UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of Anglo-Irish relations from the conquest to the Free State Hardwick, Francis Chester 1973

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d. £ u v v * y ° P A^lo-Irtish \w t ^ e F r e e h W e FRANCIS - CttESTEK HAftbWLCK. U.B.C. LIBRARY CAT. *<\L£s-67-ffMt*-foSjf ACC. NO. Gltfb QoP' A SURVEY OF ANGLO-IRISH RELATIONS  FROM THE CONQUEST TO THE FREE STATE FRANCIS CHESTER HARDWICK A Thesis submitted in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of HISTORY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBI October, 1934. TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword Chapter Page I. ANGLO-IRISH RELATIONS, 116?-1801 1 I I , THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION IN IRELAND 29 I I I . THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT, 1801-1914 84 IV. THE WAR PERIOD AND THE BIRTH OF THE FREE STATE 147 V. EPILOGUE 190 Bibliography 200 F O R E W O R D Impartial treatments of the various branches of Anglo-I r i s h r e l a t i o n s are conspicuous by t h e i r r a r i t y . Most com-mentators on this vexed subject have an axe to grind: they may be P a r n e l l i t e s , Unionist adherents, republican en-thusiasts or p a t r i o t i c Orangemen. The existence of the varie t y of interpretations i s an in d i c a t i o n of the contro-v e r s i a l nature of the issues discussed. It i s also a warn-ing to the student of I r i s h a f f a i r s to tread with wary steps. In analysing each s i t u a t i o n he w i l l f i n d i t necessary to view with suspicion much of what has been written; he must attempt to ascertain not how some p a r t i c u l a r incident might have occurred but, i n Ranke's famous words, wie es e i g e n t l i c h  gewesen. 1 A SURVEY OF ANGLO-IRISH RELATIONS TO THE FREE STATE Chapter 1 ANGLO IRISH RELATIONS (A.D.1169 - 1801) In the year 1169 an army, l e d hy Richard de Clare, E a r l of Pembroke - better known as Strongbow - and composed of Normans and Welshmen invaded Ireland to a s s i s t Dlarmuid MacMurrough in his attempt to r e t a i n his position as a " p r o v i n c i a l " king. More than s i x centuries l a t e r , i n 1801, by act of the B r i t i s h Parliament, Great B r i t a i n and Ireland were united. In that long period of time occurred changes i n the r e l a t i o n s between these two countries which v i t a l l y affected the s o c i a l , economic and pol-i t i c a l l i f e of the I r i s h people. An understanding of these re-lations i s a prerequisite to an appreciation of the events which led to the establishment of the I r i s h Free State i n 1922. The Setting f o r the Norman Invasion. By A.D.400 Ireland had come to be divided into seven i n -dependent states, each of which was composed of a number of clans or tribes held together i n a loose federation. Over each state there ruled a king selected from the upper classes of the clans. The land of each state belonged as a rule to the clan or t r i b e ; on the death of an i n d i v i d u a l the property used by him during his l i f e t i m e reverted to the clan. Law i n each state was administered by "Brehons" (Judges), who used c o l -lections of j u d i c i a l decisions and opinions i n order to pass 2 Judgment on c i v i l , m i l i t a r y and criminal r e l a t i o n s . In 432 St. Patrick began his ministrations to the I r i s h people, and so successful was he i n his e f f o r t s that by 456 the influence of the Roman Church was universal i n Ireland. In contrast to the practice on the continent of Europe and i n England a f t e r the Council of Whilby, the Church i n Ireland was adapted to the elan l i f e of the various states. Each clan had i t s own bishop and p r i e s t s ; the a c t i v i t i e s of these men tended to a s s i s t monasticism. I t was from the monasteries of Ireland that missionaries came to return C h r i s t i a n i t y to pagan England i n the Sixth century. But i n spite of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of Catholicism the concept of p o l i t i c a l union of the I r i s h states was not present u n t i l Brian Boru l e d an attack against the Danes at Clontarf i n 1014. Prom then on a sense of n a t i o n a l i t y prevailed and the c o n f l i c t began between t h i s conception of a united nation and one of provincialism. Also an o l d t r i b a l t r a d i t i o n of common descent began to lose out and t h i s movement tended to disrupt the small states and a s s i s t national unity. Prom 1014 to 1169 various pretenders to the t i t l e of Ard Ri (or national ruler) were i n c o n f l i c t , this period c u l -minating i n the a r r i v a l of Strongbow - ostensibly to a s s i s t one of the pretenders. But t h i s f i r s t v i s i t by the Norman baron was prompted by other motives than that of altruism,for being i n straitened circumstances himself the opportunity of 3 exchanging his personal services for possessions i n the western island was for him fortunate i n the extreme. Having a s s i s t e d his I r i s h a l l y , the E a r l of Pembroke proceeded to set up a claim for himself as King of Leinster - thus contravening a l l I r i s h rules of succession. The Norman baron unconsciously had made himself the medium for the s e t t i n g up i n Ireland of two h o s t i l e systems. 1 The two antagonistic systems were consolidated by Henry 11 who, coming to Ireland i n 1171, i n part to rebuke the pre-sumptuous Strongbow, gave grants of land to his followers both to reward them personally and to perpetuate h i s feudal control. In t h i s manner the d i s t r i c t s of l e i n s t e r , Meath, U l s t e r and Oonnaught were made strongholds of a p o l i t i c a l and economic system foreign to the t r a d i t i o n s of I r i s h t r i b a l l i f e . The land grants proved to be a v e r i t a b l e sore spot - they were acts of i n j u s t i c e and conquest and lay at the root of a l l future struggles between England and Ireland. As would be expected an immediate period of c o n f l i c t en-sued with the Norman barons opposing themselves to the I r i s h clans. The l a t t e r through r i v a l r i e s and family dissensions were disunited; while the former through t r a d i t i o n a l feuds were unable to effect a u n i f i e d p o l i c y for the complete sub-jugation of Ireland. In spite of the lack of unity among the Normans, extension of t h e i r power occurred i n the north by means of further grants by Henry and pure brigandage by such barons as the de Burghs and the Geraldines. In the environs 1. In effect the Norman system set up a method of government and land tenure i n which land was looked upon as the absolute property of a sov-reign l o r d . 4 of Duplin Henry established, petty nobles who would not be l i k e l y to be thorns i n his side.' In the century subsequent to these f i r s t invasions the Norman adventurers obtained i n d i f f e r e n t help from England, for the kings were preoccupied with a f f a i r s at home and on the continent. Consequently there was l i t t l e further a c q u i s i t i o n of I r i s h t e r r i t o r y by the Normans who i n spite of th e i r per-petual quarreling d i d consolidate a great tr i a n g l e of influence on the east c<oast with b e l t s extending to Ulster, Galway and the south. During this period the two races remained side by side, despising ea,ch other and d i f f e r i n g i n language, culture, government, law and conceptions of land tenure. Time would decide which race would have the greater assimilative powers. Following the submission of a remonstrance to the Pope in.which the claims of the Normans to Ireland were contested, certain I r i s h leaders i n v i t e d Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, to come to unite . Ireland. The i n v i t a t i o n was.accepted and Bruce led an attack on the Norman hold on U l s t e r . A devastating war ensued i n which Bruce f e l l and with him the hope of I r i s h unity; but the Normans, unable to obtain assistance from England, found i t necessary to loosen t h e i r grip upon part of the north. The lines of communication with the west (Meath) and the south (Leinster) were also i n danger. At t h i s juncture an almost paradoxical s i t u a t i o n began to take form. In an e f f o r t to s t r i k e at the Norman or English hold cer t a i n I r i s h chiefs began to be paid a "black rent" by the English - this money being devoted to the h i r i n g of 5 sol d i e r s to protect the foreigners' l i n e s of communication. On the other hand numbers of the invaders were intermarrying with the natives and adopting many of t h e i r ways of l i f e . The i n -evitable was occurring: the Normans were becoming " I r i s h i s e d " and the I r i s h feudalised. . This fusion of the two races became more and more marked during the fourteenth century. Those barons who no longer re-v i s i t e d England on occasions, came to renounce the authority o f the English crown; and this renunciation was recognised by the English government which set up the three great Earldoms of Kildare, Ormonde and Desmond. The Lsaders of these families although Norman in descent were I r i s h i n interests and to them England for a time abdicated a l l power. They thus became to a l l intents and purposes independent princes. When a r e a l i z a t i o n of what was occurring i n Ireland be-came f u l l y appreciated by the English authorities an attempt was made to stem the tide of G a e l i c i z a t i o n by r e s t r i c t i n g the positions of office-holders to those who were English by b i r t h . This procedure f a i l i n g to produce the desired r e s u l t s sterner methods were decided upon. Side by side with the development of parliamentary l i f e i n England had'developed, on a much smaller scale, a s i m i l a r p o l i t i c a l development i n Ireland. The use of the miniature I r i s h parliament"for the h a l t i n g of the native influence was decided upon. At the parliament held i n 1367 at Kilkenny i t was enacted that intermarriage between the two peoples must cease; that the 6 Normans must not adopt native customs such as "fosterage" and "gossipred"; Normans must not assume I r i s h names; and that there must be two sets of clergy - I r i s h i n the unconquered lands, Norman i n the settlements. But t h i s statute was impotent to prevent the assimilation of most of the invaders by the I r i s h . Those Englishmen, who wished to preserve t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y found i t necessary to huddle themselves into what came to be known as "the Pale".2 Instead of e f f e c t i n g i t s malicious purposes the Statute of Kilkenny merely renounced the conquest of Ireland. As the period marked by the "Hundred Years War" and the "Wars of the Roses" drew to an end the feudalisation of the Gaelic people of Ireland grew apace. The impotence of the English crown to assert i t s authority permitted c i v i l s t r i f e to become a permanent feature of I r i s h l i f e and made the miniature English government i n Dublin i n e f f e c t u a l . P a r l i a -ment consisted of a House of Commons and a poorly attended House of lord s ; i t s l e g i s l a t i o n was not only i n e f f i c i e n t l y administered but also corruptly interpreted by the courts of j u s t i c e . Realizing the weaknesses of this government the chiefs gradually extended t h e i r l o c a l powers and began to assert t h e i r right to nominate th e i r successors rather than have them elected by the clan i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner. National control even i n a l i m i t e d degree was transient; the 2. A s t r i p of land stretching from Dublin to Dundalk. It varied i n area from time to time. 7 Kildare family holding supremacy for the longest period of time (1468 - 1533)• Ireland in effect had l i t t l e continuous history during this period; i t remained for the strong-willed Tudors to attempt a more effectual control than had heretofore existed, Tudor Policies Ten years after Henry sirezed the throne of England he at-tempted to extend his authority over his own officials and par-liament in Ireland and to check the power of the Kildare family by passing what has become known as Poynings' .Act 3 . It was enacted that (a) a l l laws lately passed in England were to be valid in Ireland; (b) that no Irish parliament was to be called until the king gave a license for i t ; and (c) that the king was to survey a l l prospective measures before they were introduced into the Irish parliament. As this last institution had always been the mouthpiece of a powerful noble and without authority outside the Pale, the passage of the act had l i t t l e immediate universal influence upon Ireland. It was not until the parlia-ment came to extend its influence over Ireland as a whole that the workings of the act became resented. Grattan and the Irish Volunteers in 1782 were given the task of breaking this fetter impeding Irish political development. For a time Henry Vll found i t necessary to compromise with the powerful Earl of Kildare who assumed the position of the King's deputy in Ireland in 1496. But Henry's claim to absolute contol 3* 10 Henry Vll C.4 (1495) 8 over Ireland was bound to lead to c o n f l i c t and i n the r e b e l l i o n of 1534 the King not only broke Kildare*s hold but also brought to an end the po l i c y of using Anglo-Irish viceroys. From that time the practice was established of sending out l o r d deputies fresh from England. Complications set i n under Henry Y l l l when r e l i g i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s were added to those of race, land and government. The I r i s h church had been comparatively free from scandals such as had l e d to the L o l l a r d movement i n England and dra s t i c changes i n church l i f e were not desired by the people at large. Consequently when Henry V l l l attempted to assert h i s authority over the Church i n Ireland by an act of supremacy, and by the suppression and destruction of I r i s h monasteries, the native people not only hated the King for his acts but began to associate the new Protestant ideas with the foreign despotism. Henry's attempts at c o n c i l i a t i o n by giving up the idea of ex-termination of opponents and the changing of his t i t l e from Lord to King of Ireland f a i l e d to achieve i t s purpose. The reformed doctrines made no progress and under Henry and his successors masses were continued and the I r i s h church o f f i c i a l s strenuously objected to the putting of the l i t u r g y into English. Queen Mary dealt with e c c l e s i a s t i c a l matters i n as high-handed a fashion as Henry himself had done and introduced a land p o l i c y which proved to be the chief source of f r i c t i o n between England and Ireland for three centuries. In order to stem the tide of ra i d i n g and devastation within and without the Pale, 9 Mary gave orders that the districts of Leix and Offaly were to " he planted with England settlers and that the boggy v/estern lands were to be reserved for the native Irish. Both English and Irish settlers were to hold their lands from the Crown and to conform to English law. In this manner King's and Queen's • Counties came, into existence but not unti l f i f t y years of bloody warfare had succeeded in dispossessing the native Irish of their land. For p o l i t i c a l , not religious reasons Queen Elizabeth was a stout champion of the Reformation and desired that a well-ordered State Church should be established in Ireland. She con-sequently pursued her policies in Ireland to this effect and relentlessly persecuted Catholics who opposed her plans. But persecution merely made more permanent the feeling among the native Irish that Protestantism was one expression of English tyranny •* the reformed doctrines consequently made l i t t l e pro-press. The queen also found herself opposed by such great Irish chiefs as Shane ''O'Neill and the Earl of Desmond who led stren-uous rebellions against the pretensions of Elizabeth to p o l i t i c a l control of Ireland. As a result of these risings Elizabeth de-cided to continue the plantation policies of Mary and attempted to have established settlements in Kerry, limerick, and Cork in the south, and Antrim and Down in the north. In the latter areas the planters ran into d i f f i c u l t i e s not only with the Catholics but also with Scottish settlers and f i n a l l y gave up the attempt to colonise there. In the south the chief d i f f i c u l t y experienced 10 by the English was the bringing out of s e t t l e r s — consequently the planters, i n spite of the regulations to the contrary, rented the land back to the dispossessed I r i s h fat high rents) and'the few English s e t t l e r s who did come out were soon assimilated by the other inhabitants. The next danger that menaced the extension of English power was a very formidable one. Hugh O'Neill, E a r l of Tyrone, attempted to organize a national resistance against the i n -vader and with the assistance of another great I r i s h c h i e f , Hugh O'Donnell, l e d an insurrection. Elizabeth despatched the E a r l of Essex to s e t t l e the uprisi n g but through the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the earl's, leadership the I r i s h more than held t h e i r own. F i n a l l y under the administrations of l o r d Mountjoy the I r i s h resistance, although reinforced by Spanish support, was grad-u a l l y battered down. In 1603 just preceding the death of Elizabeth, the Earl of Tyrone submitted and the great insur-r e c t i o n was over. "After four and a half centuries the English 4 Conquest of Ireland was r e a l and complete." Stuart p o l i c i e s (1605 - 1691) The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was not without i t s reper-cussions i n Ireland. I t served the purpose of incriminating the I r i s h earls i n an allegedly s i m i l a r scheme. These leaders, of whose innocence i n the matter there i s r e l i a b l e evidence, f l e d to the Continent to escape the persecution which was certain to follow the disclosure of the "plot". Their famous 4 . Hayden and Moonan, Short History of Ireland, (Talbot Press, Dublin, 1925), p.266 1 1 f l i g h t was immediately followed by the establishment of a plantation i n the six counties of U l s t e r . English and Scottish "Undertakers" were given extensive tracts of land i n these d i s -t r i c t s . Many of the s e t t l e r s were insolvent debtors, defaulters, or ex-convicts and this "scum of both countries" dispossessed many of the I r i s h peasants of t h e i r holdings. The U l s t e r plantation, and s i m i l a r minor ones of Wexford and Longford, constituted one of the chief causes of the great insurrection of 1641. 5 For the purpose of l e g a l i s i n g these land confiscations James 1 summoned Parliament to Dublin,^ making sure by creating new boroughs i n the U l s t e r plantation that Catholics d i d not control i t . B i l l s f o r the attainder of the lands of the exiled e a r l s , the confirmation of the t i t l e of the King to the c o n f i s -cated lands and the granting of a subsidy of 20,000 pounds to James were passed by the submissive parliament. In church and educational matters, too, the authority of the Crown was asserted. In 16o5 laws against Catholics were made, but not s t r i c t l y enforced, for although i n d i v i d u a l c l e r i c s and members of the l a i t y were interfered with i n many ways, yet at no time during James' reign was persecution prevalent. In 1612 James extended the influence of Dublin University ( T r i n i t y College) by assigning portions of the confiscated lands of U l s t e r for the foundation and endowment of "Royal Free Schools." 5. These plantations were r e a l l y controlled by companies similar to the London Company which established a colony at Jamestown i n 1607. 6. There had been no Parliament since 1585. 12 With the accession of Charles I the Catholics found the Zing's troubles with his parliaments and his f i n a n c i a l d i f -f i c u l t i e s excellent opportunities f o r seeking hy the purchase of "Graces" more t o l e r a t i o n for t h e i r r e l i g i o u s practices* Public opinion i n England and the anti-Catholic zeal of the King's deputies i n Ireland f i n a l l y caused a diminution of t h e i r de-s i r a b l e t o l e r a t i o n . Under Wentworth's administration the "Graces" were withheld from the Catholics. He also encouraged general uniformity i n the Established Church by forcing the clergy to use the English A r t i c l e s of 1562. But r e l i g i o n was to Wentworth a secondary consideration. His was a p o l i c y of subordinating the economic l i f e of Ireland to that of her neighbour. Prosperity i n Ireland meant to him prosperity for England. He encouraged I r i s h trade which con-tributed to customs' receipts and sought to r u i n the I r i s h woollen trade which was competing with that of England. A plantation i n Connaught was also planned by t h i s indefatigable administrator, but i n spite of his plans for the new c o n f i s -cation, the colony was never made. With his removal and sub-sequent execution i n 1641 the country once more began to seethe with unrest. Seeking a free parliament, complete t o l e r a t i o n for the Catholic r e l i g i o n , a rescinding of the land confiscations, and f i x i t y of land tenure, a band of rebels organized an insurrection shortly a f t e r Wentworth's r e c a l l . England, engaged i n her own domestic troubles, could do l i t t l e to a s s i s t her supporters i n Ireland. Thousands of Protestant planters were expelled from 13 Ulster and many were either murdered or died of hunger and ex-posure. Agrarian motives more than r e l i g i o u s "bigotry and i n -tolerance were the forces which had caused the native I r i s h to r i s e against the a l i e n . By the summer of 1642 the insurgents were i n control of most of Ireland and at Kilkenny drew up a scheme of government under which, the Catholic population was to control the des-t i n i e s of t h e i r country. England's necessity was Ireland's op-portunity. Charles, now involved i n a death struggle with his parliament, was forced to come to terms with the I r i s h . By the "Glamorgan Treaty" of 1644 c e r t a i n grievances of the Catholics were to he removed, i n return for which the I r i s h were to r a i s e a force of ten thousand men for the king's service. But some of the I r i s h rebels wished to watch developments i n England and so push t h e i r conquests i n Ireland that they would he able to force good terms from whichever side should be v i c t o r i o u s i n England. Dissensions among the I r i s h further complicated matters; a f t e r one peace arrangement had been accepted i t was repudiated by a group supported by the papal nuncio, Rinuccini; f i n a l l y on January 17, 1649 the second "Ormond Peace" was concluded; the ascendant I r i s h party had thrown i n t h e i r l o t with the Royalists. Thirteen days l a t e r Charles I was dead and Cromwell almost immmediately was i n Ireland to put down a l l resistance and proceed with the scheme of confis-cation and plantation which parliament had already outlined. I t i s unnecessary here to recount the methods adopted by 14 the great Puritan s o l d i e r to s e t t l e the I r i s h question once and for a l l . After a campaign of three years i n which six hundred thousand of a population of one m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand had perished or been'transported, Cromwell proceeded to banish to Connaught and Clare a l l Catholics who were not adjudged "innocent" of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the opposition to his p o l i c i e s . Ap-proximately eleven m i l l i o n acres—more than h a l f the acreage of Ireland—were confiscated and parceled out to soldi e r s and adven-turers. Thousands of I r i s h , i n spite of regulations, were permit-ted by the planters to remain behind as labourers or as wives for the c o l o n i s t s . When a census was taken i n 1659 the figures d i s -closed the fact that in certa i n of the planted areas the native element outnumbered the English by as much as ten to one. But i n -stead of reta i n i n g t h e i r former high estate, the I r i s h papists, as num! erous as ever, had become the i n f e r i o r s i n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and i n wealth of the strangers. Cromwell's policy, however, promised l a s t i n g peace, f o r the Commonwealth was to include Ireland. The Instrument of Government (1653) referred to "the government of the Common-wealth of England, Scotland and Ireland," and his navigation act also removed a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s from I r i s h trade. Had Cromwell l i v e d longer or had his system survived him, the future h i s t o r y of Ireland might have moved i n happier channels. But when i n 1660 Charles II returned from his travels to restore monarchy to England, s t r i f e i n Ireland was oiice more precipitated. In spite of Charles' promises i n the Declaration of Breda 15 that bygones should remain bygones i t was d i f f i c u l t to make a sa t i s f a c t o r y settlement i n Ireland. No matter who was given the t i t l e s to the Oromwellian confiscations, both colonists and natives could complain of discrimination. Charles shrewdly decided that since the Royalist group i n Ireland was weak and depressed i t oould be ignored. By an Act for the Settlement of Ireland (May 1661) Charles managed to turn the native I r i s h into rebels and the parliamentary party into l o y a l supporters and confirmed the claims of most of the new c o l o n i s t s . A l -though many of the I r i s h had taken part i n the c i v i l war to further t h e i r own ends i t was obvious that Charles decided the land issue on the grounds of expediency rather than equity. Charles also saw to i t that the Protestant Episcopalian Church was re-established i n Ireland, as i n England. Both Catholics and Dissenters found themselves excluded from o f f i c i a l positions and persecuted i n the conventional manner. The "Popish P l o t " (1678) gave English authorities the opportunity of implicating I r i s h Catholics and many prominent .Catholics were imprisoned f o r alleged complicity i n the scheme of Titus Oates. With the accession of the Catholic James II to the throne, r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n i n Ireland seemed imminent, Anti-Popery laws were i n many instances quietly suspended and Catholics were permitted to s l i p into vacant o f f i c e s i n the army, on the bench and i n municipal o f f i c e s . But when James II overplayed his hand by publishing the "Declarations of Indulgence" the hopes of the Catholics were shattered, for the King found i t 16 necessary to f l e e to the Continent and the Protestant William of Orange was i n v i t e d to occupy the B r i t i s h throne. Both the exiled James and the new monarch used Ireland as a pawn i n t h e i r game; the unfortunate i s l a n d was again riven hy the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s . James managed to obtain some i n f e r i o r assistance from Louis XIV of France and proceeded to Ireland i n the hope of r a l l y i n g that country - with the exception of U l s t e r -to his support. Derry, the backbone of the Ul s t e r resistance, held out so successfully against the forces of James that he was forced to give up the siege. He then turned his attention to the I r i s h parliament, writs for i t s summoning having been sent out i n March (1689). Certain enlightened l e g i s l a t i o n of James' Parliament was praiseworthy, for complete r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n , a change i n the contribution and c o l l e c t i o n of church tithes and independence of the I r i s h parliament from l e g i s l a t i o n by the English parliament were contemplated i n various enactments. Un-fortunately f o r the memory of his parliament, i t s members passed two imprudent measures — reversals of the Act of Settlement and the B i l l of Attainder. By the f i r s t an injudicious attempt was made to restore land confiscations and by the second an e f f o r t was made to have f o r f e i t e d to James the land of a l l those judged g u i l t y of conspiring with William of Orange. Both of these measures f a i l e d i n t h e i r purpose; they merely aggravated r e l a t i o n s i n the unhappy i s l a n d . Following the h i s t o r i c B a t t l e of the Bo:/ne and the two Sieges of Limerick the supporters of James were forced to sign the A r t i c l e s of Limerick (The Treaty of Limerick). By th i s 17 Treaty i t was agreed, that: "the Roman Catholics of this Kingdom (Ireland) s h a l l enjoy such p r i v i l e g e s i n the exercise of t h e i r r e l i g i o n as are consistent with the laws of Ireland, or as they did enjoy i n the reign of King Charles I I ; " 7 and that the native I r i s h i n sections not yet d e f i n i t e l y controlled by the English should be permitted to carry on t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s without hind-rance so long as they should not "neglect or refuse to take the oath of allegiance made by act of Parliament i n England." 8 The main a r t i c l e s of the Treaty were s u f f i c i e n t l y ambigious to permit t h e i r v i o l a t i o n . Catholics were excluded from the I r i s h parliament, many native estates were declared f o r f e i t e d and i n numerous instances the agreed restoration of Jacobite estates was ignored. Although an attempt may be made to j u s t i f y the v i o l a t i o n of the Treaty by reference to the general r e l i g i o u s intolerance of the age, the fear of foreign invasion which the Catholics might support, and indignation at the persecution of Protestants by Louis XIV, yet the memory of the broken treaty l i v e d for generations among the I r i s h , both at home and abroad. The Period of the Penal Laws 9 Two centuries of destructive warfare had now broken down the Gaelic p o l i t y . For almost one hundred years the Catholics ceased to count i n public l i f e . Of t h e i r l i v e s and acts few and obscure records have been preserved. The h i s t o r y of Ireland from 1700 to 1775 was that of the Protestant colony, p a r t i c u l a r l y 7. Quoted by Hayden and Moonan, Op.cit. ,t/352 8. Ibid. 9. See Lecky, W.E.Hi., History of Ireland i n the 18th century, Vol.I,ppL36-240. 18 that section of i t which belonged to the State Established Church. Catholics were rigorously excluded from parliament, o f f i c e s of state, the professions of the law, the army and the navy, and from membership i n a corporation or grand jury. Even i n business they were r e s t r i c t e d from exercising c e r t a i n trades. Extra impositions were l a i d on t h e i r industry; and th e i r p r o f i t s on farms were l i m i t e d . But most g a l l i n g of a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s to the Catholic was the deliberate p o l i c y of up-rooting native education by the forbidding of Catholic schools and colleges and the handing over of orphans to Protestant guardians. During this period the Catholics were approximately seventy per cent, of the population; probably at no time d i d the Protestant group i n control number more than f i f t e e n per cent of the people. The e v i l e f f e c t s of the Penal Laws on both Protestants and Catholics can scarcely be exaggerated. The c o n t r o l l i n g group became i d l e , dissipated and neglectful of th e i r duties , while the oppressed element acquired the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of se r f s , --becom ing lazy, s h i f t l e s s and untruthful. A l l the best of the natives' a b i l i t i e s were l o s t to the country, since they had no means of exercising them and many of the most able of the I r i s h people l e f t t h e i r native land to give t h e i r services to European and later^American governments. Although the English government was w i l l i n g to permit the Catholics, to be depressed by the Protestant minority, yet i t was by no means anxious to allow the l a t t e r group to reap economic advantages at the expense of English trade. A b i l l en-19 t i t l e d "an act for laying an additional duty upon Woolen Manufactures exported out of this Kingdom", was passed i n 1698, As a res u l t of t h i s measure and other l e g i s l a t i o n of a s i m i l a r nature the I r i s h woollen trade was ruined. Only industries which did not compete with those of England were permitted to operate u n r e s t r i c t e d . During the penal era the I r i s h parliament, l a r g e l y domin-ated hy the Protestant group i n control of the Established Church, was marked hy corruption. The franchise was r e s t r i c t e d , voting was i n a l l cases open and the task of buying up most of the available votes was looked a f t e r by the "Undertakers" (the chief borough owners). Moreover through the workings of Poynings Act the action of the I r i s h parliament was fettered. In b r i e f , almost every f a u l t that a l e g i s l a t i v e assembly could have was present i n the.Irish parliament of the eighteenth century. And yet, i n spite of a l l i t s f a u l t s , i t was an I r i s h parliament of a kind. With the accumulation of misery r e s u l t i n g from r e l i g i o u s , agrarian and trade r e s t r i c t i o n s , there gradually grew up a number of secret s o c i e t i e s the chief purpose of which was the protection outside the law of the peasant farmers. Of these the Whiteboys was the most prominent, a group which rose i n opposition to the enclosure movement of the middle of the cen-tury. Other organizations such as the Peep o* Day Boys (Pro-testants) and Defenders and Ribbonmen (Catholics) also were formed to protect t h e i r respective i n t e r e s t s . Violence of every description characterised the activities of the r i v a l 20 organizations. But i n spite of a l l the forces tending to disrupt the r e l a t i o n s between the Anglo-Irish and the natives of the island, the impact of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l and economic forces began to act as an integrating force to the s i t u a t i o n . The I r i s h par-liament found i t necessary i n 1722 to object to the granting of a patent to an Englishman for the manufacture of small coin f o r Ireland.10 Then under George II further opposition came from the supposedly docile I r i s h parliament over the matter of the d i s p o s i t i o n of the surpluses of several years' administration of government revenues. Apparently the Protestant minority was also beginning to object to domination by the English government. With the outbreak of the American revolution the condition of Ireland became c r i t i c a l . Prance had a l l i e d h e r s e l f with the r e v o l t i n g colonies, and the English government against i t s better d i s c r e t i o n permitted the Protestants of Ulster to form a Volunteer Corps, ostensibly to protect Ireland from French invasion. The Lord Lieutenant, the E a r l of Buckinghamshire, r e a l i z e d that t h i s body r e a l l y had p o l i t i c a l aims, but that he could not deny the Protestant element the right to defend t h e i r country, i n the absence of the regular army now b u s i l y engaged i n North America. As the chance of invasion grew less the Volunteers began to turn t h e i r attention to domestic questions; t h e i r object came to be the obtaining for t h e i r country, espec-i a l l y i t s Protestant inhabitants, such a system of administration 10. Jonathan Swift was the leading figure i n the protest. 21 under the English crown as might redress the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t -i c a l and economic grievances. By 1780, following the imposition of a series of embargoes on the export of I r i s h provisions to foreign countries, the economic ru i n of the country was univer s a l . Discontent was heard on every side. Led by Henry Grattan the I r i s h Parliament fought f o r free trade and by the boycotting of English goods and threatening gestures managed to force the English author-i t i e s to y i e l d , Ireland had learned a dangerous p o l i t i c a l lesson: England would y i e l d to threats of violence what she had denied to reason and argument, couched i n respectful and cons t i t u t i o n a l language. The gaining of free trade was a spur to the move for the grant of l e g i s l a t i v e independence. A great co nvention of the Ulster Volunteers, passed on May, 15, 1782, a number of resolutions, the chief of which protested against the uncon-s t i t u t i o n a l claim of any body other than "the King, Lords and Commons of Ireland to make laws to bind t h i s Kingdom."11 Claims that the Crown of Ireland was an Imperial one were made by Grattan and his supporters who protested that the happiness of both Ireland and England depended upon the recognition of that, p r i n c i p l e . Faced with t h i s gathering tide of protest the English government on May 25, 1782,repealed the I r i s h act of 1494 — Poynings 1 Law; and when i n Feb. 1782,, the English Govern-ment passed a Renunciation Act stating that:"The right claimed 11. Quoted by Hayden and Moonan, op.cit . p.402. 22 "by the people of Ireland to be bound only by laws enacted by his Majesty and the Parliament of that Kingdom (Ireland) s h a l l be established...forever, and s h a l l at no time hereafter be 1 2 questioned or questionable 5" l e g i s l a t i v e independance for Ireland had been effected. The gaining of l e g i s l a t i v e independence f o r the I r i s h parliament was at best a dubious benefit i f that body remained unreformed. Realizing this s i t u a t i o n the Volunteers demanded and extension of the franchise f o r adult male Protestants; the enlargement of the smaller ("rotten") borough e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s ; the removal of pensioners from parliament; a move to abolish the practice of buying up seats; and t r i e n n i a l parliaments. With minor exceptions the independent I r i s h parliament did no-thing during the eighteen years of i t s existence to reform these abuses which existed within i t s e l f ; abuses which, when P i t t decided upon l e g i s l a t i v e union, rendered the attainment of that object comparatively easy. "Grattan's Parliament", further handicapped by the fact that i t s Executive was responsible only to the .English govern-ment, conferred great benefits on Ireland,by f o s t e r i n g her industries, increasing her material prosperity and constituting i t s e l f an object of national pride and a centre of national l i f e around which in the course of time the population of the country would have r a l l i e d . 12. Quoted by Hayden and Moonan, op.cit., p.405. 13. The Executive consisted of the l o r d Lieutenant, the Chief Secretary and a few of the leading o f f i c i a l s , a l l selected i n England by the leader or the leaders of the p o l i t i c a l party i n power there. 23 Beginning i n 1788 1 4 a series of Catholic R e l i e f h i l l s had been passed to free the Papist element from the repressive en-actments passed i n the e a r l i e r part of the century. At f i r s t t r e ating of economic and purely r e l i g i o u s grievances,the measures, l a r g e l y through the continual a g i t a t i o n of the Catholic element, culminated i n the introduction of the R e l i e f B i l l of 1793. By t h i s measure Catholics were to be given the franchise and the right to hold c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l positions other than parliamentary and such p a r t i c u l a r l y important ones as those i n the army and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Unfortunately, the Crown's o f f i c i a l s i n Ireland i n t e r f e r e d with the immediate recognition of the l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with the Catholic claims. I t became obvious that P i t t , disturbed by the war with Uapolean, had determined to amalgamate the two p a r l i a -ments and s e t t l e the Catholic a g i t a t i o n by l e g i s l a t i o n at West-minster. Lord F i t z w i l l i a m , the I r i s h Viceroy, struggled to keep the s i t u a t i o n i n hand by having the claims of the Catholics met. He argued that the Protestants of Ireland had made neither p e t i t i o n nor remonstrance against t o l e r a t i o n f o r the Catholics. His r e c a l l on March 25, 1795, was a blunder of the f i r s t magni-tude; the hopes of the Catholics were shattered and a campaign of violence was decided upon to shake o f f e n t i r e l y the English power. Already (1791) an organization, the Society of United Englishmen, had been formed to achieve "a brotherhood of a f f e c t i o n ; a communion of rights and a union of power amongst Irishmen of every r e l i g i o u s persuasion, and thereby to obtain a complete re-14. Many of the penal laws had begun to be ignored as early as 1750. £4 form of the Legislature, founded, on the p r i n c i p l e s of c i v i l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y . " 1 ^ i t s most prominent member, was a Protestant lawyer, Wolfe Tone. This organization, at f i r s t open and Protestant, was repressed by the government; i t then became secret, r a d i c a l and attracted many Catholics to i t s ranks. Its power soon extended over the entire i s l a n d . In opposition to t h i s organization there was founded i n 1795 the Orange Society, a secret and wholly Protestant association. Following i t s inception a reign of terror ensued i n which Protestants and Catholics perpetrated a t r o c i t i e s against one another. The policy of the government was to ignore many of the crimes committed by the Protestants but to punish with great severity the actions of the Papists. Meanwhile the United Irishmen pushed t h e i r preparations for an insurrection, which occurred i n March, 1798. A number of the chief men of the organization were immediately arrested, and with the machinery out of gear, the r e b e l l i o n took the form of a number of l o c a l uprisings. For several months the government forces, supported by a German regiment, c a r r i e d on i s o l a t e d engagements with the badly equipped but valorous insurgents. Gradually the resistance of the rebels was battered down, and many of the leaders who f e l l into the hands of the government were executed for t h e i r part i n the insurrection. A few months af t e r the l o c a l uprisings had been put down, a small French army landed at K i l l a l a (Co. Mayo), but i n spite of one or two successes f i n a l l y surrendered to the B r i t i s h forces. Wolfe Tone 15. The c o n s t i t u t i o n of the society i s quoted i n part by O'Connor, S i r James, History of Ireland, Vol.1 p.64. 25 who had been responsible for bringing the expedition was cap-tured and executed. With the insurrection r u t h l e s s l y crushed P i t t turned at once to the task of e f f e c t i n g the l e g i s l a t i v e union of England and Ireland, He had decided upon th i s step f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. In the f i r s t place an independent Ireland appeared to him a menace to the security of Great B r i t a i n , as England's enemies had frequently attempted to use Ireland as the base for attacks on B r i t a i n , In the second place, he considered that the vexed Catholic question would have more opportunity of beiig s e t t l e d i f brought into a wider and freer arena. Again, he r e a l i z e d that the abandonment of Ireland to her own resources would r e s i t i n ultimate disaster to the Protestant minority. Finally^under a union,economy of administration and the acces-s i b i l i t y of wider markets were bound to be of advantage to Ireland's i n d u s t r i a l l i f e . Opposition to the plan came from many of the Protestant group who shortsightedly feared the loss of personal prestige i n a wider union. The Orange Societies p a r t i c u l a r l y opposed amal-gamation. On the whole the Catholic hierarchy favoured the proposed union as the p o s s i b i l i t y of emancipation appeared more certain i n a united parliament. Lord Castlereagh stated "that he would be a base and ungra t e f u l man i f he were not r e a d i l y to acknowledge that the Catholics had materially assisted i n accomplishing the measure." 1 6 P i t t also argued that " i t i s 16. Hyde, H.M., The Rise of Castlereagh, 281. A detailed account of the part played by Castlereagh i n bringing about the Union i s found i n chapters VIII and IX of this recent (1933) and illuminating biography. 26 obvious that such a question (Catholic emancipation) may be agitated i n an United Imperial Parliament with much greater safety than i t could be i n a separated l e g i s l a t u r e . " 1? The methods by which the I r i s h Parliament was persuaded to sign i t s own death sentence were extremely corrupt but not unusual for the time. Over one m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g were spent i n buying up the necessary boroughs and innumerable pensions arranged for those who would lose o f f i c e s . Hew peer-ages were cxeated and other jobs provided. J. Holland Rose attempts to excuse t h i s staggering corruption by stating:"These sordid bargainings cannot be said to be wholesale corruption, and did not much exceed those which normally were needed to carry an important B i l l through Parliament." 18 The opponents of the B i l l also resorted to bribery but lacking the resources of the government they were unable to prevent the Union from taking place. The tragedy of the Union was not so much i t s consummation as the manner i n vb i c h i t was effected. The Union with Scotland (1707) had been a business man's agreement with a s a t i s f a c t o r y amount of "haggling" on both sides; the I r i s h Union was an act of unadulterated corruption. On Feb. 5, 1800, i d e n t i c a l b i l l s f or.a Treaty of Union 1 9 passed both B r i t i s h and I r i s h l e g i s l a t u r e s . B r i e f l y the chief clauses of the Act of Union set forth the following points: 17. Rose, J . Holland, L i f e of William P i t t , Part II.p.420 18. Ibid,p429. 19. 40 George I I I . Cap. 67, 1800. 27 1. The Kingdoms were to he united for ever by the name of the United Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and Ireland. 2. The United Kingdom was to be represented by one Parliament. 3. Ireland was to be represented i n the Upper House by four S p i r i t u a l and twenty-eight Temporal Peers — the former to s i t by rotation, session by session; the l a t t e r to be selected for l i f e by the votes of a l l the I r i s h peers. 4. The Established Churches of England and Ireland were to be united "into one Protestant Episcopal Church." The continuance of this Church as the established Church of England and Ireland should "be deemed to be an esse n t i a l and fundamental part of the Union." 5. Ireland was to be represented i n the Commons by one hundred members, and thi s representation, as well as that i n the House of lords, was to be considered as part of the Union. * 6. There should be no duty charged nor bounty given on the ex-port of the products of Ireland to England, or vice versa. 7. A l l products of either country except those on a given l i s t should be imported free by the other. 8. There should be the same charges on foreign imports i n both countries. 9. For the present, Ireland should contribute to the common ex-penditure of both countries i n the proportion of two parts i n seventeen. This arrangement might afterwards be re-adjusted. 10. The part of the revenue of Ireland which would remain over afte r the two-in-seventeen charges had been paid, was to be used to pay the interest of the National Debt of Ireland, to re-28 luce the deht i t s e l f , and for l o c a l needs. 11. No a r t i c l e was to he more highly taxed i n Ireland than i n England. 12. I f the separate National Debt of each country should be liquidated, or i f the value of the respective debts should assume the same proportions as the separate contributions f i x e d f o r each country {two to f i f t e e n ) , the two exchequers might be amalgamted. I f this happened equal taxes should be imposed on both countires, "subject only to such abatements for Ireland as circumstances seem to require." The Union had been brought about. By i t Ireland derived undoubted benefits: r e s t r i c t i o n s on her trade were removed; protection was given to her products; her representation i n the United l e g i s l a t u r e was more than her just share; the f i n a n c i a l arrangements were i n most respects equitable. But i n spite of these advantages accruing to I r e l a n d ^ d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Union was widespread and for one hundred and twenty years suc-cessive generations of Irishmen struggled to have the Union re-pealed or d r a s t i c a l l y modified. •i'he explanation of this more than a century of agitated re-la t i o n s between England and Ireland lay i n the fundamental d i f f e r -ences i n the economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l structures of the two countries and i n the clash between various groups i n Ireland i t -s e l f . Consequently Anglo-Irish re l a t i o n s from 1801 to 1922 were i n the f i e l d s of economic, r e l i g i o u s , educational, and p o l i t i c a l affairs. None of these may be e n t i r e l y i s o l a t e d from the others; but the broad l i n e s along which Ireland moved to the appearance of the Free State i n 1922 may be f a i r l y c l e a r l y discerned. 29 Chapter II THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION IN IRELAND (1800-1920) In the one hundred and twenty years preceding the appear-ance of the I r i s h Free State i n 1922, an economic revolution occurred i n I r e l a n d — a change marked by an almost unique experi-ment i n state socialism. At the end of that span of time there had come into existence i n Ireland a body of peasant proprietors whose l o t stood out i n g l a r i n g contrast to the poverty-stricken l i f e of the I r i s h peasants of 1801. However, the economic changes of that period championed or endorsed by such outstanding p o l i t i c a l figures as John Bright, Gladstone, Parnell and Arthur and Gerald Balfour, f a i l e d to prevent Irishmen from ag i t a t i n g f o r and e f f e c t i n g such p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l changes as the destruction of the p o l i t i c a l unity of the i s l a n d and the disestablishment of the State Church of Ireland. This f a i l u r e may be explained by the following considerations: land l e g i s l a t i o n was not solved by the united e f f o r t s of the parties of the English p a r l i a m e n t — i t was used as a p o l i t i c a l pawn; agrarian changes were attended by violence on the part of peasants and coercive methods by the government; reform l e g i s -l a t i o n was forced by m i l i t a n t land organizations; a problem of the payment of annuities was l e f t to discourage B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s from v o l u n t a r i l y encouraging any marked degree of I r i s h home rul e ; and i n keeping with the r i s e of the n a t i o n a l i s t i c s p i r i t i n such countries as Germany, I t a l y and Japan, a s i m i l a r sentiment began 30 to p r e v a i l among Irishmen of "both Catholic ana. Protestant per-suasions."1" During the greater portion of the nineteenth century Ire-land, more f e r t i l e than England, afforded i t s inhabitants no more than the most squalid form of existence. This oondition of a f f a i r s might have been due to some peculiar l o c a l circum-stances, or to English influences. However, an analysis of the economic l i f e of the i s l a n d i n the century and a quarter pre-ceding the appearance of the Free State displays the fact that many factors combined to condition t h i s phase of I r i s h l i f e . Ho single factor operated to the exclusion of the others: neither the t r a d i t i o n a l ignorance of the B r i t i s h government, the super-s t i t i o u s Catholic peasant of the south nor the Protestant bigot of Ulster, the enervating climate nor the absentee Anglo-Irish landlord. The h i s t o r y of the economic l i f e of Ireland subsequent to the act of Union may be divided as follows: peasant l i f e from 1800 to 1845; the famine and l a i s s e r - f a i r e period, 1845 to 1870; the f i r s t intervention of government regulation, 1870; the nation-a l i s t movement, 1875 to 1880; further government regulation, 1881; the period of dual ownership, 1881 to 1903; and the solution of the economic problem, 1900 to 1922. The Setting: Peasant L i f e . Ireland seems destined to be a land of a g r i c u l t u r e ; the growing season i s long; r a i n f a l l i s p l e n t i f u l — a t times too 1. Charles Parnell, and S i r Roger Casement, to mention two outstanding I r i s h r a d i c a l s were Protestants. abundant; the s o i l i s h a b i t u a l l y olothad with a soft mantle of grass and i s with the exception of boggy and barren stretches of land i n a few sections exceptionally f e r t i l e . Outside the bounds of U l s t e r there i s l i t t l e i n d u s t r i a l l i f e as iron and coal are not found. Ireland did not experience the economic awakening of England u n t i l 1875. When i n 1825 protection was withdrawn from nascent I r i s h industries they collapsed almost immediately--again with the exception of U l s t e r where a better land system, community of s o c i a l interests with England and proximity to the "blackbelt" operated to sustain the economic f a b r i c of that area. During the days of the penal laws Anglo-Irish landlords had discouraged t i l l a g e and by enclosure methods developed the grazing resources of the country. This movement had brought into existence large farms and cheap labour and caused an a r t i f i c i a l s c a r c i t y of t i l l a g e land for the peasants. But a f t e r 1800 the Napoleonic wars stimulated t i l l a g e as wheat could be sold at a high price—consequently land was l e t back to the peasants, who along with the landlords enjoyed a bried period of prosperity. The slump began i n 1815 and within f i v e years the depth of a "depression" had been reached. Out of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of factors conditioning the decay of I r i s h economic l i f e between 1820 and 1840 one stands out pre-eminently: the land system with i t s various ramifications. This system, as pointed out i n the previous chapter, was a legacy from the attempts of the English to substitute t h e i r own system of land tenure for that of the native I r i s h . It took more than a century of agrarian unrest and s t r i f e to demonstrate to 32 English governments that the two systems were incompatible. Of the eight hundred thousand holdings by c o t t i e r s (labourers) and small farmers, f u l l y ninety percent.were characterised by the poverty of t h e i r inhabitants, less than one hundred thousand farmers could be c l a s s i f i e d as being f a i r l y well o f f . As the majority of the peasants depended upon the potato as the chief a r t i c l e of diet, even a p a r t i a l f a i l u r e of t h i s crop accentuated the p r e v a i l i n g misery. I f a major famine threatened, a catas-trophe was imminent. Many of the peasants migrated annually to a s s i s t i n the English harvest, thereby earning small sums to augment t h e i r slender resources. To numerous farmers the pig served as a sort of sinking fund from which to meet the exacting 2 rents. Begging during the "meal months" was common on the roadside. In finding reasons for this state of a f f a i r s one discovers them i n conditions over which the peasant had l i t t l e c o n t r o l . Between the landlords—.frequently absentees—and the peasants stood the middlemen, whose duty i t was to exact the rents from which they kept t h e i r portion as payment for t h e i r services. Such men (having no personal interest i n the tenants) were usually quite unscrupulous and were u n i v e r s a l l y hated by the peasants. Again owing to the temporary prosperity of the early years of the century the population had increased r a p i d l y . Consequently there was a keen competition for available land and a tendency 2. Usually A p r i l , May and June--the months between two potato crops. 3. The population was estimated at 8,000,000 i n 1845, and. increase of over 3,000,000 since 1800. 33 to subdivide i t into uneconomic holdings. The scarcity of land for tillage and the absence of other industries added to the burden of unemployment. Finally the slump after 1815 having depressed agricultural prices encouraged the movement to the re-conversion of arable to pasture land. This enclosure movement, characteristic of England and Scotland in previous centuries, was marked by wholesale evictions of tenants and made cheap and speedy by act of parliament. Particularly after 1829 was eviction common as the landlord had no further use for the freeholder as a voter. Rural economy in the period from 1820 to 1845 was the out-come of the prevailing land system. In the poorest portions of the country the population was densest; and as land was scarce the tendency to subdivide i t so that young men and women could marry and "settle down" caused the holdings to diminish to almost microscopic size. The landlords strenuously fought this process with a l l the resources at their command. But even i f the birth rate in these areas had been checked a higher standard of living would not have resulted. According to John Stuart M i l l : "If by extra exertion he (the peasant) doubled the produce of his bit of land, or i f he prudentially abstained from pro-ducing mouths to eat it up, his only gain would be to have more left to pay his landlord; while i f he had twenty children, they ; would s t i l l be fed f irst , and the landlord could only take what was left. Almost alone among mankind the Irish cottier is in this condition, that he can scarcely be better or worse off by any act of his own."5 4. The voters had supported candidates favorable to uatholic emancipation. 5 * M ™ V J * S , ' * , ? 0 l \ i t l ° a l Economy, Renaissance jsdition ^ew York,1900), V 0 l I f p > a u # 34 But the praotice of subdivision d i d not alone explain the pre v a i l i n g state of poverty. The three factors of rents, im-provements and leases also played prominent parts. The f i e r c e competition f o r land permitted the e v i l of "rack-renting"—the habit of the landlord of extorting a rent out of proportion to the y i e l d . The Devon Commission of 1845 reported that "from the excessive competition for land, the tenant to obtain possession i s tempted to o f f e r a higher rent than can be paid f o r the farm under his u n s k i l f u l management; that when making the o f f e r he has no intention of f u l f i l l i n g his part of the bargain, but trusts that the d i f f i c u l t y of enforcing repayment w i l l ensure him a reduction afterwards." 6 Furthermore the landlord rented merely the naked land and expected that the tenant would put up his own house and barns. If the tenants were evicted the owner confiscated the improve-ments without compensation. As a r e s u l t the average tenant with the danger of e v i c t i o n ever imminent took l i t t l e pains to keep his holding i n a good state of repair or to bother with the draining and manuring of the s o i l . John Stuart M i l l observed that the population were indolent and apathetic and that a l -though the means of obtaining an excellent l i v e l i h o o d were at 7 hand the people were i n a perpetual state of semi-starvation. F i n a l l y the practice of l e t t i n g leases from year to year gave the landlord the opportunity of rack-renting or withdrawing the land from t i l l a g e . Many landowners issued to t h e i r tenants annual notices to quit. 6. Report of the Devon Commission (1845), quoted by Pomfret., J.E., The Struggle For land In Ireland, (Princeton University Press, 1930), p.20 7. M i l l , 0 p . c i t . , I, 311,312. 35 With the exception of U l s t e r these unfortunate land con-ditions prevailed before the great famine of 1846. As the l a t t e r approached conditions became gradually worse. With the p o s s i b i l i t y of encouraging manufacturing as a means of amelior-ating conditions, accorded l i t t l e consideration, there remained three ways i n which conditions might have been improved. Pro-duction could have been increased, more land could have been put under c u l t i v a t i o n and the land i t s e l f could have been more equitably d i s t r i b u t e d . To e f f e c t these desirable changes the peasants lacked power, the landlords refused to act i n a manner subversive of what they thought were t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , and the government subscribing to the l a i s s e V - f a i r e economic ideas of the day was loath to i n t e r f e r e . The only outlet for revolutionary ideas of the peasants was the use of secret s o c i e t i e s s i m i l a r to those of the penal days. These organizations waged rel e n t l e s s war against eviction and were in turn fought by the coercive l e g i s l a t i o n of the govern-ment. For f o r t y years successive acts of parliament were passed i n a vain e f f o r t to stamp out the underground attacks on the existing order. It i s true that many English thinkers d i d f e e l sympathy for the tenants i n this class war. M i l l stated that: "Rockism and Whiteboyism are the determination of a people, who have nothing that can be c a l l e d theirs but a d a i l y meal of the lowest description of food not to submit to being deprived of that f o r other people's convenience."