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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some social aspects of the American mining advance into Cariboo and Kootenay Bescoby, Isabel M.L. 1935

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SOME SOCIAL ASPECTS of THE AMERICAN MINING ADVANCE^ into CARIBOO - AND; KOOTENAY by Isabel Bescoby lax. 5 c ^ H 8 S O M E : S O C X f l L HSVELcrkIA?.NS! | THE AMERICAN MINING ADVANCE INTO CARIBOO AND KOOTENAY by Isabel M.L. Beseoby submitted to The Department of History University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1935. TH$ AMERICAN MINING ADVANCE INTO CARIBOO AND KOOTENAY / (Corrections) y ie 3 — l i n e 2 0 — C a l i f o r n i a 5--par,2--line 2--gold line 3--comma after Yale 6-- l i n e 2--and should be an par. 2-- l i n e 6--the should be a 7-- l i n e 8--comma after f i r e par. 2 T - l i n e 6--comma after Columbia 10--comma after s t e r l i n g 9-- l i n e 10 --colony 15- - l i n e 11 - - l a s t l y l i n e 19 --commas af t e r beans and bacon 22- - l i n e 14 --preceded 33- - l i n e 4--diggings 38- - l a s t p a r a — l i n e l - - s h o r t - l i v e d 52- -par. 2-- l i n e 3 — C o l . 56- - l i n e 19 --of should be i n 63- - l i n e 21 —comma af t e r England 64- - l i n e 4-- i f should be i t 66- -second t a b l e — T r a i l Creek, M. D. carry t o t a l s , 1898-1900 67- -2 l i n e s from bottom--Trail 68- -par,2--line 2 - - a c t i v i t y 69- - l i n e 3--prosperous 70- - l i n e l--comma after headquarters 7 1 - l a s t line--settlement 72- - l i n e 3--preceded 7 5 — l i n e 1--Pythias l i n e 16--expended 77- - l i n e 9--(l) should be at l i n e 4 78- -transpose "or noisier" to end of sentence 82--omit l a s t sentence 86- - l i n e 5--should read "communities south of the l i n e from which the prospectors had come." 87 — l i n e 15--as should be are 90--line 10--seeking incorporation 92--line 5--states and one from Canada 94- - l i n e 5--enterprising 5 li n e s from bottom-- atates p r a c t i c a l l y abandoned 95- - l i n e 9--1876 should be 1878 li n e 13--were should be was 107- - l i n e 3--preceded 108- - l i n e 6--skepticism 111—verse 2--line 3--within the wa's verse 3 — l i n e l l - - a n ' easy 1 1 3 — l i n e 6--union with 115--par. 2--line 2--as quiet 118--line 11—known 1 2 0 — l i n e 16—induce TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I — The Cariboo Gold Rush 1 The F i r s t Gold Rush to Kootenay ^ III - - Later Kootenay Mining Advance 40 IV — The Growth of Towns i n West Kootenay 67 V— L i f e i n Kootenay Towns 83 . V I — The Amerioan Mining Advance into B r i t i s h Columbia 99 Bibliography— 121 140' 139' 138° 137e 136* 135° 134' 133' 132' 131° 130° 129" 128° 126° 122° 121° 118° 117' 115' 113c 112c 58 56 55 54 53 52 51 49 or te r L d g . N ' • N o . 7 G r o u " d H^ g M t . Siftdn Put .1 \Ft.Grmhanie H4I Decker R E r a U K T M R O T i IW I .A> | Ml H O N O U R A B L E A W E L L S G R A Y . M I N I S T E R tmA S c a l e , OO m i l e * to 1 i n c b iff IIffl>34-( J U N E J LEGEND L o n d D i s t r i c t s — . . R a i l w a y s , , , , , , , M i n i n o R e c o r d e r O f f i c e s Q A T L I N S u b - R e c o r d e r O f f i c e s ® M o y i e *rt4o*J« I. P»pe S<»t« B e l l a Coola .< QVA?3 I * 0 \ \ \ Canon 59 58 57 reatham^ 5, t» , S I T i r n p b ^ l R i v e r T K | A \ Hull 54 53 52 51 50 136c 135° 134" 133c 132° 131° 130° 129° Longitude 128* 127° West 126* 125° from 124° 49 48" 123°Greenwich<l22' 121° 120° 119 118* 117° 116' 115' M A P No . ICX CHAPTER I THE CARIBOO GOLD RUSH A c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p i l e d "by t h e Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n 1933, m a n u f a c t u r i n g has the l a r g e s t g r o s s p r o d u c t i o n o f any i n d u s t r y i n . B r i t i s h Columbia. F o l l o w i n g m a n u f a c t u r i n g , come t h e p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s : f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , U) and a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s v/ith the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the t h i r d l e a d i n g p r e s e n t day i n d u s t r y i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t we are concerned i n t h i s s t u d y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , m i n i n g has "been n o t the t h i r d , b u t t h e f i r s t i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. I t was not th g merchant, the l o g g e r , t h e f a r m e r , o r the f i s h e r m a n who made the West a p r o v i n c e . I t was the miner who b u i l t the t r a i l s and opened up the c o u n t r y f o r s e t t l e m e n t . I t was he who i n d i c a t e d t o t h e w o r l d the u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l w e a l t h o f th e w e s t e r n m a i n l a n d . Above a l l , i t was the A m e r i c a n p r o s -p e c t o r who made B r i t i s h C olumbia. W h i l e B r i t i s h and Canadian i n v e s t o r s and workers remained i n d i f f e r e n t to development i n B r i t i s h Columbia's m i n i n g f i e l d s , the Am e r i c a n came i n w i t h h i s money, e x p e r i e n c e , and energy. He a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n (1) Canada Year Book, 1933, P. 21E. 2/ t o F r a s e r R i v e r , C a r i b o o , and Kootenay and a c c e p t e d from G r e a t B r i t a i n the r i s k s and rewards o f f r o n t i e r development. B e f o r e the Am e r i c a n p r o s p e c t o r drew a t t e n t i o n t o the w e a l t h w i t h i n t h e " s e a o f mountains," the p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia was s m a l l and t h e r e was l i t t l e s e t t l e m e n t . L a t e i n the e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , B r i t i s h e x p l o r e r s and f u r - t r a d e r s by sea and l a n d f i x e d a b a s i s f o r B r i t a i n ' s c l a i m t o own the l a n d west of the R o c k i e s . Cook and Vancouver by s e a , and M a c k e n z i e , F r a s e r and Thompson by l a n d opened communication r o u t e s to B r i t i s h Columbia from the outride w o r l d . R e g u l a r f u r - t r a d i n g c e n t r e s were e s t a b -l i s h e d under t h e IMorth-West and Hudson's Bay Companies but f o r many y e a r s e x t e n s i v e c o l o n i z a t i o n v/as d i s c o u r a g e d . A l -though Vancouver I s l a n d had been a c o l o n y s i n c e 1849, i t was not u n t i l a f t e r g o l d was f o u n d on l o w e r F r a s e r R i v e r .bars t h a t t h e m a i n l a n d c o l o n y of B r i t i s h Columbia was e s t a b l i s h e d v / i t h o r g a n i z e d government i n 1858. Not u n t i l hundreds of Ame r i c a n m i n e r s had poured i n t o F r a s e r R i v e r , C a r i b o o , K o o t -enay and B i g Bend mines and had e x p o r t e d much o f t h e w e a l t h t o the S o u t h , d i d Vancouver I s l a n d consent t o u n i o n w i t h the m a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . I t was i n 1871, when the eyes o f the whole w o r l d were on B r i t i s h C o lumbia as a r i c h m i n i n g c e n t r e , t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n e d the Canadian f e d e r a t i o n beyond the mountains. Canada t o o k B r i t i s h Columbia f o r her g o l d and s i l v e r , n o t f o r her beaver s k i n s , Douglas f i r , or a p p l e s . Indeed, i t was t h e American prospector who made B r i t i s h Columbia. To the end of the nineteenth century, B r i t i s h Columbia remained a B r i t i s h extension of the American f r o n t i e r . The B r i t i s h Empire i n North America.Was moving east and north on the impetus of the American advance. Eastern Canada was un-interested i n Oriental markets f o r her produce and did l i t t l e to develop western communication and settlement. Vancouver Island merchants did not see that to push inland and open new d i s t r i c t s f o r industry would enlarge t h e i r own po t e n t i a l mar-kets. The Eraser River provided a natxiral inland passage to the heart of the unexplored sea of mountains. Yet, few white men ventured to follow the d i f f i c u l t and unprofitable inland passage u n t i l by chance, C a l i f o r n i a miners t r i e d B r i t i s h Columbia r i v e r bars and creek beds and demonstrated the pos-s i b i l i t y of a new gold camp. The prospector i s ever an ad-venturer. He goes from camp to camp. j±e makes a fortune digging, spends the fortune playing, and moves on to a scene of greater fortune-making. In the nineteenth century there was a large group of such adventurers t r y i n g A u s t r a l i a , South A f r i c a , C a l i f o r n ^ , Oregon, Washington, Utah, Montana, and B r i t i s h Columbia for gold f i e l d s . y The B r i t i s h Columbia "rushes" occurred d i r e c t l y as a res u l t of disappointment with "played-out" American camp-sites C a l i f o r n i a i s remembered for her !49, Utah her '50, Montana her '64, and Idaho f o r her '66. B r i t i s h Columbia i s marked f o r her '58, '64, and, t o a smaller extent, f o r her '97. In 4/ 1858 gold, was disc o v e r e d , on the lo w e r F r a s e r R i v e r "bars and by 1862 the r u s h had s p r e a d to W i l l i a m s Creek i n the h e a r t o f C a r i b o o . By 1864, C a r i b o o was a t h e r peak f o r p r o d u c t i o n ' and Kootenay to the s o u t h was a d v a n c i n g r a p i d l y . The e a r l y r u s h e s p a s s e d and the mines remained undeveloped f o r about 25 y e a r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l s c i e n t i f i c methods o f m i n i n g and i n v e s t m e n t made Kootenay mines h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t he n i n e t i e s , v/ith t h e i r peak i n 1897. The t h r e e c h i e f B r i t i s h Columbia m i n i n g advances w h i c h are c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s e s s a y , the C a r i b o o , e a r l y and l a t e r Kootenay r u s h e s , were, f r o m the p o i n t o f v i e w o f t i m e , o f f -s h o o t s o f Am e r i c a n development. As i m m i g r a t i o n was u n r e s t r a i n -ed t o people of any n a t i o n a l i t y and as p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l con-d i t i o n s n o r t h and s o u t h of 49° were s i m i l a r , B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e f o r e drew a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f h e r p o p u l a t i o n f r o m the American s t a t e s . These men brought to B r i t i s h Columbia the r e s u l t of e x p e r i e n c e i n c o u n t r i e s w i t h l i k e problems. Con-s e q u e n t l y , s o c i e t i e s n o r t h and south o f the l i n e show many i d e n t i c a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches t o problems and s i m i l a r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . A t the same time, communities n o r t h and s o u t h o f the American boundary were n o t one hundred p e r ce n t i d e n t i c a l and t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n to j u s t i f y our s e a r c h f o r f a c t o r s which m o d i f i e d m i n i n g l i f e o f iunericans i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Of a l l f a c t o r s , -fcwo are most i m p o r t a n t : I namely, t h e B r i t i s h system o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g lav/ and the d i f -f i c u l t communication to B r i t i s h Columbia mines. These f a c t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y . The most c o l o u r f u l m i n i n g advance i n t o B r i t i s h Colum- | h i a was the f i r s t . I t was t o Ca r i b o o between 1862 and 1865 and i t f o l l o w e d m i n i n g development of t h e l o w e r f r a s e r R i v e r a r e a a f t e r 1858. I n 1859 p r o s p e c t o r s had v e n t u r e d from Y a l e as f a r n o r t h as t h e j u n c t i o n o f the Quesnel and F r a s e r r i v e r s and had f o u n d g o l d at almost e v e r y b a r . D u r i n g t h e ne x t y e a r , K e i t h l e y and A n t l e r c r e e k s , e a s t o f the F r a s e r , were d i s c o v e r e d . F i n a l l y , i n 1861, a p a r t y i n c l u d i n g W i l l i a m D i e t z c r o s s e d B a l d M o u n t a i n and f o u n d W i l l i a m s , l i g h t n i n g , (1) and Lowhee, the t h r e e r i c h e s t c r e e k s i n the d i s t r i c t . 1 The d i s c o v e r e r s o f Caribo o were q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d by a ^ f o l ^ - - s e e k i n g t h r o n g , most o f whom came by steamer from San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a and Y a l e and t h e n by rough t r a i l s i n t o the mines from Quesnel. A p a r t y o f one hundred and f i f t y , ( 2) moreover, came by l a n d from Quebec and O n t a r i o i n 1862. Most of the s e p i o n e e r s were s t r o n g p h y s i c a l l y but u n f o r t u n -a t e l y few of them had any s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f m i n i n g . Thomas Elwyn, the C a r i b o o g o l d commissioner i n 1862, r e c o r d s t h e case o f a young man who a c t u a l l y e x p e c t e d t o f i n d g o l d (3) \ l y i n g on t o p of the ground. H) Howay, F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, v o l . I I , The S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, Vancouver, 1914, Chapter V, pp, 69 - 86. (2) McNaughton, M a r g a r e t , O v e r l a n d to C a r i b o o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , T o r o n t o , 1896. Wade, Mark S., The O v e r l a n d e r s o f '62, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1931. (3) T. Elwyn t o C o l . S e c , June 15, 1862. W i l l i a m s , a t f i r s t known as "Humbug," was soon shown t o be t h e r i c h e s t C a r i b o o c r e e k . B i l l y B a r k e r , an*| E n g l i s h m a n , and John A. ("Cariboo") Cameron, a S c o t t i s h C a nadian, i n 1862 s t r u c k p a y i n g s h a f t s below th e R i c h f i e l d canyon on W i l l i a m s Creek. From t h a t d a t e , a l t h o u g h e v e r y s e c t i o n of C a r i b o o was p r o s p e c t e d f o r a p l a c e r or a deep d i g g i n g , W i l l i a m s was t h e c e n t r e o f t h e r u s h . The y e a r o f the l a r g e s t g o l d p r o d u c t i o n i n C a r i b o o was 1864, b u t even a f t e r t h a t d a t e f a b u l o u s sums (1) were mined i n t h e d i s t r i c t . I n 1865 the E r i c s o n Company p r o -(2) duced $158,000 i n seven weeks. T h i s , however, r e p r e s e n t s more th a n an average degree o f l u c k i n d i g g i n g . Most men ) f o u n d m i n i n g i n C a r i b o o a d i f f i c u l t o c c u p a t i o n i n which t h e r e was no c e r t a i n t y of s u c c e s s . I t i s s a i d t h a t o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f the miners who e n t e r e d C a r i b o o made f o r t u n e s , o n e - t h i r d made a l i v i n g , and o n e - t h i r d were f a i l u r e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s o l e economic b a s i s of s o c i e t y was m i n i n g , .] i and a l t h o u g h p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e mines d e c l i n e d a f t e r 1864, c i v -i l i z a t i o n i n C a r i b o o became more complex u n t i l 1868. The l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n r e c o r d e d a t one time on W i l l i a m s Creek was 10,000 i n t h e summer of 1864. l e t , i n 1864 few o f the i n -s t i t u t i o n s of modern s o c i e t y e x i s t e d on the c r e e k . TJW? number of s t o r e s and c h u r c h e s , the l i b r a r y , t h e t h e a t r e , the f i r e b r i g a d e and t h e newspaper a l l d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 1864. R i c h -f i e l d canyon on W i l l i a m s Creek i n 1862, and Cameronton and M a r y s v i l l e grew up on the l o w e r p a r t of the same c r e e k i n (1) Bowman, Amos, F i e l d Notes on c a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , B. C. 1885, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , v i c t o r i a , 1886. (2) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 29, 1865. 7 / 1863 and 1864. van W i n k l e was a s m a l l town e s t a b l i s h e d a t the j u n c t i o n o f 7 an W i n k l e and . L i g h t n i n g Creeks i n 1862. C e n t r e v i l l e was the name g i v e n to a c l u s t e r of b u i l d i n g s on (1) M o s q u i t o Creek i n 1867. The growth o f i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e s e towns i n d i c a t e s t h a t s o c i e t y became more s t a b l e a f t e r t h e "boom" of p o p u l a t i o n i n 1864 had passed. On September 16, 1868, B a r k e r v i l l e , t h e " m e t r o p o l i s " o f C a r i b o o , v/as almost c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d by f i r e ^ a n d t h i s date may be u s e d con-v e n i e n t l y to mark the h i g h e s t development o f s o c i e t y i n C a r i b o o . A f t e r t h a t d a t e p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y , b u s i -ness men c l o s e d t h e i r door*, and m i n i n g showed no hope of r e -v i v e d p r o s p e r i t y . From i t s d i s c o v e r y u n t i l c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a v/ith Canada i n 1871, C a r i b o o was governed by the system e s t a b l i s h e d by Governor James Douglas i n h i s G o l d F i e l d s A c t of 1859. I t s p r e c e d e n t v/as m i n i n g law i n New Z e a l a n d and A u s t r a l i a . Under t h i s a c t , a . g o l d commissioner was a p p o i n t e d f o r each d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a and to him each miner a p p l i e d f o r a f r e e - m i n e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e . T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e was i s s u e d on payment of a f e e o f one pound s t e r l i n g ^ a n d was v a l i d f o r one c a l e n d a r y e a r . The g o l d commissioner was a l s o the judge v/ho h e a r d m i n i n g d i s p u t e s and c r i m i n a l c a s e s . T r i m b l e has s a i d t h a t the g o l d c ommissioners were the most i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f e a t u r e of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l law and he p o i n t s out t h a t a l t h o u g h the need f o r them was g r e a t , (1) Th® C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , October 14, 1867. 8 p a r t i c u l a r l y to g a t h e r r e l i a b l e d a t a , t h e r e were no o f f i c i a l s (1) such as these i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . He goes on t o s t a t e t h a t " i n the g o l d commissioners o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n f a c t , were c e n t e r e d the powers of the American m i n i n g camp and o f the (2) B r i t i s h m a g i s t r a t e . " Under t h e g o l d commissioners, o n l y Q. s m a l l degree o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t was p r o v i d e d f o r . I n 1864 and 1865, of the l e g i s l a t i v e • c o u n c i l o f f i f t e e n a t Hew W e s t m i n s t e r o n l y f i v e members were e l e c t e d . C a r i b o o ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were James Or r and Dr. B l a c k i n 1864, George A. Walkem and W a l t e r M o b e r l y i n 1865, and Thomas H a r r i s and George A. Walkem i n 1866. A f t e r the u n i o n of the c o l o n i e s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t -i s h Columbia i n 1866, Ca r i b o o chose one o f the n i n e e l e c t e d members i n a c o u n c i l of t w e n t y - t h r e e . George A. Walkem and Dr. R. W. V/. C a r r a l l r e p r e s e n t e d the d i s t r i c t i n the s e s s i o n s b e f o r e c o n f e d e r a t i o n . B e s i d e s w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r m i n o r i t y of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia, miners i n C a r i b o o sought s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h an e l e c t e d M i n i n g Board. The M i n i n g Board, o p e r a t i n g under the G o l d F i e l d s A c t , c o n s i s t e d of t w e l v e e l e c t e d members, i n c l u d i n g a government p a i d s e c r e t a r y . I t s d u t y was t o a d v i s e the government i n a l l m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g m i n e r s . The f i r s t C a r i b o o M i n i n g Board was e l e c t e d i n 1862 b u t ^ a s i t s s u g g e s t -i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , i t was (1) T r i m b l e , W. J . , The M i n i n g Advance i n t o the I n l a n d Empire, U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , Madison, 1914, P. 202. (2) I b i d . P. 203. discontinued i n 1865 and d i r e c t petitions to the. government replaced mining board minutes. A Mining Board was again elected i n B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1866. As well"as protesting against i n s u f f i c i e n t represent-ation on the l e g i s l a t i v e council, Caribooites complained that they were u n f a i r l y taxed. In view of the fact that i n 1866 the miners of Cariboo d i r e c t l y contributed over two-CD thirds of the revenue of the colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, and that i n 1869 Cariboo -provided $42,000 to the treasury of the (2) coloniy^ while only $19,348 was expended on her, i t appears that the complaints of the miners were j u s t i f i a b l e . In addition to the yearly miner's fee of one pound and the trader's license fee of one pound every three months, men i n Cariboo contributed to the c o l o n i a l revenues through high customs duties l e v i e d on p r a c t i c a l l y a l l goods as they en-tered the colony i n the south, the high gold export tax l e v i e d by Seymour i n 1865, and the buying of town l o t s , chief-l y on Williams Creek. Cariboo was primarily the Canadian counterpart of the American eastward moving f r o n t i e r , her'society did not represent a "wave" of settlement from the east as did certain d i s t r i c t s i n the United States, for p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the miners came to Cariboo from the west by way of the lower Fraser River. Only one important party, the overlanders of (1) Government of B. C. Blue Book, 1886, MS. i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives. (2) Chartres Brew to Col. S e c , January 18, 1869. 10 / '62, journeyed into the gold f i e l d s of B r i t i s h Columbia over the pathless p r a i r i e s of Canada. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d society J i n Cariboo was merely a temporary condition of mining devel- ] opment. That which contributed to the hasty anJLrough condition \ of society probably more than any other one factor was the i s o l a t i o n of the mines. During the period of the r e a l gold-rush to Cariboo, 1862-1865, men "beat t h e i r own t r a i l " from Yale to the mines. Travel became easier i n 1865 when the ( I Cariboo Road was completed 380 miles from Yale to B a r k e r v i l l e . Thereafter, regular l i n e s of communication were established between the upper and lower colony and between di f f e r e n t towns i n the mining d i s t r i c t . F. J. Barnard, at that time, also improved the postal service. In 1868 a telegraph l i n e was extended into B a r k e r v i l l e from Quesnel but the business (1) enterprise was e n t i r e l y unsuccessful. Although these various steps were taken to improve means of commundcation between Cariboo and the outside world, the d i s t r i c t remained l a r g e l y i s o l a t e d . Because of intermittent communication with more highly developed groups, Cariboo maintained a f r o n t i e r condition of \ society. Townsites,were chosen, houses erected, and goods rushed i n to s e t t l e r s at any point which promised to y i e l d p l e n t i f u l gold. There was no r e a l s t a b i l i t y i n urban s e t t l e -ment except on Williams Creek and even there, the centre of (1) T. R. Buie to Col. S e c , A p r i l 16, 1869. 11 society moved from R i c h f i e l d above to the B a r k e r v i l l e and cameronton area below the R i c h f i e l d canyon. Consequently, what buildings were erected (and those i n B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1868 (1) had a value of $673,300) were l i t t l e more than wooden shacks, although paint and windows were used on the homes of the t town e l i t e , and some of the i n t e r i o r furnishings were costl y . Plans were made by o f f i c i a l s for well-ordered towns but street lanes were sold and houses erected h a s t i l y u n t i l Cariboo towns were s o l i d masses of wood houses raised from the ground by three-foot l o g posts. The existence of two i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r reminds us of the undeveloped state of society i n B r i t i s h Columbia mines of the s i x t i e s . A town f i r e - h a l l well-equipped.and operated by well-trained firemen v/ould have been surprising, f o r miners were not noted f o r care of property i n towns which were never considered "home." But f i r e brigades i n early Cariboo were conspicuous by t h e i r absence. On the other hand, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f r o n t i e r i n s t i t u t i o n conspicuous by i t s presence, was the dance-hall and saloon. During the years of the largest population and greatest gold production i n the mines, there v/ere apparently no thoughts of organized protection against f i r e . Individual miners and storekeepers may have equipped themselves v/ith leather fire-buckets. By 1867, having already suffered from f i r e l o s s , a few Caribooites under Robert B u r r e l l and John (1) The Cariboo Sentinel, September 22, 1868. 12 / B u i e , c o l l e c t e d $676 i n a i d o f a B a r k e r v i l l e b r i g a d e . Most of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , however, f e l t t h a t U a r i b o o v/as a charmed community, p r o t e c t e d by liod a g a i n s t f i r e and a l l o t h e r • dangers, and t h e r e f o r e no p r e c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e were t a k e n i n t h a t y e a r . A l i t t l e over a y e a r l a t e r , on September 16, 1868, the whole " m e t r o p o l i s " o f C a r i b o o was d e s t r o y e d by a f i r e o r i g -i n a t i n g i n a s a l o o n where a "hurdy" d a n c i n g g i r l was i r o n -i n g . The f r o n t i e r community v/as not charmed, t h e n , and the p r e c a u t i o n s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n a g a i n s t f i r e must be t a k e n i m m e d i a t e l y I S u b s e q u e n t l y , dances, p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s of $4,000, and a government g r a n t of $1,000 p r o v i d e d a l a r g e fund and the W i l l i a m s Creek F i r e B r i g a d e became an (1) i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n i n the d e c l i n i n g m i n i n g s o c i e t y . Equipment was s t o r e d i n t h e f i r e h a l l w h i c h was p a r t of the newly c o n s t r u c t e d T h e a t r e R o y a l . U n i f o r m s o f s c a r l e t and b l a c k p l a c e d the v o l u n t e e r f i r e m e n i n an e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when they were p r i v i l e g e d t o a t t e n d f i r e m e n ' s meetings and t o j o i n i n t h e c h o r u s : "My s h i r t of wool, i s s c a r l e t dyed, And pants and b e l t a g r e e - -With helmet h a t and badge on t h a t , Of the W. C. E. B." (2) The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f r o n t i e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n c a r i b o o \ was t h e h o t e l , d a n c e - h a l l and s a l o o n . At no time d i d C a r i b o o n i g h t - l i f e p r e s e n t any r e p e t i t i o n of A m e r i c a n (1) The C a r i b o o d e n t i n a l , September 8, 1869. (g), James Anderson, I B e l o n g t o t h e F i r e B r i g a d e , Sawney's L e t t e r s & C a r i b o o Rhymes, W. S. J o h n s t o n & Co, Toronto,1895. m i n i n g town l a w l e s s n e s s , uunplay and drunkenness were almost absent i n B r i t i s h Columbia m i n i n g g r o u p s . A p i c t u r e of C a r i b o o ' s s a l o o n s must be p a i n t e d i n l e s s v i v i d c o l o u r s t h a n one of ( J a l i f o r n i a n b a r s i n '49. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l a r g e number of d r i n k i n g , d a n c i n g and gambling houses and t h e i r happy c l i e n t e l e c l e a r l y demonstrate the s t a n d a r d s of s o c i e t y i n c a r i b o o from i t s d i s c o v e r y u n t i l 1871. E v e r y s t o p p i n g p l a c e on the r o a d , e v e r y c r e e k s t o r e , and many r e s t a u r a n t s and h o t e l s i n e v e r y town throughout C a r i b o o had i t s l i c e n s e t o s e l l "wines, l i q u o r s , a l e , p o r t , c o r d i a l s , and the b e s t c i g a r s , " I n them a l l m i n e r s were coaxed t o "come and t a k e a s m i l e . " C a r i b o o was p l e n t i f u l l y s u p p l i e d w i t h g r e e n t a b l e s , l o n g b a r s b e h i n d w h i c h s t o o d many b r i g h t l y l a b e l l e d b o t t l e s , and g r e a s y d a n c e - f l o o r s . I n B a r k e r v i l l e , a l o n e , i n 1868, e i g h t e e n s a l o o n s as w e l l as (1) s e v e r a l r e s t a u r a n t s and h o t e l s , were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e . Money f l o w e d v e r y f r e e l y i n s a l o o n s . I n 1868 a t B a r k e r -v i l l e brandy s o l d at n i n e d o l l a r s per g a l l o n , rum and w h i s k y (2) a t e i g h t d o l l a r s p e r g a l l o n , and t h e r e was no s c a r c i t y o f s u p p l i e s . A t the green t a b l e , as w e l l as a t the b a r , m i n e r s c o n g r e g a t e d to f o r g e t the muddy s h a f t , the u n c o m f o r t a b l e o i l -s k i n s and the backache, and to " l i v e f a s t , g e t drunk, an' a' t h a t . " A l s o at t h e g r e e n t a b l e (sometimes t o the e x t e n t of $800 a t one time) many, o f t h e h a r d - e a r n e d m i n e r s ' nuggets d i s a p p e a r e d — p r o b a b l y i n t o the hands o f a R&andy." (1.) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 22, 1868. ((21. C h a r t r e s Brew t o . c o l . S e c , September 29, 1868. 1 4 / P r o f e s s i o n a l gamblers and d r i n k e r s , c a r i b o o " d a n d i e s , " were n o t numerous but even a few o f them i n a s a l o o n c a r r i e d away a l a r g e share o f a v a i l a b l e n u g g e t s . They were con-s p i c u o u s i n any s a l o o n w i t h t h e i r " s l i c k " b l a c k h a i r , b r i g h t eyes, s t i f f w h i t e c o l l a r s , p e r f e c t l y a r r a n g e d t i e s , s p o t t e d v e l v e t v e s t s , huge b u t t o n s , and heavy g o l d watch c h a i n s . One of the b e s t known " d a n d i e s " on W i l l i a m s Greek v/as Joseph Hough, a man who was a l e a d e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r -Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s , the man f a m i l i a r l y known as " J o s i f f i u s (1) H o f f i o u s o f B r i t i s h Columbiae." The s a l o o n , t o o , v/as t h e home o f the u-erman d a n c i n g -g i r l s known as " h u r d y - g u r d i e s " or " h u r d l e s . " These g i r l s , b rought from San F r a n c i s c o by a "boss-hurdy," danced w i t h any comer f o r the p r i c e of one d o l l a r a dance, o f whi c h f i f t y c e n t s went to the g i r l . F o r h i s d o l l a r , the miner enjoye d a dance and a d r i n k a t the b a r . The h u r d i e s , good dancers as th e y were, encouraged roughness i n d a n c i n g , and t h e r e f o r e , the man who f l u n g h i s g i r l t h e h i g h e s t was con-(2) s i d e r e d the bes t dancer. There were a l s o , of c o u r s e , g i r l s i n C a r i b o o who made even more handsome p r o f i t s t h a n d i d the h u r d i e s . A d i s t r i c t c r i t i c spoke of "lewd women n o t a few." As t h e r e was no o u t c r y i n B a r k e r v i l l e a g a i n s t "houses o f i l l r e p u t e " v/e must c o n s i d e r these s o c i a l menaces u n f o r t u n a t e but u n a v o i d a b l e f i x t u r e s i n new w e s t e r n towns. (1) A. H. Maynard, C o n v e r s a t i o n , June, 1931. (2.) C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 6 , 1 8 6 6 . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , c a r e has been t a k e n t o p o i n t out t h a t C a r i b o o was a f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y , l a r g e l y American i n o u t l o o k , a h a s t y g r o u p i n g of u n s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a "boom" c i v i l i -z a t i o n , flow we s h a l l show t h a t w h i l e , because o f g e o g r a p h i c and economic c o n d i t i o n s , c a r i b o o d i d not become a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d u r b a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h e d i s t r i c t d i d adopt many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o l d e r s o c i e t i e s . The c h o i c e o f permanent t o w n s i t e s and e r e c t i o n of many b u s i n e s s houses on tho s e s i t e s the e n t r a n c e o f o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n t o the g o l d f i e l d s , t he o p e r a t i o n o f a h o s p i t a l , cemetery, l i b r a r y , t h e a t r e , and s c h o o l , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f j f r a t e r n a l b o d i e s , and l a s % " , th? r e g u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n of a f i n e newspaper i n . b a r k e r v i l l e ; t h e s e t h i n g s a l l show t h a t an e f f i c i e n t system o f government, the a l e r t n e s s and a b i l i t y o f the i n h a b i t a n t , and t h e n a t u r a l w e a l t h o f the c o u n t r y had combined to f o r c e the W i l l i a m s Creek d i s t r i c t q u i c k l y p a s t t h e i n i t i a l stage o f development toward more i n t e n s e and c o m p l i c a t e d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The e x i s t e n c e o f the above named i n s t i t u t i o n s meant t h a t C a r i b o o had passed the stage o f t e n t s , beans and bacon and had en-t e r e d the stage o f p a i n t e d t w o - s t o r e y houses and jam p i e s . ±sut the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r b i r t h and the form i n w h i c h t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d i n d i c a t e t h a t u a r i b o o was s t i l l v e r y n e a r to t h e "age of discovery'.' At f i r s t i t v/as b e l i e v e d t h a t Van W i n k l e w o u l d be the depot f o r the whole o f c a r i b o o but by 1863 W i l l i a m s was d e f i n i t e l y the l e a d i n g c r e e k i n g o l d p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h a t y e a r , R i c h f i e l d and . b a r k e r v i l l e b o t h drew merchants to t h e i r s t r e e t s and the o v e r f l o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n formed a new town, uameronton, one m i l e below B a r k e r v i l l e . As c l a i m s below the canyon c o n t i n u e d to pay w e l l , the l o w e r towns expanded w h i l e R i c h f i e l d l o s t some o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1866 the Bank of B r i t i s h IMorth A m e r i c a moved i t s o f f i c e f r o m R i c h -CD f i e l d t o B a r k e r v i l l e , a . n d the Bank of B r i t i s h C olumbia (2) f o l l o w e d i t the n e x t y e a r . By 1868, a f t e r many changes i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , the a r e a below the W i l l i a m s creek canyon had become the o n l y p o s s i b l e u r b a n c e n t r e o f Cariboo v/ith B a r k e r v i l l e , uameronton, and M a r y s v i l l e as the names of the t h r e e towns l o c a t e d t h e r e . R i c h f i e l d , above the canyon, remained t h e c e n t r e o f government. As t h e y n o t e d the p r o g r e s s o f the W i l l i a m s c r e e k d i s -t r i c t , many b u s i n e s s houses e s t a b l i s h e d t hemselves t h e r e . MacDonald opened a bank on t h e c r e e k i n 1863 but i t ceased (3) (4) to e x i s t i n 1864. The Bank o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1863 and (5) t h e Bank of B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a i n 1865 a l s o opened o f f i c e s a t R i c h f i e l d v/hich were l a t e r moved to B a r k e r v i l l e . Air. John Wark, t r a d e r , opened a Hudson's Bay Company s t o r e a t (6) B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1867. A government assay o f f i c e was e s t a b -( I ) The C a r i b o o s e n t i n e l , J u l y 26, 1866. ( I I ) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , F e b r u a r y 15, 1867. ( I I I ) R e i d , R. L.,The F i r s t Bank i n Western Canada, the Canadian h i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . V I I , P. 294. ( I V ) B. C. D i r e c t o r y , 1863, P. 143; J . D. Walker t o c o l . s e c . , May 21, 1863. <¥) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , June 25, 1865, J u l y 1, 1865; R. Shepherd t o C o l . S e c , J u l y 24, 1865. ( V I ) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , J u l y 8, 1867. (1) l i s h e d i n 1869. Meanwhile, many p r i v a t e merchants had opened t h e i r d oors t o the m i n e r s . By 1868 the names o f f o r t y - o n e merchants a t B a r k e r v i l l e and n i n e a t R i c h f i e l d were l i s t e d i n the J3. C. D i r e c t o r y . A t l e a s t e i g h t y - t w o "business houses were d e s t r o y e d i n t h e B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e of 1868 o f which twenty were o c c u p i e d as g e n e r a l s t o r e s and e i g h t e e n as s a l -oons. At t h a t time, t h e r e were e i g h t b o a r d i n g houses, f o u r s h o e s t o r e s , f o u r c a r p e n t e r shops, t h r e e b a r b e r s h o p s , t h r e e b u t c h e r s h o p s , two banks, two p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s and two p h o t o g r a p h e r s on the main s t r e e t . There was a l s o one t h e a t r e newspaper o f f i c e , l i b r a r y and p o s t o f f i c e , Masonic l o d g e , -doctor's o f f i c e . , c h u r c h , p a i n t e r ' s s t o r e , d r u g s t o r e , s t a b l e , tailor-'.";? o f f i c e , hardware, b a k e r y , w a t c h s t o r e , b l a c k s m i t h shop, t i n s m i t h shop and e x p r e s s o f f i c e i n B a r k e r v i l l e i n (2) 1868. We cannot e s t i m a t e t h e p r o f i t e n j o y e d by each o f these merchants but t h e r e seems to be a t l e a s t some degree of t r u t h i n t h e statement t h a t the merchants, and n o t the m i n e r s , c a r r i e d the g o l d away from c a r i b o o . J u d g i n g by p r i c e s charged, the merchants s h o u l d have been a b l e to more t h a n c l e a r overhead and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s . A t W i l l i a m s Gr-eek, f l o u r s o l d a t 85? p e r l b . i n 1862, 36? i n 1864, 21c' i n 1868; b u t t e r s o l d at $3.00 per l b . i n 1863, $1.50 i n 1864, $1.00 i n 1868; and o t h e r goods b r o u g h t s i m i l a r h i g h p r i c e s . The growth o f permanent t o w n s i t e s and o f o r g a n i z e d b u s i n e s s f i r m s was an i n d e x o f c a r i b o o becoming more s t a b l e (1) C h a r t r e s Brew t o C o l . S e c , J u l y 17, 1869. (2) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 22, 1868. 18 economically. Likewise, the growth of the influence of r e l i g i o n i n the mines indicates the merging of a new with older s o c i e t i e s . For Cariboo was not opened up by mission-aries. Rather did the church follow the miners into the .; gold f i e l d s and i n some cases noijuntil a f t e r urgent peti t i o n s were drawn up by gold-seekers. I t was not u n t i l 1868 that there was any Sunday observance i n B a r k e r v i l l e although, from the f i r s t , miners had shown a f i n e respect for r e l i g i o n . As early as 1863 they had chosen the s i t e for the cameronton cemetery and had since then kept i t i n good repair. But ministers had been slow i n coming to cariboo and had re-mained there only a short time. "They canna l i v e a year up her, . But gang below for warmer cheer." (1) < -Therefore, the permanent establishment of any denom-ina t i o n i n cariboo was an event to be well noted. When the Roman Catholic Father Charles Grand(l)ier journeyed as f a r north as Williams creek i n 1861 he was (2) the f i r s t c h r i s t i a n missionary i n cariboo. His church did not formally enter the gold d i s t r i c t u n t i l 1865 when Father (3) Gendre celebrated mass at R i c h f i e l d every Sunday. In 1866 Father Ivlagoggin bought a house to be used as a church at R i c h f i e l d and i n 1868 St. Patrick's Church was dedicated at (4) the same town. (1) James Anderson, Second Letter to My Frfcgnd Sawney, The Cariboo Sentinel, July 23, 1866. (2) Morice, A. G. , The History of the Northern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, William Briggs, Toronto, 1904, P. 327. (3) The Cariboo Sentinel, Aug. 12,. 1865. (4)The Cariboo Sentinel, July 13, 1868. 19 The A n g l i c a n Church a l s o sent two m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t o C a r i -boo i n 1861 and f o u r i n 1 8 6 2 R e v e r e n d C. K n i p e , B i s h o p H i U l s , Mr. Dundas, and Mr. John Sheepshanks. I n 1863 the A n g l i c a n s (1) b u i l t t h e f i r s t c h u r c h on W i l l i a m s Creek b u t t h e r e v/as no r e g u l a r p r e a c h e r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Reverend A. C. G a r r e t t spent 1865 i n (Jariboo. I n t h e summer of 1868 a f t e r a p e t -i t i o n had been se n t t o the b i s h o p by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s r e q u e s t -i n g a i r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n f o r the m i n e r s , James Reynard a r r i v e d i n c a r i b o o . He i m m e d i a t e l y bought an o l d b u i l d i n g i n b a r k e r -v i l l e t o be used as a c h u r c h b u t t h i s was t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d i n the f i r e o f September 16. A g a i n Reynard s e t out to b u i l d a meeting-house, t h i s time w o r k i n g on the b u i l d i n g w i t h h i s own hands. F i n a l l y , on September 18, 1870 s t . S a v i o u r ' s Ep-i s c o p a l Church was opened at B a r k e r v i l l e , a l a s t i n g memorial (2) to the a r d o u r of t h e A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y i n c a r i b o o . A l t h o u g h the M e t h o d i s t s were among the f i r s t to e n t e r (3) the m i n i n g f i e l d by s e n d i n g Reverend A r t h u r Browning i n 1863, t h e y d i d n o t attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a permanent c h u r c h u n t i l a f t e r the B a r k e r v i l l e f i r e of 1868. Thomas D e r r i c k opened (4) the new M e t h o d i s t c h u r c h on June 20, 1869. Through Reverend D. D u f f ' s work i n B a r k e r v i l l e i n 1864 and 1865 the P r e s b y t e r -Co) i a n s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n C a r i b o o . As an " e n t i r e l y u n s e c t -(1) Records o f the S o c i e t y f o r the P r o p o g a t i o n o f the G o s p e l i n F o r e i g n P a r t s , June 8, 1861. Copy i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , j . Sheepshanks t o James D o u g l a s , August 26, 1863; quoted by Douglas to Duke of N e w c a s t l e , November 13, 1863. MS. i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . (2) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 24, 1870. 3) John Evans, D i a r y , J u l y 21, 1863. MS. i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 4) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , June 19, 1869. (5) The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , September 16, 1865. 20 a r i a n " group Welshmen con g r e g a t e d i n uambrian H a l l a f t e r (1) 1866 f o r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s . Thus, p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y denom-i n a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i n the " o l d c o u n t r y " and A m e r i c a had made an e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f p e rmanently i n c a r i b o o g o l d f i e l d s . The c h u r c h d i d not a t t empt t o c o l o n i z e t h e d i s t r i c t "but i t d i d f o l l o w the s e t t l e r s im-m e d i a t e l y so t h a t , as "The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l " s a i d , "the men w o r k i n g underground may go heavenward." A l t h o u g h r e l i g i o n had been brought i n t o c a r i b o o m a i n l y because of the endeavour o f persons i n t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n c a r i b o o because of the s t r e n u o u s r e q u e s t s or demands o f the i n h a b i t a n t s them-s e l v e s . A h o s p i t a l was demanded and g r a n t e d to W i l l i a m s Creek i n 1863, a l i b r a r y i n 1864, a t h e a t r e i n 1868, and a s c h o o l i n 1871. I n 1863, because o f the i n c r e a s i n g number o f a c c i d e n t s i n the mines and t h e absence o f m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , a p e t -i t i o n was s e n t to the c o l o n i a l government a s k i n g t h a t a (2) h o s p i t a l , be b u i l t . The b u i l d i n g was opened a t Cameronton and f o r a y e a r was s u p p o r t e d e n t i r e l y by the m i n e r s . I n 1864 the h o s p i t a l was p l a c e d under government management, though i t v/as s t i l l p a r t l y m a i n t a i n e d by p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n s . I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n an i s o l a t e d "boom" town w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h d a n c e - h a l l s and s a l o o n s , t h e r e was a marked e f f o r t to c u l t i v a t e l i t e r a r y t a s t e . l e t , on May 14, 1864, a (1) "John Evans to C h a r t r e s Brew, March 2, 1869. (2) A. B rowning to Governor Seymour, J u l y 2, 1864. 21 p e t i t i o n was s e n t t o the government from the miners and. t r a d e r s on W i l l i a m s Creek r e Q u e s t i n g t h a t a s i t e f o r a l i b r a r y "(1) and r e a d i n g room be g r a n t e d them. The l i b r a r y , e r e c t e d a t Cameronton by s u b s c r i p t i o n s , was soon opened w i t h John Bowron as l i b r a r i a n . I n 1867 the l i b r a r y was moved to B a r k e r v i l l e , l a r g e l y a t the expense of the l i b r a r i a n . Some o f the books were c o n t r i b u t e d by the government; o t h e r s were bought frsm a f u n d c o l l e c t e d " : .by the c a r i b o o l i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e . C a r i b o o i t e s a g a i n showed t h e i r d e s i r e f o r c u l t u r e when the y succeeded, m a i n l y by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p u b l i c s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n o f the d i s t r i c t . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e y had been s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p r i v a t e t u t o r s when, i n 1869, t h r o u g h "The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l , " the i n h a b i t -a n t s of C a r i b o o demanded t h a t a s c h o o l be opened f o r the (2) t w e n t y - f i v e or t h i r t y c h i l d r e n o f the d i s t r i c t . A f t e r the c i t i z e n s had a p p o i n t e d a s c h o o l board, the government g r a n t e d them the u s u a l $480 f o r a s c h o o l . The i n h a b i t a n t s t h e m s e l v e s r a i s e d $1,200 towards the e r e c t i o n of a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g and (3) i n June, 1871, the i n s t i t u t i o n v/as opened f o r c l a s s e s . A t h e a t r e was d e s i r e d as a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r t h e m iners of B a r k e r v i l l e . The B a r k e r v i l l e T h e a t r e R o y a l was opened i n 1868 by the C a r i b o o Amateur Dramatic A s s o c i a t i o n and v i s i t i n g m i n s t r e l s , and m a g i c i a n s added to l o c a l t a l e n t i n p r e s e n t i n g c o n c e r t s d u r i n g the summer months. A f t e r the (1) P e t i t i o n of W i l l i a m s Creek i n h a b i t a n t s , May 14, 1864, en-c l o s e d by W. G. Coxfto C o l . S e c , May 14, 1864. (2) The C a r i b o o s e n t i n e l , J u l y 14, 1869 (3) B. C. Manual of S c h o o l Law, 1901, P. '72. 22 f i r e , the theatre was r e b u i l t so that the Li-lee Club and. Dramatic Association could continue to offer entertainment. B a r k e r v i l l e by 1868^ was developing into a permanent B r i t i s h townsite, possessing many American features i n i t s ordered b u i l d i n g plan, business houses i n many sp e c i a l i z e d l i n e s , and regularly published newspaper. (The f i r s t issue was brought out on June 6, 1865.) Communication by both stage and telegraph with the larger p r o v i n c i a l centres and with the United States was improving. I f the economic basis of growth had been stable, B a r k e r v i l l e might have precee"ded .Nelson and Rossland as an inland centre of B r i t i s h Columbia, however, Bar k e r v i l l e had no means of supporting her population except by mining. Lumbering, trading, and farming were minor i n -dixstries supported by miners and maintained to supply l o c a l needs, a t i l l , to-day, upper cariboo's for e s t s and ranches exist only to provide mining wants such as fence-posts, shaft l i n i n g , flumes, f u e l , fresh vegetables and dairy produce. Only ores, almost e n t i r e l y gold, have ever been exported from the Quesnel and B a r k e r v i l l e d i s t r i c t s . When the mines f a i l e d between 1868 and 1871, there was nothing to hold the pop-u l a t i o n and wandering prospectors moved on to other gold f i e l d s or to d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia more suitable f o r farming.- A table showing the estimated gold production i n the whole Cariboo d i s t r i c t from 1859 to 1873 w i l l indicate the peak years of prosperity:-YIELD OF GOLD FROM CARIBOO DISTRICT (1) 1859 $ 500,000 1867 $1,§00,000 1860 1,400,000 1868 1,500,000 1861 2,000,000 1869 1,000,000 1862 1,600,000 1870 775,000 1863 1,700,000 1871 1,000,000 1864 2,900,000 1872 750,000 1865 2,700,000 2,200,000 1873 525,000 1866 Probably at least one-third of t h i s production came from Williams (Jreek alone. From 1874, we are able to quote separate figures f o r production from Williams Creek and these are now given. PRODUCTION FROM WILLIAMS CREEK as given i n the Min i s t e r of Mines Reports. 1874 $108,024 1881 $66,458 1888 $26,994 25,092 1875 68,760 1882 57,000 1889 1876 no r e t . 1883 44,677 1890 18,300 1877 no r e t . 1884 36,000 1891 22,500 1878 72,790 1885 33,576 1892 22,500 1879 95,480 1886 29,500 1893 17,500 1880 79,000 1887 22,900 1894 1895 17,900 32,400 Only s l i g h t references since 1895. (1) Chart izi Bowman, Amos, op. c i t . , n. p. 24 CHAPTER II THE FIRST GOLD RUSH TO KOOTENAY While the upper cariboo gold rush to Williams creek was at i t s height i n 1864, American miners were also turning t h e i r eyes to a southern d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia north of Idaho. Indeed, Wild Horse creek, the centre of this new Kootenay gold-mining d i s t r i c t was p r a c t i c a l l y a one hundred per cent American camp. Its population, i t s capital and i t s general s o c i a l atmosphere were American i n o r i g i n . Wild norse creek which flows into Kootenay River about f i f t y miles north of the boundary was the centre of a, di s -t r i c t resembling an itsouoles triangLe i n shape. I t s base rested on the fo r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l and into i t s apex poured a population from the states south of the boundary. In the f a l l of 1863 James Manning from C o l v i l l e , U. S. A. had brought out gold which he received from an Indian i n the Kootenay h i l l s . The Indian was supposed to have panned i t at Findlay Creek. Ea r l y i n the next spring Manning took twenty friends into Wild Horse Creek and by June there were probably about f i v e hundred miners i n the v i c i n i t y . A small town, Fisher-v i l l e , was b u i l t . Throughout a l l the north western states, news of the northern strikes spread r a p i d l y . Idaho, Montana, and Wash-ington miners who had intended to leave for Cariboo, turned northward to Kootenay. "The Columbian" from Rock Creek reported that "the quiet l i t t l e town of C o l v i l l e was thrown into a state of great excitement on the f i f t h instant, by the a r r i v a l of a party of miners d i r e c t from the Kootenais m i n e s . f o r the pur-pose of recording claims and securing miners 1 licenses, from the Government o f f i c e r . They "brought down some very r i c h specimens of quartz rock, and also a considerable quantity of "dust" which they l e f t at C o l v i l l e , to be forwarded by-express to Portland, proceeding- immediately on t h e i r way to secure t h e i r discoveries by com-pliance with the law." (1) As early as A p r i l , 1864 pack trains had l e f t from p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the small towns of the American mining states. For instance i n one week i n A p r i l two hundred pack animals l e f t Walla Walla for Kootenay and at le a s t h a l f of (2) them found their destination north of forty-nine degrees. American camps were deserted. Everyone who could get away, l e f t C o l v i l l e for Wild Horse Creek and no one remained i n (3) the Columbia River country. The Americans even constructed a road into the B r i t i s h camp. Again quoting from "The Columbian," we read that "the people of C o l v i l l e have constructed a new t r a i l from this place to Kootani, shortening the distance some 200 miles. Nearly a l l of the new road passes through B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . The people of C o l v i l l e c e r t a i n l y deserve great c r e d i t for t h e i r enterprise i n opening a t r a i l through f o r e i g n ter-r i t o r y , without any assistance from the Government. ."(4) While American miners by hundreds were f l o c k i n g into the B r i t i s h Kootenay d i s t r i c t , news of the discoveries slowly reached c o l o n i a l authorities i n v i c t o r i a and Hew (1) Colonist, July 28, 1864, auoting "The Columbian" (2) Colonist, A p r i l 13, 1864 quoting "Walla Walla Statesman" (3) Colonist, June 20, 1864 (4) Colonist, June 20, 1864 quoting "The Columbian." Westminster. On June 23, J. C.Haynes reported to the Colon-i a l Secretary that he had heard of a s t r i k e i n Kootenay and of miners coming from Walla Walla and Fort C o l v i l e v i a (1) spokane. Colonial o f f i c i a l s immediately appointed Haynes to go to Wild Horse Creek, to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a B r i t i s h route and B r i t i s h source of supplies f o r the disr-(2) t r i c t and to administer B r i t i s h justice while there. The i n d i r e c t reports of Kootenay that came to Vancouver Island and the mainland gave an i n d i s t i n c t picture of the development. On June 22 i t was" reported that "the p r i n c i p a l miners on the Kootenais, so f a r , are Frenchmen, and i t looks well f o r the genuineness of the mines, that every Frenchman (3) i n the Boise country has l e f t or i s leaving for that region." In July, Leu Harris and C. McLaughlin from V i c t o r i a wrote back, not from Idaho where they had intended to s e t t l e , but from Kootenais, a d i s t r i c t they found far more prosperous than nearby American camps. V i c t o r i a and New Westminster s e t t l e r s began to wonder if^perhaps^the newspaper stories of inland wealth were true aft e r a l l . When Mr. Mackay, the Hudson's Bay Company agent, arrived back i n V i c t o r i a from Kootenay i n August with a report that there were f i v e thous-and people i n the d i s t r i c t , that provisions were being rushed i n from the Dalles, that the mines were highly successful^and that these new mines had p r a c t i c a l l y depopulated the r i c h (1) J . CI Haynes to Col. S e c , June 23, 1864 (2) Colonial Secretary to J. C. Haynes, July 9, 1864. (3) Colonist, June 22, 1864. 27 Boise country, B r i t i s h Columbian merchants began to ask themselves seriously i f they should not seek some of the i n -(1) land trade. Even government o f f i c i a l s turned th e i r attention f o r a moment from Cariboo to Kootenay and on September 1, 1864 A. N. Birch, the Colonial Secretary, l e f t Hew Westminster (2) to v i s i t Kootenay and make a f i r s t hand report on the d i s t r i c t . Through a l l the f i r s t year of the early Kootenay gold rush, however, B r i t i s h Columbians remained l a r g e l y i n d i f -ferent to progress and development i n the d i s t r i c t . Their newspapers viewed.with suspicion promising reports by con-temporary American journals. In V i c t o r i a , "The Colonist" published reprints from American papers and implied that B r i t i s h Columbians v/ould be wise to take early steps to de-(3) velop Kootenay. The r i v a l paper i n V i c t o r i a , "The Chronicle," on the other hand, was from the beginning h o s t i l e and sus-picious of the American mining advance into southern B r i t i s h Columbia. Unaware, t h i s paper probably discouraged many Canadian traders and prospectors from seeking r i c h prizes i n Kootenay. For example, on June 21, 1864 "The Chronicle" issued the following warning: "THE KOOTENAI MINES; But l i t t l e i s known, beyond mere report of these mines. Up to l a t e s t advices from Oregon, and B r i t i s h Columbia there has been no confirmation of their reported richness. A l l we hear i s that an excited crowd of gold hunters have l e f t Boise and were rushing p e l l - m e l l towards the l a t e s t discovered and most distant diggings, without (1) Colonist, August 11, 1864 (2) Colonist, September 1, .1864 (3) Colonist, June 25, 1864. possessing the smallest reason f o r their excitement. We should advise a l l our readers not to get excited over the published- "reports." Remember that we have a gold f i e l d already opened where great fortunes are dail y struck and where i t only requires health and a will-to-do to insure success. Kootenai may be very r i c h ; but we don't l i k e the appearance of the bait with v/hich the gudgeon-hook has been baited. I t looks too brass-y to be genuine." The editor of "The Chronicle" evidently feared that American traders were promoting a rush to a camp of doubtful worth i n order to induce B r i t i s h Columbians to t r a v e l through American t e r r i t o r y to their own gold f i e l d s i n Kootenay. From B r i t i s h trade, American merchants would make easy p r o f i t s . "The Chronicle" speaks c l e a r l y on June 22, 1864 when i t concludes a report on the Kootenay mines with these words: "I f Kootenai cannot hold out greater inducements for miners to immigrate to that country than the above reports indicate, the fewer people who go from these parts the better. Boise having proved a p a r t i a l f a i l u r e , the Oregonians have got up the Kootenai excitement--with what success remains to be seen." Kootenay was considered i n V i c t o r i a as a foreign land. Miners were encouraged to work the cariboo streams but were warned to stay away from Kootenay. We suspect that V i c t o r i a merchants were the fathers of this opinion f o r they would natur a l l y be unwilling to see the i r supply business pass to Spokane, C o l v i l l e and other American traders. Good reports of Kootenay were considered " f a l s e and garbled" and direct (1) propaganda to "draw population away from Cariboo." The f i r s t o f f i c i a l reports which arrived i n V i c t o r i a (1) Chronicle, June 23, 1864. 