UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some aspects of the native problem of Kenya Colony MacRae, Lachlan Farquhar 1937

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SOME ASPECTS.OF THE.NATIVE PROBLEM,OF.KENYA,COLONY by  . LAOHLAN, FARQITHAR • MaoRAE  ,A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree o f Master o f A r t s i n the Department o f H i s t o r y .  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a  September 25, 1937.  INTRODUCTION  1.  The importance of the Kenya problem.  2. The n a t i v e problem:- n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s . 3. A f r i c a n progress  towards emancipation.  4.  D i r e c t Rule, I n d i r e c t Rule and the Kenya Dual P o l i c y  5.  The questions  the n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must answer:  E d u c a t i o n a l , Labour, Land, and Taxation.  IHTHODTTPjDIOH In L923, when the clamour f o r p o l i t i c a l recogn i t i o n r a i s e d by the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n of Kenya Colony had awakened the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e and the B r i t i s h Government to the f a c t that a l l was  not w e l l i n B r i t a i n ' s E a s t A f r i c a n  Mr.. C h a r l e s Roberts M. P.  empire.  t o l d the B r i t i s h House o f Commons  that t h i s Kenya q u e s t i o n i s one that has to be d i s c u s s e d i n the l i g h t of the Empire and o f the whole i m p e r i a l p o s i t i o n and i t i s not a separate q u e s t i o n by i t s e L f , I t r a i s e s any number o f I m p e r i a l problems, i t a f f e c t s our I m p e r i a l p o s i t i o n i n A f r i c a and i n I n d i a i t s e l f .... i T h i s was  at the time of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t  Kenya White Papers.  of the  These papers have s t a t e d and r e s t a t e d  the f a c t t h a t B r i t a i n ' s m i s s i o n i n A f r i c a Is as the t r u s t e e of the n a t i v e races.' There are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t aspects of the Kenya q u e s t i o n , each one o f them important enough to demand d i s c u s s i o n i n the l i g h t of Mr. Robert's statement.  He  was  concerned then mainly w i t h the problem of s a t i s f y i n g the demands of the Indians of Kenya who political  emancipation that the n a t i o n a l i s t Congress  sought f o r Indians a t home. many-sided the r e a l African  were a g i t a t i n g f o r the same i n India  But i t i s the s o l u t i o n of the  n a t i v e problem of Kenya Colony that w i l l provide  test case of the s i n c e r i t y of B r i t a i n ' s aim t h her colonization.  1. 167 H. C. Debates  5s, 25 J u l y - 1 -  1923,  Gol. 559  - 2 The  e x i s t e n c e i n Kenya OoLony of a very v o c a l Euro-  pean community accounts race problem.  f o r the most d i f f i c u l t  f e a t u r e s of the  The white community s t a r t e d when the  t r a t i o n adopted a settlement f e e l s that i t must do coming to Kenya i t was  policy.  So the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i t s duty by the white men, responsible.  adminis-  f o r whose  Where t h i s o b l i g a t i o n i s  coupled w i t h Government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  towards the n a t i v e s  and  the Indians, you have the Kenya q u e s t i o n i n a l l i t s c o m p l i c a t i o n . The  1931  Report of the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee on  the  c l o s e r Union of the.East A f r i c a n Dependencies s t a t e s t h a t the mixture of races i n East A f r i c a not only r a i s e s a l l the problems o f race r e L a t i o n s upon which so much thought i s concentrated i n the modern world, but i t i s coming to be regarded as a t e s t case i n I m p e r i a l statesmanship i n harmonizing the separate i n t e r e s t s of the B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s or p r o t e c t e d persons of d i f f e r e n t races i n the framework of the Empire as a whole.^ T h i s i s the dilemma that faces the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n i t s adm i n i s t r a t i o n of Kenya. .There i s a f e e l i n g that i t has to perform  towards each of the three races.  The  success  poLicy which s h a l l s a t i s f y a l L three, depends upon the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l three.  a duty  So f a r the Europeans and  of  any  unselfish  Indians have  r e f u s e d to admit t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s must come a f t e r those of the g native m i l l i o n s . Every f a c t o r enters i n t o the q u e s t i o n of race r e l a t i o n s i n Kenya which from the e a r l i e s t  c l a s h between  civili-  2. J o i n t Committee on C l o s e r Union i n East A f r i c a , V o l . I, R e p o r t , h. of o. 156, 6th.October I93T7 P.6 h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as H. of C. 156 or as the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee Report. 3. Estimated P o p u l a t i o n 31st December 1935: Europeans, 1^997; Indians, 6,461; A f r i c a n s , 3,012,421: Kenya Colony and Prot e c t o r a t e , Annual Report 1935, P.9.  - 3 z a t i o n s at d i f f e r e n t stages of development, has gone i n t o the making of the world's race problems. one g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e .  Bat i n Kenya there i s  The s o - c a l l e d backward r a c e , the  Bantu,  i s f a s t awakening to i t s p o s i t i o n i n the modern world and i s clamouring f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n whose p o l i c i e s w i l l speed emancipation of the A f r i c a n .  In the study of the n a t i v e problem  of Kenya t h i s f a c t should always be kept i n mind: may  though we  study the A f r i c a n , h i s mind, h i s s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  the  and  the e f f e c t of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n  on them, they no longer e x i s t  i n t h e i r o l d form but have evolved  i n t h i s s t r u g g l e f o r emancipation. Throughout t h i s study the terms D i r e c t Rule I n d i r e c t Rule w i l l  be c o n s t a n t l y used.  The  I n d i r e c t Rule  and system  of n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n demands, as w i l l be seen,  the s a v i n g  of what i s worth while i n the o l d A f r i c a n system.  Neither  system seeks to h i n d e r A f r i c a n e v o l u t i o n but each d i f f e r s i n the channels i n t o which i t seeks to guide n a t i v e l i f e .  Indirect  Rule has met w i t h so much success i n other B r i t i s h A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s that one cannot to be i n f e r i o r .  but suspect the Kenya n a t i v e p o l i c i e s  T h i s comparison  the most f a s c i n a t i n g approach  w i t h I n d i r e c t Rule i s perhaps  to the colony's n a t i v e problem.  I t i s to be seen whether the p o l i c i e s  i n Kenya which aim a t  b a l a n c i n g the i n t e r e s t s of a l l races act as p a l L i a t i v e s r a t h e r than as cures f o r the race problem.  The nature of the country  d i c t a t e s that the success of white settlement depends on the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the demand of the white of the A f r i c a n s .  community f o r the labour  The e v o l u t i o n of the A f r i c a n makes c e r t a i n of  h i s demands incompatible with those of the white s e t t l e r .  We  shouLd t r y to decide whether both s e t s o f demands can be s a t i s f i e d , or whether n a t i v e p o L i c y i n Kenya should seek to c a r r y out to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n the most important o f the d o c t r i n e of t r u s t e e s h i p :  the p r i n c i p l e that n a t i v e  i n t e r e s t s are the paramount concern Should be  concomitant  of the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e .  the present p o l i c y of t r y i n g to f i n d some Juste m i l i e u  c a r r i e d on, or should the r e l a t i v e l y  I n d i a n communities be l e f t  s m a l l European and  to s h i f t f o r themselves?  P r o f e s s o r J u l i a n Huxley s t a t e s what he c o n s i d e r s to be the main questions which must be answered by the administ r a t o r s who attempt to devise new p o l i c i e s f o r Kenya n a t i v e administration.  These questions provide a p r a c t i c a l  f o r such a study as t h i s .  As he says,  foundation  they are "the p o i n t s on  which d i s p u t e i s now most v i o l e n t and p r a c t i s e most d i v e r g e n t , and  upon which g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s are t h e r e f o r most u r g e n t l y 4  needed." F i r s t , Huxley says, the p r o f i t a b l e  investment  there i s the choice between  o f o u t s i d e c a p i t a l i n Kenya and the  development o f a prosperous n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i t s own economic b a s i s and i t s own s t a b l e s o c i a l system.  Capital,  wherever i t has poured i n , he says, seeks to answer the q u e s t i o n i n i t s own i n t e r e s t s , export be discouraged with has  the f i r s t  Second:  should n a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n f o r  o r encouraged?  question.  Third:  T h i s i s o f t e n bound up  when the a p p r o p r i a t e  deduction  been made from money d e r i v e d from d i r e c t n a t i v e t a x a t i o n  f o r g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s , shouLd any of the proceeds 4. Huxley, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View, London^ 1931, 399.  of n a t i v e taxes be devoted to any purpose vancement o f n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s ?  save the d i r e c t ad-  In Kenya, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  it  seems c l e a r that n a t i v e t a x a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the e d u c a t i o n of white c h i l d r e n and the f i n a n c i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l and medical advice to white s e t t l e r s , as we LI as to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the needs o f n a t i v e education and n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e and heaLth. Fourth:  are we to aim at widespread  f o r n a t i v e peopLes?  or universaL e d u c a t i o n  I f s o , are they to be given a mainly  t e c h n i c a L education or are the resources o f western knowLedge, thought and s k i L L to be thrown open to them, f o r those to prof i t who can?  As i t stands the s e t t l e r s  i n Kenya, f o r obvious  reasons want education to be o f a t e c h n i c a L n a t u r e . a country w i t h a g r e a t numerical preponderance  Fifth:  In  o f n a t i v e s , should  questions i n v o l v i n g n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s ever be decided by the votes of an e l e c t e d assembLy on which the n a t i v e s are not adequately represented? be given a generous  Sixth:  Should n a t i v e c h i e f s and c o u n c i l s  degree o f freedom  and r e s p o n s i b i L i t y i n  regard to l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r shouLd  they be kept i n Leading  s t r i n g s as long as p o s s i b l e w i t h very L i t t l e power to a c t save as cogs i n a p r e s c r i b e d t r a i n of Governmental machinery? as regards l a n d , shouLd  there be some p r i n c i p l e  s e r v i n g c e r t a i n n a t i v e areas? p o l i c y , shouLd  Eighth:  Seventh:  irrevocably re-  again concerning land  the system o f n a t i v e Land tenure be such as to  make i t p o s s i b l e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l c u l t i v a t o r to b e n e f i t hims e l f and h i s descendants ,Finally:  by the improvements he has made?  concerning labour, i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e to employ any  form o f f o r c e d  labour?  and, i f so, i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e  to em-  pLoy such Labour on p r i v a t e e s t a t e s , or soLeLy f o r governmental  - 6 -  5  or communal purposes? The  H i l t o n Young Commission of 1929  nature of the questions  that must be considered  stated  the  thus:  The d e f i n i t i o n of n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s oan best be g i v e n by c o n s i d e r i n g them under the folLowing headings:Land; Economic Development, Government s e r v i c e s and t a x a t i o n ; Labour; Education; 6 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the folLowing  pages an attempt wiLL be made to d e a l  with  c e r t a i n of these questions; nameLy, Eduoation, Labour, Land and  Taxation,  education  In the d i s c o v e r y of the r i g h t system of n a t i v e  L i e s , I t h i n k , the Key  to the race probLem.  The  q u e s t i o n of n a t i v e Land c o n s t i t u t e s the s o r e s t p o i n t of r a c i a L r e L a t i o n s i n Kenya. present  Inequitable  cause of n a t i v e resentment.  to keep the Kenya question the worLd.  before  And  t a x a t i o n i s an  ever-  Labour abuses  continue  the Labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s  These are the most cLoseLy r e l a t e d and,  ways, most fundamental aspects  inter-  of any  probLem.  They shouLd be considered  possibLe;  not mereLy as questions  study of the  of  i n some native  i n broad p e r s p e c t i v e i f  to be s e t t L e d f o r Kenya aLone  but as part of the task of d e v i s i n g p o l i c i e s f o r the government of the backward peoples of the Empire i n g e n e r a l .  To do  this  properly would r e q u i r e the p e r s p i c a c i t y of Lord,Durham combined w i t h B a l f o u r ' s a b i l i t y One 5. Huxley, J . ; op.  to r e c o n c i l e d i v e r g e n t  interests.  t h i n g that i s presupposed by such men  as  c i t . , 399r402 passim.  6. Beport of the Commission on Union of the Dependencies of E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l A f r i c a , Report o f the Commission appointed by the S e c r e t a r y of State f o r the C o l o n i e s . January IWTT^"  ,Cmd. ,5254. 41.  "  !-  "  —~—  ~  - 7 * J u l i a n Huxley and A f r i c a and  S i r Edward H i l t o n Young i s a knowledge of  the A f r i c a n s .  Kenya's n a t i v e problems.  T h i s should be p a r t of any  study of  I f B r i t i s h p o l i c y of to-day i s tending  towards the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s of  the  n a t i v e , the f a c t o r s which made them d i f f e r e n t from our western c u l t u r e must be understood.  So,  though most of t h i s anthropo-  l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l i s a p p l i c a b l e to A f r i c a g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r than j u s t to Kenya, i t must be understood before  the study o f the  p a r t i c u l a r phases of the n a t i v e problem o u t l i n e d above i s attempted. This hereafter: and  first,  then i s the p l a n that w i l l  second, to c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the which have c o n t r i b u t e d to the r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s and  i t s r e l a t i o n to  events of the colony's h i s t o r y  growth of the present  inter-  to t r a c e the growth of the c l a s h between along  c a l l e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , something of  the.Africans; f i n a l l y ,  to c o n s i d e r  i n chapters  v a r y i n g lengths the problems o f n a t i v e Education, Labour,, and  geography  settlement;  o f f i c i a l p o l i c y ; t h i r d , to study  l i n e s which might be A f r i c a and  followed  to sketch the main f e a t u r e s of the  c l i m a t e of Kenya so as to see  s e t t l e r wishes and  be  Taxation,  -0-0-0-  Land,  of !  Chapter One I Geography and H i s t o r y o f Kenya Colony P a r t One:  Geography and Climate  (a) d e s c r i p t i o n (p) e f f e c t on past and f u t u r e of Kenya P a r t Two:  The H i s t o r y o f European E n t e r p r i s e i n East A f r i c a  (a) The Portugese and Arab Empires (b) ,Chartered Company Days (o) White Settlement and the Growth of S e t t l e r  Influence  (d) The Development o f the B r i t i s h Government s.Native policy. 1  CHAPTER I . GEOGRAPHY AND  HISTORY OP KENYA COLONY  Kenya Colony, the t h i r d  l a r g e s t u n i t of B r i t a i n ' s  East A f r i c a n empire c o n s i s t s today of an area of 208,320 square 1 m i l e s , s t r a d d l i n g the Equator. E t h i o p i a and was  oeded  maliland.  I t i s f l a n k e d on the n o r t h by  the t e r r i t o r y known as Jnbaland, which,  i n 1925,  to I t a l y by B r i t a i n , as an a d d i t i o n to I t a l i a n  So-  To the northwest, i n the angle between Kenya and  E t h i o p i a — f i v e hundred m i l e s from the I n d i a n O o e a n — l i e s the Sudan, the part of i t E m i l Ludwig Nile.  t e L l s of i n h i s s t o r y of the  Here, almost a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the three boundaries,  l i e s the huge expanse  of Lake Rudolph.  Prom Lake Rudolph,  the  boundary between Kenya and the Uganda P r o t e c t o r a t e runs i n a south-westerly d i r e c t i o n , c u t t i n g through the c o r n e r of the h i g h l a n d areas to Lake V i c t o r i a Nyanza.  C u r v i n g so as to i n -  clude a c o r n e r of the Lake i n Kenya, the l i n e runs i n a g e n e r a l south-westerly d i r e c t i o n , now  s e p a r a t i n g Kenya and  Tanganyika  1. Table of areas of p a r t s of B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a . ,Tanganyika T e r r i t o r y (Mandate) 373,494 square m i l e s Northern Rhodesia ' 29L,000 " " Kenya Colony 208,320 " '.' Uganda P r o t e c t o r a t e 110,300 •* Hyasaland 39,964 See: Report o f the Commission on Union o f the Dependencies o f ' E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l A f r i c a , R e p o r t of the Commission " appointed by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s , January 1929, Cmd. 3234, 2~XT 11  - 8 -  - 9 T e r r i t o r y , to reaoh the Ocean a g a i n about opposite  the L i t t l e  i s l a n d o f Pemba. Geography and c l i m a t e , the two g r e a t e s t f a c t o r s i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g o f a country and o f the races i t , have played and a r e going h i s t o r y of Kenya Colony.  to p l a y an important  inhabiting p a r t i n the  Perhaps, i n the long run, as many  a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k , the geography and c l i m a t e of the colony  will  c l e a r up the race problem by d i c t a t i n g that the white race oannot i n h a b i t Kenya permanently.  Even to-day no one can be r e a l L y  p o s i t i v e what the f u t u r e may hoLd i n s t o r e f o r the white man. The Highland  areas of Kenya, the home of white  s e t t l e m e n t , resemble both i n cLimate of  I t a l y ' s new Empire o f E t h i o p i a .  and geography some p a r t s The t r i p  up from Mombasa  to H a i r o b i , the c a p i t a l of Kenya along the Uganda R a i l r o a d r e sembles t h a t from D j i b o u t i to Addis Ababa.  Hot, o f course  that the Kenya t r a v e l l e r meets w i t h the hardships t h a t Mussol i n i ' s troops had t o f a c e . c l i m a t i c resemblance.  I t i s a case of geographic and  There i s the same passage from the  t r o p i c a l swamps of the I n d i a n Ocean coast up g r a d u a l l y to a dry p l a i n p a r a l l e l t o the coast and f i n a l L y i n t o the g r e a t a l t i t u d e s o f the highlands w i t h towering snow-covered mountain peaks s e t amidst  rolling  i n many ways the scenery  g r a s s l a n d s and f o r e s t b e l t s  resembling  of p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Beyond  these h i g h areas, i n Kenya as i n E t h i o p i a , the c o n t i n e n t s l o p e s away to the west, dropping,  i n E t h i o p i a , to the feverous swamps  of  the upper H i l e and the Sudan and, i n Kenya, to the shores  of  the huge Lake V i c t o r i a Hyanza i n the h e a r t of A f r i c a . Ho other colony o f Great B r i t a i n i n A f r i c a can  -  LO -  surpass Kenya f o r v a r i e t y of olimate and geography.  ALL who 2  teLL about the coLony speak o f i t as a land o f c o n t r a s t s . Think of some o f the extremes: Mount Kenya on the Equator  from the e t e r n a l snow o f g r e a t  to the S a h a r a - l i k e expanse of the  great d e s e r t of the l o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r Province that abuts on Ethiopia,  the desert i n which l a s t year so many of the Boran  tribesmen f l e e i n g from E t h i o p i a d i e d of t h i r s t .  Think, too,  of the f e v e r swamps of Kenya's l o w - l y i n g Indian Ocean coast, swamps which p r e v a i l along perhaps one h a l f of i t s f o u r hundred m i l e long s t r e t c h , and of the r a r e atmosphere and temperate c l i m a t e of the h i g h l a n d areas i n t h e c e n t r e of the colony.  And  go f a r t h e r i n l a n d down the Long s l o p i n g pLains o f the Kavirondo country, a thousand m i l e s from the I n d i a n Ocean, and t h i n k of Kenya's i n l a n d c o a s t L i n e , the long, d e e p l y i n d e n t e d s h o r e l i n e :  o f V i c t o r i a Hyanza. So,  i n Kenya colony can be found  geography of every type:  c l i m a t e and  the A l p i n e scenery of the h i g h  tudes, the scenery and temperature-range o f B r i t i s h i n the white-settlement  o f t r o p i c a l swamps and the d r y e s t  Canon Leakey g i v e s us a g r a p h i c account  v a r i e t y of c l i m a t e .  Columbia  areas, the r o l l i n g downs and Lakes of  EngLand, the most poisonous of d e s e r t s .  alti-  He t e l l s o f the t r i p up-country  of the from  Mombasa to H a i r o b i , o f the c h i l l y a i r of the country h o t e l a t Limuru about t h i r t y m i l e s from the c a p i t a l , of the climb down to the sun-baked f l o o r o f the R i f t V a l l e y and, f i n a l l y ,  of the  s i g h t of the snows of Mount Kenya and o f K i L i m a n j a r o , the 2. Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya, London, L9S6, Chapters  L and 2.  MAP N o . l .  AuTITUQuS  AuTITuDtUS  or  ABQVg.  OF  rSOO"  gSOo TO  2600"  SHS.WH 8HE.WO  BUACK. MATCHE.O.  R/=ML.WAV3 DO.  E X I S T I N G UNOEH  1  11  CON»T«tUCTIOH  MILE 5 M a i b y 3 c S o n s . P h o t o - L i tin o  Do. • IrtTE.RC©*-oru*u P3JiB,2l3S9 -770 500,//30 A  l  Peaeiat-E F^ouTa^*  h i g h e s t peak i n A f r i c a — a l l  t h i s w i t h i n t h i r t y - s i x hours.  With the H i l t o n Young Report i s i n c l u d e d a  map  of the East A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r y which shows i n b l a c k the areas w i t h a l t i t u d e s of over 8000 f e e t .  Those r a n g i n g from 5000 f e e t  to 8000 f e e t are shown by c r o s s - h a t c h i n g . s o - c a l l e d Highland a r e a s .  I t can be seen that w h i l e Tan^  ganyika and Kenya have about feet  These c o n s t i t u t e the •--  equal areas of from 5000 to 8000  i n a l t i t u d e , Kenya c o n t a i n s n e a r l y a l l the land of over  8000 f e e t .  Moreover, i n Kenya the Highland areas are i n one  l a r g e b l o c k , while i n Tanganyika tions:  they are found i n three sec-  one, a p a r t of the Kenya b l o c k ; a second, f a r south  i n a l i n e between Lake Hyasa and the f o o t of Lake and a t h i r d ,  Tanganyika;  to the west of Lake V i c t o r i a a l o n g the boundary  of B e l g i a n Oongo.  I t can a l s o be a p p r e c i a t e d that the Uganda  Railway running from Mombasa to Kisumu on Lake V i c t o r i a opened up the whole area of the Kenya Highlands to the white-man. The c h a i n of the Highlands, running from Horth to South, part of the range which forms the backbone of C e n t r a l Africa,  l i e s as a b a r r i e r between the swampy l i t t o r a l along  the I n d i a n Ocean and the j u n g l e s of the Congo and of Uganda. As f a r as range of temperature pared to B r i t i s h Columbia.  But  goes, these areas can be comthe f a c t that the  temperateness  of the c l i m a t e i s occasioned by the a l t i t u d e , so^naTtTthe white settlement areas average over 6000 f e e t above s e a - l e v e l , i s l i k e l y to prove a potent f a c t o r i n determining the f u t u r e of the white community.  There are those a u t h o r i t i e s who  say  that Kenya can be a permanent and h e a l t h f u l home f o r the European.  Such a one i s E l s p e t h Hnxley  (whose biography of  - 12 Lord Delamere  has, i n c i d e n t a l l y , some f i n e photographs  the b e a u t i f u l and v a r i e d scenery of the Highlands.) of white s e t t l e m e n t — s u c h as Gorman Leys and even men Canon Leakey who  i s Kenya-born—say,  showing  Critics like  on the o t h e r hand, that  the nervous d i s e a s e s r e s u l t i n g from the s t r a i n of a l t i t u d e must u l t i m a t e l y d i c t a t e that the white man  cannot stand the  Kenya c l i m a t e , or at l e a s t that he cannot do the manual labour which w i l l be r e q u i r e d of him i n the f u t u r e .  It is likely  that  the white-man cannot remain f o r a l l time the overseer of A f r i can labour.  White s e t t l e m e n t , i f i t i s to endure i n Kenya must  u l t i m a t e l y , perhaps, be based, as i n B o r t h America, on white labour. But perhaps the most wonderful p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e of East A f r i c a i s the R i f t V a l l e y . 3  T h i s g r e a t g e o l o g i c a l break  i n the earth's c r u s t begins f a r n o r t h i n P a l e s t i n e i n the Jordan V a l l e y , runs south to form an arm of the Red Sea, and then turns south-west to cut as a g r e a t gash across East A f r i c a as f a r south as the Zambesi R i v e r .  In Kenya t h i s wonderful v a l l e y Is  f l a n k e d by sheer-cut escarpments, h i g h e r on the west, whose walLs drop from the c o o l a i r of t h e Highlands to the baked f l o o r of the r i f t ,  thousands of f e e t below.  But i n p a r t s of  the v a l l e y i s found some of the f i n e s t farm-land i n Kenya. The v a l l e y i s a p a r a d i s e of wild-game f o r which i t s towering w a l l s a c t as a c o r a l l .  To the r a i l w a y e n g i n e e r s , the descent  i n t o the R i f t V a l l e y proved the g r e a t e s t of a l l  obstacles.  Horman Leys d e s c r i b e s the Highlands and the R i f t as forming an 3. see Ross, W. McGregor, Kenya from W i t h i n , London, 1927,  33.  - 13 e l e v a t e d " i s l a n d " i n the midst o f the huge t e r r i t o r y u n s u i t a b l e for  the. European and adds: the shores o f t h i s i s l a n d are 4000 to 5000 f e e t above sea-level. I t s h i g h e s t peaks are 12000 to 15000 f e e t h i g h . Down the middle of the i s l a n d there runs from n o r t h to south, the S i f t V a l l e y w i t h i t s some h a l f dozen l a k e s but no r i v e r on i t s f l o o r , a broad o l e f t i n the earth's s u r f a c e w i t h w a l l s sometimes s t r a i g h t and p r e c i p i t o u s , sometimes l o s t i n a jumble of h i l l s of f a n t a s t i c s h a p e . 4  To the west o f the area demarcated as " h i g h l a n d , " and s t r e t c h i n g to the shores of V i c t o r ia, Hyanza are the grassy p l a i n s of the p r o v i n c e of Kavirondo,  taken from Uganda i n  to  provide Kenya with a lake-ooast and  of  the lands to w h i t e s . The  at  all.  alienation  e n t i r e area of the Kenya h i g h l a n d s does not  exceed 60,000 square m i l e s . , Colony's  a l s o to allow  1903  Thus only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the  200,000 odd square m i l e s i s s u i t a b l e for  the whites  I n the whole of Kenya 10,294 square m i l e s had  been  41 a l i e n a t e d i n 1935.  ..Of  t h i s t o t a l over 10,000 square m i l e s l i e  i n the h i g h l a n d s .  So i t can be seen that w i t h the h i g h l a n d s  we  are mainly concerned.  at  the coast around Mombasa have not meant so much to the  Africans.  But  The  200  or so square m i l e s a l i e n a t e d  that 10,000 square m i l e s of f e r t i l e  highlands  are h e l d by 2,000 or so Europeans while aLmost 90% of Kenya's 3,000,000 n a t i v e s i n h a b i t o n l y the remaining  50,000 square  m i l e s i s the f e a t u r e o f Kenya?s p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t i s important*  More than two  t h i r d s of Kenya's t o t a l a r e a i s  u s e l e s s f o r a n y t h i n g a t present. 4. Leys, lorman;. Kenya, London, 1926; #1.  Annual Report:  1935;  13.  82.  - 1.4 -  But whether this area must be considered permanently so concerns us here.  The. Annual Report said "In  addition (to the areas occupied in the highlands by Africans) there are 119,801 square miles comprising the Northern Frontier District,  Tnrkana, and an extension of Uganda whioh  are oooupied by natives."  Considered i n t h e i r context these  figures seem to help show that perhaps the balanoe of land d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Kenya i s not so bad as the c r i t i c s of administ r a t i o n make out.  This i s not f a i r when one considers that  in these 119,801 square miles less than 10$ of Kenya's natives can produce barely enough to l i v e on.  In f a c t , of late years,  famine i n Turkana has been almost continuous. as to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s desert Kenya.  differ  of reclamation of any large area of  In any of these considerations the uncertainty  of adequate r a i n f a l l plays a v i t a l part. r a i n f a l l may  Opinions  In f a c t f a i l i n g  prove the r u i n of Kenya as a whole. Canon Leakey places great emphasis on t h i s  important feature of Kenya's changing geography;  I n the  consideration of Kenya's future, as he says "Things which are beyond the control of man i n h i s present state of knowledge A3  have got to be taken into consideration." He opens h i s discussion of the dessication of . Kenya with the. statement that ever since 850 B. C. the climate has been getting gradually drier. to give one no cause f o r alarm.  This would at f i r s t seem But the f i g u r e s given f o r  the dessication since the beginning of the present century t  * 2 . Annual Report; 1935; 13. A3. Leakey; op. c i t . ; 167.  -  15—  are r e a l l y a l a r m i n g . We  i n North America know o n l y too w e l l  l e s s o n of ''soil-mining ' and 1  erosion.  In the l a s t  the  two  or  three  years most of us have been s t a r t l e d to l e a r n t h a t areas whioh ten years ago were counted the worlds best g r a i n l a n d s now  rained.  And  are  North America does not depend f o r i t s c l i m a t e .  on such a p r e c a r i o u s  balance of a l t i t u d e and  temperature as  does Kenya. , In the l a s t quarter century the Kenya h i g h l a n d s has  the c u l t i v a t i o n of  grown c o n t i n u a l l y more i n t e n s i v e .  F o r e s t s , a b s o l u t e l y v i t a l i n a country so dependent on t a i n t y of r a i n f a l l have been r u t h l e s s l y burned o f f . d e f o r e s t a t i o n was  required  by  years.  This  i n the n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e .  ashes of i n v a l u a b l e t r a c t s of f o r e s t served s o i l f o r a few  cer-  The  to f e r t i l i z e  So whole areas have been u t t e r l y  the ruined  the drying-up process that foLlows d e f o r e s t a t i o n or by  almost e q u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e process of '?soil-mining".  :  the  This  man-made d e s t r u c t i o n i s onLy h u r r y i n g the slow process of natural dessication. s o i l reclamation undone.  By r e f o r e s t a t i o n and  the damage done by man  by  can,  T h i s need i s v i t a l to Kenya's whole  white and  perhaps,  be  population,  b l a c k as w e l l . But  cess of gradual  s c i e n c e are  the prospect  f o r the colony when the pro-  r a i n f a l l decrease i s c o n s i d e r e d  not a b r i g h t one.  graphy the  scientific  One  Is c e r t a i n l y  f e e l s t h a t the sooner the f o r c e s of  brought i n t o a c t i o n against  the f o r c e s of geo-  better* Leakey shows that the water needed f o r human  - 16 use c o u l d be very  L i k e l y obtained  through a r t e s i a n b o r i n g s .  But t h i s would not o f f s e t the l o s s of r a i n f a l l . r e f o r e s t a t i o n t h i s l o s s could not be  combated.  Without much I t appears that  i f g r e a t unused areas of Kenya c o u l d be rendered a v a i l a b l e f o r population  r i g h t away much of the present  land c o u l d be r e -  claimed. , low useless f o r man  the areas o f East A f r i c a at present made  and  animal by the scourge of the t s e t s e f l y  seem to answer these purposes.  Great f e r t i l e areas could  opened i f the t s e t s e f l y curse couLd be done away w i t h . water f e v e r and  rhinderpest  u n f i t f o r pasturage.  too render l a r g e grassy  Adequate s c i e n t i f i c  be Black-  areas  measures couLd des-r  t r o y a l l these b a r r i e r s to development. Bat  i n s p i t e of a l l t h a t man  d e s s i c a t i o n , e r o s i o n and  t r o p i c a l disease  main as regards the f u t u r e .  As  can do to combat  the query must r e -  i t i s Kenya Colony, i n i t s  present s t a t e of " p l u v i a l d e c l i n e " b i d s f a i r to provide r a t h e r t r a g i c example o f the e f f e c t of geography and upon h i s t o r y . for  T h i s apparently  the country.  past and white men  the near f u t u r e .  *4.  geography and  found them appealed g r e a t l y to h i a .  problem of Kenya has  s  The  cLimate  i s the g r e a t e s t of a L l  But what concerns us more i s the  questions  Immediate  c l i m a t e as The  a  the  native  resulted.  The Ormsby-^Gore East A f r i c a Commission i n 19£5 devoted t e n pages of i t s report to the s u b j e c t of the t s e t s e f l y and i t s ravages i n East A f r i c a (Cmd. 2387, 1925; 70-80). These Should be read i f one i s to a p p r e c i a t e the awful damage done. Most of the d e s o l a t i o n i s i n Uganda and Tanganyika, A huge b e l t of t s e t s e - r u i n e d land s t r e t c h e s ".approximately 120 m i l e s east and west from K a z i - K a z i to Tabora and n o r t h ward to L a k e ! V i c t o r i a , while west of Tabora there i s f l y p r a c t i c a l l y a i l the way to Lake Tanganyika." ;  -  17  -  I I . The, H i s t o r y of Earopean E n t e r p r i s e i n E a s t  Africa  (a) The, Portugese and Arab Empires While the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of t h i s stady be done without East A f r i c a , of these  reference  could  to events before B r i t a i n came to  there i s a good d e a l to be gained  i f the s t o r y  areas when they were under Arab domination or part  of the Empire of P o r t u g a l i s known.  Por  the c e n t a r i e s of  domination by s t r o n g e r races before B r i t a i n came, e s p e c i a l l y the o e n t u r l e s of Arab r u l e , must have had permanent  shaping  i n f l u e n c e s on the n a t i v e r a c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the races of coast.  Then, too, the e a r l y periods of B r i t i s h  are important  to the study as p e r i o d s of shaping  r e l a t i o n s , when the f o r e r u n n e r s t i o n and African  interracial  of western economic  civiliza-  life.  Good Hope and,  Vasco da Gama, rounded the Gape of  s a i l i n g up the east c o a s t , p l a n t e d the seeds  of a Portugese Empire i n East A f r i c a . from the Arabs who  had  T h i s Empire was  been f o r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s the  l o r d s of the huge t e r r i t o r y .  The  lacked the man-power necessary  more important,  medan t e r r i t o r y .  The  won over-  s u l t a n s were d r i v e n from  t h e i r c o a s t a l towns and P o r t u g a l r u l e d along  and,  penetration  of C h r i s t i a n i t y began to work themselves i n t o East  In 1497,  But she  the  the Indian Ocean.  to s u s t a i n the r u l e  the t o l e r a t i o n necessary  i n such a Moham-  r i c h e s of the s p i c e empire brought  other powers of. Europe i n to crush P o r t u g a l . c u t i o n u n i t e d the Mohammedans a g a i n s t her.  Ruthless  the  perse-  So the Portugese  - 18 were d r i v e n oat of E a s t A f r i c a a f t e r a s t r a g g l e l a s t i n g from 1627  to 1727.  In the l a t t e r year the Arabs r e c a p t a r e d Mom-  basa, the c h i e f c o a s t a l town. ended.  Only Mombasa s Fort Jesus 1  r  of her domination. The  The  The  S u l t a n r u l e d now  over from Muscat.  long r u l e of P o r t u g a l remains as v i s i b l e  was  evidence  Second Arab Empire came i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  from Zanzibar, having moved the  The Arab r u l e went on from 1727  capital  till  the  advent o f Great B r i t a i n l a t e i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. Bat the f a c t t h a t the second Arab Empire based on s l a v e s not on s p i c e s , proved  i t s downfall.  t e r r i b l e s l a v e trade at the beginning of the l a s t brought humanitarian  was  The  century  B r i t a i n to the scene w i t h the new  and  powerful weapon of economic pressure to subdue the Arabs a second  time. The  the beginnings  s l a v e t r a d e was  of Kenya.  h i g h l a n d b a r r i e r was centred i n Uganda and  The  i n d i r e c t l y responsible for  territory,itself,  not  to the  not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the t r a d e , which other p a r t s of c e n t r a l A f r i c a .  once B r i t i s h e m i s s a r i e s began to win c o u r t i t was  due  But,  i n f l u e n c e a t the S u l t a n ! s  long before the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the whole of  East, A f r i c a were r e a l i z e d . By Imperialism was throughout and  the 1870's t h i s was  a t work.  East A f r i c a .  British  Economic  consuls were to be  S u l t a n Zaghreb's army was  t r a i n e d by B r i t i s h e r s .  litical  an accomplished  fact. found  officered  F o l l o w i n g the usual formula  Imperialism y i e l d e d p l a c e to the more compelling Imperialism.  Po-  - 19 -  (b) Chartered  Company days  So the next great step i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n i n E a s t A f r i c a was 1872  the f o r m a t i o n of the Chartered  S i r W i l l i a m Mackinnon had  n e c t i n g I n d i a , Zanzibar and  Company.  In  founded a s h i p p i n g Line con-  European p o r t s .  In 1877,  when the  S u l t a n o f f e r e d S i r W i l l i a m a concession to handle h i s customs and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r seven y e a r s ,  refused permission.  But  the B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e  i n the e a r l y e i g h t i e s B r i t i s h  ex-  p l o r e r s pushing i n t o the heart of the continent ran i n t o German  opposition.  followed  Dr. C a r l P e t e r s was  between the e m i s s a r i e s of  of t r e a t i e s w i t h n a t i v e c h i e f s who p r o t e c t i o n from one  at work. the two  The  race t h a t  powers i n the making  were coaxed i n t o a c c e p t i n g  power or the other,--though o f t e n not  knowing what a p r o t e c t o r a t e w a s — h a s i t s humourous s i d e yet i s a t r a g i c r e f l e c t i o n on the methods of France too i n s i s t e d upon her share.  Of  that wholesale d i v i s i o n of a oontinent  this  c a l l e d The  partition  i n i t s perspective:  between the raw material-  hungry and prestige-mad races of Europe which Lamar 5 has  and  Imperialism.  course  of East A f r i c a must always be c o n s i d e r e d  even  Middleton  Rape of A f r i c a . The  powers came to s e v e r a l agreements among  themselves as to the e t i q u e t t e of the I m p e r i a l i s t game and agreed, without was  any thought of the A f r i c a n ' s f e e l i n g , j u s t  to take what.  5. M i d d l e t o n ,  T h i s process was  who  t y p e f i e d i n the s o - c a l l e d  L; The Rape of A f r i c a ; lew York;  1936.  - 20 B e r l i n Agreement o f 1886, was  that what i s now  of which the most important  B r i t i s h East A f r i c a *  apart from German  Tanganyika, became a B r i t i s h sphere of i n f l u e n c e . and B r i t a i n agreed  competition.  East A f r i c a was  stake.  with F o r e i g n O f f i c e consent,  B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a A s s o c i a t i o n was  Kipini  the  the agreement d i d not k i l l Anglo-German  So i n 1887,  promised i n 1877,  So Germany  t o r e s p e c t each other's winnings i n a card  game with the S u l t a n of Zanzibar. But  result  g i v e n the  the  concession,  of c o n t r o l of the mainland from Wanga to  i n the matter of t a x - c o l l e c t i o n s , appointment of  district  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , customs c o l l e c t i o n s , trade r e g u l a t i o n ; and a l l t h i s f o r a term of f i f t y The next t a i n ' s hopes was  years. step towards the r e a l i z a t i o n o f B r i -  made when the a s s o c i a t i o n , by  treaties with  i n t e r i o r t r i b e s , spread i t s i n f l u e n c e f a r i n l a n d to the g r e a t lakes.  Promising  to open the new  t e r r i t o r y as a B r i t i s h mar-  ket and  to improve the c o n d i t i o n of the n a t i v e s , i t won  c h a r t e r of monopoly as an o f f i c i a l The  t h e i r case before  the  c o n d i t i o n s of the n a t i v e s i n h a b i t i n g the  a f o r e s a i d t e r r i t o r i e s and and  company from the Queen.  p e t i t i o n e r s f o r the c h a r t e r put  Crown thus; "the  a  r e g i o n s would be m a t e r i a l l y improved  t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced, and  an o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d  which would tend to the s u p p r e s s i o n of the s l a v e trade i n such t e r r i t o r i e s , and  the s a i d t e r r i t o r i e s and r e g i o n s would be  opened to the l a w f u l trade and commerce of our s u b j e c t s and 6 of other n a t i o n s . " T h i s might be c a l l e d the credo of B r i t a i n ' s 6. B u e l l , R.L.; V o l . I, 268.  T h e l a t i v e Problem i n A f r i c a ; Sew ' ~*" "~  York,  1928,  - 21 e n t e r p r i s e i n East A f r i c a and might s t i L L , w i t h v a r i e d s t r e s s on i t s d i f f e r e n t aspects, o p i n i o n o f the Imperial So  be  s t a t e d as such, a c c o r d i n g  aim.  the A s s o c i a t i o n became a Chartered  Company,  the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company, pledged to c a r r y out difficult  objectives.  At  were n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h ten-mile had  to one's  the same time, German  the S u l t a n o f Zanzibar  these  emissaries  f o r r i g h t s i n the  c o a s t a l s t r i p s i m i l a r to those the B r i t i s h a s s o c i a t i o n  obtained  i n 1887.  As a r e s u l t , Germany got her  to the s o u t h o f the B r i t i s h and w i t h T h i s s t r i p and  concession  like administrative  the h i n t e r l a n d behind I t became, i n l a t e r  the German colony  of Tanganyika.  But,  rights. years,  the ten-mile wide  c o a s t a l s t r i p o f B r i t i s h East A f r i c a remained a p r o t e c t o r a t e when the r e s t became Kenya Colony i n 1921.  The  B r i t i s h Govern-  ment pays a s i z e a b l e r e n t f o r i t each year to the S u l t a n of Zanzibar.  That t h i s should  be paid was  p a r t of the  conditions  under which the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company gave up i t s c h a r t e r . Most of  the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the  chartered  company i s connected w i t h Uganda r a t h e r than with Kenya.  The  c h a r t e r of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was  and  granted  i n September of 1888  the company r a n i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s r i g h t from the s t a r t .  Owing  to the methods used by the Germans i n t a k i n g over t e r r i t o r y .... ceded to them by the S u l t a n , the n a t i v e s were ready to a g a i n s t the white men, Since  rise  whether German or B r i t i s h . the f i r s t e n t r y of H. M.  Stanley  into  Uganda i n L875, the European m i s s i o n a r i e s had been coming i n , i n answer to the The  challenge  o f L i v i n g s t o n e and  of  Stanley.  Buganda were the most advanced of the n a t i v e t r i b e s of  - 22 central A f r i c a . missionaries  Old Mtitesa, t h e i r King r e c e i v e d  k i n d l y i n 1877.  Roman C a t h o l i c f a i t h and coast  the  English  Bat when French p r i e s t s of  emissaries  of the Moslems of  a r r i v e d to s w e l l the m i s s i o n a r y ranks and  i n f l u e n c e Mutesa, t r o u b l e began.  In 1884,  as Kabaka, or c h i e f , by young Mwanga.  the  the  also t r i e d  Mutesa was  Intensely  to  succeeded  suspicious  of  European motives, Mwanga s t a r t e d h i s r u l e w i t h the murder of Bishop Hannington and  his native  converts.  There  followed  s e v e r a l years of bloody o p p o s i t i o n to the C h r i s t i a n s .  By  the n a t i v e C h r i s t i a n s were powerful enough to r i s e and  drive  Mwanga from the  1889  throne. In that same year, the Chartered Company,  pressing  i t s operations  i n l a n d , sent an e x p e d i t i o n  t e r i o r under F r e d e r i c k Jackson. gained h i s throne but glad  meanwhile, r e -  h e l d i t so p r e c a r i o u s l y  that he  was  to accept the Company f l a g as a s i g n of p r o t e c t o r a t e .  h i s lands, now  Mwanga had,  to the i n -  i n c l u d i n g the Kavirondo province  on Lake V i c t o r i a ,  part of Kenya, came under B r i t i s h c o n t r o l .  came q u i c k l y f o r q u a r r e l i n g broke out now of the French Roman C a t h o l i c s , s t r o n g l y B r i t i s h out, To add  and  the P r o t e s t a n t  More t r o u b l e  between the incited  followers  to d r i v e  the  converts o f the B r i t i s h m i s s i o n s .  to t h i s the Moslems formed a t h i r d f a c t i o n swinging  t h e i r support to favour whichever C h r i s t i a n party be winning.  C a p t a i n Lugard, now  B r i t i s h African administrators, to put  So  down the  quarrel.  share of f i g h t i n g but  Lord,Lugard, the dean of was  For two  finally,  between the three f a c t i o n s .  seemed to  sent  to Mwanga s c a p i t a l 1  years Lugard saw  i n 1892,  his  full  managed to a r b i t r a t e  - 23 But apart from the bad e f f e c t such a f f a i r s t h i s q u a r r e l l i n g of the churches  i n Uganda had  C h r i s t i a n i t y i t might be asked how had anything  to do w i t h  as  on the cause of  these happenings i n Uganda  the h i s t o r y o f Kenya.  I t had been  t e r r i b l y expensive  to keep the company going i n Uganda and  C a p t a i n Lugard was  sent to England  declare a Protectorate. thetic.  so  to get the Government to  L o r d Rosebery's L i b e r a l s were apa-  But, s e e i n g that the Company was  determined  to leave  Uganda i f the Government did not see f i t to back i t , and pressed by the missionary  s o c i e t i e s to keep B r i t a i n ' s i n f l u e n c e  i n the country a l i v e , the Government, i n 1892, P o r t a l out to r e p o r t on Uganda. Company a subsidy the f a c t i o n s was  Meanwhile i t granted  to c a r r y on t e m p o r a r i l y .  Uganda P r o t e c t o r a t e was  d e c l a r e d i n June of  the Chartered Company now  the I n d i a n Ocean.  sorts of d i f f i c u l t i e s . of  Trouble between  i t down.  t i o n s i n t o the great a r e a which i s now and  the  breaking out a g a i n and P o r t a l , a c t i n g f o r the  B r i t i s h Government proceeded to put  So  sent S i r Gerald  As a r e s u l t  the  1894. shifted  i t s opera-  Kenya, between Uganda  Once again the Company r a n i n t o a l l The whole country was  under a r e i g n  t e r r o r at the hands o f the w a r r i o r s of the Masai  tribe.  These r o v i n g , f i g h t i n g p a s t o r a L i s t s were the n a t u r a l enemies of the g r e a t Kikuyu  people who,  owing to t h e i r s e t t l e d ,  c u l t u r a l h a b i t s , f e l L an easy prey to the Masai. were f r i e n d l y to the white men,  As the  agriKikuyu  many of the Company p o r t e r 7 caravans were wiped out by the elmoran. 7* Note:  Masai w a r r i o r  - 24 The v a s t areas of the Highlands, terrific  o b s t a c l e s i n the way  too, provided  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of Company  goods.  Hobley, i n h i s bock on Kenya, d e s c r i b e s the hardships 8 of t h e route a c r o s s from Mombasa to V i c t o r i a Hyanza. One can imagine the expense of t r a n s p o r t i n g the tons of trade-goods on the heads of n a t i v e p o r t e r s , to say n o t h i n g of the armed f o r c e s necessary  to ward o f f the Masai, who  blood-lust.  k i l l e d o f t e n from sheer  Company posts formed a continuous  chain right  a c r o s s E a s t A f r i c a along the c a r r i e r route and the trade, i n many ways as stupendous as the o l d trans-Canada c a r r i e d on u n t i l the Company found i t s earnings.  