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Political groups in British Columbia, 1883-1898 Mercer, Eleanor Brown 1937

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ft 6 - 1^7 n U n POLITICAL iCROOPS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,,1883 - 1898 by Eleanor Brown Mercer University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1937 POLITICAL GROUPS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1883 - 1898 by Eleanor Brown Mercer A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of History University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1937 \ PREFACE This thesis does not pretend to be an auth-o r i t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l history of B r i t i s h Columbia, and a glance at the bibliography w i l l show the reason. Be-cause the period concerned i s r e l a t i v e l y recent, the correspondence and private papers of such men as Smithe, Robson, Theodore Davie and Turner, are not available; and without these documents as a background, newspapers are poor sources. However, u n t i l such time as more serious work i s possible, t h i s incomplete survey of the period w i l l perhaps serve as a guide to a subject which i s at once s i g n i f i c a n t and highly entertaining. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I The 'Eight Canada* Period 1 II The Settlement Act, 1883-1884 14 III The Smithe Ministry, 1883-1887 34 IV The A. Wi B. Davie Ministry, 1887-1889 68 V The Robson Ministry, 1889-1892 83 VI The Theodore Davie Ministry, 1892-1895 115 VII The Turner Ministry, 1895-1898 149 VIII Dominion Parties i n B r i t i s h Columbia 186 IX Charac t e r i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia Parties, 1883-1898 200 APPENDIX I Members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1882-1898 i II Administration Members, 1883-1898 v III B r i t i s h Columbia Representatives to the Commons, 1882-1901 v i i IV The Settlement Act, 1884 v i i i BIBLIOGRAPHY x v i i i CHAPTER I. The 'Fight Canada' Period. Br i t i s h Columbia history i s too often studied in a spasmodic fashion—the epochs of discovery, colonial settlement, federation, and modern progress are stressed, with l i t t l e thought for the intervening stages. True, such historians as Judge Howay, Mr. Gosnell and Mr. (2) Scholefield, have given a sustained narrative of events, but the average layman s t i l l knows only a few romantic tales of British Columbia's past, without attempting to form any connecting link. He w i l l readily t e l l you that British Columbia joined confederation in 1871; but he has no idea (3) of the years of dispute and negotiation which led up to that event, no appreciation of the p o l i t i c a l manoeuvres that followed i t . Likewise he w i l l t e l l you that Sir Richard McBride introduced party lines into the provincial government in 1903, leaving the impression that the former system was absolutely non-partisan. Yet nothing could be further from the truth; for party groupings had existed in British Columbia since the beginning of popular government, and they certainly ruled the province after federation. The term 'party' has been defined many times since Burke's (4) famous apology in his "Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontents". (1) Howay, F. W., and Scholefield, E. 0. S., British Columbia from the  earliest times to the present (Vancouver, 1914), vol. II. (2) Scholefield, E. 0. S., and Gosnell, R. E., A history of British  Columbia (Vancouver, 1913), part II. (3) cf. Sage, W. N., "The c r i t i c a l period of British Columbia history" (Pacific Historical Review, vol. I., 1932, pp. 424-443). (4) Burke, Edmund, Works (London, 1803), vol II, pp. 352 et passim. (5) One of the clearest explanations i s given by Professor Leacock: By a p o l i t i c a l party we mean a more or less organised group of citizens who act together as a p o l i t i c a l unit. They share, or profess to share, the same opinions on public questions, and by exercising their voting power towards a common end, seek to obtain control of the government. Thus in a self-governing state, parties naturally come into existence when a major issue arises. In British Columbia responsible government was set up in 1871 after union with the dominion. Even at the f i r s t session Premier McCreight roused sectional opposition when he chose two cabinet ministers from the island and only one from the mainland, and he antagonised a l l members when he refused to raise the sessional allowance; but he was saved from defeat by the public's desire to give him time to establish the ground-work of the government. McCreight's real sin had been his failure to support the early movement for responsible government; on these grounds John Robson, Amor De Cosmos and T. B. Humphreys opposed him in the house, but they had no policy of their own. This lack of a real difference between the two groups was made evident when De Cosmos became premier in 1873, for he inaugurated no radical changes. Humphreys had turned McCreight out on a non-confidence motion, but neither he nor Robson obtained a seat in the cabinet; and G. A. Walkem, who had been a member of the late ministry, entered the new one with the blessing of McCreight, and in 1874 he assumed the premiership (with the same cabinet—Beaven, Armstrong and Ash) when De Cosmos preferred to retain his seat at Ottawa. But a strong opposition was growing up, condemning the deficits (5) Leacock, Stephen, Elements of p o l i t i c a l science (San Francisco, 1921), p. 326. 