UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of the city and district of North Vancouver Woodward-Reynolds, Kathleen Marjorie 1943

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1943_A8 W7 H5.pdf [ 12.62MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098663.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098663-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098663-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098663-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098663-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098663-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098663-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098663-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098663.ris

Full Text

A HISTORY OF THE CITY AND•DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER  by  K a t h l e e n M a r j p r i e Woo&ward-Reynol&s  Thesis  submitted i n P a r t i a l  Fulfilment  The Requirements f o r the Degree of H ALS T E R  OF  A R T S  i n the Department of HISTORY  The U n i v e r s i t y , o f B r i t i s h Columbia October 1943  ii  -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  Chapter Acknowledgement s  iv 1  I  Introduction  II  Moodyville  III  Pre-emptions  IV  M u n i c i p a l Development  V  Lynn V a l l e y  VI  Ferries  VII  Railways and Roads  VIII  Business  IX  Schools and Churches  X  Conclusion  10 38 48 QQ  91  and  Industry  90  116 139 159 163  Bibliography PLATE Moodyville  Dakin's F i r e Insurance  Map  - 25  I l l  Appendix A, S t a t i s t i c a l Tables Table A  S a l e of M u n i c i p a l Lands f o r Taxes, 1893 - 1895  1  B  Land Assessments, 1892 - 1905  i  C  Tax C o l l e c t i o n s , 1927 - 1932  i i  D  Summary o f Tax C o l l e c t i o n s C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver, 1932  i i i  E  Reeves, Mayors and Commissioners of North Vancouver, 1891 - 1936  iv  F  S t a t i s t i c a l Information R e l a t i v e C i t y of North Vancouver  t o the  G  S t a t i s t i c a l Information R e l a t i v e D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver  to the  H  I  C i t y of North Vancouver Assessments, 1927 - 1942 District  vi  v i i  of North Vancouver  Assessments, 1927 - 1942  viii  Appendix B, Maps Lynn V a l l e y  ix  F o l d Map of North Vancouver  x  lit Acknowledgements  Many people have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , and t o them a l l I am deeply g r a t e f u l . For  i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e a t the A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, I am g r e a t l y indebted t o Miss Madge Wolfenden. g r e a t f u l thanks a r e a l s o due t o Commissioner  G.W.  My  Vance o f  North Vancouver f o r a c c e s s t o M u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s , and t o the North Shore Press f o r the use of t h e i r f i l e s . Mathews of the Vancouver  C a p t a i n C.H.  Fromme,  J.S.  C i t y A r c h i v e s k i n d l y h e l p e d me  o b t a i n the p l a t e o f Dakin's F i r e .Insurance Map Mrs. J.M.  Major  to  o f Moody's M i l l .  Mrs. A l f r e d Nye, Miss E . J . Stevens,  Cates and Mr. W.M.L. D r a y c o t t have a l l been v e r y  h e l p f u l and i n s p i r i n g with t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f p i o n e e r days on the North Shore. Above a l l e l s e , my  s i n c e r e t hanks are due t o Dr.  W.N.  Sage f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and encouragement d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s work.  North Vancouver, October IS, 1945  K.M.W.R.  \  A HISTORY OF THE CITY AND DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  S i t u a t e d on the c o a s t o f the mainland o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  a t approximately 49° 20* North L a t i t u d e , B u r r a r d I n l e t i s a f i o r d a l t r o u g h some t e n m i l e s l o n g and about two m i l e s a c r o s s a t i t s widest p o i n t .  I t i s e n t e r e d from the G u l f o f G e o r g i a  through a narrow channel known as t h e F i r s t Narrows o r L i o n s Gate.  Some f i v e m i l e s up i t s course, the I n l e t a g a i n c o n t r a c t s  i n t o a channel known as the Second Narrows. channels l i e s a f i n e h a r b o u r . C i t y o f Vancouver,* North Vancouver.  Between these two  On.the south shore stands the  on t h e n o r t h shore the C i t y and D i s t r i c t o f Outside the F i r s t Narrows, and e x t e n d i n g west  t o the shores o f Howe Sound, s t r e t c h e s the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f West Vancouver.  The n o r t h shore o f B u r r a r d I n l e t i s rimmed w i t h  mountains,  the southern margin o f the Coast Range, which, a f t e r f o l l o w i n g the coast l i n e o f B r i t i s h Columbia  i n a g e n e r a l north-west t o  south-east d i r e c t i o n , here t u r n s d i r e c t l y e a s t .  The trough  which to-day forms the i n l e t was a t one time a channel eroded by the F r a s e r R i v e r en r o u t e t o the G u l f o f G e o r g i a .  When an  e l e v a t i o n o f the l a n d to t h e n o r t h took p l a c e , the F r a s e r abandoned t h i s r o u t e i n f a v o u r o f a channel f u r t h e r southi" 1 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology o f Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1918" p , n #  2 The t r o u g h be0ame an i n l e t whose n o r t h e r n s i d e receded s h a r p l y i n t e r r a c e s t o m a r g i n a l peaks o f the Coast Range,  Here, as  elsewhere, the margin i s d i v i d e d i n t o spurs by g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y s , n o t a b l y the C a p i l a n o , Lynn and Seymour, whose g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s case i s n o r t h and south.  The w e s t e r l y spur,  f l a t - t o p p e d a t 3000 f e e t , which extends from Howe Sound t o the C a p i l a n o V a l l e y , i s known as H o l l y b u r n R i d g e .  F a r up the west  bank o f the C a p i l a n o , and so prominent t h a t t h e y appear t o be guarding t h a t v a l l e y , i s the group o f peaks known as the L i o n s . Between the C a p i l a n o and Seymour v a l l e y s the l a n d r i s e s  sharply  t o a p l a t e a u at 3800 f e e t , behind which r i s e the peaks o f Crown, Goat.Dam, Grouse and Timber Mountains.  On the west  bank o f the Seymour, s e t t o o f a r back to be v i s i b l e from the w a t e r f r o n t , i s White Mountain, from which a spur known as Lynn Ridge extends south between the Lynn and Seymour v a l l e y s . Seymour Ridge, e x t e n d i n g from Seymour Creek to the North Arm, a l s o r i s e s from B u r r a r d I n l e t i n p l a t e a u - l i k e t e r r a c e s a t 3200, 3850, and 4050 f e e t ? The v a l l e y s o f the C a p i l a n o , Lynn and Seymour r i v e r s were cut d u r i n g the p e r i o d when the C o r d i l l e r a n I c e Sheet c o v e r e d the a r e a .  I n the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the r e c e s s i o n o f i c e the  v a l l e y s c o n t a i n e d f i o r d s whioh gave p l a c e t o l a k e s as u p l i f t 2 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology o f Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1918, p . 20. 3 i b i d . , p . 16  progressed.  The l a k e s were l a t e r d r a i n e d by c u t t i n g p o s t -  g l a c i a l canyons through the rock b a r r i e r s which had r e t a i n e d t h e i r waters^  Above these canyons the streams are  shallow  and t h i c k l y strewn with b o u l d e r s , but near the heads o f the v a l l e y s s t e e p e r g r a d i e n t s and deeper c u t s appear.  In i t s  s t e e p e r s e c t i o n the stream-bed g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s o f t e r r a c e - l i k e steps whose edges have been notched s t e e p - s i d e d canyons, o r over which the stream  by v e r y  cascades.  Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n on the mountain s l o p e s f u r n i s h e d t h i s a r e a w i t h dense stands o f Douglas F i r and Bed Cedar up t o about 3000 f e e t . snowline  Beyond t h a t the f o r e s t s t h i n out u n t i l  i s reached.  There i s evidence o f m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s , 5  but o n l y on a s m a l l s c a l e , and o f no economic v a l u e . b e i n g composed o f d r i f t d e p o s i t s on the h i l l - s i d e s , l i m i t e d value f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  The  soil,  i s o f only  The c l i m a t e of the a r e a i s very  s i m i l a r to t h a t o f Vancouver, making due allowance southern  the  f o r the  slope.  I t was  the a f t e r n o o n o f June 13, 1792  t h a t C a p t a i n George  Vancouver s a i l e d h i s s h i p s the D i s c o v e r y and Chatham i n t o Burrard I n l e t .  C a p t a i n Vancouver was  c a r r y i n g out p a r t o f the  i n s t r u c t i o n s he had r e c e i v e d upon l e a v i n g England, namely t o make a c l o s e examination  o f the coast between 30° and 60° n o r t h  4 Burwash, E.M.J., Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1918, p . IB. 5 i b i d . , p . 56 e t . seq.  6 latitude. met  7 P a s s i n g through the F i r s t Narrows, the s h i p s were  hy a p a r t y of some f i f t y Indians who  to meet them.  paddled out i n canoes  The I n d i a n s proved v e r y f r i e n d l y , p r e s e n t i n g  the s t r a n g e r s w i t h g i f t s  of f i s h , and a c c e p t i n g i n r e t u r n g i f t s  of i r o n which they chose i n p r e f e r e n c e t o copper.  When the  p a r t y , which had paused t o greet the n a t i v e s , moved f u r t h e r up the I n l e t , t h e y were accompanied by the major p a r t of the canoes, whose occupants the s t r a n g e r s .  twice gathered i n conference t o d i s c u s s  G r a d u a l l y the I n d i a n s d i s p e r s e d a f t e r  i n g t o r e t u r n on the morrow with more f i s h . 8  promis-  The p a r t y spent  the n i g h t a t the head of the I n l e t , l e a v i n g e a r l y the f o l l o w i n g morning without  seeing anything more of the n a t i v e s .  Van-  couver watched the I n d i a n s c l o s e l y f o r evidence of e a r l i e r cont a c t with white men.  He f i n a l l y concluded t h a t these n a t i v e s  had n e i t h e r seen any o t h e r c i v i l i z e d beings, nor had contact with Indians who  had t r a d e d w i t h white men.  couver drew a v e r y c l e a r word-picture  I n h i s d i a r y Van-  of the i n l e t , which he  decided t o c a l l Burrard's Channel a f t e r h i s f r i e n d S i r Harry 9 B u r r a r d of the navyv 6.  Vancouver, C a p t a i n George, Voyage of D i s c o v e r y t o the North P a c i f i c Ocean, London, G.C. and J . Robinson, 1798, v o l . 1, p. x i .  7.  see above.  8.  o f f Port'Moody.  9.  S i r H a r r y B u r r a r d N e a l e . Upon h i s marriage, B u r r a r d was granted the p r i v i l e g e of assuming h i s w i f e ' s name. C f . Meany, E.S., Vancouver's D i s c o v e r y of Puget Sound, London Macmillan Company, 1907, p.188.  - 5 The shores o f t h i s channel...may be c o n s i d e r e d , on the southern s i d e , o f a moderate h e i g h t , and though r o c k y , w e l l covered w i t h t r e e s o f a l a r g e growth, p r i n c i p a l l y o f the pine t r i b e . On the n o r t h e r n s i d e , the rugged snowy b a r r i e r . . . r o s e v e r y a b r u p t l y , and was o n l y p r o t e c t e d from the wash o f the s e a by a very narrow border o f low l a n d * 0  The I n d i a n s whom Vancouver met were members o f the S a l i s h a n , who, a c c o r d i n g t o Jenness,  Coast  " i n h a b i t e d a l l the c o a s t  o f the mainland from Bute I n l e t t o the* mouth o f t h e Columbia 11 R i v e r . " The p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e l i v i n g on B u r r a r d I n l e t were t h e .Squamish Indians whose communities were s c a t t e r e d a l o n g both 1? s i d e s o f the i n l e t , and up Howe Sound.  The f a c t t h a t C a p t a i n  Vancouver was met by I n d i a n s as soon as he e n t e r e d the  inlet,  and the d e t a i l s he g i v e s o f the c o a s t from which they had come seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t these were t h e I n d i a n s from the mouth 13 o f the C a p i l a n o R i v e r . T h i s would be the v i l l a g e o f 1798,  10 Vancouver's Voyage, London, G-.G-. and J . Robinson, p . 303., v o l . 1  11 Jenness, The I n d i a n s o f Canada, Ottawa, King's .1932, p . 347.  Printer,  12 Hodge, F.W., Handbook o f Indians o f Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r * 1913, p . 438. 13 Meany, op. c i t . , p . 188. Vancouver's e n t r y i n h i s j o u r n a l reads "...we passed the s i t u a t i o n from whence the I n d i a n s had f i r s t v i s i t e d us t h e p r e c e d i n g day, which was a s m a l l border o f low marshy l a n d on t h e n o r t h e r n shore, i n t e r s e c t e d by s e v e r a l creeks o f f r e s h water....Most o f t h e i r canoes were h a u l e d up i n t o the creeks....None o f t h e i r h a b i t a t i o n s c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d , whence we concluded t h a t t h e i r v i l l a g e was w i t h i n the f o r e s t . "  6 Homulcheson.  There was a l s o an I n d i a n v i l l a g e a t the mouth 15  of the Seymour, o r C h e c h i l k o k t  To-day these s e t t l e m e n t s are  I n d i a n Reserves Numbers l i v e " a n d Two r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r f i f t y y e a r s B u r r a r d s Channel remained o n l y a p l a c e 1  on Vancouver's map.  A t the end o f t h a t time the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of c o l o n i e s on Vancouver I s l a n d and t h e mainland a g a i n f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h i s p a r t o f t h e c o a s t .  Then came t h e survey-  14 a c c o r d i n g t o Major J.S. Matthews, Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v i s t , and shown on a map compiled by him and p u b l i s h e d . i n the Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, B.C., J u l y 24, 1943. A d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n i s h e l d by C a p t a i n C H . C a t e s , J r . , son o f a p i o n e e r tug-boat o p e r a t o r on the I n l e t . Captain Cates maintains t h a t these Indians a p p l i e d the name Homuleheson to the C a p i l a n o R i v e r , and c a l l e d t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t Sla-aam. 15 The above mentioned C a p t a i n Cates i s the a u t h o r i t y f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . C a p t a i n Cates S r . s e t t l e d a t Moodyv i l l e about 1888, and h i s sons grew up to know the Indians a t Chechilkok i n t i m a t e l y . Chechilkok was t h e i r name f o r the r i v e r t h e i r v i l l a g e being Kwa-wee-wee. A c c o r d i n g t o C a p t a i n C a t e s , these I n d i a n s spoke a d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t from the C a p i l a n o I n d i a n s . While the Seymour settlement was a t r u e I n d i a n v i l l a g e t h e i r r e a l l y l a r g e v i l l a g e was a t B e l c a r r a . They d e s p i s e d the .Squamish I n d i a n s , although they sometimes i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h them. The I n d i a n s o f t h e M i s s i o n Reserve ( I n d i a n Reserve number t h e y r e g a r d as i n t e r l o p e r s who o n l y moved i n a f t e r the coming o f the m i l l s . T h i s was e v i d e n t l y a sore p o i n t with the l a t t e r who, on one o c c a s i o n p r e s e n t e d a memorial t o t h e overnment i n o r d e r t o prove t h a t they had always r e s i d e d h e r e . B.C. S t a t u t e s 1875, I n d i a n Land Question.) C a p t a i n Cates has a great d e a l o f r e s p e c t f o r the Seymour I n d i a n s , whom he desc r i b e s as a f i n e t y p e , with very s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s , and v e r y r e s e r v e d . The l a t e C h i e f George S l a h o l t was a w e l l known f i g u r e , and h i s f a m i l y s t i l l l i v e on t h e Reserve number two. A c c o r d i n g t o Major Matthews the v i l l a g e on the bank o f t h e Seymour was Whawhewhy.  cone)  f  p a r t i e s o f C a p t a i n R i c h a r d s , Walter Moberley, p o r a l George Turner, R . E J  8  and Lance Cor-  Between 1 8 5 9 and 1 8 6 1 the R o y a l  1 6 I n 1 8 5 6 C a p t a i n G.H. R i c h a r d s was appointed B r i t i s h Commissioner o f the San Juan I s l a n d s Boundary Commission, I n . 1 8 5 7 , i n command o f H.M.S. Plumper, he began a survey o f the i s l a n d s . T h i s done, and t h e d i s p u t e s t i l l u n s e t t l e d , he spent the y e a r s from 1 8 5 7 to 1 8 6 3 making a d e t a i l e d survey o f Vancouver I s l a n d and.the mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia, cf. Pari,zeau, H.D., Hydrographic Survey o f t h e North West Coast o f . B r i t i s h North America, from the E a r l i e s t D i s c o v e r i e s t o the ,Present Time, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , F o u r t h Report, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 2 9 , p . 1 7 . 1 7 Begg, Alexander, H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, W i l l i a m Br:iggs:-„ T o r o n t o , 1 8 9 4 , p . 3 4 9 . Moberley made h i s survey o f the south s i d e o f the I n l e t i n I 8 6 0 , Walter Moberley was born i n England i n 1 8 3 2 , but came t o Canada as a c h i l d , and was educated i n B a r r i e , O n t a r i o , He s t u d i e d e n g i n e e r i n g , and i n 1 8 5 9 was a p p o i n t e d s u p e r i n tendent o f p u b l i c works i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1862-1863 he was engaged i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Y a l e - C a r i b o o wagon road, and i n 1 8 6 4 - 6 6 he was a s s i s t a n t s u r v e y o r - g e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia. He spent t h e next f o u r years i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s engaged i n e x p l o r a t i o n and r a i l w a y - b u i l d i n g , and i n 1 8 7 1 r e t u r n e d t o Canada t o take charge o f t h e Rocky Mountain and B r i t i s h Columbia surveys f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. He was then employed as an engineer i n Manitoba, but f i n a l l y r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver, where he d i e d i n 1 9 1 5 . — o f Wallace, W.S., D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian Biography, Macmillan Company, Toronto, 1 9 2 6 , p . 2 8 3 . 1 8 Howay, F.W., The Work o f the Royal E n g i n e e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 6 3 , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1 9 1 0 , p . 9 . Turner surveyed the o r i g i n a l l o t s on which p a r t o f the C i t y o f Vancouver now stands, and made a complete t r a v e r s e o f the south s h o r e - l i n e from H a s t i n g s Townsite t o F a l s e Creek. P h o t o s t a t c o p i e s o f h i s diagrams, i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , show n a v a l r e s e r v e s on the n o r t h s i d e o f F i r s t Narrows, and a l s o o p p o s i t e S t a n l e y P a r k .  8 E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n e d a t New  Westminster, b u i l t f i r s t a t r a i l  and then a t w e l v e - f o o t road from t h a t town to B u r r a r d I n l e t . T h i s move was est  prompted by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was  being shown i n the I n l e t , and a l s o t h a t a n a v a l r e s e r v e  had been e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e i n I 8 6 0 ? was  some i n t e r -  0  I t appears t h a t t h e r e  some p o s s i b i l i t y o f n a v a l headquarters  b e i n g moved from  Esquimalt to B u r r a r d I n l e t , and i t i s easy to imagine the f u r o r t h a t would r e s u l t on the I s l a n d . t u a l l y exploded  The  i d e a was  effec-  by the c a u s t i c l e t t e r o f a correspondent  the Times o f June 25, 1860,  who  to  wrote:  I f a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a n a v a l s t a t i o n be so much water f o r so many s h i p s to f l o a t and anchor i n , and so many a c r e s o f l a n d f o r docks i n a w i l d e r ness, these e s s e n t i a l s are o b t a i n a b l e i n B u r r a r d I n l e t . . . . S o t h a t i f B u r r a r d I n l e t were made the n a v a l s t a t i o n , i t would i n v o l v e t h i s anomaly t h a t while the headquarters were over t h e r e , the s h i p s would always be s t a t i o n e d h e r e . The n a v a l s t a t i o n must be at E s q u i m a l t . < u  19 The R o y a l Engineers were sent t o B r i t i s h Columbia by , S i r Edward Bulwer L y t t o n , the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s . I n response to a request from Governor James Douglas f o r m i l i t a r y p r o t e c t i o n f o r the Gold Colony, L y t t o n sent out C o l o n e l Moody w i t h f i v e o f f i c e r s and one hundred and f i f t y men. The f i r s t p a r t i e s a r r i v e d i n 1858 and the main body i n 1859. Making t h e i r headquarters a t New Westminster, they remained i n the colony b u i l d i n g roads, and m a i n t a i n i n g o r d e r u n t i l they were disbanded i n 1863. c f . Sage, W.N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1930, p . 232, ,and a l s o Howay, F.W., The Work of the Royal Engineers i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1863, K i n g s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1910. 20 Papers R e l a t i n g to the A f f a i r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, .Part 3, London, 1860, p . 78. 21 London Times June 25, 1860, quoted i n M a c f i e , Matthew, Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, Longmans, Green, Longmans, Roberts and Green, London, 1865, p . 127.  B u r r a r d I n l e t had no i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s t o support i t s c l a i m , and the n a v a l s t a t i o n remained at E s q u i m a l t .  W i t h i n the next  ten.; y e a r s , however, the I n l e t was t o become w e l l known as the s i t e of a t h r i v i n g lumber m i l l which shipped i t s products t o a l l p a r t s o f the g l o b e .  - 10 CHAPTER I I  MOODYVILLE .  F o r n e a r l y seventy y e a r s a f t e r C a p t a i n Vancouver's B u r r a r d I n l e t had l a i n u n d i s t u r b e d by the white man.  visit,  Dr.  Walkem r e l a t e s a s t o r y t o l d him by a Squamish I n d i a n o f how, d u r i n g t h e g o l d r u s h o f 1858, many miners mistook the entrance of  the I n l e t f o r the mouth o f the F r a s e r , and s e v e r a l o f them  were k i l l e d i n subsequent c o n f l i c t with the I n d i a n s ,  About  the same time a s e t t l e r , Alexander McLean, i s r e p o r t e d t o have . v i s i t e d B u r r a r d I n l e t i n search o f ranch l a n d .  F i n d i n g the  t e r r a i n u n s u i t e d t o h i s purpose he moved on to P i t t Meadows, where he became a p i o n e e r .  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a v a l and m i l i t a r y r e s e r v e s on B u r r a r d I n l e t , i n c l u d i n g areas on both shores o f the I n l e t a t F i r s t Narrows and a t t h e entrance t o P o r t Moody, t o g e t h e r w i t h the road b u i l t by the Royal Engineers from New Westminster t o ,Burrard I n l e t , served to focus,  a t t e n t i o n on the I n l e t ,  Of the  f o r e s t s c l o t h i n g i t s shores Howay w r i t e s , "Burrard I n l e t a t t h a t time was a v e r i t a b l e lumberman's p a r a d i s e .  I t had one o f  the f i n e s t stands o f e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e timber i n the colony,** It  was not u n t i l 1862 however, t h a t the f i r s t  attempt was made  1 WalkemuW. Wymond M.D. S t o r i e s o f E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, News A d v e r t i s e r , 1914, p . 10. 2 Howay, F.W., E a r l y S h i p p i n g i n B u r r a r d I n l e t , B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V i c t o r i a , January 1937, v o l . 1, p , 3.  - 11 to u t i l i z e t h i s wealth.  I n November o f t h a t y e a r Thomas W i l s o n  Graham and George Scrimgeour o f New Westminster secured a p r e 4 1  emption o f 150 a c r e s .  D e s c r i b e d as " s i t u a t e d on the N o r t h -  ward s i d e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t about f o u r m i l e s above F i r s t  Narrows"  t h i s l a n d was l a t e r surveyed as DL 272, c o n t a i n i n g 218 a c r e s , and formed p a r t o f the area soon t o be known as M o o d y v i l l e . Although pre-emption r e c o r d s show t h a t Graham and Scrimgeour h e l d o n l y 150 a c r e s i n t h e i r own name Howay speaks o f them 5 s e c u r i n g a pre-emption o f 480 a c r e s .  T h i s , and subsequent  f a c t s , would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y had a working  agreement  w i t h one P h i l i p H i c k s , t h e i r New Westminster agent, who on J a n uary 19, 1863, secured a pre-emption o f 160 a c r e s a d j o i n i n g on the  west.  When l a t e r surveyed as L o t 273, t h i s l a n d was shown  t o c o n t a i n 194 a c r e s .  I n 1869 S.P. Moody c l a i m e d t o have  a c q u i r e d t h e 320 a c r e s pre-empted by Graham and Scrimgeour on 7 November 25, 1862. 3 Graham and Scrimgeour were c o n t r a c t o r s and b u i l d e r s i n New Westminster. 4 L a i n g , F.W., B.A., C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on t h e Mainl a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1858 - 1871, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, M a n u s c r i p t , 1939, p . 22. 5 Howay, l o c . c i t . 6 Laing, l o c . c i t . 7 Correspondence S.P. Moody, F 1159 A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C.  12 I n r e p l y t o a q u e s t i o n from the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , C o l o n e l R.C.  Moody, C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works,  wrote as f o l l o w s : the p e t i t i o n e r s f o r c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s on Burr a r d I n l e t have a t l e n g t h communicated with me. ...They have not yet commenced a c t u a l l y running the m i l l , but i t c e r t a i n l y i s a bona f i d e business and I t r u s t w i l l be a great b e n e f i t t o the whole community while a source o f p r o f i t to themselves. I t a l s o opens out a new d i s t r i c t o f country and i n every way i s d e s e r v i n g of encouragement at the hands of the government• I n the i n t e r v i e w I had with the p a r t i e s , I d i s c o u r a g e d any hope o f o b t a i n i n g a f r e e grant of l a n d , and as I c o u l d not recommend such i n d u l gence , t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n has been withdrawn. A l l t h e y express themselves as now d e s i r i n g i s f r e e p e r m i s s i o n t o take from o f f unoccupied Crown l a n d s f o r f o u r t e e n years such timber as may s u i t t h e i r purpose. The d i s t r i c t i s d e n s e l y wooded, the o p e r a t i o n amounts to p a r t i a l c l e a r i n g s and employment o f l a b o u r on wages. These two c i r c u m stances w i l l have the e f f e c t of c a u s i n g such p a r t i a l c l e a r i n g s to be s e t t l e d upon and c u l t i v a t e d by the v e r y p a r t i e s whose l a b o r w i l l now be p a i d f o r by the m i l l . . . . T h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s as a commencement, we may look f o r a.settlement of the d i s t r i c t , and without some such commencement, i t may be many y e a r s before t h e r e would be s u f f i c i e n t inducement f o r anyone t o occupy the l a n d i n t h a t neighbourhood. 8  Graham and Company immediately "Pioneer M i l l s " — t h e f i r s t  began c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t on B u r r a r d  Inlet,  E v e r y t h i n g except the saws and a few b l a c k s m i t h i n g jobs were made on the ground.  Water-power t o operate the m i l l  was  8 B.C. Lands and Works Department, L e t t e r s t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e , A p r i l 2, 1061 - August 22, 1863, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  obtained  from Lynn Creek, two  The water was  and  a q u a r t e r m i l e s t o the  east*  c a r r i e d from the creek t o the m i l l by an open  d i t c h and a square flume and .side.  13  s t o r e d i n a r e s e r v o i r on the  T h i s "water-system" was  i n use  hill  as l o n g as the m i l l  was  o p e r a t e d , the water being used f o r a l l purposes.  By the  o f June, 1863,  Howay says o f  the m i l l was  ready f o r o p e r a t i o n .  end  it: I t had two c e n t r e - d i s c h a r g e water-wheels, d r i v e n by a water head o f estimated f i f t y H.P., two c i r c u l a r saws, a twenty-two-inch p l a n i n g machine and o t h e r a u x i l i a r y equipment. I t s c a p a c i t y was 40,000 f e e t i n twenty-four h o u r s . The l o g s were cut on the pre-emptions a d j o i n i n g and hauled by oxen t o the m i l l . g  The m i l l - o w n e r s c o n f i n e d themselves t o l o c a l t r a d e , . i n g t h e i r markets i n New  Westminster, Nanaimo and  find-  Victoria,  and t r u s t i n g t o the s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y of B u r r a r d I n l e t  timber  t o overcome the handicap of d i s t a n c e and enable them to comp e t e w i t h m i l l s on the spot•  To p u b l i c i z e the opening o f  m i l l , P h i l i p H i c k s , t h e i r agent, o r g a n i z e d 10 C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore's steamer, the  an e x c u r s i o n  the  aboard  " P l y i n g Dutchman", when  9 Howay, l o c . c i t . 10 C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Moore was born i n Germany i n 1822, and went t o sea a t an e a r l y age. I n 1845 he came to New Orleans, but soon made h i s way to the P a c i f i c c o a s t , where he p r o s p e c t e d f o r g o l d i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , Peru and C a l i f o r n i a . When news o f the F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d f i n d s reached C a l i f o r n i a i n 1858, Moore immediately embarked w i t h h i s f a m i l y and possessi o n s f o r V i c t o r i a . Instead of mining, however, he b u i l t and operated v e s s e l s t o c a r r y s u p p l i e s up the r i v e r t o the m i n e r s . He soon earned the nickname o f " F l y i n g Dutchman", which name he i n t u r n a p p l i e d t o a v e s s e l he b u i l t i n 1861. In the next twenty years Moore made and l o s t a f o r t u n e . A c o l o r f u l p e r s o n a l i t y , he was known the whole l e n g t h o f the c o a s t . With the  - 14 t h a t v e s s e l went t o f e t c h the f i r s t cargo from the P i o n e e r M i l l s .  Graham and Scrimgeour  soon found, however, t h a t t h e y were  unable t o compete w i t h the more c e n t r a l l y s i t u a t e d m i l l s a t Hew  Westminster.  Added t o t h i s was  the f a c t t h a t by t h i s  the boom accompanying the Gold Rush t o the F r a s e r had and d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of 1863  The p a r t n e r s , who  had borrowed h e a v i l y i n the f i r s t p l a c e , were now Two  subsided,  t h e r e appears t o have been  a g e n e r a l d e p r e s s i o n i n the lumber t r a d e .  p r e s s e d by t h e i r c r e d i t o r s .  time  being hard  o f these i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  appar-  e n t l y r e a l i s i n g the v a l u e o f the m i l l , p r e s s e d t h e i r c l a i m s w i t h such p e r s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e y drew upon themselves the wrath of  Judge Begbie.  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n December, a f t e r f i v e months  of  o p e r a t i o n , the P i o n e e r M i l l s were a d v e r t i s e d f o r s a l e by  p u b l i c a u c t i o n , t o g e t h e r with about one m i l l i o n f e e t o f l o g s . On the day of the auction.John Oscar Smith, a New  Westminster  g r o c e r , o u t b i d S e w e l l P r e s c o t t Moody^and purchased the m i l l coming o f the Klondyke g o l d r u s h h i s l u c k t u r n e d , and he amassed s u f f i c i e n t wealth t o permit him t o r e t i r e t o V i c t o r i a where he l i v e d u n t i l h i s death i n 1909. c f . Hacking, Norman, E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia L i b r a r y , manuscript, 1934, p . 101. 11 S e w e l l P r e s c o t t Moody and h i s b r o t h e r came t o V i c t o r i a from the s t a t e o f Maine i n 1859. They q u i c k l y became a s s o c i a ted with the lumber b u s i n e s s , and i t was. thus t h a t "Sue" Moody became i n t e r e s t e d i n the m i l l on B u r r a r d I n l e t , which a f t e r 1865 was spoken o f l o c a l l y as "Moody's M i l l . " Moody r e s i d e d at the m i l l u n t i l h i s death aboard the i l l - f a t e d S.S. P a c i f i c i n 1875. He was known and r e s p e c t e d i n lumber and s h i p p i n g . c i r c l e s a l l down the P a c i f i c C o a s t .  - 15 f o r #80007  Smith changed the name t o B u r r a r d I n l e t M i l l s , and a t f i r s t made V i c t o r i a h i s p r i n c i p a l market. proved  so s u c c e s s f u l f o r him t h a t i n August he e n t e r e d t h e 13  f o r e i g n export t r a d e . it  While t h i s venture was not a s u c c e s s ,  d i d c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t attempt  lumber..  The summer o f 1864  t o export; B u r r a r d I n l e t  I n attempting t o expand h i s t r a d e Smith became heavily-  i n v o l v e d i n debt, and i n December 1864 t h e mortgagers f o r e closed.  The p r o p e r t y , the water-power m i l l and 480 a c r e s o f  timber were a d v e r t i s e d f o r s a l e on January 19, 1865, and were 14 now purchased by S e w e l l P r e s c o t t Moody f o r t h e sum o f #6,900. B u r r a r d I n l e t was now t o come i n t o i t s own.  The m i l l was  operated hy the f i r m o f S.P. Moody & Co., with "Sue" Moody . a o t i v e as manager.  15 16 I n 1866 Messrs. D i e t z and Nelson j o i n e d t h e  12 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 3. 13 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , August 27, 1864, p . 3. 14 i b i d . , January  23, 1865, p . 3.  15 W i l l i a m D i e t z , commonly c a l l e d Dutch B i l l , was one o f the best known f i g u r e s o f t h e , C a r i b o o . I t was he who, i n 1861, s t r u c k g o l d i n W i l l i a m s Greek, thus p r e c i p i t a t i n g a rush i n t o the mountains o f the C a r i b o o . L a t e r he went i n t o the p a c k i n g b u s i n e s s , one &f t h e most l u c r a t i v e employments. As l a t e as . 1866 he i s l i s t e d among the p r i n c i p a l owners o f mule teams . s e r v i n g t h e C a r i b o o . The s j o o d y v i l l e b u s i n e s s was one o f many v e n t u r e s . L i k e so many o t h e r miners, D i e t z l o s t h i s money as e a s i l y as he made i t , and when he d i e d i n 1877, i n V i c t o r i a , he was m i s e r a b l y poor. c f . Howay, F.W. and S c h o l e f i e l d , E.O.S., B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times t o t h e P r e s e n t , Van. couver, S . J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1914, v o l . 2, pp. 77 79 and 98. . .  f i r m , which was  16  h e n c e f o r t h known as Moody, D i e t z and  Nelson.  On assuming c o n t r o l of the p l a n t , Moody renamed i t the B u r r a r d . I n l e t Lumber M i l l s , and s t a r t e d by c u t t i n g f o r the l o c a l t r a d e . Some i d e a o f the q u a l i t y o f the timber cut may the f a c t t h a t i n June 1865  Moody sent to New  number o f s t i c k s 70» x 20" x 20" without  be gained from  Westminster a  a knot i n them, t o be  used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the b e l l - t o w e r o f H o l y T r i n i t y 17 Church. R e a l i s i n g the o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t y of h i s p r o d u c t , 16 Hugh Nelson was born i n 1830, the son o f Robert Nelson of County Antrim, I r e l a n d . In 1858 Nelson l e f t h i s n a t i v e count r y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. U n l i k e most immigrants o f the time, Nelson came, not t o make h i s f o r t u n e , but to s e t t l e . Accord. i n g l y he r e j e c t e d the g o l d f i e l d s and became engaged i n comm e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Among these was an express s e r v i c e from V i c t o r i a to T a l e , which he operated i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h George D i e t z . I n 1866 he moved t o M o o d y v i l l e , where he b u i l t h i s p e r manent home near the top o f Knob H i l l . Nelson e a r l y became i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s , but d i d not come t o the f o r e u n t i l 1868 when he became an ardent s u p p o r t e r of C o n f e d e r a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t e d B u r r a r d I n l e t a t the Y a l e Conf e r e n c e . I n 1871 he was e l e c t e d by a c c l a m a t i o n to r e p r e s e n t the New Westminster D i s t r i c t i n the l a s t ^ L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of the Colony, and i n 1872 he was r e - e l e c t e d as a member o f . the f i r s t L e g i s l a t i v e :.As semblyt o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d B r i t i s h Columbia i n the House o f Commons a t Ottawa. T h i s seat he h e l d u n t i l 1879 when he was e l e v a t e d t o the Senate. I n 1882 he withdrew from b u s i n e s s , and f i v e years l a t e r , while s t i l l r e s i d e n t a t M o o d y v i l l e , he became Lieutenant-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s term of o f f i c e came to an end i n 1882, and he d i e d i n 1883. - K e r r , J.B., B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f Well-Known B r i t i s h Columbians, Vancouver 1889, p. 265. 17 The f i r s t Church on t h i s s i t e was b u i l t under the g u i d ance of the Reverend John Sheepshanks, the f i r s t r e c t o r , a t a c o s t o f 4J.200, and was consecrated on December 2, 1860. In September I 8 6 0 t h i s church was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e . A second church t h i s time o f stone, was b u i l t on the same s i t e and cons e c r a t e d i n 1867. T h i r t y ^ d n e 7 y e a r s l a t e r t h i s church a l s o was destroyed by f i r e , making the p r e s e n t e d i f i c e the t h i r d on the s i t e . I t was f o r the f i r s t church t h a t the b e l l - t o w e r i n quest i o n was b u i l t , t o house a chime of b e l l s p r e s e n t e d by Baroness B u r d e t t - C o u t t s . — S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1922, p. 7.  17 Moody a l s o d e c i d e d t o e n t e r the world markets.  His f i r s t  for-  e i g n cargo, bound f o r Sydney, A u s t r a l i a , was l o a d e d i n May 1865,  and by the end o f t h a t y e a r a second s h i p was loaded f o r  A d e l a i d e and two more f o r Mexico.  I n 1866 Moody l o a d e d  five  18 .ships f o r f o r e i g n p o r t s , and seven the y e a r f o l l o w i n g . A l l t h i s was not accomplished  without  difficulty.  During 1866 -  67 the m i l l s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d i t s l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o comp e t e with those o f o t h e r p o r t s .  As t h e r e was no p o r t o f e n t r y  on B u r r a r d I n l e t boats l o a d i n g a t Moody's were f o r c e d t o r e g i s , t e r a t New Westminster,  San F r a n c i s c o s h i p p i n g men advanced a  theory t h a t n a v i g a t i o n on B u r r a r d I n l e t was dangerous. .1866  Moody h i m s e l f v i s i t e d t h a t c i t y t o d i s p e l t h i s  In  erroneous  i d e a , r e t u r n i n g w i t h an o r d e r f o r 1,400,000 f e e t o f lumber and 19 the news t h a t he had chartered-two v e s s e l s t o l o a d i t . P l a n n i n g t o extend  t h i s l o n g - c o v e t e d p l a n t , Moody appealed  i n June 1865 t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y f o r a g r a n t to be made t o us o f about one thousand acres o f l a n d a d j o i n i n g the pre-emption c l a i m s belonging t o the B u r r a r d I n l e t M i l l s Co. Our o b j e c t i n a s k i n g f o r t h i s grant i s t h a t we b e i n g l a r g e l y engaged i n the timber b u s i n e s s and the timber on t h e pre-emption c l a i m s h e l d by us b e i n g n e a r l y a l l cut we are d e s i r o u s o f o b t a i n i n g the above mentioned l a n d f o r t h e purpose o f o b t a i n i n g the timber now s t a n d i n g on i t and as l a n d i s not now open to pre-emption we wish t o o b t a i n e i t h e r a l e a s e o r be allowed t o purchase the above 18 Howay, op. c i t . p . 3. 19  ibid.  - 18 land.  As w i l l be n o t i c e d , Moody i m p l i e d t h a t the timber on the o r i g i n a l grant was  n e a r l y a l l used.  however, t o what extent he was  i s tempted t o wonder,  i n f l u e n c e d by an  r e c e n t l y f i l e d by C a p t a i n Stamp, who o f a m i l l on the south shore.  One  was  application  planning construction  C e r t a i n l y , the l e a s e was  granted u n t i l i t had been proved t h a t i t would not 21 i n any way  w i t h concessions made t o Stamp.  not  conflict  Before the lease.  f o r t h i s thousand a c r e s had a c t u a l l y been drawn up Moody had i n c r e a s e d h i s request to f i v e thousand a c r e s on the same terms as those, granted t o Stamp.  Moody's memorial to Governor:  Seymour on t h i s o c c a s i o n makes i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g : Your m e m o r i a l i s t s own the f i r s t and o n l y saw-mill on B u r r a r d I n l e t , where a f t e r a d e l a y of two y e a r s , and a t c o n s i d e r a b l e expense, we have succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a good f o r e i g n export t r a d e i n lumber and spars...your memo r i a l i s t s r e s p e c t f u l l y represent t o Your E x c e l l e n c y t h a t the lumber on the l a n d o r i g i n a l l y pre-empted and on which the saw-mill i s e r e c t e d , w i l l be exhausted f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, i n two months from t h i s date7v.. Your m e m o r i a l i s t s t h e r e f o r e humbly request t h a t Your E x c e l l e n c y would be p l e a s e d to grant us the timber on F i v e thousand acres of Land on 20 Papers connected w i t h timber c u t t i n g L i c e n c e o f S.P. Moody & Co. over f i v e thousand a c r e s on B u r r a r d I n l e t , F. 67, #2. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l (B.C.) 1866, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a . 