f u r trade,  i t s expenses over  Yet, perhaps, when speaking  of the  was  topping  withdrawal  of the Chartered Company, i t i s only f a i r to s t r e s s a p o i n t about i t s nature which i s brought out of L o r d  i n the f o l L o w i n g words  SaLisbury:  I t would h a r d l y be j u s t to d e s c r i b e i t as a p u r e l y commercial body, f o r i t i s n o t o r i o u s that the m a j o r i t y of, i f not a l l , the s u b s c r i b e r s are actuated r a t h e r by p h i l a n t h r o p i c motives than by the e x p e c t a t i o n of r e c e i v i n g any adequate r e t u r n f o r t h e i r o u t l a y . 9 By  1893  p h i l a n t h r o p i c z e a l had  to r a i s e money i n England  i t s L i m i t s a f t e r attempts  to b u i l d a r a i l r o a d  the trade-route had f a i l e d . Englander"  reached  to Uganda a l o n g  Lord Hosebery and h i s " L i t t l e  L i b e r a L s , were i n power and evinced L i t t l e  i n the Company's t a l e of woe.  So r a t h e r than l o s e a L l the  450,000 pounds already spent i n opening  East A f r i c a , the com-  pany s h a r e h o l d e r s were o b l i g e d to accept about h a l f of 8. Hobley, C.W,, London; 1929  interest  this  Kenya from Chartered Company to Crown Colony;  9. Evans; The B r i t i s h i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; Cambridge; 1929,  312  - 25 sum  as compensation  control.  and to l e t the B r i t i s h Government take  So i n June, 1895, the E a s t A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e was  d e c l a r e d which comprised what i s now Kenya Colony p i n s the ten-mile c o a s t a l s t r i p (now c a l l e d  the P r o t e c t o r a t e ) and minus  the Kavirondo P r o v i n c e whioh s t i l l  remained part o f Uganda  u n t i l land-greedy s e t t l e r s f o r c e d t h e a l i e n a t i o n of i t s r i c h plains. J u l y o f 1895 saw the advent o f L o r d S a l i s b u r y and h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e I m p e r i a l i s t s . East A f r i c a f e l t  I t was not long before  the e f f e c t s o f t h e i r f o r c e f u l  policies.  Joseph Chamberlain, as S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e from 1895 to 1902 p r o v i d e d the f o r c e t h a t c a r r i e d through to completion i n 1902 the great Uganda Railway, from Mombasa to Lake  Victoria.  The huge c o s t o f the Uganda Railway was born by the B r i t i s h tax-payers.  I t s b e n e f i t s , and one i s here i n -  c l i n e d to b e l i e v e the modern c r i t i c s of the c o l o n i a l theory, have f a l l e n mainly upon the white community of East A f r i o a . Leys and others accuse the B r i t i s h Government o f f i x i n g the f r e i g h t r a t e s so as to e x p l o i t Europeans. is.  the A f r i c a n s and s u b s i d i z e the  Be t h i s as i t may the Railway made Kenya what i t  I f there were no r a i l w a y there would,  no n a t i v e problem.  l i k e as not, be  One a r r i v e s at the u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n as  to whether white s e t t l e m e n t has been a curse o r a b l e s s i n g t o the A f r i c a n s .  - 26 -  (o) White Settlement and the Grow th of S e t t l e r  Influence  With the opening up of the r a i l w a y , East A f r i c a ' s race problem began t o develop.  F o r though one of the avowed  purposes of b u i l d i n g the road had been to allow B r i t a i n to c a r r y out h e r e f f o r t s t o stamp out . . s l a v e r y — o r what remained of the o l d s l a v e - t r a d e — a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n was  i t s source, the a c t u a l r e s u l t o f  to throw the P r o t e c t o r a t e open to trade  and, u n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the A f r i c a n , to white s e t t l e r s land s p e c u l a t o r s .  and  With the r a i l r o a d too, came the t h i r d  ele-  ment i n the race probLem of Kenya, the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . C a l l e d from I n d i a to b u i l d the road, the Indians remained i n East A f r i c a and became the shop-keepers and a r t i s a n s of the country.  In these l i n e s they a r e only now  native Africans.  Railway work d i d not cease w i t h the completion  of the main l i n e — f a r from i t . development  I n f l u e n t i a l men,  of s e t t l e m e n t , saw to i t that as new  opened, they were served by branch l i n e s . man  y i e l d i n g p l a c e to  f a v o u r i n g the areas were  T h i s i s one of Nor-  Leys' g r e a t e s t complaints, that most of the m i l l i o n s o f  pounds spent on r a i l w a y i n Kenya have been used to b e n e f i t the 10 white community, r a t h e r than the n a t i v e . 10. Leys, N.; A L a s t Chance i n Kenya; London, L931; chap. 111,44. Branch Railway L i n e s i n Kenya Through European Areas Through S o l a ! branch 26 m i l e s K i t a l e branch 40 " Thompson P a l l s branch 47 " E a k a r u - E l d o r e t - N o r t h Kavirondo 170 " Nany.uki branch 102 Y a l a branch Voi-Kahe branch 387 m i l e s ( s i c )  Reserves  61 m i l e s 42 " 32 93 '.' 228 m i l e s  - 27 I n L902 the B r i t i s h Government s e t afoot a movement to give f r e e land i n t h e Highlands order  to the Z i o n i s t s , i n  to e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l home f o r t h e Jews,  e x p l a i n s why these plans c o l l a p s e d .  E l s p e t h Huxley  The s e t t l e r s d e t a i l e d to  show the Z i o n i s t agents the lands d e s t i n e d to be t h e i r new home took very g r e a t care t h a t t h e agents got the worst poss i b l e impression o f East A f r i c a . In 1902, a l s o , began what c r i t i c s o f Kenya p o l i c y damn as the most b a r e - f a c e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n overseas, occupied,  o r a p p a r e n t l y unoccupied  piece o f o f f i c i a l  robbery  the a l i e n a t i o n of a l l unland i n the h i g h l a n d  areas.  A government p u b l i c i t y campaign, i n South A f r i c a sponsored by Governor S i r Charles E l i o t flocking.  o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e , brought  settlers  I f o r Evans, c o n s e r v a t i v e though he i s , fiorman Leys,  MacGregor Ross, a l l quote the famous statement by E l i o t "East A f r i c a w i l l probably man's country,  that  become i n a s h o r t time a white-  i n which n a t i v e questions w i l l present but l i t t l e  11 interest."  We might w e l l use t h i s as a gauge of the f o r e s i g h t  of the men who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the present n a t i v e problem of Kenya Colony. So, began i n e a r n e s t .  i n 1903 the white settlement  o f East A f r i c a  Though the r a t e at which land was a l i e n a t e d  was amazing, the growth of the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n has been comparatively  slow.  12 To-day the Europeans number around 18,000.  11. Evans, op. c i t . . 320, quoting E l i o t , t e c t o r a t e (1905) 302.  S i r o.  The S.A. Pro-  12. Annual Report, Kenya, 1935, 9, estimated p o p u l a t i o n end o f 1935, 17,997 Europeans.  - 28 But t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n Kenya i s i n i n v e r s e r a t i o to the f r a c t i o n they comprise of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  It is interesting  traoe the way  Europeans have gained  i n which  thi3  handfuLJ^of  to  i t s p o l i t i c a l voice. The year 1906  saw  the establishment  of a L e g i s -  l a t i v e O o u n c i l f o r East A f r i c a on pressure from the white community, then a very v o c a l three thousand odd. t a i n l y a new tectorate.  T h i s was  departure f o r the government of a s o - c a l l e d Yet  t h i s c o n d i t i o n obtained u n t i l  d e c l a r e d f o u r t e e n years l a t e r .  the colony  cerprowas  To t h i s embryonic L e g i s l a t u r e 12  the white p o p u l a t i o n sent three nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " members. An advance was i n 1908,  made (from the s e t t l e r s ! p o i n t of view at l e a s t )  when the community gained the r i g h t to e l e c t  representatives.  i t s three  To-day the L e g i s l a t i v e O o u n c i l i s composed  of twenty o f f i c i a l members, eleven e l e c t e d " u n o f i c i a l " , Europeans, 12.  (cont.) Prom Yearbook of Compared C o l o n i a l Documentation, B r u s s e l s , 1934, 404. Kenya: P o p u l a t i o n : 1932—Natives-3,007,645 Non-Natives: Europeans B r i t . Indians (Joans Arabs Others  March 1931 16,812 39,644 3,979 12,116 1,346  '  Dec. 1932 17,249 34,966 3,369 11,752 1,362  Prom H i l t o n Young Report, Cmd.3234, 1929, 25 Census 1926 Europeans 12,529 Native 2,549,300 Arabs 10,557 Br. Indians 26,759 ' Others 3,824  (estimated)  13. " u n o f f i c i a l " i s used i n Kenya as a noun. "Unofficial" members are those e l e c t e d by the s e t t l e r s as opposed to the Governor's appointees from the C o l o n i a l S e r v i c e , the "officials".  - 29 f i v e e l e c t e d Indians, one nominated and one e l e c t e d Arab and, g r e a t e s t anomaly of a l l ,  one C h r i s t i a n European m i s s i o n a r y ,  appointed by t h e Government, to r e p r e s e n t over three m i l l i o n natives. I t might be argued that, d e s p i t e the u n f a i r balance  i n f a v o u r of the Europeans, these " u n o f f i c i a l " members  are s t i l l  out-balanced  no great power.  by o f f i c i a l members and so r e a l l y have  Not so, f o r i t i s the boast o f the European  s e t t l e r s that t h e i r organization c a l l e d  the Convention o f  A s s o c i a t i o n s composed of the executives of a l l the European A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s has been c a l l e d ment".  the " S e t t l e r  E l s p e t h Huxley c a l l s the Convention  Parlia-  "the u n o f f i c i a l  parliament r e c o g n i z e d by Government as the organ o f g e n e r a l  L4 s e t t l e r o p i n i o n " . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n can b r i n g great  pressure  to bear on t h e Governor and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1923 C o l o n e l Wedgewood r e f e r r e d to the process by which the s e t t l e r s coerce 15 i n the House o f Commons.  the o f f i c i a l s  After a l l ,  munity o f a few thousands s e t amidst cans.  i n a speech  the Europeans a r e a comseveral millions of A f r i -  I t i s w i t h the whites t h a t the c i v i l servant must  d u r i n g h i s term o f s e r v i c e i n the colony.  live  The t h r e a t o f os-  t r a c i s m a t the hands of a community on the whole so j e a l o u s of any  l e a n i n g away from i t i n favour of the A f r i c a n s i s a very  r e a l one.  He must be a very s t r o n g man who dare face i t . Then,  i f thdss " c u t t i n g " f a i l s t o daunt the o f f i c i a l there i s always 14. Huxley, E., White Man's Country. London, 1935, V o l I, 262. 15.  167 H.. C. Debates 5S, 25 J u l y , 1923, C o l . 530.  - 30 a powerful lobby of Kenya s e t t l e r s w a i t i n g on the Secretary of 16 State i n London. It  Is f a r e a s i e r f o r a Governor t o bow t o t h e  wishes o f t h e u n o f f i c i a l members o f h i s E x e c u t i v e than i t i s f o r him to oppose them.  I n the l a s t year o r so Governor S i r  Joseph Byrne has a p p a r e n t l y p r o v i d e d the e x c e p t i o n to the rule.  I n t h i s p e r i o d , as we s h a l l s e e ) l a t e r on much reform  progress has taken p l a c e , But perhaps we can guess a t another p o s s i b l e explanation. Kenya.  World events seem to c a s t a shadow i n far-away  When M u s s o l i n i ' s troops oocupied E t h i o p i a the presence  of B r i t i s h ficance.  troops i n Kenya took f o r the s e t t l e r , a new s i g n i Since June o f 1936 there has been l i t t l e  v i g i l a n c e committees noticeable  on the part o f the s e t t l e r s .  that the speeches  t a l k of And i t i s  i n t h e B r i t i s h House o f Commons  of p r o - s e t t l e r members have become somewhat f a i r e r and t h a t the demands that such and such be done t o a i d the white community have been fewer. But i t i s more probable that the t a l k o f the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o l o n i e s has g i v e n the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e a new  determination.  In 1937 measures have passed the Kenya  L e g i s l a t u r e which would never have passed without d i r e c t C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o r d e r s ten years ago. With t h i s i n mind l e t  16. Norman Leys i n h i s L a s t Chance i n Kenya t e l l s the s t o r y of a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r who dared to oppose the d e s i r e s of the s e t t l e r s i n h i s d i s t r i c t . See Leys, EF. , op. c i t . , 99.  - 31 * us study b r i e f l y the. p o l i c i e s of the C o l o n i a l t h e i r c l a s h w i t h the aims of the s e t t l e r  Office  community.  and  - 32 (d). The Development o f the B r i t i s h Government s Native P o l i c y 1  The m i l i t a n t c h a r a c t e r of the white  community,  as we have seen, has g i v e n the s e t t l e r s i n f l u e n c e w i t h the administration disproportionate  to t h e i r numbers.  Whenever a  B r i t i s h Government has made a statement as regards policy,  that statement has contained  clauses meant to a l l a y the  Kenya s e t t l e r s ' f e a r s t h a t the Government white i n t e r e s t s and f a v o u r  native  intends  those of the A f r i c a n .  to n e g l e c t Not t h a t i t  i s a case o f the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e f e a r i n g t o o f f e n d the w h i t e s . The Government f e e l s  that, having been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  p o l i c y of white s e t t l e m e n t see  that the community's  to b e g i n w i t h ,  i t i s i t s duty to  i n t e r e s t s are cared  f o r . But t h i s  does n o t mean that the i n t e r e s t s of the A f r i c a n a r e to be secondary. and b l a c k  I t i s the core of the Dual P o l i c y that both white i n t e r e s t s are t o be f o s t e r e d .  The Europeans favour a  Dual P o l i c y but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y want the balance weighted i n their  favour. As the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee on C l o s e r Union  i n E a s t A f r i c a s a i d , the term " n a t i v e p o l i c y " has been g i v e n two d i s t i n c t meanings.  I t has been l o o s e l y used to express,  on the one hand, o b j e c t i v e s i n n a t i v e development and adminis17 tration,  and, on the other,  inter-racial relations.  reading the h i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n ' s o f f i c i a l n a t i v e s o f Kenya as expressed d u r i n g  Prom  p o l i c y towards the  the l a s t f i f t e e n  years,  one can see that the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n looks on 17. H. o f C  156, 1931.  V o l . I , 25  - 33 n a t i v e p o l i c y i n i t s wider  Light.  I t sees i t as a type of  government aiming towards a c e r t a i n goal of n a t i v e development. The  s e t t l e r and,  adopt  the view  i n f a c t , most w r i t e r s on the race  that n a t i v e p o l i c y i n Kenya i s a matter of  baLancing the i n t e r e s t s of black a g a i n s t white. reason the o f f i c i a l understood.  problem,  The  a t t i t u d e toward  That i s the  the n a t i v e has been mis-  s e t t l e r cannot understand  of t h e statements of B r i t i s h p o l i c y .  The  the wider a s p e c t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r sees  that n a t i v e poLicy i n Kenya i s not a matter of Kenya a l o n e . Its  funda^mentai  p r i n c i p L e s must be a p p l i c a b l e over a f a r  wider a r e a than one colony.  As the H i l t o n Young Commission  s a i d "•  'It i s not s a f e to allow p o l i c y i n Kenya to be framed r e g a r d l e s s of what i s being done i n Tanganyika and Uganda. I t should be framed f o r E a s t e r n A f r i c a as a whole. But more than t h i s , p o l i c y f o r E a s t e r n A f r i c a should be framed w i t h r e g a r d t o experience and p o l i c y i n a l l o t h e r t e r r i t o r i e s of A f r i c a . ^® The most important o f f i c i a l statements poLicy of the C o L o n i a l O f f i c e have appeared  of the  i n the Duke of  Devonshire's White Paper of 1923, Mr. Amery's White Paper o f 20 1927, and Lord P a s s f i e l d ' s "Memorandum on N a t i v e p o l i c y i n 21 East A f r i c a of 1930". 1  A r t i c l e 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations expressed the p r i n c i p l e which l i e s behind the p o l i c i e s expressed i n these Kenya White Papers  thus:  To those c o l o n i e s and t e r r i t o r i e s which as a consequence 18. 19. 20. 2L.  Cmd. Cmd. Cmd. Cmd.  3234 (1929) op. c i t . , 9. 1922, Indians i n Kenya 2904 3573 (L930)  - 34 of the l a t e war have ceased to be under t h e s o v e r e i g n t y of the S t a t e s which f o r m e r l y governed them and which are i n h a b i t e d by peoples not y e t able to stand by thems e l v e s under the strenuous c o n d i t i o n s of the modern world, there should be a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e that the w e l l - b e i n g and development o f such peoples form a sacred t r u s t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and t h a t s e c u r i t i e s f o r the performance of t h i s t r u s t should be embodied i n t h i s Covenant. T h i s statement of the p o s i t i o n  o f mandatory powers as t r u s t e e s  of the backward r a c e s was adopted by B r i t a i n as the credo of her c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The 1923 White Paper embodied  i t i n the d o c t r i n e of t h e parampuntcy o f n a t i v e "In the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Kenya H i s Majesty's gard  interests:  Government r e -  themselves as e x e r c i s i n g a t r u s t on b e h a l f o f the A f r i c a n  p o p u l a t i o n , and they a r e unable to delegate trust,  or share  this  the o b j e c t of which may be d e f i n e d as the p r o t e c t i o n and 22  advancement of the n a t i v e r a c e s . "  These d e c l a r a t i o n s may or  may not have been made to s i l e n c e  the clamour o f the Indians  of Kenya f o r more p o l i t i c a l v o i c e .  But f o r a time they d i d  s a t i s f y the I n d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s s i n c e they demonstrated that the white community was not going  to be favoured.  Even the  whites were f o r a time pleased w i t h these p o l i c i e s .  They  quieted the Indians and as long as the Government d i d not c a r r y them i n t o e f f e c t no harm could come to white i n t e r e s t s . The r e p o r t made by Mr. Ormsby-Gore s East A f r i c a 23 Commission i n 1925 recommended a dual p o l i c y of development. 1  22. Cmd. 1922 op. c i t . , 9. 23. Report o f t h e East A f r i c a Commission (Cmd. 2387); Presented b y t h e S e c r e t a r y of State f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament; A p r i l , 1925; h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as t h e Urmsby-Gore Commission Report or as Cmd. 2387. ;  - 35 The  Government was  at one  ment of both n a t i v e course, was  and  and  the same time to help  non-native communities.  e x a c t l y what the s e t t l e r s wanted.  demanded that such be  s t a t e d by the  the  develop-  T h i s , of The  government as  settlers official  policy. So Paper. 19E7 "At  As  i n 19E7  Mr.  Amery published  the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee of 1931 E4  Paper was  to be e a s i l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d .  p o i n t s out One  Section  this read  the same time they (His Majesty's Government) wish to  place on r e c o r d  t h e i r view that, w h i l e the  of t r u s t e e s h i p must f o r some c o n s i d e r a b l e on the agents of the  Imperial  responsibilities time r e s t mainly  Government, they d e s i r e to  s o c i a t e more c l o s e l y i n t h i s h i g h and who,  the Second White  as-  honourable task those  as c o l o n i s t s or r e s i d e n t s , have i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s E5  w i t h the p r o s p e r i t y of the country."  The  t h i s as an a l t e r a t i o n of p o l i c y .  1931  The  settlers  accepted  committee  points  out, however, t h a t t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s an expansion r a t h e r than an a l t e r a t i o n of the Duke of Devonshire p r i n c i p l e s . In a c t u a l p r a c t i s e a dual p o l i c y has t h i s has  been owing to the pressure  government, and  of the s e t t l e r s on  no  change.  B r i t a i n had  Cmd.  E904, 7.  responsible.  of t r u s t e e s h i p was no  concerned,  i n t e n t i o n of p a s s i n g  t r u s t , or any part of i t , over to the l o c a l 24. H. of C 156; op. c i t . ; V o l . I. 23. 25.  the  to the Government's r e c o g n i t i o n of the needs  as f a r as the o f f i c i a l poLicy  there was  though  been c a r r i e d on i n Kenya,  of the whites f o r whose coming to Kenya i t was But  So,  her  administration.  T h i s was  misunderstood by  - 36 the s e t t l e r s .  So when, i n 1930 26 memorandum on Native  Lord P a s s f i e l d issued h i s  P o l i o y i n whioh he r e f e r r e d back t o  L923 White Paper r a t h e r than to t h a t of 1927 he and h i s government favoured, The  s e t t l e r s looked  the  f o r the p o l i c y  he r a i s e d a storm of p r o t e s t .  on t h i s memorandum as c o n t a i n i n g a r e -  versal of p o l i c y . A l s o i n June 1930 White Paper (Cmd.  the Government published  3574) e n t i t l e d Statement of Conclusions  a of  His M a j e s t y s Government i n the u n i t e d Kingdom as Regards 27 1  C l o s e r Union i n East The aroused  Africa.  p u b l i c a t i o n o f these two White Papers  the s e t t l e r s .  They argued, l e d by Lord Delamere, that  the o u t l i n e d n a t i v e p o l i c y denied  the white s e t t l e r s  their  proper share i n the t r u s t e e s h i p of the n a t i v e s promised to them i n the 1927  White Paper.  But,  as f a r as o f f i c i a l l y  i s concerned the B r i t i s h Government has 26. Cmd, 3573 27.  declared native policy stuck to i t s  1923  Cmd. 3234 of the H i l t o n Young Commission, i n 1927, had s t a t e d the means by which the c l o s e r union of the c o l o n i e s i n East A f r i c a could be brought about. Opinion i n East , A f r i c a was against these c o n c l u s i o n s . S i r Samuel W i l s o n was sent out i n 1929 to sound p u b l i c o p i n i o n . He publ i s h e d h i s Report on October 4, 1929 i n which he s a i d o p i n i o n was swinging away from union of the dependencies but advocated l i k e the H i l t o n Young Commission a measure of c l o s e r f i s c a l union and the appointment of a High Commissioner. He was a l s o to be over the governors o f the East A f r i c a n dependencies as a c o o r d i n a t o r of p o l i c y . The Government c o n c l u s i o n s were p u b l i s h e d as Cmd. 3574 (see above) and s t a t e d the d e c i s i o n to put the q u e s t i o n of C l o s e r Union i n the hands of a P a r l i a m e n t a r y J o i n t S e l e c t Committee. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s committee were p u b l i s h e d as H. of C. 156.  - 37 decision.  The J o i n t S e l e c t Commltjee r e p o r t e d i n 1931.  The  Committee accepted the d o c t r i n e of paramountcy of n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s to mean "no more than that the  i n t e r e s t s of the  over-  whelming m a j o r i t y of the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n should not subordinated  to those of a m i n o r i t y b e l o n g i n g 28  however important  in itself."  the r e p o r t says, are not to  The  to another  i n t e r e s t s of the  be race,  whites,  to be n e g l e c t e d , but they are not  be h e l d o f more importance than those of the A f r i c a n . On,July  9, 1936  d u r i n g the annual  Colonial  O f f i c e E s t i m a t e s debate i n the House of Commons a very  impor-  tant d i s c u s s i o n took place on the s u b j e c t of the c a r r y i n g out of  the p r i n c i p l e s of t r u s t e e s h i p i n Kenya.  of  the duty of B r i t a i n ' s , I m p e r i a l duty,  of  o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l was  the speeches g i v e s one  The whole subjeot  of the Dual P o l i c y discussed.  and  Reading  great hope f o r the f u t u r e of the n a t i v e s .  For though the n a t i v e problem i n Kenya has so f a r , i n most r e s p e c t s , developed  from bad  to worse, one  that reform i s sure to come. of for  official  cannot h e l p f e e l i n g  There has been no d e c l a r a t i o n  p o l i c y i n Kenya f o r s i x years so i t i s worthwhile  us to c o n s i d e r some of the above debate. The speech of Mr.  of  S t a t e , i t mast be admitted,  to  the c r i t i c of the Dual P o l i c y .  Ormsby-Gore, the S e o r e t a r y  would not be very r e a s s u r i n g He s a i d , a f t e r  speaking  r a t h e r d i f f u s e l y i n favour of the d o c t r i n e ; "Let as be f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t i n the d u a l p o l i c y s t a n d s — t h e developing 28. H.  of C  the n a t i v e i n h i s own 156  policy  perof  area and the.European i n t h a t  op. c i t . V o l . I, 31.  - 38 area where s u c c e s s i v e B r i t i s h Governments have i n v i t e d him 29  to  t r y to make good i n very d i f f i c u l t  we  s h a l l see  l a t e r Mr.  circumstances.  Ormsby-Gore was  r e s e r v a t i o n of the Kenya highlands measure has been blocked  11  then f a v o u r i n g  But  the s t a t u t o r y  f o r Europeans only,  by adverse  as  This  criticism,  Other speakers i n t h i s debate however, showed that B r i t i s h o p i n i o n i s s t r o n g _ f o r curbing the ambitions of the s e t t L e r community.  While the S e c r e t a r y  harked back to the 1927  White Paper those of most of the  speakers a g a i n s t upon the note of ,In or of  1923  the Government's highlands  declarations.  Mr.  of State's speech other  p o l i c y were founded  deRothschild  s t r u c k the key-  the debate when he quoted Queen V i c t o r i a ' s promise t h a t : the eyes of the law there should not be any d i s t i n c t i o n d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n whatever founded upon mere d i s t i n c t i o n o r i g i n , language or c r e e d , 3 0  Another speaker, Mr.  Morgan Jones spoke thus of the Kenya  situation. I f we accept the concept of t r u s t e e s h i p i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t so to a d m i n i s t e r the e s t a t e , i f I may so c a l l i t , f o r t h e primary b e n e f i t of o u r s e l v e s or of oar own k i n and c o l o u r who may happen to r e s i d e i n those areas. The prime f u n c t i o n of a t r u s t e e i s to run the e s t a t e f o r the b e n e f i t of those to whom the estate be Longs, and not f o r the f r i e n d s of the f a m i l y of the t r u s t e e , I t i s to be hoped that men  with such o p i n i o n w i l l continue  c o n t r o l Kenya's d e s t i n y . -0-0-0-0-  2 9  «  314  H.  0. Debs.. 5s; 9 J u l y , 1936;  30.  Ibid; Col.  1416.  31.  Ibid; Col.  1426.  Col.  1531  to  CHAPTER I I H a t i v e s of Kenya  Changing  Africa  — - S o c i a l anthropology i n the new „  Kenya  Africa  ethnography  (a) the A n t h r o p o l o g i s t and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r ——Indirect  Rale, D i r e c t Rale  (b) The Mind of the A f r i c a n psychology of n a t i v e (c) How  p o l i c i e s are to be shaped t o these d i s c o v e r i e s  CHAPTER I I THE  NATIVES 0P KENYA :  "I t h i n k of A f r i c a and i n my mind's eye see enormous Lakes, h o r r i d expanses of dry scrub, s u r p r i s i n g mountains, L i t t l e v i l l a g e s of bee-hive huts, herds of zebra and antelope, taLL bLack men w i t h spears who do not t h i n k of h i d i n g the nakedness of t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n t bodies, laughing chocolate-coLoured women i n beads and s k i n s , the farms of LoneLy white s e t t L e r s and the goLf-courses and cLubs w i t h which they r e L i e v e t h e i r LoneLiness, L i t t L e schools f a r i n the bush where b l a c k c h i l d r e n l e a r n the magic of r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , whole t r a c t s of .country gone out of use because of tse tse f l y or t i c k , l a b o u r i o u s c u l t i v a t i o n that yet but s c r a t c h e s the face of the land, voLcanoes b i g and smaLL, strange saLine Lakes, r i f t s that s c a r the c o n t i n e n t ; I f e e l the wicked power of the e q u a t o r i a l sun and the e f f o r t and s t r a i n of a l t i t u d e ; I hear the d i s t a n t r e v e r b e r a t i o n of l i o n s r o a r i n g , the e a r - s p l i t t i n g n o i s e of the c i c a d a s and m o l e - c r i c k e t s , the n a t i v e drums at n i g h t where a dance i s being danced; I am conscious of the presence of l u r k i n g disease i n the a i r , e a r t h and water, a l l around, of the e x i s t e n c e of c r o c o d i l e s and beasts of prey and pachyderms, of A f r i c a n ways of human L i f e e n t i r e L y a L i e n from the ways of Europe; I am aware of change, i n v i s i b L e , o f t e n unwanted, s t e a L i n g i n upon the Land with white men and t h e i r ideas and i n v e n t i o n s — c a p i t a L i s m , C h r i s t i a n i t y , books and motor c a r s , s c i e n c e and cinemas, Law and cheap trade-goods." In t h i s paragraph J u l i a n Huxley i n t e g r a t e s a dozen or so of the impressions mind and  which h i s A f r i c a n tour have l e f t  upon h i s  p a i n t s a p i c t u r e which might r e a d i l y pass f o r Kenya  Colony. To understand we,  the problems of race i n A f r i c a ,  too, must be "aware of change";-change i n every phase of  L. Huxley, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View, P. 433, London; - 39 -  1931.  - 40 A f r i c a n L i f e . , I t i s necessary then to know something of the work of the s o c i a l a n t h r o p o L o g i s t . and  He i s concerned w i t h A f r i c a  the A f r i c a n s before the white men came.  Prom him we  the nature o f the o l d L i f e which i s undergoing  Learn  transmutation.  The a n t h r o p o L o g i s t has done some o f the most f a s c i n a t i n g work i n the f i e L d o f A f r i c a n s t u d i e s . combination  of h i s d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h the p o L i c i e s of the ad-  m i n i s t r a t o r s that wiLL eventuaLLy  lead to the emancipation of  the A f r i c a n i n a new type o f w e s t e r n i z e d s o c i e t y . any  It is a  interest  Heretofore  i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic foundations  of the indigenous c u l t u r e s o f A f r i c a has been aLmost p u r e l y academical.  People  t h i n k of anthropoLogy as a matter o f  cephaLic i n d i c e s , o f t r e a t i s e s on stone-implements, Like.  and the  But the day Is coming when a knowledge o f the methods  of t h i s s c i e n c e o f L i v i n g man wiLL be a necessary adjunct of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s t r a i n i n g .  And w i t h t h i s  trend has come  the r e a l i z a t i o n that the " A f r i c a n ways o f human L i f e a L i e n from of  entirely  the ways o f Europe" are not the unreasoned ways 2  "savages". The A f r i c a n c u l t u r e or c u l t u r e s a r e j u s t as  deepLy r o o t e d i n t r a d i t i o n as those o f Europe and a r e , i n f a c t , o f t e n of a more complicated and balanced p a t t e r n .  Oap  T  t a i n R a t t r a y , i n the J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y t e l L s o f Life  i n the ages before the European came, i n the e r a when  the famiLy,  the k i n d r e d group, the eLan, and the t r i b a L o r -  g a n i z a t i o n s were the bases of a l l s o c i e t y . 2. "savages"  i n the sense  " T h i s was the time  o f l a c k i n g a reasoned way of L i f e .  - 41 when indigenous (West) A f r i c a n c u l t u r e , law and r e l i g i o n were evolved  and f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  To understand t h i s  epoch,  w i t h i t s . . . . r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l l y graded and c o - o r d i n a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; i t s r e l i g i o n , which at f i r s t s i g h t might seem rank f e t i c h i s m ; i t s l e g a l codes, which might appear almost nonexistent;  i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n , which might  seem so elementary as  to be n e g l i g i b l e , r e q u i r e s almost a l i f e - t i m e of p a t i e n t  and  i n d e f a t i g a b l e study based on sympathy and understanding  ?•.  To the u n i n i t i a t e d  t h i s phase has always seemed to present 3 l i t t l e more than a p r i m i t i v e pagan s i m p l i c i t y ."  Knowing of the t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and customs 4 one can soon d i s c o v e r how r a t i o n a l are many of the t h i n g s that the Europeans have c o n s i d e r e d quite i r r a t i o n a l way  of l i v i n g .  The same knowledge, i f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e be  f u l l y r e a l i z e d , may our Western  o f t e n make one wonder whether,  i d e a s are as f a r i n advance  we have thought.  i n the negro's  after  all,  of those o f A f r i c a as  But that i s the a g e - o l d l e s s o n that has  been l e a r n e d by every " c i v i l i z i n g "  race that has ever t r i e d  to b r i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e to a race of a d i f f e r e n t , 5 assumedly lower, plane o f e x i s t e n c e .  and  3. R a t t r a y , Oapt. R.S., Present Tendencies i n A f r i c a n C o l o n i a l Government, J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , V o l . 33, Jan. 1934, P.26. ~ 4. That i s , a c c o r d i n g to our meaning of " r a t i o n a l " . 5. "The s t r u c t u r e of p r i m i t i v e t r i b a l s o c i e t y had i n i t s e l f much to be s a i d f o r i t , and as an experiment i n government must be c o n s i d e r e d a decided success i n i t s elementary degree. I t can be claimed that the system produced a community where crime was r a r e , pauperism and p a i d p r o s t i t u t i o n unknown, and drunkenness not a s e r i o u s e v i l ; where, under normal c o n d i t i o n s a l l were adequately f e d , c l o t h e d and housed, a c c o r d i n g to the p r i m i t i v e standards expected; and  - 42 It  can be seen t h a t , i n the a n t h r o p o L o g i c a l  approach to the study of the problems o f Kenya n a t i v e  adminis-  t r a t i o n , such a r b i t r a r y t h i n g s as the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of the colony do not r e a l l y mean much.  The n a t i v e s of Kenya and  t h e i r c u l t u r e should r a t h e r be c o n s i d e r e d i n p e r s p e c t i v e , a g a i n s t the whole background of Bantu and Negro c u l t u r e . F o r , w i t h v a r i a t i o n s , mainly  i n the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c a l  the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the Kenya t r i b e s are those all  over  development,  of t h e i r k i n d r e d  the southern h a l f o f the c o n t i n e n t . The accepted  African tribes i s s t i l l  a l i n g u i s t i c one.  chart o f A f r i c a i s s t i l l f i c a t i o n o f the peoples  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l grouping  too incomplete  o f the  The a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  to allow the c l a s s i -  o f the c o n t i n e n t a c c o r d i n g to l e s s  changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  So each of t h e terms Bushman,  H o t t e n t o t , Negro, Hamite, N i l o t e , o r Bantu r e f e r s to one o f the main l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s .  The true Hamites and H i l o t e s o f the  n o r t h , however, can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by p h y s i c a l appearance from t h e other peoples who i n h a b i t the southern h a l f o f A f r i c a . But East A f r i c a i s a r a c i a l m e l t i n g pot. is  peopled mainly  by Bantus.  The Bantu race, sprang  from t h e f u s i n g o f Negro and Hamite. g r e a t e s t o f A f r i c a n races developed g r e a t Lakes.  around the a r e a o f the  The s o - c a l l e d Bantu L i n e , the l i n e o f f a r t h e s t  t i n e n t through East A f r i c a .  AL.  originally  The language o f t h i s  n o r t h p e n e t r a t i o n o f the Hegro peoples,  5.  Kenya  runs a c r o s s the con-  In Kenya, the p a r t o f East A f r i c a  (cont.) where L i f e could be c a r r i e d on i n whoLesome and n a t u r a l circumstances." (Orde-Brown, Major G. S t . J . , The A f r i c a n Labourer. Oxford,.1933, 12. See SeLigman, Br. G.G.; The Races o f A f r i c a ; London; 1930.  - 43 olosest  to E t h i o p i a  the waves o f Hamitic and Bantu advance met.  So here are found both Bantu and H a m i t i c t r i b e s . combine f e a t u r e s o f both r a c e s .  As a r e s u l t  i n many ways, an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l museum. when I n d i r e c t  Some t r i b e s  the Colony i s ,  But i n these days-  Rule i s being developed throughout A f r i c a , Kenya  i s something o f a nightmare  f o r the administrator.  Por In-  d i r e c t Rule demands a knowledge o f t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Indirect Bantu.  Rule Tanganyika,  In  these i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e almost  So the a d m i n i s t r a t o r can make f r e e  purely  use o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  experience throughout most o f the southern h a l f o f A f r i c a . i n Kenya, f o r g e t t i n g  But  f o r t h e moment the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the  s e t t l e r community, the C o l o n i a l  O f f i c e must shape  Institutions  to s u i t the requirements o f t r i b e s which v a r y g r e a t l y i n characteristics. the  The Masai and the peoples r e l a t e d  Hamitic t r i b e s o f Kenya, have e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t  t o them, institutions  from the great Kikuyu o r Kavirondo t r i b e s who are pure Any  Indirect  Bantu.  Rule system e v o l v e d f o r Kenya would have t o s t a r t  from w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t beginnings and y e t aim to evolve a homogeneous n a t i v e s o c i e t y .  With t h i s task before them the Kenya  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must c e r t a i n l y r e q u i r e the a i d o f the s o c i a l anthropologist.  - 44 -  (a) The A n t h r o p o l o g i s t  and the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  The study of human c u l t u r e along the l i n e s f i r s t t r a c e d by P r o f e s s o r B. MaLinowski i n the f u n c t i o n a l theory o f anthropoLogy throws an e n t i r e l y new l i g h t on the problems of c o l o n i a l p o l i c y . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c u l t u r e as a mechanism o f c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s o c i a l needs, i n which every element i s l i n k e d w i t h and c o n d i t i o n e d by the r e s t , i m p l i e s the n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g more s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s of u n c i v i l i z e d people than has u s u a l l y been accorded i n the p a s t . 6  It  i s i n the work of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s  Institute  t h a t one f i n d s the modern  approach to t h e problems o f t h e A f r i c a n , i n whioh the f i n d i n g s of the new s c h o o l evolving  o f p r a c t i c a l anthropoLogy are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h 7  administrative  study some  methods.  The I n s t i t u t e aims too, to  of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the A f r i c a n , which, being  misunderstood, were branded f o r the d i s c a r d , native  life  e n t i r e l y o f f balance.  we may d i s c o v e r  why many A f r i c a n s  thus throwing  By examining t h e i r f i n d i n g s look on our c i v i l i z a t i o n as  a curse r a t h e r than a b l e s s i n g . D i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y the A f r i c a n i s being confronted w i t h European c i v i l i z a t i o n i n i t s most d i v e r s e aspects. He observes i t s v i r t u e s and i t s v i c e s , i t s energy, i t s f o r e t h o u g h t , i t s s e L f - c o n t r o L , i t s p e r s i s t e n c e , i t s zest f o r i n d i v i d u a L r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i t s l o y a l t i e s and d i s l o y a l t i e s to i t s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , i t s arrogance, i t s s t o l i d i t y , i t s hardness, i t s greed. He sees the church, 6. Lucy P. Mair; H a t i v e Problem i n A f r i c a ; London; 1936; 4. 7. See Westermann, D i e d r i c h ; The A f r i c a n To-day; London; H. M i l f o r d ; L934. Dr. Westermann i s a d i r e c t o r o f the I n s t i t u t e . The A f r i c a n To-day might be caLLed t h e handbook of the I n s t i t u t e ' s methods and shouLd be r e a d as background f o r any s t u d y aLong a n t h r o p o L o g i c a l Lines.  - 45 the s c h o o l , the race-course, the cinema, the g i n shop. He hears the multitude of d o c t r i n e s , aLL of them, h i g h or Low, aLike i n t h e i r conf'Lict with the t r a d i t i o n a l ideas which have h i t h e r t o r u l e d h i s L i f e . His mind Is s t i r r e d as i t has never been s t i r r e d b e f o r e i n the h i s t o r y o f h i s race. A n c i e n t custom i s no longer q u i t e so s a c r o s a n c t . He dreams new dreams of what he might make of h i s L i f e . And i n e v i t a b L y , these new ambitions, at any r a t e i n the young, are i m i t a t i v e . I t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s the o l d and the  the new  and  the mind of the A f r i c a n t h a t has  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s to attempt  African tradition.  They are  of western ways should  c l a s h between  not  led  to save what i s worth s a v i n g  convinced  of  that a s l a v i s h i m i t a t i o n  be f o s t e r e d and  are  i n hopes of  f i n d i n g the means by which can be b u i l t a d i s t i n c t i v e l y  Afri-  can c i v i l i z a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g the best f e a t u r e of the new  and  the o l d . In the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f i e l d  the  characteristic  B r i t i s h p o l i c y of I n d i r e c t RuLe--as opposed to the  philosophy  behind D i r e c t E u l e - - i s based on s i m i l a r reasoning.  True, i n  Kenya, w i t h  i t s reactionary s e t t l e r population,  I n d i r e c t Rule  p o l i c i e s have not advanced f u r t h e r than a statement of  the  paramountcy of n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and  local  native councils.  a strengthening  However, the reform  of  of the many abuses of  Kenya n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must come through I n d i r e c t Rule policies.  Huxley compares the n a t i v e s  Rule i n Tanganyika with  those not  l i v i n g under I n d i r e c t  so governed i n Kenya  and  says As a g a i n s t o r d e r l y development there, here you f e l t a makeshift s o c i a l l i f e that might colLapse i n t o reaL d i s o r d e r L i n e s s of e x i s t e n c e . As a g a i n s t a human 8. OoupLand, R. 168.  The  Empire i n These Days , ,;LWdon,  1955'  - 46 bond between b l a c k and white, you f e l t a r e l a t i o n was almost s o l e l y economic.^ I n d i r e c t Rule Is the p o l i c y which f i t s  that i n best  w i t h the p r a c t i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l .approach recommended by the I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s .  Prance,  with  her p o l i c y o f D i r e c t Rule, aims to make each n a t i v e i n t o a French c i t i z e n ,  to teach him to take h i s place as a b l a c k  Frenchman i n the Empire, mother country. for  r a t h e r than as a c o l o n i a l ward o f the  The D i r e c t Rule a d m i n i s t r a t o r has no concern  t h e guarding o f the c u l t u r e o f the A f r i c a n from the de-  structive that  i n f l u e n c e o f European c u l t u r e .  J u l i a n Huxley  says  there a r e two channels along which the C o l o n i a l powers  can guide the main stream of A f r i c a n l i f e . channels  i s that of I n d i r e c t Rule.  One of these  The other, that o f D i r e c t  Rule, he says, i s the channel of Economic Least R e s i s t a n c e which would a s s i m i l a t e the A f r i c a n peoples t o Western C i v i l i z a t i o n as an economic appendage, a new kind of p r o l e t a r i a t , b l a c k - s k i n n e d , and concerned w i t h raw m a t e r i a l s i n s t e a d of white-skinned and concerned w i t h manufacture. I t seems c l e a r t h a t unless a more d e l i b e r a t e attempt i s made t o organize n a t i v e s o c i e t y , i t w i l L not develop but simply c o l l a p s e i n contact with the powerful and c o r r o s i v e f o r c e s o f s u p r a - n a t i o n a l economics.''0  It and  i s to f i n d a b a s i s f o r such o r g a n i z a t i o n that the A f r i c a n the background o f h i s c u l t u r e are to-day the s u b j e c t of  so much r e s e a r c h .  9. Huxley, 10. Huxley;  J . op. c i t . , 145 i b i d ; , 129.  - 47 -  lb) The Mind o f the A f r i c a n I t i s a g r e a t mistake (and one made only too often) to assume that the word "backward", when a p p l i e d to the Bantu r a c e , or, i n f a c t to any race, i m p l i e s some fundamental mental d e f i c i e n c y .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l study i n recent years has  shown t h a t , there may  p o s s i b l y be some d i f f e r e n c e between  A f r i c a n thought and European. it  But i f such d i f f e r e n c e does 11  exist  i m p l i e s no i n f e r i o r i t y f o r the A f r i c a n . It  i s upon t h i s premise that much modern r e -  search has been b u i l t ;  that  the A f r i c a n thinks i n a manner d i f -  f e r e n t from ours and, hence that the c u l t u r e d e r i v e d from cent u r i e s of A f r i c a n reasoning, i r r a t i o n a l though i t may from a western point of view, need not be branded as  seem "savage".  As we have seen, i n Kenya, as i n the r e s t o f A f r i c a , the white man that,  has made the f a t a l mistake of assuming  because he cannot understand the A f r i c a n r e a c t i o n to  Europe an c i v i l i z a t i o n , the n a t i v e i s n e c e s s a r i l y o f i n f e r i o r mentality.  Perhaps, had s c i e n c e been i n a p o s i t i o n to d i s p r o v e  t h i s mistaken assumption, much t r o u b l e would have been avoided. 11. In the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Review a w r i t e r d e f i n e d c u l t u r e as "a reasoned way of l i v i n g " . So a."savage" would be a member of any race or people which l a c k s - s u c h a reasoned system, which posesses no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode Of e x i s t e n c e . I f we b e l i e v e w i t h many a u t h o r i t i e s , that the thought process of the European i s not the same as that of the "savage", t h i s i m p l i e s that more than one meaning can be g i v e n to the word "reason" and, at the same time to the phrase "a reasoned way of l i v i n g " . R i c k a r d , T. A.; G i l b e r t Malcolm Sproat, B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a , H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I . , Ho. 1 Jan. 1937, 25. ~" !  - 48 U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the A f r i c a n the p o s t u l a t i o n s of Jean-Jacques Rousseau on " l a beLLe sauvage" coloured the a t t i t u d e of Europeans i n A f r i c a u n t i L aLmost tury.  the present cen-  In f a c t one might say the i n f l u e n c e i s not dead y e t . Rousseau and h i s contemporary "Voltaire i n t h e i r  s a t i r e and c r i t i c i s m o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n were t y p i c a l of 12 the s o p h i s t i c a t e d thought o f t h e i r age.  l o them the c i v i l i z a t i o n  of the West had n o t h i n g i n i t worth while g i v i n g sauvage".  to " l a b e l l e  But the century that foiLowed was marked by the  great r e v o l u t i o n s i n s c i e n c e , i n i n d u s t r y and i n thought which led to a new p r i d e i n European c i v i l i z a t i o n .  low the f i e L d  was r e v e r s e d ; the things of Europe were things which must be g i v e n to the,"savage". .Lacking them he must always remain inferior  to the white.  now turned a g a i n s t  Thus the p o s t u l a t i o n s o f Rousseau were  the A f r i c a n who i n the eyes of the average  European came to be Looked on as i n h e r e n t l y i n f e r i o r . Kenya  s e t t l e r s beLieve, a p p a r e n t l y , i n the n a t i v e  Many  inability  to progress. Hot, of course, that any L o g i c a i t h i n k i n g could Lead to such a c o n c l u s i o n .  As a matter of f a c t , when one reads  of the most modern ideas of students of A f r i c a n thought and mentaLity, one i s s t r u c k by the s i m i l a r i t y of the modern premises to those of Rousseau. • mind  But any product o f a g r e a t man's  i s hound to be d i s t o r t e d i n the b r a i n s of l e s s e r men.  the backwardness  So  of the A f r i c a n has been considered as due to  12. see A l l i e r , Raoul; The Mind of the Savage; London; 1929; 6 on V o l t a i r e ' s E s s a i s u r l e s Moeurs which compares the. noble savage to the boor o f Europe.  - 49 h i s mental i n a b i l i t y ences of Europe.  to comprehend the great c i v i l i z i n g  influ-  What p o s s i b l e use could there be i n g i v i n g  such a race the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n ? r o l e was  to be the servant of the white man  His  i n a new white  Africa. Modern psychology has done much to change our ideas o f the c a p a c i t y of the A f r i c a n f o r p r o g r e s s , by i t s t h e o r i e s as to the nature of the negro's mental p r o c e s s e s . Some o f these t h e o r i e s are w e l l worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n . should be remembered t h a t least,  t h e i r c h i e f vaLue  But i t  l i e s , so f a r a t  i n the c o n c l u s i o n s that can be drawn from them r a t h e r  than i n the soundness o f the assumptions upon which they a r e based.  I t should be understood that i n the work of p s y c h o l o -  g i s t s i n the study of A f r i c a n thought no f i n a l i t y has attained.  been  The nature of psychology does not admit of i t .  So,  i f c e r t a i n ideas are presented which are not, perhaps i n accord w i t h the most modern trends i n t h i s changing " s c i e n c e " they are used s o l e l y because f o r our purposes they best f i t  the  f a c t s and expLain the d i f f e r e n c e between Europen and A f r i c a n thought. The d o c t r i n e s of Rousseau were accepted by a l l g r e a t s c h o l a r s up to the present c e n t u r y .  T h e i r main postu-  l a t i o n , i t must be kept i n mind, assumed t h a t there was  no  fundamental d i s p a r i t y between the minds of c i v i l i z e d and unc i v i l i z e d men.  I t was  "La b e l l e sauvage" was,  a q u e s t i o n of c u l t u r e and  development.  so to speak, the core around which  the appurtenances o f our c i v i l i z a t i o n were b u i l t . One  of the f i r s t men  to d i s p u t e these Rousseauian  -^60  assumptions was Sorbonne.  -  Professor Levy-Bruhl, a psychologist  Though h i s theory  of the A f r i c a n mind may  g e n e r a l l y accepted to-day at l e a s t i t awakened a and  scientific attitude.  Levy-Bruhl p o s t u l a t e d  at  the  not  be  questioning a fundamental  d i s t i n c t i o n between the thought process of c i v i l i z e d and c i v i l i z e d man;  such a d i s t i n c t i o n as might be assumed say  tween that of the Kenya n a t i v e and p l a i n e d the apparently saying  t h a t , i n any  i n d i v i d u a l was which belong  un-  the white s e t t l e r .  be-  He  ex-  i r r a t i o n a l a c t i o n of the A f r i c a n , by  uncivilized  s o c i e t y , the  thinking of  the  dominated by a system or set of mental images to that s o c i e t y or group and which are passed  to every i n d i v i d u a l member o f i t .  In the same way  as members of a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y i n h e r i t  that  on  we,  certain reactions  c e r t a i n things, j u s t so does the A f r i c a n i n h e r i t the s e t  to  of  dominant images which c o n d i t i o n h i s r e a c t i o n to a l l circumstances. But  the i n h e r i t e d r e a c t i o n s of the A f r i c a n are f a r more numerous  than those of the European and A f r i c a n shows no  s i g n of the  of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t .  So,  i f the  l o g i c a l thought process which i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f western c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h i s l a c k i s due some f a c t o r i n h i s mode of thought which does not European thought.  And  exist i n  the A f r i c a n mode i s c o n d i t i o n e d  i n h e r i t e d r e a c t i o n s and  to  by  these  images.  Of Levy-Bruhl's hypotheses i t i s s u f f i c i e n t keep i n mind t h a t : African. pean but  The  first;  negro may  be  they imply no  a d i f f e r e n t creature  need not be considered  an i n f e r i o r one.  v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n between the white and European mind, c h i l d and  inferiority  adult, being  to  f o r the  from the EuroThere i s a  the b l a c k mind,  the  d i f f e r e n t from those of  - 51 the A f r i c a n c h i l d and  the A f r i c a n a d u l t .  more important, Levy-Bruhl beliefs,  and  c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to the  perhaps  inherited  taboos, e t c . , which, i n t e g r a t e d , made the A f r i c a n seem,  to the u n d i s c e r n i n g white man,  an i n f e r i o r being.  Using as guides Dougall's f i n e monograph The we  Second:  can oroceed now  the views expressed  i n J.W.0. ..."  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A f r i c a n Thought  t o c o n s i d e r some o f the l a t e r developments IS  i n the study of A f r i c a n psychology, which have, i t might be s a i d , developed -from the controversy awakened by L e v y - B r u h l . The key to these developments i s the f a c t  certain  p s y c h o l o g i s t s have d i s c o v e r e d that i n the mind of the adult European are found v e s t i g e s of an i n h e r i t e d system of images and r e a c t i o n s .  I t i s s i m i l a r t o the one  of the negro.  So perhaps Levy-Bruhl's  that governs the  theory should be a l -  t e r e d to allow f o r some measure of h o r i z o n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n tween the minds of c i v i L i z e d and u n c i v i l i z e d man the v e r t i c a L d i v i s i o n he i n s i s t s on.  Life  be-  as w e l l as  Perhaps t h e i r minds are  b a s i c a L L y the same but d i f f e r when the c h i l d mind deveLops i n t o the a d u l t .  That i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modern view-  p o i n t t h a t DougaLl He  expLains. shows how  the work of P i a g e t , on the  thought  process of the European c h i L d can be worked i n t o the study of the A f r i c a n ' s mind.  The A f r i c a n , D o u g a l l says, owing to the  o p e r a t i o n of h i s c o l l e c t i v e ideas has a mind w i t h the f o l l o w i n g characteristics;  i t i s p r e l o g i c a l , m y s t i c a l , i n s e n s i b l e to  15. see D o u g a l l , J.W.C. ; The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A f r i c a n Thought;, London, 1932, , passiml Mr. Dougall Is" d i r e c t o r of the Jeanes School at Kabete, Kenya Colony. See Chapt. I l l ,  - 52 contradiction, Now  indisposed  -  to d i s c u r s i v e  P i a g e t ' s main work showed that  terized  the  these same f e a t u r e s  thought processes of the European c h i l d r e n  worked w i t h .  The  adults  any system of l o g i c .  lacked  them a l l was  14  thought or reasoning.  he  European c h i l d r e n , l i k e A f r i c a n c h i l d r e n 15 Another f e a t u r e  that  i t moved around them. 16  a common tendency towards animism. case o f the A f r i c a n , there was  Further,  Then too,  and  common to  e g o c e n t r i c i t y ; a l l thought they were the  of c r e a t i o n and  charac-  centre there  j u s t as i n  a common b e l i e f i n the  was  the  powers of  magic. The A f r i c a n s p i r i t world i s vague and dark and c o l d . I t s i n h a b i t a n t s would f a i n r e t u r n to sunLight and o l d f r i e n d s and are o f t e n heaxl or even f e l t i n the v i l l a g e at n i g h t , when a l e a f brushes past or boughs groan, or f l u t t e r i h g s and r u s t l i n g s are heard i n the wind. One can meet them too on mountain r i d g e s at dusk, f L i t t i n g behind the t r e e s and bushes, or p a t t e r i n g uncertainlyl i k e d r i v e n l e a v e s along the path. Most of a l l , perhaps, they frequent oaves, gorges and w a t e r f a l l s i n the h i l l s , remote from s o c i e t y 17 C o r r e l a t i n g the that the d i f f e r e n c e  above d i s c o v e r i e s ,  between the European a d u l t and  adult must be accounted f o r by 14.  some f a c t o r which i s  the  African  operative  see D o u g a l l , op. c i t . , 8 f f . a l s o note that these are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e n complained of by teachers, s e t t l e r s , administrators.  15. L o g i c : 16.  i t would seem  the g i f t of Greece to the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the West  The endowment of e v e r y t h i n g , c o n s c i o u s powers.  L i v i n g or inanimate, w i t h  L7. Leys, N., Kenya, London 1926, 68. lorman Leys, i s one of the many who r e f u s e to beLieve i n any d i f f e r e n t i a e of A f r i c a n mentality. He says that t h i s idea i s advanced by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and i s s e i z e d upon by those who want to keep the A f r i c a n i n h i s p l a c e . See a l s o Leys, H., A,Last Chance i n Kenya, Ch. IX, 101-23; passim.  - 52 on the European factor  o h i l d and not on the A f r i c a n c h i l d .  i s environment.  This  DougaLL, and here I do not know i f he  i s i n a c c o r d J w i t h accepted p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory or not, uses the theory o f the conscious and the subconscious mind. that the d i f f e r e n c e between the c h i l d and the adult is  that the l a t t e r ,  i n f l u e n c e d by h i s environment,  the conscious system of thought. by a reasoning and l o g i c a l power.  He says  European develops  T h i s system i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d I t i s developed to dominance  over h i s primary, o r subconscious system, which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the emotional r e a c t i o n s (as opposed to reasoned a c t i o n s ) o f a child. I t can be seen where t h i s leads us. a u t h o r i t i e s reason t h a t - - o r conclude t h a t —  These  the A f r i c a n mind  operates along the same l i n e s as that of the European  child.  The p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e f a i l s t o c o n t r i b u t e the environmental f a c t o r which s u p p l i e s the t r a n s i t i o n from c h i l d  to a d u l t i n the  case of the European.  the p r a c t i c a l  p o i n t o f view,  But, most important from  the A f r i c a n — i f European  c i v i l i z a t i o n can be  g i v e n t o him by means which w i l l n o t r e s u l t merely  i n apathy-  can undergo the t r a n s i t i o n which w i l l alLow him to take h i s p l a c e a l o n g s i d e the European.  I t i s a lesson f o r administra-  t o r s and educators a l l over A f r i c a that p a t i e n c e and a r e v i s e d approach  to A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n and the study of A f r i c a n  life  i s needed. With these developments behind i t , to-day's p r a c t i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t goes f a r deeper of the o l d academical type.  the work o f than d i d that  IJative customs and b e l i e f s  i n a new l i g h t when c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n s t t h i s background  appear of n a t i v e  - 54 thought.  The w i s h of the new  o l d A f r i c a from the  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s to  preserve  crushing power of Europe, not purely they  as - ..  a museum p i e c e but as i n s t i t u t i o n s worth preserving<aa^are^ symbols of a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of thought. and  customs are preserved  and  I f these  A f r i c a n c u l t u r e , a c u l t u r e which w i l l be On  traditions  j u d i c i o u s l y mixed w i t h Western  ideas, they w i l l become the backbone of a new  ¥or,  and  distinctly  a l i v e and  dynamic.  the other hand, i f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s allowed  c r u s h out  the autochthonous, the  and which i s indeed  static.  e s p e c i a l l y i n Kenya, w i l l Fortunately i t i s s t i l l  p o s s i b l e forrr.the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and the  a d m i n i s t r a t o r , working  hand i n hand through the p r i n c i p l e s o f I n d i r e c t Rule, t h i s new  to  i m i t a t i o n which w i l l f o l l o w  a l r e a d y going on,  make A f r i c a n l i f e empty and  th<av  to b u i l d  society. The,Kenya n a t i v e problem r e v e a l s the same  f e a t u r e s that have been e l a b o r a t e d  i n a g e n e r a l way  Here again are to be found the c l a s h o f two  civilizations.  In d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t , we each aspect  i n the  w i t h which i t has  above.  will  consider  l i g h t of the f e a t u r e of European c u l t u r e s clashed.  Thus, i f some A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n a l  custom i s found to c l a s h with the European p r a c t i s e , we  shall  c o n s i d e r i t i n our  labour  study of Kenya education.  t r a d i t i o n s are found to d i f f e r from those  of the European com-  munity they can be d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter Problem. Rutt  I f native  on Kenya's Labour  T h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s the method adopted by Brown and  i n t h e i r study  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems of  the  18  Wahehe t r i b e of Tanganyika. I t i s obvious that such a breaking .18. See Brown, G. Gordon and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce; London; 1935; passim.  - 55 up o f what, from the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view should bulked together as t h i s .  be  i s the only p o s s i b l e approach to a study such  The tendency i s to lose the p e r s p e c t i v e of A f r i c a n  c u l t u r e as a whole and to t h i n k that i t i s composed only of those f e a t u r e s which s t r i k e our a t t e n t i o n because of t h e i r marked c o n t r a s t to European customs. t h i s great e r r o r .  -0-0-0-  L e t us t r y to avoid  CHAPTER I I I H a t l v e E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya  (1) A f r i c a n  education i n general  aims u t i l i t a r i a n versus " L i t e r a r y " -African  education  ideas o f e d u c a t i o n  (£) M i s s i o n E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya history Government p o l i c y —--mission  towards m i s s i o n  education  schools  (3) , Government E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya -history (4) Types of education (5) Lower  offered  education  (6) The q u e s t i o n of the language of i n s t r u c t i o n (7) P r a c t i c a l (8) Higher (9) I n d i r e c t  training  education Rule and education  CHAPTER I I I NATIVE EDUCATION IN KENYA Caliban:  You taught me language; and my p r o f i t on't Is I know how to c u r s e ; the r e d plague r i d you For l e a r n i n g me your languageI Tempest A c t I . Sc. 2 I t i s e s s e n t i a l that the problems o f education  i n Kenya Colony be c o n s i d e r e d of race c o n t a c t s  in Africa.  i n the l i g h t of t h e whole  question  By t r a c i n g the attempts at r a i s i n g  the s t a t u s of t h e A f r i c a n by e d u c a t i o n a l  means, we can g a i n  a backdrop a g a i n s t which to set Kenya education,  and, by t h i s  means judge of i t s development. What a r e , or r a t h e r , what should of A f r i c a n education?  be, the aims  Lord Lugard says "The word i t s e l f , the  ' l e a d i n g f o r t h , the g u i d i n g of the e v o l u t i o n of p r i m i t i v e 1  peoples to higher  standards of l i f e ,  i s an epitome o f the  whole task o f the n a t i o n s which have assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1 f o r the backward r a c e s . "  A l l but a few of the most  selfish  white i n h a b i t a n t s of A f r i c a agree on the need f o r t h i s evolution.  Even the s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d admit that education f o r  the A f r i c a n i s a n e c e s s i t y , though they may a t the same time t h i n k that he must remain f o r e v e r the servant  of the white-  1. l o r d Lugard; Problems o f E q u a t o r i a l A f r i c a , J o u r n a l o f the Royal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , V o l . VI, J u l y 1927, ZW.  - 56  - 57 man  and h i s economic  •  civilization.  T h e i r aim i s , without  changing  his s o c i a l status,  to render the b l a c k more e f f i c i e n t by the d e l i b e r a t e r a i s i n g of h i s mental plane and to make him  consume more European goods,  .by r a i s i n g h i s standard of l i v i n g .  Ends i n view among the  whites  i n A f r i c a may  i s agreed  on:  standards  of l i f e .  thought  d i f f e r but t h i s g e n e r a l aim of  education  that i t i s to guide the n a t i v e s toward h i g h e r Otherwise there i s a wide divergence  on the aim of Europe i n A f r i c a .  t i o n or c i v i l i z a t i o n ?  Is i t to be  exploita-  T h i s q u e s t i o n , so r e l e v a n t to the  pose of c o l o n i e s as a whole and  of  pur-  one on which o p i n i o n s v a r y  g r e a t l y , must be a p p l i e d a l s o to the s u b j e c t of e d u c a t i o n .  Are  the i n t e r e s t s of the A f r i c a n to be paramount or i s the w h i t e man  to remain the master?  the d o c i l e acceptance  I s the A f r i c a n to be  educated  to  of an i n f e r i o r s t a t u s , e c o n o m i c a l l y  and  s o c i a l l y , or i s he to be t r a i n e d to take h i s p l a c e i n the community as the equal of other r a c e s ?  B a s i l Fletcher writes,  The c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , d i s c h a r g i n g h i s task i n the l i g h t of the h i g h e s t conceptions of c o l o n i a l government, has at h i s d i s p o s a l three f o r c e s w i t h which to determine the c h a r a c t e r of c o l o n i a l evolution. These three f o r c e s are e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and economic. Of these t h r e e , the f o r c e of e d u c a t i o n i s the one most w i t h i n h i s c o n t r o l . And  t h i s f o r c e can be used to f u r t h e r whichever European aim  gains ascendancy i n A f r i c a , So a man's views on A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n might be c o n s i d e r e d as the best m i r r o r of h i s views on A f r i c a n and p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n .  The  social  question resolves i t s e l f into a  2. F l e t c h e r , B a s i l A. E d u c a t i o n and C o l o n i a l Development, 'c, \ London, 1 9 3 6 ; 3.  - 58 c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the two main schools of thought upon A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l evolution:  the b e l i e v e r s i n I n d i r e c t Rule, and  advocates of i t s o p p o s i t e , D i r e c t Rule,  the  l u c y P. Mair w r i t e s  thus: In French t e r r i t o r y , the French language and l i t e r a t u r e , French h i s t o r y and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of French i n s t i t u t i o n s , a r e regarded as the most important s u b j e c t s of e d u c a t i o n . In E n g l i s h c o l o n i e s there has been l e s s i n s i s t e n c e on a spread of E n g l i s h c u l t u r e which would be i n c o n s i s t e n t both w i t h I n d i r e c t Rule and w i t h the p o l i c y of European s e t t l e m e n t . ^ As Miss Mair shows, the educator i n D i r e c t Rule c o l o n i e s  seeks  to t u r n h i s n a t i v e charges i n t o f e l l o w n a t i o n a l s of a d i f f e r e n t colour.  There i s no c a t e r i n g to r e a l or imagined  d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a c i a l m e n t a l i t y and no attempt  fundamental  t o save  worth-  while c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of n a t i v e c u l t u r e . E d u c a t i o n under I n d i r e c t Rule, however, i n the words of l . S . Amery, has, as i t s main p r i n c i p l e "that of g r a f t i n g our ideas and our c i v i l i z a t i o n onto the r o o t s t o e k s which we know can grow i n the s o i l and which we b e l i e v e have i n them 4 innate powers of r e s i s t e n c e and v i t a l i t y j " a p r i n c i p l e which i f we accept the d i c t a of the Phelps-Stokes Commissioners on E d u c a t i o n i n East A f r i c a , i s i n l i n e w i t h modern t r e n d s of educational theory. present-day thought  The Commission says  "The movement of  i s toward the r e c o g n i t i o n of the n a t i v e  q u a l i t i e s of a l l p e o p l e .  The element  of t r u t h i n the much-  d i s c u s s e d d o c t r i n e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s an e x p r e s s i o n of the demand f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of whatever i s worthwhile 3. M a i r , Lucy P.,  Native P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a , louden, 1936;  in 16..-  4. Amery, L;S., Problems and Development i n A f r i c a , J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , V o l . 28, J u l y 1929,328.  - 59 the customs and  5 l i f e of the people under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " In theory  at l e a s t , Amery's.idea of the  ideal  process of p r o g r e s s i v e  I n d i r e c t Rule, seems s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e  i t p l a c e s no o b s t a c l e s  i n the path of n a t i v e e v o l u t i o n .  p r a c t i c e , however, improperly  a d m i n i s t e r e d ^ e d u c a t i o n under  I n d i r e c t Rule can be r e a c t i o n a r y .  I t can tend to become s t a t i c  by too r i g i d an i n s i s t e n c e upon the f e a t u r e s of the thonous c i v i l i z a t i o n .  autoch-  I t s purpose should be to l e s s e n  the  f o r c e of the smashing blow of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , not render the A f r i c a n immune t o i t s i n f l u e n c e . a l a r g e body of r e a c t i o n a r y o p i n i o n , o f men i n economic g a i n at the  The  interested solely  One  a r e a c t i o n a r y group c o u l d t u r n to t h e i r own  advantage  has  can  nullify  the humanizing i n f l u e n c e of I n d i r e c t R u l e .  who  to  presence o f  expense of the n a t i v e , w i l l  f o l l o w i n g statement by a man  In  see  how  the  only humanitarian ends  i n view; In the i n t e r e s t s of the A f r i c a n we can hope f o r nothing b e t t e r than t h a t h i s land should remain a l a n d of farmers, and that w e l l - p o p u l a t e d farming v i l l a g e s w i t h a c u l t i v a t e d and p r o g r e s s i v e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be i t s c h i e f wealth. We should make i t our object to prevent the Negro from l o s i n g h i s joy i n a g r i c u l t u r e and a l s o to hinder the growth of a p r e j u d i c e that anybody who cannot get on at school i s good enough to be a farmer. The remedy f o r t h i s i s to show the N a t i v e s that a thorough t r a i n i n g i s not only advantageous but a l s o i n d i s p e n s i b l e f o r the farmer o f the f u t u r e . ^ It  i s on account of the d e l i b e r a t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n Kenya  Colony of such well-meaning w r i t i n g as t h i s that Dr. Norman 5. Report of Phelps-Stokes Commission E d u c a t i o n i n East A f r i c a , n.d. (1926) 9. 6. Westermann, D e i d r i c h , The A f r i c a n To-day,London 64. .  L934-  7 Leys and V i c t o r Murray doubt the value of Lord Lugard's p r i n c i p l e s of I n d i r e c t Rule as a p p l i e d to B r i t a i n ' s t r u s t e e s h i p i n that colony.  As Murray says  L o r d Lugard's p r i n c i p l e s have, i n the mouths of some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , become s h i b b o l e t h s and a convenient excuse f o r keeping out the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r y , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g the t r a d e r , the r a i l w a y and the p o s t - o f f i c e . I t (the system of I n d i r e c t Rule) has tended t o s t e r e o type the p o s i t i o n as i t was found i n the beginning, and to deprive a community o f the means of change which, i n the words of Burke, i s the means of i t s c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t has g i v e n o c c a s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y to the young E n g l i s h man to go abroad and p l a y the p a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h century country s q u i r e which changed times prevented him from doing i n England. I t has blocked advance i n e d u c a t i o n and has l e n t i t s e l f to a p o l i c y of 'good e d u c a t i o n f o r the sons of c h i e f s and a g r i c u l t u r e f o r a l l the r e s t ' . 8  When we  read the words of educated A f r i c a n s  such as t e s t i f i e d before the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee i n  1931  or t o l d t h e i r l i f e - ^ s t o r i e s i n Margery Perham's Ten A f r i c a n s (  e s p e c i a l l y M a r t i n Kyamba  ) we  l e a r n that the n a t i v e i s  eager, above a l l e l s e to g a i n e d u c a t i o n : not o n l y the t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n which w i l l render him e f f i c i e n t nomic s t r u g g l e under the new more l i t e r a r y forms.  utili-  i n the  eco-  system, but a l s o the h i g h e r  There i s a tendency to derogate  and  the  g i v i n g to the A f r i c a n of the type of e d u c a t i o n such as i s g i v e n to c h i l d r e n i n t h e schools of E n g l a n d — a n founded upon the d e s i r e f o r accumulative c r i t i c i s m may  education  knowledge.  This  depend e i t h e r on generous or on s e l f i s h motives  Westermann, o f course, b e l i e v e s i n the p e r p e t u a t i o n of n a t i v e c u l t u r e only i n order to keep a l i v e f o r the A f r i c a n something 7. See  School i n the. Bush  Toronto,  1929  8. Murray, A. V i c t o r , E d u c a t i o n under I n d i r e c t Rule, J . of A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , V o l . 34, J u l y 1935, 228. ; ~"  nationally distinctive. of the s c h o o l of s o c i a l 10  He,  and o t h e r s of h i s type, the  men 9 anthropology such as G. Gordon Brown  or R i c h a r d G. Thurnwald want to perpetuate the indigenous  cul-  t u r e s f o r the s o l e reason that they are the r o o t - s t o c k s neoes11 s a r y f o r the growth of I n d i r e c t Rule.  Bat the harsher  of t h i s p o l i c y say that the aim of such r u l e is n a t i v e progress and  only t o b l o c k  that a p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n can  serve no other purpose men who,  critics  than r e a c t i o n when c a r r i e d out by the  o f f i c i a l l y or u n o f f i c i a l l y ,  c o n t r o l Kenya's a f f a i r s  to-day. Bat of Indirect Rule.  this, after a l l , L o r d Lugard, we  of h o l d i n g up A f r i c a n p r o g r e s s .  i s not r e a l l y a may  criticism  assume, had no  intention  It is i n their misapplication  t h a t h i s p r i n c i p l e s are rendered weak.  As a matter o f f a c t ,  they have not been g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d i n Kenya because such a p p l i c a t i o n would demand a d m i n i s t r a t o r s u n i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r e s t s other than those of the A f r i c a n . It i s rather d i f f i c u l t how  the education L o r d Lugard  aims of I n d i r e c t Rule.  to understand  favours i s to work towards the  Perhaps there has been TOO much s t r e s s  put on the word " u t i L i t a r i a n " u n f a i r to attempt  at f i r s t  i n describing i t .  Perhaps it  to d e s c r i b e i t s p r i n c i p l e s so simply.  is  Let  as, t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g statement o f those 9. see: Brown and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce, Anthropology i n A c t i o n , London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1935. 10. see: Thurnwald, R.,0., B l a c k and,White i n E a s t A f r i c a . • London, Geo. Routledge and Sons, 1935. 11-. c f . :  L. S. Amery, supra. .58.  - 62 p r i n c i p l e s by Lord Lugard  himself.  He wrote  In the past, education has been c o n f i n e d , on the one hand to the s o - c a l l e d ' l i t e r a r y ' or class-room t u i t i o n of a small and c h i e f l y urban m i n o r i t y , on the model of the schools o f Europe, and g e n e r a l l y by means of the same text-books, abounding i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s and metaphors wholLy incomprehensible to t r o p i c a l r a c e s ; or a l t e r n a t i v e l y to the p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n i n s t r u c t i o n o f the workshop. Both have aimed at s u p p l y i n g the requirements o f a m a t e r i a l development--of c l e r k s and accountants, or of a r t i s a n s and s k i l l e d workmen. The l a r g e r c o n c e p t i o n of today, while not i g n o r i n g these necessary o b j e c t s , r e a l i z e s that the primary t a s k of education i s to r a i s e the standard of l i f e and the moral plane of the community, and not of the i n d i v i d u a l alone. I t r e c o g n i z e s that the advent of Europe i n A f r i c a must i n e v i t a b l y tend to break and to undermine the s a n c t i o n s which have h i t h e r t o cont r o l l e d the a c t i o n s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . These cont r o l l i n g f o r c e s may, no doubt, be contemptuously s t i g m a t i z e d as g r o s s s u p e r s t i t i o n s , but that i s o n l y to say t h a t they are based; e q u a l l y w i t h our own r e l i g i o u s conceptions, on a b e l i e f i n the supern a t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l . They a l s o have t h e i r r o o t s deep i n the conception of t r i b a l l o y a l t y . It i s , then, the task of education to s u b s t i t u t e a new code and to erect new land marks when the o l d are swept away by the incoming t i d e o f new conceptions. It w i l l h e l p to b r i d g e the chasm between the o l d and the new.12 There can be nothing r e a c t i o n a r y or s t a t i c system t r u l y f u l f i l l i n g  these  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  aims.  Some c r i t i c s of the p o l i c i e s of I n d i r e c t  Rule  say that they c a t e r to the b e L i e f that the A f r i c a n i s m e n t a l l y i n f e r i o r to the European. p o l i c i e s are to be judged  T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y t r u e , i f these by  t h e i r r e s u l t s i n c o l o n i e s such  as Kenya where the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n has a v o i c e i n t h e i r application.  But i t i s important  A f r i o a n method of thought does not  may  to note  that s a y i n g the  be d i f f e r e n t from the,European  imply t h a t the A f r i c a n m e n t a l i t y i s i n f e r i o r .  12, L o r d Lugard, l o o . c i t . ,  219  Though  - 63 one may  not  that was  accept i n d e t a i l much of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l work  touched on i n Chapter I I , i t i s f a i r ,  I t h i n k , to  p o s t u l a t e that, owing to the d i f f e r e n c e o f environment, the thought  of the A f r i c a n i s fundamentally  emotional w h i l e that  of the European i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e a s o n i n g a t t i t u d e *  The  r e j o i n d e r of the c r i t i c s of I n d i r e c t Rule would be, i t would seem, something l i k e t h i s :  the n a t i v e Is to be l e d t o emanci-  p a t i o n under the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the West.  But the main handi-  cap to h i s e v o l u t i o n i s h i s not having the environment t h a t f o s t e r s the necessary Western mental proccesses, why  then,  slow up h i s e v o l u t i o n by the f o r c e d c o n s e r v a t i o n o f those a n c i e n t customs and modes of e x i s t e n c e whioh made him what he is?  F o r these f e a t u r e s , passed on from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n ,  have gone i n t o the development of a c u l t u r e which r e q u i r e s no more f o r i t s maintenance than the i l l o g i c a l , unreasoning m e n t a l i t y of a c h i l d .  Why,  superstitious,  say the c r i t i c s ,  should  the A f r i c a n not be g i v e n h i s European e d u c a t i o n along the same l i n e s as the European c h i l d ? I t i s the European philosophy of education, which has made Western m e n t a l i t y what i t i s , so from the A f r i c a n . i s found Lugard  Smith's,  The answer seems to be f a i r l y obvious.  i n the l a s t sentence  and  different  of the q u o t a t i o n from L o r d  i s s t a t e d a l s o i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from E. 13  The Golden S t o o l .  W.  He speaks of the profound i n -  calculable t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s that are being so r a p i d l y i n A f r i c a and  It  produced  says;  13. Smith, E.W., P r e s s , 1930,  The Golden S t o o l , London, Edinburgh House 53.  -  6 4  -  I t i s the r e l a t i v e suddenness of the change t h a t i s so d i s t u r b i n g . But y e s t e r d a y , the vast m a j o r i t y of A f r i c a n s l i v e d i n a s e c l u d e d world as t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s had l i v e d b e f o r e them, w i t h the very dimmest n o t i o n s o f any more spacious u n i v e r s e . Now amongst them the e n e r g e t i c white man has f o r c e d h i s way, w i t h h i s r a i l w a y s and motor c a r s -. Ho wonder the A f r i c a n f e e l s that he i s being h u s t l e d . The pace i s too r a p i d . Changes t h a t normally take hundreds o f years are being brought about i n a g e n e r a t i o n . The A f r i c a n i s c a l l e d upon to take a p r o d i g i o u s l e a p out o f the p r e h i s t o r i c age Into the twentieth century. T h e r e i n l i e s the answer. the philosophy behind  The systems o f European education,  them, t h e minds that r e a c t t o them are  the product o f an age-long  evolution.  A f r i c a n c o u l d not be expected  I t i s obvious  t h a t the  to make i n a g e n e r a t i o n the  t r a n s i t i o n which the European took so many c e n t u r i e s to make. I t should be remembered too, i n the matter o f e d u c a t i o n , that the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A f r i c a had e v o l v e d no s y s t e m a t i z e d accumulative  e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e the advent o f Europe.  Afriean  c h i l d r e n underwent a course o f t r a i n i n g intended to h e l p them take t h e i r p l a c e among t h e i r f e l l o w s i n a p r i m i t i v e , unpro-r g r e s s i v e s o c i a l scheme.  There was no z e a l f o r l e a r n i n g as a  t h i n g o f value i n i t s e l f .  So I t can be seen t h a t t h e task  that  i s not merely that o f adapting  c o n f r o n t s the A f r i c a n  h i m s e l f t o a new e d u c a t i o n but a l s o that of l e a v i n g behind 1 4  h i s former  training i n traditions. The m a j o r i t y o f the A f r i c a n s are not y e t i n a  14. There i s a s t r i k i n g resemblance between the "savage" conc e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and that o f c e r t a i n t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s of to-day. The European c h i l d , l i k e the A f r i c a n . c h i l d , t h i n k s as an i n d i v i d u a l . The t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n of the A f r i c a n aimed a t changing the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c outlook of the c h i l d to t r a i n him to t h i n k as a member o f a group. The e d u c a t i o n of Europe s i n c e the Middle Ages has c e n t r e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l . But not so to-day i n I t a l y ,  - 65 p o s i t i o n to u t i l i z e a European e d u c a t i o n a l system. c e p t i o n must be made f o r that smalL percentage  An ex-  o f outstanding  negroes who have learned to put western education to i t s best uses.  But the vast m a j o r i t y must be g i v e n that e d u c a t i o n i n  some system compatible  with t h e i r methods o f thought.  T h i s can come o n l y from the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the educator w i t h the s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who has the key t o the problem o f A f r i c a n education.  The advice o f t h e anthro-  p o l o g i s t i s to develop a system o f e d u c a t i o n which w i l l  engraft  on n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n the r e a s o n i n g a t t i t u d e and the z e a l f o r l e a r n i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e European t r a i n i n g . A g a i n i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f a j u s t e miliea«  The  most that u t i l i t a r i a n i s m i n A f r i c a n education can do i s t o teach the b l a c k to take h i s p l a c e as an e f f i c i e n t u n i t i n a western economic s o c i e t y . too academic e d u c a t i o n w i l l f a i l that the A f r i c a n needs.  producing  A t the other extreme, a  to supply the t r a n s i t i o n  I f the A f r i c a n adopts i t a t a l l i t  can, a t best, tend o n l y to make him an i m i t a t i o n European, a being out o f p l a c e i n both white s o c i e t y and the s o c i e t y o f his  own r a c e from which he w i l l a l i e n a t e h i m s e l f . I t i s one o f the f i n e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  I n d i r e c t Kale t h a t i t regards the A f r i c a n as the possessor o f a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s own, not as a p r i m i t i v e savage, l a c k i n g any t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e .  The system o f e d u c a t i o n  which d e r i v e s from such an a t t i t u d e i s the one which p r o v i d e s b e s t f o r the f u t u r e o f the b l a o k and, e v e r y t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d , 14.  ( c o n t . ) Germany, R u s s i a . Once again Europe swings to e d u c a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  - 66 i s the one which g i v e s the most p r o m i s i n g and probable p i c t u r e of  t h i n g s to come.  I t shows the way  to a new  and r i c h A f r i c a n  c i v i l i z a t i o n , which w i l l not be j u s t a poor i m i t a t i o n of the European. the  F u r t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n Kenya Colony, i t c o u n t e r a c t s  A f r i c a n ' s growing r e a l i z a t i o n that he has been and i s  being economically e x p l o i t e d ,  by showing him that perhaps  B r i t a i n * 8 or Europe's alms i n A f r i c a a r e not s o l e l y  selfish  and greedy. In c o n s i d e r i n g the p a r t i c u l a r problem of n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya, we must remember that here the system of I n d i r e c t Rule has had no wide and s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n . concessions which  The  the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n has made to progres-  s i v e n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have been o n l y i n the nature o f sops to adverse c r i t i c i s m i n the Mother Country.  So, i n s a y i n g  that the I n d i r e c t . Rule E d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s may  b r i n g hope  to the Kenya n a t i v e , we must p o s t u l a t e e i t h e r the education of t h e Kenya European to h i s a c t u a l p o s i t i o n o r the i g n o r i n g by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f the s e t t l e r ' s demands that h i s i n t e r e s t s must supercede those o f t h e A f r i c a n . the  In t h i s  respect  h i s t o r y o f Western e d u c a t i o n f o r the A f r i c a n i n Kenya  Colony to date g i v e s l i t t l e change of h i s own  accord.  promise that the European w i l l I t w i l l be some time b e f o r e the  white s e t t l e r admits t h a t he w i l l not always be a member o f a s o c i e t y which, as Dr. Edgar Brookes wrote of white s b d i e t y In  South A f r i c a ; ?'has come to r e p r e s e n t that o f the Athens o f  P e r i c l e s — a n educated democracy,  r e s t i n g upon a f o u n d a t i o n  of what, when a l l h y p o c r i t i c a l p e r i p h r a s e s are swept away,  - 67 i s r e a l l y slave  15 labour." To the e f f o r t s o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s o f the  Christian  churches, n a t i v e education  a l l parts of A f r i c a ,  i n Kenya, as indeed i n  owes i t s b i r t h and i t s continued  In 1918, Ivlr."Quali" r e f e r r i n g  existence.  to the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f the  white community i n East A f r i c a wrote i n the Contemporary Review "let  i t be s a i d that t h e m i s s i o n a r y  i s the only one p a r t y that  has done i t s p a r t , and done i t thoroughly 16 l i m i t s of men and money  too, w i t h i n the  available."  F o l l o w i n g c l o s e upon the f o o t s t e p s o f Speke, Burtoua, L i v i n g s t o n e , S t a n l e y — t h e Central A f r i c a  men who opened East and  to Europe--came the m i s s i o n a r i e s .  when S t a n l e y l e f t  Zanzibar  In fact.,  i n 1874 f o r h i s three-year  trek  a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t , Bishop Steere was a l r e a d y a t work on the i s l a n d and a Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n had been b u i l t a t Bagamoyo, on the mainland. Christianity  teaching  to o l d Mutesa, f a r up i n Uganda, and u r g i n g the  Church M i s s i o n a r y Africans.  1875 found S t a n l e y  S o c i e t y i n England to do t h e i r duty by t h e  The c h a l l e n g e was q u i c k l y accepted  and i n A p r i l o f  1876  Alexander MacKay l e d the f i r s t B r i t i s h m i s s i o n a r y band  into  the h i n t e r l a n d o f East A f r i c a .  We a l l know o f the hard-  s h i p s that t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s o f a l l denominations underwent i n the years t h a t f o l l o w e d .  The death o f Bishop Hannington at  the hands o f Mwanga and h i s w a r r i o r s i s t y p i c a l o f the s p i r i t 15, Smith, op. c i t . , 55 c i t i n g Brookes, Dr. Edgar, Economic Aspects o f the N a t i v e Problem, South A f r i c a n J o u r n a l o f Science, V o l . x x i , Nov. 1924. 16.'! Quali",The Natives . 1918,. 459.  of E. A f r i c a . Contemporary Review, Vol.113,  - 68 of these e a r l y m i s s i o n s . t y p i c a l than was  the war  But u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s no more between the f o l l o w e r s of the  C h r i s t i a n s e c t s which the then C a p t a i n Lugard was to s e t t l e .  different  c a l l e d upon  I t i s t h i s u n c h r i s t i a n s e c t a r i a n wrangling  which  has been the drawback of missions and m i s s i o n e d u c a t i o n i n East A f r i c a .  Moreover, the m i s s i o n a r i e s f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e f f e c t o f European c o n t a c t s upon A f r i c a n institutions.  Too  o f t e n they i n s i s t e d r i g i d l y upon the immedi-  ate a b o l i t i o n of such t h i n g s as i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s , etc.  I t i s to a l l these mistakes  polygamy,  t h a t Norman Leys and  others  l a y the r a p i d spread o f Islam i n Kenya and the f e e l i n g of some a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h a t the Moslem f a i t h i s more s u i t a b l e to A f r i c a n needs than i s the And  Christian,  y e t , u n t i l very recent y e a r s , the  o f f e r e d by the missions was can.  Even now  education  the o n l y one a v a i l a b l e t o t h e A f r i -  i n Kenya, i t i s the avowed p o l i c y of the  govern-  ment, to l e a v e the e d u c a t i o n of the mass of the n a t i v e s i n the hands of the church s c h o o l s . establishments public  schools.  I t i s cheaper t o s u b s i d i z e these  than i t i s to b u i l d up a system o f state-owned The p o l i c y was  o f f i c i a l l y s t a t e d i n 1919  in  the Report  of the E d u c a t i o n a l Commission of the East A f r i c a 17 P r o t e c t o r a t e . The r e p o r t s t a t e d ; A mass of evidence has been taken from m i s s i o n a r i e s and others on the q u e s t i o n of Native e d u c a t i o n , and the c o n c l u s i o n a r r i v e d at by the Commission i s that the best method of f u r t h e r i n g education among the Native p o p u l a t i o n , apart from the Coast Mohammedan N a t i v e i s by means of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n which a l r e a d y e x i s t s among the v a r i o u s missionary b o d i e s . I f the e d u c a t i o n of the. Natives i s l e f t , as the 17, t h i s was  the year p r e v i o u s to the founding  of Kenya  Colony.  - 69 Commission suggests, to the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s at work i n the m i s s i o n f i e l d , i t i s obvious t h a t Government must a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g the necessaryfunds, and having done t h a t , I t must take steps by i n s p e c t i o n and advice to see t h a t the money i s p r o p e r l y a p p l i e d or r a t h e r that i t i s g e t t i n g good value f o r i t , and, more important s t i l l , that the education i s sound and on the r i g h t l i n e s . For e d u c a t i o n to be sound i t w i l l be necessary to t r a i n teachers. T h i s i s now being done by m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , and should be so developed t h a t i n s t e a d of b e i n g taught to read and w r i t e by the most p r i m i t i v e methods, the Native should be educated, i n the c o r r e c t sense of the term, whether i t be i n a secondary s c h o o l or i n a v i l l a g e s c h o o l . The Commission l a y s great s t r e s s on the c r e a t i o n of e f f i c i e n t normal s c h o o l s . *° These paragraphs s t a t e , i n g e n e r a l , the  outlook  of the Kenya Government towards the e d u c a t i o n o f i t s n a t i v e wards.  The  extent to which Government a c t u a l l y took r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t y upon i t s e l f has  increased.  Perhaps i t was  the a f f a i r s of the c o l o n y became matters t e r e s t w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of the 1923 counted  f o r the i n c r e a s e .  the f a c t that  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n White Paper t h a t ac-  The White Paper made the n o t a b l e  pronounc eme nt t h a t , There can be no room f o r doubt t h a t i t i s the m i s s i o n of Great B r i t a i n t o work f o r the t r a i n i n g and education of the A f r i c a n s towards a h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and economic l e v e l than t h a t which they had reached when the Crown assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the administ r a t i o n of t h i s t e r r i t o r y . At present s p e c i a l cons i d e r a t i o n i s being g i v e n to economic development i n the N a t i v e Reserves and, w i t h i n l i m i t s imposed by the f i n a n c e s of the Colony, a l l that i s p o s s i b l e f o r the advancement and development of the A f r i c a n s , both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the Native Reserves w i l l be done.- -^ 1  T h i s was owing to her new  p o s i t i o n as a mandatory power v/as f i n d i n g  18. Phelp-Stokes Report, composition. 19. Cmd.  the d e c l a r a t i o n of a Government which  -S£34-,( 1922,) 10.  op. c i t . ,  116.  her  I make no c l a i m to the  - 70  -  C o l o n i a l a f f a i r s under the s c r u t i n y of the world.  This  the most t a n g i b l e statement of the manner i n which the n a t i o n was  going  t h a t , as u s u a l , by  to p r o t e c t n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s . the s a f e g u a r d i n g  " w i t h i n the  the f i n a n c e s of the Colony" had  declaration.  B r i t a i n had  was trustee  I t i s too  limits  bad  imposed  to be i n c l u d e d i n the  d e c l a r e d that i t was  that her c o l o n i a l t r u s t should be administered  her p o l i c y up to  the  standards demanded of the mandatory powers by the Covenant of the League of Nations. out  It is a f a i r  criticism  that t h i s r e g u l a t i n g of c o l o n i a l e d u c a t i o n a l  according  to p o i n t expenditures  to the f i n a n c e s of each i n d i v i d u a l colony  compatible w i t h  the attainment of such standards.  is inThis  u n i f i c a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the backward races the Empire i s the g r e a t e s t duty t h a t the C o l o n i a L  of  office  can  perform. The  handling  of the finances" shouldobe  concern of the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y .  the  Such c e n t r a l i z a t i o n need  not be s t u l t i f y i n g s i n c e the standard  of c o l o n i a l  education  which would be e s t a b l i s h e d need not be too s t a n d a r d i z e d .  The  c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y c o u l d d i s t r i b u t e the monies p a i d i n t o i t by the n a t i v e s of the Empire a c c o r d i n g p o p u l a t i o n of each colony; could apportion needs.  the  to the numbers of the  the l o c a l education  officials  t r a i n i n g g i v e n t h e i r charges to the .  