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Native art and school curriculum : Saskatchewan Aboriginal artists' perspectives Lysyk, Linda Marie 1990

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NATIVE ART AND SCHOOL CURRICULUM: SASKATCHEWAN ABORIGINAL ARTISTS' PERSPECTIVES by LINDA MARIE LYSYK A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 (§) Linda Marie Lysyk, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A u g u s t 22, 1990  DE-6. (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s study presents A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on the study of Native a r t i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The case study i s a n a t u r a l i s t i c i n q u i r y t h a t employs ethnographic techniques to i n t e r v i e w nine Saskatchewan a r t i s t s , f i v e females and four males. O v e r a l l , the a r t i s t s agree on having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs, e s p e c i a l l y f o r Native s t u d e n t s . A l l the a r t i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t A b o r i g i n a l peoples should be i n v o l v e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r a r t i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The a r t i s t s show t h a t content, and m a t e r i a l s , may or may not be t r a d i t i o n a l . The a r t i s t s p r e f e r an observing and m o d e l l i n g approach to t e a c h i n g bead and l e a t h e r work, and to t e a c h i n g drawing and p a i n t i n g . The male a r t i s t s , p r i m a r i l y , support a r e s e a r c h approach f o r s t u d y i n g the v a s t , d i v e r s e , and complex a r t of indigenous peoples. As w e l l as l e a r n i n g about the a r t , the a r t i s t s s t r e s s l e a r n i n g £r_oj_L the a r t i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r y , ecology, and about a r t from a non-Western p e r s p e c t i v e . The words, s t o r i e s , and views of a l l the a r t i s t s emphasize t h a t a r t i s a dynamic p a r t of A b o r i g i n a l peoples' l i v e s and c u l t u r e s ; one which they are w i l l i n g to e x p l a i n and share. Native a r t i s a r i c h resource f o r s c h o o l i i i c u r r i c u l u m . I t I s a r e s o u r c e t h a t must be and can be snap by A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . l v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i l Acknowledgements v i I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 R a t i o n a l e and Need f o r the Study 1 Purpose 2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 2 Methodology and L i m i t a t i o n s 3 I I . L i t e r a t u r e Review 5 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 For Native Students 6 For Non-Native Students 8 For A l l Students 11 Con c l u s i o n 15 I I I . Methodology 17 I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 A r t i s t S e l e c t i o n and Interviews 17 Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s 20 IV. N a r r a t i v e s 22 I n t r o d u c t i o n 22 Bonnie 22 Maxine 29 S h i r l e y 36 Mary 44 Grace 52 Gerry 60 David 68 Charles 75 Alan 84 V. D i s c u s s i o n and A n a l y s i s 94 A n a l y s i s 94 Viewpoints on Having Native A r t 95 i n School Programs D e s i r a b l e Content and Approaches 98 to Native A r t i n Curr i c u l u m VI. Summary and Con c l u s i o n s 110 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e 115 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Future Research 116 V R e f e r e n c e s 117 Appendix A 122 Appendix B 123 Appendix C 124 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank her a d v i s o r , Dr. Graeme Chalmers, and committee members, Dr. Jean Barman and Jo-ann A r c h i b a l d , f o r t h e i r h elp and guidance i n the course of t h i s study. Deep a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o goes to the a r t i s t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. i I. INTRODUCTION RATIONALE AND NEED FOR THE STUDY The Saskatchewan Department of Educat i o n i d e n t i f i e s the study of Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t c u l t u r e s as a p r i o r i t y f o r a l l students i n Saskatchewan s c h o o l s . Current c u r r i c u l u m reform, and p o l i c y , i n c l u d e i n c o r p o r a t i n g Native content i n sc h o o l programs, one of which i s a r t s e d u c a t i o n (Saskatchewan Education, 1989, A p r i l ) . The study of c u l t u r e , as i t r e l a t e s to a r t , i s c o n s i s t e n t with the p o s i t i o n of a number of a r t educators (eg. Chalmers, 1987; Grigsby, 1977; 1986; McFee, 1986). The a r t of Indigenous peoples has a long h i s t o r y of being s t u d i e d by non-Natives, and presented i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a from the Western p e r s p e c t i v e . P r e s e n t a t i o n of the Native p e r s p e c t i v e on the study of Native a r t i s needed. A r t i s t s of Native a n c e s t r y are one group who can provide i n s i g h t i n t o Native a r t , and help d e f i n e i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n sch o o l programs. A r e s e a r c h I n q u i r y with s e l e c t e d a r t i s t s i n Saskatchewan would be r e l e v a n t to the purpose of d e f i n i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Native a r t . 2 PURPOSE The purpose o£ t h i s i n q u i r y Is to present Native p e r s p e c t i v e s , from w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n i n Saskatchewan, on the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of Native a r t i n s c h o o l programs. By d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g A b o r i g i n a l peoples i n that p a r t of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m which r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r c u l t u r e s , a more knowledgeable approach to the study of Native a r t i n s c h o o l s can be b u i l t . T h i s r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y can inform the f i e l d of Canadian a r t e d u c a t i o n , and a s s i s t c u r r i c u l u m development i n Saskatchewan. DEFINITION OF TERMS A r t : a way of s e e i n g , and knowing (Highwater, 1983; McFee, 1988; p. 263). C u l t u r e : "... i n c l u d e s both the processes of knowing and a c q u i r i n g knowledge and d i s p l a y i n g such meaning through language, a r t , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , of v a l u e s , b e l i e f systems, and s o c i a l r o l e s . C u l t u r e i s learned as p r e p a t t e r n e d , but i s used to address new s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s always i n some degree emergent; i t i s t r a n s m i t t e d and r e c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n somewhat d i f f e r e n t ways" (McFee, 1988, p. 263). I n d i a n : people of indigenous descent, l e g a l l y d e f i n e d 3 i n Canada as s t a t u s and non-status. indigenous peoples: the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of t h a t land c o l o n i z e d by Europeans. Interchangeable with the terms " A b o r i g i n a l , " and "Native peoples." A l s o , as i d e n t i f i e d by Native w r i t e r s and as a s i g n of r e s p e c t , words r e f e r r i n g to A b o r i g i n a l peoples or t h i n g s A b o r i g i n a l are c a p i t a l i z e d . I n u i t : a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t group of Indigenous peoples. M e t i s : a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t group of Indigenous peoples. N a t i v e : Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t . When used w i t h i n the context of Saskatchewan, r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y to Indian and Me t i s . Native a r t : " r e f l e c t s a c e r t a i n system of thought which enables i t to be i d e n t i f i e d as such" (Pakes, 1987a, p. 3); i n other words, r e f e r s to a r t produced by those of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y . Non-Native: those not of Native a n c e s t r y . METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS To achieve the r e s e a r c h purpose, the method i s q u a l i t a t i v e i n nature. I t r e l i e s on ethnographic techniques, p r i m a r i l y the Interview. A r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y l i v i n g i n an area of c e n t r a l Saskatchewan were 4 i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n was chosen because of the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with the area and with the a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y of Native peoples l i v i n g t h e r e . The r e s e a r c h i s a n a t u r a l i s t i c I n q u i r y t h a t i s presented as a case study, s p e c i f i c to the area i n which the r e s e a r c h f l e l d w o r k was conducted. The r e s e a r c h e r , a non-Native, worked with those whose c u l t u r e s are not her own. T h e r e f o r e , the outcome of the study i s l i m i t e d to her understanding as gleaned from the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c , and the p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h experience. 5 I I . LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION Th i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e draws on p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h , o p i n i o n , and c u r r i c u l u m development to a s c e r t a i n Native views as they p e r t a i n to the study of Native a r t i n s c h o o l s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s framed by three study c o n t e x t s : f o r Native s t u d e n t s , f o r non-Native stud e n t s , and for a l l s t u d e n t s . The study of c u l t u r e , as i t r e l a t e s to a r t , i s one of the major contemporary developments w i t h i n the a r t e d u c a t i o n f i e l d ( F a r l e y & Neperud, 1988). In a r e c e n t review of t h i r t y years of s e l e c t i v e r e s e a r c h and theory from v a r i o u s f i e l d s a p p l i c a b l e to the c u l t u r a l dimensions of t e a c h i n g a r t , McFee p o i n t s out t h a t "Western p e r s p e c t i v e s and ways of knowing are inadequate f o r t h e o r i z i n g about non-Western a r t " (1988, p. 232). Comparatively, A l f r e d Young Man, a Native a r t i s t - e d u c a t o r i n A l b e r t a , s t a t e s : Bourgeois i n s t i t u t i o n s (and ideology) .. are o v e r l y concerned with u n i v e r s a l i z i n g , a h i s t o r i c a l , c o n f l i c t - f r e e , o b j e c t p r i v i l e g i n g assumptions (1988, p. 28) . Developing a Native p e r s p e c t i v e i s no s m a l l order, a p e r s p e c t i v e which i s as imperative as i t i s e s s e n t i a l 6 to an understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of Native a r t (1988, p. 26). i n Saskatchewan, c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m reform i n c l u d e s a focus on the study of indigenous c u l t u r e s of Canada, one of the s i x g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r development of the a r t s e d u c a t i o n program, which c o n s i s t s of dance, drama, music, and v i s u a l a r t , reads: "The c u r r i c u l u m should i n c l u d e Indian, Metis and I n u i t content and p e r s p e c t i v e s " (Saskatchewan Education, 1988a, November, p. 4; 1988b, November, p. 4). S i m i l a r e f f o r t s to in c l u d e Native a r t content and views i n a r t education c u r r i c u l u m (Rapp, 1982; Schubert, 1988) and i n o v e r a l l c u r r i c u l u m ( N o v e l l i , 1990) are o c c u r r i n g i n other p a r t s of North America. FOR NATIVE STUDENTS The Native view comes through most s t r o n g l y i n support for Native students s t u d y i n g Native a r t (eg. New, 1972; Stump, 1973a; Zastrow, 1977). Research p r o v i d e s some evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t Native students* s e l f esteem can i n c r e a s e . Berger (1983) designed and taught a four-month a r t program i n a Vancouver Native Indian a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l . The program centred on Kwakiutl c u l t u r e , and was designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness and enhance s e l f esteem i n f i f t h t o seventh grade Native s t u d e n t s . Post t e s t responses 7 showed no s i g n f i c a n t change i n s e l f esteem, but "students d i d show changes i n a t t i t u d e s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y e x h i b i t e d p o s i t i v e behavior" (p. i i ) . Although Berger's study documented l i t t l e change, s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s from a s i m i l a r study based on East Indian c u l t u r e showed a more s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n indo-Canadlan elementary school s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i r own group ( I j a z & I j a z , 1981). When l i n k i n g s c h o o l programming and Native c u l t u r e s , Verna K i r k n e s s , a s t r o n g Native v o i c e w i t h i n the Canadian e d u c a t i o n community says: To ensure s u r v i v a l as Indigenous peoples, i t Is imperative t h a t the approach be based on 'education i n t o c u l t u r e 1 and not ' c u l t u r e i n t o e d u c a t i o n ' as i s commonly p r a c t i s e d today. I t i s a l s o necessary f o r Indigenous peoples to seek d i r e c t i o n from w i t h i n r a t h e r than from the Western world as s u r e l y 'the answers are w i t h i n us' (1986, p. 1). Young Man, s i m i l a r l y comments: "The t r e n d i s once again toward d e v e l o p i n g an a r t that serves the needs of Indian s o c i e t i e s and e d u c a t i o n " (1988, p. 28). Native Americans' suggestions f o r the development of a Southwest American Indian a r t e d u c a t i o n secondary c u r r i c u l u m for Native s t u d e n t s , r e v e a l e d t h a t c u r r i c u l u m should i n c l u d e "courses which d e a l with 'Indianness' [and] a t y p i c a l core 8 of f i n e a r t s c o u r s e s , " such t h a t students c o u l d compete " i n the r e a l world" (Schubert, 1988, pp. 201-202). S i m i l a r l y , S turgess, a non-Native i n s t r u c t o r who taught a u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r t course i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r need of the B e l l a B e l l a Indian women was "to l e a r n techniques and the mastery of new m a t e r i a l s " (1984, p. 20). Perhaps d e s c r i p t i v e of a r t education i n t o c u l t u r e i s the approach taken by L l o y d New, of the Cherokee t r i b e and a key f i g u r e with the i n s t i t u t e of American Indian A r t program i n Santa Fe, New Mexico. I t s primary goal i s to give Native students "a b a s i s f o r genuine p r i d e and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e " (1972, p. 413). A f t e r o r i e n t a t i o n to the h i s t o r y and a e s t h e t i c s of Indigenous peoples' accomplishments and c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the a r t s , students are encouraged to i n v e s t i g a t e and develop w i t h i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l framework through study and c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n (New, 1972). FOR NON-NATIVE STUDENTS With such a s t r o n g emphasis on Native students s t u d y i n g t h e i r a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e , i t seems t h a t Native support f o r non-Native students to study the a r t i s almost i n c i d e n t a l . I t has been g e n e r a l l y viewed as a way f o r students to develop t o l e r a n c e and understanding of A b o r i g i n a l peoples 9 and c u l t u r e s (Goddard, 1988). C u r r e n t l y though, there appears to be a s h i f t i n p e r c e p t i o n from non-Native students l e a r n i n g about Native a r t to l e a r n i n g from Native a r t , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the environment ( v e r r a l l , 1988). Nature i s an Important i n f l u e n c e i n the a r t (McMaster, 1981; Stump, 1973b; Zastrow, 1979). Stronger support f o r non-Native students s t u d y i n g Native a r t comes from a broader p e r s p e c t i v e and those a r t educators who promote the study of a r t w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l context as a way to understand s o c i e t y i t s e l f (eg. Andrews, 1984; Chalmers, 1984; Duncum, 1987; Grigsby, 1977; 1986; McFee, 1986). Research conducted i n Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g about the a r t of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s can c o n t r i b u t e to elementary s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r c u l t u r a l understanding (Andrews, 1983; Cipywynk, 1987; I j a z & I j a z , 1981). Various t h e o r e t i c a l approaches have been put forward, such as: c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d methodology (Andrews, 1980), ethnographic, (Chalmers, 1981), u n i v e r s a l - r e l a t i v e (Hamblen, 1986), c u l t u r a l l i t e r a c y program (Boyer, 1987), and a neo-Marxlst approach by Duncum (1987) which i s based on the study of " m i n o r i t y and e t h n i c a r t s as examples of a l t e r n a t e and r e s i s t a n t e x p e r i e n c e s " to the dominant s o c i e t y (p. 12). However, the aforementioned approaches come from non-Native frames of r e f e r e n c e and purposes, such a r t education r e s e a r c h and theory i s o f t e n of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l nature, with 10 c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s as a predominant f a c t o r . Native c u l t u r e s , though, do not belong w i t h i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l paradigm; they are indigenous c u l t u r e s to North America. The Native view s t r e s s e s c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . L l o y d New, s u c c i n c t l y says: " C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s are p r e c i o u s " (1972, p. 413). These d i f f e r e n c e s are, not o n l y between Native and non-Native c u l t u r e s , but a l s o among Native c u l t u r e s . As with the a r t of non-Native peoples, the a r t of Native peoples i s not a l l the same. When Interviewed f o r t h e i r suggestions towards d e v e l o p i n g Native a r t c u r r i c u l u m , the primary concern of Native Americans was the e l i m i n a t i o n of s t e r e o t y p e d images. "They f e l t demeaned when they go i n t o a classroom and see students wearing c o n s t r u c t i o n paper f e a t h e r s i n t h e i r h a i r " (Rapp, 1982, p. 288). Native Americans suggest a v o i d i n g a pan-Indian approach, and s t r e s s i n g the uniqueness and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l t r i b e s (Rapp, 1982; Schubert, 1988, p. 202). As w e l l as r e c o g n i z i n g the r i c h and complex a r t i s t i c d i v e r s i t y of Native c u l t u r e s , Native a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s emphasize r e c o g n i z i n g the a r t i s t i c achievements of Indigenous peoples pre-European c o n t a c t (New, 1972; Stump, 1974; Young Man, 1988). 11 FOR ALL STUDENTS The i n f o r m a t i o n on Native a r t should be accurate ( A q u i l a , 1988; Rapp, 1982, p. 288-289). Young Man notes t h a t "good c r i t i c a l , s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e ... although not great i n q u a n t i t y , continues to grow i n q u a l i t y " (1988, p. 28). I t i s informed by r e s e a r c h , and the v a r i o u s views of those w i t h i n the Native a r t world and t h e i r c u l t u r a l knowledge (eg. Highwater, 1980; McMaster, 1981; Stump, 1973b; 1974; Wade, 1986). Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to a r t ed u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m development i n Saskatchewan i s the recent l i t e r a t u r e on the a r t of the Canadian p r a i r i e s (Anson Warner 1985, 1990; Cuthand 1988; McMaster 1988; Pakes 1987a, 1987b). As w e l l as ensu r i n g the accuracy of Information i n Native a r t c u r r i c u l u m , A q u i l a p o i n t s out t h a t resource m a t e r i a l s used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n should be of high q u a l i t y . Furthermore, f o r a l l students who study Native c u l t u r e s he suggests a h o l i s t i c sensory approach (1988). A Saulteaux e l d e r made the f o l l o w i n g comment. "In our l e a r n i n g , we begin the t r a d i t i o n a l way. We begin with the whole, and we examine every p a r t i n r e l a t i o n to that whole" (C. Papaquash, p e r s o n a l communication, June 13, 1990). A q u i l a advocates the use of recent advances i n audio and v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s so th a t "the v o i c e s , music, a r t , and c u l t u r e of American 12 Indians can be experienced i n the classroom by a l l s t u d e n t s " (1988, p. 408). i n one Minnesota s c h o o l , technology i s c e n t r a l to a program based on "ojibwe Indian a r t , customs, and v a l u e s . " The program appears to r e s p e c t the Native view as the c u r r i c u l u m i s designed to help b u i l d Native s t u d e n t s ' s e l f esteem, and to help non-Native students "gain a b e t t e r understanding of a c u l t u r e t h a t i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own." At the same time, the program's purpose i s to "make l e a r n i n g more r e l e v a n t f o r students and promote c u l t u r a l understanding i n t h e i r community." The f o c a l p o i n t of the c u r r i c u l u m i s "an i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o d i s c s c r i p t e d and videotaped" by s t u d e n t s . ( N o v e l l i , 1990, p. 31) Kin d e r g a r t e n to grade twelve students w i l l i n t e r v i e w Ojibwe e l d e r s and a r t i s t s i n the community about t h e i r c u l t u r e , and high s c h o o l students w i l l videotape Ojibwe a r t i s t s demonstrating s k i l l s . The v i s u a l images, combined with the i n t e r v i e w s , and student w r i t t e n or a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w s , w i l l be s c r i p t e d and pressed i n t o a l a s e r d i s c . A f t e r p i l o t t e s t i n g the v i d e o d i s c , and i f funding i s a v a i l a b l e , f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n and expansion of the p r o j e c t w i l l occur (pp. 32 - 34). The p r o j e c t uses "technology to teach students about the Ojibwe c u l t u r e and to r e l a t e t h a t c u l t u r e to a l l areas of the c u r r i c u l u m " (p. 32). 13 l£ the promise o£ the p r o j e c t holds t r u e , technology may prove to be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g Native a r t c u r r i c u l u m f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . Although, Wilson, one of the key teachers i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t and h e r s e l f an Ojibwe Indian, s a i d t h a t i n i t i a l l y the main concern v o i c e d "was whether v i d e o d i s c c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y convey our c u l t u r e . Our h i s t o r y has been handed down through o r a l t r a d i t i o n " (p. 32). The concern l e d to the i n t e r a c t i v e nature of the v i d e o d i s c . On the use of o r a l h i s t o r y i n d e v e l o p i n g a r t c u r r i c u l u m , Rapp's study r e v e a l e d t h a t Native Americans want the c r e d i b i l i t y of o r a l h i s t o r y to be r e c o g n i z e d by the academic community (1982, p. 288). The Minnesota p r o j e c t r e v e a l s that the study of Native a r t f o r a l l students should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e r a c t i o n with and i n t e g r a t i o n of community, c u l t u r e , and c u r r i c u l u m . The l o c a l a r t , i n t h i s case, of the Ojibwe c u l t u r e determines the study focus. P r e s e n t l y , Ojibwe a r t i s t s are v i s l t n g the Minnesota s c h o o l i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r working with teachers and students (p. 32). The l a t e S a r a i n Stump, an i n f l u e n t i a l Native American a r t i s t - e d u c a t o r i n Saskatchewan, recog n i z e d e a r l y the value of Indian a r t i s t s going i n t o s c h o o l s to work with Indian students (1973a). Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t the success of c u l t u r a l l y based a r t programs to promote st u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l understanding may be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , to the teacher being indigenous to the 14 c u l t u r e under study ( I j a z & I j a z , p. 19). T h i s f a c t o r becomes p e r t i n e n t f o r the study of Native a r t because r e s e a r c h i m p l i c i t l y r e v e a l s t h a t non-Natives can be u n c e r t a i n , and uninformed i n t h e i r approach to te a c h i n g the a r t of Indigenous peoples, whether It i s to Native students or non-Native s t u d e n t s . Berger (1983) determined t h a t the a r t i s so i n t e r t w i n e d with c u l t u r e " that i t would be impossible f o r anyone, p a r t i c u l a r l y a non-Indian to f u l f i l l the task of te a c h i n g Indian c u l t u r e " (p, 32). In a study on the implementation of her c u l t u r a l l y based a r t e d u c a t i o n methodology, Andrews (1983) r e p o r t s t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r of the grade four theme, Northwest co a s t Indian c u l t u r e , " i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r i o r to the study she had assumed t h a t l a totem was a totem. I t d i d n ' t r e a l l y mean anything'" (p. 486). F u r t h e r support t h a t i t may be p r e f e r a b l e f o r Native i n s t r u c t o r s to teach Native a r t to student s , a g a i n , comes from McFee's review. She w r i t e s t h a t the complexity of "comprehending the a r t of c u l t u r e s other than one's own, and te a c h i n g students who do not share one's c u l t u r a l r o o t s , has become more apparent" (1988, p. 225). There i s a gene r a l c a l l f o r non-Native t e a c h e r s to be c u l t u r a l l y s e n s i t i v e . For example, teachers c o u l d demonstrate a more r e s p e c t f u l approach to a r t p r o d u c t i o n stemming from the study of the s p i r i t u a l foundations of 15 Native a r t (Pakes, 1987a, p. 5). A l s o , teachers could be aware t h a t Native students who are i n c l i n e d to not p a r t i c i p a t e i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t e s are perhaps being i n f l u e n c e d by the age and gender d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y of t h e i r c u l t u r e s (Pakes, p. 11). Furthermore, the way i n which a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s learned i n the non-school s e t t i n g may i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r approach to i t s study i n the classroom (Stuhr, 1987 p. v i l i ; Zastrow, 1978). CONCLUSION I t becomes apparent t h a t Native a r t i s a v a s t , d i v e r s e , and complex area of study. Native a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s , and those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s e a r c h provide g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s , and d i r e c t i o n f o r i t s study i n s c h o o l s . Most views expressed come from the United S t a t e s . Because the a r t i s a v a s t , d i v e r s e , and complex area of study, and because Native a r t and p e r s p e c t i v e s are being i n c l u d e d i n Saskatchewan a r t educa t i o n c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s b e n e f i c i a l to examine Native viewpoints from w i t h i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . The i n c l u s i o n of Native content and p e r s p e c t i v e s r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t change from previous a r t education c u r r i c u l u m In Saskatchewan where r e f e r e n c e s to A b o r i g i n a l peoples and t h e i r a r t were r a r e , and even then, appear i n 16 mainstream terms (Saskatchewan Education, 1967; 1977; 1978, May). One example from a l i t t l e over ten years ago noted a s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e to Native peoples i n the h i s t o r y of Canadian a r t s e c t i o n , under the major p e r i o d of " A r t i s t s of E n g l i s h Speaking Canada" with "Paul Kane [who] t r a v e l l e d to Western Canada p a i n t i n g scenery and Indians" (Saskatchewan Ed u c a t i o n , 1978, May, p. 243). Ten years l a t e r , A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s , Cuthand (1988) and McMaster (1988) c l a r i f y the omission and w r i t e of the r i c h a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and a c t i v i t y of Native peoples In Saskatchewan h i s t o r i c a l l y and p r e s e n t l y . Metis r e s i s t a n c e l e a d e r , "Louis R l e l once s a i d : lMy people w i l l s l e e p f o r 100 y e a r s . When they awake, i t w i l l be the a r t i s t s who give back t h e i r s p i r i t " (as c i t e d by Johnson, 1990, p. 54). A re s e a r c h i n q u i r y with a r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y i n Saskatchewan can help f u r t h e r d e f i n e the study of Native a r t In Canadian s c h o o l s . 17 I I I . METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION The methodology used i n t h i s study i s based on the t r a d i t i o n of c o g n i t i v e anthropology which focuses on o r a l n a r r a t i v e as the primary way to understand c u l t u r a l knowledge. Such r e s e a r c h allows f o r a h o l i s t i c understanding and p r e s e n t a t i o n of knowledge t h a t connects d i r e c t l y with Issues of concern i n educa t i o n and i n our s o c i e t y (Agar, 1982). An o r a l approach i s h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e because Native c u l t u r e s have a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n of o r a t o r y . Current r e s e a r c h demonstrates the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the o r a l approach, p r i m a r i l y the i n t e r v i e w , to present p e r s p e c t i v e s of Indigenous peoples (Haig-Brovn, 1988) and to study t h e i r a r t (Schubert, 1988; Stuhr, 1987; Wasson, 1983). Interviews provided the major p o r t i o n of data f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s e l a b o r a t e on the procedures used i n : a r t i s t s e l e c t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s , and data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . ARTIST SELECTION AND INTERVIEWS Nine p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y , born In 18 Saskatchewan and c u r r e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n an area of c e n t r a l Saskatchewan were in t e r v i e w e d (see Appendix A). Within present-day Saskatchewan, are members of the Metis Nation, and f i v e Indian N a t i o n s : A s s i n i b o i n e , Cree, Dakota, Dene, and Saulteaux. Members of the Metis and Cree Nations p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e i n the area where the r e s e a r c h was conducted. The s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the study, the c i t y of P r i n c e A l b e r t and d i s t r i c t , i s unique i n t h a t a number of w e l l known A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s , not only p r o v i n c i a l l y , but a l s o n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , come from the area (see Achlmoona f 1985). S e l e c t i o n was based on two c r i t e r i a : i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as an a r t i s t , and r e c o g n i t i o n as an a r t i s t . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n was determined by s e l f d e f i n i t i o n and by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n from other Native people because c u l t u r e i s "shared by i n d i v i d u a l s " (Dougherty, 1985, p. 3). R e c o g n i t i o n was evidenced by at l e a s t one of the f o l l o w i n g : e x h i b i t i o n of a r t work, p u b l i c a t i o n of a r t work i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l or l i t e r a t u r e , and experience as a resource person. A conscious e f f o r t was made to balance aspects of age, gender, and place of re s i d e n c e which i n c l u d e s urban, r u r a l , and r e s e r v e . An e f f o r t was a l s o made to s e l e c t informants whose work r e f l e c t s a v a r i e t y of a r t forms. ( B a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the a r t i s t s and the i n t e r v i e w order i s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix B. ) 19 A r t i s t s a l r e a d y known by the re s e a r c h e r or suggested by others as s t r o n g p a r t i c i p a n t s were p e r s o n a l l y c o n t a c t e d . The purpose and nature of the Interviews, which c o n s i s t e d of two stages, were d i s c u s s e d , and assurances of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were g i v e n . Twelve a r t i s t s were contacted; three chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e . ( T h e i r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f i n a l chapter on summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . ) F o l l o w i n g consent, s i t e s and times f o r the f i r s t s e t of in t e r v i e w s were arranged. The i n t e r v i e w s took place i n e i t h e r the a r t i s t ' s home or i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s work space at the Saskatchewan Urban Native Teacher Educ a t i o n Program In P r i n c e A l b e r t . An i n t e r v i e w quide was prepared f o r the f i r s t s e t of i n t e r v i e w s . I t was p i l o t t e s t e d and r e f i n e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s with s e v e r a l Indian and Metis people who are knowledgeable about a r t . The guide was s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d around three areas of I n q u i r y . F i r s t l y , the a r t i s t s ' b i o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds were e x p l o r e d , and secondly, t h e i r views on having Native a r t content i n sc h o o l programs were sought. T h i r d l y , t h e i r suggestions on the d e s i r a b l e content and approach f o r the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of Native a r t In sc h o o l s were sought. A l l the areas of i n q u i r y were i n t e r r e l a t e d . (See Appendix C f o r a copy of the i n t e r v i e w guide.) The exact manner of q u e s t i o n i n g v a r i e d from i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l . The a r t i s t s were 20 aware t h a t they could end the i n t e r v i e w whenever they chose or could r e f u s e to answer any q u e s t i o n s . A second s e t of Interviews was arranged f o r two reasons: v a l i d a t i o n , and an attempt a t r e s e a r c h as p r a x i s (Lather, 1986). The second i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n i n v o l v e d d i s c u s s i o n with each a r t i s t f o r purposes of c l a r i f i c a t i o n , and e l a b o r a t i o n of h i s or her responses from the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , v e r i f i c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s understanding of t h e i r responses was sought. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Primary data c o n s i s t s of i n t e r v i e w tapes, notes, and t r a n s c r i p t s . The f i r s t Interview was tape recorded with the pe r m i s s i o n of a l l a r t i s t s , and t r a n s c r i p t s were made. Interview notes were taken e i t h e r d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w or as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w . Most o f t e n , t h i s o ccurred f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . The second i n t e r v i e w was not tape recorded. Throughout the conduct of the r e s e a r c h , f i e l d notes c o n t a i n i n g c o n t e x t u a l data, p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s , and r e f l e c t i o n s as the i n t e r v i e w i n g progressed were kept i n order to a s s i s t i n the f i n a l data a n a l y s i s . The i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of re v i e w i n g , s e v e r a l times, the data c o l l e c t e d from the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n , and p r e p a r i n g a n a r r a t i v e account of the i n t e r v i e w . The 21 n a r r a t i v e was forwarded to the a r t i s t p r i o r to the second Interview s e s s i o n . During the second i n t e r v i e w , informant v e r i f i c a t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e (the w r i t t e n p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s or her responses) was sought. R e v i s i o n s to the n a r r a t i v e s were noted, and the n a r r a t i v e s were r e v i s e d a c c o r d i n g l y . The n a r r a t i v e accounts developed from the Interviews are i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the t h e s i s t e x t . To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , pseudonyms are used and any p e r t i n e n t b i o g r a p h i c a l or c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d to i n gene r a l terms. Once a l l nine n a r r a t i v e s were v a l i d a t e d , a deeper a n a l y s i s wa3 p o s s i b l e and began by thoroughly reviewing a l l the data and s t u d y i n g the n a r r a t i v e s . In c o n s t r u c t i n g the n a r r a t i v e s , p a t t e r n s soon emerged and the re s e a r c h e r was able to compare and c o n t r a s t the a r t i s t s ' responses to the three areas of i n q u i r y . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the p a t t e r n s or themes were I n t e r p r e t e d by gender, and by the a r t i s t s ' b i o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. From t h i s a n a l y s i s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the study of Native a r t i n sc h o o l s were developed. 22 IV. NARRATIVES INTRODUCTION The f o l l o w i n g n a r r a t i v e s are presented as da t a . They are w r i t t e n accounts of the i n t e r v i e w s with the a r t i s t s , and a l l n a r r a t i v e s have been v e r i f i e d by the a r t i s t s . The n a r r a t i v e s are grouped by gender, with female a r t i s t s p l a c e d f i r s t , and ordered by age s t a r t i n g with the youngest a r t i s t . Pseudonyms are used, and any p e r t i n e n t p e r s o n a l Information i s r e f e r r e d to i n gen e r a l terms. BONNIE Bonnie i s Metis and was r a i s e d on an o f f - t h e - r e s e r v e Metis community i n northern Saskatchewan. Bonnie does p r i m a r i l y bead and l e a t h e r work. She a l s o makes g u i l t s and p a i n t s . Her mother taught her beading and q u i l t i n g , but her p a i n t i n g t a l e n t was s e l f developed, and a r t i s pa r t of Bonnie's present u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . As a parent who i s i n v o l v e d i n her c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l i n g , the s c h o o l i n v i t e s her i n f o r c e r t a i n s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s to t a l k about Native a r t . Bonnie began l e a r n i n g the a r t of beading at a very young age. She remembers "watching Mom" bead. "Mom used to make us separate her beads. When you bead, you get the c o l o u r s 23 a l l mixed up, so she'd make us s t r i n g them. That's how I s t a r t e d . " She a l s o remembers a time when she was about e i g h t years o l d and a student at the m i s s i o n s c h o o l In the community. A man came to the m i s s i o n and provided beads and other m a t e r i a l s f o r the s t u d e n t s . The man paid them t h i r t y - t w o cents f o r each item made. Bonnie t e l l s how she and other students "would make s i l l y t h i n g s l i k e f o r t y - e i g h t - i n c h s t r a n d s of patterned beads t h a t he would s e l l to the t o u r i s t s as Indian a r t . " Students a l s o made l i t t l e teepees out of twigs, and l i t t l e d o l l s with l e a t h e r o u t f i t s "with a bead here and a bead t h e r e . " Today, Bonnie's main purpose f o r making l e a t h e r and beaded items i s economic. She makes mukluks, moccasins, b e l t s , j ewelry, and a wide v a r i e t y of d e c o r a t i v e p i e c e s such as c i g a r e t t e l i g h t e r h o l d e r s f o r s a l e o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e i n order to provide a d d i t i o n a l income f o r her f a m i l y . The speed of p r o d u c t i o n i n v o l v e d In an economic purpose i s r e f l e c t e d i n Bonnie's d e s c r i p t i o n s of her work. She admits that she " i s more i n t o technology." Bonnie says: Now I use a l e a t h e r sewing machine to do a l o t of my sewing, where before I used to do i t by hand. Some people go: %0h, t h a t ' s not Indian anymore.' And I would say to them: v I f my great grandmother had my machine and c o u l d use i t , you t h i n k she wouldn't have used i t ? You 24 know, she wasn't s t u p i d . J u s t because she's Indian, doesn't mean she's going to keep doing i t l i k e t h i s f o r e v e r . I t changes; then you change.' Bonnie sews commercially tanned hide because "home tanned hide i s expensive;" although, she p r e f e r s i t because "the needles j u s t s l i d e through, almost l i k e f l a n n e l e t t e . Commercial i s hard." She beads mostly f l o r a l d e s i g n s . She says: "I l i k e them, besides i t ' s e a s i e r to do. There's not r e a l l y any meaning. There's no symbolism or nothing i n the geometries f o r me." P a t t e r n s " j u s t come" to her when she beads. She l i k e s " r e a l l y b r i g h t c o l o u r s , l o t s of primary c o l o u r s . " For Bonnie, "co l o u r serves a purpose, t h a t i s , " i t ' s n i c e to look a t . " Some of her bead and l e a t h e r work i s Intended f o r f a m i l y use, but she f i n d s t h a t her c h i l d r e n and husband are not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n wearing or u s i n g the items. Bonnie comments t h a t "before, people would do bead and l e a t h e r work out of n e c e s s i t y . Now, i t gets b u i l t i n t o something e l s e t hat i s not e n t i r e l y u s e f u l but i t s t i l l l ooks n i c e . " The q u i l t s Bonnie makes, though, are used by the f a m i l y . Bonnie's p a i n t i n g s r e f l e c t her need f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n . She says t h a t "sometimes p a i n t i n g j u s t doesn't seem to connect" with her bead and l e a t h e r work; y e t , her recent 25 p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r to beaded geometric d e s i g n s . She i s e n t h u s i a s t i c about d e v e l o p i n g her p a i n t i n g s k i l l s and l e a r n i n g new techniques. Bonnie takes p r i d e i n her a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s and her Native background. She has s t r o n g views about the content, and the approach to be used i n the study of Native a r t i n s c h o o l programs. Bonnie s t r o n g l y supports the study of Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t a r t i n s c h o o l programs because she t h i n k s t h a t " i t w i l l h e lp a l o t of people." She says: Indian people who l i v e In town lose t h e i r c u l t u r e r e a l l y f a s t . I f those Native k i d s could l e a r n about t h e i r own c u l t u r e i t would g i v e them more p r i d e , and p r i d e i s what you need to f i g h t racism. Bonnie b e l i e v e s t h a t non-Native students who study Native a r t can i n c r e a s e t h e i r understanding of Native people because "knowledge combats ignorance and racism. The more you know, the l e s s l i k e l y you are to judge without t h i n k i n g . " Furthermore, of the many c u l t u r e s i n Canada, Bonnie b e l i e v e s Native c u l t u r e s should be s t u d i e d In s c h o o l s "because ours was here f i r s t . I t ' s p r e t t y Important." Bonnie e x p l a i n s : We have a h i s t o r y . I t ' s not l i k e we have done nothing or never been a n y t h i n g . . . . We have a r t , and the white 26 race, the white c u l t u r e , i s not a s u p e r i o r c u l t u r e . That's what students are g e t t i n g taught i n s c h o o l s . Bonnie's s t r o n g support f o r Native a r t content i n sc h o o l programs comes from p e r s o n a l experiences with s c h o o l i n g and racism. Her a r t work g i v e s her a sense of s t r e n g t h , and p r i d e i n being N a t i v e . Those t e a c h i n g about the a r t of Native c u l t u r e s i n the classroom should " d e f i n i t e l y be Native people," and they should " i n t e g r a t e a r t with s o c i a l s t u d i e s . " H i s t o r y i s v e r y important to Bonnie. She b e l i e v e s t h a t students cannot make sense of Native a r t without I n q u i r i n g i n t o the past as w e l l as contemporary contexts of A b o r i g i n a l peoples. Bonnie e l a b o r a t e s and prov i d e s an example: T h i s i s Indian, and t h i s Is how Indians make t h e i r moccasins. Well, what's an Indian? What do they do? ... Why do they make moccasins? Why the d e c o r a t i o n ? There's a reason f o r a l l t h i s , and i t has to do with way of l i f e . You can't separate a r t from c u l t u r e . You can't say t h i s i s Indian a r t and t h a t ' s i t . You can't separate Indian a r t from Indian c u l t u r e . I t Is a r t . You can't separate moccasins from the c u l t u r e and j u s t have t h a t s i t t i n g t h e r e . Bonnie a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t study of Native a r t has to be r e l e v a n t to s t u d e n t s . She r e c a l l s l e a r n i n g i n sc h o o l "more the I n u i t and West 27 coast a r t " which, f o r her, was " t o t a l l y I r r e l e v a n t . " Bonnie t h i n k s t h a t students should, f i r s t l y , l e a r n about the a r t of Indian and Metis people who l i v e i n the immediate community, whether i t Is an urban, a r u r a l , or a reserve community. She t h i n k s t h a t the a r t of Native c u l t u r e s "has to be learned l i k e a t home -- by watching i t , be s e e i n g i t , " and suggests v i s i t i n g l o c a l a r t i s t s to see t h e i r a r t work or i n v i t i n g them i n t o the classroom to work with s t u d e n t s . She f u r t h e r suggests t h a t " i t should be videotaped to get i t the way i t was, the way I t i s , not the way somebody e l s e t h i n k s i t should be." Once students are aware of the a r t i n t h e i r own community, then they can study the a r t of other communities w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . Bonnie provides two s t r a t e g i e s : going on f i e l d t r i p s , and s h a r i n g of the v i d e o t a p e s . She e s p e c i a l l y draws a t t e n t i o n to the a r t found i n northern communities, and says t h a t "there has to be more exposure." From a broader p e r s p e c t i v e , Bonnie p o i n t s out t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s In a r t forms among Cree communitltes, and "Cree i s d i f f e r e n t from the Dene, i s d i f f e r e n t from the I n u i t . " According to Bonnie, comparing the a r t of d i f f e r e n t Indigenous c u l t u r e s would be i n t e r e s t i n g and more understandable f o r Saskatchewan students a f t e r they were f a m i l i a r with Indian and Metis a r t from t h e i r immediate and nearby environments. 