21  ibid.  22 A note p e n c i l l e d i n the margin at t h i s p l a c e reads: The m i l l man t o l d Roger Stamp's foreman t h a t t h e y had enough a l r e a d y f o r ye a r s •  *  - 19 s i m i l a r terms t o the grant made to C a p t a i n Stamp, ...beg t o s t a t e t h a t the l a n d on which t h i s heavy timber grows i s u n f i t t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, i t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e f o r your memo r i a l i s t s t o I n t e r f e r e i n any way with the r i g h t s of actual or intending s e t t l e r s . T h i s request was  granted, with the e x c e p t i o n of one  a c r e s a t F i r s t Narrows, of which one p o r t i o n was  thousand  Indian  Reserve and the r e s t w i t h h e l d as f i t f o r g r a z i n g c a t t l e .  The  a r e a granted was  lease  was  made t e n a b l e f o r twenty-one y e a r s , a t an annual r e n t a l o f  one  l a t e r reduced to 2,636 a c r e s .  The  p e r cent p e r ""acre.  The  q u a l i t y of B u r r a r d I n l e t lumber was  now  w e l l known to a t t r a c t c o m p e t i t i o n to the I n l e t . began t o cut lumber i n 1867,  and by 1868  sufficiently Stamp's m i l l  Burrard I n l e t  boasted  t h r e e p o t e n t i a l towns, Moody's on the n o r t h shore, B r i g h t o n and Stamp's (or Gasstownj^ on the south shore, to say n o t h i n g o f h a l f - a - d o z e n l o g g i n g camps. men  A l t o g e t h e r , some t h r e e hundred  found employment on the I n l e t a t t h i s time.  D e s p i t e com-  p e t i t i o n , Moody's m i l l s were f o r twenty years the c h i e f i n g c e n t r e of B r i t i s h Columbia. 23 F. 67 #2.  I n 1868,  export-  due t o the p r e s s u r e  loc, c i t .  24 The settlement of G r a n v i l l e was known l o c a l l y as Gasetown so c a l l e d a f t e r Jack Deighton, l o q u a c i o u s and p h i l a n t h r o p i c p r o p r i e t o r of Deighton's H o t e l . T h i s famous h o s t e l r y stood at the p r e s e n t i n t e r s e c t i o n of C a r r a l l and Water S t r e e t s — c f . Walkem, W.W., S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, News-Advert!ser, 1914, p. 87 - 94,  o f expanding b u s i n e s s , Moody b u i l t a second m i l l some t h r e e hundred yards west o f the o r i g i n a l m i l l .  Here he i n s t a l l e d a  l a r g e steam m i l l and the l a t e s t machinery a v a i l a b l e at the time.  The new b u i l d i n g , two hundred f e e t l o n g , housed saws, a  planing-machine, a l a t h e - s p l i t t i n g machine and a l a t h e .  Moody  now claimed t h a t he c o u l d produce one hundred thousand f e e t o f lumber p e r day.  F i n a l l y he connected the wharves o f the  two m i l l s , g i v i n g ample dock f a c i l i t i e s f o r a dozen v e s s e l s .  M o o d y v i l l e , the most p r o g r e s s i v e o f t h e t h r e e s m a l l s e t tlements on the I n l e t ,  ( M o o d y v i l l e , H a s t i n g s and Gasstown),  .now developed i n t o a v i l l a g e o f s m a l l houses and a few shops. As a t the o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s , the v i l l a g e was a mere c l e a r i n g i n the f o r e s t , . ;:.Jt-.housed:' sdme. two hundred- persons a l l 25  directly  o r i n d i r e c t l y connected with t h e m i l l .  who  i  Beside the men  were employed i n the m i l l i t s e l f , t h e r e were longshoremen and stevedores to l o a d the v e s s e l s which c a l l e d a t the m i l l .  Still  o t h e r men were h i r e d t o go i n t o the f o r e s t and cut the lumber . and spars, which were t h e n dragged by oxen to the water*s edge. Here they were c o l l e c t e d by steam tugs and towed t o the m i l l . V e s s e l s coming i n to l o a d employed stevedores, under whose d i r e c t i o n the crews stowed t h e i r cargoes.  Lumber was  loaded  from the wharf, w h i l e spars were t a k e n from the water by a crab 26 . winch o r steam e n g i n e . 25 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 101 e t s e q .  - 21 I n h i s book ?! West e r a Shores",  James H. Hamilton,  (Captain  K e t t l e ) , quotes a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by a s e a - c a p t a i n t o h i s owners i n London, 1869.  The w r i t e r , C a p t a i n Looe o f the s h i p  "Chelsea",  g i v e s h i s owners a v e r y d e t a i l e d , and f a v o u r a b l e , account  of  Moody's, where, as he says, v e s s e l s l y i n g a l o n g s i d e the wharf a r e "undisturbed by e i t h e r the t i d e s o r the weather."  Steve-  dores c o u l d be employed at the m i l l f o r f i v e d o l l a r s a  day;  tonnage dues were 2d. a t o n .  P i l o t a g e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d a t 27  e i t h e r V i c t o r i a o r E n g l i s h Bay.  Steam v e s s e l s c o u l d be  ob-  t a i n e d to tiaw a v e s s e l from V i c t o r i a t o the m i l l s and back f o r t h r e e o r f o u r hundred d o l l a r s .  There were no wharfage dues t o  pay.  F i s h was abundant, while p r o v i s i o n s c o u l d be 28 from V i c t o r i a .  obtained  Once a g a i n , i n 1869-70, Moody a p p l i e d f o r timber l e a s e s , b e i n g granted some 11,410 a c r e s at v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s on the North Shore, but f a i l i n g to o b t a i n a grant of one a c r e s at P o i n t A t k i n s o n . C o n f e d e r a t i o n In 1871,  thousand  The e n t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o  and the p r o s p e c t of a r a i l w a y to the  c o a s t , caused Moody some a n x i e t y d u r i n g the next f i v e  years.  26 Hamilton, James H., (Captain K e t t l e ) j Western Shores, Vancouver, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h i n g Company, L t d . , 1933, passim. 27 The E n g l i s h Bay P i l o t House was j u s t east o f C a u l f e i l d Cove on the n o r t h shore of E n g l i s h Bay. 28 Hamilton,  loc. c i t .  I n May 1873 he wrote a t some l e n g t h t o the Honorable Robert 29 Beaven, C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works i n an e f f o r t t o secure the grant o f a promised f i f t e e n thousand a c r e s b e f o r e the F e d e r a l Government o r the proposed r a i l w a y c o u l d prevent 30 i t . H i s e f f o r t s l e d t o a l e a s e o f t e n thousand a c r e s i n 1875.  Meanwhile, a t f o u r o ' c l o c k on the morning o f December 22, 1873, t h e steam m i l l was destroyed by f i r e ,  and damage  done t o t h e extent o f f i v e o r t e n thousand d o l l a r s , not covered 31 by i n s u r a n c e . However, the water-power m i l l was savedyaa.4 able 29 Robert Beaven, C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works, was born i n England, t h e son o f the Reverend James Beaven, and educated i n O n t a r i o . He came to B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858 a t the h e i g h t o f t h e g o l d r u s h , and spent s e v e r a l years mining I n the C a r i b o o . E v e n t u a l l y he s e t t l e d i n b u s i n e s s i n V i c t o r i a . He came i n t o prominence i n 1868 as a l e a d e r o f the movement f o r the e n t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and was the f i r s t S e c r e t a r y o f the Confederate League. From 1871 t o 1894 he r e p r e s e n t e d V i c t o r i a i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f B r i t i s h Columbia. During t h i s time he served as C h i e f Comm i s s i o n e r o f Lands and Works from 1872 to 1876, and as M i n i s t e r of Finance and A g r i c u l t u r e from 1878 t o 1882. From 1882 t o 1883 he was premier o f t h e p r o v i n c e . When h i s government was d e f e a t e d i n 1883 Beaven became l e a d e r o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n , a post which he r e t a i n e d u n t i l 1894. He was a l s o three times mayor o f V i c t o r i a , i n 1892, 1893, and 1897. I n .1898 he t r i e d once more t o form a government, b u t without s u c c e s s . He d i e d i n V i c t o r i a , September 19, 1920. - Wallace, D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian Biography, Toronto, Macmillan, 1926, p . 23. 30 Correspondence o f the O f f i c e o f the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , F. 67 3a, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . 31 V i c t o r i a D a i l y Standard,  December 23, 1873.  - S3 to ing  continue i n o p e r a t i o n , and Moody a t once s e t about the steam m i l l .  q u i r e d the machinery yet  rebuild-  I t so happened that he had r e c e n t l y ac3S out o f H.M.S. Sparrow-hawk but had not  put i t t o i t s proposed use.  I n s t a l l e d i n the r e b u i l t  T h i s machinery was promptly  steam m i l l where i t i s thought t o  have been i n o p e r a t i o n u n t i l the m i l l was c l o s e d down. In November 1875 f a t e a g i n s t r u c k a c r u e l blow a t Moody33 v i l l e , when Moody l o s t h i s l i f e on the i l l - f a t e d en r o u t e t o C a l i f o r n i a .  " P a c i f i c '»  I n 1866 Moody had been j o i n e d by two  former stage-coach o p e r a t o r s , George D i e t z and Hugh N e l s o n . As D i e t z had predeceased Moody i t remained f o r Nelson t o succeed 32.  H.M.S. Sparrowhawk p l i e d these waters f o r many years i n the s e r v i c e o f Governors Seymour and Musgrave. c f . Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , op. c i t * , pp. 288, 328. When no l o n g e r f i t f o r t h i s use, she was s o l d by a u c t i o n a t New Westm i n s t e r and purchased f o r $20,000 by a P o r t l a n d f i r m . As they i n t e n d e d t o adapt h e r f o r s a i l i n g purposes they had no use f o r her machinery. Moody, D i e t z and Nelson bought t h i s t o use i n a t u g they intended t o b u i l d , c f . Mainland Guardian, New Westminster, November 30, 1872.  33.  The 3.S. P a c i f i c , l e s s than 900 t o n s , c a r r i e d passengers and f r e i g h t between " V i c t o r i a and San F r a n c i s c o . On November 4, 1875, she l e f t V i c t o r i a , b e a r i n g more than her f u l l complement o f passengers. During t h e n i g h t , while o f f Cape F l a t t e r y , she ran i n t o an American s a i l ing s h i p , the Orpheus, and. sank i n t e n minutes, l e a v i n g only two s u r v i v o r s , Moody, who was on board, was among those drowned. Some time l a t e r , on the shores of Beacon H i l l , V i c t o r i a , t h e r e was found a p i e c e o f wreckage b e a r i n g the p e n c i l l e d i n s c r i p t i o n " S.P. Moody. A l l Lost The h a n d w r i t i n g was i d e n t i f i e d by Moody s f r i e n d s . T  H i g g i n s , D.W., M y s t i c S p r i n g , Toronto 1904 pp. 318 - 333. passim.  24 the l a t t e r as manager o f the f i r m .  While r e t a i n i n g t h i s p o s i t  i o n , Nelson r e o r g a n i z e d the b u s i n e s s as the M o o d y v i l l e Sawmill Company,  The new f i r m i n c l u d e d Hugh Nelson, Andrew Welch, o f  34 Welch, R i t h e t and Company, V i c t o r i a , James Burns, manager o f the, Bank o f North America, V i c t o r i a , M.W.  Tyrwhitt  Drake,  35 .lawyer, Pete McQuade and C a p t a i n John I r v i n g ,  Nelson r e t i r e d  from the f i r m upon h i s appointment t o the Senate, 1882, was  and  succeeded as manager by Benjamin S p r i n g e r , d u r i n g whose  time the f i r m m a i n t a i n e d a wharf and y a r d on Water S t r e e t , .Vancouver, manager.  S p r i n g e r r e s i g n e d i n 1890 I n 1895 he i n t u r n was  and J.H. Ramsdell became  succeeded by J.G. Woods, the  34 Robert P a t t e r s o n R i t h e t was born i n S c o t l a n d i n 1844. Upon completion o f h i s e d u c a t i o n he spent t h r e e years w i t h a s h i p p i n g and commission f i r m i n L i v e r p o o l , a£ter which he t u r n e d t o the Canadian West, r e a c h i n g V i c t o r i a , B.C. i n 1862, He r e - e n t e r e d the s h i p p i n g and commission b u s i n e s s and i n 1870 founded the f i r m o f Welch, R i t h e t and Company, The s e n i o r p a r t n e r o f the f i r m was Andrew Welch o f Welch and Company, San F r a n c i s c o . When Welch d i e d i n 1888 R i t h e t bought out h i s i n t e r e s t s and took over the San F r a n c i s c o b u s i n e s s . At the same time the V i c t o r i a b u s i n e s s was i n c o r p o r a t e d under the , s t y l e o f R.P. R i t h e t and Company, o f which R i t h e t was p r e s i d e n t , — B r i t i s h Columbia, B i o g r a p h i e s , Vancouver, S,J, C l a r k e , 1914, v o l , 4, p, 1134, 35 C a p t a i n John I r v i n g was the son o f W i l l i a m I r v i n g , one o f the p i o n e e r s o f steam n a v i g a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Upon h i s f a t h e r ' s death John I r v i n g took over the I r v i n g steamers and a t h r i v i n g F r a s e r R i v e r t r a d e . I n 1883 I r v i n g ' s P i o n e e r L i n e was combined w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company steamers t o , form the Canadian P a c i f i c N a v i g a t i o n Company, which was p u r chased by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1901 — c f , Hacking, op. c i t , , p, 73.  M  O  O  D  Y  V  I  L  L  E  S  A  W  M  I  L  L  from  — C o u r t e s y C i t y A r c h i v e s , Vancouver,  B.C.  26 l a s t incumbent o f tne p o s i t i o n .  The m i l l was  s o l d i n 1891  a p a r t y o f E n g l i s h c a p i t a l i s t s and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r a company was  to  new  i n c o r p o r a t e d , the M o o d y v i l l e Land and Sawmill Com-  pany, w i t h a c a p i t a l of-£160,000.  The economic d e p r e s s i o n o f  the next t e n years brought about the c l o s u r e o f the m i l l i n 1901.  As M o o d y v i l l e was  the f i r s t  community on B u r r a r d I n l e t i t  seems f i t t i n g t h a t f o r over twenty years i t should have remained the l e a d i n g c e n t r e o f the I n l e t . r a i l w a y i n 1885  was  Probably the advent of the  the c h i e f reason f o r the c e n t r e o f i n t e r e s t  s h i f t i n g t o the newer settlements on the south  No  sooner was  "Sue" Moody's m i l l a going concern  community l i f e began to develop 1865,  a s e r v i e e o f worship was  e z e r Robson, who 36 gation. was  shore.  around I t . conducted  As e a r l y as June,  by the Reverend Eben-  gathered t o g e t h e r f i f t e e n men  T h e r e a f t e r Moody s was 1  than  for his  congre-  served r e g u l a r l y , although i t  seven y e a r s b e f o r e a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e took p l a c e on the  south shore.  The f i r s t marriage  recorded on B u r r a r d I n l e t  was  t h a t o f Miss Ada Young t o Mr. P e t e r P l a n t , performed by the Reverend Edward White a t Moody's on J u l y 18, I n 1869  a t e l e g r a p h l i n e was  1868.  l a i d from New  36 Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , June 20,  Westminster t o  1940.  - 27 B r i g h t o n on the south shore o f the Second Narrows, and i n A p r i l of  the same year Moody arranged with the Western Union T e l e -  graph Company t o l a y a cable to Moody's a t h i s expense. i n s t a l l e d , the t e l e g r a p h was  open f o r p u b l i c use.  t o l l r a t e was to  fifty  t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s , but i n 1871 37 cents,  The  t h i s was  When original  raised  ••?>  I n January  of the same year  (1869) the Mount Hermon Lodge,  the f i r s t Masonic Lodge on the I n l e t , was  o r g a n i z e d a t Moody's.  The o f f i c e r s i n s t a l l e d were a l l d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y connected with the m i l l . e s t a b l i s h e d the New  Three days l a t e r a group o f men  met  and  London Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , each p l e d g i n g  h i m s e l f "to s u b s c r i b e the sum of f i v e d o l l a r s each f o r the purpose o f r a i s i n g a fund to e r e c t a s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g a t Moody's M i l l s f o r a r e a d i n g room and l i b r a r y and f o r f u r n i s h 38 ing  the same w i t h Books and Papers,"  Among the f o r t y - s i x  . s i g n a t u r e s a t t a c h e d to t h i s pledge were those o f S.P. and George D i e t z .  The  Moody  f i r m s u p p l i e d the b u i l d i n g which  was  f o r m a l l y opened as a p u b l i c r e a d i n g room by the Reverend A r t h u r Browning, who , "Woman."  I t was  chose f o r the s u b j e c t o f h i s  address  p r o v i d e d i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the  Institute  t h a t the room should be "at the d i s p o s a l o f preachers o f the 37 Howay, op. c i t . , p. 101 e t seq. 38 Minute Book o f the Mechanic' I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver Publ i c L i b r a r y . Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s were a form of l i t e r a r y soci e t y very popular at t h i s time i n E a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t e d States.  * 28 g o s p e l of a l l denominations f o r h o l d i n g D i v i n e S e r v i c e f r e e 39 charge. A few months a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n the I n s t i t u t e 40  of  changed  i t s name t o the H a s t i n g s Mechanics* I n s t i t u t e , and as such i t f u n c t i o n e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y f o r several years. S i n c e M o o d y v i l l e was  i s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , i t was  pos-  s i b l e t o exclude from the community some o f the l e s s d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s of western l i f e .  "Sue" Moody knew the e f f e c t o f  l i q u o r on s a i l o r s and lumbermen, and f o r t e n years he  succeeded  i n keeping the n o r t h s i d e o f the I n l e t f r e e from the e v i l s o f the s a l o o n , a f a c t f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d by the s e a - c a p t a i n s  who  41 came to l o a d a t M o o d y v i l l e .  As might be expected under these  circumstances, smuggling seems to have been r i f e on the As e a r l y as 1865  Moody appealed t o Governor Seymour f o r the 42  appointment o f a P r e v e n t i v e O f f i c e r to combat t h i s The request was  Inlet.  traffic.  not granted, and the B r i t i s h Columbian r e c o r d s  later: An American sloop r a n i n t o B u r r a r d I n l e t on Monday l a s t when the hands disposed of a q u a n t i t y o f s p i r i t s t o the lumbermen. The 39 Minute Book of the Mechanic* I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver Publ i c Library. 40 out of compliment t o Read A d m i r a l H a s t i n g s , who was s t a t i o n e d on B u r r a r d I n l e t 1866-1869 — "a good f r i e n d o f t h i s c o u n t r y . " — Howay, l o c . c i t . 41 Hamilton,  op. c i t . , p.  42 Correspondence of S.P. B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a .  184, Moody, F 1159,  Archives of  - 29 l i q u o r was brought from Puget Sound and smugg l e d i n . As no revenue o r o t h e r p u b l i c o f f i c e r i s s t a t i o n e d a t t h e I n l e t steps c o u l d not be taken t o a r r e s t the s m u g g l e r s ? 5  Moody continued t o e n f o r c e h i s wishes, but was o b l i g e d t o y i e l d 44 i n 1874 when H a r r y Hogan e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Terminus H o t e l and 45 gave M o o d y v i l l e i t s f i r s t s a l o o n .  From such b e g i n n i n g s M o o d y v i l l e grew i n t o a t h r i v i n g locality.  A v i s i t o r t o the m i l l from New Westminster i n 1876  was so impressed by what he saw here t h a t he wrote a v i v i d desc r i p t i o n o f t h e m i l l i n h i s l o c a l paper.  "From what we had  p r e v i o u s l y heard o f t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t m i l l s , " he wrote, "we were p r e p a r e d t o see a l a r g e and w e l l - c o n d u c t e d establishment, but t h e magnitude o f t h e works, and the o r d e r and system by which the whole were governed, f a r exceeded o u r h i g h e s t expectation."  A t some l e n g t h and with g r e a t d e t a i l he d e s c r i b e d t h e  b u i l d i n g s , machinery and p r o d u c t s o f the p l a n t . The m i l l i t s e l f i s a mammoth b u i l d i n g upwards o f 300 f e e t i n l e n g t h , 270 f e e t o f which i s r o o f e d over and covered f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t w i t h c o r r u g a t e d i r o n . The i n t e r i o r r e p r e s e n t s a complete net-Work o f s h a f t s , bands, and wheels, by which the machinery i s kept i n motion, the whole b e i n g d r i v e n by a p o w e r f u l steam engine, which f o r m e r l y belonged t o H.M.S. Sparrowhawk. About t h i r t y saws were i n o p e r a t i o n , and the way they 43 B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, February 26, 1869. 44 p r o b a b l y the Hogan a f t e r whom Hogan' A l l e y , i s named.  Vancouver  45 That Moody's wishes were s t i l l r e s p e c t e d i n p a r t i s shown by the Minute Book o f the, Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , where an n t r y o f . A p r i l 1878 r e f e r s t o the^, •'bringing^ i n o f l i q u o r and _ | n | l ^ g i t around...against- the wishes o r zhe p r o p r i e t o r s o r the  t  m  30  -  c o n v e r t e d immense l o g s of wood i n t o lumber o f v a r i o u s l e n g t h s and t h i c k n e s s e s was something marvellous. Over 100 men are employed immediately about the m i l l , a n d not l e s s than 300 persons f i n d employment i n one way o r another i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the m i l l i s an e x t e n s i v e machine-shop, where r e p a i r s o f the machinery are e f f e c t e d e x p e d i t i o u s l y and c h e a p l y . The d a i l y average output o f lumber i s about 60,000 f e e t and t h e aggregate amount cut and shipped from the 1st; o f January t o the 5th. o f A p r i l i n c l u s i v e was 4,118,481 f e e t . The  c r e d i t he gave to the l a t e S.P.  Moody, whom he d e s c r i b e d  as "the master s p i r i t o f t h i s g r e a t concern."  The  remainder  o f the w r i t e r ' s o u t i n g , which c o n s i s t e d o f a v i s i t t o H a s t i n g s M i l l , e v i d e n t l y came as an a n t i - c l i m a x , s i n c e he devoted 46 v e r y l i t t l e space t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t .  I n February 1882  e l e c t r i c i t y was  but  i n s t a l l e d at Moodyville,  an event so momentous t h a t the Mayor and C o u n c i l o f V i c t o r i a arranged a s p e c i a l t r i p t o see the l i g h t s . .ville  j u s t a f t e r midnight,  . Senator Nelson, who  A r r i v i n g at Moody-  they r e p a i r e d t o the r e s i d e n c e o f  t u r n e d out o f h i s warm bed and o r d e r e d the  l i g h t s to be put i n t o o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t . stration  urei's !-bnlyupa#tly"usucces  o p e r a t i n g the machine was such a severe s t o r n had was  The demon-  s £ u l V because* thetfoan who :  doing so f o r the f i r s t t i m e .  was However,  sprung up by t h i s time, t h a t the p a r t y  d e l a y e d f o r twenty-four hours.  more i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e e t .  T h i s enabled them t o o b t a i n The e n g i n e e r , R a n d a l l , a s -  sured the p a r t y t h a t "by p a y i n g proper a t t e n t i o n t o the p l a c i n g " 46 "A Ramble on the Mainland", D a i l y B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 18, 1876.  Colonist,  - 31 o f the carbons and the maintenance o f u n i f o r m speed w i t h the g e n e r a t o r a steady l i g h t can be g i v e n equal t o SO,000 c.p." He went on to e x p l a i n t h a t the c o s t o f carbons i s $1.50 f o r 10 hours with a l l t e n l i g h t s b u r n i n g . The machine i s worked by water power e q u a l t o 10 h.p. The upper carbons burn e i g h t hours and the lower ones s i x t e e n hours and are so arranged i n d u p l i c a t e t h a t the lamps o n l y r e q u i r e trimming e v e r y s i x t e e n hours o r so. F u l l y s u p p l i e d w i t h d e t a i l s o f c o s t and o p e r a t i o n , the p a r t y r e t u r n e d t o t e l l V i c t o r i a o f the wonders t h e y had seen a t 47 Moodyville.  During the next t e n y e a r s M o o d y v i l l e became known as the most e x t e n s i v e m i l l north o f Puget Sound.  Speaking o f the lum-  ber cut at t h i s time, Dr. Walkem says i n those days no l o g s were taken, o r even l o o k e d a t , which c o n t a i n e d a knot to mar the beaty; ( s i c ) o f the f l o o r i n g i n t o which much o f i t was c u t . The t r e e s cut down were g e n e r a l l y those which had not a branch below 60 f t . - 70 f t . from the ground. . . . s t i c k s have been t u r n e d out from the m i l l 30x30 and ISO f e e t l o n g . The m i l l ' s c h i e f markets were i n A u s t r a l i a , South America, China and Japan; i t s s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s such t h a t the l a r g e s t v e s s e l s c o u l d l o a d d i r e c t l y from the m i l l .  Speaking o f the  m i l l i n 1884, the D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t says The annual c u t o f t h i s m i l l i s about 18,000,000 f e e t . The c a p a c i t y i s 100,000 f e e t p e r day.... 47 " L i g h t Cast i n Dark P l a c e s , " B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a , February.17, 188S, p . 3. 48 Walkem, S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, 1914, p . 91.  Vancouver,  - 32 There are about 100 men employed a t the m i l l , whose monthly wages w i l l range from $50 to 125 (sic) according to p o s i t i o n h e l d . A s i m i l a r number are employed i n the l o g g i n g camps t o whom good wages are p a i d . The timber l i m i t s are now becoming s c a r c e , and l o g s have t o be towed from a d i s t a n c e , t o the m i l l s i n booms. I n time the company expect t h a t the ground a l r e a d y c u l l e d w i l l have t o be gone over a g a i n and the best of the s t a n d i n g timber c u t . P l a n t and p r o d u c t i o n were i n c r e a s e d to meet i n c r e a s i n g demands, u n t i l by 1891 the m i l l alone was  employing  had a c a p a c i t y o f 120,000 f e e t p e r day. t h i r t y men  In addition  a t the numerous l o g g i n g camps.  and  about  were employed as longshoremen and a f u r t h e r  hundred men had now  some 120 men,  one  The p l a n t , which  become an e x t e n s i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , was  adjudged  t o be  one of the v e r y b e s t steam p l a n t s i n e x i s t e n c e f o r saw-mill purposes.  I t had twelve b o i l e r s , arranged i n f o u r d i s t i n c t  s e t s o f t h r e e each, connected o n l y by the main steam p i p e s l e a d i n g t o the e n g i n e s .  Each s e t o f b o i l e r s had a smoke-stack 50  f o u r f e e t i n diameter and f i f t y - t w o f e e t h i g h . burned  sawdust which was  The  furnace  s u p p l i e d by s e l f - f e e d i n g machinery,  thus making i t p o s s i b l e f o r one f i r e - m a n t o operate the whole plant.  I n the sawmill were double and s i n g l e c i r c u l a r saws o f  s i x t y i n c h diameter, a gang b o l t e r and l a t h e m i l l and a s i n g l e picket m i l l .  The p l a n i n g m i l l , which was  a t t a c h e d to the saw-  m i l l , had two machines o f note, a J.H. Small's s i n g l e  surfacer  49 D a i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a , January 1, 1884,  p.  50 The smoke and dust from these smoke-stacks were such a nuisance t h a t the o r i g i n a l school-house had t o be abandoned, and a new one b u i l t f u r t h e r from the m i l l .  1.  - 33 and matcher t h a t would t u r n out seven thousand f e e t o f 1 x 6 d a i l y , and a S.A.  Wood's double  l a t t e r machine, which was  s u r f a c e r and matcher.  b u i l t e s p e c i a l l y f o r the m i l l , had  d a i l y c a p a c i t y of t e n thousand 1 x 6 . plane double  This a  I n a d d i t i o n i t would  s u r f a c e 8 x 24 and plane on f o u r s i d e s 6 x  18.  There were a l s o , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the m i l l , a machine-shop, c a r p e n t e r shop and b l a c k s m i t h shop. 51 ,of Mr. P.A.  A l l e n , who  j o i n e d the company i n 1872  with i t f o r t h i r t y years.  E x t e n s i v e wharves had  f o r seven s h i p s a t a t i m e . was  T h i s l a t t e r was  i n charge  and  remained  accommodation  Behind the wharves the f o r e s h o r e  covered t o a depth of three f e e t with sawdust and r e f u s e ,  amid which the g e n e r a l s t o r e , h o t e l , a n d sheds stood on  piles.  A l o n g the shore, each s i d e of the m i l l , were the booming grounds whose u s u a l stock o f l o g s averaged  twelve m i l l i o n f e e t .  Moun-  t a i n streams poured q u a n t i t i e s o f snow water i n t o t h e I n l e t a t t h i s p o i n t , and the r e c e d i n g t i d e s l e f t t h e l o g s d r y , with: the r e s u l t t h a t toredos d i d l e s s damage a t these booming grounds than a t o t h e r s on the  Inlet.  M o o d y v i l l e i t s e l f was the m i l l , and surrounded  a p r e t t y townsite, c l u s t e r e d around  by v i r g i n f o r e s t .  The  community,  whose p o p u l a t i o n rose as h i g h as f o u r hundred, boasted a s t o r e , 51 While he was employed a t M o o d y v i l l e , P a t r i c k A. A l l e n i n v e s t e d i n p r o p e r t y on the North Shore a t a v e r y low f i g u r e . H i s h o l d i n g s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y i n v a l u e , and A l l e n was a b l e t o accumulate a s u f f i c i e n t f o r t u n e t o enable him t o r e t i r e and spend h i s o l d age i n comfort, an honoured p i o n e e r o f North Van*> couver.  - 34 h o t e l and company boarding house•  P r i v a t e residences centred  around an e l e v a t i o n known as "Knob H i l l . " hill  stood the " B i g House", the r e s i d e n c e of the manager.  the h i l l a l s o were the school-house white f a m i l i e s . did  At the top o f the  and the homes of the o t h e r  At the f o o t of the h i l l l i v e d such I n d i a n s  not s t a y on the nearby r e s e r v e .  s t r e e t s , Canary Row,  and the  Maiden Lane, and Kanaka Row.  so-called These were  the p a r t s where the b a c h e l o r s and beach-combers l i v e d . m a r r i e d he moved i n t o a house up the h i l l .  road was  as  Near the bottom of the  h i l l were the " r o o k e r i e s " of the Chinese,  a man  On  The  When only  a plank road running a l o n g the top, a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  the p r e s e n t F i r s t S t r e e t .  East of Knob H i l l i t t u r n e d down t o  the m i l l and along the beach.  M a i l s reached the p o s t  twice a day from Vancouver, and two settlement t h e i r headquarters. 52  office  steam f e r r i e s made the  I n the l i t t l e  church s e r v i c e s  were h e l d r e g u l a r l y , while a r e a d i n g room and l i b r a r y o f s i x hundred volumes c a t e r e d to the c u l t u r a l needs o f the  community.  A couple o f m i l e s west o f the m i l l stood the I n d i a n m i s s i o n , the s i n g l e s p i r e o f i t s church showing c l e a r l y a g a i n s t the 52 During the winter o f 1880-1881 Bishop S i l l i t o e , accomp a n i e d by h i s w i f e , conducted s e r v i c e s r e g u l a r l y at M o o d y v i l l e . They rode over from New Westminster on Saturday a f t e r n o o n , w i t h t h e i r luggage on t h e i r saddles behind them, and r e t u r n e d home on Monday morning. L a t e r the charge was taken over by the Reverend George Ditohman, incumbent of B u r r a r d I n l e t and the North Arm. — S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Evans and H a s t i n g s , 1923, p. 33.  dark f o r e s t background. almost  55  From the s t e p s o f t h i s l i t t l e  a t the water's edge, F a t h e r Fouquet and h i s I n d i a n con-  g r e g a t i o n watched the f i r e t h a t consumed Vancouver i n The  church,  1886.  o n l y o t h e r s i g n s o f l i f e were the homes of s e t t l e r s s c a t -  t e r e d s p a r s e l y from P o i n t A t k i n s o n to Seymour Creek,  Of the r e s i d e n t s o f M o o d y v i l l e , s p e c i a l mention should be made o f two  ladies,  Mrs, Murray T h a i n , whose husband was  longshoreman, appears t o have been v e r y a c t i v e In s o c i a l community l i f e .  a and  On one o c c a s i o n she took charge of the s c h o o l ,  which would otherwise have been c l o s e d f o r s e v e r a l months through l a c k o f a t e a c h e r .  Mrs. Susan P a t t e r s o n , w i f e o f John  Peabody P a t t e r s o n , l o g g e r , was  noted throughout  the l e n g t h and  breadth of the I n l e t f o r h e r care o f the s i c k .  At a time when  t h e r e was  no r e s i d e n t d o c t o r on the I n l e t , she m i n i s t e r e d with  equal s k i l l t o Indians and w h i t e s . 1886,  At the time of the  fire,  many Vancouver r e s i d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y found refuge at  Moodyville.  -  Communication with the south shore o f the I n l e t , and  stage to New  Westminster, was  e s s e n t i a l t o the l i f e  the  of Moody-  ville,  The v e r y f i r s t f e r r y s e r v i c e between B r i g h t o n and 53 Moody's was a row-boat operated by "Navvy Jack", otherwise 53 A c c o r d i n g t o Major Matthews of the Vancouver C i t y Arc h i v e s , John Thomas was a Welshman w e l l known on the I n l e t , i&e<^ty&8rs>il$®e*$3aE$ing he a c q u i r e d a s t r e t c h o f water f r o n t i n the present v i c i n i t y o f H o l l y b u r n , which i s s t i l l known as Navvy Jack^s T>oint. He a p p a r e n t l y s o l d g r a v e l from | h i g p r o p e r t y , s i n c e Navvy Jack g r a v e l i s a common Item or t r a d e  - 36 John Thomas. 1867,  "Navvy Jack" operated h i s f e r r y between 1866  i n which y e a r C a p t a i n James van Bramer brought the  and  "Sea 54  Foam" from the F r a s e r R i v e r and e s t a b l i s h e d h e r on the r u n . Meeting the stage from the Royal C i t y , the "Sea Foam" would c r o s s the I n l e t c a r r y i n g m a i l s and passengers f o r Moody's. t u r n i n g t o the south shore she would c a l l at Stamp's M i l l ,reach B r i g h t o n a g a i n New  Westminster.  Reand  i n time to connect w i t h the coach f o r  T h i s meant i n e f f e c t t h a t anyone w i s h i n g t o  make t h e f o u r m i l e journey from H a s t i n g s M i l l to Stamp's M i l l by f e r r y must f i r s t c r o s s the I n l e t to M o o d y v i l l e , a s u f f i c i e n t I n d i c a t i o n o f the importance o f t h a t v i l l a g e .  When the  "Sea  Foam" l e f t the s e r v i c e , about 1873, h e r p l a c e was taken by the "Chinaman", so c a l l e d because she had been brought from China 55 on the deck o f a lumber v e s s e l . By 1888'iMoodyville had i t s own f e r r y s e r v i c e .  The  steamer  " E l i z a " , p r o p e r t y o f the M o o d y v i l l e Steam F e r r y Company, L i m i t e d , a d v e r t i s e d a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e , making f i v e round t r i p s t o Vancouver  d a i l y , and one t o H a s t i n g s .  I t i s interesting to  note t h a t f o l l o w i n g the b u i l d i n g o f the r a i l w a y the mid-morning boat from Vancouver was o f the t r a i n . "  The  soheduled f o r 11:30  "or on the a r r i v a l  " E l i z a " c a r r i e d m a i l s and passengers,  54 Howay, F.W., E a r l y Settlement on B u r r a r d I n l e t , H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1, 1937, p . 101. 55 l o c . c i t .  B.C.  - 37 c h a r g i n g t w e n t y - f i v e cents p e r t r i p . boat  A t t h i s time t h e f e r r y -  " N e l l i e T a y l o r " a l s o r a n between Vancouver and M o o d y v i l l e ,  and was a v a i l a b l e  as w e l l f o r h i r e .  In addition  the Canadian  P a c i f i c Steamship Company r a n d a i l y steamers (Monday excepted) .between V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and M o o d y v i l l e ,  To sum up, when Vancouver was s t i l l  an i n f a n t town newly  l i n k e d t o the east by a r a i l w a y , M o o d y v i l l e was t h e c h i e f tlement on B u r r a r d I n l e t .  set-  West o f the m i l l and i t s t h r i v i n g  community stood the white c o t t a g e s and simple church o f the Indian Mission,  S c a t t e r e d a l o n g the n o r t h shore o f the I n l e t  were t h e homesteads o f a few p i o n e e r s e t t l e r s , however, had reached i t s prime. couver a wave o f r a p i d even a c r o s s the I n l e t ,  Moodyville,  The r a i l w a y brought t o Vanr-  settlement and expansion  which  spread  M o o d y v i l l e s u b s i d e d q u i e t l y i n t o the  background, completely over-shadowed by the m e t r o p o l i s t o the south and the t h r i v i n g community which was s p r i n g i n g up on i t s own o u t s k i r t s , 56 Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y , 1888, R.T. W i l l i a m s , V i c t o r i a , passim.  - 38 CHAPTER I I I PRE-EMPTIONS As shown i n the l a s t  1  chapter, i t was the timber which f i r s t  a t t r a c t e d i n t e r e s t t o the shores o f B u r r a r d I n l e t , and a des i r e t o e x p l o i t t h i s wealth l e d t o the e a r l i e s t pre-emptions here. Graham and Scrimgeour were the f i r s t the n o r t h s i d e o f the I n l e t .  t o pre-empt l a n d on  On November 26, 1862, they  filed  a c l a i m f o r 150 a c r e s " s i t u a t e d on the northward s i d e o f Burr a r d I n l e t about f o u r m i l e s above F i r s t Narrows." b u i l t the Pioneer M i l l s .  Here they  Moody and Nelson, who l a t e r a c q u i r e d  t h i s p r o p e r t y , o b t a i n e d the Crown Grant f o r the l a n d which was then surveyed as L o t 272, c o n t a i n i n g 218 a c r e s . 1865,  I n January  P h i l i p H i c k s pre-empted 160 acres " a d j o i n i n g Graham and  Scrimgeour's."  H i c k s a c t e d as agent f o r the P i o n e e r M i l l s ,  and i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t Graham and Scrimgeour had t h e use 1.  F o r l o c a t i o n o f l o t s see map,  Appendix p.x.  According t o a Land P r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d by Governor James Douglas i n 1861, the upset p r i c e o f country l a n d was set a t 4s. 2d. p e r a c r e . S i n g l e men who were B r i t i s h subj e c t s were p e r m i t t e d t o occupy 150 acres o f l a n d . T h i s was l a t e r changed by p r o c l a m a t i o n t o 160 a c r e s . A married man whose wife was i n the colony might c l a i m 200 a c r e s , and f o r each c h i l d under 18 and r e s i d e n t i n the c o l o n y , an a d d i t i o n a l 10 a c r e s . A pre-emptor was r e q u i r e d t o r e c o r d h i s c l a i m and pay f o r h i s l a n d upon occupying i t . At the end o f two years o c c u p a t i o n , i f he had put up improvements to the value o f 10s. p e r a c r e , he was granted a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improvement. I f .'he -continued -to. occupy a n d improve "!ther l a n d , the r e c e i v e d . a Crown Grant. • . r:or• .•:. ^ '  - 39 of  the l a n d .  There i s no t r a c e of a C e r t i f i c a t e of Improve-  ment a v a i l a b l e , which might i n d i c a t e t h a t H i c k s d i d not his  c l a i m w i t h i n the r e q u i r e d time.  I n 1874,  develop  when Moody and  Nelson a p p l i e d f o r the Crown Grant f o r t h i s l a n d a l s o , i t was surveyed  as Lot 273,  c o n t a i n i n g 194  J u s t one year l a t e r , January  acres.  1864,  I r a N. Sackett  filed  a c l a i m f o r the same ground, which he d e s c r i b e d i n these words: The I n d i a n Lodge i s d i s t a n t from my house about one m i l e . On the east i t i s j o i n e d by the l a n d of the sawmill but not immediately as t h e r e i s no corner p o s t s e t by them. On the c l a i m i s at p r e s e n t one d w e l l i n g house and a l a r g e b a r n . 2  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n q u i t e o b v i o u s l y r e f e r s to Lot 273, claimed once by H i c k s .  already  On the same date, a c l a i m was  filed  C o l l e y Lewis f o r a p a r c e l of l a n d "commencing from the  by  corner-  post of I r a S a c k e t t ' s on the e a s t , running on the w a t e r - l i n e 35 chains and 45.7  chains l e a d i n g to the I n t e r i o r .  On the west  the c l a i m i s j o i n e d at some d i s t a n c e o f about twenty chains t o the I n d i a n Lodge.". There can be l i t t l e Lot  274.  The  doubt t h a t t h i s  Indians at-the Lodge took e x c e p t i o n to  c l a i m , and sent t h e i r c h i e f , S n a t t , to complain at  New  Westminster.  was  Lewis'  to Judge Brew  Brew r e p o r t e d l y t o l d Snatt to "take away  the post and at the same time to n o t i f y Lewi-ss t h a t he had o r d e r 3 ed him to do so." T h i s i s presumably the reason why Lewis* 2.  B r i t i s h Columbia e s s i o n a l Papers, i o n , Papers R e l a t i n g t o .  3.  ibid.  s  1875,  I n d i a n Land Quest-  - 40 c l a i m was  allowed to l a p s e .  In 1867  hy Alexander M e r r y f i e l d , who, o b t a i n the t i t l e .  the l a n d was  claimed a g a i n  l i k e h i s predecessor, f a i l e d to'  The f o l l o w i n g year J o s i a h C h a r l e s Hughes,  of Moody's, pre-empted f i f t y a c r e s which he d e s c r i b e d as l y i n g between the l a n d f o r m e r l y taken up by H i c k s and t h a t then h e l d by M e r r y f i e l d .  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s was  p o r t i o n of Lot 274. ing  I n 1874,  r e a l l y the e a s t e r n  when Moody and Nelson were round-  out t h e i r h o l d i n g s , they o b t a i n e d the Crown Grants f o r both  these l o t s .  T h i s gave them approximately two m i l e s of shore  f r o n t a g e , exrending from Lynn Creek t o the f o o t of Lonsdale Avenue, and c o v e r i n g an area of 656 a c r e s . Meanwhile t h e r e had been an attempt ment e a s t of Lynn Creek. had f i l e d  at bona f i d e  In January 1863,  settle-  F r e d e r i c k Howson  a c l a i m f o r 160 a c r e s extending e a s t of Graham and  Scrimgeour's  c l a i m f o r 32 c h a i n s , and running n o r t h f o r 50  c h a i n s p a r a l l e l to t h e i r l i n e .  Howson allowed h i s c l a i m t o  l a p s e , but gave h i s name to the creek between him and Graham, which was known f o r some years as "Fred's Creek." was  pre-empted a g a i n i n 1865,  l e t his claim lapse. f i l e d by John L i n n . Royal Engineers who "Thames C i t y " .  I n 1867  The l a n d  by Thomas A. Strong, but he a c l a i m f o r t h i s same l a n d  Sapper L i n n "was  was  a member o f the p a r t y of  came out t o the colony i n 1859,  During the voyage h i s w i f e , who  him, gave b i r t h t o a son and h e i r .  also  The  aboard  the  accompanied  "Emigrant  Soldiers'  Gazette and Cape Horn C h r o n i c l e , " a paper i s s u e d by the p a r t y  - 41 to pass the time, duly recorded was r e c a l l e d ony.  the event.  4  When the p a r t y  i n 1863, some o f i t s members remained i n the c o l -  Among these was John L i n n , who was e n t i t l e d t o a g r a t u i t y 5  f o r long s e r v i c e .  Four years l a t e r , L i n n pre-empted Howson's  c l a i m on Burrard I n l e t .  