UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The history of Presbyterianism in British Columbia, 1861-1935 Kennedy, Mervyn Ewart 1938

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1938_A8 K3 H5.pdf [ 16.87MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098669.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098669-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098669-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098669-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098669-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098669-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098669-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098669-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098669.ris

Full Text

The History of Presbyterianism i n , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1861 -- 1935. Mervyn Ewart Kennedy A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arte i n the Department of History. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October, 1938 PREFACE The following pages were written i n an attempt to re-cord the most important events and processes which took place in the Presbyterian Church within the boundaries of B r i t i s h Columbia, during the l a t t e r half of the nineteenth century and f i r s t quarter of the twentieth century. The revelations showed work that well deserved to be recorded. The task was rendered i n f i n i t e l y easier by the kindly aid received from the Reverend John C. Goodfellow of Prince-ton, B r i t i s h Columbia. Chapter Two is based on his manu-sc r i p t of the l i f e of John H a l l . Some of his h i s t o r i c a l accounts of individual congregations i n B r i t i s h Columbia were used for part of the work in Chapters Seven and Eight. Hearty acknowledgements are also due to Mr. Goodfellow f o r his c r i t i c i s m s and corrections. To Dr. ¥. N. Sage and the other members of the s t a f f of the Department of History, special acknowledgements are due for t h e i r constructive and able c r i t i c i s m s , which were eagerly incorporated. Kind thanks are also due to Dr. W. H. Smith, L i b r a r i a n of Union Theological College and to Professor H. T. Logan, for the use of numerous books and manuscripts, which were kept at my home and used at w i l l for a very long time. I also extend gratitude to the various other people who w i l l i n g l y gave information and advice that has heen very valuable to me i n writing t h i s t h e s i s . M.S.K. Vancouver, ."British Columbia, October, 1938 COBTE33TS Preface CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER II The Need 9 CHAPTER III The Response from Ireland 16 CHAPTER IV Reverend Robert Jamieson 33.A. from Canada ....23 CHAPTER V The Response from Scotland .29 CHAPTER VI The Response from the Presbyterian Church i n Canada ...43 CHAPTER VII Expansion of Presbyterianism in B r i t i s h Columbia 1884 - 1925 53 CHAPTER VIII Missions 69 CHAPTER IX The Contribution of the Women i.. .87 CHAPTER X Westminster H a l l .95 CHAPTER XI The Attitude of the Presbyterian Church i n So c i a l Questions .102 CHAPTER XII Union 120 CHAPTER XIII The United Church of Canada in B r i t i s h Columbia since 1925 .131 CHAPTER XIV . The Presbyterian Church i n Canada a f t e r Union, 1925 - 1935 147 CHAPTER XV Conclusion ; . . . .151 Bibliography 155 APPENDIX A Some S t a t i s t i c s of St. Andrew's Church, New Westminster, 1875 - 1885 169 APPENDIX B Referring to the Staff of Westminster H a l l .....171 APPENDIX C Some Data on the E a r l i e s t Presbyterian Churches in B r i t i s h Columbia .175 APPENDIX D Abbreviations ....... .179 APPENDIX E Moderators of Synod ........ 180 APPENDIX P A l i s t of t h e M i n i s t e r s i n Some of the P a s t o r a t e s , the S t o r y of w h i c h i s t o l d . i n Chapter V I I 181 ffet/. Job* A ^ / f c y _ f/cofcti / e V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Following page F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., and Ministers, 1861 - 1865 22 Rev. John H a l l , 1861 - 1865 22 Rev. Thomas Somerville, D.D., 1865 - 1867 22 Rev. John Reid, 1876 - 1381 22 Rev. R.HiSmith,. 1881 - 1882 22 Rev. David Gamble, 1882 - 1884 22 Rev. Donald Fraser, M.A., 1884 - 1892 22 Rev. John Campbell, M.A., Ph.D., 1892 - 1912 22 Rev. John H a l l 28 Rev. Robert Jamieson, B.A 28 Rev. Alexander Dunn, D.D. 28 Rev. George Murray, M.A 28 Rev. William Clyde * 28 Rev. Donald MacRae, D.D. 28 Rev. John Goodfellow 28 St. Andrew's Church, New Westminster 42 F i r s t Presbyterian Church b u i l t i n Nicola 1877 42 Richmond Presbyterian Church on Sea Island 42 St. Andrew's, Fort Langley 42 Alexander Wilson, 52 Alexander L e s l i e Fortune 52 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Following page Rev. George C.F.Pringle ...68 Rev. James Robertson, D.D 68 Westminster H a l l 94 F i r s t Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C 94 St. Andrew's Church, Vancouver, B.C ..94 JOUK NwKiy P.P. S- l i f e 7k'«UH . - — \o\ Rev. Wm. H. Smith, M.A., Ph.D., D.D .101 Rev. John A. Logan, D.D .....101 B r i t i s h Columbia Members of the F i r s t General Council of the United Church of Canada 130 THE HISTORY OF PRESBYTERIANISM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The name Presbyterian was derived from the Greek word si g n i f y i n g government hy presbyters or elders. This d i s -tinguished Presbyterianism from other forms of church gov-ernment such as the papal, the episcopal, and the congre-gational. The Presbyterian Church i n common with a l l the reformed churches accepted the p r i n c i p l e expressed by the battle cry of Luther, "Every man his own p r i e s t " . It did not accept the p r i e s t l y function of any class to reserve the right of approach to God f o r themselves and f o r a l l others through them. The priesthood of a l l believers ga-thered together i n one great body made for a democratic church, each member having the same relationship to God. Ministers were leaders, not mediums through which men might approach the Father or through whom they might re-ceive forgiveness f o r s i n s . In a church so conceived there was no room f o r an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l hierarchy, and the basis of government must necessarily be democratic, whilst i n s i s t i n g on the p a r i t y of ministers. This did not ex-clude men of exceptional influence from achieving positions 1 2 of leadership. This democratic system of church government was i l l u s -trated i n the various courts of the church — the session, preshytery, synod, and general assembly a l l decreed by the constitution of the church. To begin with there were the members of the congregation, whose names were on the church r o l l and who partook of the sacrament or the Lord's supper. Members of the church who presented c e r t i f i c a t e s of good standing from other congregations, were received by the session unless good cause could be shown for refus-ing such p r i v i l e g e s . Within the l o c a l congregation, there were two governing bodies, the board of managers who were responsible f o r the f i n a n c i a l or temporal a f f a i r s of the congregation and the session v/hich had oversight of the s p i r i t u a l welfare including such a matter as the c a l l i n g of the pastor. The members of these two bodies were e l e c t -ed by the congregation, the members of the session con-s i s t i n g of the elders and the minister. Under such—a system of government, no important decisions concerning the congregation, were made by the ind i v i d u a l but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was shared by a l l concerned. This assured that decisions were arrived by the process of debate and discussion, and implied that a l l must weigh and give consideration to the judgment of others. In th i s way the ideals of representative and democratic gov-ernment were r e a l i z e d long before these were applied to the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the nation. Higher courts of the church were also representative and democratic. The next court above the session was the presbytery whose boundaries included several congregations. Its membership was made up of one elder from each pastoral charge and a l l the ministers and missionaries. They con-ducted t h e i r business concerning the presbytery according to the rules of the constitution of the church. A l l the members of the presbyteries within a synod were members of i t . These received requests or overtures from the pres-byteries and either disposed of them or passed them on for consideration to the highest court known as the general assembly. It consisted of about one sixth of the member-ship of each presbytery. It was the national church court and i n Canada was known as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. It was the duty of the general assembly to receive and dispose of p e t i t i o n s , overtures, references, complaints, and appeals from i n f e r i o r courts, and a l l other matters brought regularly before i t which are f a r too numerous to be mentioned here, but are outlined i n , "The Constitution and Procedure of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada". The power of the general assembly was l i m i t e d by what was known as the "Barrier Act". This l i m i t a t i o n only referred to matters of doctrine, d i s c i p l i n e , govern-ment, or worship. Rulings made i n these f i e l d s , could not become permanent unless they were submitted to and approved by a majority of the presbyteries. However i n 4 other matters the decisions of the general assembly were f i n a l . From the foregoing, i t can be seen that the general assembly and presbyteries were responsible for the creed of the church. This creed was the Westminster Confession of F a i t h . It was approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland i n 1647 and adopted by the Presbyter-ian Church i n Canada i n 1875. Through the various Pres-byterian churches i t was introduced into B r i t i s h Columbia, f i r s t i n 1861 by the Presbyterian Church i n Ireland, and in 1862 by the Canada Presbyterian Church, then in 1865 by the Church of Scotland, and f i n a l l y by gradual absorp-t i o n into the Presbyterian Church i n Canada after 1880. The Westminster Confession of F a i t h was C a l v i n i s t i c . It emphasized the supremacy of God and the scripture as above the church in matters of b e l i e f and behavior. Cal-vin's interpretation of the Bible showed that man was condemned as a sinner and doomed to eternal punishment because of the f a l l of Adam. I f , however, the man was a favorite of God, one of the el e c t , he would repent and receive forgiveness. This entailed the acceptance by f a i t h of the s a c r i f i c e of Jesus C h r i s t . One view of t h i s doctrine held that only a c e r t a i n elect number were pre-destined by God to receive salvation, since God's plan fore-ordained everything before the foundation of the world. According to the doctrines of predestination and 5 fore-ordination, men had no more power to change the course of events than a figure i n a moving picture a f t e r i t had heen filmed.. The course of nature and the l i v e s of men were r e a l l y a presentation of what had already heen con-ceived i n the mind of God when i n the beginning He said, "Let us make man". Consequently, the Presbyterian believed a l l he re-ceived came through the grace of God. By the grace of God the Holy S p i r i t convicted him of g u i l t and he repented of his s i n . By the grace of God he was j u s t i f i e d i n re-ceiving salvation or eternal l i f e because God accepted the s a c r i f i c e of Christ on behalf of the sinner. By the grace of God he was adopted as a son of God and was to receive a l l the p r i v i l e g e s that accompanied that state. By the grace of G.od he was s a n c t i f i e d and enabled more and more to l i v e a l i f e of righteousness and less and less a l i f e of s i n . The receiving of these g i f t s of the grace of God entailed f a i t h which again was from God. A l l t h i s r e s u l t -ed i n and involved complete submission to the w i l l of God 1 as revealed by His Word and the creed. Such a theology excluded a l l systems of philosophy as formulated and elaborated by the human reason. It therefore came into c o n f l i c t w ith the rationalism of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. One of the prime reasons for t h i s dispute was the C h r i s t i a n view that salvation or redemption of man depended e n t i r e l y upon Christ and not 1 This section i s based on, The Shorter Catechism. 6 upon the e f f o r t s of man. Man's wisdom was foolishness before God and his understanding was as nothing i n the sight of the Most High. Such a fundamental conception l e f t no opening for solutions of a purely human and i n t e l -l e c t u a l order. This theology was taught i n the Shorter Catechism which was adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland i n 1648, from whence i t came to Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia. Its method of teaching was by questions and answers. These answers revealed the p r i n c i p l e s of the Westminster Confession of Faith , and throughout the world i t was the task of every Presbyterian c h i l d .to memorize the Shorter Catechism. In t h i s way, Presbyterians became well grounded i n t h e i r f a i t h ; capable of i n t r i c a t e reason-ing, and with an appreciation of education. This conception of f a i t h and t r a i n i n g developed a sect of very marked character. Conduct and doctrine went hand in hand. Presbyterians of the time of John Knox were very observant of the Ten Commandments and believed i m p l i c i t l y i n the doctrines of the Church. There can be no doubt that 3"ohn Knox exercised a prominent influence on the l i f e and work of Scotland and the Presbyterian Church. His thinking gave color and doctrine to the whole church and his emphasis on the value of education remained as an important t r a i t i n S c o t t i s h d i s p o s i t i o n . This describes the o r i g i n a l Presbyterian and the foundation of Presbyterian b e l i e f . These doctrines were 7 believed and unchanged u n t i l late i n the nineteenth cen-tury. But gradually, a f t e r 1875, more l i b e r a l theology found exponents i n the.churches and u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada, Rationalism, higher c r i t i c i s m , and evolution were cautious-l y recognized.by the theologians. The old doctrine l o s t i t s s p i r i t u a l fervor and the emphasis changed from j u s t i -f i c a t i o n by f a i t h to a doctrine of the e f f i c a c y of works. During the e a r l i e r period the r e l a t i o n of the soul to God was the most important thing. The i n d i v i d u a l soul was eager and anxious about i t s e l f . It was anxious about getting right with God, and working out i t s own salvation through the grace of God. At a l a t e r stage, i t was i n doing rather than the actual present relationship to God that the Presbyterian believer found the purpose of his existence. The Covenanters and Presbyterians of the Puritan period i n England sought the salvation of t h e i r souls, that eternal l i f e might be enjoyed. The founda-t i o n of t h e i r hope came through t h e i r b e l i e f i n the grace of God. The modern Presbyterian became more an active worker i n the church and endeavored to be a laborer worthy of his h i r e . The people that held these concepts were mostly of the Scott i s h nation and that has had a great influence upon the movement and formation of the church i n other lands. A l -though geographical conditions may have moulded t h e i r character to a great extent yet Presbyterianism has wrought a great t r a i t i n them. They were s p e c i a l l y adapted to pioneer throughout the B r i t i s h Empire and i t owes i t s existence i n no small degree to th e i r resourcefulness and i n t e g r i t y . Perhaps none owes more to them than that part known as B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER II THE NEED As one tr a v e l s by the luxurious steamers of to-day, along the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, gazing at the dark green, forest clad slopes of the mountains, which dip into the waters of the countless i n l e t s one can imagine the f e e l i n g of wonder and awe of those e a r l i e s t Spanish ex-plorers who ventured t h i s f a r north i n t h e i r pinnaces carrying the symbol of the dominion and might of Spain to this l a s t great unexplored part of the New World. With the regal power went the representatives of the Roman Catholic Church. The propagation of the gospel was con-sidered by this nation quite as important as the conquest of the new land i t s e l f . The f i r s t to appear i n these waters was Juan Perez in June 1774 and v/ith him Father Petia and Father C r i s p i but they never a c t u a l l y set foot on the shores of thi s province. The next group came i n 1789. They were Don Estevan Jose Lopez d i Nava and Don Jose Maria Diaz with four Franciscan f r i a r s , who held the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n ser-1 vice i n what i s now B r i t i s h Columbia t e r r i t o r y . . The T Howay, F.W. and Schol e f i e l d , S.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to .the Present, Vancouver, B.C., The S.J.Clarke Publishing Co.,1914, V o l . II, 605. 9 f r i a r a stayed at Friendly Cove fo r some s i x years (1789-1795), where they b u i l t a church and v i l l a g e alongside the f o r t , a l l of which has long ago disappeared. Father Bra-bant, years l a t e r t o l d Judge Howay, of how some of the Indians could count to ten i n a very i n d i s t i n c t form of Spanish, and an old Indian woman could sing Spanish hymns, and another could describe accurately the old fashioned Franciscan f r i a r s . 2 The Roman Catholics made t h e i r next appearance at Fort Vancouver i n 1839, when two Jesu i t s , Father Demers and Father Blanchet from Saint Boniface arrived and were successful xn converting many Indians. Father Demera v i s i t e d Fort Langley in 1841 and Reverend Jean Baptiste Bolduc accompanied James Douglas at the founding of Fort Camosun in 1843, while Father Peter de Smet founded a church at Kamloops i n 1842-3. These were the beginnings of Roman Catholicism i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 The next church to make i t s appearance on the coast was the Anglican Church and i t had a great advantage. It was the o f f i c i a l denomination of the Hudson's Bay Company, which fur trading company dominated the whole new country at t h i s time. The Company, however, was not interested i n 2 Howay, F.W., Spanish Settlement at Nootka, The Washing-ton H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, 1917, Vol. VIII, 168, 171. 3 Bancroft, H.H., History of the Northwest Coast, New York, The Bancroft Company, Vol. II, 534. 4 Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . , 605. missionary work, the basic motive of i t s e f f o r t s being to secure p r o f i t s from the fur trade. Outside of that the employees or partners and factors exercised a code of morals which showed them to be honest at l e a s t . Excesses were indulged i n along other lines,an example being the treatment received by the Reverend Herbert Seaver, who came out to Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River i n 1836. v The Chief Factor, Dr. John McLoughlin cared l i t t l e f o r the regulations of the Church of England regarding marriage. McLoughlin picked and chose Indian women at his own pleasure. When Beaver reprimanded him f o r such conduct, McLoughlin gave Beaver a sound thrashing and i t was not long before Beaver returned to England, ever to be a severe c r i t i c of the Hudson's Bay Company.6 Consequently there was no minister to function f o r the Company a f t e r 1837. Wot u n t i l 1855, when the Reverend Edward Cridge arrived did the colony have an o f f i c i a l clergyman. Men-ti o n should also be made of William Duncan, who was sent out to Esquimault i n 1857 by the Church Missionary Society, an organization of the Church of England. His great and memorable work fo r the Indians of the northern coast was begun at Metlakatlah i n 1862.7 Before Reverend Herbert Beaver arrived at Fort Van-5 Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, 1930, 86-87. 6 i b i d . , 44 n. 7 Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . , 616. 12 couver i n 1836, a group of Methodists of United States had established a mission to the Indians on the Willamette River i n 1834, 10 miles below the present c i t y of Salem, Oregon. The establishment of t h i s mission was l a r g e l y Q due to the e f f o r t s of Jason and Daniel Lee and the gen-erosit y of Dr. John McLoughlin, although those helped by him showed l i t t l e gratitude towards McLoughlin years l a t e r when he needed help. Later i n 1836, a group of Presbyterians from United States, namely, Doctor Marcus Whitman, Reverend H.H. Spalding and W.H.Gray established missions to the Indians i n what i s now the eastern part of the State of Washington. But these were abandoned when Whitman, his wife and 12 others l o s t t h e i r l i v e s i n the massacre by the Indians on thd 29 November 1847.9 Turning to the t e r r i t o r y now enclosed within the boundaries of B r i t i s h Columbia, there was l i t t l e change in the way of population. The Indians l i v e d on in t h e i r t r i b a l ways, the only influence of western c i v i l i z a t i o n coming by way of the fur traders and one or two Catholic missions. Year a f t e r year passed, with the coming and the going of the fur brigades, and l a t e r the a r r i v a l of the S.S. Beaver, inaugurating a new method of regular v i s i t s 8 Gatke, Robert Moulton, A Document of Mission History, 1833-43, The Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Vol. XXXVI, March 1935, 71-94. 9 E e l l s , Edwin and Austin Rice, The Whitman Monument, The Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Vol. II, 24-36; See also, Bancroft, H.H., op. c i t . , V o l . II, 536; See also, Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, 1930, 86-87. 13 t o t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e r s and c o a s t a l f o r t s w h i c h were b e i n g abandoned b y t h e Hudson's Bay Com-pany. I n t o t h i s v a s t , s i l e n t , f o r e s t and m o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n came a sudden p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e f l o c k i n g f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . G o l d h a d b e e n d i s c o v e r e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but i t was f o u n d i n most p a y i n g q u a n t i t i e s on t h e P r a s e r R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . The g o l d r u s h began i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g o f 1858, and t h e t i d e o f p p p u l a t i o n s t e a d i l y r o s e u n t i l i t was e s t i m a t e d a t t h i r t y t h o u s a n d . S u c h an i n f l u x meant the n e c e s s i t y o f many o f t h e amen-i t i e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n v e r y s h o r t o r d e r . But t h e s e were d i f f i c u l t a n d e x p e n s i v e t o s e c u r e on a c c o u n t o f t h e g r e a t d i s t a n c e a n d t h e g r e a t b a r r i e r o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a s . Among t h e s e a m e n i t i e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i g i o n . As m i g h t w e l l be s u p p o s e d , r e l i g i o n was t h e l a s t t h i n g t h o u g h t o f by t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h a t m o t l e y p o p u l a t i o n . B u t t h e r e were a l w a y s t h e few odd p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d enough i n t h e i r God t o want t o have Him w o r s h i p p e d and who wanted t h e f a c i l i t i e s t o c a r r y out t h e i r c h e r i s h e d w i s h . W i t h t h i s i n v i e w c a l l s were s e n t t o e a s t e r n Canada, U n i t e d S t a t e s , and G r e a t B r i t a i n , f o r m i n i s t e r s o r m i s s i o n -a r i e s t o s e r v e t h e needs o f t h e members o f t h e c h u r c h e s i n t h e new l a n d . I t was known t h a t c o n v e n i e n c e s were not t o be had as t h e y were i n t h e h o m e l a n d s . Anyone v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r t h i s work w o u l d e n c o u n t e r many h a r d s h i p s as w e l l a s much d i f f i c u l t t r a v e l l i n g . The f i r s t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o r e s -14 pond that had not workers already i n the country, were the Wesleyan Methodists. Four of them arrived i n V i c t o r i a on 10 February 1859. They were Reverend Ephraira Evans, Rev-erend Edward White, Reverend Ebenezer Robson, and Rever-end Arthur Browning, a l l from Ontario I 1°They immediately branched out to the various sections of the colony and pushed t h e i r work forward vigorously to supply t h e i r ser-vices to t h e i r numerous brethren throughout the camps and settlements. Nor did they stop there, they carried the gospel on to the Indians on every opportunity that they possibly could. A name to be remembered i n t h i s regard was that of Reverend Thomas Crosby. But what of the Presbyterians? They had members i n the new country as early as any other denomination. In fac t , most of the employees or partners and factors of the Hudson's Bay Company were Sc o t t i s h or of Scott i s h descent. But t h e i r r e l i g i o n had become a matter of secondary import-ance and they submitted meekly to the o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n of the Company, a f a r cry from the days of the Covenanters and of John Knox. Surely i t speaks loudly of the mercenary i n -10 Hacker, G.C., History of the Methodist Church i n B r i -t i s h Columbia 1859-1900, MS. i n U.B.C. Library, Ch. I-VI. Reverend Wm. F. Clarke from Washington T e r r i t o r y worked on Vancouver Island f o r the Congregationalists as early as 1859.(Howay and Scho l e f i e l d , op.cit., 642.) The Baptists were f i r s t represented by Reverend William Carnes at V i c t o r i a i n May 1876. (Howay and Schol e f i e l d , op. c i t . , 650). 15 fluence of the Company upon a l l who were within i t s sys-tem. Nevertheless some of the new immigrants had a desire for the r e l i g i o n of the Church of Scotland and they asked for ministers from the homeland and from Ontario and from the Maritime colonies. But Ontario and the North-West absorbed many new missionaries available from Great B r i -t a i n and her own colleges. Some missionaries l e f t the Maritime colonies for New Hebrides Islands i n 1846 but no missionaries could be spared f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Ontario and Nova Scotia had another d i f f i c u l t y which was the lack of union among the Presbyterian organizations, of which there were several. U n t i l these were united Canada could not put f o r t h a concerted e f f o r t to supply 7 what was to become Western Canada.H 11 McNeill, J.T., The Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 1875-1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 1925, 32. CHAPTER III THE RESPONSE FROM IRELAND The mission committees of the Presbyterian Churches i n the old country received c a l l s f o r ministers from B r i -t i s h Columbia as well as from other parts of the Empire. Although they made strong appeals, ministers who chose to f i l l the c a l l s , always avoided B r i t i s h Columbia. The un-certainty of the population of a gold rush country did not appeal to them. It was not u n t i l 1861 that anyone respond-ed to the c a l l from B r i t i s h Columbia, and he was not a Scotchman but an Irishman who responded to the appeal of the mission board of the Presbyterian Church i n Ireland. John H a l l , f or that was his name, at that time had organ-ized a new charge and b u i l t a church at Athy, County of Kildare and had preached there f o r ten years. He was somewhat of a moody and melancholy d i s p o s i t i o n at times but as the occasion needed could ari s e and do his duty i n a very capable manner during h i s f i v e years i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Accordingly on 16 January 1861, H a l l resigned his charge at Athy and on 6 February following, the Presbytery of Dublin designated him as a missionary of the Presbyter-1 Goodfellow, J.C . j John H a l l , MS., 3,4. 16 17 i a n C hurch i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. He was g u a r a n t e e d a s a l a r y of 200 pounds a n n u a l l y f o r t h r e e y e a r s , h i s s a l a r y t o com-mence on t h e day he t o o k s h i p f o r d e p a r t u r e . A f t e r a stormy passage H a l l came a t l e n g t h t o t h e end of h i s j o u r n e y a r r i v -i n g a t V i c t o r i a , Sunday, 14 A p r i l 1861. 2 A p p a r e n t l y t h e m i s -s i o n committee of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n I r e l a n d had not n o t i f i e d anyone i n V i c t o r i a of t h e d e p a r t u r e of Reverend John H a l l f o r B r i t i s h C olumbia. As a consequence, h i s l a n d -i n g was not n o t i c e d . He had t o s e a r c h f o r the P r e s b y t e r -i a n s and i n f o r m them t h a t a m i n i s t e r had a r r i v e d f o r them. The f i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n t h a t he found was A l e x a n d e r W i l s o n , and a good f i n d i t proved t o be, f o r W i l s o n was one o f t h e p i l l a r s of P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m f o r many a l o n g y e a r u n t i l h i s de a t h i n 1917. A f t e r h a v i n g h i s c r e d e n t i a l s examined by a group of P r e s b y t e r i a n s of. V i c t o r i a i t was d e c i d e d t o commence the h o l d i n g o f meetings on t h e f o l l o w i n g Sunday, i n Moore's H a l l . T h i s was i n a b u i l d i n g near t h e Bank of M o n t r e a l on Y a t e s S t r e e t j u s t below Government S t r e e t . S e r v i c e s were h e l d here f o r a t i m e and i n v a r i o u s o t h e r h a l l s i n the town i n c l u d i n g t h e Court Room w h i c h was g r a n t e d by p e r m i s -s i o n of C h i e f J u s t i c e D a v i d Cameron. But t o Moore's H a l l goes, t h e d i s t i n c t i o n of h a v i n g t h e f i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n s e r -v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia on Sunday, 21 A p r i l 1861 w i t h an at t e n d a n c e of about 30 p e o p l e . V e r y s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s f i r s t s e r v i c e H a l l made a t o u r 2 The D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a , 15 A p r i l 1861. 18 of the settlements of the colony and a f t e r v i s i t i n g sever-a l points on Vancouver Island, he set off on a missionary journey to the mainland. This took him f i r s t of a l l to the islands which form the delta of the Fraser River. It was while on Sea Island that he held the f i r s t Presbyter-ian service ever held on the mainland. The Richmond Pres-byterian Church claimed that t h i s meeting held i n the house of Hugh McRoberts i n about May 1861 was the beginning of t h e i r church. This place now belongs to Mr. Thomas TLaing, and i s situated on the north side of Sea Island about midway between the eastern and western extremities of the isl a n d . From here H a l l proceeded to New Westminster and holding services there he v i s i t e d points i n the i n t e r -i o r as f a r east as L y t t o n . 3 On returning to V i c t o r i a , H a l l was very disheartened, because he f e l t that there was no immediate future f o r the Presbyterian Church on the coast. He even suggested the.idea of leaving and proceeding to New Zealand, a mis-sion f i e l d which f o r years had occupied his thoughts. But his friends were able to show that the needs of his present f i e l d demanded his presence and his ministry, and f i n a l l y he directed his energies to the c u l t i v a t i o n of that f i e l d . The f i r s t step i n t h i s proposal was the organization of the congregation on 3 February 1862 i n Smith's H a l l . Those present, 14 i n a l l , were: Honorable David Cameron, 3 The B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, 20 July 1861, 25 July 1861. Chief Justice of the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island, Reverend John H a l l , John Wright, Robert Carter, John Bas-tedo, George H. Sanders, Joseph Kilgour, Thomas Mann, Alex-ander Wilson, John Martin, Charles Cochrane, George Reid, Simon Anderson, and Alexander Loury. After the purpose of the meeting had been stated, David Cameron was elected chairman. Then aft e r some d i s -cussion a resolution was passed "which brought Presbyter-ianism into v i s i b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia". It was "Moved by Alexander Loury, and seconded by Alexander Wilson, that t h i s meeting do organize i t s e l f into a con-gregation to be c a l l e d the F i r s t Presbyterian Church of Vancouver Island, and that the Reverend John H a l l be re-quested to act i n the meantime as our minister". A com-mittee on " s i t e s " and a Board of Trustees was also appoint-ed at th i s meeting. The committee chose a l o t on the corner of Blanchard Street and Pandora Avenue and paid $1100 f o r i t . With due ceremony Chief Justice Cameron l a i d the corner stone of the church on the 9 A p r i l 1863. The church was completed at a cost of $3120 by November 1863 and was formally opened for divine service on Sunday November 15. At the f i r s t service there were two Presbyterian ministers, Reverend John H a l l and Reverend James Nimrao of Nanaimo who had shortly before been sent out by the Church of Scotland. j n the evening service of that day John H a l l v/as assisted by 20 A the Reverend Ephraim Evans of the Methodist Church. Various ways of securing money to pay for the church were promulgated. A tea was given hy the ladies with enter-tainment and musical numbers on the programme which raised #647.50. At t h i s time i t was the custom of some churches to rent the seats of the church, but i t was a custom which has long since died out and i t i s doubtful i f any other Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia resorted to t h i s p r a c t i s e . The price f o r a whole seat on the side of the church was $25.00, and there was accommodation for four people on i t . The seats of the centre section were rented at 30 dollars with accommodation f o r s i x people and single seats were l e t at six d o l l a r s per annum. By these methods and l i b e r a l con-tr i b u t i o n s the church was rapidly becoming free of debt. Families were moving into town and i t was found necessary to e s t a b l i s h a Sabbath School i n 1864. This Sabbath School, the Presbyterians of F i r s t Church claim, was the f i r s t one in the colony of Vancouver Island. In t h i s way John H a l l with the splendid co-operation of his congregation had suc-ceeded i n establishing the church. He now f e l t that his work was complete i n Vancouver Island, and desired to carry out his wish to go to New Zealand. Accordingly he resigned i n the early part of 1865. But he was not allowed to leave without many ex-4 Souvenir 1861-1911, Jubilee of the Introduction of Pres-> byterianism into B r i t i s h Columbia and the Organization of the F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., ( V i c t o r i a , June 25, 1911) 12. 21 preseiona of appreciation. He t o l d Dr. J.A.Logan on a re-turn t r i p through Vancouver i n 1905 that the V i c t o r i a con-gregation i n 1865 gave him a watch and 100 pounds as tokens of t h e i r regard. John H a l l was a man of no great outstanding a b i l i t y as a preacher, hut he had the peculiar t r a i t of being able to f i t in as a stranger i n a land where nearly everyone else was a stranger. He could v i s i t a lonely tent and confide and chat with the homesick occupant and say the right word to encourage when the heart inside longed for voices and scenes that were thousands of miles away. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was the moodiness and melancholic spells that came over him at times, but overcome when friends encouraged. He was w i l l i n g to lay aside his own personal desires for the benefit of a community i n need of church services, a type of person that the Church of Scotland seemed to lack i n these years of the beginning of the colony. In New Zealand H a l l carried on organization work from 1865 to 1869, much the same type of work as he had done i n B r i t i s h Columbia. From 1869 to 1891 he was again i n Ire-land doing pastoral work and organizing. He returned to New Zealand i n 1891 and stayed there u n t i l 1905, doing pastoral work at Westport. In 1905 he returned to Ireland v i a Canada and v i s i t e d many of his old fr i e n d s . It was at t h i s time that Dr. John A. Logan conversed with him and learned something of those early days. On 7 October 22 1907 he passed away at the age of 81 years i n C o r w i l l i s , near Baillieborough, Ireland. He had spent 57 years i n the . . . 5 ministry. 