  explained. In a  C l a r i o n went out of e x i s t e n c e  .  34.  The  B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , November 21,  35.  The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , A p r i l 18,  1913.  1913.  75 . This a r t i c l e s a i d that of the " O l d Guard" were i n c l i n i n g and  greater  i n the pre-war years, some toward p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s  a d a p t i b i l i t y , ' b u t the "Young Insurgents", who had  read M a r x i s t l i t e r a t u r e a v i d l y and were s e i z e d of m i s e r y and s o c i a l c o l l a p s e , 36 against  of the d o c t r i n e  s u c c e s s f u l l y threw t h e i r weight  these t e n d e n c i e s . In 1909, one o f the p e r i o d i c moves to r e v i s e the  platform  came from P o r t A r t h u r F i n n i s h l o c a l . T.L.Briggs,  r e t a r y of Ladysmith L o c a l No. 10, wrote that  sec-  t h i s l o c a l viewed  with f e a r and d i s t r u s t "any attempt to make the p l a t f o r m p a l a t 37 able t o the b o u r g e o i s i e . " A s i m i l a r l y uncompromising stand was taken by t h e 38 Western C l a r i o n e d i t o r when he pronounced  that  o i l and  water would mix as r e a d i l y as unionism and s o c i a l i s m . Employerworker r e l a t i o n s were those of buyer and s e l l e r , master and slave. rather  The I.W.W., he s a i d ,  sought betterment under c a p i t a l i s m  than a b o l i t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m . And  again, when Toronto c a l l e d on the Dominion  E x e c u t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h proper r e l a t i o n s with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t Bureau, the e x e c u t i v e was h o s t i l e ; n o n - s o c i a l i s t member's of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 36.  The a r t i c l e i s summarized i n <§&&p1ter  37.  The Western C l a r i o n , J u l y 31, 1909.  38.  The Western C l a r i o n , August 14, 1909.  i t objected  to  e s p e c i a l l y the  i^3r*e"?"*  76. B r i t i s h Labor P a r t y ; promise.  there was  danger of opportunism and com-  Winnipeg Jewish and German l o c a l s demanded a vote 39  on the q u e s t i o n . R e l a t i o n s with O n t a r i o l o c a l s were r a t h e r s t r a i n e d ; there had been t r o u b l e w i t h Toronto; 26, 1910, socialists  was v e r y s a r c a s t i c about  The C l a r i o n on February  a Manifesto to Hamilton  " o f a l l s t r i p e s " u r g i n g u n i t y , and a f e d e r a t i v e  body to promote understanding and i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t s .  Chief  i s s u e s were "reform" as a g a i n s t the P a r t y P l a t f o r m , and i a t i o n with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t Bureau.  affil-  Differences  with Winnipeg occurred, and i n August / s e c e s s i o n of North Winnipeg l o c a l s reported;  (Ruthenian, German, Jewish, and L e t t i s h )  was  they sent a l e t t e r terming the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of  Canada "narrow, s e c t a r i a n , n a t i o n a l , a r b i t r a r y , d e s p o t i c " , and announced f o r m a t i o n of a S o c i a l Democratic  P a r t y , Marxian i n  p r i n c i p l e , but with a " p r a c t i c a l , c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i c y managed a c c o r d i n g to democratic  ideals";  they wanted trade union co-  o p e r a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t y , and a f f i l i a t i o n with the Second Internati onal. I t i s a n ; i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t that l o c a l s whose members were of other than B r i t i s h o r i g i n were p a r t i c u l a r l y t o h o l d t o the s t r i c t p a r t y l i n e .  difficult  Perhaps i n t h e i r homelands in touch  these people had been more c l o s e l y A W i t h paganda than with the M a r x i s t .  s o c i a l democratic  Then, t o o , few of them would  be h i g h l y educated, whereas the B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l i s t s had educated 39.  pro-  themselves  doctrinaire  to a h i g h degree  The Western C l a r i o n , September,  1909  in their  77* particular f i e l d proach.  and adopted  an academic, t h e o r e t i c a l  Again, the i n f l u e n c e of the new  f a v o r a b l e t o Marxism - Canada was  environment  individualistic,  apwas  un-  expanding;  i t seemed t o have o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c i t i z e n t o b e t t e r himself. In B r i t i s h Columbia,  a high p r o p o r t i o n of F i n n s ,  of whom there were a number of c o l o n i e s , gave ready support to the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , the S o c i a l Democrats, the Communists, and the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , i n turn, or even more than one a t a time. in  t h e i r own  language  They had s o c i a l i s t  ( p o l i c e s e i z e d t h e i r l i b r a r y i n Lady-  smith d u r i n g the second World War), experience i n Co-operative and land..  literature  and no doubt some had  had  s o c i a l i s t organizations i n F i n -  Many were refugees from C z a r i s t t e r r o r , or, a f t e r the  Russian R e v o l u t i o n , from the White t e r r o r of Baron Mannerheim. The  s e c e s s i o n was  i n i o n of The C l a r i o n e d i t o r . s a i d , Marx and Engels had  good f o r the p a r t y , i n the  op-  In the Communist M a n i f e s t o , he  advocated  reforms, but they had r e -  pudiated them i n the p r e f a c e to the German e d i t i o n . o f  1872.  At an Edmonton convention of t e n Ukrainian, l o c a l s , a l l d e l e g a t e s but two voted to j o i n a S o c i a l Party.  40.  4 0  The Western C l a r i o n , September 3,  1910  Democratic  When James Simpson, a member of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , was appointed by Mackenzie King, on the recommendation of the Trades and Labor  Congress,  to serve i n an enquiry asked by  the Congress and by the Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s  f  Association  i n t o the n e c e a s i t y and methods of t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n 41 d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , he got i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s with the P a r t y . At f i r s t the a t t i t u d e taken was that h i s l o c a l (Toronto 24) was too busy to take up.the q u e s t i o n of a member who without c o n s u l t i n g h i s comrades had accepted an appointment from a c a p i t a l i s t government. doing so, he t o l d  L a t e r , they asked Simpson to appear;  them t h a t the matter  was not t h e i r b u s i n e s s ,  but t h a t of the Trades and Labor Congress.  He admitted  that  t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n would not b e n e f i t the workers p r i m a r i l y , but  thought  i t would develop t h e i r b r a i n c e l l s and so, u l t i m -  a t e l y , help the r e v o l u t i o n . that mechanical  By r e s o l u t i o n , L o c a l 24 d e c l a r e d  improvement meant more unemployment, and t h a t  t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n meant more p r o f i c i e n t wage s l a v e s , and hence g r e a t e r e x p l o i t a t i o n , g r e a t e r unemployment, g r e a t e r c a p i t a l i s t power;  t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n v/ould degrade the  workers, and b e n e f i t the c a p i t a l i s t s . his 41.  Simpson was to r e p o r t  conclusions to h i s l o c a l before g i v i n g them t o the other The Western C l a r i o n , October  15, 1910  r o y a l commissioners-. and unnecessary signed.  Terming t h i s requirement  i n the i n t e r e s t  of d i s c i p l i n e ,  (Years l a t e r , he became mayor of  presumptuous Simpson r e -  Toronto.)  The December 17 number of The Western C l a r i o n contained two and  a h a l f columns from Toronto L o c a l 24  ing f o r a Dominion convention;  call-  they denounced l a b o r r e p r e s -  e n t a t i v e s In p a r l i a m e n t s as worse than the c a p i t a l i s t s ; charged t h a t  (1910)  they  the country and the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y were f u l l 42  of reformers, a c o n d i t i o n l e a d i n g t o a l l s o r t s of c o n f u s i o n . (In d i s g u s t , t h i s  l o c a l soon l e f t  On December 24, i t was couver, had W.  r e p o r t e d that L o c a l No.1-..Van-  repudiated a l l p u b l i c words and a c t i o n s of Dr. 43  J . Curry, who  was no l o n g e r a member o f the P a r t y .  A communication was Barltz,  the p a r t y . )  p r i n t e d on December 31 from Moses  a t i r e l e s s worker up and down the country, and v e r y  i n f l u e n t i a l In L o c a l 24. and other l e g i s l a t o r s discipline  was  He charged that J.H.Hawthornthwaite  were p o l i t i c a l dodgers,  ignored throughout  and that p a r t y  the Dominion, l o c a l s  doing  as they p l e a s e d . I t was not so i n the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of 42. No n a t i o n a l convention of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada was ever h e l d ; the n e a r e s t approach t o i t was a B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l conference a t F e r n i e i n 1908. Referendums were h e l d on important questions. 43.  Dr. Curry, who  had come from C h i l l i w a c k , was  a dentist.  B'O. Great B r i t a i n , he s a i d .  He f a v o r e d a s t r o n g e r a n t i - r e l i g i o u s  stand. Meantime, Mr. HawthornthT/aite had r e s i g n e d Nanaimo l o c a l . The  from  The issue of unionism l a y behind t h i s a c t i o n .  Western C l a r i o n p r i n t e d h i s l e t t e r t o the p r o v i n c i a l exe44  cutive.  I n p a r t , I t read:  n a t i o n ) are simply on questions  continued  "The d i r e c t reasons ( f o r r e s i g disagreements with L o c a l Nanaimo  of t a c t i c s , propaganda, and p u b l i c  more p a r t i c u l a r l y on the q u e s t i o n decided  o f unionism."  utterances, The  executive  t o revoke the Nanaimo c h a r t e r f o r a m a l i c i o u s  on Hawthornthwaite.  attack  Nanaimo objected  been heard, and South W e l l i n g t o n  that t h e i r s i d e had not 45 protested.  Hie June 17 number r e p o r t e d  that delegates  Nanaimo, Chase R i v e r , and South W e l l i n g t o n  from  E n g l i s h and F i n n i s h  l o c a l s had urged r e s t o r a t i o n of the c h a r t e r . In r e p l y , the exec u t i v e s t a t e d that i t had requested a r e p o r t from Nanaimo, but Nanaimo had "gone t o the c a p i t a l i s t g u t t e r p r e s s " .  In the  f o l l o w i n g numbers, some l o c a l s wrote i n to support the e x e c u t i v e , and 44. 45.  some to oppose i t . May 6, 1911. (The B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t o f February SO, 1912, p u b l i s h e d the i n t e r e s t i n g news t h a t i t was r e p o r t e d that J . H. Hawthornthwaite had made some thousands of d o l l a r s by the sale of c o a l r i g h t s ; the e d i t o r denied a rumor that Hawthornthwaite would r e t i r e from p o l i t i c s , and prophesied a donation of money f o r the s o c i a l i s t p r e s s . ) (The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , A p r i l S, 1912, s t a t e d t h a t Hawthormthwaite got f125,000 f o r l a n d f o r which he had p a i d $60,000; the e d i t o r was i r o n i c about the matter, but excused Hawthornthwaite because Hawthornthwaite was I r i s h * )  81.  Trade unions i n many c o u n t r i e s had become v e r y powerf u l and great s t r i k e s took place i n the pre-war y e a r s . the winning of numerous concessions and more s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ,  With  and the enactment of more  confidence  i n c r e a s e d In the power  of l a b o r to reform c a p i t a l i s m more t o i t s l i k i n g .  Social  Democratic p a r t i e s were w i t h i n s i g h t of power i n more than one country.  Such p r e o c c u p a t i o n with reform,  of course,  was d e b i l -  i t a t i n g to the movement of " s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m . " When the Great War broke out, the l a b o r and s o c i a l i s t movements, except  f o r s m a l l s e c t i o n s , succumbed, to n a t i o n a l i s m  and militarism,-and," i n the post-war years there appeared, under guises d i f f e r i n g not only  i n v a r i e t y arid frankness,  f a s c i s m , which s a i d  'no f a r t h e r ' , but a l s o 'back!* The  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was  i n g from the growing confidence  suffer-  i n the power of l a b o r and the  a p p a r e n t l y b r i g h t e n i n g prospects  of s o c i a l democracy.  Perhaps The C l a r i o n was somewhat a f f e c t e d by the p r e v a i l i n g atmosphere; Nova S c o t i a ;  at any r a t e , i t c h r o n i c l e d a s t r i k e i n  hundreds of s o l d i e r s w i t h two Maxim guns (600  b u l l e t s a minute) p a t r o l l e d Glace Bay; had r e f u s e d to r e q u i s i t i o n t r o o p s . i n the Crow's Nest Pass a r e a .  t h e S p r i n g h i l l mayor  I t a l s o reported a ^strike  A s t r i k e two y e a r s ago had been  over union r e c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than wages; the c h e c k - o f f system;  now the i s s u e was  an Employers' A s s o c i a t i o n . i n c l u d e d a l l  82. mines, and independent  (of the C.P.R.) camps which had a l 46  lowed, the checlc-off were now r e f u s i n g t o do s o . F o l l o w i n g the f a l l s e c r e t a r y , Morgan, offices. ing  convention, 1911, the p a r t y  and the e d i t o r , K i n g s l e y , r e s i g n e d t h e i r  They wrote that t h e f a l l convention had had noth-  to do with t h e i r a c t i o n .  They spoke o f the " v a p i d i t y "  and " f u t i l i t y " of the convention;  the m a j o r i t y had had a  program they were unable to put through and were out of sympathy with  the p l a t f o r m and p r i n c i p l e s of the p a r t y -  thanks t o the negligence of a number of " r e a l " S. P. of C. locals. to  The convention had l a c k e d backbone.  I t had met  s e t t l e the Hawthornthwaite a f f a i r , but had l e f t  i t was.  I t where  I t had r e t u r n e d the Nanaimo c h a r t e r i n the morning  and had taken i t back i n the a f t e r n o o n .  Some were l e a v i n g  the parts'" - the w i s e s t t h i n g they had y e t done and c e r t a i n l y the best t h i n g they had ever done f o r the p a r t y , s a i d D. G-. McKenzie,  R. I. Matthews had become both s e c r e t a r y and ^ 47 editor", at $60. a month. S o l n t u l a had been s u s t a i n e d i n e x p e l l i n g t h r e e  members f o r s u p p o r t i n g c a p i t a l i s t  candidates i n the l a s t  election. 46.  The Western C l a r i o n , A p r i l 15, 1911.  47.  The Western C l a r i o n , December 16, 1911.  80. More i n t e r n a l t r o u b l e was 1912;  Vancouver L o c a l No.  45  reported: on May  ( F i n n i s h ) had  experienced  s e c e s s i o n of a m i n o r i t y a f t e r f a i l u r e t o t u r n the over t o the Canadian S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i o n . was  regarded as t r e f o r m i s t ;  18,  local  The F e d e r a t i o n  i f s o c i a l i s t s attracted  votes  by a d v o c a t i n g reforms, the o l d p a r t i e s c o u l d perpetuate themselves  by doing the same and r e c a p t u r i n g the v o t e s . P a r k e r W i l l i a m s , M.L.A., wrote f o r the Septem-  ber 24 number an e x p l a n a t i o n of how  a quorum at  Ladysmith  had voted to withdraw from the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada. The F i n n i s h and E n g l i s h l o c a l s of the S o c i a l P a r t y had asked him to be a candidate; hoping  to work with both  e x e c u t i v e had  Democratic  he had  socialist parties.  Joined them,  The  provincial  ordered h i s name s t r u c k o f f the membership  roll. A l e t t e r from E r n e s t Burns i n the May  20 number  of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t d i s c u s s e d what was matter w i t h the s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h  the  Columbia.  S o c i a l i s t s had boasted f o r seven or e i g h t years of t h e i r scientific,  c l e a r Marxian  s o c i a l i s t s of New many, and B r i t a i n . enough.  education, and had scorned  the  York, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, France, Kno?;ledge of-Marx, Burns s a i d , was  Gernot  S o c i a l i s t s s h o u l d o f f e r p r a c t i c a l suggestions f o r  the s o l u t i o n of c u r r e n t problems - should touch and i l l u m i n a t e every matter  1...  of human i n t e r e s t - should p r e s e n t  §4. the i s s u e s (such as votes f o r women, o l d age s h o r t e r hours, ment, and The  i n d u s t r i a l unionism,  so on)  pensions,  e d u c a t i o n a l advance-  that must he faced d u r i n g the  s o c i a l organism  to c a p i t a l i s m - and  transition.  evolved - f o r example, from f e u d a l i s m s o c i a l i s t s should t e l l the workers  what movements and tendencies to support. S.P.G. of Ladysmith  wrote to The B r i t i s h  umhia F e d e r a t i o n i s t of November 28,- 1913, labor party.  "The  Col-  calling for a  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada i s not a  v e r y k i n d l y or t o l e r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n .  I f there i s to be  progress u n t i l the workers are gathered  i n t o that f o l d ,  grey h a i r s are l i k e l y to come i n sorrow to the  ists,  my  grave."  The same number t o l d of a convention %o be ed by the S o c i a l Democratic  no  call-  P a r t y , j o i n t l y with trade u n i o n -  to organize a m u n i c i p a l campaign, i n Vancouver.  S.D.P. wanted an independent  w o r k i n g - c l a s s p a r t y , with  The the  o b j e c t of making p o s s i b l e a " P o l i t i c a l and I n d u s t r i a l Democ r a c y i n which the l a n d s , mines, f a c t o r i e s , r a i l r o a d s ,  etc.  (the s o c i a l t o o l s of wealth p r o d u c t i o n ) s h a l l be oY/ned by the community and operated f o r the common good." The meeting was chairman,  but was  unable  h e l d , w i t h E r n e s t Burns as  to agree.  Must the  candidates AO  belong to the S.D.P.? 48.  The  British  There was  no decision.-°  Columbia F e d e r a t i o n i s t , December 19,1913  85. The Dr. W. J . Curry  S.D.P. h e l d l e c t u r e s i n the C o l o n i a l Theatre, ( d e n t i s t ) d i d much to spread socialism!.  A t k i n s o n was p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r and a speaker. dances, m u s i c a l e s ,  entertainments,  win the s t r a n g e r .  ""Don't expect  Sam  He advocated  l e c t u r e s , s o c i a l events, to  every one to become a p h i l o s -  pher a t once." The  S o c i a l i s t movement had s p l i t  the developments d e s c r i b e d above make c l e a r ;  i n t o two branches, although  profes-  s i n g the same g o a l as the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada, the S o c i a l Democrats d i f f e r e d on the matter of t a c t i c s and immedi a t e program, r e f u s i n g t o f o l l o w Marxian l o g i c up to some of 49,50 i t s more uncomfortable p i n n a c l e s .  49.  For the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y p l a t f o r m , 1910, see Appendix 2.  50.  E r n e s t Burns had come from Birmingham, England. He was never a s t r i c t M a r x i s t . L a t e r , he was a c t i v e i n t h e Co o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n .  8&*  Some Aspects o f the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h 1898  -  Columbia,  1953  P a r t 11  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  from the Great War to the Great D e p r e s s i o n .  87* Chapter Three. The  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y During the Great. War.  When the Great War broke out, most European  social-  i s t s gave some measure of support to t h e i r n a t i o n a l governments. Not  so the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada.  The  p o s i t i o n they took was that the war was a c a p i t -  a l i s t s ' ' s t r u g g l e f o r trade and raw m a t e r i a l s . t i n u e d i t s propaganda work, and c r i t i c i z e d  The p a r t y  the war.  As i n d i v i d u a l s , S o c i a l i s t o r g a n i z e r s were t r e a d i n g on very t h i n I c e . for sedition;  and speakers  Some of them were a r r e s t e d  others were wanted by the p o l i c e .  p r i s i n g t h a t the p a r t y was not outlawed; had  con-  I t i s sur-  n o t u n t i l the war  almost ended d i d the a u t h o r i t i e s (perhaps alarmed by  events In Russia) suppress The C l a r i o n . The  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the f o u r t h e d i t i o n of the Mani-  f e s t o made c l e a r the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y ' s a t t i t u d e toward the war. I t was a war f o r world markets, and concerned c a p i t a l i s t  Inter-  ests only.  The c h i e f enemy was w i t h i n .  The workers had been  stampeded.  R e f u s a l of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada to j o i n  the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l had been j u s t i f i e d ;  the " p r a c t i c a l  s o c i a l i s t s " were now c u t t i n g one another's t h r o a t s . s i o n of the strength  The I l l u -  o f S o c i a l Democratic p a r t i e s f i g h t i n g on  "the p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s of the day" had been d i s p e l l e d ; 1.  their  Taken from The Western C l a r i o n of February, 1916. W r i t t e n by D.G.McKenzie, and regarded a s "slmon p u r e . See Appendix 3 for platform. ff  88 weakness was l a c k of  education.  As f o r the outcome,  "the v i c -  t o r i o u s S t a t e has ever been the s t r o n g e r to oppress i t s own workers;  the defeated S t a t e ever the weaker to r e s i s t  their  a demands."  "A p e r i o f of p e a c e f u l c a p i t a l i s t p r o s p e r i t y w i l l  and maim as many as a p e r i o d i c a l war." ier  taxation;  n  Because of women i n Industry,  men would be thrown on a glutted, l a b o r market —  welll"  cataclysmic.  " i t looks  "One more i l l u s i o n we may put from our  minds, i f we e v e r had i t —  that of a p e a c e f u l R e v o l u t i o n . "  The master c l a s s would not permit for  millions  The change from a war t o a peace economy would be un-  settling,  to  A h o p e f u l s i g n was heav-  "when the S t a t e Is i n f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s , the  r e v o l u t i o n i s at hand., of  kill  the workers to prepare.  such, a change.  The moral was  "The worst, or the best, i s about  come. " War,  wrote W.W.L., was n e i t h e r r i g h t nor wrong; 2  was simply of no I n t e r e s t t o the worker. what I do not me.*  OTOE",  it  I f a German "captured  he would be " s t i l l on the same f o o t i n g w i t h  I f a f r a c t i o n of the e f f o r t devoted to d e s t r u c t i o n were  d i r e c t e d to the common good, u n p a r a l l e l e d p r o d u c t i o n would r e sult. It  i s p l a i n t h a t the S o c i a l i s t s d i d not c o n s i d e r  that they had anything a t stake i n the s t r u g g l e . ist  class,  The  capital-  they h e l d , had r e s o r t e d to v i o l e n c e t o s e t t l e  their  r i v a l r i e s , and the atmosphere during and a f t e r the war was not 2, The Western C l a r i o n , June, 1915.  89. l i k e l y t o be f a v o r a b l e  to p e a c e f u l  change.  The  n a t i o n s were being stampeded i n t o s l a u g h t e r i n g t r a r y to t h e i r wishes and i s t s p r o f e s s no  interests.  Not  workers of one  another con-  o n l y did" the S o c i a l -  concern f o r A l l i e d v i c t o r y , but also they con-  templated q u i t e equably the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e f e a t , because prospects ing s i d e . now  of s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l u t i o n would be b r i g h t e r on the The  armed and  the  only hope, they b e l i e v e d , was organized  the los-  t h a t the workers,  f o r s t r u g g l e , would use  their force  to  overthrow t h e i r masters. According charged from The ive attitude.  to William  Bennett, E . T . K i n g s l e y was  C l a r i o n f o r a weakening i n s c i e n t i f i c ,  disobject-  K i n g s l e y wrote a " c h a u v i n i s t i c " e d i t o r i a l on  the 3  s i n k i n g of the L u s i t a n i a , a b i t t e r a t t a c k on German " c u l t u r e . " W.  A; P r i t c h a r d expressed the S o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e toward  such d i s a s t e r s when he  termed the s i n k i n g "none of our  these events were d e p l o r a b l e , 4 life  but  business";  c l a s s ownership of the means of  caused them. H e a r i n g t h a t Robert B l a t c h f o r d , famous B r i t i s h  was  supporting  4.  The  5.  June,  the war,  The  socialist,  C l a r i o n e d i t o r d e c l a r e d , " I wince 5 when I c a l l myself a s o c i a l i s t . " 3. Bennett, W i l l i a m : B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia; p. 141 Western C l a r i o n , June, 1915.  1915.  90. L a t e r , the R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n aroused of The C l a r i o n ;  the i n t e r e s t  a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g with i t were p r i n t e d .  I n Oct-  ober, 1918, the B o l s h e v i s t " D e c l a r a t i o n o f R i g h t s " was r e p r i n t ed from Current H i s t o r y ;  an e d i t o r i a l s a i d :  of Petrograd be t r u e , then the working performed  " I f a l l we read  c l a s s of that c i t y have  a task g r e a t e r than any recorded i n the annals of man."  P a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s u f f e r e d d u r i n g the war; same, members were l o s t ; arrest;  speakers and o r g a n i z e r s worked a t the r i s k of  numbers were charged w i t h s e d i t i o n , and o t h e r s ?/ere  f u g i t i v e s from the law. Apart from the s p e c i a l i s s u e of the war, propaganda was o f the u s u a l s o r t . The C l a r i o n was s m a l l e r than f o r m e r l y , and, with pages f o r s p e c i a l t o p i c s , e a s i e r t o r e a d . Avenue B u i l d i n g , Main S t r e e t , Vancouver. 1. A. P r i t c h a r d ;  I t s o f f i c e was i n the Managing e d i t o r was  P r i t c h a r d was a l s o Dominion s e c r e t a r y . During  the p a s t two y e a r s , the p a r t y organ had l i f t e d #300 and f u r n i s h e d an o f f i c e , o f f , i t was i n debt a g a i n * a fund t o support i t ;  a debt of over  but, s u b s c r i p t i o n s h a v i n g  fallen  E f f o r t s were b e i n g made to r a i s e  however, temporary  suspension was neces-  s a r y i n November, 1915. E a r l y ' i n 1916, the o f f i c e was moved t o 169 Georgia S t r e e t E a s t , Vancouver.  The C l a r i o n ' s stand a g a i n s t  c o n s c r i p t i o n seems t o have caused a r i s e i n c i r c u l a t i o n 1917) 6.  but by October  c i r c u l a t i o n was f a l l i n g o f f .  T h i s was s t a t e d In June, 1915.  (August,  91.  Articles tional" ism"; car,  i n The C l a r i o n were c h i e f l y  o f t h e "educa-  type. T.M., f o r example, wrote on " H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l he -urged every "Red" to educate others - on the s t r e e t 7  i n the union - at every o p p o r t u n i t y .  the F a l l a c y of P a l l i a t i v e s " ; except  T. Connor d e c r i e d  no p a l l i a t i v e ever d i d a n y t h i n g  improve the s l a v e ' s a b i l i t y t o produce f o r the master's D  benefit.  J . H a r r i n g t o n wrote a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s  I t s Cause and Outcome"; ist position.  on "War -  there were many a r t i c l e s on the s o c i a l -  H.M.B. c o n t r i b u t e d d i s c u s s i o n s o f economics.  an example o f the r e l i s h with which some o f the S o c i a l i s t s about t h e i r l i t e r a r y l a b o r s , a paragraph  As went  from W.B.M. may be  quoted: When we glance back through t h e murky d i s tances of a n c i e n t h i s t o r y to the time when man descended from h i s a r b o r e a l h a b i t a t and, becomi n g used t o locomotion on h i s p e d o - e x t r e m i t i e s , continued on the ground, we f i n d t h a t the whole process of h i s development i s merely a s e r i e s of changes i n h i s method of producing t h e substance necessary f o r h i s continued e x i s t e n c e . With a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the o l d d o c t r i n a i r e  logic,  p r o h i b i t i o n was opposed on the ground that i t would enhance dividends;  g r e a t e r s o b r i e t y would mean g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n ; 10 wages c o u l d be o u t . 7.  May, 1915  8.  May, 1915  9.  June, 1915  10.  March, 1916.  92. In June, 1917, a statement  the Dominion E x e c u t i v e p u b l i s h e d  o b j e c t i n g t o c o n s c r i p t i o n because i t would f o r c e  the workers "to r i v e t about our l i m b s . "  s t i l l more f i r m l y the chains of s e r v i t u d e  L o c a l Vancouver Ho.  u t i o n favoring a general s t r i k e ; persons.  1 had c i r c u l a t e d a r e s o l -  i t had been s i g n e d by 2,000  Next month came a longer statement  on c o n s c r i p t i o n ;  an a r t i c l e by M. A. P r i t c h a r d a g a i n s t the measure f i l l e d more than f o u r pages. There were many l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r ; v e n t i o n a l ' c l o s i n g was  "Yours i n r e v o l t . "  Reports came i n from time and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; brush w i t h the law.  t o time of propaganda  not I n f r e q u e n t l y they I n v o l v e d a  A c t i v i t i e s were widespread;  In May,  T. S. Cassidy was h o l d i n g meetings i n Winnipeg, and had been i n Ontario, Ohio, B u f f a l o , and M i c h i g a n . were b e i n g f o r m e d ,  1 1  the con-  1915,  CM.O'Brien New  locals.  but I n d i s c r i m i n a t e growth o f mushroom  l o c a l s would not be t o l e r a t e d ,  The  Clarion said.  In Vancouver,.  meetings were being h e l d i n the Avenue Theatre e v e r y Sunday evening.  There were p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e s i n a l l p r o v i n c e s  ex-  12 cept P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  The June number (1915) announced  the a r r e s t of Comrade J . Raid i n A l b e r t a , f o r s e d i t i o n ; $411.65 was  sent t o h e l p him;  s e d i t i o n i n S t . John.  Comrade G r i b b l e had been a r r e s t e d f o r The number o f February,  t h a t Comrade Re i d had been sentenced 11. June, 1915 12.  May,  1915  1916,  reported  to f i f t e e n months; he  had  s a i d that the war  was  country.  released  (He was  a c a p i t a l i s t one,  been one the  s a i d t h a t Icings were puppets;  judge had  was  not c r e d i b l e .  no  Gribble,  s e r v i n g two months i n S t . John;  w i t n e s s f o r the crown and  but  that he had  w i t h i n a few months.)  s a i d the March number, was a l l e g e d l y he had  and  intimated  had  seven f o r the defense,  that the  C. L e s t o r  there  evidence o f  (reported  socialists  i n June, 1915,  to  be  o r g a n i z i n g f o r the S o c i a l Democrats), had,  s a i d The  June, 1917,  f i n e d $1,000 at  been sentenced to one  Fairbanks,  Alaska,  year and  for sedition.  The  work went on  Clarion in  despite  such I n t e r r u p t i o n s ;  i n January, 1918,  being waged;  expected that p u b l i c meetings would b e  i t was  a l e a f l e t campaign  moved back t o the Empress, b i g g e s t Vancouver t h e a t r e , 1,750.  seating  D o u b t l e s s events i n R u s s i a were the c h i e f reason f o r  the i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n what the S o c i a l i s t had  was  to say.  In October, Comrade Roberts was  S i l v e r t o n on a s e d i t i o n charge.. t i c e , but  the war  of the  Party  i n trouble  at  In November- came the Armis-  a u t h o r i t i e s upon the sroerialis.ts  was  j u s t warming, up.  Throughout the war  years,  the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  car-  r i e d on e l e c t i o n a c t i v i t y . The  Western C l a r i o n ("owned and  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada") p u b l i s h e d manifesto on A p r i l 1 0 ,  1915.  This  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  a provincial election  book  the  p o s i t i o n that  the  94. " F u l l Dinner P a i l " promise, i n a land f l o w i n g with wealth exp l o i t e d from t h e workers, was "an i n s u l t that no other animal but t h e human kind would t o l e r a t e . "  Free b r e a k f a s t s f o r s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n , o l d age p e n s i o n s " (when you a r e seventy; you a r e i n the bread l i n e a t S I ) " , s t a t e i n s u r a n c e , f r e e l a n d f o r s e t t l e r s " i n a country where those who now have thus s e t t l e d cannot f i n d a market  f o r t h e i r produce" - a l l these t h i n g s were of no i n t e r -  est t o those "whosse o n l y p o r t i o n i s that of the s l a v e . " Candidates i n the e l e c t i o n would be: nor;  F o r t George,  North Vancouver,  John Mclnnes;  W. Bennett;  F e r n i e , T. Con-  Comox, John A. McDonald;  Vancouver,  Lefeaux, L e s t o r , P r i t c h a r d , Sidaway;  H a r r i n g t o n , Kavanagh,  w i t h , probably J . P i l k l n g -  ton i n North Okanagan and J . S. Smith i n S l o c a n . s a i d Lefeaux would r u n i n North Okanagan.  L a t e r i t was  C. Stephenson was  party secretary. E. Burns, S o c i a l Democratic  candidate i n South Van-  couver, was c o n t r a d i c t e d i n h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t the S o c i a l Democ r a t s and the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y were as one i n e l e c t i o n time. "Our m i s s i o n , " wrote ¥. A. P r i t c h a r d , was not to catch votes, but t o make s o c i a l i s t s , to teach the workers how 13.  L e s t o r had come from England; he was c o n s i d e r e d an e f f e c t i v e speaker. Bennett, a barber, came from Glasgow. J.A.McDonald, one of the Younger S o c i a l i s t s , a bakery salesman, was a good speaker, and a student o f Marx. Kavanagh was a t i l e s e t t e r by t r a d e . C h r i s t o p h e r Stevenson had come from England; he was employed by the Vancouver Waterworks Department; he became an a b l e w r i t e r ; much i n f l u e n c e d by Veblen, he was to champion the g e n e r a l re-assessment of p o s i t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n the break-up of the p a r t y .  95. to overthrow wage-slavery. The war  was  being  waged to decide  which band o f brigands should h o l d c e r t a i n trade routes markets.  The machine xvas s o c i a l l y operated; i t should  i a l l y owned by the one There was The  c l a s s that had  yet t o be  anal be  r a i s e d to power.  much s n i p i n g a t the S o c i a l Democrats. When  Canadian Forward, organ of the S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y  Canada, expressed sympathy w i t h The "To  Clarion's  Clarion replied:  The  Forward's e d i t o r i a l on the Labor Congress, P r i t c h a r d  the d e v i l with your sympathy!"  f i n e hand of the p r a c t i s e d (In May,  Ernest  1914,  W.  fakir."  A. P r i t c h a r d had  the S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y ' s  saw  debated w i t h  platform.  on the worth o f  Burns had  s a i d that,  the minds of the people f o r the  u r a t i o n of the c o - o p e r a t i v e  In  1 4  Burns i n the Empress Theatre, Vancouver,  as a means or p r e p a r i n g  of  difficulties,  The  "the  soc-  inaug-  commonwealth, the S o c i a l Democrats  would support any measure t e n d i n g to b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s under capitalism: - s h o r t e r hours, a b o l i t i o n of c h i l d l a b o r , f r a n c h i s e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s without regard t i v e , referendum, and r e c a l l . power was  to p r o p e r t y ,  P r i t c h a r d r e p l i e d that  a commodity under c a p i t a l i s m ;  the initialabor  workers r e c e i v e d  only  13• Footnote Contd, H a r r i n g t o n came from Scotland; f o r a time he was i n F e r n i e ; he was a car i n s p e c t o r f o r the B . C . E l e c t r i c i n Vancouver.lt w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t these men were l a r g e l y s e l f - e d u c a t e d ; t h e i r w r i t i n g s showed t h a t they had c e r t a i n l y t r a i n e d thems e l v e s well,and they d i s p l a y e d remarkable powers of analys i s and e x p o s i t i o n , 14. June, 1915  96. enough t o be enabled  to f u n c t i o n ; because o f the i n e x o r a b l e law  of value, i t was i m p o s s i b l e to make the p o s i t i o n of the worker more t o l e r a b l e . understanding,  A r e f o r m program might a t t r a c t some who lacked but c a p i t a l i s t p a r t i e s could s t e a l r e f o r m p l a n k s .  R e s u l t s of reform i n B r i t a i n had been n i l as r e g a r d s t h e statusof the worker and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f minds f o r s o c i a l change. Reforms such as the eight-hour day worked out t o t h e b e n e f i t of the master.) The  C l a r i o n d i d not e x e r t i t s e l f  union support;  P r i t c h a r d termed Trades  to a t t r a c t  trade  Congress r e s o l u t i o n s ,  adopted i n Vancouver, " s i l l y s l a v e r i n g s of sycophantic s l a v e s attempting t o Imitate t h e i r p o l i t i c a l masters; piffle  the p e u r i l e  p e r p e t r a t e d by these p r o t a g o n i s t s of 'Labor's  rights'  demonstrate that these hacks o f c a p i t a l i s m , masquerading as Labor l e a d e r s (I)  must be fought  to a f i n i s h  . . . Comrades,  15 l e t us hew to the l i n e I" Par from m o d i f y i n g t h e p a r t y program, a c t i o n was taken to make i t s t i l l more uncompromising.  T h i s a c t i o n caused  a controversy, during which W.A.P. icrote t h a t the o r i g i n a l wording I n the p l a t f o r m e x p l a i n i n g the c l a s s s t r u g g l e was a bulwark f o r reform. out a c o n v e n t i o n .  