® Underground attacks were the only means available to the peasants as p o l i t i c a l l y , econ-8. M i l l , op.cit., I, 311. 36 o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y t h e y were n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o m i n i s t e r t o t h e d i s e a s e w h i c h was s l o w l y d e v o u r i n g them. On t h e i r p a r t t h e l a n d l e r d s r e f u s e d to r e c o g n i s e t h e d u t i e s o f p r o p e r t y as t h e i r f e l l o w s i n E n g l a n d d i d . Most o f them were a b s e n t e e s w i t h no p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e a n n u a l r e n t s . They seemed to a c t u pon two a s s u m p t i o n s : t h a t l a r g e f a r m s were more p r o f i t a b l e t h a n s m a l l , a n d t h a t t h e I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n was t o o l a r g e . f o r t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c o u n t r y . F i n a l l y — t h e government was aware b u t n o t v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n I r i s h d i s t r e s s . From t i m e t o t i m e c o m m i s s i o n s were a p p o i n t e d t o make i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , b u t t h e i r f i n d i n g s were e i t h e r i g n o r e d o r o n l y p a r t i a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d . The p r i n c i p l e s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e were t o o l i b e r a l l y s u b s c r i b e d t o ; t h e government c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t s h o u l d k e e p o u t o f i n d u s t r y and p e r m i t p r o p e r t y t o r e g u l a t e i t s own a c t i v i t i e s . As e a r l y as 1810 an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r t h a d recommended t h a t some o f t h e b o g l a n d m i g h t be c l e a r e d and u s e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t , b u t h i s s u g g e s t i o n s were i g n o r e d . A g a i n , when c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e m a t t e r o f i n t r o d u c i n g P o o r Law l e g i s l a t i o n t o k e e p t h e u n e m p l o y e d I r i s h f r o m coming t o t h e E n g l i s h w o r k - h o u s e s , t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f a c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h recommended p u b l i c works t o a b s o r b s u r p l u s l a b o u r e r s was a l s o i g n o r e d . I n s t e a d a work-house r e l i e f p l a n o f N i c h o l s , t h e E n g l i s h p o o r - l a w e x p e r t , b a s e d u p o n a s i x weeks' i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o f I r i s h c o n d i t i o n s , was a d o p t e d . H i s p l a n f o r I r e l a n d was s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r E n g l a n d ; i t was q u i t e u n s u i t e d t o I r i s h c o n d i t i o n s . The c h i e f r e s u l t s o f h i s scheme seemed t o be t h e a s s i s t a n c e g r a n t e d t o l a n d l o r d s f o r t h e e v i c t i o n 37 o f tenants and the impetus to the emigration o f the best classes from Ireland. The Famine and Laissez-Faire. In the years 1845 to 1847 occurred the great famine. An o f f i c i a l record of this national calamity gives the picture o f what occurred. "Agriculture was neglected and the land i n many places remained u n t i l l e d . Thousands were supported from day to day upon the bounty of outdoor r e l i e f ; the closest t i e s of kindred were dissolved; the most ancient and long cherished usages of the people were disregarded; food the most r e v o l t i n g to human palates was eagerly devoured; the once proverbial gaiety and light-heartedness of the peasant people seemed to have vanished completely; and v i l l a g e merriment or marriage f e s t i v a l was no longer seen or heard throughout the regions desolated by the in t e n s i t y and extent of the famine; f i n a l l y the disorganization of society became marked, and memorable by the exodus of above one m i l l i o n of people, who deserted their homes and hearths to seek food and shelter i n foreign lands, of whom thousands perish-q ed from pestilence and the hardships endured on shipboard." In order to cope with the s i t u a t i o n the government was forced to remove the corn laws and the navigation system—the l a s t vestiges of protection. The controversy over these changes was so extensive that thousands died while the protagonists of schools of economic thought thundered out the i r theories on the fl o o r of the house of 'commons. Also the export of I r i s h a g r i -c u l t u r a l goods was not forbidden; i n 1847 goods valued at f o r t y - f i v e 9. Census of Ireland, 1851, quoted by Pomfret, op.cit.pp.34-35. 38 m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g were e x p o r t e d — s u f f i c i e n t - i n q u a n t i t y to f e e d the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d . V a r i o u s r e l i e f schemes were i n a u g u r a t e d — c h i e f o f wh i c h was one c o m p e l l i n g the l a n d -l o r d s t o u n d e r t a k e and i n f a c t ' f i n a n c e p u b l i c works. F i n a l l y the government was f o r c e d t o i n s t a l l a system o f soup k i t c h e n s . The impact o f the famine on the f a b r i c o f I r i s h l i f e was t e r r i f i c . Hundreds o f l a n d l o r d s f a c i n g f i n a n c i a l r u i n them-s e l v e s s d z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to e j e c t t h e i r t e n a n t s ; i n t h r e e y e a r s (1847-1849) o v e r f i v e hundred thousand s o u l s were e j e c t e d from t h e i r homes. While the government experimented w i t h u s e -l e s s p u b l i c works one m i l l i o n p e o p l e s t a r v e d o r d i e d o f d i s e a s e and a n o t h e r one m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand f l e d i n h o r r o r from the c o u n t r y , thousands o f the l a t t e r group d y i n g on b o a r d s h i p s s a i l i n g f o r N o r t h America o r A u s t r a l a s i a , One c l a s s d i s -appeared a l m o s t e n t i r e l y — t h e c o t t i e r o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r . ^ E m i g r a t i o n became a v e r i t a b l e e p i d e m i c , e v e r y y e a r f o r the n e x t h a l f c e n t u r y s e e i n g thousands o f I r i s h y o u t h l e a v i n g t h e i r n a t i v e s h o r e s to s t a r t l i f e i n the New World. With them they took an i m p l a c a b l e h a t r e d o f E n g l a n d — a n a n i m o s i t y which was t r a n s m i t t e d from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . W, E. l e c k y w r i t e s ; " I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the t r u e s o u r c e o f the savage h a t r e d o f E ngland t h a t animates g r e a t t o d i e s o f I r i s h m e n on e i t h e r s i d e of the A t l a n t i c has v e r y l i t t l e r e a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the P e n a l l a w s , o r the R e b e l l i o n , o r the U n i o n , I t i s f a r more due to the g r e a t c l e a r a n c e s and t h e v a s t u n a i d e d e m i g r a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d the f a m i n e . " 1 * 10. The h o l d i n g s o f t h i s c l a s s dropped from 135,00 i n 1841 t o 35,000 i n 1851. P o m f r e t , o p . c i t . , p . 4 0 . 11. L e c k y , W.E., L e a d e r s o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n I r e l a n d , new e d i t i o n I L „ ' A ondon, 1 9 1 ^ , V o l . p . 1 8 4 . 39 L a n d t e n u r e , i n s e c u r e f o r t h e t e n a n t s b e f o r e 1845 became more so a f t e r t h e f a m i n e as numerous l a n d l o r d s , a n x i o u s t o e s c a p e f u r t h e r l o s s e s due t o t h e f a l l i n t h e p r i c e o f c o r n , r e l e n t l e s s l y c l e a r e d t h e i r e s t a t e s a n d t u r n e d them i n t o g r a z i n g l a n d . More t h a n one-t h i r d o f t h e l a n d l o r d s t h e m s e l v e s were r u i n e d ; t h e i r e s t a t e s b e -i n g p l a c e d i n c h a n c e r y . J o h n B r i g h t a r g u e d t h a t t h e l a n d s h o u l d be f r e e d f r o m t h e hands o f t h e s e i m p o v e r i s h e d owners and p l a c e d i n t h o s e o f more 12 ^ e f f i c i e n t p r o p r i e t o r s . He m i s g u i d e ^ l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e s t a t u s o f b o t h t h e l a n d l o r d s a n d t h e p e a s a n t s o f I r e l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y i n 1849 an Encumbered E s t a t e s C o u r t was s e t u p and i n t h e n e x t d e c a d e o v e r t h r e e t h o u s a n d e s t a t e s were d i s p o s e d o f b y i t t o new l a n d l o r d s , most o f whom were I r i s h . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e new owners were no more t o l e r a n t t h a n t h e f o r m e r ones, f o r t h e y c h a r g e d h i g h r e n t s a n d demanded prompt payment. The c l a s s i c example i n I r e l a n d o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f r e e t r a d e d o c t r i n e was t h e enactment o f D e a s y ' s a c t (1866) b y w h i c h a l l l e t t i n g a g r e e m e n t s were d e s i g n a t e d as c o n t r a c t s ; t h e t e n a n t h i r e d t h e l a n d f o r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e a t a s t a t e d p r i c e . I f t h e terms o f t h e c o n t r a c t were b r o k e n t h e t e n a n t was s u m m a r i l y e v i c t e d . Thus i n 1860 t h e power o f t h e l a n d l o r d was a t i t s z e n i t h . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y t h e V i c t o r i a n s y s t e m o f " r u l e o f thumb" economic t h i n k i n g was b e i n g a p p l i e d to t h e I r i s h s i t u a t i o n , where i t h a d l i t t l e o r no a p p l i c a t i o n . E n g l i s h e c o n o m i s t s c o n -12. S p e e c h e s b y J o hn B r i g h t , e d i t e d b y K o g e r s , J . E . , .Vol.1, pp.334-347. 40 s i d e r e d t h a t what was good f o r E n g l a n d must be e q u a l l y so f o r I r e l a n d . But t h e y i g n o r e d o e r t a i n o b v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I n E n g l a n d t e n a n t farmers were s c a r c e , i n I r e l a n d p l e n t i f u l ; Eng-l a n d had numerous l a r g e c i t i e s t o w h i c h i n d i g e n t o r d i s s a t i s f i e d f a r m e rs might m i g r a t e , I r e l a n d had n o t h i n g b u t l a n d f o r the b a s i s o f h e r economic l i f e — t h e peasant had to a c c e p t the terms o f the l a n d l o r d o r s t a r v e . D u r i n g the decade from 1860 t o 1870 the peasant f e l t t h e p r e s s u r e o f economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The e x t e n t o f g r a z i n g l a n d i n c r e a s e d ; the c o s t o f l i v i n g r o s e w h i l e h i s wages remained s t a t i o n a r y . A g a i n the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the E n g l i s h l a n d l o r d system and the o l d I r i s h common ownership i d e a Was ap-p e a r i n g . The peasant wanted the use o f the s o i l i n p e r p e t u i t y ; he would pay a r e n t i f i t was e x a c t e d bu t beyond t h a t he was un-w i l l i n g to go. T h i s " t e n a n t r i g h t " had not been u n i v e r s a l l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h on a l a r g e s c a l e b e f o r e t h e famine and conse-q u e n t l y the peasant at t h a t t i m e was not v e r y a r t i c u l a t e i n h i s demands. But w i t h the i m p o s i t i o n , o f an i r r e g u l a r r e n t a l system--t h a t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the f r e e t r a d e i d e a to the s o i l - - t e n a n t r i g h t was d e s t r o y e d . The s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s t h a t c o n t i n u e d to work below the s u r f a c e a g a i n s t the l a n d l o r d system were p r o t e c t i n g p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , but t h e y were the r i g h t s o f the c u l t i v a t o r not the r e n t - r e c e i v e r . Tenant r i g h t was known and v a l u e d by p e a s a n t s throughout I r e l a n d but o n l y i n U l s t e r d i d the l a n d l o r d c l a s s s a n c t i o n i t . Elsewhere s i n c e i t was not r e c o g n i z e d by the c o u r t s , i t was de-f e n d e d by i l l e g a l a c t i o n s . The s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s u s e f u l p r i n -41 c i p l e was not p a r t i c u l a r l y complex. As l o n g as h i s r e n t was p a i d the t e n a n t c o u l d c o n t i n u e i n u n d i s t u r b e d p o s s e s s i o n ; he c o u l d s e l l h i s i n t e r e s t t o a n o t h e r t e n a n t ; he c o u l d t r a n s f e r h i s p r o -p e r t y t o an h e i r o r a s s i g n e e . On h i s p a r t t h e l a n d l o r d r e t a i n e d h i s p r o p e r t y r i g h t s h u t he c o u l d not " r a c k r e n t " ; he c o u l d v e t o the i n c o m i n g o f an u n d e s i r a b l e t e n a n t ; he might buy out the i n t e r e s t o f an o u t g o i n g t e n a n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y a l t h o u g h the f e r t i l i t y o f U l s t e r was i n f e r i o r to t h a t o f the s o u t h y e t t h i s more e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t made a g r i c u l t u r e i n U l s t e r more p r o d u c t i v e , b r o u g h t b e t t e r r e n t s to the owners and kept the v a l u e o f l a n d a t a u n i f o r m l y h i g h l e v e l . I n b r i e f " t e n a n t r i g h t " 1 3 was the l e t t i n g o f l a n d i n p e r p e t u i t y s u b j e c t to a r e v a l u a t i o n o f the r e n t from time to t i m e . The c o n t r a s t i n 1860 between the n o r t h and s o u t h was s t r i k i n g ; i n one s e c t i o n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t e d from homely customs — i n the o t h e r f r i c t i o n emanated from u n t r i e d economic t h e o r i e s . Government I n t e r v e n t i o n 1870. l a n d l o r d s i n the s o u t h o f I r e l a n d were u n i f o r m l y shocked by the p r a c t i c e s o f t h e i r f e l l o w s i n U l s t e r . To g r a n t any o f the c l a i m s o f t e n a n t r i g h t would mean a l i m i t a t i o n o f the a b s o l u t e 13. An e x c e l l e n t account o f the a t t i t u d e o f U l s t e r l a n d l o r d s to t e n a n t r i g h t i s found i n S i r A l f r e d l y a l l ' s The l i f e o f The M a r q u i s - o f D u f f e r i n and Ava (London, 1905), V o l . I , Chapt. V I . D u f f e r i n f a v o u r e d the i m p a r t i a l u p h o l d i n g o f law and o r d e r , the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , c o n s o l -i d a t i o n o f uneconomic h o l d i n g s , e m i g r a t i o n f o r the s t a g n a n t p o p u l a t i o n b u t a t the same time t h e passage o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o a s s u r e I r i s h t e n a n t s the t h r e e " F ' s " . 42 r i g h t o f the owner to d i s p o s e o f h i s p r o p e r t y to s u i t h i s f a n c y ; to admit a l l o f them would he t o acknowledge a c o - p a r t n e r s h i p i n the p r o p e r t y . I n P a l m e r s t o n ' s famous words. "Tenant r i g h t meant l a n d l o r d wrong." Yet i n s p i t e o f the u n i n t e l l i g e n t approach o f the l a n d l o r d s to the a g r a r i a n problem, a movement was g r a d u a l l y g a t h e r i n g f o r c e w hich c u l m i n a t e d i n 1870 i n the r e s t r i c t i o n of the l a n d l o r d ' s " r i g h t s " . V a r i o u s r e f o r m e r s came f o r w a r d w i t h the p l e a t h a t I r i s h customs s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d : t h e y recommended the h o l d i n g o f l a n d i n p e r p e t u i t y a f t e r a r e n t had been f i x e d and compensation a t the end o f a l e a s e f o r the improvements made by h o l d e r s . As e a r l y as 1835 the U l s t e r custom was brought up i n the house o f commons by Sharman C r a w f o r d , an U l s t e r l a n d l o r d . I n 1845 the Devon commission i n v e s t i g a t e d I r i s h c o n d i t i o n s and made s u g g e s t i o n s . f o r changes i n I r i s h l a n d r e l a t i o n s w h i c h t r a n s g r e s s e d the bounds o f the r i g h t s o f p r o p e r t y . T h i s by no means r a d i c a l commission r e p o r t e d i n p a r t as f o l l o w s : " A l t h o u g h i t i s c e r t a i n l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t the f a i r r e m u n e r a t i o n to w h i c h a t e n a n t i s e n t i t l e d f o r h i s o u t l a y o f c a p i t a l o r o f l a b o u r , i n permanent improvements s h o u l d be s e c u r e d to him by v o l u n t a r y agreement r a t h e r than c o m p u l s i o n by law; y e t upon a r e v i e w o f a l l the e v i d e n c e f u r n i s h e d to us upon the s u b j e c t , we b e l i e v e t h a t some l e g i s l a t i v e measure w i l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to g i v e e f f i c a c y . t o such agreements as w e l l as to p r o v i d e f o r t hose cases w h i c h cannot be s e t t l e d by p r i v a t e a r r a n g e m e n t . " 1 4 A c c o r d i n g to G l a d s t o n e i n 187O 1^ i f the v i e w s o f t h i s com-14. Report o f Devon Commission; 1120, quoted by P o m f r e t , b p . c i t . ; p.63. 15. A nnual R e g i s t e r , 1870, p.23. 43 m i s s i o n had been a c c e p t e d , t h e r e would have been no l a n d q u e s t i o n . B i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o P a r l i a m e n t i n 1845, 1848 and 1850 to implement p a r t s o f the r e p o r t b u t i n a l l c a s e s t h e y were r e j e c t e d by the l a i s s e r - f a i r e members o f p a r l i a m e n t . I n 1850, f o l l o w i n g a c o n f e r e n c e o f t e n a n t s o c i e t i e s o f U l s t e r , the I r i s h Tenant R i g h t League was formed f o r the purpose o f ob-t a i n i n g f a i r r e n t s by v a l u a t i o n , s e c u r i t y from d i s t u r b a n c e as l o n g as r e n t s were p a i d , t e n a n t r i g h t to s e l l h i s i n t e r e s t and h i s improvements and r e l i e f from the a r r e a r s o f r e n t a c c r u i n g s i n c e the famine. The s o c i e t y p l e d g e d i t s e l f to s u p p o r t p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a n d i d a t e s who would p r e s s f o r w a r d i t s o b j e c t s . F o l l o w i n g the e l e c t i o n s o f 1852, the new group, f i f t y s t r o n g , appeared i n p a r -l i a m e n t . A l t h o u g h t e n members l a t e r r e s i g n e d from the p a r t y f o l -l o w i n g a "no popery" o u t b u r s t i n U l s t e r , the remainder r e s o l v e d to h o l d t hemselves p e r f e c t l y independent o f and i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l governments w h i c h d i d not s u p p o r t the p r i n c i p l e s o f t e n a n t r i g h t . At the same time John B r i g h t was a g i t a t i n g t o have l a n d -l o r d - t e n a n t laws c o n s o l i d a t e d and the t e n a n t s themselves s a f e g u a r d -ed a g a i n s t l o s s i n the s a l e o f t h e i r permanent i m p r o v e m e n t s . 1 6 T h i s move was f o l l o w e d by one by S i r Joseph H a p i e r , the I r i s h a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , i n which were i n c l u d e d the p r i n c i p l e s o f com-p e n s a t i o n f o r e x i s t i n g as w e l l as f u t u r e improvements, s i m p l i -f i c a t i o n o f the l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t law, and the p l a c i n g o f the r e l a t i o n o f the l a n d l o r d t o the t e n a n t on a c o n t r a c t u a l b a s i s . 16. B r i g h t , Speeches, I . 372-376. B r i g h t a l s o r e f e r r e d a t t h i s t i me to the n e c e s s i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n f o r l a n d purchase by the t e n a n t s . 44 U n f o r t u n a t e l y the new p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t y l a c k e d s u i t a b l e l e a d e r s h i p so t h a t i t s p r o g r e s s i n the House was r e t a r d e d . I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n the group c o u l d m e r e l y h a r r y governments w h i c h r e f u s e d to s a n c t i o n p r o p o s a l s o f a r a d i c a l n a t u r e . I n 1860 two a c t s were p a s s e d : the Deasy A c t and the C a r d w e l l A c t . B o t h o f these measures were m a k e s h i f t s as t h e y a t t e m p t e d to emphasize the l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t c o n t r a c t and a t the same time to p r e s e r v e I r i s h customs w i t h o u t i n f r i n g i n g on the r i g h t o f p r o -p e r t y . O p p o s i t i o n to t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was s t r o n g e s t from U l s t e r where the t e n a n t s saw t h e i r customs threatened. Two more f u t i l e a t t e m p t s were made i n 1866 to d e a l w i t h the l a n d problem w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h l a n d l o r d r i g h t by removing i n s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e f o r the t e n a n t . I t was becoming c l e a r to the i m p a r t i a l t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e to t h e l a n d had been d i s c r e d i t e d ; I r i s h customs must be r e c o g n i z e d even i f t h e y c o n t r a v e n e d a l l e g e d p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . . Government i n t e r f e r e n c e came w i t h G l a d s t o n e ' s L a n d l o r d and - i 7 Tenant A c t of 1870. A c o m b i n a t i o n o f bad h a r v e s t s , e v i c t i o n s , unemployment, crowded workhouses, F e n i a n r a i d s and s i x y e a r s o f d e m o c r a t i c advance i n E n g l a n d had made the measure i m p e r a t i v e . I n E n g l a n d the Whig o l i g a r c h y was decadent and a new s p i r i t was i n the a i r . Reformers v i e w e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n B r i t i s h sympathy f o r P o l e s , I t a l i a n s , H u n g a r i a n s , S e r v i a n s and Greeks w h i l e i t was withdrawn from I r e l a n d . A p p a r e n t l y e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e as w e l l as i n s i d e o f p a r l i a m e n t had to t a k e p l a c e . John M o r l e y w r o t e : "The d i f f i c u l t y a r o s e 17. 53 and 34 V i c t . C.46. See Annual R e g i s t e r , 1870, pp. 20-50 45 from the huge and. b o t t o m l e s s i g n o r a n c e o f those i n whose hands power l a y . " P u b l i c i t y was g i v e n the l a n d q u e s t i o n by v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . The Times s e n t a s p e c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t to I r e l a n d whose a r t i c l e s upon the s u b j e c t "almost f o r the f i r s t time brought the f a c t s o f I r i s h l a n d b e f o r e the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . " 1 9 The Annual R e g i s t e r commented: "The g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t and c u r i o s i t y p r e v a i l e d c o n c e r n i n g the p r o v i s i o n s o f the b i l l ; and l e g i s l a t o r s , b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur, r e i g n e d supreme to t h e i r h e a r t s ' 20 c o n t e n t i n the columns of the newspapers." C h i e f among p r o p o s a l s f o r r e f o r m were those o f M i l l , I s a a c B u t t and John B r i g h t . The f i r s t w i s h e d t h e government to d e t e r -mine a f a i r r e n t f o r a t e n a n t ' s h o l d i n g . To t h i s scheme the• Whig l a w y e r s s t o o d a g h a s t . B u t t s t r o v e t o o b t a i n f o r the peasants l o n g l e a s e s and f a i r r e n t s , but G l a d s t o n e appeared wary a t f i r s t o f a c c e p t i n g t h e s e c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o p o s a l s , as he d i d not w i s h t o c o u r t p o l i t i c a l d i s a s t e r by i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . John B r i g h t ' s scheme was not so e a s i l y d i s p o s e d o f . He a d v o c a t e d a p o l i c y o f peasant p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a p o r t i o n o f the purchase money be advanced to the t e n a n t . ^ 1 G l a d s t o n e was not e n t h u s i a s t i c but " B r i g h t had seen f a r , and the se e d which he p l a n t e d was d e s t i n e d i n time to b e a r f r u i t . " G l a d s t o n e was t r o u b l e d o ver the m a t t e r o f compensation f o r d i s t u r b a n c e o f the t e n a n t s : he w i s h e d to have the r i g h t o f b o t h p r e s e n t and f u t u r e t e n a n t s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and f i n a l l y won the d i e - h a r d 18. M o r l e y , John, L i f e o f W i l l i a m Ewart G l a d s t o n e , (London, 1903), V o l . I I , p.281. 19. Ibid,(?.293 20. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1870, p.4. 21. B r i g h t , Speeches, 1, 397-403. B r i g h t d i d not advocate b u y i n g up the whole o f the l a n d . 46 members o f the c a b i n e t o v e r to bis view. J u s t b e f o r e he i n t r o d u c e d the b i l l i n t o the House he wrote to Queen V i c t o r i a : "To t h i s g r e a t c o u n t r y the s t a t e . o f I r e l a n d a f t e r seven hundred y e a r s o f o u r t u t e l a g e i s i n my o p i n i o n so l o n g as i t c o n t i n u e s , an i n t o l -e r a b l e d i s g r a c e , and a danger so a b s o l u t e l y t r a n s c e n d i n g a l l o t h e r s , t h a t I c a l l i t the o n l y r e a l danger to t h e n o b l e empire of the Queen." 2 2 I n i n t r o d u c i n g the A c t o f 1870, G l a d s t o n e e x p l a i n e d the r easons f o r the f a i l u r e o f p r e v i o u s l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n ; he p o i n t e d out the n e c e s s i t y o f a d a p t i n g the law t o the customs o f I r e l a n d and o f making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the l a n d l o r d s to e v i c t . V a r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s 2 3 were h e a r d p a r t i c u l a r l y from the House o f L o r d s i n such e x p r e s s i o n s as "the B i l l was a v e r y g r e a t though n e c e s s a r y e v i l " ; i t "was c o n t r a r y to the A c t o f U n i o n " ; and i t was "one o f p a i n s and p e n a l t i e s a g a i n s t the l a n d l o r d s o f I r e l a n d " . The L a n d l o r d and Tenant ( I r e l a n d ) A c t was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t r e g u l a t e d the "Law o f compensation t o t e n a n t s " as to w h i c h the p r i n c i p a l changes e f f e c t e d were as f o l l o w s : 1. The U l s t e r t e n a n t - r i g h t custom and s i m i l a r customs in o t h e r p a r t s o f I r e l a n d , r e c e i v e d a l e g a l s t a t u s j 2. New r i g h t s were c o n f e r r e d on t e n a n t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to compensation . f o r d i s t u r b a n c e by the a c t o f t h e l a n d l o r d ^ 3. compensation was g i v e n f o r improvements, and the r i g h t s and l i a b i l i t i e s o f l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t d e f i n e d . The second p a r t r e g u l a t e d " S a l e o f Lands to t e n a n t s . " The t h i r d p a r t regulabed t h e "Advancesby, and Powers o f , the B o a r d o f Works." The f o u r t h p a r t r e g u l a t e d " L e g a l 22. M o r l e y , John, L i f e o f W i l l i a m Ewart G l a d s t o n e , (London, 1903) V o l . 1 1 , p.296. 23. -Annual K e g i s t e r 1870, pp.48-50 47 p r o c e e d i n g s and C o u r t . " The f i f t h p a r t c o n t a i n e d m i s c e l l a n e o u s c l a u s e s r e f e r r i n g to t e n a n c i e s c r e a t e d a f t e r the p a s s i n g o f the -A c t . E v i c t i o n was made d i f f i c u l t by the i m p o s i n g o f a stamp duty o f two s h i l l i n g s s i x p e n c e on e v e r y n o t i c e to q u i t . The l a n d l o r d ' was not t o be c a l l e d upon t o pay c l a i m s f o r compensation except f o r permanent improvements on h o l d i n g where the l e a s e extended f o r t h i r t y - o n e o r more y e a r s . The a c t was marked by one p a r t i c u l a r weakness: i n s u f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the l a n d purchase recommended by B r i g h t . I t was o b v i o u s t h a t the l a n d purchase c l a u s e o f the Church a c t o f 1869 had a l r e a d y had b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s . F u l l y s e v e n t y - f i v e per c e n t , o f the c h u r c h t e n a n t s had bought t h e i r l a n d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the o n e - f o u r t h o f the purchase p r i c e p r o v i d e d f o r by the a c t . However,under the- 1870 measure, a l t h o u g h t w o - t h i r d s o f the purchase money was t o be advanced to the t e n a n t s , y e t the f i v e per c e n t , a n n u i t y s t r e t c h i n g over a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s would be more than the r e n t p a i d by the p e a s a n t s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . Moreover,most o f the t i t l e s t o the v a r i o u s h o l d i n g s were i n a v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t e , and the c o s t o f c l e a r i n g them would have added measurably to the t e n a n t s ' expenses. Consequent-l y o n l y n i n e hundred t e n a n t s p u r c h a s e d t h e i r l a n d under the B r i g h t c l a u s e s . But i f the l a n d purchase s e c t i o n was not s u c c e s s -f u l i t was a t l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t . The o p p o s i t i o n a t t a c k on the measure was l e d by D i s r a e l i who d e p l o r e d the i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h freedom o f c o n t r a c t e f f e c t e d by the B i l l and argued t h a t "at one f e l l swoop a l l moral r e -48 l a t i o n s between the owner and occupier.. " 2 4 would be t e r m i n a t e d . D i s r a e l i w i t h r e m a r k a b l e p r e s c i e n c e p r e d i c t e d the c o u r s e t h a t the a g r a r i a n movement would take i n the n e x t t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . He s t a t e d : "So f a r from the improvement o f the c o u n t r y t e r m i n a t i n g a l l t hese m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and h e a r t b u r n i n g s , w h i c h we seem now so a n x i o u s on b o t h s i d e s o f the House to b r i n g to a c l o s e you w i l l have the same c o n t r o v e r s i e s r a g i n g , o n l y w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c e r b i t y . " 2 5 I n i t s main purpose the a c t was a l s o a f a i l u r e . I t d i d not g i v e a guarantee of p e r p e t u i t y o f t e n u r e . n o r o f f a i r r e n t s e v a l -u a t e d by a c o u r t . L a n d l o r d s found i t p o s s i b l e to r a i s e t h e i r r e n t s so t h a t the t e n a n t s c o u l d not pay and t h e n e j e c t them w i t h -out compensation. On h i s s i d e the t e n a n t d i d not d e s i r e compen-s a t i o n f o r e v i c t i o n ; he wanted l a n d and a home and t h e s e were n o t s e c u r e d f o r him by t h e a c t . However, the a c t was s u c c e s s f u l i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s . I t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e were not a p p l i -c a b l e to I r e l a n d ; i t a d m i t t e d the s i m p l e p a r t n e r s h i p o f l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t ; i t was based on I r i s h customs; and i t r e c o g n i z e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the t e n a n t c o u l d not be e v i c t e d w i t h o u t compen-s a t i o n . The N a t i o n a l i s t Movement. W h i l e B r i t i s h governments were c o n t i n u i n g the h i s t o r i c p r a c t i c e o f tampering w i t h but not o v e r h a u l i n g the economic system of I r e l a n d , a movement was g a i n i n g ground among the I r i s h p e o p l e which aimed a t the r e p u d i a t i o n o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i o n and the 24. Monypenn'y, W. and B u c k l e , G.,The L i f e o f Benjamin D i s r a e l i , (Ldonon, 1914) V o l . V, p.119. See a l s o Annual R e g i s t e r , 1870, pp. 34-57 25. B u c k l e , .. o p . c i t . p.120 49 use o f p h y s i c a l f o r c e to o b t a i n t h e i r demands. At f i r s t the r e c k l e s s i d e a l i s m o f the F e n i a n s o c i e t y , o r g a n i z e d i n the l a t e ' s i x t i e s , d i d not a p p e a l to the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . T h i s pas-s i v i t y on the p a r t o f the people was i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h t h e r u t h l e s s manner i n w h i c h the government met p h y s i c a l f o r c e w i t h a p o l i c y o f c o e r c i o n . I s a a c B u t t , a P r o t e s t a n t , a T ory and a man o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t y and t r a i n i n g s e t oxil t o r e s t o r e I r e l a n d t o a c o n d i t i o n o f 2 4 p o l i t i c a l s a n i t y . He b e l i e v e d t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r a c t i c e s were, s u b v e r s i v e o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s i n t e r e s t s and c o n s e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t e d to o r g a n i z e the p e o p l e f o r p o l i t c a l p u r p o s e s . I n 1874 he l e d a p a r t y o f f i f t y - o n e s u p p o r t e r s i n t o the house o f commons—a group which p l e d g e d i t s e l f to remain a l o o f from a l l p a r t y , c o m b i n a t i o n s . T h i s was the f i r s t group to l e a d the o r g a n i z e d a t t a c k s by the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Home R u l e A s s o c i a t i o n . There were many o b s t a c l e s i n the p a t h of B u t t ' s p r o g r e s s : the h o s t i l i t y of elements more r a d i c a l t h a n h i s group, the apathy o f the I r i s h p eople i n " g e n e r a l and the l i p - s e r v i c e o f some o f h i s own f o l l o w -e r s . I n the house B u t t p r e s s e d f o r r e f o r m w i t h p e r s u a s i v e o r a t o r y , but t h a t chamber though p o l i t e l e n t a deaf e a r . Once a y e a r the I r i s h members brought i n i nnumerable r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h were r e -j e c t e d , 26. B u t t was a g r a d u a t e o f T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , an o r a t o r and a s k i l f u l l a w y e r . He defended the l e a d e r s o f t h e Young I r e l a n d movement i n 1848 and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o b t a i n -i n g i n 1870 o f an amnesty f o r the p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the F e n i a n o u t r a g e s . 50 However B u t t had. a keen i n t e r e s t i n the l a n d q u e s t i o n and had t a k e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n the d i s c u s s i o n s p r e c e d i n g the l a n d 27 a c t o f 1870. He b e l i e v e d t h a t the o n l y remedy was to e l e v a t e the o c c u p i e r from h i s p o s i t i o n o f serfdom by a s s u r i n g him an i n t e r e s t i n the s o i l , by g i v i n g him f i x i t y o f t e n u r e w h i l e the owners of the s o i l were l e f t e v e r y r i g h t and power, except those w h i c h they c o u l d not c o n t i n u e to e x e r c i s e w i t h o u t the waste and d e s t r u c t i o n o f human l i f e , and w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g r u i n b o t h on themselves and the e n t i r e community. B u t t ' s a g i t a t i o n took the form o f a demand f o r the t h r e e " F ' s " : f i x i t y o f t e n u r e , f a i r r e n t s and f r e e s a l e . He w i s h e d to have a r b i t r a t o r s and j u r i e s s e l e c t e d to h e a r l a n d c a s e s . A b i l l i n t r o d u c e d by him i n t o the 'house i n March,1876, was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y d e f e a t e d , a s the E n g l i s h members l o o k e d upon him as a v i s i o n a r y and c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the A c t o f 1870 was q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y . F i n d i n g p a r l i a m e n t d i s i n t e r e s t e d , B u t t d e c i d e d t h a t the p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d s h o u l d o r g a n i z e a body s i m i l a r t o the E n g l i s h Corn Law League and a g i t a t e f o r r e f o r m . The assembly would be composed of t e n a n t s who would l a w f u l l y and h o n o r a b l y p r e s s the . c l a i m s o f the C e l t to h i s l a n d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r B u t t ' s p l a n the y e a r s 1870 to 1877 were f a i r l y p r o s perous ones. The r e c o r d i n the Annual R e g i s t e r f o r 1875 s t a t e d t h a t the a g i t a t i o n was i n c o n s p i c u o u s , Home Rule almost a "dead l e t t e r " and d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the Land A c t c o n f i n e d to a few l o c a l i t i e s and the p easants p a r t i c u l a r l y i n U l s t e r , u n w i l l i n g to be drawn away from p r o f i t a b l e p u r s u i t s to engage i n f r u i t l e s s a g i t a t i o n . 2 8 27. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1870, pp.10-19. 28. A nnual r e g i s t e r , 1875, pp.154-135. 51 But d e s p i t e the A c t o f 1870 I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r e remained i n -e f f i c i e n t and o b s o l e t e and toward th e end o f the decade the im-p o r t a t i o n i n t o E n g l a n d o f farm p r o d u c t s from th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Denmark and H o l l a n d boded i l l f o r a g r a r i a n l i f e i n I r e l a n d . P r i c e s began to d e c l i n e r a p i d l y ; c r o p s v a l u e d a t t h i r t y - s i x m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g i n 1876 d e c l i n e d to twenty-two m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g i n 1879, t h e d e c l i n e i n p r i c e s b e i n g a t t r i b u t a b l e a l s o to a s e r i e s o f bad h a r v e s t s . When i n 1879 the demand f o r m i g r a t o r y l a b o u r f o r the E n g l i s h h a r v e s t was cut o f f owing to a f a i l u r e o f E n g l i s h c r o p s a n o t h e r c a l a m i t y was imminent. Rents c o u l d not be p a i d and f i n a n c i a l houses w h i c h had l o a n e d money to the t e n a n t s were r e n d e r e d b a n k r u p t . The unssrupulous members o f the l a n d l o r d c l a s s showered e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s on t h e i r t e n a n t s , over two thousand f a m i l i e s b e i n g e v i c t e d i n 1880. The a c t o f 1870 when put to the t e s t had c o l l a p s e d l i k e a house o f c a r d s . I t was a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h a t the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l attempt was made a t e v o k i n g a t r u l y I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s m — a n d t h i s s p i r i t was found to be a s s o c i a t e d , not w i t h the c a l l to Home R u l e , C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n o r a d e s i r e f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , but w i t h the l a n d . O ' C o n n e l l , Young I r e l a n d and the F e n i a n s had made wrong assumptions-wand the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements wh i c h t h e y con-c o c t e d were f a i l u r e s . But when James F i n t a n l a l o r 2 9 had made the d i s c o v e r y i n 1848 t h a t I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s m was the l o v e o f the l a n d from w h i c h the peasant eked out a l i v i n g , h e p r o v e d t o be the i n -s p i r a t i o n f o r the Land League founded by M i c h a e l D a v i t t i n 1879. The essence o f L a l o r ' s d o c t r i n e was: " t h a t as the l a n d o f I r e l a n d 29. L a l o r was a w r i t e r f o r the r e v o l u t i o n a r y j o u r n a l s The N a t i o n and The F e l o n . See D e v i t t , M i c h a e l , The F a l l o f F e u d a l i s m i n I r e l a n d , (London, 1904) pp. 54-64. 52 l i k e t h a t o f any o t h e r c o u n t r y , was i n t e n d e d . . . f o r t he use and sustenance o f those to whom God gave i n c l i n a t i o n and e n e r g i e s t o c u l t i v a t e and improve i t ; and the system w h i c h s a n c t i o n s i t s monopoly hy a p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s , o r a s s i g n s i t s ownership and con-t r o l t o a l a n d l o r d c a s t e , to he used as an i n s t r u m e n t o f u s u r i o u s or p o l i t i c a l s e l f - s e e k i n g , demands from e v e r y a g g r i e v e d I r i s h m a n an u n d y i n g h o s t i l i t y , b e i n g f l a g r a n t l y opposed t o t h e f i r s t p r i n -c i p l e o f t h e i r h u m a n i t y — s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . " The r e v o l u t i o n a d v o c a t e d by L a l o r i n 1848 was a f a i l u r e . The r a d i c a l w r i t e r d i d not l o n g s u r v i v e h i s a p p e a l s as he was im-p r i s o n e d on t h e charge o f t r e a s o n and d i e d i n the next y e a r . But L a l o r p r o v e d t o be a s t i m u l a t i n g f o r c e f o r a n o t h e r v i s i o n a r y , M i c h a e l D a v i t t . T h i s man,who had been i m p r i s o n e d i n 1870 on a charge o f c o l l e c t i n g arms f o r the F e n i a n s , spent h i s time i n p r i s o n p l a n -n i n g the economic e m a n c i p a t i o n o f h i s countrymen. He r e j e c t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m and f o o l h a r d y r e v o l u t i o n a r y p l a n s as means of a c h i e v i n g h i s g o a l ; i n s t e a d he d e c i d e d t h a t t he whole people o f I r e l a n d must be c a l l e d upon to o r g a n i z e t he r e v o l u t i o n he v i s u a l i z e d . Faced w i t h o p p o s i t i o n from the " P h y s i c a l F o r c e " elements i n I r e l a n d and abroad, from o l d R e p e a l e r s and new Home R u l e r s , D a v i t t d e c i d e d to s e l e c t L a l o r ' s d o c t r i n e o f "the l a n d f o r t he p e o p l e " as the r a l l y i n g c r y o f an a g r a r i a n movement. T h i s he named "The New D e p a r t u r e , " 3 1 s t a t i n g t h a t the movement 30. D a v i t t , o p . c i t . , p.60. 31. I b i d , C h a p t e r X I . 53 c o n t e m p l a t e d an open p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c movements i n I r e l a n d by extreme men, not i n o p p o s i t i o n to ParnelL, but w i t h a view t o b r i n g i n g an advanced n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t and r e v o l u t i o n a r y purpose i n t o I r i s h l i f e , i n a f r i e n d l y r i v a l r y w i t h moderate n a t i o n a l i s t s , i n the work o f making England r u l e more d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e . I n o r d e r to a p p e a l t o t h e e x t r e m i s t elements i n A m e r i c a ^ D a v i t t demanded a change i n the I r i s h l a n d system so t h a t the pea s a n t s would no l o n g e r be v i c t i m i z e d by l a n d l o r d i s m . But i n I r e l a n d he was not a t f i r s t so s u c c e s s f u l . The r e v o l u t i o n a r y groups r e j e c t e d h i s compromising, p o l i c y and o n l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was he a b l e t o w i n them o v e r to a measure o f s u p p o r t . D u r i n g the y e a r s ; 1878 and 1879 D a v i t t a c q u a i n t e d h i m s e l f w i t h the s q u a l i d c o n d i t i o n s i n a l l p a r t s o f h i s c o u n t r y and f i n -a l l y i n a u g u r a t e d h i s p l a n on A p r i l ; 1 9 t h o f the l a t t e r y e a r . I n f i r s t p u t t i n g h i s i d e a s to t h e t e s t he s t a t e d : " I h o l d and main-t a i n t h a t the e n t i r e s o i l o f a c o u n t r y belongs o f r i g h t t o t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t c o u n t r y , and i t i s t h e r i g h t f u l p r o p e r t y , not o f any one c l a s s , b u t o f the n a t i o n a t l a r g e , i n f u l l and 32 e f f e c t i v e p o s s e s s i o n , t o l e t t o whom th e y w i l l . " The f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the new d e p a r t u r e was s u c c e s s f u l , as the l a n d l o r d e x c o r i a t e d by D a v i t t and h i s f o l l o w e r s l o w e r e d h i s r e n t s t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t . Impetus to the movement was a l -most i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n by the presence o f P a r n e l l a t a m e e t i n g under'hew d e p a r t u r e 1 a u s p i c e s . I n t he same ye a r t h i s r a d i c a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r had under-mined I s a a c B u t t ' s c o n t r o l o f the I r i s h Home p a r t y and had im-32. D a v i t t , o p . c i t . , p.135 54 p r o v e d the o b s t r u c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s i n a u g u r a t e d by Joseph B i g g a r . 3 3 A t f i r s t , o w i n g t o s t r a t e g i c r e a s o n s , P a r n e l l had been un-w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t D a v i t t ' s s o c i e t y , condemning i t as a p o l i t -i c a l s e c r e t s o c i e t y w h i c h would be a h i n d r a n c e to t h e cause o f Home R u l e . However, he approved o f D a v i t t ' s l a n d program; i t was o b v i o u s t h a t the two r a d i c a l s were c l o s e to each o t h e r i n s p i r i t . R i s i n g to speak t o the f a r m e r s at the Westport g a t h e r -i n g P a r n e l l s t a t e d t h a t i n o r d e r to i n d u c e the l a n d l o r d s to g r a n t f a i r r e n t s : "You must show the l a n d l o r d s t h a t you i n t e n d to h e l d a f i r m g r i p on y o u r homesteads and y o u r l a n d s . You must not a l l o w y o u r s e l v e s to be d i s p o s s e s s e d . . . " Here was a s l o g a n f o r the p e a s a n t s : "Keep a f i r m g r i p on y o u r l a n d . " Economic c o n d i t i o n s c o n t i n u e d to p l a y i n t o D a v i t t ' s hands; the approach o f a n o t h e r famine was imminent, and the l a n d l e a d e r , b u s i l y engaged i n o r g a n i z i n g the f a r mers i n t o the Land League, found P a r n e l l ' s speeches I n the house more and more f a v o u r a b l e to the p o l i c y o f a g r a r i a n a g i t a t i o n . He a d v o c a t e d t h a t the t e n a n t s combine to ask f o r r e n t r e d u c t i o n s , and not to pay any r e n t i f t h e i r r e q u e s t s were i g n o r e d . "There i s ,no power on e a r t h w h i c h can p r e v a i l a g a i n s t the hundreds o f thou-sands o f t e n a n t f a r m e r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y , " 3 5 s t a t e d the new l e a d e r . The o p p o r t u n i s t had d e c i d e d to c a p i t a l i z e on a move-ment which c o u l d o b t a i n s u p p o r t from th e F e n i a n s , the b i s h o p s and the p r i e s t s , the I r i s h p r e s s and I r i s h m e n i n a l l q u a r t e r s 33. I n f r a , Chapt. I I I . 34. E r v i n e , S t . John, P a r n e l l ( B o s t o n , 1925), p.131. 35. D a v i t t , o p . C i t . , p.194. 55 o f the g l o b e . I n September, 1880, a p a c t between P a r n e l l and D a v i t t was consummated and t h e former not o n l y became p r e s i d e n t o f t h e l e a g u e but a l s o j o u r n e y e d to A m e r i c a to champion i t s cause. O f f i c i a l l y the league was o r g a n i z e d on Oct. E l , 1879 under the name o f the I r i s h N a t i o n a l Land League. I t s o b j e c t s were s t a t e d as b e i n g the b r i n g i n g about of a r e d u c t i o n o f r a c k r e n t s and the f a c i l i t a t i n g o f the ownership of the s o i l by i t s o c c u p i e r s . I n p a r t i t had dropped i t s d e f i a n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e n e t s as f i r s t p romulgated by D a v i t t and had t u r n e d to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i o n . C r e d i t f o r t h i s body belongs s o l e l y t o the energy o f i t s organ-i z e r who had f o r c e d the o f f i c i a l I r i s h p o l i t i c a l group to sub-s c r i b e a t l e a s t p u b l i c l y to the l e a g u e ' s p l a n s . A c o u n t e r p a r t o f the l e a g u e was formed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e f a l l o f 1879 by P a r n e l l . 3 6 The e m i s s a r y o f t h e "new d e p a r t u r e " emphasized the n e c e s s i t y o f peasant p r o p r i e t o r s h i p i n I r e l a n d and showed ent h u s i a s m f o r the l a n d purchase scheme o f John B r i g h t . As a r e s u l t o f P a r n e l l ' s m i s s i o n and a subsequent one o f D a v i t t and D i l l o n , t w e l v e hundred branches o f the l e a g u e were founded i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and f i n a n c i a l a i d was o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t w h i c h the work o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n would have been a f a i l u r e i n I r e l a n d . On h i s r e t u r n to B r i t a i n , P a r n e l l and h i s s u p p o r t e r s s u c c e s s -f u l l y c o n t e s t e d the e l e c t i o n s o f 1880, r e t u r n i n g s i x t y members to p a r l i a m e n t and p r o v i n g t h a t I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s m had ceased to be a f o r c e to be i g n o r e d . 36. P a r n e l l a d d r e s s e d the Congress o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s on t h i s v i s i t . See D a v i t t , o r j . c i t . , pp. 198-203. 56. F u r t h e r Government R e g u l a t i o n , 1881. I m m e diately a f t e r the e l e c t i o n , P a r n e l l , D a v i t t and o t h e r I r i s h leader's f o r m u l a t e d a p l a n o f l a n d r e f o r m i n w h i c h the ne-c e s s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a peasant p r o p r i e t a r y as the o n l y s o l u t i o n o f the l a n d q u e s t i o n was e n u n c i a t e d . The committee a l l e g e d t h a t p a r l i a m e n t must d e c i d e whether a s m a l l group o f non-working men or the g r e a t body o f i n d u s t r i o u s and w e a l t h - p r o d u c i n g t i l l e r s o f the s o i l were to own t h e l a n d ; and t h a t a department of l a n d ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d be s e t up to t r a n s f e r by purchase the l a n d from the owners to the t e n a n t s . V a r i o u s o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s were made to a l l e v i a t e the p r e v a i l i n g d i s t r e s s now r e a c h i n g c a l a m i t o u s p r o p o r t i o n s . W h i l e G l a d s t o n e t e m p o r i z e d w i t h r e l i e f measures thousands o f farmers were b e i n g d r i v e n i n t o t h e Land League. Years l a t e r G l a d s t o n e s a i d : " I d i d not know, no one knew, the s e v e r i t y o f t h e c r i s i s t h a t was a l r e a d y s w e l l i n g upon the h o r i z o n , and t h a t s h o r t l y a f t e r r u s h e d upon us l i k e a f l o o d . " The new I r i s h c h i e f s e c r e t a r y , m i s j u d g i n g the s t a t e o f a f -f a i r s i n I r e l a n d . , b e l i e v e d t h a t r e l a x a t i o n o f c o e r c i o n and a program o f p u b l i c works would meet the s i t u a t i o n . He had under-e s t i m a t e d the s t r e n g t h o f the l a n d l e a g u e . Meanwhile, I r i s h l a n d l o r d s , f i n d i n g t h a t t h e i r t e n a n t s were d e f a u l t i n g on t h e i r r e n t s owing to the d e p r e s s e d economic con-d i t i o n s , r e v e r t e d to the p o l i c y o f e v i c t i o n . U n l e s s the m i n i s t r y s t e p p e d i n between the l a n d l o r d s and the t e n a n t s the s o c i a l system d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1880 would be s u b j e c t e d to a t e r r i f i c s hock. G l a d s t o n e i n the f a c e o f c a b i n e t o p p o s i t i o n appeared to be v e e r i n g 37. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 47-48,. A Speech o f G l a d s t o n e ' s , Sept. 1, 1884. - 57 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f some o f the l a n d l e a g u e ' s p r i n c i p l e s and i n -t r o d u c e d a s m a l l measure f o r the temporary r e l i e f o f d e f a u l t i n g t e n a n t s . The house was f i l l e d w i t h the clamour o f tho s e who c.ould not see t h a t i n time o f p u b l i c c a l a m i t y the w e l l - b e i n g o f the community s h o u l d t a k e precedence over the i n t e r e s t o f a c l a s s . One member advanced the t h e s i s t h a t the main r e s u l t w o u l d be " t o f o s t e r the n o t i o n so s e d u l o u s l y p romulgated by a g i t a t o r s i n I r e l a n d , t h a t e v e r y man who by any u n d e r t a k i n g o r promise has in d u c e d a n o t h e r t o put him i n p o s s e s s i o n o f l a n d , becomes t h e r e -upon endowed w i t h a r i g h t t o r e t a i n t h a t p o s s e s s i o n , though he 38 may v i o l a t e the promises by w h i c h i t was p r o c u r e d . " The B i l l p assed the commons but was r e j e c t e d by the l o r d s . T h i s r e j e c t i o n of t h e Compensation f o r D i s t u r b a n c e B i l l met w i t h the d i s -a p p r o v a l o f the I r i s h s e c r e t a r y , W i l l i a m F o r s t e r , who saw i n i t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e wo r s t time the E n g l i s h government had ever had i n I r e l a n d . He b e l i e v e d the l o r d s had i n f l i c t e d an i r r e m e d -i a b l e wrong upon the l a n d l o r d c l a s s and had g i v e n encouragement to those who opposed the i m p o s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h laws i n I r e l a n d . I r i s h l e a d e r s a t once capitalizedgfr the f o l l y o f the house o f l o r d s . P a r n e l l and h i s s u p p o r t e r s d e f i e d the government a t ever y t u r n , o b s t r u c t e d the I r i s h e s t i m a t e s and argued f o r the a b o l i t i o n o f the upper chamber. I n I r e l a n d the l a n d .leaguers pushed t h e i r cause, i n the f a c e o f the a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n to w h o l e s a l e e v i c t i o n s by p a r l i a m e n t . With e v e r y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l door c l o s e d to him P a r n e l l threw h i s p o w e r f u l w e i g h t b e h i n d the l e a g u e ' s a c t i v i t i e s . I n September, 1880, he l a i d down the p l a n 38. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1880, p.81. 58 of a c t i o n . "Depend, upon i t , " s a i d P a r n e l l , " t h a t the measure o f the l a n d b i l l of the n e x t s e s s i o n w i l l be the measure o f your a c t i v -i t y and energy t h i s w i n t e r ; i t w i l l be the measure o f y o u r d e t e r -m i n a t i o n not to pay u n j u s t r e n t s ; i t w i l l be the measure o f your d e t e r m i n a t i o n not to b i d f o r farms from which o t h e r s have been e v i c t e d , and to use the s t r o n g f o r c e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n to d e t e r any u n j u s t man among y o u r s e l v e s — a n d t h e r e a r e many s u c h — from b i d d i n g f o r such farms. I f you r e f u s e to pay u n j u s t r e n t s , i f you r e f u s e to t a k e farms,from w h i c h o t h e r s have been e v i c t e d , the l a n d q u e s t i o n must be s e t t l e d i n a way t h a t tfill be s a t i s -f a c t o r y t o you. I t depends, t h e r e f o r e , upon y o u r s e l v e s , and not upon any commission o r any government. When you have made the q u e s t i o n r i p e f o r s e t t l e m e n t , t h e n , and not t i l l t h e n , w i l l i t be s e t t l e d . " 3 9 T u r n i n g to the q u e s t i o n o f what was to be done to a t e n a n t who would dare to b i d f o r a farm from which a n o t h e r had been e v i c t e d , he c o n t i n u e d : "When a man t a k e s a farm from w h i c h an-o t h e r has been u n j u s t l y e v i c t e d , you must shun him on the r o a d -s i d e when you meet him; you must shun him i n the s t r e e t s o f the town; you must shun him i n the shop; you must shun him i n the f a i r green and i n the m a r k e t - p l a c e ; and even i n the p l a c e o f w o r s h i p , by l e a v i n g him a l o n e ; by p u t t i n g him i n t o a m o r a l coven-t r y ; by i s o l a t i n g him from the r e s t o f h i s c o u n t r y , as i f he were the l e p e r o f o l d — y o u must show him your d e t e s t a t i o n o f t h e crime he has committed; and you may depend upon i t , t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no man so f u l l o f a v a r i c e , so l o s t to shame, as to dare 39. E r v i n e , o p . c i t . , pp.156-157. 59 t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f a l l r i g h t t h i n k i n g men, and, to t r a n s g r e s s your u n w r i t t e n code o f l a w s . " 4 0 P a r n e l l ' s p o l i c y saon became so e f f e c t i v e t h a t the a u t h o r i t y o f the l a n d l e ague r a p i d l y undermined and t h r e a t e n e d t o s u p p l a n t t h a t o f the govennment o f I r e l a n d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n p u n i s h e d 41 l a n d l o r d s and ten a n t s and a l l o t h e r enemies o f t h e new o r d e r . S u p p o r t e d by l a r g e s u b s c r i p t i o n s from America.,. P a r n e l l l e d t h e l e a g u e ' s a s s a i l t a g a i n s t government p o l i c i e s . "What was wanted," he s t a t e d , "was the w i l l on t h e p a r t o f the E n g l i s h p e o p l e t o s e t t l e t he l a n d q u e s t i o n , and the o b j e c t o f the a g i t a t i o n was to produce t h a t w i l l . Once minded t o s e t t l e the q u e s t i o n , once con-v i n c e d t h a t a s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d not be evaded o r postponed, t h e y would s e t t l e i t . " 4 2 Some of the s u p p o r t e r s o f the le a g u e now t u r n e d t o v a r i o u s c r i m i n a l a c t s — t h e i r p o l i c y however b e i n g o b j e c t e d to by b o t h P a r n e l l and D a v i t t . The government s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t r o d u c e c o e r c i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , b e l i e v i n g t h a t such measures w o u l d stamp out the p r e v a i l i n g d i s o r d e r and impress upon I r e l a n d the f a c t t h a t the government would not p e r m i t P a r n e l l ' s law to be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the law o f the l a n d . A p r e l i m i n a r y attempt by F o r s t e r to p r o s e c u t e the c h i e f l e a d e r s o f the league p r o v e d a b l u n d e r as the i n d i c t m e n t was r i d i c u l e d , the l e a g u e ' s numbers were s w e l l e d by p r e v i o u s h o l d - o u t s among the I r i s h p o l i t i c a n s , and money poured i n from A m e r i c a . P a r n e l l had p r o v e d too power-f u l f o r such a measure. F i n a l l y on January 2 4 t h , 1881, F o r s t e r 40. Ervine<', o p . c i t . , p.157 41. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1880, tro. 109-122 42. I b i d , p.120. 60 i n t r o d u c e d , a c o e r c i o n b i l l i n t o the House. The measure was severe; i t s p r o v i s i o n s were s i m p l e . Any per s o n s u s p e c t e d o f t r e a s o n a b l e p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be a r r e s t e d and d e t a i n e d as an un-c o n v i c t e d p r i s o n e r . T h i s was the t h i n edge f o r the s u s p e n s i o n o f Habeas Corpus. I n the hlouse the I r i s h members o b s t r u c t e d f i e r c e l y — o n e s i t t i n g consuming f o r t y - o n e hours and b r i n g i n g about the a d o p t i o n o f the c l o t u r e . G l a d s t o n e had been p o w e r f u l l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the l a n d l e a g u e ; he had come, to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f u r t h e r l a n d changes were n e c e s s a r y i n I r e l a n d , F o r s t e r a l s o s u b s c r i b e d to t h i s view, b e l i e v i n g t h a t the t h r e e F's must be d e a l t w i t h . G l a d s t o n e ' s c o n v e r s i o n to these p r i n c i p l e s was a s s i s t e d by the f i n d i n g s o f the Kichmond commission a p p o i n t e d i n 1879 to i n v e s t -i g a t e I r i s h c o n d i t i o n s . The t h r e e u"s and the e x t e n s i o n o f l a n d purchase were recommended. I n p a r t the r e p o r t s t a t e d : "The g r a v i t y o f the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n does i n d e e d r e q u i r e t h a t the remedy now to be proposed f o r an a d m i t t e d g r i e v a n c e s h o u l d be complete. We w i s h t o p l a c e on r e c o r d our d e c i d e d o p i n i o n t h a t u n l e s s the measure i s a f u l l and e x h a u s t i v e one, g o i n g to t h e r o o t s o f the whole m a t t e r and s e t t l i n g i t permanent-l y , i t would be b e t t e r not to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the q u e s t i o n a t a l l . " F i n a l l y g a i n i n g the s u p p o r t o f l i b e r a l members f o r h i s p l a n s , G l a d s t o n e i n t r o d u c e d on A p r i l 7 t h , 1881, h i s I r i s h Land B i l l , " p r o b a b l y the most i m p o r t a n t measure i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the 44 House o f Commons s i n c e the p a s s i n g o f the jxeform B i l l . " F o r f i v e months the house o f commons was t o r n w i t h s t r i f e as L i b e r a l s , C o n s e r v a t i v e s and N a t i o n a l i s t s b a t t l e d o ver the measure 43. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1881, p.81 44. I b i d , p.78. 61 G l a d s t o n e r e t a i n e d the myth t h a t he was amending the 1870 Land Act hy c a l l i n g the new measure "an a c t to f u r t h e r amend the law r e l a t i n g t o the o c c u p a t i o n and ownership o f l a n d i n I r e l a n d and 45 f o r o t h e r pruposes r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o . " The a c t was l o n g and i t s terms complex. I n g e n e r a l i t s p r o v i s i o n s were as f o l l o w s : 1. The t e n a n t S j W i t h c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n s , c o u l d s e l l t h e i r h o l d i n g s f o r the b e s t p r i c e o b t a i n a b l e , p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n r e g u -l a t i o n s were c o m p l i e d w i t h . A measure o f compensation was a r -ranged f o r a tenant who s o l d h i s h o l d i n g . 2. " S t a t u t o r y t e n u r e " was c r e a t e d i n an attempt to s e c u r e f o r e v e r y a g r i c u l t u r a l t e n a n t s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e . I f the tena n t c o m p l i e d w i t h c e r t a i n " s t a t u t o r y c o n d i t i o n s " he was en a b l e d t o e n j o y p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s l a n d a t a f a i r r e n t f o r a " s t a t u t o r y p e r i o d " o f f i f t e e n y e a r s . The l a n d l o r d r e t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n t o e n t e r a h o l d i n g f o r c e r t a i n p u r p o s e s . 3. The te n a n t was g u a r a n t e e d a d d i t i o n a l compensation i f he were f o r c e d to s u r r e n d e r h i s t e n a n c y . 4. The t e n a n t c o u l d a p p l y to the c o u r t to have a f a i r r e n t f i x e d f o r h i s h o l d i n g and i f one were f i x e d i t c o u l d not be a l t e r e d f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . 5. L a n d l o r d s and t e n a n t s might come t o g e t h e r and agree upon a f a i r r e n t , a c q u a i n t i n g the c o u r t w i t h t h e i r d e c i s i o n . 6. The l a n d c o u r t s were v e s t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e powers. 7. A s m a l l measure o f l a n d purchase was i n a u g u r a t e d . A n n u i t i e s were to be a t the r a t e o f f i v e p e r c e n t , and were to 45. 44 and 45 V i c t . C. 49. 62 s t r e t c h over a t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r p e r i o d . T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the purchase money was to he advanced to p u r c h a s e r s . 8. Advances were to he made f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l improvements, r e c l a m a t i o n and e m i g r a t i o n . The r e a l s t r u g g l e i n p a s s i n g the h i l l o c c u r r e d i n t h e house o f l o r d s where the Tory peers fought a g a i n s t p a s s i n g a measure which would d e p r i v e the l a n d l o r d o f the r i g h t to s e l e c t h i s t e n a n t and t o f i x h i s r e n t . One l o r d p r o t e s t e d ; " t h e h i l l im-p o r t s p r i n c i p l e s f o r e i g n to a l l L i b e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and i s i n i t s e l f a s o r t o f c o e r c i o n b i l l - - a b i l l f o r c o e r c i n g l a n d l o r d s to f i x a f a i r r e n t . " ° The l o r d s d i d w i n two p o i n t s : the l a n d -l o r d was g i v e n a c c e s s to the l a n d c o u r t s on the same f o o t i n g as the t e n a n t and the danger o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l o w e r i n g o f r e n t s was removed. M o r l e y , commenting on the e p i c s t r u g g l e s on c o e r c i o n and the l a n d b i l l w r o t e : "the s u s p e n s i o n o f Habeas Corpus i s a t h i n g t h a t men may w e l l t h i n k i t w o r t h w h i l e to f i g h t about, and a r e v o l u t i o n i n a c o u n t r y ' s l a n d system might be e x p e c t e d to take up a good d e a l o f t i m e . " 4 7  The P e r i o d o f Dual Ownership, 1881 to 1902. But n e i t h e r c o e r c i o n nor l a n d r e f o r m c o u l d s t a y I r i s h a g r a r i a n a g i t a t i o n . The o p e r a t i o n s o f the a c t were begun i n an i n a u s p i c i o u s manner by t h e l a n d l o r d s who e v i c t e d numerous t e n a n t s b e f o r e the measure was a c t u a l l y i n f o r c e . P a r n e l l a l s o d e c i d e d to show the h o l l o w n e s s o f the a c t by h a v i n g a number o f t e s t cases i m m e d i a t e l y brought i n t o the l a n d c o u r t s t o have j u d i c i a l r e n t s f i x e d . G l a d s t o n e p u b l i c l y warned the I r i s h l e a d e r 46. A nnual R e g i s t e r , 1881, p.111. 47. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . I l l , .57. 63 not to foment t r o u b l e but P a r n e l l r e p l i e d i n s n e e r i n g and de-f i a n t l a n g u a g e . The l a t t e r f u r t h e r a c c u s e d G l a d s t o n e o f b e i n g p r e p a r e d to c a r r y f i r e and sword i n t o the p e a s a n t s ' homesteads u n l e s s t h e y humbly abased themselves b e f o r e him and the l a n d l o r d s o f the c o u n t r y . 4 8 P a r n e l l s h o r t l y found h i m s e l f l o d g e d i n K ilmainham j a i l w i t h a number o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s . The l e a g u e r e p l i e d t o t h i s 4-Q coup w i t h a m a n i f e s t o 7 i n which the t e n a n t s were a d v i s e d to pay no r e n t s under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n t i l the system o f t e r r o r i s m had been r e l i n q u i s h e d . F o r s t e r a t once i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n d i s s o l v i n g the l a n d l e a g u e : "We hereby warn a l l p e r s o n s t h a t the s a i d a s s o c i a t i o n s t y l i n g i t s e l f the N a t i o n a l l a n d l e a g u e . . . i s an u n l a w f u l and c r i m i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , and t h a t a l l meetings and|assemblies to c a r r y out o r promote i t s d e s i g n s o r purposes a r e a l i k e u n l a w f u l and c r i m i n a l , and w i l l be p r e v e n t e d , and, i f n e c e s s a r y , d i s p e r s e d by f o r c e . " 5 0 i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t a L a d i e s * Land League was formed to c a r r y on much o f the p r o s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s work y e t the p a r e n t body s u f f e r e d a n o t h e r blow when the " n o - r e n t " m a n i f e s t o was condemned by one o f the l e a g u e ' s most a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r s , the A r c h b i s h o p of O a s h e l . The e r i s i s was r e a c h e d i n March, 188,2. By, t h a t time f o r t y -f i v e thousand p o l i c e and t r o o p s had been poured i n t o I r e l a n d i n an attempt to c o n t r o l the wave o f c r i m i n a l a c t s a g a i n s t the government and the l a n d l o r d s — a c t s which had i n c r e a s e d i n v i o l e n c e s i n c e the l e a g u e had been p r o s c r i b e d . F i n a l l y the government 48. A nnual R e g i s t e r , 1881, pp.201-216 49. The s i g n a t o r i e s were w i t h one e x c e p t i o n i n j a i l . 50. D a v i t t , o p . c i t . p p . 3 3 8 - 3 3 9 . The w r i t e r c l a i m s the p r o c l a m a t i o n to have been u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . 64 made an a p p e a l to Rome but l i t t l e b e n e f i t came from the move as the c l e r g y were o b v i o u s l y lukewarm i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o the l e a g u e . At t h i s moment the /Tories d e c i d e d t h a t c o e r c i o n was w i c k e d . and P a r n e l l ' s i n c a r c e r a t i o n u n j u s t i f i a b l e . They a l s o p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t k e e p i n g l a r g e numbers o f Her M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s i n p r i s o n w i t h o u t t r i a l . Even the Times was i r o n i c a l : "The I r i s h m a n has p l a y e d h i s c a r d s w e l l and i s making a g o l d e n h a r v e s t . . . . H e has b a f f l e d the g r e a t e s t o f l e g i s l a t u r e s and o u t f l a n k e d the l a r g e s t o f B r i t i s h armies i n g e t t i n g what i s h i s due....Reason compels us to admit t h a t the I r i s h have dared 51 and done as t h e y never d i d b e f o r e . " Prom p r i s o n P a r n e l l condemned c r i m i n a l a c t s a g a i n s t the government and s u g g e s t e d t h a t G l a d s t o n e s h o u l d c a n c e l the a r -r e a r s o f r e n t s as a means o f c o m b a t t i n g I r i s h d i s a f f e c t i o n . The prime m i n i s t e r soon showed t h a t he was l e s s d i s p l e a s e d w i t h P a r n e l l than he was w i t h the obdurate F o r s t e r ; c o n s e q u e n t l y the I r i s h l e a d e r was soon o u t : o f p r i s o n and c o e r c i o n was p e r m i t t e d to l a p s e . I t was o b v i o u s t h a t P a r n e l l and Gla d s t o n e had come to 52 some form o f agreement. T h i s was enough f o r F o r s t e r ; he r e s i g n e d . P a r n e l l was s c a r c e l y out o f j a i l when F o r s t e r ' s s u c c e s s o r , S i r F r e d e r i c k C a v e n d i s h , and Bur k e , the under s e c r e t a r y were murdered i n Phoenix P a r k , D u b l i n , by a group o f a s s a s s i n s , the " I n v i n c i b l e s . " P a r n e l l was dismayed and t h r e a t e n e d to r e s i g n 51. London Times, March 25, 1882. Q u o t a t i o n from D a v i t t , o p . c i t . , pp.342-343. 52. U s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the "Kilmainham T r e a t y . " There was no w r i t t e n agreement. 65 the l e a d e r s h i p o f the n a t i o n a l i s t s . G l a d s t o n e made the f a t a l m i s t a k e o f t u r n i n g a g a i n t o c o e r c i o n . Under th e s e u n f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s the s t r u g g l e f o r l a n d r e f o r m c o n t i n u e d . John Redmond brought i n a b i l l i n w h i c h a r r e a r s o f r e n t f o r the r e c e n t famine y e a r s would be c a n c e l l e d and thus s t r i k e a t the e v i c t i o n p o l i c y o f the l a n d l o r d s . . A l t h o u g h Red-mond's measure was summarily r e j e c t e d y e t i t was app a r e n t t h a t G l a d s t o n e was aware o f the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n ; on May 15 he brought i n h i m s e l f a measure to a l l e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s o f the a r r e a r s s i t u a t i o n . P a r n e l l p r e s s e d f o r f u r t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s , demanding t h a t a l l t h e purchase money s h o u l d be fo r w a r d e d and t h a t l e a s e h o l d e r s s h o u l d o b t a i n s i m i l a r t r e a t m e n t to t h a t a c c o r d e d the new t e n a n t s ; but the Eouse t u r n e d down h i s p r o p o s a l s . P a r n e l l was b e g i n n i n g t o q u e s t i o n the f u r t h e r use o f the l a n d l e a g u e ; he f e l t t h a t Home R u l e s h o u l d take precedence o v e r a g r a r i a n a g i t a t i o n . But he needed to keep the f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f h i s American a l l i e s and f i n a l l y was persuaded by D a v i t t t o supp o r t a new o r g a n i z a t i o n , The I r i s h N a t i o n a l League (t h e word " l a n d " had been dro p p e d ) . H i s s u p p o r t was made more s y m p a t h e t i c when L o r d Spencer, the V i c e r o y , i n t r o d u c e d a number o f new c o e r c i v e measures. The new le a g u e aimed a t o b t a i n i n g Home R u l e , a b r o a d e r s u f f r a g e and l a n d r e f o r m . I n h i s i n i t a l a d d r e s s t o the new s o c i e t y P a r n e l l spoke i n p a r t as f o l l o w s : "No s o l u t i o n o f the l a n d q u e s t i o n can be a c c e p t e d as a f i n a l one w h i c h does not i n s u r e the o c c u p y i n g farmers the r i g h t o f be-coming owners by purchase of the h o l d i n g s which t h e y now occupy 66 as t e n a n t s . " 5 3 A l t h o u g h a group o f former American a l l i e s w ithdrew t h e i r l o y a l t y from the new l e a g u e , y e t , owing to the work o f " D a v i t t and Redmond,support f o r the N a t i o n a l League was r e t a i n e d b oth i n I r e l a n d and abroad. But w h i l e he p a i d by no means i n s i n c e r e homage t o the new o r g a n i z a t i o n , P a r n e l l saw Home Rul e i n the o f f i n g and q u i e t l y m a r s h a l l e d h i s f o r c e s and p r e p a r e d f o r the f i n a l s t r u g g l e . Dual Ownership, 1881-1903. The Land B i l l o f 1881 was a g i g a n t i c experiment i n s t a t e s o c i a l i s m . By i t s w o r k i n g s thousands o f I r i s h p easants became " s t a t u t o r y t e n a n t s " w i t h a r e n t f i x e d f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s by a l a n d commission and a c i v i l b i l l s c o u r t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y -f i v e p e r c e n t , o f the a r a b l e l a n d o f the c o u n t r y was a f f e c t e d by the a c t . Rents were r e d u c e d on the average by a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 1881 and 1916 the 54 l a n d l o r d s l o s t t h i r t y m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g i n r e n t a l s . D e f e c t s however were i n h e r e n t i n the a c t . I n the f i r s t p l a c e the n e c e s s i t y o f o b t a i n i n g a l e g a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f thousands o f . r e n t a l s brought i n an e r a o f l i t i g a t i o n which i n t e r -f e r e d w i t h the e f f i c i e n c y o f l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; I r e l a n d be-came a l a w y e r ' s p a r a d i s e . Then i t was found t h a t a l a r g e p e r -centage o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y to one p a r t y o f the t r a n s a c t i o n . T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s was due i n no s m a l l measure to the p e r s o n n e l o f the l a n d commission w h i c h was as a r u l e i n c a p a b l e and p a r t i s a n . Moreover the a c t was t o a l a r g e 53. D a v i t t , o p . c i t . , p.372. 54. F i g u r e s from Pomfret, o p . c i t . , pp.200-202. 67 e x t e n t a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the measure o f 1870, b u t G l a d s t o n e was p r e v e n t e d by the w o r k i n g s o f E n g l i s h p o l i t i c s from f o r m u l a t i n g a new code. A g a i n , t h e a c t gave no d e f i n i t i o n o f a f a i r r e n t nor d i d i t suggest a means o f a r r i v i n g a t . o n e . C r i t i c s have p o i n t e d out t e s t s f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f a i r r e n t s o f which G l a d s t o n e might have a v a i l e d h i m s e l f . L e c k y s u p p o r t e d the recommendation t h a t "a r e n t which was p a i d a t any time w i t h i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s , and which c o n t i n u e d f o r not l e s s than t e n y e a r s to be r e g u l a r l y p a i d . " F i n a l l y , the l e g i s -l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g compensation f o r improvements was s u f f i c i e n t l y i n d e f i n i t e t o make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the peasant to get an a l l o w -ance on h i s r e n t f o r what improvements he made. F r i c t i o n between l a n d l o r d s and t e n a n t s o v e r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e n t c o n t i n u e d f o r y e a r s . The t e n a n t s not o n l y o b j e c t e d to the r e n t s b u t a l s o were o f t e n d i s i n c l i n e d t o improve t h e i r h o l d -i n g s as t h e y f e a r e d an i n c r e a s e i n the r e n t s . I n 1896 r u l e s were l a i d down f o r a f i x i n g o f r e n t s based on the q u e s t i o n o f t e n a n t s ' improvements; but t h i s r a i s e d a st o r m o f p r o t e s t from the l a n d -l o r d s . The l a t t e r had s m a l l r e a s o n f o r c o m p l a i n t as the p l a n d i d not m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t the t e n a n t . D a v i t t c l a i m e d t h a t i n e s t i m -a t i n g the t o t a l v a l u a t i o n o f a h o l d i n g the b u i l d i n g s were r e c k o n e d t w i c e w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the tena n t l o s t out i n the t r a n s a c t i o n . ' D ual ownership a l s o l e d to the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the l a n d l o r d c l a s s ; the 1881 a c t broke them f i n a n c i a l l y and they l a p s e d i n t o a p i t i a b l e s t a t e r e f e r r e d to by some w i t as one o f " F o r c e , F r a u d and F o l l y . " The government had not r e a l i z e d how the p a r a s i t i c 55. L e c k y , W.E., Democracy and l i b e r t y , Hew E d i t i o n , (London, 1912), V o l . I , pp.188-189 56. D a v i t t , o p . c i t . pp.266-267. 68 q u a l i t i e s o f the owners would, he a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the l a n d l o r d r e t a i n e d c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s , h i s fun d a -m e n t a l s o f l a i s s e r - f a i r e c o n t r o l were gone when he l o s t the economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f the s o i l . I n 1887 t h e l a n d -l o r d s ' p o s i t i o n was f u r t h e r v i t i a t e d by t h e e f f e c t s o f a bad h a r v e s t w h i c h was the cause o f a r e d u c t i o n o f r e n t s f o r t h r e e y e a r s - - a d i m i n u t i o n c o n t r a r y t o the a c t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the l a n d -l o r d who l o s t most was the one who had i n v e s t e d s u b s t a n t i a l sums i n h i s e s t a t e s ; the owners who took but a s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p r o p e r t y s u f f e r e d l e a s t . But the t e n a n t s were by no means s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r e n t r e -d u c t i o n s , c l a i m i n g t h a t the f a l l i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i c e s between 1881 and 1900 was g r e a t e r than the d e c l i n e i n r e n t s . Pomfret s t a t e s : "as a c l a s s t h e y g a i n e d m a t e r i a l l y w h i l e as a c l a s s the l a n d l o r d s s u f f e r e d h e a v i l y . " * ' 7 Dual ownership has been a c c u s e d o f p o s t p o n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o s p e r i t y o f I r e l a n d , but i t d i d a t l e a s t r e p r e s e n t a s t a g e i n the e m a n c i p a t i o n o f the p e a s a n t s , by l e g a l i z i n g the demands o f the b u l k of the t e n a n t s and d i m i n i s h i n g the f e u d a l power o f the l a n d l o r d s . The a b i d i n g p a s s i o n f o r the s o i l made d u a l ownership o n l y one o f the f i n a l s t e p s i n the economic r e v o l u t i o n . Land Purchase 1882 - 1886. n F o l l o w i n g the enactment o f the Land A c t o f 1822 P a r n e l l en-g r o s s e d h i m s e l f i n the Home R u l e movement and by the s k i l f u l man-i p u l a t i o n o f h i s s t r e n g t h made b o t h major p a r t i e s seek h i s s u p p o r t . The T o r i e s began to advance s u g g e s t i o n s f o r e x t e n s i v e l a n d 57. Pomfret, o p . c i t . , p.216. 69 purchase, s t a t i n g t h a t t h i s s t e p would undermine the campaign o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l a g i t a t o r s . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t the e n t i r e purchase money s h o u l d be l o a n e d ; t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e p a i d by an a n n u i t y s t r e t c h i n g over a s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h o f time to make the payments l e s s t h a n the p r e s e n t r e n t s ; t h a t r e p u d i a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e v e n t e d by making the a n n u i t i e s r e c o v e r a b l e , i f n e c e s s a r y , from the county r a t e s . Thus the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , l e a v i n g t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f o e s i n the meshes o f the w o r k i n g s o f the l a n d a c t , a r r i v e d a t a con-s t r u c t i v e l a n d p o l i c y w hich would be u n a t t e n d e d by c o e r c i o n . The L i b e r a l s a l s o appeared t o f a v o u r a p l a n o f l a n d purchase and one o f e m i g r a t i o n , but when P a r n e l l i n t r o d u c e d i n 1883 a b i l l to p e r m i t a t e n a n t to borrow a l l the purchase money and pay i t back i n f i f t y - t w o y e a r s the government t u r n e d h i s proposaldown. A g a i n i n 1883 the T o r i e s brought i n a scheme f o r l a n d purchase i n which the money would be r a i s e d by l o c a l d e b e n t u r e s . The L i b e r a l s were i n an e m b a r r a s s i n g p o s i t i o n . G l a d s t o n e saved h i s f a c e by s u b s t i t u t i n g the word " e a r l y " f o r "immediate" to q u a l i f y a r e v i s i o n s u g g e s t e d by the o p p o s i t i o n . F i n a l l y i n May, 1884, T r e v e l y a n , the I r i s h . s e c r e t a r y , brought i n a l a n d purchase b i l l b ut i t came t o g r i e f on the m a t t e r o f terms and s e c u r i t y . The I r i s h members opposed t h e measure and T r e v e l y a n withdrew the b i l l i n d i s g u s t . The y e a r 1885 found I r e l a n d marked by w i d e s p r e a d d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n . M o r l e y r e c o r d s t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p r e s s i o n s ; " I r e l a n d never blows over...,Many murderers had been hanged, though more remained undetected;....The c o u n t r y was once more h a l f - c o n q u e r e d , but n o t h i n g was advanced, and the o t h e r h a l f o f the conquest was 70 not any n e a r e r . . T h e r e l a y I r e l a n d , - - s q u a l i d , d i s m a l , s u l l e n , d u l l , e x p e c t a n t , sunk deep i n h o s t i l e i n t e n t . " 5 8 When G l a d s t o n e v a g u e l y h i n t e d a t more c o e r c i o n t h e T o r i e s o b j e c t e d . They were o b v i o u s l y p l a y i n g f o r o f f i c e . On a snap v o t e on the y e a r l y budget the government was d e f e a t e d ; t h e Con-s e r v a t i v e s were c a l l e d upon to form ah a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Immediately a l a n d purchase measure, (the Ashbourne A c t , J u l y 1885) was i n t r o d u c e d w h i c h a r r a n g e d , f o r the. o b t a i n i n g o f the l a n d commis-s i o n ' s a p p r o v a l by p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r s ; a n n u i t i e s o f f o u r per c e n t , f o r a p e r i o d o f f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s ; the l o a n o f the t o t a l purchase p r i c e ; the compulsory s a l e o f e s t a t e s where t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the t e n a n t s w i s h e d t o buy t h e i r h o l d i n g s ; and as s e c u r i t y the l o d g i n g o f o n e - f i f t h o f the purchase money w i t h t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s . T h i s measure pass e d the house w i t h the u n d i s g u i s e d a p p r o v a l o f P a r n e l l . T h i s measure a l s o was charged w i t h h a v i n g f a u l t s . Those t e n a n t s who e l e c t e d to purchase t h e i r h o l d i n g s would pay i n an-n u i t i e s l e s s than t h e r e n t o f o t h e r l a n d - h o l d e r s ; much l a n d would f a l l i n t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f i m p r o v i d e n t p r o p r i e t o r s , and the s t a t e would l o s e out i n i t s purchase u n d e r t a k i n g s . The e l e c t i o n o f 1885 gave P a r n e l l an o p p o r t u n i t y o f showing the i n t e r e s t i n Home Rul e i n I r e l a n d . L i b e r a l s were e l e c t e d t o the number o f t h r e e hundred and t h i r t y - t h r e e , T o r i e s o b t a i n e d ' two hundred and f i f t y - o n e s e a t s and the n a t i o n a l i s t s b e a t i n g the . C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n U l s t e r came back w i t h e i g h t y - s i x members. I r e l a n d had d e c l a r e d . o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f o r Home R u l e . P a r n e l l l o s t no time i n t e s t i n g out the T o r i e s , who remained 58. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . I l l , - ,187. 71 i n o f f i c e a t h i s mercy. When t h e y f a i l e d to o f f e r a n y t h i n g e l a -b o r a t e to the I r i s h , t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s v o t e d them o u t ; and G l a d s t o n e , now s e v e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s o f age, was hack i n o f f i c e f o r the I h i r d t i m e . Prom th e n on the l a n d q u e s t i o n was to be a pawn i n the Home Rule s t r u g g l e . The T o r i e s chose i t i n p r e f e r e n c e t o c o e r c i o n , the N a t i o n a l i s t s washed t h e i r l a n d s o f i t , and G l a d s t o n e a l o n e con-s i d e r e d i t s s o l u t i o n as b e i n g fundamental t o I r i s h p r o g r e s s . G l a d s t o n e -almost i m m e d i a t e l y began w o r k i n g on a Home R u l e measure i n which a l a n d purchase c l a u s e would be i n c l u d e d a l o n g w i t h one s a f e g u a r d i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f the l a n d l o r d s . A number o f prominent L i b e r a l s d e c i d e d to form a " u n i o n i s t " p a r t y w h i c h would not b e t r a y the i n t e r e s t s o f England to e i t h e r l a n d l o r d o r t e n a n t . They f e a r e d t h a t Home R u l e would r e s u l t i n the r e p u d i a t i o n o f the a n n u i t i e s by the peasants who would no l o n g e r be r e s t r a i n e d by the l a n d l o r d s . The Annual R e g i s t e r quotes L o r d S a l i s b u r y as f o l l o w s : "Bo you imagine t h a t the merchants and bankers and such man-u f a c t u r e r s as a r e th e s e would s t a y l o n g , a f t e r the c o u n t r y g e n t l e -men had gone? I d e e p l y f e a r t h a t you wou l d be l e f t w i t h a v a s t u n i n s t r u c t e d p e a s a n t r y , governed by a monaroh t h a t i s none too w i s e . There i s ano t h e r m a t t e r I have to n o t i c e . I do not t h i n k t h a t the much-enduring a n i m a l , the B r i t i s h t a x p a y e r , i s a l t o g e t h e r to be l e f t out o f a c c o u n t . I f you adopt Home R u l e . . . i f you once r e l i n q u i s h y o u r power i n I r e l a n d — y o u may depend upon i t , whatever e l s e I r e l a n d does, I r e l a n d w i l l not pay. You may advance m i l l i o n s upon m i l l i o n s — y o u may take the most s a c r e d promises you p l e a s e , but i f you once r e l i n q u i s h the s o l i d h o l d o f power you may w r i t e 72 o f f t h e s e i n v e s t m e n t s as though t h e y had been s u b s c r i b e d t o the maintenance o f t h e Me x i c a n R e p u b l i c . " A g i t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d i n I r e l a n d , a s s i s t e d by an ever-downward t r e n d i n commodity p r i c e s . The l a n d l e a g u e ^ a l w a y s a c t i v e under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s ^ demanded the complete t r a n s f e r o f l a n d t o the pe a s a n t s , but such b o l d p r o p o s a l s were c o u n t e r e d by c l a i m s made by E n g l i s h economists t h a t i f l a n d were handed over en b l o c I r i s h a g r i c u l t u r e would be u n a b l e t o repay the l o a n s made f o r l a n d p u r c h a s e . G l a d s t o n e ' s Home Rul e B i l l w i t h a suppl e m e n t a r y l a n d purchase a c t was i n t r o d u c e d i n March (1886), the b i l l a t once b e i n g de-nounced by the E n g l i s h p r e s s as a scourge on the t a x p a y e r o f Eng l a n d . The l a n d purchase b i l l c o n t e m p l a t e d the p u r c h a s i n g o f whole e s t a t e s ; f o u r per c e n t , a n n u i t i e s f o r f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s ; t h e r a i s i n g by bonds o f one hundred and t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n pounds s t e r -l i n g f o r purchase money; and as s e c u r i t y the passage o f a l l I r i s h funds t h r o u g h the hands of the I m p e r i a l r e c e i v e r - g e n e r a l . G l a d -s t o n e ' s own f o l l o w e r s u s e d the E n g l i s h w o r k i n g - c l a s s t a x p a y e r as a f o r t r e s s from which t h e y shot to p i e c e s b o t h the Home R u l e b i l l and the l a n d purchase measure. N i n e t y - t h r e e l i b e r a l s j o i n e d the t h r o n g t h a t v o t e d down Home R u l e and f o r c e d the c o u n t r y i n t o an-o t h e r e l e c t i o n which r e t u r n e d an anti-Home Rule government. While p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e a d e r s were d e a d l o c k e d i n the Home Rule s t r u g g l e economic c o n d i t i o n s i n I r e l a n d were r a p i d l y r e a c h i n g a c r i s i s . The d e c l i n e i n p r i c e s had been caused l a r g e l y by f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t i o n . I r i s h t e n a n t s d i d not as a r u l e use modern farm machinery as the E n g l i s h farms d i d and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e former 59. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1886, pp.59-60. 73 found p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s on the i n c r e a s e . A g a i n many I r i s h w o r k ers were thrown out o f employment by t h i s s e l f s a m e i n t r o d u c t i o n , of m a c h i n e r y on the E n g l i s h farms. F i n a l l y , owing to c o m p e t i t i o n from the C o n t i n e n t , the I r i s h o f the^ c o n g e s t e d d i s t r i c t s l o s t t h e i r k e l p m a r k e t s . I n 1886 the l e a d e r s of the Land League i n view o f the p r e v a i l i n g d i s t r e s s d e t e r m i n e d t o i n t r o d u c e new methods, s t y l e d the " p l a n o f campaign." I n e f f e c t the scheme proposed t h a t t e n a n t s s h o u l d o f f e r a f a i r r e n t t o t h e i r l a n d l o r d s and i f the l a t t e r r e f u s e d the p r o f f e r e d amounts, the money s h o u l d be p l a c e i n a c e n t r a l f u n d . 60 . A group o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o m p r i s i n g the Cowper Commission, r e p o r t i n g on the s i t u a t i o n i n I r e l a n d recommended t h a t an immediate attempt s h o u l d be made to m a i n t a i n law i n the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l c l a s s e s ; t h a t r e n t s s h o u l d be r e v i s e d a t the end o f f i v e i n s t e a d o f f i f t e e n y e a r s ; t h a t r e n t s s h o u l d be based on the i n d e x o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i c e s ; and t h a t funds s h o u l d be s e t a s i d e t o a s s i s t i n I r i s h m i g r a t i o n and e m i g r a t i o n to the Canadian North-West. The " p l a n of campaign" had meanwhile been put i n t o e f f e c t on a number o f e s t a t e s ; the c o u n t r y was i n an u p r o a r . Sent t o I r e -l a n d t o ta k e the p l a c e o f c h i e f s e c r e t a r y H i c k s - B e a c h who had thrown up h i s hands i n d e s p a i r , A r t h u r B a l f o u r proceeded to i n t r o d u c e a p o l i c y o f d i s c i p l i n e and r e f o r m . I n h i s e s t i m a t i o n r e p r e s s i o n un-a t t e n d e d by s u b s t a n t i a l measures o f l a n d r e f o r m would be f u t i l e . H i s p o l i c y , f o u g h t by the n a t i o n a l i s t s , f o l l o w e d the Cowper Commission's s u g g e s t i o n o f a s s i s t i n g e m i g r a t i o n from the c o n g e s t e d d i s t r i c t s . Home Rul e found no f r i e n d i n the new s e c r e t a r y . He i n t r o d u c e d a permanent c o e r c i o n b i l l and ou t l a w e d the l e a g u e . 60. D a v i t t , op.cit.,pp.520-521, and Pomfre t , o p . c i t . , pp.246-251. 74 M o r l e y d e s c r i b e s h i s r i g o r o u s p o l i c y as f o l l o w s : " E v e r y a c t o f I r i s h o f f i c i a l s was to be defended. Ho con-s t a b l e c o u l d be c a p a b l e o f e x c e s s . Ho m a g i s t r a t e c o u l d e r r . Ho p r i s o n r u l e was o v e r h a r s h . E v e r y s e v e r i t y t e c h n i c a l l y i n o r d e r 61 must be p o l i t i c . " F a r t h e r o p p o s i t i o n to the " p l a n " came from P a r n e l l and the Pope; the l a t t e r condemning i t as c o n t r a r y to n a t u r a l j u s t i c e and C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y . F i n a l l y some o f the League's l e a d e r s were i m p r i s o n e d f o l l o w i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t s methods to a landowner o f T i p p e r a r y ; but they jumped t h e i r b a i l and f l e d t o Am e r i c a . S h o r t l y b e f o r e the l e a g u e had been p r o s c r i b e d , p a r n e l l had l a i d b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t a complete scheme o f l a n d purchase i n which l e a s e h o l d e r s would have been a d m i t t e d , e v i c t i o n suspended f o r two y e a r s i f the t e n a n t p a i d o n e - h a l f o f h i s a r r e a r s , and abatements a r r a n g e d f o r r e n t s f i x e d b e f o r e 1884. P a r n e l l ' s measure was s c o r n f u l l y r e j e c t e d - - t h e r e j e c t i o n g i v i n g an impetus to the " p l a n o f campaign"; but almost i m m e d i a t e l y a government measure was brought f o r w a r d i n which the abnormal n a t u r e o f the time s was a d m i t t e d and p r o v i s i o n made f o r a l t e r i n g the law o f e v i c t i o n i n f a v o u r o f the t e n a n t . The l a t t e r was p e r m i t t e d to s t a y f o r s i x months a f t e r he had been g i v e n n o t i c e to l e a v e ; l e a s e h o l d e r s were added to the b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the 1881 measure; and a l l pre-1886 r e n t s were r e v i s e d . A f t e r much b i c k e r i n g i n the house the b i l l was f i n a l l y p a s s e d - - i t was a n o t h e r blow a t the l a n d l o r d s . Dual- ownership was on the r o a d t o a b o l i t i o n . 61. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , ..255. 75 Parnell unperturbed, by the disdain with which the Tories met his suggestions brought forward i n 1888 another plan by which the question of arrears of rent would have been d e f i n i t e l y s e t t l e d . This proposal was also defeated but the government added the sum of f i v e m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g to that already set aside for land purchase. In 1891 the culmination of Balfour's work was achieved i n an act by which a land department was set up to administer the a f f a i r s of the "congested d i s t r i c t s " and extend measurably land purchase. A l l parties accepted his plan for the creation of a peasant proprietary i n Ireland; no voice except the weakening one of the landlords was-heard to defend dual ownership. Balfour considered that the establishment of a peasant proprietary was the anchor sheet of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y , although he attempted to make the landlords believe that the medicine they were swallowing was a delectable morsel. By the new measure the purchase plan of the Ashbourne Act was used as a basis; annuities of four per cent, were to extend for forty-nine years; the landlord was to be paid i n two and three-fourths per cent, government land stock; t h i r t y -three m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g was to be advanced by the taxpayer and six complicated safeguards for security were arranged, chief of which was the taking of a portion of the I r i s h guarantee fund of f o r t y m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g (an annual grant) for f i v e years, l e g i s l a t i o n was framed fo r the congested d i s t r i c t s : the Cowper Commission recommendations as to migration ideas were disregarded; 62. A very favorable account of Balfour's work i s found i n the E a r l of Midleton's, Ireland, Dupe or Heroine, (London, 1332), Chapter VII. The & r l i s a Unionist of strong convictions. one m i l l i o n f i v e hundred, thousand pounds s t e r l i n g o f the ch u r c h funds were a p p r o p r i a t e d as s e c u r i t y f o r the f i n a n c i a l g r a n t s t o the a r e a ; the d i s t r i c t was g i v e n d e c i d e d l y b e t t e r terms t h a n the r e s t o f I r e l a n d ; and a Congested D i s t r i c t B o a r d was s e t up t o g i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l h e l p , t o c o n s o l i d a t e uneconomic h o l d i n g s , t o a s s i s t i n f u t u r e m i g r a t i o n and e m i g r a t i o n schemes, and to g r a n t bonuses to t h o s e who l e f t uneconomic h o l d i n g s . O p p o s i t i o n t o the measure was weak, w h i l e P a r n e l l s t a t e d t h a t i t was the b e s t o f i t s k i n d . The P a r n e l l s p l i t o f 1890 and 1891 f o r the time b e i n g r e -l e g a t e d the l a n d q u e s t i o n to the background; i t was s c a r c e l y men-t i o n e d i n the i l l - f a t e d Home Rul e b i l l o f 1892; b u t by 1896 i n -f l u e n c e s were a t work making the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1891 a f a i l u r e and n e c e s s i t a t i n g new p o l i c i e s . L a n d l o r d s had been u n w i l l -i n g t o s e l l and t e n a n t s t o b u y — t h e l a t t e r d i s l i k i n g t h e i d e a o f a n n u i t i e s v a r y i n g from y e a r to y e a r owing to the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the i n s u r a n c e f u n d ; government s t o c k was s e l l i n g a t a d i s c o u n t (96) • The r e s u l t was a f i v e y e a r s t a n d s t i l l . F i n a l l y G e r a l d B a l f o u r , who had s t u d i e d the s i t u a t i o n c a r e f u l l y , p e r c e i v e d t h a t purchase must be made more a t t r a c t i v e b o t h ways. C o n s e q u e n t l y i n 1896 he i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l whose terms would abandon the pur-c h a s e r s ' i n s u r a n c e f u n d and the c o u n t r y percentage f u n d and i n t r o -duce a system of d e c a d a l d e d u c t i o n s whereby a t t h e end o f each t e n y e a r p e r i o d the a n n u i t i e s would be made to b e a r on the r e -duced p r i n c i p a l . T h i s w o u l d l e n g t h e n the purchase p e r i o d t o s e v e n t y y e a r s . F u r t h e r m o r e the l a n d l o r d ' s d e p o s i t was a b o l i s h e d ; the vendors were to be p a i d i n c a s h , not s t o c k . B a l f o u r ' s measure a l s o p e r m i t t e d b a n k r u p t e s t a t e s to be s o l d t o t e n a n t s 77 and p r o v i d e d more money f o r the "cong e s t e d d i s t r i c t s " . Almost a t once l a n d s t o c k r o s e t o one hundred and t e n and the l a n d l o r d s changed t h e i r minds about payment and sought an amend-ment whereby payment i n s t o c k would be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the new arrangement. There was a l s o a f l o o d o f a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the y e a r s 1897 to 1899 from t e n a n t s d e s i r i n g t o purchase t h e i r h o l d i n g s . But u n f o r t u n a t e l y p r o g r e s s was a g a i n impeded by more o b s t a c l e s : a n o t h e r slump i n the l a n d s t o c k o c c u r r e d and the impact o f the Boer War was a l s o f e l t . However a h e a l t h y s t a r t had been made f o r l a n d purchase had come to be r e c o g n i z e d by a l l groups o t h e r than the l a n d l o r d s as s u p e r i o r to d u a l o w n e r s h i p . S o l u t i o n o f t h e Problem. Prom 1894 onwards the u n i o n i s t s had pursued the p o l i c y of " k i l l i n g Home Rul e w i t h kindness", e v i c t i o n s , - m u r d e r s and the e v i l s o f a b s e n t e e i s m were c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r absence. A s s i s t -ance to the p o l i c y was g i v e n by the s u n d e r i n g o f the N a t i o n a l i s t group o v e r P a r n e l l ' s d i v o r c e c a s e . But a l t h o u g h the v o l c a n o o f l a n d a g i t a t i o n was q u i e s c e n t i t was by no means e x t i n c t . I n 1900 W i l l i a m O ' B r i e n , a former member o f the p r o s c r i b e d l a n d l e a g u e , founded the U n i t e d I r i s h League f o r the purpose o f f o r c i n g the l a r g e g r a z i e r s to s e l l t h e i r e s t a t e s t o thos e whom O'Brien c o n s i d e r e d to be the r i g h t f u l owners o f the l a n d . The new o r -g a n i z a t i o n p l a c e d c a n d i d a t e s i n the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1900 and s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t e s t e d most o f the I r i s h s e a t s ; c o n d i t i o n s were f a v o r a b l e to the f i n a l s o l u t i o n o f the l a n d problem. Led by John Redmond, the I r i s h members, u n i t e d a f t e r a decade o f p a r t y s t r i f e , demanded the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f u n i v e r s a l 78 I r i s h p r o p r i e t a r y , c l a i m i n g t h a t a p o p u l a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h d u a l o w n e r ship p r e v a i l e d and t h a t v o l u n t a r y purchase was too s l o w . A r t h u r B a l f o u r , u s i n g the expenses o f the Boer War as a s h i e l d , o b j e c t e d to the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f a f u r t h e r l a r g e sum f o r l a n d pur-chase and defended the v o l u n t a r y system whereby s i x t y thousand p r o p r i e t o r s had come i n t o e x i s t e n c e . I n the same y e a r George Wyndham was a p p o i n t e d as the new I r i s h c h i e f s e c r e t a r y . He was q u i t e out o f sympathy w i t h h a l f measures and w i s h e d to s e t t l e the l a n d q u e s t i o n once and f o r a l l . He was by no means a n x i o u s t o see the l a n d l o r d c l a s s r u i n e d but he o b j e c t e d to any p o l i c y by which t e n a n t s would be f o r c e d t o pur-chase p a t c h e s o f "soppy bog". Furthermore he was not w o r r i e d o v er the a c t i v i t i e s o f the new le a g u e and s t r e n u o u s l y o b j e c t e d to c o e r c i v e methods. But the t o l e r a t i o n recommended by Wyndham was t e m p o r a r i l y r e p u d i a t e d i n 1902 when the l o r d l i e u t e n a n t p r o c l a i m e d over o n e - h a l f o f the c o u n t r y f o r l a n d a g i t a t i o n . Wyndham i n t r o d u c e d a measure by which d u a l ownership w o u l d have been f o r c e d out o f e x i s t e n c e , d e c a d a l r e d u c t i o n s would have been e l i m i n a t e d by ad j u s t m e n t s o f the dur<a t i o n o f a n n u i t i e s and l a n d l o r d s would be r e s o l d p o r t i o n s of t h e i r e s t a t e s . But the measure was dropped owing to c o n d i t i o n s i n I r e l a n d . There a unique s i t u a t i o n had d e v e l o p e d . A f t e r a " l a n d l o r d s ' T r u s t " , c a p i t a l i z e d a t one hundred thousand pounds s t e r l i n g , had been o r g a n i z e d to f i g h t the t e n a n t s ' l e a g u e , a number o f prom-i n e n t l a n d l o r d s came f o r w a r d w i t h a p l e a f o r a c o n f e r e n c e between the c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s . T h i s was i n k e e p i n g w i t h Wyndham's be-l i e f t h a t no government c o u l d s e t t l e t h e I r i s h l a n d q u e s t i o n ; i t 63. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1902, pp.102-103 79 m u s t be s e t t l e d by the p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d . L a n d l o r d s v o t e d t h r e e to one f o r a c o n f e r e n c e w h i c h was d u l y h e l d . I t s r e p o r t recom-mended the a b o l i t i o n o f d u a l ownership, the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s a l e p r i c e o f l a n d by the owner and o c c u p i e r , a f a i r d e a l f o r the l a n d l o r d s whereby t h e y c o u l d purchase demesne l a n d s as the t e n a n t s d i d t h e i r h o l d i n g s and a r e d u c t i o n f o r the t e n a n t s o f from f i f t e e n to t w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t , on second-term r e n t s . Redmond was v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c about the c o n f e r e n c e , even f i n d i n g p r a i s e f o r the l a n d l o r d s . I r e l a n d was r i p e f o r a c t i o n ; she was e x p e c t a n t and p e a c e f u l . Would the House be a l t r u i s t i c o r n a r r o w l y p o l i t i c a l and c ommercial i n i t s d e c i s i o n ? With A r t h u r B a l f o u r s u p p o r t i n g him, Wyndham brought i n h i s s u c c e s s f u l l a n d b i l l i n 1903. He preceded i t w i t h an a t t a c k on d u a l o w n e r ship w i t h i t s e v i l s t o tenant and l a n d l o r d , and the government c o s t o f p r e s e r v i n g I r i s h d i s c o n t e n t . H i s measure pl a n n e d the purchase o f whole e s t a t e s to save the c o s t o f b u y i n g i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g s and i t o f f e r e d inducements to the l a n d l o r d t o r emain i n I r e l a n d . I t s s p e c i f i c arrangements were as f o l l o w s : 1. p r i c e "zones" were a r r a n g e d ; £. a n n u i t i e s were reduced i n s i z e t o t h r e e and one q u a r t e r per c e n t , but were ext e n d e d to a p e r i o d o f s i x t y - e i g h t and o n e - h a l f y e a r s ; 3. d e c a d a l r e d u c t i o n s were a b o l i s h e d ; 4. m o r t g a g i n g and s u b - d i v i d i n g o f e s t a t e s were f o r b i d d e n ; 5. l a n d l o r d s were to be p a i d i n c a s h , not s t o c k ; 6. money was to be r a i s e d by the i s s u i n g o f two and t h r e e - q u a r t e r s per cent l a n d s t o c k ; and 7. l a n d l o r d s were to be g i v e n a bonus of t w e l v e p e r c e n t , o f the purchase p r i c e . A f t e r a t t a c k s on the 64. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1903, pp.86-87, and pp.154-157. 80 measure "by . N a t i o n a l i s t s and c e r t a i n Tories, the b i l l was passed, becoming law i n August, 1903. The d i r e c t outcome o f the b i l l was to f o r c e l a n d l o r d s t o s e l l whole e s t a t e s , to a s s i s t i n the r a p i d c o m p l e t i o n o f s a l e s agreements and t o c o n s o l i d a t e uneconomic h o l d i n g s . S i x y e a r s passed, d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d o f time c e r t a i n weak-nesses o f t h e Wyndham A c t became a p p a r e n t . The one hundred m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g s e t a s i d e f o r l a n d purchase p r o v e d to be i n s u f f i c i e n t - - i t became o b v i o u s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred and e i g h t y m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g would be n e c e s s a r y . Then the l a n d s t o c k sank t o e i g h t y - f i v e and the house h e a r d o b j e c t i o n s t o the w e i g h t o f l a n d purchase money on the B r i t i s h t a x - p a y e r . However, B i r r e l l , the I r i s h c h i e f s e c r e t a r y i n 1909, was i n s t r u -m e n t a l i n h a v i n g an amendment to Wyndham's a c t p a s s e d whereby the t r e a s u r y was to absorb some l o s s e s , v e n d o r s were t o be p a i d i n t h r e e p e r c e n t , l a n d s t o c k , a n n u i t i e s t o be i n c r e a s e d to t h r e e and o n e - h a l f per c e n t . , and the bonus p a i d t o l a n d l o r d s to v a r y from t h r e e to e i g h t e e n per c e n t , a c c o r d i n g to the s a l e p r i c e o f t h e i r l a n d . W i t h t h e s e changes i n e f f e c t , l a n d purchase c o n t i n u e d u n t i l by 1922 n e a r l y two hundred thousand peasants had been e n a b l e d to purchase t h e i r h o l d i n g s . More than h a l f o f the s o i l o f I r e l a n d p assed i n t o the hands of I r i s h peasants through the agency o f t h e Wyndham and B i r r e l l A c t s . Moreover numerous e v i c t e d t e n a n t s had been a s s i s t e d i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves on the l a n d . The " c o n g e s t e l d i s t r i c t s " had been e n l a r g e d , and the funds o f the Boards i n c r e a s e d so t h a t i n t ime t h i s a r e a came to i n c l u d e one 81 h a l f o f the a r e a and o n e - t h i r d o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f I r e l a n d . The B o a r d had been g i v e n the power to e x p r o p r i a t e e s t a t e s and unused bog o r mountain l a n d . I t a l s o a s s i s t e d i n r e v i v i n g the decadent f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y o f w e s t e r n I r e l a n d . When the B oard was d i s s o l v e d i n 1923 i t s work was c omplete: i t had t a k e n o v e r two m i l l i o n a c r e s and one thousand e s t a t e s . Emanating from the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Congested D i s t r i c t s B o a rd came the I r i s h A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y , founded by S i r Horace P l u n k e t t i n 1889. T h i s body a t t e m p t e d t o u n i t e men o f a l l p a r t i e s to r e g e n e r a t e I r e l a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y from h e r own r e s o u r c e s and on h e r own l i n e s . P l u n k e t t b e l i e v e d i n co-o p e r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; he had l e s s a s s u r a n c e i n a g r a r i a n l e g i s l a t i o n t h a n I n i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the l a n d . The s o c i e t y a c t e d as a c l e a r i n g house f o r o t h e r co-o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s ; i t c a r r i e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n on an e s t e n s i v e s c a l e ; and i t h e l p e d t o e v o l v e a new economic and s o c i a l o r d e r . l o c a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s g r a d u a l l y a b s o r b e d a l l the r u r a l b u s i n e s s c o n n e c t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e i n a p a r i s h ; i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were f o u n d the f undamental p r i n c i p l e s o f g u i l d s o c i a l i s m "the s o c i e t y w i t h i n the s t a t e . . . n o t c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e , but f i n a l l y c o n t r o l l i n g i t s n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t e s . " 6 5 and "a number o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f workers and p r o d u c e r s w h i c h , i n the c o u n t r y , would have the c h a r a c t e r o f s m a l l p a t r o n s , and i n the towns o f a n c i e n t g u i l d s . " 6 6 The s u c c e s s f u l w o r k i n g o f the s o c i e t y r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h a i d e d a g r i c u l t u r e and p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d the t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e 65. B a r k e r , o n . c i t . , p.73 66. I b i d . 82 i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . A f t e r 1910 the i n f l u e n c e o f the p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n was narrowed hy the o p p o s i t i o n o f the t r a d i n g c l a s s e s o f I r e l a n d , who, as t h e l e a d i n g c a p i t a l i s t s o f the l a n d , l o o k e d w i t h d i s f a v o u r upon the e x t e n s i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s . Con-s e q u e n t l y when t h i s group made t h e i r i n f l u e n c e f e l t i n p a r l i a m e n t t h e y caused a r i f t i n the p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f I r e l a n d which i s c o n s p i c u o u s i n the F r e e S t a t e D a i l E i r e a n n t o d a y . Yet i n s p i t e o f the o p p o s i t i o n f a c e d by the l e a d e r s o f the I r i s h A g r i -c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y , i t was t h i s body which gave the e x p e r i e n c e i n h a n d l i n g l o c a l a f f a i r s v a l u a b l e to the F r e e S t a t e a f t e r 1922. The Congested D i s t r i c t s Board's r e p o r t f o r 1920 s t a t e d ; " I n the y e a r 1891 the people whose c o n d i t i o n had been im-p r o v e d were s t r u g g l i n g f o r a l i v i n g on l i t t l e h o l d i n g s o f c u t away bog moor o r e x h a u s t e d l a n d o f poor q u a l i t y , w h i l e t a n t a l i z i n g -l y c l o s e to them were t r a c t s o f l a n d used f o r the g r a z i n g o f c a t t l e and sheep. The m a r v e l l o u s change where the l a n d - p u r c h a s e . o p e r a t i o n s o f the b o a r d have been f i n i s h e d can h a r d l y be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n by those who knew the c o u n t r y b e f o r e the b o a r d p u r c h a s e d the e s t a t e s . But even those who had not such p r e v i o u s knowledge can see new or improved houses, w i t h compact, w e l l f e n c e d farms, t i l l e d and g r a z e d i n a manner t h a t i s h i g h l y c r e d i t a b l e i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f occupancy by t h o s e who a few y e a r s b e f o r e had l i v e d i n u n h e a l t h y h o v e l s w i t h l i t t l e p l o t s o f u n p r o d u c t i v e s o i l t h a t o b l i g e d men to go to E n g l a n d , and t o l e a v e t h e i r c r o p s to be a t t e n d e d to by wives and c h i l d r e n . " 67. Quoted by P o m f r e t , o p . c i t . p.312. B a r k e r , o p . c i t . p . 9 2 s t a t e s t h a t the per c a p i t a w e a l t h i n 1907 f o r I r e l a n d was t w e n t y - s i x pounds s t e r l i n g i n c o n t r a s t t o twenty pounds s t e r l i n g f o r E n g l a n d . 83 I n 192S o n l y s e v e n t y thousand h o l d i n g s , o f w h i c h f i f t y - f i v e thousand were i n the F r e e S t a t e , s t i l l remained i n the hands o f the l a n d l o r d s ; t h e r e were f o u r hundred thousand new owners occupy-i n g t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n a c r e s . The B r i t i s h t r e a s u r y had l o a n e d one hundred and twenty m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g and had l o s t a n e g l i g -i b l e amount i n the non-payment o f a n n u i t i e s . A f t e r 1922 b o t h the Free S t a t e and U l s t e r e x p r o p r i a t e d almost a l l o f the h o l d i n g s s t i l l u npurchased by the t e n a n t s . I n e f f e c t a l a n d r e v o l u t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e , w i t h o u t a p a r a l l e l i n the modern w o r l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e economic r e v o l u t i o n had not s o l v e d the a p p a r e n t l y p e r p e t u a l I r i s h problem. While the a g r a r i a n s i t u a t i o n was b e i n g r e v o l u t i o n i z e d , i n f l u e n c e s were a t work w h i c h were to p r e c i p i t a t e I r e l a n d i n t o f u r t h e r c a t a s t r o p h i c c i v i l wars from which emerged the I r i s h F ree S t a t e as the symbol o f the f u t i l i t y o f the B r i t i s h attempt t o s e t t l e the I r i s h q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t r e -c o g n i z i n g the f u l l n a t i o n a l i s t i c demands of the m a j o r i t y o f the I r i s h p e o p l e . 84 Chapter I I I THE HOME RULE.MOVEMENT, 1801 - 1914 The economic r e v o l u t i o n b r o u g h t about i n I r e l a n d i n the p e r i o d from 1801 to 1922 was a t t e n d e d by e q u a l l y f u n damental changes i n t h e realms o f r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n and government. These changes a n t e d a t e d , p a r a l l e l e d and p o s t d a t e d the economic ones; t h e i r consummation e x p l a i n s the r e a s o n f o r the f a i l u r e o f the economic changes to s e t t l e t he I r i s h q u e s t i o n . As r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n and p o l i t i c s were c l o s e l y i n t e r m i n g l e d i n I r i s h a f f a i r s i n t he p e r i o d under r e v i e w t h e y a r e her e c o n s i d e r e d as t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the s t r u g g l e f o r I r i s h home r u l e - - a movement which be-gan i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the imp l e m e n t i n g o f the terms o f the A c t of Union and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the passage o f the Home R u l e B i l l o f 1912. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o exaggerate the i n f l u e n c e o f B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s on the v a r i o u s phases of the home r u l e movement. Gener-a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n of B r i t i s h s tatesmen found I r i s h a f f a i r s a u s e f u l pawn i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l chess game. F o r y e a r s the I r i s h members i n the house o f commons f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e the p o t e n t i a l power o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n ; i t was not u n t i l C h a r l e s S t e w a r t p a r n e l l f o r g e d h i s I r i s h p a r t y i n t o a p o w e r f u l weapon t h a t I r e l a n d ' s p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s made t h e i r i n f l u e n c e v i t a l l y f e l t . B u t o t h e r f a c t o r s c o n d i t i o n e d A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s a t t h i s p e r i o d ; E n g l i s h governments o n l y o n . i n f r e q u e n t o c c a s i o n s s e n t f i r s t r a t e men t o a d m i n i s t e r I r i s h a f f a i r s ; E n g l i s h prime m i n i s t e r s were s a t i s f i e d t o o b t a i n t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e n e i g h b o r i n g 85 island from deputies and other often unreliable sources; reform legis lat ion for Ireland was generally a generation too late; and Br i t i sh royalty with minor exceptions were indifferent to the claims of Irish hospital i ty . Monarchs had their Scottish estab-lishments to which they journeyed in hunting and holiday seasons; but no such tangible objects of regal interest were found i n . Ireland. Final ly the home rule struggle was marked by a religious animosity between Catholic and Protestant groups that kept cropping up l ike King Charles' head in the relations between the two islands. The general home rule movement may be considered in the f o l -lowing divisions: the struggle for Catholic emancipation, and the movement for the disestablishment of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1 1801 - 1869; the granting of educational autonomy,1801 -2 1908; the Repeal Movement?1801 - 1870; the Home Rule struggle^ 1878- 1892; and the Home Rule struggle,1900 - 1914. Catholic Emancipation and Church Disestablishment. A Catholic h i s tor ian 3 commenting on the reasons for the fai lure of the Union of 1801, makes the following statements: "Why should an Irish Catholic be any more ashamed of wanting a Catholic ascendancy in Ireland, than an Englishman of wanting to maintain his State Church?" "The Home Rule, land, and education movements, with which the Irish people are identif ied are in essence a struggle be-1. The Irish Church was not a fu l l y autonomous inst i tut ion; i t was in rea l i ty a branch of the Church of England. 2. The p o l i t i c a l Home Rule struggle is herein capital ized. 3. O'Connor, o p . c i t . , II , Chapt.V. 86 tween a C h r i s t a i n and a n o n - C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " "But who w i l l be s a t i s f i e d w i t h e q u a l i t y when, by f i g h t i n g f o r i t , he can get ascendancy. A whole l o a f i s b e t t e r t h a n h a l f a l o a f ? " "The main o b s t a c l e to t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f the U n i o n l a y i n the d i f f e r e n c e o f r e l i g i o n between the peoples ( o f I r e l a n d ) . " T h i s w r i t e r admits t h a t the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f a i l u r e o f economic r e f o r m s to s e t t l e I r i s h t r o u b l e s i s found i n the r e l i g i o u s s i t u a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y to the i m p a r t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n the r e c u r r i n g feuds between the s u p e r s t i t i o u s C a t h o l i c p e a s a n t r y o f the s o u t h and the narrow-minded orangeman o f U l s t e r l e n d w e i g h t t o the b e l i e f t h a t I r i s h problems have remained u n s o l v e d because o f e m o t i o n a l and not i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a s o n s . The U n i o n found the f o l l o w i n g C a t h o l i c d i s a b i l i t i e s s u r v i v i n g : a C a t h o l i c was d e b a r r e d from s i t t i n g i n p a r l i a m e n t ; he was ex-c l u d e d from h o l d i n g v a r i o u s h i g h o f f i c i a l p o s t s ; and no C a t h o l i c , by a s o r t o f u n w r i t t e n l a w v was chosen f o r an o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n i n the m i l i t i a . To t h e s e d i s a b i l i t i e s was added the d e f i n i t e s t a t e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the Roman Church by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l Church as the S t a t e Church o f I r e l a n d . I t was not u n t i l 1869 t h a t the r e l i g i o u s problem o f I r e l a n d was s e t t l e d , a t l e a s t on t h e s u r f a c e , by the passage o f G l a d s t o n e ' s measure d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . From 1869 u n t i l 19E2 r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s worked more o r l e s s below the s u r f a c e t o v i t i a t e A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s . The f i r s t major r e l i g i o u s i s s u e t o be met was C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n . W i l l i a m P i t t had a s s u r e d the C a t h o l i c s o f I r e l a n d 87 t h a t t h e i r e m a n c i p a t i o n would ensue under the U n i o n ; "but h i s c a b i n e t was s p l i t o v e r the i s s u e . 