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Some aspects of the native problem of Kenya Colony MacRae, Lachlan Farquhar 1937

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SOME ASPECTS.OF THE.NATIVE PROBLEM,OF.KENYA,COLONY by . LAOHLAN, FARQITHAR • MaoRAE ,A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of History. The University of British,Columbia September 25, 1937. INTRODUCTION 1. The importance of the Kenya problem. 2. The native problem:- native interests. 3. A f r i c a n progress towards emancipation. 4. Direct Rule, Indirect Rule and the Kenya Dual Po l i c y 5. The questions the native administration must answer: Educational, Labour, Land, and Taxation. IHTHODTTPjDIOH In L923, when the clamour f o r p o l i t i c a l recog-n i t i o n raised by the Indian population of Kenya Colony had awakened the Colonial o f f i c e and the B r i t i s h Government to the fact that a l l was not well i n B r i t a i n ' s East A f r i c a n empire. Mr.. Charles Roberts M. P. told the B r i t i s h House of Commons that t h i s Kenya question i s one that has to be discussed i n the l i g h t of the Empire and of the whole imperial position and i t i s not a separate question by i t s e L f , It raises any number of Imperial problems, i t a f f e c t s our Imperial position i n A f r i c a and i n India i t s e l f .... i This was at the time of the publication of the f i r s t of the Kenya White Papers. These papers have stated and restated the f a c t that B r i t a i n ' s mission i n A f r i c a Is as the trustee of the native races.' There are several d i f f e r e n t aspects of the Kenya question, each one of them important enough to demand discussion i n the l i g h t of Mr. Robert's statement. He was concerned then mainly with the problem of s a t i s f y i n g the de-mands of the Indians of Kenya who were agitating f o r the same p o l i t i c a l emancipation that the n a t i o n a l i s t Congress i n India sought for Indians at home. But i t i s the solution of the many-sided native problem of Kenya Colony that w i l l provide the r e a l test case of the s i n c e r i t y of B r i t a i n ' s aim th her A f r i c a n colonization. 1. 167 H. C. Debates 5s, 25 July 1923, Gol. 559 - 1 -- 2 -The existence in Kenya OoLony of a very vocal Euro-pean community accounts for the most d i f f i c u l t features of the race problem. The white community started when the adminis-t r a t i o n adopted a settlement policy. So the administration f e e l s that i t must do i t s duty by the white men, f o r whose coming to Kenya i t was responsible. Where this obligation i s coupled with Government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the natives and the Indians, you have the Kenya question in a l l i t s complication. The 1931 Report of the Joint Select Committee on the closer Union of the.East African Dependencies states that the mixture of races i n East A f r i c a not only raises a l l the problems of race reLations upon which so much thought i s concentrated in the modern world, but i t i s coming to be regarded as a test case i n Imperial statesmanship in harmonizing the separate interests of the B r i t i s h subjects or protected persons of d i f -ferent races i n the framework of the Empire as a whole.^ This i s the dilemma that faces the Colonial Office i n i t s ad-ministration of Kenya. .There i s a f e e l i n g that i t has a duty to perform towards each of the three races. The success of any poLicy which s h a l l s a t i s f y alL three, depends upon the unselfish cooperation of a l l three. So f a r the Europeans and Indians have refused to admit that their rights must come a f t e r those of the g native m i l l i o n s . Every factor enters into the question of race re-lations in Kenya which from the e a r l i e s t clash between c i v i l i -2. Joint Committee on Closer Union i n East A f r i c a , Vol. I, Report, h. of o. 156, 6th.October I93T7 P.6 hereafter re-ferred to as H. of C. 156 or as the Joint Select Committee Report. 3. Estimated Population 31st December 1935: Europeans, 1^997; Indians, 6,461; Africans, 3,012,421: Kenya Colony and Pro-tectorate, Annual Report 1935, P.9. - 3 -zations at d i f f e r e n t stages of development, has gone into the making of the world's race problems. Bat i n Kenya there i s one great difference. The so-called backward race, the Bantu, is f a s t awakening to i t s position i n the modern world and i s clamouring f o r an administration whose p o l i c i e s w i l l speed the emancipation of the African. In the study of the native problem of Kenya this f a c t should always be kept i n mind: though we may study the African, his mind, his s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic organizations and the ef f e c t of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n on them, they no longer exist i n th e i r old form but have evolved in t h i s struggle for emancipation. Throughout this study the terms Direct Rule and Indirect Rule w i l l be constantly used. The Indirect Rule system of native administration demands, as w i l l be seen, the saving of what i s worth while i n the old African system. Neither system seeks to hinder A f r i c a n evolution but each d i f f e r s i n the channels into which i t seeks to guide native l i f e . Indirect Rule has met with so much success i n other B r i t i s h A f r i c a n colonies that one cannot but suspect the Kenya native p o l i c i e s to be i n f e r i o r . This comparison with Indirect Rule i s perhaps the most fascinating approach to the colony's native problem. It i s to be seen whether the p o l i c i e s i n Kenya which aim at balancing the interests of a l l races act as p a l L i a t i v e s rather than as cures f o r the race problem. The nature of the country dictates that the success of white settlement depends on the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the demand of the white community f o r the labour of the Africans. The evolution of the A f r i c a n makes certa i n of h i s demands incompatible with those of the white s e t t l e r . We shouLd try to decide whether both sets of demands can be s a t i s -f i e d , or whether native poLicy in Kenya should seek to carry out to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion the most important concomitant of the doctrine of trusteeship: the p r i n c i p l e that native interests are the paramount concern of the Colonial O f f i c e . Should the present policy of trying to find some Juste m i l i e u be carried on, or should the r e l a t i v e l y small European and Indian communities be l e f t to s h i f t for themselves? Professor J u l i a n Huxley states what he considers to be the main questions which must be answered by the adminis-trators who attempt to devise new p o l i c i e s f or Kenya native administration. These questions provide a p r a c t i c a l foundation f o r such a study as t h i s . As he says, they are "the points on which dispute i s now most vio l e n t and practise most divergent, and upon which guiding p r i n c i p l e s are therefor most urgently 4 needed." F i r s t , Huxley says, there i s the choice between the p r o f i t a b l e investment of outside c a p i t a l in Kenya and the development of a prosperous native population with i t s own economic basis and i t s own stable s o c i a l system. Cap i t a l , wherever i t has poured i n , he says, seeks to answer the question i n i t s own interests, Second: should native production f o r export be discouraged or encouraged? This i s often bound up with the f i r s t question. Third: when the appropriate deduction has been made from money derived from d i r e c t native taxation f o r general administrative services, shouLd any of the proceeds 4. Huxley, Jul i a n ; A f r i c a View, London^ 1931, 399. of native taxes be devoted to any purpose save the direct ad-vancement of native interests? In Kenya, for instance, i t seems clear that native taxation contributes to the education of white children and the financing of a g r i c u l t u r a l and medical advice to white s e t t l e r s , as we LI as to administration and the needs of native education and native agriculture and heaLth. Fourth: are we to aim at widespread or universaL education for native peopLes? I f so, are they to be given a mainly technicaL education or are the resources of western knowLedge, thought and skiLL to be thrown open to them, for those to pro-f i t who can? As i t stands the s e t t l e r s i n Kenya, for obvious reasons want education to be of a technicaL nature. F i f t h : In a country with a great numerical preponderance of natives, should questions involving native interests ever be decided by the votes of an elected assembLy on which the natives are not ade-quately represented? Sixth: Should native chiefs and councils be given a generous degree of freedom and responsibiLity i n regard to l o c a l administration, or shouLd they be kept in Leading strings as long as possible with very L i t t l e power to act save as cogs in a prescribed t r a i n of Governmental machinery? Seventh: as regards land, shouLd there be some p r i n c i p l e irrevocably re-serving c e r t a i n native areas? Eighth: again concerning land policy, shouLd the system of native Land tenure be such as to make i t possible for an individual c u l t i v a t o r to benefit him-s e l f and his descendants by the improvements he has made? ,Fin a l l y : concerning labour, i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e to employ any form of forced labour? and, i f so, i s i t j u s t i f i a b l e to em-pLoy such Labour on private estates, or soLeLy for governmental - 6 -5 or communal purposes? The H i l t o n Young Commission of 1929 stated the nature of the questions that must be considered thus: The d e f i n i t i o n of native interests oan best be given by considering them under the folLowing headings:-Land; Economic Development, Government services and taxation; Labour; Education; 6 Administration and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the folLowing pages an attempt wiLL be made to deal with c e r t a i n of these questions; nameLy, Eduoation, Labour, Land and Taxation, In the discovery of the right system of native education Lies, I think, the Key to the race probLem. The question of native Land constitutes the sorest point of i n t e r -raciaL reLations i n Kenya. Inequitable taxation i s an ever-present cause of native resentment. And Labour abuses continue to keep the Kenya question before the Labour organizations of the worLd. These are the most cLoseLy related and, in some ways, most fundamental aspects of any study of the native probLem. They shouLd be considered i n broad perspective i f possibLe; not mereLy as questions to be settLed f o r Kenya aLone but as part of the task of devising p o l i c i e s f o r the government of the backward peoples of the Empire in general. To do this properly would require the perspicacity of Lord,Durham com-bined with Balfour's a b i l i t y to reconcile divergent interests. One thing that is presupposed by such men as 5. Huxley, J.; op. c i t . , 399r402 passim. 6. Beport of the Commission on Union of the Dependencies of Eastern and Central A f r i c a , Report of the Commission appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies. January IWTT^" ,Cmd. ,5254. 41. " !-" — ~ — ~ - 7 * J u l i a n Huxley and S i r Edward H i l t o n Young i s a knowledge of A f r i c a and the Africans. This should be part of any study of Kenya's native problems. If B r i t i s h p o l i cy of to-day is tending towards the preservation of the t r a d i t i o n a l cultures of the native, the factors which made them d i f f e r e n t from our western culture must be understood. So, though most of this anthropo-l o g i c a l material i s applicable to A f r i c a generally rather than just to Kenya, i t must be understood before the study of the p a r t i c u l a r phases of the native problem outlined above i s attempted. This then i s the plan that w i l l be followed hereafter: f i r s t , to sketch the main features of the geography and climate of Kenya so as to see i t s r e l a t i o n to settlement; second, to consider b r i e f l y the events of the colony's h i s t o r y which have contributed to the growth of the present i n t e r -r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s and to trace the growth of the clash between s e t t l e r wishes and o f f i c i a l policy; th i r d , to study along lines which might be called anthropological, something of A f r i c a and the.Africans; f i n a l l y , to consider i n chapters of varying lengths the problems of native Education, Land, ! Labour,, and Taxation, -0-0-0-Chapter One I Geography and History of Kenya Colony Part One: Geography and Climate (a) description (p) effect on past and future of Kenya Part Two: The History of European Enterprise i n East A f r i c a (a) The Portugese and Arab Empires (b) ,Chartered Company Days (o) White Settlement and the Growth of S e t t l e r Influence (d) The Development of the B r i t i s h Government 1s.Native policy. CHAPTER I . GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OP KENYA COLONY Kenya Colony, the t h i r d largest unit of B r i t a i n ' s East A f r i c a n empire consists today of an area of 208,320 square 1 miles, straddling the Equator. It i s flanked on the north by Ethiopia and the t e r r i t o r y known as Jnbaland, which, i n 1925, was oeded to I t a l y by B r i t a i n , as an addition to I t a l i a n So-maliland. To the northwest, i n the angle between Kenya and E t h i o p i a — f i v e hundred miles from the Indian Ooean—lies the Sudan, the part of i t Emil Ludwig teLls of i n h i s story of the N i l e . Here, almost at the in t e r s e c t i o n of the three boundaries, l i e s the huge expanse of Lake Rudolph. Prom Lake Rudolph, the boundary between Kenya and the Uganda Protectorate runs i n a south-westerly d i r e c t i o n , cutting through the corner of the highland areas to Lake V i c t o r i a Nyanza. Curving so as to i n -clude a corner of the Lake i n Kenya, the l i n e runs in a general south-westerly direction, now separating Kenya and Tanganyika 1. Table of areas of parts of B r i t i s h East A f r i c a . ,Tanganyika T e r r i t o r y (Mandate) 373,494 square miles Northern Rhodesia ' 29L,000 " " Kenya Colony 208,320 " '.' Uganda Protectorate 110,300 •* 11 Hyasaland 39,964 See: Report of the Commission on Union of the Dependencies of'Eastern and Central A f r i c a , Report of the Commission " appointed by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies, January 1929, Cmd. 3234, 2~XT - 8 -- 9 -Te r r i t o r y , to reaoh the Ocean again about opposite the L i t t l e i s l a n d of Pemba. Geography and climate, the two greatest factors i n the conditioning of a country and of the races inhabiting i t , have played and are going to play an important part i n the history of Kenya Colony. Perhaps, i n the long run, as many authorities think, the geography and climate of the colony w i l l c lear up the race problem by d i c t a t i n g that the white race oan-not inhabit Kenya permanently. Even to-day no one can be realLy posi t i v e what the future may hoLd i n store f o r the white man. The Highland areas of Kenya, the home of white settlement, resemble both i n cLimate and geography some parts of I t a l y ' s new Empire of Ethiopia. The t r i p up from Mombasa to Hairobi, the c a p i t a l of Kenya along the Uganda Railroad re-sembles that from Djibouti to Addis Ababa. Hot, of course that the Kenya t r a v e l l e r meets with the hardships that Musso-l i n i ' s troops had to face. I t i s a case of geographic and clima t i c resemblance. There i s the same passage from the t r o p i c a l swamps of the Indian Ocean coast up gradually to a dry p l a i n p a r a l l e l to the coast and f i n a l L y into the great alti t u d e s of the highlands with towering snow-covered mountain peaks set amidst r o l l i n g grasslands and forest belts resembling i n many ways the scenery of parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. Beyond these high areas, i n Kenya as i n Ethiopia, the continent slopes away to the west, dropping, in Ethiopia, to the feverous swamps of the upper H i l e and the Sudan and, i n Kenya, to the shores of the huge Lake V i c t o r i a Hyanza i n the heart of A f r i c a . Ho other colony of Great B r i t a i n i n A f r i c a can - LO -surpass Kenya f o r v a r i e t y of olimate and geography. ALL who 2 teLL about the coLony speak of i t as a land of contrasts. Think of some of the extremes: from the eternal snow of great Mount Kenya on the Equator to the Sahara-like expanse of the great desert of the lort h e r n F r o n t i e r Province that abuts on Ethiopia, the desert in which l a s t year so many of the Boran tribesmen f l e e i n g from Ethiopia died of t h i r s t . Think, too, of the fever swamps of Kenya's low-lying Indian Ocean coast, swamps which p r e v a i l along perhaps one half of i t s four hundred mile long stretch, and of the rare atmosphere and temperate climate of the highland areas i n the centre of the colony. And go farther inland down the Long sloping pLains of the Kavirondo country, a thousand miles from the Indian Ocean, and think of Kenya's inland coastLine, the long, deeply :indented shoreline of V i c t o r i a Hyanza. So, i n Kenya colony can be found climate and geography of every type: the Alpine scenery of the high a l t i -tudes, the scenery and temperature-range of B r i t i s h Columbia in the white-settlement areas, the r o l l i n g downs and Lakes of EngLand, the most poisonous of t r o p i c a l swamps and the dryest of deserts. Canon Leakey gives us a graphic account of the variety of climate. He t e l l s of the t r i p up-country from Mombasa to Hairobi, of the c h i l l y a i r of the country hotel at Limuru about t h i r t y miles from the c a p i t a l , of the climb down to the sun-baked f l o o r of the R i f t Valley and, f i n a l l y , of the sight of the snows of Mount Kenya and of KiLim anjaro, the 2. Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya, London, L9S6, Chapters L and 2. MAP No.l. A u T I T U Q u S o r A B Q V g . g S O o S H S . W H B U A C K . AuTITuDtUS O F r S O O " T O 2 6 0 0 " 8 H E . W O M A T C H E . O . R / = M L . W A V 3 E X I S T I N G 1 11 D O . U N O E H C O N » T « t U C T I O H Do. • Peaeiat-E F^ouTa^* M I L E 5 M a i b y 3 c S o n s . P h o t o - L i tin o IrtTE.RC©*-oru*u P3JiB,2l3S9A-770l500,//30 highest peak in A f r i c a — a l l this within t h i r t y - s i x hours. With the H i l t o n Young Report is included a map of the East A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r y which shows i n black the areas with a l t i t u d e s of over 8000 feet. Those ranging from 5000 feet to 8000 feet are shown by cross-hatching. These constitute the so-called Highland areas. It can be seen that while Tan^ •--ganyika and Kenya have about equal areas of from 5000 to 8000 feet in a l t i t u d e , Kenya contains nearly a l l the land of over 8000 feet. Moreover, i n Kenya the Highland areas are i n one large block, while i n Tanganyika they are found i n three sec-tions: one, a part of the Kenya block; a second, f a r south in a l i n e between Lake Hyasa and the foot of Lake Tanganyika; and a t h i r d , to the west of Lake V i c t o r i a along the boundary of Belgian Oongo. It can also be appreciated that the Uganda Railway running from Mombasa to Kisumu on Lake V i c t o r i a opened up the whole area of the Kenya Highlands to the white-man. The chain of the Highlands, running from Horth to South, part of the range which forms the backbone of Central A f r i c a , l i e s as a b a r r i e r between the swampy l i t t o r a l along the Indian Ocean and the jungles of the Congo and of Uganda. As far as range of temperature goes, these areas can be com-pared to B r i t i s h Columbia. But the fa c t that the temperateness of the climate i s occasioned by the a l t i t u d e , so^naTtTthe white settlement areas average over 6000 feet above sea-level, is l i k e l y to prove a potent factor in determining the future of the white community. There are those authorities who say that Kenya can be a permanent and heal t h f u l home for the European. Such a one i s Elspeth Hnxley (whose biography of - 12 -Lord Delamere has, i n c i d e n t a l l y , some f i n e photographs showing the beautiful and varied scenery of the Highlands.) C r i t i c s of white settlement—such as Gorman Leys and even men l i k e Canon Leakey who i s Kenya-born—say, on the other hand, that the nervous diseases r e s u l t i n g from the s t r a i n of a l t i t u d e must ultimately dictate that the white man cannot stand the Kenya climate, or at least that he cannot do the manual labour which w i l l be required of him i n the future. It i s l i k e l y that the white-man cannot remain for a l l time the overseer of A f r i -can labour. White settlement, i f i t i s to endure i n Kenya must ultimately, perhaps, be based, as i n Borth America, on white labour. But perhaps the most wonderful physical feature of East A f r i c a i s the R i f t Valley. This great geological break 3 i n the earth's crust begins f a r north i n Palestine in the Jordan Valley, runs south to form an arm of the Red Sea, and then turns south-west to cut as a great gash across East A f r i c a as f a r south as the Zambesi River. In Kenya this wonderful v a l l e y Is flanked by sheer-cut escarpments, higher on the west, whose walLs drop from the cool a i r of the Highlands to the baked f l o o r of the r i f t , thousands of feet below. But i n parts of the v a l l e y i s found some of the f i n e s t farm-land i n Kenya. The v a l l e y i s a paradise of wild-game f o r which i t s towering walls act as a c o r a l l . To the railway engineers, the descent into the R i f t Valley proved the greatest of a l l obstacles. Horman Leys describes the Highlands and the R i f t as forming an 3. see Ross, W. McGregor, Kenya from Within, London, 1927, 33. - 13 -elevated " i s l a n d " i n the midst of the huge t e r r i t o r y unsuitable f o r the. European and adds: the shores of this island are 4000 to 5000 feet above sea-level. Its highest peaks are 12000 to 15000 feet high. Down the middle of the island there runs from north to south, the S i f t Valley with i t s some h a l f -dozen lakes but no r i v e r on i t s f l o o r , a broad o l e f t in the earth's surface with walls sometimes straight and precipitous, sometimes lo s t i n a jumble of h i l l s of f a n t a s t i c shape. 4 To the west of the area demarcated as "highland," and stretching to the shores of Victor ia, Hyanza are the grassy plains of the province of Kavirondo, taken from Uganda i n 1903 to provide Kenya with a lake-ooast and also to allow alienation of the lands to whites. The entire area of the Kenya highlands does not exceed 60,000 square miles. Thus only a small f r a c t i o n of the , Colony's 200,000 odd square miles i s suitable for the whites at a l l . In the whole of Kenya 10,294 square miles had been 41 alienated i n 1935. ..Of t h i s t o t a l over 10,000 square miles l i e i n the highlands. So i t can be seen that with the highlands we are mainly concerned. The 200 or so square miles alienated at the coast around Mombasa have not meant so much to the Africans. But that 10,000 square miles of f e r t i l e highlands are held by 2,000 or so Europeans while aLmost 90% of Kenya's 3,000,000 natives inhabit only the remaining 50,000 square miles i s the feature of Kenya?s population d i s t r i b u t i o n that is important* More than two thirds of Kenya's to t a l area i s useless f o r anything at present. 4. Leys, lorman;. Kenya, London, 1926; 82. #1. Annual Report: 1935; 13. - 1.4 -But whether this area must be considered per-manently so concerns us here. The. Annual Report said "In addition (to the areas occupied in the highlands by Africans) there are 119,801 square miles comprising the Northern Fron-tier District, Tnrkana, and an extension of Uganda whioh are oooupied by natives." Considered in their context these figures seem to help show that perhaps the balanoe of land distribution in Kenya is not so bad as the c r i t i c s of adminis-tration make out. This is not f a i r when one considers that in these 119,801 square miles less than 10$ of Kenya's natives can produce barely enough to live on. In fact, of late years, famine in Turkana has been almost continuous. Opinions differ as to the possibilities of reclamation of any large area of desert Kenya. In any of these considerations the uncertainty of adequate r a i n f a l l plays a v i t a l part. In fact f a i l i n g r a i n f a l l may prove the ruin of Kenya as a whole. Canon Leakey places great emphasis on this important feature of Kenya's changing geography; In the consideration of Kenya's future, as he says "Things which are beyond the control of man in his present state of knowledge A3 have got to be taken into consideration." He opens his discussion of the dessication of . Kenya with the. statement that ever since 850 B. C. the climate has been getting gradually drier. This would at f i r s t seem to give one no cause for alarm. But the figures given for the dessication since the beginning of the present century t*2. Annual Report; 1935; 13. A3. Leakey; op. c i t . ; 167. - 15— are r e a l l y alarming. We i n North America know only too well the lesson of ''soil-mining 1' and erosion. In the l a s t two or three years most of us have been s t a r t l e d to learn that areas whioh ten years ago were counted the worlds best grainlands are now rained. And North America does not depend for i t s climate. on such a precarious balance of a l t i t u d e and temperature as does Kenya. , In the l a s t quarter century the c u l t i v a t i o n of the Kenya highlands has grown continually more intensive. Forests, absolutely v i t a l i n a country so dependent on cer-tai n t y of r a i n f a l l have been r u t h l e s s l y burned o f f . This deforestation was required i n the native a g r i c u l t u r e . The ashes of invaluable tracts of forest served to f e r t i l i z e the s o i l for a few years. So whole areas have been u t t e r l y ruined by the drying-up process that foLlows deforestation or by the almost equally destructive process of '?soil-mining". : This man-made destruction i s onLy hurrying the slow process of natural dessication. By r e f o r e s t a t i o n and by s c i e n t i f i c s o i l reclamation the damage done by man can, perhaps, be undone. This need i s v i t a l to Kenya's whole population, white and black as w e l l . But the prospect f o r the colony when the pro-cess of gradual r a i n f a l l decrease i s considered Is c e r t a i n l y not a bright one. One feels that the sooner the forces of science are brought into action against the forces of geo-graphy the better* Leakey shows that the water needed fo r human - 16 -use could be very Likely obtained through artesian borings. But t h i s would not offset the loss of r a i n f a l l . Without much refo r e s t a t i o n t h i s loss could not be combated. It appears that i f great unused areas of Kenya could be rendered available for population right away much of the present land could be re-claimed. , low the areas of East A f r i c a at present made useless f o r man and animal by the scourge of the tsetse f l y seem to answer these purposes. Great f e r t i l e areas could be opened i f the tsetse f l y curse couLd be done away with. Black-water fever and rhinderpest too render large grassy areas unfit for pasturage. Adequate s c i e n t i f i c measures couLd des-r troy a l l these barriers to development. Bat i n spite of a l l that man can do to combat dessication, erosion and t r o p i c a l disease the query must re-main as regards the future. As i t is Kenya Colony, i n i t s present state of " p l u v i a l decline" bids f a i r to provide a rather t r a g i c example of the effect of geography and cLimate upon history. This apparently i s the greatest of a L l questions f o r the country. But what concerns us more i s the Immediate past and the near future. The geography and climate as the white men found them appealed greatly to hia. The native problem of Kenya has resulted. s*4. The Ormsby-^Gore;East A f r i c a Commission i n 19£5 devoted ten pages of i t s report to the subject of the tsetse f l y and i t s ravages i n East A f r i c a (Cmd. 2387, 1925; 70-80). These Should be read i f one i s to appreciate the awful damage done. Most of the desolation i s i n Uganda and Tanganyika, A huge belt of tsetse-ruined land stretches ".approximately 120 miles east and west from Kazi-Kazi to Tabora and north-ward to Lake!Victoria, while west of Tabora there i s f l y p r a c t i c a l l y a i l the way to Lake Tanganyika." - 17 -I I . The, History of Earopean Enterprise i n East A f r i c a (a) The, Portugese and Arab Empires While the greater portion of this stady could be done without reference to events before B r i t a i n came to East A f r i c a , there i s a good deal to be gained i f the story of these areas when they were under Arab domination or part of the Empire of Portugal i s known. Por the centaries of domination by stronger races before B r i t a i n came, es p e c i a l l y the oenturles of Arab rule, must have had permanent shaping influences on the native races, p a r t i c u l a r l y the races of the coast. Then, too, the early periods of B r i t i s h penetration are important to the study as periods of shaping i n t e r r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s , when the forerunners of western economic c i v i l i z a -t i o n and of C h r i s t i a n i t y began to work themselves into East African l i f e . In 1497, Vasco da Gama, rounded the Gape of Good Hope and, s a i l i n g up the east coast, planted the seeds of a Portugese Empire i n East A f r i c a . This Empire was won from the Arabs who had been for several centuries the over-lords of the huge t e r r i t o r y . The sultans were driven from th e i r coastal towns and Portugal ruled along the Indian Ocean. But she lacked the man-power necessary to sustain the rule and, more important, the t o l e r a t i o n necessary i n such a Moham-medan t e r r i t o r y . The riches of the spice empire brought the other powers of. Europe i n to crush Portugal. Ruthless perse-cution united the Mohammedans against her. So the Portugese - 18 -were driven oat of East A f r i c a a f t e r a straggle l a s t i n g from 1627 to 1727. In the l a t t e r year the Arabs recaptared Mom-basa, the chief coastal town. The long rule of Portugal was ended. Only Mombasa 1s rFort Jesus remains as v i s i b l e evidence of her domination. The Second Arab Empire came into existence. The Sultan ruled now from Zanzibar, having moved the c a p i t a l over from Muscat. The Arab rule went on from 1727 t i l l the advent of Great B r i t a i n late i n the nineteenth century. Bat the fact that the second Arab Empire was based on slaves not on spices, proved i t s downfall. The t e r r i b l e slave trade at the beginning of the l a s t century brought humanitarian B r i t a i n to the scene with the new and powerful weapon of economic pressure to subdue the Arabs a second time. The slave trade was i n d i r e c t l y responsible for the beginnings of Kenya. The t e r r i t o r y , i t s e l f , due to the highland b a r r i e r was not d i r e c t l y affected by the trade, which centred i n Uganda and other parts of central A f r i c a . But, once B r i t i s h emissaries began to win influence at the Sultan!s court i t was not long before the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the whole of East, A f r i c a were r e a l i z e d . By the 1870's this was an accomplished f a c t . Imperialism was at work. B r i t i s h consuls were to be found throughout East A f r i c a . Sultan Zaghreb's army was o f f i c e r e d and trained by B r i t i s h e r s . Following the usual formula Po-l i t i c a l Imperialism yielded place to the more compelling Economic Imperialism. - 19 -(b) Chartered Company days So the next great step i n the history of B r i t a i n i n East A f r i c a was the formation of the Chartered Company. In 1872 S i r William Mackinnon had founded a shipping Line con-necting India, Zanzibar and European ports. In 1877, when the Sultan offered S i r William a concession to handle his customs and administration f o r seven years, the B r i t i s h Foreign Office refused permission. But i n the early eighties B r i t i s h ex-plorers pushing into the heart of the continent ran into Ger-man opposition. Dr. Carl Peters was at work. The race that followed between the emissaries of the two powers in the making of t r e a t i e s with native chiefs who were coaxed into accepting protection from one power or the other,--though often not even knowing what a protectorate was—has i t s humourous side and yet i s a t r a g i c r e f l e c t i o n on the methods of Imperialism. France too i n s i s t e d upon her share. Of course this p a r t i t i o n of East A f r i c a must always be considered i n i t s perspective: that wholesale d i v i s i o n of a oontinent between the raw material-hungry and prestige-mad races of Europe which Lamar Middleton 5 has c a l l e d The Rape of A f r i c a . The powers came to several agreements among themselves as to the etiquette of the Imperialist game and agreed, without any thought of the African's f e e l i n g , just who was to take what. This process was typefied i n the so-called 5. Middleton, L; The Rape of A f r i c a ; lew York; 1936. - 20 -B e r l i n Agreement of 1886, of which the most important r e s u l t was that what i s now B r i t i s h East A f r i c a * apart from German Tanganyika, became a B r i t i s h sphere of influence. So Germany and B r i t a i n agreed to respect each other's winnings i n a card game with the Sultan of Zanzibar. East A f r i c a was the stake. But the agreement did not k i l l Anglo-German competition. So i n 1887, with Foreign O f f i c e consent, the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Association was given the concession, promised i n 1877, of control of the mainland from Wanga to K i p i n i i n the matter of tax-collections, appointment of d i s t r i c t administrators, customs c o l l e c t i o n s , trade regulation; and a l l this f o r a term of f i f t y years. The next step towards the r e a l i z a t i o n of B r i -tain's hopes was made when the association, by treaties with i n t e r i o r t r i b e s , spread i t s influence f a r inland to the great lakes. Promising to open the new t e r r i t o r y as a B r i t i s h mar-ket and to improve the condition of the natives, i t won a charter of monopoly as an o f f i c i a l company from the Queen. The petitioners f o r the charter put their case before the Crown thus; "the conditions of the natives inhabiting the aforesaid t e r r i t o r i e s and regions would be materially improved and t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced, and an organization established which would tend to the suppression of the slave trade i n such t e r r i t o r i e s , and the said t e r r i t o r i e s and regions would be opened to the lawful trade and commerce of our subjects and 6 of other nations." This might be call e d the credo of B r i t a i n ' s 6. B u e l l , R.L.; T h e l a t i v e Problem in A f r i c a ; Sew York, 1928, Vol. I, 268. ' ~*" "~ - 21 -enterprise i n East A f r i c a and might s t i L L , with varied stress on i t s d i f f e r e n t aspects, be stated as such, according to one's opinion of the Imperial aim. So the Association became a Chartered Company, the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company, pledged to carry out these d i f f i c u l t objectives. At the same time, German emissaries were negotiating with the Sultan of Zanzibar for rights i n the ten-mile coastal s t r i p s i m i l a r to those the B r i t i s h association had obtained i n 1887. As a r e s u l t , Germany got her concession to the south of the B r i t i s h and with l i k e administrative r i g h t s . This s t r i p and the hinterland behind It became, in l a t e r years, the German colony of Tanganyika. But, the ten-mile wide coastal s t r i p of B r i t i s h East A f r i c a remained a protectorate when the rest became Kenya Colony i n 1921. The B r i t i s h Govern-ment pays a sizeable rent f o r i t each year to the Sultan of Zanzibar. That th i s should be paid was part of the conditions under which the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company gave up i t s charter. Most of the early history of the chartered company i s connected with Uganda rather than with Kenya. The charter of incorporation was granted i n September of 1888 and the company ran into d i f f i c u l t i e s r i g h t from the s t a r t . Owing to the methods used by the Germans i n taking over t e r r i t o r y .. ceded to them by the Sultan, the natives were ready to r i s e against the white men, whether German or B r i t i s h . Since the f i r s t entry of H. M. Stanley into Uganda i n L875, the European missionaries had been coming i n , i n answer to the challenge of Livingstone and of Stanley. The Buganda were the most advanced of the native t r i b e s of - 22 -central A f r i c a . Old Mtitesa, t h e i r King received the English missionaries kindly i n 1877. Bat when French priests of the Roman Catholic f a i t h and emissaries of the Moslems of the coast arrived to swell the missionary ranks and also t r i e d to influence Mutesa, trouble began. In 1884, Mutesa was succeeded as Kabaka, or chief, by young Mwanga. Intensely suspicious of European motives, Mwanga started his rule with the murder of Bishop Hannington and his native converts. There followed several years of bloody opposition to the Christians. By 1889 the native Christians were powerful enough to r i s e and drive Mwanga from the throne. In that same year, the Chartered Company, pressing i t s operations inland, sent an expedition to the i n -t e r i o r under Frederick Jackson. Mwanga had, meanwhile, re-gained his throne but held i t so precariously that he was glad to accept the Company f l a g as a sign of protectorate. So his lands, including the Kavirondo province on Lake V i c t o r i a , now part of Kenya, came under B r i t i s h control. More trouble came quickly for quarreling broke out now between the followers of the French Roman Catholics, strongly i n c i t e d to drive the B r i t i s h out, and the Protestant converts of the B r i t i s h missions. To add to this the Moslems formed a t h i r d f a c t i o n swinging their support to favour whichever Christian party seemed to be winning. Captain Lugard, now Lord,Lugard, the dean of B r i t i s h African administrators, was sent to Mwanga1s c a p i t a l to put down the quarrel. For two years Lugard saw his f u l l share of f i g h t i n g but f i n a l l y , i n 1892, managed to arbitrate between the three f a c t i o n s . - 23 -But apart from the bad effect such a f f a i r s as this quarrelling of the churches i n Uganda had on the cause of C h r i s t i a n i t y i t might be asked how these happenings i n Uganda had anything to do with the history of Kenya. It had been t e r r i b l y expensive to keep the company going i n Uganda and so Captain Lugard was sent to England to get the Government to declare a Protectorate. Lord Rosebery's L i b e r a l s were apa-the t i c . But, seeing that the Company was determined to leave Uganda i f the Government did not see f i t to back i t , and pressed by the missionary socie t i e s to keep B r i t a i n ' s influence i n the country a l i v e , the Government, i n 1892, sent S i r Gerald Portal out to report on Uganda. Meanwhile i t granted the Company a subsidy to carry on temporarily. Trouble between the factions was breaking out again and Po r t a l , acting f o r the B r i t i s h Government proceeded to put i t down. As a r e s u l t the Uganda Protectorate was declared i n June of 1894. So the Chartered Company now s h i f t e d i t s opera-tions into the great area which i s now Kenya, between Uganda and the Indian Ocean. Once again the Company ran into a l l sorts of d i f f i c u l t i e s . The whole country was under a reign of t e r r o r at the hands of the warriors of the Masai tr i b e . These roving, f i g h t i n g pastoraLists were the natural enemies of the great Kikuyu people who, owing to t h e i r s e t t l e d , a g r i -c u l t u r a l habits, f e l L an easy prey to the Masai. As the Kikuyu were f r i e n d l y to the white men, many of the Company porter 7 caravans were wiped out by the elmoran. 