Some o b j e c t e d t o i t s b e i n g changed w i t h I n the o r i g i n a l convention,  ed o l d women, reformers t h a t paragraph 15.  June, 1915  " s e r i o u s mind-  of the E n g l i s h and Stubbs type, p l a c e d  of meaningless jargon about what the p a r t y  97. should  do when In o f f i c e ,  e t c . e t c . , put the wreath o f maple  leaves  (to show t h a t i t was. a Canadian o u t f i t ) on top o f the  c h a r t e r , and a c t e d as such hacks and reformers can only he expected to a c t .  of capitalism  I t i s to l a u g h I "  J". H. B., objected t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of the explana t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and others were c r i t i c a l , but when a vote was taken,  the new p l a t f o r m was overwhelmingly  endorsed.. Another step In i n c r e a s i n g the r i g i d i t y o f t h e p a r t y p o s i t i o n was taken when the Dominion Executive  decided  to d e s t r o y i t s stock of Hardenburg's "What i s S o c i a l i s m " as 17 being  16.  "unscientific".  J u l y , 1916. (For p l a t f o r m ,  see Appendix: 2.  The o r i g i n a l c h a r t e r showed at the top a r e d f l a g bearing; the words " S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada"; below was the slogan, "Workers of t h e World U n i t e " , and about, the f l a g was maple l e a v e s . At the bottom of the c h a r t e r was the d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t the m i s s i o n of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y was not to f u r t h e r the e f f o r t s of the commolity l a b o r power to o b t a i n b e t t e r p r i c e s f o r i t s e l f , b u t to r e a l i z e the a s p i r a t i o n s of the enslaved l a b o r t o break the g a l l i n g chains of wage s e r v i t u d e and stand forth free. 17.  November, 1916. d i x 4.  The pamphlet i s summarized i n Appen-  98 Some charges had been made a g a i n s t W.W.Lefeaux i n connection w i t h h i s candidacy C l a r i o n s t a t e d there was  no  i n Rossland;  evidence  the September  t h a t Lefeaux  had  comprom-  i s e d with the Conversative p a r t y or had d e c l a r e d the i n t e n t i o n of going o u t s i d e the Rossland Lefeaux was  censured  S.P.  o f C. l o c a l i f not  endorsed.  f o r i n d i s c r e e t methods of conducting  campaign - propaganda had been hampered, and  i t was  the  not a d v i s -  18 able to p l a c e him as a c a n d i d a t e . The October number recorded the t a k i n g of of the Bre?;ster government.  The  office  S o c i a l i s t vote had been 19  lower,  and S o c i a l i s t candidates fewer but "sound". The h i g h e s t vote f o r a Vancouver candidate 7,224; the h i g h e s t S o c i a l i s t vote was 18. J u l y , 1916 19.  1,036  was  f o r Harrington.  1916. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; i n Vancouver, h i g h e s t L i b e r a l vote was f o r Macdonald (M.A.)- 8,186; h i g h e s t Conservative v o t e - Bowser, 6,392; H a r r i n g t o n , o n l y S o c i a l i s t - 1,170. (Province, October 18, 1916.) Fernle: J . A. Macdonald, S o c i a l i s t , r e c e i v e d a s m a l l vote. F o r t George: (John) Mclnnes, ( S o c i a l i s t ) , r a n second. Nanaimo: Samuel Skinner, S o c i a l i s t : 227. L i b e r a l ; 1012. Nelson: L. L. Bloomer, S o c i a l i s t : 98.; Conserv a t i v e , 472. Newcastle: Parker W i l l i a m s was e l e c t e d as a L i b e r a l . P l e b i s c i t e s on female s u f f r a g e and on p r o h i b i t i o n were endorsed. - P r o v i n c e , September 15, 1916.  99. In F e r n i e , U p h i l l ( l a t e r he was  (Labor) r e c e i v e d 204  votes  s e v e r a l times Labor M.L.A.), and when the *,  Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n f i n a l l y opposed him i n 1941,  i t o n l y dented h i s s u p p o r t ) .  n i e was  736 ;  C o n s e r v a t i v e , 634.  s e r v a t i v e , 560;  L i b e r a l , 463>;  win - of whom i t was  The L i b e r a l vote i n F e r The Ymir r e s u l t was,  Socialist,  s a i d that he was  258,  Con-  f o r A. Good-  the f i r s t  candidate  "other than a l a b o r f a k i r " to r e p r e s e n t the p a r t y i n t h i s 20 riding. 736;  The  Socialist  Comox r e s u l t was, (W.A.Pritchard)  L i b e r a l , 768;  234;  Conservative,  S o c i a l Democrat  (Winkler)  77. A f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n manifesto addressed  i n November,  t o the workers of Canada, went through  1916,  the u s u a l  preamble, coming t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y stood a g a i n s t a l l others, i n c l u d i n g Labor. to c o n s c r i p t i o n and  I t was  opposed  to being s c i e n t i f i c a l l y s l a u g h t e r e d i n a  f i g h t i n which w o r k i n g - c l a s s i n t e r e s t s were not i n v o l v e d . Des p i t e g r e a t s t r i d e s i n producing wealth, L l o y d George had s a i d t h i r t y per cent of the B r i t i s h were i n p e r p e t u a l p o v e r t y . The M a n i f e s t o  t o l d how  s u r p l u s e s p i l e up,  curs, f o l l o w e d by unemployment. markets.  a g l u t of goods oc-  The war was  being fought f o r  The workers should r e g i s t e r a protest.. In January,  1918,  i t was  s a i d t h a t there had  great i n t e r e s t i n the S o c i a l i s t f e d e r a l campaign.  been  At a debate  with other candidates i n the Avenue Theatre, Vancouver,  H.  H.  20. A p p a r e n t l y A r t h u r Goodwin, r e f e r r e d to l a t e r i n t h i s  chapter.  100. ;Stevens  and 17. W.. B. Mclnnes had taken p a r t .  r a n i n Vancouver C e n t r e . t h e i r votes proved sure s u c c e s s .  A Socialist  The use t o which women had put  i t c o r r e c t t h a t o n l y education would en-  "Then a l l together, men and women!  Spread  the l i g h t I" urged W. A. P.  Among d e t a i l s of p a r t y a f f a i r s recorded during the v/ar years were some of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t concerning  per-  s o n a l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . L o c a l Vancouver 45 ( F i n n i s h ) a d v e r t i s e d shares i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g a t 2215 Pender S t r e e t , E a s t . 21  R. M. Alexander  was s e c r e t a r y of L o c a l No. 1. The p a r t y was proud  of i t s l e n d i n g l i b r a r y  (Avenue  Theatre, Vancouver) where were some works not o b t a i n a b l e e l s e where i n the c i t y .  Among the authors were Marx, E n g e l s , D i e t z -  gen, L a b r i o l a , Lafarque, Darwin, Huxley, Benjamin K i d d . 22  S.  Earp was i n charge. Present a t a Dominion E x e c u t i v e meeting were Comrades Smith, ald  Sinclair,  (secretary).  P a r t r i d g e , Parsons,  The e x e c u t i v e p r o h i b i t e d members from speak-  i n g under S o c i a l Democratic p i c e s , except trading!" 21. 22. 23.  2  o r S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f America aus-  i n opposition.  3  May, 1915 June, 1915 June, 1915  J e n k i n s , and McDon-  "No compromise!  No p o l i t i c a l  101. On the Dominion E x e c u t i v e f o r 1916 would be:  A.  McLean, J . J e n k i n s , J . Smith, H. P a r t r i d g e , J . A. McDonald, J . H a r r i n g t o n , W.A.Pritchard was away, W.  (or, a l t e r n a t e l y , when P r i t c h a r d  Bennett). A new a d d i t i o n was made to the S o c i a l i s t H a l l a t 24  Pender and Dunlevy S t r e e t s , Vancouver. At a Dominion E x e c u t i v e meeting i n January, 1918, were J.G.Morgan, W.A.Pritchard,  J.Kavanagh ( s e c r e t a r y ) , J.M.  J e n k i n s , J . H a r r i n g t o n , J . Shepherd, L.Robinson. t a r y ' s wage was r a i s e d  The s e c r e -  to $ 5 0 . a month.  D. G. McKenzle, a r e c e n t e d i t o r of The Western 25 C l a r i o n , d i e d on January  11, 1918.  In September, 1918, t h e membership a t l a r g e s y s tem was being used, cause of d i f f i c u l t i e s  probably t h i s system was i n t r o d u c e d bei n r e l a t i o n t o the law.  Henry M. F i t z g e r a l d , "brilliant  "tireless  propagandist",  and r e s o u r c e f u l f i g h t e r " , d i e d a t T r a n q u i l l e I n  1918. 24. December, 1916 25.  A c c o r d i n g to Mr. George Morgan ( i n t e r v i e w , September 27, 1942), McKenzle had one of the f i n e s t minds the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y had. He went from S c o t l a n d t o I n d i a , where h i s f a t h e r was a c i v i l engineer; he was " o f good f a m i l y . . . and education"; he wrote the Party's Manifesto.  102. F u r t h e r implementing i t s p o l i c y of s t i f f e n i n g the s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e , the p a r t y e x p e l l e d some members during the war  period;  others d i d not  were not g r i e v e d f o r .  wait f o r e x p u l s i o n . They  From S t . John,former o r g a n i z e r  Hyatt wrote t h a t the war  had  F.  cleaned a l o t of s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s  26 out of the  party. In March, 1916,  Armstrong of Winnipeg was Bartenders'  i t was  r e p o r t e d that George  to be e x p e l l e d f o r speaking  f o r the  Union i n a debate a g a i n s t the proposed Manitoba  Temperance Act, a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e ;  W i l l i a m Hoople had  already  been e x p e l l e d f o r v i o l a t i n g p a r t y p r i n c i p l e s . . W i l l i a m Bennett r e s i g n e d as a candidate 27 from the e d i t o r i a l board of The  Clarion.  The  new  and  editorial  board c o n s i s t e d o f Comrades S i n c l a i r , McDonald, and P r i t c h a r d . Comrade Connor, the candidate resigned, apparently ward h i s r o l e , affair.  as the r e s u l t  i n Fernie, also  of the p a r t y a t t i t u d e t o -  to be d e s c r i b e d s h o r t l y , i n the Parker  Williams  2 8  26.  June,  1915  27.  L a t e r he became a Communist worker and columnists, author of " B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia."  28.  July,  1916.  and  103. A. Goodwin of T r a i l was was  r e f u s e d membership;  it  s a i d he had allowed h i s name to be used as a candidate f o r  the p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l Deputy M i n i s t e r of Labor; not r e p u d i a t e d the charge;  he was  he  had  "a l a c k e y of the p r e s e n t  29 political  parties". Though the p a r t y a t t i t u d e r e s u l t e d i n some l o s s of  membership, i t r e c o v e r e d the support of a t l e a s t one The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of North America, S.P.  Toronto, e x p l a i n e d that  o f C. L o c a l 24 had withdrawn i n 1910  i n g reformism  i n the p a r t y , but now  group.  because of the  approved  spread-  of the p a r t y stand.  In r e p l y , the e x e c u t i v e s a i d i t s members had stayed i n the 30 p a r t y to c l e a n up the mess; i t suggested a f f i l i a t i o n . 29. A p p a r e n t l y t h i s was A r t h u r "Ginger" Goodwin, an e x - v i c e p r e s i d e n t of the B.C.Federation of-Labor and a s o c i a l i s t , who had taken p a r t In the g r e a t Vancouver I s l a n d c o a l mine r s ' s t r i k e , and i n union and s t r i k e a c t i v i t y a t T r a i l . In a low m e d i c a l category h i m s e l f , he fought c o n s c r i p t i o n ; when suddenly h i s category was changed, he b e l i e v e d T r a i l smelter company o f f i c i a l s were t r y i n g to remove him from union work. He was shot to death with a s o f t - n o s e d b u l l e t by a s p e c i a l policeman c a l l e d Campbell, In the h i l l s behind Cumberland. A twenty-four hour g e n e r a l s t r i k e was c a l l e d i n protest. On F r i d a y , August 2, 1918, almost every u n i o n man i n Vancouver l e f t h i s work. Business i n t e r e s t s t r i e d to stop the s t r i k e . Hundreds of war v e t e r a n s wrecked the Labor Temple and made union men k i s s the f l a g . A C i t i z e n ' s Committee demanded d e p o r t a t i o n of s t r i k e l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g J.Kavanagh, W.A.Pritchard, E.E.Winch, and Joe N a y l o r . On Saturday, longshoremen were beselged In t h e i r h a l l ; the e n t i r e c i t y p o l i c e f o r c e was i n v o l v e d i n the b a t t l e . The s t r i k e c o n t i n ued u n t i l Monday. For one account of t h i s a f f a i r , see W i l l i a m Bennett, B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, pp. 78,79. Some time l a t e r , a t a Goodwin memorial meeting i n Cumberland, 50 new " C l a r i o n " s u b s c r i p t i o n s were s o l d ; i t seems that s o c i a l i s t s took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h i s matter. 30.  June,  1915  104. The case of Parker W i l l i a m s was-given much publicity. The V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d i t as f o i 31 lows: "Last n i g h t Parker W i l l i a m s was r e a d out of t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y by Tom Connor of Vancouver", f o r the l a s t two years o f f i c i a l o r g a n i z e r f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia and A l b e r t a . At  a meeting i n the o l d V i c t o r i a t h e a t r e , Connor d e c l a r e d W i l liams had been f a l s e t o a l l p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i s m i n supporting  L i b e r a l candidates i n the campaign.  "Mr. P a r k e r W i l l i a m s  i s not a S o c i a l i s t nor can he r e p r e s e n t i n any way the S o c i a l i s t movement from now on," Connor was quoted  as h a v i n g s a i d .  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y was not t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s  election.  Connor read a " s e n s a t i o n a l " l e t t e r by W i l l i a m s to Comrade Knight  of L e t h b r i d g e i n 1913, exposing a " p e r f i d i o u s d e a l " of  L i b e r a l campaign managers t o m i s l e a d the workers;  Williams  denounced the "shameless t o o l s " who would r u n as L i b e r a l - L a b o r to m i s l e a d the workers.  I t was a common L i b e r a l t r i c k ,  said  Connor, to put up some l a b o r c a n d i d a t e whom they c o n t r o l l e d . "Toryism f i g h t s i n t h e open w i t h a s p i k e d c l u b . L i b e r a l i s m s t e a l s up i n the g u i s e of a f r i e n d " ; i t sought  a Judas who  would s e l l h i m s e l f t o the d e v i l and h i s c l a s s to a deeper h e l l of  31.  slavery.  W i l l i a m s had s a i d a l l s h o u l d j o i n t o "have a  March 3, 1916  105. swipe a t Bowser".  32  Both p a r t i e s were r o t t e n machines,  said  Connor, and removing Conservatives would not remove e x p l o i t a tion.  Connor acted o f f i c i a l l y ,  the C o l o n i s t r e p o r t s a i d .  In the same i s s u e , The C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d a s m a l l attendance  a t the Romano Theatre  d e s c r i b e d proceedings clap-trap".  to hear Parker W i l l i a m s , who  at t h e V i c t o r i a t h e a t r e as "hare-brained  W i l l i a m s attacked the C o n s e r v a t i v e s w i t h  "char-  a c t e r i s t i c v i l i f i c a t i o n and I n s i n u a t i o n " a g a i n s t Hon, A.C. Flumerfelt accused  ( m i n i s t e r of f i n a n c e ) and h i s supporters, whom he  of g r a f t and of h o s t i l i t y  toward l a b o r .  A b y - e l e c t i o n was proceeding liams, i t was said,, though he thought  i n V i c t o r i a , and W i l -  M. A. Macdonald of Van-  couver would be of some h e l p t o him and P l a c e , \sranted a f o u r t h opposition associate.  H.C.Brewster defeated F l u m e r f e l t .  On May 18, The C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t the V i c t o r i a S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y r e s o l v e d that because Parker had  Williams  been on a p l a t f o r m w i t h L i b e r a l s i n the b y - e l e c t i o n , he  was t o be withdrawn as one o f the candidates f o r V i c t o r i a i n the coming p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n .  The S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y  a p p r e c i a t e d h i s work and r e g r e t t e d h i s l o s s .  W i l l i a m s was no  l o n g e r i n the p a r t y .  32.  A t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l Bowser, as a c t i n g - p r e m i e r , had, the miners c o n s i d e r e d , been a n t i p a t h e t i c toward them during the I s l a n d s t r i k e ; Bowser had s e n t i n the M i l i t i a .  106. The  Western C l a r i o n a s s e r t e d that a former S o c i a l -  i s t P a r t y member, a " s t o o l pigeon" f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , had persuaded Connor t o go t o V i c t o r i a and e x p l a i n the p a r t y a t t i t u d e toward W i l l i a m s ;  Connor had gone on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e . "  V i c t o r i a l o c a l warned Connor that he was b e i n g m i s l e d ; the V i c t o r i a C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n telegraphed  the S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y ' s Dominion E x e c u t i v e on Connor's s t a t u s , and was t o l d Connor was not a c t i n g o f f i c i a l l y .  There had been no b a r t e r .  Connor's r e s i g n a t i o n was r e p o r t e d . In s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s ,  The C l a r i o n gave i t s view of  54 the m a t t e r . R e f e r r i n g t o Parker W i l l i a m s * a s s o c i a t i o n with L i b e r a l s , an e d i t o r i a l by J.A.McDonald s a i d t h a t W i l l i a m s wa.s not a S o c i a l i s t * or f i v e y e a r s . plug.  and had not been i n the P a r t y f o r f o u r  " P e r s o n a l l y , P a r k e r W i l l i a m s i s a decent o l d  He i s nothing worse than a g e n i a l , good-natured,  comic r a n c h e r .  He i s a p o l i t i c i a n of a k i n d .  present l e a d e r of H i s Majesty's out of t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y .  serio-  Though a t  L o y a l O p p o s i t i o n , he i s read  Returned l a s t e l e c t i o n as a member  of the Social-Democratic  o r g a n i z a t i o n , he was never more than  a h a l f - h e a r t e d Democrat.  A member of the S.P. of C. f o r a  number o f years, w h i l e i n t e l l i g e n c e was not r e q u i r e d i n the P a r t y , he was never a S o c i a l i s t . " 33. 34.  C. Stephenson a l s o wrote a n a r t i c l e on W i l l i a m s , August, 1916 March 16, May 19.  107 and  s o r r o w f u l l y termed h i m " r e t r o g r a d e " — h i s departure  from  true r e v o l u n t i o n a r y t a c t i o s was due t o the f a c t t h a t he never r e a l l y grasped  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e s i n human  society.  Vancouver  At a  meeting, W i l l i a m s had s a i d he d i d  not r e p u d i a t e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y t h e o r i e s hut t h e uncompromising a t t i t u d e of the p a r t y was not s a t i s f a c t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t had helped  t o b u i l d up the C o n s e r v a t i v e machine.  On May 19, an e d i t o r i a l on Parker W i l l i a m s  said;  "Nevertheless, we a r e f a r from doubting h i s good I n t e n t i o n s even i n h i s p r e s e n t  'break'.  We a r e i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h e  reasons he g i v e s f o r s u p p o r t i n g the L i b e r a l s are q u i t e genuine.  He has  seen  h i s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s v i c t i m i z e d , j a i l e d ,  hounded out o f the country, through,  even wantonly s l a u g h t e r e d , by,  or w i t h the connivance of t h i s Tory government,  until  35 hostility  to i t has become an o b s e s s i o n w i t h h i m . "  or would not be s u r p r i s e d i f Williams with t h e same v i g o r " .  3  'The e d i t -  "swatted the L i b e r a l s  6  35.  The r e f e r e n c e i s t o the V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d Coal Miners* s t r i k e , d u r i n g which W i l l i a m s ' son was among those held i n J a i l . The b i t t e r n e s s of the miners againsrt a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l Bowser and the Conservative government was e x t r e m e ; Bowser, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , sent M i l i t i a i n t o the mining toxms; the companies employed s t r i k e b r e a k e r s , gathered from as f a r away as B r i t a i n , and troubles r e s u l t e d .  36.  Mr. W i l l i a m s l a t e r with the a p p r o v a l , i t i s s a i d , o f l a b o r , accepted a p o s i t i o n on the Compensation Board, which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1916.  108. Late i n 1918 the f e d e r a l government took d r a s t i c action against The  the s a - c a l l e d " r a d i c a l " movement. C l a r i o n o f October 15 recorded the news t h a t  certain foreign organizations lawful;  and papers had been made un-  thirteen organizations,  i n c l u d i n g the I . W . W i , must  37 disband.  Any o r g a n i z a t i o n  be suppressed. ful,  a d v o c a t i n g change by f o r c e might  The C l a r i o n declared  i t s d e s i r e f o r a peace-  o r d e r l y s o l u t i o n of the admitted s o c i a l e v i l s of modern  times.  I t regretted  the government's a c t i o n *  I t hoped the  government was not going to be so b l i n d and f o o l i s h as to suppress the s o c i a l i s t movement.  The movement intended to  c a r r y on w i t h i n the: law. The  C l a r i o n , however, was  suppressed.  37. Dick H i g g i n s of the I . W . W . , t r i e d I n Vancouver, was defended by the S.P.of C , and saved from p r i s o n . (Bennett, " B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia", p. 4 2 ) .  109 Chapter Four.  The  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y In the Post-War S i t u a t i o n  "The  Red  F l a g " greeted the new  year—  "A J o u r n a l of  News and Views devoted to the I n t e r e s t s of the Working C l a s s . " I t s e i g h t pages contained much news of the world, about developments i n R u s s i a ;  especially  some of the a r t i c l e s were by  the now-famous American j o u r n a l i s t , the l a t e John Read (author o f "Ten Days That Shook the World"). "The  Red  F l a g " r e p o r t e d S o c i a l i s t P a r t y meetings at 1  the Columbia and Royal '  circumstances  theatres.  I t was  p u b l i s h e d "when  and f i n a n c e p e r m i t , " by the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of  Canada, 401 Pender S t r e e t E a s t , Vancouver. Stephenson. ( V o l . 1, No.l, had ber 28 ;  another  New  Germany" was  i o n had had fiscated..  Representations no r e s u l t .  a l s o c a l l e d Vol.. 1, N o . l ) .  the s u b j e c t of one  a r t i c l e r e p o r t e d Lenin's  Revolution."  article;  speech on "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l  to Ottawa on b e h a l f * o f The  Some l e a f l e t m a i l e d  L e t t e r s a r r i v i n g were opened and  l e t t e r s and p a r c e l s sent out had n o t reached  January 11,  1919.  Clar-  out had been condelayed.  Some  their destination.  The paper r e f e r r e d to an a l l e g e d s e c r e t c e n s o r s h i p of mails. 1.  C.  appeared anonymously on Decem-  the January 11 number was "The  E d i t o r was  the  110. An e d i t o r i a l Capitalist  on January 18 urged "Hold  o f f the  Wolves from S o v i e t R u s s i a . " On March 8* an appeal mas made to workers to  secure r e l e a s e o f those imprisoned  under censorship,  get hack freedom of speech and p r e s s . i n trouble i n A l b e r t a — o n e his  and to  S e v e r a l persons were  had had copies of The C l a r i o n on  premises. Quotations  on the c u r r e n t s c e n e — i n t e r v e n t i o n i n  Russia,  f o r example—were made from such p u b l i c a t i o n s as The  Nation,  The New Republic,  The New York D i a l .  Advent of the One B i g Union was r e p o r t e d A p r i l 6. "The  O.B.U. i s no task of o u r s " . The  e d i t o r explained the xork of t h e S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y i n t h i s way:  "In p r a e t i c e , t h e p l a c e of the S o c i a l i s t  i s i n the van o f the p r o l e t a r i a n movement, g i v i n g i t p o i n t , m a r s h a l l i n g i t s f o r c e s towards d e f i n i t e n e s s o f purpose;  clar-  i f y i n g and sharpening- a l l Issues with the l i g h t o f S o c i a l i s t 2  knowledge."  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y was a common r a l l y i n g  p o i n t f o r the s e i z i n g of the powers of t h e bourgeois U n t i l t h a t time, i t must educate., was  The l e c t u r e room, however,  n o t enough. The  A p r i l 19 number r e p o r t e d that Comrade McKenzie  had been "run out of Cranbrook."  Money l e g a l l y  s i o n had been e x t r a c t e d from him by t h r e a t s . f o r c e d out o f S i l v e r t o n and T r a i l . Roberts, 2.  State.  A p r i l 12, 1919.  I n h i s posses-  Naylor had been S e c r e t a r y o f the  111. Miners* 21st.  Union at S i l v e r t o n , had been ordered  to leave by  the  Those r e s p o n s i b l e , the r e p o r t s a i d , were a n a r c h i s t s . Another r e p o r t s a i d t h a t the A l l i e s had  intensified  the famine i n R u s s i a by s t o p p i n g the i m p o r t a t i o n of seed  and  of farm implements. E a r l y i n May,  Helen. K e l l e r was  quoted as w r i t i n g t o  Eugene Debs when the Supreme Court upheld h i s p r i s o n sentence: "Yours f o r the r e v o l u t i o n — m a y  i t come s w i f t l y , l i k e a s h a f t  of l i g h t  "In the p e r s e c u t i o n of our com-  sundering  rades there i s one  the dark;"  satisfaction.  Every t r i a l  of men  like  every sentence a g a i n s t them, t e a r s away the v e i l that the  face of the enemy."  "Oh,  hides  where i s the s w i f t vengeance of  Jehovah, t h a t i t does not f a l l upon the host of those who m a r s h a l l i n g machine guns a g a i n s t h u n g e r - s t r i c k e n  order*.  Law  and  order!  t e a r s are shed i n t h e i r name! and  *preserving  What oceans of blood I have come to l o a t h e  and traditions  i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t take away the r i g h t s of the poor and  t e c t the wicked against  are  peoples?  I t i s the complacency of madness to c a l l such a c t s law and  you,  pro-  judgment."  S o c i a l i s t s thought- there were many people b l i n d e r and  d e a f e r t h a n Helen K e l l e r . • The May  24 number noted that w h i l e 20,000 j u t e m i l l  workers were j o b l e s s , the annual meetings of t h r e e g r e a t Indian, j u t e companies, h e l d i n Dundee, d e c l a r e d d i v i d e n d s o f 60, and 50 per c e n t . on c a p i t a l i s m .  The  70,  s o c i a l i s t s were keeping c l o s e check  112 News of the Winnipeg General  strike  (for recogni-  t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ) s a i d t h a t the p r e s s was  rais-  ing the B o l s h e v i s t bogey (May  was  allowed m a i l i n g p r i v i l e g e s .  17).  No S o c i a l i s t paper  Books of the Kerr P u b l i s h i n g  Company (which i s s u e d s o c i a l i s t c l a s s i c s ) were p r o h i b i t e d . The p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p was  s a i d to be  lifted.  The P r o v i n c e had a p o l o g i z e d f o r a r e p o r t of a Sovi e t being s e t up i n Winnipeg, blaming  a Winnipeg  journalist.  By June 7, a s t r i k e i n sympathy with Winnipeg l a b o r had  spread.  Vancouver s h i p y a r d s , f a c t o r i e s , and  c a r s were s t r i k e - b o u n d .  street  Under R . P . P e t t i p i e v e and J . Rankin,  the Typographers' Union was  r e s o l v e d t o prevent d e l i b e r a t e  m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p r e s s .  "Stand  f a s t i " c r i e d The  Red  Flag. An e d i t o r i a l  (by O.K.)  s a i d that a system i s doomed  when the mass of people r e a l i z e i t no l o n g e r meets s o c i e t y ' s requirements. unions  A l l s o c i a l i s t s can do i s to promote e d u c a t i o n ;  c o n t r i b u t e i n so f a r as they educate the masses t o a  r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . c l a s s consciousness, arity,  "Education means  c l a s s consciousness creates c l a s s  c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y breeds m i l i t a n c y , and  these that the form and  technique  solid-  i t i s out of  of r e v o l u t i o n w i l l  take  shape according t o the needs of the moment." C.K.  on June 14 wrote a l e c t u r e f o r the s t r i k e r s  on  113. the meaning of the s t r i k e . p l a i n e d the c l a s s s t r u g g l e .  I t gave an h i s t o r i c a l sketch, exEvery s t r i k e from now on " i s a  v i c t o r y " — i n c r e a s e s c l a s s consciousness, s o l i d a r i t y , There could be no peace now. "Be  "Be f i r m " .  militancy.  "Observe the law."  o f good h e a r t . The dawn i s b r e a k i n g . " Vancouver Sun p r i n t e r s had been d i s c h a r g e d  for re-  f u s i n g t o p u b l i c h a " v i c i o u s " e d i t o r i a l and advertisement. " B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia", W i l l i a m Bennett says Vancouver "Province"  In  that  p r i n t e r s , r e f u s i n g to set up an e d i t o r -  i a l h o s t i l e t o the Winnipeg s t r i k e r s , were the f i r s t  group out  on s t r i k e i n Vancouver. "The legend:  Red-Flag" now bore a t the top o f page 1 the  "Published  by P e r m i s s i o n o f the Vancouver S t r i k e  Committee." On June 21, a r r e s t s of some Winnipeg s t r i k e r s were d e s c r i b e d — t h o s e a r r e s t e d had been s e i z e d i n the e a r l y morning and  rushed t o an u n i d e n t i f i e d j a i l .  To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s move,  a B i l l had been h u r r i e d through Parliament, i t was s a i d , showing  t h e government t o be "but the executive  committee of the  bourgeois d i c t a t o r s h i p of the Canadian Board o f I n d u s t r y . " L a t e s t news was that those a r r e s t e d would be r e l e a s e d and  given a c i v i l The  on b a i l  trial.  Vancouver press was p r e s e n t i n g  Robert  Blatch-  f o r d as the g r e a t e s t E n g l i s h S o c i a l i s t and f e a t u r i n g a t i r a d e of h i s a g a i n s t  a proposed general  strike i n Britain;  such a  114. s t r i k e he would  term an a c t of r e b e l l i o n .  ed s o r r o w f u l l y (June 28):  The C l a r i o n  recall-  "Robert, dear o l d Bob, why n i n e -  tenths of the Vancouver Reds once s a t a t h i s f e e t . " The e d i t o r , n o t i n g enthusiasm f o r the l e f t - w i n g , warned of the danger o f r e a c t i o n and the need f o r a study o f scientific  socialism. On J u l y 5, the Dominion E x e c u t i v e of the S.P. of C.  appealed f o r funds to defend the Winnipeg  s t r i k e l e a d e r s . Of  these l e a d e r s , W.A.Pritchard, R . B . R u s s e l l ( S e o r e t a r y o f the Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e ) , and R.J.Johns,  were p a r t y mem-  bers, charged ?;ith s e d i t i o u s l i b e l and s e d i t i o u s  conspiracy.  Another r a i d on S o c i a l i s t o f f i c e s was r e p o r t e d . P o l i c e took the b i g s a f e — but i t was empty except f o r a mortgage or two.  They c o u l d have l i t e r a t u r e or see correspond-  ence on r e q u e s t , s a i d the e d i t o r . some t h i n k i n g . it  The l i t e r a t u r e might  "But", s a i d J.H. i n an e d i t o r i a l ,  start  " . » * if  i s Bolshevism and r e v o l u t i o n they are l o o k i n g f o r , we w i l l  l e t them i n t o a s e c r e t .  R e v o l u t i o n i s i n some r e s p e c t s  like  unto t h e promised advent of C h r i s t , no man knoweth the hour it  cometh;  when i t does come, i t s h i g h p r i e s t s w i l l one and  a l l repudiate i t . "When i t comes moreover i t w i l l be born of the economic needs o f a v a s t m u l t i t u d e of human beings, and n o t of the  b r a i n of a few a g i t a t o r s .  The plan w i l l not be found  locked up i n a d i l a p i d a t e d r o l l e r - t o p desk of some Labor  115. H a l l , but w i l l a r i s e s u r p r i s i n g l y new from the c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e , and behind i t w i l l be, not the club or bomb of the a n a r c h i s t , but the accumulated experiences thousand years,  and the i r r e s i s t a b l e might o f humanity en  route f o r new p a s t u r e s . everyone. for  of a hundred  T h i s i s s e c r e t , we would not t e l l  But with out Government so e a r n e s t l y  searching  t r u t h , and l i g h t and j u s t i c e , we w i l l break a custom." The p a r t y ' s safe was r e t u r n e d . A news s t o r y s a i d that a n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s com-  m i t t e e appointed  l a t e l y by the government t o make recommenda-  t i o n s i n view of s o c i a l unrest, had found that i t was mutually  advantageous f o r workers: to combine t h e i r demands and  present  them to employers through a b u i l d i n g trades  federa-  t i o n and thus s e t t l e at once the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the e n t i r e industry. Meanwhile, the widespread s t r i k e was b r e a k i n g up rapidly.  This i s not the p l a c e to g i v e an account of i t ,  but few events i n Canadian l a b o r h i s t o r y are more dramatic or, to the student  who l o o k s thoroughly  i n t o the matter  of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s , the developments, the s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , more f u l l of i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e . The prominent r o l e played in  by s e v e r a l s o c i a l i s t s was  c o n t r a s t with the a t t i t u d e of some s o c i a l i s t s d u r i n g the  Vancouver I s l a n d s t r i k e , when, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , L o c a l  a  116. No. 1 d e c l i n e d t o hold' a j o i n t meeting with the miners' u n i o n . Post-war events were t o i n f l u e n c e g r e a t l y the a t t i t u d e of X 3 many s o c i a l i s t s  toward l a b o r and p o l i t i c a l  activities.  W. A. P r i t c h a r d ' s address to the Jury, F a l l  As-  s i z e s , Winnipeg, 1919-20, i s a most remarkable document. This i s a bare o u t l i n e of i t s development: F i r s t came a r e c i t a l of how Bruno, G a l i l e o ,  and  others had been persecuted f o r t e l l i n g the t r u t h as they saw i t .  Then the Crown was  jury t r i a l ;  accused of not having wanted a  the B r i t i s h Labor Congress had p r o t e s t e d .  F l o u r i s h i n g documents, Crown Counsel had c r i e d : anything about the v o t e i n t h a t ? "  "Gentlemen,  P r i t c h a r d quoted  social-  i s t l i t e r a t u r e and the S.P. of C. a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a c h a r t e r to show the s t r e s s on e d u c a t i o n and on use of the b a l l o t . The Crown's evidence he termed crazy q u i l t  . . .  "the most e x q u i s i t e l e g a l  i n the whole h i s t o r y of law.  This  collec-  t i o n of words, sentences, a c t s , u t t e r a n c e s , d i s c o n n e c t e d from each other, and independent of each other, have been assembled l i k e the farmer gathers eggs. . . . and puts them a l l i n one basket, and l a b e l l e d 3.  'seditious  conspiracy'."  J.S.Woodsworth. was i n Winnipeg, e d i t i n g the S t r i k e r s ' bulletin; the reading of a passage from I s a i a h r e s u l t ed i n h i s temporary d e t e n t i o n by the p o l i c e . W.W. Lefeaux a s s i s t e d i n the defense of the s t r i k e r s . Among those imprisoned were A.A. Heaps ( l a t e r C.C.F., M.P.) and John Queen ( l a t e r Mayor of Winnipeg and C.C.F., M.L.A.)  11? For the f i r s t  time i n the Empire, the Communist M a n i f e s t o  (1848) had been h e l d s e d i t i o u s . "went out to get whatever we  P o l i c e admitted  they  could that seemed to have some  connection with the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada, the O.B.U., or the Winnipeg s t r i k e . "  Crown p r o s e c u t o r s had been lawyers f o r  the C i t i z e n s ' Committee d u r i n g the s t r i k e — "Production f o r use" was prosecution. the end  among phrases  a double  position.  b l u e - p e n c i l l e d by  the  P r i t c h a r d d e f i n e d " r e v o l u t i o n " as a change a t  of a l i n e  of growth or e v o l u t i o n .  That s e v e r a l l a b o r  o r g a n i z a t i o n s convened at Calgary a t the same time was  due  not, as i n f e r r e d by the crown, to a s e d i t i o u s scheme t o  start  a v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n but to such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as expense, s i n c e i n many cases the same delegates could serve -in more than one c a p a c i t y .  G r e e t i n g s to the S o v i e t Government had  a l s o been sent by P r e s i d e n t Wilson and by B r i t i s h Reference,  i n a l e t t e r from one  ment of B o l s h e v i k funds was, Many a r t i c l e s i n The Red  Labor.  Berg to R u s s e l l , to a s h i p -  i n context, o b v i o u s l y f a c e t i o u s .  F l a g that were h e l d a g a i n s t the  accused were from such p u b l i c a t i o n s as The Manchester Guardian,  The New  R e p u b l i c , The Nation, and  Current H i s t o r y , and  such p u b l i c a t i o n s had p r i n t e d more trenchant c r i t i c i s m of Allied  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a than Canadian S o c i a l i s t s  written. and  was  The  O.B.U., was  to work through  existing  given no f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n at Calgary,  had  unions, the S.P.  of  118. C., no  a l l e g e d l y p a r t of a c o n s p i r a c y , task of  had  ours." P r i t c h a r d concluded:  "Reason, wisdom,  gence, f o r c e s of the mind and h e a r t , v o u t l y Invoked, come t o me, carry i t , i f that may and  s a i d the O.B.U., " i s  be,  a i d me,  whom I have always s u s t a i n my  feeble  the  truth.  