3 (the province had turned over i t s debts to the dominion under the union terms, but the ministers could not keep the slate clean) and the 'Fight Canada' policy. In 1876 Humphreys again defeated the government, censuring the practice of borrowing from the dominion when the union terms were yet unfulfilled by Ottawa. The E l l i o t t government placated the citizens by attempting to (6) settle the railway dispute; but the ministry roused indignation by once more f a i l i n g to balance the budget, despite higher taxes and a $150,000 loan b i l l , and after two years of power E l l i o t t gave way to Walkem. Walkem and Beaven, instead of remedying the financial muddle, made i t worse by their policy of antagonising the dominion government, and their mismanagement of provincial public works. In the end they were replaced by Smithe, who had been a member of the E l l i o t t administration, (7) and who was the f i r s t of a XMX "party' line which held power for 15 years. Thus even before 1883, Br i t i s h Columbia had her f i r s t taste of party p o l i t i c s . True, the groups bore no specific names, other than 'government' or 'opposition', nor were they definitely a l l i e d with the federal parties; granted, they did not impose strict discipline upon their members, nor did they have extensive propaganda organisations outside of the legislature; nevertheless they were groups in which the members worked together, seeking to obtain or to maintain p o l i t i c a l power. Consequently Sir Richard McBride's introduction of federal party lines into provincial p o l i t i c s brought no revolutionary change in the British Columbia p o l i t i c a l system; rather i t effected the (6) v. infra, p. 4^. (7) This account was taken from Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . , pp. 327-411; and Johns, Harold P., British Columbia's campaign for  better terms, 1871.^ -1907 (University of British Columbia thesis, 1935) 4 culmination of a steady movement by associating the local groups with the wider and more powerful national organisations. This thesis w i l l attempt to recount part of that movement by bridging the gap between two stormy periods—the 'Fight Canada' era and the few years of deadlock immediately preceding 1903. Although the years 1883 to 1898, which saw a continuous chain of interlocking ministries and the settlement of many differences with the dominion, were relatively quiet ones, yet the two groups were as quarrelsome as before; i n the absence of any real public issues they turned to personal and local ones— the party machinery had been established firmly enough to prevent a break-up into weak coalitions. The victory of the Smithe opposition in the 1883 elections brought to a peaceful end the 'Fight Canada' period in British Columbia's history. This belligerent policy had been inaugurated by the De Cosmos government, in protesting against the dominion's failure to build the transcontinental railway as provided in the terms of union; i t was heightened by Premier Walkem's rejection i n 1874 of federal overtures made through Mr. Edgar, Then, not content with local protests, the provincial representatives invaded London with memorials to the queen. The Carnarvon terms of November 1874 would have brought compromise, but for the refusal of the senate to r a t i f y the Esquimalt and Kanaimo railway b i l l of 1876. The E l l i o t t ministry, which had defeated the Walkem government of 1876, was the forerunner of the conciliatory governments which were to hold office between 1883 and 1898. Among E l l i o t t ' s colleagues were William Smithe, next leader of the harmony group; F. G. Vernon, later chief commissioner of lands and works under Robson; and 5 A. E. B. Davie, later attorney-general and premier. While Lord Dufferin 1s v i s i t did much to allay the ever-rising bitterness against the dominion, yet local p o l i t i c s were far from peaceful. The Walkem opposition 'party\ in a minority of two, carried on a petty but effective obstruction policy which led t o the complete overthrow of the government in the 1878 elections. With the Walkem-Beaven 'restoration* came further appeals to London, even secession resolutions. The conflict now was over the island