I t would appear t h a t a t t h i s time he  f a i l e d t o improve the l a n d and the c l a i m l a p s e d . 1871,  In February,  he again a p p l i e d f o r t h i s l a n d , t h i s time as a m i l i t a r y  g r a n t , and s e t t l e d Moodyville  there.  H i s sons grew up t o work i n the  M i l l , and L i n n h i m s e l f  gave h i s name, with a s l i g h t  change o f s p e l l i n g , t o the creek which formed the western 6 boundary of h i s l a n d , now known as L o t 204. Preceding  L i n n by s e v e r a l y e a r s , Hugh Burr, i n 1865, had  made a p p l i c a t i o n t o purchase Lot 193, a p a r c e l o f l a n d i n g 169 acres east o f Seymour Creek.  contain-  F o r some reason t h i s  land  was surveyed and p u t up f o r a u c t i o n , while the surrounding  land  was open f o r pre-emption. to V i c t o r i a i n 1860.  Burr was an Irishman who had come  F o r a short time"he had charge o f the  Hudson's Bay Company's s t o r e a t F o r t A l e x a n d r i a ,  a f t e r which he  4.  Howay, F.W., Work o f the Royal Engineers i n B.C., V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1910, p.3.  5.  Correspondence C o l o n e l R.C. Moody, 1859, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , F . 1158.  6.  Nelson, Denys, Place Names o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , manu s c r i p t , v o l . I . The change i n s p e l l i n g i s probably due to l o c a l ignorance o r d i s r e g a r d f o r accuracy.  r e t u r n e d to New years.  One  42  Westminster, where he taught s c h o o l f o r two  o r two  j u d i c i o u s r e a l e s t a t e s v e n t u r e s brought  a neat l i t t l e p r o f i t .  Teaching  c o n d i t i o n s being f a r from s a t -  i s f a c t o r y , Burr decided to t u r n t o farming and purchased 7 l a n d east of Seymour Creek. Lot  611, was  "for  Cormack  the purpose o f e r e c t i n g a b u i l d i n g thereon f o r c a r r y i n g Cormack had p r o b a b l y come from New  s t e r to f i s h i n B u r r a r d I n l e t .  who  o b t a i n e d a Crown Grant i n 1888.  the next l o t , Lot 469, i n 1889.  i n 1870,  by Joseph B u r r ,  Hugh Burr pre-empted  and o b t a i n e d f u l l  possession  Thus the Burr f a m i l y a c q u i r e d a l l the s h o r e - l i n e be-  tween Seymour Creek and I n d i a n Reserve #3. 8 the f i r s t  Westmin-  The l a n d a p p a r e n t l y r e v e r t e d  the Crown, and was pre-empted again i n 1867  Jr.,  the  The neighbouring p a r c e l of l a n d ,  pre-empted the f o l l o w i n g year by W.E.  on the f i s h e r i e s " .  to  him  d a i r y - f a r m on the I n l e t ,  Burr e s t a b l i s h e d  and s u p p l i e d M o o d y v i l l e  with m i l k , which he d e l i v e r e d by row-boat.  The m i l l p r o v i d e d  a ready market f o r h i s produce, while s h i p s t h a t came f o r lumber always welcomed a supply of f r e s h f r u i t and The w a t e r f r o n t west of the m i l l was t h i s time.  I n 1869,  vegetables.  a l s o being taken up at  W i l l i a m Bridges occupied, and a few months  7.  B r i t i s h Columbia, B i o g r a p h i e s , Vancouver, S.J. C l a r k e , 1914, v o l . IV, p. 392.  8.  Howay, I.W., E a r l y Settlement on B u r r a r d I n l e t , B.C. o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . L, 1937, p. 101 e t seq.  Hist-  - 43 l a t e r pre-empted, the q u a r t e r - s e c t i o n afterwards surveyed as 9 Lot  271.  During the i n t e r v a l John Deighton,  sought t i t l e t o  20 acres o f t h i s l a n d , bounded on the west by the I n d i a n v i l l age, and h a v i n g a f r o n t a g e o f 10 c h a i n s .  Deighton's  claim r r e -  v i v e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the I n d i a n s , who a g a i n sought gov10 ernment p r o t e c t i o n .  I t appears as s t a t e d above,  t h a t the  Squamish t r i b e had entered the I n l e t about 1860, and s e l e c t e d a camp-site  on the f o r e - s h o r e .  Many o f them soon found work  at the m i l l , and so the camp developed i n t o a permanent v i l l a g e . Perhaps  because  were r e s e n t f u l  o f t h e i r own s l i m c l a i m t o the l a n d , the Indians o f white men s e t t l i n g nearby, and made s e v e r a l .  attempts t o have t h e l a n d surveyed and g a z e t t e d as a r e s e r v e . D e s p i t e the recommendation o f government o f f i c i a l s ,  t h i s was  not done, and the Indians had no l e g a l c l a i m t o the l a n d on which t h e i r v i l l a g e ?jas b u i l t .  I n 1868 they b u i l t a church i n  the v i l l a g e , and i t was the next year t h a t Deighton to b u i l d a house, as they s a i d , beside our church."  proposed  " i n the midst o f our v i l l a g e  C h i e f Snatt immediately appealed t o the  o f f i c e o f the C h i e f Commissioner o f Land and Works, and e i g h D  ton was o b l i g e d t o stop b u i l d i n g . l a n d be s e t a s i d e as a Reserve.  S n a t t asked a g a i n t h a t t h i s He t o l d a t o u c h i n g s t o r y ,  claim-  i n g t h a t the Squamish had camped a t the s i t e f o r many y e a r s 9. 10.  "Gassy Jack" Deighton o f Gasstown. ee b  See above, Chapter I , p . 6, f n .  Chapter I I , p . 19 f n .  - 44 b e f o r e t h e w h i t e man came t o t h e I n l e t .  While  admitting that  t h e y h a d n o t r e s i d e d p e r m a n e n t l y on t h e l a n d , b u t f o l l o w i n g t h e c u s t o m o f t h e i r p e o p l e , h a d come a n d g o n e , he c l a i m e d t h a t had he  always l e f t  some b e h i n d  said, their village  s i n g l e men. frontage.  He a s k e d  f o r t h e m 200 a c r e s w i t h f o r t y c h a i n o f  P r o b a b l y w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o Deight*-: { that the twenty chains o f frontage  s i d e was a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l ,  since the correspond-  s t r e t c h o n t h e w e s t s i d e was l a r g e l y mud f l a t s ,  proachable they wished  at low t i d e .  the spot. eserve 111  out byythe  As a r e s u l t o f S n a t t s a u t h o r i t y o f the governor  #1, c o n t a i n i n g 35 a c r e s .  pear that before  I t would ap-  B r i d g e s a man named T r i m h a d s t a k e d t h i s c l a i m , 12  i n 1864, and had p l a n t e d a p p l e t r e e s t h e r e .  Apparently  r i g h t s , a n d s o B r i d g e s was a b l e  B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l Papers, ion, Papers R e l a t i n g t o . u  Both  i n existence.  d i d not apply f o r pre-emption  11.  on  I n t h e same n o t i c e a n a r e a o f 11  Meanwhile, W i l l i a m Bridges' c l a i m remained.  12.  appeal  1  a c r e s w e s t o f L o t 469 was s e t a s i d e a s R e s e r v e #3.  probably  that  On November 2 5 , 1 8 6 9 , t h e l a n d was g a z e t t e d a s I n d i a n  Reserves are s t i l l  he  and unap-  I t was o n t h e e a s t s i d e , he s a i d ,  t o b u i l d t h e i r homes.  t h i s r e s e r v e was l a i d  K  time,  c o n s i s t e d o f f i f t y f a m i l i e s and s i x t e e n  claim, Snatt maintained  on t h e m i l l ing  At t h i s  This f r o n t a g e , Snatt s a i d , extended twenty c h a i n each  side of the church. on's  t o occupy t h e p l a c e .  they  1875, I n d i a n Land  r a n t , J.N., B u r r a r d I n l e t i n Early, Times, B r i t i s h b i a M a g a z i n e , J u n e 1 9 1 1 , p . 487 - 4 9 7 .  Quest-  Colum-  - 45 to f i l e h i s c l a i m .  There i s no t r a c e of a C e r t i f i c a t e of Ix%~  provement, hut Bridges d i d not a l l o w the c l a i m to l a p s e .  He  d i e d , however, before o b t a i n i n g a Crown Grant, the l a t t e r  being  i s s u e d i n 1885 tate.  to James Gharles P r e v o s t , A d m i n i s t r a t o r of E s -  The p r o p e r t y passed  i n t o the hands of one Thomas Turner,  and the c l a i m became known l o c a l l y as "Tom which name i t r e t a i n e d f o r many y e a r s .  Turner's Farm",  I t v/as s a i d t h a t Tur-  ner i n h e r i t e d the l a n d from an u n c l e , whose w i l l was  found i n  a trunk l o n g a f t e r h i s death.  T h i s f a c t l i n k s up w e l l with  r e c o r d showing the Crown Grant  i s s u e d to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of  E s t a t e , and i t may question.  be presumed t h a t B r i d g e s was  the  the uncle i n  The farm, west of the F e r r y Wharf at the p r e s e n t  f o o t of Lonsdale Avenue, was down t o the water.  a pleasure place sloping gently  On the beach stood a cottage of  w i t h ce,dar-shake r o o f , a barn and garden. Vancouver the g r a s s y s l o p e , p i c n i c spot.  boards,  For residents of  and shady orchard made a p o p u l a r  Turner v i e d w i t h Burr o f Seymour Creek i n supply-  i n g M o o d y v i l l e and H a s t i n g s M i l l with farm produce. While B r i d g e s and Deighton  were a c q u i r i n g Lot 271,  William  Ross, i n March of the same y e a r , f i l e d a c l a i m f o r a q u a r t e r s e c t i o n j u s t i n s i d e the F i r s t Narrows. some 42 c h a i n , t h i s l a n d was  Having a f r o n t a g e of  sandwiched between an I n d i a n Re  serve on the west, and a timber l e a s e h e l d by Moody and on the e a s t .  Nelson  Ross' schemes a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e ,  f o r i n November of the same year Samuel C h a r l e s Howse, a c a r p e n t e r , a p p l i e d f o r the same l a n d as a M i l i t a r y Grant.  His  ap-  46 l i c a t i o n was  -  f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d , and e a r l y i n 1871  both a M i l i t a r y Grant  he  and a Crown Grant f o r L o t 264.  Howse and I n d i a n Reserve #1 two more M i l i t a r y Grants sued i n February  1872.  obtained Between were i s -  W i l l i a m Edwards and P h i l i p Jackman,..  both f o r m e r l y w i t h the Royal E n g i n e e r s , were granted 150 each, L o t s 265 and 266  respectively.  a long-service gratuity. of  Edwards was  acres  e n t i t l e d to  Jackman had p r e v i o u s l y l o c a t e d west  Seymour Creek, on the s i t e of I n d i a n Reserve  #2.  During the next f i f t e e n y e a r s , the w a t e r f r o n t o u t s i d e the F i r s t Narrows was  taken up, l a r g e l y by men  n e c t i o n with M o o d y v i l l e . immediately  J". C. Hughes, who  had  some con-  pre-empted L o t  west of the C a p i l a n o I n d i a n Reserve, was 13  p r e s i d e n t of the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e . t i c s , and i n 1875 the Member f o r New Inlet.  who  was  the  237,  first  L a t e r he e n t e r e d  poli-  e l e c t e d to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly as  Westminster D i s t r i c t , which i n c l u d e d B u r r a r d  James Blake, who  pre-empted Lot 775 i n 1872,  t r a n s f e r r e d h i s c l a i m to John Thomas, o p e r a t o r of the 14 f e r r y s e r v i c e to M o o d y v i l l e .  later first  Thomas q u a r r i e d a type of g r a v e l  which came to be c a l l e d a f t e r him, while to t h i s day p a r t of the f o r e - s h o r e here i s known as Navvy Jack's P o i n t . 13. See above, Chapter 2, p. 27. 14. i b i d , p.  35,  In  January  - 47 1886, Lots 554, 555, and 556 were pre-empted r e s p e c t i v e l y by J . R. Chapman and James McCormack, l o g g e r s , and A. N. C. K i n g , clerk, a l l of Moodyville.  On the same date c l a i m s were a l s o  f i l e d by S t a n l e y James and Walter Erwin.  James, who pre-empted  Lot 558, was employed as a c l e r k at M o o d y v i l l e , while Erwin the keeper o f the l i g h t h o u s e a t ^ o i n t A t k i n s o n . Lot 582.  was  H i s c l a i m was  L o t 557 was claimed the f o l l o w i n g year by P a t r i c k A.  A l l e n , b l a c k s m i t h of M o o d y v i l l e .  Born i n I r e l a n d , A l l e n was  thrown on h i s own r e s o u r c e s a t an e a r l y age, and came t o America. He g r a d u a l l y worked h i s way wesy t o San F r a n c i s c o .  I n 1872 he  came n o r t h t o M o o d y v i l l e , where he found employment as a b l a c k smith, a p o s i t i o n v/hich he h e l d f o r t h i r t y y e a r s .  During  this  time he i n v e s t e d i n p r o p e r t y w i t h s u f f i c i e n t success t o enable 15, 16 him t o spend h i s d e c l i n i n g y e a r s i n comfort. 15.  B r i t i s h Columbia, B i o g r a p h i e s , v o l . I I I .  16.  Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , the w r i t e r i s endebted f o r the m a t e r i a l of t h i s chapter t o L a i n g , F.W. , C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, manuscript, p. 22-29.  CHAPTER IV  r  48  MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT  The o r i g i n a l pre-emptors o f N o r t h Shore home-steads as w e l l as the M o o d y v i l l e Sawmill Company, g r a d u a l l y a l l o w e d t h e i r p r o p e r t y to pass i n t o the hands o f i n d i v i d u a l  speculators.  With the i n c o r p o s a t i o n o f the C i t y o f Vancouver i n 1886,  and  the a r r i v a l o f the f i r s t t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l t r a i n i n 1887,  these  men  f e l t t h a t the time was a t hand t o r e a l i z e on t h e i r  ments.  invest-  Whtle the t o t a l number o f p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s i s not known,  t h e r e were a t l e a s t f o r t y - t h r e e l i v i n g i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver who  took an a c t i v e p a r t i n the p r o c e e d i n g s o f the next 1  few months.  On December 29, 1890, a meeting of North Shore  p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s was h e l d i n the o f f i c e o f R o u n s f e l l & Company, Vancouver.  Twenty-eight men  were p r e s e n t a t t h i s meeting, and 2 t w e n t y - s i x a t a subsequent meeting. The chairman, s t a t i n g the r e a s s o n why the meeting was c a l l e d , p o i n t e d out the great ad3 n  vantage i t would be t o the p r o p e r t y owners i f a m u n i c i p a l i t y were formed t h e r e .  M  o f the North Shore  A l l p r e s e n t d e c l a r e d them-  s e l v e s i n f a v o u r o f such a s t e p , and a committee 4 " t o see what c o u l d be done i n t t h e matter  was a p p o i n t e d  At a second meet-  i n g , January 3, 1891, the q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d as t o whether M o o d y v i l l e should be I n c l u d e d i n the new m u n i c i p a l i t y , and i t 1. Minute Book o f N o r t h Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y Meetings, 18901891. I n p o s s e s s i o n o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y . 2. i b i d . 3. i b i d . 4. i b i d .  - 49 5 was agreed t o w r i t e t o R. P. R i t h e t , i n V i c t o r i a f o r h i s consent.  R i t h e t * s r e p l y , when r e c e i v e d , being t o the e f f e c t  that  he d i d not wish DL 872 and 273 t o be i n c l u d e d i n the new muni c i p a l i t y , i t was r e s o l v e d t o exclude these l o t s as r e q u e s t e d . In o r d e r t o d e f r a y the cost of i n c o r p o r a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s , a number of the p r o p e r t y  owners guaranteed the p r e l i m i n a r y ex-  penses on the understanding t h a t t h e y were t o be r e p a i d out o f the  f i r s t taxes when the m u n i c i p a l i t y was formed.  g u a r a n t o r s , A. E . McCartney, being a surveyor, 6 t o draw out a map of the new m u n i c i p a l i t y .  One o f the  was i n s t r u c t e d  A f o r m a l p e t i t i o n signed by those pre-emptors,  property-  owners and r e s i d e n t s who favoured a m u n i c i p a l i t y was presented t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government, and on August 10, 1891, l e t t e r s p a t e n t approving the i n c o r p o r a t i o n were i s s u e d i n the name o f 7 the Honourab l e Hugh Nelson, f o r m e r l y  of Moodyville,  Lieutenant-Governor of the p r o v i n c e .  T h i s document d e f i n e d the  boundaries o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and p r o v i d e d ment o f m u n i c i p a l  government.  f o r the e s t a b l i s h -  I t decreed t h a t :  a l l t h a t Jtiece o f l a n d commencing a t a post marked GFB s i t u a t e d on the Westerly shore o f 5.  See above - Chapter 2, p<> 24  6.  Minute Book  7.  See above - Chapter 2, Po 16  and now  -  50  the North Arm of Burrard I n l e t , being the n o r t h - e a s t corner of l o t numbered 872 i n the D i s t r i c t of NewWestminster; thence west a l o n g the n o r t h boundary of s a i d l o t numbered 872 t o the north-west corner t h e r e o f ; thence i n a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n to the n o r t h east c o r n e r of l o t numbered 956; thence west a l o n g the n o r t h e r n boundary of s a i d l o t numbered 956 to the n o r t h east c o r n e r of l o t numbered 985 s i t u a t e d on Seymour Creek; thence west along the n o r t h e r n boundary of s a i d l o t ; thence i n a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n t o the n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r of l o t numbered 875; thence west a l o n g the n o r t h e r n boundaries of l o t s numbered 875 and 874 and a l i n e produced t o the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the c o a s t l i n e on Howe Sound; thence s o u t h e r l y along the c o a s t - l i n e , t o P o i n t A t k i n s o n ; thence east along the c o a s t - l i n e and the n o r t h shore o f B u r r a r d I n l e t t o a post i n the south-west corner o f l o t number ed 273; thence n o r t h a l o n g the west boundary of s a i d l o t t o the north-west corner; thence e a s t a l o n g the n o r t h boundary of s a i d l o t numbered 273 and l o t number ed 272 t o the n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r of s a i d l o t numbered 272; thence south a l o n g the e a s t boundary thence e a s t e r l y along the shore l i n e t o Roche P o i n t ; thence n o r t h e r l y a l o n g the west shore of the North Arm of B u r r a r d I n l e t a f o r e s a i d to the p o i n t of Commencement and c o n t a i n i n g 100 square m i l e s more o r l e s s should be organized as "The North Vancouver."  C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t  of  The L e t t e r s Patent went on t o i n s t r u c t t h a t  the C o u n c i l s h a l l c o n s i s t of f o u r C o u n c i l l o r s and a Reeve, and the whole number present a t each meeting s h a l l be not l e s s than t h r e e . Nomination s h a l l take p l a c e and the p o l l , ( i f any), s h a l l be h e l d at the r e s i d e n c e of Mr. Thomas Turner, s i t u a t e on Lot 271, Group 1, New Westminster D i s t r i c t . Nomination f o r the f i r s t e l e c t i o n of C o u n c i l l o r s s h a l l be on the 22nd, day of August 1891, at 12 noon.. ..The f i r s t meeting of the c o u n c i l s h a l l be h e l d on the f i r s t Saturday a f t e r the day of e l e c t i o n a t the r e s i d e n c e of the s a i d Mr. Thomas Turner a t 12 n o o n .  9  8.  A p p a r e n t l y should be  957.  9.  The o r i g i n a l i s i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver.  - 51 An e l e c t i o n was h e l d a c c o r d i n g l y , on August the premises b e t t e r known l o c a l l y as "Tom  29, 1891, on 10  Turner's Farm,"  J . P. Phibbs was e l e c t e d Reeve, and Thomas Turner one o f t h e councillors.  At the s t a t u t o r y meeting h e l d a c c o r d i n g t o i n -  s t r u c t i o n s , the Reeve and C o u n c i l were sworn i n , a f t e r  which  the meeting adjourned, t o reconvene on September 12, a t the 11 Reeve's m i l k ranch on Seymour Creek. At t h i s time the whole m u n i c i p a l i t y was  v i r g i n timber l a n d ,  and the f i r s t t a s k o f the n e w l y - e l e c t e d c o d n c i l was trunk roads through i t s v a s t t e r r i t o r y .  t o open up  A c c o r d i n g l y , a by-law  was passed on F e b r u a r y 15, 1892,  t o enable the c o u n c i l t o ne12 g o t i a t e a l o a n o f $40,000 on debentures f o r 50 years a t 8%. 13 14 J . 0. K e i t h underwrote the l o a n a t p a r , and i n r e t u r n the road was named a f t e r him.  Messrs W i l l i a m s Bros, and Dawson were  em-  p l o y e d as e n g i n e e r s and i n s t r u c t e d t o l a y out a road from Howe Sound t o the North Arm  of B u r r a r d I n l e t .  However, a decade o f  f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n i n t e r v e n e d , and i t was not u n t i l March 10.  See above, c h a p t e r 3, p.4^o  11.  Express, North Vancouver,  12.  ibid  B. C. August  25,  1902  1905.  13. James Cooper K e i t h , born i n S c o t l a n d i n 1852 of a w e l l known f a m i l y o f f i n a n c i e r s , came t o V i c t o r i a i n 1876 t o take a p o s i t i o n i n the Bank o f B r i t i s h Columbia. He marr i e d the daughter of Roderick F i n l a y s o n , o f f i c i a l o f the Hudson's Bay Company and second commander oo"f t h F o f t . L _=:f V i c t o r i a . I n 1902 he was manager of the Vancouver branch of the Bank o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 14.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 4, 1941, address by-Rodger Burnes. .  Old Timers, an  - 52 t h a t t h r e e c o n t r a c t s were l e t one  f o r the Seymour and  Lillooet  Roads, one f o r D e i t h Road f r o m the C a p i l a n o R i v e r t o the 15 Arm,  and one f o r the b r i d g e s ,  North  and t h a t s e c t i o n of K e i t h Road  which extends from Capilano R i v e r to Eagle Harbour.  T he c a r r y -  i n g out o f these works i n v o l v e d a f u r t h e r l o a n o f #20,000 i n debentures a t 7$ i n t e r e s t .  These two  loans, being r a i s e d at a 16  h i g h r a t e o f i n t e r e s t , made necessary a s p e c i a l t a x r a t e , imposing  a heavy burden upon the young m u n i c i p a l i t y .  It  thus was  t h e r e f o r e a c r u e l blow which f a t e d e a l t the D i s t r i c t when f a l l f r e s h e t s c a r r i e d away the C a p i l a n o and Seymour Bridges soon 17 a f t e r they were completed. Furthermore, the f i n a n c i a l s t a n d i n g o f the d i s t r i c t was 18 poor, and i t s assessed value so s m a l l ,  t h a t i t was  found  so  im-  p o s s i b l e t o r a i s e a f u r t h e r l o a n w i t h which t o r e b u i l d the b r i d g e s o r c a r r y out o t h e r improvements.  I n consequence, dev-  elopment was at a s t a n d s t i l l f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Disappointed. landowners allowed t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o go to s a l e r a t h e r than pay 19 the taxes a s s e s s e d .  I n an attempt t o r e t a i n p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e ,  between 1895  the M u n i c i p a l i t y bought i n l a r g e areas of  and 1899  15.  K e i t h Road c r o s s e d a number of mountain streams and three r i v e r s , the Seymour, Lynn and C a p i l a n o , which at times became r a g i n g t o r r e n t s , washing out t h e i r b r i d g e s on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  16.  In 1905  17.  E x p r e s s , August 25,  18.  A M u n i c i p a l i t y i s p e r m i t t e d to borrow up t o 20% of i t s assessed v a l u e . See R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1936, V o l . 2. p.2938 .... •  19.  t h i s was  13 m i l l s , on l a n d v a l u e o n l y . 1905.  See Table A, Appendix p. i .  -  53  l a n d a t t a x s a l e , thus r e n d e r i n g less stable.  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the landowners o f t h i s time were  s p e c u l a t o r s r e s i d e n t elsewhere. there was  i t s financial position s t i l l  In 1897,  i t was  found t h a t  only'one person q u a l i f i e d , as a r e s i d e n t owner f o r  councillor.  The  D i s t r i c t d r i f t e d along f o r seven months w i t h -  out a c o u n c i l , pending the passage of a s p e c i a l amendment o f 23. the M u n i c i p a l E l e c t i o n s A c t f o r i t s r e l i e f . a f f a i r s s t i l l f u r t h e r discouraged o f s t a g n a t i o n continued  Such a s t a t e of  the r a t e p a y e r s ,  u n t i l 1902.  and the  period  I n the f i r s t decade o f i t s  l i f e , the t o t a l assessed  value o f the l a n d i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y 22 d e c l i n e d by n e a r l y $300,000. One  of the e a r l y o b s t a c l e s t o settlement  the l a c k of any Moodyville  w as undoubtedly  d i r e c t means of communication with Vancouver. 23  had a r e g u l a r f e r r y s e r v i c e ,  but the o n l y means o f  communication between Vancouver and North Vancouver was boat o r eanoe.  I n the s p r i n g o f 1894  h e l d , at which a committee was  via  a r a t e p a y e r s meeting  rowwas  s e t up t o make i n q u i r i e s about  a steamer s u i t a b l e f o r f e r r y purposes, and about terms of p u r chase. and  A number of s m a l l c r a f t were i n v e s t i g a t e d without  f i n a l l y the committee entered  into negotiations with  Union Steamship Company, whereby the l a t t e r agreed t o run .20*  v  Municipal'.-Elections ^ c t 1897, iSee' Table B, ppendix:-p.". i i " . A  3S5»  the the  &'ss r e q u i r e d "by:, the /Municipal Clausesf Act. 1 8 9 . 6 , . . i c t . , ch. 3 7 v  21.  success  §e&  above,:'Chapter 2, p.  36.  61 V i c t . , ch. v :•*:.  "  68.  - 54 S. S. Senator from M o o d y v i l l e t o North Vancouver and Vancouver. Among the terms proposed was an agreement t o r u n t r i p s timed to  enable r e s i d e n t s o f North Vancouver t o r e a c h Vancouver a t  7.45 a.m.  and 9.15  a.m.,  and t o leave Vancouver a t 5.15  p.m.  weekdays. Close on the heel§ of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t of  North Vancouver had come the l a r g e r e a l e s t a t e  companies,  who d i v i d e d among themselves those l o t s t h a t now form the towns i t e o f North Vancouver C i t y , o r contiguous p a r t s o f t h e D i s trict.  Foremost among these was t h e North Vancouver Land and  Improvement Company.  I n c o r p o r a t e d i n August 1891 with stock  worth $500,000, i t s p r i n c i p a l shares were h e l d by J . Mahon i n England.  Mahon  sent h i s b r o t h e r Edward out t o become p r e s i -  dent o f the company and a l s o an a c t i v e member o f Mahon, McFarl a n d and Mahon, who s o l d much o f the Company's l a n d .  Other  noted s h a r e h o l d e r s were J . B a l f o u r K e r and James Cooper K e i t h . K e i t h , who had l o n g been a l o v e r o f the North Shore, had been one o f the prime i n s t i g a t o r s o f t h e movement f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and subsequently was a c t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g  the  f e r r y s e r v i c e mentioned above.  The North-Vancouver Land  and Improvement Company a c q u i r e d p o s s e s s i o n of L o t s 271,  544,  545, 546, 547, 548, 549, and 550, and opened some of them f o r 24 e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t . Lonsdale E s t a t e , whose c h i e f s h a r e h o l d e r s 24. ~ .  Heywobd-LonsdaJLe and. James Pemberton F e l l were Englishmen, members of the same f a m i l y . F e l l , who i s s t i l l l i v i n g i n Vancouver'/:came to Canada as manager o f the Lonsdale Estate.  - 55 were Heywood-Lonsdale and J . P. F e l l , o b t a i n e d L o t s 264, 266,  and 553,  19G3.  but d i d not open t h e i r 25  A. S t . George Hammersley  a l s o was  265,  land to s e t t l e r s  until  bought up D. L. 274,  which  c l o s e d t o settlement f o r some y e a r s .  Would-be s e t t -  l e r s of l a n d c l o s e s t t o Vancouver were t h e r e f o r e o b l i g e d t o  buy  from the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company, which they d i d .  I n 1896  the g r e a t p a r t o f the Company's l a n d s were  surveyed f o r settlement, and i n 1897 rived.  the f i r s t  home-makers a r -  That year and the next a t l e a s t f i v e f a m i l i e s moved i n .  Unable t o o b t a i n Stand near the w a t e r - f r o n t , they took up i n D. L. 549,  acreage  i n the p r e s e n t v i c i n i t y of 15th S t r e e t e a s t of  Lonsdale Avenue.  That Avenue i n those days was  a l o g g i n g road  t h a t f o l l o w e d an i r r e g u l a r course somewhat west o f i t s p r e s e n t location. men  A l l s u p p l i e s had t o be c a r r i e d up t h i s road.  commuted d a i l y on the Senator t o t h e i r p l a c e s of  The  business  i n Vancouver, e a c h . c a r r y i n g a h a l f - g a l l o n can which he brought home at n i g h t f u l l of m i l k .  At home there were t r e e s t o f e l l  and l a n d to c l e a r p r e p a r a t o r y to p l a n t i n g a garden.  Building  m a t e r i a l c o u l d be obtained from M o o d y v i l l e , or from Vancouver, as a l s o c o u l d g r o c e r i e s .  Mountain streams, l a t e r supplemented  by w e l l s , s u p p l i e d a l l water f o r domestic  purposes,  F i s h were  abundant i n the streams, while meat and game c o u l d be taken o f f 25.  Hammersley was a member of the f i r m of Drake Jackson and Company, B a r r i s t e r s , Vancouver, and was f o r a number o f y e a r s S o l i c i t o r f o r the C i t y of Vancouver.  - 56 the l a n d ,  " ^ e t t l e r s continued  t o come, and by 1901 the B r i t i s h  Columbia D i r e c t o r y speaks o f North Vancouver as "a suburban townsite on the north side o f B u r r a r d I n l e t , opposite Vancouver " 26 city, and the census f o r the same year records a p o p u l a t i o n 27 o f 365 persons. The same D i r e c t o r y r e v e a l s the e x i s t e n c e a t t h a t 28 time i n North Vancouver o f an A n g l i c a n Church, a Roman C a t h o l i c 29 30 M i s s i o n , and two c a n n e r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g year saw the estab31 lishment o f a l o c a l grocery, and the well-known H o t e l North 32 Vancouver, which immediately became a community c e n t r e . The  t i d e was now d e f i n i t e l y t u r n i n g f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  A l a n d boom, which had s e t i n d u r i n g 1900, was a c c e l e r a t e d by the movements o f the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway, 26.  Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazeteer and D i r e c t o r y , v o l . V I I , 1900-1901, Henderson P u b l i s h i n g Company, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, p . 209.  27.  Census of Canada, 1921, v o l . I , p . 215.  28.  S t . John's.  29.  M i s s i o n and Boarding  30.  Great Northern Cannery, and Whiteside and Bickman Cannery, Eagle Harbour.  31. 32.  School.  I d e a l Grocery, J.A. M c M i l l a n , who a l s o was postmaster f o r 10 y e a r s . Larsen was a l s o p r o p r i e t o r o f the H o t e l Norden on Cordova S t r e e t . He a d v e r t i s e d the H o t e l North Vancouver as f o l l o w s : Newest and Best Summer ^ e s o r t . Rates #2.00 p e r day. S p e c i a l r a t e s f o r F a m i l i e s and Regular Boarders. R i g s and saddle h o r s e s t o v i s i t Capilano Canyon. E x c e l l e n t F e r r y S e r v i c e with Vancouver C i t y . — Henderson's D i r e c t o r y , v o l . X I , 1904.  - 57 whose c h a r t e r p r o v i d e d f o r a l i n e a l o n g the n o r t h shore of 33 rard Inlet,  E v e r y a v a i l a b l e p a r c e l of l a n d was  s o l d , s u b d i v i d e d and r e - s u b d i v i d e d .  I n 1903  s o l d and r e -  the Lonsdale  t a t e and D i s t r i c t Lot 274 were opened up f o r s e t t l e m e n t . 34 same year, T. S. Nye,  r e t u r n i n g from the Boer War,  L o t 2026 as the grant due  Bur-  EsThe  selected  to him f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e  and  the C o u n c i l opened up Lonsdale Avenue to the boundary of h i s land.  S e t t l e r s moved i n t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y . At every meeting  the C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d requests from persons wanting roads opened up t o the homes they proposed 35 was  opened i n 1902,  ing year. i n 1903  The  was  to b u i l d .  The  s c h o o l , which  i n need of a second t e a c h e r the f o l l o w -  e x i s t i n g f e r r y s e r v i c e proved  inadequate,  the North Vancouver F e r r y and Power Company was 36  t o operate a s u i t a b l e s e r v i c e . the C o u n c i l themselves  and formed  Caught on the c r e s t of the boom,  r e s o l v e d t h a t " i n view of the p r e s e n t  a c t i v i t y i n lumber and the supposed value of timber on v a r i o u s p a r c e l s of l a n d h e l d by the C o r p o r a t i o n , and i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the value of the lands themselves...  a surveyor and  timber  c r u i s e r be employed t o value m u n i c i p a l h o l d i n g s and a d v e r t i s e ments put i n the papers 33. see below, Chapter 34. Son of A.D. Nye who Vancouver Land and e r of A . J . Nye and 35, See below, Chapter 36.  of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and ^ e a t t l e . 7, p. 101. bought an acre 6flahdofrom'^the North Improvement Company i n 1898, and b r o t h C H . Nye who pre-empted i n Lynn V a l l e y 9, p. 143.  See below, Chapter 6, p.  96.  - 58  -  Taeoma and San F r a n c i s c o that the C o u n c i l has 37 for sale,"  lands with  timber  The assessment of the m u n i c i p a l i t y began to  and with i t the borrowing power.  In September 1903,  rise,  the  C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d a p e t i t i o n signed by more than h a l f the  land-  owners, a s k i n g f o r a by-law to a u t h o r i z e the r a i s i n g , by way  of  debentures, of a l o a n of $100,000.00 to repurchase p r e v i o u s 38  de-  bentures and c o n s o l i d a t e the debt.  T h i s move enabled the Coun-  c i l t o r e b u i l d the Capilano and ^eymour Bridges 39 destroyed  ten years  before,  i o n of a M u n i c i p a l B a l l .  Ever s i n c e the  inauguration  O f f i c e had  of Court G i l d i n g , Richards  ^ t r e e t , Vancouver.  meeting each year, v/hich had I t was  now  of  of the  Hotel  proposed to secure l o t s and  was  Inns  Statutory  r e c e n t l y been h e l d i n the  minimum cost of the f i r s t instalment to the new  the  C o u n c i l meetings  v i d e a b u i l d i n g l o c a l l y of a nature to permit a d d i t i o n s .  a donation  erect-  been l o c a t e d i n the  a l s o been h e l d t h e r e , with the e x c e p t i o n  North Vancouver.  been  and to f i n a n c e plans f o r the  m u n i c i p a l i t y , the M u n i c i p a l  had  which had  to be #1000.  proThe As  b u i l d i n g , the c o u n c i l members agreed to  waive t h e i r i n d e m n i t i e s f o r the c u r r e n t year, which amounted to 40 | 300. per month. From s e v e r a l proposed s i t e s , one was f i n a l l y 37.  Minutes of C o u n c i l Meeting, January 28,  38.  i b i d , September 3,  39.  See  40.  Minutes of C o u n c i l Meeting, January 17,  above, p.  1903.  1903.  52. 1903.  - 59 s e l e c t e d i a t the n o r t h e a s t corner of F i r s t S t r e e t and Avenue.  The owner, A, S t . George Hammersley, agreed  t h r e e l o t s f o r $500. 41 for.  ready f o r use b e f o r e t h e end of t h e  and Esplanade  sell called  Municipal  year.  There f o l l o w e d a p e r i o d of r a p i d expansion. nue  to  Plans were o b t a i n e d , and tenders  Work continued through the summer and the new  H a l l was  Lonsdale  Honsdale Ave-  became a business c e n t r e , b o a s t i n g a dozen  f i r m s o f f e r i n g f o r s a l e goods and g r o c e r i e s , hardware, drygoods and r e a l e s t a t e .  I n November 1905  the f i r s t  bank, a  branch o f the Bank of North America, opened i t s doors. 42 that year the Western C o r p o r a t i o n was  established.  drugs,  Pgiorh^o  This firm  not o n l y d e a l t i n r e a l e s t a t e , but a l s o b u i l t a s a w m i l l , ed land.and the f i r s t of  erected b u i l d i n g s .  I n c l u d e d among the l a t t e r were  business block i n North Vancouver, and a l s o a number  the b i g g e r r e s i d e n c e s .  i n c l u d i n g Wallace and one  Other businesses f o l l o w e d r a p i d l y ,  Shipyards, and two h o t e l s , one  at C a p i l a n o .  L a c k i n g a telephone  on Second S t r e e t  A l l goods e n t e r e d the town v i a the system the wharfinger  41.  Two  t o o t s were f o r McMillan's  ferries.  d e v i s e d a system of  c a l l s with a horn to warn consignees when t h e i r goods had ived.  clear-  arr-  s t o r e , t h r e e f o r Larsen's  The complete c o s t of the b u i l d i n g and l a n d cannot be determined. Records show t h a t the A r c h i t e c t r e c e i v e d $500. f o r the p l a n s , and the b u i l d e r s $3998.47 a t v a r i o u s dates. There would^also be c o s t s of c l e a r i n g the l a n d , and proba b l y other sums as w e l l . I n 1912, under a r b i t r a t i o n p r o ceedings, the C i t y of North Vancouver s o l d the H a l l to the F e d e r a l Government, f o r a p o s t O f f i c e , f o r $93,650.00.  . 42. See below, chapter 8, p 116 „  - 60 h o t e l , a l o n g and two short ones f o r the E x p r e s s , and two l o n g 43 t o o t s f o r the butcher shop. I t was <tn 1905 a l s o t h a t George B a r t l e y gave the town I t s f i r s t  l o c a l newspaper, the E x p r e s s , 44  l a t e r t o be known as the North Shore P r e s s . c i t y decided t o stop h o l d i n g o f f i c i a l  I n 1906 Vancouver  Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s .  At the i n s t i g a t i o n o f the Express the North Shore came forward and staged i t i n i t i a l F i r s t o f J u l y f e s t i v i t i e s . ities,  These f e s t i v -  which became an annual event u n t i l i n t e r r u p t e d by the  F i r s t World War, a t t r a c t e d huge crowds from a c r o s s the I n l e t t o the grounds and beach i n f r o n t o f Larsen's H o t e l .  The p r o -  gramme, which i n c l u d e d r a c e s , b r o n c h o - b u s t i n g and canoe r a c e s .against I n d i a n teams, came t o a climax i n the a f t e r n o o n w i t h the a s c e n s i o n o f a huge s m o k e - f i l l e d b a l l o o n , b e a r i n g w i t h i t a trapeze a r t i s t who f i n a l l y parachuted t o s a f e t y .  Put up from  the grounds o f the H o t e l , the b a l l o o n would d r i f t s e v e r a l m i l e s before coming down, p r o b a b l y i n t h e f o r e s t s behind the town. There was a reward o f t e n d o l l a r s f o r the f i n d e r , and t h i s was o f t e n claimed by some l a d s e v e r a l days l a t e r .  When dark  fell,  43. North Shore P r e s s , North Vancouver, B. C. A p r i l 3, 1931. 44i*. i b i d . B a r t l e y d e s c r i b e s the p l a n t : A Washington hand p r e s s was the f i r s t p r i n t i n g p r e s s used t o p r i n t the E x p r e s s . . . . u n t i l the c i r c u l a t i o n grew t o o l a r g e . Then a Wharfdale c y l i n d e r p r e s s was purchased from the Vancouver News-Advertiser and took i t s p l a c e The Express was t h e f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n on the North Shore t o own i t s own e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g system. I t a l r e a d y had a P e l t o n waterwheel t o f u r n i s h power f o r i t s job p r i n t i n g p r e s s . A dynamo was procured with a capaci t y o f t e n l i g h t s , and i t was j o i n e d by b e l t i n g t o the h y d r a u l i c powerwheel and worked very w e l l . On Saturday n i g h t s and h o l i d a y s the o f f i c e f r o n t was i l l u m i n a t e d by e l e c t r i c l i g h t and made a good advertisement. I n a y e a r or two the B. C. E l e c t r i c extended i t s system t o North Vancouver when the Express took power and l i g h t from the company.  - 61 the  crowds would gather on the green slope behind the beach t o  view an e l a b o r a t e p y r o t e c h n i c d i s p l a y o f f the s h o r e . out  Through-  the whole day, Larsen's H o t e l with i t s wide verandahs and  green lawns, formed a community c e n t r e . These boom days were busy days f o r the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l 45 a l s o . The opening up of e s t a t e s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and the r a p i d 46 growth of p o p u l a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d the b u i l d i n g of many roads and s i d e w a l k s . Lonsdale Avenue,  The townsite was s t i l l studded with g i a n t  stumps.  s l o w l y t a k i n g shape, was not yet a s t r e e t .  In  A p r i l 1905 plans were l a i d f o r a roadway t h i r t y f e e t wide n o r t h from the wharf, to be planked o r macadamized f o r the f i r s t few 47 b l o c k s . I n August of the same y e a r tenders were c a l l e d f o r 48 Lynn V a l l e y Road. To meet these c o s t s a l o a n of $25,000 was 49 r a i s e d at 5%. 50 As e a r l y as 1903  the q u e s t i o n of water s e r v i c e was  con-  45.  I n 1905 the Express estimated the p o p u l a t i o n at about residents. ( August 25, 1905 )  46.  The assessment r o l l f o r 1905 was: T o t a l Land V a l u a t i o n $1,090,571 Improvements 142,815 $1,233,386  47.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , A p r i l 19,  48.  l o c . c i t , August 2,  49.  ibid.  50.  l o c . c i t . , November 16, 1903..  1905.  1905.  1500  - 62  -  sidered.  Since i t proved i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o o b t a i n water from 51 the c i t y main i t was decided to i n s t a l l a system drawing from  Lynn Greek, which showed a s u f f i c i e n t supply f o r a l a r g e 52 ulation.  A l o a n of #50,000  G. B e t t s engaged as engineer  was  r a i s e d f o r the purpose,  to survey and  At the same time the reeve was  pop-  c o n s t r u c t the  i n s t r u c t e d to have a w e l l  and line. dug  to provide a temporary supply f o r r e s i d e n t s i n the v i c i n i t y the lower p a r t of Lonsdale Avenue.  of  Almost at once, household-  e r s were c i r c u l a r i z e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r w a t e r - s e r v i c e . E a r l y i n 1905 drants.  c o n t r a c t s were l e t f o r d i s t r i b u t o r p i p e s and  In May  1905,  were almost complete.  hy-  B e t t s r e p o r t e d that the water works The main from i n t a k e to w a t e r f r o n t meas-  ured 5t m i l e s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n system extended n e a r l y seven m i l e s . - Pressure  at source was  reduced by two  reducing  along the l i n e , so t h a t at no p o i n t d i d i t exceed 125 F i f t e e n hydrants were put down at f i r s t , Over one hundred connections  pounds.  and more added l a t e r .  had been made a t the time of  r e p o r t , while others were w a i t i n g t o be made. 53 n e c t i o n s h a l f - i n c h g a l v a n i z e d pipe was  valves  used,  For these  Betts con-  while f o r the  lat-  e r a l s along the v a r i o u s s t r e e t s wire-wound wooden p i p e s were 51. I n 1889 the Vancouver Water Works Company i n s t a l l e d a system to supply Vancouver C i t y from the Capilano R i v e r . T h i s area has, i n consequence, never been w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver. Vancouver C i t y would have been w i l l i n g t o n e g o t i a t e an agreement to supply water t o the M u n i c i p a l i t y , but i t was thought t h a t water from the c i t y mains would not r i s e to the h i g h e r l e v e l s . Op. c i t . November 16 and December 3, 1903. 