A new  order  form one great  The  greedy  c r u e l , the devourers of people, are s t r i c k e n by  the p r o l e t a r i a n s remain e r e c t . u n i v e r s a l p r o l e t a r i a t and we  S o c i a l i s t prophecy, 'The  to  of t h i n g s i s born,  s i n s of t h e i r b l i n d or corrupt masters; ated,  voice,  of g o o d - w i l l  the powers of e v i l d i e poisoned by t h e i r crime. and  de-  to a l l the peoples of the world  d i f f u s e i t everywhere where there are men  hear the b e n e f i c e n t  intelli-  the  m u l t i l a t e d , decimin-  They w i l l u n i t e  to  s h a l l see f u l f i l l e d  Union of the workers w i l l  the be  the peace of the w o r l d . ' "And  standing  before  the p a r t i n g of the ways, one concrete-bound and and  the other  to wife and  you novir, on the  path l e a d i n g , maybe, to  l e a d i n g out  c h i l d r e n and  to l i f e ,  t o comparative  ashamed; gize.'  the  liberty,  such home as a workingman gentlemen, s t a n d i n g  p o i n t , w i t h a mind c l e a r to myself and truthfully:  of  I r o n - c l a d o b s c u r i t y of the p e n i t e n t i a r y ,  possess, I want to t e l l you,  can say  threshold  before my  'I have done nothing  I have said nothing  may  at  that  fellows, I  of which I  f o r which I f e e l I need  Gentlemen, In so f a r as my  am apolo-  poor s e l f i s concerned,  119. t h i s case i s i n your hands. l e t me  I am s a t i s f i e d .  And  i n parting,  t e l l you t h a t what I have done, I have done, and i n  s t a t i n g that. I want you t o c a r r y t h i s with you as coming the innermost r e c e s s e s of my done i n good f a i t h ,  being.  What I have done, I have  i n s i n c e r i t y and, from my  from the p u r e s t of motives.  from  own s t a n d p o i n t ,  I thank you, gentlemen,  f o r the  p a t i e n c e you have shown i n l i s t e n i n g to me f o r t h i s l a s t 4  two  days." The August 2 number of The Red F l a g p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t an amendment t o the Immigration Act, under v&Lieh a number of Vancouver f o r e i g n e r s had been taken from t h e i r homes on g e n e r a l warrants, no s p e c i f i c charges b e i n g made. Even B r i t i s h - b o r n persons could be t r i e d i n s e c r e t and d e p o r t ed.  An a p p e a l f o r funds was made. L a t e r , the lawyers B i r d , Macdonald,  ed the c o n c e s s i o n t h a t charges would be  and E a r l e s e c u r -  laid.  An e d i t o r i a l on August 30 s a i d that S o c i a l i s t s took p a r t In u n i o n a f f a i r s as i n d i v i d u a l s .  O r a f t unions were sep-  a r a t i s t , r e a c t i o n a r y , and c o u l d not cope w i t h c e n t r a l i z e d capitalist  control.  The m a j o r i t y of organized l a b o r i n Canada  was f a v o r a b l e to the One  B i g Union.  I n d u s t r i a l organizations,  i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l kinds of o p i n i o n s , revolutionary. 4.  could not be  However, the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y "views not w i t h -  Taken from pamphlet  i n p o s s e s s i o n of T.A.Barnard  of Nanaimo.  120. out  i n t e r e s t the s t r u g g l e s  of workers i n the I n d u s t r i a l f i e l d . "  The antagonism engendered might so develop as to b r i n g the c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n t o t h e open. E x t r a c t s from V e b l e n s "Theory of the L e i s u r e T  were being  p r i n t e d , and, as w i l l be seen l a t e r ,  Class"  i n f l u e n c e d some  S o c i a l i s t s to modify t h e i r views. The Vancouver Province  had p u b l i s h e d  Stephen Leacock's  "The Unsolved Paddle of S o c i a l J u s t i c e " i n which Leacock icized "Man  "Looking Backward"  .as a Utopian, p l a n ;  crit-  Marx had w r i t t e n :  does not make h i s h i s t o r y out of whole c l o t h but out of  such m a t e r i a l s  as he f i n d s ready t o hand .. "^ 7  Socialism, was not  founded on a dream, a v i s i o n , a d i v i n e d i s c o n t e n t , rocks  l i k e The M a t e r i a l i s t i c  Class Struggle,  but on s o l i d  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of H i s t o r y ,  The Marxian A n a l y s i s  of C a p i t a l i s t  The  Production,  The P r i n c i p l e s o f E v o l u t i o n , and The P o s i t i v e Outcome o f P h i l o sophy.  I t d i d not advocate r e v o l u t i o n ;  there was no need;  the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n was about to happen. to understand what was happening, i n order  I t urged s o c i e t y to build better  next time. The October 11, 1919, last.  On advice  Department "We  of the Department  had now  refused  October 5,  to handle t h i s paper i n the mails..  "The C l a r i o n " would r e a p p e a r . 1919.  the  o f J u s t i c e , the Post O f f i c e  s h a l l p u b l i s h under another name." At the c o n c l u s i o n  f o r m a l peace, 5.  number of The Red P l a g was  of  121. The next paper of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada was c a l l e d "The I n d i c a t o r . " urday, October 18, 1919.  Vo. 1, No. 1, appeared on S a t -  On October 25, i t quoted C a p t a i n  W. P e t t i t of the B u l l i t t M i s s i o n t o R u s s i a as s a y i n g of massacre  and other h o r r o r s were u n t r u e .  stories  Petrograd was  s a f e r than P a r i s , and t h e r e were p r a c t i c a l l y no p o l i c e . Beggars, p r o s t i t u t e s , and  slums were v a n i s h i n g .  f r e e l y t o church or t h e a t r e . i n t e n s e l a b o r and  People went  These a r t i c l e s r e f l e c t e d the  s o c i a l i s t i n t e r e s t i n what was  happening  in Russia. Another a r t i c l e quoted the Toronto a " l i b e r a l weekly":  "Statesman",  "In Canada we have a government of  s l e u t h hounds bent upon d e p r i v i n g the c i t i z e n of freedom of speech and freedom of a c t i o n .  The c h i e f s l e u t h hound i s Hon.  A r t h u r Meighen. . . . who makes war  on l a b o r l e a d e r s who p r e 6  sume to c r i t i c i z e h i s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t s of tyranny." On November 8, P r e s i d e n t Wilson was i n g s a i d at S t . L o u i s (September modern war--  5, 1919)  i n c l u d i n g the Great W a r — was  commercial r i v a l r y .  quoted as hav-  that the seed o f industrial  and  Eugene Debs had been imprisoned f o r  s a y i n g the same, s a i d the a r t i c l e , and the S.P.  of C. had  been r a i d e d , i t s p r e s s had been destroyed, i t s work impeded, i t s r i g h t t o use of the m a i l s taken away, because i t s a i d what Wilson now s a i d . 6.  November 1.  122. On November 15, expense of the Winnipeg t r i a l s expected t o be $100,000.  was  The Winnipeg Labor Church had bought  $5,000 worth o f Workers' L i b e r t y Bonds.  B.C.'s quota was  $20,000. D e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the conduct of s t u d y c l a s s e s were g i v e n . By December 27, B.C., l o g g e r s t a k i n g $5,000 i n bonds. two years, on seven charges;  had r a i s e d $16,000— the  R u s s e l l was sentenced to  he would a p p e a l .  On January 3, i t was announced that The  Clarion  would be admitted to the m a i l s a g a i n . The e d i t o r p o i n t e d the l e s s o n of the Winnipeg trials;  the workers were wage s l a v e s ;  functionaries, regulated, controlled, them.  the masters, through i f need be, c h a s t i z e d  123. Chapter F i v e .  The  D e c l i n e of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  The Western C l a r i o n reappeared; 1920,  i t s c i r c u l a t i o n was 6,000;  on February 16,  on May 1, 8,000.  I t print-  ed a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s by P e t e r T. L e c k i e of Ottawa, on "The  Economic Causes of War", and another  S o c i a l i s m " by H.M.Bartholomew.  on "the Science of  On June 29, i t r e p o r t e d that  i n t h e Manitoba e l e c t i o n t h e r e had been the g r e a t e s t vote yet  g i v e n i n Canada to l a b o r men;  S o c i a l i s t Party:  W.A.Pritchard  r a n f o r the  the p r i s o n e r s R u s s e l l , Armstrong, and  Johns were candidates, as a l s o was John Queen;  Armstrong and  Queen were e l e c t e d . The  Clarion  1  i t i o n of the Manifesto War;  s a i d t h a t the p r e f a c e to the f o u r t h eds t a t e d the r e a l  the p r e f a c e t o the f i f t h  causes of the Great  e d i t i o n saw the Russian  achievement as a h a r b i n g e r of the New S o c i a l Order the workers would b u i l d . progress. als  The war had torn down many b a r r i e r s to s o c i a l  I t was i m p o s s i b l e to c a r r y i n t o e f f e c t the propos-  o f V e r s a i l l e s or of the League o f Nations,  s a i d The C l a r -  ion. The Western C l a r i o n was d e s c r i b e d as "A J o u r n a l of Current Events,,, H i s t o r y , Economics, and P h i l o s o p h y ; 1.  September 16, 1920.  official  124. organ of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada" (October 1 ) .  I t came  out twice a month, at 401 Pender S t r e e t E a s t , Vancouver,  and  though s m a l l e r than f o r m e r l y , had s i x pages. "Geordie", author of many of the a r t i c l e s on omics, wrote on "The Right of P r o p e r t y " (October 1 ) . e d i t o r announced c l a s s e s on h i s t o r y and economics,  econ-  The  to c o r r e c t  f o r workers "the b i a s of c a p i t a l i s t e d u c a t i o n . " The Federated Labor P a r t y had come three years ago to f i l l it  was  the shoes of the departed S o c i a l Democratic 2 noted on November 1, 1920. • In an e d i t o r i a l , A.J.B. advocated  Party,  a labor  college— 3  socialistic,  scientific,  revolutionary, educational.  An e d i t o r i a l p a i d t r i b u t e . t o C h a r l i e O'Brien, a dozen or more years ago was "wholehearted modest . . . Alberta.  who  a c t i v e from coast to c o a s t , a  and i n d o m i t a b l e worker f o r Socialism'.. . . . i n s p i t e of h i m s e l f , nominated  . . .  and e l e c t e d i n  an e r u p t i v e and a n t a g o n i s t i c nuisance t o prop-  e r t y i n t e r e s t s . . . . wandered to the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s and to New  York S t a t e , working as an educator, t r y i n g t o counter4  act reformism there by h o l d i n g c l a s s e s . "  In December, he had  been a r r e s t e d i n a Palmer raid.. (U.S.Attorney-General Palmer 2. ( T h i s p a r t y f a v o r e d reforms, w i t h s o c i a l i s m as the g o a l . Four candidates supported by i t were e l e c t e d i n 1920: Sam G u t h r i e i n Newcastle, R.H.Neelands (Vancouver), F.A.Brown ( V i c t o r i a ) , Tom U p h i l l ( F e r n i e ) . Other l a b o r c a n d i d a t e s i n 1920 i n c l u d e d J.S.Woodsworth.W.R.Trotter,and. Tom Richardson ( f o r m e r l y a B r i t i s h M.P.). 3. October 16, 4. November 1, 1920  125. was  p r e s s i n g the a r r e s t of " r a d i c a l s " during  scare".) zie  He was  wrote: 'The  he denies  out S.P.  it'."  on b a i l .  "Long ago  of C. owes nothing  That man  was  On November 16,  the b i g  "Red  the l a t e D.G.McKento any man  but one,  and  O'Brien.  i t was  announced t h a t o n l y Vancou-  ver  (Dennis, Earp, H a r r i n g t o n ,  McQuoid, Smith, Stephenson)  and  P r i n c e Rupert (J.H.Burroughs) would be contested  i n the  provincial election. Free e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s on p o l i t i c s ,  economics,  and h i s t o r y , were open to the p u b l i c on Sundays and at 401  Pender S t r e e t E a s t . E l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were g i v e n  P r i n c e Rupert: Fornby,  Thursdays  P a t t u l l o , 1501;  (January 16,  Newton, 698;  1921)  as:  Burroughs,676;  562. The  n a t i o n a l was  question  raised;  of a f f i l i a t i o n with the T h i r d I n t e r -  Fred W.Kaplan urged i t ; 7/innipeg  No.  3 voted a g a i n s t i t , but favored  dum  was  l a t e r h e l d , and  the r e s u l t  a referendum. was  favorable  Local  A referento  affilia-  tion. The r e p o r t of the Dominion Executive the s i x months to December 31,  Council f o r  showed a peak c i r c u l a t i o n  of  6,500, and a drop t o 4,500, due mainly to the c l o s i n g of 5 mining and lumbering camps. S i n g l e s u b s c r i p t i o n s had i n 5. February 1,1921. E d i t o r ?/as Ewen McLeod,who had been a c l e r k and e s t a t e agent i n S c o t l a n d ; ( l a t e r s e c r e t a r y to General McRae i n Vancouver. (J.G.Morgan,interview. September 27, 1942.)  126. creased. of "The  5,000 Manifestos had heen i s s u e d , and Economic Causes of War."  four i n B r i t i s h any candidate  5,000 c o p i e s  There were f o u r t e e n  locals—  Columbia, s i x i n A l b e r t a . Highest vote f o r  i n the e l e c t i o n had been 17,156, and h i g h e s t f o r  a Socialist,  3,134.  T o t a l income was  June balance  o f $877.45;  $4,382.21, i n c l u d i n g a  expenditure was  $4,082.63; balance,  $299.78. Against  a f f i l i a t i o n with the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,  Comrade H a r r i n g t o n , while e x p r e s s i n g f a i t h i n the R u s s i a n Revo l u t i o n , f e a r e d t h a t the promulgated eighteen p o i n t s would bind the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y , which, i n s t e a d of c o n t i n u i n g i t s e d u c a t i o n a l work would have "to i n d u l g e i n a l l manner of tactics"—  denunciation,  "which r a r e l y convinces",  s t r u g g l e s hampering e d u c a t i o n —  futile  bitter  to put Communists i n Labor  offices. . For a f f i l i a t i o n , Roscoe A. F i l l m o r e (New  Brunswick)  s a i d the b a s i s o f the f e a r of d i c t a t i o n from Moscow was 6 alist  and r a c i a l .  ers who  knew how  i n favor, said unions was  The Russians  nation-  were p r a c t i c a l , educated work-  to b r i n g about S o c i a l i s m .  J.Kavanagh, a l s o  t h a t to leave the r e a c t i o n a r i e s i n c o n t r o l of  t o assume the overthrow of c a p i t a l i s m was  mechan-  ical. A g a i n s t , F.J.McNey, s a i d the g r e a t e s t enemy ignorance. 6.  February  Since there would be one 14,  1921.  Communist Party,  was  "freak"  127. o r g a n i z a t i o n s would have to be t a k e n i n , but, as the Second International  showed, u n i t y could not be had  On March 1, Winnipeg L o c a l No.  that  way.  3 objected that  r e v o l u t i o n a r y bodies would be i n such an a f f i l i a t i o n , that Russian  tactics  insurrection, strike,  non-  and  ( p l a c i n g p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n second to and  c i v i l war)  education would be r u i n e d ;  would be  illegal;  an a g r a r i a n program was  p a t i b l e w i t h the needs of h i g h l y developed the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f the l a n d may  not com-  c o u n t r i e s where  be accomplished  simultaneous-  l y w i t h that of i n d u s t r y . Charles Stewart copy the B o l s h e v i k i .  s a i d Lenin had warned others not  There was  no r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r i s i s .  should cease basking i n the sunshine v i c t o r y and get on w i t h our own For the f i r s t time with song, s t o r y , and  of our Russian  to "We  comrades'  work of e d u c a t i o n . "  i n a few years, a smoker was  held,  seventy-two g a l l o n s of beer.  On March 16, J . Kavanagh favored a f f i l i a t i o n . t a t o r s h i p and a d i s c i p l i n e d p a r t y were necessary. again p o i n t e d out the i s s u e was a f f i l i a t i o n . G. Ross wrote two  Dic-  Harrington  the c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d  to  columns on the importance of  ucation. On A p r i l 1, The  Communist B u l l e t i n , V o l . 1, N o . l ,  anonymous, having attacked him, Bacon and Shakespeare and b i t i n g , humor.  Harrington replied,  showing a t o l e r a n t , but a t  quoting times  ed-  128 Parades, meetings, r e c e p t i o n s , welcomed P r i t c h a r d back to Vancouver. greetings.  The  A "surging throng  Vancouver World was  s e v e r a l years he had  shouted"  s a i d to have d e s c r i b e d  the crowd as b i g g e r than that which met "Old John Houston" was  W.A.  the P r i n c e of Wales.  dead i n Montreal;  for  been a S o c i a l i s t o r g a n i z e r , and he  was  a f r i e n d o f D.G.McKenzie. H.H.Hanson favored a f f i l i a t i o n ; education was tions.  W.  not  enough;  B.foriarty was  intellectual  t a c t i c s must change with  i n favor;  he  condi-  wanted a p h i l o s o p h y  of  a c t i o n r a t h e r than of e r u d i t i o n . A.Kohn, not a member o f any p a r t y , took a page and a h a l f to oppose a f f i l i a t i o n .  I t was  a false  that the workers were ready f o r r e v o l u t i o n . as s a y i n g d i c t a t o r s h i p was  not necessary  He  notion  quoted Radek  i n advanced countries.  " I f they mean simply t h a t the working c l a s s must win  the  b a t t l e of democracy, a c q u i r e p o l i t i c a l  become  supremacy and  the r u l i n g c l a s s d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n , why so?"  don't they  say  A r e v o l u t i o n a r y mass s t r u g g l e l e d to a shambles. 7 Kavanagh r e p l i e d  that Kohn d i s t o r t e d Radek.  B o l s h e v i k i were M a r x i s t s with a wider knowledge of  The  tactics  than most. The d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e d , space f o r i t to one 7.  A p r i l 16,  1921  page.  The  Clarion reducing  129. Rev.  A. E. Cook and H a r r i n g t o n  p r o p o s i t i o n that "the  teachings  were to debate  of Jesus are not  the  opposed to  the i n t e r e s t s of the working c l a s s . " Hundreds were turned  away from the Empress Theatre  8 f o r t h i s debate.  President  B r i t i s h Columbia was  K l i n c k of the U n i v e r s i t y o f  i n the c h a i r .  Mr.  Cook spoke of l o v e ,  service, equality, personality.  A change of h e a r t was  sary.  of Marx, and  C h r i s t was  the f o r e r u n n e r  democratic p r i n c i p l e ' s . H a r r i n g t o n 'creed.  The  f o r c e s had  t h e i r masters  r  rights.  g i v e n r i s e t o r e l i g i o u s concepts.  s t i t i o n had  Communist.  •the present  Christ.  The  Ignorance of The  age  of super-  B u l l e t i n had  been succeed-  Communist w r i t e r s ?rere not f a m i l i a r with  s t a t e of mind of workers i n Canada, or w i t h  the  h i s t o r y of the p o l i t i c a l movement here, or i t s s t r e n g t h , i n the  safety of an obscure h i d i n g - p l a c e  spire confidence.  He  Regarding Communist anonymity, the e d i t o r with the work-  denied charges that e l e c t e d S o c i a l i s t s  l a t e d Marxism i n t o an A s i a t i c  e x c l u s i o n campaign, t h a t  transthe  S o c i a l i s t excuse f o r s h r i n k i n g from a c t u a l s t r u g g l e was commodity s t r u g g l e  and  they c o u l d not i n -  s a i d that evidence of s i n c e r i t y goes a long way ing c l a s s .  social  passed.  An e d i t o r i a l noted that The ed by The  the founder of  termed C h r i s t i a n i t y a s l a v e  brotherhood idea e x i s t e d before  d i s c i p l e s recognized  neces-  theory,  with the idea of a p e a c e f u l 8. May 16, 1921.  the  that the S o c i a l i s t s were b l i n d e d t r a n s i t i o n by a p a r l i a m e n t a r y  130. majority.  S o c i a l i s t s , s a i d the e d i t o r , used p a r l i a m e n t a r y i n -  s t i t u t i o n s f o r propaganda purposes. G. Stephenson opposed a f f i l i a t i o n  on the ground  S o c i a l i s t s must have f u l l d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers to d e a l the  Canadian s i t u a t i o n , which was  that  with  s t i l l i n the propaganda  stage. Communists having c a l l e d J . H a r r i n g t o n a "kautsky", P r i t c h a r d r e f e r r e d to them as ."our f r i e n d s of the 9 p e r s u a s i o n " , "sewer-pipe r e v o l u t i o n i s t s " .  He  rat-hole,  opposed  affil-  i a t i on. Robert Walker of Cumberland was i n g a speech a t a r e c e p t i o n was  later  suspended f o r g i v -  t o the Lieutenant-Governor.  He  expelled. A M a n i f e s t o f o r the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n ( p r i n t e d Oct-  ober 15)  asserted  that  ownership was  V i c t o r i a and ter  from the  E q u i t y l o c a l s were Indigant a t a  let-  i f , h a v i n g c a l l e d a.convention, they 10  fail-  affiliation.  Leckie ried  question*  Communist p a r t y i n s t r u c t i n g m i l i t a n t s to l e a v e  the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y ed to secure  the r e a l  was  on w i t h a few  having a rough time i n Ottawa;  helpers  and  the use  By December 16,  The  C l a r i o n was  1921.  car-  of soap-boxes. "About s i c k  t i r e d " of the " p r a c t i s e s of l y i n g , d e c e i t , double 9. J u l y 16, 1921. 10. November 1,  he  and  dealing,  131. s h u f f l i n g , scheming, t r i c k e r y , d e c e p t i o n , that now in this  country under the name of communism." E l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were given as:  pointing"): Pritchard 10,493;  Dickie  Richmond  6,903;  Nanaimo ("disap-  Booth ( L i b . ) 4,143;  Vancouver Centre: Stevens ( C o a l i t i o n )  Gale ( L i b . ) 5,538;  (Soc.) 2,735.  4,130;  (Cons.)  (Soc.) 3,995;  Vancouver B u r r a r d : ton  masquerades  O'Connor (Soc.) 1,866;  C l a r k , 12,072; Vancouver South:  R i c h a r d s o n (P.L.P.) 2,827;  Macdonald, 6,827; H a r r i n g Ladner, 4,893; Kavanagh  Odium,  (Soc.) 810;  (Parmer), 312. In Winnipeg North, the vote was McMurray  3,743;  Indep.39.  Russell  (Soc.) 3,190;  Penner (Communist)  Blake ( C o a l i t i o n ) ,  (Lib.)  3,042;  596.  The number of January 16, 1922, r e p o r t e d  that  Winnipeg L o c a l 3 had voted 25 - 11 f o r a f f i l i a t i o n with the T h i r d Internal!,onal, and had then r e s o l v e d i t s e l f i n t o a branch of the Workers' P a r t y o f Canada, f o l l o w i n g the l e a d of a m i n o r i t y i n Vancouver. L o c a l Vancouver No. 1 voted 37 - 24 a g a i n s t iation;  twenty members ( i n c l u d i n g J . Kavanagh,  affil-  R.W.Hartley,  J.G.Smith, A.S.Wells) i s s u e d a document, "The P a r t i n g of the Ways". K a r l Radek's were being p r i n t e d i n The  a r t i c l e s on Lenin's l i f e  and work  Clarion.  An e d i t o r i a l d e a l t with the charge that  the Soc-  132. i a l i s t P a r t y was an academic i n s t i t u t i o n , not a p o l i t i c a l party.  I t s a i d some o f the twenty had not seen the document  before i t was p r i n t e d ; one had j o i n e d a few months ago t o vote f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , boat."  and two others were "much i n the same  In 1921, the twenty-one p o i n t s ( e a r l i e r , 18) t h a t had  been made the b a s i s of a f f i l i a t i o n where."  "had caused t r o u b l e  The Workers' P a r t y was r u n by ex-communists;  everyi t was a  reform p a r t y to a t t r a c t the masses and serve o p p o r t u n i s t s , i t said. The  e d i t o r f u r t h e r s a i d t h a t ignorance  s h i p went hand i n hand; "led ers;  i n " again;  and l e a d e r -  workers who were " l e d o u t " oould be  an educated working c l a s s w i l l need no l e a d -  the new reformers  and program makers had committed them11  s e l v e s to a p o l i c y of l e a d e r s h i p . Prank Cassidy, Maritime p r o v i n c e s . ed h i s education  an o r a t o r , had been t o u r i n g the  He was q u i t e a young man;  through p r a c t i c a l experience  he had s e c u r and by r e a d i n g  l a t e a f t e r working ten hours a day. Among other speakers of the time were W.A.Pritchard, J.D.Harrington,  T.O'Connor, Sidney Earp, Robert K i r k .  They d i s c u s s e d imperialism., the Genoa conference,  the S t a t e ,  r e v o l u t i o n and c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i n e a r l y Peru, c o l l a p s e of the c o a l i n d u s t r y i n South Wales. . The C l a r i o n was campaigning f o r a 10,000 c i r c u l a t i o n . February 1, 1922. 11.  133. Sir  C l i f f o r d S i f t o n was  d e s i r a b l e immigrants  quoted as r e f e r r i n g to  as peasants of the sheep s k i n coat, with  l a r g e f a m i l i e s and used to hard w o r k — not w h i s k e y - d r i n k i n g English unionists. S t r e e t meetings at 8 P.M.,  C a r r a l l and  were b e i n g h e l d t h r i c e weekly  Cordova, Vancouver ( A p r i l 15). The  September 1 number r e p o r t e d they were being held every n i g h t . There were few notes from l o c a l s now. J . H a r r i n g t o n , i n "On  Theosophy" s a i d  that  "modern s c i e n c e p l a y s havoc with these fond and f o o l i s h  fan-  c i e s ." D i s c u s s i n g the I.W.W., The C l a r i o n s a i d  the  I.W.W. had d i s c a r d e d some of i t s e a r l i e r f a l l a c i e s - sabotage, "fill  the j a i l s ; " - and was  s t r e s s i n g education.  I t was  not 12  p o l i t i c a l at. a l l , but a near r e l a t i o n to f o r e i g n s y n d i c a l i s m . The e d i t o r remarked that the Workers' P a r t y was wanting u n i t y again on a reform program, a f t e r the d i s h had been scorned by the e l e c t o r a t e .  The answer was,  no. The  Workers' P a r t y s u f f e r e d from constant d i s s e n t i o n , r e s i g n a t i o n s , expulsions.  " I f you understand what you are at, your  i s h n e s s l i e s i n a d j u s t i n g your case to accomodate your  foolmasters'  convenience, which l i e s i n the way o f reform." The C l a r i o n f e l t l o y a l t y to the workers of R u s s i a , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r mistakes, but i t "held t o the 12.  November 1,  1922.  134. 13 e x e r c i s e of f r e e i n t e l l i g e n c e . " he  experimental, e v o l u t i o n a r y .  capitalist  t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d would  Ownership hy a user was  not  ownership.  The  editor pulled t o pieces,  sentiment, l o g i c , an a r t i c l e that l a b o r had  (though there was  on grounds of grammar,  i n the B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t  been s u b s e r v i e n t 14  tellectual individuals; ity  The  to the g r e a t knowledge o f i n -  Vancouver had  a t r i b u t e to the  more a c t i o n , more u n i t y , were needed. reply("R")  saying  too much i n t e l l e c t u a l -  "Harrington  Academy");  A long e d i t o r i a l i n .  s a i d that the immediate o b j e c t of reform i s a con-  t r a d i c t i o n i n the terms of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , and  "we  cannot  advance u n i t e d l y i n the i n t e r e s t s of the workers' because neither perceive c e p t i o n can  that i n t e r e s t nor the u n i t y which t h a t per- ,  alone bequeath."  On the t i o n s , and  "we  other hand, "C" urged study of present  of the past, as the  only way  condi-  t o get guidance f o r  15 the f u t u r e .  There were no more b a r r i c a d e s . V i o l e n t i n s u r -  r e c t i o n c o u l d not succeed. i n g more and more of the operation  was  The  state's attention.  v i t a l to the l i f e  from Graham Wallas' "The showed t h a t a m i n o r i t y 13*  December 1,  14. 15.  December November 16, 16,  1982 1922 1923.  community i n t e r e s t was Continuity  of a community.  Great S o c i e t y " .  He  occupyof  quoted  British history  c o u l d b r i n g about p e a c e f u l  change.  135. "J.H.B." c a l l e d "C" v i s i o n a r y and i m p r a c t i c a l . The r u l i n g c l a s s would use a l l means to r e s i s t being l e g i s l a t e d , reformed, and transformed out of e x i s t e n c e .  "C" was  obsessed with the weight and power of the c a p i t a l i s t r e gime;  but the c i v i l i z a t i o n of any dominant  c l a s s produced  i t s a n t i t h e s i s i n the form of the i d e a l s , v i e w p o i n t s , mental conceptions, of the oppressed; 16  these spread, c r e a t i n g  class  consciousness. The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y continued t o m a i n t a i n t h a t i t must keep i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , although e x p r e s s i n g 17 g o o d - w i l l to the g e n e r a l trend toward u n i t y on the l e f t . The B.C.Federated Labor P a r t y and the Trade Unions were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Canadian Labor P a r t y , as was the Communist (Workers*) P a r t y , The C l a r i o n noted^, F. W. Moore wrote that " p a s s i o n does not happen to be a s u c c e s s f u l manner of going about s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . One might as w e l l ask a surgeon t o take out one's appendix i n a p a s s i o n a t e manner.  L e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n need the  c o o l e s t of heads." The o n l y S o c i a l i s t P a r t y c a n d i d a t e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of June, 1924, were W.A.Pritchard i n Nanaimo and J . H a r r i n g t o n i n Vancouver.  The Canadian Labor P a r t y s a i d i t  endorsed therm, but d i d not name them on e l e c t i o n p o s t c a r d s 16. 17, 1923 sent December t o union members. 17. May 16, 1924  136. P r e s i d e n t of the C.L.P., B.C.Section, Cottrell; Hastings  S e c r e t a r y , Frank L. Hunt. S t r e e t E a s t , Vancouver.  couver were: trell,  The  was  ¥.  H.  o f f i c e was  at  806  C.L.P. candidates  i n Van-  M i s s P r i s c i l l a Smith, A. MoInnis, W. H.  E. H. M o r r i s o n , The  W i l l i a m Dunn.  C l a r i o n expressed 18  feated P r i t c h a r d .  Sam  s u r p r i s e that Sloan had  he had  l e g i s l a t u r e as an independent s o c i a l i s t . r e t u r n e d with a reduced m a j o r i t y .  Labor, 1 S o c i a l i s t ,  de-  G u t h r i e had a p p a r e n t l y heen d e f e a t e d  In Newcastle by a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ;  didates - 6 Liberals,  Cot-  The  last  l i b e r a l s were  Vancouver had had  6 Conversatlves,  3 Independent;  been i n the  27  can-  6 P r o v i n c i a l Party, 5  4 L i b e r a l s and  2 Provin-  c i a l P a r t y candidates were e l e c t e d with a h i g h vote o f 11,085 and  a low of 9,014;  was  low  (23rd).  6,263 was  top f o r Labor (19th) and. 5,552  J.D.Harrington  a g a i n over h i s 1920  r e c e i v e d 3,232 votes  (24th),  vote.  There were a r t i c l e s f o r and a g a i n s t the Labor P a r t y . One  quoted Marx and Engels  mentary procedure;  as f a v o r a b l e to reform and  those who  wished to wait and pray f o r  u n i v e r s a l bankruptcy, s t a r v a t i o n , and c i v i l war, of  R e v e l a t i o n s as prophet; J*  parlia-  t h e r e was  no  had  S t . John  science t h e r e .  A. McDonald objected to the "reform" a r t i c l e s of  "C", to the " p u s s y - f o o t i n g " of The C l a r i o n , and t o the t e g r a t i o n of the p a r t y . 19 The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y was not 18. 19.  J u l y 2, 194$ August 16, 1924  disinanti-  137. reform, but  anti-capitalist.  p r o d u c t i o n i n the  lems of a t t i t u d e and during  the war  a t t r a c t e d many, and revolution  and  a c t i o n had  been one  "The  War  t a c t i c s had had  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l machinery.  with the  A f t e r " s a i d new  No  The  and  of apathy.  The  q u e s t i o n of  The  same i n c l i n a t i o n t o be  affiliation  points  dogmatic—  of view.  "Perhaps  At any r a t e , we  wrote a g a i n s t  the  could  are  "New  Revisionism"(Septempossible.  "a p o l i c y which i s not  to modernize the  thought of the  wing of the w o r k i n g - c l a s s movement. t h a t r e v o l u t i o n must be  "C" d e c l a r e d  He  c a r r i e d out not  favored  he  The  opportun-  s a c r i f i c e a p o r t i o n of i t s e d u c a t i o n a l  In "Toward M o d e r n i z a t i o n " , what he  our  can."  p o r t u n i t i e s i n order t o f u r t h e r  do  re-  caused- a s p l i t . Since then,  g r a d u a l step-at-a-time p o l i c y was  should not  cen-  Russian  P a r t y must s t e e r c l e a r of the r o c k s of compromise and ism,  and  Then i n d u s t r i a l union enthusiasm  welcomed v a r i o u s  G. L e s t o r  prob-  party's  l i t e r a t u r e about i t produced t u r m o i l .  working them out as best we  16).  Interference  tended to d i s i n t e g r a t e the  a t t i t u d e s have become l e s s m e c h a n i c a l .  ber  r e s u l t e d i n more  f u r t h e r weakened the p a r t y .  not been the  S o c i a l i s t s had  and  arisen.  T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l had  there had  a c t s had  same time.  An e d i t o r i a l on  sorship  Factory  op-  ours."  wanted to  revolutionary the Veblen view  by an anaemic working  c l a s s under the p r e s s u r e of a b j e c t p r i v a t i o n , but by  full-  138. blooded working men  g a i n i n g strength from improved c o n d i t i o n s .  Labor p a r t i e s should be r e c o g n i z e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an i n dependent w o r k i n g - c l a s s p o l i t i c a l movement. "R" presented the c o n t r a r y v i e w — the c l e a n - c u t i s sue of s o c i a l i s m versus the commodity p o l i c i e s of l a b o r ; f r a t e r n a l attempts  a t f u s i o n and c o n c i l i a t i o n o n l y  the i s s u e , confounded energies, concealed the  confused  reality.  "C" d e s c r i b e d a s m a l l pre-war r e v o l u t i o n In the 20 party. gents";  McDonald had l e d the v i c t o r s , the "Young I n s u r the clause i n the Manifesto i n s t r u c t i n g  elected  members t o vote f o r measures " i f i n the i n t e r e s t s of the working c l a s s " was  s t r u c k out as " r e f o r m i s t " ;  s u r g e n t s read M a r x i s t l i t e r a t u r e of the d o c t r i n e of misery and blight";  The Young I n -  a v i d l y , and emerged s e i z e d  social collapse—  they surrendered thought  t o romantic  "a p a r a l y z i n g futility,  turned t h e i r backs on the prosy p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of s o c i a l change i n the modern s i t u a t i o n . to p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s . class-room work..  The Old Guard had  "More power to your arm,  Inclined  Mac,  i n the  But don't g e t a g i t a t e d i f some of your  chickens take to the water." McDonald, i n the same number, wrote t h a t reforms not change the f o u n d a t i o n of s o c i e t y ; of workers i n England  had never been so  the economic c o n d i t i o n terrible.  "C"'s a r t i c l e s continued on October 16, running t o two pages i n l e n g t h . 20. October  1,  1924.  do  139. "R"  wrote a g a i n s t reform; before change c o u l d come,  every s h i f t and extend  N  t r i c k , would be opposed to i t .  Monopoly would  i t s empire, gather the f r u i t s of i m p e r i a l i s t i c  ambition,  overshadow humanity with i t s regnancy, f a s t e n its'writhing t e n t a c l e s on the f o r c e s of s o c i e t y yet more, v i o l a t e l i f e f o r the. s a n c t i t y of p r o p e r t y .  S o c i a l i s t s should i n s i s t on the prim- .  acy of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e ;  counter the "sophism" that e v o l u -  t i o n i s , of n e c e s s i t y , slow;  distinguish  p u r p o s e l e s s p r o c e s s of b i o l o g y and t i o n of s o c i e t y ;  s h a r p l y between the  the purposive  transforma-  s t r i k e , keen as a l i g h t n i n g f l a s h , a t "the  hoars' l i e " that master and -  s l a v e can ever p r o s p e r  together.  J". H a r r i n g t o n lamented t h a t the p a r t y had had no new  blood f o r y e a r s ;  there was  a g r e a t decrease i n a t t e n d 21  ance a t meetings compared with f i v e years ago. had b i g meetings;  i t asked f o r speakers  the S o c i a l i s t s could not comply. more human and had  The  and  The I.W.W.  teachers,  and  I.W.W. atmosphere was  c o n g e n i a l than that of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  ever been, s a i d H a r r i n g t o n . On March 2, i t was announced The  a monthly a g a i n ; years. to read.  I t was  C l a r i o n ¥/ould be  i t had not been s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g f o r s e v e r a l  r e a l i z e d that many found  D i s c u s s i o n s must be b r i e f e r .  The 'Clarion too hard Informative matter  about world events would be i n c l u d e d . The 21.  February  Canadian Labor P a r t y , though a f e d e r a t i o n w i t h 16,  1925.  140. out  i n d i v i d u a l membership, was o r g a n i z i n g ward groups around  Vancouver,  and The Labor Statesman  organized. ( A p r i l  urged t h a t the p r o v i n c e be  1)  E f f o r t s to amalgamate The B . C . F e d e r a t i o n i s t (formerly  official  Trade Union organ, no?; organ of the Federated  Labor P a r t y ) and The Labor Statesman u n s u c c e s s f u l , s a i d the June  (Trade Union paper), ware  "Clarion".  As i n s e v e r a l p r e v i o u s numbers, t h e r e was an on " r a c i a l phobia". ("The  Harry Elmer Barnes, American  article  scholar,  Race Myth Crumbles"), t r a c e d the " v i r u l e n c e " to Count  Joseph Arthur de G-obineau's book on the s u p e r i o r i t y of the white race (1854), e s p e c i a l l y i t s "Aryan" branch* been a scramble t o prove "Aryanism". a later variant. the  A l p i n e s may  There had  The Nordic myth  was  The N o r d i c s , s a i d Barnes, were not Aryans; have brought Aryan c u l t u r e into  The end was 22 "The Doldrums";  Europe.  approaching, J.' H a r r i n g t o n wrote  on  "From the p r o p h e t i c p r e a c h i n g of c a p i t a l ' s  c o l l a p s e and e x h o r t i n g to the r e v o l u t i o n , we have passed through and beyond  back to a p e r i o d v o i d and empty of any •  revolutionary outlook."  I n the o l d days, times had been  good, yet the f i e l d had been f r u i t f u l ;  i n any bunkhouse  someone was r e a d i n g on some phase of Marxian p h i l o s o p h y ; Marxism  was  d i s c u s s e d at union meetings;  f r i e n d s and b i t t e r enemies;  i t made f i r m  meetings once i n a w h i l e ended  i22. n a fJuly-August r e e - f o r - a l l . 1925. The I.W.W. provoked c o n t r o v e r s y on the  141 m e r i t s of p o l i t i c a l cised  and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i o n ;  i t at l e a s t exer-  the workers' w i t s , and showed the need f o r s t u d y .  Kerr  and Company were able t o p u b l i s h standard s o c i a l i s t works at a profit.  