railway, for which the federal government disclaimed a l l responsibility; work on the mainland was progressing rapidly, bringing content there, and renewed bitterness on the island. The government, controlled by the island members, appointed Amor De Cosmos in 1880 as special agent to persuade the dominion government to carry out i t s 'obligation* to build the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway. When Macdonald definitely established Port Moody as the terminus of the C.P.R., De Cosmos was sent on to London to press the provincial claims—but with l i t t l e success. Walkem then attempted to provide for the construction by incorporating the Clements company, but these American financiers made no pretense at construction, and their grant lapsed. Hot content with favoring the island by pushing this small railway, the government further aroused mainland opposition by i t s mishandling of the Esquimalt graving dock. This project had been commenced in 1875 with the aid of dominion and imperial grants, but the actual construction did not begin un t i l 1880. The real trouble arose over the cement, which, according to the contract, the government was to supply. The amount required was believed to be very small, and Walkem assured the legislature that the dock would not cost British Columbia a 6 cent more than the grants received. But the members learned that the province was sinking over $300,000 into the work; they appointed a committee to investigate, and severely censured the government. Yet Smithe's want-of-confidence motion was defeated by one vote due to a sudden change of heart by Donald McGillvray, and the dissolution found the government s t i l l in power. But this was election year. How could a ministry be returned which had barely managed to pass i t s measures in the face of inexhaustible opposition among the voters? To make matters worse, Walkem further reduced the numbers and prestige of the government by accepting a judgeship in May, 1882. The motives behind such decisions are always d i f f i c u l t to ascertain; but i t seems evident that the premier, seeing defeat ahead, took the f i r s t chance to escape. Of course, he may have acted merely upon the desire for a less strenuous occupation than po l i t i c s ; but any man as able and experienced as G. A. Walkem was must surely have realised what his resignation would mean to a government with a doubtful majority of one.* Furthermore the premier had been the only lawyer in the government, and he now l e f t his successor Robert Beaven without an attorney-general. Even W. N. Bole, later to become Beaven's right-hand man,refused to join this cabinet; f i n a l l y , however, J. Roland Hett (the new premier's cousin) took office. Beaven himself remained minister of finance and also became president of the council and chief commissioner of lands and works, as well as premier; the only other cabinet member was the capricious Thomas Basil Humphreys, provincial secretary and minister of mines. The election of July 1882 was a complete victory for the 7 opposition, who had caught public favor by their promise to come to terms with the federal government, to replace extravagant expenditures by much-needed public works, and to open up the province for settlement. Beaven, (8) the only cabinet minister returned, had but eight followers in a house of (9) 25 members. Nevertheless the premier did not resign. The government newspapers, blithely referring to the election as a victory for the ministry, said: "Within the province nothing remarkable of a p o l i t i c a l (10) nature has occurred." Such b l i s s f u l optimism, (or p o l i t i c a l strategy?) that sees 'nothing remarkable' in a cabinet of one which no one else w i l l join.' And i t is hardly usual for a government to refuse to c a l l the legislature in response to demands by the newly-elected representatives. This Beaven did refuse, u n t i l the lieutenant-governor, petitioned by (11) three-fifths of the members, ordered the house to meet. Therefore on January 25th, 1883, Beaven met a house largely hostile, met i t with a ministry of two since the addition of W. J. (12) Armstrong as provincial secretary. By this time even the MAINLAND GUARDIAN (New Westminster government organ) was suggesting to the (13) premier: It would reflect the greatest credit upon Mr. Beaven i f he waived a l l party scruples and accepted a portfolio from his soi disant p o l i t i c a l opponents ... Such an arrangement ... would secure to the opposition a long lease of power; i t would be convincing proof to the public that they desired governmental efficiency rather than p o l i t i c a l supremacy. (8) Hett was elected for Esquimalt, but was replaced on an election t r i a l by Pooley. B.C. Journals, 1883, p. 4. (9) v. infra, Appendix I, p. i . (10) STANDARD, Jan. 1, 1883, p. 2. (11) COLONIST, Jan. 27, 1883, p. 2. (12) Armstrong had originally supported the Walkem government, but had opposed them in the last session. (13) MAINLAND GUARDIAN, Jan. 6, 1883, p. 2. 