4 A f u r t h e r impediment ap-peared i n the o b j e c t i o n o f George I I I to the " J a c o b i n i c a l i d e a " o f f r e e i n g C a t h o l i c s from t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s . F i n a l l y P i t t r e -s i g n e d on the i s s u e as prime m i n i s t e r . I n s p i t e o f the c o r r u p t methods adopted by the prime m i n i s t e r t o e f f e c t the Un i o n , t h e r e i s r e l i a b l e e v i d e n c e to prove t h a t he was s i n c e r e i n h i s wishes 5 to emancipate the C a t h o l i c s . l a r g e l y t h r o u g h P i t t ' s e f f o r t s a C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n was formed i n 1802; i t s e n t m i l d r e s o l u t i o n s t o p a r l i a m e n t where they met w i t h much a p p r o v a l from the commons but w i t h l i t t l e f rom the l o r d s . I n 1805 a more f o r m i d a b l e C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n was formed, i t s a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g d i r e c t e d i n l a r g e p a r t by D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . When at t e m p t s were made t o r e s t r a i n t h i s o r -g a n i z a t i o n by law, i t was the f u t u r e " l i b e r a t o r " who e v o l v e d means o f e v a d i n g l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . O ' C o n n e l l was not l o n g i n 4. Rose, o p . c i t . I I , 151 and 438-440. 5. The Annual R e g i s t e r , 1801, pp.119-120 r e c o r d s the f o l l o w i n g i m p r e s s i o n o f the k i n g ' s s t a n d : " H i s m a j e s t y ' s f e e l i n g s d i d not a c c o r d w i t h t h o s e o f h i s m i n i s t e r . F i r m i n what he h e l d to be h i s d u t y , and f a i t h f u l t o what he u n d e r s t o o d to be h i s o a t h , he p l a n t e d h i m s e l f b e f o r e the b a r r i e r o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . and d e t e r m i n e d to m a i n t a i n i t . " The An n u a l R e g i s t e r t h e n quotes a l e t t e r c i r c u l a t e d i n P i t t ' s name throughout I r e l a n d : "The C a t h o l i c body w i l l p r u d e n t l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r p r o s p e c t s as a r i s i n g from the persons who now espouse t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . . . . T h e y may be a s -s u r e d t h a t Mr. P i t t w i l l do h i s utmost t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r cause i n the p u b l i c f a v o u r , (though he c o u l d not concur i n a h o p e l e s s attempt to f o r c e i t now)." The w r i t e r i n t h i s c h r o n i c l e s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e s P i t t f o r h i s a c t i o n s i n the m a t t e r and s u g g e s t s t h a t the prime m i n i s t e r was u s i n g the C a t h o l i c q u e s t i o n as a means o f e f f e c t i n g h i s r e s t o r a t i o n to power. 88 r e a l i z i n g t h a t i n o r d e r to be s u c c e s s f u l , the e m a n c i p a t i o n move-ment must become a mass one: c o n s e q u e n t l y he extended the scope o f the body and persuaded numerous p r i e s t s to a c t as i t s o f f i c e r s . F o r a time t h i s new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o was somewhat i n e f f e c t u a l , i t s p r o g r e s s b e i n g o b s t r u c t e d by o p p o s i t i o n from the b i s h o p s and many w e a t h l y members o f the C a t h o l i c group i n I r e l a n d . However O'Connell's i n f l u e n c e r e c e i v e d one p o w e r f u l impetus i n the c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h the Pope o v e r the q u e s t i o n o f v e t o i n g the appointment o f b i s h o p s t o v a c a n t s e e s . I n s p i t e o f s t r o n g op-p o s i t i o n from the c h u r c h head O'Connell p e r s i s t e d i n h i s c l a i m t h a t the B r i t i s h government s h o u l d have no a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s m a t t e r . A l t h o u g h the c o n t r o v e r s y remained u n s e t t l e d y e t O'Connell and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t from the mass of the I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n . A l t e r a t i o n s were a g a i n e f f e c t e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1823; O 'Connell ceased e n t i r e l y to have p e t i t i o n s s e n t to p a r l i a m e n t ; and pursued a p o l i c y o f p u b l i c l y a g i t a t i n g f o r the removal o f t i t h e s and the r e l i g i o u s o l i g a r c h y i n c o n t r o l o f I r e l a n d , and b i t t e r l y a t t a c k e d the Orange o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Almost e v e r y p r i e s t was persuaded to become an agent o r an o f f i c e r o f the s o c i e t y ; and a y e a r l y f e e f o r membership was e x a c t e d from each l o y a l sup-p o r t e r . So p o w e r f u l d i d the o r g a n i z a t i o n become t h a t the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n wrote i n 1824 to S i r Robert P e e l j " I f we cannot get r i d o f the C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n we must l o o k to c i v i l war i n I r e l a n d s ooner o r l a t e r . " 6 O'Connell was f i n a l l y p r o s e c u t e d 6. T a y l o r , W.C., l i f e and Times o f S i r R o b e r t Pee. (London) V o l . I , p . 1 9 8 . P e e l ' s s t a n d on the C a t h o l i c q u e s t i o n i s . i n t e r e s t i n g . He wrote "From the e a r l i e s t p e r i o d o f my p o l i t i c a l l i f e , c a r i n g n o t h i n g f o r the o p i n i o n o f f r i e n d s . . . I have u n i f o r m l y opposed the con-c e s s i o n s to the C a t h o l i c s , p e e l was a t the t ime I r i s h S e c r e t a r y . 89 f o r s e d i t i o n but the c harges a g a i n s t him were thrown out by the j u r y . The f i r s t s t e p towards C a t h o l i c r e l i e f came i n 1825 w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the f o r t y s h i l l i n g f r e e h o l d f r a n c h i s e s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d and t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c c l e r g y s h o u l d be p a i d by the s t a t e . A b i l l to implement th e s e s u g g e s t i o n s was r e j e c t e d by 7 the l o r d s , the r e j e c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g the l i n e o f a c t i o n f o r I r i s h r e f o r m f o r the next c e n t u r y : b i l l s p assed by the commons would be thrown out by the upper house. l a t e r i n 1825 the A l g e r i n e A c t was passed o u t l a w i n g the C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n , and p r o h i b i t i n g meetings o f i t s members. O'Connell r e p l i e d to t h i s move by f o u n d i n g a new s o c i e t y which was to meet f o r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c h a r i t a b l e p u rposes. He a l s o d e f i n i t e l y dropped h i s s u p p o r t to the two h a l f measures o f f r a n c h i s e r e f o r m and s t a t e payment o f the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . 8 I n 1826, to combat p r e v a i l i n g p r e j u d i c e s a m e e t i n g o f C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s i s s u e d a statement to i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y t h e i r p o s i t i o n on r e l i g i o u s dogma; they r e p u d i a t e d c l a i m s o f the pope to t e m p o r a l power i n I r e l a n d ; and opposed the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the I r i s h Church. But O'Connell r e f u s e d to s u p p o r t p r e s e r v -a t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s s t a t u s quo. To the n a t i o n he i s s u e d a r e h e t o r i c a l c a l l w h i c h evoked tremendous s u p p o r t , and huge meet-7. The r e j e c t i o n was l a r g e l y due to a speech o f the Duke o f York who argued a g a i n s t any c o n c e s s i o n to the C a t h o l i c s . He s t a t e d t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o ad-here to h i s f a t h e r ' s p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g the C a t h o l i c q u e s t i o n . Annual R e g i s t e r , 1825, pp.58-60 8. O'Connell had m i s t a k e n l y b e l i e v e d t h a t government payment o f the p r i e s t s would " i n c r e a s e the s t r e n g t h o f the government i n I r e l a n d , so as to c o n s o l i d a t e I r e l a n d w i t h E n g l a n d c o m p l e t e l y i n e v e r y b e n e f i c i a l r e s p e c t . " l e c k y , W.E., L eaders o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n I r e l a n d , a u t h o r i z e d e d i t i o n (London, 1912) V o l . I I , pp. 70-71. 90 i n g s were h e l d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . So alarmed d i d the P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y become t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups passed r e s o l u t i o n s f a v o u r i n g e m a n c i p a t i o n . I n England p u b l i c o p i n i o n was r a n g i n g i t s e l f b e h i n d the h u m a n i t a r i a n movement; the Test and C o r p o r a t i o n A c t s had been r e p e a l e d and demands f o r o t h e r r e -forms were b e i n g h e a r d . I n 1828 a n o t h e r measure c o n t e m p l a t i n g r e l i e f f o r C a t h o l i c s passed the commons o n l y to be r e j e c t e d by the l o r d s . The hour o f d e c i s i o n had a r r i v e d . O'Connell d e c i d e d to r u n f o r a vacant p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t ; h i s c a n d i d a t u r e was s u c c e s s f u l i n s p i t e o f s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from some o f the c l e r g y and the Orange l o d g e s . The government had to d e c i d e between c o n c e s s i o n and r e v o l u t i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e h e s i t a t i o n the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n , t h e n prime m i n i s t e r , d e c i d e d to concede c e r t a i n o f the C a t h o l i c demands. B i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1829: one to s u p p r e s s the C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n and the o t h e r to g r a n t r e l i e f to the C a t h o l i c s i n g e n e r a l . With the passage o f the C a t h o l i c R e l i e f 9 B i l l on 5 t h March, 1829, the o a t h o f supremacy and the d e c l a r -a t i o n a g a i n s t t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r members o f p a r l i a m e n t were a b o l i s h e d and a new o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e 1 0 s u b s t i t u t e d ; a l l o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s except those of the r e g e n t , c h a n c e l l o r o f the exchequer, v i c e r o y and commander-in-chief o f the army were thrown open to C a t h o l i c s . However, the l a t t e r were not p e r m i t t e d to wear any i n s i g n i a o f t h e i r f a i t h except i n t h e i r c h u r c h e s . The measure met w i t h s t r e n u o u s o p p o s i t i o n i n the l o r d s , but W e l l i n g -9. See A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1829, C h a p t . I - IV, f o r a contemporary a c c o u n t . L e c k y , L e a d e r s i n I r e l a n d , o p . c i t . , P a r t I i s one o f the b e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the background o f C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n . 10. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1829, p.23 91 t o n used the argument o f the danger o f c i v i l war to c a r r y i t through the upper house. Ho n a t i o n a l r e j o i c i n g g r e e t e d the passage o f the C a t h o l i c R e l i e f B i l l , as i t had been too l o n g d e l a y e d . A bad precedent had been e s t a b l i s h e d : v i o l e n t methods of a g i t a t i o n had been n e c e s s a r y to have the r e f o r m e f f e c t e d , and B r i t i s h s tatesmen had passed the measure w i t h g r e a t r e l u c t -ance . With almost complete r e l i e f f o r C a t h o l i c s i n e f f e c t the next problem o f r e l i g i o u s home r u l e was the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l Church. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s p o s i t i o n i n v i o l a t e by the A c t o f U n i o n , was l e f t as r i c h , i n e f f i c i e n t and c o r r u p t as b e f o r e 1801, i t s maintenance l e f t l a r g e l y to the meagre purses o f i n d i v i d u a l s who disavowed a l l e g i a n c e . t o i t s p r e c e p t s . 1 1 The S t a t e Church was kept i n e x i s t e n c e b y a t i t h e system which e x a c t e d the sum o f s i x hundred thousand pounds s t e r l i n g a y e a r from the I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . G r a d u a l l y the o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n became a n a t i o n a l one, opposed'only by the C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y , and the P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y . I n 1832 c e r t a i n l e a d i n g C a t h o l i c s a d v i s e d the t e n a n t s not t o pay t h e i r t i t h e s and the government t u r n e d to the time-honored weapon o f c o e r c i o n . At the same time i t assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i n g the t i t h e s ; t h i s made m a t t e r s worse as the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n became the d i r e c t o b j e c t o f d e t e s t a t i o n . The crown f o r c e s f i l l e d the j a i l s w i t h t i t h e d e b t o r s , but the c o s t of c o l l e c t i n g the t a x was a l a r m i n g l y g r e a t . 11. I n 1835 t h e r e were s i x m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand C a t h o l i c s , one m i l l i o n members o f the S t a t e Church and seven hundred and f i f t y thousand P r e s b y t e r i a n s and D i s s e n t e r s . (Annual R e g i s t e r , 1835, Chapt. XI) .92 To c i r c u m v e n t i n p a r t the d i f f i c u l t y , the government d e c i d e d t h a t the onus o f c o l l e c t i n g the t i t h e s s h o u l d be thrown on the l a n d l o r d s who c o u l d e x a c t the sum hy means of i n c r e a s e d r e n t s . The T i t h e Commutation A c t of 1838, which i n c i d e n t a l l y l o w e r e d the t i t h e s hy o n e - q u a r t e r , a l s o gave e f f e c t t o the government's p l a n f o r t i t h e c o l l e c t i o n . A g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t the c h u r c h e x a c t i o n was e f f e c t u a l l y s t i f l e d . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n p r e p a r e d the way f o r the u l t i m a t e d i s s o l u -t i o n o f the a l i e n c h u r c h . A Church T e m p o r a l i t i e s A c t o f 1833 c u t down the number o f ch u r c h b u i l d i n g s and c o n s e q u e n t l y the c o s t o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l upkeep. The f i r s t impetus to l a n d purchase was a l s o g i v e n by the 1833 measure which p r o v i d e d f o r the purchase by 12 t e n a n t s h o l d i n g under b i s h o p s ' l e a s e s . F o r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s the church q u e s t i o n slumbered w h i l e the famine and l a n d t r o u b l e s h e l d the s t a g e . But i n the ' s i x t i e s a g i t a t i o n f o r d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t was once more h e a r d and c u l m i n a t e d i n a m o t i o n by G l a d s t o n e t h a t the m a t t e r s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d by p a r l i a m e n t . The r a n t i n g s o f the l e a d e r s o f the I r i s h Church were i n s u f f i c i e n t to make Gl a d s t o n e d e v i a t e from the p o l i c y w hich he had come to v i e w as the most e q u i t a b l e one. I t was h i s d e s i r e to s e t t l e the m a t t e r permanently so t h a t r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d no l o n g e r v i t i a t e A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s . G l a d s t o n e c o n c u r r i n g w i t h B i s h o p Manning, a C a t h o l i c p r e l a t e , s t a t e d : "The I r i s h d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s a g r e a t wrong. I t i s the cause o f d i v i s i o n i n I r e l a n d , o f 12. John B r i g h t i n 1848 was outspoken i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f the e x i s t e n c e o f the S t a t e Church; he recommended i t s d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t . "Speeches o f John B r i g h t , " e d i t e d by Rogers, T h o r o l d , Second e d i t i o n [London, 1869). V o l . I , p.317. 93 a l i e n a t i o n between I r e l a n d and E n g l a n d . I t e m b i t t e r s e v e r y o t h e r q u e s t i o n . . . . T h e f a t a l ascendancy o f r a c e o v e r r a c e i s un-s p e a k a b l y a g g r a v a t e d by ascendancy o f r e l i g i o n o v e r r e l i g i o n . " 1 3 Orange and o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t groups e x h i b i t e d a l l t he symp-toms o f r e l i g i o u s mania but G l a d s t o n e , s u p p o r t e d by the B r i t i s h p u b l i c which was becoming nauseated w i t h the p r e t e n s i o n s o f the I r i s h Church, p u r s u e d h i s c o u r s e . H i s p o s i t i o n was as f o l l o w s : " I n the removal o f t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t I see the d i s c h a r g e o f a debt o f c i v i l j u s t i c e , the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a n a t i o n a l . . . r e p r o a c h , a c o n d i t i o n i n d i s p e n s a b l e to the s u c c e s s o f e v e r y e f f o r t t o s e c u r e the peace and contentment o f t h a t c o u n t r y ; f i n a l l y , r e l i e f to a devoted c l e r g y from a f a l s e p o s i t i o n , cramped and beset by h o p e l e s s p r e j u d i c e s , and the opening o f a f r e e r c a r e e r to t h e i r s a c r e d m i n i s t r y . " 1 4 A f t e r f i v e months o f o p p o s i t i o n the r e s o l u t e w i l l and un-f l i n c h i n g energy o f the prime m i n i s t e r p r e v a i l e d . On J u l y 26, 1869 the b i l l was passed. A c c o r d i n g to the Annual R e g i s t e r : "Whatever may be thought o f i t s m e r i t s o r d e m e r i t s , i t can h a r d l y be d i s -p u t e d t h a t the a c t f o r the D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the I r i s h Church... was the most r e m a r k a b l e l e g i s l a t i v e achievement o f modern t i m e s . " 1 5 By the I r i s h Church D i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t A c t a number o f f u n d a -m e n t a l arrangements were made: 1. the I r i s h c h u r c h became a s e l f -g o v e r n i n g E p i s c o p a l Church, d e f i n i t e l y P r o t e s t a n t i n a t t i t u d e and r i t u a l ; 2. about o n e - h a l f o f the computed c a p i t a l o f the 15. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I I , 246. Annual R e g i s t e i ? , 1869, pp.23-120 g i v e s an ex-h a u s t i v e account o f the b i l l ' s p r o g r e s s through p a r l i a m e n t . 14. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I I , 257 15. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1869, p.120. 94 former church's p r o p e r t y o f s i x t e e n m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g was a l l o c a t e d to the d i s e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 3, some seven hundred and f i f t y thousand pounds s t e r l i n g was s e t a s i d e f o r the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the a n n u a l "Regium Donum", d a t i n g from the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; 4. about t h r e e hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e thousand pounds s t e r l i n g was a s s i g n e d to the maintenance o f the C a t h o l i c c o l l e g e o f Maynouth, e s t a -b l i s h e d i n 1795 by G r a t t a n ' s p a r l i a m e n t ; and 5. the res i d u u m , about seven m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g , was s e t a s i d e f o r r e l i e f o f p u b l i c m i s f o r t u n e and s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from famine o r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The b i l l made no p r o v i s i o n f o r the payment o f the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . R e c o g n i z e d r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e was now made i m p o s s i b l e ; such r e l i g i o u s a n i m o s i t i e s as c o n t i n u e d to e x i s t were due to the backwardness o f I r i s h c i v i l i z a t i o n and not to the B r i t i s h government. Home R u l e i n E d u c a t i o n . Reformers i n a l l ages and i n a l l c o u n t r i e s have c o n s i d e r e d t h a t c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has been as e x c e l l e n t method o f a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l p r o g r e s s — o f the type the r e f o r m e r s p r e f e r . The p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f the Roman ch u r c h may be a c -count e d f o r i n p a r t by i t s h i s t o r i c a l p o l i c y o f c o n t r o l l i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e o f i t s members. T h i s has been s i n g u l a r l y t r u e of I r e l a n d . The r e g a i n i n g o f a measure o f c o n t r o l o v er e d u c a t i o n , by the C a t h o l i c c h u r c h p a r a l l e l e d the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the I r i s h S t a t e Church. C a t h o l i c e d u c a t i o n ha.d been s e v e r e l y c r i p p l e d by the p e n a l 95 l e g i s l a t i o n o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 1 6 and, a l t h o u g h some r e -s t r i c t i o n s had been l i f t e d l a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , 1801 found i t i n d i f f i c u l t s t r a i t s . The o n l y i n s t i t u t i o n o f importance was Maynooth C o l l e g e , founded t o keep I r i s h p r i e s t s from b e i n g con-t a m i n a t e d by v i s i t s t o the C o n t i n e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r I r e -l a n d the p r i e s t s t h a t g r a d u a t e d from the i n s t i t u t i o n were narrow and p r e j u d i c e d and had a b a n e f u l e f f e c t upon the communities where t h e y s e r v e d as p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s g u i d e s . P r o t e s t a n t groups up to 1830 pursued a p o l i c y o f a t t e m p t i n g to c o n v e r t the c h i l d r e n o f C a t h o l i c p a r e n t s to a n t i - C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e s , the p r o c e s s b e i n g a s s i s t e d by the c o m p a r a t i v e absence of C a t h o l i c s c h o o l s . I n 1812 a scheme was d e v i s e d to a s s i s t the c h e r i s h e d e d u c a t i o n o f the peasants by b u i l d i n g new s c h o o l s and t h i s b e g i n n i n g was f u r t h e r e d i n 1831 f o l l o w i n g the C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n A c t by the e l a b o r a t i o n o f a. p l a n o f n a t i o n a l educa-t i o n ^ framed by p a r l i a m e n t . A N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n B o a r d was s e t up composed of t h r e e P r o t e s t a n t s , two C a t h o l i c s and two o t h e r s ; a s m a l l sum was s e t a s i d e f o r the use o f the b o a r d ; i t was g i v e n a u t h o r i t y to s u p e r v i s e the e r e c t i o n o f new s c h o o l s and the ap-pointment and d i s m i s s a l o f t e a c h e r s ; and arrangements were made to e s t a b l i s h normal s c h o o l s . I n the main the scheme augured w e l l f o r I r i s h e d u c a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f the b u r e a u c r a t i c n a t u r e o f the b o a r d and o p p o s i t i o n from v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s g roups. U n f o r -t u n a t e l y the p r i d e i n knowledge and contempt f o r i g n o r a n c e so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the S c o t c h c h a r a c t e r was d i f f i c u l t t o f o s t e r i n I r e l a n d . L e c k y s t a t e s than i n the e l e c t i o n s o f 1900 one out o f 16. L e c k y , I r e l a n d i n the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , I , 148-149. e v e r y f i v e v o t e r s was u n a b l e to r e a d the names upon the b a l l o t paper, 1'' However, i l l i t e r a c y had.been me a s u r a b l y r e d u c e d ; i n 1831 i t had been e s t i m a t e d t h a t over f i f t y p er c e n t , o f the I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d n e i t h e r r e a d nor w r i t e . The c h i e f drawback to I r i s h e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y educa-t i o n was t h a t i t was s u p p o r t e d by t a x e s a l o n e and not i n p a r t by l o c a l r a t e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was " l i k e a c r e a t u r e l i v i n g on 18 a s i n g l e l u n g . . . i t was h a l f - s u p p o r t e d and h a l f endowed." Fur t h e r m o r e , any p r o p o s a l f o r p o p u l a r l o c a l c o n t r o l was opposed 19 by the p r i e s t w i t h "an i n f l e x i b l e and l e t h a l r e s i s t a n c e . " P r o g r e s s i n "home r u l e " i n u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n a l s o p r e -v a i l e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n 1845, P e e l e s t a b l i s h e d the Queen's C o l l e g e s o f Cork, B e l f a s t and.Galway; but t h e y were h e a r t i l y denounced by s t a u n c h C a t h o l i c s as b e i n g " g o d l e s s " c e n t r e s - -the a c c u s a t i o n o f cour s e r e s u l t i n g from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y tended to be P r o t e s t a n t i n s p i r i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y C a t h o l i c s t u d e n t s were d i s c o u r a g e d from a t t e n d i n g these i n i q u i t o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . G l a d s t o n e i n 1873 responded to C a t h o l i c a g i t a t i o n f o r a s p e c i f i c a l l y C a t h o l i c u n i v e r s i t y by i n t r o d u c i n g a b i l l t o a f f i l -i a t e t he Queen's C o l l e g e s o f Cork and B e l f a s t t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f D u b l i n . The measure was a t t a c k e d by C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s who o b j e c t e d to- p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r y o u t h from i n t e r m i n g l i n g w i t h P r o t e s t a n t s t u d e n t s and b e i n g c o n t a m i n a t e d by h e r e t i c a l t e a c h i n g s . The measure was u l t i m a t e l y d e f e a t e d . A g a i n i n 1879 a h a l f measure was.-attempted; the R o y a l 17. l e c k y , l e a d e r s , I I , 131x132. 18. F i s h e r , H.A.L., James B r y c e , (London, 1927) V o l . I , p.348. 19. I b i d . 97 U n i v e r s i t y o f I r e l a n d was s e t up; but i t was m e r e l y an examining i n s t i t u t i o n and was a b o l i s h e d i n 1908. C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s i n 1895 f o r m u l a t e d a c l a i m f o r the e s t a -b l i s h m e n t and endowment i n an e x c l u s i v e l y C a t h o l i c o r i n a common u n i v e r s i t y , o f one o r more c o l l e g e s conducted on p u r e l y -C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s . When T r i n i t y C o l l e g e i n 1903 o f f e r e d to e s t a b l i s h t h r e e d i v i n i t y s c h o o l s , one o f which Would be f o r C a t h o l i c s t u d e n t s , a s o l u t i o n appeared to be i n s i g h t . But a g a i n the b i s h o p s frowned on the p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , A u g u s t i n e B i r r e l l , the c h i e f s e c r e t a r y , g a i n e d t h e s u pport o f s e v e r a l N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s , and by the U n i v e r s i t y A c t o f 1908 a b o l i s h e d the R o y a l U n i v e r s i t y . I n i t s p l a c e were s e t up the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y w i t h c o l l e g e s a t Cork and Galway, and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B e l f a s t to c o n s i s t o f a Queen's C o l l e g e o f B e l f a s t . R e l i g i o u s t e s t s were removed from a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s ; a lump sum o f two hundred thousand pounds s t e r l i n g was s e t a s i d e f o r the b u i l d i n g s o f the new u n i v e r s i t i e s ; and the an n u a l g r a n t f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s was s e t a t e i g h t y thousand pounds s t e r l i n g . The b i l l met w i t h almost unanimous s u p p o r t . 2 0 I f the movement f o r l e g i s l a t i v e home r u l e had not g a t h e r e d such momentum, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the e d u c a t i o n a l system o f I r e l a n d w ould have c o n t i n u e d to e v o l v e i n as s a t i s f a c t o r y a manner as the backwardness o f the i s l a n d ' s c i v i l i z a t i o n c o u l d have per-m i t t e d . But the background o f the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e , c u l m i n -a t i n g i n the Home R u l e B i l l o f 1912, was marked i n a l a r g e measure by the f e a r o f P r o t e s t a n t s t h a t i f I r e l a n d were g r a n t e d p o l i t i c a l autonomy the ascendant C a t h o l i c government t h a t would take over 20. F i s h e r , o p . c i t . ,pp348-353. 98 the helm would, show sc a n t c o n c e r n f o r the i n t e r e s t s o f a r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y w i t h whom i t d i f f e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l l y . A P r o t e s t a n t opponent o f Home R u l e w r i t e s i n p a r t : " l o o k i n g o n l y a t the q u e s t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n the power o f an I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t t o outra g e t h e f e e l i n g s o f P r o t e s t a n t p a r e n t s i s u n d e n i a b l e and the t e m p t a t i o n t o use the power i r r e s i s t i b l e . . . . i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t s o f I r e l a n d v iew w i t h c o n s t e r n a t i o n the prospect o f t h e whole e d u c a t i o n a l system b e i n g 21 handed over to a Roman C a t h o l i c P a r l i a m e n t a t D u b l i n . " I n v iew o f the sta t e m e n t s o f S i r James O'Connor c o n c e r n i n g the a d m i t t e d C a t h o l i c d e s i r e f o r ascendancy i n I r e l a n d , p r o t e s t -a n t f e a r s were w e l l founded. I t i s not too much 'to say t h a t the f a t e of the p o l i t i c a l Home Rule s t r u g g l e i n l a r g e measure h i n g e d upon the f e a r s , b oth p u b l i c l y e x p r e s s e d and s e c r e t l y e n t e r -t a i n e d t h a t "home r u l e ..meant Rome r u l e . " The R e p e a l Movement. The r e p e a l movement i n I r e l a n d has extended o v e r a p e r i o d o f seven c e n t u r i e s — l a r g e l y a p h y s i c a l f o r c e movement, m a i n t a i n e d i n a lmost unbroken c o n t i n u i t y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t h a t p o r t i o n of the movement which c o n d i t i o n e d A n g l o - I r i s h r e -l a t i o n s a f t e r 1801. I t s apparent h o p e l e s s n e s s d u r i n g the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y caused i t to assume a f e r v o u r which showed i t s e l f i n a p a s s i o n f o r r e v o l t , f o r freedom from e x t e r n a l d o m i n a t i o n . S u c c e s s i v e l e a d e r s o f t h i s s p i r i t of r e v o l t d i d not f o r m u l a t e t h e i r vague a s p i r a t i o n s i n t o c o n c r e t e p o l i t i c a l aims. A s c h o l a r -l y German w r i t e r s t a t e s : "The i d e a l o f an independent n a t i o n a l 21. Wicks, P., JL'he T r u t h about Home R u l e , ( B o s t o n , 1913) pp.77 -\1'80. 99 r e p u b l i c became the outward symbol o f the s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l freedom, but b o t h t o Young I r e l a n d e r s and to F e n i a n s t h a t f r e e -dom, and not i t s embodiment i n a s p e c i f i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l frame-work, was the p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p i r a t i o n s . " ^ F u r t h e r s u p p o r t to t h i s argument i s g i v e n by a F e n i a n w r i t e r who a f f i r m s t h a t t h e propaganda o f t h a t movement d u r i n g i t s most i n f l u e n t i a l p e r i o d had been " e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t i s t w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y 23 no r e f e r e n c e t o R e p u b l i c a n i s m " . I t was t h i s movement w i t h i t s d e m o c r a t i c r a d i c a l aims which was to thwart John Redmond and then d i v i d e i n t o two a n t a g o n i s t i c s e c t i o n s d u r i n g the c i v i l war o f 1922-1923. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the I r i s h Home Rul e movement to a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t was b o t h n a t i o n a l i s t i c and s o c i a l i s t i c . The s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t f o r i t s n a t i o n a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s came from such p a r l i a m e n t a r y f i g u r e s as P a r n e l l and Redmond; the m o t i v a t i n g power o f i t s s o c i a l i s t i c d e s i r e s were found i n a l o n g l i n e o f r a d i c a l t h i n k e r s such as Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmet, John M i t c h e l l , F i n t a n l a l o r , M i c h a e l D a v i t t and 24 James C o n n o l l y . The f i r s t s t e p s towards t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the Union were made i n 1810 <with the f o u n d i n g o f the Repeal O r g a n i z a t i o n which passed a r e s o l u t i o n i n which the Un i o n was blamed f o r an accumu-l a t i o n o f d i s t r e s s and the estrangement between the s i s t e r 25 c o u n t r i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the movement, D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l , who was a l r e a d y a prominent f i g u r e , was more concerned w i t h 22. Kohn, Leo, The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e , ( L o n d o n , 1932), p.25 23. ,Henry, R.M., The E v o l u t i o n o f S i n n F e i n , (Dublin,1925) p.88. 24. C o n n o l l y was the f o u n d e r o f the I r i s h S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y o f the 1890's. 25. l e c k y , leaders., n 26. 100 C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n . " F u r t h e r m o r e , e x c e p t f o r D u b l i n , e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t i m e were f a i r l y p r o s p e r o u s . A g a i n e v e n s u c h a s t r o n g o p p o nent o f t h e U n i o n as G r a t t a n h a d come i n t i m e t o s u p p o r t i t s o p e r a t i o n a n d • e x p r e s s e d a w i s h t h a t i t s h o u l d n e v e r b e d i s t u r b e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y a c t i v e a g i t a t i o n f o r r e p e a l l a n g u i s h e d and d i d n o t assume c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s u n t i l a f t e r t h e C a t h o l i c E m a n c i p a t i o n A c t o f 1829. I n t h e meantime t h e two s e p a r a t e e x c h e q u e r s h a d b e e n amal-gamated and t h e I r i s h members were b e g i n n i n g t o p r o t e s t t h a t t h e U n i o n h a d p l a c e d t o o h e a v y a f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n on I r e l a n d . The c h a r g e was made t h a t t h e l a p o l e o n i c wars i n w h i c h I r e l a n d h a d n o t t a k e n a v i t a l p a r t h a d b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c d e b t , a l a r g e s h a r e o f w h i c h I r i s h p e a s a n t s were f o r c e d t o meet. The Annual. R e g i s t e r r e c o r d s one I r i s h s p e a k e r who c o m p a l i n e d t h a t : " t h e r e v e n u e o f I r e l a n d h a d b e e n s q u a n d e r e d 26 i n a d v a n c i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f E n g l a n d . " A r r a y e d a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s t o r e p e a l were t h e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s o f I r e l a n d as r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e l a n d l o r d s a n d t h e members o f p a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e c o n t r o l l i n g P r o t e s t a n t g r o u p who, s e e i n g t h e i r power d i m i n i s h i n g a f t e r t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e C a t h o l i c s , v i s u a l i z e d i t s e n t i r e d i s a p p e a r a n c e w i t h r e p e a l . A g a i n s t t h e s e e l e m e n t s O ' C o n n e l l d i r e c t e d h i s a t t a c k s b o t h i n I r e l a n d and i n the h o u s e o f commons. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e e m a n c i p a t o r t h o u g h t o f a p a r l i a m e n t i n D u b l i n as an i n s t i t u t i o n i n w h i c h he w o u l d be t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e . I t was h i s p o l i c y t o s t i r t h e p e a s a n t s o f I r e l a n d t o a p o s i t i o n where t h e y w o u l d r e a l i z e t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s 26. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1834, p.31 101 and a s s i s t him i n a c h i e v i n g h i s g o a l . So s u c c e s s f u l were h i s e f f o r t s t h a t the government was f o r c e d to pass the C o e r c i o n B i l l o f 1833, one o f the most severe i n I r i s h h i s t o r y . I t s t r u c k a t a g r a r i a n c rime and p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n — p u n i s h m e n t f o r i n f r i n g e -ment o f i t s enactments b e i n g t o p r e s e n t - d a y t h i n k i n g u n b e l i e v a b l y 27 s e v e r e . E n g l i s h statesmen and j o u r n a l s v i e d w i t h O'Connell i n e x p l o i t i n g t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s f o r m u t u a l v i t u p e r a t i o n . D u r i n g the next few y e a r s O'Connell c o n t i n u e d d i r e c t i n g p a r t o f h i s a t t e n t i o n to the t a s k o f c o n v i n c i n g the I r i s h p e o p l e t h a t t hey were the f i n e s t people on the f a c e o f God's e a r t h and t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the Union was t h e i r o n l y hope o f economic s a l -v a t i o n . A l t h o u g h h i s speeches s u g g e s t e d p e r s o n a l o p p o s i t i o n to v i o l e n t methods, y e t they a s s i s t e d p h y s i c a l f o r c e g r o u p s . So s u c c e s s f u l were h i s e f f o r t s t h a t he almost persuaded the I r i s h opponents o f the U n i o n t h a t E n g l a n d was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 28 v a g a r i e s o f the c l i m a t e o f I r e l a n d . G r a d u a l l y the p r i e s t s began to g i v e t h e i r s u p p o r t to t h e r e p e a l movement and O ' C o n n e l l , r e a l i z i n g t h a t h i s power was on the i n c r e a s e , i s s u e d a c a l l to b o t h P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s to a s s i s t him i n h i s p l a n s f o r such reforms as e n t i r e r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n , the a b o l i t i o n o f t i t h e s , u n i v e r s a l manhood s u f f r a g e and the s e c r e t b a l l o t . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a statement i n 27. O'Connell d e s c r i b e d l o r d Grey's m i n i s t e r s as "the base, b l o o d y and b r u t a l Whigs...with b r a i n s o f l e a d and h e a r t s o f stone and fangs o f i r o n . " l e c k y , l e a d e r s , I I , 138* 28. An I r i s h member s t a t e d ; " I t might be s a i d t h a t E n g l a n d had not caused the snow, b u t the people had the snow on them, and they thought t h a t t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h England had reduced them to the s t a t e i n which t h e y now were." A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1831, p.322 102 which he disavowed, the i n t e n t i o n o f s t r i v i n g f o r a s e p a r a t e l e g i s l a t u r e , s t a t i n g t h a t he wanted a p a r l i a m e n t t o do o n l y p r i v a t e I r i s h " b u s i n e s s — i n o t h e r words he w i s h e d a f e d e r a l con-n e c t i o n w i t h the r e s t o f Great B r i t a i n . I n 1831 the " I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s f o r the R e p e a l o f the U n i o n " were founded hy O ' C o n n e l l , hut the l o r d l i e u t e n a n t p r o m p t l y p r o s c r i b e d the group. I n o p p o s i t i o n to such an o r g a n i z a t i o n the A n t i - R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d o b v i o u s l y t o p r o t e c t the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t o f the l a n d l o r d c l a s s ; i t was the second l i n e o f defence b e h i n d t h e w e l l e n t r e n c h e d Orange gr o u p s . I f one i s tempted to view w i t h i n d i g n a t i o n the t r e a t m e n t o f O'ConneU's s o c i e t i e s by the ascendant groups i t i s w e l l to remember t h a t the p o l i c i e s o f the l a t t e r were s u r p r i s i n g l y t o l e r a n t f o r 1830* O'Connell might w e l l have been hung. As i t was he was o n l y a r r e s t e d f o r a speech a t a "Repeal B r e a k f a s t . " 29 I n the 1832 e l e c t i o n s the " r e p e a l e r s " c a p t u r e d many s e a t s and formed a N a t i o n a l R e p e a l A s s o c i a t i o n . O ' C o n n e l l , c l a i m i n g t o be a b l e to o b t a i n more f o r I r e l a n d by r e m a i n i n g a f r e e l a n c e , r e -f u s e d an o f f e r by the Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n , to a c c e p t an o f f i c e i n the m i n i s t r y . . I n 1834 the I r i s h l e a d e r asked f o r a committee to i n v e s t i g a t e the d i s s o l u t i o n of the I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t and i n a v i c i o u s a t t a c k condemned the w o r k i n g s o f the U n i o n A c t . F r i e n d s o f the Union p o i n t e d to a l l e g e d economic advantages w h i c h had a c -c r u e d to I r e l a n d s i n c e 1801 and f i r m l y u p h e l d the p r i n c i p l e o f u n i o n . E l e c t i o n s were h e l d a g a i n i n 1835 and O'Connell chose as h i s c r y , " R e p e a l , s i n k o r swim." With a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n h i s sup-29. The I r i s h members p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n the p a s s i n g o f the 1832 Reform B i l l . 103 p o r t e r s , owing t o the wor k i n g s o f the Reform B i l l o f 1832, he r e t u r n e d w i t h f o r t y - f i v e f o l l o w e r s . However, t h e Whigs had swept i n t o power i n the e l e c t i o n s , a n d a l t h o u g h O ' C o n n e l l d e n i e d h a v i n g made a p a c t w i t h the major p a r t y , y e t a form o f ent e n t e must have been agreed upon as the r e p e a l movement d e f i n i t e l y slowed down. I n a memorable speech i n 1836 O'Connell a s s u r e d the house; "Your paper u n i o n we c a r e n o t h i n g f o r — y o u r parchment u n i o n we care not f o r , g i v e us a u n i o n o f p r o s p e r i t y , and the r i g h t s o f j u s t i c e and o f b e n e f i t s , f o r to such a u n i o n we are re a d y to c o n c e d e — p l a c e us on an e q u a l i t y w i t h y o u r s e l v e s and then t a l k t o me of a u n i o n , f o r then w i l l I o f f e r you i n the name of t he I r i s h p e o p l e , not to t a l k o f r e p e a l . " 3 0 At t h i s t i me A r t h u r B a l f o u r ' s p o l i c y o f " k i l l i n g home r u l e w i t h k i n d n e s s " was presaged by the work o f Thomas Drummond, the I r i s h s e c r e t a r y , who, s e n s i n g the sen t i m e n t i n f a v o u r o f b e t t e r terms f o r C a t h o l i c s , proceeded to a p p o i n t them i n l a r g e numbers to i m p o r t a n t o f f i c e s . T h i s move was s t r e n u o u s l y ' f o u g h t by the Orange groups, b u t t h e y i n t u r n r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v e r s e a t t e n t i o n when the house, s u p p o r t e d by the k i n g , debated a t g r e a t 31 l e n g t h the q u e s t i o n o f s u p p r e s s i n g the l o d g e s . When i n 1840 the Whig government f e l l , f r i e n d l y g e s t u r e s t o I r e l a n d were withdrawn by the new f o r c e s i n power; and O'Con n e l l 30. Quoted by O'Connor, o p . c i t . , 11,226. A d i g e s t o f O'ConneU's speech i s f o u n d i n the A n n u a l R e g i s t e r f o r 1836,pp.38-39. The House spent weeks i n d i s c u s s i n g the m a t t e r o f r e f o r m i n g I r i s h boroughs. 31. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1836, pp.9-19. The k i n g s e n t a p e r s o n a l message to the commons s t a t i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n t o a b o l i s h a l l s e c r e t p o l i t i c a l s o o i e i t e s . 104 once more s t i r r e d up the r e p e a l a g i t a t i o n . A N a t i o n a l l o y a l R e peal A s s o c i a t i o n was formed a i m i n g a t the o b t a i n i n g o f s i x measures o f r e f o r m : a b o l i t i o n o f t i t h e s , f i x i t y o f t e n u r e f o r t e n a n t s , manhood s u f f r a g e , _abd.l.ition o f p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t r i e n n i a l p a r l i a m e n t s , and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s . . 3 ' U n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y t w e l v e a p o s t l e s o f r e p e a l were r e t u r n e d to p a r l i a m e n t as the movement had l o s t much o f i t s momentum. Fur t h e r m o r e , O'Connell had become i n v o l v e d i n a b i t t e r d i s p u t e o v e r an attempt to purchase a s e a t f o r a f r i e n d , and h i s p r e s t i g e had thus r e c i e v e d a c h e c k . 3 3 I n o p p o s i t i o n t o the p a r l i a m e n t a r y group s e e k i n g l e g i s l a t i v e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n t h e r e a r o s e a t t h i s time a new f o r c e — the Young I r e l a n d movement, which was stamped w i t h a l l the marks of i d e a l i s m . T h i s body began to speak i n terms o f an I r i s h n a t i o n , o f a f l a g , and o f complete independence from E n g l a n d . I t was the r e v i v a l o f the f o r c e which had been s e e k i n g f o r s i x c e n t u r i e s to r e p e a l not a u n i o n but the conquest o f I r e l a n d . The young men i n charge o f the new o r g a n i z a t i o n s e t them-s e l v e s up i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the v u l g a r i t y o f O ' C o n n e l l . They c a l l e d f o r an I r e l a n d t h a t was d i s t i n c t i v e l y I r i s h and not A n g l o -I r i s h . A paper, The N a t i o n , appeared, t o which w r i t e r s c o n t r i -b u t e d p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y a r t i c l e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f i d e a l i s m and l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y . I t was hoped by the l e a d e r s o f the movement t h a t P r o t e s t a n t s u p p o r t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d and t h a t u l t i m a t e l y the l a n d l o r d s w o u l d 32. These reforms were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a s k e d f o r by the C h a r t i s t s . 33. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1836, pp. 181-207. 105 a l s o j o i n them. I n time c e r t a i n P r o t e s t a n t a s s i s t a n c e was ob-^ t a i n e d ; b u t the movement d i d not.have a u n i v e r s a l a p p e a l and was by no means the ba ckbone o f the r e v i v e d r e p e a l movement. I t s i d e a l i s m l a t e r found expression i n the F e n i a n B r o t h e r h o o d and the S i n n F e i n movement, begun i n 1905. O'Connell had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g c o l l e c t e d by the p r i e s t s a " r e p e a l r e n t " w h i c h was u s e d by h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . 3 4 By 1843 the r e n t had r e a c h e d the sum o f s i x hundred pounds s t e r l i n g a week. With t h i s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t be-h i n d him, O'Connell proceeded to o r g a n i z e a " c o u n c i l o f t h r e e hundred" as a framework f o r an I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t . Monster meet-i n g s were h e l d i n v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s to b r o a d c a s t h i s p l a n s f o r the proposed I r i s h government; i t was becoming apparent t h a t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was endangering the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f I r e l a n d . I n 1843 a measure f o r s t r i k i n g a t the R epeal A s s o c i a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d . The Annual R e g i s t e r , commenting on the amount o f time consumed i n d i s c u s s i n g a f f a i r s i n I r e l a n d s t a t e s : "the u n u s u a l l y a g i t a t e d s t a t e of t h e c o u n t r y , produced by t h e R e p e a l movement...lends an a d d i t i o n a l element o f e x a s p e r a t i o n to the 35 debates i n P a r l i a m e n t . '* The proposed I r i s h Arms A c t was to take the p l a c e o f the measure which had l a p s e d i n 1838. A f t e r the house had l i s t e n e d to numerous speeches b o t h c r i t i c i z i n g and condoning government p o l i c i e s i n I r e l a n d , S i r Robert P e e l s t a t e d : "the Government were d e t e r m i n e d to e x e r c i s e e v e r y l e g i t i m a t e 34. " O'Connell a l s o a c c e p t e d a l a r g e p e r s o n a l g i f t each y e a r to" compensate him f o r the l o s s i n h i s own i n -come owing to h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . 35. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1843, p.134. 106 power which t h e y p o s s e s s e d f o r the p r e v e n t i o n o f t h a t which e v e r y member f o r England and S c o t l a n d , and a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f the I r i s h members c o n s i d e r e d as e q u i v a l e n t t o a s e p a r a t i o n o f I r e l a n d from E n g l a n d and dismemberment o f the e m p i r e . " 3 6 But O'Connell was not to be d i s c o u r a g e d by o r a t o r y and proceeded to s t r i k e back. He managed t o o b t a i n a measure o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and a s s u r e d h i s sup-p o r t e r s that;"The time i s coming when we must be d o i n g . You may have the a l t e r n a t i v e t o l i v e as s l a v e s o r d i e as freemen.... We a r e e i g h t m i l l i o n s , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r m i l l i o n o f I r i s h m e n i n England...We s h a l l make no r e b e l l i o n . . . . b u t i f P e e l f o r c e s on a c o n t e s t . . . t h e n vae v i c t i s between the c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s . . , , l e t our enemies a t t a c k us i f they dare." 3''' Some r e s p o n s i b l e government l e a d e r s a t t e m p t e d a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t o f i n d a v i a m e d i a i , and a scheme f o r a f e d e r a l u n i o n was advanced o n l y to be c o l d l y met w i t h by the c a b i n e t . O'ConneU's meetings c o n t i n u e d and p l a n s were l a i d to h o l d one a t C l o n t a r f , the h i s t o r i c spot o f the d e f e a t o f the Danes by B r i a n B o r u . The 38 m e e t i n g was p r o s c r i b e d ; O'Connell t o a v o i d b l o o d s h e d c a n c e l l e d the m e e t i n g , s t a t i n g t h a t : "no human r e v o l u t i o n was worth a s i n g l e drop o f b l o o d . " S e d i t i o n charges were brought i n a g a i n s t O'Connell and Gavan D u f f y , one o f h i s l e a d i n g l i e u t e n a n t s , and a f t e r a l o n g 36. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1843, p.146. 37. L e c k y , L e a d e r s , I I , 251. 38. A t O'ConneU's subsequent t r i a l t he defense argued t h a t the p r o s c r i p t i o n o f p e a c e f u l meetings was i l l e g a l . L e c k y , L e a d e r s , I I , 264^267. 107 t r i a l the l e a d e r s were s e n t e n c e d t o p r i s o n f o r one y e a r . 3 9 O'ConneU's s u b m i s s i o n to the p r o s c r i p t i o n e d i c t o f the C l o n t a r f m e e t i n g was a g r e a t blow to h i s p r e s i t g e , so i n s p i t e o f the temporary sympathy f o r h i s imprisonment, the Young I r e l a n d group once more t u r n e d from the " e m a n c i p a t o r " to more r a d i c a l p o l i c i e s . The group s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d O 'Connell f o r h i s p a n d e r i n g to the p r i e s t B and the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the Roman Church. But a l t h o u g h O'Connell was down, he was not y e t o u t , f o r when the Whigs r e t u r n e d t o power i n 1846, he once more j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h them and p l a y e d f o r p o p u l a r s u p p o r t by a s k i n g f o r the r e p e a l o f the c o r n l a w s , f o r r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n i n I r e l a n d and f o r f i x i t y o f l a n d t e n u r e f o r t e n a n t s . O'ConneU's u t t e r a n c e s on r e p e a l a l t h o u g h not r a d i c a l y e t once more r a l l i e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t to h i s cause; the r e p e a l r e n t a g a i n came i n s t e a d i l y and the p h y s i c a l f o r c e p a r t y r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d condemnation. Such c r i t i c i s m was s u p p o r t e d b y the C a t h o l i c c h u r c h w h i c h , f e a r i n g danger to i t s h o l d i f the r a d i c a l element rode i n t o power, f l a y e d the p h y s i c a l f o r c e men and t h e i r newpaper. At t h i s p o i n t the famine s t a l k e d i n t o the scene, i t s calam-i t o u s d i m e n s i o n s m o t i v a t i n g the young r a d i c a l s t o make a b i d f o r freedom through a r e b e l l i o n . The i n s u r r e c t i o n was b a d l y o r g a n i z e d by i t s i m p r a c t i c a l l e a d e r s ; w i l d a p p e a l s were made to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and France f o r a s s i s t a n c e ; peasants were armed w i t h p i k e s , s c y t h e s and o t h e r p r i m i t i v e weapons; and w i t h the peopl e at l a r g e i n a daze, the r i s i n g was q u e l l e d by the government f o r c e s . 39. The imprisonment was s t y l e d "The Richmond P i c n i c . " 108 W i l l i a m O ' B r i e n , C h a r l e s Meagher, D'Arcy McG^ee and o t h e r l e a d e r s o f the r i s i n g were c a p t u r e d , t r i e d , s e n t e n c e d to death and then r e p r i e v e d and some o f them t r a n s p o r t e d to p e n a l s e r v i t u d e i n Van Diemen's Land. Gavan D u f f y , one o f the moving s p i r i t s o f the c o n s p i r a c y ^ a f t e r f o u r t r i a l s , was f r e e d . I n 1854 a g e n e r a l amnesty 40 was d e c l a r e d . But i f the Young I r e l a n d movement had been b a d l y shaken by the u n s u c c e s s f u l r i s i n g o f 1848, i t s i n f l u e n c e was by no means sp e n t . F e n i a n i s m and the a g r a r i a n movement p e r p e t u a t e d many o f the i d e a l s o f the band o f z e a l o t s who had s t r u g g l e d not w i s e l y but w e l l i n the decade from 1840 to 1850. Many of the famine em i g r a n t s t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s had t a k e n w i t h them a b i t t e r h a t r e d o f En g l a n d . T h i s s e n t i m e n t was f o s t e r e d by o t h e r f o r c e s u n f r i e n d l y to Great B r i t a i n . F i n a l l y , about 1863, the F e n i a n S o c i e t y was formed i n Chicago o f I r i s h A mericans, w i t h i t s one aim the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an I r i s h r e p u b l i c . I t was a s e c r e t s o c i e t y w i t h a b l o o d t h i r s t y o a t h and was r o u n d l y denounced by t h e C a t h o l i c Church. I t s work was extended to I r e l a n d , where. James Stephens founded a paper, the " I r i s h P e o p l e " , t o pre a c h open s e d i t i o n . I t condemned C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n as a m a r x i a n o p i a t e o f the p e o p l e . V/ith the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the American C i v i l War, numerous I r i s h o f f i c e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r u g g l e , r e t u r n e d t o I r e l a n d to l e a d another i n s u r r e c t i o n a g a i n s t B r i t i s h r u l e . F r a n c e , R u s s i a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , these s t a l w a r t s a l l e g e d , w o u l d 40. Some o f thes e men r e t u r n e d to assume p o s t s i n I r e l a n d ; Gavan D u f f y t u r n e d to a g r a r i a n a g i t a t i o n ; Meagher became a g o v e r n o r o f Montana; McGhee came to Canada. 