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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Amor DeCosmos : a British Columbia reformer 1931

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AMOR DEOOSMOS, A BRITISH COLUMBIA REFORMER by M a r g a r e t Ross A M O R D E C O S M O S . A B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A R E F O R M E R Margaret Ross (% . (L . A Thesis submitted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t for the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OP ARTS In the Department of HISTORY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1931. I U . B . C . LIBRARY f I CAT ^ei av - fa fa J I ACC. NO. 7sGi£> |  CONTENTS. Chapter '. . I. E a r l y L i f e and Training. Chapter I I . The Creation of Public Opinion, Chapter I I I . DeCosmos i n the Assembly. Chapter IV. The Struggle for Confederation, Chapter V. DeCosmos i n the House of Commons. Chapter VI. An Estimate of DeCosmos's Character and Work. Appendix A. L i s t s of the Members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1867-1871. Bibliography. - Chapter I- Early L i f e and Training. The h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia has been written so often on the theory that a l l that i s good i n the province i s a legacy from the men who came out i n the interests of the Hud- son's Bay Company that t h i s f a l l a c y has become the b e l i e f of most people. Strangely enough l i t t l e consideration has been given to the great f i e l d of the influence of the Eastern B r i - t i s h North American provinces upon the West. B r i t i s h Columbi- ans have ignored the fact that the great story of a l l B r i t i s h provinces has been the f i g h t f o r responsible government, and that B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island do not d i f f e r from the remainder of Canada i n t h i s respect. Since they have i g - nored th i s fact i t i s only natural that they should also have ignored the men who fought f o r these p r i n c i p l e s . Where would these men come from who fought for p o l i - t i c a l freedom i n the most western of the provinces? It i s not to be expected that the Great Monopoly would provide them, i n - terested as i t was, only i n p r o f i t s ; nor the s e t t l e r s who came from England, r a r e l y unattached but rather servants of the Hud- son's Bay Company. Nor would they be expected to come from C a l i f o r n i a , among the mixed group who were attracted by gold, and who stayed i n many cases to trade. Instead i t was from the Eastern provinces that they came, from the Canadas and the Maritimes; the provinces where responsible government had been 2 contended f o r during h a l f a century. The f i r s t of these men to f i g h t f o r B r i t i s h p r i v i l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia came from Nova Scotia, the f i r s t province to win responsible government, and to win i t by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means. It i s possible then to trace the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f i g h t of B r i t i s h Columbia to the i n - fluence of Nova Scotia and Joseph Howe on t h i s man, Amor DeCos- mos. Nova Scotia from 1830 l i v e d i n a turmoil of p o l i t i c a l events, a l l centring around that great p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e , Joseph Howe. As a newspaper man, he was interested i n p o l i t i c s from an early age, and i n 1835 entered into them a c t i v e l y . His f i r s t public appearance, however, was connected with the famous l i b e l case, where he upheld the freedom of the press as he was l a t e r to uphold the freedom of the people. Prom 1835 u n t i l 1848 Howe was never i d l e i n the f i g h t for responsible govern- ment and, through his personality and magnetism, a l l Nova Sco- t i a became v i t a l l y interested i n the question. A great deal of t h i s i n t e r e s t was due, of course, to the able opponents of Howe who upheld the old order. Such men as Johnston and such gover- nors as Falkland could not f a i l to a t t r a c t a people n a t u r a l l y p o l i t i c a l l y - m i n d e d . Imagine, therefore, t h i s atmosphere of Interest i n p o l i t i c a l matters--wlth s t i r r i n g events and great speeches to win the attention of a l l Nova Scotia. A c h i l d born i n a fami- l y which took any in t e r e s t at a l l i n p o l i t i c s , and brought up near the scene of Howe's labours would undoubtedly hear much of t h i s great figure and his able opponents, and the p r i n c i p l e s ?3 for which he was f i g h t i n g . Such was the background of William Alexander Smith, or as he was l a t e r known, Amor DeCosmos. His family was of old Puritan stock who had fought with Cromwell i n the days of the C i v i l War, had l e f t Derbyshire for the American Colonies, 1 and a f t e r the War of Independence had se t t l e d i n Nova Scotia. His origins are almost a r e p l i c a of Howe's, h i s parents proba- b l y held the same b e l i e f s as Howe and therefore he would be brought up i n an atmosphere favourable to responsible govern- ment . Born i n 1825, he attended Windsor Academy, a private school, u n t i l 1840, when he entered the employ of a firm of wholesale merchants, Charles Whitman Company, i n Halifax. Consequently he was i n Halifax, at the centre of the p o l i t i c a l struggle i n the most c r u c i a l years of Howe's p o l i t i c a l career. Moreover he was a member of the Dalhousie Debating Club which a c t i v e l y discussed the p o l i t i c a l questions of the day. Like Howe he l e f t school early, but he attended the night school of John S. Thompson while working i n Hal i f a x . He, l i k e Howe,'must have read much i n h i s spare time, since i n his l a t e r writing he showed a good knowledge.of l i t e r a t u r e . This f a c t was remarked on by a man who knew him l a t e r . "He was wide-minded, yet methodically laborious, and a master of 1. Boggs, Beaumont - What I remember of Hon. Amor DeCosmos. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association Report, 1929. IP. &f. B. C. Archives - Library of L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, No. 3, 1910. Some jottings supposedly written by DeCosmos's brother. 4 d e t a i l s ; a great reader, c h i e f l y hut not exclusively, i n the l i n e s of History and P o l i t i c s . He made no parade i n conversa-* ti o n of what he knew. Only by some Incidental a l l u s i o n would you become aware of h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with Shakespeare and 1 Scott." It i s d i f f i c u l t of course to trace the d i r e c t i n f l u - ence of one man on another when there i s no evidence of any d i - rect contact between them and when t h e i r work i s c a r r i e d on i n places many miles distant from each other. Nevertheless i t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g speculation and i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the case of Howe's influence on DeCosmos a f t e r he l e f t Nova Scotia. It i s easy to show by a comparison of t h e i r two careers many points of s i m i l a r i t y - - s o many that i t seems obvious that the • older man influenced the younger. It i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to prove by d i r e c t references of DeCosmos that he consciously re- a l i z e d the influence of Howe though i n many of his e d i t o r i a l s one recognizes.marked resemblances between the ideas and lan- guage of both. It i s f a r easier to f i n d references that show the i n - fluence of Nova Scotia. On occasion, he speaks of the lack of an Executive Council " s i m i l a r to those of Nova Scotia, Canada, • 2. etc." Nova Scotia Is put f i r s t not Canada. Again he quotes an a r t i c l e from the Globe, St. John, New Brunswick, of July, 1859, which remarks on the Colonist's f i g h t against Douglas and which compares the s i t u a t i o n there to that i n the eastern 1. Sproat, G i l b e r t M. - Amor DeCosmos, A Singular Figure i n B r i t i s h Columbia'Politics. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, Jan. 19, 1906. 2. B r i t i s h Colonist — Feb. 5, 1859. 5 1 province before responsible government. Here again there seems to be a close l i n k between the colony on the P a c i f i c and those on the A t l a n t i c . The most d i r e c t reference to Howe i s i n the matter of a governor f o r the isla n d . Grant says that he attempted to get the governorship of the P a c i f i c colony on one of h i s v i s i t s to 2 England. " There evidently was some truth i n the story since the rumour reached Vancouver Island. DeCosmos mentions i t i n the Colonist, saying "he would be the ri g h t man i n the r i g h t ' 3 place." To the former Nova Scotian, no man could be a better governor of the young colony which was struggling towards res- ponsible government than the man who had done most to win i t i n his own province. Both the papers i n V i c t o r i a , i n writing about DeCos- mos af t e r h i s death mentioned t h i s influence of Howe. The Colonist declared "the h i s t o r y of th i s rugged and courageous pioneer shows that he brought from h i s Nova Scotia birthplace a great deal of the same kind of f i r e that burned i n the breast • 4 of Joseph Howe." The Times d e f i n i t e l y said that during h i s early l i f e i n Nova Scotia he chose Joseph Howe for h i s p o l i t i - '5 c a l mentor. 1. B r i t i s h Colonist - Aug. 26, 1859. 2. Grant, W. L. - The Tribune of Nova Scotia. Chroni- cles of Canada Series, V o l . 26. Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Company, 1922. <P. • 3. B r i t i s h Colonist - Oct. 5, 1859.. 4. Daily Colonist - July 6, 1897, 5. Daily Times - July 5, 1897-. 6 DeCosmos r e m a i n e d i n H a l i f a x u n t i l 1851, b u t l i k e many a n o t h e r a m b i t i o u s y o u ng man o f t h e p e r i o d he p r o b a b l y de- c i d e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be more scope f o r h i s t a l e n t s i n a new c o u n t r y where t h e r e w o u l d be t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o b u i l d up p o l i - t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n h i m s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n t o be a mere s p e c t a t o r o f s u c h work. J u s t a t t h i s t i m e t h e g r e a t g o l d r u s h h a d r e a c h e d i t s p e a k i n C a l i f o r n i a a n d t h e r e w o u l d be an a d d e d i n d u c e m e n t f o r a d v e n t u r e — t h e c h a n c e o f m a k i n g a f o r t u n e . T h e r e f o r e i n 1851 he s t a r t e d f o r C a l i f o r n i a . He c h o s e the, more d i f f i c u l t i r o u t e a c r o s s l a n d a n d s t a r t i n g f r o m New Y o r k he went b y way o f t h e M i s s o u r i R i v e r t o S t . L o u i s where he j o i n e d a c a r a v a n . T h i s c a r a v a n was a t t a c k e d b y I n d i a n s , p a r t o f t h e company b e i n g k i l l e d , and t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s l o s t . He f i n a l l y r e a c h e d S a l t L a k e C i t y where he s p e n t t h e w i n t e r . The s t o r y i s t o l d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e seems l i t t l e f o u n - d a t i o n f o r i t , t h a t he j o i n e d t h e Mormons t h e r e and l a t e r h a d t r o u b l e w i t h B r i g h a m Young. He was s u p p o s e d t o h a v e d e c i d e d t o l e a v e t h e c i t y - - a n a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e f e a t i n t h o s e d a y s . He, however, i s s a i d t o be one o f t h e few men t h a t e v e r d i d . Whether t h e s t o r y i s t r u e o r n o t , he l e f t S a l t L a k e C i t y i n 1853 and c r o s s e d t h e S i e r r a Nevada M o u n t a i n s . L e a v i n g h i s p a r t y a n d p u s h i n g on a l o n e , he r e a c h e d P l a c e r v i l l e , E l d o r a d o C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a , i n J u n e , 1853, H a v i n g r e a c h e d C a l i f o r n i a , he does n o t seem t o h a v e a t t e m p t e d any g o l d m i n i n g a t f i r s t . He h a d b r o u g h t w i t h h i m a camera an d d a g u e r r o t y p e s t o c k and i t seems t h a t i t must h a v e b e e n h i s i n t e n t i o n t o go i n t o t h i s b u s i n e s s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . A t any r a t e , he was w i s e i n h i s c h o i c e and p r o b a b l y f o u n d i t f a r more p r o f i t a b l e an u n d e r t a k i n g t h a n m i n i n g . He t r a v e l l e d f r o m one end o f C a l i f o r n i a t o a n o t h e r , t a k i n g p i c t u r e s o f m i n e r s and t h e i r c l a i m s , and c h a r g i n g t w e n t y d o l l a r s a p i c t u r e . He f i n a l l y s e t t l e d i n O r v i l l e , B u t e C o u n t y , and t o o k up m i n i n g , t r a d i n g , and s p e c u l a t i o n . He was a l s o s a i d t o be p r o m i n e n t i n 1 t h e C o u n c i l s o f t h e V i g i l a n t e s . I t was w h i l e he was i n C a l i f o r n i a t h a t he h a d h i s name c h a n g e d b y a n a c t o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . T h i s a c - t i o n on h i s p a r t h a s b e e n t h e c a u s e o f much c o n t r o v e r s y and e v e r y r e a s o n h a s b e e n g i v e n f o r t h e change o f name. Some sug- g e s t t h a t t h e t r o u b l e he s u p p o s e d l y h a d w i t h t h e Mormons made t h e change n e c e s s a r y . O t h e r s s a y t h a t he was i n c r i m i n a t e d i n s o m e t h i n g he h a d t o do w i t h t h e V i g i l a n t e s C ommittees and f e l t 2 t h a t i t was s a f e r t o change h i s name. B o t h t h e s e r e a s o n s seem t o r e s t on a f a l l a c y - - t h a t t h e name S m i t h w o u l d be e a s y t o de- t e c t . I t seems more s e n s i b l e f o r a man who f e a r e d t h e c o n s e - quence o f some p a s t m i s d e e d t o r e m a i n u n d e r . t h e common name o f W i l l i a m A l e x a n d e r S m i t h . Why w o u l d any s u c h man change h i s name t o Amor DeCosmos? A name w h i c h b y i t s v e r y s t r a n g e n e s s w o u l d a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n t o i t s owner? The more l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n and t h e one w h i c h seems 1. B a n c r o f t , H e r b e r t H. - P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l s . V o l s . 36, 37. B a n c r o f t ' s Works. San F r a n c i s c o , 1887. T h e s e b o o k s d e a l i n d e t a i l w i t h t h e C o u n c i l s b u t t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f DeCosmos. 2. Bogg's, Beaumont - Op. C i t . I n t h i s work . he g i v e s t h e f i r s t r e a s o n . I n c o n v e r s a t i o n he s u g g e s t e d t h e o t h e r r e a s o n . 8 t h e most a u t h e n t i c , i s t h a t he f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e t h i s 1 m a i l and d e c i d e d t o change h i s name t o s a v e t r o u b l e . The c u r i - ous t h i n g a b o u t t h e m a t t e r i s n o t why he d i d i t b u t t h e name he c h o s e . N o t h i n g c o u l d be a f i n e r commentary on t h e man's whole c h a r a c t e r t h a n t h i s . H e r e was a man o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y a b i l i t y , a s he p r o b a b l y f e l t , b l e s s e d w i t h t h e most o r d i n a r y name p o s - s i b l e . He f e l t t h a t he was d e s t i n e d t o a c c o m p l i s h much and t h a t he s h o u l d h a v e a name w h i c h w o u l d h e l p t o i m p r e s s h i s c h a r a c t e r on p e o p l e s ' m i n d s . What c o u l d be a b e t t e r c h o i c e t h a n Amor De- Cosmos? I t was o r i g i n a l , no o t h e r man w o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y h a v e t h e same name. T h e r e f o r e , he w o u l d s t a n d o u t f r o m t h e r e s t o f h i s f e l l o w m e n as i n d i v i d u a l . A t t h e same t i m e i t was a p p r o p r i - a t e — " L o v e r o f t h e W o r l d " - - a f i t t i n g t i t l e f o r t h e man who was t o s t r u g g l e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m o f h i s "2 c o u n t r y m e n . The m e c h a n i c a l means b y w h i c h h i s name was c h a n g e d were v e r y s i m p l e . The r e a s o n s were n o t g i v e n b u t t h e d e l e g a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e S e n a t e r e f e r r e d t h e b i l l r e g a r d i n g t h e change o f name d e c l a r e d " t h a t t h e y h a v e t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d h a v i n g g o o d and s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n s a d d u c e d t o s a t i s f y them ' 3 o f t h e j u s t n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s e d change o f name," recommended 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A u g . 11, 1860. : , S p r o a t , G i l b e r t , M. - Op. C i t . 2. C f . Sage, W a l t e r N. •-- S i r James D o u g l a s and B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1930. P. 209. 3. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t u t e s -- 1854. P. 176. Q u o t e d i n a l e t t e r f r o m t h e S a c r e m e n t o L i b r a r y . Mr. F e r g u s o n , S t a t e L i b r a r i a n t o Mr. ' B o g g s . P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , B. C. 9 t h a t t h e h i l l be p a s s e d . T h i s was done, F e b r u a r y 16, 1854. I n 1858, he l e f t C a l i f o r n i a f o r t h e n o r t h on t h e news o f t h e g o l d r u s h t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . He r e a c h e d V i c t o r i a , b u t i n s t e a d o f l e a v i n g f o r t h e m a i n l a n d , he d e c i d e d t h a t he w o u l d s e t t l e t h e r e , . H© a t o nce r e t u r n e d t o t h e s o i i t h , s o l d o u t h i s i n t e r e s t s t h e r e and a g a i n r e a c h e d V i c t o r i a i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f J u n e . DeCosmos h a d "been on A m e r i c a n s o i l f o r s e v e n y e a r s \ and he h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d b y A m e r i c a n i d e a s — n o t t o embrace them b u t r a t h e r t o b i n d h i m e v e n more c l o s e l y t o B r i t i s h i d e a s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . H i e f e e l i n g s a b o u t some o f t h e A m e r i c a n b e l i e f s may be shown i n an e d i t o r i a l on t h e F u g i t i v e S l a v e C a s e . A n e g r o b o y e s c a p e d f r o m h i s m a s t e r and r e a c h e d V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d where he c l a i m e d h i s f r e e d o m s i n c e he was on B r i t i s h s o i l . The A m e r i c a n s p r o t e s t e d . DeCosmos s a i d , " p o s - s i b l y t h e i s l a n d and a l l w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t a c k e d w i t h a w r i t o f ' c a t c h t h e n e g r o w o r s h i p p e r s , ' a n d towed o v e r t o P u g e t Sound as a f u g i t i v e f r o m ' m a n i f e s t d e s t i n y : ' and e r e t h i s i t i s p r e - sumed we ' s u b j e c t s ' w o u l d have b e e n metamorphosed i n t o ' s o v e - r e i g n s ' , and who knows w h e t h e r we w o u l d n o t , as s o v e r e i g n s , have a s p i r e d t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f s u b j e c t s , even i f t h e y w e r e — to u s e t h e v e r n a c u l a r o f o u r c o n t e m p o r a r y — ' d a n d y n e g r o e s ? ' But l u c k i l y enough we were p r e s e r v e d f r o m t h e modern i n t e r p r e - t a t i o n o f t h e r e p u b l i c a n d o c t r i n e t h a t ' a l l men a r e b o r n f r e e and e q u a l , • t h e a l l men somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l l y m e a n i n g w h i t e 1 men o n l y . " 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 4, 1860. As h a s b e e n s a i d , t h e s e y e a r s o f a b s e n c e h a d n o t weaned h i m f r o m h i s l o y a l t y t o o r h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a d m i r a - t i o n o f B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . As s o o n a s he s e t t l e d i n V i c t o r - i a , he a c q u a i n t e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c s i t u - a t i o n , a n d w a s t e d no t i m e i n b e g i n n i n g -his c a r e e r o f r e f o r m . So f a r one c a n d i s c o v e r no i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e i n - f l u e n c e s t h a t c a u s e d h i m t o t a k e up n ewspaper work, o r a s t o w h e t h e r he h a d h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s t y p e o f work. N e v e r t h e l e s s he i m m e d i a t e l y commenced a p a p e r o f w h i c h he was b o t h p r o p r i e t o r a n d e d i t o r , and on December 11, 1858, t h e f i r s t number o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t a p p e a r e d - - t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h he was t o b e g i n h i s a t t a c k on p r i v i l e g e a s shown i n t h e Hudson's Ba y Company monopoly, and h i s f i g h t f o r B r i t i s h i n s t i - t u t i o n s . T h i s was n o t t h e f i r s t p a p e r p u b l i s h e d on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . A s e a r l y as J u n e , 1858, t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e h a d b e e n s t a r t e d b y C a l i f o r n i a p u b l i s h e r s . A s i t was p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e f o r t one may be s u r e t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e o f a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e i n i t . T h i s p a p e r l a s t e d u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f 1859. T h e r e were o t h e r p a p e r s w h i c h h a d a s p o r a d i c e x i s t e n c e , t h e Van- c o u v e r I s l a n d G a z e t t e and a F r e n c h p a p e r , L a C o u r i e r de l a Nou- v e l l e C a l e d o n i e , b u t n e i t h e r o f them l a s t e d much more t h a n a 1 y e a r . I t c a n be s a i d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l o - n i s t , DeCosmos h a d e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t i n d e p e n d e n t and c o n - t i n u o u s j o u r n a l on t h e n o r t h e r n P a c i f i c c o a s t . A s h a d b e e n 1. F o r s y t h , J . - The P i o n e e r P r e s s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i - a t i o n R e p o r t , 1923. T p. a2~J*f. shown so many t i m e s b e f o r e , he was now t o show a g a i n , t h a t w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e n l i g h t e n e d p r e s s b e g i n s a l s o f r e e d i s - c u s s i o n a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n a word j o u r - n a l i s m i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a h a s a l w a y s p r e c e d e d and c r e a t e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t w i t h i n a y e a r o f t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e C o l o n i s t , t h e f i r s t n e w spaper i n t h e Red R i v e r c o l o n y was s t a r t e d , t o be p u b l i s h e d e v e r y two weeks. L i k e t h e C o l o n i s t , i t was b e g u n b y men f r o m t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s — t w o j o u r n a l i s t s , B u c k i n g h a m an d C a l d w e l l f r o m O n t a r i o . I t was c a l l e d t h e N o r ' W e s t e r and, l i k e t h e C o l o n i s t , i t "was d e s t i n e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n o p p o s i n g t h e Hudson's Bay Company." I n two y o u n g c o l o n i e s t h e r e b e g a n a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e t h e same s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e Hudson's Bay Company, i n e a c h c a s e s p o n s o r e d b y a n e wspaper begun t h r o u g h t h e work o f men f r o m t h e o l d e r c o l o n i e s t o t h e e a s t . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t any r a t e , t h e e d i t o r o f i t s n e w s p a p e r was n o t unaware o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m s and o f t h e r o a d t o a s o l u t i o n . I n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , DeCosmos m e n t i o n s an a r t i c l e o f James R o s s i n t h e H a l t o n J o u r n a l , T o r o n t o , J u l y 16, 1859, i n w h i c h he r e m a r k s on t h e l a c k o f a newspaper i n t h e Red R i v e r c o l o n y b e c a u s e o f Hud- " * 2 s o n ' s Bay Company o p p o s i t i o n . Though t h i s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n b e f o r e t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e N o r ' W e s t e r , t h e f a c t t h a t DeCosmos r e m a r k s on i t shows t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f an o u t - 1. Begg, A l e x a n d e r - H i s t o r y o f . t h e N o r t h West. T o r o n t o , H u n t e r , Rose and Company, 1894. V o l . 1, P. 325. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 13, 1859. l e t f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n b o t h c o l o n i e s . - C h a p t e r I I - The C r e a t i o n o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n . I n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e n a t u r e and s c o p e o f DeCos- mos' s work i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t t h i s t i m e . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d h a d become a c o l o n y w i t h t h e Crown g r a n t t o t h e Hudson's Ba y Company i n 1849. The g r a n t was made t o t h e Company on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e y e n c o u r a g e s e t t l e - ment. The Crown h a d t h e r i g h t t o r e v o k e t h e g r a n t i n f i v e y e a r s i f t h e r e were no s e t t l e m e n t . I t c o u l d r e c o v e r t h e i s l a n d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e Company's l i c e n s e o f ex- c l u s i v e t r a d e i n 1859, I f i t c a r e d t o . d o so, on payment t o t h e Company o f t h e money a c t u a l l y e xpended b y i t f o r t h e upkeep p f t h e c o l o n y . I n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e s e t t l e m e n t t h e Company was t o s e l l l a n d a t a f a i r p r i c e and t o u s e t h e money t h u s r e c e i v e d ( a f t e r d e d u c t i n g t e n p e r c e n t f o r i t s s e r v i c e s ) f o r t h e c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y e x p e n s e s ( e x c e p t d u r i n g w a r - t i m e ) o f t h e government, and f o r p u b l i c i m p r o v e m e n t s . I t was a l s o t o s e t a s i d e a r e - 1 s e r v e o f l a n d f o r c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a n a v a l s t a t i o n . On t h e f a c e o f t h i n g s , i f t h e Company f o l l o w e d t h e t e r m s o f t h e g r a n t t h e r e was a f a i r p r o s p e c t f o r a f l o u r i s h i n g c o l o n y i n a few y e a r s . A s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , however, t h e Com- pany d i d l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o e n c o u r a g e s e t t l e m e n t . I n t h e 1. G o s n e l l , R. E . - C o l o n i a l H i s t o r y , 1849-1871. Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s , V o l . 21. P. 80. f i r s t p l a c e t h e p r i c e o f l a n d was s e t a t a p ound an a c r e . P o r e v e r y one h u n d r e d a c r e s t h a t a s e t t l e r b o u g h t he h a d t o b r i n g o u t f i v e men o r t h r e e s e t t l e r s . T h e s e two s t i p u l a t i o n s meant t h a t o n l y t h e r i c h e s t was a b l e t o come t o t h e c o l o n y as an i n - d e p e n d e n t s e t t l e r . To make i n d e p e n d e n t s e t t l e m e n t e v e n more d i f f i c u l t , t h e Company c a r e f u l l y s e t a s i d e a l l l a n d w i t h i n t e n 1 m i l e s o f V i c t o r i a f o r i t s own u s e . A g a i n t h e o n l y p l a c e where s e t t l e r s c o u l d b u y t h e i r s u p p l i e s was a t t h e Company s t o r e a n d $ a c c o r d i n g t o G o v e r n o r B l a n ^ h a r d t h e m o n o p o l y p r i c e s were t h r e e 2 t i m e s t h o s e o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d when t h e s e t t l e r came t o s e l l h i s p r o d u c e he f o u n d t h a t he h a d t o a c c e p t what t h e Company w o u l d p a y . A n y a t t e m p t a t i n d e p e n d e n t t r a d i n g was q u i c k l y s m o t h e r e d b y t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e M o n o p o l y an d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t " 3 l o s s e s t o g a i n t h e i r end. W i t h a l l t h e s e d i s a b i l i t i e s a g a i n s t s e t t l e m e n t and t r a d e i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t few i m m i g r a t e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e c o l o n y was l a c k i n g i n t h e t y p e o f c i t i z e n w h i c h makes up t h e b a c k b o n e o f any f r o n t i e r s e t t l e - 1. G o s n e l l , R... E . - Op. C i t . P. 81. 2. I b i d - P. 91. R e p o r t - P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t , B.C., 1913. C o o p e r g r u m b l e d a b o u t p r i c e p a i d f o r sheep." D o u g l a s t o T o l m i e , M a r c h 27, 1852. 3. G o s n e l l , R. E . - Op. C i t . P. 83. C o o p e r a t t e m p t e d t r a d - i n g i n c r a n b e r r i e s w i t h I n d i a n s on m a i n - l a n d f o r s a l e i n San F r a n c i s c o . The H.. B. Co. p r e v e n t e d b y b u y i n g t h e s e p r o - d u c t s f r o m t h e I n d i a n s a t e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e s . m e n t - - t h e i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m e r and s e c o n d l y , t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s m e r c h a n t o r t r a d e r . What s e t t l e r s t h e r e were i n any number were b r o u g h t o u t b y t h e Company t o ..work on i t s f a r m s a n d t h e y were feetu t d l y tnMchtsh-tiue.^c<sc( ' Vy It, C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e h a d grown up on t h e i s l a n d a s o c i - e t y o v e r s h a d o w e d b y a g r e a t M o n o p o l y w h i c h was i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n f u r t r a d e and n o t a t a l l i n s e t t l e m e n t , e x c e p t a s a c o r o l l a - r y o f t h e f u r t r a d e . The men who r u l e d t h e c o l o n y f r o m c o u n c i l o r f r o m t h e b e n c h were i n some way c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e Company. I n s t e a d o f an a c t i v e b o d y o f c i t i z e n s w h i c h i n a new c o u n t r y s h o u l d t a k e an i n t e r e s t and have a v o i c e i n t h e l a w m a k i n g o f t h e c o l o n y , t h e r e was a l r e a d y an o l i g a r c h y , b a s e d n o t on a r i s - t o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n s b u t on Company i n f l u e n c e and p o s i t i o n . So o b v i o u s was t h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n l a w m a k i n g t h a t t h e r e was no a g i t a t i o n f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s h a d b e e n t h e c a s e I n t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h N o r t h Amer- i c a . As l a t e a s 1856, when r e s p o n s i b l e g o vernment was won i n t h e e a s t , on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h e p e o p l e were t a c i t l y a c c e p t i n g t h e r u l e o f a g o v e r n o r , a i d e d and a d v i s e d b y a c o u n c i l , when he c h o s e t o c a l l i t . T h i s c o u n c i l was composed e n t i r e l y o f Hud- so n ' s B a y Company men, e x c e p t f o r Coo p e r and he l e f t t h e c o l o n y i n 1856. I t may be p r e s u m e d t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n w o u l d have c o n t i n u e d i n d e f i n i t e l y i f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y h a d n o t d i r e c t - l y i n s t r u c t e d G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s t o c a l l an a s s e m b l y , s i n c e he " d o u b t e d w h e t h e r t h e Crown l e g a l l y c o u l d c o n v e y a u t h o r i t y t o make l a w s i n a s e t t l e m e n t f o u n d e d b y E n s l i s h m e n , e v e n f o r a s p e c i a l and t e m p o r a r y p u r p o s e , t o any l e g i s l a t u r e n o t e l e c t e d , 1 w h o l l y o r I n p a r t b y t h e s e t t l e r s t h e m s e l v e s . " When G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s a t t e m p t e d t o c a r r y o u t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , i t was d i s - c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e were b a r e l y enough s e t t l e r s t o c o n s t i t u t e an a s s e m b l y and s t i l l more o b v i o u s was t h e d e a r t h o f v o t e r s . Nanaimo, f o r i n s t a n c e , h a d one v o t e and one member. I n t h e a s - sembly w h i c h was f i n a l l y f o r m e d t h e r e were o n l y two members who c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company. Su c h an A s s e m b l y c o u l d m e r e l y e x p r e s s t h e w i l l o f t h e C.i©mt>any, as embodied i n t h e G o v e r n o r . A t t h e same t i m e t h e C o u n c i l was d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r s i n c e he c o n - t i n u e d t o p r e s i d e o v e r i t when i t became a s e c o n d chamber. I t i s o b v i o u s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t n e i t h e r A s s e m b l y o r C o u n c i l r e p - r e s e n t e d t h e p e o p l e . When e v e r y b r a n c h o f l i f e was m o n o p o l i z e d by one Com- pany and i n many i n s t a n c e s one f a m i l y — s o much so t h a t t h e name Family-Company-Compact was g i v e n - - a n a t m o s p h e r e was c r e a t e d w h i c h d i s c o u r a g e d i f n o t made i m p o s s i b l e any q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e Company <©•£ t h e f a m i l y . I n f a c t t h e i r c o n d u c t came t o be c o n s i d e r e d a c r i t e r i o n t o be f o l l o w e d b y f u t u r e gov- ernments and r u l e r s . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e r e h a d been no a t t e m p t s a t c r i t i c i s m , b u t s u c h c r i t i c i s m h a d b e e n s p a s m o d i c and f e e b l e , l a c k i n g as i t d i d any o r g a n o f e x p r e s s i o n s u c h as a fr@@ p r e s s w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d . The h a n d o f an a r t i s t a t d e s t r u c t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , i f s u c h c o u l d be f o u n d , was n e e d e d t o a t t e m p t t o b i r e a k down t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t h a d b e e n r a i s e d b y 1. G o s n e l l , R. E . - Opi C i t . P. 111. D e s p a t c h , F e b r u a r y 28, 1856. fiabouchere t o D o u g l a s . The d e t a i l s were l e f t p u r p o s e l y vague s i n c e w i t h t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e e x c l u s i v e l i c e n s e o f t r a d e , t h e C r o w n . r e c e i v e d b a c k t h e I s l a n d . a m o n o p o l y w h i c h was r e t a r d i n g t h e g r o w t h o f t h e c o l o n y . How- e v e r , t h e p o i s o n h a d so p e r m e a t e d t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e i s l a n d t h a t n o t e v e n t h e g r e a t e s t o f r e f o r m e r s c o u l d h a v e c o m p l e t e l y e r a d i c a t e d i t . E v e n t o - d a y t h e r e i s s t i l l , i n c e r t a i n c i r c l e s i n V i c t o r i a , a r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e Company and t h e f a m i l y - - a r e v - e r e n c e w h i c h f r o w n s upon any a t t e m p t a t h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m o r e f f o r t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e b a s i s f o r o p p o s i t i o n t o m o n o p o l y . B u t t h e t r a n q u i l l i f e o f t h e i s l a n d was d e f i n i t e l y s h a t t e r e d when t h e g o l d r u s h t o t h e F r a s e r commenced i n 1858. V i c t o r i a , f r o m b e i n g a s m a l l f u r - t r a d i n g p o s t w i t h a few o u t - l y i n g f a r m s , s p r a n g i n t o p r o m i n e n c e as t h e s t e p p i n g - o f f p l a c e f o r t h e g o l d f i e l d s . O v e r n i g h t .the p l a c e was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t e e m i n g c i t y , w i t h p e o p l e c o m i n g and g o i n g p e r p e t u a l l y . As a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e r e was n e e d f o r s u p p l i e s o f e v e r y k i n d t o s a t - i s f y t h e m i n e r . The m o nopoly o f t h e Company was f i n a l l y b r o k e n i n t h e f i e l d o f g e n e r a l t r a d e , and p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s a p p e a r e d m i r a c u l o u s l y t o meet t h e g r o w i n g n e e d s o f t h e c o u n t r y . The p e o p l e who p o u r e d i n came p r i n c i p a l l y f r o m t h e l e s s a t t r a c t i v e g o l d f i e l d s o f C a l i f o r n i a and were o f a l l r a c e s and n a t i o n a l i - t i e s . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e m e r c h a n t s were, however, A m e r i - c a n s , and t h e s e were t o p r o v i d e t h e more permanent p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . These men were n o t as i n t e r e s t e d i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g overnment as i n a s t r o n g g o v e r n m e n t . So l o n g as t h e y were a b l e t o c a r r y on., and make money i n ; c o m p a r a t i v e s e c u r i t y ( f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t i n C a l i f o r n i a ) t h e y were c o n t e n t . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e A m e r i c a n s came, however, a number o f C a n a d i a n s and M a r i t i m e r s — m e n who h a d b e e n u s e d t o a v o i c e i n 18 t h e government a t home, who h a d i n many c a s e s h e l p e d t o w i n t h i s v o i c e , o r h a d a t l e a s t b e e n b r o u g h t up i n c o m m u n i t i e s : s t r u g g l i n g f o r r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e s e men were t h e men who were t o p r o v i d e t h e s p i r i t o f f r e e d o m and p r o g r e s s I n Van- c o u v e r I s l a n d a n d l a t e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e s e were t h e p i - o n e e r s o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , who, l i k e t h e p i o n e e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , were p u s h i n g t h e i r way a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t , c a r r y i n g w i t h them, n o t t h e r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l s , b u t t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . Among t h e s e men came Amor DeCosmos--a p i o n e e r f r o m Nova S c o t i a , t h e f i r s t c o l o n y t o w i n r e s p o n s i b l e government and a t t h e same t i m e t h e c o l o n y w h i c h was t h e c l o s e s t i n t r a d i t i o n t o New E n g l a n d . A man b r o u g h t up un- d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s c o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e t h e m o n o p o l y o f t h e Company,'the o l i g a r c h i c a l r u l e o f t h e Company's l e a d i n g f a m i l i e s — a n e v e n more h u m i l i a t i n g s i t u a t i o n t h a n r u l e b y an a r i s t o c r a t i c g o v e r n o r o f E n g l i s h no- b i l i t y — a n d t h e t o t a l l a c k o f any t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u - t i o n s . The f i r s t t h i n g t h a t DeCosmos d i d was t o b e g i n an a t - t a c k on t h e most i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i n t h e c o l o n y , D o u g l a s , t h e / G o v e r n o r . The t i m e was p a r t i c u l a r l y r i p e f o r a t t a c k . D o u g l a s w r o t e a d i s p a t c h , a t t e m p t i n g t o k e e p B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a monopo- 1 l y f o r t h e Company, an,}, as a r e s u l t , he h a d done h i s b e s t t o r u i n t h e c o l o n y ' s c h a n c e s o f b e c o m i n g a t h r i v i n g " n a t i o n " . T h i s d i s p a t c h was n u l l i f i e d b y t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . N e v e r - 1. May 8. 1858. t h e l e s s he i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a t a r i f f f o r a • c o l o n y w h i c h h a d no p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e c o m i n g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and m a k i n g V i c t o r i a t h e p o r t o f e n t r y f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n - 1 s t e a d o f some p l a c e on t h e m a i n l a n d . S i n c e D o u g l a s was v i r t u - a l l y t h e s o l e r u l e r o f t h e c o l o n y and was, a l o n e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l a c t s done t h e r e , DeCosmos f e l t t h a t he n e e d n o t h e s i t a t t o a t t a c k h i m d i r e c t l y . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e s e c o l o n i e s , .r G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s was n o t e q u a l t o t h e o c c a s i o n . He wanted t o 2 s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y w i t h h o n o u r ; and a t t h e same t i m e p r e s e r v e t h e g r a s p i n g i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Hudson's B a y Company i n v i o l a t e . I n t r y i n g t o s e r v e two m a s t e r s he was u n s u c c e s s f u l a s a s t a t e s - man. H i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was n e v e r m arked b y t h o s e b r o a d and c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w s o f government w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y t o t h e t i m e s and t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a g r e a t c o l o n y . I t a p p e a r e d s o r - d i d , was e x c l u s i v e and a n t i ^ B r i t i s h , and b e l o n g e d t o a p a s t 3 age." A l t h o u g h DeCosmos d e d i c a t e d h i s f i r s t e d i t o r i a l t o 1. P r o c l a m a t i o n s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1858-1865. D e c . 3, 1858. 2. M i n u t e s - House o f A s s e m b l y , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , 1856-1858. Memoir I I I . C o n f e r e n c e o f D o u g l a s w i t h A s s e m b l y and C o u n c i l , J u ne 18, 1858. P. 59. " D o u g l a s , him- s e l f , s a y s " t h a t he h a d b e e n a c t u a t e d b y m o t i v e s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t o do e v e r y j u s t i c e t o t h e H.B.Co., and, s e c o n d l y , t o promote b y e v e r y l e g i t i - mate means t h e w e l f a r e and p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e c o l o n y . " C o n s e q u e n t l y DeCos- mos i s g i v i n g D o u g l a s t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t b y p u t t i n g h i s c o n c e r n f o r h i s c o u n t r y f i r s t . 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 11, 1858. 20 c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h i s r e a l i n t e r e s t l a y i n V a n - c o u v e r I s l a n d , a n d he h a d no d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s c o v e r i n g much t o c r i t i c i z e t h e r e . He w a s t e d no t i m e i n u n e s s e n t i a l s b u t came im- m e d i a t e l y t o t h e c r u x o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e u n h e a l t h y i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Company i n e v e r y b r a n c h o f government, e x e c u t i v e , l e g i s - l a t i v e , and j u d i c i a l ; a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n D o u g l a s ' s l a t e c o n n e c - t i o n w i t h t h e Company; an A s s e m b l y w i t h o n l y two i n d e p e n d e n t members; and a j u d g e who was t a k e n f r o m t h e management o f a c o a l c o m p a n y ( c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e Hudson's Ba y Company)to s i t on t h e b e n c h , w i t h no l e g a l e x p e r i e n c e , and h i s s o l e c l a i m t o fame b e i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e g o v e r n o r . DeCosmos d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n i n words w h i c h must have e x p r e s s e d what t h e indepen=. d e n t and t h i n k i n g p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f e l t . " L o y a l t y , hon- e s t y and c o m p e t e n c y - - t h e t r i a d s t r e n g t h o f B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s , - - w h i c h c o u l d h a v e b e e n h a d f o r t h e a s k i n g — a r e b r a n d e d w i t h t h e mark o f i l l e g i t i m a c y , and o f f i c e s o f t h e c o l o n y f i l l e d w i t h t o a d y i s m , c o n s a n g u i n i t y , and i n c o m p e t e n c y , compounded w i t h 1 w h i t e - w a s h e d E n g l i s h m e n , and r e n e g a d e Y a n k e e s . " Though DeCosmos saw a t e m p o r a r y remedy f o r t h i s s i t u - a t i o n i n t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e t h e n G o v e r n o r , and i n an e l e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l ( t h e r e f o r m s t h a t t h e p e o p l e a s k e d ) ; he a r - gued t h a t a f a r b e t t e r s o l u t i o n t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e s e and one w h i c h c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e e v e n t h o u g h o t h e r t h i n g s r e m a i n e d as t h e y were, w o u l d be an e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l , s i t t i n g i n t h e Assem- 2 b l y and a c t i n g on i t s a d v i c e . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 18, 1858. 2. I b i d . I n an, e d i t o r i a l , DeCosmos d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e remedy. " I n t h e s e c o l o n i e s t h e g r e a t d e f e c t i n o u r own c o n - s t i t u t i o n l i e s i n t h e want o f an e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f Nova S c o t i a , Canada, e t c . W i t h o u t i t we c a n n e v e r make o u r r u l e r s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e p e o p l e f o r t h e i r p o l i c y and m e a s u r e s - - n o r c a n we e v e r e n j o y t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f b u r b i r t h - 1 r i g h t as B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . " DeCosmos f o u n d f a u l t w i t h t h e law c o u r t s , n o t o n l y on t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e j u d g e was i n c o m p e t e n t and i g n o r a n t b u t a l s o t h a t he was d e p e n d e n t f o r h i s l i v i n g , n o t on a s a l a r y , b u t on t h e f e e s o f t h e c o u r t . He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h i s h a d t h e e f f e c t o f l o w e r i n g t h e c o u r t t o t h e s p h e r e o f b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s ; " b u t we d e c i d e d l y o b j e c t t o t h i s , f o r anyone c a n see t h a t t h e p o s i - t i o n o f a p a r t n e r i n a m e r c a n t i l e f i r m and t h a t o f a j u d g e a r e n o t a t a l l synonymous, f o r i n t h e c a s e o f t h e m e r c h a n t t h e more i n t e r e s t he h a s t h e b e t t e r , w h i l e i n t h a t o f t h e j u d g e , i t i s ' 2 i n d i s p e n s a b l e t h a t he s h o u l d be e n t i r e l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d . " •A g r e a t f a u l t o f D o u g l a s ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as DeCos- mos saw i t , was h i s u s e o f p a t r o n a g e . S i n c e t h e r e were no t r a c e s o f r e s p o n s i b l e government, t h e whole blame f o r t h e m i s - u s e o f p a t r o n a g e r e s t e d on t h e G o v e r n o r ' s s h o u l d e r s . "He a l o n e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h e c o r r u p t i o n , p e c u l a t i o n , wrongs, o u t - r a g e s , d e p o p u l a t i o n , o b s t r u c t i o n s , m i s t a k e s , - - a n d l o s s e s , w h i c h have b e e n e n t a i l e d on t h e s e c o l o n i e s t h r o u g h c o r r u p t and u n f i t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 5, 1859. 2. I b i d - F e b . 19, 1859. 1 o f f i c i a l s . " The w o r s t example o f t h i s was shown i n t h e a p p o i n t ment t o t h e e l e c t i v e A s s e m b l y o f a member f o r Nanaimo. I n 1856 when t h e f i r s t A s s e m b l y was summoned, G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s and J o h n 2 Work a p p o i n t e d Kennedy as member f o r Nanaimo. They i m f o r m e d t h e o t h e r members t h a t t h e g r a n t o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company a u t h o r - i z e d t h e a p p o i n t m e n t . 3 "Here G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s h a s done what t h e Supreme E x e c u t i v e a n d L e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e n a t i o n d a r e 4 n o t do and t h e A s s e m b l y t a c i t l y c o n s e n t t o i t . " A s h o r t t i m e c a f t e r wards t h e A s s e m b l y c o u l d n o t do b u s i n e s s due t o a l a c k o f a quorum. DeCosmos s u g g e s t e d t h a t D o u g l a s m i g h t a p p o i n t new members. "The v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i s n o t h i n g . The members w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e no o b j e c t i o n s t o a few more ap- 5 p o i n t e e s : t h e p r e s e n t one i s s w a l l o w e d so e a s i l y . " I n May, 1859, owing t o t h e d e a t h o f Kennedy, a new e l e c t i o n was h e l d . B a r n s t o n o f V i c t o r i a , a l a w y e r , " b o r n , b r e d , r e a r e d , e d u c a t e d and l i v e s i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e Company", was n o m i n a t e d b y C a p t a i n S t u a r t , t h e o n l y e l e c t o r . H i s q u a l i - f i c a t i o n was t h r o u g h h o l d i n g l a n d b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Hudson's B a y Company, b y h o l d i n g t w e n t y - f i v e a c r e s o f h i s own l a n d a t N a n a i - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 12, 1859. 2. I b i d - F e b . 12, 1859. F o r m e r l y C h i e f F a c t o r . 3. I b i d - Dec. 27, 1858. 4. I b i d - J a n . 29, 1859. 5. I b i d - Mar. 19, 1859. 6. I b i d - June 1, 1859. L e t t e r f r o m an e l e c t o r a t Nanaimo t o t h e E d i t o r o f t h e B r i - t i s h C o l o n i s t , d e s c r i b i n g t h e e l e c - t i o n t h e r e . mo, a n d b y owning p r o p e r t y a t V i c t o r i a . The s e c o n d e r was M a l - colm, an a s s i s t a n t i n t h e H udson's Bay Company s t o r e a t N a n a i - 1 mo, and who was a n o n - e l e c t o r . Mr. B a r n s t o n n e v e r t o o k h i s s e a t , s i n c e he knew t h e e l e c t i o n was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . A t t h i s t h e A s s e m b l y , p o s s i b l y s p u r r e d on b y DeCos- mos' s c r i t i c i s m , a s k e d f o r a new w r i t f o r an e l e c t i o n i n Na- '2 n aimo. The r e s u l t was t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e c a p t a i n o f a Hud- son's B a y Company b o a t , w h i l e he was a b s e n t , b y one v o t e r . De- Cosmos s a i d he was e l e c t e d " n o t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p e o p l e o f Na- naimo, b u t t o m i s r e p r e s e n t them, t o r e n d e r t h e c o u n t r y s u p e r l a - t i v e l y r i d i c u l o u s . The h i s t o r i a n w i l l w r i t e t h e f a r c e down as t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y o f one, t h e m a j o r i t y o f one, t h e r e p r e s e n t a - t i v e o f one, and t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n was won b y G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s ' s 3 a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " Due t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Nanaimo, and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f g e t t i n g a quorum i n t h e A s s e m b l y , DeCosmos a d v o c a t e d a new f r a n c h i s e b i l l , g i v i n g a w i d e r and more e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and a t t h e same t i m e l o w e r i n g t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A new b i l l was s u g g e s t e d b u t i t w o u l d h a v e a f f o r d e d no remedy f o r Nanaimo, 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 27, 1859. 2. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e Book - House o f A s s e m b l y , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . 1856-1859. June 6, 1859. P. 108. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u l y 1, 1859. Swansoh, t h e member f o r Nanaimo was away on h i s b o a t , and n e v e r r e t u r n e d t o s i t i n t h e H o u s e . G o s n e l l , R. E . - - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Y e a r Book. V i c - t o r i a , B.C., 1897. P. 112. I n t h e l i s t o f members f o r t h e ;f:ir.s± a s s e m b l y f o r V a n c o u v e r I s - l a n d , 1856-1859, t h e r e i s no men- t i o n o f a member f o r Nanaimo. and I t gave an o v e r w h e l m i n g number o f s e a t s t o V a n c o u v e r I s - l a n d , o u t s i d e o f V i c t o r i a , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r h a d o v e r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e v o t e r s . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d r e f o r m b i l l s h o u l d n o t be c a l l e d a r e f o r m b i l l b u t "an a c t t o r e - s t r i c t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e Family-Company-Compact, and c o n t r a c t t h e e l e c t i v e f r a n c h i s e so as t o e n a b l e them t o mono- p o l i z e t h e government f o r t h r e e y e a r s l o n g e r f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d - ' 1 u a l a g g r a n d i z e m e n t a t t h e p u b l i c e x p e n s e . " Some o f h i s s a r c a s m must have o f f e n d e d D o u g l a s , b e - c a u s e t h e G o v e r n o r , w i t h no w a r n i n g , d e c l a r e d t h a t an o b s o l e t e s t a t u t e o f E n g l a n d , r e s t r i c t i n g t h e p r e s s , a p p l i e d a l s o t o t h e ' 2 c o l o n y . I n r e a l i t y , t h e c o l o n i e s were o n l y b o u n d b y t h o s e a c t w h i c h were d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o them o r d e f i n i t e l y d e c l a r e d t o a p p l y t o them. T h i s law, w h i c h h a d b e e n a p p l i e d i n a r e a c - t i o n a r y p e r i o d o f E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e e d i t o r o f a p a p e r must d e p o s i t a sum o f m o n e y ( i n t h i s c a s e e i g h t h u n d r e d p o u n d s ) b e f o r e he c o u l d p u b l i s h , p r e s u m a b l y as a g u a r a n t e e o f good b e h a v i o u r . I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r DeCosmos t o r a i s e t h e a- mount, b u t f o r t u n a t e l y f o r h i m he h a d a l r e a d y won a s t r o n g sup- p o r t f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a . T h e y c a l l e d a p u b l i c meet- i n g a t w h i c h t h e y s u b s c r i b e d t h e r e q u i r e d b o n d s . They a l s o p r o 3 t e s t e d s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t t h e a r b i t r a r y methods o f t h e G o v e r n o r . The i n d e p e n d e n t members o f t h e A s s e m b l y a l s o v o i c e d t h e i r d i s - a p p r o v a l o f h i s a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e y were a m i n o r i t y o f two, 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 26, 1859. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 9, 1859. 3. M a c d o n a l d , D. G. F . - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d V a n c o u v e r I s - l a n d , London,1862. P. 278. t h e i r a c t i o n h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t . The v o t e on t h i s m o t i o n showed c l e a r l y t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e p e o p l e ; f o r a t a p u b l i c m e e t i n g t h e p e o p l e h a d u n a n i m o u s l y v o i c e d t h e i r d i s - a p p r o v a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r ' s a c t i o n , w h i l e i n t h e A s s e m b l y o n l y ' i two members d i s a p p r o v e d . To make D o u g l a s ' s p o s i t i o n e v e n more l u d i c r o u s , j u s t a b o u t t h i s t i m e a new l a w was s u g g e s t e d i n E n g l a n d t o remove a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s t o a f r e e p r e s s , and DeCosmos r e f e r r e d t o t h i s f a c t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s a r c a s t i c w o r d s . " i f t h e s e l o n g o b s o l e t e gag s t a t u t e s o f E n g l a n d s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , a s b y t h i s t i m e t h e y p r o b a b l y h a v e been, we wonder i f H i s E x c e l l e n c y , G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s , b y whose a r b i t r a r y e d i c t s t h e y were r e v i v e d and en- f o r c e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y , w i l l deem a s p e c i a l a c t o f P a r l i a m e n t 2 n e c e s s a r y t o r e n d e r them n u l l i n t h i s c o l o n y . " DeCosmos showed h i m s e l f a t r u e son o f Nova S c o t i a and f o l l o w e r o f J o s e p h Howe, n o t o n l y i n u p h o l d i n g t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s b u t a l s o i n h i s p l e a f o r t o l e r a n c e f o r a l l r e l i g i o n s . The L e g i s l a t u r e , w i t h D o u g l a s as t h e m o v i n g f o r c e , was a t t e m p t s i n g t o p r e v e n t Jews f r o m b e c o m i n g n a t u r a l i z e d . T h i s f e e l i n g a- 3 g a i n s t t h e Jews was c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o an a c t w h i c h DeCosmos c r i - 4 t i c i z e d a s b e i n g a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e . " L e t h i m r e - member how u n f o r t u n a t e i t i s f o r t h i s , a y o u ng c o l o n y o f Eng~ 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 16, 1859. 2. I b i d - May 7, 1859. 3. A l i e n s A c t - M a r c h 14, 1859. 4. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 20, 1859. He m e n t i o n s t h e a d m i s - s i o n o f B a r o n R o t h s c h i l d t o t h e B r i - t i s h House of-. Commons. l a n d , d e s t i n e d t o be t h e emporium o f n a t i o n s , t o h a v e t h e s t a i n . x o f r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y and p e r s e c u t i o n f a s t e n e d u pon i t . " T h i s 2 d i s a b i l i t y a g a i n s t Jews was soon removed b y a n o t h e r a c t . DeCosmos f e a r e d n o t o n l y b i g o t r y and p e r s e c u t i o n b u t a l s o an e v i l a l m o s t as g r e a t - » a n e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h i n a y o u n g c o l o n y - - t h e s y s t e m w h i c h h a d c a u s e d so much t r o u b l e i n U p p e r Canada. He d e c l a r e d t h a t " v o l u n t a r y a i d i s t h e s o u r c e t o w h i c h r e l i g i o n o u g h t t o l o o k f o r s u p p o r t , and government a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d be f r o w n e d down b y e v e r y one who w i s h e s t h e c o u n t r y t o e s c a p e m i x i n g r e l i g i o n w i t h o u r p o l i t i c s . " He was p a r t i c u l a r - l y r e s e n t f u l o f t h e p o l i c y o f f o r c i n g a s t a t e r e l i g i o n on t h e I n d i a n s , a n d d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o e x p r e s s t h i s o p i n i o n . "We a r e w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t p a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t we a r e d i s t i n c t - l y o p p o s e d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a g u b e r n a t o r i a l God and g u b e r - n a t o r i a l r e l i g i o n f o r t h e I n d i a n s . I f t h e government i n t e n d s t o a i d t h e I n d i a n s , l e t t h e a i d be g i v e n w i t h o u t h o l d i n g a b l a n - k e t i n one h a n d and t h e t h i r t y - n i n e a r t i c l e s I n t h e o t h e r . i . L e t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 20, 1859. 2. O a t h s A c t - May 19, 1859. Removed t h e n e c e s s i - t y o f s w e a r i n g on t h e o a t h o f a C h r i s t i a n . 5. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - June 22, 1869. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s e d i t o r i a l was a r e m a r k t h a t was made i n t h e " C a n a d i a n C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n " t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r p r o m i s e d a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e c h u r c h . C f . Begg, A l e x a n d e r - H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o r o n - t o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894. Pp. 330- 332. He q u o t e s f r o m a l e t t e r t o t h e C o l o n i s t t o show t h a t t h e new b i s h o p was i n c l u d e d among t h e a p p o i n t e e s o f t h e government and t h a t a c l e r g y r e s e r v e was a l r e a d y s e t a s i d e i n V i c t o r i a . r e l i g i o n work i t s way among t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e v o l u n t a r y p r i n - c i p l e , as i t doe s among u s . L e t m i s s i o n a r y e n t e r p r i s e s h a v e 1 t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h n o t t h e s t a t e . " DeCosmos b y no means l a i d a l l t h e blame f o r t h e s i t - u a t i o n i n t h e c o l o n i e s on D o u g l a s a l o n e , b u t f o u n d f a u l t w i t h t h e p e o p l e f o r t h e i r l a c k o f e n t h u s i a s m , and w i t h B u l w e r L y t - t o n , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , f o r h i s p o l i c y . He d i d n o t h e s i - t a t e t o warn t h e home government t h a t t h e c o l o n y w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r e v e r . He a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t h e Asem- b l y f o r i t s i n c o m p e t e n c e , " e i t h e r t o do t h e p u b l i c b u s i n e s s w i t h h o n o u r t o t h e m s e l v e s o r c r e d i t t o t h e c o u n t r y . . . T r u l y t h e p r e - s e n t L e g i s l a t u r e i s b u t one man. The p r e r o g a t i v e i s a s p o t e n t t o - d a y as i n t h e d a y s o f S t a f f o r d and ' T h o r o u g h ' . A n d t o c a l l t h e l awmaking d e p a r t m e n t o f t h i s c o l o n y a L e g i s l a t u r e , i s a s much a misnomer as t o c a l l n i g h t , day." He summed up t h e whole s i t u a t i o n i n t h e s e words. "The g r e a t e s t o l d f o g y c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a t e v e r n u r s e d a n t i q u a t e d u s a g e s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n o r t h e c o l o - n i e s , on co m i n g h e r e i s f o r c e d t o become a r a d i c a l , s i m p l y i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e m e a s u r e s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e i n g so much a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , and a v e r s e t o 3 t h e o r d i n a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f government." I t m i g h t be t h o u g h t t h a t much o f DeCosmos's c r i t i c i s m o f D o u g l a s was m e r e l y p e t t y , and w i t h o u t g r o u n d s . Two; examples 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Sept.. 14, 1860. The m i n i s t e r i n c h a r g e o f an I n d i a n s c h o o l h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d b y t h e b i s h o p as m i s s i o n a r y t o t h e I n - d i a n s and t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t was s a n c - t i o n e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r . 2. I b i d - S e p t . 2, 1859. 3. I b i d - J u l y 1, 1859 c a n be q u o t e d , however, t o show how l i t t l e t h e G o v e r n o r r e a l l y knew o f t h e E n g l i s h p r i n c i p l e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . The A s s e m b l y h a d r e f u s e d t h e G o v e r n o r ' s r e q u e s t t h a t t h e gov- ernment o f f i c e s be removed t o b u i l d i n g s a c r o s s t h e bay, a n d a b r i d g e b u i l t t o c o n n e c t them w i t h t h e town. N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e G o v e r n o r went d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t t h e i r r e f u s a l and, on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , c a r r i e d o u t h i s p r o p o s a l . The A s s e m b l y c e n s u r e d him f o r t h i s , d e c l a r i n g t h e a c t i o n was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and a 1 b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e . DeCosmos s a i d , " h i s d u t y as t h e G o v e r - n o r o f t h i s c o l o n y i s t o e x e c u t e t h e l a w s , n o t t o make them,-- n o r t a k e upon h i m s e l f t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f a d e s p o t , s e t a t de- f i a n c e a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s . , and i n v o l v e i n d i r e c t l y t h e c o l o n y , and d i r e c t l y t h e home government, i n u n n e c e s s a r y " d e b t s t o p l e a s e h i s s o n - i n - l a w and r a i s e t h e p r i c e o f h i s own p r i v a t e 2 p r o p e r t y . " The s e c o n d i n s t a n c e was i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e f r a n c h i s e b i l l . The C o u n c i l and t h e A s s e m b l y c o u l d n o t a g r e e on t h e t e r m s and i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e two chambers be h e l d . The G o v e r n o r d e c l a r e d h i s i n t e n t i o n t o be p r e s e n t , b u t t h i s was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s i n c e t h e t h r e e b r a n c h e s o f t h e L e g i s - 1. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e Book - House o f A s s e m b l y , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . 1856-1859. S p e a k e r t o G o v e r n o r , May 4, 1859. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 16, 1859. DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t D o u g l a s ' s a s s e r t e d g e n e r o s i t y t h a t t h e Company was p a y i n g f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s was a b l i n d , s i n c e t h e money w o u l d be p a i d b a c k t o them when t h e c l a i m s were s e t t l e d . De- Cosmos s a i d t h a t i f i m p r o v e m e n t s were n e c e s s a r y , he s h o u l d have d i s - s o l v e d t h e A s s e m b l y an d c a l l e d a new one t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r . l a t u r e c o u l d n o t meet t o g e t h e r t o make l a w s , and t h e o n l y v o i c e t h e G o v e r n o r h a d i n l a w m a k i n g was one o f a s s e n t o r r e j e c t i o n . M o r e o v e r he h a d b e e n v i o l a t i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i n c e s s a n t l y b y • 1 s i t t i n g a s c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l . The G o v e r n o r d i d n o t c a r - r y o u t h i s i n t e n t i o n , p r o b a b l y due t o t h e c r i t i c i s m a r o u s e d , b u t t h e i n c i d e n t shows t h e c o n d i t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e a f f a i r s on t h e i s l a n d . A b o u t t h i s t i m e t h e A s s e m b l y b e g a n d i s c u s s i o n on t h e f i n a n c i a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h i n a l l i t s f e a t u r e s t o u c h e d on e v e r y p o i n t o f i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e I s l a n d ' s a f f a i r s f o r t h e n e x t s e v e n y e a r s - - t h e crown l a n d s , t h e c i v i l l i s t , t h e p u b l i c a c c o u n t s , and f i n a l l y w h e t h e r t h e r e ...was money owing t o o r f r o m t h e Hud- son's B a y Company f o r i t s e x p e n d i t u r e d u r i n g i t s y e a r s o f a d - m i n i s t r a t i o n . Mr. Y a t e s , one o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t members, c r i - t i c i z e d t h e G o v e r n o r f o r n o t g i v i n g t h e r e t u r n s o f r e v e n u e and 2 e x p e n d i t u r e as he h a d p r o m i s e d . DeCosmos e x p l a i n e d t h i s r e - f u s a l t h r o u g h t h a t f a c t t h a t t h e r e were " l a r g e d e b t s a g a i n s t t h e c o l o n y , w h i c h i t was d e s i r a b l e t o h i d e h e r e f r o m t h e pub- l i c , t i l l t h e Hudson's Bay Company g e t them a c c e p t e d i n E n g - l a n d , f o r f e a r t h e p e o p l e w o u l d c e r t a i n l y demand i n v e s t i g a t i o n . " I t w i l l be remembered t h a t one o f t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s i n t h e g r a n t 1. L e t t e r s t o G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s - J a n . t o May, 1863. Newcas- t l e t o D o u g l a s , A p r i l 14. I n s t r u c t i o n s t o s e p a r a t e C o u n c i l i n t o E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e . A f t e r t h i s t h e ;-Governor o f c o u r s e d i d n o t p r e s i d e i n t h e L e g . C o u n c i l . 2. . B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 4, 1859. 3. I b i d - Nov. 16, 1859. 30 was t h a t t h e Hudson's B a y Company s h o u l d s e l l t h e l a n d o f t h e c o l o n y a n d t h e n u s e t h e r e v e n u e , l e s s t e n p e r c e n t , t o d e f r a y t h e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y e x p e n s e s o f t h e c o l o n y . When t h e i m p e r - i a l g o vernment t o o k h a c k t h e g r a n t i t was t o r e p a y t h e Hudson's Bay Company f o r a l l e x p e n s e s i n c u r r e d i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y , o v e r and above t h e l a n d r e v e n u e . The q u e s t i o n was t h e n b e f o r e t h e A s s e m b l y , " d i d t h e Company s p e n d a l l t h i s n i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e l a n d r e v e n u e on t h e c o l o n y o r h a s i t k e p t some o f i t b a c k w h i c h s h o u l d now be ha n d e d o v e r t o u s ? Or d i d i t s p e n d more t h a n t h e n i n e - t e n t h s w h i c h must be r e f u n d e d ? " S i n c e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t members o f t h e A s s e m b l y were i n a m i n o r i t y , Y a t e s ' p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d , and t h e G o v e r n o r was a b l e t o keep t h e 1 i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c o l o n y f o r a n o t h e r s e s s i o n . V e r y s o o n a f t e r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h e A s s e m b l y was d i s - s o l v e d a n d w r i t s f o r a new e l e c t i o n were i s s u e d . DeCosmos a d - v i s e d t h e p e o p l e t o be wary o f e n d o r s i n g any c a n d i d a t e s u n t i l t h e y f o u n d o u t e x a c t l y who t h e men were, who s u p p o r t e d them, and w i t h what i n t e r e s t s t h e y were c o n n e c t e d . T h ey s h o u l d sup- p o r t no o f f i c e h o l d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and no s e r v a n t s o f t h e Hudson's B a y Company, " i n s h o r t we want men t h e r e who know no i n t e r e s t b u t t h e p u b l i c w e l f a r e , who seek 2 no g a i n b u t t h e common good o f t h e whole c o u n t r y . " He was d i s g u s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , when t h e new A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , an a b s e n t e e o f f i c i a l , o f f e r e d h i m s e l f a s a c a n d i d a t e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 16, 1859. 2. I b i d - S e p t . 16, 1869. 31 f o r V i c t o r i a . "He who d e a l s u n f a i r l y t o one c o u n t r y i s l i k e l y t o do so b y a n o t h e r ; and we a r e much m i s t a k e n i n t h e e l e m e n t s . o f t h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y , i f any e l e c t o r c a n be gound so v o i d o f hon - e s t y and so r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s own i n t e r e s t s as t o t r u s t a ny man as h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e who h a s n o t p e r f o r m e d h i s d u t y t o t h e c o u n t r y t o w h i c h b y e v e r y r u l e o f r i g h t he i s j u s t l y b o u n d a- 1 l o n e t o s e r v e . " F o r t h e n e x t few y e a r s , some o f D e C o s m o s 1 s most b i t t e r e d i t o r i a l s were t o be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h i s man,. Mr. C a r y . DeCosmos e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d a s a c a n d i d a t e f o r V i c t o r * - • -ia C i t y , and a t once he was o p p o s e d b y t h e Family-Company-Com- p a c t . The c r y was r a i s e d t h a t he was an A m e r i c a n a n d t h a t h i s change o f name was due t o some p a s t m i s d e e d . T h e i r most f u t i l e argument, however, was t h a t he was a Nova S c o t i a n , n o t an Eng - l i s h m e n , and as s u c h , n o t f i t f o r e l e c t i o n i n a B r i t i s h c o l o n y . He s c a t h i n g l y r e b u k e d t h e government p a r t y f o r t h i s . "We h a v e e x p o s e d t h e a b s u r d i t y and i l l - a d v i s e d n e s s o f an a t t e m p t t o p u t c & l o n i s t s and E n g l i s h m e n a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r . Any a n d e v e r y B r i - t i s h s u b j e c t , i n what e v e r p a r t o f H e r M a j e s t y ' s tic-minions r h i s 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 19, 1859. 2. I b i d - S e p t . 14, 1866. A n o b i t u a r y n o t i c e o f C a r y . He was a young I r i s h m a n , a s t u - d e n t o f C a i r n s i n E n g l a n d . Was a p p o i n - t e d A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f V a n c o u v e r I s - l a n d i n 1860 and r e s i g n e d t h a t o f f i c e I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1861. Remained i n o f f i c e u n t i l 1864, when f o r c e d t o r e s i g n due t o i l l - h e a l t h . B u i l t t h e famous C a r y C a s t l e , c a l l e d C a r y ' s F o l l y , w h i c h ' l a t e r became t h e G o v e r n o r ' s r e s i - d e n c e . He seems t o h a v e made many en- emies, due t o an u n f o r t u n a t e d i s p o s i - t i o n . He was hand i n g l o v e w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r . D i e d i n E n g l a n d i n 1866. / b i r t h p l a c e may be, i s e n t i t l e d t o a l l t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s 1 o f t h i s c o l o n y . " " L o y a l t y i s b e g i n n i n g t o mean i n c e r t a i n q u a r - t e r s f r o m E n g l a n d d i r e c t . T r u e B r i t i s h f e e l i n g i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o E n g l a n d , n o r have r e c e n t a r r i v a l s h e n c e a m o n o p o l y o f i t . I t i s i n s p i r e d b y an i n t e l l i g e n t p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h o s e p r i n c i - p l e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government, w h i c h o u r g r a c i o u s s o v e r e i g n so w o r t h i l y r e p r e s e n t s and so f a i t h f u l l y m a i n t a i n s . The f u t u r e may show t h a t some c o l o n i s t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and 2 l o v e them j u s t a s w e l l a s some E n g l i s h m e n . " The g overnment o p p o s i t i o n d e v e l o p e d f r o m mere v e r b a l c r i t i c i s m i n t o d e c i s i v e a c t i o n a s t h e day o f e l e c t i o n grew n e a r e r . On n o m i n a t i o n day, t h e Queen's P r i n t e r t r i e d t o make a f a r c e o f DeCosmos's n o m i n a t i o n . The l a t t e r s a i d , " i f t h e government p a r t y must h a v e some one a t s u c h a t i m e t o p l a y t h e p a r t o f b u f f o o n and rowdy, common d e c e n c y w o u l d d i c t a t e t h a t i t ' 3 s h o u l d be some one e l s e t h a n Queen's P r i n t e r . " The s e c o n d o f t h e s e a c t i o n s o f t h e government was i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e e l e c t i o n i t s e l f . The government p a r t y , p a r - t i c u l a r l y C a r y , h a d t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c o l o r e d p o p u l a t i o n , t"- . a t h r o u g h a l i t t l e l e g a l q u i b b l i n g , m i g h t be s a i d t o have a v o t e . S i n c e t h e y were n o t c i t i z e n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h e r e - f o r e c i t i z e n s o f no s t a t e , t h e y m i g h t be s a i d t o be c i t i z e n s o f 4 G r e a t B r i t a i n - and, a s s u c h , e n t i t l e d t o v o t e — a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 3, 1860. 2. I b i d - Dec. 24, 1859. 3. I b i d - J a n . 7, 1860. 4. I b i d - A p r i l 7, 1860. 33 d o c t r i n e , w h i c h i f c a r r i e d t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d make e v e r y p e r s o n , , n o t a c i t i z e n o f any s t a t e , a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t , en- t i t l e d t o t h e v o t e , as s o o n as he s t e p p e d on B r i t i s h s o i l and t o o k an o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e , r e g a r d l e s s o f any o t h e r q u a l i f i c a - t i o n . T h e s e n e g r o e s were i l l e g a l l y r e g i s t e r e d , b y m e r e l y t a k - i n g t h e o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e , and, s i n c e t h e y were e n a b l e d t o do so t h r o u g h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e government p a r t y , t h e y n a t u r a l - l y v o t e d f o r i t . Some t h i r t y o f them s u p p o r t e d F r a n k l i n , t h e g overnment c a n d i d a t e and t h e i r v o t e s w e r e ; j u s t s u f f i c i e n t t o 1 s w i n g t h e e l e c t i o n a g a i n s t DeCosmos. DeCosmos was b i t t e r a g a i n s t t h e government an d r e s e n - t e d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e n e g r o e s who, u n t i l t h e n , h a d c r e a t e d a v e r y f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n b y t h e i r good b e h a v i o u r . • T h e s e c o l - o r e d men gave t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r v o t i n g a g a i n s t r e f o r m . "'Re- f o r m was a s e c o n d a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n ' t o t h e m l " They s u p p o r t e d t h o s e "'who w i l l b e s t s u s t a i n E n g l i s h p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e i r ope- 2 r a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g u s . ' " He c r i t i c i z e d t h e s e a r g u m e n t s s a y i n g i t was no E n g l i s h p r i n c i p l e a t s t a k e b u t a Y a n k e e p r i n c i p l e — " t h e p r i n c i p l e o f i g n o r a n t f o r e i g n e r s i n t h e h a n d s o f dema- 2 gogues, c a s t i n g i l l e g a l v o t e s . " He s u s p e c t e d t h a t , i f he were a l l o w e d t o examine t h e p o l l b o o k s , he w o u l d f i n d t h a t t h e r e were i l l e g a l i t i e s i n them, and t h e r e f o r e a p p l i e d t o t h e G o v e r n o r , t o o b t a i n a c c e s s t o them. The f i r s t r e q u e s t was r e f u s e d and he a g a i n w r o t e a s k i n g t h e r e a - son f o r t h e r e f u s a l , s i n c e t h e e x c u s e t h a t t h e s e b o o k s c o u l d n o t be p l a c e d i n t h e h ands o f a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l , p r i o r t o 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 10, I 8 6 0 ; 2. I b i d - J a n . 14, 1860. b e i n g s e n t t o t h e House o f A s s e m b l y , was e r r o n e o u s as a s t a t u t e e x i s t e d , g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t r i g h t . He a t t r i b u t e d D o u g l a s ' s r e - f u s a l t o h i s a d v i s e r s , b u t d e c l a r e d : " i f what I c l a i m i s n o t a c - c o r d e d t o me b y noon, to-morrow, I b e g l e a v e t o a c q u a i n t y o u r E x c e l l e n c y , t h a t I s h a l l c o n s i d e r m y s e l f a t l i b e r t y t o u s e t h o s e l e g a l m e a s u r e s t h a t w i l l s p e e d i l y s e c u r e t o me t h e e n j o y m e n t o f 1 the' p r i v i l e g e s . " When D o u g l a s r e f u s e d a g a i n , DeCosmos a p p l i e d f o r a ' 2 w r i t o f mandamus, t o f o r c e t h e G o v e r n o r t o a l l o w h i m t o see t h e p o l l b o o k s . The d e c i s i o n t h e n r e s t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e G o v e r n o r was u n d e r t h e same law as o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , o r whet- h e r t h e j u d g e was s u f f i c i e n t l y h i s own m a s t e r t o do what was r i g h t . The mandamus was r e f u s e d b y t h e j u d g e owing t o t h e l a w c o n c e r n i n g i t , b e i n g so p o o r l y drawn wo b y t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e - '3 r a l . S i n c e he was n o t a b l e t o see t h e p o l l b o o k s , t h e p e t i t i o n w h i c h he made r e s t e d on no d i r e c t p r o o f , and was t h r o w n o u t b y 4 t h e c o m m i t t e e . I t was n o t o n l y i n DeCosmos<'s c a s e t h a t t h e r e was an a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l e l e c t i o n s . I n E s q u i m a l t , t h e n a v a l o f f i c e r s 1. B. C. A r c h i v e s - DeCosmos P a p e r s , DeCosmos t o D o u g l a s , J a n . 23, 1860. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . H,, 1860. ' 3. I b i d - - F e b . 16, 1860. 4. I b i d - J u l y 26, 1860. The c o m m i t t e e r e - f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e l i s t s t o be opened. The c o l o r e d v o t e r s were . ' f i n a l l y s t r u c k f r o m t h e l i s t f o r n o t b e i n g B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , Mar. 1861. F r a n k l i n , t h e r e f o r e was i l l e g a l l y e l e c t e d . C f . M a c d o n a l d , D. G. F.- Op. C i t . Pp. 268-269. 35 c o mbined w i t h t h e H udson r s - B a y Company t o d e f e a t C o o p e r , a r e - f o r m c a n d i d a t e ( a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y o b n o x i o u s t o t h e Company, as a 1 w i t n e s s a g a i n s t them i n 1857.) Gordon was r e t u r n e d t h e r e and was t o p r o v e no c r e d i t t o t h e government p a r t y . I n t h e S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d e l e c t i o n , no p r o p e r n o t i c e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n was g i v e n , and s i n c e many o f t h e v o t e r s h a d to come .-to' V i c t o r i a ' t o 2 r e g i s t e r t h e y d i d n o t h a v e t i m e t o g e t t h e r e . When i t was d i s - c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a r c a n d i d a t e was a r e f o r m e r , t h e r e g i s - t r a t i o n was r e o p e n e d f o r a s e l e c t few who were government sup- 3 p o r t e r s . The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a s s i s t e d i n t h i s f r a d u l e n t a c t , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g i t s i l l e g a l i t y , and he n e g l e c t e d h i s o f f i c i a l '4 work t o go t o t h e I s l a n d t o r u n t h e e l e c t i o n . I n t h e V i c t o r i a C o u n t y e l e c t i o n , DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t i n t i m i d a t i o n was u s e d . "The g r o u n d a r o u n d t h e p o l l was p a t r o l l e d b y t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company and t h e i r t o o l s i n t h e g o vernment." When t h e e l e c t i o n e x c i t e m e n t h a d b l o w n o v e r t h e c o l o - ny was q u i e t f o r a t i m e u n t i l t h e F r e e P o r t P r o c l a m a t i o n . T h i s p o l i c y was f a v o u r e d b y t h e c o l o n y and i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t , w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d A s s e m b l y , a b i l l r e g a r d i n g t h e f r e e p o r t w o u l d be p a s s e d . I n s t e a d i t came as a p r o c l a m a t i o n f r o m 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 10, 1860. 2. I b i d - J a n . 19, 1860. Nov. 20, n o t i c e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n , Nov. 23, b o o k s c l o s e d . 3. I b i d - J a n . 5, 1860. Nov. 30, t h e r e were 8 o r 9 names r e g i s t e r e d f o r S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , Dec. 21, t h e r e were 21 names. 4. I b i d - J a n . 19, 1860. 5. I b i d - J a n . 14, 1860. 1 t h e G o v e r n o r , on t h e a d v i c e o f t h e home government; and a l - t h o u g h t h e c o l o n y f a v o u r e d i t s i n a u g u r a t i o n , t h e method o f p r o - c e d u r e was r e s e n t e d . " P o s s i b l y c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l d e s p a t c h e s and o u r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s ' l e t t e r s , n o t c a l c u l a t e d t o c o n v e y a v e r y e x a l t e d i d e a o f t h e e m i g r a t i o n t o t h i s c o l o n y , may h a v e i n d u c e d t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e h a r d l y f i t t o be e n t r u s t e d w i t h so i m p o r t a n t an i t e m o f l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i t must be c u t and d r i e d on t h e banks o f t h e Thames and made an a r t i c l e o f e x p o r t . T h i s I s l a n d may y e t become f a - mous f o r t h e r e v i v a l o f o b s o l e t e s t a t u t e s and dormant p r e r o g a - t i v e s . I n t h e p r e s e n t day when c o l o n i a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i s so t h o r o u g h l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t what f o r m e r l y was done by p r o c l a - m a t i o n i s now done b y l e g i s l a t i o n , we t a k e I t as no c o m p l i m e n t , 2 t h a t t h i s c o l o n y s h o u l d be made an e x c e p t i o n . " An e v e n more d i s a g r e e a b l e p r o c l a m a t i o n came f r o m Doug- l a s , a f i v e pound mule l o a d t a x I n B r i t i s h G o l u m b i a . A t once t h e c o l o n y was up i n arms. The p e o p l e h a d w anted a . s a m l l t a x t o p a y .f'ror r o a d s , b u t c e r t a i n l y n o t s u c h a h e a v y one.. DeGosmos c a l l e d i t t h e a c t o f a demented t y r a n t , and d e c l a r e d t h a t Doug- 3 l a s s t u d i e d " t h e b e s t mode dfco r e p e l p o p u l a t i o n . " He t r a c e d t h e whole d i f f i c u l t y t o t h e l a c k o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . "The p o s i - t i o n we t a k e i s , t h a t e v e r y l o c a l i t y where t e n o r t w e n t y B r i t i s h 1. P u b l i c G e n e r a l S t a t u t e s - C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . F r e e P o r t P r o c l a m a t i o n . " I , Go G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s , 'have b e e n i n s t r u c t e d b y h e r • M a j e s t y ' s p r i n c i p a l . S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t o p r o c l a i m V i c t o r i a a f r e e p o r t o f e n t r y ;and c l e a r a n c e f o r s h i p s . ' " 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 7, 1860. 3. I b i d — F e b . 9, 1860. s u b j e c t s c a n be m u s t e r e d , s h o u l d be c o n s t i t u t e d an e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t . The p r i n c i p l e o f g overnment b y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e w h e t h e r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s be few o r many. How i s i t t h a t i n a t e r r i t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e p e o p l e c a n be s e l f - g o v e r n e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h a t t h e r e a r e enough i n a s e t t l e m e n t t o make a town m e e t i n g , w h i l e i n a B r i t i s h c o l o n y , h u n d r e d s and t h o u s a n d s o f I n t e l l i g e n t f r e e m e n a r e doomed t o h e a r t h e d i s s o n a n t announcement, 'now, t h e r e f o r e , I do enact'?""'' The p e o p l e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d f e l t t h a t B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a ' s p r o s p e r i t y was c l o s e l y l i n k e d .with t h e i r s , and c o n s e - q u e n t l y o r g a n i z e d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e mule t a x . R e s o l u t i o n s were p a s s e d a g a i n s t t h i s t a x and a l s o a g a i n s t t h e f o r m o f g o v ernment t h e n e x i s t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n s d e a l t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f g a i n i n g more r e p - r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e s i s t e r c o l o n y . On t h e commit- t e e t o c a r r y o u t t h e s p i r i t o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n s was DeCosmos, a- 2 mong o t h e r p r o m i n e n t r e f o r m e r s . Due t o a l l t h e o p p o s i t i o n a r o u s e d , D o u g l a s f e l t f o r c e d t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e mule t a x . He was t o o p e t t y t o remove t h e t a x , and i n s t e a d m e r e l y o r d e r e d i t s n o n - c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r e - b y b r e a k i n g h i s own law* DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t " t h e i m p e r i - ous r u l e r o f t h a t m i s g o v e r n e d c o u n t r y must f e e l l o w e r e d i n h i s own e s t i m a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y , when c o n v i n c e d t h a t he d a r e n o t ex- 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S a n . 17, 1860. 2. M a c d o n a l d , D. G-. P. - Op. C i t . P. 2 6 2 f f . He a l s o t e l l s t h e humourous s t o r y o f G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s m e e t i n g t h e mule w h i c h was u s e d t o a d v e r t i s e t h e m e e t i n g , and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s h a d a g r e a t d e a l t o do w i t h r e n o u n c i n g t h e t a x . e c u t e t h e mule u k a s e ; b u t as a s t a t e s m a n how much l o w e r does he s t a n d when he r e s o r t s t o t h e u n s t a t e s m a n l i k e s h i f t o f o r d e r i n g t h e n o n - e x e c u t i o n o f h i s e d i c t . How much h i g h e r w o u l d he h a v e s t o o d h a d he e x h i b i t e d some d e g r e e o f c o n d e s c e n s i o n , and pub- l i c l y r e p e a l e d t h a t w h i c h t h e u n i t e d v o i c e o f t h e c o l o n y h a s 1 c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n f a m o u s . " When t h e A s s e m b l y met t h e r e was a b o u t t h e same num- b e r o f r e f o r m e r s as o b s t r u c t i v e s , and t h e f o r m e r were a b l e t o p a s s P o s t e r ' s m o t i o n t o c o n s i d e r a l l a c c o u n t s b e f o r e a p p r o v i n g t h e e s t i m a t e s . T h i s was a r e t u r n t o t h e e y e r - p r e s e n t q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e r e was a d e b t t o t h e Hudson's B a y Company o r w h e t h e r i t owed t h e c o l o n y . Up t i l l now t h e a c c o u n t s h a d b e e n r e f u s e d b y t h e government, t h u s a r o u s i n g s u s p i c i o n i n t h e minds o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t p e o p l e i n t h e c o l o n y . E v e n now C a r y , as t h e government s u p p o r t e r , t r i e d t o p r e v e n t t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e mo- t i o n . DeCosmos s a i d , " t h e o p p o s i t i o n - - i n v o t i n g down t h e a- mendment o f C a r y , and d e f e a t i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e m i n i s t e r s o f G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s - - h a v e e n t e r e d a wedge w h i c h i f d r i v e n home w i l l l e t l i g h t i n t o many a d a r k p l a c e . By p e r s i s t i n g i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e y w i l l s e t t l e f o r e v e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t 2 a g i t a t e t h e p e o p l e . " I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , DeCosmos d i s - c u s s e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f C a r y - - t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e m i n i s t e r o f t h e G o v e r n o r . As A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , w i t h o u t a 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 3, 1860. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 28, 1860. s a l a r y , he h a d b e e n e l e c t e d t o t h e A s s e m b l y , b u t s i n c e t h e n he had b e e n g i v e n a s a l a r y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f t h e c o l o n y , 1 he s h o u l d r e s i g n and s e e k r e - e l e c t i o n . " H i s E x c e l l e n c y wanted t o e s c a p e i n some d e g r e e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f recommending t h e e s t i m a t e s and g e n e r a l p o l i c y , ' and i n a u g u r a t e t h e i d e a t h a t t h e ' G o v e r n o r c a n do no wrong', so he u s e d t h e j u v e n i l e o f f i c e - h u n - 2 t e r as a c a t s p a w t o do h i s b i d d i n g . " S i n c e t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t was w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t , "what now r e m a i n s i s s i m p l y f o r t h e A s - sembly t o v i n d i c a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n and b r i n g b o t h p r i n c i p a l and s u b o r d i n a t e t o a c c o u n t f o r e n c r o a c h i n g on t h e s a c r e d r i g h t s o f t h e A s s e m b l y b y an a p p o i n t m e n t o f an 2 i r r e s p o n s i b l e m i n i s t e r . " C a r y , however, d e s e r t e d t h e g o v e r n - 3 ment p o l i c y , and DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was now up t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o s e e k new a d v i s e r s o r d i s s o l v e t h e House. C a r y , i n d e s e r t i n g t h e G o v e r n o r , a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e c o l o n y s h o u l d r e c e i v e n i n e - t e n t h s o f t h e l a n d r e c e i p t s . T h i s meant t h a t , i f t h e Hudson's Ba y Company h a d n o t s p e n t a l l o f t h i s money on t h e c o l o n y , ( a n d most p e o p l e were s u r e t h e y h a d n o t ) t h e r e w o u l d be a sum o f money com i n g t o t h e c o l o n y , w h i c h w o u l d f r e e t h e home government o f any d e b t t o t h e Company and w o u l d f r e e t h e c o l o n i s t s o f any t a x e s f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y s h o u l d r e f u s e t o p a s s t h e e s - t i m a t e s and s a d d l e t h e c o u n t r y w i t h an e x o r b i t a n t c i v i l l i s t 1. F r a n c h i s e A c t - 1859. A n o f f i c e r on r e c e i v i n g a s a l a - r y a f t e r e l e c t i o n t o t h e A s s e m b l y , must r e s i g n and seek r e - e l e c t i o n . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 3, 1860. 3. I b i d - May 5, 1860. 1 u n t i l t h e m a t t e r was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d . DeCosmos was, t h e r e f o r e , t h o r o u g h l y d i s g i x s t e d w i t h t h e A s s e m b l y when t h e o b s t r u c t i v e s , w i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e Sp e a - k e r , were a b l e t o v o t e t h e s a l a r i e s f o r t h e y e a r , b e f o r e t h e y g a i n e d a ny i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f i s c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c o u n - 2 t r y . However, t h e r e f o r m e r s were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h one t h i n g , t h e y s u s p e n d e d payment o f t h e c i v i l l i s t u n t i l t h e Crown L a n d s 3 were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c o l o n y . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r f i r s t f a i l u r e t h e r e f o r m e r s s t i l l c o n t i n u e d t o d e s i r e , some knowledge o f t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n - d i t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e G o v e r n o r and th e o b s t r u c t i v e s who a t t e m p t e d t o w i t h h o l d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . The c l i m a x came when t h e A s s e m b l y was s i t t i n g as a Committee o f t h e Whole t o c o n s i d e r t h e e s t i m a t e s and on r i s i n g i t was de- c i d e d t o h o l d a n i g h t s e s s i o n . When t h e House met a t n i g h t , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e was a m a j o r i t y o f r e f o r m e r s p r e - s e n t and t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o do what t h e y wanted w i t h the e s - t i m a t e s . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e S p e a k e r s a i d t h e House c o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e e s t i m a t e s , s i n c e , i n r i s i n g , t h e com m i t t e e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 3, 1860. The G o v e r n o r ' s s p e e c h a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e A s s e m b l y de- c l a r e d t h a t t h e Hudson's B a y Company' was no l o n g e r d e f r a y i n g t h e e x p e n s e s , and t h a t i t was up t o t h e c o l o n y t o p a s s a permanent c i v i l l i s t . When t h i s was done, t h e G o v e r n o r w o u l d r e - commend t h a t t h e Crown L a n d s b e handed o v e r . 2. I b i d - June 7, 1860. 3. I b i d - June 9, 1860. 1 h a d n o t s i g n i f i e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o s i t t h a t n i g h t . DeCosmos d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o c r i t i c i z e t h i s a c t i o n . "So he, t h e i m p a r - t i a l S p e a k e r , t h e s o n - i n - l a w o f t h e G o v e r n o r , who b o a s t e d t h a t he w o u l d b e n d t h e House t o h i s p o l i c y , t r i e s I t b y r e f u s i n g t o l e a v e t h e c h a i r , a c c o r d i n g t o a d j o u r n m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o p a r l i a - m e n t a r y u s a g e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i g n i t y , d e c o r um and o r d e r o f t h e H o u s e . S u c h c o n d u c t shows what he i s , what d i s g r a c e f u l s h i f t s d i s h o n e s t p o l i c y e n t a i l , and how i m p o s s i b l e i t i s f o r s u c h as he and h i s t o e x e r t any m o r a l i n f l u e n c e i n an i n t e l l i - 2 g e n t c o u n t r y . " On t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s e d i t o r i a l , DeCosmos was c a l l e d b e f o r e t h e House f o r a b r e a c h o f p r i v i l e g e . I n h i s de- f e n c e he d e c l a r e d t h a t he was n o t h i m s e l f p r e s e n t a t t h a t s i t - t i n g o f t h e House, b u t " I c a l l e d u p on Mr. W a d d i n g t o n , an d he gave me t h e a c c o u n t I h a v e a l r e a d y furnished" the House. From t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n I p u b l i s h e d t h e a r t i c l e . I f I h a v e done wrong, Mr. S p e a k e r , and y o u r c h a r a c t e r h a s b e e n m a l i g n e d , I am s o r r y f o r i t . No man i n t h e c o l o n y h a s l e s s v i n d i c t i v e n e s s t h a n I h a v e ; b u t r e m a r k s made t o me b y s e v e r a l h o n o u r a b l e members were more b i t i n g - - m o r e l i b e l l l o u s t h a n e v e n t h i s a r t i c l e i s s a i d t o 3 b e . " The House, however, d e c l a r e d t h a t he must a p o l o g i z e f o r t h e l i b e l . He c o n s e q u e n t l y d e c l a r e d , " I a p o l o g i z e f o r t h e pub- l i c a t i o n o f an a r t i c l e w h i c h I b e l i e v e d t o be b a s e d upon c o r - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J une 28, 1860. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d - J u l y 5, 1860. 1 r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n . " The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m a t t e r seems t o he t h a t some o f t h e r e f o r m e r s , a n g e r e d a t t h e S p e a k e r ' s a c t i o n , had, i n t h e f i r s t h e a t o f a n g e r , s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d h i s a c t i o n DeCosmos, a c c e p t i n g t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n as t h e t r u t h , and e v e r r e a d y t o s e i z e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r i t i c i z e t h e o b s t r u c t i v e s , h a d w r i t t e n t h i s e d i t o r i a l . The r e f o r m e r s , on s e c o n d t h o u g h t s , were n o t so r e a d y t o a g r e e w i t h t h e s c a t h i n g r e m a r k s , and p r e - f e r r e d t o l e t DeCosmos a p o l o g i z e f o r t h e e d i t o r i a l , on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n , w h e t h e r t r u e o r n o t , h a d b e e n t o o h a s t i l y a c c e p t e d and p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c w i t h o u t "2 due t h o u g h t t o t h e e f f e c t . DeCosmos, i n h i s e f f o r t s t o e d u c a t e t h e p e o p l e , w r o t e a v e r y f i n e e d i t o r i a l on p a r t y , as i t s h o u l d be a n d as i t was on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . "Among A n g l o - S a x o n s , on t h e p a r e n t s o i l o r w h e r e v e r t h a t s t o c k h a s b e e n t r a n s p l a n t e d , i t a p p e a r s t o be an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t , n e c e s s a r y t o t h e i r l i b e r t y , t h e i r p r o - g r e s s , and t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y . No p e o p l e u n d e r s t a n d i t so w e l l as t h e y d o . I t i s s i m p l y g o v ernment b y m a j o r i t y ; t h e r i g h t o f t h e m a j o r i t y t o r u l e . The e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e e v e r c a r r i e s w i t h i t a m a j o r i t y and a m i n o r i t y - - t h e government and t h e o p p o s i t i o n B o t h a r e e s s e n t i a l t o f r e e d o m and p r o g r e s s , t o p r o s p e r i t y and c o n t e n t m e n t . E a c h a c t as a c h e c k con t h e o t h e r . W i t h o u t an op- p o s i t i o n t h e r u l e r s w o u l d become t o o c o r r u p t , t h e g o v ernment s t a g n a n t , t h e l i b e r t i e s o f t h e p e o p l e e n d a n g e r e d , t h e i r i n t e r e s t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u l y 5, 1860. 2. i b i d - Mr. C r e a s e , one o f t h o s e who c r i t i - c i z e d t h e S p e a k e r , o b j e c t e d t o w i t - n e s s e s b e i n g c a l l e d t o p r o v e DeCos- mos' s e v i d e n c e . 43 n e g l e c t e d , p u b l i c b u r d e n s i n c r e a s e d , and t h e r e v e n u e s q u a n d e r e d on pampered f a v o r i t e s . O p p o s i t i o n , w h e t h e r L i b e r a l o r C o n s e r - v a t i v e , t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e s t a t e s h o u l d be b a s e d on w e l l - g r o u n d e d p r i n c i p l e s . Mere p e r s o n a l l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s c a n n o t make a p a r t y o f any d u r a b l e e f f e c t i v e s t r e n g t h . S u c h would, be no b e t t e r t h a n f a c t i o n . I t i s p r i n c i p l e s n o t men, t h a t t h e 1 p e o p l e want." He n e x t t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o p a r t y on Van- c o u v e r I s l a n d . " P a r t y government h a s b e n e f i t e d o t h e r communi- t i e s , b u t t h e s p e c i m e n we h a v e h e r e i s v e r y u n p r o d u c t i v e . P a r - t i e s i n o u r A s s e m b l y a r e t o o e v e n l y b a l a n c e d t o r e n d e r much s e r v i c e t o t h e c o u n t r y . No q u e s t i o n e x i s t s b u t t h e r e f o r m e r s and r e f o r m p r i n c i p l e s h a v e t h e sympathy o f t h e m a s s e s ; and t h e o b s t r u c t i v e s h a v e t h e power, b y t h e c a s t i n g v o t e o f t h e Spea- " 2 k e r . " A t t h i s t i m e Gordon, member f o r E s q u i m a l t , was a p p o i n - t e d T r e a s u r e r , and he r e s i g n e d t o s e e k r e - e l e c t i o n . DeCosmos e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d a g a i n s t h i m . As u s u a l t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t h i s change o f name and t h e g o vernment p a r - t y d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e was no s u c h p e r s o n as Amor DeCosmos and he must r u n as W i l l i a m A l e x a n d e r S m i t h . To save t r o u b l e and d i s c u s s i o n , he d e c i d e d t o r u n as W i l l i a m A l e x a n d e r S m i t h , com- m o n l y known as Amor DeCosmos. The v o t i n g was v e r b a l and one man, i n v o t i n g f o r him, i n h i s n e r v o u s n e s s , a p p a r e n t l y f o r g o t t o r e p e a t t h e l i t t l e f o r m u l a and m e r e l y v o t e d f o r DeCosmos. The s h e r i f f r e f u s e d t o l e t h i m c o r r e c t h i m s e l f and t h e v o t e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u l y 7, 1860. 2. I b i d . 44 s t o o d e l e v e n f o r Gordon, t e n f o r W i l l i a m A l e x a n d e r S m i t h , known as DeCosmos, and one v o t e f o r DeCosmos. T h e r e s h o u l d have b e e n a t i e v o t e , b u t i n s t e a d G o r d o n was d e c l a r e d e l e c t e d . T h i s was onl$t one o f many s u b t r e f u g e s t o d e f e a t DeCosmos. The s h e r i f f h a d a g r e e d t o h a v e a p o l l c l e r k , b u t i n s t e a d a c t e d i n b o t h c a - p a c i t i e s h i m s e l f , whereas i f t h e r e h a d b e e n a c l e r k i t was p o s - s i b l e t h a t t h e v o t e r ' s m i s t a k e w o u l d have b e e n c o r r e c t e d . A- g a i n t h e e l e c t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n b a s e d on t h e l i s t o f v o t e r s f o r 1860, b u t t h a t o f 1859 was u s e d , a l t h o u g h i t was d e c l a r e d b y t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n o f V o t e r s ' A c t t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o 1859, a l o n e . The s h e r i f f r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t any v o t e r s r e g i s t e r e d s i n c e 1859, and t h e h a r b o u r m a s t e r ' s v o t e was a c c e p t e d a l t h o u g h he h a d no 1 q u a l i f i c a t i o n and was no l o n g e r on t h e l i s t . DeCosmos p e t i t i o n e d a g a i n s t t h e e l e c t i o n and f i n a l l y , a f t e r f o u r months, t h e e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e gave i t s d e c i s i o n . I t d e c l a r e d t h e e l e c t i o n n u l l and v o i d on t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e l i s t o f v o t e r s f o r 1 8 5 9 ( w h i c h t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y h a d o r - d e r e d t h e s h e r i f f t o u s e ) w a s i n a p p l i c a b l e t o an e l e c t i o n i n 2 1860. C a r y t r i e d t o throw o u t t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s d e c i s i o n on t h e g r o u n d t h a t i t w o u l d make t h e p r o c e e d i n g s f o r t h e s e s s i o n i l - ' 3 l e g a l , s i n c e G o r d o n ' s v o t e w o u l d be no g o o d . W a d d i n g t o n de- c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t o f an e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e was f i n a l and c o u l d n o t be thrown o u t on any a c c o u n t . The S p e a k e r s a i d t h a t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 14, 1860. 2. I b i d - Nov. 22, I 8 6 0 . 3. I b i d - Nov. 24, 1860. 45 i t h a d r e p o r t e d on s o m e t h i n g o u t s i d e i t s p o w e r — t h e s p e c i a l c l a u s e , d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n l i s t o f 1859 was i n a p - l i c a b l e t o 1860--and t h a t i t s h o u l d m e r e l y h a ve s a i d t h a t t h e e l e c t i o n was n u l l and v o i d . The o b s t r u c t i v e s t h r e w o u t t h e r e p o r t , w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e commi t t e e , T o l m i e , v o t i n g a- 1 g a i n s t h i s own d e c i s i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y G o r d o n r e s i g n e d t o p r e - v e n t t h e committee s i t t i n g a g a i n and m a k i n g any more damning d i s c l o s u r e s . He, o f c o u r s e , s a i d t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t he was e l e c t e d l e g a l l y , b u t t o save i l l - f e e l i n g he w o u l d r e s i g n , t o r u n a g a i n . The l i s t o f 1859 was a g a i n u s e d and i t was a f o r e - 2 gone c o n c l u s i 6 n t h a t he w o u l d be r e - e l e c t e d . The s e q u e l o f t h i s whole a f f a i r m i g h t h a v e b e e n ex- p e c t e d . G o r d o n h a d b e e n p i c k e d up f r o m anywhere b y t h e g o v e r n - ment p a r t y , t o r u n i n E s q u i m a l t and, f o r h i s v o t e i n t h e House, the g o v ernment gave h i m t h e o f f i c e o f t r e a s u r e r . He t h e n showed 3 h i s g r a t i t u d e b y e m b e z z l i n g some government f u n d s . I t was t h e n d i s c o v e r e d , when an a t t e m p t was made t o a s c e r t a i n h i s a s s e t s , t h a t he h a d n o t h a d s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o r u n as a mem- b e r , b u t h a d b e e n l o a n e d l a n d b y no l e s s a p e r s o n t h a n t h e A t - t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , and h a d b e e n i n c r i m i n a t e d i n a s h a d y l a n d d e a l '4 w i t h a n o t h e r man. To p u t a f i n i s h i n g t o u c h t o t h e whole s t o r y , t h e i n d i c t m e n t drawn up b y t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l h a d so many ': 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 27, 1860. 2. I b i d - Dec. 6, 1860. 3. I b i d - J a n . 30, 1862. 4. I b i d - J a n . 31, 1862. 46 l o o p h o l e s , t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e t G o r d o n f r e e , w i t h a l l 1 t h e expense o f a new t r i a l t o go t h r o u g h . L i k e e v e r y o t h e r c o l o n y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d h a d i t s s t r u g g l e between C o u n c i l and A s s e m b l y . The Coun- c i l made an amendment t o a l i q u o r b i l l w h i c h i n v o l v e d a s u r r e n - d e r b y t h e l o w e r House o f t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t p r i v i l e g e , t h e s o l e r i g h t t o t a x t h e p e o p l e . DeCosmos e x p r e s s e d t h e i n d i g n a - t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e A s s e m b l y i n an e d i t o r i a l . " T a x a t i o n w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s e v e r e d t h e o l d c o l o n i e s f r o m t h e M o t h e r C o u n t r y . I f a t t e m p t e d h e r e , i t may b r i n g a b o u t s u c h a combina- t i o n as may r i d t h e c o u n t r y o f an i r r e s p o n s i b l e c o u n c i l and an 2 a r b i t r a r y G o v e r n o r . " The C o u n c i l a n s w e r e d t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e l o w e r House a l o n e c o u l d t a x w i t h a c o u n t e r a s s e r t i o n , " t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d an i n d e f e a s i b l e r i g h t t o o r i g i n a t e o r amend 3 a l l money b i l l s . " T h e y a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e y were e n t i t l e d t o a l l t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e l o w e r House. They b a c k e d t h i s up w i t h amendments t o t h e l i c e n s e b i l l . DeCosmos s a i d "an i r r e s p o n s i b l e c o u n c i l h a s a t t e m p t e d t o t a x t h e p e o p l e , and i f t h e r e i s a s p a r k o f E n g l i s h p l u c k i n t h e A s s e m b l y , i t s h o u l d g i v e s u c h a t t e m p t s t h e i r q u i e t u s , t o - d a y , once and f o r e v e r . " The C o u n c i l w o u l d n o t b a c k down and t h e A s s e m b l y ' s m a j o r i t y was t o o much u n d e r t h e thumb o f t h e C o u n c i l t o f o r c e t h e q u e s t i o n . T h ey g o t o u t 1. 'Cf. '.Ma-cf i e , " Matthew - V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Colum- b i a . London, Longman, Greem, 1865. P. 398. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 24, 1860. 3. I b i d - J a n . 18, 1861. 4. I b i d . o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y b y a l i t t l e q u i b b l i n g a b o u t t h e word p r i v i - l e g e s , t h e C o u n c i l e x p l a i n i n g t h a t e a c h House h a d d e f i n i t e p r i - v i l e g e s . The q u e s t i o n was n o t f i n a l l y s e t t l e d when t h e L e g i s - 2 l a t u r e was p r o r o g u e d . The A s s e m b l y h a d b e e n s i t t i n g f o r n e a r l y a y e a r and h a d a c c o m p l i s h e d a l m o s t n o t h i n g . As DeCosmos s a i d , " t h e e n t i r e s e s s i o n h a s b e e n s p e n t i n d e v i s i n g means w i t h a v i e w t o t h e c r e - a t i o n o f o f f i c e s f o r f a v o u r e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i z a n s , w r a n g l i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r on m a t t e r s o f p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e , d e b a t i n g q u e s t i o n s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y u s a g e , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n - t a i n i n g t h e S p e a k e r ' s d i g n i t y , t o t h e n e g l e c t o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s i n t e r e s t s . T h e y seemed t o have become u t t e r l y o b l i v i o u s t o t h e g r e a t f a c t t h a t t h e i r m i s s i o n was t o l e g i s l a t e , t o d e v i s e means t o promote t h e i n t e r e s t s and d e v e l o p t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e coun- t r y ; b u t i n s t e a d o f so d o i n g , t h e i r m e e t i n g s t o o f r e q u e n t l y p r e - s e n t e d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a s t a l l i n B i l l i n g s g a t e ; and t h e d i g - n i t y o f t h e A s s e m b l y b e e n r e d u c e d t o t h e l e v e l o f a b e a r gars- i den." DeCosmos c r i t i c i z e d D o u g l a s f o r d i s s u a d i n g f o r e i g - n e r s t o s e t t l e on t h e l a n d , f e a r i n g t h e i r e v i l i n f l u e n c e on B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s , and y e t b y h i s u n s t a t e s m a n l i k e p o l i c y and t y r a n n y k e e p i n g away B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s who were u s e d t o f r e e d o m ; and a t t h e same t i m e r e f u s i n g t o g i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 23, 1861. , 2. F e b . 7, 1861. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 8, 1861. t i o n s t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e c a u s e t h e B r i t i s h e l e m e n t was t o o s m a l l . " I f b y any r u l e o f r e a s o n i n g , G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s c a n make i t a p p e a r , t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e , t h a t s e r f - dom i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s p r e f e r a b l e t o c i v i l l i b e r t y a t home o r I n t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , he may p o s s i b l y s u c c e e d i n o b t a i n - i n g a ' B r i t i s h e l e m e n t ' s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l t o j u s t i f y t h e 1 e s t a b l i s h m e n t b f l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h a t c o l o n y . " DeCos- mos o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y t o t h e i d e a o f c l a s s i f y i n g one n a t i o n - a l i t y as s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r s , and s a i d , "we want no l o c a l j e a l o u s i e s b a s e d on b i r t h p l a c e ; b u t l e t u s a c t and s p eak a s V a n c o u v e r i a n s o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s - - a s men who h a v e d r o p p e d t h e l o c a l p r e j u d i c e s o f o u r b i r t h p l a c e , and t a k e a g r e a t e r and j u s t e r p r i d e i n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e l a n d ' 2 o f o u r a d o p t i o n — t h e P a c i f i c C o l o n i e s . " As s o o n as t h e L e g i s l a t u r e b e g a n i t s s e c o n d s e s s i o n , t h e same q u e s t i o n came t o t h e f o r e a g a i n , t h e p u b l i c a c c o u n t s and, a l o n g w i t h i t , t h e c i v i l l i s t . As u s u a l t h e government was s u c c e s s f u l i n k e e p i n g o f f a l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n - - a l t h o u g h t h e r e was an a l m o s t s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o h a v e a s u b m i t t a l o f t h e pubs '4 l i e a c c o u n t s y e a r l y . T h i s q u e s t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r - t a n t , s i n c e a knowledge o f how t h e money was s p e n t i n a c u r r e n t "year was t h e o n l y c h e c k w h i c h t h e A s s e m b l y h a d on t h e t h e G o v e r - n o r . DeCosmos, r e m a r k i n g on t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y , s a i d , 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - MarV 5. 1861. 2. I b i d - Mar. 1, 1861. 3. J une 26, 1861. 4. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 10, 1861. "whenever any i n d e p e n d e n t member o f t h e A s s e m b l y u n d e r t a k e s t o p u t p u b l i c m a t t e r s on a p r o p e r f o o t i n g , t h e c r y i s r a i s e d t h a t i t i s an a t t a c k on t h e E x e c u t i v e . I t r e a l l y p u z z l e s u s t o com- p r e h e n d what s u b s t a n t i a l r e a s o n any a d m i r e r o f t h e government can h a v e f o r o p p o s i n g any measure o f t h e k i n d . I f t h e r e was n o t h i n g wrong, s u c h c o n t i n u o u s o p p o s i t i o n t o a h e a l t h y c h e c k upon t h e p u b l i c r e v e n u e and e x p e n d i t u r e w o u l d l e a d a l m o s t any- one t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e r e was ' s o m e t h i n g r o t t e n i n Denmark.' I f t h e r e i s n o t h i n g ' r o t t e n ' , why oppose t h e v e n t i l a t i o n o f t h e 1 f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e c o u n t r y ? " A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s n e g l e c t t o have p r o p e r c h e c k s on t h e p u b l i c a c c o u n t s , t h e T r e a s - 2 u r e r , Gordon, was a b l e t o make away w i t h some o f t h e f u n d s . I t was n o t o n l y t h e p e o p l e and t h e p r e s s who h a d no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e G o v e r n o r ; e v e n t h e C o u n c i l p a s s e d r e s o l u - t i o n s p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t " t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e , u n b u s i n e s s l i k e and 3 d a n g e r o u s f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y o f t h e E x e c u t i v e . " They p a r t i c u - l a r l y o b j e c t e d t o t h e " i r r e g u l a r a n d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h a b i t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e i n a n t i c i p a t i n g and e x p e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c r e v e - ' 4 nue w i t h o u t t h e s a n c t i o n o f law." Much t o t h e s u r p r i s e o f e v e r y o n e , however, t h e A s s e m b l y , o r r a t h e r a p a r t o f i t , sup- p o r t e d t h e E x e c u t i v e a g a i n s t t h e C o u n c i l , and p a s s e d a v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s p o l i c y . DeCosmos s a i d , " i t l o o k s as t h o u g h 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 17, 1861. 2. V i d e S u p r a , P. 45. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 11, 1862. 4. I b i d . Government was v e r y w e a k — s o much so t h a t i t c a n o n l y e x i s t ' 1 w h i l e "basking i n t h e f o n d s m i l e s o f t h e Lower House." W i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f o r i t s t h i r d s e s s i o n , t h e government was d e f e a t e d on a v o t e t o go i n t o sup- • 2 p l y . T h i s meant a v o t e o f n o - c o n f i d e n c e i n i t and G a r y s h o u l d have r e s i g n e d , a l t h o u g h o f c o u r s e he d i d n o t . When t h e House d i d f i n a l l y go i n t o s u p p l y , t h e r e f o r m e r s d e f e a t e d t h e e s t i - 3 mates b y r e f u s i n g t o p a y t h e two a s s e s s o r s . The o n l y way o u t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y was f o r t h e G o v e r n o r t o d i s s o l v e t h e House, s i n c e t h e r e v e n u e f o r t h e y e a r c o u l d n o t be c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t a s s e s s o r s . I n s t e a d t h e G o v e r n o r was a b l e t o s e c u r e a r e c o m m i t - a l o f t h e e s t i m a t e s , b y t h e r e f o r m e r s n o t s h o w i n g a c o m b i n e d f r o n t a g a i n s t a t t a c k . Some v o t e d w i t h t h e government, some were 4 a b s e n t , and o n l y t h r e e a c t u a l l y v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e r e c o m m i t t a l . A f t e r t h i s l a s t f a r c e , DeCosmos l o s t f a i t h e ven i n t h e r e f o r - mers and s a i d , " o f a l l t h e u n m i t i g a t e d m u f f s t h a t were e v e r c o l - l e c t e d t o g e t h e r p e r h a p s o u r A s s e m b l y i s t h e most p e r f e c t t h a t 5 e v e r e x i s t e d . " The G o v e r n o r made no a t t e m p t t o l e t t h e A s s e m b l y know i f t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e Hudson's Ba y Company d e b t o r t h e town s i t e c l a i m h a d b e e n d e c i d e d y e t . S i n c e t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c o u l d 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 24, 1862. 2. I b i d - Mar. 25, 1862. 3. I b i d - A p r i l 3, 1862. 4. I b i d - A p r i l 11, 1862. R i n g , T r i m b l e and Mc- D o n a l d v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e r e c o m m i t t a l . 5. I b i d - May 3, 1862. 