28 When Bonnie t a l k s more s p e c i f i c a l l y about the a r t of bead and l e a t h e r work, she promotes t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t . she says: "Teach beading the t r a d i t i o n a l way, the way i t was, then i t won't d i e , and people can pick up from t h a t and go wherever they want t o . " Moreover, she t h i n k s students should r e c o g n i z e how t r a d i t i o n and change work together i n beading and other a r t forms by A b o r i g i n a l peoples. She says "each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l change the t r a d i t i o n a l , " and r e f e r s to how her way of doing bead and l e a t h e r work d i f f e r s from her mother's way. Bonnie s t i l l c o n s i d e r s her work t r a d i t i o n a l . Bonnie t a l k s about the importance of nature i n the a r t of bead and l e a t h e r work, and emphasizes indigenous peoples' wise use of nature's m a t e r i a l s . She s t r e s s e s how i n the past, using nature's m a t e r i a l s was not o n l y necessary, but a l s o p r a c t i c a l . M a t e r i a l s were used, and s t i l l are used, i n a p r a c t i c a l and proper manner, t h a t i s , nothing i s wasted. Bonnie has "chunks of l e a t h e r " t h a t she has been "saving f o r years and y e a r s . " She says: "I don't waste a n y t h i n g . " Bonnie b e l i e v e s t h a t Indigenous peoples can c o n t r i b u t e a g r e a t d e a l towards working f o r s o l u t i o n s to today's environmental problems because of Native peoples' high regard f o r nature and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n of using nature w i s e l y . She a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t there i s need f o r informed d i s c u s s i o n s on environmental i s s u e s . For i n s t a n c e , she Is 29 i r r i t a t e d by those people who are a g a i n s t t r a p p i n g of animals. She comments: They'd l i k e to c l o s e down t r a p p i n g i n the n o r t h . Then what are these people going to l i v e on? What about when the animals s t a r t overrunning e v e r y t h i n g e l s e ? .. Don't they know t h a t a l o t of the fur used i s ranched. The q u e s t i o n s posed by Bonnie r e v e a l a p e r s p e c t i v e on the study of Native a r t t h a t c o n s i d e r s not onl y s o c i o - c u l t u r a l circumstances, but a l s o socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s . She presents a p i c t u r e of the study of Native a r t whic needs to c o n s i d e r the context of a r t and c u l t u r e from h i s t o r i c a l through to present times, and perhaps i n t o the f u t u r e as w e l l . As Bonnie puts i t , "the why" i s c r u c i a l t understanding Native a r t and c u l t u r e s . That understanding Bonnie b e l i e v e s , can help b u i l d up the p r i d e of Native s t u d e n t s , and break down r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s of non-Native students towards A b o r i g i n a l peoples. MAXINE Maxine does l e a t h e r work, and bead work. She beads designs on hand sewn mukluks, g a u n t l e t s , moccasins and purses. Her designs Include geometric p a t t e r n s but are mostly f l o r a l p a t t e r n s , a s c r i b e d to the Woodland Cree s t y l e . Maxine i s Woodland Cree. 30 As a young g i r l , Maxine l i v e d on a t r a p l i n e i n northern Saskatchewan and l e a r n e d beading from her mother, a S c o t t i s h woman who obtained t r e a t y s t a t u s a f t e r marrying Maxine's f a t h e r . Maxine remembers l e a r n i n g "mostly from watching" her mother bead, and being taught c e r t a i n techniques when " i t was time." I n i t i a l l y , items made by Maxine, her s i s t e r s and mother served a p r a c t i c a l purpose f o r the f a m i l y . L a t e r , out of n e c e s s i t y , items were produced f o r s a l e In order to provide a d d i t i o n a l income f o r the f a m i l y . Today, Maxine sews and beads a r t i c l e s once again to be used by members of her own f a m i l y , and a l s o by r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . There i s no need to s e l l her a r t work, i n f a c t , she would not c o n s i d e r s e l l i n g any p i e c e s because t h a t would take away from her p l e a s u r e i n c r e a t i n g them, and i n g i v i n g them away. Her a r t work i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y of beaded p i e c e s such as n e c k l a c e s , e a r r i n g s , and key c h a i n s . While working as a teacher a s s o c i a t e i n an urban elementary s c h o o l , Maxine taught grade s i x students how to make t h i s type of bead work. Maxine t h i n k s t h a t having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs i s "a very good i d e a , " i f taught " i n a proper way." One reason i s because i t would b r i n g non-Native and Native students together by h e l p i n g non-Native students come c l o s e r to an understanding of Native c u l t u r e s . Maxine's 31 main concern, though, i s f o r the Native student and the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s such programming could have on him or her. Maxlne's concern comes from working with Native students i n the sc h o o l and from p e r s o n a l experiences with her own c h i l d r e n . Maxine d i d not teach bead and l e a t h e r work to her daughter, who as an a d u l t now, wishes t h a t she co u l d p r a c t i s e the a r t . Maxine says: I'm g l a d my Mom taught me how to do beading.... I t ' s p a s s i n g i t on.... I never taught my g i r l how to do bead work.... I r e a l l y r e g r e t that I d i d n ' t s i t down l i k e Mom d i d with me and teach her. Although Maxlne's daughter i s not a header, one of Maxlne's sons i s an a r t i s t . He works i n a modern s t y l e , and Maxine says t h a t "he was born with a r t i s t i c t a l e n t . " Maxlne's reason f o r not pa s s i n g on her a r t to her daughter i s because " I t ' s such a f a s t moving pace i n the c i t y . On the t r a p l l n e , you have a l o t of time." Maxine r e a l i z e s now t h a t the younger g e n e r a t i o n needs to be taught the a r t forms, which she c o n s i d e r s p a r t of c u l t u r e , i n order to pass them on to the next g e n e r a t i o n . She e x p l a i n s : I care about what happens i n the f u t u r e because I've seen so many changes i n the past t h a t we're s l o w l y l o s i n g our c u l t u r e . . . . I t ' s j u s t l i k e I'm opening my eyes now and wondering, hey, i t ' s going to be t h i s way 32 1£ we don't do something about i t . We're going to l o s e i t a l l . The younger g e n e r a t i o n have to be taught to pass i t on to t h e i r k i d s because i£ we don't do i t now, who i s going to do i t ? Maxine notes t h a t "not many young urban parents have the s k i l l s or time to teach t h e i r c h i l d r e n bead and l e a t h e r work." Maxine b e l i e v e s that l e a r n i n g the a r t i n s c h o o l s i s a way to pass on the c u l t u r e . I t i s a way to give Native students knowledge, a p p r e c i a t i o n and p r i d e , and these a t t r i b u t e s are important f o r the f u t u r e of Indigenous peoples. She s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s students should be presented with a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n when s t u d y i n g the a r t of Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t peoples. Students need to be aware t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s among the a r t of A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s . The a r t and the c u l t u r e s , though, are s i m i l a r i n t h e i r s t r o n g connections to nature. She r e f e r s to the animal imagery o f t e n seen i n Native a r t ; Maxine, too, p o i n t s out the c l o s e t i e s to nature t h a t her a r t work has i n her use of f l o r a l d e s i g n s . Along with p r e s e n t i n g accurate Information, Maxine encourages the use of accurate as w e l l as s e n s i b l e m a t e r i a l s when doing l e a t h e r and bead work i n s c h o o l s . She t a l k s about her preference f o r working with home tanned moosehide, r a t h e r than the commercially processed cowhide because 33 "cowhide Is v e r y very s t r o n g , and I break needle a f t e r needle." Moosehide Is a l s o very s t r o n g , but Is s o f t e r and e a s i e r to work. She suggests t h a t students be able to work with moosehide and would l i k e to see students being taught i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way, i n the way she was taught. Maxine r e a l i z e s the way of doing her a r t has changed with the Influence of technology, s p e c i f i c a l l y the sewing machine, but she s t i l l does her l e a t h e r work In the same way as her mother d i d . "I make them by hand; Mom made them by hand." Maxine gets more meaning out of doing i t by hand without the help of a machine and even though more time i s i n v o l v e d , she a p p r e c i a t e s her work more. Maxine t r i e s t o teach students beadwork i n the same way she learned i t , but f o r the most p a r t , she f i n d s h e r s e l f moving from student to student to help them thread a needle or with other problems. Maxine would l i k e to be a b l e to s i t and bead at the same time. She f i n d s t h a t once students are working i n d i v i d u a l l y , they become "very r e l a x e d and q u i e t " as they concentrate on t h e i r beading. Of her experience t e a c h i n g bead work to stude n t s , she comments: " I t was r e a l l y e n j o y a b l e working with them, to see them working away on those l i t t l e beads." Maxlne's approach i n t e a c h i n g bead work to students i s f i r s t of a l l to show them some of her own work. She f i n d s t h a t students become ve r y e x c i t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c when they 34 see samples o£ what they themselves are going to make. Maxine then i l l u s t r a t e s the technique, such as f o r loom beading or beading o b j e c t s l i k e e a r r i n g s or a necklace. Students are asked to t h i n k about the c o l o u r combinations they wish to bead. Much time and thought goes i n t o choosing bead c o l o u r s and f o r m u l a t i n g d e s i g n s . Maxine encourages students to get ideas f o r p a t t e r n s i n the same way she does, which i s "from the top of my head" or l o o k i n g "through books of Indian d e s i g n s . " Colours are s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g to what may "look n i c e . " When making d e c i s i o n s , Maxine does not think of c o l o u r s i n terms of symbolic meanings; although the p a t t e r n s , such as flowers and f a m i l i a r Indian designs are meaningful to her p e r s o n a l l y . She says: I never t h i n k of the meaning of c o l o u r s . They say It does have meaning; even my Dad says t h a t . But I wasn't taught t h a t . I use c o l o u r s the way t h a t i t comes to me and the way I t h i n k they should be o r g a n i z e d . Colours never r e a l l y have any meaning f o r me when I'm doing i t . I j u s t do i t because I l i k e the looks of i t . I f a p a r t i c u l a r flower appeals to me, I j u s t pick that out. Maxine spends time now with her f a t h e r , who i s c l o s e to h i s e i g h t i e s , l e a r n i n g more about the Cree c u l t u r e . Maxine t h i n k s t h a t the person who i s t e a c h i n g Native a r t i n the classroom should have a background knowledge of 35 A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s , she does not want to appear p r e j u d i c e d by s a y i n g the teacher should be Nat i v e , but i s very c l e a r t h a t he or she should be f a m i l i a r with the l i t e r a t u r e on Indigenous c u l t u r e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the person should t a l k with the people and even v i s i t some r e s e r v e s . To ensure the p a s s i n g on of c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n , Maxine suggests i n v i t i n g Native people i n t o the classroom to t a l k about "the meaning of c e r t a i n types of a r t work land] why items were made, how they were made, how they were used, and who made them." For example, Maxine r e c a l l s t h a t she never saw her br o t h e r s s i t t i n g and doing any bead work. The boys helped on the t r a p l i n e , and they learned how to make such t h i n g s as snowshoes and f i s h n e t s . Maxine asks t h a t teachers be aware of and s e n s i t i v e to gender i n f l u e n c e s , and not f o r c e Native students to do something which may be t r a d i t i o n a l l y women's or men's work. Maxine would l i k e students to have the o p t i o n , and be allowed to make t h a t d e c i s i o n f o r themselves. Indeed, Maxine p r e f e r s to work with g i r l s when t e a c h i n g bead work because they seem to be "always so e n t h u s i a s t i c . " As a Cree speaker, s p e c i f i c a l l y the " t h " d i a l e c t , and a l s o as a teacher of Cree, Maxine speaks Cree to students when t e a c h i n g beading. They become f a m i l i a r with words l i k e "mekis" f o r bead, and "mekisak" f o r beads. Speaking Cree r e i n f o r c e s the language f o r Native s t u d e n t s . Hearing Cree 36 g i v e s non-Native students a sense of the context i n which beading took, and s t i l l takes p l a c e . Bead work, Maxine b e l i e v e s , can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o other s u b j e c t areas l i k e N ative s t u d i e s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Maxine c o n s i d e r s beading a b e a u t i f u l and i n t e g r a l a r t form of past and present Cree c u l t u r e , and w i l l continue to be so. Schools can help pass on t h i s p a r t of c u l t u r e . Modern a r t forms, such as her son c r e a t e s , should a l s o be p a r t of Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs "because t h a t ' s p a r t of our c u l t u r e today t o o . " Maxine understands from the changes i n her l i f e t h a t "Native c u l t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y , has changed.... And the a r t has changed. I t ' s not l i k e we had." Maxine knows she w i l l "never l o s e " the a r t of bead and l e a t h e r work, and t h a t the a r t can be and should be passed on to the next g e n e r a t i o n . SHIRLEY S h i r l e y i s M e t i s . Her Cree mother taught her bead and l e a t h e r work and S h i r l e y , In t u r n , taught the a r t to her daughters. S h i r l e y a l s o showed s m a l l groups of young g i r l s how to bead, do loom work, and make moccasins and b e l t s d u r i n g her involvement i n a community c l u b . S h i r l e y speaks Cree f l u e n t l y , and she works as a t u t o r at the s c h o o l i n the Metis community where she l i v e s . 37 She t h i n k s s c h o o l s "seem to push c u l t u r e a b i t too much sometimes." S h i r l e y c o n s i d e r s a r t , a p a r t of c u l t u r e and b e l i e v e s " c u l t u r e should be taught a t home." However, she agrees In gen e r a l with having Native a r t In sc h o o l programs, and b e l i e v e s students can b e n e f i t from s t u d y i n g Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t a r t . For non-Native s t u d e n t s , S h i r l e y t h i n k s : Maybe i t ' l l g i v e them a g r e a t e r understanding of Indians -- not to say: 'They're j u s t Indians.' I f a c h i l d l e a r n s , a white c h i l d l e a r n s , a t an e a r l y age t h a t Indians are people maybe there wouldn't be so much of t h i s , you know, p r e j u d i c e s t u f f . She b e l i e v e s t h a t even before non-Native students can begin to l e a r n about Native a r t , they have to "know the people, know t h e i r background, and know t h e i r h i s t o r y . " For Indian and Metis students i n Saskatchewan, S h i r l e y t h i n k s t hat s t u d y i n g Native a r t i n s c h o o l w i l l give them p r i d e , and she b e l i e v e s t h a t as a Native person "you need p r i d e " j u s t to f u n c t i o n i n our s o c i e t y . She b e l i e v e s t h a t as a Native person "you can't go on f e e l i n g t h a t you're conquered by the white people." S h i r l e y draws a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t A b o r i g i n a l peoples "have a background. We have a h i s t o r y . We have a c u l t u r e . We have our own language. We have a r t . " I d e a l l y , S h i r l e y wishes a l l A b o r i g i n a l c h i l d r e n c o u l d l e a r n these 38 t h i n g s i n the home, r a t h e r than i n the s c h o o l environment. S h i r l e y r e c a l l s the home environment i n which she, her s i s t e r and b r o t h e r s came to know the Cree c u l t u r e . As they were growing up, there was a s t r o n g " f a m i l y f e e l i n g . " There was a " f e e l i n g of c l o s e n e s s , " and the f a m i l y was "always t o g e t h e r " working and p l a y i n g . S h i r l e y r e l a t e s the experience to the imagery i n the p a i n t i n g s of A l l e n Sapp, an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known Saskatchewan a r t i s t o£ Cree a n c e s t r y whose a r t she " r e a l l y e n j o y s . " S h i r l e y says t h a t the " c u l t u r e i s w i t h i n you" and t h a t "you j u s t l e a r n by h e l p i n g . " B a s i c a l l y , her b r o t h e r s helped t h e i r f a t h e r with the work i n v o l v e d i n t r a p p i n g , f i s h i n g , c u t t i n g wood and so on. She and her s i s t e r helped t h e i r mother with, as S h i r l e y c a l l s i t , "women's work" — the work i n v o l v e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the home l i k e cooking, r e p a i r i n g t h i n g s such as snowshoes and nets, and making t h i n g s l i k e moccasins and q u i l t s . Of course, along with the work there was p l a y . S h i r l e y f o n d l y t e l l s of a game th a t she o f t e n played with her younger b r o t h e r . The game i s c a l l e d snowsnake. My younger brother used to carve snowsnakes. I t ' s j u s t an o r d i n a r y s t i c k . J u s t carve the bark — sometimes s p i r a l s . And then we'd throw them [snowsnakes] i n a snowbank and they'd come out somewhere. J u s t as her younger brother learned about snowsnakes, 39 S h i r l e y and the other c h i l d r e n a l s o learned from t h e i r grandparents, parents, u n c l e s , and aunts about v a r i o u s a r t forms and o b j e c t s such as hide s t r e t c h e r s , snowshoes, woven f u r b l a n k e t s , b i r c h bark baskets, and b i r c h bark b i t i n g s , where p a t t e r n s are c r e a t e d by g e n t l y b i t i n g f o l d e d p i e c e s of b i r c h bark. When Indian and Metis a r t i s being taught i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n , S h i r l e y says "a Native person, and I would say an o l d e r Native person" should be t e a c h i n g . S h i r l e y knows that from her l o c a l community "there's a l o t of o l d e r people t h a t would go i n t o the s c h o o l s , even f o r one day a week." Older people are " q u a l i f i e d " i n the a r t and c u l t u r e ; they have the s k i l l s and knowledge. Even S h i r l e y admits t h a t she has " f o r g o t t e n somethings," and t h a t she "d i d n ' t l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g from [her] mother, l i k e q u i l l work and how to web snowshoes." Furthermore, S h i r l e y t h i n k s the o l d e r people are more abl e to d u p l i c a t e the l e a r n i n g context of the home environment. S h i r l e y remembers " i n [her] day, l a d i e s s i t t i n g around sewing, t a l k i n g , t e l l i n g s t o r i e s , and having t e a " as she and her s i s t e r were " p l a y i n g with beads or b i t i n g b i r c h bark." The women spoke Cree which S h i r l e y says i s "a very c o l o u r f u l language, very d e s c r i p t i v e . " Students c o u l d be l e a r n i n g the language and the values of the c u l t u r e , along with l e a r n i n g the a r t , while l i s t e n i n g to 40 s t o r i e s and legends the o l d people c o u l d t e l l . S h i r l e y ' s mother o f t e n beaded and t o l d Cree legends a t the same time. S h i r l e y began l e a r n i n g the a r t of beading a t a "very young age" by "watching Mother as she s a t there by the hour doing bead work." S h i r l e y began to bead, and as she grew o l d e r her bead work " d e f i n i t e l y improved," and she i s a s k i l l f u l beader. S h i r l e y d e s c r i b e s the experience of beading: " I t ' s very s o o t h i n g . You j u s t get comfortable and j u s t s i t and t h i n k and sew Bead work — i t ' s something t h a t you j u s t grow i n t o . You l e a r n i t i n the home." S h i r l e y ' s own daughters learned bead and l e a t h e r work " i n the same way" she d i d , and as a d u l t s they continue p r a c t i s i n g the a r t . N e i t h e r S h i r l e y ' s son nor b r o t h e r s le a r n e d beading, and she t h i n k s male students should be allowed to decide f o r themselves whether they would l i k e to l e a r n . She comments: I f they're i n t e r e s t e d , f i n e , but not to f o r c e them. I c o u l d n ' t Imagine my son doing bead work.... I think i t would have to be by choice because bead work i s women's work. Along with a s e n s i t i v e approach to t e a c h i n g bead work, S h i r l e y t h i n k s students need to develop an understanding of why bead and l e a t h e r work was, and s t i l l i s , done. S h i r l e y c o n s i d e r s i t i n terms of a means of s u r v i v a l , a s u r v i v a l f o r Indigenous peoples i n the past that was v e r y dependent on 41 nature. S h i r l e y e x p l a i n s : They had to make t h e i r own footwear. They had to have l e a t h e r [and] i t had to come from animals. I t had to come from nature. I t was a way of l i f e . I t was a n e c e s s i t y . You had to k i l l an animal to s u r v i v e [and] you do not waste food; you do not waste a p i e c e of l e a t h e r . . . . E v e r y t h i n g has to have a use. whatever they d i d , i t had a purpose and as f o r d e c o r a t i o n on t h e i r moccasins -- w e l l , a l i t t l e beauty i n t h e i r l i v e s . M o s t l y e v e r y t h i n g was done f o r s u r v i v a l . S h i r l e y b e l i e v e s Native people "are very p r a c t i c a l and i t ' s probably not from c h o i c e , but I f you're not p r a c t i c a l , you don't s u r v i v e . " She b e l i e v e s t h a t bead and l e a t h e r work done today s t i l l r e f l e c t s t h i s same means of s u r v i v a l , and i s s t i l l c o n s i s t e n t with a r e s p e c t f o r nature and m a t e r i a l s . S h i r l e y knows t h a t she and other women are very c o n s c i e n t i o u s of not wasting beads nor l e a t h e r . Beading done i n s c h o o l s should be approached i n the same way, and she t h i n k s bead work designs and c o l o u r s should be decided by students on the b a s i s of d e c o r a t i v e purposes; although, students need to be aware t h a t f o r many women the purpose f o r t h e i r bead and l e a t h e r work goes beyond d e c o r a t i o n . The purpose f o r the bead and l e a t h e r work made by S h i r l e y ' s mother was p r a c t i c a l , and p a r t l y economic. 