8 The COLONIST saw this a r t i c l e as a Beaven-inspired plea for a salaried (14) cabinet post in the inevitable new government^ but the other government journal, the STANDARD, replied that the Smithe group was making the (15) advances, that Beaven would carry on for many years to come. Apparently Beaven thought so himself, for he calmly proceeded to present the (16) customary reports and the public accounts to the house. The f i r s t setback which the government received was the (IV) election as speaker of John A. Mara of Yale, a Smithe supporter; also serious was the fact that Simeon Duck of Victoria, formerly a follower of Walkem and Beaven, made the motion. True, Duck had been elected in 1882 as an independent, and he soon opposed the new government; but this was (18) his f i r s t step on his path towards the ministry of finance under Smithe. On the second day of the session, January 26th, Beaven and Armstrong made the routine motion that the speech from the throne be considered. But here the government met i t s Waterloo; William Smithe and James Orr moved a want-of-confidence amendment which defeated the government easily. Strong opposition was voiced by various members to the mishandling of the island railway and the dock, to the neglect of mines and agriculture, and to the unconstitutional procedure of Beaven in maintaining a minority government. Beaven's only reply was a denunciation of Smithe's actions in the E l l i o t t administration, hardly a (14) COLONIST, Jan. 9, 1883, p. 2. (15) STANDARD, Jan. 10, 1883, p. 2. (16) B. C. Journals, Jan. 25, 1883, p. 5. (17) ibid., p. 1. (18) v. infra, p. Si. strong point. The amendment passed 16 - 8 on the following 'party' (19) division: Yeas; Smithe Davie, T. Orr Drake John Pooley Semlin Dunsmuir Allen Dingwall Martin McTavish Davie, A.E.B. Wilson Robson Raybould Nays; Armstrong Beaven Duck Cowan McLeese Grant Galbraith Helgesen On January 27th the ministry resigned, and Smithe was called to form a government. The new cabinet consisted of the following (20) members: premier, chief commissioner of lands and works, William Smithe; attorney-general, A. E. B. Davie; provincial secretary, minister of finance, education and agriculture, John Robson; president of council, M. W. Tyrwhitt-Drake. Any government which comes into power on a policy of innovation soon finds that election promises are d i f f i c u l t to f u l f i l l ; the new ministers, who while in oposition were ever-ready to c r i t i c i z e , now discover that many things are more easily said than done. But when a government takes office as did the Smithe group, on a definite pledge to rectify the obvious mistakes of i t s predecessors, i t is faced with almost insuperable obstacles; i t finds the country in a state of chaos, and is bound to restore order. (19) B. C. Journals, Jan. 26, 1883, p. 6. Notice Duck's opposition; he wavers u n t i l 1885. Orr: turns against the Smithe government on squatters' claims and Coal Harbor agreement, 1885. Semlin: had formerly supported Beaven, and soon turned back again. Dingwall and Raybould: temporarily to opposition after the Settle-ment Act. Cowan: turned to the government. (20) COLONIST, Jan. 30, 1883, p. 2. 10 The ministers who were sworn in at Victoria in 1883 had, f i r s t of a l l , to settle the quarrel with the dominion over the island railway and the graving dock, for this was the essential foundation of prosperity and expansion. The financial condition of the province, almost ruined by o the Walkem-Beaven belligerence and corruption, had to be corrected; the lands of the province, locked up in dominion railway reserves, had to be opened for settlers, and railways and roads had to be built to open the long neglected mining d i s t r i c t s of the interior. Dominion legislation was necessary to restrict the importation of Chinese labor, for local standards of li v i n g were f a l l i n g ; and more definite understanding with the dominion on Indian control was imperative. For the native riots were becoming serious. These problems, together with others that arose later, made the task of governing British Columbia no easy one, and the new ministry would need great a b i l i t y to 'rejuvenate 1 the province. Perhaps there was a 'deus ex machina! hovering over James Bay; at any rate, a l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s were settled—some after many long years, others quickly but only temporarily—yet at least British Columbia was saved from further decay under the Walkem-Beaven administration. And the men chiefly concerned with these new policies; how were they equipped for their tasks? The premier, Hon. William Smithe, member for Cowichan since 1872, had been minister of finance and agriculture in the short-lived E l l i o t t government of 1876-1879. He was a (21) quiet, unassuming farmer, strong in debate but poor in delivery, yet he brought to his position the essential qualities of prudence and sound experience which were needed to guide the legislature back onto the right (21) Says his friend Joseph Hunter. Gosnell, R. E., Prime ministers  of B. C., no. 6, part 1. Vancouver PROVINCE, Mar. 29, 1921. 