109 come to the a s s i s t a n c e o f the de p r e s s e d I r i s h p e a s a n t s . The " r i s i n g " was a f i a s c o . The government swooped i n and a r r e s t e d a number o f the l e a d e r s i n the o f f i c e o f the " I r i s h P e o p l e . " I n 1867 a few d e s u l t o r y a t t a c k s were made i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the south and a s h i p w i t h t h i r t y w a r r i o r s a r r i v e d from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The most u n f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f the a f f a i r was the attempt t o r e s c u e two F e n i a n s from a p o l i c e e s c o r t i n Ma n c h e s t e r . The would-be r e s c u e r s a c c i d e n t a l l y s h o t a p o l i c e m a n i n t h e i r e f f o r t and were t r i e d and e x e c u t e d . T h i s e x e c u t i o n o f the "Man-c h e s t e r M a r t y r s " had d i s t r e s s i n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n I r e l a n d as i t gave the r a d i c a l elements an o p p o r t u n i t y o f f o u n d i n g a t w e l f t h 41 o f J u l y c e l e b r a t i o n f o r the s o u t h . The Home R u l e Movement 1870-1900. I t was i n 1873 f o l l o w i n g the F e n i a n d i s o r d e r s and the e f f o r t s o f G l a d s t o n e t o p a c i f y I r e l a n d w i t h the l e g i s l a t i o n d i s e s t a b l i s h i n g the I r i s h Church and i n t r o d u c i n g a degree o f l a n d r e f o r m , t h a t I s a a c B u t t , the l e a d e r o f ov e r s i x t y I r i s h members i n the I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t , formed the Home R u l e l e a g u e . T h i s group a t t e m p t e d to pr e s e n t a r e a s o n a b l e case t o persuade E n g l a n d t o accede to t h e i r w i s h e s . T h e i r f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s was l a r g e l y due to t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y t a c t i c s ; t h e y had l i t t l e p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e , t h e y were a n x i o u s not to up s e t o r d i s t u r b anyone, and they were w a i t i n g f o r the t i m e , as B u t t s a i d , "7/hen E n g l i s h s o c i e t y has been...per-41. A commission p r e s e n t e d t o p a r l i a m e n t an account o f the " F e n i a n c o n s p i r a c y " . Annual R e g i s t e r , 1865, pp.172-184. The l e a d e r s were s t a t e d " t o b e l o n g to the c l a s s j u s t below the l o w e s t , . . h a v i n g some s l i g h t s m a t t e r i n g o f knowledge and s u p e r f i c i a l e d u c a t i o n . They appeared t o be e n t i r e l y independent o f any p r i e s t l y o r r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s . " 110 meated by I r i s h , charm and r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , t h e n the r e v o l u t i o n i n I r e l a n d w i l l t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t the e f f u s i o n o f anyone's b l o o d o r AO the f r a c t u r e o f a s i n g l e f r i e n d s h i p . " ^ The t r o u b l e was t h a t the house o f commons l o v e d I s a a c B u t t and l a u g h e d a t him. I t was not u n t i l C h a r l e s P a r n e l l a r r i v e d a t "the f i r s t assembly o f Gentlemen o f Europe," t h a t the I r i s h p a r t y changed t h e i r t a c t i c s and.the house h a t e d P a r n e l l — a n d obeyed him. Between 1870 and 1875 I r i s h members i n t r o d u c e d innum' e r a b l e b i l l s c o n c e r n i n g the government o f t h e i r c o u n t r y , b u t o n l y a minor one, the M u n i c i p a l P r i v i l e g e s B i l l , became an a c t o f p a r l i a -ment. The alm o s t d i s d a i n f u l r e j e c t i o n by B r i t i s h members o f I r i s h measures c a l l e d f o r a d e p a r t u r e from customary p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e d u r e ; and a member o f no p a r t i c u l a r b r i l l i a n c e but c e r t a i n l y o f f o r e s i g h t , Joseph B i g g a r , d i s c o v e r e d the new way. He s u g g e s t e d to the I r i s h members: "The E n g l i s h s t o p our B i l l s . Why don't we s t o p t h e i r B i l l s ? That's the t h i n g to do. No I r i s h B i l l s ; b u t s t o p E n g l i s h B i l l s . No l e g i s l a t i o n ; t h a t ' s the p o l i c y , s i r s . . . . B u t t ' s a f o o l — t o o AV. g e n t l e m a n l y ; we are a l l too g e n t l e m a n l y . " B i g g a r i n t r o d u c e d the new p o l i c y by s p e a k i n g f o r hours a t a time on eve r y measure t h a t was brought up i n the house, q u o t i n g c o p i o u s l y from g o v e r n -ment b l u e books, and c h e e r f u l l y i g n o r i n g the f r e n z i e d p r o t e s t s o f o t h e r members and the p r e s s . I n 1875 C h a r l e s S t e w a r t P a r n e l l appeared as an I r i s h member f o r county.Mayo. He was a P r o t e s t a n t , a man o f mediocre e d u c a t i o n , a t the time an i n d i f f e r e n t s p e a k e r , but had l a t e n t w i t h i n him the 42. E r v i n e , o p . c i t . , p.101 43. I b i d , p l 0 4 . I l l q u a l i t i e s so n e c e s s a r y to w e l d the I r i s h group i n t o a p o w e r f u l p a r l i a m e n t a r y weapon. P a r n e l l l i s t e n e d w i t h i n t e r e s t to the de-D a t e s i n the house, watched w i t h a p p r o v a l B i g g a r ' s o b s t r u c t i o n i s t t a c t i c s and d e c i d e d t h a t the l a t t e r showed promise as a means o f e f f e c t i n g I r i s h demands. The Annual R e g i s t e r f o r 1875 quotes from the London Times the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g I r e l a n d : " a t no time i n her h i s t o r y d i d she appear more t r a n q u i l , more f r e e from s e r i o u s c r i m e , more prosperous and contented....Home Rule s t i l l keeps a l i t t l e c a u l d r o n simmering; but t h e r e i s no f e a r t h a t i t w i l l e v e r 44 become f o r m i d a b l e . " The Times correspondent., d i d not a p p r e c i a t e how much f u e l was a t hand to make the c a u l d r o n b o i l o v e r . t W i t h i n a few months o f h i s e n t r y i n t o the house, P a r n e l l had become the l e a d e r o f a s m a l l group of the I r i s h members, had made them agree to remain i n c o n t i n u o u s o p p o s i t i o n to a l l B r i t i s h governments, had i n t r o d u c e d h i s r e l e n t l e s s p o l i c y o f o b s t r u c t i o n - -45 no E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l I r i s h demands were met. A g a i n s t t h i s h a n d f u l o f w a r r i o r s was a r r a y e d the rank and f i l e o f B r i t i s h members a l o n g w i t h B u t t and h i s s u p p o r t e r s . F o r days a t a time s e s s i o n s were dragged on i n e n d l e s s d e b a t e s , f r e q u e n t l y on m a t t e r s o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h the I r i s h group r i s i n g one a f t e r a n o t h e r t o . d e l i v e r e a r n e s t a d d r e s s e s which were a p p a r e n t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e o n l y to t h e m s e l v e s . I f economic c o n d i t i o n s i n I r e l a n d had not once more become acut e owing to c r o p f a i l u r e s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the o b s t r u c t i o n i s t group i n p a r l i a m e n t would not have been so s u c c e s s f u l . But when 44. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1875, pp.134-135. 45. A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the o b s t r u c t i o n i s t methods i s f o u n d i n the Annual R e g i s t e r , 1877, pp.45-51. M o r l e y o n . c i t . , I I I , pp.51-53, 123-124 a l s o g i v e s a good p i o t u r e o f the " o b s t r u c t i v e s " e n d t h e i r m e t h o i s . 112 i n 1880 M i c h a e l D a v i t t founded the Land l e a g u e to f i g h t the b a t t l e o f the t e n a n t s , P a r n e l l and h i s group were g i v e n an impetus to t h e i r a t t a c k s i n the house of commons. The government had t u r n e d to the p o l i c y o f c o e r c i o n t o stem the a g i t a t i o n o f the h a l f m i l l i o n members o f the l a n d League. T h i s gave the o b s t r u c -t i o n i s t s t he o p p o r t u n i t y o f a l l y i n g themselves w i t h the a g r a r i a n i n t e r e s t s and o f b a t t l i n g the c o e r c i o n b i l l , i n t r o d u c e d by F o r s t e r , t h e I r i s h s e c r e t a r y , John Redmond, an I r i s h member who a r r i v e d i n the house d u r i n g the famous debate has r e c o r d e d a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f the sc e n e ; "The House was s t i l l s i t t i n g — i t had been s i t t i n g w i t h o u t a b r e a k f o r o v e r f o r t y - o n e house...a few d i s h e v e l l e d and weary I r i s h m e n on one s i d e o f the House, about a hundred i n f u r i a t e d E n g l i s h m e n upon the o t h e r ; Mr. P a r n e l l upon h i s l e g s , w i t h p a l e cheeks and drawn f a c e , h i s hands c l e n c h e d b e h i n d h i s back, 4-fi f a c i n g w i t h o u t f l i n c h i n g a c o n t i n u o u s r o a r o f i n t e r r u p t i o n . " F i n a l l y the Speaker, i n d e f i a n c e o f the r u l e s o f the house, o r d e r e d t h e debate to end, t h e f i r s t time s i n c e Cromwell had d i s s o l v e d the Rump P a r l i a m e n t , t h a t p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedure had been s u b j e c t e d t o such s w i f t and a r b i t r a r y c u t t i n g o f f by t h e mandate o f a s i n g l e man. The passage o f t h e Land B i l l o f 1881 caused a temporary l u l l i n P a r n e l l ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e house, b u t the e x t r e m i s t s a t home and abroad c o n t i n u e d t h e i r clamour f o r I r i s h l e g i s l a t i v e independ-ence. F o l l o w i n g P a r n e l l ' s i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n Kilmainham j a i l , the uncrowned k i n g , as he was becoming known, d e v o t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n s 46. Gwynn, D e n i s , L i f e o f John Redmond,(London, 1932), p.29. 113 almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o the q u e s t i o n o f Home R u l e . He s t r o v e v a l i a n t l y to r e t a i n t h e u n i t y o f h i s p a r t y , no easy t a s k w i t h the p h y s i c a l f o r c e men both i n I r e l a n d and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ever 47 r e a d y to denounce a t e m p o r i z i n g p o l i c y . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n I r e -l a n d were c o n d i t i o n s ominous. M o r e l y w r i t e s : " i n 1882 I r e l a n d seemed to be l i t e r a l l y a s o c i e t y on the eve o f d i s s o l u t i o n . . . O v e r h a l f t he c o u n t r y the d e m o r a l i s a t i o n o f every c l a s s . . . h a d grown to an i n c r e d i b l e p i t c h . The mora l c o w a r d i c e o f what ought to 4ft have been the g o v e r n i n g c l a s s was a s t o u n d i n g . " A p p a r e n t l y c h u r c h d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t and l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n had by no means s e t t l e d the I r i s h q u e s t i o n . A l t h o u g h the p a r l i a m e n t was absorbed d u r i n g much o f 1883 and 1884 w i t h f u r t h e r r e forms i n the f r a n c h i s e , y e t G l a d s t o n e was c o n t e m p l a t i n g a scheme f o r I r i s h s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . H i s f i r s t p l a n was the s e t t i n g up o f an e l e c t i v e n a t i o n a l c o u n c i l i n D u b l i n w i t h c o n t r o l over l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boards and departments, but n o t o v e r p o l i c e and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the law. But P a r n e l l was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h such a form o f l o c a l government, and a s s i s t e d by the w o r k i n g s o f the Reform A c t o f 1884, he came back to p a r l i a m e n t w i t h a more p o w e r f u l f o l l o w i n g and the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n to f i g h t f o r an e x t e n s i v e form o f Home R u l e . The e l e c t i o n s had f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d the hands o f the I r i s h N a t i o n a l i s t s , as th e y had now become known. I n England the Irish... v o t e i n " such c e n t r e s as L i v e r p o o l and Manchester had 47. P a r n e l l was a l s o b e i n g v i g o r o u s l y opposed by the V a t i c a n and Roman C a t h o l i c l e a d e r s i n I r e -l a n d . The mass o f the p e o p l e , however, r e f u s e d to d i s s o c i a t e themselves from t h e i r P r o t e s t a n t champion. 48. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , 111,70-71 114 49 caused. anti-Home R u l e c a n d i d a t e s t o l o s e t h e i r s e a t s , and the l i b e r a l s r e t u r n e d w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f e i g h t y - t w o members ov e r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , but a t th e mercy o f the e i g h t y - s i x I r i s h members. G l a d s t o n e , s i x y e a r s b e f o r e had c o n s i d e r e d Home R u l e o n l y i n the vaguest manner; now he took up the m a t t e r i n e a r n e s t . The p r o g r e s s o f the Home R u l e B i l l o f 1886 was a momentous one from the time,when G l a d s t o n e f i r s t f o r m u l a t e d h i s p l a n s i n t o a d e f i n i t e measure u n t i l the b i l l was r e j e c t e d by the commons and the l i b e r a l s were d r i v e n out o f o f f i c e . P e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n s and p a r t y manoeuvrings combined t o v i t i a t e the whole cou r s e o f Ang l o -I r i s h r e l a t i o n s on t h i s v i t a l s u b j e c t . Moreover G l a d s t o n e ' s cab-i n e t i t s e l f was by no means unanimous i n i t s views on I r e l a n d , such men as Joseph C h a m b e r l a i n and l o r d H a r t i n g t o n a t ti m e s e n t e r -t a i n i n g o p i n i o n s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h those o f t h e i r l e a d e r . I n May, 1885, G l a d s t o n e s t a t e d : "my o p i n i o n s a r e s t r o n g i n f a v o u r o f some p l a n f o r a C e n t r a l B o a r d o f L o c a l Government i n I r e l a n d on something o f an e l e c t i v e b a s i s . . . . I l o o k upon the ex-t e n s i o n o f a s t r o n g measure o f l o c a l government..,as the o n l y h o p e f u l means o f s e c u r i n g crown and s t a t e from an i g n o m i n i o u s s u r -r e n d e r i n the next p a r l i a m e n t . " 5 0 Two main o p i n i o n s p r e v a i l e d among t h e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s : one f a v o u r e d a system o f r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e county government, and the o t h e r the a d d i t i o n o f a m u n i c i p a l b u t n o t a p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l b o a r d f o r a l l I r e l a n d , t o c o n t r o l e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c works and s i m i l a r p u r e l y I r i s h a c t i v i t i e s . G l a d s t o n e was i n f a v o u r o f the l a t t e r p o l i c y b u t was f o r c e d t o 49. The u n f o r t u n a t e outcome o f the Sudanese campaign had a l s o had a d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t upon the L i b e r a l m a j o r i t y i n the house. 50. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 191. 115 s h e l v e i t i n the fa o e o f c a b i n e t o p p o s i t i o n . 5 1 P a r n e l l was w a i t i n g i m p a t i e n t l y f o r a c t i o n and when G l a d -s t o n e f a i l e d t o push t h e Home R u l e i s s u e , t he I r i s h l e a d e r v o t e d w i t h the T o r i e s a g a i n s t the government on an amendment to the budget, speech, and the l i b e r a l s were o u t . 5 2 The b r i e f i n t e r l u d e o f l o r d S a l i s b u r y ' s l e a d e r s h i p was f o l l o w e d by h i s d e f e a t a t P a r n e l l ' s hands, and a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n ensued i n which t h e L i b e r a l s chose Home Rule as one o f the major i s s u e s o f the campaign. G l a d s t o n e i n h i s p e r i o d o f absence from l e a d e r s h i p had come to r e a l i z e t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e measure of Home R u l e was n e c e s s a r y , and t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n had become more f i x e d i n h i s mind when P a r n e l l swept I r e l a n d i n such a c o n v i n c i n g manner. The L i b e r a l l e a d e r s t a t e d : " I c o n s i d e r t h a t I r e l a n d has now spoken; and t h a t an e f f o r t ought to be made by the government w i t h o u t d e l a y to meet h e r demands f o r the management by an I r i s h l e g i s l a t i v e body o f I r i s h m e n as d i s t i n c t from i m p e r i a l a f f a i r s . " 5 3 The S a l i s b u r y government was d e f e a t e d e a r l y i n 1886 by L i b e r a l and N a t i o n a l i s t f o r c e s , t he l a t t e r d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the vagueness o f the Tory p o l i c y f o r I r e l a n d . 5 4 R e l u c t a n t l y , Queen 51. G l a d s t o n e wrote a t the time to l o r d H a r t i n g t o n t h a t he would r e f u s e t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h o r c o n c i l i a t e P a r n e l l i n o r d e r to o b t a i n the l a t t e r ' s s u p p o r t . M o r e l y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 197-198. But h i s p o l i c y i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n changed. 52. G l a d s t o n e ' s l a c o n i c e n t r y i n h i s d i a r y r e a d s : "Spoke on budget. B e a t e n by 264 to 252. Ad-j o u r n e d the house. T h i s i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e e v e n t . " M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 200 53. I b i d , 263. 54. An ominous s i g n f o r the f u t u r e o f the l i b e r a l p a r t y was the f a c t t h a t 76 L i b e r a l s a b s e n t e d themselves from the v o t e which t u r n e d the T o r i e s o u t . 116 V i c t o r i a c a l l e d f o r G l a d s t o n e , now s e v e n t y - s i x y e a r s o f age, to form a new government. To h e r f r i e n d s the queen c o n f i d e d h e r d i s a p p r o v a l o f e x t e n d i n g the hand o f f r i e n d s h i p to P a r n e l l . She wrote to a f r i e n d t h a t : " t o show t h a t the moderate l e a d e r s o f the l i b e r a l P a r t y do not l e a n t h a t way, becomes now a d u t y o f a l l 55 t r u e p a t r i o t s . " To the same i n d i v i d u a l she e x p r e s s e d h e r f e a r t h a t G l a d s t o n e " w i l l r u i n the c o u n t r y , i f he can, and how much 56 m i s c h i e f has he not done a l r e a d y . " Such were the o p i n i o n s o f the Queen, who h a v i n g become u n s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h the r e f o r m i n g z e a l o f G l a d s t o n e , to d i s c o u r a g e the L i b e r a l l e a d e r i n h i s p l a n s ^ began to use methods not e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h h e r r o l e as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarch. To h i s new c a b i n e t G l a d s t o n e c o n f i d e d h i s p l a n f o r a l e g i s -l a t i v e body f o r D u b l i n which would be " c a l c u l a t e d t o s u p p o r t and c o n s o l i d a t e the u n i t y o f the empire on the c o n t i n u e d b a s i s o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y and mutual attachment." 5''' The a r i s t o c r a t i c elements o f h i s p a r t y took the o p p o r t u n i t y to withdraw from the l i b e r a l p a r t y — a move which G l a d s t o n e c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t one i n E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . One o r two men e n t e r e d the c a b i n e t i n the hope o f b e i n g a b l e t o "knock the measure about...as cab-58 i n e t s do." G l a d s t o n e ' s p l a n was t w o - f o l d : the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one measure to c r e a t e and d e f i n e the powers o f a l e g i s l a t i v e assembly and o f a n o t h e r measure to s e t t l e the l a n d q u e s t i o n . O b j e c t i o n s were soon f o r t h c o m i n g . C h a m b e r l a i n and T r e v e l y a n 55. Queen t o Mr. Goschen, Jan.24,1886, L e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a , T h i r d S e r i e s , V o l . I l l , pp.16-17. 56. I b i d . ' 57. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 292. 58. I b i d , p.294. M o r l e y , G l a d s t o n e ' s b i o g r a p h e r was a p p o i n t e d I r i s h S e c r e t a r y . 117 a t t a c k e d t h e measure o b v i o u s l y i n an attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r 59 o p p o s i t i o n to Home R u l e . P a r n e l l ' s o b j e c t i o n s were s e r i o u s but the I r i s h l e a d e r endorsed the s p i r i t o f t h e measure. On A p r i l 8, 1886 the b i l l , "to amend th e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the f u t u r e 6 0 government o f I r e l a n d " was brought i n by "the v e t e r a n U l y s e s " . M o r l e y w r o t e ; "Pew a r e t h e h e r o i c moments i n our p a r -l i a m e n t a r y p o l i t i c s , but t h i s was o n e . " 6 1 The measure contem-p l a t e d the e x c l u s i o n from the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the proposed I r i s h l e g i s l a t u r e o f a l l m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the Grown, the army and navy, f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , n a v i g a t i o n and t a r i f f s . I t a l s o proposed to s e t up a two-body p a r l i a m e n t , i n which b o t h houses c o u l d v e t o obnoxious measures o f the o t h e r , thus e n s u r i n g U l s t e r t h r o u g h the peers a m i n o r i t y power to b l o c k u n d e s i r a b l e measures from the C a t h o l i c s o u t h . F o l l o w i n g a remarkable speech by G l a d s t o n e , the b i l l p a ssed the f i r s t r e e d i n g and t h e n r e a c h e d the s t o r m y w a t e r s o f i t s second. Debate became more s e r i o u s , as t h e p o s i t i o n of U l s t e r under an I r i s h l e g i s l a t u r e was brought f o r w a r d . John B r i g h t , who had r e f u s e d to j o i n the c a b i n e t , i n f o r m e d G l a d s t o n e : " I do not t h i n k i t j u s t i c e o r wisdom f o r Great B r i t a i n to c o n s i g n h e r p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d i n g U l s t e r and a l l h e r P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l i e s , to what t h e r e i s o f j u s t i c e and wisdom i n the I r i s h p a r t y now e g s i t t i n g i n the p a r l i a m e n t a t W e s t m i n s t e r . " Redmond r e p u d i a t e d the c l a i m f o r s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t f o r U l s t e r , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t o u t s i d e o f B e l f a s t , f i f t y - f i v e per c e n t , o f the p e o p l e were 59. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1866, pp.87-91. M o r l e y c o m p l e t e l y a n n i h i l a t e s t h e i r almost f a t u o u s o b j e c t i o n s . M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l 302-303. 60. The Queen had r e q u e s t e d t h a t the word " f u t u r e " be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r " b e t t e r " . 61. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , - I I I , 312. 62. I b i d , p.329. 118 C a t h o l i c s and t h a t o n l y one c o u n t y i n the p r e v i o u s e l e c t i o n s had v o t e d a g a i n s t Home R u l e . He s t a t e d : "I d e e p l y r e g r e t h a v i n g t o speak o f P r o t e s t a n t s " a n d C a t h o l i c s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s m a t t e r a t a l l . Ours i s not a s e c t a r i a n but a n a t i o n a l movement. I f Home R u l e were g r a n t e d the P r o t e s -t a n t m a j o r i t y would have e q u a l r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s w i t h t h e i r C a t h o l i c countrymen. P r o t e s t a n t s l e d the n a t i o n a l movements i n I r e l a n d f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . " 6 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y the Home Ru-lle B i l l had s p l i t G l a d s t o n e ' s p a r t y and the second r e a d i n g met w i t h an advers e m a j o r i t y o f 64 t h i r t y v o t e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y the C o n s e r v a t i v e s were c a l l e d back to o f f i c e and Home R u l e was t e m p o r a r i l y s h e l v e d . F o l l o w i n g a ye a r o f b i t t e r s t r i f e i n I r e l a n d , p r e c i p i t a t e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l " p l a n of campaign", the government introduced a l a n d b i l l , but r e f u s e d t o c o n s i d e r the m a t t e r o f l e g i s l a t i v e autonomy f o r I r e l a n d . The more r a d i c a l l i b e r a l s thus found themselves s y m p a t h e t i c to the N a t i o n a l i s t group. T h i s f r i e n d l y u n i o n was t h r e a t e n e d i n 1887 by the p u b l i c a t i o n i n t he Times o f a number o f l e t t e r s , a l l e g e d l y w r i t t e n by P a r n e l l , i n w h ich he condoned the Ph o e n i x P a r k murders and the v i o l e n c e of the " p l a n o f campaign." l a t e i n 1889 i t was d e f i n i t e l y p r o v e n t h a t the l e t t e r s were f o r g e r i e s ; p u b l i c o p i n i o n swung. 63. Gwynn, Redmond, p.55 64. Queen V i c t o r i a ' s i n f l u e n c e was e x e r t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n to the b i l l . She wrote t o the Mar q u i s o f H a r t i n g t o n on A p r i l 1 1 t h : "She t r u s t s t h a t t h e s e dangerous and i l l - j u d g e d measures f o r unhappy I r e l a n d w i l l be de-f e a t e d . " L a t e r she wrote t o Gladstone "the Queen's s i l e n c e on momentous I r i s h measures does n ot i m p l y h e r a p p r o v a l o r a c q u i e s c e n c e i n them....the Queen can o n l y see danger to the Empire i n the c o u r s e he i s p u r s u i n g . " L e t t e r s , I I I , 102 and 119. 119 r a p i d l y to the s u p p o r t o f P a r n e l l . 6 5 But a g a i n the cause o f Home Rul e was t o r p e d o e d , f o r almost i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the ac-q u i t t a l o f P a r n e l l , t h i s u n f o r t u n a t e man became i n v o l v e d i n a d i v o r c e s u i t w i t h one o f h i s own l i e u t e n a n t s , C a p t a i n O'Shea. The s u i t made a r i f t i n the N a t i o n a l i s t r a n k s , which soon broke up i n t o v a r i o u s quarrelsome groups. S t . John E r v i n e w r i t e s : "The supreme thought of e v e r y I r i s h mind o f the moment s h o u l d have been to p r e s e r v e the u n i t y o f the p a r t y . That u n i t y was made by P a r n e l l , and c o u l d not be p r e s e r v e d w i t h o u t him. I t was not p r e s e r v e d w i t h o u t h i m . . . . f o r m e r l y t h e r e were o n l y P a r n e l l i t e s and a n t i - P a r n e l l i t e s , b u t now t h e r e were Redmondites and D i l l o n i t e s and H e a l y i t e s and D a v i t t i t e s - - a n d heaven o n l y knows what o t h e r i t s . " 6 6 T h i s - s i t u a t i o n p l a y e d i n t o the hands o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , who had l o n g hoped f o r c i v i l s t r i f e among the I r i s h members. A g a i n i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to over-emphasize the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f t h i s p a r t y w a r f a r e . Queen V i c t o r i a had s t a t e d t h a t t h a t I r i s h members "were m o s t l y low, d i s r e p u t a b l e men...and d i d not r e p r e s e n t the o p i n i o n o f the country." 6''' At l e a s t she was r i g h t i n the f i r s t p a r t o f the a c c u s a t i o n , f o r the I r i s h g e n t l e -men who. s h o u l d have been b e h i n d P a r n e l l i n h i s f i g h t were en-gaged i n h u n t i n g f o x e s o r l i v i n g a b road on " r e n t s wrung by t h e i r agents from the b l o o d and sweat and p a i n o f t h e i r t e n a n t s . " 6 8 65. A f u l l account o f the c r i m i n a l c o m p l i c i t y o f the d i r e c t o r s o f the Times and the government i n the f o r g e r i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n D a v i t t , o p . c i t . , Chapters X L I I I - 1. The E a r l o f O x f o r d ( H e r b e r t A s q u i t h ) d e s c r i b e d the purchase of the l e t t e r s as b e i n g " a l -most u n i q u e i n the a n n a l s o f i n f a n t i l e s i m p l i e i t y and m a l e v o l e n t c r e d u l i t y . " The E a r l o f O x f o r d and A s q u i t h , Memoirs and R e f l e c t i o n s (london,1928) Vol.1,p.78 66. E r v i n e , o p . c i t . , p.288 6 7 » L e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a , o p . c i t . , I l l , 3 7 . 68. E r v i n e , o p . c i t . , p.294. 120 F o r f o u r y e a r s Home R u l e was a t a s t a n d s t i l l , but i n 1893 the aged G l a d s t o n e was back i n power, i n t e n t once more on s e t t l i n g the I r i s h q u e s t i o n . With the a s s i s t a n c e o f John M o r l e y , Campbell-Bannerman and o t h e r s , he f o r m u l a t e d a new Home R u l e measure. I n t h i s b i l l p r e p a r a t i o n was made to r e t a i n I r i s h members a t West-m i n s t e r , but t h i s anomalous arrangement was i n t o l e r a b l e to the house o f commons. 6 9 The measure, as would be e x p e c t e d , p r e c i p i t a t e d a c r i m o n i o u s d i s p u t e s , some o f G l a d s t o n e ' s s u p p o r t e r s i n the cab-70 i n e t d e s e r t e d him, and Queen V i c t o r i a a g a i n a t t e m p t e d to i n t e r -f e r e i n o r d e r t o d e l a y the measure. C r i e s were h e a r d t h a t P r o -t e s t a n t U l s t e r was b e i n g s a c r i f i c e d by the l i b e r a l s but Redmond r e p u d i a t e d the c l a i m . He s t a t e d : "There i s no U l s t e r q u e s t i o n . There may be B e l f a s t one.... The p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f U l s t e r even i n c l u d i n g B e l f a s t , c o n t a i n s f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f u a t h o l i c s . . . . 1 deny a l t o g e t h e r t h a t e v e r y P r o t e s t a n t i s an a n t i - N a t i o n a l i s t . . . . T h i s a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t the B i l l i s promoted by a s m a l l m a j o r i t y o f the P r o t e s t a n t s , o f I r e -l a n d . T h i s ( t h e Orange l o d g e s ) i s the f a c t i o n who i n I r e l a n d to-day a r e the i n s t i g a t o r s and the promoters o f the more v i o l e n t and u n r e a s o n i n g f e a t u r e s o f the P r o t e s t a n t a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t Home R u l e . That f a c t i o n i n s t i g a t e d r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s — o n e o f the gr e a t e s t c r i m e s t h a t a man c o u l d be g u i l t y o f . . . . R e l i g i o u s f e a r s and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a v a i l e d o f i n s u p p o r t o f the U n i o n by men whose f a t h e r s ' b i g o t r y and i n t o l e r a n c e brought about the U n i o n . " 7 1 69. M o r l e y l i s t s f o u r paradoxes c o n c e r n i n g I r i s h r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n a t Westminster under the proposed measure. M o r l e y , o p . c i t . , I l l , 497-498. 70. She wrote t o Gla d s t o n e t h a t she opposed "the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s measure, which tend to the d i s r u p t i o n o f h e r Empire and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i m p r a c t i c a l form o f Government." l e t t e r s of Queen V i c t o r i a , I I I , 3 7 8 . 71. Gwynn, Redmond, p.80 -•• 121 I n s p i t e o f the yeoman work o f Glad s t o n e and the Home R u l e e n t h u s i a s t s , the h i l l was s e v e r e l y m u t i l a t e d by the commons; when i t r e a c h e d the l o r d s i t was almost u n a n i m o u s l y r e j e c t e d . G l a d s t o n e a g a i n r e s i g n e d from o f f i c e and l o r d R o s e b e r r y was c a l l e d upon to form a U n i o n i s t m i n i s t r y . Redmond warned h i s s u p p o r t e r s t h a t Home R u l e was b e i n g thrown o v e r b o a r d and p o i n t e d out the o n l y way by which I r i s h demands would be met. He s a i d ; " I n L o r d R o s e b e r r y and h i s p r e s e n t c a b i n e t we can have no c o n f i d e n c e , and we warn o ur f e l l o w - o o u n t r y m e n to have none: th e y w i l l concede j u s t as much to I r e l a n d as she e x t o r t s by o r -g a n i z a t i o n among h e r people and a b s o l u t e u n f e t t e r e d independence o f E n g l i s h p a r t i e s i n her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , . . . a n d we c a l l upon you no l o n g e r to t o l e r a t e a p o l i c y o f n a t i o n a l s u b s e r v i e n c y to E n g l i s h p a r t y i n t e r e s t , but to c a r r y on, i f n e c e s s a r y , the b i t t e r s t r u g g l e w i t h b o t h E n g l i s h p a r t i e s r a t h e r than c o n t i n u e to be 72 the s c o r n o f one and the de l u d e d dupe o f the o t h e r . " The t r a g e d y was t h a t the j o c k e y i n g o f p a r t i e s f o r power i n the house made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r Home Rul e to be d e a l t w i t h ade-q u a t e l y i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l manner. E v e n t u a l l y I r e l a n d was to f i n d h e r d e s t i n y i n the hands o f i n d i v i d u a l s whose p o l i c y had always been to s c o r n p a r l i a m e n t a r y methods. The R o s e b e r r y government (and A r t h u r B a l f o u r ' s c o e r c i o n ) gave way i n 1895 to the regime o f l o r d S a l i s b u r y , w h i c h was marked b y the d e f i n i t e p o l i c y o f " k i l l i n g Home R u l e w i t h k i n d n e s s . " T h i s programme widened the b r e a c h between the P a r n e l l i t e group l e d by Redmond and the f u s i o n of a n t i - P a r n e l l i t e s l e d by B i l l o n . 72. Gwynn, Redmond, p.84 , 1£2 The l a t t e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t e v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l r e f o r m i n t r o -duced by the T o r i e s would make d i f f i c u l t the r e v i v a l o f n a t i o n a l a g i t a t i o n , whereas the former h e l d t h a t the movement would g a t h e r s t r e n g t h o n l y as the r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y i n I r e l a n d . The momentum of P a r n e l l ' s movement was o b v i o u s l y l o s t ; i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t d i s g u s t f o r p a r t y p o l i t i c s was p r e v a l e n t i n I r e l a n d and t h a t an impetus was g i v e n t o t h e p h y s i c a l f o r c e group l u r k i n g i n the background. Under B a l f o u r ' s d i r e c t i o n i n 1897 a l o c a l Government B i l l was i n t r o d u c e d which e s t a b l i s h e d a complete system o f l o c a l government by e l e c t i v e b o d i e s i n p l a c e o f the grand j u r y system w h i c h had kept the c o u n t r y ' s a f f a i r s i n the c o n t r o l o f the l a n d -l o r d s . C o n s e q u e n t l y the supremacy o f t h i s group was broken and the mass o f the I r i s h p e o p l e became masters o f l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . But u n d o u b t e d l y i t i n c r e a s e d the demand f o r a n a t i o n a l p a r l i a -ment, as i t s o p e r a t i o n p r o m i s e d to g i v e p r o o f o f the c a p a c i t y o f I r i s h m e n t o govern t h e i r own a f f a i r s . F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t few y e a r s o f the w o r k i n g s o f the a c t Redmond a s s u r e d the house: "no b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n . . . c o u l d be g i v e n o f the competence o f the I r i s h p e o p l e to manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s , and the happy c o n t r a s t t h a t t h e i r management o f them...would p r e s e n t to the w a s t e f u l 73 and e x t r a v a g a n t c o n t r o l imposed upon the c o u n t r y by t h i s House." By 1901 t h e chasm i n t h e I r i s h ranks had been b r i d g e d and Redmond assumed the l e a d e r s h i p o f the u n i t e d body. P l a n s were l a i d f o r pro m o t i n g the Home R u l e a g i t a t i o n , a s s i s t a n c e coming from a new o r g a n i z a t i o n , the I r i s h Reform A s s o c i a t i o n , whose members b e l i e v e d t h a t " w h i l e f i r m l y m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e P a r -73. Gwynn, Redmond, p.91 . 123 l i a m e n t a r y u n i o n "between G r e a t B r i t a i n and, I r e l a n d i s e s s e n t i a l to the p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f the Empire and to the p r o s p e r i t y o f the two i s l a n d s , we b e l i e v e t h a t such u n i o n i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the d e v o l u t i o n to I r e l a n d o f a l a r g e r measure o f s e l f - g o v e r n -ment than she now p o s s e s s e s . " 7 4 T h i s group a l s o a d v o c a t e d the c r e a t i o n o f an I r i s h f i n a n c i a l c o u n c i l . However even t h i s modest p r o p o s a l from p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d l a n d -l o r d s g a i n e d no g e n e r a l s u p p o r t ; p a r t i c u l a r l y d i d the U l s t e r L i b e r a l U n i o n i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , l e d by S i r Edward C a r s o n , 7 5 a t t a c k • i t . B a c k i n g f o r t h i s s u g g e s t i o n d i d come from S i r Antony MacDonel, the I r i s h U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y , and t h i s gentleman's s u p p o r t f o r i t somewhat embarrassed the U n i o n i s t p a r t y . T h e i r d i s c o m f i t u r e was b e i n g . a g g r a v a t e d by o t h e r i n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n s , as a new a l i g n -ment of p o l i t i c a l groups was imminent. Once more the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y was g o i n g to f i n d i t s e l f i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n . l a t e i n 1905 Redmond was i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who had assumed the l e a d e r s h i p o f the l i b e r a l f o r c e s . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e manoeuvering between the two groups the E n g l i s h l e a d e r committed h i m s e l f to "an i n s t a l m e n f o f r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n t r o l which would l e a d up to a l a r g e r p o l i c y o f Home R u l e . Bannerman, i n a speech a t S t e r l i n g s t a t e d h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r l y ; he a d v i s e d the N a t i o n a l i s t s : " I f I were you I would t a k e i t i n . a n y way I can get i t , and i f an i n s t a l m e n t of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n t r o l was o f f e r e d to you o r any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e improvements, I would a d v i s e you t h a n k f u l l y t o a c c e p t i t , p r o -v i d e d i t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h and l e d up to y o u r l a r g e r p o l i c y . " 7 6 74. Gwynn, Redmond, .. ^  , p.105. 75. At the time Carson was the I r i s h a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l . 76. Spender, J.A., The l i f e of The R i g h t Hon. S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman (London, 1923), V o l . 1 1 , p.182. Banner-man had been c h i e f s e c r e t a r y I r e l a n d i n 1885 and 124 v i d e d i t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h and l e d up to your l a r g e r p o l i c y . " ° T h i s was the l i b e r a l l e a d e r ' s " s t e p by s t e p " p o l i c y , and i t i n -dicated t h a t Bannerman would r e f u s e to commit h i s p a r t y to ac-c e p t i n g Home R u l e as the major l i b e r a l p l a t f o r m p l a n k i n the im-pending e l e c t i o n ; b ut i t a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t Home Rul e Would not be r e l e g a t e d to the background. He f u r t h e r s t a t e d h i s d e s i r e o f a s s i s t i n g I r e l a n d "from b e i n g d i s a f f e c t e d , d i s h e a r t e n e d , impover-i s h e d and d i s u n i t e d , t o take h e r p l a c e , a s t r o n g , harmonious, and c o n t e n t e d p o r t i o n of t h e Empire."''"'' U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the U n i o n i s t s r e f u s e d to c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e i r opponents i n s e e k i n g a f a i r s e t t l e m e n t o f the problem; r a t h e r t h e y a p p e a l e d to the f e a r s and p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e i r countrymen. But the rank and f i l e o f the B r i t i s h p u b l i c had come to r e a l i z e t h a t some form of Home Rul e f o r I r e l a n d was i n e v i t a b l e and gave the L i b e r a l s t h e i r mandate i n the e l e c t i o n s o f 1906. The I r i s h v o t e i n E n g l a n d p l a y e d i t s p a r t i n the i n u n d a t i o n o f the U n i o n -i s t p a r t y — e v e n B a l f o u r b e i n g d e f e a t e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y . I n 1907, f o l l o w i n g the appointment o f A u g u s t i n e B i r r e l l as C h i e f S e c r e t a r y , a b i l l was i n t r o d u c e d i n which p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the s e t t i n g - u p o f a c e n t r a l K e p r e s e n t a t i v e I r i s h C o u n c i l o f e l e c t e d and nominated members, f o r the t r a n s f e r o f e i g h t 76. Spender, J.A., The L i f e o f The R i g h t Horn. S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman,(London, 1923), V o l . 1 1 , p.182. Bannerman had been C h i e f S e c r e t a r y f o r I r e l a n d i n 1885 and had come to view a form o f Home Rul e as an u n d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to war. 77. I b i d , 6.183. T h i s w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the L i b e r a l s showed too l i t t l e r a t h e r than too much z e a l f o r Home Rule (p.187). Bannerman i n an e l e c t i o n speech (Dec.1906) s t a t e d " t h a t those domestic q u e s t i o n s which c o n c e r n the I r i s h p e o p l e o n l y and not o u r s e l v e s s h o u l d , as andwhen o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r s , be l e f t i n t h e i r hands." (p.209) Such a statement c o u l d not be branded as i n d i c a t i n g the s p e a k e r ' s extreme Home Ru l e t e n d e n c i e s . 125 p r i n c i p a l departments to the new "body, and f o r the s e t t i n g a s i d e o f i m p e r i a l funds f o r the use o f the I r i s h C o u n c i l . But t h i s attempt a t " d e v o l u t i o n " met w i t h severe c r i t i c i s m - - m a n y o f the government s u p p o r t e r s c o n s i d e r i n g i t an i n j u d i c i o u s h a l f measure. Redmond, w i t h the f e a r o f the g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g power o f the Senn F e i n group ever p r e s e n t , r e p u d i a t e d t h i s form o f a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e Home R u l e . He s t a t e d : " I am a n x i o u s t h a t the I r i s h p u b l i c s h o u l d c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the I r i s h P a r t y and I have no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whatever, d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t , f o r the p r o p o s a l o f any such makeshift....we d e c l a r e t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f a com-p l e t e measure o f Home R u l e and by t h a t we mean a f r e e l y e l e c t e d P a r l i a m e n t , w i t h an e x e c u t i v e r e s p o n s i b l e to i t . . . n o t h i n g s h o r t o f a complete scheme o f Home R u l e can ever be a c c e p t e d as a s e t t l e m e n t o f the I r i s h q u e s t i o n ; t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f such a scheme o f Home R u l e can ever b r i n g peace, p r o s p e r i t y or c o n t e n t -ment to Ireland." 7® The measure was withdrawn. But o t h e r dangers loomed ahead. An E d u c a t i o n B i l l had been i n t r o d u c e d , i n p a r t t o remove r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n from s t a t e s c h o o l s . Such a move was v i g o r o u s l y opposed by Redmond and h i s C a t h o l i c s u p p o r t e r s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y found themselves i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the l i b e r a l group which a l o n e c o u l d advance the cause o f Home R u l e . F u r t h e r m o r e the l o r d s had severely mangled the E d u c a t i o n B i l l and had p r a c t i c a l l y dared the government to take up the c h a l l e n g e o f a d u e l o ver the r e l a t i v e supremacies of commons and p e e r s . L l o y d George and o t h e r young r a d i c a l s l o s t l i t t l e time i n t a k i n g up the c h a l l e n g e ; t h e i r s t a n d was t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t a i n was b e i n g h e l d up by the v e t o 78. Gwynn, Redmond, p.133 126 of the r e a c t i o n a r y upper chamber. Here was a dilemma f o r the I r i s h members. I f they s u p p o r t e d the l i b e r a l s , t h e y must agree to t h e E d u c a t i o n B i l l ; i f t h e y s u p p o r t e d the U n i o n i s t s t h e y c o u l d expect s c a n t sympathy from the l i b e r a l s f o r sometime2to come. Fo r the time Home R u l e was s h e l v e d w h i l e Campbell-Bannerman and h i s s u p p o r t e r s p r e p a r e d t h e i r a t t a c k s on the house o f l o r d s . Added s t r e n g t h was g i v e n to t h e i r cause when L l o y d George i n t r o -duced h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y budget o f March, 1909, o n l y to have the l o r d s r e j e c t i t . Redmond hoped to o b t a i n c o n c e s s i o n s from the government by demanding an o f f i c i a l d e c a l a r a t i o n on Home Rul e as the p r i c e o f N a t i o n a l i s t s u p p o r t i n the s t r u g g l e w i t h the l o r d s . He w i s h e d the p l a n to be "not on the l i n e s o f the C o u n c i l B i l l , but on the l i n e s o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , s u b j e c t to I m p e r i a l c o n t r o l . " A s q u i t h , who had succeeded Campbell-Bannerman gave new l i f e and hope to the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y by d e c l a r i n g : " the s o l u t i o n o f the ( I r i s h ) problem can be found o n l y i n one way, by a p o l i c y w h i c h , w h i l e e x p l i c i t l y s a f e g u a r d i n g the supremacy and i n d e f e c t i b l e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e I m p e r i a l P a r l i a m e n t , w i l l s e t up i n I r e l a n d a system o f f u l l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n r e g a r d to p u r e l y I r i s h a f f a i r s The e l e c t i o n s o f 1910, fou g h t on the i s s u e o f t h e v e t o o f the house o f l o r d s , r e t u r n e d the. L i b e r a l s i n d i m i n i s h e d numbers and dependent f o r t h e i r t e n u r e o f o f f i c e on the a s s i s t a n c e o f o - i the l a b o u r p a r t y and the N a t i o n a l i s t s . The l a t t e r group were 79. Gwynn, Redmond, p.167 80. I b i d , p. 169. 81. The p a r t y s t a n d i n g was: l i b e r a l s two hundred s e v e n t y -f i v e , U n i o n i s t s two hundred s e v e n t y - t h r e e , l a b o u r one hundred and f o r t y - o n e and N a t i o n a l i s t s s e v e n t y - f o u r . 127 q u i t e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r power and s t e a d f a s t l y h e l d out f o r a Home R u l e p o l i c y as the p r i c e o f t h e i r s u p p o r t . Redmond was p i c t u r e d by Punch as b e i n g s e a t e d on a th r o n e ( the house o f commons) s t a t i n g : " W e l l , i f I can ' t r u l e i n D u b l i n , I can h e r e . " B a l f o u r l e d a b i t t e r Tory a t t a c k on Home R u l e , i n s i s t i n g a t one time t h a t : "the House o f l o r d s i s to be d e s t r o y e d , not i n the l e a s t because the e l e c t o r s o f the U n i t e d Kingdom, who v a l u e the B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n , want i t to be d e s t r o y e d but because t h a t s e c t i o n o f the e l e c t o r s who do not v a l u e the B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n want to g e t Home Rule."® 2 But w h i l e the government was making a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s between England and I r e l a n d , developments were t a k i n g p l a c e i n U l s t e r which were to t r a n s f o r m the c o n t r o v e r s y . A c o n f e r e n c e o f U n i o n i s t Clubs and Orange l o d g e s i n September, 1910, r e s o l v e d d e f i a n t l y : "That w e . . . r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the p u b l i c peace o f t h i s c o u n t r y i s i n g r e a t and imminent danger by r e a s o n of the t h r e a t to e s t a b l i s h a P a r l i a m e n t i n D u b l i n and knowing t h a t such a s t e p w i l l i n e v i t a b l y l e a d to d i s a s t e r t o the Empire and a b s o l u t e r u i n t o I r e l a n d , the d e g r a d a t i o n o f our c i t i z e n s h i p i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f our m a t e r i a l p r o s -p e r i t y and our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t i e s hereby c a l l upon our l e a d e r s to take any s t e p s . t h e y may c o n s i d e r n e c e s s a r y to r e s i s t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Home Rule i n I r e l a n d , s o l e m n l y p l e d g i n g our-s e l v e s t h a t under no c o n d i t i o n s s h a l l we acknowledge any such government o r obey any o f i t s d e c r e e s . " T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f ' 82. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1910, p.175. 128 f o r c e s was r e s o l v e d to keep S i r Edward Carson i n the house o f trends 0'* i n touch w i t h the f e e l i n g o f U n i o n i s t . U l s t e r , to take immediate a c t i o n on h i s a p p r o v a l and to s e t up, i f n e c e s s a r y , a p r o v i s i o n a l government i n U l s t e r as soon as the Home- R u l e B i l l passed the l e g i s l a t u r e . The s l o g a n " U l s t e r w i l l f i g h t and U l s t e r w i l l he r i g h t , " was a g a i n h e a r d but a t the time the de-m o n s t r a t i o n was taken s e r i o u s l y by but a few peoj>le. However, when B a l f o u r r e s i g n e d from the l e a d e r s h i p o f the U n i o n i s t p a r t y and was succeeded by-Bonar l a w , an Orangeman by descent and c o n v i c t i o n , the c l a s h between the two main f a c t i o n s i n I r e l a n d was f u r t h e r c o n p l i c a t e d . law, as w e l l as B a l f o u r , was c a p a b l e o f a r e c k l e s s d i s r e g a r d f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l methods and p a r l i a m e n t a r y t r a d i t i o n . I n h i s eyes the use o f any weapon which c o u l d s t r i k e a t Home R u l e was. j u s t i f i a b l e . U l s t e r , w i t h Carson as s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r , began an i n t e n s i v e " campaign to s t r a n g l e the Home Rul e movement. Bonar law a s s u r e d the l o y a l i s t s o f the n o r t h t h a t " t h e r e was no l e n g t h t o which U l s t e r would not be e n t i t l e d to go, however d e s p e r a t e o r un-c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n c a r r y i n g t h e ' q u a r r e l , i f the q u a r r e l was w i c k -85 e d l y f i x e d upon them." Such sympathy encouraged the C a r s o n i t e s ; a t a g r e a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n the U l s t e r l e a d e r thanked Law f o r h i s s u p p o r t and c a l l e d upon h i s h e a r e r s to "R a i s e your hands.-' Repeat a f t e r me, 'Never under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i l l we submt to Home R u l e . ' " 8 5 84. Carson was a P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r ; he was o f f e r e d the l e a d e r s h i p o f the U n i o n i s t p a r t y i n 1910. 85. Gwynn, Redmond, p.200 86. Wicks, o p . c i t . , p.8. 1S9 On A p r i l 11, 1912, the l i b e r a l Home Rule b i l l was i n t r o -duced, and passed the f i r s t r e a d i n g w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f n i n e t y -f o u r . Even i f the I r i s h members had r e f r a i n e d from v o t i n g , the measure would have passed w i t h a s u r p l u s o f t h i r t y - n i n e . The o p p o s i t i o n t o the b i l l was s t r e n u o u s , the U n i o n i s t s c o n t e n d i n g t h a t the people o f I r e l a n d d i d not want Home R u l e , They s t a t e d t h a t the p r o s p e r i t y o f I r e l a n d , r e s u l t i n g from B r i t i s h l i b e r a l i t y , an had d e s t r o y e d the bona f i d e a g i t a t i o n f o r Home R u l e . 0 ' B a l f o u r a c c u s e d the l i b e r a l s o f t r y i n g to put t h e i r h e i n o u s p l a n s i n t o e f f e c t over the heads o f the e l e c t o r a t e , by d i s g u i s i n g them as a g r e a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e . 8 8 Carson i n the house o f i&E&xS C9-^~^, s t a t e d t h a t U l s t e r would never submit t o a D u b l i n government, and a t t a c k e d the measure as endangering "the f a i r y t a l e o f I r i s h p r o s p e r i t y . " 8 9 H a v i n g r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t r e a d i n g , t h e b i l l went f o r w a r d t o i t s f u r t h e r s t a g e s . I t s p r o p o s a l s , i n b r i e f , were: 1. I r e l a n d s h o u l d have a p a r l i a m e n t c o n s i s t i n g , under the k i n g , o f a se n a t e and house o f commons w i t h power to make laws f o r the peace, o r d e r and good government o f I r e l a n d . 2. The crown, war and peace, the navy and army, t r e a t i e s and o t h e r m a t t e r s o f a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r were to be l e f t under the c o n t r o l o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . 3. The I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t was to have no power to make laws f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o r endowment o f any r e l i g i o n o r f o r p r o -h i b i t i n g t he f r e e e x e r c i s e o f any r e l i g i o n o r g i v i n g p r e -f e r e n c e to o r imposin g d i s a b i l i t y on any r e l i g i o u s body. 4. The l o r d L i e u t e n a n t was to be empowered to w i t h h o l d the R o y a l Assent t o any b i l l under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , and the i m p e r i a l l e g i s l a t u r e c o u l d n u l l i f y , amend o r a l t e r any a c t of p a r l i a m e n t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , f o r which purpose the supremacy o f the i m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t was to be p r e s e r v e d . 87. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1911, p.24 88. That i s the P a r l i a m e n t A c t which gave the L o r d s o n l y a s u s p e n s o r y v e t o . 89. I b i d , p..225 130 5. Members f o r I r i s h c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , to the reduced number o f f o r t y - t w o were to be r e t u r n e d to the i m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t . Throughout the e n s u i n g y e a r the s t r u g g l e c o n t i n u e d b o t h i n -s i d e and o u t s i d e o f p a r l i a m e n t . I n the commons Redmond made the c l a i m t h a t the I r i s h government was the most c o s t l y i n the w o r l d because i t was c a r r i e d on a g a i n s t the w i l l o f the people. A r t h u r B a l f o u r r e t u r n e d t h e I r i s h l e a d e r s f i r e by a t t a c k i n g the q u a s i - -f e d e r a l i d e a o f the b i l l , s t y l i n g i t A% sheer l u n a c y , and s t a t i n g t h a t he d i d not want any " r o t t e n h y b r i d system o f g o v e r n m e n t . " 9 0 • O u t s i d e o f p a r l i a m e n t the most v i o l e n t o p p o s i t i o n came o f c o u r s e from U l s t e r . I n B e l f a s t Bonar law a f f i r m e d ; "we are d e t e r -mined to m a i n t a i n our p r i v i l e g e s as c i t i z e n s o f the U n i t e d K i n g -dom... to meet a r e v o l u t i o n i n the o n l y way a r e v o l u t i o n can be met...by r e a l i z i n g our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and not c a r i n g about the consequences." Other l e a d i n g U n i o n i s t s s t a t e d ; " i f we were put out of the Union...(we) would i n f i n i t e l y p r e f e r to change (our) a l l e g i a n c e r i g h t o v er t o the Emperor o f Germany, o r anyone e l s e who had got a p r o p e r and s t a b l e g o v e r n m e n t I f we a r e d e s e r t e d by Great B r i t a i n , we would r a t h e r be governed by Germany 92 than by P a t r i c k F o r d and John Redmond and company." When the m a t t e r o f f o r c i n g U l s t e r to a b i d e by the w i s h e s o f the government came t o be r a i s e d Carson q u e s t i o n e d whether many o f f i c e r s and men o f the army would consent to' s e r v e i n the n o r t h . But the n a t i o n a l i s t s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the open i n c i t e m e n t to m u t i n y i n the army, suggested by a p r i v y c o u n c i l l o r , under the s h i e l d o f 90* Annua,! R e g i s t e r , 1911, pp,218,225,239-241 91. Gwynn, Redmond, p.205. 92:. I b i d , a l s o see Wicks, o p . c i t . , p.125. I n the commons one U n i o n i s t member s t a t e d t h a t the Germans had p l a n n e d to send an e x p e d i t i o n to B e l f a s t i f B r i t i s h t r o o p s were sent t h e r e to e n f o r c e home r u l e . Winston C h u r c h i l l s t a t e d : " T h i s , t h e n , i s the l a t e s t Tory t h r e a t . U l s t e r w i l l secede to Germany." A n n u a l R e g i s t e r , 1912, p.65. 151 the C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r , was hut an o t h e r o f the s u c c e s s i o n o f t h r e a t e n i n g Orange g e s t u r e s which had marked the passage o f C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n , the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the P r o t e s t a n t Church i n I r e l a n d , the l a n d B i l l o f 1881 and the at t e m p t s a t i n t r o d u c i n g p r e v i o u s Home Rul e b i l l s . The employment o f b i b l i -c a l q u o t a t i o n s and d r a m a t i c p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y had be-come f a m i l i a r from the Orange s e c t i o n o f I r e l a n d . A s q u i t h , r e p u d i a t i n g Carson's s t a n d t h a t U l s t e r u n i v e r s a l l y opposed Home R u l e , p a i n t e d to the f a c t t h a t i n t h e l a s t e l e c t i o n s the n o r t h e r n c o u n t i e s had r e t u r n e d s e v e n t e e n U n i o n i s t s and s i x -t e e n N a t i o n a l i s t s . He s t a t e d ; " I t was i m p o s s i b l e to concede the demand o f a s m a l l m i n o r i t y to v e t o the v e r d i c t o f the I r i s h 9 3 n a t i o n . " He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the b i l l p r o mised improved govern-ment f o r I r e l a n d . B i r r e l l , s u p p o r t i n g h i s l e a d e r , a f f i r m e d t h a t " b e t t e r government o f I r e l a n d had been d i s c u s s e d f o r one hundred y e a r s , but e i g h t y - s i x a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o e r c i o n a c t s by B r i t i s h 94 m i n i s t e r s were the o n l y symbols o f the u n i o n . " • . B u t i n s p i t e o f such a s s e r t i o n s the l i b e r a l s were becoming somewhat a p p r e h e n s i v e and an amendment to e x c l u d e from the j u r i s -d i c t i o n o f the proposed p a r l i a m e n t the f o u r c o u n t i e s o f A n t r i m , Down, Armagh and D e r r y gave the o p p o s i t i o n group the o p p o r t u n i t y o f renewing t h e i r d e f i a n c e i n r e g a r d to U l s t e r as a whole and g e n e r a l l y c a s t i g a t i n g the measure. Carson demanded t h a t Tyrone and Fermanagh a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t o f e x c l u d e d c o u n t i e s ; not t h a t he was s a t i s f i e d to have s i x c o u n t i e s e x c l u d e d b u t t h a t he hoped to wreck the b i l l w h i c h had been framed on the ass u m p t i o n 95. A nnual R e g i s t e r , 1912, p.72 94. I b i d , p.88. 132. t h a t I r e l a n d would he t r e a t e d as a whole. L l o y d George, r e a l i z i n g the importance o f the i s s u e t h a t had been r a i s e d , i n s i s t e d t h a t no g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i d i n g l i n e c o u l d he drawn, and t h a t an ov e r -whelming demand must be made f o r such a c o u r s e . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d : "What, t h e r e f o r e , i s the demand o f U l s t e r ? Hot t h a t she s h o u l d have autonomy h e r ^ s e l f , but the r i g h t t o ve t o autonomy to the r e s t o f I r e l a n d . That i s an i n t o l e r a b l e demand." But Oarson was not p e r t u r b e d . He c a l l e d upon h i s s u p p o r t e r s to r e a l i z e t h a t the government had d e c l a r e d war a g a i n s t U l s t e r , t h a t he a c c e p t e d the d e c l a r a t i o n and was p r e p a r e d to meet i t v * ~ r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t t h a t any government which condoned the use of t r o o p s to coer c e U l s t e r would "run a g r e a t e r r i s k o f b e i n g l y n c h e d i n l o n d o n than the l o y a l i s t s o f U l s t e r would r u n o f b e i n g shot i n B e l f a s t . " 9 6 The s e r i o u s consequences o f the open d e f i a n c e o f the law by p r i v y . c o u n c i l l o r s not o n l y promised d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f u t u r e enforcement o f a Home R u l e B i l l b ut a l s o showed the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the open i n c i t e m e n t s to m u t i n y i n the a r m y — o f -f i c e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y b e i n g e x h o r t e d to r e f u s e obedience to d i r e c -t i o n s f o r e n f o r c i n g the proposed a c t . Carson's i n f l a m m a t o r y speeches were h a v i n g t h e i r e f f e c t upon E n g l i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n - - h i s c r y o f "Rome r u l e " evoked l a t e n t r e -l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e s . Bonar law i n a me l o d r a m a t i c speech a l s o a t -tempted to swing-the v e e r i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . He s a i d : "We r e -ga r d the Government as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y committee which has s e i z e d by f r a u d upon d e s p o t i c power...In our o p p o s i t i o n to them we w i l l not be r e s t r a i n e d by the bonds which would i n f l u e n c e us i n an 95. Gwynn, Redmond, p.208 96. I b i d . 133 o r d i n a r y p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . " T h i s amazing s t a n d was h e l d up to the house by A s q u i t h when he c a l l e d Bonar law's a t t e n t i o n t o the import o f h i s words, s t a t i n g t h a t i f Mr. l a w were some time i n power he might f i n d not the m i n o r i t y but the m a j o r i t y o f I r i s h -men r e a d y t o f o l l o w h i s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n s . 9 7 I n s p i t e o f A s q u i t h ' s r e p l y to Bonar Law's s t a n d , an ominous sympton o f u n e a s i n e s s was s p r e a d i n g through the L i b e r a l r a n k s , and w i t h Winston C h u r c h i l l w r i t i n g to Redmond s u g g e s t i n g a com-promise on the P r o t e s t a n t and Orange c o u n t i e s so t h a t t h e y might have a moratorium of s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e a c c e d i n g to the I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t , no one c o u l d say how f a r o r how f a s t d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the L i b e r a l f o r c e s might proceed. This p l a y e d i n t o the hands of t h e U n i o n i s t s who d i d not miss the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f C h u r c h i l l ' s b r o a d h i n t s . A group o f U n i o n i s t s drew up the f o l l o w i n g d r a m a t i c document which was to be g e n e r a l l y s i g n e d throughout U l s t e r on the next " U l s t e r Day": "Bei n g c o n v i n c e d i n our c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t Home R u l e would be d i s a s t r o u s to the m a t e r i a l w e l l b e i n g o f U l s t e r , as w e l l as o f the whole o f I r e l a n d , s u b v e r s i v e o f our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s f r e e -dom, d e s t r u c t i v e o f our c i t i z e n s h i p , and p e r i l o u s to the u n i t y of- the Empire, we, whose names a r e u n d e r w r i t t e n , men o f U l s t e r , l o y a l s u b j e c t s o f H i s G r a c i o u s M a j e s t y K i n g George V, humbly r e l y i n g on the s t r e s s and t r i a l c o n f i d e n t l y t r u s t e d , do hereby pledge o u r s e l v e s i n solemn Covenant throughout t h i s our time o f t h r e a t e n e d calamity to s t a n d by one a n o t h e r i n d e f e n d i n g f o r our-s e l v e s and our c h i l d r e n our c h e r i s h e d p o s i t i o n o f e q u a l c i t i z e n -s h i p i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, and i n u s i n g a l l means which may be found n e c e s s a r y to d e f e a t the p r e s e n t c o n s p i r a c y to s e t up a 97. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1912, p.225. 134 Home R u l e p a r l i a m e n t i n I r e l a n d . And i n the event o f f u r t h e r and m u t u a l l y pledge o u r s e l v e s t o r e f u s e to r e c o g n i z e i t s a u t h o r -i t y . I n s u r e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t God w i l l d e f e n d the r i g h t we h e r e -t o s u b s c r i b e our names. And f u r t h e r we i n d i v i d u a l l y d e c l a r e t h a t we have not a l r e a d y s i g n e d t h i s Covenant. God Save the K i n g . " 9 8 " U l s t e r Day, 1912" was d u l y k e p t as a day o f r e l i g i o u s ob-se r v a n c e by the n o r t h e r n l o y a l i s t s — C a r s o n p l a c i n g h i s own s i g n a -t u r e a t the head of the l i s t o f Covenanters. The f a c t t h a t he was not an U l s t e r m a n and d i d not even r e p r e s e n t an U l s t e r con-s t i t u e n c y was no o b s t a c l e i n t h i s r e g a r d , even though the s i g n a -t o r i e s were "men o f U l s t e r . " By November o v e r two hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e thousand a l l e g e d U l s t e r m e n had s i g n e d the D e c l a r a t i o n . I n the December r e c e s s o f p a r l i a m e n t Carson and h i s s u p p o r t -e r s drummed up t h e i r campaign o f "Hands o f f U l s t e r J " s t r i v i n g to have the whole p r o v i n c e o f U l s t e r e x c l u d e d from the b i l l - -o s t e n s i b l y d r o p p i n g h i s fh timer i r r e c o n c i l a b l e a t t i t u d e t o the measure i n any form. T h i s s u g g e s t e d a compromise, but one wh i c h the N a t i o n a l i s t s would not c o n s i d e r , as t h e b i l l had been framed to i n c l u d e a l l I r e l a n d . Redmond r e f u s e d to e n t e r t a i n the thought of a d i v i s i o n o f I r e l a n d , s t a t i n g : " I r e l a n d f o r us i s one e n t i t y . I t i s one l a n d . Tyrone and T y r c o n n e l l a r e as much a-1 p a r t o f I r e l a n d as Munster o r Connaught. Our i d e a l i n t h i s movement i s a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g I r e l a n d i n the f u t u r e , when a l l h e r sons o f a l l r a c e s and c r e e d s , w i l l b r i n g t h e i r t r i b u t e , g r e a t o r s m a l l , t o the g r e a t t o t a l o f n a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e , n a t i o n a l s t a t e s m a n s h i p , and n a t i o n a l h a p p i n e s s * * , 98.Wicks, o p . c i t . , p.40. 135 t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s a p r o p o s a l which would e s t a b l i s h a d i v i d i n g l i n e "between I r i s h C a t h o l i c s and I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t s , and a measure which w o u l d f o r a l l time mean the p a r t i t i o n and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of our n a t i o n . To t h a t we, as N a t i o n a l i s t s , can n e v e r a g r e e . " 9 9 I n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the l i b e r a l s d i d not s h a r e Redmond's l o f t y i d e a l , y e t t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f Carson's p r o p o s a l w o u l d wreck the b i l l ; t h e y t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d i t down and the Home Rule-B i l l p assed i t s f i n a l r e a d i n g by a m a j o r i t y o f one hundred and t e n . The. l a s t l i n e s o f defence f o r the m i l i t a n t U l s t e r U n i o n i s t s now were the house o f l o r d s , the r a i s i n g o f a l o c a l v o l u n t e e r c o r p s , and a s y s t e m a t i c campaign to o b t a i n promises o f c o n d i t i o n a l r e s i g a n t i o n s w i t h i n . t h e army; a l r e a d y the U l s t e r V o l u n t e e r F o r c e had been o r g a n i z e d through the z e a l o f U n i o n i s t c l u b s and Orange l o d g e s , and e a r l y i n 1913, a s t r e n g t h o f one hundred thousand men was d e c i d e d u p o n . ^ ^ The q u e s t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p was l e f t i n the hands o f an E n g l i s h member o f p a r l i a m e n t , C o l o n e l Hichman, who approached L o r d R o b e r t s , then on the a c t i v e l i s t o f the army; but the i l l u s t r i o u s f i e l d - m a r s h a l , a l t h o u g h q u i t e o b v i o u s l y i n t e r -e s t e d i n the p r o p o s a l r e f u s e d to a c c e p t the p o s i t i o n but put Hickman on the t r a c k o f a s u i t a b l e s u b s t i t u t e . 1 <" ) 1 Thus the i n t r i g u e w i t h the 'army went o n — a d e l i b e r a t e and u n d i s g u i s e d campaign to undermine d i s c i p l i n e i n the f o r c e . 99. Gwynn, Redmond, p.220 100, The o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f the V o l u n t e e r f o r c e are somewhat i n c o h e r e n t l y d e s c r i b e d b y one o f i t s f i r s t t r a i n i n g o f f i c e r s , B r i g . Gen. P.P. C r o z i e r i n h i s book, I r e l a n d f o r Ever, (London, 1932) 101. Gwynn, o p . c i t . , p.223. 136 I n 1913, Carson, s u p p o r t e d "by Bonar l a w and such a s s o c i a t i o n s as the " B r i t i s h l e a g u e f o r the su p p o r t o f U l s t e r and the U n i o n " , promised t h a t any s t e p s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l would he used t o oppose Home R u l e , which i n 1914 must a u t o m a t i c a l l y become law. The C a r s o n i t e s were s t i l l h o p i n g t h a t the L i b e r a l s w o u l d weaken i n the f a c e of the t u r b u l e n t campaign i n U l s t e r , and such soon appeared to be the ca s e , f o r even the most r e l i a b l e Home R u l e r s i n the c a b i n e t , M o r l e y and L o r e b u r n , began to f a l t e r . Schemes f o r " f e d e r a t i o n " o r " d e v o l u t i o n " were c u r r e n t w i t h the h i n t s t h a t the o p p o s i t i o n would s u p p o r t such p o l i c i e s . The T o r i e s were b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e t he predicament i n wh i c h Carson had p l a c e d them; and i f the N a t i o n a l i s t s had come f o r w a r d w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n f o r a m o d i f i e d form o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t f o r U l s t e r , s u b j e c t to the p a r l i a m e n t i n D u b l i n , a compromise might have been a c h i e v e d . P r o b a b l y even Carson was n e a r l y r e a d y to save h i s f a c e by such a p l a n o f "Home R u l e w i t h i n Home R u l e " . W i t h 1914 a p p r o a c h i n g and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t b e i n g s e t up i n D u b l i n imminent, Redmond and h i s s u p p o r t e r s t r i e d to remove p u b l i c m i s g i v i n g s by s t a t i n g t h a t the a r g u m e n t a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n to Home R u l e was dead. They sug-g e s t e d t h a t " w i t h i n the bosom of a n a t i o n t h e r e i s room f o r the tr e a t m e n t o f government and o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " ^ but r e p u d i -a t e d the t w o - n a t i o n t h e o r y as an a b o m i n a t i o n and blashemy. The c a b i n e t was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e must be_ a measure o f Home R u l e , and t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be done to e r e c t a permanent and i n s u p e r a b l e b a r r i e r t o I r i s h u n i t y , but t h a t Home R u l e s h o u l d not be suspended w h i l e a g e n e r a l scheme o f d e v o l u t i o n was b e i n g 102. Gwynn, Redmond, p.237. 137 worked o u t . The a i r was now r i f e w i t h schemes f o r ways and means o f s e t t l i n g the m a t t e r . Bonar law wanted t o t a l and permanent ex-c l u s i o n o f U l s t e r ; L l o y d George s u g g e s t e d t h a t c e r t a i n a r e a s s h o u l d he e x c l u d e d t e m p o r a r i l y from the b i l l , and a power o f v e t o 103 f o r U l s t e r members was proposed by H e r b e r t Samuel. A g a i n - t h e d i l l y - d a l l y i n g o f p o l i t i c i a n s p r omised t r o u b l e . I n the s o u t h o f I r e l a n d a group o f d i s s a t i s f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s had l a u n c h e d the N a t i o n a l i s t V o l u n t e e r s to match the U l s t e r group; the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b l o o d s h e d now became v e r y r e a l . Furthermore . a l a b o u r s t r i k e i n D u b l i n i n August a c c e n t u a t e d the f a c t t h a t Redmond and h i s f o l l o w e r s i n b a t t l i n g f o r Home Rul e had i g n o r e d the a p p a l l i n g l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s which were r i f e i n D u b l i n . So . two i l l e g a l f o r c e s were a t work to s t r i k e a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l methods and were the f o r e r u n n e r s o f the v i o l e n c e o f E a s t e r Week i n 1916. I n October the new V o l u n t e e r group was g i v e n s u p p o r t by P r o -f e s s o r E o i n M a c l e i l l , the head o f the G a e l i c League, and a prom-i n e n t member o f the I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n B r o t h e r h o o d . Then o t h e r prominent f i g u r e s j o i n e d ; Mrs. J . R. Green, the I r i s h h i s t o r i a n , and S i r Roger Casement, a former B r i t i s h c o n s u l who had won n o t o r i e t y f o r h i m s e l f i n e x p o s i n g the a t r o c i t i e s o f the r u b b e r t r a d e i n South America and the B e l g i a n Congo. The s u p p o r t o f such i n d i v i d u a l s l e n d w e i g h t to the m a n i f e s t o o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n : "Those who a c t i n i n i t i a t i n g the V o l u n t e e r movement do.not assume d i r e c t i o n o r a u t h o r i t y o v er the subsequent conduct o f . t h e movement. T h i s body was a nightmare to Redmond who hoped the government 103. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1913, pp.2-4 104. Gwynn, Redmond, p.224 138 would e f f e c t a s e t t l e m e n t b e f o r e the V o l u n t e e r movement g a t h e r e d too much momentum. However the government made an i r r e t r i e v a b l e b l u n d e r i n December, 1913, by p r o h i b i t i n g the i m p o r t a t i o n o f arms i n t o I r e l a n d — a r e m a r k a b l e move i n as much as the U l s t e r V o l u n t e e r s had been o p e n l y d r i l l i n g w i t h arms i m p o r t e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no concealment. The government's move evoked anger from the s o u t h and g l e e from the n o r t h , which g l o a t e d over t h e f a c t t h a t U l s t e r a l r e a d y had s u f f i c i e n t arms to meet i t s needs. Moreover smuggling o f arms became more e x p e n s i v e , thus g i v i n g the w e a l t h i e r n o r t h an advantage i n the i l l e g a l t r a f f i c . As 1914 dawned the s t a g e was s e t f o r the l a s t phase o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u g g l e by the N a t i o n a l i s t s , who s t i l l hoped f o r s u c c e s s i n s p i t e o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f Bonar Law, Carson and the r i v a l V o l u n t e e r f o r c e s . B i s h o p O'Donnell from U l s t e r i n f o r m e d Redmond: " F i g h t i n g i s n o t i n the mind o f the' U l s t e r Army; but i f t h e y wanted to f i g h t o r r i o t , the way i n which the N a t i o n a l i s t s o f U l s t e r would a c t i s by o f f e r i n g no_ show of r e s i s t a n c e ; and t h e y can take t h a t c o u r s e now f o r I r e l a n d ' s sake w i t h o u t any i m p u t a t i o n on t h e i r manhood-*.. • t h e y would keep to t h e i r home and 105 l e a v e defence to the p o l i c e . " A p p a r e n t l y he b e l i e v e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f much t r o u b l e was remote. Carson however made i t p l a i n t h a t U l s t e r must be e x c l u d e d and Bonar l a w a s s u r e d A s q u i t h t h a t i f the government d i d not come to terms the o p p o s i t i o n would h o l d up the Army B i l l i n the commons and r e s o r t to extreme measures to o b s t r u c t the b u s i n e s s o f the house. A s q u i t h f e l t t h a t he must a t l e a s t make an o f f e r to 105. Gwynn, Redmond, yo-255. 138 U l s t e r , which i f r e f u s e d would d e p r i v e h i s opponents o f m o r a l f o r c e . H i s o f f e r s u g g e s t e d U l s t e r c o n t r o l o f the post o f f i c e , l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (not p o l i c e ) , and the r i g h t to a p p e a l to the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t on c e r t a i n m a t t e r s . I n F e b r u a r y Carson adopted a c o n c i l i a t o r y tone, s t a t i n g t h a t U l s t e r w i shed to a v o i d c i v i l war, and Bonar Law announced t h a t U l s t e r had no d e s i r e to ve t o Home Rul e f o r N a t i o n a l i s t I r e l a n d . Carson even s a i d t h a t to handle U l s t e r : "You must e i t h e r c o e r c e h e r i f you go on, o r you must i n the l o n g r u n , hy showing t h a t good government can come under the Home Rul e B i l l , t r y and w i n her o v e r to the case o f the r e s t o f I r e l a n d . " A compromise seemed to be i n the o f f i n g . L l o y d George proposed t h a t any c o u n t r y c o u l d c o n t r a c t out o f the A c t f o r "x" y e a r s by means o f a f a v o u r a b l e p l e b i s c i t e , but t h a t a t the end o f the p e r i o d i t would be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the r e s t o f I r e l a n d . Joseph D e v l i n as the l e a d e r o f the U l s t e r N a t i o n a l i s t s fought t h i s p l a n a g a i n c l a i m i n g t h a t the U l s t e r t h r e a t o f war was a bogey and t h a t the d i v i s i o n o f I r e l a n d would be as d i s a s t r o u s as c i v i l war. He r e f e r r e d t o the r i o t s i n B e l f a s t when the Home Rule measures o f 1886 and 1893 had been r e j e c t e d , d e n i e d the c l a i m t h a t P r o t e s t a n t s need f e a r u n f a i r t r e a t m e n t under Home R u l e , and e x p r e s s e d w i l l -i n g ness t o see U l s t e r have e x t r a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the I r i s h , 1 0 6 p a r l i a m e n t . A compromising s i t u a t i o n . f r o m t he N a t i o n a l i s t p o i n t o f view was j u s t evaded i n U l s t e r : t he N a t i o n a l i s t s o f D e r r y d e c i d e d -to show the Home Rule s t r e n g t h i n the n o r t h by c a l l i n g a monster m e e t i n g , but Redmond^fearing a c l a s h w i t h the U l s t e r V o l u n t e e r s , 106. A nnual R e g i s t e r , 1914, p.3. 139 a f t e r much t r o u b l e dissuaded, the l e a d e r s o f the m e e t i n g from 107 c a r r y i n g out t h e i r p l a n s . At the same time Redmond r e p u d i a t e d the "Home R u l e withintHome R u l e " p l a n and as the p r i c e o f peace agreed w i t h the p l e b i s c i t e p r o p o s a l i n p r i n c i p l e . A s q u i t h conse-q u e n t l y caused the arrangement to be e f f e c t e d by s u g g e s t i n g the s u b m i s s i o n o f an e x c l u s i o n p r o p o s a l to the c o u n t i e s c o n c e r n e d . C o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the n a t u r e o f the c o u n t i e s ensued and s u b s i d e d , and the second r e a d i n g o f the b i l l p a s s e d - w i t h the p r o v i s o H h a t "any U l s t e r c o u n t y m i ght, by a m a j o r i t y o f i t s P a r l i a m e n t a r y e l e c t 0 r s , v o t e i t s e l f out o f the o p e r a t i o n o f the B i l l f o r s i x y e a r s . " 1 0 8 T h i s s a t i s f i e d n e i t h e r U l s t e r N a t i o n a l i s t s nor Orange-men. I n the meantime the s i t u a t i o n i n the army became more e x c i t i n g . S i r Henry W i l s o n , D i r e c t o r o f M i l i t a r y O p e r a t i o n s a t the War O f f i c e , who had been i n c o n s t a n t communication w i t h Bonar law and Carson, a s s u r e d S i r John F r e n c h t h a t the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f u s i n g the army i n U l s t e r were almost i n s u p e r a b l e owing to the r e f u s a l o f o f f i c e r s and men to c o e r c e U l s t e r . The t r u t h o f h i s a s s e r t i o n was made p l a i n , when, f o l l o w i n g a v o t e o f censure o f the govern-ment by Bonar law, a l a r g e number o f o f f i c e r s r e s i g n e d t h e i r commissions f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e f u s a l to move t r o o p s i n t o U l s t e r . 1 0 9 107. Annual R e g i s t e r , 1914, p.117-118. 108. I b i d . 109. See C r o z i e r , o p . c i t . , Chapts. I I and I I I . W i l s o n a s s u r e d S i r John F r e n c h t h a t many o f f i c e r s who had r e s i g n e d o r been "exempted" from s e r v i n g i n U l s t e r would be r e - i n s t a t e d . W i l s o n even a r r a n g e d m a t t e r s so t h a t F r e n c h and o t h e r o f f i c e r s o f the G e n e r a l S t a f f might r e s i g n . Bonar law i n a speech a t D u b l i n compared the p o s s i b l e r e f u s a l o f the army to f i g h t a g a i n s t U l s t e r to a s i m i l a r r e f u s a l o f the army o f K i n g James i n 1688. Gwynn, Redmond, p.330 E a r l o f O x f o r d , o p . c i t . , I . 205. 140 T h i s d e c i s i o n d e s t r o y e d the i n f l u e n c e o f the I r i s h P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a r t y and t u r n e d the movement f o r Home R u l e over to ' u n c o n s t i t -u t i o n a l f o r c e s . . E n g l i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n was r i s i n g a g a i n s t t h i s c h a l l e n g e to the a u t h o r i t y o f p a r l i a m e n t , and w i t h the Labour p a r t y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f o u r hundred thousand t r a d e U n i o n i s t s s h o u l d e q u i p themselves to d e f e n d t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i f the army was to be us e d a g a i n s t a l l measures w h i c h were n ot ur.der Tory p a t r o n a g e , the L i b e r a l s found a ren e w a l o f enthusiasm f o r t h e i r t a s k . The government a g a i n made a s t a n d on the q u e s t i o n o f army d i s c i p l i n e b u t i n -s i s t e d t h a t i t d i d not w i s h t o c r u s h p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to the b i l l . But the army i n t r i g u e went on w i t h S i r John F r e n c h event-t u a l l y r e s i g n i n g h i s p o s t on March 2 9 t h . A s q u i t h g r a s p e d e a g e r l y a t any compromise, knowing t h a t h i s p a r t y had e v e r y t h i n g to l o s e i f i t provoked v i o l e n c e , whereas the C o n s e r v a t i v e s had become more f o r m i d a b l e by " h i t c h i n g t h e i r wagon" t o Carson. A f e d e r a t i o n scheme was a g a i n u n e a r t h e d - - t o be t u r n e d down b y Redmond. Gun-running was c o n t i n u i n g i n I r e l a n d ; on A p r i l 2 5 t h a huge consignment o f r i f l e s from Hamburg was l a n d e d i n U l s t e r . There was no doubt t h a t the V o l u n t e e r s were now a f o r m i d a b l e f o r c e . The N a t i o n a l i s t s , who f o r two y e a r s had not e n t e r e d i n t o compet-i t i o n on t h i s s c a l e w i t h the Ulstermen,"^began to e n l a r g e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s so t h a t by May one hundred thousand v o l u n t e e r s were i n t h e i r r a n s k , one t h i r d o f whom were i n U l s t e r . The s o u t h was b e g i n n i n g to l o o k w i t h envy upon the s a n c t i o n g i v e n to t h e Orange r e s i s t a n c e i n U l s t e r and Redmond's c o n s t i t u t i o n 141 a l i s m began to appear as t i m i d i t y to the younger element. Sug-g e s t i o n s f o r r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e V o l u n t e e r s were made to the end that the I r i s h p a r t y s h o u l d take i n t o t h e i r hands the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a V o l u n t e e r f o r c e , but Redmond l o o k e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n upon the movement and d e s i r e d t h a t i f the N a t i o n a l i s t group became ass o -c i a t e d w i t h the m i l i t a r y f o r c e the P a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t y s h o u l d have a c o n t r o l l i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on i t s e x e c u t i v e . The s e l f - e l e c t e d l e x e r s o f the V o l u n t e e r s however r e p u d i a t e d the r i g h t o f any group to accept a p o s i t i o n o f c o n t r o l o ver the ' m i l i t i a , i f t h a t group was hot i n f a v o u r of the immediate arming and permanence o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c l a s h between the s e two elements i n May and June, 1914, j u s t a f t e r the Home Rule B i l l had passed i t s t h i r d r e a d i n g marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the t r i u m p h o f the S i n n F e i n g r o u p - - a l t h o u g h the a u t h o r i t y o f the I r i s h P a r t y was not s e r i o u s l y d i m i n i s h e d a t the t i m e . l a t e i n June an amending b i l l embodying the government's o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l s f o r e x c l u s i o n by county o p t i o n was i n t r o -duced i n the l o r d s where i t r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n from l o r d s lansdowne, M i l n e r and R o b e r t s . An.attempt was made to e f f e c t a rapprochement between Redmond and Carson so t h a t t h e y might d i s c u s s the m a t t e r , but the l a t t e r ' s i n t i m a t i o n t h a t he would c o n s i d e r n o t h i n g s h o r t o f t o t a l e x c l u s i o n f o r U l s t e r was an o b s t a c l e o f l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s . The p r e s s announced imminent c i v i l war i n I r e l a n d . A g a i n i n t e r m i n a b l e w r a n g l i n g ensued o v e r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a compromise; s u g g e s t i o n s b e i n g made f o r e x c l u s i o n o f the s i x c o u n t i e s f o r s i x y e a r s w i t h a s t a t u t o r y p o l l e v e r y s i x y e a r s a f t e r w a r d , and changing o f the time l i m i t so as to l e a v e the . 142 o p t i o n to U l s t e r to dec i d e , when i t w o u l d e n t e r . At t h i s j u n c t u r e war was lo o m i n g up on the European h o r i z o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f domestic d i s s e n s i o n s was i m p e r a t i v e . But even under these c o n d i t i o n s the war o f f i c e , Carson and the U n i o n i s t P a r t y ?;ere c o n n i v i n g a t k e e p i n g the U l s t e r pot b o i l i n g . On J u l y 1 2 t h the U l s t e r U n i o n i s t C o u n c i l proposed t o assume the c h a r a c t e r o f a p r o v i s i o n a l government and the o c c a s i o n , with Carson on hand, was marked by the a n t i c i p a t e d d e f i a n c e o f Home R u l e . War was imminent, and K i n g George, on the a d v i c e o f A s q u i t h summoned r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the v a r i o u s groups to Buckingham P a l a c e f o r a c o n f e r e n c e . The K i n g s t y l i n g h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n "a new d e p a r t u r e " , e a r n e s t l y e x h o r t e d the oppo s i n g f a c t i o n s to com-pose t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n an hono u r a b l e s e t t l e m e n t . The N a t i o n -a l i s t group opposed e x c l u s i o n o f any N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t o f U l s t e r on p r i n c i p l e b ut compromised on the p l a n of county o p t i o n . The con f e r e n c e was p r e s e n t e d w i t h s t a t i s t i c s showing the r e l a t i v e numbers o f P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s i n the d i s p u t e d c o u n t i e s : r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s were s t i l l an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . She U n i o n i s t group wished to have U l s t e r v o t e as a u n i t on Home Rule but the N a t i o n a l i s t s would not c o n s e n t . The c o n f e r e n c e " f i n a l l y b r o k e down--the cause g i v e n to the commons b e i n g t h a t the d e f i n i n g o f an a r e a t o be e x c l u d e d from the A c t had not been found p o s s i b l e . By now Redmond had.a measure o f i n f l u e n c e over the V o l u n t e e r movement i n the s o u t h but the government p r o c l a m a t i o n a g a i n s t , i m p o r t i n g guns' promised f u t u r e t r o u b l e which Redmond would be un-ab l e to p r e v e n t . He f i n a l l y endorsed a p l a n t o buy B e l g i a n r i f l e s i n s p i t e o f the arms p r o c l a m a t i o n . Unknown to Redmond an o t h e r group under Casement had been p u r c h a s i n g r i f l e s abroad 143 and on J u l y 26th l a n d e d one cargo o f arms a t Howth ( i n D u b l i n B a y ) . A group o f N a t i o n a l i s t s paraded to the bay, took over the cargo and marched back to D u b l i n , coming i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the p o l i c e and a b a t t a l i o n of the K i n g ' s Own S c o t t i s h B o r d e r e r s who a t t e m p t e d t o d i s a r m the V o l u n t e e r s . I n the s c u f f l e t h a t f o l l o w -ed most o f t h e V o l u n t e e r s escaped w i t h t h e i r r i f l e s ; the t r o o p s marched backed t o t h e c i t y where t h e y were met w i t h a b a r r a g e o f stone and o t h e r m i s s i l e s from a mob. B e f o r e the a f f a i r was over t h r e e people were k i l l e d and t h i r t y - e i g h t i n j u r e d . A n o t h e r "Boston M a s s a c r e " had o c c u r r e d . A C o m m i s s i o n 1 1 0 i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a f f a i r condemned the c a l l i n g out o f the t r o o p s . I n view o f the f a c t t h a t the U l s t e r V o l u n t e e r s had paraded armed f o r months the use o f t h e ^ m i l i t i a c e r t a i n l y appeared i n j u d i c i o u s . On J u l y 30th the Amending B i l l was s h e l v e d as a u n i t e d f r o n t was d e s i r e d i n view o f the European s i t u a t i o n w h i c h had r e f l e c t e d the a c t i v i t i e s i n I r e l a n d . Europe had been w a t c h i n g I r e l a n d c a r e f u l l y — F r a n c e and B e l g i u m w i t h a n x i e t y and Germany w i t h hope. The l a s t n a t i o n had f u l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t I r e l a n d would r i s e i n r e b e l l i o n the moment war was d e c l a r e d and when news re a c h e d Europe of the Howth a f f a i r the b e l i e f a p p a r e n t l y was s t r e n g t h e n e d . When S i r Edward Grey made h i s momentous speech to the house , on August 3 r d ? o u t l i n i n g the g e n e r a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , he spoke o f the f a c t t h a t "the p o s i t i o n i n Ireland» w ois not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n among the t h i n g s we have to take i n t o account n o w , " 1 1 1 Redmond, i n a speech t h a t evoked tremendous enthusiasm s a i d : "The Govern-ment may tomorrow withdraw e v e r y one o f t h e i r t r o o p s from I r e l a n d . 110. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, House of Commons, 1914, V o l . LXV, C o l s . 1022-1043. 111. Ibid,Cel. 1824. 144 I say t h a t the c o a s t o f I r e l a n d w i l l be dfended from f o r e i g n i n -v a s i o n by h e r armed sons, and f o r t h i s purpose armed N a t i o n a l i s t C a t h o l i c s w i l l be o n l y too g l a d t o j o i n arms w i t h t h e armed P r o -H P t e s t a n t U l s t e r m e n i n the n o r t h . " X - L & T h i s g u a r a n t e e t h a t I r e l a n d would be asource o f s t r e n g t h and not o f danger t o the empire was made i n the f a c e o f the r e a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the u n f o r t u n a t e Howth i n c i d e n t and the s t a n d o f c e r t a i n I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s i n D e r r y C i t y who s t a t e d t h a t t h e y would " r e f u s e to j o i n colours u n t i l a s s u r e d the k i n g w i l l s i g n the Home R u l e B i l l . " 1 1 3 Redmond's speech, made i n the hope o f b r i n g i n g n o r t h and so u t h t o g e t h e r on a d e f i n i t e l y n a t i o n a l i s s u e does not commend i t s e l f to the new g e n e r a t i o n o f Fre e S t a t e e n t h u s i a s t s who be-l i e v e - he c o u l d have u s e d h i s p o s i t i o n t o b a r g a i n f o r an immediate I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t . But i f he had d e f i e d p a r l i a m e n t , the 1915 C o a l i t i o n would have p r o b a b l y come e a r l i e r and the U l s t e r V o l u n -t e e r s would have been u s e d to a s s i s t t he R o y a l I r i s h C o n s t a b u l a r y i n k e e p i n g l aw and o r d e r ; a "Black-and-Tan" regime might have been / i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1914; and the U n i t e d S t a t e s might not have been / c o n c i l i a t e d to the A l l i e s p o i n t o f view. Redmond r i g h t l y judged the a t t i t u d e o f the m a j o r i t y o f I r i s h m e n — a t t h a t t i m e . However, the N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r i n s i s t e d t h a t w i t h the Home Ru l e B i l l and the Amending B i l l d u l y endorsed by p a r l i a m e n t , no-t h i n g s h o u l d p r e v e n t the two measures from b e i n g p l a c e d on the s t a t u t e book. C a r s o n was a g a i n i n an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e mood and so p o w e r f u l was h i s o p p o s i t i o n to Redmond's demand t h a t A s q u i t h once more attem p t e d to tem p o r i z e w i t h the f a c t t h a t the s o u t h o f I r e -112. Commons, Debates, V o l . 1XV, C o l . 1827. 113. Gwynn, Redmond, p.357. . 145 l a n d was not e n d o r s i n g Redmond i n h i s pledge t o s u p p o r t the war. Another u n f o r t u n a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e a r o s e to j e o p a r i d i z e Red-mond's s t a n d , when l o r d K i t c h e n e r showed h i m s e l f u n w i l l i n g to s a n c t i o n any extended r e c r u i t i n g o f the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s i n the r e g u l a r army; and the government promise to r e c o g n i z e and arm the V o l u n t e e r s was not f u l f i l l e d . I n the meantime A s q u i t h had t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the Home Rul e s i t u a t i o n i n mind: he would l i k e to have come to an agreement as to the d e l i m i t a t i o n o f U l s t e r and use t h a t agreement as an amending h i l l ; he might endorse the p l a c i n g o f the Home R u l e B i l l on the s t a t u t e hooks, h u t the s u s p e n s i o n o f i t s o p e r a t i o n f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the war; and he might attempt to have the whole mat-t e r s h e l v e d f o r a y e a r . Redmond was c o n v i n c e d t h a t w i t h o u t the enactment o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , s u p p o r t i n I r e l a n d f o r the war would d i s s o l v e . Furthermore i f some agreement between the two V o l u n t e e r groups c o u l d have been effected,the b i t t e r f e e l i n g i n I r e l a n d might have been a l l e v i a t e d . He commended t h i s p r o p o s a l to A s q u i t h a l o n g w i t h h i s d e s i r e t h a t Home R u l e s h o u l d be on the s t a t u t e book t h a t s e s s i o n , and p o i n t e d out the dangers o f f u r t h e r p o s t -ponement o f the i s s u e . But A s q u i t h ' s hunt f o r a compromise a t a l l c o s t s was p l a y i n g havoc not o n l y w i t h the hope o f making a s e t t l e m e n t o f the i s s u e b u t a l s o of g a i n i n g I r i s h s u p p o r t f o r the war. T h i s s i t u a t i o n was not improved by the f a c t t h a t Carson had o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n to r a i s e a d i v i s i o n from among the U l s t e r V o l u n t e e r s , whereas L o r d K i t c h e n e r had almost s c o r n f u l l y t u r n e d down Redmond's o f f e r to use the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s . 146 I n September, 1914, i t became known t h a t the government i n -tended o f f i c i a l l y t o r e c o g n i z e the Home Rul e B i l l but to a t t a c h a Suspensory B i l l w h i c h would p r e v e n t i t s o p e r a t i o n u n t i l the end o f the war and which would g i v e a s s u r a n c e t h a t Home R u l e would not come i n t o o p e r a t i o n u n t i l , b y an Amending B i l l , the g e n e r a l consent o f b o t h I r e l a n d and the U n i t e d Kingdom has been g a i n e d . Redmond welcomed t h i s s t e p and r e p u d i a t e d the charge t h a t he had promised I r i s h a s s i s t a n c e w i t h any s t r i n g s a t t a c h e d to i t . She Home R u l e Measure was then s i g n e d 1 by the K i n g and became l a w . 1 1 ^ There was a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t "the broken arm o f E n g l a n d " would become a b u l w a r k o f the Empire. But o b v i o u s l y t h i s t r e a t m e n t of the Home R u l e measure m e r e l y postponed t r o u b l e s . A l r e a d y the f o r c e s o f S i n n F e i n were a t work to undermine the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l programme o f the N a t i o n a l i s t group. B e f o r e the end o f the war the p h y s i c a l forcemen had de-f i n i t e l y s u p p l a n t e d the Redmondites i n p o p u l a r esteem and I r e l a n d was headed i n the d i r e c t i o n not o f a l i m i t e d measure o f Home R u l e f o r a u n i t e d I r e l a n d but o f the g r a n t i n g o f Dominion s t a t u s t o the I r i s h F ree S t a t e and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f the i s l a n d . 114. Bonar law and the U n i o n i s t s l e f t the house i n p r o t e s t — m o s t o f the l o r d s a l s o a b s e n t e d them-s e l v e s from t h e i r chamber. 147 Chapter IV THE WAR PERIOD AMD THE BIRTH OP THE FREE STATE. A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s i n the p e r i o d from 1914 to 1922 were c o n d i t i o n e d hy the impact o f the war and t h e d e f i n i t e r i s e i n power and p r e s t i g e o f the S i n n F e i n group. I n the p r e s e n t d i s -c u s s i o n the p e r i o d may he c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g time d i v i -s i o n s : the war p e r i o d (1914-1918); the v i c t o r y o f S i n n F e i n and the b i r t h o f the Free S t a t e (1918-1921); th e c i v i l war p e r i o d (1921-1922); and t h e f r a m i n g o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F r ee S t a t e . The War P e r i o d (1914-1918) C i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t e r v e n e d to p r e v e n t the o b t a i n i n g o f whole-h e a r t e d s u p p o r t f o r the war from N a t i o n a l i s t I r e l a n d . Redmond had hoped t h a t I r i s h r e g i m e n t s would be r a i s e d from the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s , and t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e I r i s h i n s i g n i a would be adopted as had been done f o r S c o t l a n d and Wales; but K i t c h e n e r who d i d not l o o k w i t h f a v o u r upon the N a t i o n a l i s t s , s t a t e d t h a t he was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o g r e s s o f r e c r u i t i n g i n I r e l a n d and r e -f u s e d to concede to Redmond's w i s h e s c o n c e r n i n g s p e c i a l I r i s h symbols. The p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d to Carson i n t h i s r e s p e c t s t o o d out i n s h a r p c o n t r a s t . As Denis Gwynn w r i t e s ; . "He (Redmond) had y e t to l e a r n t h a t even when the war o f f i c e was c l a m o u r i n g f o r r e c r u i t s i t s p r e j u d i c e s p r e v e n t e d the o b v i o u s s t e p toward g e t t i n g them i n the r e s t o f I r e l a n d which i t had a l r e a d y t a k e n i n U l s t e r . 1 , 1 The s e r i o u s n e s s o f the s i t u a t i o n was a c c e n t u a t e d by the 1. Gwynn, o p . c i t . , p.389. 148 f a c t t h a t on the 24th o f September a s m a l l group o f S i n n F e i n l e a d e r s withdrew t h e i r s u p p o r t from the N a t i o n a l i s t group and se t up t h e i r own body o f I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s . They d e c l a r e d t h a t I r e l a n d c o u l d n o t , w i t h s a f e t y o r honor, t a k e p a r t i n f o r e i g n q u a r r e l s o t h e r w i s e than t h r o u g h the f r e e a c t i o n o f a N a t i o n a l i s t government o f her own. To t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s was added the s i t u a t i o n t h a t the r e c r u i t i n g campaign c o n t i n u e d t o be c a r r i e d on i n e f f i c i e n t l y . F urthermore Carson c o n t i n u e d to e x p r e s s such b e l i e f s t h a t the Home R u l e B i l l was " n o t h i n g but a s c r a p o f paper" and t h a t h i s f o l l o w e r s would r e p u d i a t e Home R u l e when the war was o v e r . By F e b r u a r y , 1915, a d e f i n i t e r i f t was a p p e a r i n g i n the N a t i o n a l i s t r a n k s . B i l l o n , who had s u p p o r t e d Redmond i n the l a t t e r *s s t a n d o f J u l y o f the p r e v i o u s y e a r , now h e l d the o p i n i o n t h a t Germany was b e i n g i s o l a t e d by France and R u s s i a , and f e l t t h a t the I r i s h p a r t y had become i n v o l v e d i n u n n e c e s s a r y d i f f i -c u l t i e s . H i s vi e w was o b v i o u s l y remote from t h a t o f Redmond, who l o o k e d askance on " P r u s s i a n paganism". , A g a i n , r e c r u i t i n g had f a l l e n o f f i n the r e g u l a r f o r c e s and growing enthusiasm had d e v e l o p e d f o r M a c N e i l l ' s I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s . F i n a l l y , the N a t i o n a l i s t group depended f o r funds l a r g e l y on Americans s u p p o r t e r s and fo u n d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s d w i n d l i n g as I r i s h - A m e r i c a n s were l a r g e l y pro-German. At f i r s t , t h i s l a t t e r group had been taken aback by Redmond's s t a n d on the war and then the government's (Home Rule) p o l i c y had made sympathy f o r England more remote t h a n e v e r . American enthusiasm f o r Red-mond's p a r t y seemed dead. 2. Commons Debates, V o l . 8 6 , Col.686. 149 The S i n n F e i n group s p r e a d propaganda to t h i s e f f e c t and w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e from America.:^, c a r r i e d on w i t h v i g o u r and a b i l i t y a campaign to d e s t r o y Redmond's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a r t y . Other d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s a s s i s t e d t h i s p r o g r e s s . The N a t i o n a l i s t C o a l i t i o n Government formed i n 1915 i n c l u d e d C a r s o n ; the so u t h was g i v e n l i t t l e s h a r e i n the i n d u s t r i a l development u n d e r t a k e n by the government; the p o s s i b i l i t y o f Home R u l e coming i n t o e f f e c t at the end o f the y e a r v a n i s h e d ; I r i s h t r o o p s a t the D a r d a n e l l e s s u f f e r e d t e r r i f i c c a s u a l t i e s , some o f whi c h were un-d o u b t e d l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to f a u l t y l e a d e r s h i p ; I r i s h t r o o p s seemed to be o m i t t e d from any h o n o r a b l e mention i n war d e s p a t c h e s ; and the s t u p i d i t y and n e g l e c t o f the r e c r u i t i n g i n I r e l a n d had done i r r e p a r a b l e harm. C o n d i t i o n s were now f a v o r a b l e to the i n c u b -a t i o n o f r e v o l t among t h e r a d i c a l elements. The I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n B r o t h e r h o o d , dormant f o r ye a r s i n Americ a had been showing new s i g n s o f l i f e , and now det e r m i n e d t h a t the war s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d to pass w i t h o u t some d e t e r -mined attempt b e i n g made to a c h i e v e a r e v o l u t i o n i n I r e l a n d . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s e c r e t l y p l a n n e d f o r a n i n s u r r e c t i o n . 3 The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s b r o t h e r h o o d , and not the D u b l i n s t r i k e , nor the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c i t i z e n army,were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r i s i n g o f 1916. The supreme c o u n c i l of the s e c r e t s o c i e t y de-c i d e d t h a t I r e l a n d ' s honor would be t a r n i s h e d i f the war were a l l o w e d to pass w i t h o u t a f i g h t f o r freedom b e i n g made; the e x e c u t i v e o r g a n i z e d , l e d and f i n a n c e d the u p r i s i n g . No h i n t o f the s e c r e t p r e p a r a t i o n s r e a c h e d Redmond's e a r s ; 3. Documents r e l a t i v e t o the S i n n F e i n Movement, (Cmd 1108), P r e s e n t e d to P a r l i a m e n t by Command of H i s M a j e s t y , (London, 1921), pp.9-10 150 u n d o u b t e d l y he u n d e r r a t e d S i n n F e i n propaganda. The R e p u b l i c a n B r o t h e r h o o d a t t e m p t e d to f o r c e the government i n t o a p o l i c y o f s u p p r e s s i o n and the r a d i c a l p r e s s , such as "The I r i s h V o l u n t e e r " , came out b o l d l y w i t h a n t i - E n g l i s h and pro-German a r t i c l e s . Mr. B i r r e l l r e f u s e d to be drawn i n t o t h e i r net and p e r m i t t e d the govern-ment t o c l o s e down the p r i n t e r s , but not the p u b l i s h e r s , o f some o f these p a p e r s . However the o r g a n i z e r s o f the r e v o l t c a r r i e d on t h e i r work so c l e v e r l y t h a t few p e o p l e r e a l i z e d what had been g o i n g on below the s u r f a c e s i n c e the o u t b r e a k o f war, e x c ept t h a t i n December, 1915, B i r r e l l warned Redmond t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n the numbers o f I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s was showing a l a r m i n g 4 p r o p o r t i o n s . The r a d i c a l s a s s i s t e d by the mismanagement o f I r i s h a f f a i r s by the government were s e d u l o u s l y gnawing away a t Redmond's i n f l u e n c e . Another c r i t i c a l p e r i o d was r e a c h e d i n January, 1916, when the C o n s c r i p t i o n B i l l came b e f o r e the house o f commons. Redmond, f e a r i n g t h a t such a move would p l a y i n t o the hands o f the r a d i c a l m i n o r i t y , s t a t e d t h a t the l a r g e numbers o f r e c r u i t s from I r e l a n d showed t h a t the c o u n t r y was s u p p o r t i n g the Empire i n the s t r u g g l e , he persuaded the house not to a p p l y the b i l l to I r e l a n d , but l a t e r h i s a d v i c e was i g n o r e d . D u r i n g the f i r s t months o f 1916, the government i n t e r c e p t e d a number o f coded messages from John Devoy i n A m e r i c a — m e s s a g e s d e a l i n g w i t h an impending i n s u r r e c t i o n i n D u b l i n . One l e t t e r s t a t e d : "unanimous o p i n i o n t h a t a c t i o n cannot be postponed much l o n g e r . D e l a y d i s a d y a n t a g o u s to u s . We can put up an e f f e c t i v e f i g h t . We have d e c i d e d to b e g i n a c t i o n on E a s t e r Sunday. U n l e s s 4. The membership at t h a t time had r e a c h e d f o u r t e e n thousand. 151 e n t i r e l y new c i r c u m s t a n c e a r i s e we must have your arms and m u n i t i o n s i n l i m e r i c k between Good F r i d a y and E a s t e r Monday. We expect German h e l p i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r b e g i n n i n g a c t i o n . " 5 • At the same time Roger Casement was i n Germany a t t e m p t i n g to g a i n . t h a t c o u n t r y ' s s u p p o r t , and had r e c e i v e d money from New York to c a r r y on h i s work. He was a c t i n g as the i n s t r u m e n t o f the I.R.B. and the C l a n - n a - G a e l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and I r e l a n d , the German embassy i n New Y o r k and the German f o r e i g n o f f i c e i n B e r l i n . P l a n s were made f o r t h e l a n d i n g o f a cargo o f arms and m u n i t i o n s i n T r a l e e Bay on A p r i l 23, to c o - i n c i d e w i t h a i r a t t a c k s on E n g l a n d ; but p l a n s went awry and Casement l e f t Germany by submarine to c a l l o f f the proposed D u b l i n r i s i n g . As soon as he l a n d e d on the K e r r y Coast he was c a p t u r e d and news o f t h i s event i m m e d i a t e l y r e a c h e d M a c N e i l l who was c o n f i r m e d i n h i s be-l i e f t h a t the r i s i n g was premature. However, a s m a l l group o f l e a d e r s on the i n n e r c o u n c i l o f the B r o t h e r h o o d proceeded w i t h p l a n s f o r a r e b e l l i o n which o c c u r e d on E a s t e r Monday and l a s t e d throughout the whole week. The p r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d by these men. and a c c e p t e d s i n c e then as the i n f a l l i b l e g o s p e l o f I r i s h N a t i o n a l i s m s t a t e d : "Ireland...summons h e r c h i l d r e n to h e r f l a g and s t r i k e s f o r h e r freedom....having o r g a n i z e d and t r a i n e d h e r manhood through the I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n B r o t h e r h o o d and...the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s and C i t i z e n Army...she now s e i z e s t h i s moment, and s u p p o r t e d by h e r e x i l e d c h i l d r e n i n A m e r i c a , and by h e r g a l l a n t a l l i e s i n Europe, but r e l y i n g f i r s t on h e r own s t r e n g t h she s t r i k e s i n f u l l c o n f i d e n c e o f v i c t o r y . " 6 The statement made the u s u a l c l a i m s o f I r i s h s o v e s d g n t y and p r o c l a i m e d the i n d e p e n -5. S i n n F e i n Documents, o p . c i t . , p l l . 6. Gwynn, D e n i s , De V a l e r a , ( l o n d o n , 1932), p.34 • 152 dence o f t h e " I r i s h R e p u b l i c " as a s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . One o f the r e b e l l e a d e r s s t a t e d t h a t the i n s u r r e c t i o n came upon t h e peopl e o f I r e l a n d w i t h o u t w a r n i n g , and t h a t i t was not s u p p o r t e d by the populace a t l a r g e e i t h e r i n the n o r t h o r s o u t h . He s a y s : "The i n s u r r e c t i o n was a f o r l o r n hope and a b l o o d y s a c r i -f i c e . The men who plann e d i t and l e d i t d i d not expect to w in. They knew they c o u l d not w i n . They knew t h a t the people were a g a i n s t them...but they c o u n t e d t h a t they would save I r e l a n d ' s s o u l . . . . T h e y o f f e r e d up t h e i r l i v e s . . . t o r emind the people t h a t t h e y were a n a t i o n and not a dependency.... They p l a y e d f o r the 7 s o u l o f I r e l a n d , and they knew i t was a s h e e r gamble." At the end o f the week o f f i g h t i n g the l a s t S i n n F e i n group, l e d by Eamon de V a l e r a , s u r r e n d e r e d , and the r i s i n g was o v e r . Redmond p l e a d e d w i t h the government not to embark on a p o l i c y o f w h o l e s a l e e x e c u t i o n ; he s t a t e d : "the pr e c e d e n t o f Botha's t r e a t -ment of the r e b e l s i n South A f r i c a i s the o n l y w i s e and s a f e Q c o u r s e t o f o l l o w . " 0 But g e n e r a l a r r e s t s and l o n g v i n d i c a t i v e s e n t e n c e s were imposed upon the r e b e l s , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h the p o l i c y o f S i r John M a x w e l l who had been p l a c e d i n charge o f the government f o r c e s i n I r e l a n d . H i s h a n d l i n g o f the s i t u a t i o n was the o u t s t a n d i n g example of the c a t a s t r o p h i c r e s u l t s o f e n t r u s t i n g a b s o l u t e p o l i t i c a l power to a m i l i t a r y commander; what had been a h o p e f u l s i t u a t i o n f o r a p e a c e f u l s e t t l e m e n t o f the I r i s h p r o-blem was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a chaos o f b i t t e r n e s s which made r e -c o n c i l i a t i o n a l l but i m p o s s i b l e . A s q u i t h r e a l i z e d t h a t the system under which I r e l a n d was 7. The words a r e those o f P.S.0'Hegarty. They a r e quoted by Gwynn, De Y a l e r a , p.38 8. Gwynn, Redmond, p.520. 153 b e i n g governed had broken down and spoke o f i n t r o d u c i n g r e s p o n -s i b l e government a t the e a r l i e s t moment. He v i s i t e d D u b l i n and made a p l e a t h a t a l l p a r t i e s r e f r a i n from any immediate d i s c u s s i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n w h i l e p l a n s were under way fir a l a s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , m a r t i a l l aw s t i l l r e i g n e d i n I r e l a n d and d i s c u s s i o n s were b e i n g c a r r i e d on to ext e n d c o n s c r i p t i o n to t h a t c o u n t r y . Towards the end o f May a n o t h e r c o n f e r e n c e o f the v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s was su g g e s t e d f o r the purpose o f c o n t i n u i n g from the p o i n t a t which the Buckingham P a l a c e Conference had broken down. I t would appear t h a t Redmond was now w i l l i n g t o make some con-c e s s i o n s and t h a t Carson r e f u s e d to make any. Furthermore Red-mond was g r a d u a l l y l o s i n g the su p p o r t o f a m a j o r i t y o f the N a t i o n a l i s t s , l e d by D i l l o n - - w h o i n the l i g h t of the events o f I r e l a n d now no l o n g e r s u p p o r t e d the war and would not dream o f e f f e c t i n g an I r i s h s e t t l e m e n t as a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards w i n n i n g the s t r u g g l e . The p r o p o s a l s o f the s e t t l e m e n t were made p u b l i c on June 1 2 t h , 1916. They i n c l u d e d immediate o p e r a t i o n o f the Home Rule-A c t , an amending b i l l to c o v e r o n l y the war p e r i o d and a s h o r t i n t e r v a l a f t e r i t , c o n t i n u a t i o n o f I r i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t Westminster i n the i n t e r i m , the" l e a v i n g o f the s i x c o u n t i e s o f U l s t e r under the i m p e r i a l government d u r i n g the war, and the c a l l i n g o f an empire c o n f e r e n c e a f t e r the war to s e t t l e i m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s . Carson a d v o c a t e d acceptance o f the p r o p o s a l s which meant t h a t he r e p u d i a t e d the c l a i m t o a " c l e a n c u t " o f t h r e e c o u n t i e s i n which the U n i o n i s t s f o r y e a r s had never r e t u r n e d a member to p a r l i a m e n t . D e v l i n , l e a d i n g the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n 154 U l s t e r , had a h a r d e r t a s k i n Tyrone and Fermanagh where h i s p a r t y h e l d the m a j o r i t y o f s e a t s ; and h i s terms o f a c c e p t a n c e i n c l u d e d : the temporary n a t u r e o f the arrangement, the immediate g r a n t o f an I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t t o the o t h e r t w e n t y - s i x c o u n t i e s , the temporary c o n t r o l of the s i x c o u n t i e s by Westminster and no s e p a r a t e p a r l i a m e n t f o r the s e l a t t e r s e c t i o n s o f I r e l a n d . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y d u r i n g which time Redmond's c o n t r o l o f h i s p a r t y was s t r a i n e d to the l i m i t , l l o y d Geroge p r e s e n t e d to the c a b i n e t a b i l l c o n t a i n i n g the d r a f t p r o p o s a l s o f a s e t t l e m e n t . I n the house o f l o r d s , the promise t h a t the b i l l would be h e l d up f o r e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n was made by l o r d l a n s d o w n e - - t h i s s u g g e s t i o n a p p e a r i n g as a g r o s s b e t r a y a l to Redmond. With L o r d M i d l e t o n , the l e a d e r o f the s o u t h e r n U n i o n i s t s , s t a t i n g t h a t i n a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h L l o y d Geroge the l a t t e r had proposed a temporary s e t t l e m e n t d u r i n g the war, and the r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the whole q u e s t i o n a f t e r the war, a v e r y bad i m p r e s s i o n was produced i n I r e l a n d . I t appeared as i f "some t r a g i c f a t a l i t y seemed to dog the f o o t - s t e p s o f the government i n a l l t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h 9 I r e l a n d . " F o l l o w i n g the a d v a n c i n g o f more arguments f o r the temporary o r permanent n a t u r e o f the s e t t l e m e n t , the c o n f e r e n c e b r o k e down w i t h A s q u i t h s u g g e s t i n g t h a t I r e l a n d s h o u l d r e t u r n t o the s t a t u s quo ante b e l l u m , which meant among o t h e r t h i n g s the a b r o g a t i o n o f the m i l i t a r y regime. The n e g o t a t i o n s had brought f o r t h n o t h i n g p o s i t i v e e xcept the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they were s n a r e s to make Redmond compromise. H i s i n f l u e n c e was now i r r e p a r a b l y b r o k e n and o p i n i o n grew i n I r e l a n d t h a t h i s whole p o l i c y s i n c e the o u t b r e a k o f war had 9. Gwynn, Redmond, . .. p.521. 155 been i n j u d i c i o u s . F o r the f i r s t time i n h i s c a r e e r . h e was met w i t h h o s t i l i t y a t W a t e r f o r d C i t y where he i n s i s t e d t h a t the con-s t i t u t i o n a l f i g h t must go on. Furthermore the p r e s s w h i c h had been s y m p a t h e t i c to him was becoming f i n a n c i a l l y embarrassed. The N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r h i m s e l f saw the end o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l movement ahead but f a i l e d to make the house o f commons r e a l i z e the impending s i t u a t i o n . Anger was sweeping the c o u n t r y a t the s e v e r i t y o f the t r e a t m e n t meted out to those d i r e c t l y o r i n -d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the E a s t e r r i s i n g , and the breakdown o f the p r o p o s a l s gave the S i n n F e i n movement an impetus w h i c h was a s s i s t e d by the government's f i n a l s t e p o f e x e c u t i n g Casement. But Redmond c o n t i n u e d the s t r u g g l e ; i n October he moved a v o t e o f censure on the government f o r t h e i r mismanagement o f I r i s h a f f a i r s , demanded the w i t h d r a w a l o f m a r t i a l l aw, and the g r a n t i n g o f an amnesty f o r the hundreds o f I r i s h p r i s o n e r s . He s t a t e d : " R e f u s a l s to r e l e a s e t h e s e men w i l l be most dangerous to the p o s i t i o n and i n f l u e n c e o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , and w i l l be p o i n t e d to by a l l t hose i n I r e l a n d who a r e h o s t i l e to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n as a f r e s h p r o o f t h a t B r i t i s h government a t t a c h no w e i g h t to the w i s h e s o f the I r i s h p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d through t h e i r P a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . " 1 0 As the y e a r drew to a c l o s e l l o y d George, the new prime m i n s t e r , showed s i g n s o f moving towards a n o t h e r attempt a t s e t t l e m e n t ; but i n h i s f i r s t speech i n h i s new p o s i t i o n he made no r e f e r e n c e to any d e f i n i t e move on h i s p a r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n o t h e r t h a n to decree the g r a n t i n g o f freedom t o the s i x hundred p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s . A ^ 10. Commons Debates, V o l . XC, C o l . 852 11. I b i d , C o l . 2437 -156 I n January, 1917, the a n t i - I r i s h p r e s s hegan c l a m o u r i n g f o r c o n s c r i p t i o n f o r Ireland . , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the maximum number o f men s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r a c t i v e s e r v i c e was l i m i t e d and c o n s c r i p t i o n was i n j u d i c i o u s i n a c o u n t r y so d i s a f f e c t e d . F o l -l o w i n g t h i s s u g g e s t i o n the government proceeded to have r e - a r r e s t e d many of the S i n n F e i n l e a d e r s ; the c h i e f outcome o f t h i s p o l i c y b e i n g t h a t the r a d i c a l s c o n t e s t e d a b y - e l e c t i o n i n N o r t h Roscommon and c a p t u r e d the s e a t by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y . T h i s s u c c e s s was the f i r s t one f o r the r a d i c a l f o r c e s s i n c e P a r n e l l ' s day. Red-mond wi s h e d to i s s u e a m a n i f e s t o t o the I r i s h p e o p l e demanding a d e c i s i o n as to whether t h e y w i shed to c o n t i n u e to support h i s p o l i c i e s but withdrew i t when opposed by h i s p r i n c i p a l c o l l e a g u e s . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t T. P. O'Connor s h o u l d move a r e s o l u t i o n , i n the house f o r the c o n f e r r i n g o f Home Rul e w i t h o u t f u r t h e r d e l a y and t h i s p l a n was d u l y c a r r i e d o u t . But l l o y d George, r e p l i e d to t he r e s o l u t i o n i n a speech i n which he c l e v e r l y c o n f u s e d the i s s u e . A g a i n the house w i t n e s s e d a d r a m a t i c scene. Redmond s t a t e d : " i f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l movement d i s a p p e a r s . . . h e ( l l o y d George) w i l l f i n d h i m s e l f f a c e to f a c e w i t h a r e v o l u t i o n a r y move-ment and he w i l l f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e to p r e s e r v e . . . a n y o f the 12 forms even o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m . " -He then l e d h i s p a r t y out of the house. But i f Redmond c o u l d not i n f l u e n c e l l o y d George, i t appeared t h a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d , f o r a t t h i s time the p o s s i b i l i t y o f America's e n t r y i n t o the war was imminent and c o u l d not be en-dangered by h a v i n g m a t t e r s i n I r e l a n d l e f t i n too much c o n f u s i o n . A nother s u c c e s s o f the S i n n F e i n e r s i n c a p t u r i n g a s e a t p r e c i p i t a t e d 12. Debates, V o l . ZCI, C o l . 478. 157 m a t t e r s and L l o y d George made an o f f e r f o r the immediate e s t -a b l i s h m e n t o f an I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t e x c l u d i n g the s i x c o u n t i e s o f e a s t U l s t e r . Redmond r e f u s e d the o f f e r and L l o y d George advanced a second one f o r the g r a n t i n g o f Home Rul e f o r I r e l a n d , the ex-c l u s i o n o f the s i x c o u n t i e s f o r f i v e y e a r s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C o u n c i l o f I r e l a n d from h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t Westminster and from h e r l o c a l p a r l i a m e n t . He recommended the c a l l i n g o f a c o n v e n t i o n o f a l l p a r t i e s to produce a scheme o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . Redmond a g r e e d and p l a n s were l a i d f o r i t s immediate assembly. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c o n v e n t i o n was c o m p l i c a t e d and ex-tended; a l l shades o f o p i n i o n b e i n g i n v i t e d to send d e l e g a t e s , even the S i n n F e i n group, which r e f u s e d however to a t t e n d . An extended s e r i e s o f compromises had to be e f f e c t e d as t o the number o f d e l e g a t e s from each group and the s e l e c t i o n o f the chairman. I n the end the U n i o n i s t s o f the n o r t h had e q u a l r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h the N a t i o n a l i s t s but were d i r e c t e d by t h e i r l e a d e r s t o a c t l a r g e l y as o b s e r v e r s ; Horace P l u n k e t t , u n p o p u l a r w i t h the N a t i o n a l i s t s was s e l e c t e d as c h a i r man; and on J u l y 25th the c o n v e n t i o n got under way, the f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r i t s work b e i n g marked by two more S i n n F e i n s u c c e s s e s a t the p o l l s . The range and importance o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n membership r e -v e a l e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f r e e d i s c u s s i o n among a group o f w e l l known I r i s h m e n . But o u t s i d e the c o n v e n t i o n h a l l the l a b o u r s o f the body were b e i n g r e g a r d e d w i t h r i d i c u l e and h o s t i l i t y . When Thomas Ashe, a S i n n F e i n e r , d i e d i n p r i s o n f o l l o w i n g a hunger s t r i k e , the tense s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from h i s death made i t o b v i o u s t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n would have to get down to p r a c t i c a l p r o p o s a l s . But i t s a c t i v i t i e s dragged on w i t h the members neg-158 l e o t i n g the v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f U l s t e r . I t appeared t h a t the U l s t e r group was e n c o u r a g i n g f r u i t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s h o p i n g i n t h i s way to keep N a t i o n a l i s t a g i t a t i o n q u i e s c e n t . By November a c r i s i s was f i n a l l y r e a c h e d over the q u e s t i o n of the c o l l e c t i o n o f the I r i s h t a x e s and i n December l o r d M id-l e t o n advanced p r o p o s a l s which Redmond, but not the l a t t e r ' s c o l l e a g u e s and the l e a d i n g C a t h o l i c b i s h o p s , would a c c e p t . The former s u g g e s t e d a broadened a c t o f 1914 w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r i m p e r i a l c o n t r o l over customs, e x c i s e d u t i e s and n a t i o n a l de-f e n s e . A f t e r a p r o t r a c t e d c o n t r o v e r s y over h i s p r o p o s a l s the c o n v e n t i o n was d i s s o l v e d . J u s t b e f o r e Redmond, broken i n h e a l t h and s p i r i t s , r e s i g n e d from the c o n v e n t i o n , he wrote to a f o l l o w e r : " I t i s w e l l t h a t we s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d the s i t u a t i o n . We are o f f e r e d a P a r l i a m e n t f o r the whole o f I r e l a n d w i t h f u l l and com-p l e t e c o n t r o l o v er e v e r y p u r e l y I r i s h a f f a i r both l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , i n c l u d i n g l a n d , e d u c a t i o n , l o c a l government, o l d age p e n s i o n s , i n s u r a n c e , p o l i c e , j u d i c i a r y . . . w i t h f u l l and complete c o n t r o l o v e r a l l i n t e r n a l t a x a t i o n , b o t h i t s c o l l e c t i o n and i t s i m p o s i t i o n . . . . T h i s i s a P a r l i a m e n t i n f i n i t e l y b e t t e r than was ever s u g g e s t e d by B u t t , P a r n e l l o r G l a d s t o n e . . B e c a u s e we a r e not g e t t i n g t h e immediate c o n t r o l o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n of the customs (we a r e o f f e r e d the c o l l e c t i o n o f them), we a r e g o i n g to f a c e the f u t u r e w i t h a wrecked c o n v e n t i o n . " 1 3 He v i s -u a l i z e d an end to the hope o f Home R u l e i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e and ended h i s l e t t e r b y y s t a t i n g : "Once the war i s over E n g l a n d won't 14 ca r e a damn f o r the I r i s h q u e s t i o n . " 1 3 » S e c o n d to O'Connor, Nov.18,1917, Gwynn, Redmond, p.59S 159 So ended the c a r e e r o f the man who f o r n e a r l y twenty y e a r s had l e d the r e - u n i t e d f o l l o w e r s o f P a r n e l l and had s t r u g g l e d t o p r e s e r v e the u n i t y o f I r e l a n d . The r e s u l t o f the breakdown o f the c o n v e n t i o n was a p e r i o d o f anarchy w h i c h f o l l o w e d i r r e s i s t i b l y a l o n g the l i n e s Redmond had f o r e s e e n and dreaded. The R i s e and V i c t o r y o f S i n n P e i n . The r e l a t i o n s between I r e l a n d and E n g l a n d i n the p e r i o d from 1918 t o the s e t t i n g o f the Free S t a t e i n 192S were dominated 1 5 by the remarkable p e r s o n a l i t y o f Eamon de V a l e r a . T h i s man. i s one o f the g r e a t e s t paradoxes o f r e c e n t h i s t o r y . Denis Gwynn a s k s : " I s he m e r e l y t h e agent o f s e c r e t f o r c e s which have f o r more than t w l e v e y e a r s put him f o r w a r d as a c o n v e n i e n t f i g u r e h e a d ? Or i s he h i m s e l f the a u t h o r o f a programme which he imposes upon those who have sought to use him? Does t h a t a u s t e r e and c o l d p e r s o n a l i t y , so remote and i n a c c e s s i b l e mask a dynamic energy w h i c h has imposed i t s e l f upon h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and has made him one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t and f o r m i d a b l e f i g u r e s i n modern p o l i t i c s ? I s he, l i k e K e r e n s k y , a dreamer, i n s p i r i n g crowds by d i s i n t e r e s t e d i d e a l i s m and by p a s s i o n a t e c o n v i c t i o n , but i n c a p a b l e o f a p p r e c i a t i n g the consequences o f h i s own magnetic i n f l u e n c e ? Or i s t h a t c o l d , l o g i c a l i n t e l l e c t , t r a i n e d f o r y e a r s t o t h i n k i n terms o f m a t h e m a t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n i n f a c t the d i r e c t -i n g mind o f a r e v o l u t i o n which may y e t be c a r r i e d t h r ough w i t h u t t e r r u t h l e s s n e s s and u n d e v i a t i n g purpose? Time a l o n e c a n p r o -15. De V a l e r a ' s mother was an I r i s h and h i s f a t h e r a S p a n i s h immigrant to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . He was b o r n i n New Y o r k C i t y . 160 16 v i d e the-answer to t h a t p e r p l e x i n g r i d d l e . " With the r e l e a s e o f the S i n n F e i n p r i s o n e r s as a means o f c r e a t i n g a f a v o u r a b l e atmosphere f o r t h e I r i s h c o n v e n t i o n , the l i b e r a t e d men r e t u r n e d to I r e l a n d as n a t i o n a l h e r o e s . D u r i n g t h e i r i n c a r c e r a t i o n de V a l e r a had g r a d u a l l y assumed l e a d e r s h i p o v e r the r a d i c a l group and had been s t u d y i n g the I r i s h p roblem c l o s e l y , b e i n g i n c l i n e d to t r e a t an independent r e p u b l i c as an u n a t t a i n a b l e i d e a l , , and t o r e g a r d what was c a l l e d "Dominion 17 Home R u l e " as a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y compromise. However, he i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e f u l l demand s h o u l d be made i n a l l p u b l i c pro-nouncements. The e l e c t i o n o f de V a l e r a i n J u l y , 1918, i n the r i d i n g made v a c a n t by W i l l i e Redmond's death i n the war, showed the i n c r e a s -i n g power o f the r e j u v e n a t e d I.R.B. and of the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s who appeared q u i t e o p e n l y as an o r g a n i z e d f o r c e . These r a d i c a l groups were now p u s h i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h r e d o u b l e d v i g o u r , l e d by A r t h u r G r i f f i t h as the " b r a i n c a r r i e r " , de V a l e r a as the f i g u r e - h e a d , and M i c h a e l C o l l i n s as a m y s t e r i o u s d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e i n the background. I n a t y p e d statement found i n de V a l e r a ' s p o s s e s s i o n on h i s a r r e s t i n May, 1918, the p l a n s f o r the S i n n P e i n c o n v e n t i o n were shown as b e i n g a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d . The document s t a t e d i n p a r t : " I I S ' a g i s s a i t d ' e l a b o r e r les.: moyens de r e a l i s e r ce qui t o u j o u r s , depuis s a ( S i n n P e i n ) f o n d a t i o n en 1904, a e t e l e but avere de S i n n P e i n : 1 ' e x p u l s i o n de 1 ' e n v a h i s s e u r , E ' I r e l a n d e aux I r l a n d a i s — 16. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , p.46 The b i o g r a p h e r ' s comment on .de V a l e r a ' s m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y may be s l i g h t l y i r o n i c a l . The r a d i c a l l e a d e r was by no means o u t -s t a n d i n g as a mathematics p r o f e s s o r . 17. T h i s f a c t would i n d i c a t e t h a t de V a l e r a had by no means f o r m u l a t e d a t t h a t time d e f i n i t e l y r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l s . See Gwynn, De V a l e r a , p.50. 161 E l l e a a f f i r m e l e d r o i t de l ' I r l a n d e a se f a i r e r e p r e s e n t e r au congres f u t u r de l a p a i x . E l l e a e x i g e que l a forme de gouverne-ment l i b r e m e n t c h o i s i o par l e peuple I r l a n d a i s dans sa v a s t e m a j o r i t e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e l a r e p u b l i que entisrement inde'pendente, s o i t p r o t e g e e c o n t r e t o u t e a t t a q u e u l t e r i e u r e au moyen d'une g u a r a n t i e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e , a l a q u e l l e p a r t i c i p e r a r e n t t o ns l e s E t a t s c i v i l i s e s . n J-° I t f u r t h e r l i s t e d the p r o b a b l e o f f i c e r s o f the c a b i n e t w i t h de V a l e r a as p r e s i d e n t . A t t h i s annual c o n v e n t i o n o f S i n n F e i n i n D u b l i n , a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n between t h e two wings o f the p a r t y , de V a l e r a d i d become the p r e s i d e n t i n what t u r n e d out to be an unopposed e l e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the c o n v e n t i o n de V a l e r a , ad-d r e s s i n g the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s , o f which he was now a l s o l e a d e r , spoke of the hope t h a t German arms might s t i l l be s u c c e s s f u l and t h a t I r e l a n d would o b t a i n h e r complete independence. A b r i e f r e a c t i o n to the S i n n F e i n r i s e t o power o c c u r r e d i n the w i n t e r and s p r i n g o f 1917 and 1918 when s e v e r a l S i n n F e i n . c a n d i d a t e s were b a d l y b e a t e n i n b y - e l e c t i o n s , l l o y d George, t h i n k i n g t h a t the movement had proved "a f l a s h i n the pan", i g n o r e d John D i l l o n ' s f i e r c e p r o t e s t a t W e s t minster and i n t r o -duced c o n s c r i p t i o n f o r I r e l a n d . 2 0 T h i s l a p s e i n judgment p r o -duced an immediate u n i t y i n I r e l a n d i n o p p o s i t i o n to the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e B i l l , D i l l o n a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p a r t i n a c o n f e r e n c e w i t h 18. S i n n F e i n Documents, p.57. 19. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , p.52. De V a l e r a on t h i s o c c a s i o n s t a t e d : "We a r e not d o c t r i n a i i e r e p u b l i c a n s . " 20. Debates, V o l . 104, Ools.1354-1446. The d i s c u s s i o n was l o n g and a c r i m o n i o u s . I r e l a n d was h e l d up as b e i n g d e l i n q u e n t i n the r a i s i n g o f t r o o p s . The c h i e f N a t i o n a l i s t o b j e c t i o n was t h a t c o n s c r i p t i o n s h o i i l d not be a p p l i e d to I r e l a n d w i t h o u t d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to h e r p e o p l e . 162 S i n n F e i n and. Labour p a r t y l e a d e r s t o f o r m u l a t e a p l a n o f cam-p a i g n t o r e s i s t the measure. When the C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y a l s o a t t a c k e d c o n s c r i p t i o n , the t i d e began r u n n i n g more s t r o n g l y t h a n ever in.'favour o f the r a d i c a l g roup. Once more a round-up o f S i n n F e i n l e a d e r s was u n d e r t a k e n by the government, a charge b e i n g made a g a i n s t thera o f c o m p l i c i t y i n a "German p l o t " ; and w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f M i c h a e l C o l l i n s , most o f them were soon back i n p r i s o n . I n de V a l e r a ' s b r i e f -case were found a number o f documents which r e v e a l e d the thorough p r e p a r a t i o n s t h a t had been made f o r an I r i s h r e p u b l i c , one paper d e a l i n g w i t h such d e t a i l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f an I r i s h army as r a i d s , p u r e l y n a v a l a t t a c k s , combined n a v a l and m i l i t a r y a t -t a c k s , t h e absence o f c a v a l r y , f l y i n g and c o a s t a r t i l l e r y , s t a n d -i n g f o r c e s , n a t i o n a l m i l i t i a and y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . 2 ! M i c h a e l C o l l i n s as the d o m i n a t i n g s p i r i t o f the R e p u b l i c a n B r o t h e r h o o d c o n t i n u e d h i s a c t i v i t e s w i t h energy. However, e a r l y i n 1918, the European s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h had seemed to be w o r k i n g i n f a v o u r o f the S i n n F e i n a c t i v i t i e s , r a p i d l y changed, and the end o f the war found the r a d i c a l l e a d e r s s t i l l i n p r i s o n . I n December the S i n n F e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h o u t i t s l e a d i n g f i g u r e s , swept the p o l l s i n the e l e c t i o n , submerging the o l d N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y . E v e r y t h i n g seemed to have p l a y e d i n t o the hands o f the e x t r e m i s t s . The S i n n F e i n O'Hegarty s t a t e s : "A p o l i c y of B i r r e l l i s m might have h e l d I r e l a n d s t i l l f o r E n g l a n d , but i n -s t e a d we were g i v e n the m a i l e d f i s t . The German P l o t , p a r t i t i o n , c o n s c r i p t i o n . . . e v e r y t h i n g combined to throw more and more elements of t h e c o u n t r y i n t o the hands o f S i n n Fein....The v i c t o r y o f 21. S i n n F e i n Documents, pp.47-55. 163 o f C h r i s t m a s , 1918, was not a v i c t o r y o f c o n v i c t i o n h u t o f emotions. I t was v i c t o r y o c c a s i o n e d l e s s hy any sudden achievement hy the m a j o r i t y o f the b e l i e f i n I r e l a n d as a n a t i o n , than hy the pp sudden r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t v a r i o u s a c t s o f E n g l i s h t y r a n n y . " & The two p l e d g e s o f h a v i n g I r e l a n d ' s independence r e c o g n i z e d at the Peace Conference and o f s e t t i n g up an e f f e c t i v e g o v e r n -ment had put the S i n n P e i n e r s i n power. A f t e r the e l e c t i o n i t was now n e c e s s a r y to e x p l a i n t o the people what the p r i n c i p l e s o f S i n n P e i n r e a l l y were. The f i r s t c o n s t i t u e n t assembly c l a i m i n g to have the power to l e g i s l a t e f o r a l l I r e l a n d , met on January 2 1 s t , 1919. Twenty-four o f the s e v e n t y S i n n P e i n e r s were s t i l l i n p r i s o n . E a r l y i n F e b r u a r y t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f C o l l i n s and H a r r y B o l a n d the s p e c t a c u l a r escape from p r i s o n o f de V a l e r a was e f f e c t e d . The c o n f l i c t between the government and I r i s h v o l u n -t e e r s was now assuming dangerous p r o p o r t i o n s , d e v e l o p i n g i r r e -v o c a b l y i n t o a s y s t e m a t i c g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e . However, when an-o t h e r S i n n F e i n e r d i e d i n p r i s o n the government made a sudden change i n i t s p o l i c y and r e l e a s e d the I r i s h p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , b u t p r o s c r i b e d a m e e t i n g which de V a l e r a had i n t e n d e d to a d d r e s s . The D a i l at once u n d e r t o o k to frame a c o n s t i t u t i o n and a s t r a n g e l y a s s o r t e d group w i t h de V a l e r a as p r e s i d e n t a p p o i n t e d the f i r s t c a b i n e t . B u t the opening p u b l i c s e s s i o n was d i s -appointment i n as much as no p o l i c i e s o t h e r t h a n a n t i - E n g l i s h propaganda and the c l a i m t o e s t a b l i s h an I r i s h r e p u b l i c were promulgated. Steps were soon t a k e n to f l o a t a n a t i o n a l l o a n o f 22. Quoted by G'wymi, de V a l e r a , p.58. A s q u i t h b e l i e v e d .that the passage o f the c o n s c r i p t i o n b i l l was the in o p p o r t u n e and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the su p p o r t g i v e n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y group by the mass o f the I r i s h p e o p l e . E a r l o f O x f o r d , o p . c i t . , pp.l89-190# 164 f i v e hundred thousand pounds s t e r l i n g , p a r t l y a t home and the r e s t abroad, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n A m e r i c a , to w h i c h de V a l e r a went i n the next y e a r . B e f o r e he l e f t I r e l a n d he succeeded i n h a v i n g the D a i l endorse a p o l i c y o f o s t r a c i s m o f the R o y a l I r i s h Con-s t a b u l a r y whom he s t y l e d England'.s " j a n i s s a r i e s " , and he r e -commended a p o l i c y w hich c l e a r l y condoned armed r e s i s t a n c e to the a c t i v i t i e s o f the o f f i c a l ' p o l i c e . The " p r e s i d e n t " was c o n s e q u e n t l y smuggled o v e r to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e r e t o u r e d the c o u n t r y r a i s i n g money f o r h i s n a t i o n -a l l o a n and c a r r y i n g on an a c t i v e a n t i - E n g l i s h campaign. He was a t once h a i l e d as the l e a d e r o f the I r i s h r e p u b l i c by the I r i s h -A merican p r e s s , and as a m a t h e m a t i c a l g e n i u s who had abandoned a g r e a t c a r e e r i n s c i e n c e to s e r v e h i s c o u n t r y . Mass meetings i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s e n d o r s i n g r e s o l u t i o n s f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the I r i s h r e p u b l i c soon made de V a l e r a b e l i e v e i n h i s own g r e a t n e s s . H i s p o s i t i o n was s t r e n g t h e n e d i n December.when the-B r i t i s h government o f f i c i a l l y s u p p r e s s e d the D a i l E i r e a n n ; and more p r o t e s t meetings a s s i s t e d i n s w e l l i n g the f u n d w h i c h he was r a i s i n g . B u t de V a l e r a ' s l a c k o f t a c t and h i s p o l i t i c a l im-m a t u r i t y soon p r e c i p i t a t e d t r o u b l e ; when he i n j u d i c i o u s l y came f o r w a r d w i t h a s t atement s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he would s u p p o r t a B r i t i s h Monroe d o c t r i n e f o r I r e l a n d , he found h i m s e l f i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the u l t r a - r e p u b l i c a n v i e w s of the I r i s h - A m e r i c a n p r e s s . I n s t e a d o f p l a c a t i n g t h i s p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e he a t t e m p t e d to dom-i n a t e the s i t u a t i o n and was p r o m p t l y reprimanded by the American l e a d e r s o f the movement. So i n e p t were h i s f i n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t h i s attempt to persuade the American p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to 165 to adopt i n the 1920 e l e c t i o n s a s t a n d f a v o u r i n g I r i s h i n d e p e n -dence ended i n a m i s e r a b l e f i a s c o . Meanwhile i n I r e l a n d the S i n n F e i n a g i t a t i o n had been de-. v e l o p i n g on most a g g r e s s i v e l i n e s . The I.R.A. headed by C o l l i n s , was c a r r y i n g on a wide s p r e a d campaign a g a i n s t the R o y a l I r i s h C o n s t a b u l a r y and B r i t i s h a u x i l i a r y t r o o p s ; and the D a i l m i n i s t e r y was p a r a l y s i n g B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s by s e t t i n g up i t s own c o u r t s and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s which g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d the normal c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c e s emanating from D u b l i n C a s t l e . The ' r e s u l t was t h a t S i r Hamar Greenwood was a p p o i n t e d i n June, 1920, as I r i s h c h i e f s e c r e t a r y , and i m m e d i a t e l y l a u n c h e d a wide s p r e a d campaign to wipe out the S i n n F e i n gunmen. Under h i s d i r e c t i o n the p o l i c e and m i l i t a r y campaign was to t a k e a c o u r s e which e v e n t u a l l y had t o be abandoned w i t h the whole m i l i t a r y campaign brou g h t i n t o u n i v e r s a l d i s r e p u t e . The r u t h l e s s campaign soon d e v e l o p e d i n t o a c o n s t a n t g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e w i t h r e p r i s a l s and c o u n t e r - r e p r i s a l s ; and many of t h e f o r c e s on both s i d e s were k i l l e d . As soon as C o l l i n s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the government i n t e n d e d t o pursue a p o l i c y o f a u t h o r i z e d r e p r i s a l s the w a r e f a r e even r e a c h e d E n g l a n d , l a t e i n the autumn o f 1920, s t e p s were t a k e n to open s e c r e t n e g o t a t i o n s to end the h o r r o r s o f the b r u t a l campaign o f m u t u a l murder. T h i s s t e p was i n no s m a l l p a r t due to the f a c t t h a t the B r i t i s h a c t i v i t i e s had not been c a r r i e d out w i t h the u n i f i e d s u p p o r t o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l o r d F r e n c h as v i c e r o y had been d e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o u r of n e g o t a t i o n s but Greenwood and h i s " b l a c k - a n d - t a n s " 2 3 s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t 23. The name '"Black-and-Tans" came from the c o l o u r s o f the u n i f o r m s o f t h i s body. The p e r s o n n e l were l a r g e -l y e x - o f f i c e r s o f B r i t i s h r e g i m e n t s . An account o f t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s i s found i n C r o z i e r , o p . c i t . 166 " f r i g h t f u l n e s s " w o u l d succeed i f t r i e d r e l e n t l e s s l y f o r a s u f -f i c i e n t t i m e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n became more marked f o l l o w i n g the savage r e p r i s a l s by the " b l a c k - a n d - t a n s " and the E n g l i s h p u b l i c began to demand a c e s s a t i o n o f t h e t e r r o r i s m . So g r e a t became the o p p o s i t i o n t o the m i l i t a r y campaign t h a t one o f the l e a d i n g U n i o n i s t l a n d l o r d s i n I r e l a n d s t a t e d ; " I f 'they' don't t u r n t h e s e B l a c k and Tans out of the c o u n t r y w e ' l l soon be. a l l 24 R e p u b l i c a n s . " . T h i s by no means meant the S i n n P e i n e r s were c a r r y i n g on a m i l d campaign^ the methods by w h i c h M i c h a e l C o l l i n s and h i s men r e l e n t l e s s l y shot down B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s and s e c r e t s e r v i c e agents showed not o n l y r u t h l e s s n e s s but a l s o c a r e -f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n . l l o y d George, who had endorsed the measures o f s u p p r e s s i o n , , f i n a l l y s u b m i t t e d to the p l e a s o f A l f r e d Cope, the a s s i s t a n t u n d e r — s e c r e t a r y , and a r r a n g e d to have A r c h b i s h o p Clune a c t as m e d i a t o r . G r i f f i t h , i n t e r v i e w e d i n p r i s o n , e x p r e s s e d a p p r o v a l o f n e g o t i a t i o n s on c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s : the government was t o c a l l o f f i t s a g g r e s s i v e campaign; p u r s u i t o f members o f the D a i l was to cease; and t h i s body was to be p e r m i t t e d f r e e l y to meet to a r range terms o f the t r u c e . But f u r t h e r v i o l e n t a c t s o f t h e " b l a c k - a n d - t a n s " , and l l o y d George's sudden pronouncement t h a t the I.R.A. must be b r o k e n up and t h e i r arms s u r r e n d e r e d brought the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r an a r m i s t i c e to an e n d . 2 ^ 24. C r o z i e r , o p ; c i t . , p - 7 5 25. T h i s t u r n i n events caused A s q u i t h to clamour f o r the e n u n c i a t i n g o f a d e f i n i t e p r o p o s a l f o r the s e t t l e m e n t of the m a t t e r . He demanded o f l l o y d George to s t a t e an a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y to t h a t of the g r a n t i n g o f Dominion s t a t u s . E a r l o f O x f o r d , o p . c i t . , I I , 192. 167 l a t e i n December, de V a l e r a , s t i l l i m p e r v i o u s t o the views Of o t h e r s "more than ever c o n v i n c e d o f h i s own m e s s i a n i c r o l e , 26 U*rt:<rA as the l e a d e r o f I r i s h I r e l a n d , " r e t u r n e d from t h e ^ S t a t e s , h i s a r r i v a l c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e b u r n i n g o f Cork by t h e B r i t i s h f o r c e s . He made the p r e p o s t e r o u s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t C o l l i n s , the h e a r t o f the r e s i s t a n c e to the government campaign, s h o u l d go t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s to f i n i s h the work l e f t i n c o m p l e t e by de V a l e r a — a s u g g e s t i o n which showed the l a t t e r ' s j e a l o u s y o f t h e growing 27 p r e s t i g e and p o p u l a r i t y o f the u b i q u i t o u s C o l l i n s . The l a t t e r f l a t l y r e f u s e d to go. E a r l y i n 1921 the D a i l met, t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s o f C o l l i n s , who g a t h e r e d the members t o g e t h e r i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t the p o l i c e were on the l o o k o u t f o r them, and was i n f o r m e d by de Vale r a , t h a t the campaign a g a i n s t the government f o r c e s must be ended. The members o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y ; de V a l e r a f o r once acceded to the wishes o f the body. A s t e r n e r campaign t h a n ever was now waged a g a i n s t the p o l i c e - ~ t h e b u r n i n g o f houses o f promin-ent government s y m p a t h i z e r s m a t c h i n g the d e s t r u c t i o n o f S i n n F e i n homes. l l o y d George, h e e d i n g the bombardment o f p r o t e s t s from h i s few r e m a i n i n g s u p p o r t e r s i n I r e l a n d , d e c i d e d to b r i n g the Home Rule A c t i n t o immediate o p e r a t i o n f o r t w e n t y - s i x c o u n t i e s ; t o c r e a t e a s e p a r a t e p a r l i a m e n t f o r s i x o f the n i n e c o u n t i e s o f U l s t e r and to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a C a t h o l i c to be a p p o i n t e d as 26. Swynn, De V a l e r a , p.120. 27. F o r an account o f M i c h a e l C o l l i n s see O'Connor, B., "With M i c h a e l C o l l i n s i n t h e S t r u g g l e f o r I r i s h Freedom", (London, 1926) 168 v i c e r o y o f the t w e n t y - s i x c o u n t i e s . To g i v e e f f e c t to t h e s e p l a n s the Government o f I r e l a n d A c t (1920) was passed t h r o u g h the B r i t i s h l e g i s l a t u r e . U l s t e r a c c e p t e d the measure under p r o t e s t , hut the S i n n P e i n e r s t r e a t e d i t w i t h contempt. T h e i r c a n d i d a t e s c a p t u r e d p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the s e a t s i n the e l e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the government s t e p , but r e f u s e d to a t t e n d the new s o u t h I r e l a n d p a r l i a m e n t . P l a n s were now l a i d by the S i n n P e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n to d e s t r o y the s h i p p i n g of l i v e r p o o l and to wreck the e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y o f Manchester, but t h e s e p l o t s were d i s c o v e r e d i n a R o y a l I r i s h Con-s t a b u l a r y r a i d . The time f o r a s e t t l e m e n t was o b v i o u s l y a t hand. I n June, 1921, a f t e r de V a l e r a had been c a p t u r e d and t h e n r e -l e a s e d on l l o y d George's command, the K i n g on o p e n i n g the new p a r l i a m e n t i n B e l f a s t p l e a d e d f o r " f o r b e a r a n c e and c o n c i l i a t i o n " . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a d i r e c t i n v i t a t i o n t o de V a l e r a from l l o y d George f o r a c o n f e r e n c e i n l o n d o n a t which S i r James C r a i g the P r e m i e r o f n o r t h e r n I r e l a n d was to be p r e s e n t . De V a l e r a ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e p l y was t h a t he had " c o n s u l t e d (his) c o l l e a g u e s , and s e c u r e d the views o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the m i n o r i t y o f ( h i s ) n a t i o n ( t h e s i x c o u n t i e s ) " and was " ready to meet and d i s c u s s w i t h him ( l l o y d George) on what bases such a c o n f e r e n c e as t h a t proposed can r e a s o n a b l y hope t o a c h i e v e the o b j e c t de-s i r e d . " 2 8 A m i l i t a r y t r u c e s i g n e d on Monday, J u l y 1 1 t h , b r o u g h t the l o n g c o n f l i c t t o an end. De V a l e r a and A u s t i n S t a c k , one o f de V a l e r a ' s p e r s o n a l ad-m i r e r s , met l l o y d George i n l o n d o n , but not w i t h S i r Jame C r a i g 28. Correspondence r e l a t i n g to the P r o p o s a l s f o r H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government f o r an I r i s h S e t l l e m e n t (Cmd.1470), 1921, p.3. 169 i n a t t e n d a n c e . The B r i t i s h prime m i n i s t e r had c a r r i e d on ex-t e n s i v e correspondence w i t h S i r James C r a i g i n an e f f o r t t o con-v i n c e t h e l a t t e r t h a t a s e t t l e m e n t e n s u r i n g the u n i t y o f I r e -l a n d -under a form o f Dominion s t a t u s was e s s e n t i a l . C r a i g r e -29 f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o n f e r e n c e under such c o n d i t i o n s . On J u l y 1 9 t h p r o p o s a l s were d e l i v e r e d i n s e c r e t to the S i n n P e i n c a b i n e t f o r a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n . They i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s upon the f u l l r i g h t s o f Dominion s t a t u s , p a r t i c u l a r -l y c o n c e r n i n g q u e s t i o n s o f m i l i t a r y and n a v a l d e f e n c e , and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p a r l i a m e n t and government o f n o r t h I r e l a n d . De V a l e r a k e p t the p r o p o s a l s s e c r e t , r e f u s i n g to submit them t o the D a i l . He r e p l i e d to the p r o p o s a l s i n a l e n g t h y l e t t e r r e f e r r i n g to " I r e l a n d ' s r i g h t to choose f o r h e r s e l f the p a t h 30 she s h a l l t a k e to r e a l i s e h e r own d e s t i n y " , r e p u d i a t i n g Dominion s t a t u s as i l l u s o r y ^ s u g g e s t i n g a m i n i a t u r e League o f N a t i o n s w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth to p a c i f y the " m i n o r i t y " i n n o r t h e r n I r e l a n d , and t h r o w i n g the onus o f s e t t l e m e n t on the B r i t i s h government, l l o y d George i n r e p l y r e f u s e d to n e g o t i a t e w i t h I r e l a n d as w i t h a f o r e i g n power, r e f e r r i n g to "the f o r c e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . . . w h i c h govern the problem o f B r i t i s h and I r i s h r e l a t i o n s , " 3 1 a g r e e i n g to l e t n o r t h and s o u t h compose t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s but not by f o r e i g n a r b i t r a t i o n . But de V a l e r a , a s s u r i n g L l o y d George t h a t the l a t t e r ' s p r o p o s a l s had been r e p u d i a t e d by the D a i l c a b i n e t by an unanimous v o t e , 29. Correspondence between H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government and the prime m i n i s t e r o f n o r t h e r n I r e l a n d , (Cmd. 1 5 6 1 ) , 1921. l l o y d George e x h i b i t e d e x a s p e r a t i o n a t C r a i g ' s s t a n d . 30. De V a l e r a to L l o y d George, August 10, 1921; c o r r e s -pondence r e l a t i n g to the P r o p o s a l s o f h i s m a j e s t y ' s government f o r an I r i s h s e t t l e m e n t . (Cmd.1470),1921. 31. I b i d . 170 a g a i n c l a i m e d t h a t I r e l a n d had never a c c e p t e d p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h B r i t a i n , would not submit her independence to B r i t i s h s t r a t e g y and spoke of the " g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f government by the con-32 s e n t o f the governed." I t was i m p o s s i b l e to t i e the I r i s h l e a d e r down to the p l a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s o f o r d i n a r y language o r c o n d u c t . The c o n f e r e n c e s u g g e s t e d by l l o y d George was to de V a l e r a m e r e l y a debate i n which n o t h i n g c o u l d be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . De V a l e r a was e i t h e r i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n n e g o t i a t i o n or b r i l l i a n t i n s u b t l e d i p l o m a c y , l l o y d George was r e a d y t o c a l l o f f the n e g o t i a t i o n s and so i n f o r m e d the I r i s h e m i s s a r i e s who brought t h e i r l e a d e r ' s l a s t communication. However, f u r t h e r correspondence showed t h a t l l o y d George r e f u s e d to meet the r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the D a i l as i f t h e y were envoys o f a s o v e r e i g n and independent s t a t e , a s t e p which would admit I r e l a n d ' s s e v e r -ance from the K i n g ' s Dominions.' De V a l e r a b l a n d l y a s s u r e d L l o y d George: "We have not asked you to abandom any p r i n c i p l e even f o r m a l l y — b u t s u r e l y you must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t we c a n o n l y r e -c o g n i s e o u r s e l v e s f o r what we a r e . I f t h i s s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n be made a r e a s o n f o r the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f the c o n f e r e n c e , we r e g r e t i t , but i t seems i n c o n s i s t e n t . I have a l r e a d y had c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h you, and i n these c o n f e r e n c e s and i n my w r i t t e n communi-c a t i o n s I have never ceased to r e c o g n i s e m y s e l f f o r what I was and am. I f t h i s i n v o l v e s r e c o g n i t i o n on y o u r p a r t , t h e n you have a l r e a d y r e c o g n i s e d u s . " 3 3 l l o y d George, k e e p i n g up the f a r c i c a l 32. De V a l e r a t o l l o y d George, Aug.24, 1921; Correspondence r e l a t i n g to the P r o p o s a l s o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s government f o r an I r i s h s e t t l e m e n t , (Cmd. 1502), 1921. 33. S e t t l e m e n t Correspondence, o p . c i t . , p.8. 171 c o n t r o v e r s y, i n s i s t e d t h a t he c o u l d not w i t h o u t d i s l o y a l l y t o the t h r o n e and Empire accede to de V a l e r a ' s wishes and t h a t the I r i s h l e a d e r must withdraw h i s c l a i m to s o v e r e i g n t y f o r I r e l a n d or the c o n f e r e n c e was i m p o s s i b l e . De V a l e r a a r g u m e n t a t i v e l y a c c u s e d l l o y d George o f l a y i n g down p r e l i m i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s which would p r e j u d i c e the c o n f e r e n c e ; hut a f t e r l l o y d George extended a f r e s h i n v i t a t i o n f o r a m e e t i n g the I r i s h l e a d e r a c c e p t e d the o f f e r and the D a i l c a b i n e t ap-p o i n t e d i t s d e l e g a t e s . De V a l e r a r e f u s e d to n e g o t i a t e i n p e r s o n , showing h i s r e -markable c o n t r o l o v e r h i s c a b i n e t , but a p p o i n t e d p l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s to have complete a u t h o r i t y t o e f f e c t a s e t t l e m e n t . G r i f f i t h , C o l l i n s , E. J . Duggan, George Gavan D u f f y , R o b e r t B a r t o n , and E r s k i n e C h i l d e r s composed the I r i s h d e l e g a t i o n w h i l e l l o y d George, A u s t e n C h a m b e r l a i n , l o r d B i r k e n h e a d , Winston C h u r c h i l l and Hamar Greenwood were the c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the B r i t i s h group. On the s u r f a c e i t appeared t h a t de V a l e r a ' s s e l e c t i o n o f r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , had been d e l i b e r a t e l y made to send men who might f i n d common ground w i t h the B r i t i s h negotiators b u t whose f i n d i n g s c o u l d be r e p u d i a t e d i f t h e y were not p l e a s i n g 35 to de V a l e r a h i m s e l f . Some form o f compromise, such as a r e -t u r n i n p r i n c i p l e to the o l d I r i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n b e f o r e the A c t o f U n i o n o f 1800 wou l d o b v i o u s l y be n e c e s s a r y . a s the b a s i s o f 34. S e t t l e m e n t Correspondence, o p . c i t . , 9-10. 35. C h i l d e r s was the e x c e p t i o n , l l o y d George w r i t e s o f t h i s man: "At eve r y c r u c i a l p o i n t i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s he p l a y e d a s i n i s t e r p a r t . He was c l e a r l y Mr. de V a l e r a ' s e m i s s a r y , and f a i t h f u l l y d i d he f u l f i l the t r u s t r e p o s e d i n him by t h a t v i s i o n a r y . " George, D a v i d l l o y d , Where are we p.347. 172 s e t t l e m e n t and suoh a compromise was a l r e a d y i n the mind o f A r t h u r G r i f f i t h . When the f i r s t m e e t i n g o f the Confer e n c e assembled a t Downing S t r e e t on Oct. 1 1 t h , G r i f f i t h a c t e d from the o u t s e t as chairman o f the I r i s h d e l e g a t i o n . Sub-committees were s e t up, but t h e i r work was hampered by de V a l e r a ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t he be c o n s u l t e d a t eve r y s t a g e . On Nov. 25 t h two o b s t a c l e s seemed overcome when the D a i l agreed t h a t I r e l a n d s h o u l d r e c o g n i s e the B r i t i s h crown as a symbol and s h o u l d v o t e an a n n u a l v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n to the k i n g ' s p e r s o n a l r e v e n u e ^ On Dec. 3 r d , the p l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s r e p o r t e d t h a t a t r e a t y must be s i g n e d o r e l s e t h e r e would be a r e v e r s i o n to c o n d i t i o n s o f war. One c r i t i c a l i s s u e o f a p o s s i b l e t r e a t y would be the oat h o f a l l e g i a n c e and de V a l e r a was f o r c e d by C o l l i n s and G r i f f i t h to recommend one. H i s s u g g e s t e d o a t h r e a d as f o l l o w s : " I do swear t o be a r t r u e f a i t h and a l l e g i a n c e t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f I r e l a n d and the T r e a t y o f A s s o c i a t i o n o f I r e l a n d w i t h the B r i t i s h Common-w e a l t h o f N a t i o n s , and to r e c o g n i s e the K i n g o f Great B r i t a i n as head o f the A s s o c i a t e d S t a t e s . " 3 6 At t h i s p o i n t t h e r e was a g a i n e v i d e n c e o f a c l a s h between de V a l e r a , h i s two most immediate a l l i e s C a t h a l Brugha. and A u s t i n S t a c k and the I r i s h d e l e g a t e s i n l o n d o n . C o l l i n s , almost i n d i s g u s t , t e m p o r a r i l y withdrew from the committee, but on G r i f f i t h ' s p e r s u a s i o n r e t u r n e d to the c o n f e r e n c e . On Dec. 6 t h , 1921, the f i n a l stages o f the n e g o t i a t i o n s were r e a c h e d , the t r e a t y was s i g n e d and a copy h u r r i e d over t o I r e l a n d f o r de 36. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , p.148. 173 37 V a l e r a ' s p e r u s a l . T h i s almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e i n d i v i d u a l showed s i g n s o f i r r i t a t i o n t h a t the t r e a t y had not "been r e f e r r e d t o him b e f o r e the I r i s h d e l e g a t e s s i g n e d i t . I n a b e w i l d e r i n g open l e t t e r to the I r i s h people he s t a t e d t h a t the terms o f the t r e a t y were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f the n a t i o n , t h a t he w o u l d not recommend i t s a c c e ptance and t h a t the members o f the c a b i n e t 38 were not u n i t e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s , D enis Gwynn f e e l s t h a t de V a l e r a q u i t e o v e r s t e p p e d h i m s e l f i n making s u c h a s t a t e m e n t . He • w r i t e s : "That a t r e a t y had been s i g n e d was a l l t h a t most people i n I r e l a n d c a r e d about. I t s terms were sure to be f a r i n advance o f a n y t h i n g t h a t had been thought p o s s i b l e even a few months before....Whatever G r i f f i t h and C o l l i n s had a c c e p t e d was c e r t a i n to be more than what most peop l e had ever c o n t e m p l a t e d . " 3 9 C o l l i n s i n the D a i l p r o t e s t e d v i g o r o u s l y a g a i n s t de V a l e r a ' s a c t i o n , and r e a d out the c r e d e n t i a l s w i t h which the d e l e g a t e s had j o u r n e y e d t o London and w h i c h gave them complete powers to n e g o t i a t e the t r e a t y . A g a i n de V a l e r a s t a r t l e d the D a i l by d i s -c l o s i n g the f a c t t h a t he had a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s o f h i s own to submit i n p l a c e o f the t r e a t y a l r e a d y s i g n e d . T h i s "Document Ho.2" p r o v e d to be i n most' c l a u s e s l i t e r a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h the t r e a t y . H i s o p p o s i t i o n to the London agreement was o b v i o u s l y n o t on the grounds t h a t an I r i s h r e p u b l i c had not been r e c o g n i s e d . 37. L l o y d George s t a t e s t h a t G r i f f i t h s and C o l l i n s when s i g n i n g the t r e a t y , "saw the shadow o f doom c l o u d i n g o v e r t h a t f a t e f u l p a p e r - - t h e i r own doom. They knew t h a t the pen w h i c h a f f i x e d t h e i r s i g n a t u r e a t the same moment s i g n e d t h e i r d e a t h - w a r r a n t . " George, o p . c i t . , p.345. 38. Gwynn, De V a l e r a , p.148 39. I b i d p.151 174 H i s document a c c e p t e d f o r m a l l y almost a l l " the p r o v i s i o n s a g a i n s t w hich the subsequent campaign a g a i n s t the s i g n a t o r i e s o f the t r e a t y was c o n d ucted. He made a b e l a t e d e f f o r t to c a l l i n c o p i e s o f h i s "Document No, 2", but enough of them s u r v i v e d to p l a c e i t on r e c o r d . He a t t a c k e d the t r e a t y s u b s e q u e n t l y on the grounds t h a t i t d i d not e f f e c t an independent I r i s h r e p u b l i c ; t h a t i t acknowledged a l -l e g i a n c e to the k i n g ; t h a t I r i s h m i l i t a r y f o r c e s were r e s t r i c t e d i n s i z e ; t h a t B r i t a i n p r e s e r v e d c o n t r o l o v e r c e r t a i n n a v a l b a s e s ; t h a t p e n s i o n s were p a i d to B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t s and p o l i c e ; t h a t I r e l a n d was l i a b l e f o r a p a r t o f the B r i t i s h p u b l i c d e b t ; and t h a t the p a r t i t i o n o f I r e l a n d was endorsed. The' o n l y ex-c e p t i o n i n the twenty-one a r t i c l e s o f "Document No.2" to the t r e a t y p r o p o s a l s was de V a l e r a ' s o m i s s i o n of the o f f i c e o f g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l . The c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the two documents was u l t i m a t e l y e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t E r s k i n e C h i l d e r s , the s e c r e t a r y o f the l o n d o n d e l e g a t i o n , had drawn up "Document No.2" h i m s e l f . I t was apparent t h a t de V a l e r a , i n c a l l i n g i n t h i s s u g g e s t e d agreement, r e a l i s e d the weakness of h i s p o s i t i o n ; he was d e t e r m i n e d to f i g h t the i s s u e to a f i n i s h to p r e s e r v e h i s l e a d e r s h i p . I n h i s own words: " I have been P r e s i d e n t o f the I r i s h R e p u b l i c . I w i l l never a c c e p t any l e s s e r o f f i c e i n any 40 I r i s h C a b i n e t . " H i s s t a n d now became t h a t he must u p h o l d the r e p u b l i c which he c l a i m e d the p e o p l e had r a t i f i e d i n 1918. The s m a l l n e s s o f the man was becoming a p p a r e n t . 40. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , j>. 153. 175 The s t r u g g l e was a t l a s t e n t e r i n g i t s f i n a l phase. C o l l i n s and G r i f f i t h l e d an a t t a c k on the s h ameful s t a n d o f the p r e s i d e n t , who now b e i n g f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d by C h i l d e r s t h a t B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s w o u l d always g i v e way i f t h e y were f a c e d w i t h a r enewal o f war-f a r e was d e t e r m i n e d to l e a d the o p p o s i t i o n to the t r e a t y , and " t o go back i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s accompanied by whoever would f o l l o w h i m . " ^ 1 O'Hegarty adds h i s c a s t i g a t i o n o f de V a l e r a and h i s s u p p o r t e r s when he w r i t e s : "Messrs de V a l e r a , Brugha and S t a c k had p r omulgated the myth o f themselves a s . . . t r u s t i n g i n n o c e n t s , b a s e l y b e t r a y e d by G r i f f i t h and C o l l i n s ; w h i l e Mr. B a r t o n had promulgated the o t h e r myth o f the t r e a t y h a v i n g been s i g n e d under d u r e s s , under t h r e a t o f immediate war....Mr. de V a l e r a ' s p o i s o n gas was w o r k i n g . He had l e t the b i t t e r n e s s l o o s e . He had l e t the guns l o o s e . He p l a c e d h i s whole m o r a l f o r c e a t the d i s p o s a l o f the men who were p r e p a r e d to go any l e n g t h s a g a i n s t i t . He was never a f t e r w a r d s a b l e t o c a l l h i s dogs o f war back a f t e r l o o s i n g them...The o p p o s i t i o n to the t r e a t y i n the D a i l was w h o l l y d i s h o n e s t . " 4 2 On J a n . 3 r d , 1922, de V a l e r a d e l i v e r e d a l o n g m a n i f e s t o to the I r i s h p e o p l e s t a t i n g t h a t a c c e ptance o f the t r e a t y would be d i s h o n o u r a b l e , and t h a t such a c t i o n would f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s t o r y put I r e l a n d i n the wrong. He a l s o p u b l i s h e d a r e v i s e d statement of h i s a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s , known s i n c e as "Document No.3" I n i t p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the N o r t h e r n ' s par-l i a m e n t was o m i t t e d . But i n s p i t e o f more o f de V a l e r a ' s h e r o i c s 41. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , P. 166 42. I b i d , r. 168. 1 176 i n the B a i l the t r e a t y was r a t i f i e d hy a v o t e o f s i x t y - f o u r to f i f t y - s e v e n . A r i d i c u l o u s m o t i o n was t h e n made hy Robert B a r t o n (who a f t e r s i g n i n g the t r e a t y , had denounced i t ) t h a t de V a l e r a he r e - e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t o f the I r i s h r e p u b l i c , but h i s m o t i o n was d e f e a t e d . When de V a l e r a , now out o f o f f i c e , promised to sup-p o r t the m a j o r i t y i n t h e i r f u t u r e programme as l o n g as he was not c o m m i t t i n g h i m s e l f o r h i s p r i n c i p l e s i n c o - o p e r a t i n g , the b i t t e r f e e l i n g s o f the t r e a t y c o n t r o v e r s y were i n a l a r g e measure a l l a y e d . Peace, however, was s h o r t l i v e d . G r i f f i t h was ap-p o i n t e d p r e s i d e n t and s e t up a new m i n i s t r y . With de V a l e r a and C h i l d e r s a d o p t i n g t h e a t r i c a l and o b s t r u c t i o n i s t p r o c e d u r e s , w h i c h f i n a l l y c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e i r s e c e s s i o n from the D a i l , the government proceeded to implement the terms o f the t r e a t y . ^ 3 I n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e o f f i c i a l l y come i n t o e x i s t e n c e . But b e f o r e the new n a t i o n c o u l d t a k e i t s f i r s t f l i g h t s as a f u l l - f l e d g e d member of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth o f N a t i o n s , i t seemed n e c e s s a r y t h a t a c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d be drawn up. Un-f o r t u n a t e l y the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was c o n d i t i o n e d by a c i v i l war more g h a s t l y than t h a t o f the A n g l o - I r i s h s t r u g g l e so r e c e n t l y t e r m i n a t e d . The C i v i l War. To the u n b i a s s e d o b s e r v e r the I r i s h t r e a t y was an e m i n e n t l y f a i r b a r g a i n ; the r e l a t i o n s between the s o u t h on one hand and B r i t a i n and U l s t e r on the o t h e r c o u l d by i t have been s e t t l e d 43. A r t i c l e s o f Agreement f o r a T r e a t y between G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , (Cmd. 1560), l o n d o n , 1921. 177 w i t h f a i r n e s s . B u t such an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t ?/as made im-p o s s i b l e through the m a c h i n a t i o n s o f de V a l e r a . He must s h o u l d e r the c h i e f burden o f the blame f o r the m i s e r y and t e r r o r i s m which saw the F r e e S t a t e e s t a b l i s h e d and which today makes a f i n a l A n g l o - I r i s h s e t t l e m e n t almost i m p o s s i b l e . I n January and F e b r u a r y 1922, the e x t r e m i s t elements o f the I.R.A. o r g a n i z e d themselves to oppose the p r o v i s i o n a l government by any and a l l means; banks, p o s t o f f i c e s and s t o r e s were r a i d e d a and p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s wrecked. On S t . P a t r i c k ' s Day, de V a l e r a o f f i c i a l l y approved the i r r e g u l a r campaign by s t a t i n g t h a t . t h e I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s i n o r d e r to g e t I r i s h freedom, "would have to wade through I r i s h b l o o d , through the b l o o d o f the s o l d i e r s o f the I r i s h government, and t h r o u g h , perhaps, the b l o o d o f some o f the members o f the g o v e r n m e n t . " ^ H i s words were p r o p h e t i c . With h i s s u p p o r t the e x t r e m i s t gunmen now s e t o u t . t o make su r e t h a t the f i r s t e l e c t i o n i n June, 1922, would not be p e r -m i t t e d to show a f a v o u r a b l e v e r d i c t t o the I r i s h t r e a t y . The a n t i - s e t t l e m e n t group f u r t h e r t u r n e d down v r r i o u s p r o p o s a l s to c o n t r o l the e l e c t i o n and f i n a l l y f o r c e d C o l l i n s , i n the i n t e r e s t o f peace, to agree to the f o r m a t i o n o f a c o a l i t i o n government, w i t h the m i n o r i t y group w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d on i t s p a n e l o f o f f i c i a l s . I n the meantime the I.R.A. had been c a r r y i n g on a campaign on the b o r d e r s o f U l s t e r w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t B r i t i s h t r o o p s were c a l l e d i n by the n o r t h e r n p a r l i a m e n t . De V a l e r a and h i s i r r e g u l a r a l l i e s had no i n t e n t i o n o f p e r -m i t t i n g the e l e c t i o n to be c a r r i e d on w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e and 44. Gwynn, De V a l e r a , p.175. 178 i n t i m i d a t i o n , but i n s p i t e o f the w i d e s p r e a d o b s t r u c t i o n t o a f r e e vote,' the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e new D a i l w h i c h s u p p o r t e d the t r e a t y was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . The Cosgrave p a r t y came back w i t h one hundred and e i g h t e e n s e a t s w h i l e de V a l e r a was l e f t i n c o n t r o l o f t h i r t y - f i v e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s . The "war" c o n t i n u e d ; the i r r e g u l a r s were i n c o n t r o l o f the "Four C o u r t s " i n D u b l i n and a t t e m p t e d t o s t i m u l a t e m u t i n y i n the army, C o l l i n s g r a d u a l l y b u i l t up h i s n a t i o n a l f o r c e w i t h Great War v e t e r a n s u n t i l w i t h the s u p p o r t o f f i f t y thousand men he was a b l e r e l e n t l e s s l y to d r i v e the I.R.A. to the w a l l . Dundalk, W a t e r f o r d and L i m e r i c k were f i n a l l y r e t a k e n from the i n s u r g e n t s , b u t the s u c c e s s o f the F r e e S t a t e f o r c e s was marred by the premature death o f G r i f f i t h s from a complete breakdown, and the a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f C o l l i n s l a t e i n A u g u s t . 4 5 'With B o l a n d and Brugha and h i s most f a i t h f u l s u p p o r t e r s a l s o dead i n the war, de V a l e r a f o u n d him-s e l f the o n l y prominent s u r v i v o r o f the c i v i l s t r i f e . I f he had a c c e p t e d a compromise at t h i s p o i n t w i t h the l e a d e r s o f the government he might have been a p p o i n t e d the l e a d e r o f a c o a l i t i o n . But he was too c o n s c i o u s . o f h i s own d e s t i n y . ?/. T. Cosgrave assumed the r e i n s of government and a p p o i n t e d a c a b i n e t o f which not one member had y e t proved h i s w o r t h . T h i s group were f o r c e d to q u e l l the s t r i f e w hich was now i n c r e a s e d , i f p o s s i b l e , i n r e l e n t l e s s n e s s . One by one the r e m a i n i n g towns c o n t r o l l e d by the i r r e g u l a r f o r c e s were c l e a r e d ; de V a l e r a was f o r c e d to go i n t o h i d i n g ; one o f h i s few r e m a i n i n g p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t e r s , E r s k i n e C h i l d e r s , was caught and e x e c u t e d ; and the 45. De V a l e r a ' s b i o g r a p h e r accuses the l e f t w ing l e a d e r o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a v i n g C o l l i n s murdered. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , p.175. 179 r e s i s t a n c e to the government was • f i n a l l y ended.. 0n March 23rd, de V a l e r a i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n to h i s f o l l o w e r s to submit to the e v i t a b l e ; but even h i s c o n t r o l over the i r r e g u l a r s was not complete f o r t h e r e were s t i l l s p o r a d i c o u t b u r s t s from i s o l a t e d g roups. These s m a l l s e c t i o n s o f the o r i g i n a l f o r c e were g r a d -u a l l y r o u t e d from t h e i r l a i r s . De V a l e r a a g a i n came f o r w a r d , s t a t i n g t h a t the "government o f the r e p u b l i c " was a n x i o u s to e s t a b l i s h peace, and a t t e m p t e d t o expose the F r e e S t a t e g o v e r n -ment t o the d i l e m n a e i t h e r o f r e p u d i a t i n g n a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s or o f a d m i t t i n g t h a t the r e p u b l i c a n o p p o s i t i o n to the t r e a t y was 46 j u s t i f i e d . A l u l l f o l l o w e d u n t i l May 1 0 t h when Cosgrave an-nounced a breakdown o f the peace n e g o t i a t i o n s , a3 he i n s i s t e d on an u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r o f arms by the i n s u r g e n t s and t h e i r a d m i s s i o n t h a t a l l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s must be s e t t l e d by a m a j o r i t y v o t e of the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p e o p l e . Cosgrave announced an e l e c t i o n f o r J u l y , and de V a l e r a , b e a t e n i n the f i e l d , now had to come out p u b l i c l y i f he w i s h e d to c h a l l e n g e h i s opponents a t the p o l l s . When he a t t e m p t e d t o a d d r e s s a m e e t i n g at E a s t C l a r e , which he was c o n t e s t i n g i n the e l e c t i o n , he was s e i z e d by government t r o o p s and i m p r i s o n e d pending the outcome of the e l e c t i o n . The v o t e r e t u r n e d Cosgrave and s i x t y - t h r e e o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s , w i t h t h i r t y - o n e f r i e n d l y members o f o t h e r groups as opposed to de V a l e r a ' s f o r t y - f o u r s u p p o r t e r s . Once a g a i n the t r e a t y had been r a t i f i e d , but a t the expense o f much b l o o d s h e d . The new l e g i s l a t u r e was almost i m m e d i a t e l y assembled and proceeded to d e a l w i t h b u s i n e s s o f o u t s t a n d i n g i m p o r t a n c e , c h i e f 46. Gwynn, de V a l e r a , p.176. 180 o f which was the r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s document had been drawn up i n the months subsequent to the s i g n i n g o f the t r e a t y . The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the F r e e S t a t e * The c o n s t i t u t i o n of the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e , f o r m a l l y . r a t i f i e d b y the p r o v i s i o n a l government on Dec. 6 t h , 1928, was the outcome o f the t r e a t y o f the p r o c e e d i n g December. The p r o v i s i o n s o f the l o n d o n agreement had d e a l t w i t h f o u r major problems: the r e -l a t i o n s h i p o f I r e l a n d to the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and to the B r i t i s h Crown and p a r l i a m e n t ; the problems o f defense and f i n a n c e r e s u l t i n g from I r e l a n d ' s s e c e s s i o n from the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l u n i t o f the U n i t e d Kingdom; the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between the F ree S t a t e and the d y a r c h i c a l u n i t o f N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d ; and the t r a n s i t o r y p r o v i s i o n s consequent upon the s e t t l e m e n t . By the t r e a t y I r e l a n d was i n v e s t e d de j u r e w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l de f a c t o s t a t u s e n j o y e d by the s e l f - g o v e r n i n g Dominions. I t i s d o u b t f u l whether the s e l e c t i o n o f the frame work of Dominion s t a t u s was the most o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n o f a problem the. most cha-r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f w h i c h l a y i n a s t r o n g and s e l f a s s e r t i v e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Leo Kohn s t a t e s : " I r e l a n d was c l e a r l y no Dominion, and the m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p l a n a t i o n o f a form o f government d e v e l o p e d under s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s and d e r i v i n g i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r e n g t h from i t s v e r y i n d e f i n i t e n e s s , to a r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e o p l e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to G r e a t B r i t a i n , c o n s c i o u s of a d i s t i n c t i v e n a t i o n -hood and bent on a r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i -t i o n , c o u l d not but i n v o l v e f a r r e a c h i n g consequences b o t h f o r 181 the m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s o f the two c o u n t r i e s and f o r the c o n s t i -47 t u t i o n of the Commonwealth as a whole." The c o n v e r s i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n i n t o la?/ e x c l u d i n g any form o f e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y not d e r i v e d from the w i l l o f the p e o p l e , i n s u r e d the u n r e s t r i c t e d l e g i s l a t i v e autonomy o f the I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t , r e n d e r e d the e x e r c i s e o f the r o y a l power n u l l and v o i d and f o r m a l l y e x c l u d e d any i n t e r f e r e n c e hy the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t w i t h the l e g i s l a t i v e autonomy o f the F r e e S t a t e . The new form of t h e o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e emphasized t h a t the f i d e l i t y and a l l e g i a n c e of the members of the p a r l i a m e n t o f the F r e e S t a t e a r e p r i m a r i l y to the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the s t a t e and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y t o the crown. The form o f the s e t t l e m e n t i m p l i e d a f o r m a l a d m i s s i o n o f I r e l a n d ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o - e q u a l i t y w i t h Great B r i t a i n . The vexed q u e s t i o n o f U l s t e r was s e t t l e d by i n c l u d i n g i n p r i n c i p l e the s i x c o u n t i e s o f the n o r t h i n the Free S t a t e and then e x c l u d i n g them by s p e c i f i c measures. U l s t e r was g i v e n the a l t e r n a t i v e o f e i t h e r e f f e c t i n g i t s e x c l u s i o n from the Free S t a t e w i t h i n one month o f Dec.5th, 1922, or of e n t e r i n g the • F r e e S t a t e , i n which case i f would be i n v e s t e d w i t h wide powers o f l o c a l government. But the o b v i o u s a m b i g u i t y o f the l e g a l p o s i t i o n e n s u i n g from the l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e m e r e l y r e c o g n i z e d the f a c t that' U l s t e r would r e f u s e to j o i n the F r e e S t a t e w i t h i n the p e r i o d d e s i g n a t e d . U l s t e r not o n l y r e f u s e d to u n i t e w i t h the Free S t a t e but a l s o d e c l i n e d to a p p o i n t a boundary com-m i s s i o n e r as r e q u i r e d by the t r e a t y o f 1921. E v e n t u a l l y the 47. Kohn, o p . c i t . , p.50. 