7* Note: Masai warrior - 24 -The vast areas of the Highlands, too, provided t e r r i f i c obstacles i n the way of the transportation of Company goods. Hobley, in his bock on Kenya, describes the hardships 8 of the route across from Mombasa to V i c t o r i a Hyanza. One can imagine the expense of transporting the tons of trade-goods on the heads of native porters, to say nothing of the armed forces necessary to ward off the Masai, who k i l l e d often from sheer blood-lust. Company posts formed a continuous chain r i g h t across East A f r i c a along the c a r r i e r route and the trade, i n many ways as stupendous as the old trans-Canada fur trade, was car r i e d on u n t i l the Company found i t s expenses over topping i t s earnings. Yet, perhaps, when speaking of the withdrawal of the Chartered Company, i t i s only f a i r to stress a point about i t s nature which i s brought out i n the folLowing words of Lord SaLisbury: It would hardly be just to describe i t as a purely commercial body, f o r i t i s notorious that the majority of, i f not a l l , the subscribers are actuated rather by philanthropic motives than by the expectation of re-ceiving any adequate return for their outlay.9 By 1893 philanthropic zeal had reached i t s Limits after attempts to rai s e money i n England to b u i l d a r a i l r o a d to Uganda along the trade-route had f a i l e d . Lord Hosebery and h i s " L i t t l e Englander" LiberaLs, were in power and evinced L i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the Company's tale of woe. So rather than lose aLl the 450,000 pounds already spent i n opening East A f r i c a , the com-pany shareholders were obliged to accept about half of t h i s 8. Hobley, C.W,, Kenya from Chartered Company to Crown Colony; London; 1929 9. Evans; The B r i t i s h i n Tropical A f r i c a ; Cambridge; 1929, 312 - 25 -sum as compensation and to l e t the B r i t i s h Government take control. So i n June, 1895, the East A f r i c a Protectorate was declared which comprised what i s now Kenya Colony pins the ten-mile coastal s t r i p (now c a l l e d the Protectorate) and minus the Kavirondo Province whioh s t i l l remained part of Uganda u n t i l land-greedy s e t t l e r s forced the a l i e n a t i o n of i t s r i c h plains. July of 1895 saw the advent of Lord Salisbury and h i s Conservative Imperialists. It was not long before East A f r i c a f e l t the effects of t h e i r f o r c e f u l p o l i c i e s . Joseph Chamberlain, as Secretary of State from 1895 to 1902 provided the force that carried through to completion i n 1902 the great Uganda Railway, from Mombasa to Lake V i c t o r i a . The huge cost of the Uganda Railway was born by the B r i t i s h tax-payers. I t s benefits, and one i s here i n -cli n e d to believe the modern c r i t i c s of the co l o n i a l theory, have f a l l e n mainly upon the white community of East A f r i o a . Leys and others accuse the B r i t i s h Government of f i x i n g the frei g h t rates so as to exploit the Africans and subsidize the Europeans. Be this as i t may the Railway made Kenya what i t i s . I f there were no railway there would, l i k e as not, be no native problem. One arrives at the ultimate question as to whether white settlement has been a curse or a blessing to the Africans. - 26 -(o) White Settlement and the Grow th of S e t t l e r Influence With the opening up of the railway, East A f r i c a ' s race problem began to develop. For though one of the avowed purposes of building the road had been to allow B r i t a i n to carry out her e f f o r t s to stamp out ..slavery—or what remained of the old s l a v e - t r a d e — a t i t s source, the actual r e s u l t of the construction was to throw the Protectorate open to trade and, unfortunately f o r the African, to white s e t t l e r s and land speculators. With the r a i l r o a d too, came the t h i r d ele-ment i n the race probLem of Kenya, the Indian population. Called from India to build the road, the Indians remained i n East A f r i c a and became the shop-keepers and artisans of the country. In these l i n e s they are only now y i e l d i n g place to native Africans. Railway work did not cease with the completion of the main l i n e — f a r from i t . I n f l u e n t i a l men, favouring the development of settlement, saw to i t that as new areas were opened, they were served by branch l i n e s . This i s one of Nor-man Leys' greatest complaints, that most of the m i l l i o n s of pounds spent on railway i n Kenya have been used to benefit the white community, rather than the native. 10. Leys, N.; A Last Chance i n Kenya; London, L931; chap. 111,44. 10 Branch Railway Lines i n Kenya Through European Areas Through Reserves Sola! branch 26 miles K i t a l e branch 40 " Thompson P a l l s branch 47 " Eakaru-Eldoret-North Kavirondo 170 " Nany.uki branch 102 Yala branch Voi-Kahe branch 61 miles 42 " 32 -93 '.' 387 miles (sic) 228 miles - 27 -In L902 the B r i t i s h Government set afoot a move-ment to give free land i n the Highlands to the Zionists, i n order to esta b l i s h a national home for the Jews, Elspeth Huxley explains why these plans collapsed. The s e t t l e r s detailed to show the Zionist agents the lands destined to be their new home took very great care that the agents got the worst pos-s i b l e impression of East A f r i c a . In 1902, also, began what c r i t i c s of Kenya pol i c y damn as the most bare-faced piece of o f f i c i a l robbery in the h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n overseas, the alienation of a l l un-occupied, or apparently unoccupied land i n the highland areas. A government p u b l i c i t y campaign, i n South A f r i c a sponsored by Governor S i r Charles E l i o t of the Protectorate, brought s e t t l e r s f l o c k i n g . Ifor Evans, conservative though he i s , fiorman Leys, MacGregor Ross, a l l quote the famous statement by E l i o t that "East A f r i c a w i l l probably become i n a short time a white-man's country, i n which native questions w i l l present but l i t t l e 11 in t e r e s t . " We might well use this as a gauge of the foresight of the men who were responsible f o r the present native problem of Kenya Colony. So, i n 1903 the white settlement of East A f r i c a began i n earnest. Though the rate at which land was alienated was amazing, the growth of the s e t t l e r population has been 12 comparatively slow. To-day the Europeans number around 18,000. 11. Evans, op. c i t . . 320, quoting E l i o t , S i r o. The S.A. Pro- tectorate (1905) 302. 12. Annual Report, Kenya, 1935, 9, estimated population end of 1935, 17,997 Europeans. - 28 -But t h e i r influence in Kenya i s i n inverse r a t i o to the f r a c t i o n they comprise of the t o t a l population. It i s interesting to traoe the way in which t h i 3 handfuLJ^of Europeans have gained i t s p o l i t i c a l voice. The year 1906 saw the establishment of a Legis-l a t i v e Oouncil f o r East A f r i c a on pressure from the white com-munity, then a very vocal three thousand odd. This was cer-t a i n l y a new departure f o r the government of a so-called pro-tectorate. Yet this condition obtained u n t i l the colony was declared fourteen years l a t e r . To this embryonic Legislature 12 the white population sent three nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " members. An advance was made (from the s e t t l e r s ! point of view at least) in 1908, when the community gained the r i g h t to elect i t s three representatives. To-day the L e g i s l a t i v e Oouncil i s composed of twenty o f f i c i a l members, eleven elected " u n o f i c i a l " , Europeans, 12. (cont.) Prom Yearbook of Compared Colonial Documentation, Brussels, 1934, 404. Kenya: Population: 1932—Natives-3,007,645 Non-Natives: March 1931 ' Dec. 1932 Europeans 16,812 17,249 B r i t . Indians 39,644 34,966 (Joans 3,979 3,369 Arabs 12,116 11,752 Others 1,346 1,362 Prom H i l t o n Young Report, Cmd.3234, 1929, 25 Census 1926 Europeans 12,529 Native 2,549,300 (estimated) Arabs 10,557 Br. Indians 26,759 ' Others 3,824 13. " u n o f f i c i a l " i s used in Kenya as a noun. " U n o f f i c i a l " members are those elected by the s e t t l e r s as opposed to the Governor's appointees from the Colonial Service, the " o f f i c i a l s " . - 29 -f i v e elected Indians, one nominated and one elected Arab and, greatest anomaly of a l l , one Ch r i s t i a n European missionary, appointed by the Government, to represent over three m i l l i o n natives. It might be argued that, despite the unfair balance i n favour of the Europeans, these " u n o f f i c i a l " members are s t i l l out-balanced by o f f i c i a l members and so r e a l l y have no great power. Not so, for i t i s the boast of the European s e t t l e r s that t h e i r organization c a l l e d the Convention of Associations composed of the executives of a l l the European A g r i c u l t u r a l Associations has been c a l l e d the " S e t t l e r P a r l i a -ment". Elspeth Huxley c a l l s the Convention "the u n o f f i c i a l parliament recognized by Government as the organ of general L4 s e t t l e r opinion". This organization can bring great pressure to bear on the Governor and the administration. In 1923 Colonel Wedgewood referred to the pro-cess by which the s e t t l e r s coerce the o f f i c i a l s i n a speech 15 i n the House of Commons. Af t e r a l l , the Europeans are a com-munity of a few thousands set amidst several m i l l i o n s of A f r i -cans. It i s with the whites that the c i v i l servant must l i v e during his term of service i n the colony. The threat of os-tracism at the hands of a community on the whole so jealous of any leaning away from i t i n favour of the Africans i s a very r e a l one. He must be a very strong man who dare face i t . Then, i f thdss "cutting" f a i l s to daunt the o f f i c i a l there i s always 14. Huxley, E., White Man's Country. London, 1935, Vol I, 262. 15. 167 H.. C. Debates 5S, 25 July, 1923, Col. 530. - 30 -a powerful lobby of Kenya s e t t l e r s waiting on the Secretary of 16 State i n London. It Is far easier f o r a Governor to bow to the wishes of the u n o f f i c i a l members of his Executive than i t i s fo r him to oppose them. In the l a s t year or so Governor S i r Joseph Byrne has apparently provided the exception to the rule. In thi s period, as we s h a l l s e e ) l a t e r on much reform progress has taken place, But perhaps we can guess at another possible explanation. World events seem to cast a shadow i n far-away Kenya. When Mussolini's troops oocupied Ethiopia the presence of B r i t i s h troops i n Kenya took f o r the s e t t l e r , a new s i g n i -ficance. Since June of 1936 there has been l i t t l e t a l k of vigilance committees on the part of the s e t t l e r s . And i t i s noticeable that the speeches i n the B r i t i s h House of Commons of p r o - s e t t l e r members have become somewhat f a i r e r and that the demands that such and such be done to a i d the white com-munity have been fewer. But i t i s more probable that the t a l k of the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of colonies has given the Colonial O f f i c e a new determination. In 1937 measures have passed the Kenya Legislature which would never have passed without dire c t Colonial O f f i c e orders ten years ago. With t h i s i n mind l e t 16. Norman Leys i n his Last Chance i n Kenya t e l l s the story of a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r who dared to oppose the desires of the s e t t l e r s in his d i s t r i c t . See Leys, EF. , op. c i t . , 99. - 31 * us study b r i e f l y the. p o l i c i e s of the Colonial O f f i c e and thei r clash with the aims of the s e t t l e r community. - 32 (d). The Development of the B r i t i s h Government1s Native P o l i c y The m i l i t a n t character of the white community, as we have seen, has given the s e t t l e r s influence with the ad-ministration disproportionate to t h e i r numbers. Whenever a B r i t i s h Government has made a statement as regards native policy, that statement has contained clauses meant to a l l a y the Kenya s e t t l e r s ' fears that the Government intends to neglect white interests and favour those of the African. Not that i t is a case of the Colonial o f f i c e fearing to offend the whites. The Government f e e l s that, having been responsible f o r the po l i c y of white settlement to begin with, i t i s i t s duty to see that the community's interests are cared for. But this does not mean that the interests of the African are to be secondary. It i s the core of the Dual P o l i c y that both white and black interests are to be fostered. The Europeans favour a Dual P o l i c y but, unfortunately want the balance weighted i n their favour. As the Joint Select Committee on Closer Union in East A f r i c a s a i d , the term "native p o l i c y " has been given two d i s t i n c t meanings. It has been loosely used to express, on the one hand, objectives i n native development and adminis-17 t r a t i o n , and, on the other, i n t e r - r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Prom reading the h i s t o r y of Br i t a i n ' s o f f i c i a l policy towards the natives of Kenya as expressed during the l a s t f i f t e e n years, one can see that the Colonial o f f i c e administration looks on 17. H. of C 156, 1931. Vol. I, 25 - 33 -native policy in i t s wider Light. It sees i t as a type of government aiming towards a certain goal of native development. The s e t t l e r and, i n f a c t , most writers on the race problem, adopt the view that native policy i n Kenya i s a matter of baLancing the interests of black against white. That i s the reason the o f f i c i a l attitude toward the native has been mis-understood. The s e t t l e r cannot understand the wider aspects of the statements of B r i t i s h p o l i c y . The administrator sees that native poLicy i n Kenya i s not a matter of Kenya alone. Its funda^mentai principLes must be applicable over a f a r wider area than one colony. As the H i l t o n Young Commission said "• 'It i s not safe to allow policy i n Kenya to be framed regardless of what i s being done i n Tanganyika and Uganda. It should be framed f o r Eastern A f r i c a as a whole. But more than t h i s , policy f o r Eastern A f r i c a should be framed with regard to experience and policy in a l l other t e r r i t o r i e s of A f r i c a . ^ ® The most important o f f i c i a l statements of the poLicy of the CoLonial Office have appeared i n the Duke of Devonshire's White Paper of 1923, Mr. Amery's White Paper of 20 1927, and Lord Passfield's "Memorandum on Native p o l i c y i n 1 21 East A f r i c a of 1930". A r t i c l e 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations expressed the p r i n c i p l e which l i e s behind the p o l i c i e s expressed i n these Kenya White Papers thus: To those colonies and t e r r i t o r i e s which as a consequence 18. Cmd. 3234 (1929) op. c i t . , 9. 19. Cmd. 1922, Indians in Kenya 20. Cmd. 2904 2L. Cmd. 3573 (L930) - 34 -of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by them-selves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the pr i n c i p l e that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of c i v i l i z a t i o n and that s e c u r i t i e s f or the per-formance of this trust should be embodied i n this Cove-nant. This statement of the position of mandatory powers as trustees of the backward races was adopted by B r i t a i n as the credo of her c o l o n i a l administration. The 1923 White Paper embodied i t i n the doctrine of the parampuntcy of native i n t e r e s t s : "In the administration of Kenya His Majesty's Government re-gard themselves as exercising a trust on behalf of the A f r i c a n population, and they are unable to delegate or share t h i s trust, the object of which may be defined as the protection and 22 advancement of the native races." These declarations may or may not have been made to si l e n c e the clamour of the Indians of Kenya f o r more p o l i t i c a l voice. But for a time they did s a t i s f y the Indian p o l i t i c i a n s since they demonstrated that the white community was not going to be favoured. Even the whites were f o r a time pleased with these p o l i c i e s . They quieted the Indians and as long as the Government did not carry them into effect no harm could come to white interests. The report made by Mr. Ormsby-Gore1s East A f r i c a 23 Commission in 1925 recommended a dual policy of development. 22. Cmd. 1922 op. c i t . , 9. 23. Report of the East A f r i c a Commission (Cmd. 2387); Presented  by ;the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament; A p r i l , 1925; hereafter referred to as the Urmsby-Gore Commission Report or as Cmd. 2387. - 35 -The Government was at one and the same time to help the develop-ment of both native and non-native communities. This, of course, was exactly what the s e t t l e r s wanted. The s e t t l e r s demanded that such be stated by the government as o f f i c i a l p olicy. So i n 19E7 Mr. Amery published the Second White Paper. As the Joint Select Committee of 1931 points out t h i s E4 19E7 Paper was to be e a s i l y misinterpreted. One Section read "At the same time they (His Majesty's Government) wish to place on record their view that, while the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of trusteeship must for some considerable time rest mainly on the agents of the Imperial Government, they desire to as-sociate more closely i n t h i s high and honourable task those who, as colonists or residents, have i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r interests E5 with the prosperity of the country." The s e t t l e r s accepted this as an a l t e r a t i o n of policy. The 1931 committee points out, however, that t h i s constitutes an expansion rather than an a l t e r a t i o n of the Duke of Devonshire p r i n c i p l e s . So, though In actual practise a dual policy has been carried on i n Kenya, this has been owing to the pressure of the s e t t l e r s on the government, and to the Government's recognition of the needs of the whites for whose coming to Kenya i t was responsible. But as f a r as the o f f i c i a l poLicy of trusteeship was concerned, there was no change. B r i t a i n had no intention of passing her trust, or any part of i t , over to the l o c a l administration. 24. H. of C 156; op. c i t . ; Vol. I. 23. 25. Cmd. E904, 7. - 36 -This was misunderstood by the s e t t l e r s . So when, in 1930 Lord P a s s f i e l d issued his 26 memorandum on Native Polioy i n whioh he referred back to the L923 White Paper rather than to that of 1927 f o r the policy he and his government favoured, he raised a storm of protest. The s e t t l e r s looked on this memorandum as containing a re-versal of p o l i c y . Also i n June 1930 the Government published a White Paper (Cmd. 3574) e n t i t l e d Statement of Conclusions of His Majesty 1s Government i n the united Kingdom as Regards 27 Closer Union i n East A f r i c a . The publication of these two White Papers aroused the s e t t l e r s . They argued, led by Lord Delamere, that the outlined native policy denied the white s e t t l e r s t h e i r proper share i n the trusteeship of the natives promised to them i n the 1927 White Paper. But, as f a r as o f f i c i a l l y declared native policy i s concerned the B r i t i s h Government has stuck to i t s 1923 26. Cmd, 3573 27. Cmd. 3234 of the H i l t o n Young Commission, i n 1927, had stated the means by which the closer union of the colonies i n East A f r i c a could be brought about. Opinion i n East , A f r i c a was against these conclusions. S i r Samuel Wilson was sent out i n 1929 to sound public opinion. He pub-lished his Report on October 4, 1929 i n which he said opinion was swinging away from union of the dependencies but advocated l i k e the H i l t o n Young Commission a measure of closer f i s c a l union and the appointment of a High Commissioner. He was also to be over the governors of the East A f r i c a n dependencies as a coordinator of policy. The Government conclusions were published as Cmd. 3574 (see above) and stated the decision to put the question of Closer Union i n the hands of a Parliamentary Joint Select Committee. The findings of this committee were published as H. of C. 156. - 37 -decision. The Joint Select Commltjee reported i n 1931. The Committee accepted the doctrine of paramountcy of native interests to mean "no more than that the interests of the over-whelming majority of the indigenous population should not be subordinated to those of a minority belonging to another race, 28 however important i n i t s e l f . " The interests of the whites, the report says, are not to be neglected, but they are not to be held of more importance than those of the African. On,July 9, 1936 during the annual Colonial Office Estimates debate i n the House of Commons a very impor-tant discussion took place on the subject of the carrying out of the p r i n c i p l e s of trusteeship i n Kenya. The whole subjeot of the duty of Britain's,Imperial duty, of the Dual P o l i c y and of o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h p o l icy i n general was discussed. Reading the speeches gives one great hope f o r the future of the natives. For though the native problem i n Kenya has so f a r , i n most respects, developed from bad to worse, one cannot help f e e l i n g that reform i s sure to come. There has been no declaration of o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i n Kenya f o r six years so i t i s worthwhile f o r us to consider some of the above debate. The speech of Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the Seoretary of State, i t mast be admitted, would not be very reassuring to the c r i t i c of the Dual P o l i c y . He said, a f t e r speaking rather d i f f u s e l y i n favour of the doctrine; "Let as be per-f e c t l y c l e a r that i n the dual policy stands—the policy of developing the native i n his own area and the.European i n that 28. H. of C 156 op. c i t . Vol. I, 31. - 38 -area where successive B r i t i s h Governments have invited him to 29 try to make good i n very d i f f i c u l t circumstances. 1 1 But as we s h a l l see l a t e r Mr. Ormsby-Gore was then favouring the statutory reservation of the Kenya highlands f o r Europeans only, This measure has been blocked by adverse c r i t i c i s m , Other speakers i n this debate however, showed that B r i t i s h opinion i s strong_for curbing the ambitions of the settLer community. While the Secretary of State's speech harked back to the 1927 White Paper those of most of the other speakers against the Government's highlands policy were founded upon the 1923 declarations. Mr. deRothschild struck the key-note of the debate when he quoted Queen V i c t o r i a ' s promise that: ,In the eyes of the law there should not be any d i s t i n c t i o n or d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n whatever founded upon mere d i s t i n c t i o n of o r i g i n , language or c r e e d , 3 0 Another speaker, Mr. Morgan Jones spoke thus of the Kenya sit u a t i o n . I f we accept the concept of trusteeship i t i s inconsistent with i t so to administer the estate, i f I may so c a l l i t , f o r the primary benefit of ourselves or of oar own kin and colour who may happen to reside i n those areas. The prime function of a trustee i s to run the estate f o r the benefit of those to whom the estate be Longs, and not for the friends of the family of the trustee, It i s to be hoped that men with such opinion w i l l continue to control Kenya's destiny. -0-0-0-0-2 9 « 314 H. 0. Debs.. 5s; 9 July, 1936; Col. 1531 30. Ibid; Col. 1416. 31. Ibid; Col. 1426. CHAPTER II Hatives of Kenya Changing A f r i c a — - S o c i a l anthropology i n the new A f r i c a „ Kenya ethnography (a) the Anthropologist and the Administrator — — I n d i r e c t Rale, Direct Rale (b) The Mind of the A f r i c a n psychology of native (c) How p o l i c i e s are to be shaped to these discoveries CHAPTER II THE NATIVES 0P: KENYA "I think of A f r i c a and i n my mind's eye see enormous Lakes, horrid expanses of dry scrub, sur-p r i s i n g mountains, L i t t l e v i l l a g e s of bee-hive huts, herds of zebra and antelope, taLL bLack men with spears who do not think of hiding the nakedness of their magnificent bodies, laughing chocolate-coLoured women i n beads and skins, the farms of LoneLy white settLers and the goLf-courses and cLubs with which they reLieve their LoneLiness, LittLe schools f a r i n the bush where black children learn the magic of reading and writing, whole tracts of .country gone out of use because of tse tse f l y or t i c k , labourious c u l t i v a t i o n that yet but scratches the face of the land, voLcanoes big and smaLL, strange saLine Lakes, r i f t s that scar the continent; I f e e l the wicked power of the equatorial sun and the e f f o r t and s t r a i n of a l t i t u d e ; I hear the distant reverberation of lions roaring, the e a r - s p l i t t i n g noise of the cicadas and mole-crickets, the native drums at night where a dance i s being danced; I am conscious of the presence of lurking disease i n the a i r , earth and water, a l l around, of the existence of crocodiles and beasts of prey and pachyderms, of A f r i c a n ways of human Life entireLy aLien from the ways of Europe; I am aware of change, invisibLe, often unwanted, steaLing in upon the Land with white men and t h e i r ideas and inventions—capitaLism, C h r i s t i a n i t y , books and motor cars, science and cinemas, Law and cheap trade-goods." In this paragraph J u l i a n Huxley integrates a dozen or so of the impressions which his A f r i c a n tour have l e f t upon his mind and paints a picture which might r e a d i l y pass for Kenya Colony. To understand the problems of race i n A f r i c a , we, too, must be "aware of change";-change i n every phase of L. Huxley, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View, P. 433, London; 1931. - 39 -- 40 -A f r i c a n L i f e . , It i s necessary then to know something of the work of the s o c i a l anthropoLogist. He i s concerned with A f r i c a and the Africans before the white men came. Prom him we Learn the nature of the old Life which is undergoing transmutation. The anthropoLogist has done some of the most fas c i n a t i n g work i n the f i e L d of A f r i c a n studies. It i s a combination of his discoveries with the poLicies of the ad-ministrators that wiLL eventuaLLy lead to the emancipation of the A f r i c a n in a new type of westernized society. Heretofore any interest i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic foundations of the indigenous cultures of A f r i c a has been aLmost purely academical. People think of anthropoLogy as a matter of cephaLic indices, of treatises on stone-implements, and the Like. But the day Is coming when a knowledge of the methods of this science of Living man wiLL be a necessary adjunct of the administrator's trai n i n g . And with this trend has come the r e a l i z a t i o n that the "African ways of human Lif e e n t i r e l y aLien from the ways of Europe" are not the unreasoned ways 2 of "savages". The A f r i c a n culture or cultures are just as deepLy rooted in t r a d i t i o n as those of Europe and are, i n fact, often of a more complicated and balanced pattern. OapT t a i n Rattray, i n the Journal of the Af r i c a n Society telLs of Life in the ages before the European came, i n the era when the famiLy, the kindred group, the eLan, and the tribaL or-ganizations were the bases of a l l society. "This was the time 2. "savages" i n the sense of lacking a reasoned way of Li f e . - 41 -when indigenous (West) A f r i c a n culture, law and r e l i g i o n were evolved and f i n a l l y established. To understand th i s epoch, with i t s . . . . r e a l l y b e a u t i f u l l y graded and co-ordinated organi-zations; i t s r e l i g i o n , which at f i r s t sight might seem rank fetichism; i t s le g a l codes, which might appear almost non-existent; i t s constitution, which might seem so elementary as to be n e g l i g i b l e , requires almost a l i f e - t i m e of patient and indefatigable study based on sympathy and understanding ?•. To the u n i n i t i a t e d this phase has always seemed to present 3 l i t t l e more than a primitive pagan s i m p l i c i t y ." Knowing of the t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s and customs 4 one can soon discover how r a t i o n a l are many of the things that the Europeans have considered quite i r r a t i o n a l in the negro's way of l i v i n g . The same knowledge, i f i t s significance be f u l l y r e a l i z e d , may often make one wonder whether, a f t e r a l l , our Western ideas are as far i n advance of those of A f r i c a as we have thought. But that is the age-old lesson that has been learned by every " c i v i l i z i n g " race that has ever t r i e d to bring i t s p a r t i c u l a r culture to a race of a d i f f e r e n t , and 5 assumedly lower, plane of existence. 3. Rattray, Oapt. R.S., Present Tendencies in A f r i c a n Colonial Government, Journal of the A f r i c a n Society, Vol. 33, Jan. 1934, P.26. ~ 4. That i s , according to our meaning of " r a t i o n a l " . 5. "The structure of primitive t r i b a l society had i n i t s e l f much to be said for i t , and as an experiment i n government must be considered a decided success i n i t s elementary de-gree. It can be claimed that the system produced a com-munity where crime was rare, pauperism and paid p r o s t i t u t i o n unknown, and drunkenness not a serious e v i l ; where, under normal conditions a l l were adequately fed, clothed and housed, according to the primitive standards expected; and - 42 -It can be seen that, in the anthropoLogical approach to the study of the problems of Kenya native adminis-t r a t i o n , such a r b i t r a r y things as the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of the colony do not r e a l l y mean much. The natives of Kenya and their culture should rather be considered i n perspective, against the whole background of Bantu and Negro culture. For, with variations, mainly i n the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l development, the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Kenya tribes are those of their kindred a l l over the southern hal f of the continent. The accepted anthropological grouping of the Afri c a n tribes i s s t i l l a l i n g u i s t i c one. The anthropological chart of A f r i c a i s s t i l l too incomplete to allow the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of the peoples of the continent according to less changing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . So each of the terms Bushman, Hottentot, Negro, Hamite, Ni l o t e , or Bantu refers to one of the main l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s . The true Hamites and Hilotes of the north, however, can be distinguished by physical appearance from the other peoples who inhabit the southern h a l f of A f r i c a . But East A f r i c a i s a r a c i a l melting pot. Kenya is peopled mainly by Bantus. The Bantu race, sprang o r i g i n a l l y from the fusing of Negro and Hamite. The language of this greatest of A f r i c a n races developed around the area of the great Lakes. The so-called Bantu Line, the l i n e of farthest north penetration of the Hegro peoples, runs across the con-tinent through East A f r i c a . In Kenya, the part of East A f r i c a 5. (cont.) where Life could be carried on i n whoLesome and natural circumstances." (Orde-Brown, Major G. St. J., The  Af r i c a n Labourer. Oxford,.1933, 12. AL. See SeLigman, Br. G.G.; The Races of A f r i c a ; London; 1930. - 43 -olosest to Ethiopia the waves of Hamitic and Bantu advance met. So here are found both Bantu and Hamitic tri b e s . Some tribes combine features of both races. As a resu l t the Colony i s , in many ways, an anthropological museum. But i n these days-when Indirect Rule i s being developed throughout A f r i c a , Kenya i s something of a nightmare f o r the administrator. Por In-direct Rule demands a knowledge of t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In Indirect Rule Tanganyika, these i n s t i t u t i o n s are almost purely Bantu. So the administrator can make free use of administrative experience throughout most of the southern h a l f of A f r i c a . But in Kenya, forgetting f o r the moment the d i f f i c u l t y with the s e t t l e r community, the Colonial Office must shape Inst i t u t i o n s to s u i t the requirements of t r i b e s which vary gre a t l y i n ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Masai and the peoples r e l a t e d to them, the Hamitic tribes of Kenya, have e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s from the great Kikuyu or Kavirondo tr i b e s who are pure Bantu. Any Indirect Rule system evolved f o r Kenya would have to s t a r t from widely d i f f e r e n t beginnings and yet aim to evolve a homo-geneous native society. With t h i s task before them the Kenya administrators must c e r t a i n l y require the aid of the s o c i a l anthropologist. - 44 -(a) The Anthropologist and the Administrator The study of human culture along the lines f i r s t traced by Professor B. MaLinowski in the functional theory of anthropoLogy throws an e n t i r e l y new li g h t on the pro-blems of c o l o n i a l policy. The interpretation of culture as a mechanism of co-operation for the s a t i s f a c t i o n of so c i a l needs, i n which every element is linked with and conditioned by the rest, implies the necessity of giving more serious consideration to the indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s of u n c i v i l i z e d people than has usually been accorded i n the past. 6 It i s i n the work of the International Institute of A f r i c a n Languages and Cultures that one finds the modern approach to the problems of the African, in whioh the findings of the new school of p r a c t i c a l anthropoLogy are correlated with 7 evolving administrative methods. The Institute aims too, to study some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the African, which, being misunderstood, were branded for the discard, thus throwing native l i f e e n t i r e l y o f f balance. By examining t h e i r findings we may discover why many Africans look on our c i v i l i z a t i o n as a curse rather than a blessing. D i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y the African is being confronted with European c i v i l i z a t i o n i n i t s most diverse aspects. He observes i t s virtues and i t s vices, i t s energy, i t s forethought,its seLf-controL, i t s persistence, i t s zest for individuaL r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i t s l o y a l t i e s and d i s -l o y a l t i e s to i t s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , i t s arrogance, i t s s t o l i d i t y , i t s hardness, i t s greed. He sees the church, 6. Lucy P. Mair; Hative Problem i n A f r i c a ; London; 1936; 4. 7. See Westermann, Diedrich; The A f r i c a n To-day; London; H. Mi l f o r d ; L934. Dr. Westermann i s a d i r e c t o r of the Ins t i t u t e . The  Af r i c a n To-day might be caLLed the handbook of the Institute's methods and shouLd be read as background fo r any study aLong anthropoLogical Lines. - 45 -the school, the race-course, the cinema, the g i n shop. He hears the multitude of doctrines, aLL of them, high or Low, aLike i n their conf'Lict with the t r a d i t i o n a l ideas which have hitherto ruled his L i f e . His mind Is s t i r r e d as i t has never been s t i r r e d before i n the history of h i s race. Ancient custom i s no longer quite so sacrosanct. He dreams new dreams of what he might make of his L i f e . And inevitabLy, these new ambitions, at any rate i n the young, are imitative. It i s the r e a l i z a t i o n of this clash between the old and the new and the mind of the A f r i c a n that has led the anthropologists to attempt to save what i s worth saving of A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n . They are convinced that a s l a v i s h imitation of western ways should not be fostered and are i n hopes of finding the means by which can be b u i l t a d i s t i n c t i v e l y A f r i -can c i v i l i z a t i o n incorporating the best feature of the new and the old. In the administrative f i e l d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B r i t i s h p o l i c y of Indirect RuLe--as opposed to the philosophy behind Direct Eule--is based on s i m i l a r reasoning. True, i n Kenya, with i t s reactionary s e t t l e r population, Indirect Rule p o l i c i e s have not advanced further than a statement of the paramountcy of native interests and a strengthening of l o c a l native councils. However, the reform of the many abuses of Kenya native administration must come through Indirect Rule p o l i c i e s . Huxley compares the natives l i v i n g under Indirect Rule i n Tanganyika with those not so governed in Kenya and says As against orderly development there, here you f e l t a makeshift s o c i a l l i f e that might colLapse into reaL disorderLiness of existence. As against a human 8. OoupLand, R. The Empire i n These Days , ,;LWdon, 1955' 168. - 46 -bond between black and white, you f e l t a r e l a t i o n that was almost s o l e l y economic.^ Indirect Rule Is the policy which f i t s i n best with the p r a c t i c a l anthropological .approach recommended by the Institute of Afr i c a n Languages and Cultures. Prance, with her policy of Direct Rule, aims to make each native into a French c i t i z e n , to teach him to take his place as a black Frenchman i n the Empire, rather than as a co l o n i a l ward of the mother country. The Direct Rule administrator has no concern for the guarding of the culture of the A f r i c a n from the de-stru c t i v e influence of European culture. J u l i a n Huxley says that there are two channels along which the Colonial powers can guide the main stream of Af r i c a n l i f e . One of these channels i s that of Indirect Rule. The other, that of Direct Rule, he says, i s the channel of Economic Least Resistance which would assimilate the A f r i c a n peoples to Western C i v i l i z a t i o n as an economic appendage, a new kind of p r o l e t a r i a t , black-skinned, and concerned with raw materials instead of white-skinned and concerned with manufacture. It seems clear that unless a more deliberate attempt i s made t o organize native society, i t wilL not develop but simply collapse i n contact with the powerful and corrosive forces of supra-national economics.''-0 It is to f i n d a basis f o r such organization that the Af r i c a n and the background of hi s culture are to-day the subject of so much research. 9. Huxley, J. op. c i t . , 145 10. Huxley; i b i d ; , 129. - 47 -lb) The Mind of the A f r i c a n It i s a great mistake (and one made only too often) to assume that the word "backward", when applied to the Bantu race, or, i n fact to any race, implies some fundamental mental deficiency. Psychological study i n recent years has shown that, there may possibly be some difference between African thought and European. But i f such difference does exist 11 i t implies no i n f e r i o r i t y for the African. It i s upon this premise that much modern re-search has been b u i l t ; that the A f r i c a n thinks i n a manner d i f -ferent from ours and, hence that the culture derived from cen-turies of African reasoning, i r r a t i o n a l though i t may seem from a western point of view, need not be branded as "savage". As we have seen, i n Kenya, as in the rest of A f r i c a , the white man has made the f a t a l mistake of assuming that, because he cannot understand the A f r i c a n reaction to Europe an c i v i l i z a t i o n , the native is necessarily of i n f e r i o r mentality. Perhaps, had science been i n a position to disprove this mistaken assumption, much trouble would have been avoided. 