29 a s s u r e d B r i t i s h Columbians t h a t t h e r e was i n d e e d r e a l m i n e r a l w e a l t h beyond the coast mountains, naynes r e p o r t e d to the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y on August 50, 1864 t h a t the pop-u l a t i o n o f W i l d Horse Creek was the n about one thousand m i n e r s , shopkeepers and l a b o r e r s , iie had a l r e a d y i s s u e d twenty-two t r a d i n g , t w e l v e l i q u o r and s i x hundred s i * f r e e m i n e r s ' l i c e n s e s . The August income f o r the d i s t r i c t had been $10,854.92. F o r September, the Kootenay d i s t r i c t i n -come as r e p o r t e d by Haynes amounted t o $5,488.06. (The r e p o r t i s a l s o g i v e n i n E n g l i s h c u r r e n c y . ) C o l l e c t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : REVENUE FROM KOOTENAY DISTRICT FOR THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER,1864 Customs ....$ 3453.26 F f e e M i n e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e s 499.55 Re c o r d , M i n i n g C l a i m s 169.05 » B i l l s o f S a l e 505.85 " Water R i g h t s 2.50 " Land C l a i m s 9.70 .Liquor L i c e n s e s 727.50 T r a d i n g L i c e n s e s 19.40 F i n e s 121.25 $5488.06 (1) B i r c h , h i m s e l f , gave a v e r y f a v o r a b l e r e p o r t o f the d i s t r i c t when he r e t u r n e d to New Westminster i n October w i t h (2) about £4000 c o l l e c t e d f o r l i c e n s e s , lie spoke o f the g o l d of W i l d Horse Creek as e q u a l to the b e s t C a l i f o r n i a g o l d , p a s s -i n g as i t d i d a t a p r i c e o f $18 per ounce. He d e s c r i b e d the town on the c r e e k as " o f no i n c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e . . . T h e r e a r e 4 r e s t a u r a n t s . . . the r a t e o f charges f o r r e g u l a r b o a r d e r s averages $14 (1) R e p o r t of J . C. Haynes, MS, A r c h i v e s . (2) C o l o n i s t , October 27, 1864. to $18 per week. Numerous substantial stores have been erected. A large brewery had also been estab-l i s h e d and had commenced working...It i s confidently expected by the traders that there w i l l be a rush of from 10,000 to 15,000 miners from the Boise country i n the spring, and large supplies are s t i l l being sent into the mines..The entire supplies are at pres-ent packed up from hewiston, Walla Walla, Wallulu, and Umatilla Landing, i n Washington T e r r i t o r y and the State of Oregon. The c a t t l e came direc t from Salt .Lake C i t y . . . " (1) Haynes was withdrawn from Kootenay duties on November 23, 1864 f o r the winter months, ne returned to New Westmin-ster enthusiastic about the newest American colony i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . But h i s reports came too late to be of value to overcautious B r i t i s h e r s u n t i l the season of 1865 was i n f u l l swi ng. In the spring of 1865, Peter O'Reilly, who had prev-iously been stationed i n Cariboo, was transferred to Wild Horse Creek to look aft e r "the wild boys." He found between one and two thousand men i n the d i s t r i c t , p r i n c i p a l l y c o l -(2) lected at F i s h e r v i l l e , a town of one hundred twenty houses. S t i l l , the population v/as almost e n t i r e l y American. sup-p l i e s came ent i r e l y from American centres. The administ-r a t i o n of j u s t i c e v/as p r a c t i c a l l y the only B r i t i s h element i n society. Shallow diggings of Wild.Horse Creek became deep diggings and adventurers moved on to Big Bend, pushing (3) inland for easy gold. (1) Report of A.N. Birch as i n Colonist, November 11, 1864. (2) William J . Trimble, The Mining Advance into the Inland Empire, unive r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, 1914. P. 57 Colonist, June 22, 1865. (3) Colonist, .November '6, November 14, aovember 30, Decem-ber 7, December 13, December 25, 1865. The reason why Kootenay from 1864 to 1866 v/as an Amer-ican colony enjoying the protection of B r i t i s h lav; i s easy to f i n d . I t i s true that the character of any s o c i e t y i s de-termined "by i t s communication f a c i l i t i e s . To-day, these i n -clude the radio, telegraph, telephone, railway, steamship, and motor road. In the middle of the l a s t century i n central B r i t i s h Columbia, communication meant merely t r a i l and wagon road. For Kootenay, these t r a i l s e l l l e d south to American t e r r i t o r y . The Dewdney t f a i l was extended from .Princeton to Wild Horse Greek i n 1865 at a cost of $74,000 but i t was too late to divert trade to B r i t i s h Columbia merchants. Trimble has summed up the s i t u a t i o n well when he says: "The real importance of the Jiootenai mines i n the mining h i s t o r y of the Inland Empire arose from their location, they being remote from the commercial and governmental centres of the B r i t i s h Colonies and ea s i l y accessible from the t e r r i t o r i e s to the south. Hope, the nearest v i l l a g e on the Fraser, by the round-about t r a i l that v/as followed, was over 500 miles distant, and part of the t r a i l , that from Fort Shephard to wild Horse (Jreek, v/as so bad that, i n 1864, one of the Hm&lson's Bay Company trains was fourteen days i n making the t r i p from that post and l o s t six horses i n doing so. Lewis-ton, on the contrary, was only 342 miles distant, Walla Walla 408, and Umatilla .banding 453. Consequently, i n spite of high t a r i f f , improvements of the .British t r a i l , and eagerness of the government to draw trade to V i c t o r i a , physiographic considerations prevailed, and nearly a l l the trade was with points south of the boundary." (1) In 1864, B r i t i s h Columbia had been warned that " i f the people of B r i t i s h Columbia wish to compete with their more enterprising neighbours of Oregon and Wash-ington, they must be up and s t i r r i n g and push the nope Wagon road through and improve the road down the oi m i l -kameen, and Kettle r i v e r s to Fort C o l v i l l e or sheppard, (1) Trimble, op. c i t . P. 58 32 and thence to Kootenais. I f something i s not done, and that quickly, B r i t i s h Columbia may bid farewell to the trade of the Kootenais country " (1) Meetings of merchants were held i n New Westminster, x'ale ' ,.; (2) and .Lytton to discuss a route to the hew Kootenay mines. Birch, himself, i n 1864 made a strong recommendation for a (3) B r i t i s h t r a i l to Kootenay. Dewdney made, good progress i n 1865 with h i s t r a i l using (4) a construction gang of half Chinese and half Europeans. Never-theless, most of the Kootenay trade s t i l l went by way of ool-v i i l e . Most of the merchants of Wild Horse oreek were Amer-icans. They brought i n American supplies. Most of the mine owners were from north-western states and n a t u r a l l y they used (5) (6) American t r a i l s . In spite of the high duties Kootenay trade continued to be l a r g e l y ' w i t h the south, rather than the west, u n t i l long af t e r the peak months of production had passed. For the early rush to Wild Horse Creek for placer d i g -gings was short l i v e d . The B r i t i s h , who might have made a permanent settlement i n the d i s t r i c t , d i d not come u n t i l the camp was "played out." For them, B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1865-1866 s t i l l meant Cariboo and they had no eyes for Kootenay, an unorganized American camp. The Americans, • on the other hand, rushed into Kootenay at the f i r s t discovery, played out her creeks v/ith easy diggings, and passed on to Big Bend i n (1) Colonist, July 28, 1864 quoting "The Columbian" (2) Colonist, October 3, 1864. (3) Colonist, November 11, 1864. (4) Colonist, September 14, 1865. (5) Colonist, A p r i l 30, 1866. (6) Colonist, Jpne 15, 1866, Fort Sheppard Letter of November 27, 1865. '66 for further shallow diggings. A l e t t e r written i n Fort Sheppard on November' 27, 1865 says that "Kootenay i s f l a t — a l m o s t abandoned for the more att r a c t i v e diggine of Dig Bend. There are only about f i f t y white men l e f t . The Chinamen are beg-inning to go i n and work the mines on shares. Two of the Hudson Bay Company1:s clerks have taken the gold fever, and are getting the boat b u i l t to take up a cargo of provisions." (1) In February, 1866 when the Union of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia was being discussed, Kootenay was not considered either i n the population s t a t i s t i c s or i n the revenue estimates. O f f i c i a l s considered that Kootenay was a d i s t r i c t "too problematical. The license fees and duties col l e c t e d at the boundary l i n e may give a handsome surplus (2) or they may not exceed the expenses incurred i n c o l l e c t i o n . " Newspapers on the Island and Mainland stopped publishing regular Kootenay reports and replaced them by "News from Big (3) , Bend." By September, 1866 about three hundred f i f t y men were l e f t on Wild Horse Creek. Those who had not already pursued easier gold i n other parts of the colony, were leav-ing for C o l v i l l e , Portland, v i c t o r i a , and a few for Saskat-(4) chewan. The placer mining industry i n Kootenay declined rapidly and i n 1873 the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary of the newly formed province of B r i t i s h Columbia removed from Kootenay the magi-( 5 ) strate and constables at Wild Horse and Perry creeks. The (1) Colonist, January 15, 1866. (2) Colonist, February 17, 1866. (3) Colonist, September 12, 1866. (4) J.B. G-aggin to Colonial secretary, September 14, 1866. (5) P r o v i n c i a l Secretary to A.W. Vowell, January 17, 1873. population had dwindled to p r a c t i c a l l y a few Chinese. W i l l -iam Fernie, the Kootenay government agent i n 1879 reported to the Minister of Mines: "I am sorry to be unable to report any improvement i n the prospects of the mines i n this section of B r i t i s h Columbia. There has been very l i t t l e pros-pecting done this year and nothing new found. The old claims being worked have paid generally as well as i n former years. There are quantities of what are c a l l e d small diggings i n this v i c i n i t y , but the pres-ent high prices of provisions prevent th e i r being worked u n t i l men can l i v e cheaper. . There i s no doubt that this portion of the country w i l l support a much more numerous population than i s here at present when i t s resources are properly developed." (1) The following report of the Minister of Mines for Wild Horse Creek f o r 1879 shows l i t t l e promise of the boom that v/as to stimulate i n the 1890's. Number of claims worked 16 Number employed—whites 13 Chinese 32 Rate of Wages—whites $4.00 Chinese $3.50 Estimated y i e l d $20,650.00 Value per ounce $18.00 (2) This f i r s t rush to the Kootenay d i s t r i c t i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia, then, was decidedly the offspring of Amer-ican rushes i n C a l i f o r n i a , Montana, and Idaho. As i t was p r i n c i p a l l y American miners, some direct from C a l i f o r n i a , who participated i n the rush, as i t was from the American states that supplies were shipped into Wild Horse and surrounding creeks, and as i t v/as v i a the United States of America that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l news reached Kootenay, we may reasonably ask (1) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1879, P. 240. Report of October 20. 1879. (2) B. C. Sessional-Papers, 1879, P. 241. t o what e x t e n t , i f any, was Kootenay a B r i t i s h c o l o n y . The answer, I t h i n k , i s seen i n a study o f the admin-i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e i n the d i s t r i c t . F o r here i n Kootenay i n 1864, were s e v e r a l thousand m i n e r s " a l l c o l l e c t e d f r om the A m e r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s a t a time when Montana was g o i n g (1) t h r o u g h v i g i l a n t e t h r o e s . " F o r s e v e r a l months t h e r e v/as n o t a s i n g l e government o f f i c e r i n t h e d i s t r i c t and y e t v/hen haynes d i d a r r i v e w i t h the a u t h o r i t y o f a g o l d commissioner,' he found t h a t the m i n e r s had a l r e a d y i n a u g u r a t e d p l a n s f o r l o c a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d ' t h e - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e . On h i s r e -t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , B i r c h p a i d the f o l l o w i n g t r i b u t e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the m i n e r s : ( I e x p r e s s a d m i r a t i o n o f the work o f Haynes) " a r r i v i n g •as he d i d w i t h o n l y one c o n s t a b l e to a s s i s t him, among a body o f 1500 miners from th e a d j o i n i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , many of whom were known to be u t t e r l y r e g a r d l e s s o f law and o r d e r ; he f o u n d them banded t o g e t h e r making t h e i r own laws and meting out t h e i r ov/n i d e a s of j u s -t i c e ; each man, as many have owned t o me c a r r y i n g h i s l i f e i n h i s hands. I n f a c t , so i n s e c u r e had l i f e and p r o p e r t y become i n the eyes o f many of the m i n e r s t h a t Mr. Dore, one o f t h e o r i g i n i a l d i s c o v e r e r s of the c r e e k , and a few o t h e r s , had formed themselves i n t o a commit-t e e , and drawn up a code of lav/s w h i c h t h e y i n t e n d e d e n f o r c i n g on the community had n o t a government o f f i c e r a r r i v e d a t the moment, c o p i e s o f these laws were hand-ed to me by Mr. Doors,- and I e n c l o s e them as i n t e r e s t ^ -i n g documents. I would add t h a t the gentlemen f o r m i n g t h i s committee have c h e e r f u l l y , r e n d e r e d Mr. Haynes e v e r y a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r power f o r m a i n t a i n i n g l a w and o r d e r . " I a r r i v e d w i t h i n s i x weeks o f Mr. Haynes' r e s i -dence i n the D i s t r i c t , to f i n d the M i n i n g l a w s of the c o l o n y i n f u l l f o r c e , a l l customs d u t i e s p a i d , no p i s t o l s t o be seen, and e v e r y t h i n g as q u i e t and o r d e r l y (1) T r i m b l e , op. c i t . P. 58 as i t . c o u l d possibly be i n the most c i v i l i z e d d i s -t r i c t of the colony, much to the surprise and admir-ation of many who remember the early days of the neighboring state of C a l i f o r n i a . " (1) American Miners i n Kootenay submitted unhesitatingly to the authority of B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s and t h i s , I f e e l , i s a marked feature of their s o c i a l a t t i t u d e . With the border an open and convenient door for escape, there was apparently no attempt to introduce American i n s e c u r i t y into B r i t i s h Col-umbia. As f a r as I have been able to discover there v/as l i t t l e p i s t o l - p l a y at Wild Horse Creek. On August 30, 1864, haynes reported to the c o l o n i a l Secretary that there had been a brawl i n front of the Foutier Restaurant and that Thomas Walker and Robert Evans had been shot, Walker f a t a l l y . A t h i r d party to the trouble 7about whom suspicions had arisen^ immediately l e f t town and consequently^no decision v/as sub-mitted by the jury when i t met on September 7, 1864. This i s the only record, which I have been able to discover, of such an affray during 1864, the peak year of the rush. The orderliness of Kootenay l i f e affords a marked con-tras t to conditions immediately south of the Border. For instance, we may contrast two e l e c t i o n campaigns of 1866. In Kootenay, the population v/as being asked to give an opinion on important issues; namely, the questions of road t o l l s and of the union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia. Candidates were nominated, speeches were made and the newspaper report read that "the Kootenay e l e c t i o n s t i l l (1) Colonist, November 11, 1864. 37 probably go to R. J. Smith who believes i n Union and the ( 1 ) a b o l i t i o n of road t o l l s . " Here was a d i s t r i c t , apparently a l e r t to r e a l i z e the importance of e l e c t i n g an able represent-ative, acting i n a remarkably unemotional manner. In contrast, l e t us read one report of an election i n Idaho i n the same year: "The."harmonious Democracy" of Idaho, had a pretty general row i n their T e r r i t o r i a l Convention at Boise on the 18th--a sort of knockdown-drag-out arrangement. Thfe, row-'finally culminated i n a shooting spree, i n v/hich most of the coppery magnates took a l i v e l y i n -terest, Burraester and D. W. Douthett, took shares i n i t , and the l a t t e r , i n a p l y a f u l mode, f i r e d a revolver point blank at street, the editor of the WORLD, who was only saved from a t r i p to the next world, by the intervention of a pocket book i n his breast pocket. Street at the same time gave vent to his h i l a r i t y and good f e e l i n g by f i r i n g a shot at our-U. Wm., v/hich, however, overshot the mark and lodged i n the c e i l i n g . The row went on pleasantly and g a i l y for some time, but at l a s t accounts, a l l v/as quiet on the border. "Holdbrook was nominated a delegate to congress." (2) These reports indicate a s h i f t i n g i n mob action from hys t e r i a Southv.of the l i n e to contemplation north of the l i n e . Violence v/as replaced by measured action which became, not the repressed, but the normal behavior of men. After O'Reilly had o f f i c i a t e d as gold commissioner i n Kootenay for the season of 1 8 6 5 he was able to report as follows: " I t i s g r a t i f y i n g to be able to state that not an instance of serious crime occurred during the past season, and t h i s i s perhaps the more remarkable i f we take into consideration the class, of men usually attracted to new gold f i e l d s and the close proximity of the Southern Boundary, affording at a l l times great f a c i l i t i e s for escape from j u s t i c e . " (3) ( 1 ) Colonist, October, 1 8 6 6 . (2) Colonist, July 4, 1 8 6 6 quoting from "The Oregonian." ( 3 ) Trimble, op. c i t . , P. 58 37a To account f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t change in the attitude to law of miners who moved north of the international "bound-ary l i n e i n Kootenay, one must consider tthe t r a d i t i o n a l reputation of B r i t i s h colonies i n general and of B r i t i s h Col-umbia in p a r t i c u l a r . In Cariboo, the American influence v/as modified by an important B r i t i s h element i n the population and by contact of the miners with various B r i t i s h towns south of Williams Creek. Ho organized government was reported before the a r r i v a l of a gold commissioner. In Kootenay, on the other hand, the population was composed^ p r a c t i c a l l y l O O ^ o f American miners who had entered d i r e c t l y 1from United States mining camps. Yet, before a single B r i t i s h law o f f i c e r arrived on Wild Horse Creek, the c i t i z e n s arranged for t h e i r own l o c a l government and, af t e r the a r r i v a l of the gold commissioner, they w i l l i n g l y obeyed B r i t i s h laws. There are at least two causes for the orderliness of Kootenay society: f i r s t , the precedent of firm B r i t i s h ad-ministration in other mining d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, and secondly, the i s o l a t i o n of the Kootenay mines. While i t was d i r e c t l y from American t e r r i t o r i e s that the miners went to Wild Horse Creek, they had had contact with other American miners and merchants who had experienced B r i t i s h mining camp l i f e . Fraser River and Cariboo prospectors wintering i n tine south had reported the firmness and i m p a r t i a l i t y of B r i t i s h law. Prospectors i n Kootenay expected orderly behaviour i n B r i t i s h territoyy,and when they found themselves in an isolated d i s t r i c t where no provision had been made for the regulation of public 1 a f f a i r s , they arranged temporary measures by themselves* (1) Vide, P. 101. 38 Chief Justice Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie arrived, i n Kooten-ay i n 1865 to f i n d "an empty j a i l and a clear docket—not a single case, either c i v i l or criminal, awaiting adjudic-ation. Three rascals had been under arrest f o r passing "spelter" f o r gold dust; but they got t i r e d of waiting, and l e f t one fi n e Sunday morning f o r Uncle Sam's dominions, having f i r s t taken the precaution to turn the key upon the keeper, who was washing himself i n one of the c e l l s , while they had unrest r i c t e d use of the outer room. One of them, a notorious scamp, has, we believe, since been hanged by the Vigilance Committee of the neighboring T e r r i t -ory." (1) Orderly conditions continued throughout the rush years. 'The l a s t report at' which we s h a l l look i s that of J . Boles Gaggin, Kootenay government agent, to the c o l o n i a l Secretary on September 13, 1866. He says that "with the exception of one case of shooting v/ith intent, which was not successful, I have much pleasure i n reporting the d i s t r i c t i s orderly and peacable." Although escape from Wild Horse was less d i f f i c u l t than o was escape from Williams Creek, the reaction to .British jus-t i c e i n the two towns was p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , submission to e x i s t i n g law v/as the marked feature of their s o c i e t i e s . The early rush to Kootenay was even more sho r t - l i v e d than that to Cariboo. Both advances of society were based upon the production of a s i n g l e mineral, gold, by i d e n t i c a l meth-ods, panning. Neither i n mining methods nor i n economic dev-elopment v/as the approach s c i e n t i f i c , cariboo from 1862 to 1865 and Kootenay from 1864 to 1866 v/ere lands of carefree (1) Colonist, November 20, 1865. a d v e n t u r e r s l o o k i n g f o r easy g o l d and f a b u l o u s w e a l t h , s m a l l companies were formed but the amount o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d was s m a l l . E x p e r t s u r v e y o r s d i d not make the l o c a t i o n s . No o u t s i d e c a p i t a l .was u s e d to develop those l o c a t i o n s t h a t were shown t o be l u c k y s t r i k e s . E v e r y man i n the mines i n - v e s t e d b o t h p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and the two  were r a r e l y s e p a r a t e d . A study o f the l a t e r r u s h o f the 1890's t o Kootenay w i l l p r e s e n t a marked c o n t r a s t . 40 CHAPTER I I I LATER KOOTENAY MINING ADVANCE When we come to s t u d y the second m i n i n g advance i n t o the Kootenay d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h C olumbia, we f i n d a s o c i e t y con-s t r u c t e d under t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o t h e s o c i e t y of e i t h e r Kootenay i n 1864-1866 or c a r i b o o i n 1862-1865. We f i n d n o t a c a r e l e s s , h a p h a z a r d development of r e c e n t l y p r o s p -e c t e d m i n i n g c l a i m s f o l l o w i n g the d i c t a t i o n s of Dady Luck, but a s c i e n t i f i c development of w e l l - s u r v e y e d m i n i n g p r o p e r -t i e s ; n o t a group o f s o r e - f o o t e d and needy i n d i v i d u a l adven-t u r e r s , but an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f wage-earning l a b o u r e r s and absent c a p i t a l i s t s ; n o t an u n i n f o r m e d t h r o n g i n d i f f e r e n t t o w o r l d a f f a i r s because o f i s o l a t i o n , but an eager community wnich f o l l o w e d A m e r i c a n , Canadian, B r i t i s h and f o r e i g n p o l i -t i c s c l o s e l y . I n the 1890's i n Kootenay we see the b e g i n -n i n g of permanent s e t t l e m e n t based on s e v e r a l p r i m a r y i n -d u s t r i e s r a t h e r t h a n a h a s t y boom s o c i e t y s u s t a i n e d by g o l d ifsver.. The 1880's had found Kootenay r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t . The Kootenay v o t e r s l i s t o f 1880 i n c l u d e d o n l y 34 names, t h a t of 1882, 30, and of 1886,36. By 1889 t h e r e were 206 i n West and 374 i n E a s t Kootenay, end by 1894 t h e r e were 445 i n the (1) N o r t h and 862 i n the s o u t h R i d i n g o f Kootenay. Communication w i t h the d i s t r i c t was s t i l l by s o u t h e r n A m e r i c a n t r a i l s i n (1) B. C. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1890, P. 724, P. 600: 1894 P. 1560, P. 1568 41 the e i g h t i e s f o r the newdney t r a i l " b u i l t i n 1865 was i n a s t a t e o f d i s r e p a i r and c t i u l d n o t he used. P l a c e r g o l d was s t i l l what a l l men sought and the r i c h g o l d , s i l v e r and l e a d v e i n s o f Kootenay were l e f t u ntouched. I n 1882 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f E a s t Kootenay had f a l l e n t o e l e v e n w h i t e miners and a number of Chinese. I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e r e were n e v e r more than 200 Chinese i n the d i s t r i c t at one t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g Kootenay r e p o r t of t h e M i n i s t e r o f Mines f o r 1883 i n d i c a t e s how d e s e r t e d the mines were i n t h a t y e a r . W i l d Horse Creek, t h e scene o f the e a r l i e r r u s h , had p r a c t i c a l l y been t u r n e d over to the C h i n e s e . No. o f Cos. Average No. of Men Em-W i l d Horse Creek 20 7 70 ^ l l ^ p d ' Weaver Creek 1 1 Palmer* s Bar 1 2 B u l l R i v e r - 5 3 Cannon Creek - 9 Spel l m u c h e e n R i v e r 3 5 I l l e - c i l l e - w a i t R. 1 4 Kootenay Lake 19 40 White Chinese I n 1882 the B l u e B e l l s i l v e r l e a d mine on Toad M o u n t a i n above Kootenay Lake, which was known as e a r l y as 1825, v/as r e - d i s c o v e r e d by R. E. S p r o u l e ' s p a r t y and, but f o r a s e r i e s o f a c c i d e n t s , would have then developed i n t o one o f the r i c h -e s t mines on t h e c o n t i n e n t . I t was not u n t i l a f t e r 1886, however, t h a t the Kootenay mines were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e v e l -oped. I n t h a t y e a r , the H a l l B r o t h e r s l o c a t e d the c l a i m t h a t l a t e r became |he famous s i l v e r K i n g Mine. I t was not d e v e l o p e d u n t i l 1887, but as soon as news of the d i s c o v e r y (1) B. C. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1888, P. 261. reached the American states, prospectors and mining ex-perts tramped i n to Kootenay Lake by the dozens. The S i l v e r King d i s t r i c t was immediately recognized as a good camp. Air. Sproat, a Kootenay gold commissioner, quotes i n his report fo r 1887, part of a l e t t e r w r i t t e n from c o l v i l l e , Washington, i n 1887: "Montana and the country south, as well as our own (Washington), are a l l excitement now over these mines (Hall S i l v e r King Mines), and there i s no doubt that as early as they can get there i n the spring (1888) there w i l l be 1,000 or 1,500 men i n that camp. The only drawback now i s an outlet. "The easy way to go to this camp now i s by North-ern P a c i f i c Railway (Kootenay Station), 40 miles land t r a v e l to Bonner's Ferry, from which excellent water navigation, down Kootenay River and through ±sig Koot-enay Lake to the western outlet, s i x or seven miles from the mines." (1) Soon a small town, named i n turn Stanley, Salisbury, and f i n a l l y Nelson, came into existence. The large-scale development of Nelson marks the opening of a period of un-expected a c t i v i t y for inland B r i t i s h Columbia. The T r a i l and Rossland d i s t r i c t , Slocan, Camp McKinney, Boundary Creek and East Kootenay d i s t r i c t s were developed almost simultaneously. Kootenay had f i n a l l y replaced Cariboo as the lode-star of B r i t i s h Columbia. Kootenay developed so rapidly a f t e r discovery of i t s r i c h quartz veins that B r i t i s h Columbians did not r e a l i z e the significance of their mineral wealth. Instead of. immediately staking t h e i r own r i c h f i e l d s , even though they would have (1) Sessional Papers B. C , 1888, P. 261. had t o t r a v e l t h r o u g h American t e r r i t o r y t o get them, B r i t i s h and Canadian i n v e s t o r s and p r o s p e c t o r s w a i t e d f o r Americans to t alee t h e r i s k s and rewards o f t h e f i r s t development. The n o r t h - w e s t e r n A m erican s t a t e s were p r o d u c i n g r e l a t -i v e l y l i t t l e i n the 1890's and the C a r i b o o q u a r t z e x c i t e m e n t (1) o f 1877, was f o r g o t t e n . Moreover, t h e r e was no r a i l w a y i n t o C a r i b o o and d i f f i c u l t communication p r e v e n t e d men from ven-t u r i n g i n t o the unknown r i c h n e s s of the h i l l s beyond b a r k e r -(2) v i l l e . .As f o r o t h e r m i n i n g c e n t r e s o f the w o r l d , b o t h . Western A u s t r a l i a and Sou t h A f r i c a produced g o l d o n l y . They were, t o o , f u r t h e r from the European c e n t r e t h a n were A m e r i c a n mines. C o n s e q u e n t l y , when g o l d , s i l v e r and l e a d were found a t n o t one, but a t many c e n t r e s ^ i n the Kootenay h i l l s i n the 1890's, miners poured i n t o the c o u n t r y from n e i g h b o r i n g Amer-i c a n d i s t r i c t s . I n t h r e e y e a r s Kootenay d e v e l o p e d as much a s , o r more than t h e Rand i n Sou t h A f r i c a had d e v e l o p e d i n ' (3) t e n y e a r s . Montana, Idaho, Colorado and Washington were em-p t i e d of p o p u l a t i o n . F i r s t , a d v e n t u r e r s and l a t t e r .mining e x p e r t s came to T r a i l Creek, S l o c a n , K a s l o and N e l s o n from a l l over the w o r l d . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f them had had some p r e v i o u s m i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and as l a t e i as 1895 the r e p o r t was " t h a t f u l l y 95fi o f the c a p i t a l and I (4) / p o p u l a t i o n o f the new camp has come from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . " I The Kootenay d i s t r i c t was not i s o l a t e d i n 1895 as i t had been i n 1865. I n N e l s o n and i n R o s s l a n d men of b u s i n e s s (1) S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s 1877, P. 397; 1888, P. 292; 1889, p. 274. ( 2 ) N e l s o n M i n e r , J u l y 18, 1896. (3) N e l s o n M i n e r , August 1, 1896. (4) R o s s l a n d M i n e r , September 21, 1895. 44 knew the da i l y quotations of s i l v e r and the doings of Wall (1) Street and Capel Court. P r a c t i c a l l y every camp i n Kootenay was e a s i l y reached by means of three transcontinental r a i l -ways: The Canadian P a c i f i c , Northern P a c i f i c , and ureat Northern Railways. Large vessels navigated the Columbia River southward from Revelstoke (on the C.P.R.) and the Koot-enay River northward from Bonner's Ferry (G.N.R.). The Spokane and Northern Railway ran northward from Spokane to the junction of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers at Robson, B. C. Of the three l i n e s , the l e a s t used was the C.P.R. There was no market at the time for the ores i n Canada'and a l l the output found i t s way to the United States to the (2) smelters at Taeoma, Great F a l l s , Helena, Denver, or Omaha. The C.P.R. was d i l a t o r y or over-cautious i n not reaching out to meet the T r a i l Creek ores from the War Eagle, Le Roi and josi e claims. At Nelson the Canadian railway company did not carry out i t s ob l i g a t i o n to make improvements i n the town equal to the amount expended by the government ($2,100.60 up (3) to August 19, 1895.) Most of the trade was south to Spokane and Spokane supplied a large percentage of the population of both Nelson and Rossland. As a writer said i n 1895: " I t i s one of Kootenay's advantages that she has a nation of born prospectors close handy just across the border, but at the same time i t i s g a l l i n g to a B r i t i s h e r to see a l l the prizes of (1) Nelson Miner, January 19, 1895. (2) Rossland Miner, September 21, 1895. (3) Nelson Miner, August 19, 1895. his country f a l l i n g one by one into a l i e n pockets, which i s (1) happening every day." Before investigating conditions of the s o c i a l devel-opment of Kootenay i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to review the two features which were l a r g e l y responsible for the p a r t i c u l a r form i n which society did shape i t s e l f : namely, communic-ation and c a p i t a l . Both railway f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l investments came l a r g e l y from America, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the early years of the rush, and to thi s factor can be traced the o r i g i n of p r a c t i c a l l y every s o c i a l custom and t r a d i t i o n of the Kootenay towns. The Kootenay d i s t r i c t was singularly fortunate i n having, p r a c t i c a l l y from i t s discovery, good communication f a c i l i t i e s with the American states. Had Kootenay depended upon a B r i t i s h wagon road, as did cariboo, or even upon an extension of the Canadian transcontinental railway, for regular means of transporting both inhabitants and mineral products, without doubt her development would have been both slow and temporary. As i t was, Kootenay's progress was re-tarded to some extent by the slowness of the C.P.R. to open adequate railway f a c i l i t i e s with the Kootenay mines. More-over, a potential market for Canadian goods was l o s t f o r many years. As the Minister of Mines stated i n his report of 1888, "without a railway from Kootenay Lake to Kootenay mouth or from Kootenay Lake to the C.P.R., the whole of t h i s vast and minerally r i c h subdivision of the d i s t r i c t i s , and (1) St. Barbe, Charles (ed.), The Kootenay Mines. The Miner P r i n t i n g and Publishing Co., Ltd., Nelson, 1895. P. 3 46 (1) w i l l remain, useless to the Province." While the trade of Kootenay was l o s t to Canada as long as American t a r i f f s were (2) not ie-8» prohibitory, Nelson, T r a i l and slocan miners were fortunate that supplies were obtainable and ores exportable with ease by American r a i l r o a d s . There were many applications i n America and i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the incorporation of railway companies to oper-ate i n Kootenay. Before the end of the nineteenth century some 73 railway companies had been incorporated i n B r i t i s h Columbia (most of v/hich were to run through the southern (3) mining d i s t r i c t ) but, of these, only eleven constructed l i n e s . In the early days of the rush, most of the supplies for the Kootenay d i s t r i c t were brought i n by pack t r a i n to Joseph's P r a i r i e from Bonner's Ferry. During the summers of 1883 and 1884 an extra t r a i n v/as used by the manager, u-albraith, (4) to bring i n supplies for the C.P.R. survey parties. This pack route started at Walla "Walla and v/ent v i a .Lake Pend d'Oreille i n Idaho, a distance of 165 miles, to Wild Horse Creek or Joseph's P r a i r i e . By 1884 the Northern P a c i f i c Railway had reached sand Point on hake Pend d ' O r e i l l e . Another popular pack route v/as from Missoula, Montana, through Tobacco Plains on the north-east along the Kootenay River ( 5 ) to Wild Horse Creek. (1) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1889, P. 301-302 (2) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1888, P. 363. (3)B. C. Sessional Papers, 1889, P. 905-908-(4) Sohnston, u-. Hope, nearly Days i n East Kootenay, cl i p p i n g , B. C.sessional Papers, 1884, P. 310. (5) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1884, P. 322. The extension of the Northern P a c i f i c Railway to Sand Point tended to lower transportations costs, but business men and o f f i c i a l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, at lea s t , waited f o r the a r r i v a l of the C.P.R. i n the d i s t r i c t to increase eastern Canadian trade and strengthen the growing coast commercial c i t i e s . Years l a t e r , i n 1898, when several good American l i n e s had been extended into Kootenay, a l o c a l paper printed the following comment: "The curious th i n g . . . i s , why the Times(Victoria) i s so deadly opposed to free mining while so enthusiastic f o r free r a i l r o a d i n g . Wherein l i e s the difference? I f i t i s bad to l e t i n Americans to develop our latent mineral wealth, why should i t not be bad to l e t i n Americans to build railways i n competition with our own? I f i t be said that the wealth taken from our mines i s carried o f f to build up American c i t i e s , i t can also be said that the wealth derived from railway earnings would be s i m i l a r l y employed. But much worse than t h i s ; the t r a f f i c out of which t h i s wealth would be r e a l i z e d would be diverted from Canadian channels into American, and the country contributing i t would v i r t u a l l y be foreign t e r r i t o r y . There are at lea s t two excellent reasons f o r excluding the railways f o r every one i n favor of excluding miners. The miners only take their gains; the railways would not only take th e i r gains, but i n addition the employment which should r i g h t f u l l y belong to Canadians... "QL) I t was not u n t i l 189E that a railway f i r s t gave d i r e c t access to the Kootenay mines. The Columbia and Kootenay was completed i n that year from Nelson to Robson on the Columbia River. The Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway from Nelson to Northport (on President Corbin's Spokane F a l l s and Northern Railway) was completed three years l a t e r and thus the smelters of Montana and Idaho became accessible f o r Nelson ores. (1) Nelson Miner, December 31, 1898 The Slocan region was reached by the Nakuspand Slocan l i n e of the C.T3.R. and by the Kaslo and Slocan l i n e of the Great Northern Railway, both opened i n 1894. The d i s t r i c t was also served by a branch of the Columbia and Kootenay Railway. Rossland was served by the Great Northern Railway system through a branch of the Spokane F a l l s and Northern Railway b u i l t i n 1897 from Northport and also by the C.B.R» system through a narrow guage of the Columbia and Western Railway from Robson* From t h i s skeleton description of railway f a c i l i t i e s into Kootenay, we see that f o r every Canadian l i n e into the mines there were two from America. Moreover, we hear that f o r many years (and to some extent,even to-day) i t was the American and not the Canadian l i n e s that received most of the business of the Kootenay miners and merchants. Supplies from nearby States were fresher and cheaper than were distant Canadian products (and eastern Canadian products were preferred to Vancouver and CD V i c t o r i a goods because of their p r i c e s ) . Also, ores were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y smelted i n American plants and s o c i a l i n t e r -course was most pleasant with American mining men who faced with experience, problems s i m i l a r to those encountered by new Canadian miners. Therefore, u n t i l the end of the century at least, not le s s than 85$ of the Kootenay trade went south of the American boundary l i n e instead of west or east to Canadian (1) Nelson Miner, November 10, 1894. 49 c i t i e s and t h i s circumstance we s h a l l consider l a t e r when we describe the s o c i a l outlook of Kootenay residents. Besides southern communication, the other important c i r -cumstance which shaped Kootenay's development and which we s h a l l now investigate, was the early investment of American and slow investment of B r i t i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l . We s h a l l note the rapid replacement of fortune-seeking men of brawn and l i t t l e personal wealth by companies of foreign c a p i t a l i s t s working through s c i e n t i f i c a l l y trained mining men. Lonely pick and shovel prospectors working i n d i v i d u a l claims for many hours d a i l y on back h i l l s became fewer. Their places were taken by wage-collecting, clock-punching operators of machines. Out of an is o l a t e d , dreamland existence, Kootenay made her debut i n the stock markets of the world. Sometimes, si n c e r e l y "rough but honest miners" found among themselves shady promo-ters of highly c a p i t a l i z e d and watered unknown properties. As well as the increased c a p i t a l i z a t i o n and business organization of the Kootenay mines, we s h a l l note a s h i f t i n g i n t e r e s t i n them by Amerioan and B r i t i s h investors. The e a r l i e s t merchants and prospectors i n Kootenay complained, as did s i m i l a r classes elsewhere, that outside c a p i t a l was slow to come to Kootenay. For a most conservative expression of t h i s sentiment l e t me quote from the Report of the West Koote-nay D i s t r i c t by the Minister of Mines i n 1888. He says: "Nothing s t r i k e s me more i n the history of mining camps than the need of 'keeping things going' when onee a s t a r t has been made. Hundreds of mining f i e l d s and 'camps' across the southern boundary advertise their 50 att r a c t i o n s p e r s i s t e n t l y , and with these a promising part of t h i s d i s t r i c t has to compete, both f o r men and c a p i t a l . There i s unquestionably, f o r whatever reason, a prejudice against mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia on the part of American and other foreign c a p i t a l i s t s . The most trustworthy descriptions of 'prospects' - and the highest assays are regarded i n many quarters, i f not without doubt, at least with indifference."(1) In the nineties^during the p r i n c i p a l development of the Koote-nay claims, i t was upon American f i n a n c i a l support that Kootenayites r e l i e d and i n which they were not disappointed. Later, as h o s t i l e American t a r i f f s , a s i l v e r slump and general depression h i t northwestern American, B r i t i s h and Canadian investors were sought. But they approached Kootenay mines cautiously and the mines had almost passed t h e i r peak before B r i t i s h replaced American c a p i t a l to any appreciable extent. I s h a l l f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e t h i s movement of c a p i t a l by sketching, the h i s t o r y of one of the largest and best known mines i n the whole of B r i t i s h Columbia, the War Eagle Mine at Rossland. This and the even more famous Le Roi Mine were d i s -covered i n July, 1890 by Joe Moris, Joe Bourgeois, and two French Canadian prospectors. The Centre Star Mine at Rossland was the f i r s t located by these fortunate prospectors and short-l y l a t e r the l a r Eagle and Le Roi were found. Soon a f t e r discovery of the claim, Moris sunk a shaft on the War Eagle property but as the ore ras too low i n grade to be worth transporting to one of the American smelters, he bonded the claim i n the f a l l of 1894 to Patsy Clark f o r #17,000. Clark went to Butte with shares of stock i n the new company but no ©ne would touch i t . So he returned to Spokane and sold (1) B.C.Sessional Papers, 1889, P, 303 51 his shares at s i x and a half cents. Among others, he took i n John A. Finch, Austin Corbin II, E. J. Roberts, and W. J. C. Ifekefieia. The claim looked poor but a change of ten feet i n the p o s i t i o n of the tunnel disclosed the famous War Eagle ore chute. Within a few months a dividend of $27,000 was declared. From 1895 on, many American would-be .purchasers came to exa-mine the mine. For instance, a San Francisco syndicate sent Covington Jackson and Henry Jackson to make reports of the claim as mining experts. In 1896, B r i t i s h c a p i t a l i s t s began to take^an inte r e s t i n the War Eagle and i n that year D. C. Corbin, president of the Spokane F a l l s and Northern Railroad, secured an option on the War Eagle on behalf of c e r t a i n London buyers, and a Mr. Kendall and Mr. Fowler came to survey the property on behalf of these E n g l i s h buyers. Two London f i n a n c i e r s , Frederick W. North and Ernest W. Grant-Govan, came to B r i t i s h Columbia as representa-ti v e s of the B r i t i s h Rossland-War Eagle Gold Mining Company, newly formed with a c a p i t a l of $2,000,000. The property did not formally change hands. About t h i s time., eastern Canadian money began to flow westward and a favourable report of the War Eagle reached Gooderham and Blackstoek i n Toronto from J. B. Hastings, t h e i r mining property expert. An "authentic" report reached Rossland that the War Eagle had been sold to the Canadian company for $850,000. I s h a l l complete the story of the War Eagle up to (1) Rosslander, January 19, 1897 the slimmer of 1897 by quoting from a contemporary issue of "The Rossland Miner*. "Matters d r i f t e d along u n t i l January 20, when a s p e c i a l meeting of shareholders of the company was c a l l e d i n Spokane to consider pending offers f o r the property. These were ascfollows: the Gooderham-Blackstock syndi-cate offered #700,000 cash f o r the mine as i t then stood, without assets or cr e d i t s of any kind. F. E. Henage, for an English syndicate, #900,000, to include a l l credits and cash, #200,000, cash balance i n f o r t y days. F.E. Burbridge #900,000, to include a l l c r e d i t s and cash, #25,000 cash payment, half i n s i x t y days and the balance i n ninety days, together with ten per cent, of the stock i n the new company. "On a vote taken the Gooderham-Blackstock o f f e r was accepted...The new company took formal possession of the mine on January 22. John B. Hastings, then consulting engineer f o r the property owned by the purchasers, was appointed manager and has held that p o s i t i o n up to date. The War Eagle Consolidated company, owning the War Eagle and Crown Point group i n the T r a i l Creek d i s t r i c t , and the Richmond group i n the Slocan, was then floated, with a c a p i t a l of #2,000,000, George Gooderham being the f i r s t president and T. G. (Blackstock) vice-president. "...the purchasers being well-known Canadians and keen buyers, a d d i t i o n a l in t e r e s t i n Rossland was created i n Toronto and the east generally." (1) Kootenay miners were already f a m i l i a r with Blackstock's name on bottle l a b e l s . The Le Roi Mine l i v e d a s i m i l a r history between 1890 and 1897. The o r i g i n a l discoverers gave their option to E. S. Topping who took into a company with him Col. Ridpath and George Foster, Judge ( l a t e r Senator) George Turner, Col.Turner, B i l l y Harris, Oliver Durant, Col. I.W. Peyton, John A.Henley, Major Armstrong, L. F. Williams and Harry E. Stimmel of the Northern P a c i f i c Railway, These men were a l l from Spokane, A (1) Rossland Miner, August 29, 1897 53 company was shortly incorporated at $500,000 with shares at a par value of $5.00 each. The mine supplied ore to American smelters s t e a d i l y from the beginning and i t s stockholders became r i c h men. By August 1897 stock sold at $8.00 per share and very l i t t l e was f o r sale. By that date^ a few Canadian investors had bought out some of the o r i g i n a l American share-(1) holders but there was s t i l l l i t t l e B r i t i s h c a p i t a l i n the mine. Col. Peyton of London did buy a large.block of Le Roi gold (2) stock i n February, 1897. It was not, however, u n t i l the end of 1898 that the Le Roi mine ms brought p u b l i c l y before Lon-don investors. On December 6 of that year^ the London Globe and Corporation and the B r i t i s h America Corporation in v i t e d subscription f o r 200,000 shares of f i v e pounds each i n the Le Roi Co and B r i t i s h AmericasCorporation. The purchase price was £950,000 payable i n cash, f u l l y paid shares, leaving £50,000 f o r working c a p i t a l . The d i r e c t o r s of the undertaking were the Marquis of Dufferin, Lord Loch, Whittaker Wright, welt-known mining promoter i n Western A u s t r a l i a and South A f r i c a , Hon. C. H. Mackintosh, H. Andrews of S h e f f i e l d and Edward W. (3) Hoare, direc t o r of the Bank of B r i t i s h North America. The one successful mine i n Kootenay which was not e n t i r e l y American for the f i r s t few years of i t s existence at least, was the S i l v e r King of H a l l Mines Company at Nelson. The story of i t s discovery and early development has already been referred (1) Rossland Miner, May 18, 1895; August 22, 1897 (2) Rosslander, February 2, 1897 (3) Rosslander, December 14, 1897 (prospectus); Nelson Miner, December 8, 1898. 54 to. From the e a r l i e s t days of Nelson, the H a l l Mines Company was considered the one investment which was l i k e l y to yield s a t i s f a c t o r y returns and which was composed c h i e f l y of B r i t i s h (1) (2) c a p i t a l . There were other B r i t i s h Companies i n Kootenay but the best reports indicate that there were but three that (3) survived. It was fortunate, when we consider B r i t i s h Columbia as a province within a B r i t i s h dominion, that the H a l l Company did not disappoint i t s old country shareholders and that i n 1897, almost four years a f t e r the f i r s t o f f i c i a l reports of success had been sent to England, the following notice could be published i n a Kootenay mining journal: "The H a l l mines has g r a t i f i e d the B r i t i s h shareholders by paying the f i r s t dividend of 10 per cent on the ordinary shares and 7 per cent on the preference, making a t o t a l of $133,,750; besides writing o f f about $30,00Q for depre-c i a t i o n of plant and carrying forward about £250. The H a l l mines i s the f i r s t E n g l i s h company to pay dividend through working a B r i t i s h Columbia mine. She dividend coming a t t h i s time w i l l help the stock market i n London for B r i t i s h Columbia stocks and w i l l turn the attention of investors this way," (4) By 1898, however, the boom f o r both Nelson and Rossland mines was over and the B r i t i s h did not reap the huge p r o f i t s that Amerioan investors had gathered e a r l i e r . Now that we have pointed out a few pertinent f a c t s i n regard to investment i n the three largest Nelson and Rossland properties, we are i n a p o s i t i o n to make a few general observa-tions i n respect to the movement of American, Canadian and-(1) Nelson Miner, February 17, 1894. (2) . B. C. Sessional Papers, 1890, P. 280. (3) Rosslander, December 21, 1897. (4) Rosslander, December 21, 1897. v 55 B r i t i s h c a p i t a l to Kootenay, Considering the short period of time i n which Kootenay developed from an unknown forest into a centre of i n t e r e s t for the whole world boasting several incorporated c i t i e s , i t ap-pears that Kootenay was r e l a t i v e l y fortunate i n r e c e i v i n g adequate f o r i g n f i n a n c i a l support. This, however, was not the f e e l i n g of Kootenay enthusiasts i n the n i n e t i e s . They i \ f e l t that both B r i t i s h and American c a p i t a l i s t s were extraor-d i n a r i l y conservative i n t h e i r B r i t i s h Columbia investments, considering the huge sums they had invested elsewhere i n l e s s (1) promising enterprises. No doubt, as we s h a l l point out l a t e r , c a p i t a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y from Great B r i t a i n , did flow slowly into Kootenay but we must remember the factors which made men hesi-tate to finance B r i t i s h Columbian schemes. F i r s t , we r e c a l l that i n the nineties men would not r e l y merely on reports of lucky prospectors f o r investment advice. The s i x t i e s with t h e i r bold speculation had gone and s c i a i t i f i c surveys before development were now demanded. U n t i l Kootenay was well surveyed and u n t i l authentic maps of the d i s t r i c t wae published i n 1894, distant c a p i t a l hesitated to take reports (2) of s t r i k e s seriously. Even a f t e r v e r i f i e d reports were issued by engineers, many B r i t i s h companies waited u n t i l mines began to a c t u a l l y ship before making bids f o r stock. A Nelson editor exclaimed i n 1895: "Though we piped to the world, the world would not dance to our music. They asked,'If Kootenay i s so (1) Nelson Miner, September 2, 1893. (2) Nelson Miner, September 89, 1894, 56 r i c h , why does i t send nothing out?' They said,'When you be-l l) gin to ship we w i l l begin to buy.'" Another source of discon-tent f o r Kootenay miners was what they considered i n s u f f i c i e n t advertising f o r their development. Quoting again from "The Nelson Miner" we read: "The merchants of the c a p i t a l (Victoria) and of Vancouver do not advertise, i . e . do not seek business i n our mining camps, preferring to l e t i t go to Winnipeg or to the States. The mining brokers of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a s i t on t h e i r haunches and bewail the bad times, instead of t r y i n g to get a share of mine brokering which i s now done i n Spokane." (2) L a s t l y , private c a p i t a l may have been kept away from B r i t i s h Columbia because smaller claims were not amalgamated and incorporated soon enough. Single placer claims ceuld be developed i n the s i x t i e s by private c a p i t a l of miiners them-selves but the heavier lode mining of the nineties demanded large scale development. A writer of 1894 writes an a r t i c l e jxr the usual Kootenay s t y l e : "We congratulate the Kootenay Hydraulic Mining Co. on the success of i t s manager's e f f o r t s to secure the further c a p i t a l necessary for the continuance of i t s operations... It i s not always easy to persuade c a p i t a l i s t s at a d i s -tance of the latent wealth of a c l a i m . . . i t would appear to be easier to get money invested i n a wild eat than i n a r e a l l y good thing...here may be too l i t t l e c a p i t a l more ways than once. Only a small sum of money perhaps i s raised at f i r s t , s u f f i c i e n t to show that the claim i s r i c h enough to j u s t i f y i t s proprietors i n demanding a further sum...there i s no doubt that the bigger a thing i s the better i t takes. Pew mining claims i n t h i s country are r i c h enough to run Into large f i g u r e s . The way out of the d i f f i c u l t y i s to amalgamate, unite, so that per-haps a mile or two of ground i s included. Throw i n con-centrators, smelting works, tramways, etc. and an a r t i c l e (1) Nelson Miner, February 16, 1895 (2) Nelson Miner, February 16, 1895 67 i s b u i l t up f i t to be shown i n a shop window on the London or Hew York market. While a man might peddle round one claim for say a quarter of a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , large amalgamated concerns w i l l s e l l l i k e hot cakes."(I) When the shares of the Kootenay stock companies were f i r s t l i s t e d on the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver Stock Exchanges i n 1896, mining development i n B r i t i s h Columbia had reached a new stage i n which men recognized the f a c t that apart from foreign c a p i t a l , expansion of the mines was impossible. It i s interest4.ii ing to note that at t h i s date, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the Kootenay companies consisted of treasurystock issued under the laws of one of the American states and registered as Foreign Companies (2) i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Although the Minister of Mines i n his o f f i c i a l reports (3) remembered to speak of Kootenay as a B r i t i s h Colony, i t was true that B r i t i s h c a p i t a l i s t s did not take advantage of th e i r opportunity to make Kootenay claims. G-. M. Dawson, the well-known geologist reported i n 1893 that "so f a r as England i s concerned the actual investment of c a p i t a l i n this d i s t r i c t (Kootenay) has been small. The English investor would rather pay half a m i l l i o n f o r some property which, as demonstrated i n the prospectus, w i l l produce a good annual rate of interest, (4) than embark a comparatively small sum i n a promising venture." B r i t i s h e r s waited to allow Americans to test the country's un-derground wealth, to suffe r the losses of speculation and to • (5) take i n i t i a l large p r o f i t s . It was true, too, that B r i t i s h e r s (1) Nelson Miner, August 11, 1894. (2) Nelson Miner, A p r i l 18, 1896. (3) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1890, P. 286 (4) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1894, P. 1090. (5) Nelson Miner, March 17, 1894 quoting London Mining Journal. 58 preferred, to invest i n hydraulic f a t h e r than i n quartz work^ because of th e i r previous experience with hydraulic mines i n other colonies. Hydraulic mines were being operated i n 1895 i n Cariboo (after the quartz excitement a few years e a r l i e r ) (1) but Kootenay claims were mostly quartz. For t h i s , among other reasons, B r i t i s h c a p i t a l remained i n Western A u s t r a l i a , South A f r i c a and to a small extent i n Cariboo, u n t i l the l a t e nine-t i e s . Even Canadians were generally uninterested i n Kootenay 1s progress. In spite of favourable reports on mining oppor-t u n i t i e s i n Winnipeg and Toronto by t h e i r own engineers, the Kootenay d i s t r i c t was l e f t to the Americans as both a mining and trading centre. Trade remained American longer than c a p i t a l and i n 1896 when a distinguishable amount of B r i t i s h and Canadian money had f i l t e r e d into Kootenay, trade was s t i l l (2) 90$ American. In B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n Nova Scotia and else-where, Canadian c a p i t a l was invested i n safe s e c u r i t i e s y i e l d -ing a moderate income rather than i n uncertain ventures which (3) might produce fabulous wealth or nothing at a l l . Ho comment upon t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s necessary at th i s point, beyond drawing attention to the contemporary picture of conditions. "The absolute indifference of Canadians generally and eastern Canadians i n p a r t i c u l a r to the mining develop-ments of t h e i r own great country i s enough to make a c i t i z e n of West Kootenay weary and t i r e d . I f the c a p i t a l i n Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa and other eastern c i t i e s that i s used annually for gambling on Wall Street, Hew York, or on the wheat exchange, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , or on (1) Nelson Miner,, July 6, 1895 (2) Nelson Miner, November 14, 1896. (3) Nelson Miner, December 29, 1894; August 1, 1896. 