11 road. Hon. John Robson, provincial secretary and minister of finance and agriculture, was a real British Columbia pioneer, having arrived in British Columbia i n 1859, and established the COLUMBIAN in New Westminster in 1861; he later became editor of the Victoria COLONIST, then paymaster of the C. P. R. surveys u n t i l that office was abolished in 1879, when he returned to New Westminster to publish the BRITISH COLUMBIAN. Very soon after his arrival in the province, he became active in provincial a f f a i r s , and sat in the legislative council from 1866 to 1870, and in the legislature from 1872 to 1875 and 1882 to his death in 1892. He was one of the fathers of responsible government in B. C., and of union with the dominion; the columns of his papers were his pulpit, and they did extremely valuable work in arousing the public to a desire for the new (22) scheme. During the later period with which this study is concerned, Robson was •blessed' with an aggressive temper—no doubt encouraged by his journalistic a c t i v i t i e s — a temper which i n debate often passed the bounds of decency and which made for him many enemies. Nevertheless, he was an essential member of the cabinet, as a strong speaker was often needed to quell the opposition; and moreover he was a shrewd administrator and financier (though perhaps sometimes more sharp than honest). Hon. Alexander Edmund Batson Davie, attorney-general, though only 35 when he entered the cabinet in 1883, had already had a brief (22) This account was taken from Howay and Scholefield, op.cit., pp. 456-457. I may seem to have given too much attention to Robson, but his early services to the province certainly merit recognition, especially when his later period of office was not so heroic. 12 (23) legislative experience as member for Cariboo 1875-1877. Although he was to succeed Smithe as premier in 1887, he did not thrust himself into the p o l i t i c a l limelight; he was content to maintain his position as an extremely able lawyer and an honest citizen. Among the private members Theodore Davie, a younger brother of the attorney-general, was prominent. He also was a gifted lawyer, who later was attorney-general and premier himself; but he resembled Robson rather than his own brother, in that he sometimes became too personal in debate. Furthermore, although as usual i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make definite accusations, his integrity was less unquestionaifethan that of his (24) honorable brother. Another prominent member of the government party was Robert Dunsmuir of Nanaimo, who, arriving at the coast in 1851, had made a fortune in the f i r s t successful coal mines in British Columbia, and who was soon to build the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway. This was his f i r s t session as a member, and i t i s possible that his entry into p o l i t i c s resulted from a desire to look after his own personal interests regarding the railway grants. Apart from that however, he did bring to the government a solid business experience which his predecessors had sorely lacked. Among the greatly reduced ranks of the opposition, Hon. Robert Beaven was s t i l l the party leader. He had been a strong supporter of confederation, and had sat for Victoria since 1871—no matter how (23) He accepted office May, 1877 as provincial secretary under E l l i o t t , but was defeated in the by-election. Gosnell, R. E., The Year Book of British Columbia (Victoria, 1897), p. 115. (24) Beaven*s accusations on Davie's acceptance of fees from Chinese clients were not f u l l y denied; and Davie's connection with the Nakusp and Slocan a f f a i r was not less unsavory, </• L*^*-<3-', 1*7°• % 13 personally unpopular he was, he maintained a hold upon the electors. While i n o f f i c e he had proved corrupt and incapable, yet he was to be a dreaded force i n opposition; he caused much worry to the ministry by h i s masterly obstruction t a c t i c s and his thorough knowledge of parliamentary procedure, which he never hesitated to use i n c r i t i c i s i n g government practices. He i t was who usually managed to work John Robson or Theodore Davie to such a point of fury that they l o s t t h e i r dignity-he did i t by means of veiled accusations which prompted the f i e r y govern-(25) ment men to burst forth i n reply, and to overstep themselves. These were the men who would govern B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a great many years; t h e i r successes and f a i l u r e s form the chronicle of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l i t i c s during the next 15 years. (25) As i n the debate with Theodore Davie on Chinese fees. He also accused Robson of h i r i n g Chinese. STANDARD, Jan. 16, 1884, p. 3. 