11. In the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Review a writer defined culture as "a reasoned way of l i v i n g " . So a."savage" would be a member of any race or people which lacks-such a reasoned system, which posesses no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode Of existence. If we believe with many authorities, that the thought pro-cess of the European i s not the same as that of the "savage", t h i s implies that more than one meaning can be given to the word "reason" and, at the same time to the phrase "a reasoned way of l i v i n g " . Rickard, T. A.; Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, British,Columbia,Historical Quarterly, Vol. I., Ho. 1 Jan. 1937, 25. ~" ! - 48 -Unfortunately f o r the A f r i c a n the postulations of Jean-Jacques Rousseau on " l a beLLe sauvage" coloured the attitude of Europeans i n A f r i c a untiL aLmost the present cen-tury. In fact one might say the influence i s not dead yet. Rousseau and his contemporary "Voltaire i n their s a t i r e and c r i t i c i s m of European c i v i l i z a t i o n were t y p i c a l of 12 the sophisticated thought of their age. l o them the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the West had nothing i n i t worth while giving to " l a belle sauvage". But the century that foiLowed was marked by the great revolutions i n science, i n industry and in thought which led to a new pride i n European c i v i l i z a t i o n . low the fi e L d was reversed; the things of Europe were things which must be given to the,"savage". .Lacking them he must always remain i n f e r i o r to the white. Thus the postulations of Rousseau were now turned against the A f r i c a n who i n the eyes of the average European came to be Looked on as inherently i n f e r i o r . Many Kenya s e t t l e r s beLieve, apparently, i n the native i n a b i l i t y to progress. Hot, of course, that any Logicai thinking could Lead to such a conclusion. As a matter of fact, when one reads of the most modern ideas of students of Af r i c a n thought and mentaLity, one i s struck by the s i m i l a r i t y of the modern pre-mises to those of Rousseau. But any product of a great man's • mind is hound to be distorted i n the brains of lesser men. So the backwardness of the Afr i c a n has been considered as due to 12. see A l l i e r , Raoul; The Mind of the Savage; London; 1929; 6 on Voltaire's Essai sur les Moeurs which compares the. noble savage to the boor of Europe. - 49 -his mental i n a b i l i t y to comprehend the great c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u -ences of Europe. What possible use could there be i n giving such a race the opportunities of European c i v i l i z a t i o n ? His role was to be the servant of the white man in a new white A f r i c a . Modern psychology has done much to change our ideas of the capacity of the Af r i c a n f o r progress, by i t s theories as to the nature of the negro's mental processes. Some of these theories are well worth consideration. But i t should be remembered that their chief vaLue l i e s , so f a r at least, i n the conclusions that can be drawn from them rather than i n the soundness of the assumptions upon which they are based. It should be understood that i n the work of psycholo-g i s t s i n the study of African thought no f i n a l i t y has been attained. The nature of psychology does not admit of i t . So, i f c e r t a i n ideas are presented which are not, perhaps i n ac-cord with the most modern trends i n t h i s changing "science" they are used s o l e l y because for our purposes they best f i t the facts and expLain the difference between Europen and A f r i c a n thought. The doctrines of Rousseau were accepted by a l l great scholars up to the present century. Their main postu-l a t i o n , i t must be kept in mind, assumed that there was no fundamental d i s p a r i t y between the minds of c i v i l i z e d and un-c i v i l i z e d men. It was a question of culture and development. "La belle sauvage" was, so to speak, the core around which the appurtenances of our c i v i l i z a t i o n were b u i l t . One of the f i r s t men to dispute these Rousseauian -^60 -assumptions was Professor Levy-Bruhl, a psychologist at the Sorbonne. Though his theory of the A f r i c a n mind may not be generally accepted to-day at least i t awakened a questioning and s c i e n t i f i c a ttitude. Levy-Bruhl postulated a fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n between the thought process of c i v i l i z e d and un-c i v i l i z e d man; such a d i s t i n c t i o n as might be assumed say be-tween that of the Kenya native and the white s e t t l e r . He ex-plained the apparently i r r a t i o n a l action of the African, by saying that, i n any u n c i v i l i z e d society, the thinking of the individual was dominated by a system or set of mental images which belong to that society or group and which are passed on to every i n d i v i d u a l member of i t . In the same way that we, as members of a c i v i l i z e d society inherit certain reactions to cer t a i n things, just so does the A f r i c a n i n h e r i t the set of dominant images which condition his reaction to a l l circumstances. But the inherited reactions of the A f r i c a n are f a r more numerous than those of the European and of a different sort. So, i f the African shows no sign of the l o g i c a l thought process which is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h i s lack is due to some factor i n his mode of thought which does not exist i n European thought. And the African mode is conditioned by these inherited reactions and images. Of Levy-Bruhl's hypotheses i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to keep i n mind that: f i r s t ; they imply no i n f e r i o r i t y for the African. The negro may be a different creature from the Euro-pean but need not be considered an i n f e r i o r one. There i s a v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n between the white and the black mind, the European mind, c h i l d and adult, being d i f f e r e n t from those of - 51 -the A f r i c a n c h i l d and the African adult. Second: and perhaps more important, Levy-Bruhl c a l l e d attention to the inherited b e l i e f s , taboos, etc., which, integrated, made the A f r i c a n seem, to the undiscerning white man, an i n f e r i o r being. Using as guides the views expressed i n J.W.0. ..." Dougall's f i n e monograph The Characteristics of African Thought we can oroceed now to consider some of the l a t e r developments IS i n the study of African psychology, which have, i t might be said, developed -from the controversy awakened by Levy-Bruhl. The key to these developments i s the fact c e r t a i n psychologists have discovered that i n the mind of the adult European are found vestiges of an inherited system of images and reactions. It i s s i m i l a r to the one that governs the Life of the negro. So perhaps Levy-Bruhl's theory should be a l -tered to allow for some measure of horizontal d i s t i n c t i o n be-tween the minds of c i v i L i z e d and u n c i v i l i z e d man as well as the verticaL d i v i s i o n he i n s i s t s on. Perhaps th e i r minds are basicaLLy the same but d i f f e r when the c h i l d mind deveLops into the adult. That i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modern view-point that DougaLl expLains. He shows how the work of Piaget, on the thought process of the European chiLd can be worked into the study of the African's mind. The African, Dougall says, owing to the operation of his c o l l e c t i v e ideas has a mind with the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; i t is p r e l o g i c a l , mystical, insensible to 15. see Dougall, J.W.C. ; The Characteristics of A f r i c a n Thought;, London, 1932, , passiml Mr. Dougall Is" dire c t o r of the Jeanes School at Kabete, Kenya Colony. See Chapt. I l l , - 52 -14 contradiction, indisposed to discursive thought or reasoning. Now Piaget's main work showed that these same features charac-terized the thought processes of the European children he worked with. The European children, l i k e A f r i c a n children and 15 adults lacked any system of l o g i c . Another feature common to them a l l was egocentricity; a l l thought they were the centre of creation and that i t moved around them. Further, there was 16 a common tendency towards animism. Then too, just as i n the case of the African, there was a common b e l i e f i n the powers of magic. The A f r i c a n s p i r i t world i s vague and dark and cold. Its inhabitants would f a i n return to sunLight and old friends and are often heaxl or even f e l t i n the v i l l a g e at night, when a leaf brushes past or boughs groan, or f l u t t e r i h g s and r u s t l i n g s are heard i n the wind. One can meet them too on mountain ridges at dusk, f L i t t i n g behind the trees and bushes, or pattering uncertainly-l i k e driven leaves along the path. Most of a l l , per-haps, they frequent oaves, gorges and waterfalls i n the h i l l s , remote from society 17 Correlating the above discoveries, i t would seem that the difference between the European adult and the A f r i c a n adult must be accounted f o r by some fa c t o r which i s operative 14. see Dougall, op. c i t . , 8 f f . also note that these are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s often complained of by teachers, s e t t l e r s , administrators. 15. Logic: the g i f t of Greece to the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the West 16. The endowment of everything, Living or inanimate, with conscious powers. L7. Leys, N., Kenya, London 1926, 68. lorman Leys, i s one of the many who refuse to beLieve i n any d i f f e r e n t i a e of A f r i c a n mentality. He says that this idea is advanced by anthropologists and i s seized upon by those who want to keep the A f r i c a n in his place. See also Leys, H., A,Last  Chance i n Kenya, Ch. IX, 101-23; passim. - 52 -on the European ohild and not on the A f r i c a n c h i l d . This factor is environment. DougaLL, and here I do not know i f he is i n accordJwith accepted psychological theory or not, uses the theory of the conscious and the subconscious mind. He says that the difference between the c h i l d and the adult European is that the l a t t e r , influenced by his environment, develops the conscious system of thought. This system i s characterized by a reasoning and l o g i c a l power. It i s developed to dominance over his primary, or subconscious system, which i s characterized by the emotional reactions (as opposed to reasoned actions) of a c h i l d . It can be seen where this leads us. These authorities reason that--or conclude t h a t — the A f r i c a n mind operates along the same lines as that of the European c h i l d . The primitive culture f a i l s to contribute the environmental f a c t o r which supplies the t r a n s i t i o n from c h i l d to adult i n the case of the European. But, most important from the p r a c t i c a l point of view, the A f r i c a n — i f European c i v i l i z a t i o n can be given to him by means which w i l l not resu l t merely i n apathy-can undergo the t r a n s i t i o n which w i l l alLow him to take h i s place alongside the European. It is a lesson f o r administra-tors and educators a l l over A f r i c a that patience and a revised approach to Afr i c a n education and the study of Afr i c a n l i f e is needed. With these developments behind i t , the work of to-day's p r a c t i c a l anthropologist goes f a r deeper than did that of the old academical type. IJative customs and b e l i e f s appear in a new l i g h t when considered against this background of native - 54 -thought. The wish of the new anthropologist i s to preserve old A f r i c a from the crushing power of Europe, not purely as they - .. a museum piece but as i n s t i t u t i o n s worth preserving<aa^are^ th<av symbols of a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of thought. I f these t r a d i t i o n s and customs are preserved and ju d i c i o u s l y mixed with Western ideas, they w i l l become the backbone of a new and d i s t i n c t l y A f r i c a n culture, a culture which w i l l be al i v e and dynamic. ¥or, On the other hand, i f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s allowed to crush out the autochthonous, the imitation which w i l l follow and which i s indeed already going on, e s p e c i a l l y i n Kenya, w i l l make Afr i c a n l i f e empty and s t a t i c . Fortunately i t i s s t i l l possible forrr.the anthropologist and the administrator, working hand i n hand through the p r i n c i p l e s of Indirect Rule, to b u i l d this new society. The,Kenya native problem reveals the same features that have been elaborated i n a general way above. Here again are to be found the clash of two c i v i l i z a t i o n s . In dealing with this subject, we w i l l consider each aspect i n the l i g h t of the feature of European cultures with which i t has clashed. Thus, i f some African educational custom is found to clash with the European practise, we s h a l l consider i t i n our study of Kenya education. I f native labour t r a d i t i o n s are found to d i f f e r from those of the European com-munity they can be discussed i n the chapter on Kenya's Labour Problem. This separation is the method adopted by Brown and Rutt i n their study of the administrative problems of the 18 Wahehe t r i b e of Tanganyika. It i s obvious that such a breaking .18. See Brown, G. Gordon and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce; London; 1935; passim. - 55 -up of what, from the anthropological point of view should be bulked together is the only possible approach to a study such as t h i s . The tendency i s to lose the perspective of A f r i c a n culture as a whole and to think that i t i s composed only of those features which s t r i k e our attention because of th e i r marked contrast to European customs. Let us t r y to avoid this great error. -0-0-0-CHAPTER III  Hatlve Education i n Kenya (1) A f r i c a n education i n general aims u t i l i t a r i a n versus " L i t e r a r y " education -African ideas of education (£) Mission Education i n Kenya his t o r y Government po l i c y towards mission education — - - m i s s i o n schools (3) , Government Education i n Kenya -hi s t o r y (4) Types of education offered (5) Lower education (6) The question of the language of i n s t r u c t i o n (7) P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g (8) Higher education (9) Indirect Rule and education CHAPTER III NATIVE EDUCATION IN KENYA Caliban: You taught me language; and my p r o f i t on't Is I know how to curse; the red plague r i d you For learning me your languageI Tempest Act I. Sc. 2 It i s es s e n t i a l that the problems of education i n Kenya Colony be considered i n the l i g h t of the whole question of race contacts i n A f r i c a . By tracing the attempts at r a i s i n g the status of the Afr i c a n by educational means, we can gain a backdrop against which to set Kenya education, and, by t h i s means judge of i t s development. What are, or rather, what should be, the aims of A f r i c a n education? Lord Lugard says "The word i t s e l f , the 'leading f o r t h 1 , the guiding of the evolution of primitive peoples to higher standards of l i f e , i s an epitome of the whole task of the nations which have assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1 f o r the backward races." A l l but a few of the most s e l f i s h white inhabitants of A f r i c a agree on the need for t h i s evo-l u t i o n . Even the se l f - i n t e r e s t e d admit that education f o r the A f r i c a n i s a necessity, though they may at the same time think that he must remain forever the servant of the white-1. l o r d Lugard; Problems of Equatorial A f r i c a , Journal of the Royal Institute of International A f f a i r s , Vol. VI, July 1927, ZW. - 56 - 57 - • man and his economic c i v i l i z a t i o n . Their aim i s , without changing his s o c i a l status, to render the black more e f f i c i e n t by the deliberate r a i s i n g of his mental plane and to make him consume more European goods, .by r a i s i n g his standard of l i v i n g . Ends i n view among the whites i n A f r i c a may d i f f e r but t h i s general aim of education i s agreed on: that i t i s to guide the natives toward higher standards of l i f e . Otherwise there i s a wide divergence of thought on the aim of Europe i n A f r i c a . Is i t to be exploita-t i o n or c i v i l i z a t i o n ? This question, so relevant to the pur-pose of colonies as a whole and one on which opinions vary greatly, must be applied also to the subject of education. Are the interests of the A f r i c a n to be paramount or i s the white-man to remain the master? Is the A f r i c a n to be educated to the d o c i l e acceptance of an i n f e r i o r status, economically and s o c i a l l y , or i s he to be trained to take his place i n the community as the equal of other races? B a s i l Fletcher writes, The c o l o n i a l administrator, discharging h i s task i n the l i g h t of the highest conceptions of c o l o n i a l government, has at h i s disposal three forces with which to determine the character of c o l o n i a l evo-l u t i o n . These three forces are educational, s o c i a l and economic. Of these three, the force of education is the one most within his c o n t r o l . And t h i s force can be used to further whichever European aim gains ascendancy i n A f r i c a , So a man's views on A f r i c a n education might be considered as the best mirror of his views on A f r i c a n s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l evolution. The question resolves i t s e l f into a 2. Fletcher, B a s i l A. Education and Col o n i a l Development, 'c, \ London, 1936; 3. - 58 -consideration of the two main schools of thought upon A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l evolution: the believers i n Indirect Rule, and the advocates of i t s opposite, Direct Rule, lucy P. Mair writes thus: In French t e r r i t o r y , the French language and l i t e r a t u r e , French hi s t o r y and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of French i n s t i -tutions, are regarded as the most important subjects of education. In English colonies there has been le s s insistence on a spread of English culture which would be inconsistent both with Indirect Rule and with the po l i c y of European settlement.^ As Miss Mair shows, the educator i n Direct Rule colonies seeks to turn his native charges into fellow nationals of a d i f f e r e n t colour. There i s no catering to r e a l or imagined fundamental differences i n r a c i a l mentality and no attempt to save worth-while c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of native cul t u r e . Education under Indirect Rule, however, i n the words of l . S . Amery, has, as i t s main p r i n c i p l e "that of g r a f t i n g our ideas and our c i v i l i z a t i o n onto the rootstoeks which we know can grow in the s o i l and which we believe have i n them 4 innate powers of resistence and v i t a l i t y j " a p r i n c i p l e which i f we accept the d i c t a of the Phelps-Stokes Commissioners on Education i n East A f r i c a , i s i n l i n e with modern trends of educational theory. The Commission says "The movement of present-day thought i s toward the recognition of the native q u a l i t i e s of a l l people. The element of t r u t h i n the much-discussed doctrine of self-determination i s an expression of the demand fo r the c u l t i v a t i o n of whatever i s worthwhile i n 3. Mair, Lucy P., Native P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a , louden, 1936; 16..-4. Amery, L;S., Problems and Development i n A f r i c a , Journal of the A f r i c a n Society, Vol. 28, July 1929,328. - 59 -5 the customs and l i f e of the people under consideration." In theory at l e a s t , Amery's.idea of the i d e a l process of progressive Indirect Rule, seems s a t i s f a c t o r y since i t places no obstacles i n the path of native evolution. In practice, however, improperly administered^education under Indirect Rule can be reactionary. It can tend to become s t a t i c by too r i g i d an insistence upon the features of the autoch-thonous c i v i l i z a t i o n . Its purpose should be to lessen the force of the smashing blow of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , not to render the A f r i c a n immune to i t s influence. The presence of a large body of reactionary opinion, of men interested s o l e l y i n economic gain at the expense of the native, w i l l n u l l i f y the humanizing influence of Indirect Rule. One can see how a reactionary group could turn to their own advantage the following statement by a man who has only humanitarian ends in view; In the interests of the A f r i c a n we can hope f o r nothing better than that h i s land should remain a land of farmers, and that well-populated farming v i l l a g e s with a c u l t i v a t e d and progressive population w i l l be i t s chief wealth. We should make i t our object to prevent the Negro from losing his joy i n agriculture and also to hinder the growth of a prejudice that anybody who cannot get on at school i s good enough to be a farmer. The remedy for t h i s i s to show the Natives that a thorough training i s not only advantageous but also indispensible for the farmer of the future.^ It i s on account of the deliberate misinterpretation, i n Kenya Colony of such well-meaning writing as t h i s that Dr. Norman 5. Report of Phelps-Stokes Commission Education i n East  A f r i c a , n.d. (1926) 9. 6. Westermann, Deidrich, The A f r i c a n To-day,London L934-64. . 7 Leys and Victor Murray doubt the value of Lord Lugard's p r i n -c i p l e s of Indirect Rule as applied to B r i t a i n ' s trusteeship i n that colony. As Murray says Lord Lugard's p r i n c i p l e s have, i n the mouths of some administrators, become shibboleths and a convenient excuse f o r keeping out the C h r i s t i a n missionary, while admitting the trader, the railway and the p o s t - o f f i c e . It (the system of Indirect Rule) has tended to stereo-type the p o s i t i o n as i t was found i n the beginning, and to deprive a community of the means of change which, i n the words of Burke, i s the means of i t s conservation. It has given occasional opportunity to the young English man to go abroad and play the part of the eighteenth century country squire which changed times prevented him from doing i n England. It has blocked advance i n education and has lent i t s e l f to a p o l i c y of 'good education for the sons of chiefs and agriculture for a l l the r e s t ' . 8 When we read the words of educated Africans such as t e s t i f i e d before the Joint Select Committee i n 1931 or t o l d t h e i r l i f e - ^ s t o r i e s i n Margery Perham's Ten Africans ( e s p e c i a l l y Martin Kyamba ) we learn that the native i s eager, above a l l else to gain education: not only the u t i l i -t a r i a n education which w i l l render him e f f i c i e n t in the eco-nomic struggle under the new system, but also the higher and more l i t e r a r y forms. There i s a tendency to derogate the giving to the African of the type of education such as i s given to c h i l d r e n i n the schools of England—an education founded upon the desire for accumulative knowledge. This c r i t i c i s m may depend either on generous or on s e l f i s h motives Westermann, of course, believes i n the perpetuation of native culture only i n order to keep a l i v e for the A f r i c a n something 7. See School i n the. Bush Toronto, 1929 8. Murray, A. Victor, Education under Indirect Rule, J. of African Society, Vol. 34, July 1935, 228. ; ~" n a t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e . He, and others of his type, the men 9 of the school of s o c i a l anthropology such as G. Gordon Brown 10 or Richard G. Thurnwald want to perpetuate the indigenous c u l -tures for the sole reason that they are the root-stocks neoes-11 sary for the growth of Indirect Rule. Bat the harsher c r i t i c s of t h i s p o l i c y say that the aim of such r u l e is only to block native progress and that a purely u t i l i t a r i a n education can serve no other purpose than reaction when ca r r i e d out by the men who, o f f i c i a l l y or u n o f f i c i a l l y , control Kenya's a f f a i r s to-day. Bat t h i s , a f t e r a l l , i s not r e a l l y a c r i t i c i s m of Indirect Rule. Lord Lugard, we may assume, had no intention of holding up A f r i c a n progress. I t i s i n their misapplication that his p r i n c i p l e s are rendered weak. As a matter of f a c t , they have not been generally applied i n Kenya because such ap p l i c a t i o n would demand administrators uninfluenced by i n -terests other than those of the African. It i s rather d i f f i c u l t at f i r s t to understand how the education Lord Lugard favours is to work towards the aims of Indirect Rule. Perhaps there has been TOO much stress put on the word " u t i L i t a r i a n " i n describing i t . Perhaps it i s unfair to attempt to describe i t s principles so simply. Let as, therefore, consider the following statement of those 9. see: Brown and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce, Anthropology i n Action, London, Humphrey Mi l f o r d , 1935. 10. see: Thurnwald, R.,0., Black and,White i n East A f r i c a . • London, Geo. Routledge and Sons, 1935. 11-. c f . : L. S. Amery, supra. .58. - 62 -p r i n c i p l e s by Lord Lugard himself. He wrote In the past, education has been confined, on the one hand to the so-called ' l i t e r a r y ' or class-room t u i t i o n of a small and c h i e f l y urban minority, on the model of the schools of Europe, and generally by means of the same text-books, abounding i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s and meta-phors wholLy incomprehensible to t r o p i c a l races; or a l t e r n a t i v e l y to the purely u t i l i t a r i a n i n s t r u c t i o n of the workshop. Both have aimed at supplying the requirements of a material development--of clerks and accountants, or of artisans and s k i l l e d workmen. The larger conception of today, while not ignoring these necessary objects, r e a l i z e s that the primary task of education i s to raise the standard of l i f e and the moral plane of the community, and not of the in d i v i d u a l alone. It recognizes that the advent of Europe i n A f r i c a must inevitably tend to break and to undermine the sanctions which have hitherto con-t r o l l e d the actions of the i n d i v i d u a l . These con-t r o l l i n g forces may, no doubt, be contemptuously stigmatized as gross superstitions, but that is only to say that they are based; equally with our own r e l i g i o u s conceptions, on a b e l i e f i n the super-natural and s p i r i t u a l . They also have their roots deep in the conception of t r i b a l l o y a l t y . It i s , then, the task of education to substitute a new code and to erect new land marks when the old are swept away by the incoming tide of new conceptions. I t w i l l help to bridge the chasm between the old and the new.12 There can be nothing reactionary or s t a t i c i n an educational system tr u l y f u l f i l l i n g these aims. Some c r i t i c s of the p o l i c i e s of Indirect Rule say that they cater to the beLief that the A f r i c a n i s mentally i n f e r i o r to the European. This i s unfortunately true, i f these p o l i c i e s are to be judged by their r e s u l t s i n colonies such as Kenya where the s e t t l e r population has a voice i n t h e i r application. But i t i s important to note that saying the Afrioan method of thought may be d i f f e r e n t from the,European does not imply that the A f r i c a n mentality i s i n f e r i o r . Though 12, Lord Lugard, l o o . c i t . , 219 - 63 -one may not accept i n d e t a i l much of the psychological work that was touched on i n Chapter I I , i t is f a i r , I think, to postulate that, owing to the difference of environment, the thought of the A f r i c a n i s fundamentally emotional while that of the European i s characterized by a reasoning attitude* The rejoinder of the c r i t i c s of Indirect Rule would be, i t would seem, something l i k e t h i s : the native Is to be led to emanci-pation under the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the West. But the main handi-cap to his evolution i s his not having the environment that fosters the necessary Western mental proccesses, why then, slow up his evolution by the forced conservation of those ancient customs and modes of existence whioh made him what he i s ? For these features, passed on from generation to generation, have gone into the development of a culture which requires no more f o r i t s maintenance than the i l l o g i c a l , superstitious, unreasoning mentality of a c h i l d . Why, say the c r i t i c s , should the A f r i c a n not be given h i s European education along the same lines as the European child? It i s the European philosophy of education, which has made Western mentality what i t i s , so d i f f e r e n t from the African. The answer seems to be f a i r l y obvious. It i s found i n the l a s t sentence of the quotation from Lord Lugard and i s stated also i n the following lines from E. W. 13 Smith's, The Golden Stool. He speaks of the profound i n -calculable transformations that are being so r a p i d l y produced i n A f r i c a and says; 13. Smith, E.W., The Golden Stool, London, Edinburgh House Press, 1930, 53. - 6 4 -I t is the r e l a t i v e suddenness of the change that i s so disturbing. But yesterday, the vast majority of Africans l i v e d i n a secluded world as their f o r e -fathers had l i v e d before them, with the very dimmest notions of any more spacious universe. Now amongst them the energetic white man has forced his way, with h i s railways and motor cars -. Ho wonder the Af r i c a n f e e l s that he is being hustled. The pace i s too rapid. Changes that normally take hundreds of years are being brought about i n a generation. The A f r i c a n i s c a l l e d upon to take a prodigious leap out of the pr e h i s t o r i c age Into the twentieth cen-tury. Therein l i e s the answer. The systems of European education, the philosophy behind them, the minds that react to them are the product of an age-long evolution. I t i s obvious that the A f r i c a n could not be expected to make i n a generation the t r a n s i t i o n which the European took so many centuries to make. It should be remembered too, i n the matter of education, that the s o c i a l organization of A f r i c a had evolved no systematized accumulative education before the advent of Europe. Afriean childre n underwent a course of t r a i n i n g intended to help them take th e i r place among their fellows i n a primitive, unpro-r gressive s o c i a l scheme. There was no zeal f o r learning as a thing of value i n i t s e l f . So It can be seen that the task that confronts the African i s not merely that of adapting himself to a new education but also that of leaving behind 1 4 his former training i n t r a d i t i o n s . The majority of the Africans are not yet i n a 14. There i s a s t r i k i n g resemblance between the "savage" con-ception of education and that of certain t o t a l i t a r i a n states of to-day. The European c h i l d , l i k e the Af r i c a n . c h i l d , thinks as an in d i v i d u a l . The t r a d i t i o n a l education of the A f r i c a n aimed at changing the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c out-look of the c h i l d to t r a i n him to think as a member of a group. The education of Europe since the Middle Ages has centred i n the in d i v i d u a l . But not so to-day i n I t a l y , - 65 -pos i t i o n to u t i l i z e a European educational system. An ex-ception must be made for that smalL percentage of outstanding negroes who have learned to put western education to i t s best uses. But the vast majority must be given that education i n some system compatible with t h e i r methods of thought. This can come only from the cooperation of the educator with the s o c i a l anthropologist who has the key to the problem of A f r i c a n education. The advice of the anthro-pologist i s to develop a system of education which w i l l engraft on native t r a d i t i o n the reasoning attitude and the zeal for learning which characterize European t r a i n i n g . Again i t i s a question of a juste miliea« The most that u t i l i t a r i a n i s m i n A f r i c a n education can do i s to teach the black to take his place as an e f f i c i e n t producing unit i n a western economic society. At the other extreme, a too academic education w i l l f a i l to supply the t r a n s i t i o n that the Af r i c a n needs. I f the Af r i c a n adopts i t at a l l i t can, at best, tend only to make him an imitation European, a being out of place i n both white society and the society of his own race from which he w i l l alienate himself. It i s one of the f i n e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Indirect Kale that i t regards the A f r i c a n as the possessor of a d i s t i n c t i v e character of h i s own, not as a primitive savage, lacking any t r a d i t i o n a l culture. The system of education which derives from such an attitude i s the one which provides best f o r the future of the blaok and, everything considered, 14. (cont.) Germany, Russia. Once again Europe swings to educating the individual i n group r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . - 66 -i s the one which gives the most promising and probable picture of things to come. It shows the way to a new and r i c h A f r i c a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , which w i l l not be just a poor imitation of the European. Further, e s p e c i a l l y i n Kenya Colony, i t counteracts the African's growing r e a l i z a t i o n that he has been and i s being economically exploited, by showing him that perhaps B r i t a i n * 8 or Europe's alms i n A f r i c a are not s o l e l y s e l f i s h and greedy. In considering the p a r t i c u l a r problem of native education i n Kenya, we must remember that here the system of Indirect Rule has had no wide and successful application. The concessions which the s e t t l e r population has made to progres-sive native administrators have been only i n the nature of sops to adverse c r i t i c i s m i n the Mother Country. So, i n saying that the Indirect. Rule Educational p r i n c i p l e s may bring hope to the Kenya native, we must postulate e i t h e r the education of the Kenya European to his actual position or the ignoring by the Colonial O f f i c e of the s e t t l e r ' s demands that his i n -terests must supercede those of the African. In this respect the history of Western education for the African i n Kenya Colony to date gives l i t t l e promise that the European w i l l change of his own accord. It w i l l be some time before the white s e t t l e r admits that he w i l l not always be a member of a society which, as Dr. Edgar Brookes wrote of white sbdiety In South A f r i c a ; ?'has come to represent that of the Athens of P e r i c l e s — a n educated democracy, resting upon a foundation of what, when a l l h y p o c r i t i c a l periphrases are swept away, - 67 15 i s r e a l l y slave labour." To the ef f o r t s of the missionaries of the Ch r i s t i a n churches, native education i n Kenya, as indeed i n a l l parts of A f r i c a , owes i t s b i r t h and i t s continued existence. In 1918, Ivlr."Quali" r e f e r r i n g to the various sections of the white community i n East A f r i c a wrote i n the Contemporary Review " l e t i t be said that the missionary i s the only one party that has done i t s part, and done i t thoroughly too, within the 16 l i m i t s of men and money av a i l a b l e . " Following close upon the footsteps of Speke, Burtoua, Livingstone, Stanley—the men who opened East and Central A f r i c a to Europe--came the missionaries. In fact., when Stanley l e f t Zanzibar i n 1874 for his three-year trek across the continent, Bishop Steere was already at work on the islan d and a Roman Catholic mission had been b u i l t at Bagamoyo, on the mainland. 1875 found Stanley teaching C h r i s t i a n i t y to old Mutesa, f a r up i n Uganda, and urging the Church Missionary Society i n England to do t h e i r duty by the Afri c a n s . The challenge was quickly accepted and i n A p r i l of 1876 Alexander MacKay led the f i r s t B r i t i s h missionary band into the hinterland of East A f r i c a . We a l l know of the hard-ships that the missionaries of a l l denominations underwent i n the years that followed. The death of Bishop Hannington at the hands of Mwanga and his warriors i s t y p i c a l of the s p i r i t 15, Smith, op. c i t . , 55 c i t i n g Brookes, Dr. Edgar, Economic Aspects of the Native Problem, South A f r i c a n Journal of  Science, Vol. x x i , Nov. 1924. 16. '! Quali",The Natives of E. Africa. Contemporary Review, Vol.113, . 1918,. 459. - 68 -of these early missions. But unfortunately, i t i s no more t y p i c a l than was the war between the followers of the d i f f e r e n t C h r i s t i a n sects which the then Captain Lugard was c a l l e d upon to s e t t l e . It i s this unchristian sectarian wrangling which has been the drawback of missions and mission education i n East A f r i c a . Moreover, the missionaries f a i l e d to appreciate the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the effect of European contacts upon A f r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Too often they i n s i s t e d r i g i d l y upon the immedi-ate a b o l i t i o n of such things as i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s , polygamy, etc. I t i s to a l l these mistakes that Norman Leys and others lay the rapid spread of Islam i n Kenya and the f e e l i n g of some administrators that the Moslem f a i t h i s more suitable to A f r i c a n needs than i s the C h r i s t i a n , And yet, u n t i l very recent years, the education offered by the missions was the only one available to the A f r i -can. Even now i n Kenya, i t i s the avowed p o l i c y of the govern-ment, to leave the education of the mass of the natives i n the hands of the church schools. It i s cheaper to subsidize these establishments than i t i s to b u i l d up a system of state-owned public schools. The p o l i c y was o f f i c i a l l y stated i n 1919 i n the Report of the Educational Commission of the East A f r i c a 17 Protectorate. The report stated; A mass of evidence has been taken from missionaries and others on the question of Native education, and the conclusion arrived at by the Commission i s that the best method of furthering education among the Native population, apart from the Coast Mohammedan Native i s by means of the organization which already exists among the various missionary bodies. I f the education of the. Natives i s l e f t , as the 17, t h i s was the year previous to the founding of Kenya Colony. - 69 -Commission suggests, to the various r e l i g i o u s bodies at work i n the mission f i e l d , i t i s obvious that Government must a s s i s t i n providing the necessary-funds, and having done that, I t must take steps by inspection and advice to see that the money i s properly applied or rather that i t i s getting good value f o r i t , and, more important s t i l l , that the education i s sound and on the right l i n e s . For education to be sound i t w i l l be necessary to t r a i n teachers. This i s now being done by missionary s o c i e t i e s , and should be so developed that instead of being taught to read and write by the most primitive methods, the Native should be educated, i n the correct sense of the term, whether i t be i n a secondary school or i n a v i l l a g e school. The Commission lays great stress on the creation of e f f i c i e n t normal schools. *° These paragraphs state, i n general, the outlook of the Kenya Government towards the education of i t s native wards. The extent to which Government actually took responsi-b i l i t y upon i t s e l f has increased. Perhaps i t was the fact that the a f f a i r s of the colony became matters of international i n -terest with the publication of the 1923 White Paper that ac-counted for the increase. The White Paper made the notable pronounc eme nt that, There can be no room f o r doubt that i t i s the mission of Great B r i t a i n to work for the t r a i n i n g and education of the Africans towards a higher i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral and economic l e v e l than that which they had reached when the Crown assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the adminis-t r a t i o n of t h i s t e r r i t o r y . At present special con-sideration i s being given to economic development i n the Native Reserves and, within l i m i t s imposed by the finances of the Colony, a l l that i s possible f o r the advancement and development of the Africans, both inside and outside the Native Reserves w i l l be done.-1-^ This was the declaration of a Government which owing to her new position as a mandatory power v/as f i n d i n g her 18. Phelp-Stokes Report, op. c i t . , 116. I make no claim to the composition. 