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An economic history of forestry in British Columbia Yerburgh , Richard Eustre Marryat 1931

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AN ECONOMIC HISTORY OP FORESTRY in BRITISH COLUMBIA by RICHARD EUSTRS MARRYAT YERBURGH. B C LIBRARY f ^^^jl ^ f CAT. N Q > E a / S 7 - ^ f t e f a ^ l /MvM°^ 1 ACC. NO. _ ? - 4 l i i L . 1 £ / , ) . \ 11 yl AIT ECONOMIC HISTORY OP FORESTRY in BRITISH COLUMBIA by RICHARD EUSTRE MARRYAT' YERBURGH A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS In The Department of ECONOMICS The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1931. TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS A. Y. B. B. C. L» Ch. c. y. B. E . E • J . F. B. C. I h i d J • Y. B. N. W. L. P. A. P. L. r e f . R. F . B» R • S • B. C • S • B» C• S. P. B. C. U. B. C. L. 3 r d B. E . F. C. A u s t r a l i a n Y e a r Book. B. C. Lumberman. Cha-pt e r . Canada Y e a r Book. E m p i r e F o r e s t r y J o u r n a l . F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . same work. J a p a n Y e a r Book. N o r t h West L i b r a r y . PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES. PROVINCIAL LIBRARY. R e f e r e n c e s h e l v e s . R e p o r t o f t h e F o r e s t B r a n c h . R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. L i b r a r y . T h i r d B r i t i s h E m p i r e F o r e s t r y D o n f e r e n c e . TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page I n t r o d u c t i o n I . PART I . G e o g r a p h i c a l C o n d i t i o n s a n d F o r e s t T y p e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 PART I I . F o r e s t H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 12 T a b l e I . A L i s t o f E a r l y Saw M i l l s 21 T a b l e 2. A Summary o f Lumber Development . . . 31 PART I I I . F o r e s t L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . 32 PART IVY F o r e s t P r o b l e m s . 70 T a b l e 3. T a b l e s h owing q u a n t i t y o f s e c o n d g r o w t h 77 PART V. M a r k e t s , P a s t , P r e s e n t , and F u t u r e 88 T a b l e 4. E a r l y E x p o r t s 89 T a b l e 5. D e t a i l s o f E x p o r t , 1872-3 90 T a b l e 6. L o g E x p o r t 98 T a b l e 7. S h i f t i n g C e n t e r s o f P r o d u c t i o n . . . . 102 T a b l e 8. S h i f t i n P u l p C e n t e r s . . . . 102 PART V I . F i n a n c i a l A s p e c t s . .103 T a b l e 9. D e t a i l s o f F o r e s t Revenue 1929 . . . .103 T a b l e 10. F o r e s t Revenue Compared ?;ith T o t a l P r o v i n c i a l Revenue . . . . . . . . . .104 T a b l e 11. F i r e Damage & F i r e - F i g h t i n g C o s t s .. .106 T a b l e 12. D e t a i l e d F o r e s t Revenue 1900-1929 . . 109 PART V I I . C o n c l u s i o n 114 A p p e n d i x A. B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . . I I I . A p p e n d i x B. T a b l e of Lumber E x p o r t s IX. A p p e n d i x C. P h o t o g r a p h s o f s e c o n d g r o w t h t i m b e r X I . A p p e n d i x D. T a b l e s o f f o r e s t e x p e n d i t u r e a n d Lumber c u t and t o t a l v a l u e X I I . A p p e n d i x Ev Graphs o f V a l u e a n d P r o d u c t i o n . . . . X I I I . IKFRODUCTIQK. An attempt to coordinate the widely scattered material which i s available on the subject of Forestry in B r i t i s h Columbia, may w e l l begin with a b r i e f account of the d i f f e r e n t types of forest to be found i n the Province. The two best sources f o r t h i s material are to be found i n the Canada Year (1) Book f o r 1926 , and i n the invaluable work of the Commission (2) of Conservation, "Forests of B r i t i s h Columbia". An account of the f o r e B t types i n B. C. w i l l be followed with a section dealing with the early history of f o r e s t r y i n the Province, compiled l a r g e l y from consultation of the l e t -t e r s , d i a r i e s , journals and other documents of the pioneers. A continuation of the foregoing history w i l l follow, bringing i t up to the present day, with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the notable f a c t s and happenings of the period. This w i l l include figures as to lumber cut and scaled, lumber and logs exported, and a comparison of the revenue accruing to the Province from forest sources, with the t o t a l P r o v i n c i a l Revenue. This w i l l be followed by a s l i g h t digression on the sub-je c t of Forest tenure i n B r i t i s h Columbia, both on P r o v i n c i a l and Dominion Lands, discussing i n some d e t a i l the various types of tenure, such as timber leases, timber licenses, tim-ber 3 a l e s and handloggers' l i c e n s e s . Again we are lar g e l y i n -debted to the Commission of Conservation i n t h e i r s i n g u l a r l y l u c i d explanation of an otherwise d i f f i c u l t subject, l l j Canada Year Book, 1926. (2) Forests o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Craig & Whitford. I . Subsequently a few comments on the subject of forest problems, including f o r e s t f i r e s and t h e i r cost, and a non-technical investigation into s i l v i c u l t u r a l methods in d i f f e r -ent countries, from which we may hope to p r o f i t . A short discursion on the subject of logging methods i s c l o s e l y i n v o l -ved with conservation methods. An Investigation into actual and possible markets w i l l he important as dealing more p a r t i c u l a r l y with the economic as-pects of f o r e s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A Table, showing ex-ports from the e a r l i e s t times, insofar as the figures are available, w i l l accompany t h i s section. A summary of a l l the preceding sections, with deductions as to what methods should be applied to our greatest natural resources^ both to the end of i t s conservation and highest u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l follow, together with an attempt to suggest Improvements for the present depressed state of the lumber industry. F i n a l l y , a bibliography and a series of s t a t i s t i c a l appen-dices w i l l be attached as a method of e a s i l y v e r i f y i n g sources and comparing f i g u r e s . I must express my deepest thanks to the P r o v i n c i a l L i b -rary S t a f f , the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. S t a f f , and the members of the Forest Branch, who rendered me untold assistance i n the search for hitherto untouched, or l i t t l e known source material. Without th&ir assistance t h i s attempt to contribute to a gener-a l knowledge of B r i t i s h Columbia could not have been achieved. I I . AIT ECONOMIC HISTORY OF FORESTRY Iff BRITISH COLUMBIA.  PART 1. Geographical Conditions and Forest Types i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The P a c i f i c slope i s characterized by the numerous ranges of p a r a l l e l mountains running from southeast to northwest. The Rocky Mountains vary i n a l t i t u d e from 5,000 to 10,000 fe e t , with many peaks of a considerably greater height. Between t h i s system and the P a c i f i c are the Selkirk and Cariboo Mountains, the Interior plateau and coast ranges with many smaller, i n t e r -mediate ranges, terminating with the sunken mountain chain, the upper elevations of which form Vancouver Island, the Queen Char-l o t t e group and the many lesser Islands which dot the coastline of B r i t i s h Columbia. The chief r i v e r s follow the valleys between these ranges, in some cases breaking through along the shorter cross valleys from east to west. The Rocky Mountains are c h i e f l y formed of Palaeozoic rocks, as are the Islands on the coast. The Coast Range i s almost e n t i r e l y g r a n i t i c , and the Selkirks Cambrian, or Pre-Cambrian. The intervening ranges are of mixed forma-t i o n , varying from rocks of sedimentary o r i g i n to granites. The best s o i l i s concentrated i n va l l e y bottoms and a l l u v i a l deltas, such as the Fraser Valley and the Delta d i s t r i c t near Vancouver. The climate along the Coast i s mild and humid, with a mean annual temperature varying from forty-four to forty-nine degrees Fahrenheit. (2) P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s the heaviest i n Canada, varying from for t y to a hundred and twenty inches, the greater part of which f a l l s during the autumn and winter, only t h i r t y percent f a l l i n g during the growing season, to which fact i s sometimes ascribed the sc a r c i t y of deciduous-leaved forest trees which require more moisture during the growing season. The con i f e r -ous tree growth i s the most l u x u r l ^ ^ a n d rapid growing in.. Canada, without exception. Our forests also contain the (| ^  largest i n d i v i d u a l trees and the heaviest stands of timber i n the country. The heaviest stands extend from sea l e v e l inland u n t i l the surrounding country attains an a l t i t u d e of from ^\i\j>,500 to 4,000 f e e t . The I n t e r i o r Dry Belt has a low p r e c i p i -t a t i o n , varying from ten to twenty inches, combined with ex-tremes of temperature varying from a hundred degrees Fahren-heit to f o r t y - f i v e below zero, making th i s an unfavourable region for tree growth. The winds from the P a c i f i c , which p r e c i p i t a t e most of th e i r moisture on the Coast Range, cross t h i s i n t e r i o r plateau, giving up a large part of t h e i r remaining moisture when they ; reach the Selkirks and Rocky Mountains, thus forming an Inter-i o r Wet Belt, centered i n the Columbia Valley. Here p r e c i p i t a -tion varies from t h i r t y to s i x t y inches, taking the form of snow i n the higher a l t i t u d e s . The temperature varies from a hundred degrees Fahrenheit to seventeen below zero. The Coast Belt includes several d i s t i n c t forest types, the i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s being determined by climatic and topo-graphic conditions, among which a l t i t u d e and p r e c i p i t a t i o n (3) have the greatest effect on forest growth. Douglas f i r and Red cedar are the p r i n c i p a l species i n the southern portion of the b e l t , to an a l t i t u d e of 2,000 to 2,500 feet. With these are associated hemlock, white pine, amabalis and lowland f i r . Toward the north and at higher a l t i t u d e s , Douglas f i r d i s -appears, and red cedar and hemlock are the most important trees with amabalis f i r and yellow cypress as su b s i d i a r i e s . In the Queen Charlottes and along the Coast, S i t k a spruce and Western Hemlock form a Lowland type. Western Yellow, or " b u l l pine", predominates at low a l t i -tudes bordering on the grass lands of the Interi o r Dry Belt, while Douglas f i r gradually increases i n importance at eleva-tions up to 3,500 and 4,500 fe e t . Western larch covers a l i m i -ted area between the true yellow pine and Douglas f i r types. At the northern and upper l a t i t u d i n a l l i m i t s of the Douglas f i r type, Engelman spruce develops and merges, into a spruce-alpine f i r type at s t i l l higher a l t i t u d e s . Lodgepole pine has taken the place of Douglas f i r , Engelman spruce, and i n some cases even of yellow pine on burned over areas, and has become, , to a considerable extent, an established type. Forest types si m i l a r to the Coast types have become estab-lished i n the Interi o r Wet Belt, with red cedar predominating in the wetter portions, mixed with Douglas f i r , Engelman spruce, white pine, hemlock, western larch, alpine f i r , lowland f i r and cottonwood. On the benches and lower v a l l e y slopes hem-lock and cedar are the important species, Engelman spruce re-placing cedar at higher elevations, with the l a t t e r gradually (4) disappearing, and the spruce-alpine f i r type stretching up to the timber^landT^To the north, Engelman spruce and alpine f i r are more prominent and the other species are gradually elimin-ated. The Rocky Mountain Belt includes some of the Dry Belt types to the south, and those of the In t e r i o r Wet Belt to the north. Otherwise the t y p i c a l forest of the Rocky Mountain Belt i s made up of Engelman spruce, and some white spruce, with an increasing proportion of alpine f i r as the a l t i t u d e i n -creases. This type has suffered so severely from f i r e , espec-i a l l y on the dry eastern slopes, that lodgepole pine has established i t s e l f permanently i n some cases and temporarily CD in others, on burned over areas. The timber l i n e achieves i t s greatest a l t i t u d e i n the Southern Inter i o r at 6,000 feet, on the Coast i t i s lower, 3,500 on Vancouver Island and 1,500 on the Portland Canal. In a l l cases t h i s s i g n i f i e s merchantable timber. Almost three-f i f t h s of the t e r r a i n of B r i t i s h Columbia are to be c l a s s i f i e d as unproductive from a fore s t r y point of view. In the moist valleys of the Coast some stands y i e l d 100,000 feet per acre |^oard measure), and treeless alpine conditions may exist a mile away. On almost any we l l timbered square mile on the Coast some part w i l l carry at least f i f t y thousand feet per acre, and on a considerable portion of the land no merchantable timber w i l l be found. (1) C.Y.B. 1926. (5) A c c e s s i b i l i t y has played a tremendous part i n the develop-ment of logging and lumbering i n the Province, with the result that i n the early days a l l the e a s i l y logged Coast timber was cleaned out. Now, however, with modern machinery and f a c i l i -t i e s , logging i s much more thorough. Pulp m i l l s have alte r e d matters considerably, f o r p r i o r to 1910 hemlock and balsam were e n t i r e l y omitted from cruisers' estimates, as being use-l e s s . Everyone i s f a m i l i a r with the importance of the pulp industry i n the Province today, largely e n l i s t i n g the formerly much despised woods. The t o t a l land area of the Province i s 355,865 square miles, of which approximately 200,000 square miles i s incapable of producing forest of commercial value; 145,000 square miles i s above the timber l i n e i on 55,000 square miles below, the s o i l i s either too rocky or too wet, or repeatedly burnt over. Of the remaining 155,855 square miles capable of producing only 28,000 square miles, less than one f i f t h , c arries s u f f i c i e n t (1) timber to be c l a s s i f i e d as statutory timber land. In the In t e r i o r are areas of forest land aggregating 23,800 square miles, which, although not reaching t h i s standard, carry between 1,000 and 5,000 b.f. per acre, a great part of which may be u t i l i z e d . Allowing 20,000 square miles f o r poten-t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land, we have an area of 135,855 square miles (1) P.B.C. p 6. The land Act defines statutory timber land, West of the Coast Range, as land bearing 8,000 feet b.m. per acre; and East of the Coast Range land bearing 5,000 feet b.m. per acre. ( 6 ) of absolute forest land which should permanently be devoted to forest production. The timber on about 100,000 square miles has been destroyed by f i r e , or two-thirds of the land once forested. Another half of the remaining 55,855 square miles of timber has been severely damaged by the same agency. Using timber s t i l l standing as a basis for c a l c u l a t i o n i t i s estimated that the Province has l o s t through f i r e s 665 b i l l i o n f e e t . When we consider that the t o t a l saw material of the whole Dominion probably does not exceed t h i s , the seriousness of t h i s l o s s , l a r g e l y attributable to public care-(1) lessness, becomes a grave problem for meditation. Of the species used i n pulp and paper (hemlock, balsam, spruce and cottonwood^) there i s estimated to be about 170 b i l -l i o n feet, or 243 m i l l i o n cords. This may be increased to about 250 m i l l i o n by u t i l i z i n g smaller sizes of timber, a very important matter i n view of the growth of the pulp and paper industry. To conserve one's fortune, expenditure must not exceed income, s i m i l a r l y to conserve our forest resources the annual cut and f i r e loss must not exceed the annual growth. Selected areas on the Coast which have been restocked have been found to have annual rate of growth of about 1,000 b.f. per acre per year over a period of f o r t y years. This i s f a r too high for a general average, even on the coast where the rate i s very high. (1) Ibid, p 7. These figures were compiled by the Commission of Con-servation i n 1918, and i t must be remembered that the loss from forest f i r e forms a f a r greater t o t a l today. (7) Taking a l l the foregoing factors into consideration i t has been assumed that the average annual growth might be conserva-t i v e l y estimated at 100 B.f>. per acre over approximately 50,000 acres of comparatively accessible timber land, reason-? ably protected from f i r e . This gives us f i v e b i l l i o n b.f. as the t o t a l average annual increment which could be cut without endangering our c a p i t a l . There i s much more timber at present inaccessible, so that t h i s i s a low estimate. The sawmills i n B r i t i s h Columbia were estimated i n 1914 to have an annual capacity of 2,555 b i l l i o n feet, and as the cut f o r the highest year to that time, 1913, was only 1,157 m i l l i o n feet the saw m i l l capacity was about double the cut. This lock-up of c a p i t a l i s p a r t l y due to the over-confidence of the lumbermen, i n the a b i l i t y of the markets to absorb lum«? ber, and p a r t l y to the e f f o r t s of the millmen to r e a l i z e quick-l y on timber investments. The l a t t e r has been forced by econo-(1) mic conditions. At the end of 1929 there were 354 operating sawmills with a d a i l y capacity of 11,896 thousand board feet; 95 shut-down sawmills with a d a i l y capacity of 2,200 thousand board feet; 53 operating shingle m i l l s with a d a i l y capacity of 7,881 thou-sand shingles and 15 shut-down shingle m i l l s with a d a i l y cap-(2) ac i t y of 1,726 thousand shingles. Now towards the end of 1930 many more m i l l s are closing down owing to i n a b i l i t y of (1) Ibid p 8. (2) Annual Report of the Forest Branch, 1929. (8) the foreign market to absorb the output, although the domestic market s t i l l keeps up to, par, according to reports given out by the m i l l operators. In Canada as a whole there are some 160 d i f f e r e n t species and v a r i e t i e s of plants attaining tree s i z e , only thirty-one of them, however, are coniferous, yet they form 80^ of the lumber. The p r i n c i p a l types of commercial importance i n B r i t -ish Columbia are:-SPRUCE: A l l the spruce species are of commercial impor-tance, t h e i r pulp being used i n preference to a l l other kinds. It has a long, tough, colorless f i b r e , and on account of i t s freedom from res i n i s p e c u l i a r l y adapted f o r pulp manufacture. It i s also used f o r poles,, railway t i e s , cooperage, and mining timbers. The chief v a r i e t i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia are the Engelman and Sitka (Picea Engelmanni and p. s i t c h e n s i s ) , <1md are confined to the i n t e r i o r and coastal regions respectively. Their wood i s of high technical value and can be obtained i n larger dimensions than the other spruces as trees at t a i n great size in t h i s region. PINE: Canada contains nine species a l l t o l d , of which the Western white pine (Pinus monticola) i s confined to B.C>, and i s similar i n most respects to the eastern species of white pine. The wood i s soft, easy to work, and f a i r l y durable and strong i n comparison to weight. Its most valuable quality i s (a) Eor Conversion factors see appendix. (a)-standing timber of the Dominion and provide 95^ of our sawn ( 9 ) i t s a b i l i t y t o h o l d i t s shape w i t h o u t s h r i n k a g e o r s w e l l i n g . I t does n o t f o r m any e x t e n s i v e p u r e s t a n d s , s e l d o m c o m p r i s i n g more t h a n b% o f t h e t r e e s on an a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e . ^ The wood o f t h e W e s t e r n y e l l o w , o r b u l l p i n e ( p . pon(erosa) i s s o f t e r and l i g h t e r i n c o l o r t h a n r e d p i n e and i s now e x t e n -s i v e l y u s e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e w h i t e s p e c i e s . The l o d g e -p o l e p i n e ( p . m u r r a y a n a ) i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d v a l u a b l e as lumber p r o d u c i n g t r e e , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e j a c k p i n e s a r e u s e d l o c a l l y f o r r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s u s e d f o r r a i l w a y t i e s t o an enormous e x t e n t , c h i e f l y on a c c o u n t o f i t s s t r e n g t h , c h e a p n e s s and a b u ndance. I t has a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d u s e i n t h e manufac- \ ^ t u r e o f K r a f t p u l p and i t s u s e f o r n e w s p r i n t p u l p i s f a s t / d e v e l o p i n g . DOUGLAS FIR; ( P s e u d o t s u g a t a x i f o l i a ) T h i s t r e e , so w e l l known i n B. G. and on t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t , i s o f t e n e r r o n e o u s l y c a l l e d Oregon p i n e e l s e w h e r e , and i s t h e o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f i t s genus i n Canada. I t p r o b a b l y y i e l d s more lumber annu-a l l y t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e s p e c i e s i n A m e r i c a . I t i s / n o t ^ ) f o u n d e a s t o f t h e R o c k i e s , t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e lumber b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n t h e C o a s t r e g i o n . T h i s i s Canada's l a r g e s t t r e e , and f r o m i t l a r g e r s t r u c t u r a l t i m b e r s c an be o b t a i n e d t h a n f r o m any o t h e r t r e e i n A m e r i c a . I t i s u s e d c h i e f l y f o r c o n -s t r u c t i o n p u r p o s e s , b u t on a c c o u n t o f i t s a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e i s a l s o u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y f o r i n t e r i o r f i n i s h i n g . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t as a m a t e r i a l f o r r a i l w a y t i e s and m i n i n g t i m b e r s , and i s n o t e d c h i e f l y f o r i t s s t r e n g t h and d u r a b i l i t y and t h e l a r g e d i m e n s j j j n s ^ j n _ j w h i c h i t can bei o b t a i n e d . _.. c ^ ^ 7 ^ > (10) HEMLOCK: Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) i s only found i n B r i t i s h Columbia^ and i s becoming more valuable every year as i t s q u a l i t i e s are better appreciated. It i s used more extensively than the Eastern variety f o r pulp, and for con-struction purposes, as i t i s cheap and strong. The bark i s also valuable f o r tannin. BALSAM FIR: This tree i s used f o r cheap lumber, and, to a large extent, for pulp, to which purpose i t i s admirably suited. The most important of the western species f o r lumber i s the ^alpine f i r (Abies lasiocarpa), although the two coastal spec-ies, lowland and amabalis f i r , are used for p u l p . ^ ^ •^t^t.^^'^ CEDAR: There are only two species of this tree found i n Canada, both being of great importance i n their own region. It i s the most durable coniferous wood i n the Dominion, and as such i s preferred to a l l other native woods f o r shingles and structural work exposed to moisture. Although not strong, i t s . great d u r a b i l i t y i n contact with the s o i l makes a valuable railway t i e material. It i s also used in enormous quantities l o c a l l y for poles, fence posts, and i s exported for the same purposes. Western red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) i s one of the giants of the P.acific Coast, surpassed only i n B. C. by the Douglas f i r . It i s used more than any other wood for shingles in Canada. TAMARACK or LARCH: Eastern tamarack (Larix l a r i c i n a ) i s found in every province i n the Dominion i n swampy situations, . and i_s, a hard, strong, durable wood. Western larch" ( l a r i x occidentalis) i s found only in southern B. C , and i s more (11) important, growing on better s i t e s and attai n i n g a great^j s i z e . The wood of both i s cut for lumber, railway t i e s , and (1) mining timbers. (1) C.Y.B. 1926. (12) PART 2. Forest History i n B r i t i s h Columbia Many h i s t o r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia have been written, but few touch i n any d e t a i l on the subject under discussion, so we must perforce have recourse to the early writings, l e t -t ers, journals and d i a r i e s of the pioneers of the Province, A remarkably f i n e c o l l e c t i o n of these i s to be found, excel-l e n t l y catalogued and inst a n t l y available, i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. In these old writings v/e f i n d family l e t t e r s , o f f i -c i a l government l e t t e r s , applications f o r timber r i g h t s , sand-wiched together with intensely i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l s of the l i f e of the colony at that time. It i s from these old writings that a large part of our early history must be compiled. Much of the following section w i l l thus consist of a series of ex-trac t s from l e t t e r s , etc. Our e a r l i e s t reference to m i l l s i n the P a c i f i c North West i s to be found i n the U. S. Congressional Record, of Jan. 25th, 1831, which states that "Both g r i s t and saw m i l l s have been b u i l t at Fort Vancouver"! 1 ^CW^^^^ The next reference we fi n d i s i n an excerpt from the r e -cord of the B r i t i s h and American Joint Commission on Hudson*s Bay and Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Companies claims, i n the examination of Dugald MacTayish; "Int. 235 - D6 you know where the m i l l s were b u i l t ? Ans.. - There were m i l l s , saw and g r i s t , at work when I went to Vancouver f i r s t i n 1839, which, of course, were b u i l t ( l ) U.S. Congressional Record, 1831. (13) previous to my a r r i v a l , but I could not say when. There were additional structures put up both at the g r i s t and sawmills in the shape of new m i l l s some time between 1844 and 1846. Int. 236 - Why were the new saw and g r i s t m i l l s b u i l t ? Ans. - The new g r i s t m i l l was of a much larger size than the other, and the other saw m i l l waB, I think, in addition to (1) the one that was working." S i r James Douglas's diary or journal of a journey from Port Vancouver to York Factory y i e l d s r i c h pickings, as here we have our f i r s t indications of the output of the e a r l i e s t m i l l s * Tuesday, 3d Mar. 1835. "Left Fort Vancouver today with three boats, manned with 29 Canadians and Iroquois, part of whom are to be l e f t at Fort C o l v i l l e . We landed at the Saw M i l l and remained there for nearly an hour. It works 12 saws, (2) and cuts about 3,500 feet of inch boards during the 24 hours". Extract from a l e t t e r to Mr. MacTavish, London, 4th Mar. 1835: "As the saw m i l l and steam engine may probably be found useful on the West side of the mountains we have desired they (3) be taken down, and sent home t h i s season i f possible". Charles Wilkes speaks of v i s i t i n g the g r i s t and sawmill at Fort Vancouver i n 1841 with an American exploring expedi-t e t i o n . (1) Commission on Hudson's Bay & Puget Sound Claims. i2) Journal of S i r James Douglas, p 1. 3) Ibid, p 141. 4) Wilkes. U.S. Exploring Expedition, Vol. 5, p 335. (14) In 1846 the Hudson 1s Bay-Company had a saw-mill at Par-son's Bridge, which was l a t e r moved to Craigflower (3 miles from V i c t o r i a ) . Extracts from the Royal Emigrants' Almanack say i n 1853: "sawmill going strong", and l a t e r i n 1865 that the frame of the saw m i l l was r a i s e d . ( i t looks as i f the (1) machinery might have been going i n a temporary buildingy (2) One year l a t e r Esquimalt possessed a water power m i l l . In 1853 the Vancouver Island Sawmill Company erected the f i r s t (3) steam saw m i l l at Albert Head, l a t e r moving to Sooke. In 1857 the m i l l was purchased by James Duncan, together with the sur-(4) rounding land. There i s on record a l e t t e r from Alex. C. Anderson, Port Vancouver, to A. G. Dallas, dated 25th Mar. 1852, asking what price masts and spars of good quality would,fetch i n the market at Shanghai; what the demand might be, and what would be the most marketable dimensions. He i s writing as a private i n d i v i -dual and not as a member of the Hudson's Bay Company* and states that "masts and spars of the best quality and of the largest dimensions may be supplied thence"-. This l e t t e r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting as being the f i r s t suggestion on the (5) subject of building up an export trade. A l e t t e r written by James Douglas to W. P. Tolmie on June 3rd 1851 informs us that the price of timber was then as high (1) Vancouver Island - Settlement. James Dean. 2) Diary. Roderick Pinlayson. p 18. ,3) C. H. Pranch. ,4) Dean, p 27. Letter. A. Anderson to A. Dallas. (15) (1) as #25 per thousand f e e t . In another l e t t e r then written on Fee. 22nd 1853 the same correspondent informs W. F. Tolmie that he wishes the lumber had been sent to Fort V i c t o r i a by (2) the "Mary Dare". We have a private l e t t e r from Governor Douglas to Mr. Justice Begbie, Mar. 24, 1859, written i n V i c t o r i a , i n which he approves the arrangement with Mr. Goe f o r building a saw-m i l l at Fort Hope, but suggesting that Mr. Coe be bound to supply a l l timber required f o r Government purposes at the rate of $30 a thousand, as a great deal of timber w i l l be required (3) for housing troops and other Government purposes. It i s on record that the m i l l was duly b u i l t by Coe that same year. This appears to be the f i r s t occasion on which the Government ever imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on lumbering operations. In 1859 a m i l l was b u i l t by Fleming and Company at Fort (4) Yale pursuant to a permit issued to them i n 1858, and i n the following year a saw m i l l i s referred to at Fort langley. A l e t t e r to the Colonial Secretary, W.A.G. Young, from William Banfield, dated Oct. 24th, 1859, contains a report on the quality and quantity of timber on and around Barclay Sound. It reads i n part "good Red Yellow Pine and Spruce exists i n quantity of a good t a l l growth of trees, some measuring 80 to 110 feet i n length, and diametre i n proportion from 20 i n . to 30 i n . and above"..."I think warrant me i n stating that ere long i t w i l l cause Barclay Sound to be noticed and must ( l ) Letter. James Douglas to W. F. Tolmie. "2) Letter. James Douglas To W. F. Tolmie (2nd l e t t e r ) 3) Letter. Governor Douglas to Mr. Justice Begbie. (4) Letter. Sandford Fleming & Co. to Colonial Secretary. (16) eventually become an a r t i c l e of export"... "Cedar of course abounds and i s of giant growth: t h i s wood i s almost unknown (1) i n our English dockyards". On the 2nd of February, 1860, Thomas Donahu, writing to Governor Douglas, informs us that nine months previously he had b u i l t a sawmill, apparently near Hew Westminster, and cut timber from, and made roads through the surrounding land. Asks permission to purchase t h i s land which was now being held (2) by pre-emptors. In May of the same year James Duncan wrote to the Colon-i a l Secretary requesting permission to s e t t l e on land at Alberni to erect a sawmill, after having adjusted his a f f a i r s with the late Albert He&d M i l l proprietors. (This land he de-•(3) sired was at the head of the Alberni Canal.) On the 20th August, 1863, we have a second l e t t e r from the same man to the Colonial Secretary, complaining that land purchased and held by him at Albert Head had been sold by the Government. (This land and sawmill had been purchased by him from the Vancouver Island Steam Sawmill Company at Albert Head in 1857, and $3,712 spent i n improvements on the m i l l and (4) land. On Feb. 20th, 1860, a l e t t e r i s on record from Boles Gaggin of Douglas, B. C , to W.A.G. Young, reporting that Alex. Macdonald, proprietor of the m i l l there, has applied - ^ ^ / j 1 ) better. Banfield to W.A.G. Young, (2) Letter. Thomas Donahue to Governor 3 (2) Letter. Thomas Donahue to Governor Douglas. "3) Letter. James Douglas to Colonial Secretary. 