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A history of the city and district of North Vancouver Woodward-Reynolds, Kathleen Marjorie 1943

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A HISTORY OF THE CITY AND•DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER by Kathleen Marjprie Woo&ward-Reynol&s Thesis submitted in P a r t i a l Fulfilment The Requirements for the Degree of H ALS T E R O F A R T S in the Department of HISTORY The University,of B r i t i s h Columbia October 1943 i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Acknowledgement s I Introduction II Moodyville I I I Pre-emptions IV Municipal Development V Lynn Valley VI F e r r i e s VII Railways and Roads VIII Business and Industry IX Schools and Churches X Conclusion Bibliography PLATE Moodyville Dakin's F i r e Page i v 1 10 38 48 QQ 91 90 116 139 159 163 Insurance Map - 25 I l l Appendix A, S t a t i s t i c a l Tables Table A Sale of Municipal Lands for Taxes, 1893 - 1895 1 B Land Assessments, 1892 - 1905 i C Tax Coll e c t i o n s , 1927 - 1932 i i D Summary of Tax Collections City of North Vancouver, 1932 i i i E Reeves, Mayors and Commissioners of North Vancouver, 1891 - 1936 i v F S t a t i s t i c a l Information Relative to the Cit y of North Vancouver G S t a t i s t i c a l Information Relative to the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver v i H City of North Vancouver Assessments, 1927 - 1942 v i i I D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Assessments, 1927 - 1942 v i i i Appendix B, Maps Lynn Valley i x Fold Map of North Vancouver x l i t Acknowledgements Many people have contributed to the writing of t h i s t h e s i s , and to them a l l I am deeply g r a t e f u l . For invaluable assistance at the Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, I am greatly indebted to Miss Madge Wolfenden. My g r e a t f u l thanks are also due to Commissioner G.W. Vance of North Vancouver f o r access to Municipal records, and to the North Shore Press f o r the use of t h e i r f i l e s . Major J.S. Mathews of the Vancouver C i t y Archives k i n d l y helped me to obtain the plate of Dakin's F i r e .Insurance Map of Moody's M i l l . Mrs. J.M. Fromme, Mrs. A l f r e d Nye, Miss E.J. Stevens, Captain C.H. Cates and Mr. W.M.L. Draycott have a l l been very h e l p f u l and i n s p i r i n g with t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n s of pioneer days on the North Shore. Above a l l e l s e , my sincere t hanks are due to Dr. W.N. Sage f o r his patience and encouragement during the preparation of t h i s work. North Vancouver, October IS, 1945 K.M.W.R. \ A HISTORY OF THE CITY AND DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Situated on the coast of the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, at approximately 49° 20* North Latitude, Burrard I n l e t i s a f i o r d a l trough some ten miles long and about two miles across at i t s widest point . I t i s entered from the Gulf of Georgia through a narrow channel known as the F i r s t Narrows or Lions Gate. Some f i v e miles up i t s course, the In l e t again contracts into a channel known as the Second Narrows. Between these two channels l i e s a f i n e harbour. On.the south shore stands the C i t y of Vancouver,* on the north shore the City and D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. Outside the F i r s t Narrows, and extending west to the shores of Howe Sound, stretches the Municipality of West Vancouver. The north shore of Burrard Inlet i s rimmed with mountains, the southern margin of the Coast Range, which, a f t e r following the coast l i n e of B r i t i s h Columbia i n a general north-west to south-east d i r e c t i o n , here turns d i r e c t l y east. The trough which to-day forms the i n l e t was at one time a channel eroded by the Fraser River en route to the Gulf of Georgia. When an elevation of the land to the north took place, the Fraser abandoned t h i s route i n favour of a channel further southi" 1 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, Uni v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1918" p, n # 2 The trough be0ame an i n l e t whose northern side receded sharply i n terraces to marginal peaks of the Coast Range, Here, as elsewhere, the margin i s divided into spurs by glaciated v a l l e y s , notably the Capilano, Lynn and Seymour, whose general d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s case i s north and south. The westerly spur, flat-topped at 3000 fee t , which extends from Howe Sound to the Capilano Valley, i s known as Hollyburn Ridge. Far up the west bank of the Capilano, and so prominent that they appear to be guarding that v a l l e y , i s the group of peaks known as the Lions. Between the Capilano and Seymour val l e y s the land r i s e s sharply to a plateau at 3800 fee t , behind which r i s e the peaks of Crown, Goat.Dam, Grouse and Timber Mountains. On the west bank of the Seymour, set too f a r back to be v i s i b l e from the waterfront, i s White Mountain, from which a spur known as Lynn Ridge extends south between the Lynn and Seymour v a l l e y s . Seymour Ridge, extending from Seymour Creek to the North Arm, also r i s e s from Burrard I n l e t i n plateau-like terraces at 3200, 3850, and 4050 feet? The va l l e y s of the Capilano, Lynn and Seymour r i v e r s were cut during the period when the C o r d i l l e r a n Ice Sheet covered the area. In the period following the recession of ice the valleys contained f i o r d s whioh gave place to lakes as u p l i f t 2 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1918, p. 20. 3 i b i d . , p. 16 progressed. The lakes were l a t e r drained by cutting post-g l a c i a l canyons through the rock barr i e r s which had retained t h e i r waters^ Above these canyons the streams are shallow and t h i c k l y strewn with boulders, but near the heads of the valleys steeper gradients and deeper cuts appear. In i t s steeper section the stream-bed generally consists of a ser i e s of t e r r a c e - l i k e steps whose edges have been notched by very steep-sided canyons, or over which the stream cascades. Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n on the mountain slopes furnished t h i s area with dense stands of Douglas F i r and Bed Cedar up to about 3000 f e e t . Beyond that the forests t h i n out u n t i l the snowline i s reached. There i s evidence of mineral deposits, 5 but only on a small scale, and of no economic value. The s o i l , being composed of d r i f t deposits on the h i l l - s i d e s , i s of only l i m i t e d value f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . The climate of the area i s very s i m i l a r to that of Vancouver, making due allowance f o r the southern slope. I t was the afternoon of June 13, 1792 that Captain George Vancouver s a i l e d h i s ships the Discovery and Chatham int o Burrard I n l e t . Captain Vancouver was carrying out part of the instructions he had received upon leaving England, namely to make a close examination of the coast between 30° and 60° north 4 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1918, p. IB. 5 i b i d . , p. 56 e t . seq. 6 7 l a t i t u d e . Passing through the F i r s t Narrows, the ships were met hy a party of some f i f t y Indians who paddled out i n canoes to meet them. The Indians proved very f r i e n d l y , presenting the strangers with g i f t s of f i s h , and accepting i n return g i f t s of i r o n which they chose i n preference to copper. When the party, which had paused to greet the natives, moved further up the I n l e t , they were accompanied by the major part of the canoes, whose occupants twice gathered i n conference to discuss the strangers. Gradually the Indians dispersed a f t e r promis-ing to return on the morrow with more f i s h . The party spent 8 the night at the head of the I n l e t , leaving early the follow-ing morning without seeing anything more of the natives. Van-couver watched the Indians clo s e l y f o r evidence of e a r l i e r con-tact with white men. He f i n a l l y concluded that these natives had neither seen any other c i v i l i z e d beings, nor had contact with Indians who had traded with white men. In h i s diary Van-couver drew a very clear word-picture of the i n l e t , which he decided to c a l l Burrard's Channel a f t e r his f r i e n d S i r Harry 9 Burrard of the navyv 6. Vancouver, Captain George, Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean, London, G.C. and J . Robinson, 1798, v o l . 1, p. x i . 7. see above. 8. o f f Port'Moody. 9. S i r Harry Burrard Neale. Upon his marriage, Burrard was granted the p r i v i l e g e of assuming h i s wife's name. Cf. Meany, E.S., Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, London Macmillan Company, 1907, p.188. - 5 -The shores of t h i s channel...may be considered, on the southern side, of a moderate height, and though rocky, well covered with trees of a large growth, p r i n c i p a l l y of the pine t r i b e . On the northern side, the rugged snowy barrier...rose very abruptly, and was only protected from the wash of the sea by a very narrow border of low l a n d * 0 The Indians whom Vancouver met were members of the Coast Salishan, who, according to Jenness, "inhabited a l l the coast of the mainland from Bute I n l e t to the* mouth of the Columbia 11 River." The p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e l i v i n g on Burrard I n l e t were the .Squamish Indians whose communities were scattered along both 1? sides of the i n l e t , and up Howe Sound. The f a c t that Captain Vancouver was met by Indians as soon as he entered the i n l e t , and the d e t a i l s he gives of the coast from which they had come seems to indicate that these were the Indians from the mouth 13 of the Capilano River. This would be the v i l l a g e of 10 Vancouver's Voyage, London, G-.G-. and J. Robinson, 1798, p. 303., v o l . 1 11 Jenness, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , .1932, p. 347. 12 Hodge, F.W., Handbook of Indians of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r * 1913, p. 438. 13 Meany, op. c i t . , p. 188. Vancouver's entry i n h i s journal reads "...we passed the s i t u a t i o n from whence the Indians had f i r s t v i s i t e d us the preceding day, which was a small border of low marshy land on the northern shore, i n t e r -sected by several creeks of fre s h water....Most of t h e i r canoes were hauled up into the creeks....None of t h e i r habi-tations could be discovered, whence we concluded that t h e i r v i l l a g e was within the f o r e s t . " 6 Homulcheson. There was also an Indian v i l l a g e at the mouth 15 of the Seymour, or Chechilkokt To-day these settlements are Indian Reserves Numbers live"and Two res p e c t i v e l y . For f i f t y years Burrard 1s Channel remained only a place on Vancouver's map. At the end of that time the establishment of colonies on Vancouver Island and the mainland again focussed attention on t h i s part of the coast. Then came the survey-14 according to Major J.S. Matthews, Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v i s t , and shown on a map compiled by him and published . i n the Vancouver Daily Province, Vancouver, B.C., July 24, 1943. A di f f e r e n t opinion i s held by Captain C H . Cates, J r . , son of a pioneer tug-boat operator on the I n l e t . Captain Cates maintains that these Indians applied the name Homuleheson to the Capilano River, and c a l l e d t h e i r settlement Sla-aam. 15 The above mentioned Captain Cates i s the authority f o r the following information. Captain Cates Sr. s e t t l e d at Moody-v i l l e about 1888, and h i s sons grew up to know the Indians at Chechilkok intimately. Chechilkok was t h e i r name f o r the r i v e r t h e i r v i l l a g e being Kwa-wee-wee. According to Captain Cates, these Indians spoke a d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t from the Capilano Indians. While the Seymour settlement was a true Indian v i l l a g e t h e i r r e a l l y large v i l l a g e was at Belcarra. They despised the .Squamish Indians, although they sometimes intermarried with them. The Indians of the Mission Reserve (Indian Reserve num-ber cone) they regard as interlopers who only moved i n a f t e r the coming of the m i l l s . This was evidently a sore point with the l a t t e r who, on one occasion presented a memorial to the fovernment i n order to prove that they had always resided here. B.C. Statutes 1875, Indian Land Question.) Captain Cates has a great deal of respect f o r the Seymour Indians, whom he des-cribes as a f i n e type, with very s t r i k i n g features, and very reserved. The l a t e Chief George Slaholt was a well known figur e , and h i s family s t i l l l i v e on the Reserve number two. According to Major Matthews the v i l l a g e on the bank of the Seymour was Whawhewhy. parties of Captain Richards, Walter Moberley, and Lance Cor-po r a l George Turner, R . E J 8 Between 1 8 5 9 and 1 8 6 1 the Royal 1 6 In 1 8 5 6 Captain G.H. Richards was appointed B r i t i s h Commissioner of the San Juan Islands Boundary Commission, In . 1 8 5 7 , i n command of H.M.S. Plumper, he began a survey of the is l a n d s . This done, and the dispute s t i l l unsettled, he spent the years from 1 8 5 7 to 1 8 6 3 making a det a i l e d survey of Van-couver Island and.the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, c f . P a r i -,zeau, H.D., Hydrographic Survey of the North West Coast of .B r i t i s h North America, from the E a r l i e s t Discoveries to the ,Present Time, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Fourth Report, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 2 9 , p. 1 7 . 1 7 Begg, Alexander, History of B r i t i s h Columbia, William Br:iggs:-„ Toronto, 1 8 9 4 , p. 3 4 9 . Moberley made h i s survey of the south side of the I n l e t i n I 8 6 0 , Walter Moberley was born i n England i n 1 8 3 2 , but came to Canada as a c h i l d , and was educated i n Barrie, Ontario, He studied engineering, and i n 1 8 5 9 was appointed superin-tendent of public works i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1 8 6 2 - 1 8 6 3 he was engaged i n the construction of the Yale-Cariboo wagon road, and i n 1 8 6 4 - 6 6 he was assistant surveyor-general of B r i t i s h Columbia. He spent the next four years i n the United States engaged i n exploration and railway-building, and i n 1 8 7 1 returned to Canada to take charge of the Rocky Mountain and B r i t i s h Columbia surveys f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. He was then employed as an engineer i n Manitoba, but f i n a l l y returned to Vancouver, where he died i n 1 9 1 5 . — of Wallace, W.S., Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Macmillan Company, Toronto, 1 9 2 6 , p. 2 8 3 . 1 8 Howay, F.W., The Work of the Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 6 3 , King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1 9 1 0 , p. 9 . Turner surveyed the o r i g i n a l l o t s on which part of the Ci t y of Vancouver now stands, and made a complete traverse of the south shore-line from Hastings Townsite to False Creek. Photostat copies of h i s diagrams, i n possession of the Vancouver Public Library, show naval reserves on the north side of F i r s t Narrows, and also opposite Stanley Park. 8 Engineers, stationed at New Westminster, b u i l t f i r s t a t r a i l and then a twelve-foot road from that town to Burrard I n l e t . This move was prompted by the f a c t that there was some i n t e r -est being shown i n the I n l e t , and also that a naval reserve had been established there i n I860? 0 I t appears that there was some p o s s i b i l i t y of naval headquarters being moved from Esquimalt to Burrard I n l e t , and i t i s easy to imagine the furor that would r e s u l t on the Island. The idea was e f f e c -t u a l l y exploded by the caustic l e t t e r of a correspondent to the Times of June 25, 1860, who wrote: I f a l l that i s required for a naval s t a t i o n be so much water f o r so many ships to f l o a t and anchor i n , and so many acres of land f o r docks i n a wilder-ness, these essentials are obtainable i n Burrard Inlet....So that i f Burrard I n l e t were made the naval s t a t i o n , i t would involve t h i s anomaly that while the headquarters were over there, the ships would always be stationed here. The naval s t a t i o n must be at Esquimalt. < u 19 The Royal Engineers were sent to B r i t i s h Columbia by ,Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies. In response to a request from Governor James Douglas f o r m i l i t a r y protection f o r the Gold Colony, Lytton sent out Colonel Moody with f i v e o f f i c e r s and one hundred and f i f t y men. The f i r s t p a r t i e s arrived i n 1858 and the main body i n 1859. Making t h e i r headquarters at New Westminster, they remained i n the colony building roads, and maintaining order u n t i l they were disbanded i n 1863. c f . Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, University of Toronto Press, 1930, p. 232, ,and also Howay, F.W., The Work of the Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1863, Kings P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1910. 20 Papers Relating to the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, .Part 3, London, 1860, p. 78. 21 London Times June 25, 1860, quoted i n Macfie, Matthew, Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, Longmans, Green, Long-mans, Roberts and Green, London, 1865, p. 127. Burrard Inlet had no interested p a r t i e s to support i t s claim, and the naval station remained at Esquimalt. Within the next ten.; years, however, the Inlet was to become well known as the s i t e of a t h r i v i n g lumber m i l l which shipped i t s products to a l l parts of the globe. - 10 -CHAPTER I I MOODYVILLE . For nearly seventy years a f t e r Captain Vancouver's v i s i t , Burrard I n l e t had l a i n undisturbed by the white man. Dr. Walkem re l a t e s a story t o l d him by a Squamish Indian of how, during the gold rush of 1858, many miners mistook the entrance of the I n l e t f o r the mouth of the Fraser, and several of them were k i l l e d i n subsequent c o n f l i c t with the Indians, About the same time a s e t t l e r , Alexander McLean, i s reported to have . v i s i t e d Burrard Inlet i n search of ranch land. Finding the t e r r a i n unsuited to h i s purpose he moved on to P i t t Meadows, where he became a pioneer. The establishment of naval and m i l i t a r y reserves on Burrard I n l e t , including areas on both shores of the I n l e t at F i r s t Narrows and at the entrance to Port Moody, together with the road b u i l t by the Royal Engineers from New Westminster to ,Burrard I n l e t , served to focus, attention on the I n l e t , Of the forests clothing i t s shores Howay writes, "Burrard I n l e t at that time was a veritable lumberman's paradise. I t had one of the f i n e s t stands of e a s i l y accessible timber i n the colony,** I t was not u n t i l 1862 however, that the f i r s t attempt was made 1 WalkemuW. Wymond M.D. Stories of Ear l y B r i t i s h Columbia, News Advertiser, 1914, p. 10. 2 Howay, F.W., E a r l y Shipping i n Burrard I n l e t , B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, V i c t o r i a , January 1937, v o l . 1, p, 3. - 11 -to u t i l i z e t h i s wealth. In November of that year Thomas Wilson Graham and George Scrimgeour1 of New Westminster secured a pre-4 emption of 150 acres. Described as "situated on the North-ward side of Burrard I n l e t about four miles above F i r s t Narrows" t h i s land was l a t e r surveyed as DL 272, containing 218 acres, and formed part of the area soon to be known as Moodyville. Although pre-emption records show that Graham and Scrimgeour held only 150 acres i n t h e i r own name Howay speaks of them 5 securing a pre-emption of 480 acres. This, and subsequent f a c t s , would seem to indicate that they had a working agreement with one P h i l i p Hicks, t h e i r New Westminster agent, who on Jan-uary 19, 1863, secured a pre-emption of 160 acres adjoining on the west. When l a t e r surveyed as Lot 273, t h i s land was shown to contain 194 acres. In 1869 S.P. Moody claimed to have acquired the 320 acres pre-empted by Graham and Scrimgeour on 7 November 25, 1862. 3 Graham and Scrimgeour were contractors and builders i n New Westminster. 4 Laing, F.W., B.A., Colonial Farm S e t t l e r s on the Main-land of B r i t i s h Columbia 1858 - 1871, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Manuscript, 1939, p. 22. 5 Howay, l o c . c i t . 6 Laing, l o c . c i t . 7 Correspondence S.P. Moody, F 1159 Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 12 -In reply to a question from the C o l o n i a l Secretary, Colonel R.C. Moody, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, wrote as follows: the p e t i t i o n e r s f o r c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s on Bur-rard I n l e t have at length communicated with me. ...They have not yet commenced a c t u a l l y running the m i l l , but i t c e r t a i n l y i s a bona f i d e business and I t r u s t w i l l be a great benefit to the whole community while a source of p r o f i t to themselves. I t also opens out a new d i s t r i c t of country and i n every way i s deserving of encouragement at the hands of the government• In the interview I had with the p a r t i e s , I discouraged any hope of obtaining a free grant of land, and as I could not recommend such i n d u l -gence , that a p p l i c a t i o n has been withdrawn. A l l they express themselves as now d e s i r i n g i s free permission to take from o f f unoccupied Crown lands f o r fourteen years such timber as may s u i t t h e i r purpose. The d i s t r i c t i s densely wooded, the operation amounts to p a r t i a l clearings and employment of labour on wages. These two circum-stances w i l l have the e f f e c t of causing such p a r t i a l clearings to be s e t t l e d upon and c u l t i v a t e d by the very p a r t i e s whose labor w i l l now be paid f o r by the mill....Through t h i s process as a commencement, we may look f o r a.settlement of the d i s t r i c t , and without some such commencement, i t may be many years before there would be s u f f i c i e n t inducement 8 f o r anyone to occupy the land i n that neighbourhood. Graham and Company immediately began construction of the "Pioneer M i l l s " — t h e f i r s t i n d u s t r i a l plant on Burrard I n l e t , Everything except the saws and a few blacksmithing jobs were made on the ground. Water-power to operate the m i l l was 8 B.C. Lands and Works Department, Letters to the C o l o n i a l Secretary's O f f i c e , A p r i l 2, 1061 - August 22, 1863, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. - 13 obtained from Lynn Creek, two and a quarter miles to the east* The water was c a r r i e d from the creek to the m i l l by an open di t c h and a square flume and stored i n a r e s e r v o i r on the h i l l .side. This "water-system" was i n use as long as the m i l l was operated, the water being used f o r a l l purposes. By the end of June, 1863, the m i l l was ready f o r operation. Howay says of i t : I t had two centre-discharge water-wheels, driven by a water head of estimated f i f t y H.P., two c i r -cular saws, a twenty-two-inch planing machine and other a u x i l i a r y equipment. I t s capacity was 40,000 feet i n twenty-four hours. The logs were cut on the g pre-emptions adjoining and hauled by oxen to the m i l l . The mill-owners confined themselves to l o c a l trade, f i n d -. ing t h e i r markets i n New Westminster, Nanaimo and V i c t o r i a , and t r u s t i n g to the superior q u a l i t y of Burrard I n l e t timber to overcome the handicap of distance and enable them to com-pete with m i l l s on the spot• To p u b l i c i z e the opening of the m i l l , P h i l i p Hicks, t h e i r agent, organized an excursion aboard 10 Captain William Moore's steamer, the "Plying Dutchman", when 9 Howay, l o c . c i t . 10 Captain William Moore was born i n Germany i n 1822, and went to sea at an early age. In 1845 he came to New Orleans, but soon made his way to the P a c i f i c coast, where he prospected f o r gold i n the Queen Charlotte Islands, Peru and C a l i f o r n i a . When news of the Fraser River gold finds reached C a l i f o r n i a i n 1858, Moore immediately embarked with h i s family and possess-ions f o r V i c t o r i a . Instead of mining, however, he b u i l t and operated vessels to carry supplies up the r i v e r t o the miners. He soon earned the nickname of "Flying Dutchman", which name he i n turn applied to a vessel he b u i l t i n 1861. In the next twenty years Moore made and l o s t a fortune. A c o l o r f u l per-sonality, he was known the whole length of the coast. With the - 14 -that vessel went to fetch the f i r s t cargo from the Pioneer M i l l s . Graham and Scrimgeour soon found, however, that they were unable to compete with the more c e n t r a l l y situated m i l l s at Hew Westminster. Added to t h i s was the f a c t that by t h i s time the boom accompanying the Gold Rush to the Fraser had subsided, and during the l a t t e r part of 1863 there appears to have been a general depression i n the lumber trade. The partners, who had borrowed heavily i n the f i r s t place, were now being hard pressed by t h e i r c r e d i t o r s . Two of these i n p a r t i c u l a r , appar-ent l y r e a l i s i n g the value of the m i l l , pressed t h e i r claims with such persistence that they drew upon themselves the wrath of Judge Begbie. Accordingly, i n December, a f t e r f i v e months of operation, the Pioneer M i l l s were advertised f o r sale by public auction, together with about one m i l l i o n feet of logs. On the day of the auction.John Oscar Smith, a New Westminster grocer, outbid Sewell Prescott Moody^and purchased the m i l l coming of the Klondyke gold rush h i s luck turned, and he amassed s u f f i c i e n t wealth to permit him to r e t i r e to V i c t o r i a where he l i v e d u n t i l h i s death i n 1909. c f . Hacking, Norman, Ea r l y Marine History of B r i t i s h Columbia, University of B r i t i s h . Columbia Library, manuscript, 1934, p. 101. 11 Sewell Prescott Moody and h i s brother came to V i c t o r i a from the state of Maine i n 1859. They quickly became associa-ted with the lumber business, and i t was. thus that "Sue" Moody became interested i n the m i l l on Burrard I n l e t , which a f t e r 1865 was spoken of l o c a l l y as "Moody's M i l l . " Moody resided at the m i l l u n t i l h i s death aboard the i l l - f a t e d S.S. P a c i f i c i n 1875. He was known and respected i n lumber and shipping . c i r c l e s a l l down the P a c i f i c Coast. - 15 -f o r #80007 Smith changed the name to Burrard I n l e t M i l l s , and at f i r s t made V i c t o r i a h i s p r i n c i p a l market. The summer of 1864 proved so successful f o r him that i n August he entered the 13 foreign export trade. While t h i s venture was not a success, i t did constitute the f i r s t attempt to export; Burrard Inlet lumber.. In attempting to expand h i s trade Smith became heavily-involved i n debt, and i n December 1864 the mortgagers f o r e -closed. The property, the water-power m i l l and 480 acres of timber were advertised f o r sale on January 19, 1865, and were 14 now purchased by Sewell Prescott Moody f o r the sum of #6,900. Burrard Inlet was now to come into i t s own. The m i l l was operated hy the f i r m of S.P. Moody & Co., with "Sue" Moody 15 16 .aotive as manager. In 1866 Messrs. Dietz and Nelson joined the 12 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 3. 13 B r i t i s h Colonist, August 27, 1864, p. 3. 14 i b i d . , January 23, 1865, p. 3. 15 William Dietz, commonly c a l l e d Dutch B i l l , was one of the best known figures of the,Cariboo. I t was he who, i n 1861, struck gold i n Williams Greek, thus p r e c i p i t a t i n g a rush into the mountains of the Cariboo. Later he went into the packing business, one &f the most l u c r a t i v e employments. As l a t e as . 1866 he i s l i s t e d among the p r i n c i p a l owners of mule teams . serving the Cariboo. The sjoodyville business was one of many ventures. Like so many other miners, Dietz l o s t h i s money as -e a s i l y as he made i t , and when he died i n 1877, i n V i c t o r i a , he was miserably poor. c f . Howay, F.W. and Sc h o l e f i e l d , E.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present, Van-. couver, S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1914, v o l . 2, pp. 77 -79 and 98. . . - 16 firm, which was henceforth known as Moody, Dietz and Nelson. On assuming control of the plant, Moody renamed i t the Burrard . Inlet Lumber M i l l s , and started by cutting f o r the l o c a l trade. Some idea of the quality of the timber cut may be gained from the f a c t that i n June 1865 Moody sent to New Westminster a number of s t i c k s 70» x 20" x 20" without a knot i n them, to be used i n the construction of the bell-tower of Holy T r i n i t y 17 Church. Realising the outstanding q u a l i t y of h i s product, 16 Hugh Nelson was born i n 1830, the son of Robert Nelson of County Antrim, Ireland. In 1858 Nelson l e f t h i s native coun-t r y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Unlike most immigrants of the time, Nelson came, not to make h i s fortune, but to s e t t l e . Accord-. i n g l y he rejected the gold f i e l d s and became engaged i n com-mercial enterprises. Among these was an express service from V i c t o r i a to Tale, which he operated i n partnership with George Dietz. In 1866 he moved to Moodyville, where he b u i l t h i s per-manent home near the top of Knob H i l l . Nelson early became interested i n p o l i t i c s , but did not come to the fore u n t i l 1868 when he became an ardent supporter of Confederation and represented Burrard I n l e t at the Yale Con-ference. In 1871 he was elected by acclamation to represent the New Westminster D i s t r i c t i n the l a s t ^Legislative Council of the Colony, and i n 1872 he was re-elected as a member of . the f i r s t L e g i s l a t i v e :.As semblyt of B r i t i s h Columbia and also represented B r i t i s h Columbia i n the House of Commons at Ottawa. This seat he held u n t i l 1879 when he was elevated to the Senate. In 1882 he withdrew from business, and f i v e years l a t e r , while s t i l l resident at Moodyville, he became Lieutenant-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia. His term of o f f i c e came to an end i n 1882, and he died i n 1883. - Kerr, J.B., Biographical D i c t i o n -ary of Well-Known B r i t i s h Columbians, Vancouver 1889, p. 265. 17 The f i r s t Church on t h i s s i t e was b u i l t under the guid-ance of the Reverend John Sheepshanks, the f i r s t rector, at a cost of 4J.200, and was consecrated on December 2, 1860. In September I 8 6 0 t h i s church was destroyed by f i r e . A second church t h i s time of stone, was b u i l t on the same s i t e and con-secrated i n 1867. Thirty^dne 7 years l a t e r t h i s church also was destroyed by f i r e , making the present e d i f i c e the t h i r d on the s i t e . I t was f o r the f i r s t church that the bell-tower i n ques-t i o n was b u i l t , to house a chime of b e l l s presented by Baroness Burdett-Coutts. — S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1922, p. 7. 17 -Moody also decided to enter the world markets. His f i r s t f o r -eign cargo, bound for Sydney, A u s t r a l i a , was loaded i n May 1865, and by the end of that year a second ship was loaded f o r Adelaide and two more f o r Mexico. In 1866 Moody loaded f i v e 18 .ships f o r f o r e i g n ports, and seven the year following. A l l t h i s was not accomplished without d i f f i c u l t y . During 1866 -67 the m i l l s t e a d i l y increased i t s loading f a c i l i t i e s to com-pete with those of other ports. As there was no port of entry on Burrard Inlet boats loading at Moody's were forced to r e g i s -,ter at New Westminster, San Francisco shipping men advanced a theory that navigation on Burrard I n l e t was dangerous. In .1866 Moody himself v i s i t e d that c i t y to d i s p e l t h i s erroneous idea, returning with an order f o r 1,400,000 feet of lumber and 19 the news that he had chartered-two vessels to load i t . Planning to extend t h i s long-coveted plant, Moody appealed i n June 1865 to the Colonial Secretary f o r a grant to be made to us of about one thousand acres of land adjoining the pre-emption claims belonging to the Burrard I n l e t M i l l s Co. Our object i n asking f o r t h i s grant i s that we being l a r g e l y engaged i n the timber business and the timber on the pre-emption claims held by us being nearly a l l cut we are desirous of obtaining the above mentioned land for the purpose of obtaining the timber now standing on i t and as land i s not now open to pre-emption we wish to obtain eit h e r a lease or be allowed to purchase the above 18 Howay, op. c i t . p. 3. 19 i b i d . land. - 18 -As w i l l be noticed, Moody implied that the timber on the o r i g i n a l grant was nearly a l l used. One i s tempted to wonder, however, to what extent he was influenced by an application recently f i l e d by Captain Stamp, who was planning construction of a m i l l on the south shore. Certainly, the lease was not granted u n t i l i t had been proved that i t would not c o n f l i c t 21 i n any way with concessions made to Stamp. Before the lease. f o r t h i s thousand acres had a c t u a l l y been drawn up Moody had increased h i s request to f i v e thousand acres on the same terms as those, granted to Stamp. Moody's memorial to Governor: Seymour on t h i s occasion makes in t e r e s t i n g reading: Your memorialists own the f i r s t and only saw-mill on Burrard I n l e t , where a f t e r a delay of two years, and at considerable expense, we have succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a good f o r e i g n export trade i n lumber and spars...your mem-o r i a l i s t s r e s p e c t f u l l y represent to Your Excel-lency that the lumber on the land o r i g i n a l l y pre-empted and on which the saw-mill i s erected, w i l l be exhausted f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, * i n two months from t h i s date7v.. Your memorialists therefore humbly request that Your Excellency would be pleased to grant us the timber on Five thousand acres of Land on 20 Papers connected with timber cutt i n g Licence of S.P. Moody & Co. over f i v e thousand acres on Burrard I n l e t , F. 67, #2. Attorney-General (B.C.) 1866, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a . 21 i b i d . 22 A note p e n c i l l e d i n the margin at t h i s place reads: The m i l l man t o l d Roger Stamp's foreman that they had enough already f o r ye ars• - 19 -s i m i l a r terms to the grant made to Captain Stamp, ...beg to state that the land on which t h i s heavy timber grows i s u n f i t t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l pur-poses, i t i s therefore impossible f o r your mem-o r i a l i s t s to Interfere i n any way with the r i g h t s of actual or intending s e t t l e r s . This request was granted, with the exception of one thousand acres at F i r s t Narrows, of which one portion was Indian Reserve and the r e s t withheld as f i t f o r grazing c a t t l e . The area granted was l a t e r reduced to 2,636 acres. The lease was made tenable f o r twenty-one years, at an annual re n t a l of one per cent per ""acre. The quality of Burrard Inlet lumber was now s u f f i c i e n t l y well known to a t t r a c t competition to the I n l e t . Stamp's m i l l began to cut lumber i n 1867, and by 1868 Burrard I n l e t boasted three p o t e n t i a l towns, Moody's on the north shore, Brighton and Stamp's (or Gasstownj^ on the south shore, to say nothing of half-a-dozen logging camps. Altogether, some three hundred men found employment on the Inlet at t h i s time. Despite com-p e t i t i o n , Moody's m i l l s were f o r twenty years the chief export-ing centre of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1868, due to the pressure 23 F. 67 #2. l o c , c i t . 