In Kenya much of the funds intended education  Natives'  or other n a t i v e w e l f a r e  to the white s e t t l e r s .  The  work has  f o r native  been s i d e - t r a c k e d  i n f l u e n c e of the s e t t l e r  organl-  z a t i o n s , a g a i n , upon the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the matter of the expenditure  of l o c a l funds t h a t has t h r o t t l e d n a t i v e p r o g r e s s .  I f the tax-money p a i d by the n a t i v e s was  administered  independent fund the n a t i v e might get a f a i r d e a l . say more of the a c t u a l expenditures it  from an  But we  i n Kenya l a t e r .  shall  Meanwhile  should be remembered i n c o n s i d e r i n g Kenya's n a t i v e edu- .  c a t i o n a l system, that only a p i t i f u l l y colony's funds goes to the support  small f r a c t i o n o f the  o f the system.  The Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y and the Church of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n have, i n the p a s t , shouldered burden of Kenya n a t i v e education.  The  most o f the  o p e r a t i o n s of the former  are c a r r i e d on over a much wider a r e a than a r e those latter.  But t h i s d i s p a r i t y i s due  of the  to a d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i c y .  The  Church of S c o t l a n d , w i t h the end  has  t r i e d to concentrate  i n view of thoroughness  i t s a c t i v i t i e s and has  s e l f mainly w i t h work among the Kikuyu t r i b e .  concerned i t A third  Christian  denomination, the S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s , c a r r i e s on a greaf work among the Kavirondo.  Another, the A f r i c a Inland M i s s i o n ,  attends to ten s t a t i o n s , seven among the Ukamba and among the  three  Kikuyu. In a d d i t i o n to these f o u r l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  there are seven other P r o t e s t a n t b o d i e s  i n Kenya.  c a r r i e d on i n the C o a s t a l P r o v i n c e by the U n i t e d Mission. has  The  V/ork i s Methodist  Gospel M i s s i o n , an American o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l s o  three s t a t i o n s i n t h e Kikuyu P r o v i n c e .  Another  powerful  American o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Seventh Day A d v e n t i s t , works from f i v e c e n t r e s down near the Tanganyika border.  Finally, several  independent P r o t e s t a n t groups work among the Kavirondo;  namely,  - 1\a_  fO  in  Jl  2  §  ?  <4 i  1  5?  i* i  0  0  (/I  cr  T •• r  <r  0  1  z  iff  0  >  •5 ^  Ui  ai  i 2  at  aJ 2  U i  * (/»  cfe  fi  &  U  cr*  r  T  or  rt  < / ) «> -0 D  1  ci )<  V  O  0  t"  a  0  0"  i j  J» td r*  <  *  cr  1  J  i  c  i  J  O -0  0  j <*  ° m  fc>  rf>  rfl  in  o»  «r  ^»  V  0  6 o»  cr  I  "  —  o 0  Po  %i £ c-  r—  C\<  C<  9 i 0  II  i  a i.  o— LD  •  rf>  2T  M  s  ^ J» 9  in 0 \n  -  cr j  i!  *H  -+6  ^  >  !T  £** .  i  f in  2  Year  Uoi "•; E  P r i v a t e Sohoola  i n Kenya  ( O h i e f l y Church  Schools)  o f Schools H  - i  Ho. of. S c h o l a r s E  . H - E  Ho. o f Schools State-aided  H onState-aided  • •  1931  j  1932  11  2313  317  99,030  13  1326  452  74,762  15  1537  526  94,346  286  T |-  I  1087  i  299  |  i  I  V  £  2038  1  252 1933  I  Empire P a r l i a m e n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Beport. 1 9 3 3 ; 5 7  1253  - 72 the A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , the N i l o t i c M i s s i o n , and  the Lumbwa  I n d u s t r i a l M i s s i o n , a l l run hy able American workers* Besides these P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n s , tant Roman C a t h o l i c missions years.  The  three  impor-  have worked i n Kenya f o r many  French Order of the Holy Ghost c a r r i e s on a wide-  spread work around Mombasa, i n Tanaland, and among the Ukamba* The  I t a l i a n C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n has f i f t e e n s t a t i o n s among the  Kikuyu, the l a r g e s t being at N y e r i .  The  S t . Joseph's F o r e i g n  M i s s i o n S o c i e t y or the M i l l H i l l M i s s i o n which was i n the Uganda, but has worked i n .Kenya s i n c e 1903 Kavirondo P r o v i n c e was  organized when the  annexed, c a r r i e d on an important  tech-  n i c a l education work at Kakamega, the c e n t r e o f the new  gold  mining a r e a of Kenya. P r i o r to the Great  War  East A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e took l i t t l e cation.  Almost the s o l e departure  i n 1913  when a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l was  the same time a grant was for  each indentured n a t i v e  the Government of the i n Native  Edu-  from t h i s p o l i c y was  made  authorized  interest  founded at Machakos. to the m i s s i o n  schools  apprentice.  Between t h i s year and  1924,  there was  n a t i v e education except the f i n d i n g s of the 1919 and  At  the v a r i o u s d e c l a r a t i o n s of the 1923  little  in  Commission  White Paper.  In  1924,  however, the f i n d i n g s of the E d u c a t i o n a l Commission were worked i n t o an Education present  Ordinance which c r e a t e d  day n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n  the mechanism o f  i n the Colony.  As recommended by  the Commission the r e l a t i o n between m i s s i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t was  made c l e a r and,  government  f u r t h e r , a new  A d v i s o r y Committee w i t h v a r i o u s s u b s i d i a r y d i s t r i c t  Central committees  - 73 was  provided  for,These  l a t t e r committees were to be  comprised  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the v a r i o u s L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l s , of European o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as o f c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s were nominees of the Government.  I t should be n o t i c e d t h a t ,  as u s u a l , the s e t t l e r community was One  wonders why  g i v e n a powerful  the whites s h o u l d be  these c o u n c i l s .  who  voice.  represented at a l l on  Even i f the education of the c h i l d r e n o f  L o c a l Europeans were i n the hands o f the  same committees  s e t t l e r s would not deserve as much v o i c e as they have. such i s the way  the But  of t h i n g s i n Kenya. S u r e l y the f a i r  education  the  t h i n g to do would be to make the  of the b l a c k c h i l d r e n , through a proper  L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l s such as t h r i v e s i n other  non-settlement  c o l o n i e s , the concern of the A f r i c a n s themselves. Europeans, w i t h support  system of  Let  the  from the Government i n the r a t i o of t h e i r  c o n t r i b u t i o n to Kenya's f i n a n c e s , concern themselves s o l e l y w i t h t h e i r own  e d u c a t i o n a l problems.  T h i s would seem the  l o g i c a l outcome i f the p l a n , adopted i n 1926, community i n Kenya pay  f o r i t s own  of l e t t i n g ' e a c h  e d u c a t i o n were r e a l l y  fol-  lowed. I f a l l - s e t t l e r s were of the  stamp t h a t wins  the r e s p e c t of the A f r i c a n t h e r e would c e r t a i n l y be no j e c t i o n to a strong s e t t l e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Committees.  But  ob-  District  such a statement need h a r d l y be made, s i n c e ,  i f the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n of any c o l o n y were u n s e l f i s h and awake to t h e i r p o s i t i o n there would be no r a c e problem such as that i n Kenya to-day. But  something now  of the f a c i l i t i e s  provided  - 74 f o r n a t i v e education and of the  c u r r i c u l a used.  As has  heen  s a i d , t h i s education i s o f two  main t y p e s ; church  and government e d u c a t i o n .  i n c r e a s e i n the l a t t e r form  The  education  should not he taken to imply that the missions a r e r e l a x i n g . i n their-work; f a r from i t .  Church schools to-day,  however,  are i n some ways d i f f e r e n t from what they were before This i s due  1924.  to the measure of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n that came w i t h  the acceptance  hy many church s c h o o l s of government  subsidy.  R i c h a r d C. Thurnwald c o n s i d e r s e d u c a t i o n i n East A f r i c a under the headings; 20  lower  t r a i n i n g and higher e d u c a t i o n .  There i s no reason why  grouping  education,  practical this  should not be used f o r our purposes here. Under the heading  of lower  education comes the  t r a i n i n g g i v e n by the three most common types o f . s c h o o l s i n East A f r i c a :  "bush", " v i l l a g e " and  "tribal".  Under the  second category come, f i r s t , the famous Jeanes School at Kabete, near N a i r o b i , and s e c o n d l y ! the v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which t r a i n the n a t i v e i n a g r i c u l t u r e , and h a n d i c r a f t s , education:  lastly,  come the i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r  the C e n t r a l Schools, as they are c a l l e d , and  great A l l i a n c e High School a t I t seems to me m i s s i o n i n Kenya i s concerned, e f f o r t put  trades  the  Kikuyu. t h a t , i n s o f a r as B r i t a i n ' s the amount of money and  i n t o g i v i n g the system of elementary  of  e d u c a t i o n that  the n a t i v e s need must be considered as by f a r the g r e a t e s t t e s t of humanitarian 20,  motives.  Thurnwald, R i c h a r d C ,  I t i s a good t h i n g to assure  op. c i t . , Chapt. VI, passim.  - 75 f a c i l i t i e s f o r h i g h e r education to the s m a l l percentage A f r i c a n s who  of  are a b l e to a f f o r d i t , hut i t i s a f a r g r e a t e r  o b j e c t to b r i n g European e d u c a t i o n , even the most forms of i t , to the masses of the  elementary-  people.  It must be remembered t h a t , as t h i n g s stand t o day, the A f r i c a n boy who  goes i n f o r higher education, or even,  as w i l l be seen, f o r c e r t a i n types of t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , i s . a l i e n a t i n g h i m s e l f from h i s t r i b e .  He  cannot be expected  to  r e t u r n to h i s home on the r e s e r v e i n order to take h i s wonted place i n t r i b a l  society.  For h i s European e d u c a t i o n i s , as  a l r e a d y shown, something e n t i r e l y a l i e n to the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n . As  i t i s , h i g h e r education i s a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g f a c t o r " i n n a t i v e  l i f e and, of  more important,  Indirect  one which works a g a i n s t the p r i n c i p l e s  Rule. The f i r s t  t h i n g t h a t the European educator  Kenya must do i s to d e v i s e the proper c u r r i c u l a f o r  in  elementary  education aimed at b r i d g i n g the gap between the A f r i c a n  and  the European c o n c e p t i o n s . The m i s s i o n s were i n a p o s i t i o n , t o a c e r t a i n extent, to supply the needed t r a n s i t i o n .  I t can, I suppose,  be assumed that the primary aim of the m i s s i o n a r y , when he founds s c h o o l s f o r the A f r i c a n ,  i s the p r e p a r a t i o n of n a t i v e  converts f o r baptism and f o r t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e i n a C h r i s t i a n community.  M i s s i o n education i s an education based upon a  system of m o r a l i t y and,  as such, has  common w i t h the A f r i c a n c o n c e p t i o n s . e d u c a t i o n i n East A f r i c a ,  certain features i n In the e a r l y days o f  the m i s s i o n a r y approach was  probably  the only p o s s i b l e one which c o u l d bridge the gap between the  - 76 o l d and the new.  But as i n c r e a s i n g r a c i a l c o n t a c t s s t i r r e d the  A f r i c a n to a d e s i r e f o r education o f a d i f f e r e n t s o r t from what the missions c o u l d g i v e , the government was c a l l e d on t o supplyit,  At f i r s t government expenditures were mostly  f i e l d s and f o r a chosen few among the A f r i c a n s . effort  i n the f i e l d  of lower e d u c a t i o n has begun  i n the higher But government throughout  East A f r i c a though, i n Kenya, as y e t i t has reached  only  piti-  f u l l y small proportions. So, i n the f i e l d the two d i s t i n c t  of lower education, there are  types of s c h o o l :  the ''hush s c h o o l " r u n by  the missions and the " v i l l a g e s c h o o l " run by the government. The  t r i b a l s c h o o l , a t h i r d , yet not so d i s t i n c t , type i s the  e n t e r p r i s e of the l o c a l n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i s c o n t r o l l e d by the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r and the l e a d e r s o f the l o c a l N a t i v e Council.  The b u i l d i n g of these t r i b a l schools a l l over East  A f r i c a i s one o f the s u r e s t s i g n s of the progress of the A f r i c a n and of h i s demand f o r education, a demand which i s so great that he i s w i l l i n g to pay- f o r these schools over and above h i s a l r e a d y heavy t a x a t i o n .  In 1931 the l o c a l Native C o u n c i l s 21  voted £17,000 of t h e i r funds to e d u c a t i o n ,  R e f e r r i n g to the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the vote, Lord Moyne quotes the D i r e c t o r o f Education of Kenya who s a i d i n 1931 The A f r i c a n p o s i t i o n i s v/orst of a l l . The demands f o r education are i n s i s t e n t . The need f o r meeting these demands was never more urgent. This service should not be allowed to s u f f e r e s p e c i a l l y when the shortage of revenue i s l i k e l y , i n the main, to be a shortage 22 of revenue d e r i v e d from Europeans and not from A f r i c a n s . 21. Cmd. 4093, C e r t a i n Questions 1932, Appendix 8, 115. 22. i b i d . , 30.  i n Kenya, Lord Moyne  Report,  - 77 For, the f i r s t of  t h i n g the Government d i d when i t f e l t  the d e p r e s s i o n was  the  pinch  to cut down the estimates f o r n a t i v e  services. The n a t i v e education of Kenya i s graded two  Substandards, as they are c a l l e d , and  the manner of the E n g l i s h form system.  into  s i x Standards,  The  two  in  Substandards  aim at a c q u a i n t i n g the n a t i v e w i t h the strange l i f e under the European e d u c a t i o n a l system. k i n d e r g a r t e n years  These two  i n that they serve as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to  the education t h a t i s to come. One  and Two  years might be termed  are taken  the bush, v i l l a g e and  The  Substandards and  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f lower  Standards  education,  t r i b a l schools.  Yet there i s a fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n between the bush s c h o o l and i n sponsor.  the v i l l a g e  s c h o o l apart from d i f f e r e n c e  In the l a t t e r t h e r e i s a much more r i g o u r o u s i n -  s i s t e n c e t h a t each p u p i l conform to a s t i f f programme of studies.  The  church  schools boast t h a t t h e i r aim  i s to b r i n g  l e a r n i n g to the A f r i c a n as a t h i n g of inherent value and  deny  any marked d e s i r e to give a modern u t i l i t a r i a n education. a t t i t u d e , o f course, task.  i s quite i n keeping w i t h the  missionary's  But, as a r e s u l t , the bush schools have no system of  w r i t t e n examinations and no l i m i t a t i o n s as to the age pupils.  Furthermore, there  tendance to s c h o o l work. to  This  i s no  of the  i n s i s t e n c e upon s t r i c t  at-  Attendance at the bush s c h o o l tends  become more and more i n t e r m i t t e n t .  For,, as the term pro-  gresses the A f r i c a n d i s p l a y s i n c r e a s i n g apathy toward systemat i z e d and yet  s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t d i r e c t e d to a g o a l which he has 23  l e a r n e d to v a l u e .  Thurnwald and Westermann both s t r e s s  £3. See Y/estermann, D e i d r i c h , op. c i t . ,  4£.  not  - 78 t h i s f a o t , that the average A f r i c a n while he wants European education, o b j e c t s to and does not understand him,  the long, and to  t e d i o u s years o f a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n a t t a i n i n g i t .  F o r example, most s c h o o l s i n s i s t garden p l o t along approved  that each p u p i l must tend a  European l i n e s .  The A f r i c a n o b j e c t s  to  t h i s as he does not a s s o c i a t e a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h the education  of  the West.  Or put i t t h i s way:  the N a t i v e thinks o f Euro-  pean e d u c a t i o n s o l e l y I n terms o f those f a c t o r s which seem strange to him. language,  He sees i t as a process of l e a r n i n g a new  o f l e a r n i n g the i n t r i c a c i e s o f numbers, of l e a r n i n g  the h a n d l i n g o f machines.  But things whioh a r e common to  e d u c a t i o n t h e world over, European and A f r i c a n both--such as moral t r a i n i n g and d i s c i p l i n e - - t h e s e seem to t h e A f r i c a n so much waste e f f o r t .  He wants t o be g i v e n a t one g u l p the  t h i n g s which to him mean western of  assimilation.  just  education without any process  That i s p a r t l y what Westermann meant when he  spoke o f t h e need o f teaohing  the n a t i v e t o value the a g r i o u l 24  t u r a l t r a i n i n g which would improve h i s l i f e on the  :  Reserves.  The r a t h e r easy-going a t t i t u d e o f the bash s c h o o l allows the n a t i v e t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i r r e g u l a r l y , to go home to h i s accustomed environment when so i n c l i n e d .  So the  average m i s s i o n s c h o o l p u p i l takes perhaps two years l o n g e r to  complete the c u r r i c u l u m than does the p u p i l o f the v i l l a g e  s c h o o l , where f o u r years i s g i v e n to the Substandards first  two Standards.  and the  One cannot but f e e l t h a t , i n many ways  the m i s s i o n a s c h o o l a t t i t u d e i s the one most i n l i n e w i t h the J34*. Supra 59.  - 79  -  Ideals o f I n d i r e c t Hale and t h a t the d e c l a r a t i o n of the 25 Eduoational  Commission Before  was  a well-considered  one*  passing on t o the s u b j e c t  and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n Kenya,  1919  of t e c h n i c a l  l e t us c o n s i d e r the a l l - i m p o r t a n t  subject o f the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  The French Government,  i n i t s C o l o n i a l Empire does not h e s i t a t e about the language i n whioh the A f r i c a n Is to be taught:  there  i s no thought,  under D i r e c t Rule o f saving A f r i c a n languages.  But i n B r i t i s h  , East, A f r i c a i t has been the custom both i n the i n s t r u c t i o n and i n the o f f i c i a l correspondence o f the n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to use K l s w a h i l i or, as i t i s c a l l e d , sort of l l n g a a franca. language o f E a s t A f r i c a , i  I t was  the S w a h i l i d i a l e c t as a  S w a h i l i , which was i s simple  the only w r i t t e n  to l e a r n as languages go.  spoken by the S w a h i l i t r i b e o f the C o a s t a l Province  was n a t u r a l l y the f i r s t one encountered by the. European. the day of the Chartered  impossible  Bantu v e r n a c u l a r lacking  f o r the Europeans  to a c q u i r e the s c o r e s of f o r the Bantu,  to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s  So the middle tongue, the S w a h i l i , w i t h t r i b u t i o n and r a t h e r simple it  the language of trade.  languages and j u s t as impossible  the f a c i l i t i e s ,  its fairly  c o n s t r u c t i o n , was  i s the language o f o f f i c i a l  communioation  of E n g l i s h .  wide d i s -  chosen.  as f a r as n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n  To-day  i n Kenya n a t i v e  a f f a i r s , and i s , f o r reasons to be explained, a growing  language,  i s concerned.  Lower e d u c a t i o n ,.25. Supra 68.  In  Company and even back i n t h e days of  the Arab Empire, the S w a h i l i d i a l e c t was I t was  and  must, of course,  be c a r r i e d on  - 80 i n the v e r n a c u l a r Language of the t r i b e concerned.  This i s  where the m i s s i o n a r y , w i t h h i s long r e s i d e n c e i n one n a t i v e area, has  the advantage over the government employee who 26  c o n t i n u a l l y being s h i f t e d from one  language a r e a t o  Canon Leakey speaks s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t t h i s continuous  is  another. changing  around of personnel, f o r no sooner does a teacher or a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r master the language o f h i s n a t i v e charges r e q u i r e d to s t a r t  aLL over a g a i n i n some new  than he i s 27  Language area.  When the A f r i c a n passes from the bush or v i l l a g e school into  the C e n t r a l School, he Is g i v e n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n ,  generally, i n Swahili.  F o r now  no l o n g e r of members of one  the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s  t r i b e or of one  language group.  The h i g h e r forms i n the C e n t r a l s c h o o l s , however, are g i v e n a measure o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , which i s , a f t e r a l l , what S w a h i l i has not yet become, a l i t e r a r y language.  Finally,  when the High School which i s roughly e q u i v a l e n t to the American j u n i o r c o l l e g e i s reached,  instruction is a l l i n English.  But the question of the use o f S w a h i l i i s f a s t becoming more than a q u e s t i o n of convenience. the language throughout changing  The spread of  East A f r i c a i s one of the s i g n s of  times. Perhaps the most conspicuous  the European way  concomitant  o f L i f e i s the p a r o c h i a l i s m of western  of and  of  w e s t e r n i z e d n a t i o n s . Strong n a t i o n a L i s t i c sentiment, strange 26. I t has been C o l o n i a l O f f i c e p o l i c y to g i v e i t s employees a g e n e r a l acquaintance w i t h c o l o n i a l problems by t h i s s h i f t i n g around of personnel. 27. See Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya; London, 1936, t y p i c a l service record.  187-189 f o r a  - 81 to  A f r i c a , i s the b i r t h r i g h t o f the European.  p l a c e s the growth of a l i n g u i s t i c of  the most important 28 nationalism.  Norman Leys  u n i t y i n E a s t A f r i c a as  s i g n s o f the b i r t h of a new  one  East A f r i c a n  A f t e r aLL, i f we favour the p r i n c i p l e s of I n 29 d i r e c t Rule expressed f i g u r a t i v e l y by L.S. Amery, of A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment sirable  result.  hard f o r one  t h i s growth  i s an i n e v i t a b l e and  de-  In these days o f t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s i t i s  to b e l i e v e with De Kat A n g e l i n o that "the key to  every c o l o n i a l p o l i c y l i e s i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the essential s o l i d a r i t y o f humanity as a whole and the e l i m i n a t i o n of r a c i a l 30 p r i d e . " Leonard Barnes has s a i d "An honest mandate s y s t e m — is  bound to be, f i r s t ,  native p o l i t i c a l  l a s t and  independence.  a l L the time, a s c h o o l of Our power to impart knowledge  and t h e a p p e t i t e f o r freedom i s our one 31  equitable t i t l e  to a c t  as t r u s t e e s . " Canon Leakey o b j e c t s to the spreading use  of  S w a h i l i which would e n t a i l a huge waste of e f f o r t on the p a r t of  a d m i n i s t r a t o r and t e a c h e r both.  appears  on c u r s o r y examination,  True, i t does e n t a i l what  to be u s e l e s s work.  I t does  seem strange that two r a c e s , should have to communicate i n a tongue strange to both of them. 28. Leys, N i , Kenya, 29. Supra,  F u r t h e r , as Leakey says,  535.  58  30. Westermann, op. c i t . , 19, quoting De Kat A n g e l i n o , " S t a a t s k u n d i g B e l e i d e n Bestuurzorg i n Nederlandsth I n d i e , " The Hague, 1929, V o l . 2, 592. 31. Barnes, Leonard,  The Future o f C o l o n i e s . London, 1936,  24.  - 82 S w a h i l i i s not  a literary  as p o s s i b l e the g e n e r a l But,  language.  teaching  of  So why  begin as  soon  English?  t a k i n g a long view we  important f a c t o r s i n favour  not  of S w a h i l i .  can f i n d  several  Some have been mentioned.  The most important of these i s , that S w a h i l i , easy to l e a r n , and  yet d i s t i n c t i v e and A f r i c a n , can g i v e to East A f r i c a a  l i n g u i s t i c u n i t y now  unknown.  T h i s , w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n  through I n d i r e c t Rule, of the best f e a t u r e s o f our  civilization,  w i l l give to the A f r i c a n a s t r o n g , d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e of h i s own.  Further,  i t i s a language which j u s t l i k e our own  can e a s i l y develop i n t o one  tongue,  s u i t a b l e to the demands of accumu-  lative learning.  . .  L e t us pass now  to a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  the  f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d i n Kenya f o r s p e c i a l i z e d education.  The  most i n t e r e s t i n g of these s p e c i a l schools  School,  i s the Jeanes  at Kabete, named i n honour o f the founder, an American Quaker. Schools o f t h i s type are found i n Kenya, Uyas6aland and Rhodesia. and  The  Jeanes system i s one  of the most i n t e r e s t i n g  promising developments i n the h i s t o r y of n a t i v e  I t s aim,  generally  l e v e l of A f r i c a n l i v i n g standards  The methods used are unique.  t r a i n e d , i n the C e n t r a l schools, come to Kabete.  education.  stated, i s , l i k e the aims o f I n d i r e c t Rule,  to r a i s e the g e n e r a l efficiency.  Northern  to teach  There, these teachers  are  and  Young A f r i c a n s , their fellow  blacks,  trained i n better  methods of a g r i c u l t u r e , l i v e - s t o c k r a i s i n g , the p r i n c i p l e s of hygiene, p u b l i c h e a l t h , Each Jeanes teacher I f he  b e t t e r housing, c h i l d - w e l f a r e , e t c .  i s given h i s own  brings h i s f a m i l y w i t h him,  he  farm-plot  at the  i s given a neat  school. little  - 83 house and garden to run a c c o r d i n g to European standards. u l t i m a t e aim  i s to b u i l d up a corps of v i s i t i n g n a t i v e teachers  and welfare-workers Reserves.  The  to spread t h e i r knowledge throughout  These people can perform  such a task f o r the  that the- Jeanes School t r a i n i n g , not being of an  the reason  intellectual  nature, does not n e c e s s a r i l y cause a g u l f between the teacher his  fellow blacks.  and  The Jeanes teacher does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y  drop i n t o the c l a s s , which i s c a u s i n g more and more worry to the administrators: who,  the European-educated, " d e t r i b a l i z e d " n a t i v e s ,  estranged from t r i b a l l i f e ,  f l o c k to the towns and  a body of d i s s a t i s f i e d , m i s f i t b l a c k All  form  "intellectuals".  w r i t e r s s t r e s s , however, the enormous ob-  s t a c l e s the Jeanes teacher must f a c e when he r e t u r n s to h i s Reserve.  Thurnwald quotes  and founders  J.W.C. D o u g a l l , one  of the s c h o o l a t Kabete, who  teacher goes back t o h i s d i s t r i c t j u d i c e and d i s e a s e , t o t e a c h and enthusiasm  f o r new  says "the Jeanes  to b a t t l e v/ith custom, p r e to i n s p i r e h i s people  t h i n g s , and t o do t h i s without  wasting whatever may .it  of the promoters  with  l o s i n g or  be of value i n n a t i v e l i f e and 3£  custom as  i s n o w — t o remake r u r a l A f r i c a . " As has been seen, the type of n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n  favoured most by the s e t t l e r community i s t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s has two f e a t u r e s which win i t favour w i t h the Europeans. First  of a l l ,  i t makes the A f r i c a n a more e f f i c i e n t  and a r t i s a n t o take h i s p l a c e i n that new  producer  p r o l e t a r i a t based on 33 raw m a t e r i a l s to which J u l i a n Huxley r e f e r r e d . Secondly, and 32, Thurnwald, op. c i t . ,  343.  33. Huxley, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View; London; 1931;  129.  - 84 of more immediate importance,  t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the  A f r i c a n f i t s him to take the p o s i t i o n s hy Indians. ready  i n Kenya l i f e now  So r a p i d l y i s t h i s replacement  filled  g o i n g on that a l -  the Indians are beginning t o leave the colony,  forced  A  i n t o unemployment. i Some of these t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s are operated the; Government. , But many r e q u i r i n g  l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d and  by  ex-  pensive f a c i l i t i e s are a t t a c h e d to the v a r i o u s m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s . I t should be remembered, though, that a young A f r i c a n who l e a r n t a trade or a p r o f e s s i o n , c e n t r e s of white black. crete,  A man  has  Leaves h i s Reserve f o r the  p o p u l a t i o n j u s t as does the i n t e l l e c t u a l  t r a i n e d as a c o b b l e r , a t a i l o r , a worker i n con-  e t c . , can as yet f i n d no g r e a t scope f o r h i s labour on  the r e s e r v e .  Yet, so f a r , t h i s c l a s s of d e t r i b a l i z e d c r a f t s -  men  Little difficulty  it.  has found  i n f i n d i n g employment o u t s i d e  In f a c t , as Thurnwald says, they are perhaps the most 34  balanced and h a p p i e s t of the VNew A f r i c a n s " . ;  , The case o f the A f r i c a n t r a i n e d as a c l e r k or an accountant  i s much the same.  These n a t i v e s ,  beginning to f i n d employment on the Reserves •Authorities  are strengthened  I n d i r e c t Rule or r a t h e r ,  however, are  as the Native  i n l i n e w i t h the p o l i c i e s of  i n Kenya^  i n Line w i t h the Dual P o l i c y .  , Then, too, under the heading  of t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g  comes the v e r y important work of p r e p a r i n g n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s f o r the medical and a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s . A See t a b l e on page E8 of Chapter !• 34.  See Thurnwald; op.  c i t . ; 1929.  The H i l t o n Young  - 85 Commission, Mr.  Ormsby-Gore i n h i s 1925  Committee of 1931,  i n f a c t a l l students  35 Report, the J o i n t S e l e c t of A f r i c a n l i f e s t r e s s e d  the r o l e that the A f r i c a n worker i n the s c i e n t i f i c p l a y i n the f u t u r e .  One  has  s e r v i c e s must  only to read of Lord Delamere's  e f f o r t s a t c a t t l e and s h e e p - r a i s i n g , of h i s f u t i l e attempts to CL  develop r u s t and  b l i g h t r e s i s t a n t g r a i n s , t o understand 36  t a s k t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r must f a c e .  And  the same  a p p l i e s i n the case of the A f r i c a n medical a s s i s t a n t or penser, who  the  dis-  i s t r a i n e d f o r h i s s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l work a t  government medical  centres.  It w i l l  be l o n g years b e f o r e  the native  doctors can be t r a i n e d i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers to c a r r y out great work. t i v e l y simple  But  the t r a i n i n g o f these d i s p e n s e r s  and quick task,  any  i s a compara-  They can t h e n c a r r y t h e i r know-  ledge home to the Reserve t o augment the p i t i f u l l y 37 ment a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r n a t i v e medical  s m a l l govern-  services.  At the Scott A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r a t o r i e s at Kabete young A f r i c a n s a r e t r a i n e d as n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t o r s and,  as a p p r e n t i c e s of the Kenya Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , go  through a course  of l e c t u r e s and  t r a i n i n g of medical  dispensers  h o s p i t a l s , where i n t e l l i g e n t 35. See,Cmd. 2387 (1925) 36. *  of p r a c t i c a l f i e l d work.  The  i s done mainly i n the N a i r o b i  boys are g i v e n a three to s i x  See Huxley, E l s p e t h , White Man's Country. London, v o l . I, passim.  1935, /  37. 1931 Government expenditure T o t a l £222,897 d i v i d e d t h u s : H a t i v e S e r v i c e s £124,642, European £24,527, A s i a t i c £460. (See Cmd. 4093, op. c i t . , Schedules 5 to 9)  - 86 months' course  and a r e then allowed  s u b c h i e f ' s a r e a and to dispense of c o s t .  T h i s i s one aspect  combat the a g e - o l d  t o s e t t l e . i n a c h i e f ' s or  medicine to the n a t i v e s f r e e  o f the government's attempt to  f a i t h i n the s o r c e r y and quacks that con-  s t i t u t e d A f r i c a n medical p r a c t i c e . . We come now to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i g h e r c a t i o n i n Kenya.  I n the past perhaps too great a p o r t i o n o f  government e d u c a t i o n a l expenditures i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r  has gone i n t o  expensive  education f o r the c h i l d r e n of c h i e f s or  of the w e a l t h i e r n a t i v e s , who c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay h i g h fees. and  edu-  The d i f f e r e n c e between the f u n c t i o n of higher  tuition  education  o f the e d u c a t i o n we have c o n s i d e r e d so f a r , e s p e c i a l l y  that of the bush and v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , can be s t a t e d t h u s ; •  !  Higher i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g can be a f f o r d e d o n l y by ah3elite, a minority. I t implies a c e r t a i n i s o l a t i o n of p r i v i l e g e d i n d i v i d u a l s . I n s t r u c t i o n , as an i n s t r u ment o f a d a p t a t i o n , has to use, so to speak, both ends! the masses and the i n d i v i d u a l s . The Jeanes School endeavours to e l e v a t e the people as a whole. Higher edu- 38 c a t i o n , through the c e n t r a l s c h o o l s , helps the i n d i v i d u a l . Yet  most o f a l l ,  the c u r r i c u l u m o f the c e n t r a l s c h o o l r e q u i r e s ,  the utmost forethought.  Here what i s needed most  i s not l a r g e s c a l e development so much as c a r e f u l and c a l c u l a t i n g development. the teachers  I n these  first  i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher  of future generations  education  o f A f r i c a n s are t r a i n e d ,  in  Chapter I I we d i s c u s s e d t h e t r a n s i t i o n that takes place i n the European between the c h i l d mind and the a d u l t mind.  We saw  that modern psychology assumes that the p r i m i t i v e mind undergoes  38.  Thurnwald; op. c i t . , £51.  - 87 no  such t r a n s i t i o n .  T h i s i s a very  important c o n s i d e r a t i o n to  ua here. If  the lower education  g i v e n to the A f r i c a n i s  compatible w i t h the demands o f h i s e v o l u t i o n and i f a l l other f a c t o r s i n h i s environment are made to favour  that  then a new n a t i v e mind ought to evolve g r a d u a l l y . t r a n s i t i o n would take p l a c e . riculum the  process In i t the  As i n our High Schools the c u r -  i s s u i t e d to minds undergoing such change, so too must  c u r r i c u l u m of the C e n t r a l Schools o f Kenya he s u i t e d i n  the f u t u r e .  One might say t h a t the r e a c t i o n o f the A f r i c a n  youth to the C e n t r a l Sohool e d u c a t i o n w i l l the best  t e s t o f the p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s  i n future  provide  of the, Government't  Hatlve  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , whether the system be t h a t o f I n d i r e c t Rule or not. As  i t has been, East. A f r i c a n C e n t r a l Schools 39  have not proved g e n e r a l l y e f f e c t i v e . In expensive i n s t i t u t i o n s  Much money has been sunk  such as t h a t a t Tabora.  These  schools  have sought to t r a i n the sons o f c h i e f s and wealthy n a t i v e s . The  f a i l u r e o f s e v e r a l has been due to the f a i l u r e to a p p r e c i a t e  the change t h a t European c o n t a c t s have wrought i n A f r i c a n l i f e . The Tabora  Sohool f a i l e d because n a t i v e s o c i e t y was by no  means as s t r a t i f i e d  as the founders o f the c o s t l y  institution  imagined, But veloped  to f i l l .its  g r a d u a l l y the C e n t r a l School true place  upper two Standards are taught. 39.  Thurnwald; op. c i t . ; 252.  i n Kenya l i f e . At present  i s being deIn these the  the C e n t r a l Schools  - 88 aim mainly at t u r n i n g out A f r i c a n teachers. women w i l l go out Granted, say,  These men  and  to teach t h e i r f e l l o w s i n the Reserves.  I n d i r e c t Rule, w i t h  i t s strengthening  of H a t l v e  A u t h o r i t i e s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n f i n a n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , the n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l system should  e v e n t u a l l y become e n t i r e l y A f r i o a n i z e d .  Several Missionary  bodies;  i . e., The  Church of  Sootland M i s s i o n , Church M i s s i o n S o c i e t y , the A f r i c a M i s s i o n , the Methodist  M i s s i o n and  the Gospel M i s s i o n ;  the only i n s t i t u t i o n i n Kenya o f f e r i n g any to the A f r i c a n s . Kikuyu.  A grant  Inland sponsor  university training  T h i s i s the great A l l i a n c e High School  at  i s r e c e i v e d a n n u a l l y from the Government of  Kenya. The i n the f i r s t  t r a i n i n g g i v e n i n t h e A l l i a n c e H i g h Sohool  two years  i s roughly  an American u n i v e r s i t y . r a t h e r than "Standards'*.  The :  e q u i v a l e n t to two  years a t  s c h o o l i s d i v i d e d i n t o ''forms"  Though f i v e forms are planned f o r  the s c h o o l , as yet only three have been a t t a i n e d . How  l i m i t e d the need of the A f r i c a n s f o r such  institutions  i s as yet, i s shown by the attendance.  the students  fees of 100  Though  s h i l l i n g s each per year are o f t e n  advanced by the L o c a l H a t i v e C o u n c i l s only 89 students were 40 i n attendance at the time of Thurnwald's w r i t i n g . 36 were i n form I and  w i l l grow.  As  pass the need f o r Higher  the A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n  and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d so w i l l the balance 40.  Thurnwald; op.  these  18 i n Eorm I I .  i But as the years Education  Of  c i t . ; E61.  becomes more  o f expenditure  upon  - 89 the d i f f e r e n t  types of education  come to approximate t h a t of  western communities. I t i s obvious evolve.  I t , - w i l l then be  take i t s f u l l  that new  e d u c a t i o n a l values  will  the t a s k of the Kenya government to  share o f the burden of e d u c a t i o n .  For  mission  e d u c a t i o n w i l l meet only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the needs o f a westernized  native society, , But  to  i f the process of n a t i v e development  be hampered there a r e , as we have seen, c e r t a i n  reforms needed. about.  immediate  A system of I n d i r e c t Bale c o u l d b r i n g these  Under I n d i r e c t Rule, f o r i n s t a n c e , the n a t i v e s could  a d m i n i s t e r the spending  of t h e i r own  n a t i v e taxes would go to support  c o n t r i b u t i o n s and  of the non-native  F i n a l l y there i s one more important must be c o n s i d e r e d . succeed  i s not  no  population, need t h a t  Before the e d u c a t i o n of young A f r i c a  can  the adamancy of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n must be overcome.  In I n d i r e c t Rule coLonies t h i s has been done through the a s s o c i a t i o n of the o l d e r and more c o n s e r v a t i v e elements w i t h the N a t i v e C o u n c i l s .  AIL n a t i v e s mast be c o n s i d e r e d  Kenya scheme of education.  As V i c t o r Murray  i n the  says:  In the s w i f t L y changing c o n d i t i o n s to-day t h i s sympathy and understanding must be extended both to the o i d e r and more c o n s e r v a t i v e g e n e r a t i o n who m a i n t a i n t h e i r a n c i e n t f a i t h and customs, and to the younger elements of the community who have become converted to C h r i s t i a n i t y and seek an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r ambitions through education. And h e r e i n l i e s one of the most d i f f i c u l t problems f a c t i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to-day, that of h e l p i n g and g u i d i n g t h i s i n c r e a s i n g c l a s s , upon which so much of the f u t u r e o f the country depends, to f i n d and take i t s r i g h t place i n the community,41 41. Murray, V i c t o r ;  l o c . c i t . ; £35.  Chapter IV Native Labour i n Kenya 1. The importance of the question 2. Labour supply and demand i n Kenya 3 . The African's attitude to labour 4 . She uneven burden of the Labour demands 5.  History of the labour problem i n Kenya - s e t t l e r demand versus o f f i c i a l policy  6 . Labour r e c r u i t i n g i n Kenya 7 . O f f i c i a l p o l i c y at present 6 . Labour Laws .9. The Hatlve Registration Ordinance 10..Indirect Rule and the labour problem.  CHAPTER IV NATIVE LABOUR IN KENYA The f a c t o r which has the most immediate b e a r i n g upon the f u t u r e o f the white community i n Kenya i s the c r y i n g need f o r readjustment  and reform  i n the labour f i e l d .  What 1  Dr. Edgar Brookes s a i d about the South A f r i c a n l a b o u r can be s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d to Kenya.  situation  J u l i a n Huxley remarked  about the Kenya labour s i t u a t i o n t h a t the choice between prod u c t i o n f o r p r o f i t on the p a r t of the n a t i v e themselves and the continued r e g i m e n t a t i o n of b l a c k labour i n favour of 2 pean farmers must be made and important  that soon*  But apart from t h i s  phase of the labour problem there i s another  more s t a r t l i n g phase.  Euro-  and  For i n Kenya the whole q u e s t i o n of labour  i s bound up w i t h the q u e s t i o n of l a n d and o f n a t i v e r e s e r v e s . T h i s i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i s j u s t another p r o o f of the of t h a t colony's race problem.  complexity  The more one t h i n k s of i t the  more one realiz.es the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the statement,  already  quoted, i n the H i l t o n Young Report that No c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n of s u b j e c t s i n t o those which do and do not e f f e c t n a t i v e p o l i c y 3 is possible." n  1. See supra I I I ; a l s o see Leys, N., Last, Chance i n Kenya; Chapter X I I , "The New S l a v e r y " . London; 1931. 2. Supra 57. , 3. &nd.  3254 (1929) 8. -  90  - 91 But  i t i s evident that our main concern must be  w i t h the more apparent The most important  f e a t u r e s of the problem of n a t i v e l a b o u r .  of these i s the choice that must soon be  made between a labour p o l i c y compatible  w i t h I n d i r e c t Rule  and  the impossible and anomalous adjustment demanded by the Kenya Dual P o l i c y .  T h i s p o l i c y demands as the Ormsby-Gore Commission  s a i d "the complementary development of n a t i v e and communities."  The  can only progress  non-native  same r e p o r t s a i d f u r t h e r , t h a t "East A f r i c a economically and  s o c i a l l y on the b a s i s of 5  f u l l and complete c o - o p e r a t i o n between a l l r a c e s . " not much prospect of such a balance  There i s  being s t r u c k i n Kenya.  The key to the s i t u a t i o n i n Kenya as  regards  labour can be found, I t h i n k , i n the f o l l o w i n g statement; "Adequate n a t i v e r e s e r v e s can  take i n A f r i c a the p l a c e of trade  unions, and help the n a t i v e to m a i n t a i n a proper  standard  of  wages f o r h i s labour by p r o v i d i n g him w i t h a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t 6 being f o r c e d to b a r g a i n at a disadvantage." Now the nature of h white settlement  demands that the n a t i v e s come o f f the r e s e r v e s  i n order t o meet the need f o r b l a c k labour on the white man's farms and  i n his industries.  seldom equal to the demand,  The lab.our supply i n Kenya i s So the p o l i c y of t a x i n g the n a t i v e  to such an extent as to make i t necessary f o r him to l e a v e the Reserve and enter European employment has been c o n s t a n t l y demanded by the whites. These demands have, i n f a c t , been 4. Ormsby-Gore East A f r i c a Commission Report, Cmd. 2387 (1925) 22. 5. i b i d . 6. Cmd.  23 3234, op. c i t . ,  66.  - 92 somewhat acceded to hy the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Then, too,  another  s e t t l e r demand has heen f o r the s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n of Reserve l a n d i n order to assure t h a t , as the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n expands, the overflow from the Reserves s h a l l enter the labour market. S e t t l e r committees s a i d b e f o r e Governor S i r James Hayes S a d l e r ' s l a b o u r Enquiry Board i n 1908  that "the l a n d set a s i d e f o r Native  Reserves should be l i m i t e d to the present requirements  of the  n a t i v e s ; the committee being of o p i n i o n that the e x i s t e n c e of . u n n e c e s s a r i l y e x t e n s i v e r e s e r v e s i s d i r e c t l y a n t a g o n i s t i c to 7 an adequate l a b o u r supply."  The  other p o l i c y , that o f t a x a t i o n  to f o r c e the n a t i v e to come out to work, was by The  Times correspondent  s t a t e d as f o l l o w s  i n N a i r o b i on March 9th, 1925?  "A  popular theory i s t h a t the n a t i v e t a x a t i o n should be i n c r e a s e d , the argument being that the more the n a t i v e i s f o r c e d to earn 8 for  the S t a t e , the l o n g e r he w i l l have to work." While i t i s important  that t h i s  q u e s t i o n of  white demand and b l a c k s u p p l y of labour i n Kenya be out, i t i s even more important n a t i v e to the requirements  thrashed  to c o n s i d e r the r e a c t i o n of the  of the new  economic o r d e r .  • F i r s t l e t i t be s a i d t h a t the b e l i e f that the A f r i c a n i s l a z y by nature, that the indigenous such as to demand no organized and  system  was  sustained e f f o r t , i s u t t e r l y  false.  l o r d l u g a r d says there are few races who are more 9 n a t u r a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s . When the A f r i c a n i s a p a t h e t i c towards Ross, W. MacGregor, Kenya from Within; London; 1927; 92. 8. I b i d , , c i t e d  109.  9. Lugard, Lord, Dual Mandate;,in B r . Trop. A f r i c a , London, 401.  1929  - 93 e n t e r i n g white The statement  employment he should not be branded as a s l a c k e r . 10 by Dr. Westerman quoted above e x p l a i n s the re-r  a c t i o n of the n a t i v e to the demands of the new In the t r a d i t i o n a l order t h e r e was  economic o r d e r .  not the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s which marks the g r e a t e s t d i s t i n c t i o n between . our western  economic c i v i l i z a t i o n and  a l l other  civilizations.  The A f r i c a n i n h e r i t s no z e a l f o r g a i n and has no marked w i s h to p r o v i d e f o r the f u t u r e (that i s , as f a r as the o f ' w o r l d l y goods i s concerned). s i g h t e d and teristic  improvident  accumulation  As Orde Brown says "This s h o r t -  a t t i t u d e towards l i f e remains c h a r a c -  even when t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may  have j u s t i f i e d i t  no l o n g e r o b t a i n ; the A f r i c a n i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y d i s i n c l i n e d to safeguard h i m s e l f a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e m i s f o r t u n e , p r e f e r r i n g to 11 wait u n t i l i t occurs before t a k i n g steps to meet i t . "  The  reason f o r the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s t r a i t of the A f r i c a n o h a r a c t e r i s w e l l e x p l a i n e d thus; "When others are open-handed, i t must seem penurious to r e t a i n one's gains f o r one's own use; good l u c k f o r one meant b e n e f i t s f o r a l l even i n the case of earnings, 12 and t h r i f t was  a most unpopular  quality."  A study of the  d i f f e r e n t phases of the indigenous s o c i e t i e s o f A f r i c a to make one  tends  doubt i f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s such a g i f t f o r  the A f r i c a n as i t has been supposed.  