4) Letter. James Douglas to C o l o n i a l Secretary. (17) (1) for 160 acres of timber land adjoining the m i l l . This was soon followed by another l e t t e r to Col. Moody, Chief Commis-sioner of Lands and Works, asking for the aforegoing land (2) claim at Douglas. A l e t t e r i s on record, written on July 25th, 1862,, by T. Elwin to the Colonial Secretary, reporting that the owner of the sawmill at Antler Creek, R.P. Baylor, has offered to furnish f r e e of charge lumber f o r building a house i f the ( 3 ) Government w i l l erect i t on the sawmill f l a t . In Anderson's History of the North West Coast he mentions that Messrs. E. Stamp and Company have, at very heavy outlay, erected sawmills and other works, with a view to the shipment of odd deals and spars. "Both these are of the f i n e s t quality and the most splendid growth, and w i l l shortly become the material of widely extended commerce'now only i n i t s infancy". (This paper appears to have been written i n or about 1862. The Albernie M i l l s kept working only two or three years. T. H. Long.) - _____ • -/< William Banfield, writing on Nov. 10th'from Barclay Sound, to the Colonial Secretary, reports that "there are two large American ships, each over 1,000 tons, registered i n Albernie. One the •Pocahontas 1, loading spars f o r London, (5) the other 'Starr King', loading deals for A u s t r a l i a " . AfJ-'y f l l ) Letter. Boles Gaggin to W.A.G. Young. I (2) Letter. Boles Gaggin to Col. Moody. X, M 3 ) Letter. T. Elwin to the Colonial Secretary. (4) Anderson. History of the North West Coast, p 99-100. ^(5) Letter. W. Banfield to the Colonial Secretary. (18) Again w r i t i n g on August 24th from Grappler Creek, Chiat, Bar-clay Sound, "Ships at A l b e r n i e — E n g l i s h barque "Granger", a (1) Dutch ship, and an American barquentine loading lumber."-Matthew Macfie gives us some very i n t e r e s t i n g material, including some of the e a r l i e s t known export f i g u r e s . "As yet there i s only one firm i n the Island (Anderson & Co.) that has been engaged i n the export of timber on a scale commensurate with the importance of t h i s trade and the inexhaustable nature of t h i s department of our resources, with the neighboring coast of the s i s t e r colony, Vancouver Island offers f a c i l i t i e s f o r the establishment of numberless companies of t h i s charac- . t e r . The house referred to had been p r a c t i c a l l y conversant with the l u c r a t i v e nature of the business for many years before building t h e i r own sawmills, having been accustomed to send p r o f i t a b l e shipments of lumber from Puget Sound ports to var-ious foreign ports. They only commenced operations at Barclay Sound i n 1861, and the extent to which they have supplied vessels with return cargoes p l a i n l y indicates how ripe i s the f i e l d for the introduction of vigorous competition. Comparative Statement of the Export of Lumber from the Alberni M i l l s during 1862 and 1863. Description. 1862. 1863. Increase. Sawn Lumber (Uo. of feet) 7,490,00.0: 11,273,000: 3,783,000. Spars. • 990: 1,300: 400. x^j/(l) L e t t e r . W. Banfield to the Colonial Secretary. (19) The shipments from Alberni of Lumber, coastwise, amounted in 1863 to 1,000,000 feet, and were conveyed to V i c t o r i a i n the steamer Thames, and the schooners "Alberni" and "Meg Merrilees"; the f i r s t making during the year f i v e t r i p s , the second eight, and the t h i r d one. Besides supplying the French, Spanish and Sardinian Govern* ments dockyards with spars, they are doing a large trade i n sawn lumber f o r building purposes. I notice among the destina-tions to which they have sent t h i s f r e i g h t , Callao, Honolulu, Sydney, Melbourne, London, Valparaiso, Coquimbo, Adelaide, Shanghai, Batavia, Lima, Hong Kong, Otago, Manilla, I t a l y , etc. One or two other small firms carry on an increasing trade in lumber, but t h e i r exports are c h i e f l y coastwise. Lumber received coastwise f o r consumption i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver Island during the year 1863s-From Alberni m i l l s (Anderson & Co.) 1,000,000 f e e t . " Cowichan M i l l (W.P. Sayward) 1,666,000 " " Sooke M i l l (Michael Muir) 100,000 " Total number of feet 2.766.000. ....spars from the North American shores of the P a c i f i c w i l l always command a high p r i c e i n Spain, France and England, and building lumber need not f a i l of being readily and p r o f i t -ably disposed of i n A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, South America, (1) China, and, eventually, Japan". Mention must be made at th i s time of the m i l l established at Sooke by Michael Muir, 1862-63, purchased i n 1864 by Messrs. (2) Duncan and George. The Alberni M i l l s mentioned above as 1) Macfie. Vancouver Island & B r i t i s h Columbia, p 134-5 2) Deans, p 27. (20) operated by Anderson & Co. were o r i g i n a l l y i n i t i a t e d by (1) L t . Edward Stamp, one of the pioneer millmeh of the Province, A l e t t e r i s extant, dated Oct. 17th 1864 from George and Dun-can to the Acting Colonial Secretary, Henry Wakeford, "About / starting the steam saw m i l l at Sooke, having purchased the same from Messrs. Muir", and applying for timber land a few miles down the S t r a i t s , i n order to supply lumber for building (2) purposes, the supply now being brought i n from the States. A s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r item of interest i s to be found i n the l e t t e r from Sandford Fleming and Company to W.A.G. Young, datedj at Port Yale August 24th 1859s "We are under the necessity of asking your favorable consideration i n r e l a t i o n to our sawmill at t h i s place...about one year ago we obtained a permit from His Excellency Gov. Douglas to erect a m i l l at the present s i t e " . The complaint i s i n connection with a rent of #50 per month for the land, claiming that after the a r r i v a l of Colonel Moody other m i l l s did not have to pay t h i s rent, and claiming (3) equal p r i v i l e g e s . On August 24th 1863, B.M. Pearse wrote to the Colonial Secretary that the sections of land applied f o r by Mr. James Duncan, v i z . 1, LI, L I I , XLII, XLIII, XLIV, LVII, LVIII, LIX, were sold to Mr. Finlayson on behalf of .the proprietors of the V. I. Steam Sawmill Co. on Jan. 1st, 1859, but as only the (1) Anderson, p 99-100. /"(2'J Letter. George & Duncan to the Colonial Secretary. ( (3) Letter. Fleming & Co. to the Colonial Secretary. (21) f i r s t installment was paid on Dec. 9, ,1861, the land was sold (1) excepting sections XLIV and LI. Continuing to trace the development and founding of the early m i l l s we fi n d a l e t t e r to the Surveyor General of B. C , J. W. Trutch, from Thomas George Askew, dated July 31, 1868: "I, being the owner of a Saw-Mill at Horseshoe Bay, Chemainus D i s t r i c t , wish to ascertain on what conditions the Government w i l l grant or lease me - for a term of years, say 7 or 10 - a certain portion of land situate on the Western side o f ( ^ r s t e r Bay, Chemainus, and marked Lot No. 1 and 2 on the sketch i n -closed...the South l o t to run back (••_•) ha l f a mile from the beach; for the purpose of cutting the timber thereon". The request was granted, after some correspondence, one l e t t e r of (2) which contains a copy of the license and sketch. In Harvey's S t a t i s t i c a l Account of B r i t i s h Columbia, pub-lished in 1867 we fi n d an intere s t i n g table of the sawmills i n B. C. and on the Island, together with .the owners' names and location of the m i l l . TABLE I . EARLY MILLS, THEIR OWNERS & LOCALITIES. Location. VANCOUVER ISLANDS Barclay Sound Chemainus tt * NAME OF MILL. Alberni Kennear Shepherd OWNER'S NAME. Sproat & Co. Kennear Geo. Askew ' / ( l ) Letter. B.M. Pearse to the Colonial Secretary. • (j(2) Letter. J . W. Trutch from T.G. Askew. Location. M i l l Stone Creek Shawnigan Sooke Harbour Spring Vale MAINLAND; Burrard's Inlet n it Hodge?s F l a t New Westminster Wild Horse Creek (1) Williams Creek (22) Name of M i l l . Vancouver Coal Co. Saywards Muir & Co. Cameron's B r i t i s h Colum-bia Co's. Moody and Co's. Hodges' Moody and Co's. Wood and Angell's Owner* s Name. Vancouver Coal Col. W. T. Sayward Muir & Co. Hon. D. Cameron. B r i t i s h Columbia Co. Moody and Co. Hodges. Moody and Co. Wood and Angell. A l e t t e r was received by the Colonial Secretary, written by Charteris Brew, in the Cariboo, Nov. 11, 1868, enclosing a l e t t e r from Captain Stamp, and his reply re p r i v i l e g e (to Stamp of cutting timber on the Naval Reserve). The enclosure i s signed Edw. Stamp, written on paper headed B.C.-& V.I. Spar Lumber and Saw M i l l Co. Ltd., Messrs. E. Stamp and Co. London, (2) Merchants. This i s more important than i t appears as there i s much confusion as to the correct name of the Company. Following the same subject, Henry Pellew Crease, Attorney General's Office, wrote to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, ( l ) Harvey. S t a t i s t i c a l Account of B. C. p 16. A2) Letter. Charteris Brew to the Colonial Secretary. s (23) (H. M. Ball) 3rd Dec. 1868, enclosing a copy of the correspon-dence with the stipendiary magistrate of lew Westminster, noti f y i n g the completion and execution of the Naval Reserve timber cutting license..."too l a t e to insert a clause of right of way i n favor of Captain Stamp through the Naval Re* (1) serve at Burrard I n l e t " . Alston, i n his Handbook of B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island, has the following: "The Douglas Pine* with i t s straight uniform trunk often 200 feet high and exceedingly tough and f l e x i b l e , furnishes the f i n e s t masts and spars for the largest vessels. On Burrard's Inl e t , near New Westminster, are two large m i l l s , one belonging to Messrs. Moody and Co., the other to the V.I. & B.C. Spar Lumber and Saw m i l l Co. of London, employing between them over 500 hands. The lumber i s of such excellent quality as to f i n d a market even i n San Francisco, notwithstanding the heavy duty of 30$ ad valorem...The major-i t y of the cargoes are dispatched to China and South America. Among the other trees are to be found Menzles Pine, white pine, s i l v e r f i r , yew, oak (on V.I. only), hemlock, maple, spruce, cypress, arbutus, juniper, poplar, alder and gigantic^ (2) cedar, often ten feet through and 200 feet i n height." In another volume v/e f i n d : "During ten years ending 1870 about 60,000,000 feet of rough and dressed Douglas F i r lumber, with a quantity of laths', shingles, pickets and about 3,500 -~ spars, were exported. This export has greatly increased since. /•"(l) Letter. H.P. Crease to Chief Commissioner of Lands, / (2) Alston. Handbook of B.C. and V.I. p 10. (& Works. (24) Wages to woodmen range from about 25 to 35 gold d o l l a r s a month with board, and the same i n saw m i l l s , with high wages for a few of the more- s k i l l e d and responsible men...Work in the woods goes on throughout the year, but time i s l o s t to i workmen when i t rains heavily i n winter...There are about f i f t e e n sawmills throughout the Province, but of these three only furnish cargo f o r export. Logs delivered at the m i l l cost from 4 to 6 d o l l a r s a thousand feet s u p e r f i c i a l , and the cost of sawing adds f i v e to seven dollars...The only timber exported in cargoes i s that of the Douglas F i r , commonly called pine...The p r i n c i p a l existing m i l l s are i n the d i s t r i c t of Hew Westminster, and probably that neighborhood w i l l con-of which i s unknown. However, the writer seems to ppeak with assurance. It concerns the old Muir m i l l at Sooke: "The s i t e of the f i r s t saw m i l l was at the entrance to the In l e t . The frame work of t h i s was removed i n 1854 to the small bay just after John Whiffen, R.N.> clerk of the H.M.S. Herald, survey-ing vessel i n 1846) and at the west end of the I n l e t . Here finished lumber was turned out by the Muirs and shipped to San Francisco and other ports by brigs such as the "William", "Rose", "Senator'!, "John Marie", "Northwestern", besides these the Muirs themselves put out a schooner "Annie Taylor", (1) Ibid, p 52. tinue to be the chief seat of the export of Douglas F i r " . (1) inside the f i r s t point to the north of Whiffen Spit (so named (25) b r i g " R o b e r t Cowan", and a s t e a m e r , " S p r i n g - W o o d s i d e " , a f t e r t h e home and f a r m o f J o h n M u i r w h i c h l a y between S p r i n g s i d e and Sooke Bay. W o o d s i d e Farm h o u s e i s s t i l l o c c u p i e d as s u c h and s t a n d s i n a v e r y f a i r s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , a f i n e o l d h o u s e w i t h s p a c i o u s and l o f t y rooms. Some y e a r s l a t e r t h e o l d and cumbersome m a c h i n e r y o f t h e m i l l was s o l d and t h e m i l l a g a i n moved, t h i s t i m e s t i l l f u r t h e r w i t h i n t h e h a r b o u r , and a new and more up t o d a t e p l a n t p u r c h a s e d . T h i s was r u n by waiter power d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e dam a t S p r i n g s i d e and t h e c e d a r swamp p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . I t was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e i n 1878, b u t s o o n r e b u i l t and t h e n r u n by b o t h steam and w a t e r power, n e a r t h e s i d e o f t h e p r e s e n t Government w h a r f , and c o n t i n u e d t o r u n u n t i l c l o s e d down i n 1892. The o n l y m i l l a t p r e s e n t on t h e Sooke I n l e t i s C h a r t e r s M i l l , o p e r a t e d by W i l l i a m B e l l C h a r t e r s , a son o f W i l l i a m C h a r t e r s , one of t h e p i o n e e r s e t t l e r s who g a v e t h e s i t e f o r t h e f i r s t s c h o o l h o u s e i n t h e d i s t r i c t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e f i r B t J o h n M u i r s a t i n t h e f i r s t Government f o r t h e C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and h i s s o n , Andrew M u i r , was t h e f i r s t S h e r i f f o f V i c t o r i a . Andrew M u i r ' s r e m a i n s were i n t e r r e d i n t h e o l d Q uadra S t r e e t C e m e t a r y " . I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o r e t r a c e our s t e p s f o r a s h o r t d i s -t a n c e t o about 1864, when i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e f i r s t o v e r s e a s s h i p m e n t o f lumber was made t o A u s t r a l i a f r o m t h e J . A . L . Homer M i l l a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h e s e e a r l y e x p o r t e r s o f c o u r s e h a d none o f o u r modern r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e way o f b i l l s o f e x c h a n g e , d r a f t s a g a i n s t b i l l s o f l a d i n g , c a b l e g r a m s , (26) or foreign agents, so a trusted agent had to t r a v e l with each (1) cargo. Homer's m i l l was situated on the north arm of the Fraser just a l i t t l e west of the present location of the Bucklin, or Mohawk Lumber Company m i l l . It i s stated i n news-paper records that the cargo above mentioned consisted of 370,000 feet, and was shipped to Sydney, A u s t r a l i a , on the s a i l i n g ship; "Kinnaird", being towed to sea by the tug " F i d e l i t e r " of Nanaimo, under command of Captain Titcombe on Nov. 24th 1864. W. B. Wilson, Homer's brother-in-law was sent as super-cargo. It was not, however, a p r o f i t a b l e ship-(2) ment • In 1865, Rogers logged off Burrard Inlet and continued on to Jericho. R. Preston operated at Coal Harbour and Stan-ley Park, whilst A. Eraser logged off part of Point Grey, dumping i n the North Arm of the Fraser. Furrey and Daggett also logged i n Point Grey, centering c h i e f l y on what i s now the University s i t e and the Government Reserve. A. G i l l e s p i e was logging near, and dumping into False Creek. A l l t h i s was done with bullock teams, horses and mules, although f o r a short time Rogers used a t r a c t i o n engine. The e a r l i e s t way of towing was by whaleboat, the next step was a boat c a l l e d the "Isobel?., the ^Maggie" b u i l t at Jericho, which was i n turn followed by the "Sudden Jerk", apparently not inappropriately named, as her machinery consisted of a threshing r i g , with the engine mounted on the b o i l e r . She could go ahead, but {!) Empire Forestry Journal. Vol. 4, No. 1, 1925, p 26. (2) B.C. Lumberman. Nov. 1924, p 27. (27) not In reverse, and was of course a paddle wheeler. The "Etta White", b u i l t i n the early seventies at F a i r p o r t , Wash-ington, was a great advance, having gun-boat engines and a brickyard b o i l e r , using slabs of wood as f u e l . She f i n a l l y caught f i r e and sank i n the Fraser as recently as 1920. Oddity as she would have seemed to us she was, however, the forerunner of the very e f f i c i e n t f l e e t of t r i p l e expansion, high-pressure, oil-burning tugs of today. The f i r s t steam logging machinery actually b u i l t f o r the purpose was the v e r t i c a l spool donkey. "This consisted of a spool something l i k e a ship's capstan, which was mounted with engines and a b o i l e r , the spool revolving. A cable would be strung i n the woods and hooked on to a log; three or four wraps taken around the spool and the engine started, and a man or men would haul i n and c o i l the cable as i t came of f the spool. When the log had been pulled up to the engine the turns were thrown o f f , a l i n e horse hitched up, who drew the l i n e back to the woods again. This was a very slow" and un-(1) s a t i s f a c t o r y system." Another early Mainland m i l l was the Edmonds and Webster, which was followed shortly by the Dominion b u i l t a l i t t l e further west than the present C.P.R. depot, and the m i l l b u i l t f o r W.J. Armstrong on Front Street, behind the present Commer-c i a l Hotel. The millwright for t h i s was John Hendry, who, two years l a t e r associated himself with Andrew Haslam, R.B. K e l l y and David Warr, and b u i l t the f i r s t plant of the Royal City (1) Ibid, August 1926. (28) M i l l s . They had previously had a s i m i l a r m i l l at Nanaimo, and removed the machinery to New Westminster for their new under-taking. In 1878 another m i l l , the Brunette Lumber Company, organized by four brothers De Beck, who operated i t for some time, l a t e r s e l l i n g to J. Wilson and L. A. Lewis who continued in active control u n t i l 1920. In the next four years the property changed hands twice, was destroyed by f i r e and re-b u i l t on a larger scale. It had also been burned down in 1895 and re-erected almost on the present s i t e . Shortly after the inauguration of the Brunette M i l l came the famous Eraser M i l l s , o r i g i n a l l y Ross-McLaren, erected by the McLaren brothers who b u i l t the North P a c i f i c M i l l at Barnet. They had early bought large timber holdings at a time when they could be bought out-right on favorable terms i f a saw m i l l were erected. The m i l l s b u i l t in 1880 ran f o r a short time and closed on the death of Ross, were f i n a l l y revived again and are now operated by the Canadian West Lumber Company, the l a s t modern m i l l to have i t s (1) o r i g i n in pioneer times. While writing of old m i l l s , the Chemainus m i l l must not be neglected as i t i s one of B. C.'s most noteworthy achieve-ments in the matter of lumbering. The f i r s t m i l l of which we hear at Chemainus was operated by the Askew, who has already been mentioned i n the previous section. This was over hal f a century or more ago. The o r i g i n a l m i l l was operated by water-power, but i n 1883 an improved m i l l was erected on the same lin e s by Messrs. Croft and Angus. The record output of the (1) Ibid, Nov. 1924, p 27. (29) l a t t e r m i l l was about 20,000 feet per day. In 1888 the late Mr. J. A. Humbird opened negotiations to secure timber land on the E and H Railway grant, approximating 1,500,000 acres. This acreage was withdrawn from the market for two years to obtain an opportunity of securing such stands as might be desired, and Humbird accompanied by Messrs. Palmer, Phipps and Glover came to the Island f o r the purpose of c r u i s -ing and selecting t h e i r requirements. In the following year the V i c t o r i a Lumber and Manufacturing Company Limited was duly incorporated. Several b i l l i o n feet of timber were purchased, and the Croft and Angus m i l l at Chemainus was acquired by the new concern who operated i t to cut lumber for the erection of t h e i r own m i l l . In March 1896 the V i c t o r i a Lumber Col began to operate seriously, the m i l l representing at the time the very l a t e s t thing i n saw m i l l construction, and was a source of s a t i s f a c t i o n and pride to the directors and shareholders, and aroused considerable interest i n lumbering c i r c l e s . This predecessor of the V i c t o r i a Lumber and M i l l i n g Co. i n 1896 commenced the dawn of a new era of e f f i c i e n t m i l l i n g , a per-formance to be p a r a l l e l e d by i t s successors i n the erection of the new Chemainus M i l l i n 1925. The m i l l was b u i l t and designed o r i g i n a l l y for shipments by sea only, but l a t e r paid much attention to the demands of , the r a i l r o a d business. From the date of i t s opening to that of the disastrous f i r e i n 1923, when i t was t o t a l l y wiped out, the old Chemainus plant shipped nearly a b i l l i o n feet of lum-ber; of t h i s approximately 50% went by r a i l , the record (30) shipment f o r any one month being 212 carloads." The figure of 50,000,000 feet had been the objective to be cut for 1923, but the destructive f i r e resulted i n the production of only 47,000,000. With only a few minor s t r u c t u r a l alterations and additions the plant operated continuously f o r twenty-seven years. Its d a i l y capacity^beTng) about 200,000 feet, 50,000 laths and 50,000 shingles i n a ten-hour run. Prom start to f i n i s h the old m i l l loaded approximately 400,000,000 feet for (1) export abroad. With the erection of the new m i l l at Chemainus i n 1925, one of the largest and most e f f i c i e n t of i t s kind i n the world, we may well end t h i s account of the h i s t o r i c a l development of lumbering and forestry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s f i t t i n g to r e c a l l the development i n the Province of t h i s industry, over the space of ninety years, the development from the f i r s t m i l l s , capable of a pa l t r y two or three thousand feet per day, to the huge modern plants, turning out 200,000 feet of lumber (2) and thousands of laths and shingles. (1) Ibid. Oct. 1925, p 90. (2) E.F.J. Vol. 4, No. 1, p (31) TABLE 2. HISTORICAL SUMMARY. 1831 Saw m i l l at Fort Vancouver. 1845 (approx.) Another m i l l at Fort Vancouver. 1846 Hudson's Bay m i l l at Parson's Bridge. 184? Esquimalt saw m i l l , operated by water power. 1853 F i r s t steam m i l l at Albert Head. 1852 Anderson inquires about Oriental market. 1859 M i l l b u i l t at Fort Hope by Mr. Coe. 1859 M i l l b u i l t at Ft. Yale by Fleming and Co. 1860 James Duncan applies f o r land at A l b e r n i . 1860 T. Donahu - M i l l at New Westminster. 1861 (approx.) Stamp builds m i l l at Al b e r n i . 1859 Fleming & Co. complain of unfa i r discrimination. 1861 Banfield reports on ships loading timber at A l b e r n i . 1862 Ditto above. 1862-3 Cowichan m i l l b u i l t . 1862-3 Sooke m i l l (Michael Muir) l a t e r purchased by Duncan. 1864 Duncan and George purchase steam m i l l from Muir at Sooke. 1865 Hastings saw m i l l , named after Admiral Hastings, at Burrard I n l e t . Stamp, Moodyville; Moody, Dietz and Nelson cut lumber f o r Hastings m i l l . Alberni m i l l s prove f a i l u r e . Machinery sold to Puget Sound, placed i n m i l l at Upsalady. 1866 "Two large Sawmills were completed at Burrard I n l e t . " 1868 Stamp attempts to obtain right of way through Naval Reserve. 1864 F i r s t shipment of lumber to A u s t r a l i a . 1865 Burrard I n l e t , Point Grey, Stanley Park logged. 1896 Large M i l l at Chemainus. 1925 The present Chemainus m i l l commenced operations. (32) PART 3. Forest L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. With the development of export in tfie early days the de* raand for timber land r a p i d l y increased. The e a r l i e s t system of land disposal was by Crown Grant, or deed, which carried with i t the right to a l l the natural resources of the land granted. In 1870, however, a system was introduced under which a lease to cut timber was granted, without conveying ownership of the land. This method is. d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian, and admirably suited to i t s purpose, and has enabled the Pro-vince to maintain control over by f a r the greater proportion j of i t s timber land, at the same time supplying the industry with raw material at a more reasonable rate than i f the land and rights had been sold outright. The B r i t i s h Columbia sys- £ tern i s considered to be the most advanced on the whole of the Continent. The Lease to the B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar, Lumber, and Timber Company i s the f i r s t on record, dated Nov. 3rd, 1865. The leases were good for a period of 21 years, with a rent of -_-d per acre, and a m i l l to be erected within 18 months with a minimum capacity of 50,000 feet per diem. Pro-duction was to continue steadily unless f o r accident, repairs or trade reasons. Any stoppage f o r a longer period than three (1) months had to be accounted for to the Government. about thi s time forest revenue amounted to only $1,263.41 (1879-80) (1) Land Ordinance 1870. (33) and the whole purpose of the Government was to "build up a f l o u r i s h i n g lumber trade as quickly as possible, paying no heed to the future. Owing of course to the primitive logging methods of the time only the best s i t e s were logged, leaving on them most of the i n f e r i o r and not s t r i c t l y f i r s t class trees. We note that a l l early leases had as one of t h e i r most important clauses the item that a m i l l must be immediately (1) erected. A very d i f f e r e n t attitude to that of present day governments. Timber leases, f o r the purpose of cutting timber, were f i r s t granted, as we have said, i n 1870, and u n t i l 1888 they were granted for any area of unpre-empted or unsurveyed land, f o r the purpose of cutting, spars, timber or lumber, to any person or corporation actually engaged in such business, subject to such rental terms and provisions as might seem ex-pedient to the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council. The r e n t a l for , this type of concession varied from f i v e cents to ten cents per acre per annum, together with a royalty i n the neighbour-hood of twenty or twenty-five cents per thousand feet. This provision was re-enacted i n the Land Act of 1875. In 1888 the r e n t a l on these leases was fixed by the Land Act at f i v e cents per acre on a l l lands granted a f t e r 1879 and. pr i o r to the passing of the Act, In spite of the fact that . these early leases were renewable i n d e f i n i t e l y very few are (2) s t i l l i n force. The completion of the C.P.R. gave a fresh impetus to the lumber industry, opening before i t fresh f i e l d s that i t might (1) Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ch. 98, 1875. (2) Land Act 1888. tp> (34) f r e e l y enter, without having to surmount the ba r r i e r s of a 25$ ad valorem duty raised on lumber by the once l u c r a t i v e market of C a l i f o r n i a . Material changes were then i n i t i a t e d i n the Government timber p o l i c y , resulting i n an amendment to the Land Act i n 1887. This piece of l e g i s l a t i o n provided that be-fore any person i s e n t i t l e d to a grant of land purchased he s h a l l make a declaration that the land i n question i s not valuable c h i e f l y f o r timber^ and (the^ provided f o r a reserva-tion i n favour of the Crown of a l l timber on lands hereafter purchased or pre-empted. It gave the owner the right to cut for domestic purposes, but before cutting for sale he was required to secure a license and pay various license charges. This i s the f i r s t statutory i n d i c a t i o n of r e s t r i c t i o n on the (1) al i e n a t i o n of lands c h i e f l y valuable for timber. The Timber Act of 1884 gave a new status to the lumber business as i t granted power to issue general licenses, i n -stit u t e d a royalty on timber, etc. The conditions f o r obtain-ing a license were b r i e f l y as follows:-1. v The applicant was required to stake h i s l i m i t , and advertise his intention to apply for a lease f o r t h i r t y days. 2. The area, was l i m i t e d to 1,000 acres, only one license being issued to one person and that was non-transfer-able and good f o r four years. 