19. Cmd. -S£34-,( 1922,) 10. - 70 -Colonial a f f a i r s under the scrutiny of the world. This was the most tangible statement of the manner i n which the trustee nation was going to protect native i n t e r e s t s . I t i s too bad that, as usual, the safeguarding "within the l i m i t s imposed by the finances of the Colony" had to be included i n the declaration. B r i t a i n had declared that i t was her policy that her c o l o n i a l trust should be administered up to the standards demanded of the mandatory powers by the Covenant of the League of Nations. I t i s a f a i r c r i t i c i s m to point out that this regulating of c o l o n i a l educational expenditures according to the finances of each i n d i v i d u a l colony i s i n -compatible with the attainment of such standards. This u n i f i c a t i o n of the administration of the backward races of the Empire i s the greatest duty that the ColoniaL o f f i c e can perform. The handling of the finances" shouldobe the concern of the central authority. Such c e n t r a l i z a t i o n need not be s t u l t i f y i n g since the standard of c o l o n i a l education which would be established need not be too standardized. The central authority could d i s t r i b u t e the monies paid into i t by the natives of the Empire according to the numbers of the population of each colony; the l o c a l education o f f i c i a l s could apportion the training given t h e i r charges to the Natives' needs. . In Kenya much of the funds intended f o r native education or other native welfare work has been side-tracked to the white s e t t l e r s . The influence of the s e t t l e r organl-zations, again, upon the administration i n the matter of the expenditure of l o c a l funds that has t h r o t t l e d native progress. If the tax-money paid by the natives was administered from an independent fund the native might get a f a i r deal. But we s h a l l say more of the actual expenditures i n Kenya l a t e r . Meanwhile i t should be remembered i n considering Kenya's native edu- . ca t i o n a l system, that only a p i t i f u l l y small f r a c t i o n of the colony's funds goes to the support of the system. The Church Missionary Society and the Church of Scotland Mission have, i n the past, shouldered most of the burden of Kenya native education. The operations of the former are c a r r i e d on over a much wider area than are those of the l a t t e r . But t h i s d i s p a r i t y i s due to a difference i n p o l i c y . The Church of Scotland, with the end i n view of thoroughness has t r i e d to concentrate i t s a c t i v i t i e s and has concerned i t -s e l f mainly with work among the Kikuyu t r i b e . A t h i r d C h r i s t i a n denomination, the Society of Friends, ca r r i e s on a greaf work among the Kavirondo. Another, the A f r i c a Inland Mission, attends to ten stations, seven among the Ukamba and three among the Kikuyu. In addition to these four large organizations, there are seven other Protestant bodies i n Kenya. V/ork i s carried on i n the Coastal Province by the United Methodist Mission. The Gospel Mission, an American organization , also has three stations i n the Kikuyu Province. Another powerful American organization, the Seventh Day Adventist, works from f i v e centres down near the Tanganyika border. F i n a l l y , several independent Protestant groups work among the Kavirondo; namely, - 1 \ a -i 0 i * 1 5? _ fO in 2 § ? cr T • • r <r ^ -+6 *H 0 iff > •5 ^ 0 <* i J 1 z j c cr cfe rt or fi & U Ui cr* r T J 1 O 0 t" at < ai i 2 a 0 0" i ^ s j J» ° J» 9 m td fc> in r* «r 0 rf> rfl \n ^» i * aJ 2 in o» cr V 6 o 0 o» 0 I " — * (/» U1 i % i £ c- r — o — C\< C< - rf> • 2T !T £** i . i 0 (/I </) «> -0 D ci )< V <4 i > i! 0 Jl f in cr j O - 0 M P-o 9 i a 0 i. II LD 2 Private Sohoola i n Kenya (Ohiefly Church Schools) Year U o i of Schools Ho. of. Scholars Ho. of Schools "•; E H - i E . H - E • • State-aided H on-State-aided 1931 j 11 2313 1932 13 1326 1933 T 15 1537 | -317 99,030 452 74,762 526 94,346 286 I 2038 1 252 I 1087 i 299 | 1253 i I V £ Empire Parliamentary Association Beport. 1933; 57 - 72 -the A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , the N i l o t i c Mission, and the Lumbwa Indu s t r i a l Mission, a l l run hy able American workers* Besides these Protestant missions, three impor-tant Roman Catholic missions have worked i n Kenya f o r many years. The French Order of the Holy Ghost carr i e s on a wide-spread work around Mombasa, i n Tanaland, and among the Ukamba* The I t a l i a n Catholic Mission has f i f t e e n stations among the Kikuyu, the largest being at Nyeri. The St. Joseph's Foreign Mission Society or the M i l l H i l l Mission which was organized i n the Uganda, but has worked i n .Kenya since 1903 when the Kavirondo Province was annexed, carried on an important tech-n i c a l education work at Kakamega, the centre of the new gold mining area of Kenya. Pr i o r to the Great War the Government of the East A f r i c a Protectorate took l i t t l e interest i n Native Edu-cation. Almost the sole departure from t h i s p o licy was made in 1913 when a technical school was founded at Machakos. At the same time a grant was authorized to the mission schools for each indentured native apprentice. Between t h i s year and 1924, there was l i t t l e i n native education except the findings of the 1919 Commission and the various declarations of the 1923 White Paper. In 1924, however, the findings of the Educational Commission were worked into an Education Ordinance which created the mechanism of present day native education i n the Colony. As recommended by the Commission the r e l a t i o n between mission and government educational e f f o r t was made clear and, f u r t h e r , a new Central Advisory Committee with various subsidiary d i s t r i c t committees - 73 -was provided for,These l a t t e r committees were to be comprised of representatives of the various Local Native Councils, of European organizations as well as of c e r t a i n o f f i c i a l s who were nominees of the Government. It should be noticed that, as usual, the s e t t l e r community was given a powerful voice. One wonders why the whites should be represented at a l l on these councils. Even i f the education of the children of the Local Europeans were i n the hands of the same committees the s e t t l e r s would not deserve as much voice as they have. But such i s the way of things i n Kenya. Surely the f a i r thing to do would be to make the education of the black children, through a proper system of Local Native Councils such as thrives i n other non-settlement colonies, the concern of the Africans themselves. Let the Europeans, with support from the Government i n the r a t i o of t h e i r contribution to Kenya's finances, concern themselves s o l e l y with t h e i r own educational problems. This would seem the l o g i c a l outcome i f the plan, adopted i n 1926, of letting'each community i n Kenya pay f o r i t s own education were r e a l l y f o l -lowed. If a l l - s e t t l e r s were of the stamp that wins the respect of the African there would c e r t a i n l y be no ob-j e c t i o n to a strong s e t t l e r representation on the D i s t r i c t Committees. But such a statement need hardly be made, since, i f the s e t t l e r population of any colony were u n s e l f i s h and awake to their p o s i t i o n there would be no race problem such as that i n Kenya to-day. But something now of the f a c i l i t i e s provided - 74 -fo r native education and of the c u r r i c u l a used. As has heen said, t h i s education is of two main types; church education and government education. The increase i n the l a t t e r form should not he taken to imply that the missions are relaxing. i n their-work; f a r from i t . Church schools to-day, however, are i n some ways di f f e r e n t from what they were before 1924. This i s due to the measure of sec u l a r i z a t i o n that came with the acceptance hy many church schools of government subsidy. Richard C. Thurnwald considers education i n East A f r i c a under the headings; lower education, p r a c t i c a l 20 t r a i n i n g and higher education. There i s no reason why t h i s grouping should not be used f o r our purposes here. Under the heading of lower education comes the t r a i n i n g given by the three most common types of.schools i n East A f r i c a : "bush", " v i l l a g e " and " t r i b a l " . Under the second category come, f i r s t , the famous Jeanes School at Kabete, near Nairobi, and secondly! the various technical i n s t i t u t i o n s which t r a i n the native i n agriculture, trades and handicrafts, l a s t l y , come the i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education: the Central Schools, as they are c a l l e d , and the great A l l i a n c e High School at Kikuyu. It seems to me that, insofar as B r i t a i n ' s mission i n Kenya i s concerned, the amount of money and of e f f o r t put into giving the system of elementary education that the natives need must be considered as by far the greatest test of humanitarian motives. It i s a good thing to assure 20, Thurnwald, Richard C , op. c i t . , Chapt. VI, passim. - 75 -f a c i l i t i e s for higher education to the small percentage of Africans who are able to afford i t , hut i t i s a far greater object to bring European education, even the most elementary-forms of i t , to the masses of the people. It must be remembered that, as things stand to-day, the A f r i c a n boy who goes i n f o r higher education, or even, as w i l l be seen, f o r certain types of technical education, i s . a l i e n a t i n g himself from his t r i b e . He cannot be expected to return to his home on the reserve i n order to take his wonted place i n t r i b a l society. For his European education i s , as already shown, something e n t i r e l y a l i e n to the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n . As i t i s , higher education i s a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g factor" i n native l i f e and, more important, one which works against the p r i n c i p l e s of Indirect Rule. The f i r s t thing that the European educator i n Kenya must do i s to devise the proper c u r r i c u l a for elementary education aimed at bridging the gap between the A f r i c a n and the European conceptions. The missions were i n a p o s i t i o n , to a c e r t a i n extent, to supply the needed t r a n s i t i o n . It can, I suppose, be assumed that the primary aim of the missionary, when he founds schools f o r the A f r i c a n , i s the preparation of native converts f o r baptism and f o r taking their place i n a C h r i s t i a n community. Mission education i s an education based upon a system of morality and, as such, has cer t a i n features i n common with the A f r i c a n conceptions. In the early days of education i n East A f r i c a , the missionary approach was probably the only possible one which could bridge the gap between the - 76 -old and the new. But as increasing r a c i a l contacts s t i r r e d the African to a desire for education of a d i f f e r e n t sort from what the missions could give, the government was c a l l e d on to supply-i t , At f i r s t government expenditures were mostly i n the higher f i e l d s and for a chosen few among the Africans. But government eff o r t i n the f i e l d of lower education has begun throughout East A f r i c a though, i n Kenya, as yet i t has reached only p i t i -f u l l y small proportions. So, i n the f i e l d of lower education, there are the two d i s t i n c t types of school: the ''hush school" run by the missions and the " v i l l a g e school" run by the government. The t r i b a l school, a t h i r d , yet not so d i s t i n c t , type i s the enterprise of the l o c a l native administration and i s controlled by the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r and the leaders of the l o c a l Native Council. The building of these t r i b a l schools a l l over East A f r i c a i s one of the surest signs of the progress of the Af r i c a n and of his demand for education, a demand which i s so great that he i s w i l l i n g to pay- fo r these schools over and above his already heavy taxation. In 1931 the l o c a l Native Councils 21 voted £17,000 of the i r funds to education, Referring to the significance of the vote, Lord Moyne quotes the Director of Education of Kenya who said in 1931 The A f r i c a n position i s v/orst of a l l . The demands f o r education are i n s i s t e n t . The need for meeting these demands was never more urgent. This service should not be allowed to suffer e s p e c i a l l y when the shortage of revenue i s l i k e l y , in the main, to be a shortage 22 of revenue derived from Europeans and not from Africans. 21. Cmd. 4093, Certain Questions i n Kenya, Lord Moyne Report, 1932, Appendix 8, 115. 22. i b i d . , 30. - 77 -For, the f i r s t thing the Government did when i t f e l t the pinch of the depression was to cut down the estimates for native services. The native education of Kenya i s graded into two Substandards, as they are c a l l e d , and s i x Standards, i n the manner of the English form system. The two Substandards aim at acquainting the native with the strange l i f e under the European educational system. These two years might be termed kindergarten years i n that they serve as an introduction to the education that i s to come. The Substandards and Standards One and Two are taken in the i n s t i t u t i o n s of lower education, the bush, v i l l a g e and t r i b a l schools. Yet there i s a fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n between the bush school and the v i l l a g e school apart from difference in sponsor. In the l a t t e r there i s a much more rigourous i n -sistence that each p u p i l conform to a s t i f f programme of studies. The church schools boast that t h e i r aim i s to bring learning to the A f r i c a n as a thing of inherent value and deny any marked desire to give a modern u t i l i t a r i a n education. This attitude, of course, i s quite i n keeping with the missionary's task. But, as a r e s u l t , the bush schools have no system of written examinations and no l i m i t a t i o n s as to the age of the pupils. Furthermore, there i s no insistence upon s t r i c t at-tendance to school work. Attendance at the bush school tends to become more and more intermittent. For,, as the term pro-gresses the A f r i c a n displays increasing apathy toward systema-ti z e d and sustained e f f o r t directed to a goal which he has not 23 yet learned to value. Thurnwald and Westermann both stress £3. See Y/estermann, Deidrich, op. c i t . , 4£. - 78 -this faot, that the average A f r i c a n while he wants European education, objects to and does not understand the long, and to him, tedious years of ap p l i c a t i o n required i n attaining i t . For example, most schools i n s i s t that each pupil must tend a garden plot along approved European l i n e s . The African objects to t h i s as he does not associate agriculture with the education of the West. Or put i t this way: the Native thinks of Euro-pean education solely In terms of those factors which seem strange to him. He sees i t as a process of learning a new language, of learning the i n t r i c a c i e s of numbers, of learning the handling of machines. But things whioh are common to education the world over, European and Af r i c a n both--such as moral t r a i n i n g and discipline--these seem to the A f r i c a n just so much waste e f f o r t . He wants to be given at one gulp the things which to him mean western education without any process of assimilation. That i s partly what Westermann meant when he spoke of the need of teaohing the native to value the agr i o u l -24 t u r a l t r a i n i n g which would improve his l i f e on the : Reserves. The rather easy-going attitude of the bash school allows the native to attend school i r r e g u l a r l y , to go home to his accustomed environment when so i n c l i n e d . So the average mission school pupil takes perhaps two years longer to complete the curriculum than does the pupil of the v i l l a g e school, where four years i s given to the Substandards and the f i r s t two Standards. One cannot but f e e l that, i n many ways the missionaschool attitude i s the one most i n l i n e with the J34*. Supra 59. - 79 -Ideals of Indirect Hale and that the declaration of the 1919 25 Eduoational Commission was a well-considered one* Before passing on to the subject of technical and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n Kenya, l e t us consider the all-important subject of the language of inst r u c t i o n . The French Government, in i t s Colonial Empire does not hesitate about the language i n whioh the African Is to be taught: there i s no thought, under Direct Rule of saving A f r i c a n languages. But i n B r i t i s h , East, A f r i c a i t has been the custom both i n the i n s t r u c t i o n and in the o f f i c i a l correspondence of the native administration to use Klswahili or, as i t i s call e d , the Swahili d i a l e c t as a sort of llngaa franca. Swahili, which was the only written language of East A f r i c a , is simple to learn as languages go. i It was spoken by the Swahili tri b e of the Coastal Province and was naturally the f i r s t one encountered by the. European. In the day of the Chartered Company and even back i n the days of the Arab Empire, the Swahili d i a l e c t was the language of trade. It was impossible f o r the Europeans to acquire the scores of Bantu vernacular languages and just as impossible f o r the Bantu, lacking the f a c i l i t i e s , to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s of English. So the middle tongue, the Swahili, with i t s f a i r l y wide d i s -t r i b u t i o n and rather simple construction, was chosen. To-day i t i s the language of o f f i c i a l communioation i n Kenya native a f f a i r s , and i s , f o r reasons to be explained, a growing language, as f a r as native education i s concerned. Lower education must, of course, be carried on ,.25. Supra 68. - 80 -i n the vernacular Language of the trib e concerned. This i s where the missionary, with his long residence i n one native area, has the advantage over the government employee who i s 26 continually being s h i f t e d from one language area to another. Canon Leakey speaks strongly against this continuous changing around of personnel, f o r no sooner does a teacher or a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r master the language of h i s native charges than he i s 27 required to s t a r t aLL over again i n some new Language area. When the A f r i c a n passes from the bush or v i l l a g e school into the Central School, he Is given h i s in s t r u c t i o n , generally, i n Swahili. For now the school population consists no longer of members of one t r i b e or of one language group. The higher forms i n the Central schools, however, are given a measure of i n s t r u c t i o n i n English, which i s , a f t e r a l l , what Swahili has not yet become, a l i t e r a r y language. F i n a l l y , when the High School which i s roughly equivalent to the Ameri-can junior college i s reached, i n s t r u c t i o n is a l l i n English. But the question of the use of Swahili i s fast becoming more than a question of convenience. The spread of the language throughout East A f r i c a i s one of the signs of changing times. Perhaps the most conspicuous concomitant of the European way of L i f e i s the parochialism of western and of westernized nations. Strong nationaListic sentiment, strange 26. It has been Colonial O f f i c e p o l i c y to give i t s employees a general acquaintance with c o l o n i a l problems by this s h i f t i n g around of personnel. 27. See Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya; London, 1936, 187-189 f o r a t y p i c a l service record. - 81 -to A f r i c a , i s the b i r t h r i g h t of the European. Norman Leys places the growth of a l i n g u i s t i c unity i n East A f r i c a as one of the most important signs of the b i r t h of a new East A f r i c a n 28 nationalism. Afte r aLL, i f we favour the p r i n c i p l e s of In-29 di r e c t Rule expressed f i g u r a t i v e l y by L.S. Amery, thi s growth of A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment i s an inevitable and de-sir a b l e r e s u l t . In these days of t o t a l i t a r i a n states i t i s hard f o r one to believe with De Kat Angelino that "the key to every c o l o n i a l policy l i e s i n the appreciation of the essential s o l i d a r i t y of humanity as a whole and the elimination of r a c i a l 30 pride." Leonard Barnes has said "An honest mandate system— i s bound to be, f i r s t , l a s t and alL the time, a school of native p o l i t i c a l independence. Our power to impart knowledge and the appetite f o r freedom i s our one equitable t i t l e to act 31 as trustees." Canon Leakey objects to the spreading use of Swahili which would e n t a i l a huge waste of e f f o r t on the part of administrator and teacher both. True, i t does e n t a i l what appears on cursory examination, to be useless work. It does seem strange that two races, should have to communicate i n a tongue strange to both of them. Further, as Leakey says, 28. Leys, N i , Kenya, 535. 29. Supra, 58 30. Westermann, op. c i t . , 19, quoting De Kat Angelino, "Staatskundig Beleiden Bestuurzorg i n Nederlandsth Indie," The Hague, 1929, Vol. 2, 592. 31. Barnes, Leonard, The Future of Colonies. London, 1936, 24. - 82 -Swahili i s not a l i t e r a r y language. So why not begin as soon as possible the general teaching of English? But, taking a long view we can f i n d several important factors i n favour of Swahili. Some have been mentioned. The most important of these i s , that Swahili, easy to learn, and yet d i s t i n c t i v e and African, can give to East A f r i c a a l i n g u i s t i c unity now unknown. This, with the a c q u i s i t i o n through Indirect Rule, of the best features of our c i v i l i z a t i o n , w i l l give to the A f r i c a n a strong, d i s t i n c t i v e culture of his own. Further, i t i s a language which just l i k e our own tongue, can e a s i l y develop into one suitable to the demands of accumu-l a t i v e learning. . . Let us pass now to a b r i e f consideration of the f a c i l i t i e s offered i n Kenya for s p e c i a l i z e d education. The most interesting of these special schools i s the Jeanes School, at Kabete, named in honour of the founder, an American Quaker. Schools of this type are found i n Kenya, Uyas6aland and Northern Rhodesia. The Jeanes system is one of the most interesting and promising developments in the history of native education. Its aim, generally stated, i s , l i k e the aims of Indirect Rule, to r a i s e the general l e v e l of African l i v i n g standards and e f f i c i e n c y . The methods used are unique. Young Africans, trained, in the Central schools, to teach t h e i r fellow blacks, come to Kabete. There, these teachers are trained i n better methods of agriculture, live-stock r a i s i n g , the p r i n c i p l e s of hygiene, public health, better housing, child-welfare, etc. Each Jeanes teacher i s given his own farm-plot at the school. If he brings h i s family with him, he is given a neat l i t t l e - 83 -house and garden to run according to European standards. The ultimate aim i s to build up a corps of v i s i t i n g native teachers and welfare-workers to spread t h e i r knowledge throughout the Reserves. These people can perform such a task for the reason that the- Jeanes School t r a i n i n g , not being of an i n t e l l e c t u a l nature, does not necessarily cause a gulf between the teacher and his fellow blacks. The Jeanes teacher does not automatically drop into the c l a s s , which i s causing more and more worry to the administrators: the European-educated, " d e t r i b a l i z e d " natives, who, estranged from t r i b a l l i f e , f l o c k to the towns and form a body of d i s s a t i s f i e d , m i s f i t black " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " . A l l writers stress, however, the enormous ob-stacles the Jeanes teacher must face when he returns to h i s Reserve. Thurnwald quotes J.W.C. Dougall, one of the promoters and founders of the school at Kabete, who says "the Jeanes teacher goes back to his d i s t r i c t to b a t t l e v/ith custom, pre-judice and disease, to teach and to ins p i r e his people with enthusiasm f o r new things, and to do t h i s without losing or wasting whatever may be of value i n native l i f e and custom as 3£ . i t i s now—to remake r u r a l A f r i c a . " As has been seen, the type of native education favoured most by the s e t t l e r community i s technical education. This has two features which win i t favour with the Europeans. F i r s t of a l l , i t makes the A f r i c a n a more e f f i c i e n t producer and a r t i s a n to take h i s place i n that new p r o l e t a r i a t based on 33 raw materials to which J u l i a n Huxley referred. Secondly, and 32, Thurnwald, op. c i t . , 343. 33. Huxley, J u l i a n ; A f r i c a View; London; 1931; 129. - 84 -of more immediate importance, technical education for the African f i t s him to take the positions i n Kenya l i f e now f i l l e d hy Indians. So rapi d l y i s t h i s replacement going on that a l -ready the Indians are beginning to leave the colony, forced A into unemployment. i Some of these technical schools are operated by the; Government. , But many requiring less specialized and ex-pensive f a c i l i t i e s are attached to the various mission stations. It should be remembered, though, that a young A f r i c a n who has learnt a trade or a profession, Leaves his Reserve f o r the centres of white population just as does the i n t e l l e c t u a l black. A man trained as a cobbler, a t a i l o r , a worker i n con-crete, etc., can as yet f i n d no great scope f o r his labour on the reserve. Yet, so f a r , t h i s class of d e t r i b a l i z e d c r a f t s -men has found L i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g employment outside i t . In f a c t , as Thurnwald says, they are perhaps the most 34 balanced and happiest of the VNew; Africans". , The case of the A f r i c a n trained as a clerk or an accountant i s much the same. These natives, however, are beginning to f i n d employment on the Reserves as the Native •Authorities are strengthened i n l i n e with the p o l i c i e s of Indirect Rule or rather, i n Kenya^ in Line with the Dual Policy. , Then, too, under the heading of technical t r a i n i n g comes the very important work of preparing native s p e c i a l i s t s for the medical and a g r i c u l t u r a l services. The H i l t o n Young A See table on page E8 of Chapter !• 34. See Thurnwald; op. c i t . ; 1929. - 85 -35 Commission, Mr. Ormsby-Gore i n his 1925 Report, the Joint Select Committee of 1931, i n fact a l l students of A f r i c a n l i f e stressed the role that the A f r i c a n worker i n the s c i e n t i f i c services must play i n the future. One has only to read of Lord Delamere's e f f o r t s at c a t t l e and sheep-raising, of h i s f u t i l e attempts to CL develop rust and blight r e s i s t a n t grains, to understand the 36 task that the a g r i c u l t u r a l researcher must face. And the same applies i n the case of the A f r i c a n medical assistant or d i s -penser, who i s trained f o r h i s semi-professional work at the government medical centres. It w i l l be long years before native doctors can be trained i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers to carry out any great work. But the t r a i n i n g of these dispensers i s a compara-t i v e l y simple and quick task, They can then carry t h e i r know-ledge home to the Reserve to augment the p i t i f u l l y small govern-37 ment appropriations f o r native medical services. At the Scott A g r i c u l t u r a l Laboratories at Kabete young Africans are trained as native a g r i c u l t u r a l instructors and, as apprentices of the Kenya Department of Agriculture, go through a course of lectures and of p r a c t i c a l f i e l d work. The t r a i n i n g of medical dispensers i s done mainly i n the Nairobi hospitals, where i n t e l l i g e n t boys are given a three to s i x 35. See,Cmd. 2387 (1925) 36. See Huxley, Elspeth, White Man's Country. London, 1935, * vol. I, passim. / 37. 1931 Government expenditure Total £222,897 divided thus: Hative Services £124,642, European £24,527, A s i a t i c £460. (See Cmd. 4093, op. c i t . , Schedules 5 to 9) - 86 -months' course and are then allowed to s e t t l e . i n a chief's or subchief's area and to dispense medicine to the natives free of cost. This i s one aspect of the government's attempt to combat the age-old f a i t h i n the sorcery and quacks that con-s t i t u t e d A f r i c a n medical p r a c t i c e . . We come now to the consideration of higher edu-cation i n Kenya. In the past perhaps too great a portion of government educational expenditures has gone into expensive i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education for the children of chiefs or of the wealthier natives, who could a f f o r d to pay high t u i t i o n fees. The difference between the function of higher education and of the education we have considered so fa r , e s p e c i a l l y that of the bush and v i l l a g e schools, can be stated thus; •! Higher i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g can be afforded only by a h 3 e l i t e , a minority. It implies a ce r t a i n i s o l a t i o n of p r i v i l e g e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Instruction, as an i n s t r u -ment of adaptation, has to use, so to speak, both ends! the masses and the in d i v i d u a l s . The Jeanes School en-deavours to elevate the people as a whole. Higher edu- 38 cation, through the central schools, helps the i n d i v i d u a l . Yet the curriculum of the central school requires, most of a l l , the utmost forethought. Here what i s needed most is not large scale development so much as careful and ca l c u l a t i n g development. In these f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education the teachers of future generations of Africans are trained, i n Chapter II we discussed the t r a n s i t i o n that takes place i n the European between the c h i l d mind and the adult mind. We saw that modern psychology assumes that the primitive mind undergoes 38. Thurnwald; op. c i t . , £51. - 87 -no such t r a n s i t i o n . This i s a very important consideration to ua here. If the lower education given to the A f r i c a n i s compatible with the demands of his evolution and i f a l l other factors i n his environment are made to favour that process then a new native mind ought to evolve gradually. In i t the t r a n s i t i o n would take place. As i n our High Schools the cur-riculum i s suited to minds undergoing such change, so too must the curriculum of the Central Schools of Kenya he suited i n the future. One might say that the reaction of the A f r i c a n youth to the Central Sohool education w i l l i n future provide the best test of the progressiveness of the, Government't Hatlve Administration, whether the system be that of Indirect Rule or not. As i t has been, East. A f r i c a n Central Schools 39 have not proved generally e f f e c t i v e . Much money has been sunk In expensive i n s t i t u t i o n s such as that at Tabora. These schools have sought to t r a i n the sons of chiefs and wealthy natives. The f a i l u r e of several has been due to the f a i l u r e to appreciate the change that European contacts have wrought i n A f r i c a n l i f e . The Tabora Sohool f a i l e d because native society was by no means as s t r a t i f i e d as the founders of the costly i n s t i t u t i o n imagined, But gradually the Central School i s being de-veloped to f i l l . its true place i n Kenya l i f e . In these the upper two Standards are taught. At present the Central Schools 39. Thurnwald; op. c i t . ; 252. - 88 -aim mainly at turning out A f r i c a n teachers. These men and women w i l l go out to teach t h e i r fellows i n the Reserves. Granted, say, Indirect Rule, with i t s strengthening of Hatlve Authorities ( e s p e c i a l l y i n finance administration), the native educational system should eventually become e n t i r e l y Afrioanized. Several Missionary bodies; i . e., The Church of Sootland Mission, Church Mission Society, the A f r i c a Inland Mission, the Methodist Mission and the Gospel Mission; sponsor the only i n s t i t u t i o n i n Kenya o f f e r i n g any university t r a i n i n g to the Africans. This i s the great A l l i a n c e High School at Kikuyu. A grant i s received annually from the Government of Kenya. The t r a i n i n g given i n the A l l i a n c e High Sohool i n the f i r s t two years i s roughly equivalent to two years at an American university. The school i s divided into ''forms" rather than "Standards'*. : Though f i v e forms are planned f o r the school, as yet only three have been attained. How limited the need of the Africans f o r such i n s t i t u t i o n s i s as yet, i s shown by the attendance. Though the students fees of 100 s h i l l i n g s each per year are often advanced by the Local Hative Councils only 89 students were 40 in attendance at the time of Thurnwald's writi n g . Of these 36 were i n form I and 18 i n Eorm I I . i But as the years pass the need fo r Higher Education w i l l grow. As the A f r i c a n population becomes more and more sophisticated so w i l l the balance of expenditure upon 40. Thurnwald; op. c i t . ; E61. - 89 -the d i f f e r e n t types of education come to approximate that of western communities. It i s obvious that new educational values w i l l evolve. It,-will then be the task of the Kenya government to take i t s f u l l share of the burden of education. For mission education w i l l meet only a small f r a c t i o n of the needs of a westernized native society, , But i f the process of native development i s not to be hampered there are, as we have seen, c e r t a i n immediate reforms needed. A system of Indirect Bale could bring these about. Under Indirect Rule, f o r instance, the natives could administer the spending of t h e i r own contributions and no native taxes would go to support of the non-native population, F i n a l l y there i s one more important need that must be considered. Before the education of young A f r i c a can succeed the adamancy of the older generation must be overcome. In Indirect Rule coLonies t h i s has been done through the association of the older and more conservative elements with the Native Councils. AIL natives mast be considered in the Kenya scheme of education. As V i c t o r Murray says: In the swiftLy changing conditions to-day this sym-pathy and understanding must be extended both to the oider and more conservative generation who maintain t h e i r ancient f a i t h and customs, and to the younger elements of the community who have become converted to C h r i s t i a n i t y and seek an outlet for t h e i r ambitions through education. And herein l i e s one of the most d i f f i c u l t problems f a c t i n g the administration to-day, that of helping and guiding t h i s increasing c l a s s , upon which so much of the future of the country de-pends, to f i n d and take i t s right place i n the community,41 41. Murray, Victor; loc. c i t . ; £35. Chapter IV Native Labour in Kenya 1. The importance of the question 2. Labour supply and demand in Kenya 3 . The African's attitude to labour 4 . She uneven burden of the Labour demands 5. History of the labour problem in Kenya -settler demand versus o f f i c i a l policy 6 . Labour recruiting in Kenya 7 . O f f i c i a l policy at present 6 . Labour Laws .9. The Hatlve Registration Ordinance 10..Indirect Rule and the labour problem. CHAPTER IV NATIVE LABOUR IN KENYA The factor which has the most immediate bearing upon the future of the white community i n Kenya i s the crying need f o r readjustment and reform i n the labour f i e l d . What 1 Dr. Edgar Brookes said about the South A f r i c a n labour s i t u a t i o n can be s p e c i f i c a l l y applied to Kenya. J u l i a n Huxley remarked about the Kenya labour s i t u a t i o n that the choice between pro-duction for p r o f i t on the part of the native themselves and the continued regimentation of black labour i n favour of Euro-2 pean farmers must be made and that soon* But apart from t h i s important phase of the labour problem there i s another and more s t a r t l i n g phase. For i n Kenya the whole question of labour i s bound up with the question of land and of native reserves. This i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i s just another proof of the complexity of that colony's race problem. The more one thinks of i t the more one realiz.es the significance of the statement, already quoted, i n the H i l t o n Young Report that nNo clear-cut d i v i s i o n of subjects into those which do and do not effect native p o l i c y 3 i s possible." 1. See supra III ; also see Leys, N., Last, Chance i n Kenya; Chapter XII, "The New Slavery". London; 1931. 2. Supra 57. , 3. &nd. 3254 (1929) 8. - 90 - 91 -But i t i s evident that our main concern must be with the more apparent features of the problem of native labour. The most important of these i s the choice that must soon be made between a labour p o l i c y compatible with Indirect Rule and the impossible and anomalous adjustment demanded by the Kenya Dual P o l i c y . This policy demands as the Ormsby-Gore Commission said "the complementary development of native and non-native communities." The same report said further, that "East A f r i c a can only progress economically and s o c i a l l y on the basis of 5 f u l l and complete co-operation between a l l races." There i s not much prospect of such a balance being struck i n Kenya. The key to the s i t u a t i o n i n Kenya as regards labour can be found, I think, i n the following statement; "Adequate native reserves can take in A f r i c a the place of trade unions, and help the native to maintain a proper standard of wages fo r his labour by providing him with a protection against 6 being forced to bargain at a disadvantage." Now the nature of h white settlement demands that the natives come of f the reserves i n order to meet the need for black labour on the white man's farms and i n his industries. The lab.our supply i n Kenya i s seldom equal to the demand, So the policy of taxing the native to such an extent as to make i t necessary f o r him to leave the Reserve and enter European employment has been constantly de-manded by the whites. These demands have, i n f a c t , been 4. Ormsby-Gore East A f r i c a Commission Report, Cmd. 2387 (1925) 22. 5. i b i d . 23 6. Cmd. 3234, op. c i t . , 66. - 92 -somewhat acceded to hy the administration. Then, too, another s e t t l e r demand has heen for the s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n of Reserve land i n order to assure that, as the native population expands, the overflow from the Reserves s h a l l enter the labour market. S e t t l e r committees said before Governor S i r James Hayes Sadler's labour Enquiry Board i n 1908 that "the land set aside f o r Native Reserves should be l i m i t e d to the present requirements of the natives; the committee being of opinion that the existence of . unnecessarily extensive reserves i s d i r e c t l y antagonistic to 7 an adequate labour supply." The other p o l i c y , that of taxation to force the native to come out to work, was stated as follows by The Times correspondent i n Nairobi on March 9th, 1925? "A popular theory i s that the native taxation should be increased, the argument being that the more the native i s forced to earn 8 for the State, the longer he w i l l have to work." While i t i s important that t h i s question of white demand and black supply of labour i n Kenya be thrashed out, i t i s even more important to consider the reaction of the native to the requirements of the new economic order. •First l e t i t be sa i d that the b e l i e f that the A f r i c a n i s lazy by nature, that the indigenous system was such as to demand no organized and sustained e f f o r t , i s u t t e r l y f a l s e . l o r d lugard says there are few races who are more 9 n a t u r a l l y industrious. When the A f r i c a n i s apathetic towards Ross, W. MacGregor, Kenya from Within; London; 1927; 92. 8. Ibid,, c i t e d 109. 9. Lugard, Lord, Dual Mandate;,in Br. Trop. A f r i c a , London, 1929 401. - 93 -entering white employment he should not be branded as a slacker. 10 The statement by Dr. Westerman quoted above explains the re-r action of the native to the demands of the new economic order. In the t r a d i t i o n a l order there was not the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of acquisitiveness which marks the greatest d i s t i n c t i o n between . our western economic c i v i l i z a t i o n and a l l other c i v i l i z a t i o n s . The A f r i c a n in h e r i t s no z e a l f o r gain and has no marked wish to provide f o r the future (that i s , as f a r as the accumulation of'worldly goods is concerned). As Orde Brown says "This short-sighted and improvident attitude towards l i f e remains charac-t e r i s t i c even when the conditions that may have j u s t i f i e d i t no longer obtain; the African i s conspicuously d i s i n c l i n e d to safeguard himself against possible misfortune, preferring to 11 wait u n t i l i t occurs before taking steps to meet i t . " The reason for the existence of t h i s t r a i t of the A f r i c a n oharacter i s w e l l explained thus; "When others are open-handed, i t must seem penurious to r e t a i n one's gains f o r one's own use; good luck f o r one meant benefits for a l l even i n the case of earnings, 12 and t h r i f t was a most unpopular q u a l i t y . " A study of the d i f f e r e n t phases of the indigenous s o c i e t i e s of A f r i c a tends to make one doubt i f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n i s such a g i f t f o r the A f r i c a n as i t has been supposed. In these socie t i e s the individualism of the West had no place, the selfishness associ-ated with i n d i v i d u a l acquisitiveness was p r a c t i c a l l y non-10. Supra 76. 