Then, with the Russian R e v o l u t i o n , came r e a c t i o n  i n North America;  I t was  treason t o quote the word of God,  s i n g the M a r s e l l a i s e , r e c i t e the D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence. There was  l e s s i n t e r e s t i n prophesy, more i n a c t i o n .  "After  some h e c t i c years the g r e a t r e a c t i o n s e t i n . . . . today a l l f l a p our empty s a i l s s i d e by s i d e i n the doldrums." C l a r i o n (No. 938,  we The  i n i t s 21st year) must cease p u b l i c a t i o n .  "'Unseen, i t l i f t e t h  us with h e l p f u l hands;  Unheard, i t  speaketh l o u d e r than the storm'." " S o c i a l i s m , . r e f o r m and r e v o l u t i o n a r y , once an a c t i v e movement, has s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e on the whole North c o n t i n e n t , " wrote cast").  C. Stephenson  ("A Glance Back- and a Fore-  The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y once fought twenty-three s e a t s  i n a B r i t i s h Columbia 1912,  American  election.  In h i s time, since 1911 or  i t had had branches i n almost every c i t y from c o a s t t o  coast, and i n s m a l l e r p l a c e s i n mining and a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s tricts.,  The S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y , with Cotton's Weekly as  i t s organ, was the  road.  also active.  Propaganda meetings were h e l d r e g u l a r l y i n h a l l s  and on the streets., lated.  O r g a n i z e r s were c o n s t a n t l y on  An enormous mass of l i t e r a t u r e ?/as c i r c u -  "The Appeal to Reason" had a g r e a t e r c i r c u l a t i o n i n  142. Canada than" the combined Canadian l a b o r press today. F a c t o r s i n the changed s i t u a t i o n were:  the war,  the r e v i v a l of n a t i o n a l - ,  ism, the breakdown of s o c i a l i s t p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s , the  Russian  R e v o l u t i o n , newspaper propaganda, s h a t t e r e d s o c i a l i s t preconcep-..' t i o n s , the s p l i t  i n the movement, i n d u s t r i a l d e p r e s s i o n  w o r k i n g - c l a s s d e f e a t s , f o o l s and f a c t o r s , merely hastened other c o u n t r i e s without of  the d e c l i n e was  istic. of  the inevitable-..  these, and  similar results.  The primary  I t s c a p i t a l i s m was  I t s i d e a l s and psychology  the f a i t h .  cause as yet-  young, v i g o r o u s ,  were h i g h l y I n d i v i d u a l -  S o c i a l i s m came from Europe a f t e r 1848;  s o c i a l i s t immigrants had  other  They operated i n  t h a t the North American scene was  h o s t i l e to s o c i a l i s m . developing.  traitors—but  and  shown l i t t l e  descendants  d i s p o s i t i o n t o hold  S o c i a l i s m had been maintained  and n u r t u r e d main-  l y by a s u c c e s s i o n of newcomers and by those r e s i s t a n t to the American environment. migrants reached to,  S o c i a l i s m waxed as the stream  flood-tide.  With the war,  and r e s t r i c t i o n s upon, immigration,  and  interruption  i t waned.  not change t h e i r h a b i t s under the spur of words and t r i n e s or decrees;  of im-  Men  did  doc-  i n the mass, they l e a r n e d by h a b i t u a t i o n  r a t h e r than by r e f l e c t i o n .  S o c i a l i s m would, advance  again.  S o c i a l i s t s would l e a r n much from R u s s i a and from twentieth century s c i e n c e .  S o c i a l i s m would r i s e n a t i v e to the s o i l of  America.  I t would evolve a s t r a t e g y of change.  Reforms  should be  estimated not o n l y by t h e i r economic v a l u e , but  143 a l s o by how much they reduced  the area of c o m p e t i t i o n , o r made  for  group c o - o p e r a t i o n , and b u i l t up the h a b i t and d i s p o s i t i o n  for  the s o c i a l l i f e  the machine age demands.  S o c i a l i s t s would  concentrate on t h e c r u c i a l p o i n t s of contemporary l i f e , the present was p a s s i n g i n t o the f u t u r e ; a c t i o n counted;  readers, good-bye!  o l d unique!  I t s company of  ' T i s Demos disbands us!"  The e d i t o r i a l was e n t i t l e d  of  thought and  "Too f a r ahead i s n o t h i n g but your dream."  "Well, good-bye, o l d C l a r i o n !  ten  here  where  by " C " — C. Stephenson, a former The Red F l a g and The I n d i c a t o r .  "Exit."  I t was w r i t -  Clarion editor,  editor  He expressed r e g r e t , un-  derstand, and r e s i g n a t i o n , a t the end of The C l a r i o n ' s work. He and h i s comrades were proud r e a l i z e d something by enthusiasms;  of t h e i r  of t h i s work, though they  "shortcomings".  They were r u i n e d  i t was s u r p r i s i n g , he s a i d ,  that t h e y had  s u r v i v e d a f t e r twenty-odd years of "opinionatedness vehemently  expressed and m o d i f i e d , when a t a l l , very r e l u c t a n t l y ,  under p r e s s u r e from time and e v e n t s . " •  I n Twenty-Five  changes i n s c i e n t i f i c  Years", "Geordie" r e f e r r e d to  and economic thought.  shown t h a t man was not a r a t i o n a l animal. t h e o r i e s had been exposed; the Marxian p o s i t i o n .  Psychology had Marginalist  they were n o t i n c o n f l i c t with  Most M a r x i s t s i n s i s t e d t h a t Value and  Exchange Value meant the same— i f so, there was a c o n f l i c t , and the m a r g i n a l i s t s had the b e s t of the argument about the  144. theory  of v a l u e .  M a r x i s m as  bound t o d i s a p p e a r corporated  a d e f i n i t e body of d o c t r i n e  i n the p r e c i s e r a t i o  i n w h i c h i t was  i n the g e n e r a l body of c u r r e n t t h o u g h t .  was in-  Socialist  s e c t s w o u l d d i s i n t e g r a t e as  S o c i a l i s m became a m a t t e r o f p r a c t -  ical politics.  i n this  " I t i s not,  connection,  a matter  what we r e g a r d  a s S o c i a l i s m , i t ' i s what i s commonly s o  ed.  we  Y e a r s ago  s h o u l d h a v e gone i n f o r p r a c t i c a l  o r e l s e t h r o w n i n our for Soviet Russia. largely,  N e i t h e r of these  t h a t of p o s i n g  verse r a t i o and  politics  courses  appealed to  or  the l i f e - b l o o d  to education.  The  even c o n t i n u e d  made p o o r  s t i l l worse Communists, because t h e y l a c k e d  "These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may  o r may  not  we  could  existence."  o f any movement, b u t  Philosophers  us,  course  as a p u r e l y e d u c a t i o n a l body,  not p o s s i b l y ensure success E n t h u s i a s m was  regard-  l o t w i t h t h e Communists t o whoop i t up  I suppose, because of e a r l y t r a i n i n g .  did take,  of  was  in in-  Socialists  enthusiasm.  account f o r the  demise  o f The C l a r i o n . " I n h i s " R e f l e c t i o n s " , J.H.B., a f o r m e r " C l a r i o n ' 1  e d i t o r , was Defections  not  convinced  to the  p a p e r — i t and  t h i s was  the v a l e d i c t o r y i s s u e .  S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y d i d no harm t o  the  the p a r t y seemed t o b e n e f i t f r o m the e l i m i n a -  t i o n o f "a q u a n t i t y o f i n d i g e s t i b l e m a t e r i a l . "  During  of c e n s o r s h i p  the  war  the paper f l o u r i s h e d i n d e f i a n c e  and  out  s a c r i f i c i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s to expediency.  P a r t y ' s d e c l i n e seemed t o d a t e f r o m i t s r e j e o t i o n o f  with-  the  The  145. Twenty-one P o i n t s , l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d by L e n i n as drawn up with s o l e l y Russian  c o n d i t i o n s i n mind.  P a r t y h o s t i l e to Russia;  Some thought the S o c i a l i s t  the matter was c l e a r now, but there  could be no r e t u r n , because of the space devoted t o reform propaganda and the e q u i v o c a l a t t i t u d e of The C l a r i o n i n i t s c r i t i c i s m o f the s t r u g g l e s of the B o l s h e v i k government during the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d —  i t s hyper-criticismi.  seemed to have gone Menshevik.  Many who had l e f t  The p a r t y the Workers*  P a r t y because i t was a reform o u t f i t were n o t back i n the S o c i a l i s t Party.  There were no new members, and the m a j o r i t y  of the o l d ones had dropped out. mia.  The p a r t y was d y i n g of anae-  Sources of new l i f e had been a l i e n a t e d , but c o u l d be  tapped again, and the p a r t y and i t s organ c o u l d once more r e sume t h e i r o l d p o s i t i o n i n the f o r e f r o n t of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y , uncompromising, c l a s s s t r u g g l e . or without  R e v o l u t i o n would proceed  with  a S o c i a l i s t P a r t y and a " C l a r i o n " , and would f o r g e  i t s own weapons i n the p r o c e s s . i s a l l that  "That, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s ,  matters." In "The C u r t a i n C a l l " , W.A.P. s a i d t h a t the working-  c l a s s movement progressed Reaction  w i t h the f l o o d t i d e s and backwashes.  s t a l k e d rampant, the whips of c a p i t a l i s m ' s  offended  gods were c r a c k i n g from the Balkans t o the China c o a s t . U s e f u l work had been done by The C l a r i o n ; every hand."  "the h a r v e s t r i p e n s on  The movement would go on u n t i l the day when man's  economic agencies  should, be not h i s master, but h i s s e r v a n t .  146. Looking back on the history, of the' S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada, i n which he was  prominent from the  start,  George Morgan today d e s c r i b e s i t as "a h i s t o r y of i n t e r necine war  - we  always hated each other more than  the  23 enemy."  A movement, Mr. Morgan says, l a s t s about a gen-  e r a t i o n i n one phase, though the o l d e r manbers may to  h o l d to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a b e r r a t i o n .  The  wool uncompromising s o c i a l i s t , he observes,  continue  dyed-in-thei s more or l e s s  dead and gone, " i n s p i t e of many a c t i v e p r o t a g o n i s t s  still  extant." A c c o r d i n g to Mr. Morgan, the Great War the cohesion of the movement.  Afterwards,  r a t h e r proud of being apart and u n d e f i l e d . fill  the Empress Theatre every Sunday.  wrecked  S o c i a l i s t s were They could  They had  still  a wholesome  s u s p i c i o n of p o l i t i c s , and a t the back of t h e i r minds r a t h e r hoped t h e i r candidates would not win, e l e c t e d man  was  a good man  c o n s i d e r i n g that an  spoiled.  The r e c o r d of these debates upon the  questions  of  a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l and "of f a c t o r s  in  the w i t h e r i n g of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y speaks f o r i t s e l f .  Having presented  i t , the h i s t o r i a n can add  little.  A m i n o r i t y h e l d to the o l d stand a g a i n s t compromise of  and  opportunism,  T h e i r f a i t h i n the complete c o r r e c t n e s s  the M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s remained unshaken. They chose to  con-  tinue to concentrate on the e d u c a t i o n of the workers i n t h i s 23. Interview w i t h Mr. George Morgan of Vancouver, summer of 1937  147. school of thought, and some of them have c a r r i e d on i n t h i s e f f o r t to the present day. Another group went over to the Communist movement, b e l i e v i n g t h a t Lenin had "brought Marxism t o a. f u r t h e r stage of development and p r a c t i c e and that f o r the contemporary p e r i o d the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l represented  the cause of the r e v o l u -  tion. A t h i r d group took s t i l l another view., ered  I t consid-  that changes both i n c o n d i t i o n s and ideas r e q u i r e d a  m o d i f i c a t i o n of a t t i t u d e .  Events,  they now b e l i e v e d , had  proved them to be too s e l f - a s s u r e d on some p o i n t s of d o c t r i n e . Man was not r a t i o n a l ,  s o c i a l systems were not  cut-and-dried.  C a p i t a l i s m could be f o r c e d t o make reforms, and these  should  be welcomed as improving the h e a l t h of the people and whetting t h e i r a p p e t i t e f o r f u r t h e r s o c i a l change.  S o c i e t y was making-  progress i n knowledge, i n technology, i n the development of forms of s e r v i c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n ; welcomed and encouraged.  t h i s progress should be  T h i s group d i d not undertake to r e -  form the movement and t o continue i t s a c t i v i t y ;  perhaps they  f e l t t h a t t h e i r work was done, and t h a t s o c i a l i s m , as C. Stephenson wrote, would i n due course r i s e n a t i v e  t o the s o i l .  Of a l l the a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n r e t r o s p e c t by S o c i a l i s t P a r t y members, Stephenson's wise and p e n e t r a t i n g Back' - and a F o r e c a s t "  i s the most I l l u m i n a t i n g .  "A Glance  Surveying  148. the achievements and c a l l e d , he  the d e c l i n e of the p a r t y ,  declares,that  s o c i a l i s t s t r e n g t h waned as  t i o n from Europe f e l l o f f ; was  i t w i l l he  Immigra-  "the primary cause of the  t h a t the North American scene was  re-  decline  as yet h o s t i l e to  soc-  ialism." These debates and  d i v i s i o n s completed the d i s s o l u -  t i o n of the o l d S o c i a l i s t P a r t y What had An disposed due  t h i s party  impressive  to r e g a r d  of Canada. achieved?  s e r i e s of reforms, which i t was  w i t h a shrug, were d i r e c t l y and  indirectly  i n l a r g e measure to s o c i a l i s t a c t i v i t y without and  within  the L e g i s l a t u r e . As an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the s o c i a l i s t s , had  even more as I n d i v i d u a l s ,  though not g i v e n to a d v e r t i s i n g the  c o n t r i b u t e d much t o the l a b o r movement and  ance of workers on s t r i k e ,  fact,  to the  assist-  of the unemployed, of those whose  a c t i v i t i e s on b e h a l f of the workers r a n them f o u l of the The h i s t o r y of l a b o r  and  law.  trade union a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l -  umbia i s studded with the names o f S o c i a l i s t P a r t y Members who,  as i n d i v i d u a l s , made noteworthy c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The  e d u c a t i o n a l work of the p a r t y gave t o many  people, a. grasp of s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s and w i d e l y a s o c i a l i s t i c way The  spread-even more  of thought.  p a r t y l e f t a t r a d i t i o n of i n t e g r i t y , of  v o t i o n to p r i n c i p l e and purpose, that was  to be  de-  transmitted  149. to, and to i n s p i r e , the next g e n e r a t i o n of s o c i a l i s t s .  Nor  was i t s s t r e s s on knowledge and education t o be f o r g o t t e n . The S o c i a l i s t P a r t y c o n t r i b u t e d a l e g a c y of potential  l e a d e r s , t r a i n e d students  forward  i n time of c r i s i s .  of s o c i e t y , who c o u l d step  With the coming of the great de-  p r e s s i o n , many o f these gave t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o the Co-operat i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n . I f a t any one of a number of p o i n t s from 1902 down t o the present day, those who f o l l o w e d the s t r i c t  Social-  i s t P a r t y p o l i c y had been l e s s academic, more adaptable-, w i l l i n g to work with been f u r t h e r e d . concept  more  others, the cause of reformism might have  On the other hand, s o c i a l i s m as a d e f i n i t e  and g o a l might have been l o s t t o s i g h t .  So f a r as the  C.C.F. i s concerned, although  some of the more dogmatic,  row-minded, and unimaginative  s o c i a l i s t s of the o l d s c h o o l  have, by t h e i r u n a t t r a c t i v e a t t i t u d e s and s t u l t i f y i n g hampered growth i t i s probable l e a d e r s h i p o f many other l o s t i t s way.  t h a t without  nar-  policies,  the c l e a r - s i g h t e d  s o c i a l i s t s the movement -would have  Much of the new p a r t y ' s knowledge and t r a d i t i o n  stems from the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada, and i f the C.C.F. achieves  i t s purpose of b u i l d i n g a Co-operative  Commonwealth,  a good share of c r e d i t f o r the achievement w i l l be due t o those  " a t t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s " o f an e a r l i e r time.  Attic  philosophers  the g l o r y of Greece?  And were not  150.  Chapter S i x .  Mew M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f S o c i a l i s t i n the 1920*3;  The Russian ments i n other  the Communist  Revolution  countries.  Activity Party.  tremendouslyaf f ected  develop-  Dominant c l a s s e s r e a c t e d w i t h f e a r ;  the i d e a s and the example of the R e v o l u t i o n might spread. A l l i e d Powers, f u r t h e r , found "peace without  The  annexations or  i n d e m n i t i e s " not t o t h e i r l i k i n g , and wished to f o r c e R u s s i a to continue  the war.  Again,  b i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s o f f o r e i g n  investment were a t s t a k e .  The r e s u l t was  the prolonged  wars  of i n t e r v e n t i o n c o n t i n u i n g  a f t e r the A r m i s t i c e i n the West.  At home, r e p r e s s i o n was adopted i n many c o u n t r i e s , r e a c h i n g the p o i n t of h y s t e r i a i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i n c o n s i d e r able degree, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the 1919 s t r i k e ,  i n Canada.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the severest measures a g a i n s t the s o c i a l i s t p r e s s were taken i n Canada a f t e r the B o l s h e v i k s came to power. The R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n sent a surge of sympathy and hope through the l a b o r and s o c i a l i s t movements of the sympathy with the long-hated Russian  the e f f o r t Czarism  world—  of the Russian masses to e r a d i c a t e  and t o cut short the development of  c a p i t a l i s m , and hope that the same g e n e r a l  ideals  151. would i n s p i r e a world-wide movement of the peoples i n t o a new s o c i a l order. stopping  The B r i t i s h trade unions took an a c t i v e p a r t i n  the i n t e r v e n t i o n ; they d i d not consider  that the course  of r e v o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n need f o l l o w the R u s s i a n model, but they resented  the e f f o r t to d e s t r o y  the new Russian regime.  began r e f u s i n g t o handle m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s d e s t i n e d ies  of i n t e r v e n t i o n .  With the c r u s h i n g  Workers  f o r the arm-  of r e v o l u t i o n s i n cen-  t r a l Europe and the coming t o power i n Germany of c a u t i o u s i a l Democrats, e x p e c t a t i o n to fade. ed,  soc-  of a world-wide wave o f change began  Yet the portentous f a c t of Russian achievement remain-  and coming up a g a i n s t  i t , the s o c i a l i s t movement broke  apart.  New p a r t i e s emerged from the t u r m o i l , communist p a r t ies  l o o k i n g to Moscow f o r guidance i n t a c t i c s and i d e o l o g y , and  d i f f e r i n g g r e a t l y i n these r e s p e c t s from n a t i o n a l i s t i c ,  parlia-  mentary s o c i a l democrats and from the s t r i c t d o c t r i n a i r e Marxian socialists.  The communist p a r t i e s c a p i t a l i z e d on the widespread  desire f o r action; end.  t h e y would use any means to f u r t h e r t h e i r  T h e i r s t r a t e g y was s u b t l e and f l e x i b l e , whereas the o l d e r  s o c i a l i s t s were f o r t h r i g h t and unbending* strated i n Russia  t h a t , g i v e n the s k i l l e d  I t had been demonl e a d e r s h i p , masses of  poorly-educated people could make a r e v o l u t i o n ; i t was not necessary  to wait u n t i l the m a j o r i t y had mastered s o c i a l i s t  theory.  Communist p a r t y members must be h i g h l y t r a i n e d i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y theory  and p r a c t i c e ;  they, a d i s c i p l i n e d , r e s o u r c e f u l  minority,  entrenched on a wide f r o n t through s o c i e t y — i n trade unions, i n r e f o r m i s t and s o c i a l p a r t i e s , i n a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s with p u b l i c a f f a i r s —  concerned  would l a y dov/n the s t r a t e g y of the moment,  g i v e the l e a d e r s h i p t h a t would, when the s i t u a t i o n was r i p e , speed and guide the r e v o l u t i o n . about the a r t of propaganda: l i e d the Russians; Marxist  Communists had learned much  "peace, l a n d , and bread" had r a l -  i n s t e a d o f s t a r t i n g with l e c t u r e s on the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y , the Communists s t a r t e d with  demands f o r h i g h e r wages, s h o r t hours, seeking  t o promote organ-  152. i z a t i o n and m i l i t a n c y , and  to l e t the workers l e a r n through  p e r i e n c e not o n l y the meaning but a l s o the technique  ex-  of the c l a s s  s t r u g g l e . Hence Communists were not a l o o f from the masses- they were i n the t h i c k of t h i n g s with p o l i t i c a l and  them, c o n s c i o u s l y m a n i p u l a t i n g  economic f o r c e s .  I t has been shown that many members of t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada caught the new enthusiasm f o r a c t i o n and l e f t the l e c ture h a l l s . 1922  The Workers' P a r t y (Communist) was organized i n Vancouver i n at S u l l i v a n H a l l , scene of the launching of s e v e r a l other  l a b o r movements. At t h i s meeting were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  one  Big  Union (J.Kavanagh), the Lumberworkers (J.M.Clark), the Canad-  ian  N a t i o n a l Union of Ex-Servicemen  Labor P a r t y  (A.S.Wells),  ( B i l l Farnham), the  Federated  the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada (W.Bennett),  the I.W.W. (Dick H i g g i n s ) .  1  Immediate steps were taken to organize the unemployed and to l i n k them up with the t r a d e unions. A l l unions, unemployed o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and w o r k i n g - c l a s s p a r t i e s were i n v i t e d t o j o i n i n forming an a l l - e m b r a c i n g l a b o r p a r t y . The r e s u l t i n g Labor R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Committee became next year the B.C.Section of the Canadian Labor P a r t y . Many Unions,the Independent Labor P a r t y , and Communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s were t h i s Labor P a r t y . According to W i l l i a m Bennett, as one s e c t i o n , a f t e r about s i x years, defeated i n e f f o r t s to compromise w i t h the L i b e r a l s , s p l i t the p a r t y on the i s s u e of "votes f o r O r i e n t a l s " . 2  On September 29,  1925,  a u n i t e d f r o n t conference r i n g t o n and  Ewan McLeod  son and Angus M a c l n n i s s m a l l e r groups.  was  at S o c i a l i s t P a r t y h e l d . Delegates  headquarters,  i n c l u d e d J.D.Har-  ( S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada),Rose Hender(Federated Labor P a r t y ) , and  The main o b j e c t i v e was  some from  to be education;  The  Communist P a r t y had not been i n v i t e d because of wide d i f f e r e n c e s of  o p i n i o n and p o l i c y . The  Independent Labor P a r t y was  formed  l a t e r to resume the name " S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada" and the Co-operative  Join  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ) . Dr.Rose Henderson con-  t i n u e d t o be a militant co-worker with the Ccmni4ndst p a r t y u n t i l 1.  Bennett, W i l l i a m - B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia;  2*  op. c i t . p.  145  p.  her 144  153. 3 death  about  1936.) At  Party  assumed  cities, the  i t s third  were  (a leader  chiefly  Charlie  Kilby  (Socialist  Democratic  Party,  Labor  once  Outside  Finnish  or U k r a i n i a n .  from  Party),  editor  i n 1924, t h e Workers'  Party.  i n the fishermen's  Cartwright  at  convention  Communist  i t s members w e r e  recruits  Canada  t h e name  annual  the b i g  the Socialist  Party of  strike  of 1900).  Austin  McKela  of the F i n n i s h  Among  Bill  (Social  socialist  daily  Sudbury.) At  t h e Sun Y a t Sen f u n e r a l  service  i n Vancouver, 5  William  Bennett "The  and on  spoke I.L.P.  t h e F.L.P.,  added  t h e s c h o o l board,  f o r the Communist heir  Place  i n N a n a i m o a n d Sam  South  Vancouver,  that  tradition  tatives  and Frank  Democrats:  son,  Browne  i n the Legislative  and A l f . Hurry carried  council  of elected  o f t h e S.D.P., representatives  and p a r l i a m e n t .  Guthrie, Ladysmith;  Angus M a c l n n i s and W a l t e r Council,  to the tradition  to i t s l i s t city  International.  Jack  Harry  I n Burnaby, r e p r e s e n t e d Assembly;  R.P.Pettipiece,  D e p t f o r d i n the Vancouver  on t h e s o h o o l board.  on t h e r e f o r m i s t  line  These  3.  o p . c i t . p . 146  4.  o p . c i t . p . 147  5*  o p . c i t . p . 147  6.  o p . c i t . p . 154  City represen-  of the old-time  0. L e e C h a r l t o n , Sam A t k i n s o n , M r s . R o s e 6  a n d Tom R i c h a r d s o n . "  Neelands,  SocialHender-  154. The  I.W.W., by r e s o l u t i o n i n 1922, r e f u s e d a l l  a l l i a n c e s w i t h e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s or sects;  that i s , i t would have nothing  politics.  anti-political  at a l l t o do w i t h  The i s s u e o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n had,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  however, s p l i t  and what i n f l u e n c e i t had, d e c l i n e d .  It  was the f i r s t  labor o r g a n i z a t i o n i n America to expel Commun7 i s t s f o r their p o l i t i c a l opinions.  A c t i v i t y and i n f l u e n c e of the Communist increased during the depression. v e r and D i s t r i c t  The party l e d the Vancou-  unemployed Workers* A s s o c i a t i o n .  many a r r e s t e d i n the f i r s t 7/inter of the p e r i o d ranging bell  Party  Among  (on charges  from begging to i l l e g a l assembly) were A l l a n Camp-  (later  deported t o S c o t l a n d ) ,  Jim L i t t e r i c k  Communist e l e c t e d t o a Canadian P a r l i a m e n t ) ,  (the f i r s t  George Drayton  (first  e d i t o r of t h e B.C.Workers* News), and W.. Bennett; 8 they were given a suspended sentence. The ist  auspices,  Canadian Labor Defense League, under Commun9  had by 1932 defended n e a r l y 3,000 workers..  First  Communist candidate i n B r i t i s h  was W. Bennett, who contested where Angus Mao Innis by  Columbia  Vancouver South f e d e r a l  (Independent Labor P a r t y ;  riding,  unopposed  the L i b e r a l s ) was e l e c t e d .  7*  op. c i t . p. 43  8.  Bennett, W i l l i a m ;  9.  op. c i t . p. 105.  B u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h  Columbia; p. 147  155. First province was in  Tom  Communist e l e c t e d to p u b l i c o f f i c e i n the Douglas, who  became a Coquitlam  Counsellor  1935. The  Workers' Unity League (Communist) s e t about  o r g a n i z i n g the unorganized workers.  As a r e s u l t of the  s t r u g g l e s undertaken, nine p a r t y l e a d e r s were a r r e s t e d i n 1931;  most of them, i n c l u d i n g Malcolm Bruce and  of B r i t i s h  Columbia, and. Arthur  Evans and  sentenced to long p r i s o n terms ; C r i m i n a l Code, the p a r t y was as the r e s u l t  liberties, ple,  and  Tim Buck, were  declared i l l e g a l .  In  trade unions,  the 1936,  the  CCF.  others i n t e r e s t e d i n c i v i l  as a r e s u l t of an e l e c t i o n pledge to the peo-  S e c t i o n 98 was The  Cacie  Under S e c t i o n 98 of  of a l o n g campaign by  Communist o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  Tom  removed from the s t a t u t e s .  Workers' U n i t y League was  among l o g g e r s , miners, fishermen,  and  especially active  those  on r e l i e f . .  d o u b t l e s s had a hand i n the march to V i c t o r i a i n 1932, 57 organizations- were represented  It when  and. a ten per cent i n -  crease i n r e l i e f allowance was  secured.  relief  the t r e k to Ottawa,, d u r i n g  camp s t r i k e  of 1935  and  which occurred what i s c a l l e d the The  I t organized  the  "Regina R i o t . "  Workers' U n i t y League and  other  Communist  o r g a n i z a t i o n s took p a r t i n many more s t r u g g l e s d u r i n g 1930's than can be even mentioned here;  enough has  the  been  s a i d to show t h a t Communists were very a c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  156. among the unorganized and the unemployed.  They pressed  i a t e demands - i n c r e a s e s i n r e l i e f allowances,  immed-  h i g h e r wages,  b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s of work, freedom of speech and assembly. Throughout the p e r i o d , they i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s to develop a United  Front.  W i l l i a m Bennett mentions that 40,000 members o f the W.U.L. had fused t h e i r unions;  strength, with the A.F.of L.  however, when the Congress f o r I n d u s t r i a l  organiza-  t i o n s broke w i t h the American F e d e r a t i o n o f Labor, Communists  i n B r i t i s h Columbia devoted t h e i r c h i e f e f f o r t s to  b u i l d i n g up the new i n d u s t r i a l  unions.  (These C.I.O. unions developed r a p i d l y , d e s p i t e being d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n the p r o v i n c i a l trade legislation;  Nanaimo miners, f o r example, were  union  organized  again f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e the c o l l a p s e of the great strike; unions, and  c o n c e s s i o n a f t e r c o n c e s s i o n was won by the new not without  s t r i k e s , l o c k o u t s , and long d i s p u t e s ,  company a f t e r company which had h i t h e r t o r e f u s e d t o  recognize  unions was o b l i g e d to change i t s a t t i t u d e l a t e r ,  the C.T.O. unions and the a l l - C a n a d i a n Congress o f Labor j o i n e d to form the Canadian Congress of Labor.) . The Young Communist League helped r e l i e f camp s t r i k e s and t r e k i n 1935, getic  and proved an ener-  j u n i o r branch of t h e parent p a r t y .  Young P io ne er s was formed.  organize the  F o r c h i l d r e n ; the  157.  The  Communist P a r t y was  toward the C.C.P. f o r not I t often r e f e r r e d  bitter i n i t s attitude  j o i n i n g with  i t i n a united f r o n t .  t o C.C.P. members as " s o c i a l f a s c i s t s " and  "Trotskyists;**,', and a t t a c k e d the " r i g h t - w i n g " l e a d e r s h i p which was  a l l e g e d l y p r e v e n t i n g the consummation of a U n i t e d  Front. In the 1933 East C C F .  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , i n Vancouver  c a n d i d a t e s Finch and P r i c e p o l l e d  10,972 votes;  Communists Mrs.  501  each.  In Vancouver Centre,  and  Taylor p o l l e d  5,352 and  McKindrick p o l l e d 325 and  Evans and R. L e a l e s s p o l l e d CCF.  5,102; 321.  11,019 and  candidates  Lefeaux  Communists Grange and  158.  Some Aspects of the S o c i a l i s t Movement In B r i t i s h 1898 - 1955  Part  III  The S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h During the Great Depression  Columbia  (to 1933)  Columbia  Chapter Seven. Impact of Economic Depression Upon S o c i a l Thought.  Section 1  Capitalism i n Eclipse Reviewing  1931  f o r The Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e ,  P r o f e s s o r F. H. Sowar d of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia of  declared:  "No year s i n c e the a r m i s t i c e has been so f u l l  disappointments,  so barren of achievements.  We  f a c e the  f u t u r e , hoping t h a t t h i s i s the darkest hour before the dawn. " Economic d e p r e s s i o n had throughout  the world.  spread and deepened  Banks were c l o s i n g t h e i r  doors.  Governments f e l l throughout Europe, and r e v o l u t i o n s shook Spain and L a t i n America.  The K r e d i t A n s t a l t  brought A u s t r i a t o the verge of bankruptcy.  collapse In Germany,  Dr. Bruening, governing by decree, imposed new economies, and  the t i d e of H i t l e r i s m rose r a p i d l y .  Hoover moratorium gave r e l i e f ,  but i t was  n i z e d t h a t both r e p a r a t i o n s and war be d r a s t i c a l l y  taxes and The  becoming r e c o g -  debts would have t o  reduced.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s took ominous turns f o r the worse.  Japan a t t a c k e d China.  The Indian Round Table  Conferences c l o s e d i n an atmosphere of gloom. of  Prevention  the Austro-German customs union f u r t h e r embittered the  160. Germanic peoples, i n c r e a s e d Franco-German h o s t i l i t y , and pedoed the F r a n c o - I t a l i a n n a v a l In split the  tor-  agreement.  B r i t a i n , the need f o r f u r t h e r loans caused a  i n the Labor government,  the m a j o r i t y r e f u s i n g to accept  economy program of the f i n a n c i e r s . .  ever formed a N a t i o n a l Government  Ramsay MacDonald, how-  and won a tremendous  victory,  the  Conservatives b e i n g overwhelmingly the l a r g e s t group i n  the  coalition.  The l i b e r a l - m i n d e d everywhere were dismayed a t  what they termed the b e t r a y a l of B r i t a i n i n t o the hands of r e action. Economic n a t i o n a l i s m with f a s c i s m , or a trend t o ward i t , was  the response of governments to world  depression—  a response which aggravated problems and brewed an e r a of r e newed war. In  Canada,  as the people s u f f e r e d  increasingly  from the b a n e f u l e f f e c t s of economic d e p r e s s i o n , a p o l i t i c a l scandal of the f i r s t "Lid  magnitude added to the growing d i s c o n t e n t .  Blows Off P a r t y Funds as Probe Steams Up" r a n a h e a d l i n e 1  that must s u r e l y rank as a c l a s s i c .  The Beauharnois Company,  seeking r i v e r r i g h t s f o r power development, had g i v e n a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t o p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , mostly to~ the  Liberals.  Men prominent i n b u s i n e s s and i n p u b l i c  life  were accused o f making f o r t u n e s through shady d e a l i n g s . Canadian labor and farmer movements g i r d e d them1.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , J u l y 18,  1931.  161 s e l v e s to grapple with the complex d i f f i c u l t i e s of a worseni n g economic s i t u a t i o n .  With renewed energy,  presented t h e i r a n a l y s i s and advocated Surveying 1932, g l i b assurance  socialists  t h e i r program.  Professor. Soward found  that "the  t h a t ' p r o s p e r i t y i s j u s t around the c o r n e r ' has  f r o z e n upon the l i p s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l gloom-chaser." Higher tariffs,  quotas,  embargoes, and  ther s t r a n g l e d world  trade.  currency r e s t r i c t i o n s , had  In the s p r i n g , a mood of sheer  panic had s e i z e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; i n value.  stocks had d e c l i n e d 50%  Most s p e c t a c u l a r f i n a n c i a l crashes had been  of the Kreuger  and  fur-  I n s u l l empires.  those  F r a n k l i n D. Roosevelt  was  United S t a t e s P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t , promising a "New  Deal".  debt  German v o t e r s  payments were by token or were d e f a u l t e d .  were swinging  to the extremes of l e f t and r i g h t . At  Lausanne Conference terred".  The  "the corpse of r e p a r a t i o n s was  L y t t o n Report  continued her a g g r e s s i o n . truculent.  The  u n f r u i t f u l year  censured  trade had decreased  M u s s o l i n i was  decently i n -  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  had dragged  soon to f a i l w r e t c h e d l y ) .  60% s i n c e 1929.  the  Japan's methods, but Japan  Disarmament Conference (and was  War  through  an  World  There were 25,000,000  completely unemployed. In the House of Commons at Ottawa, the Labor Farmer groups ( n o t a b l y Messrs.  and  Gardiner, Woodsworth, I r v i n e ,  Coote, M a c l n n i s , and Miss Macphail) were doing s h a t t e r o l d e r economic conceptions.  t h e i r best to  By a n a l y s i s ,  they  attempt-  162. ed to expose the causes of c u r r e n t d i s t r e s s .  They attacked  high t a r i f f s and v/ere s k e p t i c a l of the value of the Ottawa i m p e r i a l trade t r e a t i e s from the p o i n t of view of r e v i v a l o f world t r a d e ;  They expressed the growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  the o l d p a r t i e s .  As an example of how  c o n d i t i o n s were worsen-  i n g under the Conservative regime of Prime M i n i s t e r Mr. Maclnnis s t a t e d that on June 1, 1930,  there were 551 unem-  ployed on r e l i e f i n Vancouver on June 1, 1951, and 7,290 hy June of 1932.  "In Canadian c i t i e s , from  to Vancouver, r e l i e f f a m i l i e s huddled i n c o l d houses,  hungry and m i s e r a b l e . v/ork, becoming by.  there were 1,186,  In the winter of 1952 the long,  b i t t e r d e p r e s s i o n was a t i t s worst. Halifax  R.B.Bennett,  Men  tramped the s t r e e t s l o o k i n g f o r  c y n i c a l and h o p e l e s s as the empty days dragged  Farmers watched  believable levels,  the p r i c e s of t h e i r p r o d u c t s f a l l  to un-  f a r below the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n , w h i l e  t h e i r debts skyrocketed and t h e i r farms passed i n t o the hands of banks and mortgage  companies.  Youth rode the rods or r u s t -  ed a t home i n i d l e n e s s , f r u s t r a t e d and conscious that i t had no f u t u r e .  