In these s o c i e t i e s  the  i n d i v i d u a l i s m of the West had no p l a c e , the s e l f i s h n e s s a s s o c i ated w i t h i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s was  practically  non-  10. Supra 76. 11, Brown, G-. S t . J . Orde, The A f r i c a n Labourer, London, 12. b i d . , 10. • I10. ' :  1933,  - 94 existent.  The i d e a o f a s t a t e i n which the i n d i v i d u a l good i s  subordinated true.  to that o f the group i s n o t h i n g new to us, i t i s  But the western form of such a s o c i e t y l a c k s the good  f e a t u r e s of the A f r i c a n form.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o  the f a c t that t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Western economic and s o c i a l u n i t has been the i n d i v i d u a l and, given a mass of such i n d i v i d u a l s , regimented as i n the European t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e s o f today the t y p i c a l l y western r e s u l t i s an a c q u i s i t i v e , s e l f i s h The  nationalism.  f a c t should be kept i n mind, then, t h a t the  r e a c t i o n o f the Kenya n a t i v e to t h e demands o f the white popul a t i o n i s not the r e s u l t o f l a z i n e s s .  I t i s p a r t and p a r c e l  w i t h a r a c i a l a n t i p a t h y towards labour  f o r ends to which, t h e  A f r i c a n has not y e t l e a r n e d t o a t t a c h any great The  value*  t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y — a s d i d any  p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y — c o n s i s t e d o f three main groups: the p a s t o r a l i s t s and the a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . tribes f a l l  the hunters,  The main Kenya  i n t o the l a s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  The Masai .  however--are t r a d i t i o n a l l y nomadic p a s t o r a l i s t s , as we have seen.  The Kikuyu, Kavirondo, Akamba, i n f a c t the m a j o r i t y o f  the t r i b e s are a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s .  As w i t h most p a s t o r a l i s t  r a c e s , the Masai's have always been marked by p r i d e and independence.  P a r t l y because g r a z i n g l a n d was more p l e n t i f u l than  farm land there was more room f o r the Masai t o r e t r e a t before the advance of the Europeans and t o c a r r y on t h e i r customs.  Not that l a n d a l i e n a t i o n d i d not a f f e c t  traditional 13 the M a s a i .  But  European development r a n more to farming  than to s t o c k -  13.  See Ross, op. c i t . , Ghapt VIII "The M a r v e l l i n g Masai" passim.  - 95 raising.  So the Masai, u n l i k e the Kikuyu and the Kavirondo,  have not heen so trammelled i n t h e i r development  as to he  f o r c e d o f f the Reserves. But the a g r i c u l t u r a l t r i b e s who  i n h a b i t e d the  best farm lands of the Highlands have r e a l l y s u f f e r e d .  Of  these the Kikuyu, around N a i r o b i have endured most. In  p r o p o r t i o n as. the extent of a l i e n a t i o n of  lands ahdt.the t r i b a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s vary so does the a v a i l a r b i l i t y of the t r i b e f o r white l a b o u r demands.  The f i g u r e s to  demonstrate t h i s are hard t o o b t a i n , but a c c o r d i n g to the Kenya R e g i s t r a r of N a t i v e s , d u r i n g the f i r s t 1927,  t h r e e months of  72,28$ of the a d u l t males of the Kyambu-Nairobi  t r i b e were under European  (Kikuyu)  employment, 64.45$ i n the Nandi,  48.22$ i n the North Kavirondo and 44.91$ i n North and South Nyeri.  The Masai, however had only 25.28$ at work and the 14  n a t i v e s of the Machakos d i s t r i c t only It far  20$.  can be seen that the labour, demand weighs  more h e a v i l y on c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s than upon o t h e r s .  d i s t a n c e of some t r i b e s from the labour market employment. the  The  also affects  I t Is obvious that the customary method of s t a t i n g  number of n a t i v e s needed to meet the demand f o r a c e r t a i n  year as a f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l number o f n a t i v e s of employable age, does not by any means t e l l the whole s t o r y . f a c t i s that i n c e r t a i n t r i b e s such as the in  The  Kikuyus—overcrowded  t h e i r Reserves, unable to earn a t home to pay the t a x im-  p o s t s — a l m o s t every p h y s i c a l l y f i t male i s f o r c e d to e n t e r 14. B u e l l , xt.ii.;. IMative Problem i n A f r i c a ; New N I; 245.  York;  1929;  - 96 labour c o n t r a c t .  E i t h e r t h a t , o r , as many of the Kikuyu have  done, the n a t i v e s must take t h e i r famiLies and go to Live on some white farm as " s q u a t t e r s " .  There they g i v e the white  man t h e i r Labour i n exchange f o r g r a z i n g and t i L L i n g But  rights.  whether the n a t i v e i s s e r v i n g a Labour  c o n t r a c t o r L i v i n g as a s q u a t t e r , he i s away from the normal tribal The  Life.  That, f o r our purposes, i s the important  fact.  o p e r a t i o n of a dual p o l i c y demands the development o f  white e n t e r p r i s e .  T h i s , i n t u r n demands adequate n a t i v e  labour.  But the same p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e s  veloping  the r e s e r v e s  the n e c e s s i t y o f de-  i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the A f r i c a n .  In-  d i r e c t Rule would of course demand that the l a t t e r i n t e r e s t s only should  prevail.  I t appears that the demands of both  communities a r e incompatible. Prom t h e year 1902 when the white s e t t l e r s began  to f l o c k i n t o E a s t A f r i c a ,  labour requirements began. was bound up with  labour  t h i s problem o f c o n f l i c t i n g  Prom the f i r s t ,  demand.  grown so g r e a t as compared w i t h  land  aLienation  Even by 1907 the demand had the v o l u n t a r y supply  by the  A f r i c a n s , who were loathe to Leave t h e i r homes, that the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had begun to give a i d to the new s e t t l e r s i n the procuring  o f workers.  But by t h i s time, t o o ,  the  s e t t l e r abuse of n a t i v e labour had roused the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to p r o t e s t . ployees  A s e t o f r u l e s f o r the treatment of b l a c k  was adopted.  From t h i s  time on there has been f r i c t i o n  between the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n the q u e s t i o n  of labour.  em-  over  By 1908 a g i t a t i o n f o r the r e p e a l o f  these 1907 Labour Rules was a t a head.  The s e t t l e r s  insisted,  - 97 as they have done ever s i n c e , that the Government shouLd pass 15 measures t o compel the n a t i v e t o work.  As Lord DeLamere, the  s e t t l e r l e a d e r s a i d ; "We have got to come to l e g a l i z e d methods and f o r c e the n a t i v e to work; I hope that we may r e l y on the 16 Government to meet the case." not withdrawn by the Governor.  nevertheless,  the Rules were  I n 1912 i n s t r u c t i o n s were  issued from London d i r e c t i n g ' the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o s t o p r e c r u i t i n g o f n a t i v e labour f o r p r i v a t e purposes. Government e f f o r t s has  Since  official then,  to g e t the n a t i v e s to leave the Reserves  c o n s i s t e d mainly o f "encouragement" to labour such as was  promised to the s e t t l e r s by Governor S a d l e r . s t r e s s the f a c t t h a t , i n those  Most w r i t e r s  e a r l y days "encouragement" from  the Government was, i n the n a t i v e o p i n i o n , e q u i v a l e n t to ao d i r e c t command. The Kenya a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have had to s t e e r a p r e c a r i o u s course  between p u b l i c o p i n i o n a t home, which i n -  s i s t e d always that there should be a b s o l u t e l y no system of compulsion t o n a t i v e labour i n East A f r i c a , and the demands o f the m i l i t a n t s e t t l e r s , backed o f t e n by the a c t i v e support o f the Governor.  I n 1917 Governor S i r H.,Gonway B e l f i e l d spoke  out i n favour o f "humane and p r o p e r l y r e g u l a t e d pressure  with17 i n the r e s e r v e s , to induce n a t i v e s to go out and work- - " Lucy P. Mair says t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e s In 15. At t h i s time Delamere was suspended from the L e g i s l a t i v e O o u n c i l f o r an a l l e g e d i n s u l t to Governor S i r James S a d l e r . 16. A f f a i r s  i n East A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e , Cd. 4122 (1908) 2  c i t e d BueTlT^p. c i t . , V o l . I, 330, IV 13.  17.  I b i d . , 332.  - 98 n a t i v e t a x a t i o n i n Kenya have not been aimed at f o r c i n g the 18 n a t i v e i n t o the  labour market.  b e l i e v e i n the faoe  T h i s statement i s hard to  of the many a v a i l a b l e statements made by  supposedly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e t t l e r s and disprove  i t . Every now  o f f i c i a l s which seem to  and a g a i n a farmer o r g a n i z a t i o n  b r i n g forward some r e s o l u t i o n concerning increase i n native  will  the need f o r a  seasonal  taxes to f o r c e the n a t i v e i n t o European  ployment at the periods  em-  of peak labour demand (which a l s o  happen to be busy seasons on the Reserves). Norman Leys c i t e s the speech o f the Prench-Canadian Governor of Kenya, S i r Percy 19 Girouard In 1913: "We consider t h a t t a x a t i o n i s the only p o s s i b l e method o f compelling for  the purpose o f seeking The  Kenya before  the n a t i v e to leave h i s £0  work."  event that brought the labour s i t u a t i o n i n  the eyes of the E n g l i s h p u b l i c was  the p u b l i c a t i o n  of the s o - c a l l e d l o r t h e y C i r c u l a r s i n October 1919. nor,  General Northey, f o l l o w e d  tenor of these c i r c u l a r s ,  Chief Native  Commissioner, Mr.  The  Gover-  the same p r i n c i p l e s of n a t i v e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as h i s predecessor, general  reserve  Governor B e l f i e l d .  The  i s s u e d over the name of the  John Ainsworth, can be  judged  from the f o l l o w i n g ; In c o n t i n u a t i o n of previous communications on t h i s very Important s u b j e c t , His E x c e l l e n c y d e s i r e s to r e i t e r a t e c e r t a i n of h i s wishes and to add f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s as f o l l o w s :  18.  See Mair, L.P., 91.  19.  See Huxley, E l s p e t h , op.  £0. Leys, N., 1913.  Native P o l i c i e s  Kenya, 186  i n A f r i c a , London,  1936,  c i t . ; V o l . I, Chap. 5.  c i t e s East A f r i c a Standard. Peb.  8,  - 99 (1) A l l Government o f f l o i a l a i n charge o f n a t i v e areas must e x e r c i s e every p o s s i b l e l a w f u l i n f l u e n c e to induce a b l e - b o d i e d male n a t i v e s to go i n t o the labour f i e l d . Where farms are s i t u a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of a n a t i v e area, women and c h i l d r e n should be encouraged to go out f o r such labour as they can perform. (2) H a t l v e C h i e f s and E l d e r s must a t a l l times render a i l p o s s i b l e l a w f u l a s s i s t a n c e on the f o r e going l i n e s . They should be r e p e a t e d l y reminded that i t i s part of t h e i r duty to a d v i s e and encourage a l l unemployed young men i n the areas under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n to go out and work on the p l a n t a t i o n s (7) Should the labour d i f f i c u l t i e s continue, i t may be necessary to b r i n g i n other and s p e c i a l measures to meet the case----.21 Boss c a l l s  t h i s Labour C i r c u l a r Ho.  1 the high-water  e x p l o i t a t i o n by a B r i t i s h Government i n our times. caused  the  excitement  i n England  of Labour C i r c u l a r Ho. c u l a r was T h i s was  and  l e d to the  2, which toned  mark of But what  publication  down the o r i g i n a l  cir-  the s o - c a l l e d Bishops' Memorandum i n the same year. p u b l i s h e d by the Bishops  of the A n g l i c a n Church i n  E a s t A f r i c a and Uganda and by the s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Church of Sootland.  The memorandum a t t a c k e d the Labour  C i r c u l a r P o l i c y of governmental pressure being used to compel n a t i v e l a b o u r f o r p r i v a t e purposes.  The memorandum d i d not,  however, say that compulsory labour was Such labour, i f used  f o r the n a t i o n a l good, was  However the Bishops' memorandum had criticism  In England  an e v i l  caused  i t s effect.  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e  Kenya Government to a l t e r i t s statements. C i r c u l a r came out on J u l y 14, 1920. 21. Ross, op. c i t . ,  102,  104,  105.  The  in itself. condoned. The storm of to order the second Labour  On t h i s same day  after  -  LOO  -  a debate on the Kenya labour p o l i c y i n the L o r d s d u r i n g which Lords I s l i n g t o n , Bryce, Emmltt, and  the Archbishop of Canter-  bury passed severe s t r i c t u r e s on Government p o l i c y , a despatch was  sent to East A f r i c a by the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e which contained  one of the e a r l i e s t statements o f the d u a l i t y o f B r i t a i n ' s p o l i c y i n East A f r i c a .  H i s Majesty aimed, s a i d the despatch  "at the advancement and w e l l - b e i n g of the n a t i v e races i n the P r o t e c t o r a t e no l e s s than the meeting o f the s e t t l e r s * r e 22 quirements." Bat the tone o f the r e s t o f the despatch tended to v i n d i c a t e the o r i g i n a l c i r c u l a r ,  nevertheless, pressure  on the Home Government f o r a d e f i n i t e d e c l a r a t i o n a g a i n s t 23 compulsory  labour was  s u c c e s s f u l and  i n 1921 a White Paper  d e c l a r e d that the Government would no longer concern w i t h the r e c r u i t i n g of l a b o u r f o r the s e t t l e r s * T h i s r e v e r s a l o f p o l i c y was  due  itself  purposes.  to the advent o f Mr.  Winston  C h u r c h i l l as S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . So d u r i n g the next f i v e o r s i x years a s t r u g g l e raged between the s e t t l e r s and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . labour shortages whetted the p o l i c y o f n e u t r a l i t y . before the a t t a c k s .  Acute  the uonvention of A s s o c i a t i o n s a g a i n s t GraduaLly the Government r e t r e a t e d  In February, 1926,  nors o f East A f r i c a was h e l d at H a i r o b i .  a Conference of GoverAt that conference,  Governor S i r Edward G r i g g o f Kenya j o i n e d i n a r e s o l u t i o n i n favour o f the o l d poLicy o f "encouraging" the n a t i v e to work. 22. House of Lords Debates. J u l y 14, 1920, V o l . 41, U o l . 124. P r i n t e d as Cmd. 873 (1921) Despatch on H a t l v e Labour, see Lugard, op. c i t . , 391. 23. Cmd.  1509, A Despatch r e l a t i n g to H a t i v e Labour.  LOI -  -  I t was s t a t e d , however, t h a t t h i s work might be done f o r h i s own advancement, on the Reserves, i f the n a t i v e so wished, though i t would be p r e f e r a b l e ployment.  Grlgg,  i f he would e n t e r European em-  i n a speech before  the Convention o f Asso-  c i a t i o n s some time l a t e r , advocated a d u a l p o l i c y o f development.  But h i s speech was s e i z e d upon with j o y by the s e t t l e r s  who i n t h e i r p r a i s e o f the Governor f o r g o t e n t i r e l y what he 24 had  s a i d about the A f r i c a n ' s r i g h t to work f o r  himaelf.  B u e l l i n t i m a t e s that the Kenya Government seemed to have gone back to the p o i i c y advocated i n t h e f i r s t o f the Uorthey C i r c u l a r s .  As he 'puts i t " :  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n would doubtless p u l s i o n but merely 'voluntary 26 a c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f terms." material the  "At present,  i n s i s t t h a t there  the Kenya  i s no com-  p r e s s u r e ' — w h i c h appears to be  I t seems impossible  to f i n d any  which would prove what BuelL i n f e r s — t h a t s i n c e 1926  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has a p p l i e d a labour  p o l i c y s i m i l a r to  t h a t suggested i n the Labour C i r c u l a r s — h o w e v e r I t must be noted t h a t S i r . Edward Griggs statements, which leave the Kenya n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s apparently any  i n an uncomfortable p o s i t i o n ,  s t i l l hoLd as the s t a t e d government p o l i c y .  p o l i c y of subordinating  the labour  That  requirements o f t h e  Reserves to t h a t of European e n t e r p r i s e i s c o n t r a r y  to the  p r i n c i p l e s of d u a l development i s e v i d e n t . Lacking  a c t i v e o f f i c i a l a i d , how then, i s the  n e c e s s a r y supply o f labourers obtained by t h e white community? 24. See B u e l l , op. c i t . , V o l . 1, 340-41. 25.  I b i d . , 341.  - L02 J u s t as i n other p a r t s o f A f r i c a , when a labour shortage  looms,  p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r u i t e r s o f l a b o u r c i r c u l a t e among the n a t i v e s i n the r e s e r v e s o b t a i n i n g s i g n a t u r e s to labour c o n t r a c t s .  In  some c o l o n i e s the r e c r u i t i n g Is c a r r i e d on by m o n o p o l i s t i c l a b o u r bureaux. t h i s abuse.  The Kenya n a t i v e has, however, been spared  In Kenya, r e c r u i t i n g i s c a r r i e d on by "Labour  Agents", l i c e n s e d by the p r o v i n c i a l commissioners.  The opera-  t i o n of any labour r e c r u i t i n g system, whether c a r r i e d on by Labour Bureaux o r by i n d i v i d u a l agents is,bound as long as the A f r i c a n remains Ignorant can be b r i b e d by r e c r u i t e r s labour f o r the white man.  to be abusive  of h i s r i g h t s .  Chiefs  to compel t h e i r f o l l o w e r s to In the more p r o g r e s s i v e  such as the Kavirondo and Kikuyu,  tribes,  the H a t l v e Welfare  Associa-  t i o n s f u n c t i o n more and more i n o p p o s i t i o n to r e c r u i t i n g abuses.  T h i s i s p a r t l y t h e reason f o r the s e t t l e r a v e r s i o n  to anything  i n the way o f an A f r i c a n a s s o c i a t i o n aimed a t  the p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e r i g h t s . , In the same way, the r a p i d growth o f L o c a l H a t l v e A u t h o r i t i e s has served t o c o u n t e r a c t r e c r u i t i n g abuses. The  a t t i t u d e of the B r i t i s h Government towards  compulsory n a t i v e labour was w e l l s t a t e d i n the 1930 White Paper, Memorandum on H a t i v e P o l i c y  i n East A f r i c a ,  issued  over the name o f the S e c r e t a r y of State f o r the C o l o n i e s . The memorandum r e i t e r a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d i n the Duke of Devonshire's famous White Paper o f 1923. The paragraph on n a t i v e labour reads thus: As regards l a b o u r , r e f e r e n c e has a l r e a d y been made i n a preceding paragraph to a p r i n c i p l e to which H i s Majesty's Government a t t a c h great importance, namely  -. 103  -  that the n a t i v e shouLd be e f f e c t i v e l y and economically f r e e to work, i n accordance w i t h h i s own wish* e i t h e r i n p r o d u c t i o n i n the Reserves, or as an i n d i v i d u a l producer upon h i s own p l o t of land, or i n employment f o r wages, whether w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n which he has been r e s i d e n t or beyond i t s border, s u b j e c t to the proper s t a t u t o r y safeguards o f the c o n d i t i o n s of employment, and f o r such rates of wages as may be f r e e l y c o n t r a c t e d f o r . AotuaL compulsion to work i n p r i v a t e employment could'of course, i n no case be contemplated. This i s a l r e a d y f o r b i d d e n by law throughout East A f r i c a , and the i d e a l which His Majesty's, Government have i n view i s the gradual disappearance of even the two k i n d s of compulsory s e r v i c e which a r e s t i l l l a w f u l , under s e v e r e l y l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; v i z ; compulsory labour f o r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n case of emergency, and the compulsory labour f o r t r i b a l s e r v i c e s which i s based on t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l custom. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t i n these two s u r v i v i n g cases (which c l e a r l y do not extend to such work as r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n even by the Government i t s e l f , or to employment by c o n t r a c t o r s or s u b c o n t r a c t o r s on any p u b l i c works), the power t o c a l l out comp u l s o r y labour should be most s t r i c t l y Limited to a d u l t men i n h e a l t h and not d i s a b l e d by age or i n f i r m i t y , and c a r e f u l l y safeguarded a g a i n s t abuse, and that any such s e r v i c e should be c L o s e l y r e g u l a t e d . These aspects o f the matter w i l l s h o r t l y be d e a l t w i t h i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the proposed Convention, under the auspices o f the League o f Nations, to l i m i t and reguLate the use o f compulsory labour, which i s now under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , and His Majesty's Government confine themselves here to s t a t i n g the above main p r i n c i p l e s . 2 6  T h i s e x t r a c t would tend somewhat to r e f u t e what B u e l l s a i d 27 of the u n c e r t a i n t y of Government labour p o l i c y . be noted, though, that, w h i l e  I t should  i t i s here s t a t e d as  p o l i c y that n a t i v e labour s h a l l not be  official  r e q u i s i t i o n e d f o r use  on the r a i l w a y s , yet the Native A u t h o r i t y O r d i n a n c e — o n e o f f i v e such passed by the Kenya L e g i s l a t u r e from 1912  to  1922—  has not been changed to meet the requirements o f t h i s memorandum. 26.  As Orde-Brown shows, n a t i v e labour may  be r e q u i s i t i o n e d ,  Cmd. 3573 (1930j Memorandum on Native P o l i c y i n East A f r i c a , 12.  27. Supra  L02,  - 104 at  Local r a t e s of pay,  f o r work on roads, r a i l w a y s , and  government undertakings, nor,  a f t e r previous  -  certified  approval  i n each case by  other  the Gover-  by the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e .  Ex-  emption from such labour i s g i v e n , however, on proof of having done three months work w i t h i n or outside the during  the previous 12 months' p e r i o d .  reserve  Such compulsory  Labour i s Limited to s i x t y days per year.  The  penalty f o r  non-compLiance i s set i n the Ordinance at a f i n e of £7, 28 Od,  or, two months'- imprisonment.  10s,  I t would be much more  r e a s s u r i n g to those w i t h the w e l f a r e of the n a t i v e a t heart i f the o f f i c i a l m a j o r i t y i n the L e g i s l a t u r e would b r i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o Line with C o l o n i a l O f f i c e p o l i c i e s .  But  settlers,  out-  l e d by L o r d Delamere argued that the p o l i c y  l i n e d i n Cmd. denied  3573 unduly emphasized n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s  to the w h i t e s e t t l e r s the share  and  i n the t r u s t e e s h i p of  the n a t i v e s promised to them i n the 1927 29 Policy  the  White Paper Future  i n East A f r i c a , which s t r e s s e d the need of a dual  policy^  The  small white communities i n Tanganyika and  in  Uganda a l s o adopted the same a t t i t u d e towards the memorandum. I t seems apparent that aLL the B r i t i s h Government needs to do to  i n Kenya i s c a l l  the s e t t l e r s ' b l u f f i n order  reassure the n a t i v e s of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the  d e c l a r a t i o n s of labour p o l i o y . continued  official  There i s no p l a c e f o r the  s t a L l i n g of the o f f i c i a l machinery by the  clamourings  of the s e t t l e r community. L e t the Government admit t h a t i t i s 28. See Orde-Brown, op. c i t . , 151. 29. Cmd.  2904 (1927).  - 105 going back on the Dual P o l i c y of 1927. can hope to l e g i s l a t e f o r a l l time. was  A f t e r a l l no government  And  o e r t a i n l y no  policy  ever more shallow i n i t s sc^ope than the Dual P o l i c y .  It  appears that no colony has more need than Kenya f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the o l d d o c t r i n e of "the g r e a t e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number.'* ,So much f o r the more g e n e r a l aspects of the Kenya labour problem.  I t may  be assumed, howeyer, that the  great m a j o r i t y o f the A f r i c a n s understand wide f a c e t s .  So them the s m a l l e r d e t a i l s such as the  l a t i o n used t o e f f e c t irksome.  l i t t l e about  these legis-  the present labour balance a r e more  As i n the case of South A f r i c a , some of the Kenya  Labour L e g i s l a t i o n i s a d i s g r a c e to Great B r i t a i n ' s  adminis-  tration. The nature of these Kenya Labour  Ordinances  i s a sad r e f l e c t i o n upon the treatment many of the s e t t l e r s mete out to t h e i r b l a c k employees.  Some of the laws, and  those, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y e n f o r c e d , seek to regulate  the treatment of labour.  Some have aimed a t checking the  e x p l o i t a t i o n of female and c h i l d  labour.  The m a j o r i t y aim t o  enforce the keeping of n a t i v e l a b o u r c o n t r a c t s .  This last  f a c t alone shows t h a t , w i t h n a t i v e taxes so h i g h as to make necessary g e n e r a l e n t e r i n g of c o n t r a c t , c o n d i t i o n s of labour must be g e n e r a l l y bad.  But  to most of the n a t i v e s the s o - c a l l e d  E a t i v e R e g i s t r a t i o n Ordinance of 1921  i s the most a g g r a v a t i n g .  In Kenya as i n South A f r i c a , n a t i v e s  i n the case of many Ordinances w h i l e European  non-observance  i s t r e a t e d as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e  d i s r e g a r d of the Labour Laws i s a matter f o r the  -- 106 c i v i l courts.  T h i s f a c t alone,  d i s r e g a r d i n g f o r the moment  the u n f a i r laws concerned, i s a constant  p r i c k to the growing  African r a c i a l pride. The  b i t t e r resentment f e l t by the n a t i v e s t o -  wards the Native R e g i s t r a t i o n Ordinance has been mentioned. Each a d u l t male n a t i v e i s o b l i g e d t o c a r r y upon h i s person h i s E i p a n d l or R e g i s t r a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e .  This Kipandl  system i s  not the same t h i n g by any means as the Pass system of South Africa.  The  Kenya system has nothing  to do whatsoever w i t h  the r e g u l a t i o n of the movements of the n a t i v e . at  I t aims s o l e l y  the enforcement of labour c o n t r a c t and a t the  of d e s e r t i o n .  prevention  Each K i p a n d l , prepared i n t r i p l i c a t e , c a r r i e s  the f i n g e r p r i n t of the labour a p p l i c a n t (each n a t i v e i s o b l i g e d to apply)., h i s name, and  the s i g n a t u r e of h i s d i s t r i c t  officer.  Upon e n t e r i n g European employ e a c h n a t i v e must present copy of the K i p a n d i l e a v i n g the is  to the employer f o r endorsement.  employer he must o b t a i n a d i s c h a r g e ;  I l l e g a l f o r him  to accept  Before  otherwise I t  employment elsewhere.  r e c o r d of a l l employment i s kept by  his  A  complete  the c h i e f r e g i s t r a r at  ISfairobi. When t h i s Ordinance was d e s e r t i o n was In 1921  made a c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e .  f i r s t passed, i n The  system worked w e l l .  an amending ordinance d e c l a r e d d e s e r t i o n to be  longer a c o g n i z a b l e hard to check. the K l p a n d l  offense.  Still  Since then d e s e r t i o n has  the K l p a n d j system i s c a r r i e d on.  does act as a s o r t of good-service  But t h a t i s about a l l that can be s a i d f o r i t . Lord Moyne's 1932  1915  no been True,  certificate. Schedule 5 of  f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t shows t h a t f o r 1931  the  - 107 30 oost o f the R e g i s t r a t i o n Department came t o 17,144 pounds. And  y e t t h i s cost i s p l a c e d under the heading o f I n d i v i s i b l e  S e r v i c e s , that i s , the n a t i v e i s supposed t o b e n e f i t from the expenditure  as much as does the European, But as long as the labour r e l a t i o n s between the  Kenya communities continue  i n t h e i r present form some s o r t of  K i p a n d i system i s necessary,  As long as the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n  of Kenya i s valued by the w h i t e s a c c o r d i n g t o the f r a c t i o n o f it  a v a i l a b l e f o r the labour market, such r e g i s t r a t i o n w i l l  continue*  Moreover, the R e g i s t r a t i o n Ordinance w i l l  to r e q u i r e the means o f enforcement,  continue  F o r t h i s , and a l l the  other Labour Ordinances embodied i n the Kenya Employment of 31 U a t i v e s Law o f 1927 are the concomitants o f an unstable situation.  labour  At the present r a t e o f e v o l u t i o n o f the A f r i c a n s  t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s bound to change soon and t h i s change w i l l , ' it  i s aLmost c e r t a i n , f a v o u r  the n a t i v e s .  What, one might ask, would a system o f I n d i r e c t Rule i n Kenya do towards the readjustment  o f the present  labour  balance? .The  suecess  o f I n d i r e c t Rule would r e q u i r e , o f  course, e i t h e r the complete s e g r e g a t i o n o f the white and b l a c k communities o r the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t s o f the white to  those of the b l a c k .  I n the study o f the Kenya Land Problem  we s h a l l see that g e n e r a l o p i n i o n i s against s e g r e g a t i o n . would, a f t e r a l L , mean the r e s e r v a t i o n o f the Highland  •  <•  .  •  - i  areas  '  30. Report o f the F i n a n c i a l Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on C e r t a i n Questions i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093); May, 1932. 31. See Orde Browne; op. c i t . ; 147-153.  This  - L08 f o r the whites.  Thus the second a l t e r n a t i v e , the p r i n c i p l e of  the paramountcy o f n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s , remains. Under I n d i r e c t Rale  there would be no q u e s t i o n  of s a t i s f y i n g European labour demands.  The p r o f i t s o f n a t i v e  labour would go towards t h e enrichment o f the A f r i c a n s themselves.  F o r , as i n Tanganyika and H i g e r i a , the new Kenya  A f r i c a n s o c i e t y would be based upon n a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n f o r profit. But a f t e r aLL, i t i s r a t h e r f u t i l e the l a b o u r problem i n t h i s way. if  i t i s to succeed,  Before  to i s o l a t e  I n d i r e c t Rale must be a p p l i e d ,  to a l l phases o f N a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  the labour problem can be s e t t l e d ,  the land of the  country must be e q u i t a b l y r e d i s t r i b u t e d so as t o assure to the n a t i v e s adequate land f o r p r o d u c t i o n f o r p r o f i t .  Hew  a t t i t u d e s towards l a b o u r and land both mast s p r i n g from a new system o f n a t i v e  education.  The  s o l u t i o n o f the labour s i d e o f the Kenya  n a t i v e problem, can, I t h i n k , i f the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e works towards I n d i r e c t Rule be l e f t t o i t s e l f . tangible.  Labour i s not.  The s o l u t i o n o f the land problem  r e q u i r e s a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth. government a c t i o n .  Land i s something  T h i s must come from  But, i n the case o f the labour problem,  w h i l e much reform eould come through the a L l e v i a t i n g o f the burden o f the labour laws, t h e s o l u t i o n w i l l come i n d i r e c t l y through the f u l l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the White Paper p o l i c i e s and the development of n a t i v e  institutions.  ,CHAPTER•Y The,Hatlve Land,Problem :  i n Kenya  (1) The o r i g i n of the problem (£).European  and A f r i c a n conceptions of tenure  (3) S i r Charles E l i o t ' s p o l i c y (4) ]The case of the Kikuyu t r i b e agrioulturaLists (50; The Masai -pastoralists (6) The ''White Highlands", p r i n c i p l e (7) H a t i v e Reserves (8) ,The Kenya Land Commission  o f 1934 and i t s recommendations  (9) The land problem i n the l i g h t of t r u s t e e s h i p and Rule  Indireot  CHAPTER V ,THE HATIVE LAND PROBLEM LH KEHYA Of the Land problem i n Kenya Colony, Olivier  Lord  says  There was pLenty o f land a v a i l a b l e f o r Europeans to c o l o n i z e without d e p r i v i n g the n a t i v e s of land they were occupying o r needed; and Europeans had an i n c o n t e s t a b l e r i g h t to pLant themselves on such vacant lands, as they d i d on those of A u s t r a l i a and Hew Zealand. *• Had  the e a r l y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f E a s t A f r i c a taken the t r o u b l e  to c o n s i d e r such matters  as n a t i v e occupancy and land r e q u i r e -  ments the whole n a t i v e problem of the colony would have been immeasurably s i m p l i f i e d .  But the s e i z u r e of A f r i c a n lands i n  Kenya f o r white s p e c u l a t i o n l a c k e d a l l the s u b t l e t y and barg a i n i n g that accompanied the process o f settlement i n other p a r t s o f the world.  The s i t u a t i o n i n South A f r i c a might be  c a l l e d the parent o f t h a t i n Kenya. In 1840 P r o f e s s o r Herman M e r i v a l e , i n a l e c t u r e at Oxford, spoke of the process by which n a t i v e land problems develop.  The process i n Kenya Colony r e f l e c t s i r o n i c a l l y  upon  M e r i v a l e ' s f o r e s i g h t , though not upon h i s a n a l y s i s : The e r r o r - - - o f l e a v i n g the n a t i v e s w h o l l y unprovided f o r i s one not l i k e l y to occur i n modern c o l o n i z a t i o n . . We have been so f a r taught by the experience o f our predecessors, and, I may add, s e n t i ments o f humanity and j u s t i c e have so f a r gained ground among us, t h a t i n recent settlements r e s e r v e s 1. L o r d O l i v i e r . The Anatomy o f A f r i c a n M i s e r y , London, 1927, 182. • - 109 -  -  1L0 V  of land have i n v a r i a b l y been made at once, and approp r i a t e d to the n a t i v e s . But i t i s p l a i n that the e v i l day i s only postponed by such measures as these, unless they are combined w i t h a f o r e s e e i n g and f a r - r e a c h i n g p o l i c y h i t h e r t o a l t o g e t h e r unknown. F o r whether o r not the n a t i v e s r e s i d i n g on these r e s e r v e s a t t a i n i n t h e i r i n s u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n t o a c e r t a i n degree o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , the same r e s u l t s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w . A f t e r a time the c o l o n i s t s w i l l c a s t an eye o f c u p i d i t y upon the n a t i v e l a n d s : they w i l l complain o f the economic disadvantages which attend the i n t e r p o s i t i o n of l a r g e u n c u l t i v a t e d or h a l f - c u l t i v a t e d t r a c t s between populated d i s t r i c t s ; of t h e i r own s u f f e r i n g s by the p r o x i m i t y o f the n a t i v e s - - - - . And government w i l l f i n d i t s e l f , - - - - as i t has always been, c a j o l e d by the thousand p l a u s i b i l i t i e s advanced i n favour o f removing these unfortunates a f a r t h e r stage i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s . 2 Merivale  says,  i t w i l l be n o t i c e d , t h a t by 1840  the e t h i c s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n had advanced t o such a stage there c o u l d be no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c o l o n i a l government disregarding  that totally  the requirements o f indigenous peoples i n i.tss  land p o l i c i e s .  Yet i n Kenya Colony i n 1937, as we s h a l l see,  the A f r i c a n has no s e c u r i t y by law f o r the Reserves which have been a l l o t t e d are h o p e l e s s l y  to him.  Many s e c t i o n s o f these Reserves  overcrowded.  Much r e s e r v e  land i s u s e l e s s f o r  a g r i c u l t u r e and o f t e n , even f o r p a s t o r a l use.  When S i r  Charles  E l i o t s t a r t e d the process o f a l i e n a t i n g East A f r i c a n land to the Europeans i n 1903, no survey had been made o f n a t i v e holdings.  Moreover, no a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to A f r i c a n systems  of tenure or of a g r i c u l t u r e .  T h i s , i n some ways, has been  the g r e a t e s t mistake o f a l l .  F o r , as we have seen, almost  every aspect  o f any race problem can be t r a c e d t o such a  2. M e r i v a l e , Herman; L e c t u r e s on C o l o n i z a t i o n and C o l o n i e s D e l i v e r e d b e f o r e the U n i v e r s i t y o f Oxford i n 1839, 1840 and 1841 and r e p r i n t e d i n 1861; London; 1928; 508..  - Ill« d i s r e g a r d of is  the  foundations upon which the  indigenous c u l t u r e  built. There e x i s t s a wide g u l f between our  land ownership In l e g a l  theory and  ideas  in actual practise.  of  Theo-  r e t i c a l l y , a l l land i n the Empire i s v e s t e d  i n the Grown as  the  can  symbol of the s t a t e .  ownership of the s o i l . The  In theory, But  no man  absolute  p r a c t i c e i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to  average B r i t o n counts h i s r i g h t to own  most vaLued b i r t h r i g h t s .  claim  Centuries  land as one  theory. of h i s  of s t r e s s on the i d e a of  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s have shaped our democratic a t t i t u d e towards the conception towards the education  of p r o p r i e t o r s h i p as they have our  f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e i n other matters, such as  and  social regulation. The  the  attitude  Bantu system, however, approaches c l o s e l y  t h e o r e t i c a l B r i t i s h conceptions which, a f t e r a l l ,  from the days when B r i t i s h s o c i e t y was Kenya n a t i v e  also  tribal.  land systems f o l l o w e d , t o a v a r y i n g  spring The  degree,  the  t r a d i t i o n a l Bantu system. The  t r i b e , symboLized i n the  owner of a l l land.  The  r i g h t so  governed h i s l i f e a c c o r d i n g  long as he  f r e e use  C h i e f , was  of the  communal t r i b a l s o c i e t y .  as the  buying and  of t h a t land was  a tribesman's  to the  There c o u l d be no  s e l l i n g o f land.  the  rules  such thing  E a r l y land bargains between  Europeans and A f r i c a n c h i e f s were based on t h i s misunderstanding. The  n a t i v e C h i e f had  imagine that he was allowed the use The  no power to s e l l selling  of the  it.  The  the land nor d i d s e t t l e r was  land upon the s u f f e r a n c e  e a r l i e s t white pioneers  merely of  the  he being tribe.  i n East A f r i c a h e l d t h e i r land  on  -  LIE -  the mistaken assumption o f purchase or o f g i f t . the mistake was excusable.  With Laymen  But when the B r i t i s h Government  based i t s East A f r i c a n Land poLicy on a Like Lack of knowledge, there c o u l d be no condoning the a c t i o n . O l i v i e r says, country  Whether, as L o r d  there was s u f f i c i e n t unoccupied  to warrant a government settlement  Land i n the  p o L i c y i s a matter  of question, but the a L i e n a t i o n of l a r g e areas o f Land apparentl y unoccupied, which were a c t u a l L y only t e m p o r a r i l y so under the A f r i c a n system o f a g r i c u l t u r e , was b l i n d n e s s u n p a r a l l e l e d . I t must be admitted, of n a t i v e tenure  however, t h a t the q u e s t i o n  i n Kenya i s n o t so simple  as i t would be were  the n a t i v e s pure Bantu, u s i n g u n a l t e r e d the Bantu land system. We have seen that East A f r i c a has been i n past ages the m e l t i n g pot o f the Bantu peoples Hamitic  of the south w i t h the G a l l a and  peoples from t h e n o r t h .  others a r e p u r e l y a g r i c u L t u r a l .  Some t r i b e s a r e p a s t o r a L i s t s , T h i s aLone accounts  for a  wide v a r i a t i o n i n the s t a b i l i t y o f the n a t i v e land systems. The Masai, the most Hamitic o f the t r i b e s , being has  the l e a s t f i x e d ideas o f land ownership.  pastoralists  On the other  hand, the Bantu seems to l e a n towards a s t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l system w i t h s t r o n g emphasis upon the tribesman's  r i g h t to  e f f e c t i v e occupancy o f h i s share o f the t r i b a l land. peoples  i n the southern  p a r t o f the Kenya h i g h l a n d b l o c k seem  to have h e l d most s t r o n g l y to the Bantu system. these  The  could be p l a c e d the Kavirondo,  Along  with  a huge t r i b e o f 1,0£9,4££  people. The  d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n on what c o n s t i t u t e s  e f f e c t i v e occupancy o f land e x p l a i n s to a great extent the  - 113 apparent  b l i n d n e s s o f the Kenya a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the s t a r t  of white s e t t l e m e n t .  To understand  the n a t i v e ' s a t t i t u d e to  the use o f land we must know something of the a g r i c u l t u r a l o r p a s t o r a l background o f h i s L i f e . The  average s e t t L e r i s firmLy convinced  that  the n a t i v e has no r i g h t to h o i d Land i f he i s not abLe to exp l o i t the s o i l t o the f u L L e s t extent by h i s methods of a g r i c u l t u r e . , I n farming, fit.  the European aims at p r o d u c t i o n f o r pro-  The A f r i c a n aims only a t p r o d u c t i o n f o r use.  The peasant  i s s a t i s f i e d t o produce s u f f i c i e n t food f o r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y p l u s the L i t t L e he needs to pay h i s t r i b u t e to h i s c h i e f . He c u l t i v a t e s an area of the t r i b a l  lands s u f f i c i e n t f o r h i s  use f o r a couple of seasons and then, land being moves on to another a r e a , l e a v i n g the f i r s t a result,  there i s no such  plentiful,  to l i e f a l l o w .  thing as i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n .  As A  man chooses s o i l s u f f i c i e n t to grow enough f o r h i s needs. The  i n e f f i c i e n c y of such use of the s o i l i n the  l i g h t o f European i d e a l s has been c o n s t a n t l y brought  forward  by the s e t t l e r s as one o f the "thousand p l a u s i b i l i t i e s " i n favour of f u r t h e r a l i e n a t i o n . , another  I t was c o n s i d e r e d to be jus.t  s i g n of what happens under a s o c i a l system such as  the Bantu which--deadly stigma i n the ambitious  European's e y e —  i s l e t h a r g i c , or r a t h e r , which l a c k s the i d e a l of accumulative gain.  So, i n East A f r i c a , when the e a r l y pioneers saw the  r i c h f a l l o w lands o f the h i g h l a n d s , they concluded that these were unoccupied  immediately  or not e f f e c t i v e l y occupied.  Sir  C h a r l e s E l i o t s a i d at the time; We have i n East. A f r i c a the r a r e experience o f d e a l i n g  - 114 with, a t a b u l a r a s a , an almost untouched and s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d country, where we can do as we l i k e , regul a t e immigration and d o s e the door as i t seems b e s t . T h i s l e s s e n s the d i f f i c u l t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - - - There  i s no doubt  that much of the a g r i c u l t u r a l land of the  h i g h l a n d s muatthave presented such an appearance True, much o f i t probably was p a t i o n was  3  unoccupied.  no s i g n that the land was  of  emptiness.  But l a c k of occu-  not needed.  The. C o l o n i a l  O f f i c e , Leys says, gave orders t o the P a l e s t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s that, u n t i l  each and every Arab f a m i l y was  40 a c r e s , no Jew was  to get l a n d .  He shows that a t l e a s t  t h i r d s of the Kikuyu have l e s s than 3.5 the P a l e s t i n e r e g u l a t i o n were a p p l i e d a b s o l u t e l y no  assured of at l e a s t  a c r e s per head,  two-  if  to Kenya, there would be • 4  land a v a i l a b l e f o r a l i e n a t i o n . The Phelps-Stokes E d u c a t i o n a l Commission s a i d ,  of Kenya, i n i t s 1923 Beport that " I n no B r i t i s h A f r i c a has  Colony i n  i t been so d i f f i c u l t to formulate a trustworthy  statement r e l a t i n g to the number of n a t i v e people, the areas 5 i n which they l i v e - - - " stands.  The  statement a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l  I t seems i m p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r from the C o l o n i a l  Reports or other standard sources of s t a t i s t i c s  how  the f i g u r e s  adopted by such w r i t e r s as Norman Leys and MacGregor Ross to show the inadequacy It  o f n a t i v e lands i n Kenya are a r r i v e d a t .  i s e a s i e r to draw i n d i r e c t c o n c l u s i o n s from o f f i c i a l  figures  than to handle those f i g u r e s by s t a t i s t i c a l methods to support 3. Leys, H.; Kenya; London; 1926; 114. 4. See Leys, N.; L a s t Chance i n Kenya; London; 1931;  61.  5. Phelps-Stokes Commission Report; E d u c a t i o n i n E a s t A f r i c a ; .London; n.d. (1923 ? ) ; 141.  - 115 the c o n c l u s i o n s .  The Kenya Annual Report f o r 1935 s t a t e s that  the t o t a l land a l i e n a t e d i n Kenya i s 10,294 square m i l e s .  The  a r e a g a z e t t e d i n 1926 as N a t i v e Reserves was 48,345 square 6 miles.  Now  the Empire P a r l i a m e n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s 1933  r e p o r t on the Empire  shows that over 90$ o f the a r a b l e land i n  Kenya i s i n the Highlands and, furthermore that 2/3 o f the 7 2,500,000 n a t i v e s depend on a g r i c u l t u r e f o r t h e i r  existence.  The M o r r i s G a r t e r Land Commission o f 1934 recommended two new areas be added  to the North Kavirondo Reserve.  that These  would b r i n g the t o t a l Reserve a r e a up t o 51,221 square m i l e s . Of these a d d i t i o n a l areas Norman Leys w r i t e s o n l y once has a European a p p l i e d f o r land i n e i t h e r . In t h i s c a s e — t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was l a t e r w i t h d r a w n — i t was proposed to expend a s i s a l p l a n t a t i o n i n t o t h i s area. S i s a l i s n o t o r i o u s l y a drought r e s i s t e r that i s never grown except on land too poor and too a r i d to grow anything e l s e . 8 ;  The i m p l i c a t i o n that Leys draws from the f i g u r e s i n the case of the Kavirondo i s important to us: f o r e v e r to be r e s t r i c t e d  "1,029,422 Kavirondo are  to t h e i r Reserves o f 7,114 square  m i l e s , while the 17,000 Europenas  are f o r e v e r to possess the  16,700 square m i l e s o f the European Highlands; l e s s than 5 mile a c r e s per head i n the one case and a square per head i n the 9 other." A  6. Annual Report, 1935; 13. 7. Empire P a r l i a m e n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Report; 1933; 65. 8. Leys, Norman; Report o f the Kenya Land Commission; Statesmandand N a t i o n ; V o l . 8; J u l y 28, 1934; 116.  New  9. Leys; l o c . c i t . ; 117. Note: w h i l e the Annual Report f i g u r e i s 10,294 square m i l e s f o r the a r e a a l i e n a t e d t h i s 16,700 r e p r e s e n t s the . area the Land Commission proposed to r e s e r v e f o r Europeans. (See Cmd. 4556, Paragraphs 1441, 1449, 1469, 1979.)  -  L16 -  We oan o b t a i n another s t r i k i n g r a t i o from the o f f i c i a l f i g u r e s quoted above by s a y i n g that while  the 17,000 Europeans are to  h o l d 16,700 square m i l e s , the 2,000,000 n a t i v e s are t o h o l d 10 only around 50,000 square m i l e s . I f the nature with  o f the n a t i v e system o f a g r i c u l t u r e ,  i t s need f o r r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r land areas per head than  the European system, i s kept i n mind the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e of p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s i n the n a t i v e areas  o f Kenya i s most  illuminating: . P o p u l a t i o n and i t s B a t i o to T o t a l Acreage In Per t a i n N a t i v e D i s t r i c t s of Kenya Colony*-*Population Kavirondo Province Distriots: H. Kavirondo C. Kavirondo 3. Kavirondo Kikuyu Province Districts: Meru Igembe Tigania Imendi Tharaka Embu Muthambi Mwimba Chuka Mb ere Hyeri Hyeri Keruguya Port H a l l H. Maragua S. Maragua Kiambu Mukinyi Kiambu . Dagoreti 10.  