59 the mining exchange, Denver, Colorado, were put into development work throughout the great mineral zone i n B r i t i s h Columbia, which i s as great or greater than any mineral bearing area i n the United States, not only would we see more rapid development of the country, but we would see immense fortunes made by our own countrymen. We would also see some point i n the east become one of the world's great trading centers f o r the r e f i n e d pro-duct of Canadian mines. Canada would become a great ex-porter of the precious metals and Canadian commerce i n every branch would f e e l the stimulus. But no, our pre-cious metals now being mined i n biilk must f i l t e r through the markets of the United States into the commerce of the world, bringing prosperity i t i s true to the l o y a l Canadians of West Kootenay, but i n t h e i r ultimate and most far-reaching effects doing no more f o r Canada than i f the 49th p a r a l l e l ran north instead of south of West Kootenay, T r a i l Creek i s now producing |>4000 a day i n s o l i d gold. During 1895 i t w i l l export $2,000,000 worth of the precious metal or 5 per cent of the whole output of the United S t a t e s . . . . . T r a i l Creek i s now greater than Cariboo i n i t s palmiest days and more permanent, but B r i t i s h Columbian ears are so stuffed with the t r a d i t i o n s of Cariboo that the noise of a present day movement d i s -turbs them no more than i t would the lotus eaters of A l f r e d Tennyson." (1) Meanwhile, Americans were not slow to see t h e i r oppor-tunity to invest i n , develop, and secure the trade of Canada's newest mining area. Their men populated the d i s t r i c t and their c a p i t a l developed i t economically. What was said of the r a i l -way s i t u a t i o n was true also of the mines: "While Canada d i l l y -d a l l i e s about providing a main lire of the Canadian P a c i f i c through the Crow's Nest Pass into the Kootenay, Americans own (2) and operate at great p r o f i t , three railways." The development of Kootenay i n the nineties as i n the s i x t i e s was due e n t i r e l y to "American energy, American enterprise, American cash and American men." Canadian, as well as American miners of the (1) Rossland Miner, May 4, 1895 (2) Kelson Miner, November 7, 1896. o day, r e a l i z e d that Kootenay was r e a l l y a colony of Uncle Sam as f a r as population and c a p i t a l eould be considered. They said to themselves: "Our debt to (Americans) i s very great, and should i n t e r n a t i o n a l troubles ever a r i s e we i n Kootenay (1) must not forget that a l l we have we owe to them." B r i t i s h Columbians must have r e a l i z e d the wealth of Kootenay soon a f t e r i t s discovery but they stood dazed by the daring courage and,tested working methods of Americans. Canadian and B r i t i s h (2) workmen were invested before Canadian and B r i t i s h c a p i t a l . Kootenay continued to pour her wealth into various American centres,--into Spokane, for example, at the rate of $3,000 (3) d a i l y for interest on stock alone. "The r e s u l t (was) that no mining journal i n the States (was) complete without some U) reference to one or other of the Kootenay camps." It was at least the summer of 1895 before English inves-tors paid serious attention to Kootenay claims. During the summer a number of London syndicates directed their mining (5) experts to inspect B r i t i s h Columbia mines and i t appeared that Kootenay might become a r i v a l of South A f r i c a f o r B r i t i s h preference. Referring to a v i s i t of three B r i t i s h experts to Rossland, l o c a l reporter commented that: " I t i s the f i r s t time serious attention has been given to T r a i l Creek mines by representatives of English c a p i t a l and we may with entire con-fidence hope the r e s u l t to follow w i l l be of the greatest (1) Nelson Miner, November 23, 1895. (2) Nelson Miner, January 20, 1894; July 13, 1895. (3) Nelson Miner, May 18, 1895. (4) Nelson Miner, July 20, 1895. (5) Nelson Miner, October 12, 1895; October 19, 1895. (1) Importance," By 1896 dozens of B r i t i s h companies were sending their (2) experts to survey the Kootenay mines and B r i t i s h Columbia had. superseded the western United States as a point of interest (3) fo r B r i t i s h investors. The movement from American to B r i t i s h c a p i t a l became permanent with the sales of the larger compan-ies i n 1897 and 1898, which have already been mentioned, and of many other smaller companies. For example, the Josie mine, one of the largest i n Rossland, was sold i n October, 1897,to the Hon. Chas. H. Mackintosh representing the B r i t i s h America (4) Corporation, a South A f r i c a mine owner and many of the smaller mines were consolidated under the corporation. The largest union of companies was, of course, the formation of the Con-solidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited. It was incorporated i n 1906 and included the St. Eugene claim at Moyie, the Hilar Eagle and Centre Star at Rossland, and the assets of the Canadian Smelting Company formed at T r a i l i n 1898. Later i n 1909 the famous S u l l i v a n mine was boughtbout (5) by the Consolidated. There are apparently no, r e l i a b l e figures as to the actual proportions of American, B r i t i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l invested i n Kootenay. O r i g i n a l company records have been destroyed and newspaper reports of the time are unreliable. The amount of money reported invested i n the various companies, of course, 1) Rossland Miner, October 12, 1895. 2) Kelson Miner, October 3, 1896. (3) Kelson Miner, July 18, 1896. (4) Rossland Miner, October 3, 1897; November 30, 1897. (5) T r a i l D a i l y Times, November 5, 1934* 62 never reached Kootenay. Another general aspect of foreign investment may be seen, however, i n the growth of a subsidiary industry to mining; namely, smelting. America, as we have seen, won the race with B r i t a i n and Canada f o r possession of Kootenay mining claims. American c a p i t a l also secured the largest proportion of the smelting business both within B r i t i s h Columbia and beyond the American border. Canadian apathy to open up concentrating and r e f i n i n g plants was marked. At f i r s t , p r a c t i c a l l y the entire ore out-put of the Le Roi, War Eagle, Josie and S i l v e r King Mines went to Taeoma, Helena or Butte. When a plant was f i n a l l y b u i l t at the mines, both equipment and coal had to be imported from the (1) United States. The f i r s t Kootenay smelter was operated i n 1891 i n Revelstoke by a large American company which already (2) owned extensive mining properties i n the d i s t r i c t . The plant was not large enough, however, to compete se r i o u s l y with Amer-ioan works f o r the entire ore reduction trade of Kootenay and the output of Kootenay s t i l l endured .tar i f f and railway charges (3) to reach a r e f i n e r y . Current discontent of miners with smelt-ing f a c i l i t i e s f o r West Kootenay minerals may be quoted: "Though a few wise and p a t r i o t i c men have put th e i r money into smelters b u i l t or to be b u i l t i n the country i n which they are interested, they have to send out of Canada fo r their coal or l e t the smelting be done i n the smelters of the States. Is i t because we have no coal suitable f o r ourselves f o r our smelters; no merchants who can compete with those of Winnipeg or the States; no l i v e brokers i n our two great towns who know what mines are and can at-tract c a p i t a l to honest business propositions? Hot a b i t of i t ? The merchants are here, but they are asleep; the (1) Sessional Papers, 1892, P. 537. (2) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1892, P. 564. (3) Kelson Miner, September 2, 1893. brokers are here but they are busy smoking and grumbling over bad times; the coal i s close at hand, but the C.p.R. stands between i t and Kootenay, "..•In the Crow's Nest Pass we have an enormous deposit of excellent coal...We need 120 miles of railway to bring the coal to West Kootenay..." (1) When the P i l o t Boy Smelting Company was incorporated i n July, 1894 for $250,000 the businessmen of Nelson were encour-aged. Though R. P, Rithet of V i c t o r i a was Vice-President of the company, most of the c a p i t a l was subscribed i n New Haven, Connecticut, and i n Minneapolis, the home of the President, E. W. Herrick. A Nelson editor wrote that "although the com-pany i s l a r g e l y owned i n the United States i t w i l l be their p o l i c y to be e s s e n t i a l l y B r i t i s h Columbian i n a l l t h e i r re-(2) l a t i o n s . " The P i l o t Bay Smelter was open f o r use i n March, (3) 1895* During the following summer a number of representative men from Kansas City, Omaha, Taeoma and Montana companies came to Nelson to make further bids f o r smelting the S i l v e r King (4) ore. I t was i n 1896, however, that f i n a l arrangements were made for a large smelter to be b u i l t at Nelson by a London, (5) England,company. Following t h i s , the Kansas C i t y Smelting 7 (6) and Refining Company undertook to b u i l d at Nelson i n 1897. T r a i l Creek ores were carried to American smelters f o r an even longer period than were those from Nelson, The Toad Mountain ores were carried unsorted i n wagons to Northjport or (1) Nelson Miner, February 16, 1895. (2) Nelson Miner, July 14,. 1894. (3) St. Barbe, op. c i t . , P, 3. Nelson Miner, March 16, 1895. (4) Nelson Miner, July 13, 1895; July 27, 1895. (5) Nelson Miner, December 19, 1896. (6) Nelson Miner, March 6, 1897. T r a i l from which, points they were transported by r a i l to e i -ther? the Montana Smelting and Refining Works at Great F a l l s or to the Taeoma Smelter. "What (became) of the output of T r a i l Creek a f t e r 1/ ( l e f t ) the r e f i n e r y i s impossible to trace; but the guess may be hazarded that the gold (went) to (1) Europe." As a business undertaking t h i s method of tr e a t i n g the Kootenay output was s a t i s f a c t o r y u n t i l Amerioan duties were raised as the excess i r o n i n the ore was valuable to smelters as a f l u x . But when the American import duty on lead ores was raised i n 1897, even as a business project, apart from the growing pro-Canadian and p r o - B r i t i s h sentiment, i t became inexpedient to carry Canadian ores to the United States for smelting. A current Nelson comment may be quoted i n f u l l at t h i s point: "The time has arrived, when, i f proper economy i s to be observed, the products of the mines of Kootenay must be smelted i n the d i s t r i c t . Considering the development of the precious metal deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia i s of recent o r i g i n , t h i s fortunate condition could not have been r e a l i z e d much sooner. The decision of the U.S. Congress to increase the import duty on lead ores and lead b u l l i o n undoubtedly furnishes an extra reason why t h i s should be done without delay. "The average value of ore shipped from the various camps l a s t week, as shown by the sworn returns made to the Cus-toms department i s $77.77 per ton. Careful estimates indicate that the \aLue of the output f o r the current year w i l l f a l l l i t t l e short of #10,000,000. The cost of transporting to the American smelters the tonnage that t h i s amount represents would be over $1,250,000. F u l l y one-half o£ t h i s quantity w i l l be s i l v e r - l e a d ore con-tai n i n g on an average 60 percent lead that would be dutiable, on an average at $21 per ton. Thus, the t o t a l saving that Kootenay would experience i n f r i g h t and duty for the annual output would be more than $2,500,000. (1) Rossland Miner, March 30, 1895. 65 "But t h i s does not represent a l l the p r o f i t to be de-ri v e d from the establishment of smelters and r e f i n e r i e s here to treat the entire ore output of Kootenay. The d i r e c t sale of their products to the consumers i n Eng-land, Japan and China, means that the money that now goes to the American brokers would f i n d i t s way only to the pockets of Canadians. And l a s t but not l e a s t , steady employment would be given to hundreds of men. "There i s no reason why the smelting and r e f i n i n g indus-t r y i n Kootenay should not rank i n equal importance with that of mining." (1) Subsequent to the r a i s i n g of the American ore duty the Le Roi Company of Rossland negotiated f o r the building of a private plant to reduce low grade ores value at $10.00 to $15.00 per ton. Although the directors of the company pro-bably never intended to b u i l d on Canadian s o i l , T r a i l Creek residents were disappointed when i t was announced that the (2) plant would be opened i n Northport. B r i t i s h e r s i n Kootenay saw further Canadian wages, supply expenditures and mining p r o f i t s remaining i n American hands. A smaller smelter which had been b u i l t i n T r a i l i n 1895 by P. Aug. Heinze f o r the War Eagle ores, threatened to shut down for lack of business. We see that i n 1897, the peak year f o r s i l v e r production i n the Kootenay mines, smelting was done by the P i l o t Bay smelter (opened 1895) with a capacity of 120 tons, the H a l l smelter (1896), 250 tons, the T r a i l smelter (1896), 250 tOns and by (3) numerous American plants, including the new Northport Smelter. Canada and England had made a poor bid for Kootenay smelting business and they did not seem anxious to improve their position. (1) Nelson Miner, February 27, 1897. (2) Rosslander, July 27, 1897; August 3, 1897. (3) Rosslander, August 24, 1897. In concluding t h i s chapter, I s h a l l quote the most r e l i a b l e Kootenay production figures that we have. These were kindly furnished by the P r o v i n c i a l Mineralogist on February 19, 1935. Annual Production of each mineral i n Nelson, 1888-1905: Nelson Mining D i v i s i o n . Year Gold S i l v e r Copper Lead Total3 Placer Lode 1895 * 5,500 ¥ 20,000 32,487 • 1 5, 621 # f 63,608 1896 5,500 4,720 423,413 111, 896 - 545,529 1897 — 41,520 574,752 172, 682 261 789,215 1898 mm 76,459 383,225 235, 196 mm 694,880 1899 342,308 273,751 64,098 239, 840 23,286 879,185 1900 600 653,106 5, 979 63,299 787,082 1901 mm- 679,340 211,213 257, 671 96,344 1,244,568 1902 • 519,148 135,703 57, 120 61,523 773,494 598,937 1903 . • 415,736 96,483 45, 822 40,896 1904 3,000 198,795 106,077 28, 268 37,891 374,031 1905 3,000 116,729 66,921 14, 446 58,020 259,116 Totalal7,600 3,067,861 2,368,123 3,174,541 381,520 7,009,645 Annual Production of eaoh mineral i n Rossland,1895-1905: (Comprises T r a i l Creek M.D.) Year Gold Lode. S i l v e r Copper Totals 1895-6-7 NIL 1898 | 1,746,861 FlJ 1899 2,127,482 ^ . ^ ^ ^ P v 1900 2,306,172 3 , s e t , , iz, 1901 2,735,323 # 543,458 # 3,278,781 1902 3,351,558 184,871 # 1,356,966 4,893,395 1903 3,004,446 106,403 1,145,109 4,255,958 1904 2,751,074 97,024 912,768 3,760,866 1905 2,683,855 84,707 904,266 3,672,828 Totals: $20,706,771 $1,016,463 $ 4,319,109 #26,042,343 67 CHAPTER IV THE GROWTH "Of TOWNS IN WEST KOOTENAY In commencing another chapter, we should remind ourselves that this is not a history of British Columbia mining as either a scientific or financial enterprise. It is a study of social origins and growth connected with three significant American mining advances into British Columbia. Therefore, we must consider the foregoing sketch of financial and mineral develop-ment a background for the present account of the growth of towns. Social origins are seen before towns take shape, before there is a Main Street, when there is merely a collection of tents, cabins,and general stores. The social structure is f irst seen as townsites are laid out, streets built , wooden houses erected, and court houses opened* The town becomes an individual, mature social organism when merchants accept business on "credit", when supply missionaries are replaced by salaried clergymen, and when public schools are opened for looal children. Over the entire area of Kootenay between 1885 and 1900, dozens of small towns sprang to existence* Many flourished, and died. Those were the products of mining "booms" which soon faded. Some developed into permanent townsites. Those were in districts boasting several potential permanent primary industries with mining resources oapable of large scale devel-opment. Among the latter may be mentioned Nelson, incorporat-ed in 1897, Rossland 1897, Grand Forks 1897, T r a i l 1901, Kaslo i 1903, and Cranbrook 1905. An example of the former "boom" 68 town was Sanca which changed in the space of a few weeks in 1896 from a dense hush to a town of several hundred white and many Chinese inhabitants, with three hotels under canvas and a growing number of wooden buildings. The birth of the town (1) was loudly heralded, but its passing went unmourned. The story 6f every frontier town is interesting but there is such a similarity to the stories of the various Kootenay towns that we shall consider in detail only two, Nelson and Rossland, both in West Kootenay. We shall notice that in ori-gin they were duplicates of Barkerville. They sprang up rapid-ly as the result of unexpected rich strikes in nearby mines. The population was transient. While Barkerville developed into an exceptionally large "boom" town, i t took on few traits of permanency. Nelson and Rossland, on the other hand, soon established permanent external communication, regular sources of supplies, highly developed public service fac i l i t i es , and several minor as well as major industries. Groups of male adventurers shared the public services with settlers and fam-i l i e s . New mining towns in British Columbia are usually located as near as possible to the scene of mining activity. Nelson was thus located in 1886 at the spot where the Cottonwood-Smith Creek broadens out and joins the Kootenay River at the foot of Toad Mountain. The townsite was laid out and surveyed the fol -lowing year and before long, stores and residences were being hastily constructed along newly planned streets. As early as (1) Nelson Miner, July 25, 1896 69 1890 "The Nelson Miner" commenced publication. The f a l l of silver in 1893 was felt negatively in Nelson but as Rossland developed in 1895 and 1896, Nelson became a prosperous busi-ness centre for the whole of Kootenay. In 1896, alone, build-f l ) ing and improvements in Nelson amounted to a value of $138,750. Recognition of Nelson as a growing British Columbia town was made in 1895 when Nelson beoame an off icial custom port of en-try and in 1897 when i t was incorporated. Incorporation in 1897 marked the zenith of Nelson's economic prosperity. For after that date production in Nelson and surrounding camps declined or grew slowly and even merchants knew that rapid expansion was a thing of the past. From the beginning, Nelson had been considered a permanent townsite. It was a good area for industrial, commercial and residential development. Therefore, plans were made for an expansive city with well-organized streets long before the greatest inrush of settlers. There was but l i t t l e trouble with squatters on town lots as planning took place ahead of settle-(8) ment. Another indication that the townsite was regarded as permanent was the early building in the summer of 1889 of a good electric light and water works system. Within ten years a modern city had grown from the roots of the frontier town* The Canadian Pacific Railway in a settlers' guide book was able to describe Nelson in 1904 as the chief commercial town of southern British Columbia, having a population of 6000. It (1) Nelson Miner, January 9, 1897. 8) Nelson Miner, August 19. 1893: Ootober 14, 1893. 3) Nelson Miner, January 20, 1894. was the government, steamboat and railway headquarters,and the distributing centre for Kootenay. The guide book continued to say that "a large smelter,.sawmills, chartered banks, railway shops, shipyard and mines give stability to the.place,,and electric street oars, electric l ight, gas, waterworks, sewage system, opera house, churches and hotels cater to the well-being and comfort of the citizens. As a residential centre Nelson offers many attractions, and many large and artistic residences already erected testify to the wealth and per manen-d i ) cy of the district . As we have already said, due to the possibility of carry-ing on a variety of economic activities in the vicinity, the excellent railway and steamboat service in and out of the town, and the pleasant surroundings for a residential distr ict . Nel-son was recognized as the site of a permanent city from the beginning. In its early days, however, i t did not lack the characteristics of other new outlying towns and villages in western America and Canada. The population of Nelson by 1897 was not as largely Amerioan as was that of Rossland. Of 47 leading citizens of Nelson, only eleven were from the United States of America, thirteen from Ontario, nine from other parts of the world. Many of those from Europe and eastern Canada (2) had had, of course, mining experience in California. As wi l l be showjq&ir the next chapter, most of the Kootenay towns were (1) C.P.R.Guide Book, Kootenay and Boundary Districts, 1904, P. 10. (2) St. Barbe, Charles, A History of Nelson and West Kootenay, C.A. Rohrabacher & Son,. Nelson, 1897. t^^»^a--71 remarkably quiet and orderly as compared to American towns nearby. Shooting and s t e a l i n g were uncommon, though gambling and drinking were carried on openly. Nelson could not adver-t i s e as Rossland did, the Sourdough A l l e y , named a f t e r a shrewd miner. Sourdough Harris, from the I s l e of Man. Nelson did not possess the Theatre Comique that Kaslo licensed. One or two houses of i l l reputation were open within the l i m i t s of Nelson from the e a r l i e s t tiaes but, on the whole, drunkenness, pros-t i t u t i o n , and other s o c i a l e v i l s were quickly stamped out or at least delegated to the back yard. Nelson aoquired her c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y urban i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a short period of time. In education, f o r instance, Nelson opened a public school f o r 37 children i n 1891. The t o t a l enrollment f o r 1892-1893 was 43 with an average d a i l y attend-ance of 19.08. A monitor was added to the s t a f f i n 1895-1896 fo r the 89 pupils were too many for one teacher. 150 was the enrollment i n 1896-1897 and 295 i n 1898. By 1900 there were (1) seven d i v i s i o n s with 484 pupils i n the Nelson Public School. A high school had been requested i n 1898 to save the expense of sending secondary school pupils to Spokane f o r t h e i r t r a i n -(2) ing. The four p r o v i n c i a l high schools, at V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver were too f a r distant to be of use to Kootenay residents. The rapid increase i n the school population i s a p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of the permament type of settlement i n Nelson c i t y . ^ l e p o r t s e o l i f u l l i c a l c £ o 6 l s r i 1 ' i S l 1 C o l u m l ) i a , 1891-1900, (2) Nelson Miner, Deoember 19, 1898. In Barkerville, where the population was largely adult, we noticed that a hospital was the first public institution opened. A public school precesued a hospital in Nelson by two years, for i t was 1893 before private subscriptions and (1) government aid were enlisted for a Nelson hospital. After opening, its story is almost identical with the history of the Barkerville hospital: indigent patients, poor equipment, un-derpaid doctors, low government grants, charity entertainments, f irst class service by its attendants with l i t t l e recognition (3) or remuneration. The Hospital Board and its servants, in-cluding Dr. G. A. B. Hall worked conscientiously but miners failed to pay their one dollar per month hospital levy unless they expected to be i l l , and the government grant was usually inadequate. Nevertheless, in 1896 seventy regular and twenty-nine out-patients were treated at the Nelson Hospital. Mention of the early missionaries In Nelson at this point must necessarily be brief and so I shall tabulate the names and activities of the principal religious organizations during the early days of Nelson. ANGLICAN BAPTIST (records incomplete) 1897-G.R.Welsh 1898-H.S.Akehurst 1898-Church dedicated Church erected C. W. Rose CATHOLIC -METHODIST (records incomplete) 1891-James Turner 1892-E. V. Smith 1898-Father Ferland 15 members (1) Nelson Miner, August 19, 1893. (2) Nelson Miner, March 17. 1894; December 14, 1895; December 21, 1895; March 20, 1897. 73 METHODIST (cont'd) 1893- James Turner 1894- G.H.Morden Frame church 1896-Chureh enlarged 1898-John Robson PRESBYTERIAN SALVATION ARMY 1891- T.H. .Rogers Store used as church Calgary Presbytery 1892- St. Paul's Church dedicated 1893- William Blaok 1896-Adjutant ana Mrs. Ayre Kamloops Presbytery Hall built 1894- D. Campbell Ensign Stephens, Lieut. 1895- A. McVicar Southall, Lieut.Gooding 1897-Robert Frew Capt. and Mrs. MoGill 1899-Kootenay Presbytery at Ross-land 3,901-Peter Wright 1898-Ad jutant Millner (1) Columns have been printed in newspapers praising the religious and social service work undertaken by each of the above named missionaries and well do they deserveany reward they have re-ceived. For both their mental and physical struggles were strenuous and material compensation was iniquitous. A senti-mental note by a Nelson reporter w i l l , perhaps, be permitted in quotation. "Men who have broken away from the restraints of c ivi l iza-tion, often too broad minded for the petty squabbling dogmas of the older centres; men who care l i t t l e for the here, and less for the hereafter; men who have slipped from under the old burdens and are trying to escape from themselves; men with good and bad well on the surface and caring l i t t l e how either shows to the world; grim congregations of wild and unshorn sheep, these pioneer shepherds gather some-times." (2) Connected with the various churches were a number of socie-ties which provided recreation for people of a l l ages. There were Sunday School Clubs for the childran. A literary and De-(3) bating Society formed as. early as 1893. A local Dramatic Socie-i l ) Compiled from sources given intthe Bibliography. 2, Nelson Miner, September 23, 1893. ^ 3) Nelson Miner, December, 1893. 74 t y ana Band also engaged the evenings of talented miners and (1) t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Concerts of l o c a l talent seem to have heen well patronized--largely, perhaps, because other entertainment was not avai l a b l e . It was 1896 before regular v i s i t s were paid ( a ) by American a r t i s t s , and even at that date, performances were given i n stores, hotels and church haHe f o r there was no thea-tre i n the town. l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s were not good i n Kelson u n t i l 1895 when a Philharmonic Sooietswas formed and a Public Reading and (3) Amusement Room opened i n the V i c t o r i a Hotel. Men welcomed the good c o l l e c t i o n of books, newspapers and magazines that were available and the Reading Room was as popular as many of the (4) saloons. In 1897, the l o c a l l i b r a r y was opened f o r two hours every mcming fo r l a d i e s , at a subscription rate of $1.00 per (5) year, For men the rate was 50^ per month. In December 1898 a Free Public L i b r a r y Act was passed and e a r l y i n 1899 the " " . " (6) l i b r a r y b u i l d i n g was opened. Another recreation f o r Kelson miners and merchants from the e a r l i e s t days was attending lodge meetings. A Masonio (7) lodge was constituted i n February, 1894. In Kelson there were eight lodges by 1898 which issued regular notice of meeting i n "The Kelson Miner". They were the Masonic Lodge, Oddfellows, Sons of England, Foresters, United Woodmen, Orange Lodge, (1) Kelson Miner, February 3, 1894. (2) Kelson Miner, January 4, 1896. (3) Kelson Miner, January 19, 1895. (4) Kelson Miner, Feburary 9, 1895. (5) Kelson Miner, March 20, 1897. (6) Kelson Miner, December &t 1898. (7) Kelson Miner, February 24, 1894. Knights of Pythias, and Good Templars. To conclude the description of organizations which grew up i n Nelson as i t became permanetly settled^we may mention the l o c a l f i r e brigade, which could almost be considered an organization f o r providing recreation. As i n B a r k e r v i l l e and other new B r i t i s h Columbia towns, i t was not u n t i l a f t e r con-siderable damage had been done by f i r e i n 1894 that leading (1) c i t i z e n s organized a volunteer brigade. Fourteen members were paid $15 annually as an honorarium f o r services rendered. The f i r e h a l l was, of course, a s o c i a l centre, and the firemen were happy actors. Their duties were few and t h e i r honour great. While Nelson prospered t h e i r l i f e was pleasant but when the C i t y Council i n 1898 began to search f o r possible decreases i n expenditure, they attacked the f i r e department and decided that a more substantial return should be received f o r the amount of (2) mcmy expended* Perhaps the councillors f e l t that they had paid the admission price to see "Nelson's Great F i r e " and had been disappointed when the f i e r y leading man did not appear! The early h i s t o r y of at least one other Kootenay mining town must be pictured and, amidst a store of f a s c i n a t i n g mater-i a l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know which one to describe. Certainly, we cannot stop %jo consider f o r too long the newspaper st o r i e s of town r i v a l r y which have always been published i n l o c a l Koote-(3) nay journals. Among a l l the i n t e r e s t i n g Kootenay s t o r i e s , how-ever, one i s compelled to stop and read of the amazing develop-(1) Nelson Miner, January 20, 1894. (2) Nelson Miner, July 8, 1898; October 29, 1898; December 19,1898. (3) Nelson Miner, October 20. 