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The effectiveness of three screening tests as predictors of kindergarten academic achievement Berg, Cheryl Anne 1991

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THE E F F E C T I V E N E S S OF THREE SCREENING T E S T S AS PREDICTORS OF KINDERGARTEN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT by CHERYL ANNE BERG " B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1988 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y a n d \ S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1991 © C h e r y l A n n e B e r g , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f T h r e e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s a s P r e d i c t o r s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n A c a d e m i c A c h i e v e m e n t The e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n who may be " a t - , r i s k " o f e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s o f p r i m e c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s . S e v e r a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o i d e n t i f y " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n shown i n t h e u s e o f t h e s e s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s l a c k o f common a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , h o w e v e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . M o s t r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g i s t h a t " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n c a n be g i v e n s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t b e f o r e t h e y d e v e l o p s e v e r e l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h r e e w e l l known i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n i i ( B r i g a n c e , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F l u h a r t y , 1 9 7 8 ) , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s , a s p r e d i c t o r s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e a n d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c o m p u t e d t o r e v e a l the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f e a c h s c r e e n i n g t e s t e m p l o y e d . T h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y show t h a t t h e r e i s some s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d f o r u s i n g t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s , a n d i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s . No s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r u s i n g t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , most c o r r e l a t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y l o w . T h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y w o u l d h a v e b e e n more m e a n i n g f u l i f t h e s a m p l e had been g r e a t e r t h a n 39 s u b j e c t s . Table of Contents Page Ab s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of Tables v i i Chapter 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Background of the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 5 Questions 6 Hypotheses 7 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 7 Screening 7 At Risk 8 Low Risk 8 P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y 8 Learning D i f f i c u l t y 8 Near the end of Kindergarten 8 Accurat e l y 8 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 9 Chapter 2: Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 11 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 Review of the - L i t e r a t u r e 12 Screening Models 13 Medical Model 13 School Readiness Model 13 Screening f o r E x c e p t i o n a l i t y 13 Screening f o r C u r r i c u l a r Programs 14 Ea r l y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s 14 Current L i t e r a t u r e Supporting Screening 33 Reasons f o r Using Screening Model and Screening Instruments 36 i v Page Current K i n d e r g a r t e n Screening P r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 38 Summary 41 Chapter 3: Research Methodology 43 I n t r o d u c t i o n 43 Instrumentation 4 5 D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments 45 Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade 45 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S c a l e 46 S c o r i n g Procedures 47 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time.. 48 F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t 50 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S c a l e 50 S c o r i n g Procedures 50 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 51 R e l i a b i l i t y 51 V a l i d i t y 52 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time 52 Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s 55 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S c a l e 55 S c o r i n g Procedures 57 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . 58 R e l i a b i l i t y 58 V a l i d i t y 59 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time 60 M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t (Form II) 63 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S c a l e 63 S c o r i n g Procedures 63 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 6 4 R e l i a b i l i t y 64 V a l i d i t y 64 Informal Teacher Ratings 65 Design 6 6 S u b j e c t s 66 Research Procedures 66 P r e d i c t i v e T e s t i n g 66 v Page Follow-up T e s t i n g 67 Summary 68 Chapter 4: F i n d i n g s 69 I n t r o d u c t i o n 69 R e s u l t s 69 D i s c u s s i o n 76 D i s c u s s i o n Regarding Questions 76 D i s c u s s i o n Regarding Hypotheses.... 81 General D i s c u s s i o n 83 Recommendations f o r the Elementary School 85 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 85 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Furt h e r Research 86' References 88 Appendix: Informal Teacher Ratings 97 v i L i s t of T a b l e s Page Table 1: C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r I n t r a t e s t e r and I n t e r t e s t e r R e l i a b i l i t y 52 Table 2: R e l i a b i l i t y of the McCarthy Short Short Form and C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n Between the Short Form and "Long Form" Scores 59 Table 3: Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t Area and Composite Scores 70 Table 4: C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the P r e d i c t i v e T e s t s and the Follow-up T e s t s 71 Table 5: Teacher P r e d i c t i o n s 74 Table 6: Brigance K Screen P r e d i c t i o n s 75 v i i 1 C h a p t e r 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e P r o b l e m D u r i n g t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s , t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s h a s b e e n o f p r i m e c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s . T h e a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who may be " a t - r i s k " f o r s c h o o l f a i l u r e c o n s t i t u t e s a m a j o r a r e a o f g r o w t h i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . S e v e r a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o i d e n t i f y " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n . T h e s e t e s t s f e a t u r e s h o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e s a n d a r e d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a c h i l d may h a v e d i f f i c u l t y s u c c e e d i n g i n s c h o o l , o r c o u l d p r o f i t f r o m a s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p l a c e m e n t ( M e i s e l s , 1 9 8 6 ) . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n shown i n t h e u s e o f t h e s e s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o F u e r t h a n d F o r s y t h e ( 1 9 8 0 ) , D e H i r s c h , J a n s k y , a n d L a n g f o r d ' s (1966) P r e d i c t i n g R e a d i n g F a i l u r e s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e u s e o f s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s t o p r e d i c t s c h o o l f a i l u r e . S t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h have y i e l d e d v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s , ( H a r i n g & R i d g w a y 1 9 6 7 ; F e s h b a c h , A d e l m a n & F u l l e r 1 9 7 4 ; F l e t c h e r & S a t z , 1 9 8 2 ; G a l l e r a n i , O ' R e g a n , & R e i n h e r z 1 9 8 2 ; S a t z & F r i e l , 1 9 7 8 ; S c h m i d t & P e r i n o , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s u c c e s s f u l o u t c o m e o f S a t z a n d F r i e l ' s (1978) a n d F l e t c h e r a n d S a t z ' s (1982) 2 l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y , d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t p o t e n t i a l r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , e n t i t l e d t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y ( S a t z & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f common a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . H o w e v e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . E d u c a t o r s a n d r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who may h a v e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d when t h e y e n t e r s c h o o l and be g i v e n s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y d e v e l o p s e r i o u s l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . T h e i r r a t i o n a l e i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : O b s e r v a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e v e n t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n r e m e d i a t i o n (Ramsey & B a y l e s s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 5 ) ; C e r t a i n l y , i t i s d e s i r a b l e o n humane g r o u n d s t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t e x p e r i e n c e f a i l u r e l o n g e r t h a n n e c e s s a r y ( W h i t e , 1 9 7 9 , p . 2 6 ) ; C h i l d r e n who a r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d t o c o p e w i t h s c h o o l f a c e d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t may become l i f e l o n g ( U p h o f f & G i l m o r e , 1 9 8 6 , p . 1 1 ) ; 3 It i s far more humane to help them (children) succeed by i d e n t i f y i n g and c a p i t a l i z i n g on their strengths, and at the same time working to eliminate their d i f f i c u l t i e s than i t i s to just l e t them f a i l . Kindergarten screening programs are one way of accomplishing t h i s ( Z e i t l i n , 1976, p. 3 ) ; If children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s are c o r r e c t l y diagnosed before they have suffered the trauma of continued f a i l u r e , and i f they receive s k i l l e d help from properly motivated and trained educators, they can lead happy and productive l i v e s (Feriden, Jacobson, & Linden, 1970, p. 48); And early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of learning problems and subsequent appropriate interventions w i l l prevent or a l l e v i a t e these problems (Wilson, 1985, p. 132). The passage of the United States Public Law 94-142 also provides a rationale for early screening. This law mandates a free and appropriate education for a l l handicapped children. Public Law 94-142 also states that a l l handicapped children w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and evaluated. In the United States, early screening i s based on the premise that the e a r l i e r the screening the greater the chances for success. The l a t e r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems the more 4 c o s t l y a n d l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h e r e m e d i a t i o n ( H a r r i s o n & N a g l i e r i , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e y h a v e s u f f e r e d s c h o o l f a i l u r e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s i n c r e a s e s t h e e a r l i e r t h e s c r e e n i n g and s u b s e q u e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n o c c u r . S u p p o r t f o r e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m t h e p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y o r d i s e a s e m o d e l (Keogh and B e c k e r , 1973) . T h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s m o d e l a r e t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i a b l e c o n d i t i o n e x i t s i n t h e c h i l d , t h a t d i a g n o s i s w i l l l e a d t o b e t t e r e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e c h i l d , and t h a t t r e a t m e n t w i l l h a v e g r e a t e r i m p a c t t h e s o o n e r i t c o m m e n c e s . A n o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t e a r l y t r e a t m e n t may p r e v e n t s e c o n d a r y c o m p o u n d i n g p r o b l e m s , f o r e x a m p l e , d i s r u p t i o n of p a r e n t a l a n d f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , confounding emotional c o n d i t i o n s , and i n t e r p e r s o n a l and a f f e c t i v e d i s t u r b a n c e s . When t h e p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y o r d i s e a s e m o d e l i s a p p l i e d t o a n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , a s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Keogh a n d B e c k e r , "When we s e e k t o i d e n t i f y p r e s c h o o l o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n whom we f e a r may become l e a r n i n g f a i l u r e s , we a r e i n f a c t h y p o t h e s i z i n g r a t h e r t h a n c o n f i r m i n g " (Keogh a n d B e c k e r , 1 9 7 3 , p . 5 ) . S i n c e t h e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y o r f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l h a s n o t 5 y e t o c c u r r e d , we a r e h y p o t h e s i z i n g o r p r e d i c t i n g t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w i l l o c c u r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c c u r a c y o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s i n p r e d i c t i n g s u c c e s s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a s e l e c t e d b a t t e r y o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s a n d i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s , i n p r e d i c t i n g s u c c e s s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h r e e w e l l known i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n ( B r i g a n c e , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F l u h a r t y , 1 9 7 8 ) , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t F o r m o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s , a s p r e d i c t o r s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d a t an E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h i s E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l w e r e s e e k i n g a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f K i n d e r g a r t e n a c h i e v e m e n t , t o a c c o m p a n y t h e i r p h y s i c a l s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . T h e y were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e c h i l d r e n who may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t i e s s u c c e e d i n g i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . 6 Questions T h i s e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y study was designed to p r o v i d e answers to a number of s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . They are: 1. Which measure or combination of measures w i l l most a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t success i n Kindergarten? 2. Does the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as determined by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade? 3. Does the F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as determined by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade? 4. Does Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as determined by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade? 5. Do i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ? ** For the purposes of the p r e s e n t study, "near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n " r e f e r s to May of 1990. 7 Hypotheses In order to answer the preceeding r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were generated: 1. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade. 2. The F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade. 3. Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Brigance K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . 4. Informal teacher r a t i n g s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms The d e f i n i t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l terms used i n t h i s study are l i s t e d below: Screening r e f e r s to a procedure f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n who have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " a t - r i s k " l e a r n e r s . S c r e e n i n g , i n the p r e s e n t study w i l l i n v o l v e i n f o r m a l 8 teacher r a t i n g s and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , the F l u r h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t , Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s . "At-r i s k " r e f e r s to any c h i l d whose s c o r e s d e v i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the normal ranges and/or c u t - o f f s c o r e s a c c o r d i n g to the t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d . " A t - r i s k " a l s o r e f e r s to any c h i l d t h a t has d i f f i c u l t y coping with the academic demands of the r e g u l a r K i n d e r g a r t e n classroom (as determined by teacher r a t i n g s ) . "Low-risk" r e f e r s to any c h i l d t h a t i s capable of coping with the academic demands of the r e g u l a r K i n d e r g a r t e n classroom. P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y r e f e r s to the accuracy with which a t e s t i n d i c a t e s f u t u r e l e a r n i n g success i n a p a r t i c u l a r area as evidenced by c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s on the t e s t and f u t u r e c r i t e r i o n measures of success. Learning d i f f i c u l t y r e f e r s to f a i l u r e to meet the l e a r n i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s c h o o l , by the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as determined by a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of performance on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t , the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade. Near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n r e f e r s to May of 1990. A c c u r a t e l y r e f e r s to the accuracy with which the p r e d i c t i v e measures i n d i c a t e f u t u r e academic achievement as 9 e v i d e n c e d by c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e p r e d i c t i v e m e a s u r e s a n d f u t u r e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y P a s t r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s t u d i e d t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n who a r e " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y ( B r a d l e y , 1 9 7 5 ; d e H i r s c h e t a l . , 1966 ; S a t z & F r i e l , 1 9 7 8 ; S c h m i d t & P e r i n o , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f " a t -r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s e s s e n t i a l , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a g r e e m e n t o n t h e m e a s u r e s t o be u s e d t o a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y t h e s e c h i l d r e n . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s t h i s n e e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t F o r m o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s , and i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s a r e v a l i d p r e d i c t o r s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s u c c e s s . N e a r l y a l l r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e t h e n e e d f o r more r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f s c r e e n i n g t e s t s ( M e i s e l s , W i s k e , & T i v n a n , 1 9 8 4 ; W i l s o n & R e i c h m u t h , 1 9 8 5 ; Wood , P o w e l l & K n i g h t , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d o v e r t h e l a c k o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s f o r many o f t h e s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s and t h e y s t r e s s t h e n e e d f o r r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d t e s t s t o a s s e s s a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l p o t e n t i a l . M o s t r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t f u r t h e r study of K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n of Elementary s c h o o l achievement. T h i s study i s designed to assess the v a l i d i t y of three w e l l known instruments, the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , the F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t , and Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s as p r e d i c t o r s of K i n d e r g a r t e n academic achievement. 11 C h a p t e r 2  R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s w i t h p o t e n t i a l -l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n t o e d u c a t o ' r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n shown i n t h e u s e o f s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who may be a t - r i s k f o r s c h o o l f a i l u r e . Much o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s b a s e d o n t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e e a r l i e r t h e s c r e e n i n g t h e g r e a t e r t h e c h a n c e s f o r s u c c e s s . T h e l a t e r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s t h e more c o s t l y and l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h e r e m e d i a t i o n ( H a r r i s o n & N a g l i e r i , 1 9 8 1 ) . d e H i r s c h , o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s i n s c r e e n i n g a n d p r e d i c t i o n r e s e a r c h , a s s e r t s t h a t r e c o g n i z i n g a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a t a n e a r l y age c o u l d a v o i d f u t u r e r e m e d i a l h e l p ( d e H i r s c h , 1 9 6 6 ) . E d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who may be a t - r i s k o f s u b s e q u e n t f a i l u r e . Many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s t u d i e d t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n who a r e " a t -r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ( B r a d l e y , 1 9 7 5 ; d e H i r s c h e t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ; S a t z & F r i e l , 1 9 7 8 ; S c h m i d t & P e r i n o , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a t - r i s k c h i l d r e n i s e s s e n t i a l ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f common a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y t h e s e c h i l d r e n . N e a r l y a l l r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e t h e 12 n e e d f o r more r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f s c r e e n i n g t e s t s ( M e i s e l s e t . a l . , 1 9 8 4 ; W i l s o n & R e i c h m u t h , 1 9 8 5 ; Wood e t . a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e y e x p r e s s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e l a c k o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s f o r many o f t h e s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s and s t r e s s t h e n e e d f o r r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d t e s t s t o e v a l u a t e a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l p o t e n t i a l . M o s t a g r e e t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h r e e s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n ( B r i g a n c e , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F l u h a r t y , 1 9 7 8 ) , a n d K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t F o r m o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , a s p r e d i c t o r s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e y i e l d e d t h e O o d e l s f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g , t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e c u r r e n t K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ''Screening Models Wendt (1979) has d e s c r i b e d four s c r e e n i n g models. The models i d e n t i f i e d are the medical model, the s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s model, s c r e e n i n g f o r e x c e p t i o n a l i t y , and s c r e e n i n g f o r c u r r i c u l a r programs. Medical Model Accor d i n g to M a y f i e l d (1981), the medical model i s f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as a type of developmental s c r e e n i n g . The f i v e major areas c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s model i n c l u d e ; p h y s i c a l (hearing and v i s i o n ) , speech and language, c o g n i t i v e , g r o s s and f i n e motor, and s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l development (Ysseldyke, Thurlow & O ' S u l l i v a n 1987; Wendt, 1979). School Readiness Model The s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s model attempts to i d e n t i f y ready and non-ready c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t " t h e c h i l d avoid c o n s i s t e n t f a i l u r e , and the subsequent lowered s e l f -esteem and avoidance behaviors that could develop i n t h e primary grades" (Wendt, 1979, p. 20). Screening f o r E x c e p t i o n a l i t y The s c r e e n i n g f o r e x c e p t i o n a l i t y model attempts to i d e n t i f y those c h i l d r e n with s p e c i a l or e x c e p t i o n a l needs. Kinde r g a r t e n entrance i s viewed as "the i d e a l time to spot c h i l d r e n who are p o s s i b l y mentally r e t a r d e d , l e a r n i n g 14 d i s a b l e d , or have some other p h y s i c a l or emotional d i s o r d e r that i n t e r f e r e s w i t h classroom l e a r n i n g " (Wendt, 1979, p. 20) . Screening f o r C u r r i c u l a r Programs The screening f o r c u r r i c u l a r programs model uses screening as a device f o r planning e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . Based on a d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e model, t h i s approach focuses on i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n Kindergarten. The d e c i s i o n of which of these models to u t i l i z e i s dependent upon the purposes f o r screening. For t h i s p a r t i c u l a r paper, the medical/developmental model was judged to be most appr o p r i a t e . The reasons f o r choosing t h i s model are discussed l a t e r . E a r l y I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals that there i s a lack of common agreement as to which s k i l l s are most important to assess at Kindergarten entry and which screening measures are accurate p r e d i c t o r s of academic achievement. There i s , however, common agreement that the e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s e s s e n t i a l . I n t e r e s t i n the use of screening b a t t e r i e s to p r e d i c t school f a i l u r e was st i m u l a t e d by deHirsch e t . a l . , (1966). 15 They c l a i m t h a t the f a c t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t e r performance i n c l u d e : presence or absence of h y p e r a c t i v e , d i s t r a c t i b l e , u n i n h i b i t e d behavior; gross motor p a t t e r n i n g ; f i n e motor c o n t r o l ; graphomotor a b i l i t y ; human f i g u r e drawing (body image); v i s u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n ; r e c e p t i v e language s k i l l s ; e x p r e s s i v e language s k i l l s ; v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n ; i n t e g r a t i o n of i n t e r s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n ; ego s t r e n g t h ; and work a t t i t u d e . d e Hirsch e t . a l . , (1966) developed a b a t t e r y of t e s t s a s s o c i a t e d with the aforementioned f a c t o r s and c o r r e l a t e d the K i n d e r g a r t e n t e s t r e s u l t s with end-of-second-grade reading achievement t e s t s c o r e s . S e v e r a l of these t e s t s f a i l e d to demonstrate s t r o n g , p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y . I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , measures of home environmental s t i m u l a t i o n , g r o s s motor s k i l l s , f i g u r e - g r o u n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , l a t e r a l i z a t i o n , and e s t a b l i s h e d handedness di d not c o r r e l a t e with second-grade achievement. The t e s t s which d i d c o r r e l a t e with second-grade achievement i n c l u d e measures of h y p e r a c t i v e , d i s t r a c t i b l e and d i s i n h i b i t e d behavior, f i n e motor c o n t r o l , graphomotor a b i l i t y ( p e n c i l g r i p and name w r i t i n g ) , human-figure drawings (body awareness); and the Bender Vi s u a l - M o t o r G e s t a l t T e s t (Bender, 1938), the f i v e o r a l language t e s t s (3 r e c e p t i v e t e s t s i e . i m i t a t i o n of a tapped-out p a t t e r n , ^ Wepman's A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t (Wepman, 1960), the Peabody Pic ture Vocabulary Test (Dunn, 1959), and two expressive tests ( i e . number of words used in a s tory; organizat ion of a s t o r y ) , and a l l reading readiness measures (name w r i t i n g , l e t t e r naming, the Horst Test (Horst, 1958), Gates Matching and Rhyming subtests (Gates & MacGin i t i e , 1968) , word recogni t ion and reproduction of words previous ly taught) . The re su l t s of th i s study led deHirsch, Jansky and Langford to develop a Pred ic t ive Index of ten tests that they bel ieved would corre la te with end-of-second-grade reading and s p e l l i n g achievement. The ten tests included: Penc i l Use Bender Visual-Motor Gesta l t Test (Bender, 1938) Wepman Auditory Discr iminat ion Test (Wepman, 1960) Number of Words Used in a Story Categor ies Horst Reversals Test (Horst, 1958) Gates Word Matching Test (Gates & MacGin i t i e , 1968) Word Recognition I Word Recognition II Word Reproduction deHirsch, Jansky and Langford (1966) describe the procedures for administering and scoring these tests in Appendix II of Pred ic t ing Reading F a i l u r e . They maintain that the Pred ic t ive Index should be administered to a l l 17 c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the second h a l f of the K i n d e r g a r t e n year. F i r s t grade entrance should be based on the c h i l d ' s score and teacher o b s e r v a t i o n s . In P r e v e n t i n g Reading F a i l u r e Jansky and d e H i r s c h (1972) continued t h e i r study and developed a M o d i f i e d P r e d i c t i v e Index (MPI). T h e i r MPI was composed of the f i v e best p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s : l e t t e r naming, word matching, (Gates Reading Readiness subtest) (Gates & M a c G i n i t i e , 1968), copy designs (Bender-Gestalt) (Bender, 1938), p i c t u r e naming, and sentence r e p e t i t i o n ( S t a n f o r d - B i n e t subtest) (Thorndike, Hagen & S a t t l e r , 1960). The two year study, i n v o l v e d over 400 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , and r e s u l t e d i n the MPI c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y i n g over 75 p e r c e n t of the c h i l d r e n who f a i l e d reading a t the end of second grade. In a study by Feshbach, Adelman, and F u l l e r (1974) i n v o l v i n g 572 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , the MPI was 73 percent accurate i n p r e d i c t i n g second grade reading achievement, however, a high number of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s were d i s c o v e r e d . A f a l s e p o s i t i v e can be d e s c r i b e d as a c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d as having a p o t e n t i a l problem when i n f a c t the problem does not e x i s t . In a s i m i l a r study by Eaves, K e n d a l l , and C r i t c h t o n (1974), i n v o l v i n g 42 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d by t e a c h e r s , the accuracy of the MPI was 76 percent, however a high percentage of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s were d e t e c t e d . 18 Another K i n d e r g a r t e n Screening B a t t e r y developed i n the 1960's was t h a t of Haring and Ridgway (1967). T h e i r ; b a t t e r y c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s : 1. I l l i n o i s T e s t of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s (ITPA) (Kirk & McCarthy, 1961) 2. The D e t r o i t T e s t of Learning A p t i t u d e (four subtests) (Hammill, 1958) 3. PISCI A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n ( S i e d e l , 1963) 4. The Wide Range Achievement T e s t (Jastak & W i l k i n s o n , 1936) 5. The Developmental T e s t of Vis u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n (Beery & Buktencia, 1967) 6. The Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey (Roach & Kephart, 1966) 7. T e s t of L e f t Right D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 8. P h y s i c a l Measurement ( i e . h e i g h t , weight, p o s t u r a l r e f l e x e s , muscle tone, x-ray age of hand and w r i s t bones). One hundred and s i x h i g h - r i s k s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d fo r t h i s study. These s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s , i n the i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g stage of the study, as being high r i s k i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g problems. The i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g stage i n c l u d e d the teacher's i n d i v i d u a l behavior a n a l y s i s f o r each c h i l d . T h e i r a n a l y s i s focused on problems i n the areas of language 19 d e v e l o p m e n t , v i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l a d e q u a c y , and f i n e a n d g r o s s m o t o r c o o r d i n a t i o n . C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s w h i c h m i g h t be i n d i c a t i v e o f s l o w e r t h a n n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f H a r i n g and R i d g w a y ' s b a t t e r y y i e l d e d few common l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s , and t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r a n a l y s i s may be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e g r o u p t e s t i n g o f K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t w i d e l y known e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t u d y i s t h e l o n g t e r m f o l l o w - u p s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by a S a t z and h i s c o l l e a g u e s . In a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s , F l e t c h e r a n d S a t z ( 1 9 8 2 ) , S a t z a n d F r i e l ( 1 9 7 4 ) , S a t z and F r i e l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , S a t z , F r i e l , a n d R u d e g e a i r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and S a t z , T a y l o r , F r i e l , and F l e t c h e r (1978) u s e d d i s c r i m i n a n t - f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n o f a s e t o f 22 p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s w e r e l o n g i t u d i n a l l y e v a l u a t e d w i t h 497 m a l e s f r o m K i n d e r g a r t e n u n t i l t h e e n d o f f i f t h g r a d e . T h e c r i t e r i o n was t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e s o f r e a d i n g l e v e l . T h e p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y ( S a t z & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t p o t e n t i a l r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e b a t t e r y c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : 1 . F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n 2 . P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t 20 3 . D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n 4 . A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n G a l l e r a n i e t . a l . , (1982) e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l s c r e e n i n g d a t a ( i . e . t h e P r e s c h o o l S c r e e n i n g S y s t e m ( H a i n s w o r t h & H a i n s w o r t h , 1 9 7 4 ) , a P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e S immons B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t ( R e i n h e r t z , K e l f e r , G r i f f i n & H o l l o w a y , 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d t h e Q u i n c y O b s e r v a t i o n S c a l e ) ( R e i n h e r t z , K e l f e r , G r i f f i n & H o l l o w a y , 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d r e a d i n e s s f o r f i r s t g r a d e , a s m e a s u r e d by K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s . T h e K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s r a t e d e a c h s t u d e n t a s ; d e f i n i t e l y r e a d y , somewhat r e a d y , o r n o t a t a l l r e a d y . T h e t e a c h e r s a l s o s p e c i f i e d r e a s o n s f o r n o n r e a d i n e s s ( i . e . n o n r e a d i n e s s f o r any r e a s o n , n o n r e a d i n e s s due t o a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s , o r n o n r e a d i n e s s d u e t o s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . G a l l e r a n i e t a l . , f o u n d t h a t 7 3 . 