42 S h i r l e y remembers: Mother used to make a l o t o£ beaded j a c k e t s . She'd g i v e them to my Dad, but she s o l d a few. And moccasins, w e l l , t h a t was footwear when I was young. You e i t h e r wore moccasins or you went b a r e f o o t e d . S h i r l e y knows th a t she and other women bead "not f o r p r a c t i c a l use anymore, but so they can s e l l . " For many headers, s e l l i n g t h e i r work provides necessary income or a d d i t i o n a l Income. When S h i r l e y ' s c h i l d r e n were younger, she made beaded b e l t s to s e l l . The b e l t s were made f o r a l o c a l storekeeper who s o l d them to t o u r i s t s . S h i r l e y t e l l s an I n t e r e s t i n g s t o r y about the shopkeeper's a c t i o n s i n h i s s e l l i n g of her work. I used to make geometric f i g u r e s , diamonds, whatever.... He t o l d the t o u r i s t s t h a t they had a l o t of meaning. They had no meaning whatsoever. They looked n i c e — blue on red and yel l o w . . . . The c o l o u r s were n i c e . The designs were easy to bead. He s o l d a l o t of my b e l t s because he t o l d the t o u r i s t s It had s p e c i a l meaning, klnda meant good luck to the Indians. That's a l o t of b u l l . . . . I t wasn't something t h a t I'm going to k i l l a moose tomorrow or i t ' s gonna b r i n g me l u c k . I don't know where they get th a t idea from. Today, S h i r l e y ' s f i n i s h e d work i s u s u a l l y passed on to one of her daughters who s e l l s i t . S h i r l e y t h i n k s the s t y l e s and forms of bead and l e a t h e r work taught i n the s c h o o l program should be those that are done i n the l o c a l community, thus making the content more meaningful and r e l e v a n t f o r s t u d e n t s . For example, she says t h a t i t would not make sense i f a Dene person came i n t o her community "to teach us t h e i r a r t because t h e i r a r t Is completely d i f f e r e n t from ours." She t h i n k s : Every community i s d i f f e r e n t . Our bead work Is d i f f e r e n t from everyone e l s e ' s bead work. La Ronge's got a l o t of f l o w e r s . We have geometric f i g u r e s . . . . You know they have t h e i r own d i f f e r e n t ways and c u l t u r e s . She t e l l s of a Metis teacher who r e c e n t l y came from the south to the s c h o o l and t r i e d "to teach our Native c h i l d r e n Indian a r t , and i t ' s j u s t completely nothing to do with what we know. I t ' s s t r a n g e . " S h i r l e y admits t h a t her "way i s s t i l l the o l d way, the t r a d i t i o n a l way," but she understands somethings may change. For i n s t a n c e , commercially tanned hides may be used r a t h e r than home tanned hides f o r reasons of a v a i l a b i l i t y or economics. She maintains, though, t h a t the way of t e a c h i n g i n the s c h o o l classroom be s i m i l a r to t h a t In the home. S h i r l e y ' s suggestions and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g bead and l e a t h e r work In the classroom based on her experiences and her community give i n s i g h t i n t o the way 44 and the why o£ Native a r t and c u l t u r e s . She i s proud of her a r t and of the way i n which she learned i t . S h i r l e y p r o u d l y says: " I f a c h i l d wants to do bead work, i t ' s b e a u t i f u l ; i t ' s easy." The Native c h i l d may f e e l t h a t same p r i d e , and the non-Native c h i l d may f e e l t h a t he or she b e t t e r understands Indian and Metis people and t h e i r a r t . MARY Mary i s A s s i n i b o i n e - C r e e , and l a u g h i n g l y says her Native i d e n t i t y i s given " a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . " Mary does bead work and beads, as she says: " b a s i c a l l y f o r our own f a m i l y , " which Mary d e s c r i b e s as "a t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y . " She has taught beading, and a l s o Cree and Native s t u d i e s , i n the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . Mary taught a group of non-Native students to bead "very b a s i c t h i n g s , " and says that "you g o t t a have l o t s of p a t i e n c e i f you have ten k i d s and they're a l l beginners." For Mary, " t e a c h i n g the bead work was r e a l l y k i n d of strange [because] no N a t i v e s came to the beading c l a s s e s . " The c l a s s e s were he l d a f t e r s c h o o l . She comments: "I hate to see i t as an a f t e r s c h o o l program. When I was t e a c h i n g bead work and Cree, i t was a l l a f t e r s c h o o l programming. I t wasn't important enough to be p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m . " Mary t h i n k s " i t ' s a good i d e a " t h a t Indian, M e t i s , and 45 I n u i t a r t i s taught as p a r t o£ the r e g u l a r s c h o o l program. She says: I t should be p a r t o£ c u r r i c u l u m , and i t should be the Native a r t i s t s themselves t e a c h i n g . . . . I t should be a Metis t e a c h i n g Metis a r t , and an I n u i t t e a c h i n g I n u i t a r t , and so f o r t h . Mary b e l i e v e s Native a r t i s t s "would be more than w i l l i n g " to share t h e i r a r t and knowledge with s t u d e n t s , and "would be honoured i f they were asked." I t was Mary's cree grandmother who taught Mary the a r t of bead work. She compares her grandmother's way of beading to today's way. Nowadays, we use p a t t e r n s — l i k e we draw the flower or whatever, and we do bead work on i t . But years ago, she used to s i t there and j u s t do bead work without a p a t t e r n . And she taught us how to do t h a t . Mary d e s c r i b e s the way she and her s i s t e r s were taught. We watched. But those were the days where you learned by watching, and then you d i d i t on your own. They s o r t a d i d n ' t t e l l you: 'That's not how you do i t . ' They waited t i l l you f i n i s h e d . Then they t o l d you. Not l i k e today where they, I know I, you s o r t a tend to s c o l d and say: 'This i s not r i g h t . ' You know, you c r i t i c i z e . But those days, l i k e you were allowed to make your own mistakes, and then you l e a r n from them. They t o l d you 46 a f t e r . I t s o r t a meant f o r you to do i t over a g a i n . So as you got o l d e r , you d i d n ' t make any mistakes. From her grandmother, Mary learned about d e s i g n and c o l o u r . Mary says: "In my area, the crees have t h e i r own d e s i g n ... i t ' s a f l o r a l or geometric," and Mary's grandmother taught the f l o r a l d e s i g n . She a l s o taught Mary "how to use our c o l o u r s . " In "Indian s o c i e t y , t h e r e ' s four d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s , same as the four d i r e c t i o n s . " Mary e l a b o r a t e s : Some of the c o l o u r s mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n the d i f f e r e n t ceremonies.... We c o u l d use the red, blue, white, or yellow, and some use black f o r d i f f e r e n t ceremonies. A l l the d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s mean something. ... Where I grew up t h e r e ' s four d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s ; they a l l had t h e i r own designs and we were s o r t a taught, out of r e s p e c t I t h i n k , to s t a y with our own. I'd say: 40h, I r e a l l y l i k e those c o l o u r s ; I l i k e t h a t d e s i g n , ' but we knew we c o u l d n ' t use them ... t i l l you ask p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h a t . When the t r a d i t i o n a l bead work done l o c a l l y i s s t u d i e d i n s c h o o l s , Mary b e l i e v e s : "Out of r e s p e c t , the f a m i l y should be asked." Again, she t h i n k s Native people would be w i l l i n g to share and e x p l a i n t h e i r designs and c o l o u r s . Mary f o l l o w s " d i f f e r e n t customs and t r a d i t i o n s " i n doing bead work. She has taught her daughters beading. As a grandmother, she beads a l l the r e g a l i a f o r her 47 g r a n d c h i l d r e n ' s i n i t i a t i o n s , such as i n dance and name-giving ceremonies. I t i s "the grandmother ... she puts on s o r t of the show, I guess. She's the one b r i n g i n g out t h i s c h i l d [and] she takes great j o y i n doing t h i s . " Mary comments: " I t ' s s o r t of expected of you. You don't have to say: *Oh, you're going to do t h i s or you're going to do t h a t Mary t a l k s about other customs and t r a d i t i o n s t h a t the f a m i l y "keeps up." She says: " I t makes me f e e l proud, i t makes me f e e l good — proud t h a t we're s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g i t . " She observes, though, t h a t "we j u s t assume that everybody i s supposed to be doing t h i s , but when you go out t h e r e , you know i t ' s not happening. I t ' s l o s t a l o t . " When Mary goes "to a g a t h e r i n g with Native people," she " s t i l l can t e l l from the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , " those t r i b e s t h a t have "kept up t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l d r e s s , t h e i r r e g a l i a . You know where they are from by the way they d r e s s , and t h e i r c o l o u r s . " She can't always t e l l , though, "from the bead work designs on the r e g a l i a where people are from.... Nowadays, i t ' s a l l muddled up." Mary b e l i e v e s t h a t more and more, d e s i g n and c o l o u r use " r e a l l y mean no t h i n g . " she r e f e r s to bead work t h a t has "skldoos on there — r e a l s i l l y t h i n g s , even the mountles ... i t ' s not r i g h t . " Mary concedes t h a t the purpose of such work may be j u s t f o r s e l l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y to non-Native people, but she says: 48 I wouldn't buy anything l i k e t h a t . I f you have to buy something, you t r y and buy something t h a t r e l a t e s to us -- that you can i d e n t i f y with, l i k e e i t h e r by the c o l o u r s or by the d e s i g n . With t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n t e n t behind bead work, Mary has "made necklaces f o r f u n d r a i s i n g or j u s t to give to a f r i e n d . " Mary r e c o g n i z e s that the a r t of beading has been i n f l u e n c e d by new m a t e r i a l s and techniques, she r e f e r s to the use of sequins and looms. "Sometimes the younger k i d s r e a l l y get c a r r i e d away with l o t s of sequins now." Mary says: That wasn't p a r t of our c u l t u r e . . . . But i t ' s a l o t f a s t e r to do, and l e s s expensive. A f t e r I thought about i t . . . . The more s h i n i e r you a r e , the more you stand out, and the k i d s l i k e t h a t . Mary makes s i m i l a r comparisons to beads r e p l a c i n g porcupine q u i l l s , and beading with a loom, r a t h e r than by hand. She has worked with the loom, and says: [ I t ] i s much f a s t e r , and there are p a t t e r n s t h a t you can f o l l o w ... i f you are going to make something l a r g e and square. But a l o t of our p a t t e r n s a r e n ' t l i k e t h a t , l i k e our own t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . I don't remember anybody using a loom to make a b e l t . I t was done bead by bead. Mary ac c e p t s , to a c e r t a i n degree, the use of new m a t e r i a l s 49 and techniques f o r bead work. Mary p o i n t s out t h a t today, "most of the men are doing bead work.... A l o t of our Indian men who are making t h e i r r e g a l i a s now, do i t on t h e i r own." Mary r e c a l l s t h a t her b r o t h e r s d i d not do bead work, which she a t t r i b u t e s to the e f f e c t s of t h e i r attendance at a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . As f o r boys doing bead work i n s c h o o l s , Mary says: "well, why not?" When t e a c h i n g t r a d i t i o n a l bead work i n the s c h o o l s , Mary suggests t h a t students " a c t u a l l y tan" the h i d e s , then students get to "know how much work goes i n t o making a j a c k e t or mocassins." She jokes: " I f you got s i x h i d e s , t h a t would take care of your classroom f o r the year." Students c o u l d " a c t u a l l y go hunting," which Mary t h i n k s "would be a good ex p e r i e n c e " because students c o u l d experience how A b o r i g i n a l peoples r e s p e c t f u l l y use nature. "They use e v e r y t h i n g ; t h e r e ' s no waste." Mary e x p l a i n s the t r a d i t i o n a l way t h a t i s followed when us i n g nature. You have to do some o f f e r i n g s [because] you are t a k i n g p a r t of, I guess what we l e a r n e d , was one of mother natu r e ' s . We're a l l here, here t o g e t h e r , to l i v e i n harmony, and why go k i l l something f o r your b e n e f i t . But you have to do an o f f e r i n g , s a y i n g .. what i t ' s f o r . O f f e r i n g s are done when us i n g any m a t e r i a l s from nature, 50 such as red willow or b i r c h bark t h a t may be used i n the making of other a r t forms. Mary b e l i e v e s t h a t the study of Native a r t "should be w e l l balanced" f o r s t u d e n t s . "Some may want to do bead work; some may want to do a r t . " Furthermore, she f i r m l y b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d y i n g the a r t i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r Native s t u d e n t s . Indeed, Mary t h i n k s t h a t the study of Native a r t as p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m "should have happened long ago r e a l l y [because] a l o t of Indian students are v e r y a r t i s t i c , and they are never g i v e n the b e n e f i t . " She t a l k s about the a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s of Native c h i l d r e n . A l o t of parents j u s t take i t f o r granted because i t ' s a p a r t of our l i f e . . ' . . They are a r t i s t i c i n d i f f e r e n t ways. A l o t of our younger people come out; you can see he's going to be a good a r t i s t , and you j u s t watch. A l o t of them s o r t a hide i t because they haven't been giv e n c r e d i t f o r I t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s c h o o l . They hide a l o t of t h e i r work because they're supposed to be doing math Instead of a r t i s t - t y p e work.... I t h i n k too, a l o t of parents, they j u s t take i t f o r granted, I quess you know, t h a t i t ' s not being r e c o g n i z e d and nothing i s being done about i t . . . . More emphasis should be on r e c o g n i t i o n of young Native k i d s d o o d l i n g — what you c a l l d o o d l i n g , because i t means something to them.... 51 I t ' s always the beginning o£ an Indian p i c t u r e . . . . a f a v o r i t e one, i s the e a g l e . . . . L i k e they see something you don't. A l o t of teachers -- non-Native a r t te a c h e r s , maybe they don't understand because they haven't l e a r n e d . They r e a l l y don't know the s i g n i f i c a n c e of what i t means to t h a t c h i l d — what t h a t c h i l d i s doing. He's t h i n k i n g o£ h i s own people, not on l y of h i m s e l f . But t h a t ' s what the non-Native teachers miss out on. When that c h i l d i s d o o d l i n g , he sees h i s Na t i o n . . . . They say: 'They're o n l y wasting t h e i r time drawing p i c t u r e s , ' you know l i k e they should be more academic, and so a l o t of our k i d s l o s e . They're good a r t i s t s . At the same time as r e c o g n i z i n g the a r t i s t i c t a l e n t of the Native student, i t should a l s o be "encouraged ... and i t shouldn't be l i k e , hey, t h i s k i d i s doing r e a l f a n t a s t i c . " Mary suggests t h a t the teacher not over p r a i s e , but q u i e t l y encourage the student. " I t ' s between t h a t teacher and t h a t s t u d e n t . " E v e n t u a l l y , the student "can share." Mary b e l i e v e s encouraging t h e i r t a l e n t s can lead to a car e e r i n a r t f o r st u d e n t s . Mary would l i k e non-Native students "to reco g n i z e t h a t there are Indian a r t i s t s , and r e s p e c t them f o r i t because we do have a l o t of n a t u r a l Indian a r t i s t s out t h e r e . " Before l e a r n i n g about a r t i s t s of Native a n c e s t r y from other p a r t s 52 of Canada, Saskatchewan students should study a r t i s t s "from our own province whose work they can i d e n t i f y w i t h , " such as Sapp and L o n e c h i l d . Mary t h i n k s s t u d y i n g Native a r t w i l l help non-Native students develop "a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , " and r e s p e c t f o r Native peoples. Even though Mary supports and g i v e s reasons f o r study of Native a r t i n s c h o o l s , and provides suggestions towards content and approach, she i s somewhat s k e p t i c a l "because when you want something l i k e t h a t done, they always say: 'We don't have money. We don't have money.'" Mary b e l i e v e s adequate funding f o r resources and m a t e r i a l s must be a v a i l a b l e In order f o r the study of Native a r t to be a "good t h i n g i n s c h o o l s . " Mary g i v e s d i r e c t i o n f o r the study of the a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the a r t of bead work w i t h i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t . She r e v e a l s t h a t a r t t r u l y i s p a r t of the l i v e s of Native peoples, and t h a t they, the a r t i s t s , are the ones to share t h a t a r t with s t u d e n t s . The a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s of Native s t u d e n t s , Mary b e l i e v e s , deserve as much a t t e n t i o n as Native a r t i t s e l f . GRACE Grace has l i v e d on the same re s e r v e a l l her l i f e . She i s P l a i n s Cree. She c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f a s e l f taught a r t i s t , 53 and r e f e r s to a l l her a r t work as "Indian a r t . " The v a r i e t y and amount of her a r t i s t i c work over the years i s amazing. Her a r t work i n c l u d e s bead, q u i l l and l e a t h e r work, p a i n t i n g , drawing, f a b r i c work, and an a r r a y of three dimensional p i e c e s . Grace has e x h i b i t e d her work a t a r t and c r a f t shows i n P r i n c e A l b e r t and d i s t r i c t . Grace b e l i e v e s that s t u d y i n g Native a r t i n sc h o o l s i s a good i d e a . She e x p l a i n s : I t h i n k i t w i l l be good because I t h i n k i t i s d y i n g . . . . Students are very i n t e r e s t e d i n my t e a c h i n g these t h i n g s , and they should l e a r n more about Indian a r t and the b e l i e f s . Grace goes i n t o the band operated s c h o o l on her re s e r v e to work with s t u d e n t s . She f i n d s t h at students " r e a l l y want to l e a r n , " and grow i n p r i d e as they are l e a r n i n g . Other r e s e r v e communities In the area recognize Grace's a r t i s t i c t a l e n t and i n v i t e her to conduct s e s s i o n s f o r a d u l t s , as w e l l as f o r c h i l d r e n . Grace p r o u d l y t a l k s about once being a guest a t one of the schools i n P r i n c e A l b e r t to d i s c u s s her a r t with teachers and stud e n t s . She t r e a t s v i s i t o r s at her home to a d e l i g h t f u l s e s s i o n t a l k i n g about and l o o k i n g a t her a r t work c o l l e c t i o n . The c o l l e c t i o n i s so l a r g e t h a t storage boxes are needed to c o n t a i n a l l of I t . About the many p i e c e s , Grace says: "I f e e l l i k e g e t t i n g r i d of these t h i n g s sometimes, but then 54 a g a i n , people come and they want to see the t h i n g s and I wouldn't have anything to show them." Admidst her own a r t work, p a i n t i n g s by two of her sons are p r o u d l y d i s p l a y e d on the w a l l s of her home. Viewing her c o l l e c t i o n r e v e a l s two common p a t t e r n s i n her a r t work. F i r s t l y , m a t e r i a l s from nature are mostly used In making her a r t , and secondly, images from nature, most o f t e n , c o n s t i t u t e the s u b j e c t matter. Grace c o n s t a n t l y looks f o r m a t e r i a l s from the environment. She p i c k s up t h i n g s anywhere she may be, and r e g u l a r l y goes " i n t o the bush to gather." About her g a t h e r i n g of m a t e r i a l s from nature, Grace l a u g h i n g l y says: "I j u s t have to ... I can't help i t . " Grace gathers such t h i n g s as: bones, s h e l l s , mosses, f u n g i , seeds, reeds, r o o t s , s m a l l stones, red willow twigs, and p i e c e s of f u r , b i r c h bark and spruce. She c r e a t e s a number of o b j e c t s made e n t i r e l y from n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . Grace weaves reeds i n t o mats, and weaves red willow i n t o baskets and god's eye shapes. She t w i s t s and c o i l s g r a s s e s , which she sews together with spruce r o o t s , i n t o s m a l l basket c o n t a i n e r s . She shapes l a r g e r p i e c e s of spruce and b i r c h bark i n t o m i n i a t u r e canoes and s t i t c h e s them together with r o o t s . As w e l l as nature's m a t e r i a l s , Grace gathers a l l s o r t s of commercially a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . F r i e n d s and neighbours 55 "save t h i n g s " f o r Grace too. she c o l l e c t s such t h i n g s as: l e a t h e r s c r a p s , s m a l l animal and b i r d f i g u r i n e s , and v a r i o u s papers, f a b r i c s , and yarns. Grace saves, as she comments: "anything I can make use o f . " Grace combines these commercial m a t e r i a l s with n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s to c r e a t e p i e c e s based on themes from nature. For i n s t a n c e , she covers wood p i e c e s such as d r i f t w o o d with sand, moss, fungus, stones, twigs, and pl a c e s the s m a l l animal or b i r d f i g u r i n e s w i t h i n the scene. Another type of her a r t work where nature themes are e v i d e n t i s when she c o i l s b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d yarns i n t o shapes of animals, b i r d s , f l o r a and fauna, and glues these shapes onto wooden backgrounds. Although nature s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s Grace's a r t i n terms of m a t e r i a l s and images, other themes do appear. One theme i s r e s e r v e l i f e . Grace d e p i c t s scenes of everyday l i f e on the reserve i n c o l o u r f u l patchwork app l i q u e work. She cuts and s t i t c h e s p i e c e s of d i f f e r e n t l y p atterned m a t e r i a l s i n t o r e a l i s t i c scenes f i l l e d with houses and people. (This work looks s i m i l a r t o the patchwork p i c t u r e s made by C h i l e a n women. See B r e t t , 1986.) Names of people, e s p e c i a l l y of f a m i l y , are i n t e r t w i n e d i n Grace's d e s c r i p t i o n s and s t o r i e s about her a r t work. She makes items f o r f a m i l y members to be used by them, or f o r d i s p l a y i n t h e i r own homes. Grace g i v e s "a l o t of t h i n g s 56 away." Even when asked by some people, the c o s t to purchase a p i e c e , Grace says: I never s e l l a n y t h i n g . I f they want to buy something, they always ask me how much I want f o r i t . I don't know. [She laughs.] I always say you can have i t . I don't know how to charge f o r a n y t h i n g . Grace " f e e l s good" when she gi v e s her a r t work to o t h e r s , and a l s o " f e e l s good" when she makes a r t . Grace f u r t h e r accounts f o r the amount of her a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t "I can't s i t q u i e t , I have to do something a l l the time." C e r t a i n people have i n f l u e n c e d Grace's a r t i s t i c t a l e n t . She t a l k s p a r t i c u l a r l y about her mother, her f a t h e r , and an a r t i s t who spent time some years ago l i v i n g and working on her r e s e r v e . He encouraged Grace to l e a r n d i f f e r e n t techniques and to explore v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l use. Her Mom taught Grace " j u s t the sewing." Grace's mother made moccasins sewn with horse h a i r and with dyed q u i l l s on the vamps of the moccasins f o r d e c o r a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , Grace learned from her mother, the unique s t l t c h e r y p a t t e r n s seen on Grace's q u i l t s , v e s t s , and patchwork p i c t u r e s . Grace's a b i l i t y to do bead work, though, was s e l f taught. She says: "I taught myself. I d i d n ' t have anyone to teach me." Grace's f a t h e r encouraged her to develop her a r t i s t i c 57 t a l e n t . Grace remembers t h a t as a young g i r l she spent much of her time drawing and p a i n t i n g . She says t h a t her f a t h e r "used to r e a l l y l i k e my drawings and p a i n t i n g s [and] he would put them on the w a l l . " Grace no longer p a i n t s or draws because she was upset when two or her p o r t r a i t works were not returned from an e x h i b i t i o n . J u s t as her f a t h e r , her mother, and the a r t i s t i n f l u e n c e d and encouraged her, Grace s i m i l a r l y f o s t e r s the a r t i s t i c t a l e n t of students i n the classroom. When t e a c h i n g a r t to s t u d e n t s , Grace's prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e i r age. She f i n d s i t "hard to teach the l i t t l e ones" because young c h i l d r e n are not s k i l l f u l i n u s i n g sewing or beading needles s a f e l y . Grace does bead work and any s o r t of needle work with o l d e r s t u d e n t s . Although, even with o l d e r students In the classroom, she seldom teaches q u i l l work because q u i l l s are very sharp and r e q u i r e c a r e f u l h a n d l i n g . Grace says t h a t a l l students enjoy making items they can wear such as h a i r t i e s , bone chokers, and beaded j e w e l r y . Colours and p a t t e r n s f o r beaded j e w e l r y are decided by "what looks n i c e . " With young c h i l d r e n , Grace p r e f e r s to do the yarn p a i n t i n g s and a d a p t a t i o n s of the patchwork p i c t u r e s , both of which students " r e a l l y l i k e d o i n g . " Another a c t i v i t y the younger c h i l d r e n enjoy Is making l a r g e paper cut d e s i g n s . 