3. The licensee was required to keep account of the number of trees cut under the license and pay the Crown a stumpage fee of f i f t e e n cents per tree. Other provisions (1) S. B. C. 1887. (35) prevented the sale of unsealed logs, and imposed a royalty of twenty cents per thousand feet on the scaled contents of a l l logs sawn. Rental was #10 per year. Exemption from thi s l a s t feerm^eing*)given on a l l logs cut from leases with an annual rent of ten cents^or over annually, and logs cut from lands under pre-emption or Grown Grant. These licenses were non-tran3ferable and could he cancelled i f the timber was not operated. A special clause exempted hemlock from (1) the provisions of the Act. Special licenses were f i r s t provided for in the Act of 1884, and were v a l i d for cutting timber on areas up to 1,000 acres each f o r one year only. They were renewable at the discretion of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, were non-transferable, and not more than one could be held by one person. The r e n t a l was $50 per license with a royalty of 50£ a thousand, one hal f being rebated i f the lumber was exported. From A p r i l 7, 1887 to A p r i l 28, 1888, land sold was specified as patented land and the applicant had to make an a f f i d a v i t that i t was not c h i e f l y valuable for timber. Only then was the grant made out. The owners of patented lands, as well as pre-emptors who had not made a declaration, were required to take out licenses to cut timber on t h e i r land for other than domestic use, or f o r clearing and improvement of their lands. Licenses permitting them to cut timber f o r manu-facture could be procured f o r 25£ per thousand b.f. applied f o r . (1) S.B.C. Ch. 32 1884 \ : (36) The Land Act of 1888 was f a i r l y comprehensive i n t h i s (1) matter. A l l unsurveyed land could he bought f o r $2.50 per acre, but i t had to be surveyed and f u l l payment made within six months of the date of application. Surveyed lands were divided into two classes, the f i r s t consisting of land s u i t -able f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , lumbering or hay meadows at $2.50 per acre; the second class was composed of mountainous t r a c t s not suitable for c u l t i v a t i o n and valueless for lumbering purposes and sold at $1 per acre. Purchasers of these types of land were limited to one l o t of from 160 to 640 acres, a royalty of 50/zf per thousand b.f. being reserved on a l l timber from lands sold subsequent to A p r i l 28, 1888, and also on patented lands granted aft e r A p r i l 7, 1887. I A year l a t e r in^3^88\he Land Act was s t i l l further amended, repealing the above provisions and consolidating the timber authority. The p r i n c i p a l changes were as follows:-(a) Leases were s t i l l provided f o r , to extend f o r not longer than 30 years, but the Act d e f i n i t e l y stated that ren-t a l should be 10/zf per acre per annum with a royalty of 50^f per thousand feet board measure. This royalty was also imposed on a l l leases granted p r i o r to 1879 with a rebate of 25^ on the export of manufactured lumber. The rebate was allowed u n t i l 1900, and on shingles u n t i l 1905. The Act also required the erection of a m i l l of a thousand board foot d a i l y capacity per 400 acres contained i n the lease. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 66, 1888. V (37) (b) Provision for issuing licenses remained, unchanged, except f o r fees and royalty, the yearly fee being increased to $50 and the royalty to 50f£ per thousand board fe e t , the pre-vious stumpage fee of 15^,being eliminated. (c) The provision for reserving to the Crown the tim-ber on lands sold or pre-empted was repealed, but the next act reserved a royalty on timber of 50f£ per thousand feet on a l l lands granted thereunder. (d) Another important provision provided f o r the re-bate of one half the royalty paid under the Act on a l l timber manufactured within the^Province and exported beyond the con-(1) fines of the Province. In 1891 a survey was required and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of any land by a surveyor before purchase. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were as followst-1. Land which could be p r o f i t a b l y brought under c u l t i -vation, or which contained timber suitable f o r lumbering pur-poses, i . e . land containing 5,000 board feet per acre on each 160 acres, or wild hay or meadow land, #5 per acre. 2. Land requiring drainage or i r r i g a t i o n and not carrying merchantable timber as defined above, #2.50 per acre. 3. Mountainous and rocky land without merchantable timber, f l per acre. Purchasers were li m i t e d to from 160 to 640 acres each, and a second purchase could not be made u n t i l the f i r s t had (1) S.B.C. Ch. 66, 1888. (38) been Improved to an extent equal i n value to the o r i g i n a l price of the land. This wasthe f i r s t record we have of an attempt on the part of the Government to define timber land, and by l i m i t a t i o n and improvement conditions to promote a g r i -culture and l i m i t timber sales. In t h i s way persons were prevented from acquiring huge blocks of undeveloped land which,; they might hold f o r a p r o f i t . / ™ i ; /•fcrl ' The following year^a new scheme was introduced i n the form of the bonus system . Leases were^not)1 to be granted to the tenderer offering the highest cash bonus, although for the time being t h i s system was not generally followed. The same conditions applied to these leases as to e a r l i e r ones, with the exception that on a deposit of IQfi per acre being received (2) the lessee was permitted two years i n which to b u i l d his m i l l . An amendment in 1896 defined statutory timber land as "Land containing 8,000 feet of m i l l i n g timber per acre, l e s t (3) of the Cascades, or 5,000 feet of timber East of that range," and reserved a l l such lands from sale or pre-emption under provision of the Land Act, and i n 1899 another amendment ca l l e d attention to the necessity of constructing a sawmill appurtenant to each timber lease. Such a m i l l had to have a capacity of at least 1,000 feet per diem f o r each 400 acres contained i n the lease. This i s a p l a i n i n d i c a t i o n that the f l ) S.B.C. Ch. 15, 1891 2) S.B.C. Ch.'25, 1892 (3) S.B.C. Ch. 28, 1896. (39) intention of the Government at t h i s period was s t i l l fundamen-t a l l y to build up a lumber industry with r a p i d l y accruing pro-CD f i t s to i t s e l f . In 1901^the area which could be taken up under l i c e n s e^ A ^ 0 1 " to*"** was li m i t e d to 640 acres, the area to measure either 80 x 80 ' chains or 40 x 160 chains. They were s t i l l granted f o r one H^/A ^D year only, and the fee was raised to $100, but two could be / ^  ^~' held at one time, and a l l timber cut therefrom had to be (2) manufactured within the Province. In 1896 the term f o r which a lease could be granted was cut to twenty-one years, and the rental was increased to 15^ per acre. The operator was s t i l l required to erect a m i l l . In 1897, however, the necessity f o r a m i l l was not insi s t e d on, but the rent was reduced, to I0£ per acre f o r (3) those who did operate one. In 1896, also, timber land was defined more e x p l i c i t l y as land carrying 8,000 feet board measure per acre west of the Cascades, and 5,000 feet East of t h i s range. The Cascades were then, and s t i l l are, i n leg a l descriptions considered to i n -clude also the Coast Mountains. This i s s t i l l the statutory d e f i n i t i o n of timber land in B r i t i s h Columbia. Such land was at t h i s time excluded from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i r s t - c l a s s land, and reserved from sale, but owing to lack of inspection (4) the act was very l i b e r a l l y interpreted i n most cases. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 38, 1898 '2) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1901 3) S.B.C. Ch. 19, 1897. ;4) S.B.C. Ch. 28, 1896. (40) In 1898 a more stringent regulation was promulgated, for although i t authorized twenty-one year leases at 15/£ per acre and a royalty of 50^, i t was provided that i f rent and royalty together did not equal 50£ an acre the lessee must make up the difference; he was also required to operate a m i l l with a twelve-hour capacity of 1,000 feet for every 100 acres of lease hold, f o r six months per annum, unless relieved of (1) t h i s obligation by the Government. The Act of 1899 provided for the cancellation of leases by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council i f the saw m i l l (2) provisions had not been complied with. An amendment enacted i n 1901 provided that a l l timber cut under lease or license (3) must be manufactured i n the Province. 1903 saw a tax p r o v i -ded of $1 to $2 per thousand board feet on a l l logs, only excepting those on which royalty was reserved, that i s to say logs cut from lands granted prior to A p r i l 8th, 1888. This tax was to be rebated in the case of the logs being manufac-( 4 ) tured into lumber within the confines of the Province* and i n 1906 the p r i n c i p l e was even further advanced by an amendment which demanded that logs cut from any land hereafter acquired by sale, or pre-emption must be manufactured into boards, deals, j o i s t s , laths, shingles or other sawn products within (5) the confines of the Province. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 38, 1898. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 38, 1899. (3j S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1901. (4) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1903-4. (5) S.B.C. Ch. 42, 1906. (41) In 1901 a r u l i n g was made that a royalty should not be considered as a tax i n connection with Railway lands, and that (1) such lands previously granted should be subject to i t . In 1903 owners of patented lands were re l i e v e d of the necessity of obtaining a license to cut timber on t h e i r lands, but paid instead the 50/2!" ro y a l t y . At the same time, a tax fi x e d on a regular schedule was imposed on a l l timber cut from lands on which a royalty was not reserved, that i s , lands Crown Granted p r i o r to A p r i l 7, 1887. A l l of t h i s tax, however, was rebated except 1£ per thousand feet i f the timber was manufactured i n the Province, so that i t was in r e a l i t y an export tax on rair-; (2) material, a po l i c y which successive governments continued. The Land Act of 1901 provided for the renewal of ordin-ary twenty-one year leases for consecutive and successive per-iods of twenty-one years, subject to the then exi s t i n g condi-tions, regulation and ru l i n g s , r o y a l t i e s and rentals. c The Act further made provision that a l l the old thirty-year leases might come under t h i s r u l i n g i f surrendered within a year, at the same time permitting the o r i g i n a l terms to continue for the unexpired portion of the lease. After date of o r i g i n a l expiration the terms were automatically to become i d e n t i c a l (3) with those of the twenty-one year leases. In 1906 the grant-ing of timber leases was discontinued, the l a s t few being (4) granted at 25£ per acre. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1901. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 19031 (3) I b i d . (4) S.B.C. Ch. 24, 1906. (42) In 1903 the fee was increased to $140 on land West of the Cascades, and $115 on land East of that range. Provision was made for longer tenure, by permitting the licensee to pay the fees f o r f i v e years in advance, after which period renewal could be obtained at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for a period such as the terms then i n (1) force might permit. In 1905 timber land was c l a s s i f i e d f o r taxation pur-poses as follows t - &% of the assessed value of wild land, that i s to say, unimproved land, carrying less than 5,000 feet per acre, and a tax of only 2% on land carrying more than 5,000 (2) feet per acre. This gave an immediate incentive to rapid and indiscriminate cutting. Export of logs from land granted subsequent to March 12, 1906, was prohibited. In 1905 an amendment to the Land Act showed a d i s t i n c t change i n p o l i c y . The provision f o r the issue of leases was repealed and that with regard to licenses altered, making the l a t t e r transferable, and renewable for 21 years on payment of a fee of $140 per square mile West of the Cascades, and $115 (3) " East of the same, range. (The p e t i t i o n for)/this a l t e r a t i o n was *f« /wArr'f?^: _ the result»of much hardship worked on/the lumber men, as the fact that these licenses were not transferable, and only renew-able at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Commissioner of Lands, made them unacceptable by the banks as c o l l a t e r a l for loans. The p e t i t i o n was presented on Dec. 7, 1903, and was signed by v i r t u a l l y (1) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1903-4. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 33, 1905. (3) S.B.C. Ch. 33, 1905. (43) every m i l l owner of account in the Province, As we have.' noticed above, the p e t i t i o n was favourably received. It was also s p e c i f i c a l l y stated that existent licenses might be made transferable and renewable f o r 16 successive years at the same fees per annum as were then paid, i . e . $140 and $115. The royalty on timber cut under these licenses was increased to 60/zf. The Act further provided that a l l special timber licenses thereafter issued should be transferable and renewable f o r 21 successive years. The weakest feature in the Act was that i t made no provision against any one person ac-quiring an unlimited number of licenses. Another r a d i c a l change from past procedure was the complete omission of any operating clause. The re s u l t of t h i s omission became immediate-l y evident as timber licenses promptly became a highly favoured medium of speculation. The time w/as f u l l y r i p e . On the one hand the f i r s t murmurs of conservation were being heard, and the cry of a threatened timber famine was r i s i n g i n volume. The rapid development of the United States had led to rapid increase i n timber consumption, u n t i l i t had mounted to the staggering quantity of 40,000,000,000 feet per annum, and the Lake State reserves and southern pine areas shrank before the blast of boom consumption. On the other hand, the almost v i r -gin stands of B r i t i s h Columbia were being offered f o r the mere staking of a claim and the payment of a nominal sum, and hold-ing of the same u n t i l a phenominal p r o f i t might be r e a l i z e d . The result was to be foreseen, but nevertheless astounding, fo r within three years of the passing of the Act u n t i l December (44) 1907, when staking was bahned^l5,000 licenses were issued covering approximately 9,000,000 acres containing approxim-ately 160 b i l l i o n feet of timber. S t a t i s t i c i a n s inform us that although the license was only renewable for 21 years, the quantity was s u f f i c i e n t to meet the existent demand f o r 300 years. It i s quite obvious that before a great many years had ( elapsed lumber was due for the biggest slump in i t s history as a rush would come to r e a l i z e on investment, and that the market would consequently be glutted, cutting p r o f i t s to a minimum, and frequently causing lumber to be sold below cost. This i s exactly what did happen l a t e r . In 1906 the t h i r d class of land was eliminated, the price on f i r s t and second class land remaining as f i x e d . In 1912, however* f i r s t class land was increased to $10 per acre, and second class to $5 an acre. At the same time export of logs from lands granted subsequent to March 12, 1906, was vro-J^"/6^ (1) ^ * hi b i t e d . (2:),-Following the pro h i b i t i o n i n 1907 of further staking, there was no provision made for disposal of timber lands, un- ^ (3) t i l the Forest Act of 1912. The Act authorized sale by public V J " competition of licenses to cut timber under the form of tenure ^ known as timber sales. The object was primarily to dispose of ^ small l o t s of timber adjoining licenses which could e a s i l y be disposed of while the machinery was on the spot, but which ( l j S.B.C. Ch. 24, 1906 (2) F.B.C. p 95 (3) S.B.C. Ch. 17, 1912. (45) would otherwise be unduly expensive to log, and might form a f i r e or w i n d f a l l hazard. There was also the demand f o r tim-ber by pulp companies which had not acquired timber previously, and the demand for cleared land f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. The fundamental idea of timber sales was a close u t i l i z a t i o n of timber resources, but i t ultimately developed into a pro-f i t a b l e business and l e g i s l a t i o n had to be frequently revised. A l l such land i s cruised by the Forest Branch and f u l l informa-tion i s available to intending purchasers. A fixed stumpage price must be offered over and above the royalty, i t must be advertized i n the Gazette and l o c a l papers f o r two months i f the amount i s over a m i l l i o n feet, or one month i f i t i s be-tween 500,000 and a m i l l i o n . When the stumpage value i s less than $100 advertisement i s not necessary. Sealed tenders are accepted to a fixed date and the highest bidder wins. Small sales are handled d i r e c t l y by l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . A deposit covering cost of c r u i s i n g , survey, advertising, and 10% of the estimated stumpage value must accompany each tender. The time l i m i t f o r cutting i s fix e d at the time of the sale, and i s usually two years, seldom over f i v e . Sales have to be operated immediately on the same rentals as licenses, opera-tions are c l o s e l y supervised, and the time l i m i t i s s t r i c t l y adhered to. The revenue from timber sales and t h e i r inciden-t a l s , including stumpage, cr u i s i n g , advertising, r o y a l t i e s and tax amounted i n 1929 to approximately #2,367,812 out of a t o t a l forest Revenue of $3,811,994. (1) R.F.B. 1929. (46) In 1910 i t was decided that for the next two years a licensee might on surrender of his twenty-one year license and payment of a $20 transfer fee secure a transferable license renewable from year to year while there remained on the land included i n the license "merchantable timber i n s u f f i c i e n t (1) quantity to make i t commercially valuable". In 1909 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the whole matter of Timber and Forestry thoroughly. It recora-mended as follows.:-A 1. A complete cruise of a l l Crown Grant timber lands should be made, so that the Department might co-operate with the assessors, and an annual return should be made of the valuation of a l l such timber lands. 2. As f a r as possible timber leaseholds should be placed, upon renewal, on a parity with licensed timber lands, and subject to the same forest regulations. 3. The rates of Rental and Royalty on s p e c i a l l i c e n -ses should be fix e d i n advance for not more than one calendar year. 4. The Land Act should be amended so as to empower the Government to grant the right of cutting sawmill timber to pulp lessees who may desire to cut m i l l timber upon t h e i r leasehold. 5. The same form of license as that issued f o r pulp should be issued to tan bark lessees who may desire to cut timber on t h e i r leaseholds for m i l l i n g purposes. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 28, 1910. (47) 6. License to cut timber on f r a c t i o n a l areas adjoining or surrounding leased or licensed timber lands should be put up to public competition, and the term " f r a c t i o n a l area" care-f u l l y defined in the Land Act. 7. The present reserve upon unalienated timber should be continued i n d e f i n i t e l y , and when special circumstances necessitate opening up any portion of the reserve f o r immed-iat e operations, license to cut timber thereon should be put up to public competition on a stumpage basis. 8. The record of every cruise and survey made by the Government should be accompanied by a report on the s u i t a b i l i t y of the land f o r agr i c u l t u r e . The power to compel licensees to cut and remove timber should be retained; and that at the time of renewal the same provision should be inserted i n every tim-ber lease. 9. The issue of handloggers' licenses should be d i s -continued. . 10. No divided interest i n a special license should be recognized. 11. For the convenience of holders, some day i n each month should be fix e d for the renewal of licenses expiring that month. 12. A royalty should be collected from a l l merchantable timber not removed from Crown Lands in the course of logging operations. 13. Operators should be required to remove debris. (48) 14. P r o t e c t i o n o f f o r e s t s f r o m f i r e s h o u l d be u n d e r -t a k e n by t h e Government t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f a permanent f o r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e l i n e s o f t h e Mounted P o l i c e , and t h a t i t b e _ c o m p u l s o r y f o r a l l a b l e b o d i e d c i t i g e n s t o a s s i s t when c a l l e d u p o n . 15. T h a t t h e c o s t o f f i r e p r o t e c t i o n - b e s h a r e d between t h e Government and stumpage h o l d e r s i n t h e manner p r o p o s e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . 16. The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n R a i l w a y Commission; a v i g i l a n t p a t r o l o f a l l r a i l -way l i n e s and i n s p e c t i o n o f l o c o m o t i v e s . R a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d by f o r e s t r y o f f i c i a l s . 17. S p e c i a l l i c e n s e e s s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d t o p r o c e e d w i t h s u r v e y o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s t o be c o m p l e t e d n o t l a t e r t h a n December 1915. 18. A l l o p e r a t o r s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o make out a p e r i o d i c a l r e t u r n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , t o f o r e s t r y o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t , and on much w i d e r l i n e s t h a n h e r e -t o f o r e . 19. The i m m e d i a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t s . 20. R o y a l t i e s on Crown t i m b e r s h o u l d be p a i d i n t o a f o r e s t s i n k i n g f u n d as d e s c r i b e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n . 21. T h a t by s u i t a b l e c h a n g e s i n t h e customs t a r i f f t h e (1) u t i l i z a t i o n o f low g r a d e t i m b e r s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . (1) R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on F o r e s t s , 1910. (49) The f i n a l r e s u l t of t h i s Commission was the Forest Act of 1912 which brought a l l government a c t i v i t i e s pertaining to forest land and forest a c t i v i t i e s under one single authority, by creating the Forest Branch, as a separate section of the Lands Department. The new Act followed a good many of the li n e s of action advised by the Commission. After confirming the lease and license t i t l e s already held the Act proceeded to provide f o r : -1. Disposal of Crown Timber on a competitive basis only a f t e r areas had been cruised and appraised by the Forest Branch, and under a contract providing f o r immediate cutting, and with the necessary provision to ensure proper u t i l i z a t i o n and s i l v i c u l t u r e . 2. It re i t e r a t e d the p r i n c i p l e of home manufacture but provided for controlled export on such material as could not be manufactured within the Province. 3. It provided f o r the reservation of areas c h i e f l y valuable for timber and forest crops, and for the management of these reserves for the perpetual growing of timber. 4. I t created a forest protection service financed by a statutory fund and with ample powers of c o n t r o l l i n g neces-(1) sary to f i r e s . Since t h i s Act was passed an important Forest Service has been evolved and now has a personnel of somewhat over 500, of whom 50% are permanent employees, 24 are t e c h n i c a l l y (1) S.B.C. Ch. 17, 1912. (50) trained, and many of the rangers have seized opportunities to take short courses i n forest work. Since 1912 a l l appoint-ments to the s t a f f have been by competitive examination. The Royalty Act of 1914 made an attempt to f i x on a s l i d i n g scale the r o y a l t i e s accruing to the Government. The basis of t h i s scale was the wholesale p r i c e of lumber. The Act stated the percentage due the Government of any advance over $18 per thousand. These r o y a l t i e s were f i r s t f i x e d on timber cut on Crown lands on the Coast, f o r f i v e years begin-ning Jan. 1, 1915; Q5& per thousand board feet on a l l timber cut West of the Cascades and suitable for lumber or shingles, graded under the provisions of the Act; 50^ a thousand on a l l other timber suitable f o r manufacture. In the f i r s t class came number one and two, Douglas f i r , spruce, cedar, pine or cottonwood. In the Southern Inter i o r f o r the same period the rate was 50^ a thousand feet East of the Cascades and South of the Railway Belt, or within the watershed of Seymour Arm, and Adam Lake, or within the watershed of the Columbia, ex-cepting within the watershed of the Canoe River. In the Northern I n t e r i o r for the same period the royalty was to be (1) 65^ per thousand. Af-t-er- 1920 the royalty on timber suitable f o r the manu^ facture of lumber was to be adjusted every f i v e years on the basis of the average wholesale p r i c e of lumber, the Government taking a share of the surplus, i f any, over $18 a thousand which i s figured as allowing a reasonable p r o f i t f o r the lura-(1) S.B.C. Ch. 76, 1914. (51) bermen. The Government's share i n increase was to he 1920-24, 25$; 1925-29, 30$; 1930-34, 30$; 1935-39, 35$; 1940-44, 35$; 1945-49, 40$; 1950-54, 40$. For each of the foregoing periods the increase i n royalty was calculated on the average whole-sale price of lumber, f.o.b. point of manufacture for the f i r s t four and a h a l f years of the preceding period. This scheme recognized three important p r i n c i p l e s : 1. The public i s e n t i t l e d to share i n unearned increment due to timber values; 2. It i s unwise to impose charges which are l i a b l e to force exploitation of the forest resources beyond market requirements; 3. Security of t i t l e i s e s s e n t i a l i n carrying out large business enterprises, such as are (1) necessary i n the lumber industry today. The maximum annual r e n t a l that could be c o l l e c t e d on licenses u n t i l the end of 1954 was fixed at #140 per square mile West of the Cascades, and $100 East of the Cascades, i n -cluding the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t of A t l i n . This i s printed on every renewal re c e i p t , incorporated i n the contract and can-not be changed and i s therefore absolutely stable. In addi-t i o n to r e n t a l , licensees are required to contribute per acre to the forest protection fund annually. This Act unfortunately did not take into consideration the reduced purchasing power of the d o l l a r , and in 1920 the actual cost of production exceeded $30 per thousand and even four years l a t e r the purchasing power of the d o l l a r was only (1) F.B.C. p 92. . (52) about 60$ of i t s pre-war value. After ten years had elapsed i t became obvious that the Act was not functioning equitably, and although the average price of lumber had r i s e n to $27.50 l i t t l e increase had taken place i n stumpage value, the only factor to whi;ch a government should look f o r i t s royalty. The Act was withdrawn and a d e f i n i t e sum f i x e d for the next ten years a f t e r which a review of the whole matter i s to take (1) place. The Forest Act Amendment Act, of 1924 repealed the Tim-ber Royalty Act of 1914, and f i x e d royalty rates d e f i n i t e l y for the next ten years, dividing the period into two f i v e -(2) year sections. From Jan. 1, 1925 to Dec. 31, 1929, the royalty on tim-ber suitable f o r lumber or shingles West of the Cascades i n the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t was $1.25 for number one and two grades, and i n the Prince Rupert Forest D i s t r i c t , $1.10 per thousandr/^umber three grade was rated at 150 per thou-sand. East of the Cascades the rate was $1.50 for white pine, $1.05 for yellow pine and spruce, 150 for other species. From Jan. 1, 1930 to Dec. 31, 1934, the rate for the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t i s $1.65} $1.35; and 95/Z". (To thg^ East of the Cascades the rates are $1.80, $1.20 and 950 f o r the various groups as enumerated above. Rates are to continue as provided i n t h i s period u n t i l another schedule i s formu-lated to supercede them. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 20, 1924. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 20, sec. 13, 1924. (53) HEMLOCK AND PULP LEASES* In 1891 leases were given f o r hemlock bark f o r tanning purposes, for a term of t h i r t y years on such special terms as (1) the Government might deem f i t . This l e g i s l a t i o n was not taken advantage of u n t i l 1905-06 when 32,252 acres were leased at a r e n t a l of 2j£ per acre for the f i r s t f i v e years and per acre thereafter. The granting of these leases was conditional on the establishment of a tannery. Many of them are s t i l l i n force, although a considerable number were converted into (2) special l i c e n s e s . In 1901 the f i r s t demand for pulp leases began to be f e l t , and the Government made provision for the withdrawal of certain areas from which leases were to be selected within two years. They were o r i g i n a l l y granted f o r twenty-one year periods at an annual rent of 20 an acre. The royalty was not to exceed 25^ a cord. They were renewable f o r consecutive periods on such conditions as might be in force at the termin-ation of the o r i g i n a l period or be determined by the Government. The lessee was required to b u i l d a pulp m i l l i n the Province with the capacity of one ton of pulp or half a ton of paper a day f o r each square mile of land i n the lease, and to operate i t within such time as might be fixed by the Government, at least s i x months per annum. Any timber cut for sale and not for pulp was to be charged at a royalty rate of 50/z" a thousand. (1) S.B.C. Ch. 15, 1891. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1903-4. (54) A l l timber cut from pulp leases was required to be manufacfcur-(1) ed within the Province. The law was repealed in 1903 af t e r ?2) the disposal of 353,250 acres of leases. Later the Porest Act of 1912 provided that pulp licenses should be disposed of i n the same way as timber sales. Sales of pulp timber are permitted a longer time l i m i t , but are lim i t e d to purchasers who have either already expend-ed at least $350,000 i n the erection of a plant f o r the manu-facture of pulp or paper, which i s not appurtenant to any existing pulp leases, or who are prepared to execute a guaran-tee bond of at least $50,000 that such a m i l l w i l l be b u i l t within three years, not less than $100,000 being spent each year of two years for the purpose. Licenses must be appurten-ant to the pulp or paper m i l l and the amount of timber l i m i t e d to t h i r t y years supply. Rental was f i x e d at $70 a square mile, with a royalty of 25£ per cord of 700 board f e e t . When saw timber i s cut from a pulp license the lessee has to pay i n addition to the ordinary royalty on saw timber the difference (3) in r e n t a l . HAND-LOGGERS * LICENSES. Hand-loggers' licenses were f i r s t provided f o r under the Act of 1884, permitting cutting by hand on Crown Land, outside of timber l i m i t s and were tenable for one year only, (4) on payment of a fee of $10 and royalty. There were no (1) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 190.1. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 19GS*4. (3) S.B.C. Ch. 17, 1912. (4) S.B.C. Ch. 16, 1884. (1) r e s t r i c t i o n s on methods used, u n t i l steam was banned i n 1906. In 1908 operations were r e s t r i c t e d to the Northern Coast and the fee raised to $25. The r e s t r i c t i o n as to d i s t r i c t , was removed the following year at the request of the labour unions, but cutting was confined to d e f i n i t e areas. Only persons on (2) the Voters L i s t and Indians were permitted to so operate. By means of t h i s wasteful system hand-loggers had destroyed by 1915 timber along 1,000 miles of coast l i n e , extending back for an average of f i v e chains and covering an area of 50,000 acres. It i s estimated that to that time they had marketed 500 m i l l i o n feet of timber, cut and wasted 300 rail-l i o n , and i n d i r e c t l y caused destruction by f i r e and windf a l l of 800 m i l l i o n f e e t . The revenue from that source averaged a bare $5,000 i n fees, and royalty of $19,000 on an average -^*^- y&*>^s cut of 125,000 fe e t . The usefulness of this system i s long since past and i t s a b o l i t i o n was recommended by the Royal (3) Commission of 1910, but i t was s t i l l continued c h i e f l y due to the demand of the labor unions, and i n 1929 yielded a pa l t r y 1,300 i n fees. J^c^u <y ^^s^U^j) y^^odeJ The history of a l l forest producing countries may be divided into four periods of development i n the administration of t h i s p r o f i t a b l e natural resource?-1. The period when the forest i s intact as inf^primeyjaF times u n t i l a comparatively recent period, man's interest i n (1) S.B.C. Ch. 24, 1906. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 30, 1908. (3) R.R.C.J. 1910. (4) R.F.B. 1929. (56) i t b e i n g n e g a t i v e , o r a t l e a s t l i m i t e d . 2. The p e r i o d o f p u s h i n g back t h e f o r e s t t o d e v e l o p s e t t l e m e n t , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y an e a r l y s t a g e i n a new c o u n t r y l i k e Canada, when c o l o n i z e d f r o m o v e r s e a s . 3. The dawn o f a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e f o r e s t must be s a v e d r a t h e r t h a n be r u t h l e s s l y e x p l o i t e d . 4. The b e g i n n i n g o f s i l v i c u l t u r e , s u c h as we f i n d i n many o f t h e h i g h l y c i v i l i z e d E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h h a v e r e a l i z e d t h a t t i m b e r i s a t h i n g w o r t h y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . We i n Canada a r e s t i l l i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e , a l t h o u g h p u t t i n g o u t t e n t a t i v e f e e l e r s t o w a r d s d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l t y p e s o f s i l v i c u l t u r e . Much p r o g r e s s has been made i n t h e (1) l a s t few y e a r s however. H a v i n g s u r v e y e d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o g r e s s o f f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , we may now examine t h e t h e o r i e s and p r i n c i -p l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e v a r i o u s e n a c t m e n t s , s i n c e t h e e a r l y d a y s . U n t i l t h e Land O r d i n a n c e o f 1870 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e , i n t e r e s t i n t h e f o r e s t b e i n g e i t h e r n e g a -t i v e o r l i m i t e d . P r i o r t o t h i s d a t e t h e e n t e r p r i s i n g man o b t a i n e d a g r a n t o f l a n d f r o m t h e Government, w h i c h c a r r i e d w i t h i t t h e r i g h t t o t h e l a n d and a l l i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Now, however, t h e p o l i c y o f a l e a s e was i n t r o d u c e d , c o n v e y i n g t h e r i g h t t o t h e t i m b e r a l o n e . Much emphasis was l a i d on saw-m i l l c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f b u i l d i n g up a p r o f i t a b l e i n d u s t r y . (1) Timberman. F e b . 1927, p 168. (57) I n 1887 p r o v i s i o n was made t o s e e t h a t no one o b t a i n e d l a n d n o m i n a l l y f o r homestead p u r p o s e s , b u t a c t u a l l y t o c u t t i m b e r . A d e c l a r a t i o n h a d t o be made t h a t t h e l a n d was n o t c h i e f l y v a l u a b l e f o r t i m b e r . T h i s was t h e f i r s t s t a t u t o r y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e Government was a w a k i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t t i m b e r l a n d s h o u l d n o t be p e r m a n e n t l y a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e Crown. The T i m b e r A c t o f 1884 ga v e g e n u i n e r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e lumber b u s i n e s s , by i t s c l o s e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e i s s u a n c e o f l i c e n s e s , and d e t a i l s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r o y a l t i e s and t i m e l i m i t s . T h e s e l i c e n s e s were n o n - t r a n s f e r a b l e . The L a n d A c t o f 1888 made a number o f i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n p o l i c y . R o y a l t i e s w e r e r e v i s e d , t h e e r e c t i o n o f m i l l s was e m p h a s i z e d , and p r o v i s i o n s f o r i s s u i n g l i c e n s e s r e m a i n e d p r a c -t i c a l l y u n c h a n g e d . An i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e r e b a t e o f o n e - h a l f o f t h e r o y a l t y c h a r g e s , on t h e e x p o r t of m a n u f a c t u r e d lumber f r o m t h e P r o v i n c e , was ample e v i d e n c e o f t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e Government i n b u i l d i n g up an e x p o r t t r a d e . I n 1891 t h e p o l i c y o f r e q u i r i n g a s u r v e y o f l a n d b e f o r e p u r c h a s e was i n t r o d u c e d . T i m b e r l a n d was d e f i n i t e l y d e f i n e d u n d e r t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h i s p o l i c y was t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a l l t i m b e r c u t s h o u l d be m a n u f a c t u r e d w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e , w i t h a few s p e c i f i c e x c e p t i o n s . T h i s p o l i c y h as p e r s i s t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I n 1896 t i m b e r l a n d was a g a i n d e f i n e d r i g i d l y , and r e -s e r v e d f r o m s a l e o r p r e - e m p t i o n , a t t e n t i o n a g a i n b e i n g c a l l e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b u i l d i n g a saw m i l l a p p u r t e n a n t t o e a c h (58) lease. We thus see that the Government p o l i c y was s t i l l con-centrating on building up a large export business, i n c i d e n t a l l y to i t s own benefit due to increased r o y a l t i e s and license fees. There was no thought of conservation, and the branch of the Government administering the forests was l i t t l e more than a depositary f o r the taking i n of funds on the one hand, and the issuance of receipts in the form_of licenses on the other. Two clerks conducted the whole business. A notable contrast with the e f f i c i e n t s t a f f i n the o f f i c e s of the Forest Branch today. The authorities were making^erculean^)efforts to establish a f l o u r i s h i n g industry at the expense of future generations. They can hardly be blamed, fo r they l i v e d at a time when our forest resources were deemed almost inexhaust-able. The industry was developing rapi d l y during t h i s l a s t decade of the nineteenth century, steam almost e n t i r e l y supplanting animal power, and ground-yarding with donkey en-gines being almost u n i v e r s a l l y used.— < S^> ~c-^~^ ^ ^~ In 1888 there were only 25 m i l l s i n operation, cutting approximately 31-32^MllTon^feet per annum, by 1905 the number of m i l l s in operation had increased to 150(billion)feet. The Pro v i n c i a l revenue had likewise increased from $1,263.40 i n 1879-80, to $24,670 ten years l a t e r , by the end of the next decade i t had reached $136,330, while i n 1904-5 i t achieved $486,516. An important step was taken i n 1901, when provision was made for renewal of ordinary 21-year leases f o r consecutive (59) and successive periods of twenty «?one years. ( One of the most important steps taken i n forest policy hy the Government up to this time was the provision in 1905 for the transfer of licenses and making them renewable f o r twenty-one years at a d e f i n i t e rate. The p e t i t i o n f o r t h i s a l t e r a t i o n was the res u l t of much hardship worked on lumber-men, as the f a c t that these licenses were previously non-transferable, and renewable only at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Commissioner of Lands, made them unacceptable to the banks as c o l l a t e r a l f o r loans. The weak feature of t h i s act was that no provision was made as to the number of leases that might be acquired by any one person, and also the omission of an operating clause. Up to t h i s period the whole trend of l e g i s l a t i o n was t dispose of timber only to operators who were prepared to cut immediately. With the growth of industry, however, more stable conditions of timber supply became imperative, so that f i n a n c i a l assistance might be obtained from the banks. It soon became evident that even with an annual cut of a b i l l i o n feet, 1908^) the market could not possibly absorb the timber under lease and license for twenty-one years. At t h i s time there were approximately 619,000 acres under lease, bearing ten to f i f t e e n b i l l i o n feet of timber, 9,000,000 acres under license carrying over 100 b i l l i o n feet, and in addition pulp leases and Crown granted timber land to the tune of twenty (1) to t h i r t y b i l l i o n f e e t . (1) .P.B.C. p 90. (60) To secure special licenses stakes bearing a notice of intention to apply f o r an area not exceeding 640 acres had to be planted i n one corner of the claim, and the same notice had to be advertised f o r two months i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette and a l o c a l newspaper. Application was then made to the Government and the f i r s t fees tendered. I f the claim was acceptable and there was no c o n f l i c t of t i t l e a license for one year was issued, renewable for twenty years i f the fees were paid i n advance. These gave the right to stake from 5,000,000 to 40,000,000 feet, depending on the timber staked. By the end of 1907 there was l i t t l e accessible timber that was not staked, and as surveys were not required u n t i l logging commenced there was an immense amount of overlapping, which was very p r o f i t a b l e to the Government. For several years as many as s i x d i f f e r e n t licensees paid fees on the same 400 acres. Much burnt-over land and barren rock was also included by the over-enthusiastic stakers. In t h i s same year, 1907, the Government concluded that although a venture very p r o f i t -able to i t s e l f was being conducted i t had no right to mortgage the future assets of the Province, so i t withdrew on December 27th a l l unalienated lands. A short time a f t e r the close of staking p r i v i l e g e s i n 1908 many companies were forced to erect m i l l s to provide for the i r carrying charges, over-production immediately occurred, with the output vastly exceeding demand. An immediately ruinous drop i n lumber prices promptly occurred. The cut increased from 587,000,000 board feet i n 1906 to 682,000,000 (61) In 1909, and 1,171,000,000 in 1911. The wholesale p r i c e f.o.h. dropped, concurrently from |16.30 per M i n 1909 to #14 i n 1913, and $11.45 in 1914. On looking i n to records we f i n d that the average cost of production per thousand in 1911 was $13.30, exclusive of stumpage or business p r o f i t . Even at the present time the quantity of timber i n private hands i s a f r u i t f u l source of over-production. F i n a l l y , provision was made f o r the exchange of the o r i g i n a l 21-year license for a new type renewable i n perpetuity while the area contained merchantable timber, with provision f o r cancellation i f the area should be (1)' required f o r settlement. A provision was attached that i f the land was suitable and wanted for settlement a time l i m i t for cutting could be fixed by the Commissioner, afte r which the license could be cancelled. Approximately 12,850 licenses were converted into perpetual licenses, but there s t i l l remain-ed uncertainty as to the possible increases i n Government charges, so that leases and licenses were not very acceptable as c o l l a t e r a l , which was a great hindrance to business. At the end of 1916 there were 572,774 acres held under timber leases, 32,169 under hemlock leases, and 353,250 under pulp leases, making a t o t a l of 958,193 acres of leased timber land, to which should be added the 114,927 acres o r i g i n a l l y leased and renewed as licenses making a grand t o t a l of 1,063,120 acres alienated by lease. Of course, a considerable amount of t h i s land has reverted to the Province aft e r being logged o f f . (1) E.F.J. A r t i c l e quoted. (62) About three-quarters of the alienated timber land i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s held under timber l i c e n s e s . The system originated i n the old general licenses designated to supply with timber, the small independent logging operators who could not afford to own sawmills, as was required of the holder of a lease. The o r i g i n a l conditions appurtenant to these leases have so changed that the modern timber licenses form perhaps the most secure and equitable means of holding timber i n North America. The Forest Act of 1912 made provision f o r the setting aside of P r o v i n c i a l Forest Reserves by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the perpetual growth of timber. These reserves may be cancelled wholly or i n part by order-in-council. These lands are not withdrawn from legitimate use, and the present r a p i d i t y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e s u l t i n g i n large areas being set aside. At the end of 1929 there were under reserve some (1) 6,907,000 acres i n twenty di f f e r e n t f o r e s t s . (2) In addition to forest reserves, Strathcona and Mt. Rob-son Parks have been set aside i n perpetuity f o r the use of the people. Timber licenses issued p r i o r to t h e i r establishment were not prejudiced thereby, although provision was made for th e i r a c q u i s i t i o n . The passage of the Forest Act of 1912, as a result of the Royal Commission, marked the passing of B r i t i s h Columbia to the t h i r d stage of Forest development, the r e a l i z a t i o n (1) R.F.B. 1929. (2) F.B.C. p 99. (63) that out timber must he preserved for future generations. Perhaps the day i s dawning when we s h a l l enter the era of s i l v i c u l t u r e , and s c i e n t i f i c care of our fo r e s t s . The Forest Branch i s leading the way, hut the people of B r i t i s h Columbia themselves are s t i l l f a r , f a r behind these progressive and far-seeing men. In the l a s t few years they have been making intensive researches into pressing forest problems, such as r e - a f f o r e s t -ation, forest reserves, of which a large acreage has been set aside. Volume tables have been prepared f o r the p r i n c i p a l species, and much information co l l e c t e d on seed dissemination and natural regeneration. Experimental nurseries have been established, and investigations into tree diseases c a r r i e d out, besides many other technical matters. In the Appendix a complete series of tables i s given, showing growth of B r i t i s h Columbia*s export trade from the ea r l i e s t days. The t o t a l cut of timber f o r as 'far back as i s traceable, and a table comparing the growth i n the t o t a l P r o v i n c i a l revenue with the growth of i t s revenue from the Forest. U n t i l 1930 certain lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia were administered by the Dominion, others by the Province. The Lands administered by the Dominion and l y i n g within the t e r r i -t o r i a l l i m i t s of B r i t i s h Columbia consisted of the areas ceded to i t by the Province as part of the terms of Union i n 1871, as a contribution to the building of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way. This land consisted, of a belt twenty miles wide on each (64) side of the surveyed l i n e from the Alberta boundary to the head of Burrard I n l e t . The area comprized some 10,976,000 acres. As a considerable amount of t h i s land had already been alienated by the Province the area now known as the Peace River Block, some 3,468,000 acres, was handed over i n l i e u of these lands. The Dominion also controls 50,000 acres i n the Crowsnest D i s t r i c t , making a t o t a l of 14,494,000 acres. The remainder of the Province, 211,700,000 acres, remained under P r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . It has been stated elsewhere what proportion of t h i s land i s valuable f o r timber. On August 1, 1930, the Dominion Lands were formally returned to the Province. Although the Dominion Lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia have now been returned to the Province i t i s necessary to enter into a short discussion of the systems of tenure prevalent under the Dominion Government, as the same terms are to be adhered to u n t i l expiration. These lands consist of the R a i l -way b e l t , Peace River Block, Crowsnest Pass Coal Lands Reserve. The Railway be l t which was conveyed at the time of Union i n 1873 cost the Dominion a payment of $100,000 per annum, the Peace River Block was not selected u n t i l 1907. In those two areas the Federal Government administered settlement, timber, grazing, stone, gypsum, marl, petroleum and natural gas, and in the Peace River Block a l l minerals except gold and s i l v e r . The Province administered the waters, and the minerals exempt from Dominion control, the taxation of private lands and the administration of j u s t i c e . The Crowsnest block consisted of two blocks of 5,000 and 45,000 acres acquired by the Federal (65) Government from the Canadian P a c i f i c Coal Company, and i s c h i e f l y valuable for coal. In the Railway Belt lands carrying more than 2,000 feet to the acre are c l a s s i f i e d as timber lands and could be reser-ved from settlement, and i f homesteads were granted on such lands permits to cut timber were required. They were granted free f o r clearing, but i f timber was sold a royalty of #1.50 per thousand was coll e c t e d . A l l amounts so paid by the set-t l e r were refunded when he had completed his homestead duties and secured his patent. This system was operated with the purpose i n view of discouraging fraudulent homesteading such as i s frequently indulged i n elsewhere. The Dominion imposed no taxes, but as soon as the patent was secured the P r o v i n c i a l Government was e n t i t l e d to levy taxes. Although the general policy was to reserve a l l a g r i c u l -t u r a l lands for homesteading, some 115,000 acres were sold, c h i e f l y under special conditions requiring dyking or i r r i g a -t i o n . There was no royalty on timber cut on these lands and logs might be exported without charge. In the early grants no reservation was made on timber, with the result that the timber lands i n the Lower Praser Valley almost a l l f e l l into private hands, and at present supply a large number of small m i l l s , causing a rapid depletion in the quantity a v a i l a b l e . The Federal Government always followed the leasing or lic e n s i n g system, retaining the ownership of the land and a royalty. Its leases and licenses are known as "timber berths", and were sold by public competition for a cash bonus, for one (66) year, renewable as long as the land contained merchantable timber, and as long as the land was not required f o r s e t t l e -ment. Berths could be of any size or shape, but were limited to 25 square miles. On the Coast rental was fixed at 50 per acre or $32 per square mile, and i n the Interi o r $5 a square mile, royalty being the same throughout. On sawn timber i t was 500 a thou-sand, t i e s eight feet long 1^0 each, nine feet long 1^0 each, shingle bolts 25^ per cord, a l l other products 5% of the sale p r i c e . F i r e protection charges averaged 10 per acre. In the early days an annual rent of $2 a square mile was charged, with a royalty of 5% of the sale value and a cash bonus with the sale. The f i r s t d e f i n i t e regulations were issued in 1883, r e s t r i c t i n g the area held to 50 square miles, and lim i t e d tenure to one year with provision for renew-a l , r e n t a l of $5 per square mile and 5% royalty. The operation of a m i l l with a d a i l y capacity of 10,000 board feet f o r s i x months of each year was obligatory, tenders were c a l l e d f o r i f competition developed, and i n 1885 public competition was d e f i n i t e l y required. These regulations applied to Manitoba, the North West T e r r i t o r i e s , then including Alberta and Saskat-chewan, and the Railway Belt as f a r west as the 120th meridian, 25 miles east of Kamloops. Between the 120th meridian and Yale there were no area r e s t r i c t i o n s or time l i m i t , rent was $50 a license with a royalty of 500 per tree f e l l e d and V50 per thousand board f e e t . Between Yale and the P a c i f i c area licenses were lim i t e d to 1,000 acres unless the capacity of (67) the attached m i l l was over 25,000 board, feet per day, when 2,000 acres were allowed f o r each 25,000 feet capacity. The term was four years with a r e n t a l of $10 per license, a r o y a l -ty of 15/£ per tree, and 20/2" a thousand board f e e t . In 1887 the central d i s t r i c t was extended to Eagle Pass just west of Revelstoke, and i n 1889 the central d i s t r i c t was abolished and the coast rate applied to a l l lands west of Eagle Pass. At t h i s time to encourage export the Federal Government adopted the policy of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and granted a rebate of h a l f the royalty on a l l timber export-ed. This was, however, discontinued i n 1901. In 1900 Yale was made the dividing point. After that date l i t t l e change was made in the regulations except for the prohibition of log export and the assessment of dues for f i r e protection. Prior to 1908 timber licenses were disposed of by sealed tenders, but after that time by sales at public auc-tions i n the d i s t r i c t s concerned. Before the sale the Govern-ment appraised the timber and set an upset price for the license as a whole. The Dominion Government never published to the public the amount of timber on a stand. Operation was required f o r s i x months i n the year of a m i l l capable of cutting 1,000 feet a day f o r every 2£ square miles. It was permitted to cut at the rate of 100,000 feet per annum fo r every square mile, but the cutting clause was not enforced at a l l s t r i c t l y . The minimum diameter was 10 inches except for road work or necessary construction. Seed trees had to be l e f t as directed and a l l merchantable material from trees cut (68) w as to be used, debris to be disposed of, and unnecessary destruction of young growth avoided. These regulations, a l -though very praiseworthy, were never enforced. The question of a diameter l i m i t i s open to discussion, as apparently i n a country l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia i t merely leaves the i n f e r i o r species such as lodgepole pine, aspen and hemlock to propagate f r e e l y . Permits were granted without competition to s e t t l e r s and others, to cut up to 100 cords of shingle bolts for sale on payment in advance of 500 a cord. They were also to be secured f o r cutting f i r e - k i l l e d timber for manufacture on (1) payment of dues. A l l licensees were required to furnish each year to the Dominion Timber agent sworn returns showing the quantities manufactured, and a bush count was also required. Timber cut on railway b e l t lands could only be scaled by persons authori-zed i n w r i t i n g by the Minister or h i s appointed agent. Timber cut south and west of Yale could only be scaled by a Dominion scaler holding a B.C. scaler's l i c e n s e . Payment of fees was based on scale for which the B.C. r u l e was in e f f e c t . Forest Reserves were set aside by the Minister and confirmed by Parliament, after which they could not be with-drawn from reserve without i t s authority. Glacier Park was reserved i n 1888, Yoho i n 1902 and Long Lake i n 1902. Most of t h i s timber was already alienated but the licenses were (1) P.B.C. p 107. (69) not affected. Timber was to be disposed of by permits or sales issued for a stated period and amount. S e t t l e r s having no timber were permitted to cut a limited amount of various types. Tenders could be calle d f o r larger amounts up to 5,000,000 feet to be removed within f i v e years. Parks have been set aside by the Dominion Government for the people i n perpetuity, such as Yale, Glacier and Revel-stoke. 30,000 acres of this had been previously alienated, but no more timber may be cut i n them, except f o r thinning and improvement purposes. On Indian Reserves, land, timber and other r i g h t s can only be secured by consent of a l l the Indians concerned, and i t was also necessary to secure the reversionary r i g h t s from the Province. These d i f f i c u l t i e s have resulted i n very l i t t l e timber being alienated on Reserves. (70) PART 4. FOREST PROBLEMS r: T h e r e a r e v e r y many p r o b l e m s t o d a y a g i t a t i n g t h e minds of t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n . We h a v e t h e v i t a l q u e s t i o n o f f o r e s t f i r e l o s s e s , , t h e a l m o s t more p r e s s i n g , a l t h o u g h l e s s known, p r o b l e m o f r e - a f f o r e s t a t i o n , and t h e p r o b l e m o f c l o s e r u t i l i -z a t i o n o f o u r f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e methods o f l o g g i n g and d e b r i s d i s p o s a l l e a s t h a r m f u l t o t h e y o u n g g r o w t h . The p r o b l e m o f f o r e s t f i r e s c an be d e a l t w i t h f i r s t , as b e i n g o b v i o u s i n t h e summer months t o anyone who h a s s e e n t h e s k y d a r k w i t h t h e smoke o f b u r n i n g f o r e s t s f o r weeks on end. E v e n i n t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s o f s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e P r o v i n c e f i r e s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d , and were t h e c a u s e o f w i d e s p r e a d damage, e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s where p r o s p e c t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s were a t t r a c t i n g l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e . The Bush F i r e A c t o f 1874 was t h e f i r s t e n a c t m e n t , i n an a t t e m p t t o c u r b t h e w h o l e s a l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t a t t h a t t i m e by f i r e . The A c t p r o v i d e d a f i n e f o r any p e r s o n c o n v i c t e d o f s e t t i n g a f i r e i n t h e b u s h d u r i n g t h e months o f J u n e t o September i n -c l u s i v e , i n c a s e i t s h o u l d e s c a p e and do damage. A s i m i l a r f i n e was p r o v i d e d f o r p e r s o n s l e t t i n g a f i r e e s c a p e f r o m t h e i r own p r o p e r t y on t o t h a t o f n e i g h b o u r s o r on t o t h e p u b l i c d omain. The A c t became o p e r a t i v e i n any d i s t r i c t on (1) p e t i t i o n o f t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . I n 1887 t h e A c t (1) S.B.C. ffo. 2 2 , 1874. (71) (1) was made g e n e r a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e , and i n 1896 t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l was g i v e n a u t h o r i t y t o d e f i n e any p o r t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e a s a f i r e d i s t r i c t , and t o make i t u n l a w f u l t o s e t any f i r e b e t w e e n May 1 s t and O c t o b e r 1 s t , e x c e p t f o r c l e a r i n g , c o o k i n g , o b t a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y warmth, (2) and i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . I n 1897 e v e r y G o l d C o m m i s s i o n e r , T i m b e r I n s p e c t o r , Government A g e n t , M i n i n g R e c o r d e r , a n d P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e O f f i c e r was c o m m i s s i o n e d as a f i r e w a r d e n . As t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e Government a r e s i l e n t as t o any e a r l i e r i n s t i t u t i o n o f f i r e wardens we may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s was t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t a t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e c o m b a t i n g o f t h e g r e a t e s t o f f o r e s t menaces. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e f i r e law were l a r g e l y i n o p e r a t i v e . I n 1906 a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n F o r e s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s s t a t e d t h a t , "The r i g i d e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e Bush F i r e A c t i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e e a r n e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . The v i g i l a n c e o f any army o f f o r e s t r a n -g e r s w o u l d p r o v e i n a d e q u a t e t o p r e v e n t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f f i r e s w i t h o u t t h e sympathy and a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e community i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t o f f o r e s t p r e s e r v a t i o n t h e p e o p l e must be e d u c a t e d t o a s e n s e o f i t s (3) i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f u t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y " . S i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e F o r e s t B r a n c h i t s g r e a t -e s t e f f o r t s have been i n t h e m a t t e r o f f i r e c o n t r o l . F o r t h e (1) S.B.C. Ch. 3, 1887. (2) S.B.C. Ch. 21, 1896. ( 3 ; E . F . J . A r t i c l e q u o t e d . (72) l a s t few y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n much a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e p l a n t i n g o f y o u n g t r e e s to r e p l a c e t h e a n n u a l l o s s by f i r e , a m o u n t i n g to some 10,000 a c r e s a y e a r . Y e t one may w e l l a s k why p l a n t more f o r e s t s when we c a n n o t p r o t e c t t h o s e we h ave? The money i s f a r b e t t e r s p e n t on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . The B r a n c h has s u c -c e e d e d i n k e e p i n g a n n u a l f i r e l o s s e s down t o about h a l f o f 1% o f t h e t o t a l a r e a b u r n e d , and h a l f o f 1% o f t h e t o t a l m a t u r e t i m b e r , a l t h o u g h t h e l o s s i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y h i g h e r i n young g r o w t h . F o r e s t f i r e s a r e l a r g e l y due t o p u b l i c c a r e -l e s s n e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e h a s b e e n a marked change i n t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s and good work ha s b een done by means o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s , and by a g r e a t d e a l of a d v e r t i s i n g . T oday on t h e 125,000,000 a c r e s u n d e r p a t r o l , o f w h i c h o n e - h a l f i s p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t , 10 p e r a c r e i s s p e n t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t h a t a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e D o u g l a s f i r b e l t r e q u i r e s 5^0 p e r a c r e ; t h e w h i t e - p i n e - c e d a r b e l t o f K o o t e n a y and I d a h o , %0\ and i n t h e s p r u c e - l o d g e p o l e - p i n e a r e a of M o n t a n a 40 p e r a c r e i s r e q u i r e d . I f t h e f o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e t o b e a s a f e p l a c e t o grow t i m b e r by i n t e n s i v e c u l t u r e , we s h o u l d be p r e -p a r e d t o s p e n d a t l e a s t "b\0 p e r a c r e , o r $2,000,000 a y e a r f o r f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e a r e a now u n d e r p a t r o l . W i t h t h i s sum a v a i l a b l e a m a t e r i a l r e d u c t i o n c o u l d be made i n t h e (1) l o s s by f i r e on s t a n d s a l r e a d y s t o c k e d by n a t u r e . (1) B.C. Lumberman. M a r c h , 1928. (73) The y e a r 1925 saw what was p r o b a b l y t h e w o r s t f i r e s e a s o n on r e c o r d , t h e t o t a l damage a m o u n t i n g t o $2,747,190, w h i l s t t h e c o s t o f f i g h t i n g t h e s e f i r e s was $616,940. F o r c o m p l e t e f i g u r e s on t h e c o s t and damage c a u s e d by f i r e s s e e (1) a p p e n d i x . T h e r e i s a good d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y as t o w h e t h e r l o g g i n g s l a s h s h o u l d be l e f t o r c l e a r e d . I n o p e r a t i o n s on t h e C o a s t 25$ o f t h e m a t e r i a l c u t i s l e f t on t h e s i t e t o i n c r e a s e f i r e h a z a r d s and hamper r e p r o d u c t i o n . E s p e c i a l l y on t h e E a s t C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and on t h e s o u t h e r n m a i n l a n d i s t h e f i r e h a z a r d i n c r e a s e d by l e a v i n g u n b u r n e d s l a s h and d e b r i s w h i c h a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y t a k e s f i r e . I n w e t t e r a r e a s , as on t h e West C o a s t o f t h e I s l a n d , d i s p o s a l i s l e s s n e c e s s a r y . I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f Mr. P a t u l l o t h a t s l a s h b u r n i n g o r f i r e s r e t a r d r e g e n e r a t i o n by a b o u t f i v e t o e i g h t y e a r s . He goes on t o s a y t h a t l o g g i n g i s no more d e s t r u c t i v e t h a n t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f o u r w h e a t f i e l d s , and t h e c l i m a t e and f e r t i l i t y o f t h e s o i l a r e n o t i m p a i r e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . C a r e f u l s t u d i e s have been made on t h e e f f e c t s on r e g e n e r a t i o n o f h i g h l e a d l o g g i n g and s l a s h b u r n i n g . T h e s e a r e as f o l l o w s : -D o u g l a s F i r type:: Of 231 a r e a s examined f o u r y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g 66$ o f a l l a r e a s show a s t o c k i n g o f 500 new t r e e s p e r a c r e , and 79$ o f t h e u n b u r n e d a r e a s c o n t a i n e d o v e r 500 t r e e s p e r a c r e . (1) R.F.B. 1926. (74) H e m l o c k - c e d a r t y p e : Of 171 a r e a s examined 71$ h a d o v e r 500 t r e e s p e r a c r e and 79$ o f t h e u n b u r n e d a r e a s h a d o v e r 500 t r e e s t o t h e a c r e . S i t k a s p r u c e t y p e : Of 140 a r e a s e x a m i n e d 87$ h a d o v e r 500 t r e e s p e r a c r e . T h i s , Mr. P a t u l l o c o n t e n d s , i s p r o o f t h a t n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l and s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i t i s a l s o i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e b e s t t r a d i t i o n s o f f o r e s t r y i n E u r o p e . The f i r and s p r u c e o f t h e B l a c k F o r e s t i s a l m o s t w h o l l y s e c u r e d by n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , and t h e same a p p l i e s i n t h e B a l t i c a r e a s . I n Saxony, where c l e a r c u t t i n g and p l a n t i n g were p r a c t i s e d f o r a number o f y e a r s , t h e s o i l h a s become i m p o v e r i s h e d , and t h e a r e a i s now d e s i g n a t e d as t h e " g r a v e o f a r t i f i c i a l f o r e s t r y " . The c u t t i n g o f o l d . and o v e r - m a t u r e s t a n d s d o e s n o t l e n d i t s e l f t o s e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e l a r g e C o a s t s p e c i e s on r o u g h g r o u n d . The h e a v y equipment i n l o g g i n g p l a n t s r e q u i r e t h e maximum c u t o f t i m b e r p e r a c r e t o r e d u c e t h e o v e r h e a d and make t h e o p e r a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l c o m m e r c i a l l y . S m a l l e r t r e e s on s u c h an a r e a a r e o f t e n f o u n d t o be o f t h e same age as t h e l a r g e r , t h e i r s m a l l s i z e b e i n g due t o u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s o f g r o w t h , l a r g e l y s haded o r s h e l t e r e d by t h e i r more s u c c e s s f u l n e i g h b o u r s . The t a k i n g o u t of t h e b e t t e r t r e e s and l e a v i n g t h e s m a l l e r , s t a n d i n g e x p o s e d t o t h e w i n d f r o m w h i c h t h e y were p r e v i o u s l y s h e l t e r e d , a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y r e s u l t s i n w i n d t h r o w s , w h i c h l e v e l t h e w h o l e t r a c t . From t i m e i m m e m o r i a l on t h e C o a s t f o r e s t s h a v e t h r i v e n and b e e n d e s t r o y e d , and new f o r e s t s h a v e grown up amongst t h e (75) d e b r i s and w a s t e o f t h o s e t h a t h a v e p r e c e d e d them. . T h i s i s s t i l l b e i n g s e c u r e d . T h e r e f o r e c l e a n i n g up o f d e b r i s i s n o t (1) e s s e n t i a l f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f o b t a i n i n g new g r o w t h . W r i t i n g i n The Lumberman, f o r M a r c h 1928, Mr. C a v e r -h i l l , C h i e f F o r e s t e r , s t a t e d t h a t , " F o r e s t r y i s man's e f f o r t t o bend t h e f o r e s t t o h i s w i l l , and may be c o n s i d e r e d a s d e s t r u c t i v e i n s o f a r a s l o g g i n g t i m b e r , c l e a r i n g t h e f o r e s t f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , and s u c h l i k e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d . I t i s c o n s t r u c t i v e i n s o f a r a s h i s e f f o r t s t e n d t o w a r d s r e p l a c i n g o r e x t e n d i n g t h e f o r e s t " . P l a n t i n g t r e e s i s an e x c e l l e n t t h i n g b u t i t does n o t c o n s t i t u t e a f o r e s t p o l i c y . I t i s an e x p e n s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g , and t h e i n v e s t m e n t t h r o u g h r i s k and i n t e r e s t m u l t i p l i e s many t i m e s b e f o r e any r e t u r n i s r e c e i v e d . P l a n t i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d i s u s e d f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s u p e r i o r , e x o t i c s p e c i e s , s u c h as t h e D o u g l a s F i r and S i t k a S p r u c e i n E u r o p e , M o n t e r e y p i n e i n New Z e a l a n d , and w a t t l e i n S o u t h A f r i c a . I t i s a l s o u s e d f o r f i l l i n g f a i l e d p l a c e s , g a p s i n t h e f o r e s t c o v e r where l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n i s i n t e n s i v e , and e v e r y a c r e must be u t i l i z e d . A g a i n i t i s u s e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d c r o p s s u c h as r u b b e r i n t h e M a l a y S t a t e s * o t h e r -w i s e i t d o e s n o t f i l l any v e r y i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n f o r e s t p r o g r a m s . I t s h o u l d be o b v i o u s t h a t i f we a r e to grow f o r e s t s r e q u i r i n g a h u n d r e d y e a r s t o m a t u r e we must s e l e c t t h e s i t e s on w h i c h t h e s e c r o p s a r e t o grow, and d e d i c a t e them s o l e l y t o (1) B.C. Lumberman. Dec. 1927. (76) t o t h a t p u r p o s e . C a r e must be e x e r c i s e d i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n s i n c e f o r e s t u s e may c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r p o s s i b l e u s e s , a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r example. F o r e s t R e s e r v e s h a v e b e e n d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p e r p e t u a l g r o w t h o f t i m b e r . A l l l a n d i n t h e P r o v i n c e i s b e i n g gradu--a l l y c l a s s i f i e d , and a l l t h a t s u i t a b l e c h i e f l y f o r t i m b e r , w h i c h h a s n o t a l r e a d y b e e n a l i e n a t e d , i s b e i n g s e t a s i d e i n t h e f o r m o f F o r e s t R e s e r v e s , w h i c h a t t h e end o f 1929 t o t a l l e d (1) 6,907,000 a c r e s i n twenty f o r e s t s . The p r o j e c t e d p r o g r a m c a l l s f o r t h e s e t t i n g a s i d e o f 25,000,000 a c r e s by 1950. T h i s w i l l g i v e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l a r g e r a r e a o f p u b l i c f o r -e s t s t h a n F r a n c e and Germany combined, t w i c e t h e a r e a o f t h e s t a t e f o r e s t s o f Sweden, and more t h a n t h e p r o g r a m f o r t h e e n t i r e c o n t i n e n t o f A u s t r a l i a . B e s i d e s t h e s e f o r e s t s , V i c -t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r h a v e b o t h a c q u i r e d v a l u a b l e f o r e s t p r o p e r t i e s t h r o u g h p u r c h a s e and l e a s e f o r u s e as w a t e r s h e d s . M u n i c i p a l f o r e s t s r e p r e s e n t more t h a n h a l f t h e p u b l i c owned f o r e s t s o f E u r o p e , and t h e m u n i c i p a l f o r e s t s o f B.C. may be made t o c o n t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f wood p r o d u c t s as w e l l as s e r v i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y o b j e c t o f p r o t e c t i n g w a t e r -s h e d s . S u r v e y s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a n t i t y a n d c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t i m b e r , and t h i s i s b e i n g done a t t h e r a t e o f about 1,000,000 a c r e s p e r annum. I n 1928 s u r v e y s i n f i v e I n t e r i o r f o r e s t s showed ma t u r e t i m b e r t o t h e e x t e n t o f (1) R.F.B. 1929. (77) 2,879,700,000 on 369,800 acres, with second growth d i s t r i -buted as follows:-TABLE 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Second Growth. Over 100 years 14,900 acres. 81-100 61-80 41-60 21-40 0-20 In four Coast forests mature timber amounted to 1,040,700,000 feet on 51,800 acres. Second growth amounted to 147,050 acres of trees 21-40 years of age, and 97,000 acres up to 20 years, i n c l u s i v e . Roads and t r a i l s in the forests are es s e n t i a l . In Heidelberg Forest i n Germany they spend $1.68 per acre on roads and 30^ per acre on nurseries and planting. Forest areas must be accessible before forest culture can be commenc-ed, and at least 50 per acre or $1,250,000 should be spent per year on roads i n the forest before any planting i s done, or any intensive culture or wide scheme of forest plantation undertaken. The Forest Branch i s doing excellent work i n the matter of forest research, hampered as i t i s by shortage of funds. The branch has a direct appropriation of $18,000 per annum, and a forest development fund of about $65,000 per year, being 22,700 " 39,000 " 310,700 910,700 » 77,000 " (78) 3$ o f t h e r e v e n u e f r o m r o y a l t y and stumpage c o l l e c t i o n s . I t i s c a r e f u l l y b u i l d i n g up a competent s t a f f t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o b l e m s o f s e e d d i s s e m i n a t i o n , t r e e d i s e a s e s , t h e r e l a t i o n (1) between h u m i d i t y and f i r e c o n t r o l , p e s t s , e t c . The r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n i s one o f t h e s i x d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l P o r e s t S e r v i c e . I t c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s , a s t e n o g r a p h e r , and a s t a t i o n f o r e m a n . I n t h e summer a number o f t e m p o r a r y a s s i s t a n t s a r e employed. E x p e r i -m e n t a l f o r e s t s a r e c o n d u c t e d a t Cowichan and A l e z a L a k e s . An e x p e r i m e n t a l n u r s e r y o p e r a t e s n e a r V i c t o r i a , and a perman-ent and l a r g e r one i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n t h e G r e e n T i m b e r a r e a ( 2 ) n e a r New W e s t m i n s t e r . The V i c t o r i a and A l e z a L a k e n u r s e r i e s l a r g e l y p r o d u c e s e e d l i n g s t o r e s t o c k a r e a s r e p e a t e d l y denuded by f i r e s . We c u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000,000,000 f e e t i n a y e a r , o r t h e g r o w t h on 120,000 a c r e s , w h i c h i s s i x t i m e s t h e a r e a p l a n t e d i n a y e a r i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . The P o r e s t A c t o f 1912 l a i d down t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s t o be s t r i v e n f o r : --1. I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t . 2. C o n s e r v a t i o n o f f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . 3. P o r e s t c u l t u r e o r s i l v i c u l t u r e . T h e s e t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s f o r m t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f f o r e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T i m b e r s a l e s a r e made p r i m a r -i l y t o t h e end o f d i s p o s i n g o f odd l o t s o f t i m b e r w h i c h may happen t o be a d j a c e n t t o l a r g e r h o l d i n g s , so t h a t t h e y may be (1) B.C.L. M a r c h 1928. (2) B.C.L. F e b . 1930. (79) l o g g e d w h i l e t h e m a c h i n e r y i s on t h e s p o t . I t a l s o g i v e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h e s m a l l e r c o n c e r n s t o o b t a i n t i m b e r , on t h e . c o m p e t i t i v e p r i n c i p l e a f t e r s u r v e y i n g and c r u i s i n g . Between 600 and 800 s a l e s a r e made e a c h y e a r i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l hun-d r e d m i l l i o n f e e t . P r o v i s i o n i s made by t h e r o y a l t y s y s t e m f o r a f a i r d i v i s i o n o f p r o f i t s b e t w e e n t h e i n d u s t r y and t h e Government. S c a l i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f Government i n s p e c t o r s , g i v i n g an i m p a r t i a l s c a l e and g r a d e to a l l l o g s c u t west o f t h e C a s c a d e s . P o r e s t P r o d u c t s l a b o r a -t o r i e s , f i r s t d e v e l o p e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government, s t u d y market e x t e n s i o n work and e n d e a v o u r t o f i n d what i n d u s t r i a l u s e c a n be made o f w a s t e m a t e r i a l , and where m a r k e t s f o r t h e s e p r o d u c t s c a n be f o u n d . We t h u s h a ve an a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n much c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t p r o d u c t s . S u r v e y s o f m a t e r i a l s l e f t a f t e r l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s have been c o n d u c t e d , made w i t h a v i e w t o d e t e r m i n i n g what u s e may be made o f t h i s d e b r i s . The w a s t e p r o b l e m i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a w a i t i n g s o l u t i o n , as t h e m a t e r i a l l e f t f r o m l o g -g i n g o f t e n amounts t o 25$ o f t h e s t a n d . T h i s n o t o n l y i n -v o l v e s t h e n o n - u s e o f m a t e r i a l t h a t has t a k e n y e a r s t o p r o -d u ce, b ut i n c r e a s e s t h e f i r e h a z a r d and c o s t of l o g g i n g , and hampers r e p r o d u c t i o n . R e g e n e r a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e made on permanent sample p l o t s t o o b t a i n y i e l d t a b l e s , s i t e h i s t o r y maps, and i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o s e e d d i s s e m i n a t i o n , and many o t h e r u s e f u l f a c t s w h i c h w i l l u l t i m a t e l y f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l work i n t h e f u t u r e . (80) "Forest management to be ef f e c t i v e must be b u i l t on the hard basis of economics". "We cannot grow timber and only market the higher grades. There has been considerable agita-t i o n of la t e f o r re - a f f o r e s t a t i o n , by which i s meant a r t i f i c i a l planting, as i t i s conducted on an extensive scale, and i n -volves weeding, and thinning at an early stage. Under our conditions of development such things are uneconomic, a d i r e c t outlay from which no return can be expected. Morever, and fortunately for us, a l l studies yet completed indicate that with control of the f i r e hazard, we w i l l get a sa t i s f a c t o r y re-stocking 5-10 years af t e r cutting. F i r e w i l l retard t h i s 8-10 (1) years, but only severe and repeated f i r e s w i l l denude an area". In Japan forest work i s decidedly advanced. Large areas are c l a s s i f i e d as protection forests, and set aside f o r protection against the denudation of s o i l , against winds, to preserve the headwaters of r i v e r s , f o r the at t r a c t i n g of f i s h , and f o r scenery. A r t i f i c i a l l y planted forests are Yoshino, with 82,000 cho or 200,900 acres, containing c h i e f l y "sugi", a conifer y i e l d i n g annually ¥6,500,000; 543,000 cho of "sugi" and "hinoki" are planted along the River Tenryu, and y i e l d ¥1,500,000 annually. Bamboo groves planted near Kyoto are known as the most valuable i n Japan and y i e l d annually ¥2,000,-000. The t o t a l cut from these forests averages about 19,340,-000 Eoku, or 2,120,OOOkOOO board f e e t . In 1927 108,086 cho were planted with 341,663,315 seedlings, of which 90% were coniferous, also 80 cho were planted with 2,642,263 bamboos. (1) The Timberman. Feb. 1927. (81) The t o t a l forest y i e l d in Japan in 1927 amounted to ¥198,729,-000, the t o t a l coniferous cut was 38,009,000 koku, with a value of ¥100,830,000. The t o t a l cut amounted to 46,724,000 (D# koku. New Zealand possesses a t o t a l forest area of 12,593,-000 acres, or 19.1$ of the t o t a l area. Of t h i s forest land 5,589,501 acres carries over 5,000 board feet per acre. There i s an estimated supply of softwoods amounting to 38,878 mi l l i o n board feet, or 62.6$ of the t o t a l , while hardwoods amount to about 23,311 m i l l i o n board feet or 32.7$ of the t o t a l . Over 7,553,690 acres are in forest reserves. They contain 99 v a r i e t i e s of wood, only 20 of which are of any value for timber, only s i x of these being much used, of which f i v e are coniferous softwoods. The chief of these l a s t i s "rimu" and "kanikatea 1*, which account for 56.5$ and 19.4$ respectively. Over 90$ of New Zealand's demand i s f o r so f t -wood. Planting has increased from 3,408 acres i n 1922 to 15,964 acres in 1926, the cost per acre at the same time (2) diminishing from £8 to £2. A u s t r a l i a possesses only 24,500,000 acres of forest, or 1.29$ of her t o t a l area, yet she has planted 58,779 acres (3) of softwood and 11,818 acres of hardwoods. #Japanese Measures! 1 koku - 10 cubic f e e t . 1 cubic foot - 12 b.f. 1 cho - 2.45 acres. 1 Yen (¥1) - 500. (1) Japan Year Book, 1930. (2) New Zealand Year Book, 1927. (3) Australian Year Book, 1929. (82) The disposal of logging debris i s a question which arouses much dissension. It i s undoubtedly true that removal of debris gives an added impetus to natural regeneration. The only possible method i s by broadcast burning, that i s to say, i t i s the only possible method with the present informa-t i o n a v a i l a b l e . The large operators commonly do t h i s in s e l f -protection as a big slash f i r e may run away and do a good deal of damage. The smaller operators, however, are more or less i n d i f f e r e n t , as i f a f i r e occurs they simply move the i r l i g h t equipment elsewhere, which i s not so easy for the large opera-tors with a quantity of heavy machinery. Apart from the re-moval of a serious f i r e hazard, controlled burning i s advis-able to secure the best reproduction. With the removal of the large trees the i n f e r i o r species such as balsam and hemlock are l e f t free to reproduce, but i f the slash i s burned t h i s less desirable young growth w i l l go and a good natural reproduction of Douglas f i r , red cedar and white pine w i l l be generally procured provided the necessary seed trees have been l e f t . Burning also disposes of bark beetles and wood borers which are found in the tops and branches, and also the wood destroy-(1) ing fungi. As 25$ of the tree, when cut, i s l e f t to rot, or form a f i r e hazard, in the bush, and another 30-35$ i s wasted in the m i l l s , i t becomes apparent that not only i s much closer u t i l i z a t i o n advisable, but i t i s a crying need. The use of lower grade logs by loggers reduces p r o f i t s considerably, and (1) P.B.C. p 183. thus m i l i t a t e s against economical cutting i n the f o r e s t s . In a convention held at Everett, Washington, on the subject of A g r i c u l t u r a l Credit L e g i s l a t i o n , the question of u t i l i z a t i o n of waste wood was entered into in some d e t a i l . Although t h i s conference took place i n 1908 the report made by Mr. Carmichael, Government Analyst, i s worthy of thought. The chief purpose of t h i s report was the consideration of plans for u t i l i z i n g and removing stumps from logged off lands, and the u t i l i z a t i o n of any by-products. In the report i n question the ehemical side only i s dealt with. One of the main products which i t had been proposed to save was s p i r i t s of turpentine f o r which there i s a large market at a good pri c e , and at thi s time the extraction of turpentine from wood had occupied the attention of numerous investigators f o r several years. Two main processes were used, f i r s t a f i r e or destructive d i s t i l l a t i o n process, and secondly, a moist steam d i s t i l l a t i o n process. In the f i r s t process the wood i s of cordwood s i z e , and i s placed in iron r e t o r t s which are heated from the outside, a pipe from the retort communicating with some form of conden-ser where the products are condensed and afterwards r e d i s t i l -led and refined. The products are of a composite character in the form of a l i g h t d i s t i l l a t e which i s refined and sold as second grade turpentine, and a heavy wood creosote tar which i s sold as st a i n , preservative or d i s i n f e c t a n t . In the second process, the wood is chipped or broken (1) B.C.L. March 1928. (84) up small* f i l l e d into a b o i l e r or r e t o r t , and moist steam turned on, the retort being connected with a condenser as in the f i r s t case. The steam and turpentine vapors condense, the turpentine f l o a t i n g on the top, from whence i t i s run off into a separate vessel, steam being kept on u n t i l p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the turpentine has come off and the wood i s l e f t unchanged . in the r e t o r t . This second process has the advantage of producing pure turpentine which at the time sold at 100 per gallon wholesale on the Coast, the turpentine from the f i r s t process being able to r e a l i z e only half the p r i c e . The only disadvantage of the second method i s that a b o i l e r and some method of chipping the wood are required. Numerous plants were started at d i f f e r e n t times, but a l l f a i l e d . Of a l l the methods of extracting turpentine the only one which at that time appeared to have been commercially successful was one i n which the p r i n c i p l e used was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . It consists of placing wood of cordwood siz e i n a r e t o r t , pumping in heated rosin, which extracts the turpen-tine, which i s d i s t i l l e d off i n a separate vessel and the rosin used over again. This was known as the Mackenzie pat-ent, and was operated by the Standard Turpentine Company which at t h i s time owned two large plants i n North Carolina. A plant operated solely for d i s t i l l a t i o n of wood and the recovery of by-products does not seem to o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t inducement to warrant i t s erection on the P a c i f i c Coast, but (85) as an a d j u n c t t o a l a n d c l e a r i n g scheme where gum wood c o u l d he had f o r n o t h i n g i t has a g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s . The r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e companies w h i c h h a ve t r i e d t o p r o d u c e t u r p e n t i n e on t h e C o a s t i s t h e want o f a s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y o f t h a t s u b s t a n c e i n t h e wood t o make i t p a y . Y i e l d s as h i g h as 75 g a l l o n s p e r c o r d h a v e been o b t a i n e d f r o m gummy f i r , b u t Mr. C a r m i c h a e l was c o n v i n c e d f r o m p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t s e v e n g a l l o n s p e r c o r d i s an a v e r a g e y i e l d f r o m gummy f i r by t h e steam p r o c e s s , and t o g e t 10 c o r d s o f s u c h wood, 100 c o r d s w o u l d h a v e t o be h a n d l e d . I n t h e l a n d c l e a r i n g scheme t h e gummy wood m i g h t be s e g r e g a t e d and d i s t i l l e d r a t h e r t h a n b u r n t as i s now done, and a f a i r p r o f i t made, b u t t h e r e t o r t s would r e q u i r e to b e p l a c e d i n a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n t o a v o i d c h a n g i n g f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e . T h e r e i s a F r e n c h p r o c e s s w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m any o f t h e f o r e g o i n g , and w h i c h seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t e d t o t h e d i s t i l l a t i o n o f wood i n l a n d c l e a r i n g o p e r a t i o n s . I t i s known as t h e F o u c a u l d p r o c e s s , and has been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r many y e a r s . The t i m b e r i s s t a c k e d i n a p i l e a s i n l a n d c l e a r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , a p i p e b e i n g f i r s t r u n t o t h e c e n t r e t o t a k e o f f t h e p r o d u c t s o f d i s t i l l a t i o n . A number o f s e c t i o n s a r e made, i n F r a n c e 12 f e e t l o n g , t h r e e f e e t w i d e a t t h e b o t t o m , and one f o o t a t t h e t o p . T h e s e a r e made o f wood p l a s t e r e d w i t h c l a y o r a m i x t u r e o f s o i l and g r a s s , and a r e p l a c e d a r o u n d t h e p i l e f o r m i n g a c o v e r i n g t h i r t y f e e t i n d i a m e t e r a t (86) t h e b a s e , t e n f e e t a t t h e t o p , and e i g h t t o n i n e f e e t h i g h , a cap b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t o p . The s i z e o f t h i s c o v e r , o r s h r o u d as i t i s known i n F r a n c e , c o u l d be made t o s u i t l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The p i l e o f wood i s t h e n f i r e d t h r o u g h an o p e n i n g a t t h e b a s e o f t h e c o v e r , and a s l o w f i r e a l l o w e d t o r u n t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e p i l e . A p o r t i o n o f t h e wood i s consumed, c o n v e r t i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r i n t o c h a r c o a l and d i s t i l l i n g o f f t h e v o l a t i l e s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e c o n d e n s e d i n t h e c o n d e n s e r . The h e a t o f t h e f i r e i s r e g u l a t e d by t h e a d m i s s i o n o f a i r so t h e c o v e r i n g i s n e v e r b u r n t . The r e s u l t i s a good c h a r c o a l , and t h e c o n -d e n s e d p r o d u c t s a r e t a k e n t o a c e n t r a l r e f i n e r y and g o t i n t o m a r k e t a b l e c o n d i t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s s h o u l d y i e l d a v e r y f a i r amount o f p r o d u c t s a t a minimum o f l a b o u r and p l a n t , e