11, Brown, G-. St. J . Orde, The A f r i c a n Labourer, London, 1933, • 10. : ' 12. Ibid . , 10. - 94 -existent. The idea of a state i n which the i n d i v i d u a l good i s subordinated to that of the group i s nothing new to us, i t i s true. But the western form of such a society lacks the good features of the Afr i c a n form. This difference may be due to the fact that the t r a d i t i o n a l Western economic and s o c i a l unit has been the in d i v i d u a l and, given a mass of such i n d i v i d u a l s , regimented as in the European t o t a l i t a r i a n states of today the t y p i c a l l y western result i s an a c q u i s i t i v e , s e l f i s h nationalism. The f a c t should be kept i n mind, then, that the reaction of the Kenya native to the demands of the white popu-l a t i o n is not the resu l t of l a z i n e s s . It i s part and parcel with a r a c i a l antipathy towards labour f o r ends to which, the A f r i c a n has not yet learned to attach any great value* The t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y — a s did any primitive s o c i e t y — c o n s i s t e d of three main groups: the hunters, the p a s t o r a l i s t s and the a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . The main Kenya tr i b e s f a l l into the l a s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The Masai . however--are t r a d i t i o n a l l y nomadic p a s t o r a l i s t s , as we have seen. The Kikuyu, Kavirondo, Akamba, i n fact the majority of the t r i b e s are a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . As with most p a s t o r a l i s t races, the Masai's have always been marked by pride and inde-pendence. P a r t l y because grazing land was more p l e n t i f u l than farm land there was more room f o r the Masai to retreat before the advance of the Europeans and to carry on t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l 13 customs. Not that land a l i e n a t i o n did not a f f e c t the Masai. But European development ran more to farming than to stock-13. See Ross, op. c i t . , Ghapt VIII "The Marvelling Masai" passim. - 95 -r a i s i n g . So the Masai, unlike the Kikuyu and the Kavirondo, have not heen so trammelled i n t h e i r development as to he forced off the Reserves. But the a g r i c u l t u r a l t r i b e s who inhabited the best farm lands of the Highlands have r e a l l y suffered. Of these the Kikuyu, around Nairobi have endured most. In proportion as. the extent of a l i e n a t i o n of lands ahdt.the t r i b a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s vary so does the a v a i l a r b i l i t y of the t r i b e for white labour demands. The figures to demonstrate t h i s are hard to obtain, but according to the Kenya Registrar of Natives, during the f i r s t three months of 1927, 72,28$ of the adult males of the Kyambu-Nairobi (Kikuyu) t r i b e were under European employment, 64.45$ i n the Nandi, 48.22$ i n the North Kavirondo and 44.91$ i n North and South Nyeri. The Masai, however had only 25.28$ at work and the 14 natives of the Machakos d i s t r i c t only 20$. It can be seen that the labour, demand weighs fa r more heavily on c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s than upon others. The distance of some tribes from the labour market also a f f e c t s employment. It Is obvious that the customary method of stating the number of natives needed to meet the demand for a c e r t a i n year as a f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l number of natives of employ-able age, does not by any means t e l l the whole story. The fact i s that i n cert a i n t r i b e s such as the Kikuyus—overcrowded in their Reserves, unable to earn at home to pay the tax im-posts—almost every p h y s i c a l l y f i t male i s forced to enter 14. B u e l l , xt.ii.;. IMative Problem i n A f r i c a ; New York; 1929; N I; 245. - 96 -labour contract. Either that, or, as many of the Kikuyu have done, the natives must take t h e i r famiLies and go to Live on some white farm as "squatters". There they give the white man their Labour i n exchange f o r grazing and ti L L i n g r i g h t s . But whether the native i s serving a Labour contract or Living as a squatter, he i s away from the normal t r i b a l L i f e . That, for our purposes, i s the important fact. The operation of a dual policy demands the development of white enterprise. This, i n turn demands adequate native labour. But the same policy recognizes the necessity of de-veloping the reserves in the interests of the African. In-direc t Rule would of course demand that the l a t t e r interests only should p r e v a i l . It appears that the demands of both communities are incompatible. Prom the year 1902 when the white s e t t l e r s be-gan to f l o c k into East A f r i c a , this problem of c o n f l i c t i n g labour requirements began. Prom the f i r s t , land aLienation was bound up with labour demand. Even by 1907 the demand had grown so great as compared with the voluntary supply by the Africans, who were loathe to Leave th e i r homes, that the B r i t i s h administration had begun to give aid to the new se t t -lers i n the procuring of workers. But by this time, too, the s e t t l e r abuse of native labour had roused the administration to protest. A set of rules f o r the treatment of black em-ployees was adopted. From this time on there has been f r i c t i o n between the administration and the s e t t l e r population over the question of labour. By 1908 agitation f o r the repeal of these 1907 Labour Rules was at a head. The s e t t l e r s i n s i s t e d , - 97 -as they have done ever since, that the Government shouLd pass 15 measures to compel the native to work. As Lord DeLamere, the s e t t l e r leader said; "We have got to come to legal i z e d methods and force the native to work; I hope that we may r e l y on the 16 Government to meet the case." nevertheless, the Rules were not withdrawn by the Governor. In 1912 instructions were issued from London directing' the administration to stop o f f i c i a l r e c r u i t i n g of native labour f o r private purposes. Since then, Government e f f o r t s to get the natives to leave the Reserves has consisted mainly of "encouragement" to labour such as was promised to the s e t t l e r s by Governor Sadler. Most writers stress the fact that, i n those early days "encouragement" from the Government was, i n the native opinion, equivalent to ao di r e c t command. The Kenya administrators have had to steer a precarious course between public opinion at home, which i n -s i s t e d always that there should be absolutely no system of compulsion to native labour i n East A f r i c a , and the demands of the m i l i t a n t s e t t l e r s , backed often by the active support of the Governor. In 1917 Governor S i r H.,Gonway B e l f i e l d spoke out i n favour of "humane and properly regulated pressure with-17 i n the reserves, to induce natives to go out and work- - " Lucy P. Mair says that progressive increases In 15. At thi s time Delamere was suspended from the L e g i s l a t i v e Oouncil f o r an alleged in s u l t to Governor S i r James Sadler. 16. A f f a i r s i n East A f r i c a Protectorate, Cd. 4122 (1908) 2 c i t e d BueTlT^p. c i t . , Vol. I, 330, IV 13. 17. Ibid., 332. - 98 -native taxation i n Kenya have not been aimed at f o r c i n g the 18 native into the labour market. This statement i s hard to believe i n the faoe of the many available statements made by supposedly representative s e t t l e r s and o f f i c i a l s which seem to disprove i t . Every now and again a farmer organization w i l l bring forward some resolution concerning the need for a seasonal increase i n native taxes to force the native into European em-ployment at the periods of peak labour demand (which also happen to be busy seasons on the Reserves). Norman Leys c i t e s the speech of the Prench-Canadian Governor of Kenya, S i r Percy 19 Girouard In 1913: "We consider that taxation i s the only possible method of compelling the native to leave his reserve £0 f o r the purpose of seeking work." The event that brought the labour s i t u a t i o n i n Kenya before the eyes of the English public was the publication of the so-called lorthey C i r c u l a r s i n October 1919. The Gover-nor, General Northey, followed the same p r i n c i p l e s of native administration as his predecessor, Governor B e l f i e l d . The general tenor of these c i r c u l a r s , issued over the name of the Chief Native Commissioner, Mr. John Ainsworth, can be judged from the following; In continuation of previous communications on this very Important subject, His Excellency desires to r e i t e r a t e certain of his wishes and to add further instructions as follows: 18. See Mair, L.P., Native P o l i c i e s in A f r i c a , London, 1936, 91. 19. See Huxley, Elspeth, op. c i t . ; Vol. I, Chap. 5. £0. Leys, N., Kenya, 186 c i t e s East A f r i c a Standard. Peb. 8, 1913. - 99 -(1) A l l Government o f f l o i a l a i n charge of native areas must exercise every possible lawful influence to induce able-bodied male natives to go into the labour f i e l d . Where farms are situated i n the v i -c i n i t y of a native area, women and children should be encouraged to go out for such labour as they can perform. (2) Hatlve Chiefs and Elders must at a l l times render a i l possible lawful assistance on the for e -going l i n e s . They should be repeatedly reminded that i t i s part of t h e i r duty to advise and encourage a l l unemployed young men i n the areas under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n to go out and work on the plantations (7) Should the labour d i f f i c u l t i e s continue, i t may be necessary to bring i n other and special measures to meet the case----.21 Boss c a l l s this Labour C i r c u l a r Ho. 1 the high-water mark of ex p l o i t a t i o n by a B r i t i s h Government i n our times. But what caused the excitement i n England and led to the publication of Labour C i r c u l a r Ho. 2, which toned down the o r i g i n a l c i r -cular was the so-called Bishops' Memorandum i n the same year. This was published by the Bishops of the Anglican Church i n East A f r i c a and Uganda and by the senior representatives of the Church of Sootland. The memorandum attacked the Labour C i r c u l a r Policy of governmental pressure being used to compel native labour for private purposes. The memorandum did not, however, say that compulsory labour was an e v i l i n i t s e l f . Such labour, i f used for the national good, was condoned. However the Bishops' memorandum had i t s e f f e c t . The storm of c r i t i c i s m In England caused the Colonial Office to order the Kenya Government to a l t e r i t s statements. The second Labour C i r c u l a r came out on July 14, 1920. On t h i s same day aft e r 21. Ross, op. c i t . , 102, 104, 105. - LOO -a debate on the Kenya labour policy i n the Lords during which Lords Islington, Bryce, Emmltt, and the Archbishop of Canter-bury passed severe s t r i c t u r e s on Government policy, a despatch was sent to East A f r i c a by the Colonial Office which contained one of the e a r l i e s t statements of the duality of B r i t a i n ' s p o l i c y i n East A f r i c a . His Majesty aimed, said the despatch "at the advancement and well-being of the native races i n the Protectorate no less than the meeting of the s e t t l e r s * re-22 quirements." Bat the tone of the rest of the despatch tended to vindicate the o r i g i n a l c i r c u l a r , nevertheless, pressure on the Home Government f o r a d e f i n i t e declaration against 23 compulsory labour was successful and i n 1921 a White Paper declared that the Government would no longer concern i t s e l f with the r e c r u i t i n g of labour f o r the s e t t l e r s * purposes. This reversal of policy was due to the advent of Mr. Winston C h u r c h i l l as Secretary of State. So during the next f i v e or s i x years a struggle raged between the s e t t l e r s and the administration. Acute labour shortages whetted the uonvention of Associations against the policy of n e u t r a l i t y . GraduaLly the Government retreated before the attacks. In February, 1926, a Conference of Gover-nors of East A f r i c a was held at Hairobi. At that conference, Governor S i r Edward Grigg of Kenya joined i n a resolution in favour of the old poLicy of "encouraging" the native to work. 22. House of Lords Debates. July 14, 1920, Vol. 41, Uol. 124. Printed as Cmd. 873 (1921) Despatch on Hatlve Labour, see Lugard, op. c i t . , 391. 23. Cmd. 1509, A Despatch r e l a t i n g to Hative Labour. - LOI -I t was stated, however, that t h i s work might be done fo r his own advancement, on the Reserves, i f the native so wished, though i t would be preferable i f he would enter European em-ployment. Grlgg, i n a speech before the Convention of Asso-cia t i o n s some time l a t e r , advocated a dual policy of develop-ment. But his speech was seized upon with joy by the s e t t l e r s who i n t h e i r praise of the Governor forgot e n t i r e l y what he 24 had s a i d about the African's right to work f o r himaelf. B u e l l intimates that the Kenya Government seemed to have gone back to the poiicy advocated i n the f i r s t of the Uorthey C i r c u l a r s . As he 'puts i t " : "At present, the Kenya Administration would doubtless i n s i s t that there i s no com-pulsion but merely 'voluntary pressure'—which appears to be 26 a contradiction of terms." It seems impossible to f i n d any material which would prove what BuelL i n f e r s — t h a t since 1926 the administration has applied a labour policy s i m i l a r to that suggested i n the Labour Circulars—however It must be noted that Sir. Edward Griggs statements, which leave the Kenya native administrators i n an uncomfortable position, apparently s t i l l hoLd as the stated government policy. That any p o l i c y of subordinating the labour requirements of the Reserves to that of European enterprise i s contrary to the pr i n c i p l e s of dual development i s evident. Lacking active o f f i c i a l aid, how then, i s the necessary supply of labourers obtained by the white community? 24. See B u e l l , op. c i t . , Vol. 1, 340-41. 25. Ibid., 341. - L02 -Just as i n other parts of A f r i c a , when a labour shortage looms, professional r e c r u i t e r s of labour c i r c u l a t e among the natives in the reserves obtaining signatures to labour contracts. In some colonies the r e c r u i t i n g Is c a r r i e d on by monopolistic labour bureaux. The Kenya native has, however, been spared t h i s abuse. In Kenya, r e c r u i t i n g i s carried on by "Labour Agents", licensed by the p r o v i n c i a l commissioners. The opera-t i o n of any labour r e c r u i t i n g system, whether carried on by Labour Bureaux or by i n d i v i d u a l agents is,bound to be abusive as long as the A f r i c a n remains Ignorant of his r i g h t s . Chiefs can be bribed by re c r u i t e r s to compel t h e i r followers to labour for the white man. In the more progressive tribes, such as the Kavirondo and Kikuyu, the Hatlve Welfare Associa-tions function more and more i n opposition to r e c r u i t i n g abuses. This i s partly the reason for the s e t t l e r aversion to anything i n the way of an A f r i c a n association aimed at the protection of native rights. , In the same way, the rapid growth of Local Hatlve Authorities has served to counteract r e c r u i t i n g abuses. The attitude of the B r i t i s h Government towards compulsory native labour was w e l l stated i n the 1930 White Paper, Memorandum on Hative Po l i c y i n East A f r i c a , issued over the name of the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The memorandum r e i t e r a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s stated i n the Duke of Devonshire's famous White Paper of 1923. The paragraph on native labour reads thus: As regards labour, reference has already been made i n a preceding paragraph to a pr i n c i p l e to which His Majesty's Government attach great importance, namely -. 103 -that the native shouLd be e f f e c t i v e l y and economically free to work, in accordance with his own wish* eit h e r in production i n the Reserves, or as an individual producer upon hi s own plot of land, or i n employ-ment for wages, whether within the t e r r i t o r y within which he has been resident or beyond i t s border, subject to the proper statutory safeguards of the conditions of employment, and f o r such rates of wages as may be f r e e l y contracted f o r . AotuaL compulsion to work i n private employment could'of course, i n no case be contemplated. This i s already forbidden by law throughout East A f r i c a , and the i d e a l which His Majesty's, Government have i n view i s the gradual disappearance of even the two kinds of compulsory service which are s t i l l lawful, under severely l i m i t i n g conditions; v i z ; compulsory labour f o r public services in case of emergency, and the compulsory labour for t r i b a l services which is based on t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l custom. It i s e s s e n t i a l that i n these two s u r v i v i n g cases (which c l e a r l y do not extend to such work as railway construction even by the Government i t s e l f , or to employment by contractors or subcontractors on any public works), the power to c a l l out com-pulsory labour should be most s t r i c t l y Limited to adult men i n health and not disabled by age or i n -f i r m i t y , and c a r e f u l l y safeguarded against abuse, and that any such service should be cLosely regulated. These aspects of the matter w i l l shortly be dealt with i n greater d e t a i l i n the proposed Convention, under the auspices of the League of Nations, to l i m i t and reguLate the use of compulsory labour, which is now under consideration i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , and His Majesty's Government confine themselves here to s t a t i n g the above main p r i n c i p l e s . 2 6 This extract would tend somewhat to refute what Buell said 27 of the uncertainty of Government labour policy. It should be noted, though, that, while i t i s here stated as o f f i c i a l p o l i c y that native labour s h a l l not be requisitioned for use on the railways, yet the Native Authority Ordinance—one of f i v e such passed by the Kenya Legislature from 1912 to 1922— has not been changed to meet the requirements of t h i s mem-orandum. As Orde-Brown shows, native labour may be requisitioned, 26. Cmd. 3573 (1930j Memorandum on Native P o l i c y i n East  A f r i c a , 12. 27. Supra L02, - 104 -at Local rates of pay, for work on roads, railways, and other government undertakings, c e r t i f i e d i n each case by the Gover-nor, after previous approval by the Secretary of State. Ex-emption from such labour i s given, however, on proof of having done three months work within or outside the reserve during the previous 12 months' period. Such compulsory Labour i s Limited to sixty days per year. The penalty f o r non-compLiance i s set i n the Ordinance at a fine of £7, 10s, 28 Od, or, two months'- imprisonment. It would be much more reassuring to those with the welfare of the native at heart i f the o f f i c i a l majority in the Legislature would bring l e g i s l a t i o n into Line with Colonial Office p o l i c i e s . But the s e t t l e r s , led by Lord Delamere argued that the policy out-lined i n Cmd. 3573 unduly emphasized native interests and denied to the white s e t t l e r s the share i n the trusteeship of the natives promised to them i n the 1927 White Paper Future 29 P o l i c y in East A f r i c a , which stressed the need of a dual policy^ The small white communities i n Tanganyika and i n Uganda also adopted the same attitude towards the memorandum. It seems apparent that aLL the B r i t i s h Govern-ment needs to do i n Kenya i s c a l l the s e t t l e r s ' b l u f f i n order to reassure the natives of the seriousness of the o f f i c i a l declarations of labour polioy. There i s no place f o r the continued staLling of the o f f i c i a l machinery by the clamourings of the s e t t l e r community. Let the Government admit that i t is 28. See Orde-Brown, op. c i t . , 151. 29. Cmd. 2904 (1927). - 105 -going back on the Dual P o l i c y of 1927. After a l l no government can hope to l e g i s l a t e f o r a l l time. And oertainly no policy was ever more shallow i n i t s sc^ope than the Dual Pol i c y . It appears that no colony has more need than Kenya for the a p p l i -cation of the old doctrine of "the greatest good for the greatest number.'* ,So much f o r the more general aspects of the Kenya labour problem. I t may be assumed, howeyer, that the great majority of the Africans understand l i t t l e about these wide facets. So them the smaller d e t a i l s such as the l e g i s -l a t i o n used to e f f e c t the present labour balance are more irksome. As i n the case of South A f r i c a , some of the Kenya Labour L e g i s l a t i o n i s a disgrace to Great B r i t a i n ' s adminis-trati o n . The nature of these Kenya Labour Ordinances is a sad r e f l e c t i o n upon the treatment many of the s e t t l e r s mete out to t h e i r black employees. Some of the laws, and those, unfortunately, least frequently enforced, seek to regu-late the treatment of labour. Some have aimed at checking the exploitation of female and c h i l d labour. The majority aim to enforce the keeping of native labour contracts. This last fact alone shows that, with native taxes so high as to make necessary general entering of contract, conditions of labour must be generally bad. But to most of the natives the so-called Eative Registration Ordinance of 1921 i s the most aggravating. In sKenya as i n South A f r i c a , native non-observance i n the case of many Ordinances i s treated as a criminal offence while European disregard of the Labour Laws i s a matter f o r the -- 106 -c i v i l courts. This fact alone, disregarding f o r the moment the unfair laws concerned, i s a constant prick to the growing African r a c i a l pride. The b i t t e r resentment f e l t by the natives to-wards the Native Registration Ordinance has been mentioned. Each adult male native i s obliged to carry upon his person his Eipandl or Registration C e r t i f i c a t e . This Kipandl system i s not the same thing by any means as the Pass system of South A f r i c a . The Kenya system has nothing to do whatsoever with the regulation of the movements of the native. It aims s o l e l y at the enforcement of labour contract and at the prevention of desertion. Each Kipandl, prepared i n t r i p l i c a t e , c a r r i e s the f i n g e r p r i n t of the labour applicant (each native i s obliged to apply)., his name, and the signature of his d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r . Upon entering European employ each native must present his copy of the Kipandi to the employer f o r endorsement. Before leaving the employer he must obtain a discharge; otherwise It is I l l e g a l f o r him to accept employment elsewhere. A complete record of a l l employment i s kept by the chief r e g i s t r a r at ISfairobi. When this Ordinance was f i r s t passed, i n 1915 desertion was made a criminal offense. The system worked well. In 1921 an amending ordinance declared desertion to be no longer a cognizable offense. Since then desertion has been hard to check. S t i l l the Klpandj system i s carried on. True, the Klpandl does act as a sort of good-service c e r t i f i c a t e . But that i s about a l l that can be s a i d for i t . Schedule 5 of Lord Moyne's 1932 f i n a n c i a l report shows that f o r 1931 the - 107 -30 oost of the Registration Department came to 17,144 pounds. And yet this cost i s placed under the heading of I n d i v i s i b l e Services, that i s , the native is supposed to benefit from the expenditure as much as does the European, But as long as the labour r e l a t i o n s between the Kenya communities continue i n t h e i r present form some sort of Kipandi system i s necessary, As long as the native population of Kenya i s valued by the whites according to the f r a c t i o n of i t available for the labour market, such r e g i s t r a t i o n w i l l continue* Moreover, the Registration Ordinance w i l l continue to require the means of enforcement, For t h i s , and a l l the other Labour Ordinances embodied i n the Kenya Employment of 31 Uatives Law of 1927 are the concomitants of an unstable labour s i t u a t i o n . At the present rate of evolution of the Africans this s i t u a t i o n i s bound to change soon and thi s change w i l l , ' i t i s aLmost certain, favour the natives. What, one might ask, would a system of Indirect Rule i n Kenya do towards the readjustment of the present labour balance? .The suecess of Indirect Rule would require, of course, e i t h e r the complete segregation of the white and black communities or the subordination of the interests of the white to those of the black. In the study of the Kenya Land Problem we s h a l l see that general opinion i s against segregation. This would, a f t e r alL, mean the reservation of the Highland areas • < • . • - i ' 30. Report of the Fi n a n c i a l Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on Certain Questions i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093); May, 1932. 31. See Orde Browne; op. c i t . ; 147-153. - L08 -for the whites. Thus the second a l t e r n a t i v e , the p r i n c i p l e of the paramountcy of native inte r e s t s , remains. Under Indirect Rale there would be no question of s a t i s f y i n g European labour demands. The p r o f i t s of native labour would go towards the enrichment of the Africans them-selves. For, as i n Tanganyika and Higeria, the new Kenya Af r i c a n society would be based upon native production for p r o f i t . But a f t e r aLL, i t i s rather f u t i l e to i s o l a t e the labour problem i n this way. Indirect Rale must be applied, i f i t i s to succeed, to a l l phases of Native Administration. Before the labour problem can be s e t t l e d , the land of the country must be equitably r e d i s t r i b u t e d so as to assure to the natives adequate land for production for p r o f i t . Hew attitudes towards labour and land both mast spring from a new system of native education. The solution of the labour side of the Kenya native problem, can, I think, i f the Colonial O f f i c e works towards Indirect Rule be l e f t to i t s e l f . Land i s something tangible. Labour i s not. The solution of the land problem requires a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth. This must come from government action. But, i n the case of the labour problem, while much reform eould come through the a L l e v i a t i n g of the burden of the labour laws, the s o l u t i o n w i l l come i n d i r e c t l y through the f u l l a p p l i c a t i o n of the White Paper p o l i c i e s and the development of native i n s t i t u t i o n s . ,CHAPTER•Y The,Hatlve :Land,Problem i n Kenya (1) The o r i g i n of the problem (£).European and Af r i c a n conceptions of tenure (3) S i r Charles E l i o t ' s policy (4) ]The case of the Kikuyu t r i b e agrioulturaLists (50; The Masai - p a s t o r a l i s t s (6) The ''White Highlands", p r i n c i p l e (7) Hative Reserves (8) ,The Kenya Land Commission of 1934 and i t s recommendations (9) The land problem i n the l i g h t of trusteeship and Indireot Rule CHAPTER V ,THE HATIVE LAND PROBLEM LH KEHYA Of the Land problem i n Kenya Colony, Lord O l i v i e r says There was pLenty of land available f o r Europeans to colonize without depriving the natives of land they were occupying or needed; and Europeans had an i n -contestable right to pLant themselves on such vacant lands, as they did on those of A u s t r a l i a and Hew Zealand. *• Had the early administrators of East A f r i c a taken the trouble to consider such matters as native occupancy and land require-ments the whole native problem of the colony would have been immeasurably s i m p l i f i e d . But the seizure of Afr i c a n lands i n Kenya f o r white speculation lacked a l l the subtlety and bar-gaining that accompanied the process of settlement in other parts of the world. The s i t u a t i o n in South A f r i c a might be ca l l e d the parent of that i n Kenya. In 1840 Professor Herman Merivale, i n a lecture at Oxford, spoke of the process by which native land problems develop. The process i n Kenya Colony r e f l e c t s i r o n i c a l l y upon Merivale's foresight, though not upon his analysis: The error - - - of leaving the natives wholly unprovided for i s one not l i k e l y to occur in modern colonization. . We have been so far taught by the ex-perience of our predecessors, and, I may add, s e n t i -ments of humanity and ju s t i c e have so far gained ground among us, that i n recent settlements reserves 1. Lord O l i v i e r . The Anatomy of Af r i c a n Misery, London, 1927, 182. • - 109 -- 1L0 V of land have invariably been made at once, and appro-priated to the natives. But i t i s p l a i n that the e v i l day i s only postponed by such measures as these, unless they are combined with a foreseeing and far-reaching p o l i c y hitherto altogether unknown. For whether or not the natives residing on these reserves a t t a i n i n their insulated condition to a certain degree of c i -v i l i z a t i o n , the same r e s u l t s w i l l inevitably follow. A f t e r a time the colonists w i l l cast an eye of cupidity upon the native lands: they w i l l complain of the economic disadvantages which attend the i n t e r p o s i t i o n of large uncultivated or h a l f - c u l t i v a t e d t r a c t s between populated d i s t r i c t s ; of their own sufferings by the proximity of the natives - - - - . And government w i l l f i n d i t s e l f , - - - - as i t has always been, cajoled by the thousand p l a u s i b i l i t i e s advanced i n favour of removing these unfortunates a farther stage into the wilderness.2 Merivale says, i t w i l l be noticed, that by 1840 the ethics of colonization had advanced to such a stage that there could be no p o s s i b i l i t y of a co l o n i a l government t o t a l l y disregarding the requirements of indigenous peoples i n i.tss land p o l i c i e s . Yet i n Kenya Colony i n 1937, as we s h a l l see, the A f r i c a n has no security by law f o r the Reserves which have been a l l o t t e d to him. Many sections of these Reserves are hopelessly overcrowded. Much reserve land i s useless f o r agriculture and often, even for pastoral use. When S i r Charles E l i o t started the process of alie n a t i n g East A f r i c a n land to the Europeans i n 1903, no survey had been made of native holdings. Moreover, no attention was paid to Afr i c a n systems of tenure or of agriculture. This, i n some ways, has been the greatest mistake of a l l . For, as we have seen, almost every aspect of any race problem can be traced to such a 2. Merivale, Herman; Lectures on Colonization and Colonies Delivered before the University of Oxford i n 1839, 1840 and 1841 and reprinted i n 1861; London; 1928; 508.. - I l l « disregard of the foundations upon which the indigenous culture is b u i l t . There exists a wide gulf between our ideas of land ownership In legal theory and i n actual practise. Theo-r e t i c a l l y , a l l land in the Empire i s vested i n the Grown as the symbol of the state. In theory, no man can claim absolute ownership of the s o i l . But practice i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to theory. The average Briton counts his right to own land as one of his most vaLued b i r t h r i g h t s . Centuries of stress on the idea of individual r i g h t s have shaped our democratic attitude towards the conception of proprietorship as they have our attitude towards the function of the state i n other matters, such as education and s o c i a l regulation. The Bantu system, however, approaches clo s e l y the theoretical B r i t i s h conceptions which, a f t e r a l l , spring from the days when B r i t i s h society was also t r i b a l . The Kenya native land systems followed, to a varying degree, the t r a d i t i o n a l Bantu system. The t r i b e , symboLized i n the Chief, was the owner of a l l land. The free use of that land was a tribesman's right so long as he governed h i s l i f e according to the rules of the communal t r i b a l society. There could be no such thing as the buying and s e l l i n g of land. Early land bargains between Europeans and A f r i c a n chiefs were based on t h i s misunderstanding. The native Chief had no power to s e l l the land nor did he imagine that he was s e l l i n g i t . The s e t t l e r was merely being allowed the use of the land upon the sufferance of the t r i b e . The e a r l i e s t white pioneers i n East A f r i c a held t h e i r land on - LIE -the mistaken assumption of purchase or of g i f t . With Laymen the mistake was excusable. But when the B r i t i s h Government based i t s East A f r i c a n Land poLicy on a Like Lack of knowledge, there could be no condoning the action. Whether, as Lord O l i v i e r says, there was s u f f i c i e n t unoccupied Land in the country to warrant a government settlement poLicy i s a matter of question, but the aLienation of large areas of Land apparent-ly unoccupied, which were actualLy only temporarily so under the A f r i c a n system of agriculture, was blindness unparalleled. It must be admitted, however, that the question of native tenure i n Kenya i s not so simple as i t would be were the natives pure Bantu, using unaltered the Bantu land system. We have seen that East A f r i c a has been i n past ages the melting pot of the Bantu peoples of the south with the Galla and Hamitic peoples from the north. Some tribes are pastoraLists, others are purely agricuLtural. This aLone accounts for a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the s t a b i l i t y of the native land systems. The Masai, the most Hamitic of the tribes, being p a s t o r a l i s t s has the least f i x e d ideas of land ownership. On the other hand, the Bantu seems to lean towards a stable a g r i c u l t u r a l system with strong emphasis upon the tribesman's right to ef f e c t i v e occupancy of h i s share of the t r i b a l land. The peoples i n the southern part of the Kenya highland block seem to have held most strongly to the Bantu system. Along with these could be placed the Kavirondo, a huge t r i b e of 1,0£9,4££ people. The difference of opinion on what constitutes e f f e c t i v e occupancy of land explains to a great extent the - 113 -apparent blindness of the Kenya administration at the st a r t of white settlement. To understand the native's attitude to the use of land we must know something of the a g r i c u l t u r a l or pastoral background of his L i f e . The average settLer is firmLy convinced that the native has no right to hoid Land i f he i s not abLe to ex-p l o i t the s o i l to the fuLLest extent by hi s methods of a g r i -culture. , In farming, the European aims at production f o r pro-f i t . The Af r i c a n aims only at production f o r use. The peasant i s s a t i s f i e d to produce s u f f i c i e n t food f o r himself and his family plus the LittLe he needs to pay his tribute to his chief. He cu l t i v a t e s an area of the t r i b a l lands s u f f i c i e n t f o r his use for a couple of seasons and then, land being p l e n t i f u l , moves on to another area, leaving the f i r s t to l i e fallow. As a r e s u l t , there i s no such thing as intensive c u l t i v a t i o n . A man chooses s o i l s u f f i c i e n t to grow enough f o r his needs. The i n e f f i c i e n c y of such use of the s o i l i n the l i g h t of European ideals has been constantly brought forward by the s e t t l e r s as one of the "thousand p l a u s i b i l i t i e s " in favour of further a l i e n a t i o n . It was considered to be jus.t , another sign of what happens under a s o c i a l system such as the Bantu which--deadly stigma i n the ambitious European's e y e — i s lethargic, or rather, which lacks the ide a l of accumulative gain. So, i n East A f r i c a , when the early pioneers saw the r i c h fallow lands of the highlands, they concluded immediately that these were unoccupied or not e f f e c t i v e l y occupied. S i r Charles E l i o t said at the time; We have i n East. A f r i c a the rare experience of dealing - 114 -with, a tabula rasa, an almost untouched and sparsely inhabited country, where we can do as we l i k e , regu-late immigration and d o s e the door as i t seems best. This lessens the d i f f i c u l t y of administration - - - - 3 There i s no doubt that much of the a g r i c u l t u r a l land of the highlands muatthave presented such an appearance of emptiness. True, much of i t probably was unoccupied. But lack of occu-pation was no sign that the land was not needed. The. Colonial O f f i c e , Leys says, gave orders to the Palestine administrators that, u n t i l each and every Arab family was assured of at least 40 acres, no Jew was to get land. He shows that at least two-thirds of the Kikuyu have less than 3.5 acres per head, i f the Palestine regulation were applied to Kenya, there would be • 4 absolutely no land available f o r a l i e n a t i o n . The Phelps-Stokes Educational Commission said, of Kenya, i n i t s 1923 Beport that "In no B r i t i s h Colony i n A f r i c a has i t been so d i f f i c u l t to formulate a trustworthy statement r e l a t i n g to the number of native people, the areas 5 i n which they l i v e - - - " The statement apparently s t i l l stands. I t seems impossible to discover from the Colonial Reports or other standard sources of s t a t i s t i c s how the figures adopted by such writers as Norman Leys and MacGregor Ross to show the inadequacy of native lands i n Kenya are arrived at. It i s easier to draw i n d i r e c t conclusions from o f f i c i a l figures than to handle those figures by s t a t i s t i c a l methods to support 3. Leys, H.; Kenya; London; 1926; 114. 4. See Leys, N.; Last Chance i n Kenya; London; 1931; 61. 5. Phelps-Stokes Commission Report; Education i n East A f r i c a ; .London; n.d. (1923 ?); 141. - 115 -the conclusions. The Kenya Annual Report f o r 1935 states that the t o t a l land alienated i n Kenya i s 10,294 square miles. The area gazetted in 1926 as Native Reserves was 48,345 square 6 miles. Now the Empire Parliamentary Association i n i t s 1933 report on the Empire shows that over 90$ of the arable land i n Kenya is i n the Highlands and, furthermore that 2/3 of the 7 2,500,000 natives depend on agriculture for the i r existence. The Morris Garter Land Commission of 1934 recommended that two new areas be added to the North Kavirondo Reserve. These would bring the t o t a l Reserve area up to 51,221 square miles. Of these additional areas Norman Leys writes only once has a; European applied f o r land i n either. In this case—the application was l a t e r withdrawn— i t was proposed to expend a s i s a l plantation into t h i s area. S i s a l i s notoriously a drought r e s i s t e r that i s never grown except on land too poor and too a r i d to grow anything else.8 The implication that Leys draws from the figures i n the case of the Kavirondo i s important to us: "1,029,422 Kavirondo are forever to be r e s t r i c t e d to t h e i r Reserves of 7,114 square miles, while the 17,000 Europenas are forever to possess the 16,700 square miles of the European Highlands; less than 5 mile acres per head i n the one case and a square per head i n the 9 A other." 6. Annual Report, 1935; 13. 7. Empire Parliamentary Association Report; 1933; 65. 8. Leys, Norman; Report of the Kenya Land Commission; New Statesmandand Nation; Vol. 8; July 28, 1934; 116. 9. Leys; l o c . c i t . ; 117. Note: while the Annual Report figure i s 10,294 square miles for the area alienated this 16,700 represents the . area the Land Commission proposed to reserve for Europeans. (See Cmd. 4556, Paragraphs 1441, 1449, 1469, 1979.) - L16 -We oan obtain another s t r i k i n g r a t i o from the o f f i c i a l figures quoted above by saying that while the 17,000 Europeans are to hold 16,700 square miles, the 2,000,000 natives are to hold 10 only around 50,000 square miles. I f the nature of the native system of agriculture, with i t s need f o r r e l a t i v e l y greater land areas per head than the European system, i s kept i n mind the following table of population densities i n the native areas of Kenya i s most illuminating: . Population and i t s Batio to Total Acreage In Per t a i n Native D i s t r i c t s of Kenya Colony*-*-Population Acres per Kavirondo Province Head D i s t r i o t s : H. Kavirondo 332,835 4.6 C. Kavirondo 370,046 3.1 3. Kavirondo 320,514 5.9 Kikuyu Province D i s t r i c t s : Meru Igembe Tigania Imendi Tharaka Embu Hyeri Muthambi Mwimba Chuka Mb ere Hyeri Keruguya Port H a l l H. Maragua S. Maragua Kiambu Mukinyi Kiambu . Dagoreti 35,238 35,652 80,097 10,937 6.0 4.5 2.2 14.0 3, 784 14,099 13,448 23,071 3.3 5.8 3.4 17.2 107,155 83,738 2.0 3.1 86,279 86,540 2.2 2.2 24,523 24,293 31,306 3.3 2.5 1.3 10. See 514 H.O. Debs. 5S. July 9, 1936; 1465; (Col.) Ormsby-Gore says 86% of natives i n 48,149 square.miles. 