58 A very l a r g e piece of paper, about one meter square, i s f o l d e d evenly about four times to make a s m a l l e r square. This s m a l l f o l d e d square i s then again f o l d e d l i k e a f a n . Designs are then cut i n t o the f o l d e d paper. Grace e x p l a i n s : "In the middle, I cut out arrows, and then from t h e r e , I cut out animals and t r e e s . " When the paper i s unfolded, these designs are repeated i n a c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n . The technique f o r c r e a t i n g the paper cuts i s s i m i l a r to the technique f o r b i r c h bark b i t i n g . Grace uses s m a l l s q u a r i s h p i e c e s of b i r c h bark, at most about ten centimeters square. The piece i s evenly f o l d e d t w i c e . Grace asks students to thin k i n t h e i r minds of designs and p a t t e r n s as students b i t e the s m a l l f o l d e d bark with t h e i r back upper and lower t e e t h . When the d e l i c a t e bark Is unfolded, the marks formed by the t e e t h c r e a t e a repeated p a t t e r n . Grace has worked with some students who were very adept a t b i t i n g designs of i n s e c t s and b i r d s . Students who have the o p p o r t u n i t y to do bead work with Grace experience not o n l y the f a m i l i a r forms l i k e beading moccasin vamps and j e w e l r y p i e c e s , but a l s o experience making t h e i r own beads. From the l e a t h e r scraps Grace c o l l e c t s , students make l e a t h e r beads. Square and diamond shapes are cut from s m a l l p i e c e s of l e a t h e r . The square or diamond shaped p i e c e s are smeared l i g h t l y with glue on one s i d e , and r o l l e d i n t o tube 59 forms which are about three centimeters l o n g . The tube forms become l e a t h e r beads and are s t r u n g together to make a necklace or b r a c e l e t . In the same way, b i r c h bark beads can be fashioned from p i e c e s of b i r c h bark. Another type of bead Grace has students make i s from the red willow twigs t h a t she g a t h e r s . The willow i s cut i n t o s h o r t p i e c e s , a g a i n , about three centimeters long. Grace d e s c r i b e s the process: " A f t e r you cut the p i e c e s , you soak them i n water u n t i l you can work with them. They get s o f t and they're easy to put a needle through." The bark of the red willow beads can be carved or completely peeled so as to c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the look of the beads. Grace learned some of these ideas f o r making one's own beads from the a r t i s t who had encouraged her to explore the use of nature's m a t e r i a l s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Grace has taken t h i s i n n o v a t i v e approach to bead work i n t o the classroom s i t u a t i o n , and she f i n d s t h a t students become e n t h r a l l e d with c r e a t i n g t h e i r own beads, and d e s i g n i n g j e w e l r y with them. Grace, has a l s o d i s c o v e r e d ways to make beads from commercial m a t e r i a l s , such as paper c l i p s and mac t a c papers. She d e l i g h t s i n using a l l s o r t s of m a t e r i a l s . Grace presents a p i c t u r e of "Indian a r t " t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g t h a t i s i n n o v a t i v e , fun, and t h a t has c l o s e t i e s to n a t u r e . Grace b e l i e v e s t h a t Native students need to know about Native a r t , and she knows t h a t both Native and 60 non-Native students enjoy l e a r n i n g about the a r t . Her sense o£ g i v i n g to o t h e r s , the s h a r i n g of her a r t work and her a r t i s t i c knowledge, i s perhaps most I n d i c a t i v e of the value of s h a r i n g amongst Native peoples. GERRY Gerry has a " p a s s i o n " f o r drawing. His a r t i s t i c t a l e n t was e v i d e n t as a c h i l d i n h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with drawing c a r s . He d e s c r i b e s h i s present a r t work, done "mostly i n black and white," as "kinda l i k e c artoon a r t . " He does draw car t o o n s , but more and more Gerry draws "Native p i c t u r e s , " p r i m a r i l y of b i r d and w i l d l i f e such as loons, e a g l e s , and moose. He says: "My eyes are j u s t s t a r t i n g to be open to Native a r t . " Gerry i s Cree. He was born and r a i s e d i n P r i n c e A l b e r t , and comments: "I don't r e a l l y know much about my c u l t u r e because I l i v e d i n the c i t y . . . . My c u l t u r e was the c i t y . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , Gerry b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s Native I d e n t i t y " i s s t i l l a l i v e . " Sometimes d u r i n g the summers, he spends time i n northern Saskatchewan f i s h i n g , and v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s . Gerry says: When I go up north i t makes me f e e l good because t h i s i s home, t h i s i s n a t u r a l . I t j u s t f e e l s that way to me. And when I draw animals, i t ' s t h a t way too. When I look 61 at the eagle, to me I t kinda r e p r e s e n t s power and s t r e n g t h and achievement. That's what I get out of drawing i t ; i t makes me proud to draw i t . . . . I t ' s beauty. That f e e l i n g of p r i d e i s a l s o evident i n Gerry's work s i t u a t i o n . Gerry works as a teacher a s s o c i a t e i n a P r i n c e A l b e r t elementary s c h o o l where pa r t of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e t e a c h i n g a f t e r s c h o o l programs. His program Is on Native a r t . Gerry " d e f i n i t e l y " agrees with students s t u d y i n g Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t a r t i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l program. His support stems from the f a c t t h a t "there's not o n l y white students i n s c h o o l , there's Natives t o o . . . . Natives are p a r t of the s c h o o l system." Even i f Native students are not s i t t i n g i n classrooms, Gerry s t i l l t h i n k s Native a r t "should" be taught. I t should be p a r t of s o c i a l s t u d i e s . He b e l i e v e s the a r t of Indigenous peoples "records [and] b r i n g s back the p a s t , " and i t s study w i l l h e lp students l e a r n a more balanced and accurate view of the h i s t o r y of Canada. He e x p l a i n s : Natives are a p a r t of s o c i a l s t u d i e s because, w e l l , we were here f i r s t . You know, i f you want to r e c o r d the h i s t o r y of Canada, you have to put the N a t i v e s i n there [who] e x i s t e d before the white people came over. N a t i v e s had a c e r t a i n way of l i f e . And a r t preserves --62 to me, I'm s t a r t i n g to r e a l i z e t h a t i t preserves our h i s t o r y . I t ' s not a book, but i t ' s a v i s u a l book. You can see the p a s t . Gerry a l s o supports s t u d y i n g Native a r t w i t h i n the context of the a r t c l a s s . From h i s a f t e r s c h o o l program, Gerry knows t h a t non-Native students are " i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g " about the a r t , and " r e a l l y l i k e i t and wanted to be able to draw Native a r t . " Gerry b e l i e v e s the students came c l o s e r to an understanding of A b o r i g i n a l peoples and t h e i r c u l t u r e s from the experience of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program. Gerry's o b s e r v a t i o n s of Native s t u d e n t s , t i e d i n with d i s c u s s i o n of h i s own s c h o o l experiences and h i s experiences working i n s c h o o l s , g i v e i n s i g h t i n t o the importance of s t u d y i n g Native a r t f o r students of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y . Gerry observes t h a t "they got i n t e r e s t e d too, but they d i d n ' t r e a l l y show i t , but I knew. They were kinda p a s s i v e about i t , but they enjoyed i t . " G erry b e l i e v e s that many Native students are " r e a l l y a r t i s t i c , " and l e a r n i n g about t h e i r a r t i n s c h o o l "gives N a t i v e s a l o t of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . " Gerry e l a b o r a t e s : [ I t ] g i v e s them s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , and f u l f i l l m e n t too because a l o t of them are a r t i s t s , and i t ' s f u l f i l l i n g t o be able to do something t h a t makes you f e e l good. I t ' s something t h a t ' s a p a r t of you, and plus i t shows 63 the other k i d s that you have something i n s i d e o£ you t h a t ' s a g i f t , and you can share i t . Other people w i l l look on you with r e s p e c t too, because they can see t h a t you have a g i f t . I t g i v e s you a b i t of s e l f p r i d e . Even though Gerry was not drawing Native themes as a student i n s c h o o l , he d e s c r i b e s how important h i s g i f t of a r t i s t i c t a l e n t was to him then. I d i d n ' t r e a l l y do good a c a d e m i c a l l y . . . . I would get i n t o t r o u b l e a t s c h o o l . The teachers would be complaining t h a t I never got my homework done and I . wasn't doing good because I was always daydreaming. But a r t was always something t h a t I c o u l d escape t o , t h a t was something I e x c e l l e d i n a t s c h o o l . There were teachers who encouraged Gerry's drawing t a l e n t and made him " f e e l a l i t t l e b i t more p o s i t i v e about s c h o o l . " A r t c l a s s e s i n s c h o o l were "kind of simple" f o r Gerry, and he "would have l i k e d to have taken a higher l e v e l of a r t . " Even today, he c a l l s h i s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y "underdeveloped t a l e n t " and wants to "work more with the drawing [and] do some Native a r t s . " Gerry suggests t h a t those Native students who have t a l e n t be c h a l l e n g e d . They should have the o p p o r t u n i t y to explore v a r i o u s a r t m a t e r i a l s , techniques, and s t y l e s , as w e l l as the Native s t y l e a r t . Gerry notes: Native students are i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r past and t h e i r 64 c u l t u r e , and the k i d s kinda see i t r i s i n g too — Native a r t . And they are c u r i o u s about i t . . . . But they are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n present a r t forms too. Gerry r e f e r s to cartoon c h a r a c t e r s t h a t he draws f o r the students which "the k i d s are j u s t nuts over, and so t h a t draws them to the a r t . You kinda f i t the a r t i n with them." Gerry d e s c r i b e s h i s f e e l i n g s now, i n r e l a t i o n to Native a r t , and to t e a c h i n g Native a r t . I'm j u s t r e a l l y s t a r t i n g to f e e l proud of being N a t i v e . L i k e a l l my l i f e , I was kinda ashamed of being [pause] because of g e t t i n g cut down. I d i d n ' t get cut down as much as other N a t i v e s , but when I d i d see other people get cut down or somebody t a l k i n g about N a t i v e s , I f e l t t h a t I was being cut down too, because t h a t ' s me. But now I'm s t a r t i n g to f e e l proud of i t , and my a r t expresses i t . When I draw p i c t u r e s of Natives and s t u f f , and wise men, or e a g l e s , or something, i t makes me f e e l good. That's my way of e x p r e s s i n g , showing the k i d s t h a t Natives are good and I'm proud of i t , i s by drawing and showing, s h a r i n g my a r t with them. Gerry shares h i s a r t , not onl y with s t u d e n t s , but a l s o g i v e s h i s drawings "to other people" and members of h i s f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y h i s mother who encourages Gerry's a r t work. In the a f t e r s c h o o l program, Gerry says he "demonstrates and shows the k i d s some Native s t y l e a r t [and! I share with 65 the k i d s some of my Native drawings." s e s s i o n s occur once a week, and Gerry works with a d i f f e r e n t grade each month; the grades i n c l u d e four through to seven. The time scheduled f o r the s e s s i o n s i s l i m i t e d , so there i s one main a c t i v i t y . I t i s making a " p o s t c a r d " that combines a "Native s t y l e drawing" on the f r o n t with a poem or f r e e verse i n s i d e the c a r d . Gerry d e s c r i b e s the drawing pa r t of the a c t i v i t y . F i r s t , we do a p r a c t i c e s ketch, a rough copy of what we want to draw, with p e n c i l . Then we sketch i t onto the car d with r e a l l y l i g h t p e n c i l ; then we go over i t with black ink, a l l the l i n e s , and then we c o l o u r i n with f e l t [markers] and i t shows up r e a l l y n i c e . Students take t h e i r ideas f o r t h e i r drawings from a r t books or p i c t u r e s of Native a r t . Gerry approaches h i s drawing i n a s i m i l a r manner, and o f t e n works from p u b l i s h e d a r t work. He says: "I redo them myself, i n my way." Gerry's o b s e r v a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s ' drawings are a l s o s i m i l a r to h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of h i s a r t work. He notes t h a t "most" students choose to draw animals l i k e bear and moose, or b i r d s l i k e loons and e a g l e s . " I t was d e s c r i b i n g what i t was l i k e up n o r t h . " A few students draw p i c t u r e s of Indian designs or symbols, or images from the West Coast. In s c h o o l programs, Gerry suggests s t u d y i n g the a r t of Indigenous peoples a c c o r d i n g to the v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l 6 6 r e g i o n s of North America, such as the West Coast and the P l a i n s r e g i o n s . He t h i n k s s t u d y i n g the a r t from a broad p e r s p e c t i v e r e v e a l s the r i c h n e s s of the whole c u l t u r e , and s i m i l a r i t i e s among and d i f f e r e n c e s between c u l t u r e s and t h e i r a r t forms. Gerry says: [Students] get to v i s u a l i z e t h a t [ c u l t u r e s ] were se p a r a t e . They were a l l N a t i v e s , but they l i v e d separate kinds of l i v e s . They f i t t e d t h e i r environment, and with the a r t you can show t h a t . . . . You can see the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r a r t . They were d i f f e r e n t , but they were a l l N a t i v e s and f i t together, l i k e a puzzle with d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s . Gerry b e l i e v e s environment or nature was, and s t i l l i s , a s t r o n g connector among Native peoples. In the past, "nature was t h e i r world," and m a t e r i a l s from nature provided food and s h e l t e r . M a t e r i a l s were used i n producing the v a r i o u s a r t forms, to which Gerry says: "That's c r e a t i v i t y . " Gerry t h i n k s " i t ' s good" having modern m a t e r i a l s "to show our a r t . " He adds: "But I a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t you should preserve the o l d s t y l e and the o l d way of the a r t 'cause t h a t ' s the way they d i d i t ; t h a t ' s p a r t of h i s t o r y too." Gerry t h i n k s those t e a c h i n g Native a r t should "have the a b i l i t y " and the knowledge. I t may be "anybody, even the white people." Gerry says to a r t teachers who use Native a r t i n t h e i r 67 programs: J u s t be s e n s i t i v e about i t , not to change i t . T r y and r e c r e a t e i t , and teach i t the way i t was before — to be s e n s i t i v e to what the a r t r e a l l y meant.... There probably i s more t h a t should be s a i d about i t , and more t a l k e d about i t , but I don't r e a l l y know anymore because I haven't l i v e d i t l i k e some people have.... I'm l e a r n i n g . He does add: " J u s t a c a u t i o n on the s p i r i t u a l i t y . " In r e f e r e n c e to the s p i r i t u a l t h a t i s a p a r t of Native a r t , Gerry says: I t h i n k i t might even be wise to leave s p i r i t u a l i t y out of i t because s p i r i t u a l i t y i s p e r s o n a l , and there may be c o n f l i c t s with s t u d e n t s ' values and b e l i e f s . Even though Gerry h i m s e l f does not f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l s p i r i t u a l i t y , he "wants to keep an open mind," and i t i s a " l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s " f o r him. Gerry c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f as one who i s l e a r n i n g h i s Native c u l t u r e . He b e l i e v e s a r t i s "part of c u l t u r e , " and Gerry r e v e a l s how s i g n i f i c a n t Native a r t can be f o r the l e a r n e r . As a l e a r n e r and teacher of Native a r t , Gerry shows t h a t the l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g of the a r t In schools b e n e f i t s s t u d e n t s , and needs to be approached In a t h o u g h t f u l manner by t e a c h e r s . 68 DAVID David p a i n t s and draws i n a r e a l i s t i c s t y l e . His works are of w i l d l i f e , and p r a i r i e scenes with Indian themes. David i s P l a i n s Cree. He c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f f o r t u n a t e to have been "born with" a r t i s t i c t a l e n t , and Is proud that he has developed h i s t a l e n t . He i s a l s o proud of h i s leatherwork s k i l l s , as In the making of western s a d d l e s . David "spends a l o t of time" r e s e a r c h i n g and s k e t c h i n g before he even works on a p a i n t i n g or drawing. He " p a i n t s i n o i l s , a c r y l i c s , and water c o l o u r s [and] l i k e s working i n p e n c i l and c h a r c o a l ; " he "works with a l o t of d e t a i l " In h i s a r t . David comments: As f a r as I can remember, I've always been drawing a l l the time.... The t a l e n t of being a b l e to draw anything has always been with me. The a b i l i t y to p a i n t and to be able to sketch p r o p e r l y now i s something I've learned more and more over the y e a r s . David e x h i b i t s and s e l l s h i s a r t work, and a l s o does commission work. For " q u i t e a few y e a r s " now, he has been i n v i t e d i n t o s c h o o l s to work with s t u d e n t s , and says: " I t ' s something I enjoy a l o t ; I l i k e working with k i d s . " Most of the students David works with are of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y , as the s c h o o l s are band operated s c h o o l s or s c h o o l s i n Metis 69 communities, i n some s c h o o l s , there are mural " p a i n t i n g s o£ e a g l e s " that David was commissioned to do. David t h i n k s educators should be c a r e f u l when plann i n g "to s t r e s s the Native content of a r t [and] to teach Indian a r t , I guess because a l o t of people [pause]; the d e f i n i t i o n of Indian a r t i s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f o r everybody." He agrees " i n one way," with s t u d y i n g Native a r t i n s c h o o l s . David says: A r t i n s c h o o l should cover a l l areas i n a r t . I f e e l a r t should be taught i n s c h o o l more s e r i o u s l y , and p a r t of i t should be Indian a r t . I guess I say t h a t because I look at a r t d i f f e r e n t , and I look at Indian a r t d i f f e r e n t . . . . I've always r e f e r r e d Indian a r t as to a r t t h a t has a l o t of the a b s t r a c t c o l o u r s , with f l o w i n g c o l o u r s , where t h e r e ' s s t r o n g l i n e s . He t h i n k s most people c o n s i d e r " t h a t type of a r t as Indian a r t , " a r t , as i n the work of Chee Chee and M o r r i s s e a u . David notes: "When I go to the s c h o o l s , I see that too many ki d s want to p a i n t t h a t type." David b e l i e v e s students should have the o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e v a r i o u s a r t s t y l e s , m a t e r i a l s and techniques. Study of Native a r t i s one of many ways to i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a r t i s t i c knowledge. A d d i t i o n a l l y , f o r non-Native students, David t h i n k s : "In some ways i t may help them to understand the Indian more ... i t would help them to understand the 70 other Native k i d s i n the c l a s s a l i t t l e b i t . " David views the a r t of Indigenous peoples as a r i c h and d i v e r s e area of study t h a t should not be l i m i t e d to the popular p e r c e p t i o n of Native a r t . He t h i n k s i t Is the a r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y who should be t e a c h i n g t h e i r a r t , no matter how they d e f i n e i t . When students are s t u d y i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a r t forms, he says: Someone t h a t r e a l l y has a good knowledge of the Native background, l i k e the c u l t u r e , c o u l d come i n and t a l k to them once i n a while — get them to understand why there's c e r t a i n ways of d r e s s i n g ... so that they don't j u s t do a p i c t u r e of an Indian with a headdress and not know why he i s wearing i t . I guess t h a t ' s p a r t of r e s e a r c h i n g a r t . At times, i t would be a good idea to "have e l d e r s come i n and t a l k to the k i d s . " David t h i n k s t h a t the study of Native a r t should begin with the a r t work of Indian and Metis people done l o c a l l y . In Saskatchewan s c h o o l s , students should study the work of Cree a r t i s t , A l l e n Sapp who " p a i n t s a day and age where no one r e a l l y i s c a p t u r i n g t h a t time of the Indian's l i f e . " David says: U s u a l l y i f there's something to be taught about N a t i v e s , they [students] are l e a r n i n g about N a t i v e s from 71 someplace e l s e , l i k e the ones i n the U . S . or B.C. or the ea s t e r n p a r t of Canada. But they never teach about the Indians t h a t are l i v i n g r i g h t next door to them. I f they s t a r t e d from t h e r e , i t would probably help them understand the Natives b e t t e r . Then, from there they c o u l d s l o w l y move on to other areas i n Canada or North Amer i c a . David b e l i e v e s : "There's a connection amongst a l l the d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s of North America.... Indians are always able to communicate with each o t h e r , " and "nature does, or has played a b i g r o l e with the Natives ... s u r v i v a l meant understanding nature, r e a l l y understanding nature." David comments that "there are so many t h i n g s i n the Native or Indian c u l t u r e t h a t can be taught i n the sch o o l i f you r e a l l y wanted to get i n t o i t . " In the s c h o o l s , David teaches and t a l k s about " j u s t a r t . " He has worked with students from the k i n d e r g a r t e n to high s c h o o l l e v e l s . He v i s i t s with the younger students, and draws f o r them. David says: What they l i k e [ i s ] cartoon c h a r a c t e r s . . . . For the o l d e r s t u d e n t s , then I s t a r t to teach them something about a r t . I t r y and teach them to be able to see the shadows, to see what the sun a c t u a l l y does, and then teach them to draw with shading, without having to use 1lnes. 72 At the s t a r t of a s e s s i o n , David "works together with the k i d s " on a drawing, " t a l k i n g to them and t e a c h i n g them at the same time." The drawing i s o f t e n of a ba l d eagle because "a l o t of those k i d s , l i k e i n Native s c h o o l s , they l i k e l o t s of e a g l e s . " F i r s t , students l i g h t l y s k etch an o u t l i n e of the eagle on t h e i r paper i n p e n c i l . Then David has students use c h a r c o a l because he b e l i e v e s : [Charcoal] i s something d i f f e r e n t f o r them to work with, so t h a t when they do get i n t o drawing with p e n c i l again, they're not o u t l i n i n g and they're working harder a t t r y i n g to shade i n the areas. David e x p l a i n s the shading f o r the drawing of the ea g l e . I teach them to make a dark background f i r s t , i n the area where the head i s going to be ... and then, on the lower p a r t of the page about half-ways down, the background, i t ' s not as dark -- so t h a t i t fades o f f , so t h a t the white of the head s t i c k s out i n the dark background. Instead of having to draw the head out, you're shading around i t , and when I get to the beak, i t ' s j u s t a d i f f e r e n t shade. Instead of a drawing of an eagle, David sometimes does a drawing of one of the stu d e n t s ' f a c e s . A f t e r students model h i s drawing, they "do t h e i r own p i c t u r e . " David observes d i f f e r e n c e s between what Native 73 and non-Native students decide to draw. He says: When I go to a c l a s s .. always there are a few non-Native k i d s . There i s such a b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r ideas i n what they want to draw. Most of the Native k i d s , they're so much i n t o e a g l e s , teepees, and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I t ' s j u s t i n them I guess, you know, because they are N a t i v e . . . . The other k i d s , they u s u a l l y have something d i f f e r e n t i n mind t h a t they want to draw ... u s u a l l y any type of scenery. I'd say some do barnyards, s t u f f l i k e t h a t . I've a c t u a l l y never had an Indian, .. a Native k i d , do a drawing of even t h e i r y a r d , or say drawing planes or s t u f f l i k e t h a t . They l i k e to draw the e a g l e . Some students use books to help with t h e i r drawing. David comments: "I don't discourage them from l o o k i n