24 The settlement of Granville was known l o c a l l y as Gase-town so c a l l e d a f t e r Jack Deighton, loquacious and philanth-ropic proprietor of Deighton's Hotel. This famous hostelry stood at the present i n t e r s e c t i o n of C a r r a l l and Water Streets — c f . Walkem, W.W., Stories of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, News-Advert!ser, 1914, p. 87 - 94, of expanding business, Moody b u i l t a second m i l l some three hundred yards west of the o r i g i n a l m i l l . Here he i n s t a l l e d a large steam m i l l and the l a t e s t machinery available at the time. The new building, two hundred feet long, housed saws, a planing-machine, a l a t h e - s p l i t t i n g machine and a lathe. Moody now claimed that he could produce one hundred thousand feet of lumber per day. F i n a l l y he connected the wharves of the two m i l l s , giving ample dock f a c i l i t i e s f o r a dozen vessels. Moodyville, the most progressive of the three small set-tlements on the I n l e t , (Moodyville, Hastings and Gasstown), .now developed into a v i l l a g e of small houses and a few shops. As at the other settlements, the v i l l a g e was a mere cle a r i n g i n the forest,. ;:.Jt-.housed:'isdme. two hundred- persons a l l d i r e c t l y 25 or i n d i r e c t l y connected with the m i l l . Beside the men who were employed i n the m i l l i t s e l f , there were longshoremen and stevedores to load the vessels which c a l l e d at the m i l l . S t i l l other men were h i r e d to go into the fo r e s t and cut the lumber . and spars, which were then dragged by oxen to the water*s edge. Here they were c o l l e c t e d by steam tugs and towed to the m i l l . Vessels coming i n to load employed stevedores, under whose d i r e c t i o n the crews stowed t h e i r cargoes. Lumber was loaded from the wharf, while spars were taken from the water by a crab 26 . winch or steam engine. 25 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 101 et seq. - 21 -In his book ?! West era Shores", James H. Hamilton, (Captain K e t t l e ) , quotes a l e t t e r written by a sea-captain to h i s owners i n London, 1869. The writer, Captain Looe of the ship "Chelsea", gives h i s owners a very detailed, and favourable, account of Moody's, where, as he says, vessels l y i n g alongside the wharf are "undisturbed by eit h e r the t i d e s or the weather." Steve-dores could be employed at the m i l l f o r f i v e d o l l a r s a day; tonnage dues were 2d. a ton. Pilotage could be obtained at 27 e i t h e r V i c t o r i a or English Bay. Steam vessels could be ob-tained to tiaw a vessel from V i c t o r i a to the m i l l s and back f o r three or four hundred d o l l a r s . There were no wharfage dues to pay. F i s h was abundant, while provisions could be obtained 28 from V i c t o r i a . Once again, i n 1869-70, Moody applied f o r timber leases, being granted some 11,410 acres at various l o c a l i t i e s on the North Shore, but f a i l i n g to obtain a grant of one thousand acres at Point Atkinson. The entry of B r i t i s h Columbia into Confederation In 1871, and the prospect of a railway to the coast, caused Moody some anxiety during the next f i v e years. 26 Hamilton, James H., (Captain K e t t l e ) j Western Shores, Vancouver, Progress Publishing Company, Ltd., 1933, passim. 27 The English Bay P i l o t House was just east of Caul-f e i l d Cove on the north shore of English Bay. 28 Hamilton, l o c . c i t . In May 1873 he wrote at some length to the Honorable Robert 29 Beaven, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works i n an e f f o r t to secure the grant of a promised f i f t e e n thousand acres before the Federal Government or the proposed railway could prevent 30 i t . His e f f o r t s l e d to a lease of ten thousand acres i n 1875. Meanwhile, at four o'clock on the morning of December 22, 1873, the steam m i l l was destroyed by f i r e , and damage done to the extent of f i v e or ten thousand d o l l a r s , not covered 31 by insurance. However, the water-power m i l l was savedyaa.4 able 29 Robert Beaven, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, was born i n England, the son o f the Reverend James Beaven, and educated i n Ontario. He came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858 at the height of the gold rush, and spent several years mining In the Cariboo. Eventually he se t t l e d i n business i n V i c t o r i a . He came into prominence i n 1868 as a leader of the movement f o r the entry of B r i t i s h Columbia into Confederation, and was the f i r s t Secretary of the Confederate League. From 1871 to 1894 he represented V i c t o r i a i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia. During t h i s time he served as Chief Com-missioner of Lands and Works from 1872 to 1876, and as Minister of Finance and Agriculture from 1878 to 1882. From 1882 to 1883 he was premier of the province. When h i s government was defeated i n 1883 Beaven became leader of the Conservative opposition, a post which he retained u n t i l 1894. He was also three times mayor of V i c t o r i a , i n 1892, 1893, and 1897. In .1898 he t r i e d once more to form a government, but without success. He died i n V i c t o r i a , September 19, 1920. - Wallace, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Toronto, Macmillan, 1926, p. 23. 30 Correspondence of the Offi c e of the Attorney-General, F. 67 3a, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . 31 V i c t o r i a D a ily Standard, December 23, 1873. - S3 -to continue i n operation, and Moody at once set about r e b u i l d -ing the steam m i l l . I t so happened that he had recently ac-3S quired the machinery out of H.M.S. Sparrow-hawk but had not yet put i t to i t s proposed use. This machinery was promptly I n s t a l l e d i n the r e b u i l t steam m i l l where i t i s thought to have been i n operation u n t i l the m i l l was closed down. In November 1875 fate agin struck a cruel blow at Moody-33 v i l l e , when Moody l o s t h i s l i f e on the i l l - f a t e d " P a c i f i c '» en route to C a l i f o r n i a . In 1866 Moody had been joined by two former stage-coach operators, George Dietz and Hugh Nelson. As Dietz had predeceased Moody i t remained f o r Nelson to succeed 32. H.M.S. Sparrowhawk p l i e d these waters f o r many years i n the service of Governors Seymour and Musgrave. c f . Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d , op. c i t * , pp. 288, 328. When no longer f i t f o r t h i s use, she was sold by auction at New West-minster and purchased f o r $20,000 by a Portland firm. As they intended to adapt her for s a i l i n g purposes they had no use f o r her machinery. Moody, Dietz and Nelson bought t h i s to use i n a tug they intended to b u i l d , c f . Mainland Guardian, New Westminster, November 30, 1872. 33. The 3.S. P a c i f i c , l e s s than 900 tons, carried passengers and fr e i g h t between "Victoria and San Francisco. On November 4, 1875, she l e f t V i c t o r i a , bearing more than her f u l l complement of passengers. During the night, while o f f Cape F l a t t e r y , she ran into an American s a i l -ing ship, the Orpheus, and. sank i n ten minutes, leaving only two survivors, Moody, who was on board, was among those drowned. Some time l a t e r , on the shores of Beacon H i l l , V i c t o r i a , there was found a piece of wreckage bearing the p e n c i l l e d i n s c r i p t i o n " S.P. Moody. A l l Lost The handwriting was i d e n t i f i e d by MoodyTs f r i e n d s . Higgins, D.W., Mystic Spring, Toronto 1904 pp. 318 - 333. passim. 24 -the l a t t e r as manager of the f i r m . While r e t a i n i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n , Nelson reorganized the business as the Moodyville Sawmill Company, The new f i r m included Hugh Nelson, Andrew Welch, of 34 Welch, Rithet and Company, V i c t o r i a , James Burns, manager of the, Bank of North America, V i c t o r i a , M.W. Tyrwhitt Drake, 35 .lawyer, Pete McQuade and Captain John I r v i n g , Nelson r e t i r e d from the f i r m upon h i s appointment to the Senate, 1882, and was succeeded as manager by Benjamin Springer, during whose time the firm maintained a wharf and yard on Water Street, .Vancouver, Springer resigned i n 1890 and J.H. Ramsdell became manager. In 1895 he i n turn was succeeded by J.G. Woods, the 34 Robert Patterson Rithet was born i n Scotland i n 1844. Upon completion of h i s education he spent three years with a shipping and commission f i r m i n Liverpool, a£ter which he turned to the Canadian West, reaching V i c t o r i a , B.C. i n 1862, He re-entered the shipping and commission business and i n 1870 founded the f i r m of Welch, Rithet and Company, The senior partner of the f i r m was Andrew Welch of Welch and Company, San Francisco. When Welch died i n 1888 Rithet bought out h i s in t e r e s t s and took over the San Francisco business. At the same time the V i c t o r i a business was incorporated under the , s t y l e of R.P. Rithet and Company, of which Rithet was president, — B r i t i s h Columbia, Biographies, Vancouver, S,J, Clarke, 1914, v o l , 4, p, 1134, 35 Captain John I r v i n g was the son of William Irving, one of the pioneers of steam navigation i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Upon h i s father's death John I r v i n g took over the Irvin g steamers and a t h r i v i n g Fraser River trade. In 1883 Irving's Pioneer Line was combined with the Hudson's Bay Company steamers to , form the Canadian P a c i f i c Navigation Company, which was pur-chased by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1901 — c f , Hacking, op. c i t , , p, 73. M O O D Y V I L L E S A W M I L L from —Courtesy City Archives, Vancouver, B.C. 26 -l a s t incumbent of tne p o s i t i o n . The m i l l was sold i n 1891 to a party of English c a p i t a l i s t s and the following year a new company was incorporated, the Moodyville Land and Sawmill Com-pany, with a c a p i t a l of-£160,000. The economic depression of the next ten years brought about the closure of the m i l l i n 1901. As Moodyville was the f i r s t community on Burrard Inlet i t seems f i t t i n g that f o r over twenty years i t should have remained the leading centre of the I n l e t . Probably the advent of the railway i n 1885 was the chief reason f o r the centre of i n t e r e s t s h i f t i n g to the newer settlements on the south shore. No sooner was "Sue" Moody's m i l l a going concern than community l i f e began to develop around I t . As e a r l y as June, 1865, a serviee of worship was conducted by the Reverend Eben-ezer Robson, who gathered together f i f t e e n men f o r h i s congre-36 gation. Thereafter Moody1s was served regularly, although i t was seven years before a s i m i l a r service took place on the south shore. The f i r s t marriage recorded on Burrard Inlet was that of Miss Ada Young to Mr. Peter Plant, performed by the Reverend Edward White at Moody's on July 18, 1868. In 1869 a telegraph l i n e was l a i d from New Westminster to 36 Vancouver Daily Province, June 20, 1940. - 27 -Brighton on the south shore of the Second Narrows, and i n A p r i l of the same year Moody arranged with the Western Union Tele-graph Company to l a y a cable to Moody's at h i s expense. When i n s t a l l e d , the telegraph was open f o r public use. The o r i g i n a l t o l l rate was twenty-five cents, but i n 1871 t h i s was r a i s e d 37 to f i f t y cents, ••?> In January of the same year (1869) the Mount Hermon Lodge, the f i r s t Masonic Lodge on the I n l e t , was organized at Moody's. The o f f i c e r s i n s t a l l e d were a l l d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y con-nected with the m i l l . Three days l a t e r a group of men met and established the New London Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , each pledging himself "to subscribe the sum of f i v e d o l l a r s each f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g a fund to erect a suitable building at Moody's M i l l s f o r a reading room and l i b r a r y and f o r f u r n i s h -38 ing the same with Books and Papers," Among the f o r t y - s i x .signatures attached to t h i s pledge were those of S.P. Moody and George Dietz. The firm supplied the building which was formally opened as a public reading room by the Reverend Arthur Browning, who chose f o r the subject of h i s address , "Woman." I t was provided i n the Constitution of the I n s t i t u t e that the room should be "at the disposal of preachers of the 37 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 101 et seq. 38 Minute Book of the Mechanic' I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver Pub-l i c L ibrary. Mechanics' Institutes were a form of l i t e r a r y soc-i e t y very popular at t h i s time i n Eastern Canada and the United States. * 28 -gospel of a l l denominations f o r holding Divine Service free of 39 charge. A few months af t e r i t s inception the I n s t i t u t e changed 40 i t s name to the Hastings Mechanics* I n s t i t u t e , and as such i t functioned with varying degrees of f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y f o r several years. Since Moodyville was i s o l a t e d geographically, i t was pos-s i b l e to exclude from the community some of the l e s s desirable features of western l i f e . "Sue" Moody knew the e f f e c t of l i q u o r on s a i l o r s and lumbermen, and f o r ten years he succeeded i n keeping the north side of the I n l e t free from the e v i l s of the saloon, a f a c t f u l l y appreciated by the sea-captains who 41 came to load at Moodyville. As might be expected under these circumstances, smuggling seems to have been r i f e on the I n l e t . As early as 1865 Moody appealed to Governor Seymour f o r the 42 appointment of a Preventive O f f i c e r to combat t h i s t r a f f i c . The request was not granted, and the B r i t i s h Columbian records l a t e r : An American sloop ran into Burrard Inlet on Monday l a s t when the hands disposed of a quantity of s p i r i t s to the lumbermen. The 39 Minute Book of the Mechanic* I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver Pub-l i c Library. 40 out of compliment to Read Admiral Hastings, who was stationed on Burrard Inlet 1866-1869 — "a good f r i e n d of t h i s country." — Howay, l o c . c i t . 41 Hamilton, op. c i t . , p. 184, 42 Correspondence of S.P. Moody, F 1159, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . - 29 -liq u o r was brought from Puget Sound and smug-gled i n . As no revenue or other public o f f i c e r i s stationed at the Inlet steps could not be taken to arrest the smugglers? 5 Moody continued to enforce h i s wishes, but was obliged to y i e l d 44 i n 1874 when Harry Hogan established the Terminus Hotel and 45 gave Moodyville i t s f i r s t saloon. From such beginnings Moodyville grew into a t h r i v i n g l o c a l i t y . A v i s i t o r to the m i l l from New Westminster i n 1876 was so impressed by what he saw here that he wrote a v i v i d des-c r i p t i o n of the m i l l i n h i s l o c a l paper. "From what we had previously heard of the Burrard I n l e t m i l l s , " he wrote, "we were prepared to see a large and well-conducted establishment, but the magnitude of the works, and the order and system by which the whole were governed, f a r exceeded our highest expec-t a t i o n . " At some length and with great d e t a i l he described the buildings, machinery and products of the plant . The m i l l i t s e l f i s a mammoth building up-wards of 300 feet i n length, 270 feet of which i s roofed over and covered for the greater part with corrugated i r o n . The i n t e r i o r represents a complete net-Work of shafts, bands, and wheels, by which the machinery i s kept i n motion, the whole being driven by a powerful steam engine, which formerly belonged to H.M.S. Sparrowhawk. About t h i r t y saws were i n operation, and the way they 43 B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, February 26, 1869. 44 probably the Hogan a f t e r whom Hogan' A l l e y , Vancouver i s named. 45 That Moody's wishes were s t i l l respected i n part i s shown by the Minute Book of the, Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , where an tntry of . A p r i l 1878 refer s to the^, •'bringing^ i n of l i q u o r and _ m | n | l ^ g i t around...against- the wishes or zhe proprietors or the 30 -converted immense logs of wood into lumber of various lengths and thicknesses was something marvellous. Over 100 men are employed immediately about the mill,and not l e s s than 300 persons f i n d employment i n one way or another i n connection with t h i s establishment. In connection with the m i l l i s an extensive machine-shop, where repairs of the machinery are effected expeditiously and cheaply. The d a i l y average output of lumber i s about 60,000 feet and the aggregate amount cut and shipped from the 1st; of January to the 5th. of A p r i l i n c l u s i v e was 4,118,481 f e e t . The c r e d i t he gave to the l a t e S.P. Moody, whom he described as "the master s p i r i t of t h i s great concern." The remainder of the writer's outing, which consisted of a v i s i t to Hastings M i l l , evidently came as an anti-climax, since he devoted but 46 very l i t t l e space to a description of i t . In February 1882 e l e c t r i c i t y was i n s t a l l e d at Moodyville, an event so momentous that the Mayor and Council of V i c t o r i a arranged a special t r i p to see the l i g h t s . A r r i v i n g at Moody-. v i l l e just a f t e r midnight, they repaired to the residence of . Senator Nelson, who turned out of h i s warm bed and ordered the l i g h t s to be put into operation f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t . The demon-st r a t i o n urei's !-bnlyupa#tly"usucces s£ulV : because* thetfoan who was operating the machine was doing so f o r the f i r s t time. However, such a severe storn had sprung up by t h i s time, that the party was delayed f o r twenty-four hours. This enabled them to obtain more information on the subjeet. The engineer, Randall, as-sured the party that "by paying proper attention to the p l a c i n g " 46 "A Ramble on the Mainland", D a i l y B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 18, 1876. - 31 -of the carbons and the maintenance of uniform speed with the generator a steady l i g h t can be given equal to SO,000 c.p." He went on to explain that the cost of carbons i s $1.50 f o r 10 hours with a l l ten l i g h t s burning. The machine i s worked by water power equal to 10 h.p. The upper carbons burn eight hours and the lower ones sixteen hours and are so arranged i n duplicate that the lamps only require trimming every sixteen hours or so. F u l l y supplied with d e t a i l s of cost and operation, the party returned to t e l l V i c t o r i a of the wonders they had seen at 47 Moodyville. During the next ten years Moodyville became known as the most extensive m i l l north of Puget Sound. Speaking of the lum-ber cut at t h i s time, Dr. Walkem says i n those days no logs were taken, or even looked at, which contained a knot to mar the beaty; (sic) of the f l o o r i n g into which much of i t was cut. The trees cut down were generally those which had not a branch below 60 f t . - 70 f t . from the ground. .. . s t i c k s have been turned out from the m i l l 30x30 and ISO feet long. The m i l l ' s chief markets were i n A u s t r a l i a , South America, China and Japan; i t s shipping f a c i l i t i e s such that the largest vessels could load d i r e c t l y from the m i l l . Speaking of the m i l l i n 1884, the Daily B r i t i s h Colonist says The annual cut of t h i s m i l l i s about 18,000,000 f e e t . The capacity i s 100,000 feet per day.... 47 "Light Cast i n Dark Places," B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a , February.17, 188S, p. 3. 48 Walkem, Stories of Early B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1914, p. 91. - 32 -There are about 100 men employed at the m i l l , whose monthly wages w i l l range from $50 to 125 (sic) according to p o s i t i o n held. A s i m i l a r number are employed i n the logging camps to whom good wages are paid. The timber l i m i t s are now becoming scarce, and logs have to be towed from a distance, to the m i l l s i n booms. In time the company expect that the ground already c u l l e d w i l l have to be gone over again and the best of the standing timber cut. Plant and production were increased to meet increasing demands, u n t i l by 1891 the m i l l alone was employing some 120 men, and had a capacity of 120,000 feet per day. In addition about t h i r t y men were employed as longshoremen and a further one hundred men at the numerous logging camps. The plant, which had now become an extensive establishment, was adjudged to be one of the very best steam plants i n existence f o r saw-mill purposes. I t had twelve b o i l e r s , arranged i n four d i s t i n c t sets of three each, connected only by the main steam pipes leading to the engines. Each set of b o i l e r s had a smoke-stack 50 four feet i n diameter and f i f t y - t w o feet high. The furnace burned sawdust which was supplied by self-feeding machinery, thus making i t possible f o r one fire-man to operate the whole plant. In the sawmill were double and single c i r c u l a r saws of s i x t y inch diameter, a gang bolt e r and lathe m i l l and a single picket m i l l . The planing m i l l , which was attached to the saw-m i l l , had two machines of note, a J.H. Small's single surfacer 49 Daily B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a , January 1, 1884, p. 1. 50 The smoke and dust from these smoke-stacks were such a nuisance that the o r i g i n a l school-house had to be abandoned, and a new one b u i l t further from the m i l l . - 33 -and matcher that would turn out seven thousand feet of 1 x 6 d a i l y , and a S.A. Wood's double surfacer and matcher. This l a t t e r machine, which was b u i l t e s p e c i a l l y f o r the m i l l , had a d a i l y capacity of ten thousand 1 x 6 . In addition i t would plane double surface 8 x 24 and plane on four sides 6 x 18. There were also, i n connection with the m i l l , a machine-shop, carpenter shop and blacksmith shop. This l a t t e r was i n charge 51 ,of Mr. P.A. A l l e n , who joined the company i n 1872 and remained with i t f o r t h i r t y years. Extensive wharves had accommodation f o r seven ships at a time. Behind the wharves the foreshore was covered to a depth of three feet with sawdust and refuse, amid which the general store, hotel,and sheds stood on p i l e s . Along the shore, each side of the m i l l , were the booming grounds whose usual stock of logs averaged twelve m i l l i o n f e e t . Moun-t a i n streams poured quantities of snow water into the I n l e t at t h i s point, and the receding t i d e s l e f t the logs dry, with: the r e s u l t that toredos did less damage at these booming grounds than at others on the I n l e t . Moodyville i t s e l f was a pretty townsite, clustered around the m i l l , and surrounded by v i r g i n f o r e s t . The community, whose population rose as high as four hundred, boasted a store, 51 While he was employed at Moodyville, Patrick A. A l l e n invested i n property on the North Shore at a very low f i g u r e . His holdings increased s t e a d i l y i n value, and A l l e n was able to accumulate a s u f f i c i e n t fortune to enable him to r e t i r e and spend h i s o l d age i n comfort, an honoured pioneer of North Van*> couver. - 34 -h o t e l and company boarding house• Private residences centred around an elevation known as "Knob H i l l . " At the top of the h i l l stood the "Big House", the residence of the manager. On the h i l l also were the school-house and the homes of the other white f a m i l i e s . At the foot of the h i l l l i v e d such Indians as did not stay on the nearby reserve. Near the bottom of the h i l l were the "rookeries" of the Chinese, and the so-called streets, Canary Row, Maiden Lane, and Kanaka Row. These were the parts where the bachelors and beach-combers l i v e d . When a man married he moved into a house up the h i l l . The only road was a plank road running along the top, a continuation of the present F i r s t Street. East of Knob H i l l i t turned down to the m i l l and along the beach. Mails reached the post o f f i c e twice a day from Vancouver, and two steam f e r r i e s made the settlement t h e i r headquarters. In the l i t t l e church services 52 were held regularly, while a reading room and l i b r a r y of s i x hundred volumes catered to the c u l t u r a l needs of the community. A couple of miles west of the m i l l stood the Indian mission, the single spire of i t s church showing c l e a r l y against the 52 During the winter of 1880-1881 Bishop S i l l i t o e , accom-panied by h i s wife, conducted services r e g u l a r l y at Moodyville. They rode over from New Westminster on Saturday afternoon, with t h e i r luggage on t h e i r saddles behind them, and returned home on Monday morning. Later the charge was taken over by the Reverend George Ditohman, incumbent of Burrard I n l e t and the North Arm. — S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Evans and Hastings, 1923, p. 33. - 55 dark forest background. From the steps of t h i s l i t t l e church, almost at the water's edge, Father Fouquet and h i s Indian con-gregation watched the f i r e that consumed Vancouver i n 1886. The only other signs of l i f e were the homes of s e t t l e r s scat-tered sparsely from Point Atkinson to Seymour Creek, Of the residents of Moodyville, s p e c i a l mention should be made of two l a d i e s , Mrs, Murray Thain, whose husband was a longshoreman, appears to have been very active In s o c i a l and community l i f e . On one occasion she took charge of the school, which would otherwise have been closed f o r several months through lack of a teacher. Mrs. Susan Patterson, wife of John Peabody Patterson, logger, was noted throughout the length and breadth of the Inlet f o r her care of the s i c k . At a time when there was no resident doctor on the I n l e t , she ministered with equal s k i l l to Indians and whites. At the time of the f i r e , 1886, many Vancouver residents apparently found refuge at Moodyville. - Communication with the south shore of the I n l e t , and the stage to New Westminster, was e s s e n t i a l to the l i f e of Moody-v i l l e , The very f i r s t f e r r y service between Brighton and 53 Moody's was a row-boat operated by "Navvy Jack", otherwise 53 According to Major Matthews of the Vancouver C i t y Ar-chives, John Thomas was a Welshman well known on the I n l e t , i&e<^ty&8rs>il$®e*$3aE$ing he acquired a stretch of water front i n the present v i c i n i t y of Hollyburn, which i s s t i l l known as Navvy Jack^s T>oint. He apparently sold gravel from |hi g property, since Navvy Jack gravel i s a common Item or trade - 36 -John Thomas. "Navvy Jack" operated h i s f e r r y between 1866 and 1867, i n which year Captain James van Bramer brought the "Sea 54 Foam" from the Fraser River and established her on the run. Meeting the stage from the Royal City, the "Sea Foam" would cross the I n l e t carrying mails and passengers f o r Moody's. Re-turning to the south shore she would c a l l at Stamp's M i l l and ,reach Brighton again i n time to connect with the coach f o r New Westminster. This meant i n e f f e c t that anyone wishing to make the four mile journey from Hastings M i l l to Stamp's M i l l by f e r r y must f i r s t cross the I n l e t to Moodyville, a s u f f i c i e n t Indication of the importance of that v i l l a g e . When the "Sea Foam" l e f t the service, about 1873, her place was taken by the "Chinaman", so c a l l e d because she had been brought from China 55 on the deck of a lumber ve s s e l . By 1888'iMoodyville had i t s own f e r r y s e r v i c e . The steamer " E l i z a " , property of the Moodyville Steam Ferry Company, Limi-ted, advertised a regular schedule, making f i v e round t r i p s to Vancouver d a i l y , and one to Hastings. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that following the building of the railway the mid-morning boat from Vancouver was soheduled f o r 11:30 "or on the a r r i v a l of the t r a i n . " The " E l i z a " carried mails and passengers, 54 Howay, F.W., Early Settlement on Burrard I n l e t , B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 1, 1937, p. 101. 55 l o c . c i t . - 37 -charging twenty-five cents per t r i p . At t h i s time the f e r r y -boat " N e l l i e Taylor" also ran between Vancouver and Moodyville, and was available as well f o r h i r e . In addition the Canadian P a c i f i c Steamship Company ran d a i l y steamers (Monday excepted) .between V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and Moodyville, To sum up, when Vancouver was s t i l l an infant town newly linked to the east by a railway, Moodyville was the chief set-tlement on Burrard I n l e t . West of the m i l l and i t s t h r i v i n g community stood the white cottages and simple church of the Indian Mission, Scattered along the north shore of the Inlet were the homesteads of a few pioneer s e t t l e r s , Moodyville, however, had reached i t s prime. The railway brought to Vanr-couver a wave of rapid settlement and expansion which spread even across the I n l e t , Moodyville subsided quietly into the background, completely over-shadowed by the metropolis to the south and the t h r i v i n g community which was springing up on i t s own o u t s k i r t s , 56 Vancouver C i t y Directory, 1888, R.T. Williams, V i c t o r i a , passim. - 38 -1 CHAPTER III PRE-EMPTIONS As shown i n the l a s t chapter, i t was the timber which f i r s t attracted interest to the shores of Burrard Inl e t , and a de-s i r e to exploit t h i s wealth led to the e a r l i e s t pre-emptions here. Graham and Scrimgeour were the f i r s t to pre-empt land on the north side of the I n l e t . On November 26, 1862, they f i l e d a claim f o r 150 acres "situated on the northward side of Bur-rard Inl e t about four miles above F i r s t Narrows." Here they b u i l t the Pioneer M i l l s . Moody and Nelson, who l a t e r acquired t h i s property, obtained the Crown Grant f o r the land which was then surveyed as Lot 272, containing 218 acres. In January 1865, P h i l i p Hicks pre-empted 160 acres "adjoining Graham and Scrimgeour's." Hicks acted as agent f o r the Pioneer M i l l s , and i t i s most l i k e l y that Graham and Scrimgeour had the use 1. For lo c a t i o n of l o t s see map, Appendix p.x. According to a Land Proclamation issued by Governor James Douglas i n 1861, the upset price of country land was set at 4s. 2d. per acre. Single men who were B r i t i s h sub-jects were permitted to occupy 150 acres of land. This was l a t e r changed by proclamation to 160 acres. A married man whose wife was i n the colony might claim 200 acres, and f o r each c h i l d under 18 and resident i n the colony, an additional 10 acres. A pre-emptor was required to record his claim and pay f o r his land upon occupying i t . At the end of two years occupation, i f he had put up improvements to the value of 10s. per acre, he was granted a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvement. I f .'he -continued -to. occupy and improve "!ther land, the received.a Crown Grant. • . r:or• .•:. ^ ' - 39 -of the land. There i s no trace of a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improve-ment available, which might indicate that Hicks did not develop his claim within the required time. In 1874, when Moody and Nelson applied f o r the Crown Grant f o r t h i s land also, i t was surveyed as Lot 273, containing 194 acres. Just one year l a t e r , January 1864, I r a N. Sackett f i l e d a claim f o r the same ground, which he described i n these words: The Indian Lodge i s distant from my house about one mile. On the east i t i s joined by the land of the sawmill but not immediately as there i s no corner post set by them. On the claim i s at present one dwelling house and a large barn. 2 This description quite obviously refers to Lot 273, already claimed once by Hicks. On the same date, a claim was f i l e d by Colley Lewis f o r a parcel of land "commencing from the corner-post of I r a Sackett's on the east, running on the water-line 35 chains and 45.7 chains leading to the I n t e r i o r . On the west the claim i s joined at some distance of about twenty chains to the Indian Lodge.". There can be l i t t l e doubt that t h i s was Lot 274. The Indians at-the Lodge took exception to Lewis' claim, and sent t h e i r chief, Snatt, to complain to Judge Brew at New Westminster. Brew reportedly t o l d Snatt to "take away the post and at the same time to n o t i f y Lewi-ss that he had order-3 ed him to do so." This i s presumably the reason why Lewis* 2. B r i t i s h Columbia s e s s i o n a l Papers, 1875, Indian Land Quest-ion, Papers Relating to. 3. i b i d . - 40 -claim was allowed to lapse. In 1867 the land was claimed again hy Alexander Merryfield, who, l i k e h i s predecessor, f a i l e d to' obtain the t i t l e . The following year Josiah Charles Hughes, of Moody's, pre-empted f i f t y acres which he described as l y i n g between the land formerly taken up by Hicks and that then held by Merryfield. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s was r e a l l y the eastern portion of Lot 274. In 1874, when Moody and Nelson were round-ing out t h e i r holdings, they obtained the Crown Grants f o r both these l o t s . This gave them approximately two miles of shore frontage, exrending from Lynn Creek to the foot of Lonsdale Avenue, and covering an area of 656 acres. Meanwhile there had been an attempt at bona f i d e s e t t l e -ment east of Lynn Creek. In January 1863, Frederick Howson had f i l e d a claim f o r 160 acres extending east of Graham and Scrimgeour's claim f o r 32 chains, and running north f o r 50 chains p a r a l l e l to t h e i r l i n e . Howson allowed h i s claim to lapse, but gave h i s name to the creek between him and Graham, which was known f o r some years as "Fred's Creek." The land was pre-empted again i n 1865, by Thomas A. Strong, but he also l e t h i s claim lapse. In 1867 a claim f o r t h i s same land was f i l e d by John Linn. Sapper Linn "was a member of the party of Royal Engineers who came out to the colony i n 1859, aboard the "Thames C i t y " . During the voyage h i s wife, who accompanied him, gave b i r t h to a son and h e i r . The "Emigrant Sold i e r s ' Gazette and Cape Horn Chronicle," a paper issued by the party - 41 -4 to pass the time, duly recorded the event. When the party was r e c a l l e d i n 1863, some of i t s members remained i n the c o l -ony. Among these was John Linn, who was e n t i t l e d to a gratuity 5 f o r long service. Four years l a t e r , Linn pre-empted Howson's claim on Burrard I n l e t . I t would appear that at t h i s time he f a i l e d to improve the land and the claim lapsed. In February, 1871, he again applied f o r t h i s land, t h i s time as a m i l i t a r y grant, and se t t l e d there. His sons grew up to work i n the Moodyville M i l l , and Linn himself gave his name, with a s l i g h t change of s p e l l i n g , to the creek which formed the western 6 boundary of h i s land, now known as Lot 204. Preceding Linn by several years, Hugh Burr, i n 1865, had made application to purchase Lot 193, a parcel of land contain-ing 169 acres east of Seymour Creek. For some reason t h i s land was surveyed and put up f o r auction, while the surrounding land was open fo r pre-emption. Burr was an Irishman who had come to V i c t o r i a i n 1860. For a short time"he had charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's store at Fort Alexandria, a f t e r which he 4. Howay, F.W., Work of the Royal Engineers i n B.C., V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1910, p.3. 