5 These facts concerning the l i f e of John H a l l are based upon Goodfellow, J.C., John H a l l , MS. FIRST PRSSBYTBRIAU CHURCH, VICTORIA, B.C., A > T D } r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ < - « ' ^ ^ ^ 1913. Ze\l. Tham<tt Somer\/Ule P p- S'eu.JoVin R e i d I S S I -fey. Ranald Fraser, M./? F I R S T P R E S B Y T E R I A N C H U R C H . V I C T O R I A F O U N D F D 1 8 6 1 . B U I L T 1 8 6 3 . V A C A T E D 1 9 1 3 . CHAPTER IV REVEREND ROBERT JAMESON B.A. FROM CANADA About one year a f t e r John H a l l landed i n V i c t o r i a , another I r i s h Presbyterian minister by the name of Robert Jamieson landed in New Westminster. This was on 12 March 1862.^" Jamieson proved to be an earnest and s e l f - s a c r i -f i c i n g worker during a l l his years in B r i t i s h Columbia. He joined the ministry under the Presbyterian Church in Ireland arid having a desire f o r missionary work came to Canada i n 1856. There he v/as pastor at Dunnville and York M i l l s combined f o r some s i x years under the Free Presby-teri a n Church of Canada. The missionary f i e l d which t h i s church chose to op-erate in and supply with funds and missionaries was Ban-coorah, India. Three thousand six hundred dollars had been collected to send a missionary there when the Indian Mutiny of 1857 broke out and at once a l l t h i s church's 9 missionary a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s region ceased. In fact the 1 Brown, J.D., to Logan, J.A., Feb.23, 1916, papers. These are answers of J.C.Brown to questions sent by J.A. Logan. Brown got his information from the records of St. Andrew's Church, New Westminster, and l e t t e r s . 2 Gregg, William, Short History of the Presbyterian Church i n the Dominion of Canada from the e a r l i e s t to the present time, Toronto, Printed f o r the Author, 1893, second ed i t i o n , 144. 23 24 Free Presbyterian Church of Canada abandoned that f i e l d e n t i r e l y . It was not u n t i l 1861, when the Free Presbyter-ian Church of Canada joined with the United Presbyterian Church i n Canada to form the Canada Presbyterian Church that foreign missionary work was resumed.3 The united church chose B r i t i s h Columbia as i t s f i r s t foreign mission-ary f i e l d . 4 Although the c a l l for a missionary to B r i t i s h Colum-bia stood for some time no one accepted i t , u n t i l Robert Jamieson s i g n i f i e d h i s willingness to go. He was asked why he relinquished his pastorate and the reply was, "Be-cause no other offered. He thought a single man would have been better f i t f o r the f i e l d . " This was character-i s t i c of Jamieson throughout his l i f e . There were a l t o -gether too many i n the ministry who would not s a c r i f i c e themselves for the missionary f i e l d . On his a r r i v a l i n New Westminster Jamieson lost no time i n gathering a congregation. 6 The f i r s t place of wor-ship was in the old court house which faced Clarkson Street. On the f i r s t communion r o l l of January 1863, there 3 McNeill, J.T., The Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1875-1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 1925, 32. 4 Gregg, op. c i t . , 174. 5 Brown, J.C., to Logan, J.A., op. c i t . 6 Vert, A.E., St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church 1862-1922, New Westminster, An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch, Jackson P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd., New Westminster, B.C., 7'. 25 7 were 15 names. In February 1863 the manse was b u i l t and one room i n i t was reserved by Jamieson f o r a schoolroom, because there was no school i n the town as yet. In the next_ year the P r o v i n c i a l Government supplied a teacher. In t h i s way Jamieson proved himself w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e for the community, but he did not stop there. Although well established i n New Westminster, he l e f t that c i t y in 1865 temporarily f o r four years i n order that Nanaimo might be supplied with services. Nanaimo was a coal mining town and there were many miners there of Scot-t i s h extraction. Fortunately, Reverend Daniel Duff of Ont-ario, who had wintered i n the Cariboo, arrived i n New West-minster i n time to supply the pulpit f o r some two years of Jamieson's absence. Having established St. Andrew's Pres-byterian Church i n Nanaimo, Jamieson found himself s t i l l further taxed to keep F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a , supplied on alternate Sundays with Duff supplying the other Sundays. In 1867 Duff returned to Ontarioi because of poor health, leaving Jamieson i n charge of three churches, F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a , St. Andrew's, Nanaimo, and St. Andrew's, New Westminster. Although his time was divided between each church, he was successful in keeping interest a l i v e so that there was a congregation waiting f o r the new pastor. Rev-erend W. Aitken from Ontario, i n 1869, took over Nanaimo, 7 The names were: Mrs.A.Rogerson, Mrs.Ann Watt, Robert Jamieson, Mrs. Robert Jamieson, John Robson, Robert Craney, Thomas McMicking, Beth Beaton, David Edmond, Malcolm Nichol-son, Mrs. Nicholson, James Dickson, John Lynn, Mrs. Lynn, and Donald S i n c l a i r , ( i b i d . , 4) 26 and Jamieson r e t u r n e d t o New W e s t m i n s t e r . But he was not c o n t e n t t o c o n f i n e a l l h i s e f f o r t s t o S t . Andrew's. He v i s i t e d and o r g a n i z e d m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s or b u i l t c h u r c hes a t Richmond, L a n g l e y , Maple R i d g e , and M o o d y v i l l e . One t r i p of e x p l o r a t i o n on horseback was made i n t o the i n t e r i o r 8 as f a r as Kamloops. S e v e r a l of the churches i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y of t o - d a y , owe t h e i r b e g i n n i n g t o the e f f o r t s o f R o b e r t Jamieson, e f f o r t s t h a t were made w i t h a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o h e l p h i s p e o p l e not t o f o r g e t the Church o r t h e Word of God. J amieson had come out t o B r i t i s h C olumbia under the Canada P r e s b y t e r i a n Church w i t h an a n n u a l g r a n t of 1200 d o l l a r s p a i d t o h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n f o r h i s s a l a r y . But he had l o n g f e l t t h e need of some l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b e s i d e s t h a t of the c o n g r e g a t i o n . The p r e s b y t e r y would be more a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e needs of t h e o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e where no p a s t o r or m i s s i o n a r y worked. I n h i s f i r s t y e a r s he d i d the best he c o u l d s i n g l e handed. But now s e v e r a l m i n i s t e r s had a r r i v e d under th e Church of S c o t l a n d and formed t h e P r e s b y t e r y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1875. They urged Jamieson t o j o i n them, but he h e l d back, f e e l i n g t h a t a Canadian P r e s b y t e r i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n would be e s t a b l i s h e d but none was f o r t h c o m i n g owing t o t h e s c a r c i t y of m i n i s t e r s from Canada. So Jamieson j o i n e d the S c o t t i s h m i n i s t e r s i n 1876, on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the P r e s b y t e r -8 Logan, J.A., E a r l y P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, MS., 15. 27 ian Church i n Canada would continue his salary grant, which Q they did. In the next year Jamieson secured permission from the Presbytery to organize St. Andrew's congregation into a session with three elected elders. The three e l -ders were F i t z g e r a l d Mcleery, Warren DeBeck, and James Halliday. John Robson became an elder i n the following year. The session was a considerable help to the pastor i n the performance of the various duties of the church. St. Andrew's and i t s pastor maintained connections with the Presbytery of B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l 1882 when they severed t h e i r r e l a t i o n s , l a r g e l y owing to the decline of the Church of Scotland i n t e r e s t . It was very d i f f i c u l t to supply B r i t i s h Columbia with ministers from Scotland and those that did come were not s a t i s f i e d with conditions of l i f e . The Presbyterian Church i n Canada was becoming stronger and was supplying the north-west with mission-aries so St. Andrew's and Jamieson became members of the Presbytery of Toronto i n 1884. 1 0 However Jamieson f e l t that he could no longer carry on his duties^as pastor because of f a i l i n g health. Years of strenuous labor i n a pioneer d i s t r i c t had at la s t worn down his sturdy constitution. With great regret the Ses-9" The Acts and Proceedings of the Second General Assembly of The Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Toronto, June 8th-23rd 1876, 57. This series of minutes and reports w i l l be cited hereafter as General Assembly Minutes or G.A.M. See also, G.A.M., 1877, 33,appendix V, XIX, XLII, and G.A.M., 1878, 30,appendix II I , XX, XLIV. 10 G.A.M., 1884, appendix XIV, CCXXXVIII. sion of St. Andrew's, New Westminster accepted his resigna-t i o n hut not without tokens of t h e i r appreciation of his earnest and whole-hearted efforts.^" 1' He was allowed to l i v e i n the manse u n t i l 1888 when the church desired the property to s e l l , that funds eould he raised f o r the b u i l d -ing of the new brick church. When two years l a t e r the Presbytery of Columbia was formed i n connection with the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Jamieson was honored by being elected the f i r s t moderator. The remaining years of his l i f e were occupied as Chaplain of the Penitentiary near New Westminster. He died i n September 1893, at the 12 age of 64 years. Jamieson l i k e John H a l l , had stepped i n to f i l l a breach i n the ranks of the ministers. It was a time i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, when thousands were mov-ing through New Westminster up the Praser. Jamieson wrought with a l l his might i n the c r u c i a l years, doing work that others should have been doing, and t h i s was a faul t of the church. But such as Jamieson are the s a l t of any organization. He stayed with i t u n t i l he saw Presby-terianism well established in B r i t i s h Columbia. 11 G.A.M., 1884, appendix XIV. 12 Vert. A.E., op. c i t . , 8. CHAPTER V THE RESPONSE FROM SCOTLAND In response to the c a l l from B r i t i s h Columbia, the Church of Scotland made a standing offer of £300 a year to the support of any missionary while he was i n s e r v i c e . 1 i n the colony. It was several years before anyone accepted the proposal. F i n a l l y James Niramo s i g n i f i e d his desire to go and arrived i n V i c t o r i a just i n time to a s s i s t John H a l l dedicate the new F i r s t Presbyterian Church. It would seem that the Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland did not know anything about the work of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland i n V i c t o r i a . So Nimmo informed the Col-onial Committee that his salary would have to be raised by £150 f o r two years and that £1500 would be necessary to bu i l d a new church. While i n t h i s quandary the Colonial Committee was n o t i f i e d that John H a l l was about to resign and that the congregation wanted a Scotsman. 1 Most of t h i s chapter i s based on Dr. J.A.Logan's MS., "Early Presbyterianism in B r i t i s h Columbia". This i n turn was based on the "Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Mis-sionary Record" magazine numbers covering period from 1863 to 1875. Unfortunately they had to be returned to the Col-onial Committee as they were only loaned. References to The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Record, New Series, Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons, w i l l be c i t e d as C.S.M.R. 29 30 To t h i s s i t u a t i o n the Colonial committee responded by r e c a l l i n g Nimmo and sending out a young probationer by the name of Thomas Somerville. Somerville arrived i n V i c t o r i a to take over F i r s t Church and proved himself to be a very capable pastor. He opened a station at Craigflower and held f o r t n i g h t l y services there. His Sunday School had an attendance of 90 and a children's choir and a s t a f f of 14 teachers. He v i s i t e d other outlying d i s t r i c t s and gathered congregations for occasional services. In thi s way he oc-cupied his f i r s t year i n a very creditable manner, with the congregation of F i r s t Church increasing s t e a d i l y . But trouble was brewing i n the congregation. Some f e l t that the Church of Scotland was too prominent i n the a f f a i r s of the church while they wanted a more cosmopol-itan view taken, which they carried out to t h e i r own s a t i s -f a c t i o n . Secretly they had the t r u s t deed of the church building and l o t made over to themselves with f u l l rights of possession. 2 They f e l t that by so doing the church would remain more cosmopolitan. People that were of other bran-ches of Presbyterianism would f e e l more at home. However such a procedure was e n t i r e l y at variance with the accus-tomed procedure of the Established Church of Scotland. 2 The three trustees concerned were: David Cameron, John Wright, and John Martin. It was done by an indenture dated 19 January 1866. (Logan, J.A., Introduction of Presbyterian-ism into B r i t i s h Columbia, MS., 49.) 3 F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , was d e f i n i t e l y con-nected with the Presbyterian Church in Ireland during the four year ministry of John H a l l , 1861-65. (Goodfellow, J.C., l e t t e r . ) 31 Their method would i n s i s t upon ownership hy the session and a l l business being done by a regularly called meeting of the session. The minister, being from the Church of Scot-land, naturally supported the regular Presbyterian system. This rendered i t impossible f o r him to work harmoniously with the section of the congregation which concurred with the three men who held such wide powers. Seeing that he could not a l t e r anything, Somerville resigned and a great many members withdrew from F i r s t Church. They immediately reorganized themselves into a con-gregation and chose Thomas Somerville as t h e i r pastor. The new assembly was c a l l e d St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a . The Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland was acquainted with the whole unseemly event and approved of Somerville's actions and attitude i n the matter. It further granted considerable funds to a s s i s t St. Andrew's in the erection of a new church. Somerville again went into action and the erection of the church was agreed to, the corner stone being l a i d on 20 August 1868, and the building completed and dedicated on 4 A p r i l 1869. The six Masonic lodges of the colony had representatives at the laying of the corner stone, Somerville being a Grand Chap-4 l a m i n the order. After the completion of the building Somerville contin-ued his v i s i t s to outlying points and added some others to '& Begg, Alexander, History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, William Briggs, 1894, 494-495. hia c i r c u i t . The mission at Esquimault was opened at the request of Presbyterians dwelling there, i n addition to Cowichan where Somerville preached on alternate Sundays and Reverend William Aitken of Nanaimo preached on the Sundays between. Somerville reported his progress to the Colonial Committee i n Edinburgh, Scotland, and he sounded f u l l of hope, but f e l t that the m a t e r i a l i s t i c s p i r i t of the coast alienated many a former good Presbyterian from attending church. In 1870 with the permission of the Managers and Ses-sion of St. Andrew's, Somerville returned to Scotland f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g funds to pay off the debt of the church b u i l d i n g . He had not been there f o r long when he succumbed to the temptation of accepting a position at St. David's, K i r k i n t i l l o c h in 1871 instead of returning to B r i t i s h Columbia where he was much needed. Then again in 1873 he accepted a charge in Glasgow c a l l e d College Church or l a t e r known as B l a c k f r i a r ' s Church where he served 42 years u n t i l his death i n September 1915. He had served f i v e years i n V i c t o r i a and the sur-rounding d i s t r i c t in a very ardent manner. But his term was unfortunate i n having trouble i n F i r s t Church. It was a r e a l problem to avoid such a s i t u a t i o n and very d i f f i c u l t to solve i t happily. But a committee that man-aged the a f f a i r s of a Presbyterian congregation i n t h i s way c e r t a i n l y did not bring credit to i t s e l f or help the cause of Presbyterianism i n a colony l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia, 33 already rampant with skepticism. F i r s t Church had been b u i l t almost independently of outside help and required the best e f f o r t s of many noble men and women. To have the congregation depleted and the church l e f t without a pastor and with no outside connection to a larger organization, meant that a pastor would be d i f f i c u l t to secure. I f greater v i s i o n and t o l e r a t i o n had been used by both sides the incident might have been a-voided. Before Somerville l e f t V i c t o r i a he had a young c o l -league by the name of Simon McGregor a s s i s t i n g him i n St. Andrew's. McGregor came from West Branch, Nova Scotia, and arrived at V i c t o r i a i n December 1869. He had studied for the ministry i n Scotland, and spent ten years i n min-i s t e r i a l work i n Nova Scotia. When Somerville decided not to return McGregor was selected as minister f o r St. Andrew's, V i c t o r i a . He proved to be a very energetic worker looking forward to serving a l l the settlements with adequate mis-sionary service. This was indicated by his l e t t e r s and re-ports to the Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland. But he found i t very d i f f i c u l t to keep appointments with the various places around V i c t o r i a which Somerville used to supply. Furthermore many of the people were leaving the country and the congregations were dwindling. That the people were very desultory i n t h e i r observation of the Sabbath and the Sabbath ordinances was another note i n his reports. He also appealed to the Church i n Canada and in the Maritime Provinces f o r t a i d - t b revive a stronger loy-a l t y to Preshyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia. But the branches of the Presbyterian Church in. the eastern provin-ces were not united u n t i l 1875 and i t was some time a f t e r that before they were i n a position to aid the West. S:lnhe his e f f o r t s by writing of l e t t e r s were f r u i t l e s s , & h e resolved i n 1874 to go to Scotland and interview face to face men who might be available for the missionary f i e l d . He was very successful i n his mission, for he secured four young men for the missionary work. They a l l arrived in V i c t o r i a by the end of August 1875 and with McGregor they organized themselves into the Presbytery of B r i t i s h Columbia i n connection with- the Church of Scotland. The moderator of the new Presbytery was Simon McGregor, M.A., the clerk, Reverend William Clyde, and the other members were Reverend Alexander Dunn, Reverend George Murray, M.A,, and Reverend Alexander B. Nicholson, A.M. The meeting then proceeded to a l l o t the f i e l d s of work to the newly arrived ministers. Clyde was appointed to Nanaimo, Dunn to Langley, Murray to Nicola and Nicholson to the out-lying d i s t r i c t s of V i c t o r i a . Each man was introduced to the people of h i s f i e l d by McGregor. The Church of Scot-land had at l a s t i n 1875 responded i n a generous manner towards supplying B r i t i s h Columbia with missionaries, and once i n the f i e l d the men could always r e l y upon having a sympathetic ear to communicate t h e i r t r i a l s to i n the Colonial Committee of the Established Church of Scotland 35 in Edinburgh. Very shortly reports of the missionaries appeared i n . 5 the Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Record. McGregor carried on in St. Andrew's while Nicholson v i s i t e d Craigflower, Cedar H i l l and Colwood on. Sundays. Sabbath-schools were i n operation at the f i r s t two places. The services were held i n school rooms fo r there were no chur-che s. Clyde i n Nanaimo found a very prosperous community, depending upon the several coal mines, which paid good wages. The church had been b u i l t ten years before by Jamieson but had f a l l e n into d i s r e p a i r but now i t was thoroughly renovated and an organ had been bought for leading the Psalmody. However as time went on the enthus-iasm of Clyde was tested to a much greater degree. A l -though the miners were interested, yet they were t r a n s i -tory, and the membership and o f f i c i a l s of the church were changed. Some of the new o f f i c i a l s did not cherish the same ideals as Clyde but were interested i n more f r i v o -lous things than the law and the Gospel. However during his stay Clyde had a good attendance. Nanaimo depended at t h i s time f o r most of i t s a g r i -c u l t u r a l commodities on Comox, 70 miles to the north. The people of Comox, on Bayne's Sound, welcomed McGregor when 5 McGregor, Simon, C.S.M.R., January 1, 1876, 557-8. 36 he v i s i t e d them i n 1877 and resolved there and then to es-t a b l i s h a church. Two acres of land i n the best possible place were promptly offered as a s i t e for a church and cemetery, and about #350 subscribed by those present f o r church erection. McGregor was able to send B.K. McElmon and his bride to Comox by September of that year, to sup-ply not only Comox but other points on Bayne's' Sound a l s o . It was a beau t i f u l d i s t r i c t , with a large block of land fo r farmers, almost free of heavy timber. The roads of the community were good but did not connect with Nanaimo. Com-munication with outside points depended e n t i r e l y upon water transportation. Another a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t of equal i f not greater promise was that of langley i n the Eraser Valley, also served for the most part by water transportation. To t h i s area Alexander Dunn was appointed as missionary. In writing of his t r i p up the Praser he seemed taken aback at the wild and unbroken primeval forest which stretched 7 away on either side of the r i v e r . Here and there a set-t l e r had hewed out a plot f o r his meagre crop. No one would r i s k farming i n the f l a t unforested lands near the r i v e r because of the frequent floods. So Dunn found his 6 McGregor, Simon, C.S.M.R., August 1, 1877, 440. See also, C.S.M.R., May 1, 1878, 45 and Duncan, E r i c , Fifty-Seven Years i n the Comox Valley, Comox, The Comox Argus Co. Ltd., 1934, 59-61. 7 Much of the information on the work i n the Fraser Valley and i n Comox i s based on Dunn, Alexander, Presbyterianism in B r i t i s h Columbia i n Ea r l y Days, New Westminster, Colum-bian Company l t d . , 1905, 12-14. There was a revised ed-i t i o n i n 1913. 37 audiences widely scattered but kindly and rejoiced i n a glad welcome at every home throughout his large d i s t r i c t which reached from 20 miles east of Langley to the mouth of the r i v e r . Fortunately Jamieson had already worked i n the d i s t r i c t and placed a l i t t l e church near Fort Langley at the disposal of Dunn. However there were many other things about Langley which commended themselves to Dunn. He l i k e d the r i c h black s o i l compared to the rocky and gravelly s o i l of V i c t o r i a . The country had a good foundation f o r a greater population and thereby a bright future. Settlements were springing up each year which increased the number of places on his i t i n e r a r y * In each settlement there was a nucleus of Presbyterians. By the end of 11 years he c a l l e d at Upper Sumas (York Settlement), Matsqui (Maclure S e t t l e -ment), Mud Bay (McDougall Settlement), Ladner (South Arm), Richmond (North Arm), Maple Ridge, Fort Langley, and Lang-ley P r a i r i e . There were also new settlements i n the course of formation at Aldergrove, seven miles east of Langley P r a i r i e on the Yale Road; also on the Fraser River, at Jone's Landing, Mount Lehman, St. Mary's Mission, and Johnson's Landing, a l l eastwards from Fort Langley, 9, 12, 15 and 20 miles respectively. The roads that led to these places were not so long as those George Murray t r a v e l l e d over i n the I n t e r i o r . But i f they were not so long the mud in them was deeper. 8 Dunn, op. c i t . , 22. 38 George Murray found his f i e l d to he the most extensive of a l l . The country, having a l i g h t r a i n f a l l did not pro-duce a heavy growth hut only enough fo r l i v e s t o c k scattered over wide ranges which of course meant a t h i n l y populated country. He found a greater number of Presbyterian famil-ies in the Nicola V a l l e y and there made his headquarters at Nicola Lake. But the homesteads were fa r apart even i n the v a l l e y . As for the other preaching stations he had to tr a v e l as f a r as 100 miles between some of them. This Q made i t impossible to form congregations. His c i r c u i t was 600 miles and extended from Yale to Clinton, touching Ash-croft and L i l l o o e t , with periodic v i s i t s to Quesnel and intervening points, covered at t h i s time e n t i r e l y on horse-back. 1 0 Such a routine was t i r i n g and wore down his health. Miss J . Macdonald Murray, his daughter remarked: "Many a time he has l a i n down to sleep under a tree with his saddle for a pillow, so weary that a l l he was conscious of was the wish that he might never wake." 1 1 To the south of Nico-l a he v i s i t e d Princeton and intervening points. Such e f f o r t s as these were t r u l y appreciated by the people of the country. The Church of Scotland was highly esteemed f o r i t s generosity towards the construction of church buildings and towards the ministers' s a l a r i e s . But a depression of business and trade had come over the land 9 C.S.M.R., August 1, 1877, 440. 10 McGregor, C.S.M.R., January 1, 1876, 558. 11 Miss J . Macdonald Murray to M.E.Kennedy, l e t t e r , 1937. 39 aft e r the output of gold had decreased and thousands of the population had departed. The people of the Fraser Val-ley could not secure cash for t h e i r produce but had to barn-ter in New Westminster for necessities. As a consequence the people were in a very unsettled state of mind. They wanted to s e l l t h e i r land and leave the country but there were none to buy land. So i n t h i s way a considerable por-t i o n of the population was retained. It was one of the most try i n g times through which the country passed and lasted from the decline of the gold rush to the coming of no the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway in 1885-6. During t h i s period the ministers f e l t the effect of uncertainty i n more ways than one. It was d i f f i c u l t to ex-pect contributions towards t h e i r upkeep from poverty s t r i k -en members. The numbers attending church varied and many former children of the church did not attend at a l l , while some remained with the Episcopalians which they had joined before the advent of Presbyterianism. As a consequence of such conditions the ministers began to resign from t h e i r charges. In a short while a f t e r commencing to labor i n the outskirts of V i c t o r i a , A.B.Nicholson took up the teaching profession. Simon McGregor, i n 1881 a f t e r 12 years of un-flagging enterprise i n St. Andrew's, gave up and returned 13 to Scotland. He was c a l l e d to a charge i n Appin, A r g y l l -shire, but r e t i r e d from the active ministry i n 1902. Clyde 12 Dunn, A., op. c i t . , 7, 8, 21. 13 For dates of Ministers of the e a r l i e s t churches see Appendix C, Some Data on the E a r l i e s t Presbyterian Churches in B r i t i s h Columbia. 40 stayed u n t i l 1882 i n Nanaimo. Dunn worked manfully i n the Fraser Valley u n t i l 1886 when he transferred to Port Alber-n i under the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. He was one that stayed with i t to the end. George Murray remained i n the i n t e r i o r u n t i l 1879 when he moved to Nova Scotia but returned i n 1887 to Nicola and joined the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. Other ministers of the Church of Scot-land succeeded i n Nanaimo and St. Andrew's, V i c t o r i a . But i t was d i f f i c u l t for Scotland to supply a f i e l d of such a nature at so great a distance. Gradually with the coming of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1885 the tide of immigration began to r i s e , and with that tide came the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, and consequently reaped the advantages accruing from such a circumstance. Although many of the members were loath to see the disappearance of representatives of the Church of Scotland, yet they acquiesced i n the inevitable. To-ronto was the headquarters of the Canadian Church and was in a better p o s i t i o n to supply the need for ministers i n western Canada. These men were also more adapted to the f i e l d than most of the men who came out from Scotland. Toronto was nearer than Edinburgh and the majority of the 14 newcomers were Canadian. Conditions such as these led i n only one d i r e c t i o n and that was ultimate control by the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. 14 Dunn, op. c i t . , 7,8. 41 Happily the transfer of allegiance was made without f r i c t i o n . It began with Robert Jamieson, and St. Andrew's, New Westminster. Soon a f t e r F i r s t Presbyterian Church of V i c t o r i a which was frequently without a minister sought admittance. The Presbyterian Church i n Canada granted ad-15 mittance to both in 1884. Langley, under Dunn entered i n 1886 and Mud Bay followed. Comox and St. Andrew's, V i c -t o r i a , joined i n 1887, and St. Andrew's, Nanaimo i n 1889. Nicola, under George Murray also joined in 1889. James C h r i s t i e , the la s t of the Church of Scotland men, retained the connection u n t i l h i s death in V i c t o r i a i n 1902. He was minister i n Comox when i t joined the Presbyterian Church i n Canada i n 1887 and a f t e r that he was minister i n Wellington u n t i l 1889 when i t also joined the Presbyter-ian Church in Canada. The Church of Scotland had contributed l i b e r a l l y to both buildings and sa l a r i e s during a period v/hen the Can-adian Church was consolidating and just beginning to r e a l -ize the needs of the North-West. The place of the Church of Scotland i s an honorable one i n the hist o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r i t sustained Presbyterianism at a reasonable l e v e l amid discouraging conditions. If the work had begun e a r l i e r , the incident of F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a , might have been avoided. More sympathy and a message of more f i t t i n g portent to the miners of Nanaimo might have increased t h e i r l o y a l t y to the Church. However i t is to t h e i r credit that 1*5 For dates of ministers i n the e a r l i e s t churches see App. 42 t h e y g r a c e f u l l y r e t i r e d i n view of t h e events t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e c o u n t r y up t o 1885. By d o i n g t h i s t h e y l e f t t h e f i e l d open f o r t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada. ^bove is the first Presbyteriar church built at Nicola during the ministry of Rev. George Murray S T . A N D R E W ' S , L A N G L E Y F O R T Vacated /-?//. Cheated 27 feffauber/ZZr. CHAPTER VI THE RESPONSE PROM THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN CANADA Canada had responded to the c a l l f o r ministers to B r i t i s h Columbia as early i f not e a r l i e r than the Church of Scotland. Robert Jamieson, B.A., who had arrived i n 1862 was a worthy representative of the Canada Presbyter-ian Church, and as has already been outlined, he did yeo-1 / ' man service 1 f o r a great many years. Iji 1864 Daniel Duff landed i n B r i t i s h Columbia and although he stayed for only three years, he was the f i r s t Presbyterian to winter i n the Cariboo d i s t r i c t and none followed f o r many a year. While Jamieson established St. Andrew's i n Nanaimo, Duff supplied for him i n St. Andrew's, New Westminster and on alternate Sundays preached in F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a , from 1865 to 1867, when he returned to North Brant and West Bentinck, Ontario, because of i l l h e a l t h . 2 William Aitken arrived from Canada i n 1869 to take over St; Andrew's Church, Nanaimo, while Jamieson returned to St. Andrew's, New Westminster. He served i n Nanaimo 1 supra, 23. 2 Vert, A.E., St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church 1862-1922, New Westminster, An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch, 6. See also, Gregg, William, Short History of the Presbyterian Church i n the Dominion of Canada from the E a r l i e s t to the Present Time, Toronto, Printed f o r the Author, 1893, second edition, 174. 43 44 and other places i n the province u n t i l 1872, when he also 3 returned to Ontario. The money expended hy the Canada Presbyterian Church on missions i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the ten years 1861-71 was $22,248. This was more than half the amount con-tributed to the Foreign Mission Fund, and as i t was thought that the province might, afte r these ten years, be regarded rather as a home mission than a foreign mission f i e l d , i t s management was transferred by the General Assembly from the Foreign to the Home Mission Committee.** Such a beginning was a humble one, but as has been stated before, the eastern B r i t i s h North American provin-5 ces were not united. Previous to 1860 there were no less than eight d i f f e r e n t organizations that held up the ban-ner of Presbyterianisra i n the aforementioned provinces. By 1868 mergers brought the number of separate organiza-tions down to four. F i n a l l y i n 1875, complete union of g a l l the Presbyterian organizations i n Canada was achieved. However the missionary e f f o r t s from Canada were not progressive f o r many years. Even a f t e r union in 1875 i t seemed as though the Home Mission Committee of the Presby-te r i a n Church in Canada, knew very l i t t l e of the needs of the West'. The North-West v/as f i l l i n g up and f a r outstrip-ping the f a c i l i t i e s already provided. It was not u n t i l the 3 Gregg, op. c i t . , 174. 4 i b i d . , 174. 5 supra, 15, 28. 6 McNeill, J.T., The Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 1875-1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1925, 32. 45 Home Mission Committee report f o r Manitoba Presbytery of 1881 was presented, that the General Assembly f o r the f i r s t time seemed to become aware of what had happened during the 7 i past ten years. Then,- on 15 June 1881, they appointed James Robertson,. B.D., as Superintendent of Missions i n Manitoba and the North-West, at a salary of 1800 do l l a r s per annum Q and t r a v e l l i n g expenses. In the summer of 1882, Dr. William Cochrane, who had been convener of the General Assembly's Home Mission Com-mittee since 1875, v i s i t e d B r i t i s h Columbia by appointment Q of the General Assembly. After his return a more vigor-ous p o l i c y was adopted i n reference to the work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Pour ministers were sent out i n 1884 and 1885: Donald Praser, M.A., to F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a ; John Sutherland McKay, M.A., to St. Andrew's, New Westminster; Thomas G. Thomson, to the North Arm of the Fraser River and Burrard Inlet; and John Chisholm, B.A., to the area i n B r i t i s h Columbia from Yale on the Fraser River, to the Rocky Mountains. 1 0 Chisholm writes as f o l l o w s : 1 1 7 G.A.M., 1881, appendix XII - XXI. \ 8 i b i d . , 19-22. See also, Gordon, C.W., The l i f e of James Robertson, D.D. Toronto, The Westminster Co. Ltd., 1909, 160-176. 9 G.A.M., 1883, 39, appendix XXIII, XXIV, XXV. 10 G.A.M., 1885, appendix,XXXV. See also, Grant, R..N., L i f e of Rev. William Cochrane, D.D., Toronto, 1899, 126-128. 11 The following quotation from John Chisholm may be found i n , McKellar, Rev. Hugh, Presbyterian Pioneer Missionaries, Toronto, Murray P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd., 1924, 231-233. 