5 p e r c e n t o f c h i l d r e n r a t e d a s h a v i n g no a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . In a d d i t i o n , 7 3 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n r a t e d a s n o t r e a d y f o r f i r s t g r a d e d u e t o a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . Of t h e c h i l d r e n r a t e d a s s o c i a l l y / e m o t i o n a l l y r e a d y f o r f i r s t g r a d e , 7 4 . 3 p e r c e n t were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . O n l y a b o u t 48 p e r c e n t o f c h i l d r e n r a t e d a s n o t r e a d y d u e t o s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y l e d t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t b r i e f c o g n i t i v e s c r e e n i n g a t K i n d e r g a r t e n e n t r y i s more p r e d i c t i v e o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n K i n d e r g a r t e n t h a n e x t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r y d a t a . 21 A study by C r o n i n , A r v i n , and Brown (1983) assessed the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the McCarthy Screening T e s t (McCarthy, 1978) and SEARCH: A Scanning Instrument f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a P o t e n t i a l Learning D i s a b i l i t y ( S i l v e r & Hagin, 1976) . T h i s study i n c l u d e d 190 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . The c r i t e r i o n measure, gathered a t the end of f i r s t and second grade, i n c l u d e d performance on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Te s t ( P r e s c o t t , Barlow, Hogan & F a r r , 1978) and s c h o o l performance. R e s u l t s of t h i s study were not s u p p o r t i v e of the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of SEARCH and only m a r g i n a l l y support the McCarthy Screening T e s t . H a r r i s o n and N a g l i a r i ' s (1981) study compared the scores on Kaufman's (1977) Short Form and the McCarthy Screening T e s t (McCarthy, 1978) with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Te s t c r i t e r i o n measure s c o r e , f o r 53 f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e l a t i o n between Kaufman's (1977) estimated General C o g n i t i v e Index and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Te s t raw score was .71. B i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between " a t - r i s k " and " n o t - a t - r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the McCarthy Screening T e s t and M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test raw s c o r e s ranged from .43 to .78. Kaufman's (1977) estimated General C o g n i t i v e Index c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than three of the nine McCarthy Screening T e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , [ t ' s (50) = 3.07, 2.21, 2.14, p <.05.] R e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest t h a t Kaufman's (1977) 22 Short Form may have b e t t e r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y than the McCarthy Screening T e s t f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample of f i r s t g r a ders. N a g l i e r i and H a r r i s o n (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the McCarthy S c a l e s General C o g n i t i v e Index, the McCarthy Screening T e s t , Kaufman's Short Form, and the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t (Dunn & Marwardt, 1970). T h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n i n grades K to 3 were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Estimated General C o g n i t i v e Index by Kaufman's Short Form (105.6) was v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the McCarthy S c a l e s ( F u l l Form) index (105.7). The McCarthy S c a l e s , McCarthy Screening T e s t , and Kaufman's Short Form a l l c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y (p < .01) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t (Dunn & Marwardt, 1970), with the e x c e p t i o n of the McCarthy Motor S c a l e . T h i s study suggests that the McCarthy Screening T e s t and Kaufman's Short Form have approximately equal p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . A study by V a l e n c i a and Rankin (1983) i n d i c a t e d t h a t Kaufman's Short Form estimated General C o g n i t i v e Index and a c t u a l General C o g n i t i v e Index's from the McCarthy S c a l e s are very s i m i l a r . The authors observed a mean c o r r e l a t i o n of .90 between estimated and a c t u a l General C o g n i t i v e Index's f o r 176 Spanish-speaking c h i l d r e n and .92 f o r 154 23 E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Mexican-American c h i l d r e n of p r e s c h o o l and K i n d e r g a r t e n age. In another study by V a l e n c i a (1984) , f u r t h e r evidence f o r the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of Kaufman's Short Form i s p r o v i d e d . T h i s study i n c l u d e d 76 E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g and Spanish-speaking c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n grade two. R e s u l t s suggest t h a t Kaufman's Short Form and the McCarthy S c a l e s p r e d i c t academic achievement (as measured by the Comprehensive Te s t of B a s i c S k i l l s ) (CTBS, 1974) about e q u a l l y w e l l . G u l l o , Clements, and Robertson (1984) examined^ the e f f i c i e n c y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the McCarthy Screening T e s t i n p r e d i c t i n g end of K i n d e r g a r t e n and end of f i r s t grade achievement. The McCarthy Screening T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 88 e n t e r i n g K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to each s u b j e c t a t the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n . The dependent v a r i a b l e , the S c o t t Foresman Achievement Te s t (SFAT), (Wick & Smith, 1981), was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t the end of f i r s t grade. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t both s c r e e n i n g t e s t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d . - • , .r-—"* l a t e r achievement, however, the McCarthy Screening T e s t proved to be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r i n almost a l l cases. Although the McCarthy Screening T e s t and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t are somewhat p r e d i c t i v e , these r e s e a r c h e r s c a u t i o n a g a i n s t using e i t h e r instrument f o r d e c i s i o n making 24 purposes of h i g h - r i s k l e a r n e r s , and recommend t h a t these measures be used as p a r t of a b a t t e r y of t e s t s . A two p a r t study, conducted by Funk, S t u r n e r , and Green (1986), examined the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s . These authors s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s performance, p r i o r to s c h o o l e n t r y , to achievement i n K i n d e r g a r t e n , f i r s t , and second grades, as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Te s t ( C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Te s t (Tiegs & C l a r k , 1970) reading and mathematics s c o r e s . A s t r a t i f i e d sample of 129 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. C o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s on the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s s c o r e s and achievement on the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t ranged from r = .35 to r = .70. These c o r r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e support f o r the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s . The authors examined the c h i l d r e n most " a t - r i s k " for l a t e r l e a r n i n g problems, and found t h a t c h i l d r e n with low General C o g n i t i v e Index s c o r e s (GCI) ( l e s s than 67 or between 68 and 84; 1 - 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s below the norm mean) on the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s o b t a i n e d s c o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t which were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower, i n a l l grades, than c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g w i t h i n the normal range (greater than or equal to 84) on the GCI. By the end of second grade 94 percent of the c h i l d r e n who had GCI s c o r e s lower than 68 and 74 percent of those c h i l d r e n 25 who had GCI s c o r e s between 68 and 84 "had e i t h e r f a i l e d a grade, been p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , or were s c o r i n g i n the bottom 20 p e r c e n t of t h e i r c o h o r t on the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t ' s i n t h a t year" (Funk et a l . , 1986, p. 181). Funk e t . a t . , (1986) conducted another study i n order to s u b s t a n t i a t e the r e s u l t s from the p r e v i o u s study. One hundred and e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study, which only examined end of f i r s t grade achievement. The r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r to those o b t a i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s study. Both s t u d i e s demonstrate t h a t r e s u l t s on the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s o b t ained p r i o r to s c h o o l e n t r y , are p r e d i c t i v e of achievement i n the e a r l y grades. Schmidt and P e r i n o (1985) examined the a b i l i t y of the Vane Te s t of Language (Vane, 1975) and the Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (Vane, 1968) to p r e d i c t academic achievement, p o t e n t i a l , and placement i n the second grade. The Vane Test of Language and the Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t were ad m i n i s t e r e d to 378 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . The c r i t e r i o n measures, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t ( P r e s c o t t e t . a l . , 1978) Reading Composite Score, and the Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y T e s t ( O t i s & Lesson, 1979) were ad m i n i s t e r e d a t the end of the second grade. The M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test Reading Composite Score was .50, and the M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n f o r the Otis-Lennon School 26 A b i l i t y T e s t was .48. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Vane Ki n d e r g a r t e n T e s t and the Vane Te s t of Language do p r e d i c t achievement. These r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o grouped a l l second grade s u b j e c t s i n t o one of three groups: s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , average, and high achievement. Stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted i n order to determine which s u b t e s t s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d both the s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n group and the high achievement group. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a weighted combination of o n l y three s u b t e s t s from the e n t i r e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t and the Vane Te s t of Language b a t t e r y c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t 77 percent of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n students and 73 percent of h i g h - a c h i e v i n g c h i l d r e n a t the end of second grade. Tsushima, Onorato, Okumura, and Sue (1983) examined the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the STAR: Screening T e s t of Academic Readiness (Ahr, 1966). They c o r r e l a t e d STAR t e s t s c o r e s , obtained a t the beginning of the K i n d e r g a r t e n year, with achievement t e s t s c o r e s and with teacher r a t i n g s , o btained at the end of the K i n d e r g a r t e n year. The s u b j e c t s of t h i s study were 59 boys a t t e n d i n g a p r i v a t e - s c h o o l with s u p e r i o r academic standards. With the e x c e p t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n between the Screening T e s t of Academic Readiness and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t Numbers Subtest, no c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the STAR s c o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s c o r e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There was the low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = .23) between the STAR 27 s c o r e s and the t e a c h e r s ' academic ranking of the s t u d e n t s . Tsushima e t . a t . , (1983) c a u t i o n a g a i n s t using instruments recommended from other s t u d i e s f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes. Even i f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are a v a i l a b l e , a l o c a l r e v a l i d a t i o n may be necessary due to socioeconomic, c u l t u r a l , t e a c h i n g emphasis and peer p r e s s u r e v a r i a t i o n s . Jacobsen (1990) examined the a b i l i t y of the Draw-a-Person T e s t ( H a r r i s , 1963), the Mann-Suiter V i s u a l Motor Screen (Mann, S u i t e r , & McClung, 1987), the K i n d e r g a r t e n Language Screening T e s t (Gauthier & Madison, 1973) and the D e v e r e l l T e s t of L e t t e r and Numbers ( D e v e r e l l , 1974) to p r e d i c t grade three achievement i n r e a d i n g , mathematics, vocabulary and language. The four s c r e e n i n g measures were admin i s t e r e d d u r i n g K i n d e r g a r t e n , with the c r i t e r i o n measure, the Canadian T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s (Hieronymus e t a t . , 1976) a d m i n i s t e r e d at the end of the t h i r d grade. Two e n t i r e age c o h o r t s (957 students) e n r o l l e d i n 30 schools i n one Canadian s c h o o l d i s t r i c t were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l four K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g measures were moderate p r e d i c t o r s of grade three achievement i n r e a d i n g , mathematics, voca b u l a r y , and language. She r e p o r t s t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r s f o r r e a d i n g , vocabulary and language r e l a t e d achievement measures were the K i n d e r g a r t e n Language Screening T e s t and the D e v e r e l l T e s t of L e t t e r and Numbers. The best p r e d i c t o r s f o r mathematics were vis u a l - m o t o r a b i l i t y and 28 e x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e . J a c o b s e n (1990) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e u s e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t m e a s u r e s c a n be v a l u a b l e i n a s c r e e n i n g p r o g r a m " . T h i s a u t h o r a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t " a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t m e a s u r e s w i t h r e p o r t s o f t e a c h e r j u d g e m e n t w o u l d l i k e l y i m p r o v e t h e a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s " ( p . 1 4 1 ) . A m e t a - a n a l y s i s o f 58 s t u d i e s o n t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s c o r r e l a t e d s e v e r a l p r e d i c t o r s w i t h l a t e r r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t ( H o r n a n d P a c k a r d , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e p r e d i c t o r m e a s u r e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g K i n d e r g a r t e n o r f i r s t g r a d e . T h e f o l l o w - u p m e a s u r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . D e p e n d i n g on t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e b e i n g s t u d i e d , t h e s a m p l e s i z e r a n g e d f r o m 494 ( g r o s s m o t o r s k i l l s ) t o 6 , 4 0 1 ( r e c e p t i v e l a n g u a g e t e s t s ) . T h e i r f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( H o r n & P a c k a r e d , 1 9 8 5 , p . 