5. Correspondence Colonel R.C. Moody, 1859, Archives of B r i t -i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , F. 1158. 6. Nelson, Denys, Place Names of the Lower Fraser Valley, man-usc r i p t , v o l . I. The change i n s p e l l i n g i s probably due to l o c a l ignorance or disregard f o r accuracy. - 42 returned to New Westminster, where he taught school f o r two years. One or two judicious r e a l estatesventures brought him a neat l i t t l e p r o f i t . Teaching conditions being f a r from sat-i s f a c t o r y , Burr decided to turn to farming and purchased the 7 land east of Seymour Creek. The neighbouring parcel of land, Lot 611, was pre-empted the following year by W.E. Cormack "for the purpose of erecting a building thereon f o r carrying on the f i s h e r i e s " . Cormack had probably come from New Westmin-ster to f i s h i n Burrard I n l e t . The land apparently reverted to the Crown, and was pre-empted again i n 1867 by Joseph Burr, J r . , who obtained a Crown Grant i n 1888. Hugh Burr pre-empted the next l o t , Lot 469, i n 1870, and obtained f u l l possession i n 1889. Thus the Burr family acquired a l l the shore-line be-tween Seymour Creek and Indian Reserve #3. Burr established 8 the f i r s t dairy-farm on the I n l e t , and supplied Moodyville with milk, which he delivered by row-boat. The m i l l provided a ready market f o r his produce, while ships that came f o r lum-ber always welcomed a supply of fresh f r u i t and vegetables. The waterfront west of the m i l l was also being taken up at t h i s time. In 1869, William Bridges occupied, and a few months 7. B r i t i s h Columbia, Biographies, Vancouver, S.J. Clarke, 1914, v o l . IV, p. 392. 8. Howay, I.W., Early Settlement on Burrard I n l e t , B.C. H i s t -o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . L, 1937, p. 101 et seq. - 43 -l a t e r pre-empted, the quarter-section afterwards surveyed as 9 Lot 271. During the i n t e r v a l John Deighton, sought t i t l e to 20 acres of t h i s land, bounded on the west by the Indian v i l l -age, and having a frontage of 10 chains. Deighton's claim r r e -vived d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the Indians, who again sought gov-10 ernment protection. I t appears as stated above, that the Squamish t r i b e had entered the In l e t about 1860, and selected a camp-site on the fore-shore. Many of them soon found work at the m i l l , and so the camp developed into a permanent v i l l a g e . Perhaps because of t h e i r own slim claim to the land, the Indians were resentful of white men s e t t l i n g nearby, and made several . attempts to have the land surveyed and gazetted as a reserve. Despite the recommendation of government o f f i c i a l s , t h i s was not done, and the Indians had no l e g a l claim to the land on which t h e i r v i l l a g e ?jas b u i l t . In 1868 they b u i l t a church i n the v i l l a g e , and i t was the next year that Deighton proposed to b u i l d a house, as they said, " i n the midst of our v i l l a g e beside our church." Chief Snatt immediately appealed to the o f f i c e of the Chief Commissioner of Land and Works, and D e i g h -ton was obliged to stop bu i l d i n g . Snatt asked again that t h i s land be set aside as a Reserve. He t o l d a touching story, claim-ing that the Squamish had camped at the s i t e for many years 9. "Gassy Jack" Deighton of Gasstown. bee Chapter I I , p. 19 f n . 10. See above, Chapter I, p. 6, f n . - 44 -b e f o r e t h e w h i t e man came t o t h e I n l e t . W h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e y had not r e s i d e d p e r m a n e n t l y on t h e l a n d , but f o l l o w i n g t h e custom o f t h e i r p e o p l e , had come and gone, he c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y had always l e f t some b e h i n d t o occupy t h e p l a c e . At t h i s t i m e , he s a i d , t h e i r v i l l a g e c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y f a m i l i e s and s i x t e e n s i n g l e men. He asked f o r them 200 a c r e s w i t h f o r t y c h a i n o f f r o n t a g e . T h i s f r o n t a g e , S n a t t s a i d , e x t e n d e d twenty c h a i n each s i d e o f t h e c h u r c h . P r o b a b l y w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o Deight*-: { on's c l a i m , S n a t t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the twenty c h a i n s o f f r o n t a g e on the m i l l s i d e was a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l , s i n c e t h e c o r r e s p o n d -i n g s t r e t c h on the west s i d e was l a r g e l y mud f l a t s , and unap-p r o a c h a b l e a t l o w t i d e . I t was on t h e e a s t s i d e , he s a i d , t h a t t h e y w i s h e d t o b u i l d t h e i r homes. As a r e s u l t o f S n a t t 1 s a p p e a l t h i s r e s e r v e was l a i d out byythe a u t h o r i t y o f the g o v e r n o r on the s p o t . On November 25, 1869, the l a n d was g a z e t t e d as I n d i a n K e s e r v e #1, c o n t a i n i n g 35 a c r e s . I n t h e same n o t i c e an a r e a o f 11 111 a c r e s west o f L o t 469 was s e t a s i d e as Reserve #3. Both R e s e r v e s a re s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . Meanwhile, W i l l i a m B r i d g e s ' c l a i m remained. I t would ap-p e a r t h a t b e f o r e B r i d g e s a man named T r i m had s t a k e d t h i s c l a i m , 12 p r o b a b l y i n 1864, and had p l a n t e d a p p l e t r e e s t h e r e . A p p a r e n t l y he d i d not a p p l y f o r p r e - e m p t i o n r i g h t s , and so B r i d g e s was a b l e 11. B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1875, I n d i a n Land Quest-i o n , P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o . 12. u r a n t , J.N., B u r r a r d I n l e t i n Ea r l y , Times, B r i t i s h Colum-b i a M agazine, June 1911, p. 487 - 497. - 45 -to f i l e h i s claim. There i s no trace of a C e r t i f i c a t e of Ix%~ provement, hut Bridges did not allow the claim to lapse. He died, however, before obtaining a Crown Grant, the l a t t e r being issued i n 1885 to James Gharles Prevost, Administrator of Es-ta t e . The property passed into the hands of one Thomas Turner, and the claim became known l o c a l l y as "Tom Turner's Farm", which name i t retained f o r many years. I t v/as said that Tur-ner inherited the land from an uncle, whose w i l l was found i n a trunk long aft e r h i s death. This f a c t l i n k s up well with the record showing the Crown Grant issued to the Administrator of Estate, and i t may be presumed that Bridges was the uncle i n question. The farm, west of the Ferry Wharf at the present foot of Lonsdale Avenue, was a pleasure place sloping gently down to the water. On the beach stood a cottage of boards, with ce,dar-shake roof, a barn and garden. For residents of Vancouver the grassy slope, and shady orchard made a popular p i c n i c spot. Turner vied with Burr of Seymour Creek i n supply-ing Moodyville and Hastings M i l l with farm produce. While Bridges and Deighton were acquiring Lot 271, William Ross, i n March of the same year, f i l e d a claim f o r a quarter-section just inside the F i r s t Narrows. Having a frontage of some 42 chain, t h i s land was sandwiched between an Indian Re serve on the west, and a timber lease held by Moody and Nelson on the east. Ross' schemes apparently f a i l e d to materialize, f o r i n November of the same year Samuel Charles Howse, a car-penter, applied f o r the same land as a M i l i t a r y Grant. His ap-46 -l i c a t i o n was favourably received, and early i n 1871 he obtained both a M i l i t a r y Grant and a Crown Grant f o r Lot 264. Between Howse and Indian Reserve #1 two more M i l i t a r y Grants were i s -sued i n February 1872. William Edwards and P h i l i p Jackman,.. both formerly with the Royal Engineers, were granted 150 acres each, Lots 265 and 266 respectively. Edwards was e n t i t l e d to a long-service g r a t u i t y . Jackman had previously located west of Seymour Creek, on the s i t e of Indian Reserve #2. During the next f i f t e e n years, the waterfront outside the F i r s t Narrows was taken up, l a r g e l y by men who had some con-nection with Moodyville. J". C. Hughes, who pre-empted Lot 237, immediately west of the Capilano Indian Reserve, was the f i r s t 13 president of the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e . Later he entered p o l i -t i c s , and i n 1875 was elected to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly as the Member f o r New Westminster D i s t r i c t , which included Burrard I n l e t . James Blake, who pre-empted Lot 775 i n 1872, l a t e r transferred his claim to John Thomas, operator of the f i r s t 14 f e r r y service to Moodyville. Thomas quarried a type of gravel which came to be c a l l e d a f t e r him, while to t h i s day part of the fore-shore here i s known as Navvy Jack's Point. In January 13. See above, Chapter 2, p. 27. 14. i b i d , p. 35, - 47 -1886, Lots 554, 555, and 556 were pre-empted respectively by J. R. Chapman and James McCormack, loggers, and A. N. C. King, clerk, a l l of Moodyville. On the same date claims were also f i l e d by Stanley James and Walter Erwin. James, who pre-empted Lot 558, was employed as a clerk at Moodyville, while Erwin was the keeper of the lighthouse at ^oint Atkinson. His claim was Lot 582. Lot 557 was claimed the following year by Patrick A. A l l e n , blacksmith of Moodyville. Born i n Ireland, A l l e n was thrown on h i s own resources at an early age, and came to America. He gradually worked h i s way wesy to San Francisco. In 1872 he came north to Moodyville, where he found employment as a black-smith, a p o s i t i o n v/hich he held f o r t h i r t y years. During t h i s time he invested i n property with s u f f i c i e n t success to enable 15, 16 him to spend h i s declining years i n comfort. 15. B r i t i s h Columbia, Biographies, v o l . I I I . 16. Unless otherwise indicated, the writer i s endebted f o r the material of t h i s chapter to Laing, F.W. , Colonial Farm S e t t l e r s on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, manuscript, p. 22-29. - r48 CHAPTER IV MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT The o r i g i n a l pre-emptors of North Shore home-steads as well as the Moodyville Sawmill Company, gradually allowed t h e i r property to pass into the hands of i n d i v i d u a l speculators. With the incorposation of the C i t y of Vancouver i n 1886, and the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t transcontinental t r a i n i n 1887, these men f e l t that the time was at hand to r e a l i z e on t h e i r invest-ments. Whtle the t o t a l number of property-holders i s not known, there were at least forty-three l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of Van-couver who took an active part i n the proceedings of the next 1 few months. On December 29, 1890, a meeting of North Shore property-holders was held i n the o f f i c e of Rounsfell & Company, Vancouver. Twenty-eight men were present at t h i s meeting, and 2 twenty-six at a subsequent meeting. The chairman, sta t i n g the reasson why the meeting was c a l l e d , pointed out n the great ad-3 vantage i t would be to the property owners M of the North Shore i f a municipality were formed there. A l l present declared them-selves i n favour of such a step, and a committee was appointed 4 " to see what could be done intthe matter At a second meet-ing, January 3, 1891, the question was raised as to whether Moodyville should be Included i n the new municipality, and i t 1. Minute Book of North Vancouver Municipality Meetings, 1890-1891. In possession of the Municipality. 2. i b i d . 3. i b i d . 4. i b i d . - 49 -5 was agreed to write to R. P. Rithet, i n V i c t o r i a f o r h i s con-sent. Rithet*s reply, when received, being to the e f f e c t that he did not wish DL 872 and 273 to be included i n the new mun-i c i p a l i t y , i t was resolved to exclude these l o t s as requested. In order to defray the cost of incorporation proceedings, a number of the property owners guaranteed the preliminary ex-penses on the understanding that they were to be repaid out of the f i r s t taxes when the municipality was formed. One of the guarantors, A. E. McCartney, being a surveyor, was instructed 6 to draw out a map of the new municipality. A formal p e t i t i o n signed by those pre-emptors, property-owners and residents who favoured a municipality was presented to the P r o v i n c i a l Government, and on August 10, 1891, l e t t e r s patent approving the incorporation were issued i n the name of 7 the Honourab l e Hugh Nelson, formerly of Moodyville, and now Lieutenant-Governor of the province. This document defined the boundaries of the municipality and provided f o r the e s t a b l i s h -ment of municipal government. I t decreed that: a l l that Jtiece of land commencing at a post marked GFB situated on the Westerly shore of 5. See above - Chapter 2, p<> 24 6. Minute Book 7. See above - Chapter 2, Po 16 - 50 the North Arm of Burrard I n l e t , being the north-east corner of l o t numbered 872 i n the D i s t r i c t of New-Westminster; thence west along the north boundary of said l o t numbered 872 to the north-west corner thereof; thence i n a westerly d i r e c t i o n to the north-east corner of l o t numbered 956; thence west along the northern boundary of said l o t numbered 956 to the north east corner of l o t numbered 985 situated on Seymour Creek; thence west along the northern boun-dary of said l o t ; thence i n a westerly d i r e c t i o n to the north-east corner of l o t numbered 875; thence west along the northern boundaries of l o t s numbered 875 and 874 and a l i n e produced to the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the coastline on Howe Sound; thence southerly along the coast-line, to Point Atkinson; thence east along the coast-line and the north shore of Burrard Inlet to a post i n the south-west corner of l o t number ed 273; thence north along the west boundary of said l o t to the north-west corner; thence east along the north boundary of said l o t numbered 273 and l o t number ed 272 to the north-east corner of said l o t numbered 272; thence south along the east boundary thence easterly along the shore l i n e to Roche Point; thence northerly along the west shore of the North Arm of Burrard I n l e t aforesaid to the point of Commence-ment and containing 100 square miles more or le s s should be organized as "The Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver." The Letters Patent went on to i n s t r u c t that the Council s h a l l consist of four Councillors and a Reeve, and the whole number present at each meet-ing s h a l l be not less than three. Nomination s h a l l take place and the p o l l , ( i f any), s h a l l be held at the residence of Mr. Thomas Turner, situate on Lot 271, Group 1, New Westminster D i s t r i c t . Nomination f o r the f i r s t e l e c t i o n of Councillors s h a l l be on the 22nd, day of August 1891, at 12 noon.. ..The f i r s t meeting of the c o u n c i l s h a l l be held on the f i r s t Saturday a f t e r the day of e l e c t i o n at the residence of the said Mr. Thomas Turner at 12 noon. 9 8. Apparently should be 957. 9. The o r i g i n a l i s i n the possession of the Municipality of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. - 51 -An e l e c t i o n was held accordingly, on August 29, 1891, on 10 the premises better known l o c a l l y as "Tom Turner's Farm," J . P. Phibbs was elected Reeve, and Thomas Turner one of the c o u n c i l l o r s . At the statutory meeting held according to i n -structions, the Reeve and Council were sworn i n , a f t e r which the meeting adjourned, to reconvene on September 12, at the 11 Reeve's milk ranch on Seymour Creek. At t h i s time the whole municipality was v i r g i n timber land, and the f i r s t task of the newly-elected codncil was to open up trunk roads through i t s vast t e r r i t o r y . Accordingly, a by-law was passed on February 15, 1892, to enable the council to ne-12 gotiate a loan of $40,000 on debentures f o r 50 years at 8%. 13 14 J . 0. Keith underwrote the loan at par, and i n return the road was named a f t e r him. Messrs Williams Bros, and Dawson were em-ployed as engineers and instructed to l a y out a road from Howe Sound to the North Arm of Burrard I n l e t . However, a decade of f i n a n c i a l depression intervened, and i t was not u n t i l March 1902 10. See above, chapter 3, p.4^o 11. Express, North Vancouver, B. C. August 25, 1905. 12. i b i d 13. James Cooper Keith, born i n Scotland i n 1852 of a well known family of f i n a n c i e r s , came to V i c t o r i a i n 1876 to take a p o s i t i o n i n the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia. He mar-r i e d the daughter of Roderick Finlayson, o f f i c i a l of the Hudson's Bay Company and second commander oo"f t h F o f t . L _=:f V i c t o r i a . In 1902 he was manager of the Vancouver branch of the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia. 14. Vancouver Daily Province, A p r i l 4, 1941, Old Timers, an address by-Rodger Burnes. . - 52 -that three contracts were l e t one f o r the Seymour and L i l l o o e t Roads, one f o r Deith Road from the Capilano River to the North 15 Arm, and one f o r the bridges, and that section of Keith Road which extends from Capilano River to Eagle Harbour. T he carry-ing out of these works involved a further loan of #20,000 i n debentures at 7$ i n t e r e s t . These two loans, being raised at a 16 high rate of i n t e r e s t , made necessary a special tax rate, thus imposing a heavy burden upon the young municipality. I t was therefore a cruel blow which fate dealt the D i s t r i c t when f a l l freshets carried away the Capilano and Seymour Bridges soon 17 a f t e r they were completed. Furthermore, the f i n a n c i a l standing of the d i s t r i c t was so 18 poor, and i t s assessed value so small, that i t was found im-possible to r a i s e a further loan with which to r e b u i l d the bridges or carry out other improvements. In consequence, dev-elopment was at a s t a n d s t i l l f o r several years. Disappointed. landowners allowed t h e i r property to go to sale rather than pay 19 the taxes assessed. In an attempt to r e t a i n public confidence, between 1895 and 1899 the Municipality bought i n large areas of 15. Keith Road crossed a number of mountain streams and three r i v e r s , the Seymour, Lynn and Capilano, which at times became raging torrents, washing out t h e i r bridges on several occasions. 16. In 1905 t h i s was 13 m i l l s , on land value only. 17. Express, August 25, 1905. 18. A Municipality i s permitted to borrow up to 20% of i t s assessed value. See Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1936, Vol. 2. p.2938 .... • 19. See Table A, Appendix p. i . - 53 land at tax sale, thus rendering i t s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n s t i l l l e s s stable. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the landowners of t h i s time were speculators resident elsewhere. In 1897, i t was found that there was only'one person q u a l i f i e d , as a resident owner f o r c o u n c i l l o r . The D i s t r i c t d r i f t e d along f o r seven months with-out a council, pending the passage of a s p e c i a l amendment of 23. the Municipal E l e c t i o n s Act f o r i t s r e l i e f . Such a state of a f f a i r s s t i l l f urther discouraged the ratepayers, and the period of stagnation continued u n t i l 1902. In the f i r s t decade of i t s l i f e , the t o t a l assessed value of the land i n the Municipality 22 declined by nearly $300,000. One of the e a r l y obstacles to settlement w as undoubtedly the lack of any d i r e c t means of communication with Vancouver. 23 Moodyville had a regular f e r r y service, but the only means of communication between Vancouver and North Vancouver was v i a row-boat or eanoe. In the spring of 1894 a ratepayers meeting was held, at which a committee was set up to make i n q u i r i e s about a steamer suitable f o r f e r r y purposes, and about terms of pur-chase. A number of small c r a f t were investigated without success and f i n a l l y the committee entered into negotiations with the Union Steamship Company, whereby the l a t t e r agreed to run the .20* &'ss required "by:, the /Municipal Clausesf Act. 189.6,.. v i c t . , ch. 3 7 v 21. Municipal'.-Elections ^ c t 1897, 61 V i c t . , ch. 68. iSee' Table B, Appendix:-p.". i i " . v :•*:. " 3S5» §e& above,:'Chapter 2, p. 36. - 54 -S. S. Senator from Moodyville to North Vancouver and Vancouver. Among the terms proposed was an agreement to run t r i p s timed to enable residents of North Vancouver to reach Vancouver at 7.45 a.m. and 9.15 a.m., and to leave Vancouver at 5.15 p.m. weekdays. Close on the heel§ of the incorporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver had come the large r e a l estate companies, who divided among themselves those l o t s that now form the town-s i t e of North Vancouver City, or contiguous parts of the Dis-t r i c t . Foremost among these was the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company. Incorporated i n August 1891 with stock worth $500,000, i t s p r i n c i p a l shares were held by J . Mahon i n England. Mahon sent h i s brother Edward out to become p r e s i -dent of the company and also an active member of Mahon, McFar-land and Mahon, who sold much of the Company's land. Other noted shareholders were J . Balfour Ker and James Cooper K e i t h . Keith, who had long been a lover of the North Shore, had been one of the prime i n s t i g a t o r s of the movement f o r incorporation of the municipality, and subsequently was active i n obtaining the f e r r y service mentioned above. The North-Vancouver Land and Improvement Company acquired possession of Lots 271, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, and 550, and opened some of them f o r 24 early settlement. Lonsdale Estate, whose chief shareholders 24. Heywobd-LonsdaJLe and. James Pemberton F e l l were Englishmen, members of the same family. F e l l , who i s s t i l l l i v i n g i n ~ . Vancouver'/:came to Canada as manager of the Lonsdale Es-tat e . - 55 -were Heywood-Lonsdale and J . P. F e l l , obtained Lots 264, 265, 266, and 553, but did not open t h e i r land to s e t t l e r s u n t i l 25 19G3. A. St. George Hammersley bought up D. L. 274, which also was closed to settlement f o r some years. Would-be s e t t -l e r s of land closest to Vancouver were therefore obliged to buy from the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company, which they d i d . In 1896 the great part of the Company's lands were surveyed f o r settlement, and i n 1897 the f i r s t home-makers ar-r i v e d . That year and the next at l e a s t f i v e f a m i l i e s moved i n . Unable to obtain Stand near the water-front, they took up acreage i n D. L. 549, i n the present v i c i n i t y of 15th Street east of Lonsdale Avenue. That Avenue i n those days was a logging road that followed an i r r e g u l a r course somewhat west of i t s present l o c a t i o n . A l l supplies had to be c a r r i e d up t h i s road. The men commuted dai l y on the Senator to t h e i r places of business i n Vancouver, each.carrying a h a l f - g a l l o n can which he brought home at night f u l l of milk. At home there were trees to f e l l and land to clear preparatory to planting a garden. Building material could be obtained from Moodyville, or from Vancouver, as also could groceries. Mountain streams, l a t e r supplemented by wells, supplied a l l water f o r domestic purposes, F i s h were abundant i n the streams, while meat and game could be taken o f f 25. Hammersley was a member of the f i r m of Drake Jackson and Company, B a r r i s t e r s , Vancouver, and was f o r a number of years S o l i c i t o r f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. - 56 -the land, "^ettlers continued to come, and by 1901 the B r i t i s h Columbia Directory speaks of North Vancouver as "a suburban townsite on the north side of Burrard I n l e t , opposite Vancouver " 26 c i t y , and the census f o r the same year records a population 27 of 365 persons. The same Directory reveals the existence at that 28 time i n North Vancouver of an Anglican Church, a Roman Catholic 29 30 Mission, and two canneries. The following year saw the estab-31 lishment of a l o c a l grocery, and the well-known Hotel North 32 Vancouver, which immediately became a community centre. The tide was now d e f i n i t e l y turning f o r the municipality. A land boom, which had set i n during 1900, was accelerated by the movements of the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway, 26. Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazeteer and Directory, v o l . VII, 1900-1901, Henderson Publishing Company, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, p. 209. 27. Census of Canada, 1921, v o l . I, p. 215. 28. St. John's. 29. Mission and Boarding School. 30. Great Northern Cannery, and Whiteside and Bickman Cannery, Eagle Harbour. 31. Ideal Grocery, J.A. McMillan, who also was postmaster f o r 10 years. 32. Larsen was also proprietor of the Hotel Norden on Cordova Street. He advertised the Hotel North Vancouver as follows: Newest and Best Summer ^esort. Rates #2.00 per day. Special rates f o r Families and Regular Boarders. Rigs and saddle horsesto v i s i t Capilano Canyon. Excellent Ferry Service with Vancouver C i t y . — Henderson's Directory, v o l . XI, 1904. - 57 -whose charter provided f o r a l i n e along the north shore of Bur-33 rard I n l e t , Every available parcel of land was sold and re-sold, subdivided and re-subdivided. In 1903 the Lonsdale Es-tate and D i s t r i c t Lot 274 were opened up f o r settlement. The 34 same year, T. S. Nye, returning from the Boer War, selected Lot 2026 as the grant due to him f o r m i l i t a r y service and the Council opened up Lonsdale Avenue to the boundary of his land. Settlers moved into the municipality. At every meeting the Council received requests from persons wanting roads open-ed up to the homes they proposed to b u i l d . The school, which 35 was opened i n 1902, was i n need of a second teacher the follow-ing year. The e x i s t i n g f e r r y service proved inadequate, and i n 1903 the North Vancouver Ferry and Power Company was formed 36 to operate a suitable service. Caught on the crest of the boom, the Council themselves resolved that " i n view of the present a c t i v i t y i n lumber and the supposed value of timber on various parcels of land held by the Corporation, and i n consideration of the value of the lands themselves... a surveyor and timber cru i s e r be employed to value municipal holdings and advertise-ments put i n the papers of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and ^ e a t t l e . 33. see below, Chapter 7, p. 101. 34. Son of A.D. Nye who bought an acre 6flahdofrom'^the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company i n 1898, and broth-er of A.J. Nye and CH. Nye who pre-empted i n Lynn Valley 35, See below, Chapter 9, p. 143. 36. See below, Chapter 6, p. 96. - 58 -Taeoma and San Francisco that the Council has lands with timber 37 f o r s a l e , " The assessment of the municipality began to r i s e , and with i t the borrowing power. In September 1903, the Council received a p e t i t i o n signed by more than h a l f the land-owners, asking f o r a by-law to authorize the r a i s i n g , by way of debentures, of a loan of $100,000.00 to repurchase previous de-38 bentures and consolidate the debt. This move enabled the Coun-c i l to rebuild the Capilano and ^eymour Bridges which had been 39 destroyed ten years before, and to finance plans f o r the erect-ion of a Municipal B a l l . Ever since the inauguration of the municipality, the Municipal Office had been located i n the Inns of Court G i l d i n g , Richards ^ t r e e t , Vancouver. Council meetings had also been held there, with the exception of the Statutory meeting each year, v/hich had recently been held i n the Hotel North Vancouver. I t was now proposed to secure l o t s and pro-vide a building l o c a l l y of a nature to permit additions. The minimum cost of the f i r s t instalment was to be #1000. As a donation to the new building, the council members agreed to waive t h e i r indemnities f o r the current year, which amounted to 40 | 300. per month. From several proposed s i t e s , one was f i n a l l y 37. Minutes of Council Meeting, January 28, 1903. 38. i b i d , September 3, 1903. 39. See above, p. 52. 40. Minutes of Council Meeting, January 17, 1903. - 59 -selectediat the north east corner of F i r s t Street and Lonsdale Avenue. The owner, A, St. George Hammersley, agreed to s e l l three l o t s f o r $500. Plans were obtained, and tenders c a l l e d 41 f o r . Work continued through the summer and the new Municipal H a l l was ready f o r use before the end of the year. There followed a period of rapid expansion. Honsdale Ave-nue and Esplanade became a business centre, boasting a dozen firms o f f e r i n g f o r sale goods and groceries, hardware, drugs, drygoods and r e a l estate. In November 1905 the f i r s t bank, a branch of the Bank of North America, opened i t s doors. Pgiorh^o 42 that year the Western Corporation was established. This f i r m not only dealt i n r e a l estate, but also b u i l t a sawmill, c l e a r -ed land.and erected buildings. Included among the l a t t e r were the f i r s t business block i n North Vancouver, and also a number of the bigger residences. Other businesses followed r a p i d l y , including Wallace Shipyards, and two hotels, one on Second Street and one at Capilano. A l l goods entered the town v i a the f e r r i e s . Lacking a telephone system the wharfinger devised a system of c a l l s with a horn to warn consignees when t h e i r goods had a r r -ived. Two toots were f o r McMillan's store, three f o r Larsen's 41. The complete cost of the building and land cannot be de-termined. Records show that the Architect received $500. f o r the plans, and the builders $3998.47 at various dates. There would^also be costs of c l e a r i n g the land, and prob-ably other sums as w e l l . In 1912, under a r b i t r a t i o n pro-ceedings, the C i t y of North Vancouver sold the H a l l to the Federal Government, f o r a post O f f i c e , f o r $93,650.00. . 42. See below, chapter 8, p 116 „ - 60 -hotel, a long and two short ones f o r the Express, and two long 43 toots f o r the butcher shop. I t was <tn 1905 also that George Bartley gave the town I t s f i r s t l o c a l newspaper, the Express, 44 l a t e r to be known as the North Shore Press. In 1906 Vancouver c i t y decided to stop holding o f f i c i a l Dominion Day celebrations. At the i n s t i g a t i o n of the Express the North Shore came forward and staged i t i n i t i a l F i r s t of July f e s t i v i t i e s . These f e s t i v -i t i e s , which became an annual event u n t i l interrupted by the F i r s t World War, attracted huge crowds from across the I n l e t to the grounds and beach i n front of Larsen's Hotel. The pro-gramme, which included races, broncho-busting and canoe races .against Indian teams, came to a climax i n the afternoon with the ascension of a huge smoke-filled balloon, bearing with i t a trapeze a r t i s t who f i n a l l y parachuted to safety. Put up from the grounds of the Hotel, the balloon would d r i f t several miles before coming down, probably i n the f o r e s t s behind the town. There was a reward of ten d o l l a r s f o r the f i n d e r , and t h i s was often claimed by some lad several days l a t e r . When dark f e l l , 43. North Shore Press, North Vancouver, B. C. A p r i l 3, 1931. 44i*. i b i d . Bartley describes the plant: A Washington hand press was the f i r s t p r i n t i n g press used to p r i n t the Express....until the c i r c u l a t i o n grew too large. Then a Wharfdale cylinder press was purchased from the Van-couver News-Advertiser and took i t s place The Express was the f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n on the North Shore to own i t s own e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g system. I t already had a Pelton waterwheel to fur n i s h power f o r i t s job p r i n t i n g press. A dynamo was procured with a capac-i t y of ten l i g h t s , and i t was joined by be l t i n g to the hydraulic powerwheel and worked very w e l l . On Saturday nights and holidays the o f f i c e front was illuminated by e l e c t r i c l i g h t and made a good advertisement. In a year or two the B. C. E l e c t r i c extended i t s system to North Vancouver when the Express took power and l i g h t from the company. - 61 -the crowds would gather on the green slope behind the beach to view an elaborate pyrotechnic display o f f the shore. Through-out the whole day, Larsen's Hotel with i t s wide verandahs and green lawns, formed a community centre. These boom days were busy days f o r the Municipal Council 45 also. The opening up of estates f o r settlement, and the rapid 46 growth of population necessitated the building of many roads and sidewalks. The townsite was s t i l l studded with giant stumps. Lonsdale Avenue, slowly taking shape, was not yet a s t r e e t . In A p r i l 1905 plans were l a i d f o r a roadway t h i r t y feet wide north from the wharf, to be planked or macadamized f o r the f i r s t few 47 blocks. In August of the same year tenders were c a l l e d f o r 48 Lynn Valley Road. To meet these costs a loan of $25,000 was 49 raised at 5%. 50 As early as 1903 the question of water service was con-45. In 1905 the Express estimated the population at about 1500 residents. ( August 25, 1905 ) 46. The assessment r o l l f o r 1905 was: Total Land Valuation $1,090,571 Improvements 142,815 $1,233,386 47. Minutes of Municipal Council, A p r i l 19, 1905. 48. l o c . c i t , August 2, 1905. 49. i b i d . 50. l o c . c i t . , November 16, 1903.. - 62 -sidered. Since i t proved impracticable to obtain water from 51 the c i t y main i t was decided to i n s t a l l a system drawing from Lynn Greek, which showed a s u f f i c i e n t supply f o r a large pop-52 u l a t i o n . A loan of #50,000 was raised f o r the purpose, and G. Betts engaged as engineer to survey and construct the l i n e . At the same time the reeve was instructed to have a well dug to provide a temporary supply f o r residents i n the v i c i n i t y of the lower part of Lonsdale Avenue. Almost at once, household-ers were c i r c u l a r i z e d f o r applications f o r water-service. Early i n 1905 contracts were l e t f o r d i s t r i b u t o r pipes and hy-drants. In May 1905, Betts reported that the water works were almost complete. The main from intake to waterfront meas-ured 5t miles, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n system extended nearly sev-en miles.- Pressure at source was reduced by two reducing valves along the l i n e , so that at no point did i t exceed 125 pounds. F i f t e e n hydrants were put down at f i r s t , and more added l a t e r . Over one hundred connections had been made at the time of Betts report, while others were waiting to be made. For these con-53 nections h a l f - i n c h galvanized pipe was used, while f o r the l a t -e r als along the various streets wire-wound wooden pipes were 51. In 1889 the Vancouver Water Works Company i n s t a l l e d a system to supply Vancouver C i t y from the Capilano River. This area has, i n consequence, never been within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Municipality of North Vancouver. Vancouver C i t y would have been w i l l i n g to negotiate an agreement to supply water to the Municipality, but i t was thought that water from the c i t y mains would not r i s e to the higher l e v e l s . Op. c i t . November 16 and December 3, 1903. 52. l o c . c i t . July 9, 1904. 