182 the commission ceased to f u n c t i o n and the b o u n d a r i e s as d e f i n e d i n the Government o f I r e l a n d A c t , 1920, were c o n f i r m e d (1925). A r t i c l e F i v e d e a l i n g -with the l i a b i l i t y o f the Fr e e S t a t e government f o r a share o f the p u b l i c debt was amended so t h a t the Free S t a t e was h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r m a l i c i o u s damage done i n Free S t a t e p r e c i n c t s s i n c e J a n . 2 1 s t , 1919. The agreement a l s o a b o l i s h e d the o n l y r e m a i n i n g n u c l e u s o f a f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f the c o u n t r y , the proposed C o u n c i l o f I r e l a n d , as p r o -v i d e d f o r by the Government o f I r e l a n d A c t o f 1920. By A r t i c l e S i x t e e n b o t h U l s t e r and the Free S t a t e were r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e autonomy, f o r n e i t h e r c o u l d endow any r e l i g i o n , r e -s t r i c t f r e e r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e , impose any d i s a b i l i t y on acc o u n t o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f or s t a t u s , p r e j u d i c e the r i g h t o f any c h i l d to a t t e n d a s c h o o l s u p p o r t e d by p u b l i c f u n d s , o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n the m a t t e r o f s t a t e a i d s to e d u c a t i o n between s c h o o l s o f d i f -f e r e n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s . T h i s a r t i c l e d i f f e r e d from s i m i l a r ones i n e a r l i e r Home Rul e b i l l s i n t h a t i t r e f e r r e d to the "endowment" as opposed to the " e s t a b l i s h m e n t " o f any r e l i g i o n . I t d i d not preve n t the F r e e S t a t e government from making r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f o r ceremony a c o n d i t i o n o f the l e g a l v a l i d i t y o f any m a r r i a g e . On t h i s s c o r e i t met w i t h much c r i t i c i s m i n the B r i t i s h house o f commons. The c o n c l u d i n g a r t i c l e s o f the t r e a t y c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s g o v e r n i n g the r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the s e t t l e m e n t and the t r a n s f e r o f the machinery o f government. Both I r i s h and i m p e r i a l governments were to r a t i f y t he agreement, a p r o v i s i o n a l government was t o be i n temporary c o n t r o l u n t i l t he f i n a l r a t i f i c a t i o n , and r e t i r i n g 183 p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s v.ere to r e c e i v e f a i r compensation. C o n s i d e r a b l e l i t i g a t i o n ensued from the l a s t m a t t e r . I n Dec. 1922, the B r i t i s h p a r t l i a m e n t by a l a r g e m a j o r i t y ( w i t h t h e U l s t e r members i n o p p o s i t i o n ) approved the t r e a t y and adopted the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e (agreement) A c t o f March 3 1 s t , 1922. I n W e s t minster the d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e d e x c l u s i v e l y on the q u e s t i o n as to whether the c o n s t i t u t i o n was i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p r o -v i s i o n s o f the t r e a t y . The n o v e l s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the con-s t i t u t i o n r e c e i v e d s c a n t n o t i c e from an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e assembly. " S i n e i r a et s t u d i o the I r i s h i s s u e f a d e d away from the de-l i b e r a t i o n s o f a Chamber which f o r more than a c e n t u r y i t had 48 shaken more d e e p l y than any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y . " I n I r e l a n d , the t r e a t y was endorsed by a m a j o r i t y o f seven v o t e s on Jan. 7 t h , 1922, and f i n a l l y r a t i f i e d by the passage o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F ree S t a t e ( S a o i s t a t S i r e a n n ) A c t , 1922. l e o Kohn s t a t e s : " i n i t s f o r m a l a s p e c t , the t r e a t y r e p r e -s e n t e d the most r e v o l u t i o n a r y s e t t l e m e n t ever e f f e c t e d w i t h i n the framework of the B r i t i s h E m p i r e . " ^ 9 The a s p i r a t i o n o f the I r i s h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s f o r a s e l f - d e r i v e d and u n f e t t e r e d n a t i o n a l s t a t e h o o d was a c c e p t e d , at l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e ; the U n i o n o f 1804 was d i s s o l v e d and a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a r o s e cased on the r e v o l u t i o n a r y w i l l o f the I r i s h p e o p l e . Again,' i n the words of Kohn: " I n the garb o f 'Dominion S t a t u s ' , a n a t i o n a l l y s e l f - c o n -s c i o u s European s t a t e was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the symmetry of the 48. Kohn, o p . c i t . , p.87. A s p e c i a l s e s s i o n a t W e s t m i n s t e r had t h r e s h e d the m a t t e r out i n 1921. Debates^ Vol.149. 49. I b i d 71. 184 Empire, a Dominion n e i t h e r i n form nor i n s u b s t a n c e , hound, i n -deed t o t r a n s f o r m the e n t i r e fromework o f Dominion a s s o c i a t i o n by-i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r i g i n and n a t i o n a l i s t i n s p i r a t i o n . " 5 0 T h i s German s t u d e n t b e l i e v e s t h a t "Dominion S t a t u s " was a c c e p t e d by the n e g o t i a t o r s because the- s t i g m a o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n was thus removed--they r e a l i z e d t h a t the Dominions were c o n t r o l l e d by the i m p e r i a l government de j u r e but not de f a c t o . The o b v i o u s neces-s i t y o f I r e l a n d ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the B r i t i s h Commonwealth was r e c o g n i s e d . The I r i s h l e a d e r s r e a l i s e d a l s o t h a t not one s i n g l e power would have been added to the F r e e S t a t e by e n t i r e s e p a r a t i o n from the crown and t h a t by being a member o f the Commonwealth, I r e l a n d c o u l d e x e r c i s e a d u a l i n f l u e n c e i n the r e a l m o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . F o r c e o f law was g i v e n to the F r e e S t a t e agreement by the passage by the D a i l of the D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F ree RI S t a t e " on Dec. 5 t h , 1922. T h i s i n s t r u m e n t " n u l l i f i e d t h e con-s t i t u t i o n a l r e a l i t y o f the o b s o l e t e f o r m a l i s m o f Dominion s t a t u s , " 5 2 by e n u n c i a t i n g the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f I r e l a n d , not m e r e l y w i t h the Dominions, but a l s o w i t h Great B r i t a i n and the d e r i v a t i o n o f a l l a u t h o r i t y o f government i n I r e l a n d from h e r p e o p l e . The f r a m i n g of the c o n s t i t u t i o n r e f l e c t e d a c o n f l i c t between the E n g l i s h and I r i s h c o n c e p t i o n s o f government.' I t was i n e v e r y way a most r e v o l u n t a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o j e c t f o r i t was e s s e n t i a l l y a r e p u b l i c a n c o n s t i t u t i o n on most advanced C o n t i n e n t a l l i n e s . I t had the dogmatic r i n g o f the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s t u l a t e s o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y u p h e a v a l ; i t e n u n c i a t e d b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and form-50. Kohn, o p . c i t . , p.72 51. D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e , (Cmd.1688),1922. 52. Kohn, o p . c i t . , p.74. 185 u l a t e d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d d e f i n i t i o n s ; and i t reduced to c o n c i s e terms th e c o n v e n t i o n a l r u l e s o f the B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n . The i n a d e q u a c i e s o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y government were r e c o g n i s e d i n an attempt to i n t r o d u c e a system o f checks and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a l -ances d e s i g n e d to p r e c l u d e the growth of e i t h e r e x e c u t i v e or l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . The power o f the e x e c u t i v e was reduced by a network o f r e s t r i c t i o n s w hich w e i g h t e d the b a l a n c e o f con-s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y i n f a v o u r o f the l e g i s l a t u r e . B u t the growth o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was p r e c l u d e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e referendum and the i n i t i a t i v e . F i n a l l y , the p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a b i n e t was t r a n s f o r m e d by the s e t t i n g up o f a v o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n not c o n t r o l l e d d i r e c t l y by the l e g i s -l a t u r e . f h e C o n s t i t u t i o n may be d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 1. The preamble and fundamental d e c l a r a t i o n s . These e n u n c i a t e d the s p i r i t u a l s o u r c e s , God and the p e o p l e , and the h i g h e r purpose of the enactment - the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l l i f e and u n i t y o f I r e l a n d . T h i s s e c t i o n r e f e r r e d to the p o l i t i c a l funda-mentals of the s t a t e , the guarantee o f c o m p a r a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and promulgated g e n e r a l i n j u n c t i o n s d i r e c t i n g the l e g i s -l a t u r e to enact s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic reforms which the f r a m e r s c o n c e i v e d as the i d e a l s o f the new o r d e r , 2. The statement o f p o l i t i c a l f u n d a m e n t a l s . These showed the p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s o f the I r i s h n a t i o n a l movement and i n s i s t e d on the c o - e q u a l r i g h t s o f the Free S t a t e w i t h o t h e r members o f the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. A s p e c i f i c I r i s h c i t i z e n s h i p was be-stowed upon e v e r y person deemed e l i g i b l e f o r s u c h . *^  E x p r e s s i o n 53. T h i s p r o v i s i o n does not p e r m i t B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s coming from o t h e r p a r t s o f the Commonwealth to become I r i s h c i t i z e n s . 186 to the n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f the new I r i s h p o l i t y was found i n the p r o c l a m a t i o n o f G a e l i c as the n a t i o n a l language o f the I r i s h F r ee S t a t e , w i t h E n g l i s h a l s o b e i n g r e c o g n i s e d as an o f f i c i a l . language. No honors were to be g r a n t e d by the crown to I r i s h c i t i z e n s . 5 ^ 3. P e r s o n a l freedom. The i n v i o l a b i l i t y of the l i b e r t y o f the' i n -d i v i d u a l and h i s p r i v i l e g e to freedom o f c o n s c i e n c e and the f r e e p r o f e s s i o n and p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n were s t a t e d i n c o n c i s e terms. Arrangement was made f o r the i n f r i n g e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t i e s 55 o n l y i n accordance w i t h l a w . Ekpost f a c t o l e g i s l a t i o n was f o r -b i d d e n . 4. Programmatic d e c l a r a t i o n . P r o v i s i o n was made f o r a programme of s o c i a l , economic and e d u c a t i o n a l reform.. The r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l to f r e e e d u c a t i o n , and o f the s t a t e to the c o n t r o l o f n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s were r e c o g n i z e d . 5. The S t r u c t u r e and Competence o f the l e g i s l a t u r e . The I r i s h p a r l i a m e n t , o r " O i r e a c h t a s " , was to be composed o f the k i n g , and two houses, the chamber o f d e p u t i e s ( D a i l E i r e a n n ) and the se n a t e (Seanad E i r e a n n ) . The crown was sh o r n o f p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a u t h -o r i t y ; f r a n c h i s e f o r e l e c t i o n o f members to the', D a i l and the r i g h t to v o t e i n a referendum o r i n i t i a t i v e were v e s t e d i n a l l c i t i z e n s | who had a t t a i n e d m a j o r i t y and c o u l d comply w i t h the e l e c t o r a l i l a w s . The f r a n c h i s e f o r e l e c t i n g members of the se n a t e was r e -s t r i c t e d to person who had reached the age o f t h i r t y y e a r s . 54. T h i s was i n a c c o r d w i t h the s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n i n g a t the time i n Canada and South A f r i c a . 55. T h i s p r o v i s i o n was the d i r e c t outcome o f g e n e r a t i o n s o f habeas c o r p u s . The danger of a m b i g u i t y was i m p l i c i t by the a d d i t i o n o f the statement t h a t " i n -d i v i d u a l l i b e r t i e s might not be i n f r i n g e d except i n a ccordance w i t h law." 187 6. The Mode of e l e c t i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b o t h houses. The system o f ' " e l e c t i o n to the D a i l was to he t h a t o f p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; w h i l e the number of members was not r i g i d l y f i x e d but was l e f t to d e c e n n i a l r e a d j u s t m e n t . The D a i l was to be the main body; i t a l o n e c o u l d i n t r o d u c e a money b i l l and any measure passed by i t became law w i t h i n n i n e months from i t s f i r s t i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the s e n a t e , even i f the l a t t e r body amended the b i l l . 7. The a s s e n t o f the crown. The r e s t r i c t i v e powers o f d i s s e n t 56 and r e s e r v a t i o n were g r a n t e d to the crown. 8. The o a t h of a l l e g i a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g o a t h was p r e s c r i b e d f o r a l l members o f the O i r e a c h t a s : " I do s o l e m n l y swear t r u e f a i t h and a l l e g i a n c e to the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F ree S t a t e as by law e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h a t I w i l l be f a i t h f u l to H i s M a j e s t y K i n g George V., h i s h e i r s and s u c c e s s o r s by l a w , i n v i r t u e o f the common c i t i z e n s h i p o f I r e l a n d w i t h Great B r i t a i n , and.her adherence to an{ membership of the group of n a t i o n s f o r m i n g the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of N a t i o n s . . 9. Referendum and i n i t i a t i v e . P r o v i s i o n was made bo t h f o r en-a b l i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y i n the D a i l to a p p e a l to the e l e c t o r a t e a g a i n s t a b i l l p assed by the m a j o r i t y , and f o r t h e s o l v i n g o f c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g between the two chambers. The scheme a r r a n g e d f o r the s u s p e n s i o n o f a b i l l p a ssed by t h e O i r e a c h t a s i f t w o - f i f t h s o f the members of the D a i l o r a m a j o r i t y o f t h e senate so d e s i r e d ; and the d e c i d i n g o f the i s s u e by a m a j o r i t y v o t e of the e l e c t o r s . Money b i l l s o r b i l l s d e c l a r e d by b oth 56. I n o t h e r words the crown l o s t e n t i r e l y i t s power, as the r i g h t o f d i s s e n t was l o n g s i n c e o b s o l e t e and the power of r e s e r v a t i o n had not been e x e r c i s e d s i n c e 1886. 188 houses " n e c e s s a r y f o r the immediate p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the p u b l i c peace, h e a l t h o r s a f e t y , " were to be excluded, from the scope of the referendum. E l e c t o r s were to be p e r m i t t e d to o f f e r t o the O i r e a c h t a s p r o p o s a l s f o r the laws o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments; i f t hese v/ere r e j e c t e d by the p a r l i a m e n t they were to be sub-m i t t e d to the e l e c t o r a t e f o r d e c i s i o n . 10. D e v o l u t i o n . Arrangements were made f o r the o p t i o n a l e s t a -b l i s h m e n t o f f u n c t i o n a l o r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n c i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g branches o f the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of the n a t i o n , and the r e l a t i o n of such groups to the government. 11. Amendment o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The c o n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d be amended o n l y by the use o f the referendum; t h a t i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes were f i r s t to pass through the o r d i n a r y channels of l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e n to be s u b m i t t e d to the e l e c t o r a t e . T h i s p rocedure was to be put i n t o e f f e c t w i t h i n e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r the s i g n i n g of the I r i s h t r e a t y , 12. The e x e c u t i v e o r g a n s . The e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l was to be composed of not l e s s than f o u r m i n i s t e r s from the l e a d i n g group i n the D a i l , and not more th a n e i g h t e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y members, nominated by the D a i l and not r e q u i r e d to r e s i g n t h e i r o f f i c e i f the l e a d i n g group i n the D a i l l o s t i t s c o n t r o l o f the house. The c o u n c i l was to be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D a i l ; a d d i t i o n a l m i n i -s t e r s might be s e l e c t e d from the p o p u l a r body; the g o v e r n o r -g e n e r a l was to be a p p o i n t e d i n l i k e manner t o t h a t o f the g o v e r n o r -g e n e r a l o f Canada; and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was to a p p o i n t judges o f the supreme c o u r t on the a d v i c e o f the e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l . 189 15 0 The r e l a t i o n s between e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t u r e . The e x e c u t i v e was to be r e s p o n s i b l e to the D a i l w h i c h a l s o had the powers of a p p o i n t i n g the p r e s i d e n t , e n d o r s i n g m i n i s t e r s , d e c i d i n g war p o l i c i e s and o f d i s s o l v i n g i t s e l f when the e x e c u t i v e l o s t the s u p p o r t o f the m a j o r i t y o f the D a i l members. 14. The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e branches o f government. A f a i r l y e l a -b o r a t e machinery was s e t up f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i n a n c e , j u s t i c e , e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c h e a l t h , a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , and commerce, l a n d , f i s h e r i e s , ' p o s t s and t e l e g r a p h s , d e f e n c e , e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , and o t h e r m a t t e r s of c i v i l and j u d i c i a l c o n c e r n . De-c i s i o n s o f the supreme c o u r t were to be f i n a l and c o n c l u s i v e except t h a t any pers o n had the r i g h t t o a p p e a l to the p r i v y c o u n c i l . 190 Chapter V EPI10GUE I n the p r e c e d i n g pages an attempt has been made to t r a c e the development o f A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s w h i c h formed the background from which the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e emerged. T h i s new n a t i o n o f t h r e e m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s was the e x p r e s s i o n o f a m i l i t a n t n a t i o n a l i s m which had been d e v e l o p i n g f o r c e n t u r i e s but found ex-p r e s s i o n i n a t a n g i b l e form o n l y when the weaknesses o f B r i t i s h p a r t y p o l i t i c s , the l e g a c y o f b i t t e r r e l a t i o n s between I r e l a n d and E n g l a n d , and r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e combined to cause the de-f e a t o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l movement sponsored by P a r n e l l and Redmond. The b a n e f u l i n f l u e n c e o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s was e v i d e n c e d i n the c o n t i n u a l use to which the I r i s h q u e s t i o n was put by v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l groups, always a n x i o u s to f i n d some means whereby the e a s i l y s t i r r e d emotions o f a g u l l i b l e e l e c t o r a t e might be u t i l -i s e d . No group o f o p p o s i n g p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s o f any p e r i o d o f A n g l o - I r i s h h i s t o r y were w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e p a r t y advancement to the c o o p e r a t i v e s o l u t i o n o f a t r a g i c s i t u a t i o n . A g a i n , j u s t as contemporary Anglo-American r e l a t i o n s may be a t times s t r a i n e d i n p a r t owing to h i s t o r i c a l p r e j u d i c e s based upon a few p e r i o d s of u n f o r t u n a t e d i s a g r e e m e n t , so have A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s been v i t i a t e d by t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f ages o f g r i e v a n c e s r e s u l t i n g from the u n f o r t u n a t e p o l i c i e s o f m i s g u i d e d s o l d i e r s and s t a t e s m e n . / 191 Developments s i n c e 1922. The main s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been drawn from the p e r i o d of A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s which ended w i t h the f o r m a l s e t t i n g up of the F r e e S t a t e . However, b e f o r e a f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f the problem i s u n d e r t a k e n , a few b r i e f comments on the developments from 192S to 1934 w i l l be made. F o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s a f t e r the I r i s h t r e a t y was r a t i f i e d i n 1922, the government o f the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e was i n the hands o f W i l l i a m Cosgrave and the group which had endorsed the s e t t i n g up o f a Dominion i n the s o u t h . I n U l s t e r , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f a i r s were i n c o n t r o l o f a l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e and the I m p e r i a l p a r l i a -ment. P r e v e n t i n g the two s e c t i o n s o f I r e l a n d from f o r m i n g a u n i t e d c o u n t r y which i t s economic framework demanded t h e r e r e -mained the o l d r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l a n i m o s i t i e s . The Cosgrave government i n i t s decade of o f f i c e i n s t i t u t e d a programme the avowed i n t e n t i o n o f w h i c h was the r e s t o r a t i o n o f o r d e r out o f chaos. A group o f young men c o n s t i t u t e d a c a b i n e t to whose combined o p i n i o n s the p r e s i d e n t s u b o r d i n a t e d h i s p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n s . T h i s group, a s s i s t e d by d i s s e n s i o n s i n the R e p u b l i c a n p a r t y , c o u r a g e o u s l y e n f o r c e d the a u t h o r i t y of the c e n t r a l govern-ment, even on m a t t e r s where B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y had n e v e r d a r e d to e n f o r c e the law s t r i c t l y . De V a l e r a and h i s s u p p o r t e r s , e x p l o i t e d e v e r y g r i e v a n c e r e s u l t i n g from the a c t i v i t i e s o f the government and s e t themselves to e v o l v e a programme upon wh i c h t h e y c o u l d a p p e a l to the c o u n t r y i n the f u t u r e . O b j e c t i n g to t a k i n g the o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e they r e f u s e d to e n t e r the D a i l to occupy s e a t s h e l d by t h e i r group, and a t t a c k e d the t r e a t y o f 1921 as a compromise i n c o n s i s t e n t 192 w i t h a c l a i m to s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n h o o d . F i n a l l y i n 1927 de V a l e r a l e d h i s f o l l o w e r s hack i n t o the l e g i s l a t u r e when Cosgrave t h r e a t e n e d to p r e v e n t i n d i v i d u a l s who r e f u s e d to t a k e the o a t h from o f f e r i n g themselves as c a n d i d a t e s . . F o l l o w i n g an u n s u c c e s s f u l h i d by the m i n o r i t y Labour p a r t y to c o n t r o l the D a i l , Cosgrave and h i s p a r t y were r e s t o r e d to an i n s e c u r e c o n t r o l o f o f f i c e . I n o p p o s i t i o n ^ d e V a l e r a and h i s p a r t y , the F i a n n a F a i l , a p p l i e d themselves to the t a s k o f b r eak-i n g down Cosgrave's c o n t r o l . The former o u t l i n e d an e l a b o r a t e economic programme and p r o m i s e d t h a t i f he o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l he would cease h a n d i n g o v e r to B r i t a i n the l a n d a n n u i t i e s , amounting to t h r e e m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g a y e a r . T h i s l a s t promise ob-t a i n e d f o r him t h e s u p p o r t o f the p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n v o t e r s o f the c o n g e s t e d a r e a s o f w e s t e r n I r e l a n d . The F i a n n a F a i l a l s o c harged the government w i t h e x t r a v a g a n c e i n the payment o f i t s s a l a r i e d o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l . I n t h e s e ways de V a l e r a ranged h i m s e l f on the s i d e o f the poor a g a i n s t the r i c h . S i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e i r abuse of the government F i a n n a F a i l d e v e l o p e d a c o n s t r u c t i v e economic p o l i c y w hich aimed a t e s t a b l i s h -i n g the F r e e S t a t e as a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g s t a t e , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t such a consummation c o u l d be a c h i e v e d o n l y by a r e -v e r s i o n t o a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . The programme^ a l l e g e d l y would a b o l i s h unemployment and d e s t r o y I r i s h economic dependence on E n g l a n d . F a c t o r s o p e r a t e d to a s s i s t de V a l e r a i n h i s s u b v e r s i v e p o l i c y . The government had been i n o f f i c e f o r y e a r s ; but i t s m i n i -1. Gwynn, De V a l e r a , Chapt. IX. 193 s t e r s were a l l young and not l i k e l y to g i v e way t o new a p p o i n t e e s . A g a i n , Cosgrave i n o r d e r to match the r e l e n t l e s s campaign o f de V a l e r a had passed a P u b l i c S a f e t y A c t o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e v e r i t y as a permanent amendment to the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n Army wh i c h had been t e m p o r a r i l y q u e l l e d i n 1922 had a g a i n r a i s e d i t s head, not o n l y t o s t r i k e a t Cosgrave b u t a l s o to f o r c e de V a l e r a to r e t u r n to l e f t w ing r e p u b l i c a n p o l i c i e s . F i n a l l y t h e economic d e p r e s s i o n o f 1929 brought c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s to I r i s h economic l i f e , and de V a l e r a blamed them on Cosgrave and the workings of the t r e a t y . With these v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s o p e r a t i n g to h i s advantage de V a l e r a rode i n t o power as the l e a d e r o f a m i n o r i t y group i n 2 F e b r u a r y 1932. He proceeded to a r r a n g e f o r the a b o l i t i o n o f the o a t h o f a l l e g i a n c e and the non-payment o f the l a n d a n n u i t i e s and o t h e r payments a r r a n g e d f o r by the t r e a t y ; i t was o b v i o u s t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n was to c a r r y t h r o u g h a p o l i c y w hich was c e r t a i n to provoke a q u a r r e l w i t h E n g l a n d . To do t h i s i t was n e c e s s a r y to o b t a i n the s u p p o r t o f the l a b o u r p a r t y w h i c h h e l d the b a l a n c e o f power i n the D a i l . I n o r d e r to a c h i e v e h i s g o a l he s e t out to a t t a c k e n t r e n c h e d w e a l t h and to s u b s i d i z e the wages o f l a b o u r g r o u p s ; to g i v e e f f e c t to c e r t a i n b r a n c h e s o f h i s economic programme he i n t r o d u c e d h i g h p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s w h ich s t r u c k a t B r i t i s h e x p o r t s to I r e l a n d . The I r i s h p r e s i d e n t r e f u s e d to d i s c u s s w i t h the B r i t i s h government these momentous changes, s t a t i n g t h a t h i s p o l i c i e s were the e x p r e s s i o n of the p r i v i l e g e s o f Dominion s t a t u s which 2. Gwynn, Stephen, "The S h i f t i n I r i s h l e a d e r s h i p , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y , - V o l . 36, pp.8-14. 194 t h e I m p e r i a l Conference o f 1926 had r e c o g n i s e d as empowering the s e l f - g o v e r n i n g members o f the Commonwealth to a l t e r the a f f a i r s to s u i t t h e m s e l v e s . As r e g a r d s the a n n u i t i e s de V a l e r a by h i s own system of mathematics prov e d t h a t t h e f i v e m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g i n v o l v e d r e p r e s e n t e d a B r i t i s h t a x a t i o n on I r e l a n d e q u i v a l e n t to one o f t h r e e hundred and t h i r t y m i l l i o n pounds f o r Great B r i t a i n . 3 P r o c e e d i n g on these l i n e s he has g a i n e d much s u p p o r t and p l a c e d Cosgrave i n an i n v i d i o u s p o s i t i o n . He has been a s s i s t e d by the v i n d i c t i v e o r s h o r t - s i g h t e d r e p r i s a l s o f the B r i t i s h government which a l s o i n t u r n has been h e l d up t o s c o r n by de V a l e r a f o r e x a c t i n g a debt from the Pree S t a t e w h i l e r e f u s i n g to meet the f u l l demands o f the American debt agreement. England has a g a i n become the m a l e v o l e n t power which-wishes to c r i p p l e I r e l a n d ' s p r o g r e s s . With the s u p p o r t o f l a b o u r de V a l e r a has brought h i s econ-omic programme w i t h i n the range o f p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s . I n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s have been encouraged and c e r t a i n f o r e i g n c a p i t a l has been a t t r a c t e d to the Pree S t a t e , l a r g e g r a z i e r s have been s t r u c k at i n an attempt to f o r c e the development o f t i l l a g e and b r e a k the c o n t r o l o f the e x p o r t t r a d e to B r i t a i n . Unemployment i n D u b l i n and o t h e r c e n t r e s has been blamed on the " b l o c k a d e " o f I r i s h goods e n t e r i n g England. But a l t h o u g h de V a l e r a has m a i n t a i n e d a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g f o r h i s p o l i c i e s , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s have been o p e r a t i n g to s t r i k e a t h i s power. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the I.R.A. which he has p e r m i t t e d 3. ,'He a r r i v e d a t these f i g u r e s by u s i n g anonymous f i g u r e s 'which showed t h a t the r e l a t i v e t a x a b l e c a p a c i t i e s i o f Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d were s i x t y - s i x to one. 195 and encouraged t o o p e r a t e has c o n t i n u e d to demand t h a t he cease t e m p o r i s i n g w i t h r e p u b l i c a n i s m and embark b o l d l y on a s e p a r a t i s t programme. Sooner o r l a t e r he w i l l be f o r c e d to ask f o r a man-date to r e p u d i a t e the t r e a t y o f 1921 and to s e t up a r e p u b l i c . He has made no s e c r e t o f h i s own d e s i r e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n : com-p l e t e p o l i t i c a l independence i s h i s g o a l . I n o r d e r to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s he w i l l be f o r c e d to r e v e r s e the t r e n d o f modern developments and l e a d I r e l a n d back to economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A r r a y e d b e h i n d him a r e the poor f a r m e r s who have l i t t l e to l o s e and something to g a i n i f the a n n u i t i e s a r e a b o l i s h e d ; 4 t h e l a b o u r e r s i n c o u n t r y and town; and c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l i s t s who hope to g a i n from the e x p a n s i o n of home m a r k e t s . The I.R.A. remains on the h o r i z o n b e c k o n i n g to de V a l e r a t o j o i n them i n the f i n a l s e p a r a t i o n from the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. Another f o r c e s u b v e r s i v e o f the p r e s e n t government's power has been the growth o f the N a t i o n a l Guard. T h i s body u n t i l r e c e n t l y l e d by E o i n 0'Duffy, a former head o f the Free S t a t e army, i s a f a s c i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n and has e n u n c i a t e d a p o l i c y o f r e v o l t a g a i n s t p a r t y p o l i t i c s and the u n j u s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the law. At f i r s t the s u c c e s s of t h i s group has been l i m i t e d owing t o b l u n d e r s by i t s l e a d e r who has o p e n l y c h a l l e n g e d the government to a t r i a l o f s t r e n g t h . 5 4. De V a l e r a has i n s i s t e d t h a t the a n n u i t i e s con-t i n u e to be c o l l e c t e d and p a i d i n t o the n a t i o n a l exchequer. H i s p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r a b o l i t i o n remains u n s t a t e d a t the moment. 5. See Gwynn, D e n i s , "The C h a l l e n g e o f De V a l e r a , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y , Vo. 39, pp.315-322. 196 The F u t u r e At the p r e s e n t moment the c h i e f problems c o n f r o n t i n g the s t u d e n t o f I r i s h a f f a i r s a r e : the p r o b a b i l i t y o f the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e c o n t i n u i n g as a B r i t i s h Dominion o r becoming a r e p u b l i c , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n i o n between the two s e c t i o n s o f the i s l a n d . A l t h o u g h p r o p h e c i e s c o n c e r n i n g the f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f I r i s h a f f a i r s a r e o b v i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t t o make y e t an a n a l y s i s o f t h e ad v a n t a g e s a c c r u i n g from and the f o r c e s w o r k i n g f o r pos-s i b l e developments may be o f a s s i s t a n c e i n t r a c i n g the p r o b a b l e c o u r s e o f I r i s h h i s t o r y i n the next few y e a r s . As a Dominion the I r i s h Free S t a t e has a number o f ob v i o u s advantages f o r i t s p e o p l e . The economic l i f e o f the c o u n t r y has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d to t h a t o f Great B r i t a i n , the c h i e f market f o r I r i s h e x p o r t s p a r t i c u l a r l y o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e . N i n e t y p e r c e n t , o f the s u r p l u s p r o d u c t s o f the F r e e S t a t e were marketed i n B r i t a i n i n 1931; the r e c e n t drop i n the t r a d e o f t h e former c o u n t r y can be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y to the s h u t t i n g o f f o f h e r l e a d i n g market. A g a i n , a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h B r i t a i n has g i v e n the F r e e S t a t e T r e a s u r y a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f l o n d o n . A l s o , membership i n the Commonwealth o f f e r s c e r t a i n advantages i n c i t i z e n s h i p , f o r u n t o l d numbers o f I r i s h c i t i z e n s may pursue a v a r i e t y o f c a l l i n g s i n Great B r i t a i n and h e r c o l o n i e s . I n w o r l d a f f a i r s , t o o , the F r e e S t a t e t a k e s a prominent p l a c e as a member o f the Commonwealth; i n s p i t e o f h e r 6. Trade has f a l l e n n e a r l y f i f t y p e r c e n t , s i n c e 1930, i . e . . f r o m one hundred and two m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand pounds s t e r l i n g t o f i f t y - f i v e m i l l i o n pounds s t e r l i n g ; c r o s s - c h a n n e l t r a d e dropped two hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e thousand seven hundred and f i f t y - n i n e t o n s i n n i n e months o f 1933. law, H.A., " I r e l a n d A f t e r Twelve Y e a r s " , Q u a r t e r l y Review, V o l . CXXXV, pp.31-40* 197 s m a l l a r e a and p o p u l a t i o n t h i s Dominion w i e l d s a p o w e r f u l i n -i n f l u e n c e a t Geneva. F i n a l l y , a t l i t t l e c o s t to h e r s e l f , h e r problems of defence a r e l a r g e l y a t t e n d e d to hy the m i l i t a r y and n a v a l f o r c e s o f Great . B r i t a i n . Today i n the F r e e S t a t e t h e r e are numerous f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g to keep h e r w i t h i n the Empire. The new U n i t e d I r e l a n d P a r t y ( F i n e Gael) — u n t i l r e c e n t l y l e d "by Cosgrave and O'Duffy, a r e p l edged to the maintenance o f the B r i t i s h c o n n e c t i o n , and w i t h the s u p p o r t o f a l a r g e body o f y o u t h form a c o n s i d e r a b l e element o f the p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the N a t i o n a l i s t remnant, and t h e extreme U n i o n i s t groups, who s c a r c e l y d a r e d make themselves c o n s p i c u o u s i n the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the war, a r e now becoming ex-c e e d i n g a r t i c u l a t e i n t h e i r s u p p o r t o f Dominion s t a t u s . F i n a l l y i n the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s a t l a r g e , t h e r e appears to be a growing o p p o s i t i o n to the i s o l a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s o f de V a l e r a . As a f u l l - f l e d g e d r e p u b l i c the f u t u r e o f the Free S t a t e would not appear to be p r o m i s i n g ; e c o n o m i c a l l y o r p o l i t i c a l l y . The l o s s o f the B r i t i s h market i n i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s a major blow to r e p u b l i c a n a s p i r a t i o n s . A ttempts by de V a l e r a t o a r -range r e c i p r o c a l t r a d e agreements w i t h European c o u n t r i e s have been as y e t by no means s u c c e s s f u l . I n t h r e e y e a r s (1930-1933) Free S t a t e t r a d e has d e c l i n e d almost f i f t y p e r c e n t . , and t h i s d i m i n u t i o n cannot be blamed e n t i r e l y on the m a l e v o l e n t p r a c t i c e s of Great B r i t a i n . A w r i t e r i n "The Round T a b l e " s t a t e s t h a t : " i t i s h a r d to e n v i s a g e any t h i n g but n a t i o n a l b a n k r u p t c y u n l e s s p the d i s p u t e w i t h E n g l a n d i s s e t t l e d " ; 0 t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t many lukewarm s u p p o r t e r s o f de V a l e r a may f i n d t h e i r r e -' 7. law, H.A.', " I r e l a n d i n 1933: R e t r o s p e c t and P r o s p e c t " , New Statesman, D e c i 9 3 3 f 695-696. 8. "The I r i s h Free Statft* kuo Vadjg?" - The R 0 U n d T a b l e — M a r c h , 1934, p.382. 198 p u b l i c a n i d e a l s d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n i n the f a c e o f economic d i s a s t e r . C i t i z e n s o f an I r i s h r e p u b l i c would a l s o f i n d themselves s e v e r e d from the advantages o f B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p i n such f i e l d s as employment and d i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e . Thousands o f I r i s h b o r n c i t i z e n s a t p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i n B r i t a i n would r e q u i r e r e p a t r i a t i o n , no easy t a s k i n the p r e s e n t e r a o f unemployment. F u r t h e r m o r e , many members o f the w e a l t h y c l a s s s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n the s o u t h , y e t o f l o y a l i s t c o n v i c t i o n s , might r e f u s e to s a c r i f i c e B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p and move to t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g i s l a n d . The importance o f t h i s s m a l l but p o w e r f u l cla,ss must not be u n d e r r a t e d ; a l r e a d y i t s i n f l u e n c e has been f e l t i n the f a i l u r e o f de V a l e r a ' s F o u r t h N a t i o n a l l o a n to be f u l l y s u b s c r i b e d . But i n s p i t e o f the apparent h a n d i c a p s to the s e t t i n g up o f a r e p u b l i c i n the p r e s e n t F r e e S t a t e , t h e r e a r e f o r c e s w h i c h a r e a s s i s t i n g t h i s s e p a r a t i s t movement. There i s l i t t l e hope t h a t I r i s h y o u t h , brought up i n the atmosphere o f Home Rule s t r u g g l e s , the World War, and the c i v i l war, w i l l be f r i g h t e n e d from such a s t e p . There i s a l s o t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l d i s l i k e f o r B r i t a i n w h ich as p o i n t e d out i n the p r e c e d i n g pages has more than once g i v e n the n e c e s s a r y impetus to e x t r e m i s t a c t i v i t i e s . B u t above and beyond such f o r c e s as t h e s e i s the dominant n a t i o n a l i s m o f the r e p u b l i c a n movement; t h i s b a n e f u l f o r c e , m o t i v a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f the I . R. A* and v a r i o u s G a e l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , may not expend i t s e l f u n t i l the F r e e S t a t e has been e n t i r e l y c u t o f f from the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and has been g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y o f t e s t i n g out the economic d o c t r i n e o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The f i n a l problem o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f U l s t e r and the F r e e 199 S t a t e r e u n i t i n g i s not so d i f f i c u l t to answer. The government o f n o r t h e r n I r e l a n d subsequent to 1920 was based on two s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n s : the s u p p o r t by the U n i o n i s t man i n t h e s t r e e t who wished a t a l l c o s t s to m a i n t a i n t he l i n k w i t h Great B r i t i a n "so l o n g as i t s t o o d between him and h i s l i f e l o n g bogey, a Home Rul e Q P a r l i a m e n t i n D u b l i n , " and the pe r s o n o f James C r a i g , the im-p l a c a b l e opponent o f Home R u l e . I n t h e y e a r s s i n c e 1922 the a c t i v i t i e s o f S i n n P e i n , the I.R.A. and even G e n e r a l 0'Duffy have not f a v o u r a b l y i m p r e s s e d the U n i o n i s t o f the n o r t h * Moreover the N a t i o n a l i s t m i n o r i t y t h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t broken up i n t o con-s t i t u t i o n a l N a t i o n a l i s t s , S i n n P e i n e r s , de V a l e r a - i t e s , R e p u b l i c a n s and C a t h o l i c l a b o u r ; and i t has not y e t found a l e a d e r s t r o n g enough to dominate and w e l d i n t o one the w a r r i n g f a c t i o n s . P e r -haps t h i s m i n o r i t y , i n s p i t e o f p u b l i c d e n i a l s , may even become r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e n o r t h e r n government. The one t h i n g t h a t can be c o n f i d e n t l y p r e d i c t e d about the t u r n A n g l e - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s w i l l t ake i n the near f u t u r e i s t h a t i t cannot be s a f e l y p r e d i c t e d . A l o n g w i t h the problems o f Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m i n the P a c i f i c , the N.R.A. i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the f u t u r e of f a s c i s m i n Europe i t has moved i n t o the r e a l m o f com p a r a t i v e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . 9. N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d and P a r t i t i o n , The Round T a b l e , March, 1934, p.292. 200 BIBLIOGRAPHY, DOCUMENTS 1. Command papers, i s s u e d b y H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r ' s o f f i c e , London. 1. A r t i c l e s o f agreement f o r a T r e a t y between " r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d (Cmd. 1560), 1921. 2. ' Correspondence r e l a t i n g to the p r o p o s a l s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government f o r an I r i s h S e t t l e -ment (Cmd. 1502), 1921. 3. Documents r e l a t i v e to the S i n n P e i n movement (Cmd. 1108);, 1921. 4. D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Pree S t a t e (Cmd. 1688), 1922. 5. F i n a n c i a l Statements (Cmd.1930,2160,2482,2757, 2798) . 6. I n t e r c o u r s e between B o l s h e v i s m and S i n n P e i n (Cmd.1326), 1921. 7. Outrages i n I r e l a n d (Cmd.859); 1920. 8. Terms o f Disbandment (Cmd.l618A), 1922. These documents proved i n v a l u a b l e f o r the immediate background o f the Pree S t a t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e were none f o r the p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g 1920. 2. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates, O f f i c i a l R eport - F i f t h S e r i e s (1914-1933) - H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r ' s o f f i c e , London. Y e r y u s e f u l . The r e a d i n g o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y speeches impressesone w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y experienced i n e f -f e c t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r I r e l a n d under the system o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s . 201 3. Quekett, S i r A r t h u r — The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d — His ..Majesty's S t a t i o n e r ' s o f f i c e , B e l f a s t , 1928 - 2 volumes. S e m i - o f f i c i a l m a t e r i a l e l a b o r a t i n g the p r o v i s i o n s of the Government o f I r e l a n d A c t , 1920. 4. R o b e r t s o n , C. G. (ed.) - S e l e c t S t a t u t e s and Cases and Documents - Putnam's Sons, New Y o r k , 1904. C o n t a i n s i m p o r t a n t B r i t i s h l e g i s l a t i o n f o r I r e l a n d from t h e conquest to 1900. There i s no book a v a i l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g more than a h a n d f u l of such a c t s of the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t . SPEECHES h2*llL* 1. Annual R e g i s t e r : A Review of P u b l i c E v e n t s ( o l d s e r i e s , 1758 - 1862; new s e r i e s , 1863 - 1933) — longmans, Green and Co., London. G i v e s e x t r a c t s from and d i g e s t s o f most of t h e p u b l i c u t t e r a n c e s on I r i s h a f f a i r s . S e r v e d as the most v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s t h e s i s . The Annual R e g i s t e r was f i r s t e d i t e d by Edmund Burke. 2. Boyd, C. W. (ed.) — Speeches o f Joseph C h a m b e r l a i n — Houghton M i f f l i n Co., B o s t o n , 1914 - 2 Volumes. Volume one c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l o f Chamberlain's speeches on the Home Rul e q u e s t i o n . 3. Murray, John ( e d . ) — l e t t e r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a — T h i r d S e r i e s , 1886 - 1901 -- John Murray, l o n d o n , 1930 --Three volumes. A u s e f u l c o l l e c t i o n o f the l e t t e r s and d i a r i e s o f 202 Queen V i c t o r i a . There i s much v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the o p p o s i t i o n to G l a d s t o n e ' s Home Rule p o l i c y . 4. Rogers, J.E. (ed.) — Speeches o f John B r i g h t — S e c o n d e d i t i o n — M a c M i l l a n and Co., l o n d o n , 1869 — two volumes. B r i g h t ' s speeches on the I r i s h c h u r c h and I r i s h economic a f f a i r s a r e .contained i n volume one. BIOGRAPHIES' 1. B u r d e t t , 0. —• G l a d s t o n e — C o n s t a b l e and Co. — l o n d o n , 1927. A good one volume account o f G l a d s t o n e ' s c a r e e r . C r i t i c a l o f the o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s I r i s h p o l i c i e s . 2. Doubleday, T. — P o l i t i c a l l i f e o f S i r Robert P e e l Smith, E l d e r and Co., l o n d o n , 1856. Of some v a l u e f o r A n g l o - I r i s h r e l a t i o n s from 1829 to the famine o f 1846. 3. Edwards, J.H. — Da v i d l l o y d George -- Sears and Co., T$ew York, 1929 — two volumes. Very l i t t l e on I r i s h a f f a i r s . 4. E r v i n e , S t . John — P a r n e l l — l i t t l e Brown and Co., B o s t o n , 1925. A s y m p a t h e t i c account o f P a r n e l l ' s l i f e . C o n t a i n s u s e f u l documentary m a t e r i a l . 5. F i s h e r , H.A.I. — James Br y c e — M a c M i l l a n and Co., l o n d o n , 1927 - two volumes. An e x c e l l e n t c h a p t e r i n volume two on the p e r i o d o f B r y c e ' s I r i s h s e c r e t a r y s h i p . 203 6. Gwynn, D. — L i f e of John Redmond — George Harap and Co., London, 1952. One o f the b e s t s o u r c e s f o r p r i v a t e correspondence and o t h e r documents f o r the p e r i o d 1885 - 1917. An - i n v a l u a b l e book. 7. Gwynn, Denis — De V a l e r a -- t h i r d i m p r e s s i o n --J a r r o l d s P u b l i s h e r s , London, 1932. Ver y u s e f u l f o r the t a n g l e d a f f a i r s - o f the y e a r s from 1916 to 1952. C o n t a i n s a s p l e n d i d s e l e c t i o n o f documents. 8. G u e d a l l a , P. — The Queen and Mr. Glad s t o n e -- Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1953 - two volumnes. Background f o r G l a d s t o n e ' s Home R u l e p o l i c i e s . , .. C o n t a i n s a u s e f u l s e l e c t i o n of the correspondence between t h e s e two l e a d i n g f i g u r e s . 9. Hyde, H. M. — R i s e of C a s t l e r e a g h — M a c M i l l i a n and Co., l o n d o n , 1953. An e x c e l l e n t account f o r the background o f the Act of U n i o n . 10. J e y e s , S. H. — The E a r l o f R o s e b e r r y - J.M.Dent and Co., l o n d o n , 1906. For the Home R u l e movement. Shows the e a r l ' s v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e to I r i s h s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . 11. l e c k y , W.E.H. — l e a d e r s o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n i n I r e l a n d — a u t h o r i s e d e d i t i o n — longmans Green and Co., London, 1912 - t?/o volumes. Volume One i s u s e f u l f o r the p e r i o d o f G r a t t a n ; Volume Two i s a. v e r y r e l i a b l e s o u r c e f o r the work of D a n i e l O ' C o n n e l l . 204 12.. l y a l l , S i r . - A l f r e d - L i f e o f .the Marquis o f D u f f e r i n --John Murray, London, 1905 — two volumes. U s e f u l f o r the v i e w p o i n t o f the l a n d l o r d c l a s s o f I r e l a n d . 15. Monypenny, H. and B u c k l e , G.E. — l i f e o f D i s r a e l i — John ,Murray, l o n d o n , 1920 — f i v e volumes. The l a s t two volumes a re o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e f o r the p e r i o d 1860-1875. A good source f o r an account of the o p p o s i t i o n t o G l a d s t o n e ' s l a n d and church r e f o r m s o f 1869 and 1870. 14. M o r l e y , John — l i f e o f W i l l i a m Ewart G l a d s t o n e — M a c M i l l a n and Co., London, 1905 — t h r e e volumes. I n v a l u a b l e as a so u r c e f o r the Home R u l e move-ment. Numerous s e l e c t i o n s o f documentary m a t e r i a l . 15. Rose, J.H. — L i f e o f W i l l i a m P i t t -- George B e l l and Sons, l t d . , London. U s e f u l f o r the background o f the A c t o f Un i o n . 16. Rose, J.H. -- W i l l i a m P i t t and N a t i o n a l R e v i v a l — George B e l l and Sons, London, 1911. A few s e c t i o n s on the I r i s h q u e s t i o n between 1780 and 1790. 17. Spender, J.A. — l i f e o f R i g h t H o n o r a b l e S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman.^- Hodder and Stoughton, l o n d o n - -two volumes. U s e f u l f o r the Home R u l e s t r u g g l e from 1880 to 1914. 205 18. T a y l o r , IV .C. — L i f e and Times o f S i r Robert P e e l — P e t e r J a c k s o n and Son, l o n d o n , (n.d.) Of some l i t t l e use f o r A n g l o - I r i s h a f f a i r s i n the 1840's. GENERAL HISTORIES 1. Hayden, M. and Moonan, G. — A Short H i s t o r y o f t h e I r i s h People — T a l b o t P r e s s , D u b l i n , 1925. An e x c e l l e n t one volume s u r v e y o f I r i s h h i s t o r y from a n c i e n t t i m e s to the p r e s e n t . A r e m a r k a b l y u n b i a s s e d a c c o u n t . 2. Gwynn, Stephen — H i s t o r y of I r e l a n d — M a c M i l l a n and Co. l t d . , London, 1924. A l s o a v e r y u n p r e j u d i c e d account o f I r i s h h i s t o r y . 3. O'Connor, R i g h t H o n o r a b l e S i r James — H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d , 1790 - 1924 -- G.H.Doran Co., New York, 1925 --two volumes. A r a t h e r b i a s s e d treatment o f I r i s h development s i n c e G r a t t a n ' s p a r l i a m e n t . The w r i t e r , a C a t h o l i c , i s a s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r o f the U n i o n i s t cause. 4. L e c k y , W.E.H. — H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d i n the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y (new i m p r e s s i o n ) — Longmans Green and Co., lo n d o n , 1923 — f i v e volumes. The s t a n d a r d work on e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y I r e l a n d . R e f e r r e d t o by a l l s t u d e n t s ' o f I r i s h a f f a i r s . OTHER WORKS 1. B a r k e r , E. W. — I r e l a n d i n the l a s t F i f t y Y e a r s — C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , O x f o r d , 1916. A v a l u a b l e l i t t l e book o f economic changes i n I r e l a n d subsequent to 1860. £06 2. C r o z i e r , F. P. -- I r e l a n d f o r E v e r — Jonathan Cope, l o n d o n , 1932. A me l o d r a m a t i c "but not v e r y u s e f u l hook d e a l i n g w i t h the V o l u n t e e r movement and the " b l a c k - a n d t a n " regime. 3. D a v i t t , M i c h a e l — The F a l l o f F e u d a l i s m i n I r e l a n d — l o n d o n , 1904. A u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e f o r the economic s i t u a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The a u t h o r ( t h e head o f the famous l a n d league) devotes too much o f h i s hook to the P i g g o t t f o r g e r i e s . Shows the c r i m i n a l c o m p l i c i t y o f "The Times" and c e r t a i n government o f f i c i a l s . 4. George, D a v i d l l o y d -- Where a r e we Going? —- Hodder and Stoughton, l o n d o n , 1923. l l o y d George's r e f l e c t i o n s on the t r e n d o f B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s . A u s e f u l c h a p t e r on the 1921 t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s . 5. Gwynn, Stephen — I r e l a n d (The Modern World S e r i e s ) — •A E r n e s t Benn, l o n d o n , 1924. Sketches o f I r i s h l i f e . U s e f u l f o r "background. 6. . Henry, R. M. — The E v o l u t i o n o f S i n n F e i n — T a l b o t P r e s s , D u b l i n A s y m p a t h e t i c treatment of S i n n F e i n . 7. . Kohn, l e o -- The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e — H u t c h i n s o n and Co., l o n d o n , 1932. An e x c e l l e n t book. A c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e o f I r i s h h i s t o r y on the c o n s t i t u t i o n and 207 o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and changes i n t h i s i n s t r u -ment s i n c e 1922. 8. L e c k y , W.E.H. — Democracy and L i b e r t y — L o n g m a n s , Green and Co., London, 1912 — two volumes. U s e f u l m a t e r i a l on the C a t h o l i c e m a n c i p a t i o n move-ment. 9. Meech, T. C. — T h i s G e n e r a t i o n : a H i s t o r y o f Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d , 1900-1926 — Chatto and Windus, lo n d o n , 1927 — two volumes*. U s e f u l f o r background. 10. M i d l e t o n , The E a r l o f — I r e l a n d , Dupe o r H e r o i n e — 7/. Heinemann, l t d . , l o n d o n , 1922 -An u n s y m p a t h e t i c v i e w o f the N a t i o n a l i s t and S i n n P e i n movements. The w r i t e r i s a s t r o n g U n i o n i s t . 11. M i l l , J.S. P r i n c i p l e s of P o l i t i c a l Economy ( r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ) — C o l o n i a l P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1900 — two volumes. A r e f e r e n c e f o r the economic c o n d i t i o n s o f I r e l a n d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 12. Morton, H.V. — I n S e a r c h of I r e l a n d - Methuen, l o n d o n , 1930. A d e l i g h t f u l and k i n d l y account o f the s o c i a l l i f e o f I r e l a n d . M ight be r e a d w i t h p r o f i t by p r e j u -d i c e d c r i t i c s o f the Pree S t a t e . 13. 0 ' K e l l y , J . J . — The Case f o r U p h o l d i n g the I r i s h Re-p u b l i c — I r i s h R e p u b l i c a n Defense M i s s i o n , New York,1923. A c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s i n "The I r i s h W o r ld" (New Y o r k ) . A b i t t e r a t t a c k on the 1921 t r e a t y and opponents of de V a l e r a . S08 14. O x f o r d and A s q u i t h , the E a r l o f — Memories and Re-f l e c t i o n s , 1852 - 1927 — G a s s e l l and Co., l o n d o n , 1928 - two volumes. C o n t a i n s i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s on the e a r l ' s a t t i t u d e to I r i s h a f f a i r s . Not of g r e a t v a l u e . 15. P h i l l i p s , W. A. — • The R e v o l u t i o n i n I r e l a n d — Long-mans, Green and Co., London, 1925. A u s e f u l but not e n t i r e l y i m p a r t i a l a c c o u n t o f the N a t i o n a l i s t and S i n n P e i n movements, 1906 t o 1922. W e l l documented. 16. Pomfret, J.E.,-- The S t r u g g l e f o r l a n d i n I r e l a n d — P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n , 1930. An e x c e l l e n t and i m p a r t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f the l a n d q u e s t i o n . C o n t a i n s many u s e f u l e x t r a c t s o f o t h e r -wise, i n a c c e s s i b l e documentary m a t e r i a l 17. White, A.C. — The I r i s h P r ee S t a t e — H u t c h i n s o n and Co., London, 1926. Not so much an account o f the Pree S t a t e as a s y m p a t h e t i c t r e a t m e n t o f the G a e l i c movement. 18. Wicks, P. -- The T r u t h about Home Rule — S m a l l , Maynard Co., B o s t o n , 1913. An U l s t e r account f o r consumption i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A u s e f u l book i f approached w i t h a d o u b t i n g mind. PERIODICALS The f o l l o w i n g a r e the p e r i o d i c a l s from the f i l e s o f w h i c h the background f o r the t r e a t m e n t o f the p e r i o d from 1922 to 1934 was i n p a r t o b t a i n e d . 209 1. C u r r e n t H i s t o r y — New York Times Co., New Y o r k . B e s i d e s the innumerable l e a d i n g a r t i c l e s on I r i s h a f f a i r s t h e r e a re a l s o m o nthly d i g e s t s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n I r e l a n d . t o be found i n the i s s u e s o f t h i s mag-a z i n e . 2. E d i n b u r g h Review -.longmans, Green and Co., l o n d o n . The i s s u e s o f t h i s p e r i o d i c a l c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s by the U n i o n i s t w r i t e r , W. A. P h i l l i p s . 2. F o r t n i g h t l y Review — Horace M a r s h a l l and Son., l t d . , London. Most o f the a r t i c l e s on I r e l a n d found i n t h i s j o u r n a l were u n s y m p a t h e t i c to de V a l e r a . 4. n i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y (and a f t e r ) « C o n s t a b l e and Co.Ltd. London. C o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l e x c e l l e n t a p p r a i s a l s o f the developments i n I r e l a n d s i n c e 1922. 5. Q u a r t e r l y Review - John Murray, London. C o n t a i n e d some r e a l l y f i n e c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e s on the Free S t a t e 6. Round Table - M a c M i l l a n and Co., London. An e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w of p o l i t i c s o f the B r i t i s h E mpire. Most of the a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the Fre e S t a t e a re almost v i o l e n t l y a n t i - d e V a l e r a . 7. N a t i o n and Athenaeum - l o x l e y B r o s , l t d . , London. An e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on I r i s h a f f a i r s . I t s e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y on the whole d i s -approves o f U n i o n i s t U l s t e r . 

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