11. Leys, H.; op. c i t . , 171. - L17 -It w i l l be noted how crowded are the natives i n the Kikuyu reserve. Their Lands Lie right i n the heart of the Highland areas. Before discussing the question of the White Highlands i t i s worth while to consider the case of the Kikuyu. They, of a l l the t r i b e s , have the greatest complaint against the white man. In the case of the Kikuyu, the a l i e n a t i o n of t r i b a l land by the government was absolutely unwarrantable. They had a land system developed far beyond the ordinary Bantu communal system. Tenure was based upon aLmost European conceptions of individual ownership. The story of the develop-ment of this Gethaka system is complicated and interesting. Two hundred years ago the Kikuyu, t r a v e l l i n g southward with t h e i r herds (they were then s t i l l pastoraLists), came into the t h i c k l y forested highlands, into the area of the hunter t r i b e , the Wandorobo, In exchange for Kikuyu ca t t l e — a n actual b a r t e r — t h e hunters handed over large areas to the Kikuyu. The newcomers settLed down to deforest these lands for agriculture. Canon Leakey describes the astonishingLy ingenious c u l t i v a t i o n and cropping system the Kikuyu developed LE to s u i t t h e i r new home. Under the system of Gethaka t i t l e s , each famiLy of the tribe was given a c e r t a i n area for i t s own, to be handed down from generation to generation. Ho non-Kikuyu could be given such a t i t l e , though he might be aLLowed to settLe upon Gethaka land with the t i t l e - h o l d e r ' s permission. The estate IE. Leakey, L.S.B.; Kenya; London; 1936; LL6-L24. - U 8 * was, so to speak, entailed. It was a complicated yet d e a r l y defined and workable land system. But one feature of i t caused the system's downfall by providing the s e t t l e r with a loophole f o r pene-tr a t i o n . As with a l l Bantu agricul t u r e , the Gethaka holding had to be large enough to alLow the lying fallow of large areas. These f e r t i l e areas, along with huge forest tracts which were used f o r f u e l supplies and which served, as well, for protection against the fflasai raiders, had an i r r e s i s t a b l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r the European s e t t l e r ' s "eye of cupidity". So white interpenetration i n the Kikuyu highlands took place. It was not long before the process became o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned e v i c t i o n . The Morris Garter Commission claimed to have proved that only 1474 square miles of the alienated land had been occupied by the Africans and that not more than 300 Africans 13 were evicted. Much of the report i s not accepted by c r i t i c s of B r i t i s h policy i n Kenya or by many men i n authority who are interested i n the carrying out of the p r i n c i p l e s of trustee-14 ship. One of the main recommendations of the Kenya Land Commission was that the boundaries of the area known as 15 the Highlands be delimited once and for a l l . This meant that the exclusion of non-Europeans from land-owning i n these areas—which had f o r t h i r t y years been accepted administrational 13. Cmd. 4556, Table I, 382-3. 14. read debate 314 H.C. Bebates 5S, 9 July 1936: Cols. 1416-17; 1426; 1433; 1470; 1523. 15. Cmd. 4556; Part I I I , Chapter IX. - 119 -practice unsupported by Law—was to be given Legal sanction. The Debate quoted above, of JuLy 9, 1956 i n the House of Com-mons was brought about by the Government's declaration that i t proposed to issue the ordinance carrying out the Commission's 16 recommendations. The treatment of the Kikuyu and the Kavirondo may be considered f a i r examples of how the a g r i c u l t u r a l tribes fared i n the matter of land. Let us look now at the history of the Masai, the pastoraLists of Kenya. As we have seen, the Masai lacked e n t i r e l y the uniformity of tenure that marked the a g r i c u l t u r a l t r i b e s . This people—more Hamite than Bantu--and the related t r i b e s , the Akamba and the Handi, had, i n common with most nomadic pastoraLists, no weLL-defined Land system at aLL. They had no need of one. Their prowess i n war determined that cer t a i n areas of Kenya were to be Left free f o r grazing their huge herds. Some of the f i n e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l Land i n Kenya, the f e r t i L e sections of the R i f t Valley, were used as pasturage for the Masai herds. In the case of these t r i b e s i t i s f a i r l y easy to make a defensible case f o r the taking of the i r lands by the white men. Certainly there was no evidence of a g r i c u l t u r a l development. I f the advent of the white man on the p La ins of the Canadian west can be excused, then the aLienation of this 16. "The Commission have defined the boundaries of the Euro-pean Highlands and His Majesty's Government propose to accept their recommendations i n regard to t h i s . . " See: Kenya Land Commission Report, Summary of Conelusions reached by His Majesty's Government {Cmd. 458~0; May 1934; 3). - 120 -misused Masai land oan be excused a l s o — t h a t i s , provided proper use were made of i t by the newcomers. But i n no part of Kenya has the white man made such use of the land as would excuse the seizure of i t from the Africans. The Grown Lands Ordinance of 1915 set down ce r t a i n minimum requirements f o r the development of alienated lands. Its provisions have been ignored. The following table shows the r a t i o of the acreage of white land-holdings under c u l t i v a t i o n to the t o t a l area 17 held, for 1925 and the three previous years: Year Total Ocoupled Total Cultivated % cu l t i v a t e d Area Area to occupied land 1925 4,420,573 ac. 392,628 8.88 1924 4,192,731 346,988 8.28 1923 3,985,371 274,319 6.88 1922 3,804,158 23.4,055 6.15 F a i l i n g e f f e c t i v e use by the s e t t l e r s , the e v i c t i o n of the Masai was as inexcusable as the evi c t i o n of the Kikuyu or the cooping up of the Kavirondo and other t r i b e s i n inadequate reserves. The history of the "Masai move", as i t i s c a l l e d i s a tale of broken government promises. The story i s too long and too complicated f o r d e t a i l i n g here but i t i s substantially as folLows. The Masai were occupying the f e r t i l e R i f t Valley lands. The Foreign O f f i c e , then administrating East A f r i c a , decided to move them out and place them on two new Reserves, one to the north and one to the south of their old home. The R i f t area was to go to a B r i t i s h syndicate. The Masai objected strenuously to the move but f i -n a l l y gave i n , providing the Government l e f t a corridor for 17. See Bue l l , B . L . H a t l v e Problem i n A f r i c a ; Hew York; 1928; Vol. I., 303,.citing, A g r i c u l t u r a l Census, Sixth Annual  Report of the Department of Agriculture. Hairobi, 1925j 7. 7 121 * the passage of herds open between the new i a i k i p i a reserve i n the north and the southern reserve. This agreement was reached i n 1904. The t r i b e gave up half i t s ancestral home in the S i f t . The corridor agreement was not carried out by the government. A Masai attempt to return to the old area was blocked. By 1910 the t r i b e was f a i r l y quiet again. But by this time the s e t t l e r s had t h e i r eyes on the f e r t i l e L a i k i p l a Plateau as welL. The East A f r i c a Government now coaxed the natives into accepting 6,500 square miles of stockland as an addition to the southern reserve i n return for 4,500 square miLes of farmLand on the PLateau. Hot u n t i l the t r i b e had moved was i t found out that most of the new land was too dry even for stock-raising. But the treaty was signed. It was too late to protest. A number of Masai who opposed the 1911 agreement attempted to sue the government f o r i n j u r i e s a r i s i n g out of the move saying that the 1911 treaty had not been approved by the tribe as a whole. The strange judgment of the Court of appeals of East A f r i c a on the case was that inasmuch as the t e r r i t o r y had not been annexed but was merely a protectorate, the Masai were not B r i t i s h subjects; that the heads of the Masai t r i b e were capable of making agreements with the B r i t i s h Government; that the courts could not enquire into the question as to whether the agreements had been made under duress or under proper authority; and that acts of o f f i c e r s taken to give effect to such treaties r a t i f i e d by the home government were 18 a c t s s o f State over which the 'court had no j u r i s d i c t i o n . 18. B u e l l , R.L., op. c i t . , Vol. I, 314. ' " - 122 -As; Buell says, the judgment amounted to th i s , that had the B r i t i s h authorities made a contract i n 1904 with a European s e t t l e r granting him certain land, the contract wo old have been enforceable i n B r i t i s h courts. But an agreement made between the B r i t i s h authorities and the representatives of some 40,000 natives was not enforceable by the courts. I f the Masai nation reaLLy had an international status as a state, no objection to this decision might l e g a l l y be taken. But i n the case of East, A f r i c a , the. B r i t i s h had extended a j u d i c i a l system throughout the country and had erected a L e g i s l a t i v e Council, the acts of which the Masai were obliged to obey, Their consent to these acts was as t a c i t and as f i c t i t i o u s as the consent which Rousseau's happy savage gives upon entering the s o c i a l contract.19 Following this defeat the Masai appealed to the Privy, Council, but the action lapsed owing to i n s u f f i c i e n c y of funds. The Government thereupon proceeded to f i n i s h c l e aring the Masai out of the Highlands. By 1913, a f t e r strenuous reslstence, the tribe had been moved south of the Railway l i n e . Twicej since then, they have revolted. The reason i s not hard to f i n d . One t h i r d of t h e i r 14,600 square mile Reserve i s unin-habitable. A part too i s also useless f o r stock, since i t i s a disease area. On the remainder the tribe t r i e s to keep 715,000 head of c a t t l e , 2,000,000 sheep and goats and 10,000 donkeys. Water i s scarce and the t r i b e is so crowded that every possible inch of land i s being used. And, as MacGregor Ross nut i t , a l l the Masai can do about the s i t u a t i o n i s 20 "marvel" at the ways of Government. It Is evident that the question as to how much of the policy of land alienation i n Kenya has been the work of 19. idem. 20. See; Ross, W. MaqGregor; Kenya from Within;, London; 1927; Chapter VIII e n t i t l e d ."The, Marvelling Masai". - 123 -the l o c a l administration and how much of i t has had B r i t i s h Government sanction i s all-important to such a study as t h i s . In 1837 a Parliamentary, Committee declared that "So f a r as the lands of the aborigines are within any t e r r i t o r i e s over which the Dominion of the Crown extends, the acq u i s i t i o n of them by Her Majesty's subjects, upon any t i t l e of purchase, grant, or otherwise, from the present proprietors should be declared 21 i l l e g a l and void." This declaration should be compared with the paragraph from Merivale cited above. The same declaration contains a statement of B r i t a i n ' s function as a trustee for the backward races. These declarations and the statements i n the Kenya White Papers of 1923, 1927 and 1930, should be kept i n mind when considering the progress of Government land policy i n the colony. It has been seen that i n 1903, S i r Charles E l i o t started the a l i e n a t i o n of land i n the Highlands to 22 whites. He sponsored a vigorous campaign i n South A f r i c a to coax s e t t l e r s to come to the Protectorate. The campaign brought r e s u l t s . The new s e t t l e r s flocked i n so fast that the Land Office was swamped and land was handed out without previous survey as to native ownership or occupancy. Speculators 23 took huge areas. 21. cited Barnes, Leonard; The Duty of Empire; London; 1935, 132 22. I t should be noted that our main concern i n the matter of ali e n a t i o n i s , of course, with the Highland and r u r a l areas. The question of coastal and urban a l i e n a t i o n i s "important but of f a r less importance to the native problem. 23. See Cmd. 2747, Kenya, Crown Land Grants, Oct. 1926; items, 4. {cont.) - 124 -Men l i k e Lord Delamere and Major Grogan were given great sLices 24 of the best land at nominal rents. As with the laws passed to safeguard native labour i n the early days of settlement so i t was with the land laws—continuous pressure by s e t t l e r s resulted i n their progressive loosening. Restrictions on al i e n a t i o n were continually being removed. Dummying, the pro-cess of cheating the Land Office by applying for land under more than one name was commonly used by r i c h men. It was a period of land hunger and of wildcat speculation. Small wonder i t i s that with such unregulated beginnings white settlement has had to be kept a l i v e by government subsidies. However, regulated or unregulated, the effect would have been the same on the native population. The legacy of hatred and suspicion l e f t by these earLy administrators i n the minds of the natives w i l l be long i n losing i t s e f f e c t . How, to a l l appearances—though for a year there has been no action upon the i s s u e — t h e highlands are to be permanently marked for white men only. It i s well known that S i r P h i l i p C u n l i f f e - L i s t e r , then Secretary of State f o r the Colonies, 23. (cont. ) Land Rent Area L o c a l i t y Tenure O r i g i n a l Office Ho. per annum Aores Owner " — — Shs. " " 422 845.38 19,942 G i l g i l Leasehold Hon. G. Cole 425 10,000.00 309,393 G i l g i i " ' East African Syndicate Ltd. 487 6,250.00 100,000 ELburgeon " Lord Delamere 502,3,4 Royalty 200,474 Ravine jj_ Major E. S. Grogan 914 64,000 Xibwezl Freehold Scottish Mission 24. In 1904 the Foreign Office wanted to make land concessions i n the Masai area to a large syndicate. S i r Charles E l i o t Map showing the grant of Land to Lord Delamere and Mr. Powys GOOD. It should be noted that the boundary of the reserve i s curved i n and out so as to include the source every stream i n the alienated land. See,Leys, H.;;Kenya; 123 and Chapter x i v passim - 125 -admitted on December 18, 1934 that i n December 1932, he--to use his own words "caused the chairman (of the Morris Garter Commission) to be informed" that no non-European might own or 25 occupy Land i n the European Highlands. It was a RoyaL Commission being advised as to the concLusions i t i s to a r r i v e at from i t s considerations—smaLL wonder that the negro George Padmore, bracketing the Secretary of State with S i r Edward Grigg, says '!:Sir P h i l i p C u n l i f f e - L i s t e r , and S i r Edward Grigg, have done more to destroy the confidence of Africans in B r i t i s h j u s t i c e 26 and f a i r play than any other post-war c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s - - -" In fact the whole history of the "White High-lands" i s not one to inspire confidence i n the non-European i n Kenya. The Indian population esp e c i a l l y , r e a l i z i n g more than the A f r i c a n the deeper p o l i t i c a l s i gnificance of such discrimination, has fought b i t t e r l y against the policy of ex-eluding a l l but Europeans from the highland areas. Perhaps no other words have been so often quoted i n the B r i t i s h Parliament as the famous declaration of Queen V i c t o r i a that There shalL not be, i n the eye of the Law, any d i s t i n c t i o n 24. (cont.) objected and resigned. His successor, Sir Donald Stewart appointed a Land Board to clean up the land muddle. The Chairman was Lord Delamere. In L905 the Colonial O f f i c e took over the administration with the forming of the Protectorate. 25. See 314,H.C. Debs. 5S, 9 July 1936, Col. 1433. 26. Padmore, George; How B r i t a i n Rules A f r i c a ; London; 1936; 103. S i r Edward Grigg i n 1929 proposed that some 50,000 square miles be reserved f o r Europeans. - 126 -or d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n whatever, founded upon mere d i s -t i n c t i o n of colour, o r i g i n , language or creed. But the protection of the law i n l e t t e r and i n substance, s h a l l be extended impartially to a l l a l i k e . And yet, the exclusion of non-Europeans from the highlands has been based, since i t s beginning, upon an o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned misapplication of both the l e t t e r and the substance of the law. For, as Lucy P. Mair says"The 'pr i n c i p l e ' (that a cer t a i n area be available only for European occupation) was enunciated i n connection with the controversy between Indians and Europeans for land grants, when the subtle d i s t i n c t i o n between le g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , to which His Majesty's Government were opposed, and administrative convenience was invoked to 27 aLLow of the r e f u s a l to Indians of land i n the Highlands." Though no law was passed excluding non-Europeans from the Highlands the custom was adopted of granting land only upon the assent of the governor. And, for the convenience of administration, this assent was not given to Non-Europeans. Successive Secretaries of State, since Lord Elgin,'s f i r s t declaration of 1906, have chosen the easy path and have given t h e i r o f f i c i a l blessing to the policy of exclusion begun by-S i r Charles E l i o t . The problems of Kenya cannot be blamed e n t i r e l y on the l o c a l l e g i s l a t o r s . It can be seen, however, that the imperial implications of the highlands' question are not the immediate concern of the Kenya natives. We have considered already some of the ways in which the application of the " p r i n c i p l e " 27. Mair, Lucy P.; Native P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a ; London; 1936; 84. - 127 -does concern them. Even the most.unsophisticated understand the meaning of eviction. Since the beginning of settlement the native has known only insecurity i n his land and events in the l a s t four years have proved that even his so-called Native Reserves are not secure. The provision of Reserves i n Kenya was long delayed. S i r Charles E l i o t objected to them i n p r i n c i p l e . He was a firm believer i n the "contact theory" of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The best way to bring about the westernization of the Af r i c a n was to allow him free contact with the s e t t l e r s . He would be Isolated from such b e n e f i c i a l contact i f he were shut up i n reserves. One cannot help feeLing that s e t t l e r pressure must have had something to do with early o f f i c i a l objections to the reserve p r i n c i p l e . As Merivale shows, the s e t t i n g aside of Crown Lands for native occupancy had long before become accepted practise. Moreover, the path had been cleared i n Kenya by the Crown Lands Ordinance of 1902 whioh said (Sec-tion 30) that; "In a l l dealings with Crown land regard s h a l l be had to the ri g h t s and requirements of the natives and i n pa r t i c u l a r the Commissioner s h a l l not s e l l or lease any land 28 i n actual occupation of the natives." A f t e r S i r Charles E l i o t ' s resignation, however, opinion among the s e t t l e r s began to swing i n favour of re-serving land f o r the natives. Perhaps the reason can be found in the statement of the Delamere Land Board of 1905 that 28. See B u e l l ; op. c i t . , I, 306. - 128 -"Should the main body of the t r i b e Living within the reserve increase and overflow i t s boundaries, such overflow wouLd be available to meet the demands of the general labour market of 29 the country." So i n 1907, 1910, and 1912, the government Gazette carried descriptions of the boundaries of cer t a i n re-serves. Into these the Kikuyu and the Masai were to be moved. The 1905 Land Board had said that i t considered a l L Land set 30 aside as reserve should be "absolutely i n v i o l a b l e " , and yet the-proposed Grown Lands B i l L of L908—which fortunateLy did not become law—contained a clause st a t i n g that even a f t e r a c e r t a i n area had been reserved, the Governor might, i f he f e l t that i t was not a l L required by the t r i b e concerned, proceed 51 to alienate as much as he f e l t was not needed. Moreover, the 1915 Crown Lands Ordinance, which s t i l l holds, has a Like provision which gives the power of reserve c a n c e l l a t i o n to the Secretary of State rather than the Kenya Governor. This is the reason f o r the statement made above that even i n 1937 the Kenya l a t i v e has no r e a l security for his land. From 1915 to 1931, i t must be admitted that the problem of the security of the Reserves was not a very pressing one. It looked i n these years as i f a r e a l l y creditable Re-serve policy were shaping. The catering to the speculators of the land hunger days was almost gone. PoLicies of native Land 29. BueLL, op. c i t . , I, 3L6. 30. Ibid, I, 317. 1  Ibid,T 1£9 administration advanced r a p i d l y . In 1926 an amendment to the 1915 Ordinance empowered the Governor to proceed with the gazetting of reserve areas. The only drawback was that the s e t t l e r s assumed aLl Grown Land not immediately so demarcated was open for a l i e n a t i o n and pressed the land administrators to 32 alienate i t . Thus the reserves delimited became accordingly smaller. A most promising administrative step was made in 1928. Governor S i r Robert Goryndon's proposals for the formation of a Native Land Board was embodied i n a Native Lands Trust Ordinance introduced i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Council. The Board was made up of the Governor, f i v e o f f i c i a l and four nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " members. This Board was to act i n cooperation with various l o c a l Advisory Boards consisting of two o f f i c i a l s , a nominated " u n o f f i c i a l " European and an A f r i c a n member, i n each administrative d i s t r i c t i n which there were native reserves. The a r r i v a l of the H i l t o n Young Commission in Kenya held up the passing of the Ordinance u n t i l 1930. However, i n this year a new Ordinance, containing even stronger safeguards to native interests than the o r i g i n a l , was passed. But, unfortunately, i t was only an Ordinance. In 1932 the discovery of gold i n the Kakamegs d i s t r i c t of the Kavirondo Reserve showed how advantageous to the white comr munity this type of l e g i s l a t i o n i s . Prospectors flocked to Kakamega. In July of 1932, the Secretary of State, Mr. C u n l i f f e - L i s t e r , agreed to an amendment to the 1930 Ordinance 32. See Mair, Lucy P.; op. c i t . , 85. - 130 -i n order to allow mining leases in Reserve areas. It was passed i n December, 1932. Worst of a l l f o r i t s e f f e c t on the native; was the clause which allowed payment in cash for any land given over to mining instead of repaying land with land. No cash could possibly take the place of land i n such a crowded reserve as the Kavirondo. The effect of t h i s amendment and of the:! findings of the Morris Carter Land Commission Report on the question of the Native Land Board has resulted i n the utmost confusion ' among the natives. C r i t i c s of the B r i t i s h administration have had a field-day. The Land Commission a f t e r considering the workings of the Lands Trust Board decided that i t was "ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e l y inconvenient i n many ways; that i t s i n e l a s t i c i t y has operated to the detriment of the natives; that i t ignores native private rights, which are becoming increasingly impor-tant; that i t tends to cramp i n i t i a t i v e and development; and that i t involves the Board i n a mass of administrative d e t a i l with which i t ia unsnited and unable to cope, and which i s 33 the proper function of the Government o f f i c e r s i n the D i s t r i c t . " Pour years seems a short time to reach such conclusions about an organization such as the Native Lands Board, e s p e c i a l l y when native l i f e and i n s t i t u t i o n s are in a l l respects undergoing such rapid change. The Native Council 34 system i t s e l f i s only beginning to function properly. 33. See Cmd. 4580 Kenya Land Commission Report;, Summary of Conclusions reached by H.M. Government; 4. 34. The Native Councils w i l l be discussed i n Chapter VI, under ''Taxation and Finance". - 131 ^ , Yet the proper functioning of the Looal Advisory Land Board depends to a great extent upon a properly working l o c a l Native Oouncil. Nevertheless i t must be admitted that cer t a i n of this Morris Garter Commission c r i t i c i s m of the Lands, Trust Boards i s quite i n order. S i r Reginald Mant, S i r George Schuster and Mr. Oldham, in a l e t t e r appended to the Hilton . Young Report, pointed out the requirements of any board to administer reserve land. They said:-. The f i r s t and p r i n c i p a l need, which may be de-scribed as the 'protective need', i s to f i x the areas to be set aside, and provide secure pro-tect i o n for the preservation of the b e n e f i c i a l rights over such areas to the natives. The second and almost equally important need, which we w i l l c a l l the fconstructive need', i s to provide f o r the actual use of the land in-such a manner as w i l l be of the greatest benefit to the natives - - -It i s not s u f f i c i e n t merely to reserve the land under the dead hand of r i g i d and unalienable legal r e s t r i c t i o n , and i t i s a necessary conse-quence of these considerations that a measure which aims at preserving the b e n e f i c i a l use of the land to the natives must include regulations for hand-l i n g i t . 3 5 The land. Commission show that the very nature of the Lands Boards precludes the f u l l s a t i s f a c t i o n of the ''constructive 36 need". They propose, therefore, that the present Land Trust Board should be abolished and superseded by a Board appointed . 3 7 by Order i n Council . They make the suggestion that the new 35. H i l t o n Young Commission Report (Cmd. 3234), 1929; 341 and 36. Cmd. 4556; para. 1750. 37. Ibid., para. 1692-97. '* 132* , board shouLd s i t i n London. The Government, however, i n s i s t that the Board should remain a l o c a l Board. They agree, how-ever, to measures which w i l l bring the Lands Boards into line 38 with the requirements of the Oommission. Another point about the Kenya Land Commission Report which is very important to our study i s the charge that the Native Lands, Trust Ordinance ignores native private right s , which are becoming increasingly important. I f this be true, then the Commission has certainly done the native a good turn. It w i l l be recalLed what was quoted i n our Introduction from JuLian Huxley's Africa. View, that the question whether native land tenure shouLd be such as to make i t possible for an i n -dividual c u l t i v a t o r to benefit himself and his descendants by the improvements he has made, i s of great importance. As he says further, "At present most t r i b a l systems of tenure make this impossible; while mere grants of free hoLd Land, even l f safeguarded against transfer to men of other races, may pro-duce a system of native landlordism under which the tenant 39 gets a l l the worst of the bargain." 38. Cmd., 4580, op. c i t . , 7. Note that on Page 8 of thi s statement of conclusions the . Secretary of State speaks of the extra expenses involved in carrying out the Commission's recommendations. He refers to the native claims, before refused^ for 50,000 pounds due to dead and missing native porters i n the Great War. The Secretary i n s i s t s that he i s not re-opening a closed issue, and that he i s admitting no Governmental obligation, when he proposes to set aside the sum claimed to defray the expenses here involved. Padmore, speaking as an Afri c a n , (op. c i t . , 115) says the Secretary speaks with his tongue i n his cheek when he says the 50,000 pounds i s an ex g r a t i a grant to the natives of Kenya. 39. Huxley, J. -. A f r i c a View; London; 1936; 402. - 133 -This i s , I think, the Idea that Lies behind the statement of the Morris Carter Commission. It has been seen that p o l i c i e s which aim at s t a b i l i z i n g native Life through the preservation of t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are as doomed to f a i l u r e i n Kenya as would be p o l i c i e s which ignore those i n s t i t u t i o n s e n t i r e l y . The natives of Kenya have advanced so f a r that by now Direct Rule p r i n c i p l e s are u t t e r l y inapplicable. On the other hand, when an administrator attempts to rule through native i n s t i t u t i o n s , h i s work may be just as useless, i n that he has developed i n s t i t u t i o n s which are s t a t i c and alLow of no evolution. Their effectiveness is ruined by "the dead hand of r i g i d and unalienable legal r e s t r i c t i o n - - " low i n much of Kenya the natives' ideas of land tenure have evolved a long way from the old t r i b a l conceptions. As Huxley and the Land Commission point out, the ideas of private ownership and of i n d i v i d u a l land r i g h t s are steadily-gaining strength. So, i f the Native Lands Trust Ordinance r e a l l y does ignore this growth, the machinery i t sets up must be useless. But i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see why the machinery need be s t a t i c . After a l l , i t should be no great problem to clear up the d i f f i c u l t y mentioned i n the report of confusing the "protective" and "constructive" functions. It i s hard to escape the f e e l i n g that the r e a l reason the Lands Trust Ordinance i s to go by the board i s that i n i t s operation a great deal depends on the Local Native Council. The Native representatives were to be given more power than ever before to say what should be done with Reserve Land. The Kakamega - 134 -a f f a i r showed that the natives oared not a whit whether the land was mineral land or not—Reserve land was to remain such for good as far as the Native Councils were concerned. That i s a bad state of mind to be i n i n the eyes of the speculator. It should be noticed, too, i n this consideration, that the 1930 Ordinance reduced from 99 to 33 years the term of leases to outsiders of land i n the reserves. No suchi@ase was to be granted save with the Secretary of States* consent. And such consent was to be given only i f the lease worald prove bene-f i c i a l to the natives. Sooner or l a t e r i n the study of any phase of the native problem of Kenya the question crops up whether, after a l l , the administrators r e a l l y desire that the p r i n c i p l e s of trusteeship be carried out. The nature of the settlement of the land problem usualLy provides the best proof of the r e a l motives of the trustee race. Nowhere is the need of fore-sight on the part of Government more necessary than i n deaLing with the question of land. The land i s , after a l l , the l i f e of every primitive A f r i c a n t r i b e . One would think that the East A f r i c a n administrators, with the t e r r i b l e example of South A f r i c a in view, would have escaped the p i t f a l l s i n land administration. But every mistake was made and on the Kenya government now rests the onus of proof that the declarations of the WhitecPapers are worth anything. In 1914 Mr. Edmund Harvey said, speaking before the House of.Commons about East A f r i c a : -I see a r e a l danger—I do not say under the present administration, but we must look ahead--of measures taken now being made an excuse in years to come for - 135 -a great act of i n j u s t i c e being done these natives. I hope that the CoLonial Secretary, when he speaks about thi s point, wiLl make i t quite d e a r that in the future, i f reserves are delimited, regard wiLl be had not merely to the actual population, but to the natural growth of the population, and that room w i l l be l e f t for them, and that he w i l l trust to other measures, such as edu-cation, and a gradual pressure of economic causes, rather than forced measures suggested by some of the s e t t l e r s to induce the natives to come i n and give t h e i r labour, as so many of the se t t l e r s i n East A f r i c a desire them to do. I think we have every reason to see that we take away this reproach now being made against our ruLe, that while we taLk very much about shouldering the white man's burden, we take great care to secure for ourselves the black man's land.40 S i r Edward Grigg points out that King George V o. < declared on his accession: I t w i l l be the high task of a l l my Governments to superintend the development of these countries (the colonies) f o r the benefit of the inhabitants and the general welfare of the world. At the same time he seeks to divorce the question of trustee-ship i n Kenya from the doctrine of the paramountcy of native interests* He i s misinterpreting the words of the great de-cl a r a t i o n . S i r Edward seeks to associate the rest of the world with the Kenya s e t t l e r s and speculators in excusing the gold-mining concessions i n Kavirondo as foLlows: Are we to say that this metal, so valuable to the world as a whole, i s to be denied to the world because i t happens to l i e under the s o i l inhabited by a few tribes of Afr i c a n natives? That seems to be an impossible attitude to take up in trusteeship. You have to think of the welfare of the world as well as of the interest of those p a r t i c u l a r natives. You must be absolutely f a i r to them, but you cannot i n f l i c t upon the whole world the disadvantages that might come from refusal to develop that talent l y i n g in the earth, merely i n order that a few people .in a very primitive state should remain undisturbed. 40. 65 H. C. Debates 5s, 28 July, 1914, Col. 1156. 41. 3-14 H. , C. Debates 5s. 9 July, 1936; Col. 1482. -'136 -As we saw, had the Kenya administration heeded the many warnings, such as that given by Mr. Harvey, there would not have been the present native distrust and hatred of the white man—both bred of insecurity. I f the native had Long ago been given fuLL t i t l e to his reserves, or i f a l i e n a t i o n had been regulated, the A f r i c a n wouLd not be so Loathe to part with the few concessions the Europeans have given to him. Moreover, the administrative p r i n c i p l e s springing from the declarations of trusteeship and of the paramountcy of native interests--the p r i n c i p l e s of Indirect Ruie--do not aim at the goal "that a few peopLe i n a very primitive state should re-main undisturbed." I f these p r i n c i p l e s were in r e a l operation in Kenya to-day, the time would be fa s t approaching when such western ideas as the world value of mineral resources, which S i r Edward Grigg stresses, would be appreciated by the natives. This brings us, at Last, to the f i n a l considera-tion: that of the s o l u t i o n of the native Land problem. Through-out the study, we have seen that security of tenure i s the greatest single land requirement of the native. Horman Leys says that the f i r s t step i n the s o l u t i o n of the problem—which solution shaLL have as i t s aim that every African family in Kenya wishing to l i v e by the c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l may be able to do s o — i s that of making the Reserves, by statute, r e a l l y i n v i o l a b l e . I f the t r i b a l a u t h o rities are given f u l l trust for a l l t r i b a l land, much w i l l be done to a l l a y native 42 d i s t r u s t . Second (to folLow Leys' enumeration of the steps 42. Leys, H., op. c i t . , 62. - 137 -needed i n a sol u t i o n of the problem) u n t i l the needs of A f r i -cans are f u l l y met, no further land should be alienated to non-Africans. And a l l land reverting to the Grown through bankruptcy or intestacy should remain in the hands of the Grown. Third: two s c i e n t i f i c surveys should be made; one of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and one of the r a i n f a l l of and a l l Reserve land.alL unalienated Grown Lands. lew Reserve -A. boundaries should be gazetted according to these findings. Fourth: the government ought immediately to put into e f f e c t an adequate scheme.of assisted native settlement. F i f t h : government aid should be given to the development of native a g r i c u l t u r a l co-operative societies such as function so suc-43 e e s s f u l l y i n Tanganyika and Uganda. FinalLy, one wonders whether even such writers as Norman Leys, MacGregor Ross or even Professor Huxley see as c l e a r l y into the future of the land problem as they might. The question of the s u i t a b i l i t y of Kenya as a white man's country has often been referred to. Successful white enter-p r i s e — b a r r i n g i n d u s t r i a l enterprise i n mineral areas—depends upon production for export. Canon Leakey says emphatically "I do NOT ( c a p i t a l s his) believe that i n the Kenya of the future there w i l l be a big white population of small farmers growing crops for export, f o r I believe that insect pests, unreliable r a i n f a l l , and ever-increasing but slow dessication 44 w i l l make farming f o r export unprofitable." S t a t i s t i c s show 43. See Strickland, O.P.; Co-operation f o r A f r i c a ; London; 1933; passim. 44. Leakey, L.S.B.; op. c i t * , 179. - 138 -that the last few years have been marked by the gradual de-crease i n the area of European c u l t i v a t i o n . Many of the white farmers depend s o l e l y upon government aid i n the matter of p r e f e r e n t i a l f r e i g h t rates and land loans. This cannot go on forever. More and more bankrupt s e t t l e r s are leaving 45 the country. There i s no question that there i s adequate land i n Kenya to support every native under a system of native production such as has been so successful i n West A f r i c a . One cannot help f e e l i n g that white settlement in Kenya was a mis-take from the s t a r t . Where such settlement must, by the nature of the country, depend on black labour no white com-munity can ever be self-supporting. The following speech by Mr. Morgan Jones, M. P. i s both a propos and powerful:-there may be a case f o r encouraging white s e t t l e r s , but when I have read s t o r i e s of the discrimination between white men and other men i n the various parts of the Empire I confess to wondering whether i t i s worth while encouraging white s e t t l e r s to go any-where. I f they go, they can only go on the under-standing that the B r i t i s h Government w i l l do a l l that can be done to a s s i s t them, but that that as-sistance s h a l l never abrogate the Declaration, either i n l e t t e r or i n s p i r i t , made by the Duke of Devon-shire i n 1923. The f i r s t claim upon us i n these areas i s to safeguard the r i g h t s of the indigenous people. It i s not the white s e t t l e r s who have the f i r s t claim but the people who belong to those areas, and to whom those areas should belong. Our interest i n them i s that of going there and teaching them self-government. I say deliberately that i f we are to r e t a i n our control of these areas at the price of making concessions to white s e t t l e r s which give them complete dominion over the l i v e s and well-being of the coloured peoples, the community system i s not worth while, from my point of view.46 45. see 314 H.Q. Debs. 5s, 9 July 1936; cols. 1455-6-7. 46. 314,H.Q. Debs. 5s. 9 July, 1936; Col. 1436. iChapter VI • Taxation,,Finance and Administration Part I. ;The Kenya Balance-Sheet 1. Lord.Moyne and S i r Alan Plm and the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n conclusions same as those of Kenya reformers 2. The balance of r a c i a l contributions to revenue 3. The expenditure according to races -revenue ----Loan Capital 4. 1937 f i n a n c i a l reforms Part I I . The.Strengthening of the Native Authorities 1. Financial reform and the Native Authorities 2. History of Kenya Local Native Councils 3. The Native Betterment Fund 4. Other aspects of the growth of the Native Authorities 5. Indirect Rule and the Native Authorities . -CHAPTER VI : -'JAXAglOlSr, FINANCE, AND ADMINISTRATION  Part I. , The Kenya Balance-sheet In 1932 Lord Moyne was sent ont to Kenya to examine the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the colony and to enquire into the matters of finance specified i n the Report of the 1931 Joint Select Committee. Certain of his terms of reference were as foLLows: to report on, (a) the contribution made to taxation, both direct and i n d i r e c t by the d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l communities; (b) the amount of money expended in the interests of each community, i n p a r t i c u l a r on natives and non-natives; and (c) the degree and manner i n -.-••» which f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be conferred upon the 1 Native Councils. Lord Moyne's Report,tells, though in language more guarded and o f f i c i a l , e s s e n t i a l l y the same story about these matters as do the writings of Leys and Ross. The Report says; Considering the services provided i n return, i t i s evident that the natives have long paid an ample contribution towards the general revenues of the country.... 