53. l o c . c i t . May 3, 1905. -.63 -54 required. I t was not u n t i l July 1906 that the dam at the i n -55 take was completed, by which time the residents of the "town-s i t e " were asking the Council f o r a by-law to authorize a loan 56 of $25,000 f o r the extension of the system. I t remained now fo r the Council to obtain control of such land as was necess-ary to protect the watershed. This was accomplished by pur-chase at nominal figures from the P r o v i n c i a l Government or from private owners of such l o t s bordering the Creek as the Council 57 did not already own. In keeping with the demand f o r a water system was the question of obtaining l i g h t , tram and telephone service f o r the Municipality. The p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining power from Seymour Creek or the Capilano had long been obvious. I t was i n 1892 that a joint stock company, the North Vancouver E l e c t r i c Com-pany was incorporated "for the purpose of constructing operat-ing and maintaining e l e c t r i c a l works and establishing an e l e c t -r i c a l supply system i n the v i c i n i t y of burrard I n l e t , " f o r the benefit of Vancouver v/ith water taken from the Seymour or the 54. Express, August 25, 1905. 55. Minutes of Municipal Council, July 18, 1906. 56. i b i d , August 20, 1906. 57. Parts of Lots 1429 and 1431 at tax sale; ^ot 1016 from the owner at $2 per acre. The dam was on t h i s l o t ; Lots 1563 and 1413 at |5 per acre from the Commissioner of Land and Works. The Intake was i n hot 1363. — Min-utes of Municipal Council, passim. - 64 -58 Capilano. This company was empowered to supply e l e c t r i c i t y hut not to construct a railway oi? tramway. When they f a i l e d to operate within three years, as t h e i r charter demanded, they were granted an extension of a further three years. In 1896, however, the company was purchased by the Consolidated Railway 59 Company, whose powers were the same. As i t happened, the pro-ject f a i l e d to materialize. As soon as North Vancouver Munici-p a l a f f a i r s began to improve, the question was raised there, and i n 1903 the Council decided to advertise i n the Vancouver Daily World and i n New York, f o r a f i r m to operate an e l e c t r i c 60 l i g h t system o& a twenty year lease. They were immediately offered the opportunity to purchase an e l e c t r i c l i g h t plant f o r 61 |1500 , but t h i s was not what the Council awnted. F i n a l l y the Council entered into negotiations, and eventually into agreement with the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company to supply the Municipality with l i g h t i n g , power and tramway service f o r 62 f i f t y , years. The franchise was subject to r e v i s i o n from time 58. Act to Incorporate the North Vancouver E l e c t r i c Company, Limited, B.C. Statutes 1892, 55 V i c t . , ch. 61. 59. Consolidated Railway Uompany's Act, B.C. Statutes 1896, 59 V i c t . , ch. 55. 60. Minutes of Municipal Council May 15, 1903. 61. i b i d . June 2, 1903. 62. Ori g i n a l agreement the property of the Municipal Council. - 65 -to time and t h i s has occurred on several occasions. A cable was l a i d across the Second Narrows, and the l i g h t i n g system 63 completed by August 15, 1906. The previous year the Municipal-i t y had purchased ten lamps of 600 candle power, f o r street l i g h t i n g , at a cost of #15 each, and i n the spring of 1906 t h i s was supplemented by an order f o r twenty-five more. These arc l i g h t s continued i n use u n t i l the close of 1926, when they were replaced by nitrogen f i l l e d lamps. Meanwhile plans were being worked out f o r a tram route to serve the scattered Municipality, The f i r s t suggestion amounted t o a belt l i n e around what i s now the c i t y area. This scheme f a i l e d to meet with approval as i t made very l i t t l e e f f o r t to serve the settlements l y i n g to the east and west. The plan f i n a l l y adopted consisted of three l i n e s r a d i a t i n g from the f e r r y wharf, one north, one east and one west. The outer terminus of the eastern l i n e was at 19th Street and Queensbury Avenue, that of the c e n t r a l l i n e Lonsdale Avenue and 21st. Street, and that of the western l i n e at the 64 junction of Keith Road and Bewicke Avenue. Later these l i n e s were extended to t h e i r present termini. The o r i g i n a l f i v e miles of track was stretched to seven miles i n 1911 and l a t e r to e l e -ven miles. I t was during t h i s same period that the B r i t i s h C o l -umbia Telephone Company l a i d a cable to the North Shore. The 63. Minutes of Municipal Council August 20, 1905 64, op, c i t , January 26 and March 26, 1906. - 66 -system was i n s t a l l e d and connected with Vancouver by May 1, 1906. In order to encourage the company to enter the commun-i t y , the Council agreed to waive a l l taxes and license fees 65 u n t i l there were two hundred subscribers. Further assistance was also provided by the North Vancouver ^and and Improve-ment Company, who permitted telephone poles to be removed free from Lot 550, which they were then clearing f o r settlement. Meanwhile the opinion was being expressed by those own-ing property i n the older and more s e t t l e d part, that t h i s area would be more prosperous as a c i t y . As many of the r e s i -dents were interested i n land values, they reacted favourably to t h i s suggestion, and also expressed the b e l i e f that they paid the larger share of the taxes, and were therefore e n t i t -l e d to a better representation on the Council. The topic was taken up by the Express, which paper claims to have been i n s -trumental i n c a l l i n g a public meeting to discuss the matter. This was done, and a committee set up to bring about incorpor-ation of a c i t y . The committee was headed by Reeve Kealy, who was assisted by t h i r t e e n members. To t h i s number nine 66 others were l a t e r added. The decision to incorporate was 65. Minutes of Municipal Council, December 20, 1905. There i s no record of the time i t todk the company to obtain the f i r s t two hundred subscribers. 66. Vancouver Daily Province, May 21, 1936. The members o f the committee were: Wm. Mordem; P.A. A l l a n ; B.J. Cor-nish; Edmund B e l l ; Edward Mahon; J.C. Keith; C.E.Hope; W.E. Thompson; A. Dick; A.B. Diplock; G.J. P h i l l i p p o ; George Bartley; Dr. C a r r o l l ; W.L. Keene; J.M. Fromme; CO. Wickenden; J. Balfour Ker; Peter Larsen; R.K. Houl-gate; Peter Westover; A.H. Davidson; and A.D. Nye. - 67 -reached i n December 1905, and the North Vancouver Incorporat-ion Act passed the Legislature i n March 1906. The preamble to the Act stated that as i t was inconvenient f o r the Legislature to consider the p e t i t i o n received from the inhabitants of North Vancouver, and as the inhabitants desired immediate incorpor-ation, the Lieutenant-Governor was granted power to incorpor-ate the c i t y by Letters Patent with regard to general statuory 68 conditions. The Act also s p e c i f i c a l l y stated that the c i t y was to take over $170,000 of the debentures of the present D i s t r i c t Municipality, and to r a t i f y e x i s t i n g agreements with the Van-69 couver ?ower Company, B r i t i s h Columbia 1elephone Company and North Vancouver Perry and Power Company. Schedule "A" of the Act named the D i s t r i c t Lots that were to be included i n the City area: Lots 265, 271, 274, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 70 550, 616,afcfiete.asfcahalEo.Qf 552 and the Mission Reserve. Schedule "A" them/went on to provide f o r the d i v i s i o n of assets and l i a b i l i t i e s , as approved by a public meeting held i n North Vancouver on November 24, 1905, and by a subsequent b a l l o t taken on ^ecember 15, 1905. The D i s t r i c t of Nodth Vancouver was to convey to the City the following: the Municipal H a l l , 67. North Vancouver Incorporation Act, 1906, 6 Ed.7y ch. 60. 68. By the Municipal Clauses Act 1896, areas desiring to be incorporated v/ere required to present a p e t i t i o n f o r the consideration of the Legislature. This procedure replac-ed the granting of Letters Patent by the Lieutenant-Gov-ernor i n ordinary circumstances. 69. B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company. 70. Indian Reserve #1. - 68 -Pound and Stable Buildings, and s p e c i f i e d l o t s adjacent; a l l rights t i t l e and interests i n the public parks of Blocks 109a and 110a, and D i s t r i c t Lots 548, 549, 274; Street ends or water-frontage acquired or to be acquired f o r Mackay Road, Be-wicke Avenue, Chesterfield Avenue, Lonsdale Avenue, St. Georges Avenue, St. Patrick's Avenue, St. ^avid's Avenue; the S.S. 71 North Vancouver and a l l wharfs and s l i p s belonging to the Dis-t r i c t ; the Perry License from the P r o v i n c i a l Government; the whole water system, including the right to use Rice Lake; o f f i c e furniture i n the Municipal H a l l , f i r e and road-making equip-72 ment and street lamps and posts; arrears of taxes on c i t y area; the sum of #2091 of the sinking fund, being i n proportion to the amount of debt taken over; and the r i g h t and t i t l e to the cemetary Lot 1680. In return the C i t y was to pay the follow-ing l i a b i l i t i e s of the D i s t r i c t 1 Local Improvement Loan 1901 #2000; 80% of the Consolidation Loan 1903 of $100,000 - $80,000 ; Water Works Loan 1904, $50,000 and Street Improvement Loans 1905 t o t a l l i n g $38,000. Schedule "B» of the Act, l a i d out the 71. See below, Qhapter 6, p. 95. 72. Schedule "A" quotes the following evaluation of property as reported by the Ratepayers Committee: Office and H a l l furniture $ 414 Wharfs and s l i p s 2809 Municipal H a l l and Lots 6013 Pound Lots and Buildings 493 S.S. North Vancouver 1DQ000 Tax Sale Lands, assessed value 12,592 Tax Arrears 6,759 - 69 -exact boundaries of the C i t y area. The North Vancouver Incor-73 poration Act Amendment, 1907, replaced Schedule "B" of the Act of 1906 with a new schedule. This new schedule also divided the remaining D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver into two wards, each having two c o u n c i l l o r s . The wards were to l i e west and east of the C i t y area respectively. Where they met i n Worth Lons-dale the boundary was to be a l i n e drawn from the centre of Lonsdale Avenue to the northern boundary of the D i s t r i c t . By t h i s same Act, the C i t y was empowered to borrow #845,000 and the D i s t r i c t #45,000 by debentures, being proportions of the present debenture debt of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. Moreover, the C i t y was ordered to pay additional l i a b i l i t i e s of the D i s t r i c t as follows: 2/3 of the Corporation Loan of #75,000 being #50,000 and Water Works Loan #2, $25,000. Elec-tionswere held f o r both City and D i s t r i c t Councils on JuneM, while the actual incorporation of the C i t y dates from July;.l, 74 1907. Reeve Healy was elected as f i r s t Mayor of the new C i t y , and the D i s t r i c t selected William H. May as fteeve. The municipalities now sought to adjust themselves to new conditions. The C i t y comprised an area of 2500 acres, whose 75 population was estimated variously at 1500 to 2000 persons. I t was already equipped with l i g h t , tramway, telephone and f e r r y 73. North Vancouver Incorporation Act Amendment Act, 1907, Ed. 7, ch. 30. 74. Express, North Vancouver, May 31, 1907. 75. Express December 7, 1906, estimates the population at 1500, Vancouver Directory v o l . XIV gives 2000. - 70 -service, and owned i t s own waterworks system. Beside t h i s , the 76 ^ i t y boasted f i f t y - t h r e e business establishments, one bank, two hotels and a school. Real property was assessed at #2,600,000, with the tax rate set at 16 m i l l s , on land only. Added to a l l these assets were a fi n e stretch of waterfront not yet developed, and the certainty i n everybody's mind that r a i l -ways would soon enter the town v i a a bridge across the Second 77 Narrows. By 1915 the boundaries of the C i t y were extended to 78 include D i s t r i c t Lots 272 and 273. This brought the C i t y area 79 to i t s present figure of 3,131.5 acres. Meanwhile the D i s t r i c t Municipality found i t s e l f deprived of a municipal headquarters and of i t s water supply. On ^une 1 10, 1907, the newly elected Council held i t s f i r s t meeting i n the Lynn Valley Schoolhouse. I t was agreed at t h i s time to hold future meetings intthe Reeve's o f f i c e , i n North Vancouver C i t y . The clerk was further instructed to rent a c e r t a i n b u i l d -ing near the f e r r y as a municipal o f f i c e , and to furnish the 80 same. While t h i s solved the problem f o r administrative pur-poses, the d i f f i c u l t y recurred at the time of Municipal e l e c t -ions, since both nomination centres and p o l l i n g booths had to 76. Express, l o c . c i t . 77. see below, C h a p t e r 7, p. 100. 78. C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r Extension jofijBoundaries Act 1915 15 ^eo 5, ch. 37. ' 79. City of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements, 1942. 80. Minutes of Municipal Council June 10, 1907. - 71 -be within the boundaries of the Municipality. For three years nominations, were received i n a Municipal Tent located i n North Lonsdale, while the I n s t i t u t e H a l l , Lynn Valley Schoolhouse and private dwellings were pressed into service as p o l l i n g booths. The Council f i n a l l y f e l t i n a p o s i t i o n to build a Municipal H a l l , f o r which they selected a s i t e on Lynn Valley Road. The H a l l was completed i n July 1911, and formally opened the f o l l -owing month. The problem ; o f the water supply also demanded prompt at-tention. The C i t y Council expressed willingness to supply wat-er to the residents of the D i s t r i c t l i v i n g within the e x i s t i n g water d i s t r i c t , and a temporary agreement was reached. I t was f e l t desirable, however, that the D i s t r i c t should as soon as possible form i t s own water d i s t r i c t f o r Lynn Valley, Capilano and North Lonsdale, and introduce water systems there. The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver s t i l l extended west to Howe Sound. The region west of Capilano lacked d i r e c t com-munication with North Vancouver. I t i s true that Keith Road o r i g i n a l l y extended to Eagle Harbour, but i t was neglected and allowed to become overgrown. For a long time there was very l i t t l e settlement here at a l l . The Point Atkinson Lighthouse was b u i l t about 1878, which led Walter Erwin, Lightkeeper, to 81 pre-empt Lot 558. In 1899 Francis Caulfe«ld s e t t l e d at Skunk 81. See chapter 5, p^r. 4-7. - 72 -82 Cove, where he b u i l t a wharf and planned to establish a v i l l -age. In the early gcears of the Munocipality these two men petitioned the Council repeatedly to have the road kept open to Eagle Harbour. However the Bridges were washed out by floods, and the Council was unable to rebuild them f o r financ-i a l reasons. The only approach, therefore, to Eagle Harbour was by water, and passing boats were signalled by a lantern from C a u l f e i l d ' s wharf. A man named Andrews had a farm at Horseshoe Bay, and Peter Larson, of North Vancouver, had a 82. Francis C a u l f e i l d , a Scholarly English gentleman, made a l e i s u r e l y tour of Canada i n 1898. When he reached Van-couver the land boom i n North Vancouver had just commenc-ed. C a u l f e i l d rejected repeated o f f e r s from r e a l estate agents, but one day he was taken f o r a water t r i p by Captain Charles Cates,-who put him ashore at Skunk Cove. Charmed by the natural beauty of the place, C a u l f e i l d ^ next year purchased a large acreage from Cypress F a l l s to Howe Sound. Abandoning his English home, he now spent the greater part of his time at C a u l f e i l d s , where he -planned!, a v i l l a g e i n keeping with the surroundings, and wished to reserve the entire water f r o n t as a public park f o r the estate. His only means of communication with Vancouver was by the d a i l y boat from Howe Sound, which he flagged from a rocky point. To accommodate the boat, and i n an t i c i p a t i o n of a settlement, he b u i l t a strong heavy wharf. His wife and daughter joined him and b u i l t cottages f o r family use. By 1909 he had com-pleted h i s subdivision and was o f f e r i n g s i t e s f o r summer homes. To supply the Community he b u i l t a strong com-plete water system served by Cypress F a l l s . The lack of communication with other North Shore settlements pre-sented a problem and C a u l f e i l d was continually p e t i t i o n -ing the Municipality f o r a good road which neither the Municipality of North Vancouver, or, l a t e r of West Van-couver, was w i l l i n g to provide. Before h i s death i n 1934, Francis C a u l f e i l d deeded h i s entire park to the Municipality of West Vancouver, c f . Stone, H. A., A Short History of C a u l f e i l d V i l l a g e , Vancouver, 1914, passim. - 73 -ranch at Gleneagles. D i s t r i c t Lot^554 was s e t t l e d hy John 83 Lawson, who wrote to the Council i n 1906 asking f o r a temp-orary road west of Capilano to enable h i s family to attend 84 the school i n North Vancouver. In the f a l l of 1906 the parts now known as Ambleside and Hollyburn were auctioned o f f by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. No time was l o s t i n forming a ratepayers association, whose meetings, i n c i d e n t a l l y , were held i n Vancouver. By the end of that year the road to Capi-85 lano was put into repair f o r horse and buggy t r a f f i c . Houses went up gradually u n t i l 1910, when the r e a l estate boom h i s West Vancouver, Local subdivisions were put on the market, and leading Vancouver residents bought up extensive tracts 83. John Lawson was born and educated i n Ontario. He was twenty years with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Before s e t t l i n g i n West Vancouver i n 1905. In 1909 he started a f e r r y service between West Vancouver and Vancouver, and i n 1911 he was instrumental i n getting West Vancouver to secede from North Vancouver. He served the community as Councillor or Reeve u n t i l the outbreak of w ar i n 1914, and was Post Master dur-ing the same period. In 1929 he was re-appointed to t h i s p o s i t i o n from which he r e t i r e d i n 1940. - Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1940 - 1941, Vancouver, 1941, p. 130. 84. Minutes of Municipal Council September 5, 1906, His children walked to school. •'385. North Shore Press, A p r i l 3, 1931. A r t i c l e on West Vancouver by Municipal Clerk James Ollason. - 74r -f o r summer homes. As i n North Vancouver, the r e a l estate firms f e l t that greater progress would he made with l o c a l administrat-ion, and accordingly an appeal was made to the P r o v i n c i a l Gov-ernment to separate t h i s d i s t r i c t and form a new municipality. The outcome was the West Vancouver Incorporation Act which set up the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of West Vancouver. The new D i s t r i c t was to include a l l that land l y i n g west of a l i n e com-mencing 1000 feet south of the south-west corner of Lot 864, and i n l i n e with the west boundary of said Lot 864 produced; thence north-easterly and north-e r l y along the west boundary of said Lot 864 to the north west corner thereof; thence continu-ing northerly along the west boundary of Lot 885 to the north west corner thereof, said corner being on the south boundary of Lot 764; thence north along the west boundary of said Lot 764 to the north west corner thereof; thence easterly along the north boundary of Lot 764 to the south-east corner of Lot 763; thence north along the east boundaries of Lots 763,761,603 and the east boundary of Lot 605 to the point of i n t e r s e c t i o n with the centre l i n e of the Capilano River; thence following said centre l i n e westerly to the west boundary of Lot 605; thence following the west boundary of Lot 605 to the north west corner of said Lot 605; thence north along the east boundary of said Lot 875 (86) to a "point where the east boundary of Lot 875 intersected the north boundary of the present Municipality. The Act further s p e c i f i e d that West Vancouver was to assume $156,000 of the general debenture debt of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, and amounting to $543,000, as well as the loan made on account of 86. West Vancouver Incorporation Act, 1918, 8 Geo 5 ch 60. i v: - 7JT -West Capilano D i s t r i c t under the West Capilano Improvement Loan Bylaw 1911. West Vancouver was instructed to make annual pay-ments to the D i s t r i c t of NorthUVancouver of Debenture Interest and Sinking Fund Instalments. The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver was required to surrender a l l claims to the r e a l estate and foreshore i n the sesignated area, and a l l grants made or to be made by the Federal Government f o r a wharf at Hollyburn. West Vancouver was also to receive shares i n the stock of the Bur-rard Inlet Tunnel and Bridge Company aggregating at par value 87 #62, 500. From t h i s point the development of the C i t y and D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s followed along normal l i n e s . The r e a l estate boom gave way to the "slump" of 1913, which i n turn was re-l i e v e d by the war years and the f a l s e prosperity of the post-war period. During these l a t t e r years both m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ex-h i b i t e d a sublime f a i t h i n the future, and spared no money i n l o c a l improvements. The stock market crash of 1929, and the W / O . S consequent world-wide depression w§»e- f e l t i n North Vancouver, as i n every community. Nevertheless, both councils carried on with only minor attempts at retrenchment. Property owners f a i l e d to meet t h e i r taxes, and the land began to revert to the man-SB i c i p a l i t i e s . Coincident with the loss of revenue came the problem of Unemployment R e l i e f . The bank overdraft increased 87. l o c . c i t . 88. See Tables C and D. Appendix pp 0 i i and i i i a - 76 -s t e a d i l y and the market value of North Vancouver bonds f e l l . The climax was reached i n 1932, In that year C i t y property l i a b l e to taxation was assessed as follows: Net Lands $. 5,214,238.71 Net Improvements 5,522,370.00 $ 10,736, 608.71 The tax rate f o r the year being 60 m i l l s on the Assessment and 25% of Improvements, the t o t a l Tax Levy amounted to #414,366.08. Of t h i s sum, however, $52,903.10 was chargeable to property which had reverted to the C i t y i n 1931 and 1932, and $134,447.12 could not be collected.??To balance t h i s , the sum of $23,503.14 was co l l e c t e d as percentage additions f o r l a t e payment, bring-ing the t o t a l c o l l e c t e d i n taxes f o r the year up to $250,518.95. Land reversions to which the C i t y held t i t l e at the close of 1932 t o t a l l e d $723,692.45, while Reversions subject to redemp-t i o n amounted to $103,196.55, at Book Value. Arrears of taxes for the years 1930, 1931 and 1932 t o t a l l e d $208,718.14 to which must be added as arrears of Water Rates $ 8,992.82. The out-come of t h i s l o s s of revenue was i n e v i t a b l e . At the close of the year the General Revenue Statement showed an excess of Ex-penditure over Revenue amounting to $61,433,40. The B. C. Gov-ernment made an advance of $2,075.48 f o r R e l i e f , over and above regular grants, and there was a Bank Overdraft of $62,987.34. The s i t u a t i o n would have been worse s t i l l , had not the Ferry Account shown an excess of Revenue over Expenditure of - 7rJ -$53,891.12, which was transferred to the C i t y General Account. Even so, the Gity was unable to honour i t obligations and $35,196.83 due i n coupon i n t e r e s t on debentures remained un-paid, while the Sinking Fund showed a shortage of $113,767.48 below requirements. C i t y Bonds l o s t t h e i r market value, any trading that was done being at a nominal figure of $45 to $50. At t h i s f i g u r e , C i t y of North Vancouver Debentures held as Sinking Fund investments were worth only $398,033.15 and re-89 ' quired an appreciation of $72,755.44 to rais e them to par. The s i t u a t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t was even worse. For one thing, the D i s t r i c t was not able to benefit by the p r o f i t s of the Ferry system as the C i t y was. Also, i t was not u n t i l faced with disaster i n 1931 that the D i s t r i c t "began to t a r improve-ments. That year the tax rate was set at 50 m i l l s on land and 25$ of improvements, and the following year i t was raised to 65 m i l l s on land and 35$ of improvements. In 1932 the D i s t r i c t 90 also showed a d e f i c i t of $43,445.35 i n the Sinking Fund account. As was only to be expected, the creditors stepped i n , i n both m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Applications were made, and granted, f o r the 91 appointment of a receiver, n In December 1932 a Commissioner 89. For further d e t a i l s See C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report, 1932. 90. For further d e t a i l s see D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements f o r 1931 and 1932. 91. Sessional Papers of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934, V i c t o r i a . Kings P r i n t e r , 1934, v o l . 1, p. D4. - 78 -was appointed f o r the D i s t r i c t , and i n °anuary 1933 his sway was extended over the C i t y also. Although administered by one man, no attempt was made to merge the two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In presenting the Auditors Report f o r the C i t y and Dis-t r i c t to the Attorney-General at the close of 1933, Commiss-ioner T i s d a l l wrote: I was appointed Commissioner of the City of North Vancouver, on account of the default by the C i t y of i t s bond i n t e r e s t . In addition to t h i s bond intere s t default, I found the general f i n a n c i a l p.. * p o s i t i o n to be most unsatisfactory. This condition had arisen from a variety of reas-ons, amongst them being unsound and i n f l a t e d ass-essed values of r e a l estate, continued borrowing and spending money, i n many cases f o r services which were beyond the means of the tax-payer to pay f o r , covering too large an area with municipalag services, the breaking down of a bridge connecting the North Shore with Vancouver City, the World economic condition and resultant absence of work, financing of unemployment, unbalanced budgets and tax delinquency. ®^ Of the f i n a n c i a l condition of the C i t y the Commissioner goes on to say: In addition to a gross bonded indebtedness of #3,284,123.29 with a yearly charge of #167,103.46 f o r interest and #58,070.87 f o r sinking fund, and #420,500.00 of Guaranteed ^ebentures f o r which the C i t y i s l i a b l e , with a yearly i n t e r e s t charge of #23,875.00 and f o r sinking fund #4,208.68; there 92. Second Narrows Bridge 93. C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report, 1933, p.6. The report f o r the D i s t r i c t fcs almoSt i d e n t i c a l . The Guar-anteed Debentures are North Vancouver Ferry Co. 1128,000 and Burrard Inlet Tunnel and Bridge Company $292,500. was 1359,147.76 of f l o a t i n g l i a b i l i t i e s owing fo r municipal services. 9 4 The s i t u a t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t was s i m i l a r : In addition to a gross bonded indebtedness of #2,016,864.00 with the yearly charge of $106,299.94 f o r interest and $39,710.85 f o r Sinking Fund, there were #230,712.29 f l o a t -ing l i a b i l i t i e s owing f o r various Municipal services. Salaries and payrolls were i n arrears. 95" Municipal services and other expenditures were promptly reduced to a minimum. The payment of coupon interest v/as suspended, and the f u l l amount of sinking fund l e v i e s was no longer l e v i e d . Since that time the world has been redeemed from f i n a n -c i a l depression by the Second World War. The War has brought industry to North Vancouver. This f a c t , together with a decade of sound economical administration, has made i t possible f o r North vancouver to attempt repaying her bond-holders. As soon as t h i s i s attempted the ratepayers w i l l be given an opportunity to resume self-government. 94. City, of North Vancouver Annual Report ik933, l o c . c i t , 95. D i s t r i c t of North "ancouver Annual Report 1933, p.5. - 8T0 -CHAPTER V LYNN VALLEY Lynn Va l l e y l i e s on the west bank of Lynn Creek, i n a north-easterly d i r e c t i o n from the C i t y or North Vancouver. In Moodyville days that section east of the present Lynn V a l -l e y Road was a Spar Porest, containing some of the best spars i n the world. Moody, Dietz and Nelson acquired a timber grant i n the v a l l e y , where stumps may s t i l l be found bearing the brand M. D. N. They took out spars 70 feet long and thirteen feet i n diameter without a knot i n them. The f i r s t trees were cut with axes and yew wedges, no saws being used. The spars were taken out by mules and ox-teams over a skid-road that f o l -lowed the general path of Lynn Creek, down to Moodyville, to be f i t t e d into ships. When Moody's men had taken out the spars they considered that the timber stand was f i n i s h e d , and aban-doned i t about 1875. Lynn Va l l e y s t i l l had. immense stands of lumber. Abo^t 1895 the Spicer Shingle Company moved i n to take out logs and shingle b o l t s . Spicer b u i l t the f i r s t flume i n Lynn Valley to convey h i s shingle bolts to Moodyville. He did not build a m i l l , but hauled the logs out by ox-teams as Moody's men had done. In 1897 Spicer sold out to the Hastings Shingle and Man-ufacturing Company. This Company was owned by two brothers, James and Robert McNair, who l i v e d at Hastings on the south shore. Hence the name of the Company, which had no connection with the Hastings Sawmill Company. The North Shore had one of the best stands of Red Cedar on the Coast, and the McNairs - 8H -planned to cut shingle b o l t s . A few weeks l a t e r they were joined by J . M. Fromme, the f i r s t resident and r e a l founder of the present community at Lynn V a l l e y . With Fromme as foreman the f i r m continued lumbering operations. Two m i l l s were b u i l t . The f i r s t one, on M i l l Road above Dempsey Road, handled heavy lumber and shingle bolts and did planing. The second m i l l , at the present junction of Lynn Valley Road and Mountain Highway, was just a shingle m i l l at f i r s t , although l a t e r a planer was added. Hastings Creek, on whose banks the m i l l was b u i l t , was dammed to form a c o l l e ction pond f o r shingle b o l t s . To f a c i l i t a t e lumbering operations the company b u i l t roads, t r a i l s , and flumes. The o r i g i n a l flume to Moodyville was push-ed further into the woods and branches added, u n t i l there were approximately ten miles of flume to serve the company. The main flume to Moodyville, which crossed Lynn V a l l e y Road over-head, was used up to 1911, when the l a s t shingle bolts were taken out. The Hastings-Shingle and Manufacturing Company main-tained a pond on the waterfront just east of Moody's. Logs were hauled to the pond on horse-drawn s l e i g h s . A puncheon skid-road connected "with the plank road leading past the pond to Moodyville, This road, which formed the only l i n k between Lynn Valley and the outside world, followed the general d i r e c t i o n but not the exact route of the present Mountain Highway from Lynn Valley to Keith Road. Crossing the Lynn by a t r e s t l e bridge, i t entered Moodyville from the east. There was just - 83, -time f o r the teams to make two round t r i p s d a i l y . The sleighs used were b u i l t i n the va l l e y , of l o c a l yew. Residents walk-t h i s road to Moodyville i n order to take the f e r r y , S. S. Sen-1 ator, to the south shore. They found i t d i f f i c u l t to return the same day. A l l supplies were taken into the v a l l e y by the same road, on the sleighs returning from Moodyville. At the side of the road, along Hastings Creek from the m i l l , stood Shake-town, the m i l l camp. The camp consisted of bunk-houses, a cook-house, and stables f o r ten horses. The cook had a Chinese assistant, but no other Orientals were em-ployed at the m i l l . The m i l l also maintained i t s own black-smith, who b u i l t the s l e i g h s . The main camp started with twen-ty men?, l a t e r increasing to two hundred men, and assisted by 2 thir t e e n teams of horses. In 1899 J . M. Fromme homesteaded D i s t r i c t Lot 2023, with the permission of the Hastings Shingle Company, who held a tim-ber license on the land and retained the ri g h t of i t s flume through the land. Here he b u i l t the f i r s t house i n Lynn Valley, facing the skid-road. T. A. A l l a n pre-empted D i s t r i c t Lot 2022. A l l a n subdivided part of hi s land early, thus opening up the Valley f o r settlement. In 1903 Fromme also subdivided, s e l l i n g 1. Draycott, W. M. L., Lynn Valley, North Vancouver, North Shore Press, 1919, page 8. 2. i b i d page 6. - 8B -60 blocks to s e t t l e r s at $25 per acre. A l l these purchasers were men connected with the m i l l who wished to make homes f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s near the camp. Other pioneers soon came i n and f i l e d claims to pre-emptions: Peter Westover, D i s t r i c t Lot 2087, J . Hoskins, D i s t r i c t Lot 2088; James Mclntyre, D i s t r i c t Lot 2169; Mr. Arthur, D i s t r i c t Lot 2002; J . M. Duval, D i s t r i c t Lot 2950; C. H. Nye, D i s t r i c t Lot 2008; W. E. Emery, D i s t r i c t Lot 2003; Following the. Boer War, M i l i t a r y Grants to J . Y. McNaught, D i s t r i c t Lot 2004, and A. F. Nye, D i s t r i c t Lot 2025, 3 completely f i l l e d up the v a l l e y . Soon there were some 30 fam-i l i e s i n the settlement or at the camp. In 1907 Fromme bought up the m i l l on Hastings Creek. Together with T.A. A l l a n he founded the Lynn Valley Lumber Company, which.supplied a l l the lumber f o r the new settlement springing up on Fromme*s land. Later he bought out A l l a n , and the m i l l became known as Fromme's which name was also applied to the road that ran the length of the v a l l e y . The new s e t t l e r s brought children i n to the v a l l e y . When there were twenty children of school age, app l i c a t i o n was made to the government f o r a teacher. By voluntary subscription among the residents and employees at the m i l l the sum of $250 3. Draycott, op. c i t . p. 6. - See map on p.'x, Rppend . * - 88- -was raised to protide a schoolhouse. The l i t t l e school opened on May 20, 1904, with seventeen p u p i l s . The s p i r i t u a l needs of the settlement were cared f o r by v i s i t i n g pastors. A small log cabin was b u i l t on Allan's land, beside the Moodyville road. For on year (1896) services were held here r e g u l a r l y by the Reverend Ebenezer Robson ( l a t e r Dr. 4 • Robson ), who was dearly loved by a l l the loggers. At t h i s time Dr. Robson reached the settlement by the Moddyville Road. Some ten years l a t e r , when he.was again serving the North Shore, Dr. Robson renewed h i s in t e r e s t i n Lynn Valley, t h i s time f o l -lowing a t r a i l through the bush from North Vancouver to the Pipe-line Road. In the l i t t l e l og cabin church was an organ, the f i r s t on the North Shore, hauled up the road from Moody-v i l l e at the i n s t i g a t i o n of one of the s e t t l e r s , A. E. Waghorne. The f i r s t church to be b u i l t i n the Valley was St. Clement's Anglican, followed l a t e r by the Presbyterian and Methodist churches. 