14 CHAPTER II. The Settlement Act, 1885-1884. As we have seen above, the f i r s t task facing the new government was the ending of the local c r i s i s by effecting an agreement with the dominion. Beaven had brought the province to the point of ruin by his aggression and mismanagement, and his successors had no alternative but to adopt a conciliatory policy. Smithe and his followers had been elected on their promises to end the dispute with Ottawa, and they lost no time in carrying out their pledge. Even before the legislature resumed i t s sessions after the (1) change of ministry, the British Columbia government opened negotiations. They asked the dominion to take over the graving dock, either to build the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway at once or to give the province adequate compensation for delay; they offered the dominion a choice of more valuable lands in l i e u of the useless ones in the 40-mile strip through the Fraser Canyon, and they asked that the mainland railway lands be (2) opened for settlement. Further negotiations with Sir John A. Macdonald were carried on by telegraph u n t i l , after long delays, Sir Joseph Trutch, Dominion agent in British Columbia, arrived at Victoria. Then followed more delays (1) On January 27th Smithe formed his government, and the house then adjourned u n t i l February 19th to give the new ministry an opportunity to organise the work of the session. B.' C. Journals, Jan. 27, 1883, p. 7. (2) Copy of an executive council report, Feb. 10th, 1883. "Papers relating to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock and Railway Lands." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1883, p. 453. 15 with the legislature adjourning from day to day, awaiting the federal r a t i f i c a t i o n of the negotiations, and with the public s t i l l ignorant of the terms demanded. The STANDARD seized upon the postponements as-evidence of the government's weakness, maintaining that the excuse of no despatches from Ottawa was too transparent to cover the fact that Smithe had made no definite proposals to the dominion: the present government is the most incapable that had handled the reins since the (3) date of Confederation." Smithe replied that he had made an offer, that the Ottawa decision was delayed by the illness of Sir Charles Tupper, minister of railways. And oddly enough, within a very few days of this statement came the dominion proposals, offering to give a cash grant to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway, to buy the graving dock and to finish i t , and to s e l l the lands in the railway b e l t — i n return for a provincial grant of land to be given to the island railway, and for three and one half million acres in the Peace River d i s t r i c t (in l i e u of the Fraser Canyon str i p ) . The document continued; "The government of Canada submit these proposals upon the further stipulation that should they be approved by the government of British Columbia, such acceptance shall be r a t i f i e d by Act of the Legislature of British Columbia as in f u l l of a l l claims whatsoever of the Government of British Columbia against the Government (4) of Canada." The local government, weary of the delay, accepted the dominion offer, although not without the complaint that the province s t i l l did not (3) STANDARD, May 1, 1883, p. 2. (4) Trutch to Smithe, May 5, 1883. "Papers relating to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock, and the Railway Lands." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1883, p. 458. 16 get enough compensation for delay in the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway. Nor did Smithe f a l l into the trap set by Macdonald; the dominion stipulation regarding the f i n a l i t y of the settlement could "... only f a i r l y mean in respect of the premises to date, and in that (5) sense the committee recommend i t s acceptance." But the f i n a l act did promise that British Columbia would take this agreement in f u l l of a l l claims up to this date by the province against the dominion, in respect to the C/*P»^j'^delay, the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway, and of a l l claims by the dominion against the province for added lands under the (6) terms of union. Present day leaders of the 'Better Terms' movement seem to have forgotten this section of the Settlement Act, or to have discarded i t as not being f i n a l . On May 7th Hon. William Smithe introduced to the house B i l l 48, intituled 'An Act relating to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock, and (7) Railway Lands of the Province', and