51 n o t s e p a r a t e d f f o m t h a t o f t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e Crown L a n d s , t h i s d e l a y meant t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y c o u l d n o t d e c i d e t h e c i v i l l i s t ' q u e s t i o n and make t h e c o l o n y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . When t h e A s s e m b l y t r i e d t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n , f i r s t t h e Spea- k e r n e g l e c t e d t o f o r w a r d t h e a d d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r f o r f o u r months, t h e n t h e G o v e r n o r a t f i r s t c o u l d n o t answer i t b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and f i n a l l y he s e n t a d i r e c t r e - f u s a l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . He s a i d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a d be ©no between h i m and t h e home government and t h e l a t t e r h a d n o t 1 a o u t h o r i z e d h im t o show i t t o t h e A s s e m b l y . BeCosmes s a i d , "were t h e Assemblymen t h e G o v e r n o r ' s b o o t b l a c k s t h e y c o u l d n o t be made more s u b s e r v i e n t n o r h o l d a meaner o c c u p a t i o n t h a n b y s u b m i t t i n g t o s u c h a m e s s a g e — s u c h c a v a l i e r t r e a t m e n t - - s u c h v a s s a l a g e . The c o l o n y h a s b e e n t o l d t o be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g ; and when the. A s s e m b l y a s k s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a v i e w t o l e s s e n t h e b u r d e n — t h e t a x e s h e a p e d on t h e c o u n t r y — a r e t o l d - - ' M i n d 2 y o u r own b u s i n e s s , f e l l o w s ! ' " 3 The A s s e m b l y was p r o r o g u e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s , t o be c a l l e d a g a i n as soon as p o s s i b l e , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e ' 4 y e a r . DeCosmos e x p l a i n e d t h i s , as he u n d e r s t o o d I t . "The 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 9, 1862. As t h e m a t t e r t r e a t e d o f b y t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ' i s one e x c l u - s i v e l y b e t w e e n H e r M a j e s t y ' s Government and t h e Hudson's Ba y Company, and as many a c c o u n t s n o t s e t t l e d and as ar» r a n g e m e n t s n o t s u b m i t t e d f o r o p i n i o n o f l o c a l government, e t c . 2. I b i d . 3. Dec. 22, 1862. 4. J a n . 2, 1863. 52 e a r l y s e s s i o n — t h e e x t r a s e s s i o n — t h e wonder o f a l l wonders i n o u r l o c a l p o l i t i c s , i s due n o t t o a d e s i r e t o see t h e p u b l i c b u s i n e s s d e s p a t c h e d e a r l y i n t h e y e a r : b u t t o u s e t h e Rump o f t h e m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t a k e p o w e r f u l means f o r t h e r e d r e s s o f p u b l i c g r i e v a n c e s o u t o f t h e h ands o f t h e new A s s e m b l y , t h a t i s t o b e . The Government want t o g e t s u p p l i e s f o r '63 p a s s e d . I f t h e y c a n g e t t h a t j o b done, t h e c o u n t r y may w h i s t l e f o r r e - f o r m . The Government f e e l s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s a g a i n s t i t . I t i s p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a r v o t e , i f p u r e l y and h o n e s t l y c a s t , w o u l d e l e c t men who w o u l d n e v e r c o n s e n t t o p a s s s u p p l i e s , ex- c e p t r e a s o n a b l e answers i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h commemorial B r i t i s h c u s t o m were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r p e t i t i o n f o r t h e r e d r e s s o f pub- 1 l i e g r i e v a n c e . " A f t e r t h i s A s s e m b l y h a d g r a n t e d t h e s u p p l i e s t h a t t h e 2 g overnment wanted, I t was d i s s o l v e d , and w r i t s f o r an e l e c t i o n were i s s u e d . DeCosmos e n t e r e d t h e f i e l d as a c a n d i d a t e f o r V i c - t o r i a . H i s p l a t f o r m was a s y s t e m o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t — n o t d e p a r t m e n t a l — a u n i o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a , on t e r m s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h ; t h e ^ t r a n s f e r o f t h e Crown L a n d s t o t h e c o l o n y ; i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e H u d s o n 1 s Bay Company c l a i m s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e town s i t e ; f r e e . gi°ant o f l a n d t o t h e s e t t l e r s ; m e a s u r e s t o promote i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m E n g l a n d and Canada; e d u c a t i o n f r e e t o a l l and n o n - s e c t a r i a n ; r e c i p r o c i - t y o f t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e c o l o n i e s and U n i t e d S t a t e s ; new e l e c - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 23, 1863. 2. F e b . 28, 1863. t o r a l d i s t r i c t s , w i t h i n c r e a s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; m a i n t e n a n c e o f th e f r e e p o r t s y s t e m ; and many o t h e r l e s s i m p o r t a n t p o l i c i e s . A s u s u a l he was o p p o s e d b y t h e Family-Company-Compact, b u t t h i s t i m e he was more s u c c e s s f u l and was e l e c t e d s e c o n d a t t h e p o l l s i n V i c t o r i a . A f t e r f i v e y e a r s ' r e s i d e n c e i n V i c t o r i a , DeCosmos h a d e n t e r e d t h e L e g i s l a t u r e as t h e r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r o f t h e r e f o r m p a r t y . j t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t he h a d b e e n i n V i c t o r i a , he h a d n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d much. B u t i t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was u n i q u e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c o l o n i e s . What c o u l d any man, however accom- p l i s h e d , do a g a i n s t t h e a c c u m u l a t e d f o r c e s o f t h e Hudson's B a y Company, and t h e t y p e o f s e t t l e r i t e n c o u r a g e d ? I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e Hudson's B a y Company d i d n o t want t o l o s e any o f i t s a u t h o r i t y , and s e c o n d l y t h e t y p e o f E n g l i s h m a n t h a t came o u t was s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e Company and v e r y much t h e a d m i r e r o f t h e s t a t u s q u o - - r u l e b y t h e p r i v i l e g e d a r i s t o c r a c y o f t h e Company.- When wag add e d t o ^ t h i s t y p e o f s e t t l e r , t h e A m e r i c a n who came i n f o r b u s i n e s s r e a s o n s a l o n e , who d i d n o t i n t e n d t o s t a y p e r - m a n e n t l y , and who d e s i r e d a s t r o n g government t h a t w o u l d p r e - v e n t u n r e s t , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t DeCosmos t o o k t i m e t o b u i l d up a s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r r e f o r m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a t t h i s t i m e , i t may be s a i d t h a t he h a d a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s v e r y thing.- P u b l i c o p i n i o n h a d a p p e a r e d i n t h e c o l o n y , and u n d e r h i s g u i d - a n c e was determined 1- t o s e c u r e r e f o r m . - C h a p t e r I I I - DeCosmos i n t h e A s s e m b l y . The t a s k b e f o r e DeCosmos, as a l e g i s l a t o r , was d i f f i - c u l t . T h e r e was no c o n s i s t e n t h i s t o r y o f e n l i g h t e n e d l e g i s l a - t i o n o r l e g i s l a t o r s b e h i n d h i m . He, as t h e r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r o f t h e r e f o r m p a r t y , h a d p r a c t i c a l l y t o i n i t i a t e t h e u n d e r s t a n d - i n g o f B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t o an A s s e m b l y w h i c h w i t h b u t few e x c e p t i o n s h a d b e e n t h e p l a y t h i n g , t h e mere m o u t h p i e c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r and t h e Hudson's Ba y Company. As w e l l as t e a c h i n g t h e A s s e m b l y how t h e y s h o u l d c o n - d u c t t h e i r a f f a i r s and, as i t were, p r o v i d i n g t h e m a c h i n e r y o f l e g i s l a t i o n , he h a d t o c o n s i d e r a g r e a t many v i t a l m a t t e r s w h i c h must be d e c i d e d q u i c k l y . The two most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e were u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y . DeCosmos a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b o t h , and i n t e r r e l a t e d t h e two i n an e d i t o r i a l . S p e a k i n g o f u n i o n , he 1 s a i d , " t h e i n i t i a t o r y s t e p now d e v o l v e s on o u r A s s e m b l y , a n d i n t h e a b s e n c e o f o t h e r L e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y i t may n e g o t i a t e t h e t e r m s w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r , and as o u r f i n a n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n depends i n a g r e a t measure on an e a r l y d e c i s i o n r e s p e c t i n g a u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e s o o n e r t h e q u e s t i o n i s t a k e n 2 up and d e a l t w i t h , t h e b e t t e r . " M o r e o v e r on t h e q u e s t i o n o f 1. P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n o f B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . N e w c a s t l e t o D o u g l a s , June 15, 1863. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 8, 1863. 55 t h e c i v i l l i s t , he f e l t t h a t t h e s a l a r y a s k e d b y t h e home gov- ernment f o r t h e G o v e r n o r was f a r t o o h i g h , "and i f we c a n n o t g e t a new G o v e r n o r o r have t h e crown l a n d s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c o l o n y t i l l t h e L e g i s l a t u r e v o t e s t h e G o v e r n o r t h r e e t h o u s a n d ponds a y e a r we f e a r we s h a l l h a v e t o w a i t a l o n g t i m e f o r b o t h . S e p a r a t e government i f i t c o s t s a t t h a t r a t e w i l l be c o n s i d e r a - b l y t o o e x p e n s i v e ; and p r e s u m i n g t h a t t h e C o l o n i a l o f f i c e i s n o t d i s p o s e d t o r e c e d e t o any v e r y g r e a t e x t e n t , i t makes t h e 1 e a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f u n i o n s t i l l more i m p o r t a n t . " I t must n o t be t h o u g h t t h a t u n i o n h a d j u s t a p p e a r e d as a p o s s i b i l i t y i n t h e c o l o n y a t t h i s t i m e , due t o t h e e x p e c - t e d change i n government i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i n G o v e r n o r s f o r b o t h c o l o n i e s . U n i o n h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d b y b o t h c o l o n i e s f r o m t h e moment o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n d e r t h e r u l e o f D o u g l a s . The waste o f money i n two s e t s o f o f f i - c i a l s , t h e l a c k o f u n i t y i n t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e two was de- p l o r e d b y any a d m i r e r o f e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . From t h e moment o f D e C o s m o s 1 s a r r i v a l on t h e i s l a n d , he h a d a d v o c a t e d u n i o n , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e as t h e o n l y means b y w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s c o u l d o b t a i n f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s . " D e s p a t c h e s have b e e n r e c e i v e d t o e s t a b l i s h ' f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h o u t d e l a y ' i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Why a r e n o t C o l u m b i a n s up and d o i n g , - - a d v o - c a t i n g u n i o n o f t h e two c o l o n i e s , and a House o f A s s e m b l y f o r m e d f r o m t h e u n i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f b o t h ? E x c e p t u n i o n i s a d o p t e d B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a w i l l be a l o n g t i m e w i t h o u t f r e e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 8, 1863. 56 • 1 i n s t i t u t i o n s . " E v e n a t t h a t e a r l y d a t e DeCosmos saw t h a t u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f r o m V i c t o r i a ' s s t a n d p o i n t , s h o u l d n o t be d e c l a r e d i m p r a c t i c a b l e e v e n t h o u g h i t w o u l d mean g i v i n g up t h e f r e e p o r t . He saw t h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f a f r e e p o r t w o u l d be l e s s i n r D o r t a n t once u n i o n was won and t h e r e was f r e e t r a d e 2 b e t w e e n t h e two c o l o n i e s . L a t e r , i n 1861, DeCosmos a g a i n a d v o c a t e d u n i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a u n i t e d p o l i c y and a s a v i n g o f e x p e n s e . "The a c t o f u n i o n w o u l d s i n k f o r e v e r o u t o f s i g h t t h e p r o s p e c t o f two o r t h r e e p e t t y c o l o n i e s on t h i s c o a s t , e a c h bowed down w i t h t h e w e i g h t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l m a c h i n e r y , l i k e s t r i p l i n g s e n c a s e d i n g i a n t ' s armour, e a c h w i t h d i f f e r e n t d o m e s t i c l a w s ; e a c h w i t h a d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y ; e a c h w i t h o u t any c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b u t what i s f o u n d i n t h e n a t i o n a l c h a i n ; e a c h 'estranged"'"from e a c h o t h e r a l m o s t as t h o u g h t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f e a c h o t h e r ' s t e r r i t o - 3 r y was v e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t m o n a rchs." A g a i n he d e c l a r e d , "we have no sympathy w i t h t h e p o l i c y t h a t w o u l d i n s t i t u t e o r p e r - p e t u a t e p e t t y p r o v i n c e s , where t h e s h a r p e n e d i n t e l l e c t s o f t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s p r e y on e a c h o t h e r ; where t h e c o l o n i a l m i n d doomed b y I m p e r i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t o a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n , i s s t i l l f u r - t h e r doomed t o g r a p p l e w i t h p e t t y p o l i t i c s , s h u t up w i t h a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , rand s h u t o u t b y p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s f r o m a f i e l d f i t t e d f o r i t s e x p a n s i o n and e l e v a t i o n , l e a v i n g l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g i n common e x c e p t a cewmon n a t i o n a l i t y . We h a v e no sympathy w i t h 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 5, 1859. 2. I b i d - F e b . 12, 1859. 3. I b i d - D e c . 18, 1861. c l a s h i n g t a r i f f s c h e c k i n g i n t e r c o l o n i a l t r a d e a n d d e p r i v i n g c a - p i t a l o f a f i e l d f o r i n v e s t m e n t i n m a n u f a c t u r e s . We go w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f o u r age. I t i s n o t an age i n w h i c h we s h o u l d b o r row o u r m o d e l s f r o m a p a s t and a l m o s t wgrnout C o l o n i a l p o l i c y . " Prom t h e s e d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f DeCosmos's v i e w s i t may be s e e n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was n o t a new one f o r h i m . I n one p a r t i c u l a r he h a d m o d i f i e d h i s o p i n i o n s , p r o b a b l y due t o t h e s t r o n g f e e l i n g shown i n t h e c i t y . He d e c l a r e d i n h i s e l e c - t i o n s p e e c h t h a t he was an a d v o c a t e o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e ' f r e e p o r t system, b u t he d i d n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t i t w i t h u n - i o n , b u t r a t h e r l e f t a l o o p h o l e , b y s a y i n g he was i n f a v o u r o f a u n i o n on terms s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h c o l o n i e s . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n d i s c u s s i o n o f s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n u n t i l m i n o r d e t a i l s h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d . One o f t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h a t DeCosmos p i c k e d o u t as n e e d i n g r e f o r m , was t h e r e p l y t o t h e a d d r e s s f r o m t h e G o v e r n o r . He wanted t o d i s c u s s t h i s a d d r e s s , p a r a g r a p h b y p a r a g r a p h , n o t m e r e l y g i v e t h e G o v e r n o r a b l a n k e t v o t e o f t h a n k s f o r a l l t h a t he s a i d . ' S u ch a p r o p o s a l seemed s a c r i l e g e t o t h o s e who t h o u g h t t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r c o u l d do no wrong and t h a t a l l t h a t he s a i d s h o u l d b e r e c e i v e d w i t h r e v e r e n c e . As a c o n s e q u e n c e DeCosmos's 3 p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d . About t h i s t i m e , w i t h t h e f e a r t h a t a new G o v e r n o r w o u l d s h o r t l y be a p p o i n t e d , some o f t h e h a n g e r s - o n and mere - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 13, 1862. 2. I b i d - J u l y 14, 1863. 3. I b i d - S e p t . 12, 1863. p u p p e t s o f t h e p r e s e n t G o v e r n o r , D o u g l a s , s e n t a m e m o r i a l t o t h e Duke o f N e w c a s t l e , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , a s k i n g t h a t he be r e - a p p o i n t e d . DeCosmos a t once r a i s e d a c r y a g a i n s t t h i s p r o p o s a l , n o t f r o m mere p e t t y s p i t e , b u t r a t h e r i n t h e r e a l i n - t e r e s t s o f D o u g l a s . "No r e a l w e l l w i s h e r o f G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s - - none b u t o v e r - z e a l o u s p e o p l e who u s u a l l y o v e r s h o o t t h e m a r k - woul d h a v e e v e r a t t e m p t e d t o g l o s s o v e r an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t has b e e n s i n g u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e t o s a y t h e l e a s t . . . On t h e p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s w o u l d r e t i r e i n due c o u r s e , eve- r y b o d y d e s i r e d t o b u r y t h e e r r o r s , t h e d e f e c t s o f h i s a d m i n i s - t r a t i o n , p r e f e r r i n g t o r e g a r d h i m i n h i s r e t i r e m e n t as t h e a c - t u a l f o u n d e r o f two nobe c o l o n i e s , a h i g h h o n o u r and a l a s t i n g 1 monument." S i n c e D o u g l a s d i d r e t i r e t h e r e was no n e e d t o r a k e up o l d q u a r r e l s , as DeCosmos t h r e a t e n e d w o u l d be done i f he s o u g h t r e - a p p o i n t m e n t . T h i s e d i t o r i a l o f DeCosmos's m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i n a l word on S i r James D o u g l a s and t h e l a s t b a t t i e i n t h e c a m p a i g n w h i c h DeCosmos f o u g h t a g a i n s t D o u g l a s . How w e l l he k e p t h i s word may be a p p r e c i a t e d when one c o n s i d e r s how l i t t l e i s known o f D o u g l a s ' s m i s t a k e s t o - d a y and how much i s known o f D o u g l a s , t h e f o u n d e r o f two n o b l e c o l o n i e s . W h i l e c a r r y i n g on h i s work i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , DeCos- mos was a l s o c o n t i n u i n g h i s n e w s p a p e r work. He soon f o u n d , however, t h a t d o i n g b o t h meant t h a t one o r t h e o t h e r must be n e g l e c t e d . I t c a n be i m a g i n e d t h a t t h e c h o i c e must h a v e b e e n a d i f f i c u l t one between g i v i n g up h i s p o l i t i c s , and g i v i n g up h i s p a p e r , b u t l i k e most men o f a m b i t i o n , he c h o s e t o r e m a i n i n 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 16, 1863. p o l i t i c s . I t d o e s n o t seem l i k e l y t h a t he e v e r r e g r e t t e d t h i s c h o i c e l a t e r , a l t h o u g h he d i d r e t u r n t o newspaper work d u r i n g t t h e s t r u g g l e f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n . I t i s e v i d e n t , however, t h a t he d i d r e g r e t s e p a r a t i n g h i m s e l f f r o m t h e p a p e r a t t h a t t i m e . DhlSi r e g r e t i s shown i n h i s v a l e d i c t o r y e d i t o r i a l . "So m a r k e d on some o c c a s i o n s h a s t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e f r i e n d s and p a t r o n s o f t h e p a p e r b een, t h a t i t i s w i t h a pang o f r e g r e t I now d i s s o l v e t h e c o n n e c t i o n and b i d them f a r e w e l l , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y n e v e r a g a i n t o renew my c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c as e d i t o r and p r o - p r i e t o r o f a n e w s p a p e r . N o t h i n g b u t d e l i c a t e h e a l t h a r i s i n g f r o m o v e r - a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e d u t i e s o f a l a b o r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n , 1 h a s i n d u c e d me t o r e t i r e . " W i t h h i s m i n d f r e e o f o t h e r i n t e r e s t s , DeCosmos was a b l e t o t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n e n t i r e l y t o t h e v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f u n i o n . A s he s a i d , "much o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y f o r t h e s e s s i o n depends on t h e way t h e u n i o n q u e s t i o n w i l l be t r e a - 2 t e d , " and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e l o g i c a l t h i n g t o do was t o b e g i n th e d i s c u s s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y . I n t h e House, DeCosmos a d v o c a t e d u n i o n f r o m e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . H i s f i r s t a r g u m e n t s , p a r - t i c u l a r l y , s t r e s s e d t h e e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s o f u n i o n f o r V a n - c o u v e r I s l a n d . A t t h a t t i m e t h e I s l a n d d e pended e n t i r e l y on i t s c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s f o r I t s p r o s p e r i t y . He showed t h e f a l - l a c y o f any s m a l l c i t y e x p e c t i n g t o p r o s p e r i n d e f i n i t e l y , i s o - l a t e d as V i c t o r i a was f r o m any l a r g e m a i n l a n d c o n n e c t i o n s . The p o l i c y f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o f o l l o w , was t o u n i t e w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h u s c o m b i n © a c o u n t r y o f g r e a t a g r i c u l t u r a l and 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 6, 1863. 2. I b i d — S e p t . 28, 1863. 60 i n d u s t r i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t o ' " - t h e - ' - great;, c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e w h i c h t h e I s l a n d h a d d e v e l o p e d . He d e c l a r e d t h a t "we w i l l e s t a b l i s h s u c h a p o l i c y as w i l l r a i s e o u r c o u n t r y t o t h e h i g h s t a n d a r d o f E n g l a n d ' s c i v i l i z a t i o n ; s u c h a p o l i c y as w i l l f o u n d on t h e ... s h o r e s o f t h e P a c i f i c a p e o p l e who w i l l v i e w i t h t h e m o t h e r 1 c o u n t r y i n p r o g r e s s , i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t , and i n h a p p i n e s s . " DeCosmos's argument seems t o have b e e n t h a t once t h e two c o l o n i e s were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , and t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f Van- c o u v e r I s l a n d d e p e n d e d no l o n g e r e n t i r e l y on V i c t o r i a ' s commer- c i a l s t a n d i n g , i t wo u l d n o t m a t t e r so much w h e t h e r V i c t o r i a r e - m a i n e d a f r e e p o r t o r n o t . C o n s e q u e n t l y he w o u l d l e a v e t h i s m a t t e r t o a v o t e o f a m a j o r i t y o f t h e i s l a n d members i n a com- b i n e d l e g i s l a t u r e . He, h i m s e l f , h a d d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t f r e e t r a d e . " H i s o p i n i o n i n r e g a r d t o f r e e t r a d e was t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y a t t h e o u t s e t o f any new c o u n t r y ; he w o u l d t h e n ap- p r o v e o f a g r a d u a l r e s t r i c t i o n t i l l i n d u s t r y h a d a t t a i n e d a c e r - t a i n p o n t , a t w h i c h t h e b r o a d p r i n c i p l e s o f f r e e t r a d e m i g h t be ' ' 2 a d o p t e d . " A s a c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l t o DeCosmos's i d e a o f l e g i s l a - t i v e u n i o n , H e l m c k e n s u g g e s t e d a f e d e r a l u n i o n u n d e r one gov- 3 e r n o r . The p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e S p e a k e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n was an a t t e m p t t o d e f e a t t h e whole aim o f t h e r e f o r m e r s and s e n d b a c k t o t h e i m p e r i a l government, a p r o p o s a l w h i c h w o u l d n e v e r be con - s i d e r e d , s i n c e i t h a d a l r e a d y worked so b a d l y w i t h D o u g l a s . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 6, 1863. 2. I b i d - O c t . 10, 1863. 3. I b i d - O c t . 13, 1863. DeCosmos was a b s o l u t e l y a g a i n s t t h i s , and p r e f e r r e d a p o s t p o n e - ment o f t h e whole q u e s t i o n f o r s i x months t o h a v i n g s u c h an un- f a i r p r o p o s a l g i v e n as t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e H o u s e . "The g r e a t p o i n t he w i s h e d t o g a i n f o r h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s was a v o i c e i n t h e money power, he d i d n o t w i s h t o a l l o w t h e E x c e l l e n c y t h e s o l e c o n t r o l o f money m a t t e r s , and t h e o n l y way t o g a i n a v o i c e i n 1 t h e money power i s a L e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n . " DeCosmos moved, ', t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a L e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n be a r r a n g e d , t h r o u g h d e l e - g a t i o n s f r o m b o t h c o l o n i e s m e e t i n g and t h e n r e p o r t i n g b a c k t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e L e g i s l a t u r e s — t h e u n i o n t o I n s u r e t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no t a m p e r i n g w i t h t h e f r e e p o r t o f V i c t o r i a . H e l - mcken t r i e d t o amend i t so t h a t f r e e t r a d e and t h e mode o f t a x - a t i o n be a l s o l e f t t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . W i t h 2 t h i s amendment t h e r e s o l u t i o n s were d e f e a t e d . The n e x t q u e s t i o n t h a t DeCosmos d i s c u s s e d was an a t - tempt t o g a i n r e s p o n s i b l e g o v ernment. He s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i n c e " t h e C o u n c i l and A s s e m b l y a r e t o o s m a l l t o a d m i t — w i t h s a f e t y t o t h e p e o p l e — a m o n g t h e i r members any o f f i c e r o f t h e Crown 3 h o l d i n g a p l a c e o f emolument o r p r o f i t , " t h e s o l u t i o n w o u l d be a ^ m i n i s t e r i a l c o u n c i l , "composed o f u n - o f f i c i a l , u n s a l a r i e d 4 members." He moved r e s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s e f f e c t ; f i r s t , t h a t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 20, 1863. 2. I b i d - F o r , DeCosmos, R i d g e , Duncan, Dennes, A g a i n s t , Helmcken, T r i m b l e , B a y l e y , Young. The c a s t i n g v o t e o f t h e c h a i r - man, B u r n a b y , d e f e a t e d i t . 3. I b i d - J u l y 18, 1863. 4. I b i d - J a n . 16, 1864. 62 t h e r e s h o u l d be an. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , w i t h two members f r o m t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and t h r e e f r o m t h e A s s e m b l y ; s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e h e a d s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s , s u c h as t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Co- l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , T r e a s t i r e r and S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l , s h o u l d be ex- o f f i c i o members w i t h t h e r i g h t t o speak b u t n o t t o v o t e ; . t h i r d - l y , t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l s h o u l d b e t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b l e and c o n - s t i t u t i o n a l a d v i s e r s o f t h e G o v e r n o r ; and f o u r t h l y , " t h a t when . s u c h E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l c a n n o t command a m a j o r i t y i n t h e L e g i s - l a t i v e A s s e m b l y t o c o n d u c t t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y , i t ought t o be i n v a r i a b l y g u i d e d b y t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l u s a g e s t h a t 1" g o v e r n t h e m i n i s t r y i n E n g l a n d u n d e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " L a s t l y , he s i i g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no p a i d o f f i c i a l s , e x c e p t t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e , i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , and t h a t none o f t h e e x - o f f i c i o members o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l s h o u l d 2. be i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . T h i s was p a s s e d . When t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u p p l y was b r o u g h t up f o r c o n - s i d e r a t i o n , t h e whole m a t t e r o f t h e c i v i l l i s t and t h e Crown L a n d s was r e v i v e d . The C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y h a d o f f e r e d t h e c o - l o n y t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Crown L a n d s i n r e t u r n f o r a c i v i l l i s t 3 w h i c h t h e A s s e m b l y t h o u g h t e x o r b i t a n t . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t o a c c e p t t h i s c i v i l l i s t , w i t h t h e r e v e n u e f r o m t h e Crown Lands so s m a l l , w o u l d mean a l o s s t o t h e c o l o n y . The o n l y rem- 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 27, 1864. 2. I b i d - F e b . 9, 1864. • 3. P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n o f B r i - v t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , . N e w c a s t l e t o D o u g l a s , June 15, 1863. edy as he saw i t , J - was u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n t i l t h i s c o u l d be b r o u g h t a b o u t , i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be one G o v e r n o r and one c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d p a y i n g o n e - t h i r d o f t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e o f f i - c i a l s , a t t h e r a t e p r e v a l e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e s e r e s o - 1 l u t i o n s were s e n t t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . The m a t t e r o f t h e c i v i l l i s t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n s h e l v e d u n t i l an answer was r e c e i v e d t o t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b u t , i n - s t e a d , when t h e new G o v e r n o r , Kennedy, a r r i v e d , he b r o u g h t o u t I n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , o r d e r i n g t h e A s s e m b l y t o make a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r a r e s i d e n c e and a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y . A t once t h e House, l e d b y H e l m c k e n and DeCosmos, r e f u s e d t o make a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f r o m t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s u n t i l an answer was r e c e i v e d r e g a r d i n g t h e c i v i l l i s t q u e s t i o n . I f t h e G o v e r n o r n e e d e d a r e s i d e n c e , t h e Crown r e v e n u e c o u l d be a p p l i e d . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d , " t h e r e s o l u t i o n s s e n t t o t h e S e c - r e t a r y o f S t a t e b y t h e House were b a s e d on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C i v i l L i s t w h i c h i n c l u d e d a r e s i d e n c e . I t was n o t c o m p e tent f o r t h e House t o t a k e up a s u b j e c t w h i c h ha d a l r e a d y b e e n d i s - ' 2 p o s e d o f , w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g t h e r u l e s o f t h e House." The p e o p l e i n t h e c o l o n y , who h a d b e e n d i s p o s e d t o r e - c e i v e Kennedy w i t h a good d e a l o f c o r d i a l i t y , were i n c e n s e d a- g a i n s t t h e d i s c o u r t e o u s a c t i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y ( a s t h e y t h o u g h t ) i n r e f u s i n g t o g r a n t money f o r t h e G o v e r n o r ' s r e s i d e n c e . A . m e e t i n g o f t h e p e o p l e was h e l d p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e A s s e m b l y ' s 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 2, 9, 1864. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 8, 1864. a c t i o n , a t w h i c h DeCosmos, i n t h e f a c e o f s e r i o u s o p p o s i t i o n , • a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s a c t i o n . He e x p l a i n e d f i r s t t h a t t h e whole q u e s t i o n r e s t e d on t h e A s s e m b l y ' s d e s i r e t o f u r t h e r t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e c o l o n y , and i n so d o i n g , i t h a d r e f u s e d a c i v i l l i s t w h i c h was e x o r b i t a n t and e x c e e d e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e Crown L a n d s ' r e v e n u e . "The House h a d r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e o f f e r , and h a d o f f e r e d t o pay o n e - t h i r d o f t h e B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a c i v i l l i s t , and h a v e a j o i n t s t a f f o f o f f i c i a l s . How c o u l d t h e House, a f t e r p a s s i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n i n F e b r u a r y l a s t , t a k e up t h e m a t t e r now? The House h a d s i m p l y l e f t t h e m a t t e r t o t h e Duke o f N e w c a s t l e . I n r e g a r d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n c e t h e m a t t e r was l e f t t o t h e Duke, as a l l t h e House wanted was t o keep f i i c t o r i a t h e c o m m e r c i a l c a p i t a l . The q u e s - t i o n c o u l d n o t be b r o u g h t up w i t h o u t p r o r o g a t i o n . The G o v e r - n o r c o u l d t a k e a h o u s e w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h e c o l o n y . He was a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e Duke o f N e w c a s t l e t o do so, and he h a d done so, and t h e money comes o u t o f t h e Crown r e v e n u e , a n d t h e t a x - p a y e r s o f t h e c o l o n y were n o t c a l l e d upon t&t p a y one c e n t t o - 1 wards i t . " The o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e d i d n o t amount t o any- t h i n g s e i o u s ; n o r , i n t h e l o n g r u n , d i d t h a t o f t h e A s s e m b l y , f o r w i t h i n a y e a r t h e y g r a n t e d t h e money f o r t h e r e s i d e n c e . T h e r e was much o p p o s i t i o n , however, when i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r h a d a p p l i e d t h e money a p p r o p r i a t e d , n o t t o b u i l d - i n g a new r e s i d e n c e , b u t t o b u y i n g C a r y C a s t l e . DeCosmos 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 12, 1864. 65 v o i c e d t h i s o p p o s i t i o n when he s a i d , " i n g i v i n g h i s v o t e f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e money he h a d done so w i t h a d i s t i n c t u n - d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t s h o u l d be s p e n t among t h e m e c h a n i c s and 1 o t h e r s i n t h e c i t y . " The Crown L a n d s q u e s t i o n was r e v i v e d a g a i n , due t o th e c o m m i t t e e w h i c h h a d b e e n c h o s e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e q u e s t i o n , v i o l e n t l y d i s a g r e e i n g and t h r o w i n g o u t t h e r e p o r t w h i c h DeCos- 2 mos h a d drawn up. I n plaece o f t h i s r e p o r t , t h e r e f o r e , he moved r e s o l u t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e q u e s t i o n . He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e Hudosn's B a y Company owed money t o t h e Crown b u t t h a t i t was up to t h e Crown t o o b t a i n t h i s money, so t h a t t h e f i n a n c e s o f t h e c o l o n y s h o u l d n o t be i n j u r e d , and so t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e ' 3 c i v i l l i s t s h o u l d be q u i c k l y s e t t l e d . T o l m i e and H e l m c k e n im- m e d i a t e l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e m o t i o n . T h e s e two o l d o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Company h a d n o t f i n a l l y become f r e e f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e monopoly, b u t t h e r e was a change i n t h e A s s e m b l y , and a m a j o r i t y o f t h e members were f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n and i t p a s s e d . The House, a t t h i s t i m e , r e c e i v e d an answer f r o m t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n r e g a r d t o i t s r e f u s a l t o p a y t h e p r o p o s e d c i v i l l i s t . He a u t h o r i z e d t h e G o v e r n o r t o p a y h i s and t h e l o - c a l C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s s a l a r y o u t o f t h e Crown r e v e n u e , b u t he l e f t t h e r e s t o f t h e o f f i c e r s u n p r o v i d e d f o r . H i s d e s p a t c h a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e u n i o n q u e s t i o n - - h i s p o l i c y b e i n g t o l e a v e 4 t h e m a t t e r t o a w a i t t h e v i e w s o f b o t h G o v e r n o r s . The A s s e m b l y 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 9, 1865. 2. I b i d - June 11, 1864. 3. I b i d - June 17, 1864. 4. I b i d - June 28;,. 1864. d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e was a n y t h i n g t o w o r r y a b o u t , since) t h e y h a d o n l y a c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c u s t o m i n n o t v o t i n g t h e c i v i l l i s t , and i t c o u l d be p a i d as u s u a l o u t o f t h e Crown r e v e n u e . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , r a t h e r a s u r p r i s e t o them when t h e y r e c e i v e d a message f r o m t h e G o v e r n o r d e c l a r i n g t h a t he was n o t a u t h o r i z e d t o p a y any s a l a r i e s , o t h e r t h a n t h o s e s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n 1 t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s d e s p a t c h , a n d t h e House must p r o v i d e 2 f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y must n o t c o n - s i d e r v o t i n g t h e s a l a r i e s , s i n c e t h e y h a d a l r e a d y s e t t l e d t h e q u e s t i o n e a r l y i n t h e s e s s i o n . To r e c o n s i d e r , when no p r o p e r answer h a d b e e n r e c e i v e d , w o u l d be v a c i l l a t i o n on t h e A s s e m b l y ' s p a r t . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e House s h o u l d i n d e m n i f y t h e G o v e r - n o r f o r any amounts he m i g h t draw f r o m t h e Crown L a n d s ' r e v e n u e , 3 u n t i l t h e - q u e s t i o n was s e t t l e d . I n t h e summer o f '64 g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d on t h e Cow- i c h a n R i v e r and a t Sooke, and t h e r e was a s m a l l g o l d r u s h . Due t o t h e e x c i t e m e n t c a u s e d and t h e f e a r o f d i s o r d e r , Kennedy c a l l e d a h u r r i e d m e e t i n g o f t h e A s s e m b l y , b u t n e g l e c t e d t o w a i t t h e r e q u i s i t e number o f d a y s between t h e summoning o f t h e Assem- 1. P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n o f B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . C a r d w e l l t o Kennedy. " I t w i l l o f c o u r s e r e s t w i t h t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o make p r o - v i s i o n f o r t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r o f f i c e r s e mployed u n d e r the Government i n any way and f r o m any s o u r c e w h i c h may seem most a p p r o p r i a t e t o them." T h i s d e s p a t c h does n o t d e f i n i t e l y s a y t h a t t h e y may n o t a p p l y t h e Crown r e v - enue, i f t h e y f i n d t h a t t h e most f i t t i n g . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u l y 1, 1864. 3. I b i d - J u l y 2, 1864. 1 b l y and t h e a c t u a l o p e n i n g o f t h e s e s s i o n . The A s s e m b l y f e l t t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r h a d b e e n u n n e c e s s a r i l y u p s e t o v e r a compara- t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r and h a d e x c e e d e d h i s r i g h t s i n c a l l - i n g them u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y . DeCosmos v o i c e d t h i s f e e l i n g when, a f t e r t h e G o v e r n o r ' s a d d r e s s , he d e c l a r e d , " i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h an a n c i e n t c u s t o m o f t h e House o f Commons--a custom t o w h i c h t h e n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n h a d l e n t t h e f o r c e o f l a w - - a c u s t o m t h a t h a d e v e r b e e n c a r e f u l l y c o p i e d and j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d b y e v e r y B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l A s s e m b l y — i t became o u r d u t y t o a s s e r t o u r i n - a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o l e g i s l a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e s p e c i a l c a u s e 2 ' o f summons o f the'Crown, t h i s day." The- b i l l w h i c h he p r o p o s e d t o b r i n g b e f o r e t h e A s s e m b l y was one g i v i n g c o l o n i a l l a w y e r s e q u a l r i g h t s w i t h E n g l i s h b a r r i s t e r s . He o b j e c t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s b i l l h a d b e e n p a s s e d l a s t s e s s i o n b y b o t h Houses, t h e G o v e r n o r h a d i g n o r e d i t , i n g i v i n g h i s a s s e n t t o t h e o t h e r b i l l s . H a v i n g shown t h e A s s e m b l y ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n l e g i s l a t i o n , a t t h e n e x t m e e t i n g DeCosmos r e f e r r e d t o t h e i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e A s s e m b l y . Whatever a c t s were p a s s e d t h a t s e s s i o n w o u l d be i n v a l i d , and he moved a r e s o - l u t i o n t h a t t h e House "was o f o p i n i o n t h a t i t was n o t e x p e d i e n t t o t r a n s a c t b u s i n e s s t i l l i t was a s s e m b l e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h law." T h i s m o t i o n p a s s e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was an a t t e m p t t o 3 p o s t p o n e i t s a c t i o n s i x months. A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e A s - 4 s e m b l y ' s a c t i o n , t h e L e g i s l a t u r e was p r o r o g u e d . 1. C a l l e d on f o u r d a y s ' n o t i c e i n s t e a d o f f o t x r t e e n . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 22, 1864. 3. I b i d - Aug. 24, 1864. 4. I b i d - C o u n c i l a l s o d e c l a r e d i t i l l e g a l . The House was c a l l e d a g a i n , w i t h i n a month, and a f t e r 1 some q u a r r e l l i n g o v e r t h e r e p l y t o t h e a d d r e s s , t h e y g o t down t o t h e r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s . As u s u a l t h e q u e s t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e was t h e u n i o n o f t h e c o l o n i e s . The i m p e r i a l g o v ernment was a n x i o u s f o r u n i o n b e c a u s e o f e a s i e r means o f d e f e n c e and f i - n a n c e , and DeCosmos s a i d , " t h e r e were a l s o c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t s t o be c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s u n i o n . We were p e o p l e o f t h e same r a c e t h e same l a n g u a g e , t h e same l a w s , p r o t e c t e d b y t h e same g o v e r n - 2 ment, and t h e r e , was mo j u s t r e a s o n why we s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d " He, t h e r e f o r e , p r o p o s e d a l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n , w i t h an e q u a l num- b e r f r o m e a c h c o l o n y i n t h e A s s e m b l y , b u t w i t h t h e r i g h t t o de- t e r m i n e t h e mode o f t a x a t i o n t o r e m a i n w i t h a m a j o r i t y v o t e o f t h e members f r o m e a c h c o l o n y , and w i t h t h e o l d l a w s , u s a g e s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c o l o n i e s r e m a i n i n g u n c h a n g e d u n t i l t h e new l e g i s l s t u r e saw f i t t o do s o . I f t h i s p r o p o s a l was n o t a c c e p - t a b l e , he t h e n s u g g e s t e d a f e d e r a l u n i o n , w i t h a f e d e r a l l e g i s - l a t u r e o f two h o u s e s and one e x e c u t i v e . T h e r e w o u l d be a l e g i s 3 l a t u r e o f one chamber f o r e a c h c o l o n y , t o d e t e r m i n e t a x a t i o n . S p e a k i n g i n f a v o u r o f h i s r e s o l u t i o n s , he d e c l a r e d , " t h e whole t e n d e n c y o f d i s u n i o n was t o d e s t r o y s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e com- merce o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . He wo u l d a s k w o u l d V i c t o r i a be l e s s c o m m e r c i a l and l e s s m a r i t i m e were she u n i t e d w i t h B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a ? I t w o u l d be a d i r e c t a d v a n t a g e t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o be u n i t e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w i t h h e r f r e e p o r t ; i f t h e f r e e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 15, 1864. 2. I b i d - O c t . 4, 1864. 3. I b i d . 69 p o r t was che a p t o u s i t wou l d he che a p t o them. The House s h o u l d keep t h i s g r e a t f a c t i n v i e w — i t was d o m e s t i c f r e e t r a d e i n t h e s e d a y s t h a t was t h e s o u r c e o f w e a l t h and p o p u l a t i o n and p r o s p e r i t y ; f o r e i g n t r a d e d i d n o t do i t . D o m e s t i c t r a d e made 1 new c o u n t r i e s and n o t h i n g e l s e . " I f t h e House v o t e d a g a i n s t u n i o n t h r o u g h a f e a r o f l o s i n g t h e i r f r e e p o r t , " t h e r e w o u l d soon be a s t r o n g p a r t y i n th e House b a c k e d b y t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , h o s - t i l e t o o u r f r e e t r a d e p o l i c y . Suppose s u c h a p a r t y s h o u l d g a i n a m a j o r i t y i n t h e House, and impose a t a r i f f ; i f s u c h were done, and we s t i l l r e m a i n e d s e p a r a t e c o l o n i e s , o u r t r a d e w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would.be g r e a t l y c o m p l i c a t e d b y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h two t a r i f f s . I n a s k i n g f o r . a u n i o n we were o n l y l o o k i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e t o p r o t e c t o u r s e l v e s and t o make o u r t r a d e w i t h B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a a d o m e s t i c t r a d e . I t was f a r b e t t e r t o p r o t e c t o u r t r a d e w i t h t h e s i s t e r c o l o n y e v e n w i t h a p r o b a b l e l o s s o f f r e e t r a d e p r i n c i p l e s t h a n t o p r e s e r v e f r e e t r a d e and h a v e no ' 2 u n i o n . " T h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n o f t h e House, t h e r e s o l u t i o n s r e - g a r d i n g a l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n were s t r u c k o u t . The f e d e r a l u n i o n was p a s s e d , a f t e r a g r e a t many amendments. T h e r e was t o be a G o v e r n o r and a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , New W e s t m i n s t e r was n o t t o be s p e c i f i e d as t h e c a p i t a l . The l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e s were t o r e - m a i n as t h e y were and t h e f r e e t r a d e q u e s t i o n was t o be e x c l u - '3 d e d . The I r r e p r e s s i b l e Q u e s t i o n , as t h e C o l o n i s t c a l l e d i t , 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 7, 1864. 2. I b i d - O c t . 11, 1864. 3. I b i d . came uu b e f o r e t h e A s s e m b l y a g a i n , t h r o u g h a d e s p a t c h f r o m t h e 1 C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y r e g a r d i n g t h e Crown L a n d s . The n o t e s t r u c k i n t h e d e s p a t c h was t h e i n j u r i o u s e f f e c t t o t h e c o l o n y o f n o t h a v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s e t t l e d , and a s s u r a n c e was g i v e n t h a t a c - c e p t a n c e o f t h e c i v i l l i s t w o u l d n o t p r e j u d i c e t h e c o l o n y ' s c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e Hudson's Ba y Company. T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t i o n d i d n o t a p p e a l t o t h e A s s e m b l y , and DeCosmos moved r e s o l u t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n . " T h i s House i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i n g u a r - a n t e e i n g a c i v i l l i s t on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e d e s p a t c h o f June 15, 1863, f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s ; " f i r s t , b e c a u s e t h e t i t l e t o t h e Crown L a n d s was s t i l l v e s t e d i n t h e Hudson's B a y Company, and t h e r e was no a s s u r a n c e o f how much w o u l d be r e t u r n e d t o t h e Crown; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e were a r r e a r s due t o t h e c o l o n y f r o m t h e Company, f o r t h e l a n d i t h a d s o l d , and t h e Cr'own h a d n o t g u a r - a n t e e d t h a t t h e c o l o n y w o u l d r e c e i v e i t ; t h i r d l y , t h e sum due was a b o u t $60,000 a y e a r , and t h e c o l o n y c o u l d pay an ample c i v i l l i s t i f t h i s was g i v e n t o them a l o n g w i t h t h e t e r r i t o r i a l and c a s u a l r e v e n u e s ; f o u r t h l y , t h e m a t t e r o f a c q u i r i n g t h i s money was l e f t t o t h e Crown, and t h e y s h o u l d o b t a i n i t w i t h o u t d e l a y ; f i f t h l y , t h e s a l a r y o f t h e G o v e r n o r , w i t h h i s o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e , was o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n s t o t h e s i z e o f t h e c o l o n y ; f i n a l l y , t h e House h a d n o t y e t r e c e i v e d any answer t o i t s d e s - 2 p a t c h r e g a r d i n g one G o v e r n o r f o r t h e two c o l o n i e s . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d , "he l o o k e d on t h i s a f f a i r as a b a r g a i n , and what we 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 7, 1864. 2. I b i d - Nov. 16, 1864. wanted t o know f r o m t h e Crown was what l a n d s we were t o g e t and what we were n o t . We c o u l d n o t t e l l what c i v i l l i s t we w o u l d g r a n t t i l l t h e Crown L a n d s q u e s t i o n was s e t t l e d , and we s a i d t o th e g o vernment t h a t we w o u l d n o t p a s s t h e c i v i l l i s t t i l l t h i s 1 l a n d d i s p u t e was s e t t l e d . " The House was n o t b o l d enough t o go so f a r as DeCos- mos and t h e y f o u n d I t more t o t h e i r t a s t e t o a c c e p t t h e r e s o l u - t i o n s o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Young, " t h a t t h i s House r e - g r e t s i t s i n a b i l i t y t o t a k e o v e r t h e Crown L a n d s and g r a n t a s p e c i f i c C i v i l L i s t , u n t i l t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f s a i d Crown ,.2 Lands s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d and s u b m i t t e d t o t h e H o u s e . W i t h t h e c i v i l l i s t q u e s t i o n s h e l v e d f o r t h e moment, DeCosmos r a i s e d a q u e s t i o n w h i c h h a d b e e n t r o u b l i n g h i m f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e — r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l . He f e l t t h a t t h e r e was n e e d t o f o r m u l a t e a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r i t so t h a t i t would be w o r k a b l e u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The p a r t i c u l a r c i r - c u m s t a n c e s o f w h i c h he was t h i n k i n g was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f Con- f e d e r a t i o n . "We must p r e p a r e o u r s e l v e s and a r r a n g e o u r l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e g r e a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h we c a n n o t a v o i d . The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s c o l o n y h a d b e e n s h a p e d t o s u i t t h e p e c u l i a r wants and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c o l o n y , i t was a d a p t e d t o o u r wants i n t h e p a s t , and so i t was a u i t e c o n - 3 s t i t u t i o n a l f o r us t o have i t a d a p t e d t o o u r wants now." The remedy t h a t he s o u g h t was t o make tih® L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l e l e c - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 19, 1864. 2. I b i d - Nov. 22, 1864. 3. I b i d - Dec. 6, 1864. t i v e . As I t was t h e n t h e G o v e r n o r c o u l d change t h e C o u n c i l t o b e n d i t t o h i s w i l l , and s i n c e t h e members o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l were n o t r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e l o w e r House, t h e y c o u l d s i t i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and h e l p t o c o n t r o l i t . The C o l o n i s t o b j e c t e d t o DeCosmos b r i n g i n g t h e m a t t e r o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n t o a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and f e l t t h a t he h a d i n j u r e d h i s p o s i t i o n , " f o r he m i g h t h ave known f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e t h e n a r r o w - m i n d e d , s h o r t - s i g h t e d men w i t h whom he h a d t o d e a l . I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n more p o l i t i c t o h a v e i n t r o - duced, t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n p u r e l y on libs m e r i t s , and l e f t t h e o t h e r t o p i c f o r a f u t u r e d e b a t e . To t a l k t o many o f o u r Assemblymen o f f i v e o r s i x y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e i s l i k e 1 s p e a k i n g o f a n o t h e r c e n t u r y . " A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1865, V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was b e g i n - n i n g t o f e e l a d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h was t h e n a t u r a l r e s u l t o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h t h e c o l o n y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d u n t i l t h e n — d e p e n d i n g on one c i t y a l o n e , and t h a t c i t y l i v i n g on t h e c o m m e r c i a l a d v a n t a g e s o f h a v i n g a c o u n t r y p r o d u c i n g g o l d a t i t s : d o o r s . The g o l d r u s h was coming t o an end i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e c o u n t r y was s e t t l i n g down t o a more n a t u r a l s t a t e o f a f - f a i r s w h i c h w o u l d l e a d i n t h e l o n g r u n t o more permanent p r o s - p e r i t y b u t w h i c h h a d t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t o f g r e a t l y d e p r e s s i n g V i c t o r i a ' s b u s i n e s s . The p e o p l e o f t h e I s l a n d b e g a n t o f e e l 2 t h a t t h e f r e e p o r t p o l i c y was n o t as p r o f i t a b l e as i t h a d b e e n . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 6, 1864. 2. M a c f i e , Matthew - Op. C i t . Pp. 90-130. The a u t h o r i s an a d v o c a t e o f r e t a i n i n g t h e f r e e p o r t , b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e C o l o n y ' s p r o s p e r i t y . T h e r e was b e g i n n i n g t o be a r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h d e s i r e d t o k e e p o u t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . The g r e a t f e a r was, however, t h a t w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s e p a r a t e c o l o n y , i t m i g h t i n i t i a t e a p o l i c y w h i c h w o u l d be h o s t i l e t o V i c t o r i a and w h i c h w o u l d t u r n i t s g o l d t o o t h e r c h a n n e l s . W i t h t h e f e e l i n g o f t h e I s l a n d b e g i n n i n g t o change, DeCosmos f e l t t h a t t h e t i m e t o c o n s i d e r u n i o n on a d i f f e r e n t b a s i s h a d a r r i v e d , and he g o t t h e House t o p l a c e t h i s m a t t e r b e f o r e a l l o t h e r s , e v e n v o t i n g s u p p l i e s . He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e o n l y way t o e n s u r e g o l d coming f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o V i c t o r i a , was t o make t h e two c o l o n i e s one. He, t h e r e f o r e , moved t h e s e r e s o l u - t i o n s ; " t h a t t h e House, a f t e r h a v i n g t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f t h e c o l o n y i s f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t i s e x p e d i e n t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t o o b s e r v e t h e s t r i c t e s t economy i n t h e p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e : and t h a t t h e i m m e d i a t e u n i o n o f t h e c o l o n y w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n d e r s u c h c o n s t i t u t i o n as H e r M a j e s t y ' s gov- ernment may be p l e a s e d t o g r a n t , i s t h e means b e s t a d a p t e d t o p r e v e n t p e r m a nent c a u s e o f d e p r e s s i o n i n f u t u r e , as w e l l as t o s t i m u l a t e t r a d e , f o s t e r i n d u s t r y , d e v e l o p o u r r e s o u r c e s , aug- 1 ment ou r p o p u l a t i o n and I n s u r e o u r permanent p r o s p e r i t y . And t h i s House p l e d g e s i t s e l f , i n c a s e H e r M a j e s t y ' s g o v e r n m e n t s h a l l g r a n t s u c h u n i o n , t o r a t i f y t h e same b y L e g i s l a t i v e e n a c t - 2 ments i f r e q u i r e d . " These r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d b y a v o t e o f 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 25, 1865. 2. I b i d - J a n . 26, 1865. 1 e i g h t t o f o u r . A t once t h e r e was a c r y f r o m t h e c o m m e r c i a l men who h a d p r o s p e r e d b y t h e f r e e p o r t , t h a t t h e House was n o t r e p r e - s e n t a t i v e o f t h e r e a l f e e l i n g o f t h e p e o p l e . T h i s c r y was t a - k e n up b y C. B. Young, member f o r V i c t o r i a . To q u i e t a l l d i s - c u s s i o n , and t o d e c i d e t h e f r e e p o r t q u e s t i o n , once and f o r a l l , DeCosmos r e s i g n e d h i s s e a t a l o n g w i t h Mr. Young, and t h e two men r a n i n V i c t o r i a a g a i n — o n e f o r u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and s u c h f i s c a l p o l i c y as s h o u l d be f o u n d s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h , t h e o t h e r f o r t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e f r e e p o r t u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y . A l o n g w i t h DeCosmos r a n M ' C l u r e , e d i t o r o f t h e C o l o n i s t , as a s u p p o r t e r o f u n i o n . The e l e c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y b i t t e r , w i t h t h e f r e e p o r t c a n d i d a t e s h a v i n g t h e power and money o f Wharf Street"behind';.'them. The D a i l y C h r o n i c l e w h i c h was i n d e f i n i t e i n i t s o p i n i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n s u d d e n l y c h a n g e d and became a r a b i d s u p p o r t e r o f t h e f r e e p o r t . M a c M i l l a n , one o f t h e owners, was a u n i o n man, h i s p a r t n e r , Long, and H i g g i n s , t h e e d i t o r , v/ere f r e e p o r t men. I t i s s u g e s t e d t h a t t h e f r e e p o r t p a r t y f o r c e d M a c M i l l a n t o s e l l o u t t o them. A t any r a t e , he d i d s e l l o u t t o 2 L o n g . I t i s a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e f r e e p o r t e r s b o u g h t a n o t h e r 3 p a p e r t o s u p p o r t them. The C o l o n i s t d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e mer- c h a n t s were i n t i m i d a t i n g t h e i r employees t o f o r c e them t o v o t e 1. P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n o f B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Kennedy t o C a r d w e l l , E n c l o s u r e 4. A y e s T o l m i e , D i c k s o n , P o w e l l , Duncan, Dennes C a r s w e l l , B a y l e y , DeCosmos. Noes, B u r - naby, Young, F r a n k l i n , S o u t h g a t e . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 10, 1865. 3. I b i d - Feb'. 