4. Dr. Robson was one of the builders of the Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Born and educated at Perth, Ontario, of a s t r i c t Presbyterian family, he embraced Methodism and entered the ministry. In I 8 6 0 he came as a missionary to B r i t i s h Columbia, where he remained u n t i l h i s death i n 1911. His brother John followed him to the coast, and set t l e d at New Westminster, where he established the B r i t i s h Columbian and l a t e r became Premier of the Province. From his mission church i n New Westminster, Rev. (later Dr.) Robson t r a v e l -led v i a the Douglas Road to Burrard I n l e t , where he engag-ed a canoe to take him to the North Shore. In 1887 Dr. Robson was elected to the presidency of the f i r s t Method-i s t Conference i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Even a f t e r he r e t i r e d , Dr. Robson was a frequent and welcome v i s i t o r to the North Shore. - c f . Hacker, G. C , The Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Meanwhile, events were leading to the establishment of d i r e c t communication between Lynn Val l e y and North Vancouver. In 1904 the Municipality i n s t a l l e d a Water Works System, whose source was Lynn Creek. The p i p e - l i n e was l a i d the length of the v a l l e y , running above the surface along the road then known as Fromme road, but which now became the Pipe-line Road. The steady increase i n settlement, and the project to move the ' . 5 seat of municipal government from Vancouver to North Vancouver, made desirable some d i r e c t means of communication between the two communities. As early as 1903, acting on a suggestion from JVM. Fromme, a p a c k - t r a i l was surveyed from 15th. Street to the Camp, and a contract l e t f o r clearing and l e v e l l i n g the same. In 1906 The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company opened a tram service along Queensbury Avenue as f a r as 19th. 6 Street, and the demand fo r a road through to Lynn Val l e y be-came more i n s i s t e n t . Some years l a t e r a Lynn Val l e y pioneer recounted h i s share i n urging t h i s matter: There were no roads i n Lynn Valley when I s e t t l e d there, but i n the spring of 1906 quite a l i t t l e movement i n that d i r e c t i o n began. Men who owned property there couldn't quite see why the municipality should take a l l the taxes to spend on Lonsdale Avenue. I t was figured that approximately $80,000 taxes had been taken out of the Lynn Valley section up to that date from the organization of the municipality, and not even one cent had been spent i n improvements there. , 4. (cont) ' <. . B r i t i s h Columbia; 1859 - 1900, p. 4. manuscript i n Library University of B r i t i s h Columbia; also Davis, E. A. Compara-t i v e Review of Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, J . Lee, 1925, p. 189. 5. See above, Chapter 4. p. 58\ 6. i b i d , p. 65 - 86" -The r e s u l t of the vigorous kicks we made... was that Reeve A. E. Kealy c a l l e d a public meeting... to consider the s i t u a t i o n . . At that time there was opposition- from men who are to-day delighted with the r e s u l t s of the improvement they then opposed... At t h i s meeting I 7speak of i n the spring of 1906, Mr. Duval moved a resolut-ion requesting the d i s t r i c t council to i n -troduce a bylaw f o r the r a i s i n g of $25,000 for making roads and building: bridges i n Lynn Valley... In supports of the motion I made a speech which by good chance produced the right psychological condition, turned the day and carried the vote against what had been pretty s t i f f opposition." The arguments put f o r t h by the speaker o f f e r not only a good example of psychology, but also a v i v i d picture of s o c i a l con ditions i n the v a l l e y , The speaker went on to say: "I pointed out to them the .evils and disadvantages of a community of bachelors. I asked them quite seriously i f they did not wish to develop a community of happy homes and a prosperous d i s t r i c t . I showed them how imposs-i b l e i t was f o r any woman to make her way through the inaccessible woods to Lynn Valley. The natural advantages of the d i s t r i c t were more o f f -set by the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n t r y i n g to make a home there. I pointed out that the day of a i r s h i p s had not yet arrived and at the end of my speech the audience good humouredly saw the point and unanimously supported the movement, which was made an active issue at the next mun-i c i p a l e l e c t i o n . " 8 The road acquired by t h i s means was known as "THE" plank J^M.S'-i-'*'Duval':c;ame'itdJLy^n?Walley from V i c t o r i a . In 1886 he was publisher of the "Indmstrial News" i n that c i t y . 6 t J. ;.- J. - . j-: -t {*J 8. Express, May 24, 1912, p. 56. - ssr -road, and i n l a t e r years was referred to i n reminiscent tones as the "old plank road". Planks f o r i t s construction were supplied by the Hastings Shingle and Manufacturing Company at $5.50 per M. Tenders were c a l l e d f o r the work of construction, the one accepted being f o r $5880. Light and telephone services were extended to the v a l l e y before the plank road was replaced by a new road running p a r a l l e l to i t and a few feet to one side. The water pipe now disappeared under ground, and down the length of the new highway, now to be c a l l e d Lynn Valley Road, werelaid the tracks f o r the extension of the car - l i n e from i t s o r i g i n a l terminus at 19th Street and Boulevard. The Lynn Valley Street Car l i n e was opened on May 14, 1910, the fare being f i v e cents within the three mile l i m i t , (from the foot of Lonsdale Avenue), 9 and an additional fare beyond that to the terminus. Lumbering i s the only industry that has developed i n Lynn Valley. At Rice Lake, between the Lynn and Seymours Rivers, f i r logs and shingle bolts were being taken ©tit i n the '90's. A m i l l was b u i l t at the side of the lake and a colony of Jap-anese moved i n to operate the m i l l . Many of these families remained on the s i t e u n t i l they were evacuated from the area by f e d e r a l order i n 1-942. rTheosource of' supply was very, plent-i f u l , but the peak year was reached i n 1907, when 5000 cords 9. Express, North Vancouver, B. C , May 10, 1910. - 88 -went down the flume to the waterfront. The l a s t holts went down i n 1911, after which the m i l l was closed down. Shingle bolts were also cut on Seymour fountain u n t i l 1923. The bolts were brought down the mountainside by sl e i g h and flume u n t i l they reached Seymour Creek. F i r , however, was not cut i n t h i s area, since the logs would not navigate the creek succes s f u l l y . For some years the Municipality mperated a stone quarry oh the? southern slope of Dome Mountain, using the product, gray gran-i t e , to surface t h e i r roads. To operate the quarry at f u l l capacity required a crew of seventeen to twenty men. The quarry was closed down, however, i n 1918, owing to a lack of component parts f o r the crusher, which could only be obtained 10 i n England. Daily output at the quarry approximated 85 yards. A strong sense of community s p i r i t developed i n the early days of the settlement, due la r g e l y to the e f f o r t s of J.M. Fromme and hi s wife, and aided no doubt by the fact that the settlement lacked easy communication with the outside World. At a public meeting held i n the "Old School", October 8, 1908, i t was resolved that the residents of Lynn Valley should "form a society f o r the mutual improvement, mental, physical and mor-11 a l , of the inhabitants." The society so conveived was r e g i s t e r -ed as the "Lynn Valley I n s t i t u t e " . The School Board, which had 10. Draycott, op. c i t . p. 30. 11. i b i d , p. 8. - aa -recently "built a new school, placed the o r i g i n a l schoolhouse at the disposal of the Society, and t h i s l i t t l e frame building became the f i r s t I n s t i t u t e H a l l . This building was subsequent-l y insured f o r $200, and i t s f u r n i t u r e f o r $100. The Society f e l t that these quarters were not suitable for a permanent ar-rangement, and i n 1909 selected a l o t upon which to b u i l d a new h a l l . The purchase price of the l o t , which had a 50 foot frontage, was $150, and t h i s sum was raised within twelve months. I t i s an interestingside l i g h t on land values to note 12 that i n 1905 land i n Lynn Val l e y was s e l l i n g f o r $10 per acre, while i n 1911 the I n s t i t u t e trustees were considering s e l l i n g the above mentioned l o t f o r $900, This plan, however, f a i l e d to m aterialize. Meanwhile, i n December 1910, a building subscription was opened f o r the new h a l l , and the following October the contract was l e t f o r $3960. The new building.was opened i n 1912 with f i t t i n g ceremony, and promptly became the centre of community l i f e , and the scene of whist drives, dances, concerts and t h e a t r i c a l performances. The service t h i s centre performed f o r i§«. Kin'g-,:'--Percys; Beit, PjLac§'3o.n the P a c i f i c Coast f o r Invest-ment, Express, Empire D a y Prosperity E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912 II . Nofcih Vancouver, B.C., p. 56. - s e -ttle community i s c l e a r l y shown by the scale of charges f o r i t s use, ranging a l l the way from p o l i t i c a l meetings at #4.00 per meeting to r e l i g i o u s gatherings at ten cents. When the School population increased so r a p i d l y that the School Board sought temporary accommodation i n the I n s t i t u t e H a l l , they were as-sessed #20 per month f o r i t s use. A branch of the L e g i s l a t i v e Lending Library was housed i n the h a l l , and very s t r i c t rules were drawn up r e l a t i n g t o intoxicants, gambling, and unseemly 13 conduct on the premises. In the spring of 1912 A. E. Waghorne started a choral society, and made history i n August of the same year when he organezed the f i r s t Provinc i a l Musical Fes-. t i v a l i n the I n s t i t u t e H a l l , Choirs came from the lower main-land and the Island, and the F e s t i v a l became an i n s t i t u t i o n i n 14 l o c a l musical c i r c l e s . A f t e r the incorporation of the C i t y of North Vancouver i n 15 1907, Lynn Valley became the acknowledged leader of the Dis-t r i c t M u n icipality. Of a l l parts of the Municipality i t alone was an organized community with a community s p i r i t . The years 1910 and 1911 saw the extension of e l e c t r i c l i g h t and tram ser-vice to the v a l l e y , while waterworks and telephones followed i n .1913 and 1914. A Municipal H a l l was b u i l t f o r the D i s t r i c t on 13. See pJbove. p-?^ 14. For d e t a i l s about Lynn Valley and the I n s t i t u t e see Draycott, op. c i t . 15. See above, Chapter t4, p. 4.9. - 9<J -Lynn Valley Road i n 1911, In 1912 the community boasted of a new school, four general stores, a bakery, a plumber, a dry-goods shop, r e a l estates o f f i c e s , a hotel and rumours of a 16 bank. The Second Narrows Bridge, so eagerly anticipated f o r many years, was expected to bring further developments to the settlement, and enthusiasts envisaged a population of 20,000 by 1916. Although these f a n t a s t i c dreams were never r e a l i z e d , the population d i d increase from 200 i n 1909 to 1100 i n 1914 18 and 1400 i n 1919. Unfortunately Lynn Va l l e y suffered by con-tact with the "outside world". As communications increased, i t s personality decreased. New industries did not come into the v a l l e y ; those few commercial premises which had t r i e d to serve the community now saw t h e i r customers carry t h e i r trade to the l a r g e r f i r m s across the I n l e t . Lynn Va l l e y remained an at t r a c t i o n f o r the pleasure-seekers, but f a i l e d to make good the promise of i t s youth. 16. Express, Empire Day E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912, p. 27. 17. Loc c i t . 18. Draycott, op. c i t . p. 32. - 91 -CHAPTER VT FERRIES Trans-inlet f e r r y service appears to have commenced with a small row-hoat which p l i e d at i n t e r v a l s between Brighton and 1 Moody's, The operator, Navvy Jack, who was a well-known figure on Burrard I n l e t , began hi s f e r r y service about 1866, About 1868 Captain James Van Bramer broght h i s steamer "Sea Foam" from service on the Fraser River and established her on the Inlet run. The following year the Sea Foam was badly damaged by f i r e , but appears to have continued i n service u n t i l 1873, 2 when she was replaced by the "Chinaman". In the same year an-other vessel was put into service on the I n l e t . This was the "Eleanora", better known l o c a l l y as the Sudden Jerk or the H e l l -3 a- Roaring. She appears to have been quite a character on the "Inlet. I t seems that she was produced by the ingenuity of two men, one of whom owned a square-built scow, the other a thresh-ing machine engine. To them i t was a simple matter to place the engine on the scow and add a p a i r of side-wheels connected 4 by chain gearing. I t was also quite i n character that she 5 should be equipped with wooden rather than metal cogs. Her 1. See above, chapter 2, p . ^ . r and f n . 2. c f . chapter 2, p.J6 3. Related to the writer by W. M. L. Draycott. 4. Hacking, Norman, Early Marine History of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 116 Ori g i n a l manuscript i n the Library of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 5. Related by W. M. L. Draycott. - 98 -power was l i m i t e d and when she blew her whistle she waB o b l i g -ed to stop and get up steam again. Since the engine had no reverse gear the boat could only run straight ahead. Landings were somewhat d i f f i c u l t , as she d r i f t e d i n slowly, and had to 6 he warped into place with a l i n e and pike-pole. Finding the boat too small f o r the fast-growing passenger service, the owners cut the h u l l i n two, and extended i t twelve feet by put-7 ing a piece i n the middle. Later she passed into the possess-ion of the Moodyville Sawmill Company. I t i s said that she f i n a l l y bedame so old that there was danger of her engine f a l -l i n g through the h u l l . To meet t h i s contingency, i t was the custom to pass a stout chain around the engine, attached to a buoy, so that the engine could be located I f i t f e l l through 8 i n mid-inlet. By 1888 the Moodyville Sawmills had t h e i r own f e r r y ser-v i c e , provided by the Moodyville Steam Ferry Company (Limited), with o f f i c e s at Moodyville. F e r r i e s ran at stated times, the fare being twenty-five cents per t r i p . The ferryboat N e l l i e Taylor also ran between Vancouver and and Moodyville at t h i s time. In addition, the Canadian P a c i f i c Steam Ship Company ran steamers d a i l y , (except Monday) between V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and Moodyville. 6. Hacking, l o c . c i t . 7. Related to writer by W.M.L. Draycott. 8. Hacking, op. c i t . , p. 117. 9. Chapter 8, p.^/ - 9$ -In 1880 the S. S. Senator was b u i l t at Moodyville f o r 10 VI ? Captain Hugh Stalker, of the Moodyville Ferry Company. When i n 1889 t h i s Company was consolidated with the Burrard*s Inlet 11 Towing Company to form the Union Steamship Company, the Senat-12 or continued on the t r a n s - i n l e t run on a two-hour schedule. Meanwhile, ratepayers of the new Municipality of North Vancou-ver had r e a l i z e d the need of dire c t f e r r y communication bet-ween that community and Vancouver. On March 7, 1894, the rate-payers met and set up a committee to make i n q u i r i e s about a steamer suitable f o r f e r r y purposes, with the inte n t i o n of pur-chasing i t . The committee was further instructed by the meet-ing to interview the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Com-pany as regards a subsidy towards the establishment of a f e r r y , and to see that the r e q u i s i t e steps were taken to bring the 13 matter of a subsidy before the P r o v i n c i a l Government. One week l a t e r the Committee met to hear reports of members who had been making the r e q u i s i t e i n q u i r i e s . I t was reported that four steamers had been investigated a l l of which were ultimat-e l y rejected. As regards subsidies, the North Vancouver land 10. Haoking, op. c i t . , p. 174. 11. i b i d . The Union Steamship Company of B r i t i s h Columbia Ltd. was incorporated i n November 1889, by Henry Darling, son of John Darling of the Union Steamship Company of New Zealand. 12. Williams B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, 1894, advertisement. 13. Minute Book of North Vancouver Municipality Meetings. In possession of the Municipality. - 94T-and Improvement Company had offered to donate $250 towards the new f e r r y service, and the Moodyville Sawmill Company had cabled to England f o r a si m i l a r donation. Reports of t h i s and subsequent meetings show that tenders were i n v i t e d from the Union Steam Ship Company, Evans Coleman and Evans, and the Bur-14 ,rard I n l e t E l e c t r i c Railway and Ferry Company. An agreement was f i n a l l y reached with the Union Steam Ship Company whereby the Senator Called a t North Vancouver en route from Moodyville to Vancouver. The service, however, proved i n d i f f e r e n t , and the people of North Vancouver were not s a t i s f i e d . In 1900, therefore, the Municipality took over the service i t s e l f . In place of the . .. 15 Senator, the S. S. North Vancouver, was b u i l t . She was declar-ed to be a great improvement on the Senator, with accomodation more than ample f o r e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c . Indeed, the opinion f r e e -l y expressed that she v/ould never carry more than 20 or 30 16 passengers to North Vancouver. Yet two years l a t e r i t was 17 obvious that a larger boat would soon be a necessity. The lim i t e d c r e d i t of the Municipality would not permit the b u i l d -ing of a second boat, and other means were sought of enlarging 14. Minute Book. The l a s t named i s the Burrard I n l e t Railway and Ferry Company, incorporated i n 1892. 15. Later renamed the North Vancouver Ferry Number 1. 16. North Shore Press, A p r i l 3, 1931. 17. A land boom set i n during 1900. bee above, Chapter 4, P-V 56. - 9* -the service. In A p r i l 1905, A. St. George Hammersley offered to form a company with the object of taking over the f e r r y service and supplying a second boat. The proposal was submit-ted to the ratepayers, and endorsed by them. In May the Mun-i c i p a l Council agreed to lease i t s f e r r y to Hammersley acting for a company to be incorporated and known as the North Van-18 couver Ferry anfl Power Company (Ltd). The company was incor-19 porated as st i p u l a t e d , with $57,500 subscribed c a p i t a l . Hammersley arranged to charter a second boat f o r the season, and moved the south shore landing from the foot of Abbott Street to the foot of C a r r o l l Street, where he leased f a c i l i t i e s from 20 the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Transfer of the service took place on July 18, 1905, and f o r a short time the f e r r y service passed from Municipal ownership. In November Hammersley sub-mitted plans f o r a new f e r r y , to be approved by the c o u n c i l . Double-ended i n type, i t had accommodation f o r nearly 1000 21 passengers, as well as f o r 12 to 14 teams with wagons. B u i l t 22 at the Granville Street Boatyard, and named the St George a f t e r 25 Hammersley, t h i s f e r r y went into service i n the middle of 1904. 18. Minutes of Meeting of Municipal Council, May 20, 1905. 19. i b i d , June 1905. 20. Loc. c i t . 21. North Shore Press, A p r i l 5, 1931. 22. Wallace's. See below. Chapter 8, 23. Minutes of Municipal Council, May 31, 1904. - 9£ -When the C i t y of North Vancouver was incorporated i n 1907, 24 i t assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f e r r y system, which now became known as the North Vancouver C i t y F e r r i e s Ltd. S.S. North Vancouver was now proving quite inadequate f o r the ser-vice, and i n 1910 the C i t y passed a by-law authorizing exten-sive improvements and the building of another boat. At a cost of #35,000 permanent wharfs were erected at the foot of Lons-dale Avenue i n North Vancouver, and at the foot of Columbia Avenue i n Vancouver. A contract was l e t to Wallace Shipyards 25 for an up-to-date f e r r y with a s t e e l h u l l to cost $93,000. Christened the North/Vancouver Ferry Number Three, she was launched i n February 1911, and put into service some weeks l a t -er. The S. S. North Vancouver and St. George were now renamed the Number One and Number Two respectively. In 1913 a move-ment grew to restore the f e r r i e s to municipal c o n t r o l , andlithe following year the Council r a i s e d a loan of $30,000 with which to purchase the f e r r i e s and s t a r t a company without l i a b i l i t i e s 26 as a department of c i v i c administration. The f l e e t was f u r t h -er increased by the addition of Ferry Number Four i n 1931, at a cost of $53,500 approximately, and i n 1941 of Ferry Number 24. Chapter 4, p. 6>g 25. North Vancouver Ferry By-Law Val i d a t i o n Act 1910, 10 Ed 7. ch 39. The C i t y was obliged to guarantee the p r i n c i p a l sum and interest i n dibenture bonds up to $128,000. 26. North Shore Press, March 10, 1914. - 9* -Five, This l a s t boat, b u i l t i n Vancouver by the West Coast Salvage and Contracting Company at a t o t a l cost of $140,299 has accommodation f o r 600 passengers and 30 vehic l e s . In the meantime f i r s t the Number One and l a t e r the Number Two were taken o f f the service and sold f o r other purposes. From a f i n a n c i a l point of view, the fepry system has been one of the best investments North Vancouver C i t y has made, Even at the height of the depression the f e r r i e s showed a yearly p r o f i t of some ¥54,000.00 which they paid into the 27 C i t y General Account. Indeed, t h i s i s one of the few cases where a municipally owned public u t i l i t y c o n s i s t e n t l y .'makes a p r o f i t . 5 27. .See above, Chapter 4, p. 77. - 98 -CHAPTER VII RAILWAYS AND ROADS North. Vancouver was born during a period of railway con-struction and speculation, and railway projects have been as-sociated with the North Shore from the very f i r s t . Pour months before the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver was incorporated, the Burrard I n l e t Raileay and Ferry Company was formed, to operate "a railway from some point on the north shore of Burrard Inle t near the North Arm or on the west shore of the North Arm of Burrard Inlet...thence westerly to a point on English Bay near 1 Point Atkinson or on Howe Sound". The company's charter em-powered i t to b u i l d branches and operate f e r r y boats between the railway and Vancouver. C a p i t a l was set at $500,000. Of the f i v e d i r e c t o r s , at least three, g-eorge G. MacKay, John T. C a r r o l l and Adolphus Williams were clo s e l y connected with the incorporation of North Vancouver. This probably accounts f o r the fact that by the terms of the charter the f i r s t section of the l i n e to be constructed was to be between the Seymour and Capilano Rivers. In actual f a c t the project f a i l e d to mater-i a l i z e , although at one time two lengths of track were l a i d 2 near the corner of Chesterfield Avenue and Second Street. 1. Burrard Inlet Railway and Ferry Company Incorporation Act, 1891, 54 V i c t . , Ch. 53 and amendment 1895 58 V i c t . Ch. 59. 2. Vancouver Daily Province, Vancouver, B, C. May.21, 1936, report of an address given by J . Rodger Burnes. ~/6Q -This was done i n an e f f o r t to maintain the charter, which was f i n a l l y allowed to lapse during a period of general f i n a n c i a l depression. 'The year 1892 saw the establishment by Dominion 3 Statute of the Burrard Inle t Tunnel and Bridge Company. Among 4 the Directors was Francis L. Carter Cotton, M.L.A., i n whose constituency North Vancouver was located. Their charter gave the Company the r i g h t to construct a tunnel under the F i r s t Narrows of Burrard I n l e t , and a bridge over the Second Narrows, both to be f o r foot, carriage, street railway and railway pur-poses. The net e f f e c t would have been a belt l i n e railway about Burrard I n l e t . However, t h i s scheme also suffered from the ensuing period of f i n a n c i a l depression, and the charter was allowed to f a l l into disuse. In the meantime the matter of the Second Narrows Bridge had become a burning question i n North Vancouver. An amazing 3. Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company Act, Statutes of Canada, July 9, 1892. 4. Francis Carter-Cotton was born i n England, and did not make his permanent home i n Vancouver u n t i l 1886. In 1887 he established the News Advertiser, a morning paper of which he acted as editor and manager u n t i l he sold i t i n 1910. For over tenoyears he sat as a Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, during which time he held the of-f i c e s of Minister of Finance and Agriculture, and Pres-ident of the Council. He was also the f i r s t Chancellor or the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chairman of the Vancouver Harbout Commission, and President of the Van-couver Board of Trade, c f . B r i t i s h Columbia Biographies, Vancouver, S. J . Clarke, 1914, v o l . 4, p. 833. - 10<t -optimism pervaded the tbown, whose promoters a l l appeared to think i t the inevitable terminus f o r a l l railways reaching the coast. Money was invested and property boosted on t h i s assumption. There was no doubt i n men's minds that the Sec-ond Narrows Bridge would be b u i l t , but only the question of when, and by whom. Their hopes had been further strengthened by the establishment i n 1899 of the Vancouver Westminster and 5 i,' •• ' Yukon Railway Company, who were aldo sonsidering the question of the Bridge. F i n a l l y growing impatient of delay, the c i t i -zens decided to take the matter into t h e i r own hands. They had the f u l l support of the Mayor of the C i t y and the Reeve of the D i s t r i c t , as well as the' two councils. Appeals were made to both p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments f o r f i n a n c i a l as-sistance, but serious d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered. The Dom-inion government had already granted a subsidy of #200,000 to the V., W., & Y. fiy. 8o., for the bridge, and would do no more. The P r o v i n c i a l government would not grant money to a private company, and also was unwilling to make any grant unless i t was matched by a simi l a r subsidy from the Dominion Government. At t h i s time the unused charter to the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company was r e c a l l e d , and i t was thought that t h i s might provide the solution to the problem, A group of prop-erty owners provided the funds with which to purchase the 5. Correctly termed the Vancouver Northern and Yukon Railway. See below. - 102. -charter, and appeals to the Dominion government resulted i n 6 the charter being f u l l y reinstated. The next step was to make the Burrard Inlet Tunnel and Bridge Company a p u b l i c l y owned and controlled corporation, a move to which the mun-i c i p a l i t i e s adjacent to Burrard Inlet u n o f f i c i a l l y promised support. The P r o v i n c i a l Government was now approached again, and t h i s time promised a subsidy of #250,000, subject to certai n conditions. When the appeal to the Dominion Govern-ment was renewed, however, there developed a clash of i n t e r -ests between the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company and the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Company, which was already i n possession of the subsidy vote. I t was obvious that the two companies would have to reach some agreement, but much time elapsed before t h i s was f i n a l l y accomplished. In the end the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Com-pany accepted the shares i n Burrard Inlet Tunnel and Bridge Company, and i n return surrendered a l l i t s claims to the sub-sidy of #200,000 voted by the Dominion Government. This ar-rangement also s a t i s f i e d the conditions l a i d down by the P r o v i n c i a l government, but further d i f f i c u l t i e s were now en-countered, which led to a postponement of the building of the bridge• Back at the coast, the C i t y of Vancouver, and the C i t y and D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, each passed a bylaw author-i z i n g the'pruchase of shares i n the c a p i t a l stock of the corn-'s . The --Company'-was re-incorporated--by Dominion Statute, 1910. 105 -pany on the part of the municipality, and l a t e r these shares were f u l l y subscribed. Of these shares the C i t y of Vancouver subscribed $200,000, the C i t y of North Vancouver $100,000 and the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver $150,000. The t o t a l sum rep-resented such a large portion of the estimated cost of the 7 bridge, that i t was proposed to commence operations immediat-e l y . At t h i s juncture, however, the Dominion government not-i f i e d the Burrard Inlet Tunnel and Bridge Company that any bridge b u i l t over the Second Narrows must have a draw at least 250 feet long. This requirement was found to increase the es-timated cost of the bridge by one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Nothing further could be done u n t i l the additional money was found. Further appeal to the Federal Government resulted i n an addit-8 i o n a l subsidy vote of $15Q,000, a move which was l a t e r matched 9 -by the P r o v i n c i a l government. Before f i n a n c i a l arrangements eould be completed the F i r s t World War intervened and the bridge had to wait. During the next ten years the company was granted time extensions at regular i n t e r v a l s . In 1923 another e f f o r t was 7. One and a quarter m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 8. In 1912 the Company received a subsidy vote f o r the r a i l -way, which was to extend from Eburne to Seymour Creek; from Seymour Creek to Deep Cove; From Seymour Creek to Horseshoe Bay; from Pender Street to North Vancouver. 2 Geo. V Cap 48. The $150,000 subsidy f o r the Second Narrows Bridge was passed i n 1913. 9. For further d e t a i l s see the Empire Day Prospertity E d i t i o n of the Express, North Vancouver, May 24, 1912, pp 29 - 32. - 10$- -made to b u i l d t h i s long-sought bridge. The Dominion govern-ment revoted #100,000 of the subsidy voted i n 1913, and re-newed t h i s vote i n 1924. The C i t i e s of Vancouver and North Vancouver, and the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of North Vancouver and West Vancouver now owned a l l the stock i n the company. I t was nec-essary to keeptthe cost of the structure moderate, and the engineers were so instructed. They presented plans f o r a com-monly-used type of bascule bridge, the centre span being r a i s -ed by a counter-weight. The suggestion was that the l i f t - s p a n would be placed i n the centre of the channel where the water was deep and a l l deep-sea shipping passed. Owing to the depth of the water there, the foundations f o r the span would have to be very substantial, and i t was found that t h i s would increase the cost considerable. In order, therefore, to keep down the 10 1 p r i c e , i t was decided to place the l i f t span at the south end of the bridge, i n shallower water. Protests of shipping men were over-ridden, and the bridge opened to t r a f f i c i n 1925. Despite several near-misses no disasters occurred at f i r s t . Then on March 10, 1927, the Eurana, a 10,000-ton f r e i g h t e r c o l -l i d e d with the centre span, doing damage that amounted to $77,000. A s i m i l a r accident occurred to the Norwich C i t y i n 1928. This was the opportunity f o r which opponents of the bridge had been waiting. In 1928 the l e g a l i t y of the bridge, as i n t e r f e r i n g with navigation, was contested i n Admiralty 10. Approximate cost $1,800,000. Court. The l e g a l i t y was confirmed and the case carried to the Exchequer Court, where i n 19£9 the status of the bridge was again confirmed. An appeal was then made to the Privy Council, which ruled that the second Act of Incorporation i n 1910 did 11 not j u s t i f y the construction of the bridge. Meanwhile, the bridge remained i n the path of navigation. Early i n 1930 an American steamer, the Losman, crashed into the southermost f i x -ed span and carr i e d i t away. In September of the same year the P a c i f i c Gatherer, a st e e l log barge, was c a r r i e d by an eddy under the centre f i x e d span, where i t stuck f a s t . The deck was caught t i g h t against the underside of the span, making i t impossible to move her. As the t ide began to r i s e the barge l i f t e d the span and within an hour had toppled i t from i t s sup-12 port so that i t sank. In view of the Privy Council's adverse decision no attempt was made at the time to repair the bridge. In 1931 an Act was passed by the Dominion governmant which re-stated the company?^ powers of construction and granted them authority to rebu i l d the damaged bridge. The company, however, had not been able to stand the f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n of the disas-ters and i n February 1932 i t passed into the hands of a Receiv-er. The Receiver i n turn was unable to cope with the problems 11. Statutory History of the Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways of Canada 1836 - 1937. Ottawa Department of Transport, 1937, p. 68. 12. For further d e t a i l s see; Hamilton, ffames H.,(Captain K e t t l e ) , Western Shores, Vancouver, Progress Publishing Company, Ltd., 1933, Chap. 14. - 106 -of reconstruction, and f i n a l l y the Montreal Trust Company, trustee under certain mortgages, i n s t i t u t e d action against the Company. The properties of the company were ordered sold, and i n J u l y 1933 the Second Narrows Bridge was sold to the Vancou-ver Harbour Commission, which i n turn conveyed i t to the Crown. Reconstruction of the bridge was commenced immediately, and 13 the bridge was ready f o r use again i n November 1934. The f a i l u r e of the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Comp-any had a d i r e c t bearing upon the bankruptcy of the C i t y and D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. In 1923 and again i n 1925 the C i t y and D i s t r i c t each guaranteed the bonds of the Bridge Comp-any's F i r s t Debenture Issue and Second Debenture Issue, of #630,000 and #70,000 respectively to provide a Sinking Fund f o r the retirement of the Bridge Company Debentures upon maturity. The Bridge Company was unable to provide the required Sinking Fund i n 1932, and the C i t y and D i s t r i c t therefore became l i a b l e 14 for that sum, a s i t u a t i o n which has maintained ever since. In addition, the Ci t y holds Bridge Company Shares f o r #250,000 and the D i s t r i c t Shares f o r #287,500 at par value. Both show 15. them on t h e i r F i n a n c i a l Reports at Book Value of #1.00. 13. Statutory History of the Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways of Canada. Ottawa, Kings P r i n t e r , 1937, p.69. This time the l i f t - s p a n was placed i n the centre. 14. C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report 1932, p. 8. 15. F i n a n c i a l Reports of Ci t y of North Vancouver,1942 p. 18 and F i n a n c i a l Report of D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, p.22 - 10* -Mention had already been made of the Vancouver, Westmin-16 ster and Yukon Railway. Correctly known as the Vancouver, Northern and Yukon Railway Company, i t was incorporated on Feb-ruary 27, 1899, with powers to bu i l d a narrow gauge railway from Vancouver or some other convenient point on the south shore of Burrard Inle t by way of Setmour Creek or the most feasib l e route to the Squamish Valley, thence v i a Pemberton Meadows, L i l l o o e t , Quesnelle and Hazelton to the Yukon bound-ary. The right was also granted to b u i l d branch l i n e s east and west from the main l i n e along the north shore of Burrard Inlet to Howe Sound and the west shore of the North Arm. Among the P r o v i n c i a l Directors named by the Act of Incorporation, again we f i n d men who were interested i n the e a r l y development of North Vancouver. These include John Hendry, formerly of Moodyville, A. E. McCartney, who made the f i r s t map of North 17 Vancouver, C. 0. Wickenden, the architect who planned the 18 Municipal H a l l , and Adolphus Williams, who was also a di r e c -tor of the Burrard I n l e t Railway and Ferry Company. Cap i t a l 16. See above, page 100. 