Acres per Head  332,835 370,046 320,514  4.6 3.1 5.9  35,238 35,652 80,097 10,937  6.0 4.5 2.2 14.0  3, 784 14,099 13,448 23,071  3.3 5.8 3.4 17.2  107,155 83,738  2.0 3.1  86,279 86,540  2.2 2.2  24,523 24,293 31,306  3.3 2.5 1.3  See 514 H.O. Debs. 5S. J u l y 9, 1936; 1465; (Col.) Ormsby-Gore says 86% o f n a t i v e s i n 48,149 square.miles.  11. Leys, H.; op. c i t . ,  171.  - L17 I t w i l l be noted how reserve. areas.  crowded are the n a t i v e s i n the Kikuyu  T h e i r Lands L i e r i g h t  i n the h e a r t of the Highland  Before d i s c u s s i n g the q u e s t i o n of the White Highlands  it  i s worth w h i l e to c o n s i d e r the case of the Kikuyu.  They,  of  a l l the t r i b e s , have the g r e a t e s t complaint a g a i n s t  the  white  man. In  tribal  the case o f the Kikuyu, the a l i e n a t i o n of  land by the government was  absolutely  unwarrantable.  They had a land system developed f a r beyond the o r d i n a r y Bantu communal system.  Tenure was  based upon aLmost  conceptions of i n d i v i d u a l ownership.  The s t o r y o f the develop-  ment of t h i s Gethaka system i s complicated and Two  hundred  interesting.  years ago the Kikuyu,  southward w i t h t h e i r herds (they were then s t i l l came i n t o the t h i c k l y f o r e s t e d h i g h l a n d s , i n t o the  hunter t r i b e ,  —an the  the Wandorobo,  European  travelling pastoraLists),  the area of  In exchange f o r Kikuyu  cattle  a c t u a l b a r t e r — t h e hunters handed over l a r g e areas to Kikuyu.  The newcomers s e t t L e d down to d e f o r e s t these  lands f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  Canon Leakey d e s c r i b e s the a s t o n i s h i n g L y  ingenious c u l t i v a t i o n and cropping system the Kikuyu developed LE to  s u i t t h e i r new home. Under the system o f Gethaka  of the t r i b e was  g i v e n a c e r t a i n a r e a f o r i t s own,  down from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n . g i v e n such a t i t l e , Gethaka IE.  titles,  Ho non-Kikuyu  each famiLy to be handed could be  though he might be aLLowed to s e t t L e upon  land w i t h the t i t l e - h o l d e r ' s p e r m i s s i o n .  Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya; London; 1936;  LL6-L24.  The  estate  - U8 * was,  so to speak, e n t a i l e d .  defined  I t was  a complicated  yet  dearly  and workable land system. But  downfall  one  f e a t u r e of i t caused the  system's  by p r o v i d i n g the s e t t l e r w i t h a loophole  f o r pene-  tration.  As w i t h a l l Bantu a g r i c u l t u r e , the Gethaka h o l d i n g  had  l a r g e enough to alLow the l y i n g f a l l o w of l a r g e  to be  areas.  These f e r t i l e  areas,  along w i t h huge f o r e s t t r a c t s  which were used f o r f u e l s u p p l i e s and which served, for  protection against  the fflasai r a i d e r s , had  a t t r a c t i o n f o r the European s e t t l e r ' s "eye  an  as w e l l ,  irresistable  of c u p i d i t y " .  So  white i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n i n the Kikuyu h i g h l a n d s took p l a c e . was  not  long before  eviction. that only  the process became o f f i c i a l l y  The M o r r i s 1474  Garter  Commission claimed  It  sanctioned  to have proved  square m i l e s o f the a l i e n a t e d land had  been  occupied  by the A f r i c a n s and that not more than 300 A f r i c a n s 13 were e v i c t e d . Much of the r e p o r t i s not accepted by c r i t i c s of B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n Kenya or by many men i n t e r e s t e d i n the c a r r y i n g out 14 ship. One  i n a u t h o r i t y who  are  of the p r i n c i p l e s of t r u s t e e -  o f the main recommendations of the Kenya  Land Commission was  that the boundaries of the area known as 15 the Highlands be d e l i m i t e d once and f o r a l l . T h i s meant that the e x c l u s i o n of non-Europeans from land-owning i n these  a r e a s — w h i c h had  f o r t h i r t y years been accepted  13.  Cmd.  14.  read debate 314 17; 1426; 1433;  H.C. Bebates 5S, 1470; 1523.  15.  Cmd.  I I I , Chapter  administrational  4556, Table I, 382-3.  4556; P a r t  IX.  9 J u l y 1936:  Cols.  1416-  - 119 p r a c t i c e unsupported by Law—was t o be g i v e n Legal s a n c t i o n . The Debate quoted above,  of JuLy 9, 1956 i n the House o f Com-  mons was brought about by the Government's d e c l a r a t i o n it  that  proposed t o i s s u e the ordinance c a r r y i n g out the Commission's 16  recommendations. The  treatment of the Kikuyu and the Kavirondo  may be c o n s i d e r e d f a i r examples of how the a g r i c u l t u r a l f a r e d i n t h e matter o f land.  tribes  L e t us look now at the h i s t o r y  of t h e Masai, the p a s t o r a L i s t s o f Kenya. As we have seen, the Masai lacked e n t i r e l y the u n i f o r m i t y of tenure that marked t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l T h i s people—more the  Hamite than Bantu--and  tribes.  the r e l a t e d  tribes,  Akamba and the Handi, had, i n common w i t h most nomadic  p a s t o r a L i s t s , no weLL-defined Land system a t aLL. no need of one.  They had  T h e i r prowess i n war determined that  certain  areas o f Kenya were to be L e f t f r e e f o r g r a z i n g t h e i r huge herds.  Some of the f i n e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l Land i n Kenya, the  f e r t i L e s e c t i o n s of t h e R i f t V a l l e y , were used as pasturage for  the Masai herds. In the case o f these t r i b e s i t i s f a i r l y  easy  to make a d e f e n s i b l e case f o r the t a k i n g o f t h e i r lands by the w h i t e men. development. the  C e r t a i n l y there was no evidence o f a g r i c u l t u r a l I f the advent of t h e white man on the p La ins of  Canadian west can be excused, then the a L i e n a t i o n o f t h i s  16. "The Commission have d e f i n e d t h e boundaries of the European Highlands and H i s Majesty's Government propose to accept t h e i r recommendations i n r e g a r d to t h i s . . " See: Kenya Land Commission Report, Summary o f Conelusions reached by H i s Majesty's Government {Cmd. 458~0; May 1934; 3).  - 120 misused Masai land oan be excused a l s o — t h a t proper use were made of i t by the newcomers.  i s , provided But i n no p a r t  of Kenya has the w h i t e man made such use of the land as would excuse  the s e i z u r e of i t from the A f r i c a n s .  The Grown Lands  Ordinance of 1915 s e t down c e r t a i n minimum requirements f o r the  development  ignored.  of a l i e n a t e d lands.  I t s p r o v i s i o n s have been  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the r a t i o o f the acreage  of white l a n d - h o l d i n g s under c u l t i v a t i o n to the t o t a l area 17 h e l d , f o r 1925 and the three p r e v i o u s y e a r s : Year  T o t a l Ocoupled Area  1925 1924 1923 1922  4,420,573 ac. 4,192,731 3,985,371 3,804,158  Total Cultivated Area  % cultivated to occupied l a n d  392,628 346,988 274,319 23.4,055  8.88 8.28 6.88 6.15  F a i l i n g e f f e c t i v e use by the s e t t l e r s , e v i c t i o n o f the Masai was the  the  The h i s t o r y of the "Masai move", as  i s c a l l e d i s a t a l e o f broken government promises.  s t o r y i s too long and it  as i n e x c u s a b l e as the e v i c t i o n o f  Kikuyu o r the cooping up of the Kavirondo and other t r i b e s  i n inadequate r e s e r v e s . it  the  too complicated f o r d e t a i l i n g here but  i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y as folLows. fertile  The  R i f t Valley  lands.  The Masai were occupying The F o r e i g n O f f i c e , then  a d m i n i s t r a t i n g E a s t A f r i c a , decided to move them out and p l a c e them on two new  Reserves, one to the n o r t h and one  south o f t h e i r o l d home. syndicate.  The R i f t a r e a was  to the  to go to a B r i t i s h  The Masai o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y to the move but f i -  n a l l y gave i n , p r o v i d i n g the Government l e f t a c o r r i d o r f o r 17. See B u e l l , B . L . H a t l v e Problem i n A f r i c a ; Hew York; 1928; V o l . I . , 3 0 3 , . c i t i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l Census, S i x t h Annual Report o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . H a i r o b i , 1925j 7.  7 121 *  the  passage o f herds open between the new i a i k i p i a  i n the n o r t h and the southern r e s e r v e . reached i n 1904. in  the S i f t .  the  T h i s agreement was  The t r i b e gave up h a l f  i t s a n c e s t r a l home  The c o r r i d o r agreement was not c a r r i e d  government.  was blocked.  reserve  out by  A Masai attempt to r e t u r n to the o l d area  By 1910 the t r i b e was f a i r l y  q u i e t again.  But  by t h i s time the s e t t l e r s had t h e i r eyes on the f e r t i l e L a i k i p l a P l a t e a u as welL.  The East A f r i c a Government  now  coaxed the n a t i v e s i n t o a c c e p t i n g 6,500 square m i l e s of s t o c k l a n d as an a d d i t i o n to the southern r e s e r v e i n r e t u r n f o r 4,500 square miLes o f farmLand on the PLateau. the  t r i b e had moved was  i t found out that most of the new  land was too dry even f o r s t o c k - r a i s i n g . signed.  Hot u n t i l  But the t r e a t y  was  I t was too l a t e to p r o t e s t . A number of Masai who  opposed the 1911 agreement  attempted to sue the government f o r i n j u r i e s a r i s i n g out o f the move s a y i n g that the 1911 t r e a t y had not been approved by the t r i b e as a whole. The strange judgment of the Court o f appeals of E a s t A f r i c a on the case was t h a t inasmuch as the t e r r i t o r y had  not been annexed but was merely a p r o t e c t o r a t e , the Masai  were not B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s ;  that the heads o f the Masai t r i b e  were capable of making agreements w i t h the B r i t i s h Government; that  the c o u r t s could not enquire i n t o  the q u e s t i o n as to  whether the agreements had been made under duress or under proper a u t h o r i t y ; and that a c t s of o f f i c e r s taken to give effect  to such t r e a t i e s r a t i f i e d by the home government were 18 a c t s s o f State over which the 'court had no j u r i s d i c t i o n . 18. B u e l l , R.L., op. c i t . , V o l . I, 314. ' "  - 122  -  As; B u e l l says, the judgment amounted to t h i s ,  that  had the B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s made a c o n t r a c t i n 1904 with a European s e t t l e r g r a n t i n g him c e r t a i n land, the c o n t r a c t wo old have been enforceable i n B r i t i s h c o u r t s . But an agreement made between the B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of some 40,000 n a t i v e s was not enforceable by the c o u r t s . I f the Masai n a t i o n reaLLy had an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s as a s t a t e , no o b j e c t i o n to t h i s d e c i s i o n might l e g a l l y be taken. But i n the case of East, A f r i c a , the. B r i t i s h had extended a j u d i c i a l system throughout the country and had erected a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , the a c t s of which the Masai were o b l i g e d to obey, T h e i r consent to these acts was as t a c i t and as f i c t i t i o u s as the consent which Rousseau's happy savage g i v e s upon e n t e r i n g the s o c i a l contract.19 Following but  t h i s defeat  the Masai appealed to the Privy, C o u n c i l ,  the a c t i o n lapsed owing to i n s u f f i c i e n c y of funds.  The  Government thereupon proceeded to f i n i s h c l e a r i n g the Masai out of the Highlands. the  t r i b e had  By  1913,  been moved south of the Railway l i n e .  s i n c e then, they have r e v o l t e d . find.  One  habitable.  a f t e r strenuous r e s l s t e n c e ,  The  reason i s not hard to  t h i r d of t h e i r 14,600 square m i l e Reserve i s u n i n A part too  a disease area.  i s a l s o u s e l e s s f o r stock,  On the remainder the  tribe tries  715,000 head of c a t t l e , 2,000,000 sheep and donkeys.  Water i s scarce and  since i t i s to keep  goats and  10,000  the t r i b e i s so crowded t h a t  every p o s s i b l e i n c h of l a n d i s being used. Ross nut  Twicej  i t , a l l the Masai can  And,  as MacGregor  do about the s i t u a t i o n i s 20  "marvel" at the ways of Government. I t Is evident  that the  question  of the p o l i c y of land a l i e n a t i o n i n Kenya has  as to how  much  been the work of  19.  idem.  20.  See; Ross, W. MaqGregor; Kenya from Within;, London; Chapter VIII e n t i t l e d ."The, M a r v e l l i n g Masai".  1927;  - 123 the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and how much of i t has had B r i t i s h Government s a n c t i o n i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t to such a study as t h i s . In 1837 a Parliamentary, Committee d e c l a r e d t h a t "So f a r as the lands o f the a b o r i g i n e s are w i t h i n any t e r r i t o r i e s over which the Dominion o f the Crown extends, Her Majesty's otherwise, illegal  the a c q u i s i t i o n of them by  s u b j e c t s , upon any t i t l e o f purchase,  grant, or  from the present p r o p r i e t o r s should be d e c l a r e d 21  and v o i d . "  the paragraph  T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n should be compared w i t h  from M e r i v a l e c i t e d above.  The same d e c l a r a t i o n  contains a statement  o f B r i t a i n ' s f u n c t i o n as a t r u s t e e f o r  the backward r a c e s .  These d e c l a r a t i o n s and the statements i n  the Kenya White Papers o f 1923, 1927 and 1930, should be kept i n mind when c o n s i d e r i n g the progress of Government land p o l i c y i n the colony. I t has been seen that i n 1903, S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t s t a r t e d the a l i e n a t i o n o f land i n the Highlands to 22 whites. He sponsored a vigorous campaign i n South A f r i c a to coax s e t t l e r s to come to the P r o t e c t o r a t e . results.  The campaign brought  The new s e t t l e r s f l o c k e d i n so f a s t that the Land  O f f i c e was swamped and land was handed out without survey as to n a t i v e ownership o r occupancy. 23 took huge areas.  previous  Speculators  21. c i t e d Barnes, Leonard; The Duty of Empire; London; 1935, 132 22. I t should be noted that our main concern i n the matter o f a l i e n a t i o n i s , of course, w i t h the Highland and r u r a l areas. The q u e s t i o n of c o a s t a l and urban a l i e n a t i o n i s "important but o f f a r l e s s importance to the n a t i v e problem. 23. See Cmd. 2747, Kenya, Crown Land Grants, Oct. 1926; items, 4. {cont.)  - 124 Men  l i k e L o r d Delamere and Major Grogan were given great s L i c e s 24  of the best  land at nominal r e n t s .  As w i t h  the laws passed  to safeguard n a t i v e labour i n the e a r l y days of settlement i t was  w i t h the land l a w s — c o n t i n u o u s  pressure by  resulted i n their progressive loosening.  so  settlers  R e s t r i c t i o n s on  a l i e n a t i o n were c o n t i n u a l l y being removed.  Dummying, the  pro-  cess of c h e a t i n g the Land O f f i c e by a p p l y i n g f o r land under more than one  name was  commonly used by r i c h men.  p e r i o d of land hunger and of w i l d c a t s p e c u l a t i o n . it  i s that with such unregulated  has had  beginnings  white  a  Small wonder settlement  to be kept a l i v e by government s u b s i d i e s . However, r e g u l a t e d or unregulated,  would have been the same on the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . of h a t r e d and s u s p i c i o n l e f t by these the minds of the n a t i v e s w i l l be How,  I t was  the  effect  The  legacy  earLy a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n  long i n l o s i n g i t s e f f e c t .  to a l l a p p e a r a n c e s — t h o u g h f o r a year there has been no  a c t i o n upon the i s s u e — t h e highlands marked f o r white men Cunliffe-Lister,  only.  are to be  permanently  I t i s w e l l known that S i r P h i l i p  then S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s ,  23.  (cont. ) Land Rent O f f i c e Ho. per annum " — — Shs.  Area Aores "  Locality  Tenure  422 425  845.38 10,000.00  19,942 G i l g i l 309,393 G i l g i i  487 502,3,4  6,250.00 Royalty  100,000 ELburgeon 200,474 Ravine jj_  914 24.  64,000 Xibwezl  Leasehold " "  Freehold  Original Owner " Hon. G. Cole ' East A f r i c a n Syndicate L t d . L o r d Delamere Major E. S. Grogan Scottish Mission  In 1904 the F o r e i g n O f f i c e wanted to make land concessions i n the Masai area to a l a r g e s y n d i c a t e . S i r Charles E l i o t  Map showing the grant o f Land t o L o r d Delamere and Mr. Powys GOOD.  I t should be noted that the boundary o f the r e s e r v e i s curved i n and out so as to i n c l u d e the source every stream  i n the a l i e n a t e d l a n d . See,Leys, H.; Kenya; 123 and Chapter x i v passim ;  - 125 admitted  on December 18,  use h i s own words "caused  1934  -  that i n December 1932,  the chairman (of the M o r r i s Garter  Commission) to be informed"  that no non-European might own 25  occupy Land i n the European Highlands. being a d v i s e d as to the concLusions i t s considerations—smaLL  he--to  I t was  a RoyaL Commission  i t i s to a r r i v e a t from  wonder that the negro George Padmore,  b r a c k e t i n g the S e c r e t a r y of State w i t h S i r Edward G r i g g , '! Sir P h i l i p C u n l i f f e - L i s t e r , and :  or  says  S i r Edward Grigg, have done  more to destroy the confidence of A f r i c a n s i n B r i t i s h  justice 26  and f a i r p l a y than any o t h e r post-war c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s - - -" In f a c t the whole h i s t o r y o f the "White Highlands" i s not one i n Kenya.  The  to i n s p i r e confidence  i n the non-European  Indian p o p u l a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y , r e a l i z i n g more  than the A f r i c a n the deeper p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , has  fought b i t t e r l y a g a i n s t the p o l i c y of  ex-  e l u d i n g a l l but Europeans from the h i g h l a n d areas. Perhaps no other words have been so o f t e n quoted i n the B r i t i s h Parliament as the famous d e c l a r a t i o n of Queen V i c t o r i a that 24.  25.  There s h a l L not be, i n the eye of the Law, any d i s t i n c t i o n (cont.) o b j e c t e d and r e s i g n e d . His successor, S i r Donald Stewart appointed a Land Board to c l e a n up the land muddle. The Chairman was Lord Delamere. In L905 the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e took over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h the forming of the P r o t e c t o r a t e . See 314,H.C. Debs. 5S, 9 J u l y 1936,  Col.  1433.  26. Padmore, George; How B r i t a i n Rules A f r i c a ; London; 1936; 103. S i r Edward G r i g g i n 1929 proposed that some 50,000 square m i l e s be reserved f o r Europeans.  - 126  -  or d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n whatever, founded upon mere d i s t i n c t i o n of c o l o u r , o r i g i n , language or creed. But the p r o t e c t i o n of the law i n l e t t e r and i n substance, s h a l l be extended i m p a r t i a l l y to a l l a l i k e . And  y e t , the e x c l u s i o n of non-Europeans from the  has  been based, s i n c e i t s beginning,  upon an  highlands  officially  s a n c t i o n e d m i s a p p l i c a t i o n of both the l e t t e r and the of the law.  substance  For, as Lucy P. Mair says"The ' p r i n c i p l e '  (that  a c e r t a i n a r e a be a v a i l a b l e only f o r European occupation)  was  enunciated i n connection w i t h the c o n t r o v e r s y between Indians and Europeans f o r land g r a n t s , when the s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  to which His Majesty's  were opposed, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience  was  aLLow of the r e f u s a l to Indians of land i n the Though no law was Highlands  passed  the custom was  invoked  to 27  Highlands."  e x c l u d i n g non-Europeans from the adopted of g r a n t i n g land only upon  the assent of the governor. administration,  Government  And,  t h i s assent was  f o r the convenience  of  not g i v e n to Non-Europeans.  Successive S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e , s i n c e Lord Elgin,'s f i r s t d e c l a r a t i o n of 1906,  have chosen the easy path and have g i v e n  t h e i r o f f i c i a l b l e s s i n g to the p o l i c y of e x c l u s i o n begun byS i r Charles E l i o t .  The  e n t i r e l y on the l o c a l  problems of Kenya cannot be blamed  legislators.  I t can be  seen, however, t h a t the i m p e r i a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the h i g h l a n d s ' q u e s t i o n are not concern of the Kenya n a t i v e s .  We  immediate  have c o n s i d e r e d a l r e a d y  some of the ways i n which the a p p l i c a t i o n of the 27. Mair, Lucy P.; 84.  the  "principle"  N a t i v e P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a ; London;  1936;  - 127 does concern  them.  Even the m o s t . u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d  the meaning o f e v i c t i o n .  understand  Since the beginning of settlement  the n a t i v e has known only i n s e c u r i t y i n h i s land and events in  the l a s t f o u r years have proved  that even h i s s o - c a l l e d  N a t i v e Reserves are not secure. The delayed.  p r o v i s i o n o f Reserves i n Kenya was long  S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t o b j e c t e d to them i n p r i n c i p l e .  He was a f i r m b e l i e v e r i n the "contact theory" of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The best way t o b r i n g about the w e s t e r n i z a t i o n o f the A f r i c a n was t o a l l o w him f r e e contact w i t h  the s e t t l e r s .  He would be  I s o l a t e d from such b e n e f i c i a l contact i f he were shut up i n reserves. One cannot h e l p f e e L i n g that s e t t l e r  pressure  must have had something to do w i t h e a r l y o f f i c i a l o b j e c t i o n s to  the r e s e r v e p r i n c i p l e .  As M e r i v a l e shows, the s e t t i n g  a s i d e o f Crown Lands f o r n a t i v e occupancy had long before become accepted  practise.  Moreover, the path had been c l e a r e d  i n Kenya by the Crown Lands Ordinance of 1902 whioh s a i d  (Sec-  t i o n 30) t h a t ; " I n a l l d e a l i n g s with Crown land regard s h a l l be had t o the r i g h t s and requirements  o f the n a t i v e s and i n  p a r t i c u l a r the Commissioner s h a l l not s e l l o r l e a s e any land 28 i n a c t u a l occupation o f the n a t i v e s . " A f t e r S i r Charles E l i o t ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , however, o p i n i o n among the s e t t l e r s began to swing i n favour o f r e s e r v i n g land f o r the n a t i v e s . found 28.  i n the statement  Perhaps the reason can be  o f the Delamere Land Board of 1905 t h a t  See B u e l l ; op. c i t . , I, 306.  - 128 "Should  -  the main body of the t r i b e  i n c r e a s e and overflow  L i v i n g w i t h i n the r e s e r v e  i t s boundaries,  such overflow wouLd be  a v a i l a b l e to meet the demands of the g e n e r a l labour market of 29 the  country." So i n 1907,  Gazette  and  1912,  the government  c a r r i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the boundaries  serves.  Into these  The  Land Board had  1905  1910,  the Kikuyu and said  of c e r t a i n r e -  the Masai were to be moved.  that i t considered a l L Land s e t 30  a s i d e as r e s e r v e should be " a b s o l u t e l y i n v i o l a b l e " , and the-proposed  yet  Grown Lands B i l L of L908—which f o r t u n a t e L y d i d  not become l a w — c o n t a i n e d  a clause s t a t i n g that even a f t e r a  c e r t a i n area had been r e s e r v e d , the Governor might, i f he that i t was  not a l L r e q u i r e d by  the t r i b e concerned, 51  to a l i e n a t e as much as he f e l t was 1915  not needed.  felt  proceed  Moreover, the  Crown Lands Ordinance, which s t i l l h o l d s , has a Like  p r o v i s i o n which gives the power of r e s e r v e c a n c e l l a t i o n to the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e r a t h e r than the Kenya Governor.  This  i s the reason f o r the statement made above t h a t even i n  1937  the Kenya l a t i v e has no r e a l s e c u r i t y f o r h i s land. From 1915  to 1931,  i t must be admitted  problem of the s e c u r i t y of the Reserves was one.  I t looked i n these years  serve p o l i c y were shaping. the land hunger days was 29. BueLL, op. c i t . , I, 30. 31.  I b i d , I,  317.  The  not a v e r y p r e s s i n g  as i f a r e a l l y c r e d i t a b l e Rec a t e r i n g to the s p e c u l a t o r s of  almost gone. 3L6.  that the  P o L i c i e s of n a t i v e Land  1£9  T  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n advanced r a p i d l y . 1915  In 1926  an amendment to the  Ordinance empowered the Governor to proceed w i t h  gazetting of reserve  areas.  The  only drawback was  the  that  the  s e t t l e r s assumed a L l Grown Land not  immediately so demarcated  was  the land a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  open f o r a l i e n a t i o n and pressed 32  to  a l i e n a t e i t . Thus the reserves d e l i m i t e d became a c c o r d i n g l y smaller. A most promising i n 1928.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e step was  Governor S i r Robert Goryndon's proposals  f o r m a t i o n of a N a t i v e Land Board was T r u s t Ordinance i n t r o d u c e d Board was  f o r the  embodied i n a N a t i v e Lands  i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .  made up of the Governor, f i v e o f f i c i a l and  nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " members.  made  T h i s Board was  The  four  to a c t i n  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s l o c a l A d v i s o r y Boards c o n s i s t i n g of two  o f f i c i a l s , a nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " European and an A f r i c a n  member, i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t native reserves. i n Kenya h e l d up  The  a r r i v a l of the H i l t o n Young Commission  the passing of the Ordinance u n t i l  However, i n t h i s year a new safeguards  Ordinance, c o n t a i n i n g even s t r o n g e r  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was  the d i s c o v e r y of gold  Kavirondo Reserve showed how  In J u l y of 1932,  Cunliffe-Lister, 32.  only an Ordinance.  advantageous to the white comr Prospectors  op.  f l o c k e d to  the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ,  agreed to an amendment to the  See Mair, Lucy P.;  passed.  i n the Kakamegs d i s t r i c t o f the  munity t h i s type of l e g i s l a t i o n i s . Kakamega.  1930.  to n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s than the o r i g i n a l , was But,  In 1932  i n which there were  c i t . , 85.  1930  Mr. Ordinance  - 130  -  i n order to allow mining leases i n Reserve areas. passed i n December, 1932. native; was  was  Worst of a l l f o r i t s e f f e c t on  the c l a u s e which allowed  payment i n cash f o r  land g i v e n over to mining i n s t e a d of repaying No  It  the  any  land w i t h  land.  cash could p o s s i b l y take the place of land i n such a crowded  r e s e r v e as the Kavirondo. The  e f f e c t of t h i s amendment and  of the:! f i n d i n g s  of the M o r r i s C a r t e r Land Commission Report on the  question  the N a t i v e Land Board has r e s u l t e d i n the utmost confusion among the n a t i v e s . had  '  C r i t i c s of the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have  a field-day. The  Land Commission a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g  workings of the Lands T r u s t Board decided m i n i s t r a t i v e l y inconvenient has  of  operated  the  t h a t i t was  "ad-  i n many ways; that i t s i n e l a s t i c i t y  to the detriment  of the n a t i v e s ; t h a t i t ignores  n a t i v e p r i v a t e r i g h t s , which are  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y impor-  tant; t h a t i t tends to cramp i n i t i a t i v e  and development;  that i t i n v o l v e s the Board i n a mass of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e with which i t i a unsnited  and  and  detail  unable to cope, and which i s 33  the proper f u n c t i o n of the Government o f f i c e r s Pour years  District."  seems a short time to reach such  c o n c l u s i o n s about an o r g a n i z a t i o n such as Board, e s p e c i a l l y when n a t i v e l i f e and all  i n the  i n s t i t u t i o n s are  r e s p e c t s undergoing such r a p i d change.  system i t s e l f i s only beginning  the N a t i v e Lands  The Native 34 to f u n c t i o n properly.  in Council  33.  See Cmd. 4580 Kenya Land Commission Report;, Summary of Conclusions reached by H.M. Government; 4.  34.  The N a t i v e C o u n c i l s w i l l be ''Taxation and Finance".  discussed  i n Chapter VI,  under  , Yet  131  ^  the proper f u n c t i o n i n g of the L o o a l Advisory  Land Board  depends to a g r e a t extent upon a p r o p e r l y working l o c a l  Native  Oouncil. Nevertheless  i t must be admitted that  certain  of t h i s M o r r i s Garter Commission c r i t i c i s m of the Lands, T r u s t Boards i s quite i n order. Schuster  and Mr.  Oldham, i n a l e t t e r appended to the  . Young Report, pointed administer  S i r R e g i n a l d Mant, S i r George Hilton  out the requirements of any board to  r e s e r v e land.  They s a i d : -  . The f i r s t and p r i n c i p a l need, which may be s c r i b e d as the ' p r o t e c t i v e need', i s to f i x the areas to be set a s i d e , and provide secure prot e c t i o n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the b e n e f i c i a l r i g h t s over such areas to the n a t i v e s .  de-  The second and almost e q u a l l y important need, which we w i l l c a l l the f c o n s t r u c t i v e need', i s to provide f o r the a c t u a l use of the land i n - s u c h a manner as w i l l be of the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t to the natives - - I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t merely to r e s e r v e the land under the dead hand of r i g i d and u n a l i e n a b l e l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n , and i t i s a necessary consequence of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a measure which aims at p r e s e r v i n g the b e n e f i c i a l use of the land to the n a t i v e s must i n c l u d e r e g u l a t i o n s f o r handling i t . 3  5  The land. Commission show that the very nature of the Lands Boards precludes the f u l l s a t i s f a c t i o n of the ''constructive 36 need". They propose, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the present Land T r u s t Board should  be a b o l i s h e d and superseded by a Board appointed .37 by Order i n C o u n c i l . They make the s u g g e s t i o n that the new 35. H i l t o n Young Commission Report (Cmd. 36.  Cmd.  4556; para.  37.  I b i d . , para.  1750.  1692-97.  3234), 1929;  341  and  '* 132* , board shouLd s i t i n London. that  The Government, however,  the Board should remain a l o c a l Board.  insist  They agree, how-  ever, to measures which w i l l b r i n g the Lands Boards i n t o l i n e 38 with the requirements of the Oommission. Another point about the Kenya Land Commission Report which i s very  important  t o our study  i s the charge that  the N a t i v e Lands, T r u s t Ordinance ignores n a t i v e p r i v a t e r i g h t s , which are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important.  I f t h i s be t r u e ,  then the Commission has c e r t a i n l y done the n a t i v e a good turn. I t w i l l be r e c a l L e d what was quoted i n our I n t r o d u c t i o n from J u L i a n Huxley's A f r i c a . View, that the q u e s t i o n whether n a t i v e land tenure  shouLd be such as t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r an i n -  d i v i d u a l c u l t i v a t o r to b e n e f i t h i m s e l f and h i s descendants by the improvements he has made, i s o f g r e a t  importance.  As he  says f u r t h e r , "At present most t r i b a l systems o f tenure make t h i s i m p o s s i b l e ; w h i l e mere grants of f r e e hoLd Land, even l f safeguarded  a g a i n s t t r a n s f e r to men o f other r a c e s , may pro-  duce a system of n a t i v e l a n d l o r d i s m under which the tenant 39 gets a l l the worst o f the b a r g a i n . " 38.  Cmd., 4580, op. c i t . , 7. Note that on Page 8 o f t h i s statement o f c o n c l u s i o n s the . S e c r e t a r y o f State speaks o f the e x t r a expenses i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g out the Commission's recommendations. He r e f e r s to the n a t i v e claims, before refused^ f o r 50,000 pounds due t o dead and m i s s i n g n a t i v e p o r t e r s i n the Great War. The S e c r e t a r y i n s i s t s that he i s not r e opening a c l o s e d i s s u e , and that he i s a d m i t t i n g no Governmental o b l i g a t i o n , when he proposes to s e t aside the sum claimed to d e f r a y the expenses here i n v o l v e d . Padmore, speaking as an A f r i c a n , (op. c i t . , 115) says the S e c r e t a r y speaks w i t h h i s tongue i n h i s cheek when he says the 50,000 pounds i s an ex g r a t i a grant to the n a t i v e s of Kenya.  39. Huxley, J . - . A f r i c a View; London; 1936; 402.  - 133  -  T h i s i s , I t h i n k , the Idea t h a t L i e s behind statement of the M o r r i s C a r t e r Commission. that p o l i c i e s which aim  the  I t has been seen  at s t a b i l i z i n g n a t i v e L i f e through the  p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are as doomed to f a i l u r e i n Kenya as would be p o l i c i e s which ignore entirely. now  The  those  institutions  n a t i v e s of Kenya have advanced so f a r that  D i r e c t Rule p r i n c i p l e s are u t t e r l y i n a p p l i c a b l e .  On  by the  other hand, when an a d m i n i s t r a t o r attempts to r u l e through n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , h i s work may he has  developed i n s t i t u t i o n s which are  evolution. rigid  be j u s t as u s e l e s s ,  and  s t a t i c and  i n that  alLow of  no  T h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s r u i n e d by "the dead hand of unalienable low  i n much o f Kenya the n a t i v e s ' ideas o f land  tenure have evolved As Huxley and  legal r e s t r i c t i o n - - "  a l o n g way  from the o l d t r i b a l  the Land Commission p o i n t out,  conceptions.  the ideas  of  p r i v a t e ownership and o f i n d i v i d u a l l a n d r i g h t s are steadilygaining strength.  So,  r e a l l y does ignore  t h i s growth, the machinery i t s e t s up must  be  i f the N a t i v e Lands T r u s t Ordinance  useless. But  need be s t a t i c .  it is difficult  After a l l ,  to see why  i t should  the machinery  be no g r e a t problem to  c l e a r up the d i f f i c u l t y mentioned i n the r e p o r t of the " p r o t e c t i v e " and  "constructive" functions.  confusing  I t i s hard  to escape the f e e l i n g t h a t the r e a l r e a s o n the Lands T r u s t Ordinance i s to go by the board i s that i n i t s o p e r a t i o n a great  deal depends on the L o c a l N a t i v e  Council.  The  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were to be g i v e n more power than ever to say what should be done with Reserve Land.  The  Native before  Kakamega  - 134  -  a f f a i r showed that the n a t i v e s oared not a whit whether the land was  mineral  land or n o t — R e s e r v e land was  f o r good as f a r as the Native i s a bad  s t a t e of mind to be  I t should 1930  be n o t i c e d ,  too,  C o u n c i l s were concerned. i n i n the  in this  Ordinance reduced from 99  to o u t s i d e r s of land i n the granted save with the consent was ficial  to the  eyes of the  consideration,  Secretary  No  that  the leases  consent.  to  And  be  such  i f the l e a s e worald prove bene-  natives. study of any  the n a t i v e problem of Kenya the q u e s t i o n the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  The  crops up whether,  nature of the  the land problem usualLy provides  r e a l motives of the  phase o f  r e a l l y d e s i r e that the  of t r u s t e e s h i p be c a r r i e d out. of  speculator.  suchi@ase was  of States*  Sooner or l a t e r i n the  after a l l ,  That  to 33 years the term of  reserves.  to be g i v e n only  to remain such  trustee race.  the best  principles  settlement  proof  of  the  Nowhere i s the need of f o r e -  s i g h t on  the part of Government more necessary than i n deaLing  w i t h the  question  of land.  The  land i s , a f t e r a l l ,  of every p r i m i t i v e A f r i c a n t r i b e . East A f r i c a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , South A f r i c a  w i t h the  would t h i n k that  But  life the  t e r r i b l e example of  i n view, would have escaped the p i t f a l l s  administration. government now  One  the  i n land  every mistake was  made and  on the Kenya  r e s t s the onus of proof  that the  declarations  of the WhitecPapers are worth anything. Harvey s a i d , speaking before  In 1914  Mr.  Edmund  the House of.Commons about East  Africa:I see a r e a l d a n g e r — I do not say under the present a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but we must l o o k ahead--of measures taken now being made an excuse i n years to come f o r  - 135 a great a c t o f i n j u s t i c e being done these n a t i v e s . I hope that the CoLonial S e c r e t a r y , when he speaks about t h i s p o i n t , w i L l make i t quite d e a r t h a t i n the f u t u r e , i f r e s e r v e s a r e d e l i m i t e d , regard w i L l be had not merely to the a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o n , but to the n a t u r a l growth o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and that room w i l l be l e f t f o r them, and that he w i l l t r u s t to other measures, such as educ a t i o n , and a g r a d u a l pressure of economic causes, r a t h e r than f o r c e d measures suggested by some of the s e t t l e r s to induce the n a t i v e s t o come i n and g i v e t h e i r labour, as so many of the s e t t l e r s i n East A f r i c a d e s i r e them to do. I think we have every reason to see that we take away t h i s reproach now being made a g a i n s t our ruLe, that w h i l e we taLk very much about s h o u l d e r i n g the white man's burden, we take great care to secure f o r o u r s e l v e s the black man's land.40 S i r Edward Grigg p o i n t s out that King George V o. <  declared  on h i s  accession:  I t w i l l be the high task o f a l l my Governments to superintend the development o f these c o u n t r i e s (the c o l o n i e s ) f o r the b e n e f i t o f the i n h a b i t a n t s and the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e o f the world. At  the same time he seeks to d i v o r c e the question  of t r u s t e e -  s h i p i n Kenya from the d o c t r i n e o f the paramountcy o f n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s * He i s m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g the words of the great declaration.  S i r Edward seeks to a s s o c i a t e the r e s t of the  world with the Kenya s e t t l e r s and s p e c u l a t o r s  i n excusing the  gold-mining concessions i n Kavirondo as foLlows: Are we to say that t h i s metal, so v a l u a b l e to the world as a whole, i s to be denied to the world because i t happens to l i e under the s o i l i n h a b i t e d by a few t r i b e s of A f r i c a n n a t i v e s ? That seems to be an impossible a t t i t u d e t o take up i n t r u s t e e s h i p . You have to t h i n k of the w e l f a r e o f the w o r l d as w e l l as of the i n t e r e s t of those p a r t i c u l a r n a t i v e s . You must be a b s o l u t e l y f a i r t o them, but you cannot i n f l i c t upon the whole world the disadvantages t h a t might come from r e f u s a l t o develop that t a l e n t l y i n g i n the e a r t h , merely i n order that a few people . i n a very p r i m i t i v e s t a t e should remain undisturbed. 40.  65 H. C. Debates 5s, 28 J u l y , 1914, C o l . 1156.  41.  3-14 H. , C. Debates 5s. 9 J u l y , 1936; C o l . 1482.  -'136 As we  saw,  had  -  the Kenya a d m i n i s t r a t i o n heeded  the many warnings, such as that g i v e n by Mr. would not have been the present  native distrust  of the white man—both bred of i n s e c u r i t y . Long ago been g i v e n fuLL had  been r e g u l a t e d ,  with  the few  title  and  there hatred  I f the n a t i v e  to h i s r e s e r v e s ,  the A f r i c a n wouLd not be  concessions  Harvey,  or i f a l i e n a t i o n  so Loathe to part  the Europeans have g i v e n to  him.  Moreover, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s s p r i n g i n g from d e c l a r a t i o n s of t r u s t e e s h i p and  had  the  of the paramountcy of n a t i v e  i n t e r e s t s - - t h e p r i n c i p l e s of I n d i r e c t Ruie--do not aim at g o a l " t h a t a few  peopLe i n a very  main undisturbed."  p r i m i t i v e s t a t e should  I f these p r i n c i p l e s were i n r e a l  the re-  operation  i n Kenya to-day, the time would be f a s t approaching when such western ideas as the world value  of m i n e r a l  resources,  S i r Edward Grigg s t r e s s e s , would be a p p r e c i a t e d  by the n a t i v e s .  T h i s b r i n g s us, a t Last, to the f i n a l tion:  which  considera-  that of the s o l u t i o n of the n a t i v e Land problem.  out the study, we  have seen that s e c u r i t y of tenure i s the  g r e a t e s t s i n g l e land requirement of the n a t i v e . says that the f i r s t  s t e p i n the s o l u t i o n of the  s o l u t i o n shaLL have as i t s aim Kenya wishing  Through-  to l i v e by  Horman Leys problem—which  that every A f r i c a n f a m i l y i n  the c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l may  be  able to do s o — i s that of making the Reserves, by s t a t u t e , really  inviolable.  I f the  t r i b a l a u t h o r i t i e s are given  full  t r u s t f o r a l l t r i b a l land, much w i l l be done to a l l a y n a t i v e 42 distrust. Second (to folLow Leys' enumeration of the steps 42. Leys, H.,  op. c i t . , 62.  - 137  -  needed i n a s o l u t i o n of the problem) u n t i l cans are f u l l y met, non-Africans.  And  the needs o f A f r i -  no f u r t h e r land should be a l i e n a t e d to a l l land r e v e r t i n g to the Grown through  bankruptcy or i n t e s t a c y should remain i n the hands of the Grown.  Third:  two  s c i e n t i f i c surveys  should be made; one  of the  a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and one of the r a i n f a l l o f and a l l Reserve l a n d . a l L u n a l i e n a t e d Grown Lands. lew Reserve -A.  boundaries Fourth:  should be g a z e t t e d  a c c o r d i n g t o these f i n d i n g s .  the government ought immediately  to put i n t o  an adequate scheme.of a s s i s t e d n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t .  effect  Fifth:  government a i d should be g i v e n to the development of n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s such as f u n c t i o n so 43 e e s s f u l l y i n Tanganyika and Uganda.  suc-  F i n a l L y , one wonders whether even such w r i t e r s as Norman Leys, MacGregor Ross or even P r o f e s s o r Huxley as c l e a r l y i n t o The  see  the f u t u r e of the land problem as they might.  q u e s t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y o f Kenya as a white man's  country has o f t e n been r e f e r r e d t o . prise—barring  i n d u s t r i a l enterprise i n mineral  upon p r o d u c t i o n f o r export. "I do NOT  S u c c e s s f u l white e n t e r -  Canon Leakey says  areas—depends emphatically  ( c a p i t a l s h i s ) b e l i e v e that i n the Kenya of  f u t u r e there w i l l be a b i g white p o p u l a t i o n of s m a l l growing crops f o r export, f o r I b e l i e v e that i n s e c t unreliable r a i n f a l l ,  the farmers  pests,  and  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g but slow d e s s i c a t i o n 44 w i l l make farming f o r export u n p r o f i t a b l e . " S t a t i s t i c s show 43. See S t r i c k l a n d , O.P.; 1933; passim. 44. Leakey, L.S.B.; op.  Co-operation cit*,  179.  f o r A f r i c a ; London;  - 138 that the l a s t few years have been marked by the g r a d u a l decrease i n the area of European c u l t i v a t i o n . white farmers  Many of the  depend s o l e l y upon government a i d i n the matter  of p r e f e r e n t i a l f r e i g h t r a t e s and land l o a n s . go on f o r e v e r . 45  More and more bankrupt  T h i s cannot  s e t t l e r s are  leaving  the c o u n t r y . There  i s no q u e s t i o n that there i s adequate  land i n Kenya to support every n a t i v e under a system  of n a t i v e  p r o d u c t i o n such as has been so s u c c e s s f u l i n West A f r i c a . cannot h e l p f e e l i n g t h a t w h i t e take from  the s t a r t .  settlement i n Kenya was  One  a mis-  Where such s e t t l e m e n t must, by the  nature of the country, depend on b l a c k l a b o u r no white community can ever be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g speech  Mr. Morgan Jones, M. P. i s both a propos and powerful:there may be a case f o r encouraging white s e t t l e r s , but when I have read s t o r i e s of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between white men and other men i n the v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the Empire I confess to wondering whether i t i s worth w h i l e encouraging white s e t t l e r s to go anywhere. I f they go, they can only go on the unders t a n d i n g that the B r i t i s h Government w i l l do a l l that can be done to a s s i s t them, but that that ass i s t a n c e s h a l l never abrogate the D e c l a r a t i o n , e i t h e r i n l e t t e r or i n s p i r i t , made by the Duke of Devons h i r e i n 1923. The f i r s t c l a i m upon us i n these areas i s to safeguard the r i g h t s of the indigenous people. I t i s not the white s e t t l e r s who have the f i r s t c l a i m but the people who belong to those areas, and to whom those areas should belong. Our i n t e r e s t i n them i s that o f going t h e r e and t e a c h i n g them self-government. I say d e l i b e r a t e l y that i f we are to r e t a i n our c o n t r o l o f these areas at the p r i c e of making concessions to white s e t t l e r s which g i v e them complete dominion over the l i v e s and w e l l being of the coloured peoples, the community system i s not worth w h i l e , from my p o i n t of view.46 45. see 314 H.Q.  Debs. 5s, 9 J u l y 1936;  46. 314,H.Q. Debs. 5s. 9 J u l y , 1936;  cols.  Col.  1455-6-7.  1436.  by  iChapter • Taxation,,Finance P a r t I. The Kenya ;  VI  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Balance-Sheet  1. Lord.Moyne and S i r A l a n Plm  and  the f i n a n c i a l  situation  c o n c l u s i o n s same as those of Kenya reformers 2. The  balance of r a c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to revenue  3. The  expenditure a c c o r d i n g to r a c e s -revenue  ----Loan C a p i t a l 4. Part I I .  1937  financial  reforms  The.Strengthening  1. F i n a n c i a l  of the N a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s  reform and the N a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s  2. H i s t o r y of Kenya L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l s 3. The N a t i v e Betterment  Fund  4. Other a s p e c t s of the growth of the N a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s 5. I n d i r e c t Rule and the N a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s  . -CHAPTER VI : -'JAXAglOlSr, FINANCE, AND  ADMINISTRATION  P a r t I. , The Kenya Balance-sheet In 1932  Lord Moyne was  sent  ont  examine the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the colony i n t o the matters of f i n a n c e s p e c i f i e d 1931  J o i n t S e l e c t Committee.  to Kenya to and  to  enquire  i n the Report of  C e r t a i n of h i s terms of  the reference  were as foLLows: to r e p o r t on, t a x a t i o n , both d i r e c t and  (a) the c o n t r i b u t i o n made to  i n d i r e c t by  the d i f f e r e n t  racial  communities; (b) the amount of money expended i n the i n t e r e s t s of each community, i n p a r t i c u l a r on n a t i v e s and non-natives;  and (c) the degree and manner i n .-••»  which f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be 1 Native C o u n c i l s . more guarded and  conferred upon the  Lord Moyne's R e p o r t , t e l l s , though i n language official,  these matters as do  essentially  the same s t o r y about  the w r i t i n g s of Leys and Ross.  