13, 1865. f o r t h e f r e e p o r t c a n d i d a t e s and t h a t f o r e i g n m e r c h a n t s were 1 u s i n g b r i b e s t o g e t v o t e s . he was i n f a v o u r o f r e t a i n i n g t h e f r e e p o r t u n l e s s t h e y c o u l d 2 s e c u r e u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b u t he was s e e k i n g t o f u r - t h e r more t h a n mere c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e c o l o n y and he f e l t t h a t u n i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be t h e s o l u t i o n . The q u e s t i o n t o be d e c i d e d was " s h o u l d we change t h e f i s c a l p o l i c y o f t h e c o u n t r y and d i s t r i b u t e t a x a t i o n e q u a l l y o v e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n , o r r e t a i n o u r p r e s e n t p o l i c y and f o s t e r one i n t e - r e s t t o t h e i n j u r y o f a l l t h e o t h e r s . The p o l i c y o f h i s p a r t y was t o u n i t e w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — a c o u n t r y w h i c h we h a d a l l worked t o b u i l d u p — t o c r e a t e a l a r g e r d o m e s t i c t r a d e a n d i n - d u s t r y , and t o b u i l d up a u n i t e d c o u n t r y t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e power o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r e p u b l i c . I f v . u n i t e d w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a we w o u l d have o n l y one s e t o f o f f i c i a l s , whose i n t e - r e s t s w o u l d be t h o s e o f t h e whole c o u n t r y — n o t f o r a s i n g l e l i n e l i k e Wharf S t r e e t , b u t f o r a l i n e f r o m V i c t o r i a t o C a r i b o o , Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V o l . 2, P. 217. DeCosmos e x p l a i n e d a t t h e d i f f e r e n t m e e t i n g s h e l d t h a t 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t F e b . 9, 10, 1865. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t F e b . S y 1865. I f a s e p a r a t e t a r - i f f ware p u t on h e r e , i t w o u l d be t h e r u i n o f t h e c o u n t r y . C f . I b i d F e b . 8, 1865. I f we d i d n o t ob- o l b t a i n u n i o n now t h e c o u n t r y d i s - t r i c t s w o u l d s o o n compel u s t o im- p o s e a t a r i f f w i t h o u t u n i o n , and we w o u l d be l e f t w i t h o n l y o u r d o m e s t i c t r a d e t o depend on. He f i r s t t e l l s them t h a t a s e p a - r a t e t a r i f f w o u l d r u i n them, and t h e n d e c l a r e s i t i n e v i t a b l e i f u n i o n i s n o t s e c u r e d . f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . " B o t h DeCosmos and M ' C l u r e were e l e c t e d and a d e f i n i t e answer was g i v e n t h a t V i c t o r i a h a d p l a c e d u n i o n b e f o r h e r f r e e p o r t . Once t h i s q u e s t i o n was s e t t l e d t h e House c o u l d t u r n t o t h e m a t t e r o f t h e e s t i m a t e s . I t was a b l e t o r e d u c e t h e a- mount a s k e d b v s o m e t h i n g o v e r $140,000, w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e 2 i n c l u d i n g t h e $50,000 f o r t h e G o v e r n o r ' s r e s i d e n c e . T h e r e was a d e f i c i t o f a b o u t $60,000 b e t w e e n t h e r e v e n u e e x p e c t e d and t h e e s t i m a t e s v o t e d . To make up t h i s d e f i c i t , DeCosmos s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n s t e a d o f b o r r o w i n g t h i s money a t a h i g h r a t e o f i n t e r e s t , t h e y r a i s e t h e t r a d e s ' l i c e n s e s and p u t an i m p o r t d u t y on s t o c k . The l a t t e r p a r t o f h i s p r o p o s a l was a c c e p t e d and a t a x on v e g e - 4 t a b l e s was a l s o p a s s e d . DeCosmos a l s o s u g g e s t e d a t a x on un- c u l t i v a t e d l a n d s . "He b e l i e v e d t h a t no more l a n d s h o u l d be h e l d b y any man t h a n he c o u l d c u l t i v a t e , " and he moved an amend- ment f o r an a d d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o t a k e some s t e p s t o com- p e l p r e - e m p t o r s t o i m p r o v e t h e i r l a n d s . DeCosmos and M ' C l u r e were i n f a v o u r o f t h e m o t i o n b e i n g d e b a t e d b y a l a r g e r House, w h i l e a number o f t h e members wanted t o d e f e a t t h e m o t i o n im- m e d i a t e l y . The two t h r e a t e n e d t o speak f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e u n t i l t h e y c o u l d f o r c e t h e House t o l e t t h e m o t i o n w a i t 5 f o r a l a r g e r r e p r e s n t a t i o n . T h e i r t h r e a t p r o v e d e f f i c a c i o u s . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 13, 1865. 2. I b i d - - F e b . 24, 1865. 3. I b i d - Mar. 8, 9, 1865. 4. I b i d - Mar. 17, 1865. T hese i m p o r t d u t i e s were n o t go.ing a g a i n s t t h e f r e e p o r t , t h e y were m e r e l y p r o t e c t i n g f a r m e r s . 4. I b i d - Mar. 22, 1865. 77 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e House, i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f economy, h a d p a s s e d t h e e s t i m a t e s a t a g r e a t l y r e d u c e d r a t e , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y b r o u g h t i n s u p p l e m e n t a l e s t i m a t e s a m o u n t i n g 1 t o $80,000. P a r t o f t h i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e o f f i - c i a l s w h i c h were i n t h e p r o p o s e d c i v i l l i s t and w h i c h t h e House had r e f u s e d t o pay, b u t h a d a u t h o r i z e d t h e G o v e r n o r t o p a y o u t o f t h e Crown r e v e n u e . The House f e l t t h a t i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o p a y t h e s e s a l a r i e s s i n c e t h e d e s p a t c h f r o m t h e C o l o n i a l S e c - r e t a r y d i d n o t s a y d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e s e s a l a r i e s c o u l d n o t be 2 p a i d f r o m t h e Crown r e v e n u e s . M o r e o v e r t h e Crown r e v e n u e s were now b e t t e r a b l e t o b e a r t h e c o s t s i n c e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d h a d augmented them. DeCosmos s a i d he was a g a i n s t p a y i n g t h e s e s a l a r i e s s i n c e u n i o n was so neary- and t h e G o v e r n o r c o u l d 3 c o n t i n u e t o p a y them u n t i l t h e n . He s a i d t h a t he f e a r e d t h e good f a i t h o f t h e G o v e r n o r i f t h e y p a i d t h e s e s a l a r i e s now. A t one moment he h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t he was i n f a v o u r o f u n i o n and a t t h e n e x t , when he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e House f e l t u n i o n n e c e s s a r y , he s a i d i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e u n l e s s t h e c i v i l l i s t '4 q u e s t i o n was s e t t l e d . B e c a u s e o f DeCosmos's c o n t i n u e d . o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s e t - t l e m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n , T o l m i e a c c v i s e d h i m o f w a n t i n g t o be 5 s e n t as a d e l e g a t e t o E n g l a n d t o s e t t l e t h e m a t t e r t h e r e ( M ' C l u r e ' 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ' - Mar. 17, 1865. 2. V i d e S u p r a , P. 66, F o o t n o t e , No. 1. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 8, 1865. 4. I b i d - A p r i l 14, 1865. 5. I b i d - A p r i l 22, 1865. 1 had moved t h a t one he s e n t ) . The t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r seems t o have b e e n t h a t DeCosmos f e a r e d , and r i g h t l y f e a r e d as l a t e r e- v e n t s showed, t h a t i f t h e c o l o n y a c c e p t e d t h e c i v i l l i s t , t h e y would f o r e v e r g i v e up any c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e Hudson's Bay Com- pany. The o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r w h i c h he w o u l d a c c e p t t h e • ~ 2 c i v i l l i s t was w i t h a g r a n t o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . The whole q u e s t i o n was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d b y D r . P o w e l l ' r e s o l u t i o n s t o p a y t h e c i v i l l i s t and a c c e p t t h e Crown L a n d s , u n t i l December 31, 1866--on t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t b e f o r e t h a t v t i m e u n i o n w o u l d be g r a n t e d . T h i s a c t i o n was n o t t o have any d e t r i m e n t a l e;ffe©t on t h e i r c l a i m s on t h e Hudson's B a y Company. M ' C l u r e made an amendment t h a t i f u n i o n was n o t g r a n t e d b y t h a t d a t e , r e s p o n s i b l e government s h o u l d be g r a n t e d and t h e p e o p l e be g i v e n power t o l o w e r t h e c i v i l l i s t . F i n a l l y T o l m i e made an amendment t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s h o u l d i n no way ' 3 have a d e r o g a t o r y e f f e c t on t h e r e s o l u t i o n s on u n i o n . DeCos- mos d i d h i s b e s t t o have t h e r e s o l u t i o n s thrown o u t as u n c o n - s t i t u t i o n a l s i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n h a d a l r e a d y b e e n v o t e d on t h a t 4 s e s s i o n . He was a c c u s e d o f f a c t i o u s o p p o s i t i o n , b u t he seems t o have b e e n s e i z i n g a n y p r e t e x t t o d e f e a t a m e a s u r e w h i c h he t h o u g h t w o u l d i n t h e l o n g r u n be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e c o l o n y , b y s a d d l i n g i t w i t h an e x o r b i t a n t c i v i l l i s t ; w h i l e a t t h e same ti m e t h e r e was no l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e c l a i m s on t h e Hudson's Bay 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 5, 1865. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 26, 1865. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d - May 2, 1865. Company e v e r "being s e t t l e d . H i s o p p o s i t i o n was u s e l e s s , however 1 and t h e r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d w i t h DeCosmos v o t i n g a g a i n s t them. The A s s e m b l y s o o n g o t i t s e l f i n t o an e n t a n g l e m e n t w i t h t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h h a d t r i e d t o amend t h e T r a d e s ' L i c e n s e B i l l so as t o change t h e mode o f t a x a t i o n . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d 2 t h a t t h i s was an i n f r i n g e m e n t o f t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e House. T h i s s m a l l d i s p u t e was over-shadowed, however, b y t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r o v e r t h e r i g h t o f t h e A s s e m b l y t o o r d e r i t s own b i l l s t o be b r o u g h t u p. The G o v e r n o r h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e money c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e l i c e n s e s b e l o n g e d t o t h e Crown r e v e n u e . DeCosmos " t h o u g h t t h e c o l o n y s h o u l d s e t t l e d t h e s e m a t t e r s i t s e l f , b y b r i n g i n g i n a b i l l m a k i n g t h e f u n d p a y a b l e ' 3 to t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e . " The House g o t a v e r y r s e v e r e ^ s e t b a c k when t h e G o v e r n o r d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y h a d no r i g h t t o b r i n g i n t h i s b i l l . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e b i l l s h o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n s e n t t o t h e G o v e r n o r . S e c o n d l y , t h e House h a d o r d e r e d t h e b i l l t o be b r o u g h t i n and i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f t h e House t o have t h e b i l l drawn up. " i t was one o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e House t o o r d e r I t s own b i l l s t o be drawn up and he w o u l d n o t a b a t e a j o t ' 4 o f t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s . " The i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n t h e House's b u s i - n e s s was a g a i n f e l t when t h e T r e a s u r e r r e f u s e d t o s e n d down p a - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 3, 1865. 2. I b i d - June 13, 1865. 3. I b i d June 17, 1865. 4. I b i d - June 23, 1865. p e r s t h a t a c ommittee o f t h e A s s e m b l y h a d a s k e d f o r i n an i n - v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c o r o n e r . The T r e a s u r e r b a s e d h i s r e - f u s a l on t h e f a c t t h a t he d i d n o t h a v e t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e Gov- e r n o r , and "DeCosmos c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e c ommittee and t h r o u g h them t h e House h a d b e e n t r e a t e d i n t h e m o s t unhandsome manner i m a g i n a b l e and i n a way t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e g r e a t e s t d i s c r e d i t 1 on t h e E x e c u t i v e . " The f a c t t h a t ^ t h e G o v e r n o r h a d c a u s e d so much t r o u b l e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e A s s e m b l y - - i n i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e r i g h t t o b r i n g i n b i l l s , i n r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w t h e h e a d s o f d e p a r t - ments t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n h i s d e l a y i n o b t a i n i n g and g i v i n g a n s wers t o t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s s u c h as t h e Crown L a n d s and t h e u n i o n — c a u s e d t h e r e f o r m members o f t h e A s s e m b l y t o r e a l i z e t h a t p e r h a p s t h e y h a d b e e n a l i t t l e h a s t y i n p u t t i n g a b l a n k e t c l a u s e i n t o t h e u n i o n r e s o l u t i o n s o f J a n u a r y , 1865, whereby t h e i m p e r i a l g overnment c o u l d a r r a n g e u n i o n as i t de- s i r e d and t h e A s s e m b l y p r o m i s e d t o r a t i f y i t s a r r a n g e m e n t s . Th'ey.b©gan t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t w o u l d ensue i f t h e r e was no a s s u r a n c e t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e gov- ernment w o u l d be g i v e n ( a l t h o u g h none o f them e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t be g i v e n a t l e a s t as l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e y en- j o y e d a t p r e s e n t . ) M ' C l u r e , t h e r e f o r e , moved r e s o l u t i o n s en- d o r s i n g t h o s e o f J a n u a r y , b u t w i t h t h e r i d e r , " t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s House h a s a l r e a d y shown i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t w h a t e v e r c o n s t i t u t i o n 'Her M a j e s t y ' s Government may be p l e a s e d t o g r a n t ' i t w o u l d f a i l i n i t s d u t y t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s c o l o n y , as w e l l 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J une 28, 1865. as t o H e r M a j e s t y , d i d i t n o t e x p r e s s i t s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t no c • c o n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d be a d a p t e d t o t h e g r o w i n g wants o f t h e s e c o - l o n i e s t h a t d i d n o t embrace a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g overnment t h a t w o u l d g i v e t h e p e o p l e t h e r i g h t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mode a s w e l l a t h e amount o f t a x a t i o n , and t h a t w o u l d make t h e o f f i c i a l h e a d s o f d e p a r t m e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e u n i t e d c o l o n y . " T h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s o f M ' C l u r e ' s were e n d o r s e d b y DeCosmos. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1866 one o f t h e members b e g a n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a g u e s t i o n w h i c h was t o l e a d t o t h e famous l o n g s p e e c h so o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o DeCosmos b u t i n r e a l i t y t h e work o f M ' C l u r e . T h i s member a s k e d f o r t h e r e t u r n s o f a l l l o t s o f l a n d s o l d f o r m u n i c i p a l t a x e s s i n c e A p r i l 24, 1865, s i n c e he f e l t t h a t t h e n o n - p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e r e t u r n s worked h a r d s h i p on many who h a d h a d l a n d s o l d and m i g h t w i s h t o redeem i t be- 2 f o r e A p r i l o f 1866. DeCosmos was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h e n t h a t t h e i n q u i r y was u n n e c e s s a r y and t h a t t h e r e t u r n s w o u l d n o t b e n e f i t t h e p u b l i c . However, t h e m o t i o n p a s s e d . The q u e s t i o n was a- g a i n b r o u g h t up i n t h e m i d d l e o f A p r i l , a few d a y s b e f o r e t h e f i n a l t i m e f o r r e d e m p t i o n . C o c h r a n e , t h e same member, a s k e d f o r a n o t h e r y e a r f o r t h e p e o p l e t o redeem t h e l a n d s o l d s i n c e t h e g overnment ha d n o t c o m p l i e d w i t h a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n n o t p u b l i s h i n g t h e r e t u r n s , and many p e o p l e m i g h t s u f f e r . I n o r - d e r t o g e t t h e b i l l p a s s e d i n t i m e he a s k e d f o r a s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e s t a n d i n g o r d e r s . T h i s p o l i c y was o p p o s e d b y D r . A s h '•I. P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d u n i o n . Ken- n e d y t o C a r d w e l l , Dec. 16, 1865, E n - c l o s u r e No. 1. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 4, 1866. who t h o u g h t i t would work a h a r d s h i p on t h o s e who h a d b o u g h t t h e l a n d f o r l e g i t i m a t e p u r p o s e s . DeCosmos a l s o o b j e c t e d t o b r e a k i n g a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e government and t h e p u r c h a s e r s . B o t h t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s were o v e r r u l e d and t h e m o t i o n 1 was p a s s e d t o g i v e an a d d i t i o n a l t w e l v e months f o r r e d e m p t i o n . T h i s b i l l was s e n t up t o t h e C o u n c i l and t h e y amended i t so as t o make t h e government p a y f o r t h e r e d e m p t i o n o f t h e l a n d , n o t a l r e a d y redeemed, f o r a n o t h e r y e a r . The government was t o p a y b a c k a l l i t h a d c o l l e c t e d and make i t s e l f an a g e n t f o r t h e de- f a u l t i n g t a x p a y e r s , who c o u l d b u y b a c k t h e i r l a n d s f r o m t h e gov e m i n e n t . The C o u n c i l was e x c e e d i n g i t s r i g h t s b y I n i t i a t i n g a 2 money b i l l t o p a y d e l i n q u e n t t a x p a y e r s . DeCosmos r a i s e d t h e s e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o b j e c t i o n s and s a i d t h a t s u c h a b i l l s h o u l d - n o t be p a s s e d w h e t h e r i n n o c e n t p e o p l e were s u f f e r i n g o r n o t . '3 T h r o u g h t h e v o t e o f Dennes t h e b i l l was d e f e a t e d . T h e r e h a d a l r e a d y b e e n o b j e c t i o n s t o Dennes s i t t i n g i n t h e House a t a l l , s i n c e he was a c c u s e d o f b e i n g b a n k r u p t , b u t as y e t t h i s a c c u s a - t i o n h a d n o t b e e n f o r m a l l y p r o v e d b e f o r e t h e House and he s t i l l 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 7, 1866. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 20, 1866. 3. I b i d - A g a i n s t b i l l a s amended, Toibmie, M ' C l u r e , Dennes, DeCosmos, A s h . F o r , C o c h r a n e , P o w e l l , D i c k s o n , C a r s w e l l . T r i m b l e h a d b e e n v o t e d i n t o t h e c h a i r b y t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e b i l l b e c a u s e t h e y t h o u g h t t h e y were s t r o n g enough t o p a s s t h e b i l l , b u t t h e y n e g l e c t e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t Dennes m i g h t a r r i v e l a t e and t h r o w t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s o u t . He h a d b e e n v e r y i n t e r m i t t e n t i n h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t t h i s s e s s i o n . 1 was l e g a l l y e n t i t l e d t o v o t e . On t h e t w e n t y - t h i r d o f A p r i l , however, t h e l a s t d a y h u t one f o r r e d e m p t i o n , D e n n e s ' s s e a t was d e c l a r e d v a c a n t , owing t o h i s b a n k r u p t c y . Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b i l l h a d b e e n d e f e a t e d b y t h i s member's v o t e , C o c h r a n e moved, t h a t t h e s t a n d i n g o r d e r s be s u s p e n d e d t o e n a b l e t h e b i l l t o be p a s s e d b e f o r e t h e n e x t day. The b i l l a s k e d t h e G o v e r n o r t o a u t h o r i z e t h e T r e a s u r e r t o p a y t h e amounts due u n d e r t h e S h e r i f f ' s s a l e s o f A p r i l 24, 1865. DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h i s p o l i c y w o u l d be u s e l e s s s i n c e t h e p u r c h a s e r h a d t h e f i n a l s a y and, a c c o r d i n g t o law, t h e o r i g i n a l owner and h i s h e i r s a l o n e were a l l o w e d t o redeem t h e l a n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s t a n d i n g o r - d e r s were s u s p e n d e d and t h e House r e f u s e d t o t a k e t h e b i l l t o committee'.of t h e w h o l e . T h i s was an a b s o l u t e l y u n p r e c e d e n t e d p r o c e e d i n g a n d t h e m i n o r i t y p r o t e s t e d , b u t i n v a i n . The t h i r d r e a d i n g was i n s i s t e d on and DeCosmos, A s h and M ' C l u r e e a c h h a d o n l y once t o s p e a k . Up t i l l f o u r o ' c l o c k on t h e n e x t a f t e r n o o n was t h e t i m e t h a t money c o u l d be a c c e p t e d and t h e s e men d e t e r - m ined t o speak u n t i l t h a t t i m e had e x p i r e d — i n a l l t w e n t y - s i x h o u r s . M ' C l u r e spoke f r o m two i n t h e a f t e r n o o n on A p r i l 23 un- t i l s i x t h e n e x t m o r n i n g , and DeCosmos c o n t i n u e d f r o m s i x u n t i l 2 • ' one t h a t a f t e r n o o n . Then t h e m a j o r i t y a d m i t t e d d e f e a t and ad- 1.' L o w e l l , A . L . - The Government o f E n g l a n d . New Y o r k , t h e M a c M i l l a n Go., 1926. V o l . 1. P. 240. B a n k r u p t c y and liumacy must have c o n t i n u e d s i x months, b e f o r e a member f o r f e i t s h i s s e a t . R o g e r s , I I . , 43, 44. , 2. D r . A s h p a i r e d o f f w i t h Dr.. T o l m i e who was r a t h e r l u k e - warm on t h e s u b j e c t , and p r e s u m a b l y p r e f e r r e d t o go home t o l i s t e n i n g t o t w e n t y - s i x h o u r s o f s p e e c h e s . j o u r n e d . As t h e C o l o n i s t s a i d t h e s e men " s p a r e d t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e House t h e d i s g r a c e o f c o n t a i n i n g a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t a s k e d t h e government o f t h e c o l o n y t o b r e a k t h e l a w s on t h e starbut-e book, t o v i o l a t e c ompacts i n t o w h i c h I t had : •.solemnly: e n t e r e d , and t o d e v o t e t h e p u b l i c money i n an i l l e g a l manner f o r an un- 1 j u s t end." The a f t e r e f f e c t s o f t h i s l o n g s p e e c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r - l y i n t e r e s t i n g . M ' C l u r e l e f t t h e i s l a n d w i t h i n s i x months, went s o u t h , and d i e d i n C a l i f o r n i a f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s s i x t e e n h o u r s p e e c h . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s s p e e c h became famous as one o f t h e l o n g e s t i n t h e w o r l d . Due p r o b a b l y t o M ' C l u r e ' s d e a t h and t h e f a c t t h a t he was f a r l e s s w e l l - k n o w n t h a n DeCosmos, t h e c r e d i t f o r t h e s p e e c h was g i v e n t o t h e l a t t e r , and he n e v e r b o t h e r e d t o d e n y t h e s t o r y and as a c o n s e q u e n c e a t r a d i t i o n h a s grown up t h a t he made t h e s p e e c h . A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e h a s a l s o grown up t h e b e l i e f t h a t he and p o s s i b l y M ' C l u r e h a d b o u g h t h e a v i l y a t t h e t a x s a l e , f o r s p e c u l a t i v e p u r p o s e s , and t h e y f e a r e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d l o s e t h e l a n d i f t h e b i l l was p a s s e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y "2 t h e y o p p o s e d i t f o r s e l f i s h p u r p o s e s . On e x a m i n i n g t h e r e - t u r n s o f t h e t a x s a l e s and who b o u g h t t h e l a n d , one c a n n o t f i n d any e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e t h a t e i t h e r DeCosmos o r M ' C l u r e b o u g h t 3 l a n d . I t i s o f c o u r s e p o s s i b l e t h a t l a n d was b o u g h t f o r them b y some t h i r d p a r t y , b u t i t i s n o t prob.aible. I t seems more 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - - A p r i l 24, 25, 1866. 2. G o s n e l l , R. E . - V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, Dec. 14, 1929. 3. Government G a z e t t e - V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , 1866. P u b l i c a t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i o n o f R e a l E s t a t e s o l d b y S h e r i f f f o r t a x e s . 85 c o r r e c t , t h e r e f o r e , t o s a y t h a t t h e two men were a c t u a t e d "by m o t i v e s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t r a t h e r t h a n p r i v a t e g a i n . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1866 t h e A s s e m b l y b e g a n a s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r amd l a t e r t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h was t o l a s t u n t i l u n i o n . The q u a r r e l a r o s e o v e r t h e e s t i m a t e s t h r o u g h t h e Assem- b l y a s s e r t i n g i t s r i g h t t o i n i t i a t e money g r a n t s . The e s t i - mates, as p r o p o s e d t o t h e House b y t h e government, were f e l t b y t h e A s s e m b l y t o be f a r t o o h i g h , and t h e y d e t e r m i n e d t o c u t them down, and t o change them so as t o g i v e more money t o im- p r o v e m e n t s and l e s s t o o f f i c i a l s a l a r i e s . I n so d o i n g t h e y w o u l d have i n many c a s e s t o i n i t i a t e some money g r a n t s and t o a l t e r o t h e r s . T h i s r i g h t was a s s e r t e d b y D i c k s o n , a g a i n s t t h e o b j e c t i o n o f t h e S p e a k e r , and a m o t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t was p a s s e d b y t h e H o u s e . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h i s was t h e p r a c t i c e o f o t h e r c o l o n i e s and a r i g h t g i v e n b y t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e u n t i l t h e L e g i s l a t u r e i t s e l f s u r r e n d e r e d i t . "He a d m i t t e d t h a t u n d e r s u c h a s y s t e m a d e a d l o c k m i g h t o c c u r , and r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n - 1 ment was t h e o n l y remedy." "Why E n g l i s h h i s t o r y was f u l l o f i n s t a n c e s where t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e r e f u s e d t o g r a n t s u p p l i e s u n t i l t h e Crown h a d a g r e e d t o c e r t a i n s t i p u l a - t i o n s . T h i s House h a d t h e same r i g h t as t h e Commons i n E n g l a n d . T h e r e was no d e s i r e t o t r e n c h on t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e E x e c u - t i v e . The r e a l d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e whole m a t t e r was t h e a b s e n c e ' 2 o f a c o n n e c t i n g l i n k b etween t h e House an d t h e E x e c u t i v e . " W i t h t h i s p r e c e d e n t i n mind, t h e House p r o c e e d e d t o 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 17, 1866. .2., I b i d - J a n . 27, 1866. a d v o c a t e a s y s t e m o f r e t r e n c h m e n t . They c u t down b y some'' $80,000 t h e e s t i m a t e s f o r c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A l t h o u g h a q u i t e l a r g e sum was v o t e d f o r p u b l i c works and i m provements, i t was n o t t o be r a i s e d b y d i r e c t t a x e s , b u t b y l o a n s o f two s o r t s (one o f $100,000 t o be u s e d f o r p u b l i c works and a n o t h e r o f f i f t y t h o u s a n d pounds t o be b o r r o w e d a t a l o w e r r a t e , w i t h a s i n k i n g f u n d , t o be p a i d o f f i n t w e n t y y e a r s and t o be expended i n p a y i n g o f f t h e o t h e r l o a n and t h e b a l a n c e a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r 1 p u b l i c w o r k s . T h i s scheme was s u g g e s t e d b y DeCosmos and was 2 a c c e p t e d b y t h e A s s e m b l y . W h i l e c u t t i n g down t h e e s t i m a t e s f o r c i v i l e s t a b l i s h - ments, t h e House ha d c o n s i d e r e d u n i t i n g t h e o f f i c e o f c o r o n e r w i t h t h a t o f s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e , b u t i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e , and i n s t e a d t h e y r e d u c e d t h e f o r m e r ' s s a l a r y . I n v i e w o f t h e i r a c t i o n , i t was r a t h e r a s u r p r i s e t o them t o f i n d t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r h a d removed t h e o f f i c e o f c o r o - n e r . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t " t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s c o l o n y as w e l l as t h a t o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . h a d b e e n i n v a d e d . A p u b l i c o f f i c e r h a d b e e n removed w i t h o u t c a u s e o r p r e l i m i n a r y n o t i c e . E n g l i s h law was c l e a r and d e f i n i t e . The c o r o n e r c o u l d n o t be removed w i t h o u t c a u s e . He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e c o u r s e p u r s u e d was u p r o o t i n g one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s t h a t h a s gov- e r n e d t h e A n g l o - S a x o n r a c e f o r a t h o u s a n d y e a r s . The House h a d t r a n s m i t t e d t h e e s t i m a t e s , and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e H o n o u r a b l e Spea- k e r t h o s e e s t i m a t e s h a d b e e n g r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d . 1 ' The ques- 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 8, 1866. 2. I b i d - F e b . 22, 1866. t i o n demanded i n v e s t i g a t i o n , "as he c o n s i d e r e d t h e a c t i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e a d i r e c t a t t e m p t , f o r p a l t r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t o i n t i m i d a t e t h e members o f t h e House i n t h e d i s c h a r g e o f t h e i r 1 d u t y . " T h i s m o t i o n f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d . I n a few d a y s t h e whole q u e s t i o n was b r o u g h t t o a c r i s i s b y t h e G o v e r n o r ' s message d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e House h a d no r i g h t t o i n i t i a t e o r change money b i l l s o r t o do away w i t h p u b l i c o f f i c e s . M ' C l u r e , w i t h t h e b a c k i n g o f DeCosmos, moved r e s o l u t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e message. He d e c l a r e d o f f i c i a l s c o u l d n o t e x p e c t permanency w i t h u n i o n so n e a r . M o r e o v e r b i l l s were b e i n g b r o u g h t i n t o remove t h e a c t s w h i c h gave them o f f i c e T h e r e was no p a r t y f e e l i n g i n t h e r e d u c t i o n s , b u t t h e y were be- i n g made f o r t h e p u b l i c good. The money t h e y h a d added t o t h e e s t i m a t e s was f o r p u b l i c w o r k s . They h a d c u t down t h e p o l i c e e s t i m a t e s s i n c e t h e y were p r o v i d i n g f o r m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t . The House h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f t h e c o r o n e r ' s o f f i c e w i t h t h a t o f m a g i s t r a t e was i m p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y t h e G o v e r n o r was m i s t a k e n i n s a y i n g t h a t t h e r i g h t o f t h e A s s e m b l y 2 t o i n i t i a t e money b i l l s . w a s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . DeCosmos, i n c a r r y i n g on t h e d i s c u s s i o n , s u g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a com p e n s a t i o n o f one month's s a l a r y f o r t h o s e p u t o u t o f o f f i c e . He t h o u g h t t h a t i n s t e a d o f t h e G o v e r n o r r e g r e t t i n g t h a t a p a r t y was a p p e a r i n g i n t h e c o l o n y , he s h o u l d be r e j o i c i n g t h a t t h e new p a r t y was w o r k i n g i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e . He s a i d t h a t t h e House c o u l d i g n o r e t h e G o v e r n o r ' s t a c t i c s b e c a u s e he 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 3, 1866. 2. I b i d - F e b . 8, 1866. 1 h a d t o come t o t h e House f o r s u p p l y . L a t e r i n t h e s e s s i o n , he moved t h a t t h e Queen be p e t i t i o n e d t o d i s a l l o w t h e G o v e r n o r 1 d i s m i s s a l o f t h e c o r o n e r as u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and t h i s was p a s - 2 s e d . When t h e e s t i m a t e s were s e n t to t h e C o u n c i l f o r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t threw them o u t , a t t h e same t i m e c a s t i n g a s - 3 p e r s i o n s on t h e A s s e m b l y ' s f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y . S i n c e t h e Coun- c i l h a d t h r o w n o u t t h e money b i l l f o r t h e y e a r , t h e G o v e r n o r h a d no money w i t h w h i c h t o c a r r y on t h e g o v e r n m e n t and he was f o r c e d t o b o r r o w , w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e A s s e m b l y . He was f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o come t o t h e A s s e m b l y , when t h e c o l o n y ' s c r e - d i t was no l o n g e r good and he c o u l d n e i t h e r b o r r o w any more 4 money n o r p a y t h e c o l o n y ' s b i l l s . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t t h e gov- ernment must go on, c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e G o v e r n o r h a d t o b o r r o w . The r i g h t t o b o r r o w h a d b e e n g i v e n h i m i n t h e e s t i m a t e s , b u t s i n c e t h e C o u n c i l h a d t h r o w n them o u t , t h e A s s e m b l y must now 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 9, 1866. C f . DeCosmos's S c r a p Books - B. C. A r c h i v e s . T h r o u g h n e w s p a p e r . - c l i p p i n g s , one g e t s an a c c o u n t o f t h e sest- s i o n , as s e e n b y an enemy p a p e r , t h e C h r o n i c l e . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 3, 1866. I b i d - Aug. 4, 1866. The r e p l y o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y was t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r h a d a r i g h t t o remove t h e c o r o n e r , s i n c e i t was n o t a permanent a p p o i n t m e n t . 3. I b i d - May 7, 1866. 4. I b i d - May 31, 1866. 1 a u t h o r i z e h i s l o a n , and a l l o w h i m t o b o r r o w some more. DeCos- mos was c r i t i c i z e d b y some o f t h e o t h e r members f o r h i s s t a n d , b u t he s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h he d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r i n many t h i n g s , he c o u l d n o t f e e l t h a t he was a t f a u l t i n t h i s mat- t e r . The a u t h o r i z a t i o n was g i v e n t h e G o v e r n o r , and t h e f i n a n - c i a l s i t u a t i o n was s e t t l e d , u n t i l t h e r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e s t i m a t e s . The A s s e m b l y b e g a n s e c r e t s e s s i o n s t o c o n s i d e r t h e s t a t e o f t h e c o l o n y and i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e s e n t an ad- d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r a s k i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e Crown L a n d s . T h i s was r e f u s e d i n a v e r y <^n±acif.ui manner--un- l e s s t h e House was d i s p o s e d t o s e t t l e t h e q u e s t i o n f i n a l l y t h e 2 i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d n o t be g i v e n . The House d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was : u n n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y a s k e d f o r t h e i n - f o r m a t i o n , i t was t h e i r due t o h a v e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c l o s e d . 3 They condemned t h e E x e c u t i v e u n a n i m o u s l y . T hey s e n t t h e r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h were t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e c r e t s e s s i o n s t o t h e G o v e r n o r , t o be s e n t d i r e c t t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . I n s t e a d t h e G o v e r n o r t r a n s m i t t e d them t o 4 t h e C o u n c i l . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a c t i o n seems t o h a v e b e e n t h a t t h e r e s o l u t i o n s a s k e d f o r a g r e a t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e o f f i - c i a l s a l a r i e s and t h e G o v e r n o r w i s h e d them t o be d e f e a t e d b y 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - June 6, 1866. 2. I b i d - June 19, 1866. 3. I b i d - June 20, 1866. 4. I b i d . t h e C o u n c i l ' s s a l a r i e d o f f i c i a l s . T h e r e was no p r e c e d e n t f o r the G o v e r n o r ' s a c t i o n , s i n c e t h e l a s t r e s o l u t i o n s on t h e s t a t e o f the- c o l o n y h a d b e e n s e n t d i r e c t t o t h e home government w i t h - o u t r e f e r r i n g them t o t h e C o u n c i l . The House d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was i n e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e G o v e r n o r t o l a y t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s b e - f o r e t h e C o u n c i l , s i n c e f i v e - e i g h t h s o f i t s members were s a l a - r i e d o f f i c i a l s , and t h e y o r d e r e d t h e S p e a k e r t o se n d t h e r e s o - 1 l u t i o n s b y t e l e g r a p h d i r e c t t o t h e home g o v e r n m e n t . The r e s o l u t i o n s were a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n a d e t a i l e d man- n e r a f t e r t h e y were t r a n s m i t t e d . The v a r i e d e v i l s o f b o t h .the c o l o n i e s were due t o t h e i r c o n t i n u e d s e p a r a t i o n , and t h e ex- pense o f s e p a r a t e o f f i c i a l s and o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n i m i c a l t o e a c h o t h e r . The r e s o l u t i o n s a l s o b l a m e d t h e e v i l s on t h e l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t h e p r e p o n d e r - ance o f o f f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ; t h e b a d e f f e c t 2 o f an u p p e r House w h i c h n u l l i f i e d a l l t h e l o w e r House d i d ; and t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h ey a s - ked f o r a c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t w o u l d e n a b l e t h e p e o p l e t o c o n t r o l t a x a t i o n and e x p e n d i t u r e , and p r e v e n t t h e o f f i c i a l e l e m e n t a c - t i n g t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s d e t r i m e n t . T hey o f f e r e d a c i v i l l i s t o f two t h o u s a n d pounds f o r t h e G o v e r n o r , and a t o t a l o f s e v e n 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J u n e 21, 1866. 2. C f . - P a p e r s - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n . " Ken- n e d y t o C a r d w e l l , Mar. 21, 1865. He i s a g a i n s t an e l e c t i v e a s s e m b l y a f t e r u n i o n . The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was o c c u p i e d i n c o r r e c t i n g mistakes?}! and u n d o i n g t h e c r u d e l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y , w h i c h was g r e a t l y a t f a u l t i n f i n a n c i a l s u b j e c t s . t h o u s a n d . The G o v e r n o r must be one who was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s y s t e m t h a t h a d grown up, and he must h a v e ha d e x p e r i e n c e 1 i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . W i t h t h i s m a t t e r d i s p o s e d o f f o r a t i m e , t h e Assem- b l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e e s t i m a t e s a f t e r t h e G o v e r n o r s e n t down a message t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l s ' s a l a r i e s must be p a i d o r he w o u l d 2 have t o c l o s e down t h e o f f i c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e e s t i m a t e s 3 were f i n a l l y p a s s e d , b y c u t t i n g o u t a l l t h e p r o p o s a l s t h a t t h e r e f o r m e r s h a d made. DeCosmos o p p o s e d t h i s p o l i c y , s t i l l c o n - t e n d i n g t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y h a d a r i g h t t o I n i t i a t e money b i l l s . He, a l o n g w i t h P I d w e l l , was t h e o n l y c o n s i s t e n t r e f o r m e r i n t h e A s s e m b l y , and t h e y were t h e o n l y ones who v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e e s - 4 t i m a t e s . When t h e s e e s t i m a t e s went b e f o r e t h e U p p e r House, t h e y were a c c e p t e d i n whole b u t n o t i n d e t a i l . T h i s amounted t o a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h e l o w e r House s h o u l d h a v e n o t h i n g t o s a y a b o u t t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e money was a p p l i e d . The u p p e r House a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i t s r i g h t t o i n i t i a t e money b i l l s . When t h e A s s e m b l y r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e C o u n c i l ' s de- c i s i o n , DeCosmos moved r e s o l u t i o n s d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e L e g i s l a - t i v e C o u n c i l h a d no r i g h t t o o r i g i n a t e , amend o r a l t e r a s u p p l y b i l l . I t m e r e l y h a d t h e r i g h t t o r e j e c t o r a c c e p t . He s a i d , 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e - J une 25, 1866. 2. I b i d - J u l y 7, 1866. 3. I b i d - J u l y 16, 1866. 4. I b i d - ffuly 17, 1866. 5. I b i d - Aug. 29, 1866. " T h i s House p o s s e s s e s t h e s o l e and e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o g r a n t s u p p l i e s t o t h e Grown, and i n e v e r y h i l l o f s u p p l y t o l i m i t t h e t i m e f o r w h i c h s u c h g r a n t w i l l be made, t o name t h e amount o f money t o be expended f o r e a c h and e v e r y s e r v i c e c h a r g e a b l e i n t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e and to a t t a c h s u c h c o n d i t i o n s t o e v e r y g r a n t as i n t h e judgment o f t h e House i s r i g h t , p r o p e r , and f o r 1 t h e p u b l i c good." M ' C l u r e s e c o n d e d t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s and t h e y p a s s e d . Thus DfeCosmos h a d f i n a l l y p e r s u a d e d t h e A s s e m b l y t o a s s e r t a g a i n i t s r i g h t - to: i n i t i a t e 'money : b i l l s . The s u p p l y was t h r o w n o u t f o r t h e y e a r , and t h e G o v e r n o r r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e o f f i c i a l s ' s e r v i c e s g r a t u i t o u s l y : c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y were a l l r " d i s m i s s e d . The A s s e m b l y b e g a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f an a d d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r r e g a r d i n g h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s them, w h i c h was i n • e f f e c t a v o t e o f want o f c o n f i d e n c e . T h e r e was some t a l k d u r - i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e u n f o r t u n a t e r e t i r e m e n t o f D o u g l a s , as t h o u g h h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a m o d e l o f v i r t u e , compared w i t h 2 K e n n e d y ' s . B o t h DeCosmos and M ' C l u r e o b j e c t e d t o t h e word un- f o r t u n a t e and s a i d i t was f a l l a c i o u s t o a t t r i b u t e a l l t h e m i s - f o r t u n e t o t h e p r e s e n t G o v e r n o r . A g a i n t h e s e two p r o t e s t e d s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e q u e s t f o r t h e r e a p p o i n t ment o f D o u g l a s be embodied i n t h e n o n - c o n f i d e n c e r e s o l u t i o n s . 3 T hese p r o t e s t s were e f f e c t i v e , and t h e s u g g e s t i o n was d e f e a t e d . The want o f c o n f i d e n c e m o t i o n was p a s s e d , b u t DeCosmos a s k e d 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e - g e p t . 1, 1866. 2. I b i d - J u l y 19, 1866. 3. I b i d - J u l y 26, 1866. t h a t i t be h e l d o v e r u n t i l t h e y h a d d i s c u s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f 1 a m i n i s t e r i a l c o u n c i l . A m o t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r was 2 3 l o s t , and t h e n o n - c o n f i d e n c e m o t i o n s e n t t o t h e G o v e r n o r . I t c a n be se e n t h a t t h e c o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was i n a s e r i o u s s t a t e , w i t h no e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e y e a r , and w i t h t h e A s s e m b l y h a v i n g no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e G o v e r n o r . I t m i g h t be t h o u g h t t h a t c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y become any worse, b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s rumours b e g a n t o s p r e a d t h a t t h e u n i o n b i l l was n o t g o i n g t o g i v e r e s p o n s i b l e g o vernment and was go- 4 i n g t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h f r e e t r a d e . An a t t e m p t was made, t h e r e - f o r e , b y M ' C l u r e , t o w i t h d r a w t h e u n c o n d i t i o n a l u n i o n r e s o l u - t i o n s o f e a r l y 1865, w i t h r e g a r d t o any e f f e c t on r e p r e s e n t a - 5 t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . DeCosmos oppo s e d t h i s a c t i o n and s a i d he wou l d a c c e p t u n i o n u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e v e n w i t h no Assem- b l y o f any k i n d . To s a y t h a t t h e y w o u l d o n l y a c c e p t u n i o n i f p o p u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was g i v e n , w o u l d be s u i c i d a l . He, how- e v e r , was t h e o n l y one a g a i n s t M ' G l a r e ' s m o t i o n . When t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n g i v i n g u n i o n was made p u b l i c , i t was e v e n worse t h a n t h e y h a d f e a r e d . I t t o o k away what l i t - t l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d e n j o y e d and p u t i n i t s s t e a d a p a r t i a l l y e l e c t e d C o u n c i l ; i t p l a c e d t h e s e a t o f government a t flew W e s t m i n s t e r ; and I t d i d away w i t h t h e f r e e p o r t , b y p l a c i n g a t e n p e r c e n t t a r i f f on g o o d s . U n i o n was t;0 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e - -July 28, 1866. 2. I b i d - Aug. 1, 1866. 3. I b i d - Aug. 8, 1866. 4. I b i d - Aug. 3, 1866. 5. I b i d - Aug. 29, 1866. 94 become law on the p r o c l a m a t i o n of the Governor, and no o p t i o n 1 was g i v e n to Vancouver I s l a n d to r e f u s e i t . M'Clure d i s g u s t e d at the proposed union, began an an- 2 n e x a t i o n c r y . DeCosmos whether d i s g u s t e d or not, and he must have r e g r e t t e d a r e t u r n to even more a r c h a i c i n s t i t u t i o n s than they had had up t i l l then, d i d not j o i n i n the c r y . I t i s pos- s i b l e t h a t , f e e l i n g t h a t h i s own powers were s t i l l good, he looked forward to a continued s t r u g g l e d f o r r e s p o n s i b l e govern- ment i n a wider f i e l d . T herefore, however much he must have r e g r e t t e d the comparatively l i t t l e he had accomplished of h i s aims at the b e g i n n i n g of h i s entrance i n t o l e g i s l a t i v e l i f e , he was never one to r e g r e t what was passed and gone, and he s t i l l had a g r e a t d e a l to look forward to i n the f i g h t f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the g r e a t e r s t r u g g l e f o r a p l a c e f o r h i s p r o v i n c e i n the C o n f e d e r a t i o n which was soon to come i n t o e x i s t e n c e . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and V i c t o r i a C h r o n i c l e - i S e p t * 25, 1866. 2. I b i d - Get. 1, 1866. 95 - C h a p t e r IV - The S t r u g g l e f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n . U n i o n h a d b e e n won f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d b u t a t t h e expense o f h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e t e m p o r a r y l o s s o f h e r c a p i t a l . The r e c o v e r y o f t h e s e was t o t a k e t h e most p r o m i n e n t p l a c e i n t h e p l a t f o r m o f any c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e I s l a n d , f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d L e g i s l a t u r e a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . De- Cosmos was n o t s l o w t o a p p e a r as c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f E s q u i m a l t and V i c t o r i a , and he p u t t h e s e two o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f h i s e l e c t i o n p r o m i s e s a l o n g w i t h r e t r e n c h m e n t and r e d u c t i o n o f t a x a t i o n . He, o f c o u r s e , won no s u p p o r t f r o m t h e ' 1 B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , w h i c h warned i t s r e a d e r s a g a i n s t " e l e c t i n g men who b r o u g h t t h i s u n i o n unon us and now t h i n k t h e y c a n 2 change t h e f o r m o f government i f t h e y a r e e l e c t e d . " I t spoke a b o u t t h e c l a p t r a p o f P e o p l e ' s R i g h t s and R e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n - ment, and r e m i n d e d t h e e l e c t o r a t e what t h e s e c r i e s h a d accom- 3 p i i s h e d i n t h e A s s e m b l y . 1. I n June, 1866, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and t h e V i c t o r i a h a d j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , and M ' C l u r e h a d r e t i r e d f r o m t h e e d i t o r s h i p . H i g g i n s and L o n g e d i t e d and owned t h e p a p e r . They were f r e e p o r t men and a n t a g o n i s t i c t o DeCosmos. P o r a t i m e t h e p a p e r h a d b o t h names b u t i t soon r e t u r n e d t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 10, 1866. 3. I b i d - Dec. 7, 1866. N e v e r t h e l e s s DeCosmos was e l e c t e d , w i t h H e l m c k e n as a f e l l o w member, t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d i s t r i c t . The C o l o n i s t h a d t o make t h e b e s t o f a b a d j o b , b u t d i d i t with, p o o r g r a c e . "As f o r Mr. DeCosmos's f o r m e r a c t s , we c a n o n l y s a y t h a t i n o u r o- p i n i o n he has no r e a s o n t o be p r o u d o f them, n o r h a s t h e c o l o - 1 ny p r o f i t e d b y h i s l e g i s l a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s . " I t would, how- e v e r , . a c c e p t D r . H elmcken's a d v i c e t o b u r y t h e h a t c h e t . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l was b r o u g h t up e v e n b e - f o r e t h e C o u n c i l met, when t h e c i t y members h e a r d t h a t t h e pub- l i c o f f i c e s were t o be removed t o t h e m a i n l a n d . A p u b l i c ad- d r e s s was s e n t t o t h e G o v e r n o r r e g a r d i n g t h i s m a t t e r , and he r e p l i e d t h a t he w o u l d be i m p a r t i a l and l e a v e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . I n o r d e r t o show t o t h e l a t t e r t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a were unanimous f o r t h e c a p i t a l , a p u b l i c m e e t i n g was h e l d a t w h i c h t h e m o t i o n was made b y P i n l a y - son, " t h a t t h e s e a t o f g o v ernment s h o u l d be l o c a t e d where i t w i l l meet w i t h t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f , and a f f o r d t h e g r e a t e s t a c - ' 2 c o m o d a t i o n t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e c o l o n y . " T h i s was f o l l o w e d b y a r e s o l u t i o n o f B u r n a b y ' s t h a t V i c t o r i a was t h e b e s t p l a c e . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t " t h e p r i n c i p l e i n - v o l v e d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n was t h e b r o a d one a c k n o w l e d g e d i n e v e r y 3 w e l l - r e g u l a t e d community, t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y s h o u l d p r e v a i l ! " The m a t t e r ' r e s t e d t h e r e u n t i l t h e G o v e r n o r ' s message was p u t b e f o r e t h e C o u n c i l . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 14, 1866. 2. I b i d - J a n . 8, 1867. 3. I b i d . The p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d s t i l l a n o t - h e r g r i e v a n c e i n h a v i n g o n l y s e v e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e Coun- c i l , i n s t e a d o f t h e e i g h t p r o m i s e d b y t h e u n i o n . T h i s t h e n was th e f i r s t q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y H e l m c k e n when t h e C o u n c i l was o- 1 pened. C r e a s e , t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , r e p l i e d t h a t i t was up 2 t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o a p p o i n t whom he w i s h e d . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y DeCosmos was t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d u t i e s on goods 3 f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o t h e m a i n l a n d be d i s c o n t i n u e d . I t was d e c i d e d t o l e a v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r u n t i l t h e a d d r e s s f r o m t h e G o v e r n o r h a d b e e n d i s c u s s e d . When t h e r e p l y t o t h e G o v e r n o r ' s s p e e c h came up, De- Cosmos, a l t h o u g h on t h e whole m o d e r a t e , d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o c r i - t i c i z e t h e s p e e c h f o r i t s n e g l e c t o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f a new c o n - s t i t u t i o n and o t h e r m a t t e r s o f i m p o r t a n c e . " I f t h e r e was any- t h i n g s t a t e s m a n l i k e i n t h e s p e e c h he w o u l d be g l a d i f some hon- o u r a b l e g e n t l e m a n w o u l d p o i n t i t o u t . T h e r e was no i n d u s t r i a l 1. J a n . 24, 1867. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 2, 1867. Helmcken, DeCosmos and Walkem o b j e c t . R o b s o n d o e s n o t see why. 3. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. The Customs Ordnance o f 1865 made I t l e g a l t o c o l l e c t d u t i e s on goods coming f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , as w e l l a s o t h e r p l a c e s . T h i s was t e r m i n a t e d b y t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n A c t , S e c t i o n 5. T h i s d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e l a w s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e g a r d i n g customs ap- p l i e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t - l y t h e two p l a c e s were u n d e r t h e same; s y s t e m o f c o l l e c t i n g d u t i e s . N e v e r - t h e l e s s t h e government c o n t i n u e d t o c o l l e c t d u t i e s on goods f r o m V a n c o u - v e r , a l t h o u g h i t was i l l e g a l . p o l i c y , no a t t e m p t t o add t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n , o r t o f i n d and ab- 1 s o r b l a b o u r , what d i d t h e Government p r o p o s e t o do? N o t h i n g I " The q u e s t i o n t h a t DeCosmos h a d b r o u g h t up, t h a t o f c o l l e c t i n g d u t i e s on goods f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o New West- m i n s t e r , was i n t r o d u c e d a g a i n b y t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l who wan- t e d l e g a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e p a s t and t h e p r o s p e c t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f d u t i e s on t h e goods f r o m t h e I s l a n d . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h i s was i l l e g a l and u n j u s t ; he w o u l d v o t e i n d e m n i t y f o r t h e p a s t b u t w o u l d n o t p e r p e t u a t e t h e wrong. " I t was c r e a t i n g s e c - t i o n a l i s m , more, i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e f r e e d o m o f t r a d e . He ha d h a d as much t o do w i t h b r i n g i n g a b o u t u n i o n as anyone, and one o f t h e g r e a t o b j e c t s was t o do away w i t h s e c t i o n a l i s m , and n o t t o h a v e a t a r i f f a t one p o r t w h i c h d i n o t e x i s t a t a n o t h e r . " He a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e government i n r e l a t i o n 3 t o t h e do^^ble d u t i e s as t h o s e o f so many o f f i c e r s o f b a n d i t t i . C r e a s e a d m i t t e d t h e i l l e g a l i t y o f t h e a c t i o n b u t s a i d i t was ex- p e d i e n t . H elmcken d e c l a r e d t h a t i t amounted t o t h i s , t h a t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members were u s e l e s s , a n d t h e government members c o u l d p a s s any a c t t h a t t h e y w i s h e d . When t h e v o t e was t a k e n 4 f o r t h e f i r s t r e a d i n g i t p a s s e d . The b i l l , when p a s s e d i n i t s f i n a l f o r m , made l e g a l t h e p a s t c o l l e c t i o n o f d u t i e s o f goods i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e I s l a n d , b u t t h e f u t u r e c o l l e c t i o n was l e f t t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o d e c i d e . He gave o r d e r s t h a t no f u r t h e r d u t i e s ' i ; B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 2, 1867. 2. I b i d - F e b . 11, 1867. 3. I b i d - Mar. 19, 1867. 4. I b i d - F e b . 4, 1867. McDonald, Helmcken, De- Cosmos, Pemberton, a g a i n s t . 1 be l e v i e d a f t e r M a r c h 30, 1867. When t h e e s t i m a t e s were b r o u g h t up, i t was s e e n t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e y were g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , i t was a t t h e e x p e n s e o f p u b l i c works, w h i l e most o f t h e money was f o r s a l a r i e s and I n - t e r e s t on t h e d e b t , and a t t h e same t i m e t h e r e was an a n t i c i p a - t e d d e f i c i t o f a b o u t $200,000.^ DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e e s - t i m a t e s s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d u n t i l r e t u r n s o f e x p e n d i t u r e and r e v e n u e f o r o t h e r y e a r s h a d b e e n g i v e n . F i n a l l y a f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n i t was d e c i d e d t o a s k f o r r e v e n u e I n d e t a i l and ap- 2 p r o x i m a t e e x p e n d i t u r e . "ffalkem a t t e m p t e d t o g e t a g e n e r a l 3 r e s o l u t i o n on t h e Crown S a l a r i e s A c t p a s s e d , b u t t h i s f a i l e d . A f t e r t h e e s t i m a t e s were p a s s e d , Walkem b r o u g h t t h i s m a t t e r up a g a i n , and moved an a d d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o a s k h i m t o r e d u c e t h e s a l a r i e s u n d e r t h a t a c t . B i r c h , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , s a i d t h e t h e G o v e r n o r h a d no power o v e r t h a t a c t ; i t must be r e - p e a l e d b y t h e home gov e r n m e n t . He s a i d he was d i s i n t e r e s t e d b u t i t was d a n g e r o u s t o h a v e t h e e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s a t t h e b e c k and c a l l o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members. T h e r e f o r e he d e c l i n e d t o " a l l o w s e r v a n t s t o v o t e on t h e i r m a s t e r s ' s a l a r i e s . " The o f - 4 f i c i a l s w i t h d r e w and t h e r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d . DeCosmos r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f o f f i c e s I n t h e P o s t Of- 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. Mes- sage Wo. 36, Mar. 25, 1867. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 19, 1867. 3. I b i d - F e b . 22, 1867. 4. I b i d - F e b . 