s p e c -i a l l y i n a l a n d c l e a r i n g scheme. The p r o d u c t s w o u l d be s e c o n d g r a d e t u r p e n t i n e , c r e o s o t e t a r and c h a r c o a l . The l a t t e r i s e m i n e n t l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e t y p e of s t o v e known as c l o s e d h e a t -e r s . T h e s e c o u l d be made o f s m a l l e r s i z e and t h e h e a t r e g u l a t -(1) ed t o a n i c e t y . To a l l t h o s e who l o v e t h e g r e e n e r y o f o u r f o r e s t s f r o m t h e c a s u a l p l e a s u r e s e e k e r , t h e f i s h e r m a n w e n d i n g h i s way up-s t r e a m , t h e h u n t e r i n p u r s u i t o f h i s d e e r , t o t h e c i t i z e n d r i v i n g i n h i s c a r t h r o u g h e n d l e s s m i l e s o f l o g g i n g s l a s h and b r u l e , t o one and a l l t h e p r e s e n t m e r c i l e s s d e s t r u c t i o n and r a v i s h i n g o f o u r f o r e s t s must g i v e much f o o d f o r t h o u g h t . (1) R e p o r t o f Government A n a l y s t , a f t e r t h e E v e r e t t C o n v e n t i o n , 1908. (87 ) L u m b e r i n g i s one o f o u r most i m p o r t a n t a s s e t s . Y e s , b u t so i s s c e n e r y w h i c h b r i n g s t o u r i s t s by t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s , and i f we d e s t r o y one o f our most v i t a l a s s e t s we s h a l l l o s e l a r g e l y i n t h e l o s s o f o u r t o u r i s t t r a d e . Who has n o t g r o a n e d i n s p i r i t a t t h e m i l e s o f d e s o l a t e d f o r e s t i n t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g s t a t e of W a s h i n g t o n , and h u r r i e d on t o more a t t r a c t i v e s i g h t s ? L e t us t a k e a l e a f out o f t h e book o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e J a p a n -ese and p r e s e r v e and p l a n t t r e e s i n s c e n i c s p o t s . Who has n o t r e p i n e d when s u r v e y i n g t h e h a v o c w r e a k e d a t E l k F a l l s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and t h e g h a s t l y d e b r i s on t h e once b e a u t i f u l C owichan L a k e r o a d , t h e shambles w h i c h were o n c e t h e G r e e n T i m b e r s n e a r New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e s t a r k , g a u n t , n a k e d n e s s o f t h e t i m b e r r a z e d by t h e famous M e r v i l l e E i r e ? The F o r e s t B r a n c h i s d o i n g i t s u t m o s t by p a t r o l and p r o p a g a n d a t o combat t h e t e r r i b l e menace o f f o r e s t f i r e , b u t t o be e f f e c t i v e i t n e e d s f a r more money, f a r more c o - o p e r a -t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c . The l e v y on t i m b e r owners f o r p r o t e c -t i o n s h o u l d be r a i s e d t o a t l e a s t p e r a c r e , w i t h a p r o p o r -t i o n a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o m t h e Government t o a f f o r d a n y t h i n g l i k e a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n . P r o v i s i o n s 3 h o u l d be i n s e r t e d i n a l l t i m b e r l e a s e s , l i c e n s e s , and s a l e s r e q u i r i n g t h a t a b e l t o f t i m b e r be a l w a y s l e f t a l o n g p u b l i c h i g h w a y s e x c e p t i n s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d c a s e s . R e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be e n f o r c e d r e q u i r i n g t h e r e m o v a l o f a l l l o g g i n g d e b r i s , by c o n t r o l l e d b u r n i n g o r any o t h e r s u i t a b l e method, and an a t t e m p t made t o s e c u r e some means o f u t i l i z i n g s u c h w a s t e , by some su c h s y s t e m as t h e P o u c a u l d (88 ) a . method. The p l a n t i n g o f t r e e s where t h e f o r e s t has b een c u t a p p e a r s to be u n n e c e s s a r y , p r o v i d e d t h a t d e b r i s i s removed and s e e d t r e e s l e f t , so t h a t n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n may t a k e p l a c e . P l a n t i n g on any s i z e a b l e s c a l e s h o u l d n o t be i n d u l g e d i n , e x c e p t i n c a s e s o f r e p e a t e d b u r n i n g , u n t i l a d e q u a t e p r o -t e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e x i s t e n t f o r e s t s , and u n t i l t h e s e f o r e s t s a r e made e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r a n g e r s by c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f numerous t r a i l s . (88) PART 5/. MARKETSt PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE. The f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n we have o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a f o r e i g n m arket f o r B. C. t i m b e r i s t h e e n q u i r y i n 1852 o f CD A l e x a n d e r C. A n d e r s o n , a s k i n g as t o t h e p r i c e s of s p a r s and masts o f good q u a l i t y i n S h a n g h a i . I n 1865 M a c f i e t e l l s u s i n " V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , s p a r s were b e i n g s u p p l i e d by t h e A l b e r n i M i l l s t o t h e F r e n c h , S p a n i s h a n d S a r -d i n i a n G o v e r n m e n t s , and t h a t a l a r g e t r a d e was a l s o b e i n g done i n sawn t i m b e r f o r e x p o r t t o C a l l a o , H o n o l u l u , S ydney, M e l -b o u r n e , London, Coquimbo, A d e l a i d e , V i c t o r i a , S h a n g h a i , B a t a -v i a , L i m a , Hong Kong, O t a g o , V a l p a r a i s o , I t a l y , M a n i l l a and (2) e l s e w h e r e . The " G u i d e t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r 1877-8" i n f o r m s us t h a t f o r t h e t e n y e a r s e n d i n g 1870 a b o u t 60,000,000 f e e t of r o u g h and d r e s s e d D o u g l a s f i r l u m b e r , w i t h a q u a n t i t y o f s h i n g l e s , l a t h s and p i c k e t s , and about 3,500 s p a r s were e x p o r t e d . "The o n l y t i m b e r e x p o r t e d i n c a r g o e s i s t h a t o f D o u g l a s F i r , commonly c a l l e d p i n e . . . . T h i s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n wood i s known i n A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d and G r e a t B r i t a i n as Oregon P i n e , a l t h o u g h O r e g o n does n o t e x p o r t i t t o t h o s e m a r k e t s . A good g r o w i n g demand e x i s t s f o r B.C. D o u g l a s f i r , and s q u a r e t i m b e r i n S o u t h A m e r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and C h i n a , (1) L e t t e r . A n d e r s o n t o D a l l a s , 1852. (2) M a c f i e . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1865. # T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s s t i l l e n c o u n t e r e d i n most p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d i n r e g a r d t o D o u g l a s F i r . (89) (1) and a few c a r g o e s o f s p a r s a r e s e n t a n n u a l l y t o E n g l a n d " . A l s t o n s t a t e s i n h i s Handbook t h a t t h e m i l l s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r s u p p l y much t i m b e r , e m p l o y i n g o v e r 500 ha n d s , and t h a t " t h e lumber i s o f s u c h e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y as t o f i n d a market even i n San F r a n c i s o o , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e h e a v y d u t y o f 30$ ad v a l o r e m t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e c a r g o e s a r e d i s -(2) p a t c h e d t o C h i n a and S o u t h A m e r i c a " . E a r l y f i g u r e s on t h e e x p o r t o f t i m b e r f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o . o b t a i n , and a c a r e f u l p e r u s a l o f Government r e p o r t s , and J o u r n a l s o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e f a i l t o y i e l d much i n f o r m a t i o n , e x c e p t i n i s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s . Our e a r l i e s t r e l i a b l e f i g u r e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e famous L a n -g e v i n R e p o r t on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p u b l i s h e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n ( 3 ) S e s s i o n a l p a p e r s , 1872. TABLE 4. EARLY EXPORTS. Y e a r P l a n k s : S h i n g l e s * t L a t h s * t S p a r s i ! V a l u e . ! Rough t D r e s s e d : M t M No. i 1861! l 288,650i i 3,000: ----- • — < — - - • $ 3,416 1862i 1863 s 205,6001 5 322,700 878 951: i > 9 "JOQ ; 3,200: > — — - - j ---_ . S c, , / c.v ! 9,885 1864 ! 2,687,460 ! 430,194: 579 ! 55 ! 43,490 1865 j s 2,120,410! s 257,246: 1 ! 42 i ! 251 ! 80,195 1866 ! 1,271,611! s 342,931: 50 i 7 ! ! 257 i : 71,807 1867i ! 4,146,000! i 122,000: 908 ! , 175 »1,424 ! 86,691 1868! [15,637,303. ! 696,922: 835 : 512 i t 8 ! 184,135 1869 118,814,381! [1,427,126: 1,035 :1,433 : 790 i 252,154 1870s 7,544,073. 2,342,903: 841 : 200 ! . 8 3 2 : i 128,257 The above f i g u r e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , a l l p r i o r t o t h e e n t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. A f t e r (1) G u i d e t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B.C. 1877-8. (2) A l s t o n , op c i t . (3) L a n g e v i n R e p o r t on B.C. 1872. (90) t h i s d a t e , i n s p i t e o f f i n e - c o m b i n g a l l o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e I h a v e n o t been a b l e t o f i n d any d e t a i l s o f t i m b e r e x p o r t u n t i l 1913, e x c e p t f o r t h e y e a r e n d i n g June 3 0 t h , 1873, (1) when t h e r e c o r d e d e x p o r t s were as f o l l o w s : TABLE 5. DETAILED EXPORT EOR 1872-3. P l a n k s & B o a r d s (ffi) A u s t r a l i a : 2,939: V a l u e § ^ 32,807 V a l p a r a i s o 2,624: 31,124 P e r u 7,813: 94,730 U. S. A. 123: 1,180 H o n o l u l u 387: 3,691 C h i n a 3,021: 42,093 S p a r s (Number) P e r u 4: 350 C h i n a 20: 760 L a t h s ( M i l l e . ) A u s t r a l i a 375: 1,368 V a l p a r a i s o 50: 138 C h i n a 554: 1,605 S h i n g l e s ( M i l l e . ) C h i n a 1 5 8 £ 589 O t h e r wood v a l u e A u s t r a l i a 531 $211,026. Prom 1861 t o 1866 i n c l u s i v e t h e e x p o r t of t i m b e r was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e M a i n l a n d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Prom 1867 t o 1870 t h e e x p o r t s g i v e n a r e t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d C o l o n y . I n 1861, 1862, 1863 e x p o r t s were s o l e l y t o t h e s e p a r a t e c o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I n 1864 t h e f i r s t l umber was s e n t b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e t o A u s t r a l i a . The f a c t t h a t one o f t h e m i l l s on B u r r a r d I n l e t ?/as s h u t down f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e y e a r a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d r o p i n e x p o r t i n (2) 1870. (1) B.C.S.P. 1874. (2) L a n g e v i n R e p o r t , 1872. (91) B e f o r e p a s s i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t o f r e c e n t e x p o r t s i t may be as w e l l t o examine t h e q u e s t i o n o f m a r k e t s , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h e f a c t t h a t t r a d e knows no s e n t i m e n t s , and no i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s , e x c e p t t h o s e r e i n f o r c e d by t a r i f f s . The B r i t i s h m a r k e t i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n t h e w o r l d , A r e q u i r i n g t h r e e t o t h r e e and a h a l f b i l l i o n f e e t p e r annum. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i t i s d o m i n a t e d by B a l t i c and R u s s i a n t i m b e r t o t h e e x t e n t o f 90$, t i m b e r w h i c h i s . p r o d u c e d u n d e r l a b o u r and e conomic c o n d i t i o n s t h a t we on t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t w i t h a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g c a n n o t b e g i n t o compete w i t h . The Hours o f Work A c t , t h e Minimum V/age A c t , and a f r e i g h t h a n d i c a p o f $10 t o $12 a t h o u s a n d f e e t a l l s t a n d i n our way, so t h a t t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r any g r e a t c h a n c e t o ( I ) c a p t u r e t h i s v a l u a b l e m a r k e t , u n l e s s B r i t a i n p u t s on a h i g h t a r i f f , and g i v e s Canada a s u b s t a n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e . The o n l y t y p e s o f t i m b e r t h a t we c a n a t p r e s e n t s e l l or hope t o s e l l t o G r e a t B r i t a i n a r e s p e c i a l o r d e r s , s u c h as l a r g e d i m e n s i o n D o u g l a s f i r , and r a i l w a y t i e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s a f a i r l y s t e a d y demand. The a v e r a g e c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f t i m b e r f o r 1918-22 was 85 m i l l i o n f e e t } f o r 1923-27, 113 m i l l i o n f e e t p e r annum. I t i s e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n f r o m E n g l i s h p u b l i c a t i o n s t h e e x a c t amount o f t i m b e r i m p o r t e d f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as i t i s lumped i n w i t h i m p o r t s f r o m Canada as a w h o l e . Some s h i p m e n t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as c u b i c f e e t , o t h e r s as " l o a d s " , and u n d e r a s c o r e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f wood. The v a l u e o f t i m b e r i m p o r t e d f r o m Canada i n 1927 amounted t o (1) R e p o r t o f T h i r d B r i t i s h E m p i r e F o r e s t r y C o n f e r e n c e 1928. (92) £ 2 , 5 6 9 , 7 8 6 , ; f o r 1928, £ 2 , 2 9 5 , 9 2 4 , and f o r 1929, £ 2 , 0 9 4 , 9 8 4 . T o t a l wood i m p o r t s f o r t h e same y e a r s b e i n g v a l u e d a t (1) £ 4 9 , 6 6 7 , 7 8 7 , £ 4 2 , 5 5 7 , 9 0 4 and £ 4 5 , 8 2 7 , 9 7 5 . V a s t amounts were i m p o r t e d f r o m F i n l a n d , R u s s i a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t i s h I n d i a , and many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . The F o r e s t B r a n c h f i g u r e s i n c l u d e e x p o r t s t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom a l o n g w i t h t h o s e t o c o n t i n e n t a l E u r o p e ; i n 1913 t h e s e e x p o r t s amounted t o 12,019,-659 f e e t ; i n 1918 t h i s i n c r e a s e d t o 38,112,299 f e e t , and t h e e x p o r t a t i o n o f 65,381,100 f e e t i n 1919 h a s o n l y s i n c e b e e n e x c e e d e d by t h e e x p o r t s f o r 1928 and 1929 w i t h 67,075,872 f e e t and 69,903,655 f e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n 1922 t h e e x p o r t s were t h e l o w e s t on r e c o r d , a m o u n t i n g t o o n l y 12,698,383 f e e t , but s i n c e t h a t d a t e t h e e x p o r t o f t i m b e r t o t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d t o i t s p r e s e n t p r o p o r t i o n s , a l t h o u g h (2) t h e r e was a n o t a b l e s l a c k e n i n g o f f i n 1926 and 1927. J a p a n i s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s s e c o n d b e s t m arket f o r t h e e x p o r t a t i o n of lumber, t h e amount d e l i v e r e d i n 1929 b e i n g some 192,411,505 f e e t . The demand i n J a p a n has i n c r e a s e d v e r y m a t e r i a l l y i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e e a r t h -quake, w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e v i r t u a l r e b u i l d i n g o f s e v e r a l c i t i e s . The immense i n c r e a s e i n J a p a n ' s i m p o r t a t i o n o f lumber f r o m 67,671,449 f e e t i n 1925 t o 177,193,559 f e e t i n 1926 may be a s c r i b e d p a r t l y t o o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n i n Canada and t h e U.S. and low f r e i g h t r a t e s t o s h i p s , and t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e o f an i n c r e a s e i n d u t i e s on f o r e i g n l u m b e r . I n s p i t e (1) A n n u a l R e p o r t on T r a d e and N a v i g a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, 1929. (2) R.F.B. 1916, 1920, 1929. (93) o f t h e i n c r e a s e d , d u t i e s , however, i m p o r t a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t i m b e r amounted t o 219,361,557 f e e t i n 1928, a l t h o u g h w i t h t h e r i s e i n t h e t a r i f f , a u t h o r i z e d by t h e D i e t i n M a r ch o f 1929, t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f o u r t i m b e r f e l l t o 192,411,505 (1) f e e t i n t h a t y e a r . J a p a n i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o u s e lumber on a s c a l e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h W e s t e r n i d e a s , and i n f u t u r e i s g o i n g t o r e q u i r e even l a r g e r s u p p l i e s . A f r e i g h t r a t e o f f r o m $8.50 t o $10 a t h o u s a n d h a s to be a b s o r b e d i n p l a c i n g t i m b e r i n t h i s m a r k e t . A r i s e i n lumber p r i c e s and s t a b i l i z a t i o n i n R u s s i a might e a s i l y c u r t a i l demand, as f a r as we a r e c o n c e r n e d , and s w i t c h i t t o E a s t e r n S i b e r i a , w h i c h h a s immense s o f t w o o d TB-s o u r c e s . U n t i l 1920 J a p a n had been more o f a t i m b e r e x p o r t -i n g c o u n t r y , r a t h e r t h a n an importer,- i n 1915 she o n l y i m p o r t t e d f r o m B.C. 1,583,437 f e e t ; i n 1920 i t was s t i l l o n l y a m a t t e r o f 5,990,266 f e e t . T hen came t h e e a r t h q u a k e , and i n (2) 1921 she i m p o r t e d f r o m B. C. 52,447,160 f e e t . U n t i l t h a t t i m e J a p a n had been a more o r l e s s i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , i n s o -f a r as t h e e x p o r t a t i o n o f lumber was c o n c e r n e d , but t o d a y s h e i s o u r s e c o n d b e s t c u s t o m e r , i m p o r t i n g , a s she d o e s , more t h a n t w i c e as much as t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and E u r o p e . I m p o r t s f r o m Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s make up 80$ o f h e r t i m b e r im-p o r t s , " p i n e " , s o - c a l l e d , t a k i n g t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e a n d r e p l a c i n g n a t i v e g r o w t h , w h i c h , a l t h o u g h 30-70$ c h e a p e r by l e n g t h , i s i n f e r i o r f o r b u i l d i n g , p u r p o s e s . I t i s e a s i l y s e e n t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e market p r o v i d e s one o f o u r g r e a t e s t (1) J a p a n Y e a r Book, 1930. ( 2 ) R.E.B. 1916, 1921. (94) p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when we c o n s i d e r t h a t i m p o r t s o f t i m b e r f r o m t h e U. S. A. i n 1928 were v a l u e d a t ¥ 8 4 , 9 2 7 , 0 0 0 , w h i l e t i m b e r i m p o r t s f r o m Canada amounted t o (1) o n l y ¥ 6 , 8 8 4 , 0 0 0 . The lumber t r a d e w i t h t h e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d i s grow-i n g s t e a d i l y i n i m p o r t a n c e , b u t as t h i s i s c a r r i e d on by r a i l a s w e l l as by s e a , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure t h e e x a c t v o l u m e . Mr. C a v e r h i l l s t a t e s t h a t i t now amounts t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y two b i l l i o n f e e t p e r y e a r , and h a s d e v e l o p e d l a r g e l y s i n c e t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Panama C a n a l , and d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e . From 1918 t o 1922 i t a v e r a g e d 195 m i l l i o n f e e t , and f r o m 1923 t o 1927, 113 m i l l i o n f e e t p e r annum. R a i l r o u t e s c h a r g e a t t h e r a t e o f a b o u t $24-25 a t h o u s a n d , as compared w i t h $14 by w a t e r . T h i s w i l l , however, o f f e r an o u t l e t f o r m o u n t a i n t i m b e r as soon as t h e h e a v i e r C o a s t s t a n d s a r e e x h a u s t e d . The A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d i s c a p a b l e of a b s o r b i n g a l l o r d i n a r y g r a d e s and s p e c i e s o f t i m b e r and i s t h e r e f o r e a market o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e as f a r as P a c i f i c C o a s t t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . The g r a d u a l d e c l i n e o f S o u t h e r n p i n e and t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n s p r u c e i n t o p u l p w i l l l e a v e t h i s market a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f o r C o a s t woods, and a v e r y (2) m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s e may be e x p e c t e d i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . S h i p m e n t s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by s e a , i n c l u d i n g t h e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d , amounted to o n l y 5,259,346 f e e t i n 1919; i n f o u r (1) J a p a n Y e a r Book, 1930. (2) T h i r d B r i t i s h E m p i r e F o r e s t r y C o n f e r e n c e , 1928. (95) y e a r s i t had i n c r e a s e d t o 83,856,504 f e e t , u n t i l i n 1929 i t r e a c h e d 351,526,590 f e e t , a l t h o u g h t h e most i m p o r t a n t y e a r ( 1 ) was 1926 when o v e r 400 m i l l i o n f e e t were s h i p p e d . The A u s t r a l i a n m a rket has g r e a t p o t e n t i a l p o s s i b i l i -t i e s f o r B. C. wood, due i n p a r t t o t h e f a c t t h a t A u s t r a l i a o n l y c o n t a i n s 24,500,000 a c r e s of t i m b e r e d l a n d , and t h a t t h e e x c e s s o f h e r t i m b e r i m p o r t s o v e r e x p o r t s , amounts t o a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 28,000,000 c u b i c f e e t . I n t h e y e a r 1927-8 she i m p o r -t e d a t o t a l o f 431,852,496 s u p e r f i c i a l f e e t o f u n d r e s s e d t i m b e r , w i t h a t o t a l v a l u e o f £ 3 , 7 5 4 , 2 8 3 , o f w h i c h C anada c o n -t r i b u t e d 29,613,287 s u p e r f i c i a l f e e t o f u n d r e s s e d t i m b e r and 8,271,122 f e e t o f d r e s s e d t i m b e r w i t h a t o t a l v a l u e o f £ 3 5 7 , 5 5 6 . The U. S. A. c o n t r i b u t e d 433,506,780 f e e t o f u n -d r e s s e d t i m b e r , and 6,878,065 f e e t o f d r e s s e d l u m b e r . The t o t a l c u t i n A u s t r a l i a f o r 1927-8 amounted t o o n l y 570,521,000 (2) s u p e r f i c i a l f e e t . U n d e r a s y s t e m o f t a r i f f p r e f e r e n c e , o r a t r a d e t r e a t y B. C. s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n c r e a s e h e r e x p o r t s o f lumber t o A u s t r a l i a a t l e a s t t e n - f o l d i n a few y e a r s , by t h e r a i s i n g o f an e x c l u s i v e t a r i f f on A m e r i c a n t i m b e r . A c t u a l l y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e A u s t r a l i a i m p o r t s f a r more t i m b e r f r o m t h e B a l t i c r e g i o n s t h a n f r o m Canada. I n t h e m a t t e r o f d r e s s e d t i m b e r A u s t r a l i a i m p o r t e d f r o m Norway more t h a n t w i c e as much (3) as she d i d f r o m Canada, and f i v e t i m e s as much- f r o m Sweden. New Z e a l a n d o f f e r s a more l i m i t e d s c o p e t h a n A u s t r a l i a , f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t she i s more t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d , and has much (1) R.P.B. 1921, 1926, 1929. 2) A u s t r a l i a Y e a r Book, 1929. 3) I b i d . (96) g r e a t e r f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s p e r h e a d o f p o p u l a t i o n , 9.4 a c r e s , as a g a i n s t 4.5 f o r A u s t r a l i a . New Z e a l a n d ' s f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s a o n t a i n 62.6$ o f s o f t w o o d s , and 32.7$ o f hardwoods, o v e r 90$ o f h e r demand i s f o r s o f t w o o d s . I n 1925 New Z e a l a n d i m p o r t e d a t o t a l o f 71,148,684 b o a r d f e e t o f t i m b e r , 4,901,440 l a t h s , and 4,758,620 s h i n g l e s , a l s o 461,790 t i e s , and 266,737 p a l -i n g s , t o a t o t a l v a l u e o f £ 1 , 1 9 4 , 9 4 4 , as compared w i t h a v a l u e o f £ 1 , 0 4 3 , 9 8 5 i n 1924 and £ 6 3 8 , 5 6 2 i n 1923. Of t h e 1925 i m p o r t s "Oregon p i n e " amounted t o 17,115,606 f e e t w i t h a v a l u e o f £ 1 2 5 , 7 1 0 and 6,525,681 f e e t o f c e d a r w i t h a v a l u e o f £ 8 1 , 4 8 6 . B. C. e x p o r t e d t o New Z e a l a n d i n t h e same y e a r 12,619,730 f e e t o f t i m b e r , as compared w i t h 640,577 f e e t i n 1915. I n 1925 i n p r o p o r t i o n t o o u r p o p u l a t i o n Canada was New Z e a l a n d ' s b e s t c u s t o m e r w i t h a t r a d e o f £ 4 9 / l l / 5 p e r h e a d . I n a c t u a l volume we were o n l y s u r p a s s e d by G r e a t B r i t -a i n , t h e U.S. and F r a n c e . I t i s w o r t h y o f n o t e t h a t i n 1923 New Z e a l a n d i m p o r t e d o n l y £ 1 4 w o r t h o f t i m b e r f r o m Sweden, but i n 1925 t h i s h a d i n c r e a s e d t o £ 6 0 , 0 5 4 . We h a v e a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e lumber t r a d e w i t h New Z e a l a n d , b u t t h e r e i s now r e a s o n why o u r economic bonds s h o u l d n o t be t i g h t e n e d u n -(1) t i l we have v i r t u a l l y a l l t h i s t r a d e . C a l i f o r n i a was one of t h e e a r l i e s t m a r k e t s f o r B. C. t i m b e r , and has c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , a l t h o u g h s h e h e r -s e l f p r o d u c e d i n 1927 some 2,071 m i l l i o n b o a r d f e e t , i n c l u d -( 2) i n g t h e N e v ada p r o d u c t i o n . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e e x p o r t s o f (1) New Z e a l a n d Y e a r Book, 1927. (2) S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t o f t h e U.S. 1929. (97) lumber t o C a l i f o r n i a a r e p l a c e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f e x p o r t s t o t h e U.S. so i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y j u s t what t h e e x p o r t t h i t h e r i s . I n 1918 i t amounted t o 2,013,168 f e e t . She h a s f o r many y e a r s been one o f t h e c h i e f consumers o f N o r t h P a c i f i c s o f t w o o d s , and was o n l y r e c e n t l y s u r p a s s e d by t h e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d . I n t h e p e r i o d 1918-22 she t o o k 1,038 m i l l i o n f e e t p e r y e a r , and f r o m 1923-7, 1,685 m i l l i o n f e e t p e r y e a r . T h i s market i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e same r e q u i r e m e n t s and g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s as t h e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d , and i s a c c o r d i n g t o Mr. fiaverhill, one o f t h e f i r s t i m p o r t a n c e . The t i m b e r b u s i n e s s l a r g e l y demands D o u g l a s f i r , b u t t h e f o r e s t i s m i x e d w i t h c e d a r and h emlock, w h i c h i n c r e a s e t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h . A l l o f t h i s has t o be c u t , w h e t h e r r e -q u i r e d o r n o t , so i t may happen t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r m i l l s a r e f l o o d e d w i t h c e d a r , w h i l s t t h o s e a t Tacoma a r e s h o r t . C e d a r i s , o f c o u r s e , l a r g e l y u s e d f o r s h i n g l e s , B. C. s e l l i n g a l -most 75$ o f h e r p r o d u c t t o t h e U.S. i n k e e n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e s h i n g l e m i l l s o f W a s h i n g t o n . She has been a b l e t o m a i n -t a i n h e r p o s i t i o n by t h e f a c t t h a t she p r o d u c e s c h i e f l y h i g h g r a d e s h i n g l e s , i . e . t h o s e made f r o m l o g s 16* i n d i a m e t e r o r o v e r , w h e r e a s W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon p r o d u c e l a r g e l y low g r a d e s h i n g l e s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , s m a l l l o g s must be e i t h e r e x p o r -t e d o r l e f t t o r o t . A l a r g e demand, however, h a s l a t e l y a r i s e n i n J a p a n f o r s m a l l u n c u t c e d a r l o g s o f 1 2 M d i a m e t e r and up, w i t h a l e n g t h o f 7 t o 13 f e e t . T h i s p r o v i d e s f o r (98) logs which were formerly waste material. Again very large logs, over 4' i n diameter, cannot he handled without sp e c i a l equipment, which i s very c o s t l y . When 50' or 60' logs were included i n booms they had to be s p l i t at much extra cost, or l e f t to rot also. One m i l l at Tacoma spe c i a l i z e s i n these (1) logs. Export of unmanufactured logs from 1911 to the pre-sent has been as followss-TABLE 6. LOG EXPORT. 1911: 47,000,000 1920s 28,673,938 1912 s 53,280,375 1921: 90,216,507 1913 s 58,752,678 1922: 151,518,712 1914 s 65,678,054 1923 s 233,658,041 1915 s 106,874,935 1924 s 240,530,82? 1916: 52,184,385 1925 s 210,417,961 19171 51,176,468 1926$ 224,477,715 1918 s 11,608,267 1927 s 281,584,291 1919: 44,270,943 1928 s 211,947,231 1929s 236,993,577. (2) These figures a l l refer to board measure. The r e s t r i c t i o n of log export has always been applied, except i n cases of logs cut on land Crown granted p r i o r to 1906. The embargo has, however, been l i f t e d f o r short periods in cases when logs cut have greatly outstripped lumber needs. Such a s i t u a t i o n (1) B. C. L. Dec. 1927. .