1. Report by the F i n a n c i a l Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on Pertain  Questions i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093) May 1932. - 139 -- 140 -Judgment as to whether Europeans have been contributing a f a i r proportion of the cost of the i n d i v i s i b l e 2 or Colonial services must larg e l y depend on opinion as to how f a r these services are of equal benefit to a l l races, and how f a r they have been developed primarily for non-native benefit....I have formed the opinion that i n the development of the undivided or Colonial services i n Kenya the p r e v a i l i n g bias has been towards the con-venience of a c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which the native so far shares l i t t l e of the di r e c t advantages...and f i n a l l y , the native cannot i n his present circumstances f a i r l y be expected to make heavier contributions, and i f further revenue has to be raised i t ought to be from the non-native. Lord Moyne thus brought the message of the Kenya reformers o f f i c i a l l y to the notice of the B r i t i s h P a r l i a -ment. This apparently i s the only way i n which re-form can be brought about. The administrators w i l l l i s t e n and act when one of their number t e l l s them of the seriousness of a certain s i t u a t i o n , whereas a l l that men l i k e Leys and Soss can do i s arouse public interest and, perhaps, resent-ment that such a s i t u a t i o n should exist. In 1935-36 S i r Alan Pirn was busy on a second survey of Kenya finances. His terms were farther-reaching than those of Lord Moyne. S i r Alan was ordered to make def i n i t e recommendations as to the means of f i n a n c i a l reform. 4 In October 1936 his report was presented. The recommendations, i f put into f u l l e f f e c t , w i l l constitute some of the greatest reform measures so f a r attempted in Kenya. 2. I n d i v i s i b l e s e r v i c e s — s e r v i c e s of benefit to the community as a whole, not to certain sections of i t only. 3. Cmd. 4093; 26-27. 4. no copy of the report was available f o r my use, but i t s terms were summarized in Grown Colonist, Sept. 1936, 434. - 141 -Efothing causes us to protest more Loudly than any r a i s i n g of our taxes even though such r a i s i n g may be per f e c t l y just. No i n j u s t i c e arouses our resentment quicker than inequitable taxation. So perhaps that i s the reason that of alL the lessons Norman Leys and MacGregor Ross sought to teach i n their books none was more easy than that of the dire consequences of continued "bias...towards the convenience of a c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which the native so f a r shares L i t t l e of 5 the d i r e c t advantages." Every Kenya debate i n the Houses of Parliament of late years has at some time centred on the problem of taxation and expenditures. The administration knows only too well that the natives have not been given f a i r treatment and i s , i t must be admitted, trying to better their l o t . But the s e t t l e r community i s vigorously r e s i s t i n g any attempt to readjust the present balance. Lord Delamere once estimated the income of the average European family i n Kenya to be £600 per annum. As he was opposed to increasing European taxation the amount 6 is not l i k e l y to be an overestimate. Norman Leys quotes the 1929 Labour Commission's figures for the average A f r i c a n incomes f o r the same period and f o r the different occupations. By what seems a f a i r process of deduction an average figure 7 of £4 per annum is arrived at. These two figures, £600 and £4 must be kept i n mind during the folLowing consideration 5. Neither of. the above writers would put i t thus mildly. 6. See Leys, N.; Last Chance i n Kenya; London; L931; 20. 7. Ibid; 21. - 14S -of the r a c i a l balance-sheets of Kenya Colony. The Af r i c a n i s concerned almost so l e l y with the Direct Taxation. The Indirect Taxation f a l l s mainly on the white community. That the African's Direct Taxation figure i s almost equalled by the Indirect Taxes paid by the Europeans has been used u n f a i r l y by the l a t t e r as proof that the balance of contribution is f a i r . The folLowing summary 8 of revenue coLLections for L93L shouLd be used f o r reference. Europeans Indians Go ans Arabs Natives I n d i v i -s i b l e TotaL £ £ £ £ £ £ Direct Taxation 42596 39L70. 3251 18114 550877 634008 Indirect Taxation 254477 L45213 47346 L6992 199L8L 2245 745554 Other Tax. Revenue 109113 45406 4057 6241 LL446 L936 L78L99 Other Rev. (Not Tax.) 179595 49213 2752 , 6905 49596 L2201L0 L509L69 Total 665781 279002 .58406 48250 79LL00 L22439L 3066930 European Direct Taxation faLLs under two head-ings. In L935 the f i r s t of these, the Non-Native PoLL Tax 9 amounted to 70,987 pounds. The second type, the European Education Tax, paid on the same basis of 30 shs. per head f o r each aduLt maLe of L8 years or over brought in only £LL,820 so i t can be seen that of the Non-Native PoLL Tax onLy £LL,820 were contributed by Europeans. In the same year, death duties which might be termed Direct taxes, paid aLmost e n t i r e l y by Europeans, netted the government £5,727. These three taxes account for aLL European Direct taxation. Figuring on the 8. See Gmd. 4093, 63 9. AnnuaL Report, L935. - 143 -basis of £12,500 from the two main types, Horman Leys derived an average Direct taxation figure of three pounds per annum for each tax-paying European. The African community also pays three types of Direct tax. One f a l l s on a l l , - the tother two are paid 10 by the peasantry on the reserves. The minimum tax-paying age for the natives, i t should be noticed was, up to this year, sixteen. The Hut and P o l l Taxes, administered together, (each man pays either a tax f o r the huts he owns or, i f l i v i n g away from the Reserves, a P o l l Tax.) f a l l on the whole A f r i -can community. The average incidence of the two taxes i s supposed to be around 12 s h i l l i n g s per head. But according to the 1931 figures the incidence averaged 2-J- taxes or 28 s h i l l i n g s . Por the budget f o r that year estimated £607,000 as the Hut and P o l l Tax revenue. If the 12 s h i l l i n g s be divided into this i t can be seen that around 1,000,000 taxes would be required. As there were, in that year, an estimated 430,000 tax-paying male Africans, i t follows that each of these must average 30 s h i l l i n g s tax. Leys shows that some natives pay up to 5 taxes according to the number of huts owned. The second Direct native tax i s known as the cess or rate. It i s levied by the t r i b a l councils and f a l l s on the natives i n the reserves only, as those out wage-earning are exempt. Prom this source the sum of £39,952 was derived 11 in 1931. Of the expenditure of such monies something w i l l 10. Chapter IV on the practise of fo r c i n g labour by taxation. 11. Cmd. 4093; App. 8; 115. - 144 -be said l a t e r on. The t h i r d , and f i n a l type of d i r e c t native 12 assessment comes in the form of unpaid forced labour, under the Hatlve Authority Ordinance. The e v i l s of t h i s modern corvee have been already discussed i n Chapter IV. Coming now to the consideration of the incidence of Indirect Taxation, we f i n d i n the table given above that f o r 1931 the Europeans paid 334,477 pounds and the Africans £199,181. This gives an average contribution of £36 per European and of about 6s. 6d. for each African. Considering the table again we f i n d that, t o t a l l i n g the contributions of each community through a l l forms of taxation, the Europeans paid i n 1931, £665,781 and the Africans £791,100. At f i r s t glance i t would seem that perhaps the incidence of taxation i s not so unfair as has been made out. But several f a c t o r s must be kept i n mind in making the judg-ment. F i r s t , there i s the important question of r e l a t i v e capacities to pay. We saw that the average European family income was estimated at some £600 per annum while the African averaged only 5 pounds. The average European t o t a l contribution i s about £39. I f aLl native payments, including, quite f a i r l y , such items as the inordinately heavy native f i n e s and the vaLue of time spent i n unpaid labour, are t o t a l l e d , an average sum of over 2% pounds i s obtained. 12. See Leys; op. c i t . , 36. - 145 It can be seen that the balance i s a l l i n favour of the European. It is.evident too why the poverty of the Afri c a n in Kenya is so great. The. European gives l / l 5 of his earnings to the Government. The A f r i c a n gives up to -J- of h i s . Another factor adds to the unfairness of the r a t i o . The following analysis of the Indirect Taxation column 13 of the table above is useful to us here: Indirect Taxation 1931 Europeans Indians Goans Arabs Natives I n d i v i - Total _ slbTe " £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Customs Duties 298582 137480 44739 16625 198813 2345 698,584 Petro l Tax 22296 4047 182 367 368 27,260 Wines,Spirits Consumption Tax 11808 3200 2106 17,114 Beer Excise Tax 1791 486 319 . 2,596 Total 334477 145213 47346 16992 199181 2345 745,554 It wiLl be noticed how heavy i s the proportion of the European Indirect taxation that goes f o r luxuries which are e n t i r e l y beyond the reach of the native. A further study 14 of the s t a t i s t i c s given by Lord Moyne and those to be found i n the AnnuaL Reports which analyse the Customs T a r i f f s item adds strength to one's conviction. The tables make one suspicious that the Kenya import duties have been fixed so that importable things such as blankets, which have become necessities to the natives, have been heavily assessed to allow the lowering of rates on such things as the nachinery necessary to European 13. See Cmd. 4093 (1932), 64. 14. Cmd. ;4Q93, App. I. Sched. 3, 69. enterprise. It w i l l be noticed, too, that i n the items "Wine and S p i r i t s Consumption Tax" and "Beer Excise Duty" the Native contribution column i s empty. The average native has not s u f f i c i e n t means to feed himself and his family adequately, far less to spend money on the white man's luxuries. F i n a l l y , there remains f o r us to consider the question of Income Tax. In East A f r i c a u n t i l t h i s year there has been no such thing as a graduated income tax. Every s e t t l e r , r i c h or poor, paid the same ungraduated direct tax. It was the pride of the Kenya s e t t l e r s that they paid no income tax. They have used this fact i n the p u b l i c i t y adver-tisements i n England. Avoid the present heavy income tax troubles by l i v i n g in Kenya, N. Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Tanganyika, Uganda, Zanzibar. Healthy (s i s . ) climate, congenial surround-ings. P a r t i c u l a r s from East A f r i c a n Dependencies Information O f f i c e , 32 Cockspur St., S. W. 1. 15 said an advertisement i n the London Times of October 5, 1931. It i s no f a i r argument to say that the Europeans make up for t h e i r freedom from the income tax by the heavy indir e c t taxa-t i o n they pay. Even as i t i s , their t o t a l tax burden i s far less than that of the tax-payer i n England. And, moreover, what man does not f e e l that the paying of a luxury tax or even of an ordinary import duty is far less p a i n f u l than the meeting of a direct levy on his income? 15. Leys, N.; op. c i t . , 20. Leys comments thus: "The Govern-ment of Kenya owes our country many mi l l i o n s of pounds. B r i t i s h taxpayers, for example, paid every penny of the cost, something over eight m i l l i o n s , of the o r i g i n a l railway li n e from the coast to the lake. Yet the Govern-ment of Kenya thinks i t right to use the public revenue of the country to tempt our i d l e r i c h to evade their duty to their country. And i t considers such people to be e l i g i b l e residents* - 146 -Though the revenue side of the Government of Kenya ledger Is illuminating i n any study of the native problem, the expenditure records are even more so. Here the frequent large entries under the heading " I n d i v i s i b l e ; Ser-vices" cause some trouble. But even i f we omit these entries and consider just those under "Hative. Services" and ''European" o r "Hon-native Services" the allegations of the c r i t i c s of Kenya are e a s i l y supported. The fact that Lord Moyne and S i r Alan Pirn, both, have apparently discovered the s i t u a t i o n i n Kenya to be much as Leys and Ross described i t and have so indicated i n their reports, constitutes a valuable reform step. So, omitting for the moment the question of the expenditure of Loan Capital, consider the following tables of revenue expenditures f o r 1931 taken from Lord, Moyne's , Report. 16 Schedule 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Expenditure i n J93I Summary I n d i v i s i b l e Services £ 1,771,180 European Services 171,247 European and Hatlve ( I n d i v i s i b l e ) Services 2,962 A s i a t i c Services 46,080 Hon-Hative ( I n d i v i s i b l e ) , Services 8,948 Hative Services 331,956 Reimbursements and Cross, Entries ,883.716 Total £ 3,216,089 16. Cmd. 4093 (1912i, 81. - 147 -L7 Schedule 6 Expenditure on Earopean Servioes (Items) Item 6 Education £ 49,600 Item 7 A g r i c u l t u r a l 59,018 Item 8 Medical 24,527 Tota l European Servioes £ 171,247 18 Schedule 9 Expenditure on Native Servioes (items) Item 9 Agriculture £ 38,389 Item 10 Education 77,722 . Item 11 Medioal 124,642 Total Native Servioes £ 531,956 These Items have been chosen because they serve to support some of the charges made so f a r . The education figures i n Sohedules 6 and 9 are p a r t i c u l a r l y illuminating, So inade-quate Is this grant that each year the Local, Native Councils grant, as we have seen, money towards education from their 19 own funds. In 1931 the t o t a l they advanced was 17,000 pounds. S i m i l a r l y the natives are finding i t necessary to supplement the hopelessly small government grant towards the development of Reserve agriculture and native medical service, £8,496 and £6,915 being devoted i n 1931 to each of these respectively. It w i l l be seen that a large item i n Schedule 4 i s the £1,771,180 Pmcl. 409'3: (1932J 84. 18. Ibid; 85 19. Ibid. 114. - 148 -f o r s o - G a l l e d I n d i v i s i b l e Servioes. Following this schedule in the Lord Moyne Report i s a second one, which analyses the 20 expenditure of t h i s sum. Even a cursory examination w i l l show that a great many, i f not the greater portion of the Items included under I n d i v i s i b l e Services are actually,at the pre-sent stage of Afr i c a n development, of service only to the Europeans. The author of the report admits as much when he says of the schedule that the Impossibility of finding any arithmetical equivalent f o r the benefits derived from these servioes i s made clear by an examination of the items. Although I have been unable to f i n d any acceptable basis of d i v i s i o n f o r these services, i t Is evident that they are by no means of equal benefit as between communities, 2i F i n a l l y there Is the important question of the Loan Capital Expenditure. Here again i t i s very very easy to show the existence of the "prevailing bias". Only, i n t h i s case, the bias i s even more apparent. Item 15 of Lord Moyne's Schedule 5 (mentioned above) deals with the Public Debt. This Item i s c l a s s i f i e d thus: 22 Loan Capital Expenditure C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary (1) General I n d i v i s i b l e Services £ 16,253,371 (2) European Services 470,613 (3) A s i a t i c Services 66,795 (4) , Arab Services 9,718 (5) i Hatlve Servioes 109,503 2 0 « Cmd. 4993 (1932) 81. 21. Ibid; 24. 22. Ibid; 85, - 1 4 9 -Here too, much doubt can be thrown upon the " i n d i v i s i b i l i t y 1 1 of the i n d i v i s i b l e £16,263,371. But, apart from t h i s , i t i s impossible to deny the significance of the fact that £470,613 of Loan Capital should be expended i n a.single year f o r the service of 17,285 Europeans while only £109,503 were spent on the 3,000,000 natives. The following analysis of these l a s t two items also provides a comment on the fairness of 23 the Kenya balance sheets* Item 2 , European Servioes (1) Land Bank £ 240,000 (2) European Hospital, Kisumu 6,612 Hairobi Schools 38,241 Kabete School 66*433 (6) Hakuru School 44,703 (6) Eldoret Sohool 45,134 (7) K i t a l e School 29,490 Total £ 470,613 Item 2 Hatlve Servioes (1) : Hative Hospitals £ 83,103 (2) A f r i c a n Schools, Kabete 26*400 Total £ 109,503 In that year £240,000 went into the Land Bank, the i n s t i t u t i o n which alms to further the development of Kenya agriculture by loans from public funds to white s e t t l e r s . Hot a cent of loan 23. Cmd. 4093 (1932) 87 - 150 -c a p i t a l went to Hatlve Reserve agriculture. Ho comment i s needed on the educational items. In 1936, as we have seen, S i r Alan Pim reported on the means by which the f i n a n c i a l abuses of the Kenya ad-ministration could be done away with. His terms of reference were as follows: "(1) To inquire into the whole f i e l d of governmental expendi-ture i n Kenya with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the cost of the Administrative and Technical Services; and to report whether, i n his judgment, the t o t a l expenditure can be legitimately reduced, whether by re-organization or other means, without detriment to e f f i c i e n c y . (2) To examine into the present condition of Kenya Government Finance having regard to the revenue and expenditure of the present and recent years and the prospective revenues f o r 1936; and to advise whether any, and i f so what, modifications i n the existing system of taxation i n Kenya should be effected consistently with preserving the f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y of the government,"24 Rather unfortunately f o r the Africans, S i r , Alan's terms of reference were considered by the s e t t l e r s as centering upon the f i r s t term quoted above. In that period of world depression the accepted way of economy i n government was that of cutting down s t a f f s . How f o r years i t has been the s e t t l e r s * demand that the numbers of the o f f i c i a l s be out down. In s e t t l e r comment on the Report, the small econo-mies that Pim recommended should be effeoted by s t a f f - c u t t i n g were welcomed. But on the whole, the report met with unfavour-25 • able c r i t i c i s m . This was especially marked i n respect to the recommendations S i r Alan made—in lin e with Moyne's statement— 24. See S i r Alan Pirn's Report, Grown Colonist: -Se-ptioer 1936; 434. 25. Siee: Prom our Hairobl-Correspondent; Crown Colonist; ,October 1936; 422. - 151 r. f o r the readjustment of the balance of r a c i a l contributions and services. Some of these are d i r e c t l y i n line with the demands of Leys and Ross. Some of Pirn's main recommendations were: (1) that the Hatlve taxation be amended by an extension of the system of grading, the reduction of the payment on account of extra huts, and the r a i s i n g of the taxable age, as preliminaries to the introduction of an improved system of Native taxation to replace the Hut and P o l l tax. (7) that i n Hatlve Administration Local Native Councils should be reliev e d of expenditure i n connection with Native T r i -bunals and of a share of expenditure on famine. Chiefs or headment should receive some increase of pay i n recog-n i t i o n of increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . (10) The system of native r e g i s t r a t i o n should be abolished. (12),That c e r t a i n types of co-operative s o c i e t i e s should be organized. (17) That, i n the Medical Department, the progressive t r a i n i n g and employment of an A f r i c a n service be i n s t i t u t e d . (22) that the HonTNative P o l l Tax and Education Taxes should be abolished, the Trades and Professional Licences modi-f l e d and the levy on o f f i c i a l s a l a r i e s reduced by at least a h a l f . In their place an Income Tax should be Imposed, including a basic minimum tax. The rate of taxation on extra huts under the Hut and P o l l Tax Ordinance should be reduced by a half. 2® Judging from the actions of the B r i t i s h Government since the Pim Report was presented, one would say that the CoLonial Of f i c e i s out to clear up the Kenya native problem. The fact that the recommendations of the Morris Carter Commission have not been carried into e f f e c t show that B r i t i s h opinion i s against giving the white community i n Kenya any more tether. But the way i n which S i r Alan Pirn's recommendations have been implemented i s even more promising and s i g n i f i c a n t . 26. S i r Alan Pim's.Report; loc. c i t . , 434. - 152 -In December of 1936 Mr. Ormsby-Gore said that 27 the recommendations would be carried out. An Income Tax B U I was drafted i n that month. In,May 1937 i t became law when i t 28 passed the t h i r d reading i n the Kenya L e g i s l a t i v e Council. Thus clause 22 of fche Pim Report and Paragraph 118 of the 29 Lord Moyne Report havelbeen carried out. But action did not stop there. Since May, much development has taken place. In ,June 1937 Mr. Ormsby-Gore In reply to questions asked him as Secretary of State f o r the Colonies answered f i r s t that: the Kenya native taxation had been reduced by one h a l f as recom-mended i n Clause 22 of the Pim Report; second, that the question of the taxation on extra huts and i t s e f f e c t on the native population was to be referred to a l o c a l committee f o r invest!-? gation; t h i r d , and very important, that the p o l l tax minimum age f o r natives had been raised to 18 years; and fourth, that the Colonial O f f i c e would l i k e l y extend the Income Tax through-30 out East A f r i c a and thus prevent tax-dodging by s e t t l e r s . On June 15 the terms of reference f o r the committee on extra hut taxation were announced by Ormsby-Gore. The Chief Hatlve 31 Commissioner of Kenya i s acting as Chairman. 27. See 318 H.O* Debs. 5s; 17 December 1936; Col. 2651. 28. See Crown,Colonist; June 1937; 285 29. Cmd. 4093 (1932), 59. 30. The Colonies i n Parliament; Grown Colonist; July 1937; 312. 31. See: The Colonies i n Parliament; Crown Colonist; August 1937; 396. It i s to be noted that Pirn's recommendation that the post of Chief Hatlve Commissioner be absorbed i n a new organization under the three governmental secretaries (Paragraph 4 of Report), i s not, apparently, to be adopted. It was recommended only as an economy. - 153 -A l l considered, 1937 has so f a r provided more promise of reform and a brighter future for the natives than has any year since the founding of the colony. Ju l i a n Huxley said that i n Kenya the only bond between white and black was 32 an economic one. Perhaps the administration, r e a l i z i n g t h i s , has decided that the key to an ever-broadening program of native reforms, l i e s i n the readjustment of the economic balance of the l i f e of the Colony. 32. Supra 46 - 154 -Part I I . The.. Strengthening of the Hatlve Authorities 33 It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that both Lord Moyne 34 and S i r Alan Pim in t h e i r consideration of the Kenya f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n stressed the importance of the development of the system of Local Hatlve Councils. Perhaps the Colonial Office 35 believes that these men have shown the spot from which progress can s t a r t when they recommend that these already e x i s t i n g native organizations be given more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f i n a n c i a l matters. If these bodies prove themselves able to handle the adminis-t r a t i o n of their funds, there i s no reason why they should not be the best possible stepping stones towards the evolution of a r e a l l y responsible system of native government. So f a r , the Councils have proved themselves extremely capable In their handling of the small measure of administration a l l o t t e d to them. As Lord Moyne says ''The Local Hatlve Councils In Kenya are a deliberate creation under an Ordinance passed i n 1924, whereas i n Uganda and in some parts of Tanganyika they have been b u i l t up on a previously existing system of t r i b a l 36 administration." For a quarter of a century, the Kenya t r i b a l 32. Cmd. 4095 (1932); 43. 34. See Paragraph 7 i n Crown Colonist; September 1936; 434. 35. Leys, Ross and others should not be forgotten here. But Lord Moyne and S i r Alan Pim i n their o f f i c i a l capacity spoke with a power the reformers lacked. 36. Cmd. 4095 (1932); 43. - 155 -system had heen di s i n t e g r a t i n g before the shock of European settlement. By 19E4 the process had gone a long way. It i s hard to decide whether the Kenya t r i b a l i n s t i t u t i o n s had ever been quite as well developed as those of other parts of A f r i c a . Very l i k e l y they were not. Authorities d i f f e r greatly upon the subject. Leys, throughout his writings, seems to assume that i n Kenya t r i b a l government was as strong as anywhere else in A f r i c a . Lord Moyne assumes that "the t r a d i t i o n a l system 37 of t r i b a l government was very rudimentary and variable." But, a f t e r a l l , whichever one i s r i g h t , these i n s t i t u t i o n s were, i n 1924, i n the state Lord Moyne describes. In other parts of East A f r i c a , the system of Paramount Chiefs was strong. Great chiefs, such as the old Kabakas of Buganda, bound the various related tribes together, Thus great areas would be ruled by one hereditary chief. Under him would come the various t r i b a l chiefs and then the headmen of the v i l l a g e s . But i n Kenya, when the administration set out to strengthen native a u t h o r i t i e s , i t was impossible, owing to the chaotic condition of t r i b a l government, to fi n d who were, or should be, the paramount chiefs. So the basis of d i v i d i n g the native areas into primary d i v i s i o n s , s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r administration under the B r i t i s h Government, was impracticable. Accordingly, i n 1924 r u r a l Kenya was divided into seven provinces each i n charge of a senior commissioner responsible to a chief native commissioner. In Kenya the senior commissioners, i n matters of native administration, take somewhat the place of the Paramount 37. Cmd. 4093 (1932;; 44 - 156 -Chiefs elsewhere in A f r i c a , But t h i s p r o v i n c i a l d i v i s i o n has not proven so s a t i s f a c t o r y owing to the unfortunate disregard of ethnic boundaries. But i n i t s lower grades, the system set up by the 1924 Ordinance has proved f a i r l y successful. There has been a measure of native protest against the appointment by the government of chiefs, sub-rchiefs, and headmen! who have no hereditary claim to rank, nevertheless, the Hatlve Authori-t i e s set up i n 1924 can be said to have performed f a i r l y well t h e i r intended function of s h i f t i n g some of the administrative burden onto the natives themselves. Buell points out that, considering the huge volume of work done i n Kenya by these Hative Authorities t h e i r compensation has been en t i r e l y inade-38 quate. He deals, too, with the question of hereditary sac-cession i n Kenya and shows that, i n many cases, the succession was quite obvious but, since i t was ignored by the administration, only resulted i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . " I f the natives r e a l l y want a paramount chief, there i s no reason why they should not have one—except the p o l i t i c a l reason of 'divide and r u l e ' — o f dividing peoples i n order to weaken them for the purpose of preventing the growth of native organizations which may present 39 a united front to the whites." As a matter of f a c t , i t does not seem to me that the Colonial O f f i c e , of late years at least, has had any such u l t e r i o r motive as "divide and rule" i n i t s policy of reserve administration. Often, i t has seemed 38. B u e l l , R. L.; Hative Problem i n A f r i c a ; Hew. York; 1929; I, 362. S i r ; Alan Pim recommended ah increase. 39. Ibid; 363. - 157 -as i f the Hative Authorities Ordinance has worked i n favour of the s e t t l e r s . It has, f o r instance, put c e r t a i n funds i n the hands of the Africans from which they have often paid for suoh matters as education, thus r e l i e v i n g the community as a whole from these charges. But, on the whole, the development of these Hative Authorities has provided f i r s t class i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i n c i p l e s of administration and finance. Though the funds entrusted to them have been small* they have been 40 astonishingly well administered. But as yet almost every one of the 23 Hative Councils requires the guiding hand of the D i s t r i c t Commissioner as President. There i s one Council f o r each native d i s t r i c t . Each Is composed of the D i s t r i c t Commissioner and natives, some appointed by the Governor d i r e c t l y and some nominated by 41 the native barazas* The size and composition of the Councils varies greatly. Lord Moyne ci t e s two examples: the Horth Kavirondo Council of 64 members, 38 "elected" by the baraza and 26 nominated; and that of South Hyeri of 23 members, 12 42 nominated and 11 "elected" Lord Moyne, af t e r h i s survey, wa3 apparently well s a t i s f i e d with the progress of the Hative Council system in Kenya. It would appear from his recommendations that he considered them worthy of greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The 1931 40. It must be kept i n mind that most of the Councils have a long way to go before they a t t a i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the Luklko and Hative Treasury of the Kingdom of Buganda. 41. the baraza i s the native court composed of a l l the elders of the t r i b e . 42. Cmd. 4093; 45. - 158 -Joint Select; Oommitte, r e a l i z i n g that the natives of Kenya were not receiving t h e i r f a i r share of expenditures, had recommended ''that the Chief Hatlve Commissioner be charged with the preparation of an Annual Estimate of the F i n a n c i a l requirements of his Administration and should have allocated 43 to It such funds as the Governor thinks desirable and necessary." Lord Moyne, however, did not think this step advisable. He proposed the formation of "a statutory body responsible, under the Governor as Chairman, f o r one h a l f of the proceeds of dire c t native taxation" and that from these monies "a ; Hative Betterment. Fund be created out of which the d i r e c t service 44 of native development should be financed." , This committee was to administer i t s funds i n such a way as to "build up balances from year to year i n order to provide f o r fluctuations i n the y i e l d of native taxation," to "finance a widening programme of native development" and l a s t l y "to co-ordinate the e f f o r t s which are being made by 45 the various departments to a s s i s t i n native betterment." , This Hative Betterment Committee was accordingly formed In 1934. Lord Moyne had, however, gone even deeper into the subject. Section 1 (d) of his terms of reference had instructed him to report on "the degree and manner In which f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be conferred on the 46 Hative Councils. From hi s investigations on t h i s subject 43. H., Of. 0. 156, Report of the, Joint, Select Committee on I Closer Union. (1931J;, I; paragraph 87. 44. Cmd. 4093;38. 45. idem 46. i b i d 1. - 159 -sprang what were, I think, the most far-reaching recommendations of the Report. He proposed that the Native Betterment Commit-tee administer i t s funds through a system of grants-in-aid to the Local Native Councils "and seek to associate Local Native Counoils i n increasing measure with the administration 47 of the betterment services." The Colonial Office has apparently appreciated the importance of the two f i n a n c i a l commissioners* recommen-dations. We have seen how, during this last summer, S i r Alan Pim's emergency recommendations have been aoted on. In a s i m i l a r way an honest attempt i s being made to carry out Lord Moyne*s ideas on Native Betterment. The fund has been started and there i s a bright outlook for the Native Authorities. But the f i n a n c i a l function Is only one small item i n the possible scope of the functions of the Local Native Councils. B u e l l wrote wisely when he said that While the councils from the administrative standpoint perform a h e l p f u l service, their primary importance in. an i n t e r - r a c i a l community i s that they serve as a peaceful outlet to native sentiment i n regard to the p o l i c i e s of the European administration. For the time being these councils w i l l serve as a safety valve for native f e e l i n g . But f o r this very reason they may early become e f f e c t i v e centres of native opposition to European rule. They w i l l eventually demand a share i n the actual administration of government. Kenya may well study the Tanganyika and Nigerian method of s a t i s f y i n g this demand by the Introduction, modified to s u i t locaL circumstances, of the p r i n c i p l e of i n d i r e c t rule. The f i r s t step i n this d i r e c t i o n would be to recognize paramount . chiefs where i t i s possible, and to vest In them some r e a l j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y . 4 8 47. Cmd. 4095; 40 48. B u e l l , op. c i t . , I, 368 - L60 -He went on to recommend each f i n a n c i a l measures as Lord Moyne outlined. But this question of the function of the Local Hative Councils as s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l agencies, apart from t h e i r f i n a n c i a l function, opens to us the whole question of an Indirect the future of Kenya as a-Btseefc Rule colony--a consideration upon whioh t h i s study can well be brought to a close. P a r a l l e l l i n g the development of the f i n a n c i a l machinery of the Hative Authorities has come the strengthening of the Hative Courts and j u d i c i a r y . The ordinary Hative Court of a Kenya reserve consists of a Council of Elders appointed fo r t h i s purpose by the government under the Hative Court Rules of 1913. Their j u r i s d i c t i o n Is, however, only narrow: over cases concerning property vaLued up to 2,000 s h i l l i n g s and i n petty criminal offenses a r i s i n g out of t r i b a l law and custom. In t h i s second case, their power i s s t r i c t l y limited by the d i s t r i c t commissioner. They may impose, with the commissioner's approval, fines up to 500 s h i l l i n g s or inprisonment i n a govern-ment prison of up to s i x months. The natives of Kenya have taken a keen interest In these courts. This i s shown by the huge number of oases they 49 have handled. A seemingly j u s t i f i a b l e move by the adminis-t r a t i o n to simplify matters by consolidating some of the 522 Hative C o u r t s — i n Kenya—one to each native location--ha8 not been approved by the Africans. For the natives have learned to appreciate every measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y delegated to them, furthermore they 49. See B u e l l ; op. c i t . ; I; 365. Central Kavirondo courts, 1924, decided 3,372 c i v i l cases and 709 criminal cases. - 161 -have found these courts more suitable to t h e i r needs than the strange European courts. Horman Leys, Canon Leakey and others stress the uselessness of the ordinary European courts to the Afric a n , whose ideas of crime and punishment are u t t e r l y a l i e n to those of the white man. This l a s t factor, alone, seems s u f f i c i e n t cause to warrant delegation of more power to the Hative Courts. The fundamental need of a successful Indirect Rule administration i s that the body of the natives be edu-cated to r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In Kenya unfortunately It has also been necessary that the native should appreciate the d i s -advantage i n which he has been plaoed by white settlement. The Hative Courts and Councils have served these two purposes, as Buell f o r e t o l d . They have functioned as tr a i n i n g schools i n p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as well as outlets of native n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment. Both these functions It appears have been, so f a r served already that there can be no retrenchment. Every year the volume of funds handled by the Councils i s i n -creasing. Every year the demand f o r the services of the native j u d i c i a r y i s increasing. The Government appears to be aiming at the s a t i s f a c t i o n of these demands i n the face of s e t t l e r opposition. It w i l l be, even at the present rate, a long time before a f a i r balance can be reached i n the Colony as regards the contributions and rewards of the white and black communities but the trend i s in the right d i r e c t i o n . Ho policy, i t seems to me, bids f a i r e r to lead to the just balance than that of Kenya Indirect Rule. For from the present Hative Authorities i s developing the native governmental machinery - 162 -that i s needed to make Indirect Rale function i n Kenya as i t has i n Tanganyika and Higerla towards the emancipation of the African, -0-0-0-Conclusion . The outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the B r i t i s h Empire that has distinguished i t from a l l other empires has been the Idea of self-government within the imperial system. Whenever a B r i t i s h community has gained p o l i t i c a l Institutions i t has accepted p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as i t s ultimate goal. The Br i t i s h ^ Commonwealth of nations consists of communities which have evolved their own systems of responsible government. In A f r i c a , whenever a white community has grown up i n any colony i t accepted autonomy as i t s ultimate goal. In every case where B r i t a i n has aLlowed s e t t l e r p o l i t i c a l and economic ambitions their free r e i n a native problem has de-veloped. For responsible i n s t i t u t i o n s do not work where a community i s divided into unmiscible parts. As long as the native population of a colony i s unable to stand by i t s e l f i n the presence of western c i v i l i -zation i t must be protected by the Colonial Administration against the ambitions of the Europeans. In South A f r i c a the Africans were not thus protected. The Europeans attained t h e i r responsible government. The native problem there i s now beyond the control of Great B r i t a i n . But i n Kenya the Colonial Office s t i l l has control. It must keep this control. For the s i t u a t i o n In Kenya i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t to what i t was i n South A f r i c a f o r t y years ago when the p o l i t i c a l power was passing from London to the Cape. - 1 6 3 -- 164 -Tb-day the c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s of B r i t a i n are under the scrutiny of the world. She has, moreover, declared her willingness that this should be so. On top of this the African himself i s r e a l i z i n g his importance as an individual i n a democratic system. Soon he w i l l value this right as much as does the white man. , low l e t us assume f o r the moment, that autonomy is to be the goal of p o l i t i c a l evolution i n Kenya as i t was in South A f r i c a . In Kenya the African's p o l i t i c a l evolution must now be figured on. This was not the case i n the Union, Times have changed and attitudes to the back-ward races have changed with them. When B r i t a i n declared her trustee position i n 1923 she admitted that the African's development was as Important as that of the white community. This was tantamount to admitting that any scheme for responsible government i n Kenya must include each A f r i c a n as the potential p o l i t i c a l equivalent of each white man. It was an idea quite acceptable to a l l Europeans except those s e t t l e d i n the A f r i c a n colonies* To-day the Kenya s e t t l e r s are as bent on a t t a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as they ever were. They are blind to the fac t that any p o l i t i c a l scheme must include an ever-increasing number of educated Africans. These blacks look forward to the day when B r i t a i n ' s trust w i l l have been c a r r i e d out and their race w i l l have attained p o l i t i o a l emancipation. As i t i s the natives of Kenya f e e l a deep re-sentment and hatred f o r the s e t t l e r community. They r e a l i z e the whites have hampered t h e i r progress and seized t h e i r land. - 165 -Every year that the abuses we have considered i n t h i s study continue the score grows longer that the African w i l l want to pay o f f against the s e t t l e r s . Gradual reform of the native problem i n the aspects of i t we have studied may do much to save the white community. But i f the s e t t l e r s ' demands are acceded to, white settlement i n Kenya i s doomed. Eor respon-s i b l e government would place the p o l i t i c a l balance of power in the hands of the Af r i c a n . In this respect too, the Indian community has to be considered. The Indians outnumber the Europeans two to one. With India so close to autonomy B r i t a i n can not afford to allow the white s e t t l e r s further control of the destinies of this community, Truly the imperial impli-cations of the Kenya problem are immense. And, too, the fore-sight and perspective demanded of the administration that w i l l solve i t . The H i l t o n Young Report says of the task facing the administration; There i s no ready-made co n s t i t u t i o n a l device by which the two r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t conceptions of government represented on the one hand by paternal autocracy and on the other by modern democracy with i t s conception of popular r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be reconciled in a con-s i s t e n t and l o g i c a l system.