46 I had to go inland, i n the old Cariboo stage from Yale. In Nicola Valley, there v/as a small wooden church erected by the Church of Scotland, but f o r some time unoccupied. Por two years I was the only missionary i n t h i s unknown region. Whil-st making Nicola Valley my headquarters, and where I preached occasionally at seven centres, I i t i n -erated and explored every part of the i n t e r i o r . I conducted services i n private houses, school houses, court houses, and along the Praser River from Yale to Cariboo, in seven dif f e r e n t centres; along the Thompson River, from Spence's Bridge to Kamloops, in six centres; up the North Thompson and South Thompson Rivers from Kamloops to Sliuswap, i n eight centres; up the Spallama-chene Valley, from Sicamous to Vernon, i n seven centres; along the Okanagan Valley, from Vernon to the international boundary, east through Grand P r a i r i e and Kettle River Valley, s i x places, and east from Sicamous along the C.P.R. as f a r as Golden, i n ten centres or places; altogether 57 places. In 1886, Reverend J.A.iTaffrey (sic) took charge of Spallamachene Valley. A.H.Cameron came into Donald,- and other centres i n the Kootenay Va l l e y . When the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was com-pleted through to the coast i n 1886, I made my headquarters i n Kamloops. It must not be taken for granted that I conducted Sunday services i n a l l those 57 places. The most of them were con-ducted on week evenings. I owned two or three horses, and invariably went from place to place on horseback. I frequently slept outside, and i n Indian camps. When in Kamloops, from 1887 to 1890, I usually had a student to do the work i n Kam-loops, while I went off exploring and laying foun-dations f o r missions. In winter, when the weather was severe, I remained constantly i n Kamloops, preaching twice on Sunday, and on Sunday a f t e r -noons r i d i n g 13 miles up the North Thompson and preaching i n the school house. In 1887, the f i r s t substantial church and manse of the i n t e r i o r was b u i l t i n Kamloops. The same church i s s t i l l used f o r this prosperous ( s i c ) , This should be "Jaffary". 12 The Kamloops church was much larger than the Nicola church which was b u i l t i n 187P by George Murray of the Church of Scotland. 47 generation. In 1890, af t e r s i x years stren-uous and ef f e c t i v e work, I accepted a c a l l from Scarboro, Ont. As seen from t h i s l e t t e r the time was an epoch making period i n the hist o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The gold rush had brought the f i r s t wave of prosperity, and then a low ebb of depression followed. But everyone looked forward to the coming of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and the better times as a resul t of i t s completion. The time had come in 1885, when that long cherished hope was re a l i z e d . And, as mentioned before, the population increased enormously, immediately from then on. In order to cope with these new conditions, i t was f e l t that there must be a reorganization of the Presbyter-ian Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 4 To investigate the s i t -uation, Dr. Daniel Miner Gordon was sent out by the Gen-15 e r a l Assembly i n 1886. Among other recommendations he advised the formation of the several congregations and missions i n the province into a pr e s b y t e r y . 1 6 Accordingly on the 10 June 1886, the General Assembly of the Presby-terian Church in Canada, created the Presbytery of Colum-bia . 13 This quotation was o r i g i n a l l y written i n 1917. 14 G.A.M., 1885, 24, appendix XXXVI. 15 G.A.M., 1886, appendix XII. Reverend Dr. Daniel Miner Gordon was afterwards P r i n c i p a l of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, 1902-1917. 16 G.A.M., 1886, appendix XIV. 17 G.A.M., 1886, 15, 16. 48 Therefore on the 3 August 1886 the Presbytery of Col-umbia i n connection with the Presbyterian Church i n Canada was constituted and convened i n St. Andrew's Church, New 18 Westminster. In the S t a t i s t i c a l and Fin a n c i a l Returns of the Presbytery of Columbia for the year ending 31 December 1886, the following ministers are represented: Robert Jamieson, B.A., Donald Fraser, M.A., Thomas G. Thomson, Alexander Dunn, Donald MacRae, Alexander T a i t , Thomas Scouler, John A. Chisholm, B.A., and J.A.Jaffary, B.A. 1 9 The following elders also held positions: Alexander McDougall, F i t z g e r a l d McCleery, and Walter Clark. 2 0 This made nine ministers and three elders. Further examination of the s t a t i s t i c s reveals that there were 45 churches and mission stations, 245 communicants (regular members), and 111,024 raised for a l l purposes. 1 9 For the time being, the new presbytery was connected 21 with the Synod of Manitoba and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . . With the opening up of southern Alberta and south-eastern B r i t i s h Columbia, the General Assembly deemed i t advisable to erect a new presbytery, the Presbytery of Calgary, at the prayer of an overture from the Presbytery of Regina. In the minutes of that- General Assembly was found the follow ing very s i g n i f i c a n t paragraph: v On the motion of Mr. James Robertson, second-ed by Mr. James Herdman, the following resolution was adopted: "That the prayer of the Presbytery of Regina be granted, that the General Assembly 18 Minutes of the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1893,18. 19 G.A.M., 1887, App. no. 28, LXXXII, LXXXIII, LXXXIV. 20 G.A.M., 1887, appendix no. 29, XXIII. 21 G.A.M., 1886, 17. 49 hereby erects a new Presbytery to be bounded as follows the eastern l i m i t of said Presby-tery s h a l l be the one hundred and ninth degree of longitude; the southern l i m i t the forty-ninth p a r a l l e l of lati t u d e ; the western l i m i t , a l i n e passing north and south through the western cros-sing of the Columbia River by the Canadian Pac-i f i c Railway; the northern l i m i t , the A r c t i c Sea". Such a vast expanse of t e r r i t o r y revealed the v i s i o n of men l i k e Robertson who devoted a l l they had to the de-velopment of the West.He was the Superintendent of Home missions for the Synod of Manitoba and the North-West Ter-r i t o r i e s , had a hand i n many projects of the Church and his great influence was f e l t throughout the a c t i v i t i e s of the Home Mission Committee. He paid a v i s i t to B r i t i s h Columbia in 1890, and from his l e t t e r s i t appears that he was disappointed with the moral conditions and r e l i g i o u s observance. The i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s of the province showed evidence of great neglect. As a result of t h i s * v i s i t the Columbia Presbytery made a request that his constituency 24 should be extended to include B r i t i s h Columbia. At the General Assembly of the same year th i s was done, and with such good results that- two years l a t e r the Assembly was called upon to erect the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia, con-s i s t i n g of the Presbyteries of Vancouver Island, Westminster, and Kootenay, together with the Presbytery of Calgary. His mission t e r r i t o r y then extended from White River, Ont-ario, to the P a c i f i c . 22 G.A.M., 1887, 61, 62. 23 Gordon, op. c i t . , 239. 24 The above paragraph i s based on Gordon, op. c i t . , 332. See also, McNeill, op. c i t . , 109. 50 The Presbytery of Vancouver Island was to include the adjacent islands; the other two presbyteries shared the remainder of the province. The dividing l i n e between the Presbytery of Westminster and the Presbytery of Kamloops was a l i n e drawn from north to south and passing one mile east of the town of Y a l e . 2 5 Later changes appeared i n the presbyteries. In 1893 the name V i c t o r i a was substituted for Vancouver Island. In 1896 Edmonton Presbytery appears as an offshoot of Cal-gary, and i n 1899, the Presbytery of Kamloops was divided 27 to form the Presbyteries of Kamloops and Kootenay. In 1904 the name of the Synod was changed to Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia and Alberta to conform to the increasing influence of the p r a i r i e province, and so continued u n t i l 1906, when the Synod of Alberta was formed. 2 8 Another change of note came in 1914 when the Cariboo Presbytery was erected OQ mainly from the Presbytery of Kamloops. The Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1914 to 1925 then consisted of f i v e 25 G.A.M., 1892, 18, 19, 51, 52, 53. 26 G.A.M., 1893, 61. 27 G.A.M., 1896, 55. See also, G.A.M., 1899, 44, 45. 28 As early as 1898 the Presbytery of Westminster had the Yukon T e r r i t o r y within i t s boundaries. (Minutes of the Synod of B.C., 1898,5.) "The Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia includes not only the province from which the Synod takes i t s name, but also the Yukon. Alberta, and part of Assiniboia." (G.A.M., 1904, appendix,'4.j See also, G.A.M., 1904, 66, and G.A.M., 1906, 56, 57. 29 G.A.M., 1914, 70. 51 presbyteries, V i c t o r i a , Westminster, Kamloops, Kootenay, and Cariboo. It might be added here that a f t e r 1906 the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia included the Yukon T e r r i t o r y within i t s 28 boundaries. Dr. Robertson made several t r i p s into B r i t i s h Colum-bia, most of them concerning the Kootenay Presbytery. It was his task to keep the mission f i e l d s supplied with mis-sionaries and money for t h e i r s a l a r i e s and grants for the church buildings and manses. It was a case of getting 30 "men and money". For these he made journeys throughout eastern Canada, the eastern States, and the B r i t i s h Isles appealing f o r funds and men to supply the great new country. He was quite successful in securing funds from the B r i -t i s h Isles and of course the General Assembly contributed and borrowed a great deal f o r the work. A number of the undergraduates of the theological colleges used to spend the i r summers i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia doing missionary work under the d i r e c t i o n of Robertson. It was at his i n s t i g a t i o n that men were sent up to the Yukon to minister to the miners. George A. Wilson made his f i r s t t r i p of investigation of the Cariboo f o r Robertson in 1894. The Church and Manse Building Fund was established by the General Assembly on his advice that money could be loaned at low rates to the congregations for t h e i r churches and manses. This i s what Robertson calle d bringing Presbyter-ianism i n Canada into " v i s i b i l i t y and permanence". "30 The information on James Robertson i s based on Gordon, op. c i t . , chapters XXII and XXVI. 52 But he was never s u f f i c i e n t l y supplied, with men or money. The graduates preferred Ontario. They d i s l i k e d the climate of the North-West and the uncertain remuneration. Robertson f e l t that the professors of the theological c o l -leges did not co-operate with him enough i n persuading 31 graduates to go to the new f i e l d s . Nevertheless he car-ried on year a f t e r year with what he had and he could point to great changes throughout the vast country when he l a i d down the reins of o f f i c e a f t e r 21 years. He was aided by l o y a l committees i n securing men and money, but he did the major portion of the work himself, and i t involved a great deal of correspondence and con-t i n u a l t r a v e l l i n g over trying roads. Such a l i f e of hard-ship and worry wore down his health and resulted i n his death on 4 January 1902. 31 Gordon, op. c i t . , 270. 32 G.A.M., 1902, appendix 3,4. CHAPTER VII EXPANSION OF PRESBYTERIANISM IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1884 - 1925 One of the f i r s t moves of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, i n response to the c a l l from B r i t i s h Columbia was to send out four ministers in 1884 and 1885: "Donald Fraser, M.A., to F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a ; John Sutherland McKay, M.A., to St. Andrew's, New Westminster; Thomas G. Thomson, to the North Arm of the Fraser River and Burrard Inlet; and John Chisholm, B.A., to the area in B r i t i s h Columbia from Yale on the Fraser River, to the Rocky Mountains". 1 Thomas G. Thomson was able to celebrate the opening 2 of a new church on Sea Island on Sunday 4 July 1886. Reverend Robert Jamieson and Alexander Dunn had v i s i t e d 1 supra, 45, 46. 2 The whole account of Richmond Presbyterian Church is based on : Session of the Richmond Presbyterian Church, An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of the Richmond Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, L i o n e l Ward and Co., Ltd., 1925, 8-11; Goodfellow, J.C., Some H i s t o r i c Presbyterian Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Commemorative Review of the Metho-d i s t , Presbyterian and Congregational Churches i n B r i -t i s h Columbia, editor E.A.Davis, Vancouver, B.C., Wrigley Publishing Co. Ltd., 1925, 271-276; and G.A.M., Home Mission, Western Section, reports. 53 53 t h i s place regularly as one of t h e i r points of c a l l i n years previous to t h i s . Very shortly a f t e r t h i s on 8 August of the same year, the Presbyterian Church i n Vancouver was ded-icated. Both churches were formed into a single charge and ministered by Thomson. The Richmond congregation of t h i s year was made up of 18 families and the t o t a l membership was 26. The Vancouver congregation had 50 families and a t o t a l membership of 63, but of the two congregations the Richmond was much older since i t had been a mission sta-t i o n under Jamieson and Dunn for years before. But the Vancouver congregation outgrew i t s s i s t e r congregation i n numbers and i n new congregations very shortly. In Richmond two more Presbyterian congregations were inaugurated, one at Steveston i n 1902 and one on South Arm in 1906. In Vancouver the f i r s t congregation had i t s church on Cordova Street, burned by the f i r e of 1886, but very soon had a larger building on the same street but nearer to Main. The present F i r s t Presbyterian Church on Gore Avenue and Hastings Street was b u i l t during the ministry of Reverend George R. Maxwell who succeeded Thomson. This church was unique i n that most of i t s membership moved to other r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y , v/hile t h e i r places were taken by foreigners. Some elements of the population were French-Canadian, American, Dutch, Bel-gian, Jewish, Ruthenian, Colored, L e t t i s h , Finnish, Polish, Serbian, Spanish, Syrian, Icelandic, Chinese, and Japanese. "3 The accounts of F i r s t Church, Vancouver,to Kerrisdale Church are based on Goodfellow, op. c i t . , 277-305. 55 These people did not attend the church as a matter of course. It v/as the problem of the o f f i c i a l s of the church to make i t b e n e f i c i a l to the new residents. In the r e a l i z a t i o n of this task several ministers occupied the p u l p i t , among them being Dr. J.S.Henderson, Reverend A.D.Archibald and Rever-end J . Richmond Craig. Special classes were held for the children such as kindergartens and clubs. To accommodate these classes a Community House was provided on Campbell Avenue and Georgia Street. A fresh a i r camp was also es-tablished at Pircom Point on Gambier Island where some 300 people enjoyed a holiday each year. The money to finance t h i s project was collected by the minister and his s t a f f . On the whole i t was a very u p l i f t i n g work and proved a very material aid to many a poverty-stricken family. Turning again to early Vancouver, i t w i l l be noticed that the population was increasing by leaps and bounds. The Presbyterians of F i r s t Church, f e e l i n g the need of another organization held a meeting on 20 September 1888 with Thomson i n the chair and organized a new congregation ca l l e d St. Andrew's. Ear l y in 1889 the Reverend E.D.McLar-en was inducted as pastor and the building was completed in May, 1890. The Sunday School was b u i l t and opened in September 1904. This building was very modern with spe-c i a l rooms for Sunday School classes and an auditorium. Reverend E.D.McLaren resigned on 1 September 1902 to be-come Secretary to the Home Mission Committee of the General Assembly, which position he held f o r many years. 56 The t h i r d Presbyterian church i n Vancouver known then as Zion Church v/as begun by a group of Presbyterians from Prince Edward Island who l i v e d in the Mount Pleasant d i s -t r i c t . In spite of opposition from Westminster Presbytery they called t h e i r former minister, Reverend J.M.McLeod from Prince Edward Island and established a congregation in 1889. The Westminster Presbytery was opposed to t h i s action f o r they f e l t that the membership was not s u f f i c i e n t to organize a new congregation. However i n the next year Zion Church joined the Presbytery and selected a s i t e f o r a church. On February 19, 1892 they opened t h e i r new church which was situated near the Mount Pleasant Under-taking Parlors. So rapidly did t h i s d i s t r i c t grow that a larger church was necessary and by May 1909 Mount Pleasant Presbyterian Church was erected and completed on the cor-ner of Tenth Avenue and Quebec Street. After church union the name of the church was changed to that of St. Gile's United Church. The west end was also growing rapidly and desired a separate congregation. Accordingly i n 1902 the congrega-t i o n of St. Andrew's sanctioned a d i v i s i o n of i t s e l f to form what was to be St. John's. St. John's Church was a magnificent stone church completed in 1906. A fourth d i s t r i c t was on the south side of False Creek and had been b u i l t up rapi d l y v/ith r e s i d e n t i a l houses and St. Andrew's sought to supply i t with some services. Work began with the establishment of a small Sunday School i n a vacant store. During this- time a small congregation was also commenced and operated u n t i l 1898 when i t became a mission s t a t i o n . It was one of three stations of: Fairview, Central Park, and Port Moody. By 1899 the d i s t r i c t had grown so i n population that a regu-l a r church congregation was formed. The s i t e was secured and a small church was erected on Seventh Avenue near Gran-v i l l e Street. The f i r s t name was Fairview Presbyterian Church but i n 1901 the name was changed to Chalmers Church. The church and congregation continued to grow u n t i l 1911, when i t was decided to erect a larger and modern church. This included, a f i n e auditorium, swimming pool, and other features of a community centre. It is considered now as one of the most up to date churches i n the west and is situated on 12th Avenue and Hemlock Street. S t i l l farther west Vancouver's population spread u n t i l i t reached the K i t s i l a n o Beach. Here on Cornwall and Yew Streets a vacant store was rented in 1906 to accom-modate the nucleus of a congregation. Now the church i s situated on Fourth Avenue opposite the K i t s i l a n o Public School. To the south i n Kerrisdale the r e a l estate boom con-tinued. The Presbyterian congregation began as a mission, in 1910, preached to by a student, but rapi d l y became a A f u l l fledged congregation with a completed church i n 1911.*" 4 Goodfellow, J.C., op. c i t . , 261 - 297. 58 In the Fraser Valley, at the eastern end where the C h i l l iwaofek. d i s t r i c t i s situated, the Presbyterians attended 5 Methodist services. Some l o y a l ones made persistent c a l l s to the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, but not u n t i l a f t e r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was completed did any minister attempt to come. The people were anxious to have a Presby-t e r i a n minister a n d a congregation formed, s o lo s t no time i n erecting a church on 14 a c r e s of property donated by J.C.Henderson. The minister with one catechist supplied Chilliwackjc Rosedale, Island, and Agassiz. In 1889 the Reverend Alexander Dunn returned from Alberni where he had established a mission during the pre-vious three years. This time Dunn returned to the Fraser Valley not to take over the whole f i e l d , but only that on the north side of the r i v e r from Whommock to A g a s B i z i n -7 elusive. This was known as the Mount Lehmann F i e l d . The fourth missionary of the f i r s t group of four Q from the Presbyterian Church i n Canada was John Chisholm. He made his f i r s t headquarters i n Nicola during the va-cancy of George Murray. As mentioned i n his l e t t e r , '5 The account of Chilliwack i s based on G.A.M., 1889, appendix I, XXIV and following yearly Home Mission reports. 6 G.A.M., 1891, appendix 1, XXXVII, XXXVIII. 7 This account i s based on The Western Recorder, October, 1935, 12. 8 The account of the i n t e r i o r and north Okanagan area i s based on Stott, Rev. William, "The Presbyterian Church in the North and Central Okanagan", F i r s t Annual Report of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l and Natural History Society, Vernon, B.C., 10 September 1926, 2 0 - 2 7 . quoted on pages 46, 47, he made exploratory t r i p s into the i n t e r i o r including t r i p s down the Okanagan and i n the Boundary country, l a t e r he established his headquarters in Kamloops and there b u i l t the f i r s t Presbyterian Church, St. Andrew's on two lots obtained from the Canadian Pac-i f i c Railway. Chisholm stayed u n t i l 1890, but before leaving recommended a missionary for the Spallumcheen River v a l l e y . This d i s t r i c t lay between Lake Okanagan and Lake Shuswap. It was the home of Alexander L e s l i e Fortune who was the f i r s t s e t t l e r i n the d i s t r i c t and came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n the gold rush days with the Overland Party. Fortune arrived on the banks of the Spal-lumcheen i n 1866. Here he s e t t l e d , cleared his land, and engaged i n stock farming. Another important occupation of his was having a Sabbath School with the children of the Indian t r i b e neafby. This was the f i r s t form of Presby-terianism ever held i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Just 20 years a f t e r the a r r i v a l of Fortune, the Reverend J.A.Jaffa-ry came out as the f i r s t permanent repre-sentative of the Presbyterians. In the meantime s e t t l e r s had come into the country. J a f f a r y made his headquarters at a place called Landsdowne, about two miles from the present r a i l r o a d town of Armstrong. Landsdowne was moved over to the Canadian P a c i f i c branch l i n e connecting Sica-mous to Okanagan Landing when the r a i l r o a d was b u i l t i n 1891-2. The new town was called Armstrong. Other places preached i n regularly by Jaffary were Enderby, Vernon, 60 Kelowna and nearer points. Jaff a r y stayed u n t i l 1890 during which feime he covered the country hy horsehack. His successor was John Knox Wright and Reverend Paul F . L a n g i l l was chosen f o r Vernon, L a n g i l l undertook to supply Ben-voulin, P o s t i l l ' s Ranch and Vernon. The town of Vernon grew rapidl y as a res u l t of the new r a i l r o a d . In four years the population increased to some 600. Reverend George A. Wilson served Vernon, lumby and Caledonian Va l -ley from 1894-99 during whicht ime St. Andrew's Church was b u i l t free of debt. At.^ Benvoulin Bethel Church was b u i l t i n 1892, and was contributed to by the Presbyterians of Guelph, Ontario. It was christened by Lady Aberdeen who attended the church during her stay i n the country. This took place during the ministry of Reverend L a n g i l l . Knox Church was b u i l t i n Kelowna i n 1897 during the ministry of Reverend R. Boyle. Under Reverend A.W.K. Herdman a ne?/ Knox Church was b u i l t i n 1910. Kelowna be-came a union congregation i n 1916 because, of the e f f o r t s of Reverend Alexander Dunn who believed i n i t deeply. He resigned to l e t the Methodist minister be pastor of the united congregation. In 1911 Armstrong and Enderby became separate charges and i n the same year under the ministry of Reverend Duncan Campbell, St. Andrew's brick church was b u i l t . It was also in Enderby where Alexander Fortune resided and where he died i n 1915 at the age of 85. To commemorate such a fam-ous l i f e a stone monument was erected to his honor in 1924 hy the old timers of the Valley i n co-operation with the Presbytery of Kamloops. Farther to the east Presbyterianism had taken root in a n another be a u t i f u l v a l l e y known as the Columbia, situated between the Rocky Mountains and the S e l k i r k Range. The Columbia Valley was f i r s t v i s i t e d by organized Pres-byterianism i n 1887 when Dr. J.C.Herdman, Superintendent of Missions, and Reverend A.H.Cameron of Donald, B.C., took a t r i p through the upper Columbia region. They t r a -v e l l e d by boat from Golden on the main l i n e of the Cana-dian P a c i f i c Railway to Boat Landing, now known as Winder-mere. They then took ponies to Cranbrook and Galbraith*s Crossing. From here they made t h e i r way across the Rocky Mountains to MacLeod and Lethbridge i n Alberta. This t r i p was made long before the Crow's Nest Pass Railway was put through the mountains. The services held during this t r i p through the East Kootenay were the f i r s t of any Pro-testant denomination. 9 In 1888 A.H.Cameron made another t r i p down the Columbia from Revelstoke in a rowboat. 1 0 Missions and preaching stations soon followed, served and ministered by men under the guiding and resourceful hand of James Robertson the great Superintendent. By 1899 he had the cooperation of the congregations to form the Pres-9" Presbyterian Record, December, 1903. 10 Goodfellow, J.C., op. c i t . , 302-304; 62 bytery of Kootenay. 1 1 One of the very f i r a t Presbyterian missionaries i n the Kootenay country was Reverend A.H.Cameron who was i n charge of a f i e l d along the newly b u i l t main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1886. He had charge of a l l points be-tween and including Donald and Golden. A small church was erected at Donald but l a t e r the headquarters were moved to Revelstoke. Reverend D. Oliver had a roving commission along the Crowsnest railway when i t was b u i l t in 1898 and Reverend A. Dunn, B.A., was stationed at Fernie. At t h i s time Fort Steele was a prosperous mining town but i t soon was overtaken in size and importance by Cranbrook. This town had hardly begun when the f i r s t Presbyterian services were held i n a hotel there i n July 1898. In 1906 a new church was dedicated by Dr. C.W. Gordon (Ralph Connor) and the former church b u i l t i n 1898-9 was used for the Sabbath School. In 1925 the majority of the congregation voted to continue Presbyterian and the minority joined the Metho-d i s t s . The United Church then b u i l t one of the f i n e s t and best equipped churches i n the i n t e r i o r f o r the sum of 40,000 d o l l a r s . The southern part of the Kootenay region developed because of several factors. One of the f i r s t of these was the completion of the Northern P a c i f i c Railway in the United States i n 1883. In order to gain access to t h i s 11 Minutes of the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1892 and 1899. 63 l i n e f o r t h e d i s t r i c t a p o r t o f e n t r y was e s t a b l i s h e d a t R y k e r t s . A g r i c u l t u r e was d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 1893 when some 8000 a c r e s o f f l a t l a n d s were d y k e d . T h i s was n e a r what i s now c a l l e d C r e s t o n . F u r t h e r i m p e t u s was g i v e n t o de-v e l o p m e n t when t h e Crow's N e s t l i n e was c o m p l e t e d i n 1898 and a G r e a t N o r t h e r n B r a n c h l i n e f i n i s h e d by 1900. Lumber-i n g a n d - f r u i t g r o w i n g s o o n became i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e K o o t e n a y and M o y i e v a l l e y s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 2 W i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w i n g M e t h o d i s t and P r e s b y t e r i a n s e r v i c e s were s t a r t e d a t M o y i e . R e v e r e n d A l e x a n d e r Dunn r e p r e s e n t e d t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h a t M o y i e i n 1900. O t h e r p o i n t s i n c l u d i n g Sandon and C r e s t o n were i n t h e c h a r g e . A c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d i n M o y i e i n 1908 and C r e s t o n was made a s e p a r a t e c h a r g e . U n d e r R e v e r e n d T.G.McLeod, S t . S t e p h e n ' s C h u r c h was b u i l t i n C r e s t o n . Numerous o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s s p r a n g up and became m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e v a l l e y s o f t h e K o o t e n a y and B o u n d a r y c o u n t r y . B u t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o k e e p them s u p p l i e d f o r r e a s o n s g i v e n p r e v i o u s -l y . (See pages 51, 52.) The n e x t g r e a t r e g i o n t o be r e o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n Canada was t h e Cariboo." A c t u a l l y i t was i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e bounds o f W e s t m i n s t e r a n d Kamloops P r e s b y t e r y but no m i s s i o n a r i e s f r o m t h e P r e s b y t e r -12 G o o d f e l l o w , J.C., The C o n f e r e n c e H i s t o r i c a l Page, C r e s t o n , The W e s t e r n R e c o r d e r , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., F e b r u a r y , 1937, 12. 13 The a c c o u n t o f t h e C a r i b o o i s b a s e d on W i l s o n , G.A., The H i s t o r y o f Home M i s s i o n s on t h e C a r i b o o , MS., and G o o d f e l l o w , J . C . , B a r k e r v i l l e , The W e s t e r n R e c o r d e r , A p r i l , 1936, 12. 64 ian Church had v i s i t e d i t since the days of Daniel Duff i n 1865. Beverend George Murray t r a v e l l e d as f a r as Clinton in the 1870's. But i t was not u n t i l 1892 that d e f i n i t e action was taken towards supplying t h i s needy f i e l d . This was undertaken by James Robertson who appointed George A. Wilson to investigate the f i e l d and f i n d out i t s needs i n 1894. He spent three months i n the country, going as f a r north as B a r k e r v i l l e , as f a r west as Hance-v i l l e i n the C h i l c o t i n country, and as f a r east as Horse-f l y . Wilson found a church already b u i l t by the people of Quesnel, who were supplied f i r s t . B a r k e r v i l l e was included in t h i s charge u n t i l 1902. The next great event i n t h i s country was the a r r i v a l of the Grand Trunk Railway. New centres of population sprang up. Some of them were growing and speculating be-fore the r a i l r o a d was b u i l t near them such as the r i v a l towns of Fort George and South Fort George. Gambling, drunkeness and p r o s t i t u t i o n were r i f e u n t i l the r a i l r o a d avoided them both and Prince George was established as i t s s t a t ion. Two ministers, C.M.Wright and A.C.Justice were settled at these points to supply the population. There were then between 1910 and 1914 some four min-is t e r s in the Cariboo: Reverend W. Stott at Quesnel, P.T.Pilkey at Fort Fraser, 170 miles away and the two men at Fort George. Stott, on the east side of the Fraser attended the meetings of the Kamloops Presbytery at great expense to the treasury f o r the long t r i p . The others on the west side of the Fraser attended the meetings of West-minster Presbytery, also at great expense to the treasury of the Presbytery. To overcome these great distances a new Presbytery of the Cariboo was created for the conven-ience of the missionaries in t h i s d i s t r i c t i n 1914 by the General Assembly. It consisted of the congregations of Quesnel, Fort Fraser, Fort George and the mission f i e l d s of South Fort George, McBride, Tete Jaune Cache, and B a r k e r v i l l e . It also included the Peace River land d i s -t r i c t . The ministers and missionaries could hold pres-bytery meetings at less t r a v e l l i n g expense. It was expect-ed that as the .population grew many new congregations would be established and thus make the attendance at the Presbytery approach that of the other presbyteries. But i n t h i s year of 1914 the Great War broke out i n Europe, causing a tremendous upset in the economic con-ditions ot the world. As a result a l l building and de-velopment i n the Cariboo stopped and business declined for many years. Soon a f t e r Reverend G.A.Wilson explored the Cariboo i n 1894 gold was discovered i n the gravel bottoms of the 14 creeks flowing into the Yukon River. It was m the sum-mer of 1897 that the eyes of the c i v i l i z e d world were turned i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Very soon thousands migrated from t h e i r countries towards the gold f i e l d s of the north. Many embarked- f o r the new land from Seattle and Vancouver. Ti The account of the Yukon i s based on Pringle, G.C.F., The Western Recorder, A p r i l 1937, 12; 66 While watching the t r a f f i c on the wharves of the Port of Vancouver, James Robertson, the Superintendent of Western Missions f o r Canada determined that something else f o r the soul besides rum and gambling should be provided. Four missionaries were sent to the Yukon before the end of 1898. B.M.Dickey set out i n the f a l l of 1897 and commenced work at Skagway. Dr. A.S.Grant followed, leaving Vancouver on the 17 January 1898, and by February was at work at Lake Bennett where he b u i l t a church --"A wooden frame covered with tenting." He then made his way down the Yukon River to Dawson. John Pringle l e f t in March 1898 f o r Fort Wrangell, drawing his sl e i g h with 400 pounds of supplies up the Stikine River to Glenora, 150 miles, and began to work at Glenora and Telegraph Creek. Dr. Grant's medical t r a i n i n g was a great help in the north, where there was so much sickness. Nurses from the newly organized V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses were also sent north by the women of the Presbyterian Church. The f i r s t wing of the Good Samaritan ho s p i t a l was opened i n June 1898, with Miss Smith as f i r s t matron. The f i r s t services i n Dawson were held i n a sawmill u n t i l St. Andrew's log church and manse were completed. After Dr. Grant withdrew i n 1900, he was succeeded by Reverend J.J.Wright under whose ministry a h a l l and reading room were provided. In 1901 Dr. Grant again became pastor for seven years as well as physician and public benefactor. Under his leadership, a f i n e church was erected in 1901, 67 which seated 600 people. Later a pipe organ was i n s t a l l e d and a large manse was b u i l t . The brothers John and George Pringle did splendid work i n the busy communities where the mining camps were located. Reverend George Pringle had his headquarters i n a 10 by 12 foot log cabin at Gold Bottom, 20 miles up the 15 r i v e r from Dawson, from 1901 to 1910. During the f i r s t few years of his mission six creek churches were b u i l t . John Pringle spent the f i r s t few years of his minis-t r y i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia i n A t l i n and other points. Here were located 1200 miners i n 1898 and there was much need of medical and hospital a i d . By his l e t t e r s the women of St. Andrew's Church, Toronto were aroused to form the A t l i n Nurse Committee. Through t h e i r e f f o r t s the need was supplied while Pringle and the miners: provided the buildings. (See Chapter on Women's V/ork). John Pringle l e f t this f i e l d i n 1901 and tr a v e l l e d by boat down the Yukon River to Dawson. Twelve miles up the Yukon from Dawson he established his mission at the Forks. In th i s f i e l d were two of the richest gold-bearing creeks i n the Klondyke -- Bonanza and Eldorado. In 1902 he b u i l t a frame church at the Forks, where he remained u n t i l 1908. After 1910 the population of the Yukon gold f i e l d s quickly declined. The gravels did not contain enough gold 15 George C F . P r i n g l e was ordained at Dawson on the 13 August 1902, which was the most northerly ordination of any minister. 68 to make i t pay by the pick and shovel method of mining. Only hydraulic and dredging methods requiring large c a p i t a l mining companies could operate p r o f i t a b l y and these did not require a large population. This resulted i n the disa-ppearance of the glorious old Stampede days. The Presbyterian Church in Canada had provided some-thing worthwhile i n the l i v e s of the men who during t h i s period were cut off from the c i v i l i z e d world. They were exposed i n the Yukon to very degrading influences. The church offered an avenue of escape and companionship with likeminded people who were interested i n u p l i f t i n g the community rather than destroying i t s morale. With the decline of population missionary e f f o r t s of the Presbyterian Church in Canada were turned to other places. These soon appeared i n the form of the camps along the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia. The story of the coast i s t o l d i n the next chapter. J A M E S R O B E R T S O N , D . D . V CHAPTER VIII MISSIONS Many of the regular congregations i n B r i t i s h Columbia at f i r s t were mission stations, points of c a l l f o r some itin e r a n t missionary. With the increase of population at these points a mission station graduated into what was call e d an "augmented" congregation, which meant that they were nearly self-supporting, while a mission s t a t i o n might be p a r t l y or non-self-supporting. The f u l l y grown-up stage, which every missionary strove f o r was the s e l f -supporting congregation. It f e l l upon the Home Mission Committee of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada to provide the funds for the remainder of the expenses. The needs of the Home Mission f i e l d s i n a young and sparsely set-t l e d province were always greater than the funds of the church could supply, therefore i t was necessary that a mission f i e l d become self-supporting as soon as p o s s i b l e . 