1894: November 28, 1896; Decem-ber 12, 1896; Nelson Tribune, January 15, 1898. ment i n Rossland and T r a i l , a wilderness i n 1 8 9 4 and a leading i n d u s t r i a l centre i n 1 8 9 5 . At that time Rossland had; a popu-o l a t i o n of one thousand, broad streets and l o t s t h i r t y hy one hundred f e e t , four hotels, two stores, a "butcher's shop, three restaurants, two barbers, a bootmaker, one bathhouse, three dootors, one lawyer, one custom house, two sawmills, two news-papers, one Justice of the Peace to dispense law and four bar-tenders to dispense whisky, and more than enough childre n to star t a school. Ross Thompson pre-empted the townsite of Rossland i n 1 8 9 1 and the f i r s t sale of l o t s too^plaoe i n 1 8 9 5 .as It was i n 1 8 9 6 and 1 8 9 7 that the real "boom" took place i n Rossland, climaxed by the incorporation of the c i t y i n 1 8 9 7 1 When the town f i r s t took shape i n 1895 i t precipitated i t s e l f upon an unprepared world. Mining men were becoming accustomed to recognizing Nelson as a l i v e l y centre but they did not expect to find ano-ther i n the same Kootenay d i s t r i c t . Ex-Mayor H.L.Frank of Butte on v i s i t i n g R O B S I & M i n May, 1895 said to h i s f r i e n d s : "I have just retimed from an inspection of the T r a i l Creek d i s t r i c t , and to say that I was astonished at the richness of that camp would be to express i t mildly. For the a-mount of development work done already i t i s , i n my opinion, the richest camp i n the country.. . A l l the camp needs new i s a smelter, and i t i s only a matter of a short time be-fore i t w i l l have one. "While you might not c a l l i t a boom up there, there i s a steady and substantial growth going on i n the camp a l l the time. Where a year ago two log cabins stood, to-day the busy and l i v e l y l i t t l e c i t y of Rossland has sprung into existence...Two sawmills, running at t h e i r f u l l capa-c i t y , cannot supply the demand fo r lumber." f l ) ( 1 ) Rossland Miner, May 1 8 , 1 8 9 5 . 77 This i s an experienced American's view of the camp and yet, on the same date Winnipeg reports read that T r a i l Creek was over-run with "desperately poor adventurers**,'that production was poor and that supplies were sold at exhorbitant p r i c e s . Patsy Clarke and Oliver Durant and E. S. Topping were hardly "des-perately poor adventurers',' $3,000 d a i l y i n s o l i d gold has never been poor production f o r a t o t a l papulation (men, women, and children) of 1,000 and C o l v i l l e prices were not high f o r butter, eggs, f l o u r , sugar and other supplies. The jealousy of Winnipeg merchants for Rossland's trade must have clouded t h e i r observation. Rossland's development was even more spectacular than Nelson's. With improving f i n a n c i a l conditions throughout the Northwest, a general demand f o r gold, the proof by operation of successful mining on T r a i l Creek, and a huge decrease i n production due to better transportation f a c i l i t i e s and more e f f i c i e n t reduction of ore, the town expanded r a p i d l y through-out 1895, 1896, and 1897. Every foot of land i n the d i s t r i c t was sold and elaborately printed c e r t i f i c a t e s with gold seals were issued and sold at even;,more elaborate prices. Down the creek, and down the h i l l , seven miles away, T r a i l developed to the extent of seven hotels, several restaurants, and ten (2) general stores i n 1896. Commercial space was at such a pre-mium i n 1896 that when the Bank of B r i t i s h North America . wished to open i n Rossland i t had to share a frame b u i l d i n g (1) Rfcssland Miner, May 18, 1895. (2) Nelson Miner, February 15, 1896. 78 with the "barber. There were already i n town f i f t e e n hotels, 25 saloons, three wholesale liquor houses, and three v a r i e t y theatres and everything was wide open seven days of the week and 24 hours per day. I t i s said that the streets were as noisy (or n o i s l e r ) a t four a.m. as at four p.m. ^  The inrush of miners to work the l e Roi, Centre Star, War Eagle, Josie, Hickle P l a t e , Iron Mask and other mines rated (1) the population of Rossland to 6,000 i n 1897. There was an average of ten or twelve companies organized i n Rossland every (2) week during 1897, and men from a l l parts of the continent brought i n th e i r f a m i l i e s to s e t t l e . I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to notice that Rossland attracted a much higher percentage of Americans than did Kelson. . The 51 leading c i t i z e n s of Ross-land i n 1897 (consisting of claim owners, merohants, and pro- ! fe s s i o n a l men) gave t h e i r o r i g i n as Ontario f i f t e e n , United States of Amerioan twenty-eight, Europe and other Canadian , i provinces eight. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the Europeans had had ez- -I perience i n Amerioan mines and many of the Ontario men had previously prospected i n C a l i f o r n i a , Montana, Idaho, or Washington. Some of the eastern Canadians came to B r i t i s h (S) Columbia by way of Manitoba and the Korthwest T e r r i t o r i e s . 1897 witnessed the height of the f l o a t i n g population i n Rossland. Speculators began to leave what had been a "boom" town, r e a l i z i n g that the c i t y was f o r permanent investors and workers. The loss of business which followed made merchants (4) f e a r f u l , f o r a while, of a "slump" but they soon realized that (1) Rosslander, August 24,. 1897. (2) Rosslander, December 28, 1897. (3) Kingsmill, Harold, A History of Rossland and the T r a i l ' Creek D i s t r i c t , Studen and Perine, Rossland, H.d.pp 9-24. (4) Rosslander, August 10, 1897. Rossland mines were not playing out and that men could now s e t t l e down to a routine order of society. Just how serious were Rosslanders that they would "settLe" down" now that they were incorporated i s indicated lay the f i r s t actions of the newly elected Mayor (Robert Scott of Gait) and Council. F i r s t , they cleaned up Sourdough A l l e y , that famous, long street of saloons, dance h a l l s and gambling resorts where money, wine, and music flowed f r e e l y , and where the noisy din of h i l a r i t y did not stop at any time during any day of the week. Secondly, the Council arranged f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a new and up-to-date drainage and water system. In a jffew respects, Rossland resembled B a r k e r v i l l e more than did Nelson. In Rossland, there were more single men than i n Nelson. There was male comradeship of the f r o n t i e r rather than family l i f e . As a general rule, Rossland miners went down to the saloon or blacksmith shop at night f o r a drink, smoke and chat. In Nelson a man would attend the locaii church concert with his wife and children or lead a sing-song at home fo r a l l the members of the family. We noted that i n Nelson a school was the f i r s t public i n s t i t u t i o n to be sought. In Rossland and B a r k e r v i l l e , I n contrast, the f i r s t need was f o r a hospital to look after victims of mine accidents. While Col-umbia Avenue was s t i l l a f r a i l f i l l e d with stumps, a h o s p i t a l and residence were b u i l t f o r Dr. Bowes i n June, 1895 and the i n s t i t u t i o n rendered "free" service to miners paying one dol-l a r per month into a h o s p i t a l fund. This fee the miners paid f a i r l y w i l l i n g l y as maintenance of the h o s p i t a l removed the necessity of uncomfortable journeys to Spokane f o r medical (1) care. This hospital was b u i l t before either a school, a church, or a government o f f i c e . The curt comment of "The Rossland Miner" was that "Rossland's growth has outstripped the enterprise of the government which i s not remarkable; i t has also outstripped the machinery of providing education f o r some 50 children, which i s disgraceful; i t has outstripped (2) r e l i g i o u s zeal of the sects, which i s a most wonderful thing". As a matter of f a o t , Rossland grew so quickly that i n the same year the h o s p i t a l was erected and both the sohool and churches were opened. In September, 1895 the townsite company donated four town l o t s f o r the school building and i t was ar-ranged that u n t i l the school could be erected, the Methodist chapel would be teed f o r a schoolroom with Rev. D. Birks i n (a) charge of the f i f t y p u p i l s . For some reason, the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Eduoation acted slowly and a l e t t e r of protest was sent to the Minister of Education i n December, demanding that the government immediately construct on the l o t s provided a school house which would be capable of use by one hundred children. There were then 2,000 people altogether i n Rossland (4) and about 100 child am of school age. In July, 1896, a two room graded school was opened i n Rossland by the government but i t was not long u n t i l another school had to be ereoted to house the growing number of childim i n the town. The follow-f l ) Rossland Miner, June 29, 1895; September 21, 1895. (2) Rossland Miner, July 13, 1895.(3) Rossland Miner, September 28, 1895. (4) Rossland Miner, December 7, 1895; December 14, 1895. ing table of enrollment indicates bow quickly Rossland became populated by permanent s e t t l e r s . ROSSLAND PUBLIC SCHOOL July, 1896— two room graded school opened 1897— - t o t a l enrolment of 364 1898— " n n 470 1899— " " " 610 (9 divisions!) 1900— " ft ff 7 3 0 ( n n ) j j j Although missionaries did not work into T r a i l Creek as quickly as did the miners, they did follow the wealth-seekers very cl o s e l y . Again, we s h a l l resort to tables to give the necessary information at a glance. ANGLIC AH BAPTIST (records incomplete) 1896-D. D. Proper (American) 25 members 1897-E. Irwin ("Father Pat") 1897-J. H. Best (stayed to 1900) new church b u i l d i n g CATHOLIC METHODIST (most adherents) 1895-parsonage b u i l t 1895-Father Edm. Peytavin 39 members Father A. Lemey D. D. Birks 1897-Father N. A. Rivers 1896-Charles Ladner 1899-John Welsh church b u i l t Kootenay d i s t r i c t formed 1898-G. H. Morden PRESBYTERIAN SALVATION ARMY 1895-James E. Wallace f i r s t Rossland missionary 1896-Miss Badminton 1897- D. Currie ? Quant 1898- D. MoG. Gandier met i n store i n midst of 1901-J.M.Robinson saloons (2) With t h i s outline of the beginnings of a few of the public organizations, we s h a l l leave a s p e c i f i c discussion of Ross-land turn our attention to observations regarding a number of Kootenay towns. F i s h e r v i l l e ^ on Wild Horse Creek i n the six-ties, had passed from men's minds when Nelson appeared i n the Q\: +B. C. Sessional Papers, Reports of Publio Schools,1897-1901. ( 2 ) C o m p i l e d from sources given i n the Bibliography. 82 eighties and early n i n e t i e s . Kelson was the centre of stable development i n mining, farming, ranching, and trading. In the l a t e r n i n eties, Rossland "stole the show" from Kelson, by i n -creasing withiat three years to the largest population i n Kootenay with the largest p a y r o l l . On TTB.11 Creekwere the largest investments of both Amerioan and B r i t i s h c a p i t a l and i t was there that the most s c i e n t i f i c and economical methods of mining and smelting were developed. In Rossland, too, were miners most carefree and parties most long and costly, s h a l l ncr; discuss f r o n t i e r towns of Kootani:;, C S J G J 1 & . CHAPTER V LIFE IU KOOTENAY TOWNS It may be that every new western Amerioan mining fcommunity during the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century was just the same as every other community of a si m i l a r size at the time. The same t y p i c a l general merchant, blacksmith, postmaster and "bartender could he seen i n each one. Perhaps every growing town of 2,000 or 3,000 people could show v i s i t o r s a s i m i l a r Theatre Grand, Bathing Establishment, Royal Cafe, Public Read-ing Room,and a great or small number of f i r s t class saloons. It i s quite true that there were these i d e n t i a l characters and . buildings i n Washington, Idaho, Montana, Cariboo, Klondyke and Kootenay towns. Nevertheless, c e r t a i n elements i n the growth \ of population on T r a i l Creek, at Bald Mountain, i n the Slocan and Boundary country gave di s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Kootenay towns apart from a l l other f r o n t i e r towns of the nine-t i e s . F i r s t , there was a peculiar mingling of American, British , and Canadian people, t r a d i t i o n s and customs. Secondly, there was an accepted s t a b i l i t y and permanency to the s o c i a l organi-zation. We have already indicated the presence of these two ^ main t r a i t s of l i f e i n Kootenay by giving s u f f i c i e n t information regarding t h e i r causes: early B r i t i s h indifference to develop-ment of southern B r i t i s h Columbia, anxiety of Americans to test the new mining f i e l d , and transportation f a c i l i t i e s which made immigration from the south easy; the serious-mindedness of the hardy f r o n t i e r population, the able s e l e c t i o n of good townsites, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing several productive primary Industries. I s h a l l now attempt to discuss the extent to which these t r a i t s were fundamental i n Kootenay li f e ^ a n d to point out evidences of t h e i r e f f e c t on society. It i s from the f i l e s of old newspapers checked with o f f i -c i a l reports and,, personal r e c o l l e c t i o n s that one gains the truest picture of the habits and thoughts of any people. For-tunately, there was no dearth of newspapers to give us pictures of Kootenay mining towns. There were, f o r instance, at least three difference newspapers published i n Nelson before JL90G: "The Miner" (weekly), August 19, 1893 to May 7, 1898 and"The Kelson Daily Miner", May 10, 1898 to A p r i l SO, 1908; "The Nel-son Economist"(weekly), J u l y 14, 1897 to December 30, 1905; "The Tribune"(weekly), January 5, 1892 to January 20, 1899 and (daily) January 21, 1899 to November 11, 1905. As early as 1894 "The Slocan Times" was published i n New Denver. Revel-stoke boasted two weeklies before 1900. From Rossland a tor-rent of mining information, foreign news, stock quotations, and "society" gossip poured f o r t h from eleven d i f f e r e n t l o c a l papers that were established before 1901. There i s consequent-l y no s c a r c i t y of information about "early days i n Kootenay". The problem i s to check f a n t a s t i c a l l y exaggerated reports, and make cor r e c t l y valued estimates of the importance of incidents which may have been eithe r over or under-estimated i n current reports. The three following verses w i l l r e c a l l f a m i l i a r pages to the minds of many old residents i n Kootenay. THE PRESS OP KOOTENAY by Diogenes of the "Kootenay M a i l " On Selkirk's snowy mountains, In Lardeau's Golden Sand, At Hot Spring's steamy-fountains, And Slooan's very strand, The wealth for aeons hidden Neath g l a c i e r , rock and s o i l Now to the world i s given By the PROSPECTOR'S t o i l . In Kootenay's lonely passes, . Where foamy torrents gleam Through hoary, moss-grown masses Of timber, sombre green, The footsteps of the MINER Are trending to the LEDGE. No prospect can be f i n e r Than r i c h veins outcropp'd edge. In Big Bend?s rugged canyons . A GOLDEN ERA dawns, And seekers a f t e r Mammon Are thick as chess-board pawns. Yes, better TIMES are oomingJ Our TRIBUNE gives the h a i l — "Mining w i l l soon be hummingJ" . Thanks to the KOOTENAY MAIL.(1) The strongest i n d i c a t i o n of the strange mixture of h a l f -B r i t i s h , half-American traditions i n Kootenay was n a t u r a l l y i n the reaction of oitizens to organized government. Left to themselves, as we have seen at Wild Horse Creek, the miners worked out t h e i r own methods of j u s t i c e to protect l i f e , pro-perty, and decent moral l i v i n g . They were, however, quite w i l l i n g ; t o relinquish control to authorized o f f i c i a l s of B r i -t i s h Columbia,and to submit to the requirements.j>f- enacted p r o v i n c i a l statutes. Mining fees during the second rush were: Pree Miners' C e r t i f i c a t e (yearly) |5.00 Substitute " 1.00 Recording a claim 2.50 (1) Nelson Miner, November 10, 1894. Expenditure of #500 gives a Crown Grant Development, per year #100.00 (1) W i l l i n g submission of American miners to B r i t i s h Columbia laws was, perhaps, to be expected when we remember the unorganized or uncontrolled communities^from which the^ rhad c come, (south of the line) But the mining laws of B r i t i s h Columbia were not p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to meet the needs of Kootenay miners and, therefore, the s i t u a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . For instance, the law of 1884 that miners must represent t h e i r claim every 72 hours was a hardship f o r Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Montana and other American miners used to holding claims on the basis of a (2) c e r t a i n number of hours* work. Again, companies incorporated i n any of the American states were allowed to r e g i s t e r and operate i n B r i t i s h Columbia^and frequently the Amerioan law was so vague and toothless that B r i t i s h and Canadian investors were e a s i l y exploited^v^ CShea they invested i n American compan-ies operating i n Kootenay. Stock was sold i n many t i t l e l e s s (3) properties. Not only mining laws but also those laws protect-ing merchants were unsatisfactory i n a community where swindleas entered f r e e l y . This grievance was brought to the attention of Premier Davie on his v i s i t to Nelson i n 1893. "The repeal of the Petty Debts Act was discussed...They explained to the Premier that i n view of the f a c t that the country i s over-run with a l l kinds of adventurers and tin-horn merchants and business men fro.m a l l parts of the globe, reputable merchants and business men doing business i n the d i s t r i c t wanted every protection which the govern-ment could throw around them." (4) (1) Kootenay Guide, Young and Luxton, Rossland, 1898, P. 68 (2) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1884, P. 260 (3) Nelson Miner, May 9, 1896. (4) Nelson Miner, August 19, 1893. For a while, credit had to "be suspended hy Kootenay merchants, and no goods, food, clothing, l i q u o r or tobacco l e f t e ither r e t a i l stores or wholesale houses without cash payment. The r e a l trouble was the mining communities were follow-ing laws developed from roughly and h a s t i l y written rules used i n the mining camps of Cariboo f o r t y or f i f t y years previous-l y . When they were o r i g i n a l l y enacted, the laws worked well because of e f f i c i e n t and f i r m administration. In the f o r t y or f i f t y years that had elapsed the laws had been so often «-amended and interpreted by l e g i s l a t o r s and lawyers that even e f f i c i e n t administration could not hide t h e i r l e g a l de°fieien-(1) eies. The law that stated when a yearly lease expired was apparently not clear to anyone. Americans were barred from s i t t i n g on Mining Boards though they were i n d i r e c t l y asked f o r advice and the re s u l t of t h e i r experience. These as- just two examples of uncertainty and i n j u s t i c e f o r the Kootenay miners. Notwithstanding unsatisfactory mining l e g i s l a t i o n , there was no disrespect f o r law i n any of the Kootenay towns. A j o u r n a l i s t has said recently: "Despite i t s rapid growth and heterogeneous population, a general respeot f o r the law was shown. Miners coming i n from the States hung t h e i r p i s t o l s and knives on n a i l s driven i n walls of a saloon at the end of the a l l e y , and i f revenge was taken i n word of act, Northport, across the international l i n e , was the scene chosen. Her Majesty's gallows were less of the abstract deterrent than the noose of the V i g i l a n t e s . " (2) Frequently, courts were held without a single decision being necessary. In 1885, there was not a single v i o l a t i o n of the (1) For examples of d i f f i c u l t decisions due to poorly worded or inadequate laws, Nelson Miner, A p r i l 27, 1895. (2) Douglas F o r i n , c l i p p i n g i n c o l l e c t i o n of Rev.John Goodfelkw. 88 (1) law (reported! o f f i c i a l l y ! ) In the whole of Kootenay. Ten jears l a t e r at the f i r s t c i v i l court of jus t i c e held i n Rossland not a single decision was given hy Judge Spinks. and few important (2) ' points of mining law were brought up. Most cases, both mining and trading disputes, were settled out of court. Forged cheques i n Nelson i n 1893 were passed to unsuspecting business men. "The 'one, two, three" style of l a d l i n g out ju s t i c e to offenders against the law, which i s peculiar to t h i s side of the l i n e , u s u a l l y has the desired e f f e c t , and has kept Nelson i n the past (3) a model town with regard to law and order." U n t i l 1895, i n Rossland, there was neither a j a i l or policeman, and, though (4) close to the border, neither was needed. In June, 1895, "Big" Jack Kirkup, the Recorder, took on the duties of constable and, although he had no j a i l , he met no d i f f i c u l t y maintaining order among 2,500 miners. Many of the ci t i z e n s were well-known des-peradoes from south of 49° but h i s informal administration of law made him a terror to the strongest would-be criminals. He was strong p h y s i c a l l y and did not hesitate to bang the heads of offenders together and drive them out of the camp with (5) s t i c k s . When he saw a "fi x e d " p r i z e - f i g h t he offered to take on each or both of the contestants himself and, with t h i s , the (6) fi g h t continued seriously. Of course, there were a few infringements of law i n (1) B. 0. Sessional Papers, 1886, P. 498. (2) Rossland Miner, July 13, 1895. (3) Nelson Miner, August 19, 1893. (4) Kingsmill, Op. c i t . P. 4. (5) J. Goodfellow, c l i p p i n g . Rossland Miner. June 22, 1895; September 21, (6i T. W. Bingay, Conversation, January, 1935. 89 Kootenay but we notice that these occurred a f t e r the f i r s t inrush of prospectors when the country was beooming s e t t l e d . I l l i c i t whisky s e l l i n g was reported i n Kelson i n 1893, iihe editor of "The Kelson Tribune" was found g u i l t y i n an assault case i n 1896. Houston, the editor, had refused to divulge the names of h i s informants f o r one of h i s sto r i e s and had refused to r e t r a c t the a r t i c l e i n questio'n. The man requesting i n f o r -mation was attacked with a " r u l e r " and dictionary, the r e s u l t (2) being a wound requiring four s t i t c h e s . " A few Rossland "drunks" worried Kelson taxpayers i n t h e i r idielj moments f o r th e i r constable was sometimes called upon to house breakers of the peace from Rossland—"the inhabitants of Kelson of course appreciate the compliment which implies that t h e i r policeman i s a s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and i s only to be used as a (3) guardian of Rossland drunks". Perhaps the c i t i z e n s of Kel-son feared the s t r a i n of too much e f f o r t by t h e i r own police-man. In 1897, the Kelson constable, "Paddy" Miles, a f t e r being fined $20 and dismissed for disorderly conduct, added to his reputation when "he aocused a man named Ingram of fur-nishing liquor to Mrs. McDonald f o r whom 'Paddy* entertains a warm regard. The result was a f i g h t i n which the ex-constable (4) got decidedly the worst of i t " . A murder t r i a l was held i n Kelson i n 1896 as a result of a quarrel over a d o l l a r which had been placed on a hotel counter to pay fo r some drinks and (1) Kelson Miner, September 2, 1893. (2) Kelson Miner, February 22, 1896. (3) Kelson Miner, July 18, 1896. (4) Kelson Miner, February 20, 1897. 90 - (1)-which disappeared. Cases were threatened against keepers of houses of i l l fame hut the charges were never brought to l i g h t , and the keepers continued to operate t h e i r shady businesses i n (2) a quiet, but not secret, manner. The various law oases i n Kelson had grown to an extent which j u s t i f i e d the law Sooiety (3) of B r i t i s h Columbia opening a law l i b r a r y i n Kelson i n 1897. The general opinion i n Kootenay was that the government neglected to do i t s share to develop the country, The best report to indicate t h i s attitude came from a London t o u r i s t at the time that Rossland was seeklngrincorporation as a o i t y . John Blewett said: "The fa c t i s that Rossland i s h e a r t i l y s i c k and t i r e d of the misplaeed attention of such o f f i c i a l s , as well as of inattention of the p r o v i n c i a l government i n regard to sanitary, road, sidewalk and other conveniences.... The police management under Mr. Kirkup i s the sole redeeming feature i n the whole business. Ko wonder, therefore, that i n c i r c u l a t i n g this p e t i t i o n I find that every one consid-ers the time ripe f o r taking matters i n our own hands, and dispensing the funds raised i n our midst f o r our own benefit, rather than continue to send them to V i c t o r i a , there to be used f o r l i q u i d a t i o n of the b i l l of costs inourred i n the welding, forging or building, or what-ever other term may be used of that most expensive horse-marine appliance — the 'Government Buildings Anchor.'" (<&) A miners* Union was formed i n Rossland i n 1895, modelled on s i m i l a r Amerioan organizations, but i t s hand was i n e f f e c t i v e (5) i n shaping government p o l i c y . A l l over Kootenay, both B r i t i s h and American miners were a l e r t to every o f f i c i a l move i n Vio t o r i a , and newspapers gave up-to-date information about l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c i e s . Or-(1) Kelson Miner, August 88, 1896. -(2) Kelson Miner, August 82, 1896. (3) Kelson Miner, January 23, 1897. (4) Rossland Miner, January 28, 1897. (5) Kelson Miner, May 4, 1895; June 1, 1895; March 21, 1896. 91 ganized opposition to o f f i c i a l action was several times i n -i t i a t e d i n Kootenay and miners' candidates to the l e g i s l a t u r e (1) were well instructed. Frequently, suggestions from the i n -land empire were of value to coast l e g i s l a t o r s , f o r the ideas oame from men of experience with s i m i l a r mining sit u a t i o n s elsewhere. We must add, too, that Kootenay grievances were not without basis i n so f a r as Kootenay regularly contributed more to the government than was spent on the d i s t r i c t . The following figures indicate the o f f i c i a l report of the excess of Revenue over Expenditure i n the Kootenay a i s t r i o t . 1892 — | 1,583 1894 — $£3,690 1893 — 30,698 1895 — 20,298 (2) This s i t u a t i o n of l i t t l e return f o r taxes, mining fees, and oustoms duties, p a r a l l e l s the grievance of Williams Creek i n the s i x t i e s . Suoh a f i n a n o i a l hardship i s not easy to bear at any time, but i t was even less easy f o r a l a r g e l y American population to bear from a fo r e i g n government which would not license gambling houses, and which made western mining camps as quiet as New England v i l l a g e s . The reason that the queer mixture of B r i t i s h and American customs i n West Kootenay i s d i f f i c u l t to analyze i s that the proportion of B r i t i s h and American c i t i z e n s i n the d i s t r i c t was never constant. While Amerioan miners and c a p i t a l poured into the mines from t h e i r discovery u n t i l about 1895, B r i t i s h -ers were engrossed i n South A f r i c a n and Western Au s t r a l i a n (1) Nelson Miner, November 25, 1893; February 3, A p r i l 13, 1895; February 29, 1896, January 30, 1897. Nelson Tribune, February 26, 1898; May 21, 1898. (2) Nelson Miner, February 6, 1897. 