27, 1867. A g a i n s t , Robson, B a r - n a r d , M c D o n a l d . F o r , Helmcken, DeCos- mos, S o u t h g a t e , Stamp, Pemberton, Wal- kem. 100 f l e e , Young s a i d t h a t i t was t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e Crown a- l o n e t o a p p o r t i o n and t h e House c o x i l d m e r e l y v o t e o r n o t v o t e , b u t i t c o u l d n o t i n c r e a s e t a x e s o r i n s e r t i n a b i l l where money s h o u l d be s p e n t . He e v e n d e n i e d t h e r i g h t t o d e c r e a s e t h e e s - t i m a t e s . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e Crown t o p r o p o s e and o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o p r o n o u n c e p r o o r c o n o r 1 d e c r e a s e . The t h r e e q u e s t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h came b e f o r e t h e C o u n c i l were t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l w h i c h was l e f t i n - d e f i n i t e , 'the q u e s t i o n o f a change i n t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n s t i t u - t i o n t o make t h e l a t t e r more l i b e r a l , w h i c h was d e f e a t e d , and t h e q u e s t i o n o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h was d e b a t e d and a p p r o v e d u n a n i m o u s l y . The G o v e r n o r i n h i s o p e n i n g s p e e c h h a d n e g l e c t e d t o p r o c l a i m h i s p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c a p i t a l and i t was 2 n o t u n t i l he s e n t down h i s message t h a t h i s p o l i c y was known. The p u r p o r t o f h i s message was t o t h r e a t e n V i c t o r i a t h a t u n l e s s t h e a g i t a t i o n a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n c e a s e d he w o u l d a d v i s e t h e 3 Queen t o p l a c e t h e c a p i t a l p e r m a n e n t l y a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . The C o t u i c i l a t once t o o k t h e G o v e r n o r ' s message i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and H e l m c k e n moved t h a t V i c t o r i a be c h o s e n as t h e c a p i t a l as t h e w i s h o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e shown b y t h e 4 p e t i t i o n s . o n t h e s u b j e c t . T h e r e was much d i s c u s s i o n on H e l - mcken' s m o t i o n . Many o f t h e members who were o p p o s e d t o V i c - . 1". B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t — - P e h . . 28, .1867';'. " .2. Mar; 28, 1867. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 29, 1867. 4. I b i d - A p r i l 1, 1867. 101 t o r i a s a i d t h a t t h e C o u n c i l h a d no r i g h t t o a s k t h e G o v e r n o r t o choo s e t h e c a p i t a l , s i n c e i t was h i s p r e r o g a t i v e a l o n e . DeCos- mos r e p l i e d t h a t " w h i l s t he was n o t d i s p o s e d t o t r e n c h on t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f t h e Crown he w o u l d s a y , t h a t E n g l i s h m e n were e v e r y w h e r e a c c u s t o m e d t o see t h e p r e r o g a t i v e e x e r c i s e d i n a c - c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e w e l l - u n d e r s t o o d w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e , and n o t 1 i n an a r b i t r a r y and d e s p o t i c manner." E v e n t u a l l y Helmcken's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t o t h e G o v e r n o r p a s s e d b y t h i r t e e n v o t e s t o e i g h t - - a m a j o r i t y o f t h e G o v e r n o r ' s a d v i s e r s v o t i n g f o r i t . 2 T h i s was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l members d i v i d e d . DeCosmos r a i s e d t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n b y m o v i n g a r e s o - l u t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l . T h e r e were t o be t w e n t y - f o u r c o u n c i l l o r s , t w o - t h i r d s t o be r e p r e s e n - 3 t a t i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e . The n o m i n a t e d members were t o h o l d t h e i r s e a t s a t t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e Crown, t h e e l e c t e d members f o r t h r e e y e a r s ; and t h e Crown c o u l d d i s s o l v e t h e A s s e m b l y a t 4 any t i m e and o r d e r a new e l e c t i o n . A l l members s h o u l d r e c e i v e an i n d e m n i t y . When t h e d e b a t e came up on t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , t h e o p p o s i t i o n was v e r y b i t t e r . Some members s a i d t h e c o u n t r y was b e t t e r g o v e r n e d w i t h o u t p o p u l a r members. Robson d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was m e r e l y a b i d f o r p o p u l a r f&voxxv. DeCosmos s a i d " t h e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 5, 1867. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 1, 1867. S i x government, one n o m i n a t e d , and s i x e l e c t e d members v o t e d f o r t h e m o t i o n . F i v e g o v e r n - ment, and t h r e e e l e c t e d a g a i n s t . 3. I b i d - F e b . 8, 1867. 4 21, 1867. p r i n c i p l e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n was on© w h i c h he w o u l d c o n t i n u e to. a d v o c a t e so l o n g as he drew t h e b r e a t h o f l i f e , i n p u b l i c o r i n p r i v a t e . The p r i n c i p l e h a d b e e n h a l l o w e d by t h e s t r u g g l e s o f t h e p e o p l e f o r a g e s , and much b l o o d a n d t r e a s u r e h a d b e e n e x p e n d e d e r e t h e p r i n c i p l e was e s t a b l i s h e d . E v e r y o t h e r c o l o n y u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h Crown h a d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i - t u t i o n s and t h e c o n f l i c t w o u l d n o t c e a s e u n t i l H e r M a j e s t y ' s government h a d g i v e n up t h e i d e a o f g o v e r n i n g t h e c o u n t r y f r o m 1 Downing S t r e e t . " The r e s o l u t i o n v/as d e f e a t e d f o u r t e e n t o 2 t h r e e . DeCosmos was a l s o t h e mover i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f Con- f e d e r a t i o n when he a s k e d f o r a c ommittee o f t h e whole t o c o n - s i d e r t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f t a k i n g s t e p s f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n o f 3 t h e p r o v i n c e i n t o t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada. T h i s was o n l y a l o g i c a l s t e p i n t h e p o l i c y t h a t DeCosmos h a d c o n s i s t e n t l y a d - v o c a t e d . As e a r l y as September, 1860, he was p r o p o s i n g Con- f e d e r a t i o n i n h i s p a p e r . I n s p e a k i n g o f t h e v i s i t o f t h e P r i n c e o f Wales, he s a i d , "we want t o see some g r e a t p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t a t t a i n e d b y t h e v i s i t . ¥sfe want t o see p r o v i n c i a l s t a t e s m e n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e P r i n c e ' s v i s i t t o i n i t i a t e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n p o l i c y t o p u t an end t o d i s j o i n t e d p r o v i n c e s . C a l l them p e t t y m o n a r c h i e s o r p e t t y r e p u b l i c s , o r what y o u p l e a s e , so l o n g as t h e r e i s no u n i o n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n P r o v i n c e s , t h e r e w i l l be few s u b j e c t s o f common i n t e r e s t t o b i n d them t o - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 10, 1867. 2. I b i d - DeCosmos, Helmcken, and S m i t h were f o r i t . 3. F e b . 27, 1867. g e t h e r . They w i l l l e a d a humdrum l i f e as s u b o r d i n a t e s o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e . T h e y w i l l p o s s e s s no f i e l d f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t . T h e r e w i l l be no r a l l y i n g p o i n t s a r o u n d w h i c h u n i t e d B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a may g a t h e r . The p r e s s and t h e p e o p l e w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o t h e f r i v o l o u s p o l i t i e s o f p e t t y p r o v i n c e s . And w i t h o u t any u n i o n , f i f t y y e a r s h e n c e t h e p o l i - t i c a l movements o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w i l l a t t r a c t no more a t t e n - 1 t i o n i n t h e s i s t e r p r o v i n c e s t h a n i t do e s a t p r e s e n t . " A g a i n a b o u t a y e a r l a t e r , i n h i s p a p e r he r e f e r r e d t o f e d e r a t i o n . "The a d v a n t a g e s o f a F e d e r a l U n i o n , p o l i t i c a l l y , and c o m m e r c i a l l y , c a n s c a r c e l y be e s t i m a t e d a t p r e s e n t . The p e t t y p o l i t i c s o f d i s j o i n t e d , d i s c o n n e c t e d P r o v i n c e s w i l l d i s a p p e a r . P o l i t i c s w i l l t a k e a more e l e v a t e d s t a t i o n . The U n i t e d P r o - v i n c e s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r a c k e d b y p e t t y p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , w o u l d have t o d e a l w i t h s u b j e c t s a f f e c t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f f o u r m i l l i o n s . T h e i r p u b l i c men c o u l d a s p i r e t o an a l m o s t n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , b e f o r e w h i c h t h e h i g h e s t p r i z e o f c o l o n i a l p o l i t i c s a t p r e s e n t w o u l d a p p e a r c o n t e m p t i b l e . We c a n e x p e c t no a i d f r o m E n g l a n d f o r any l o c a l p u r p o s e s , b u t i f t h e P r o v i n c e s were u n i t e d , no d o u b t p r o v i s i o n s w o u l d be made t o a d m i t t h e P a c i f i c c o l o n i e s i n t o t h e C o n f e d e r a c y , on t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n , and when a d m i t t e d we w o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o o u r s h a r e o f t h e g e n e r a l r e v e n u e , and w o u l d e n j o y a l l t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f b e i n g an i n t e g r a l p o r t i o n o f a c o n f e d e r a c y n u m b e r i n g f o u r m i l l i o n s o f i n h a b i - t a n t s . " ^ 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 6, 1860. 2. I b i d - June 14, 1861. 104 A g a i n , I n 1865, i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f a new c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e C o u n c i l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , he l i n k e d Con- 1 f e d e r a t i o n up w i t h i t . He s a i d t h a t t h e y must p r e p a r e them- s e l v e s f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , b y c h a n g i n g t h e i r l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 2 t o s u i t t h e w i d e r n e e d s . W i t h a l l t h e s e a c t i o n s b e h i n d him, i t was n o t s t i r p r i - s i n g t h a t now C o n f e d e r a t i o n seemed a c e r t a i n t y f o r t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s t h a t DeCosmos s h o u l d b r i n g t h e m a t t e r up i n t h e Coun- c i l . The r e s o l u t i o n p u t b e f o r e t h e C o u n c i l r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r t e l e g r a p h t o H e r M a j e s t y ' s Government an d t h e G o v e r n o r o f t h e Canadas " t h e d e s i r e o f t h e c o l o n i s t s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e scheme, so t h a t p r o v i s i o n m i g h t be made f o r o u r a d m i s s i o n by t h e I m p e r i a l A c t , on f a i r and e q u i t a b l e t e r m s as may be a- 3 g r e e d upon." DeCosmos s a i d t h e r e was "no q u e s t i o n more impo r - t a n t i n i t s b e a r i n g on t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n o f t h i s c o u n t r y t h a n t h e one now u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The o b j e c t t h e f r a m e r s o f t h i s g r a n d scheme h a d i n v i e w , was t o c o n s o l i d a t e B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , n o t o n l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m u t u a l p o l i c y and advancement, b u t t o p r e p a r e them- s e l v e s f o r any a t t e m p t s a t a g g r e s s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e i r 4 n e i g h b o u r s . " H e l m c k e n s u p p o r t e d DeCosmos, a l t h o u g h he h a d no r o m a n t i c i d e a a b o u t b e l o n g i n g t o a b i g n a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was i m m i g r a t i o n and s i n c e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d n e v e r be 1. V i d e S u p r a , P. 71. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 6, 1864. 3. I b i d - Mar. 9, 1867. 4. I b i d - Mar. 12, 1867. s e t t l e d , f r o m t h e s e a i m m i g r a t i o n must come f r o m C a nada. T h e r e - f o r e u n i o n must come w i t h e i t h e r Canada o r U n i t e d S t a t e s . W i t h u n i o n t h e y w o u l d g e t a more l i b e r a l f o r m o f government, t h e r e - 1 f o r e he w o u l d be more s a t i s f i e d t o be C a n a d i a n t h a n B r i t i s h . The s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d , however, when i t was d i s c o v - e r e d t h a t p l a n s f o r a d m i s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r c o l o n i e s h a d b e e n i n - c l u d e d i n t h e B r i t i s h W o r t h A m e r i c a n A c t . DeCosmos i n t r o d u c e d a new r e s o l u t i o n t h a t " s u c h m e a s u r e s s h o u l d be t a k e n f o r t h e immediate e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C o n f e d e r a t i o n as h a d been p r o v i d e d b y t h i s B i l l a l r e a d y c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e I m p e r i a l 2 P a r l i a m e n t . " Many o f t h e members o b j e c t e d t o i m m e d i a t e u n i o n w i t h o u t any m e n t i o n o f terms as d a n g e r o u s . DeCosmos s a i d "he c e r t a i n l y h a d no i n t e n t i o n o f t h r o w i n g h i m s e l f o r anybody e l s e a t t h e h e a d o f t h e C o n f e d e r a c y . The r e s o l u t i o n e x p r e s s e d no t e r m s . I t o n l y e x p r e s s e d t h e a c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . They w o u l d o f c o u r s e n a t u r a l l y c o n s i d e r t h e t e r m s a f t e r w a r d s . I t i s o u r i n t e r e s t t o e n t e r t h e C o n f e d e r a c y as so o n as p o s s i b l e 3 and n o t w a i t f o r Canada t o i n v i t e u s . " E v e n t u a l l y P e mberton's r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d u n a n i m o u s l y , " t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t a t t h i s j u n c t u r e o f a f - f a i r s i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a e a s t o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , i t i s v e r y a d v i s a b l e t h a t '.His E x c e l l e n c y be r e s p e c t f u l l y r e q u e s t e d t o t a k e s u c h s t e p s w i t h o u t d e l a y as may be deemed b y h i m most a d v i s a b l e t o I n s u r e t h e a d m i s s i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o t h e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 12, 1867. 2. I b i d - Mar. 25, 1867. 3. I b i d . C o n f e d e r a t i o n on f a i r and e q u i t a b l e t e r m s . T h i s C o u n c i l b e i n g c o n f i d e n t t h a t i n a d v i s i n g t h i s s t e p t h e v a r e e x p r e s s i n g t h e 1 v i e w s o f t h e c o l o n i s t s g e n e r a l l y . " I n a few d a y s t h e G o v e r n o r i n f o r m e d t h e C o u n c i l t h a t he h a d p l a c e d h i m s e l f i n communica- t i o n w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r o f Canada, t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e and 2 w i t h S i r Edmund Head, G o v e r n o r o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company. M e a n w h i l e a C o n f e d e r a t i o n m e e t i n g h a d b e e n h e l d i n V i c t o r i a a t w h i c h r e s o l u t i o n s were p a s s e d i n f a v o u r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n and d e l e g a t e s were ap- p o i n t e d t o w a i t u pon t h e G o v e r n o r t o u r g e h i m t o t a k e s t e p s t o - wards t h i s end. Helmcken, DeCosmos and D r . P o w e l l were on t h i s 3 c o m m i t t e e . J u s t a b o u t t h i s t i m e t h e a g i t a t i o n f o r a n n e x a t i o n was r e v i v e d . The C o l o n i s t r e m a r k e d upon i t and s a i d i t was l i k e l y 4 t o be s u c c e s s f u l i f C o n f e d e r a t i o n was n o t consummated. Thus t h e q u e s t i o n o f a n n e x a t i o n v e r s u s C o n f e d e r a t i o n h a d become a c l e a r - c u t i s s u e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n o t t o d i s a p p e a r u n t i l Con- f e d e r a t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d . The C o l o n i s t p o i n t e d o u t how d e t - r i m e n t a l i t w o u l d be t o t h e new f e d e r a t i o n i f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were annexed t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t w o u l d mean l o s i n g t h e P a c i f i c s e a b o a r d w h i c h was v i t a l i f a new n a t i o n were t o be 5 f o r m e d . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 19, 1867. 2. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. Mes- sage No. 34, Mar. 22, 1867. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 19, 1867. 4. I b i d - A p r i l 25, 1867. 5. I b i d - May 21, 1867. About t h i s t i m e i m p o r t a n t d e s p a t c h e s came t o G o v e r n o r Seymour r e g a r d i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h gave t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o p u t h e r r e q u e s t f o r a d m i s s i o n b e f o r e t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t i n A u g u s t . The C o l o n i s t u r g e d t h e G o v e r n o r t o c a l l t h e C o u n c i l a n d s e c u r e i t s v o i c e on t h e m a t t e r . E v e r y - t h i n g was f a v o u r a b l e a t t h e t i m e — e v e n news f r o m W a d d i n g t o n o f 1 t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e o v e r l a n d r a i l w a y r o u t e . As u s u a l , however, t h e G o v e r n o r d e l a y e d , s h owing no i n t e r e s t i n t h e q u e s t i o n . I t was f e l t t h a t when t h e q u e s t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e n t r y came b e f o r e t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t she o u g h t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e . The G o v e r n o r s e n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , b u t he was n o t a p o p u l a r c h o i c e and he was d e f i n i t e l y o p p o s e d t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , s i n c e he was an o f f i c i a l member o f t h e C o u n c i l , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . He d i d h i s b e s t i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e G o v e r n o r - 2 G e n e r a l t o show h i m t h e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f t h e scheme. M e a n w h i l e DeCosmos h a d p a i d a v i s i t t o t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , and i n A u g u s t , 1867, he was p r e s e n t a t t h e C a n a d i a n R e f o r m C o n v e n t i o n where he made a s p e e c h on C o n f e d e r a t i o n and r e f o r m . He spoke o f t h e d e s i r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r C o n f e d - e r a t i o n and o f t h e e v i l s i t h a d s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h c o n s e r v a t i s m . " I know what i t i s t o s t r u g g l e , i n t h a t r e m o t e c o u n t r y , w i t h g o v e r n o r s and g o v e r n m e n t s , c o n t e n d i n g f o r t h e s e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h E n g l i s h m e n i n h e r i t , a n d w h i c h as B r i t i s h A m e r i c a n s , we o u g h t t o e n j o y . H a v i n g f o r n i n e l o n g y e a r s b a t t l e d a g a i n s t c o m b i n a t i o n s , a g a i n s t i n c o r p o r a t e d com- 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 23, 1867.. 2. I b i d - O c t . 11, 1867. 108 p a n l e s s u c h as h a v e h e l d i n c h a i n s a v a s t p o r t i o n o f B r i t i s h A- m e r i c a , and a g a i n s t g o v e r n m e n t s , o f t e n s t a n d i n g a l m o s t a l o n e - '. 1 w i t h few t o s y m p a t h i z e , I.know what t h e s e t h i n g s a r e . " He t h e n s p o k e o f h a v i n g s t r u g g l e d f o r u n i o n , and o f h a v i n g won i t , and o f h a v i n g b r o u g h t i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n i n f a v o u r o f C o n f e d e r a - t i o n . He spoke o f t h e G o v e r n o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e C a n a d i - ans and e v i d e n t l y s t i l l h a d f a i t h i n h i s good i n t e n t i o n s t o f o r - ward C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He s a i d t h a t t h e g r e a t d i s t a n c e s h o u l d n o t he an o b s t a c l e . C a l i f o r n i a was j u s t as f a r away when she en- t e r e d t h e S t a t e s ; "and I ask, a r e B r i t i s h A m e r i c a n s l e s s e n t e r - p r i s i n g , l e s s d a r i n g t h a n o u r A m e r i c a n c o u s i n s ? I f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n g o v e r n a t e r r i t o r y on t h e P a c i f i c 0- c e an, whv c a n n o t t h e f o u r m i l l i o n s o f B r i t i s h A m e r i c a n s do t h e 2 same t h i n g ? " mos i m p r e s s e d u pon t h e p e o p l e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c c e p t i n g B r i - t i s h C o l u m b i a when she was w i l l i n g t o e n t e r . When he r e t u r n e d home he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , however w i l l i n g and r e a d y she h a d b e e n, h a d b e e n f r u s t r a t e d b y h e r G o v e r n o r , who 3 h a d n o t communicated by t e l e g r a m w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n government, 4 a l t h o u g h he h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t he h a d . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 16, 1867. Q u o t e d f r o m an E a s t e r n p a p e r . The T o r o n t o L e a d e r . T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o u r o f t h e E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , DeCos 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d J a n . 31, 1868. T i l l e y t o S e e l y e , J a n . 22, 1868. "The C a n a d i a n Government ha s no p r o p o s i t i o n b e f o r e i t f r o m e i - t h e r t h e government o r t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 4. V i d e S u p r a , P. 106. 109 A t once a m e e t i n g was h e l d i n V i c t o r i a , t w e l v e months a f t e r t h e C o u n c i l h a d p a s s e d i t s unanimous r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s m e e t i n g was c a l l e d h y t h e Mayor, T r i m b l e , a t t h e r e q u e s t o f some f i f t y p e o p l e . DeCosmos moved t h e f i r s t r e s o l u t i o n , d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e i n a c t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r made t h i s m e e t i n g n e c e s s a r y . He r e m a r k e d on t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e D o m i n i o n Government t h e r e was no s u c h t h i n g as i r r e s p o n s i b l e g o v ernment and i f B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n she w o u l d n o t s u f f e r i t e i t h e r , w h i l e a t p r e s e n t t h e p e o p l e h a d no v o i c e I n l e g i s l a t i o n . " i t i s ' m a n i f e s t d e s t i n y ' t h a t t h i s c o l o n y s h a l l w i t h i n two y e a r s 1 become p a r t and p a r c e l o f t h e g r e a t D o m i n i o n . " A t e l e g r a m o f T i l l e y ' s was r e a d t o show t h e D o m i n i o n Government's o p i n i o n o f 2 t h e m a t t e r , and t h e n t h e m e e t i n g p r o c e e d e d t o p a s s r e s o l u t i o n s e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r v i e w s . To show t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c o l o n y were f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s p o i n t e d o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f i t , w h i c h h a d ap- p e a r e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t y e a r . They a l s o d i d n o t n e g l e c t t o show t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e p i c t u r e , t h e g r o u p o f a n n e x a t i o n i s t s and o f f i c e h o l d e r s who o p p o s e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and t h e y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e e x e r t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e ; p a r t i c u l a r - l y when b a c k e d by t h e power o f t h e G o v e r n o r who h a d shown h i s o p p o s i t i o n b y r e f u s i n g t o s e n d a t e l e g r a m t o O t t a w a . S i n c e t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f f i c i a l , i t c o u l d n o t be 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 31, 1868. 2. I b i d - T i l l e y t o S e e l y e , J a n . 8, 1868. " I t h i n k t h e C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t w i l l be r e a d y t o c o n s i d e r any p r o p o s i t i o n f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t o n c e . See A c t o f U n i o n . r e l i e d u p o n t o f u r t h e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e o n l y t r u - l y p o p u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e c i t y c o u n c i l o f V i c t o r i a w h i c h " r e p - r e s e n t e d t h e v i e w s o f a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e most p o p u l o u s and i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y " must t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e , "and i t a s k e d t h e D o m i n i o n t o t a k e i m m e d i a t e s t e p s t o b r i n g t h e c o l o n y i n t o t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n b y a s k i n g H e r M a j e s t y ' s government t o i n s t r u c t G o v e r n o r Seymour i m m e d i a t e l y . " The t e r m s t h e y .asked were D o m i n i o n l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c d e b t o f $1,500,000; a l s o l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e o f f i c i a l s b y p l a c i n g them i n t h e f e d e r a l s e r v i c e o r b y p r o v i d i n g them w i t h p e n s i o n s . They a s k e d f o r a f i x e d s u b s i d y p e r c a p i t a and a s u b s i d y f o r t h e e x p e n s e s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . Powers o f t a x a t i o n were t o be r e s e r v e d t o t h e p r o v i n c e and r e s p o n s i b l e government was t o be g i v e n . The e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n was a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l wagon r o a d t o be f i n i s h e d w i t h i n two y e a r s . T h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s were' s i g n e d b y T r i m b l e , DeCosmos, P o w e l l , P i n d l a y , W a l l a c e and See- 1 l y e . T h e y r e c e i v e d an answer w i t h i n a month t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n Government wanted u n i o n and t h a t i t h a d opened c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h t h e I m p e r i a l Government. The answer s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t a k e i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n t o p a s s an a d d r e s s t o H e r Ma- 2 j e s t y r e q u e s t i n g u n i o n . W h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e C o u n c i l t o be summoned, DeCos- mos e d u c a t e d t h e p u b l i c i n t h e n e x t few weeks as t o what Con- f e d e r a t i o n r e a l l y e n t a i l e d , b y means o f a s e r i e s o f a b l e l e t t e r s t o t h e C o l o n i s t d u r i n g t h e month o f F e b r u a r y , 1868. 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 27, 1868. 2. I b i d - T i l l e y t o S e e l y e , Mar. 25, 1868. The C o u n c i l f i n a l l y met i n M a r c h a f t e r t h e G o v e r n o r h a d d e l a y e d as l o n g as i t was l e g a l l y p o s s i b l e . The same que s - t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e were b e f o r e i t , t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e c a p i t a l , t h e change i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , r e t r e n c h m e n t and C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l h a d n o t b e e n n e g l e c t e d i n t h e r e c e s s . M e m o r i a l s h a d b e e n p r e s e n t e d b y p r o m i n e n t c i t i z e n s and m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n h e l d . The p r e s s u r e b r o u g h t t o b e a r on t h e G o v e r n o r b y t h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , l e d b y t h e Home G o v e r n - ment, made i t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r c o u l d n o t n e g l e c t t h e q u e s t i o n . He l e f t i t t o t h e v o t e o f t h e C o u n c i l a n d t h e o f f i - c i a l members were f r e e t o s p e a k t h e i r o p i n i o n . I t was d e c i d e d b y a v o t e o f f o u r t e e n t o f i v e t h a t t h e c a p i t a l s h o u l d be r e - moved t o V i c t o r i a , a f t e r an a t t e m p t t o r e i m b u r s e t h e New West- m i n s t e r l a n d h o l d e r s and a f t e r an amendment t h a t i t was i n e x p e d - 1 i e n t t o remove. When t h e e s t i m a t e s were b r o u g h t down, a l t h o u g h t h e y were r e d u c e d i t was s t i l l a t t h e e x p e n s e o f p u b l i c works and e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e t h e s a l a r i e s were t h o s e o f a c o l o n y t w i c e t h e s i z e and age o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P e m b e r t o n t h e r e f o r e moved a s e r i e s o f r e s o l u t i o n s p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e e s t i m a t e s , s e c o n - d e d b y DeCosmos. T h e s e d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e c o l o n y was o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s r e s o u r c e s a n d s m a l l pop- u l a t i o n . A r u l e h a d b e e n l a i d down b y t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 3, 1868. F o r , T r u t c h , O ' R e i l l y , Cox, Pemberton, DeCosmos, Helmcken, M a c D o n a l d , Wood, K e r , E l w y n , S p a u l d i n g , S m i t h . A g a i n s t , C r e a s e , Hamley, B a r - n a r d , Robson, B a l l . 1 f o r t h e C o l o n i e s t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e f o r a c u r r e n t y e a r s h o u l d e- q u a l r e v e n u e , c a l c u l a t e d on t h e a c t u a l a v e r a g e e x p e n d i t t i r e o f t h e l a s t two y e a r s . By f i g u r e s t h e r e s o l u t i o n s showed t h a t t h i s h a d n o t b e e n done w i t h t h e s e e s t i m a t e s . T h e r e was no p r o - v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c works, t h e r e f o r e t h e r e d u c t i o n s must be t h r o u g h a c u r t a i l m e n t o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , and t h i s coxxld o n l y be done b y t h e E x e c u t i v e and n o t b y t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . T h i s 2 p r o t e s t was s i g n e d b y s e v e r a l o f t h e p o p u l a r members. The e s - t i m a t e s p a s s e d as u s u a l . The q u e s t i o n o f a change i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n came up b e f o r e a s m a l l h o u s e o f n i n e members. DeCosmos moved t h a t t h e G o v e r n o r be r e q u e s t e d t o c a u s e t o be I n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e Coun- c i l an o r d i n a n c e m a k i n g t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e C o u n c i l e l e c t i v e , t o meet t h e g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d w i s h e s o f t h e c o l o n y . The m o t i o n 3 was c a r r i e d b y t h e c a s t i n g v o t e o f t h e c h a i r m a n , Young. The q u e s t i o n o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n h a d r e a c h e d t h i s s t a g e , t h a t t h e p e o p l e were a l m o s t unanimous i n f a v o u r o f i t , e x c e p t f o r a few a n n e x a t i o n i s t s , w h i l e t h e G o v e r n o r and t h e o f f i c i a l s were a c t i v e l y o p p o s e d t o i t . T h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s - s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h e p a p e r s , w i t h DeCosmos u p h o l d i n g Con f e d e r a t i o n I n l e t t e r s t o t h e C o l o n i s t . T h e r e were some r e p l i e s t o t h e s e l e t t e r s , o p p o s i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n p r i n c i p a l l y b e c a u s e ;©eCosmos was s u p p o r t i n g i t . Some were a f r a i d o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n 1. D e s p a t c h No. 23, A p r i l 30, 1866. 2. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 28, 1868. 3. I b i d - A p r i l 30, 1868. P o r , DeCosmos, E l w y n , Helmcken and S m i t h . A g a i n s t , Cox, Hamley, K e r , S p a l d i n g . bscause, i f . i t came a b o u t , DeCosmos m i g h t be made l i e u t e n a n t - g o v 1 e r n o r . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s , one w r i t e r t o t h e C o l o n i s t s a i d , " t h e y w o u l d s a c r i f i c e t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o l o n y t o g r a t - i f y t h e i r s p l e e n a g a i n s t a p o l i t i c a l o p p b n e n t , t h e y w o u l d s t i c k t o t h e s k i n and go down w i t h t h e w reck r a t h e r t h a n go i n t o t h e b o a t a l o n g s i d e , b e c a u s e Mr. DeCosmos a l r e a d y o c c u p i e s a s e a t 2 t h e r e . " The a n n e x a t i o n i s t s a t t h i s t i m e were e n c o u r a g e d by t h e a c t i o n o f M i z n e r o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a L e g i s l a t u r e who moved a r e s o l u t i o n o p p o s i n g t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h Canada and e x p r e s s i n g t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s h o u l d be 3 t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The A n t i - C o n f e d e r a t i o n p e o p l e c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n w h i c h s e c u r e d one h u n d r e d and s i x t y s i g n a t u r e s i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f f o u r t h o u s a n d i n V i c t o r i a . The G o v e r n o r s a i d he . •V w o u l d f o r w a r d i t t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , w i t h r e s p e c t f u l com- m e n t s . He s a i d , " g r e a t as must be t h e d e s i r e o f u s a l l t o see a r o a d made i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t o f A m e r i - c a , and i m m i g r a t i o n s e t t l i n g i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y t h e n e a r - e s t way f r o m t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y , t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f 4 c a r r y i n g i t o u t a r e v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e . " I n f o r w a r d i n g t h e pe- t i t i o n f o r d e l a y , t h e G o v e r n o r h a d d e f i n i t e l y shown h i m s e l f t o be a g a i n s t C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He h a d n o t done what t h e C o u n c i l h a d 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 11, 1867. 2. I b i d - F e b . 12, 1868. 3. I b i d - F e b . 18, 1868. 4. I b i d - Mar. 9, 1868. 114 a s k e d h i m t o do w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n , y e t he f o r w a r - ded t h e p e t i t i o n o f an u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d y o f V i c t o r i a . He e v e n s a i d " t h a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s s e i z e d u n o n b y a d i s h e a r t e n e d 1 community l o n g i n g f o r a change o f any k i n d . " 2 I n t h e C o u n c i l DeCosmos moved f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o t h e a d m i s s i o n o f t h e c o l o n y i n t o t h e D o m i n i o n . The m o t i o n was s e c o n d e d b y H e l m c k e n . The G o v e r n o r r e f u s e d t o g i v e t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and gave t h e d e f i - n i t e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t no o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a d b e e n c a r r i e d 3 on. DeCosmos was n o t t o be f r u s t r a t e d and he moved an ad- d r e s s t o t h e Queen, s e c o n d e d b y Stamp, s i n c e t h i s was one o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a n A c t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e n t r a n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t e r m s he a s k e d were sim- i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e m e e t i n g i n J a n u a r y . An o f f i c i a l member, Wood, amended t h i s t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e C o u n c i l c o n f i r m e d t h e v o t e o f t h e l a s t s e s s i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e b u t t h e y were s t i l l w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i - ence o f t h e w o r k i n g o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o a d m i t o f t h e i r d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m s u n d e r w h i c h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o u l d e n t e r a d v a n t a g e - o u s l y . The amendment was s e c o n d e d by B a l l . DeCosmos was an- g e r e d a t t h e C o u n c i l a d v o c a t i n g d e l a y and wanted t o w i t h d r a w h i s m o t i o n , b u t t h e P r e s i d e n t s a i d t h a t t h e amendment must be v o t e d on f i r s t . I t was c a r r i e d b y a v o t e o f t w e l v e members t o 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 23, 1868. 2. Mar. 30, 1868. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 7, 1868. 1 f o u r . H elmcken's s p e e c h on t h e r e s o l u t i o n i s n o t e w o r t h y . "What h a d E n g l a n d e v e r done f o r t h i s c o u n t r y , t h a t we must he f o r c e d t o c a r r y o u t h e r p a r t i c u l a r v i e w s i n r e l a t i o n t o o u r - s e l v e s ? S u c h a c o u r s e o f p r o c e d u r e w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n a t - t e m p t e d t o w a r d s t h e C a n a d i a n Government. E n g l a n d h a d g i v e n u s n o t h i n g h u t a f l a g . T h e r e was t h e w r i t i n g on t h e w a l l , and t h e r e c o u l d no l o n g e r be any d o u b t o f t h e d e s t i n y o f B r i t i s h Co- 2 l u m h i a . " M e a n w h i l e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v e n i n g t e r r i t o r y came up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e D o m i n i o n h o u s e and t h i s de- l a y e d t h e m a t t e r o f t h e a d m i s s i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F u r t h e r 3 l e g i s l a t i o n on t h e t e r r i t o r i e s was n e c e s s a r y . The G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , however, s e n t a d e s p a t c h t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y r e - commending t h e home government t o i n s t r u c t G o v e r n o r Seymour t o a s k t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l t o t a k e f u r t h e r s t e p s i n t h e m a t t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e c o u l d be no l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e t i m e , t h e G o n f e d e r a t i o n i s t were n o t i d l e , b u t b e g a n t o o r g a n i z e a l e a g u e t o s e c u r e t h e i m m e d i a t e a d m i s s i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n - t o t h e D o m i n i o n , on t e r m s e q u i t a b l e and e x p e d i e n t . T hey a l s o w i s h e d t o o b t a i n w i t h o u t d e l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h r e s p o n s i b l e g o v ernment. DeCosmos was a member o f t h e c ommittee 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. A p r i l 24, 1868. Pp. 25-27. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 27, 1868. A g a i n s t t h e amendment, Robson, Walkem, Stamp, and DeCosmos. 2. I b i d - May 1, 1868. 3. I b i d - May 20, 1868. 4. I b i d - May 23, 1868. o f t h i s l e a g u e i n V i c t o r i a . The i n t e n t i o n was a l s o t o e x t e n d 1 t h i s l e a g u e o v e r t h e c o l o n y . The C o n f e d e r a t i o n L eague d e c i d e d t o h o l d a c o n v e n t i o n a t Y a l e t o d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h e e x i s t - i n g g o v e r n m e n t . Among t h e d e l e g a t e s f r o m V i c t o r i a was DeCosmos. When i t met, DeCosmos was p l a c e d on t h e c ommittee on b u s i n e s s . I t adop.ted t h e t e r m s f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n a d v o c a t e d i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and At t h e m e e t i n g i n J a n u a r y , b u t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f a f r e e p o r t was- a<|ded. The L e g i s l a t i v e Coun- c i l was d e n o u n c e d and r e s p o n s i b l e government; was a d v o c a t e d as t h e o n l y remedy. DeCosmos s a i d " t h a t a l l g o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d e x i s t b y t h e f r e e and j u s t c o n s e n t o f t h e g o v e r n e d and t h a t t h e Government t h a t d o e s n o t e x i s t b y t h e f r e e and j u s t c o n s e n t o f 2 t h e g o v e r n e d i s a d e s p o t i s m . " The e x t r a v a g a n t c i v i l s e r v i c e was a l s o a t t a c k e d . T h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s were g i v e n t o t h e G o v e r - n o r i n t h e f o r m o f a m e m o r i a l s i g n e d b y W a l l a c e , DeCosmos and 5 o t h e r s . The G o v e r n o r i n f o r w a r d i n g i t t o L ondon w r o t e one o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e t t e r s . He s a i d t h a t some o f t h e i r r e s o l u - t i o n s w o u l d be p u t b e f o r e t h e C o u n c i l b u t t h a t t h e m a t t e r o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n d i d n o t r e s t w i t h t h e s o - c a l l e d c o n v e n t i o n . He d i d n o t see a c l e a r way t o w a r d s r e s p o n s i b l e government b u t i t was l i k e l y t h a t i t w o u l d be b r o u g h t up a t t h e n e x t s e s s i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l . He d i d n o t s a y t h a t he w o u l d b r i n g i t up. On t h e q u e s t i o n o f e x t r a v a g a n c e he h a d n o t i n c u r r e d t h e d e b t , n o r h a d 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 22, 1868. 2. I b i d - S e p t . 18, 1868. 3. P a p e r s - On t h e U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h Canada. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1869. P. 17. 117 he e v e r a p p o i n t e d any o f f i c i a l h i g h e r t h a n a c o n s t a b l e , " i f we were f r e e f r o m d e b t o u r f i n a n c e s w o u l d be i n a f l o u r i s h i n g c o n - 1 d i t i o n " was t h e gem o f h i s l e t t e r . I n V i c t o r i a , a t t h i s t i m e , t h e a n n e x a t i o n i s t s were be- coming more p o w e r f u l , and an a n t i - C o n f e d e r a t i o n document ap- p e a r e d , r e p u d i a t i n g t h e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n and t h e c i t y d e l e g a t e s . T h i s document was s i g n e d b y v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e , h e a d e d b y H e l m c k e n . T h e r e was a l s o one f r o m t h e f o r e i g n r e s i - 2 d e n t s e x p r e s s i n g t h e same s e n t i m e n t s . The C o l o n i s t , however, c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e members o f t h e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n on h a v i n g done 3 t h e i r d u t y . New e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e C o u n c i l v/ere h e l d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n , and t h e a n t i - C o n f e d e r a t e s u s e d t h e i r oppo- s i t i o n t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n as a p o l i t i c a l c r y a g a i n s t DeCosmos. and P o w e l l . H e l m c k e n and D r a k e i n V i c t o r i a C i t y and D r . D a v i e , an E n g l i s h m a n and A n t i - C o n f e d e r a t e , i n V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t , r a n as c a n d i d a t e s a g a i n s t C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w h i l e DeCosmos and P o w e l l t r i e d t o k e e p C o n f e d e r a t i o n o u t o f t h e e l e c t i o n , as n o t p r a c - t i c a b l e a t t h e moment, s i n c e t h e government ha d n o t opened n e - g o t i a t i o n s . H e l m c k e n and h i s f o l l o w e r s knew t h a t t h e i r o n l y 1. P a p e r s - On t h e U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h Canada. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1869. P. 17. Howay, Judge P. W. - B. G.'s E n t r y - i n t o - C o n f e d e r a t i o n . C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1927. 2. I b i d - Pp. 26, 27. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 21, 1868. 3. I b i d - S e p t . 25, 1868. hope t o d e f e a t DeCosmos was t h r o u g h i n s i s t i n g t h a t he was r u n - i n g as a C o n f e d e r a t i o n c a n d i d a t e a t a moment when V i c t o r i a seemed d e f i n i t e l y a g a i n s t i t . i t " w o u l d be f o u n d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e t o s e n d t o g r a s s t h e o l d p o l i t i c a l h a c k Mr. DeCosmos, t i l l C o n f e d e r a t i o n 1 came t o c o m f o r t him." D r a k e a c c u s e d h i m o f " b e i n g a b a c h e l o r , a w a i f and s t r a y u pon t h e p o l i t i c a l h o r i z o n whereas he h a d g i - 2 v e n h o s t a g e s t o s o c i e t y I n t h e shape o f c h i l d r e n . " H e l m c k e n 3 a c c u s e d him o f s e l l i n g t h e c o l o n y a t e i g h t y c e n t s p e r h e a d . DeCosmos r e t a l i a t e d b y a c c u s i n g him o f b e i n g t h e Hudson's Bay nominee and s a i d i t was b e t t e r t o s e l l t h e c o u n t r y t o t h e Domi- . 4 n i o n t h a n t o t h e Company. DeCosmos came i n f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f c r i t i c i s m when he s a i d t h a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n "was d e a d and b u r - 5 l e d . " He e x p l a i n e d t h i s p h r a s e as m e a n i n g t h a t a t t h i s e l e c - t i o n i t was n o t an i s s u e and c o u l d n o t be one u n t i l t h e N o r t h - 6 West t e r r i t o r y was p u r c h a s e d . s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e s p o n i s b l e government, and r e t r e n c h - ment. He was n o t i n f a v o u r o f p r e c i p i t a t e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w i t h - o u t f a v o u r a b l e t e r m s , b u t w o u l d l e t t h e q u e s t i o n r e s t u n t i l t h e 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 3, 1868. B u r n a b y , i n one o f h i s p @ l i t i c a l s p e e c h e s , s a i d t h a t He c o n t e s t e d h i s e l e c t i o n oh t h r e e p o l i c i e s , r e p r e - 2. I b i d Nov. 2, 1868. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d O c t . 24, 1868. 5. I b i d F e b . 22, 1869. 6. I b i d F e b . 24, 1869. t e r r i t o r i e s were p u r c h a s e d , and t h e n n e g o t i a t e w i t h C a nada. M e a n w h i l e t o e n s u r e tJhat t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e on e- q u a l g r o u n d w i t h Canada, t h e y must h a v e r e f o r m " t o p r e v e n t t h e p l i a n t t o o l s o f i r r e s p o n s i b l e r u l e r s f r o m b e i n g s e l e c t e d t o m i s 1 r e p r e s e n t t h e f e e l i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y . " "The p e o p l e s h o u l d s e - l e c t men t o r e p r e s e n t them who a r e n e i t h e r t r i m m e r s , n o r t u r n - c o a t s , n e i t h e r f a c t i o u s n o r v a c i l l a t i n g , n e i t h e r p u r c h a s a b l e a t t h e c o s t o f a d i n n e r n o r s i l e n c e d by t h e a l l u r e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l 2 a g g r a n d i z e m e n t . " He r e m a r k e d on t h e f e e l i n g o f d i s g u s t t h a t must a r i s e i n p e o p l e s ' m i nds when t h e y compared t h e i r l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h t h e f r e e d o m i n t h e n e i g h b o u r - i n g S t a t e s . He s a i d " i t i s a most h u m i l i a t i n g p o s i t i o n f o r B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s t o o c c u p y - - s o d e g r a d i n g i n d e e d t o o u r s e n s e o f manhood, so c o n t r a r y t o o u r i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o s e l f - g o v e r n - ment, t h a t were we n o t f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t H e r M a j e s t y and h e r I m p e r i a l a d v i s e r s h a v e b e e n m i s l e d o r i n d u c e d b y t h e m i s r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n o f two G o v e r n o r s , a i d e d and a d v i s e d b y t h e i r r e s p e c - t i v e E x e c u t i v e C o x m c i l l o r s , t o w i t h h o l d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t i u 4 * t-ions, we w o u l d foe j u s t i f i e d i n r e p u d i a t i n g e n t i r e l y and r e f u s - i n g t o a c t a p a r t i n t h e s o l e m n f a r c e o f s e l e c t i o n and i n ap- p e a l i n g t o t h a t h i g h e r l a w d i c t a t e d b y r i g h t , r e a s o n a n d j u s - 3 t i c e . " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y how t h e e l e c t i o n w o u l d have gone w i t h a f a i r v o t e s i n c e H e l m c k e n and h i s o f f i c i a l f r i e n d s 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - O c t . 20, 1868. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d . 1 were a b l e t o p e r s u a d e t h e G o v e r n o r t o i s s u e a p r o c l a m a t i o n f o r t h e s h e r i f f t o a l t e r t h e f r a n c h i s e i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d E s q u i - m a l t d i s t r i c t s . I n s t e a d o f t h e o l d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t v o t e r s must he B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s o f a c e r t a i n amount o f p r o p e r t y , t h e f r a n c h i s e was e x t e n d e d t o a l l r e s i d e n t s e x c e p t t h e I n d i a n s and t h e C h i n e s e . T h e r e was no r e g i s t r a t i o n and no o a t h s a t t h e 2 p o l l s . The r e s u l t was o b v i o u s . W i t h a l l t h e A m e r i c a n s v o t i n g , DeCosmos and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , f o r c e d t o r u n on t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n 3 p l a t f o r m , a g a i n s t thce.Ir own w i s h e s , were e a s i l y d e f e a t e d . A f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n e x c i t e m e n t was o v e r a p e t i t i o n be- gan t o be c i r c u l a t e d w h i c h p r o v i d e d an e x c u s e t o h a v e G o v e r n o r Seymour r e t u r n t o England! and t o h a v e S i r James D o u g l a s t a k e h i s p l a c e . DeCosmos o b j e c t e d and s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t a d m i r e G o v e r n o r Seymour, "much o f t h e odium t h a i a t t a c h e s t o < G o v e r n o r Seymour's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e a c t s o f o m m i s s i o n an d c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 4 S i r James D o u g l a s . " The r e m o v a l o f G o v e r n o r Seymour w o u l d do no g o o d j i t was n o t a change o f g o v e r n o r b u t a change o f gov- 4 ernment t h a t was n e e d e d . When t h e C o i u i c i l met i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f December, DeCosmos was a b s e n t f r o m l e g i s l a t i v e work f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e 1863. The G o v e r n o r ' s s p e e c h showed d e f i n i t e l y t h a t he 1. O c t . 17, 1868. 2. Sage, W a l t e r N. - A n n e x a t i o n i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l So- c i e t y o f Canada, T h i r d S e r i e s , V o l . X X I , ' S e c t i o n I I , 1927. 3:. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 4, 1868. 4. I b i d - Nov. 14, 1868. was o p p o s e d t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He a l s o made r a t h e r s l u r r i n g r e - marks a b o u t r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . However, he c o n d e s c e n d i n g - l y p r o m i s e d some change t o w a r d s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; The members o p p o s e d t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e G o v e r n o r ' s avowed o p p o s i t i o n t o move a r e s o l u - t i o n t o c o n s i d e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The m i n o r i t y i n f a v o u r o f I t t r i e d t o p r e v e n t t h i s d e b a t e s i n c e i t w o u l d be m e r e l y " a r o u n d - a b o u t way o f t h e o f f i c i a l members s h o w i n g t h e i r d i s l i k e f o r 1 l o s s o f t h e i r s a l a r i e s . " T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n was u s e l e s s , how- e v e r and a m o t i o n s a y i n g " t h i s C o u n c i l , i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e c o n - v i c t i o n t h a t u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s u n d e s i r a b l e even i f p r a c t i c a b l e , u r g e s t h e I m p e r i a l Government n o t t o t a k e any d e c i s i v e s t e p s t o w a r d s t h e p r e s e n t consummation 2 o f s u c h a u n i o n , " p a s s e d b y a v o t e o f e l e v e n t o f i v e . The C o l - o n i s t b l a s t e d t h e l o s t C o n f e d e r a t i o n c a u s e on t h e r i d i c u l o u s 3 d e m o n s t r a t i o n a t Y a l e , a b s u r d l y c a l l e d a c o n v e n t i o n , and t o t h e s h a m e f u l abandonment o f t h e c a i i s e b y one o f t h e C o n f e d e r a - 4 t i o n c a n d i d a t e s a t t h e r e c e n t e l e c t i o n . The m i n o r i t y i n t h e C o u n c i l p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e de- b a t e on C o n f e d e r a t i o n , s i n c e i t h a d b een c o n c e d e d t h a t i t was I m p o s s i b l e u n t i l t h e Worth-West t e r r i t o r y was p u r c h a s e d . The C o u n c i l d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t p u b l i c o p i n i o n s i n c e a l l t h e m a i n l a n d 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 6, 1869. 2. I b i d - F e b . 19, 1869. A g a i n s t , Walkem, Have- l o c k , Robson, C a r r a l l and Humphreys. 3. V i d e S u p r a , P. 117. 4. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 19, 1869. and a l a r g e m i n o r i t y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d were unanimous i n f a - v o u r o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n , on f a i r and e q u i t a b l e t e r m s , a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . The m a j o r i t y p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e p r o t e s t , l e d b y H e l m c k e n . They d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e C o u n c i l h a d a r i g h t t o d i s - c u s s what i t p l e a s e d . T h i s was t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g a f t e r an e l e c - t i o n f o u g h t on C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and t h e G o v e r n o r h a d b r o u g h t up t h e q u e s t i o n i n h i s s p e e c h , t h e r e f o r e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o show t h e change i n t h e C o u n c i l . B e f o r e t h e m i d d l e o f 1869, news was r e c e i v e d t h a t t h e t e r r i t o r i e s were t o become p a r t o f Canada, t h u s r e m o v i n g t h e 1 b r e a t o b s t a c l e t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . A t once t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n - ment became a c t i v e i n f u r t h e r i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e n t r y . The f i r s t s t e p was t o r e p l a c e t h e G o v e r n o r b y one i n f a v o u r o f Con- f e d e r a t i o n . W h i l e S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d was w r i t i n g i n f a v o u r o f M u s g r a v e , Seymour d i e d . H i s p l a c e was i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e n b y M u s g r a v e , and i t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n h a d become a p r a c t i c a b l e c e r t a i n t y . The two g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e s t o i t h a d b e e n removed, t h e I n t e r v e n i n g t e r r i t o r y was now p a r t o f Canada, and G o v e r n o r Seymour h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d b y an a d v o c a t e o f Con- f e d e r a t i o n . The o t h e r o b s t a c l e s , t h e a n n e x a t i o n movement and t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , were s t i l l t o be o vercome. To w i n o v e r t h e o f f i c i a l s i t was o n l y a m a t t e r o f a s s u r i n g them t h e i r p o s i t i o n s when C o n f e d e r a t i o n came a b o u t . M u s g r a v e p r o m i s e d them t h a t t h e m a g i s t r a t e s w o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n gov- ernment s e r v i c e and t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l s w o u l d be p e n s i o n e d . A f - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - May 26, 1869. 123 t e r t h a t t h e r e was no d a n g e r t h a t t h e y w o u l d v o t e a g a i n s t Con- 1 f e d e r a t i o n . The a n n e x a t i o n q u e s t i o n was more d i f f i c u l t . T h e r e was a s t r o n g p a r t y i n V i c t o r i a , composed l a r g e l y o f A m e r i c a n s , h u t w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e s p r i n k l i n g o f E n g l i s h m e n who were v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l . S u c h men as J . D. P e m b e r t o n and D r . H e l m c k e n c o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d . A p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d w h i c h r e c e i v e d some f i f t y s i g n a t u r e s , t e n o f w h i c h were B r i t i s h . T h i s p e t i - t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f s e n d i n g i t t o t h e P r e s i - d e n t and o f r e q u e s t i n g h i m t o t a k e s t e p s t o a c q u i r e B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a . I t was p r e s e n t e d t o P r e s i d e n t G r a n t b y V i n c e n t C o l l y e r . Rumours a l s o were c i r c t i l a t e d t h a t E n g l a n d was c o n s i d e r i n g c e d - 2 i n g t h e p r o v i n c e t o e x t i n g u i s h t h e Alabama c l a i m s . P e m b e r t o n w r o t e l e t t e r s t o t h e C o l o n i s t , q u o t i n g f r o m t h e L o n d o n T i m e s , w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l Government w o u l d n o t p r e v e n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m j o i n i n g t h e S t a t e s i f 3 C o n f e d e r a t i o n p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e . A g a i n one o f t h e A m e r i c a n S e n a t o r s , C o r b i t t , i n t r o d u c e d a r e s o l u t i o n f a v o u r i n g t h e annex- a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e so many A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n s l i v e d t h e r e . T h i s r e s o l u t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o t h e Committee on P o r - 4 e i g n R e l a t i o n s . P o r t h e t i m e a n n e x a t i o n h a d t h e u p p e r h a n d i n V i c t o r i a , b u t i t was t h e swan song o f t h e movement. The m a i n - l a n d was d e f i n i t e l y f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i s l a n d , o u t s i d e o f V i c t o r i a . I t was m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f t h e Gov- 1. Howay, Judge P. W. - B. C.'s E n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 2. Sage, W a l t e r N. - A n n e x a t i o n i s t Movement i n B. C. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - J a n . 28, 1870. 4. Sage - Op. C i t . 