602) w h i c h " s h o w s mean c o r r e l a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s b r o k e n down i n t o t h o s e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t was m e a s u r e d a t t h e e n d o f f i r s t g r a d e and t h o s e i n w h i c h a c h i e v e m e n t was m e a s u r e d i n s e c o n d o r t h i r d g r a d e " : 29 Mean C o r r e l a t i o n s and Standard D e v i a t i o n s by- V a r i a b l e f o r Two Grade L e v e l s i n Meta-Analysis (Horn & Packard, 1985, p. 602) F i r s t grade S e c o n d / t h i r d grades No. Mean No. Mean V a r i a b l e r 's N r SD r's N r SD Language Wr i t t e n 5 1,561 .61 .11 O r a l 19 4,168 .44 .18 ~8 684 .51 • XT Receptive 30 6,401 .53 .12 10 1 ,718 .58 .13 Sensory F i g u r e drawings 23 4,317 .43 .14 9 1 ,684 .33 .04 Aud i t o r y s k i l l s 17 3,616 .36 .06 7 230 .40 .00 V i s u a l s k i l l s 20 3,152 .46 .16 9 795 .32 .00 I n t e g r a t i o n 12 1,858 .24 .10 4 395 .40 .07 B e h a v i o r a l -emotional A t t e n t i o n / d i s t r a c t . 3 740 .71 .08 5 307 .43 .14 E x t e r n a l i z ing 7 1,524 .46 .15 3 271 .78 .19 I n t e r n a l i z ing 3 844 .56 .00 3 271 .72 .00 S e l f - h e l p / s o c i a l s k i l l s 4 481 .52 .20 4 448 .43 .22 S o f t n e u r o l o g i c a l Fine motor s k i l l s 3 751 .47 .00 5 463 .44 .00 Gross motor s k i l l s 3 494 .36 .00 6 518 .29 .12 C e r e b r a l dominance/ handedness Group t e s t s 4 1,126 .59 .10 I n d i v i d u a l t e s t s 5 1,154 .46 .07 5 1 ,145 .54 .00 Teacher Ratings 5 1,151 .51 * .08 5 871 .46* .00 * C o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n due to v a r i a t i o n i n c r i t e r i o n r e l i a b i l i t y o n l y . 30 The m e t a - a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s i n g l e best p r e d i c t o r s f o r l a t e r reading achievement were (from best to l e a s t ) : 1. assessments of a t t e n t i o n / d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y 2. language t e s t s ( w r i t t e n and r e c e p t i v e ) 3. i n t e r n a l i z i n g behavior measures ( i e . a n x i e t y , depression) 4. i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s 5. s o f t n e u r o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r s 6. sensory measures ( i e . f i g u r e drawings, v i s u a l s k i l l s . . . ) Another approach to e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s the use of teacher completed r a t i n g s c a l e s . Since the teacher has c l o s e d a i l y c o n t a c t with each c h i l d , he/she becomes an important source of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l r i s k . T h e r e f o r e , K i n d e r g a r t e n teachers assume added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as they are asked to i d e n t i f y problems before such problems are w e l l developed ( G l a z z a r d , 1982). S e v e r a l recent" r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t teachers are e f f e c t i v e i n i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , and support the use of teacher r a t i n g s as p a r t of e a r l y s c r e e n i n g programs (Becker & S n i d e r , 1979; G l a z z a r d , 1982; T o l l e f s o n , Rodriquez & G l a z z a r d , 1985). Haring and Ridgway (1967) and Ferinden, Jacobsen, and Linden (1970) concluded that t e a c h e r s can p r e d i c t w i t h 80 p e r c e n t accuracy which 31 c h i l d r e n w i l l e xperience academic f a i l u r e . Feshbach e t . a t . , (1974) found t h a t teacher judgements tended to be e q u a l l y as e f f e c t i v e as formal t e s t s i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n . In a long range study, G l a z z a r d (1982) examined the p r e d i c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the Teacher Estimate of K i n d e r g a r t e n P u p i l ' s A b i l i t i e s (Kirk Teacher Rating Scale) ( K i r k , 1966) with r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s and r e a d i n g achievement t e s t s . The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s : Readiness S k i l l s , (Gates & M a c G i n i t i e , 1968) and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t (Gates & M a c G i n i t i e , 1965) scores a t the end of f i r s t , second, t h i r d , and f o u r t h grades served as the c r i t e r i o n . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the K i r k Teacher Rating S c a l e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of vocabulary and reading comprehension s c o r e s i n f i r s t grade achievement t e s t s . The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Readiness T e s t was a more e f f i c i e n t p r e d i c t i v e measure f o r second and t h i r d grade comprehension. Both the K i r k Teacher Rating S c a l e and the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Readiness T e s t were uniquely p r e d i c t i v e of reading comprehension i n the f o u r t h grade. These r e s u l t s l e d G l a z z a r d to conclude t h a t the K i r k Teacher Rating S c a l e was an e f f i c i e n t and c o s t e f f e c t i v e approach f o r i d e n t i f y i n g " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n . Two s t u d i e s , conducted by T o l l e f s o n e t . a l . , (1985), examined the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher 32 Rating S c a l e (Glazzard & K i r k , 1979). The f i r s t study i n c l u d e d a sample of 137 boys and 136 g i r l s . The teachers r a t e d each s u b j e c t on the K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher Rating S c a l e at the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n . The Science Research A s s o c i a t e s Achievement S e r i e s (Nashlund, Thorpe & L e f e v e r , 1978), ad m i n i s t e r e d a t the beginning of second grade, served as the dependent v a r i a b l e . The second study i n c l u d e d a sample of 144 boys and 136 g i r l s . The t e a c h e r s r a t e d each s u b j e c t on the K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher Rating S c a l e a t the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n . A l l s u b j e c t s completed the End of L e v e l 1 Readiness T e s t a t the beginning of f i r s t grade, and the S t a n f o r d Achievement Test (Madden, Garner, Rudman, Karsen & Marvin, 1973) at the end of f i r s t grade. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s determined t h a t the K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher Rating S c a l e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of the reading achievement of both boys and g i r l s a t the end of f i r s t grade and the beginning of second grade. Swartz and Walker (1984) u t i l i z e d a c r i t e r i o n -r e f e r e n c e d teacher r a t i n g s c a l e , e n t i t l e d the K i n d e r g a r t e n Performance P r o f i l e (Walker & Swartz, 1981), and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t (Tiegs & C l a r k , 1970) to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher r a t i n g s of K i n d e r g a r t e n classroom s k i l l s and second grade achievement. The s u b j e c t s were 225 g i r l s and 257 boys. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t work s k i l l s were r e l a t e d to achievement f o r both boys and g i r l s . 33 T e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f s o c i a l s k i l l s w e r e r e l a t e d t o s e c o n d g r a d e a c h e i v e m e n t f o r g i r l s b u t n o t b o y s . Hoge a n d C o l a d a r i (1989) r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r j u d g e m e n t . T h e s e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t e a c h e r j u d g e m e n t a b o u t s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c u r a t e , h o w e v e r , t h e l e v e l s o f a c c u r a c y v a r y a c r o s s t e a c h e r s . C u r r e n t L i t e r a t u r e S u p p o r t i n g S c r e e n i n g M a r g i e M a y f i e l d ' s g e n e r a l r e p o r t o n K i n d e r g a r t e n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1981) i n c l u d e s a C h a p t e r o n t h e A s s e s s m e n t o f K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . A s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s t o h e r s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g . T h e r e s u l t s o f h e r s u r v e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a n a v e r a g e o f e i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who r e s p o n d e d w e r e i n f a v o u r o f s c r e e n i n g ( r a n g e : 79 p e r c e n t t o 88 p e r c e n t ) . T h i s f i n d i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s w r i t t e n c o m m e n t s . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e two comments i n c l u d e d i n M a y f i e l d ' s r e p o r t : T h e s p o t l i g h t i s o n K i n d e r g a r t e n . We a r e f i n a l l y b e g i n n i n g t o s e e t h e v a l u e a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h - a b i l i t y a n d " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l y a g e . I t h a s b e e n s h o w n , s t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h a t e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d r e m e d i a t i o n a r e d r a m a t i c a l l y more s u c c e s s f u l i n K i n d e r g a r t e n / F i r s t 34 Grade than l a t e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades. (Kindergarten teacher) I f e e l t h a t s c r e e n i n g should be f o r the purposes of i n f o r m i n g the te a c h e r s and pa r e n t s of the areas the c h i l d needs to develop to become a c a d e m i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y ready f o r F i r s t Grade. (Kindergarten parent) Educators and r e s e a r c h e r s agree t h a t s c r e e n i n g i s v a l u a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g are t h e i r comments i n support of s c r e e n i n g : The importance of i d e n t i f y i n g f a i l u r e - p r o n e or " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n before they enter s c h o o l i s now based on s o l i d evidence showing t h a t e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n coupled with remedial a s s i s t a n c e a t the p r e s c h o o l l e v e l can help reduce the r i s k of subsequent grade r e t e n t i o n (from Simner, 1983, p. 17) . ... e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y (Judy, 1986, p. 87). ... s c r e e n i n g instruments have l i m i t a t i o n s , but they p r o v i d e educators i n f o r m a t i o n c r i t i c a l to c h i l d r e n ' s s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g (Judy, 1986, p. 87) . 35 Thus f o r both s c r e e n i n g and r e a d i n e s s t e s t i n g , using a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t s f o r a c c e p t a b l e purposes w i l l y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t , when l i n k e d to i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program p l a n n i n g , can improve a c h i l d ' s f i r s t - t i m e - t o - s c h o o l experience ( M e i s e l s , 1986, p. 92). ... new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r sc h o o l s to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who may be " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g problems and to p l a c e these c h i l d r e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l environments ( M e i s e l s , 1987, p. 4) . An area of concern f o r educators and p s y c h o l o g i s t s i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n who have l e a r n i n g problems i n elementary schools (Smith & Smith, 1988, p. 264) . C u r r e n t l y , there i s concern because i t appears that more an more c h i l d r e n are " a t - r i s k " f o r Kin d e r g a r t e n f a i l u r e (Charlesworth, 1989, p. 5). During the 80's, there has been a trend toward i d e n t i f y i n g h i g h - r i s k c h i l d r e n a t a l l socioeconomic l e v e l s who may not be ready f o r Kin d e r g a r t e n (Charlesworth, 1989, p. 5). 36 E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may be the most c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the e v e n t u a l s c h o o l success of c h i l d r e n with l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (from Rafoth, 1988, p. 186). Educators and r e s e a r c h e r s agree t h a t s c r e e n i n g i s a necessary procedure f o r elementary s c h o o l s . Although there are some l i m i t a t i o n s to s c r e e n i n g , the b e n e f i t s f a r outweigh the c o s t s . Reasons f o r Using Screening Model and Screening Instruments The medical/developmental model f o r s c r e e n i n g was chosen s i n c e the Elementary School's purposes f o r s c r e e n i n g are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r model. The s c h o o l chosen f o r t h i s study, adheres to the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n . The Elementary School's i n t e n t i o n f o r s c r e e n i n g was to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who were " a t - r i s k " of e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e i r b e l i e f was that the presence of such c h i l d r e n would i n d i c a t e the need f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l programming and t h a t the e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " of e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d r e s u l t i n the p r o v i s i o n of remedial programming designed to a l l e v i a t e or e l i m i n a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s . 37 The review of the l i t e r a t u r e , the K i n d e r g a r t e n Curriculum, and the outcome goals of the Elementary School's K i n d e r g a r t e n program, i n f l u e n c e d the c h o i c e of instruments for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. In the " E a r l y D e t e c t i o n of Learning Problems: Questions, C a u t i o n s , and G u i d e l i n e s , " Keogh and Becker (1973) d i f f e r e n t i a t e the medical model of i d e n t i f y i n g a c o n d i t i o n which e x i s t s i n the c h i l d from the e d u c a t i o n a l model f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h a t a c h i l d w i l l experience d i f f i c u l t y i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . They emphasize t h a t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g we are p r e d i c t i n g r a t h e r than c o n f i r m i n g . Keogh and Becker r a i s e an important q u e s t i o n with regard to the p r e d i c t i o n of l e a r n i n g problems; How v a l i d are the i d e n t i f y i n g or p r e d i c t i v e measures? According to the authors, "a c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n v a l i d i t y q u e s t i o n s i s the d e f i n i t i o n of outcome goals a g a i n s t which p r e d i c t i o n s are based" (Keogh & Becker, 1973, p. 6 ) . The v a l i d i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s c r e e n i n g t e s t or s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to the goals d e f i n e d . The most e f f i c i e n t and a c c u r a t e s c r e e n i n g measures are those which tap the a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l program. I f reading w i l l be p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n a l program, the s c r e e n i n g should e v a l u a t e p r e r e a d i n g s k i l l s , and any other a b i l i t i e s necessary to succeed a t r e a d i n g . J u d y (1986) makes a s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t t o K e o g h a n d B e c k e r ' s (1973). A c c o r d i n g t o J u d y , " t h e u l t i m a t e t e s t o f a s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y o r t e s t i s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t p r o v i d e s . T h u s , c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d d i c t a t e t h e t y p e o f s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t u s e d " ( J u d y , 1986, p . 87). D u r k i n ' s (1987) s t u d y o f K i n d e r g a r t e n t e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two m a i n p u r p o s e s o f t e s t i n g a r e : t o ; d i s c o v e r w h a t a c h i l d knows i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s u c h p r o g r a m s a n d t o ; e v a l u a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d come n e x t . D u r k i n s h a r e s t h e c o n c e r n s o f m o s t r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t t e s t i n g s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a n d p r o g r a m s . The m e a s u r e s c h o s e n f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e f l e c t t h e a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o s u c c e e d i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s c h o s e n i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . C u r r e n t K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g P r a c t i c e s i n V a n c o u v e r , B . C .  and t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d D o w l e r (1990) c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i f t y - e i g h t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s u r v e y . 39 T h r e e o f t h e f i v e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g . T h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1 . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s ; i s n ' t ; d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g o r r e a d i n e s s t e s t i n g i n o u r d i s t r i c t . 2 . T h e r e was s o m e ; w a s n ' t a n y s u c h s c r e e n i n g o r a s s e s s m e n t i n o u r d i s t r i c t . 