92 ventures. As the United States withdrew toward the close of the century B r i t a i n entered the f i e l d hesitatingly-and very sho r t l y the B r i t i s h influence was modified hy Canadian i n -terests. For one English v i s i t o r to Rossland i n 1895, there .nj f l ) wa.S3 a dozen or more from American states^one from Canada. While the Queen's Birthday was observed l o y a l l y and i n d i f -f e r e n t l y , July 4 saw a spontaneous and enthusiastic demon-st r a t i o n . A l o o a l post-office could "be kept open on Domin-(8) ion Day and closed on Independence Day. July 1 was merely a good day on which to entertain Amerioan guests. "On Monday next the people of NelBon w i l l celebrate the great national Canadian holiday, and we s h a l l be joined i n f e s t i v a l by our cousins across the border. They can soarcely be expeoted to go into ecstacies over the an-niversary of the consolidation of the various Provinces of Canada into one Dominion, but a holiday i s a holiday, and i t i s near enough to the "glorious fourth" to make i t an excuse f o r holding h i g h . f e s t i v a l . . . . " (3) C l i v e Phillips-Wooley, a commentor on town l i f e more than on mining and f i n a n c i a l methods, saw Englishmen engrossed i n South A f r i c a n development while they allowed "the f i r s t f r u i t s of perhaps one of the richest mining f i e l d s i n the Empire to be reaped by a l i e n s ; nay more, they are allowing the province of Canada to become Amerioan i n men, manners, money and sentiment.... At the present moment Amerioan oa p i t a l i s buying, American energy i s conquering, and American people populating B r i t i s h Columbia simply because she i s u t t e r l y negleoted by those of her own kin; and, as usual, the American i s making a fortune out of the operation." (4) Phillips-Wooley was l a r g e l y correct when he said that a Rossland Miner, June 1, 1895. Kingsmill, op. c i t . , P. 5. Kelson Miner, June 89, 1895; May 85, 1896. Rossland Miner, June 89, 1895; July 6, 1895. Kelson Miner, June 89, 1895. Rossland Miner, September 14, 1895. (1) (2) (3) (4) 93 province of Canada was becoming "Amerioan i n men, manners, mon-ey and sentiment." For the Americans of a "very i n t e l l i g e n t c l a s s " oame i n by the hundreds from C o l v i l l e and other points, and were "anxious to conform to the laws of the country." (1) They became part of the country when i t was an untracked mountain wilderness and they grew up with i t . They consid-ered Kootenay as t h e i r new homeybut they remembered t h e i r old home, and when exhibitions and week-end or excursion rates were announoed to Spokane or Chicago the Kootenay mines were always well represented at the end of the r a i l . S i m i l a r l y , Amerioan residents paid frequent goodwill v i s i t s to the Kootenay saloons. Spokane professional men were called upon before doctors, teachers, and lawyers had moved to the new towns. The Amerioans i n Kootenay were ph y s i c a l l y and mental-l y contented i n B r i t i s h Columbia but sentimentally attached to t h e i r o r i g i n a l homes. To i l l u s t r a t e , I s h a l l quote part of a speech delivered i n Rossland i n 1898 by General Charles S. Warren at a banquet held i n honour of lord Aberdeen. Warren was replying to a toast to our Amerioan cousins. "I congratulate you, S i r , upon your administration as Governor General of Canada. You are respected and loved as w e l l by Americans as by your own subjects. Any time an Amerioan c i t i z e n comes aoross the l i n e , he ex-pects to obey your laws, f e e l i n g that your int e r e s t s are ours and ours are yours. Your Excellency, your Amerioan cousin i s a part of the h i s t o r y of t h i s country. As you saw s a i l i n g down the Arrow lakes l a s t night, the hundred camp f i r e s , reaching from the lake shore to the timber l i n e , i t i s safe to say that those f i r e s were b u i l t by your American cousins. They blazed the t r a i l f o r you to follow — they are responsible f o r the (1) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1888. P. 271. 94 Kootenays -- they are also responsible f o r the Klondike. They do not build many railro a d s i n t h i s country, they simply blaze the way f o r you to do so. The winter or the summer storm i s no terro r f o r your American cousins. Wherever you find him i n t h i s broad land, you find an enter-p r i s i n g , progressive, law-abiding c i t i z e n , proud of you, proud of your i n s t i t u t i o n s , and proud of the greatest and noblest queen the world has ever known, but prouder s t i l l of the land that gave them b i r t h . " (1) While Americans i n Kootenay continued to remember t h e i r homes, B r i t i s h as w e l l as Amerioan miners i n B r i t i s h Columbia followed events i n Amerioan p o l i t i c s c l o s e l y . News service with southern oentres was more dependable and regular than Canadian service f o r papers of Nelson, Rossland, Kaslo, Revelstoke, and other towns^and t h i s statement i s s t i l l true to-day. The reason f o r Kootenay 1s interest i n United States p o l i t i c s was, of course, the importance of the s i l v e r price i n American markets. As we have seen, Canadian markets were olosed to Toad Mountain and T r a i l Creek ores f o r many years and only Amerioan smelters were available f o r reduction of the output u n t i l l o c a l plants were erected. We r e c a l l that during the early nineteenth century there was a tendency a l l over the world to swing away from the s i l v e r money standard. In 1816 England adopted a single gold standard and suspended free coinage of s i l v e r . The United States (sf^hciy abandoned bi-aietallism i n 1853, Norway, Sweden and Denmark adopted the gold standard i n 1872, Germany i n 1875, A u s t r a l i a i n 1896 and Russia i n 1897. In the East, India olosed her mints to s i l v e r i n 1893 and Japan followed i n 1897. By adopt-(1) Rossland Board of Trade Report, Grip P r i n t i n g and Publishing Company, Toronto, 1898, P. 13. 95 ing -£he gold^-s-cale. was standardizing her currency with that of other countries. Side hy side with the suspension of free s i l v e r coinage went a great increase i n the s i l v e r production of the world. This s i t u a t i o n , followed hy the Panic of 1873, a resu l t of over-expansion i n railway and other i n d u s t r i e s , led to a de-mand hy poor debtors, s i l v e r producers^and a few economists^ f o r free and unlimited coinage of s i l v e r at the mint r a t i o of sixteen to one. The Bland-Allison Act of 1876, making th i s p rovision, was amended hy the Senate to arrange f o r monthly purchase of a certa i n amount of s i l v e r to he made into s i l v e r d o l l a r s and f o r restoration of f u l l l e g a l tender power of s i l v e r . A large number -of s i l v e r c e r t i f i c a t e s w££e issued and by 1890 the American treasury was having d i f f i c u l t y to keep s i l v e r money on a par with gold. The Sherman S i l v e r Purchase Act of 1890 l e g a l i z i n g the continuation of compulsory purchasing and coining of s i l v e r monthly by the Treasury led to rapid i n f l a t i o n and an increase i n the amount of s i l v e r bought monthly. This act was repealed i n November, 1893. A shrinking gold reserve seen beside the increased issue of treasury notes produced the Panic of 1893 and the unemployment and depression of 1894. These American events d i r e c t l y accounted f o r po«r business conditions i n Nelson, B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1893 and 1894. The P r e s i d e n t i a l E l e c t i o n of 1896 found the Democratic party led by Bryan of Nebraska and controlled by the free s i l v e r f a c t i o n . This party would have legalized free and unlimited 96 coinage of s i l v e r at the mint r a t i o of sixteen to o n e ^ a ^ ^ i e market r a t i o ^ f T t h i r t y to one. This would, of course, have meant the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the s i l v e r f o r the gold standard and a sharp r i s e i n prices . However Bryan was defeated and the. Gold Standard Act of 1900 settled the s i l v e r question i n America f o r many years. As a s i l v e r producing country of high grade ores, Koo-tenay was a c t i v e l y interested i n American p o l i t i c s . Her distance from other markets made her dependent on Americasand bo t h t t h e . t a r i f f and s i l v e r p rice i n the United States were important to B r i t i s h Columbia miners. In the n i n e t i e s , Kootenay newspapers were the best sources i n B r i t i s h Columbia of American p o l i t i c a l news. Amerioan, not Canadian or B r i t i s h , news was featured. The depression of 1893 was f e l t i n Nelson severely^ but s t i l l , B r i t i s h Columbia mines were i n a better p o s i t i o n to stand a r i s i n g demand f o r s i l v e r than were some American claims. The Kootenay ores were of a high q u a l i t y and could demand a good price where poorer American ores were "off the market." The problem f o r Kootenay i n 1893 was one of f l ) transportation more than of the s i l v e r p r i c e . There was another sharp r i s e i n the price of s i l v e r i n 1895. War clouds had l i f t e d i n the East and there was hope that Japan and China would soon become heavy purchasers of s i l v e r . Nelson had her eye on the s i t u a t i o n and made arrange-ments to follow i t closely. f l ) Nelson Miner, August 19, 1893; September 2, 1893; October 28, 1893. 97 "The sharp r i s e i n s i l v e r has naturally enlivened the whole d i s t r i c t . As soon as the movement started we made arrangements to publish our d a i l y telegrams, giv-ing the l a t e s t New York quotations. It i s scarcely necessary to say that the s t r a i n was too much f o r the C. P. R. telegraph system, and when s i l v e r had reached 67^ on Tuesday i t promptly gave out. It might w e l l be called the Tired Horse system, as i t always f a i l s when most wanted." (1) Nelson telegraph l i n e s were s t i l l busy during Bryan's campaign of 1896. Kootenay miners were anxious f o r h i s defeat.- B i -metallism i n America would have meant that the market was glutted with s i l v e r and low grade mines by the dozens would have been opened. Kootenay's high grade ores could find markets even on low price markets and i t did not seem l i k e l y that higher prices with competition from poorer mines would (2) increase the value of the S i l v e r King and other companies. A l l of Kootenay hoped that Bryan and bi-metallism would be defeated f o r , as "The Boundary Creek Times" said, "a great f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s i s impending i n which Canada i s more or le s s (3) involved." By 1900, Kootenay was r e l a t i v e l y secure against fluctuations i n the Amerioan market because of her improved Canadian and B r i t i s h contacts, though to the present day she f e e l s more than a casual i n t e r e s t i n American p o l i t i c s and economic oonditions. Without doubt, the mingling of American and B r i t i s h customs i n Kootenay i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t feature of her towns. Another i n t e r e s t i n g feature i s that of permanency, Ideal looations f o r Nelson and Rossland had made both towns (1) Nelson Miner, A p r i l 6, 1895. (2) Nelson Miner, August 15, 1896. (3) Boundary Greek Times, October 10, 1896. 98 good r e s i d e n t i a l centres. The climate was f a i r l y temperate. The snowfall of about 85 inches per year suggested winter sports carnivals while the summer temperature of 95° made nearby lakes and r i v e r s scenes of pleasure. Communication to the south, at l e a s t , from both towns was good. Economically, the country could be important enough to B r i t i s h Columbia to make p o l i t i c i a n s l i s t e n to Kootenay's grievances against the government. Moreover, development was based on a d i v e r s i t y of economic pursuits: mining, smelting, trading, lumbering, farming, and ranching. Nelson went ahead as much i n 1896 and 1897 under the impetus of Rossland trade as e a r l i e r through the development of her own mines. Almost every trade and industry was soon represented i n Nelson. Small f r u i t growing, mixed farming, and ranching could be developed i n surrounding d i s -t r i c t s . A oentral p o s i t i o n i n West Kootenay d i s t r i c t made both wholesale and r e t a i l trading p r o f i t a b l e f o r Nelson as a d i s t r i b u t i n g centre. The Rossland d i s t r i o t was suitable f o r vegetable and f r u i t production but her mining and smelting industries were so soon developed that with the large pay r o l l she provided a good market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l produce from sur-rounding d i s t r i c t s . The d i s t r i c t as a whole could also pro-vide lumber f o r i t s own use and saw m i l l s ran at f u l l speed during construction days. The combination of so many p r o f i t -able industries i n Kootenay encouraged immigration, tended to make the d i s t r i c t self-supporting, quickly discouraged ad-venturers, and re-assured permanent s e t t l e r s . 99 CHAPTER VI THE AMERICAN MINING ADVANCE INTO BRITISH COLUMBIA The nineteenth century*saw several streams of emigrants passing from Europe to various parts of the new world: to the United States of America, to B r i t i s h North America, to South A f r i c a and to A u s t r a l i a . D i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l , economic and r e l i g i o u s adjustments had to be made i n Europe following the close of the Napoleonic War Era i n 1815 at a time of ever-increasing industrialism. P o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s unrest on the Continent throughout the century stimulated emigration from many of the countries of central Europe to B r i t i s h and other colonies. A r t i f i c i a l stimulation of emigration and a low standard of l i v i n g i n new manufacturing centres induced c i t i z e n s of the B r i t i s h I s l e s to emigrate to prosperous B r i t i s h colonies (1) and to the United States where discomfort would be r e l i e v e d and opportunities to enjoy a higher standard of economic and s o c i a l l i f e would be much greater. Moreover, as the V i c t o r i a n Era ad-vanced and the security and splendour of English prosperity seemed guaranteed, the eyes of B r i t i s h e r s turned to the south, east, and west looking for overseas colonies which would hoist the Union Jack. The triumphant c a l l of the B r i t i s h Empire spread f a r : "Wider s t i l l and wider may thy bounds be set, God, who made thee mighty, make thee mightier yet." The waves of European emigration were directed c h i e f l y (1) Carrothers, W. A., ^ migration from the B r i t i s h I s l e s , p. S. King & Son, Ltd., London, 1929, P. 305. 100 to Eastern Canada and the United States, to A u s t r a l i a and to South A f r i c a . In the 1840's B r i t a i n a s s i s t e d and encouraged emigrants to South A f r i c a . Following discovery of gold i n A u s t r a l i a i n 1851, s e t t l e r s were encouraged to colonize that continent. The chief a t t r a c t i o n of these new lands was good land and the p r o b a b i l i t y of l o c a l self-support. The means of providing food, clothing^and shelter^had to be concentrated i n resources close to the point of settlement. At the outset, farming was the primary occupation of every new settlement. Hard labour and i s o l a t i o n were no deterrents to these s e t t l e r s as long as there was s u f f i c i e n t production to sustain the fa m i l i e s through the year. Surplus production and external marketing were not even the s l i g h t e s t considerations. The generations would l i v e on t h e i r land and be content with p o l -i t i c a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , and s o c i a l freedom. In about the middle of the nineteenth century, a new type of emigrant began to wander from one B r i t i s h colony to another. The minihg^prospector found his way to South A f r i c a , to A u s t r a l i a , and to B r i t i s h Columbia. He was usually young and unmarried, a l e r t mentally and vigorous p h y s i c a l l y . He was an adventurer, looking for easy gold. As one stream "played out," he moved on to the next E l Dorado, even though the scene be thousands of miles away on another continent. These miners "staked their claim" each season and l i v e d i n tents. They did not need to own t h e i r land or b u i l d substantial homes. Their t h i r s t f o r gold was self-developed and no government assistance was necessary to urge them to engage i n f e v e r i s h a c t i v i t y . Gold fever indicated not a diseased, but a healthy physical and mental condition. By the very nature of t h e i r work, only the strongest men eould stand mining l i f e . Break-ing mountain t r a i l s , c l e a r i n g land, digging shafts, and s l u i c -ing with heavy rocks were not a c t i v i t i e s for weaklings. Like-wise, to prospect unmapped creeks, bars and h i l l s and to re-serve anuadequate food supply i n d i s t r i c t s where communication was poor and where every daylight hour had to be spent panning or digging i n o i l s k i n s and gumboots taxed the ingenuity of the most mentally keen. The use of so much energy to succeed i n th e i r work was stimulating and s a t i s f y i n g and therefore we fi n d l i t t l e immorality or a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour among the mining groups of any continent. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of B r i t i s h miners who were e n t i r e l y self-dependent. Their e f f o r t s were both unrestrained and unassisted, American miners were more in c l i n e d to lawlessness than were B r i t i s h because there was an eastern Congress from which to seek protection and assistance, because communication to American mines was more regula r l y established than that to B r i t i s h mines and consequent-l y the group unity and i s o l a t i o n of, the miners was not as ap-parent, and because American mining laws were not as e f f i c i e n t -l y administered as the B r i t i s h , Miners i n B r i t i s h colonies were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t , enterprising, v i r i l e and ' law-abiding. They were honest, hospitable and generous. They were f r i e n d l y and r e s p e c t f u l to Women, Henry De R. Walker v i s i t e d the Coolgardie g o l d f i e l d s of Western A u s t r a l i a i n March, 1896 and a f t e r personal contact with the miners was able to say, "of the kindl y h o s p i t a l i t y of a l l whom I met on the go l d f i e l d s , I cannot speak i n s u f f i c i e n t l y high terms. They were uniformly straightforward, generous, energetic men, who CD gave me the impression of a good moral standard." The miners l i v e d naturally, without organized r e l i g i o n ; a n d they practiced high s o c i a l conceptions of morality. While groups of B r i t i s h miners moved from one g o l d f i e l d to another i n the colonies, accompanied by traders and f i n a n c i a l "experts" unworthy of the miners' patronage and confidence, a si m i l a r movement of population opened up the American continent west of the Rockies. By accident, i n January, 1848, gold was discovered on the American River i n C a l i f o r n i a , an unorganized t e r r i t o r y , and despite e f f o r t s .to suppress news of the d i s -covery, labourers, merchants, s a i l o r s , lawyers, teachers, and . c i v i l servants i n eastern America, B r i t a i n and the continent were soon enveloped i n a frenzied desire to reach the roaring gold, camps of C a l i f o r n i a . Overland, the t r a i l s led by way of Salt Lake C i t y or Oregon. By water, three routes were a v a i l -able;around the Horn, through Panama, or by Mexico. Everywhere, wage-paying contracts, growing businesses, old ^ e'ndships, f a m i l -i a r l e g a l documents, school books and even government o f f i c i a l duties were cast aside i n the frenzied search f o r large and easy fortune. The f a m i l i a r chantie rang throughout the world: "Oh.1 C a l i f o r n i a , that's the land for mej I'm bound f o r Sacramento With the washbowl on my knee." There was no need for government assistance to send young men (1) Walker, Henry De R., Australasian Democracy, P. 214, T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1897. West. In f a c t , the American government had to raise wages to hold i t s own C i v i l Servants i n the East. When C a l i f o r n i a "played out", Utah, Montana and Oregon offered other r i c h prizes to adventurers and so the hard-swearing, - drinking, gambling and f i g h t i n g population remained i n the West. B r i t i s h miners i n the middle century had been reckless adventurers but t h e i r communities were never as riotous as similar American camps. The r e l a t i v e l y peaceful c i t y of Los Angeles could be described thus i n 1854; "The Queen of the Cow Counties bangs a l l creation i n her productions. Whether i t be shocking murders, or big beets, j a i l demolishers, expert horse thieves, lynch j u s t i c e s , f a t beeves, swimming horses, expounders of new r e l i g i o n s , t a l l corn, mammoth potatoes, ponderous cabbages, defunct Indians, secret s o c i e t i e s , bright skies, mammoth pumpkins, Shanghai chickens, g r i z z l i e s , coyotes, dogs, smart men, o f f i c e seekers, coal holers, s c r i p , or f i g h t s . . . . she stands out i n bold r e l i e f challenging competition." (1) Camps i n the centre of the mining d i s t r i c t could enrich t h i s picture many times, we are t o l d . "Movie" depictions of the "wild west" are no more than s l i g h t exaggerations of r e a l con-d i t i o n s . Dangerous criminals and outlaws there were i n American camps and even average miners were h a r d - l i v i n g s law-breaking, r i s k - c a l l i n g adventurers seeking wealth and excitement. The B r i t i s h stream of miners moving from South A f r i c a and Au s t r a l i a and the American from C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, Utah, and other north-west states s h i f t e d with accelerated speed as communication f a c i l i t i e s improved. Spreading industrialism, e s p e c i a l l y as embodied i n steamships and r a i l r o a d s , heightened the i n t e n s i t y of mining "booms". Hews of r i c h s t r i k e s could be spread l i k e flame and large throngs of people could race (1) Quoted by Beard, Charles A. and Mary, R., The Rise of American C i v i l i z a t i o n , The Macmillan Co*, Hew York, 1930, Vol.1, P. 613 c e r t a i n l y from one d i s t r i c t to another. A lucky mineral s t r i k e i n the spring brought i n r e p l y a happy and eager hoard of seekers by the f a l l . Both the B r i t i s h and American mining tides grew higher as the years of the century r o l l e d on with greater momentum. The two tides seemed to meet i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i -t i s h miners heard of fabulous sums being taken from Williams and Wild Horse Creeks and they moved h e s i t a t i n g l y to the new camps where they could s t i l l enjoy the protection of B r i t i s h j u s t i c e and proudly display their Union Jacks. Amerioan pro-spectors l i s t e n e d to tales of new s t r i k e s just beyond the border and they hastened to make f i r s t claims i n a country where mining methods and equipment sim i l a r to t h e i r own were l i k e l y to be successful. At f i r s t , representatives of the two t r a d i t i o n s found themselves i n competition for s i t e s and trades, and c o n f l i c t s i n p r i n c i p l e s resulted i n a few cases. But as a general r u l e , B r i t a i n was content to leave the f i r s t r i c h prizes of her mines to the Americans. As time wore on, Amer-ican miners either w i l l i n g l y withdrew without loss to th e i r own camps because of the increasing pressure of B r i t i s h Law; or sold out at handsome p r o f i t s to B r i t i s h and Canadian investors. In Cariboo and i n Kootenay a s s i m i l a t i o n of many n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and of two i n p a r t i c u l a r , was made easil y * The geographic f a c t o r . i n s o c i a l development was strong. There was a happy adjustment between B r i t i s h and American claims to develop B r i t i s h Columbia. At t h i s point we should remark that the pioneer miner who made B r i t i s h Columbia a Canadian province was hot l i k e the Canadian pioneer of the l a s t . The western miner was not God-despising but neither was he God-fearing; he was not a law-breaker but neither was he r e s t r i c t e d by l e g a l customs, The B r i t i s h Columbia prospector was as f i t p h y s i c a l l y and as i n -genious mentally as the Glengarry or Saskatchewan farmer. He was as hardy i n straightening his back to the storm and nat-u r a l elements. But he made no long-term claim on his land and he was not content with what would have been mild and s a t i s f y -ing family joys to his eastern brother. From his land, the Cariboolte demanded wealth i n a season. From his friends, he sought the stimulating e x h i l a r a t i o n of care-free comradeship. There were geographic reasons why the overseas mining movement from the B r i t i s h colonies and the American rushes from the south should merge i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The western B r i -t i s h t e r r i t o r y was behind a mountain bar r i e r almost impene-trable from the east. Time and space distance alone made Cariboo and Kootenay unattractive i n Canada and Great B r i t a i n . On the other halnd, the natural means of access to Cariboo and to Kootenay were from the south-west by various r i v e r s , streams, and mountain passes. By the Fraser River, a f t e r a steamer passage from V i c t o r i a to Yale, was a natural route to the heart of Cariboo. By the Kettle and Kootenay Rivers and other waterways was natural access from Washington, Idaho, and Montana to the centre of the Kootenay d i s t r i c t . B r i t i s h miners from the colonies entered B r i t i s h Columbia from the west a f t e r stopping at San Francisco or other American ports. 10S American miners entered B r i t i s h Columbia f r e e l y and flireotly either from the south-west or south. Then, too, physiographically, B r i t i s h Columbia was an extension of the Amerioan eastward moving^frontier. The approach to creeks, bars and h i l l s north of 49° was not d i f f e r e n t td the method already used successfully south of the i n t e r -national boundary l i n e where, s i m i l a r l y , development was based on a single industry. South A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a , and eastern Canada each required a pa r t i c u l a r method of settlement. Geo-graphically, B r i t i s h Columbia suggested colonization methods di f f e r e n t te> those i n use i n other B r i t i s h colonies but iden-t i c a l to those practiced i n the United States. As Trimble says: "The l i n e of ' 4 9 . . . . was drawn at r i g h t angles... to the physiographic i n c l i n a t i o n of the country. From the point of view of physiography i t would seem that there was not s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n north and south of the p o l i t i c a l boundary materially to modify the devel-opment of society. In other words, so f a r as the ocountry was concerned, the development of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e was l i k e l y to be i d e n t i c a l . " (1) Development i n Cariboo and Kootenay mines should have been i d e n t i c a l with development i n Amerioan mines f o r they were parts of the same geological region and the i r people were engaged i n the same i n d u s t r i a l p ursuit. But " d i s t i n c t d i f -(2) f e r e n t i a t i o n did occur" and t h i s could not be due e n t i r e l y to divergencies i n the type of population. The va r i a t i o n s indicate the successful union of B r i t i s h and Amerioan t r a -d i t i o n s on the Canadian f r o n t i e r . (1) Trimble, op. c i t , P. 9 (2) i b i d , P. 11 From a number of points of view, the three mining rushes which have been described i n th i s thesis may be scaled i n progression. Although the Cariboo preceded the e a r l i e r Kootenay rush by two years, the former was of longer duration and i t attained a middle type society between those of early and l a t e Kootenay mining "booms." The progression runs: early Kootenay, Cariboo, l a t e r Kootenay. During the f i r s t rush to Wild Horse Greek, an almost 100$ American population of a very i n t e l l i g e n t order staked i n d i v i d u a l claims of temporary ownership with no thought of colonization or settlement of the new d i s t r i c t ? The d i s t r i c t was to provide a fortune but not a home for the prospector. The opening of Cariboo mixed B r i t i s h and Amerioan miners almost equally i n small companies with l o c a l o a p i t a l . The l a t e r Kootenay advance witnessed an i n f l u x of serious mining men followed c l o s e l y by s e t t l e r s looking f o r desirable homesites. It brought large scale mining develop-ment to B r i t i s h Columbia and i t lasted long enough to see the gradual replacement of American by B r i t i s h population and c a p i t a l . Commencing with conditions i n Kootenay i n the s i x t i e s , we observe i n B r i t i s h Columbia three d i s t i n c t stages i n the merging of B r i t i s h and American f r o n t i e r s . The rush of '64 - "66 to Kootenay was 100$ Amerioan i n o r i g i n and i t remained so for i t s entire duration. While the d i s t r i c t was is o l a t e d , the only l i n e of d i r e c t contact with the outside world was south to the American mining centres. This l i n e of communication, leading to C o l v i l l e , was well used^ f o r a mining population i s not self-supporting^and i t depends on other than l o c a l sources for supplies. Ho food or cloth i n g reached Wild Horse Creek from B r i t i s h Columbia i n time to be of use at the height of the boom f o r the Dewdney Road into Kootenay from the coast c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia was not completed, u n t i l 1865, Coast merchants were i n d i f f e r e n t to expansion of trade into an American mining camp whose success they regarded with skepti^m. A l l supplies were brought i n to P i s h e r v i l l e on Wild Horse Greek from C o l v i l l e , Although prices were l i t t l e higher than i n C o l v i l l e , goods were scarce due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of transportation* "The Colonist" i n 1865 reported that Kootenay miners were subsisting on f l o u r " s t r a i g h t , " as i t had taken half the men to keep the others on short supply. Goods had to be boated from C o l v i l l e under (1) d i f f i c u l t conditions. A government o f f i c i a l , J. Boles Gaggin, made the following report ttom Wild Horse Creek during the l a s t months of the rush. "Four hundred and f i f t y i s the probable number of men working. The amount of goods here i s small, clo t h i n g scarce and Indifferent. Ho shoes, boots or under-clothing. Provisions i n t h i s part of the country are reasonable. I expect a large stock w i l l be i n shortly." 