124 e r n o r p a l l i n g t h e C o u n c i l and p u t t i n g t h e t e r m s b e f o r e ..them. M e a n w h i l e t h e r e was a v a c a n c y i n t h e C o u n c i l f o r V i c - t o r i a D i s t r i c t , due t o t h e d e a t h o f D r . D a v i s , and DeCosmos en- 1 t e r e d t h e f i e l d as a c a n d i d a t e . He was r u n n i n g i n an a g r i c u l - t u r a l d i s t r i c t w h i c h f e a r e d t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f o u t s i d e p r o d u c e . DeCosmos, i n h i s p l a t f o r m , p r o m i s e d h i s s u p p o r t e r s t h a t he w o u l d e n s t i r e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t a r i f f , p r o t e c t - i n g f a r m p r o d u c e , w h i c h he h a d h e l p e d t o b r i n g a b o u t , o r he w o u l d s e c u r e some o t h e r t h a n t h e D o m i n i o n ' s i f C o n f e d e r a t i o n were s e c u r e d . The C o l o n i s t c r i t i c i z e d h i m f o r h i s t u r n c o a t p o l i c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f A m e r i c a n r e c i p r o c i t y , w h i c h i f s e c u r e d w o u l d r u i n t h e f a r m e r and y e t w h i c h he h a d a l - ways a d v o c a t e d . The C o l o n i s t ' s argument was t h a t r e c i p r o c i t y w o u l d meam f r e e t r a d e i n a l l a r t i c l e s b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t w o u l d h ave b e e n o f the same t y p e as t h a t o f E a s t e r n Canada h a d b e e n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e C o l o n i s t , t h e p e o p l e o f t h e i s l a n d c o n s t i t u e n c i e s were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n f a v o u r o f h i m . "DeCosmos, f r o m h i s l o n g p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r i n t h i s c o u n t r y , o ught t o be and i n o u r o p i n i o n i s , w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o w a t c h o v e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a - t i o n s l i k e l y t o t a k e p l a c e , p e n d i n g t h e a d m i s s i o n o f t h i s c oun- 3 t r y i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n D o m i n i o n . " The campaign was one o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e Co- 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Nov. 3, 1869. 2. I b i d - Nov. 14, 1869. 3. I b i d - Nov. 17, 1869. A v o t e r i n S a l t S p r i n g . I s l a n d d i s t r i c t . 125 l o n i s t and DeCosmos, w i t h t h e C o l o n i s t p r i n t i n g many l e t t e r s a c - c u s i n g DeCosmos o f n e v e r k e e p i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l f a i t h , o f b e i n g c l e v e r , b u t a l w a y s g o i n g wrong b e c a u s e he t h o u g h t o n l y o f h i s own a m b i t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d DeCosmos a c c u s e d t h e C o l o n i s t o f m e r e l y p r i n t i n g t h e s e a c c u s a t o r y l e t t e r s t o f o r c e him t o ad- v e r t i s e i n t h e p a p e r , w h i c h he s a i d was t o o e x p e n s i v e , a s t a t e - ment w h i c h t h e C o l o n i s t d i s p r o v e d . A t any r a t e DeCosmos was e l e c t e d , al.though u n d o u b t e d l y t h e C o l o n i s t came o u t t h e b e t t e r i n t h e q u a r r e l . I t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t DeCosmos was u n n e c e s s a r i l y r a s h i n some o f h i s c r i - t i c i s m s and i t i s Q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t i f a s t r o n g c a n d i d a t e h a d r u n a g a i n s t him. w ; i t h t h e b a c k i n g t h a t t h e C o l o n i s t was w i l l i n g t o g i v e , he w o u l d have b e e n d e f e a t e d . As i t was, he won on Gon- 1 f e d e r a t i o n i n a d i s t r i c t w n i c h was s t r o n g l y f o r i t . I n F e b r u a r y , G o v e r n o r M u sgrave opened t h e s e s s i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l . H i s s p e e c h showed t h a t he was t o be t h e l e a d i n g s p i r i t i n m a k i n g terms f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n . He was n o t i n f a v o u r o f r e s p o n s i b l e government, o r o f l e t t i n g t h e p e o p l e d e c i d e f i - n a l l y i n t h e m a t t e r t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he t o o k t h i s v i e w o f t h e q u e s t i o n c o n s i d e r i n g how b a d l y t h e Coun- c i l h a d managed C o n f e d e r a t i o n u n d e r a weak G o v e r n o r . I t was a g r e a t d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e a d v o c a t e s o f r e s p o n s i b l e government, however, t o h e a r i n t h e o p e n i n g s p e e c h t h a t " c o m p l i c a t e d ques- t i o n s , c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and d i v e r g e n t p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s a l l demand c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and p r a c t i c a l l y u p o n them i n many r e s - 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Dec. 3, 1869. 1 p e c t s t h e d e c i s i o n must be m i n e . " He o u t l i n e d t h e t e r m s o f O o n f e d e r a t i o n i n . h i s s p e e c h . Canada s h o u l d assume t h e c o l o n y ' s d e b t and f i v e p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be p a i d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i t s a c t u a l d e b t and t h a t o f t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . The o t h e r f i n a n - c i a l t e r m s were a s u b s i d y and t h e payment o f i n t e r e s t on t h e l o a n f o r a d r y d o c k . A s u r v e y f o r t h e r a i l w a y s h o u l d be made a t once and b u i l d i n g s h o u l d b e g i n i n t h r e e y e a r s w i t h a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r s p e n t on i t . M e a n w h i l e a wagon x-aad s h o u l d be b u i l t i n t h r e e y e a r s . The F e d e r a l government s h o u l d p e n s i o n off- t h e ^ p r e s e n t o f f i c i a l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . '.There s h o v i l d be steam c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h San F r a n c i s c o . F i n a l l y B r i t i s h Colum- b i a s h o u l d e n j o y a l l t h e i m m u n i t i e s t h a t t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s en- 2 j o y e d . B e f o r e c a l l i n g t h e C o u n c i l M u s g r a v e h a d a p p o i n t e d H e l - mcken and C a r r a l l t o t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l t o r e p r e s e n t t h e un- o f f i c i a l members o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . DeCosmos o b j e c t e d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f H e l m c k e n s i n c e he was o p p o s e d t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and y e t s a t i n a C o u n c i l w h i c h was f o s t e r i n g t e r m s o f C o n f e d e r a - t i o n . H e l m c k e n d e c l a r e d t h a t he was s t i l l f r e e t o o p p o s e Con- f e d e r a t i o n s i n c e t h e t e r m s were m e r e l y on p a p e r . I f u n f a v o u r - a b l e t e r m s came f r o m Canada, he s a i d i t m i g h t be h i s d u t y t o r e - 3 s i g n . DeCosmos o b j e c t e d t o t h e G o v e r n o r ' s s p e e c h b e c a u s e o f 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 16, 1870. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d - F e b . 20, 1870. i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o R e s p o n s i b l e Government and he s a i d " t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s c o u n t r y a s p i r e d t o and h a d t h e c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - g o v e r n - ment. I t w o u l d be a d i f f i c u l t m a t t e r £OT t h e g o vernment t o t r y t o cram C o n f e d e r a t i o n down t h e t h r o a t s o f t h e p e o p l e i f i t were 1 n o t t o be a government b y t h e p e o p l e and f o r t h e p e o p l e . " I n f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h i s b e l i e f , DeCosmos moved f o r a c o m m i t t e e t o 2 o u t l i n e a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . He s a i d , " i n v i e w o f t h e a p p a r e n t p r o m i n e n c e o f u n i o n w i t h Canada, and i n v." v i e w o f t h e paramount n e c e s s i t y f o r l o y a l and c o r d i a l c o - o p e r a - t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s c o l o n y w i t h t h e g o v e r n - ment o f Canada i n w o r k i n g o u t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e D o m i n i o n i n c a s e o f s u c h u n i o n , and w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f a v o i d i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c o l o n y a f t e r u n i o n t o t h e i n j u r y o f i n d u s t r i a l q u e s t i o n s ; " he moved t h a t a c ommittee be a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r and r e p o r t an a c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s m o t i o n was s e - c o n d e d b y Humphreys. The m a t t e r was p o s t p o n e d u n t i l a f t e r Con- f e d e r a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d , e v e n t h o u g h DeCosmos s a i d i t was dan- 3 g e r o u s t o s e c u r e C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h o u t r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . An a t t e m p t was made b y t h e p o p u l a r members t o r e d u c e t h e e s t i m a t e s . A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n B a r n a r d moved a r e s o l u t i o n on r e t r e n c h m e n t , w h i c h among o t h e r t h i n g s d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e Coun c i l was p o w e r l e s s t o e f f e c t r e d u c t i o n s once t h e e s t i m a t e s were fra m e d , and s u g g e s t e d s u c h r e d u c t i o n s c o u l d o n l y be e f f e c t e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r r e p e a l i n g t h e Crown S a l a r i e s A c t . DeCosmos moved 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . - - F e b . 20, 1870. 2. I b i d - F e b . 19, 1870. 3. I b i d - F e b . 24, 1870. 128 an amendment w h i c h d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mem- b e r s , n o t t h e C o u n c i l , t h a t were p o w e r l e s s . H i s amendment was d e f e a t e d , and he t h e n v o t e d a g a i n s t B a r n a r d ' s r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h was a l s o d e f e a t e d . He was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s a c t i o n i n n o t s u p p o r t i n g r e t r e n c h m e n t when he h a d b e e n one o f t h e most co c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t e r s o f i t u n t i l t h e n . Someone s a i d , "DeCos- mos was n e v e r known t o s u p p o r t a n y t h i n g - - h o w e v e r g o o d — u n l e s s he 1 i n t r o d u c e d i t h i m s e l f . " As s o o n as t h e e s t i m a t e s were d i s p o s e d o f , C r e a s e , t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l b r o u g h t i n t h e government t e r m s f o r C o n f e d e r a - t i o n . T h e s e were s e c o n d e d b y T r u t b h . H e l m c k e n o p p o s e d them as n o t o p p o r t u n e . The c o l o n y was coming o u t o f i t s d e s p o n d e n c y , and a t any r a t e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y a b s o r b Cana- d a . The s u g g e s t i o n was, t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m i g h t as w e l l annex h e r s e l f t o t h e S t a t e s now as l a t e r . D r a k e moved an amendment t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n be p o s t p o n e d s i x months and R i n g s e c o n d e d i t . R o b s o n a s k e d how c o u l d H e l m c k e n c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n "..of C o n f e d e r a t i o n came f r o m t h e E x e c u t i v e Coun- c i l , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g an o p en one, when he h i m s e l f was a member o f t h e E x e c u t i v e . He a l s o a s k e d w h e t h e r , as an E x e c u t i v e Coun- c i l l o r , he was g i v i n g t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n two r o a d s , G o n f e d e r a - 2 t i o n a n d a n n e x a t i o n . The n e x t day DeCosmos spoke t o t h e m o t i o n , s a y i n g t h a t t h e C o u n c i l was engaged i n n a t i o n m a k i n g , a t a s k w i t h w h i c h he h a d b e e n o c c u p i e d s i n c e he e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s i n t h e c o l o n y . He 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 1, 1870. 2. I b i d - Mar. 10, 1870. 129 o b j e c t e d t o t h e o f f i c i a l members s p e a k i n g o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n as t h o u g h t h e y h a d a l w a y s b e e n i n f a v o u r o f i t . He d e s c r i b e d t h e t r u e h i s t o r y o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n t h e c o l o n y and o f t h e a g i t a t i o n f o r i t , s h o w i n g t h a t i t was t h e p e o p l e who h a d f o u g h t f o r i t w h i l e t h e o f f i c i a l s h a d b e e n a g a i n s t i t u n t i l t h e i r p o s i t i o n s were a s s u r e d them. He c o m p l e t e d h i s s p e e c h b y d e c l a r i n g t h a t " i f C o n f e d e r a t i o n d i d n o t p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f f a r m e r s , he 1 w o u l d oppose i t . " DeCosmos spoke a g a i n on t h e f i n a n c i a l t e r m s i n t h e committee on t h e t e r m s . " W i t h r e s p e c t t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , J h a v e e v e r l o o k e d a t i t f r o m one p o i n t ; i t must h a v e a money v a l u e . A g r e a t d e a l h a s b e e n s a i d a b o u t t h e f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t - - a b o u t R e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t — b u t I s a y t h i s : t h a t e v e r y government, w h e t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e o r i r r e s p o n s i b l e , must have money. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e most p e r f e c t p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t o move w i t h - 2 o u t i t . " He moved an amendment t o t h e f i n a n c i a l t e r m s t h a t t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be f o r t y t h o u s a n d i n s t e a d o f one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y t h o u s a n d ; t h a t t h e s u b s i d y be $80,000 i n s t e a d o f $35,000; t h a t t h e e i g h t y c e n t s p e r h e a d on t h e p o p u l a t i o n be i n c r e a s e d p r o r a t a u n t i l t h e numbers r e a c h e d one m i l l i o n , and t h a t t h e t e m p o r a r y s u b s i d y o f $150,000 p e r annum be r e d u c e d f r o m 3 t i m e t o t i m e when t h e p o p u l a t i o n e x c e e d e d f o r t y t h o u s a n d . He t h e n made an a p p e a l f o r h o n e s t y r e g a r d i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l t e r m s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e q u e s t i o n w a r r a n t e d l o f t y s e n t i m e n t s and ' ; 1 . B r i t i s h - C o l o n i s t -'-Mar• •'II, • 1870. • 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - June 20, 1870. 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 15, 1870. 1 a n " a c c u r a t e and g e n u i n e p o l i t i c a l s t a n d a r d . " DeCosmos's amend- 2 ment was l o s t , b u t Drake! si t h a t t h e s u b s i d y be $75,000 p a s s e d . On t h e r a i l w a y t e r m s , DeCosmos was a g a i n s t a s k i n g t h e D o m i n i o n f o r so much, s i n c e i t w o u l d be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . He f e l t t h a t m a t e r i a l u n i o n was p r a c t i c a l w i t h o u t a r a i l w a y . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was, n o t t o h a v e a r a i l w a y a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t , b u t t o h a v e r a i l w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a . He t h e r e f o r e moved a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n " t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c - t i o n o f a r a i l w a y f r o m s t e a m b o a t n a v i g a t i o n on t h e P r a s e r R i v e r t o Kamloops L a k e be i n s e r t e d i n t h e t e r m s , i n s t e a d o f commenc- i n g f r o m t h e i n i t i a l s e c t i o n s on t h e s e a b o a r d o f B r i t i s h Colum- 3 b i a . " T h i s was l o s t . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f R e s p o n s i b l e Government, Humphreys moved t h a t i t be i n a u g u r a t e d I n t o t h e c o l o n y w h e t h e r i t was ad- 4 m i t t e d i n t o t h e D o m i n i o n o r n o t . DeCosmos f a v o u r e d t h i s r e s o - l u t i o n r a t h e r t h a n Robson's w h i c h a s k e d f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e ' s e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 5 B o t h t h e amendments were d e f e a t e d . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e t a r i f f , DeCosmos moved an a- mendment t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s t a r i f f be k e p t as h i g h on f o r - e i g n p r o d u c e and m a n u f a c t u r e s w h e t h e r t h e C a n a d i a n customs r e - 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - June 20, 1870. 2. ~;Ye:as, D r a k e , Humphreys, Wood and DeCosmos. 3. C o n f e d e r a t i o n D e b a t e s - L e g i s l a t i v e O o u n c i l , Mar. 1870. R e p r i n t f r o m t h e G o v t . G a z e t t e . V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1912. 4. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 19, 1870. 5. I b i d - Mar. 20, 1870. F o r f i r s t , D r a k e , R i n g , DeCosmos, Humphreys. F o r n e x t , Robson, B a r n a r d and f o r m e r . 131 q u i r e d t h i s o r n o t . Hel m c k e n ' s m o t i o n t h a t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l , h o r t i c u l t u r a l and d a i r y i n g i n t e r e s t s be p r o t e c t e d was p a s s e d , *. b u t t h e p r o p o s a l o f DeCosmos t o c o n s i d e r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n - 1 t e r e s t s a l s o was d e f e a t e d . R o b s o n moved a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t t h e t a r i f f o f Canada s h o u l d n o t be e x t e n d e d o v e r t h e c o l o n y u n t i l t h e r a i l r o a d s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d , and t h i s was l o s t w i t h DeCosmos v o t i n g a- 2 g a i n s t i t . DeCosmos moved a r e s o l u t i o n t o a d m i t i n t o t h e c o l o n y o r some p o r t i o n o f i t c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s n o t p r o d u c e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n o r t h e c o l o n y , p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e r m s . R o b s o n amended t h i s t o i n c l u d e i n t h e t e r m s t h e r i g h t o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n y t i m e a f t e r ad- m i s s i o n , t o p a s s an a d d r e s s t o t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , d e c l a r i n g t h e e x p e d i e n c y o f a f r e e p o r t on t h e P a c i f i c . R obosn's amend- 3 ment was l o s t , w i t h DeCosmos and Humphreys v o t i n g a g a i n s t ' i t . R o bson a c c u s e d DeCosmos o f v o t i n g a g a i n s t i t b e c a u s e he d i d n o t p r o p o s e i t h i m s e l f and s a i d he was i n c o n s i s t e n t s i n c e a t 4 th e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n he h a d a d v o c a t e d a f r e e p o r t . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t he h a d a l w a y s b e e n f o r p r o t e c t i o n s i n c e he came t o t h e c o l o n y . He h a d a l l o w e d t h e f r e e p o r t t o go i n t o t h e terms a t Y a l e t o s o o t h e Robson's i n j u r e d f e e l i n g s o v e r t h e A s s a y O f f i c e a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . He h a d no o b j e c t i o n t o t h e f r e e p o r t b e i n g i n c l u d e d as one o f t h e t e r m s o f u n i o n , b u t he d i d n o t want t o 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 24, 1870. 2. I b i d - Mar. 25, 1870. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d - Mar. 26, 1870. 132 1 see i t ptit i n t h e way Robson h a d . DeCosmos moved t h a t "Canada s h a l l p u r c h a s e t h e T e r r i - t o r y o f A l a s k a , i f p o s s i b l e . " DeCosmos f e l t t h a t Canada must have a compact t e r r i t o r y t o t h e n o r t h as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d t o t h e S o u t h . A l a s k a was s i m i l a r t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and was n e a r t o h e r . The U n i t e d S t a t e s was t i r e d o f h e r b a r g a i n and w o u l d p r o b a b l y s e l l i t c h e a p . Nov/ was t h e t i m e f o r Canada t o 2 buy an e x t e n d e d f r o n t i e r on t h e P a c i f i c Coast;. Robs;o>n moved a l s o t o i n c l u d e M a i n e I n t h e p u r c h a s e . These r e s o l u t i o n s were l e f t o u t i n t h e f i n a l p a s s i n g o f t h e c o m p l e t e t e r m s , M a r c h 25, •3 1870. On A p r i l 6, t h e House went i n t o c o mmittee on t h e ques- t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g t h e e x p e n s e s o f a d e l e g a t i o n t o O t t a w a . Those c h o s e n were T r u t c h , C a r r a l l , and H e l m c k e n — t w o o f t h e s e were r e - c e n t c o n v e r t s t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n w h i l e H e l m c k e n was s t i l l an op- p o n e n t . DeCosmos f e l t t h a t a p e o p l e ' s d e l e g a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o 4 be s e n t as t h i s one was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A p u b l i c m e e t i n g was h e l d r e g a r d i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n o f p o p u l a r d e l e g a t e s t o O t tawa t o f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e government. Beaven moved t h a t u n l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e government was g r a n t e d w i t h C o n f e d e r a t i o n t h e l a t t e r s h o u l d be d e l a y e d . R e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n - ment s h o u l d be a s i n e qua non o f Confederation. The p e o p l e h a d no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e l e g a t e s . DeCosmos spoke i n 1. C o n f e d e r a t i o n D e b a t e s - Op. C i t . P. 145. 2. Ibid - P. 154. 3. I b i d - P. 157. 4. I b i d - P. 159. 133 f a v o u r o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n a l s o . Humphreys s u p p o r t e d i t , d e c l a r - i n g t h a t he h a d no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e government, and he made h i s n o t o r i o u s s p e e c h w h i c h c a u s e d h i s s u s p e n s i o n f r o m t h e House f o r l i b e l l i o u s l a n g u a g e . The " C o u n c i l as a t p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d was an i n f a m o u s r a s c a l l y a r r a n g e m e n t - - a n d he w o u l d do a l l he c o u l d 1 t o b r e a k i t up." He a l s o a t t a c k e d t h e l a n d o f f i c e and t h e o f - f i c i a l s i n g e n e r a l . Walkem, i n t h e C o u n c i l , c r i t i c i z e d Humphreys's s p e e c h as i m p r o p e r and s l a n d e r o u s . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t , a l t h o u g h h i s l a n g u a g e was i n t e m p e r a t e , , i t was n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y s e r i o u s t o be q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e Hoxise. He a d m i t t e d t h e r i g h t o f t h e C o u n c i l t o q u e s t i o n t h e m a t t e r b u t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t p o l i t i c t o c o n - 2 s i d e r contempt o u t s i d e t h e House. E v e n t u a l l y Humphreys was r. 3 s u s p e n d e d by t h e G o v e r n o r , w a i t i n g H e r M a j e s t y ' s p l e a s u r e . He was r e i n s t a t e d b y t h e I m p e r i a l Government. A l o n g w i t h t h e government d e l e g a t e s ! t o Ottawa went Mr. S e e l y e as t h e s p e c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f t h e C o l o n i s t and as t h e p e o p l e s ' s ( d e l e g a t e t o s e c u r e r e s p o n s i b l e government as one o f t h e t e r m s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . The t e r m s were a g r e e d upon f i n a l l y and t h e C o l o n i s t n o t i f i e d on t h e s e v e n t h o f J u l y . They were i n most r e s p e c t s t h o s e o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , e x c e p t t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l terms were d i f f e r e n t . The p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a was t a k e n a t s i x t y t h o u s a n d and t h e s u b s i d y was t o be $35,000 and e i g h t y c e n t s p e r h e a d on a p o p u l a t i o n up t o f o u r 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - A p r i l 12, 1870. 2. I b i d - S p r i l 14, 1870. 3. I b i d - A p r i l 26, 1870. Message No. 19. 134 h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . To make up t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n money t h e Do- m i n i o n government was t o p a y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g overnment f o r a g r a n t o f l a n d a l o n g t h e r a i l w a y a t t h e r a t e o f $100,000 a y e a r . M o r e o v e r r e s p o n s i b l e government was i n c l u d e d i n v t h e t e r m t e r m s , t o become l a w when t h e i n h a b i t a n t s d e s i r e d i t , and t h e g overnment o f B r i t i s h O o l u m b i a was g i v e n a u t h o r i t y u n d e r t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s , t o amend t h e e x i s t i n g c o n - s t i t u t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , b y p r o v i d i n g t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e members s h o u l d " be e l e c t e d . The p r o v i n c e was g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f a c c e n t i n g t h e D o m i n i o n t a r i f f a t once o r o f k e e p i n g t h e B r i - 1 t i s h C o l u m b i a t a r i f f u n t i l t h e r a i l w a y was c o m p l e t e d . M e a n w h i l e DeCosmos h a d r e - e n t e r e d n ewspaper c i r c l e s , as e d i t o r and p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d , t h e s u c c e s s o r t o t h e E v e n i n g News. He d e c l a r e d h i s p o l i c y o f s u p p o r t i n g Con- 2 f e d e r a t i o n i f t h e t e r m s were s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e p e o p l e . He was r a t h e r c r i t i c a l o f t h e p r a c t i c a b l e n e s s o f t h e r a i l w a y , how- e v e r , and i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n came i n f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f c r i t i c i s m f r o m R o b s o n o f t h e C o l o n i s t . The e n t i r e sum- mer was s p e n t b y t h e two e d i t o r s i n c r i t i c i z i n g e a c h o t h e r ' s p o l i c y and a c c u s i n g e a c h o t h e r o f a p o s t a c y , when o t h e r m a t t e r s o f i n t e r e s t were l a c k i n g . DeCosmos d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o a c c u s e G o v e r n o r M u s g r a v e o f b e i n g a d e s p o t . "Though t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e s e r v a n t , G o v e r n o r Musgrave i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e m a s t e r . The o n l y l o c a l power t o r e - s i s t an abuse o f h i s d e s p o t i c sway i s t h e p r e s s and p u b l i c o p i i i - 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1871. J a n . 5. P". , 4 f f . 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - June 20, 1870. i o n . We a r e one s t e p and one o n l y , above t h e l o w e s t f o r m o f c i v i l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t — a m i l i t a r y D e s p o t i s m . Has he r e d t i c e d t h e number on t h e o f f i c i a l R o l l ? No I And a p p a r e n t l y h a s no i n t e n - t i o n t o do s o . Now i f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t o redeem G o v e r n o r Mus- g r a v e f r o m m e d i o c r i t y we hope i t w i l l be C o n f e d e r a t i o n . On t h i s 1 q u e s t i o n , however, he has w a s t e d a y e a r o f o u r l i v e s . " He a d v o c a t e d r e s p o n s i b l e government i n h i s p a p e r . ' " E v e r y b o d y i s t i r e d o f t h e p r e s e n t g o v e r n m e n t . One o b j e c t t h a t we s h a l l h a v e i n v i e w w i l l be t o u r g e an i m m e d i a t e change o f t h e s y s t e m i n o r d e r t o b r i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i n a c c o r d >. w i t h t h e Government so t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y may c h e r i s h t h e g o v e r n - ment o f t h e day a s t h e i r g overnment, and t h a t t h e government may f e e l t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o t h e p e o p l e , and n o t t h a t t h e p e o p l e a r e t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e go v e r n m e n t . To e f f e c t t h i s much d e s i r e d o b j e c t , 9 w e s h a l l be p r e p a r e d t o a c t w i t h men o f a l l s h a d e s o f o- p i n i o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f '.did i s s u e s o r p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l r e l a - t i o n s , so as t o r e d u c e t o o r d e r t h e c h a o t i c p o l i t i c a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , and t o c r e a t e a p a r t y w i t h l a r g e v i e w s b a s e d on b r o a d p r i n c i p l e s - - a p a r t y p o s s e s s i n g t h e c a p a c i t y t o g i v e f o r c e , v i g o u r , d i r e c t i o n , w e i g h t and i n f l u e n c e t o a p o p u l a r , - - a p eo- 2 p i e ' s Government." R o b s o n c r i t i c i z e d DeCosmos's i d e a o f r e s p o n s i b l e gov- ernment as p a r t y government and t h e s e e k i n g f o r o f f i c e a nd p a t - r o n a g e . He h o p e d t h a t i t w o u l d be worked o u t I n t h e f i r s t i n - s t a n c e f r e e f r o m p a r t y . I t seemed t o be t h e m i s f o r t u n e o f B r i - 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - - June 20, 1870. 2. I b i d . 3. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - S e p t . 8, 1870. t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t h e r p u b l i c men, w i t h .but few e x c e p t i o n s , c o u l d n o t see t h a t p a r t y government was a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . When t h e t e r m s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n were made p u b l i c , De- Cosmos a t once b e g a n t o a g i t a t e f o r t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n and when rumours b e g a n t o g a i n g r o u n d t h a t t h e C o u n c i l was n o t t o be w h o l l y e l e c t i v e , he b l a m e d t h e G o v e r n o r . "What c a n be t h e g r o u n d s f o r r e f u s i n g t o t h e p e o p l e t h e r i g h t t o p o s s e s s a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l t h a t s h a l l be e n t i r e l y e l e c t i v e ? I s i t a n t h i n g more o r l e s s t h a n t h e p o s s e s s o r s o f power r e t a i n - i n g and r e f u s i n g t o r e s t o r e t<& t h e p e o p l e t h e i r r i g h t f u l s h a r e 1 o f power i n t h e Government o f t h e c o u n t r y ? " DeCosmos c r i t i c i z e d t h e i l l i b e r a l f r a n c h i s e , l e t t i n g o n l y B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s v o t e a t t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n . He s u g g e s t e d 2 t h a t a l i e n s f i v e y e a r s i n t h e c o u n t r y s h o u l d be g i v e n a v o t e . He a l s o f e a r e d t h a t u n l e s s t h e members e l e c t e d t o t h e nev/ Coun- c i l w e r e i p l e d g e d t o g e t a more l i b e r a l f r a n c h i s e f o r t h e f e d e - r a l h o u s e , t h a n t h a t o f t h e D o m i n i o n government, t h a t p r a c t i - c a l l y t h e whole o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be d i s f r a n c h i s e d . A b o u t t h i s t i m e t h e c r y . a p p e a r e d i n V i c t o r i a f o r t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y t o be s i t u a t e d a t E s - q t i i m a l t . DeCosmos b a c k e d t h e p r o p o s a l , much t o t h e d i s g u s t o f Robson, who r e g r e t t e d t h e s e c t i o n a l i s m o f t h e p o l i c y and who a l - so a c c u s e d DeCosmos o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n c o n t i n u e d f o r a s h o r t t i m e b u t e v e n t u a l l y a t a p u b l i c 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J u l y 15, 1870. 2. I b i d - Aug. 13, 1870. m e e t i n g i t was d e c i d e d b y a r e s o l u t i o n o f DeCosmos's t h a t " i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h i s m e e t i n g a r a i l w a y o u g h t t o be c o n s t r u c t e d b etween V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo, as a p a r t o f t h e T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l 1 R a i l w a y . " T h i s was s e c o n d e d b y D r . T o l m i e . The q u e s t i o n o f j o i n i n g t h i s r a i l w a y t o t h e m a i n l a n d was l e f t t o t h e C a n a d i a n e n g i n e e r s who c o u l d d e c i d e on t h e b e s t w a t e r r o u t e . About t h i s t i m e , O c t o b e r , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n was p u b l i s - h e d and p r e p a r a t i o n s were made f o r e l e c t i o n s t o t h e new S i x b y N i n e C o u n c i l . DeCosmos b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d t h e p a r t i a l l i b e r t y t h a t h a d b e e n g r a n t e d . "We h a v e no t h a n k s t o o f f e r G o v e r n o r Musgrave and h i s E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s f o r t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t h a s b e e n fo r e s h a d o v z e d b y t h e I m p e r i a l a c t . We l o o k u pon t h e i r c o n d u c t i n recommending s u c h a C o n s t i t u t i o n t o t h e I m p e r i - a l Government as b e i n g i n c a p a b l e o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n . B o t h he and t h e y w i t h h o l d t h e f u l l power t h a t o u g h t t o be g r a n t e d t o t h e p e o p l e ; and t h e modicum o f l i b e r t y t h a t i s now a b o u t t o be g r a n - t e d w i l l p r o d u c e no g r a t i t u d e anywhere i n t h e c o u n t r y . Our l i - b e r t y was u n j u s t i f i a b l y t a k e n away, and i t s p a r t i a l r e s t o r a t i o n now w i l l n o t make t h e a g e n t s o f a r b i t r a r y power one w h i t more r e s p e c t e d t h a n when t h e y e x e r c i s e d d e s p o t i s m t o t h e f u l l e s t ex- t e n t . The p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e n o t s p a n i e l s t o l i c k 2 t h e h ands o f t h o s e who k i c k e d them." DeCosmos r a n i n V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t where he was n o m i n a t e d by D r . T o l m i e , and he was r e - t u r n e d b y a c c l a m a t i o n . The G o v e r n o r opened t h e House on t h e f i f t h o f J a n u a r y , 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - O c t . 27, 1870. 2. I b i d - O c t . 14, 1870. and i n h i s o p e n i n g s p e e c h recommended t h e p a s s a g e o f an a d d r e s s t o H e r M a j e s t y p r a y i n g f o r a d m i s s i o n I n t o t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n on t h e t e r m s p r o p o s e d . He t h e n d e c l a r e d t h a t he was p r e p a r e d t o i n t r o d u c e a b i l l g i v i n g a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d y . The s p e e c h 1 a l s o r e f e r r e d t o t h e t a r i f f , t a x a t i o n and t h e e s t i m a t e s . The t i m e o f t h e Hotise was f i r s t a l l o t t e d t o t h e e s t i - m ates so t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n \?as n o t b r o u g h t up u n t i l J a n u a r y 21, when t h e C o u n c i l , i n c o m m i t t e e o f t h e whole, p a s s e d an a d d r e s s t o H e r M a j e s t y a s k i n g f o r a d m i s s i o n i n t o t h e 2 D o m i n i o n o f Canada. H e l m c k e n t h e n moved a r e s o l u t i o n t o p r o - v i d e f o r c o n n e c t i n g V i c t o r i a and E s q u i m a l t w i t h t h e P a c i f i c R a i l 3 way. T h i s was c a r r i e d b y a v o t e o f e i g h t t o two. on J a n u a r y 31, t h e b i l l t o g i v e t h e power t o a l t e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o s u i t r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n - 4 ment was i n t r o d u c e d . I t was f i n a l l y p a s s e d on F e b r u a r y 6. I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e b i l l f o r a l t e r i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n o v e r t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r v o t e r s . De- Cosmos o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y t o p l a c i n g t h e q u e s t i o n on a money b a s i s as was b e i n g done. "The q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f v o t e r s i s t h e o n l y t h i n g i n t h e B i l l t h a t marks t h e s i l l y c o n s e r v a t i s m o f i t s f r a m e r s ; and t h a t b e t r a y s t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t u p i d i t y i n m e a s u r i n g o u t p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s on a mere money b a s i s , as t h o u g h h o n o u r , p a t r i o t i s m , i n t e l l i g e n c e and manhood were i n d i s s o l u b l y a l l i e d 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1871. J a n . 5. P. 3. 2. I b i d - J a n . 23. P. 17. 3. I b i d - Feb.. 10. P. 28. 4. I b i d - F e b . 6. P. 25. 1 w i t h d o l l a r s . " "Our p a r v e n u a r i s t o c r a c y , most o f whom m i g h t t a k e a mushroom f o r a c o a t o f arms, ape p o l i t i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y , when t h e whole h i s t o r y o f t h e c o u n t r y i s an u n d o u b t e d p r o o f t h a t any p r o g r e s s t h a t t h e c o u n t r v h a s e v e r made, h a s b e e n i n o p n o s i - 2 t i o n t o t h i s d e p r e c i a t i n g c l a s s . " The q u e s t i o n w h i c h c a u s e d t h e most d i s c u s s i o n and t h e one w h i c h DeCosmos o p p o s e d most s t r o n g l y was t h e p e r m a nent C i - 3 v i l L i s t B i l l . DeCosmos s a i d " t h e b i l l v i r t u a l l y p e r p e t u a t e s two c l a s s e s I n t h e c o u n t r y , s e c u r e d o f f i c i a l s on one s i d e , and 4 t h e p e o p l e d i s t r u s t e d on t h e o t h e r . " DeCosmos, s e c o n d e d b y N e l s o n , moved an amendment t o a l t e r t h e b i l l so as t o e x c l u d ® a l l b u t t h e h e a d s o f d e p a r t m e n t s ' s a l a r i e s , b u t t h i s was d e f e a t - 5 ed. A m e e t i n g o f t h e p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a was h e l d t o p r o - 6 t e s t a g a i n s t t h e B i l l a t w h i c h DeCosmos s p o k e . "The C i v i l L i s t 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - F e b . 22, 1871. 2. I b i d . - Mar. 1, 1871. 3. Laws o f B. C. - 1871, No. 160. An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r a Permanent C i v i l L i s t . Mar. 27, 1871. 1. P a y a b l e e v e r y y e a r out o f t h e gen- e r a l r e v e m t e , n o t e x c e e d i n g $78,346.25 t o d e f r a y e x p e n s e s o f v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s e n u m e r a t e d . 2. P a y a b l e f o r e a c h w h i l e t h e incum- b e n t s , a t t h e t i m e t h e a c t comes i n t o o p e r a t i o n , r e m a i n i n o f f i c e . T h e r e were 57 i t e m s and 61 p e r s o n s . I t was r e p e a l e d A p r i l 11, 1872. 4. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Mar. 15, 1871. 5. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1871. P. 46. 6. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Mar.. 31, 1871. A c t i s a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f o u r r u l e r s t o make f i f t y - o d d o f f i c i a l s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p e o p l e . I n d o i n g t h i s a g r e a t p r i n c i p l e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n h a s b e e n v i o l a t e d namely, t h e r i g h t o f t h e p e o p l e 'it© c o n t r o l t h e p u b l i c p u r s e . I n s t e a d o f v i o l a t i n g one o f t h e o l d e s t and s o u n d e s t c o n s t i t u - t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e n a t i o n i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t t h e few, i t w o u l d have b e e n more m a n l y t o h a v e p a s s e d an a c t t o p r o v i d e p e n s i o n s o r c o m p e n s a t i o n s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e c o l o n y , f o r a l l o f f i c i a l s whose s a l a r i e s m i g h t be c u t down, o r m i g h t be removed. What we want i s government b a s e d on t h e p o p u l a r w i l l - - a g o v e r n - ment t h a t w i l l r e s p e c t and m a i n t a i n i t s o f f i c i a l s a s i t s a g e n t s t o e x e c u t e i t s d e c r e e s , b u t n o t t o be s u b o r d i n a t e t o i t s p a i d s e r v a n t s . S u c h a government t h i s c o l o n y c a n n e v e r have t i l l 1 t h e Permanent C i v i l L i s t A c t s h a l l h a v e b e e n r e p e a l e d . " M e a n w h i l e i n t h e D o m i n i o n House, S i r George C a r t i e r moved t h e House i n t o c o mmittee on t h e r e s o l u t i o n s f o r t h e a d - m i s s i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n , t h e y p a s - s e d t h e House o f Commons b y a m a j o r i t y o f e i g h t e e n and t h e Sen- a t e b y a m a j o r i t y o f s e v e n t e e n . On t h e t w e n t i e t h o f J u l y , 1871 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a became p a r t o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada. C o n f e d e r a t i o n w h i c h h a d f i r s t b e e n p u t f o r w a r d i n l e g i s l a t i v e c i r c l e s as e a r l y as J u l y 22, 1866, b y DeCosmos, now J u l y 20, 1871, h a d become a f a c t . T h r o u g h o u t t h a t t i m e DeCos- mos h a d b e e n a c t i v e i n h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n 1867 and i n 1868 he h a d b r o u g h t f o r w a r d r e s o l u t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f i t i n t h e C o u n c i l . I n t h e f a l l o f 1868 he a t t e n d e d t h e Y a l e Conven- 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Mar. 31, 1871. t i o n w h i c h a d v o c a t e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n . I n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f t h a t y e a r he was d e f e a t e d b y t h e t h e f o r e i g n v o t e o f V i c t o r i a b e c a u s e o f h i s s u p p o r t o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . A g a i n i n l a t e 1869 he was e- l e c t e d t o t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f M u s g r a v e r e - v e r s e d t h e v o t e o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n , and i n 1870 p a s s e d terms i n f a v o u r o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n - - t e r m s w h i c h DeCosmos a t t e m p t e d t o a- mend so t h a t t h e y w o u l d be more f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e p r o v i n c e . F i - n a l l y i n 1871 he was a member o f t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h e n d o r s e d t h e t e r m s o f t h e d e l e g a t e s , moved an a d d r e s s t o t h e Queen, an d d e f i - n i t e l y d e c i d e d i n f a v o u r o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . I t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t , i n 1871, DeCosmos h a d accom- p l i s h e d t h e two g r e a t aims o f h i s l i f e — h e now saw h i s a d o p t e d p r o v i n c e as t h e most w e s t e r l y l i n k i n t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i - c a n F e d e r a t i o n . M o r e o v e r a t l a s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d won what was t h e r i g h t f u l due o f e v e r y B r i t i s h c o l o n y , s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . I t was t h e t a s k o f t h e a m b i t i o u s s t a t e s m a n t o work t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e g r e a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 142 - C h a p t e r V - DeCosmos i n t h e House o f Commons. A t t h e end o f t h e summer o f 1871 t h e new L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , T r u t c h , who h a d b e e n one o f t h e d e l e g a t e s a t Ottawa, r e t u r n e d f r o m E n g l a n d , and s o o n a f t e r i s s u e d w r i t s f o r t h e e l e c - t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . DeCosmos a t once announced h i s i n t e n t i o n o f r u n n i n g f o r t h e House f o r V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t , w h i c h he h a d r e p r e s e n t e d s i n c e 1869. He was n o m i n a t e d b y D r . T o l m i e as a " f i t and p r o p e r p e r - son t o s e r v e i n t h e A s s e m b l y s i n c e t h e y were now t o h a v e an op- 1 p o r t u n i t y t o g o v e r n t h e m s e l v e s . " "He h a d l a b o u r e d h a r d f o r n e a r l y f o u r t e e n y e a r s t o s e c u r e t h e r e f o r m s we now e n j o y , w i t h - o u t s e e k i n g f o r o f f i c e , w i t h o u t r e m u n e r a t i o n , and w i t h o u t any a m b i t i o n , b u t s i m p l y f r o m a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d o i n g h i s d u t v t o 2 the c o u n t r y . " He was e l e c t e d as s e n i o r member f o r t h i s d i s - t r i c t . He a l s o r a n f o r t h e f e d e r a l House as member f o r V i c - t o r i a D i s t r i c t . On e l e c t i o n day he made t h e c u s t o m a r y s p e e c h . "He w i s h e d t o say, t h a t were i t n o t f o r t h e amount o f abuse h e a p e d upon him, and t h e o p p o s i t i o n , o f f e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d r i v e h i m i n t o r e t i r e m e n t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y he w o u l d n o t have b e e n a c a n d i d a t e t o - d a y . He h a d no a m b i t i o n t o go t o Canada,-- 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - O c t . 16, 1871. 2. I b i d - O c t . 23, 1871. n o t i n t h e l e a s t — i t w o u l d n e v e r p u t a dime i n h i s p o c k e t . I f he s h o u l d go t h e r e , i t w o u l d he t o e n d e a v o u r t o s e r v e t h e i n t e - r e s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , he d i d n o t i n t e n d t o go t h e r e t o s e r v e h i s own. He c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f as much a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n as i f he were b o r n i n t h e c o u n t r y ; and one o f h i s f i r s t d u t i e s w o u l d be t o a d vance t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e n e x t t o 1 l o o k t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e D o m i n i o n a t l a r g e . " He f e l t t h a t as a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n he was d u t y bound t o s u p p o r t t h e . g o v e r n - ment w h i c h h a d done so much t o s e c u r e t h e p r o v i n c e ' s a d m i s s i o n . T h i s , however, was n o t a p l e d g e as t o what he w o u l d do i n t h e f u t u r e i f t h e o p p o s i t i o n showed i t s e l f w i l l i n g t o a b i d e b y t h e b a r g a i n , "and s h o u l d new p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s a r i s e , no d o u b t t h e r e w o u l d be a d i v i s i o n i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n h e r e , i n t h e same way a s 2 i n t h e o t h e r P r o v i n c e s . " DeCosmos was a l s o e l e c t e d t o t h e F e d e r a l H o u s e. I t c a n be s e e n t h a t he was n o t n e g l e c t i n g any o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o r d u t i e s w h i c h he h a d a d v o c a t e d o r t a k e n up s i n c e he e n t e r e d t h e c o l o n y . He was s t i l l r u n n i n g a p a p e r and t h u s m o u l d i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . He was a member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e w h i c h f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e was a t t e m p t i n g t o work u n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e g o v ernment. He was a member o f t h e D o m i n i o n House where he was t o r e p r e s e n t t h e P r o v i n c e i n i t s f i r s t a t t e m p t t o a c t as a p a r t o f t h e g r e a t f e d e r a t i o n . F rom t h e f i r s t DeCosmos o p p o s e d T r u t c h * s c h o i c e o f M c C r e i g h t as P r e m i e r . The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r h a d a p p o i n t e d 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Nov. 25, 1871. 2. I b i d . M c C r e i g h t as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l i n A u g u s t , 1871, t o r e p l a c e A l - 1 s t o n . M c C r e i g h t r a n i n V i c t o r i a C i t y and was e l e c t e d . Then, November 14, 1871, t h e new m i n i s t r y was f o r m e d . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t i f M c C r e i g h t was A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e l e c - t i o n t h e n t h e r e was no n e e d f o r h i m t o r e s i g n and s e e k r e - e l e c - '3 ' - t i o n . He f e l t , however, t h a t he h a d b e e n m e r e l y a c t i n g A t t o r - n e y - G e n e r a l u n t i l t h e new m i n i s t r y was f o r m e d . I f t h i s was t r u e , he s h o u l d h a v e r e s i g n e d on t h e b r o a d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i n - c i p l e o f a l l o w i n g t h e p e o p l e t o s a y what e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s s h o u l d s i t i n t h e A s s e m b l y . He s a i d , "we v i e w t h e n o n - r e s i g n a - t i o n o f M c C r e i g h t - - t h e way i n w h i c h he has a v o i d e d r e - e l e c t i o n as a s i g n o f weakness and a v i o l a t i o n o f a w e l l - k n o w n c o n s t i t u - 4 t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . " O u t s i d e o f t h e l e g a l a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t i o n i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t M c C r e i g h t was c h o s e n as t h e f i r s t P r e m i e r u n d e r r e s p o n s i b l e government s i n c e he h a d a l w a y s b e e n an oppon- e n t o f r e s p o n s i b l e government f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on t h e g r o u n d t h a t i t was u n s u i t a b l e t o a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . P r o v i n c e " t o r a l l y r o u n d t h e i r o l d l e a d e r s — t h e men who h a v e y e a r a f t e r y e a r f o u g h t t h e i r b a t t l e s and have i n no i n s t a n c e de- s e r t e d t h e p o p u l a r c a u s e , To t a k e any o t h e r c o u r s e i s t o c o n - 1. Government G a z e t t e - Aug. 26, 1871. P. 2. 2 DeCosmos i s s u e d a b a t t l e c r y t o t h e L i b e r a l s o f t h e 3. 2. Laws o f B. C. I b i d Nov. 14, 1871. P. 1. A p p o i n t m e n t s o f C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and C o m missio- n e r o f L a n ds and Works. Good, t h e I m p e r i a l Government a p p o i n t e£, h a d b e e n C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y u n t i l t h e n . 1871. No. 147. An A c t t o amend and a l t e r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s C o l o - ny. F e b . 13, 1871. V i c t o r i a , 34. 4. D a i l y S t a n d a r d Nov. 17, 1871. v i c t t h e m s e l v e s o f t r e a s o n t o manhood, t r e a s o n t o t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y , t h a t y e a r b y y e a r , f o r f o u r t e e n y e a r s h a v e u r g e d R e s p o n - s i b l e Government, U n i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e s , and C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n . I t i s no t r e a s o n , no p u b l i c wrong t o i g n o r e t h e 1 n o m i n e e s o f G o v e r n o r T r u t c h . " He b e g g e d t h e p a r t y t o make no a l l i a n c e w i t h M c C r e i g h t ' s g o v e r n m e n t . B e c a u s e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n a r o u s e d , M c C r e i g h t a t t e m - t e d t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r h i s g o v e r n m e n t . I n s t e a d o f c a l l i n g a m e e t i n g o f t h e p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a t o a u t h o r i z e h i s p r o c e e d i n g s , he c a l l e d a m e e t i n g o f t h e e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e , an a c t i o n w h i c h gave DeCosmos an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r i d i c u l e h i m f o r s u b s t i t u t i n g a c o m m i t t e e f o r e l e c t i o n p u r p o s e s f o r t h e f r e e o p i n i o n o f t h e 2 p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . DeCosmos gave t h e m i n i s t r y i t s due I n t h e programme i t o u t l i n e d f o r t h e coming s e s s i o n a n d c o n g r a t u l a t e d them on t h e p r o g r e s s i t showed and t h e r e s p e c t f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n . He c o u l d n o t , however, f o r b e a r f r o m m a k i n g one t h r u s t . "To a s k t h e c o u n t r y t o j u d g e them b y t h e m e a s u r e s t h a t o t h e r men have m a t u r e d and w h i c h t h e y have a p p r o p r i a t e d , - - w o u l d be l i k e a s k i n g one t o r e c e i v e a n o t o r i o u s t h i e f as a g e n t l e m a n , s i m p l y b e c a u s e he p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f i n t h e f i n e d r e s s c l o t h e s o f a c i t i z e n f r o m 3 whom he h a d s t o l e n them." He d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o c r i t i c i z e t h e m i n i s t r y and t h e G o v e r n o r f o r t h e i r c h o i c e o f S e n a t o r s f o r t h e D o m i n i o n . " A t p r e - 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Nov. 21, 1871. 2. I b i d - - Nov. 23, 1871. 3. I b i d - J a n . 16, 1872. 146 s e n t we may j u s t l y s a y t h a t we w i l l n o t h a v e a s i n g l e s e n a t o r on t h e s i d e o f t h e p e o p l e , — n o t a s i n g l e one who c a n p o i n t t h e p e o p l e t o h i s p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d and say, t h e r e a r e t h e m e a s u r e s I l a b o u r e d f o r and won f o r y o n , and 1 a c c e p t t h e s e n a t o r s h i p as y o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and as my r e w a r d . The r e s u l t i s due n o t t o t h e O t t a w a c a b i n e t , b u t t o G o v e r n o r T r u t c h and h i s m i n i s t r y , and 1 t h e l a t t e r must be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e . " DeCosmos was c r i t i c i z e d b y t h e C o l o n i s t f o r h i s oppo- s i t i o n t o t h e government and i t c a l l e d h i m t h e P o l i t i c a l Chame- l e o n b e c a u s e he h a d o p p o s e d a l l g o v e r n m e n t s f r o m G o v e r n o r Doug- l a s ' s t o M c C r e i g h t ' s . The S t a n d a r d r e p l i e d , " b u t i t f a i l e d t o t e l l t h e f a c t , t h a t t h o s e Governments were n o t o p p o s e d f o r op- p o s i t i o n ' s s a k e , b u t t o g e t s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e p e o p l e — t o s e c u r e R e s p o n s i b l e Government, U n i o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h C a nada--and a v a s t num- b e r o f o t h e r m e a s u r e s — a n d i f any man c a n h a v e a n y s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s e e i n g t h e m e a s u r e s t h a t he was t h e f i r s t i n t h e P r o v i n c e t o 2 a d v o c a t e , t h e n Mr. DeCosmos h a s t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n . " As t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a p p r o a c h e d , DeCos- mos t u r n e d h i s p l e a d i n g away f r o m t h e p e o p l e t o w a r d t h e e l e c t e d members, b e g g i n g them n o t t o s u p p o r t M c C r e i g h t ' s g o v e r n m e n t . "We c a n n o t t h i n k t h a t p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y h a s y e t sunk so low, 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - D e c . 6, 1871. The S e n a t o r s were C a r r a l l , who s u p p o r t e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n b u t was a- g a i n s t r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t , C o r n w a l l , and M a c d o n a l d , a t one t i m e Mayor o f V i c - t o r i a and a p p o i n t e d a member o f t h e L e g - i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1867. 2.- I b i d - J a n . 18, 1872. n o r t h a t members a r e so l o s t t o a s e n s e o f "independence, as t o s u p p o r t a m i n i s t r y c r e a t e d c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t o f R e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t — a n d e x i s t i n g o n l y i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m b y an i n d e - 1 f e n s i b l e p o l i t i c a l t r i c k . " DeCosmos was p r e s e n t f o r o n l y a few d a y s o f t h e A s - sembly b e f o r e he l e f t f o r Ottawa t o a t t e n d t h e D o m i n i o n House.- He was c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h u s d e s e r t i n g h i s own p r o v i n c e a t a c r i - t i c a l t i m e , b u t DeCosmos h a d made t h e d e c i s i o n w h i c h he was t o f o l l o w c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h i s c a r e e r . He c h o s e t h e l a r g e r f i e l d a l w a y s as more i m p o r t a n t and more wor- t h y o f h i s e f f o r t s t h a n t h e n a r r o w e r . . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f he h a d s t a y e d i n V i c t o r i a t h e M c C r e i g h t g o vernment m i g h t h ave b e e n d e f e a t e d t h a t s e s s i o n . " H i s a b s e n c e w i l l d o u b t l e s s be a s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n . W h a tever may be s a i d o f h i s p o l i t i c s , he i s a man o f p a r t s , t h e m a i n s t a y o f h i s p a r - 2 t y , and t h e o n l y r e a l l y f o r m i d a b l e o p p o n ent o f t h e m i n i s t r y . " The S t a n d a r d a l s o gave h i s r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g f o r Ot- tawa. "As v e r y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s w i l l come b e f o r e t h e D o m i n i o n P a r l i a m e n t i n w h i c h t h i s p r o v i n c e h a s a deep i n t e r e s t , i t was o f g r e a t moment t h a t Mr. DeCosmos s h o u l d be e a r l y a t h i s p o s t , t o make h i m s e l f t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a l l t h e i r d e t a i l s , and t h e r e b y be t h e b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o d i s c h a r g e t h e h i g h and r e s - 3 p o n s i b l e d u t i e s d e v o l v i n g upon him." The p r i n c i p a l • q u e s t i o n a t Ottawa w h i c h v i t a l l y i n t e - 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J a n . 22., 1872. 2. I b i d - Feb* 2:6,, 1872. 3. I b i d - F e b . 17, 1872. r e s t e d ^ t h e P r o v i n c e was t h a t o f t h e r a i l w a y . As e a r l y as A p r i l 1871, t h e t e r m i n u s h a d b e e n m e n t i o n e d as E s q u i m a l t on t h e P a c i - 1 f i c s i d e , a l t h o u g h n o t h i n g d e f i n i t e h a d b e e n d e c i d e d . I t was b e c a u s e o f t h i s r a i l w a y q u e s t i o n t h a t DeCosmos l e f t so s u d d e n l y 2 f o r O t t a w a . On h i s a r r i v a l a t Ottawa t h e r e , were o f c o u r s e t h e u s u a l comments on a new member. The Ottawa F r e e P r e s s r e m a r k e d t h a t "Mr. DeCosmos h a s e v e r y a p p e a r a n c e o f h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r c e , and o f g r e a t f i r m n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r , w i t h o u t any o f t h a t a c e r b i t y o f manner, o r u n r e a s o n a b l e : d o g gedness w h i c h c a u s e s 3 t h o s e e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t i e s t o become n o x i o u s . " As a p r i v a t e member a t Ottawa, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , De- Cosmos n a t u r a l l y d i d n o t a t t r a c t much a t t e n t i o n , a l t h o u g h he was c o m p l i m e n t e d on h i s f i r s t s p e e c h r e g a r d i n g t h e G e o l o g i c a l 4 S u r v e y . He was a c t i v e i n a s k i n g many q u e s t i o n s a b o u t d i f f e r - e n t m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e g a r d i n g t h e t a r i f f , he d i d n o t n e g l e c t t o p o i n t o u t t h e p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e . I t h a d a d o p t e d t h e C a n a d i a n t a r i f f a l t h o u g h i t was g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f k e e p i n g i t s own u n t i l t h e r a i l w a y was b u i l t . . "Mr. DeCosmos e x p l a i n e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n o t w i t h - s t a n d i n g t h a t i t h a d a d o p t e d t h e C a n a d i a n Tariff,•••was i n f a v o u r o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r m a n u f a c t u r e s and a g r i c u l t u r e . The c o l o n y was young, i t r e q u i r e d n u r s i n g , f o r i t s f a r m e r s were p o o r , and 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - A p r i l 26, 1871. May 12, 1871. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 30, 1872. 3. I b i d - A p r i l 27, 1872. 