1 Conditions prevented the missionary charges on the Coast from ever entering the self-supporting c l a s s . The stations were fo r the most part logging camps and canner-1 Pringle, G.C.E., Home Missions, Commemorative Review of the Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, editor E.A.Davis, Vancouver, B.C., Wr'igley Publishing Co., Ltd., 1925, 73. 69 X 70 ies made up of men speaking di f f e r e n t languages and be-l i e v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s . Labor not being continu-ous they were constantly on the move to diff e r e n t camps or to the p r a i r i e s and back again to some new place near or on the coast. In those years before the Great War there must have been some 6000 men near the tide-waters of the coast. With such circumstances as t h i s a perman-ent self-supporting congregation with permanent o f f i c i a l s and members could not be expected. Exceptions to th i s might be made where the industry had become permanent as i n Powell River or Ocean P a l l s where the populations grew and the congregations were s e t t l e d . But the other camps were missionary charges and therefore continued to lean on the support of the Church missionary funds. Missionary work on the coast began i n 1903, when Reverend W.J.Kidd was appointed to v i s i t the logging camps and hold preaching services and converse with the men. The biggest d i f f i c u l t y in a work of th i s kind was to se-cure regular transportation. The f i r s t year's work was done by using the old S.S.Cassiar, but i t proved too i r -regular. The next year an Indian dug-out was used but i t was too hazardous so a large row boat was bought and by i t a l l the camps of Jervis Inlet were v i s i t e d i n the year 1904. After a year spent i n A t l i n , Kidd resumed the coast work, but th i s time he had a gasoline launch and his bro-ther to a s s i s t him with the result that much more e f f i c i e n t work was accomplished and at greater comfort. Kidd was then calle d upon to e s t a b l i s h a Presbyterian charge i n Prince Rupert and others took up the coast work. Alexander MacAulay, from Pictou County, JTova Scotia took up t h i s task i n 1907 and pushed forward i n a most ef f e c t i v e manner. This was due i n great part to his person-a l i t y and his reminiscences. Every l a s t man i n camp would gather into the bunk-house or cook-house to hear him. An-other great a t t r a c t i o n about him was his singing a b i l i t y e s p e c i a l l y when accompanied by his wife and daughter. This type of thing was greatly appreciated by the men who were so isolated and cut off from many of the ordin-ary comforts of c i v i l i z a t i o n . MacAulay was succeeded by Burgess i n 1912 who was assisted by a young medical stu-dent. Then Dr. James Wallace took i t over in.1914, sup-p l i e d with a large new boat, but he abandoned the work to go overseas i n the autumn of the same year. During the years of the Great War, 1914-1918, there was no one i n the f i e l d . A fter the War was over the Home Mission Committee searched f o r a suitable man to prosecute the work of the coast again. The best man that could be found was Rever-end George C.JT.Pringle. His past experience i n the Yukon and as a chaplain i n the array q u a l i f i e d him splendidly for the task. At the time of the c a l l , Mr. Pringle was in Edinburgh, with s a t i s f a c t o r y prospects i n Scotland, but he remembered the West and the Klondike t r a i l s which lured him back to Canada by September 1920 with his wife 72 and children. His t e r r i t o r y on the coast was, "f o r t y miles out from Vancouver, commencing at Welcome Pass, along the mainland and i n l e t s upcoast i n salt water as f a r as you think i t wise to go". His means of t r a v e l were i n a very unseaworthy motor boat and as the f i r s t t r i p was made in storms, fog, and snow i t was never forgotten. During the years that followed he proved himself a most apt and co-operative worker. Besides the camps he v i s i t e d the set-t l e r s of the coast, whose l i v e s were f i l l e d with hardships. They worked a l i f e t i m e of strenuous labor to clear a few acres of the primeval woodland. Being so f a r from the larger centres of population, medical help was also d i f -f i c u l t to secure. These conditions made i t very hard to raise a family properly. To these people he brought a cheering message and such material comforts as he could urge those i n better circum-stances to contribute. It was not long before he had lend-ing l i b r a r i e s of books and magazines c i r c u l a t i n g . He placed a l i b r a r y of 75 books i n each of the 14 one-roomed schools of his t e r r i t o r y . Ordinary magazines and general l i t e r a t u r e were placed at the disposal of the men i n the camps. Amongst thi s was placed a p l e n t i f u l supply of re-l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e . The purpose of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e was to 2 Pringle, G.C.E., In Great Waters, Wesley Buildings, To-ronto, Issued for the Board of Home Missions of the United Church of Canada, by the Committee on l i t e r a t u r e , General P u b l i c i t y and Missionary Education of the United Church of Canada, E.C.Stephenson, Secretary Young People's Missionary Education, 1928, 36. A l l the work on Coast missions i s based on G.C.37. Pringle's a r t i c l e s . 73 combat the hal f - t r u t h s and embittered propaganda which was very prevalent at t h i s time i n the camps. The work was greatly assisted when a new boat, b u i l t s p e c i a l l y f o r mission work was provided i n 1922 by the Home Mission Committee. The name of the boat was "Sky P i l o t " and i t s home port was Vananda on Texada Island. Conditions were greatly improved as a result of t h i s provision. INDIAN MISSIONS The work of the Presbyterian Church among the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia was confined p r a c t i c a l l y to the west coast of Vancouver Island. In 1891 Reverend John A. Mac-Donald, B.A., was sent to B r i t i s h Columbia. After some weeks of exploration i n 1892, he decided that the most suitable place at which to e s t a b l i s h a mission was Alberni; b e a u t i f u l l y situated at the head of Alberni Canal, which penetrated to the heart of the I s l a n d . 3 Here work was begun among two neighboring t r i b e s , the Seshahts and Opitchesahts. A day school was begun and taught by the missionary's s i s t e r Minnie MacDonald. F a i l -ing health soon compelled her to abandon the work. It was soon found that boarding schools were f a r bet-ter for Indian children than day schools. This was because of the frequent roving of the Indian bands, which depended upon seasonal occupations. Their occupations varied greatly. Some of them were whale and seal hunting, f i s h i n g , and hop 3 G.A.M., 1892, appendix 11, XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV. 74 picking i n Oregon and Washington. As a consequence the children could not attend regularly. Boarding schools over-came most of th i s d i f f i c u l t y since the children stayed for several months i n the school and the teachers had more op-portunity to t r a i n and teach. It meant that the children had continual surveillance and closer contact with modern c i v i l i z a t i o n and better morals. [ The beginning of the second year witnessed the open-ing of a school for g i r l s , which was soon enlarged to i n -clude boys also. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Alexander McKee 4 boys were taught the rudiments of farming and buil d i n g . Owing to i l l health MacDonald r e t i r e d i n 1893. He was succeeded by Melvin Swartout, who with his wife and two children arrived at Alberni on 17 February 1894. Swartout became p r o f i c i e n t i n the native languages, and early i n 1895 se t t l e d at Ucluelet, where McKee hadpreced-6 ""' ed him. A day school was opened, conducted f i r s t by the missionary, then J.W.Rus3ell and afterwards by E l i z a b e t h May Armstrong. In 1896 Swartout opened a mission at Dodger's Gove, among the Ohiats, and continued there u n t i l 1899, when the a r r i v a l of McKee l e f t him free to begin work at other points. His work consisted i n holding services in a l l the vi l l a g e s on both sides of Barclay Sound and Alberni Canal, which services were well attended and much appreciated by 4 G.A.M,, 1895, appendix 13; LXXXV. ' : 5 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 11; 1XXXVI, 1XXVII, LXXVIII. 6 G.A.M., 1895, appendix 13; LXXVI. 75 the Indians. Many obstacles had to be contended with such as i l l i c i t l i quor t r a f f i c , heathen customs, licentiousness, gambling and potlatches. The missionary often found him-se l f opposing whites, who considered themselves respectable, in hie f i g h t for the Indians against the t r a f f i c . Against 7 a l l these Swartout made considerable headway. On 10 July 1904, he started out alone i n his l i t t l e s a i l boat to v i s i t a v i l l a g e along the coast. There was a strong head wind blowing against which he had to tack, and the waves were increasing. It was his l a s t voyage. Three months afterwards his body was discovered among the d r i f t -wood and the kelp. The boat was also found broken to pieces on the rocks. 8 A big comber or s p e c i a l l y f i e r c e gust of wind had swamped the boat and caused him to lose his l i f e . With heroic devoted s p i r i t Mrs. Swartout and Miss Swartout, 9 his daughter, carried on the work at Ucluelet u n t i l 1908. The f i r s t matron of the Alberni home was Eli z a b e t h L i s t e r , who died a f t e r a few months of devoted s e r v i c e . 1 0 Thereafter Miss McGregor and Maggie Minnes "held the f o r t " u n t i l the appointment i n 1893 of Miss B e l l a Isola Johnston. In t h i s way others continued to b u i l d upon the foundations already l a i d u n t i l August 1899, when J.R. and Mrs. Motion were appointed p r i n c i p a l and matron with Miss Smith and 7 G.A.M., 1896, appendix 6; LXXXIV, LXXXV, LXXXVI. 8 G.A.M., 1905, appendix 173, 174. 9 G.A.M., 1905, appendix 173, 174. 10 G.A.M., 1893, appendix 13, XC, XCI, XCII, &CIII,XCIV. Mrs. K. Cameron as teachers. In 1905 Motion was able to report 48 pupils, and that a small church had been erected near the school, to which ad-ditions had been made. 1 2 The Assembly Minutes for 1910 and following years make frequent reference to the scourge of tuberculosis; and during the war years to "influenza". J. Hendry was in charge in 1910, and succeeding him H.B.Currie, 1911-14; A. Russell, 1915-19; H.B.Currie, 1919-25. In 1918 the school was burned down, and r e b u i l t the following year. Since 1928 Reverend and Mrs. F.S.Pitts were i n charge. Women's Missionary Society reports reveal splendid progress since Union. But unfortunately the school was again burned at the beginning of 1937. Another branch of the Indian missionary work was car-r i e d on at Ahousat. This was a f i s h i n g v i l l a g e on the south-east coast of Flores Island, Clayoquot Sound, with a pop-ul a t i o n in 1934 of 250. Although the Ahousahts were v i s i t e d by the Catholic Fathers, J . Seghers and A.J.Brabant, i n 1874, the work of the Presbyterian Church was not begun u n t i l 1895. In May of that year J.W.Russell went to Ucluelet to re l i e v e Swart-out f o r seven months. During his stay there Russell began building a school house. Just before i t s completion i n December Russell and his wife were appointed to Ahousat. Indians s t i l l l i v i n g there remember the v i s i t of Swartout, " i l G.A.M., 1900, appendix 154, 155, 156. : 12 G.A.M., 1905, appendix 173, 174. 13 G.A.M., 1896, appendix 6; LXXXIV, LXXXV, LXXXVI. 77 and the a r r i v a l of Russell and his wife i n 1895. In spite of many d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered, drinking, gambling, immorality, potlatches, superstitions and medicine men, and the frequent movings of a f i s h i n g population a home was b u i l t , the lower part of which was reserved for a school. By 1901 progress i n 14 several directions was reported." A new house had been b u i l t , the school remodelled, Miss J.McNeill added to the s t a f f , and Reverend Thomas Oswald appointed to Nootka, where 450 Indians had long desired an appointment. ° The Reverend and Mrs. J.C.Butchart succeeded i n 1903. With the aid of a Government grant, a new boarding school was b u i l t by John T.Ross, missionary at Dodger's Creek. This was in 1904. He was a p r a c t i c a l builder and completed the work with l o c a l help. The Reverend J. L . M i l l a r took charge i n 1906, his s i s t e r acting as assistant matron. John T. Ross followed in 1910 to 1917. He was succeeded by Hugh Vanderveen, formerly of Ucluelet, in October 1917, and in A p r i l of the following 17 year the school was burned. It i s supposed that the Indian children burned the schools. Their mentality i s very low and possibly a diff e r e n t type of d i s c i p l i n e or more frequent vaca-tions would have avoided such an incident. Ross was again i n 18 charge of building the new school that same year, 1918. It was b u i l t under the auspices of the Women's Missionary Society. llhen the school was reopened, Reverend J.L. M i l l a r was re-appointed as p r i n c i p a l with Mrs. 14 G.A.M., 1901, appendix 163, 164. ~ 15 G.A.M., 1901, appendix 163, 164. 16 G.A.M., 1904, appendix 173, 174. 17 G.A.M., 1918, appendix 41, 50. 18 G.A.M., 1919, appendix 42, 52. 78 19 M i l l a r as teacher. He continued i n charge u n t i l 1928, when Reverend and Mrs. W.R.Wood took over the work. Rev-erend and Mrs. J.Jones were appointed i n 1929 and a re s t i l l i n charge. In the schools for the Indians along the Alberni 20 Ganal and Ahousat a very p r a c t i c a l education was given. Reading and writing of Engl i s h were given special attention. Much time was given to Bible study and the Catechism. The boys learned the rudiments of woodworking and farming while the g i r l s were taught in the home to do housework. They could also make bread, can f r u i t , and care for milk and butter. During the recent years there was an improvement i n the health of the Indians due to better observation of the health r u l e s . During the years a large number of white people, set-t l e r s and fishermen mostly, came into the d i s t r i c t and scattered along the coast. These were ministered to along with the aborigines. In 1920, the church recognizing the need of a special man for whites, appointed C.E.Motte, then a student giving part time. Shortly before union Motte was presented with a 36 foot gasoline launch c a l l e d the "Broadcaster" for use in that part of the coast. And so i t came about that the Presbyterians were enabled to present two boats to the Marine Missions at the Union of 1925. The Marine Missions i s the name under which the coast work acts for the United Church of Canada. 19 G.A.M,, 1919, appendix 42, 52. 20 G.A.M., 1902, 188, 189. 79 CHINESE MISSIONS Mission work of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, also extended to the Chinese of the province. The Chinese came with the e a r l i e s t gold-seekers, i n 1858. Por a time, they were unnoticed, as they clung to the poor and discard-ed workings, being content with small but irre g u l a r returns. In 1864, about 2000 were in the two colonies. Ten years l a t e r , there were over 990 Chinese mining i n the Cariboo. Already the agita t i o n against them had commenced. Never-theless, t h e i r numbers continued to increase. The l e g i s -lature stated, i n 1879, that the Chinese population was then about 6000. The contractors f o r the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, aft e r they had exhausted every reasonably available source of white labour, imported more than 6000 Chinese f o r the work. After the completion of railway construction, the P i competition of these people was severely f e l t . • The c i t y of V i c t o r i a seemed to be t h e i r rendezvous i n the early years. So, i t i s i n V i c t o r i a , that the f i r s t e f f o r t s were made by the Presbyterian Church to reach them. Upon a request from the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Foreign Mission Committee, Western D i v i s i o n , of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, i n 1892, sent out the Reverend A.B.Win-chester, B.A., of B e r l i n , Ontario, a former missionary to China, to V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. He was instructed 21 Howay, Judge F.W., B r i t i s h Columbia, The Making of a Province, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1928, 262, 263. 80 to investigate on his way to V i c t o r i a , the Chinese mission work as carried on at San Francisco, that he might p r o f i t 22 thereby i n the prosecution of his work i n V i c t o r i a . He reported of his findings i n San Francisco and Port-land, Oregon, that the one d i f f i c u l t y i n the implanting of the gospel i n the hearts of these Orientals, was th e i r i t i n e r a t i n g and nomadic habits, caused by t h e i r necessity to depend on seasonal work. V i c t o r i a was no exception. He found that no fi x e d congregation could be maintained, be-cause of the majority of the Chinese pursuing t h e i r occupa-t i o n i n the numerous salmon canneries. Further d i f f i c u l t y was met v/ith i n his being unable to converse or preach to them i n the Cantonese c o l l o q u i a l , which a l l of them spoke and understood. Consequently, the Foreign Mission Committee appointed C.A.Colman as a helper to Winchester. Colman could speak 23 Cantonese, and steps were taken to hold a campaign. A theatre was rented i n China town, but a f t e r the f i r s t few services the audiences soon dwindled. A boy's day Bchool was attempted but ended i n f a i l u r e . The only thing that was a success, was the Chinese evening school. This was largely due to the fact that English was taught there, and the Chinese found i t greatly to t h e i r advantage to learn English, even though they must l i s t e n to the white man's gospel, his hymns, and his catechism. Teachers v/ere secured 22 G.A.M., 1892, append x 11, 1LXI. 23 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 11, IJDCI. 81 from volunteer members of the c i t y congregations and i t was upon t h e i r somewhat unsteady cooperation that the missionary 24 depended. It was the Chr i s t i a n Endeavor Societies, which supplied the teachers, and i n 1894, Winchester reported, four of these in Vancouver operating four Chinese schools, f i v e nights a week. In New Westminster there were three, and one each i n V i c t o r i a , 2 5 U n i o n (Cumberland), Nelson and K a s l o . 2 6 In 1894 Winchester embarked for Canton, there to study Cantonese at the American Chinese Presbyterian College. He also was looking f o r a Ch r i s t i a n Chinese worker. This he found i n the person of Ng Mon Hing, who returned to V i c t o r i a with Winchester on 27 March 1895. 2 7 Mon Hing's duties were to preach and evangelize as d i r e c t -ed and to as s i s t the missionary to learn the language. Ng. Mon Hing continued i n the Chinese Presbyterian work i n B r i -t i s h Columbia f o r many years. His name appears for the last time as Chinese missionary i n Vancouver i n the 1918 report. He was with Winchester i n V i c t o r i a u n t i l 1902. He then spent a few years i n Toronto. In 1910 he was back i n Vancouver and stayed at the work there u n t i l 1917. He made frequent t r i p s to other points i n B r i t i s h Columbia, bringing the gospel to the Chinese. One of the points v i s -ited annually were the canneries along the Praser. In 24 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 11, LXXII, LXXIII. 25 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 11, LXXII, LXXIII. 26 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 11, LXXII, LXXIII. 27 G.A.M., 1895, appendix 13, LXXII. 82 1895 Winchester reports as follows: From New Westminster to the mouth of the ri v e r there are about t h i r t y canneries. About 3000 Chinese stay here during the canning sea-son. If anyone v/ould l i k e to see what the world would be l i k e without r e l i g i o n to re s t r a i n , refine and soften human hearts, he might get a hint of i t along the banks of the Fraser i n the summer months. Here i s a world i n miniature. B r i t i s h , French, German, American, Swede, Rus-sian, Indian, Japanese, Chinese, are a l l there — a heterogeneous mass gangrened by vice of every name. We v i s i t e d d a i l y from house to house, i . e . , boarding houses, gambling dens, opium j o i n t s , stores, etc., and addressed groups of men where-ver we could reach them. Even here we found some evidently glad to hear the gospel, and some whom, we believe, the Lord had quickened. Two brothers -- storekeepers -- are Chr i s t i a n at heart, but dare not speak t h e i r f a i t h l e s t they be persecuted and lose a l l . One keeper of a gambling den was f a i r l y mad with rage against us and abused Mr. Ng by v i l e s t invective. He went i n and brought out a shot-gun as i f he meant to use i t on us. Then the two brothers already referred to stepped forward and said there must be no more of t h i s . "These honoured teachers", said they, "have come only for our good and we w i l l not hear them insulted a f t e r t h i s manner." One man pulled out of his bosom a well-thumbed New Testament and reverently handled and spoke of i t as his inviolable treasure. On the whole, th i s department of our work seems most d i f f i c u l t and f r u i t l e s s . 28 It was the same i n a l l parts of the province — an unbroken wall of opposition. Winchester i n his report of 1897 attributes i t to anti-Chinese propaganda of the P a c i f i c Slope. This was carried on in the public press, and i n the labor union meetings., even the P r o v i n c i a l Legislature could hardly pass a b i l l without an anti-Chinese clause. Cases i n large numbers came to his notice of Chinese b r u t a l l y and i n some cases seriously injured, and that 28 G.A.M., 1896, appendix 6, LXXXII, LXXXIII. absolutely without cause. Furthermore C h r i s t i a n i t y Borbid the v/orship of ances-tors, v/hich excluded many of the virtuous and p a t r i o t i c Chinese. Also opposition came from Chinese Highbinders, gamblers, opium dealers and brothel-managers because the missionary was against t h e i r wicked ways. For the f i r s t three years there were no baptisms to report, the fourth year only one, the f i f t h year eleven 29 baptisms. On 22 January 1899 the F i r s t Presbyterian Chinese Church of V i c t o r i a wag authorized by the Presby-30 tery of V i c t o r i a . The work i n t h i s c i t y continued apace. In 1910 a new Chinese Public School v/as opened fo r day 31 and night work. A h a l l had been used f o r the Chinese meetings for many years but i n the 1922 report, a new church had been erected, with auditorium^gymnasium, dressing rooms, kitchen, class rooms, and a home f o r ""•2 young men.*" Over $1200 was subscribed by the Chinese for i t s erection. 12 families and 27 young men constituted the membership and at a communion, 46 members were pre-sent. The Sunday School had 7 teachers and o f f i c e r s and 30 pupils; the night school 3 teachers and 57 pupils; the kindergarten, 2 teachers and 30 pupils, and the Music Class, 8 pupils. There was also a Women's Mission-ary Society and a Young Men's Chri s t i a n Association. 29 G.A.M., 1897, appendix 187. 30 G.A.M., 1899, appendix 173. 31 G.A.M., 1910, appendix 139. 32 G.A.M., 1922, appendix 125. The Chinese of Vancouver provided a h a l l rent free for Chinese Presbyterian services i n 1921. In the 1925 report, the enrollment was 58 members i n the church and 70 in the Sunday School. Work was also carried on at Cumberland since 1895, but progress could not be reported because of continuous opposition from Chinese secret s o c i e t i e s . Nevertheless L.W.Hall who labored there among t h e i r sick from 1895 to 1909 could report some appreciation. The work for the most part was carried on by many volunteer workers at different points throughout the province. But some mention should be made of outstanding leaders i n the work. Reverend A.B.Winchester, B.A. worked i n V i c t o r i a u n t i l 1900. He was succeeded by the Reverend Archibald Ewing i n 1902, and assisted by Caroline Gunn and Naa Seung. In 1910 L.W.Hall of Cumberland took over the work i n V i c -t o r i a , assisted by Leung Mooi Fong. A l i c e Cronkhite be-gan at V i c t o r i a i n 1918, on the retirement of H a l l and with Reverend Leung i n charge. Mrs. K. McQueen assisted from 1918 to 1924. C.A.Colman, who could speak Cantonese f l u e n t l y , commenced the Chinese work i n Vancouver i n 1893. He was connected with t h i s work u n t i l 1910. Mr. Ng Mon Hing was used i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Toronto and Cumber-land, but spent his l a t e r years i n Vancouver (1910-1917). BAST IKDIA35T3 The Foreign Mission Committee was also able to send missionaries among the East Indians or Sikhs of the prov-ince. These missionaries weTeimen who had spent the most of t h e i r l i v e s i n India or Trinidad and knew Punjabi, which was the language of the East Indians dwelling i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Some of the missionaries who worked among the In-dians were Dr. K.J.Grant, of Trinidad, who began i n 1914, Reverend W.L.McRae, of Trinidad who began i n V i c t o r i a i n 33 1915. He spent many years working among them. In 1916, Grant was joined by Jagat Singh. Others who assisted during the years were Reverend A.P.liedingham of India, P h i l i p Buttam Singh, and i n 1922 Dr. W.A.Wilson. This work consisted mainly i n v i s i t i n g the East Indians and conversing with them i n Punjabi on topics of r e l i g i o n . This required much t r a v e l l i n g as they were 34 widely scattered over the province. The night school in V i c t o r i a , taught English and was an a t t r a c t i o n . But they did not respond. They based t h e i r judgment of C h r i s t i a n i t y , upon the treatment they had received from the white man. They wanted f u l l p r i v i l e g e s of a B r i t i s h subject in Canada and no r e s t r i c t i o n s upon immi-gration, since they were also B r i t i s h Subjects. They were 33 G.A.M., 1914, appendix 49. See also, G.A.M., 1915, appendix 52. 34 G.A.M., 1918, appendix 41. 35 G.A.M., 1917, appendix 17. 86 embittered over the Komagata Maru a f f a i r of May 1914. This shipload of Hindu would-be immigrants were not allowed to land. This among other things prejudiced them, and i n a few years they raised t h e i r Sikh temple i n Vancouver. But the missionaries continued and persevered. The Japanese Christians were fo r the most part i n the f o l d of the Methodist church. So the non-Anglo-Saxon missionary work of the Presbyterian Church in Canada was mostly to the Indians, Chinese, and Hindus. Some atten-t i o n was also paid to the Ital i a n s i n Vancouver. It would be unfai r to close t h i s chapter, without reference to the valuable and continuous aid rendered to the Indian mission work of Canada by the Women's Mission-ary Society. This society carried on an aggressive campaign for years to supply the missions with many of the necessi-t i e s needed. 36 G.A.M., 1918, appendix 41. y& c «./} e A~ J o e o{ A e c 0 u *7 f f ( * * v i a <p*>f~u. M+fi/ CHAPTER IX THE CONTRIBUTION OP THE WOMEN During the la s t 50 years a group of women's organiza-tions for church work grew up i n a l l congregations. The Ladies' Aid was one category of these organiza-tions which never extended farther than the congregation.. There was no nation wide constitution to govern them, as they were l o c a l l y directed and limited only by working and a s s i s t i n g the sessions and boards of management. Form-e r l y they were known as Ladies' Aid Societies but during the Twentieth Century they were more frequently calle d the "Women's Associations", nevertheless t h e i r purpose remained the same. This was largely to supply the church with any necessities and comforts which i t lacked. A l i s t of such things supplied or accomplished might include: cleaning and painting the basement, building fund, carpet, clock, hymn books, piano for Sunday School, flowers for"shut-ins", assumption of debt on i n s t a l l a t i o n of heating plant, Christmas baskets, groceries f o r r e l i e f , etc, etc. During the war period (1914-1918) many of the societies devoted t h e i r e f f o r t s to Red Cross Work. Finan-c i a l burdens of the congregations were often shouldered by the Ladies' Aid societies to a greater or lesser degree 87 as the dignity of the men of the church would allow. Mon-ey for these various expenses was raised mostly from mem-bership fees or from s o c i a l s , concerts, teas or bazaars, at which women's handwork was sold. A noteworthy example of t h i s kind of work was that done on the lower mainland of E r i t i s h Columbia during the years 1908 to 1925. "The Yeomen's A u x i l i a r y of Westminster H a l l f , was formed i n 1908 and was representative in Van-couver of St. John's, St. Andrew's, F i r s t , Mount Pleasant, Chalmers, K i t s i l a n o , Robertson, and St. Paul's congrega-ti o n s . Other congregations i t represented were: St. Stephen's, New Westminster, St. Andrew's, New Westminster, North Vancouver, ILadner, Eburne, Central Park, and Sapper-ton. By i t s contributions and e f f o r t s , the theological college was supplied with furniture and accommodation for the rooms of the students. It also looked after the annual banquets, opening and closing exercises, receptions and luncheons. 1 During l a t e r years the women's organizations began to take on a national aspect due lar g e l y to the demands and needs of the church. One of the most pressing needs was the mission work, home and foreign, conducted by the Home Missionary Committee and the Foreign Missionary Committee 1 This account of the Women's A u x i l i a r y of Westminster Ha l l , i s based upon an a r t i c l e by the editor: The Right Arm of Westminster H a l l , Westminster H a l l Magazine, Van-couver, B.C., Published by the Students of Westminster H a l l , February 1912, I, 9, 34. both d i r e c t l y under the General Assembly. Certain f i e l d s were supported exclusively by the women, through t h e i r national organization, the YJomen's Missionary Society (Western D i v i s i o n ) . This organization was the result of a union i n 1914 of three bodies, the Montreal Woman's Missionary Society, which developed from a society founded in 1864, the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, estab-lished i n 1876, and the Women's Home Missionary Society created i n 1903. Since the Montreal Society operated mostly i n Montreal and towns near there, i t s work w i l l not be described. The Woman's Foreign Missionary Society was promoted in Toronto on 21 March 1876. The aims and purposes of thi s society were: "to aid the Foreign Missions Committee in support of i t s work among heathen women and children, to interest the women and children of the Church i n t h i s work, end to c a l l f o r t h i n a systematic way t h e i r prayers o and f r e e - w i l l offerings i n i t s behalf". It began i n Toronto with only Toronto residents i n i t s membership. But i t s influence spread outside of the c i t y and brought f o r t h " A u x i l i a r i e s " in many congregations. When there were enough a u x i l i a r i e s in any presbytery they formed a pre s b y t e r i a l , the annual meetings of which re-vived great interest i n foreign missionary work. By 1886 2 The work of women's organizations of Canada i n g e n e r a l is based upon McNeill, J.T., The Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1875 - 1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presby-terian Church i n Canada, 1925, 137 - 148. The quotation is from page 143. 90 there were 16 preshyterials and i n 1906, 29. In 1914 there were 45, with 1,084 a u x i l i a r i e s and 36,367 members. This Society was maintained mainly by systematic c o n t r i -3 butions of i t s members. The Society grew u n t i l i t s a c t i v i t i e s were almost as extensive as those of the Foreign Mission Committee of the General Assembly. There were 60 single women missionaries abroad supported by th i s organization i n 1914. Besides th i s i t supported i n Central India f i v e medical mission-ari e s , a women's hos p i t a l , and a g i r l ' s boarding school. In Formosa, i t had another g i r l ' s school. The Indians of Western Canada including those at Alberni also benefited from th i s h o s p i t a l i t y and whole hearted s a c r i f i c e . This was usually considered as the most important of the women's organizations although the Women's Home Mission Committee ranked c l o s e l y to i t f o r top place. The Women's Home Mission Committee of the Presbyter-ian Church i n Canada had i t s b i r t h in the necessity of hospital services for the miners at A t l i n , B r i t i s h Colum-bi a i n 1897-1898. This was when the Klondyke gold rush to the Yukon River took place and thousands of men and a few women rushed into a country that was nearly bare of nurs-ing aids. As has been mentioned previously (pages 66-68) four missionaries were sent up by Dr. James Robertson. Their l e t t e r s were soon depicting the t e r r i b l e conditions of those needing medical help. The l e t t e r s of Reverend 3 McNeill, J.T., op. c i t . , 144. 91 R.M.Dickey and Reverend John Pringle sent a spe c i a l chal-4 lenge to the women of the Church. With a view to coping with the conditions at A t l i n , B r i t i s h Columbia, where John Pringle was situated, some Presbyterian women i n St. Andrew's, King Street, Toronto, held a meeting. They had learned that there were 1200 miners i n A t l i n and men were dying there for lack of care. This was in the year 1898. They then enlarged t h e i r former committee and named i t the A t l i n Nurse Committee. By t h e i r e f f o r t s 1500 dollars were raised towards the project. Two nurses were hired at a salary of 25 do l l a r s per month for a period of two years. Their names were Miss S.H.Mitchell and Miss Helen Bone and they l e f t Toronto f o r A t l i n , 1000 miles north of Vancouver on July 1, 1899. Letters of appreciation for t h e i r services soon reached the Toronto women. The crying need of A t l i n was a hospital to house the nurses and patients. To provide f o r t h i s John Pringle aroused the community, doctors, lawyers, and ministers to construct a h o s p i t a l i n the town. With the help of so many a very respectable building was erected. It was known as St. Andrew's Hospital and was the f i r s t Presby-5 t e r i a n hospital i n Canada. For 30 years the Women's Missionary Society supplied 4 G.A.M., 1898, appendix 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. 5 Kipp, Mrs. H.M., The History of the Women's Home Mission-ary Society, Our Jubilee Story 1864-1924, Toronto, Women's Missionary Society, Presbyterian Church i n Canada, W.D., 1924, 66. 92 medical service to St. Andrew's Hospital. At the end of that time, 1929, the community was able to assume f u l l support of the h o s p i t a l . In 1903 the A t l i n Nurse Com-mittee had changed i t s name to the Women's Home Missionary Society. Its object then became: "to aid the Assembly's Home Mission Committee by undertaking nursing and h o s p i t a l work at such points i n the newer d i s t r i c t s of the country as the Committee may select, by engaging i n any work of a kindred nature that the Committee may deem i t advisable to have taken up; and by co-operating with the Committee in r a i s i n g funds f o r the general Home Mission Work of the Q Church". The fact that i t was a Canadian work appealed to the women of the church and sub-committees were organ-ized soon i n Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton, a,nd Vancouver. The Society continued to carry out i t s aims for the next 11 years as a separate organization and expended during that time 275,000 dol l a r s and d i s t r i b u t e d clothing and supplies i n large quantities. By 1914 i t was support-ing 7 hospitals, 11 mission f i e l d s , 7 school homes, 8 deaconesses, 3 workers in the Department of the Stranger, 3 i n the Jewish Department, and giving a id to six other departments of the Home Mission Work. In 1914 there was a s t a f f of 66 workers i n a l l , and the organization included 6 Year Book, The United Church of Canada, General Offices, 1930, Toronto, 212. 7 G.A.M., 1903, appendix 7. 8 Kipp, op, c i t . , 72, 73. 