52. l o c . c i t . J u l y 9, 53. l o c . c i t . May  3,  1904. 1905.  -.63 54 required.  I t was not u n t i l J u l y 1906 t h a t the dam at the i n 55  take was completed,  by which time the r e s i d e n t s o f the "town-  s i t e " were a s k i n g the C o u n c i l f o r a by-law t o a u t h o r i z e a l o a n 56 of $25,000 f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f the system.  I t remained  now  f o r the C o u n c i l t o o b t a i n c o n t r o l o f such l a n d as was necessary t o p r o t e c t the watershed.  T h i s was accomplished by pur-  chase a t nominal f i g u r e s from the P r o v i n c i a l Government o r from p r i v a t e owners o f such l o t s b o r d e r i n g the Creek as the C o u n c i l 57 d i d not a l r e a d y own. I n keeping with the demand f o r a water system was the q u e s t i o n o f o b t a i n i n g l i g h t , tram and telephone s e r v i c e f o r the Municipality.  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g power from Seymour  Creek o r the C a p i l a n o had l o n g been o b v i o u s .  I t was i n 1892  t h a t a j o i n t stock company, the North Vancouver E l e c t r i c Company was i n c o r p o r a t e d " f o r the purpose o f c o n s t r u c t i n g o p e r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g e l e c t r i c a l works and e s t a b l i s h i n g an e l e c t r i c a l supply system i n the v i c i n i t y o f b u r r a r d I n l e t , "  f o r the  b e n e f i t o f Vancouver v/ith water taken from the Seymour o r the 54.  E x p r e s s , August 25, 1905.  55.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , J u l y 18, 1906.  56.  i b i d , August 20, 1906.  57.  P a r t s o f L o t s 1429 and 1431 at t a x s a l e ; ^ o t 1016 from the owner a t $2 p e r a c r e . The dam was on t h i s l o t ; L o t s 1563 and 1413 a t |5 p e r acre from the Commissioner of Land and Works. The Intake was i n hot 1363. — Minu t e s o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , passim.  - 64 58 Capilano.  T h i s company was  empowered to supply e l e c t r i c i t y hut  not to c o n s t r u c t a r a i l w a y oi? tramway. operate  w i t h i n three y e a r s , as t h e i r  When they f a i l e d to  c h a r t e r demanded, they  were granted an e x t e n s i o n of a f u r t h e r three y e a r s . however, the company was  In  1896,  purchased by the C o n s o l i d a t e d Railway 59  Company, whose powers were the same. j e c t f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e .  As i t happened, the  pro-  As soon as North Vancouver M u n i c i -  pal affairs  began to improve, the question was  raised there,  and i n 1903  the C o u n c i l decided to a d v e r t i s e i n the Vancouver  D a i l y World and i n New  York, f o r a f i r m to operate an e l e c t r i c 60 l i g h t system o& a twenty year l e a s e . They were immediately o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to purchase an e l e c t r i c l i g h t p l a n t f o r 61 |1500  ,  but t h i s was  not what the C o u n c i l awnted.  Finally  the  C o u n c i l entered i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s , and e v e n t u a l l y i n t o agreement with the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company to supply the M u n i c i p a l i t y with l i g h t i n g , power and tramway s e r v i c e f o r 62 f i f t y , years. The f r a n c h i s e was s u b j e c t to r e v i s i o n from time 58.  A c t to Incorporate the North Vancouver E l e c t r i c L i m i t e d , B.C. S t a t u t e s 1892, 55 V i c t . , ch. 61.  59.  C o n s o l i d a t e d Railway Uompany's A c t , B.C. 59 V i c t . , ch. 55.  60.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l May  61.  i b i d . June 2,  62.  O r i g i n a l agreement the p r o p e r t y of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l .  15,  Company,  Statutes  1896,  1903.  1903.  - 65 to time and t h i s has o c c u r r e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  A cable  was  system  l a i d a c r o s s the Second Narrows, and the l i g h t i n g 63  completed by August 15, 1906. i t y had purchased  ten lamps o f 600  l i g h t i n g , a t a c o s t o f #15 was  The p r e v i o u s year the M u n i c i p a l candle power, f o r s t r e e t  each, and i n the s p r i n g o f 1906  supplemented by an o r d e r f o r t w e n t y - f i v e more.  l i g h t s continued i n use u n t i l the c l o s e of 1926, r e p l a c e d by n i t r o g e n f i l l e d  lamps.  this  These arc  when t h e y were  Meanwhile p l a n s were being  worked out f o r a tram route t o serve t h e s c a t t e r e d M u n i c i p a l i t y , The  first  s u g g e s t i o n amounted t o a b e l t l i n e around what i s  the c i t y a r e a .  now  T h i s scheme f a i l e d t o meet with a p p r o v a l as i t  made v e r y l i t t l e e f f o r t t o serve the s e t t l e m e n t s l y i n g t o the e a s t and west.  The p l a n f i n a l l y adopted c o n s i s t e d o f three  l i n e s r a d i a t i n g from the f e r r y wharf, one n o r t h , one e a s t one west.  The o u t e r terminus  o f the e a s t e r n l i n e was  and  a t 19th  S t r e e t and Queensbury Avenue, t h a t o f the c e n t r a l l i n e  Lonsdale  Avenue and 21st. S t r e e t , and t h a t of the western l i n e a t the 64 j u n c t i o n of K e i t h Road and Bewicke Avenue. were extended to t h e i r present t e r m i n i . of t r a c k was ven m i l e s .  L a t e r these  The  o r i g i n a l f i v e miles  s t r e t c h e d to seven m i l e s i n 1911 I t was  lines  and l a t e r t o  d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d t h a t the B r i t i s h C o l -  umbia Telephone Company l a i d a c a b l e to the North Shore. 63. Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l August 20, 1905 64,  ele-  op, c i t , January  26 and March 26,  1906.  The  - 66 system was 1906.  i n s t a l l e d and  -  connected with  Vancouver by May  1,  In order to encourage the company to e n t e r the commun-  i t y , the C o u n c i l agreed to waive a l l taxes and l i c e n s e fees 65 u n t i l there were two was  hundred s u b s c r i b e r s .  Further  a l s o p r o v i d e d by the North Vancouver ^and  ment Company, who from Lot 550,  permitted  telephone  and  Improve-  p o l e s to be removed f r e e  which they were then c l e a r i n g f o r  Meanwhile t h e o p i n i o n was  assistance  settlement.  being e x p r e s s e d by those own-  i n g p r o p e r t y i n the o l d e r and more s e t t l e d p a r t , t h a t area would be more prosperous as a c i t y .  As many of the  dents were i n t e r e s t e d i n land v a l u e s , they r e a c t e d to t h i s suggestion,  and  a l s o expressed  the b e l i e f t h a t  l e d to a b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the C o u n c i l .  trumental T h i s was  they entit-  topic  was  which paper claims to have been i n s -  i n c a l l i n g a p u b l i c meeting to d i s c u s s the matter. done, and a committee set up to b r i n g about i n c o r p o r -  a t i o n of a c i t y . who  The  resi-  favourably  p a i d the l a r g e r share of the taxes, and were t h e r e f o r e  taken up by the Express,  this  The  committee was  headed by Reeve K e a l y ,  was  a s s i s t e d by t h i r t e e n members. To t h i s number nine 66 others were l a t e r added. The d e c i s i o n to i n c o r p o r a t e was 65.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , December 20, 1905. There i s no r e c o r d of the t i m e i t todk the company to o b t a i n the f i r s t two hundred s u b s c r i b e r s .  66.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , May 21, 1936. The members o f the committee were: Wm. Mordem; P.A. A l l a n ; B.J. Corn i s h ; Edmund B e l l ; Edward Mahon; J.C. K e i t h ; C.E.Hope; W.E. Thompson; A. Dick; A.B. D i p l o c k ; G.J. P h i l l i p p o ; George B a r t l e y ; Dr. C a r r o l l ; W.L. Keene; J.M. Fromme; C O . Wickenden; J . B a l f o u r Ker; P e t e r Larsen; R.K. H o u l g a t e ; P e t e r Westover; A.H. Davidson; and A.D. Nye.  - 67 reached i n December 1905, ion  and the North Vancouver  Act passed the L e g i s l a t u r e i n March 1906.  the Act s t a t e d t h a t as i t was  inconvenient  to c o n s i d e r the p e t i t i o n r e c e i v e d from the Vancouver, and  Incorporat-  The  f o r the L e g i s l a t u r e i n h a b i t a n t s of North  as the i n h a b i t a n t s d e s i r e d immediate  a t i o n , the Lieutenant-Governor was ate the c i t y by L e t t e r s Patent  granted  preamble to  power to  incorporincorpor-  with regard to g e n e r a l  statuory  68 conditions.  The  Act a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t the  city  to take over $170,000 of the debentures of the present  was  District  M u n i c i p a l i t y , and to r a t i f y e x i s t i n g agreements with the 69  Van-  couver ?ower Company,  and  B r i t i s h Columbia e l e p h o n e Company 1  North Vancouver P e r r y and Power Company.  Schedule "A"  of  the  Act named the D i s t r i c t L o t s t h a t were to be i n c l u d e d i n the C i t y area: L o t s 265, 550,  271,  274,  616,afcfiete.asfcahalEo.Qf 552  Schedule "A"  544,  546,  547,  and the M i s s i o n  them/went on to provide  and l i a b i l i t i e s ,  545,  548, 549, 70  Reserve.  f o r the d i v i s i o n of  assets  as approved by a p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n North  Vancouver on November 24, taken on ^ecember 15,  1905,  1905.  The  and  by a subsequent  ballot  D i s t r i c t of Nodth Vancouver  was to convey to the C i t y the f o l l o w i n g : the M u n i c i p a l H a l l , 67. North Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1906, 6 Ed.7y ch. 60. 68. By the M u n i c i p a l Clauses Act 1896, areas d e s i r i n g to be i n c o r p o r a t e d v/ere r e q u i r e d to p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e . This procedure r e p l a c ed the g r a n t i n g of L e t t e r s Patent by the Lieutenant-Governor i n o r d i n a r y circumstances. 69.  B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company.  70.  Indian Reserve  #1.  - 68 Pound and S t a b l e B u i l d i n g s , and r i g h t s t i t l e and and 110a,  s p e c i f i e d l o t s adjacent; a l l  i n t e r e s t s i n the p u b l i c parks of Blocks  and D i s t r i c t L o t s 548,  water-frontage  549,  274;  109a  S t r e e t ends o r  a c q u i r e d o r to be a c q u i r e d f o r Mackay Road,  Be-  wicke Avenue, C h e s t e r f i e l d Avenue, Lonsdale Avenue, S t . Georges Avenue, S t . P a t r i c k ' s Avenue, S t . ^ a v i d ' s Avenue; the 71 North Vancouver trict;  and a l l wharfs and  S.S.  s l i p s belonging to the D i s -  the P e r r y L i c e n s e from the P r o v i n c i a l Government; the  whole water system, i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to use Rice Lake; o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e i n the M u n i c i p a l H a l l , f i r e and road-making equip72 ment and the sum  s t r e e t lamps and p o s t s ; a r r e a r s of taxes on c i t y  of #2091 of the s i n k i n g fund, being i n p r o p o r t i o n t o  the amount of debt taken over; and cemetary Lot 1680. ing  area;  liabilities  the r i g h t and t i t l e to the  In r e t u r n the C i t y was  of the D i s t r i c t  1  L o c a l Improvement Loan  #2000; 80% of the C o n s o l i d a t i o n Loan 1903 Water Works Loan 1904,  to pay the f o l l o w 1901  of $100,000 - $80,000 ;  $50,000 and S t r e e t Improvement Loans  1905 71.  t o t a l l i n g $38,000. Schedule "B» of the A c t , l a i d out See below, Qhapter 6, p. 95.  the  72.  Schedule "A" quotes the f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i o n of p r o p e r t y as r e p o r t e d by the Ratepayers Committee: O f f i c e and H a l l f u r n i t u r e $ 414 Wharfs and s l i p s 2809 M u n i c i p a l H a l l and L o t s 6013 Pound Lots and B u i l d i n g s 493 S.S. North Vancouver 1DQ000 Tax S a l e Lands, assessed value 12,592 Tax A r r e a r s 6,759  - 69 exact boundaries  of the C i t y a r e a . 73  p o r a t i o n Act Amendment, 1907, of 1906  with a new  schedule.  The North Vancouver I n c o r -  r e p l a c e d Schedule T h i s new  "B" of the Act  schedule a l s o d i v i d e d  the remaining D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver i n t o two having two of  councillors.  The wards were t o l i e west and east  the C i t y area r e s p e c t i v e l y .  dale the boundary was  wards, each  Where they met  to be a l i n e  i n Worth Lons-  drawn from the centre of  Lonsdale Avenue to the n o r t h e r n boundary of the D i s t r i c t . t h i s same A c t , the C i t y was  By  empowered to borrow #845,000 and  the D i s t r i c t #45,000 by debentures,  b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of the  present debenture debt of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. Moreover, the C i t y was of the D i s t r i c t  ordered to pay a d d i t i o n a l  as f o l l o w s : 2/3  liabilities  of the C o r p o r a t i o n Loan of  #75,000 being #50,000 and Water Works Loan #2,  $25,000. E l e c -  tionswere h e l d f o r both C i t y and D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s on J u n e M , while the a c t u a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y dates from J u l y ; . l , 74 1907.  Reeve Healy was  and the D i s t r i c t  e l e c t e d as f i r s t Mayor of the new  s e l e c t e d W i l l i a m H. May  The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s now conditions.  The  p o p u l a t i o n was was 73. 74. 75.  as fteeve.  sought to a d j u s t themselves to  C i t y comprised  to 2000 persons. I t  with l i g h t , tramway, telephone  and  North Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment A c t , Ed. 7, ch. 30. E  new  an area of 2500 a c r e s , whose 75  estimated v a r i o u s l y at 1500  a l r e a d y equipped  City,  x p r e s s , North Vancouver, May  31,  ferry 1907,  1907.  Express December 7, 1906, estimates the p o p u l a t i o n at Vancouver D i r e c t o r y v o l . XIV g i v e s 2000.  1500,  - 70 s e r v i c e , and owned i t s own  waterworks system.  Beside t h i s , the 76  ^ i t y boasted f i f t y - t h r e e b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , two h o t e l s and a s c h o o l .  R e a l p r o p e r t y was  one bank,  a s s e s s e d at  #2,600,000, with the t a x r a t e set at 16 m i l l s , on l a n d o n l y . Added t o a l l these a s s e t s were a f i n e s t r e t c h o f w a t e r f r o n t not yet developed, and the c e r t a i n t y i n everybody's mind t h a t ways would soon e n t e r the town v i a a bridge a c r o s s the 77 Narrows.  rail-  Second  By 1915  the boundaries o f the C i t y were extended to 78 i n c l u d e D i s t r i c t Lots 272 and 273. T h i s brought the C i t y area 79 to i t s present f i g u r e o f 3,131.5 a c r e s . Meanwhile the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y found i t s e l f d e p r i v e d of a m u n i c i p a l headquarters and o f i t s water s u p p l y .  On ^une 1  10, 1907, the newly e l e c t e d C o u n c i l h e l d i t s f i r s t meeting i n the Lynn V a l l e y Schoolhouse. h o l d f u t u r e meetings City.  I t was  agreed at t h i s time t o  i n t t h e Reeve's o f f i c e , i n North  The c l e r k was f u r t h e r  Vancouver  i n s t r u c t e d t o rent a c e r t a i n  build-  i n g near the f e r r y as a m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e , and to f u r n i s h the 80 same.  While t h i s s o l v e d the problem f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r -  poses, the d i f f i c u l t y r e c u r r e d at the time of M u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s , s i n c e both nomination c e n t r e s and p o l l i n g booths had t o 76. 77.  Express, l o c . c i t . s  ee  below,  Chapter  7, p.  100.  78.  C i t y o f North V a n c o u v e r 15 ^eo 5, ch. 37.  E x t e n s i o n jofijBoundaries Act  79.  C i t y o f North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements,  80.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l June 10,  1907.  1942.  1915  '  - 71 be w i t h i n the boundaries o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y . nominations,  F o r t h r e e years  were r e c e i v e d i n a M u n i c i p a l Tent l o c a t e d i n North  Lonsdale, while the I n s t i t u t e H a l l , Lynn V a l l e y Schoolhouse p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s were p r e s s e d i n t o s e r v i c e as p o l l i n g The C o u n c i l f i n a l l y f e l t  booths.  i n a position to build a Municipal  H a l l , f o r which they s e l e c t e d a s i t e on Lynn V a l l e y Road. H a l l was  completed  and  i n J u l y 1911,  and f o r m a l l y opened the  The foll-  owing month. The problem o f ;  tention. er  the water supply a l s o demanded prompt a t -  The C i t y C o u n c i l expressed w i l l i n g n e s s t o s u p p l y wat-  t o the r e s i d e n t s of the D i s t r i c t l i v i n g w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g  water d i s t r i c t , and a temporary agreement was f e l t d e s i r a b l e , however, t h a t the D i s t r i c t p o s s i b l e form i t s own  reached.  It  was  should as soon as  water d i s t r i c t f o r Lynn V a l l e y , C a p i l a n o  and North Lonsdale, and i n t r o d u c e water systems t h e r e . The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver s t i l l extended Howe Sound.  The r e g i o n west of C a p i l a n o l a c k e d d i r e c t com-  munication with North Vancouver. o r i g i n a l l y extended  was  b u i l t about 1878, 81  81.  See  n e g l e c t e d and  F o r a l o n g time t h e r e was  settlement here at a l l .  pre-empt L o t 558.  I t i s t r u e t h a t K e i t h Road  t o Eagle Harbour, but i t was  allowed t o become overgrown. little  west t o  The P o i n t A t k i n s o n  very  Lighthouse  which l e d Walter Erwin, L i g h t k e e p e r , to  I n 1899  chapter 5, p^r. 4-7.  F r a n c i s Caulfe«ld s e t t l e d at Skunk  - 72 82 Cove, where he b u i l t a wharf and planned t o e s t a b l i s h a v i l l age.  I n the e a r l y gcears o f the M u n o c i p a l i t y these two men  p e t i t i o n e d the C o u n c i l r e p e a t e d l y t o have t h e road kept open t o Eagle Harbour.  However the Bridges were washed out by  f l o o d s , and t h e C o u n c i l was unable t o r e b u i l d them f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons.  The only approach, t h e r e f o r e , to Eagle Harbour  was by water, and p a s s i n g boats were s i g n a l l e d by a l a n t e r n from C a u l f e i l d ' s wharf. Horseshoe 82.  A man named Andrews had a farm a t  Bay, and P e t e r L a r s o n , o f North Vancouver, had a  F r a n c i s C a u l f e i l d , a S c h o l a r l y E n g l i s h gentleman, made a l e i s u r e l y t o u r o f Canada i n 1898. When he reached Vancouver the l a n d boom i n North Vancouver had j u s t commenced. C a u l f e i l d r e j e c t e d repeated o f f e r s from r e a l e s t a t e agents, but one day he was taken f o r a water t r i p by C a p t a i n C h a r l e s Cates,-who put him ashore at Skunk Cove. Charmed by t h e n a t u r a l beauty o f the p l a c e , C a u l f e i l d ^ next year purchased a l a r g e acreage from Cypress F a l l s to Howe Sound. Abandoning h i s E n g l i s h home, he now spent t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s time a t C a u l f e i l d s , where he -planned!, a v i l l a g e i n keeping w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g s , and wished t o r e s e r v e the e n t i r e water f r o n t a s a p u b l i c park f o r t h e e s t a t e . H i s o n l y means o f communication with Vancouver was by the d a i l y boat from Howe Sound, which he f l a g g e d from a rocky p o i n t . To accommodate the boat, and i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a s e t t l e m e n t , he b u i l t a s t r o n g heavy wharf. H i s w i f e and daughter j o i n e d him and b u i l t c o t t a g e s f o r f a m i l y use. By 1909 he had comp l e t e d h i s s u b d i v i s i o n and was o f f e r i n g s i t e s f o r summer homes. To supply the Community he b u i l t a s t r o n g comp l e t e water system s e r v e d by Cypress F a l l s . The l a c k of communication with o t h e r North Shore s e t t l e m e n t s p r e sented a problem and C a u l f e i l d was c o n t i n u a l l y p e t i t i o n i n g the M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a good road which n e i t h e r t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver, or, l a t e r o f West Vancouver, was w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e . Before h i s death i n 1934, F r a n c i s C a u l f e i l d deeded h i s e n t i r e park t o the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver, c f . Stone, H. A., A Short H i s t o r y of C a u l f e i l d V i l l a g e , Vancouver, 1914, passim.  - 73 ranch a t G l e n e a g l e s . 83 Lawson,  D i s t r i c t Lot^554 was s e t t l e d hy John  who wrote t o the C o u n c i l i n 1906 a s k i n g f o r a temp-  o r a r y road west of Capilano t o enable h i s f a m i l y to a t t e n d 84 the s c h o o l i n North Vancouver.  I n the f a l l of 1906 the p a r t s  now known as Ambleside and H o l l y b u r n were a u c t i o n e d o f f by the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  No time was l o s t i n f o r m i n g a  r a t e p a y e r s a s s o c i a t i o n , whose meetings, i n c i d e n t a l l y , were h e l d i n Vancouver. By the end o f t h a t year the road to C a p i 85 lano was put i n t o r e p a i r f o r horse and buggy t r a f f i c .  Houses  went up g r a d u a l l y u n t i l 1910, when t h e r e a l e s t a t e boom h i s West Vancouver,  L o c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s were put on the market,  and l e a d i n g Vancouver r e s i d e n t s bought up extensive  tracts  83.  John Lawson was born and educated i n O n t a r i o . He was twenty y e a r s with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Before s e t t l i n g i n West Vancouver i n 1905. I n 1909 he s t a r t e d a f e r r y s e r v i c e between West Vancouver and Vancouver, and i n 1911 he was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g West Vancouver t o secede from North Vancouver. He served the community as C o u n c i l l o r or Reeve u n t i l the outbreak o f w ar i n 1914, and was Post Master duri n g the same p e r i o d . In 1929 he was r e - a p p o i n t e d t o t h i s p o s i t i o n from which he r e t i r e d i n 1940. - Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1940 - 1941, Vancouver, 1941, p . 130.  84.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l September c h i l d r e n walked t o s c h o o l .  5, 1906, H i s  •'385. North Shore P r e s s , A p r i l 3, 1931. A r t i c l e on West Vancouver by M u n i c i p a l C l e r k James O l l a s o n .  - 74r f o r summer homes.  As i n North Vancouver, the r e a l e s t a t e f i r m s  f e l t t h a t g r e a t e r progress would he made w i t h l o c a l  administrat-  i o n , and a c c o r d i n g l y an appeal was made t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government t o separate The  t h i s d i s t r i c t and form a new m u n i c i p a l i t y .  outcome was the West Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t which s e t  up the C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f West Vancouver.  The new  D i s t r i c t was t o i n c l u d e a l l t h a t land l y i n g west o f a l i n e commencing 1000 f e e t south o f t h e south-west corner o f L o t 864, and i n l i n e w i t h t h e west boundary o f s a i d L o t 864 produced; thence n o r t h - e a s t e r l y and n o r t h e r l y along the west boundary o f s a i d L o t 864 t o the n o r t h west corner t h e r e o f ; thence c o n t i n u i n g n o r t h e r l y along t h e west boundary o f L o t 885 t o the n o r t h west corner t h e r e o f , s a i d corner being on the south boundary o f L o t 764; thence n o r t h along t h e west boundary o f s a i d L o t 764 t o the n o r t h west corner t h e r e o f ; thence e a s t e r l y along the n o r t h boundary o f L o t 764 t o the southeast c o r n e r o f L o t 763; thence n o r t h along the e a s t boundaries o f L o t s 763,761,603 and t h e east boundary o f L o t 605 t o the p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n with the centre l i n e of t h e Capilano R i v e r ; thence f o l l o w i n g s a i d centre l i n e w e s t e r l y t o the west boundary of L o t 605; thence f o l l o w i n g the west boundary o f L o t 605 t o the n o r t h west corner o f s a i d L o t 605; thence n o r t h along the east boundary o f s a i d L o t 875 (86) to a "point where the e a s t boundary o f L o t 875 i n t e r s e c t e d the n o r t h boundary o f t h e present M u n i c i p a l i t y .  The A c t f u r t h e r  s p e c i f i e d t h a t West Vancouver was t o assume $156,000 o f the g e n e r a l debenture debt o f the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, and amounting t o $543,000, as w e l l as the l o a n made on account o f 86.  West Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1918, 8 Geo 5 ch 60.  i  v:  - 7JT West C a p i l a n o D i s t r i c t under the West C a p i l a n o Improvement Loan Bylaw 1911.  West Vancouver was  i n s t r u c t e d t o make annual pay-  ments t o the D i s t r i c t of NorthUVancouver o f Debenture I n t e r e s t and S i n k i n g Fund I n s t a l m e n t s . was  The D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver  r e q u i r e d t o s u r r e n d e r a l l c l a i m s t o the r e a l e s t a t e and  f o r e s h o r e i n the s e s i g n a t e d a r e a , and a l l g r a n t s made or t o be made by the F e d e r a l Government f o r a wharf a t H o l l y b u r n . Vancouver was  West  a l s o t o r e c e i v e shares i n the stock o f the Bur-  r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company a g g r e g a t i n g at p a r value #62,  87 500. From t h i s p o i n t the development of the C i t y and  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o l l o w e d a l o n g normal l i n e s . boom gave way  t o the "slump" of 1913,  l i e v e d by the war war p e r i o d .  District  The r e a l e s t a t e  which i n t u r n was  re-  years and the f a l s e p r o s p e r i t y of the p o s t -  During these l a t t e r years both m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  ex-  h i b i t e d a sublime f a i t h i n the f u t u r e , and spared no money i n l o c a l improvements.  The  stock market c r a s h o f 1929,  and  the  W/O.S  consequent world-wide d e p r e s s i o n w§»e- f e l t as i n every community.  i n North Vancouver,  N e v e r t h e l e s s , both c o u n c i l s c a r r i e d  on  with o n l y minor attempts at retrenchment. P r o p e r t y owners f a i l e d to meet t h e i r t a x e s , and the l a n d began t o r e v e r t t o the manSB icipalities.  C o i n c i d e n t with the l o s s of revenue came the  problem of Unemployment R e l i e f . 87.  loc. c i t .  88.  See T a b l e s C and D.  The  Appendix pp  bank o v e r d r a f t i n c r e a s e d  0  i i and  iii  a  - 76 s t e a d i l y and the market value o f North Vancouver bonds f e l l . The c l i m a x was reached i n 1932, I n t h a t year C i t y p r o p e r t y l i a b l e t o t a x a t i o n was assessed as f o l l o w s : Net Lands Net Improvements  $.  5,214,238.71 5,522,370.00  $ 10,736, 608.71 The t a x r a t e f o r the year being 60 m i l l s on the Assessment and 25% o f Improvements, the t o t a l Tax Levy amounted t o #414,366.08. Of t h i s sum, however, $52,903.10 was chargeable t o p r o p e r t y which had r e v e r t e d t o the C i t y i n 1931 and 1932, and $134,447.12 c o u l d not be collected.??To balance t h i s , t h e sum of $23,503.14 was c o l l e c t e d as percentage  a d d i t i o n s f o r l a t e payment, b r i n g -  i n g the t o t a l c o l l e c t e d i n taxes f o r the y e a r up t o $250,518.95. Land r e v e r s i o n s t o which t h e C i t y h e l d t i t l e a t the c l o s e of 1932 t o t a l l e d $723,692.45, while Reversions s u b j e c t t o redempt i o n amounted t o $103,196.55, a t Book V a l u e .  A r r e a r s of taxes  f o r the y e a r s 1930, 1931 and 1932 t o t a l l e d $208,718.14 t o which must be added as a r r e a r s of Water Rates $ 8,992.82. come o f t h i s l o s s o f revenue was i n e v i t a b l e .  The out-  A t the c l o s e o f  the year the General Revenue Statement showed an excess o f Exp e n d i t u r e over Revenue amounting t o $61,433,40.  The B. C. Gov-  ernment made an advance of $2,075.48 f o r R e l i e f , over and above r e g u l a r g r a n t s , and there was a Bank O v e r d r a f t o f $62,987.34. The s i t u a t i o n would have been worse s t i l l , Account  had not the F e r r y  shown an excess o f Revenue over Expenditure o f  - 7rJ $53,891.12, which was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the C i t y General Account. Even so, the G i t y was unable to honour i t o b l i g a t i o n s and $35,196.83 due i n coupon i n t e r e s t on debentures remained unp a i d , while the S i n k i n g Fund showed a shortage o f $113,767.48 below requirements.  C i t y Bonds l o s t t h e i r market v a l u e ,  any  t r a d i n g that was done being at a nominal f i g u r e o f $45 t o $50. At t h i s f i g u r e , C i t y o f North Vancouver Debentures h e l d as S i n k i n g Fund investments were worth o n l y $398,033.15 and r e 89 quired an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f $72,755.44 t o r a i s e them t o p a r . The s i t u a t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t was even worse.  '  F o r one  t h i n g , the D i s t r i c t was not a b l e t o b e n e f i t by the p r o f i t s o f the F e r r y system as the C i t y was.  A l s o , i t was not u n t i l  faced  with d i s a s t e r i n 1931 t h a t the D i s t r i c t "began to t a r improvements.  That year the t a x r a t e was s e t at 50 m i l l s on l a n d and  25$ o f improvements, and the f o l l o w i n g year i t was r a i s e d t o 65 m i l l s on l a n d and 35$ o f improvements.  I n 1932 the D i s t r i c t 90  a l s o showed a d e f i c i t o f $43,445.35 i n the S i n k i n g Fund account. As was o n l y t o be expected, the c r e d i t o r s stepped i n , i n both municipalities.  A p p l i c a t i o n s were made, and granted, f o r the 91 appointment o f a r e c e i v e r , n In December 1932 a Commissioner  89.  F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s See C i t y o f North Vancouver Annual Report, 1932.  90.  F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements f o r 1931 and 1932.  91.  S e s s i o n a l Papers o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934, K i n g s P r i n t e r , 1934, v o l . 1, p. D4.  Victoria.  - 78 was  appointed f o r the D i s t r i c t , and  was  extended  man,  over the C i t y a l s o .  no attempt  was  i n °anuary 1933  h i s sway  Although a d m i n i s t e r e d by  made t o merge the two  one  municipalities.  I n p r e s e n t i n g the A u d i t o r s Report f o r the C i t y and D i s t r i c t t o the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a t the c l o s e of 1933,  Commiss-  i o n e r T i s d a l l wrote: I was appointed Commissioner of the C i t y of North Vancouver, on account of the d e f a u l t by the C i t y of i t s bond i n t e r e s t . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s bond i n t e r e s t d e f a u l t , I found the g e n e r a l f i n a n c i a l p.. * p o s i t i o n to be most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h i s c o n d i t i o n had a r i s e n from a v a r i e t y of r e a s ons, amongst them being unsound and i n f l a t e d a s s essed v a l u e s of r e a l e s t a t e , continued borrowing and spending money, i n many cases f o r s e r v i c e s which were beyond the means of the tax-payer t o pay f o r , c o v e r i n g too l a r g e an area with m u n i c i p a l a g s e r v i c e s , the breaking down of a bridge c o n n e c t i n g the North Shore with Vancouver C i t y , the World economic c o n d i t i o n and r e s u l t a n t absence of work, f i n a n c i n g of unemployment, unbalanced budgets and tax d e l i n q u e n c y . ®^ Of the f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of the C i t y the Commissioner goes on to  say: I n a d d i t i o n to a gross bonded indebtedness of #3,284,123.29 w i t h a y e a r l y charge of #167,103.46 f o r i n t e r e s t and #58,070.87 f o r s i n k i n g fund, and #420,500.00 of Guaranteed ^ebentures f o r which the C i t y i s l i a b l e , with a y e a r l y i n t e r e s t charge of #23,875.00 and f o r s i n k i n g fund #4,208.68; t h e r e 92.  Second Narrows Bridge  93.  C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report, 1933, p.6. The r e p o r t f o r the D i s t r i c t fcs almoSt i d e n t i c a l . The Guaranteed Debentures are North Vancouver F e r r y Co. 1128,000 and B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company $292,500.  was 1359,147.76 of f l o a t i n g l i a b i l i t i e s for municipal services. 9  The s i t u a t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t was  owing  4  similar:  In a d d i t i o n to a gross bonded indebtedness of #2,016,864.00 with the y e a r l y charge of $106,299.94 f o r i n t e r e s t and $39,710.85 f o r S i n k i n g Fund, there were #230,712.29 f l o a t i n g l i a b i l i t i e s owing f o r v a r i o u s M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . S a l a r i e s and p a y r o l l s were i n a r r e a r s . 95" M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and o t h e r expenditures were promptly to  a minimum.  reduced  The payment of coupon i n t e r e s t v/as suspended,  and the f u l l amount o f s i n k i n g fund l e v i e s was no l o n g e r l e v i e d . Since that time the world has been redeemed from f i n a n cial  d e p r e s s i o n by the Second World War.  i n d u s t r y t o North Vancouver. of  The War has  brought  T h i s f a c t , t o g e t h e r w i t h a decade  sound economical a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r  North ancouver to attempt r e p a y i n g her bond-holders. v  As  soon  as t h i s i s attempted the r a t e p a y e r s w i l l be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y to  resume  self-government.  94.  C i t y , of North Vancouver Annual Report ik933, l o c . c i t ,  95.  D i s t r i c t o f North  "ancouver Annual Report 1933,  p.5.  -  CHAPTER V  8T0  -  LYNN VALLEY  Lynn V a l l e y l i e s on t h e west bank o f Lynn Creek, i n a n o r t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n from the C i t y o r North Vancouver. I n M o o d y v i l l e days t h a t s e c t i o n east o f the p r e s e n t Lynn V a l l e y Road was a Spar P o r e s t , c o n t a i n i n g some o f the best i n the world.  Moody, D i e t z and Nelson a c q u i r e d a timber  spars grant  i n the v a l l e y , where stumps may s t i l l be found b e a r i n g the brand M. D. N. f e e t i n diameter cut  They took out spars 70 f e e t l o n g and t h i r t e e n without a knot  i n them.  The f i r s t  w i t h axes and yew wedges, no saws being used.  t r e e s were The spars  were taken out by mules and ox-teams over a s k i d - r o a d t h a t  fol-  lowed the g e n e r a l path o f Lynn Creek, down t o M o o d y v i l l e , t o be fitted  into ships.  When Moody's men had taken out the spars  t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the timber  stand was f i n i s h e d , and aban-  doned i t about 1875. Lynn V a l l e y s t i l l had. immense stands o f lumber.  Abo^t  1895 the S p i c e r S h i n g l e Company moved i n t o take out l o g s and shingle b o l t s .  S p i c e r b u i l t the f i r s t flume i n Lynn V a l l e y t o  convey h i s s h i n g l e b o l t s t o M o o d y v i l l e .  He d i d not b u i l d a  m i l l , but hauled t h e l o g s out by ox-teams as Moody's men had done.  I n 1897 S p i c e r s o l d out t o t h e H a s t i n g s S h i n g l e and Man-  u f a c t u r i n g Company.  T h i s Company was owned by two b r o t h e r s ,  James and Robert McNair, who l i v e d a t H a s t i n g s on the south shore.  Hence the name of t h e Company, which had no connection  with the H a s t i n g s Sawmill Company.  The North Shore had one o f  the best stands o f Red Cedar on the Coast, and the McNairs  - 8H planned  t o cut s h i n g l e b o l t s .  A few weeks l a t e r they were  j o i n e d by J . M. Fromme, the f i r s t r e s i d e n t and r e a l founder the present community a t Lynn V a l l e y . the f i r m continued lumbering The  first  With Fromme as foreman  operations.  lumber and s h i n g l e b o l t s and d i d p l a n i n g .  was  m i l l s were b u i l t .  The  heavy  second m i l l , a t  j u n c t i o n of Lynn V a l l e y Road and Mountain Highway,  j u s t a s h i n g l e m i l l at f i r s t ,  added.  Two  one, on M i l l Road above Dempsey Road, handled  the present  of  although l a t e r a p l a n e r  H a s t i n g s Creek, on whose banks the m i l l was  was  built,  was  dammed t o form a c o l l e c t i o n pond f o r s h i n g l e b o l t s . To f a c i l i t a t e lumbering t r a i l s , and flumes.  The  o p e r a t i o n s the company b u i l t  o r i g i n a l flume to M o o d y v i l l e was  roads, push-  ed f u r t h e r i n t o the woods and branches added, u n t i l t h e r e were approximately  t e n m i l e s o f flume to serve the company.  The  main flume to M o o d y v i l l e , which c r o s s e d Lynn V a l l e y Road overhead, was  used up t o 1911,  taken out.  when the l a s t s h i n g l e b o l t s were  The H a s t i n g s - S h i n g l e and Manufacturing  Company main-  t a i n e d a pond on the w a t e r f r o n t j u s t east of Moody's. hauled t o the pond on horse-drawn s l e i g h s .  Logs were  A puncheon s k i d -  road connected "with the plank road l e a d i n g past the pond to Moodyville,  T h i s road, which formed the o n l y l i n k between Lynn  V a l l e y and the o u t s i d e world, f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n but not the exact r o u t e of the p r e s e n t Mountain Highway from Lynn V a l l e y to K e i t h Road.  C r o s s i n g the Lynn by a t r e s t l e  b r i d g e , i t e n t e r e d M o o d y v i l l e from the e a s t .  There was  just  - 83, time f o r t h e teams t o make two round t r i p s d a i l y . used were b u i l t i n the v a l l e y , o f l o c a l yew.  The s l e i g h s  Residents walk-  t h i s road t o M o o d y v i l l e i n order t o take the f e r r y , S. S. Sen1 a t o r , t o the south shore.  They found i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e t u r n  the same day. A l l s u p p l i e s were taken i n t o the v a l l e y by the same road, on the s l e i g h s r e t u r n i n g from M o o d y v i l l e . A t the s i d e o f t h e road, along H a s t i n g s Creek from the mill,  stood Shake-town, the m i l l camp.  The camp c o n s i s t e d o f  bunk-houses, a cook-house, and s t a b l e s f o r t e n h o r s e s .  The  cook had a Chinese a s s i s t a n t , but no other O r i e n t a l s were emp l o y e d a t the m i l l .  The m i l l a l s o maintained  smith, who b u i l t the s l e i g h s .  i t s own b l a c k -  The main camp s t a r t e d w i t h twen-  t y men?, l a t e r  i n c r e a s i n g t o two hundred men, and a s s i s t e d by 2 t h i r t e e n teams of h o r s e s . In  1899 J . M. Fromme homesteaded D i s t r i c t L o t 2023, with  the p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e H a s t i n g s S h i n g l e Company, who h e l d a t i m ber l i c e n s e on the l a n d and r e t a i n e d the r i g h t o f i t s flume through the l a n d .  Here he b u i l t the f i r s t house i n Lynn V a l l e y ,  f a c i n g the s k i d - r o a d .  T. A. A l l a n pre-empted D i s t r i c t L o t 2022.  A l l a n s u b d i v i d e d p a r t o f h i s l a n d e a r l y , thus opening up the V a l l e y f o r settlement.  I n 1903 Fromme a l s o s u b d i v i d e d , s e l l i n g  1.  D r a y c o t t , W. M. L., Lynn V a l l e y , North Vancouver, North Shore P r e s s , 1919, page 8.  2.  i b i d page 6.  - 8B 60 b l o c k s t o s e t t l e r s a t $25 p e r a c r e .  A l l these  purchasers  were men connected w i t h t h e m i l l who wished t o make homes f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s near t h e camp. filed  c l a i m s t o pre-emptions:  Other p i o n e e r s soon came i n and P e t e r Westover, D i s t r i c t L o t  2087, J . Hoskins, D i s t r i c t L o t 2088; James M c l n t y r e ,  District  Lot  2169; Mr. A r t h u r , D i s t r i c t L o t 2002; J . M. Duval,  District  Lot  2950;  C. H. Nye, D i s t r i c t L o t 2008; W. E . Emery, D i s t r i c t  Lot  2003;  F o l l o w i n g the. Boer War, M i l i t a r y Grants t o J . Y.  McNaught, D i s t r i c t L o t 2004, and A. F. Nye, D i s t r i c t Lot 2025, 3 completely f i l l e d up the v a l l e y .  Soon t h e r e were some 30 fam-  i l i e s i n the settlement o r a t t h e camp. up the m i l l on H a s t i n g s Creek.  I n 1907 Fromme bought  Together w i t h T.A. A l l a n he  founded t h e Lynn V a l l e y Lumber Company, w h i c h . s u p p l i e d a l l the lumber f o r the new settlement s p r i n g i n g up on Fromme*s l a n d . L a t e r he bought out A l l a n , and the m i l l became known as Fromme's which name was a l s o a p p l i e d t o the r o a d t h a t r a n the l e n g t h o f the v a l l e y . The new s e t t l e r s brought  c h i l d r e n i n t o the v a l l e y .  When  t h e r e were twenty c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age, a p p l i c a t i o n was made to the government f o r a t e a c h e r .  By v o l u n t a r y s u b s c r i p t i o n  among the r e s i d e n t s and employees a t the m i l l the sum o f $250 3.  D r a y c o t t , op. c i t . p . 6. - See map  on p.'x, R p p e n d . *  - 88- was r a i s e d t o p r o t i d e a schoolhouse. on May  20, 1904,  The l i t t l e s c h o o l opened  with seventeen p u p i l s .  The s p i r i t u a l needs o f the settlement were cared f o r by v i s i t i n g pastors.  A s m a l l l o g c a b i n was  beside the M o o d y v i l l e road.  b u i l t on A l l a n ' s l a n d ,  F o r on year (1896) s e r v i c e s were  h e l d here r e g u l a r l y by the Reverend Ebenezer Robson ( l a t e r Dr. 4 • Robson ), who  was  d e a r l y l o v e d by a l l the l o g g e r s .  