The  Report  says; C o n s i d e r i n g the s e r v i c e s provided i n r e t u r n , i t i s evident that the n a t i v e s have long paid an ample c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the g e n e r a l revenues of the country.... 1. Report by the F i n a n c i a l Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on P e r t a i n Questions i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093) May 1932.  - 139 -  - 140  -  Judgment as to whether Europeans have been c o n t r i b u t i n g a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the cost of the i n d i v i s i b l e or C o l o n i a l s e r v i c e s must l a r g e l y depend on o p i n i o n as to how f a r these s e r v i c e s are of equal b e n e f i t to a l l races, and how f a r they have been developed p r i m a r i l y f o r nonn a t i v e b e n e f i t . . . . I have formed the o p i n i o n that i n the development of the undivided or C o l o n i a l s e r v i c e s i n Kenya the p r e v a i l i n g b i a s has been towards the convenience o f a c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which the n a t i v e so f a r shares l i t t l e of the d i r e c t advantages...and f i n a l l y , the n a t i v e cannot i n h i s present circumstances f a i r l y be expected to make h e a v i e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and i f f u r t h e r revenue has to be r a i s e d i t ought to be from the non-native. 2  Lord Moyne thus brought the message of  the  Kenya reformers o f f i c i a l l y to the n o t i c e o f the B r i t i s h  Parlia-  ment. T h i s apparently form can  be brought about.  and a c t when one  i s the only way  The  administrators  do  will  of t h e i r number t e l l s them of the  of a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n , whereas a l l that men Soss can  i n which r e -  i s arouse p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and,  ment that such a s i t u a t i o n should  listen seriousness  l i k e Leys  and  perhaps, r e s e n t -  exist.  In 1935-36 S i r A l a n Pirn was  busy on a second  survey of Kenya f i n a n c e s .  His terms were f a r t h e r - r e a c h i n g  than those of L o r d Moyne.  S i r A l a n was  ordered  to make  d e f i n i t e recommendations as to the means of f i n a n c i a l reform. 4 In October 1936 i f put  into f u l l  h i s r e p o r t was  presented.  The  recommendations,  e f f e c t , w i l l c o n s t i t u t e some of the  reform measures so f a r attempted  i n Kenya.  2. I n d i v i s i b l e s e r v i c e s — s e r v i c e s of b e n e f i t to the as a whole, not to c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of i t only. 3. Cmd.  greatest  community  4093; 26-27.  4. no copy of the r e p o r t was a v a i l a b l e f o r my use, but i t s terms were summarized i n Grown C o l o n i s t , Sept. 1936, 434.  - 141 Efothing causes us to p r o t e s t more Loudly than any r a i s i n g of our taxes even though perfectly just.  No  such r a i s i n g may  i n j u s t i c e arouses our resentment  than i n e q u i t a b l e t a x a t i o n .  So perhaps  be quicker  that i s the reason  that of a l L the lessons Norman Leys and MacGregor Ross sought to  teach i n t h e i r books none was  d i r e consequences of  more easy than that of the  of continued "bias...towards  the  convenience  a c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which the n a t i v e so f a r shares L i t t l e 5  the d i r e c t advantages."  Every Kenya debate  of  i n the Houses of  Parliament of l a t e years has at some time centred on the problem of t a x a t i o n and expenditures.  The  administration  knows only too w e l l that the n a t i v e s have not been g i v e n f a i r treatment and i s , i t must be admitted, lot.  But  attempt  t r y i n g to b e t t e r  the s e t t l e r community i s v i g o r o u s l y r e s i s t i n g  their any  to r e a d j u s t the present balance. L o r d Delamere once estimated the income of  the average European As he was  family  i n Kenya to be £600 per annum.  opposed to i n c r e a s i n g European 6  i s not l i k e l y 1929 Labour  to be an overestimate.  t a x a t i o n the amount  Norman Leys quotes  Commission's f i g u r e s f o r the average  the  African  incomes f o r the same p e r i o d and f o r the d i f f e r e n t occupations. By what seems a f a i r process of d e d u c t i o n an average f i g u r e 7  of £4 per annum i s a r r i v e d a t .  These two f i g u r e s , £600 and  £4 must be kept i n mind during the folLowing c o n s i d e r a t i o n 5. N e i t h e r of. the above w r i t e r s would put i t thus m i l d l y . 6. See Leys, N.; L a s t Chance i n Kenya; London; L931; 7. I b i d ;  21.  20.  - 14S of  the r a c i a l balance-sheets of Kenya Colony. The A f r i c a n i s concerned almost s o l e l y w i t h  the  Direct Taxation.  The I n d i r e c t T a x a t i o n f a l l s mainly  on the white community.  That the A f r i c a n ' s D i r e c t T a x a t i o n  f i g u r e i s almost e q u a l l e d by the I n d i r e c t Taxes paid by the Europeans the of  has been used u n f a i r l y by the l a t t e r as proof that  balance of c o n t r i b u t i o n i s f a i r .  The folLowing summary  8 revenue c o L L e c t i o n s f o r L93L shouLd be used f o r r e f e r e n c e . Europeans  Indians  Go ans  £  £  £  £  3251  18114  550877  L45213  47346  L6992  199L8L  2245  745554  45406  4057  6241  LL446  L936  L78L99  49213  2752  , 6905  49596  L2201L0  L509L69  79LL00  L22439L  3066930  Direct Taxation 42596 Indirect 254477 Taxation Other Tax. Revenue 109113 Other Rev. (Not Tax.) 179595 Total  665781  39L70.  279002 .58406  Arabs N a t i v e s  48250  £  Indivisible  In L935 the f i r s t of these, the Non-Native 9  amounted to 70,987 pounds.  £  634008  European D i r e c t T a x a t i o n faLLs under two ings.  TotaL  head-  PoLL Tax  The second type, the European  E d u c a t i o n Tax, paid on the same b a s i s of 30 shs. per head f o r each aduLt maLe o f L8 years or over brought i n only so i t can be seen that o f the Non-Native were c o n t r i b u t e d by Europeans. which might be termed D i r e c t  9. AnnuaL Report, L935.  £LL,820  taxes, p a i d aLmost e n t i r e l y by  account f o r aLL European D i r e c t t a x a t i o n . 4093, 63  PoLL Tax onLy  In the same year, death d u t i e s  Europeans, n e t t e d the government £5,727.  8. See Gmd.  £LL,820  These  three taxes  F i g u r i n g on the  - 143 b a s i s of £12,500 from the two main types, Horman Leys d e r i v e d an average D i r e c t t a x a t i o n f i g u r e of three pounds per annum f o r each tax-paying European. The A f r i c a n community a l s o pays three of D i r e c t by age  tax.  One  the peasantry  f a l l s on a l l , - the t o t h e r two 10  on the r e s e r v e s .  types  are paid  The minimum tax-paying  f o r the n a t i v e s , i t should be n o t i c e d was,  up to t h i s  year, s i x t e e n . The Hut (each man  and P o l l Taxes, a d m i n i s t e r e d  together,  pays either a tax f o r the huts he owns or, i f l i v i n g  away from the Reserves, can community.  a P o l l Tax.)  fall  on the whole A f r i -  The average i n c i d e n c e of the two  supposed to be around 12 s h i l l i n g s per head.  But  taxes i s according  to the 1931  f i g u r e s the i n c i d e n c e averaged  shillings.  Por the budget f o r that year estimated £607,000  as the Hut  and P o l l Tax revenue.  divided into  t h i s i t can be  would be r e q u i r e d .  As  2-J- taxes or 28  I f the 12 s h i l l i n g s  be  seen t h a t around 1,000,000 taxes  there were, i n that year, an  estimated  430,000 tax-paying male A f r i c a n s , i t f o l l o w s that each of these must average 30 s h i l l i n g s  tax.  Leys shows t h a t some  n a t i v e s pay up to 5 taxes according to the number of huts owned. The  second D i r e c t n a t i v e tax i s known as  the  cess or r a t e . I t i s l e v i e d by the t r i b a l c o u n c i l s and f a l l s on the n a t i v e s i n the r e s e r v e s only, as those out wage-earning are exempt. Prom t h i s source the sum of £39,952 was d e r i v e d 11 i n 1931. Of the expenditure of such monies something w i l l 10. Chapter IV on the p r a c t i s e of f o r c i n g labour by t a x a t i o n . 11. Cmd. 4093; App. 8; 115.  - 144 be s a i d l a t e r  -  on. The  t h i r d , and  assessment comes i n the  f i n a l type of d i r e c t  form of unpaid f o r c e d labour,  the H a t l v e A u t h o r i t y Ordinance.  The  corvee have been a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d Coming now of I n d i r e c t Taxation, f o r 1931  we  i n Chapter  IV.  to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the find  of about 6s. 6d.  the t a b l e a g a i n we of each community p a i d i n 1931,  incidence  i n the t a b l e g i v e n above that the A f r i c a n s  T h i s g i v e s an average c o n t r i b u t i o n of £36  European and  under  e v i l s of t h i s modern  the Europeans p a i d 334,477 pounds and  £199,181.  native 12  f o r each A f r i c a n .  f i n d t h a t , t o t a l l i n g the  per  Considering  contributions  through a l l forms of t a x a t i o n , the Europeans  £665,781 and  the A f r i c a n s £791,100.  At f i r s t glance i t would seem that perhaps the incidence But  of t a x a t i o n i s not  so u n f a i r as has  been made out.  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s must be kept i n mind i n making the  judg-  ment. First,  there  r e l a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s to pay. f a m i l y income was  i s the We  saw  important question that the  of  average European  estimated at some £600 per annum w h i l e  the  A f r i c a n averaged o n l y 5 pounds. The about £39.  average European t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i s  I f a L l n a t i v e payments, i n c l u d i n g , q u i t e  such items as the i n o r d i n a t e l y heavy n a t i v e f i n e s and vaLue of time spent i n unpaid labour, sum  of over 2% pounds i s  12.  See Leys; op.  obtained.  c i t . , 36.  fairly, the  are t o t a l l e d , an average  - 145 I t can be seen that of the European.  the balance i s a l l i n f a v o u r  I t i s . e v i d e n t too why the poverty of the  A f r i c a n i n Kenya i s so g r e a t . earnings to the Government.  The. European g i v e s The A f r i c a n g i v e s  l / l 5 of h i s  up to -J- of h i s .  Another f a c t o r adds to the u n f a i r n e s s  of the  ratio.  The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the I n d i r e c t T a x a t i o n column 13 of the t a b l e above i s u s e f u l to us here: I n d i r e c t T a x a t i o n 1931 Europeans Indians Goans _  Customs Duties P e t r o l Tax Wines,Spirits Consumption Tax Beer E x c i s e Tax Total  £  £  298582 22296  £  £  137480 44739 4047 182  11808  3200  2106  1791  486  319  334477  Arabs N a t i v e s I n d i v i - T o t a l slbTe "  145213 47346  £  £  16625 198813 367 368  2345  £ 698,584 27,260 17,114  .  2,596  16992 199181 2345  745,554  I t w i L l be n o t i c e d how heavy i s the p r o p o r t i o n of the European I n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n are  that goes f o r l u x u r i e s which  e n t i r e l y beyond the r e a c h of the n a t i v e . 14  A f u r t h e r study  of the s t a t i s t i c s g i v e n by Lord Moyne and those to be found i n the AnnuaL Reports which analyse the Customs T a r i f f s item adds strength that  to one's c o n v i c t i o n .  The t a b l e s make one  suspicious  the Kenya import d u t i e s have been f i x e d so that  things  such as b l a n k e t s ,  which have become n e c e s s i t i e s to the  n a t i v e s , have been h e a v i l y a s s e s s e d to allow r a t e s on such things  importable  the lowering of  as the nachinery necessary to European  13.  See Cmd. 4093 (1932), 64.  14.  Cmd. ;4Q93, App. I. Sched. 3, 69.  enterprise.  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d , too, that i n the items "Wine  and S p i r i t s Consumption Tax" and "Beer E x c i s e Duty" the N a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n column i s empty.  The average n a t i v e has not  s u f f i c i e n t means to feed h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y adequately, far less  to spend money on the white man's l u x u r i e s . Finally,  question of Income Tax.  there remains f o r us to c o n s i d e r the In East A f r i c a u n t i l t h i s year there  has been no such t h i n g as a graduated  income tax.  s e t t l e r , r i c h or poor, paid the same ungraduated I t was  the p r i d e of the Kenya s e t t l e r s  income tax.  Every d i r e c t tax.  that they paid no  They have used t h i s f a c t i n the p u b l i c i t y  adver-  tisements i n England. Avoid the present heavy income tax t r o u b l e s by l i v i n g i n Kenya, N. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Tanganyika, Uganda, Z a n z i b a r . Healthy ( s i s . ) c l i m a t e , c o n g e n i a l surroundings. P a r t i c u l a r s from E a s t A f r i c a n Dependencies Information O f f i c e , 32 Cockspur S t . , S. W. 1. 15 s a i d an advertisement i n the London Times of October 5, It  1931.  i s no f a i r argument to say that the Europeans make up f o r  t h e i r freedom t i o n they pay.  from the income tax by Even as i t i s , t h e i r  the heavy i n d i r e c t total  l e s s than that of the tax-payer i n England. what man  tax burden And,  taxa-  is far  moreover,  does not f e e l t h a t the paying of a l u x u r y tax or  even of an o r d i n a r y import duty i s f a r l e s s p a i n f u l than the meeting  of a d i r e c t  levy on h i s income?  15. Leys, N.; op. c i t . , 20. Leys comments thus: "The Government of Kenya owes our country many m i l l i o n s of pounds. B r i t i s h taxpayers, f o r example, paid every penny of the c o s t , something over eight m i l l i o n s , of the o r i g i n a l r a i l w a y l i n e from the coast to the lake. Yet the Government of Kenya thinks i t r i g h t to use the p u b l i c revenue of the country to tempt our i d l e r i c h to evade t h e i r duty to t h e i r country. And i t c o n s i d e r s such people to be e l i g i b l e r e s i d e n t s *  - 146 Though the revenue s i d e o f the Government o f Kenya ledger Is i l l u m i n a t i n g i n any study problem, the expenditure frequent  records a r e even more so.  Here the  l a r g e e n t r i e s under the heading " I n d i v i s i b l e ; Ser-  v i c e s " cause some t r o u b l e . and  of the n a t i v e  consider just  But even i f we omit these e n t r i e s  those under "Hative. S e r v i c e s " and ''European"  o r "Hon-native S e r v i c e s " the a l l e g a t i o n s o f the c r i t i c s o f Kenya are e a s i l y supported.  The f a c t t h a t Lord Moyne and  S i r A l a n Pirn, both, have apparently  discovered  i n Kenya to be much as Leys and Ross d e s c r i b e d  the s i t u a t i o n i t and have  so i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t s , c o n s t i t u t e s a v a l u a b l e  reform  step. So, the expenditure  o m i t t i n g f o r the moment the q u e s t i o n o f  o f Loan C a p i t a l , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s  of revenue expenditures  f o r 1931 taken from Lord, Moyne's  , Report. 16 Schedule 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Expenditure Summary  i n J93I  I n d i v i s i b l e Services European S e r v i c e s European and H a t l v e ( I n d i v i s i b l e ) S e r v i c e s A s i a t i c Services Hon-Hative ( I n d i v i s i b l e ) , S e r v i c e s Hative Services Reimbursements and Cross, E n t r i e s Total  16.  Cmd. 4093 (1912i, 81.  £ 1,771,180 171,247 2,962 46,080 8,948 331,956 ,883.716 £ 3,216,089  - 147 L7 Schedule Expenditure  6  on Earopean S e r v i o e s (Items)  Item 6  Education  £  Item 7  Agricultural  59,018  Item 8  Medical  24,527  T o t a l European S e r v i o e s  49,600  £ 171,247  18 Schedule  Item  9  Expenditure  on N a t i v e Servioes  9  Agriculture  Item 10  (items) £  38,389  Education  . Item 11  77,722  Medioal  124,642  T o t a l Native Servioes  £ 531,956  These Items have been chosen because they serve to support some o f t h e charges made so f a r .  The e d u c a t i o n f i g u r e s i n  Sohedules 6 and 9 a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l u m i n a t i n g ,  So inade-  quate I s t h i s grant t h a t each year the L o c a l , N a t i v e C o u n c i l s g r a n t , as we have seen, money towards e d u c a t i o n from  their 19  own funds.  In 1931 the t o t a l they advanced was 17,000 pounds.  S i m i l a r l y the n a t i v e s are f i n d i n g i t necessary  to supplement  the h o p e l e s s l y small government grant towards the development of Reserve a g r i c u l t u r e and n a t i v e medical £6,915 b e i n g devoted  s e r v i c e , £8,496 and  i n 1931 to each o f these  I t w i l l be seen that a l a r g e item i n Schedule Pmcl. 409'3: (1932J 18. I b i d ; 85 19. I b i d . 114.  84.  respectively. 4 i s the £1,771,180  - 148 f o r s o - G a l l e d I n d i v i s i b l e Servioes.  Following this  i n the L o r d Moyne Report i s a second 20  one, which analyses the  expenditure of t h i s sum.  schedule  Even a c u r s o r y examination w i l l show  that a g r e a t many, i f not the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e Items i n c l u d e d under I n d i v i s i b l e S e r v i c e s are a c t u a l l y , a t  the pre-  sent stage of A f r i c a n development, o f s e r v i c e o n l y t o the Europeans.  The author o f the r e p o r t admits  as much when he  says o f the schedule that the I m p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g any a r i t h m e t i c a l e q u i v a l e n t f o r the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from these s e r v i o e s i s made c l e a r by an examination o f the items. Although I have been unable to f i n d any a c c e p t a b l e b a s i s o f d i v i s i o n f o r these s e r v i c e s , i t Is evident that they are by no means o f equal b e n e f i t as between c o m m u n i t i e s , i 2  F i n a l l y there I s the important Loan C a p i t a l Expenditure.  q u e s t i o n o f the  Here again i t i s very very  to show the e x i s t e n c e o f the " p r e v a i l i n g b i a s " . case, the b i a s i s even more apparent. Schedule  5 (mentioned  Item i s c l a s s i f i e d  easy  Only,  i n this  Item 15 o f L o r d Moyne's  above) d e a l s w i t h the P u b l i c Debt.  thus: 22  Loan C a p i t a l Expenditure  Classification  Summary (1) General I n d i v i s i b l e S e r v i c e s (2) European S e r v i c e s (3) A s i a t i c S e r v i c e s (4) , Arab S e r v i c e s (5) H a t l v e S e r v i o e s i  2 0  «  Cmd. 4993 (1932) 81.  21. I b i d ; 24. 22. I b i d ; 85,  £ 16,253,371 470,613 66,795 9,718 109,503  This  -  149  -  Here too, much doubt can be thrown upon the " i n d i v i s i b i l i t y of  the i n d i v i s i b l e £16,263,371.  But, apart from t h i s ,  1 1  i t is  i m p o s s i b l e to deny the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f a c t t h a t £470,613 of Loan C a p i t a l should be expended i n a . s i n g l e year f o r the s e r v i c e o f 17,285 Europeans w h i l e only £109,503 were spent on the 3,000,000 n a t i v e s .  The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f these  last  two items a l s o p r o v i d e s a comment on the f a i r n e s s o f 23 the Kenya balance sheets* Item 2  , European S e r v i o e s £ 240,000  (1) Land Bank (2) European H o s p i t a l , Kisumu Hairobi  6,612 38,241  Schools School  66*433  (6) Hakuru School  44,703  (6) E l d o r e t  45,134  Kabete  (7) K i t a l e  Sohool  29,490  School Total  Item 2  Hatlve  (1) H a t i v e H o s p i t a l s  £ 470,613  Servioes £  :  (2) A f r i c a n Schools, Kabete  83,103 26*400  Total  £ 109,503  In that year £240,000 went i n t o the Land Bank, the i n s t i t u t i o n which alms to f u r t h e r the development o f Kenya a g r i c u l t u r e by l o a n s from p u b l i c funds 23. Cmd. 4093 (1932) 87  to white s e t t l e r s .  Hot a cent o f loan  -  150  -  c a p i t a l went to H a t l v e Reserve a g r i c u l t u r e . needed on the e d u c a t i o n a l I n 1936,  Ho  comment i s  items.  as we  have seen, S i r A l a n Pim  reported  on the means by which the f i n a n c i a l abuses of the Kenya adm i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d be done away w i t h .  His terms of r e f e r e n c e  were as f o l l o w s : "(1) To i n q u i r e i n t o the whole f i e l d o f governmental expendit u r e i n Kenya with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the cost o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s ; and to r e p o r t whether, i n h i s judgment, the t o t a l expenditure can be l e g i t i m a t e l y reduced, whether by r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n or other means, without detriment to e f f i c i e n c y . (2) To examine i n t o the present c o n d i t i o n of Kenya Government Finance having regard to the revenue and expenditure of the present and r e c e n t years and the p r o s p e c t i v e revenues f o r 1936; and to advise whether any, and i f so what, m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the e x i s t i n g system of t a x a t i o n i n Kenya should be e f f e c t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y with p r e s e r v i n g the f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y o f the government,"24 Rather u n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the A f r i c a n s , S i r , Alan's  terms of r e f e r e n c e were c o n s i d e r e d  c e n t e r i n g upon the f i r s t of world was  depression  term quoted above.  the accepted way  that of c u t t i n g down s t a f f s .  the s e t t l e r s * out down.  How  In s e t t l e r  were welcomed. But 25 able c r i t i c i s m .  as  In that p e r i o d  of economy i n government f o r years  i t has  demand that the numbers of the o f f i c i a l s  been be  comment on the Report, the s m a l l econo-  mies t h a t Pim recommended should  •  by the s e t t l e r s  be e f f e o t e d by  on the whole, the r e p o r t met  T h i s was  staff-cutting with  unfavour-  e s p e c i a l l y marked i n respect to the  recommendations S i r A l a n m a d e — i n l i n e with Moyne's s t a t e m e n t — 24. 25.  See S i r A l a n Pirn's Report, Grown C o l o n i s t : -Se-ptioer 434. Siee: Prom our Hairobl-Correspondent; ,October 1936; 422.  1936;  Crown C o l o n i s t ;  - 151 for  the readjustment  and s e r v i c e s .  r.  o f t h e balance o f r a c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s  Some o f these are d i r e c t l y  demands o f Leys and Ross.  i n l i n e w i t h the  Some o f Pirn's main recommendations  were: (1) t h a t the H a t l v e t a x a t i o n be amended by an e x t e n s i o n o f the system o f g r a d i n g , t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e payment on account of e x t r a huts, and the r a i s i n g o f the taxable age, as p r e l i m i n a r i e s to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an improved system of N a t i v e t a x a t i o n to r e p l a c e the Hut and P o l l tax. (7) t h a t i n H a t l v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n L o c a l Native C o u n c i l s should be r e l i e v e d of expenditure i n connection w i t h N a t i v e T r i bunals and o f a share o f expenditure on famine. C h i e f s or headment should r e c e i v e some i n c r e a s e o f pay i n recogn i t i o n of increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . (10) The system of n a t i v e r e g i s t r a t i o n should be a b o l i s h e d . (12),That c e r t a i n types o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s should be organized. (17) That, i n the M e d i c a l Department, the p r o g r e s s i v e t r a i n i n g and employment o f an A f r i c a n s e r v i c e be i n s t i t u t e d . (22) that the HonTNative P o l l Tax and E d u c a t i o n Taxes s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , the Trades and P r o f e s s i o n a l L i c e n c e s modif l e d and the l e v y on o f f i c i a l s a l a r i e s reduced by at l e a s t a half. I n t h e i r place an Income Tax should be Imposed, i n c l u d i n g a b a s i c minimum tax. The r a t e o f t a x a t i o n on e x t r a huts under the Hut and P o l l Tax Ordinance should be reduced by a h a l f . ® 2  Judging from the a c t i o n s of t h e B r i t i s h Government s i n c e the Pim Report  was presented, one would say that the C o L o n i a l  O f f i c e i s out to c l e a r up the Kenya n a t i v e problem.  The f a c t  that t h e recommendations of the M o r r i s C a r t e r Commission have not been c a r r i e d i n t o e f f e c t show that B r i t i s h o p i n i o n i s a g a i n s t g i v i n g the white community i n Kenya any more t e t h e r . But  the way i n which S i r A l a n Pirn's recommendations have been  implemented i s even more promising  and s i g n i f i c a n t .  26. S i r A l a n Pim's.Report; l o c . c i t . , 434.  - 152  -  In December of 1936  Ormsby-Gore s a i d t h a t 27 the recommendations would be c a r r i e d out. An Income Tax BUI was  d r a f t e d i n that month.  passed the  Mr.  i t became law when i t 28 i n the Kenya L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .  t h i r d reading  Thus c l a u s e 22 of fche Pim 29  In,May 1937  Report and Paragraph 118  Lord Moyne Report havelbeen c a r r i e d out. s t o p there. ,June 1937 Secretary  Since May,  Mr.  But  much development has  Kenya n a t i v e  t a x a t i o n had  taken place.  mended i n Clause 22 of the Pim  asked him  answered f i r s t  been reduced by one  the  a c t i o n d i d not  Ormsby-Gore In r e p l y to questions  of State f o r the C o l o n i e s  of  as  that:  the  h a l f as recom-  Report; second, that the  of the t a x a t i o n on e x t r a huts and  In  i t s e f f e c t on the  question  native  p o p u l a t i o n was  to be r e f e r r e d to a l o c a l committee f o r invest!-?  gation; t h i r d ,  and  age  f o r n a t i v e s had  very  important, that the p o l l  been r a i s e d to 18 years;  and  tax minimum f o u r t h , that  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e would l i k e l y extend the Income Tax out East A f r i c a and June 15 the  through30  thus prevent tax-dodging by s e t t l e r s .  terms o f r e f e r e n c e  f o r the committee on e x t r a  On hut  t a x a t i o n were announced by Ormsby-Gore.  The C h i e f Hatlve 31 Commissioner of Kenya i s a c t i n g as Chairman. 27. See 318 H.O* Debs. 5s; 17 December 1936; C o l . 2651. 28.  See  Crown,Colonist; June 1937;  29.  Cmd.  30.  The  31.  See: The Colonies i n P a r l i a m e n t ; Crown C o l o n i s t ; August 1937; 396. I t i s to be noted that Pirn's recommendation that the post of C h i e f Hatlve Commissioner be absorbed i n a new o r g a n i z a t i o n under the three governmental s e c r e t a r i e s (Paragraph 4 of Report), i s not, apparently, to be adopted. I t was recommended only as an economy.  4093 (1932), Colonies  285  59.  i n P a r l i a m e n t ; Grown C o l o n i s t ; J u l y 1937;  312.  - 153 A l l c o n s i d e r e d , 1937 promise  has so f a r p r o v i d e d more  of reform and a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e f o r the n a t i v e s than  has any year s i n c e the founding o f the colony.  Julian  Huxley  s a i d that i n Kenya the o n l y bond between white and b l a c k was 32 an economic one.  Perhaps the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e a l i z i n g t h i s ,  has d e c i d e d t h a t the key n a t i v e reforms,  to an ever-broadening program o f  l i e s i n the readjustment  balance of the l i f e o f the Colony.  32. Supra 46  o f the economic  - 154 -  Part I I .  The.. Strengthening of the H a t l v e A u t h o r i t i e s I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d  33 that both L o r d Moyne  34 and S i r A l a n Pim  i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Kenya f i n a n c i a l  s i t u a t i o n s t r e s s e d the importance  of the development of the  system o f L o c a l H a t l v e C o u n c i l s . 35  Perhaps  b e l i e v e s that these men  the C o l o n i a l  Office  have shown the spot from which progress  can s t a r t when they recommend that these a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s be g i v e n more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n f i n a n c i a l matters.  I f these bodies prove themselves a b l e to handle the administ r a t i o n of t h e i r funds, there i s no reason why  they should not  be the b e s t p o s s i b l e s t e p p i n g stones towards the e v o l u t i o n of a r e a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e system of n a t i v e government. C o u n c i l s have proved themselves  So f a r , the  extremely capable In t h e i r  h a n d l i n g of the s m a l l measure of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l l o t t e d  to  them. As L o r d Moyne says ''The L o c a l H a t l v e C o u n c i l s In Kenya are a d e l i b e r a t e c r e a t i o n under an Ordinance passed i n 1924, whereas i n Uganda and i n some p a r t s of Tanganyika they have been b u i l t up on a p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g system of t r i b a l 36 administration."  For a q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y , the Kenya t r i b a l  32. Cmd. 4095 (1932); 43. 34. See Paragraph 7 i n Crown C o l o n i s t ; September 1936; 434. 35. Leys, Ross and others should not be f o r g o t t e n here. But L o r d Moyne and S i r A l a n Pim i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y spoke w i t h a power the reformers l a c k e d . 36. Cmd. 4095 (1932); 43.  - 155 system had heen d i s i n t e g r a t i n g b e f o r e settlement.  By 19E4 the process  the shock o f European  had gone a long way.  hard to decide whether the Kenya t r i b a l  It i s  i n s t i t u t i o n s had ever  been q u i t e as w e l l developed as those of other p a r t s o f A f r i c a . Very l i k e l y the  they were not.  subject.  A u t h o r i t i e s d i f f e r g r e a t l y upon  Leys, throughout h i s w r i t i n g s , seems to assume  that i n Kenya t r i b a l government was as strong as anywhere e l s e in Africa.  Lord Moyne assumes that "the t r a d i t i o n a l system 37  of t r i b a l government was very But,  rudimentary and v a r i a b l e . "  a f t e r a l l , whichever one i s r i g h t ,  these  i n s t i t u t i o n s were, i n 1924, i n the s t a t e L o r d Moyne d e s c r i b e s . In other p a r t s o f East A f r i c a , the system o f Paramount was s t r o n g .  Great c h i e f s , such as the o l d Kabakas of Buganda,  bound the v a r i o u s r e l a t e d t r i b e s together, would be r u l e d by one h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f . the v a r i o u s But  Chiefs  Thus g r e a t  areas  Under him would come  t r i b a l c h i e f s and then the headmen o f the v i l l a g e s .  i n Kenya, when the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t out to s t r e n g t h e n  n a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s , i t was impossible,  owing t o the c h a o t i c  c o n d i t i o n of t r i b a l government, t o f i n d who were, or should be,  the paramount c h i e f s .  So the b a s i s o f d i v i d i n g the n a t i v e  areas i n t o primary d i v i s i o n s ,  satisfactory f o r administration  under the B r i t i s h Government, was  impracticable.  Accordingly,  i n 1924 r u r a l Kenya was d i v i d e d i n t o seven provinces  each i n  charge o f a s e n i o r commissioner r e s p o n s i b l e t o a c h i e f n a t i v e commissioner.  In Kenya the s e n i o r commissioners, i n matters of  n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , take somewhat the p l a c e of the Paramount 37. Cmd.  4093 (1932;; 44  - 156 C h i e f s elsewhere i n A f r i c a ,  -  But  this provincial division  not proven so s a t i s f a c t o r y owing to the  has  unfortunate d i s r e g a r d  of e t h n i c boundaries. But the 1924  i n i t s lower grades, the system s e t up  Ordinance has  proved f a i r l y  been a measure of n a t i v e p r o t e s t  successful.  against the  the government of c h i e f s , sub-rchiefs, and no h e r e d i t a r y c l a i m to rank, t i e s set up i n 1924 t h e i r intended  There  nevertheless,  f u n c t i o n of s h i f t i n g some of the themselves.  these  been e n t i r e l y  shows t h a t , i n many cases,  q u i t e obvious but,  s i n c e i t was  only r e s u l t e d i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . a paramount c h i e f , t h e r e  ignored  well  that,  deals, t o o , w i t h the q u e s t i o n of h e r e d i t a r y  c e s s i o n i n Kenya and  one—except  Authori-  administrative  B u e l l p o i n t s out  Hative A u t h o r i t i e s t h e i r compensation has 38  was  have  the Hatlve  c o n s i d e r i n g the huge volume o f work done i n Kenya by  He  by  can be s a i d to have performed f a i r l y  burden onto the n a t i v e s  quate.  has  appointment  headmen! who  by  the  by the  inadesac-  succession administration,  " I f the n a t i v e s r e a l l y want  i s no reason why  they should not have  the p o l i t i c a l reason of ' d i v i d e and  rule'—of  d i v i d i n g peoples i n order to weaken them f o r the purpose o f preventing  the growth of n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 39  a u n i t e d f r o n t to the whites." not seem to me  that  l e a s t , has  any  had  which may  As a matter of f a c t ,  present  i t does  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , of l a t e years at such u l t e r i o r motive as " d i v i d e and  rule"  i n i t s p o l i c y of reserve a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Often, i t has seemed 38. B u e l l , R. L.; Hative Problem i n A f r i c a ; Hew. York; 1929; I, 362. S i r A l a n Pim recommended ah i n c r e a s e . ;  39.  Ibid;  363.  - 157 as i f the H a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s Ordinance has worked i n favour the s e t t l e r s .  I t has,  of  f o r i n s t a n c e , put c e r t a i n funds i n the  hands of the A f r i c a n s from which they have o f t e n paid f o r suoh matters as education, from these  charges.  thus r e l i e v i n g the community as a whole But,  on the whole, the development of  these H a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s has in  provided  first  the p r i n c i p l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  class instruction  finance.  Though the  funds e n t r u s t e d to them have been small* they have been 40 a s t o n i s h i n g l y w e l l administered.  But  as yet almost every  one  of the 23 Hative C o u n c i l s r e q u i r e s the g u i d i n g hand o f the D i s t r i c t Commissioner as P r e s i d e n t . There i s one  C o u n c i l f o r each n a t i v e  district.  Each Is composed of the D i s t r i c t Commissioner and n a t i v e s , some appointed  by the Governor d i r e c t l y and  some nominated  by  41 the n a t i v e barazas* varies greatly.  The  s i z e and  composition  Lord Moyne c i t e s two  of the  examples:  the Horth  Kavirondo C o u n c i l of 64 members, 38 " e l e c t e d " by the and  26 nominated; and  nominated and  baraza  that of South H y e r i of 23 members, 12 42  11 " e l e c t e d " L o r d Moyne, a f t e r h i s survey, wa3  well s a t i s f i e d with i n Kenya.  Councils  the progress  apparently  of the H a t i v e C o u n c i l system  I t would appear from h i s recommendations t h a t he  c o n s i d e r e d them worthy of g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The 1931 40. I t must be kept i n mind that most of the C o u n c i l s have a long way to go before they a t t a i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the Luklko and H a t i v e Treasury of the Kingdom of Buganda. 41.  the baraza i s the n a t i v e court composed of a l l the of the t r i b e .  42.  Cmd.  4093;  45.  elders  - 158  -  J o i n t Select; Oommitte, r e a l i z i n g  that the n a t i v e s of Kenya  were not r e c e i v i n g t h e i r f a i r share  of expenditures,  had  recommended ''that the C h i e f H a t l v e Commissioner be charged w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of an Annual Estimate  of the F i n a n c i a l  requirements of h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and should have a l l o c a t e d 43 to I t such funds as the Governor t h i n k s d e s i r a b l e and L o r d Moyne, however, d i d not proposed the f o r m a t i o n  necessary."  t h i n k t h i s step a d v i s a b l e .  He  of "a s t a t u t o r y body r e s p o n s i b l e , under  the Governor as Chairman, f o r one d i r e c t n a t i v e t a x a t i o n " and  h a l f of the proceeds of  t h a t from these monies "a H a t i v e ;  Betterment. Fund be created out of which the d i r e c t s e r v i c e 44 of n a t i v e development should be  financed."  , T h i s committee was such a way  as  to a d m i n i s t e r  to " b u i l d up balances  i t s funds i n  from year to year i n order  to provide f o r f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the y i e l d  of n a t i v e t a x a t i o n , "  to " f i n a n c e a widening programme of n a t i v e development"  and  l a s t l y "to co-ordinate  the e f f o r t s which are b e i n g made by 45 the v a r i o u s departments to a s s i s t i n n a t i v e betterment." , T h i s H a t i v e Betterment Committee was formed In 1934. i n t o the  Lord Moyne had,  subject.  accordingly  however, gone even deeper  S e c t i o n 1 (d) of h i s terms of r e f e r e n c e  had i n s t r u c t e d him to r e p o r t on "the degree and manner In which f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be c o n f e r r e d on the 46 H a t i v e C o u n c i l s . From h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h i s s u b j e c t 43. H., Of. 0. 156, Report of the, Joint, S e l e c t Committee I C l o s e r Union. (1931J;, I; paragraph 87. 44. Cmd. 4093;38. 45. idem 46. i b i d 1.  on  - 159  -  sprang what were, I think, the most f a r - r e a c h i n g of the Report. tee a d m i n i s t e r  He  Counoils  the Native  Betterment Commit-  i t s funds through a system of g r a n t s - i n - a i d  to the L o c a l Native Native  proposed that  recommendations  Councils  "and  seek to a s s o c i a t e  i n i n c r e a s i n g measure w i t h the 47  Local  administration  of the betterment s e r v i c e s . " The  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e has  the importance of the two dations.  We  apparently  appreciated  f i n a n c i a l commissioners*  have seen how,  during  this  recommen-  l a s t summer, S i r A l a n  Pim's emergency recommendations have been aoted on. s i m i l a r way  an honest attempt i s being  Moyne*s ideas on N a t i v e and t h e r e  made to c a r r y out  The  fund has  Lord  been s t a r t e d  i s a b r i g h t o u t l o o k f o r the N a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s . But  item  Betterment.  In a  the f i n a n c i a l f u n c t i o n Is only one  small  i n the p o s s i b l e scope of the f u n c t i o n s of the L o c a l  Native  Councils. B u e l l wrote w i s e l y when he s a i d that While the c o u n c i l s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e standpoint perform a h e l p f u l s e r v i c e , t h e i r primary importance in. an i n t e r - r a c i a l community i s that they serve as a p e a c e f u l o u t l e t to n a t i v e sentiment i n r e g a r d to the p o l i c i e s of the European a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . For the time being these c o u n c i l s w i l l serve as a s a f e t y valve f o r n a t i v e f e e l i n g . But f o r t h i s very r e a s o n they may e a r l y become e f f e c t i v e centres of n a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n to European r u l e . They w i l l e v e n t u a l l y demand a share i n the a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government. Kenya may w e l l study the Tanganyika and N i g e r i a n method of s a t i s f y i n g t h i s demand by the I n t r o d u c t i o n , m o d i f i e d to s u i t locaL circumstances, of the p r i n c i p l e of i n d i r e c t r u l e . The f i r s t step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n would be to recognize paramount . c h i e f s where i t i s p o s s i b l e , and to v e s t In them some r e a l j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y . 4 8  47.  Cmd.  4095; 40  48.  B u e l l , op.  c i t . , I,  368  - L60 He went on to recommend each f i n a n c i a l measures as L o r d Moyne outlined.  But  t h i s q u e s t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of the L o c a l  H a t i v e C o u n c i l s as s o c i a l and  p o l i t i c a l agencies, apart from  t h e i r f i n a n c i a l f u n c t i o n , opens to us the whole q u e s t i o n of an I n d i r e c t the f u t u r e of Kenya as a-Btseefc Rule c o l o n y - - a c o n s i d e r a t i o n upon whioh t h i s study can w e l l be brought to a c l o s e . Parallelling  the development of the  financial  machinery of the H a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s has come the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the H a t i v e Courts  and j u d i c i a r y .  The  ordinary Hative  Court  of a Kenya r e s e r v e c o n s i s t s of a C o u n c i l of E l d e r s appointed f o r t h i s purpose by the government under the H a t i v e Court of 1913. cases  T h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n I s , however, only narrow:  Rules  over  concerning property vaLued up to 2,000 s h i l l i n g s and i n  p e t t y c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e s a r i s i n g out of t r i b a l law and I n t h i s second case, t h e i r power i s s t r i c t l y district  commissioner.  They may  a p p r o v a l , f i n e s up to 500  custom.  l i m i t e d by  the  impose, w i t h the commissioner's  s h i l l i n g s or inprisonment  in a  govern-  ment p r i s o n of up to s i x months. The n a t i v e s of Kenya have taken a keen i n t e r e s t In these c o u r t s . T h i s i s shown by the huge number of oases they 49 have handled.  A seemingly  t r a t i o n to s i m p l i f y matters  j u s t i f i a b l e move by the  adminis-  by c o n s o l i d a t i n g some o f the  522  H a t i v e C o u r t s — i n K e n y a — o n e to each n a t i v e l o c a t i o n - - h a 8 not  been approved by the A f r i c a n s . F o r the n a t i v e s have l e a r n e d t o a p p r e c i a t e every measure o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y delegated t o them, 49.  furthermore they  See B u e l l ; op. c i t . ; I; 365. C e n t r a l Kavirondo c o u r t s , 1924, decided 3,372 c i v i l cases and 709 c r i m i n a l cases.  - 161 have found  these c o u r t s more s u i t a b l e to t h e i r needs than the  strange European c o u r t s .  Horman Leys, Canon Leakey and others  s t r e s s the uselessness o f t h e o r d i n a r y European c o u r t s t o the A f r i c a n , whose ideas o f crime to those o f the white man.  and punishment are u t t e r l y  alien  T h i s l a s t f a c t o r , a l o n e , seems  s u f f i c i e n t cause to warrant d e l e g a t i o n o f more power to the H a t i v e Courts. The fundamental need o f a s u c c e s s f u l I n d i r e c t Rule a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s that t h e body of the n a t i v e s be educated t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  In Kenya u n f o r t u n a t e l y I t has a l s o  been necessary t h a t the n a t i v e should a p p r e c i a t e the d i s advantage i n which he has been plaoed by white s e t t l e m e n t . The H a t i v e Courts and C o u n c i l s have served these two as B u e l l f o r e t o l d .  purposes,  They have f u n c t i o n e d as t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s  i n p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as o u t l e t s o f n a t i v e n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment.  Both these f u n c t i o n s I t appears have  been, so f a r served a l r e a d y that t h e r e can be no retrenchment. Every year the volume o f funds handled creasing.  Every year t h e demand f o r the s e r v i c e s o f the n a t i v e  judiciary i s increasing. at  by the C o u n c i l s i s i n -  The Government appears t o be aiming  the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f these demands i n the f a c e o f s e t t l e r  opposition.  I t w i l l be, even at the present r a t e , a long  time before a f a i r balance  can be reached  i n the Colony as  regards the c o n t r i b u t i o n s and rewards of the white and b l a c k communities but t h e t r e n d i s i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . p o l i c y , i t seems to me, b i d s f a i r e r than that o f Kenya I n d i r e c t Rule.  Ho  to lead to the j u s t F o r from the present  balance Hative  A u t h o r i t i e s i s d e v e l o p i n g the n a t i v e governmental machinery  - 162 that  i s needed to make I n d i r e c t Rale f u n c t i o n  has i n Tanganyika  and H i g e r l a  i n Kenya as i t  towards the emancipation o f the  African,  -0-0-0-  Conclusion . The Empire that has  outstanding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  British  d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from a l l other empires  has  been the Idea of self-government w i t h i n the i m p e r i a l system. Whenever a B r i t i s h community has gained i t has The  accepted  political  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l .  B r i t i s h ^ Commonwealth of n a t i o n s  which have evolved  p o l i t i c a l Institutions  t h e i r own  c o n s i s t s of communities  systems of r e s p o n s i b l e government.  In A f r i c a , whenever a white community has grown up i n any  colony  i t accepted  autonomy as i t s u l t i m a t e  In every case where B r i t a i n has  goal.  aLlowed s e t t l e r p o l i t i c a l  economic ambitions t h e i r f r e e r e i n a n a t i v e problem has veloped.  For r e s p o n s i b l e  i s unable to stand  the c o n t r o l of Great  control.  civili-  by the C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  thus p r o t e c t e d .  r e s p o n s i b l e government.  But  colony  by i t s e l f i n the presence of western  the ambitions of the Europeans.  A f r i c a n s were not  The  The  In South A f r i c a  the  Europeans a t t a i n e d  n a t i v e problem there  i s now  their beyond  Britain.  i n Kenya the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e s t i l l  I t must keep t h i s c o n t r o l .  Kenya i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t years  parts.  long as the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n of a  z a t i o n i t must be p r o t e c t e d against  de-  i n s t i t u t i o n s do not work where a  community i s d i v i d e d i n t o unmiscible As  and  For the s i t u a t i o n In  to what i t was  ago when the p o l i t i c a l power was  the Cape. -  163  -  has  i n South A f r i c a  forty  passing from London to  - 164 Tb-day the c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s o f B r i t a i n a r e under the s c r u t i n y o f the world.  She has, moreover, d e c l a r e d her  w i l l i n g n e s s that t h i s should be s o . himself  On top of t h i s the A f r i c a n  i s r e a l i z i n g h i s importance as an i n d i v i d u a l i n a  democratic system.  Soon he w i l l value  t h i s r i g h t as much as  does the white man. , l o w l e t us assume f o r the moment, t h a t autonomy i s t o be the goal o f p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n i n Kenya as i t was i n South A f r i c a .  I n Kenya the A f r i c a n ' s p o l i t i c a l  must now be f i g u r e d on.  evolution  T h i s was not the case i n the Union,  Times have changed and a t t i t u d e s t o the backward r a c e s have changed w i t h  them.  When B r i t a i n d e c l a r e d her  t r u s t e e p o s i t i o n i n 1923 she admitted t h a t the A f r i c a n ' s development was as Important as that o f the white community. T h i s was tantamount to admitting t h a t any scheme f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government i n Kenya must i n c l u d e each A f r i c a n as the p o t e n t i a l political acceptable  e q u i v a l e n t o f each white man.  I t was an i d e a q u i t e  to a l l Europeans except those s e t t l e d  i n the A f r i c a n  colonies* To-day the Kenya s e t t l e r s a r e as bent on a t t a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as they ever were.  They a r e b l i n d to the f a c t  t h a t any p o l i t i c a l scheme must i n c l u d e an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number o f educated A f r i c a n s .  These b l a c k s  look forward t o the  day when B r i t a i n ' s t r u s t w i l l have been c a r r i e d out and t h e i r race w i l l have a t t a i n e d p o l i t i o a l As  emancipation.  i t i s the n a t i v e s o f Kenya f e e l a deep r e -  sentment and h a t r e d f o r the s e t t l e r community. the w h i t e s have hampered t h e i r progress  They r e a l i z e  and s e i z e d t h e i r  land.  - 165 Every year t h a t the abuses we have c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s  study  continue the score grows longer that the A f r i c a n w i l l want to pay o f f a g a i n s t the s e t t l e r s .  