93 46 presbyterials, 1,019 a u x i l i a r i e s and bands, and 9 25,077 members. The three s o c i e t i e s which have just been described found i t d i f f i c u l t to avoid overlapping i n their functions, and i n many congregations i t was hard to get o f f i c e r s f o r the different organizations. Some a u x i l i a r i e s and presby-t e r i a l s i n the West combined the duties of the Women's Home Missionary and the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society into one organization. Many requests came to the General Assembly for an amalgamation of the two societi e s and in 1907 a committee was set up to investigate the matter. F i n a l l y the three s o c i e t i e s of the Western Section formed a basis of union which had been drawn up j o i n t l y and under th i s the Montreal Woman's Missionary Society, the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, and the Women's Home Mission-ary Society became the Women's Missionary Society i n 1914 1 0 The new Society assumed a l l of the obligations and duties of the former three and agreed to submit i t s annual budget to the Home and Foreign Mission Boards of the Gen-e r a l Assembly. Most of the work following the year 1914 had to do with the Great War services instead of the re-gular missionary programme which was to be i t s normal f i e l d . However, considerable s o c i a l service work was done among women, g i r l s , and students during these years. The 9 McNeill, J . T., op. c i t . , 146, 147. See also, Kipp, H.M., op. c i t . , 88 10 G.A.M., 1914, 71 appendix 7. See also, G.A.M., 1915, appendix 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. s t a f f of the reorganized societies numbered about 250.": "In December 1924, i t had 101 women missionaries i n the foreign f i e l d : 12 i n Formosa, 31 i n Honan, 35 i n India, 11 in Korea, 11 i n South China and 1 i n Japan. The re-mainder were divided among home f i e l d s , including seven boarding schools for Indian children, ten school homes mainly f o r foreign-born children i n the West, and four fo r French work i n Quebec, 14 hospitals or hos p i t a l units, and a varied programme of work, with a s t a f f of 32, i n departments of Social Service and of the Stranger." 1 1 From the foregoing description of the work of Pres-byterian women i n the Church, i t w i l l be re a l i z e d , that they had t h e i r share of giving and of work. The a u x i l -i a r i e s , and that was the pos i t i o n that they maintained throughout, were responsible f o r much progress and many times showed themselves to be the right arm of the various congregations which they served. It further showed that the women of the Church were capable of e f f e c t i v e organi-zation and executive power, thus placing them on the thres-hold of the entry into the o f f i c e s of the Church, which they had done so much f o r . 11 McNeill, J . T., op. c i t . , 148. CHAPTER X WESTMINSTER HALL x The mission stations of B r i t i s h Columhia were served hy students from eastern theological colleges i n many cases during the summer months. These students returned to the colleges to resume t h e i r courses i n the winter months. This l e f t the mission stations without anybody to minister to them u n t i l the next summer. To overcome th i s d i f f i c u l t y , a group of ministers of the church in B r i t i s h Columbia suggested that a college i n B r i t i s h Columbia which held summer sessions only, would allow i t s students to do missionary work i n the winter time and thus f i l l the gap heretofore experienced by the mission-ary f i e l d s . Accordingly i n 1906 several of the presbyteries passed resolutions or overtures requesting the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia and Alberta to place the matter before the General Assembly. This was done and the General As-sembly appointed a committee to investigate the needs of 1 This chapter i s based l a r g e l y upon Logan, J.A., West-minster H a l l , Commemorative Review of the Methodist, Pres-byterian, and Congregational Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, editor E.A.Davis, compiled and published by Joseph Lee, Vancouver, Wrigley Publishing Co., Ltd., 1925, 251 - 259. 95 96 B r i t i s h Columbia? This committee found that i t would be advantageous to estab l i s h a theological college in B r i t i s h Columbia having sessions i n the summer time. It reported that there were 14 young men within the boundaries of the Synod who wished to enter the ministry, and further the Presbytery of Westminster pledged i t s e l f to give f i n a n c i a l support towards the project. The General Assembly then o adopted the report of i t s committee and agreed to estab-l i s h the theological college in Vancouver, to begin work in A p r i l 1908. A board of management and a senate were appointed by the Assembly, and were given power to nomin-ate a p r i n c i p a l , and to make arrangements for the term of 1908. The f i r s t j o i n t meeting of the board and senate was held on 24 September 1907, by the Reverend A.J.MacGillivray, who was afterwards appointed permanent chairman, and the Reverend John A. Logan, secretary. At t h i s meeting the board took steps towards finding a pr i n c i p a l f o r the new i n s t i t u t i o n . Later on 14 January 1908, the decision was made to appoint Reverend John MacKay, B.D., of Crescent Street Church, Montreal, as p r i n c i p a l . After his a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia he was inducted into the o f f i c e on 10 July 1908 by the Presbytery of Westminster 4 At another meeting of the joi n t board i t was decided to c a l l the new college "Westminster H a l l " and the form of the crest 2 G.A.M., 1906, 57, appendix 372, 373. 3 G.A.M., 1907, 74, 75, appendix 323, 324. 4 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 245, 246. 97 and motto were also adopted. Plans f o r a building with a l i b r a r y and three classrooms, and professor's rooms, and other equipment were also under consideration. For the f i r s t month of the session beginning on 4 A p r i l 1908, classes met i n M c G i l l University College Building by the kind permission of the college a u t h o r i t i e s . Fortunately the need of erecting a new building was avoided when a private school building on the corner of Cardero and Barclay Streets (1600 Barclay) was offered for sale. The Board purchased i t and the f a c u l t y and students moved 5 into the new quarters on the 10 May 1908. It was adequate-l y furnished by the College l a d i e s ' A u x i l i a r y and they kept i t in fine form from then u n t i l the day of union i n 1925. 6 The new college was fortunate i n receiving two endow-ments fo r i t s l i b r a r y . The f i r s t one came from the Vipond's family of Montreal in memory of thei r son and amounted to 300 d o l l a r s the f i r s t year with a 200 do l l a r annual grant to follow. It was known as the "Frederick Cameron Viporjd, 7 Memorial l i b r a r y " . About 2500 volumes were secured for the l i b r a r y by this fund. Another g i f t came from Mrs. Florence Archibald, who gave the l i b r a r y of her late husband, Rev-erend W.F.Archibald, Ph.D., a native of Truro, Nova Scotia, for the use of the students of the H a l l and the ministers 5 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 246. 6 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 246. 7 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 246. of the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia. This l i b r a r y was made up of 400 volumes. The endowment also included a cash sum of 5000 d o l l a r s , the interest of which was to be used for g purchasing books for the "Archibald C i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r y " . An annual scholarship of one hundred dollars came from Dr. Alexander MacDougall and family of Montreal to be known as, "The James S i n c l a i r MacDougall Scholarship". During i t s 17 sessions the college enjoyed the services of many of the most notable t h e o l o g i c a l professors. These men-were available from other colleges because Westminster Hall held i t s sessions i n the summer while other colleges were not i n operation. The attendance, never very great, was less during the Great War because several students joined the army. Compared with the other Presbyterian the-o l o g i c a l colleges i n Canada, Westminster H a l l , had a f a i r enrolment and a reasonable cost. After holding the posi-t i o n i n Westminster H a l l for 11 years, P r i n c i p a l John MacKay resigned i n 1919 to accept the p r i n c i p a l s h i p of Man-itoba College. He was succeeded by the Reverend W.H.Smith, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., of St. John's Church, Vancouver. 1 0 Dr. Smith was appointed by the Board on 2 October 1919 as P r i n c i p a l and Professor of P r a c t i c a l Theology. In the next year Dr. John A. logan was appointed as Registrar and Treasurer i n addition to his duties as l i b r a r i a n . 1 1 8 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 246. 9 G.A.M., 1908, appendix 246. 10 G.A.M., 1921, appendix 198. 11 Por a l i s t of the s t a f f s for each year see Appendix. 99 A new movement towards economy was i n process at th i s time. It was thought hy many that expense could he avoided i f the three colleges, Methodist, Anglican, and Presbyter-ian combined or exchanged t h e i r professors f o r certain courses and thus eliminate duplication of courses by d i f f e r ent colleges. To discuss t h e i r views on this subject a join t meeting of representatives from the three colleges was held i n ?/esley Church, Vancouver, i n 1922. They un-animously came to the conclusion that i t could be done and each group presented the finding to i t s governing denominational body. These bodies also voted in favor of co-operation of the colleges i n of f e r i n g courses and 12 services of professors. Prom then on, 1923 to 1925 the three colleges worked under the new system. But to West-minster H a l l i t meant, that the session took place i n winter instead of i n summer time as had been the case up 14 to that time. It further meant that the services from v i s i t i n g professors of the older colleges would be imprac-t i c a b l e since the older colleges were i n session during 15 the winter time also. However compensations i n the way of economy were received. Prom the beginning i t was found necessary to prepare young men fo r entering college. A special t u t o r i a l depart-ment was organized f o r th i s work under Reverend John A. 12 G.A.M., 1922, 81, 82. 13 G.A.M., 1923, appendix 219. 14 G.A.M., 1922, appendix 208, 209. 15 G.A.M., 1922, appendix 208, 209. 100 Logan, D.D., With him at d i f f e r e n t times were associated Reverend J.D.Gillam, W.D.Maxwell, B.A. (Oxon), H.T.Logan, M.A. (Oxon), J.T.McNeill, B.D., S.T. Galbraith, B.D., and others. The work was discontinued when the University of B r i t i s h Columbia v/as organized as i t supplied i n s t r u c t i o n in the courses necessary for theological preparation. During the 17 years that the college was i n session over 100 students received part or a l l of t h e i r theolog-i c a l t r a i n i n g there: 19 having received the degree of Doctor of D i v i n i t y and seven the degree of Bachelor of D i v i n i t y . The college f i l l e d a place in the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the province but l i k e a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h i s nature, the tendency was for a student to advance himself educationally and to seek the better paid positions. The former aim is very commendable but the l a t t e r aim was based on personal ambition which ran counter to the teach-ing of the Gospel. This teaching was: "If any man w i l l come a f t e r Me, l e t him deny himself, and take up his cross, 16 and follow Me". Too many college graduates refused to go to the mission stations. They would rather wait f o r a more lucrativ e p o s i t ion. It thus appears that the minis-t r y for some graduates was merely an occupation rather than an answer to the command: "Go ye into a l l the world, 17' and preach the gospel to every creature". "16 Matthew 16:24. ' 17 Mark 16:15. 101 STATISTICS OF WESTMINSTER HALL References : To the :Ho* of :No. of< .No. of: Stud- : Grad-in : Year : Pro- i Lec- v i s i t - ents : uates Minutes of 1 : Ending : fess-, tur- " ing enrol-General Assembly-: March : ors . ers Pro- led Appendix : 31st fess-ors 1908, P. 510 ; \ 1908 1909, P. 464 1909 : 13 : 1910, P. 501 ; 1910 : 2 : 6 1 35 : 9 1911, 490 : 1911 : 3 : 3 : 19 : 9 1912, p. 552 : 1912 ' 3 : 4 : 17 : 6 1913, P. 531 : 1913 s 3 : 4 : 18 : 6 1914, P. 635 : 1914 : 3 : 4 : 19 : 5 1915, .P« 591 • : 1915 : 2 : A : 20 : 5 1916, P. 517 : 1916 : 1 : 4 : 12 : 6 1917, P. 501 : 1917 : 1 : 4 : 11 : 2 1918, P- 491 : 1918 : 1 : 2 : 9 : 6 1919, P* 519 : 1919 i 1 : 2 : i s : 5 1920, 537 : 1920 ' ! 1 : 10 : 17 : 4 1921, P. 489 : 1921 '.' 1 : 8 : 14 : 6 1922, P. 502 : 1922 : 1 : 10 : 12 : 4 1923, P. 523 : 1923 : ' 1 : 9 : 17 : 4 1924, P. 473 : 1924 : 1 : 3 : 11 : 3 1925, P. 473 : 1925 : 1 : * ^ 2 : 9 : 3 djcd In Winnipeg on Mon-jpejj known in.l$inj preacher and -Westminster, Hall Former Principal of Westminster Hall Widely Known, oi Manitoba College, Winnipeg on Monday, :J national fame as a id administrator dur his years in Vancouver, a brilliant record at Uni-of Tororito and Glasgow ity and a brief pastorate jre^t he was called by :c rian Church in Vancou-ver in 19%. to head the newly-established Westminster Hall, lated absorbed by Union Theo-logical College. 1 He remained here until 1920, when he was appointed principal of Manitoba College.. While in Vancouver, Dr. MacKay was first president of the Pacific. Coast Theological Conference, president of the Canadian ftub, a delegate to the Institute of Pacific Rela-tions in Honolulu in 1927, and a popular p^jnriP^ai^^ H FREQUENT yiSITOR. He was gold medalist •W'-his class at. Toronto, and noon won a reputation as a scholar and writer. He wag'avtHbr of a num-ber of bo6ks a)i4jwa#& J&ju^nt contribulpr to learned review^. , As r^ihcieal^Wa^Ditdta Col-lege; he revoiHtJ^ftefl'thtr-poHcy by introducing a-cojrespondence course' fut, theologv fox^graduate students,1 accrtrrse thar 'attracted many ministers of other denomi-nations. ' J ~" 0 :H«,iW3s'saolr«j«wnt:;viffitor to ffaq^uye^-o^d, roften preached jjeirft^s gu«fi'saini^ ter. Less than two , years, , agei,; Hirst i ynRed Church was filled -to overflowing foar his, -two- sermons. «8W^!BBNG« TRIBUTE. z 9 f I He was riom in Kintore, Oxfor ' County, Ontario, in 1870. His wife, the former Julie Sampson of Woodstock, oredeceased,„hini in spn^ind gi daugMer sur-Delegates' to British Columbia Conference' oi the United Church of Canada, many of whom'knew Dr. MacKay'.for many years, rose in silent tribute to his memory. The conference passed a reso-lution concerning the profound regret with which it learned of the death tff Dr. .Mackay. "Thrmtghout-tne term of his occupancy in Yi^ ]|$nilnster Hail," it read, "he gaVe M himself and his spiendk! g W « i t intellect and charactertrnsparrngiy to the task oI'prepa»in*-*Hd training young TOtn Jcpfthe ministry of Jesus Christ, and likewise 'made a great fwJttWbUtlonnttf "ttie tfeMgious and eihxcatlonaL h£e arad thought of till* province, and in this expres-sion'bf sorrow^and regret we seek to voice withi'teopt highest ap-1 preciation Tandl gratitude in our I memories of him." (a Ma/ / ? t /<?3?J CHAPTER XI THE ATTITUDE OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN SOCIAL QUESTIONS It i s generally the case where large numbers of single men are employed i n industries and concentrated i n camps about the industries, that the r e l i g i o u s and moral stand-ards of such a population are at a low ebb. B r i t i s h Col-umbia i n the days of the gold rush was no exception to th i s r u l e . R e l i g i o n was very much in the background of the minds of most of those searching for gold. Men became reckless i n t h i s country of hardships and i s o l a t i o n and such a d i s p o s i t i o n seems always to cause individuals to become equally reckless of t h e i r standards of behavior. This i s the case today under similar conditions as i t was then 75 years ago. Leisure time was spent in d i s s i p a t i o n and forms of amusement which degraded, the character. Young men from Eastern Canada brought up i n r e l i g i o u s homes seemed to shed a l l of the r e l i g i o u s observances. 1 The influence of such practices l e f t t h e i r mark upon the l i f e of the province i n l a t e r years. Ministers t r a v e l l i n g across Canada, and working i n the P r a i r i e s and then com-ing over into B r i t i s h Columbia remarked how the people of T G.A.M., 1896, appendix 1, XXXIII, XXXIV. ! 102 103 t h i s province f a i l e d to observe the Sabbath.^ The people did respect the law of the country as f a r as rights of property were concerned and i n regard to marriage between whites. But where whites and Indians were united i n marriage or just came into contact with one another the moral standards of both races were forgotten. ' This with the heavy consumption of li q u o r caused a deplor-able condition to exist i n some d i s t r i c t s and sectors of communities. Such conditions might have been avoided i f the missionaries of the church had been on the scene e a r l i e r . Ralph Connor while supervising i n the Kootenay d i s t i c t found gambling, drinking and Sabbath desecration very ram-pant i n 1897. The only place i n one town where a service could be held was the saloon amidst very disturbing con-ditions.'^ To such conditions the students were loath to go. But there was i n many cases a nucleus of members of some denomination to build upon and i t f e l l upon James Robertson to have these camp towns supplied with missionaries and churches. But for many years the funds were e n t i r e l y i n -adequate. Some advancement i n the building of churches and manse s was made during 1897, 1898 and 1899 because of a wave of prosperity which the province experienced. But with the f a l l i n the price of s i l v e r and lead and the i n -crease of American import duties raining again had a hard time of i t i n 1900 and missionary work as a resul t found 2 G.A.M., 1894, appendix 1, XVII. 3 G.A.M., 1897, appendix 19. 104 the going d i f f i c u l t . The people could not contribute towards the salary of the missionary and when vacancies occurred i t was p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to secure men to f i l l them. To overcome the s i t -uation a few men were secured from Scotland and Ireland i n 1900, and James Robertson toured the B r i t i s h Isles, from where he secured great sums for the work. Certain congre-gations i n and about Toronto also undertook the support of special missionaries and missions i n B r i t i s h Columbia dur-ing these years. F i n a n c i a l conditions improved considerably again by 1907. This was due to the number of branch railroads being constructed i n the i n t e r i o r . Instead of theCariboo, Kooten-ay or Klondike, which had mineral wealth i t was now the Okanagan, Similkameen, and the Slocan which offered a Beaut i f u l climate and great a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s es-p e c i a l l y for f r u i t growing. The building of the Grand Trunk Railway opened up another group of a g r i c u l t u r a l valleys i n the north, v i z . the Nechako, Bulkley and Skeena. 4 Besides opening up the country and increasing i n d u s t r i a l and commercial a c t i v i t y the r a i l r o a d s granted many church s i t e s at stations along t h e i r lines throughout the North-West. 5 Church s i t e s without cost to a congregation were a great benefit. But free s i t e or not the pioneer members of a congregation found the i n i t i a l burden quite heavy. 4 G.A.M., 1910, appendix 25. " ~ 5 G.A.M., 1901, appendix 18, 19. The superintendent might a s s i s t a congregation to elect i t s hoard of managers and set the church well on i t s way hut when the funds ran low promises and budgets were hard to keep. As ever the women helped by various schemes such as concerts, lantern lectures, basket s o c i a l s , and dances to clear off any unpaid accounts. But several conditions contributed to an unsettled attitude i n many points of B r i t i s h Columbia. One was the general s t r i k e about the year 1911, when the r a i l r o a d workers throughout the province and the miners of Lady-smith and Crow's l e s t , p a r t i c i p a t e d at di f f e r e n t times. Riots resulted i n the case of the miners and they were put down by the m i l i t i a and many persons were convicted. As a result of such treatment f e e l i n g ran high and embitter-ed opinions remained i n the minds of many c i t i z e n s . Accord-ing to statements made in the General Assembly Reports many workers withdrew because the Presbyterian Church did not sympathize with them more openly. When one Scottish miner received a subscription sheet from a missionary he wrote, 7 "Never". In 1915 poverty again stalked through the land. R a i l -road building had stopped and new immigrants ceased to move into the country. These two had always been sources of much of the money i n c i r c u l a t i o n before. On top of t h i s came the Great War and the consequent stoppage of immigrants 6 G.A.M., 1914, appendix 47. It G.A.M., 1914, appendix 44, 45. 106 and trade. It meant that lumbering and mining industries nearly ceased to operate for a time. The use of f u e l o i l on both steamers and railroads struck a blow at coal min-ing from which i t never recovered r e s u l t i n g i n many unem-ployed. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s had to provide r e l i e f for many s e t t l e r s . Much g r i e f came to some who had made down pay-ments on farms and buildings, but l o s t them because they could not continue regular payments. People harassed with troubles o f various kinds tended to lose interest i n church a f f a i r s . Certain features of the church did not encourage doubtful attendants. A new scale of salaries was introduced which made i t impossible for some congregations to pay a l l t h e i r b i l l s i f they were to remain se l f - s u s t a i n i n g . Many sel f - s u s t a i n i n g congrega-tions became augmented charges as a result of t h i s and augmented charges became mission stations i n which remun-eration was low. Discouraging to any work was the con-stant change of missionary or preacher. It led to unsatis-factory r e s u l t s . Places that had the same minister f o r years reaped great benefits from i t and could e a s i l y show the r e s u l t s . Coupled with t h i s was the sorrow of those whose husbands, sons, or brothers were k i l l e d i n the Great War. Already i n t h e i r absence the load f o r many was too great but when death took away the only hope i t was then Q that a comforter should be near. Such circumstances i n the province forced the General Assembly to treat B r i t i s h 8 G.A.M., 1919, appendix 41. 107 Columbia aa a vast missionary f i e l d out of which only a few charges i n the c i t i e s and prosperous r u r a l d i s t r i c t s would 9 ever r e t a i n t h e i r rank as a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g charge. After the war industries began to operate again and everyone hoped for normal times. The lumber industry of the province made es p e c i a l l y good progress. As a r e s u l t of this upturn i t was thought by the churches i n general that many of the needy could be helped and missionary work resumed by funds raised i n a campaign known as the Forward Movement of 1921. Some increase of membership was reported i n 1922 but circumstances and attitudes had changed since the beginning of the war. The people never regained t h e i r former interest i n r e l i g i o n . More interest was taken i n building community h a l l s and i n the a l l night dances. Theatres and motion pictures captivated the population and f i l l e d them with thoughts that were not designed to improve the general character of those who observed them. Besides t h i s gamb-li n g , immorality, and intemperance became more common habits of the community l i f e . To combat some of these vices certain movements were organized. The sale of li q u o r i n saloons was fought against by the People's P r o h i b i t i o n Movement i n 1915 and l a t e r years. Many ministers and missionaries of the Protestant denomin-ations worked hard to have saloons abolished i n B r i t i s h Col-umbia. A majority of the voters i n the province, Yukon, 9 G.A.M., 1917, appendix 13. 108 and throughout Canada except in Quebec wanted the saloons abolished. However due to some adverse court decisions B r i t i s h Columbia did not enforce the pr o h i b i t i o n laws very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Many people were d i s s a t i s f i e d with pro-h i b i t i o n because of the great amount of i l l i c i t and danger-ous home made brew that was sold and drunk. Another e l e c t i o n put the question before the people again i n 1920. This time i t was pro h i b i t i o n or government control of sale of liqu o r that the voter had to decide upon. The people voted overwhelmingly i n favor of govern-ment control of sale of l i q u o r . 1 ^ The attitude of the Presbyterian Church of Canada at this time was very much opposed to the sale of liquor by the government or anybody. 1 1 Although the Presbyterian Church courts expressed t h e i r disapproval at the results of the referendum of 20 October 1920, i t is doubtful i f the masses of Presbyterians were at a l l disappointed es-p e c i a l l y when t h e i r S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n s and customs were considered. At t h i s time the Presbyterian Church i n Canada iden-t i f i e d i t s e l f with several simultaneous campaigns against certain very outstanding e v i l s which existed i n Canada and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One of the f i r s t evils to which the church addressed i t s e l f was the lack of ob-servation of the Sabbath day. As a result of i t s e f f o r t s the Federal Parliament passed the Lord's Day Act on 1 March TO G.A.M., 1921, appendix 40. 11 G.A.M., 1922, appendix 39, 40. 109 1907. Most of the p r o v i n c i a l governments co-operated with the Dominion Government i n the enforcement of t h i s l e g i s -l a t i o n . But i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t was regarded by the attorney-general as a v i o l a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , and since the Act did not allow of prosecution without the consent of the p r o v i n c i a l attorney-general the enforce-ment of t h i s Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia was withheld for sev-e r a l years. However in 1910 the Attorney-General i n B r i -t i s h Columbia did prosecute a certain number of petty traders in the coast c i t i e s . The Act was on the whole a benefit to the working people who were often imposed upon by being forced to work on a Sunday, a day v/hich a l l are e n t i t l e d to f o r recreation. To f a c i l i t a t e better the campaign for amendment and enforcement of l e g i s l a t i o n the various r e l i g i o u s bodies of Canada formed a Moral and S o c i a l Reform Council of Canada, which did much in the way of a l t e r i n g the criminal laws. Another of these grave frauds was horse racing and race-track gambling. The Criminal Code was amended to confine race-track betting, gambling and book making to the race track. The number of days of horse racing that an assoc-i a t i o n might have was also l i m i t e d . But i n B r i t i s h Columbia the effectiveness of the new amendments were lessened by the adverse decisions of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1913. However in l a t e r years the number of consecutive racing days was diminished greatly. To abolish horse rac-ing and race track betting was found impossible, since i t 110 was a favorite pastime of the s o c i a l l y e l i t e , but i t never-theless had a disastrous e f f e c t upon the masses who lost great quantities i n money savings through th i s c o s t l y form of excitement. Perhaps much of i t s persistence i n B r i t i s h Columbia harked back to the old mining camps. The amount of good that could be done by reform laws that were not appreciated by the public was very limited i f not harmful. However betting needed l i m i t a t i o n by laws because of the decided losses suffered by those who needed t h e i r money for n e c e s s i t i e s . Perhaps the most dreaded of a l l a t r o c i t i e s sustained by the public from criminals was the much talked of white slave t r a f f i c and public p r o s t i t u t i o n . In the reports of 1909 and 1910 f i r s t mention of i t was made. Several works were written to acquaint the public of the alarming propor-tions to which i t had reached. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada also recommended that minis-ters of the gospel campaign against the e v i l from the p u l p i t . Literature was published and distributed amongst the members of the church that they and t h e i r children might be acquaint-ed with the penalties of ignorance and f o l l y . In B r i t i s h Columbia the vice appeared to be more pre-valent in proportion to the population, than in any other province of Canada. This was accounted f o r by the tremen-dous proportion of single men in the employ of the various industries and also due to the presence of unattached Or-i e n t a l s . Opinions as to how i t should be dealt with varied. I l l Some favored segregation with regulation while others fav-ored t o l e r a t i o n with regulation. Since conditions of the population were peculiar i t was regarded hy many as an e v i l which should be tolerated rather than a greater e v i l which might exist i f the vice were unduly suppressed. However the Presbyterian Church took the stand that there should be persistent repression by enforcement of a l l the law .against public p r o s t i t u t i o n . In support of t h e i r contention they 12 13 pointed to the c i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and New Westminster. But such immunity from the crime cannot be guaranteed today. It is very doubtful i f i t could be suppressed permanently any-where with conditions as they were i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Vancouver the o f f i c i a l s were not sympathetic towards the idea. But the Police Commissioners were prevailed upon to order a"clean-up" by the po l i c e . Some 200 of th i s type of criminal were arrested and convicted, but Attorney-General W.J.Bowser refused to admit them to prison because of inadequate and unsuitable accommodation. Several other towns and c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia endeavored to follow the p o l i c y advocated by the Church with varying degrees of success, but they were somewhat hindered by the lack of co-operation from the p r o v i n c i a l government. The Presbyterian Church i n Canada also carried on a programme of rescue work for f a l l e n g i r l s and women. Under the supervision of Reverend James S. Henderson, who had been appointed as f i e l d secretary of the Presbyterian Board of 12 G.A.M., 1911, appendix 258, 259. " 13 G.A.M., 1914, appendix 308, 309. 112 Social Service and Evangelism for B r i t i s h Columbia i n June 1913, a redemptive home was established in September 1913 in Burnaby. This home proved to be of great assistance to any one who had f a l l e n . In 1913 there were 30 g i r l s re-ported resident i n the home. In 1916 there were reported an average of 14 g i r l s and two infants per month, for the year, and in 1921 Dr. George A. Wilson reported 25 lonely g i r l s taken care of with a plea for greater accommodation. In 1923 a redemptive home was purchased with a view to establishing the work more permanently. Another source of degradation attacked by the Church 14 was the publishing of obscene l i t e r a t u r e and pictures. It was through the So c i a l Service Reform Council of Canada that the Criminal Code was amended that Post Office author-i t i e s and Customs o f f i c i a l s might stop this nefarious t r a f f i c . The same organization began the study and investiga-t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l and c i t y problems. As a result of such "14 G.A.M., 1912, appendix 314, 315. 15 The Moral and S o c i a l Reform Council of Canada consisted of representatives of: 1. The Church of England i n Canada, 2. The Methodist Church i n Canada, 3. The Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 4. The Baptists of Canada, 5. The Congregationalists of Canada, 6. The Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, 7. The Dominion Grange and Farmers' Association, 8. The Salvation Army, 9. The Canadian P u r i t y Association, 10. The Evangelical Association of North America. (G.A.M., 1912, appendix 322.) 113 investigations the church stood behind such objects as the Workmen's Compensation Act. From the p u l p i t s , the preachers were urged to acquaint t h e i r congregations of the dire necessity of a l l e v i a t i n g the pressure upon the laboring classes. A more equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth was recom-mended, and protection of women and children in industry. The church also favored the reclamation of the criminal and the imposition of indeterminate sentences, that reclam-ation might be f a c i l i t a t e d . It was i n no small way due to the e f f o r t s of the S o c i a l Reform Councils that the Boards of Censors v/ere appointed by the p r o v i n c i a l governments. The Boards of Censors elim-inated or barred motion pictures which were morally degrad-ing to the children. Reform of p o l i t i c s and elections was another tenet of the Council. Investigations were carried.on throughout the Dominion. These showed a deplor-able condition of graft and patronage in high places. A l -though p o l i t i c i a n s were blamed, yet i t was found that a large percentage of the electorate were very corrupt and i n some cases demanded bribes for t h e i r votes. The report desired ministers and members to do a l l i n t h e i r power to awaken public conscience, i n regard to the importance of the franchise and the selection of candidates. Part of the same movement of reform involved evangel-i s t i c work. In 1909 a report of a campaign throughout South Kootenay, East Kootenay and points on the Canadian 18 G.A.M., 1914, appendix 323. 114 19 P a c i f i c Railway was mentioned. In 1911 a campaign was held in the Fraser Valley. Glowing testimonies of benefit received 20 f i l l several pages of the report on Evangelism. In l a t e r years such evangelists as Gypsy Smith and Campbell Morgan conducted campaigns throughout Canada and the people were s t i r r e d to a deeper fervor for the gospel. Widespread as some of these reforms may have been i t is d i f f i c u l t to estimate accurately what has been achieved. But i t is possible to use a few s t a t i s t i c s i n regard to E r i t i s h Columbia to show the proportion of Presbyterians to other denominations in the Province and to compare the populations of n a t i o n a l i t i e s . To begin with the population showed an increase of 34 per cent, i n the decade covered by the 1921 census. In spite of the large Oriental and fo r -eign population, about 75 per cent, of i t was B r i t i s h and in this respect ranked with Prince Edward Island, ETova Scotia, and Ontario. The population was made up as follows: 42 per cent. English, 20 per cent. Scotch, and 10 per cent. I r i s h , the remainder being made up of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s . In 1901 the B r i t i s h people were 59 per cent, of the t o t a l population, while in 1921 they were 74 per cent, of the pop-ulatio n . But i n spite of thi s growth, the s t a t i s t i c s re-vealed that 60,000 young men and women had l e f t the province. Consequently B r i t i s h Columbia as well as the other western provinces was no longer the young man's country that i t was 19 G.A.M., 1909, appendix 257. 20 G.A.M., 1912, appendix 293. 115 21 once. In 1907 the population of the province was approx-imately 200,000, while according to the 1921 census i t was 525,000. Of th i s population the Anglicans had increased i n the 1911 to 1921 decennial period, from 100,952 to 160,978, fresbyterians from 82,121 to 123,022 and Metho-di s t s from 52,132 to 64,810. Thus the Presbyterians held second place i n the ranks of the Protestant denominations. Comparing these figures v/ith the Presbyterian Church sta-t i s t i c s , i t was quite evident that many Presbyterians in B r i t i s h Columbia did not attend any Presbyterian Church. According to church s t a t i s t i c s , including families and single persons, the Presbyterian advance i n 1911 to 1921 23 was 30,000, In 1907 the Presbyterians had t h i r t y charges which were self-sustaining, 16 augmented with settled pastors and 32 missions, a t o t a l of 78. In 1925 there were 55 self-sustaining charges, 60 augmented (class A and B) and 51 missions, a t o t a l of 166. During the 18 years preceding 1925, 96 new missions were opened. Of t h i s number 18 were in 1925 se l f - s u s t a i n i n g charges, an average of one for each of the 18 years. Eighteen others had been closed on account of i n d u s t r i a l decline, while the remaining 60 found a place either as separate missions, or by re-group-,21—JL.A.M., 1924, appendix 36. 22 G.A.M., 1925, appendix 41, 42. 23 For f u l l s t a t i s t i c s see table following the end of t h i s chapter. 