At  this  time Dr. Robson reached the settlement by the M o d d y v i l l e Road. Some t e n y e a r s l a t e r , when he.was again s e r v i n g the North  Shore,  Dr. Robson renewed h i s i n t e r e s t  fol-  i n Lynn V a l l e y , t h i s time  lowing a t r a i l through the bush from North Vancouver P i p e - l i n e Road. the  first  I n the l i t t l e l o g c a b i n church was  t o the an organ,  on the North Shore, h a u l e d up the road from Moody-  v i l l e a t the i n s t i g a t i o n o f one of the s e t t l e r s , A. E . Waghorne. The f i r s t  church t o be b u i l t i n the V a l l e y was  S t . Clement's  A n g l i c a n , f o l l o w e d l a t e r by the P r e s b y t e r i a n and Methodist churches. 4.  Dr. Robson was one of the b u i l d e r s of the Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Born and educated a t P e r t h , O n t a r i o , of a s t r i c t P r e s b y t e r i a n f a m i l y , he embraced Methodism and entered the m i n i s t r y . I n I 8 6 0 he came as a m i s s i o n a r y t o B r i t i s h Columbia, where he remained u n t i l h i s death i n 1911. H i s b r o t h e r John f o l l o w e d him t o the coast, and s e t t l e d a t New Westminster, where he e s t a b l i s h e d the B r i t i s h Columbian and l a t e r became Premier o f the P r o v i n c e . From h i s m i s s i o n church i n New Westminster, Rev. ( l a t e r Dr.) Robson t r a v e l l e d v i a the Douglas Road t o B u r r a r d I n l e t , where he engaged a canoe t o take him t o the North Shore. I n 1887 Dr. Robson was e l e c t e d t o t h e p r e s i d e n c y o f the f i r s t Methodi s t Conference i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Even a f t e r he r e t i r e d , Dr. Robson was a f r e q u e n t and welcome v i s i t o r t o the North Shore. - c f . Hacker, G. C , The Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h  Meanwhile, events were l e a d i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i r e c t communication between Lynn V a l l e y and North Vancouver. I n 1904  the M u n i c i p a l i t y i n s t a l l e d a Water Works System, whose  source was Lynn Creek.  The p i p e - l i n e was  l a i d the l e n g t h of  the v a l l e y , running above the s u r f a c e along the road then known as Fromme road, but which now The  became the P i p e - l i n e Road.  steady i n c r e a s e i n s e t t l e m e n t , and the p r o j e c t t o move the ' . 5  seat o f m u n i c i p a l government from Vancouver t o North Vancouver, made d e s i r a b l e some d i r e c t means of communication between the two  communities.  JVM.  As e a r l y as 1903,  Fromme, a p a c k - t r a i l was  a c t i n g on a s u g g e s t i o n from  surveyed from 15th. S t r e e t t o  the Camp, and a c o n t r a c t l e t f o r c l e a r i n g and l e v e l l i n g the same.  I n 1906  The B r i t i s h Columbia  E l e c t r i c Railway Company  opened a tram s e r v i c e along Queensbury Avenue as f a r as 19th. 6 S t r e e t , and the demand f o r a road through to Lynn V a l l e y came more i n s i s t e n t .  be-  Some y e a r s l a t e r a Lynn V a l l e y p i o n e e r  recounted h i s share i n u r g i n g t h i s matter: There were no roads i n Lynn V a l l e y when I s e t t l e d t h e r e , but i n the s p r i n g of 1906 q u i t e a l i t t l e movement i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n began. Men who owned p r o p e r t y there c o u l d n ' t q u i t e see why the m u n i c i p a l i t y should take a l l the taxes t o spend on Lonsdale Avenue. I t was f i g u r e d t h a t approximately $80,000 taxes had been taken out of the Lynn V a l l e y s e c t i o n up to t h a t date from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and not even one cent had been spent i n improvements there. , 4. (cont) ' <. . B r i t i s h Columbia; 1859 - 1900, p. 4. manuscript i n L i b r a r y U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; a l s o Davis, E . A. Comparat i v e Review o f Methodist, P r e s b y t e r i a n and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, J . Lee, 1925, p. 189. 5.  See above, Chapter 4. p. 58\  6.  i b i d , p.  65  - 86" The r e s u l t o f the v i g o r o u s k i c k s we made... was t h a t Reeve A. E. K e a l y c a l l e d a p u b l i c meeting... t o c o n s i d e r the s i t u a t i o n . . At t h a t time there was opposition- from men who are to-day d e l i g h t e d w i t h the r e s u l t s o f the improvement they then opposed... At t h i s meeting I s p e a k of i n the s p r i n g o f 1906, Mr. Duval moved a r e s o l u t i o n r e q u e s t i n g the d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l to i n troduce a bylaw f o r the r a i s i n g o f $25,000 f o r making roads and b u i l d i n g : b r i d g e s i n Lynn V a l l e y . . . 7  I n supports of the motion I made a speech which by good chance produced the r i g h t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n , t u r n e d the day and c a r r i e d the vote a g a i n s t what had been p r e t t y s t i f f opposition." The arguments put f o r t h by the speaker o f f e r not o n l y a good example o f psychology, but a l s o a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f s o c i a l d i t i o n s i n the v a l l e y ,  The  con  speaker went on t o say:  " I p o i n t e d out t o them the . e v i l s and disadvantages o f a community o f b a c h e l o r s . I asked them q u i t e s e r i o u s l y i f t h e y d i d not wish to develop a community o f happy homes and a prosperous d i s t r i c t . I showed them how impossi b l e i t was f o r any woman t o make h e r way through the i n a c c e s s i b l e woods t o Lynn V a l l e y . The n a t u r a l advantages o f the d i s t r i c t were more o f f set by the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n t r y i n g t o make a home t h e r e . I p o i n t e d out t h a t the day of a i r s h i p s had not y e t a r r i v e d and a t the end of my speech the audience good humouredly saw the p o i n t and unanimously supported the movement, which was made an a c t i v e i s s u e at the next municipal election." 8 The road a c q u i r e d by t h i s means was known as "THE"  J^M.S'-i-'*'Duval':c ame'itd Ly^n?Walley from V i c t o r i a . In 1886 he was p u b l i s h e r of the " I n d m s t r i a l News" i n t h a t c i t y . ;  J  6t 8.  plank  J. ;.- J. - . j-  :  -t {*J  Express, May  24, 1912,  p.  56.  - ssr road, and i n l a t e r years was as the " o l d plank r o a d " .  r e f e r r e d t o i n r e m i n i s c e n t tones  Planks f o r i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n were  s u p p l i e d by the H a s t i n g s S h i n g l e and Manufacturing $5.50 per M.  Tenders were c a l l e d f o r the work o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  the one accepted being f o r $5880. were extended by a new  Company at  L i g h t and telephone s e r v i c e s  to the v a l l e y before the plank road was r e p l a c e d  r o a d running p a r a l l e l t o i t and a few f e e t to one  The water p i p e now o f the new  side.  disappeared under ground, and down the l e n g t h  highway, now  to be c a l l e d Lynn V a l l e y Road, w e r e l a i d  the t r a c k s f o r the extension o f the c a r - l i n e f r o m i t s o r i g i n a l terminus at 19th S t r e e t and Boulevard. Car l i n e was  opened on May  14, 1910,  The Lynn V a l l e y S t r e e t  the f a r e being f i v e c e n t s  w i t h i n the t h r e e m i l e l i m i t ,  (from the f o o t o f Lonsdale 9 and an a d d i t i o n a l f a r e beyond t h a t t o the t e r m i n u s .  Avenue),  Lumbering i s the o n l y i n d u s t r y t h a t has developed i n Lynn Valley.  At R i c e Lake, between the Lynn and Seymours R i v e r s ,  f i r l o g s and s h i n g l e b o l t s were being taken ©tit i n the A m i l l was  b u i l t a t the side of the l a k e and a colony of Jap-  anese moved i n t o operate the m i l l .  Many o f t h e s e  remained on the s i t e u n t i l they were evacuated by f e d e r a l order i n 1-942. rTheosource iful,  9.  '90's.  but the peak y e a r was  Express, North Vancouver, B. C ,  from the area  of' supply was  reached i n 1907,  May  10,  families  very, p l e n t -  when 5000 cords  1910.  - 88 went down the flume t o the w a t e r f r o n t .  The l a s t h o l t s went  down i n 1911, a f t e r which the m i l l was c l o s e d down.  Shingle  b o l t s were a l s o cut on Seymour f o u n t a i n u n t i l 1923.  The b o l t s  were brought  down the mountainside  they reached Seymour Creek.  by s l e i g h and flume u n t i l  F i r , however, was not cut i n t h i s  area, s i n c e the logs would not navigate the creek  successfully.  F o r some years the M u n i c i p a l i t y mperated a stone quarry oh the? southern slope o f Dome Mountain, u s i n g the p r o d u c t , gray i t e , t o s u r f a c e t h e i r roads.  gran-  To operate the quarry at f u l l  c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d a crew o f seventeen t o twenty men.  The  quarry was c l o s e d down, however, i n 1918, owing t o a l a c k  of  component p a r t s f o r the c r u s h e r , which c o u l d o n l y be obtained i n England.  D a i l y output a t t h e quarry approximated  A s t r o n g sense o f community s p i r i t developed  10 85 y a r d s .  i n the e a r l y  days o f the s e t t l e m e n t , due l a r g e l y t o t h e e f f o r t s of J.M. Fromme and h i s w i f e , and aided no doubt by the f a c t t h a t the settlement l a c k e d easy communication with the o u t s i d e W o r l d . At a p u b l i c meeting h e l d i n the "Old S c h o o l " , October 8, 1908, i t was r e s o l v e d t h a t the r e s i d e n t s o f Lynn V a l l e y should  "form  a s o c i e t y f o r the mutual improvement, mental, p h y s i c a l and mor11 a l , o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . " The s o c i e t y so conveived was r e g i s t e r ed as the "Lynn V a l l e y I n s t i t u t e " . 10.  D r a y c o t t , op. c i t . p . 30.  11.  i b i d , p. 8.  The School Board, which had  - aa r e c e n t l y "built a new at  s c h o o l , p l a c e d the o r i g i n a l  the d i s p o s a l o f the S o c i e t y , and  became the f i r s t I n s t i t u t e H a l l . ly  this l i t t l e  schoolhouse frame b u i l d i n g  T h i s b u i l d i n g was  i n s u r e d f o r $200, and i t s f u r n i t u r e f o r $100.  subsequent-  The  Society  f e l t t h a t these quarters were not s u i t a b l e f o r a permanent a r rangement, and  i n 1909  new  purchase p r i c e o f the l o t , which had  hall.  The  f r o n t a g e , was months.  and t h i s sum  was  a 50 f o o t  r a i s e d w i t h i n twelve  I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t on l a n d values t o note 12  t h a t i n 1905 while  $150,  s e l e c t e d a l o t upon which to b u i l d a  i n 1911  l a n d i n Lynn V a l l e y was  s e l l i n g f o r $10 per  the I n s t i t u t e t r u s t e e s were c o n s i d e r i n g  the above mentioned l o t f o r $900,  acre,  selling  T h i s p l a n , however, f a i l e d  to m a t e r i a l i z e . Meanwhile, i n December 1910, opened f o r the new was  l e t f o r $3960.  a building subscription  h a l l , and the f o l l o w i n g October the The  new  building.was opened i n 1912  was  contract with  f i t t i n g ceremony, and promptly became the centre of community life,  and the scene of whist d r i v e s , dances, c o n c e r t s  t h e a t r i c a l performances. i§«.  The  s e r v i c e t h i s c e n t r e performed f o r  Kin'g-, '--Percys; B e i t , PjLac§'3o.n the P a c i f i c Coast f o r I n v e s t ment, Express, Empire a y P r o s p e r i t y E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912 Nofcih Vancouver, B.C., p. 56. :  D  II.  and  -settle community i s c l e a r l y shown by the use,  r a n g i n g a l l the way  s c a l e of charges f o r i t s  from p o l i t i c a l meetings at #4.00 per  meeting to r e l i g i o u s g a t h e r i n g s at t e n c e n t s . population  increased  When the  School  so r a p i d l y t h a t the School Board sought  temporary accommodation i n the I n s t i t u t e H a l l , they were assessed #20  p e r month f o r i t s use.  Lending L i b r a r y was were drawn up  housed i n the h a l l , and  started a choral  I n the  I s l a n d , and 14 l o c a l musical c i r c l e s .  the  1910  C h o i r s came from the  Of a l l p a r t s  of the  saw  and  1914.  the e x t e n s i o n of e l e c t r i c l i g h t and  A Municipal  H a l l was  The  See pJbove.  tram  telephones f o l l o w e d  p-?^  14.  F o r d e t a i l s about Lynn V a l l e y and D r a y c o t t , op. c i t .  15.  See  4.9.  years  b u i l t f o r the D i s t r i c t  13.  above, Chapter t 4 , p.  Dis-  of the M u n i c i p a l i t y i t alone  v i c e to the v a l l e y , while waterworks and .1913  lower main-  an organized community w i t h a community s p i r i t . 1911  Fes-  o f the C i t y o f North Vancouver i n  Lynn V a l l e y became the acknowledged l e a d e r  and  the  the F e s t i v a l became an i n s t i t u t i o n i n  incorporation  t r i c t Municipality. was  A. E . Waghorne  organezed the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l M u s i c a l  . t i v a l i n the I n s t i t u t e H a l l ,  A f t e r the 15  s p r i n g of 1912  rules  unseemly 13  s o c i e t y , and made h i s t o r y i n August of  same y e a r when he  1907,  very s t r i c t  r e l a t i n g t o i n t o x i c a n t s , gambling, and  conduct on the premises.  l a n d and  A branch of the L e g i s l a t i v e  the  Institute  see  serin on  - 9<J Lynn V a l l e y Road i n 1911, I n 1912 the community boasted o f a new s c h o o l , f o u r g e n e r a l s t o r e s , a bakery, a plumber, a d r y goods shop, r e a l e s t a t e s o f f i c e s , a h o t e l and rumours o f a 16 bank.  The Second Narrows B r i d g e , so e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e d f o r  many y e a r s , was expected t o b r i n g f u r t h e r developments t o the s e t t l e m e n t , and e n t h u s i a s t s envisaged a p o p u l a t i o n o f 20,000 by 1916. Although  these f a n t a s t i c dreams were never r e a l i z e d ,  the p o p u l a t i o n d i d i n c r e a s e from 200 i n 1909 t o 1100 i n 1914 18 and 1400 i n 1919.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y Lynn V a l l e y s u f f e r e d by con-  t a c t w i t h t h e " o u t s i d e world". i t s p e r s o n a l i t y decreased. the v a l l e y ;  As communications i n c r e a s e d ,  New i n d u s t r i e s d i d not come i n t o  those few commercial premises which had t r i e d t o  serve the community now saw t h e i r customers c a r r y t h e i r trade t o the l a r g e r f i r m s a c r o s s the I n l e t .  Lynn V a l l e y remained an  a t t r a c t i o n f o r the p l e a s u r e - s e e k e r s , but f a i l e d t o make good the promise o f i t s youth. 16.  Express, Empire Day E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912, p . 27.  17.  Loc c i t .  18.  D r a y c o t t , op. c i t . p . 32.  - 91 CHAPTER VT  FERRIES  T r a n s - i n l e t f e r r y s e r v i c e appears t o have commenced with a small row-hoat which p l i e d a t i n t e r v a l s between B r i g h t o n and 1 Moody's, The o p e r a t o r , Navvy Jack, who was a well-known f i g u r e on B u r r a r d I n l e t , began h i s f e r r y s e r v i c e about 1866, 1868  C a p t a i n James Van  Bramer broght h i s steamer "Sea Foam"  from s e r v i c e on the F r a s e r R i v e r and e s t a b l i s h e d her on Inlet run.  The f o l l o w i n g year the Sea Foam was  r e p l a c e d by the  "Chinaman".  the  badly damaged  by f i r e , but appears t o have continued i n s e r v i c e u n t i l 2 when she was  About  1873,  I n the same year  an-  o t h e r v e s s e l was put i n t o s e r v i c e on the I n l e t . T h i s was the "Eleanora", b e t t e r known l o c a l l y as t h e Sudden Jerk o r the H e l l 3 a- Roaring. "Inlet.  She  appears t o have been q u i t e a c h a r a c t e r on the  I t seems t h a t she was  produced by the i n g e n u i t y of  two  men, one of whom owned a s q u a r e - b u i l t scow, the other a t h r e s h i n g machine engine. To them i t was a simple matter t o p l a c e the engine on the scow and add a p a i r of side-wheels connected 4 by c h a i n g e a r i n g . I t was a l s o q u i t e i n c h a r a c t e r t h a t she 5 should be equipped with wooden r a t h e r than metal c o g s . Her above, chapter 2, p . ^ . r and f n .  1.  See  2.  c f . chapter 2,  3.  R e l a t e d t o the w r i t e r by W. M. L.  4.  Hacking, Norman, E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 116 O r i g i n a l manuscript i n the L i b r a r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  5.  R e l a t e d by W. M.  p.J6  L.  Draycott.  Draycott.  - 98 power was l i m i t e d and when she blew h e r w h i s t l e she waB o b l i g ed t o stop and get up steam a g a i n .  Since t h e engine had no  r e v e r s e gear t h e boat c o u l d o n l y run s t r a i g h t ahead.  Landings  were somewhat d i f f i c u l t , as she d r i f t e d i n s l o w l y , and had t o 6 he warped i n t o p l a c e w i t h a l i n e and p i k e - p o l e .  Finding the  boat t o o s m a l l f o r the f a s t - g r o w i n g passenger s e r v i c e , the owners c u t the h u l l i n two, and extended i t twelve f e e t by p u t 7 ing  a p i e c e i n the middle.  L a t e r she passed  ion  o f the M o o d y v i l l e Sawmill Company.  i n t o the possess-  I t i s s a i d t h a t she  f i n a l l y bedame so o l d t h a t t h e r e was danger o f h e r engine l i n g through  the h u l l .  To meet t h i s contingency,  fal-  i t was t h e  custom t o pass a s t o u t c h a i n around the engine, a t t a c h e d t o a buoy, so t h a t the engine c o u l d be l o c a t e d I f i t f e l l through 8 in mid-inlet. By 1888 the M o o d y v i l l e Sawmills had t h e i r own f e r r y s e r v i c e , p r o v i d e d by the M o o d y v i l l e Steam F e r r y Company ( L i m i t e d ) , with o f f i c e s at M o o d y v i l l e .  F e r r i e s r a n a t s t a t e d times, the  f a r e being t w e n t y - f i v e cents p e r t r i p .  The f e r r y b o a t N e l l i e  T a y l o r a l s o r a n between Vancouver and and M o o d y v i l l e a t t h i s time.  I n a d d i t i o n , the Canadian P a c i f i c Steam Ship Company  r a n steamers d a i l y ,  (except Monday) between V i c t o r i a , Vancouver  and M o o d y v i l l e . 6.  Hacking,  loc. c i t .  7.  R e l a t e d t o w r i t e r by W.M.L. D r a y c o t t .  8.  Hacking,  op. c i t . , p . 117.  9. Chapter  8, p.^/  - 9$ I n 1880 the S. S. Senator was b u i l t at M o o d y v i l l e f o r 10 VI ? C a p t a i n Hugh S t a l k e r , o f the M o o d y v i l l e F e r r y Company. When i n 1889 t h i s Company was  c o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h the B u r r a r d * s I n l e t 11 Towing Company t o form the Union Steamship Company, the Senat12 or continued on the t r a n s - i n l e t run on a two-hour s c h e d u l e . Meanwhile, r a t e p a y e r s o f the new M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouv e r had r e a l i z e d the need o f d i r e c t f e r r y communication ween t h a t community and Vancouver.  bet-  On March 7, 1894, the r a t e -  payers met and s e t up a committee t o make i n q u i r i e s about a steamer s u i t a b l e f o r f e r r y purposes, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f p u r chasing i t .  The committee  was f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t e d by the meet-  i n g to i n t e r v i e w the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company as r e g a r d s a subsidy towards the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f e r r y , and t o see t h a t t h e r e q u i s i t e s t e p s were taken t o b r i n g the 13 matter of a subsidy before the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  One  week l a t e r the Committee met t o hear r e p o r t s o f members who had been making the r e q u i s i t e i n q u i r i e s .  I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t  f o u r steamers had been i n v e s t i g a t e d a l l o f which were u l t i m a t e l y r e j e c t e d . As regards s u b s i d i e s , the N o r t h Vancouver l a n d 10. Haoking, op. c i t . , p . 174. 11.  ibid. The Union Steamship Company o f B r i t i s h Columbia L t d . was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n November 1889, by Henry D a r l i n g , son of John D a r l i n g of the Union Steamship Company o f New Z e a l a n d .  12.  W i l l i a m s B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , 1894, advertisement.  13.  Minute Book o f North Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y Meetings. p o s s e s s i o n o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y .  In  - 94Tand Improvement Company had o f f e r e d t o donate  $250 towards  the new f e r r y s e r v i c e , and the M o o d y v i l l e Sawmill Company had cabled t o England f o r a s i m i l a r d o n a t i o n . subsequent meetings  Reports o f t h i s and  show t h a t t e n d e r s were i n v i t e d from t h e  Union Steam Ship Company, Evans Coleman and Evans, and t h e Bur14 ,rard I n l e t E l e c t r i c Railway and F e r r y Company.  An agreement  was f i n a l l y reached w i t h the Union Steam Ship Company whereby the Senator C a l l e d a t North Vancouver to  en r o u t e from M o o d y v i l l e  Vancouver. The  s e r v i c e , however, proved i n d i f f e r e n t , and t h e people  of North Vancouver  were not s a t i s f i e d .  I n 1900, t h e r e f o r e , t h e  M u n i c i p a l i t y took over t h e s e r v i c e i t s e l f . . .. 15 Senator, t h e S. S. North Vancouver, ed  I n place of the  was b u i l t .  She was d e c l a r -  to be a g r e a t improvement on the Senator, w i t h  more than ample f o r e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c .  accomodation  Indeed, the o p i n i o n f r e e -  l y expressed t h a t she v/ould never c a r r y more t h a n 20 o r 30 16 passengers t o North Vancouver. Yet two y e a r s l a t e r i t was 17 obvious t h a t a l a r g e r boat would soon be a n e c e s s i t y .  The  l i m i t e d c r e d i t o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y would n o t permit t h e b u i l d i n g o f a second boat, and o t h e r means were sought o f e n l a r g i n g 14. Minute Book. The l a s t named i s t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t Railway and F e r r y Company, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1892. 15.  L a t e r renamed the North Vancouver F e r r y Number 1.  16.  North Shore P r e s s , A p r i l 3, 1931.  17.  A l a n d boom s e t i n d u r i n g 1900. P-V 56.  b  e e above, Chapter 4,  - 9* the to  service.  I n A p r i l 1905, A. S t . George Hammersley  form a company w i t h the o b j e c t o f t a k i n g over the f e r r y  s e r v i c e and s u p p l y i n g a second boat. ted  offered  The p r o p o s a l was  t o the r a t e p a y e r s , and endorsed by them.  submit-  I n May the Mun-  i c i p a l C o u n c i l agreed t o l e a s e i t s f e r r y t o Hammersley a c t i n g for  a company t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d and known as the North Van18 couver F e r r y anfl Power Company ( L t d ) . The company was i n c o r 19 porated as s t i p u l a t e d , with $57,500 s u b s c r i b e d c a p i t a l . Hammersley arranged t o c h a r t e r a second boat f o r the season, and moved the south shore l a n d i n g from the f o o t o f Abbott  Street  to  from  the  the f o o t o f C a r r o l l S t r e e t , where he l e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s 20 Canadian P a c i f i c Railway.  T r a n s f e r o f t h e s e r v i c e took  p l a c e on J u l y 18, 1905, and f o r a s h o r t time t h e f e r r y s e r v i c e passed from M u n i c i p a l ownership.  I n November Hammersley sub-  m i t t e d p l a n s f o r a new f e r r y , t o be approved by the c o u n c i l . Double-ended i n type, i t had accommodation f o r n e a r l y 1000 21 passengers, as w e l l as f o r 12 t o 14 teams w i t h wagons. Built 22 at the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t Boatyard, and named the S t George a f t e r 25 Hammersley, t h i s f e r r y went i n t o s e r v i c e i n the middle o f 1904. 18.  Minutes o f Meeting o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , May 20, 1905.  19.  i b i d , June 1905.  20.  Loc. c i t .  21.  N o r t h Shore P r e s s , A p r i l 5, 1931.  22.  W a l l a c e ' s . See below. Chapter 8,  23.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , May 31, 1904.  - 9£ When the C i t y o f North Vancouver was it now  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1907, 24  assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f e r r y system,  which  became known as the North Vancouver C i t y F e r r i e s L t d . S.S.  North Vancouver was now p r o v i n g q u i t e inadequate f o r the s e r v i c e , and i n 1910  the C i t y passed a by-law a u t h o r i z i n g exten-  s i v e improvements and the b u i l d i n g o f another boat.  At a c o s t  of #35,000 permanent wharfs were e r e c t e d a t the f o o t of Lonsdale Avenue i n North Vancouver, Avenue i n Vancouver. for  and a t the f o o t of Columbia  A c o n t r a c t was l e t to Wallace Shipyards 25  an up-to-date f e r r y w i t h a s t e e l h u l l t o cost $93,000.  C h r i s t e n e d the North/Vancouver  F e r r y Number Three, she  was  launched i n February 1911, and put i n t o s e r v i c e some weeks l a t er.  The S. S. North Vancouver  the Number One and Number Two  and S t . George were now respectively.  ment grew t o r e s t o r e the f e r r i e s t o m u n i c i p a l  renamed  In 1913 a movec o n t r o l , andlithe  f o l l o w i n g year t h e C o u n c i l r a i s e d a l o a n o f $30,000 with which to purchase the f e r r i e s and s t a r t a company without 26 as a department  of c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  liabilities  The f l e e t was f u r t h -  e r i n c r e a s e d by the a d d i t i o n of F e r r y Number Four i n 1931, at a cost o f $53,500 approximately, and i n 1941 o f F e r r y Number 24. Chapter 4, p . 6>g 25. North Vancouver F e r r y By-Law V a l i d a t i o n A c t 1910, 10 Ed 7. ch 39. The C i t y was o b l i g e d t o guarantee the p r i n c i p a l sum and i n t e r e s t i n dibenture bonds up t o $128,000. 26.  North Shore P r e s s , March 10,  1914.  - 9* Five,  T h i s l a s t boat, b u i l t i n Vancouver by the West Coast  Salvage and C o n t r a c t i n g Company a t a t o t a l cost of $140,299 has accommodation f o r 600 passengers and 30 v e h i c l e s .  I n the  meantime f i r s t t h e Number One and l a t e r the Number Two  were  taken o f f the s e r v i c e and  s o l d f o r o t h e r purposes.  From a f i n a n c i a l p o i n t of view, the  f e p r y system  has  been one of the best investments North Vancouver C i t y has made,  Even at the h e i g h t of the d e p r e s s i o n the f e r r i e s showed  a y e a r l y p r o f i t of some ¥54,000.00 which they p a i d i n t o the 27 C i t y General Account.  Indeed, t h i s i s one of the few  where a m u n i c i p a l l y owned p u b l i c u t i l i t y a profit.  27. .See above, Chapter 4, p.  c o n s i s t e n t l y .'makes 5  77.  cases  - 98 CHAPTER V I I RAILWAYS AND ROADS North. Vancouver was born d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f r a i l w a y cons t r u c t i o n and s p e c u l a t i o n , and r a i l w a y p r o j e c t s have been a s s o c i a t e d with t h e North Shore from t h e very f i r s t . before  the D i s t r i c t  Pour months  o f North Vancouver was i n c o r p o r a t e d , the  B u r r a r d I n l e t R a i l e a y and F e r r y Company was formed, t o operate "a r a i l w a y from some p o i n t on the n o r t h shore o f B u r r a r d  Inlet  near t h e North Arm o r on t h e west shore o f the North Arm o f Burrard Inlet...thence Point Atkinson  westerly  t o a p o i n t on E n g l i s h Bay near 1  o r on Howe Sound".  The company's c h a r t e r em-  powered i t t o b u i l d branches and operate f e r r y boats between the r a i l w a y and Vancouver.  C a p i t a l was s e t a t $500,000.  Of  the f i v e d i r e c t o r s , a t l e a s t t h r e e , g-eorge G. MacKay, John T. C a r r o l l and Adolphus W i l l i a m s were c l o s e l y connected with the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of North Vancouver.  T h i s probably  accounts f o r  the f a c t t h a t by t h e terms o f the c h a r t e r the f i r s t  section of  the l i n e t o be c o n s t r u c t e d was t o be between t h e Seymour and Capilano  Rivers.  I n a c t u a l f a c t t h e p r o j e c t f a i l e d t o mater-  i a l i z e , although a t one time two l e n g t h s o f t r a c k were l a i d 2 near the corner o f C h e s t e r f i e l d Avenue and Second S t r e e t . 1.  B u r r a r d I n l e t Railway and F e r r y Company I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1891, 54 V i c t . , Ch. 53 and amendment 1895 58 V i c t . Ch. 59.  2.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, B, C. May.21, 1936, r e p o r t o f an address g i v e n by J . Rodger Burnes.  ~/6Q T h i s was  done i n an e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n  f i n a l l y allowed  the c h a r t e r , which  t o lapse d u r i n g a p e r i o d of g e n e r a l  was  financial  depression. 'The year 1892  by Dominion 3 S t a t u t e of the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company. Among 4 the D i r e c t o r s was  saw  the establishment  F r a n c i s L. C a r t e r Cotton, M.L.A., i n whose  c o n s t i t u e n c y North Vancouver was  located.  T h e i r c h a r t e r gave  the Company the r i g h t t o c o n s t r u c t a t u n n e l under the  First  Narrows of B u r r a r d I n l e t , and a bridge over the Second Narrows, both t o be f o r f o o t , c a r r i a g e , s t r e e t r a i l w a y and r a i l w a y p u r poses.  The  net e f f e c t would have been a b e l t l i n e  about B u r r a r d I n l e t .  However, t h i s scheme a l s o s u f f e r e d from  the ensuing p e r i o d of f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n , was  allowed  railway  and  the  charter  to f a l l i n t o d i s u s e .  In the meantime the matter of the Second Narrows q u e s t i o n i n North Vancouver.  Bridge  had  become a burning  An amazing  3.  Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Canada, J u l y 9, 1892.  4.  F r a n c i s C a r t e r - C o t t o n was born i n England, and d i d not make h i s permanent home i n Vancouver u n t i l 1886. In 1887 he e s t a b l i s h e d the News A d v e r t i s e r , a morning paper of which he acted as e d i t o r and manager u n t i l he s o l d i t i n 1910. For over tenoyears he s a t as a Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, d u r i n g which time he h e l d the o f f i c e s of M i n i s t e r of Finance and A g r i c u l t u r e , and P r e s i d e n t o f the C o u n c i l . He was a l s o the f i r s t C h a n c e l l o r or the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chairman of the Vancouver Harbout Commission, and P r e s i d e n t of the Vancouver Board of Trade, c f . B r i t i s h Columbia B i o g r a p h i e s , Vancouver, S. J . C l a r k e , 1914, v o l . 4, p. 833.  Bridge Company A c t , S t a t u t e s  of  - 10<t optimism pervaded the tbown, whose promoters a l l appeared t o t h i n k i t t h e i n e v i t a b l e terminus the c o a s t . assumption.  f o r a l l railways reaching  Money was i n v e s t e d and p r o p e r t y boosted  on t h i s  There was no doubt i n men's minds t h a t the Sec-  ond Narrows Bridge would be b u i l t , but o n l y the question o f when, and by whom.  T h e i r hopes had been f u r t h e r strengthened  by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1899 o f the Vancouver Westminster and 5 i,' •• ' Yukon Railway Company, who were a l d o s o n s i d e r i n g the question o f the B r i d g e .  F i n a l l y growing impatient o f delay, the c i t i -  zens decided t o take the matter i n t o t h e i r own hands. had the f u l l  They  support o f the Mayor o f the C i t y and the Reeve o f  the D i s t r i c t , a s w e l l as the' two  councils.  Appeals  were made  to both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , but s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered.  The Dom-  i n i o n government had a l r e a d y granted a subsidy o f #200,000 t o the V., W., & Y.fiy.8o., f o r t h e b r i d g e , and would do no more. The P r o v i n c i a l government would not grant money t o a p r i v a t e company, and a l s o was u n w i l l i n g t o make any grant u n l e s s i t was matched by a s i m i l a r s u b s i d y from the Dominion Government. At t h i s time t h e unused c h a r t e r t o the B u r r a r d I n l e t and Bridge Company was r e c a l l e d , and i t was thought might p r o v i d e the s o l u t i o n t o the problem,  Tunnel that t h i s  A group o f prop-  e r t y owners p r o v i d e d the funds w i t h which t o purchase t h e 5.  C o r r e c t l y termed the Vancouver Northern and Yukon Railway. See below.  - 102. c h a r t e r , and appeals t o t h e Dominion government r e s u l t e d i n 6 the c h a r t e r being f u l l y r e i n s t a t e d . make the B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel  The next  step was t o  and Bridge Company a p u b l i c l y  owned and c o n t r o l l e d c o r p o r a t i o n , a move t o which the muni c i p a l i t i e s adjacent t o B u r r a r d I n l e t u n o f f i c i a l l y promised support.  The P r o v i n c i a l Government was now approached a g a i n ,  and t h i s time promised a s u b s i d y o f #250,000, s u b j e c t t o certain conditions.  When the appeal t o the Dominion Govern-  ment was renewed, however, there developed  a clash of i n t e r -  e s t s between the Burrard I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company and the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Company, which was a l r e a d y i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the s u b s i d y v o t e .  I t was obvious  t h a t the two companies would have t o reach some agreement, but much time elapsed before t h i s was f i n a l l y  accomplished.  I n the end the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway Company accepted the shares i n B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company, and i n r e t u r n surrendered a l l i t s c l a i m s t o the subs i d y o f #200,000 voted by the Dominion Government.  This ar-  rangement a l s o s a t i s f i e d the c o n d i t i o n s l a i d down by the P r o v i n c i a l government, but f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s were now encountered,  which l e d t o a postponement o f the b u i l d i n g o f the  bridge• Back a t the c o a s t , the C i t y of Vancouver, and the C i t y and D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, each passed i z i n g the'pruchase 's .  a bylaw author-  o f shares i n the c a p i t a l stock o f the corn-  The --Company'-was re-incorporated--by Dominion S t a t u t e , 1910.  105 pany on the p a r t of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and l a t e r these were f u l l y s u b s c r i b e d .  shares  Of these shares the C i t y of Vancouver  s u b s c r i b e d $200,000, the C i t y of North Vancouver $100,000 and the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver $150,000.  The t o t a l sum  rep-  resented such a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the estimated c o s t o f the 7 b r i d g e , t h a t i t was ely.  proposed t o commence o p e r a t i o n s immediat-  At t h i s j u n c t u r e , however, the Dominion government n o t -  i f i e d the B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company t h a t  any  b r i d g e b u i l t over the Second Narrows must have a draw at l e a s t 250 f e e t l o n g .  T h i s requirement  was found t o i n c r e a s e the e s -  timated c o s t o f the b r i d g e by one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . f u r t h e r c o u l d be done u n t i l the a d d i t i o n a l money was  Nothing found.  F u r t h e r a p p e a l t o the F e d e r a l Government r e s u l t e d i n an a d d i t 8 i o n a l subsidy vote of $15Q,000, a move which was l a t e r matched 9 by the P r o v i n c i a l government. Before f i n a n c i a l arrangements eould be completed the F i r s t World War i n t e r v e n e d and the bridge had t o w a i t . During the next t e n y e a r s the company was e x t e n s i o n s at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s .  I n 1923  granted time  another e f f o r t  was  7. 8.  One and a q u a r t e r m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . In 1912 the Company r e c e i v e d a s u b s i d y v o t e f o r the r a i l way, which was t o extend from Eburne t o Seymour Creek; from Seymour Creek t o Deep Cove; From Seymour Creek t o Horseshoe Bay; from Pender S t r e e t t o North Vancouver. 2 Geo. V Cap 48. The $150,000 subsidy f o r the Second Narrows Bridge was passed i n 1913.  9.  For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see t h e Empire Day P r o s p e r t i t y E d i t i o n of the E x p r e s s , North Vancouver, May 24, 1912, pp 29 - 32.  - 10$- made t o b u i l d t h i s long-sought  bridge.  The Dominion  ment r e v o t e d #100,000 of the s u b s i d y voted i n 1913, newed t h i s vote i n 1924.  governand r e -  The C i t i e s of Vancouver and  North  Vancouver, and the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of North Vancouver and West Vancouver now  owned a l l the stock i n the company.  e s s a r y t o keeptthe  c o s t of the s t r u c t u r e moderate, and  engineers were so i n s t r u c t e d . monly-used  I t was  nec-  the  They presented p l a n s f o r a com-  type of bascule b r i d g e , the centre span being  ed by a counter-weight.  The  s u g g e s t i o n was  t h a t the  rais-  lift-span  would be p l a c e d i n the centre of the channel where the water was  deep and a l l deep-sea s h i p p i n g passed.  Owing t o the  depth  of the water t h e r e , the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the span would have to be very s u b s t a n t i a l , and i t was  found t h a t t h i s would i n c r e a s e  the cost c o n s i d e r a b l e . I n order, t h e r e f o r e , to keep down the 10 price, i t was decided t o p l a c e the l i f t span at the south end 1  o f the b r i d g e , i n shallower water.  P r o t e s t s of s h i p p i n g  were o v e r - r i d d e n , and the bridge opened t o t r a f f i c D e s p i t e s e v e r a l near-misses Then on March 10, 1927,  in  men  1925.  no d i s a s t e r s o c c u r r e d a t f i r s t .  the Eurana, a 10,000-ton f r e i g h t e r  col-  l i d e d with the centre span, doing damage t h a t amounted t o $77,000. A s i m i l a r a c c i d e n t o c c u r r e d to the Norwich C i t y i n 1928.  T h i s was  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r which opponents of the  bridge had been w a i t i n g .  I n 1928  the l e g a l i t y o f the b r i d g e ,  as i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h n a v i g a t i o n , was 10.  Approximate c o s t $1,800,000.  contested i n Admiralty  Court.  The l e g a l i t y was confirmed and t h e case c a r r i e d t o the  Exchequer C o u r t , where i n 19£9 the s t a t u s o f t h e b r i d g e was again confirmed.  An appeal was then made t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l ,  which r u l e d t h a t t h e second A c t o f I n c o r p o r a t i o n i n 1910 d i d 11 not  j u s t i f y the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b r i d g e .  bridge remained i n the path o f n a v i g a t i o n . American  Meanwhile, the E a r l y i n 1930 an  steamer, the Losman, crashed i n t o the southermost  ed span and c a r r i e d i t away.  fix-  I n September o f t h e same y e a r the  P a c i f i c Gatherer, a s t e e l l o g barge, was c a r r i e d by an eddy under t h e centre f i x e d span, where i t stuck f a s t . was  The deck  caught t i g h t a g a i n s t t h e underside o f the span, making i t  i m p o s s i b l e t o move h e r . lifted  As the t ide began t o r i s e t h e barge  the span and w i t h i n an hour had t o p p l e d i t from i t s sup12  p o r t so t h a t i t sank.  I n view o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l ' s adverse  d e c i s i o n no attempt was made a t t h e time t o r e p a i r the b r i d g e . In  1931 an A c t was passed by t h e Dominion governmant which r e -  s t a t e d the company?^ powers o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and granted them a u t h o r i t y t o r e b u i l d t h e damaged b r i d g e .  The company, however,  had n o t been a b l e t o s t a n d t h e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n o f the d i s a s t e r s and i n February 1932 i t passed i n t o t h e hands o f a R e c e i v er. 11.  The R e c e i v e r i n t u r n was unable t o cope w i t h the problems S t a t u t o r y H i s t o r y o f t h e Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways o f Canada 1836 - 1937. Ottawa Department o f T r a n s p o r t , 1937, p . 68.  12.  F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see; Hamilton, ffames H . , ( C a p t a i n K e t t l e ) , Western Shores, Vancouver, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h i n g Company, L t d . , 1933, Chap. 14.  - 106 o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and f i n a l l y the M o n t r e a l T r u s t Company, t r u s t e e under c e r t a i n mortgages, Company.  i n s t i t u t e d a c t i o n a g a i n s t the  The p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e company were ordered s o l d , and  i n J u l y 1933 the Second Narrows Bridge was s o l d t o the Vancouv e r Harbour Commission, which i n t u r n conveyed  i t t o t h e Crown.  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b r i d g e was commenced immediately, and 13 the b r i d g e was ready f o r use again i n November 1934. The f a i l u r e o f t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and B r i d g e Company had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon the bankruptcy o f t h e C i t y and D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver.  I n 1923 and again i n 1925 the  C i t y and D i s t r i c t each guaranteed the bonds o f t h e B r i d g e Company's F i r s t Debenture  Issue and Second Debenture  Issue, of  #630,000 and #70,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y t o p r o v i d e a S i n k i n g Fund f o r the r e t i r e m e n t o f t h e Bridge Company Debentures upon m a t u r i t y . The Bridge Company was unable t o p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d S i n k i n g Fund i n 1932, and t h e C i t y and D i s t r i c t t h e r e f o r e became l i a b l e 14 f o r t h a t sum, a s i t u a t i o n which has m a i n t a i n e d ever s i n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e C i t y h o l d s B r i d g e Company Shares f o r #250,000 and the D i s t r i c t Shares f o r #287,500 a t p a r v a l u e .  Both show 15. them on t h e i r F i n a n c i a l Reports a t Book Value o f #1.00.  13.  S t a t u t o r y H i s t o r y o f t h e Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways o f Canada. Ottawa, K i n g s P r i n t e r , 1937, p.69. T h i s time the l i f t - s p a n was p l a c e d i n t h e c e n t r e .  