g In the book. That's a l l they have f o r r e f e r e n c e when they are In the classroom." David suggests t a k i n g students outdoors to s k e t c h . When he goes i n t o classrooms, David b r i n g s books "on w i l d l i f e " f o r students "that they can use f o r r e f e r e n c e . " David makes another o b s e r v a t i o n about the a r t work of Native and non-Native s t u d e n t s . I f i n d the Native k i d s , at a young age, have more a b i l i t y to draw something I f i n d than the non-Natives, .. a t a young age. I don't know i f i t sounds proper to 74 say t h a t , but I am able to see t h a t a l o t . When David n o t i c e s that a student has a r t i s t i c t a l e n t , David encourages the student. At the s t a r t they're u s u a l l y shy.... I t may not be f a i r to the other k i d s , but because I see a student there t h a t has the a b i l i t y to have some t a l e n t i n a r t , d u r i n g t h a t c l a s s , I ' l l sometimes stop and I ' l l go to t h a t student to encourage him a l i t t l e more i n what he's doing. And t e l l him a few l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s than what I've t o l d the r e s t of the c l a s s so t h a t , at l e a s t he f e e l s a l i t t l e more s p e c i a l -- t h a t I found him d i f f e r e n t , or her, because of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n a r t . And I t r y to encourage them as much as I can.... I've always wanted to go back to the schools and work with [those] k i d s ... so when they do leave s c h o o l , they are going to continue with i t . He or she co u l d pursue a career i n a r t as "an a r t i s t , and not j u s t as an Indian a r t i s t . " David's work i n the sc h o o l s i s purposely d i r e c t e d away from what he t h i n k s i s commonly p e r c e i v e d as Indian a r t . He d i r e c t s students away from c o l o u r and s t r o n g l i n e i n t o techniques of shading with c h a r c o a l and p e n c i l . S t i l l , Native content or imagery comes through i n the students' a r t work, and indeed, i n David's a r t work. David says: "When I do the teepees, Indians on horses 75 ... you can c a l l i t Indian a r t or Native a r t I guess, [but] my Indian a r t [ i s ] c o n s i d e r e d as western a r t " by those i n the mainstream a r t f i e l d . David r e v e a l s an approach to study of Native a r t t h a t does not l i m i t Native a r t to one d e f i n i t i o n , nor students to one s t y l e , nor a r t i s t to Native a r t i s t . CHARLES Charles i s Woodland Cree. He i s becoming known throughout the province f o r h i s a r t work, p r i m a r i l y p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , but Charles s e t s a s i d e h i s own a r t f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n terms of schools "because h i s a r t has become p e r s o n a l i z e d . " Rather, he t a l k s about the more h i s t o r i c a l l y - b a s e d a r t of Indian peoples. S t i l l , f o r C h a r l e s , the understanding i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same between h i s p e r s o n a l a r t and "what we may c a l l Indian a r t , what i s known as Indian a r t . " He i s o f t e n i n v i t e d to do a r t workshops with students ranging from the elementary to a d u l t l e v e l and works mostly with the Woodland s t y l e when t a l k i n g to s t u d e n t s . Charles t a l k s about the understanding behind the a r t , and he e x p l a i n s the processes and m a t e r i a l s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g t h i s a r t . C h a r l e s agrees with having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l 76 programs, " i f i t i s done p r o p e r l y . " He says, though, " i t doesn't n e c e s s a r i l y have to be Indian a r t . " For C h a r l e s , " a r t i s l i f e . I t ' s something you l i v e with. Something l i k e b r e a t h i n g . " He regards a r t education as a high l e v e l of l e a r n i n g and a r t , i n p a r t , as a t o o l t h a t can help students i n t h e i r l i v e s . As l e a r n e r s come to know a r t , Charles sees "people t h a t are c u l t u r e d , t h a t a p p r e c i a t e a r t , t h a t are very open minded." He acknowledges t h a t students who l e a r n about Native a r t may enhance t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c u l t u r e s and peoples, but the a r t goes beyond mere a p p r e c i a t i o n . Charles s t r o n g l y emphasizes that the a r t i s a process with pushing f o r c e s behind i t . These f o r c e s , or the p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts of A b o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g hold constant over time. Charles b e l i e v e s t h a t language was once i n s t r u m e n t a l i n conveying the messages or teachings of the philosophy, "but language i s not t h e r e . . . . Nowadays, I see t h a t i f language i s not going to convey these messages [pause]; a r t has taken t h a t p l a c e . " Charles t h i n k s t h a t i t i s becoming more important to use Imagery because many Native c h i l d r e n are not g e t t i n g the p h i l o s o p h y behind A b o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g . Although the a r t o b j e c t or v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n may vary throughout the c e n t u r i e s , the process of i t s c r e a t i o n i s the same. 77 We're t a l k i n g about Indian a r t as a p r o c e s s . . . . I t was a v e r y smooth flow of a r t i n a l i f e s t y l e and I don't see anything d i f f e r e n t today ... through s e e i n g , through l i v i n g . . . . I t comes s o r t of i n n a t e . You teach those t h i n g s i n that manner. Based on h i s h i g h l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d view of a r t , Charles e l a b o r a t e s on the approach he uses i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n , which he d e s c r i b e s as "the hands-on method." His main purpose i s to t r y to convey the concept behind the a r t , and a s t r a t e g y i n h i s approach which becomes obvious from the d e s c r i p t i o n s i s q u e s t i o n i n g . Many que s t i o n s are posed so as to get students t h i n k i n g about a l l that i s i n v o l v e d In making the a r t . Another s t r a t e g y which d i r e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s the p r a c t i c a l hands-on method i s b r i n g i n g i n a c t u a l o b j e c t s , such as a Dakota headdress and a drum from the P l a i n s r e g i o n . C harles says: "Kids can r e l a t e to something they can touch. I make them touch." Students are i n v i t e d to wear the headdress and f e e l the "wooden a s p e c t " of the drum. To e x p l a i n the concepts and processes i n v o l v e d i n Indian a r t , C h a r l e s shows students h i s drum and t a l k s about the c r e a t i o n of the drum from raw m a t e r i a l s to f i n i s h e d product. For example, he asks where does the hide come from, which leads to a d i s c u s s i o n of the animal and where the animal l i v e s . He then asks how are you going to go 78 about g e t t i n g t h i s animal, which leads t o t a l k i n g about hunting. Those animals ... t h a t ' s t h e i r world. They are not j u s t going to al l o w you to j u s t come and take them. There i s a c e r t a i n way you have to take t h a t animal — the r e s p e c t t h a t ' s i n v o l v e d t h e r e . So once you have the animal, how do you get i t i n t o t h i s shape -- the hide? So t h a t becomes another a r t . You're t a l k i n g about a pro c e s s . . . . Make them thi n k about the whole pr o c e s s . Charles draws a t t e n t i o n the the purpose of the drum. He e x p l a i n s about s i n g i n g and Indian songs. C h a r l e s a l s o e x p l a i n s "some of those s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s maybe that are important to understanding a r t , and a l o t of Indian a r t does c o n t a i n some — does need some s p i r i t u a l thought i n i t . " C h a r l e s makes connections to the l i v e s of stu d e n t s . For example, he compares Indian songs to songs on the r a d i o . Popular music can be l i s t e n e d to and used by anyone, but t h i s i s not the case with s p e c i f i c Indian songs. You cannot even tape them. So how are you going to know these songs i n the f i r s t place i f you don't at t e n d those ceremonies? So a l l t h i s t a l k about what's on the s i d e , the f o r c e s j u s t f o r t h i s one l i t t l e s p e c i f i c t h i n g [drum], t h a t ' s the kind of t h i n g I go through. S i m i l a r l y , C h a r l e s t a l k s about the process and meaning behind the Dakota headdress. 79 One s p e c i f i c reason f o r showing the headdress i s to address s t e r e o t y p i n g . Students are quick to i d e n t i f y what i t i s and comment t h a t "Indians wear those." Charles then makes students think about Indian s o c i e t y hundreds of years ago when headdresses where e s p e c i a l l y common. Charles e x p l a i n s : "Something l i k e t h a t was not an ornament; i t was not ornamental." He e l a b o r a t e s on how c h i l d r e n went through a developmental process, an i n i t i a t i o n , and were taught c e r t a i n t h i n g s such as to r e s p e c t e l d e r s . Young boys, f o r in s t a n c e , were taught to hunt and b r i n g meat back to feed the o l d people who were no longer p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g f o r hunting and p r e p a r i n g food. Boys who learned t h i s were given an eagle f e a t h e r as "a s i g n of g r a d u a t i o n . " So as a Dakota boy: ... i f you d i d a l l those good t h i n g s a l l your l i f e , comes a p o i n t i n time when you're say s i x t y years o l d , you have a l l these f e a t h e r s showing you a l l these great t h i n g s you d i d f o r your people, not j u s t f o r y o u r s e l f . Then you go make a bonnet l i k e t h i s and you can wear t h a t . Dakota g i r l s who accomplished c e r t a i n t e achings a l s o earned f e a t h e r s towards making headdresses. To help students understand the concept of the f e a t h e r s , C h a r l e s compares them to r e p o r t c a r d s . He may a l s o b r i n g 80 the message of the headdress to a present-day context by t a l k i n g about F i r s t Nations l e a d e r s who work f o r t h e i r people today. Charles c a l l s headdresses and drums "mobile a r t . " These o b j e c t s have a f u n c t i o n a l or p r a c t i c a l use. A headdress, f o r example: ... needs to be i n motion. I t needs to have a whole s e r i e s of t h i n g s connected with i t to get the f u l l a p p r e c i a t i o n . We t a l k about song and dance, drama. E v e r y t h i n g i s pa r t of the package. You can't j u s t look at i t as one s p e c i f i c t h i n g . I t needs to be so many other f o r c e s i n v o l v e d . C h a r l e s ' image of the powwow dancer with h i s featherwork i n motion suggests t h a t mobile a r t combines the v i s u a l with motion. L i k e the f e a t h e r s of a headdress and the hide of a drum, many of the m a t e r i a l s used i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t of Indigenous peoples come from nature. Charles emphasizes the st r o n g i n t e r p l a y of e c o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s on Native a r t , past and present. In an a c t i v i t y based on the Woodland s t y l e , he uses the bear image, an image t h a t some may thin k i s c h i l d - l i k e because "how they draw a bear doesn't look l i k e a bear;" however, young students i d e n t i f y with the s t y l e . F o l l o w i n g the s t y l e format allows Charles to get i n t o 81 ecology, and i n t o legends. He t r i e s to make students r e a l i z e "what i s the importance of the bear i n terms of not o n l y Native c u l t u r e , but a l s o i n terms of w i l d l i f e as an e n t i t y In the world." When us i n g the image of the bear with legends, Charles f i r s t l y t e l l s a legend. A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the concept of legends, the c l a s s begins the process of c r e a t i n g t h e i r own v i s u a l legend. Students brainstorm e v e r y t h i n g they know about the bear and these items, which become the b a s i s f o r the c l a s s ' s s t o r y of the bear, are recorded. The bear has f u r ; the bear h i b e r n a t e s ... the bear eats f i s h . I t ' s a l l l i s t e d down and we say t h i s Is our legend. T h i s i s our s t o r y . L e t ' s keep our mind on t h i s . T h i s i s what we're going to show without u s i n g words, without u s i n g any kind of w r i t i n g . In t h i s way, the concept of the bear i s presented v i s u a l l y . As students work through the process, C h a r l e s i s a l s o working so students are able to observe h i s making of a v i s u a l legend at the same time. Charles i n v i t e s the use of photo and video cameras to r e c o r d workshop s e s s i o n s . When us i n g the Woodland a r t s t y l e i n workshops, Charles makes c l e a r t h a t t h i s i s only one c e r t a i n s t y l e of a r t . I t Is the s t y l e he i s most f a m i l i a r with f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , but i f time allows Charles w i l l t a l k about other types of a r t . He has worked with a r t from the P l a i n s area, t y p i c a l of 82 southern Saskatchewan. As Charles e x p l a i n s , i t makes sense f o r a teacher to be guided by and work with the r e l e v a n t environment of the s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . He s t a t e s : I c o u l d go i n t o a s c h o o l down south where they don't even have any t r e e s and s t a r t t a l k i n g about totem poles but they [students] can't r e l a t e to t h a t . I can s t a r t t a l k i n g about b u f f a l o because they i n h a b i t e d the a r e a . That's why I f o l l o w these [ g u i d e l i n e s ] . The l o c a l environment Is i n s t r u m e n t a l i n determining Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs. Ch a r l e s p o i n t s out t h a t environmental d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l areas have r e s u l t e d i n many types of a r t and s t y l e s . S t i l l , a s t r o n g connector among the d i v e r s e a r t forms and s t y l e s i s nature. Charles says: "That's where the a r t o r i g i n a t e d and t h a t ' s where i t a c t u a t e d — i n terms of the l a n d . " Charles suggests t h a t students explore t h e i r environment. They c o u l d be l o o k i n g a t and making a r t d u r i n g v i s i t s to f o r e s t s as w e l l as to g a l l e r i e s . He t h i n k s t h a t the person t e a c h i n g Native a r t i n shools should be "an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t , someone t h a t has a f e e l f o r other l i f e forms ... a f e e l f o r what kind of message i s to be given out." A r t content should be i n t e r r e l a t e d , or i n t e g r a t e d , with other areas of study. C h a r l e s says: 83 If. we're going to f o l l o w the process I was t a l k i n g about, then you can t i e a r t with say, h i s t o r y . T i e i t with ecology. T i e i t with other areas, and i t ' s a subsequent kind of ongoing t h i n g . As Charles r e v e a l s , a r t Is not bound by s u b j e c t or time, nor language. A r t i s important t o C h a r l e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t the a r t which goes i n t o the classroom i s very important. One of the f i r s t t h i n g s Charles does when he walks i n f o r a workshop s e s s i o n i s to look at the w a l l s to see how much, and what kind of a r t i s being done. He looks f o r what students "are being f e d . " Charles b e l i e v e s our minds hold e v e r y t h i n g we see, and hear. He c a l l s t h i s "our p e r i p h e r y of v i s i o n . " The term provides a thought-provoking ending f o r h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a r t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the a r t of Indigenous peoples. On a f i n a l note, C h a r l e s adds: If we are not going to c o n s c i o u s l y develop o u r s e l v e s , then s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , the a r t we view, the songs, the legends, and imagery w i l l do I t f o r us. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , important t h a t these t h i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y a r t , be fed to the minds of the young ones so that innate guides w i l l e x i s t f o r t h e i r f u t u r e journey. 84 ALAN Alan i s a s e l f taught a r t i s t . His a r t work, and h i s work promoting the a r t s and c r a f t s of Native peoples are r e c o g n i z e d n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . Despite o p p o r t u n i t i e s over the years to r e l o c a t e , Alan has always l i v e d i n Saskatchewan. He comments: "I guess maybe you can say I e s t a b l i s h e d my r o o t s i n P r i n c e A l b e r t , and they're s t i l l here." He was born on a r e s e r v e north of the c i t y . Alan i s Cree, but p o i n t s out that "the word, 'Cree,' i t ' s not even ours. I t ' s j u s t a l a b e l . 'Cree' Is an E n g l i s h word i d e n t i f y i n g , r e a l l y , a race of Indians." Alan speaks Cree, the "y" d i a l e c t . His home res e r v e i s " r i g h t on the edge of the f o r e s t s and the p l a i n s , " and i s probably "a b i t of both" Woodland and P l a i n s Cree; however, Alan c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t the overuse of E n g l i s h names and c a t e g o r i e s to d e s c r i b e Native peoples and t h e i r a r t . He b e l i e v e s : "People, l i k e educators and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , have always c l a s s i f i e d a l l Indians the same." He t h i n k s a s i m i l a r approach has been a p p l i e d to "Indian a r t . " Most o f t e n Alan p r e f e r s to use terms l i k e "imagery" and "imaging of the c u l t u r e . " Alan's a r t i s t i c t a l e n t " r e a l l y came out" i n s c h o o l when he was a young teenager, such that he was boycotted from e n t e r i n g drawing c o m p e t i t i o n s . He developed s k i l l s and 85 knowledge i n many a r t forms and mediums. Alan says: I've done a l o t of commercial a r t work and f i n e a r t work; I've done a l o t of t h i n g s . . . . I t takes some time to r e c a l l [ a l l ! what I've done. But b a s i c a l l y , I've looked a t and I'm q u i t e f a m i l i a r with a l l the Indian a r t forms, you know, t r a d i t i o n a l , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , contemporary, t h a t type of t h i n g ,,. the d i f f e r e n t a r t forms that e x i s t . Alan has "met a l l the major a r t i s t s " of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y i n Canada. He i s a l s o f a m i l i a r with the work of Indigenous peoples i n other p a r t s of the world such as the Maori of New Zealand who he c o n s i d e r s "are coming to the f o r e f r o n t , and not j u s t i n a r t , " but i n economics and i n education as w e l l . Alan i s s k e p t i c a l when he hears about Native a r t appearing i n s c h o o l programs. He q u e s t i o n s : "For what? What i s the u l t i m a t e purpose to i t ? " He hopes that the i n t e n t i o n s are not "to p a c i f y " a growing Indian and Metis student p o p u l a t i o n i n Saskatchewan, nor to ease "any g u i l t f e e l i n g s " on the p a r t of n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y . He q u e s t i o n s "how s e r i o u s " governmental education agencies are about the study of Native a r t i n terms of funding and long term p l a n n i n g . Alan's s k e p t i c i s m comes from "being an Indian person" who, because of h i s work and experiences, b e l i e v e s : As Indians we're f o r e v e r a l l o w i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n s , the 86 government i n s t i t u t i o n s and others to d i c t a t e and s e t the parameters of what we are and what we should be. I t ' s always c o n t r o l l e d by money. S t i l l , Alan t h i n k s e f f o r t s to have Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs are commendable. He says: "Don't get me wrong, i t ' l l h elp to some degree," but i t needs to be done "along with the Indian people." The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n needs to be "what can we do t h a t w i l l have a f u l l impact." Alan b e l i e v e s t h a t the s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s f o r A b o r i g i n a l and n o n - A b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t i e s to r e a l i z e the importance and p o t e n t i a l of the study of Indigenous c u l t u r e s and t h e i r a r t . He s t a t e s : I t i s one of the r i c h e s t — r e a l l y , something t h a t ' s s t i l l w a i t i n g to explode. A r t , i t ' s one of the r i c h e s t forms of e x p r e s s i o n . I won't c a l l i t Indian a r t or any t h i n g . The whole c u l t u r e i s j u s t w a i t i n g to explode i n North America, the Indian c u l t u r e , i n a l l areas of e x i s t e n c e , and the t h i n g i s that i t ' s not being t r e a t e d the way i t should r e a l l y be t r e a t e d , t h a t i s , i t i s such a l a r g e and vast resource to l e a r n from. Alan q u a l i f i e s h i s premise. He b e l i e v e s t h a t we "don't have a c l u e what [the a r t ] i s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . " He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t "you can't separate a r t by i t s e l f , with Indian or any c u l t u r e . " Alan t h i n k s Native and non-Native people hold many misconceptions 87 about the a r t o£ indigenous peoples. For example, symbolism i s " d i s t o r t e d . " He e x p l a i n s : Sure there was Indian a r t , but what i s today p e r c e i v e d to be Indian a r t was a form of communication symbolism th a t had r e a l l y nothing to do with a r t . But a l o t of i t was to do with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , r e c o r d i n g of i t s own way, h i s t o r y , t e r r i t o r i a l ism, so on and so f o r t h — a u t h o r i t y , i d e n t i f y i n g a u t h o r i t y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . L i k e on a teepee there was symbolism used f o r , maybe a bear, to i d e n t i f y maybe a medicine man and nobody e l s e . That bear i d e n t i f i e d with t h a t medicine man. [ I t ] had something to do with h i m s e l f p e r s o n a l l y , h i s h i s t o r y or something, p a r t of h i s a u t h o r i t y , or p a r t of h i s knowledge, and so on and so f o r t h . S i m i l a r l y , Alan t h i n k s s p i r i t u a l i s m i s d i s t o r t i n g . He b e l i e v e s the a r t i s overemphasized as "a s p i r i t u a l t h i n g i n s t e a d of a happiness t h i n g , a c o l o u r f u l t h i n g . " He says: Too much of our l i f e s t y l e and our c u l t u r e has been too s p i r i t u a l i z e d . I t ' s j u s t too much. I t ' s got to come out of t h a t and t h a t ' s one problem today. I t ' s t r y i n g to claw i t ' s way out of t h a t . . . . Hey, my c u l t u r e i s b e a u t i f u l ; my c u l t u r e i s c o l o u r f u l ; i t ' s happy. He adds: I hate i t when people t a l k about Indian c u l t u r e and 88 Indian t r a d i t i o n l i k e : 'Oh gosh, t h i s i s s p i r i t u a l ... oh, t h i s i s Indian c u l t u r e , g o t t a be q u i e t . 