3 . T h e i s s u e o f P r e s c h o o l o r K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g h a s , h a s n o t b e e n c l e a r l y a d d r e s s e d i n o u r d i s t r i c t a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s ; i s n o t some c o n f u s i o n a s t o what e a r l y c h i l d h o o d s c r e e n i n g i s . In r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , D o w l e r (1990) o b t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : 1. C u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s ; i s n ' t ; d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g o r r e a d i n e s s t e s t i n g i n o u r d i s t r i c t . T w e n t y - s e v e n o f f i f t y - e i g h t d i s t r i c t s , o r 47 p e r c e n t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s some f o r m o f s c r e e n i n g o r r e a d i n e s s t e s t i n g i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s , w h i l e t h i r t y - o n e o f f i f t y - e i g h t , o r 53 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e i s n ' t . M o s t o f t h e d i s t r i c t s , t h a t r e p o r t e d l y d o some f o r m o f t e s t i n g , h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own s c r e e n i n g p r o g r a m s w h i c h meet t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s a n d g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s . Many o f t h e 53 p e r c e n t , who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s c r e e n o r t e s t , commented t h a t t h e y a d m i n i s t e r v a r i o u s t e s t s when i t i s 40 necessary, ( i e . when the teacher n o t i c e s t h a t there i s a problem). 2. There was some; wasn't any such s c r e e n i n g or assessment i n our d i s t r i c t . T h i r t y - n i n e of f i f t y - s e v e n d i s t r i c t s , or 68 percent, i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was some form of s c r e e n i n g or t e s t i n g i n the past , w h i l e 32 percent r e p o r t e d t h a t there was not. Formal s c r e e n i n g or t e s t i n g has been viewed by the m a j o r i t y of d i s t r i c t s as worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Many of the d i s t r i c t s t h a t no longer s c r e e n or t e s t i n d i c a t e d that the process was too cumbersome or t h a t i t no longer served t h e i r purposes. 3. The i s s u e s of P r e s c h o o l or K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g has: has not been c l e a r l y addressed i n our d i s t r i c t and t h e r e f o r e there i s ; not some confusion as to what e a r l y childhood screening i s . I t should be noted t h a t only f o r t y - s e v e n d i s t r i c t s responded to t h i s q u e s t i o n . Of the f o r t y - s e v e n , e i g h t e e n r e p o r t e d t h a t the i s s u e has been c l e a r l y addressed, while twenty-six s t a t e d t h a t i t has not. Nineteen of the f o r t y -seveh d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d s c r e e n i n g , while twenty s a i d t h a t there was not any c o n f u s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g are examples of the comments made i n response to t h i s q u e s t i o n : 41 "There i s no obvious need f o r screening." "Classroom observations have made screening unnecessary." "Appropriate screening measures have not as yet been defined by our M i n i s t r y of Education." " I t (screening) i s not an i s s u e . " "Yes, Yes, This issue (screening) i s not c l e a r . " "This issue w i l l be r e v i s i t e d at the dual entry system." "Entrance to Kindergarten has been a p a r e n t a l d e c i s i o n i n School D i s t r i c t # **." " A d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s are ta k i n g place i n an attempt to develop a c l e a r e r understanding." Summary The e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n with p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s of major concern to educators and researchers. Educators and researchers agree that screening i s v a l u a b l e . Their support f o r screening i s based on the philosophy that appropriate e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n can prevent school f a i l u r e . Although research i n d i c a t e s a d e f i n i t e nded 7 f o r Kindergarten screening, there i s a lack of agreement as to which v a r i a b l e s are e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t o r s of academic success. Nearly a l l researchers c i t e the need for more research i n t o the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of screening t e s t s (Meisels e t . a l . , 1984; Wilson & Reichmuth, 1985; Wood et. a l . , 1984). Many researchers agree that f u r t h e r study of Kindergarten screening b a t t e r i e s w i l l provide v a l u a b l e information regarding the accurate p r e d i c t i o n of elementary school achievement. Dowler (1990) conducted a survey i n 42 o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o r t y s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s some f o r m o f s c r e e n i n g and r e a d i n e s s t e s t i n g i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s , w h i l e f i f t y t h r e e p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t . S i x t y e i g h t p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was some f o r m o f s c r e e n i n g o r t e s t i n g i n t h e p a s t , w h i l e t h i r t y two p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t . 43 C h a p t e r T h r e e  R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y I n t r o d u c t i o n A g r o w i n g number o f s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n u t i l i z i n g s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . Many e d u c a t o r s h a v e t a r g e t e d K i n d e r g a r t e n e n t r a n c e a s a n i d e a l t i m e f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s . Wendt (1978) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e m i s e b e h i n d e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d r e m e d i a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s w i l l r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s f o r t h e c h i l d . Many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s t u d i e d t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n who a r e " " a t - r i s k " " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ( B r a d l e y , 1 9 7 5 ; d e H i r s c h e t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ; S a t z & F r i e l , 1 9 7 8 ; S c h m i d t & P e r i n o , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s e s s e n t i a l , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f common a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h i c h s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y t h e s e c h i l d r e n . N e a r l y a l l r e s e a r c h e r s c i t e t h e n e e d f o r more r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f s c r e e n i n g t e s t s ( M e i s e l s e t . a t . , 1 9 8 4 ; W i l s o n & R e i c h m u t h , 1 9 8 5 ; Wood e t . a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s e x p r e s s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e l a c k o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s f o r many o f t h e s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s and s t r e s s t h e n e e d f o r r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d t e s t s t o e v a l u a t e a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l p o t e n t i a l . M o s t r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y 44 o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h r e e s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n ( B r i g a n c e , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F l u h a r t y , 1 9 7 8 ) , a n d K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , a s p r e d i c t o r s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . C h a p t e r two i s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e m o d e l s f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g , t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g , and t h e c u r r e n t K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e s t u d y . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t G r a d e ( B r i g a n c e , 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F l u h a r t y , 1 9 7 8 ) , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t ( N u r s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d t h e I n f o r m a l T e a c h e r R a t i n g i s p r o v i d e d . T h e r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e m e a s u r e s t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . T h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f s u m m a r y . 45 Instrumentation The f o l l o w i n g instruments were chosen f o r the present study: 1. Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r Kindergarten (Brigance, 1987) 2. The F l u h a r t y Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test ( F l u h a r t y , 1978) 3. Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy Scales of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s (Kaufman, 1977) 4. Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade (Brigance, 1987) 5. M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Test (Level II) (Nurss, 1976) 6. Informal teacher r a t i n g s D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r Kindergarten and F i r s t Grade The s t a t e d purpose of the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r Kindergarten and F i r s t Grade i s to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who may need f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n to see i f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s are necessary. 46 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S c a l e The f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n : P e r s o n a l D a t a R e s p o n s e C o l o r R e c o g n i t i o n P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n V i s u a l - M o t o r S k i l l s G r o s s M o t o r S k i l l s R o t e C o u n t i n g I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Body P a r t s F o l l o w s V e r b a l D i r e c t i o n s N u m e r a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n P r i n t s P e r s o n a l D a t a S y n t a x a n d F l u e n c y The f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e F i r s t G r a d e S c r e e n : P e r s o n a l D a t a R e s p o n s e C o l o r R e c o g n i t i o n P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n V i s u a l - M o t o r S k i l l s D r a w - A - P e r s o n ( Body Image) R o t e C o u n t i n g R e c i t e s A l p h a b e t 47 N u m e r a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n R e c o g n i t i o n o f L o w e r c a s e L e t t e r s A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n P r i n t s P e r s o n a l D a t a N u m e r a l s i n S e q u e n c e S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s R e s p o n s e s a r e s c o r e s a s 1 o r 0 . T h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s c o r e i s 1 0 0 . T h e a u t h o r s recommend t h a t s t u d e n t s s c o r i n g 6 9 . 5 o r b e l o w be r e f e r r e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t . A f o l l o w - u p o n s t u d e n t s s c o r i n g b e t w e e n 70 and 7 4 . 5 i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d . T h e a c a d e m i c r e c o r d s f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d a t a f u t u r e d a t e . T h o s e s t u d e n t s n o t m a k i n g a c c e p t a b l e p r o g r e s s a t t h a t t i m e s h o u l d be t e s t e d f u r t h e r . T h i s i s a c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t G r a d e ' s ( B r i g a n c e , 1987) a s s e s s m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o o t h e r m e a s u r e s ( i e . t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t ) ( N u r s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d many p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e f i e l d o f t e s t i n g c o n c u r t h a t t h e s u b t e s t s o n t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t G r a d e a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t G r a d e S c r e e n i n g . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o K i n d e r g a r t e n e n t r a n c e a s w e l l a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n y e a r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o 48 F i r s t Grade entrance as w e l l as throughout the F i r s t Grade year. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time 10 - 12 minutes Although no s t u d i e s using the Brigance K & 1 Screen appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e , a t e s t review by H e l f e l d t (1984) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a w e l l o r g a n i z e d c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t . H e l f e l d t (1984) a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Brigance K & 1 Screen has s u f f i c i e n t content v a l i d i t y s i n c e the "assessments are s i m i l a r to the s u b t e s t s i n t r a d i t i o n a l reading r e a d i n e s s t e s t s such as the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s (1976) or the E a r l y D e t e c t i o n Inventory (1967)" ( H e l f e l d t , 1984, p. 821). I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note that d u r i n g the f i e l d - t e s t i n g of the Brigance K & 1 Screen, p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d of t e s t i n g concurred t h a t the s u b t e s t s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade Screening. The s t a t e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f i e l d -t e s t i n g of the Brigance K & 1 Screen (1987) i n c l u d e ; C a l i f o r n i a , Colorado, F l o r i d a , I l l i n o i s , Indiana, Kentucky, M i s s i s s i p i , M i s s o u r i , New Mexico, North C a r o l i n a , Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas. The Brigance K & 1 Screen a l s o i n c l u d e s s u b t e s t s which have been found to be the best p r e d i c t i v e measures of reading r e a d i n e s s . Jansky and DeHirsch (1972) i n c l u d e 49 l e t t e r naming, p i c t u r e naming, and v i s u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n as the best p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s i n t h e i r book Pre v e n t i n g  Reading F a i l u r e . In a d d i t i o n , Adelman and Feshbach (1971), i n d i c a t e t h a t r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s f o r reading i n c l u d e adequate eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n , v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the a b i l i t y to f o l l o w simple d i r e c t i o n s . Other reasons f o r using the Brigance K & 1 Screen i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : i t i s easy to a d m i n i s t e r i t has s h o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time (10 - 12 minutes) i t i s c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d , which p u r p o r t e d l y helps one p l a n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ( H e l f e l d t , 1984) i t has s u f f i c i e n t content v a l i d i t y the p i c t u r e cards are l a r g e , mostly c o l o r f u l , simple, and a t t r a c t i v e i t i n c l u d e s s u b t e s t s which have been f o u n d t o be the best p r e d i c t i v e measures of reading r e a d i n e s s and i n a t e s t review of the Brigance K & 1 Screen, John P. H e l f e l d t s t a t e s t h a t , "the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade i s a w e l l organized c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d t e s t designed to a s s i s t i n the e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s who need f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . I t appears to have d e s c r i p t i v e v a l i d i t y , as i t has been widely f i e l d t e s t e d and i t s format and content are s i m i l a r to 50 o t h e r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t e s t s " ( H e l f e l d t , 1 9 8 4 , p . 822) . F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s c r e e n i n g t e s t i s t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n i n t h e 2 t o 6 y e a r age r a n g e t h a t n e e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e e v a l u a t i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S c a l e T h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r s u b t e s t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s c a l e : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Ar t i c u l a t i o n C o m p r e h e n s i o n S e n t e n c e R e p e t i t i o n S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s A l l i t e m s o n t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a r e s c o r e d a s c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t . E a c h c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r e c e i v e s one p o i n t . T h e c h i l d ' s s c o r e o n e a c h o f t h e f o u r s u b t e s t s i s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c u t o f f s c o r e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r h i s / h e r age l e v e l . T h e s e s c o r e s a r e d e l i n e a t e d f o r 12 month i n t e r v a l s ( i e . 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , a n d 6 y e a r s ) f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b t e s t s . A c h i l d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o f a i l t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t i f one o r more o f h i s f o u r s c o r e s f a l l b e l o w t h e c u t o f f s c o r e s f o r t h e c h i l d ' s age g r o u p . 