4. I b i d - May 15, 1872. t h e i r c o u n t r y was r u g g e d and t h e y were n o t a b l e t o compete w i t h t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r e p u b l i c . What t h e y wan- t e d was t o grow t h e i r p r o d u c e i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y , and keep 1 t h e i r money i n t h e i r own p o c k e t s . " The v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y came up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n May. DeCosmos i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d e b a t e a s k e d what t h e D o m i n i o n Government i n t e n d e d t o do a- 2 b o u t t h e t e r m i n u s . L a n g e v i n , t h e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works, r e - p l i e d t h a t i f t h e r o u t e t o E s q u i m a l t were p r a c t i c a b l e t h e Domin- i o n Government i n t e n d e d t o u s e t h a t as t h e t e r m i n u s . I n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s s p e e c h , DeCosmos a d v o c a t e d t h a t i n any c i r c u m - s t a n c e s t h e r a i l w a y must be e x t e n d e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t o c o n - n e c t Hanaimo and V i c t o r i a . L a n g e v i n i n h i s r e p l y s a i d t h a t i n any c a s e i f t h e r a i l w a y was c a r r i e d t o B u r r a r d I n l e t "a f e r r y 3 w i l l be c a r r i e d t o E s q u i m a l t as p a r t o f t h e r a i l w a y . " DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t he was i n f a v o u r o f more t h a n one company b u i l d i n g t h e r a i l w a y . He a l s o f e l t t h a t " t h e peo- p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d s t a n d a l o o f u n l e s s s u f f i c i e n t a- mount o f s t o c k were a l l o t t e d t o them t o g i v e them a v o t e i n t h e management as i t was f e a r e d t h a t o t h e r w i s e a few i n d i v i d u a l s 4 m i g h t g e t c o n t r o l and f r e e z e o u t t h e s m a l l e s t s u b s c r i b e r s . " He c r i t i c i z e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n s e v e r e l y f o r t h e i r s t a n d . "What he h e a r d f r o m t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o n l y c o n f i r m e d a b e l i e f t h a t he 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - May 16, 1872. 2. I b i d - May 28, 1872. 3. I b i d — June 21, 1872. Q u o t e d f r o m t h e T o r o n t o M a i l . 4. I b i d - June 29, 1872. Q u o t e d I b i d . h a d begun t o f o r m t h a t h o n o u r a b l e g e n t l e m e n on t h a t s i d e m i s - t o o k p a r t y f o r p a t r i o t i s m o r e l s e were g r e a t l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e mode o f c o n s t r u c t i n g r a i l w a y s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . He c o n s i d e r e d i t h i s i n t e r e s t and h i s d u t y , n o t o n l y as a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n b u t a s a C a n a d i a n , t o s u s t a i n t h e Government m e a s u r e , and t o 1 v o t e f o r i t f i r s t , l a s t and a l l t h e t i m e . " M e a n w h i l e i n V i c t o r i a , p r e p a r a t i o n s were b e i n g made f o r t h e r e g u l a r e l e c t i o n s t o t h e D o m i n i o n House. The f a c t t h a t DeCosmos was s t i l l a b s e n t i n Ottawa meant t h a t h i s s u p p o r t e r s h a d t o be a c t i v e i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e h i s r e - e l e c t i o n . " i n t h e a b s e n c e o f Mr. DeCosmos i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t h i s f r i e n d s and s u p p o r t e r s s h o u l d be v i g i l a n t , and mot a l l o w o t h e r g e n t l e m e n , however d e s e r v i n g t h e y may be o f y o u r f a v o u r , t o t a k e f r o m h i m h i s w e l l - e a r n e d l a u r e l s . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t h a t y o u c a n s e - l e c t f r o m t h i s community a g e n t l e m a n more c o m p e t e n t t o se3?ve you, o r one more f a i t h f u l t o t h e t r u s t c o n f i d e d i n h i m t h a n Mr. 2 DeCosmos." The S t a n d a r d t h e n spoke o f h i s work i n Ottawa and showed how t h a t e n t i t l e d h i m t o be r e - e l e c t e d . I m m e d i a t e l y upon DeCosmos's r e t u r n i n l a t e A u g u s t , he h e l d a m e e t i n g t o p l a c e b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e a resume o f t h e p a s t p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e s s i o n . He e m p h a s i z e d t h e d o l l a r and c e n t c h a r - a c t e r o f t h e u n i o n , m e n t i o n e d t h e t a r i f f q u e s t i o n , c o n g r a t u l a - t e d S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d on t h e W a s h i n g t o n T r e a t y , e s t a b l i s h - i n g t h e p r a c t i c e o f p e a c e f u l a r b i t r a t i o n between t h e A n g l o - S a x - on r a c e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e a r b i t r a t i o n o f t h e sword. He d e c l a r e d 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - June 22, 1872. 2. I b i d - J u l y 1, 1872. h i s f u l l f a i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l i t y o f t h e O t t a w a c a b i n e t and i t s f r e e d o m f r o m c o r r u p t i o n . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f d u a l r e p r e s e n t a i t i o n he d e c l a r e d t h a t i f he c o u l d n o t f i l l two s e a t s he w o u l d r e s i g n one. The q u e s t i o n w h i c h he d i s c u s s e d most f u l l y was o f c o u r s e t h a t o f t h e r a i l w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e t e r m i n u s . " L i k e most o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y , V i c t o r i a h a s n o t much a g r i - c u l t u r a l l a n d o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r o u n d i t ; she h a s two h a r - b o u r s , a s e t t l e d p o p u l a t i o n , and a good g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , b e y o n d t h a t h e r i n d u s t r y i s a r t i f i c i a l , and b e i n g so, he t o o k i t t o be t h e i r d u t y t o m a i n t a i n h e r supremacy. F o r s e v e n y e a r s he f o u g h t f o r t h e U n i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e s , b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d i t t e n d e d t o t h i s . I n 1867 he s a i d one f i g h t more, V i c t o r i a w o u l d have t o f i g h t t o g e t t h e supremacy; t h a t was t o s e c u r e t h e t e r - m i n u s o f t h e r a i l w a y . He was p r e p a r e d t o s a y t h e members d i d w e l l , b u t t h e t e r m i n u s h a d n o t b e e n d e c i d e d upon; he w i s h e d t o see t h i s p l a c e t h e c e n t r e , and as t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n i n P a r - l i a m e n t on t h e E a s t e r n t e r m i n u s he r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e W e s t e r n t e r m i n u s and s e c u r e d f r o m t h e mouth o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works t h e open c o n f e s s i o n , t h a t E s q u i m a l t s h o u l d be t h e t e r m i n u s . I t t o o k t i m e , b u t t h e p o i n t was o b t a i n e d , and he be- l i e v e d w o u l d n e v e r be v i o l a t e d . ' I f i t c a n be b r o u g h t by t h e J o h n s t o n ' s S t r a i t s , y e s ! I f i t c o u l d n o t , b u t b y means o f a f e r r y f r o m B u r r a r d I n l e t t o Nanaimo, t h e answer was y e s ! Would y o u make t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d l i n e a p a r t o f t h e r a i l w a y ? Yes!' He b e l i e v e d f r o m what he knew t h e r a i l w a y w i l l be b r o u g h t b y t h e way o f J o h n s t o n ' s S t r a i t s , i t i s t h e o n l y way i t c a n compete 1 s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n l i n e . " 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Aug. 23, 1872. I n t h e e l e c t i o n H I n c k s , a member o f t h e C a b i n e t a t Ottawa, r a n i n t h e Nanaimo r i d i n g . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e h i s e l e c t i o n , DeCosmos h i m s e l f went t o Nanaimo on n o m i n a t i o n d a y . He a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r r e p r e - 1 s e n t a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r i d i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s h i s a b s e n c e i n V i c t o r i a on n o m i n a t i o n day and t h e f e e l i n g a r o u s e d b e c a u s e o f d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b o t h h e l p e d t o l o w e r h i s m a j o r i t y and Na- t h a n who h a d b e e n j u n i o r member f o r t h e d i s t r i c t i n t h e l a s t e l e c t i o n was a b l e t o l e a d t h e p o l l s w i t h DeCosmos r u n n i n g h i m a c l o s e s e c o n d w i t h o n l y f o u r v o t e s l e s s . The S t a n d a r d s a i d , " i t made no d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r o r n o t he was a t t h e h e a d o f t h e p o l l , as f o u r v o t e s w i l l n o t p u t b r a i n s i n a man's head, noi? t a k e away a man's b r a i n s , i f he h a s any. B u t when he w o u l d a- g a i n be i n Ottawa, i f h i s h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h s p a r e d him, i t w o u l d be f o u n d o u t who would be a t t h e h e a d o f t h e p o l l on t h e 2 f l o o r o f t h e House o f Commons." The s e c o n d s e s s i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y was b e g u n i n December. A l t h o u g h t h e M c C r e i g h t g o v e r n m e n t h a d b e e n a b l e t o c a r r y on t h r o u g h t h e m e a s u r e s t h e y h a d p a s s e d , s u c h as t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n t a r i f f and t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e r o a d t o l l s , and t h r o u g h a d e s i r e t o p r e v e n t a new e l e c t i o n , i t h a d n e v e r b e e n a c c e p t e d w h o l e h e a r t e d l y b y t h e members b e c a u s e o f i t s r e f u s a l t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e s s i o n a l i n d e m n i t y , and i t s r e - v i v a l o f t h e I s l a n d v e r s i i s t h e M a i n l a n d c r y t h r o u g h i t s a p p o i n t ments t o t h e C a b i n e t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f a s t r o n g l e a d e r 1 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Aug. 28, 1872. 2. I b i d - S e p t . 4, 1872. 153 h a d b e e n a t t h e h e a d o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n , t h e Government m i g h t have b e e n o v e r t h r o w n i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . T h e y had, however, managed t o l a s t t h r o u g h i t , b u t a l m o s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n Humphreys moved a v o t e o f want o f c o n f i d e n c e 1 w h i c h p a s s e d b y a m a j o r i t y o f one. I n a few d a y s M c C r e i g h t r e - ' 2 s i g n e d . DeCosmos s u c c e e d e d h i m as P r e m i e r o f t h e P r o v i n c e and f o r m e d a c o a l i t i o n g o v ernment w i t h Walkem, a l a t e member o f t h e M c C r e i g h t C a b i n e t . He was c r i t i c i z e d f o r j o i n i n g hands w i t h t h e man he h a d h e l p e d t o p u t o u t o f o f f i c e . "The C o l o n i s t t a k e s Mr. DeCosmos t o t a s k f o r n o t s e l e c t i n g t h e m i n i s t r y e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m t h e a c c i d e n t a l m a j o r i t y - - u n i t e d i n n o t h i n g b u t a d e s i r e t o b r e a k up a m i n i s t r y . Mr. DeCosmos i s t o be c o n g r a t u l a t e d u pon h a v i n g t a k e n a b r o a d e r v i e w o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . . To have s e l e c t e d a c a b i n e t f r o m a c l i q u e f o r m i n g an a c t u a l m i n o r i t y o f t h e mem- b e r s o f t h e House, would h a v e i n s u r e d i t s s p e e d y d e s t r u c t i o n . I f t h e r e i s one o p i n i o n u pon w h i c h e v e r y b o d y i s a g r e e d , i t i s 3 t h a t we do n o t want a n o t h e r weak government." To f o r m h i s C a b i n e t , DeCosmos h a d c h o s e n Walkem, a member o f M c C r e i g h t ' s C a b i n e t , and B e a v e n who v o t e d f o r Mc- C r e i g h t . The m a j o r i t y o f i t was c h o s e n , however, f r o m t h e o t h e r s i d e , h i m s e l f , A s h and A r m s t r o n g . Walkem h a d a l w a y s b e e n a sup- p o r t e r o f DeCosmos, i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , on t h e q u e s t i o n s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n and R e s p o n s i b l e Government. He was a l s o p r o - 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . S e s s i o n 1872-1873. Dec. 19, 1872. 2. I b i d - Dec. 23, 1872. 3. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J a n . 3, 1873. 154 b a b l y t h e most I n f l u e n t i a l member f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o - v i n c e . B e a v e n was a member f o r V i c t o r i a C i t y w h i c h o f c o u r s e must be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e C a b i n e t . A s h h a d l o n g s u p p o r t e d De- Cosmos, f r o m 1866, when t h e famous l o n g s p e e c h was made. Arm- s t r o n g was a member f o r t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d w h i c h must a l s o be r e p r e s e n t e d . How t e m p o r a r y t h e a l i g n m e n t on t h e v o t e o f want o f c o n f i d e n c e was may be s e e n b y t h e f a c t t h a t once t h e C a b i n e t was f o r m e d t h e same men who h a d v o t e d a g a i n s t M c C r e i g h t now j o i n e d w i t h him t o oppose DeCosmos. Humphreys and R o b s o n a r e examples o f t h i s . They p r o b a b l y f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n o v e r - l o o k e d i n t h e c h o i c e o f m i n i s t e r s , b u t R o b s o n t h r o u g h h i s e n m i t y w i t h DeCosmos c o u l d n o t h a v e e x p e c t e d t o h a v e b e e n c h o s e n , w h i l e - Humphreys, t h o u g h a t ower o f s t r e n g t h i n o p p o s i t i o n , was f e l t 1 b y DeCosmos t o be t o o h o t h e a d e d t o be i n t h e C a b i n e t . DeCosmos announced h i s p o l i c y t o t h e A s s e m b l y i n an o p e n i n g s p e e c h . "As f a r as t h e i r p o l i c y was c o n c e r n e d , t h e y h o p e d t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e and l o y a l , a t t h e same t i m e t h e y h o p e d t o i n t r o d u c e and a c c e p t s u c h l i b e r a l and p r o g r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s as w i l l p l a c e t h e P r o v i n c e i n t h e v a n o f p r o g r e s s and a d v a n c e - ment. R e t r e n c h m e n t i n t h e s t a f f o f t h e p u b l i c o f f i c e r s w o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d , b u t n o t t o i m p a i r t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p u b l i c 1 s e r v i c e . " The d e f i n i t e programme i n c l u d e d a m easure t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e payment o f m a g i s t r a t e s b y t h e s y s t e m o f f e e s , a c o n t r a c t s y s t e m f o r p u b l i c works, m i n e r a l and l a n d l a w s , and p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e ' d i s p o s a l o f t h e r a i l w a y l a n d s . T h e r e was t o be an en- 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J a n . 7, 1873. 155 c o u r a g e m e n t o f i m m i g r a t i o n and an a t t e m p t t o b u i l d t h e g r a v i n g c o c k . An a d d i t i o n a l p o r t f o l i o was t o be c r e a t e d w i t h o u t e x t r a e xpense, and i n d e m n i t y was t o be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e members. The r o a d t a x a c t was t o be e x t e n d e d t o t h e m a i n l a n d . An e l e c t i o n b a l l o t b i l l , a w i l d l a n d t a x a c t , a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m and d i s c u s s i o n on t h e supreme c o u r t were t o be i n t r o d u c e d . Humphre7/s a c c u s e d DeCosmos o f d i s o b e y i n g t h e p r i n c i - p l e s o f r e s p o n s i b l e government b e c a u s e n e i t h e r he n o r Walkem n o r A r m s t r o n g were r e s i g n i n g and s e e k i n g r e - e l e c t i o n . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d t h a t n e i t h e r he n o r A r m s t r o n g were r e c e i v i n g money f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and were n o t t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t o s eek r e - e l e c - ' 1 t i o n , w h i l e Walkem h a d m e r e l y c h a n g e d h i s p o r t f o l i o . As DeCosmos was a l s o member f o r t h e D o m i n i o n House, i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r him t o l e a v e f o r t h e s e s s i o n a t O t t a w a be- f o r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e s s i o n a t V i c t o r i a . A l t h o u g h he was n o t p r e s e n t f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e s s i o n h i s p o l i c y o f r e t r e n c h m e n t was f a i t h f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t , t h i r t y o r f o r t y o f f i - c i a l s b e i n g d i s m i s s e d , t h e b a l l o t a c t was p a s s e d and i n . e v e r y way l i b e r a l m e a s u r e s were c a r r i e d o u t . I t m i g h t i n d e e d be s a i d t h a t w i t h t h i s Government r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t i n i t s f u l l e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e , became p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i f e . U n t i l t h e n T r u t c h , t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , h a d b e e n a c c u s t o m e d t o s i t i n t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l t o g i v e h i s a d v i c e t o t h e m i n i s t e r s . As 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J a n . 30, 1873. DeCosmos was P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o u n c i l , w i t h o u t s a l a r y , w h i l e A r m s t r o n g was m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o u n t i l l a t ' e r , when he became M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e and A g r i c u l t u r e , when he r e s i g n e d and s o u g h t r © r © l e c t i o n . Walkem was now A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . most o f t h e men i n M c C r e i g h t ' s c a b i n e t were i m p r a c t i c a l and i n - e x p e r i e n c e d i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t h i s a d v i c e was u s e f u l , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p r i n c i p l e was wrong.- When t h e new C a b i n e t met T r u t c h was p r e s e n t a t t h e t i m e , and a f t e r q u i t e a few m i n u t e s o f d e s u l t o r y c o n v e r s a t i o n , he i n h i s u s u a l a b r u p t manner, sug- g e s t e d t h a t t h e y g e t down t o b u s i n e s s . One c a n i m a g i n e h i s s u r p r i s e when he was p o l i t e l y b u t f i r m l y t o l d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no b u s i n e s s u n t i l he withdrew.- Whether h i s p r e s e n c e i n t h e m e e t i n g s h a d b e e n h e l p f u l o r n o t , f r o m t h i s i n c i d e n t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was p o l i t i c a l l y s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r a c - 1 t i c e s o f t h e M o t h e r C o u n t r y . The f a c t t h a t DeCosmos h a d f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e s - p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s shown b y t h e a t t e n - t i o n t h e change o f government a t t r a c t e d as f a r s o u t h as San F r a n c i s c o and as f a r e a s t as O t t a w a . A San F r a n c i s c o l e t t e r de clar©d t h a t more r e f o r m was n e e d e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and De- Cosmos was t h e m a n t o do i t . "He p o s s e s s e s t h e e n t i r e c o n f i - d ence o f t h e p e o p l e , and t h i s i s a power t h a t w i l l e n a b l e him t o p u s h a s i d e a l l p e t t y p o l i t i c i a n s and g i v e t h e c o u n t r y a 2 g r a n d move t o t h e f r o n t . " I n Ottawa t h e government was known as " t h e DeCosmos, o r as i t i s more commonly c a l l e d , t h e ' P e o p l e 3 Government.'" I n O t t a w a DeCosmos r e t u r n e d t o t h e e v e r - p r e s s i n g ques t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y t e r m i n u s . He a s k e d S i r - J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d 1. G o s n e l l , R. E . - S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s , V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a , B. C. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1913. P. 15, F o o t n o t e No. 1. 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - A p r i l 9, 1873. 3. I b i d - May 12, 1873. Q u o t e d f r o m O ttawa F r e e P r e s s . 157 a b o u t t h i s and r e c e i v e d i n answer t h a t "Mr. L a n g e v i n ' s p l e d g e t h a t E s q u i m a l t s h o u l d be t h e t e r m i n u s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c 1 R a i l r o a d , w o u l d be r i g i d l y c a r r i e d o u t . " A member f r o m M a n i t o b a b r o u g h t up t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f I n d i a n s t h e r e . He spoke o f t h e f e a r o f m a s s a c r e and o f t h e b a d e f f e c t s i t would h a v e on i m m i g r a t i o n , and he r e - l a t e d t h e q u e s t i o n t o a n n e x a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . DeCos- mos i n s p e a k i n g t o t h e m o t i o n made a s p e e c h r e m i n i s c e n t o f Howe. "He b e l i e v e d i t t o be t h e d u t y o f e v e r y l o y a l s u b j e c t t o p r o - mote t h e u n i t y and i n t e g r i t y o f so m a g n i f i c e n t an i n h e r i t a n c e . He a b h o r r e d t h e i d e a o f a n n e x a t i o n . He saw t h e p e o p l e o f a l l c a l l i n g s and c l a s s e s p r o s p e r i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y and t h e u n a n i - mous d e s i r e , he t r u s t e d o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e D o m i n i o n was t o l i v e and d i e Canadians.' Canada was b u t a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . I n f a c e o f t h i s , so f a r as he knew, t h e f e e l i n g o f young Canada was I n f a v o u r o f a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e , and f a i l i n g i n t h i s , a p o s i t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , n o t o f a n n e x a t i o n , f o r t h a t he d e s p i s e d , as t h e t e r m i m p l i e d a p o s i t i o n o f i n f e r i o r i t y . I n C o n f e d e r a t e d B r i t a i n Canada s h o u l d t a k e a 2 p o s i t i o n s e c o n d o n l y t o E n g l a n d h e r s e l f . " T h i s s p e e c h was commented upon I n Ottawa.""One o f y o u r c i t y m e m b e r s — M r . DeCos- m o s — i s a c q u i r i n g some n o t o r i e t y b y h i s s p e e c h on u n i t i n g Cana- da w i t h t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, o r f a i l i n g i n t h a t , t o make Canada 3 an i n d e p e n d e n t and s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . " 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - A p r i l 29, 1873. House o f Commons, A p r i l 4. 2. I b i d - A p r i l 22, 1873. Q u o t e d f r o m M o n t r e a l H e r a l d , w h i c h q u o t e d f r o m M a n i t o b a (Globe. 3. I b i d - May 3, 1873. Ottawa L e t t e r , A p r i l 11. 158 E v e n i n t h e D o m i n i o n House DeOosmos d i d n o t n e g l e c t h i s o l d p l e a f o r t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s . On a r e s o l u t i o n t o c a l l b e f o r e t h e b a r t h e w r i t e r o f a l i b e l l i o u s a r t i c l e on some o f t h e members, DeCosmos moved an amendment t h a t " t h e a r t i c l e i n the-Freeman, r e a d i n t h i s House t o - d a y , r e f l e c t i n g on some o f i t s members, i s l i b e l l i o u s , y e t we deem i t t o be u n d e s i r a b l e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s , and t h a t t h e d i g n i t y o f t h i s House w i l l be g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r u p h e l d b y l e a v i n g t h e u t - t e r a n c e s o f t h e p r e s s w i t h r e f e r e n c e - to i t s members t o t h e v e r - 1 d i e t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . " W h i l e a t Ottawa, DeOosmos b r o u g h t up t h e q u e s t i o n o f c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and c a l l e d a meet- i n g o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l members t o c o n s i d e r i t . From a l l a c c o u n t s t h e members t u r n e d down t h e p r o p o s a l . The S t a n d a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a s o n was t h e j e a l o u s y t h a t t h e o t h e r members e n t e r - t a i n e d o f DeCosmos. Knowing t h a t i f t h i s p r o p o s a l were p u t be- f o r e t h e C a b i n e t and a c c e p t e d , DeCosmos wo u l d be t h e l o g i c a l c h o i c e , t h e y t u r n e d down t h e p r o p o s a l r a t h e r t h a n see h i m s e c u r e '2 t h e p r i z e . B e f o r e h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , DeCosmos was a b l e t o t e l e g r a p h t o t h e S t a n d a r d t h a t an o r d e r - i n - c o m n e i l h a d b e e n i s - sued i n June t o a d o p t t h e r o u t e o f t h e r a i l w a y b e t w e e n V i c t o r i a and Seymour Na r r o w s a t o n c e . E s q u i m a l t was t o be'rthe--terminus, and a s t r i p o f l a n d twanfcy m i l e s wide was t o be c o n v e y e d t o 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d -Kay 10, 1873.' W a l l a c e s e c o n d e d . A y e s , 10, Noes, 146. 2. I b i d - June 19, 1873. July..;. 8, 1873.- 1 Canada u n d e r t h e U n i o n A c t . On h i s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t was a t - t r a c t i n g t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f i n t e r e s t was t h a t o f t h e g r a v - i n g d o c k . I n t h e t e r m s o f U n i o n t h e D o m i n i o n Government g u a r - a n t e e d " t h e i n t e r e s t f o r t e n y e a r s f r o m t h e d a t e o f t h e comple- t i o n o f t h e works, a t t h e r a t e o f f i v e p e r centum p e r annum, On s u c h sum, n o t e x c e e d i n g one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d pounds s t e r l i n g , as may be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f i r s t c l a s s g r a v - 2 i n g d o c k a t E s q u i m a l t . " I t was d e c i d e d i n 1873 b y i t h e p r o v i n - c i a l h ouse t h a t i t w o u l d be more a d v i s a b l e t o a s k f o r a d i r e c t g r a n t f r o m b o t h t h e D o m i n i o n and I m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t s t o b u i l d 3 t h e d r y d o c k . C o n s e q u e n t l y DeCosmos was a p p o i n t e d a s p e c i a l a g e n t and d e l e g a t e o f t h e P r o v i n c e t o b o t h Canada and E n g l a n d . He was a l s o t o c o n s i d e r t h e m a t t e r o f r a i s i n g f t u i d s f o r c e r t a i n 4 o t h e r p u b l i c , works. He r e a c h e d Ottawa i n O c t o b e r a t t h e t i m e t h e s p e c i a l s e s s i o n was b e i n g h e l d t o d e a l w i t h c h a r g e s a g a i n s t S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d r e g a r d i n g campaign f u n d s . DeCosmos was f o r c e d t o w a i t f o r T i l l e y , t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e , b u t e v e n t u - a l l y an a r r a n g e m e n t was made w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n Government t o ; " s u b m i t t o P a r l i a m e n t a measure t o g i v e t h e p r o v i n c e f i f t y t h o u - 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - J u n e 12, 1873. 2. Begg, A l e x a n d e r - The H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P. 396. 3. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n 1872-1873. F e b . 4, 1873. R e s o l u t i o n o f DeCosmos. P. 57. 4. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1872-1873. S e p t . 22, 1873. L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r t o S e c r e t a - r y o f S t a t e . A p p o i n t m e n t o f DeCosmos. P. 1. s a n d pounds as a b onus i n l i e u o f t h e g u a r a n t e e i n t h e t e r m s o f u n i o n . A s w e l l , f o r o t h e r p u b l i c works, t h e D o m i n i o n Government wo u l d a d v a n c e a l o a n o f a b o u t $1,000,000 a t f i v e p e r c e n t w i t h - o u t any s i n k i n g f u n d . T h i s was t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c - t u a l and a l l o w e d d e b t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r o v i n c e m i g h t 1 r e f u n d t h i s a t any t i m e . The M a c d o n a l d government was f o r c e d t o r e s i g n a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s on a v o t e o f want o f c o n f i d e n c e . The S t a n d a r d , DeCosmos's p a p e r , s u p p o r t e d M a c d o n a l d , b e c a u s e o f Mac- k e n z i e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r a i l w a y t e r m s and i t seems t h a t a l l 2 t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members v o t e d f o r M a c d o n a l d . .• The M a c k e n z i e government a u t h o r i z e d t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s DeOosmos h a d made w i t h M a c d o n a l d b u t i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be p u t b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t when I t met. W i t h t h e p r o m i s e t h a t t h i s w o u l d be done, DeCosmos l e f t f o r London, r e a c h i n g t h e r e i n December. He a s k e d t h e I m p e r i a l Government t o l o a n t h e P r o v i n c e , $250,000 f o r t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s a t f o u r p e r c e n t i n - t e r e s t o r t h e P r o v i n c e w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o l e t t h e I m p e r i a l Government b u i l d t h e d o c k i f i t would a l l o w o t h e r t h a n n a v y s h i p s t o d o c k t h e r e , and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government w o u l d g i v e 3 f i f t y t h o u s a n d pounds t o w a r d s t h e c o s t . T h e r e was some d e l a y o v e r t h e d e c i s i o n and DeCosmos was f o r c e d t o l e a v e f o r home b u t i n a l e t t e r t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government he e x p r e s s e d t h e be- l i e f t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l Government w o u l d g r a n t some a i d , a l t h o u g h 1. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1874. 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - Nov. 17, 1873. T e l e g r a m t o t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r G u a r d i a m - P r e s e n t r e p r e - s e n t a t i v e s a l l s i d e w i t h c o r r u p t i o n i s t s . 3. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-^1874. 1 n o t as much as t h e y h a d a s k e d . The I m p e r i a l Government e v e n - t u a l l y p r o m i s e d a g r a n t o f t h i r t y t h o u s a n d pounds, p a y a b l e upon 2 c o m p l e t i o n . M e a n w h i l e on t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e i n December, 1873, t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s s p e e c h d e c l a r e d t h a t he h a d p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e b r e a c h o f t h e terms o f t h e u n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r a i l w a y . The terms s a i d t h a t w i t h i n two y e a r s t h e D o m i n i o n Government w o u l d commence t h e P a c i f i c R a i l - way. A l l t h a t i t h a d done, however, was t o c a r r y o u t t h e sol e m n f a r c e o f s e n d i n g o u t M a r c u s S m i t h t o E s q u i m a l t t o b r e a k t h e s o d 3 t h e r e , t h e n work s t o p p e d . A f o r m a l p r o t e s t h a d b e e n s e n t . No a c t i o n was t a k e n b y t h e D o m i n i o n Government, e x c e p t t o a c - knowledge t h e p r o t e s t . T hen t h e e x t r a s e s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t M a c d o n a l d i?as h e l d . G b v i o u s l y n o t h i n g w o u l d be done a b o u t t h e r a i l w a y , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government 4 a g a i n p r o t e s t e d , t h a t t h e s e s s i o n h a d b e e n p r o r o g u e d w i t h o u t m a k i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y . I t was a f o o l i s h p r o t e s t and h a d no o t h e r e f f e c t t h a n t o r e c e i v e t h e r e - 5 p l y o f M a c k e n z i e t h a t r e f e r r e d them t o h i s s p e e c h a t S a r n i a , Novemiher 23, 1873, w h i c h d e c l a r e d h i s i n t e n t i o n t o e n d e a v o u r t o 1. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1874. DeCos- mos' s l e t t e r . P. 51. 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - A p r i l 24, 1874. ' 3. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1874. Liieraten- a n t - G o v e r n o r t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , J u l y 26, 1873. P. 3. 4. I b i d - Nov. 24, 1873. . 5. i b i d - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1875. Dec. 22. P. 511. 1 s e c u r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e e l e v e n o f t h e t e r m s . DeCosmos o f c o u r s e was n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e House, b e i n g a b s e n t i n L o n d o n . H i s p l a c e a t t h e h e a d o f t h e Government was t a k e n b y Walkem who h a d b e e n c o n d u c t i n g t h e Government f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , c a r r y i n g o u t DeCosm&s.^s; p o l i c y . D u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n an a t t e m p t was made t o t h r o w open t h e r a i l - way r e s e r v e b e t w e e n E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo f o r s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s p r o p o s a l was s u g g e s t e d b y R o b s o n . R o b e r t s o n amended i t t o de- c l a r e t h a t i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o c a r r y o u t i t s p a r t o f t h e t e r m s i f i t e x p e c t e d Canada t o c a r r y o u t i t s , , t l i e r e f o r e 1 ' 2 t h e r e s e r v e s h o u l d be l e f t a l o n e . The amended m o t i o n c a r r i e d . DeCosmos was p r e s e n t i n t h e House b y t h e t w e n t y - s i x t h o f J a n u a r y and on t h e t h i r d o f F e b r u a r y p r e s e n t e d h i s r e p o r t on 3 t h e m i s s i o n t o Canada and E n g l a n d . Walkem a s k e d l e a v e t o i n - t r o d u c e a b i l l r e s p e c t i n g A r t i c l e s two and t w e l v e o f t h e terms o f u n i o n , t h e s e b e i n g t h e ones d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d e b t o f B r i t i s h 4 C o l u m b i a and t h e g r a v i n g d o c k . Humphreys s e c o n d e d b y M c C r e i g h t moved t h a t " i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h i s House i t i s n e i t h e r e x p e d i - e n t o r w i s e t o a l t e r t h e t e r m s o f u n i o n w i t h o u t a d i r e c t r e f e r - 4 ence t o t h e p e o p l e . " M e a n w h i l e the rumour t h a t t h e government i n t e n d e d t o a l t e r t h e terms o f u n i o n h a d b e e n c a r r i e d t o t h e p e o p l e and t h e same n i g h t a l a r g e m e e t i n g was h e l d i n V i c t o r i a , a t t e n d e d b y 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1873-1874. J a n . 13, 1874. P. 19. 2. I b i d - P. 22, F o r , 20, A g a i n s t , 3. 3. I b i d - P. 35. 4. I b i d - P. 37. some e i g h t h u n d r e d p e o p l e , among w h i c h were s u c h i n f l u e n t i a l men as D r . Helmcken, D r . T o l m i e , S e n a t o r M a c d o n a l d , Mr. D r a k e and many o t h e r s . The m e e t i n g p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n " t h a t t h i s m e e t i n g deems I t u n a d v i s a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o any n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r c a p i t a l i z i n g t h e D r y Dock g u a r a n t e e o r t o b o r r o w money f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n Government u n t i l t h e scheme o f t h e M a c k e n z i e M i n i s t r y f o r t h e r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n sShall be made known. And f u r t h e r , t h a t i t i s d i s t i n c t l y o p p o s e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government i n t e r f e r i n g i n any manner w i t h t h e Terms, o r a g r e e - ing t o any new terms o f f e r e d b y t h e M a c k e n z i e Government u n t i l t h e same s h a l l h a v e b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e p e o p l e f o r a d o p t i o n . " T h i s meeti;ng,, h e a r i n g t h a t , a t t h a t moment, t h e q u e s - t i o n o f a l t e r i n g t h e t e r m s was b e f o r e t h e House, i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o u r n e d en masse t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e chamber where t h e y f o r c e d t h e i r way i n , c a u s i n g t h e S p e a k e r e v e n t u a l l y t o l e a v e h i s c h a i r b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s o r d e r . The C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p e t i - t i o n e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y a n g e r e d a g a i n s t DeCosmos, c a l l i n g h i m t r a i t o r and t y r a n t . F i n a l l y when o r d e r was s e c u r e d i t was de- c i d e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d a n o t h e r d a y , , a n d t h i s was d o ne. The C o l o n i s t spoke o f " a s c e n e w h i c h few men i n t h e c o u r s e o f a l o n g l i f e t i m e a r e p r i v i l e g e d t o s e e — a n o p p r e s - s e d and d o w n - t r o d d e n p e o p l e r i s i n g I n ! t h e i r s t r e n g t h and w r a t h t o t e l l t h e i r t a s k m a s t e r s t h a t t o r e m a i n l o n g e r s i l e n t w o u l d be 2 a c r i m e . " F i n d l a y , t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e m e e t i n g b l a m e d DeCos- 1. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1874. P. 83. 2. G o s n e l l , R. E . - S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s . P. 29. Q u o t i n g f r o m t h e C o l o n i s t . xnos f o r t h e o u t b r e a k b e c a u s e he o r d e r e d t h e House t o be c l e a r e d . The C o l o n i s t , e v e r r e a d y t o c r i t i c i z e DeOosmos, s a i d t h a t t h e "Government has s i n c e g i v e n e v i d e n c e o f w e a k e n i n g , and " 2 •the P r e m i e r h a s g i v e n n o t i c e o f h i s r e s i g n a t i o n . " T h i s a r t i c l e g ave t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t DeCosmos h a d r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f t h e a n t a g o n i s m o f t h e p e o p l e , a b i t t e r n e s s w h i c h was o n l y t e m p o r a r y , s i n c e t h e Government l a s t e d f o r a g r e a t many more y e a r s . The r e a s o n f o r DeOosmos's r e s i g n a t i o n was t h e D u a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 3 B i l l o f t h e D o m i n i o n House, w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h a t a member o f a l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e who a l s o i n t e n d e d t o r u n f o r t h e D o m i n i o n H o u s e , i f h i s p r o v i n c e d i d n o t a l l o w D u a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , must r e s i g n b e f o r e he c o u l d be n o m i n a t e d f o r t h e D o m i n i o n H o u s e . B r i t i s h S o l u m b i a h a d p a s s e d a D u a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n B i l l on F e b r u - a r y 21, 1873.' I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n DeCosmos was n o m i n a t e d as member f o r t h e D o m i n i o n House i n t h e new e l e c t i o n s . A f t e r t h e p e t i t i o n , o f t h e p e o p l e was p r e s e n t e d b y Mc- C r e i g h t , R o b e r t s o n , s e c o n d e d b y Sun t h e moved, " t h a t , i n v i e w o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R a i l w a y Cla-tars® o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n b e - tween Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e i n g f a i t h f u l l y c a r r i e d o u t b y Canada, t h i s House i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t no a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e s a i d c l a u s e s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d b y t h e Government o f t h i s P r o - v i n c e . " Mr. Duck amended t h i s , s e c o n d e d by DeCosmos, so t h a t t h e s e words s h o u l d be a d d e d " u n t i l t h e same h a s b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e p e o p l e f o r t h e i r e n d o r s a t i o n . " The m o t i o n as amended 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - F e b . 10, 1874. 2. G o s n e l l , R. E . - S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s . P. 29. 3. C o s t i g a n A c t o f 1872. 4. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - F e b . 18, 1874. 1 was c a r r i e d . M c C r e i g h t embodied t h e p e t i t i o n i n a m o t i o n , and a l s o p r e s e n t e d p e t i t i o n s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e o f t h e same p u r p o r t . B e aven amended M c C r e i g h t * s m o t i o n t o show t h a t s i n c e t h e Government h a d p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n n o t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e r a i l w a y c l a u s e and s i n c e t h e p r o p o s e d p o l i c y o f c hang- i n g t h e g r a v i n g d o c k c l a u s e must be a s s e n t e d t o b y t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and t h e D o m i n i o n Government b e f o r e b e c o m i n g law, t h e r e - • ' 2 f o r e t h e Government's p r o p o s e d change s h o u l d be e n d o r s e d . A f - t e r a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n t h e A c t t o amend A r t i c l e s two and t w e l v e o f t h e U n i o n t e r m s , t o a l l o w money t o be o b t a i n e d f r o m 3 t h e D o m i n i o n Government was p a s s e d . An amendment was a t t e m p - t e d t h a t w o u l d have p r e v e n t e d t h e A c t f r o m t a k i n g e f f e c t b e - f o r e t h e a s s e n t o f t h e e l e c t o r s was r e c e i v e d , b u t i t was d e f e a t - ' 4 ed. A p e t i t i o n was r e c e i v e d f r o m a g r e a t many e l e c t o r s e n d o r - s i n g t h e Government p o l i c y s i n c e i t w o u l d n o t e f f e c t t h e r a i l - ' 5 way t e r m s . On F e b r u a r y 20, 1874, Robson moved s e c o n d e d by S m i t h e , a r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h b r o u g h t t o l i g h t t h e T e x a d a I s l a n d s c a n d a l . He d e c l a r e d t h a t c e r t a i n s t a t e m e n t s h a d a p p e a r e d i n t h e newspa- p e r s " c o n n e c t i n g t h e names o f members o f t h e l a t e government, and o f t h e p r e s e n t government w i t h p r o c e e d i n g s o f a q u e s t i o n - 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s sembly,'1873-1874. F e b . 13, 1874. P-. .38., 2. I b i d - Pp.:40, 41. 3. I b i d - P. 51. 4. I b i d - P. 47.' Mara, Robson, M c C r e i g h t , S m i t h e f o r i t . 5. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-1874. P. 89. a b l e c h a r a c t e r i n r e l a t i o n t o T e x a d a I s l a n d , i n t h e S t r a i t s o f G e o r g i a , and whereas t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e a l l e g e d t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n r e s p e c t t o s a i d I s l a n d , o f a n a t u r e p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " he a s k e d f o r a R o y a l S o m m i s s i o n t o i n q u i r e i n - t o i t . He d e c l a r e d " I b e l i e v e , and h a v e good r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e , 1 t h a t t h e r e I s t r u t h i n t h e c h a r g e s , o r some o f them." When he was a s k e d t o he more e x p l i c i t he b a c k e d down. H i s m o t i o n was d e f e a t e d h u t i m m e d i a t e l y Walkem moved, s e c o n d e d b y B eaven, b o t h members o f t h e Government, f o r a S o m m i s s i o n t o i n q u i r e i n - 2 t o t h e m a t t e r , and t h e i r m o t i o n c a r r i e d . The R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission, O c t o b e r , 1874, a f - t e r e x a m i n i n g a l l t h e \ v i t n e s s e s and a l l o w i n g Robson, who c o n - d u c t e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o examine a l l t h e w i t n e s s e s he d e s i r e d d e c l a r e d t h a t " a l t h o u g h t h e r e were c i r c u m s t a n c e s a p p a r e n t l y s u s p i c i o u s a t t e n d i n g t h e p r e - e m p t i o n i n T e x a d a I s l a n d I n A u g u s t 1873, y e t , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , upon a t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r e i s no s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s t o b e l i e v e t h a t any member o f t h e l a t e o r p r e s e n t Government, e i t h e r b y h i m s e l f , o r - i n u n l a w f u l o r d i s h o n o u r a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h any o t h e r p e r s o n , has a t t e m p t e d t o a c q u i r e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e whole o r o f any p a r t o f T e x a d a I s l a n d , i n a manner p r e j u d i c i a l t o 3 t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c . " 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1873-1874. P. 45. 2. I b i d — P. 46. 3. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1875. P. 186. C f . ,Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V o l . 2, P. 337. G o s n e l l , R. E . - S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s . Pp. 29, 30. The e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e D o m i n i o n House were h e l d i n v March, 1874. T h e r e was a c e r t a i n amount o f d i s c u s s i o n o f whe- t h e r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a members w o u l d s u p p o r t M a c d o n a l d o f M a c k e n z i e . Helmcken, as one o f t h e d i r e c t o r s i n A l l a n ' s com- pany, was s u p p o r t i n g M a c d o n a l d and t h e S t a n d a r d c r i t i c i z e d h i m f o r t h i s , r e m i n d i n g p e o p l e o f t h e d a y s when he was an annexa- t i o n i s t . The S t a n d a r d came o u t d e f i n i t e l y a g a i n s t t h e c o r r u p - t i o n o f t h e M a c d o n a l d g o v e r n m e n t and a l t h o u g h DeCosmos r a n as an i n d e p e n d e n t i t may be assumed t h a t he s h a p e d t h e p o l i c y o f 1 h i s p a p e r . • M a c d o n a l d t r i e d t o keep B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on h i s s i d e and i n one o f h i s s p e e c h e s s a i d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e o u g h t t o 2 s e c e d e s i n c e M a c k e n z i e h a d r e p u d i a t e d t h e t e r m s . DeCosmos's s u c c e s s a t t h e p o l l s was welcomed b y many p e o p l e as an i n d i c a - t i o n t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a once a g a i n was s a v e d f r o m a n n e x a t i o n 3 u n d e r H e l m cken. The D o m i n i o n Government s e n t o u t an a g e n t , E d g a r , w i t h v e r y i n d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s , t o d i s c u s s t h e r a i l w a y t e r m s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v ernment. The l a t t e r h a d o f c o u r s e t i e d i t s hands w i t h r e g a r d [to m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e terms c o n c e r n i n g t h e r a i l w a y . E d g a r n e g o t i a t e d w i t h t h e government and o f f e r e d I t m o d i f i e d t e r m s . 1t was n o t u n t i l t h e n t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l gov- ernment d e c i d e d t o f i n d o u t i f he was an a c c r e d i t e d a g e n t o f t h e D o m i n i o n Government, and w h i l e w a i t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h i s t h e y r e - f u s e d t h e t e r m s . E d g a r t h e n l e f t and t h e p r o v i n c i a l government, 1. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - F e b . 19, 20, 1874. 2. I b i d - Mar. 21, 1874. Q u o t e d f r o m T o r o n t o G l o b e , F e b . 27. 3. I b i d - Mar. 14, 1874. 168 r e g r e t t i n g t h e i r r e f u s a l , t e l e g r a p h e d t o the Dominion Govern- ment t o ask i f i t was w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t Edgar's terms. The r e - p l y was a w i t h d r a w a l of the o f f e r , w h i l e f o r the f i r s t time the Dominion Government d e f i n i t e l y d e c l a r e d t h a t Edgar was t h e i r 1 a c c r e d i t e d agent. There seems t o have heen a m y s t e r y on e v e r y s i d e about the m a t t e r . Dewdney, one of the B r i t i s h Columbia members, asked i n the House of Commons, A p r i l 1, f o r any c o r r e s - pondence r e g a r d i n g the r e l a x a t i o n of terms between the two gov- ernments and M a c k e n z i e s a i d t h e r e was none, y e t , t h i s was a t the 2 time o f the Edgar p r o p o s a l . DeCosmos was n o t i d l e i n t h i s s e s s i o n o f the Dominion P a r l i a m e n t . As u s u a l h i s demands had t o do w i t h the r a i l w a y . 3 He p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the n o n - c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the r a i l w a y . An E a s t e r n paper commenting on him s a i d " t h i s now famous B r i t i s h Columbian i s wide-awake and r e a d y f o r work, n o t a t a l l t i m i d i n h i s demands, and a p p a r e n t l y h a v i n g the s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f h i s 4 n a t u r e i n a s t a t e o f f u l l development." He was accused o f be- i n g an agent o f M a c k e n z i e ' s government i n B r i t i s h Columbia and of h a v i n g had correspondence w i t h him r e g a r d i n g r e l a x a t i o n o f the terms. He d e n i e d t h i s , b u t i t can be seen t h a t he must have been showing a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h a t s i d e o f the House a t t h a t 5 t i m e . When t h e r e was some d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g S i r George Car- 1. S e s s i o n a l P apers - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1875. Walkem's Re- p o r t , M a c k e n z i e t o T r u t c h , June 8, 1874. P. 518. 2. D a i l y S t a n d a r d - A p r i l 3, 1874. 3. I b i d - May 7, 1874. 4. I b i d - May 15, 1874. 5. I b i d - A p r i l 22, 1874. 169 t i e r ' s r e s o l u t i o n t h a t the r a i l w a y would, be b u i l t w i t h o u t i n - c r e a s i n g t a x a t i o n , DeCosmos s a i d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d n o t be bound by t h a t s i n c e i t was p a s s e d i n the Dominion House b e f o r e the p r o v i n c e e n t e r e d u n i o n , w i t h o u t i t s knowledge or con- 1 s e n t . A f t e r the f i a s c o o f the Edgar p r o p o s a l s t h e r e was a d e a d l o c k between the two governments. The Dominion Government seemed i n c l i n e d t o l e t m a t t e r s remain i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n bia'jfc the P r o v i n c i a l Government drew up a m e m o r i a l , June, 1874, o u t l i n i n g 2 the h i s t o r y of the r a i l w a y c o n t r o v e r s y . Walkem was a p p o i n t e d ' 3 a d e l e g a t e t o p r e s e n t t h i s memorial t o the I m p e r i a l Government. Carnarvon, the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , h e a r d of t h i s m i s s i o n and o f f e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s as m e d i a t o r . The p r o v i n c e a c c e p t e d the o f - f e r w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , the Dominion Government g l a d l y . The l a t - t e r gave t h e i r s i d e o f the q u e s t i o n , d e c l a r i n g t h a t the r a i l w a y terms were u n p o p u l a r i n Canada and t h a t t h e y c o u l d o f f e r no more than the Edgar p r o p o s a l s — w h i c h had been r e f u s e d by Walkem's ' 4" Government, m e r e l y because of " l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e x i g e n c i e s . " They a l s o p o i n t e d out the l i b e r a l i t y o f the Dominion Government i n the q u e s t i o n o f the g r a v i n g dock. Walkem d e p a r t e d f o r London and e v e n t u a l l y some agree- ment was come t o w i t h r e g a r d t o terms. The agreement was known 1. D a i l y -..Standard,-H — May 21, 1874.. - '. '-..: 2. S e s s i o n a l P apers - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1875. Walkem's Re- p o r t . P. 487. 3. I b i d - June 11, 1874. P. 490. 4. Howay, Judge P. W. - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. Cana- da and I t s P r o v i n c e s , V o l . 21. P. 192. as the Carnarvon Terms. "They are i m p o r t a n t , n o t because t h e y were c a r r i e d out, f o r t h e y were n o t , b u t because they were, f o r the e n s u i n g seven or e i g h t y e a r s , c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r a i l w a y and t h e y a l s o formed the b a s i s 1 of a g r e a t d e a l of the i s l a n d r a i l w a y d i s p u t e . " The terms were f o r t h e commencement of the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo r a i l w a y immediately,'..the c a r r y i n g on as soon as pos- s i b l e of the m a i n l a n d r a i l w a y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a ¥/agon ro a d and t e l e g r a p h l i n e , an a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f two m i l l i o n d o l - l a r s a y e a r , the c o m p l e t i o n o f the r a i l w a y t o the w e s t e r n end of Lake S u p e r i o r by 1890. B o t h e t h e Canadian and the P r o v i n c i a l 2 governments a c c e n t e d the compromise. T h i s acceptance a l o n g w i t h o t h e r u n p o p u l a r measures, caused the d o w n f a l l o f Walkem's government i n the n e x t e l e c t i o n . A knowledge of t h e s e terms i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d DeCosmos's p o s i t i o n i n the Dominion House f o r the n e x t f i v e y e a r s . On the opening of the House i n 1875, the Government brought I n a b i l l , i n accordance w i t h the C a r n a r v o n terms, to b u i l d the E s q u i m a l t and Nanairno r a i l w a y , as a government r o a d , to become p a r t o f the main l i n e i f E s q u i m a l t s h o u l d prove s u i t - a b l e f o r the t e r m i n u s . DeCosmos, i n s p e a k i n g t o the m o t i o n ob- j e c t e d s t r o n g l y t o the remark t h a t t h i s r o a d was t o be b u i l t as compensation f o r the n o n - f u l f i l m e n t of the terms of u n i o n . He d e c l a r e d t h a t from 1871 on, the q u e s t i o n o f the t e r m i n u s a t Es- 1. Howay, Judge P. W. - P o l i t i c a l - f f i s t o r y , 1871-1913. P. 193. 2. S e s s i o n a l Papers - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1875. J a n . 13. P. 540. 171 a n i m a l t had been d i s c u s s e d and f i n a l l y i n 1873 the Government by an o r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l had d e f i n i t e l y p l a c e d I t a t E s q u i m a l t . Moreover the A c t i t s e l f had s a i d t h a t the C a n a d i a n ' P a c i f i c R a i l - way s h o u l d end a t the p o r t on the P a c i f i c t h a t s h o u l d b e s t p r o - mote the s h i p p i n g and commercial i n t e r e s t o f the Dominion and the o n l y p o r t was E s q u i m a l t . DeCosmos a l s o a d v o c a t e d s t r o n g l y t h a t the r o a d s h o u l d he b u i l t by the government, n o t by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , p r i n c i p a l l y t o p r e v e n t A s i a t i c l a b o u r b e i n g u s e d . As e a r l y as 1875, DeGosmos was v o i c i n g the f e a r o f cheap l a b o u r 1 from A s i a . The B i l l p a s s e d the House o f Commons by a l a r g e ma- j o r i t y , but was d e f e a t e d i n the Senate, "owing, i t i s s a i d t o the Speeches of members of the Walkem m i n i s t r y ! t h e n i n power) h a v i n g a r r i v e d i n the i n t e r v a l , whereby i t appeared t h a t i t was t h e i r I n t e n t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o r e q u i r e Canada t o f u l f i l the 2 o r i g i n a l terms." S e n a t o r D i c k y quoted from Beaven t o show t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government s a i d t h a t t h e r e was t o be no abatement 3 of the terms. The Dominion Government o f f e r e d compensation of $750, 000 f o r the l o s s o f the immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the I s l a n d 4 r a i l w a y b u t the P r o v i n c i a l Government r e f u s e d t h i s o f f e r . 1. I s l a n d R a i l w a y Papers - Compiled by Amor DeGosmos. Pp. 12-26. 2. Howav, Judge P. W. - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. P. 197. 3. Debates - Canadian Senate, 1875. A p r i l 6, 1875. P. 742. 4. S e s s i o n a l P apers - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1876. T r u t c h t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . Dec. 6, 1875. P. 568.. They c o n t i n u e d t o i n s i s t on no v a r i a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s . The d i s - t r u s t o f t h e D o m i n i o n was g r o w i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e I s l a n d w h i c h f e l t i t was b e i n g e x p l o i t e d . I n J a n u a r y 1876 a r e s o l u - t i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n was a c t u a l l y moved i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e b u t 1 r e c e i v e d no s e c o n d e r . I n t h e D o m i n i o n House, DeCosmos v o i c e d t h e i n t e n s e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s when on t h e m o t i o n t o go i n t o c o mmittee o f s u p p l y he moved i n amendment, t h a t s i n c e i n 1871 t h e h o n o u r and f a i t h o f Canada h a d b e e n p l e d g e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o commence w i t h i n two y e a r s a r a i l w a y and a g a i n i n 1874 t h e D o m i n i o n Government h a d p l e d g e d i t s e l f t o c a r r y o u t t h e C a r n a r v o n t e r m s , t h e House was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e work s h o u l d b e g i n now. E v e r y o n e f e l t t h a t DeCosmos was u n n e c e s s a r i - l y c e n s o r i o u s o f t h e Government, s i n c e i t h a d n o t y e t made p\ib- l i c i t s p o l i c y f o r t h a t y e a r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r a i l w a y . Gon- ' 2 s e q u e n t l y t h e amendment was d e f e a t e d b y a l a r g e m a j o r i t y . The m a j o r i t y v o t e was p r o v e d t o be r i g h t when i t was s e e n t h a t t h e e s t i m a t e s I n c l u d e d $2,810,000 f o r t h e r a i l w a y . T h a t summer L o r d D u f f e r i n , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l v i s i - t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p e o p l e o f t h e I s l a n d and p a r t i c u l a r - l y V i c t o r i a made t h i s v i s i t t h e o c c a s i o n o f a d e m o n s t r a t i o n . An a r c h was p u t up w i t h " C a r n a r v o n Terms o r S e p a r a t i o n " and a s e c c e s s l o n a d d r e s s was p r e p a r e d , t o be p r e s e n t e d b y i n f l u e n t i a l men t o t h e v i s i t o r . By t a c t and d i p l o m a c y , L o r d D u f f e r i n a v o i - 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1876. J a n . 19. P. 9. 2. D e b a t e s - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1876. Mar. 28. 173 ded any t r o u b l e and was a b l e t o c r e a t e b e t t e r f e e l i n g s . The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r h i s s u c c e s s was p r o b a b l y h i s " G r e a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p e e c h . " I n t h i s he went i n t o a l l t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e r a i l w a y q u e s t i o n , showing t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Do- m i n i o n Government and t h e i r d e s i r e t o overcome t h e f e e l i n g o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . " L e t me t h e n a s s u r e you, on t h e p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n Government and o h t h e p a r t o f t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e a t l a r g e , t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t h e y d e s i r e more e a r n e s t l y o r more f e r v e n t l y t h a t t o know and f e e l t h a t y o u a r e one w i t h them i n 1 h e a r t , t h o u g h t , and f e e l i n g . " He a p p e a l e d t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e b y p r a i s i n g t h e wonders o f t h e p r o v i n c e . " I may f r a n k l y t e l l y o u t h a t I t h i n k B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a g l o r i o u s p r o - v i n c e — a p r o v i n c e w h i c h Canada s h o u l d be p r o u d t o p o s s e s s , and whose a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n she o u g h t t o r e g a r d as t h e 2 c r o w n i n g t r i u m p h o f f e d e r a t i o n . " He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n o t f e a r i n j u s t i c e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r n u m e r i c a l weakness. " I t i s t o men l i k e y o u r s e l v e s , who, w i t h u n q u a i l i n g f o r t i t u d e and he- r o i c e n e r g y , have p l a n t e d t h e l a w s and l i b e r t i e s , a nd t h e b l e s - s e d i n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h homes among t h e w i l d s and r o c k s and d e s e r t p l a i n s o f s a v a g e bands, t h a t E n g l a n d owes t h e enhance- ment o f h e r p r e s t i g e , t h e d i f f u s i o n o f h e r tongue, t h e i n c r e a s e o f h e r commerce and h e r e v e r - w i d e n i n g renown, and woe b e t i d e t h e Government o r t h e s t a t e s m e n who, b e c a u s e i t s i n h a b i t a n t s a r e 1. Leggo, W. - H i s t o r y o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E a r l D u f f e r - i n i n Canada. M o n t r e a l , ' L o v e l l P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1878. P. 459. 