1 Hey, Indians had ceremonies where they had a whole l o t of fun. I t was meant f o r fun; i t was meant f o r c o l o u r ; i t was meant f o r showing o f f . Our c u l t u r e i s being t r e a t e d , even to t h i s day, with too much thought and reverence. We're not a l l medicine men or whatever. We are a l i v e , but t h a t a l i v e n e s s i s not being put out there w i t h i n t hat c o l o u r the way i t should be. A l a n t h i n k s the a r t s and the c u l t u r e s of A b o r i g i n a l peoples are "understudied," and b e l i e v e s r e s e a r c h i s c r u c i a l . He says: "People who can make a d i f f e r e n c e are s t i l l quick to jump the gun i n p u t t i n g down something f o r h i s t o r i c purposes." Alan b e l i e v e s t h a t Native people should i n i t i a t e r e s e a r c h , and " p a r t i c i p a t e more with h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h e o l o g i s t s . " He p o i n t s out the p o s t i t i v e e f f e c t s of r e s e a r c h t h a t have occurred i n areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. They have been l u c k y enough to have h i s t o r i c a l evidence where they have r e a l l y been able to have evidence and l a t c h on and hang on to t h i n g s i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y . But i n the P l a i n s , I t ' s been d i f f e r e n t . Alan does not c o n s i d e r the imaging of Saskatchewan A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s as indigenous. He views i t as over i n f l u e n c e d and s p o r a d i c . E s p e c i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n Saskatchewan was the l a t e 89 S a r a i n Stump, who v i s i t e d and worked i n the province d u r i n g the s e v e n t i e s . Alan says: You s t i l l see t h a t i n f l u e n c e i n Saskatchewan a r t i s t s because he had such an impact. But he had an Indlanness about him too. But a l o t of h i s designs are r e l a t e d to South American Indian a r t forms. He adapted i t i n t o the c e n t r a l and southern u n i t e d s t a t e s , and c e n t r a l and South American Indian forms. Alan b e l i e v e s t h a t Stump's s t y l e i s e v i d e n t i n the work of many contemporary a r t i s t s from the province and " i t ' s p e r c e i v e d as t r a d i t i o n a l Indian a r t from Saskatchewan, which i t i s n ' t . " Alan comments: Th i s i s the way Indian a r t has been e v o l v i n g — i n l i t t l e s p u r t s , l i t t l e S a r a i n Stump s p u r t s , l i t t l e M o r risseau s p u r t s , i n l i t t l e Tony Hunt s p u r t s , i n l i t t l e Daphne O d j i g s p u r t s . I t ' s j u s t been l i t t l e s p u r t s . . . . Our a r t , i n whatever we do, has been caught i n l i t t l e wee t i n y c y c l e s . . . . We're a l l o w i n g the non-Indian s o c i e t y to s e t the parameters of the next process, the next s t e p , and w e ' l l keep going through the c y c l e s u n t i l we as Indians s i t down and say: 'Hey, wait a minute. We o u r s e l v e s , what do we want us to be, and l e t ' s we o u r s e l v e s do i t and say what i t i s to be.' Alan l i k e s the work of Saskatchewan a r t i s t , A l l e n Sapp, and says: 90 A l l e n Sapp's p a i n t i n g s have meaning to me as an Indian because I l i v e d e x a c t l y those images.... But they don't have the same meaning f o r k i d s [today] because they don't l i v e t h a t way anymore.... where i t [imagery] needs b u i l d i n g , and where i t w i l l grow from, t h a t ' s from our people.... I t ' s a c t u a l l y got to s t a r t from the community. Alan wishes f o r a s t r o n g e r c o l l e c t i v e d e s i r e w i t h i n the A b o r i g i n a l community to d i s c o v e r , l e a r n , develop, c r e a t e , and use t h e i r imagery. Alan d e f i n e s imagery: "Indian Imagery i s l i f e . I t ' s e v e r y t h i n g . " He e l a b o r a t e s on what imagery i s , as w e l l as what Imagery i s not. I t ' s the way the teepee was made ... not j u s t the design on the teepee, but the teepee i t s e l f has become an image today. P i c k i n g b l u e b e r r i e s has become an image today, and today i t e x i s t s . Tanning a b u f f a l o hide, even though you h a r d l y see i t here. F u r n i t u r e t h a t was used i n a teepee -- l i k e willows f o r a b a c k r e s t . . . . To me, Indian Imagery i s n ' t j u s t the m y t h i c a l t h a t everybody p e r c e i v e s the m y t h i c a l d e s i g n t h a t went on a drum or a war s h i e l d or on a horse s h i r t or whatever... I t h i n k i t ' s a very s i m p l i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i f you look at Indian Imagery as those images t h a t were painted or carved onto something m a t e r i a l . Indian Imagery today 91 has become a l l p a r t s of Indian l i f e i n the past -- the legends, the s t o r y t e l l i n g i s now Indian imagery. I t ' s put on paper through e i t h e r o i l , or c a r v i n g , or whatever. To me, when you t a l k about Indian imagery or Indian a r t or whatever you want to c a l l i t , I don't put a name to i t , i t ' s the imaging of our past c u l t u r e and then sometimes i t ' s reperformed i n dancing, s t o r y t e l l i n g , a c t i n g — modern-day i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Alan t h i n k s t h a t the Importance and p o t e n t i a l of t h i s imagery can be explored and implemented i n the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . He views i t as a r e d i r e c t i o n of educa t i o n i n t o the c u l t u r a l area and n e c e s s i t a t e s " t r y i n g something b o l d , something d i f f e r e n t . " I t r e q u i r e s t h a t non-North American c u l t u r e s and indigenous c u l t u r e s "get s e r i o u s " about the study of Native a r t i n terms of support and e f f o r t . Alan e n v i s i o n s a s c h o o l , and d e s c r i b e s i t as "an a r t sc h o o l with meaning, not j u s t to put out a r t i s t s per se," but to put out A b o r i g i n a l imagery and make i t " v i s i b l e on a d a l l y b a s i s . " The s c h o o l would use Imagery i n an i n v e s t i g a t i v e and i n n o v a t i v e way, such as through i n d u s t r i a l ceramics, j e w e l r y making, or f i l m p r o d u c t i o n . Alan says: We can get e x p e r t i s e from a l l over the world to teach us t e c h n i c a l t h i n g s . A l l we have to do i s put i n the c r e a t i v e n e s s . . . . L e t ' s use i t i n such a way where i t 92 w i l l b e n e f i t us today s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . L e t ' s not be a f r a i d of the economic p a r t of i t . . . . Indians are so a f r a i d of g e t t i n g our c u l t u r e and image acr o s s u s i n g modern-day technology ... using modern-day technology to present our c u l t u r e i n i t s excitement, i t s c o l o u r . The impact of the s c h o o l would be to "impose our Imagery i n the commercial f i e l d , " and the u l t i m a t e purpose would be to b e n e f i t Native peoples. Alan agrees with the o p i n i o n t h a t Natives are "good a r t i s t s and c r e a t i v e ; " y e t , i n schools "the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s " does not encourage nor strengthen these a t t r i b u t e s . He b e l i e v e s that the "area of v i s u a l and performing a r t s " i s p o t e n t i a l l y "the l a r g e s t dominating f a c t o r i n the w e l l being of our people ... e c o n o m i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y -- you name i t . " Alan says the s c h o o l concept " i s a b i g dream, but look out i f i t happens." He b e l i e v e s i t can happen. A v i s u a l and performing a r t s focus i s "the way to go," r a t h e r than going "piecemeal" with Native a r t i n t o present s c h o o l programs and s t r u c t u r e s . Alan says: "We Indians o n l y have about two t h i n g s l e f t i n r e l a t i o n to our c u l t u r e . That's our imagery, our a r t forms ... and our language." That imagery, at present, i s underdeveloped and using i t i n s c h o o l programs may be d i s t o r t i n g Native a r t and c u l t u r e s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . Alan 9 3 presents a bold p i c t u r e where A b o r i g i n a l imagery Is paramount. Alan r e v e a l s imagery's v i t a l i t y , r i c h n e s s , beauty, and p o t e n t i a l power to be " f o r e f r o n t " i n our s o c i e t y , and to b e n e f i t Native students and peoples i n many ways. 94 V. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS ANALYSIS In c o n s t r u c t i n g the n a r r a t i v e s , p a t t e r n s soon emerged i n the a r t i s t s ' responses to the three areas of i n q u i r y : 1) b i o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l background, 2) viewpoint on having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs, and 3) d e s i r a b l e content and approach to Native a r t i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . By reviewing a l l the data and s t u d y i n g the n a r r a t i v e s , a f t e r they had each been v e r i f i e d with the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , a deeper a n a l y s i s became p o s s i b l e . The p a t t e r n s or themes i n the responses were i n t e r p r e t e d by gender and by the a r t i s t s ' b i o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The four male a r t i s t s produced the more modern a r t forms of p a i n t i n g and drawing; whereas, the f i v e female a r t i s t s p r i m a r i l y produced bead and l e a t h e r work, a t r a d i t i o n a l a r t form of Native c u l t u r e s . Even though the d i v i s i o n i s apparent, i t i s a l s o notable t h a t the youngest and e l d e s t of the female group are and have been a c t i v e i n p a i n t i n g and drawing p u r s u i t s which suggests t h a t the type of a r t produced by A b o r i g i n a l peoples i s not e x c l u s i v e to gender. The reasons given by the a r t i s t s f o r t h e i r a r t p r o d u c t i o n d i d not f o l l o w c l o s e l y along gender l i n e s . There 95 was a balance between gender groups i n terms of enjoyment, l e a r n i n g , and economic purposes. O v e r a l l , the element of s h a r i n g appeared more pronounced among the females, and economic g a i n seemed more predominant w i t h i n the male group. B a s i c a l l y , the males d e s c r i b e d themselves as s e l f taught and born with a r t i s t i c t a l e n t ; the females d e s c r i b e d t h e i r l e a r n i n g bead and l e a t h e r work by observing t h e i r mother or grandmother bead. One male a r t i s t d i d not d i r e c t l y comment on how he a c q u i r e d h i s a r t i s t i c s k i l l s , and the e l d e s t female a r t i s t c o n s i d e r e d h e r s e l f a s e l f taught header; yet, she observed her mother doing q u i l l work on moccasin vamps. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r t i s t and a r t produced found w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group i n d i c a t e some s i m i l a r i t i e s to those found with Wisconsin Native a r t i s t s i n a more e x t e n s i v e and exhaustive study by Stuhr (1987), The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s b u i l d on the f i n d i n g s from the group of Saskatchewan A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s i n e l a b o r a t i n g viewpoints on having Native a r t i n s c h o o l programs, and the d e s i r a b l e content and approaches to Native a r t i n c u r r i c u l u m . VIEWPOINTS ON HAVING NATIVE ART IN SCHOOL PROGRAMS In g e n e r a l , a l l nine a r t i s t s agreed with having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs. Agreement ranged from 96 r e l u c t a n c e to s t r o n g support, o v e r a l l , the f i v e female a r t i s t s were more s u p p o r t i v e than the four male a r t i s t s . The youngest male a r t i s t , though, who was a l s o the youngest of the nine a r t i s t s , v o i c e d d e f i n i t e agreement f o r Native a r t study i n s c h o o l s . He and the female group expressed s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of p r i d e stemming from t h e i r a r t p r o d u c t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , he, along with some of the younger female a r t i s t s expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t Native a r t should be taught because A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s are indigenous to North America. Age, and more so, the d i f f e r e n c e i n a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d with gender, seem to account f o r the v a r y i n g support and reasons given by the a r t i s t s f o r having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs. The female a r t i s t s r e f e r r e d to the a r t of beading as muddled up, changing, being l o s t , and d y i n g . They i n d i c a t e d concern f o r i t s c o n t i n u i t y and a preference f o r p a s s i n g on t h i s a r t form w i t h i n the context of f a m i l y and home. The group seemed to b e l i e v e , though, t h a t a l l A b o r i g i n a l c h i l d r e n were not guaranteed the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n i t o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . The female a r t i s t s viewed t e a c h i n g the a r t forms of Native c u l t u r e s i n schools as a way of p a s s i n g on the a r t and c u l t u r e to Native s t u d e n t s . Aside from the youngest male a r t i s t ' s c l e a r support, the male a r t i s t s were l e s s e x p l i c i t and perhaps more begrudging i n v o i c i n g support f o r Native a r t content i n s c h o o l s . Yet 97 they a l l d i d so, at l e a s t to some degree. These a r t i s t s were more i n v o l v e d i n and aware of the mainstream a r t world, as w e l l as the contemporary Native a r t world. They viewed the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the term "Native a r t " i t s e l f as p r o b l e m a t i c ; although, one a r t i s t c l e a r l y e l a b o r a t e d on how the a r t r e f l e c t s A b o r i g i n a l philosophy. One a r t i s t from each of the gender groups expressed some s k e p t i c i s m about the s e r i o u s n e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to implement Native a r t i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i n terms of funding and long term p l a n n i n g . A l l the a r t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t Native peoples need to be i n v o l v e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r a r t i n s c h o o l s . Everyone foresaw b e n e f i t s f o r Native students l e a r n i n g Native a r t because i t i n s t i l l s p r i d e , and motivates them to l e a r n more about the a r t and c u l t u r e s . The female a r t i s t s emphasized the aspect of p r i d e ; the male a r t i s t s s t r e s s e d the m o t i v a t i o n a l aspect, not o n l y to l e a r n more about Native a r t , but a l s o to l e a r n about other a r t s t y l e s , techniques, and m a t e r i a l s . P r i d e was viewed as a necessary s t r e n g t h f o r A b o r i g i n a l young people i n order to be able to f u n c t i o n In s o c i e t y today, and to develop together as s t r o n g Nations. M o t i v a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d to strengthen s t u d e n t s ' s e l f c onfidence and a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s , to encourage a more p o s i t i v e s c h o o l experience, and to lead towards an economic base f o r Native peoples. 98 For non-Native students l e a r n i n g the a r t , the females emphasized t h a t i t helps them to understand and re s p e c t Native peoples and c u l t u r e s . The males s t r e s s e d the importance of what a l l students c o u l d l e a r n from s t u d y i n g the a r t i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to ecology, h i s t o r y , and to the broader f i e l d of a r t . The youngest female a r t i s t a l s o expressed t h i s view. As a group, the nine a r t i s t s agreed with having Native a r t i n s c h o o l programs, within t h a t viewpoint, though, v a r y i n g support, reasons, and b e n e f i t s were a r t i c u l a t e d . There was some ev i d e n t s k e p t i c i s m . What i s most apparent i s the a r t i s t s ' emphasis on the advantages f o r Native s t u d e n t s , a f i n d i n g which i s c o n s i s t e n t with the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. A l s o c o n s i s t e n t i s the s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g towards l e a r n i n g from Native a r t , r a t h e r than l e a r n i n g about Native a r t . This t h i n k i n g p a r a l l e l s the Native v o i c e f o r "education i n t o c u l t u r e " expressed by Kirk n e s s (1986, p. 1). A l l the a r t i s t s provided i n s i g h t i n t o Native a r t , and gave e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n sc h o o l s from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p e r s p e c t i v e s ; these c o n d i t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . DESIRABLE CONTENT AND APPROACHES TO NATIVE ART IN CURRICULUM The a r t i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t a r t i s not a s i n g l e autonomous 99 e n t i t y i n A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s . A r t and c u l t u r e was, and i s d y n a m i c a l l y i n t e r t w i n e d i n the l i v e s and psyches of Native peoples, and embedded i n t h e i r h i s t o r i e s . T h i s was e v i d e n t i n the a r t i s t s ' p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s , and t h e i r s t o r i e s of those people around them. The male a r t i s t s viewed a r t as language, on par with o r a l e x p r e s s i o n i n r e c o r d i n g , t e a c h i n g , and c r e a t i n g c u l t u r e . The a r t i s t s r e v e a l e d the importance of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and environment. The images and m a t e r i a l s from nature, and i t s t e a c h i n g s , are evident i n the a r t . A l l the a r t i s t s r e f e r r e d to nature with r e s p e c t , and a number of them demonstrated a reverence towards i t . The group, mainly the males, viewed t h i s p e r c e p t i o n and treatment of the environment as a common l i n k or s i m i l a r i t y among A b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s and t h e i r a r t . Almost a l l the a r t i s t s p o i n t e d out, though, t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s among c u l t u r e s and i n t h e i r a r t due i n l a r g e p a r t to d i f f e r i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l environments. C o l l e c t i v e l y , the a r t i s t s i d e n t i f i e d themselves as "Native Peoples" and i n d i v i d u a l l y , d e f i n e d themselves as members of p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l groups and Nations. T h e i r p r e f e r e n c e was to be designated by t h e i r n a t i o n a l or t r i b a l names, such as Metis or C r e e - A s s i n i b o i n e . An a t t i t u d e of t e r r i t o r i a l i s m was e v i d e n t when the a r t i s t s t a l k e d about a r t . I t seems that when t a l k i n g about the a r t of Native 100 peoples, a t t e n t i o n to terminology i s needed. Those who spoke t h e i r Native language i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t and even d e c e p t i v e to e x p l a i n and d e s c r i b e t h e i r a r t and c u l t u r e i n the E n g l i s h language, f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the terminology used f o r Native a r t i n the sch o o l context r e q u i r e s t h o u g h t f u l a t t e n t i o n . When the a r t i s t s s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed the d e s i r a b l e content and approach to Native a r t i n c u r r i c u l u m , i t was d i f f i c u l t at times to separate t h e i r views as to whether they were d i r e c t e d towards Native students, or non-Native s t u d e n t s , or both Native and non-Native s t u d e n t s . Most o f t e n i t seemed t h a t the a r t i s t s ' comments were d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y towards Native students, as the a r t i s t s o b v i o u s l y emphasized t h e i r views i n terms of Native s t u d e n t s . The a r t i s t s b e l i e v e d that students should l e a r n the l o c a l a r t f i r s t because i t would be most r e l e v a n t and meaningful to them. R e l a t i n g the a r t to the stu d e n t s ' l i v e s and experiences was a l s o seen as r e l e v a n t . Working c l o s e l y with a r t i s t s i n the community was emphasized, and suggestions were made to videotape s e s s i o n s between a r t i s t s and students as a way to r e c o r d the t e a c h i n g . T h i s was s i m i l a r to the use of modern technology i n the Minnesota s c h o o l p r o j e c t d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. Those a r t i s t s i n the group who had gone i n t o the schools expressed f e e l i n g s of being honoured and w i l l i n g to be 101 i n v o l v e d . Once students are f a m i l i a r with the l o c a l a r t produced, the a r t of other communities and g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s c o u l d be s t u d i e d . The female a r t i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y , thought Native people should be t e a c h i n g the a r t . Those a r t i s t s , mainly the males, who d i d not d i s t i n q u i s h between Native and non-Native teachers d e s c r i b e d the d e s i r e d person as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t , and an expert i n a r t techniques, s t y l e s , and m a t e r i a l use. The few a r t i s t s who spoke of the teacher as non-Native suggested t h a t he or she should be knowledgeable of the a r t and s e n s i t i v e i n approach, and t h a t he or she should t a l k with A b o r i g i n a l people and v i s i t r e s e r v e s . Whether the responses as to who teaches Native a r t would be the same or d i f f e r e n t i f the r e s e a r c h e r was Native i s unknown. A number of a r t i s t s asked t h a t teachers encourage those Native students who demonstrate a r t i s t i c t a l e n t . Many of the a r t i s t s c o n s i d e r e d A b o r i g i n a l students g i f t e d a r t i s t i c a l l y . One male a r t i s t b e l i e v e d t h a t the a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s of students c o u l d be developed i n , not o n l y the v i s u a l a r t s , but a l s o i n the performing a r t s . Two male a r t i s t s and one female a r t i s t s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e d t h a t Native students need to l e a r n modern-day technology i n order f o r young people to r e c o r d , teach, and c r e a t e t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a r t and c u l t u r e . The a r t i s t s p e r c e i v e d 102 t h a t such l e a r n i n g c o u l d provide a s t r o n g economic base f o r Native people i n the f u t u r e . The female a r t i s t s provided c o n s i d e r a b l e d i r e c t i o n and g u i d e l i n e s f o r the t e a c h i n g of bead and l e a t h e r work. Most of them thought t h a t a s i m i l a r approach to the way i n which they l e a r n e d should be used i n the classroom. E s s e n t i a l l y , students would l e a r n by observing and m o d e l l i n g the header. Such an approach n e c e s s i t a t e s working with two or three s t u d e n t s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the experiences of these women te a c h i n g i n s c h o o l s r e v e a l t h a t such a context i s u s u a l l y not the case. They had to c o n s i d e r the age of c h i l d r e n to a p p r e c i a t e and to do the s k i l l , I n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y to s a f e l y handle needles and q u i l l s . I t seems t h a t the time and a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t r u l y becoming a s k i l l f u l header i s not a l l t h a t a p p l i c a b l e to present-day s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the female a r t i s t s viewed i t s study i n s c h o o l s and the knowledge gained from i t as worthwhile. The female a r t i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t bead work designs and c o l o u r s may or may not have meaning. T h i s group beaded f l o r a l and geometric d e s i g n s , and most a r t i s t s s a i d t h a t t h e i r designs and c o l o u r s were d e c o r a t i v e . These items were f o r use by f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , and f o r s a l e . One female a r t i s t e x p l a i n e d the symbolic meanings of community and r e g i o n a l designs and c o l o u r s as i n d i c a t i n g d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s 103 and a way of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . She, as a grandmother, beaded the ceremonial and i n i t i a t i o n dress f o r her g r a n d c h i l d r e n . The t r a d i t i o n a l meanings were not, she s a i d , being taught i n a l l communities, but where they a r e , out of r e s p e c t , people should be asked i f those p a r t i c u l a r designs and c o l o u r s may be s t u d i e d . There was some evidence of c o n f l i c t between the a r t i s t s who knew or were aware of symbolic meanings and those who d i d not or dism i s s e d them. Unless d i r