14.  C i t y o f North Vancouver Annual Report 1932, p . 8.  15.  F i n a n c i a l Reports o f C i t y o f North Vancouver,1942 p . 18 and F i n a n c i a l Report o f D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver, p.22  - 10* Mention had a l r e a d y been made o f the Vancouver, Westmin16 s t e r and Yukon Railway. Northern  C o r r e c t l y known as the Vancouver,  and Yukon Railway Company, i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d on Feb-  r u a r y 27, 1899, with powers t o b u i l d a narrow gauge r a i l w a y from Vancouver o r some other convenient  p o i n t on the south  shore o f B u r r a r d I n l e t by way o f Setmour Creek o r t h e most f e a s i b l e route t o t h e Squamish V a l l e y , thence v i a Pemberton Meadows, L i l l o o e t , Quesnelle and H a z e l t o n t o t h e Yukon boundary.  The r i g h t was a l s o granted t o b u i l d branch l i n e s  east  and west from the main l i n e along t h e n o r t h shore o f B u r r a r d I n l e t t o Howe Sound and t h e west shore of the North Arm. Among the P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r s named by the A c t o f I n c o r p o r a t i o n , again we f i n d men who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e a r l y development o f North Vancouver. These i n c l u d e John Hendry, f o r m e r l y o f M o o d y v i l l e , A. E . McCartney, who made the f i r s t map o f North 17 Vancouver, C. 0. Wickenden, t h e a r c h i t e c t who planned the 18 Municipal H a l l ,  and Adolphus W i l l i a m s , who was a l s o a d i r e c -  t o r o f the B u r r a r d I n l e t Railway and F e r r y Company. 16.  See above, page 100.  17.  Chapter 4, page 49.  18.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , J u l y 6, 1904.  19.  See above, page 9§.  Capital  - 10% Stock was the  s e t a t two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s .  20  By an amendment t o  A c t the f o l l o w i n g year t h e name o f the company was  to the Vancouver  changed 21  Westminster Northern and Yukon Railway.  f i r s t s e c t i o n o f the l i n e t o be completed s t e r t o Vancouver.  By 1902  ran from New  The  Westmin-  the Company began t o c o n s i d e r the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f b r i d g i n g the Second Narrows and b u i l d i n g the North Shore  section.  I t was the movements o f t h i s company t h a t  first  caused the people t o t u r n t h e i r thoughts t o t h e p o s s i b i l -  ities  o f North Vancouver  as a r a i l w a y terminus and s e a - p o r t , a  f a c t which d i d much to p u l l the m u n i c i p a l i t y out of i t s f i r s t 22 decade o f d e p r e s s i o n . r i g h t - o f - way ion  P l a n s were f i l e d f o r a l i n e h a v i n g  a l o n g the North Vancouver  shore-line.  The  and g e n e r a l p l a n o f a proposed bridge a c r o s s the  Narrows were approved by the Dominion government.  locat-  Second  Parliament  voted the above mention subsidy o f $200,000 towards the b r i d g e , and a f u r t h e r grant o f $ 6 , 4 0 0 p e r m i l e f o r the f i r s t hundred 23 miles.  I t was  c o n f i d e n t l y expected t h a t the work would com-  mence immediately, but the years dragged on and n o t h i n g was done, f i n a l l y the company s u r r e n d e r e d i t s c l a i m t o the b r i d g e 20. Vancouver N o r t h e r n and Yukon Railway A c t , 1899, 62 V i c t . Ch. 89. 21. 22. 23.  ^Vancouver.Nprthern,and 64 V i c t . Ch. 55. Chapter 4, page 56. North Great by J . about  Yukon Railway Amending A c t ,  1900  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, the Beginning o f A P o r t , i n n e r cover and a l s o page 11 e t seq. (Written B. K e r , whose name does not appear, and p u b l i s h e d 1910  - 10^ subsidy to the B u r r a r d I n l e t Tunnel and Bridge Company, w i t h results already related.  I t s c h a r t e r having l a p s e d , the com-  pany was e v e n t u a l l y d i s s o l v e d hy Act of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s 24. lature. Optimism  i n North Vancouver  reached a new h i g h i n 1912,  when the C. P. R. Developed a p l a n t o b r i d g e the entrance o f the North Arm  and b u i l d a l i n e from Roche p o i n t i n t o the C i t y  of North Vancouver.  Concerning t h i s p r o j e c t the l o c a l p r e s s  says: I t may be recounted t h a t a t the beginning o f t h i s year the C; P. R. took a c t i v e s t e p s t o secure a p p r o v a l f o r a r i g h t of way from i t s main l i n e a t P o r t Moody v i a the n o r t h shore o f the I n l e t and c r o s s i n g the North Arm a t T u r t l e P o i n t and thence a l o n g or near the water f r o n t through North Vancouver t o a p o i n t i n West Vancouver almost at Eagle Harbour. T h i s open a c t i v i t y o f the C. P. R. has led to i t s accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r certain r a i l r o a d g r a d i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n which f o r the past two years has been c a r r i e d on i n a somewhat s e c r e t i v e f a s h i o n on the n o r t h shore of the I n l e t , o p p o s i t e Port Moody and Barnet. P r e v i o u s t o i t s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s year f o r a p p r o v a l of i t s North Vancouver e x t e n s i o n , the C. P. R. a u t h o r i t i e s would at no time admit any c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e work which was being c a r r i e d on, although i t had been rumoured time and again t h a t at l e a s t one i n d u s t r y on the North Shore had a guarantee from the C. P. R. of r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s output. The p l a n s of the C. P. R. have not y e t been e n t i r e l y completed. P u b l i c o p i n i o n i n North Vancouver has been expressed against f u l l a p p r o v a l of the r o u t e as a t p r e s e n t o u t l i n e d , f o r the r e a son t h a t i t would perhaps a f f e c t t o o much of the harbour f r o n t . 25. 24.  Defunct Railway Companies D i s s o l u t i o n A c t , 1926-27. 17 GeQ, 5 . Ch 5 .  25.  Express, North Vancouver, May  24, 1912, p.  7.  - 100  -  W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n , t h e C. P. R. ' d i d m o t t c a r r y t h r o u g h  their  p l a n s , and o n c e a g a i n t h e N o r t h S h o r e f a i l e d t o g e t i t s r a i l way. 1912,  h o w e v e r , was  a year of promise  t o the North  for  i n February of t h a t year the P a c i f i c  was  i n c o r p o r a t e d , w i t h head o f f i c e a t V i c t o r i a .  Shore,  Great Eastern Railway T h i s was  be a s t a n d a r d gauge l i n e e x t e n d i n g f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o t h e of North Vancouver, thence  f o l l o w i n g the margin  to City  o f Howe S o u n d  and t h e g e n e r a l cou'se- o f t h e S q u a m i s h R i v e r and c o n t i n u i n g i n a north-easterlydirection to Lillooet. l i n e would f o l l o w the F r a s e r t o connect  From L i l l o o e t  the  w i t h the Grand Trunk 26  Pacific  a t o r n e a r - F o r t G e o r g e , a t o t a l d i s t a n c e o f 450 m i l e s .  A number o f p r i v i l e g e s n o t r e l a t e d t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r were i n cluded i n the charter. ers  The  company was  t o make i t s h e a d q u a r t 27  a t N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , and t o b e g i n o p e r a t i o n s f r o m t h e r e .  M e s s r s . F o l e y , W e l c h and S t e w a r t , promo " i t e r s o f t h e undertook  construction.  The  company,  P r o v i n c i a l government s u b s i d i z e d  t h e r o a d b y g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e company's b o n d s t o t h e amount o f 28"  $32,500.per m i l e .  The  agreement w i t h t h e government  stipulat-  e d t h a t w o r k s h o u l d commence n o t l a t e r t h a n J u l y , 1 9 1 2 , p o i n t w i t h i n t e n m i l e s o f Vancouver and  somewhere o n t h e  at a North  S h o r e , and t h a t t h e r o a d s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d and o p e r a t i o n t o 26. P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y A c t , 1 9 1 2 , 2 Geo. 5,cap 3 6 , S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 27. E x p r e s s , May 24, 1 9 1 2 , p . 3. 28.  i b i d . , p . 55. per m i l e .  The  s u b s i d y was  l a t e r i n c r e a s e d t o $42,00.0  - 110 -  F o r t George w i t h i n three y e a r s . North Vancouver  I t was a l s o understood t h a t  should he c o n s i d e r e d the s o u t h e r n terminus of  the system, although l i n e s might extend t o Vancouver JWestminsterrnhdybeyond.  and -Newt-  The P r o v i n c i a l government f u r t h e r  s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n should g i v e running r i g h t s i n t o Vancouver 29 Railway.  over i t s road t o the Grand Trunk  Pacific  T h i s l a s t clause was good news t o t h e people o f  North Vancouver, who reasoned t h a t the d i s t a n c e from Edmonton to Vancouver  v i a F o r t George was 225 m i l e s l e s s than the d i s -  tance from Edmonton t o P r i n c e Rupert v i a F o r t George, thus b r i n g i n g the Panama Canal some 725 m i l e s nearer Edmonton v i a North Vancouver  than v i a P r i n c e Rupert.  From t h i s they argu-  ed t h a t the major p o r t i o n o f the westbound f r e i g h t c a r r i e d by the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c would come t o North Vancouver,  and the  g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e imports f o r Edmonton and c e n t r a l Canada 30 would a l s o pass through North Vancouver. Work was commenced a c c o r d i n g t o t h e agreement a t North Vancouver.  The company a c q u i r e d 150 a c r e s o f waterfrontage  w i t h i n the F i r s t Narrows f o r t e r m i n a l purposes, and pushed i t s l i n e c l o s e t o the f e r r y . North Vancouver,  A l l t h i s , however, d i d l i t t l e  s i n c e the c o n t r a c t o r s imported a l l t h e i r men 31  and s u p p l i e s from elsewhere. ment.  good t o  T h i s was the f i r s t  disappoint-  The .North Shore D i v i s i o n , 13.8 m i l e s i n l e n g t h , was  29.  Express, Hay 24, 1912, p. 17).  30.  i b i d . , p, 56-  ..  -  ;  v,,,• ;-. . :  31.. D a i l y News A d v e r t i s e r , Vancouver  .  .: /?,::.  B.C., October 12, 1913  -Unopened f o r s e r v i c e i n 1914, ton to  by 1916. Horseshoe  and the l i n e was  The North Shore D i v i s i o n r a n from North  Vancouver  Bay, while the i n t e r i o r s e c t i o n o f the l i n e  ed at Squamish.  start-  As there was no f e r r y o r o t h e r d i r e c t l i n k  tween the two, North Vancouver the  completed t o C l i n -  be-  reaped no b e n e f i t whatever  from  i n t e r i o r s e c t i o n and the North Shore D i v i s i o n f i n a l l y  dev-  eloped i n t o a t o u i s t l i n e , s e r v i n g p i c n i c k e r s and those r e s i d ents who  had s e t t l e along the r o u t e .  The c o n t r a c t o r s , however,  had f o l l o w e d the t r e n d of the t i m e s , and run rampant, f a l l of 1917  - 18 the company suddenly ceased both o p e r a t i o n  and c o n s t r u c t i o n . of  While t h i s r e a l l y h i t the i n t e r i o r  the l i n e , r e p e r c u s s i o n s were n a t u r a l l y f e l t  couver.  I n the  section  i n North Van-  Upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the government i t was  revealed  t h a t the Company had used up the e n t i r e proceeds of i t s bond i s s u e t o b u i l d l e s s than h a l f the e n t i r e m i l e a g e . i b l e and ^costly- acts had l e d t o the d e b a c l e . took aver the road and operated i t .  Irrespons-  The government  The North Shore l i n e  c a r e f u l l y i n s p e c t e d and put i n o r d e r , and a new b u i l t a c r o s s the C a p i l a n o a t a cost o f $50,000.  was  s t e e l bridge F o r some years  i t was thought t h a t the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n permanent s e t t l e m e n t in  West Vancouver would b r i n g a l a r g e revenue t o the North  Shore D i v i s i o n , but t h i s was not the case. was  opened from North Vancouver t o Horseshoe  When a motor road Bay, and the  rail-  way had t o meet c o m p e t i t i o n from buses^ the l i n e began t o show a rapidly increasing d e f i c i t .  In 1928 the s e c t i o n was  closed  down, the d e f i c i t f o r the p a s t year alorie-t-having reached  the  - 113  -  32  sum  of*- $19,000.  North Vancouver, now  thoroughly  disillusion-  ed on the s u b j e c t of r a i l w a y s , had g i v e n up a l l hope of ing  Vancouver as a world p o r t . The P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n scheme was  modernization  route was  i n f a c t merely a  of a v e r y e a r l y attempt to p r o v i d e an o u t l e t from  L i l l o o e t to Burrard I n l e t .  et  rivall-  D a t i n g from M o o d y v i l l e days, t h i s  known as the L i l l o o e t T r a i l .  S e t t l e r s around  and Pemberton Meadows, had f o r some years advocated  Lillooithe  op-  ening up of a good c a t t l e t r a i l from L i l l o o e t t o Howe Sound or Burrard I n l e t .  They r e a l l y favoured the l a t t e r , as  the b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s  offering  f o r c h a r t e r i n g steamers t o convey t h e i r  stock to the V i c t o r i a market.  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n 1873  the  De-  partment of P u b l i c Works sent out a survey p a r t y which c o n s t r u c t e d some t h i r t y - t w o m i l e s of t r a i l  south of Seaton and And-  erson Lakes, and a t the c l o s e o f the  season e x p l o r e d and r e -  p o r t e d on a route t o B u r r a r d I n l e t , e s t i m a t i o n the d i s t a n c e at 134.5  miles.  $5,180.07.  The work of t h i s season cost the Department Next year the p a r t y resumed i t s work, but d e s p i t e  a l l e f f o r t s and the expenditure  of $10,654.03, i t was  imposs-  i b l e t o open the road to the seaboard  t h a t year. In 1875 33 p a r t i e s were sent out, from L i l l o o e t and B u r r a r d I n l e t  two  32.  F o r a d e t a i l e d account of the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n R a i l way, see N e t t a Harvey, " H i s t o r y and F i n a n c e s of the Paci f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway" (1935), MS i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y .  33.  T h i s p a r t y spent the f i r s t Ranch. See Chapter 3. pu  n i g h t out a t John L i n n ' s  -11*  -  r e s p e c t i v e l y , and i t was hoped t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y would comp l e t e the t r a i l .  Work done t h i s summer c o s t the Department  $7704.79, hut the road remained  unopened.  The p a r t y working  i n from B u r r a r d I n l e t r e p o r t e d the ground very s o f t i n p l a c e s . S i x t e e n m i l e s from the I n l e t they came upon beaver swamps which would be impassable i n wet weather. of horse f e e d a l o n g the r o u t e . gaged i n 1876  They a l s o r e p o r t e d a l a c k  A c i v i l engineer who  was  t o survey the route confirmed t h i s r e p o r t ,  enstat-  i n g t h a t the c a t t l e would have to l a y over at the head of Howe Sound and r e c r u i t f o r the remaining f o r t y m i l e s of the journey. That same year the Department made the l a s t attempt the road.  The  t o open up  surveyor i n charge of the work p a r t y r e p o r t e d  t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n Howe Sound was  the proper terminus f o r the  road, and t h a t proper f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be made t h e r e f o r s h i p 34 p i n g the c a t t l e .  The Department accepted these o p i n i o n s , and  ceased work on the road.  L o c a l t r a d i t i o n , however, says t h a t  h a l f - a - d o z e n herds of c a t t l e were brought  down the T r a i l t o  M o o d y v i l l e whence they were shipped across the I n l e t to H a s t ings. in  A s m a l l p o r t i o n of lower s e c t i o n of the road  is::still  use. At  the time the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver was i n c o r p o r -  ated the p r o v i n c i a l government was p e t i t i o n e d t o have another 34.  F o r f u l l d e t a i l s of the L i l l o o e t T r a i l see the r e p o r t s of the Department of P u b l i c Works i n the B. C. S t a t u t e s f o r 1873, 1876 and 1877. The l a s t volume summarizes the whole matter.  - 115 survey made of t h e p o r t i o n o f the road which l a y between the n o r t h e r n boundary o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y and the Squamish R i v e r , with a view t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f i r s t c l a s s waggo£ road at 35 an e a r l y date. The p e t i t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y r e j e c t e d . Between 1900  and 1910 some attempt  was made to open the road up t o 36  mining Claims along the Seymour,  but when these c l a i m s were  no l o n g e r worked t h e r o a d was again n e g l e c t e d . p o r t i o n o f the lower s e c t i o n i s s t i l l  To-day a s m a l l  i n use, g i v i n g a c c e s s t o  a few homes, and t o the m u n i c i p a l cemetary i n D i s t r i c t L o t " 1620.  35.  Minutes of Ratepayers Meeting, January 20, 1890.  36.  See below, p . / ^  -116CHAPTER V I I I  BUSINESS AND  INDUSTRY  B u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l development i n North Vancouver have c e n t r e d around t h r e e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , lumber, l a n d and water-front. ing  The e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s were dependent f o r b u i l d -  s u p p l i e s upon the resources  of Moodyville,  and i t was prob-  a b l y e a s i e r t o o b t a i n s u p p l i e s from t h e l a t t e r , d e s p i t e the distance.  A l l such m a t e r i a l s had t o be f e r r i e d o r towed t o  the beaches of North Vancouver, and thence c a r r i e d t o the s i t e 1 where they were t o be used. little  T h i s was the custom f o r what  b u i l d i n g took p l a c e d u r i n g the f i r s t t e n y e a r s of the  municipality's l i f e .  With the p e r i o d of development t h a t com-  menced i n 1902, i t was  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t some e n t e r p r i s e would  soon be e s t a b l i s h e d to meet the requirements o f p r o s p e c t i v e settlers.  Such was t h e Western C o r p o r a t i o n , L t d . , a Vancouver  lumber f i r m , whose managing d i r e c t o r , A. B. D i p l o c k North Vancouver i n 1900. 2 i n North Vancouver.  settled i n  I n 1903 the Company opened a branch  Although o f f i c i a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as lumber  d e a l e r s , t h i s f i r m r e a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o the development of North Vancouver.  At d i f f e r e n t times they c o n t r a c t 3 ed with the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o c l e a r l a n d and b u i l d waggon r o a d s . 1. Express August 25, 1905, 2.  Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette and D i r e c t o r y f o r 1904.  3.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , December 3, 1903 and December 21, 1904.  - 11*  -  They b u i l t  s e v e r a l of the l a r g e s t homes i n the community, and 4 5 a number of business b l o c k s , and a l s o d e a l t i n r e a l e s t a t e .  In 1905 6 ment.  they even added a plumbing s t o r e t o t h e i r  The main o f f i c e o f the f i r m was  s i t u a t e d immediately east  of the f e r r y dock, where the company maintained sheds.  T h e i r lumber m i l l was  establish-  a wharf  and  at 19th. S t r e e t east of Queens-  bury Avenue, where they claimed t o have the l a r g e s t e l e c t r i c sawmill 85,  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Four e l e c t r i c motors, of 40,  and 185 horserpower r e s p e c t i v e l y , had a d a i l y c a p a c i t y of  35,000 f e e t .  A f t e r 1906  the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway  ran r i g h t i n t o the m i l l yard, and the lumber was to  60,  the wharf on f l a t - c a r s .  neighboring Zealand  Beside  s u p p l y i n g the l o c a l  markets, the company d a i l y f i l l e d  and o t h e r f o r e i g n p o r t s .  transported and  orders f o r  New  As S u t h e r l a n d Avenue a t  t h i s time v/as' o n l y opened up as f a r as 15th. S t r e e t , there no road to the companyts l o g g i n g grounds i n D i s t r i c t Lot and 615.  A s e r i e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s with the M u n i c i p a l  r e s u l t e d i n t h a t body extending  616  Council  S u t h e r l a n d Avenue and a l s o ac-  c e p t i n g a p r o p o s i t i o n from the Company to open up, 4.  I n c l u d i n g the f i r s t , Express o f f i c e .  occupied" by McMillans  5.  Express August 25, 1905  6.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , March 3,  7.  Express December 7,  and May  1906.  was  31,  grade  and  Store and  the  1907. 1905.  - lilt 8 plank 17th. S t r e e t through these two l o t s t o Lynn V a l l e y Road. When D i s t r i c t L o t s 616  and 615 were exhausted,  in  1908  the m i l l was moved t o 17th. S t r e e t and S u t h e r l a n d Avenue, Here D i p l o c k and H. C, Wright, l o c a l manager f o r the Western C o r p o r a t i o n , took over the m i l l , and operated i t v a r i o u s l y  un-  der t h e i r own  1911  names and as the Seymour Lumber Company,  In  they t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o a stand of timber on the h i g h a l t i t i t u d e s of the mountain immediately n o r t h o f the F o r t h i s purpose  city.  they were o b l i g e d to b u i l d a r o a d from the  m i l l at 19th. S t r e e t a l o n g way  up the mountain.  plank road, i t passed e a s t of the m i l l , Road, and ran a c r o s s D i s t r i c t Lot 546  A 12  foot  c r o s s e d Lynn V a l l e y  to S t . Georges Avenue.  F o l l o w i n g S t . Georges Avenue t o i t s e x t r e m i t y i t c o n t i n u e d up through D i s t r i c t L o t s 2026, 799, 881, 882, Lot 869.  District  Three and a h a l f m i l e s l o n g , t h i s road cost $54,000.  A p o r t a b l e saw-mill was the t o p .  and i n t o  hauled up the road and put to work at  Rough-sawn lumber was hauled down t o the m i l l f o r  f i n i s h i n g and d r y i n g .  The  company e s t i m a t e d t h a t they had  t h r e e - y e a r supply of f i r and cedar on the mountain. p a y r o l l of 96 men, the fore-most 8.  a  With a  the Seymour Lumber Company ranked as one  i n d u s t r i a l concerns of the North Shore.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , September 7, 1906. The Lynn V a l l e y Road r e f e r r e d t o i s a c t u a l l y the Mountain Highway. A photograph o f t h i s l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n show the l o g s being hauled by a h o r s e drawn waggon with s o l i d wooden wheels.  It  of  was  - 113 even suggested that the mountain on which they were working, 9 since i t was not y e t named should be c a l l e d Diplock Mountain, but  this d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e , the mountain g e r n e r a l l y b e i n g  r e f e r r e d t o l o c a l l y as Timber Mountain.  I n May o f the f o l l o w -  i n g year, f i r e destroyed t h e sawmill and s h i n g l e m i l l , which 10 were t h e n v a l u e d a t $50,000.  Another f i r m attempted t o c a r r y  on the work on Timber Mountain, but they were burnt out i n the severe f o r e s t f i r e s o f May 1914, when the whole side o f t h e 11 mountain was burned. There were a l s o lumbering e n t e r p r i s e s on the west s i d e of the town.  James and Robert McNair, o f t h e H a s t i n g s S h i n g l e and 12  M a n u f a c t u r i n g Company, Lynn V a l l e y ,  maintained a shingle  bolt  pond a l o n g t h e f o r e s h o r e o f D i s t r i c t L o t 271. They were c u t t i n g s h i n g l e b o l t s west of Lonsdale Avenue before they bought 13 up S p i c e r ' s m i l l i n 1895, and continued t o do so u n t i l about 1902. I t i s probable t h a t they were t h e l a s t people t o use 14. oxen w i t h i n the t o w n s i t e .  I n 1911 t h e r e were a t l e a s t a doz-  en lumber and s h i n g l e companies o p e r a t i n g i n the C i t y and D i s 15 t r i c t o f North Vancouver. bThe l a r g e s t s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e on 9.  Express J u l y 11, 1914.  10.  i b i d , May 14, 1912.  11.  E x p r e s s May, 22, 1914.  12.  Chapter 5, page 5f©.  13.  loc. c i t .  14.  T o l d t o w r i t e r by C. Munro.  15.  B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, F e b r u a r y 1911.  - 1X0 the  west s i d e was the C a p i l a n o Timber Company, which operated  between 1917 and 1932.  I n 1917 t h i s concern purchased 674  f e e t o f f o r e s h o r e i n D i s t r i c t L o t 265  anfl r a n a l o g g i n g  rail-  way up the C a p i l a n o V a l l e y t o b r i n g out t h e r e d cedar f o r which the  l a t t e r was famous.  There were some 8 m i l e s o f r a i l w a y l i n e  over which the company operated 2 steam l o c o m o t i v e s , 1 f l a t car,  12 l o g g i n g c a r s , 27 l o g g i n g t r u c k s , 1 steam s h o v e l and 1  17 snow plow. 1932,  When the m i l l s were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e 18 the l o s s was s e t a t $5,000,000.  i n June,  The r e a l " r a i s o n d ' e t r e " f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver was r e a l e s t a t e . the  Mention has a l r e a d y been made o f  two companies which aetapiired the t o w n s i t e l a n d s , North Van19  couver Land and Improvement Company and Lonsdale E s t a t e .  As  soon as these lands were put on the open market they were bought up by s e t t l e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s .  Other l o t s f r u t h e r a-  f i e l d were s i m i l a r l y a c q u i r e d , i n many cases by owners r e s i d ent  o u t s i d e Canada.  I n a d d i t i o n e v e r y s e t t l e r was a p o t e n t i a l  s p e c u l a t o r , w i l l i n g a t any time t o s e l l out i f t h e p r i c e  suited  him.  Between 1892 and 1902 the c u r r e n t d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d p r e 20 vented development, but from t h a t time up t o 1913 r e a l e s t a t e  16.  North Shore Press February 23, 1917.  17.  Report o f t h e Department o f Railways o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B. C , 1919, p . E 25.  18.  North Shore P r e s s June 14, 1932.  19.  Chapter 4, pp 54.  20.  i b i d , p 53.  - 120 21 booms were the p r i n c i p a l a t t r a c t i o n i n North Vancouver. A Check of the Vancouver D i r e c t o r i e s f o r the p e r i o d shows t h i r t y s i x d i f f e r e n t r e a l e s t a t e concerns o p e r a t i n g at some time tween 1904  and 1912.  Many of them were s h o r t l i v e d .  e r a l cases the p r i n c i p a l s merged t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n t o concerns.  By 1912,  was  I n sevbigger  the number of r e a l e s t a t e f i r m s was  but the a c t i v i t y j u s t as g r e a t .  I n the f i r s t years the  boosted f o r i t s r e s i d e n t i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l  be-  less, area  advantages.  The e l e v a t i o n and southern s l o p e were c r e d i t e d w i t h producing a c l i m a t e l e s s humid than the lands of B u r r a r d I n l e t and the F r a s e r V a l l e y , h a v i n g more sun i n w i n t e r and e a r l i e r growth i n 22 spring. P o u l t r y farming and f r u i t growing were f o u r e d mostly. As e a r l y as 1903,  o n ^ r e s i d e n t i s r e p o r t e d t o have turned over 23 $600. from h i s strawberry p a t c h . Soon however the s t r e s s s h i f t e d from farming t o i n d u s t r y .  The p r o s p e c t of a bridge  a c r o s s the Second Narrows and the e n t r y of Railway l i n e s t o 24 the town gave r e a l e s t a t e f i r m s a s t r o n g e r t a l k i n g p o i n t . T h e i r optimism knew-no bounds;  With the coming of r a i l w a y s  they v i s u a l i z e d a rush of s h i p p i n g and w a t e r f r o n t development t h a t would r a i s e North Vancouver t o a t l e a s t second p l a c e a25. mong Canada's P a c i f i c p o r t s . T h i s would b r i n g a s t i l l g r e a t e r 21.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e May Vancouver by H. Morden.  21, 1936  22.  Express August 5,  23.  loc. c i t .  24.  Chapter  25.  Ker, J.B., North Vancouver, The  A r t i c l e on  North  1905.  7. Beginning of a Great P o r t . p. 9.  - 121 i n f l u x o f r e s i d e n t s , and i n a n t i c i p a t i o n r e a l t e r s began t o s u b d i v i d e and c l e a r r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . 1908  In  the North Vancouver Land and Improvement Company commenc-  ed c l e a r i n g on t h e Grand Boulevard, which was t o be a f e a t u r e of t h e c h o i c e s t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . t h i s was t o be a boulevard square m i l e o f t h e town.  According t o the plans,  quadrangle surrounding t h e c e n t r e K e i t h Road, which was t o form the  south s i d e , was a l r e a d y p u b l i c p r o p e r t y .  The company now open'  ed up the e a s t s i d e , which extended along Queensbury Avenue from K e i t h Road t o 19th S t r e e t .  The n o r t h and west s i d e s o f  the quadrangle have never been developed. Boulevard,  Known as t h e Grand  the p o r t i o n along Queensbury Avenue was n e a r l y one  m i l e l o n g and 246 f e e t wide. a large undertaking.  C l e a r i n g t h i s t r a c t o f l a n d was  Dynamite and steam engines were put t o  work, and t h e d e b r i s b u i l t up i n t o p i l e s f i f t y f e e t wide a t 26 the base and seventy f e e t h i g h f o r b u r n i n g . When completed the a r e a was p l a n t e d with grass and f l o w e r i n g shrubs, 27 veyed t o the C i t y o f North Vancouver. here were safeguarded  and eon-  Prospective residents  by b u i l d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s which  allowed  o n l y b u i l d i n g s intended as p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s , and c o s t i n g not l e s s than $4,000, t o be e r e c t e d on the Boulevard. E x p i r i n g at the end of twenty years, these r e s t r i c t i o n s were renewed i n 26.  K e r , op. c i t . , p p 17 and 21.  27.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l October 17, 1906.  - 123 28 1928- f o r a f u r t h e r p e r i o d o f twenty y e a r s . During t h e next f i v e years s p e c u l a t i o n soared, a s d i d l a n d values a l s o .  Some t h i r t y f i r m s , s e v e r a l o f them i n Van29  couver were b o o s t i n g p r o p e r t y on the North Shore. these were pushing  Some o f  s p e c i a l developments, o t h e r s were i n t e r e s t -  ed mainly i n c i t y p r o p e r t y . the bridge and r a i l w a y s .  One and a l l pinned t h e i r hopes on  P r i c e s soared amazingly.  F i f t y foot 30  l o t s on the Boulevard were a d v e r t i s e d f o r $2600 each.  A block  of 160 acres i n D i s t r i c t L o t 590, some f o u r m i l e s up the C a p i l a n o Canyon, was o f f e r e d f o r $40,000, w h i l e l a n d i n D i s t r i c t L o t 865, between t h e Lynn and t h e Seymour, was expected t o 31 b r i n g $800 p e r a c r e . - Lots i n other p a r t s were p r i c e d a c c o r d 32 ingly.  P r o j e c t e d development o f Roche P o i n t ,  and hope o f a  b r i d g e a t the Second Narrows, f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on p r o p e r t y e a s t o f the c i t y .  T h i s was regarded by some as the time t o  open up new s u b d i v i s i o n s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes.  Noticiable  among r o j e c tVancouver s was Marlbank, a s u b d i v i sRieosntcroinctt ai io n i n g 28. C these i t y o fp North Grand Boulevard A c t , 1928, 18 Geo. 5. Ch 57. 29.  Twenty-eight o f these f i r m s r a n l a r g e  advertisements  i n the Express Empire Day P r o s p e r i t y E d i t i o n , May 24,1912. 30.  i b i d , p . 48.  31. 32.  i b i d , p . 42. See below, I m p e r i a l Car S h i p b u i l d i n g and Drydock Corporation.  - 12& a some 300  a c r e s i n D i s t r i c t Lot 858  acquired  by the S e c u r i t i e s C o r p o r a t i o n 33  Federal Trust Corporation  Ltd.  t e r s e c t e d by the L i l l o o e t  Road, was  a road along Seymour Creek. tram-line  and  The  The  as Bridgeview.  which had  of Canada and  property,  been the  which was  s u g g e s t i o n was  made t h a t  subdivision.  the  A somewhat  t h a t of D i s t r i c t Lot 612,  I t s proximity  in-  a c c e s s i b l e by auto from  would be extended i n t o the  more l i k e l y s u b d i v i s i o n was  859,  known  t o - K e i t h ,Road and theobr'idge,:-wea?e fj^js  thought i t o l g i M s i t x ^ c s t r a t e g i c v v p o s i t i . o n ; t a n d t h e r e .also .the:" B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway were expected t o extend 34 their line. Other p ojects of a s i m i l a r nature were R o s s l y n !  r  Townsite, In D i s t r i c t L o t s 551 and 471, p l a n s f o r which were . 35 approved i n 1909, and E r i n d a l e , i n the western p a r t o f D i s t r 36 i c t Lot 622.  These l a s t three  s u b d i v i s i o n s were a l l planned  on the assumption t h a t there would be major i n d u s t r i a l elopment at the the bridge  e a s t e r n end  no^ the  ed developments  of K e i t h Road.  dev-  However, n e i t h e r  i n d u s t r i e s m a t e r i a l i z e d , and  the  project-  collapsed.  Waterfront development was railway f a c i l i t i e s . 24,  The  handicapped by the  f i r s t man  1912,  p.  lack  of  t o e s t a b l i s h a business  33.  Express, May  34.  i b i d , p.  35.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l  36.  B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, Vaneo'iver, B. C , advertisement.  on  57.  28. C o u n c i l , August 6,  1909. June  1911,  -  124T-  the North Vancouver w a t e r f r o n t was Cates, a v e t e r a n of the New  C a p t a i n C h a r l e s H.  England  Cates.  C l i p p e r s , came t o B u r r a r d  I n l e t i n the 1880's and took up r e s i d e n c e a t M o o d y v i l l e , where 37 he e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t the y e a r 1904  towing company on the I n l e t .  he b u i l t the f i r s t  dock, i n North Vancouver.  wharf, a p a r t from the  ferry  Here he handled the f i r s t s h i p s to  d i s c h a r g e cargo i n North Vancouver. l y mining  About  These cargoes were c h i e f -  s u p p l i e s from C a l i f o r n i a d e s t i n e d f o r t h e Klondyke.  Shipments of these s u p p l i e s a r r i v i n g a t Vancouver i n the autumn would f r e q u e n t l y be unable t o reach the Yukon before f r e e z e up.  The goods would then be s t o r e d over the  winter  at  C a t e s ' wharf, where o t h e r s h i p s would l o a d them i n the 38 s p r i n g and c a r r y them t o t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . Cates' t u g and p i l e d r i v e r were i n constant demand a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t . By 1907  he had added b o a t - r e p a i r i n g f a c i l i t i e s and a sawmill to 39 h i s wharf. In 1935 he s t a r t e d b u i l d i n g tugs, and b u i l t f i v e 40 altogether. 37.  North Shore P r e s s , December 5,  38.  R e l a t e d to the w r i t e r by C a p t a i n C h a r l e s Cates J r . , son of the l a t e C. H. Cates. T h i s s t o r y i s c o r r o b o r a t e d hy a p i c t u r e appearing i n the North Shore P r e s s , December 5, 1941, which shows the S. S. Lonsdale berthed a t Cates wharf i n September 1909. T h i s was the f i r s t o c c a s i o n upon which an ocean-going steam-ship had docked on the North Shore.  39.  Express June 28,  40.  R e l a t e d by C a p t a i n C. H.  1907. Cates.  1941.  - 125  -  Cates was f o l l o w e d i n 1909  by the MeDougall-Jenkiris Eng-  i n e e r i n g works, on the e a s t s i d e of Lonsdale.  I n 1910  this  f i r m made h i s t o r y by b u i l d i n g the number three f e r r y the 41 s t e e l v e s s e l produced  i n the Vancouver a r e a .  I n 1911  first  there  was a change of management i n the f i r m , a r i v a l f i r m , the a l b i o n I r o n Works, was  absorbed,  and the r e s u l t a n t  known as the North Shore I r o n Works L t d .  company  F. C a r t e r - C o t t o n  was p r e s i d e n t of the new f i r m , which d e s c r i b e d i t s e l f as S h i p b u i l d e r s , Boilermakers, I r o n and Brass founders and Gen42 e r a l Engineers. I t was now one of the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l concerns on the North Shore, employing men, first  on an average 43  and i t s p a y r o l l amounted t o $4,500 p e r month. World War p r o v i d e d a s t i m u l u s f o r such  During 1917  and 1918  60 workThe  industries.  the North Shore I r o n Works completed  winches and 35 windlasses f o r the I m p e r i a l M u n i t i o n s  76  Board,  16 s t e e r i n g gears f o r P a t t e r s o n Macdonald S h i p b u i l d i n g Company of S e a t t l e , 33 winches f o r J . Coughlan and Sons of Vancouver, and much g e n e r a l work f o r Wallace Shipyards L t d . , L y a l l S h i p b u i l d i n g Company L t d . and the I m p e r i a l M u n i t i o n s 44 Board. 41.  B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, Vancouver B. C. February 1911 Wallaces a l s o c l a i m t o have b u i l t t h i s boat. Probably both f i r m s worked on i t .  42.  Henderson's Greater Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , 1 9 1 4 ,  43.  Express May  44.  S h i p b u i l d i n g and S h i p b u i l d e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s , Tower P u b l i s h i n g Co.,Vancouver, 1918. p.30  24, 1912,  p.  Advertisement.  7.  - 12* In 1905 the North Vancouver M u n i c i p a l  Council received a  communication from a s h i p b u i l d e r , A. Wallace, o u t l i n i n g p l a n s f o r a s h i p y a r d and marine r a i l w a y on p r o p e r t y acquired  i n North Vancouver, and r e q u e s t i n g 45  emotion from t a x a t i o n f o r t e n y e a r s .  he had r e c e n t l y  f r e e water and ex-  T h i s was the b e g i n n i n g  of the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t on the North Shore. Wallace came t o V a n c o u v e r  Alfred  from h i s n a t i v e Devonshire i n 1894,  and commenced b u i l d i n g l i f e - b o a t s i n h i s back-yard.  Three  years l a t e r , In 1897, he b u i l t a small ways on F a l s e Creek under the G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t Bridge where he b u i l t double-ended F r a s e r R i v e r f i s h i n g b o a t s .  flat-bottomed  I n 1909 the F a l s e  Creek boatyard burned down and was abandoned;,.-:but p r i o r t o t h a t A l f r e d Wallace had bought a s i t e on Esplanad e, North Vancouver, and had e s t a b l i s h e d there a 220-foot marine ways 46 with a c a p a c i t y o f 1600 t o n s . That p l a n t , t o o , was wiped out 47 by f i r e i n 1911, with a t o t a l l o s s s e t a t $2,000,000, but was r e b u i l t immediately, and f u r t h e r improvements were added i n 48 1913.  During these years the mainstay of the business was  coastwise v e s s e l s r e p a i r s , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h v a r i o u s new v e s s e l s of both s t e e l and wood.  F o r r e p a i r work, Wallace b u i l t two  45.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l A p r i l 5 and May 3, 1905.  46.  Wallace S h i p b u i l d e r v o l . 1. No. 1, J u l y 1942, p u b l i s h e d by and I n the i n t e r e s t s o f the. Burrard Drydock Company employees.  47.  Express J u l y 11, 1911.  48.  D a i l y News A d v e r t i s e r , October 12, 1913.  - 12* marine r a i l w a y s , capable tons displacement.  o f h a u l i n g out v e s s e l s up t o 2,000  Then came the war, and i n 1915  Wallaces,  l i k e the North Shore I r o n Works r e c e i v e d c o n t r a c t s t o make, 49 not s h i p s , but 18;jpound h i g h - e x p l o s i v e s h e l l s . In 1916 a s h i p p i n g shortage ing  developed, and Wallaces,  f i n i s h e d t h e i r s h e l l c o n t r a c t , began work on the a u x i l i a r y  wooden schooner, t h e "Mabel Brown". 50 1917,  Launched on January 27,  she w as t h e f i r s t o f a g r e a t f l e e t of schooners t o be  b u i l t on the P a c i f i c Coast. ing  hav-  Due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n -  s t e e l , the I m p e r i a l Munitions  Board l e t c o n t r a c t s f o r a  number o f wooden s h i p s , c o n s t r u c t e d from Douglas F i r and r e 51 inforced with  steel girders.  L a t e r i n 1916 W a l l a c e s r e c e i v -  ed an o r d e r f o r a 3000-ton s t e e l steamer, 315 f e e t i n l e n g t h , with 1300 horse-power t r i p l e expansion engines.  When she was  launched the f o l l o w i n g May, she was not o n l y the f i r s t ocean52 going s t e e l steamer b u i l t i n Canada, but a l s o the f i r s t deep53 sea v e s s e l b u i l t on t h e Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. I m p e r i a l Munitions  Int.all;othe  Board p l a c e d c o n t r a c t s with Wallaces f o r '  s49. i x a Vancouver u x i l i a r y schooners o f the Brown c l aDevelopment s s , and t h r eNumber e D a i l y World, B r i Mabel t i s h Columbia 1922. 50.  S h i p b u i l d i n g and S h i p b u i l d e r s , op. c i t . , p . 59.  51.  Hamilton, James H. (Captain E e t t l e ) , Western Shores, Vancouver, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h i n g Co., L t d . , 1933, p.149 e t . seq. >  52. Shipping and S h i p b u i l d e r s , op. c i t . , p . 8. 53.  advertisement.  Wallace Shipyard and Drydock Co., L t d . , Vancouver D a i l y World, B r i t i s h Columbia Development .Number, 1922.  - 129 steel  54 steamers.  The  t o supply the parent  -  Wallace Foundry Company was  established  p l a n t w i t h the heavy i r o n and 55  brass  t i n g s r e q u i r e d f o r the t r i p l e expansion engines. p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the war  In  Wallaces b u i l t  cas-  the  several  ships f o r the Canadian Government Merchant Marine, as w e l l as for l o c a l shipping firms.  A new' c o n s t r u c t i o n r e c o r d was  set 56  i n 1921, A new  when the f i r m b u i l t the P r i n c e s s Louise f o r the C.P.R.  j o i n e r shop had to be b u i l t t o cope with the  l a r g e a-  mount of j o i n e r work on t h i s passenger v e s s e l . In the meantime s h i p b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s had west of the I n d i a n Reserve #1. dale E s t a t e had  As f a r back as 1912,  the Lons-  launched a p l a n f o r a m i l l i o n - d o l l a r dock 57  scheme on the f o r e - s h o r e  of D i s t r i c t Lot 265,  known as the F e l l Avenue f i l l . and  extended  The  war  on t i d a l  intervened,  flats  however,  i n 1916  Wallaces acquired the f i l l with the i n t e n t i o n of 58 b u i l d i n g three wooden s h i p s t h e r e . One year l a t e r , the W i l l i a m L / l y a l l S h i p b u i l d i n g Company L i m i t e d was formed t o 59 b u i l d ships f o r the French government, and t h e y a c q u i r e d a 60 three-year l e a s e o f the y a r d . L y a l l s b u i l t twenty-seven 54.  