Everywhere anger was  t i o n s of b u s i n e s s men  r i s i n g a g a i n s t the easy a s s e r -  and p o l i t i c i a n s that p r o s p e r i t y was  just  around the corner, and people i n l a r g e numbers began*, f o r the first  time, s e r i o u s l y to question the b a s i s of our economic 2 and s o c i a l o r d e r . " The outlook i n mid-1952 was b l a c k indeed.  Newspaper  h e a d l i n e s gave the impression that the complete c o l l a p s e of 2.  "The F i r s t Ten Years", C.C.F., Ottawa, 1942. p. 7.  163. c a p i t a l i s t economy was Imminent.  Fascism and war c a s t i n g  the shadows of t h e i r descent upon the world. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Conservative government was i n o f f i c e .  Tolmie  Representing a d r i v e f o r economy  by c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s elements, \a committee headed by Mr. George Kidd made an o f f i c i a l r e p o r t recommending a s i x m l l 3 mion d o l l a r cut i n the budget.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the As-  sembly should be reduced from 48 to 14 ( l a t e r 28). Lieutenant-Governor  The  should s u p e r v i s e and, i f necessary,  check, p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s .  Two m i l l i o n s could be saved i n  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and unorganized  d i s t r i c t s by making 14 the  age l i m i t f o r f r e e e d u c a t i o n .  Teachers'  cut 25 per c e n t . be disposed o f . Royal Mounted. and  s a l a r i e s should be  The P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway 'should There should be only one p o l i c e f o r c e , t h e |9,125,000 would be r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r e s t  s i n k i n g fund t h i s year, or 37.5 per cent of annual r e v - .  enue;  c o n v e r s i o n of the debt  to a lower r a t e of i n t e r e s t  would be i m p r a c t i c a l , and r e p u d i a t i o n was u n t h i n k a b l e . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  The  Columbia might have t o be c l o s e d ;  S c h o l a r s h i p s t o other U n i v e r s i t i e s could be g i v e n . This r e p o r t aroused g r e a t c o n t r o v e r s y .  To i t s  defense oame Tom Maclnnes, who was f o r some years t o be prom3, Report of the Committee Appointed by t h e Government to I n v e s t i g a t e the Finances of B r i t i s h Columbia. J u l y 12, 1932, With appendix c o n t a i n i n g comments by the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia. Signed by George Kidd, W.L. Macken, A u s t i n T a y l o r , A.H.Douglas, R.W.Mayhew.  164.  i n e n t as a b i t t e r l y ant I-lab) or w r i t e r and r a d i o speaker. f a t h e r , as Lieutenant-Governor, had been s u s t a i n e d  His  by Ottawa  a f t e r r e f u s i n g t o s i g n warrants f o r p o l i t i c a l expenditure and dismissing  the Turner government.  independence of the Kidd  He p r a i s e d the courage and  committee, and d e c l a r e d  their  was not s l a n t e d to meet the view of any one c l a s s .  report  He de-  nounced the extravagance and c o r r u p t i o n of p a r t y p o l i t i c s and favored  the ending of p a r t y government. P r o f e s s o r H.P.Angus of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia d e c l a r e d  i t h i s duty to the p u b l i c to c r i t i c i z e the  r e p o r t , which, he s a i d , f a i l e d  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between econ-  omies of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and economies i n v o l v i n g questions of s o c i a l j u s t i c e and s o c i a l p o l i c y . p a r e n t l y , under the guise  of i m p a r t i a l i t y , arranged t h e i r  to support t h e i r own o p i n i o n s . of the community's taxable i t was d e c l a r i n g c l a s s war. ;:  to b o l d h o l d e r s  but ignored  Committee members had ap-  The committee made no estimate  capacity.  I n i t s education  c i v i l servants.  policy,  I t s t r e s s e d the moral o b l i g a t i o n the moral o b l i g a t i o n to s e t t l e r s ,  to i n v e s t o r s i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y endowment lands, and  facts  to t e a c h e r s  I t would not face the unavoidable nec-  e s s i t y of i n c r e a s i n g the income t a x . Dr. George M. Weir, of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, d e c l a r e d wealth before  the r e p o r t , as a f f e c t i n g education,  character.  placed  165 Mr*. George KIdd, i n p u b l i c speeches, h e l d that t h i s g e n e r a t i o n should l e s s e n the burden of t a x a t i o n f o r the genera t i o n s to come. taxation. citizens,  I n d u s t r y c o u l d not stand a d d i t i o n a l Income  Therefore expenditures must be reduced. the K i d d Report  To many  represented an attempt to i n s t i t u t e  a type of f a s c i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Public agitation i n -  creased. In September the Government announced that i t would economize by another m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , but that the Kidd recommendation of a s i x m i l l i o n d o l l a r r e d u c t i o n was 4 impracticable".  4.  Unemployment i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s surveyed  Report  "utterly  In Appendix ID.  • Chapter  166.  Seven. Impact of Economic D e p r e s s i o n Upon S o c i a l Thought.  S e c t i o n 2.  R e v o l t i n the Middle One  of the s t r i k i n g s o c i a l phenomena of the  1930's i n Canada was class.  a widespread r e v o l t among the m i d d l e  I f i t i s comfortable i n a c a p i t a l i s t i c  middle c l a s s i s , In g e n e r a l , a bulkwark if  Class  society,  the  a g a i n s t change, and  circumstances seem to t h r e a t e n i t s p o s i t i o n , i t i s more  l i k e l y to adopt a r e a c t i o n a r y than a i p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e ; i n some c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the d i f f i c u l t  years s i n c e  1918,  f a s c i s m has r e c e i v e d much of i t s support from middle c l a s s e s . C l e a r l y the d i s p o s i t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n of a n a t i o n i s of the g r e a t e s t importance  to the cause of s o c i a l  advancement.  The d e p r e s s i o n , of course, gave to the middle  c l a s s the economic j o l t  ed many t h i n k i n g f o r the f i r s t problems.  1  to t h e i r complacency  Canadian  that  time about s o c i a l and economic  Rather than contemplate any r a d i c a l  change i n the  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , middle c l a s s people are l i k e l y a m e l i o r a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n and monetary reform;  to f a v o r  in British  umbia p a r t i c u l a r l y , however, many of them, p a r t l y because 1.  start-  Colof  League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Democracy needs S o c i a l ism. Shows e f f e c t s of d e p r e s s i o n on d i f f e r e n t economic and s o c i a l groups.  167 the  strong s o c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n the province, came to b e l i e v e  i n the need f o r p o l i c i e s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . But there were o p e r a t i n g throughout f a c t o r s than economic d e p r e s s i o n .  the decade other-  One such f a c t o r can be s t a t -  ed simply as the g e n e r a l advance i n p u b l i c education, through  the schools.-, the newspapers, the magazines, and through  the h e c t i c  experiences Among people  terests,  achieved  of people  and n a t i o n s s i n c e 1914.  of more i n t e l l e c t u a l  t r a i n i n g and i n -  t h i s broadened outlook and sharpened judgment were  n a t u r a l l y more marked.  The r o l e of Canadians from the u n i v e r -  s i t i e s In h e l p i n g to form the new s o c i a l movements Is shown elsewhere;  t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s were n o t a b l e .  In B r i t i s h  Col-  umbia, support among those of h i g h e r education f o r s o c i a l i s t i c programs was v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e ;  a study of the p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l outlooks of h i g h - s c h o o l teachers of S o c i a l S t u d i e s , f o r example, would prove I l l u m i n a t i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Events  a t home and abroad  dle c l a s s a d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ;  change.  stimulated-among the midThere was the New  Deal  Mr. Ickes, Mr. Roosevelt, and o t h e r s  of the new leaders' had some v e r y harsh t h i n g s to say about the o l d order, and t h e i r e f f o r t s to reform c a p i t a l i s m aroused the greatest i n t e r e s t .  L a t e r , the achievements of Labor i n New  Zealand a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n ;  the Co-operative  Commonwealth  F e d e r a t i o n gave much p u b l i c i t y to these, and d e c l a r e d t h a t i t s program of s o c i a l change would, b r i n g s i m i l a r b e n e f i t s to the  168 people of B r i t i s h Columbia;  as Gladstone s a i d , one example i s  worth a thousand arguments,  and the advances made i n New Zea-  land i n s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and well-being:, t i v e a c t i v i t y , won many votes  i n p u b l i c and co-opera-  f o r the C C F .  .The r e v o l t s of s e v e r a l prominent Canadians had great, e f f e c t on the people; Stevens, who d e c l a r e d :  "Only the f i n a n c i a l c l a s s had prosper-  ed during the d e p r e s s i o n . class."  one of these was the Hon. H.H.'  Soon a l l w i l l be the s l a v e s of t h i s  He f u r t h e r said that the u n r e s t r i c t e d p r o f i t motive  was s t r a n g l i n g democracy; race of s e l f i s h men;  the s e l f i s h c o r p o r a t i o n had bred a  no government had ever been f r e e from  the c o n t r o l of money power.  I n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1935,  about as many voted f o r Mr. Stevens' R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y as voted f o r the C C F .  Mr. Stevens proposed merely to reform  c a p i t a l i s m , to g i v e a b e t t e r d e a l to the l i t t l e  business man;  n e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s of h i s probe and the e f f e c t of h i s r e v o l t was b e n e f i c i a l t o the promotion o f s o c i a l i s t i c thought.  Much of what s o c i a l i s t s had been s a y i n g was no?; con-  firmed by the r e v e l a t i o n s of a r o y a l commission and of a c a b i net m i n i s t e r who r e s i g n e d when he c o u l d not get s a t i s f a c t o r y remedial a c t i o n . Some of the h e a d l i n e s  i n the p r e s s d u r i n g the probe  of Mr. Stevens* P r i c e Spreads Commission i n 1934 read as f o l lows:  MASS BUYING REPORT EXPOSES INDUSTRIAL GREED:  Employees  169. underpaid:  Unfair Prices Paid:  ners Scored f o r Low Small Wages:  Chain Stores A t t a c k e d :  P r i c e s Paid  to Growers:  Big  DISHONESTY FORCED ON MANAGERS:  P l a c e Sweatshop Men  "On  Carpet";  VARIOUS WAYS OF CHEATING: G i r l ' s Wages $10  Dividends,  Stevens Would  STORE EMPLOYEES DESCRIBE  G i r l s Who  - P r o f i t s 125  Can-  Per 2  Work f o r 8 Cents an Hour: Cent;  Shocking  Conditions  i n C l o t h i n g Trade are Revealed. The  Turgeon r e p o r t on the  the House of Commons i n A p r i l , Of t h i s , Mr. ful,  1938,  provided  more  sensations.  Woodsworth s a i d i n the House that i t was  "a shame-  s i c k e n i n g s t o r y of h e a r t l e s s e x p l o i t a t i o n , of w h o l e s a l e  robbery by men high  t e x t i l e industry, tabled i n  prominent i n the p u b l i c l i f e  c l a s s crooks, s h e l t e r i n g w i t h i n the  i f f arrangements."^  s t r u c t u r e of our  tar-  Some companies had made tremendous p r o f -  i t s i n r e l a t i o n t o investment, had l a r g e s c a l e , had  o f Canada . , .  paid  evaded income tax on a  low wages and  refused  to allow  union  activity. The  p l i g h t of the unemploj^ed was  the middle c l a s s ; to the  constantly  there were parades, demonstrations,  seats of a u t h o r i t y ;  i z i n g thousands of d o l l a r s ;  there were tag days, o f t e n  R i o t Act by Mayor McGeer of Vancouver ( A p r i l 25, 2.  M o s t l y from -The  5.  The  treks real-  there were such i n c i d e n t s as  Vancouver Post o f f i c e s i t down p r o t e s t , the reading  New  before  Vancouver D a i l y  Commonwealth, J u l y 2,  Province.  1958.  of  1955),  the  the the  170. s o - c a l l e d Regina r i o t .  Prime M i n i s t e r Bennett's  r u t h l e s s n e s s " p o l i c y proved  unpopular;  " i r o n h e e l of  the promises  and  poli-  c i e s o f Mr. King and Mr. P a t t u l l o d i d not seem to do much t o r e l i e v e the s i t u a t i o n . ed themselves,  Many among the middle c l a s s were unemploy-  and many more s u f f e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y .  f o r a change" was  the c o n v i c t i o n that was  number of those who  had become convinced  i n the economic s t r u c t u r e and r e q u i r e d , was i n the end  increasing;  " I t ' s time  i n the a i r ; that d r a s t i c  and  the  alterations  s o c i a l p o l i c y of the country-were  Prime M i n i s t e r Bennett h i m s e l f had  condemned the o l d order and c a l l e d f o r reform,  most l e a d e r s - a g r e e d t h a t "poverty i n the midst anomaly that should not be t o l e r a t e d ;  and  of p l e n t y " was  the average  an  c i t i z e n fav-  ored reform, and a growing m i n o r i t y were ready to support  radi-  c a l change. At the end l i m e l i g h t a man  of 1936,  there was  emerging i n t o the  whose views were t o g i v e much g e n e r a l support  to the a n a l y s i s of the C.C.P., though he became a p o l i t i c a l opponent. Bennett,  Hon.  17. D. H e r r i d g e , b r o t h e r - i n - l a w of R t . Hon.  and M i n i s t e r a t Washington, may  to be a student of a f f a i r s .  New  Deal-ism,  and was  ember 17,  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d him as c a l l i n g f o r  a new  reputed  have Inbibed some  R.B.  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , based  on "the new  economic t r u t h s . "  should b i d l a i s s e z - f a i r e good-bye, he s a i d . co-ordination, d i r e c t i o n , planning. ahead - p r o s p e r i t y was  On Nov-  We  We must have s t a t e  Greater t r o u b l e s were  not here, and was  not coming.  "Co-opera-  171. t i o n by the people through t h e i r democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s alone ensure a l l the b e n e f i t s which the new confer.  economy i s a b l e to  For the f i r s t time, p r o s p e r i t y i s w i t h i n our  power to determine.  Our  can  own  task i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of democracy  through the r e g e n e r a t i o n of the economic system. place f o r freedom amid unhappiness and want.  We  There i s no c l a i m the  r i g h t to a s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g based not on our present c a p a c i t y to  purchase but on our p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y to produce.  p l a n n i n g , t h e r e can be no freedom i n the t h i n g s that  Without really  matter. The achievements  of the C o - o p e r a t i v e s and  credit  unions i n the Maritime p r o v i n c e s , f o s t e r e d by the Roman C a t h o l i c u n i v e r s i t y , S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r , were i n f l u e n t i a l ; farmers, miners, and fishermen had been enabled to t h e i r economic and community l i f e .  improve  The Co-operative and  union movements spread through B r i t i s h  Columbia;  t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n encouraged  them;  the  i n 1935,  D. G. Steeves, M.L.A., i n t r o d u c e d a C r e d i t Union B i l l , was bill  not adopted, but i n 1938, of i t s own.  credit  Co-operaMrs. which  the Government enacted such a  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a i d e d  t h i s movement through the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program of i t s Extens i o n Department.  The i d e a of c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t and the dem-  o n s t r a t i o n s of c o - o p e r a t i v e achievement,  l e d some people,  p a r t i c u l a r l y of the middle c l a s s , to g i v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p o r t to the C.C.F.  sap-  172 The middle c l a s s was much i n f l u e n c e d by the l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e adopted by some o f the churches toward the i n t e n s i f i e d s o c i a l problems;  i n "The Church and the Economic Order", the  League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n quoting  e n c y c l i c a l s , d e c l a r a t i o n s , convention r e s o l u t i o n s ,  from the r e c o r d s and  gave p u b l i c i t y f o r these,  United  of the Roman C a t h o l i c , A n g l i c a n ,  Churches;  Presbyterian,  these statements agreed t h a t c a p i t a l i s m ,  as i t had developed was open t o s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m from the C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of view, and that C h r i s t i a n s should themselves to b u i l d a b e t t e r s o c i a l order ples o f co-operation  i n which the p r i n c i -  and s e r v i c e , r a t h e r than the p r i n c i p l e of  p r i v a t e p r o f i t , v/ould dominate. t i o n s of the U n i t e d  exert  L a t e r i n the decade, d e c l a r a -  Church became i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l o f 4  c a p i t a l i s m and c a l l e d f o r a new s o c i a l order;  the Malvern  conference o f the l i b e r a l wing o f the Church of England, took a s i m i l a r stand, and i t s leader became Archbishop o f Canterbury. 4. D e c l a r a t i o n of the U n i t e d Church of Canada, 1933: F i r s t of a l l , i t i s our b e l i e f that the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of Jesus to economic c o n d i t i o n s would mean the end .of the C a p i t a l i s t System. By the C a p i t a l i s t System v/e mean that, order of t h i n g s under which C a p i t a l v/hich i s a v i t a l f a c t o r i n the economic f i e l d . , and r e p r e s • ents that p a r t of the economic product used, as a means t o f u r t h e r p r o d u c t i o n , i s owned and administered by i n d i v i d uals and s p e c i a l groups with a view to t h e i r ov/n p r o f i t . Our c o n t e n t i o n i s that C a p i t a l e s p e c i a l l y i n those l a r g e s c a l e forms that a r e e s s e n t i a l to the l i f e of the v/hole people should be owned and operated i n s t e a d , not f o r p r i - • vate gain, but i n the s e r v i c e of the common good. We h o l d the C a p i t a l i s t System to be u n c h r i s t i a n on the  <  4.  Footnote  - contd.  \  175.  "  f o l l o w i n g grounds: I t i s organized about and c o n t i n u a l l y i n c i t e s to a c t i o n t h e motives which Jesus condemned. I t d e s t r o y s the i n i t i a t i v e , freedom and s e c u r i t y o f v a s t m u l t i t u d e s o f people. I t f a l s i f i e d the C h r i s t i a n standard of v a l u e s , p u t t i n g the money i n t e r e s t above the human i n t e r e s t . I t i s u n j u s t and inhuman i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n of the burdens and b e n e f i t s of economic e f f o r t . I t c o n t i n u a l l y f r u s t r a t e s the w i l l of i n d i v i d u a l s to p r a c t i c e and put i n t o e f f e c t what Jesus taught. For these reasons we b e l i e v e t h a t the s o c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the Kingdom of God i s not compatible with the continuance o f the C a p i t a l i s t i c system, and we' t h i n k the Church s h o u l d no?; uncover f e a r l e s s l y the a n t i s o c i a l and u n c h r i s t i a n b a s i s of that system and d e c l a r e u n r e m i t t i n g war upon i t . But beside r e j e c t i n g C a p i t a l i s m , the Church i s c a l l e d upon t o advocate p o s i t i v e l y a C h r i s t i a n economic o r d e r . WHEREAS the method o f C a p i t a l i s m has been c o m p e t i t i o n and p r i v a t e a c q u i s i t i o n , the e s s e n t i a l law of a C h r i s t i a n system w i l l be c o - o p e r a t i o n . AND WHEREAS under C a p i t a l i s m , . c o n t r o l , being i n p r i v a t e hands i s d i r e c t e d to p r i v a t e p r o f i t and aggrandisement, cont r o l i n the C h r i s t i a n order w i l l be e x e r c i s e d f o r the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e , and p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be f o r the common good. The e s tablishment of t h i s c o n t r o l w i l l c a l l f o r the S o c i a l i z a t i o n of Banks, N a t u r a l Resources, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and other s e r v i c e s and i n d u s t r i e s i n so f a r as t h e i r o p e r a t i o n under p r i v a t e ownership p l a c e s undue power over the s u b s i s t e n c e of the peop l e i n the hands of s p e c i a l groups. ' S o c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s , not that the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these i n s t i t u t i o n s and s e r v i c e s w i l l be i n t h e hands of p o l i t i c a l bureaucrats, but that they w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d by the a b l e s t men a v a i l a b l e — f r e q u e n t l y these being the persons now employed—but with c o n t r o l being e x e r c i s e d to serve the g e n e r a l good, r a t h e r than the more r e s t r i c t e d i n t e r e s t of s h a r e h o l d e r s . (The Commonwealth September 6, 1933). R e s o l u t i o n passed by the B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia: WHEREAS to supply the needs of others r a t h e r than to make a p r o f i t f o r o u r s e l v e s i s the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of C h r i s t i a n i t y , we t h e r e f o r e m a i n t a i n t h a t the law .of s e r v i c e as proclaimed by C h r i s t i s the o n l y permanent s o l u t i o n of our economic problems." WHEREAS the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of a country, such as timber, mines, f i s h e r i e s , , e t c . , a r e the g i f t s o f God, the Creator, and the i n a l i e n a b l e p o s s e s s i o n s of a l l the people, t h e r e f o r e , f o r any i n d i v i d u a l to o b t a i n p o s s e s s i o n of more than a f a i r share of the n a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e i s to d e p r i v e the r e s t of t h e i r  174 4.  Footnote  r i g h t s and  -  contd.  privileges.  (The  Commonwealth, October 25,  1933).  W i t h i n the Roman C a t h o l i c church i n B r i t i s h Columbia there was a c e r t a i n a n t i p a t h y toward the C.C.F., although many Roman C a t h o l i c s gave the movement t h e i r p e r s o n a l support. In 1934 Archbishop Gauthier of Montreal, and i n 1938 C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e i n Quebec, condemned the C.C.F. In December, the C.C.F. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l i s s u e d a r e p l y t o the C a r d i n a l . I t quoted the Papal E n c y c l i c a l Quadragissimo Anno: "Free comp e t i t i o n i s dead; economic d i c t a t o r s h i p has taken i t s p l a c e . U n b r i d l e d ambition f o r domination has succeeded the d e s i r e f o r gain; the whole economic l i f e has become hard, c r u e l and r e l e n t l e s s i n g h a s t l y measure . . . c e r t a i n forms of p r o p e r t y must be reserved to the s t a t e , s i n c e they c a r r y with them an o p p o r t u n i t y o f domination too great to be l e f t to p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s : without i n j u r y to the community at l a r g e . " S o c i a l i s m , the C o u n c i l s a i d , aims to e s t a b l i s h the c o n d i t i o n s under which the f u l l e s t and best development of the i n d i v i d u a l may be possible.. Far from t a k i n g away homes and other p e r s o n a l possessions, i t wished to make p o s s i b l e more of t h i s s o r t of p r i v a t e ownership. I t was i n harmony with B r i t i s h Labor Party, approved by the l a t e C a r d i n a l Bourne, and the New Zealand Labor Party, i n the Cabinet of which were f i v e Roman C a t h o l i c s . The C o u n c i l r e g r e t t e d C a r d i n a l V i l l e n e u v e ' s apparent approval of I t a l i s n f a s c i s m *  175. World events had t h e i r e f f e c t on the middle also; gan  the g e n e r a l  nature of the f o r c e s and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d be-  to become c l e a r e r .  A p p r e c i a t i o n of what was going  with the League of Nations was i n c r e a s i n g ; of f a s c i s m was being b e t t e r understood; i n Spain,  with  wrong  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  the t r a g i c happenings  c i v i l war and i n v a s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e d  wide s t r u g g l e between the f o r c e s of a g g r e s s i v e of s o c i a l  class,  the w o r l d -  r e a c t i o n and  change. Among the middle c l a s s i n Canada and i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, then, many f a c t o r s were o p e r a t i n g d u r i n g t h e 1930's to produce d i s c o n t e n t ,  skeptisicm,  a g a i n s t the e x i s t i n g order The  c r i t i c i s m , and r e v o l t  of s o c i e t y .  o l d s o c i a l i s t movement had boasted o f b e i n g  of the working c l a s s - that i s , of the wage earners;  the new  s o c i a l i s t movement was t o draw much s t r e n g t h from the p r o f e s sional, business  the i n t e l l e c t u a l , classes,  the s a l a r i e d , and even from the  176. Chapter  Seven.  Impact o f Economic Depression Upon S o c i a l Thought  S e c t i o n 5;  Movements by S o c i a l Change These c o n d i t i o n s of c r i s i s  induced  a phenomenal  amount of t h i n k i n g among the Canadian people, w i t h of g r e a t h i s t o r i c ments sprang  importance,  results  Study groups and reform move-  up a c r o s s the country, and  the o l d e r p r o g r e s s i v e  f o r c e s , w i t h the energy of d e s p e r a t i o n and  the i n c e n t i v e o f  hope f o r a b e t t e r day,  p a r t y of the  planned  a g r e a t new  Dr. L y l e T e l f o r d , Vancouver p h y s i c i a n , was i a l i s t movement i n h i m s e l f . he conducted ings, and,  people. a soc-  A s s i s t e d by Miss Frances Moren,  a r e g u l a r r a d i o broadcast,  frequent p u b l i c meet-  as funds permitted, p u b l i s h e d The  Challenge news-  paper, f i n a n c e d by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from T e l f o r d ' s f o l l o w e r s . The plump, pink, w h i t e - h a i r e d , b e s p e c t a c l e d d o c t o r , with h i s sheaves of notes  and h i s r a p i d - f i r e of charge and  up a v e r y l a r g e p u b l i c f o l l o w i n g .  challenge, had  built  1  1. Dr. T e l f o r d ?;as to swing that f o l l o w i n g i n t o the C.C.F.,of which, i n 1936, he became B.C.president; he was to become an M.L.A. and Mayor o f Vancouver and, f a l l i n g f o u l of the p a r t y r e g u l a t i o n a g a i n s t a member h o l d i n g more than two p u b l i c o f f i c e s a t one time, he was to resume h i s independent s t a t u s , . going down to d e f e a t at subsequent c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c tions .  177. The  Challenge  of J u l y 1932,  istence) i s a t y p i c a l i s s u e . pages, p r i n t e d on high-grade  (18th month of  I t c o n s i s t s of f o u r white paper.  six-column  The main a r t i c l e  i s a r e p o r t of an address g i v e n i n Vancouver hy Dr. Durant.  ex-  Will  Dr. Durant gave a s o c i a l i s t a n a l y s i s of the world  c r i s i s , blaming  d e p r e s s i o n on e x p l o i t a t i o n of man  by  with i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth and power. the white r a c e would d e s t r o y i t s e l f  i n war*  man He f e a r e d  Co-operation  and  economic p l a n n i n g were the only hope. Dr. T e l f o r d had a meeting or a r a d i o t a l k duled f o r almost Miss Moren was  every day  sche-  of the l a t t e r h a l f of the mont_;  to speak at s e v e r a l p o i n t s on Vancouver Island,  and i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y . The Women's S e c t i o n of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada was and  c a l l i n g a mass meeting t o p e t i t i o n the  provincial  f e d e r a l governments to take over a l l s u p p l i e s , n a t u r a l r e -  sources, and equipment necessary  to keep the people from s t a r -  v a t i o n , and to use and operate them i n the i n t e r e s t of a l l the  people. The Young S o c i a l i s t s ' corner announced f o r m a t i o n  of had  the Young S o c i a l i s t League. r i s e n to 40.  Members had  Membership d u r i n g e i g h t months s t u d i e d the communist  of Marx and Engels, Fred Henderson's "The  manifesto  A.B.C* of S o c i a l i s m " ,  and E n g e l s ' "Socialism., U t o p i a n and S c i e n t i f i c " , as w e l l as other books.  An a r t i c l e by Jack Logie of V i c t o r i a ,  " Mani-  178. i f e s t o of Youth i n R e v o l t " , had been adopted as the of  the League.  Renfrew.  The League had  manifesto  two branches, K i t s i l a n o  and  I t s program i n c l u d e d r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l  ures, and a summer camp was  feat-  planned.  Addressed to the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n ,  the  "Manifesto  from Youth i n R e v o l t " denounces wars, p e s t i l e n c e , famine, e x p l o i t a t i o n of man  by man,  t i o n w i l l not shoulder  and d e c l a r e s the younger genera-  the consequent burden of d e b t s .  Excor-  i a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s created by the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s , manifesto  demands that r i g h t and  r e s o u r c e s , banks and ted  and  title  the  to a l l lands, n a t u r a l  f a c t o r i e s be v e s t e d i n youth,  f o r the b e n e f i t of s o c i e t y as a whole.  to be  "Then w i l l  opera-  we  c r e a t e an i n s t i t u t i o n of the dear l o v e o f comrades, where pove r t y and and  s t r i f e are no more . . . .  A new  world  i s i n the making  the t a s k of moulding i t i s o u r s . " The Manifesto  of the Young S o c i a l i s t League i s an  p o s i t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a p i t a l i s m and a c a l l join in building socialism.  "The  world  ex-  to  i s the h e r i t a g e of a l l 2  of  us and should not f a l l i n t o the hands of a p r i v i l e g e d Page 3 was  of  Canada. Formerly  few."  w r i t t e n by members of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y the Independent Labor P a r t y , t h i s  organiza-  t i o n had added " S o c i a l i s t " a t i t s l a s t convention, and then by 2. These M a n i f e s t o s w i l l be found i n Appendices 5 and 6. The f i r s t was a s m a l l 4-page pamphlet p r i n t e d by The Review, P r i n t e r s , North Vancouver; the second was a broadsheet.  referendum had adopted the name " S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada", which, i t was f e l t ,  clearly  expressed, i t s purpose.  W.W.Lefeaux, r e p l y i n g to the c r i t i c i s m ,  said  President  that some .were  being s e n t i m e n t a l about the name I.L.P. because of attachment to the t r a d i t i o n s of the I.L.P. i n B r i t a i n , Canadians were v e r y hazy about the B r i t i s h  but held that most I.L.P.  The l a s t  convention had d i r e c t e d the P r o v i n c i a l E x e c u t i v e Committee to attempt Dominion-wide  a f f i l i a t i o n with o t h e r S o c i a l i s t  parties.;  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e had attended the Western Labor Conference, but  there were no other S o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s to a f f i l i a t e w i t h .  As f o r any who might  shie a t the name " S o c i a l i s t " ,  ment was b e t t e r o f f without them.  the move-  The c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d n o t  provide f o r a referendum, but the c o n s t i t u t i o n was made f o r the  party, not the p a r t y f o r the c o n s t i t u t i o n . Another a r t i c l e f o r e c a s t  war a g a i n s t the S o v i e t  Union by the desperate c a p i t a l i s t powers.  The workers must  emancipate themselves, and should, beware of f o l l o w i n g  leaders,  warned another w r i t e r . " O r g a n i z a t i o n Notes" reported four ne¥/ branches, with others being formed, and a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n membership. 1700 membership cards had been i s s u e d . I t was expected that a t l e a s t 30 s o c i a l i s t c-andldates would c o n t e s t the next p r o v i n c i a l election. Street,  Headquarters and r e a d i n g room were a t 666 Homer  Vancouver.  180. This i s s u e of The Grace Maclnnis and  advised you  "Starve  extracts  some g e n e r a l world news.  Stephen c o n t r i b u t e d a poem i n which Canada q u i e t l y , my  sons, i n the land where they  say  are f r e e " . In a t y p i c a l speech, reported  Dr.  a r t i c l e s by-  J . S. Woodsworth, a book l i s t and  from v a r i o u s w r i t e r s , and A. M.  Challenge contained  i n the d a i l y  T e l f o r d t o l d 5,000 i n the Arena that Canada's  having come i n t o p r i v a t e hands, had p l e and  should be r e t u r n e d .  Since  press,  resources,  been s t o l e n from the peoPrime M i n i s t e r Bennett  had  promised to s o l v e the unemployment problem or p e r i s h i n the attempt, Dr. ment.  The  T e l f o r d c a l l e d f o r the r e s i g n a t i o n of the govern-  speaker s t r o n g l y censured proposals  r e l i e f camps.  He  criticized  provincial  Pooley's warning that subversive with,  as a threat a g a i n s t  the people.  He d e c l a r e d  f i g h t to V i c t o r i a and  t h a t he had  p i c e s of the  Ottawa.  attorney-general  acts would be f i r m l y d e a l t  those who  urged the people to organize  for establishing  were attempting to defand no p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n .  against c a p i t a l i s m , and The meeting was  carry  under the  He* the  aus-  I.L.P.  D i r e c t a c t i o n to improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n 7/as taken by a number of unemployed people i n and They formed the  being  around Vancouver.  "Common Good Co-op", a development that seemed 3 to those f a v o u r a b l e to s o c i a l change as h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 3. A r e p o r t of the development of t h i s Co-operative i s g i v e n i n Appendix 7.  181. In the e a r l y summer of 1932, for  branches of the League  S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ?/ere formed i n Vancouver and  toria.  The  L.S.R., as i t was  c a l l e d , had  i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n eastern u n i v e r s i t i e s . pamphlet, Vancouver- Branch No. new  i n the midst  of p l e n t y . "  been e s t a b l i s h e d by  In an  1 set f o r t h  s o c i a l order i n Canada to end  Vic-  attractive  "A program f o r the  the e x i s t e n c e of  poverty  The b a s i s p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g pro-  d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and r a t h e r than p r i v a t e p r o f i t .  s e r v i c e , was  to be the common good  C a p i t a l i s m was  condemned as  un-  j u s t and inhuman, w a s t e f u l , a s t a n d i n g t h r e a t to peace and democracy.  The world  s t r u g g l e f o r raw m a t e r i a l s and  markets  and the consequent competition i n armaments were among the main causes of the l a s t war b r i n g on new  wars.  and  c o n s t a n t l y threatened  I n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of wealth  hands of i r r e s p o n s i b l e bankers and to p o l i t i c a l democracy. and  wage and  to i n the  i n d u s t r i a l i s t s was  a danger  In Canada, the i n t e r e s t s of  farmers  salaried, workers—the great majority—were  itually sacrificed  to those  of t h i s s m a l l m i n o r i t y .  Despite  abundant n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , the mass of the people had been f r e e d from poverty  and  insecurity.  Unregulated  hab-  not  competi-  t i v e p r o d u c t i o n produced a l t e r n a t e f e v e r i s h p r o s p e r i t y , benef i t t i n g mainly depression, s e c u r i t y and  s p e c u l a t o r s and p r o f i t e e r s , and c a t a s t r o p h i c  a c c e n t u a t i n g the common man's normal s t a t e of• i n hardship.  182. "We are convinced t h a t these e v i l s are i n h e r e n t i n any system i n which p r i v a t e p r o f i t i s the main stimulus to economic e f f o r t . "We t h e r e f o r e look to the establishment i n Canada of a new s o c i a l order which w i l l s u b s t i t u t e a planned and s o c i a l i z e d economy f o r the e x i s t i n g c h a o t i c i n d i v i d u a l i s m and which, by a c h i e v i n g an approximate economic e q u a l i t y among a l l men i n p l a c e of the present g l a r i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s , w i l l e l i m i n a t e the domination of one c l a s s by another. "As e s s e n t i a l FIRST steps towards the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s new order we advocate: 1. P u b l i c ownership and o p e r a t i o n of the p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s connected w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communicat i o n , and e l e c t r i c power, and of such other i n d u s t r i e s as are a l r e a d y approaching c o n d i t i o n s o f monopolistic control. 2. N a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of banks and other f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s with a view to the r e g u l a t i o n of a l l c r e d i t and investment o p e r a t i o n s . 5. The f u r t h e r development of a g r i c u l t u r a l coo p e r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n and merc h a n d i s i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l products.. 