e c t e d by a Native person, students should probably work towards a d e c o r a t i v e purpose, but students should be made aware that there are other purposes i n designs and c o l o u r s , and other purposes f o r doing bead work as w e l l . More agreement e x i s t e d i n views on m a t e r i a l s and how they should be used. Working with home tanned hide i s p r e f e r a b l e to working with commercially tanned h i d e . One a r t i s t suggested t h a t students p a r t i c i p a t e i n g e t t i n g and tanning the hide themselves i n order to r e a l i z e how much work i s i n v o l v e d i n the process of making, f o r example, a p a i r of moccasins, and to experience A b o r i g i n a l peoples' t r a d i t i o n of us i n g nature w i s e l y . In the past, nature was a means of s u r v i v a l and provided the m a t e r i a l s f o r bead and l e a t h e r work. Everyone s t r e s s e d that beads and l e a t h e r are not to be wasted. One a r t i s t e x p l a i n e d t h a t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way, o f f e r i n g s are made when anything from nature i s taken. In the case of t a k i n g an animal, 104 e v e r y t h i n g i s used. The a r t i s t s p r e f e r r e d t h a t students l e a r n beading i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way, that i s , sewn by hand, but accepted using newer m a t e r i a l s and techniques such as sequins and looms. The e l d e s t female a r t i s t c r e a t e d beads out of red willow and b i r c h bark f o r j e w e l r y items. She a l s o used a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s i n Innovative ways i n t e a c h i n g a r t forms other than bead and l e a t h e r work. In the i n t e r v i e w s , many of the female a r t i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t b r o t h e r s and sons d i d not do bead work, and some a r t i s t s suggested that teachers not f o r c e male students to p a r t i c i p a t e i n beading a c t i v i t i e s . One a r t i s t thought there was no reason f o r male students not to p a r t i c i p a t e and mentioned that today some men bead t h e i r own r e g a l i a s . In the classroom, i t seems t h a t male Native students should be allowed to decide f o r themselves whether they wish to bead, but such a d i r e c t i o n r a i s e s the issue of what c h o i c e s would be a v a i l a b l e f o r female Native s t u d e n t s . Rather than c o n s i d e r s tudents' gender, i t may be p r e f e r a b l e to c o n s i d e r s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s and how bead and l e a t h e r work can r e f l e c t t h a t i n t e r e s t . Most of the female a r t i s t s spoke i n r e f e r e n c e to the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t of bead and l e a t h e r work, but many of them commented or i n d i c a t e d t h a t the contemporary a r t work of A b o r i g i n a l peoples should a l s o be s t u d i e d . A number of the women had sons or male r e l a t i v e s who were a r t i s t s . The male 105 a r t i s t s s a i d l i t t l e about bead and l e a t h e r work. That may be because the r e s e a r c h e r i s female or merely because of the manner of q u e s t i o n i n g . The male a r t i s t s p r i m a r i l y addressed d e s i r a b l e content and approach to Native a r t i n s c h o o l programs i n terms of the modern forms of p a i n t i n g and drawing. The three male a r t i s t s who had worked with students i n schools used images from nature. Students observed and followed the a r t i s t ' s d i s c u s s i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r drawing or p a i n t i n g the image. One a r t i s t modelled the Woodland a r t s t y l e u sing the image of a bear; another a r t i s t modelled shading techniques with c h a r c o a l f o r an eagle image. The other a r t i s t , the youngest of the male group, showed h i s drawings of w i l d l i f e to s t u d e n t s . In each case, a f t e r m o d e l l i n g or see i n g the a r t i s t ' s work, students c r e a t e d t h e i r own drawings or p a i n t i n g s . Sometimes, students used books on Native a r t or w i l d l i f e f o r r e f e r e n c e . A number of a r t i s t s , male and female, suggested and p r e f e r r e d t h a t students be allowed to explore t h e i r environment o u t s i d e the classroom. In the a r t work produced by the students from the male a r t i s t s ' approaches, images from nature predominated. The male a r t i s t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n drawing and p a i n t i n g are s i m i l a r to the female a r t i s t s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s of how they le a r n e d beading and of how they would p r e f e r 106 beading to be taught. However, i t seems t h a t a "watch then do" approach to making a r t i s more compatible i n the classroom to drawing and p a i n t i n g than to making bead and l e a t h e r work. One male a r t i s t ' s approach, though, was not based on h i s d e f i n i t i o n of Native a r t , but was based on a broad d e f i n i t i o n of a r t . As mentioned e a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n , the d e f i n i t i o n of "Native a r t " was p e r c e i v e d as problematic by most of the male a r t i s t s . There was a l s o c o n t r o v e r s y over c e r t a i n aspects of the a r t . The s p i r i t u a l content o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d to Native a r t and i t s use i n the classroom was an area of c o n t e n t i o n . One male a r t i s t thought t h a t r e f e r e n c e to the s p i r i t u a l was not a p p r o p r i a t e because i t may c o n f l i c t with s t u d e n t s ' own r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s ; another a r t i s t c o n s i d e r e d s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s important to understanding the a r t . Yet another a r t i s t c o n s i d e r e d the s p i r i t u a l to be overemphasized and d i s t o r t e d Native a r t ; he expressed the view t h a t the a r t should be regarded more as a happy, c o l o u r f u l t h i n g . S t i l l another a r t i s t suggested a l l o w i n g a r t i s t s to b r i n g any s p i r i t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n forward themselves. He a l s o b r i e f l y mentioned having e l d e r s i n to t a l k about s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s . O v e r a l l , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of male a r t i s t s o f f e r e d no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n f o r a d d r e s s i n g s p i r i t u a l content i n the classroom. I t may suggest that p r e s e n t l y the s c h o o l i t s e l f has to a p p r o p r i a t e l y determine i t s i n c l u s i o n , approach, and 107 emphasis on the s p i r i t u a l a t t r i b u t e s of Native a r t a c c o r d i n g to the nature of the student p o p u l a t i o n , and input from the l o c a l community. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l l students probably should be made aware of t h i s aspect of the a r t of Indigenous peoples. The symbolic content i n Native a r t was not an area of c o n t e n t i o n among the male a r t i s t s . The a r t i s t s t a l k e d about v i s u a l records and s t o r i e s . S i m i l a r to the one female a r t i s t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of the symbolic meanings of bead work designs and c o l o u r s , one male a r t i s t d e s c r i b e d the p a i n t e d symbolism found on a teepee or hide as communication which showed i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or t e r r i t o r i a l i s m . He b e l i e v e d t h a t symbolic content i n contemporary Native a r t Is misperceived and d i s t o r t e d . What became most apparent from c o n s i d e r i n g symbolic and s p i r i t u a l content was that the males a r t i s t s were i n d i c a t i n g , and indeed most of them s t r o n g l y supported, a r e s e a r c h approach to the study of Native a r t . From a broad p e r s p e c t i v e , one a r t i s t viewed r e s e a r c h as e s s e n t i a l to d e f i n i n g the a r t and e n s u r i n g Native peoples' c o n t r o l of i t . Within the classroom context, r e s e a r c h was viewed as a way to give students a t r u e r understanding and more accurate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a r t . As an example, two a r t i s t s r e f e r r e d to an Indian headdress as an a r t o b j e c t t h a t c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d by s t u d e n t s . S p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s given and suggested by the a r t i s t s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: 108 q u e s t i o n i n g s tudents' i n i t i a l knowledge of the headdress, t o u c h i n g the headdress, l e a r n i n g about the m a t e r i a l s and the whole process Involved i n making the headdress, having knowledgeable people i n to t a l k about i t s meaning and purpose, and r e l a t i n g t h a t to the students' own l i v e s and ex p e r i e n c e s . For example, one a r t i s t r e l a t e d the f e a t h e r s to r e p o r t cards as a s i g n of g r a d u a t i o n . He viewed an i n v e s t i g a t i v e approach as a way to s p e c i f i c a l l y address s t e r e o t y p i n g of A b o r i g i n a l peoples. Here, h i s view was c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d towards non-Native s t u d e n t s . In some of the i n t e r v i e w s , the a r t i s t s r e f e r r e d to s t e r e o t y p e s , p r e j u d i c e , and racism, and viewed the study of Native a r t as a way to help combat those a t t i t u d e s towards A b o r i g i n a l peoples. A r e s e a r c h approach to the study of Native a r t appears to be a promising d i r e c t i o n f o r sc h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . A l l the male a r t i s t s s t r e s s e d or i n d i c a t e d t h a t l e a r n i n g from the a r t of Indigenous peoples was important. The a r t i s t s viewed the study of the content of the a r t as te a c h i n g a more accurate account of the h i s t o r y of Canada, as t e a c h i n g ecology, and as i n t r o d u c i n g a r t from a non-Western p e r s p e c t i v e . The male a r t i s t s and some of the female a r t i s t s suggested i n t e g r a t i n g Native a r t content i n t o the s u b j e c t areas of s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e . Such i n t e g r a t i o n , with the i n t e n t of l e a r n i n g from the a r t , c o u l d e s t a b l i s h an e x c i t i n g and new d i r e c t i o n f o r Native a r t and 109 c u r r i c u l u m . As a group, the nine Saskatchewan A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s gave d i r e c t i o n and s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r the d e s i r a b l e content and approaches to Native a r t i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . These w i l l be summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s provide a c l o s e r look a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Native a r t from w i t h i n the Canadian context, and the c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y expressed i n some of t h e i r views o n l y serve to i l l u m i n a t e that Native a r t i s , as one a r t i s t d e s c r i b e d i t , " a l i v e . " 110 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of t h i s study was to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m development i n Saskatchewan and to Canadian a r t edu c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y by p r e s e n t i n g Native a r t i s t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on the study of Native a r t i n sch o o l programs. Nine Saskatchewan a r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y , f i v e female a r t i s t s and four male a r t i s t s , were i n t e r v i e w e d . These Interviews were presented i n n a r r a t i v e form and were v e r i f i e d by the a r t i s t s . The preceding chapter presented a d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s of the a r t i s t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from the a n a l y s i s . O v e r a l l , the a r t i s t s agreed on having Native a r t content i n s c h o o l programs. The female a r t i s t s viewed i t as a way to pass on the a r t and c u l t u r e , and the male a r t i s t s a l s o viewed i t as a way to l e a r n from the a r t and c u l t u r e . The a r t i s t s ' a r t i c u l a t i o n of the reasons and b e n e f i t s f o r having Native a r t i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y towards A b o r i g i n a l s t u d e n t s . There was some ev i d e n t s k e p t i c i s m , and a l l the a r t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t Native people should be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r a r t ' s d e f i n i t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a r t i s t s provided i n s i g h t i n t o Native a r t i t s e l f . The i n t e r p l a y among a r t , c u l t u r e , and environment was, and i s , d y n a m i c a l l y i n t e r t w i n e d with the people. Environment I l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y binds and separates the a r t and c u l t u r e s of Indigenous peoples. Native a r t i s a r i c h , v a s t , d i v e r s e , and complex area of study, and the l o c a l a r t should be s t u d i e d f i r s t . The content of the a r t , and the m a t e r i a l s used, may or may not be t r a d i t i o n a l . Due to the nature of Native a r t and the people who produce I t , a t t e n t i o n to the terminology used f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n the classroom i s d e s i r a b l e . The teacher should p r e f e r a b l y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y , be of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y . He or she should have a good knowledge of a r t and e x p e r t i s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary a r t i s t i c techniques, and p r e f e r a b l y , a knowledge of modern technology and i t s use. The d e s i r a b l e approach to te a c h i n g the a r t form of bead and l e a t h e r work i n v o l v e s students observing and mode l l i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l way of beading, t h a t i s , sewing beads and home tanned hide by hand. Students should a l s o be able to explore newer beading m a t e r i a l s and methods. M a t e r i a l s should not be wasted. Students should l e a r n t h a t the purposes of Native a r t i s t s f o r doing bead work vary, and t h a t designs and c o l o u r s may or may not have t r a d i t i o n a l symbolic meaning. Unless d i r e c t e d by a Native person, students should work towards a d e c o r a t i v e purpose. Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be giv e n as to whether male students are r e q u i r e d or not r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n beading 112 a c t i v i t i e s , but I t may be more Important to c o n s i d e r s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than t h e i r gender. A s i m i l a r approach of o b s e r v i n g and m o d e l l i n g can be used i n t e a c h i n g drawing and p a i n t i n g , and a r e s e a r c h or i n v e s t i g a t i v e approach to s t u d y i n g Native a r t might be the most d e s i r a b l e approach. I t has advantages because of the c o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y over complex aspects of the a r t , such as the s p i r i t u a l , and symbolic meanings, and even the d e f i n i t i o n of "Native a r t " i t s e l f . Furthermore, a r e s e a r c h approach can d e a l with s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s of non-Native students towards Native peoples and c u l t u r e s . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of r e s e a r c h i n g the s p i r i t u a l aspect of Native a r t , though, should be d i s c u s s e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l . As w e l l as l e a r n i n g about Native a r t , the a r t i s t s emphasized l e a r n i n g from the a r t as important f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n c l u d e d h i s t o r y , ecology, and about a r t from a non-Western p e r s p e c t i v e . The a r t content can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o other s u b j e c t areas such as s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e . Together, the nine Saskatchewan a r t i s t s of A b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y provided d i r e c t i o n and s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r Native a r t and s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . I n d i v i d u a l l y , each r e v e a l e d the v a r i e t y of i n f l u e n c e s and experiences any one person can have. Throughout the conduct of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y , a t t e n t i o n was given to the Native v o i c e and 113 viewpoint, and a d d i t i o n a l l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s , to the intended audience — a r t educators and other e d u c a t o r s . The I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s understanding and r e l a y i n g of the a r t i s t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by her gender, e t h n i c i t y , and work expe r i e n c e s . I f so, these In f l u e n c e s may have been conducive a t times because the re s e a r c h e r has worked with Native peoples and students f o r over f i f t e e n y ears, and has determined some s i m i l a r i t i e s between her own S l a v i c c u l t u r e and Native c u l t u r e . Even so, I t i s worth wondering whether a Native r e s e a r c h e r conducting a s i m i l a r study would a r r i v e at the same c o n c l u s i o n s . For example, the three a r t i s t s who chose not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study may have p a r t i c i p a t e d i f the res e a r c h e r had been N a t i v e . T h e i r reasons, f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g are re s p e c t e d ; they were expressed i n both personal and p r a c t i c a l terms. T h i s I n v e s t i g a t o r considered t h a t there was a m i s t r u s t of i n t e l l e c t u a l probing i n areas where some A b o r i g i n a l people may not wish a r e s e a r c h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y a n o n - A b o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h e r , to go. On the other hand, i t was a l s o considered t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study was simply i n c o n v e n i e n t . Along with the study focus, Native a r t , much was learned about the i n f l u e n c e of gender on r e s e a r c h , and about the academic e x e r c i s e of r e s e a r c h with Native peoples conducted 114 by a non-Native I n v e s t i g a t o r . For example, with those a r t i s t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d , some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d u r i n g the conduct of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y i n c l u d e d : p r o t o c o l , s e n s i t i v i t y , t r u s t , and c u l t u r a l communication. These d i f f e r e d from a r t i s t to a r t i s t depending upon h i s or her b i o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l background, which r e f u t e s any assumption of a s t r i c t Native/non-Natlve dichotomy. There Is a p l a c e f o r a c t i o n i n d i a l o g u e with Aborignal peoples and n o n - A b o r l g l n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . I t can help create an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e s i g n i n g and developing a s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n system. The documentation In e d u c a t i o n a l research form of Native a r t i n Canada i s new t e r r i t o r y . From t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s p o i n t of view, I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t A b o r i g i n a l peoples continue to r e c l a i m t h e i r c o n t r o l of t h e i r a r t i n l i g h t of the resurgence of p u b l i c and I n s t i t u t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n to Native a r t . That i s the I n t e n t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n q u i r y . The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s research document l i s t I m p l i c a t i o n s for p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h developed from the a n a l y s i s of the nine Saskatchewan A b o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on Native a r t and c u r r i c u l u m . 115 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE 1) A b o r i g i n a l peoples must be i n v o l v e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r a r t In the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . 2) A r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d develop the t r a d i t i o n a l or "watch then do" approach to making a r t , and the r e s e a r c h approach to s t u d y i n g Native a r t . 3) Native a r t c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d show t h a t the a r t of A b o r i g i n a l peoples may or may not r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l c o ntent. 4) Native a r t c u r r i c u l u m development should occur at the l o c a l l e v e l , but not i n i s o l a t i o n . An e f f e c t i v e means of communicating c u r r i c u l u m development t h a t c o l l e c t s and disseminates i n f o r m a t i o n and resources needs to be In p l a c e . 5) Native a r t content could be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m as a b a s i s f o r l e a r n i n g from the a r t , as w e l l as l e a r n i n g about the a r t . 6) School c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d g i v e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the E n g l i s h terminology used when r e f e r r i n g t o the a r t of Indigenous peoples. I t c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e terms from Native languages f o r d e s c r i b i n g the a r t . 116 IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 1) A s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the same g e o g r a p h i c a l area conducted by a Native r e s e a r c h e r to compare p e r c e p t i o n s and understandings. 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School A r t s , 12.(2), p. 41. 122 APPENDIX A SASKATCHEWAN Source: Indian and Northern A f f a i r s Canada. (1989, October). Indian Reserves of Saskatchewan. 123 APPENDIX B Female NAME: CULTURAL GROUP RESIDENCE ART ARTISTS' BACKGROUND (and Interview Order) _ age . range Male NAME: CULTURAL GROUP RESIDENCE ART 20 25 Gerry: (7) Cree urban drawing Bonnie: Metis (1) r u r a l bead/leather work, p a i n t i n g 35 David: P l a i n s Cree (9) reserve p a i n t i n g / d r a w i n g , leatherwork Maxine: Woodland Cree (4) urban bead/leather work S h i r l e y : Metis (2) r u r a l bead/leather work Mary: A s s i n i b o i n e - C r e e (8) urban bead/leather work 45 55 C h a r l e s : Woodland Cree (3) r e s e r v e p a i n t i n g / s c u l p t u r e A lan: Cree (6) r u r a l d r a w i n g / p a i n t i n g , & many other a r t forms 65 Grace: P l a i n s Cree (5) r e s e r v e bead/leather work, s t i t c h e r y , & 3-d work 124 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDE A) BIOGRAPHICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND: I'd l i k e to know about the a r t t h a t you make, ( d e s c r i p t i o n , purpose, meaning, and audience) How d i d you come to be an a r t i s t ? (age, r e s i d e n c e , c u l t u r a l group, i n f l u e n c e s [people, p l a c e s , e v e n t s ] , 'resource e x p e r i e n c e 1 ) B) VIEWPOINT ON HAVING NATIVE ART CONTENT IN SCHOOL PROGRAMS: Indian, M e t i s , and m u l t a r t content i s going to be pa r t of s c h o o l programs. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n your viewpoint on t h i s . C) DESIRABLE CONTENT AND APPROACH TO NATIVE ART IN SCHOOL CURRICULA: In regards to the content of Native a r t , what would you l i k e students to learn? I am i n t e r e s t e d i n how you p e r c e i v e of Native a r t being taught w i t h i n the classroom. (teacher, methods, a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s , m a t e r i a l s ) 

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