S h i p b u i l d i n g and  S h i p b u i l d e r s , op.  c i t . , p.  59  55.  Wallace S h i p y a r d and Drydock Co. L t d . , op. c i t .  56.  North Shore P r e s s , January 24,  57.  Express, February 16,  58.  North  1919.  1912.  Shore P r e s s , June 2,  1943.  59. i b i d , January 24, 1919 60. i b i d , June 29, 1917. W i l l i a m L y a l l was head f o r the s u b s i d i z e d company.  a mere f i g u r e -  ^  - 130 -  61 wooden ships h e r e , With t h e c e s s a t i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s they 62 were no l o n g e r needed, and i n 1919 t h e y c l o s e d down. During the War the i n t e r e s t s of Wallace S h i p y a r d s had be63 come a s s o c i a t e d w i t h those of the B u r r a r d Drydock Company, and a f t e r t h e War  t h i s company c r o s s e d t o the /North Shore and  took over and e n l a r g e d p a r t of the premises o c c u p i e d by Wallaces.  A 20,000-ton  f l o a t i n g drydock was b u i l t and opened  with much f o r m a l i t y by Hon. Dr. J . H. K i n g , f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works, on August 11, 1925. was  At t h a t time the dock  capable o f h a n d l i n g the v a s t m a j o r i t y of v e s s e l s p l y i n g 64  i n and out o f the P o r t o f G r e a t e r Vancouver.  With the out-  break of the Second World War l a r g e government c o n t r a c t s were awarded the two y a r d s , and f u r t h e r expansion f o l l o w e d . I n the twenty-year i n t e r v a l between t h e F i r s t and Second World Wars, the i n d u s t r i a l aspect of the North Shore underwent a great change.  I n 1914 the main w a t e r f r o n t concerns were  s h i p b u i l d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , while behind the w a t e r f r o n t were 6 1  •  Hamilton, l o c . c i t .  62.  North Shore P r e s s October 31,  1919.  63.  C l a r e n c e Wallace, son of A l f r e d Wallace, l e f t h i s f a t h e r ' s business to serve overseas i n 1914. On h i s r e t u r n he was appointed s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e ^ o f the B u r r a r d drydock Company i n 1918, and became p r e s i d e n t i n 1929. Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1940-1941, S. Maurice C a r t e r , P. 0. Box 803, Vancouver, p.235.  64.  North Shore P r e s s I n d u s t r i a l Supplement gefiember 1941, advertisement. I t was no doubt due to C l a r e n c e Wallace t h a t the drydock was b u i l t i n North Vancouver r a t h e r than Vancouver.  - 131 a number of a c t i v e lumber and  shingle m i l l s .  I n the course  the next twenty years the lumber and s h i n g l e m i l l s ceased operate  on Grouse Mountain and i n Lynn and C a p i l a n o  but l a r g e r lumbering t i c and export t r a d e .  i n t e r e s t s developed  r e s u l t was  t h a t the town saw  to  Valleys,  and important  domes-  These f i r m s a l l took up w a t e r f r o n t  e r t y , as d i d a v a r i e d assortment  of  of other businesses.  prop-  The  net  a r a p i d development o f i t s water-  f r o n t d u r i n g these y e a r s , w h i l e the r e s t of i t s area became p u r e l y commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l . j u s t p r i o r to the outbreak  A survey of the w a t e r f r o n t 65  of the Second World War  revealed  a c t i v i t y along the whole f i v e - m i l e s t r e t c h between the and Second Narrows.  I n c l u d e d i n the l i s t  are t h r e e  First  shipbuild-  i n g concerns, f i v e lumber o r s h i n g l e m i l l s , a dock which l o a d s about 100,000,000 f e e t of lumber y e a r l y f o r export, and a boomi n g ground.  The  lumber m i l l s s p e c i a l i z e i n B. C. Douglas F i r ,  and the s h i n g l e m i l l s i n Red Cedar. export t r a d e .  A l l of them c a r r y on 67  an  I n a d d i t i o n we f i n d l i s t e d a company e x p o r t i n g  c r e o s o t e d r a i l w a y t i e s and lumber t o the U n i t e d Kingdom, I n d i a , China, and Japan, and  a f i r m making the l a r g e s t s t e e l r e - i n 68 f o r c e d concrete p i p e s produced i n western Canada. Two o i l 65. Templeton, Conn: The North Shore's Busy Waterfront, Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , June 17, 1939. 66.  Japan Dock.  67.  Vancouver C r e o s o t i n g Company.  68.  Pressure P i p e Company.  - 132  69  companies hage b u i l t t h e i r main p l a n t s here, and here a l s o are the headquarters of the f i r s t company on the west c o a s t t o c a t e r t o t h e owners of p l e a s u r e boats, p r o v i d i n g them w i t h f a c 70 i l i t i e s f o r s t o r i n g t h e i r boats and p a r k i n g t h e i r c a r s . ed away among busy commercial  e n t e r p r i s e s are the  Tuck-  headquarters  of the l o c a l yacht c l u b , and f u r t h e r a l o n g , of the l o c a l branch of t h e Sea Scouts.  A r e c e n t development i s a l a r g e  fish  cannery, whose owners operate i t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r g e n e r a l 71 wharfage and l o g g i n g b u s i n e s s .  Very c l o s e t o t h e s i t e of Sue  Moody's Wharf at M o o d y v i l l e , now  stands the Midland  Pacific  G r a i n E l e v a t o r , w i t h a c a p a c i t y of 1,500,000 bushels of g r a i n . To serve a l l these p l a n t s t h e N a t i o n a l Harbour Board had  ex-  tended i t s T e r m i n a l Railway across the Second Narrows Bridge and along the w a t e r f r o n t of the North Shore.  P a s s i n g by t u n -  n e l under Lonsdale Avenue, i t l i n k s up with and operates a s m a l l s e c t i o n of the o l d P. G. E. l i n e .  Thus a p a r t of an o l d  dream hag at l a s t come t r u e . C o n t r a r y to p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , commercial e n t e r p r i s e s d i d not keep pace with i n d u s t r i a l development. D e s p i t e a s e r i e s o f rumours, no l a r g e r e t a i l f i r m s have yet e s t a b l i s h e d es on the North Shore, a p a r t from a c h a i n g r o c e r y f i r m . 69.  I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d , and Home O i l D i s t r i b u t o r s .  70.  North Shore Marine  $t.  W. P. Gibson and Sons.  Basin Limited.  branchThere  - 133 are  a number o f s m a l l p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d suburban shops near the  f e r r y wharf,  and some o t h e r s a r e s c a t t e r e d about i n the d i f f -  erent r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s .  Banking I n t e r e s t s were more  enterprising.  The Bank of B r i t i s h North America opened a 72 branch at Lonsdale and Esplanade i n 1905, and had the f i e l d  to  i t s e l f u n t i l 1910. • In t h a t year two o t h e r banks moved i n . 73  The Bank of Hamilton e r e c t e d a b u i l d i n g a t t h e c o r n e r of Lons dale Avenue and F i r s t S t r e e t , and t h e Royal Bank o f Canada purchased the north-west  corner o f Lonsdale Avenue and  ,74 Street.  Second  75 Nex$ y e a r the Bank of M o n t r e a l and the Bank of Com-  merce a l s o opened branches.  A subsequent  s e r i e s o f amalgam-  a t i o n s i n the banking w o r l d reduced the number o f banks i n North Vancouver  t o t h r e e , the Bank o f M o n t r e a l , the Bank o f  Commerce and the Royal Bank of Canada, C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h these developments i n t e r e s t was c e n t r e d • " 77 around Roche P o i n t and the townsite o f R o s l y n on the North Arm, In  1910  the I m p e r i a l Car S h i p b u i l d i n g and Drydock C o r p o r a t i o n 78  l a i d p l a n s f o r a drydock and s h i p y a r d a t Roche P o i n t ,  These  were t o be used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l a r g e p l a n t c o n s i s t i n g o f 72.  Express, November 10,  73.  i b i d , January 21,  74.  ibid, April  75.  i b i d , February 6,  1911.  76.  i b i d , February 9,  1911.  77. 78.  See above, p. ^ Express J u l y 8, 1910.  1,  1905.  1910.  1910.  - 134 i r o n and s t e e l works, r e d u c t i o n p l a n t and s m e l t e r , a t which i t was proposed t o manufacture  r a i l w a y c a r s and s h i p s from  79 B r i t i s h Columbia  Pittsburg.  iron.  North Vancouver was t o bedome another  An e v e n t u a l expenditure o f $25,000,000 was con-  templated, and i t was expected t h a t the p l a n t would employ 80 5,000 men.  A l a r g e saw-mill was e r e c t e d , and a s u b s i d y ob-  t a i n e d from the Dominion Government f o r t h e drydock.  Then the  Company s o l d t h e drydock, with a l l t h e p r i v i l e g e s and conc e s s i o n s o b t a i n e d , t o a B r i t i s h company.  There was some d e l a y  before l e g i s l a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e Dominion House t o Change the working o f the a c t and t r a n s f e r t h e subsidy t o the 81 new company.  Before that o b s t a c l e had been overcome, the  d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d caused the c o l l a p s e o f the whole scheme. due course t h e saw-mill was s o l d t o t h e Vancouver  In  Lumber Comp-  any, who c u t cedar f o r s h i n g l e s . There was f u r t h e r excitement on t h e North Arm i n 1912, when i t w as announced t h a t the Chicago, Milwaukee and S t . P a u l Railway had secured t e r m i n a l grounds a t Roche P o i n t ,  In co-  o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Union P a c i f i c t h i s company had r e c e n t l y taken over a s m a l l l i n e i n the sta.te o f Washington by which the companies hoped t o o b t a i n entrance i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia. 82 L i k e the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the Chicago Milwaukee and 79.  B r i t i s h Columbia  does not mine i r o n o r e l  80. 81.  E x p r e s s , P r o s p e r i t y E d i t i o n , May 24, 1912. p.28, advertisement. i b i d . p . 49.  82.  q.v., c h . 7.  - 135 S t . P a u l planned t o b u i l d around the head o f the I n l e t , c r o s s the North Arm, and l a n d at the s i t e o f the proposed t e r m i n a l . Wharves, docks, f r e i g h t wharehouses and g r a i n e l e v a t o r s were to be e r e c t e d here, and the p l a n i n c l u d e d the i n s t i t u t i o n o f a 83 f e r r y s e r v i c e across the I n l e t t o Vancouver.  As i t t r a n s p i r -  ed, t h i s was j u s t another a b o r t i v e scheme. I t was not u n t i l 1916 that a r e a l l y s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s man came t o R o s l y n .  I n t h a t year Robert D o l l a r purchased a  s e v e n t y - f i v e acre s i t e  i n the south h a l f o f D i s t r i c t L o t 471,  D o l l a r , whose name was a by-word i n the C a l i f o r n i a s h i p p i n g 84 world, had made Vancouver h i s home p o r t when he founded the Canadian Robert Dollar. Company L i m i t e d i n 1912.  Before l o n g  he obtained great s t a n d s o f t i m b e r i f r o m the B r i t i s h  Columbia  government, a a d ^ s e l e c t e d the s i t e on the North Arm f o r a l a r g e sawmill and dock.  The name o f the l o c a l i t y was changed t o  D o l l a r t o n , and a community sprang up about  the m i l l .  At t h i s  time the o n l y means o f r e a c h i n g Dollartown was by water, the Harbour N a v i g a t i o n Company p r o v i d e d connections w i t h Vancouver. The m i l l had been o p e r a t i n g more than a year b e f o r e the road w was opened up from North Vancouver.  F o r some t w e n t y - f i v e years  the D o l l a r f l e e t operated out of B u r r a r d I n l e t , B r i t i s h Columbia  carrying  lumber and s h i n g l e s t o a l l p a r t s o f the w o r l d .  83.  E x p r e s s , o p . c i t . , p . 17  84.  P e t e r B. Kyne, t h e n o v e l i s t , i s s a i d t o have s e l e c t e d Robert D o l l a r as the p r o t o t y p e f o r h i s famous c h a r a c t e r "Cappy R i c k s " .  - 136  -  Robert D o l l a r d i e d , and the b u s i n e s s passed to h i s three sons, two of these a l s o d i e d , and the D o l l a r f l e e t s disappeared from the s h i p p i n g world.  In January 1943  the Canadian Robert  Dollar  Company L i m i t e d m i l l s and timber l i m i t s were purchased by o t h e r i n t e r e s t s , and a romantic name* had passed from the l i s t 85. North Shore i n d u s t r i e s .  of  A t y p i c a l B r i t i s h Columbia town, North Vancouver had had i t s " g o l d r u s h " , a l o n g t h e Seymour R i v e r . i n 1878  even  I t i s said that  a p a r t y of Frenchmen found g o l d nuggets i n the Seymour  while about the same time some c o l o u r e d men  reported f i n d i n g  s m a l l nuggets of f i n e g o l d , the l a r g e s t b e i n g worth  86 "six bits".  Other o p t i m i s t i c persons a c t u a l l y staked c l a i m s a l o n g the r i v e r , g i v i n g them such t r a d i t i o n a l names a s "Golden S l i p p e r " and " E l 87 Dorado". I n 1914 f o u r Chinese b u i l t a flume and worked a 85.  Robert D o l l a r was born i n 1844 at F a l k i r k , S c o t l a n d . He came t o Canada a t the age o f 14, and soon became a lumberjack. At 28 he was g e t t i n g out lumber on h i s own f o r the f o r e i g n t r a d e . I n 1882, at the age of 38 he moved t o Michigan, and s i x y e a r s l a t e r pushed west to C a l i f o r n i a . I n 1901 D o l l a r began t o operate s h i p s on f o r e i g n t r a d e , find t h e a y ^ a r s f ©llpwihg<;he.emade h i s f i r s t t r i p t o C h i n a . T h i s l e d him t o e s t a b l i s h the tremendous Chinese r i v e r t r a d e , f o r which h i s s h i p s became famous. D o l l a r b u i l t up a w o r l d - c i r c l i n g s n i p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , whose Vancouver branch r i v a l l e d the Canadian P a c i f i c i n t r a n s - p a c i f i c importance. He d i e d at the peak of h i s success, but h i s b u s i n e s s r a p i d l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d a f t e r h i s death.—Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , February 6, 1943.  8B. Vancouver  D a i l y P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 4,  1926.  87. R e l a t e d by W. M. L. D r a y c o t t . Mr. Draycott has h i m s e l f panned f o r g o l d i n the Lynn and got c o l o u r .  - 137 riffle  box below the canyon,  The  amount of t h e i r f i n d i n g s i s  not on r e c o r d , but the remains o f t h e i r flume and r i f f l e c o u l d be seen some years l a t e r . of  a deep,, s h a f t and a windlass  Below K e i t h Road, the remnants belonging t o the same p e r i o d  remained as l a t e as 1926. 88  P l a c e r g o l d has been found  the c i t y i n t a k e .  workmen b o r i n g a new  I n 1912  box  south  of  t u n n e l under  the C a p i l a n o R i v e r f o r the Vancouver Water Board, d i s c o v e r e d a gold-bearing r e e f . t o n , and a c l a i m was  Samples showed g o l d and s i l v e r at #4.00 a 89 staked and r e g i s t e r e d .  None o f these a t -  tempts however has yet produced a g o l d mine i n North Vancouver. The o n l y p l a c e s where a s e r i o u s attempt has been made at mining are up the Lynn and Seymour. On the west side of Lynn 90 Ridge an o u t c r o p p i n g of b a t h o l i t h has r e v e a l e d the presence of 91 a v a r i e t y of o r e s , e s p e c i a l l y of z i n c , l e a d and copper. About the year 1900  p r o s p e c t o r s began d e v e l o p i n g c l a i m s on Seymour  Creek, r e a c h i n g the l o c a t i o n by waggon road from North Vancou92 ver. On Lynn Creek i n the same years they r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g 93 promising p r o s p e c t s of g o l d , copper and z i n c . Sample s u r f a c e s 88.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 4,  89.  Express  90.  See above, Chapter  91.  Burwash, E. M. J . , Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 111., 1918, pp 19 and. 36.  92.  General Review of Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n #11, 1903. The road r e f e r r e d to was the L i l l o o e t T r a i l .  93.  Review of I n d u s t r i a l C o n d i t i o n s i n B. 0., 18.  September 3,  1926.  1912.  1903,  Bulletin  - 138  -  of z i n c blende from these p r o s p e c t s were assayed up t o 50% 94 zinc. In 1908 a determined e f f o r t was made t o have the L i l l o o e t T r a i l opened t o s e v e r a l c l a i m s up the Seymour beyond 95 the D i s t r i c t boundary.  I n the same year a Dr. Swayne a p p l i e d  to the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l f o r a waggon road t o h i s mining e r t y on Lynn Creek.  prop-  The C o u n c i l estimated that the road would  cost $5000, but expressed w i l l i n g n e s s t o b u i l d i t with P r o v i n cial aid.  Dr. Swayne a l s o wanted a tramway from the water-  f r o n t t o h i s mine, and approached  the B r i t i s h E l e c t r i c  Railway  96 on the s u b j e c t . About the same time B. A. Weldon o b t a i n e d from the C o u n c i l a grant of $100 toward the opening up of the 97 L i l l o o e t t r a i l t o . h i s p r o p e r t y , while the Tyee Copper Company 98 proposed t o b u i l d t h e i r own r o a d .  I n a l l these cases i t  e v e n t u a l l y became e v i d e n t t h a t the ore was v a l u a b l e to warrant  not  sufficiently  continuous o p e r a t i o n s , and the mines c l o s -  ed down.  94.  M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  95.  Minutes 1908  96.  i b i d , June 5, and J u l y 22,  of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , May  97. i b i d , November 20, 98  1904,  i b i d , August, 20,  1903. 1909.  1908.  Official Bulletin  #19.  1, 1908,  20,  November  - 139 CHAPTER IX The  SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES  s t o r y o f education i n North Vancouver has i t s r o o t s  i n Crown Colony days, f o r i t was i n 1869 t h a t the government was f i r s t approached f o r a grant towards a s c h o o l a t Moody's. At t h a t time t h e r e were f o u r s c h o o l s on the mainland, New Westminster, Douglas, Sapperton and Y a l e .  Apparently  i n 1867 Gov-  ernor Seymour had made the Board o f School T r u s t e e s o f New Westminster r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h e s c h o o l s of t h e lower main1 land.  The Governor had a l s o promised a g e n e r a l scheme o f ed-  u c a t i o n f o r the colony, and the establishment  o f new schools 2  i n 1868 was delayed i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i s scheme.  However,  the need became p r e s s i n g a t Moody's, and i n J u l y , 1869, Henry Holbrook, p r e s i d e n t of the New Westminster m u n i c i p a l  council,  which was a l s o the s c h o o l board, wrote t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y f o r a grant o f $500 f o r a proposed new s c h o o l a t Burrard Inlet.  I n h i s l e t t e r Holbrook s t a t e d t h a t t h e average number  of c h i l d r e n l i k e l y t o a t t e n d t h i s school was unknown, but mos-t, i f not a l l ,  o f them would be a b l e t o pay t h e t u i t i o n f e e which  the L o c a l Board had s e t a t $1.50. I t was proposed t o o f f e r 1. MacLaurin, D. L., H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Crown C o l o n i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 96. T h e s i s f o r Ph. D. Degree, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1936. Copy i n l i b r a r y o f U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. i b i d . , p. 97. The scheme mentioned was embodied i n the P u b l i c Schools A c t , 1872.  - 140  -  the t e a c h e r s the amount of the government grant and the  tuition  f e e s and t o reserve the v o l u n t a r y s u b s c r i p t i o n s f o r i n c i d e n t a l expenses a&d  repairs.  Out  of t h e i r s a l a r i e s the t e a c h e r s 3  would be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e Holbrook was  the necessary  fuel.  In r e p l y  t o l d t h a t the government would only grant $400  towards the s c h o o l on Burrard I n l e t , and t h a t s a i d s c h o o l would be under the charge of the New Westminster M u n i c i p a l 4 C o u n c i l . I t was not however u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g January t h a t the Burrard I n l e t School D i s t r i c t was the n o r t h and  south  g a z e t t e d , embracing both 5 s i d e s of the I n l e t . The s c h o o l was opened  at Moody's i n the August f o l l o w i n g , under a by-law approved by 6 the Governor.  V i s i t i n g the school the same month, the  t o r found t h i r t e e n p u p i l s e n r o l l e d .  He  inspec-  remarked t h a t they seem-  ed very backward, but a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to the f a c t t h a t the school had  only been i n o p e r a t i o n a short w h i l e .  The  room, which belonged t o Moody, D e i t z and Nelson, was p o o r l y equipped.  Apparently  schoolsmall  the l o c a l board had made no  and  at-  tempt t o supplement the government g r a n t , and the i n s p e c t o r 7 recommended i t s withdrawal i n consequence. T h i s seems to have 3.  Correspondence of Henry Holbrook, F 778 B r i t i s h Columbia.  4.  i b i d . , J u l y 29,  5.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , August 7,  6.  MacLaurin, op. c i t . , p.120.  7.  i b i d . , p.  128.  1869. 1870.  b6 A r c h i v e s  of  - 141  -  been done, s i n c e the B u r r a r d s c h o o l was not on the l i s t those r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Haynes, the f i r s t  t e a c h e r , remained  Miss Laura  u n t i l 1872,  of A.  and upon r e -  s i g n i n g was  succeeded hy Mrs. Murray T h a i n , wife of a Moody8 9 v i l l e longshoreman, a t $500 per annum. The l o c a t i o n of the school was  not v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i n 1873  the i n s p e c t o r  r e p o r t e d as f o l l o w s : T h i s school has heen l a b o u r i n g under s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y f o r the p a s t y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n t o want of room, the c o n t i n u a l smoke from the burning o f sawm i l l r e f u s e j u s t under the door and windows o f the school-room has n e c e s s i t a t e d d i s m i s s a l at noon a l most every day, f o r s e v e r a l months. Not withstandi n g these drawbacks, the school has made progress and i s w e l l and e f f i c i e n t l y conducted by Mrs. T h a i n . A new school-house i s i n course of e r e c t i o n , out of the way of the smoke and d i n of the m i l l s , and w i l l soon be ready f o r o p e r a t i o n . 10 In  1874  the s c h o o l boundaries were re-arranged, and a  new  school e s t a b l i s h e d at G r a n v i l l e t o serve the south side of the 11 Inlet. The Burrard I n l e t s c h o o l was the l a r g e r of the two, r e p o r t i n g an enrolment In  of 39 as compared w i t h 21 at G r a n v i l l e .  both cases the school p o p u l a t i o n was  very migratory,  ing  shift12 from one community t o another, o r moving away e n t i r e l y .  8.  See above, chapter 2.p3-*~  9.  Howay, E a r l y Settlement on B u r r a r d I n l e t , B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , A p r i l 1937, p. 101 e t . seq.  10. B. C. .Sessional: Papers. 1873, " p . 12,'- -Public Schools  Report.  11. T h i r d Annual Report of the Superintendant of E d u c a t i o n f o r the year ending J u l y 31, 1874, A r c h i v e s of B r i t s h Columbia. la.i  ibid,  1875.  I  - 142 In  1876  -  B u r r a r d I n l e t p u p i l s were again r e p o r t e d t o be back-  ward i n t h e i r s t u d i e s , although q u i e t and o r d e r l y .  There  ap-  pears t o have been a shortage of t e a c h e r s a t t h i s time, f o r i t was to ing  not u n t i l sometime d u r i n g t h i s year t h a t one was  r e l i e v e Mrs. T h a i n .  s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n was  growing, hav-  reached the r e c o r d f i g u r e of 41 on one o c c a s i o n .  the year 1875-76 the new ted  The  school-house  was 13  up with proper desks and equipment.  not s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i n 1877  found  completed,  During and f i t -  P r o g r e s s was  still  the t r u s t e e s secured "the s e r -  v i c e s o f a f i r s t c l a s s l a d y teacher of g r e a t experience i n t u i t i o n , who w i l l no doubt soon p l a c e the s c h o o l on an e f f i c 14 ient footing." She d i d not remain l o n g , and her s u c c e s s o r s do not seem t o have succeeded pupils. 15 ville.  I n 1883  i n r a i s i n g the standard of the  the name of the school was  changed t o Moody-  M o o d y v i l l e School continued t o serve the m i l l town, and for  more than ten years was  the only s c h o o l on the North  Shore  a v a i l a b l e t o the f a m i l i e s of s e t t l e r s i n North Vancouver. January 1902  In  the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l of North Vancouver forward-  ed t o the Superintendant  of E d u c a t i o n a l i s t of c h i l d r e n of  16 s c h o o l age w i t h i n the community, and urged the need o f a s c h o o l . 13.  Annual Report of the Superintendant of E d u c a t i o n f o r the year ending J u l y 31, 1876, A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  14!  ibid,  15.  i b i d , 1878-1883.  16.  Minutes  1877.  of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , February 5,  1902.  - 143 I n September a r e p l y was r e c e i v e d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t the Supe r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n and the I n s p e c t o r o f Schools had v i s i t e d North Vancouver and agreed t o recommend a s c h o o l d i s 17 trict  there.  The s c h o o l was opened s h o r t l y a f t e r , and  visit-  ed i n F e b r u a r y 1903 by the i n s p e c t o r .  There were 25 p u p i l s 18 e n r o l l e d , t h r e e of whom were under s i x y e a r s . Lynn V a l l e y 19 School was opened i n May of the year f o l l o w i n g , with 18 20 p u p i l s , t h r e e being under s i x y e a r s .  That same year the en-  rolment i n North Vancouver i n c r e a s e d t o 44, but the i n s p e c t o r noted a c e r t a i n l a x i t y i n the conduct and management o f the 21 school.  I n 1905  the enrolment a t Lynn V a l l e y was  t h i r t e e n , and the tone and d i s c i p l i n e were much With 45 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d , North Vancouver  reduced t o  improved.  was making f a i r p r o -  g r e s s , but o f M o o d y v i l l e , where there were now  24 r e g i s t e r e d ,  the i n s p e c t o r r e p o r t e d : " The most i r r e s p o n s i v e c l a s s of p u p i l s 22 I ever met i s the s e n i o r grade of t h i s s c h o o l . " The North Vancouver s c h o o l had not been i n o p e r a t i o n s i x 17.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , September 30,  18.  S c h o o l Report,  19.  See above, Chapter 5. pg"f  20.  S c h o o l Report,  21.  ibid.  22.  ibid,  1905.  1903.  1904.  1902.  - 144 months before the need was was  -  felt  not u n t i l the summer of 1905  opened.  A male p r i n c i p a l was  l a d y a s s i s t a n t at $50, V a l l e y r e c e i v e d $50  23 f o r a second teacher, but i t that the second d i v i s i o n  engaged at $60 per month, and  while the l a d i e s a t M o o d y v i l l e  and $45.  and  r e s p e c t i v e l y . A t o t a l of 24  p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d ini,the three s c h o o l s .  a  Lynn  94  Settlement  North Vancouver expanded so r a p i d l y t h a t f o r the year 1907  was  in 1906-  the North Vancouver s c h o o l r e p o r t e d an enrolment of  75  p u p i l s i n the f i r s t d i v i s i o n and 102 i n the eecond d i v i s i o n . The numbers at M o o d y v i l l e and Lynn V a l l e y remained f a i r l y 25 stable. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of North Vancouver i n 26  ,  1907  l e f t the Lynn V a l l e y s c h o o l the o n l y s c h o o l i n the  trict.  T h i s probably  rolment t h e r e to 34. couver School was  Dis-  accounts f o r a sudden i n c r e a s e i n enMeanwhile, i n the C i t y , the North Van-  renamed the C e n t r a l S c h o o l .  Two  new  rooms 27  were added t o the b u i l d i n g , and two more d i v i s i o n s opened. Even so, the f o u r d i v i s i o n s r e p o r t e d inrolments of 49, 71, 23. Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , February 3, 1903 and A p r i l 5, 1905.  83,  24.  School Report  1906.  25.  ibid,  26.  See  27.  The o r i g i n a l two-roomed b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d by the government at a c o s t of $2000. T r u s t e e s estimates f o r 1907 i n c l u d e d $4500 f o r the a d d i t i o n — S c h o o l Report ..for 1904, and C o u n c i l Minutes February 4, 1907.  1907.  above, chapter  4.p6^  - 145 and 82 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  28 The p r i n c i p a l , J . B. Bennett, r e c e i v e d  $100 p e r month, the l a d y a s s i s t a n t f o r the second divis-lorn 29 $60, and t h e other two l a d i e s each $50 p e r month. I n the 30 D i s t r i c t the o r i g i n a l s c h o o l house a t Lynn V a l l e y was f e l t t o be inadequate, and i t was agreed t o purchase a new l o t , more c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , and e r e c t a new b u i l d i n g . A l o t was pur31' 32 chased from J . M. Fromme f o r $150, but c l e a r i n g cost $500. The new b u i l d i n g , s t i l l  o n l y one room, was opened i n 1908.  Schools were a l s o needed i n the Northern and western p a r t s o f the D i s t r i c t .  J . C. K e i t h o f f e r e d t o g i v e a s i t e near t h e  corner of C a p i l a n o and fifeith Roads, t o serve t h e C a p i l a n o com33 ' munity. I n the North Lonsdale a r e a the C o u n c i l purchased two acres i n D i s t r i c t L o t 784 f o r $1250 as a s i t e f o r t h e North 34 35 S t a r S c h o o l . C a p i l a n o School was opened i n 1908, but t e n d e r s 36 f o r North S t a r School were not c a l l e d f o r u n t i l 1909. At the 28.  The l a t e J . B. Bennett, who remained i n the North Vancouver School System u n t i l he r e t i r e d i n 1937, was a prominent member of the Community and very a c t i v e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n .  29.  School Report 1908. The p r i n c i p a l ' s s a l a r y was i n c r e a s e d to $125 the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  30.  See above, chapter  31.  ibid.  32.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l November 7, 1906 and September -30, 1907.  33.  i b i d , September 30, 1907.  § ps? f  34. i b i d , May 1, 1908. 35.  School Report 1909. The s c h o o l opened with 21 p u p i l s , i n c r e a s i n g t o 35 i n 1910.  36.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , September 28, 1909.  - 146  -  C e n t r a l School two more d i v i s i o n s were added i n 1908 and s t i l l 37 another i n 1909. The s i t u a t i o n was o b v i o u s l y g e t t i n g out of 38 control.  C e n t r a l School had more than 300 p u p i l s , and a  b u i l d i n g was  imperative.  A f t e r s e r i o u s thought  Board decided t o b u i l d two new town.  For the convenience  i o n o f the  the  School  s c h o o l s i n other p a r t s of the  of r e s i d e n t s i n the n o r t h e r n s e c t -  town a frame s c h o o l of e i g h t rooms was  Lonsdale Avenue between 21st. and 22nd. S t r e e t s .  built  new  Lonsdale  School.  and grew r a p i d l y .  now  housed i n the  school was  a l s o under c o n s t r u c t i o n  on the east s i d e of the town.  l i e v e the s i t u a t i o n a temporary two-room s c h o o l was i n 1910,  To r e erected  on.the c o r n e r of the f o u r - a c r e s i t e which was 42  have a #12,000 b u i l d i n g . the E a s t End S c h o o l ,  and  The High School s t a r t e d with 17 p u p i l s  A new  i n D e s t r i c t Lot 550,  The  a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s year,  t e m p o r a r i l y housed i n a business b l o c k , was 40  on  Fomr rooms 39  were completed f i r s t and were opened i n A p r i l 1911. High S c h o o l , which had  new  The temporary s c h o o l was  when i t opened i n October 1910  to  known as i t took  the p u p i l s of M o o d y v i l l e School, which then c l o s e d down a f t e r 37. School Reports f o r 1909 and 191'0. 38.  Express, January  39.  School Report  40.  Express A p r i l 4,  41.  School Report  42.  loc. c i t .  28 and February 11,  1911. 1911.  1911.  1910.  - 147 nearly t h i r t y - f i v e years.  Work on the permanent s c h o o l d i d 43 not commence u n t i l J u l y 1911, The b u i l d i n g w as f o r m a l l y opened hy the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , the Honorable Henry Esson  44  Young, on A p r i l 8, 1912.  This r e l i e v e d the congestion i n  C e n t r a l S c h o o l , which by now had reached  15 d i v i s i o n s , and had  been o b l i g e d t o use temporary q u a r t e r s .  J . B. Bennett was  t r a n s f e r r e d as p r i n c i p a l t o the new s c h o o l , known as Eidgeway School, which absorbed the make-shift  E a s t End School.  Further  p r o g r e s s was marked t h a t autumn, w i t h t h e opening o f a Manual 45 T r a i n i n g Centre  at Ridgway School.  I t was s e v e r a l years be-  f o r e a corresponding Home Economics c e n t r e was opened f o r the girls. The  school p o p u l a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t had a l s o i n c r e a s e d ,  but i t was spread over a much g r e a t e r a r e a .  On t h e North S t a r  s i t e a four-room b u i l d i n g was e r e c t e d , although o n l y one room 46 was opened a t f i r s t . Lynn V a l l e y had added a second d i v i s i o n 47 i n 1910, but the enrolment i n c r e a s e d so r a p i d l y t h a t t h e School Board decided to s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n on a new b u i l d i n g . A four-roomed frame b u i l d i n g , i t was opened i n January 1912 48 and f i l l e d a t once. F u r t h e r expansion f o l l o w e d more s l o w l y . 43.  Express  J u l y 18, 1911.  44.  Express A p r i l 9, 1912.  45.  Express August S7, 1912.  46.  School Report, 1912.  47. 48.  i b i d , 1911. i b i d , 1912;  - 148 I n 1914 the D i s t r i c t School BSard opened D e i t h Lynn School i n D i s t r i c t Lot 553, near D e i t h Road, w i t h t h e o b j e c t of r e l i e v 49 i n g Lynn V a l l e y S c h o o l , but by 1919 i t was n e c e s s a r y to put 50 a four-roomed a d d i t i o n on the o l a t t e r s c h o o l . C a p i l a n o School was r e p l a c e d by a l a r g e r b u i l d i n g e r e c t e d on a f o u r - a c r e s i t e 51 purchased from J . P. F e l l a t #3750 p e r a c r e , and i n 1917 a one 52 roomed s c h o o l was opened at Roche P o i n t . In the C i t y , the o l d C e n t r a l School was r e p l a c e d i n 1915 by a modern s i x t e e n room b u i l d i n g on a s i t e i n the south-west c o r n e r of D i s t r i c t 53 Lot 548.  To complete the p i c t u r e , the C i t y e r e c t e d an up-to-  date-High School i n 1924,  and i n t r o d u c e d the J u n i o r High  Schools i n t o the system i n 1937.  The D i s t r i c t has never main-  t a i n e d i t s own H i g h S c h o o l , but sends i t s students t o t h e C i t y High School on a pro r a t a ibasls.  There are no J u n i o r High  Schools i n the D i s t r i c t system- t o date.  The purchase of s c h o o l  s i t e s and e r e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s n e c e s s i t a t e d heavy borrowing i n both C i t y and D i s t r i c t .  In eluded i n the p r e s e n t bonded  indebtedness of the C i t y are bonds f o r S c h o o l purposes  totall-  i n g $561,430 and i n v o l v i n g an annual i n t e r e s t payment of 54 $28,453.75.  I n the D i s t r i c t the t o t a l stands a t $134,280, and  49.  North Shore" P r e s s , August 21,  1914.  50.  North Shore P r e s s , June 13,  1919.  51.  North Shore P r e s s , J u l y 18,  1913.  52.  i b i d , June 29,  53.  i b i d , August 23,  54.  C i t y of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statement,  1917. 1915. 1942.  - 149 the  -  y e a r l y i n t e r e s t #4,527.00.  Of t h i s t o t a l l o a n s worth 55 $52,050.00 have matured, hut.not heen p a i d . These f a c t s have  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f i n a n c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f both C i t y and D i s 56 trict. The I n d i a n s were the f i r s t people t o b u i l d a church on the  North Shore, o r f o r t h a t matter, on B u r r a r d I n l e t .  I t ap-  pears t h a t t h e y had come i n t o c o n t a c t with the Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s of the Oblats de Marie Immaculee who among the I n d i a n s of the P a c i f i c Coast. and by 1866 was  were a c t i v e  Converts were made, 57  the q u e s t i o n of a church had been r a i s e d .  There  some d e l a y due to the f a c t t h a t the l a n d whcih the Indians  claimed had not at t h a t time been set a s i d e as a r e s e r v e , and 58 the  Indians d i d not want t o l o s e t h e i r c l a i m to t h e i r church.  T h i s matter was  f i n a l l y c l e a r e d up, and by 1869  a l a r g e frame  b u i l d i n g with a s i n g l e s p i r e stood on the w a t e r f r o n t of number 1. I n d i a n Reserve. St.  Paul's Church  The f i r s t  C h r i s t i a n church on Burrard I n l e t ,  served the Indians from the south shore, as  w e l l as those a t Lynn Creek, Seymour Creek and Squamish. In 59 1909 the church was e n l a r g e d , the second s p i r e added, and the 55. D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statement 1942.  f> 76  56.  See above, Chapter 4*  57.  B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s , 1875, I n d i a n Land Question, Papers R e l a t i n g t o , correspondence of February 15, 1866.  58.  i b i d , correspondence o f August 16,  59.  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e May Rodger Burnes.  el-$e|.  1869.  21, 1956,  a r t i c l e by J .  - 150  -  name became the Church of S t . P e t e r and S t . P a u l . Boarding  School was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1906 60 S i s t e r s o f the I n f a n t J e s u s .  An  under the charge of the  A couple of m i l e s to the e a s t , a community had at M o o d y v i l l e . was  Westminster.  Here i n 1860  o d i s t Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia was From t h i s as h i s headquarters on June 19, 1865, there conducted  people  the f i r s t  the f i r s t 63  Meth-  d i d i c a t e d on A p r i l 8,  61 1860.  62 the Reverend Ebenezer Robson,  crossed B u r r a r d I n l e t t o M o o d y v i l l e ,  ever h e l d on the I n l e t . for  developed  At t h i s time m i s s i o n work among white  c e n t r e d a t New  Indian  and  r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e f o r white people F i f t e e n men  formed the  the s e r v i c e , which, t r a d i t i o n says, was  congregation  h e l d out of  doors  on a g r a s s y spot. From t h a t time on, r e g u l a r p r e a c h i n g was maintained at M o o d y v i l l e , S e r v i c e s were h e l d v a r i o u s l y i n the 64 65 cook-house, the schoolhouse, and the h a l l of the Mechanics 66 Institute, but the Methodists d i d not b u i l d a church at Moody60.  Henderson's C i t y of Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , 1907, p. 851 e t seq.  v o l . XIV.  61.  S t o t t , Reverend W i l l i a m , B. A., The Story of S t . Andrews U n i t e d Church North Vancouver, 1865-1937, North Shore P r e s s , 1937 p.6.  62.  See above, chapter 5, p . f y f n .  63.  Howay, F. W., E a r l y Settlement on B u r r a r d I n l e t , B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1, A p r i l 1937, p. 101 e t . seq.  64.  D a v i s , Reverend E . A., Comparative Review of Methodist P r e s b y t e r i a n and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Churched i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d by Joseph Lee, Vancouver, 1925, p.65.  65. 66.  S t o t t , op. c i t . , p. 10 See above Chapter 2, 1>3~i  - 151 ville.  A r t i c l e 10 o f the Bylaws and C o n s t i t l u t i o n o f the  Mechanics I n s t i t u t e , founded i n 1869, p r o v i d e s f o r t h e room to be a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f preachers nominations,  o f the Gospel  o f a l l de67  f o r h o l d i n g D i v i n e S e r v i c e , f r e e of charge.  T h i s was e v i d e n t l y done, f o r at a meeting o f the I n s t i t u t e i n A p r i l 1880, a p r o p o s a l was made t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h i s p r a c t i c e , and equip a c e r t a i n l o c a l b u i l d i n g i n s t e a d . i o n s expressed,  as recorded  The o p i n -  i n the minutes o f t h e meeting, are  both i n t e r e s t i n g and e n l i g h t e n i n g : ...Should any Roman C a t h o l i c C h a p l a i n s e t t l e here members would be deprived o f t h e r e a d i n g room every Sunday.... ...The Reading Room i s not a proper p l a c e f o r worshipping God, a concert on Saturday eve ( s i c ) and D i v i n e S e r v i c e on the Sunday morni n g i s s c a r c e l y i n keeping... ...the i n f l u e n c e o f a l l t h e members should be used t o b u i l d a church...  68 . . . m i n i s t e r s have no i n t e r e s t i n the matter...  The  p r o p o s a l was f i n a l l y withdrawn, so presumable t o room con-  t i n u e d t o be used. The  Church o f England a l s o made New Westminster i t s head69 q u a r t e r s f o r the mainland, and b u i l t a church there i n 1860. 67.  Minute Book o f t h e Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e , p r o p e r t y o f the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y .  68.  ibid.  - 152 The  -  f a c t of Moody s u p p l y i n g c e r t a i n lumber f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t 70  i o n of the church i n 1865  seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an e a r l y  con-  t a c t was made w i t h the settlement at M o o d y v i l l e , but i t was 71 not u n t i l 1876 t h a t r/egulair s e r v i c e s were inaugurated here. 72 In 1880  Bishop S i l l i t o e v i s i t e d the I n l e t soon a f t e r h i s a r -  r i v a l i n the newly formed diocese of New tell  Westminster.  H i s wife  us: Our f i r s t acquaintance with B u r r a r d I n l e t was a few days a f t e r our a r r i v a l , when we f r o v e over by stage from New Westminster to l u n c h w i t h (Saptain Rayner i n the cook-house of the H a s t i n g s M i l l , c r o s s i n g the I n l e t d u r i n g the afternoon t o v i s i t the Moodyv i l l e M i l l and t o see some of the p e o p l e . During the w i n t e r of 1880-1881 the Bishop took the s e r v i c e every f o r t n i g h t , i n the morning a t the H a s t i n g s M i l l School House, i n the evening at Moodyv i l l e , or v i c e v e r s a , — r i d i n g over from New Westm i n s t e r on the Saturday a f t e r n o o n , c a r r y i n g our luggage on the saddles behind us, r e t u r n i n g a g a i n on Monday. 