(2) R.F.B.. 1912-29. (99) occurred in August, 1914. The re s u l t of t h i s embargo which has been i n force since 1891 has been the establishment of many American m i l l s in B r i t i s h Columbia. The greater part of the logging done on the Coast i s by independent loggers who s e l l to the m i l l s either d i r e c t l y or through brokers. Logs are measured by Government scalers and a l l transactions are based on t h i s scale which i s s t r i c t -l y adhered to. Quite a number of m i l l s operate camps but these are seldom enough to keep them f u l l y supplied, although i n the I n t e r i o r the logging i s done largely by the m i l l s . Storage of logs forms a d i s t i n c t problem of i t s own. Unless they can be held in fresh or brackish water, or on tide f l a t s so that they can dry out every day, they become rid d l e d by teredos. In two or three months. In 1915 a good deal of market investigation was car-r i e d on, especially i n regard to South A f r i c a , which put a p r e f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f on Canadian timber, which has resulted i n a steady, although not large demand. This market has, how-ever, increased from 5,329,042 feet in 1915 to 15,889,002 feet in 1929. The great feature of t h i s market has been i t s steadiness of growth. Investigation into the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of supplying India with creosoted t i e s were also c a r r i e d on, (1) and resulted in a small though steady trade i n t h i s commodity. In 1916 serious e f f o r t s were made to secure a firm foothold i n Eastern Canadian markets. The Province achieved a good deal of success i n as much as i t managed to obtain (1) R.P.B. 1915&1929. (100) from the City of Toronto a statement that Douglas f i r was as good a wood for construction purposes as southern pine. U n t i l t h i s time Douglas f i r had laboured under the burden that i t was c l a s s i f i e d by the City as having a f i b e r stress of only 1,200 pounds per square inch, as against 1,600 pounds for southern pine. This r u l i n g had given a 25$ advantage to southern pine. As a r e s u l t i n the change of Toronto's r u l i n g most of the other large c i t i e s nearby changed t h e i r s i n con-formity. In the same year numerous b u l l e t i n s were issued i n the p r a i r i e s , pointing out the advantages of timber f o r (1) str u c t u r a l work. In 1918 an Order-in-Council was promulgated, urging the cutting of airplane spruce. A l l holders of such timber were exhorted to cut immediately, and i n case they f a i l e d to do so provisions were made for expropriation of holdings. This was immediately supported by the Aeroplane Spruce Cut-ting Act, which provided compensation at the rate of #6 a thousand for number one grade, and $2.50 per thousand for number two. These figures were designed to cover waste i n c i -dental to selec t i v e cutting. From January to November 1918, 26,124,000 feet of airplane spruce and 9,224,000 feet of s u i t -able f i r were cut. 271 special spruce permits were issued, (2) and i n only 18 cases* was i t necessary to use compulsion. In 1921 films were used to a considerable extent i n (1) Ibid, 1916. (2) Ibid, 1918. (101) (1) England for p u b l i c i t y purposes. The economic conditions at home and abroad which encourage the cutting of high grade Douglas f i r , in large quantities and sizes, with the consequent waste of lower grade materials, forms a series of conditions which i s incom-patible with the highest ideals of forestry. A s t i f f e n i n g of prices during the next few years would be eminently desirable, as f a i l i n g that, the lumber industry w i l l be i n a bad way indeed. The American market i s one of our most desirable, as i t i s capable of absorbing almost a l l v a r i e t i e s and grades of timber, thus providing us with closer u t i l i z a t i o n of our forest crop. A considerable increase i n the absorption of B.C. timber i s l i k e l y i n the event of the success.of the Imperial Conference of 1930. F a i l i n g i t s success i t w i l l even then probably lead to closer and more p r e f e r e n t i a l co-operation amongst the d i f f e r e n t units of the Empire. The natural l i m i t a t i o n of haphazard cutting of Doug-las f i r i s not so very f a r in the future, and i t w i l l probably be used ultimately more for specialized needs. Ordinary building requirements w i l l probably be supplied by hemlock, spruce and cedar. These are by no means i n f e r i o r woods, but they have the misfortune to be less known to the consumer. Their use was recommended by the Imperial I n s t i -tute Advisory Committee on timbers, and as a result hemlock (1) Ibid, 1921. (102) was used i n the construction and f i n i s h i n g of Chester House, which won the London Architect's Medal f o r 1927, and is the home of S i r Gilber t Scott, the famous architect of Liverpool (1) Cathedral. It i s well to note the centers of sawmill production have b een ste a d i l y s h i f t i n g during the l a s t few years. The following figures are in mil l i o n s of board f e e t : -TABLE 7. SHIFTING CENTERS OP PRODUCTION Year. Ontario. Quebec. B r i t i s h Columbia. 1908-12 1,516 710 1,058 1913-17 1,037 894 991 1918-22 910 788 1,184 1923-26 928 588 1,750 This westward move of sawn timber production i s not so much due to timber exhaustion, as to the increase i n importance in pulp and paper products. The following figures f o r pulp (2) wood cuts are given in thousands of cords. TABLE 8. THE SHIFT OF PULP CENTERS  Year. Ontario. Quebec. B r i t i s h Columbia. 1908-12 263 1,114 - 7 1913-17 672 1,520 99 1918-22 1,071 1,924 257 1923-26 1,710 2,452 314 1) Report of the Third B r i t i s h Empire Forestry Conf. 1928. 2) Ibid. (103) PART 6. FINANCIAL ASPECTS The r e v e n u e d e r i v e d , f r o m f o r e s t s o u r c e s by t h e P r o -v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s i n c r e a s e d by l e a p s and bounds, f r o m t h e f i r s t r e c o r d e d r e v e n u e i n t h e y e a r 1879-80, o f $1,263.41, t o t h e p r e s e n t day when t h e r e v e n u e f r o m t h i s s o u r c e i n 1929 amounted t o $3,811,994, h a v i n g p a s s e d t h e f o u r m i l l i o n mark i n 1926 and 1927. ( l ) The l o w e s t amount r e -c e i v e d i n any one y e a r by t h e Government f r o m f o r e s t s o u r c e s was i n t h e y e a r 1881-2 when i t was as low a s $472.00. U n t i l 1888 a l l o f t h e s e r e v e n u e s were d e r i v e d s o l e l y f r o m l i c e n s e s , but a f t e r t h a t d a t e t h e i n c e p t i o n o f r o y a l t i e s and t h e b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e e r a of s p e c i a l l i c e n s e s c a u s e d a tremendous i n -c r e a s e i n r e v e n u e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e s o u r c e s o f F o r e s t Revenue a r e many and v a r i e d , and so t h a t an i d e a may be o b t a i n e d o f t h e amounts r e c e i v e d x b y t h e Government f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n t b r a n c h e s o f t h e i n d u s t r y , an e x t r a c t i s g i v e n h e r e , s howing t h e v a r i o u s d e r i v a t i o n s o f r e v e n u e d u r i n g 1929s-TABLE 9. DETAILS OF FOREST REVENUE 1929. T i m b e r l i c e n s e r e n t a l s ..$ 931,545.72 n " t r a n s f e r f e e s 1 1,775.00 " * p e n a l t y f e e s 23,245.73 H a n d - l o g g e r s ' l i c e n s e f e e s 1,300.00 T i m b e r l e a s e r e n t a l s 79,873.89 P e n a l t y f e e s and i n t e r e s t 901.43 T i m b e r s a l e r e n t a l s 30,162.64 " " stumpage 634,048.95 " " c r u i s i n g 12,844.92 " " a d v e r t i s i n g 1,951.28 " '• r o y a l t y and t a x 1,688,803.67 S c a l i n g f e e s 1,407.92 " e x p e n s e s 191.74 T r e s p a s s p e n a l t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,161.74 S c a l e r s e x a m i n a t i o n f e e s 320.00 E x c h a n g e 1,711.29 S e i z u r e e x p e n s e s 3,152.88 G e n e r a l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s 2,754.36 T o t a l $3,425,152.58 G r a z i n g f e e s 10,918.49 T a x a t i o n f r o m Crown g r a n t l a n d s 375,923.32 T o t a l Revenue f r o m a l l F o r e s t S o u r c e s $3,811,994.39 (1) R.F.B. 1927, 1929 (104) TABLE 10. FOREST REVENUE COMPARED WITH TOTAL PROVINCIAL REVENUE. Y e a r F o r e s t Revenue TOTAL P r o v i n -c i a l R evenue: P e r c e n t , f F o r e s t sou: 1880 $ 1,263 1881 668 1882 472 1883 593 1884 1,821 1885 675 1886 3,267 1887 7 ,319 1888 14,504 1889 25,156 1890 24,671 1891 41,673 1892 44,300 1893 23,013 1894 43,651 1895 66,125 1896 59,391 1897 96,296 1898 103,725 1899 88,46? 1900 136,331 7.2$ 1901 115,594 1,605,920 1902 161,071 1,807,925 a. 9$ 1903 298,217 2,044,630 14.9$ 1904 405,748 2,044,630 15.4$ 1905 486,516 2,920,461 16.7$ 1906 643,827 3,044,442 21.1$ 1907 1,305,327 4,444,593 29.4$ 1908 2,424,668 5,979,054 40.6$ 41.2$ 1909 1,920,349 4,664,500 1909-10 2,448,150 8,874,742 27.6$ 1910-11 2,654,824 10,492,892 25.3$ 1911-12 2,753,579 10,745,709 25.6$ 1912-13 2,999,329 12,510,215 24.0$ 1913-14 2,342,680 10,479,259 22.4$ 1914-15 1,922,558 7,974,496 24.1$ 1915-16 2,005,941 6,291,694 31.9$ 1916-17 2,338,333 6,906,784 33.9$ 1917-18 2,730,808 8,882,846 30.8$ 1918-19 2,755,739 10,931,279 25.2$ 1919-20 3,508,843 13,861,603 25.3$ 1920-21 2,956,292 15,219,264 19.4$ 1921-22 3,526,865 18,882,391 18.7$ 1922-23 3,790,407 19,618,900 19.3$ 1923-24 3,782,327 19,637,711 19.8$ 1924-25 3,890,896 19,381,511 20.1$ 1925-26 4,013,415 21,775,869 19.0$ 1926-27 4,042,964 20,528,080 19.7$ 1927-28 3,933,396 21,136,349 18.6$ (1) 1928-29 3,811,994 (1) F.B.C. R.F.B. 1927-29, R.P.A. 1929. (105) From a perusal of the preceding revenue account (Table 9) one immediately notices the tremendous importance of the revenue derived from timber sales and the sturapage and royalty fees from the 3ame, amounting to approximately $2,300,000, whilst timber license rental and contiguous sources yielded barely #960,000, and timber leases make a poor t h i r d with only #80,000 or so. In the e a r l i e s t days the contribution of the forest to p r o v i n c i a l revenue was a n e g l i g i b l e item, but i t st e a d i l y increased, u n t i l i n 1909 i t yielded over 41$ of our t o t a l revenue, but since that time other factors have increased and bettered the f i n a n c i a l p osition of the Province, thus reducing the percentage contribution of the f o r e s t . Nevertheless, the y i e l d from forest sources has st e a d i l y increased, although f a l l i n g off s l i g h t l y during the l a s t two or three years, due to closing down of m i l l s and the general slump i n industry as a whole. Although the sum of $1,263.41 i s generally considered to be the f i r s t forest revenue worthy of recording, yet the Sessional papers of 1878 show that the revenue from timber leases during 1875 was $421.93; 1876, $248.31; 1877, $248.31. The greater part of t h i s in a l l three cases was paid by three firms, Moody, Deitz and Nelson, M. & J . Muir, and W.P. Sayward. As there were only 76,412 acres granted f o r timber leases by 1876, and the rental was 1-2^ per acre i t i s not surprising i f the revenue was n e g l i g i b l e . For the year 1879 rentals (106) (1) yielded as much as $650.62. The damage caused by forest f i r e s has considerably detracted from the revenues received from forest sources, es-p e c i a l l y during certain years, namely 1920, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927 and 1929, when damage so caused and the cost of fighting*, f i r e s i n each of these years amounted to over a m i l -l i o n d o l l a r s . In 1922 and 1926 the cost was over two m i l l i o n , and i n 1925 i t amounted to nearly three and a half m i l l i o n , equivalent to p r a c t i c a l l y the whole forest revenue f o r the year, less h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . It i s only since the organ-i z a t i o n of the Forest Branch that d e f i n i t e figures - have been available on the damage done by forest f i r e s and the cost of fi g h t i n g them. In the following figures the damage includes loss of standing timber and damage to property, but includes no estimate of the damage caused to young growth:-TABLE 11. FIRE COSTS Year: F i r e Damage: F i r e - f i g h t i n g Cost: Total 1913: | 18,354 $ 8,829 $ 27,183 1914: 436,532 140,107 576,639 1915: 166,647 19,449 186,096 1916: 75,875 5,585 81,460 1917$ 291,457 88,243 379,700 1918: 226,265 44,803 271,068 1919: 738,970 158,707 897,677 1920: 959,863 257,126 1,216,989 1921: 292,553 98,476 391,029 1922: 2,224,316 479,801 2,704,117 1923: 691,887 72,706 764,593 1924: 1,205,369 249,382 1,454,751 1925: 2,747,190 616,940 3,364,130 1926: 680,264 504,234 1,184,498 1927: 215,708 81,663 297,371 1928: 198,535 73,439 271,974 1929: 1,168,657 492,582 1,661,239 (1 ) S.P.B.C. 1875-79. (2 ) R.F.B. 1913-29. (2) (107) From the preceding figures we f i n d that since an annual record has been kept of the damage done by f i r e s they h have caused the waste of at least $17,000,000 i n standing timber and other property, to say nothing of the destruction of young growth. As against t h i s staggering loss, which increases by anything from $500,000 to $1,000,000 or more per annum, we have an approximate t o t a l revenue accruing to the Province since 1875, of some $70,000,000. The phenomenal increase noticed i n the t o t a l Provin-c i a l revenues between 1910 and 1914 were largely due to the greatly increased sale of public lands. This, however, according to the Conservation Committee, would decline i n importance as years progressed, and the proportion of Porest Revenue to the Revenue of the Province as a whole would steadily increase, thereby increasing the r e l a t i v e value of the f o r e s t . This for a short time appeared to be true, but in the years that followed the receipts from forest sources showed themselves unequal to maintaining their r e l a t i v e position to the receipts from a l l other sources i n the Pro-vince, and have shown a steady r e l a t i v e decline, although maintaining a steady increase in actual d o l l a r s and cents. Por example, in 1915-16 the forest produced 33.9$ of the t o t a l revenue, but by 1928-29 t h i s had slipped to 18.5$, a very notable decrease. Table 12 contains a detailed account of the deriva-t i o n of forest revenues from 1900 to the end of 1929. From (108) t h i s we are able to derive a considerable amount of informa-t i o n . Timber licenses, from b eing the least important of the three major sources of forest revenue in 1900, are now exceeded only i n value by r o y a l t i e s . Timber leases have yielded a steadily increasing revenue from 1900 to the pre-sent day, but w i l l , of course, tend to become less important as time passes, due to t h e i r replacement by the granting of licenses and timber sales. Leases, however, have not i n -creased r e l a t i v e l y i n anything l i k e the same ra t i o as l i c e n -ses or r o y a l t i e s . Sturapage revenues are providing a s t e a d i l y increased form of p r o f i t to the Government. The revenue has also been considerably augmented by a considerable increase in the amounts received from taxation of Crown granted lands. The increase i n hand-loggers' licenses was most notable be-tween 1910 and 1924, since when they have been dropping ste a d i l y . The a b o l i t i o n of t h i s type of license has been recommended, although not enacted. It i s an i n t e r e s t i n g question as to whether the f o r -ests have been on the whole a source of p r o f i t or loss to the Province and to what extent. To determine th i s a con-siderable amount of guess work i s necessary; for example we have no record of the loss caused by forest f i r e s before the establishment of the Porest Branch. We do know, however, that since 1912 these f i r e s have cost the Province something over $17,000,000, which i s a very conservative figure, as (109) TABLE 12. DETAILED FOREST REVENUE 1900-1929. Year: Timber s Timber Timber : Royalty: Timber t Licenses : Leases Sales : :Stumpage 1900): i t 7,150 s$ 37,231 :# :| 89,362s! 1 1901: 12,708 i 45,608 l 81,047s 1902: 57,918 ! 39,213 : 91,648: 1903: 135,552 i t 124,635 137,702: 1904: 177,984 i 92,761 ! 178,730s 1905: 271,935 i 100,007 : 196,187: 1906: 513,497 ! 87,954 t 213,860: 1907: 1,339,351 l i 77,861 206,751: 1908: 2,290,473 i 88,869 304,235: 1909: 1,983,015 t 77,473 i 264,544: 1910:. 1,605,713 l 10,659 ! 293,206: 1911: 1,931,375 i 75,700 t 425,571: 1912: 1,937,194 t 79,262 489,377: 1913: 2,112,876 ! 119,291 i 482,707: 1914: 1,555,980 l i 88,792 391,118: 1915: 1,140,656 i ! 120,132 ! 351,310: 1916: 1,138,879 ! 77,040 :;5 ,235 1 456,863: 68,780 1917: 1,074,129 ! i 76,427 : 9 ,458 i 785,543: 113,498 1918: 1,372,789 i 77,748 : 7 ,754 1 788,054: 151,598 1919: 1,236,530 i 85,101 :10 ,045 i 879,003: 219,012 1920: 1,654,747 ! 81,990 :17 ,881 J : 990,327: 247,235 1921: 1,193,655 ! 81,841 :12 ,660 i i 1,203,885: 317,489 1922: 1,391,000 s 94,392 :26 ,790 j . 1,477,027: 358,984 1923: 1,283,301 t 102,062 :28 ,383 i 1,521,001: 431,008 1924: 1,180,180 l 99,974 :19 ,943 ! ! 1,658,043: 537,786 1925: 1,130,557 l t 92,485 :17 ,045 i , 1,779,554: 512,399 1926: 1,063,813 i i 90,011 :20 ,538 j t 1,825,910: 572,325 1927: 982,915 ! 95,237 :32 ,495 j [ 1,774,412:: 608,765 1928: 1,015,705 : 79,397 :40 ,649 i t 1,688,804: 551,103 1929: 931,545 ! 79,874 :30 ,163 i v * • 634,049 (no) Year: Crown Grant : License * Scalings Taxation :Penalties: fees • • Handloggers: TresTDf 1900: . 8 : $ 1,530 : 1901: : : : 1,630 s 1902: : s • • 1,900 : 1903: : t • • 2,590 s 1904: ; } • • 1,830 i 1905: t : 8 4,200 s 1906: # 34,355 : t\ | 4,018 8 3,230 s 1907: 41,693 : s 18,729 ft • 5,730 s 19 08 s 72,740 : t 17,553 • • 658 $ 1909: 95,712 t : 19,115 • • 1,625 : 1910: : ; 24,902 8 3,625 8 1911s 143,880 t : 28,590 ft • 3,575 s 1912: 150,460 : : 36,833 ft • 4,125 s 1913: 166,540 s ; 23,978 • ft 5,025 8 1914: 185,661 i i 30,472 s 5,200 s 1915: 174,495 t : 27,893 : 5,550 s 1916s 179,528 t $ 32,590 s 7,100 $ 1917: 179,529 s $ 28,524 s 32,590 • • 7,100 ti & 893 1918 s 176,163 s 11,928 s 62,381 s 9,700 s 3,207 1919: 258,105 s 76,605 s 56,305 s 2,975 s 1,599 1920s 251,265 s 49,260 s 64,571 s 7,250 s 7,464 1921: 302,557 s 232,310 : 25,477 s 6,525 s 18,114 1922: 261,896 s 50,859 s 2,016 s 9,177 8 11,246 1923: 319,411 s 83,377 s 3,138 8 6,050 8 13,398 1924: 308,042 $ 100,046 s 1,161 S 5,300 8 11,363 1925: 298,974 $ 64,653 s 1,565 • • 2,450 8 14,685 1926: 398,394 : 28,018 s 1,044 • ft 2,775 8 17,842 1927: 410,684 s 32,549 : 1,345 • • 2,250 8 11,677 1928 s 424,023 : 27,639 s 1,778 1,275 8 6,482 1929: 388,860 s 33,036 s 1,144 • • 1,400 8 12,059 ( I l l ) Year: Transfers: Grazing Fees : Totals. 1900: . $ 142,390 1901: 155,335 1902: : 198,666 1903: : 405,826 1904: : 455,366 1905: : 574,467 1906M I 778 j s 859,877 1907: 4,848 ; 1,696,480 1908: 10,211 : 2,785,807 1909: 7,982 ; 2,449,960 1910s 9,147 j I 1,947,644 1911s 12,864 i : 2,654,824 1912: 11,440 i s 2,654,824 1913 s 10,385 - s 2,999,328 1914 s 7,085 i 2,342,679 1915: 4,400 1,922,558 1916 s 3,670 , 2,005,941 1917: 4,070 I 2,338,334 1918: 4,625 j 2,730,808 1919: 2,790 i : | 9,500 : 2,755,739 1920: 4,855 s 15,617 s 3,508,843 1921: 3,735 s 11,222 • • 2,956,292 1922: 1,950 . I 8,171 s 3,526,865 1923: 3,750 . ! 13,651 s 3,790,407 1924: 4,650 ! 14,241 3,782,327 1925: 3,465 i 14,115 j 3,890,896 1926: 2,400 • ! 12,329 : 4,013,495 1927 s 2,000 ! 16,529 : 4,042,964 1928s 4,285 I t 12,329 s 3,933,396 1929 s 1,775 j 10,918 : 3,811,994. (1) F.B.Cs R.F.B. 1917-29. (112) the p e r s o n e s t i m a t i n g the damage i s no o apt to- take i n t o c o n s i d -e r a t i o n to any g r e a t e x t e n t the l o s s to young g r o w t h , u n l e s s of n e a r l y m e r c h a n t a b l e s i z e . O v e r t h i s ,,eriod of 19 years- the y e a r l y average expense to the P r o v i n c e has been a p p r o x i m a t e l y $216,000. C a l l i n g t h i s f i g u r e $900,000 f o r convenience i n c a l c u l a t i o n , w e c o u l d e s t i m a t e the l o s s caused by' f i r e s i n c e 1880 to be somethi' n i n the neighborhood of $45,000,000.This l o s s of course cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to the lumber i n d u s t r y , a s the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e of f i r e s are due to n a t u r a l causes,and so would have o c c u r r e d i n any case,These f i r e s t h e r e f o r e cannot r i g h t l y be d e s i g n a t e d as a c o s t of t h e l u m b e r i n g i n d u s t r y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note however t h a t the revenue a c c r u i n g to the P r o v i n c i a l Government from f o r -e s t s o u r c e s , i n t h i s p e r i o d , t o t a l l e d o n l y $70.,000,000.One ca.n o n l y a s s e s s f i r e c o s t and l o s s a g a i n s t the i n d u s t r y to the ex-t e n t to w h i c h i t was the cause o f f i r e s . I t would appear that o v e n t o d a y , w i t h an i n c r e a s e d respon-s i b i l i t y i n the m a t t e r o f f o r e s t s , they a r e not b e i n g managed i n a b u s i n e s s - l i k e way.The f o r e s t i s l o o k e d upon as a u s e f u l soure of revenue w h i c h may be devoted to t ne g e n e r a l development of the Province.We may q u e s t i o n tne r e c t i t u d e o f t h i s a t t i t u d e , I t s f a i r n e s s to the lumber i rid us t r y , and the e f f e c t s on f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . A t the p r e s e n t time an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the revenue d e f i v e d from the f o r e s t i s ploughed back i n t o i t . What r a i l w a y company,for example,would pay d i v i d e n d s of 60% w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g to keep i t s r o l l i n g s t o c k up to date,and f a i l -i n g to improve i t s b u s i n e s s methods and e f f i c i e n c y i n p r o -v i d i n g f i r s t c l a s s s e r v c e ? (113) I n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e lumber i n d u s t r y , on w h i c h t h o u -s a n d s o f o u r c i t i z e n s a r e d e p e n d e n t , i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e f u t u r e o f o u r f o r e s t h e r i t a g e , we must i n s i s t e n t l y demand t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r sums by t h e G o v e r n -ment on f o r e s t r y , t h a t our f o r e s t s may be made s a f e p l a c e s f o r t h e g r o w t h o f t i m b e r , t h e p r i m e n a t u r a l a s s e t o f o u r P r o v i n c e . I n s p i t e o f t h e a n n u a l l o s s by f i r e and w a s t e , t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e t i m b e r i n d u s t r y h a v e been o f g r e a t a d v a n -t a g e t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y , i n t o w h i c h m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y p o u r f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . T h i s i n d u s t r y h a s been, and i s an a d v a n t a g e , n o t o n l y t o t h e Government, but t o a g r e a t number o f our p e o p l e . A t t h e end o f 1929 B r i t -i s h C o l u m b i a p o s s e s s e d 517 m i l l s of a l l k i n d s , d u p a b l e o f a d a i l y p r o d u c t i o n o f 14,896*000 b o a r d f e e t o f l u m b e r , a n d 14,096,000 s h i n g l e s . The v a l u e o f t h e a n n u a l c u t has i n -c r e a s e d f r o m $33,650,000 i n 1913 t o $93,787,000 i n 1928. A v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s i s n a t u r a l l y p a i d o ut i n wages, and i n v e s t e d i n new equipment and m a c h i n e r y , a f f o r d -i n g a l i v i n g t o w o r k e r s i n many o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s b e s i d e s t h o s e d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h l u m b e r i n g . We may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e lumber i n d u s t r y h as been a d i s t i n c t b e n e f i t t o B. C , b o t h as a p r o d u c e r o f r e v e n u e and as a s o u r c e o f w e a l t h t o t h e P r o v i n c e a s a w h o l e . Y e t , w i t h t h e e x e r c i s e of. b e t t e r judgment i n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a c c r u i n g r e v e n u e s , i t c o u l d be made even more v a l u a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n , and t o p o s t e r i t y . (114) PART %s CONCLUSION I t has been i m p o s s i b l e i n t h i s e c o n o m i c - h i s t o r i c s k e t c h t o wander o f f i n t o a l l t h e mazes t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n g i v e s r i s e t o . I t w o u l d be v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o t r a c e i n d e t a i l t h e t e c h n i c a l a d v a n c e s i n l o g g i n g s i n c e t h e e a r l y d a y s , a l -t h o u g h t h e y h a v e o n l y been h i n t e d a t h e r e . The t e c h n i c a l a d v a n c e s . i n f o r e s t r y , s i l v i c u l t u r e and f i r e f i g h t i n g a r e a l l o f i n t e r e s t . One m ight d e l v e i n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h a l f a h u n d r e d m a r k e t s t h a t have n o t even b e e n s u g g e s t e d , t h e p r o -p o r t i o n o f m i l l s owned by A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l , t h e e f f e c t o f s t u c c o h o u s e s on t h e r e t a i l l u mber t r a d e . T h e s e a r e m e r e l y a few random h i n t s as t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a much d e e p e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e w h o l e s u b j e c t o f f o r e s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a n I h a v e a t t e m p t e d . V i r t u a l l y e v e r y government p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t one p i c k s up d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t g i v e s r i s e t o a f r e s h p o s s i b l e l i n e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . On r e v i e w i n g a l l t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e c r o p p e d up i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e tv^o most i m p o r t a n t ones a r e m a r k e t s and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . W i t h o u t m a r k e t s a lumber i n d u s t r y i s u s e -l e s s , but w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n we a r e l i k e l y t o h ave no l umber t o m a r k e t . F o r e s t f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s have a l w a y s been d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e , s i n c e t h e f i r s t Bush F i r e A c t . The number o f r a n -g e r s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i s t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e , and t h e a r e a t o be p a t r o l l e d e x c e s s i v e . A much c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n i s t o (115) be d e s i r e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n t h i s m a t t e r , as i t i s i m p o s s i -b l e t o keep a s t a f f o f r a n g e r s l a r g e enough t o s u p e r v i s e e v e r y o n e who r a m b l e s i n t h e b u s h . T h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n h a s im-p r o v e d t o a v e r y n o t i c e a b l e e x t e n t w i t h i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , a c c o r d i n g t o o f f i c i a l s o f t h e F o r e s t B r a n c h . A good d e a l of t h i s i s due t o t h e c o n t i n u e d u s e o f p r o p a g a n d a i n t h e s c h o o l s ; p e r h a p s t h e B r a n c h t o o k a r e m a r k a b l y good l e a f out o f t h e R u s s i a n book, i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g so much e n e r g y on t h e c h i l -d r e n , knowing t h a t so many a d u l t s a r e i n c u r a b l y c a r e l e s s . Campers and t r a v e l l e r s a r e s t i l l c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g t h e g r e a t e s t c a u s e o f f o r e s t f i r e s , t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n b e i n g c h i e f l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f u n e x t i n g u i s h e d camp f i r e s , f i r e s l i t a g a i n s t l o g s , and b o n f i r e s l i t i n a h i g h w i n d . L i g h t -n i n g a c c o u n t s f o r a l a r g e number o f f i r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e (1) I n t e r i o r ; r a i l w a y s a r e a n o t h e r f r u i t f u l s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e , b ut w i t h a new t y p e o f s p a r k e x t i n g u i s h e r b e i n g t r i e d out by t h e C.P.R. i t i s hoped t h a t t h e s e f i r e s may be r e d u c e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . Smokers a r e a n o t h e r p r o l i f i c c a u s e o f f i r e . I have seen c a s e s o f men t o u r i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s where r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e m a t t e r o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g c i g a r e t b u t t s a r e s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d , c a r e f u l l y s t u b e v e r y one w h i l e i n t h e U.S., and t h e n as soon a s t h e y c r o s s t h e l i n e t h e y p r o c e e d t o th r o w out g l o w i n g b u t t s i n t o t h e d r y g r a s s a t t h e s i d e o f t h e r o a d . A g a i n t h e r e a r e c a s e s when f a r m e r s and o t h e r s , d i s g r u n t l e d by t h e a p p a r e n t l y l a r g e p r o f i t s o f t h e lumbermen, w i l l d e l i b e r a t e l y throw av/ay l i v e b u t t s i n o r n e a r f o r e s t a r e a s , h o p i n g t h a t a f i r e w i l l e n s u e . A l a r g e (1) R.F.B. 1929. ( 1 1 6 ) number o f f i r e s r e s u l t f r o m b r u s h b u r n i n g , and t h e b u r n i n g o f l o g g i n g s l a s h , when t h e f i r e r u n s away. I am t o l d t h a t i n t h e I n t e r i o r t h e lumbermen s e l d o m b u r n t h e i r s l a s h , and t h a t t o do so i s c o n s i d e r e d e x t r e m e l y r i s k y and e n t a i l s a good d e a l o f e x p e n s e . I n t h e c a s e s o f I n t e r i o r t i m b e r a r e a s , where p o l e - c u t t i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s , s e l e c t i v e c u t -t i n g i s c a r r i e d out f a r more t h a n on t h e C o a s t , i n w h i c h c a s e b u r n i n g i s a b s o l u t e l y i m p r a c t i c a b l e . I f t h i s i s done " c a t -# f a c e " may ensue i n many c a s e s , r e n d e r i n g t r e e s so a f f e c t e d o f l i t t l e c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e . An a t t e m p t v/as made i n 1927 t o k e ep a c h e c k on p e r s o n s l i g h t i n g camp f i r e s d u r i n g t h e c l o s e s e a s o n , by t h e f r e e i s s u e o f camp f i r e p e r m i t s . T h e s e , however, r e q u i r e t o b e much more c l o s e l y c h e c k e d up on, t h a n a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . P e r s o n a l l y , I h a v e h a d one e v e r y y e a r s i n c e t h e r e g u l a t i o n was p a s s e d , and h a v e n e v e r y e t b een r e q u i r e d t o show i t . A s m a l l f e e f o r t h e s e p e r m i t s and a c l o s e c h e c k k e p t upon cam-p e r s and o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s f r e q u e n t e d by them, s h o u l d h a v e more e f f e c t t h a n t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m , and i n c i d e n -t a l l y , w o u l d b r i n g i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e v e n u e f o r t h e u s e o f t h e P o r e s t B r a n c h i n c h e c k i n g f i r e s . A c a r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m o f s i l v i c u l t u r e s h o u l d be t h e aim o f e v e r y a d v a n c e d , f o r e s t b e a r i n g c o u n t r y , but no s i l v i c u l t u r e s h o u l d be i n d u l g e d i n t o any l a r g e e x t e n t u n t i l # " C a t f a c e " i s a t e r m u s e d by lumbermen o f a t r e e w h i c h has been b a d l y b r u i s e d . The b r u i s e h e a l i n g o v e r , y e t l e a v i n g a wedge-shaped d e f a c e m e n t i n t o w h i c h r o t u s u -a l l y e n t e r s . P o l e s c o n t a i n i n g more t h a n a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e a r e v a l u e l e s s c o m m e r c i a l l y . I t may a l s o (117) f u l l y a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n o f o u r f o r e s t s as t h e y s t a n d t o d a y , i s p r o v i d e d f o r . T h e r e i s no o b j e c t i n t r y i n g to p l a n t new f o r e s t s b e f o r e we a r e c a p a b l e of p r o t e c t i n g t h o s e we a l r e a d y h a v e . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f numerous t r a i l s t o make a l l p a r t s o f t h e f o r e s t e a s i l y and r a p i d l y a c c e s s i b l e f o r t h e r a n g e r s i s a f a c t o r o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e , and i s r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h by t h e B r a n c h . I t a l s o seems t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n Tax, l e v i e d on t i m b e r h o l d e r s , s h o u l d be s e c u r e d , t h e G o v e r n -ment t o r a i s e a n e q u a l sum as i s done t o d a y . The p r o b l e m o f m a r k e t s i s s e c o n d o n l y t o t h a t o f f i r e -p r o t e c t i o n , one o f t h e most v i t a l f a c t o r s i n t h e who l e o f t h e lumber i n d u s t r y . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e o u r most p r o f i t a b l e m a r k e t s a r e t h e U.S.A., J a p a n , a n d t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, t o -g e t h e r w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l E u r o p e . I n 1929 we s h i p p e d by s e a 3 5 1 t m i l l i o n b o a r d f e e t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 192 m i l l i o n f e e t to J a p a n , and n e a r l y 70 m i l l i o n t o g r e a t B r i t a i n . S o u t h A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a , Hew Z e a l a n d , and C h i n a c o n t i n u e d t o (1) f o r m s t e a d y and f a i r l y r e l i a b l e m a r k e t s . T h e r e i s an immense o p e n i n g f o r lumber e x p o r t t o A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l -and, e s p e c i a l l y as b e i n g w i t h i n t h e E m p i r e a p r e f e r e n c e s y s -tem i s n o t i m p r o b a b l e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . F o r example, i n 1927-8 A u s t r a l i a i m p o r t e d f r o m Canada o n l y 29,613,287 f e e t o f u n d r e s s e d l u m b e r , but f r o m t h e U.S.A. she r e c e i v e d ^ (1) R.F.B. 1929. # ( c o n t . ) be c a u s e d by f i r e . (118) (1) 341,662,834 f e e t . W i t h New Z e a l a n d , however, we o b t a i n e d a much l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t r a d e . J a p a n now fo r m s o u r s e c o n d b e s t m a r k e t , and i t a p p e a r s as i f she w i l l c o n t i n u e i n t h a t r o l e , u n l e s s a g r e a t o p e n i n g up o f t h e f o r e s t s o f S i b e r i a t a k e s p l a c e . I n G r e a t B r i t a i n i t a p p e a r s as i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y o f much i n c r e a s e , due t o t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e f o r e s t s o f t h e B a l t i c , worked by cheap l a b o u r w i t h a low s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . The U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n u e t o be our b e s t c u s t o m e r f o r lumber, as h e r demand i s enormous, and c a n n o t be t o t a l l y s u p p l i e d by h e r P a c i f i c N o r t h -west f o r e s t s i n d e f i n i t e l y , w i t h o u t o u t s i d e s u p p l i e s . I t w o u l d seem t h a t a good d e a l o f f i r s t h and i n f o r m a t i o n as t o p o s s i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t of new m a r k e t s w o u l d be e m i n e n t l y d e s i r a b l e . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n e x p o r t h a v e been p r o -d u c e d by t h i s method a t t i m e s p a s t , i n I n d i a i n t h e e x p o r t o f c r e o s o t e d t i e s i n 1915, i n t h e E a s t e r n market i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g y e a r and at t h e same t i m e i n t h e p r a i r i e s . The s e a r c h f o r m a r k e t s i s as i m p o r t a n t as t h e s e a r c h f o r t h e b e s t s y s t e m o f c o n t r o l l i n g f i r e s , f o r i t i s o f no u s e t o p o s s e s s t i m b e r i f we a r e u n a b l e t o s e l l i t . The i n v e n t i o n o f some new p r o c e s s or t h e a d a p t i o n of an o l d one t o u t i l i z e t h e w a s t e i n c i d e n t t o l o g g i n g and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s a w m i l l s s h o u l d y i e l d a g o l d e n h a r v e s t . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e o n l y method w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a t a l l p r a c -t i c a l i s t h e s y s t e m u s e d i n P r a n c e , and known a s t h e P o u c a u l d ( 1 ) A u s t r a l i a Y e a r Book, 1929. (119) p r o c e s s . T h i s method w o u l d a p p e a r t o he b e s t a d a p t e d a s v e r y l i t t l e a p p a r a t u s i s r e q u i r e d . The man who c a n i n v e n t a way to u t i l i z e t h e w a s t e i n o u r m i l l s t o d a y , even w i t h a s l i g h t m a r g i n of p r o f i t , w i l l he a f r u i t f u l b e n e f a c t o r t o t h i s P r o v i n c e . We h a v e o n l y t o c o n s i d e r t h a t f r o m 25-35$ o f t h e v/ood w h i c h p a s s e s i n t o o u r m i l l s i s w a s t e d , and t h a t a n o t h e r 25$ o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t a n d f r o m w h i c h t h a t t i m b e r was c u t , was a l s o w a s t e d , and we h a v e some f a i n t i d e a o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n o f w a s t e r e d u c t i o n . A c o n s i d e r -a b l e m arket has d e v e l o p e d i n J a p a n f o r s m a l l c e d a r l o g s w h i c h were f o r m e r l y w a s t e d and l e f t t o r o t . I n e v e r y w a l k o f t h e lumber b u s i n e s s we r e q u i r e i n f i n i t e l y c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n t o d a y . L e t u s s p a r e a t h o u g h t a l s o f o r t h e s c e n e r y o f t h e P r o -v i n c e . I t i s h i g h t i m e t h a t s o m e t h i n g was done t o p r o h i b i t t h e w h o l e s a l e s p o l i a t i o n and d e s e c r a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . I t does n o t a p p e a r as i f i t would be so v e r y i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o l e a v e a f r i n g e o f f a i r s i z e d t r e e s a l o n g t h e r o a d s i d e s t o r e t a i n some o f t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f t h e c o u n t r y , and h i d e some of t h e h i d e o u s n e s s o f r u t h l e s s l y l o g g e d l a n d . We must remember t h a t t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y i s b e c o m i n g a l m o s t as i m p o r t a n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t h e l o g g i n g and l u m b e r -i n g i n d u s t r y , w h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s depend v i r t u a l l y on t h e t o u r i s t s e a s o n , and no s c e n e r y , no t o u r i s t s . P o s s i b l y I am wrong, p e r h a p s i t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n : no b e e r , no t o u r i s t s ! (120) I n c o n c l u s i o n , l e t us e m p h a s i z e once a g a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s t -1. S t r i c t e r f i r e r e g u l a t i o n s , and c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e p e o p l e ; 2 . A s m a l l c h a r g e f o r camp f i r e p e r m i t s ; 3 . No p l a n t i n g , e x c e p t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , u n t i l a d e q u a t e f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d ; 4. An i n c r e a s e i n t h e F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n T ax; 5. I n c r e a s e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a i l s t o make t h e f o r e s t e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e ; 6. A t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o o u r p r e s e n t m a r k e t s , and how t h e y may be expanded, t o g e t h e r w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f new o n e s ; 7. A c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o f i n d some means o f d i s p o s - . i n g o f s a w m i l l and l o g g i n g w a s t e , a t even a s m a l l p r o f i t . APPENDIX A. B i b l i o g r a p h y . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e F o r e s t B r a n c h , 1913-1929 i n c l u s i v e ! P u b l i s h e d by t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t t h e Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a , B. C. T h e s e r e p o r t s c o n t a i n f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n on t o t a l lumber s c a l e d , r e v e n u e d e r i v e d t h e r e f r o m , t h e number o f l i c e n s e s i s s u e d and s a l e s made. The c o s t o f , and damage done by f o r e s t f i r e s . The amount o f lumber e x p o r t e d , t h e number o f l o g s e x p o r t e d . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work i n r e s e a r c h b e i n g done by t h e B r a n c h i s a l s o g i v e n . A u s t r a l i a n Y e a r Book, 1929g M e l b o u r n e P.LJ U.B.C.L. T h i s a n n u a l i s p u b l i s h e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n G overnment. I t g i v e s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n commerce o f t h e c o u n t r y . I t d e v o t e s a s e c t i o n t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f F o r e s -t r y i n A u s t r a l i a . I n f o r m a t i o n i s s u p p l i e d on i m p o r t s o f l u mber i n t h e s e c t i o n on t r a d e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Y e a r Book, 1911-14; R.E. G o s n e l l , V i c t o r i a , B.C: P.L: U.B.C.L. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n c o n t a i n s a b r i e f a c c o u n t of t h e lumber i n d u s t r y a t t h e t i m e , and r e f e r s t o t h e r e q u e s t f o r t r a n s f e r a b l e l i c e n s e s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Lumberman: .L: Nov. D e c . Mar. 1924, 1927 1928. Aug. 1926, O c t . 1925 F e b . 1930 A m o n t h l y p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h e lumber i n d u s t r y . C o n t a i n s g ood a r t i c l e s on s e v -e r a l p e r t i n e n t s u b j e c t s . Canada Y e a r Book, 1925, 1926, 1924: P . U U.B.C.L. Otta w a . D o m i n i o n Government. The Y e a r Book u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s a good d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t B.C. i n t h e s e c t i o n on F o r e s t r y . Some f i g u r e s on p r o d u c t i o n a r e a l s o g i v e n . E m p i r e F o r e s t r y J o u r n a l : V o l . 4. No. 1. 1925. London P.Ls A p u b l i c a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a r t i c l e s on f o r e s t p r o b l e m s by ex-p e r t s f r o m a l l o v e r t h e E m p i r e . The A r t i c l e by Mr. C a v e r -h i l l , C h i e f F o r e s t e r o f B.C., i n t h i 3 number i s e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . E n g l a n d - P a r l i a m e n t , 1866. L o n d o n . NWL: I n a r e p o r t on C o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , m e n t i o n i s made of l u m b e r i n g as an i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . I I I . F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : H.N. W h i t f o r d and R.P. C r a i g . O t t a w a 1918. p 409. Maps, c h a r t s , t a b l e s . P.L: U.B.C.L. SD 14. C 2. T h i s i s a n i n v a l u a b l e t r e a t i s e , and i s t h e o n l y v o l ume on t h e s u b j e c t i n e x i s t e n c e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h F o r e s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t a l l f u l l y . I t f o r m s an e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e book, a l t h o u g h somewhat ou t o f d a t e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . I t i s w r i t t e n so t h a t i t may be r e a d e i t h e r by t h e e x p e r t o r t h e c o n n o i s s e u r . G u i d e t o t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r 1877-8: V i c -t o r i a , B.C.: 1877,: p 410.N.W.L: U.B.C.L. (F 1086.5) T h i s e a r l y volume c o n t a i n s a c e r t a i n amount o f v a l u a b l e i n -f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o e x p o r t . See p 52. I t i s e x c e l l e n t f o r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the P r o v i n c e , c o n c i s e l y w o r ded. Handbook o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d : A l s t o n , E.G. L ondon 1870, N.W.L: (NW971. 19-A464): T h i s volume c o n -t a i n s some v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h o u g h s p a r s e , on t i m b e r i n e a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . See pp 10, 135. H i s t o r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t : A n d e r s o n , M.S. P.A. (EA11.3) T h i s : document c o n t a i n s much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on e a r l y B. C. H i s t o r y . D i a r y o f R o d e r i c k F i n l a y s o n : M.S. P.A. T h i s e a r l y d i a r y by a w e l l - k n o w n p i o n e e r g i v e s o n l y two or t h r e e s c a n t r e f e r -e n c e s t o e a r l y m i l l s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . See p 18. J a p a n Y e a r Book 1930. T o k i o : P.L. R e f . T h i s Y e a r Book c o n -t a i n s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f f o r e s t r y i n J a p a n , e s -p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e p l a n t i n g o f t r e e s f o r t i m b e r , and t h e a n n u a l y i e l d t h e r e f r o m . I t c o n t a i n s a l s o an a c c o u n t o f t h e amount o f t i m b e r c u t , and t h e amount i m p o r t e d f r o m Canada and e l s e w h e r e . J o u r n a l o f S i r James D o u g l a s : MS. 1835. P.A. S i r James' J o u r n a l c o n t a i n s a n a c c o u n t o f a m i l l he v i s i t e d a t F o r t V a n c o u v e r , and we a r e t o l d how much i t s d a i l y c a p a c i t y was. See pp 1, 141. V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d - S e t t l e m e n t : James Dean. MS. P.A. James Dean g i v e s u s a g r e a t d e a l o f o u r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e a r l y m i l l s a r o u n d V i c t o r i a . See e s p e c i a l l y p 27. New Z e a l a n d Y e a r Book. A u c k l a n d : 1927. P.L. r e f : U . B . C . L . r e f . The New Z e a l a n d Y e a r Book c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n on F o r e s t r y p r a c -t i s e i n New Z e a l a n d , and g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r p r o d u c e d and i m p o r t e d . IV* L e t t e r s ; A l l t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e MSS and a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . A l l c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o contem-p o r a r y l u m b e r i n g , m i l l s , l a n d g r a n t s , e t c . I t e m i z e d . 1. B o l e s G a g g i n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , F e b . 2 0 t h , 1860, D o u g l a s , B.C. F618-8. 2. T. E l w i n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , J u l y 2 5 t h , 1862, A n t l e r , B.C. F525-15. 3. W i l l i a m B a n f i e l d t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , O c t . 2 4 t h 1859, B a r c l a y Sound. F 1 0 7 - 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t i m b e r . 4. T. G. Askew t o t h e S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l (J.W. T r u t c h ) J u l y 3 1 s t , 1868. F43a-2,4,5,6. S e r i e s o f l e t t e r s a s k i n g f u r t h e r g r a n t o f l a n d a t Chemainus. 5. A. C. A n d e r s o n t o A. G. D a l l a s . Mar. 2 5 t h , 1852. F o r t V a n c o u v e r . F 1 3 b - 5 . R e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n as t o m arket f o r s p a r s i n S h a n g h a i . 6. H. P. C r e a s e t o H. M. B a l l , C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s and Works. O f f i c e o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , D e c . 3 r d , 1868. P.A: F 6 9 - 1 5 . E n c l o s e d copy o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e t i m b e r c u t t i n g on t h e N a v a l Re-s e r v e a t B u r r a r d I n l e t . 7. Bowes and Company t o Hon. A. T. Bushby. Hope, B.C. J u ne 1 4 t h , 1870. P.A: F 1 7 4 - 1 . R e q u e s t f o r a l e a s e f o r t i m b e r c u t t i n g p u r p o s e s . 8. C h a r t r i s Brew t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . Nov. 1 1 t h , 1868. C a r i b o o . P.A: F197-34. E n c l o s e s a l e t t e r f r o m C a p t a i n Stamp. 9. S i r James D o u g l a s t o Mr. J u s t i c e B e g b i e , Mar. 2 4 t h , 1859, V i c t o r i a , B.C. P.A: F485-5,6. C o r r e s p o n -d e n c e r e m i l l a t Hope and s u p p l y of t i m b e r f o r t h e G o vernment. 10. James Duncan t o C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , May 1 0 t h , 1860. P.A: F 4 7 9 - l , 2 . R e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o e r e c t a s a w m i l l a t A l b e r t Head. 11. A s e c o n d l e t t e r , c o m p l a i n i n g o f d o u b l e d e a l i n g by t h e Government. 12. Duncan and G e o r g e t o t h e A c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Henry W a k e f o r d . O c t . 1 7 t h , 1864. P.A: F 4 9 9 - 2 . W r i t t e n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a steam m i l l a t Sooke. 13. T. E l w y n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . J u l y 2 5 t h , 1862. A n t l e r , B.C. P.A: F 525-15. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e about a h o u s e f o r Government o f f i c e s . 14. B o l e s G a g g i n t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . Peb. 2 0 t h , 1860, D o u g l a s , B.C. P.A: F 6 1 8 - 8 . R e p o r t s t h a t M a c d o n a l d a p p l i e d f o r 160 a c r e l e a s e . 15. B o l e s G a g g i n t o C o l . Moody, C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L ands and W o r ks. P.A: F 6 1 9 - 1 2 a . A s k s t h a t t h e a f o r e s a i d c l a i m be g r a n t e d . 16. S i r James D o u g l a s t o W.P. T o l m i e . J u n e 3 r d , 1851. P.A: E.D.101.7. M e n t i o n o f t h e p r i c e o f l u m b e r . 17. D o u g l a s t o T o l m i e . Peb. 22nd, 1853. P.A: E.D.101.5. M e n t i o n o f a lumber c a r r y i n g s h i p . 18. B.M. P e a r s e t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Aug. 2 4 t h , 1863. P.A: F906-16. A q u e s t i o n o f t h e g r a n t o f c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of l a n d . 19. S a n d f o r d F l e m i n g and Company t o W.A.G. Young, C o l o n -i a l S e c r e t a r y . Aug. 2 4 t h , 1859. F o r t Y a l e , B.C. P.A: F 9 0 1 - 1 . A c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h i s company i s b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n t h e m a t t e r o f r e n t . 20. R o b e r t H o w e l l t o P. O ' R e i l l y , J . P . J u l y 1 2 t h , 1871. Manson R i v e r . P.A: F 8 0 2 a - 1 . C o n t a i n s some i n f o r m a -t i o n a b o u t t h e lumber b u s i n e s s . 21. W i l l i a m B a n f i e l d t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . Nov. 1 0 t h , B a r c l a y Sound. P.A: F107-10. T e l l s o f s h i p s l o a d i n g lumber a t A l b e r n i , and t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s . 22. W i l l i a m B a n f i e l d t o t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . Aug. 24, 1862, G r a p p l e r C r e e k , O h i a t , B a r c l a y Sound. P.A: F107-19. F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on s h i p s l o a d i n g l u m b e r . R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n J o i n t Commission on Hud-s o n ' s Bay and P u g e t Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Companies C l a i m s . NWL. C o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on e a r l y m i l l s a t F o r t V a n c o u v e r f r o m 1834. R e p o r t of t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on F o r e s t r y and T i m b e r 1909-10. V i c t o r i a , B.C. p 116. P.L: UBCL. C o n t a i n s a good d e a l o f v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f o r e s t a t t h a t t i m e , and a l i s t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e l a t e r embodied t o a l a r g e e x t e n t V I . i n t h e F o r e s t A c t o f 1912. T h i s b e i n g t h e most p r o g r e s s i v e p i e c e o f f o r e s t l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d t o t h a t t i m e . R e p o r t on t h e U t i l i z a t i o n o f Waste Wood i n C l e a r i n g L a n d . H. C a r m i c h a e l . J u l y 1908. MS. P.A: EA2. A v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e p o r t on w a s t e d i s p o s a l , but i s u n a b l e t o s u g g e s t any s a t i s -f a c t o r y and p r a c t i c a b l e method o f d i s t i l l a t i o n , e x c e p t t h e F o u c a u l d s y s t e m as u s e d i n F r a n c e . R e p o r t o f t h e T h i r d B r i t i s h E m p i r e F o r e s t r y C o n f e r e n c e , 1928. P.L. r e f : T h i s R e p o r t c o n t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e by Mr. C a v e r h i l l on t h e s h i f t i n g o f t h e c e n t r e s o f l u m b e r and p u l p p r o d u c t i o n i n Canada. He a l s o d e a l s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f m a r k e t s i n some d e t a i l . R e p o r t o f Mr. L a n g e v i n . D o m i n i o n S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , V o l . 6, Ottawa, 1872. NWL. T h i s R e p o r t i s r a t h e r r a r e and d i f f i c u l t t o s e c u r e . I t was made on B.C. as a w h o l e , a t t h e t i m e o f h e r e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and t h e s e c t i o n on lumber i s o f v e r y g r e a t v a l u e , p r o v i d i n g us w i t h e x p o r t f i g u r e s f r o m 1861-70. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 1871$ 1 8 6 9 i T h e s e e a r l y sessional p a p e r s 1870) c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n as t o 1876) e x p o r t o f t i m b e r , t h e r e v e n u e 1877) f r o m t i m b e r l e a s e s , and t h e 1878J number o f l e a s e s h e l d . 1879) 1896) _ 1887) 19 02) J o u r n a l s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , 1867. V i c t o r i a , B.C. C o n t a i n a l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a draw-back on e x p o r t e d l u m b e r . S t a t i s t i c a l A c c o u n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H a r v e y , A. 1867. NWLJNW. 971 . 1 4 - E 5 8 r . C o n t a i n s a t a b l e of c o n t e m p o r a r y saw-m i l l s , t h e names o f t h e i r owners, and t h e i r l o c a t i o n . S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The L a n d O r d i n a n c e 1870. S e c . 28. The L a n d A c t 1875. Ch. 98. The L a n d A c t 1884. Ch. 16. The Bush F i r e A c t . 1874. No. 22. The Land A c t 1888. Ch. 66. The Bush F i r e A c t . 1887. Ch. 3. V I I . S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( c o n t . ) L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1891. Ch. 15. L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1892. Ch. 25. The O f f i c i a l S c a l e r s A c t 1894. Ch. 3 5 . The T i m b e r Mark A c t 1890. Ch. 47. The T i m b e r Mark A c t 1897. Ch. 184. The Bush F i r e A c t 1896. Ch. 21. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1896. Ch. 28. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1898. Ch. 38. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1897. Ch. 19. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1899. Ch. 38. The Lumber I n s p e c t i o n A c t 1897. Ch. 25. The Land A c t Amendment A c t 1901. Ch. 30. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1903-4. Ch. 39. The Land A c t Amendment A c t 1905. Ch. 33. The T i m b e r Measurement A c t . 1906. Ch. 43. The Land A c t Amendment A c t 1906. Ch. 24. The T i m b e r M a n u f a c t u r i n g A c t 1906. Ch. 42. The Land A c t 1908. Ch. 30. The L a n d A c t Amendment A c t 1910. Ch. 28. The L a n d A c t 1911. Ch. 129. The P o r e s t A c t 1912. Ch. 17. The Lumber I n s p e c t i o n A c t 1911. Ch. 147. The T i m b e r R o y a l t y A c t 1914. Ch. 76. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1924. Ch. 20. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1925. Ch. 12. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1927. Ch. 23. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1928. Ch. 15. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1929. Ch. 26. The P o r e s t A c t Amendment A c t 1930. S t a t u t e s o f Canada: The D o m i n i o n P o r e s t R e s e r v e s A c t 1906. S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : U.S. Dep a r t m e n t o f Commerce 1929. W a s h i n g t o n . P.L: r e f . T h i s c o n t a i n s a few f i g u r e s on t h e lumber p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n S t a t e s , b u t i s a d i f f i c u l t volume t o u s e . The Timberman. Peb. 1927. P o r t l a n d & San P r a n c i s c o . P.L: UBCL: The R e p o r t s o f P u b l i c A c c o u n t s , B.C. P.L: 1916-17; 1928-9. Any s t a t i s t i c s on t h e r e v e n u e s and e x p e n d i t u r e s of t h e P r o -v i n c e may be f o u n d i n t h e s e v o l u m e s . They u s u a l l y c o n t a i n c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e s g o i n g b a c k o v e r a l a r g e number o f y e a r s w h i c h makes them e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s . VIII. APPENDIX B. C o u n t r y . A T a b l e o f Lumber E x p o r t s , 1913-1929. 1913: 1914: 1915: A f r i c a A t . C o a s t A u s t r a l i a C a l i f o r n i a C h i n a I n d i a New Z e a l a n d U.K. a n d C o n t . S o u t h S e a s W.Coast S . A m e r i c a 6,683,752 O t h e r f o r e i g n 2,098,052 2,158,700 25,788,248 2,710,683 12,019,659 9,521,137 6,439,892 5,850,426 806,400 1,290,134 3,153,631 368,949 4,824,264 2,710,153 983,427 5,329,042 5,913,020 1,373,938 3,425,953 , ^ , 0 5 8 301,449 1916: 1917: 1918.J A f r i c a 10 ,114,885 5,022,828 5,434,299 A u s t r a l i a 2 ,152,657 16,309,307 6,434,145 C a l i f o r n i a 2,013,618 C h i n a 3 ,055,045 1,672,871 17,024,536 New Z e a l a n d 286,421 122,984 55,960 U.K. a n d C o n t . 19 ,801,629 13,447,496 31,275,399 S o u t h S e a s 991,308 1,610,715 2,564,064 W.Coast S . A m e r i c a 627,418 2,616,652 2,464,121 J a p a n 19,803,335 1919: 1920: 1921: A f r i c a 5 ,044,672 7,330,531 2,9.31,969 A u s t r a l i a 8 ,515,600 32,218,155 27,275,428 C h i n a 17 ,183,430 14,911,232 41,944,011 I n d i a 5,385,268 8,429,403 E g y p t 8,566,400 J a p a n 4 ,675,730 5,990,266 52,447,160 New Z e a l a n d 4,159,099 4,553,603 U.K. and C o n t . 65 ,381,100 61,217,805 13,592,562 U. S . A . 5 ,259,346 4,162,845 25,553,543 S o u t h S e a s 941,422 S o u t h A m e r i c a 1 ,551,574 5,523,101 1,317,825 I X A p p e n d i x B. ( c o n t . ) C o u n t r y . 19-22.1 1923: 1924: A f r i c a 2,415,500 8,220,032 10,681,208 A u s t r a l i a 55,949,129 78,003,423 34,848,783 C h i n a 24,640,268 36,398,234 25,595,993 I n d i a 7,249,48? 4,803,236 2,228,150 E g y p t 4,269,953 1,705,394 6,883,150 J a p a n 72,339,531 105,916,915 79,107,984 Few Z e a l a n d 4,516,862 11,252,890 12,169,230 U.K. and C o n t . 12,698,383 16,201,290 41,527,608 U. S. A. 83,856,504 248,611,600 313,104,821 S o u t h S e a s 1,841,578 3,665,241 3,454,183 S o u t h A m e r i c a 3,244,776 717,600 752,908 1925: 1926: 1927: A f r i c a 8,875,544 17,651,788 18,562,680 A u s t r a l i a 40,220,887 36,809,373 53,502,046 C h i n a 10,783,086 4,615,921 9,178,973 I n d i a 3,359,869: 1,653,675 3,566,713 E g y p t 12,920,848 2,573,529 2,649,559 J a p a n 67,671,449 177,193,559 191,597,552 New Z e a l a n d 12,619,730 10,201,328 10,847,545 U.K. and C o n t . 53,845,679 41,575,593 36,427,449 U. S. A. 361,016,940 400,347,692 392,074,528 S o u t h S e a s 2,610,143 3,791,760 1,884,632 S o u t h A m e r i c a 2,168,921 1,600,947 2,168,973 Cuba and ¥ . 1 . 8,792,765 16,023,319 U n c l a s s i f i e d 154,038 12,047 1928: 1929: A f r i c a 13,625,791 15,889,002 A u s t r a l i a 29,843,132 41,493,476 C h i n a 16,9*02,137 43,323,398 Cuba a n d W.I. 8,356,571 14,347,317 I n d i a 411,577 243,807 E g y p t 1,149,573 4,744,180 J a p a n 219,361,557 192,411,505 New Z:ealand 8,531,322 8,559,208 U.K. and C o n t . 67,075,872 69,903,655 U. S. A. 384,107,908 351,526,590 S o u t h A m e r i c a 10,304,032 2,449,494 U n c l a s s i f i e d 50,494,046. X APPENDIX c. 1. The f o l l o w i n g s n a p s h o t shows a f i n e g r o w t h o f young f i r , s p r i n g i n g up on l o g g e d and b u r n t o v e r l a n d where s e e d t r e e s have been l e f t . N o t e t h e a b s e n c e o f a l d e r , w i l l o w , and o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e i n f e r i o r g r o w t h s . T h i s was t a k e n i n A u g u s t 1930, on t h e r o a d c o n n e c t i n g C o u r t e n a y and Cumberland, B.C. 2. T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n shows l a n d w h i c h has been l o g g e d o f f , but n o t b u r n t . N o t e t h e young growth o f f i r s t r u g g l i n g up t h r o u g h p i l e s o f d e b r i s , w h i l s t t h e a l d e r and w i l l o w i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d have a l r e a d y made much headway. T h i s p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n on t h e I s l a n d Highway between C o u r t e n a y and U n i o n Bay, B.C., August 1930. X I . APPENDIX D. QUANTITY AND VALUE OP LUMBER CUT 1913-1928. V a l u e S c a l e 1913: $33,650,000 1,457,041,939 1914: 28,680,000 969,989,800 1915: 29,150,000 1,017,683,000 1916: 35,528,000 1,280,263,000 1917: 48,300,000 1,647,275,000 1918: 54,163,000 1,761,184,000 1919: 70,285,000 1,758,329,000 1920: 92,629,000 2,046,468,959 1921: 64,970,000 1,790,017,365 1922: 59,477,000 1,899,158,273 1923: 86,674,000 2,521,735,281 1924: 80,702,000 2,549,700,181 1925: 81,942,000 2,611,266,520 1926: 84,802,000 2,918,119,202 1927: 83,087,000 2,853,702,462 1928: 93,787,000 3,346,144,287 $1,027,826,000 X I I ^ . j , , ,,. ., PEND-I'X \ E. :^ ^  ' - . . ,. — - -4. - - -—*—i—1—,—J—LL. •--i : J ~ ; j 1 *'-• • r., • • * ' * • . ...^  , . . « , • j t , !' ''••! ' ••—r—i—1—1—1—1—s— jjFJ" / \ •' : -—. j—^ —, r—:— ' . ( a- . , , . 1 . . . . . ... ^ ... ; + • i . ' r. ; ! ( ' j ' ' ; ! 1 . \__._• _ r* ' \ * ' i ' ; f' , ' i f ) ! ' i 1 1 .... .. . , • - — • —>—! -—; -; . i ..... ( r_T:~ • .J , i ,1, .• - ; j ; ' I 1 ' ! 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