51 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n The F l u r h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening Test was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 2147 c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from two through s i x y e a r s . Four r a c i a l or e t h n i c backgrounds, three socio-economic c l a s s e s and v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l areas were i n c l u d e d i n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . One hundred seventy c h i l d r e n from Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia were i n c l u d e d i n the sample. R e l i a b i l i t y I n t e r t e s t e r and i n t r a t e s t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are r e p o r t e d i n the manual. I n t r a t e s t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was determined by r e t e s t i n g 50 c h i l d r e n from the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample w i t h i n s i x weeks of the f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A panel of f i v e speech p a t h o l o g i s t s was s e l e c t e d to determine the t e s t ' s i n t e r t e s t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . T h i s procedure c o n s i s t e d of a second examiner r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g the s c r e e n i n g t e s t to ten c h i l d r e n from the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. The e n t i r e panel scored each c h i l d ' s responses d u r i n g the r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r i n t r a t e s t e r and i n t e r t e s t e r r e l i a b i l i t y : 52 Table 1 C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r I n t r a t e s t e r and I n t e r t e s t e r R e l i a b i l i t y Measure I d e n t i - A r t i e - Compre- Repe- Mean f i c a t i o n u l a t i o n h e n t i o n t i t i o n I n t r a t e s t e r .98 .99 .95 .96 .91 I n t e r t e s t e r 1.00 .87 .99 .98 .96 The c o r r e l a t i o n s range from .87 to 1.00 and p r o v i d e support f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t . V a l i d i t y In order to e s t a b l i s h the t e s t ' s v a l i d i t y , the c o r r e l a t i o n between 211 c h i l d r e n ' s s c r e e n i n g t e s t performance ( p a s s / f a i l ) and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s or her speech e v a l u a t i o n (needs therapy/does not need therapy) was computed. The Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was computed a t .897, which supports the v a l i d i t y of the instrument. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time 6 minutes A study by I l l e r b u r n , D., Haines, L. and Greenough P. (1985) r e p o r t s t h a t the F l u r h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening Test yielded a high c o r r e l a t i o n (.79) with a c r i t e r i o n language measure consisting of the TACL, TOLD, and CELL ** TACL - Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language TOLD - Test of Language Development CELI - Carrow E l i c i t e d Language Inventory The Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 90 percent of c h i l d r e n with language problems, while missing 10 percent, of the 136 children included i n the study. Other reasons for using the FPSLST include the following: i t i s easy to administer ( i e . d i r e c t i o n s for administration and scoring are precise) i t has a short administration time (6 minutes) i t measures receptive as well as expressive language (Adelman & Feshbach 1971) i t has an a r t i c u l a t i o n component there are tangible or stimulus objects are provided for the subject i t has a sentence r e p e t i t i o n subtest (sentence r e p e t i t i o n has been found to be one of the best predictors of reading success by Jansky & deHirsch) (1972) 54 ac c o r d i n g to H e l f e l d t (1984) the "Brigance Screen does not assess language development to the same degree as i t does the other areas. While p e r s o n a l data responses, a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p i c t u r e vocabulary may measure language f u n c t i o n i n g , they are a l l r e l a t i v e l y simple t a s k s , r e l y i n g p r i m a r i l y on the s i n g l e word l e v e l of e x p r e s s i o n . The syntax and f l u e n c y s c r e e n f o r Kin d e r g a r t e n i s very g e n e r a l and i n f o r m a l . That i s , the two performance c r i t e r i a of t a l k i n g i n complete sentences and using understandable speech "most of the time" may be assessed by any one or a combination of f a c t o r s such as i n t e r v i e w i n g a parent or tea c h e r , o b s e r v i n g the c h i l d i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , n o t i n g the p o s s i b l e v e r b a l responses when other assessments are ad m i n i s t e r e d , engaging the c h i l d i n "formal or i n f o r m a l " c o n v e r s a t i o n , encouraging the c h i l d to t a l k about p i c t u r e s s u c h as those used i n other p a r t s of the Brigance Screen." ( H e l d f e l t , 1984, p. 82). The F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t w i l l serve as an a d d i t i o n a l language measure i t i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure (was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 2147 c h i l d r e n , ages two through s i x , from four r a c i a l or e t h n i c backgrounds, three socioeconomic c l a s s e s , and a v a r i e t y of g e o g r a p h i c a l areas) and the p i c t u r e cards are c o l o r f u l and a t t r a c t i v e . 55 Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy Scales of Ch i l d r e n ' s  A b i l i t i e s This t e s t i s a short form of the McCarthy Scales of Child r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s developed by Ala n , S. Kaufman (1977) to be used f o r r a p i d screening of pr e s c h o o l , Kindergarten, and Fi'rst Grade c h i l d r e n . Organization of the Scale This short form i s o n e - t h i r d of the McCarthy Scales of Children's A b i l i t i e s . Seven major c r i t e r i a , i n c l u d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the t e s t , served as a b a s i s for the s e l e c t i o n of the short form. Kaufman's (1977) c r i t e r i a are l i s t e d below: 1. The short form should i n c l u d e some t e s t s which, i f placed at the beginning of the subtest, w i l l serve as icebreakers and w i l l help lead the c h i l d g r a d u a l l y to o r a l responding. McCarthy (1972, pp. 46-47) dis c u s s e s the importance of the t e s t sequence f o r c h i l d r e n i n the 2 1/2 to 8 1/2 year range, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r young and shy c h i l d r e n . 2. The pr o p o r t i o n s of V e r b a l , Perceptual-Performance, Q u a n t i t a t i v e , and Memory t e s t s s e l e c t e d f o r the short form should be s i m i l a r to the pr o p o r t i o n s that c h a r a c t e r i z e the complete General C o g n i t i v e Scale. Thus, the s i x t e s t s should be apportioned 56 as f o l l o w s : two o r t h r e e f r o m t h e V S c a l e ; two o r t h r e e f r o m P ; a n d one o r two f r o m Q . I n a d d i t i o n , one o r two Memory t e s t s s h o u l d be among t h o s e c h o s e n f r o m t h e V , P , a n d Q S c a l e s . 3 . T h e t e s t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s h o r t f o r m s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l w i t h t h e t o t a l s c o r e o n t h e G e n e r a l C o g n i t i v e S c a l e . 4. T h e s h o r t f o r m s h o u l d a s s e s s a s w i d e a v a r i e t y o f m e n t a l f u n c t i o n s a s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e b r i e f t e s t i n g t i m e . 5 . I f p o s s i b l e , t e s t s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s h o r t f o r m w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o u n d n o t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n b o y s a n d g i r l s ( see K a u f m a n & K a u f m a n , 1 9 7 3 b ) . S i n c e no t e s t s c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r e d w h i t e s o r b l a c k s i n K a u f m a n and K a u f m a n ' s (1973a) s t u d y , r a c e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t a f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i n g t e s t s f o r t h e s h o r t f o r m . 6 . T h e s h o r t f o r m s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e n e e d s a n d a b i l i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n a g e d 3 t o 6 y e a r s . T h u s , when d a t a a r e u s e d a s g u i d e s i n s e l e c t i n g t h e t e s t s ( s ee c r i t e r i a 3 a n d 5 , a b o v e ) , t h e d a t a f o r c h i l d r e n a b o v e age 6 w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e d a t a b a s e d o n t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n . 57 7. Other t h i n g s being e q u a l , a t e s t which i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t to a d m i n i s t e r or s c o r e i s to be p r e f e r r e d to one t h a t r e q u i r e s more time. (Kaufman, 1977, p. 151) The f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s were chosen f o r the s h o r t form of the McCarthy: Puzzle S o l v i n g Word knowledge Numerical Memory V e r b a l Fluency Counting and S o r t i n g Conceptual Grouping A f t e r s e l e c t i n g the s i x t e s t s , "equations were d e r i v e d to permit computation of a c h i l d ' s estimated GCI; r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed; c o r r e l a t i o n s between s h o r t form and the e n i t r e General C o g n i t i v e S c a l e were computed; c o r r e l a t i o n s with other t e s t s were obtained; and the standard e r r o r of estimate was determined" (Kaufman, 1977, p. 151-152). S c o r i n g Procedures The s i x s u b t e s t s are a d m i n i s t e r e d and s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g to the McCarthy (1972) manual. The c h i l d ' s weighted raw scores on the s u b t e s t s are summed, and r e g r e s s i o n equations fo r each q u a r t e r year between the ages 2 - 6 and 8 - 6 years 58 a r e u s e d t o c o n v e r t t h i s sum t o a n e s t i m a t e d G e n e r a l C o g n i t i v e I n d e x ( G C I ; M - 1 0 0 , S D = 1 6 ) . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n T h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s (1972) was u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s h o r t f o r m . T h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 1032 c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m t w o - a n d - a - h a l f y e a r s t o e i g h t - a n d - a - h a l f y e a r s . T h i s s a m p l e was s t r a t i f i e d o n a g e , s e x , c o l o r , f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , a n d g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n . R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a o n 125 o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e who were g i v e n t h e M c C a r t h y (1972) a s e c o n d t i m e f o l l o w i n g a one month i n t e r v a l w e r e u s e d t o c o m p u t e t e s t -r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e s h o r t f o r m a t a g e s t h r e e t o t h r e e - a n d - a - h a l f , f i v e t o f i v e - a n d - a - h a l f , and s e v e n - a n d - a -h a l f t o e i g h t - a n d - a - h a l f . In a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e s h o r t f o r m , c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s h o r t f o r m and t h e c o m p l e t e G e n e r a l C o g n i t i v e S c a l e , and m o d i f i e d s h o r t - f o r m -c o r r e l a t i o n s . 59 Table 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of the McCarthy Short Form and C o e f f i c i e n t s of  C o r r r e l a t i o n Between the Short-Form and "Long-Form" Scores Age L e v e l N S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y C o r r e l a t i o n s with g e n e r a l C o g n i t i v e Score Modi f i e d c o r r e l a t i o n s with g e n e r a l Cogni t i v e Score 2 1/2 102 .89 3 104 .91 3 1/2 100 .91 4 102 .84 4 1/2 104 .90 5 102 .92 5 1/2 104 .90 6 1/2 104 .81 7 1/2 104 .90 8 1/2 106 .86 Mean * c o e f f i c i e n t .88 .89 .83 .88 .84 .93 .89 89 .81 .93 .88 .92 .88 .93 .87 .92 .82 .94 .89 .92 .84 .92 .86 * Table 3 from Kaufman, 1977, p. 156 V a l i d i t y Data o b t a i n e d on a group of 35 c h i l d r e n aged s i x to s i x - a n d - a - h a l f were used to o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s h o r t form and the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t (Thorndike e t a l . , 1968) IQ, the Wechsler P r e s c h o o l and Primary S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e (Wechsler, 1967) F u l l - S c a l e IQ, and o v e r a l l achievement on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t ( P r e s c o t t e t . a l . , 1978). The s h o r t form estimate on the GCI c o r r e l a t e d .78 with the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t IQ, .74 with the Wechsler P r e s c h o o l and Primary S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e F u l l - S c a l e IQ and .50 with the 60 M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test. Thus some evidence i s provided f o r the short form's concurrent and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . Several s t u d i e s support the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of Kaufman's Short Form. These w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s paper. Although the short-form appears to have s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , Kaufman (1977) suggests that the short form be used only when a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the e n t i r e b attery i s u n f e a s i b l e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Time 20 minutes Four s t u d i e s appearing i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Harrison and N a g l i e r i , 1981; N a g l i e r i and H a r r i s o n , 1982; V a l e n c i a a n d Rankin, 1983; V a l e n c i a , 1984) i n d i c a t e that Kaufman's (1977) Short Form of the McCarthy Scales of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s i s a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d screening instrument. H a r r i s o n and N a g l i e r i (1981) compared the scores on Kaufman's (1977) short form and the McCarthy Screening Test with the Met r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test c r i t e r i o n measure score. F i f t y - t h r e e f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n were included i n the study. The c o r r e l a t i o n between Kaufman's (1977) estimated General Cognitive Index (GCI) and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test 61 ( P r e s c o t t e t . a l . , 1978) raw sco r e was .71. B i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between " a t - r i s k " and " n o t - a t - r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the McCarthy Screening T e s t and M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t raw s c o r e s ranged from .43 to .78. Kaufman's estimated GCI c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than three of the nine MST c o r r e l a t i o n s , t's (50) = 3.07, 2.21, 2.14; p < .05. R e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest that Kaufman's Short Form may have b e t t e r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y than the McCarthy Screening T e s t f o r t h i s sample of f i r s t g r a d e r s . N a g l i e r i and H a r r i s o n (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s General C o g n i t i v e Index, the McCarthy Screening Test, Kaufman's Short Form, and the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t (Dunn & Marwardt, 1970). T h i r t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n i n grades K to 3 were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Estimated General C o g n i t i v e Index by Kaufman's Short Form (105.6) was v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the McCarthy S c a l e s ( f u l l form) index (105.7). The McCarthy S c a l e s , McCarthy Screening T e s t , and Kaufman's Short Form a l l c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < .01) with the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the McCarthy (1972) Motor S c a l e . T h i s study suggests that McCarthy Screening T e s t and Kaufman's Short Form have approximately equal p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . 62 A study by V a l e n c i a and Rankin (1983) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Kaufman's Short Form estimated GCI and a c t u a l GCI's from the McCarthy S c a l e s are very s i m i l a r . The authors observed a mean c o r r e l a t i o n of .90 between estimated and a c t u a l GCI's fo r 176 Spanish-speaking c h i l d r e n and .92 f o r 154 E n g l i s h -speaking Mexican-American c h i l d r e n of p r e s c h o o l and K i n d e r g a r t e n age. In another study by V a l e n c i a (1984), f u r t h e r evidence f o r the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of Kaufman's Short Form i s p r o v i d e d . T h i s study i n c l u d e d 76 E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g and Spanish-speaking c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n grade two. R e s u l t s suggest t h a t Kaufman's Short Form and the McCarthy S c a l e s p r e d i c t academic achievement (as measured by the Comprehensive T e s t of B a s i c S k i l l s ) (CTBS, 1974) about e q u a l l y w e l l . Other reasons f o r using Kaufman's (1977) Short Form i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : a c c o r d i n g to the teachers a t the Elementary School chosen f o r t h i s study, these measures are s i m i l a r t o the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to succeed i n K i n d e r g a r t e n i t has a s h o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time of 20 minutes (not f e a s i b l e to a d m i n i s t e r e n t i r e b a t t e r y ) i t i s a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instrument 63 and the d i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g are p r e c i s e . M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t (Form II) T h i s t e s t i s intended to assess s t u d e n t s ' preparedness f o r F i r s t Grade. I t p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l assessment of reading r e a d i n e s s . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the S c a l e The f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s are i n c l u d e d i n the s c a l e : Beginning Consonants Sound-Letter Correspondence V i s u a l Matching F i n d i n g P a t t e r n s School Language L i s t e n i n g Q u a n t i t a t i v e Concepts Q u a n t i t a t i v e Operations S c o r i n g Procedures A l l t e s t items are s c o r e d as c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t . Each c o r r e c t response r e c e i v e s one p o i n t . Raw s c o r e s are converted to p e r c e n t i l e ranks and s t a n i n e s . Raw s c o r e s were used f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. 64 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n program i n c l u d e d two f u l l - s c a l e n a t i o n a l t e s t i n g programs. Normative data were ob t a i n e d from a s t r a t i f i e d random sample of s c h o o l systems i n the United S t a t e s . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample c o n s i s t e d of 66,254 c h i l d r e n i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade. R e l i a b i l i t y S p l i t - h a l f , KR-20, and a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y e stimates are p r o v i d e d i n the manual. The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .72 to .95. KR-20 c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .73 to .94. The a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .72 to .88. V a l i d i t y The content v a l i d i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t (Nurss, 1976) was e s t a b l i s h e d through an a n a l y s i s of the beginning reading process and an e x t e n s i v e review of the reading r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . A s e q u e n t i a l l i s t of the s k i l l s necessary f o r beginning reading was prepared and t e s t s measuring these s k i l l s were developed and examined durin g the item a n a l y s i s programs of 1972 and 1973. The p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Test can be demonstrated by showing t h a t s c o r e s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d to F i r s t Grade p u p i l s i n the f a l l are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to achievement t e s t 65 s c o r e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f t h e same s c h o o l y e a r . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s c o r e s o n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t . L e v e l I I , Fo rm P a n d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s r a n g e f r o m . 5 4 t o . 7 3 . A c c o r d i n g t o R a v i t c h ( 1 9 8 5 ) , The M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s a r e among t h e t e c h n i c a l l y b e s t m e a s u r e s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i s t h e t e s t t h a t t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l u s e s a t t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n . T h e y u s e t h i s i n s t r u m e n t t o g r o u p s t u d e n t s f o r F i r s t G r a d e . I n f o r m a l T e a c h e r R a t i n g s The i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 9 r e q u i r e d t h e t e a c h e r s t o make a l i s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be h i g h r i s k i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . The t e a c h e r s w e r e a l s o r e q u i r e d t o make a l i s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n whom t h e y b e l i e v e d w o u l d be m o s t c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g a t t h e F i r s t G r a d e l e v e l . T h e s e r a t i n g s w e r e b a s e d o n o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d . The t e a c h e r s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o s p e c i f y t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a c h i l d a s " a t - r i s k " ( i . e . " a t - r i s k " due t o a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s , " a t -r i s k " d u e t o s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , o r " a t - r i s k " f o r a n y r e a s o n ) . T h e s e i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s w e r e t a k e n f r o m F e r i n d e n , J a c o b s o n , a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s , a n d H a r i n g a n d R i d g w a y (1967 ) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n c a n 66 p r e d i c t w i t h 80 percent accuracy which c h i l d r e n w i l l e xperience academic f a i l u r e . Design of the Study S u b j e c t s : The s u b j e c t s were 39 K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d from Kent Elementary S c h o o l , A g a s s i z , B. C. There were 21 male and 18 female c h i l d r e n i n the sample. The s u b j e c t s ranged i n age from 4 years - 9 months to 5 years - 10 months. Research Procedures P r e d i c t i v e T e s t i n g : The f o l l o w i n g instruments were ad m i n i s t e r e d i n October 1989: 1. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade (Kindergarten screen) (Brigance, 1987) 2. F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech & Language Screening Test ( F l u r h a r t y , 1978) 3. Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s (Kaufman, 1977) The t e s t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d and a l l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d the t e s t s i n the order i n d i c a t e d above. In a d d i t i o n , the two K i n d e r g a r t e n teachers made a l i s t of 67 the c h i l d r e n they b e l i e v e d to be high r i s k i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g problems and a l i s t of the c h i l d r e n whom they b e l i e v e d would be most capable of performing a t the F i r s t Grade l e v e l . I t should be noted that the t e a c h e r s were not informed of any c h i l d ' s performance on any of the p r e d i c t i v e measures. Follow-up T e s t i n g : In the S p r i n g of 1990 (May), the c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d with the f o l l o w i n g instruments: 1. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade ( F i r s t Grade Screen) (Brigance, 1987) 2. M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t (Level II) (Nurss, 1976) The Brigance K & 1 Screen was i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i nistered, whereas the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t (Level I I ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s m a l l groups of c h i l d r e n . The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the order i n d i c a t e d above. T h i s e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y study was of the p r e d i c t i v e nature. The three measures g i v e n i n October of 1989 served as p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . The three measures g i v e n i n the s p r i n g of 1990 served as the dependent v a r i a b l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed to r e v e a l the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of each s c r e e n i n g t e s t employed. 68 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s , m e t h o d o l o g y , a n d t h e s u b j e c t s a m p l e . C h a p t e r F o u r p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . 69 C h a p t e r F o u r  F i n d i n g s I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y . T h e c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h t h e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e and f o l l o w - u p t e s t i n g , a s w e l l a s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s a n d t h e f o l l o w - u p t e s t s . T a b l e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t e x t . T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n . T h e a u t h o r ' s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and h y p o t h e s e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . T h e l a s t two s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . R e s u l t s Mean s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e f o l l o w - u p m e a s u r e s h a v e b e e n c a l c u l a t e d and a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 3 . 70 Table 3 Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the Br igance K & 1 Screen for F i r s t Grade and the Me t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Test area and composite scores: BRIG 1 MRT MRT MRT MRT MRT AUD. VIS. LANG. QUANT. TOTAL M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD 78 10 23 6 18 6 12 3 15 4 53 13 note: N = 39 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed i n order to e s t a b l i s h the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of each of the screening measures employed. These c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e dis p l a y e d i n Table 4. The purpose was to see how w e l l age, teacher r a t i n g s , the McCarthy Scales of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s Kaufman's Short Form, the F l u h a r t y Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test and the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r Kindergarten c o r r e l a t e d with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness t e s t area and composite scores. 71 T a b l e 4 C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s a n d t h e f o l l o w - u p t e s t s : T e s t s P r e d i c t o r s a b c d e f 1 .190 .319* .286 .414* .429* . 380* 2 .498* .543* .429* .448* .770* .550* 3 .492* .483* .410* .459* .626* . 509* 4 .100 .116 .218 .014 .023 .160 5 .527* .554* .399* .545* .578* .562* N o t e s : A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d f o r 4 a r e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s 1 = Age a = B r i g a n c e 1 S c r e e n 2 = T e a c h e r R a t i n g s b = MRT A u d i t o r y S k i l l A r e a 3 = M c C a r t h y S c a l e s c = MRT V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n A r e a 4 = F l u h a r t y S p e e c h / L a n g . S c r e e n d = MRT L a n g u a g e A r e a 5 = B r i g a n c e K S c r e e n e = Q u a n t i t a t i v e A r e a f = P r e - R e a d i n g C o m p o s i t e * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 72 For a p o p u l a t i o n of 40 s t u d e n t s , a c o r r e l a t i o n g r e a t e r than .312 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l (Glass & Hopkins, 1984, p. 156). Age c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t A u d i t o r y S k i l l Area, Language S k i l l Area, Q u a n t i t a t i v e S k i l l Area, and the Pre-Reading Composite (.319, .414, .429, and .380 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Age was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade or the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n Area s c o r e s . Teacher Ratings c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a l l of the follow-up measures (.429 to .770). Kaufman's (1977) Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s t e s t scores a l s o c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with a l l of the f o l l o w -up measures (.410 to .626). None of the p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t and the f o l l o w - u p measures were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and f o l l o w - u p measures were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . With the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n of the F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t , a l l of the p r e d i c t i v e measures c o r r e l a t e d h i g h e s t with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t Q u a n t i t a t i v e S k i l l Area s c o r e s (.429 to .770). The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b tained was between teacher r a t i n g s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t Q u a n t i t a t i v e S k i l l Area Scores. 73 In Table 5, the teacher's accuracy f o r p r e d i c t i n g students " a t - r i s k " f o r l a t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s can be examined. The c r i t e r i o n used f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of students e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s was an " a t - r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade and a t l e a s t one or more "Low" scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s . Of the 6 students i d e n t i f i e d as " a t - r i s k " f o r l a t e r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , 4 were a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d . Of the 33 students i d e n t i f i e d as " l o w - r i s k " , 3 were f a l s e n e g a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d ; t h a t meant t h a t the teacher i d e n t i f i e d them as " l o w - r i s k " , but l a t e r t e s t i n g suggested t h a t t h i s p r e d i c t i o n was i n c o r r e c t (the student earned an " a t - r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and one or more "Low" s c o r e s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s - see Table 5 ) . The t e a c h e r s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 91 percent of the " l o w - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n and 67 percent of the " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . Table 5 Teacher P r e d i c t i o n s Teacher LOW-Risk p r e d i c t e d students Teacher AT-Risk p r e d i c t e d students Good BRIG. 1 & MRT Scores ( V a l i d Negatives) 30 (91%) False P o s i t i v e s 2 (33%) N = 32 H i t s : 30 + 4 = 34 (87%) Poor BRIG. 1 & MRT Scores False Negatives 3 (9%) N = 33 ( V a l i d P o s i t i v e s ) 4 (67%) N = 6 N = 7 N = 39 Misses: 3 + 2 = 5 (13%) Notes: " A t - r i s k " r e f e r s to any c h i l d that has d i f f i c u l t y coping w i t h the academic demands of the regular Kindergarten classroom. "Low-risk" r e f e r s to any c h i l d that i s capable of coping w i t h the academic demands of the regular Kindergarten classroom. In Table 6, the Brigance K & 1 Screen for Kindergarten's accuracy f o r p r e d i c t i n g students " a t - r i s k " for l a t e r f a i l u r e can be examined. The c r i t e r i o n used f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of students experiencing l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s was Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade " a t -r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and one or more "Low" scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests. Of the 8 students c l a s s i f i e d as " B o r d e r l i n e " or "At-Risk" f o r l a t e r school f a i l u r e , 5 were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d . Of the 31 students i d e n t i f i e d as 75 n o - r i s k , 3 were f a l s e n e g a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d ; t h a t meant t h a t t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n i d e n t i f i e d them a s no r i s k , b u t l a t e r t e s t i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p r e d i c t i o n was i n c o r r e c t ( t h e s t u d e n t e a r n e d a n " a t - r i s k " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o n t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e , and a t l e a s t two o r more "Low" s c o r e s o n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s - S e e T a b l e 6 ) . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o -r i s k p o p u l a t i o n a n d 6 2 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 6 B r i g a n c e K S c r e e n P r e d i c t i o n s Good B r i g . 1 & MRT S c o r e s P o o r B r i g 1 & MRT S c o r e s B R I G . K N O -R i s k p r e d i c t e d s t u d e n t s ( V a l i d N e g a t i v e s ) 28 (90%) F a l s e N e g a t i v e s 3 (10%) N = 31 B R I G . K A T -R i s k p r e d i c t e d s t u d e n t s F a l s e P o s i t i v e s 3 (37.5%) ( V a l i d P o s i t i v e s ) 5 (62.5%) IS N = 8 N = 31 N = 8 N = 39 H i t s : 28 + 5 = 33 (85%) M i s s e s : 3 + 3 = 6 (15%) 76 D i s c u s s i o n D i s c u s s i o n R e g a r d i n g Q u e s t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : 1 . W h i c h m e a s u r e o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f m e a s u r e s w i l l m o s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t s u c c e s s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n ? 2 . D o e s t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n ( B r i g a n c e , 1987 ) a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t N u r s s , 1976 ) and t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e ? 3 . D o e s t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t and t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e ? 4. D o e s K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t F o r m o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t and t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e ? 