Gradual r e f o r m of the n a t i v e  problem i n the aspects o f i t we have s t u d i e d may do much to save the white community.  But i f the s e t t l e r s ' demands are  acceded t o , white s e t t l e m e n t  i n Kenya i s doomed.  E o r respon-  s i b l e government would place the p o l i t i c a l balance i n the hands of the A f r i c a n .  In t h i s r e s p e c t too, the I n d i a n  community has t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Europeans two to one.  of power  The Indians outnumber the  With I n d i a so c l o s e to autonomy  Britain  can not a f f o r d t o allow the white s e t t l e r s f u r t h e r c o n t r o l of the d e s t i n i e s of t h i s community,  T r u l y the i m p e r i a l i m p l i -  c a t i o n s o f the Kenya problem are immense.  And, too, the f o r e -  s i g h t and p e r s p e c t i v e demanded of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that w i l l solve i t . The H i l t o n Young Report  says of the t a s k f a c i n g  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; There i s no ready-made c o n s t i t u t i o n a l device by which the two r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t conceptions of government represented on the one hand by p a t e r n a l a u t o c r a c y and on the other by modern democracy w i t h i t s c o n c e p t i o n of popular r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be r e c o n c i l e d i n a cons i s t e n t and l o g i c a l system.*I t seems d o u b t f u l whether any such device c o u l d be B e s i d e s , one wonders i f such  developed.  i s needed i n Kenya.  B r i t a i n has d e c l a r e d t h a t h e r aim i n Kenya Is to c a r r y out the s a c r e d t r u s t of c i v i l i z a t i o n . white community  of Kenya has so f a r only hindered the c a r r y i n g  out of the t r u s t e e s h i p . 1. Cmd.  The s m a l l  3234 (1929).;  103.  I f settlement had never s t a r t e d the  - 166 Kenya n a t i v e would l i k e l y now I n d i r e c t Rule. existent. and  be  l i v i n g under a system o f  The Land and Labour problems would be non-  N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n would progress  unhindered.  This  other s e r v i o e s would be adequately f i n a n c e d from n a t i v e -  controlled treasuries.  Most important from the w o r l d p o i n t  of views, the overcrowding of the r i c h lands of Kenya would be own  at an end and needs and  the n a t i v e s c o u l d produce enough f o r t h e i r  f o r the w o r l d markets as w e l l . The.Kenya n a t i v e i s l e a r n i n g to suspect  the white community alone stands i n the way these ends.  that  of h i s a t t a i n i n g  S i r Ronald Cameron, a t h i s r e t i r e m e n t  in  1935  sounded a warning t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s when he s a i d : The people are becoming more e n l i g h t e n e d day by day. The olouds of f e a r and s u p e r s t i t i o n are l i f t i n g , and the l i g h t of knowledge i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r o n g ; the a c t s of the Native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are now q u i t e p r o p e r l y exposed and open to p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m * and i f we are to preserve t h i s system of I n d i r e c t Rule those who e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y must be f i t t e d to r u l e i n accordance with modern standards of c i v i l i z e d society. 2  When the n a t i v e s of Kenya reach a c e r t a i n stage of e n l i g h t e n ment they w i l l no  longer allow  17,000 Europeans to b l o c k them.  I t i s b e t t e r that the o b s t a c l e be removed now.  The  white  community must r e a l i z e i t s p o s i t i o n and co-operate with administration. Rule colony  But  i f and when Kenya becomes an I n d i r e c t  the warning of S i r Donald must be heeded.  Rule, improperly  the  administered,  Indirect  tends to be r e a c t i o n a r y .  no r e a c t i o n a r y n a t i v e p o l i c y could l a s t long even to-day. 2. Padmore, G.,  How  And For,  B r i t a i n Rules A f r l o a . London, 1936> 1 7 2 .  - 167 i n Kenya, to quote  the H i l t o n Young Commission again,  Processes have a l r e a d y been s t a r t e d which must i n e v i t a b l y lead t o a stage when t h e n a t i v e peoples w i l l demand some v o i c e i n the management of t h e i r own a f f a i r s . Wise statesmanship must prepare t o lead t h e n a t i v e s on a course of steady mental and moral advancement, so that when they r e a l i z e t h e i r power they may be p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d to use i t . 3  3. Cmd. 3234; (1929); 39.  -  168  BIBLIOGRAPHY:  Key  to Arrangement  I Primary M a t e r i a l A. Government Documents B. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates (a) House of Lords (b) House o f Commons I I , Secondary M a t e r i a l A. General on C o l o n i e s and  the B r i t i s h . E m p i r e  B. T h e , A f r i c a n Race Problems: (a) h i s t o r i c a l (b) p o l e m i c a l C. On  General  the N a t i v e Problem i n East A f r i c a and Kenya  D. A n t h r o p o L o g i c a l :  General  E. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l :  East A f r i c a  P. On S p e c i a l Phases of the N a t i v e ProbLem (a) E d u c a t i o n (b) Labour I I I , P e r i o d i o a I M a t e r i a l (Arranged A.  i n order of  date)  General  B. P a r t i c u l a r Phases of East A f r i c a n Problems (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (1)  Education Land Labour CLoser Union Finance I n d i a n Question Justice S c i e n t i f i c Services The S e t t l e r s ' Case i n Kenya  - 169 -  , Bibliography:  Part I  Primary M a t e r i a l A. Government Documents ( i n order of date) (li  :  Despatch to the O f f i c e r A d m i n i s t e r i n g the Government o f the Kenya. Colony and P r o t e c t o r a t e * H e l a t i n g to Native Labour (Cmd. 1509); Presented to Parliament by Command of H i s Majesty, September 1921.  (2) Indians i n Kenya (Cmd. 1922); Memorandum, Presented to P a r l i a m e n t by Command o f H i s Majesty, J u l y , 1923. The key "White Paper" to o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i n Kenya Colony. (The Duke o f Devonshire's Memorandum) ;  (3) P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e In B r i t i s h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a (Cmd. 2016); Presented to Parliament by Command of H i s MaJesTiyT January, 1924. (4) Report o f the E a s t A f r i c a Commission (Cmd. 2387); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; A p r i l , 1925. The Ormsby-Gore Commission Report. Important. (5) 'Kenya; Compulsory Labour f o r Government Purposes (Cmd. 2464); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f Hls^Majesty; J u l y , 1925. (6) Kenya; Tours i n the H a t l v e Reserves and H a t i v e Developments i n Kenya (Qmd. 2573); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f His,Majesty; January 1926. (7) ,Kenya; Return Showing Qgown•.Grants o f Land o f over 5000 Acres In Extent (OmdT 2747); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; October, 1926. ( ) Future P o l i c y i n Regard to E a s t e r n A f r i c a (Cmd. 2904); ' Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r t h e U c T l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H l s M a j e s t y ; Hovember, 1927. 8  (9) Report o f the Commission on C l o s e r Union o f the Dependencies i n E a s t e r n and""kentral A f r i c a (Cmd."^3ir); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command of H i s Majesty; January, 1929. The L o r d Durham's Report of E a s t A f r i c a .  - 170 {10).Report o f S i r Samuel. Wilson on h i s V i s i t t o East A f r i o a , 1929 (Omd.-gB^S); Presented by the Seoretary~oT~S^aEe f o r the G o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; January 1929. (11) Memorandum on H a t l v e P o l i c y i n East A f r i c a (Cmd. 2578); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s t o Parliament by Command of h i s Majesty; June, 1930. The t h i r d (Lord P a s s f i e l d ' s ) White Paper. .i  (12) Statement o f the Conclusions o f H i s Majesty's Government i n the U n i t e d Kingdom as Regards C l o s e r Union In EasTT A f r i o a (Cmd. 3574); Presented by the S e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; June, 1930. ;  (13) Report o f the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee on C l o s e r Union In E a s t A f r i c a (H.' o f 0. 156).,Ordered by the House o f Commons to be p r i n t e d ; October 6, 1931: V o l . I i Report; V o l . I I ; Evidence; V o l . I l l ; Appendices. (14) Report o f the P i n a n e i a l Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on C e r t a i n Questlots i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093) Presented by the S e o r e t a r y o f State f o r t h e C o l o n i e s t o Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; May, 1932. (15) Correspondence (1931-1932) a r i s i n g from the Report o f the J o i h t S e l e c t Committee on C l o s e r Union i n E a s t A f r i c a (Cmd. 4 l T l ) ; Presented by the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s to Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; August 1932. (16) Report of t h e Kenya Land Commission (Cmd. 4556); Presented by the S e o r e t a r y o f State f o r the c o l o n i e s to P a r l i a m e n t by Command o f H i s Majesty; March, 1934. (17) Kenya Land Commission Report; Summary o f C o n c l u s i o n s reached by H i s M a j e s t y ^ Government (Cmd. 4580); Presented by the Seoretary o f State f o r the C o l o n i e s t o Parliament by Command o f H i s Majesty; May, 1934. 7  - 171 -  B. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates , The debates  o f both the House o f Lords and the  House o f Commons are a very f r u i t f u l source o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Each year, around J u l y , a debate takes place i n the House of Commons upon the C o l o n i a l E s t i m a t e s . i n these debates.  Kenya has o f t e n f i g u r e d  A f i n e key to the debates  Is the annual  p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Empire P a r l i a m e n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n known as 7The J o u r n a l o f the Parliaments of the Empire."  See a l s o the  monthly s e c t i o n s "Around the C o l o n i a l Empire" and '.'The C o l o n i e s i n P a r l i a m e n t " I n the magazine "Crown C o l o n i s t " .  - m  -  Bibliography:  Part II  Secondary M a t e r i a l A. General  on,Colonies  and  the Empire  (1) Amery, Honourable L . S . , The Forward Yiew, London, Geoffrey B l e s , 1935. A very readable book by one of the l e a d i n g Imperial authorities. Is p a r t i c u l a r l y concise and epigramatic on f u t u r e of I n d i r e c t Rule, e t c . , i n s e c t i o n on Dependent Empire. Read f o r the c o n s e r v a t i v e view of the B r i t i s h Empire. ;  (2) Barnes, Leonard. The Duty of Empire, London. V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . 1935. T h e - S o c i a l i s t s view of the Empire and Imperialism. The f i r s t f o u r chapters, on the philosophy behind the I m p e r i a l i d e a are a hopeless Chinese puzzle o f fancy words. I f these are omitted the book i s very readable and thought provoking. Barnes* s t a t i s t i c s on Empire trade are most e n l i g h t e n i n g . 1  (3) Barnes, Leonard, The Future of C o l o n i e s . London, Hogarth P r e s s . 1936 (The Day to Day Pamphlets. No. 32) A s h o r t c o n v i n c i n g monograph i n favour of a p o o l i n g of c o l o n i e s under some i n t e r n a t i o n a l o o n t r o l o r g a n i zation. (4) C l a r k , Grover, A Place i n the Sun, New York, The MacMillan Co., 1936. C l a r k i s out to prove t h a t no n a t i o n has or can p r o f i t from a c o l o n i a l empire. I t i s readable but reminds one of the s t y l e , or l a c k of i t , of 0.0. Mclntyre. (5) C l a r k e , Grover, The Balance Sheets o f Imperialism, F a c t s and,Figures about CoLonies; New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1936. A book of s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s aimed at bearing out the premises of the companion book "A Place i n the Sun". A l l r i g h t i f you're a b e l i e v e r i n the s t a t i s t i c a l method. (6) CoupLand, Reginald, The Empire i n these Days; London, MaCMilianc & Co. L t d . , L935, A f i n e a n a l y s i s of the B r i t i s h Empire. A s e t o f l e c t u r e s upon Empire t o p i c s . One of the best books to g i v e the p e r s p e c t i v e of Kenya's place i n the I m p e r i a l scheme of t h i n g s . Most.readable.  - 173  -  (7) E l l i o t , W.Y., The Hew B r i t i s h Empire; New York, McGrawH i l l Book Co. L t d . , 1932. The same type o f book as T r o t t e r ' s but much longer. E l l i o t t ' s s t y l e i s pleasant. A w e l l p r i n t e d book w i t h a good index. (8) Fawcett, C. B., A P o L i t i c a l Geography of the B r i t i s h Empire, London, The U n i v e r s i t y of London Press L t d . , 1933. A very u s e f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g l y w r i t t e n book. Good maps. (9) L i n d l e y , M.P., The A c q u i s i t i o n and Government of Backward T e r r i t o r y i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law: Being a T r e a t i s e on the Law and P r a c t i c e R e l a t i n g to C o L o n i a l Expansion; London, Longmans, Green & Co. L t d . , 1926. A comprehensive t r e a t i s e on the p r i n c i p l e s of the p o l i t i c a l science of c o l o n i e s and mandates. Dry r e a d i n g but a v a l u a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n . Good on p r i n c i p l e s of mandates. (10) M e r l v a l e , Herman; L e c t u r e s on C o l o n i z a t i o n and C o l o n i e s . D e l i v e r e d before the U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford i n 1839, 1840 and 1841 and r e p r i n t e d i n L861; London; Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Humphrey M i l f o r d ; 1928. An i n t e r e s t i n g book as i t g i v e s opinions of 100 years ago on the c o l o n i a l e t h i c . A wealth of s t a t e ments which provoke thought on present ideas such as found i n Leonard Barnes, Leonard Ysooif, Scott Hearing. (11) M i d d l e t o n , Lamar; The Rape of A f r i c a , Hew York, H a r r i s o n Smith and Robert Haas, 1936. "a study of one aspect of the g e n t l e a r t of a c q u i s i t i v e d i p l o m a c y — o r , more simply, of h y p o c r i s y " — A f a s c i n a t i n g book to read but h i s t o r i c a l l y u s e l e s s . Leonard Woolf i s c o n s e r v a t i v e compared to M i d d l e t o n . (12) N a t i o n a l Peace C o u n c i l ; Peace and the CoLonial Problem; London, 1935 (Speeches at N a t i o n a l Peace C o u n c i l Conference, Oct. 29, 1935) . A s h o r t readable pamphlet. The l a t e s t ideas on the problem of c o l o n i e s from great a u t h o r i t i e s . (13) Nearing, S c o t t ; The T w i l i g h t of Empire, An Economic Int e r p r e t a t i o n of I m p e r i a l i s t C y c l e s , New York, The Vanguard P r e s s , L930. The book can be judged from the t i t L e . Notable f o r poor l e t t e r p r e s s . A n o v e l f e a t u r e i s Hearing's l i s t of "quotable quotes" at the end of the t e x t . (14) T r o t t e r , R. G.; The B r i t i s h EmpireCommonwealth; New York; Henry H o l t & Co.; 1932. The best short h i s t o r y and a n a l y s i s of the EmpireCommonwealth. The i d e a of t r u s t e e s h i p i s welL s t a t e d . T r o t t e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y broad.  -  174  (15) Woolf, Leonard; Imperialism and C i v i l i z a t i o n ; Hew York, Harcourt, Brace &.Co., 1928. As i s u s u a l w i t h Woolf, B r i t a i n and other powers come i n f o r a great punishment. One f e e l s Woolf I s , as a polemic, f a r more s u c c e s s f u l than i s Leonard Barnes. (16) L o r d O l i v i e r ; The Anatomy of A f r i c a n M i s e r y ; London; The Hogarth P r e s s ; 1927. Lord O l i v i e r i s one of the foremost i n the f i g h t f o r reform i n A f r i c a . T h i s book, presents a powerr f u l case a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n . The s e c t i o n s on Kenya are c l e a r and form a u s e f u l background f o r work on the colony. (17) Hoyal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s ( I n f o r m a t i o n Department); Memorandum; P a r t I, B r i t i s h P o l i c y i n the East A f r i c a n Dependencies; P a r t I I , The Tanganyika Mandate; 1931. A most u s e f u l s y n o p s i s of the development o f B r i t i s h Government p o l i c y i n E a s t A f r i c a .  -  L75  Bibliography:  Part II  Secondary M a t e r i a l B. The. A f r i c a n Race Problems: General (a) H i s t o r i c a l approach (1) Evans, I f o r L; The B r i t i s h i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; An H i s t o r i c a l O u t l i n e ; Cambridge; At the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1989. The best book of i t s type a v a i l a b l e . A l l excess m a t e r i a l l e f t out. Evans i s best on the complicated s t o r y of the East A f r i c a Company. Hot much on l a t e h i s t o r y of Kenya. (2) B u e l l , Raymond L e s l i e ; The H a t l v e Problem i n A f r i c a ; New . York; The M a c M i l l a n Company; 1928; 2v. T h i s work, p u b l i s h e d under the auspices of the Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and R a d c l i f f e C o l l e g e i s the g r e a t e s t yet on the s u b j e c t . B u e l l though dry to read provides a wonderfuL s t o r e of i n f o r m a t i o n , f i n e L y indexed. Pages 258 to 425 are devoted to the problem o f Kenya and should be read as a f u l l and i m p a r t i a l account of the h i s t o r y of Kenya and of i t s race problem. A most v a l u a b l e work. (3) Lugard, S i r F r e d r i c k (Lord;; The Dual Mandate i n B r i t i s h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; Cambridge; At the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1929. "The Dual Mandate" has been c a l l e d the text-book of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Ho book b e t t e r deserves the name. Lugard deals c l e a r l y w i t h every phase of the problems t h a t s p r i n g from the attempt to a d m i n i s t e r f o r white and b l a c k communities s i d e by s i d e . (4) Mair, Luey P., H a t i v e P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a , London; George Rouit ledge and Sons L t d . ; 1936. Miss Mair's book i s , i n a way, a condensation of the m a t e r i a l found i n B u e l l expressed, of course, i n her own ooncise c l e a r s t y L e . Miss M a i r expresses her own o p i n i o n s more f r e e l y than does B u e l l , however. She attempts, perhaps, to crowd too much m a t e r i a l i n t o too s m a l l a spaoe. A u s e f u l s e c t i o n on Kenya i s r a t h e r a n t i - s e t t l e r (as indeed are the w r i t i n g s of most authors who know Kenya f i r s t - h a n d ) . (5) Perham, Margery; Ten A f r i c a n s ; London; Faber and Faber L t d . , . 1936. Ten A f r i c a n s from a l L corners of B r i t i s h A f r i c a t e l l t h e i r l i f e s t o r i e s and show us what the n a t i v e t h i n k s of the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and of B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s .  - 176  -  The most i n t e r e s t i n g book I have read on A f r i o a . One gets new s l a n t s on the race problem i n every page. One of the few books used that could be enjoyed by a person not deeply concerned w i t h the race problem. Besides the l e t t e r p r e s s i s superb. (6) S t r i c k l a n d , 0. P. ; Cooperation f o r A f r i o a ; London; Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Humphrey M i l f o r d ; 1933. A s m a l l book but very thought-provoking. Strickland shows how the i d e a of c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s f i t s i n t o the scheme of I n d i r e c t Bule, how i t can supply the f o u n d a t i o n of western economy needed f o r such r u l e without d e s t r o y i n g the concomitants of the traditional cultures. Style rather d i f f i c u l t . Lord Lugard puts h i s s e a l of a p p r o v a l on i t i n a f i n e preface. (7) Willoughby, Rev. W. C.; Race Problems i n the New A f r i c a ; A Study of the R e l a t i o n s of Bantu and B r i t o n s i n those p a r t s of Bantu A f r i o a which are under B r i t i s h C o n t r o l ; Oxford, At the Clarendon P r e s s , 1923. A r a t h e r hard book to use as one f e e l s the author has a hard job s t i c k i n g to p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y . Deals mostly w i t h South A f r i o a . ;  -  L77  -  (b) P o l e m i c a l approach (1) Padmore, George; How B r i t a i n Rules A f r i c a ; London, Wishart Brooks L t d . , 1936. Padmore i s a West A f r i c a n negro and, as w e l l , a Communistically i n c l i n e d one. His o p i n i o n of B r i t a i n accords w i t h h i s p o l i t i c s . n e v e r t h e l e s s he speaks the thoughts of a steady-growing body of A f r i c a n o p i n i o n . That alone should warrant the r e a d i n g of the book. The w r i t i n g i s very patchy. Some p a r t s are very w e l l w r i t t e n . Padmore has gathered much new m a t e r i a l on n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to support h i s contentions. (2) . Smith, Edwin W., The Golden S t o o l , Some Aspect of the C o n f l i c t of C u l t u r e s i n Modern A f r i c a ; London, Edinburgh House P r e s s ; 1930. Smith's book i s one of the most readable of a l l on the c l a s h of c u l t u r e s . He has a simple and r a t h e r epigramatical style. Smith deals very l i t t l e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s and yet does what even Miss Mair has not done, he makes you f e e l as i f you know something of the problems he d i s c u s s e s a f t e r reading h i s book. T h i s book. Miss Mair's and Margery Perham's Ten , A f r i c a n s should be read as a ground work f o r the study of any phase of the race problem. (3) , Woolf, Leonard; Empire and Commerce i n A f r i c a , A Study of Economic Imperialism; London; George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd. f o r Labour Research Department n.d (1919 ?) I n t e r e s t i n g to compare W o o l f s account of Lugard's e x p e d i t i o n to Uganda i n 1891 w i t h the account g i v e n by A k i k i Hyabongo i n " A f r i c a ; Answers Back". T h i s book i s more tiresome.than "Imperialism and C i v i l i zation". (4) Hyabongo, H.H. P r i n c e A k i k i ; A f r i c a Answers Back, London, George Routledge and Sons L t d . 1936. A very readable book by an East A f r i c a n p r i n c e . Good balance of h i s t o r y and anecdote. He i s c r i t i c a l o f t e n of B r i t a i n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but seldom b i t t e r . A u s e f u l book aiming at showing how he and h i s people have f a r e d under white government.  -  L78 -  . Bibliography:  Part I I  Secondary M a t e r i a l 0. Books on the Race ProbLem i n Kenya or East  Africa  (1) , Huxley, ELspeth; White Man's Country; L o r d Delamere and the Making o f Kenya; London; MacMiLLan and Co. L t d . ; 1935, 2 v. The only book w r i t t e n i n defense of the Kenya s e t t l e r s and of p r o - s e t t l e r o f f i c i a l p o L i c i e s . Miss, Huxley's book i s a biography of Lord Delamere but i s vaLuabLe as a h i s t o r y o f settlement i n the colony. The authoress i s a f i n e Lawyer and makes a good job of a bad case. I t i s a most f a s c i n a t i n g book though and g i v e s perhaps the best p i c t u r e of the country a v a i l a b l e . A b e a u t i f u l l y p r i n t e d book. (2) !  Leakey, L.S.P.; Kenya: C o n t r a s t s and Problems; London, Methuen and' Co. L t d . ; 1936. "In many ways I am more a Kikuyu than an Englishman." Leakey was born and bred i n Kenya. While he i s a s e t t l e r h i m s e l f he has a m i s s i o n a r y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the A f r i c a n . I n t h i s f i n e l i t t l e book he teLLs of L i f e i n Kenya and, more important, o f how the white and b l a c k can cooperate f o r mutuaL good.  (3)  Leys, Horman; Kenya; London; Leonard and V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Hogarth P r e s s ; 1926. A s t r o n g a t t a c k on the Kenya s e t t l e r s and a s t r o n g e r indictment o f o f f i c i a l p o L i c y i n the colony. Leys, l i k e MacGregor Ross, knows Kenya from long e x p e r i e n c e . "Kenya"' i s w e l l - w r i t t e n and w i t h a wealth o f I n f o r mation. One f e e l s that L e y s ' m a t e r i a l must be handled w i t h care. H i s evidence i s too one-sided. Some of h i s s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s must be checked. S t a t i s t i c s can be made t o prove anything.  (4)  Leys, Horman; A L a s t Chance i n Kenya; London; The Hogarth P r e s s ; 1931. Perhaps Leys f e l t h i s f i r s t book was too long to get the e f f e c t he wished. So t h i s s h o r t e r and more outspoken book was.written. I f any book c o u l d s t i r p u b l i c fee Ling i n favour of reform i n Kenya t h i s shouLd.  (5)  Ross, W. MacGregor; Kenya from W i t h i n ; London; George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . ; 1927. Ross, l i k e Leys crusades f o r reform. A Long but very readable book. In some ways more e f f e c t i v e than e i t h e r of Leys'. A f i n e source of i n f o r m a t i o n . Y/eil  -  L79  f o o t n o t e d and indexed. Boss pat a tremendous amount of s c i e n t i f i c study i n t o the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s book. (6) HuxLey, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View; London; Ohatto and Windas; 1936. A wonderful book both f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r i n t e r e s t i n g reading. Huxley's book has a s t y l e f a r ahead of that of anything e l s e I read on East A f r i c a . The way he w r i t e s down h i s thoughts d u r i n g p e r i o d s of r e f l e c t i o n on what he has seen i s p a r t i c u l a r l y effective. The only author I have read who can g i v e a page to one sentence and y e t be c l e a r and e f f e c t i v e .  180 -  Bibliography:  Part I I  Secondary M a t e r i a l P. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Works: .General (1) A l l i e r , Raoal; The Mind o f the Savage T r a n s l a t e d by Pred Rothwell; London; G. BelL & Sons; 1929. An i n t e r e s t i n g book on "savage" psychology. Used Chapter I , The Rise and P a l l o f the Theory o f the Hoble Savage, e s p e c i a l l y . A very g e n e r a l work and does not deal p a r t i c u l a r l y with the A f r i c a n mentality. (2) Dougal, J.W.C.; The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A f r i c a n Thought, London; P u b l i s h e d f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e o f A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s ; by the Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1932. A most u s e f u l l i t t l e monograph. I t i s s h o r t and concise. Good m a t e r i a l e s p e c i a l l y f o r one who knows l i t t l e about psychology. (3) D r i b e r g , J . H.; At home w i t h the Savage London; Geo. Routledge & Sons L t d . ; 1932. D r i b e r g i s a Cambridge ethnology l e c t u r e r . H i s book, one o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g ontthe s u b j e c t deals with the s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f "savages" i n g e n e r a l . The book i s easy to read but hard to use f o r i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e index i s only fair. Rather d i f f i c u l t to use too f o r study o f any one people. (4) Seligman, C.G.; Races o f A f r i c a ; London; Thornton B u t t e r worth L t d . ; 1930 (Home U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y of Modern Knowledge. Perhaps the most u s e f u l s m a l l work on the ethnography of A f r i c a . F o r a s m a l l book i t has a f i n e and r e a l l y u s e f u l index. (5) Westermann, D i e d r i c h ; The A f r i c a n Today; p u b l i s h e d f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s ; London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1934, The A f r i c a n Today might be c a L i e d a handbook of the p r i n c i p l e s o f f u n c t i o n a l anthropology as a p p l i e d by the I n s t i t u t e o f which Westermann i s a d i r e c t o r . W r i t t e n w i t h s i m p l i c i t y and conciseness. Easy t o use. I t shows the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f I n d i r e c t Rule In a new l i g h t .  - 181  Bibliography:  -  Part  II  .Secondary M a t e r i a l E. Anthropology:  East  Africa  (1) Brown, G. Gordon and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce; Anthropology i n A c t i o n , An experiment i n the I r i n g a D i s t r i c t of the I r i n g a P r o v i n c e , Tanganyika T e r r i t o r y ; London; Humphrey M i l f o r d , f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s ; 1935. As the t i t l e shows, the book d e s c r i b e s the way i n which the p r i n c i p l e s of the I n s t i t u t e were put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n t h i s experiment. More a s e r i e s of s m a l l essays than a c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d work. Yet g i v e s a f i n e p i c t u r e of the n a t i v e l i f e i n i t s phases -which clashed w i t h European ways, (£), Thurnwald, Richard u. and H i l d e ; B l a c k and White i n East A f r i c a ; London; George Routledge and Sons L t d . Mr. and Mrs. Thurnwald combine to write t h i s book on East A f r i c a n r a c i a l contacts which i s notable f o r two f e a t u r e s (1) the most accurate and s c i e n t i f i c d e t a i l s of t h e i r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s (2) poor English. I t i s a u s e f u l book, e s p e c l a l L y . o n n a t i v e education. l o t a book one enjoys r e a d i n g . Useful index. Chapter on Women by H i l d e Thurnwald.  - 182 -  Bibliography:  Part II  Secondary M a t e r i a l P. On S p e c i a l Phases of the N a t i v e Problem (a); N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n (1) F l e t c h e r , B a s i l A.; London; Methuen and A most u s e f u l DeaLs c l e a r l y  E d u c a t i o n and C o L o n i a l Development; Co.; 1936. L i t t l e book by a Dalhousie P r o f e s s o r . w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of n a t i v e education.  (2) Jones, Thos. Jesse; Education i n East A f r i c a , A Study of E a s t , C e n t r a l and Southern A f r i c a by the Second A f r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l Commission under the auspices of the PheLpsStokes Fund, i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Educ a t i o n Board. Report prepared by Thos. Jesse Jones; London, Edinburgh House P r e s s ; n.d. (L924 ?) A r e a l l y f i n e study with an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the problems of adjustment that f a c e the A f r i c a n . Unf o r t u n a t e l y the l a t e s t s p e c i f i c study o f Kenya edu-r c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . A most u s e f u l book. (3) Murray, A. v i c t o r ; The School i n the Bush, A c r i t i c a l study of the theory and p r a c t i c e of N a t i v e Education i n A f r i c a ; Toronto; Green and Co.; 1929. As the author says, h i s book i s c r i t i c a l . But Murray's c r i t i c i s m of education under I n d i r e c t Rule i s c o n s t r u c t i v e . T h i s book i s most i n t e r e s t i n g to read. The weak points o f education under i n d i r e c t Rule are shown up. Murray takes a narrower view of I n d i r e c t Rule than does, say, J u L i a n Huxley. Murray thinks of i t as a type of governing mechanism, Huxley a s s o c i a t e s i t w i t h a l l aspects of A f r i c a n life.  -  183  (b) N a t i v e Labour (1).Brown, Major G. St. J . Orde; The A f r i c a n Labourer; Oxford; U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s ; 1933. Q u a l i t y t y p i c a l of a l l I . I. of A..L. and C. books. A c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of A f r i c a n a t t i t u d e to white ernplpyment and of the q u e s t i o n of labour supply and demand. T i e s labour q u e s t i o n up with other phases of n a t i v e l i f e .  - 184  Bibliography:  Part I I I  P e r i o d i c a l M a t e r i a l (arranged A,  i n order o f date)  General  (1) Shaw, P l o r a (Lady Lugard); B»y l u r s i n g the C o l o n i e s ; F o r t n i g h t l y Beview; V o l . 46, September 1889; 367-79. A f j i e and learned c r i t i c i s m o f c o l o n i a l o f f i c e apathy towards the development of the c o l o n i e s . (2) , Lugard, S i ^ F r e d e r i c k ; The Rise o f Our East A f r i c a n Empire; Blackwood's Magazine: Vol.'86 ; December 1893; 876-91. A good account o f e a r l y B r i t i s h e n t e r p r i s e i n East Afrioa. (3) O l i v e r , Sydney,, Long Views and. Short i n B l a c k and White; Contemporary. Review; V o l . 90; October 1906; 491. (4) , Grant,, W.L.; The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of A f r i o a ; U n i t e d Empire; . V o l . I ; 1910; 283-87. A f i n e p l e a f o r t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach to the stfudy o f the n a t i v e problems. (5) M a r r i o t , J.A.R.; The E v o l u t i o n o f C o l o n i a l S e l f Government; F o r t n i g h t l y . Review; V o l . 92; 1912; 395-409. ' . Deals c h i e f l y w i t h Canada!s e v o l u t i o n but i s c e r t a i n l y p e r t i n e n t to the Kenya question a t present. (6) , Seton-Xarr, H.;; Some.. B r i t i s h East, A f r i c a Problems;, Nineteenth. Century; V o l . 71; 1912; 312-31. A poor a r t i c l e . The Masai: " u s e l e s s and even mischievous cumberers o f the e a r t h . " t  (7) Temple, C. L.; The Government o f Native, Races: Q u a r t e r l y '. Review: V o l . 230,. No. 457, October 1918, 303-18. (8) " Q u a i l " ; The Native i n B r i t i s h East Africa;> Contemporary Review; V o l . 113, 1918; 459. A^fing^and u s e f u l a r t i c l e . Good on n a t i v e problem as i t then was. (9) , B. H.; B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; Contemporary Review; V o l . 118; 1920; 389-99. A_.f ine l u c i d a r t i c l e showing the danger o f too much s e t t l e r i n f l u e n c e i n Kenya Twhich had j u s t a t t a i n e d colonial status). y  - 185 r (10) Lucas, S i r 0.; T r o p i c a l Dependencies; Edinburgh Review; No. 480; 1922; 263-282. " "~ A a s e f u l review of L o r d Lugard's Daal' Mandate. (11) Powys, L l e w e l y n ; B r i t a i n ' s I m p e r i a l Problems i n Kenya Polony; Current H i s t o r y ; V o l . 18; 1923; 999. A good o u t l i n e of the s i t u a t i o n a f t e r the 1923 White Paper. Defends 0. 0. a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (12) , Johnston, S i r H.; Race Problems i n the New. A f r i c a ; • ' F o r e i g n A f f a i r s (N. Y . ) : V o l . 2; June 15, 1924; 598. (13) : Wyndham,. S i r Hugh; The. Colour Problem i n A f r i c a , J o u r n a l -* of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s ; Vol.~4; J u l y 1925, 174. F a i r l y good. Assumes fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n between b l a c k and white m e n t a l i t i e s . ;  (14) Lewin, Evans; The B l a c k Cloud i n A f r i c a ; F o r e i g n A f f a i r s \ (N. Y.); V o l . 4; J u l y L 1926; 367.1:0. ~ ~ (15) B u e l l , R. L.; The D e s t i n y of East A f r i c a ; , F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ' (N. Y,); VoL. 6; A p r i l 1928; 408-26. — — - — A very f i n e a r t i c l e . Should be read f o r m a t e r i a l on the i d e a t h a t f'The f u t u r e of East A f r i c a may l i e w i t h the League o f N a t i o n s " . (16) H a r t l e y , 0.. G r a t t a n ; A f r i c a : , W i l l I t be a Slum Continent?; New R e p u b l i c ; V o l . 55; August 8, 1928; 309-10. A d i a t r i b e against e x p l o i t a t i o n . H a r t l e y ' s second name makes one doubt h i s motives. (17) Dubois, H.M.; A s s i m i l a t i o n ou A d a p t a t i o n ; A f r i c a ; V o l . 11, January 1929; 1. Dubois shows the profound e f f e c t on the A f r i c a n of h i s r e a l i z a t i o n of "sa propre d i g n l t l et ses d r o i t s , comme p o r t i o n de l'humanlt'e.". (18) , Delmege, J . ; Native P o l i c i e s i n White A f r i c a ; Nineteenth [ Centuryy V o l . 106; July-December 1929; 163-175. Considers H i l t o n Young Report and how I t supported , White, Paper p o l i c i e s of n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (19) L o r d O l i v i e r , B r i t a i n ' s T r u s t i n A f r i c a ; I Review; V o l . 135; 1929; 273-81.  Contemporary  (20) A. W.; The East A f r i c a Problem; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n , S o c i e t y ; V o l . 30; 1931; 104. A m a s t e r l y review of J . H. D r i b e r g ' s 1930 book of the same t i t l e . (21) Haydon, R a l s t o n ; The N a t i v e Problem i n B r i t i s h A f r i o a ; Current H i s t o r y ; V o l . 31; January 1930; 788-89. . Shows how the C. 0. can s t i l l s e t t l e the Kenya , N a t i v e p o l i c y from London. 1  - 186 (22) Huxley, J u l i a n ; The P r i n c i p l e s o f I n d i r e c t Rule i n A f r l ' can A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; Nineteenth Century; V o l . 108; J u l y December 1930; 753-59. A f i n e a r t i c l e . Most u s e f u l . (23) Baron Lugard; The N a t i v e Problem i n E a s t A f r i c a ; . F o r e i g n • A f f a i r s (N. Y . ) ; V o l . 9; October 1930; 65-78. As with Huxley's a r t i c l e , t h e author i s s u f f i c i e n t recommendation. (24) The, Venerable Archdeacon Owen; Some. Thoughts on N a t i v e Development i n E a s t A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , V o l . 30, J u l y , 1931. — . ~ "~ ~" (25) , ?'Thei Developments i n the R e l a t i o n s between White and . B l a c k i n A f r i c a t i 9 T l - 3 1 j by Dr., J . H. Oldham"; J o u r n a l of t h e A f r i c a n Society;,. V o l . 32; A p r i l 1933; 160-170. , A review r e p r i n t e d from the "Twenty Year Report of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1911-19311' by Dr. Jesse , Jones. 1  1  (26) Mair, Lucy P.; C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a S c i e n c e ; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 32; Oct. 1933; 366-71. " ' A f i n e and u s e f u l a r t i c l e by an a u t h o r i t y . :  (27) Me H a n d , Frank; East A f r i c a n K a l e i d o s c o p e ; N i n e t e e n t h •i Century; V o l . 115; January-June 1934; 525. "We have reached the stage a t whioh we must c u t out our o l d ideas o f ' c h i l d races,'". A u s e f u l article. (28) R a t t r a y , C a p t a i n , R. S.; Present Tendencies o f A f r i c a n C o l o n i a l Government; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t i e s ; V o l . 33; January 1934; 22-36. ^ t h o u g h t provoking a r t i c l e i n poor s t y l e . (29) Perham, Margery; Some Problems o f Indirect, Rule i n A f r i c a J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y /Supplement); V o l . 34; Ap. 1935. R e p r i n t e d from J o u r n a l o f the Royal S o c i e t y o f the . A r t s , May 18, 1934. Very u s e f u l . (30)  ''Native A f f a i r s i n Kenya: Annual Report o f the N a t i v e A f f a i r s Department Kenya, CoLony and P r o t e c t o r a t e , 1932. J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 33; J u l y 1934,  ' 464-09.  " — ~  '  A Review by a correspondent. (31) Thompson, R.; Grievances i n Kenya; Current H i s t o r y ; V o l , 43, December 1935; 310. (32) Kenyatta, J , ; I m p e r i a l i s m — K e n y a V a r i e t y ; New and N a t i o n ; V o l . 11; June 27, 1936; 1022.  Statesman  - 1-87 (33) MacMillan, P r o f . W.M; Changing A f r i c a ; Manchester Guardian Weekly; F r i d a y , J u l y 24, 1936; 76. " !  (34.) ."The U n i f i c a t i o n of the C o l o n i a l S e r v i c e " ; Crown C o l o n i s t ; .August 1936; 345. One o f a f i n e s e r i e s o f e d i t o r i a l a r t i c l e s on the subject.. (35) "Do C o l o n i e s Pay?"; The S p e c t a t o r ; August 14, 1936. A c r i t i c i s m of the a n a l y s i s i n Grover C l a r k ' s books. ;  (36) Ormsby-Gore, W.; The C o l o n i a l Empire Under Review; Crown i C o l o n i s t ; August 1936; 365. (37) "The P a i t h of an Englishman"{ Crown C o l o n i s t ; December 1936; 532. E d i t o r i a l excerpts from S i r Edward G r i g g ' s book, o f that t i t l e . (38) , L o r d Lugard; Some C o l o n i a l Problems o f Today; UnitedEmpire : December 1936; 669. """" ^ Puts the case f o r separate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the n a t i v e and s e t t l e r communities. Good a r t i c l e .  -  188  Bibliography: :  B,  Part  III  P a r t i c a l a r Phases of East A f r i c a n Problems a. E d u c a t i o n  (1) Lord Lugard; Problems o f E q u a t o r i a l A f r i o a ; J o u r n a l of the Royal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s ; V o l . 6; J u l y 1927; 219. " ~~ ~~ A very u s e f u l a r t i c l e . (2) Amery, L. S. and Ormsby-Gore, W.; Problems and Development i n A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 28, J u l y 1929; 328. Amery i s good on education under I n d i r e c t Rule. (3) .Smith, Rennle; Education i n B r i t i s h A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l of the A f r i o a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 51, 1932. In f o u r p a r t s ; I and I I , 54-77; i j l , 133-148; IV, 255S282. Fine m a t e r i a l . (4) Lord Lugard; E d u c a t i o n and Race R e l a t i o n s ; J o u r n a l of the . A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 32; January 1933; 1-11. (5) Murray, V i c t o r ; E d u c a t i o n under I n d i r e c t Rule; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; . V o l . 34, J u l y 1955; 228. C o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of t h i s education. b. Land (1) H i n d l i p , Lord; B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; Nineteenth,Century; ,Vol. 54; July-December 1903; 903-907. (2) E l i o t , S i r Charles; The East A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e as a European Colony; Nineteenth Century; V o l . 56; July-December 1904; 370-85. An I n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e by the man who s t a r t e d land a l i e n a t i o n i n Kenya. (3) G r i g g , S i r Edward; Land P o l i c y and Economic Development i n Kenya; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 31; January 1932; 12. . (.4) Leys, N.; Report of the Kenya Land Commission; New man and Nation: V o l . 8; J u l y 28, 1934; 116,  States-  (.5) "Treatment of C h i l d Races"; Manchester Guardian: F r i d a y , June 12, 1936; 467, C o l . 2.  - 189 * o. Lab oar (1) .Rathbone, Edward P.; The N a t i v e Labour Problem; N i n e t e e n t h ' Century; V o l . 54; July-December 19G3; 404-413. (2) Johnston, S i r Harry; The East A f r i c a Problem; N i n e t e e n t h Century; V o l . 64; July-December 1908; 567-87. • Cbod on white man's a t t i t u d e to manual labour i n tropics. ;  :  r  (3) H a r r i s , John H.; Making the "Lazy Nigger", Work; Contemporary Review; V o l . 105, June 1914; 819-25.A d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t the s e t t l e r s who gave evidence before the E a s t A f r i c a Labour Commission i n 1914. An e a r l y Norman L e y s . (4)  "Native Labour i n Kenya 4 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review; V o l . 14, November 1926; 728-31. " : ~ ' U s e f u l s t a t i s t i c s on labour demand and supply. w  (5) The Conference of Governors of B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; I n t e r n a t i o n a l Laboar Review; V o l . 14; March 1927. (6) Labour i n Kenya; I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review; V o l . 17, A p r i l 1928; 565-71. Comments on Labour Commission Report of 1927. S t a t i s t i c s useful. 1  (7)  Smuts, J . C . ; A f r i c a n Settlement; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 29; January 1930; 117. A r e p r i n t o f Smuts" Rhodes L e c t u r e a t Oxford. ;  ;  (8) N a t i v e Labour i n Kenya, 1932; I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review; .Vol. 30; September 1934; 374-78. ' . !  (9) N a t i v e Labour i n Kenya i n 1933; I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour ' Review; V o l . 32; J u l y 1935; 104-109. " ^" Comments on N a t i v e A f f a i r s Department Annual Report, !  (10) Reade, L; E t h i o p i a and Kenya; New October.2, 1935; 211-12. A tirade against B r i t a i n .  R e p u b l i c ; V o l . 84;  (11) Workmen's Compensation i n A f r i c a ; Crown C o l o n i s t : May, 1936; 208. An e d i t o r i a l summary of the views on the s u b j e c t o f the J o i n t Committee o f the East A f r i c a S e c t i o n o f the London Chamber o f Commerce and the J o i n t East A f r i c a Board, (12) Browne, G. St. J . Orde; B l a c k Man f i n d s a Job; C h r i s t i a n Science M o n i t o r ; J u l y 29, 1936; 4.  - 190 a. C l o s e r Union (1) Benson, W.; C l o s e r Union i n A f r l e a ; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 30; October 1931; 339."""" "~" " ~- •' "A f i n e a r t i c l e on the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the demand f o r c l o s e r union. ,mr  (2) Tate, H. R.; The Report of the J o i n t S e l e c t Committee on C l o s e r Union i n l a s t A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 31, January 1932; 38-53. ,A review o f the f i n d i n g s . (3) . Noble, P. S. L i v i e ; C l o s e r Union i n A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l o f the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 31; January 1932; 7 7 - 7 9 T ^ "Xn a t t a c k on Benson's a r t i c l e . e. Finance (1) Holm, Alex; The Economic P o s i t i o n o f Kenya; Grown C o l o n i s t ; A p r i l 1936; 163. (2) S i r A l a n Pirn's Report " F i n a n c i a l P o s i t i o n and System of T a x a t i o n of Kenya" Crown C o l o n i s t ; October 1936, 434. A f i n e o u t l i n e o f the 300 page Pim Report. (3) The Pim Report; Crown C o l o n i s t ; November 1936, Comments on mixed r e c e p t i o n of r e p o r t .  505.  f . I n d i a n Question (1) The I n d i a n Problem In East A f r i c a ; Round T a b l e ; V o l . 12; No. 46* March 1922; 339-361. Fine material. (2) Protherom M i c h a e l ; Kenya Controversy; Contemporary Review; V o l . 123; February 1923; 198-204. A good o u t l i n e o f the 1922 c o n t r o v e r s y . Rather non-critical. (3) Watkins, Olga; Indian Question; F o r t n i g h t l y Review; V o l . 102; 1923; 95-03. Anti-Indian. Idea of t r i a n g u l a r problem. (4) Stone, F.G.; V o l . 93, May  The Kenya Conference; N i n e t e e n t h Century; 1923; 767-75.  - L91  -  g. J u s t i c e (1) :Burke, H. Lardner; T r i a l . B y Jury i n ear East A f r i c a n C o l o n i e s ; F o r t n i g h t l y Review; V o l . 91; 191£; 67-81. (2) L o r d Raglan; Crime and Punishment i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; Nineteenth Century; V o l . 93; 1914; 575-82. Questions wisdom of p u t t i n g j u s t i c e too much i n hands of Native A u t h o r i t i e s . (3) Browne, St. J . Orde; B r i t i s h J u s t i c e and the A f r i c a n ; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 32; A p r i l 1933; 148-159; Shows how such j u s t i c e can be m i s a p p l i e d i n A f r i c a ; A l s o deals with Bushe Report (Cmd. 4623). (4) Hamilton, S i r Robert and "an E x - D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r ; C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n East A f r i c a ; Report on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e i n Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika (Cmd. 46£5J; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; v o l . 34; January 1935; 7-18. For and  against  the Bushe recommendations.  (5) Bushe, H. Grattan; C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e i n East A f r i c a ; J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; Vol. 34; A p r i l 1935; 117-28. A f i r s t c l a s s a r t i c l e by the author of Cmd. 4623. (6) Venerable Archdeacon Owen; J u v e n i l e C r i m i n a l s i n East A f r i c a ; Manchester Guardian Weekly; September 11, 1936; h. S c i e n t i f i c  219.  Servioes  (1) Gregory, J . W.; Science and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Nature; V o l . 115; May 16, 1925; 753;4.  i n East  Africa;  (2) Ormsby-Gore, Rt. Hon.W.; A g r i c u l t u r a l Research: J o u r n a l of the A f r i c a n S o c i e t y ; V o l . 33; January 1934; 18-21. 1. The  S e t t l e r ' s Case i n Kenya  (1) . Johnston, Sir. H.; The White Man's Place i n A f r i c a ; Nine-. ' !' t e e n t h Century; V o l . 55; January-June 1904, 937-46. (2) H a l l , S i r D a n i e l ; Native. Settlement i n Kenya; Nineteenth • Century; V o l . 107; January-June 1930; 70. States a poor case f o r i n c r e a s e d d e l e g a t i o n of C.6. powers to the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e t  11  (3) Kenya: The S e t t l e r ' s Case; Round Table; V o l . 26; 1935; 82-97. A fine lucid a r t i c l e . ;  December  -  192 *  (4) S c o t t , L o r d - F r a n c i s ; On H i s M i s s i o n • Crown C o l o n i s t ; J u l y 1920-; 301.  f o r the Kenya C o l o n i s t ;  

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