17. Chapter 4, page 49. 18. Minutes of Municipal Council, July 6, 1904. 19. See above, page 9§. - 10% -20 Stock was set at two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . By an amendment to the Act the following year the name of the company was changed 21 to the Vancouver Westminster Northern and Yukon Railway. The f i r s t section of the l i n e to be completed ran from New Westmin-ster to Vancouver. By 1902 the Company began to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of bridging the Second Narrows and building the North Shore section. I t was the movements of t h i s company that f i r s t caused the people to turn t h e i r thoughts to the p o s s i b i l -i t i e s of North Vancouver as a railway terminus and sea-port, a f a c t which did much to p u l l the municipality out of i t s f i r s t 22 decade of depression. Plans were f i l e d f o r a l i n e having r i g h t - o f - way along the North Vancouver shore-line. The l o c a t -ion and general plan of a proposed bridge across the Second Narrows were approved by the Dominion government. Parliament voted the above mention subsidy of $200,000 towards the bridge, and a f u r t h e r grant of $6,400per mile f o r the f i r s t hundred 23 miles. I t was confidently expected that the work would com-mence immediately, but the years dragged on and nothing was done, f i n a l l y the company surrendered i t s claim to the bridge 20. Vancouver Northern and Yukon Railway Act, 1899, 62 V i c t . Ch. 89. 21. ^Vancouver.Nprthern,and Yukon Railway Amending Act, 1900 64 V i c t . Ch. 55. 22. Chapter 4, page 56. 23. North Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, the Beginning of A Great Port, inner cover and also page 11 et seq. (Written by J . B. Ker, whose name does not appear, and published about 1910 - 10^ -subsidy to the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company, with res u l t s already related. I t s charter having lapsed, the com-pany was eventually dissolved hy Act of the P r o v i n c i a l Legis-24. la t u r e . Optimism i n North Vancouver reached a new high i n 1912, when the C. P. R. Developed a plan to bridge the entrance of the North Arm and build a l i n e from Roche point into the C i t y of North Vancouver. Concerning t h i s project the l o c a l press says: I t may be recounted that at the beginning of t h i s year the C; P. R. took active steps to secure approval f o r a r i g h t of way from i t s main l i n e at Port Moody v i a the north shore of the Inlet and crossing the North Arm at Turtle Point and thence along or near the water front through North Vanc-ouver to a point i n West Vancouver almost at Eagle Harbour. This open a c t i v i t y of the C. P. R. has led to i t s accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r certain r a i l r o a d grading and construction which f o r the past two years has been carried on i n a somewhat secretive fashion on the north shore of the I n l e t , opposite Port Moody and Barnet. Previous to i t s app l i c a t i o n of t h i s year f o r approval of i t s North Vancouver extension, the C. P. R. authorities would at no time admit any connection with the work which was being carried on, although i t had been rumour-ed time and again that at least one industry on the North Shore had a guarantee from the C. P. R. of railway f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s output. The plans of the C. P. R. have not yet been e n t i r e l y completed. Public opinion i n North Van-couver has been expressed against f u l l approval of the route as at present outlined, f o r the rea-son that i t would perhaps aff e c t too much of the harbour front. 25. 24. Defunct Railway Companies Dissolution Act, 1926-27. 17 GeQ, 5 . Ch 5 . 25. Express, North Vancouver, May 24, 1912, p. 7. - 100 -Whatever the r e a s o n , t h e C. P. R. ' d i d m o t t c a r r y t h r o u g h t h e i r p l a n s , and once a g a i n t h e N o r t h Shore f a i l e d t o g e t i t s r a i l -way. 1912, however, was a y e a r o f promise t o t h e N o r t h S h o r e , f o r i n F e b r u a r y o f t h a t y e a r the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y was i n c o r p o r a t e d , w i t h head o f f i c e a t V i c t o r i a . T h i s was t o be a s t a n d a r d gauge l i n e e x t e n d i n g f r o m Vancouver t o t h e C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver, thence f o l l o w i n g t h e m a r g i n o f Howe Sound and the g e n e r a l cou'se- o f t h e Squamish R i v e r and c o n t i n u i n g i n a n o r t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n t o L i l l o o e t . From L i l l o o e t t h e l i n e would f o l l o w the F r a s e r t o connect w i t h t h e Grand Trunk 26 P a c i f i c a t o r n e a r - F o r t George, a t o t a l d i s t a n c e o f 450 m i l e s . A number o f p r i v i l e g e s not r e l a t e d t o N o r t h Vancouver were i n -c l u d e d i n t h e c h a r t e r . The company was t o make i t s h e a d q u a r t -27 e r s a t N o r t h Vancouver, and t o b e g i n o p e r a t i o n s f r o m t h e r e . M e s s r s . F o l e y , Welch and S t e w a r t , promo "iters o f t h e company, undertook c o n s t r u c t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l government s u b s i d i z e d the r o a d by g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e company's bonds t o t h e amount o f 2 8 " $32,500.per m i l e . The agreement w i t h t h e government s t i p u l a t -ed t h a t work s h o u l d commence not l a t e r t h a n J u l y , 1912, a t a p o i n t w i t h i n t e n m i l e s o f Vancouver and somewhere on t h e N o r t h Shore, and t h a t t h e r o a d s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d and o p e r a t i o n t o 26. P a c i f i c G reat E a s t e r n R a i l w a y A c t , 1912, 2 Geo. 5,cap 36, S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 27. E x p r e s s , May 24, 1912, p. 3. 28. i b i d . , p. 55. The s u b s i d y was l a t e r i n c r e a s e d t o $42,00.0 p e r m i l e . - 110 -Fort George within three years. I t was also understood that North Vancouver should he considered the southern terminus of the system, although l i n e s might extend to Vancouver and -Newt-JWestminsterrnhdybeyond. The P r o v i n c i a l government further stipulated that the P a c i f i c Great Eastern should give running righ t s into Vancouver over i t s road to the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c 29 Railway. This l a s t clause was good news to the people of North Vancouver, who reasoned that the distance from Edmonton to Vancouver v i a Fort George was 225 miles l e s s than the d i s -tance from Edmonton to Prince Rupert v i a Fort George, thus bringing the Panama Canal some 725 miles nearer Edmonton v i a North Vancouver than v i a Prince Rupert. From t h i s they argu-ed that the major portion of the westbound f r e i g h t c a r r i e d by the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c would come to North Vancouver, and the greater part of the imports f o r Edmonton and cen t r a l Canada 30 would also pass through North Vancouver. Work was commenced according to the agreement at North Vancouver. The company acquired 150 acres of waterfrontage within the F i r s t Narrows f o r terminal purposes, and pushed i t s l i n e close to the f e r r y . A l l t h i s , however, did l i t t l e good to North Vancouver, since the contractors imported a l l t h e i r men 31 and supplies from elsewhere. This was the f i r s t disappoint-ment. The .North Shore D i v i s i o n , 13.8 miles i n length, was 29. Express, Hay 24, 1912, p. 17). 30. i b i d . , p, 56- . -; v,,,• ;-:. . . .: /?,::. 31.. Daily News Advertiser, Vancouver B.C., October 12, 1913 -Un-opened f o r service i n 1914, and the l i n e was completed to C l i n -ton by 1916. The North Shore D i v i s i o n ran from North Vancouver to Horseshoe Bay, while the i n t e r i o r section of the l i n e s t a r t -ed at Squamish. As there was no f e r r y or other dir e c t l i n k be-tween the two, North Vancouver reaped no benefit whatever from the i n t e r i o r section and the North Shore D i v i s i o n f i n a l l y dev-eloped into a t o u i s t l i n e , serving picnickers and those r e s i d -ents who had s e t t l e along the route. The contractors, however, had followed the trend of the times, and run rampant, In the f a l l of 1917 - 18 the company suddenly ceased both operation and construction. While t h i s r e a l l y h i t the i n t e r i o r section of the l i n e , repercussions were naturally f e l t i n North Van-couver. Upon investi g a t i o n by the government i t was revealed that the Company had used up the entire proceeds of i t s bond issue to b u i l d l e s s than h a l f the entire mileage. Irrespons-i b l e and ^costly- acts had l e d to the debacle. The government took aver the road and operated i t . The North Shore l i n e was c a r e f u l l y inspected and put i n order, and a new s t e e l bridge b u i l t across the Capilano at a cost of $50,000. For some years i t was thought that the rapid increase i n permanent settlement i n West Vancouver would bring a large revenue to the North Shore D i v i s i o n , but t h i s was not the case. When a motor road was opened from North Vancouver to Horseshoe Bay, and the r a i l -way had to meet competition from buses^ the l i n e began to show a rapidly increasing d e f i c i t . In 1928 the section was closed down, the d e f i c i t for the past year alorie-t-having reached the - 113 -32 sum of*- $19,000. North Vancouver, now thoroughly d i s i l l u s i o n -ed on the subject of railways, had given up a l l hope of r i v a l l -ing Vancouver as a world port. The P a c i f i c Great Eastern scheme was i n f a c t merely a modernization of a very early attempt to provide an outlet from L i l l o o e t to Burrard I n l e t . Dating from Moodyville days, t h i s route was known as the L i l l o o e t T r a i l . S e t t l e r s around L i l l o o i -et and Pemberton Meadows, had f o r some years advocated the op-ening up of a good c a t t l e t r a i l from L i l l o o e t to Howe Sound or Burrard I n l e t . They r e a l l y favoured the l a t t e r , as o f f e r i n g the better f a c i l i t i e s f o r chartering steamers to convey t h e i r stock to the V i c t o r i a market. Accordingly, i n 1873 the De-partment of Public Works sent out a survey party which constr-ucted some thirty-two miles of t r a i l south of Seaton and And-erson Lakes, and at the close of the season explored and r e -ported on a route to Burrard I n l e t , estimation the distance at 134.5 miles. The work of t h i s season cost the Department $5,180.07. Next year the party resumed i t s work, but despite a l l e f f o r t s and the expenditure of $10,654.03, i t was imposs-i b l e to open the road to the seaboard that year. In 1875 two 33 parties were sent out, from L i l l o o e t and Burrard Inlet 32. For a detailed account of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern R a i l -way, see Netta Harvey, "History and Finances of the Pac-i f i c Great Eastern Railway" (1935), MS i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library. 33. This party spent the f i r s t night out at John Linn's Ranch. See Chapter 3. pu - 1 1 * -respectively, and i t was hoped that together they would com-plete the t r a i l . Work done t h i s summer cost the Department $7704.79, hut the road remained unopened. The party working i n from Burrard Inlet reported the ground very soft i n places. Sixteen miles from the Inlet they came upon beaver swamps which would be impassable i n wet weather. They also reported a lack of horse feed along the route. A c i v i l engineer who was en-gaged i n 1876 to survey the route confirmed t h i s report, s t a t -ing that the c a t t l e would have to lay over at the head of Howe Sound and r e c r u i t f o r the remaining fo r t y miles of the journey. That same year the Department made the l a s t attempt to open up the road. The surveyor i n charge of the work party reported that i n h i s opinion Howe Sound was the proper terminus f o r the road, and that proper f a c i l i t i e s could be made there f o r ship-34 ping the c a t t l e . The Department accepted these opinions, and ceased work on the road. Local t r a d i t i o n , however, says that half-a-dozen herds of c a t t l e were brought down the T r a i l to Moodyville whence they were shipped across the Inlet to Hast-ings. A small portion of lower section of the road i s : : s t i l l i n use. At the time the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver was incorpor-ated the p r o v i n c i a l government was petitioned to have another 34. For f u l l d e t a i l s of the L i l l o o e t T r a i l see the reports of the Department of Public Works i n the B. C. Statutes f o r 1873, 1876 and 1877. The l a s t volume summarizes the whole matter. - 115 -survey made of the portion of the road which lay between the northern boundary of the Municipality and the Squamish River, with a view t o the construction of a f i r s t class waggo£ road at 35 an early date. The p e t i t i o n was apparently rejected. Between 1900 and 1910 some attempt was made to open the road up to 36 mining Claims along the Seymour, but when these claims were no longer worked the road was again neglected. To-day a small portion of the lower section i s s t i l l i n use, giving access to a few homes, and to the municipal cemetary i n D i s t r i c t Lot" 1620. 35. Minutes of Ratepayers Meeting, January 20, 1890. 36. See below, p . / ^ -116-CHAPTER VIII BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY Business and i n d u s t r i a l development i n North Vancouver have centred around three natural features, lumber, land and water-front. The e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s were dependent f o r b u i l d -ing supplies upon the resources of Moodyville, and i t was prob-ably easier to obtain supplies from the l a t t e r , despite the distance. A l l such materials had to be f e r r i e d or towed to the beaches of North Vancouver, and thence car r i e d to the s i t e 1 where they were to be used. This was the custom f o r what l i t t l e building took place during the f i r s t ten years of the municipality's l i f e . With the period of development that com-menced i n 1902, i t was inevitable that some enterprise would soon be established to meet the requirements of prospective s e t t l e r s . Such was the Western Corporation, Ltd., a Vancouver lumber firm, whose managing direc t o r , A. B. Diplock s e t t l e d i n North Vancouver i n 1900. In 1903 the Company opened a branch 2 i n North Vancouver. Although o f f i c i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as lumber dealers, t h i s f i r m r e a l l y contributed a great deal to the dev-elopment of North Vancouver. At d i f f e r e n t times they contract-3 ed with the municipality to clear land and b u i l d waggon roads. 1. Express August 25, 1905, 2. Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette and Directory f o r 1904. 3. Minutes of Municipal Council, December 3, 1903 and December 21, 1904. - 11* -They b u i l t several of the largest homes i n the community, and 4 5 a number of business blocks, and also dealt i n r e a l estate. In 1905 they even added a plumbing store to t h e i r e s t a b l i s h -6 ment. The main o f f i c e of the firm was situated immediately east of the f e r r y dock, where the company maintained a wharf and sheds. Their lumber m i l l was at 19th. Street east of Queens-bury Avenue, where they claimed to have the largest e l e c t r i c sawmill i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Four e l e c t r i c motors, of 40, 60, 85, and 185 horserpower respectively, had a d a i l y capacity of 35,000 f e e t . A f t e r 1906 the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway ran right i n t o the m i l l yard, and the lumber was transported to the wharf on f l a t - c a r s . Beside supplying the l o c a l and neighboring markets, the company d a i l y f i l l e d orders f o r New Zealand and other f o r e i g n ports. As Sutherland Avenue at t h i s time v/as' only opened up as f a r as 15th. Street, there was no road to the companyts logging grounds i n D i s t r i c t Lot 616 and 615. A series of negotiations with the Municipal Council resulted i n that body extending Sutherland Avenue and also ac-cepting a proposition from the Company to open up, grade and 4. Including the f i r s t , occupied" by McMillans Store and the Express o f f i c e . 5. Express August 25, 1905 and May 31, 1907. 6. Minutes of Municipal Council, March 3, 1905. 7. Express December 7, 1906. - lilt -8 plank 17th. Street through these two l o t s to Lynn Valley Road. When D i s t r i c t Lots 616 and 615 were exhausted, i n 1908 the m i l l was moved to 17th. Street and Sutherland Avenue, Here Diplock and H. C, Wright, l o c a l manager f o r the Western Corporation, took over the m i l l , and operated i t variously un-der t h e i r own names and as the Seymour Lumber Company, In 1911 they transferred t h e i r operations to a stand of timber on the high a l t i t i t u d e s of the mountain immediately north of the c i t y . For t h i s purpose they were obliged to b u i l d a road from the m i l l at 19th. Street a long way up the mountain. A 12 foot plank road, i t passed east of the m i l l , crossed Lynn Valley Road, and ran across D i s t r i c t Lot 546 to St. Georges Avenue. Following St. Georges Avenue to i t s extremity i t continued up through D i s t r i c t Lots 2026, 799, 881, 882, and into D i s t r i c t Lot 869. Three and a half miles long, t h i s road cost $54,000. A portable saw-mill was hauled up the road and put to work at the top. Rough-sawn lumber was hauled down to the m i l l f o r f i n i s h i n g and drying. The company estimated that they had a three-year supply of f i r and cedar on the mountain. With a p a y r o l l of 96 men, the Seymour Lumber Company ranked as one of the fore-most i n d u s t r i a l concerns of the North Shore. I t was 8. Minutes of Municipal Council, September 7, 1906. The Lynn Valley Road referred to i s a c t u a l l y the Mountain Highway. A photograph of t h i s logging operation show the logs being hauled by a horse-drawn waggon with s o l i d wooden wheels. - 113 -even suggested that the mountain on which they were working, 9 since i t was not yet named should be c a l l e d Diplock Mountain, but this d i d not materialize, the mountain gernerally being referred to l o c a l l y as Timber Mountain. In May of the follow-ing year, f i r e destroyed the sawmill and shingle m i l l , which 10 were then valued at $50,000. Another f i r m attempted to carry on the work on Timber Mountain, but they were burnt out i n the severe f o r e s t f i r e s of May 1914, when the whole side of the 11 mountain was burned. There were also lumbering enterprises on the west side of the town. James and Robert McNair, of the Hastings Shingle and 12 Manufacturing Company, Lynn Valley, maintained a shingle bolt pond along the foreshore of D i s t r i c t Lot 271. They were cut-t i n g shingle bolts west of Lonsdale Avenue before they bought 13 up Spicer's m i l l i n 1895, and continued to do so u n t i l about 1902. I t i s probable that they were the l a s t people to use 14. oxen within the townsite. In 1911 there were at least a doz-en lumber and shingle companies operating i n the Ci t y and Dis-15 t r i c t of North Vancouver. bThe largest single enterprise on 9. Express July 11, 1914. 10. i b i d , May 14, 1912. 11. Express May, 22, 1914. 12. Chapter 5, page 5f©. 13. l o c . c i t . 14. Told to writer by C. Munro. 15. B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, February 1911. - 1X0 -the west side was the Capilano Timber Company, which operated between 1917 and 1932. In 1917 t h i s concern purchased 674 feet of foreshore i n D i s t r i c t Lot 265 anfl ran a logging r a i l -way up the Capilano Valley to bring out the red cedar for which the l a t t e r was famous. There were some 8 miles of railway l i n e over which the company operated 2 steam locomotives, 1 f l a t -car, 12 logging cars, 27 logging trucks, 1 steam shovel and 1 17 snow plow. When the m i l l s were destroyed by f i r e i n June, 18 1932, the loss was set at $5,000,000. The r e a l "raison d'etre" f o r the Municipality of North Vancouver was r e a l estate. Mention has already been made of the two companies which aetapiired the townsite lands, North Van-19 couver Land and Improvement Company and Lonsdale Estate. As soon as these lands were put on the open market they were bought up by s e t t l e r s and speculators. Other l o t s f ruther a-f i e l d were s i m i l a r l y acquired, i n many cases by owners r e s i d -ent outside Canada. In addition every s e t t l e r was a p o t e n t i a l speculator, w i l l i n g at any time to s e l l out i f the price suited him. Between 1892 and 1902 the current depression period pre-20 vented development, but from that time up to 1913 r e a l estate 16. North Shore Press February 23, 1917. 17. Report of the Department of Railways of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C , 1919, p. E 25. 18. North Shore Press June 14, 1932. 19. Chapter 4, pp 54. 20. i b i d , p 53. - 120 -21 booms were the p r i n c i p a l a t t r a c t i o n i n North Vancouver. A Check of the Vancouver Directories f o r the period shows t h i r t y -s i x d i f f e r e n t r e a l estate concerns operating at some time be-tween 1904 and 1912. Many of them were short l i v e d . In sev-e r a l cases the p r i n c i p a l s merged t h e i r i n t e r e s t s into bigger concerns. By 1912, the number of r e a l estate firms was l e s s , but the a c t i v i t y just as great. In the f i r s t years the area was boosted f o r i t s r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l advantages. The elevation and southern slope were credited with producing a climate l e s s humid than the lands of Burrard I n l e t and the Fraser Valley, having more sun i n winter and e a r l i e r growth i n 22 spring. Poultry farming and f r u i t growing were foured mostly. As early as 1903, on^resident i s reported to have turned over 23 $600. from h i s strawberry patch. Soon however the stress s h i f t e d from farming to industry. The prospect of a bridge across the Second Narrows and the entry of Railway l i n e s to 24 the town gave r e a l estate firms a stronger t a l k i n g point. Their optimism knew-no bounds; With the coming of railways they v i s u a l i z e d a rush of shipping and waterfront development that would raise North Vancouver to at l e a s t second place a-25. mong Canada's P a c i f i c ports. This would bring a s t i l l greater 21. Vancouver Daily Province May 21, 1936 A r t i c l e on North Vancouver by H. Morden. 22. Express August 5, 1905. 23. l o c . c i t . 24. Chapter 7. 25. Ker, J.B., North Vancouver, The Beginning of a Great Port. p. 9. - 121 -i n f l u x of residents, and i n an t i c i p a t i o n r e a l t e r s began to subdivide and clear r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . In 1908 the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company commenc-ed clearing on the Grand Boulevard, which was to be a feature of the choicest r e s i d e n t i a l area. According to the plans, t h i s was to be a boulevard quadrangle surrounding the centre square mile of the town. Keith Road, which was to form the south side, was already public property. The company now open' ed up the east side, which extended along Queensbury Avenue from Keith Road to 19th Street. The north and west sides of the quadrangle have never been developed. Known as the Grand Boulevard, the portion along Queensbury Avenue was nearly one mile long and 246 feet wide. Clearing t h i s t r a c t of land was a large undertaking. Dynamite and steam engines were put to work, and the debris b u i l t up into p i l e s f i f t y feet wide at 26 the base and seventy feet high f o r burning. When completed the area was planted with grass and flowering shrubs, and eon-27 veyed to the C i t y of North Vancouver. Prospective residents here were safeguarded by building r e s t r i c t i o n s which allowed only buildings intended as private residences, and costing not l e s s than $4,000, to be erected on the Boulevard. Expiring at the end of twenty years, these r e s t r i c t i o n s were renewed i n 26. Ker, op. cit.,pp 17 and 21. 27. Minutes of Municipal Council October 17, 1906. - 123 -28 1928- f o r a further period of twenty years. During the next f i v e years speculation soared, as did land values also. Some t h i r t y firms, several of them i n Van-29 couver were boosting property on the North Shore. Some of these were pushing special developments, others were i n t e r e s t -ed mainly i n c i t y property. One and a l l pinned t h e i r hopes on the bridge and railways. Prices soared amazingly. F i f t y foot 30 l o t s on the Boulevard were advertised f o r $2600 each. A block of 160 acres i n D i s t r i c t Lot 590, some four miles up the Capilano Canyon, was offered f o r $40,000, while land i n Dist-r i c t Lot 865, between the Lynn and the Seymour, was expected to 31 bring $800 per acre. - Lots i n other parts were priced accord-32 ing l y . Projected development of Roche Point, and hope of a bridge at the Second Narrows, focussed attention on property east of the c i t y . This was regarded by some as the time to open up new subdivisions f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. Noticiable among these projects was Marlbank, a subdivision containing 28. C i t y of N rth Vancouve  Grand Boulevard R e s t r i c i o  Act, 1928, 18 Geo. 5. Ch 57. 29. Twenty-eight of these firms ran large advertisements i n the Express Empire Day Prosperity E d i t i o n , May 24,1912. 30. i b i d , p. 48. 31. i b i d , p. 42. 32. See below, Imperial Car Shipbuilding and Drydock Corporation. - 12& a some 300 acres i n D i s t r i c t Lot 858 and 859, which had been acquired by the Securities Corporation of Canada and the 33 Federal Trust Corporation Ltd. The property, which was i n -tersected by the L i l l o o e t Road, was accessible by auto from a road along Seymour Creek. The suggestion was made that the tram-line would be extended into the subdivision. A somewhat more l i k e l y subdivision was that of D i s t r i c t Lot 612, known as Bridgeview. I t s proximity to -Keith ,Road and theobr'idge,:-wea?e fj^ js thought itolgiMsitx^cstrategicvvpositi.on;tandthere .also!.the:" B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway were expected to extend 34 t h e i r l i n e . Other p rojects of a s i m i l a r nature were Rosslyn Townsite, In D i s t r i c t Lots 551 and 471, plans f o r which were . 35 approved i n 1909, and Erindale, i n the western part of D i s t r -36 i c t Lot 622. These l a s t three subdivisions were a l l planned on the assumption that there would be major i n d u s t r i a l dev-elopment at the eastern end of Keith Road. However, neither the bridge no^ the industries materialized, and the project-ed developments collapsed. Waterfront development was handicapped by the lack of railway f a c i l i t i e s . The f i r s t man to establish a business on 33. Express, May 24, 1912, p. 57. 34. i b i d , p. 28. 35. Minutes of Municipal Council, August 6, 1909. 36. B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, Vaneo'iver, B. C , June 1911, advertisement. - 124T-the North Vancouver waterfront was Captain Charles H. Cates. Cates, a veteran of the New England Clippers, came to Burrard Inlet i n the 1880's and took up residence at Moodyville, where 37 he established the f i r s t towing company on the I n l e t . About the year 1904 he b u i l t the f i r s t wharf, apart from the f e r r y dock, i n North Vancouver. Here he handled the f i r s t ships to discharge cargo i n North Vancouver. These cargoes were chief-l y mining supplies from C a l i f o r n i a destined f o r the Klondyke. Shipments of these supplies a r r i v i n g at Vancouver i n the autumn would frequently be unable to reach the Yukon before freeze up. The goods would then be stored over the winter at Cates' wharf, where other ships would load them i n the 38 spring and carry them to t h e i r destination. Cates' tug and p i l e d r i v e r were i n constant demand along the waterfront. By 1907 he had added boat-repairing f a c i l i t i e s and a sawmill to 39 hi s wharf. In 1935 he started building tugs, and b u i l t f i v e 40 altogether. 37. North Shore Press, December 5, 1941. 38. Related to the writer by Captain Charles Cates J r . , son of the l a t e C. H. Cates. This story i s corroborated hy a picture appearing i n the North Shore Press, December 5, 1941, which shows the S. S. Lonsdale berthed at Cates wharf i n September 1909. This was the f i r s t occasion upon which an ocean-going steam-ship had docked on the North Shore. 39. Express June 28, 1907. 40. Related by Captain C. H. Cates. - 125 -Cates was followed i n 1909 by the MeDougall-Jenkiris Eng-ineering works, on the east side of Lonsdale. In 1910 t h i s f i r m made h i s t o r y by building the number three f e r r y the f i r s t 41 s t e e l vessel produced i n the Vancouver area. In 1911 there was a change of management i n the firm, a r i v a l firm, the albion Iron Works, was absorbed, and the resultant company known as the North Shore Iron Works Ltd. F. Carter-Cotton was president of the new f i r m , which described i t s e l f as Shipbuilders, Boilermakers, Iron and Brass founders and Gen-42 e r a l Engineers. I t was now one of the largest i n d u s t r i a l concerns on the North Shore, employing on an average 60 work-43 men, and i t s p a y r o l l amounted to $4,500 per month. The f i r s t World War provided a stimulus f o r such i n d u s t r i e s . During 1917 and 1918 the North Shore Iron Works completed 76 winches and 35 windlasses f o r the Imperial Munitions Board, 16 steering gears f o r Patterson Macdonald Shipbuilding Comp-any of Seattle, 33 winches f o r J . Coughlan and Sons of Van-couver, and much general work f o r Wallace Shipyards Ltd., L y a l l Shipbuilding Company Ltd. and the Imperial Munitions 44 Board. 41. B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, Vancouver B. C. February 1911 Wallaces also claim to have b u i l t t h i s boat. Probably both firms worked on i t . 42. Henderson's Greater Vancouver Directory,1914, Advertisement. 43. Express May 24, 1912, p. 7. 44. Shipbuilding and Shipbuilders of B r i t i s h Columbia with A l l i e d Industries, Tower Publishing Co.,Vancouver, 1918. p.30 - 12* -In 1905 the North Vancouver Municipal Council received a communication from a shipbuilder, A. Wallace, o u t l i n i n g plans f o r a shipyard and marine railway on property he had recently acquired i n North Vancouver, and requesting free water and ex-45 emotion from taxation f o r ten years. This was the beginning of the largest i n d u s t r i a l plant on the North Shore. A l f r e d Wallace came to Vancouver from his native Devonshire i n 1894, and commenced building l i f e - b o a t s i n h i s back-yard. Three years l a t e r , In 1897, he b u i l t a small ways on False Creek un-der the Granville Street Bridge where he b u i l t flat-bottomed double-ended Fraser River f i s h i n g boats. In 1909 the False Creek boatyard burned down and was abandoned;,.-:but p r i o r to that A l f r e d Wallace had bought a s i t e on Esplanad e, North Vancouver, and had established there a 220-foot marine ways 46 with a capacity of 1600 tons. That plant, too, was wiped out 47 by f i r e i n 1911, with a t o t a l l o s s set at $2,000,000, but was r e b u i l t immediately, and f u r t h e r improvements were added i n 48 1913. During these years the mainstay of the business was coastwise vessels repairs, interspersed with various new vessels of both s t e e l and wood. For r e p a i r work, Wallace b u i l t two 45. Minutes of Municipal Council A p r i l 5 and May 3, 1905. 46. Wallace Shipbuilder v o l . 1. No. 1, July 1942, published by and In the i n t e r e s t s of the. Burrard Drydock Company employees. 47. Express July 11, 1911. 48. Daily News Advertiser, October 12, 1913. - 12* -marine railways, capable of hauling out vessels up to 2,000 tons displacement. Then came the war, and i n 1915 Wallaces, l i k e the North Shore Iron Works received contracts to make, 49 not ships, but 18;jpound high-explosive s h e l l s . In 1916 a shipping shortage developed, and Wallaces, hav-ing f i n i s h e d t h e i r s h e l l contract, began work on the a u x i l i a r y wooden schooner, the "Mabel Brown". Launched on January 27, 50 1917, she w as the f i r s t of a great f l e e t of schooners to be b u i l t on the P a c i f i c Coast. Due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n obtain-ing s t e e l , the Imperial Munitions Board l e t contracts f o r a number of wooden ships, constructed from Douglas F i r and re-51 inforced with s t e e l girders. Later i n 1916 Wallaces receiv-ed an order f o r a 3000-ton s t e e l steamer, 315 feet i n length, with 1300 horse-power t r i p l e expansion engines. When she was launched the following May, she was not only the f i r s t ocean-52 going s t e e l steamer b u i l t i n Canada, but also the f i r s t deep-53 sea v e s s e l b u i l t on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. Int.all;othe Imperial Munitions Board placed contracts with Wallaces f o r ' si x a u x i l i a r y schooners of the Mabel Brown class, and three 49. Vancouver Daily World, B r i t i s h Columbia Development Number 1922. 50. Shipbuilding and Shipbuilders, op. c i t . , p. 59. 51. Hamilton, James H. (Captain E e t t l e ) , Western Shores, Vancouver, Progress Publishing Co., Ltd., 1933, p.149 et. seq. > 52. Shipping and Shipbuilders, op. c i t . , p. 8. advertisement. 53. Wallace Shipyard and Drydock Co., Ltd., Vancouver Daily World, B r i t i s h Columbia Development .Number, 1922. - 129 -54 s t e e l steamers. The Wallace Foundry Company was established to supply the parent plant with the heavy ir o n and brass cas-55 tings required f o r the t r i p l e expansion engines. In the period immediately following the war Wallaces b u i l t several ships f o r the Canadian Government Merchant Marine, as well as f o r l o c a l shipping firms. A new' construction record was set 56 i n 1921, when the f i r m b u i l t the Princess Louise f o r the C.P.R. A new joiner shop had to be b u i l t to cope with the large a-mount of joiner work on t h i s passenger v e s s e l . In the meantime shipbuilding a c t i v i t i e s had extended west of the Indian Reserve #1. As f a r back as 1912, the Lons-dale Estate had launched a plan f o r a m i l l i o n - d o l l a r dock 57 scheme on the fore-shore of D i s t r i c t Lot 265, on t i d a l f l a t s known as the F e l l Avenue f i l l . The war intervened, however, and i n 1916 Wallaces acquired the f i l l with the intention of 58 building three wooden ships there. One year l a t e r , the William L/lyall Shipbuilding Company Limited was formed to 59 build ships f o r the French government, and they acquired a 60 three-year lease of the yard. L y a l l s b u i l t twenty-seven 54. Shipbuilding and Shipbuilders, op. c i t . , p. 59 55. Wallace Shipyard and Drydock Co. Ltd., op. c i t . 56. North Shore Press, January 24, 1919. 57. Express, February 16, 1912. 58. North Shore Press, June 2, 1943. 