116 ing were included i n the l i s t of augmented charges. Dur-ing t h i s period also 53 were added to the l i s t of augment-ed charges and 33 became self-supporting. A l l , however, had not maintained the p o s i t i o n thus gained, owing pa r t l y to the f i x i n g of a new minimum in salary which i n many cases necessitated a reduction of status, but more p a r t i c -u l a r l y to great fluctuations i n trade and industry, which compelled a large proportion of the population to migrate to other l o c a l i t i e s or perhaps leave the province a l t o -24 gether in order that t h e i r families might be provided f o r . It required a considerable amount of adjustment and reorganization on the part of the Presbyterian Church to meet a l l the exigencies caused by these movements. New settlements required preaching places or a new church b u i l t . If i t was a new church then considerable money had to be raised which needed more or less stimulation of the members towards giving by the missionary, pastor, or superintendent. Added to t h i s were f a c t i o n a l divisions i n some of the con-gregations which required c o n c i l i a t i o n . Much of t h i s f e l l upon the shoulders of the Superintendent of Missions,Dr. George A. Wilson, who performed his numerous tasks with a great measure of success. 24 G.A.M., 1925, appendix 42. 117 STATISTICS The following tables of s t a t i s t i c s concerning the work in B r i t i s h Columbia of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada have been gleaned from the Minutes of the annual meetings of the General Assembly. It i s well nigh impos-si b l e to tabulate the results of church work since they are s p i r i t u a l , which only God himself can evaluate and secondly because some of the s t a t i s t i c s do not agree. For example the t o t a l Sabbath School returns rarely agree with the t o t a l Sabbath School returns tabulated i n the summary for the Synod returns. In this case the returns f o r Religious Education were taken. Another d i f f i c u l t y i n composing such a tabulation as follows is the variety of forms used i n the years from 1887 to 1924. However some information showing the growth was tabulated and set down as follows. y 118 A Summary of S t a t i s t i c s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as Gathered Prom the S t a t i s t i c a l Reports to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1885 - 1925 Reference i n General Assembly Minutes :Year : : re- • :fe r r -:ed to No. of' chur- : .ches ; and sta-: tions : sup-p l i e d :Minis-. : ters : .on the' : r o l l : and :appen-: dix .Teach-: ers : and : o f f i c -: ers .Sunday .School .Schol-: ars iCommun-:icants ' :on the [ r o l l .Grand [Total .Raised :for a l l : Purposes 1887 # 28 :1886 : 45 • . 32 . 235 : ! 245 :| 11.024 1888 # 26 1XXXVIII •1887 ! • 38 ..! [ 94 : 678 : [ 535 : 19,349 1889 # 29 XCVIII [l888 42 136 ! 1,016 . 994 ; 41,698 1890 # 24 CXI :1889 t 41 130 ] 927 :1,055 48,592 1891 #23 CIX 11890 : 41 160 .1.447 [ 1,396 > 74,420 1892 # 23 CXXI •1891 72 [ 253 [2.236 , :2,169 [ 60,759 1893 # 26 CXXV :1892 [ 70 •• 294 •2.642 [2,630 [ 67,734 1894 # 26 CXXX •1893 : 101 • 320 •2.841 [2.657 [ 64,311 1895 # 26 CXXXII •1894 ' [ 125 ! 353 •3.251 [2.985 [ 69.274 1896 # 26 fiXTX •1895 •134 : 401 •3.292 [2.696 [ 51.174 1897. 460 •1896 [ 138 [ 409 [3,763 [2,957 [ 53,605 1898, 488 11897 [ 129 [ 536 [3,903 [3,158 [ 64,172 1899^ 484 [l898 • 133 [ 570 [4,795 [3,524 [ 77,086 1900, 448 1.1899 [ 139 ! 48 ' 580 [5,149 [3,699 [ 78,466 1901, 449 J1900 [ 7 7 [ 58 [ 705 J6,175 [3,831 [ 95,298 1902, 471 J1901 1 85 [ 59 [ 638 [5,871 [4,059 [ 128,962 1903, 441 il902 [ 90 i 68 | 678 [6,167 [4,422 [ 123,765 1904, 477 11903 ' 92 85 ! 658 [6,041 [4,344 [ 127,293 1905, 461 '1904 ! 92 ' 716 [6,518 [4,575 [ 130,692 1906, 570 *1905 [ 728 [6,722 [4,942 130,680 1907, 491 •1906 5 248 [ 787 :7,123 [6,033 : 151,316 119 A Summary of S t a t i s t i c s Gathered from the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1885 - 1925 Reference : i n General: Assembly : Minutes : Year : re- : f e r r - : ed to ' Minis-: ters : on the: r o l l : and : appen-: dix : Preach-: ing : Places : or : Sta-tions : Teach-: ers : and : O f f i c - : ers Sunday: School: Schol-: ars : Commun-: icants : on the : r o l l : Grand Tot a l Raised for a l l Purposes 1908, passim : 1907 206 805 . 7,934! 6,482 ; #164,491 1909, " passim : 1908 162 914 : 8,846* 7,210 ' 187,941 1910, passim :1909 316 990 ! 9,353^ 8,221 220,648 1911,. passim : i9 io . 305 [1,054 10,610; 9,834 1 278,796 1912, : passim |l911 . 308 ,1,270 12,479[ 11,467 298,682 1913, passim :i9i2 | 320 [l,342 '1.3,7555' '12,894 • 380,939 1914, passim !1913 j 319 '1,493 '15,420; 15,328 388,794 1915, passim 1914 305 .1,779 ,16,086 16,305 363,769 1916, passim 1915 332 '1,800 '17,676 15,935 291,975 1917, passim !l916 j 102 ! 296 [1,813 [17,132 : 15,590 : 282,519 1918, passim 11917 1 107 \ 269 !l,806 [17,758 :15,643 [ 302,214 1919, passim 11918 : i o i 1 281 [2,162 [19,717 [15,450 [ 316,141 1920, passim |l919 1 107 | 302 [2,238 [20,328 [16,065 [ 410,070 1921, passim Il920 : 1 1 1 [ .337 1,957 :19,796[ 16,864 ; 458,912 1922, passim :1921 1 120 [ 330 . 2,141 [20,473[ 16,109 • 476,767 1923, passim :1922 : 121 334 ; 2,230 . • * £ : 21,789; 17,072 • 484,547 1924, passim '1923 \ 130 ! 389 2,182 21,681' 18,408 : 479,494 1925, pa. s sim |l924 [ 133 : 387 2,311 ! ;22,844[ 18,608 ' 483,145 CHAPTER XII UNION The idea of church union i n Canada was not new. The Presbyterian Church in Canada i t s e l f was formed by the union of several organizations i n 1875. At t h i s time the moderator of i t s f i r s t General Assembly, Dr. John Cook, in his f i r s t speech as moderator expressed himself as looking forward to a f a r larger union, even such as that union expressed i n the Lord's intercessory prayer.^ The exclusiveness of the denominations was also broken down from other sources as well as the appeal from the Holy Scriptures. Several of these could be mentioned. One might be the attendance of theological students of d i f f e r -ent denominations at the u n i v e r s i t i e s where an exchange of ideas caused a greater f l u x of theological doctrine. Then i n many towns, community e f f o r t s were undertaken and put over by members of a l l congregations. If they could work together i n secular matters, then the thought of worshipping together should not be so remote in t h e i r minds. To the leaders of the churches came another pressing T John 17:2.1, "That they a l l may be one; as thou Father, art i n me, and I i n thee, that they also may be one i n us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me." 120 121 r e a l i t y i n the growing Canadian West. The people were out there and increasing quickly i n numbers every year and i n many of the places there was no church or missionary to bring the gospel to the people or t h e i r children. If such a condition prevailed for long many members would-be l o s t to the Church or j o i n some other denomination. The l a s t a lternative was not considered so disastrous. To keep the new settlements provided with services was overtaxing the resources of the church. At the same time that t h i s con-d i t i o n existed i n many of the f r o n t i e r v i l l a g e s there v/ere too many churches i n numerous other towns where two or more denominations had established churches. This led the Methodists and Presbyterians into a closer co-operation to cope with the s i t u a t i o n as early as 1899. D i s t r i c t s were reserved for certain denomina-tions i n the newly set t l e d parts while many congregations united i n other places. This co-operative movement grew, esp e c i a l l y i n the p r a i r i e s u n t i l i n 1924 i t had taken place i n more than 3100 places of worship out of a t o t a l o of some 9000 in the three uniting churches i n Canada. Those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n such unions had done so with the expectation of i t being done on a national scale i n the very near future. Great amounts of money had been invested in union churches. The leaders and many supporters of the movement f e l t that money saved by co-operation would make 2 Wilson, R.J., Church Union i n Canada a f t e r Three Years, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1929, 16. 122 much more money available for other projects of the churches. The s o c i a l service departments of the larger c i t i e s needed considerable sums to carry on t h e i r work in the c i t y slums. Foreigners needed teachers and workers to help i n t h e i r adaptation to Canadian l i f e . Then again, i f compe-t i t i o n in the foreign mission f i e l d were relieved the work could be carried on more e f f i c i e n t l y . Consequently union appeared to have great advantages. The Church of England had considered union with other denominations and l a i d down as a basis i n the Lambeth Con-ference of 1905 what came to be known as the Lambeth Quad-r i l a t e r a l . From these four conditions.they would not change to conform with any other proposals f o r union. They were as follows: (a) Holy Scriptures as the rule of f a i t h , (b) The Apostle's and Mcene Creeds, (c) the Two Sacraments, (d) Episcopacy. It was the demand fo r Episcopal ordina-t i o n that proved an insurmountable b a r r i e r to union for a l l non-conformist or free churches such as Presbyterian or Methodist. The H i s t o r i c Episcopacy view, as i t was known, placed a l l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l authority in any given d i s t r i c t in the hands of the bishop. The bishop i n turn had received his authority and power from o f f i c i a l s of the church who i n t h e i r turn had the authority given to them by th e i r predecessors and in t h i s way the power had des-cended from bishop to bishop down through the ages from the o r i g i n a l apostles of C h r i s t . This was d i r e c t l y at variance to the democratic idea of government of the church 123 "by elected elders and presbyters. The Baptists were also approached on the subject of union but they could not accept infant baptism in t h e i r creed. This reduced the number concerned tin union to three, Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists, but they were never averse to other denominations d i s -cussing union with them. The negotiations towards the union of these three denominations began with discussions on general consider-ations. Then representatives of each church met separate-ly , then j o i n t l y , then separately again, to prepare data and conclusions f o r t h e i r own church assemblies. As the discussions made progress sub-committees were appointed on doctrine, p o l i t y or government, and l e g i s l a t i o n . These met j o i n t l y , separately at appointed periods for over f i v e years. As a res u l t of t h e i r conferences and committees a basis of union was produced i n 1915. According to the newly proposed creed of the three denominations they believed i n the Hew Testament and i n -terpreted i t from an Evangelical and T r i n i t a r i a n point of view. The rest of the basis included the tenets of the three denominational creeds. As for church government Presbyterian influence was strongly i n evidence, except that some parts were given di f f e r e n t names. The members of the three churches were to form the ground work of the 3 The Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition, Vol. 8, 476, 659. o new organization as they did i n t h e i r former churches. The membership was to be divided into congregations or pastoral charges with sessions i n charge of the s p i r i t u a l side and a committee of stewards handling the finances and secular matters. Over a group of pastoral charges was the presbytery with much the same pos i t i o n as under Presbyter-ianism. Above t h i s was the Conference v/hich took the place of the Synod, or was the p r o v i n c i a l court, and the General Council took over the duties of the General Assem-bly which was the national court of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. It met every two years instead of 4 annually as under Presbyterianism. The conference had some powers not associated with the Presbyterian Jynod, and i t was t h i s that many Presby-terians objected to and gave as a reason for refusing to j o i n the United Church. Under the Presbyterian system the session or congregation appointed or c a l l e d a minister. Then the^Presbytery i f s a t i s f i e d with everything concerning the appointment would select someone, usually a minister, to preside or moderate at the meeting of the congregation and session which o f f i c i a l l y c a l l e d or appointed the new 5 minister to the congregation. The change was made in the powers of the Conference, 4 The United Church of Canada Year Book 1926, 393, 396. 5 The Constitution and Procedure of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Toronto, Presbyterian News Co. (Limited), 26 and 28 Front Street, West, 1887, 56, 57. 125 which could now appoint ministers to any congregation through i t s settlement committee. It acted with a view to sa t i s f y i n g the wishes of the congregation, hut in the event of the congregation f a i l i n g to agree upon whom they wished as pastor, which was often the case under Presbyterianism, the settlement committee could place or s e t t l e a pastor without further delay. This overcame a great weakness i n the Presbyterian system, where many congregations suffered because of a deadlock over the choice of a pastor and nothing could be done to break i t . It was then the duty of the Conference to see that every congregation should have a pastor without interruption. With such a proposition as outlined the committees faced t h e i r respective governing bodies. The General Assembly submitted the basis of union to the synods, and they to the presbyteries and they to the sessions and con-gregations where i t was to be discussed and voted upon. There were two questions concerning union to be voted upon. On the question,"Are you i n favor of organic union with the Methodist and Congregational Churches?", the recorded 7 returns of the elders and members are as follows: For Against T o t a l Presbyterian Elders 6,245 2,745 9,675 Presbyterian Communicants 106,755 48,278 287,944 Presbyterian Adherents 37,175 14,174 The answers for the question, "Do you approve of the proposed Basis of Union?", were: 6 The United Church of Canada Year Book 1926, 393, 396, 3*98. 7 G.A.M., 1915, appendix 302. 126 For Against Presbyterian Elders 5,104 Presbyterian Communicants 77,993 Presbyterian Adherents 27,756 2,192 27,197 10,316 The General Conference Special Committee of the Meth-odist Church declared i t s e l f " s a t i s f i e d that the Methodist Church is now prepared to proceed toward the Union of the three negotiating Churches on the Basis of Union hereto-fore agreed upon1'. (Minutes of Conference, July 16-17, 1912) . After some alter a t i o n s to the Basis of Union, the matter was again sent down to the sessions and congrega-tions for t h e i r opinion. They were asked to answer a ques-t i o n : "Are you i n favor of Union with the Methodist and Congregational Churches of Canada on the Basis approved by the General Assembly of 1915?" The returns showed that 53 presbyteries were favorable, 13 unfavorable, three t i e s , two were irre l e v a n t , one was rejected and four made no g return. The elders were s l i g h t l y less than two to one in favor of union, and among the numbers 60 per cent, of the communicants were i n favor and 63 per cent, of the ad-Q herents were i n favor. As a resu l t of these referendums, the General Assembly in 1916 resolved by a vote of 406 to 90 to unite with the Methodist and Congregational ChurcheB. 1^ To bring i t about they appointed a committee to plan i n conjunction with the other committees of the Methodists and Congregationalists, 8" Wilson, R . J . , op. c i t . , 2 1 . 9 McNeill, J . T . , The Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1875-1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, 1925,256. 10 McNeill, J i T . , op. c i t . , 256, See also, Wilson, R . J . , op. c i t . , 2 1 . 127 the necessary l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l parliaments to pass. But due to the stress of the times i t was decided to postpone the adoption of thi s committee's report u n t i l a f t e r the War. No further progress was made u n t i l 1921, except when i n 1917 both sides agreed to cease propaganda, f o r an opposition to union had heen set up. In 1921 the General Assembly again decided to bring about v union as soon as possible. Meanwhile hopes f o r unanimity i n the Presbyterian Church were blasted by the determined opposition of the minority. "Literature began to c i r c u l a t e which gave argu-ments for rej e c t i n g union. Then the unionists sent out l i t e r a t u r e favoring union. The anti-unionists claimed that union would seriously disrupt many congregations be-cause they would not a l l go 100 per cent, one way or 100 per, cent., the other. They interpreted the oneness men-tioned i n the intercessory prayer of Christ i n John 17:21 as not forbidding d i f f e r e n t administrations. They believed that there should be d i v e r s i t y of organization and admin-i s t r a t i o n to comply with ( l Corinthians 12:4) which speaks of the church having " d i v e r s i t i e s of g i f t s by the same s p i r i t " . They then referred to the hist o r y of church movements where according to them formal and outward union caused disruption, oppression and s p i r i t u a l decay. Another ser-ious objection i n the basis of union was the extra power of appointment given to the conference. This they claimed was very undemocratic and anti-Presbyterian. If union were not hastened, the anti-unionists believed that t h e i r num-bers would soon grow enough to reject union. The fact that a parliamentary b i l l was necessary seemed to them a measure of force which should not be tolerated by l o y a l P r e s b y t e r i a n s . 1 1 Underneath a l l the opposition to union, might possibly be found the unwillingness to lose the name and the Scottish connection. Presbyterianism had a long h i s t o r y and a proud t r a d i t i o n which would now be 12 cut off i f union were to triumph. The disposal of the property of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada was also a trying transaction for the anti-unionists, l e g i s l a t i o n by Parliament was necessary to carry out anything of thi s nature. Then they claimed that the Presbyterian Church had no right to make a new doctrine which d i f f e r e d i n the least respect from the Westminster Confession of F a i t h . This they believed with such firm conviction that they issued a writ to prevent the passage of the Union B i l l through parliament on these grounds. In defending them-selves the unionists claimed that the standards had been a l -tered i n 1860 to form a basis of intended union and they had been again altered in 1887 by the assembly and there 11 The Presbyterian Church Association, A Statement of the case of the Presbyterian Church Association i n opposi-t i o n to the proposed union of Presbyterian, Congregational, and Methodist Churches, 1923, 11-19. 12 Scott, Ephraim, "Church Union" and the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Montreal, John L o v e l l and Son, Limited, Publisher, 1928, 104-107. was no d i v i s i o n i n the church. Therefore the Assembly-voted by an overwhelming majority for union and maintained that i t was the duty of a l l members to obey.the supreme court of the church. L e g i s l a t i o n was then prepared i n the form of a draft b i l l , to be presented to parliament. It was sanctioned i n the General Assembly i n 1923, by a vote of 427 to 129. During the following winter the approved l e g i s l a t i o n v w a s sought i n the Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l parliaments. The 1924 Assembly, by a decisive vote of 426 to 96 urged the Federal Parliament to enact the l e g i s l a t i o n presented. In a notable debate the p r i n c i p l e of corporate freedom of churches was admirably set f o r t h by the leader of the op-position i n parliament and with slight amendment the Commons passed the b i l l by an overwhelming vote on July 19, 1924. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the b i l l was very ably support-ed before the Private B i l l s Committee of the Legislature by P r i n c i p a l W.H.Smith, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., on 20 November 1924, and i n December 1924 the b i l l was passed. The purpose of the United Church of Canada Act was primarily to secure a f a i r adjustment of property and to prevent future l i t i g a t i o n . It recognized the union of the three churches as taking effect on 10 June 1925, and i n -corporated The United Church of Canada as a property hold-ing body. It provided for a commission to s e t t l e property issues, consisting of nine members, three each from the 13 McNeill, J.T., op. C i t . , 62, 258. 130 non-concurrents and the United Church and three others appointed hy these six, or i f they f a i l e d to agree, hy the Chief Justice of Canada. Any congregation could leave the United Church of Canada, i f a majority of the members voted accordingly, sometime between 10 December 1924 and 10 June 1925, and r e t a i n the church property. The non-concurrents could also p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r f u l l share of the general property of the church as decided by the commission. Out of the t o t a l of 4,512 congregations within the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 784 chose to continue as congregations of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. By the award of the Dominion Commission the trustees of the non-concurring congregations received 22.04 per cent, of the t o t a l assets of the pension funds of the Presbyter-ian Church i n Canada; two colleges, representing almost 50 per cent, of the college assets; about 23.3 per cent, of the Home Mission properties and assets, and about 25 per cent, of the Foreign Mission properties. That is to say: out of assets t o t a l l i n g approximately #10,000,000 the non-concurrents received upwards of #3,250,000, or about 31 per cent, of the whole. This corresponds general-l y with the proportion of the membership of the Presbyter-ian Church i n Canada which did not see f i t to enter the United Church of Canada. 1 4 14 Wilson, R.J., op. c i t . , 29, 30. B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M E M B E R S O F T H E F I R S T G E N E R A L -C O U N C I L O F T H E U N I T E D C H U R C H O F C A N A D A H E L D I N T H E C I T Y O F T O R O N T O , J U N E I O T H T O 1 8 T H . 1 9 2 5 R E A D I N G F R O M L E F T T O R I G H T : B A C K R O W : C . E . M A H O N . V A N C O U V E R ; G . M C G R E G O R , V I C T O R I A ; J U D G E G R A N T , V A N C O U V E R ; R . H . C A I R N S , G E O R G E B E L L , R E V . D R . S . S . O S T E R H O U T , R E V . J . G . B R O W N , V A N C O U V E R ; J U D G E J . D . S W A N S O N , K A M L O O P S ; R E V . F . W . H A R D Y . V I C T O R I A . M I D D L E R O W : R E V . J . R . R O B E R T S O N , V A N C O U V E R : R E V . D R . W . G . W I L S O N , V I C T O R I A ; R E V . D R . S . D . C H O W N , T O R O N T O ; R E V . D R . G E O . C . P I D G E O N . M O D E R A T O R . T O R O N T O ; R E V . D R . W . H . W A R R I N E R . M O N T R E A L ; R E V . R . J . M C I N T Y R E , V A N C O U V E R . F R O N T R O W : R E V . D R . W . H . S M I T H , R E V . D R . A . E . M I T C H E L L . V A N C O U V E R : R E V . J . F . M I L L E R . P E N T I C T O N ; J . W . J O N E S , M . L . A . . K E L O W N A : R E V . D R . J . S . H E N D E R S O N , V A N C O U V E R ; R E V . D R . W . J . S I P P R E L L , V I C T O R I A . O N L Y A B S E N T E E : G E O R G E D E A R I N G , V A N C O U V E R . CHAPTER XIII •THE UNITED CHURCH OP CANADA IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SINCE 1925 This table compares s t a t i s t i c s , of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada for B r i t i s h Columbia i n the years 1925 and 1928, which i s before and afte r union, and with those of the United Church of Canada for B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1928. References :Year :No. of :No. of :No. of : Total . Sab- [Revenue :Pas-; re- : t o r a l :Preach- Minis- :Member- : bath :Raised charg-:ferr- : es : ing . ters : ship :School :for a l l : i n -: ed :clud- :Places : on :Schol- : Purposes : ing . to :Home ! the : ars :Mis-: sions : r o l l General Assembly 1924 : 142 : 387 • 133 .18,608 : 22,844 :|483,145 Minutes 1925 General Assembly 1927 : 45 : 61 47 . 5,785 . 5,082. :$164,540 Minutes 1928 : United ' X Church 1927 : 204 529 32,593 37,641 |l,020,3. Year Book : 1928 T^Por the year 1928. 131 132 THE UNITED CHURCH OP CANADA IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SINCE 1925 Prom.the foregoing table, i t is possible to compare the numerical strength of the United Church of Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia with that of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada i n 1924. It w i l l be noted that the membership was nearly doubled and that the revenue raised was far more than doubled. There were also t-wo organizations now where formerly there had been three organizations. Por these reasons the strength of the United Church was much greater to accomplish that which had been the aim of many for years. Accordingly, survey committees were appointed i n a number of presbyteries, which committees gathered informa-t i o n and made recommendations, that resulted i n consoli-dating the work at many points. Neglected d i s t r i c t s were ministered with s l i g h t additional cost to the Home Mission Committee. Por example, in V i c t o r i a Presbytery, only one man was required. One f i e l d , through the labors of the missionary and increased l i b e r a l i t y of the people became self-supporting, two others became se l f - s u s t a i n i n g on ac-count of l o c a l union and three others were removed from the aid-receiving l i s t . 1 It was now possible to place ordained missionaries over large areas, formerly v i s i t e d p only by students on summer vacations. As a result of these 1 1926 Year Book, 326. 2 1927 Year Book, 110. 133 findings the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference was divided into presbyteries as indicated i n the following table: UNITED CHURCH OP CANADA 1928 IN BRITISH COLUMBIA*3 Presbyteries : Pas-: t o r a l : charg-: es ;Preach-: ing rPlaces :Member-: ship ; Sunday :Schools tSunday :School :Member-: ship Cariboo : 9 : 68 : 498 : 29 : 1,017 Kamioops-Okanagan '• 31 : 96 : 3,862 : 60 : 4,872 Kootenay United 19 : 56 : 1,911 : 39 : 3,160 Prince Rupert 21 : 47 : 931 : 28 : 1,351 Vancouver ' 58 124 : 15,518 : 80 : 17,361 V i c t o r i a : 33 . 58 4,825 : 51 : 5,519 Westminster 33 80 : ' 3,907 : 61 : 5,935 United Church of : Canada i n B.S. : 192.7 Totals : 204 • 529 : 31,452 : 348 ; 39,215 Presbyterian : Church i n Canada : 1925 Totals : 52 : 387 : 18,608: 235 : ' 25,155 1928 Year Book 543. 134 From the above table i t can be seen what a tremendous increase i n membership each presbytery had compared with the membership of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada i n 1925. It was therefore much more economic and eff e c t i v e to work through p r a c t i c a l l y one denomination of greater numbers than where two or three denominations had been competing formerly with each other and having much fewer members each. Much of the work i n B r i t i s h Columbia was under the Home Mission Committee, because of the nature and circum-stances of the work. For the f i r s t three years the Super-intendent of Home Missions f o r the Conference of B r i t i s h Columbia was the Reverend Oliver Darwin, D.D. On June 30, 1928, he was succeeded by the Reverend George A. Wilson as Superintendent of Home Missions for a l l of B r i t i s h Columbia, except Kootenay United Presbytery, he having been formerly the Home Mission Superintendent for the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia under the Presbyterian Church in Canada. At the same time the Reverend S.S.Osterhout was also made Superin-tendent for Kootenay United Presbytery and the Oriental work west of the Great Lakes, and the Reverend Arthur 4 Barner was made Superintendent of Indian Missions. The missionary work in the province was affected greatly by the tremendous material prosperity enjoyed by industry. This r e a l l y increased the l i a b i l i t y of the Home Mission department since so many of the workers l i v e d i n camps i n out of the way places. Here the man were sub-4 1928 Year Book, 326. 135 jected to the constant harangue of the communist whom missionaries of the church regarded as parasites. Under such conditions the Reverend George A. Wilson f e l t i t neces-sary to report, that instead of a s p i r i t u a l gospel, an appeal along the l i n e s of humanitarian interests must he preached. To meet the needs of the coast camps, the United Church of Canada had f i v e mission boats available on Paci-f i c Coast waters. The "Thomas Crosby", manned by the Rev-erend Robert C. Scott, B.A. and Captain Wm. Oliver, was stationed at Queen Charlotte Islands. The "William Oliver", was operated by Reverend S.V.H.Redman with headquarters at Alert Bay. The "Sky P i l o t " , under Reverend George C P . Pringle, B.A., worked with headquarters at Vananda. The "Edward White", was operated by the Reverend George Knox, a missionary who was located at Cape Mudge; v/hile the "Broadcaster" had i t s f i e l d of operation on the west coast 5 of Vancouver Island, c h i e f l y on Barclay Sound. Of these f i v e boats, three were formerly Methodist, the "Thomas Crosby", "William Oliver", and "Edward White". The two Presbyterian boats were the, "Sky P i l o t " and the "Broad-caster". There were also two boats for the hospitals at Port Simpson and B e l l a B e l l a , both from the Methodist Church. The coast marine work was c a r r i e d on from year to year amid storms and peace. Por two years 1932 and 1933 5 1929 Year Book, 147. l < * t ° l Ye«r ft.or* , WLf . 136 no boat was on the west coast of Vancouver Island. However from July 17 to December 31, 1934 the Reverend G.R.B. Kinney, B.A., P.R.G.S., i n charge of the "Melvin Swartout" c a l l e d at 213 places and v i s i t e d 485 families and 2,627 single persons on the west coast. He gives an i l l u s t r a t i o n of his work i n a report as follows: On November 24th, while seas were thrashed with gales and wrecks strewed the shores, we t r a -v e l l e d 30 miles to Ucluelet. With us were two Packers — i t is safer i n storm to travelw i t h company. Our congregation that night consisted of Japanese and Whites, 72 i n a l l . Almost every night of that t r i p we were i n a new port and held services day af t e r day. The gales p e r s i s t -ed, with only now and then a b r i e f pause. Some-times we put out to sea only to be driven back in again, but almost always wewould be able to held a service somewhere that night. I announced I would hold a picture service at 9:00 o'clock. Despite the lateness of the hour there were 73 people in attendance. I suggested singing, and to my amazement the young Japanese ladies sang b e a u t i f u l l y . Then they themselves proposed the singing of hymns and we had a wonderful service. I learned l a t e r that these g i r l s learned t h e i r hymns at the United Church Japanese Missions i n Vancouver. A number of times we had hurried c a l l s , and we had to drop our regular work and take people to the h o s p i t a l . Pour such t r i p s of several hundred miles, and the skipper and I were up night and day, but service l i k e t h i s i s very much appreciated by the people along the coast. A famous man who should not be overlooked i n t h i s work i s Captain Yfilliam Oliver, a Methodist layman who dedicated his l i f e to the missionary work i n 1884 when he completed "The Glad Tidings", a mission boat which he ran for the Methodist Church. He b u i l t or helped build other boats and worked i n missionary work on the P a c i f i c Coast, 6 Year Book 1935, 160. 137 with the Methodists and United Church for a t o t a l of 53 years. During the l a t t e r part of his l i f e he l i v e d i n the Queen Charlotte Islands. Two months before reaching the ripe old age of 89, he died i n New Westminster on 3 Jan-uary 1937. 7 Another branch of the United Church Missionary ef-fort was that within the Cit y of Vancouver. The Reverend J.R.Craig who had been the minister for several years was succeeded i n January 1930 by the Reverend Andrew Roddan of Port Arthur. Under Reverend Roddan and his staff of com-munity house workers, the church was taxed to i t s greatest capacity during the years of the depression. Speaking from personal observation, one member reports: We have seen 1200 men lined up at one time waiting to receive meals or rations. This work was carried.on month afte r month. We thank God that our minister was able to help thousands al-r so who came to his study with t h e i r domestic problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s . No one was ever turned away. Our minister spent much of his time also in the "Jungles" of t h i s great c i t y , where the hobo, the tramp, the d r i f t e r and thousands of homeless men of a l l races and creeds l i v e d in the open or i n rude huts b u i l t from refuse found i n the c i t y dump. Here with generous contribu-tions .by friends of food, clothing and money, he was able to minister to the needs of thous-ands who had been forced by circumstances into the depths of poverty and despair.^ There were 74 other a c t i v i t i e s of the church. At the Fresh A i r Camp 540 persons were cared f o r and 229 were provided f o r without charge; 53,785 meals were given and 8,311 parcels distributed; 389 people were given some em-7 Vancouver Daily Province, January 4, 1937, 2, 8 1932 Year Book, 166, ployment, and wages amounting to $800 were paid for ser-vices rendered. This was i n 1931. In 1932 through the generosity of congregations and interested individuals, they were able to d i s t r i b u t e to needy persons 73 tons of vegetables, 2,300 pounds of beef hearts, 3000 pounds of fl o u r , 6 tons of apples, 10,000 loaves of bread, while 25,545 people were assisted i n some way through the Good W i l l Industries. A Scandinavian mission was b u i l t on Cordova Street, Vancouver, and a large section of these people were reached by R.L.Nanthrup who was i n charge. Another foreign section of the population upon which a great deal of energy and money was spent were the Orien-t a l s . The Reverend S.S.Oeterhout, Ph.D., D.D., supervised 9 th i s branch of the work since 1928. To date t h i s work had seven Japanese missions. These were situated at Kelowna, Ocean P a l l s , Vancouver, Cumberland, V i c t o r i a , Mission C i t y and New Westminster with some having other preaching places to v i s i t . ^ The t o t a l membership at Kelowna. and environs was 76, at Ocean P a l l s 20, Vancouver 289, Cumberland 48, V i c t o r i a 93, Praser Valley 135, and New Westminster 138. 1 1 There was also a Japanese Church i n Steveston, B.C. Chinese work was carried on in the I n t e r i o r with Kam-loops as the centre and a membership of 18. In the south eastern part of B r i t i s h Columbia, the work was propagated from Cranbrook to the other towns, the membership being 8. 9 1928 Year Book, 326. 10 1936 Year Book, 499-519. 11 1936 Year Book, 499-519. 139 In V i c t o r i a a t h r i v i n g mission v/ith a membership of 66 had been f l o u r i s h i n g f o r 50 years, begun by the Methodists. There was also the F i r s t Presbyterian Chinese Church i n V i c t o r i a f i r s t organized i n 1899 but i t did not unite. Nanaimo and New Westminster also had Chinese missions, each with a membership of nine including outlying towns. 12 Vancouver had a Chinese mission with a membership of 85, ' The Chinese work was mostly iti n e r a n t and progressed very slowly. This was accounted f o r by the international s i t u a t i o n that existed between Great B r i t a i n and China when protection was not given against the aggressiveness of Japan i n Manchuria. S i m i l a r l y Japanese and Bast Indians r e f l e c t e d the effect of international events, as. they took place in the Orient. This often resulted in the r e v i v a l of Buddhism among the Japanese, who b u i l t at least eight temples i n the l a s t eight years. On the other hand the East Indians turned to t h e i r Sikh r e l i g i o n . However some names should not be forgotten of those who labored for t h e i r people. Among several might be men-tioned Reverend Chan Sing Kai, f i r s t missionary to the Chinese in Canada who spoke at the Golden Jubilee celebra-t i o n of the V i c t o r i a Chinese Mission i n 1935. Another Chinese name was that of Reverend D.T.Lowe also of V i c t o r i a who sought to cement the friendship of Japanese and Chinese 14 Christians i n Canada. There were also some Chinese names 12 1936 Year Book, 499-519. 13 1936 Year Book, 126. 14 1936 Year Book, 127. 