4. S o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n to secure to the worker adequate income and l e i s u r e , freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n , insurance a g a i n s t i l l n e s s , a c c i d e n t , old age, and unemployment, and an e f f e c t i v e v o i c e i n the management of h i s i n d u s t r y . 5. P u b l i c l y organized h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l and medi c a l services. 6. A t a x a t i o n p o l i c y emphasizing s t e e p l y graduated income and i n h e r i t a n c e t a x e s . 7. The c r e a t i o n of a N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission. 8. The v e s t i n g i n Canada of the power to amend and i n t e r p r e t the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n so as to g i v e the f e d e r a l government power to c o n t r o l the n a t i o n a l economic development. 9. A f o r e i g n p o l i c y designed to secure i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r e g u l a t i n g trade, i n d u s t r y , and f i n a n c e , and to promote disarmament and world peace." This M a n i f e s t o was Toronto  denounced by The F i n a n c i a l Post  as "pure communism" and  "catchy slogans" designed  p e a l to "those o c c a s i o n a l u n f o r t u n a t e s who  to  have not been able  of ap-  183* to f i n d  t h e i r p l a c e yet i n the economic p a t t e r n " .  4  As f o r p o l i c y and method, the League was through study groups;  i t was  articles,  so o n — t h e most a c c u r a t e  l e c t u r e s and  o b t a i n a b l e about the n a t i o n ' s informed  public opinion;  to work  to spread--through pamphlets,  affairs,  information  i n order to create  i n so f a r as any  an  p o l i t i c a l program  f u r t h e r e d League p r i n c i p l e s , the League would support I t ; the League would f o s t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n  among a l l groups and i n -  d i v i d u a l s d e s i r i n g the same kind of s o c i a l order as that aimed at by the L.S.R. The  pamphlet r e p r i n t e d an e d i t o r i a l from The  i a n Forum, A p r i l 1932,  on the L.S.R.  experience  two  of men  of the l a s t  The  have become very  c a l about the a b i l i t y of our c a p i t a l i s t i c or a happy s o c i e t y " .  onto and Montreal i a n Fabian M.P. Scott  On  had  Society.  "the  scepti-  system to produce an  In February a group from Tor-  launched the League as a k i n d of CanadHonorary p r e s i d e n t was  the p r o v i s i o n a l executive  J.S.Woodsworth,  committee were P r o f .  F.R.  ( M c G i l l ) , P r o f . King Gordon (Union T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e ,  Montreal),  P r o f . E.A.Havelock ( V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e ,  Mr ."J.F.Parkinson  Toronto),  ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto), P r o f . F . H . U n d e r h i l l  ( U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o ) .  S e c r e t a r y was  Toronto. 4*  Forum s a i d that  years has produced a growing number  and women, even i n Canada, who  efficient  Canad-  Canadian Forum, June,  1932.  Miss I s a b e l Thomas,  184. Also r e p r i n t e d i s an a r t i c l e from "The U.F.A." o f Calgary,  J u l y 2, 1932, on "A N a t i o n a l Programme to End Poverty  i n the Midst  of P l e n t y " .  a c a l l f o r concerted  Farmers of A l b e r t a i s s u e d  a c t i o n by a l l groups i n t e r e s t e d i n estab-  l i s h i n g a co-operative "The  The United  s t a t e through a b i d f o r p o l i t i c a l power.  complete f a i l u r e of the two o l d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to ap-  p l y even e f f e c t i v e p a l l i a t i v e s has l e d to d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and deep.discontent  among l a r g e numbers of c i t i z e n s . "  Leadership  i n s p i r e d by s o c i a l v i s i o n was needed. A Manifesto  had been adopted on F r i d a y , June 30,  by a j o i n t meeting of the e x e c u t i v e s Farm Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  of the United  Farmers and  of A l b e r t a , the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t  p r i v a t e U.F.A. members of the L e g i s l a t u r e and of the House  of Commons..  The programme adopted was very s i m i l a r to the  manifesto i s s u e d by the L.S.R. some weeks b e f o r e . The  L.S.R. pamphlet quoted from the f i n d i n g s of  the A l b e r t a Conference of the United 1931,  Church of Canada, May  paragraphs f a v o r i n g "the c r e a t i o n of an order based on  co-operation petitive,  and s e r v i c e which would d i s p l a c e the present  acquisitive social  order".  Dr. W. Gordon Cumming was f i r s t p r e s i d e n t couver Branch No. 1;  Ronald Grantham was f i r s t  and p r o f e s s i o n s .  of Van-  secretary.  Many members were prominent i n Vancouver s c h o o l s , organizations  com-  libraries,  Theosophists played  an import-  ant p a r t i n t h i s and i n l a t e r l e f t - w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  a fact  185. which may  he explained', p a r t l y by t h e i r d e v o t i o n to the  of the brotherhood  of man;  ideal  f u r t h e r , t h e o s o p h i s t s have broken  with c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o n ;  theosophy appeals to people  want to reason t h i n g s out";  t h e o s o p h i s t s have an e v o l u t i o n a r y  view of human s o c i e t y ;  "who  they b e l i e v e f i r m l y , moreover, i n  p r a c t i s i n g what they teach - i n " m a n i f e s t a t i o n " , i n advancing 5 through  experience.  A number of L.S.R. people were monetary  reformers - l i k e Dr. Gumming and E.A.Woodward (an exponent of the G e s e l l t h e o r y ) ;  Many strange monetary t h e o r i e s were to  a f f l i c t the new movements of the 1930's, and even, as w i l l shown, t o i n f e c t spokesmen of the o l d p a r t i e s .  Some of the  younger L.S.R. members came from the U n i v e r s i t y , from the Student  C h r i s t i a n Movement, which had  be  particularly  encouraged  d i s c u s s i o n of contemporary problems ' i n the l i g h t o f C h r i s t i a n ity. E f f o r t s were made to win support from members of the U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y but, apart from some e x p r e s s i o n s of i n t e r e s t and sympathy, these met  with no success.  In contrast  with the academic i n i t i a t i v e shown i n e a s t e r n Canada, members of the f a c u l t y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not choose to thro?/ t h e i r weight behind  t h i s middle  class organi-  zation for reconstruction. A b i g factor i n their no doubt, was  t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government had  the U n i v e r s i t y by s l a s h i n g i t s grant, and 5.  attitude, crippled  there ?;ere demands  I n f o r m a t i o n obtained, from Hermes Lodge, Vancouver.  186. for  further reduction.  were u n d e r s t a f f e d , activities.  Furthermore, u n i v e r s i t y departments  leaving l i t t l e  As has been pointed  time f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l u m out, however, s e v e r a l pro-  f e s s o r s d i d p u b l i c l y a t t a c k the Kidd Report.  L a t e r some  f a c u l t y members gave l e a d e r s h i p i n the C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union, and t h e U n i v e r s i t y promoted the c o - o p e r a t i v e and c r e d i t movements.  I t produced  no Frank H. U n d e r h i l l or F.R.Scott;  i t s p r o f e s s o r s gave no open support  to the C.C.F*;  M. Weir, l i b e r a l minded, c r i t i c a l , and b r i l l i a n t went i n t o p o l i t i c s but,  union  Dr. George  educator,  to the deep disappointment of the l e f t  wing, he chose to b o l s t e r the L i b e r a l  Party.  " A c t i v e " members s u b s c r i b e d to the L.S.R. p o l i c y and  program.  " A s s o c i a t e " members expressed  general  sympathy  with the League's aims. At f i r s t , members met as a group, most o f t e n a t the home of Mr., and Mrs. R.P.Steeves, and d i s c u s s e d of p o l i c y and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  problems  I t was a "middle c l a s s " g a t h e r i n g ,  and was r a t h e r looked down upon by the o l d e r s o c i a l i s t s of the c i t y , some of whom d i d not c o n s i d e r that any good was t o be expected from comfortable speaking,  (though many were,  d e c i d e d l y uncomfortable) i d e a l i s t s ,  economically  unversed i n  ^  Marxian d i a l e t i c , meeting t o chat and d r i n k t e a . Members f e l t t h a t they were meeting i n the shadow of the impending f i n a l c o l l a p s e of a crumbling  economic  187. system.  6  The  headlines  f o r the f e e l i n g . organize f o r one  One  of the day  suggestion  gave ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n  was  that the League  should  on the b a s i s of s e c r e t c e l l s , an arrangement which, t h i n g , would p r o t e c t employees, but the b o l d e r  of g i v i n g p u b l i c l e a d e r s h i p was discussed  favored.  course  Suggestions were  f o r g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p when the breakdown came. The  c a r r y i n g on of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s , l i k e the  supplying  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of food, would have to be seen t o . In outlook the members ranged from well-meaning s o u l s who who  shrank from the word " s o c i a l i s m " to  wanted the  enthusiasts  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a mass r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement.  In s u b s c r i b i n g to the L.S.R. p o l i c y and Vancouver Branch No.<L d e c l a r e d  i t s b e l i e f "that c e r t a i n  mediate problems demand a t t e n t i o n , and d e c l a r e d as P l a n k No. "10.  10 the  program,  they t h e r e f o r e have  following:  In view of the urgency of the s i t u a t i o n and  the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c safeguards a g a i n s t disorder,  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n should, be g i v e n  p o l i c i e s which w i l l ensure the supply t i e s and  im-  social  t o the study of  of the primary n e c e s s i -  essential services." P l a n k 10 i s i n t e r e s t i n g evidence of the sense of  c r i s i s and  urgency t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n the summer of 1932.  It  6. Toynbee,Arnold J . : Survey of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1931. Oxford,1932. P a r t 1(1) Annus T e r r i b i l i s 1931. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of 1931,Mr.Toynbee says,was the f a c t that "men and women a l l over the world were s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the Western system of S o c i e t y might break down and cease to work." B e l i e f i n automatic progress was c r a c k i n g .  188 shows, f u r t h e r ,  t h a t the L.S.R. members, were not z e a l o t s eager -;  to take advantage of a " r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n " ; for  radical  ses.  changes through  they wished  o r d e r l y and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  proces-  In t h i s concern f o r p r o p r i e t y and i n t h i s f a i t h i n e v o l u -  t i o n a r y progress,  l a y another d i f f e r e n c e between these  people  and seme of the more h a r d - b o i l e d d o c t r i n a i r e s o c i a l i s t s  (though,  as has been amply made c l e a r , the S o c i a l i s t P a r t i e s had always s t r e s s e d e d u c a t i o n and the c o n v e r s i o n of the m a j o r i t y ) . The League formed s i x c o m m i t t e e s — o n Emergency R e l i e f , Communications and Contact, P r o v i n c i a l Planning, iffs, met  Trade and Tar-  Monetary Reform, Technique of S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Each  separately;  j o i n t meetings were h e l d ;  were now convened i n downtown h a l l s * was accomplished  and p u b l i c meetings  A great amount of \?ork  and some p u b l i c a t i o n s were i s s u e d . Each com-  m i t t e e was expected  to propagate i t s program by means o f  printing,, r a d i o , p u b l i c meetings, e f f o r t s to get e n d o r s a t i o n by affiliated  and other groups, and e f f o r t s to i n f l u e n c e p o l i t i c a l  parties. The  L.S.R. b o o k l e t "What t o Read" contained a compre-  hensive b i b l i o g r a p h y under these headings:  Societies Publish-  ing M a t e r i a l of I n t e r e s t to Members of the L.S.R.; S o c i a l i s t Theory;  Economic P l a n n i n g ;  ternational Relations; Banking; Questions;  Imperialism;  T a r i f f s and Trade;  Russia;  Fascism;  Disarmament;  Labor Questions;  Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s ;  Journals; In-  Money and  Constitutional  P o p u l a t i o n and Immi-  189. gration;  Agriculture;  Transportation;  Canadian I n d u s t r i a l and Canada;  State  H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Power;  Commercial Development;  Taxation i n  Medicine.  Vancouver Branch No.  1 mimeographed a d d i t i o n a l  tit-  les. Another mimeographed b u l l e t i n was a paper read May  25,  1932  "The  P a r t y System",  by P r o f . F . H . U n d e r h i l l to the Canad-  i a n P o l i t i c a l Science Association-. H i s t h e s i s was  that u n t i l  r e c e n t l y , while the r e a l work of d e v e l o p i n g the country b e i n g done by p r i v a t e , p r o f i t - s e e k i n g concerns,  the  was  two-party  system worked f a i r l y w e l l , i t s c h i e f concern b e i n g t o d i s t r i b ute haphazardly  the p r i v i l e g e s and s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s sought  by b u s i n e s s , but that, today p a r l i a m e n t a r i s m i s challenged the need to organiz-e the p o l i t i c a l and economic l i f e  by  of the  people f o r the g e n e r a l welfare, and must meet the c h a l l e n g e s u c c e s s f u l l y or g i v e way  to some other form of government.  P r o f e s s o r U n d e r b i l l paid t r i b u t e to the P r o g r e s s i v e movement f o r i t s championship of the farmer, disappearance.  Only the U.F.A. was  left.  and r e g r e t t e d i t s  Only  counter-organi-  z a t i o n c o u l d g i v e a movement the s t r e n g t h t o stand entrenched  a g a i n s t the  o l d p a r t i e s with t h e i r caucuses dominated by e a s t -  ern r e a c t i o n a r y i n t e r e s t s . p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a new  "Today everyone i s d i s c u s s i n g the  l e f t - w i n g movement i n Canadian p o l i t i c s .  Unless such a movement has a s o l i d core of stubborn  class  190. groups l i k e the present  U.F.A. and Labor groups, i t w i l l  t e g r a t e when the emotional atmosphere  changes,  disin-  j u s t as the  1921  movement d i s i n t e g r a t e d . " "Canada and S o c i a l i s m " was another parmphlet by the L.S.R.  published  Success i n the accumulation of wealth, r e g a r d l e s s  of the methods or e f f e c t s of such accumulation, has been the economic  g o a l i n Canada, the a r t i c l e s a i d .  however, had come to s t a y . ism were d e f i n e d  S o c i a l i s t thinking,  The three main f e a t u r e s of c a p i t a l -  as, the p r i v a t e ownership of the means of p r o -  d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n ;  the d i v o r c e between the f u n c t i o n s of  work and ownership, and the conduct of i n d u s t r y f o r p r i v a t e profit.  This system had l a r g e l y s o l v e d the problem of produc-  t i o n , but c o l o s s a l waste, s e r i o u s I n s t a b i l i t y , n e g l e c t of the' problem of e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n , and c a l l o u s d i s r e g a r d of social  j u s t i c e , had accompanied  this gain.  These e v i l s were  d e c l a r e d to be d i r e c t r e s u l t s of the three main f e a t u r e s of capitalism.  To c o r r e c t them, i t was h e l d ,  of the p r i n c i p a l means of production, change was  required.  tween those who  social  ownership  d i s t r i b u t i o n , and  " I t alone can r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t  l i v e by owning and those who  exbe-  l i v e by working".  S o c i a l i s m "proposes a planned economy based on s o c i a l  ownership,  and d i r e c t e d to the e l i m i n a t i o n of poverty and i n s e c u r i t y . " Since the appearance of c a p i t a l i s t p r o s p e r i t y was longer maintained i n North America than i n Europe,  radical  191. c r i t i c i s m , the a r t i c l e p o i n t s out, was "The  war  was  l a t e r i n developing.  a godsend to Canadian t r a d e " and  the  needs, of the post-war " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " p e r i o d continued u r a l l y heavy demand f o r Canadian goods. low the minimum f o r h e a l t h and ity,  there was  Average wages were be-  decency, there was  no  extension of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s was  made inadequate or  by powerful  much bad housing,  socialist  job  c o n s i d e r a b l e unemployment at the b e s t of  i n t e r e s t s , there was  an unnat-  securtimes,  prevented yet only  the  looked below the s u r f a c e of apparent p r o s p e r i t y , and  he went unheeded. The continued,  socialist  ves f u r t h e r handicapped, the pamphlet  by the f a c t that he depended f o r h i s a n a l y s i s l a r g e -  l y on the experience c a p i t a l i s m was  of European c o u n t r i e s i n which  f a r t h e r advanced than i n Canada;  o r i g i n of s o c i a l i s m was The  somehow regarded  pamphlet concluded  the d e p r e s s i o n had  as a  industrial  the European  stigma.  by p o i n t i n g out that j u s t  as  been very i n t e n s e i n Canada (because of  great dependence on export trade, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i v i s i o n of a u t h o r i t y , l a c k or inadequacy of s o c i a l insurances s i o n s ) , so p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n had became a very l i v e i s s u e .  ills  had  The  pen-  been i n t e n s e too. S o c i a l i s m  Demands f o r s o c i a l i s t measures came  from many groups throughout the c o u n t r y — y o u t h , intellectual.  and  n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the  church,  d e p r e s s i o n and i t s  been the r i s e of a n a t i v e s o c i a l i s t p a r t y , the  o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n .  labor,  Co-  192. How t h i s F e d e r a t i o n developed i n the summer of 1932 w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  later.  Although the L.S.R. gave much time to study and to the making of r e p o r t s , many of i t s members, i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e s s i n g problems of the times, wanted to be p l a y i n g a more a c t ive  r o l e i n public a f f a i r s .  formation t i o n Party  The r e s u l t of t h i s urge was the  of a new p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l party, the Reconstruc(B.C.)  The new p a r t y was a f f i l i a t e d  formed Co-operative  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  with  (as, n a t i o n a l l y , was  the L.S.R.) and endorsed the C.C.F. f e d e r a l program. provinces  the r e c e n t l y  Because  do not possess s o v e r e i g n powers, the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  P a r t y made a P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m " t o meet immediate p r o v i n c i a l needs and to complement i t s F e d e r a l aims".. posed reforms i n t a x a t i o n , education,  This platform  and e l e c t i o n  pro-  matters,  e x t e n s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and development of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , and c o - o p e r a t i v e s .  As a f i n a n c i a l measure i t  asked the Dominion to i s s u e l e g a l tender t o the P r o v i n c e change f o r bonds.  The Manifesto  i n ex-  c a l l e d f o r a new s o c i a l economy  making abundance a v a i l a b l e t o the people.  The new p a r t y  faced  the i s s u e s of the c r i s i s and e a r n e s t l y s e t f o r t h a program f o r reform  and progress,  a program which at the same time would h e l p  pave the way f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . 7.  7  Manifesto and p l a t f o r m are given i n f u l l i n Appendix. A 4 page pamphlet a t t r a c t i v e l y p r i n t e d on yellow paper, no p u b l i s h e r mentioned.  .  193. The R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y the Co-operative  (B.C.) became absorbed  in  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , B.C.Section, i t s  members g i v i n g much of the i n i t i a l impetus to the  formation  of C.C.F. c l u b s . Many of the members of the League f o r S o c i a l Recons t r u c t i o n and of the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y (B.C.) were to p l a y prominent r o l e s i n the C.C.F. i n the years ahead;  not a  few  became candidates f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e , and a number were to come e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  be-  people.  The League for S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, then, f i e l d and  ceased  t r a n s f e r r e d i t s energy i n t o the to e x i s t i n i t s o r i g i n a l form.  political In e a s t e r n  Canada i t continued as p r i m a r i l y a r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , sponsoring Socialism",  such p u b l i c a t i o n s as the popular "Democracy Needs "Poverty Amid P l e n t y " — a r e v e a l i n g study of con-  d i t i o n s on the p r a i r i e s — a n d " S o c i a l Planning f o r Canada", an epochal work i n which the development of the Canadian economy i s analysed and  a new  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r developing the  i a l i z e d state is outlined f u l l y .  Finally,  i t may  be  soc-  noted  that the C.C.F.'s " b r a i n t r u s t " which c o n t r i b u t e d much t o the drawing up of the Regina M a n i f e s t o , was  drawn l a r g e l y from the  L.S.R., p a r t i c u l a r l y from prominent members i n e a s t e r n u n i v e r sities. In the dark summer of 1932  the mounting concern  of  194.  Canadians with pressed ialist  the problems of t h e i r s o c i e t y — a concern ex-  i n the i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y of l a b o r , farmer, and soco r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n the f o r m a t i o n  of c r i t i c a l  groups  among the youth, the m i d d l e - c l a s s , and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s - came to a climax of the people,  i n the c r e a t i o n of a new-, broad-based p a r t y  the Co-operative  Politically, Canadian l i f e . ist  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n .  the r o o t s of the p a r t y were deep i n  J.S.Woodsworth, h i m s e l f of U n i t e d Empire L o y a l -  stock, always maintained  t h a t the C.C.F. embodied many o f  the b e s t of the pioneer t r a d i t i o n s of the c o u n t r y . The  65 " P r o g r e s s i v e s " sent t o the House o f Com-  mons i n 1921 mostly from the p r a i r i e s , were not committed to a new s o c i a l order.  They wanted money reform,  improved farm c o n d i t i o n s .  tariff  Consequently the main body of them  became absorbed i n t o the L i b e r a l P a r t y .  I f the impulse  which created the " P r o g r e s s i v e " wave could be roused d i s c i p l i n e d by experience could.be founded. tained a c r i t i c a l  changes,  and understanding,  again,  a true t h i r d  party  The m i n o r i t y c a l l e d t h e "Ginger Group" maino p p o s i t i o n to the o l d p a r t i e s .  I n the next  general e l e c t i o n most of the P r o g r e s s i v e s went down, but most of the Ginger Group were r e - e l e c t e d . In the same year been elected—J.S.Woodsworth (Calgary)..  of 1921, two Labor members had  (Winnipeg) and W i l l i a m I r v i n e  Both had been m i n i s t e r s of the gospel and s o c i a l  195. s e r v i c e workers.  Two more Labor men  were e l e c t e d w i t h i n the  decade, Angus M'aclnnis of Vancouver and A. A i Heaps of Winnipeg. The i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c i s m and c o n s t r u c t i v e suggest i o n s of the Farmer-Labor group i n the House helped prepare the country f o r l a t e r developments. fruit  i n actual legislation,  T h e i r e f f o r t s were not without  the o u t s t a n d i n g achievement b e i n g  o l d age pensions, long promised by the L i b e r a l s .  In 1926,  King, needing the support of Mr. Wood'sworth's group, was 8 ed  Mr.  oblig-  to i n t r o d u c e an o l d age pensions b i l l . The Labor and Farmer groups came to have some un-  d e r s t a n d i n g of each o t h e r ' s viewpoint and to co-operate from time to time.  Mr.. Woodsworth and others d i s c u s s e d the i d e a of  a new p o l i t i c a l movement, but c o n d i t i o n s d i d not seem r i p e . Then came the d e p r e s s i o n , and w i t h the consequent suffering deal".  and d i s c o n t e n t  arose a growing demand f o r a  At the same time a number of b r i l l i a n t  returned from Europe b r i n g i n g knowledge movements i n the o l d e r l a n d s . t e l l e c t u a l backbone  "new  young s c h o l a r s  of the advanced  social  Some of these men formed the i n -  of the League f o r S o c i a l  One a f t e r n o o n i n May,  1932,  Reconstruction.  the Labor and  Farmer  members met v/ith a group of these s c h o l a r s and planned a 9 monwealth P a r t y " .  J.S.Woodsworth was  8.  Wittke, C a r l ,  9.  See Appendix 9, "A New  chosen temporary  A H i s t o r y of Canada. Oxford Group".  "Compresi-  196. dent;  l e a d e r s i n O n t a r i o , Saskatchewan, and A l b e r t a were to be  Agnes M a c p h a i l , M.P., M.J.Coldwell wan  ( P r e s i d e n t of the Saskatche-  Independent Labor P a r t y ) , and Robert G a r d i n e r  ( p r e s i d e n t of  the U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a ) . As has been mentioned, the U n i t e d Farmers of A l b e r ta had a l r e a d y , i n January,  and again i n J u l y , i n v i t e d  groups to d i s c u s s the establishment of a Co-operative  other Common-  wealth. The Western Labor p a r t i e s in- the four western of  Conference,  representing labor  p r o v i n c e s , now changed i t s p l a c e  convention f o r 1932 from Regina  U.F.A., J u l y 30-31 and August 1.  t o Calgary, to meet w i t h the; F i f t y delegates were p r e s e n t  ( l a t e r over a hundred when the Farmers j o i n e d Conference), and s i x t y Regina  I.L.P.  visitors.  the Western Labor  Chairman was C M . F i n e s of the  J.S.Woodsworth, M.P., represented  I.L.P. and Alderman M.J.Coldwell  the Manitoba  of Regina was sent by the r e -  c e n t l y formed Saskatchewan Farmer-Labor P a r t y .  Angus Maclnnis,  e l e c t e d to Ottawa i n 1930, spoke f o r the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a t the conference  i n C a l g a r y Labor Temple ?;ere the U n i t e d Farmers of Canada atchewan S e c t i o n ) , the Canadian Brotherhood  (Sask-  o f Railway Employees  (A.R.Mosher), the League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the A l b e r t a S e c t i o n of the Canadian Labor P a r t y . gates were Robert  Garland, M.P.,  t i n s o n , M.L.A., o f A l b e r t a ;  /,  \  Among other d e l e -  G. L. Gibbs, M.L.A., C. P a t -  S.J.Farmer, M.L.A., John Queen,  197. M.L.A., of Manitoba. The c a l l to the Calgary conference e l e c t r i f i e d , those who  wanted to b u i l d  here was  a new  s o c i a l order.  I t was  r e c o g n i z e d that  a t u r n i n g point i n the h i s t o r y of Canada.  Here was  a  new f o r c e that would r i s e up to do b a t t l e f o r the people a g a i n s t the f o r c e s t h a t were p l u n g i n g them ever more d e e p l y i n t o misery and d e s p a i r . The s p i r i t  animating the conference was  the case of one young man car,  who  typified  t r a v e l l e d from Vancouver by  so c l e a r l y did he see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of what was  to take p l a c e , and so g l a d l y d i d he welcome i t .  where he had  been prominent  box  about  This was  J . McKenzie, j u s t out or the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  In  Frank  Columbia,  on the Students' C o u n c i l and i n the  Student C h r i s t i a n Movement.  He had been a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r In  the Older B o y s  He was  L.S.R.  Later,  r  Parliament.  a l e a d i n g member of the  a young lawyer, he was  t o be C.C.F. c a n d i d a t e i n  R e v e l s t o k e i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1941, p r e s i d e n t of the C.C.F., and  vice-  then s e c r e t a r y of the p a r t y .  Frank McKenzie was people who,  first  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of many young  a l i v e to the p l i g h t of youth, t r a i n e d i n d i s c u s s i o n  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n young people's o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  inspired  C h r i s t i a n e t h i c s and i n t e l l e c t u a l communion, a l i v e t o the sons and the signs of the times, as they saw ily  by  les-  them, moved stead-  to the s o c i a l i s t p o s i t i o n throughout the 1930's.  198 In an atmosphere of earnestness  and i n f o r m a l i t y ,  under a sense of the heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and h i s t o r i c n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r task, the delegates ence r e s o l v e d to found a new  party.  "Co-Operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n was  chosen as the best e x p r e s s i o n  at the Calgary  sigconfer-  Of a l l names suggested, (Farmer-Labor-Socialist)"  of the s t r u c t u r e and  aims of  the movement. J.S.Woodsworth, M.P., F. P r i e s t l y  was  chosen p r e s i d e n t ; Norman  ( v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the U.F.A.) s e c r e t a r y ; and  the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l were Angus Maclnnis, bia),  Mrs.  ( B r i t i s h Colum-  George Latham ( A l b e r t a ) , W i l l i a m I r v i n e ( A l b e r t a ) ,  George H. Williams wan),  M.P.,  on  (Saskatchewan), Mrs.  John Queen, M.L.A., (Manitoba),  Louise Lucas  and A.R.Mosher  (Saskatche(Ontario)  The  e i g h t - p o i n t p r o v i s i o n a l program was  1. 2.  Establishment of a planned economy. S o c i a l ownership and c o n t r o l of f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , u t i l i t i e s , and n a t u r a l r e sources . S e c u r i t y of tenure f o r the farmer* E x t e n s i o n of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y l e g i s l a t i o n . E q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , r e g a r d l e s s of sex, n a t i o n a l i t y or r e l i g i o n . Encouragement of c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s as steps to the attainment of the coo p e r a t i v e commonwealth. S o c i a l i z a t i o n of a l l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . S u i t a b l e work or adequate maintenance to be provided by the F e d e r a l Government f o r those unemployed.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Appearing f i r s t  on August 10,  1932,  The  as f o l l o w s :  British  199 Columbia C l a r i o n , p u b l i c a t i o n of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada, devoted  i t s l e a d i n g a r t i c l e to the Calgary conference.  c l a r e d the conference  I t de-  completely j u s t i f i e d p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t i t  would be the most s i g n i f i c a n t  p o l i t i c a l move since c o n f e d e r a t i o n .  B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l i s t s had prepared an Economic P l a n f o r a S o c i a l i s t  State".  a " D r a f t of  Each d e l e g a t e was  g i v e n a copy and an I n t e r - P r o v i n c i a l Economic P l a n n i n g Committee  was formed. ..M.J. C o l d w e l l c a l l e d  the D r a f t the most com-  p l e t e o p e r a t i v e p l a n he had ever seen.  I t was not, however,  w e l l r e c e i v e d by a l l , and there was c o n s i d e r a b l e f r i c t i o n between S o c i a l i s t s  and those u n f a m i l i a r w i t h S o c i a l i s t  theory and  terminology. The B r i t i s h sisted  Columbia C l a r i o n  (666 Howe S t r e e t ) con-  of e i g h t two-column pages o f high-grade  paper, s t a p l e d .  I t s aim was " t o TRANSMIT HIGH TENSION MARXIAN SOCIALIAM with a 10 view of GENERATING CLASS CONSCIOUS WORKERS". 10. By September, 1933, The C l a r i o n was b e i n g p r i n t e d ; i t c o n s i s t e d of twelve magazine-size pages; there was o n l y three or f o u r advertisements of which at l e a s t two v/ere i n s e r t e d by supporters of the movement. There was more i n t e r e s t i n c u r r e n t domestic and f o r e i g n i s s u e s . Speakers a t propaganda meetings were: A r t h u r Turner, Herbert Gargrave, W. W. Lefeaux, J . E l l i o t t , Mrs. Grace Maclnnis, H a r l e y Anderson, N. Cooper, J . Sidaway, Fred Grey, C y r i l Tor/en, E. E. Winch, R. Timmina, R. Skinner.  200. An e d i t o r i a l ,  "Think - Act", d e c l a r e s  has no p l a c e f o r dogmas. . . . s e l v e s with  p l a y our p a r t c o n s c i o u s l y and  I d e a l i s t s must he  shown that progress  ent must be based on knowledge, ceptions are unstable; foundations E d i t o r of The House Leader of the conducting son,  our-  M.P.,  W.  C l a r i o n was H..E.  W.  intelli-  to he permanidealistic  con-  f o r any movement."  propaganda meetings were:  these the f i r s t ner  "Emotions and  Winch, l a t e r  C.C.F. group at V i c t o r i a .  Grace Maclnnis,  Maclnnis,  endeavor to acquaint  the laws governing the e v o l u t i o n of our economic-  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and gently".  We  "Socialism  Dr.  Among those  T e l f o r d , H a r l e y Anders-  Lefeaux, Miss Frances Moren, Angus  G, E u s t i c e , Jack. Sidaway, Robert S k i n n e r .  Of  f o u r were to become C.C.F., M.L.A's, and  Skin-  ( f o r m e r l y on the Glasgow Trades C o u n c i l and once p r e s i d e n t  of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada) ¥/as to become C.C.F. p r e s i dent. The  i s s u e r e f e r r e d to contained  r  sympathetic though  i  critical  a p p r e c i a t i o n of developments i n Russia,  Socialism—definitions Value",  l e s s o n s on  of such terms as " S o c i a l i s m " ,  "Commodity", " C l a s s S t r u g g l e " ,  !  "Surplus  "Bourgeoisie".  W.  W.  Lefeaux wrote on •"Democracy or D i c t a t o r s h i p " — " S o c i a l i s m requires a s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d and I t was i a l i s t Party  educated democracy".  reported  of Canada had  that d u r i n g  the past year the  Soc-  grown from s i x branches to 31,  with  a membership i n c r e a s e of over 500  per cent.  One  branch  alone  201. had had 60 new members. ialist  organizations  Socialist  Many old-time members of former  had come i n s i n c e the adoption of the  name. A depression-born  (September, 1932) l e f t - w i n g Move-  ment i n B r i t i s h Columbia was the A.B.C. S o c i e t y . to g r a p p l e  soc-  with t h e problems of the c r i s i s ,  study groups, p a r t -  i c u l a r l y among younger people, were e s t a b l i s h e d ; was the l e a d i n g The  In an e f f o r t  Hector Munro  organizer. preamble to the statement of aims of t h e S o c i e t y  pays t r i b u t e t o the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from capitalism., b u t holds that w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  the i n j u s t i c e s and d e f e c t s  have become more e v i d e n t .  S o c i e t y must develop a system based  upon human values and adjusted Instead  of the system  t o f u r t h e r s o c i a l development.  of a s o c i e t y i n p r o f i t - s e e k i n g war w i t h i n i t s e l f , the  good of the i n d i v i d u a l should  be r e a l i z e d i n the good of soc-  iety. The education and  society therefore  aimed t o promote d i s c u s s i o n ,  i n s o c i a l and economic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  propaganda,  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i o n f o r a more j u s t s o c i a l system. The  A. B. C. Review, No. 3, June 31, 1933, (three  mimeographed s h e e t s ) , r e p o r t e d Vancouver.  25 a c t i v e groups i n Greater  Among the chairmen were A.T.Alsbury ( l a t e r a C.C.F.  f e d e r a l candidate and executive member, and P r e s i d e n t  of the  202. B. C. Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n ) , S h i e l a McKinnon,  G. Powell, F.  Downs, Boh F i n d l a y , and J . E. Cr a s t e r (Vernon). groups at C h i l l i w a c k , Nelson, Vernon, Kelowna  There were  (20 members),  P r i n c e George, w i t h o t h e r s forming. John S t r a c h e y * s "The Coming S t r u g g l e f o r Power" was  very s t r o n g l y recommended.  ("The  A.B.C. Review takes no  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any views Implied or expressed i n t h i s r e view, " ) . Frank C. Hardwick ...expressed i n t e r e s t i n the Douglas S o c i a l C r e d i t  theory.  A resume of an address by  James H. C r e i g h t o n on C e n t r a l Banking was p r i n t e d . i e t y was b u i l d i n g up a l i b r a r y . discussed.  Mr.  The Soc-  Need f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n  was  A d r i v e was being made to', see that a l l members  were on the Voters*  list.  The Commonwealth o f October 11, 1933, r e p o r t e d the h o l d i n g of a mass meeting by the A.B.C. S o c i e t y t o h e a r C. C.F.,  L i b e r a l , and Independent speakers d i s c u s s  the economic  bases of t h e i r p l a t f o r m s . The S o c i e t y was studying. Cole's Man's Guide Through World Chaos."  "Intelligent  S e c r e t a r y was  Ernest  Jenkins, a student o f economics. In many B r i t i s h Columbia towns, s i m i l a r groups had formed to study the c r i s i s .  In Kelowna,  Rev. A. K. McMinn conducted an "Economic  f o r example,  Association"(1930-32),  203.  