59. i b i d , January 24, 1919 60. i b i d , June 29, 1917. William L y a l l was a mere f i g u r e -head f o r the subsidized company. ^ - 130 -61 wooden ships here, With the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s they 62 were no longer needed, and i n 1919 they closed down. During the War the interests of Wallace Shipyards had be-63 come associated with those of the Burrard Drydock Company, and a f t e r the War t h i s company crossed to the /North Shore and took over and enlarged part of the premises occupied by Wallaces. A 20,000-ton f l o a t i n g drydock was b u i l t and opened with much formality by Hon. Dr. J . H. King, federal Minister of Public Works, on August 11, 1925. At that time the dock was capable of handling the vast majority of vessels p l y i n g 64 i n and out of the Port of Greater Vancouver. With the out-break of the Second World War large government contracts were awarded the two yards, and further expansion followed. In the twenty-year i n t e r v a l between the F i r s t and Second World Wars, the i n d u s t r i a l aspect of the North Shore underwent a great change. In 1914 the main waterfront concerns were shipbuilding establishments, while behind the waterfront were 6 1 • Hamilton, l o c . c i t . 62. North Shore Press October 31, 1919. 63. Clarence Wallace, son of A l f r e d Wallace, l e f t h i s father's business to serve overseas i n 1914. On h i s return he was appointed secretary-treasure^ of the Burrard drydock Company i n 1918, and became president i n 1929. Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1940-1941, S. Maurice Carter, P. 0. Box 803, Vancouver, p.235. 64. North Shore Press I n d u s t r i a l Supplement gefiember 1941, advertisement. I t was no doubt due to Clarence Wallace that the drydock was b u i l t i n North Vancouver rather than Vancouver. - 131 -a number of active lumber and shingle m i l l s . In the course of the next twenty years the lumber and shingle m i l l s ceased to operate on Grouse Mountain and i n Lynn and Capilano Valleys, but larger lumbering in t e r e s t s developed and important domes-t i c and export trade. These firms a l l took up waterfront prop-erty, as did a varied assortment of other businesses. The net r e s u l t was that the town saw a rapid development of i t s water-front during these years, while the rest of i t s area became purely commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l . A survey of the waterfront 65 just p r i o r to the outbreak of the Second World War revealed a c t i v i t y along the whole five-mile stretch between the F i r s t and Second Narrows. Included i n the l i s t are three shipbuild-ing concerns, f i v e lumber or shingle m i l l s , a dock which loads about 100,000,000 feet of lumber yearly f o r export, and a boom-ing ground. The lumber m i l l s s p e c i a l i z e i n B. C. Douglas F i r , and the shingle m i l l s i n Red Cedar. A l l of them carry on an 67 export trade. In addition we f i n d l i s t e d a company exporting creosoted railway t i e s and lumber to the United Kingdom, India, China, and Japan, and a f i r m making the largest s t e e l r e - i n -68 forced concrete pipes produced i n western Canada. Two o i l 65. Templeton, Conn: The North Shore's Busy Waterfront, Vancouver Daily Province, June 17, 1939. 66. Japan Dock. 67. Vancouver Creosoting Company. 68. Pressure Pipe Company. - 132 -69 companies hage b u i l t t h e i r main plants here, and here also are the headquarters of the f i r s t company on the west coast to cater to the owners of pleasure boats, providing them with f a c -70 i l i t i e s f o r storing t h e i r boats and parking t h e i r cars. Tuck-ed away among busy commercial enterprises are the headquarters of the l o c a l yacht club, and further along, of the l o c a l branch of the Sea Scouts. A recent development i s a large f i s h cannery, whose owners operate i t i n addition to t h e i r general 71 wharfage and logging business. Very close to the s i t e of Sue Moody's Wharf at Moodyville, now stands the Midland P a c i f i c Grain Elevator, with a capacity of 1,500,000 bushels of grain. To serve a l l these plants the National Harbour Board had ex-tended i t s Terminal Railway across the Second Narrows Bridge and along the waterfront of the North Shore. Passing by tun-nel under Lonsdale Avenue, i t l i n k s up with and operates a small section of the old P. G. E. l i n e . Thus a part of an old dream hag at l a s t come true. Contrary to possible expectations, commercial enterprises did not keep pace with i n d u s t r i a l development. Despite a series of rumours, no large r e t a i l firms have yet established branch-es on the North Shore, apart from a chain grocery firm. There 69. Imperial O i l Limited, and Home O i l D i s t r i b u t o r s . 70. North Shore Marine Basin Limited. $t. W. P. Gibson and Sons. - 133 -are a number of small privately-owned suburban shops near the f e r r y wharf, and some others are scattered about i n the d i f f -erent r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . Banking Interests were more enterprising. The Bank of B r i t i s h North America opened a 72 branch at Lonsdale and Esplanade i n 1905, and had the f i e l d to i t s e l f u n t i l 1910. • In that year two other banks moved i n . 73 The Bank of Hamilton erected a building a t the corner of Lons dale Avenue and F i r s t Street, and the Royal Bank of Canada purchased the north-west corner of Lonsdale Avenue and Second ,74 75 Street. Nex$ year the Bank of Montreal and the Bank of Com-merce also opened branches. A subsequent series of amalgam-ations i n the banking world reduced the number of banks i n North Vancouver to three, the Bank of Montreal, the Bank of Commerce and the Royal Bank of Canada, Concurrently with these developments i n t e r e s t was centred • " 77 around Roche Point and the townsite of Roslyn on the North Arm, In 1910 the Imperial Car Shipbuilding and Drydock Corporation 78 l a i d plans f o r a drydock and shipyard at Roche Point, These were to be used i n connection with a large plant consisting of 72. Express, November 10, 1905. 73. i b i d , January 21, 1910. 74. i b i d , A p r i l 1, 1910. 75. i b i d , February 6, 1911. 76. i b i d , February 9, 1911. 77. See above, p. ^ 78. Express July 8, 1910. - 134 -iron and steel works, reduction plant and smelter, at which i t was proposed to manufacture railway cars and ships from 79 B r i t i s h Columbia i r o n . North Vancouver was to bedome another Pittsburg. An eventual expenditure of $25,000,000 was con-templated, and i t was expected that the plant would employ 80 5,000 men. A large saw-mill was erected, and a subsidy ob-tained from the Dominion Government f o r the drydock. Then the Company sold the drydock, with a l l the p r i v i l e g e s and con-cessions obtained, to a B r i t i s h company. There was some delay before l e g i s l a t i o n was introduced into the Dominion House to Change the working of the act and transfer the subsidy to the 81 new company. Before that obstacle had been overcome, the depression period caused the collapse of the whole scheme. In due course the saw-mill was sold to the Vancouver Lumber Comp-any, who cut cedar f o r shingles. There was further excitement on the North Arm i n 1912, when i t w as announced that the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway had secured terminal grounds at Roche Point, In co-operation with the Union P a c i f i c t h i s company had recently taken over a small l i n e i n the sta.te of Washington by which the companies hoped to obtain entrance into B r i t i s h Columbia. 82 Like the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the Chicago Milwaukee and 79. B r i t i s h Columbia does not mine i r o n orel 80. Express, Prosperity E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912. p.28, advertisement. 81. i b i d . p. 49. 82. q.v., ch. 7. - 135 -St. Paul planned to b u i l d around the head of the I n l e t , cross the North Arm, and land at the s i t e of the proposed terminal. Wharves, docks, f r e i g h t wharehouses and grain elevators were to be erected here, and the plan included the i n s t i t u t i o n of a 83 f e r r y service across the Inlet to Vancouver. As i t t r a n s p i r -ed, t h i s was just another abortive scheme. It was not u n t i l 1916 that a r e a l l y successful business man came to Roslyn. In that year Robert Dollar purchased a seventy-five acre s i t e i n the south h a l f of D i s t r i c t Lot 471, Doll a r , whose name was a by-word i n the C a l i f o r n i a shipping 84 world, had made Vancouver h i s home port when he founded the Canadian Robert Dollar. Company Limited i n 1912. Before long he obtained great stands of timberifrom the B r i t i s h Columbia government, aad^selected the s i t e on the North Arm f o r a large sawmill and dock. The name of the l o c a l i t y was changed to Dollarton, and a community sprang up about the m i l l . At t h i s time the only means of reaching Dollartown was by water, the Harbour Navigation Company provided connections with Vancouver. The m i l l had been operating more than a year before the road w was opened up from North Vancouver. For some twenty-five years the Dollar f l e e t operated out of Burrard I n l e t , carrying B r i t i s h Columbia lumber and shingles to a l l parts of the world. 83. Express, o p . c i t . , p. 17 84. Peter B. Kyne, the no v e l i s t , i s said to have selected Robert Dollar as the prototype f o r his famous character "Cappy Ricks". - 136 -Robert Dollar died, and the business passed to h i s three sons, two of these also died, and the Dollar f l e e t s disappeared from the shipping world. In January 1943 the Canadian Robert Dollar Company Limited m i l l s and timber l i m i t s were purchased by other in t e r e s t s , and a romantic name* had passed from the l i s t of 85. North Shore industries. A t y p i c a l B r i t i s h Columbia town, North Vancouver had even had i t s "gold rush", along the Seymour River. I t i s said that i n 1878 a party of Frenchmen found gold nuggets i n the Seymour while about the same time some coloured men reported f i n d i n g 86 small nuggets of fi n e gold, the largest being worth " s i x b i t s " . Other op t i m i s t i c persons a c t u a l l y staked claims along the r i v e r , giving them such t r a d i t i o n a l names as "Golden S l i p p e r " and " E l 87 Dorado". In 1914 four Chinese b u i l t a flume and worked a 85. Robert Dollar was born i n 1844 at F a l k i r k , Scotland. He came to Canada at the age of 14, and soon became a lumberjack. At 28 he was getting out lumber on h i s own f o r the foreign trade. In 1882, at the age of 38 he moved to Michigan, and s i x years l a t e r pushed west to C a l i f o r n i a . In 1901 Dollar began to operate ships on foreign trade, find theay^arsf ©llpwihg<;he.emade h i s f i r s t t r i p to China. This led him to e s t a b l i s h the tremendous Chinese r i v e r trade, f o r which h i s ships became famous. Dollar b u i l t up a w o r l d - c i r c l i n g snip-ing organization, whose Vancouver branch r i v a l l e d the Canadian P a c i f i c i n t r a n s - p a c i f i c importance. He died at the peak of h i s success, but h i s business r a p i d l y disintegrated a f t e r h i s death.—Vancouver Daily Province, February 6, 1943. 8B. Vancouver Daily Province, A p r i l 4, 1926. 87. Related by W. M. L. Draycott. Mr. Draycott has himself panned f o r gold i n the Lynn and got colour. - 137 -r i f f l e box below the canyon, The amount of t h e i r findings i s not on record, but the remains of t h e i r flume and r i f f l e box could be seen some years l a t e r . Below Keith Road, the remnants of a deep,, shaft and a windlass belonging to the same period remained as l a t e as 1926. Placer gold has been found south of 88 the c i t y intake. In 1912 workmen boring a new tunnel under the Capilano River for the Vancouver Water Board, discovered a gold-bearing reef. Samples showed gold and s i l v e r at #4.00 a 89 ton, and a claim was staked and r e g i s t e r e d . None of these at-tempts however has yet produced a gold mine i n North Vancouver. The only places where a serious attempt has been made at mining are up the Lynn and Seymour. On the west side of Lynn 90 Ridge an outcropping of batholith has revealed the presence of 91 a variety of ores, e s p e c i a l l y of zinc, lead and copper. About the year 1900 prospectors began developing claims on Seymour Creek, reaching the l o c a t i o n by waggon road from North Vancou-92 ver. On Lynn Creek i n the same years they reported f i n d i n g 93 promising prospects of gold, copper and zinc. Sample surfaces 88. Vancouver Daily Province, A p r i l 4, 1926. 89. Express September 3, 1912. 90. See above, Chapter 91. Burwash, E. M. J . , Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., 1918, pp 19 and. 36. 92. General Review of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n #11, 1903. The road referred to was the L i l l o o e t T r a i l . 93. Review of I n d u s t r i a l Conditions i n B. 0., 1903, B u l l e t i n 18. - 138 -of zinc blende from these prospects were assayed up to 50% 94 zinc. In 1908 a determined e f f o r t was made to have the L i l l o o e t T r a i l opened to several claims up the Seymour beyond 95 the D i s t r i c t boundary. In the same year a Dr. Swayne applied to the Municipal Council f o r a waggon road to h i s mining prop-erty on Lynn Creek. The Council estimated that the road would cost $5000, but expressed willingness to build i t with Provin-c i a l a i d . Dr. Swayne also wanted a tramway from the water-front to his mine, and approached the B r i t i s h E l e c t r i c Railway 96 on the subject. About the same time B. A. Weldon obtained from the Council a grant of $100 toward the opening up of the 97 L i l l o o e t t r a i l to.his property, while the Tyee Copper Company 98 proposed to b u i l d t h e i r own road. In a l l these cases i t eventually became evident that the ore was not s u f f i c i e n t l y valuable to warrant continuous operations, and the mines c l o s -ed down. 94. Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1904, O f f i c i a l B u l l e t i n #19. 95. Minutes of Municipal Council, May 1, 1908, November 20, 1908 96. i b i d , June 5, and July 22, 1908. 97. i b i d , November 20, 1903. 98 i b i d , August, 20, 1909. - 139 -CHAPTER IX SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES The story of education i n North Vancouver has i t s roots i n Crown Colony days, f o r i t was i n 1869 that the government was f i r s t approached f o r a grant towards a school at Moody's. At that time there were four schools on the mainland, New West-minster, Douglas, Sapperton and Yale. Apparently i n 1867 Gov-ernor Seymour had made the Board of School Trustees of New Westminster responsible f o r a l l the schools of the lower main-1 land. The Governor had also promised a general scheme of ed-ucation f o r the colony, and the establishment of new schools 2 i n 1868 was delayed i n an t i c i p a t i o n of thi s scheme. However, the need became pressing at Moody's, and i n July, 1869, Henry Holbrook, president of the New Westminster municipal council, which was also the school board, wrote to the Colonial Secret-ary f o r a grant of $500 for a proposed new school at Burrard I n l e t . In h i s l e t t e r Holbrook stated that the average number of children l i k e l y to attend t h i s school was unknown, but mos-t, i f not a l l , of them would be able to pay the t u i t i o n fee which the Local Board had set at $1.50. I t was proposed to o f f e r 1. MacLaurin, D. L., History of Education i n the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 96. Thesis f o r Ph. D. Degree, University of Washington, 1936. Copy i n l i b r a r y of Univers-i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. i b i d . , p. 97. The scheme mentioned was embodied i n the Public Schools Act, 1872. - 140 -the teachers the amount of the government grant and the t u i t i o n fees and to reserve the voluntary subscriptions f o r i n c i d e n t a l expenses a&d repairs. Out of t h e i r s a l a r i e s the teachers 3 would be required to provide the necessary f u e l . In reply Holbrook was t o l d that the government would only grant $400 towards the school on Burrard I n l e t , and that said school would be under the charge of the New Westminster Municipal 4 Council. I t was not however u n t i l the following January that the Burrard Inlet School D i s t r i c t was gazetted, embracing both 5 the north and south sides of the I n l e t . The school was opened at Moody's i n the August following, under a by-law approved by 6 the Governor. V i s i t i n g the school the same month, the inspec-to r found thirteen pupils enrolled. He remarked that they seem-ed very backward, but attributed t h i s to the fact that the school had only been i n operation a short while. The school-room, which belonged to Moody, Deitz and Nelson, was small and poorly equipped. Apparently the l o c a l board had made no at-tempt to supplement the government grant, and the inspector 7 recommended i t s withdrawal i n consequence. This seems to have 3. Correspondence of Henry Holbrook, F 778 b6 Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4. i b i d . , July 29, 1869. 5. B r i t i s h Colonist, August 7, 1870. 6. MacLaurin, op. c i t . , p.120. 7. i b i d . , p. 128. - 141 -been done, since the Burrard school was not on the l i s t of those receiving grants the following year. Miss Laura A. Haynes, the f i r s t teacher, remained u n t i l 1872, and upon re-signing was succeeded hy Mrs. Murray Thain, wife of a Moody-8 9 v i l l e longshoreman, at $500 per annum. The l o c a t i o n of the school was not very s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i n 1873 the inspector reported as follows: This school has heen labouring under serious d i f f i -c u l t y for the past year. In addition to want of room, the continual smoke from the burning of saw-m i l l refuse just under the door and windows of the school-room has necessitated dismissal at noon a l -most every day, f o r several months. Not withstand-ing these drawbacks, the school has made progress and i s well and e f f i c i e n t l y conducted by Mrs. Thain. A new school-house i s i n course of erection, out of the way of the smoke and din of the m i l l s , and w i l l soon be ready f o r operation. 10 In 1874 the school boundaries were re-arranged, and a new school established at Granville to serve the south side of the 11 I n l e t . The Burrard I n l e t school was the larger of the two, reporting an enrolment of 39 as compared with 21 at Gra n v i l l e . In both cases the school population was very migratory, s h i f t -12 ing from one community to another, or moving away e n t i r e l y . 8. See above, chapter 2.p3-*~ 9. Howay, Ear l y Settlement on Burrard I n l e t , B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, A p r i l 1937, p. 101 et. seq. 10. B. C. .Sessional: Papers. 1873, "p. 12,'- -Public Schools Report. 11. Third Annual Report of the Superintendant of Education for the year ending July 31, 1874, Archives of Brits h Columbia. l a.i i b i d , 1875. I - 142 -In 1876 Burrard Inlet pupils were again reported to be back-ward i n t h e i r studies, although quiet and orderly. There ap-pears to have been a shortage of teachers at t h i s time, f o r i t was not u n t i l sometime during t h i s year that one was found to r e l i e v e Mrs. Thain. The school population was growing, hav-ing reached the record figure of 41 on one occasion. During the year 1875-76 the new school-house was completed, and f i t -13 ted up with proper desks and equipment. Progress was s t i l l not s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i n 1877 the trustees secured "the ser-vices of a f i r s t class lady teacher of great experience i n t u i t i o n , who w i l l no doubt soon place the school on an e f f i c -14 ient f o o t i n g . " She did not remain long, and her successors do not seem to have succeeded i n r a i s i n g the standard of the pu p i l s . In 1883 the name of the school was changed to Moody-15 v i l l e . Moodyville School continued to serve the m i l l town, and f o r more than ten years was the only school on the North Shore available to the f a m i l i e s of s e t t l e r s i n North Vancouver. In January 1902 the Municipal Council of North Vancouver forward-ed to the Superintendant of Education a l i s t of children of 16 school age within the community, and urged the need of a school. 13. Annual Report of the Superintendant of Education f o r the year ending July 31, 1876, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. 14! i b i d , 1877. 15. i b i d , 1878-1883. 16. Minutes of Municipal Council, February 5, 1902. - 143 -In September a reply was received to the e f f e c t that the Sup-erintendent of Education and the Inspector of Schools had v i s i t e d North Vancouver and agreed to recommend a school d i s -17 t r i c t there. The school was opened shortly a f t e r , and v i s i t -ed i n February 1903 by the inspector. There were 25 pupils 18 enrolled, three of whom were under s i x years. Lynn V a l l e y 19 School was opened i n May of the year following, with 18 20 p u p i l s , three being under s i x years. That same year the en-rolment i n North Vancouver increased to 44, but the inspector noted a cert a i n l a x i t y i n the conduct and management of the 21 school. In 1905 the enrolment at Lynn Valley was reduced to t h i r t e e n , and the tone and d i s c i p l i n e were much improved. With 45 pupils enrolled, North Vancouver was making f a i r pro-gress, but of Moodyville, where there were now 24 registered, the inspector reported: " The most irresponsive class of pupils 22 I ever met i s the senior grade of t h i s school." The North Vancouver school had not been i n operation six 17. Minutes of Municipal Council, September 30, 1902. 18. School Report, 1903. 19. See above, Chapter 5. pg"f 20. School Report, 1904. 21. i b i d . 22. i b i d , 1905. - 144 -23 months before the need was f e l t f o r a second teacher, but i t was not u n t i l the summer of 1905 that the second d i v i s i o n was opened. A male p r i n c i p a l was engaged at $60 per month, and a lady assistant at $50, while the ladies at Moodyville and Lynn Valley received $50 and $45. respectively. A t o t a l of 94 24 pupils were enrolled ini,the three schools. Settlement i n North Vancouver expanded so rapidly that f o r the year 1906-1907 the North Vancouver school reported an enrolment of 75 pupils i n the f i r s t d i v i s i o n and 102 i n the eecond d i v i s i o n . The numbers at Moodyville and Lynn Valley remained f a i r l y 25 stable. The incorporation of the C i t y of North Vancouver i n 26 , 1907 l e f t the Lynn Valley school the only school i n the Dis-t r i c t . This probably accounts f o r a sudden increase i n en-rolment there to 34. Meanwhile, i n the C i t y , the North Van-couver School was renamed the Central School. Two new rooms 27 were added to the building, and two more d i v i s i o n s opened. Even so, the four d i v i s i o n s reported inrolments of 49, 71, 83, 23. Minutes of Municipal Council, February 3, 1903 and A p r i l 5, 1905. 24. School Report 1906. 25. i b i d , 1907. 26. See above, chapter 4.p6^ 27. The o r i g i n a l two-roomed building was erected by the government at a cost of $2000. Trustees estimates f o r 1907 included $4500 f o r the a d d i t i o n — S c h o o l Report ..for 1904, and Council Minutes February 4, 1907. - 145 -28 and 82 respectively. The p r i n c i p a l , J . B. Bennett, received $100 per month, the lady assistant f o r the second divis-lorn 29 $60, and the other two ladies each $50 per month. In the 30 D i s t r i c t the o r i g i n a l school house at Lynn Val l e y was f e l t to be inadequate, and i t was agreed to purchase a new l o t , more c e n t r a l l y located, and erect a new bu i l d i n g . A l o t was pur-31' 32 chased from J . M. Fromme f o r $150, but clearing cost $500. The new building, s t i l l only one room, was opened i n 1908. Schools were also needed i n the Northern and western parts of the D i s t r i c t . J . C. Keith offered to give a s i t e near the corner of Capilano and fifeith Roads, to serve the Capilano com-33 ' munity. In the North Lonsdale area the Council purchased two acres i n D i s t r i c t Lot 784 fo r $1250 as a s i t e f o r the North 34 35 Star School. Capilano School was opened i n 1908, but tenders 36 f o r North Star School were not c a l l e d f o r u n t i l 1909. At the 28. The la t e J . B. Bennett, who remained i n the North Van-couver School System u n t i l he r e t i r e d i n 1937, was a prominent member of the Community and very active i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. 29. School Report 1908. The p r i n c i p a l ' s salary was increased to $125 the following year. 30. See above, chapter §fps? 31. i b i d . 32. Minutes of Municipal Council November 7, 1906 and Sept-ember -30, 1907. 33. i b i d , September 30, 1907. 34. i b i d , May 1, 1908. 35. School Report 1909. The school opened with 21 pupils, increasing to 35 i n 1910. 36. Minutes of Municipal Council, September 28, 1909. - 146 -Central School two more d i v i s i o n s were added i n 1908 and s t i l l 37 another i n 1909. The s i t u a t i o n was obviously getting out of 38 co n t r o l . Central School had more than 300 pupils, and a new building was imperative. Afte r serious thought the School Board decided to b u i l d two new schools i n other parts of the town. For the convenience of residents i n the northern sect-ion of the town a frame school of eight rooms was b u i l t on Lonsdale Avenue between 21st. and 22nd. Streets. Fomr rooms 39 were completed f i r s t and were opened i n A p r i l 1911. The High School, which had also been established t h i s year, and temporarily housed i n a business block, was now housed i n the 40 new Lonsdale School. The High School started with 17 pupils and grew r a p i d l y . A new school was also under construction i n Destrict Lot 550, on the east side of the town. To re-l i e v e the s i t u a t i o n a temporary two-room school was erected i n 1910, on.the corner of the four-acre s i t e which was to 42 have a #12,000 building. The temporary school was known as the East End School, when i t opened i n October 1910 i t took the pupils of Moodyville School, which then closed down after 37. School Reports for 1909 and 191'0. 38. Express, January 28 and February 11, 1910. 39. School Report 1911. 40. Express A p r i l 4, 1911. 41. School Report 1911. 42. l o c . c i t . - 147 -nearly t h i r t y - f i v e years. Work on the permanent school did 43 not commence u n t i l J uly 1911, The building w as formally opened hy the Minister of Education, the Honorable Henry Esson 44 Young, on A p r i l 8, 1912. This r e l i e v e d the congestion i n Central School, which by now had reached 15 d i v i s i o n s , and had been obliged to use temporary quarters. J . B. Bennett was transferred as p r i n c i p a l to the new school, known as Eidgeway School, which absorbed the make-shift East End School. Further progress was marked that autumn, with the opening of a Manual 45 Training Centre at Ridgway School. I t was several years be-fore a corresponding Home Economics centre was opened f o r the g i r l s . The school population of the D i s t r i c t had also increased, but i t was spread over a much greater area. On the North Star si t e a four-room building was erected, although only one room 46 was opened at f i r s t . Lynn Valley had added a second d i v i s i o n 47 i n 1910, but the enrolment increased so r a p i d l y that the School Board decided to start construction on a new bui l d i n g . A four-roomed frame building, i t was opened i n January 1912 48 and f i l l e d at once. Further expansion followed more slowly. 43. Express July 18, 1911. 44. Express A p r i l 9, 1912. 45. Express August S7, 1912. 46. School Report, 1912. 47. i b i d , 1911. 48. i b i d , 1912; - 148 -In 1914 the D i s t r i c t School BSard opened Deith Lynn School i n D i s t r i c t Lot 553, near Deith Road, with the object of r e l i e v -49 ing Lynn Valley School, but by 1919 i t was necessary to put 50 a four-roomed addition on the o l a t t e r school. Capilano School was replaced by a larger building erected on a four-acre s i t e 51 purchased from J . P. F e l l at #3750 per acre, and i n 1917 a one 52 roomed school was opened at Roche Point. In the City, the old Central School was replaced i n 1915 by a modern sixteen-room building on a site i n the south-west corner of D i s t r i c t 53 Lot 548. To complete the picture, the C i t y erected an up-to-date-High School i n 1924, and introduced the Junior High Schools into the system i n 1937. The D i s t r i c t has never main-tained i t s own High School, but sends i t s students to the C i t y High School on a pro rata ibasls. There are no Junior High Schools i n the D i s t r i c t system- to date. The purchase of school s i t e s and erection of buildings necessitated heavy borrowing i n both City and D i s t r i c t . In eluded i n the present bonded indebtedness of the C i t y are bonds f o r School purposes t o t a l l -ing $561,430 and involving an annual inter e s t payment of 54 $28,453.75. In the D i s t r i c t the t o t a l stands at $134,280, and 49. North Shore" Press, August 21, 1914. 50. North Shore Press, June 13, 1919. 51. North Shore Press, July 18, 1913. 52. i b i d , June 29, 1917. 53. i b i d , August 23, 1915. 54. C i t y of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statement, 1942. - 149 -the yearly i n t e r e s t #4,527.00. Of t h i s t o t a l loans worth 55 $52,050.00 have matured, hut.not heen paid. These facts have contributed to the f i n a n c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y of both City and Dis-56 t r i c t . The Indians were the f i r s t people to b u i l d a church on the North Shore, or f o r that matter, on Burrard I n l e t . I t ap-pears that they had come into contact with the Roman Catholic missionaries of the Oblats de Marie Immaculee who were active among the Indians of the P a c i f i c Coast. Converts were made, 57 and by 1866 the question of a church had been raised. There was some delay due to the f a c t that the land whcih the Indians claimed had not at that time been set aside as a reserve, and 58 the Indians did not want to lose t h e i r claim to t h e i r church. This matter was f i n a l l y cleared up, and by 1869 a large frame building with a single spire stood on the waterfront of number 1. Indian Reserve. The f i r s t C h r i s t i a n church on Burrard I n l e t , St. Paul's Church served the Indians from the south shore, as well as those at Lynn Creek, Seymour Creek and Squamish. In 59 1909 the church was enlarged, the second spire added, and the 55. D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statement 1942. 56. See above, Chapter 4* f> 76 el-$e|. 57. B r i t i s h Columbia Statutes, 1875, Indian Land Question, Papers Relating to, correspondence of February 15, 1866. 58. i b i d , correspondence of August 16, 1869. 59. Vancouver Daily Province May 21, 1956, a r t i c l e by J . Rodger Burnes. - 150 -name became the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. An Indian Boarding School was established i n 1906 under the charge of the 60 Sisters of the Infant Jesus. A couple of miles to the east, a community had developed at Moodyville. At t h i s time mission work among white people was centred at New Westminster. Here i n 1860 the f i r s t Meth-61 odist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia was didicated on A p r i l 8, 1860. 62 From t h i s as h i s headquarters the Reverend Ebenezer Robson, on June 19, 1865, crossed Burrard Inlet to Moodyville, and there conducted the f i r s t r e l i g i o u s service f o r white people 63 ever held on the I n l e t . F i f t e e n men formed the congregation for the service, which, t r a d i t i o n says, was held out of doors on a grassy spot. From that time on, regular preaching was maintained at Moodyville, Services were held variously i n the 64 65 cook-house, the schoolhouse, and the h a l l of the Mechanics 66 I n s t i t u t e , but the Methodists did not b u i l d a church at Moody-60. Henderson's C i t y of Vancouver Directory, 1907, v o l . XIV. p. 851 et seq. 61. Stott, Reverend William, B. A., The Story of St. Andrews United Church North Vancouver, 1865-1937, North Shore Press, 1937 p.6. 62. See above, chapter 5, p . f y f n . 63. Howay, F. W., Early Settlement on Burrard I n l e t , B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 1, A p r i l 1937, p. 101 et. seq. 64. Davis, Reverend E. A., Comparative Review of Methodist Presbyterian and Congregational Churched i n B r i t i s h Columbia, published by Joseph Lee, Vancouver, 1925, p.65. 65. Stott, op. c i t . , p. 10 66. See above Chapter 2, 1>3~i - 151 -v i l l e . A r t i c l e 10 of the Bylaws and C o n s t i t l u t i o n of the Mechanics I n s t i t u t e , founded i n 1869, provides f o r the room to be at the disposal of preachers of the Gospel of a l l de-67 nominations, f o r holding Divine Service, free of charge. This was evidently done, f o r at a meeting of the Institute i n A p r i l 1880, a proposal was made to discontinue t h i s prac-t i c e , and equip a certa i n l o c a l building instead. The opin-ions expressed, as recorded i n the minutes of the meeting, are both i n t e r e s t i n g and enlightening: ...Should any Roman Catholic Chaplain s e t t l e here members would be deprived of the reading room every Sunday.... ...The Reading Room i s not a proper place f o r worshipping God, a concert on Saturday eve (sic) and Divine Service on the Sunday morn-ing i s scarcely i n keeping... ...the influence of a l l the members should be used to b u i l d a church... 68 ...ministers have no interest i n the matter... The proposal was f i n a l l y withdrawn, so presumable to room con-tinued to be used. The Church of England also made New Westminster i t s head-69 quarters f o r the mainland, and b u i l t a church there i n 1860. 67. Minute Book of the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , property of the Vancouver Public Library. 68. i b i d . - 152 -The fact of Moody supplying c e r t a i n lumber for the reconstruct-70 ion of the church i n 1865 seems to indicate that an early con-tact was made with the settlement at Moodyville, but i t was 71 not u n t i l 1876 that r/egulair services were inaugurated here. 72 In 1880 Bishop S i l l i t o e v i s i t e d the I n l e t soon aft e r h i s ar-r i v a l i n the newly formed diocese of New Westminster. His wife t e l l us: Our f i r s t acquaintance with Burrard Inlet was a few days a f t e r our a r r i v a l , when we frove over by stage from New Westminster to lunch with (Saptain Rayner i n the cook-house of the Hastings M i l l , cross-ing the I n l e t during the afternoon to v i s i t the Moody-v i l l e M i l l and to see some of the people. During the winter of 1880-1881 the Bishop took the service every fortnight, i n the morning at the Hastings M i l l School House, i n the evening at Moody-v i l l e , or vice v e r s a , — r i d i n g over from New West-minster on the Saturday afternoon, carrying our luggage on the saddles behind us, returning again on Monday. 75 70. See above Chapter 2. /^<" 71. B r i t i s h Colonist, A p r i l 27, 1876, p. 3. 