*-It seems doubtful whether any such device could be developed. Besides, one wonders i f such is needed i n Kenya. B r i t a i n has declared that her aim i n Kenya Is to carry out the sacred t r u s t of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The small white community of Kenya has so f a r only hindered the carrying out of the trusteeship. I f settlement had never started the 1. Cmd. 3234 (1929).; 103. - 166 -Kenya native would l i k e l y now be l i v i n g under a system of Indirect Rule. The Land and Labour problems would be non-existent. Native Education would progress unhindered. This and other servioes would be adequately financed from native-controlled treasuries. Most important from the world point of views, the overcrowding of the r i c h lands of Kenya would be at an end and the natives could produce enough for t h e i r own needs and for the world markets as well. The.Kenya native i s learning to suspect that the white community alone stands i n the way of his a t t a i n i n g these ends. S i r Ronald Cameron, at his retirement i n 1935 sounded a warning to the administrators when he said: The people are becoming more enlightened day by day. The olouds of fear and s u p e r s t i t i o n are l i f t i n g , and the l i g h t of knowledge i s becoming increasingly strong; the acts of the Native administration are now quite properly exposed and open to public c r i t i c i s m * and i f we are to preserve t h i s system of Indirect Rule those who exercise authority must be f i t t e d to rule in accordance with modern standards of c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y . 2 When the natives of Kenya reach a c e r t a i n stage of enlighten-ment they w i l l no longer allow 17,000 Europeans to block them. It i s better that the obstacle be removed now. The white community must r e a l i z e i t s p o s i t i o n and co-operate with the administration. But i f and when Kenya becomes an Indirect Rule colony the warning of S i r Donald must be heeded. Indirect Rule, improperly administered, tends to be reactionary. And no reactionary native policy could l a s t long even to-day. For, 2. Padmore, G., How B r i t a i n Rules A f r l o a . London, 1936> 172. - 167 -in Kenya, to quote the H i l t o n Young Commission again, Processes have already been started which must i n -evitably lead to a stage when the native peoples w i l l demand some voice i n the management of th e i r own a f f a i r s . Wise statesmanship must prepare to lead the natives on a course of steady mental and moral advancement, so that when they r e a l i z e t h e i r power they may be properly q u a l i f i e d to use i t . 3 3. Cmd. 3234; (1929); 39. - 168 BIBLIOGRAPHY: Key to Arrangement I Primary Material A. Government Documents B. Parliamentary Debates (a) House of Lords (b) House of Commons II, Secondary Material A. General on Colonies and the British.Empire B. The,African Race Problems: General (a) h i s t o r i c a l (b) polemical C. On the Native Problem i n East A f r i c a and Kenya D. AnthropoLogical: General E. Anthropological: East A f r i c a P. On Special Phases of the Native ProbLem (a) Education (b) Labour III, PeriodioaI Material (Arranged i n order of date) A. General B. P a r t i c u l a r Phases of East African Problems (a) Education (b) Land (c) Labour (d) CLoser Union (e) Finance (f) Indian Question (g) Justice (h) S c i e n t i f i c Services (1) The S e t t l e r s ' Case i n Kenya - 169 -, Bibliography: Part I Primary Material A. Government Documents ( i n order of date) ( l i : Despatch to the O f f i c e r Administering the Government of the Kenya. Colony and Protectorate* Helating to Native Labour (Cmd. 1509); Presented to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, September 1921. (2) Indians i n Kenya (Cmd. 1922); Memorandum, Presented to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, July, 1923. The key "White Paper" to o f f i c i a l policy i n Kenya Colony. ;(The Duke of Devonshire's Memorandum) (3) Private Enterprise In B r i t i s h T ropical A f r i c a (Cmd. 2016); -Presented to Parliament by Command of His MaJesTiyT January, 1924. (4) Report of the East A f r i c a Commission (Cmd. 2387); Presented by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; A p r i l , 1925. The Ormsby-Gore Commission Report. Important. (5) 'Kenya; Compulsory Labour f o r Government Purposes (Cmd. 2464); Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of Hls^Majesty; July, 1925. (6) Kenya; Tours i n the Hatlve Reserves and Hative Developments i n Kenya (Qmd. 2573); Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His,Majesty; January 1926. (7) ,Kenya; Return Showing Qgown•.Grants of Land of over 5000 Acres In Extent (OmdT 2747); Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; October, 1926. ( 8) Future P o l i c y i n Regard to Eastern A f r i c a (Cmd. 2904); ' Presented by the Secretary of State f o r theUcTlonies to Parliament by Command of HlsMajesty; Hovember, 1927. (9) Report of the Commission on Closer Union of the Dependencies i n Eastern and""kentral A f r i c a (Cmd."^3ir); Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; January, 1929. The Lord Durham's Report of East A f r i c a . - 170 -{10).Report of S i r Samuel. Wilson on his V i s i t to East A f r i o a , 1929 (Omd.-gB^S); Presented by the Seoretary~oT~S^aEe f o r the Golonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; January 1929. (11) Memorandum on Hatlve P o l i c y in East A f r i c a (Cmd. 2578); Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of his Majesty; June, 1930. The t h i r d (Lord Passfield's) White Paper. .i (12) ;Statement of the Conclusions of His Majesty's Government i n the United Kingdom as Regards Closer Union In EasTT  A f r i o a (Cmd. 3574); Presented by the Secretary of state f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; June, 1930. (13) Report of the Joint Select Committee on Closer Union In East A f r i c a (H.' of 0. 156).,Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed; October 6, 1931: Vol. I i Report; Vol. I I ; Evidence; Vol. I l l ; Appendices. (14) Report of the Pinaneial Commissioner (Lord Moyne) on Certain Questlots i n Kenya (Cmd. 4093) Presented by the Seoretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; May, 1932. (15) Correspondence (1931-1932) a r i s i n g from the Report of the Joiht Select Committee on Closer Union in East A f r i c a (Cmd. 4 l T l ) ; Presented by the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; August 1932. (16) Report of the Kenya Land Commission (Cmd. 4556); Presented by the Seoretary of State for the colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; March, 1934. (17) Kenya Land Commission Report; Summary of Conclusions reached by His Majesty 7^ Government (Cmd. 4580); Presented by the Seoretary of State f o r the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty; May, 1934. - 171 -B. Parliamentary Debates , The debates of both the House of Lords and the House of Commons are a very f r u i t f u l source of information. Each year, around July, a debate takes place i n the House of Commons upon the Colonial Estimates. Kenya has often figured in these debates. A f i n e key to the debates Is the annual publication of the Empire Parliamentary Association known as 7The Journal of the Parliaments of the Empire." See also the monthly sections "Around the Colonial Empire" and '.'The Colonies in Parliament" In the magazine "Crown Colonist". - m -Bibliography: Part II Secondary Material A. General on,Colonies and the Empire (1) Amery, Honourable L. ;S., The Forward Yiew, London, Geoffrey Bles, 1935. A very readable book by one of the leading Imperial au t h o r i t i e s . Is p a r t i c u l a r l y concise and epigramatic on future of Indirect Rule, etc., i n section on De-pendent Empire. Read for the conservative view of the B r i t i s h Empire. (2) Barnes, Leonard. The Duty of Empire, London. Victor G o l l a n c z L t d . 1935. T h e - S o c i a l i s t 1 s view of the Empire and Imperialism. The f i r s t four chapters, on the philosophy behind the Imperial idea are a hopeless Chinese puzzle of fancy words. I f these are omitted the book i s very readable and thought provoking. Barnes* s t a t i s t i c s on Empire trade are most enlightening. (3) Barnes, Leonard, The Future of Colonies. London, Hogarth Press. 1936 (The Day to Day Pamphlets. No. 32) A short convincing monograph i n favour of a pooling of colonies under some international oontrol organi-zation. (4) Clark, Grover, A Place i n the Sun, New York, The MacMillan Co., 1936. Clark i s out to prove that no nation has or can p r o f i t from a c o l o n i a l empire. It i s readable but reminds one of the s t y l e , or lack of i t , of 0.0. Mclntyre. (5) Clarke, Grover, The Balance Sheets of Imperialism, Facts and,Figures about CoLonies; New York, Columbia University Press, 1936. A book of s t a t i s t i c a l tables aimed at bearing out the premises of the companion book "A Place i n the Sun". A l l r i g h t i f you're a believer in the s t a t i s -t i c a l method. (6) CoupLand, Reginald, The Empire in these Days; London, MaCMilianc & Co. Ltd., L935, A fi n e analysis of the B r i t i s h Empire. A set of lectures upon Empire topics. One of the best books to give the perspective of Kenya's place i n the Imperial scheme of things. Most.readable. - 173 -(7) E l l i o t , W.Y., The Hew B r i t i s h Empire; New York, McGraw-H i l l Book Co. Ltd., 1932. The same type of book as Trotter's but much longer. E l l i o t t ' s style i s pleasant. A well printed book with a good index. (8) Fawcett, C. B., A P o L i t i c a l Geography of the B r i t i s h Empire, London, The University of London Press Ltd., 1933. A very useful and interestingly written book. Good maps. (9) Lindley, M.P., The A c q u i s i t i o n and Government of Backward T e r r i t o r y in International Law: Being a Treatise on the Law and Practice Relating to CoLonial Expansion; London, Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd., 1926. A comprehensive treatise on the p r i n c i p l e s of the p o l i t i c a l science of colonies and mandates. Dry reading but a valuable source of information. Good on p r i n c i p l e s of mandates. (10) Merlvale, Herman; Lectures on Colonization and Colonies. Delivered before the University of Oxford i n 1839, 1840 and 1841 and reprinted in L861; London; Oxford University Press, Humphrey Mi l f o r d ; 1928. An interesting book as i t gives opinions of 100 years ago on the c o l o n i a l ethic. A wealth of state-ments which provoke thought on present ideas such as found i n Leonard Barnes, Leonard Ysooif, Scott Hearing. (11) Middleton, Lamar; The Rape of A f r i c a , Hew York, Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1936. "a study of one aspect of the gentle art of a c q u i s i -t i v e diplomacy—or, more simply, of hypocrisy"—A fa s c i n a t i n g book to read but h i s t o r i c a l l y useless. Leonard Woolf i s conservative compared to Middleton. (12) National Peace Council; Peace and the CoLonial Problem; London, 1935 (Speeches at National Peace Council Conference, Oct. 29, 1935) . A short readable pamphlet. The l a t e s t ideas on the problem of colonies from great authorities. (13) Nearing, Scott; The Twilight of Empire, An Economic In-terpretation of Imperialist Cycles, New York, The Vanguard Press, L930. The book can be judged from the t i t L e . Notable f o r poor l e t t e r press. A novel feature i s Hearing's l i s t of "quotable quotes" at the end of the text. (14) Trotter, R. G.; The B r i t i s h Empire-Commonwealth; New York; Henry Holt & Co.; 1932. The best short history and analysis of the Empire-Commonwealth. The idea of trusteeship is welL stated. Trotter's perspective i s p a r t i c u l a r l y broad. - 174 (15) Woolf, Leonard; Imperialism and C i v i l i z a t i o n ; Hew York, Harcourt, Brace &.Co., 1928. As i s usual with Woolf, B r i t a i n and other powers come i n for a great punishment. One f e e l s Woolf Is, as a polemic, f a r more successful than i s Leonard Barnes. (16) Lord O l i v i e r ; The Anatomy of A f r i c a n Misery; London; The Hogarth Press; 1927. Lord O l i v i e r i s one of the foremost i n the f i g h t f o r reform i n A f r i c a . This book, presents a powerr f u l case against imperialist e x p l o i t a t i o n . The sections on Kenya are clear and form a useful background f o r work on the colony. (17) Hoyal Ins t i t u t e of International A f f a i r s (Information Department); Memorandum; Part I, B r i t i s h Policy i n the East A f r i c a n Dependencies; Part I I , The Tanganyika Man-date; 1931. A most useful synopsis of the development of B r i t i s h Government p o l i c y i n East A f r i c a . - L75 Bibliography: Part II Secondary Material B. The. A f r i c a n Race Problems: General (a) H i s t o r i c a l approach (1) Evans, If o r L; The B r i t i s h i n Tropical A f r i c a ; An H i s t o r i c a l Outline; Cambridge; At the University Press; 1989. The best book of i t s type available. A l l excess material l e f t out. Evans i s best on the complicated story of the East A f r i c a Company. Hot much on late history of Kenya. (2) B u e l l , Raymond L e s l i e ; The Hatlve Problem i n A f r i c a ; New . York; The MacMillan Company; 1928; 2v. This work, published under the auspices of the Bureau of International Research of Harvard Uni-v e r s i t y and R a d c l i f f e College is the greatest yet on the subject. Buell though dry to read provides a wonderfuL store of information, fineLy indexed. Pages 258 to 425 are devoted to the problem of Kenya and should be read as a f u l l and impartial account of the hi s t o r y of Kenya and of i t s race problem. A most valuable work. (3) Lugard, S i r Fredrick (Lord;; The Dual Mandate i n B r i t i s h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; Cambridge; At the University Press; 1929. "The Dual Mandate" has been called the text-book of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l administration. Ho book better deserves the name. Lugard deals c l e a r l y with every phase of the problems that spring from the attempt to administer for white and black communities side by side. (4) Mair, Luey P., Hative P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a , London; George Rouit ledge and Sons Ltd. ; 1936. Miss Mair's book i s , i n a way, a condensation of the material found in Buell expressed, of course, in her own ooncise clear styLe. Miss Mair expresses her own opinions more f r e e l y than does Buell, how-ever. She attempts, perhaps, to crowd too much material into too small a spaoe. A useful section on Kenya i s rather a n t i - s e t t l e r (as indeed are the writings of most authors who know Kenya fi r s t - h a n d ) . (5) Perham, Margery; Ten Africans; London; Faber and Faber Ltd., . 1936. Ten Africans from alL corners of B r i t i s h A f r i c a t e l l their l i f e s tories and show us what the native thinks of the B r i t i s h administration and of B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s . - 176 -The most interesting book I have read on A f r i o a . One gets new slants on the race problem i n every page. One of the few books used that could be enjoyed by a person not deeply concerned with the race problem. Besides the letterpress i s superb. (6) Strickland, 0. P. ; Cooperation f o r A f r i o a ; London; Oxford University Press, Humphrey Mi l f o r d ; 1933. A small book but very thought-provoking. Strickland shows how the idea of cooperative s o c i e t i e s f i t s into the scheme of Indirect Bule, how i t can supply the foundation of western economy needed for such rule without destroying the concomitants of the t r a d i t i o n a l cultures. Style rather d i f f i c u l t . Lord Lugard puts his s e a l of approval on i t i n a fine preface. (7) Willoughby, Rev. W. C.; Race Problems i n the New A f r i c a ; A; Study of the Relations of Bantu and Britons i n those parts of Bantu A f r i o a which are under B r i t i s h Control; Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1923. A rather hard book to use as one f e e l s the author has a hard job s t i c k i n g to p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y . Deals mostly with South A f r i o a . - L77 -(b) Polemical approach (1) Padmore, George; How B r i t a i n Rules A f r i c a ; London, Wishart Brooks Ltd., 1936. Padmore i s a West A f r i c a n negro and, as well, a Communistically i n c l i n e d one. His opinion of B r i t a i n accords with his p o l i t i c s . nevertheless he speaks the thoughts of a steady-growing body of A f r i c a n opinion. That alone should warrant the reading of the book. The writing is very patchy. Some parts are very well written. Padmore has gathered much new material on native organizations to support his contentions. (2) . Smith, Edwin W., The Golden Stool, Some Aspect of the C o n f l i c t of Cultures i n Modern A f r i c a ; London, Edinburgh House Press; 1930. Smith's book i s one of the most readable of a l l on the clash of cultures. He has a simple and rather epigramatical s t y l e . Smith deals very l i t t l e with p a r t i c u l a r s and yet does what even Miss Mair has not done, he makes you f e e l as i f you know something of the problems he discusses a f t e r reading his book. This book. Miss Mair's and Margery Perham's Ten , Africans should be read as a ground work for the study of any phase of the race problem. (3) , Woolf, Leonard; Empire and Commerce i n A f r i c a , A Study of Economic Imperialism; London; George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd. for Labour Research Department n.d (1919 ?) Interesting to compare Woolfs account of Lugard's expedition to Uganda i n 1891 with the account given by A k i k i Hyabongo i n "Africa; Answers Back". This book i s more tiresome.than "Imperialism and C i v i l i -zation". (4) Hyabongo, H.H. Prince A k i k i ; A f r i c a Answers Back, London, George Routledge and Sons Ltd. 1936. A very readable book by an East African prince. Good balance of hi s t o r y and anecdote. He i s c r i t i c a l often of B r i t a i n ' s administration but seldom b i t t e r . A useful book aiming at showing how he and his people have fared under white government. - L78 -. Bibliography: Part II Secondary Material 0. Books on the Race ProbLem i n Kenya or East A f r i c a (1) , Huxley, ELspeth; White Man's Country; Lord Delamere and the Making of Kenya; London; MacMiLLan and Co. Ltd.; 1935, 2 v. The only book written i n defense of the Kenya s e t t l e r s and of p r o - s e t t l e r o f f i c i a l poLicies. Miss, Huxley's book i s a biography of Lord Delamere but is vaLuabLe as a history of settlement i n the colony. The authoress i s a fine Lawyer and makes a good job of a bad case. It i s a most fascinating book though and gives perhaps the best picture of the country ava i l a b l e . A b e a u t i f u l l y printed book. (2) Leakey, L.S.P.; Kenya: Contrasts and Problems; London, ! Methuen and' Co. Ltd.; 1936. "In many ways I am more a Kikuyu than an Englishman." Leakey was born and bred i n Kenya. While he i s a s e t t l e r himself he has a missionary's interest i n the A f r i c a n . In this f i n e l i t t l e book he teLLs of Lif e i n Kenya and, more important, of how the white and black can cooperate for mutuaL good. (3) Leys, Horman; Kenya; London; Leonard and V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Hogarth Press; 1926. A strong attack on the Kenya s e t t l e r s and a stronger indictment of o f f i c i a l poLicy i n the colony. Leys, l i k e MacGregor Ross, knows Kenya from long experience. "Kenya"' i s well-written and with a wealth of Infor-mation. One fe e l s that Leys' material must be handled with care. His evidence i s too one-sided. Some of his s t a t i s t i c a l tables must be checked. S t a t i s t i c s can be made to prove anything. (4) Leys, Horman; A Last Chance i n Kenya; London; The Hogarth Press; 1931. Perhaps Leys f e l t his f i r s t book was too long to get the e f f e c t he wished. So this shorter and more out-spoken book was.written. I f any book could s t i r public fee Ling in favour of reform i n Kenya this shouLd. (5) Ross, W. MacGregor; Kenya from Within; London; George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd.; 1927. Ross, l i k e Leys crusades for reform. A Long but very readable book. In some ways more e f f e c t i v e than either of Leys'. A fine source of information. Y/eil - L79 footnoted and indexed. Boss pat a tremendous amount of s c i e n t i f i c study into the preparation of this book. (6) HuxLey, Ju l i a n ; A f r i c a View; London; Ohatto and Windas; 1936. A wonderful book both f o r information and f o r i n -teresting reading. Huxley's book has a s t y l e f a r ahead of that of anything else I read on East A f r i c a . The way he writes down his thoughts during periods of r e f l e c t i o n on what he has seen i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . The only author I have read who can give a page to one sentence and yet be clear and e f f e c t i v e . 180 -Bibliography: Part II Secondary Material P. Anthropological Works: .General (1) A l l i e r , Raoal; The Mind of the Savage Translated by Pred Rothwell; London; G. BelL & Sons; 1929. An interesting book on "savage" psychology. Used Chapter I, The Rise and P a l l of the Theory of the Hoble Savage, especially. A very general work and does not deal p a r t i c u l a r l y with the African men-t a l i t y . (2) Dougal, J.W.C.; The Characteristics of A f r i c a n Thought, London; Published f o r the International i n s t i t u t e of Afri c a n Languages and Cultures; by the Oxford University Press; 1932. A most useful l i t t l e monograph. It i s short and concise. Good material e s p e c i a l l y f o r one who knows l i t t l e about psychology. (3) Driberg, J. H.; At home with the Savage London; Geo. Routledge & Sons Ltd.; 1932. Driberg i s a Cambridge ethnology lecturer. His book, one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g ontthe subject deals with the s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l and economic organizations of "savages" i n general. The book i s easy to read but hard to use f o r information as the index i s only f a i r . Rather d i f f i c u l t to use too f o r study of any one people. (4) Seligman, C.G.; Races of A f r i c a ; London; Thornton Butter-worth Ltd.; 1930 (Home University Library of Modern Know-ledge. Perhaps the most useful small work on the ethnography of A f r i c a . For a small book i t has a f i n e and r e a l l y useful index. (5) Westermann, Diedrich; The Afr i c a n Today; published f o r the International Institute of A f r i c a n Languages and Cultures; London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1934, The A f r i c a n Today might be caLied a handbook of the pri n c i p l e s of functional anthropology as applied by the Institute of which Westermann i s a di r e c t o r . Written with s i m p l i c i t y and conciseness. Easy to use. It shows the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Indirect Rule In a new l i g h t . - 181 -Bibliography: Part II .Secondary Material E. Anthropology: East A f r i c a (1) Brown, G. Gordon and Hutt, A. McD. Bruce; Anthropology i n Action, An experiment i n the Iringa D i s t r i c t of the Iringa Province, Tanganyika T e r r i t o r y ; London; Humphrey Mi l f o r d , for the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures; 1935. As the t i t l e shows, the book describes the way i n which the principles of the Institute were put into practice i n this experiment. More a series of small essays than a closely integrated work. Yet gives a f i n e picture of the native l i f e i n i t s phases -which clashed with European ways, (£), Thurnwald, Richard u. and Hilde; Black and White i n East A f r i c a ; London; George Routledge and Sons Ltd. Mr. and Mrs. Thurnwald combine to write this book on East A f r i c a n r a c i a l contacts which i s notable for two features (1) the most accurate and s c i e n t i f i c d e t a i l s of their anthropological studies (2) poor English. It i s a useful book, especlalLy.on native education. l o t a book one enjoys reading. Useful index. Chapter on Women by Hilde Thurnwald. - 182 -Bibliography: Part II Secondary Material P. On Special Phases of the Native Problem (a); Native Education (1) Fletcher, B a s i l A.; Education and CoLonial Development; London; Methuen and Co.; 1936. A most useful L i t t l e book by a Dalhousie Professor. DeaLs clea r l y with the p r i n c i p l e s of native education. (2) Jones, Thos. Jesse; Education i n East A f r i c a , A Study of East, Central and Southern A f r i c a by the Second Af r i c a n Educational Commission under the auspices of the PheLps-Stokes Fund, i n cooperation with the International Edu-cation Board. Report prepared by Thos. Jesse Jones; London, Edinburgh House Press; n.d. (L924 ?) A r e a l l y fine study with an appreciation of the problems of adjustment that face the A f r i c a n . Un-fortunately the l a t e s t s p e c i f i c study of Kenya edu-r cation available. A most useful book. (3) Murray, A. victor; The School i n the Bush, A c r i t i c a l study of the theory and practice of Native Education i n A f r i c a ; Toronto; Green and Co.; 1929. As the author says, his book i s c r i t i c a l . But Murray's c r i t i c i s m of education under Indirect Rule is constructive. This book is most inter e s t i n g to read. The weak points of education under i n d i r e c t Rule are shown up. Murray takes a narrower view of Indirect Rule than does, say, JuLian Huxley. Murray thinks of i t as a type of governing mechanism, Huxley associates i t with a l l aspects of A f r i c a n l i f e . - 183 (b) Native Labour (1).Brown, Major G. St. J. Orde; The A f r i c a n Labourer; Oxford; University Press, f o r the International I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and Cultures; 1933. Quality t y p i c a l of a l l I. I. of A..L. and C. books. A careful analysis of Af r i c a n attitude to white ern-plpyment and of the question of labour supply and demand. Ties labour question up with other phases of native l i f e . - 184 Bibliography: Part III Per i o d i c a l Material (arranged i n order of date) A, General (1) Shaw, Plora (Lady Lugard); B»y l u r s i n g the Colonies; Fortnightly Beview; Vol. 46, September 1889; 367-79. A f j i e and learned c r i t i c i s m of c o l o n i a l o f f i c e apathy towards the development of the colonies. (2) , Lugard, S i ^ Frederick; The Rise of Our East A f r i c a n Empire; Blackwood's Magazine: Vol.'86 ; December 1893; 876-91. A good account of early B r i t i s h enterprise i n East A f r i o a . (3) Oliver, Sydney,, Long Views and. Short in Black and White; Contemporary. Review; Vol. 90; October 1906; 491. (4) , Grant,, W.L.; The Administration of A f r i o a ; United Empire; . Vol. I; 1910; 283-87. A f i n e plea for the anthropological approach to the stfudy of the native problems. (5) Marriot, J.A.R.; The Evolution of Colonial S e l f Government; Fortnightly. Review; Vol. 92; 1912; 395-409. ' . Deals c h i e f l y with Canada!s evolution but i s c e r t a i n l y pertinent to the Kenya question at present. (6) , Seton-Xarr, H.;; Some.. B r i t i s h East, A f r i c a Problems;, Nine-teenth. Century; Vol. 71; 1912; 312-31. A poor a r t i c l e . The Masai: t "useless and even mischievous cumberers of the earth." (7) Temple, C. L.; The Government of Native, Races: Quarterly '. Review: Vol. 230,. No. 457, October 1918, 303-18. (8) "Quail"; The Native i n B r i t i s h East Africa;> Contemporary  Review; Vol. 113, 1918; 459. A^fing^and useful a r t i c l e . Good on native problem as i t then was. (9) , B. H.; B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; Contemporary Review; Vol. 118; 1920; 389-99. A_.f ine y l u c i d a r t i c l e showing the danger of too much s e t t l e r influence i n Kenya Twhich had just attained c o l o n i a l status). - 185 r (10) Lucas, S i r 0.; Tropical Dependencies; Edinburgh Review; No. 480; 1922; 263-282. " "~ A aseful review of Lord Lugard's Daal' Mandate. (11) Powys, Llewelyn; B r i t a i n ' s Imperial Problems i n Kenya Polony; Current History; Vol. 18; 1923; 999. A good outline of the s i t u a t i o n a f t e r the 1923 White Paper. Defends 0. 0. administration. (12) , Johnston, S i r H.; Race Problems i n the New. A f r i c a ; • ' Foreign A f f a i r s (N. Y.): Vol. 2; June 15, 1924; 598. (13) : Wyndham,. S i r Hugh;;The. Colour Problem in A f r i c a , Journal -* of the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e of International A f f a i r s ; Vol.~4; July 1925, 174. F a i r l y good. Assumes fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n between black and white mentalities. (14) Lewin, Evans; The Black Cloud i n A f r i c a ; Foreign A f f a i r s \ (N. Y.); Vol. 4; JulyL 1926; 367.1:0. ~ ~ (15) B u e l l , R. L.; The Destiny of East Africa;, Foreign A f f a i r s ' (N. Y,); VoL. 6; A p r i l 1928; 408-26. — — - — A very fine a r t i c l e . Should be read for material on the idea that f'The future of East A f r i c a may l i e with the League of Nations". (16) Hartley, 0.. Grattan; A f r i c a : , W i l l It be a Slum Continent?; New Republic; Vol. 55; August 8, 1928; 309-10. A di a t r i b e against exploitation. Hartley's second name makes one doubt his motives. (17) Dubois, H.M.; Assimilation ou Adaptation; A f r i c a ; Vol. 11, January 1929; 1. Dubois shows the profound e f f e c t on the A f r i c a n of his r e a l i z a t i o n of "sa propre d i g n l t l et ses dr o i t s , comme portion de l'humanlt'e.". (18) , Delmege, J.; Native P o l i c i e s i n White A f r i c a ; Nineteenth [ Centuryy Vol. 106; July-December 1929; 163-175. Considers H i l t o n Young Report and how It supported , White, Paper p o l i c i e s of native administration. (19) Lord O l i v i e r , B r i t a i n ' s Trust i n A f r i c a ; Contemporary I Review; Vol. 135; 1929; 273-81. (20) A. W.; The East A f r i c a Problem; Journal of the A f r i c a n , Society; Vol. 30; 1931; 104. A masterly review of J. H. Driberg's 1930 book of the same t i t l e . (21) Haydon, Ralston; The Native Problem i n B r i t i s h A f r i o a ; Current History; Vol. 31; January 1930; 788-89. . Shows how the C. 0. can s t i l l s e t t l e the Kenya , Native policy from London. 1 - 186 -(22) Huxley, J u l i a n ; The Pr i n c i p l e s of Indirect Rule in A f r l -' can Administration; Nineteenth Century; Vol. 108; July-December 1930; 753-59. A fine a r t i c l e . Most useful. (23) Baron Lugard; The Native Problem in East Africa;. Foreign • A f f a i r s (N. Y.); Vol. 9; October 1930; 65-78. As with Huxley's a r t i c l e , the author i s s u f f i c i e n t recommendation. (24) The, Venerable Archdeacon Owen; Some. Thoughts on Native Development i n East A f r i c a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society , Vol. 30, July, 1931. — . ~ "~ ~ " (25) , ?'Thei Developments i n the Relations between White and .Black in A f r i c a t i 9 T l - 3 1 j by Dr., J. H. Oldham"; Journal of the African Society;,. Vol. 32; A p r i l 1933; 160-170. , A review reprinted from the "Twenty Year Report 1 of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1911-19311' by Dr. Jesse , Jones. 1 (26) Mair, Lucy P.; Colonial Administration as a Science; Journal of the Af r i c a n Society; Vol. 32; Oct. 1933; 366-71. " ' : A fine and useful a r t i c l e by an authority. (27) Me Hand, Frank; East African Kaleidoscope; Nineteenth •i Century; Vol. 115; January-June 1934; 525. "We have reached the stage at whioh we must cut out our old ideas of 'c h i l d races,'". A useful a r t i c l e . -(28) Rattray, Captain, R. S.; Present Tendencies of A f r i c a n Colonial Government; Journal of the Af r i c a n Societies; Vol. 33; January 1934; 22-36. ^ t h o u g h t provoking a r t i c l e in poor s t y l e . (29) Perham, Margery; Some Problems of Indirect, Rule i n A f r i c a Journal of the Afr i c a n Society /Supplement); Vol. 34; Ap. 1935. Reprinted from Journal of the Royal Society of the .Arts, May 18, 1934. Very useful. (30) ''Native A f f a i r s i n Kenya: Annual Report of the Native A f f a i r s Department Kenya, CoLony and Protectorate, 1932. Journal of the African Society; Vol. 33; July 1934, ' 464-09. " — ~ ' A Review by a correspondent. (31) Thompson, R.; Grievances i n Kenya; Current History; Vol, 43, December 1935; 310. (32) Kenyatta, J,; Imperialism—Kenya Variety; New Statesman and Nation; Vol. 11; June 27, 1936; 1022. - 1-87 -(33) MacMillan, Prof. W.M; Changing A f r i c a ; Manchester Guardian  Weekly; Friday, July 24, 1936; 76. ! " (34.) ."The U n i f i c a t i o n of the Colonial Service"; Crown Colonist; .August 1936; 345. One of a fi n e s e r i e s of e d i t o r i a l a r t i c l e s on the subject.. (35) ;"Do Colonies Pay?"; The Spectator; August 14, 1936. A c r i t i c i s m of the analysis i n Grover Clark's books. (36) Ormsby-Gore, W.; The Colonial Empire Under Review; Crown i Colonist; August 1936; 365. (37) "The Paith of an Englishman"{ Crown Colonist; December 1936; 532. E d i t o r i a l excerpts from S i r Edward Grigg's book, of that t i t l e . (38) , Lord Lugard; Some Colonial Problems of Today; United-Empire : December 1936; 669. """" ^ Puts the case f o r separate administration of the native and s e t t l e r communities. Good a r t i c l e . - 188 Bibliography: Part III :B, P a r t i c a l a r Phases of East A f r i c a n Problems a. Education (1) Lord Lugard; Problems of Equatorial A f r i o a ; Journal of the Royal Institute of International A f f a i r s ; Vol. 6; July 1927; 219. " ~~ ~~ A very useful a r t i c l e . (2) Amery, L. S. and Ormsby-Gore, W.; Problems and Development i n A f r i c a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 28, July 1929; 328. Amery i s good on education under Indirect Rule. (3) .Smith, Rennle; Education i n B r i t i s h A f r i c a ; Journal of the Afrioan Society; Vol. 51, 1932. In four parts; I and I I , 54-77; i j l , 133-148; IV, 255S282. Fine material. (4) Lord Lugard; Education and Race Relations; Journal of the .African Society; Vol. 32; January 1933; 1-11. (5) Murray, V i c t o r ; Education under Indirect Rule; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society;.Vol. 34, July 1955; 228. Constructive c r i t i c i s m of this education. b. Land (1) Hindlip, Lord; B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; Nineteenth,Century; ,Vol. 54; July-December 1903; 903-907. (2) E l i o t , S i r Charles; The East A f r i c a Protectorate as a European Colony; Nineteenth Century; Vol. 56; July-December 1904; 370-85. An Interesting a r t i c l e by the man who started land a l i e n a t i o n in Kenya. (3) Grigg, S i r Edward; Land P o l i c y and Economic Development in Kenya; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 31; January 1932; 12. . (.4) Leys, N.; Report of the Kenya Land Commission; New States- man and Nation: Vol. 8; July 28, 1934; 116, (.5) "Treatment of Child Races"; Manchester Guardian: Friday, June 12, 1936; 467, Col. 2. - 189 * o. Lab oar (1) .Rathbone, Edward P.; The Native Labour Problem; Nineteenth ' Century; Vol. 54; July-December 19G3; 404-413. (2) Johnston, S i r Harry; The East A f r i c a Problem; Nineteenth  Century; Vol. 64; July-December 1908; 567-87. ; : • rCbod on white man's attitude to manual labour i n tropics. (3) Harris, John H.; Making the "Lazy Nigger", Work; Contempor- ary Review; Vol. 105, June 1914; 819-25.-A diatribe against the s e t t l e r s who gave evidence before the East A f r i c a Labour Commission i n 1914. An early Norman Leys. (4) "Native Labour i n Kenyaw4 International Labour Review; Vol. 14, November 1926; 728-31. " : ~ ' Useful s t a t i s t i c s on labour demand and supply. (5) The Conference of Governors of B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ; International Laboar Review; Vol. 14; March 1927. (6) Labour i n Kenya; International Labour Review; Vol. 17, 1 A p r i l 1928; 565-71. Comments on Labour Commission Report of 1927. S t a t i s t i c s useful. (7) Smuts, J. ;C.; Af r i c a n Settlement; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 29; January 1930; 117. A reprint of Smuts";Rhodes Lecture at Oxford. (8) Native Labour i n Kenya, 1932; International Labour Review; .Vol. 30; September 1934; 374-78. ' . ! (9) Native Labour i n Kenya i n 1933; International Labour  !' Review; Vol. 32; July 1935; 104-109. " ^" Comments on Native A f f a i r s Department Annual Report, (10) Reade, L; Ethiopia and Kenya; New Republic; Vol. 84; October.2, 1935; 211-12. A tirade against B r i t a i n . (11) Workmen's Compensation i n A f r i c a ; Crown Colonist: May, 1936; 208. An e d i t o r i a l summary of the views on the subject of the Joint Committee of the East A f r i c a Section of the London Chamber of Commerce and the Joint East A f r i c a Board, (12) Browne, G. St. J. Orde; Black Man finds a Job; C h r i s t i a n  Science Monitor; July 29, 1936; 4. - 190 -a. Closer Union (1) Benson, W.; Closer Union i n A f r l e a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n  Society; Vol. 30; October 1931; 339."""" " ~ " " ,mr~- •' "A fi n e a r t i c l e on the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the demand for closer union. (2) Tate, H. R.; The Report of the Joint Select Committee on Closer Union in l a s t A f r i c a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n  Society; Vol. 31, January 1932; 38-53. ,A review of the findings. (3) . Noble, P. S. L i v i e ; Closer Union i n A f r i c a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 31; January 1932; 7 7 - 7 9 T ^ "Xn attack on Benson's a r t i c l e . e. Finance (1) Holm, Alex; The Economic Posit i o n of Kenya; Grown Colonist; A p r i l 1936; 163. (2) S i r Alan Pirn's Report "Financial P o s i t i o n and System of Taxation of Kenya" Crown Colonist; October 1936, 434. A fi n e outline of the 300 page Pim Report. (3) The Pim Report; Crown Colonist; November 1936, 505. Comments on mixed reception of report. f. Indian Question (1) The Indian Problem In East A f r i c a ; Round Table; Vol. 12; No. 46* March 1922; 339-361. Fine material. (2) Protherom Michael; Kenya Controversy; Contemporary Review; Vol. 123; February 1923; 198-204. A good outline of the 1922 controversy. Rather n o n - c r i t i c a l . (3) Watkins, Olga; Indian Question; Fortnightly Review; Vol. 102; 1923; 95-03. Anti-Indian. Idea of triangular problem. (4) Stone, F.G.; The Kenya Conference; Nineteenth Century; Vol. 93, May 1923; 767-75. - L91 -g. Justice (1) :Burke, H. Lardner; Trial.By Jury i n ear East A f r i c a n Colonies; Fortnightly Review; Vol. 91; 191£; 67-81. (2) Lord Raglan; Crime and Punishment i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ; Nineteenth Century; Vol. 93; 1914; 575-82. Questions wisdom of putting j u s t i c e too much i n hands of Native Authorities. (3) Browne, St. J. Orde; B r i t i s h Justice and the A f r i c a n ; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 32; A p r i l 1933; 148-159; Shows how such ju s t i c e can be misapplied i n A f r i c a ; Also deals with Bushe Report (Cmd. 4623). (4) Hamilton, S i r Robert and "an E x - D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r ; Criminal Justice in East A f r i c a ; Report on the Administration of Justice in Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika (Cmd. 46£5J; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; vol. 34; January 1935; 7-18. For and against the Bushe recommendations. (5) Bushe, H. Grattan; Criminal Justice in East A f r i c a ; Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 34; A p r i l 1935; 117-28. A f i r s t class a r t i c l e by the author of Cmd. 4623. (6) Venerable Archdeacon Owen; Juvenile Criminals i n East A f r i c a ; Manchester Guardian Weekly; September 11, 1936; 219. h. S c i e n t i f i c Servioes (1) Gregory, J. W.; Science and Administration i n East A f r i c a ; Nature; Vol. 115; May 16, 1925; 753;4. (2) Ormsby-Gore, Rt. Hon.W.; A g r i c u l t u r a l Research: Journal of the A f r i c a n Society; Vol. 33; January 1934; 18-21. 1. The S e t t l e r ' s Case i n Kenya (1) . Johnston, Sir. H.; The White Man's Place i n A f r i c a ; Nine-. ' !' teenth Century; Vol. 55; January-June 1904, 937-46. (2) H a l l , S i r Daniel; Native. Settlement i n Kenya; Nineteenth • t Century; Vol. 107; January-June 1930; 70. States a poor case f o r increased delegation of C.6. powers to the l o c a l l e g i s l a t u r e 1 1 (3) Kenya: The S e t t l e r ' s Case; Round Table; Vol. 26; December ; 1935; 82-97. A fine l u c i d a r t i c l e . - 192 * (4) Scott, Lord-Francis; On His Mission f o r the Kenya Colonist; • Crown Colonist; July 1920-; 301. 

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