12) The cost of l i v i n g i n Kootenay was never high. When the d i s t r i c t was f i r s t opened and supplies were most scarce i n 1864, wages were $7.00 per day and the price of provisions enabled miners to l i v e well for $1,50 per day. Another feature of the f i r s t Kootenay rush which marks i t apart from both the Cariboo and l a t e r Kootenay advances, was (1) Colonist, October 5, 1865 (2) J, Boles Gaggin to Col. S e c , June 25, 1866. (3) Colonist, November 11, 1864. O f f i c i a l Report of A. N. Birch. 109 i t s purely temporary character* None of the miners attempted to make permanent homes i n the d i s t r i c t . The one town of the period, F i s h e r v i l l e , i s to-day completely forgotten and i t s name i s not printed on the map. I t was never more than a c o l l e c t i o n of t e n t s 9 wooden houses, general stores, and wide-open saloons. There was no l o c a l governmental organization. No newspaper was ever published there. A l l news came from American journals. Between mining methods of the s i x t i e s and nineties there was no s i m i l a r i t y . Gold parmors at Fisher-v i l l e used rockers, s l u i c e boxes, o i l s k i n s and "bunks" patterned on C a l i f o r n i a n models. Workers i n Nelson and Rossland oper-ated machines imported from Chicago, wore the l a t e s t style o v e r a l l s from San Francisco or Vancouver, and slept i n com-fortable homes. No t r a d i t i o n a l mining methods were transferred from the f i r s t to the second group of Kootenay miners. The rush of the s i x t i e s did l i t t l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia except to a t t r a c t Amerioan attention to her natural resources and to es t a b l i s h a regular southern l i n e of communication. B r i t i s h e r s remained aloof except f o r administering j u s t i c e i n a d i s t r i o t which had already formed a p o l i t i c a l organization s i m i l a r to the C a l i f o r n i a n . B r i t i s h did not compete with American cus-toms f o r prevalence i n the district® B r i t i s h Columbia t r i e d to meet her American mining population only to administer j u s t i c e . Prospectors from the United States welcomed th i s protection and so there was no c o n f l i c t and no as s i m i l a t i o n of B r i t i s h and American l i f e i n Kootenay during the 1860 8s. There, an American population lived i n a B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y with l i b no meeting of the s o c i a l customs of the two nations. The intermediate stage i n the merging of B r i t i s h and American t r a d i t i o n s ocourred on the Cariboo f r o n t i e r between 1862 and 1868. There was just one convenient entrance to the upper Cariboo d i s t r i c t along Cottonwood and Williams Greeks between Quesnel and B a r k e r v i l l e . Over the Cariboo T r a i l from Yale came prospectors equipped only with pans and rockers. They had a l l passed through one or more lower country ports: Vic-t o r i a , New Westminster, and Yale. There were Australian miners who had stopped en route at San Francisco and who had had t r a i n i n g i n American mining methods on C a l i f o r n i a n creeks. There were men d i r e c t l y from England or Eastern America who had stopped i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r only a few weeks a f t e r coming through the Panama. Some of the Amerioans, desperadoes and "rough but honest miners" oame from Puget Sound to V i c t o r i a or to the lower Fraser River. When this motley throng arrived on Williams Creek i t was d i f f i c u l t to know whether the B r i t i s h or Amerioan element predominated. It i s true that at the height of the rush, one-half of the men i n Cariboo were Amer-ican and most of them had some di r e c t knowledge of Amerioan mining camps. Apart from the o r i g i n of population and o a p i t a l , l i f e i n Cariboo indicated i n i t s e l f the mixture of B r i t i s h and Amer-ican customs i n almost equal proportion. B a r k e r v i l l e was l i t e r a l l y sprinkled with saloons, "... the giddy Court -Of mirth and revelry." (R. Tannahill) There was also a popular Reading Room on Main Street. A I'll miner on Lowhee Creek could write, as though he were i n Sac-ramento: "0, I love to snore On a "bar-room f l o o r , And sleep a drunk awayJ And dream of b i l k s # Who dress i n s i l k s , And .girls who dance f o r pay; And whiskey imps And gambling pimps Who are supported by TEeir ready t o o l s , A thousand f o o l s , Such fool s as you and I J " ("I love to Snore" by the Bard of lowhee.) The same day, another miner could write to h i s Scottish f r i e n d s : "See yonder shanty on the h i l l , ' T i l but an humble biggin' . Some ten by .sixlwitMjtifthd wa's— Your head may touch the r i g g i n ' — The door stands open to the south, The f i r e , outside the door; The logs are chinket close wi' f o g — And nocht but mud the f l o o r — . A knife an* fork, a pewter plat e , An' cup o' the same metal, A teaspoon an' a sugar bowl, A f r y i n g pan an' k e t t l e ; The bakin' board hangs on the wa', Its purposes are two-fold— For mixing bread wi* yeast or dough 0 panning oot the braw gold! A log or twa i n plaoe o' stools; A bed without a hangin', Are f e c k l y a' the furnishin's This l i t t l e house belan&in*; The l a i r d an' tenant o' t h i s sty, 1 oanna name i t f i n e r , - (1) Lives free an'l'easy as a l o r d , Tho' but an 'honest miner." (James Anderson) Again, Cariboo miners dealt personal j u s t i c e to offenders against women, dishonest gamblers, and neglectful married men. At the same time, they respected Judge Begbie and h i s stern f l ) Anderson James, Sawney's Letters and Cariboo Rhymes, op. c i t . , n. p. • 112 administration of B r i t i s h j u s t i c e * Chartres Brew reported i n 1867 "that t h i s D i s t r i c t i s p e r f e c t l y t r a n q u i l , and not the (1) s l i g h t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i s found i n enforcing the law." In the R i c h f i e l d police court from July SO, 1866 to June 22, 1871 only 135 cases were heard. Of the 25 heard i n 1868, 21 were of whites, three of negroes, and one of a native. Two were felons, s i x were thefts? and most of the other cases were f o r drunk-(Z) (3) enness.- low f i n e s were imposed as punishment* On Williams Creek, B r i t i s h administrators controlled the d i s t r i o t with the assistance of d i r e c t , informal justioe levied hy miners among themselves. As has heen indioated, fiariboo achieved a middle po s i t i o n between F i s h e r v i l l e and the larger Kootenay towns of the nine-t i e s * The largest town i n Cariboo, B a r k e r v i l l e , was never incorporated* It had few public services, i t s main stre e t was b u i l t i r r e g u l a r l y and there were few cross-streets. It had the western attitude to clergymen: "When they're aw'a so i s the d e i l ; H e ' l l think he has us a' h i s a i n , And f o r that reason l e t ' s alane„" (4) On the other hand, B a r k e r v i l l e supported one active newspaper, "The Cariboo Sentinel®" P i s h e r v i l l e had had no permanent record of i t s l i f e . Kootenay towns published several journals each* The opening of the school i n 1871, indicated that at least a few miners and merchants had made t h e i r permanent homes (1) Chartres Brew to Col. S e c , October 23, 1867* (2) Cariboo P o l i c e Journal, 1866-1891, P r o v i n c i a l Muniments* (3) Pol i c e Court Cash Account, 1867, P r o v i n c i a l Muniments* (4) Anderson, James, Second l e t t e r to My Preend Sawney, The Cariboo Sentinel, July 23, 1866'* 113 i n Cariboo ana haa brought i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , B a r k e r v i l l e a also supported a small lumbering inaustry f o r l o c a l needs. Ba r k e r v i l l e was preparing to take her place among the per-manent c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, possibly as an inland c a p i t a l (for she did contribute two-thirds of the revenue of B r i t i s h Columbia before i t s urfiLonswith Vancouver Island,) F a i l u r e of the mines and return of population to lower country centres k i l l e d B a r k e r v i l l e ' s immediate hopes of dev-elopment. The mines that had seemed to j u s t i f y the incor-poration of mining companies returned to the hands of i n d i v i d -u a l prospeotors. Yet, there i s significance i n the faot that f o r s i x t y years while B a r k e r v i l l e was undeveloped i n d u s t r i a l l y , her name remained unchanged on the map. F i s h e r v i l l e ' s name was forgotten. The f i n a l stage i n the merging of B r i t i s h and Amerioan f r o n t i e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was achieved i n West Kootenay. Even i n the opening days of the mining "Boom? when both population and c a p i t a l i n the d i s t r i c t were e n t i r e l y American, there was a B r i t i s h element i n the s t a b i l i t y of society. At f i r s t , B r i t a i n did not send prospeotors to seek the richest claims. She preferred to leave the d i s t r i c t to America u n t i l i t had been tested and found highly productive. As the mines developed and as towns became c i t i e s , B r i t i s h and American t r a i t s were evident i n equal proportions. Although they were oongenial beoause they were pioneers f i r s t , and B r i t i s h or Amerioan afterwards, people from the two nations competed f o r claims and f o r s o c i a l eminence. Between the miners themselves was the greatest friendship, regardless of n a t i o n a l i t y . The 114 merchants, stock-brokers, and r e a l estate agents were those who introduced the element of c o n f l i c t into Kootenay l i f e * To-day, a f t e r f o r t y y e a r B of successful mining, Kootenay has many settled communities which are B r i t i s h i f {Judged by t h e i r ad-ministrative machinery but American i f judged by t h e i r i n -d u s t r i a l methods. No two towns are a l i k e and, taken i n d i v i d -u a l l y they represent every type of twentieth century f r o n t i e r society. The a s s i m i l a t i o n of B r i t i s h and American elements i n population, c a p i t a l , mining and j u d i c i a l methods has been com-plete. We have already pointed out that of a number of railway l i n e s into Kootenay, the Canadian P a c i f i c was least used. This was the condition u n t i l about 1897 at l e a s t . Men, money, food supplies and equipment travelled over one or other of the American l i n e s . The r e s u l t was that a number of the towns of West Kootenay were very American i n appearance, some being more American than others. In 1895 Kaslo i s described as "the C i t y of Energy, known on the map as Kaslo." The writer of a descriptive pamphlet says: "Kaslo i s a thoroughly Amerioan mining town, and con-sequently i t i s not altogether the peaceful and pros-perous hamlet that might be met with i n the farming d i s t r i c t s of Ontario. It i s a busy bustling place with more saloons than there appears at f i r s t sight to be any necessity f o r . The streets are roughly graded, i n many the stumps of trees and huge rocks are l e f t stand-ing. In the good times before the slump i n s i l v e r people were so busy taking i n the d o l l a r s , and then so busy spending them, that no one had time to attend to a t r i f l e or two l i k e that. And then again to men acpustomed to mountain t r a i l s the streets were v e r i t a b l e paths of peace. "Between the end of the f i r s t boom and the second just.beginning a Mayor and Aldermen have been elected.... to impose taxes upon the people." (1) f l ) St. Barbe, Charles, The Kootenay Mines, op. c i t . , P. 7 115 (There were other townsin Kootenay which had t h e i r ^ w n American street i n an. other wise settled B r i t i s h community. Rossland, f o r example, had her famous Sourdough A l l e y , a long street of saloons, dance-halls and gambling resorts. Probably the most famous house on the street was Kloo^hman's Inter-national which contained two bars, two keno tables, a score of gambling devices, an orchestra and a band which operated twenty-four hours a day. Hot only i n International House/ but i n many of the saloons and h a l l s along the street, moist banquets which lasted f o r days were given to celebrate new st r i k e s and the sale of properties. Prize f i g h t s i n the theatres and dog f i g h t s i n the street were the rough enter-tainments between s p e l l s of eating and drinking. S t i l l other Kootenay towns, f o r example Nelson, were a l -most .assquiet as English hamlets. They were i d e n t i c a l with mining towns i n other B r i t i s h colonies at the same time. The following i s a desc r i p t i o n of the Coolgardie g o l d f i e l d s but i f i t were not f o r the proper names, we could believe i t to be a desc r i p t i o n of Nelson of some of the other Kootenay d i s t r i c t s at the same date. The account was written i n 1896. "The great curse of the mining d i s t r i c t s , and also, so some extent, of Perth, i s the absence of s u f f i c i e n t means of recreation. This state of things may be i n -evitable i n the case of towns of very recent growth, but i t s r e s u l t i s , that men who have worked a l l day, re-quiring some form of diversion, find i t i n drink. But i n spite of the large consumption of liquor, drunkenness i s rare and rowdiness almost unknown. At Coolgardie on a Saturday evening the streets were p e r f e c t l y quiet; be-yond some discordant strains of music, scarcely a sound was to be heard. In spite of one or two recent bur-g l a r i e s , l i f e and property are scarcely less safe than i n England. A bank r&anager who travelled with me from Kalgoordie told me that s t a r t i n g a new branch of his / 116 bank at an outlying township, he had been obliged at f i r s t to l i v e i n , and keep his money i n a tent, but that on no ocoasion had he been menaced by the s l i g h t e s t at-tempt at robbery? I s h a l l long remember that sight of townships which have sprung up where a few years ago was nothing but bush, and promise to become the scene of great i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , and my intercourse with some of the pioneers of the mining movement, men who have penetrated hundreds of miles into the i n t e r i o r of the country, have endured f o r years the t e r r i b l e hardships of l i f e i n the bush, and have, by t h e i r un-t i r i n g exertions, seconded by the i n f l u x of c a p i t a l f o l l -owing upon t h e i r sucoess, done much to raise Western A u s t r a l i a to a prominent p o s i t i o n among the Provinces of the Southern Hemisphere." (1) The l a t e r Kootenay mining "boom" produced not only the most successful and complete merging of B r i t i s h and American, s o c i a l customs but also the most stable and permanent type of mining community i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The day of the lone prospector with l i t t l e c a p i t a l and a single claim had passed. The place of the free miner had been taken by distant capit-a l i s t s and wage-earning operators of machines. The expense of equipment, maintenance, and operation of mining plants made even American investors oautious i n large scale development. S c i e n t i f i c tests of the ground were made before claims were developed and t h i s t e s t i n g , together with employment of the soundest i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l methods meant that the pr o b a b i l i t y of f a i l u r e was reduced to a minimum. Da i l y quotations of the stocks on the boards of markets i n Hew York and Lon-don eleminated speculation to a large extent as a feature of mining -investment i n Kootenay. What was true of C a l i f o r n i a was also true of Kootenay: (1) Walker, op. c i t . , pp. 314^315. 117 "Placer mining die! very l i t t l e to s e t t l e the Golden State. The immense a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l l e y s of the State were unheeded save as pasture f o r f l o c k s and herds... never u n t i l the placer gold fever abated and men began to work the r i c h quartz veins of the State did anything l i k e permanence characterise her i n s t i t u t i o n s , " (1) Besides the permanent character of her l a t e r mining development,the successful pursuit of other primary industries of a more stable nature helped to att r a c t s e t t l e r s , rather than merely prospectors, to Nelson, Rossland, Kaslo, and otter d i s t r i o t s . The white-pine, yellow-pine, f i r and cedar were suitable f o r matches, fence-posts, railway t i e s , and l o c a l f u e l requirements. A considerable export trade of lumber to the p r a i r i e s has, as a matter of f a c t , been stimulated but Kootenay does not compete seriously with coast lumber goods fo r the best lumber of the i n t e r i o r i s not any better than clearings on the coast. It i s estimated that West Kootenay also possesses about 350,000 acres of land suitable f o r a g r i -culture around the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes, Upper Koote-nay Lake and Slocan Valley, Lower Kootenay Lake and Creston d i s t r i c t , and the Columbia River and Salmo Valleys south of Nelson. A considerable proportion of the population engages i n commercial orcharding, small f r u i t production, bee-keeping and growth of f i e l d crops. Both agriculture and lumbering are successful i n Kootenay because without any export trade, there i s s t i l l a large home market among the miners. If one were to choose a representative c i t i z e n of Fisher-v i l l e , an American gambling "dandy" who had turned prospector (1) Colonist, October 28, 1865. 118 would probably be the choice. A lone miner l i v i n g i n his back- • h i l l s working a single claim and making infrequent v i s i t s to B a r k e r v i l l e saloons would be our choice of a t y p i c a l Cariboo miner. In Nelson, Kaslo, Slocan or Rossland "Mr. Average Man" must be a c i t y resident, energetic, ambitious, vigorous and adventurous. GVt likes to think of "Father Pat" of Rossland as representing the f i n e s t type of permanent s e t t l e r i n Kootenay. Rev. Henry Irwin of St. George's Anglican Church was well loved by everyone i n the entire Kootenay d i s t r i c t . Of this preacher, knowftas Father Pat, R.E.Gosnell was able to say: "Men of a l l creeds and n a t i o n a l i t i e s were within h i s f o l d . Hungry, he fed them; sick , he v i s i t e d them; homeless, he shel-tered them; distressed, he comforted them; dying, he was at (1) t h e i r bedside, praying f o r them". Though the leader of his congregation and the s p i r i t u a l friend of outcasts and others throughout the entire d i s t r i c t , Father Pat was s t i l l considered "one of the boys". He entertained them with a good song or spicy story. He tramped with them on hunting and f i s h i n g ex-peditions. He passed hours with them i n saloons, f o r he drank without apology. He was an expert boxer and could meet any man on any ground. Father Pat was held i n such great respect zh that, at h i s request, theatres and gambling dens closed at midnight on Saturday. In Rossland, the curtain has been rung down more than once at midnight i n the middle of a minstrel show or glee club performance and poker games have been stopped (1) R.E.Gosnell, Clipping i n J. Goodfellow c o l l e c t i o n . 119 while chips were s t i l l piled, high and glasses f u l l . The monu-ment, lamp and drinking fountain and the ambulance purchased i n 190E by c i t i z e n s of Rossland i n memory of Rev. H. Irwin ais tributes to a man who embodied a l l the q u a l i t i e s character-i s t i c of the f i n e s t Kootenay pioneers: e n e r g y v i r i l i t y , gen-er o s i t y , sympathy, friendliBSS, and honesty. We have seen i n progress three i n f l u x ' of American miners to B r i t i s h Columbia within f o r t y years. We have seen one di s -t r i c t , Cariboo, develop from a wilderness to a bus/ i n d u s t r i a l centre i n a space of a few years and then decay f o r s i x t y years. We have observed another d i s t r i c t , Kootenay, grow un-der pressure from America;,- into a t h r i v i n g mining, smelting and commercial centre, a focus of attention for the entire western world. Side by side with poorly controlled American camps, these B r i t i s h Columbia d i s t r i c t s on the American fron-t i e r moving east, remained orderly and safe. Trimble's sum-ming up of the difference between B r i t i s h and American commun-i t i e s i n regard to administration i s worth attention here. "Reviewing...the prominent features of the d i f f e r e n t governmental forms applied under the B r i t i s h and under the American auspices i n the mining advance, we see, on the one hand, government concentrated l a r g e l y i n the hands of an e f f i c i e n t executive, who made laws and or-ganised administration on summary methods; on the other, representative government, under hampering conditions, working t a r d i l y and p a i n f u l l y towards order, and meeting l o c a l or' occasional reinforcement. Under the former, society was from the f i r s t under control, and there was a tendency to r e s t r a i n individuals f o r the benefit of s o c i e t y — a r e s t r a i n t at times verging to over-repression; under the l a t t e r , individualism was feebly controlled from above, but had to generate within i t s e l f forces of order, and i t tended to undue license h u r t f u l to society. The Amerioan system developed a country the more s w i f t l y , the B r i t i s h the more safely. Under both systems strong men 120 labored courageously and w e l l to adjust forms of order to unorganized society." f l ) In the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century, merging of the B r i t i s h miners' movement from A u s t r a l i a and South A f r i c a and of the American rushes from C a l i f o r n i a and the north-western states was centred i n - B r i t i s h Columbia. Two unlike sections of the Anglo-Saxon race were assimilated i n a geogra-phic a r i a which tested the strength and endurance of i t s i n - . habitants.: Two systems of government, two sources of c a p i t a l , and two s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s were mingled i n Cariboo and Kootenay mining towns. /Competition and c o n f l i c t between B r i t i s h and American methods were soon replaced by the as s i m i l a t i o n of the two and the b i r t h of a new type of f r o n t i e r town which could not only attr a c t the attention of the whole world to B r i t i s h Columbia and ensure good communication f a c i l i t i e s f o r the region but which could also induce permanent s e t t l e r s to build i n the province t h e i r pioneer homes. 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY A MANUSCRIPTS. CORRESPONDENCE IN B. G. ARCHIVES OF: BALL, Henry M., 1867-1871 BEGBIE, Matthew B., 1861-1869 BIRCH, A.N., 1866 BREW, Chartres, 1867-1871 COX, W. G., 1863-1867 GAGGIN, J.Boies, 1865-1866 HAYNES, John C. 1864-1871 HOMER, J.A.R., 1866-1868 TRUTCH, Joseph, 1864-1865 COCKBURN, G. H., "An Essay on the Source Material of B r i t i s h Columbia Church History", MS.;,, U.B.C. essay, 1934. THRUPP, Sylv i a , L., "A History of the Cranbrook D i s t r i c t i n East Kootenay", MS, 'U.B.C.Thesis, 1929. B PERSONAL CONVERSATIONS AND CORRESPONDENCE: BINGAY, T.W., formerly Vice-President of T r a i l Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., January, 1935. DALZIEL, Brigadier Albert E., Salvation Army, Vancouver, February, 1935. de PENCIER, Archbishop A.U., Vancouver, January, 1935. ELLETSON, W.A., Rossland Miner Limited, January, 1935. GOODFELLOW, Rev. John, Princeton, January-March, 1935. • GRAHAM, Ven, Archdeacon, Nelson, March, 1935. LAMB, Dr. K., P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , November, 1934-March, 1935. Le BOUREAIS, Louis, Quesnel, July 1931-March, 1935. MAYNARD, A.H., V i c t o r i a , Mary 1931-December 1934. MacINTYRS, Rev. A. K., Rossland, February, 1935. McKENZIE, Rev. J. C , Nelson, February, 1935. NEWCOMBE, W. A., V i c t o r i a , November 1934-March, 1935. NICHOL, Rev. T.M., Vancouver, January, 1935. PAYNE;- F.F., Nelson Daily News, January, 1935. PROUD, E.B., B. C. Forest Branch, Department of Lands, Marchl935 REYNOLDS, Rev. G.A., V i c t o r i a , January 1935, V;i.-\ SOLLY, Rev. H.A., West Summerland, February, 1935. SPOFFORD, Mrs. C., V i c t o r i a , February, 1935. STEWART, G.E., S t a t i s t i c i a n , B.C.Department of Agriculture, March, 1935. WALKER, John F. Mineralogist, B.C.Department of Mines, February^aa WHITE, Dr.J.H., Sardis, February, 1935. WILSON, Rev. G.A., Vancouver, January, 1935. 122 C OFFICIAL DOCIMEM3S BLUE BOOKS, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1859-1870. MS i n B.C.Archives. EDUCATION, B.C.Department of, Manual of the School Law, Govern-ment Pr i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1901. THE GOVERNMENT GAZETTE, B r i t i s h Columbia, Vol.1.-Vol.10, 1863-1871, Royal Engineer Press, New Westminster. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, Debate on the subject of confederation with Canada, King's Printer,. V i c t o r i a , 1912. MINES, B.C.Department of, Placer Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n No.l, 1931, King's Printer, V i c t o r i a , 1931. PROCLAMATIONS of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1864. MS i n B.C.Archives. SESSIONAL PAPERS of B r i t i s h Columbia, King's Printer, V i c t o r i a , 1872-1912. D NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS Collections of newspaper clippings and magazineearticles i n B. C. Archives under headings, Cariboo, Kootenay, Mining. C o l l e c t i o n of clippings i n possession of Rev. John Good- fellow, Princeton, B.C. BOUNDARY CREEK TIMES, Greenwood, September 12, 1896-January 21, 1899. THE CALGARY HERALD, Calgary, Febroary 28, 1925. THE CARIBOO SENTINEL, Barkerville,'June 6, 1865-October 28, 1871. THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1926. R.L.Reid, The F i r s t Bank i n Western  Canada. 5HE DAILY BRITISH COLONIST, V i c t o r i a , December 11, 1863-December 9, 1871. THE MINER, Nelson, August 19, 1893- May 7, 1898. THE MINER, Rossland, March 23, 1895-December 21, 1895. THE NELSON DAILY MINER, Nelson, May 10, 1898-April 20,1902. OREGON HISTORICAL QUARTERLY, University of Oregon, Salem, September, 1926. T . C . E l l i o t t , " I n the Land of the Kootenai" THE REVELSTOKE REVIEW, Revelstoke, May, 1932. " THE ROSSLANDER, Rossland, January 5, 1897-July 12, 1898. THE ROSSLAND MINER, January 1, 1896-December 31, 1898. THE TIMES, Rossland, October 30, 1897-January 18, 1899. THE TRAIL DAILY TIMES, T r a i l , November g, 1934. THE TRIBUNE, Nelson, January 1, 1897-December 31, 1899. 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H.L., C.B., Report of - on B r i t i s h Colum- bia, L.B.Taylor, Ottawa, 1872. . L E E , J.A.and CLUTTERBUCK, W.J.,_B.C. 1887, A Ramble In B r i t i s h Colchis,, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1888. McNAUGHTON, Margaret, Overland to Cariboo, William Briggs, Toronto, 1896. MACFIE, Matthew, Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, Their History, Resources and Prospects,Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, London, 1865. MAYNE, Commander R.C., Four Years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  Vancouver Island, John Murray, Albemarle street, London, lata, METIN, Albert, La Colombie Britannique, L i b r a i r i e Armand Colin, Paris, 1908. 124 MORICE, Rev. A.G., The History of the northern I n t e r i o r  of B r i t i s h Columbia, William Briggs, Toronto, iy04. PlILLlPPSf WC-LLEY, Cl i v e , Gold. Gold, i n Cariboo: A Story  of Adventure i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Blaokie & Son, Limited, London, 1894. POCOCK, R.S. The Wolf T r a i l , Appleton, Hew York, 1923. A RETURNED DIGGER, Cariboo, the Newly Discovered Gold  F i e l d s of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Richest God Deposits;; i n  the World. Darton & Hodge, London, 1862,(Ed.6} Revelstoke Cit y Directory, 1898, Revelstoke C i t y Direc- tory, 1899, n.p. Revelstoke, 1898, 1899". Rossland Board of Trade, Rossland i n 1898, Grip P r i n t i n g and Publishing Company of Toronto, 1898. RUFENER, Louis, A. Money and Banking i n the United States. Riverside Press, Houghton M i f f l i n co., Cambridge, 1924. SAGE, Walter N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia, The University of Toronto Press, 'Toronto, 1930. " ST. BARBE, Charles, A History of' Nelson and West Kootenay, C.A.Rohrabaeher & Son, Nelson, 1897. ' ST. BARBE, Charles(Ed), The Kootenay Mines; The Miner P r i n t i n g and Publishing Co., Ltd., kelson, 189&. TRIMBLE, William J.,The Mining Advance into the Inland  Empire, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1914. VERNON, C.W. (Ed), Our Church i n Canada, The Church House, Toronto, 1933. WALKER, Henry Dfi R. Australasian Democracy, T. Fisher Union, London, JL897. o 

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