72. Acton Windeyer S i l l i t o e (1841-1894) f i r s t Anglican Bishop of New Westminster (1879-94), was born i n A u s t r a l i a i n '1841, and educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge (B.A., 1862). He was ordained a p r i e s t of the Church of England i n 1870; i n 1879 he was consecrated bishop of the new diocese of New West-minster, B r i t i s h Columbia. He reached New Westminster i n 1880 and he administered the diocese u n t i l h i s death, at New West-minster, on June 9, 1894. He was a D. C. L. of the University T r i n i t y College, Toronto. Wallace, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Macmillan Co., Toronto, 192B. 73. S i l l i t o e , op. c i t . , p. 55. - 153 r-74 When St. James Church was b u i l t i n 1881, between the s e t t l e -ments of Granville and Hastings, Moodyville became part of that parish, and was served from there. There i s some evid-ence that the Presbyterians also v i s i t e d Moodyville from New-75 Westminster, but no permanent work was established. The Municipality of North Vancouver was incorporated i n 1891, but, due possible to the decade of i n a c t i v i t y that f o l l -76 owed immediately, i t was not u n t i l 1899 that any attempt was made to organize r e l i g i o u s services i n North Vancouver. The f i r s t services were conducted by the Church of England, i n a shack b u i l t of shakes and situated on Lonsdale Avenue and Thir teenth Street. The following year they put up a small frame building on Thirteenth Street West, which was dedicated on 74. St. James' Church was erected early i n 1881, on a s i t e half-way between Hastings and G r a n v i l l e . This was the f i r s t Anglican Church b u i l t i n Vancouver. Services were held r e g u l a r l y . In 1884 the Reverend H. G. Fiennes-Clinton became rector, remaining i n charge of the parish u n t i l h i s death i n 1912. When f i r e destroyed Vancouver on Whitsunday 1886, Father Clinton was one of the f i r s t to give the alarm. His l i t t l e churchJ:was e n t i r e l y de-stroyed, but plans were quickly drawn up f o r a new and larger church, a new s i t e was obtained, further from the water and the new church was completed by the end of the year. That building was replaced i n 1836 by the present Church of St. James, whcih stands on the same s i t and i s dedicated to the memory of Father C l i n t o n . Cf, V i o l e t E. S i l l i t o e , E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p.33. 75 # Stott, op. c i t . p. 12. 76. See above, chapter 4, p..57. - 154 -77 October 28, 1900 to St. John the Evangelist. The Rector l i v e d 78 i n Vancouver. Nearly three years l a t e r the Presbyterian Church established a mission f i e l d consisting of Lake Beauti-79 80 f u l , Cedar Cove, North Vancouver and Lynn V a l l e y . With a student i n charge, services were held i n Dorman's shack, the same which had previously served the Anglican community. On Saturday, May 2, 1903 the premises were inspected by a party headed by the Superintendant of Missions f o r the Presbyterian Chaurch of Canada, who announced themselves "pleased with the 81 Accommodation". The shack i s described by the Reverend ¥/Illiam Stott as being 15 feet square. The seats were boards l a i d on logs cut the proper height, giving the shack a seating capacity of 25. At service the following day there were 23 82 present, and the c o l l e c t i o n amounted to ^3.g5. In 1904, when the student i n charge was succeeded by a minister, immediate steps were taken to b u i l d a church. In Janurary three l o t s were secured on Lower Keith Road, and "St. Andrew's" was s e l -ected as the name, of the new church. In August a congragation a l meeting was held at which i t was decided that the church 77. Stott, op. c i t , p. 12. 78. Henderson's British.Columbea Gazeteer and Directory, v o l . VII, 1900-1901, p. 209. 79. Now Lake Buntzen. 80. Stott, op. C i t . p. 12. 81. l o c . c i t . - 155 -was to cost $700 and to seat 100 persons. Work proceded so speedily, that the new building was opened i n November 1904. In the interim services were held i n a nearby h a l l , and i n the 85 schoolhouse. At the end of 1904 the Reverend J . D. Gillam, M. A. was appointed pastor of St. Andrew's and also of Grand-view and Cedar Cove. The following spring these latter.were separated, and St. Andrew's stood alone. Mr. Gillam was c a l l -ed to St. Andrew's and became the f i r s t s e t t l e d minister of 84 any denomination i n North Vancouver. The Church grew and pros-pered. Mission work was ca r r i e d on at Moodyville u n t i l 1909, and missions were also opened up at Lynn Valley and Capilano. Reports f o r 1906 show 125 people attending the former mission, and 80 the l a t t e r . In 1910 Knox Church congregation was or-ganized at Lynn Valley, and services were commenced i n North 85 Lonsdale. Like most other things, the church was affected by 86 the prosperity of the r e a l estate boom, and i n 1812 the pres-ent e d i f i c e was erected. The l o t s f o r the new church were donated by a member of the congregation, while a building 85. Loc. c i t . , Stott l i s t s the names of those present. The pu l p i t used that day was made of 2 by 4's with a base and a board across the top, and was preserved u n t i l re-cently by one of the members.of the congregation. 84. Stott, op. c i t . p. 15. 85. i b i d p. 20. This i s St. Stephen's Presbyterian Church. 86. See above, chapter 8, p. 120. - 156 -contract was l e t f o r $19,044. A pipe organ and other equip-ment brought the t o t a l expenditure to $34,808.7 2, some $28 l e s s than the building fund. Two of the o r i g i n a l l o t s were sold f o r $7400 and the old church i t s e l f sold f o r $5500. This came back on the hands of the congregation and was re-87 sold f o r $3500. The Methodist congregation was l a t e r i n organizing. Dr. Robson had never l o s t his interest i n the North Shore. A l -though now r e t i r d d he s t i l l conducted services i n the new town. 88 Mention has- already been made of h i s work i n Lynn V a l l e y . He also held services at Moodyville and North Vancouver. In the l a t t e r community he had a rotation system, by which services 89 were held i n the homes of three d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s . When the Municipality b u i l t the Municipal H a l l i n 1904, Dr. Robson applied f o r permission to hold h i s services there. This was 90 refused and he was offered the use of the school-house instead. Despite a l l t h i s , no d e f i n i t e organization of a congregation took place, and i t was agreed between Methodist and Presbyter-ian authorities that the North Shore should temporarily be re-91 garded as the t e r r i t o r y of the l a t t e r . This was the s i t u a t -ion u n t i l 1907. In May of that year a congregation was 87. Stott, op. c i t , p. 21. 88. See above,chapter 5, p . ^ 89. Stott, op. c i t . , p. 12. 90. Minutes of Municipal Council, October 5, 1904. 91. Stott, op. c i t . , p. 12. - 157 -organized, meeting i n a l o c a l h a l l u n t i l October, when the 92 f i r s t Methodist Church was opened. The congregation increas-ed so r a p i d l y that a larger building was soon needed, and i n 93. January 1910 the second church was opened, on another s i t e . The Methodist Church, which seemed to be labouring under f i n -a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , suffered badly from the slump i n business that followed the outbreak of war. St. Andrew's also became 94 f i n a n c i a l l y embarrassed. In consequence, both congregations began to consider union, a movement which had been i n progress throughout Canada since 1902. Votes were taken i n both con-gregations and were overwhelmingly i n favour of t h i s move, and the union was consummated on January 1, 1926. I t was agreed to r e t a i n both the e d i f i c e and the name of St. Andrew's Church, 95 which now became St. Andrew's United Church. The Anglican community also ha made progress. I t was soon r e a l i z e d that the mother church of St. John could not serve the whole North Shore, and other parishes were organized as settlement increased. The f i r s t such parish was St. Clements, 96. Lynn Valley. Two others were organized i n 1910, St. Agnes' 92. idem. p. 17. 93. Express, January 7, 1910. 94. Stott, op. c i t . p..23. Mr. Stott expresses the opinion that the s i t u a t i o n was even more acute i n the Presbyterian Church than i n the Methodist. 95. Stott, op. c i t . , p. 27. 96. See above, chapter 5, p. - 158 -to serve the C i t y and D i s t r i c t east of Lonsdale Avenue, and 97 St. Thomas' to serve the North Lonsdale. St. John's continu-ed to serve the west side of the town, and no Anglican church has ever heen established at Capilano. The Baptists entered the town i n 1907, meeting i n a l o c a l h a l l u n t i l t h e i r church 98 was completed. This l i t t l e b uilding r a p i d l y outgrew, them 99 and i n 1911 they b u i l t a new one further up the h i l l , The Roman Catholics also b u i l t a church above the Indian Reserve 100 f o r the benefit of the residents. 97. This church was l a t e r renamed St. Martin's. 98. Henderson's•City of Vancouver Directory, 1908, vol.XV 99. North Shore Press, December 15, 1911. 100. Henderson's Greater Vancouver Directory 1913, v o l . XX - 159 -CHAPTER X CONCLUSION Tlie Second World War has r a i s e d North "Vancouver to a place among the formost i n d u s t r i a l centres i n Canada, hy making de-mands upon -her shipyards. To meet government needs the e x i s t -ing f a c i l i t i e s of the Burrard Drydock Company and the North Vancouver Ship Repairs were enlarged and expanded. Contracts f o r corvettes, mine-sweepers and cargo vessels resulted i n a ship-building programme unprecedented i n the h i s t o r y of any B r i t i s h Columbia community. Subsidiary industries were creat-ed either by convertion of e x i s t i n g establishments or by new i n s t a l l a t i o n s . During the early months of 1940 the mumber of -men employed i n the North Vancouver shipyards was estimated at 800. By the end of 1942 that number had r i s e n to 12,000, 1 with a corresponding increase i n o f f i c e s t a f f s . On one oc-casion the Burrard Drydock Company alone announced new contracts 2 aggregating $10,000,000. As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s huge construction programme and the consequent increase i n employment, a l l f a c i l i t i e s i n North Vancouver were strained to the utmost. E s p e c i a l l y was t h i s true of the housing s i t u a t i o n . Once again the North Shore experienced a r e a l estate boom, a l b e i t one greatly hampered by the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining building supplies. Unlike the 1. North Shore Press Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Annual, September 1942. 2. North Shore Press I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial Annual, December 1941. - 160 -previous boom, property was now i n demand f o r immediate use rather than f o r speculation. The greater number of shipyard employees sought homes on the North Shore. Many had brought t h e i r f a m i l i e s from other provinces, or from i n t e r i o r towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and had no home i n Greater Vancouver. Those who came from the outlying suburbs of Vancouver found the re-turn t r i p long and tiresome. The lack of hotels, rooming hous-es and apartment blocks on the North Shore was keenly f e l t . To meet the needs of the defense workers the Dominion govern-ment i n s t i t u t e d a housing project i n North Vancouver. In a l l , 750 houses, two s t a f f houses and two administration buildings 3 have been erected, a l l within walking distance of the yards. While i n i t s e l f a temporary measure, the project has c o n t r i b -utedito the permanent development of the North Shore by cl e a r -ing and stumping unused land, and i n s t a l l i n g sewers. The pop-u l a t i o n of North Vancouver has increased by approximately one-4 t h i r d , bringing a rush of trade to a l l l o c a l business e s t a b l i s h -ments. School f a c i l i t i e s have also been overtaxed, and a ten-3. B u i l t by the Wartime Housing Limited, anclorganization set up by the Dominion Government to r e l i e v e housing shortages for defense workers throughout Canada. The houses i n North Vancouver have been b u i l t i n three groups, on the east side i n D i s t r i c t Lots 273 and 274, on the west side i n D i s t r i c t Lots 271, and west of theMission Reserve i n D i s t r i c t Lots 265 and 266, thus extending into the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. 4. North Shore Press Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Annual, Sept-ember 1942. Census figures f o r 1931 set the City's populat-ion at 8510, and the D i s t r i c t ' s at 4788. Population f i g -ures f o r 1942, as estimated by o f f i c i a l s at the C i t y H a l l , are C i t y 10,000 and D i s t r i c t 6200. - 161 -5 roomed school, also a government project, i s now being b u i l t at a cost of $70,000. One in t e r e s t i n g cause f o r speculation i s the future of Indian Reserve #1. How much longer w i l l the Indians be allowed to keep 35 acres of land with 1800 feet of waterfront i n the centre of the i n d u s t r i a l area? As early as 1905 the Municipal 6 Council was complaining of t h i s f a c t . In 1913 the Dominion Government was nearly persuaded to vest the waterfront of the 7 Reserve i n the newly-founded Harbour Commission. The North Shore Press raised the question again i n 1942, using the pre-8 text that t h i s property should be used f o r Wartime Houses. I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to see how much longer t h i s "anachronism" w i l l remain. In the 50 years since i t was incorporated as a D i s t r i c t Municipality, North Vancouver has experienced many of the "grow-ing pains" t y p i c a l of a western town. As a lumbering centre iys magnificent stands of Red C edar and Douglas F i r were ruth-l e s s l y exploited. I t f e l l an easy prey to the r e a l estate boom which swept through the West between 1902 and 1813, and was equally susceptible to the "railway fever" of the same period. •5. North Shore Press, July 16, 1943. 6. Minutes of Municipal Council, September 29, 1905. 7. Daily News Advertiser, October 12, 1913. 8. North Shore Press, August 14 and 21, 1942. = 162 -After an abortive attempt at i n d u s t r i a l development, the town has become the centre of a major war-time industry. I t i s to be hoped that industry has come to stay, and that North Van-couver w i l l never again subside to the status of a r e s i d e n t i a l area whose sole purpose i s to accommodate the workers of Van-couver. °n the administrative side also the town has experienced changes. With youthfultlackopf-"fofa,s.ightt:fchel-townaaccepted the r e a l estate boom days as a permanent condition. In an out-burst of c i v i c pride, v a l i a n t l y supported by r e a l estate i n t e r -ests, municipal services were expanded and municipal debts con-tracted. The town has had to pay dearly f o r the poor judgment and mistaken p o l i c i e s of i t s early, c i t i z e n s . When a world-wide f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s developed,, and the municipality was faced with the problem of aiding destitute c i t i z e n s , the already over- bur-dened treasury was unable to stanoLthe s t r a i n . Hike an numb ere of other western towns , North Vancouver l o s t i t s . c i v i c r i g h t s and was obliged to submit to commissioner government. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate t h i s form of government, since the f o r -tunes of the town are clos e l y k n i t with those of the rest of Canada. I t i s however a matter of record that municipal af-f a i r s were beginning to respond to a p o l i c y of economy and impartial administration before the outbreak of the present war. - 163 -BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES  O f f i c i a l Publications Annual Reports of the Superintendant of Education, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia Sessional Papers, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia Statutes, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia Coast C i t i e s Business Directory, Vancouver Henderson, 1908. B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, V i c t o r i a , Williams, 1882 - 1885 in c l u s i v e , 1887 - 1889 i n c l u s i v e . Census of Canada, Ottawa, King's Pri n t e r , 1921 and 1931. Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazetteer and Directory, V i c t o r i a , Henderson, 1889 - 1891 i n c l u s i v e , 1897 - 1905 incl u s i v e 1910. Henderson's City.of Vancouver Directory, Vancouver, Henderson, 1906 - 1908 i n c l u s i v e , 1910. Hendersonls C i t y of Vancouver and North Vancouver Directory, Vancouver, Henderson, 1909, 1910. Henderson's Greater Vancouver Directory, Vancouver, Henderson, 1911 - 1914 i n c l u s i v e . Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , Kings, P r i n t e r . Statutes of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . Vancouver C i t y Directory, V i c t o r i a , Williams, 1888. Vancouver C i t y Directory, Vancouver, Hodgson, 1896. Williams' Vancouver and New West minster C i t i e s Directory, V i c t o r i a , Williams, 1890. Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, "G&snelLV V i c t o r i a , 1897. -164 -Manuscript Materials B r i t i s h Columbia Land and Works Department, Letters to the Coloni a l Secretary's Office, 1861 - 1863, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence Colonel R. C. Moody, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence S. P. Moody, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence Henry Holbrook, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Minute B@ok of the Mechanic's I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Minute Book of North Vancouver Municipality Meetings. This book, which i s i n the possession of the Municipal H a l l North Vancouver, contains the res.ordsoof c e r t a i n meetings held by ratepayers of North Vancouver p r i o r to, and following the incorporation of the Municipal-i t y of North Vancouver, 1891. Minute Books of the Council of the Municipality of North Van-couver. These books contain the minutes of"the meet-ings of the Municipal Council of North Vancouver. Following the separation of C i t y and D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver i n 1907 there are two sets of Minute Books. • Both are i n the possession of the respective Municipal o f f i c e s . Papers connected with timber cutting licences of S. P. Moody and Company, Office of the Attorney General, 1866, Archives' of B r i t i s h . Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Papers r e l a t i n g to the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Part 3, ^ Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . Newspapers. B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, B. C. • B r i t i s h Colonist, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Daily Standard, V i c t o r i a , B. C. Express, North Vancouver, B. C. Mainland Guardian, New Westminster, B. C. - 165 -North Shore Press, North Vancouver, B. C. Phamphlets General Review of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1903, B u l l e t i n #11. Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vi c t o r i a , . King*s Printer, 1904, B u l l e t i n #18. Review of I n d u s t r i a l Conditions i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1903, B u l l e t i n #18. Printed Matter. Vancouver, Captain George, Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean, London, G. C. and J.'Robinson, 1798 i n 3 volumes. Government Reports Ci t y of North Vancouver, F i n a n c i a l Statements, North Vancouver, B. C. D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements, North Vancouver, B. C. Department of Education, Annual Reports, V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r . Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Annual Report, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1904. SECONDARY SOURCES  Manuscript Material Hacker, G. C , The Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1859-1900. Graduating Essay, University of B r i t i s h Col-umbia, 1933. Hacking, N., Ea r l y Marine History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Graduating Essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1933. Harvey, Netta, History and Finance of the P. G. E,, Thesis for Bachelor of Commerce Degree, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. - 166 -Laing, F. W., Colonial Farm Se t t l e r s on the Mainland, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. Colonial Pre-emptions, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. MacLaurin, D. L., History and Education i n the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia. Thesis f o r Ph. D. Degree, University of Washington, 1936. Copy i n the Library, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Nelson, Denys, Place Names of the Lower Fraser Valley, A copy i s i n the possession of the Vancouver Museum, i n the Vancouver Public Library. Printed Books Having p a r t i c u l a r Local Refernce. Burwash, E. M. J . , Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1918, p.11. Draycott, W.IvIM.L., Lynn Valley, Vancouver, 1919. This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y useful booklet, since i t records many facts that would otherwise have been l o s t with the passing of pioneers. The author has been at great pains to achieve accuracy i n stating h i s f a c t s . Howay, F. W., Work of theRoyal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858 -1863, V i c t o r i a , King's Pri n t e r , 1910. Ker, J . B., North Vancouver, the Beginning of a Great Port, Vancouver, published about 1910. The author's name does not appear on t h i s publication, which was i n -tended pr i m a r i l y f o r advertising purposes. M i l e over-optimistic about future prospects, the work does contain some pertinent facts about the community, and i s well i l l u s t r a t e d . . Shipbuilding and Shipbuilders of B r i t i s h Columbia, with A l l i e d Industries, Vancouver, Tower Publishing Company, 1918. A publ i c a t i o n intended to advertise l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l development. S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., Early Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1922. Stone, H. A., A Short History of C a u l f e i l d V i l l a g e , Vancouver, 1941. Stott, Rev. William, B. A., The Story of St. Andrew's United Church, North Vancouver, North Shore Press, 1937. - 167 -Wallace Shipbuilder v o l . 1, No. 1, July 1942, published by and i n the inerests of the Burrard Drydock Company em-ployees. Vancouver, A Short History, by the A r c h i v i s t Club, Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver, 1956. Newspapers Express, North Vancouver, B. C, A weekly paper of l o c a l i n t e r e s t , the Express published a very fine Empire Day Prosperity E d i t i o n on May 24, 1912. North Shore Press, North Vancouver. Successor to the Express. The North Shore Press Industrial.and Commercial Supplements, issued from time to time, contain good accounts of l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l development. News Advertiser, Vancouver, B. C. Vancouver Daily Province, Vancouver, B. C. Vancouver Daily World, Vancouver, B. C. Per i o d i c a l s B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, Fourth Report, V i c t o r i a , 1929. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, V i c t o r i a , 1957, v o l . 1, No. 1. Man-to-Man, Vancouver, 1911. Westward Ho, Vancouver, 1908. General Works Begg, Alexander, History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, Briggs 1894. C o t t e r i l l , G. G., Climax of a World Conquest, Seattle, OlympiLa Publishing Company, 1927, - 168 -Davis, E. A., Comparative Review of Methodist, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Lee. 1925. Hamilton, James H., ( Captain K e t t l e ), Western Shores-Narratives of the P a c i f i c Coast, Vancouver, Progress Publishing Company, 1924. Higgins, D. W., Mystic Springs, Toronto, 1904. H i l l - T o u t , C , B r i t i s h North America, i n the Native Races of the B r i t i s h Empire Series, London, 1907. Hodge, F. W., Handbook of Indians of Canada, Ottawa, King's Pr i n t e r , 1913. Howay, F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, The Making of a Province, Toronto, 1928. Howay and Scho l e f i e l d , B r i t i s h Columbia, From E a r l i e s t Times t o the Present, Vancouver, S. J . Clarke, 1914. Jenness^, The Indians of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1932. Kerr, J . B., Biographical Dictionary of Well-known B r i t i s h Columbians, Vancouver, 1889. Macfie, M., Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, London, 1865. Meany, E. S., Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, London, Macmillan Company, 1907. • Statutory History of the Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways of Can-ada 1836 - 1937, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1937. Walkem, W. W., Stories of Early B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1914. Wallace, W. S. Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Toronto, Macmillan, 1926 Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1940-1941, Vancouver, 1941. - i -TABLE A Sale of Municipal Lands for Taxes i n arrears for the years 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, on the 28th. day of October, 1895 at 11 A.M. i n the o f f i c e of the Municipality of North Van-couver. LOT BLOCK ARREARS COSTS COMMISSION TOTAL 237 |520.35 $2.50 $ 52.50 $574.90 1523 54.70 2.50 5.50 62.70 827 b 10.70 2.50 1.10 14.30 827 Undivided 35.40 2.50 3.55 41.45 half of 624 Di v i s i o n B 22.65 2.50 2.30 27.45 773 A B C 50.40 2.50 5.05 57.95 557 412.25 22550 41.25 455.95 1253 85.40 2.50 8.55 96.45 866 69.75 2.50 14.10 84.55 910 69.45 2.50 6.95 78.90 1484 North | 29.50 1 2.50 3.00 35.00 1483 62.05 2.50 6. CO 71.25 605 106.00 2.50 - 10.60 119.10 599 2, 7 32.05 2.50 3.70 38.25 1413 31.75 2.50 3.20 37.45 1465 20.55 2.50 5.05 28.10 1522 64.70 2.50 6.50 73.70 TABLE B Total assessments of the Municipality of North Vancouver for the years 1892 - 1902 i n c l u s i v e . 1892 $1,063,585.00 1893 1,187,825.00 1894 1,193,332.00 1895 1,124,077.00 1896 862,000.00 1897 872,636.00 1898 873,544400 1899 884,216.00 1900 885,939.00 1901 853,355.00 1902 802,089.00 TABLE C x D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Tax Collections Assessment Tax Rate Improvements Year Net Land Net Improvements M i l l s Taxed on 1 1927  5,410,849 3 ,899", 955 42 1928 5,488,361 4 ,850,285 47 1929 5,410,639 5 ,064,790 47 • 1930 5,276,863 5 ,682,305 50 1931 5,020,418 3 ,553,345 50 25% 1932 4,121,412 3 ,058,315 65 35% Tax Levy-Percentage Including Percentagi Year Without Penalties Collected Penalties Collected 1927 #244,895.86 70% #256,078.36 67.45% 1928 266,732.00 67.16% 283,131.36 64.32% 1929 262,196.24 62.43% 278,633.27 58.37% 1930 270,299.47 58.5% 286,942.46 55.73% 1931 300,987.62 56.45% 318,920.05 53.73% 1932 341,698.38 48.92% 365,720.03 45.96% Tax Sales 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 Number of Lots Sold 706 849 1352" 2313 2412 1720 To Private Owners 13 17 3.5 16 23 8 To D i s t r i c t 693 832 1317 2297 2389 1712 x. Compiled from records of the D i s t r i c t -of North Vancouver for the years given. TABLE D CITY OF NORTH. VANCOUVER Summary of Tax: C o l l e c t i o n s f o r the Year 1932-Year Outstanding Jan 1, 1932 Written i n fo r c o l l e c -t i o n vs Improve-ments Transferred to Tax Sale R o l l 1932 Written off vs C i t y Lots and Transfers Charged to Property which f e l l to C i t y at 1931 Tax Sale Rec eived i n Cash Balances as at Dec. 31st 1932 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 Tax Levy 1932-Percent age ,Additions I ' 607.23. . 1,288.33, 3,791.f9 52,125.62 109,64&.rt $.167,461. 00 414.366.08 581,82^7.08 23.»5Q,3...14 4.10 I8.46 22,56 22.56 605,330.22 22.56 66.38 ,010.75 .32,270.12. $60.347.2.5 2.6,455.09 86,802.34 1,982.65 88,784.99 1 219.70 40 9. 02. 904.51 864.50 188.80 661.23 15,235-25 14,382.28 $ 387.53 879.31 2,159.37 8,019.22 62,825.59 $2,586.53 21,279.91 $30,278.76 249.669.37 74,271.02 116,961.71 2,586.53 21,279.91 3,185.50 279,948.13 849.58 191,232.73 17,485.41 $2,586.53 $24,456.41 $280,797.71 •l208tZ.l8.14 - i v TABLE E REEVES of the DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER 1891 - 1892 C.J".P. Phibbs 1893 - 1894 J.C. Keith 1895 - 1896 Dr. J..T. C a r r o l l 1897 - 1900 J.C. .Woodrow 1901 - 1902 CO. Wickenden 1903 W.H. May 1904 J.C. G i l l 1905 J.C. G i l l and A.E. Kealy 19066- 1907 A.E. Kealy Incorporation of City 1907 - 1908 W.H. May 1924 - 1930 J.M. Fromme 1909 - 1911 J.Y. McNaught 1931 W.H. Woods 1912 - 1914 W.H. May 1932 J.M. Bryan 1915 - 1921 E.H. Bridgeman 1922 J.Y. McNaught 1923 J . Loutet MAYORS of the CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER 1907 - 1908 A.E. Kealy 1917 - 1921 G.W. Vance 1909 - 1910 W.H. May 1922 G.H. Morden 1911 - 1912 W. McNeish 1923 - 1925 D. Donaghy 1913 Geo. S. Hanes 1926 - 1930 G.H. Morden 1914 W.J. Irwin 1931 - 1932 E.H. Bridgeman 1915 - 1916 Geo. S. Hanes . 1933 ( Jan. )G.H. Morden COMMISSIONERS of CITY and DISTRICT Date Appointed December 15, 1932 January 25, 1933 June 30, 1934 September 4, 1934 May 16, 1936 Commissioner C E . T i s d a l l - D i s t r i c t only Commissioner C E . T i s d a l l - City also Commissioner J.V. Fisher - City and D i s t r i c t A/C commissioner D.G. Tate Commissioner G.W. Vance TABLE F GENERAL INFORMATION CITY of NORTH VANCOUVER Area: 3,131.5 Acres. Population: C i t y and D i s t r i c t - 1901 - 365; 1911 - 8196. City only 1921 - 7652; a. City only 1931 - 8,510; 1941 - 8,844 Approximate uileage of Roads, etc. as at December 31, 1942: b. Roads - Total Cleared Graded of above Hard Surface Pavements Sidewalks - Wood or Gravel Concrete Water Mains Laid Hydrants i n use Water services connected 73.47 miles 69.14 miles 27.00 miles 60.57 miles 18.25 miles 57.49 miles 292 3,383 Country of B r i t h of Residents, according to Census Report for 1931: Canadian born B r i t i s h born Foreign born males 2228 males 1624 males 416 Females 2266 females 1599 females 377 Racial Origin English t o t a l 3949 I r i s h 903 Scotch 2366 Scandinavian 395 I t a l i a n 217 German 117 a. A l l figures from the Census of Canada for the current year except those for 1941, which are from the City of North Van-couver Annual Report, p. 5. b. City of North Vancouver Annual Report, p. 5. c. Census of Canada, 1931. TABLE G GENERAL INFORMATION DISTRICT of NORTH VANCOUVER Area; 38,400 acres, x. Population: D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, 1901 - 365 City and D i s t r i c t 1911 - 8196 D i s t r i c t only 1921 - 2950 1931 - 4788 Country of B i r t h of Resident Canadian born males B r i t i s h born males Foreign born males s; according to the Census of 1931 1267 females 1129 965 females 887 326 females 214 Racia l Origin of residents, according to the Census of 1931: English t o t a l 2627 I r i s h t o t a l 528 Scotch t o t a l 844 Scandinavian t o t a l 209 Chinese and Japanese t o t a l 126 French t o t a l 87 German t o t a l 76 x. A l l figures taken from Census for Canada f o r year given. - v i i -J a CD O ' C o o U N U N U N U N U N U N U N U V U N O o o Pi J> M r i H O l <^(^rn<^<^cnrn\rs\r\\r\ S S 15 H • EH 0 03 -P r-l (. ' rH K H P=I ca. oJ CM r-f cM o nf- "sf -st CM cM cM i " . P l ^ 1 <qJ -si'- U N V Q U N U N U N U N U N U N U - U ' \ U - N . V N oJ ' rH -H O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r O o UNrH U N O l ^ O O U N O O O UN U N O "st C O rH UNUN N N O O ^ - N O O O N O J I T ' , f ^ t N O D U N O OTsO <sf" O N r O r H CM <sf UN CM UN -P QJ H N O " U N O *d- oj m O N O N N Q N O U N C O N N "5 CM CM ONQO UN CM rH UN IN- U N CM O rH "sf v£) CM rH "st O UNUNvO CM ON N N O U N U N U N N O CM N r ^ N c o UNUN-sf ^ r v - i P O o n o ' T m r O r n ^ l * In O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d o d o a o o o o o Q o a +3 ' IN N 1 A O O O O U N O O O O U M C N O Pi CM "st ONr-l -st U N U N O N i—( ^ - -si- o U N C M N U N 3 O N Q N O J C O V O rHCO On CM r-lvO U N V O "st l-HVO Ki ' H r n ^ r O t N C O N l S O 0 0 f n " - ^ \ O H ^t "st CMCO o~)CM <~OUN"st U M N v O U N U N m "sO\0 ( Y 1 ( N ( N . N v O \ 0 \ 0 \ O v O \ 0 \ O v C ) v O O 4& O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O'J O O a a e i o o o a o o a o a o o o M PH 03 U N [>-CM N O U N O U N O UN U N O O O O O O <} f" 03 NO. CM rHNO ON CM rHCO V f N H "st O U N O O O r-i O CM N N O COsQ U N U N C O i- l UN N N O O "s+ CM PH CiJ r O C O O N O N O N C M N O N N C O O N n o r n n n o N a; . > r l O C X ) "d" l A r - 1 CM O O N \ Q N O O ^ O •" trj p N O C O C O CM CM CM ONvO "st CM rH rH CM n~)CM NCOCC>CO\Ov£J UN-st "st "st sr "si4 "st <sf "st UN O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O si ^s O 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 r n o ^ c M v O U N Q U N O UN U N O O O O O O r n c ' r H v O a \ C \ J i H C 0 1 A r - l s i - 0 ' N O O O <. "sf N N Q O T N Q U N UNCO H U M M N O O s f C M o "5 o c o C T N O L \ - O \ C MM 3 N N C O ^ n o m m o ONvO rH O - O O "st UNrH CM O ONvO N O O N O VJ ft rH o C O C O CM CM CM ONvO -st CM r-l rH CM m CM <? C X ^ O ^ C O C O N O V O U N - " ' "sd" "si" -st <si- "si" s-J UN ^ H £'-.= - a -01 P= O O O O O O N O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O — -p o o o e o o o o a o o o s o o o j P. CO CO CO NtUN-sr tNsO O N O N r O O U N O « • B N O C M O s O ^ - O l A O O O O . . CO st-CO^t^LC^-S\-C\N-iC-NCO O N ^ - Q - N S - Q • V — W O G ) O C O N O N < t t>-OD NO -st ON rH CM rH 3 LTNvO CO O r-ivO O-vO rH CO "XO N O D UN Cjs , C O N Q r-l PO"s|- N v O mUNNO ONCOCO O N O N N t£* CM rnrnrr)^ r^rnr^r^rnr^r^r^r^r^i^ s< O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C M O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o » » » o » 9 * 0 i > c H v O v Q N O D r^OCM I fNUNUNNoOUNUNNO^O 3 r-l N CM vO U N U N V O N H CM H <sh r o c o N N V -O N V O O J N ^ O N O CM rH f O O J U N 1—! CM O N O N <• ra 0 0 N o j U N x h m U N c M rn\o r-i N C M -st- "st O "sj- •si" noUNNO N O r-l U N N O O N N r o r n r O t M r-i r-) rH N"sO O N sf C\i I N st d O O r< r ) rH 0 rH rH rH O O CO C O !>-"0 NO NO NO "sO NO NO "sO 1 - i r l H r l r l • K ' a; o_ f-l N O D O N O r-I CM 1-OINO N O O CTsO .-4 CM S ITJ CM CM CM r O r n r n o o r n n P O n O i v i ^ ' s ' - "st o CD C^CT^ONCTNONC7sCJNONC7NCrNC>C^ONONONCSN r_j >H rH rH rHr-l H H r l r l r l H r t r l r l H H r l x 1 TABLE I. DISTRICT OF -Nm^'^A^G-OWX'-A^ESSMm^j/ Year 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 193« 1939 1940 1941 1942 Gross ^8,349* 8 , 3 2 0 , 8 , 3 6 7 , 8 , 2 7 5 , 7 , 8 2 7 , . 7 , 0 6 4 , 6 , 9 5 2 , 6 , 8 9 0 , 6 ,564, 6 , 2 3 6 , 6,184, 6,131, 6 , 1 6 2 , 6 ,134, 6 , 1 3 0 , 6 ,121 , 798.00 117.00 553.00 831.00 286.00 218.00 730.00 162.00 434.00 150.00 875.00 543.00 657.OO 343.00 711.00 785.00 Exempt #2,938 2,8.31 2,9')6 2,998 2,806 2,942 3,372 3,399 3,537 3,619 4,058 4,171 4 ,282 4,283 4 , 3 7 1 4,328 ,;949.00 ,[756.00 ,1914.00 , $ 6 8 . 0 0 , 6 6 8 . 0 0 ,po6 .oo jpoi.oo , 132.00 , 3 2 2 . 0 0 ,953 .oo ,753-oo , p 0 2 . 0 0 , 4 7 2 . 0 0 ,776 .00 ,JL11.00 , 0 3 9 . 0 0 LAND Net ^5,410,849.00 5 , 4 8 8 , 3 6 1 . 0 0 5 , 4 1 0 , 6 3 9 . 0 0 5 , 2 7 6 , 8 6 3 . 0 0 5,020,418 .00 4,121,412 .00 3 , 5 7 9 , 9 2 9 . 0 0 3,491 ,030.00 3 , 0 2 7 , 1 1 2 . 0 0 2 ,616,197 .00 2 ,126,122.00 1,960,541 .00 1 , 8 8 0 , 1 8 5 . 0 0 1 ,850,567.00 1 ,759,600,00 1,793,7-46.00 IMPROVEMENTS Gross #4,126 -5,097 5,306 5,953 4 ,566 4 ,189 3,558 3,126 3,053 3,019 2,939 2,978 2,988 3,041 2,888 2,964' , 9 0 5 . 0 0 ,485.00 ,440.00 .655.OO , 2 9 5 . 0 0 ,440.00 ,640.00 , 9 0 0 . 0 0 ,495.00 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 ,145.00 . 9 0 5 . 0 0 ,465 .00 . 1 0 0 . 0 0 , 6 9 0 . 0 0 , 3 6 5 , 0 0 Exempt f' • 226 - 247 241 271 1,012 1,131 874 561 551 615 607 606 623 594 387 369 , 9 5 0 . 0 0 , 2 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 5 0 . 0 0 . 3 5 0 . 0 0 , 9 5 0 . 0 0 ,125.00 , 7 2 0 . 0 0 ,955.00 ,040.00 ,825 .00 , 0 7 0 . 0 0 , 0 6 0 . 0 0 , 4 9 0 . 0 0 ,010.00 ,535.00 , 6 9 0 . 0 0 Net $3,899,955 .00 4 , 8 5 0 , 2 8 5 . 0 0 5,064 5,682 3,553 3,058 2,683 2,564 2,502 2,403 2,332 2,372 2,364 2,447 2,501 2,594 ,790.00 .305.00 ,345.00 ,315.00 ,920.00 ,945.00 ,455.00 ,975.00 ,075.00 ,845.00 ,975.00 ,090.00 ,155.00 ,657.00 Tax Rates i n M i l l s 42 47 47 50 50 6 l 6 l 61 61 61 58 <^8 53 Improve-ments Taxed on 2 5g 35^ 35% 35% 35% 35% 7° '5'o% •50% 50% < s Compiled from Municipal P i n a j i c i a l Reports for years given 1 43 w h y t e c l i f f L J V E PR 49° 2o' C £ Cr E N D —I—i—i—n- S^^ec^ "f^ a'if u>a.ys ->—=>—=i—• Pipe. Lines «— m m m m m m *R * 11 U A • < ^  CA T' I hi »• T W b«v» C om t><» *w H u h J c » pat B o u n r f f t r 

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