which d i d spade work f o r a l a t e r f l o u r i s h i n g C.C.F. Club, some h i g h - s c h o o l Cole's  teachers  formed a study club to  and  consider  "Guide Through World Chaos." T h i s i n f l u e n c e of l e f t - w i n g B r i t i s h w r i t e r s  L a s k i , Cole, and  Strachey,  was  very c o n s i d e r a b l e , and  like i s an  important f a c t o r i n the development of S o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The was  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada ( B r i t i s h Columbia)  the only B r i t i s h Columbia o r g a n i z a t i o n represented  the Calgary meeting when the Co-operative e r a t i o n was Canada  at  Commonwealth Fed-  formed a sub-committee of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  P r o v i n c i a l Executive  c o n s t i t u t e d the P r o v i s i o n a l  P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l of the C.C.F.  I t comprised A. J . Turner,  (Chairman), E. Winch ( S e c r e t a r y ) , E. Burns, H.L.Harris, C. Lorimer, Robert Skinner,  Mr.  On February 11th, C o u n c i l of the C.C;F. met  Dr.  Mrs.  Stephen.^"'"  1933  and E-.S.Woodward, r e p r e s e n t i n g  the P r o v i s i o n a l P r o v i n c i a l  Gordon Gumming, Mrs.  R.P.Steeves  the League f o r S o c i a l Recon-  s t r u c t i o n , Messrs. H a s k e l l and R i c k e t t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the o p e r a t i v e C o u n c i l of B.C., 11.  of  J . McLean, r e p r e s e n t i n g  Co-  the People's  When the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y voted, a f t e r a s t o r y s e s s i o n , to a f f i l i a t e ^ w i t h the C.C.F., 17 members who r e f u s e d to abide by the d e c i s i o n were e x p e l l e d ; the e x p e l l e d members took p o s s e s s i o n of the Homer S t r e e t premises and l i b r a r y , and ' c a r r y on there to t h i s day. (Interview, Herbert Gargrave, M.L.A., September (194-2). Communists gave out h a n d b i l l s at t h i s meeting, urging the S o c i a l i s t s not to d e s e r t t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s by j o i n i n g the C.C.F.  204. Party, C o l . H. E. Lyon, r e p r e s e n t i n g the Four P o i n t Plan and McDonald,representing  the Array o f the Common-good..  meeting i t was agreed  that the C.C.F. should he a f e d e r a t i o n  of  two o r g a n i z a t i o n s , of which t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada  should be one; of ing  At t h a t  and t h a t the P r o v i s i o n a l P r o v i n c i a l  Council  the C.C.F. should d r a f t a C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the C.C.F., g i v the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y a m a j o r i t y of seats on the new Pro-  v i n c i a l Council. On March 27th, 1933, P r o f . Frank Buck, Dr.. Gordon Cumming, F. J . McKenzie, S. F. R i c k e t t s , Mrs. R.P.Steeves, and J".S.Taylor attended  a meeting of the p r o v i s i o n a l c o u n c i l of the  C.C.F. a t which the a p p l i c a t i o n of the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y o f B.C., f o r a f f i l i a t i o n ed.  with the C.C.F. was p r o v i s i o n a l l y  accept-  The s e c r e t a r y was I n s t r u c t e d to f u r n i s h the s e c r e t a r y of  the "People's  P a r t y " a t V i c t o r i a with c o p i e s of the c o n s t i t u -  t i o n s and manifestos  of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y and t h e Reconstruc-  t i o n and to recommend t h a t the People's  P a r t y j o i n e i t h e r the  12. one  or the other o r g a n i z a t i o n . On A p r i l 4th, -1933, the f i r s t meeting of the pro-  vincial  executive c o u n c i l was held a t Vancouver.  tending were C o l . H. E. Lyons, H. B. Smith, Turner, Mrs. C. Lorimer, was agreed  Those a t P r i t c h a r d , A.  Robert Skinner and John P r i c e .  t h a t every r i d i n g  It  i n Vancouver, North Vancouver,  Burnaby, and New Westminster would be contested  i n the f o r t h -  coming p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and a committee comprising the 12.  I£ost of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s taken from the o f f i c i a l minutes of t h e C.C.F.  205. Vancouver d i s t r i c t  c o u n c i l o f t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y and r e p r e s -  e n t a t i v e s of the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y .  At t h a t time the organ-  i z a t i o n of the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y was confined t o the C i t y of Vancouver.  It. was agreed  that " p u b l i c i t y be given t o the f a c t  of d e f i n i t e f o r m a t i o n of the B.C.Section  of the F e d e r a t i o n " .  Headquarters were opened at 828 Hornby S t r e e t , Vancouver.  The words "Co-operated Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n "  were d i s p l a y e d across the t o p of the f r o n t f a c e of the b u i l d ing.  On one window below that were the words " S o c i a l i s t P a r t y  of Canada (B.C.Section": t i o n P a r t y of B r i t i s h  on the other the words,  "Reconstruc-  Columbia."  In the month of May, 1933, the C.C.F. p r o v i n c i a l executive a l l o c a t e d e l e c t o r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s as between the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y and the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y f o r purposes of nomine, t i on.  I n June arrangements were made by the executive,  f o r t o u r s through B r i t i s h e r t Garland,  o f the A l b e r t a C.C.F. and f o r m e r l y of the U n i t e d  Farmers of A l b e r t a . their f i r s t  Columbia by W i l l i a m I r v i n e and Rob-  Thousands o f B r i t i s h Columbians  heard  e x p l a n a t i o n of the C.C.F. from these A l b e r t a men.  Rather than b e i n g c o n f i n e d l a r g e l y t o the C i t y of Vancouver and environs  the a c t i v i t i e s  v i n c i a l i n scope.  of the C o u n c i l became i n c r e a s i n g l y pro-  C.C.F. groups a t Vernon, Rossland,  Rupert and other p o i n t s a f f i l i a t e d d i r e c t l y with  Prince  the p r o v i n c i a l  c o u n c i l , though no adequate c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n had been made f o r their.-: a f f i l i a t i o n s .  206. The n a t i o n a l convention i n 1953  drew a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t  the C.C.F. had  that i n B r i t i s h  a l r e a d y outgrown i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n .  mended t h a t a l l a f f i l i a t e d P a r t y and  of the C.C.F. at Regina, Columbia I t recom-  groups other than the S o c i a l i s t  the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n Party be consolidated, i n t o a  t h i r d o r g a n i z a t i o n and  t h a t f e e s l e v i e d by the  Provincial  C o u n c i l on subordinate u n i t s of any a f f i l i a t e d P a r t y  be  c o l l e c t e d through the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h a t p a r t y . J u l y 11th,  1935,  Angus Maclnnis,  a member of the S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y and Labor Member of Parliament  f o r Vancouver E a s t ,  the p r o v i n c i a l executive that he expected  the a f f i l i a t e s  the C.C.F. would e v e n t u a l l y l o s e t h e i r i d e n t i t y . was  On  This  told of  prophecy  heard with m i s g i v i n g by some of the e x e c u t i v e members. Many  members of t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y f e l t that the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i a l i s m had a l r e a d y been jeopardized by t h e i r p o l i c y of s h a r i n g power e q u a l l y with the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n party and.they feared, t h a t i f the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y l o s t i t s i d e n t i t y  the exuberant  young C.C.F. movement might s t r a y from the path o f s o c i a l i s m . In the f o l l o w i n g month,' o f August, 1955,  the  p r o v i n c i a l executive a u t h o r i z e d the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y to embody the e x p r e s s i o n "C.C.F." i n i t s name.  Behind t h i s  c i s i o n was  themselves  the f a c t t h a t new  "C.C.F.", were forming i a t i n g with  groups, c a l l i n g  throughout the. p r o v i n c e , and were  the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  de-  affil-  Party.  On August 25 and 26, a conference  of the Recon-  207. s t r u c t i o n P a r t y and  C.C.F. clubs met  i n Stanley Park p a v i l i o n ,  Vancouver, under the p r e s i d e n c y of W. A. P r i t c h a r d . had come from 33 p o i n t s ; I r v i n e , M.P., Clubs  addressed  (B.C.) was  Grace Maclnnis  Delegates  other groups sent g r e e t i n g s , r/illiam the conference.  formed;  and Arthur  The A s s o c i a t e d C.C.F.  W.A.Pritchard was  elected president.  Turner brought g r e e t i n g s from the  S o c i a l i s t P a r t y and s t r e s s e d the common o b j e c t i v e of the organizations - s o c i a l  ownership.  Other o f f i c e r s e l e c t e d were: Gordon;  t r e a s u r e r , T. Campbell;  t e n s i o n , S.  F. R i c k e t t s ;  r a d i o , p u b l i c i t y , Mrs.  T.E.Patterson,  l i a m s , Kamloops;  chairman, of committees  D. G. Steeves;  campaign, W. P e r r y ; ways North  dry b e l t , George R. W i l -  Okanagan, F. A. Browne, Kelowna; F r a s e r V a l l e y , M.  Vancouver I s l a n d , Mrs.  ex-  speakers,  regional vice-presidents;  Ocean F a l l s ;  enay, G. Turner, Nelson; Sardis;  s e c r e t a r y , A. Dawson  membership, Frank McKenzie;  and means, George H a l l i d a y ; Coast,  two  West Koot-  McFetteridge,  T. A. Barnard, Nanaimo.  By the end of the year 1933  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  propaganda a c t i v i t i e s of the C.C.F. had  greatly increased.  There were C.C.F. groups i n most of the l a r g e centres of  the  p r o v i n c e and many of the s m a l l ones.  had  The f i r s t e l e c t i o n  been f o u g h t .  A p r o v i n c i a l p l a t f o r m had  been p u b l i s h e d .  executive was  a p p o i n t i n g an e d i t o r i a l committee o f three t o  s u p e r v i s e the p o l i c y of the "Commonwealth", published by A s s o c i a t e d C.C.F. Clubs,  the  "Challenge"  published by  Dr.  The  the  208. L y l e T e l f o r d , and the " C l a r i o n " p u b l i s h e d by the S o c i a l i s t Party. In January, 1934, r e p o r t s reached  the executive  of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t P o w e l l R i v e r employees who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e c e n t campaign on b e h a l f of the C.C.F. spread p r o t e s t s were made; lature.  'Wide-  the matter v/as a i r e d i n the L e g i s -  The i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t e d  new p a r t y v/ould have to f a c e ;  one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s the  the power of greajf c o r p o r a t i o n s  over the l i v e l i h o o d s of thousands of c i t i z e n s . During continued.  the s p r i n g of 1934 the growth of the C.C.F.  The o r i g i n a l elements v/hich had o r i g i n a l l y formed  the C.C.F., the S o c i a l i s t and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n p a r t i e s , v/ere overshadowed by the l a r g e number of new r e c r u i t s . c r u i t s had been channelled  i n t o the A s s o c i a t e d  Such was the magic of the l e t t e r s ,  "C.C.F."  The new r e -  C.C.F.Clubs.  The S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y h e l d h a l f of the c e n t r a l executive pov/er, although become r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t n u m e r i c a l l y .  i t had'  The S o c i a l i s t  P a r t y members had some m i s g i v i n g s as to the brand of s o c i a l i s m of the r e c r u i t s .  Some of the r e c r u i t s , n o t a b l y Robert C o n n e l l ,  who had become Leader of the C.C.F. O p p o s i t i o n i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , distrustedv.what  they deemed the " d o c t r i n a l " s o c i a l i s m  of the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y members.  That there v/as no s e r i o u s  f r i c t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t year was a remarkable achievement on both s i d e s . On August 31st, 1934, a t a convention h e l d at  209. Vancouver, the c o n s t i t u e n t bodies, the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y the A s s o c i a t e d C.C.F. Clubs were d i s s o l v e d . no l o n g e r a f e d e r a t i o n , so f a r as B r i t i s h cerned.  I t was  The  and  C.C.F. was  Columbia was  con-  a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , known as the C.C.F., and  13 14 made up of l o c a l u n i t s known as " c l u b s " . ' 13.  V i c t o r i a Branch - League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Foundation members: Jack L o g i e ; Fred Spencer; Scobie; Capt. liifai. E l l i s ; - Chairman; George Winkler; Roy Ledingham - S e c r e t a r y ; Rev. Robt. C o n n e l l ; A.B.Sanders; C.K. Morison; J.B.Acland. Founded about October 1932. (Charter from Toronto or Mont r e a l ) . Met weekly f o r d i s c u s s i o n - r e s i d e n c e s , and' over Fred Spencer's s t o r e . Cooperated with other d i s c u s s i o n groups t h a t grew up spontaneously or on the i n i t i a t i v e of L.S.R. members. F i r s t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n : About May 1933, L.S.R. sent 3 delegates to p a r t i c i p a t e i n j o i n t C.C.F. c o u n c i l composed of - 3 delegates from L i S . R . 3 delegates from trade unions. 3 d e l e g a t e s from People's P a r t y . 5 delegates from S o c i a l i s t p a r t y of Canada. T h i s c o u n c i l nominated 4 candidates from V i c t o r i a : Robert C o n n e l l - e l e c t e d : Guy Sheppard, V i c t o r i a Midgley, W. B. C a i r d . Three d e l e g a t e s from L.S.R. continued on the c o u n c i l u n t i l i t (L.S.R.) g r a d u a l l y d i s s o l v e d , or merged w i t h the C.C.F. about 19 34. Margaret Clay, L i b r a r i a n , V i c t o r i a .  14.  L i t e r a t u r e sponsored by the C.C.F., l i s t e d i n The Commonwealth of September 13, 1933, was drawn from a broader f i e l d than t h a t of the old S o c i a l i s t P a r t y . In the w r i t ings of Woodsworth and I r v i n e , i t contained S o c i a l i s m as adopted by these men to Canadian c o n d i t i o n s ; Mr.Woodsworth's w r i t i n g s contained a s t r o n g element of C h r i s t i a n ethics. The l i s t f o l l o w s : A.B.C. of S o c i a l i s m , by F r e d Henderson; Socialism, and C o n f i s c a t i o n , by Fred Henderson (famous B r i t i s h l a b o r and s o c i a l i s t w r i t e r ) ; Marxism., B a s i s f o r a New S o c i a l order, by A. M. Stephen (Vancouver teacher and p o e t ) ; The S o c i a l i s t Goal (Fred Henderson); L e t t e r s to Judd (Upton S i n c l a i r ) ; A Plea f o r Social J u s t i c e (J.S.Woodsworth); Vifhy I am a S o c i a l i s t , by Dr. Lyle Telford; W i l l i a m I r v i n e ' s "Co-operation or Catastrophe" and " P o l i t i c a l Servants of C a p i t a l i s m . "  810,  Chapter Seven.  Impact o f Economic Depression upon S o c i a l Thought.  S e c t i o n 4:  The Regina M a n i f e s t o and the Growth of the C.C.F. By the summer of 1935, the Co-operative Common-  wealth F e d e r a t i o n had taken f i r m r o o t and had spread the c o u n t r y .  through  F o l l o w i n g the example of Mr. Woodsworth, many  had worked c e a s e l e s s l y t o b u i l d up the new movement under the d i r e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , Committees had developed 15 the p r o v i s i o n a l program i n t o a d r a f t m a n i f e s t o . The f i r s t Convention, opened a t Regina on J u l y 19, was much l a r g e r than the Calgary Conference had been. A t Calgary, a l l d e l e g a t e s but one had been from the West. Regina  there were many from the E a s t .  I t was perhaps  At the most  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l Convention ever h e l d i n Canada.  Farm-  ers and i n d u s t r i a l workers met to work out a common program, and with them were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e "white c o l l a r " worke r s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  The convention leaned h e a v i l y on the  advice of students of economics,  s o c i o l o g y * and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  affairs. In h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l address, J.S.Woodsworth d e c l a r 15.  See Appendix #9, "A New Oxford Group."  211. ed:  "I r e f u s e to f o l l o w s l a v i s h l y the B r i t i s h model or  American model or the Russian model* our problems along our  own  lines."  We Mr.  the  i n Canada w i l l Woodsworth was  solve elect-  ed f i r s t n a t i o n a l chairman. Each of s i x p r o v i n c e s named three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l . Angus Maclnnis, Pritchard  M.P.,  B r i t i s h Columbia's members were  George W i l l i a m s  (Kamloops), and  W.A.  (Vancouver). The  n a t i o n a l c o u n c i l was  i n s t r u c t e d to s e t up  s t a n d i n g committee to a s s i s t i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g p r o v i n c i a l grams c o v e r i n g education, The men  convention  c a l l e d f o r r e l e a s e of a number of i n Calgary and  Edmonton,  i n v o l v i n g the unemployed.  uneconomic "back-to-the-land"  I t opposed  p o l i c i e s which would g i v e  s e c u r i t y to the unemployed but would c r e a t e f u r t h e r for  pro-  l a b o r , and a g r i c u l t u r e .  c o n v i c t e d or a w a i t i n g t r i a l  following disturbances  a  no  competition  farmers. In view of trouble. In s e v e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , a  r o y a l commission of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  urged.  (Shocking  condi-  t i o n s were l a t e r r e v e a l e d by such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) . The  convention  d e c l a r e d Fascism  t o be i n absolute  c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i t i c a l , economic,  and  s o c i a l freedom l a i d down by the C.C.F. The 16.  great achievement of the 1955  O f f i c i a l r e p o r t s of the Convention are  convention followed.  was  the  212. Regina manifesto,  the no?/ h i s t o r i c d e c l a r a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e  aims upon which the Go-operative  and  Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i s  founded. The -preamble  to the Manifesto d e c l a r e d that  "The  C.C.F. i s a f e d e r a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose purpose i s the establishment  In Canada of a c o - o p e r a t i v e common?;ealth In which  the p r i n c i p l e r e g u l a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and  exbhange  w i l l be the s u p p l y i n g of human needs and not the making of p r o f its." T h i s purpose was planning.  through  E x p l o i t a t i o n of one c l a s s by another,  e q u a l i t i e s o f wealth stability,  to be r e a l i z e d  and  glaring i n -  o p p o r t u n i t y , c h a o t i c waste and  t i o n , the aim was l i f e f o r every The  i t w:as who  In  were to be e l i m i n a t e d . . Far from c r u s h i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y through  through  economic  t o make p o s s i b l e a much r i c h e r  regimenta-  individual  citizen. change ?ras t o be brought about by the C.C.F.  democratic  and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means;  the o l d p a r t i e s ,  d e c l a r e d , being merely t o o l s of the business  interests  f i n a n c e d them. The  program provided f o r a N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commis- .  s i on, d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  and exchange of a l l necessary goods and  s e r v i c e s and t o p r o v i d e f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance bet?/een .the producing and be s o c i a l i z e d ,  consuming po?;er.  A l l f i n a n c i a l machinery would  and a N a t i o n a l Investment Board set up.  All  213. u t i l i t i e s and  i n d u s t r i e s e s s e n t i a l to s o c i a l p l a n n i n g would be  s o c i a l i z e d under Dominion, P r o v i n c i a l or M u n i c i p a l ownership. These measures, i t was  b e l i e v e d , would", g i v e the  people f u l l c o n t r o l of t h e i r means of l i f e and enable them t o p r o v i d e f o r themselves a s t a n d a r d of l i f e and  c u l t u r e commen-  surate with the human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s of the l a n d . C o n s i d e r a b l e debate c e n t r e d around the q u e s t i o n of compensation, the f i n a l d e c i s i o n being t h a t d u r i n g the t i o n p e r i o d ( f o r i t was  transi-  recognized t h a t a complete change could  not be brought about overnight) i n d i v i d u a l s and  institutions  needing maintenance should r e c e i v e compensation.  "But a C.C.P.  government w i l l not p l a y the r o l e of r e s c u i n g bankrupt p r i v a t e concerns holders.  f o r the b e n e f i t of promoters and  of stock and  bond  I t w i l l not p i l e up a dead weight burden of unremin-  e r a t i v e debt which r e p r e s e n t s c l a i m s upon the p u b l i c t r e a s u r y of  a f u n c t i o n l e s s owner c l a s s . " P u b l i c i n d u s t r i e s must be run on e f f i c i e n t  economic  l i n e s , w i t h worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management. Much a t t e n t i o n was S e c u r i t y of tenure was  promised, and  couragement of producers* er  n a t u r a l l y g i v e n to a g r i c u l t u r e .  and  crop insurance, and  en-  consumers' c o - o p e r a t i v e s . Great-  purchasing power among the people,- together with a r i s e i n  the i n t e r n a l p r i c e l e v e l o f farm products, would h e l p the farmer.  A g r i c u l t u r a l development would be planned  would be b e t t e r u t i l i z e d and  so that  soils  the f u l l a i d of s c i e n c e would be  214 made a v a i l a b l e .  Import and export boards would improve the  e f f i c i e n c y of overseas marketing and c o n t r o l p r i c e s . thought  Some  that the a g r i c u l t u r a l program ignored a need f o r i n -  creasing a g r i c u l t u r a l e f f i c i e n c y ;  o t h e r s a s s e r t e d t h a t the  convention had made a mistake i n not c a l l i n g f o r s o c i a l i z a 17 t i o n of the l a n d .  The plank as adopted may be regarded  as a compromise. The farmer,  then, would b e n e f i t from a r i s i n g  nat-  i o n a l income and from the development o| c o - o p e r a t i o n , s o c i a l c o n t r o l s , and a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g . It  i s noteworthy  Labor a f f i l i a t e wan,  that i n 1934 the C.C.F. s Farmer T  became the o f f i c i a l  o p p o s i t i o n i n Saskatche-  and that i n succeeding years the C.C.F. achieved g r e a t e r  s t r e n g t h here than i n any other p r o v i n c e except B r i t i s h . Columbia. The Regina M a n i f e s t o d e c l a r e d the o l d c o n t r o v e r s i e s between f r e e t r a d e r s and p r o t e c t i o n i s t s to be l a r g e l y o b s o l e t e . P u b l i c import and export boards  should r e g u l a t e e x t e r n a l trade,  without e x p l o i t a t i o n of producer or consumer, i n the i n t e r e s t s of the n a t i o n a l economy. 17. I t the convemtion were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a number o f S c h o o l s o f Thought, each ?;ishing t o dominate; e a r l y i n the proceedings, many farmers, alarmed a t the f i e r y jargon o f S o c i a l i s t speakers, were ready to l e a v e . (Elmore P h i l p o t t , i n t e r v i e w , September, 1942. Mr.. P h i l p o t t moved the r e s o l u t i o n on S o c i a l i z a t i o n o f f i n a n c e i n the Regina M a n i f e s t o . He i s now e d i t o r o f The Vancouver News-Herald.  215. Producer and consumer c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n f a r m i n g , wholesale and r e t a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and manufacturing, would", be f o s t e r e d by t h e S t a t e . A N a t i o n a l Labor Code would guarantee the r i g h t s of  workers,  p r o v i d e f o r maximum income anid l e i s u r e , g i v e f u l l  s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e s , and secure e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management. There would be p u b l i c l y o r g a n i z e d h e a l t h , h o s p i t a l , and m e d i c a l  services. The B . N i A . A c t would be amended t o g i v e the Feder-  a l Government adequate which,  powers to d e a l with economic problems  under modern c o n d i t i o n s , are of n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n .  The  Senate would be a b o l i s h e d . F o r e i g n p o l i c y would be designed t o o b t a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c o - o p e r a t i o n and to promote disarmament and world peace.  Canada must be completely s e l f - g o v e r n i n g  w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth.  "We must r e s i s t a l l attempts  to b u i l d up a new economic B r i t i s h Empire i n place of the o l d p o l i t i c a l one." The League of Nations must be rescued from the p o s i t i o n o f being m a i n l y a league o f c a p i t a l i s t Great Powers.  "Canada must r e f u s e t o be entangled i n any more wars  fought t o make the world s a f e f o r c a p i t a l i s m . " The C.C.F. p o s i t i o n was r e - s t a t e d by the 1934 Convention:  "The C.C.F. i s u n a l t e r a b l y opposed t o war. I f  the g r e a t c a p i t a l i s t powers d r i f t  i n t o another world war,  216. Canadian n e u t r a l i t y must be r i g o r o u s l y maintained the b e l l i g e r e n t s may  be.  whosoever  Canada must refuse t o g i v e m i l i t a r y  a s s i s t a n c e t o the League of Nations as a t present c o n s t i t u t e d . We  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the League i n o r 18 der to make i t an e f f e c t i v e instrument of peace." 18.  stand f o r the thorough  The C C F * d i d a l l i n i t s power to expose,' and cause to be removed, the f a c t o r s provoking' war,, to save the League of Nations, and t o have Canada's r i g h t to a f o r eign p o l i c y of her own completely secured i n law and practice. I t d i d not however, f o r e s e e the complete debacle that was to occur, with great n a t i o n s c o l l a p s ing and c o n t i n e n t s threatened by f a s c i s t conquest. As events developed, the C.C;F. a l t e r e d i t s 1934 p o s i t i o n . To the charge that i t had helped to prevent Canada armi n g f o r renewed war, i t r e p l i e d that i t had championed the p o l i c i e s which would have prevented war. This stand a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s t war caused much h e a r t s e a r c h i n g when the second World War broke out i n the l a t e summer o f 19 39. The K i n g government plunged Canada i n t o the war b e f o r e c o n s u l t i n g P a r l i a m e n t . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f C.C.P. members, while, having no f a i t h that the Chamberlain government stood f o r r e a l c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y or f o r the cause of s o c i a l democracy, d i d have f a i t h i n the B r i t i s h people, and favored economic a i d to Britain. As the war broadened i n t o a world-wide s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the f a s c i s t A x i s powers, the C.C.P. worked v i g o r o u s l y f o r f u l l m o b i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , r e a l e q u a l i t y o f s a c r i f i c e , the defense and e x t e n s i o n of democracy at home, and the adoption o f p r o g r e s s i v e peace aims. I t was true t h a t the s t r u g g l e was i m p e r i a l i s t , with the Axis n a t i o n s f i g h t i n g f o r markets, raw m a t e r i a l s , c o l o n ies.. I t was a l s o true that hope f o r a saner s e t t l e m e n t of world a f f a i r s l a y i n the v i c t o r y of the c a p i t a l i s t democracies (and, l a t e r , the S o v i e t Union) because w i t h i n them were powerful l i b e r a l , l a b o r , and s o c i a l i s t f o r c e s (crushed under f a s c i s m ) which would f o r c e a new d e a l f o r a l l the p e o p l e s . The war, then, was not r e garded by the C.C.F. as an i m p e r i a l i s t war In the sense that the Boer War was i m p e r i a l i s t , or even to the degree that the Great War of 1914-18 was. i m p e r i a l i s t . Whether or not i t proved t o be i n e f f e c t an i m p e r i a l i s t s t r u g g l e , r e s u l t i n g i n the s u b j e c t i o n of the enemy peop l e s and the continued and extended v i r t u a l enslavement  217. Taxation, a c c o r d i n g to the Regina M a n i f e s t o ,  was  to be designed t o " l e s s e n the g l a r i n g I n e q u a l i t i e s of income", and to p r o v i d e funds f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and f o r the t i o n of i n d u s t r y . would be abandoned.  The  socializa-  d e b t - c r e a t i n g method o f p u b l i c f i n a n c e  P u b l i c works would be f i n a n c e d by the I s -  suance of c r e d i t based upon the n a t i o n a l w e a l t h . F u l l economic, p o l i t i c a l ,  and r e l i g i o u s  liberty,  with e q u a l treatment before the law, would be guaranteed all.  to  S e c t i o n 98 of the c r i m i n a l code would, of course, be  abolished. The  law and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be humanized  through a commission of c i t i z e n s t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l and  mental  science. 18.  Footnote - contd. o f c o l o n i a l s , would be determined by the peace s e t t l e m e n t , and o n l y a v i c t o r y of B r i t a i n and her A l l i e s would provide o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the f o r c e s of prggess, backed by outraged mankind, to see that t h i s time the peace was a l s o won. References,: The Peace That F a i l e d : Vera M i c h e l e s Dean; F o r e i g n P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , N.Y., 1939. Gives much s u b s t a n t i a t i o n t o C.C.F. A n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n . Between Two Wars: " V i g i l a n t e s " - K. Z i l l i a c u s ; Penguin Books., London, 19 39. I n t r o d u c t i o n - S i r Norman A n g e l l . Z i l l i a c u s was f o r many years a B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l In the League of N a t i o n s . His account of how the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of dominant c l a s s e s v/recked the world i n the years f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t World War Is astounding. Act No?;: The Dean of Canterbury. B r i t i s h and S o v i e t Russian foreign p o l i c y . B a t t l e f o r the World: Max Werner.  218 Finally, gram."  the Manifesto o u t l i n e d "Ah Emergency Pro-  The Dominion Government should take d i r e c t  i t y f o r d e a l i n g with the unemployment problem.  responsibil-  Unemployed  should be g i v e n s u i t a b l e work or adequate maintenance. gram of p u b l i c spending  A pro-  o r housing and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and  works s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out, designed i n t o a c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth.  to f u r t h e r the advance  "No  C.C.F. Government w i l l  r e s t content u n t i l I t has e r a d i c a t e d capitalism, and  set into  o p e r a t i o n the f u l l program of s o c i a l i z e d ' planning- which w i l l l e a d to the establishment i n Canada of the c o - o p e r a t i v e commonwealth ." The Regina M a n i f e s t o was  h a i l e d by many people  throughout critics 19.  Canada as the b l u e p r i n t of the f u t u r e , and even i t s 19 conceded i t t o be a m a s t e r l y document.  The Vancouver D a i l y Province,, a c o n s e r v a t i v e newspaper, s a i d , In p a r t , e d i t o r i a l l y ("The C.C.F. P l a t f o r m " , J u l y 24, 1933).: The Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i s , as the name of the p a r t y suggests, a union o f more or l e s s d i vergent i n t e r e s t s . I t - i s a f e d e r a t i o n , and, as Canada has learned i n i t s s i x t y - o d d years of experience, f e d e r a t i o n means compromise. The Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i s l e a r n i n g ' t h e l e s s o n of i t s name. I t i s l e a r n i n g , as the r e s u l t s of i t s convention a t Regina show, that i f i t i s t o h o l d together and be a f o r c e i n Canadian p o l i t i c s , i t must compromise the opposing i n t e r e s t s of a g r i c u l t u r e and l a b o r and concentrate on those f i e l d s where the two elements can p u l l t o g e t h e r . I t i s l e a r n i n g , too, i t would seem, the l e s s o n t h a t a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s must come to a p p r e c i a t e — t h a t , while i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t they should l e a d , they must not get too f a r i n advance of the c o u n t r y . I t i s hard p u l l i n g a t the end of a \Long rope.  219 19.  Footnote - contd. The C.C.F. has done w e l l at i t s Regina conv e n t i o n to adze out of i t s p l a t f o r m the more extreme knots and s l i v e r s . I t has thrown overboard the s u g g e s t i o n that v i o l e n c e can be a f a c t o r i n b r i n g i n g about p o l i t i c a l changes i n Canada. I t has r e j e c t e d the idea of a p p r o p r i a t i n g to the p u b l i c use without compensation. I t becomes thus a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t y seeking r e form by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means. Very l i k e l y i t s l e a d e r s always intended t h a t i t should be t h i s , but some o f those connected with the p a r t y have spoken a t times as though they had other i d e a s . Now the p l a t f o r m w i l l p r o v i d e a guide, and steps have been taken to e s t a b l i s h a p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e and keep the p a r t y w i t h i n the l i n e s l a i d down.  *  *  *  The p l a t f o r m , rough i n p l a c e s and b r i s t l i n g s t i l l w i t h c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o i n t s from which any r a d i c a l , unless he belongs to the extreme l e f t , can f l y h i s f l a g , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g p l a t f o r m . I t w i l l be c r i t i c i z e d as i m p r a c t i c a l and i d e a l istic. Perhaps i t i s b o t h . But idealism, i s exc e l l e n t s t o c k - i n - t r a d e f o r a new and u n t r i e d party. I t w i l l c o n t r a s t f a v o r a b l y with the cyni c i s m of the o l d e r p a r t i e s . And the i m p r a c t i c a l things of today have a way o f becoming the commonplaces of tomorrow. Canada's h i s t o r y can f u r n i s h many examples of t h i s . No doubt the C.C.F. p l a t f o r m c o n t a i n s proposa l s that can not be. implemented i n Canada f o r many years and some p r o p o s a l s that may never be implemented. But what p a r t y has ever put i t s f u l l p l a t f o r m i n t o e f f e c t ? A p a r t y , l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l , i s d r i v e n by the winds o f circumstances. The C.C.F. w h i l e i t remains i n o p p o s i t i o n , w i l l be a b l e to advance i t s ideas, and i f i t ever comes i n t o power i t w i l l have to t r i m i t s s a i l s , l i k e any other party, to s u i t the breezes or the storms then p r e m a i l i n g .  *  *  #  There are planks i n the C.C.F. p l a t f o r m — t h o s e h a v i n g to do w i t h the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l machinery, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s - which w i l l be abhorrent to many members of i t h e o l d e r p a r t i e s . And yet p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s are a l ready s o c i a l i z e d i n c e r t a i n areas, h a l f our t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a -public concern and one of the o l d p a r t i e s i s s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g a form of govern-  19.  Footnote  - contd  220.  ment c o n t r o l over f i n a n c e . There a r e plankss u g g e s t i n g ' v a r i o u s types o f s o c i a l insurance and v a r i o u s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s which may v e r y w e l l , b e f o r e many years are gone, f i n d a p l a c e i n the o l d e r and more ordered p l a t f o r m s . There a r e planks l i k e that on the Senate and on the r e p e a l of S e c t i o n 98 of the C r i m i n a l Code which have been matters of c o n t r o v e r s y f o r some time; and there are others, l i k e the one c a l l i n g f o r the amendment of the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n to b r i n g i t into l i n e with p r e s e n t day needs, which any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y with a decent sense o f p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a s p i c e of p o l i t i c a l courage should, be proud t o sponsor. A l t o g e t h e r the C . C . F . p l a t f o r m forms e x c e l l e n t f i g h t i n g ground. But the f i g h t , when i t comes, i s not l i k e l y to take p l a c e on i t . There w i l l be other questions, the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the men concerned, the experience o f the other p a r t i e s and the C . C . F . ' s l a c k o f exp e r i e n c e , and there w i l l be s i d e i s s u e s and smoke screens and r e d h e r r i n g s and what n o t . P l a t f o r m s , good or bad, do not mean e v e r y t h i n g in a p o l i t i c a l contest. One reason f o r the complacency with which The P r o v i n c e greeted the advent of the C . C . F . was shown on J u l y 2 6 , when i t poked f u n a t Mr. Mackenzie King f o r " g e t t i n g low i n h i s mind", l i k e Die ken's Mrs. Gummidge, upon t h i n k i n g of the C . C . F . "The C . C . F i has ousted the L i b e r a l p a r t y as the p a r t y of the p r o t e s t i n g l e f t . The dilemma of Mr., King i s to know which d i r e c t i o n he ought t o t a k e . " On J u l y 2 0 , 1 9 3 3 , The Province termed Mr. Uoodsworth and h i s f o l l o w e r s "Thorns i n the F l e s h " who had f o r years been r e n d e r i n g v a l u a b l e p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n exposi n g i n j u s t i c e s , a s s a i l i n g o l d methods, p u t t i n g forward new schemes. The C . C . F . program was f r a n k l y s o c i a l i s t i c , "but no one w o r r i e s much about tags and names now. A l l p a r t i e s , a l l c o u n t r i e s , are t a r r e d more or l e s s with the socialistic stick." The C . C . F . c o u l d no l o n g e r be i g nored as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e ; i t s program was worth weighing, but the men behind i t must be weighed, t o o .  