2. I b i d - . 457. few i n number and p o l i t i c a l l y o f s m a l l a c c o u n t , s h o u l d d i s r e g a r d t h e w i s h e s o r c a r e l e s s l y d i s m i s s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , however b l u f f , b o i s t e r o u s , o r d o w n r i g h t , o f t h e f e e b l e s t o f o u r d i s - 1 t a n t c o l o n i e s . " The e f f e c t o f t h i s s p e e c h was e n h a n c e d by a d e s p a t c h f r o m t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , L o r d C a r n a r v o n . The d e s p a t c h a- mong o t h e r t h i n g s , d e c l a r e d t h a t b y 1878 t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s r e - g a r d i n g t h e r a i l w a y ^would be c l e a r e d up and a d v o c a t e d a s p i r i t 2 o f compromise u n t i l t h e n . When 1878 a r r i v e d n o t h i n g h a d b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r a i l w a y and t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were d e t e r m i n e d t o d e c l a r e a more a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e D o m i n i o n Government t h a n mere p r o t e s t s . An e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s f e e l i n g was g i v e n b y DeCosmos i n May 1878, when he d e c l a r e d t h a t u n l e s s t h e Government were p r e p a r e d t o b u i l d t h e r a i l w a y no o t h e r c o u r s e c o u l d be open t h a n a n n e x a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . He p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s o f t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n - ment i n n o t r e a l i z i n g t h a t on t h e P a c i f i c w o u l d be c r e a t e d t h e g r e a t c i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y , r e a c h i n g as i t w o u l d t h e m i l l i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e P a c i f i c . He a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t b u t m i s t o o k V i c t o r i a f o r t h e g r e a t - c i t y , .' 3 n o t r e a l i z i n g t h a t a g r e a t e r w o u l d a r i s e . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Walkem was a g a i n i n power a f t e r a m i d - y e a r e l e c t i o n . The s p e e c h f r o m t h e t h r o n e d e f i n i t e l y 1. Leggo, W. - Op. C i t . P. 470. 2. I b i d 483. 3. D e b a t e s - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1878. May 8. 175 foreshadowed a more d e c i s i v e o p i n i o n on the M a c k e n z i e Govern- ment d e l a y . The r a i l w a y q u e s t i o n was the i m p o r t a n t one b e f o r e the House, and Walkem, a f t e r o u t l i n i n g the h i s t o r y of p r o t e s t s and d e l a y s d e c l a r e d t h a t , s i n c e the Dominion had a g a i n n e g l e c - t e d to l i v e up t o the f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t of C a r n a r v o n f o r 1878, " B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l h e r e a f t e r have the r i g h t t o e x c l u s i v e - l y c o l l e c t and r e t a i n h e r Customs and E x c i s e d u t i e s and t o w i t h - ' 1 draw from the U n i o n , " and s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d t o compensation. T h i s was seconded by Beaven, a n o t h e r member o f the Government. The o p p o s i t i o n a t t e m p t e d amendments t o p r e v e n t s e c e s s i o n b u t the House v o t e d them down and passed the s e c e s s i o n r e s o l u t i o n by a v o t e of f o u r t e e n to n i n e . I t was f o r w a r d e d t o the I m p e r i - a l Government by way o f Ottawa j u s t a t the time o f the Dominion e l e c t i o n s . Due t o the e x c i t e m e n t t h e r e , i t was m i s l a i d and when i t e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h e d London, b e t t e r f e e l i n g s had a r i s e n , due t o the r e t u r n o f S i r John A. Macdonald. B e f o r e the d e f e a t o f the M a c k e n z i e Government, a d e f i - n i t e c h o i c e f o r the r o u t e t o the P a c i f i c had been made and Es- q u i m a l t was dropped as the t e r m i n u s , the F r a s e r V a l l e y r o u t e be- i n g chosen. T h i s d e c i s i o n was n o t a c c e p t e d by Macdonald u n t i l 2 f u r t h e r s u r v e y s were made. A t the b e g i n n i n g o f 1879 DeCosmos, t o show i n what an u n f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia had been p l a c e d , moved f o r an a c t to p r o v i d e f o r the p e a c e f u l s e p a r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Colum- b i a . There was no seconder and DeCosmos s a i d he was g l a d t h a t 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1878. Aug. 30. 2. Debates - Canadian House of Commons, 1879. May 10. t h o s e men who h a d c a s t t h e most v i o l e n t a s p e r s i o n s a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r s u p p o s e d l y a t t e m p t i n g t o g a i n s o m e t h i n g f o r n o t h i n g and who h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y w i s h e d t o g e t r i d o f h e r , d i d n o t d a r e t o s e c o n d h i s m o t i o n . "He m e r e l y w i s h e d t o draw t h e a a t t e n t i o n o f t h e House t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e o p p o s i t i o n s t o o d ; a l s o t o t h e u n f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e Government s t o o d . The p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d as l i t t l e 1 f a i t h i n one s i d e as t h e y h a d i n t h e o t h e r . " I n t h e s e s s i o n o f 1880 DeCosmos made a s p e e c h on t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o show how u n f o u n d e d was t h e c d e s p o n d e n c y f e l t a b o u t t h i s p r o v i n c e . He gave numerous f i g u r e s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s c l a i m s o f h e r p r o s p e r i t y . A f t e r he h a d i l - l u s t r a t e d h i s p o i n t b y a p t s t o r i e s he t u r n e d t o t h e e v e r r e c u r - r e n t q u e s t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y . "Though t h e r e h a v e b e e n t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e t h e a r r a n g e m e n t was e n t e r e d i n t o , t o commence c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n t h a t P r o - v i n c e , y e t n o t a p i c k h a s b e e n s t r u c k i n t h e g r o u n d i n t h e way o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , n o t a s h o v e l f u l l o f e a r t h h a s b e e n l i f t e d , n o t a c a r t f u l o f e a r t h o r s t o n e h a s b e e n c a r r i e d , n o t a c u l v e r t has b e e n b u i l t , n o t a b r i d g e e r e c t e d , n o t a t i e l a i d , n o t a r a i l s t r e t c h e d — n o t h i n g h a s b e e n done w h a t e v e r . Y e t we h a v e b e e n t o l d h e r e t h a t a l a r g e sum', o f money ha s b e e n e x p e n d e d on 2 s u r v e y . " He c r i t i c i z e d t h e l e a d e r o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n f o r c r o a k - 1. D e b a t e s - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1879. A p r i l 2. I b i d - 1880. Pp. 1491-1819. Q u o t e d i n I s l a n d R a i l - way P a p e r s . C o m p i l e d b y Amor DeCosmos. pp. 1 2 * f f . 177 i n g t h a t t h e Government went t o o f a s t when he s h o u l d h a v e s a i d t h e y d i d n o t go f a s t enough. He a l s o c r i t i c i z e d h i m f o r com- p l a i n i n g o f t h e amount s p e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , when i t was 1 " t h e g r e a t m i l c h - c o w o f O n t a r i o " t h a t a b s o r b e d a l l t h e money. E v e n t u a l l y I n 1880 t h e Government d i d b e g i n t h e c o n - s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y t h r o u g h p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . M a c d o n a l d was d e t e r m i n e d t o b u i l d o n l y t h e m a i n l a n d r a i l w a y t o i t s t e r m i - nals on t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . The Walkem Government wo u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e d e f e a t and was j u s t as d e t e r m i n e d t o g e t t h e I s l a n d r a i l w a y b u i l t . To -place i t s v i e w s b e f o r e t h e Mac- " 2 d o n a l d Government, i t a p p o i n t e d DeCosmos a s p e c i a l a g e n t . He was e n t i r e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l , however, s i n c e M a c d o n a l d w o u l d n o t change h i s v i e w s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p r o v i n c i a l Government w o u l d n o t g i v e i n and a p p e a l e d ov'er t h e D o m i n i o n ' s d e c i s i o n t o t h e h i g h e r au- t h o r i t y o f t h e Crown. T h e r e f o r e DeCosmos was a p p o i n t e d as ag- e n t t o p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n t o t h e Queen r e g a r d i n g " t h e r e f u s a l o f Canada t o b u i l d t h e i s l a n d s e c t i o n — a s t h e y c a l l e d i t - - o f 3 t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . " A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s and t h e D o m i n i o n Government's s i d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n , t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e - t a r y , as a s e t t l e m e n t , s u g g e s t e d " t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l i g h t l i n e o f r a i l w a y f r o m Nanaimo t o E s q u i m a l t , t h e e x t e n s i o n w i t h - 1. D e b a t e s - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1880. Q u o t e d i n I s l a n d R a i l w a y P a p e r s . P. 15. 2. s e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1882. P. 330. 3. Howay, J u d g e P. W. - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. P. 205. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1882, P. 329. 178 o u t d e l a y o f t h e l i n e t o P o r t Moody, and t h e g r a n t o f r e a s o n a b l e c o m p e n s a t i o n i n money f o r t h e f a i l u r e t o c o m p l e t e t h e work w i t h - i n t h e term o f t e n y e a r s as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f u n - . >. i o n . " The D o m i n i o n Government, however, d i d n o t see i t s way c l e a r t o c a r r y o u t a s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h t h e y s a i d was n o t p a r t o f t h e terms o f u n i o n . Nor were t h e C a r n a r v o n terms b i n d i n g b u t mere s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h ha d b e e n d e f e a t e d i n 1875, b y t h e d e f e a t 2 o f t h e E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y B i l l . T h i s was t h e l a s t t i m e t h a t t h e r a i l w a y c o n t r o v e r s y e n t e r e d i n t o DeCosmos's a f f a i r s , e x c e p t d u r i n g h i s e l e c t i o n cam- p a i g n i n 1882. He h a d f o u g h t c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r V i c t o r i a , b u t h i s work i n t h i s i n - s t a n c e was p r a c t i c a l l y f r u i t l e s s . He h a d b e e n f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t t o o g r e a t odds and f o r ends t h a t w o u l d n e v e r h a ve b e e n p r a c t i c - a b l e . The r a i l w a y c o u l d n e v e r h a ve b e e n b r o u g h t t o t h e I s l a n d and i t seems s t r a n g e t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n i t s o f t h e I s l a n d n e v e r saw t h a t . T h ey were b l i n d e d , however, b y t h e f e a r o f t h e r i v a l - r y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . They saw V i c t o r i a as t h e g r e a t c i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and n e g l e c t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g r e a t e r a- r i s i n g . I n t h e D o m i n i o n House DeCosmos was a l s o a c o n s i s t e n t a d v o c a t e o f t h e e x p u l s i o n and t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He f e a r e d t h e i r c o m p e t i t i o n as cheap l a b o u r e r s and as e a r l y as 1875 h a d a d v o c a t e d government c o n s t r u c - t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y as t h e o n l y means o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e u s e o f 1. Howay, Judge P. W. - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. P. 205. 2. I b i d . 1 A s i a t i c s . I n 1878 B u n s t e r h a d f o l l o w e d t h e same p o l i c y i n m o v i n g t h a t no man s h o u l d he..allowed t o work on t h e r a i l w a y • 2 who wore h i s h a i r more t h a n f i v e and a h a l f i n c h e s l o n g . The m o t i o n was n o t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y and was d e f e a t e d . A g a i n i n 1879 DeCosmos p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n f r o m Noah S h a k e s p e a r e and f i f t e e n h u n d r e d l a b o u r e r s , a s k i n g f o r r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e , and t h a t no C h i n e s e be employed on t h e r a i l w a y . DeCos- ,m.crs a t t a c k e d t h e q u e s t i o n f r o m t h e m o r a l , e c o n o m i c and r a c i a l s i d e s , b u t he s t r e s s e d t h e e c o n o m i c . He s a i d t h e r e c o u l d be no r a c e a s s i m i l a t i o n and t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e were p a g a n . He men- t i o n e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e amount o f money t h e s e p e o p l e s e n t o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y e v e r y y e a r . " T h i s was t h e paramount q u e s t i o n i n "3 t h e P a c i f i c P r o v i n c e . " He a s k e d t h e C a n a d i a n Government t o p r e v e n t C h i n e s e f r o m w o r k i n g on t h e r a i l w a y , f r o m b u y i n g l a n d , and f r o m b e c o m i n g n a t u r a l i z e d . H i s p l e a d i d n o t a t t r a c t much I n t e r e s t i n t h e House and n o t h i n g was done. The l a s t i m p o r t a n t s p e e c h t h a t DeCosmos made i n t h e House o f Commons was on t h e q u e s t i o n o f Canada's I n d e p e n d e n c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare i t w i t h t h a t l a s t p o l i t i c a l s p e e c h o f Howe's w h i c h c a u s e d so much p e r t u r b a t i o n among h i s c o l l e a g u e s a t O t tawa and was one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n t h e '4 n e x t y e a r . DeCosmos's s p e e c h was t o have t h e same r e s u l t s f o r 1. V i d e S u p r a , P. 162. 2. D e b a t e s - - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1878. Mar. 18. P. 1207. 3. I b i d - 1879. A p r i l 16.; P • 1258. 4. C h i s o l m , <J. A., ed. - S p e e c h e s and P u b l i c L e t t e r s o f J o - seph Howe, H a l i f a x , ' T h e C h r o n i c l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., L t d . , 1909. V o l . 2. Pp. 639, 640. 180 him. I t was one o f the most p o w e r f u l r e a s o n s f o r h i s d e f e a t a t the p o l l s i n 1882. The speech a r o s e out o f a debate on commer- c i a l t r e a t i e s . DeOosmos f e l t t h a t Canada s h o u l d have a r i g h t t o n e g o t i a t e h e r own. He spoke o f the time when Canada would be independent, a l t h o u g h he s a i d t h a t the time had n o t y e t come. She must f i r s t round out h e r t e r r i t o r i e s . He even d e f i n i t e l y s a i d t h a t the I m p e r i a l Government was - i n c a p a b l e o f d o i n g the 1 b u s i n e s s of Canada--an advanced statement i n 1882. I n the e l e c t i o n s of 1882, the opponents o f DeCosmos made much of t h i s Independence speech, as t h e y c a l l e d i t . They a l s o c r i t i c i z e d him h a r s h l y f o r h i s i n a b i l i t y t o work c o n g e n i a l - 2 l y w i t h anyone and as a consequence a c c o m p l i s h i n g n o t h i n g . I t seems e v i d e n t t h a t DeCosmos i n t h e s e y e a r s was q u a r r e l s o m e and t h e r e b y p r o b a b l y n e u t r a l i z e d a c e r t a i n amount of h i s u s e f u l n e s s . I t seems p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t any member from B r i t i s h Colum- b i a would have been i n the same s i t u a t i o n , however even-tempered, u n l e s s he had gone d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t the wishes o f h i s c o n s t i t u - e n t s . H i s opponents were r i g h t , however, i n r e a l i z i n g t h a t a new man would be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the c o u n t r y now t h a t f e e l i n g s were l e s s s t r a i n e d between the the p r o v i n c e and the d o m i n i o n . DeCosmos r a n h i s e l e c t i o n on the same q u e s t i o n s o f the r a i l w a y c o n t r o v e r s y and the C h i n e s e , b u t one can Imagine t h a t the peo- p l e o f V i c t o r i a were rea d y t o f o r g e t l o c a l q u e s t i o n s and e n t e r more i n t o the l i f e o f the Dominion as a whole. I t I s n o t s u r - p r i s i n g t h a t he was b e a t e n t h e n , n o r i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he 1. Debates - Canadian House o f Commons, 1882. P. 1084. 2. D a i l y C o l o n i s t - J u l y 20, 21, 1882. 181 f e l t v e r y b i t t e r l y a b o u t h i s d e f e a t , t h i n k i n g t h a t V i c t o r i a h a d b e t r a y e d h i m s i n c e he h a d r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c i t y f o r t e n y e a r s , e v e r s i n c e t h e P r o v i n c e e n t e r e d t h e D o m i n i o n . Mr. S p r o a t , i n summing up h i s c a r e e r a s a member a t Ottawa h a s made a few I n t e r e s t i n g s t a t e m e n t s . " I t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t h i s r e a s o n a b l e and .just a m b i t i o n was e v e r q u a l i f i e d b y - - a s h i s w e s t e r n f r i e n d s t h o u g h t - - a d e q u a t e r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e p a r t y , o r t h e o f f i c i a l c o u n c i l s a t O t t a w a . To s a y t h e l e a s t he d i d n o t p r o v e h i m s e l f t o be a p a t i e n t p a r t y man, and he l a c k e d a l s o t h e d i p l o m a t i c q u a l i t y , w h i c h , i n i t s h i g h e s t d e g r e e , must be i n b o r n . Hence t h e c a r e e r o f t h i s n o t a b l e p e r s o n a g e , i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e o f a c t i o n w h i c h he h a d p r e - v i s i o n e d , and r e a c h e d b y l o n g j o u r n e y i n g s , was, f r o m h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w , a f a i l u r e , t h o u g h m a r k e d b y g r e a t q u a l i t i e s , and b y a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t were f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e P a c i f i c c o l o n y . " T a k i n g h i s c a r e e r t h r o u g h o u t , no P a c i f i c s e a b o a r d man h a s e q u a l l e d h i s l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e a t Ottawa as an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and I t h i n k i t may be s a i d o f h i m t r u l y , t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e so f a r h a s n o t s e n t t o t h e c a p i t a l any g r e a t e r mem- 1 b e r o f p a r l i a m e n t . " DeGosmos r e t i r e d i n t o p r i v a t e l i f e and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g a t h e r a ny i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t him. He l i v e d w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , C h a r l e s McKay S m i t h , who e d i t e d h i s p a p e r , t h e S t a n d a r d , and h i s ' b r o t h e r ' s son i n h i s home on Y a t e s S t r e e t , where he owned a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p r o p e r t y . T w i c e he s e n t p e t i t i o n s t o t h e l o c a l House, one d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e amendment o f t h e c i t y 1. S p r o a t , G i l b e r t M. - A s i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i t i c s . V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s . J a n . 19, 1906. map would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the r i g h t s o f c i t y landowners and com- p l a i n i n g t h a t he had n o t been i n f o r m e d of the proposed amend- 1 ment. The second one was about the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the Mount Tolmie P a r k and Cordova Bay R a i l w a y Company. He f e l t t h a t i t was i n j u r i o u s t o h i s i n t e r e s t s as an owner of r e a l e s t a t e . He had n o t been a b l e t o f i n d the p l a n s o f t h e Company and com- p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y had been s u p p r e s s e d p u r p o s e l y . B o t h these p e t i t i o n s show c l e a r l y t h a t DeCosmos was a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c i n g the e f f e c t s o f the d i s e a s e from w h i c h he s u f f e r e d i n the l a s t y e a r s o f h i s l i f e . S u s p i c i o n o f c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t him was e v i - d e n t l y one o f the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the d i s a b i l i t y from which he s u f f e r e d i n the l a s t y e a r s b e f o r e h i s d e a t h . Once..again he e n t e r e d the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d when i n 1895 he r a n as c a n d i d a t e f o r V i c t o r i a , o r r a t h e r a t t e m p t e d t o r u n . Many o f the o l d t i m e r s i n V i c t o r i a came out t o g i v e him t h e i r s u p p o r t b u t h i s h e a l t h would n o t enable him .to c a r r y on a cam- p a i g n and he had t o s u r r e n d e r the f i e l d t o younger men. He l i v e d f o r two y e a r s l o n g e r b u t d i e d i n 1897. No more f i t t i n g commentary on h i s work can be made tha n t h a t of Mr. Boggs. "Had DeCosmos d i e d twenty y e a r s e a r l i e r he would have been l o o k e d upon as one of the f o r e m o s t statesmen o f the West; b u t he l i v e d too l o n g , he l e f t no descendants t o keep h i s name b e f o r e p^os- "p"erity, and b e i n g so t o speak, o u t s i d e the P o r t , the G r e a t Com£&w^ which he so p e r s i s t e n t l y f o u g h t would h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e - c o r d h i s work."^ 1. J o u r n a l s - L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1893. Feb. 22. 2. Boggs, Beaumont - What I remember o f Amor DeCosmos. B.C. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1929. 183 - C h a p t e r V I - An E s t i m a t e o f DeCosmos's C h a r a c t e r and Work. I n some men's l i v e s I t i s s i m p l e t o p i c k o u t t h e s u - preme a c h i e v e m e n t and i t i s b y t h i s a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t t h e man i s remembered. As an example, J o s e p h Howe i s remembered f o r t h e w i n n i n g o f r e s p o n s i b l e government, S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d , as t h e l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . When one t u r n s t o DeCosmos, however, one i s f a c e d w i t h a p r o b l e m . He i s t h e f i r s t e x p o n e n t o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h r o u g h t h e columns o f h i s newspaper and i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . He c o n t i n u e d t o f i g h t f o r i t f o r e i g h t y e a r s and t h e n announced h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c - c e p t u n i o n e v e n w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s . One m i g h t t h e n a s k t h e q u e s t i o n , was i t u n i o n t h a t was t h e supreme a c h i e v e - ment o f h i s l i f e , t o w h i c h he was w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a l l o t h e r c a u s e s ? One d i s c o v e r s , h o w e v e r , " t h a t once u n i o n was won, i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d , DeCosmos t u r n e d u g a i n i m m e d i a t e l y t o h i s o l d f i g h t f o r r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s t i m e when he was engaged i n t h e g r e a t e r s t r u g g l e f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , he w o u l d n o t compromise and a t t e m p t e d , a l t h o u g h u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o make r e s p o n s i b l e government t h e s i n e qua n o n o f t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n t e r m s . One i s p u z z l e d , on t h e s m a l l e r q u e s t i o n o f t h e u n i o n o f 184 t h e two c o l o n i e s t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a n y t h i n g , e v e n r e s p o n s i b l e government. Y e t w i t h t h e g r e a t p r o b l e m o f 'Confeder- a t i o n b e f o r e him, he s t r u g g l e d c o n t i n u a l l y t o s e c u r e r e s p o n s i - b l e government, b e f o r e he w o u l d a c c e p t i t . W hich t h e n i s t h e supreme a c h i e v e m e n t o f h i s l i f e ? Was i t t h e w i n n i n g o f r e s p o n s i b l e government w h i c h he abandoned once b u t t o w h i c h he r e t u r n e d a g a i n w i t h renewed l o v e , o r was ' i t u n i o n , u n i o n t o w h i c h he w o u l d have s a c r i f i c e d e v e r y t h i n g , and w h i c h more t h a n anyone e l s e he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w i n n i n g ; o r was i t C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w h i c h he i n i t i a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r w h i c h he c o n t e n d e d d u r i n g f o u r y e a r s , and y e t w h i c h he p l a c e d s e c o n d t o r e s p o n s i b l e government i n t h e f i n a l s t r u g g l e ? . Or i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t none o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e t o be remembered as h i s supreme a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t r a t h e r a l e s s t a n g i b l e r e s u l t b u t one w h i c h d i d more t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r t o make p o s s i b l e t h e change i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ? H i s c r e a t i o n o f a p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' i n - t h e q u e s t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e c o l o n y t h r o u g h t h e columns o f h i s n ewspaper i s more l i k e l y t h e g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t b y w h i c h he w i l l be remembered. • When DeCosmos r e a c h e d t h e I s l a n d i t was r u l e d b y an a u t o c r a t , l a t e member o f a g r e a t m o n o p o l y . The p e o p l e h a d no hand i n t h e government and t o o k l i t t l e o r no i n t e r e s t i n i t . DeCosmos r o u s e d t h a t i n t e r e s t , m o u l d e d i t , and d i r e c t e d i t i n t h e r i g h t c h a n n e l s . Many p e o p l e h a v e r e g r e t t e d h i s v i r u l e n t a t t a c k on S i r James D o u g l a s as a r u l e r , b u t i t must be remem- b e r e d t h a t t h e l a t t e r h a d no i d e a o f government a c c o r d i n g t o 185 the w e l l - u n d e r s t o o d wishes of the p e o p l e and DeCosmos as a man from the E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s n a t u r a l l y would d e s i r e t o p r o c u r e what he c o n s i d e r e d the r i g h t of e v e r y B r i t i s h s u b j e c t . He began h i s c a r e e r i n the West and d i d h i s g r e a t e s t work i n t h i s way, b u t he was a m b i t i o u s f o r g r e a t e r honours than the p r i z e s of c o l o n i a l o f f i c e . To f u l f i l h i s a m b i t i o n to g a i n a p l a c e i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , i t was o f paramount importance t h a t he s h o u l d f u r t h e r the i n t e r e s t s of the p e o p l e by w i n n i n g f o r them r e s p o n s i b l e government and a p l a c e i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . No one would deny t h a t DeCosmos was a m b i t i o u s b u t i t was an am- b i t i o n t h a t i n i t s r e s u l t s was advantageous t o the p e o p l e , w h i l e the a m b i t i o n o f the o f f i c i a l s and the Company men was d i r e c t e d t o t h e i r own o r the Company's g a i n . H i s purpose, then, was t o educate the c o l o n i s t s t o a b r o a d e r view i n p o l i t i c s , economics, i n s o c i a l o u t l o o k . He had f a i t h i n the p e o p l e ' s c h o i c e and was w i l l i n g t o l e a v e h i s chance of s u c c e s s t o them, and of c o u r s e t o h i s own e f f o r t s , whereas the men who opposed him f e a r e d the f r e e c h o i c e of the p e o p l e and wished the s e c u r i t y of p o s i t i o n w hich comes t h r o u g h o f f i c i a l - dom and monopoly. DeCosmos a t t a c k e d a l l t h i s , p o s s i b l y too vehemently and w i t h too l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r o t h e r p e o p l e ' s v i e w s ; b u t he was a t t a c k i n g a system w h i c h was s e c u r e l y e n t r e n c h e d and which needed the f o r c e of a v i g o u r o u s pen and a f e a r l e s s c r i t i c i s m t o d i s l o d g e i t . I t was a time when words were n o t minced and men s a i d what t h e y f e l t o p e n l y , b u t bore no grudge a g a i n s t t h e i r opponents. S p r o a t s a i d o f DeCosmos, " t h e r e was no m a l i c e i n t h e i m p o l i t e n e s s , f o r he would have e n t e r t a i n e d the s c a r i f i e d one, a t d i n n e r , the same day, hut t h i s was not t h e n g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . I n the e v e n i n g o f a day t h a t comes back to my mem- or y , marked by an i s s u e o f h i s newspaper, w i t h s i x s e p a r a t e a r - t i c l e s on m y s e l f , o f an uncomplimentary c h a r a c t e r , he and I co- o p e r a t e d i n drawing the c o n t e n t s o f a c o u p l e o f b o t t l e s o f the N a p o l e o n i c Chambertin, s e r v e d i n h i s b e s t s t y l e w i t h P a r i s i a n g r a c e , by Mr. Sosthenes D r i a r d . The a r t i c l e s were no more con- s i d e r e d by us than were the c o r k s i n the Chambertin b o t t l e s , though p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s f o r the morrow, were then p a s s - 1 i n g t h r o u g h the p r e s s o f the t e m p o r a r i l y absent p r o p r i e t o r . " I f DeCosmos s u f f e r e d more than the o r d i n a r y newspaper man s u f f e r e d because o f h i s v i r u l e n t w r i t i n g s i t was not because he was more v i r u l e n t b u t because he was a d i f f i c u l t man t o know i n t i m a t e l y . The few such as S p r o a t who d i d know him c o u l d appre c i a t e the e s s e n t i a l k i n d l i n e s s o f h i s n a t u r e b e h i n d a l l t h i s customary p o l i t i c a l vehemence. T h o s e — a n d they were the m a j o r i - t y — w h o n e v e r got t o know t h i s " S i n g u l a r F i g u r e " saw o n l y h i s p u b l i c l i f e and knew n o t h i n g o f h i s p r i v a t e c h a r a c t e r . I t has o f t e n been s a i d t h a t p u b l i c men can have no p r i v a t e l i f e , and the f a c t t h a t DeCosmos k e p t h i s p r i v a t e l i f e t o h i m s e l f ( i f he had any)meant t h a t he became a c u r i o u s f i g u r e , an unknown quan- t i t y and t h e p u b l i c does not l i k e a n y t h i n g i t can n o t under- s t a n d . As a consequence DeCosmos always s u f f e r e d the f a t e o f the e c c e n t r i c , because o f h i s name, because o f h i s h a b i t o f 1. S p r o a t , G i l b e r t M. - A S i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h Colum- b i a P o l i t i c s . V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. Ja n . 19, 1906. o f l i f e . He was r i d i c u l e d , and i f t h a t was n o t s u c c e s s f u l , he was s l a n d e r e d . I t i s then i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f DeCosmos's l i f e i n Vancouver I s l a n d t h a t were p l a n t e d the seeds of h i s l a t e r suc- cess and f a i l u r e . As a newspaper man he was u n d o u b t e d l y a suc- c e s s , and to him the c o l o n y w i l l always owe a debt o f g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s i n i t i a t i o n o f f r e e o p i n i o n i n t o the young c o l o n y . I t i s t o these y e a r s he owes h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f B r i t i s h Colum- b i a ' s needs and h i s a b i l i t y t o remain i n p u b l i c l i f e so l o n g . He.fought o n l y f o r those t h i n g s w h i c h he had w r i t t e n about, argued about, and c r e a t e d an i n t e l l i g e n t o p i n i o n about, b e f o r e he t u r n e d t o a c t i v e s t r u g g l e f o r them. I t i s t o t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s a l s o t h a t he owes h i s f a i l u r e t o become the r e a l exponent o f the p e o p l e of B r i t i s h Columbia. He g a i n e d t h e i r a d m i r a t i o n b u t n e v e r t h e i r l o v e . He was never the p o p u l a r hero o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t J o s eph Howe was of Nova S c o t i a , y e t h i s c a r e e r , I n many r e s p e c t s , i s as much a p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s - t o r y as Howe's v/as o f Nova S c o t i a ' s . P e o p l e i n B r i t i s h Colum- b i a do n o t remember DeCosmos, except f o r a few who knew him or those who are w r i t i n g of t h a t p e r i o d . S i n c e he never g a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g w h i c h i s so ne- c e s s a r y t o win a man fame b e f o r e and a f t e r h i s d e a t h , one i s n o t s u r p r i s e d t h a t he f a i l e d t o g a i n t h a t p o s i t i o n i n Dominion p o l i t i c s w h i c h he had a n t i c i p a t e d . Moreover he d i d n o t work w e l l w i t h o t h e r men. T h i s may a l s o be blamed on h i s secluded- h a b i t s . A man who l i v e s by h i m s e l f always w i l l depend on h i s own judgment, o f n e c e s s i t y . When he e n t e r s p u b l i c l i f e h i s h a b i t o f m i n d i s a l r e a d y f o r m e d and he s t i l l r e g a r d s h i s own judgment as b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s . One c a n i m a g i n e s u c h a man t r y - i n g t o s u c c e e d i n D o m i n i o n p o l i t i c s i n a p a r t y u n d e r as e x a c t - i n g a l e a d e r as S i r J o h n A. M a c d o n a l d . Y e t a s a l e a d e r DeGosmos c o u l d g e t a l o n g v e r y s u c c e s s - f u l l y w i t h h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . He was an e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l p r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r two y e a r s . Of c o u r s e i t may be s a i d t h a t he was a b s e n t m o s t o f t h e t i m e b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e seems t o h a v e b e e n no i n d i c a t i o n o f any c h a f i n g a g a i n s t h i s l e a d e r s h i p and h i s p o l i c y was c a r r i e d o u t f a i t h f u l l y b y h i s s u - b o r d i n a t e s . A g a i n he c a r r i e d o u t two m i s s i o n s t o Canada and London, one e m i n e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l , t h e o t h e r n o t . Y e t b o t h t i m e s he seems t o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e o r t o compromise w i t h - o u t d i f f i c u l t y . One i s drawn t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he was e s - s e n t i a l l y a l e a d e r , w h e t h e r i n c r e a t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n o r I n e x p r e s s i n g i t , and as s u c h he was e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l . He was n e v e r s u c c e s s f u l as a s u b o r d i n a t e . I t seems s t r a n g e t h a t he d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h i s him- s e l f and c h o o s e t h e f i e l d o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s where he a l - r e a d y h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r e m i e r w i t h e v e r y i n d i c a t i o n o f k e e p i n g i t o r b e i n g t h e l e a d e r i n o p p o s i t i o n f o r a good many y e a r s . I n s t e a d he c h o s e t h e D o m i n i o n f i e l d where t h e r e was no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e w h i c h w o u l d a l w a y s r e m a i n i n o p p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h e r a i l w a y c o n t r o v e r s y was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d , e v e r g a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e . I t was a m b i t i o n , " t h a t l a s t i n f i r m i t y o f a n o b l e m i n d " w h i c h l e d h i m t o make t h e d e c i s i o n . He a l w a y s h a d t h e hope t h a t he would secure r e c o g n i t i o n t h e r e . One u n d e r s t a n d s him b u t one r e g r e t s t h a t the w i d e r f i e l d has always a t t r a c t e d a l l the p u b l i c men of f i r s t r a n k , t o the d e t r i m e n t of t h e i r own p r o v i n c e . P r o b a b l y no p r o v i n c e has had more r e a s o n t o r e g r e t t h i s than B r i t i s h C olumbia. He must a l s o be blamed t h e r e f o r e f o r a d o p t i n g t h i s c o u r s e which has had such i l l e f f e c t s on h i s adopted p r o v i n c e . T h i s c o u l d be f o r g i - ven i f he had a c c o m p l i s h e d any g r e a t purpose i n Ottawa, b u t any o t h e r man c o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d as much or as l i t t l e . I t i s p o s s i b l e , on the o t h e r hand, t h a t i f DeCosmos had s t a y e d a t the head o f h i s government i n B r i t i s h Golumbia he would have been a b l e t o i n i t i a t e p a r t y government i n i t s t r u e f orm i n t o the Leg- i s l a t u r e . He had always a d v o c a t e d i t and more than any o t h e r man i n the p r o v i n c e u n d e r s t o o d i t . He had the s u p p o r t of the L e g i s l a t u r e and the p e o p l e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h r o u g h t h e l i b - e r a l measures w h i c h h i s government had i n i t i a t e d . I t i s p o s s 5 > b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t g r a d u a l l y he would have educated the L e g i s - l a t u r e t o a c c e p t p a r t y government as the c o r r e c t way to work r e s p o n s i b l e government. I n s t e a d he l e f t h i s t a s k i n B r i t i s h Columbia h a l f done. T h i s c r i t i c i s m must be b r o u g h t a g a i n s t DeCosmos more than once. He commenced many t h i n g s b u t he f i n i s h e d o n l y a few. Only too o f t e n was i t l e f t t o someone e l s e t o p u t the f i n i s h i n g touches t o h i s e f f o r t s . T h i s I s n o t e n t i r e l y h i s f a u l t b u t more o f t e n i t was the r e s u l t ' of-"" f a c t o r s o u t s i d e h i s c o n t r o l . I n the case of r e s p o n s i b l e government, i t was h i s f a i t h i n the home government which:mad<3 him s e e m i n g l y abandon i t . I t was the d u p l i c i t y of the a d v i s e r s of the home government w h i c h pre v e n t e d h i s b e l i e f i n i t s f a i r n e s s b e i n g u p h e l d . U n i o n he d i d c a r r y t h r o u g h t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n b u t o n l y a t the expens of many of h i s most c h e r i s h e d b e l i e f s and by the l o s s o f much of h i s p o p u l a r i t y . Y e t u n i o n was o n l y the f i r s t s t e p i n the g r e a t e r u n i o n which he a l s o was t o i n i t i a t e . Here he was n o t to have the honour of p u t t i n g the f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s , because of the s t r e n g t h , of o f f i c i a l d o m , the s u p i n e n e s s of a g o v e r n o r and the s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n o f a group o f E n g l i s h m e n . When a new s e t of c o n d i t i o n s arose w i t h a s t r o n g governor who took m a t t e r s i n - to h i s own hands, DeGosmos was l e f t out o f the management and the v e r y men who had most s t r o n g l y opposed C o n f e d e r a t i o n were g i v e n the c r e d i t f o r f i n a l l y w i n n i n g i t . Such a reward f o r f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e would have d i s h e ~.r t ened the o r d i n a r y man b u t DeCosmos seemed t o have an e x t r a o r - d i n a r y p e r s e v e r a n c e and buoyancy. He c o n t i n u e d i n the c a r e e r t h a t he had mapped out f o r h i m s e l f , and a l t h o u g h , as has been p o i n t e d o u t , he never r e a c h e d the h e i g h t s t o which he had as- p i r e d , he r e c e i v e d more r e c o g n i t i o n 'than had been h i s l o t be- f o r e . The rewards he r e c e i v e d were not t o be l i g h t l y s e t a s i d e as those g i v e n to a man o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e — p r e m i e r o f a p r o - v i n c e , member of the Dominion House, e d i t o r and p r o p r i e t o r ©:f a p a p e r . S p r o a t says t h a t t h e s e were the most n o t a b l e y e a r s of h i s c a r e e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o agree w i t h him. DeCosmos was more i n t e r e s t i n g , h i s work seems more i n s p i r i n g , i n t h e y e a r s when he s t r u g g l e d , sometimes s u c c e s s f u l l y , o f t e n m i s t a k e n l y , b u t always c o u r a g e o u s l y , f o r the aims he always had b e f o r e him. 191 Compared to h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n B r i t i s h . Columbia he looms l a r g e as a f i g u r e , b o t h d i s t i n c t i v e and c o l o r f u l ; and more i m p o r t a n t , a s a man w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f o r e t h o u g h t , and o r i g i n a l i t y , w hich dwarf the p e t t y s q u a b b l i n g s and c h i l d i s h t h e o r i e s o f many of h i s f e l l o w B r i t i s h Columbians. He c o n s i s - t e n t l y k e p t h i s aims b e f o r e h i m — a l t h o u g h s e e m i n g l y i n c o n s i s - t e n t because of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s — a f r e e p r e s s , and an e n l i g h t - ened p u b l i c which would take an i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t i n and h e l p t o work the f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h he hoped t o w i n f o r the p r o v i n c e ; and h a v i n g won t h e s e t h i n g s , h i s f i n a l aim was t o h e l p t o form a new n a t i o n of Canadians as d i s t i n c t i v e from and, i n a f r i e n d l y way, v i e i n g w i t h the Americans t o the s o u t h , w h i l e r e m a i n i n g under B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s . I APPENDIX A. L i s t s o f Members o f : t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l - o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1867-1871. 1. S e s s i o n 1867. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . A r t h u r N. B i r c h , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member. Henry P. P. Crease, A t t o r n e y - G e n e - r a l . W i l l i a m A. Young, A c t i n g T r e a s u r e r . J o s eph W. T r u t c h , C h i e f Commissioner o f Lands and Works. Wymond 0. Hamley, C o l l e c t o r o f Customs. Thomas L e t t Wood, A c t i n g S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l . M a g i s t r a t e s . Henry M. B a l l , C a r i b o o West. C h a r l e s Brew, New W e s t m i n s t e r . George W. Cox,'Cariboo E a s t . W i l l i a m H. P r a n k l y n , Nanaimo. W i l l i a m J . Macdonald, V i c t o r i a . P e t e r O ' R e i l l y , Kootenay. Edward H. Sanders, Y a l e and L y t t o n . S e l e c t e d Members. Amor DeCosmos, V i c t o r i a C i t y . . John S. Helmcken, V i c t o r i a C i t y . J o s e ph D. Pemberton, V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . John Robson, New W e s t m i n s t e r . R o b e r t T. Smith, Columbia R i v e r and Kootenay. J o s e p h Sout h g a t e , Nanaimo. Edward Stamp, L i l l o o e t . George A. Walkem, C a r i b o o . F r a n - c i s J . B a r n a r d , Y a l e and L y t t o n . 2. S e s s i o n 1868. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The- same members, except t h a t Young was A c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member, i n p l a c e o f B i r c h . R o b e r t Ker was A c t i n g T r e a s u r e r , and Wood was no l o n g e r a member. M a g i s t r a t e s . - Henry M. B a l l , New W e s t m i n s t e r . George W. Cox, Columbia and Kootenay. Thomas Elwyn, a c t i n g f o r Car- •y i b o o . W i l l i a m J . Macdonald, V i c t o r i a . P e t e r O ' R e i l l y , Y a l e and L y t t o n . Warner A. S p a l d i n g , Nanaimo. Thomas L e t t Wood, V i c t o r i a . S e l e c t e d Members. The same ex c e p t t h a t S o u t h g a t e , N a n a i - mo, has r e s i g n e d . 3. S e s s i o n 1868-1869. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The same e x c e p t , A r t h u r Bushby, A c t - i n g P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l , and Ker i s no l o n g e r a member. J u s t i c e s of Peace. Edward G. A l s t o n . Henry M. B a l l . Henry H o l b r o o k . P e t e r O ' R e i l l y . A. F. Pemberton. Ed- ward Sanders. George A. Walkem. Thomas L e t t Wood. S e l e c t e d Members. R o b e r t W. W. C a r r a l l , C a r i b o o . John G. D a v i e , V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . M. W. T. Drake, V i c t o r i a C i t y . Henry H a v e l o c k , Y a l e . John S. Helmcken, V i c t o r i a C i t y . Thomas B. Humphreys, L i l l o o e t . D a v i d B. R i n g , Na- naimo. John Robson, New W e s t m i n s t e r . e s s i o n 1870. • E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The same e x c e p t , P h i l i p J . H a n k i n , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member i n p l a c e o f Young Helracken and C a r r a l l , u n o f f i c i a l members. . J u s t i c e s o f Peace. The same. S e l e c t e d Members. The same e x c e p t , Amor DeCosmos i n p l a c of D a v i e , V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t , F r a n c i s J . B a r n a r d i n p l a c e o f Henry H a v e l o c k , Y a l e . A new member, Edgar Dewdney, Kootenay. e s s i o n 1871. E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . P h i l i p J . Han k i n , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and Speaker. George P h i l l i p p o , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . Joseph T r u t c h , Chi©"f Commissioner o f Lands and Works, r e p l a c e d by P e t e r O ' R e i l l y l a t e r . Wymond 0. Hamley, C o l l e c t o r o f Customs. " . " .. A p p o i n t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e s e . ^. F . Pemberton and Edward G. A l s t o n , J u s t i c e s of Peace. E l e c t e d . Henry Nathan, V i c t o r i a G i t y . John S. Helmcken, V i c t o r i a C i t y . Amor DeCosmos, V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . A r t h u r B u n s t e r , Nanaimo. Hugh N e l s o n , New Westminster.' Clement F. C o r n w a l l , Hope and Y a l e and L y t t o n . Thomas B. Hum- phr e y s , L i l l o o e t and C l i n t o n . R o b e r t W. W. C a r r a l l , Car- i b o o . R o b e r t J . S k i n n e r , Kootenay. I BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1. Source M a t e r i a l . B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t o r D a i l y C o l o n i s t . I n d e t a i l from 1858 t o 1871. From t h e n o n l y s e p a r a t e numbers a r e r e f e r r e d t o . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f the t h e s i s u n t i l 1871 i s based on the f i l e s of t h i s paper. The f i r s t y e a r s , from 1858 u n t i l 1863 are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l , s i n c e the e d i t o r i a l s w r i t t e n by DeCosmos a r e p r a c t i c a l l y the o n l y source from which'one can g a t h e r any i n f o r m a - tion;.about DeCosmos's views o r b e l i e f s . B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . L e t t e r o f S t a t e L i b r a r i a n o f Sacremento L i b r a r y t o Mr. • Beaumont Boggs. T h i s g i v e s the l e g a l means by which DeCosmos changed h i s name. C a l i f o r n i a Scrap Book. San F r a n c i s c o , H. H. B a n c r o f t and Co., 1869. P. 495. The G r e a t O r a t o r i c a l F e a t . Quoted from San F r a n c i s c o Examiner. An account o f the famous l o n g speech, as seen by an American o b s e r v e r . Correspondence Book of House o f Assembly. Vancouver I s l a n d , 1856-1859. D a i l y S t a n d a r d . I n d e t a i l from 1870 to 1874. From t h e n o n l y s e p a r a t e numbers are used. T h i s paper a l s o c o n t a i n s many o f DeCosmos's v i e w s , as shown i n h i s e d i t o r i a l s . I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare th e s e e d i t o r i a l s w i t h those o f the C o l o n i s t . Debates o f the Canadian House of Gomraons;. From 1872 t o 1882. A f i r s t hand account o f DeCosmos's work i n the Cana- d i a n P a r l i a m e n t . Debates o f the Senate. 1875. Shows the f e e l i n g t h e r e on the E s q u i m a l t and N a n a i - mo R a i l w a y B i l l , w h i c h was d e f e a t e d . Debate on the S u b j e c t o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h Canada. R e p r i n t from the Government G a z e t t e E x t r a o r d i n a r y o f March, 1870. V i c t o r i a , K i n g 1 s P r i n t e r , , 1 9 1 2 . A l l the speeches i n " d e t a i l o f the members o f the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . DeCosmos P a p e r s . I n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . There a r e l e t t e r s o f DeCosmos's t o v a r i o u s p e o p l e . DeCosmos's Scrap Books. I n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . P r i n c i p a l l y newspapers' c l i p p i n g s , d u r i n g the y e a r s t h a t he was i n the Assembly, 1863-1866. They are t a k e n from b o t h f r i e n d l y and r i v a l p a p e r s and the c o n t r a s t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s o f DeCosmos i s e n l i g h t - e n i n g . E r m a t i n g e r P a p e r s . Copy of the P h o t o s t a t Copy o f T r a n s c r i p t of O r g i n a l s i n the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. R a t h e r c r i t i c a l o f Douglas and Tod does n o t h e s i - t a t e t o p o i n t out h i s weaknesses. Government G a z e t t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871. Government G a z e t t e o f V ancouver I s l a n d , 1866. I s l a n d R a i l w a y P a p e r s . Compiled by Amor DeCosmos. A c o l l e c t i o n o f the p a r l i a m e n t a r y d ebates on the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y . J o u r n a l s . o f the L e g i s l a t i v e .Assembly of B r i t i s h C olumbia. Prom 1872 t o 1882 i n d e t a i l . A few s c a t t e r e d ones a f t e r . A great, d e a l o f the l a t e r p a r t o f the t h e s i s i s ba- sed on t h e s e j o u r n a l s . J o u r n a l s o f the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1864- 1869. Laws o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871. L e t t e r s t o Governor Douglas, J a n u a r y t o May, 1863. Prom the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . I n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . L i b r a r y o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. T-n. 3, 1910. J o t t i n g s s u p p o s e d l y w r i t t e n by DeCosmos's b r o t h e r . I n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . M i n u t e s o f the House o f Assembly, Vancouver I s l a n d . 1856-1858. Memoir I I I . P a p e r s on t h e U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h Canada. 1869. I n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v e s . M o s t l y l e t t e r s o f G o v e r n o r Seymour t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . I t i n c l u d e ® r e p o r t s o f t h e m e e t i n g s i n V i c t o r i a and o f t h e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n . P a p e r s R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v e s . L e t t e r s o f t h e two g o v e r n o r s and r e p o r t s o f t h e de- b a t e s i n t h e A s s e m b l y on u n i o n . P r o c l a m a t i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1858-1865. I n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v e s . P u b l i c G e n e r a l S t a t u t e s o f t h e C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v e s . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e F r e e P o r t P r o c l a m a t i o n . R e p o r t f r o m t h e S e l e c t Committee on t h e Hudson's B a y Company, 1857. U s e d f o r C o o p e r ' s e v i d e n c e . R e p o r t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1913. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . From 1871 t o 1882. V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s . • u l y 5, 1897. On DeCosmos's d e a t h . December 28, 1929. L e t t e r o f E v a n s on t h e l o n g s p e e c h . 2. G e n e r a l H i s t o r y . B a n c r o f t , H e r b e r t H., P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l s . V o l s . 36, 37. Ban- c r o f t ' s Works. San F r a n c i s c o , 1887. U s e d t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r DeCosmos was a c t i v e i n t h e V i g i l a n t e s C o m m i t t e e s . No m e n t i o n on h i m i n t h e s e v o l u m e s . Begg, A l e x a n d e r , H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Toronto,. W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894. U s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c l e r g y r e s e r v e s . Begg, A l e x a n d e r , H i s t o r y o f the N o r t h West. Toronto, H u n t e r , Rose and Company, 1894. He d i s c u s s e s the q u e s t i o n o f a f r e e p r e s s f o r the Red R i v e r C o l o n y . C h i s o l m , J . A., e d i t o r , Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s o f Joseph Howe.. H a l i f a x , The C h r o n i c l e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19'0'9j. V o l . 2. Used f o r the speech o f Joseph Howe's i n 1872, which may be compared w i t h DeCosmos's i n 1882. F a l c o n e r , S i r R o b e r t A., The P i o n e e r i n g S p i r i t . Cambridge H i s - t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire. v o l . 6. Canada and Newfound- l a n d . Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930. He speaks o f S i r James Douglas as the o l d p i o n e e r , b r i d g i n g the gap between the o l d and the new. One .might w e l l q u e s t i o n t h i s s t a t e m e n t . D i d he n o t r a t h e r attempt t o keep the o l d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the ,-new? F a w c e t t , Edgar, Some R e m i n i s c e n c e s o f O l d V i c t o r i a . Toronto,' W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1912. O c c a s i o n a l m e n t i o n of DeCosmos. G o s n e l l , R. E., C o l o n i a l H i s t o r y , 1849-1871. Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s , v o l . 21. G o s n e l l , R. E., B r i t i s h Columbia Y e a r Book. V i c t o r i a , 1897. U s e f u l f o r the l i s t s of members i n the e a r l y Assem- b l i e s and C o u n c i l s of Vancouver.'Island..arid B r i t i s h C olumbia. G o s n e l l , R. E., S i x t y Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s . Vancouver and V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1913. Q u i t e a n t a g o n i s t i c to DeCosmos. Gra n t , W. L., The T r i b u n e of Nova S c o t i a . C h r o n i c l e s o f Canada S e r i e s , V o l . 26. T o r o n t o , Glasgow, B r o o k s , and Company, 1922. M e n t i o n s Howe's a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n i m p e r i a l p o s i - t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the P a c i f i c c o l o n i e s . H i g g i n s , D. W., The P a s s i n g o f a Race. T o r o n t o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s 1905. T e l l s the s t o r y of DeCosmos's d e f e a t hy Gordon a t E s q u i m a l t . Howay, Judge F. W., The P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1913. Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s , V o l . 21. Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d , B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, the S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Company, The second volume i s the one whi c h d e a l s w i t h the c o l o n i e s a f t e r 1858. There i s n o t a v e r y good ac- count o f the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . K e r r , J . B., B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f Well-Known B r i t i s h Co- l u m b i a n s . Vancouver, K e r r and Begg, 1890. Leggo, W., H i s t o r y o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E a r l D u f f e r i n i n Canada. M o n t r e a l , L o w e l l P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Company 1878. Used f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia speech o f L o r d D u f f e - r i n . L o w e l l , A. L., The Government o f E n g l a n d . New Yo r k , the Mac- M i l l a n Company, 1926. V o l . 1. Used f o r the q u e s t i o n o f whether b a n k r u p t s can s i t i n p a r l i a m e n t o r n o t . Macdonald, D. G. F., B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d . London, 1862. A contemporary account o f the c o l o n y i n the y e a r s when Douglas r u l e d . . Q u i t e c r i t i c a l o f him. M a c f i e , Matthew, Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia. London, Longman, Green, 1865. A contemporary account, w i t h a r e a l attempt a t h i s - t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m . He i s e x t r e m e l y c r i t i c a l o f D o u g l a s . A v e r y good s o c i a l a c c o u n t . Sage, W a l t e r N., S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i - v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1930. 3. A r t i c l e s . Boggs, Beaumont, What I Remember of Honourable Amor DeCosmos. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t , 1929. A s h o r t a c c o u n t o f DeCosmos's e a r l y l i f e , w i t h a g r e a t many p e r s o n a l t o u c h e s . E x t r e m e l y u s e f u l , : as one of the few a c c o u n t s of DeCosmos by someone who knew him p e r s o n a l l y . F o r s y t h , J . , The P i o n e e r P r e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t , 1923. A u s e f u l a c c o u n t o f the newspapers i n the c o l o n y . G o s n e l l , R. E., A r c h i v i s t N a i l s F a b l e o f 47-Hour Speech o f De- Cosmos. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, December 14, 1929. He d e c l a r e s t h a t the r e a s o n f o r the l o n g speeches of the two men was p u r e l y s e l f i s h . Howay, Judge F. V/., B r i t i s h Columbia's E n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t , 1927. A v e r y f u l l and u s e f u l account o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Howay, Judge F. W«, Governor Musgrave and C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Tran- s a c t i o n s of the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, 1921. An e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f Musgrave's p a r t i n w i n n i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Howay, Judge F. W., The A t t i t u d e of Governor Seymour toward Con- f e d e r a t i o n . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, 1920. A good acount o f Seymour's o p p o s i t i o n . K e e n l e y s i d e , Hugh L., B r i t i s h Columbia, A n n e x a t i o n o r Confedera- t i o n ? Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t , 1928. Sage, W a l t e r N., A n n e x a t i o n i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, 1927. A v e r y good acoount o f the a n n e x a t i o n movement i n a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s . Sage, W a l t e r N., E a r l y Days o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government I n B r i - t i s h o l u m b i a . "Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l . 3, 1922. V I I Sage, W a l t e r H., The G o l d C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l . 2, 1921. S p r o a t , G i l b e r t M., Amor DeCosmos, A S i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i t i c s . • V i c t o r i a D a i l y T i m e s . J a n u a r y 19, 1906. An a c c o u n t o f DeCosmos b y a man who knew h i m p o s s i - b l y as w e l l as anyone knew him. T h e r e i s a v e r y human t o u c h t o i t .

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