140 in connection with the Presbyterian work, (see pages 79-84). A Japanese name that cannot be overlooked, i s that of Reverend Y. Akagawa, whose t h r i v i n g work in the Praser V a l -ley t e s t i f i e s to his i n t r e p i d i t y . The work among the East Indians v/as carried on by Reverend W.L.Macrae and l a t e r by the Reverend and Mrs. J.S.McKay, experienced missionaries of India, but to l i t t l e a v a i l . It seemed that these people were prejudiced as a result of immigration rulings and the treatment received by many of them i n th e i r contacts with people of Canada. Interspersed with the Orientals on the coast, espec-i a l l y with the Japanese i n the f i s h i n g industry, were the native Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. To aid the United Church of Canada i n administering to the needs of these people, were the schools, churches, missions and mission-aries of the Methodist Church along with those at Alberni and Ahousat, v/hich were granted to the United Church at the time of union. The 1930 Year Book of the United Church of Canada reports the following in operation: 15 Pastoral Charge Minister B e l l a Coola... Hartley Bay... Kispiox Kitamaat ..... Kitzeguela ... Klerntu Port Essington Port Simpson . Skidegate .... P.R.Kelly James Oliver A.E.Burnett J.E.Rendle George Edgar W.H.Pierce V.H.Sansum J.H.Matthews 15 1T930 Year Book, 594-617. Pastoral Charge Minister Clo-oose Koksilah Ucluelet Ahousat Alherni School J. Jones F.E.Pitts J.T.Ross J.A.Millar Coqualeetza School G.H.Raley Well known among these is P.R.Kelly, a Haida Indian of the Queen Charlotte Islands and one of the outstanding preachers on the coast. George Edgar was of Scottish and Indian blood and gave his whole l i f e to missionary 16 work, passing away on 7 November 1931. A friend of his v/as W.H.Pierce of Scottish and Tsimpshean blood whose l i f e story i s t o l d i n his book, "From Potlatch to P u l p i t " , 17 edited by Reverend J.P.Hicks of V i c t o r i a . Dr. George H. Raley, o r i g i n a l l y a Methodist, spent many years serving at Port Simpson as superintendent of the hospital and orphanage and l a t e r as p r i n c i p a l of Coqualeetza Indian 18 Institute at Sardis. This i n s t i t u t e i s one of the f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l In-dian schools in the province. These schools went i n f o r academic work as well as domestic and technical work. Some of the pupils have made admirable progress as i s shown by t h e i r work in the Canadian P a c i f i c Exhibitions held i n Vancouver every year. E f f o r t s were made to make 16 1932 Year Book, 137-205. 17 1934 Year Book, 138. See also, 1933 Year Book, 139. 18 1933 Year Book, 139. See also, 1934 Year Book, 198. the work as p r a c t i c a l as possible. For instance to the boys on the coast, boat-building was one. .of. the s p e c i a l t i e s 19 pursued. The s.chools were situated at. Ahousat, Alberni, Kitamaat, Port Simpson,, and Sardis. The Dominion Govern-ment b u i l t the Indian School at Coqualeetza, B r i t i s h Col-umbia. The administration of the school was by the United Church of Canada and at present Captain R.C.Scott, B.A., is the p r i n c i p a l . The other schools v/ere supported by PQ the Woman's Missionary and the Home Mission Board, The Woman's Missionary Society of the United Church of Canada made i t one of th e i r p a r t i c u l a r tasks. There were also several day schools conducted in connection with the In-dian missions by the missionary-teachers. Hand i n hand withtthe schools and missions and marine service went the work of the nurse and the doctor. One of the f i r s t things to be taught was sanitation and health habits, therefore nurses were members of the s t a f f s . But to cope with the appalling conditions hospitals were neces-sary. To the United Church of Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Methodists bequeathed four hospitals well staffed a,nd equipped. They were as follows: The R.W.TLarge Memorial Hospital at Be l l a Bella, B r i t i s h Columbia, under Reverend 19 The schools at Alberni and Ahousat v/ere burned and r e b u i l t . The Alberni school was burned i n 1917 (G.A.M., 1918, appendix 41,50), and re b u i l t in 1920, (G.A.M., 1921, appendix 42) but burned again 14 February 1937. 20 1936 Year Book, 158. 143 George E. Darby, M.D. with a nursing s t a f f of seven and a comfortable motor boat for service, the "Kla-quaek"; the Bel l a Coola Hospital at Be l l a Coola, B r i t i s h Columbia, under Dr. H.A.McLean with a nursing s t a f f of three; the Hazelton Hospital, Hazelton, B r i t i s h Columbia, under Reverend Horace C. Wrinch, M.D., D.D., M.L.A., with a nursing s t a f f of 13; and the Port Simpson Hospital, Port Simpson, B r i t i s h Colum-bia, with a nursing s t a f f of seven, and a motor boat for 21 service, the "Sunbeam I I I " , a l l under Dr. R.Geddes Large. These hospitals were for the benefit of the public as well as the Indians. They were supported by the Home Mission Board, Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l Governments, fees, donations, Woman*s Missionary Society and the Women*s A u x i l i a r y . These havens of deliverance have proven t h e i r value many times on 22 the coast and in the i n t e r i o r . Not only to the bodily and educational requirements were the services furnished, but also and foremost was the regular membership considered. This required ordained ministers and a college to t r a i n them. This was carried out by uniting the three theological colleges into one, v i z . : Westminster H a l l , Ryerson College, and Congregation-a l College of B r i t i s h Columbia. On 21 May 1927 the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference gathered for the laying of the corner stone of the Union Theological College of B r i t i s h Columbia. The inaugural ceremonies of the new college building took 21 1931 Year Book, 152-153. See also, 1933 Year Book, 171. 22 1931 Year Book, 152-153. 144 place on' the 19 Octoher 1927 and the Presbytery of Van-couver inducted the P r i n c i p a l , Reverend J.G.Brown, M.A., D.D., and the Honorary P r i n c i p a l and Professor of Church History, Reverend W.H.Smith, M.A., Ph.D., D.D. The pro-cess of a f f i l i a t i o n of the new college with the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was begun at the e a r l i e s t possible date, and on the 10th day of January, 1928,' the f i n a l act of the University Board of Governors completely consummated the a f f i l i a t i o n of Union College of B r i t i s h ' Columbia with 23 the P r o v i n c i a l University. Then with the co-operation of the Anglican College and proximity of the University courses necessary were provided at a maximum of economy so f u l f i l l -ing a long f e l t desire to provide B r i t i s h Columbia more adequately with ministers. By 1934 the Library Tower of the College had been com-pleted in concrete in spite of the world f i n a n c i a l depres-sion, thus greatly adding to the f a c i l i t i e s for the the-24 ol o g i c a l students. In 1936 the P r i n c i p a l was able to re-port that 31 candidates for the ministry had been enrolled and that he looked forward to an increase i n the attendance in the future and that B r i t i s h Columbia homes would fu r n i s h s u f f i c i e n t men for the needs of the p r o v i n c e . 2 5 The United Church of Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n a better p o s i t i o n to provide ministers wherever needed be-23 1928 Year B ok, 241. 24 1934 Year Book, 91. 25 1936 Year Book, 66, 67. 145 cause of i t s increased membership and of having lesser competition. There were greater resources to draw from, when the membership was increased. This resulted i n a defi n i t e trend towards the humanitarian, and s o c i a l aspects of church work. But i t also contrasted with the s p i r i t u a l emphasis which was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Presbyterian and Metho-di s t programmes of the previous century. The value of either of these aims to those to whom they were applied is a matter of opinion. But as f a r as can be seen from present conditions the s p i r i t u a l is lacking and needs to be emphasized. 146 This table shows the progress of the United Church of Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia for the years 1925 to 1935. Refer-ences Year Book of the United Church of Canada Year: No. of : Pas-t o r a l : charges ,includ-. ing .Home .Missions No. of ! Preach-ing Places T o t a l : Member-ship Sunday : School : includ-: ing : 'Offic-ers , : Teach- : ers, Schol-: ars Total : Member-: ship : of : Women's: Organ- : i z a - : t ions T o t a l raised f o r a l l purposes .1925; 30,359 ] fa 1927 : p. 183: 1926] '31,452 . 37,649 ; 9,909 j 893,465 1928 : p. 529 ,1927] 204 529 . !32,593 . 39 223:55: 11,843 : 791,842 1929 p. 189 1928; 213 : . 544 ; 32,489 ; 40,241 ; 14,141 ; 1,020,319 1930 p. 251 ;i929" 213 590 ; 33,302 40 r35a ; 14,700 : 1,041,981 1931 V. 205 |l930. 204 570 33,759 41,803 ! 14,4322! 945,459 1932 P. 211 :193i; 200 ; 692 '34,200 : 41,029 j 14,751 873,060 1933 P. 211 1932; 194 ; 585 1 34,562 ! 40,851 ! 14,412 753,419 1934 . p. 223 '1933; 200 549 35,694 . 40,784 ; 15,015 ' 698,017 1935 i>. 199 '1934 204 ' 437. [34,885 39,944 ! 15,650 672,014 1936 P. 175 ;i935! 202 ; 749 35,249 38,485 I 15,640 ' 679,111 CHAPTER XIV THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN CANADA SPTER UNION, 1925 to 1935 For whatever reasons that the 4325^ communicants i n B r i t i s h Columbia of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada decided not to j o i n the United Church of Canada, they must be admired for acting f i r m l y upon t h e i r own convic-tions in the face of odds that were not very encouraging. With diminished numbers, workers, and f i n a n c i a l resources i t took courage to continue. They did not wish to see that crest, the "Burning Bush", go into oblivion as f a r as Canada v/as concerned. They s t i l l wanted to belong to the church of t h e i r fathers, a church whose counterpart existed i n Scotland. On taking reconnaissance of th e i r forces aft e r June 10, 1925 they found t h e i r ranks greatly depleted. In the Presbytery of Cariboo there was only one minister and one church, in Kootenay Presbytery no minister and three churches, i n Kamloops Presbytery no minister and no church, i n Westminster Presbytery ten ministers and twelve churches, and in the Presbytery of V i c t o r i a s i x ministers and f i v e 1 Estimated by R.J.Douglas, D.D., (General Assembly Minutes, 1935, appendix 12.) 147 148 p churches. These added together made 17 ministers and 21 churches i n the whole Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia with which to begin reorganization. As near as could be ascertained by Reverend R.J.Douglas, D.D., Synodical Missionary, the following figures showed how the church progressed i n the la s t ten years.^ 1925 1935 Ministers 17 41 Elders 68 229 Churches 21 48 Communicants 4,325 6,284 Sunday Schools 37 , 7 1 Scholars 374 6,678 From these s t a t i s t i c s i t can be seen that 28 churches were bought or b u i l t . Por these congregations the new church was a heavy burden and four groups found i t neces-sary to continue worshipping i n rented h a l l s as la t e as 1935. In the reorganization of the Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia the General Assembly divided the t e r r i t o r y into four pres-byteries, v i z . , Kootenay, Kamloops, Westminster, and Vi c -t o r i a . Since Westminster Presbytery had a l l of the minis-ters of the mainland of the province, i t was forced to take care of Kootenay and Kamloops Presbyteries which had no ministers. V i c t o r i a Presbytery was f a i r l y w e ll supplied. By 1935 the Kootenay Presbytery regained f u l l charge of i t s own d i s t r i c t with f i v e ministers but Kamloops continued to be supplied from Westminster Presbytery. 4 2 G.A.M., 1935, appendix 12. 3 i b i d . , 12. 4 i b i d . , 12. 149 To aupply the scattered members with services was the great d i f f i c u l t y to overcome in B r i t i s h Columbia. There were not enough of them, in one place to warrant a regular pastor, and distances were.too great to j o i n two or more groups to make a sizeable congregation. This meant a larger supply of men and money to minister t o the f i e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i t was improbable that any more than a very few congregations would emerge from the mission status. The conditions during the depression added to the task of carrying on but members might have increased t h e i r contributions for missionaries i n new f i e l d s . New opportunities awaited i n Vancouver, where several points wished Presbyterian services. The p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing services i n the recently opened mining centres was also considered by the Synod. Under circumstances as before mentioned the Presby-t e r i a n Church i n Canada was climbing a steep grade to maintain t h e i r existence. As to the worth of t h e i r e f f o r t s , much depended upon the opinion of the observer. To a s i n -cere believer in Presbyterianism and one who had t i e s with the land of heather i t was e a s i l y well worth the trouble. Bufctto an outsider looking at the creeds, aims, practised " ." r e l i g i o n , and achievements there would seem l i t t l e rea-son for the Presbyterian Church i n Canada as f a r as B r i t i s h Columbia was concerned to continue as a separate e n t i t y . 150 The following i s a tahle of general s t a t i s t i c s of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1925-1935 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. References: in General: Assembly : Minutes : Year : re- : f e r r - : ed : : to : Minis-: ters : on the: r o l l : of the: pres- : by- : tery : No.of: Con- : gre- : ga- ; tions: No.° of : Preach-: ing : sta- : tions : Sunday: School: Schol-: ars : No. of : Comrnun-: icants : on the : r o l l : Grand t o t a l raised for a l l purposes 1925 app. 471 11924 ; 133 ; 142 ; 387 122,844 ;18,608 I1483,145 1926 app. 192 '1925 ; 36 I 56 ! 56 ! 4,325 ! 4,759 ! 103,266 1927 app. 246* 11926 ; 45 ; 64 1 64 j 4,962 j 4,958 * 128,466 1928 app. 288 'l927 1 47 : 6 i ; 61 1 5,082 j 5,785 1 164,540 1929 app. 280 ;i928 ; 50 : 62 : 62 I 5,182 1 5,990 . 162,040 1930 app. 298 11929 • 59 : 62 : 62 I 5,275 I 6,142 169,845 1931 app. 290 ;i930 ; 55 ; 60 : 6o ! 5,318 ! 6,032 ! 161,642 1932 app. 272 ;i93i 1 54 : 60 : 6o j 5,223 I 6,202 ; 146,206 1933 app. 278 ;i932 ; 58 : 58 : 58 j 5,469 1 6,140 I 126,008 1934 app. 264 ;i933 : 57 ; 57 : 57 ! 4,469 * 6,177 1 111,374 1935 app. 306 11934 : 55 : 54 : 54 1 4,760 ; 6,160 I 105,616 1936 app. 290 ;i935 j 56 ; 54 : 54 I 4,414 ; 6,025 I 105,114 5 Composed of the sum of: 1 congregations i n self - s u s t a i n i n g charges, 2 congregations i n augmented charges, 3 congregations i n mission f i e l d s . CHAPTER XV CONCLUSION Although much praise has been accorded to the S c o t t i s h people for t h e i r courage and rugged character, yet they lose some of i t because they f a i l e d to be f i r s t i n bring-ing Presbyterianism to B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia needed Presbyterian preachers and missionaries during the gold rush years and years preceding this time, to minister to people from Scotland and Canada who adhered to t h i s f a i t h . But no preacher or missionary would venture from Scotland u n t i l the work was already established. To Reverend John H a l l , from Ireland and Reverend Rob-ert Jamieson, o r i g i n a l l y from Ireland but sent out by the Canada Presbyterian Church must go the credit of e stab-l i s h i n g the f i r s t Presbyterian church on Vancouver Island and the mainland i n 1862. The Church of Scotland did send out t h e i r men but i t was a slow process. Reverend Thomas Somerville arrived i n 1865, to take over John Hall's church, and Reverend Simon McGregor succeeded Somerville in 1870. It took McGregor another f i v e years to persuade four more to come. However they were the only ones from any Presbyterian organization that did t r y to cope with the need at t h i s time. Furthermore, the missionaries 151 152 sent out by the Church of Scotland were usually well ed-ucated. This was also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of missionaries from Canada and the Maritime Provinces. But i t also meant that these men of education expected advancement. As soon as the opportunity offered i t s e l f some of them l e f t the f i e l d . It was then some time before another man could replace them. Such intermittent service had a very detrimental effect upon the progress of missionary work in B r i t i s h Columbia. Students or graduates as a whole were unwilling to supply the mission charges. James Robertson complained b i t t e r l y of t h e i r lack of s i n c e r i t y f o r preaching the gospel in the North-West because of inconveniences and hardships. Herein was found a serious weakness in the Presbyterian organiza-t i o n and system. It showed a certain backsliding on the part of the leaders when the students would not shoulder the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . If the students needed leadership in the study of theology they also needed i t i n the mission f i e l d . However i t might be added here that the men sent out by the Presbyterian Church in Canada seemed better adapted to the work than those who came from Scotland. This was due to the pioneer environment that the men from eastern Canada had been raised i n . Money as well as men was required f o r the new f i e l d and James Robertson was instrumental i n having both supplied for a period of years. Under his un t i r i n g e f f o r t s the "Church and Manse Building Fund" was established and t h i s resulted in many churches and manses being erected through-out the pioneer settlements. But i t seemed as though t h i s feature of Preshyterianism v/as overstressed for i t tended to follow the idea that working and doing things f o r the church was e f f i c a c i o u s for the salvation of the soul. The newer ideas on interpretation of the scriptures caused more dependence on the human reason and e f f o r t s instead of the old absolute dependence upon the grace of God and the utter devaluation of a l l the good works of man. It r e s u l t -ed i n increasing and absorbing interest i n s o c i a l and moral reforms. The ministry of the Word became in many places secondary to s o c i a l service. The humanitarian philosophy was exercised more than the old fundamentals of the Catechism. These ideals were applied to the s i t u a t i o n on the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, in the camps where the single men were employed. It was f e l t that the old fashioned doctrine would not appeal to them. Therefore movies, t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s , magazines and other forms of enter-tainment were provided. The preaching and l i t e r a t u r e were planned to offset Communism. Communism was gaining large numbers of the working class. Presbyterians could not agree with Communism, since they believed that God ran the universe and planned and fore-ordained everything. Communism on the other hand based the movements and con-ditions of t h i s world on the economic environment or the s i t u a t i o n of the wealth and natural resources of the world. On the whole there were not many of the laboring class 154 in the Presbyterian Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia unless they were Scottish miners and even these began to withdraw them-selves a f t e r labor and c a p i t a l c o n f l i c t s became sharper. Most of the congregations were made up of the middle c l a s s . Several ministers said that t h e i r congregations were farm-ers, artisans, tradesmen, or o f f i c i a l s of some kind. The congregations were Scottish and usually they secured good positions wherever they were located. The absence of the laborers on the church r o l l might account for the huge d i s p a r i t y between the t o t a l number of Presbyterians d e f i n i t e l y attending as revealed by the church s t a t i s t i c s and the number of Presbyterians i n the province as shown by the 1921 Census of Canada. The church s t a t i s t i c s f or 1922 showed 29,875 individuals under pastor-a l care and f o r 1924, 49,040 individuals, while the 1921 census indicated 123,022 Presbyterians i n the province. Many reasons might be given f o r so many who called themselves Presbyterians f a i l i n g to attend the church. However those who did attend received the s a t i s f a c t i o n of culture^ doc-tr i n e and fellowship. This was also accompanied by the blessing which comes from supporting the extensive s o c i a l work which benefited so many of those in need. BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary sources, o f f i c i a l : The Acts and Proceedings of the F i r s t (1875 to the F i f t y - f i r s t 1925, i n c l u s i v e , series,) General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. These are the series of annual minutes of the annual General Assembly together with the annual reports of the various committees of the General Assembly. On the average these volumes constituted some 550 pages. The f i r s t v o l -ume was f o r 1875 and the l a s t for 19.25. The minutes of course, are authentic as well as the information i n the committee reports, which was written by the men who often performed what they were writing about. The annual reports of the Home Mission Committee (Western Section) are the most relevant. This reference i s always cited i n foot-notes as G.A.M. The Acts and Proceedings of the Fifty-second (1926 to the Sixty-second 1936, incl u s i v e , series,) General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. As f o r the years 1875 to 1925, t h i s series of min-utes and reports cover the a c t i v i t i e s of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada from 1926 to 1936 i n c l u s i v e . In the v o l -ume f o r 1935 the report of R.J.Douglas, (p. 11-13) i n the Home Mission report i s very relevant. The United Church of Canada Year Book 1926 (to 1936 series, inclusive,) including Annual Reports of Boards and Committees, S t a t i s t i c s of the Church, l i s t of Pastor-a l Charges and t h e i r Ministers. This series of reports by the various committees of the United Church of Canada i s authentic and i s replete with information on a l l phases of the Church's work. The Acts and Proceedings of the F i r s t (1892 to the Thirty-fourth, 1925) Synod of B r i t i s h Columbia of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. 155 156 These annual minutes which are authentic and a prim-ary source were of l i t t l e value i n writing the t h e s i s . The reports of the committees mentioned i n the minutes, would no doubt have been a valuable source of information, but were not av a i l a b l e . The obituaries of the ministers, although not of primary source, have been of great a s s i s t -ance i n some cases. But these are incomplete and some notable men's obituaries have been l e f t out e n t i r e l y , e.g. George Murray. The Constitution and Procedure of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Toronto, Presbyterian News Co. (Limited) 1887, 132. This i s a very useful book f o r the study of the de-mocratic system of the different church courts. Hand-Book of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, edited by Reverend A.P.Kemp, L.L.D., Reverend F.W.Parries, and J.B.Halkett, Ottawa, J.Burie and Son, 1883, 392 pages. This book contains some extracts of the General Assembly Minutes, relevant to the establishment of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada i n 1875. It also contains accounts of the colleges, notes on a l l the Presbyterian ministers in Canada i n 1883, and accounts of the various a c t i v i t i e s of the church. It i s valuable for ce r t a i n facts that need to be established. The Calendar of Westminster H a l l , Vancouver, B.C., for the academic year 1924 - 1925. Incorporated by the Pr o v i n c i a l Parliament as a college of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, co-operating with the Anglican and Meth-odist Theological Colleges. A f f i l i a t e d to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Seventeenth Session. 23 pages. Minutes of the meetings of the Board of Management and Senate of the theological college of B r i t i s h Columbia (l a t e r known as Westminster Hall) as written by Reverend John A. Logan, Secretary of the Board. This group of minutes extends from the meeting on the 24 September 1907 to a meeting on 21 May 1908. These min-utes are i n handwriting i n a sc r i b b l e r and concern the es-tablishment of Westminster H a l l . With the s c r i b b l e r were certain other l e t t e r s and papers concerning the c o l l e g e . The two most important of which are: 157 1. Minutes of Meeting of Committee 10 March 1908. These concern choice of name of theological college, government of college. The committee was composed of P r i n -c i p a l McKay, convener, J.A.IiOgan, J.Knox Wright, and Wm. Burns, Secretary* 2 sheets. 2. Campbell, John to MacGillivray, A.J., 8 A p r i l , 1908. It contained advice as to the name of the theological college. 1 sheet. Smith, W.H., Address before the Private B i l l s Committee of the l e g i s l a t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia in support of the Church Union B i l l , November 20, 1924. (15 typewritten pages) This i s a very able and l u c i d rendering of the. case for church union, given by a man who had much to do with the transactions of the union of the churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Primary Sources, o f f i c i a l , but unavailable: The Minutes of the Presbytery of B r i t i s h Columbia i n connection with the Church of Scotland- -- beginning i n 1875. According to Alexander Dunn, Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n Ear l y Days, 1905, preface, these minutes were l o s t . 158 Secondary works, general: Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of the Northwest Coast, Volume II, (The works of Hubert Howe Bancroft volume XXVIII) San Francisco, The A.L.Bancroft Company, 1884, 768 pages. This volume contains accounts of the beginnings of re l i g i o u s works i n the northwestern United States i n the early days. The r e l i g i o u s sections begin on page 534. Bancroft's work on the History of B r i t i s h Columbia has very l i t t l e concerning r e l i g i o u s organizations. Begg, Alexander, History of B r i t i s h Columbia from i t s e a r l i e s t discovery to the present time, Toronto, William Briggs, 1894, 568 pages. This volume contains some interesting passages re-garding the r e l i g i o u s history of the province, not found elsewhere. Gregg, William, Short History of the Presbyterian Church i n the Dominion of Canada, 2nd edition, Toronto, Printed f o r the Author, C. Blackett Robinson, 1893, 248 pages. This work i s concerned mainly with eastern Canada. Here and there are scattered a few references to B r i t i s h Columbia. Howay, F.W., B r i t i s h Columbia, The Making of a Prov-ince, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1928, 289.pages. This volume i s a b r i e f history of B r i t i s h Columbia and covers the chief factors i n an admirable way. Howay, P*W.., and Schol e f i e l d , E.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, The S.J.Clarke Publishing Co., Vancouver, Volumes II, I I I , 1914. These volumes, on the general hi s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, are considered authoritative. The l i f e of Robert Jamieson i n Volume III was very i n t e r e s t i n g . McNeill, J.T., The Presbyterian Church i n Canada 1875-1925, Toronto, General Board of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1925, 276 pages. This work contains some very relevant chapters and may be considered as authoritative. 159 Secondary works, s p e c i a l , typewritten MS. and l e t t e r s : Brown, J.C., to Logan, J.A., MS., Feb. 23, 1916. These papers, some f i v e i n a l l , were i n possession of Professor H.T.Logan. They are merely the answers to some questions of J.A.lLogan to J.C.Brown. The answers were taken from St. Andrew's, New Westminster, Church records. They are v e r i f i e d by A.E.Vert who assisted J.C.Brown, i n compiling the MS. The answers are contained i n two hand-written pages and are e n t i r e l y concerned with the l i f e of Robert Jamieson. Most of the information was l a t e r includ-ed i n , "St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church 1862-1922, A His-t o r i c a l Sketch, New Westminster, B.C.," which appears to have been compiled by Reverend A.E.Vert, one time pastor of St. Andrew's, New Westminster. Goodfellow, John C , John H a l l , MS., 24 pages. This account of the l i f e of John H a l l i s very valuable and has been drawn up with much careful research. It i s the basis of Chapter I I . One copy is i n the B r i t i s h Colum-cbia Conference Archives of the. United Church of Canada, under supervision of J.C.Goodfellow. Hacker, George C e c i l , History of the Methodist Church in B r i t i s h Columbia.1859-1900, MS. i n U.B.C. L i b r a r y . 196 pages. Bibliography pp. 193-196. This thesis gives a splendid account of the hist o r y of Methodism i n B r i t i s h Columbia and gives an opportunity f o r comparison with the Presbyterian Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Logan, John A., Sketch of Presbytery of B r i t i s h Colum-bia, MS., 6 pages. fre,yfT*riwli»^ •*» This i s a very b r i e f account of ABj?i"tish Columbia f o r the period i t was i n connection with the Church of Scot-land. -One copy i s i n possession of Dr. W.N.Sage of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Logan, J.A., Ear l y Presbyterianism in B r i t i s h Columbia, MS., 29 pages. It i s th i s account that forms the basis of part of .M Chapter I I I , of a l l Chapter IV, and part of Chapter V.V A l l references of Logan, J.A.,-MS., are to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r one. For sources i t was based upon B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l notes on: Brown, J . C , to Logan, J.A.,; Low, W.J., to Logan, J.A.,;**uA The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Record. 160 The other Logan," J.A., MSS. are hased upon the same sources and additional ones. Two of these additional sources were the records of F i r s t Presbyterian Church and St. Andrew's Church, V i c t o r i a , no doubt. Logan, John A., Presbyterianisra i n B r i t i s h Columbia, MS., 49 pages. This manuscript covers quite f u l l y the period of John H a l l , and the Church of Scotland and contains much in f o r -mation that i s very relevant. One copy i s i n possession of Dr. W.H.Sage. One i s also i n the B.C. Conference Archives. Lowe, W.J., to Logan, J.A,, MS., 7 October 1915. These papers, (three i n a l l ) were i n possession of Professor H.T.Logan. W.J.Lowe, D.D., Clerk of Assembly and General Secretary of the Presbyterian Church i n Ireland, Belfast, complied with a request from Dr. J.A.Logan f o r some extracts of the minutes of the Board of Missions and of the General Assembly. The extracts concern appointment of John H a l l as minister to the Athy congregation, and of his appointment l a t e r by the Board of Missions to B r i t i s h Columbia. Stott, Reverend W., B.A., to Wilson, G.A., D.D., June 28, 1926. Three pages. This l e t t e r was i n possession of Dr. G.A.Wilson. It contained an interesting account of Reverend W. Stott's experiences and impressions of the Cariboo. Wilson, Reverend George A., D.D., The. History of Home Missions on the Cariboo, MS., f i v e pages. These papers give a very enlightening story of the Cariboo and Presbyterianism by one who had much to do with the e f f o r t s of the Presbyterian Church put f o r t h i n that region. 161 Secondary works, s p e c i a l : Duncan, E r i c , Fifty-seven Years i n the Comox Valley, Comox, The Comox Argus Co., l t d . , 1934, 61 pages. Pages 56-61, of t h i s account deal with church history, pages 59-61, in p a r t i c u l a r with Presbyterian Church h i s t o r y . Dunn, Alexander, Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n E a r l y Days, Hew Westminster, Columbian Company Ltd., 1905, 38 pages. Revised e d i t i o n i n 1913. This work i s based upon the personal experience of Alexander Dunn, who came out to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1875. It is valuable for i t s portrayal of the f e e l i n g and a t t i -tude of the people who l i v e d through the years subsequent to 1875. Gordon, Charles W., The L i f e of James Robertson, D.D., Toronto, The Westminster Company Limited, 1909, 427 pages. This work, by a renowned author, relates the l i f e of a great man who had much to do with the foundation of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, i n the i n t e r i o r and eastern parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. Grant, R.N., L i f e of Reverend William Cochrane, D.D., Toronto, William Briggs, 1899, 290 pages. S u b - t i t l e , For t h i r t y - s i x years pastor of Zion Church, Brantford, and f o r twenty-six years convener of the Home Mission Committee of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. Dr. William Cochrane, Moderator of the General Assem-bly i n 1882, was commissioned to conduct an inquiry i n B r i t i s h Columbia regarding the f e a s i b i l i t y of the Church of Scotland congregations, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, j o i n i n g the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. This was f i n a l l y con-summated, la r g e l y due to the diplomacy of Cochrane. McKellar, Reverend Hugh, Presbyterian Pioneer Mission-aries i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and B r i t i s h Colum-bia, Toronto, Murray P r i n t i n g Company Limited, 1924, 249 pages. The p a r t i c u l a r section of this book relevant to B r i -t i s h Columbia i s the l a s t four chapters. This part i s made up, largely of l e t t e r s received from persons who were engaged i n the a c t i v i t i e s that they related. Other parts are based purely upon the General Assembly minutes. 162 McNab, Reverend John, M.A., B.D., They Went Forth, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1933, 207 pages. This book contains some sketches of Canadian Presby-t e r i a n missionaries to the foreign and home f i e l d s , but none i n p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n to B r i t i s h Columbia except James Robertson. The book also contains an excellent bib liography of l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r subject. Oliver, Edmund H., His Dominion of Canada, Toronto, The Women's Missionary Society and The. Board of Home Missions of The United Church of Canada, 1932, 286 pages. This work gives an account of the mission work of the three denominations i n the United Church of Canada. There is also a good account of the Women's Missionary Society achievements. The work deals with Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Pidgeon, Reverend George C , D.D., Sermon on The Church Union Si t u a t i o n i n Canada, Toronto, February 9, 1924, P u b l i c i t y Department of the Joint Union Committee. This pamphlet i s an int e r e s t i n g summary by a man i n the thick of the f i g h t . Reverend Pidgeon. was the l a s t mod-erator of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada before Union. Pringle, George C.F., In Great Waters, Toronto, Issued f o r the Board of Horne Missions of the United Church of Canada, by the Committee on Lit e r a t u r e , General Pub-l i c i t y and Missionary Education of the United Church of Canada, 1928, 178 pages. This i s a c o l l e c t i o n of accounts of the \vork on the B r i t i s h Columbian coast by the Marine Missions. The ar t -i c l e s may be considered authoritative as they are written by the men i n the work. The a r t i c l e s by George C F . P r i n g l e are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to the Presbyterian work. Some of the stories related by the various authors are extremely i n t e r e s t i n g . Sage, Walter N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, The University of Toronto Press, 1930, 398 pages. This biography gives a valuable outlook on the condi-tions of the province i n the early years. The footnotes on pages 86 and 87 give an account of Dr. and Mrs. Whitman at Fort Vancouver in 1836. They were about the f i r s t Presby-t e r i a n missionaries on the P a c i f i c Coast. 163 Scott, Ephraim, "Church Union" and the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, Montreal, John L o v e l l and Son, l i m i t e d , 1928, 173 pages. _ This i s an Argument against the Union, written by a Presbyterian minister, and editor of the Presbyterian Re-corder since 1891. Mr. Scott i s emphatically opposed to union and gives f o r t h his views i n a very clear manner i n chapter XXV, as to why the non-concurrents disagreed with union. Wilson, R.J., Church Union i n Canada a f t e r Three Years, Toronto, The United Church Publishing House, The Ryerson Press, 1929, 54 pages. This prize t r e a t i s e , written by a United Church Min-i s t e r and formerly a Presbyterian, gives c l e a r l y the con-curring Presbyterian views on the subject. Souvenir, 1861-1911, Jubilee of the Introduction of Presbyterianism into B r i t i s h Columbia and the organization of the F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., The Waterman Press, 1911, 20 pages. Wilson, Reverend W.G., M.A., D.D., Minister, "Histor-i c a l Sketch, 1862-1922, F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C.", V i c t o r i a , The Waterman Press, V i c t o r i a , 1922, 12 pages. Seventy-Fifth Anniversary, F i r s t United Church, 1862-1937, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Colonist Presses, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 12 pages. These booklets contain excellent accounts and good pictures of the personalities and buildings. Souvenir History, "To Commemorate the S i x t i e t h Anni-" versary of St. Andrew's Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1866-1926". 