221. C o n s i d e r i n g the d i v e r s e views, of the  delegates  assembled at Regina, the achievement of the convention hammering out a program which urban s o c i a l i s t and radical,  worker and  toward, one improbable;  p a r t y and  indeed very g r e a t .  her not without  but  the o u t l i n e of a new  These groups had  c o n s i d e r a b l e s u s p i c i o n of, and  another;  prairie  i n t e l l e c t u a l , c o u l d accept as the founda-  t i o n document of a new order, was  in  social  come t o g e t even  animosity  that, they could hold t o g e t h e r seemed  they d i d h o l d together, and  at the end  of  the debates i t seemed that a t l a s t farmer and worker had achieved  an understanding  and  an agreement foi" j o i n t a c t i o n  i n r e c o g n i•z e d* common i- n u- e r e s t s .  2 0  +  20•  The U n i t e d Farmers of Ontario soon l e f t the f e d e r a t i o n  222.  Chapter E i g h t .  The  C. C. F. i n 1935  The P r o v i n c i a l  Election  J". S. Woodsworth l e d the campaign t o organize the C.C.F.  Everywhere he was r e c e i v e d with enthusiasm,  the new movement developed The criticism.  and  rapidly.  C.C.F. was, of course, subjected to much  Mr. James B u t t e r f i e l d ,  f o r example, c y n i c a l  col-  umnist of "The Common Hound" i n The Vancouver D a i l y Prowince, o f f e r e d some remarks about a speech by J . S. Woodsworth a t the Arena.  "A very g r e a t poet was l o s t t o the world  Woodsworth decided to become a p o l i t i c i a n . Arena on Monday night v/as a masterpiece t i f u l thought  f o r the human r a c e .  r e c t and r i g h t , perfection. The  when Mr. J.S.  H i s speech a t the  of detached  and beau-  E v e r y t h i n g he s a i d v/as c o r -  or v/ould be c o r r e c t and r i g h t  i n a v/orld of  He i s a v i s i o n a r y r a t h e r than a man of v i s i o n . "  C.C.F. would r e p l a c e "the present s e t of dubious f e l l o w s  with a s e t of honest but q u i t e i g n o r a n t f e l l o w s who d i d not know what they were d o i n g .  Or who v/ould a t the best be a t  the mercy of s e l f - s e e k i n g experts i n the v a r i o u s departments." As f o r p u b l i c  ownership, Mr. B u t t e r f i e l d observed  i s no tyranny i n the world  like  that "there  the tyranny of a sovereign  223. people." "While one  admits, that, i f you  government there are c e r t a i n u t i l i t i e s he n a t i o n a l i z e d , one stand  Mr.  and  could hare an honest s e r v i c e s that  i s f o r c e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n  H. H.  Stevens, F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of Trade  Commerce, expressed the growing alarm w i t h i n the by a t t a c k i n g the 1933,  C.C.F., as f o r example a t Sylvan  and  old parties Lake, A l b e r t a ,  when he pictured" r u i n a t i o n i f the C.C.F. p o l i c i e s  were f o l l o w e d . he  things  Woodsworth has merely had a b e a u t i f u l dream." Hon.  June 19,  that as  should;  "They do not say where they are l e a d i n g  you,"  declared.''' These p r e l i m i n a r y b l a s t s were as nothing  with what was  to come from those u n f r i e n d l y to the new The  as the  compared party.  Commonwealth newspaper appeared i n May  " O f f i c i a l organ of the C.C.F. (B.C.Section)".  of e i g h t pages, f o u r  columns wide, somewhat s h o r t In  1933  It  was  length.  Rather than a newspaper i n the u s u a l sense, i t wais a j o u r n a l of economic and movement. W.  p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , w i t h news of the  P u b l i s h e r s were The  A. P r i t c h a r d was  Editor;  Commonwealth P u b l i s h i n g  Managing E d i t o r ;  G-. N. Webster,  L. Lewis, Business and A d v e r t i s i n g ;  l a t i o n and  Correspondence.  The  C.C.F.  o f f i c e was  Company.  Associate  J . Bowden, C i r c u -  at 828 Hornby S t r e e t ,  Vancouver. The 1.  Vancouver  D i r e c t o r y i n The  Province.  Commonwealth l i s t e d 59  clubs  224. on November 1, 1933; 24,  83 on December 6;  and 106  on January  1934. E l e c t i o n a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d throughout Septem-  ber and  October.  The  Tolmie  Government, or what was  of i t ( f o r M i n i s t e r s began dropping  left  out l i k e , as t h e i r  pol-  i t i c a l ecemies put i t , r a t s d e s e r t i n g a s i n k i n g s h i p ) , going  to the people  on November 2.  The  was  C.C.F. would have g  i t s f i r s t chance to show i t s e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h . The  C.C.F. P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m c a l l e d f o r a  p r o v i n c i a l economic p l a n to r e g u l a t e p r o d u c t i o n , t i o n , and  exchange;  distribu-  c o - o p e r a t i o n with the p r o v i n c e s  to  secure  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l machinery, a n d , . i f necessary, velopment of p r o v i n c i a l c r e d i t based on r e s o u r c e s ; ownership of r e s o u r c e s , u t i l i t i e s , to the p l a n ;  a l a b o r code;  f o r e c l o s u r e and pay;  tax s a l e ;  and  s e c u r i t y f o r home owners from t a x a t i o n according to a b i l i t y  p u b l i c Y/orks;  support  a modern democratic  t i o n system i n c l u d i n g v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s ; s o i l survey,  to  e x t e n s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ;  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ;  f o r the farmer,  social  industries essential  c i v i l i z e d maintenance f o r those unable to  themselves;  de-  educa-  s e c u r i t y of  tenure  groups of growers to s o l v e prob-  lems with expert h e l p and be g i v e n l e g i s l a t i o n embodying  the  s o l u t i o n s , - land t a x a t i o n to be r e p l a c e d by net income tax, p r o v i n c i a l property and 2.  crop insurance,  s o c i a l ownership of  The P r o v i n c i a l P l a t f o r m of the C. C. F.  (B. C.)  as  2 25 • i r r i g a t i o n , drainage and dyking  ed.  systems.  As the e l e c t i o n approached, p u b l i c excitement  mount-  The Conservative p a r t y was e v i d e n t l y b r e a k i n g up;  i t was  p l a i n t h a t the people were going to welcome the o p p o r t u n i t y to ; get a new government. dents", hoping  Many Conservatives appeared as "Indepen-  by t h i s t a c t i c to catch the t i d e .  i s t s were the c h i e f f o r c e behind  The Commun-  the U n i t e d Front movement. An 3  Independent C.C.F. put up s e v e r a l c a n d i d a t e s .  There were a  few S o c i a l i s t standard b e a r e r s .  The L i b e r a l s , f e e l i n g that'  t h e i r hour was about to s t r i k e ,  promised "¥/ork and Wages," a  slogan t h a t was to g a i n them temporary success and f u t u r e embarrassment. Hie C.C.F. though s t i l l i n the f o r m a t i v e stage, undertook an a l l - o u t o f f e n s i v e .  F o r t y - s i x c a n d i d a t e s were named.  Clubs enjoyed an i n f l u x of s u p p o r t e r s and new Clubs were formed.  Donations,  funds.  f e e s , and c o l l e c t i o n s provided modest campaign  Radio broadcasts were g i v e n , and numerous meetings were  h e l d throughout  the p r o v i n c e .  In B.C., the C.C.F., had many  able speakers, and to t h e i r a i d came the eloquent ians E.J.Garland 2.  3.  parliamentar-  and W i l l i a m I r v i n e , who a t t r a c t e d l a r g e aud-  footnote - contd. p u b l i s h e d i n The Commonwealth of October 11, 1933, i s g i v e n i n Appendix 12, and a l i s t o f candidates i n Appendix 14. Appendix 11 g i v e s the C.C.F. C o n s t i t u t i o n , 1933; Appendix 15 "gives b i o g r a p h i e s of some persons prominent i n the C.C.F. The l e a d e r of t h i s group was C o l . H. E . Lyons.  226.  iences. A l l other groups were at one In t h e i r h o s t i l i t y to the C.C.F.  and alarm at the r i s i n g s t r e n g t h of the new move-  ment produced a remarkable o u t p o u r i n g of charges and denuncia4  tion. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Pooley i n s i s t e d  that,the C.C.F.  was a l l i e d with the Communist P a r t y , a charge which, as e l a b orated by o t h e r s ( l i k e R.L.Maitland, l a t e r C o n s e r v a t i v e Leade r ) , was supposed t o imply that the C.C.F. favored " f r e e l o v e " , and c o n f i s c a t i o n o f a l l p r i v a t e Ian McKenzie, M.P.,  violence,  property.  used h i s o r a t o r i c a l g i f t to  the f u l l i n w i l d and c o l o r f u l s l a n d e r of the new p a r t y .  J.W.  deB. F a r r i s , noted L i b e r a l lawyer, echoed many of these c h a r ges, and added British  the warning that i f the C.C.F. were i n power,  Columbia would get no more c a p i t a l from London and 5  New York.  G« G- McGeer, another L i b e r a l lawyer  specialized  i n l u r i d word p i c t u r e s of the C.C.F. as the enemy of r e l i g i o n . W. W. Lefeaux, r e p l y i n g to F a r r i s and McGeer, pointed out t h a t c r e d i t s were extended to even S o v i e t R u s s i a . Economic r e v o l u t i o n , he s a i d , would not come a b r u p t l y as soon 4. See Appendix 13 f o r sources and f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on campaign speeches and p r e s s c r i t i c i s m . 5. L a t e r advocate of Monetary reform (author of the Conquest • of P o v e r t y ) , M.L.A., Mayor Vancouver, M.P.  220. as the C.C.F. had hy Mr.  education,  power;  the C.C.F. would pave the way  by b u i l d i n g the framework and  for i t  making the  plans.  McGeer having been l i n k e d with the Oxford Group movement,  which had  "absolute  t r u t h " as p a r t of i t s credo, Mr.  concluded that McGeer's a t t a c k s ignorance.  Lefeaux  on the C.C.F. must be due  to  He maintained that the C.C.F. embodied C h r i s t i a n  ethics. Other opponents of the  C.C.F. a s s e r t e d  C.C.F. would c o n f i s c a t e p r i v a t e homes, farms and t h i s the C.C.F. r e p l i e d by speech and po.se was of the  utilities  compensation.  C a p i t a l i s m was  of the average  citizen.  The ment a g a i n s t  savings.  more p r i v a t e  automobiles and  i n d u s t r i e s and  property  that owners of such  as were s o c i a l i z e d would r e c e i v e t a k i n g away the p r i v a t e  Roman C a t h o l i c Archbishop Duke made a pronounce-  the  "Why  capitalism's e v i l christian. order 6.  fair  property~  other hand, the Rev.Andrew Roddan, outstand-  i n g Vancouver preacher, i n a sermon ( a l s o broadcast) on spoke on  To  Socialism. On  15,  the  l e a f l e t that i t s pur- •  to see that the people obtained  nature of homes and  that  He  I b e l i e v e In C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m . " e f f e c t s , he d e c l a r e d  October  Describing  c a p i t a l i s m to be  anti-  favored  the c r e a t i o n of a t r u l y C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l 6 as. advocated by the U n i t e d Church.  The Toronto Conference of the U n i t e d Church had, i n the l a s t week of October, d e c l a r e d t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t system was u n c h r i s t i a n and should be brought to an end. I t de-  22©. Some suggestion  by Candidate Miss M i l d r e d  Oster-  hout, i n t e l l i g e n t young educator and s o c i a l worker, that  educa-  t i o n should  be modernized, was d i s t o r t e d by opponents Into the  s t o r y that the C.C.F. would adopt a d i c t a t o r i a l  educational  p o l i c y f e a t u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n the works of K a r l Marx. The  press  expressed h o s t i l i t y to the-C.C.F., and  i n many cases was e d i t o r i a l l y g u i l t of m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Vancouver Sun, f o r example, which had regaled  The  i t s r e a d e r s to a  s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s on the a n a l y s i s and program of Technocracy and  another s e r i e s on the remarkable development d i s c o v e r e d b y  Publisher  Cromie on a v i s i t  to the S o v i e t Union, branded t h e  C.C.F. as " a t h e i s t s " , "Communists", and " i m p r a c t i c a l t h e o r i s t s . " (An amusing aspect technocratic and  very l i k e  of t h i s c o n t r a s t i n treatment was t h a t the  a n a l y s i s of c a p i t a l i s m was completely  devastating',  the s o c i a l i s t a n a l y s i s , ?/hile the t e c h n o c r a t i c  program envisaged a f a r more d r a s t i c break with the past d i d the C.C.F.)  than  When the e l e c t i o n showed the magnitude o f  C.C.F. support, the Sun wrote of a "Great Vote of P r o t e s t " and became q u i t e m i l d .  This transformation  toward the C.C.F. before t i o n utterances 6.  from v i n d i c t l v e n e s s  e l e c t i o n and c o n c i l i a t o r y p o s t - e l e c -  was to become a j o u r n a l i s t i c commonplace. I t  Footnote - contd. ' , f i n e d c a p i t a l i s m as "that order of things under which capi t a l . . . i s owned and administered by I n d i v i d u a l s and s p e c i a l groups w i t h a vie?/ to t h e i r own p r o f i t . " I t favored " s o c i a l i z a t i o n of banks, n a t u r a l resources, transportat i o n , and other s e r v i c e s and i n d u s t r i e s I n s o f a r as t h e i r o p e r a t i o n under p r i v a t e ownership p l a c e s undue power over the s u b s i s t e n c e of the people i n the hands of s p e c i a l groups. The United Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia,and the B a p t i s t Convent i o n , had r e c e n t l y taken s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s .  2 2 iQ * i s sometimes hard to s a t i s f y both a d v e r t i s e r s and T. D. P a t t u l l o , L i b e r a l l e a d e r , at a Vancouver meeting, met use  subscribers.  addressing  with a-mixed r e c e p t i o n .  the n a t i o n a l c r e d i t f o r a war  thousands "We  will  on p o v e r t y ; " he promised. He  foreshadowed a great p u b l i c works program f i n a n c e d by i n t e r e s t free federal loans.  " I f the Dominion w i l l not a c t , then we  B r i t i s h Columbia must use meal tax and ished.  the resources  the unpopular I per cent  at our d i s p o s a l . "  wage tax would be  ance, s t a t e h e a l t h insurance,  The  abol-  Debts would be converted t o lower i n t e r e s t rates.,  speaker favored more education,  of  The  n a t i o n a l unemployment i n s u r -  a n a t i o n a l c e n t r a l bank, and  a  highway board i n the P u b l i c Works Department. Dr.  George M.  Weir, L i b e r a l Candidate In Vancouver -  P o i n t Grey (head of the Department of E d u c a t i o n a t the s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia, and  later,  as P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y  and M i n i s t e r of Education,  ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much r e f o r m  expansion In education  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ) was  l e d when he, a t t a c k e d  and  the  C.C.P.  i n t e n t i o n e d f u t i l i t i e s which we In any  new-fangled mystery I t was  and  s e v e r e l y heck-  C.C.F. proposals  were " w e l l -  know can never be r e a l i z a b l e . "  event, they r e q u i r e d f e d e r a l a c t i o n .  L i b e r a l Candidate i n Burrard,  Univer-  Mrs.Paul Smith,  termed the C.C.F. "one  of those  tours." f r e q u e n t l y charged t h a t the  s t o l e n most of i t s p l a t f o r m from the L i b e r a l s .  C.C.F. had The  C.C.F.  23,0 . view was  that the C.C.F. was f o r c i n g the L i b e r a l s to o f f e r  more t o the people. C.C.F. p r o p o s a l s were c a l l e d i m p r a c t i c a b l e , f a n tastic.  On the o t h e r hand, Mr.  M i n i s t e r and  Gordon Sloan ( l a t e r a Cabinet  then appointed to the bench) at H o t e l "Vancouver  on October 19, 1933,  s a i d that i f money f o r ""work and wages"  c o u l d not be obtained from Ottawa, i t could be obtained p r o v i n c i a l l y by  (1) A compulsory l o a n to c a l l i n bonds and r e -  i s s u e them a t h a l f the present r a t e ; annual g o l d y i e l d  (2) purchase  of the  of the p r o v i n c e and" issuance of g o l d notes  a t the r a t i o of two  t o one;  (3)  as a l a s t r e s o r t ,  alloca-  t i o n of one-half of the s i n k i n g fund of the p r o v i n c e to bank t r e a s u r y notes. This and o t h e r L i b e r a l monetary p r o p o s a l s , those of Mr.  T. D. P a t t u l l o and G. G. McGeer, K.C.,  like  were ob-  v i o u s l y t i n g e d by the somewhat vague and unorthodox monetary reform  t h e o r i e s p r e v a l e n t i n t h i s p e r i o d of desperate  conditions;  economic  the L i b e r a l s , however, d i d not h e s i t a t e t o brand  C.C.F. proposals as I m p r a c t i c a b l e and Hon.  irresponsible.  R. H. Pooley, a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , announced  that the s e c r e t p o l i c e had been watching  the C.C.F., and  l i n k e d the C.C.F. with the Communist P a r t y . Ian Mackenzie b u i l t of the C.C.F. aims, and  up the d i c t a t o r s h i p  others e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s  conception theme.  231. Much was made of an a l l e g e d " d i c t a t o r i a l " " c o u n c i l of n i n e " that was  supposed;-to r u l e the C.C.F., and 7 province. Other themes developed C.C.F. was  anti-British,  to t h r e a t e n t o r u l e  the  hy opponents were that the  that i t was f i n a n c e d hy Moscow g o l d ;  that i t intended to Impose c e n s o r s h i p on the p r e s s ; and that i t was  "nothing but The  rowing  socialism."  Commonwealth, i n an e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d 8  Choice",  "The  d e c l a r e d t h a t the choice f o r v o t e r s had  Nar"nar-  rowed to the one g r e a t i s s u e of HUMANITY VERSUS the VESTED INTERESTS.  I t was  now  p o s s i b l e , s a i d the e d i t o r i a l ,  i z e the "more abundant l i f e " , f o r doing  to r e a l -  and o n l y the C.C.F. had a program  so. 9 In an e d i t o r i a l ,  wealth s t a t e d :  "The  T e s t i n g Day",  "The methods advocated  and  The Common-  so f a r adopted  by  the C.C.F., w h i l e e n v i s a g i n g r o o t changes, are designed to b r i n g about those changes with the l e a s t p o s s i b l e d i s t u r b a n c e 7. The C.C.F. p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e , e l e c t e d a t the V i c t o r i a Convention, 1933, c o n s i s t e d o f : R. J . Skinner, chairman, Vancouver; 0. L. Jones, vice-chairman, Kelowna; J.Price, s e c r e t a r y , Vancouver; Mrs. R. P. Steevea, Vancouver; H.E.C.Anderson, North Vancouver; W. W. Lefeaux, Vancouver; A. Turner, Vancouver; J . Ainsworth, Ocean F a l l s ; U. R. Midgeley, V i c t o r i a ; E. C. M u r r e l l , Creston; E.E.Winch, Burnaby; R. Wood, Armstrong. (See Appendix 15, "Some B i o g r a p h i e s . " ) 8. October 18. ;  9.  November 1.  232.  of the s o c i a l l i f e i s e by some*  of the p e o p l e .  T h i s may  I t i s not so i n r e a l i t y . "  A l a r g e b u i l d i n g could  be r e c o n s t r u c t e d , a p a r t at a time, without business  or t r a f f i c .  be thought comprom-  i n t e r r u p t i o n to  F u r t h e r , the C.C.F. wished not  the b e t t e r - o f f to the l e v e l  of the.worse o f f , but  masses to the h i g h e r l i v i n g l e v e l .  The  to reduce  to r a i s e  e l e c t i o n would  be  momentous, t e s t i n g whether p o l i t i c a l democracy could be upon to b r i n g i n economic democracy. show Canada the  way.  dentist;  Williams  relied  B r i t i s h Columbia would  Among the C.C.F. candidates were: Nelson  the  Rev.  (Kamloops);  H. T. A l l e n (Comox);  Dr. G.A.C. Walley, Alderman  Alderman G. Rudderham ( P r i n c e  G.R.  Rupert);  Alderman Owen L. Jones of Kelowna ( v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the C.C.F. Council);  P r o f e s s o r Frank E. Buck;  rancher;  Stephen Freeman, Oakanagan  Dr. L y l e T e l f o r d , whose s p e c t a c u l a r f i g h t  which he n e a r l y won,  was  a h i g h l i g h t of the campaign;  C. E. Anderson, veteran North Vancouver s o c i a l i s t ; Robert C o n n e l l i n V i c t o r i a ; Steeves,  i n Nanaimo,  W.A.  Pritchard;  Mrs.  Harley  Rev. Dorothy  prominent i n s e v e r a l Vancouver o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  Doctor of Laws (leyden;  W.W.Lefeaux, lawyer and  socialist;  long a labor l e a d e r and a former  M.L.A.;  Guthrie,  chemist E r n e s t Bakewell of Ocean F a l l s ;  liam E l l i s , ist  Sam  a leading  Captain W i l -  S a l t S p r i n g ; E.E.Winch and h i s son Harold,  l e a d e r s , Commander Smith, R.N.  .(retired),  a  social-  Lillooet.  £33. Enough names have been mentioned to show that the C.C.F. candidates r e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t v a r i e t y of types. Some had came i n t o the movement as C h r i s t i a n  Socialists,  o t h e r s as M a r x i s t s , others as p r o g r e s s i v e middle and  class  people  i n t e l l e c t u a l s whose minds had been turned t o s o c i a l i s m by  the events and ideas of the t i m e s . in  10  Some had had experience  l e f t - w i n g movements i n B r i t a i n o r i n Canada, others were  being p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e f o r the f i r s t t i o n s were represented, i v e r s i t y teaching. zens i n t h e i r  time.  Many occupa-  from farming and r a i l r o a d i n g t o un-  Many were among the most prominent  citi-  communities.  The L i b e r a l p a r t y was swept i n t o o f f i c e on e l e c t i o n day.  The C.C.F. however, emerged as the o f f i c i a l  opposi-  t i o n , w i t h seven candidates e l e c t e d (Harold Winch and John P r i c e , Vancouver East; North Vancouver; Delta;  E.E.Winch, Burnaby;  Rev. Robert  E r n e s t Bakewell,  H a r l e y Anderson,  Connell, V i c t o r i a ;  MacKenzie;  R.B.Swailes,  Tom U p h i l l , Labor  Candi-  date i n F e r n i e , a l s o was e l e c t e d ) . The  C.C.F. p o l l e d 115,000 votes, o r 33 p e r cent;  ( L i b e r a l s , 151,000 votes, or about 42 p e r cent, winning seats;  34  a l l others, 92,000 votes, or 25 per cent, and 6 seats)  10.  See Appendix 12 f o r f u l l  list.  11.  Angus Maclnnis, M.P. Hansard, February 9, 1942.  234>. A r e p o r t a n a l y z i n g reasons f o r f a i l u r e t o win i n Kamloops may be taken as s e t t i n g f o r t h some of the main reasons why many thousands more d i d not vote C.C.F. "Fears" are blamed - f e a r t h a t one's vote would become known with sequent p e n a l i z a t i o n by employer or r e l i e f  con-  authorities, fear  that the C.C.F. r e a l l y d i d t h r e a t e n r e l i g i o n o r the home o r the farm;  f e a r of something new. The  C.C.F. was opposed by b u s i n e s s  and i n d u s t r y ,  by the o l d p a r t i e s and some new ones, by the press, by some religious influences.  T h i s o p p o s i t i o n was o f t e n c h a r a c t e r 12  i z e d by m a l i c e , paign funds,  distortion,  gathered  severely limited ed.  and s l a n d e r .  .  The C.C.F. cam-  i n s m a l l sums from members and f r i e n d s ,  the amount of p u b l i c i t y t h a t c o u l d be a f f o r d -  The C.C.F. was new, and had to take i t s message to great  numbers of uninformed v o t e r s . I t i s only f a i r  to conclude that In view of these  f a c t s the C.C.F. achievement i n p u t t i n g before the people 46 candidates, tinction, ition,  a l l able and s i n c e r e and many of o u t s t a n d i n g  dis-  and i n emerging as a major p a r t y , the o f f i c i a l oppos-  was indeed  remarkable. Moreover, those who r e f e r r e d to  the C.C.F. s t r e n g t h as a mere p r o t e s t vote which would swing back t o the o l d p a r t i e s , were t o be proved wrong by subsequent events. "The  t i d e of a new age i s coming i n , " d e c l a r e d The  Commonwealth. 12. See Appendix 13.  235 CONCLUSION  Many f a c t o r s h e l p i n g to account f o r the development of the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n have heen brought out i n t h i s t h e s i s ; r e s o u r c e s and  f a c t o r s of geography and  industries,  topography,  of the composition and  of  distribution  of p o p u l a t i o n , of the t r a d i t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s of the people;  the f a c t o r of shared experiences from which many b e l i e v e  they have l e a r n e d c e r t a i n l e s s o n s - experience with p r i v a t e corporate enterprise; s i o n s , and of war;  the e x p e r i e n c e s of booms, of depres-  the experiences of the l a b o r movement i n  i t s s t r u g g l e f o r development; cal parties;  the i n c r e a s e i n the g e n e r a l l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n  and knowledge; ers, brought  experience with the o l d p o l i t i -  the impact  of the ideas of the world's t h i n k -  to ,the more t h o u g h t f u l of the people i n newspaper  a r t i c l e s , magazines, and books; of what labor and  the i n f l u e n c e of the example  s o c i a l i s t movements have achieved  the r e l i g i o u s and e t h i c a l impulse  to j u s t i f y and  elsewhere;  inspirit  C h r i s t i a n i t y by g i v i n g i t s p r i n c i p l e more s u c c e s s f u l Implementation i n daily living;  the growing  belief  that democracy  must e i t h e r go forward i n t o the economic f i e l d ,  creating a  more s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l order f o r the mass of the people, or succumb to the i n i m i c a l f o r c e s which i n c r e a s i n g l y threatened to s t r a n g l e i t throughout  the world.  In a d d i t i o n , a g r e a t source of s t r e n g t h to the  new  236. Page CONCLUSION;  -2-  - contd.  p a r t y was the f a c t of having d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e s and d e f i n i t e aims;  without these,  there would be no reason f o r the e x i s t -  ence of t h e Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n . i s a s o c i a l i s t party. school,  As compared with the o l d e r  The C.C.F. Marxist  i t would c l a i m to be no l e s s aware of s o c i a l and econ-  omic f o r c e s , and no l e s s devoted t o the goal of the Co-operat i v e Commonwealth, but i t would a l s o c l a i m to be p o s i t i v e , r a t h e r than negative,  progressive  sometimes were, i n c l i n e d  r a t h e r than, as the M a r x i s t s  on d o c t r i n a i r e grounds to oppose e f -  f o r t s t o improve c o n d i t i o n s , predominantly c o n s t r u c t i v e than d e s t r u c t i v e . place  rather  I t i s determined not to reform but to r e -  c a p i t a l i s m , but i n the meantime and d u r i n g  the t r a n s i -  t i o n , i t b e l i e v e s i n l a y i n g f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the new s o c i a l o r der,  i n strengthening  those elements i n present  can h e l p b r i n g about the change;  s o c i e t y which  i t b e l i e v e s that the b e t t e r  c o n d i t i o n s can be made under c a p i t a l i s m , the more c e r t a i n w i l l i t be t h a t the people, having a sense of achievement, v a l u i n g t h e i r gains  i n h e a l t h and c u l t u r e , w i l l not t o l e r a t e r e a c t i o n ,  but w i l l i n s t e a d i n s i s t on going ahead with such changes i n the economy as w i l l p r e s e r v e s o c i a l gains continued  improvement i n the standard  which s o c i a l i s t s r e g a r d use  and make p o s s i b l e  of l i f e .  as the l a s t stand  Fascism,  o f c a p i t a l i s m , the  of mental and p h y s i c a l f o r c e t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r i v i l e g e s of  Page CONCLUSION:  -  r u l i n g groups,  -3-  23?  contd. t h r i v e s , the C.C.F. b e l i e v e s , on misery;  social-  ism, d e f i n e d as democracy i n i t s f u l l e s t development,  thrives,  they b e l i e v e , on h e a l t h and the sense of achievement,  of crea-  tion.  The C.C.F. had i n i t people of many a t t i t u d e s , but e s -  s e n t i a l l y i t has been composed o f people who t h i n k they have some r e a l i s t i c understanding of human nature and o f s o c i e t y , a knowledge of what they want and of ho?; t o engineer the achievement  of t h e i r  purpose.  The p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1933 showed t h a t as an o r g a n i z a t i o n the C.C.F. had been e f f e c t i v e . formed  The c l u b s that  i t s b a s i s had served the need f e l t by thousands  o f peo-  p l e t o meet t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s the c r i t i c a l problems of the day and p r o p o s a l s f o r s o c i a l change, and i n s c o r e s of communit i e s they had served as r a l l y i n g p o i n t s f o r sympathizers and as p o l i t i c a l agencies f o r the campaign; paign workers, the c i t i z e n s ,  speakers,  they s u p p l i e d cam-  and funds, and i n c l o s e touch with  they r a d i a t e d C.C.F. i n f l u e n c e .  The extent to  which people d e c l i n e d to b e l i e v e the many alarming a n t i - C . C . F . d e c l a r a t i o n s of opponents and of the p r e s s was evidence of the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , of the C.C.F. to the v o t e r s .  The  C.C.F. campaign was n e v e r t h e l e s s not so adept i n i t s use of p u b l i c i t y media - i n , f o r example, the appearance  and composi-  t i o n o f pamphlets - as could have been d e s i r e d or as v;as l a t e r achieved to a l a r g e r degree;  y e t the C.C.F. had o b v i o u s l y es-  Page CONCHJSION:  -4-  - contd.  tablished i t s e l f  as a major p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , not only t h a t , but  those f a m i l i a r with, the new which animated i t s adherents  movement knew t h a t the c o n v i c t i o n s whi were i n accord w i t h strong  s t r e n g t h e n i n g trends of modern thought, was more than a movement of p r o t e s t .  and t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h i s  C o n d i t i o n s being now  o r a b l e , s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia had l i f e and was  community.  The  l y d e f i n e d , as between those who would proceed w i t h  and the s t r u g g l e was Finally,  i n t o renewed  knowledge o f I t s  Commonwealth  r e a l i t y into p o l i t i c a l l i f e ,  ent day p u b l i c a f f a i r s ;  had  Federclear-  could m a i n t a i n c a p i t a l i s m and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the i s s u e s In p r e s -  the l i n e s of b a t t l e had been drawn,  on. the thought may  be e n t e r t a i n e d that i n  the p r e s e n t s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n the world the work of the er  M a r x i s t s In B r i t i s h Columbia may  most v i t a l importance,  fav-  s p r e a d i n g among a l l c l a s s e s of the  coming of the Co-operative  a t i o n had brought a new  those who  sprung  f l o u r i s h i n g as never b e f o r e ;  a n a l y s i s and i t s aims was  and  old-  prove t o have been of the  i n the event t h a t there should be a  good d e a l of t r u t h i n the s o c i a l i s t a n a l y s i s of what i s happening  to s o c i e t y .  A c c o r d i n g t o s o c i a l i s t s , Nineteenth  Century  c a p i t a l i s m , with i t s i d e a l of l a i s s e z - f a i r e , has g i v e n way f i n a n c e and i n d u s t r y t o m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n d i t i o n s . motive remains dominant, but wealth ing  concentrated  The  in  profit  and power have been becom-  I n t o the hands of fewer c o r p o r a t i o n s and i n -  239.  Page CONCLUSION; dividuals;  -  -5-  contd.  f u r t h e r , the economic laws of c a p i t a l i s m are i n -  t e r f e r e d with to m a i n t a i n p r o f i t s ;  f o r example, i n times o f  d e p r e s s i o n , when t h e r e i s a g l u t of goods, p r i c e s are o f t e n pegged Instead of b e i n g allowed to f a l l .  The s o c i a l i s t  fur-  ther b e l i e v e s that s i n c e the people w i t h i n one c a p i t a l i s t country never r e c e i v e In wages n e a r l y enough to buy the goods they make but do n o t own, and s i n c e more and more c o u n t r i e s are b e i n g i n d u s t r i a l l y developed,  the s t r u g g l e f o r f o r e i g n  markets and f o r c o n t r o l o f raw m a t e r i a l s has been becoming i n tensified.  C o n d i t i o n s , the s o c i a l i s t b e l i e v e s , a r e r i p e f o r  the expansion of democratic c o n t r o l i n t o the economic  field,  so that human needs may be served p r i m a r i l y , I n s t e a d of p r i vate p r o f i t s .  P r o d u c t i o n would then be planned, and purchas-  ing power adequate t o i t ;  f o r e i g n t r a d e would be p l a c e d upon  a b a s i s of s e r v i c e r a t h e r than o f e x p l o i t a t i o n .  The s o c i a l i s t  does not expect, however, t h a t the c h i e f b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the present system are going t o g i v e up wealth, p r i v i l e g e , and power, w i t h a good grace;  on the c o n t r a r y , he b e l i e v e s that  both h i s t o r y and a knowledge of human nature i n d i c a t e v e r y s t r o n g l y that these b e n e f i c i a r i e s w i l l not y i e l d u n t i l have exhausted  they  every means, every r e s o u r c e , every d e v i c e ,  f a i r or f o u l , t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n ;  the nobles of  France c a l l e d i n f o r e i g n h e l p a g a i n s t the French people a t  Page CONCLUSION:  -  240.  -6  contd.  the time o f the R e v o l u t i o n ,  and more r e c e n t l y the same p o l i c y  was adopted by the n o b i l i t y of Russia and o f Spain;  the i n -  d u s t r i a l i s t s and landlord's of I t a l y and Germany used f a s c i s m (wMch a t f i r s t  spoke I n r e v o l u t i o n a r y accents)  democratic and s o c i a l i s t i c  to d e s t r o y ,  forces.  The M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s t s always preached the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and as a r e s u l t were o f t e n accused o f a r o u s i n g hate among economic and s o c i a l groups;  to t h i s accusation  r e p l i e d t h a t they d i d not seek t o arouse hate, spread an a p p r e c i a t i o n of r e a l i t i e s so t h a t  they  but simply to  s o c i a l i s m would  be able to win a g a i n s t the f r a u d and f o r c e that would be employed a g a i n s t i t . Now i f there- be much g e n e r a l t r u t h i n t h i s  social-  i s t a n a l y s i s of the s i t u a t i o n , i t would be of the utmost consequence whether or not the Co-operative t i o n subscribed pected  to t h i s a n a l y s i s ;  Commonwealth Federa-  otherwise,  t h a t the new p a r t y would be rendered  i t could be ex-  ineffective for  i t s purpose - that i t would become merely r e f o r m i s t , t h a t the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the p r e s e n t system and t h e i r agents would" i n the end f i n d means o f e i t h e r wrecking or c o n t r o l l i n g the C.C.F. In other words, i t c o u l d be expected  that B r i t i s h Columbia, i n -  stead of e x p e r i e n c i n g an a c c e l e r a t e d s o c i a l development, would pass i n t o a phase o f domestic f a s c i s m . ent work of the o l d e r M a r x i s t  Thanks t o the p e r s i s t -  S o c i a l i s t s , however, there i s  241. Page CONCLUSION: widespread  -7-  - contd.  understanding w i t h i n the Co-operative Commonwealth  F e d e r a t i o n of what s o c i a l i s t s r e g a r d as the r e a l i t i e s which a s o c i a l i s t movement must f a c e ;  pious a s p i r a t i o n s and  noble  r e s o l u t i o n s are, i t i s b e l i e v e d , not enough, nor w i l l I t do expect the c o n v e r s i o n to socialism, of the c h i e f of  capitalism.  The  to  beneficiaries  goal of the Co-operative Commonwealth must  not o n l y be kept i n s i g h t , i t i s f e l t , but must be  approached  by means o f concrete c o n s t r u c t i v e steps to be t a k e n as r a p i d l y as circumstances p e r m i t .  To undertake  a d m i n i s t e r c a p i t a l i s m would.' be f a t a l cause;  to d".o no more than to  to the p a r t y and t o i t s  i n any case, c a p i t a l i s m , i s not s t a t i c , w a i t i n g to be  administered, but has developed  to the p o i n t where of s o c i a l  n e c e s s i t y , the C.C.F. b e l i e v e s , i t must be transformed s o c i a l i s m , before i t seeks  into  t o use f a s c i s t measures to p r e s e r v e  itself. If  a Co-operative Commonwealth i s f i n a l l y b u i l t i n  B r i t i s h Columbia,  i t may  w e l l be t h a t the b i g g e s t f a c t o r i n  i t s a c t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n w i l l have been what s o c i a l i s t s would c a l l the r e a l i s m of the M a r x i s t s - t h e i r f o r e c a s t of how i t a l i s m would  seek t o preserve i t s e l f ,  cap-  t h e i r s t e r n warnings,  and t h e i r uncompromising d e v o t i o n t o t h e i r own  cause.  On  the  other hand, the Co-operative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n has shown, the o l d e r s o c i a l i s t s how  t o win mass support - how,  by  Page CONCLTJSIONi  -  -8-  contd.  organization, publicity,  and s t r a t e g y to b r i n g a  socialist  movement t o the p o i n t where I t i s a powerful contender f o r c o n t r o l of the government, of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  243. A H i s t o r y o f the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  Bibliography Books and Pamphlets 1.  General Works Bennett, W i l l i a m . B u i l d e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, Bro