77 5. Do i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ? ** For the purposes of the p r e s e n t study, "near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n " r e f e r s to May of 1990. Question 1 asked which measure or combination of measures w i l l most a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t success i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . The measure which most a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d success i n K i n d e r g a r t e n was Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s . The General C o g n i t i v e Index Scores from t h i s instrument c o r r e l a t e d with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade s c o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s c o r e s a t low to s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s ( G a r r e t t , H.E., 1958, p. 176). The c o r r e l a t i o n s range from .410 to .626. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n composite raw scores a l s o c o r r e l a t e d with the Brigance K & 1 Screen for F i r s t Grade s c o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t scores a t low to s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s ( G a r r e t t , H.E., 1958). These c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .399 to .578. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n ' s accuracy f o r p r e d i c t i n g students " a t - r i s k " f o r l a t e r f a i l u r e was a l s o examined. The Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 90 percent of the n o - r i s k p o p u l a t i o n and 62.5 percent of the " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , see Table 6. 78 T h e m e a s u r e s w h i c h m o s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d s u c c e s s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n w e r e K a u f m a n 1 s , S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n . Q u e s t i o n 2 a s k e d , d o e s t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c o m p o s i t e raw s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e s c o r e s and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s c o r e s a t low t o s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s ( . 3 9 9 t o . 5 7 8 ) . T h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was b e t w e e n t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d t h e Q u a n t i t a t i v e A r e a o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c o m p o s i t e raw s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e s c o r e s ( . 5 2 7 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o - r i s k p o p u l a t i o n a n d 6 2 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e a t - r i s k p o p u l a t i o n . F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , s e e T a b l e 6 . T h e r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . 79 Q u e s t i o n 3 a s k e d , d o e s t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . T h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l s p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t and t h e f o l l o w -up m e a s u r e s w e r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( . 0 1 4 t o . 2 1 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t d i d n o t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i n K i n d e r g a r t e n . Q u e s t i o n 4 a s k e d , d o e s K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t and t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . T h e G e n e r a l C o g n i t i v e I n d e x s c o r e s f r o m K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e s c o r e s a n d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s c o r e s a t low t o s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s ( . 4 1 2 t o . 6 2 6 ) . 80 The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was between Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s General C o g n i t i v e Index Scores and the Q u a n t i t a t i v e Area of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t . The r e s u l t s show t h a t Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d academic achievement near the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , as determined by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t and the Bri g a n c e , K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade. Question 5 asked, do i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s r e q u i r e d the K i n d e r g a r t e n teachers to make a l i s t of the c h i l d r e n t h a t they b e l i e v e d were high r i s k i n the p r o b a b i l i t y of dev e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g problems. The teachers were a l s o r e q u i r e d to make a l i s t of the c h i l d r e n t h a t they b e l i e v e d would be most capable of performing a t a f i r s t - g r a d e l e v e l . These r a t i n g s were based on o b s e r v a t i o n of the c h i l d . The i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s were taken from Ferinden, Jacobson, and Linden (1970). These authors, and Haring and Ridgway (1967) found t h a t teacher o b s e r v a t i o n can p r e d i c t with 80 percent accuracy which c h i l d r e n w i l l e xperience academic f a i l u r e . Informal teacher r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade s c o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n 81 R e a d i n e s s T e s t s c o r e s ( . 4 2 9 t o . 7 7 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 91 p e r c e n t o f t h e " l o w - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n and 67 p e r c e n t o f t h e " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , s e e T a b l e 5 . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r r a t i n g s a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d " a t - r i s k " c h i l d r e n f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . D i s c u s s i o n R e g a r d i n g H y p o t h e s e s T h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : 1. T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . 2 . T h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d o f K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t and t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . 3 . K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t n e a r t h e e n d f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e . 82 4 . I n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s w i l l a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n " a t - r i s k " f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n ( B r i g a n c e , 1982) c o m p o s i t e raw s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r F i r s t G r a d e s c o r e s a n d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a t low t o s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s ( . 3 9 9 t o . 5 7 8 ) ; t h e r e f o r e , t h i s s u p p o r t s t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n d i d h a v e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y w i t h l a t e r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a l s o c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o -r i s k p o p u l a t i o n a n d 6 2 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . T h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t and t h e f o l l o w -up m e a s u r e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( . 0 1 4 t o . 2 1 8 ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e n o t s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t , and t h e r e f o r e , d o n o t g i v e s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s n o t t h i s a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s e r v e d a s a p o o r p r e d i c t o r , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e L a n g u a g e A r e a o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s e r v e d a s a p o o r c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e . T h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ' s p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n much g r e a t e r i f a w i d e l y u s e d l a n g u a g e t e s t [ i . e . t h e 33 T e s t of Language Development (Newcomer & Hammill, 1977)] had served as the c r i t e r i o n measure. Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s General C o g n i t i v e Index s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade sc o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s c o r e s a t low to s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s (.412 to .626); t h e r e f o r e , t h i s supports the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s d i d have p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y with l a t e r academic achievement. Teacher r a t i n g s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r F i r s t Grade s c o r e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s c o r e s (.429 to .770). These r e s u l t s g i v e moderate support f o r the f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s and the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of teacher r a t i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , teachers c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 91 percent o f the " l o w - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n and 67 percent of the " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . General D i s c u s s i o n The p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade, Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s , i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s and K i n d e r g a r t e n achievement demonstrates t h a t the use of these measures can be v a l u a b l e i n a s c r e e n i n g program. These p a r t i c u l a r s c r e e n i n g measures 84 were m o d e r a t e p r e d i c t o r s o f K i n d e r g a r t e n a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t G r a d e a n d K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t Form p r e d i c t e d K i n d e r g a r t e n a c h i e v m e n t a b o u t e q u a l l y w e l l . T h e K i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d 91 p e r c e n t o f t h e " l o w - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n a n d 67 p e r c e n t o f t h e " a t - r i s k " p o p u l a t i o n . F e r i n d e n e t . a l . , (1970) and H a r i n g a n d R i d g e w a y (1967) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n c a n p r e d i c t w i t h 80 p e r c e n t a c c u r a c y w h i c h c h i l d r e n w i l l e x p e r i e n c e a c a d e m i c f a i l u r e . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t e a c h e r r a t i n g s w o u l d l i k e l y i m p r o v e t h e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s c o r e s d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e f o l l o w up m e a s u r e s . T h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e o n l a n g u a g e m e a s u r e s i s p r e d i c t i v e o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l ( J a n s k y & d e H i r s c h , 1 9 7 2 ; Z e i t l i n , 1 9 7 6 ; S a t z & F r i e l , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n t r a d i c t t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i n d i n g s . I t i s n o t t h i s a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s e r v e d a s a p o o r p r e d i c t o r b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e L a n g u a g e A r e a o f t h e M e t r o p l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s e r v e d a s a p o o r c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e . T h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h a n d L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e b e e n much g r e a t e r i f a w i d e l y u s e d l a n g u a g e t e s t ( i . e . T e s t o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t ) had s e r v e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e . 85 Recommendations f o r the Elementary School The author's s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the Elementary School t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study i n c l u d e : u t i l i z i n g i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s and/or a teacher r a t i n g s c a l e ( i . e . K i n d e r g a r t e n Teacher Rating Scale) u t i l i z i n g the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r Ki n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t Grade d u r i n g the f a l l of the K i n d e r g a r t e n year (to be ad m i n i s t e r e d by sch o o l personnel) u t i l i z i n g the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t a t the end of the K i n d e r g a r t e n year (to be admi n i s t e r e d by s c h o o l personnel) u t i l i z i n g other s c r e e n i n g and c r i t e r i o n measures such as Kaufman's Short Form, the F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n Screening B a t t e r y , the F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l Speech and Language Screening T e s t , the Test of Language Development and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t (to be ad m i n i s t e r e d by a d i s t r i c t s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t ) . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s In summary, the Brigance K & 1 Screen f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , Kaufman's Short Form of the McCarthy S c a l e s of C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s , and i n f o r m a l teacher r a t i n g s , c o r r e l a t e d with the follow - u p measures a t low to s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l s . The 86 h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d (r = . 5 7 8 , . 6 2 6 , . 770 ) were b e t w e e n t h e s e t h r e e m e a s u r e s a n d t h e Q u a n t i t a t i v e A r e a o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t . No s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e F l u h a r t y P r e s c h o o l S p e e c h and L a n g u a g e S c r e e n i n g T e s t . In c o n c l u s i o n , some s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n , K a u f m a n ' s S h o r t F o r m o f t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i t i e s , a n d i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , m o s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y l o w . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w o u l d h a v e b e e n more m e a n i n g f u l i f t h e s a m p l e h a d b e e n g r e a t e r t h a n 39 s u b j e c t s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1 . C o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h o n a l l K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i l l p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t b e s t p r e d i c t l a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t . ( E x a c t l y what a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f an 87 e f f e c t i v e s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y ? , What a r e t h e m o s t v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t s t o u s e ? ) 2. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h e x a m i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f one c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y o n d i f f e r e n t SES g r o u p s , d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s , a n d i n d e p e n d e n t v e r s u s p u b l i c s c h o o l s c o u l d a s s i s t e d u c a t o r s i n s e l e c t i n g a K i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y t o s u i t t h e i r s p e c i f i c n e e d s . 3 . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s c o u l d p r o v i d e e d u c a t o r s w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a f f e c t d i f f e r e n t g r a d e a n d age g r o u p s . 4. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e : i n c r e a s i n g t h e s a m p l e s i z e (N = 100) u t i l i z i n g a w i d e l y u s e d l a n g u a g e t e s t ( i . e . t h e T e s t o f L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t ) a s a c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e c o r r e l a t i n g t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e B r i g a n c e K & 1 S c r e e n f o r K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t G r a d e w i t h t h e A r e a S c o r e s o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t a n d u t i l i z i n g a t e a c h e r r a t i n g s c a l e ( i . e . t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n T e a c h e r R a t i n g S c a l e ) d u r i n g t h e f a l l o f t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n . 88 REFERENCES Adelman, H.S., & Feshbach, S. (1971). P r e d i c t i n g reading f a i l u r e : Beyond the r e a d i n e s s model. E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n , 3_7, (5), 349-354. Ahr, A.E. (1966). 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Thomas. 97 A p p e n d i x I n f o r m a l T e a c h e r R a t i n g s The i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f O c t o b e r , 1989 r e q u i r e d t h e t e a c h e r s t o make a l i s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be h i g h r i s k i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . T h e t e a c h e r s were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o make a l i s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n whom t h e y b e l i e v e d w o u l d be m o s t c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g a t t h e F i r s t G r a d e l e v e l . T h e s e r a t i n g s were b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d . T h e t e a c h e r s were d i r e c t e d t o s p e c i f y t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a c h i l d a s " a t - r i s k " ( i . e . " a t - r i s k " due t o a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s , " a t -r i s k " d u e t o s o c i a l / e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , o r " a t - r i s k " f o r any r e a s o n ) . 

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