16 pages. This booklet i s f i l l e d with important facts concern-ing a very important and old congregation i n B r i t i s h Colum-bia and may be considered authentic. It has photographs of the church and ministers who served to the time of i>r. W. L. Clay. 164 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church 1862-1922, A Histor-i c a l Sketch, New Vfestminster, B.C., 16 pages. This was compiled from the church records and gives some very interesting and important facts concerning the l i f e of Robert Jamieson i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and of the f i r s t Presbyterian church on the lower mainland. In the footnotes, I always quoted A.E.Vert as the author, although I was not sure. An H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of Richmond Presbyterian Church i n Marpole, B.C.. 1861-1925. Prepared by the Session, and published by i t s authority, June 1925, 38 pages. Here i s contained a wealth of information concerning the r e l i g i o u s history of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s around the mouth of the Praser River. Professor H.T.Logan, who com-p i l e d i t , was not prepared to vouch f o r a l l the informa-t i o n i n i t , as there was some dispute as to the correct-ness of various statements. St. Andrew's Church, Presbyterian, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1888-1913. R.J.Wilson, Moderator of Session, 26 pages. This sketch gives some very interesting and important facts concerning one of the largest churches i n the c i t y . Our Jubilee Story, 1864-1924, The Women's Missionary Society, Presbyterian Church i n Canada, W.D., 119 pages. The story consists of four chapters, written by women whose names are very prominent i n the women's work of the church. The whole work may be considered relevant. Several authors i n this work: Logan, J.A., H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of the Presbyterian Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia, page 9, MacRae, A.O., The Philosophy of Presbyterianism, page 41, Munro, A.P., The P o l i t y of the Presbyterian Church, page 67, Pringle, Geo. CP., Home Missions, page 86, Logan, J.A,, History of Westminster H a l l , page 251, Goodfellow, John C , Some H i s t o r i c Presbyterian Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, page 261. Vancouver, B.C, compiled and published by Joseph Lee, printed by Wrigley P r i n t i n g Company Limited, 1925. Com-memorative Review of the Methodist, Presbyterian and Con-gregational Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, edited by 165 Reverend S.A.Davis, 380 pages. This c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i c l e s i s written by a number of men who knew and were f a m i l i a r with t h e i r t o p i c s . The above mentioned a r t i c l e s i n i t are relevant. P e r i o d i c a l s : The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Record, edited by P r i n c i p a l Tulloch, D.D., Edinburgh and london, William Blackwood and Sons. This monthly magazine contained a few valuable a r t i -cles dealing with the Church of Scotland missionary work in B r i t i s h Columbia. The issues available i n the l i b r a r y of the Union Theological College, Vancouver, B.C., are i n bound form and extend from March 1, 1875 to December 1, 1890. Some very re-levant material w i l l be found i n the following references: 1875, pp. 460, 533; 1876, pp. 557; 1877, pp. 440; 1885, pp. 123, 306. The issue f o r January 1, 1876 i s missing from volume IX, but a copy i s to be found in possession of Professor H.T.logan. This reference was always cited i n footnotes as C.S.M.R. The Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland loaned to Dr. John A. logan 21 copies of monthly issues and a bound volume of issues from A p r i l 1866 to March 1868 of the Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Records. He also received copy extracts from the Report of the Colonial Committee to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland of 1865. (From l e t t e r of 15 October 1915.) It was, as fa r as I can ascertain, upon th i s mater-i a l that Dr. John A. logan based much of his manuscript, "Early Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia". (Yellowlees, Alex., Secretary of Church of Scotland Colonial Committee, Edinburgh, to logan, J.A., 15 October 1915; l e t t e r i n possession of Professor H.T. logan.) The Presbyterian Record f o r the Dominion of Canada, Montreal, Printed for the General Assembly, by Gazette P r i n t i n g Co., 1891, 332 pages. The Presbyterian Record was established by the f i r s t General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada, i n June 1875, as i t s o f f i c i a l medium. It was f i r s t issued i n January 1876 and continues as an organ of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada a f t e r 1925. Ephraim Scott, D.D,, has been i t s editor since 1891. In the one book, volumes XV - XVI, January 1890 to December 1891, (available i n the Union Theological College l i b r a r y ) , are some very inte r e s t i n g and 166 h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s " dealing w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, and New Westminster. The Western Recorder, continuing The Western Methodist Recorder, published by The Western Recorder, P r i n t i n g and Publishing Company, (under the approval of the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference of the United Church of Canada), and issued on the 15th of the month from the o f f i c e of the Vancouver Bindery, "Limited, 650 Richards Street, Vancouver, B.C. Managing editor, Reverend J.P.Hicks, 617 Drake Street, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the l o c a l organ of the United Church of Canada, and i t is of especial value because of, The Confer-ence H i s t o r i c a l Page, which appears nearly every month, giving the church history, Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational, of some community i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It is being done i n alphabetical order, and i s an enormous task. Reverend J.C.Goodfellow, of Princeton, B.C., is the author of the a r t i c l e s . The benefits of such a work as thi s w i l l be reaped by future generations. Westminster H a l l Magazine, Published by the Students of YJestminster H a l l , Vancouver, B.C., monthly during the summer session. In 1915 i t was c a l l e d , "Westminster H a l l Magazine and Farthest West Review", and i n 1916 i t was called "Westminster Review". The a r t i c l e s i n t h i s magazine, written by the pro-fessors and students, have some very interesting and re-levant views and f a c t s contemporaneous to the times i n which they were written. The numbers available were: 1911, June, July, August; 1912, February, A p r i l , July, October, November, December; 1913, March, A p r i l , July; 1915, February, A p r i l , October; 1916, August; 1917, September. These belong to Professor H.T.Logan's l i b r a r y . Stott, William, The Presbyterian Church i n the North and Central Okanagan, F i r s t Annual Report of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l and Natural History Society, Secretary-Treasurer Max. H. Ruhmann, Vernon, B.C., 10 September 1926, 35 pages. This i s a very interesting a r t i c l e by a man who has l i v e d and worked i n the t e r r i t o r y spoken of for several years. The a r t i c l e i t s e l f i s seven and one-half pages long i n fine p r i n t . 167 Gatke, Robert Moulton, A Document of Mission History, 1833-43, The Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, XXXVI, March, 1935, 71-94. This gives some authoritative information regarding the f i r s t appearance of the Methodists on the North-west P a c i f i c Coast i n the Willamette Valley. It gives an opportunity f o r comparison with the Presbyterians. Oliphant, J . Orin, Documents I l l u s t r a t i n g the Begin-ning of the Presbyterian Advance into the Oregon Country, The Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, XXVI, beginning on 123, 212, 288. These a r t i c l e s are excellent i n showing what organ-izations, and the needs for t h e i r e f f o r t s in providing the Northwestern States with Presbyterian missionaries. Series of stories, of the hist o r y of the Comox Valley in the early days, The Comox Argus, beginning July, 1933. The B r i t i s h Columbia Conference Archives of the United Church of Canada. The c o l l e c t i o n , and care of B r i t i s h Columbia Church h i s t o r i c a l material pertaining to the United Church of Canada, including records of the former Congregational, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches, (this l a s t to date of Union 1925), i s supervised by the H i s t o r i c a l Committee of the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference, of the United Church of Canada. Of this Committee Reverend J.C.Goodfellow has been secretary since 1925; and before that secretary of the H i s t o r i c a l Committee of the B r i t i s h Columbia Synod of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. In 1936 he was appointed A r c h i v i s t of the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference of the United Church of Canada. The objective of the H i s t o r i c a l Committee i s to secure and preserve records of church work and church workers. Records of early missions, congregations, and churches have been f i l e d i n great quantity, but there are gaps, which are being f i l l e d . b y co-operation of the minis-ters of the various congregations and former ministers and laymen. Typed copies are made by the secretary of a l l manuscripts received, and f i l e d . Congregations are l i s t e d a lphabetically under presbyteries to which they belong. When arrangements are completed at Union Theological College, i t i s proposed to deposit there i n archives a l l the original-documents received, minute books of church courts, etc. In addition to t h i s , copies of some of the 168 most important documents have been f i l e d with the Provin-c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n V i c t o r i a . This i s a precaution against loss by f i r e . In order t b make the material available to anyone who might desire i t , there w i l l be three channels: 1. Secretary of Conference Committee, who w i l l have typed copies of a l l material and carbon copies for loan. 2. Union College, where o r i g i n a l documents can be con-sulted. 3. The Western Recorder, i n which each month appears a page devoted to the work of the Conference H i s t o r i c a l Committee. APPENDIX A SOME STATISTICS OP ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, NEW WESTMINSTER, 1875 - 1885. 1" 1 V ' s V v5 V V •t« 11 i V \ \ •Q V * > \ > 1 4 ^ JO Vi <b VJ $ /t7S 7ft f /S7C '• 'I /ofo /S77 •/ " /ZOO 3 /S7Z 35- 3 /2&0 2600 /, 3 7 ft. a /lot sr /"Zoo ? M o L /ge/ ft 13 /•ZOO 2<>»o 7 " 't g Uacan~/~ to 3 /(Tern 9 /it*/ (*</ 12 f //to /o /&f loo 77 /*r r •2- /t\o /7- /WO // + Granted by the Canada Presbyterian Church, 1 May 1875 to 30 June 1875. ^Granted by the Home Mission Committee, Presbyterian Church i n Canada to 30 A p r i l 1876. These are the e a r l i e s t s t a t i s t i c s to be found concerning anything in B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the reports of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. References are on the next page. 169 Footnote references to S t a t i s t i c s of St. Andrew's Church, New Westminster, 1875 - 1885 (continued): 1. G.A.M., 1876, Appendix 17, 18. 2. G.A.M., 1877, Appendix XIX to 31 March, 1877. 3. G.A.M., 1878, Appendix XX to 31 March, 1878. 4. G.A.M., 1879, Appendix XIV, XXIV to 31 March, 1879. 5. G.A.M., 1880, Appendix XX, XXXI to 31 March, 1880. 6. G.A.M., 1881, Appendix XXV to 31 March, 1881. 7. G.A.M., 1882, Appendix XLIX to 31 March, 1882. 8. G.A.M., 1883, Appendix XLVI to 31 March, 1883. 9. G.A.M., 1884, Appendix LI to 31 March, 1884. 10. G.A.M., 1885, Appendix CCXXIII to 31 March, 1885. 11. G.A.M., 1886, Appendix CCXVII to 31 March, 1886. TAs near as can be ascertained the salary of the pasto of St. Andrew's, New Westminster, was $2000 per year. APPENDIX B Referring to the Staff of Westminster H a l l During the f i r s t session i n 1908, P r i n c i p a l MacKay was assisted by the Reverend D.J.Praser, D.D., Montreal, Professor of New Testament l i t e r a t u r e and Exegesis; Rever-end R. Magi11, Ph.D., P r i n c i p a l of Pine H i l l College, Hal-ifax, Professor of Systematic Theology; Reverend Richard Davidson, Ph.D., Toronto University, Professor of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis; Reverend T. Wordlaw Taylor, Ph.D., Lecturer in Homiletics; Reverend Dr. J.A. Logan and M.P.Tailing, Lecturers on Pastoral Theology; Reverend R. Campbell, D.D., Lecturer i n Church Law and Pro-cedure; and Reverend J.D.Gillam i n the Eng l i s h B i b l e . 7 In 1909 the Reverend George C. Pidgeon, D.D., of West Toronto, was appointed by the General Assembly to the Chair of P r a c t i c a l Theology, and inducted by the Presbytery of Westminster on July 6. The faculty f o r the second, term, in addition to the permanent "staff had assistance from: Reverend R.G.Welsh, D.D., Montreal College; Reverend A.R. Gordon, Montreal College; Reverend Dr. James Denny, Free Church College, Glasgow; Reverend Dr. George Adam Smith, Free Church College, Glasgow; Reverend Robert Campbell, .D.D.,..Montreal; P r i n c i p a l R.A.King, Indore College, India; Reverend J.C.Robertson, Toronto, and several lectures by l o c a l clergymen. In 1910 the regular s t a f f was assisted by:Professor D.J.Fraser, D.D., L.L.D., Montreal; Professor E.A.Wicher, D.D., San Anselmo, C a l i f o r n i a ; Professor W.G.Jordan, D.D., Kingston; Reverend W.R.Taylor, Ph.D;, Toronto; Reverend C. Anderson Scott, D.D., Cambridge.2 1911: Reverend W.R.Taylor, Ph.D., was appointed by the General Assembly to the Chair of Old Testament into which he was inducted by the Presbytery of Westminster. The f a c u l t y was assisted by Professor James Stalker, D.D., Aberdeen, Scotland; P r i n c i p a l A.E.Garvie, D.D., New College, 1 Logan, J.A., "Westminster H a l l " , Commemorative Review of the Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches in B r i t i s h Columbia, edited by Reverend E.A.Davis, compiled and published by Joseph Lee, Vancouver, B.C., 1925, 254. 2 G.A.M., 1910, 201. 171 172 London, England. The college building was also enlarged to make room fo r the l i b r a r i e s , o f f i c e s , class rooms, dor-mitories, e t c . ^ ' . 1912: The regular s t a f f : Professor R.E.Welsh, D.D., Montreal; Professor J . Dick Fleming, Manitoba College, Winnipeg; Professor A.R.MacEwen, D.D., New College, Edin-burgh; Professor Shailer Matthews, D.D., L.L.D., Chicago; James Carruthers, M.A., D.D., of Alberni, B.G.^ 1913: The f a c u l t y was assisted by: Professor R.E. Y/elsh, D.D., Montreal; Professor C.G.Patterson, D.D., San Prancisco Theological Seminary, San Anselmo, C a l i f o r n i a ; Professor James Moffat, D.D., Mansfield College, Oxford. Professor W.R.Taylor resigned to accept the Chair of Semitic Languages i n Toronto University. 1914: The f a c u l t y was: Systematic Theology and Apologetics, P r i n c i p a l John MacKay, D.D.; Church History, Reverend A.S.Morton, B.D., Halifax; Old Testament L i t e r -ature and Exegesis, Professor W.R.Taylor, Ph.D.; New Testa-ment Literature and Exegesis, Professor George M i l l i g a n , D.D., of Glasgow University; E n g l i s h Bible, Professor George C. Pidgeon, D.D., and Professor W.R.Taylor, Ph.D.; P r a c t i c a l Theology, Professor George C. Pidgeon, D.D.; Elocution, Reverend James Carruthers, M.A., D.D.^ Profes-sor G.C.Pidgeon, on receiving a c a l l to Bloor Street Church, was transferred to Toronto i n 1915 and i n 1925 he received the highest honor i n the Church as Moderator of the General Assembly. 1915: P r i n c i p a l J.A.Sharrard of Indore College, India, was appointed lecturer in Old Testament. Besides the s t a f f the college had the assistance of: Professor H.A.Kent, M.A., Pine H i l l , Halifax and P r i n c i p a l D.J.Praser, D.D., Montreal. Reverend A.L.Burch resigned his position as f i n a n c i a l agent to resume his work i n the ministry, and i n the follow-ing two years former professors were on the s t a f f and in addition the Reverend E.P.Scott, D.D., of Queen's Theologi-ca l College. Reverend J.A.Sharrard, B.D., and Reverend J.T.McNeill, B.D., were appointed lecturers for three years in Old Testament and Church History r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7 1919: The f u l l s t a f f for t h i s year was as follows: Systematic Theology and New Testament, P r i n c i p a l John MacKay, D.D., Apologetic Missions and Old Testament, Rever-end J.A.Sharrard, B.D., and Reverend R.G.MacBeth, B.A.; Sociology, Reverend W.H.Smith, Ph.D.; Pastoral Theology, Reverend A.E.Mitchell; Homiletics, Reverend R.J.Wilson,D.D.; Religious Education, Reverend CM.Sanford, B.A.; Church 3 G.A.M., 1911, 184. 4 i b i d . , 1912, 207. 5 i b i d . , 1913, 191. 6 i b i d . , 1914, 196. Logan adds E.A.Wicher to the l i s t of instructors for t h i s session. 7 i b i d . , 1915, 199; 1916, 201; 1917, 172; 1918, 185. 173 P o l i t y , Reverend J.A.Logari,"D.D.; Old Testament ( L i t e r -ature), Reverend P. Henderson, M.A.; Elocution, Reverend James Carruthers, M.A., D;D,* Reverend J.T.McNeill, B.D., v/as granted leave of absence for one year to pursue his studies i n Chicago. This year also completed the work of P r i n c i p a l MacKay at the Y/estminster H a l l . E a r l y i n the year 1919, he received an i n v i t a t i o n to the Pr i n c i p a l s h i p of Manitoba College and aft e r consideration, accepted i t , but agreed to remain u n t i l he had given his lectures f o r the term. The Board r e g r e t f u l l y acceded to his relinquishing the po s i t i o n which he had held f o r 11 years, and in which he had d i r e c t -ed with marked a b i l i t y the work of the college. His successor was the Reverend W.H.Smith, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., who at the time was the pastor of St. John's Church, Vancouver. He was appointed at a meeting of the board, on 2 October, 1919, as P r i n c i p a l and Professor of P r a c t i c a l Theology and inducted by the Presbytery of Westminster on May 7, 1920, and at once entered upon his duties, and opened the college term with an able lecture on "The Mini s t r y and S p i r i t u a l Leadership". Later, on October 20, Dr. J.A.Logan was appointed Registrar and Treasurer i n addition to the work of the. L i b r a r y . . . In.the session of 1920-21 the teaching s t a f f was: P r i n c i p a l W.H.Smith, D.D., P r a c t i c a l Theology; Professor H.R.Trumpour, B.D., New Testament Literature and Exegesis; Professor J.T.McNeill, B.D., Church History; Reverend Dr. J. Carruthers, Reverend Dr. J.M.Shaw (1921) Homiletics, Elocution, and Systematic Theology; Reverend A.MacMillan, D.D., (1921) Church Hymnody; Reverend P.Henderson, M.A., (1921) English Bible, Old Testament; Reverend A.D.McKenzie, B.D., (1921) Eng l i s h Bible, New Testament; President L.S. Klinck, M.S.A., The Church and the Rural Problem; Reverend Dr. G.A.Wilson, Home Missions i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Reverend Dr. W.A.Wilson, C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s Task i n India; Reverend Dr. J.A.Logan, Church P o l i t y and Canadian Presbyterianism; Reverend E.R.MacLean, Religious Education; Professor R. Davidson, D.D., Old Testament L i t e r a t u r e and E x e g e s i s . / 0 1922: The college was a f f i l i a t e d with the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1923: Por some time there had been conversations looking towards united work, i n part at least, with-the s i s t e r colleges i n Vancouver. In 1922 a meeting was held in Wesley Church, at which there were present-representa-tives of the Anglican, Methodist,- and Presbyterian colleges, and a resolution favorable to co-operation was unanimously 8 G.A.M., 1919, 188. 9 i b i d . , 1921, 198. 10 i b i d . , 1921, 199. / 174 adopted. The matter was "brought before the d i f f e r e n t govern ing bodies of the several denominations when i t was f i n a l l y agreed to enter into co-operation. A l i s t of the subjects on which they could unite i n teaching was drawn up and from 1923 to 1925, the three colleges worked i n co-operation, to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a l l concerned. '/ 11 G.A.M., 1923, 219 APPENDIX C SOME DATA ON THE EARLIEST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES a ^ (A. 0 fc ^ v-V. i* 1 11 1 n o V- ^ i 5 $ 5 3 ^ £ ^ t « 1 /-i'rst~ Church Vth/ef'i'a.. 3 0 /Vol/. /U3 Ley>T C/Way ® 7Jtei*7t s S^nter^'//^^ (for At/irr- i*t't"isfcr* /Sir CD ' 5f~. A^drew's^ /Z M<*rch /%i.Z- /2C3 ® <& Puff A © /Uz.0 —/?Cs-<@ Vfeter-ia. ty ® /*7S <® Sept. /*& <@> K Simon ^f&refor < (£) KfXot>ert Stephen X (£g> /SCC — 7*~>7 <£> fZ7»(S> — ® /tt/® ~/tS7<g) Sf./}*&'re w's /US' @ 3ef/ /i7£ @) .z^ Dee. (fi>r /ttftTr- vrt'/n'isTer • Cot*r ox @> /$11 /Z77 (3 *\ /Tit® —/TS7 <@> 7*7/ 2.7 /Z7*~ . 7*7^ /*% /Uz /g?S ® /i7s~Q) § ® (yoc^<? Murray-x 03-/T7S-& — / g f f @ /m © —/i*r /&Z9$& —/S% (B /lljuc/ E3ny /S7S- At. ; /Z75~ /Z?§ /^/ex^^x^^f Out**! /t/f —/gtC> o r~ Qe/fc f 0 -i s s i n g reference numbers w i l l be found on next page as thusc? Signs such asx-f-OA are explained on the next page. " See n~,yx page, 178. t 176 Appendix G (continued): References: x Ministers belonging to the Church of Scotland, -f-part time Church of Scotland. oMinister of the Presbyterian Church i n Ireland. /\ Ministers of the Canada Presbyterian Church. Ministers of P i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a a f t e r Somerville were: R. Jamieson, Daniel Duff; John Reid, D.D., 1876-81; R.H.Smith, 1881-82; David Gamble, 1882-84; Donald Praser, M.A., 1884-92; John Campbell, M.A., Ph.D., 1892-1912; John Gibson Inkster, M.A., D.D., 1913-1921; W.G.Wilson, M.A., D.D., 1921-38. 3 2 ^ Ministers of St. Andrew's, Nanaimo, af t e r Jamieson, were: Wm. Aitkenf/V.1869-1872;/^ Wm.Clyde5** 1875*-1882?7 A.H.Anderson? 1883^1887 f J . Miller,* 1887^1889f**° 1 Goodfellow, J . C , MS.,John H a l l , 10. 2 Souvenir 1861-1911, P i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 12• 3 Logan, J.A., MS., Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 49 page edition, 29, 45-49. See also, Souvenir 1861-1911, F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 4 G.A.M., 1884, appendix XIV, CCCXXXVIII. 5 Logan, J.A., MS. op. c i t . , 25, 33. 6 From a picture postcard of the eight ministers of F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 7 Logan, J.A., op. c i t . , 35. See also Minutes of the Synod of B.C., 1907, 16. <08 Gregg, William, Short History of the Presbyterian Church i n the Dominion of Canada from the e a r l i e s t to the present time, Toronto, 1893, 174. 9 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church 1862-1922, A Histor-i c a l Sketch, New Westminster, B.C, ed. A.E.Vert, 3. 10 i b i d . , 6. 11 i b i d . , 7. 12 i b i d . , 8. 13 S i x t i e t h Anniversary of St. Andrew's Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1866-1926, 3. 14 Gregg, William, Short History of the Presbyterian Church i n the Dominion of Canada, Toronto, 174. 15 G.A.M., 1877, 33. 16 G.A.M., 1878, 30. 17 G.A.M., 1884, Appendix XIV, CCXXXVIII. 18 G.A.M., 1886, Appendix XIV. 19 G.A.M., 1888, Appendix I, XVII. 020 G.A.M., 1890, Appendix 26, XIV. 021 C.S.M.R., Dec. 1, 1875, 533. 22 C.S.M.R., Jan. 1, 1876, 558. , 23 C.S.M.R., Aug. 1, 1877, 440. T*M' + p U c e d '«^e e k u"c m'7-24 25 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1879, 112. 177 Appendix C (continued): 26 C.S.M.R., May lr 1882, 161. <?27 G.S.M.R., May 1, 1883, 570. #28 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1884, 130.-29 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1885, 123, 306. (Dec, 1885) 30 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1887, 121. 031 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1888, 424. #32 Synod of B.C. Minutes, 1893, 16, 17. See also, Seventy-f i f t h Anniversary 1862-1937, F i r s t United Church, V i c t o r i a . 33 Souvenir History, "To Commemorate the S i x t i e t h Anni-versary of St. Andrew's Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1866-1926". £ 3 4 C.S.M.R., January 1, 1876, 557-8. See also, Logan, J.A., op. c i t . , 39. 0 35 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1890, 431. 36 C.S.M.R., January 1, 1876, 557-8. See also, Dunn, Alexander, Presbyterianism i n B.C. i n the Ear l y Days, New Westminster, 1905, 5. 37 G.A.M., 1886, 12, 49, 50. 38 C.S.M.R., January 1, 1876, 557-8. 39 C.S.M.R., May 1, 1880, 112. 40 Logan, J.A., Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia, MS., 42. 41 G.A.M., 1887, Appendix I, XVI. 42 G.A.M., 1885, Appendix XXXV. 43 Information from his daughter, Miss J . Macdonald Murray. 0 References marked thus^refer to names and dates on thi s page, and page 176. 178 Appendix C (continued): James Himmo, the f i r s t representative and missionary of the Church of Scotland arrived at V i c t o r i a i n 1865, but returned i n a few months af t e r preaching at F i r s t Church, V i c t o r i a and St. Andrew's, Nanaimo. fJames C h r i s t i e served the Church of Scotland a t Comox from 1884 to 1887. He then worked at Wellington u n t i l i t joined the Presbyterian Church i n Canada i n 1889. He, himself, retained connection with the Church of Scot-land u n t i l his death i n V i c t o r i a i n 1902. He was the l a s t o f f i c i a l and direct connection of the Church of Scotland with B r i t i s h Columbia. (Dunn, Alexander, Presbyterianism i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n E a r l y Days, 1905, 16.) Dunn says that during the 11 years of his ministry (1875-1886), three church buildings were erected -- Fort Langley, Mud Bay, South Arm or Delta. (Dunn, op.cit.,6.) One congregation a f t e r another n o i s e l e s s l y dropped into the Canadian Church u n t i l a l l had come i n , beginning with Langley i n 1886 and ending with Wellington i n 1889. (Dunn, op. c i t . , 8.) During the ten years subsequent to 1875 seven church ed i f i c e s and two manses were erected, a l l free of debt except one. (Dunn, op. c i t . , 7.) APPENDIX D ABBREVIATIONS G.A.M. — The Acts and Proceedings of the P i r s t (1875 to the F i f t y - f i r s t 1925, in c l u s i v e , series) General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church i n Canada. C.S.M.R. -- The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Missionary Record. i b i d . (ibidem, i n the same place), meaning i n the same book as the l a s t one c i t e d . It i s never used for the f i r s t c i t a t i o n on a page, and i t refers to books, never to p e r i o d i c a l s . op. c i t . (opere c i t a t o , in the work c i t e d ) , meaning the author's work cited i n an e a r l i e r , but not immediate-l y preceding, footnote i n the same chapter. It i s always written with the author's surname in front of i t , e.g. Kennedy, M.E., op. c i t . , 112, while i b i d , never has the author's name i n front of i t . l o c . c i t . (loco c i t a t o , in the place c i t e d ) , meaning i n the author's a r t i c l e i n the p e r i o d i c a l or review previously c i t e d i n the same chapter. The author's surname always precedes this form also. supra, (above), used to c i t e passages e a r l i e r i n the thesis . i n f r a , (below), used to cite passages l a t e r in the thesi s . passim, (scattered), sometimes used instead of exact c i t -ations when references to a subject are scattered through a work. e.g. (exempli grat i a , f o r example). MS. — manuscript. MSS. -- manuscripts. 179 APPENDIX E MODERATORS OF SYNOD 1892 Rev. D. McRae, D.D. 1893 ...Rev. Thos. Scoular. 1894 Rev. J . 0. Herdman, D.D. 1895 Rev. Archibald Lee. 1896 .Rev. E.D. MacLaren, D.D. 1897 ...Rev. John Campbell, Ph.D. 1898 ....Rev. J . Knox Wright, D.D. 1899 Rev. D.G. McQueen, D.D. 1900 Rev. G.A. Wilson, D.D. 1901 ..Rev. W. L e s l i e Clay, D.D. 1902 Rev. Joseph McCoy, D.D. 1903 ..Rev. J . M. McLeod. 1904 Rev. Alex. Forbes, D.D. 1905 ...Rev. John A. Logan, D.D. 1906 .....................Rev. Duncan Campbell, B.A. 1907 ...Rev. D. McRae, D.D. 1908 - .....Rev. J . M. M i l l a r , D.D. 1909 .....Rev. H. W. Praser, D.D. 1910 .......Rev. J . T. Ferguson, D.D. 1911 Rev. J.S.Henderson, D.D. 1912 • ..Rev. R. J . Wilson, D.D. 1913 Rev. H. R. Grant, D.D. 1914 Rev. W. L. Macrae.' 1915 Rev. R. J . Douglas, B.A. 1916 Rev. John MacKay, D.D. 1917 Rev. M. D. McKee, M.A. 1918 .Rev. A. E. M i t c h e l l , B.A., D.D. 1919 Rev. J . Ferguson M i l l a r , M.A. 1920 .......Rev. J . H. Cameron, B.A. 1921 .....Rev. James Hood. 1922 ......Rev. J . R. Robertson, B.D. 1923 ...Rev. C. McDiarmid, B.A. 1924 ........Rev. J . A. Dow, B.A. 1925 ....Rev. P r i n c i p a l W. H. Smith, D.D. 180 APPENDIX F A LIST OF THE MINISTERS IN SOME OF THE PASTORATES THE STORY OF WHICH IS TOLD IN CHAPTER VII F i r s t Presbyterian Church, V i c t o r i a , B.C. John H a l l 1862-1865 Thomas Somerville 1865-1867 Robert Jamieson 0C«.««Wfy 0*™^ A A Q Daniel Duff ' 1 8 6 7 1 8 6 9 John Reid.. 1876-1881. R.H.Smith.... 1881-1882 David Gamble 1882-1884 Donald Fraser........ 1884-1892 John Campbell.. 1892-1912 John Gibson Inkster.. 1913-1921 W.G.Wilson 1921-1938 St. Andrew'.s, Victoria,. B.C. Thomas Somerville .. 1867-1870 Simon McGregor.. 1870-1881 Robert. Stephen ... 1881-1887 Patrick McFarlane McLeod 1888-1893 W. L e s l i e Clay..... ..... 1894-1928 St. Andrew'.s Presbyterian Church, Nanaimo, B.C. Robert Jamieson................. 1865-1869 William Aitken 1869-1872 William Clyde 1875-1882 A.H.Anderson 1883-1887 J. M i l l e r 1887-1889 D.A.MacRae 1891-1896 W.B. Gumming 1896-J.M.Millar ;.. 190.3-J.R.Robertson 1909-A.K.McLennan 1914-J.K. Unsworth . 1917-David L i s t e r 1921-181 182 Alifternl Alexander Dunn 1886-1889 a . Lockhart (student) 1889 P i l l a r (catechist) R. Frew (student) William Stables Smith. R.J.Adamson 1892 Thomas Morrison (student) 1893-1894 ' W. S t e l l (student) 1894 Thomas Menzies (student) 1895-1896 E.G.Taylor 1896-1904 T.S.Glassford.. 1904-James Carruthers 1910-H.A.Bain 1917-1925 A McLean (United Church) 1925-Comox B.K.McElmon. 1877-1883 James C h r i s t i e 1884-1887 Alex. Praser ; 1887-1889 A. Tait 1893-1899 Thomas Menzies .... 1900-1921 James Hyde 1921-W.T.Beattie 1922-1926 Cumberland (Union Mines) A. Praser 1887-1889 J.H.Higgins 1892-1895 Alexander T a i t . 1895 J.A.Logan . . . 1896-1898 W.C.Dodds 1898-.T.S.Glassford 1901 . J.R.Elmhurst 1903 J.D.McGillivray. 1906 James Hood 1911-1925 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, New Westminster, B.C. Robert Jamieson 1862-1865 Daniel Duff (supply) 1865-1867 Robert Jamieson 1869-1884 John Sutherland McKay 1884-1886 Thomas Scouler-. 1886-1897 A.E.Vert 1897-1903 J.S.Henderson.. . 1903-1913 P.W.Kerr 1914-1920 T.H.Mitchell 1920-1924 183 Richmond Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C. Thomas G. Thomson 1885-1887 David Reid (lay preacher) 1887 James Cormack . ...... 1887-1888 J.A.Jaffary 1889-1892 James Buchanan 1893-1896 A.S.Camp . .. . 1896-1897 J.A.togan. 1897-1909 J.H.White 1909-1915 S.G.Thompson 1917-1925 P i r s t Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C. T .G.Thomson ...... 1885-1889 E.D.McLaren ...... 1889 G.B.Maxwell 1890-1896 Wm. Meikle 1896-1398 John Reid one year R.G.MacBeth..,,., Hugh W.Pa/aser;. J.S.Henderson... A.D.Archibald,.. J.Richmond.,Craig And rev; Roddan. .. 1900-1903 1904-1917 1917- 1918 1918- 1921 1921-1930 1930-St. Andrew's Church, Vancouver, B.C, Thomas G. Thomson... 1888-1889 E .D.McLaren ....... 1889-1902 George A.Wilson.. 1902-1903 (interim) R.J.Wilson i 1903-1918 J.S.Henderson,.... .......................,.................... 1918-1924 A•Xsrjr» • • » • » • • • • • • • v* • *„• # *.•.• • • .* • • _*.* 1924^1925 After Union known as St. Andrew's Wesley Church. Willard Brewing ' 1925-1938 Mount Pleasant Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C. J.W .McMillan J.S.Gordon M.H.Mcintosh...• George A.Wilson. J.W.Woodside. .... A.S.Mitchell..., 1891-1895 1896-1898 1898- 1899 1899- 1907 1908-1914 1915-1927 After Union i t , was named St. Giles. United Church. A.W.Mcintosh 1927-1937 W.R.Brown 1937-184 St. John's Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C. Robert L a i r d . ........ 1903-1905 A.J.McGillivray. -.. 1905-1911 E. L e s l i e Pidgeon.... 1911-1915 W.H.Smith..... 1915-1919 A.D.MacKenzie 1919-1925 Chalmers Church, Vancouver, B.C. John Knox Wright... .... ... ..... .-.... :•.. 1901-1910 E.A.Henry 1910-1920 Edward G.McGougan . ... 1920-1925 K i t s i l a n o Presbyterian Church, Vancouver, B.C. Peter Wright...... ..- 1907-1913 A.D.MacKinnon; . 1913-1920 J.Williams Ogden 1921-1922 Gordon Dickie 1922-1925 Knox Church, Kerrisdale. David Gray, (student) .... 1910 A.M.O'Donnell .... 1912 A.O.Patterson 1915-M.H.Wilson 1915-1922 A.P.M^nro 1922-1938 Chilliwack  G.C.Patterson. . 1887-Walter R.Ross 1889-Eohn A Logan 1892-1896 John Knox Wright 1896-Agassiz G. C.Patterson 1887-H. R. Praser 1888-Alexander Dunn 1889-I. S.Thompson 1897 W.H.Mandill James Lang 1903 Alexander Mogee 1904 Hector McPherson 1904 C.McDiarmid J.H.Madill. J.H.Millar 1908 J.D.Gillam. . 1916 E.Crute 1922 James Dewar 1924 185 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Nicola, B.C. George Murray. 1875-1879 John Chisholm. . . . 1884-1886 George Murray.. 1887-1901 W;P.Gold. 1900 George Mason. 1901-1906 D.K.Allan 1906^1909 W.J.Kidd ., 1909-1910 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, M e r r i t t , B.C. W.J.Kidd.'. . ' . V . . . . . . V . . . . . . J.A.Petrie . .. 1911-1913 James Hyde .,. 1915-Joseph Johnston 1917-Thomas Oswald ...................................... 1919 W..J.McPadden. ....................... 1920 Bryce Wallace . .. 1921 St. Andrew's Church, Kamloops John Chisholm .......... 1884-1890 Archibald l e e . . . . . . 1890-1896 J. Clark Stewart 1896-1904 W.A.Wyllie ................................ 1904-1912 Thomas Nixon 1912-1915 W.W.Peck.." 1915-1920 H.R.McGill 1920-1927 Union E.W.MacKay.. ......[...,.].]......... . .i..................... 1927-1930 P.R.G.Dredge. ......... .......................... ........ . 1930-1937 Enderby J.A.Jaffary 1886-1889 J..K.Wright 1889-1896 T,G.Mcleod. . 1896-1902 D . Campbell..... .-. 1902-1913 J..A..DOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1913-1920 W.Stott...... . . .. 1920-1925 Armstrong J,A.Jaffary ..... ...... . 1886-1889 John Knox Wright... 1889-1896 Thomas George Mcleod... ...... 1896-1902 Duncan Campbell.......... 1902-1911 Peter Henderson . 1911-1917 V/m. Stott .......... 1918-1926 Vernon J.A.Jaffary 1886-1889 John Knox Wright.-. ... .............. 1889-1890 Paul F. L a n g i l l . 1890-1894 George A. Wilson. ......... 1894-1900 Joseph McCoy........................... 1900-1902 R.W.Craw 1902-1905 Logie MacDonnell 1906-1910 G. C.F.Pringle. . . 1910-1912 C.O.Main. 1912-1918 Lennox Fraser 1919-1923 Kelowna J.A.Jaffary 1886-1389 J.K.Wright . 1889-1890 Paul F. L a n g i l l . . . . . . 1890-1893 J.M.Millar McVicar (student) 1894 Reid (student) 1894 McKay (student) 1895 J.H.Wallace (student) 1896 Alex. Dunn (student) 1896 A.C.Strachan (student).........-. , 1897 Geo. Mason (student) - 1897 R. Boyle ......... 1898-1899 P.D.Muir - 1899-1902 Chas . Foote.- 1902 A.W.K.Herdraan 1905-1912 Alexander Dunn 1912-1916 Union E.D.Braden 1916-1923 A. McLurg 1923-Cranbrook R.J.Macpherson 1898 Joseph B a l l 1898-1899 W.G.W.Fortune 1900-1906 C.O.Main 1907-1912 W.K.Thompson 1912-1917 H i l l i s Wright. 1917-1920 H. M.Lyon E.W.Mackay 1921-1925 187 Creston Alexander Dunn (Moyie)......;.......... 1900-V.M.Purdy (Moyie-and S a n d o n ) . 1901-F. A.Broadfoot (Moyie) ..... ..... 1903-(Creston i n C. A.McDiarmid (Moyie).................. 1904 f i e l d here) Creston separated G. H.Finlay-............................. 1905-1907 Thomas G. McLeod . . . . . . . . . . . . 1907-S.HiSarkissiah. 1910-W.G-.Blake-. . ........... i .. 1912-R.S ,Pow ......... .................. 1916-G.S.Wood. 1918-T. McCord 1919-James A. James 1921-1925 Quesnel A.G.Hutton ......... 1895 D. Campbell 3 years J.U.Brunton ..' 1899-1901 W.P.Robertson . .... 1901-1903 C. A.Mitchell 1904-1905 W.J.Allen .... 1905-19Q9 W. Sto t t . . . . . . . . 1910-1915 D. RiMcLean. 1915-1920 J.A.Petrie 1920-1925 J.C.Thompson 1925-1933 Ba r k e r v i l l e same as Quesnel up to 1902 A.H.Cameron 1902-1903 E. C.W.McColl 1903-T.A.Rodger. 1904 J.H.Wright A.D.MacKinnon. M.G.Melvin ; 1908 Students for succeeding years Dawson. Yukon T e r r i t o r y A.S.Grant, M.D. 1898-1900 J.J.Wright........ 1900-1901 A.S.Grant, M.D 1901-1905 John Pringle .... 1905-1906 A.S.Grant .......................... 1906-1907 A.G.Sinclair A.Ross 1911-1919 J.Y.McGookin 1920-1921 G.H.Finlay 1921-1925 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0098669/manifest

Comment

Related Items