75  70.  See  above Chapter  2. ^/<"  71.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 27, 1876,  72.  p.  3.  Acton Windeyer S i l l i t o e (1841-1894) f i r s t A n g l i c a n Bishop of New Westminster (1879-94), was born i n A u s t r a l i a i n '1841, and educated at Pembroke C o l l e g e , Cambridge (B.A., 1862). He was ordained a p r i e s t of the Church o f England i n 1870; i n 1879 he was consecrated bishop of the new diocese of New Westm i n s t e r , B r i t i s h Columbia. He reached New Westminster i n 1880 and he a d m i n i s t e r e d the diocese u n t i l h i s death, a t New Westm i n s t e r , on June 9, 1894. He was a D. C. L. of the U n i v e r s i t y T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Toronto. Wallace, D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian Biography, Macmillan Co., Toronto, 192B. 73.  S i l l i t o e , op. c i t . , p.  55.  - 153 74 When S t . James Church was  r-  built  i n 1881,  between the  ments of G r a n v i l l e and H a s t i n g s , M o o d y v i l l e t h a t p a r i s h , and  was  served  from t h e r e .  settle-  became p a r t  of  There i s some e v i d -  ence t h a t the P r e s b y t e r i a n s  a l s o v i s i t e d M o o d y v i l l e from 75 Westminster, but no permanent work was e s t a b l i s h e d . The  1891,  M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver was  but,  due  p o s s i b l e to the 76  owed immediately, i t was  New-  incorporated  in  decade of i n a c t i v i t y t h a t  not u n t i l 1899  t h a t any  foll-  attempt  was  made t o organize r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s i n North Vancouver. first  s e r v i c e s were conducted by the  shack b u i l t of shakes and teenth  Street.  The  Church of England, i n a  s i t u a t e d on Lonsdale Avenue and  f o l l o w i n g year they put up  b u i l d i n g on T h i r t e e n t h  The  S t r e e t West, which was  Thir  a s m a l l frame dedicated  on  74.  S t . James' Church was e r e c t e d e a r l y i n 1881, on a s i t e half-way between H a s t i n g s and G r a n v i l l e . T h i s was the f i r s t A n g l i c a n Church b u i l t i n Vancouver. S e r v i c e s were h e l d r e g u l a r l y . In 1884 the Reverend H. G. F i e n n e s C l i n t o n became r e c t o r , remaining i n charge of the p a r i s h u n t i l h i s death i n 1912. When f i r e d e s t r o y e d Vancouver on Whitsunday 1886, F a t h e r C l i n t o n was one of the f i r s t to give the alarm. H i s l i t t l e churchJ:was e n t i r e l y des t r o y e d , but p l a n s were q u i c k l y drawn up f o r a new and l a r g e r church, a new s i t e was o b t a i n e d , f u r t h e r from the water and the new church was completed by the end of the y e a r . That b u i l d i n g was r e p l a c e d i n 1836 by the p r e s e n t Church of S t . James, whcih stands on the same s i t and i s d e d i c a t e d t o the memory of F a t h e r C l i n t o n . Cf, V i o l e t E. S i l l i t o e , E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p.33.  75  S t o t t , op.  #  76.  See  c i t . p.  12.  above, chapter 4, p..57.  - 154  -  77 October 28, 1900 to S t . John the E v a n g e l i s t . The Rector l i v e d 78 i n Vancouver. N e a r l y three years l a t e r the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church e s t a b l i s h e d a m i s s i o n f i e l d c o n s i s t i n g of Lake B e a u t i 79 80 ful, Cedar Cove, North Vancouver and Lynn V a l l e y . With a student i n charge,  s e r v i c e s were h e l d i n Dorman's shack, the  same which had p r e v i o u s l y served the A n g l i c a n community. Saturday, May  2, 1903  On  the premises were i n s p e c t e d by a p a r t y  headed by the Superintendant  o f M i s s i o n s f o r the P r e s b y t e r i a n  Chaurch of Canada, who announced themselves "pleased w i t h the 81 Accommodation". The shack i s d e s c r i b e d by the Reverend ¥/Illiam S t o t t as being 15 f e e t square.  The  seats were boards  l a i d on l o g s cut the p r o p e r h e i g h t , g i v i n g the shack a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 25.  At s e r v i c e the f o l l o w i n g day t h e r e were 23 82  p r e s e n t , and the c o l l e c t i o n amounted to ^3.g5. the student i n charge was  In 1904,  when  succeeded by a m i n i s t e r , immediate  steps were t a k e n t o b u i l d a church.  I n Janurary t h r e e  lots  were secured on Lower K e i t h Road, and  " S t . Andrew's" was s e l -  e c t e d as the name, of the new  In August a  a l meeting was  church.  h e l d a t which i t was  congragation  d e c i d e d t h a t the  77.  S t o t t , op. c i t , p.  78.  Henderson's British.Columbea Gazeteer VII, 1900-1901, p. 209.  79.  Now  80.  S t o t t , op. C i t . p.  81.  loc. c i t .  church  12.  Lake Buntzen. 12.  and D i r e c t o r y , v o l .  - 155 was t o c o s t $700 and t o seat 100 persons.  Work proceded  so  s p e e d i l y , t h a t the new b u i l d i n g was opened i n November 1904. In  the i n t e r i m s e r v i c e s were h e l d i n a nearby h a l l , and i n the 85  schoolhouse.  At the end of 1904 the Reverend J . D. G i l l a m ,  M. A. was appointed p a s t o r o f S t . Andrew's and a l s o o f Grandview and Cedar Cove.  The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g these l a t t e r . w e r e  separated, and S t . Andrew's stood a l o n e .  Mr. G i l l a m was  call-  ed t o S t . Andrew's and became the f i r s t s e t t l e d m i n i s t e r o f 84 any denomination pered.  i n North Vancouver.  The Church grew and p r o s -  M i s s i o n work was c a r r i e d on a t M o o d y v i l l e u n t i l 1909,  and m i s s i o n s were a l s o opened up at Lynn V a l l e y and C a p i l a n o . Reports f o r 1906 show 125 people a t t e n d i n g the former m i s s i o n , and 80 the l a t t e r .  I n 1910 Knox Church congregation was o r -  ganized at Lynn V a l l e y , and s e r v i c e s were commenced 85 Lonsdale.  i n North  L i k e most other t h i n g s , t h e church was a f f e c t e d by 86  the p r o s p e r i t y o f the r e a l e s t a t e boom, and i n 1812 the p r e s ent e d i f i c e was e r e c t e d .  The l o t s f o r the new church were  donated by c a ngre g a t i o no,f while 85. Loc. i t member . , S t o t tofl ithe s t s co the names those par ebsueinltd.i n gThe p u l p i t used t h a t day was made of 2 by 4's with a base and a board a c r o s s the t o p , and was p r e s e r v e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y by one of the members.of the c o n g r e g a t i o n . 84.  S t o t t , op. c i t . p. 15.  85. i b i d p. 20. 86.  T h i s i s S t . Stephen's P r e s b y t e r i a n Church.  See above, chapter 8, p . 120.  - 156 c o n t r a c t was  -  l e t f o r $19,044.  A p i p e organ and other e q u i p -  ment brought the t o t a l expenditure t o $34,808.7 2, some l e s s than the b u i l d i n g f u n d .  Two  $28  of the o r i g i n a l l o t s were  s o l d f o r $7400 and the o l d church i t s e l f  s o l d f o r $5500.  T h i s came back on the hands of the congregation and was 87 s o l d f o r $3500. The Methodist congregation was  re-  later i n organizing.  Robson had never l o s t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the North Shore. though now  r e t i r d d he s t i l l conducted  Dr.  Al-  s e r v i c e s i n the new town. 88  Mention has- a l r e a d y been made of h i s work i n Lynn V a l l e y . a l s o h e l d s e r v i c e s a t M o o d y v i l l e and North Vancouver. l a t t e r community he had a r o t a t i o n system,  He  I n the  by which s e r v i c e s 89  were h e l d i n the homes of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s . the M u n i c i p a l i t y b u i l t the M u n i c i p a l H a l l i n 1904,  When Dr. Robson  applied f o r permission to hold h i s services there.  This  was 90  r e f u s e d and he was  o f f e r e d the use of the school-house  instead.  D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , no d e f i n i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c o n g r e g a t i o n took p l a c e , and i t was  agreed between Methodist and P r e s b y t e r -  i a n a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the North Shore should t e m p o r a r i l y be r e 91 garded as the t e r r i t o r y of the l a t t e r . i o n u n t i l 1907.  I n May  T h i s was  the  o f that year a c o n g r e g a t i o n  87.  S t o t t , op. c i t , p.  21.  88.  See above,chapter  89.  S t o t t , op. c i t . , p.  90. 91.  Minutes of M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , October 5, S t o t t , op. c i t . , p. 12.  5,  p.^ 12. 1904.  situat-  was  - 157 o r g a n i z e d , meeting  -  i n a l o c a l h a l l u n t i l October, when the 92  f i r s t Methodist Church was  opened.  The  congregation increas-  ed so r a p i d l y t h a t a l a r g e r b u i l d i n g was January 1910  the second church was  soon needed, and i n 93.  opened, on another  site.  The Methodist Church, which seemed t o be l a b o u r i n g under  fin-  a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , s u f f e r e d badly from the slump i n business t h a t f o l l o w e d the outbreak of war. 94 financially  embarrassed.  S t . Andrew's a l s o became  I n consequence,  both congregations  began t o c o n s i d e r union, a movement which had been i n p r o g r e s s throughout Canada s i n c e 1902.  Votes were taken i n both  g r e g a t i o n s and were overwhelmingly the u n i o n was  con-  i n f a v o u r of t h i s move, and  consummated on January 1, 1926.  I t was  agreed t o  r e t a i n both the e d i f i c e and the name of S t . Andrew's Church, 95 The A n g l i c a n community a l s o had made p r which now became S t . Andrew's U n i t e d Church.o g r e s s . I t was soon r e a l i z e d t h a t the mother church of S t . John c o u l d not serve the whole North Shore, and o t h e r p a r i s h e s were o r g a n i z e d as settlement i n c r e a s e d . The f i r s t such p a r i s h was S t . Clements, 96. Lynn V a l l e y . Two o t h e r s were o r g a n i z e d i n 1910, S t . Agnes' 92. idem. p.  17.  93. Express, January 7,  1910.  94. S t o t t , op. c i t . p..23. Mr. S t o t t expresses the o p i n i o n t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was even more acute i n the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church than i n the M e t h o d i s t . 95. S t o t t , op. c i t . , p.  27.  96. See above, chapter 5, p.  - 158 to St.  serve the C i t y and D i s t r i c t e a s t of Lonsdale Avenue, and 97 Thomas' to serve the North L o n s d a l e .  S t . John's c o n t i n u -  ed to serve the west side of the town, and no A n g l i c a n church has ever heen e s t a b l i s h e d at C a p i l a n o . The B a p t i s t s e n t e r e d the town i n 1907, meeting i n a l o c a l h a l l u n t i l t h e i r church 98 was completed. T h i s l i t t l e b u i l d i n g r a p i d l y outgrew, them 99 and i n 1911 they b u i l t a new one f u r t h e r up the h i l l , The Roman C a t h o l i c s a l s o b u i l t a church above the I n d i a n Reserve 100 f o r the b e n e f i t of the r e s i d e n t s .  97.  T h i s church was  later  renamed S t . M a r t i n ' s .  98.  Henderson's•City of Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , 1908,  99.  North Shore P r e s s , December 15,  vol.XV  1911.  100. Henderson's G r e a t e r Vancouver D i r e c t o r y 1913,  v o l . XX  - 159 CHAPTER X  -  CONCLUSION  Tlie Second World War has r a i s e d North "Vancouver t o a p l a c e among the formost  i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s i n Canada, hy making de-  mands upon -her s h i p y a r d s . ing  To meet government needs the  f a c i l i t i e s of the B u r r a r d Drydock Company and the  Vancouver Ship R e p a i r s were e n l a r g e d and expanded. for  exist-  North  Contracts  c o r v e t t e s , mine-sweepers and c a r g o v e s s e l s r e s u l t e d i n a  s h i p - b u i l d i n g programme unprecedented B r i t i s h Columbia community.  i n the h i s t o r y of any  S u b s i d i a r y i n d u s t r i e s were c r e a t -  ed e i t h e r by c o n v e r t i o n of e x i s t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s or by installations. men at  During the e a r l y months of 1940  the mumber of -  employed i n the North Vancouver shipyards was 800.  By the end of 1942  new  estimated  t h a t number had r i s e n t o 12,000, 1  w i t h a corresponding i n c r e a s e i n o f f i c e s t a f f s .  On one  c a s i o n the B u r r a r d Drydock Company alone announced new 2 aggregating $10,000,000.  occontracts  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s huge c o n s t r u c t i o n programme and the consequent i n c r e a s e i n employment, a l l f a c i l i t i e s i n North Vancouver were s t r a i n e d t o the utmost. t h i s t r u e of the housing s i t u a t i o n .  Especially  was  Once a g a i n the North Shore  experienced a r e a l e s t a t e boom, a l b e i t one g r e a t l y hampered by the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g b u i l d i n g s u p p l i e s .  U n l i k e the  1.  North Shore P r e s s Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l September 1942.  Annual,  2.  North Shore P r e s s I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial December 1941.  Annual,  - 160 p r e v i o u s boom, p r o p e r t y was  now  rather than f o r speculation.  i n demand f o r immediate  use  The g r e a t e r number of s h i p y a r d  employees sought homes on the North Shore.  Many had brought  t h e i r f a m i l i e s from o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , o r from i n t e r i o r towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and had no home i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. who  Those  came f r o m the o u t l y i n g suburbs o f Vancouver found the r e -  t u r n t r i p l o n g and t i r e s o m e . es and apartment  The l a c k of h o t e l s , rooming  hous-  b l o c k s on the N o r t h Shore was k e e n l y f e l t .  To meet the needs of the defense workers the Dominion ment i n s t i t u t e d a housing p r o j e c t i n North Vancouver. 750 houses, two s t a f f houses and two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  governIn a l l ,  buildings 3  have been e r e c t e d , a l l w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of the y a r d s . While i n i t s e l f a temporary measure, the p r o j e c t has c o n t r i b u t e d i t o the permanent development  of the North Shore by c l e a r -  i n g and stumping unused l a n d , and i n s t a l l i n g sewers.  The pop-  u l a t i o n of North Vancouver has i n c r e a s e d by approximately one4 t h i r d , b r i n g i n g a rush of t r a d e t o a l l l o c a l business e s t a b l i s h ments. S c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s have a l s o been overtaxed, and a t e n 3. B u i l t by the Wartime Housing L i m i t e d , anclorganization set up by the Dominion Government to r e l i e v e housing shortages f o r defense workers throughout Canada. The houses i n North Vancouver have been b u i l t i n three groups, on the east s i d e i n D i s t r i c t L o t s 273 and 274, on the west s i d e i n D i s t r i c t L o t s 271, and west of t h e M i s s i o n Reserve i n D i s t r i c t L o t s 265 and 266, thus extending i n t o the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. 4.  North Shore P r e s s Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Annual, September 1942. Census f i g u r e s f o r 1931 s e t the C i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n at 8510, and the D i s t r i c t ' s at 4788. P o p u l a t i o n f i g ures f o r 1942, as estimated by o f f i c i a l s at the C i t y H a l l , are C i t y 10,000 and D i s t r i c t 6200.  - 161 5 roomed s c h o o l , a l s o a government p r o j e c t , i s now being at  built  a c o s t o f $70,000. One i n t e r e s t i n g cause f o r s p e c u l a t i o n i s the f u t u r e o f  Indian Reserve #1.  How much longer w i l l the Indians be allowed  to keep 35 acres o f l a n d with 1800 f e e t o f w a t e r f r o n t  i n the  centre o f the i n d u s t r i a l area? C o u n c i l was complaining  As e a r l y as 1905 the M u n i c i p a l 6 of t h i s f a c t . I n 1913 the Dominion  Government was n e a r l y persuaded t o v e s t the w a t e r f r o n t o f the 7 Reserve i n the newly-founded Harbour Commission. The North Shore Press r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n again i n 1942, u s i n g the p r e 8 t e x t t h a t t h i s p r o p e r t y should be used f o r Wartime Houses. I t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how much l o n g e r t h i s will  "anachronism"  remain. I n the 50 years s i n c e i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a D i s t r i c t  M u n i c i p a l i t y , North Vancouver has experienced many o f t h e "growi n g p a i n s " t y p i c a l of a western town. iys magnificent  As a lumbering  centre  stands o f Red C d a r and Douglas F i r were r u t h -  lessly exploited.  e  I t f e l l an easy prey t o the r e a l e s t a t e boom  which swept through the West between 1902 and 1813, and was e q u a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o the " r a i l w a y f e v e r " o f the same p e r i o d . •5.  North Shore P r e s s , J u l y 16, 1943.  6.  Minutes o f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , September 29, 1905.  7.  D a i l y News A d v e r t i s e r , October 12, 1913.  8.  North Shore P r e s s , August 14 and 21, 1942.  = 162 A f t e r an a b o r t i v e attempt a t i n d u s t r i a l development, the town has  become the centre o f a major war-time i n d u s t r y .  I t i s to  be hoped t h a t i n d u s t r y has come t o s t a y , and t h a t North Vancouver w i l l never again subside  t o the s t a t u s o f a r e s i d e n t i a l  area whose s o l e purpose i s t o accommodate the workers o f Vancouver. °n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e a l s o the town has experienced changes.  With  youthfultlackopf-"fofa,s.ightt:fchel-townaaccepted  the r e a l e s t a t e boom days as a permanent c o n d i t i o n .  I n an out-  b u r s t o f c i v i c p r i d e , v a l i a n t l y supported by r e a l e s t a t e ests, municipal tracted.  s e r v i c e s were expanded and m u n i c i p a l  inter-  debts con-  The town has had t o pay d e a r l y f o r the poor judgment  and mistaken p o l i c i e s of i t s early, c i t i z e n s .  When a world-wide  f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s developed,, and the m u n i c i p a l i t y was f a c e d  with  the problem of a i d i n g d e s t i t u t e c i t i z e n s , the a l r e a d y over- burdened t r e a s u r y was unable t o stanoLthe s t r a i n . other western  Hike an numb ere of  towns , North Vancouver l o s t i t s . c i v i c r i g h t s  and was o b l i g e d t o submit t o commissioner government. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o evaluate  t h i s form o f government, s i n c e the f o r -  tunes o f t h e town are c l o s e l y k n i t with those o f t h e r e s t o f Canada.  I t i s however a matter of r e c o r d t h a t m u n i c i p a l a f -  f a i r s were beginning  t o respond t o a p o l i c y o f economy and  i m p a r t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n before the outbreak o f the present war.  - 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES O f f i c i a l Publications Annual Reports o f the Superintendant o f E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Victoria,  B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l Papers, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s , V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia Coast C i t i e s Business D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver Henderson, 1908. B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r y , V i c t o r i a , W i l l i a m s , 1882 - 1885 i n c l u s i v e , 1887 - 1889 i n c l u s i v e . Census o f Canada, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ,  1921 and 1931.  Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e e r and D i r e c t o r y , V i c t o r i a , Henderson, 1889 - 1891 i n c l u s i v e , 1897 - 1905 i n c l u s i v e 1910. Henderson's C i t y . o f Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, Henderson, 1906 - 1908 i n c l u s i v e , 1910. Hendersonls C i t y o f Vancouver and North Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, Henderson, 1909, 1910. Henderson's G r e a t e r Vancouver D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, Henderson, 1911 - 1914 i n c l u s i v e . Revised S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , K i n g s , S t a t u t e s of Canada, Ottawa, King's  Printer.  Printer.  Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y , V i c t o r i a , W i l l i a m s , 1888. Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y , Vancouver, Hodgson, 1896. W i l l i a m s ' Vancouver and New West m i n s t e r C i t i e s V i c t o r i a , W i l l i a m s , 1890. Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Directory,  "G&snelLV V i c t o r i a , 1897.  -164 Manuscript  Materials  B r i t i s h Columbia Land and Works Department, L e t t e r s t o the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e , 1861 - 1863, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence C o l o n e l R. C. Moody, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Correspondence S. P. Moody, A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Columbia,  Correspondence Henry Holbrook, A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Columbia,  Minute B@ok of the Mechanic's I n s t i t u t e , Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Minute Book o f North Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y Meetings. T h i s book, which i s i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the M u n i c i p a l H a l l North Vancouver, c o n t a i n s the res.ordsoof c e r t a i n meetings h e l d by r a t e p a y e r s o f North Vancouver p r i o r t o , and f o l l o w i n g the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver, 1891. Minute Books of the C o u n c i l o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f North Vancouver. These books c o n t a i n the minutes o f " t h e meetings o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l o f North Vancouver. F o l l o w i n g the s e p a r a t i o n o f C i t y and D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver i n 1907 there are two s e t s o f Minute Books. • Both are i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the r e s p e c t i v e M u n i c i p a l offices. Papers connected with timber c u t t i n g l i c e n c e s o f S. P. Moody and Company, O f f i c e o f the A t t o r n e y General, 1866, Archives' o f B r i t i s h . Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Papers r e l a t i n g t o the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, P a r t 3, ^ A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . Newspapers. B r i t i s h Columbian, New Westminster, B. C. • British Colonist, Victoria, D a i l y Standard, V i c t o r i a ,  B. C.  B. C.  Express, North Vancouver, B. C. Mainland Guardian, New Westminster, B. C.  - 165 North Shore P r e s s , North Vancouver, B. C. Phamphlets General Review of M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1903, B u l l e t i n #11. Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , . K i n g * s P r i n t e r , 1904, B u l l e t i n #18. Review o f I n d u s t r i a l C o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1903, B u l l e t i n #18.  Victoria,  Printed Matter. Vancouver, C a p t a i n George, Voyage o f D i s c o v e r y t o t h e North P a c i f i c Ocean, London, G. C. and J.'Robinson, 1798 i n 3 volumes. Government Reports C i t y o f North Vancouver, F i n a n c i a l Statements, North Vancouver, B. C. D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statements, North Vancouver, B. C. Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Annual Reports, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s Printer. Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Annual Report, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1904. SECONDARY SOURCES Manuscript M a t e r i a l Hacker, G. C , The Methodist Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 18591900. Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia, 1933. Hacking, N., E a r l y Marine H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Graduating Essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1933. Harvey, N e t t a , H i s t o r y and Finance o f the P. G. E,, T h e s i s f o r Bachelor o f Commerce Degree, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  - 166 L a i n g , F. W., C o l o n i a l Farm S e t t l e r s on the Mainland, A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o l o n i a l Pre-emptions, A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  MacLaurin, D. L., H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n i n the Crown C o l o n i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e s i s f o r Ph. D. Degree, U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1936. Copy i n t h e L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Nelson, Denys, P l a c e Names o f t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , A copy i s i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n of t h e Vancouver Museum, i n the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y .  P r i n t e d Books Having p a r t i c u l a r L o c a l R e f e r n c e . Burwash, E . M. J . , Geology o f Vancouver and V i c i n i t y , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1918, p.11. D r a y c o t t , W.IvIM.L., Lynn V a l l e y , Vancouver, 1919. This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y useful booklet, since i t records many f a c t s t h a t would otherwise have been l o s t w i t h the p a s s i n g o f p i o n e e r s . The author has been at great p a i n s t o achieve a c c u r a c y i n s t a t i n g h i s f a c t s . Howay, F. W., Work of t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858 -1863, V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1910. Ker, J . B., North Vancouver, t h e Beginning of a Great P o r t , Vancouver, p u b l i s h e d about 1910. The author's name does not appear on t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , which was i n tended p r i m a r i l y f o r a d v e r t i s i n g purposes. Mile o v e r - o p t i m i s t i c about f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s , the work does c o n t a i n some p e r t i n e n t f a c t s about t h e community, and i s well i l l u s t r a t e d . . S h i p b u i l d i n g and S h i p b u i l d e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s , Vancouver, Tower P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1918. A p u b l i c a t i o n intended t o a d v e r t i s e l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l development. S i l l i t o e , V i o l e t E., E a r l y Days i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1922. Stone, H. A., A Short H i s t o r y of C a u l f e i l d V i l l a g e , 1941.  Vancouver,  S t o t t , Rev. W i l l i a m , B. A., The Story o f S t . Andrew's U n i t e d Church, North Vancouver, North Shore P r e s s , 1937.  - 167 Wallace S h i p b u i l d e r v o l . 1, No. 1, J u l y 1942, p u b l i s h e d by and i n the i n e r e s t s o f the B u r r a r d Drydock Company employees. Vancouver, A Short H i s t o r y , by the A r c h i v i s t Club, Templeton J u n i o r High School, Vancouver, 1956.  Newspapers Express, North Vancouver, B. C, A weekly paper of l o c a l i n t e r e s t , t h e Express p u b l i s h e d a v e r y f i n e Empire Day P r o s p e r i t y E d i t i o n on May 24, 1912. North Shore P r e s s , North Vancouver. Successor t o t h e E x p r e s s . The North Shore Press I n d u s t r i a l . a n d Commercial Supplements, i s s u e d from time t o time, c o n t a i n good accounts of l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l development. News A d v e r t i s e r , Vancouver, B. C. Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, B. C. Vancouver D a i l y World, Vancouver, B. C.  Periodicals B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , F o u r t h Report, V i c t o r i a , 1929. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V i c t o r i a , 1957, v o l . 1, No. 1. Man-to-Man, Vancouver, 1911. Westward Ho, Vancouver, 1908.  General Works Begg, Alexander, H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Toronto, B r i g g s 1894. C o t t e r i l l , G. G., Climax o f a World Conquest, S e a t t l e , OlympiLa P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1927,  - 168 Davis, E. A., Comparative Review of M e t h o d i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Lee. 1925. Hamilton, James H., ( C a p t a i n K e t t l e ), Western ShoresN a r r a t i v e s of the P a c i f i c Coast, Vancouver, P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1924. H i g g i n s , D. W.,  M y s t i c S p r i n g s , Toronto, 1904.  H i l l - T o u t , C , B r i t i s h North America, i n the N a t i v e Races of the B r i t i s h Empire S e r i e s , London, 1907. Hodge, F. W., Handbook of I n d i a n s of Canada, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1913. Howay, F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, The Making of a P r o v i n c e , Toronto, 1928. Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , B r i t i s h Columbia, From E a r l i e s t Times t o the P r e s e n t , Vancouver, S. J . C l a r k e , 1914. Jenness^, The I n d i a n s of Canada,  Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ,  1932.  K e r r , J . B., B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f Well-known B r i t i s h Columbians, Vancouver, 1889. M a c f i e , M.,  Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, London,  1865.  Meany, E. S., Vancouver's D i s c o v e r y o f Puget Sound, London, Macmillan Company, 1907. • S t a t u t o r y H i s t o r y of t h e Steam and E l e c t r i c Railways of Canada 1836 - 1937, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1937. Walkem,  W. W., 1914.  S t o r i e s of E a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver,  Wallace, W. S. D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian Biography, Toronto, Macmillan, 1926 Who's Who i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 19401941, Vancouver, 1941.  - i TABLE A S a l e of M u n i c i p a l Lands f o r Taxes i n a r r e a r s f o r the years 1892, 1893, 1894, 1895, on the 28th. day of October, 1895 at 11 A.M. i n the o f f i c e of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of North Vancouver. LOT  BLOCK  237 1523 827 b 827 U n d i v i d e d h a l f of 624 D i v i s i o n B ABC 773 557 1253 866 910 1484 North | 1483 605 599 2, 7 1413 1465 1522  ARREARS  COSTS  COMMISSION  TOTAL  |520.35 54.70 10.70 35.40  $2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50  $ 52.50 5.50 1.10 3.55  $574.90 62.70 14.30 41.45  2.30 5.05 41.25 8.55 14.10 6.95 3.00 6. CO 10.60 3.70 3.20 5.05 6.50  27.45 57.95 455.95 96.45 84.55 78.90 35.00 71.25 119.10 38.25 37.45 28.10 73.70  22.65 50.40 412.25 85.40 69.75 69.45 29.50 62.05 106.00 32.05 31.75 20.55 64.70  1  2.50 2.50 22550 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50  TABLE B T o t a l assessments of the M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the years 1892 - 1902 i n c l u s i v e . 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902  of North  $1,063,585.00 1,187,825.00 1,193,332.00 1,124,077.00 862,000.00 872,636.00 873,544400 884,216.00 885,939.00 853,355.00 802,089.00  Vancouver  TABLE C District  x o f North Vancouver  Tax C o l l e c t i o n s  Year 1927  Assessment Tax Rate Net Land Net Improvements M i l l s  11  ,899", 955  Improvements Taxed on  42  5,410,849  3  1928  5,488,361  4 ,850,285  47  1929  5,410,639  5 ,064,790  47  1930  5,276,863  5 ,682,305  50  1931  5,020,418  3 ,553,345  50  25%  1932  4,121,412  3 ,058,315  65  35%  •  Tax Levy-  Year  Without P e n a l t i e s  Percentage Collected  Including Penalties  Percentagi Collected  1927  #244,895.86  70%  #256,078.36  67.45%  1928  266,732.00  67.16%  283,131.36  64.32%  1929  262,196.24  62.43%  278,633.27  58.37%  1930  270,299.47  58.5%  286,942.46  55.73%  1931  300,987.62  56.45%  318,920.05  53.73%  1932  341,698.38  48.92%  365,720.03  45.96%  Number of L o t s S o l d To P r i v a t e Owners To D i s t r i c t x.  Tax S a l e s 1927 1928 706 849 13 17 693 832  1929 1930 1352" 2313 16 3.5 1317 2297  1931 2412 23 2389  1932 1720 8 1712  Compiled from r e c o r d s of the D i s t r i c t -of North Vancouver f o r the years g i v e n .  TABLE D CITY OF NORTH. VANCOUVER Summary of T a x : C o l l e c t i o n s  Year  1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 Tax Levy 1932Percent age , A d d i t i o n s  Outstanding Jan 1, 1932  Written i n for collect i o n vs Improvements  4.10  109,64&.rt  I8.46  $.167,461. 00 414.366.08  22,56  605,330.22  Transferred to Tax S a l e R o l l 1932  Written o f f vs C i t y Lots and Transfers  22.56 22.56  66.38 ,010.75 .32,270.12. $60.347.2.5 2.6,455.09 86,802.34 1,982.65 88,784.99  Charged to Property which f e l l to C i t y at 1931 Tax Sale  Rec eived i n Cash  Balances as at Dec. 31st  1932  904.51 864.50 188.80  661.23 15,235-25 14,382.28  387.53 879.31 2,159.37 8,019.22 62,825.59  $2,586.53  21,279.91  $30,278.76 249.669.37  74,271.02 116,961.71  2,586.53  21,279.91 3,185.50  279,948.13 849.58  191,232.73 17,485.41  $2,586.53  $24,456.41  $280,797.71  •l208tZ.l8.14  1  I ' 607.23. . 1,288.33, 3,791.f9 52,125.62  581,82^7.08 23.»5Q,3...14  f o r t h e Year 1932-  $  219.70  40 9. 02.  - iv TABLE E REEVES o f the DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER 1891 1893 1895 1897 1901 1903 1904 1905  -  1892 1894 1896 1900 1902  19066- 1907  C.J".P. Phibbs J.C. K e i t h Dr. J..T. C a r r o l l J.C. .Woodrow C O . Wickenden W.H. May J.C. G i l l J.C. G i l l and A.E. Kealy A.E. K e a l y  Incorporation of C i t y 1907 1909 1912 1915 1922 1923  -  1908 1911 1914 1921  W.H. May J.Y. McNaught W.H. May E.H. Bridgeman J.Y. McNaught J . Loutet  1924 - 1930 1931 1932  J.M. Fromme W.H. Woods J.M. Bryan  MAYORS o f the CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER 1907 1909 1911 1913 1914 1915  - 1908 - 1910 - 1912 - 1916  A.E. K e a l y W.H. May W. McNeish Geo. S. Hanes W.J. Irwin Geo. S. Hanes  1917 1922 1923 1926 1931 . 1933 (  1921 1925 1930 1932 Jan.  G.W. Vance G.H. Morden D. Donaghy G.H. Morden E.H. Bridgeman )G.H. Morden  COMMISSIONERS o f CITY and DISTRICT Date Appointed December 15, 1932 January 25, 1933 June 30, 1934 September 4, 1934 May 16, 1936  Commissioner C E . T i s d a l l - D i s t r i c t o n l y Commissioner C E . T i s d a l l - C i t y a l s o Commissioner J.V. F i s h e r - C i t y and D i s t r i c t A/C commissioner D.G. Tate Commissioner G.W. Vance  TABLE F GENERAL INFORMATION  CITY of NORTH VANCOUVER Area:  3,131.5 A c r e s .  Population: C i t y and D i s t r i c t City only City only Approximate  - 1901 - 365; 1921 - 7652; 1931 - 8,510;  1911 -  8196.  1941 - 8,844  a.  u i l e a g e of Roads, e t c . as at December 31,  Roads - T o t a l C l e a r e d Graded of above Hard S u r f a c e Pavements  73.47 m i l e s 69.14 m i l e s 27.00 m i l e s  Sidewalks - Wood or G r a v e l Concrete  60.57 m i l e s 18.25 m i l e s  Water Mains L a i d  57.49 m i l e s  Hydrants i n use  1942:  b.  292  Water s e r v i c e s connected  3,383  Country of B r i t h o f R e s i d e n t s , a c c o r d i n g to Census Report f o r 1931: males males males  2228 1624 416  Racial Origin English total Irish Scotch Scandinavian Italian German  3949 903 2366 395 217 117  Canadian born B r i t i s h born F o r e i g n born  Females females females  2266 1599 377  a. A l l f i g u r e s from the Census of Canada f o r the current year except those f o r 1941, which are from the C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report, p. 5. b. C i t y of North Vancouver Annual Report, p. c. Census o f Canada, 1931.  5.  TABLE G GENERAL  INFORMATION  DISTRICT of NORTH VANCOUVER Area;  38,400 a c r e s , x. Population: D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver, C i t y and D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t only  1901 1911 1921 1931  - 365 - 8196 - 2950 - 4788  Country o f B i r t h of Resident s; a c c o r d i n g to the Census o f 1931 Canadian born British born F o r e i g n born  males males males  1267 965 326  females females females  1129 887 214  R a c i a l O r i g i n o f r e s i d e n t s , a c c o r d i n g to the Census of 1931: English Irish Scotch Scandinavian Chinese and Japanese French German  x.  total total total total  2627 528 844 209  total total total  126 87 76  A l l f i g u r e s taken from Census f o r Canada f o r year g i v e n .  - v i i-  a O  J CD '  C  o  o  Pi J> M S S 15 H • EH  UNUNUNUNUNUNUNUVUNO o  o  r i H O l  <^(^rn<^<^cnrn\rs\r\\r\  c a . oJ CM r-f cM o  nf- "sf -st CM cM cM UNUNUNUNUNUNU-U'\U-N.VN  0 03 -P r-l (. ' rH  KH i"  P=I .  oJ ' rH - H  P l ^  1  <q -si'- U N V Q J  O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 4  -P  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  r O o UNrH U N O l ^ O O U N O O O UN U N O "st C O rH UNUN N N O O ^ - N O O O N O J I T ' , f ^ t N O D U N O OTsO <sf" O N r O r H CM <sf UN CM UN  QJ  H N O " U N O *d- o j m O N O N N Q N O U N C O N  "5  CM CM ONQO UN CM rH UN IN- U N CM O rH "sf v£) CM rH  N  "st O UNUNvO CM ON N N O U N U N U N N O CM  N r ^ N c o UNUN-sf ^ r v - i P O o n o ' T m r O r n ^ l *  O  +3 Pi 3  Ki  O  O  O  o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d o d o a o o o o  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  O  o o  o o o Q o a  O  O  ' IN N 1 A O O O O U N O O O O U M C N O CM "st ONr-l -st U N U N O N i—( ^ - -si- o U N C M N U N ONQNOJCOVO  rHCO On CM r - l v O U N V O "st l-HVO  ' H r n ^ r O t N C O N l S O 0 0 f n " - ^ \ O H ^t "st CMCO o~)CM <~OUN"st U M N v O U N U N m "sO\0 ( 1 ( N ( N . N v O \ 0 \ 0 \ O v O \ 0 \ O v C ) v O O Y  4&  O'J  O  M  PH  <}  trj  .  f" r-i  O O  03 03 O CiJ  PH > p  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O a a e i o o o U N [>-CM N O U N O U N O NO. CM rHNO ON CM rHCO CM N N O COsQ U N U N C O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  O O  a o o a o a o o UN U N O O O O O V f N H "st O U N O O i - l UN N N O O "s+  o O O CM  rOCO O N ON O N C M N O N N C O O N n o r n n n o N r l O C X ) "d" l A r - 1 CM O O N \ Q N O O ^ O N O C O C O CM CM CM ONvO "st CM rH rH CM n~)CM  a; •"  N C O C C > C O \ O v £ J UN-st "st "st sr "si "st <sf "st UN 4  si ^s  In O O  O  O O  0  O O  0  O O  O  O O  0  O O  0  O O  O O O O O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0  O O 0  O O 0  O O 9  O O 0  r n o ^ c M v O U N Q U N O UN U N O O O O O O rnc'rHvOa\C\JiHC0 1 A r - l s i - 0 ' N O O O "sf N N Q O T N Q U N UNCO H U M M N O O s f C M  "5 ft <?  o c o CTNO L\-O\CMM3 N N C O ^ n o m m o ONvO rH O - O O "st UNrH CM O ONvO N O O N O rH o C O C O CM CM CM ONvO -st CM r-l rH CM m CM C X ^ O ^ C O C O N O V O U N " ' "sd" "si" -st <si- "si"  £'-.=  VJ  s-J U N  -  H  <. o  -  ^  a-  01  P= O O  O O  O O O O N O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O  O O  O O  O  -p P. B CO  o o o e o o o o a o o o s o o o CO CO CO NtUN-sr t N s O O N O N r O O U N O « N O C M O s O ^ - O l A O O O O st-CO^t^LC^-S\-C\N-iC-NCO O N^-Q-NS-Q  W  O G ) O C O N O N < t t>-OD NO -st ON rH CM rH LTNvO CO O r-ivO O - v O rH CO "XO N O D UN Cjs O N Q r-l PO"s|- N v O m U N N O ONCOCO O N O N N CM rnrnrr)^  —  j  • •  V  3 ,C t£*  r^rnr^r^rnr^r^r^r^r^i^  O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C M O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o » » » o » 9 * 0 i > H v O v Q N O D r^OCM I f N U N U N N o O U N U N N O ^ O r-l N CM vO U N U N V O N H CM H <sh r o c o N N O N V O O J N ^ O N O CM rH f O O J U N 1—! CM O N O N  m U N c M rn\o  ra  0 0  O  "sj- •si" noUNNO N O r-l U N N O O N N r o r n r O r-i r-) rH N"sO O N s f C\i I N s t d O O r< r ) rH rH rH rH O O CO C O !>-"0 NO NO NO "sO NO NO "sO 1-irlHrlrl  M  NojUNxh  .. —  s< c  3 <•  V  r-i N C M -st- "st t 0  •K'  a; f-l ITJ CD  >H  o_  N O D O N O r-I CM 1-OINO N O O C T s O .-4 CM CM CM CM r O r n r n o o r n n P O n O i v i ^ ' s ' "st C^CT^ONCTNONC7sCJNONC7NCrNC>C^ONONONCSN  rH rH rHr-l H H r l r l r l H r t r l r l H H r l  S o r_j x  1  TABLE I. DISTRICT OF  -Nm^'^A^G-OWX'-A^ESSMm^  LAND Year 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 193« 1939 1940 1941 1942 s  Gross ^8,349* 798.00 8 , 3 2 0 , 117.00 8 , 3 6 7 , 553.00 8 , 2 7 5 , 831.00 7 , 8 2 7 , 286.00 . 7 , 0 6 4 , 218.00 6 , 9 5 2 , 730.00 6 , 8 9 0 , 162.00 6,564, 434.00 6 , 2 3 6 , 150.00 6,184, 875.00 6,131, 543.00 6 , 1 6 2 , 657.OO 6 , 1 3 4 , 343.00 6 , 1 3 0 , 711.00 6 , 1 2 1 , 785.00  Exempt #2,938 ,;949.00 2,8.31 ,[756.00 2,9')6 ,1914.00 2,998 , $ 6 8 . 0 0 2,806 , 6 6 8 . 0 0 2,942 ,po6.oo 3 , 3 7 2 jpoi.oo 3,399, 1 3 2 . 0 0 3,537 ,322.00 3,619 ,953.oo 4 , 0 5 8 ,753-oo 4,171 , p 0 2 . 0 0 4,282 ,472.00 4,283 ,776.00 4 , 3 7 1 ,JL11.00 4,328 ,039.00  Net ^5,410,849.00 5,488,361.00 5,410,639.00 5,276,863.00 5,020,418.00 4,121,412.00 3,579,929.00 3,491,030.00 3,027,112.00 2,616,197.00 2,126,122.00 1,960,541.00 1,880,185.00 1,850,567.00 1,759,600,00 1,793,7-46.00  j/  IMPROVEMENTS Gross #4,126 , 9 0 5 . 0 0 -5,097 , 4 8 5 . 0 0 5,306 ,440.00 5,953 .655.OO 4,566 ,295.00 4,189 ,440.00 3 , 5 5 8 ,640.00 3,126 , 9 0 0 . 0 0 3,053 , 4 9 5 . 0 0 3,019 , 8 0 0 . 0 0 2,939 ,145.00 2,978 . 9 0 5 . 0 0 2,988 , 4 6 5 . 0 0 3,041 . 1 0 0 . 0 0 2,888 , 6 9 0 . 0 0 2,964' , 3 6 5 , 0 0  Compiled from M u n i c i p a l P i n a j i c i a l Reports f o r years g i v e n  1  Exempt f' • 226, 9 5 0 . 0 0 - 247 , 2 0 0 . 0 0 241 . 6 5 0 . 0 0 271 . 3 5 0 . 0 0 1,012 , 9 5 0 . 0 0 1,131 , 1 2 5 . 0 0 874 , 7 2 0 . 0 0 561 , 9 5 5 . 0 0 551 ,040.00 615 , 8 2 5 . 0 0 607 , 0 7 0 . 0 0 606 , 0 6 0 . 0 0 623 , 4 9 0 . 0 0 594 , 0 1 0 . 0 0 387 , 5 3 5 . 0 0 369 , 6 9 0 . 0 0  Net $3,899,955.00 4,850,285.00 5,064 , 7 9 0 . 0 0 5,682 . 3 0 5 . 0 0 3,553 ,345.00 3 , 0 5 8 ,315.00 2,683 , 9 2 0 . 0 0 2,564 ,945.00 2,502 , 4 5 5 . 0 0 2,403 , 9 7 5 . 0 0 2,332 , 0 7 5 . 0 0 2,372 , 8 4 5 . 0 0 2,364 ,975.00 2,447 , 0 9 0 . 0 0 2,501 ,155.00 2,594 ,657.00  Tax Rates in Mills 42 47 47 50 50  Improvements Taxed on  2  5g  35^ 35% 6l 6l 61 61 61  58 <^8 53  35% 35% 35% 7°  '5'o% •50% 50%  <  43  LJ w h y t e c l i f f  49°  2o'  C  £ Cr E  N D  —I—i—i—n-  S ^ ^ e c ^ "f^a'if u>a.ys  ->—=>—=i—•  Pipe.  «—  mmmmmm  Lines  *R * 11 U A • < ^ CA T' I hi  »• T W  H u h J c » pat  b«v» C om t><» *w Bounrfftr  V  E  PR  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0098663/manifest

Comment

Related Items