by May 10th i t had passed the third reading. The journals of the house give a bare record of the hasty (8) proceedings, which were wedged in among budget discussions; these o f f i c i a l records, beyond noting the unsuccessful amendments, give no glimpse of the lengthy and bitter debates. However the newspapers of the period show that the Beaven party, though small in numbers, was not ready to l i e down in defeat. The government members, admitting that the province s t i l l did not get enough compensation, maintained that the settlement was the only solution of the problem. Hon. William Tyrrwhit-Drake, president of the (5) Smithe to Trutch, May 8, 1883; sending the provincial Order in Council of May 7, 1883. loc. .cit., p. 459. (6) Settlement Act, sec. (k). Appendix IV., p. x. (7) B. C. Journals, May'7, 1883, p. 75. (8) loc. c i t . , May 9, 10, 1883, pp. 75, 78-80, 87. 17 council, neatly put the blame on the opposition: "If the late government had moderated their demands there would have been no occasion for the (9) passage of this b i l l . " Hon. A. E. B. Davie also reminded the opposition that the present agreement on the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway gave (10) the province a better bargain than the Clements scheme of 1882 had done— that act had given to the bogus company a much larger grant of land (section 4 of the Settlement Act reserves to the province a large tract to the north of the old grant), and the lands were not l e f t open to sale as in section (f) of the Settlement Act. W. J. Armstrong opened f i r e for the opposition by denouncing the huge land grant to the dominion, which was far more valuable than the (11) concession received by the province. Beaven vehemently defended the Clements agreement, and condemned the sacrifice of the graving dock; from 'inside information' he was able to state that the imperial (12) government would have given a further subsidy of $150,000 i f asked— yet he himself had not attempted such a request.' Beaven then moved, without success, an amendment providing "ample security for the fulfillment of any obligation assumed by the dominion government" and guarding against any further claims by the dominion government for (13) extending the railway to Fort Simpson. He also moved that a clause be (14) added to prevent employment of Chinese in the works concerned. This, the f i r s t in his long campaign of anti-Chinese amendments, was ruled out (9) COLONIST, May 10, 1883, p. 3. (10) ibid. (11) ibid. (12) ibid. (13) B.C. Journals, May 9, 1883, p. 78. (14) ibid., p. 79. 18 of order; the government doubtless was too anxious to get the business over, to delay on a point which would injure one of i t s strongest (15) followers, interested in one of the major works concerned. As soon as B i l l 48 had been rushed through the house, the legislature completed the vote of supplies and prorogued on May 12th, thoroughly satisfied with the great work i t had done. The majority of the electors also were content; mainland citizens were to get much-needed public works and the opening of the railway lands, and islanders were to get the completion of the dry dock and the construction of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway. And nearly a l l voters, whatever their constituencies, were glad to see the end of useless government expenditures. The COLONIST, after caustically summing up the many failures of the late governments to bring Canada to terms, eulogized the settlement thus: "Every member has made large personal sacrifices to secure the great end, and the future historian w i l l award the meed of praise to the f i r s t session of the fourth parliament as the most useful and beneficial of any since the (16) date of confederation." This statement was too sweeping of course, but i t typifies the governmental self-satisfaction. Unfortunately this sentiment was not unanimous. Certainly the opposition'party'would not admit defeat on the question. The STANDARD (17) called the agreement 'better terms for the dominion', whereby Ottawa made her terms and the weak British Columbia government accepted them. Later the De Cosmos organ accused the ministry of passing the railway act as a means of keeping power: by spending in their constituencies monies (15) Dunsmuir, who employed Orientals in his mines and on the railroad. (16) COLONIST, May 12, 1883, p. 2. (17) STANDARD, May 8, 1883, p. 2. 19 (18) obtained through the relinquishment of provincial lands. The New Westminster GUARDIAN, stout opposition journal and bitter opponent of Robson, claimed: "There can be but l i t t l e doubt but that a few unscrupulous men had formed the audacious plan of sacrificing (19) the Province with the object of making fortunes out of i t . " Some of these men were interested in the construction of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo: "... a railroad which would be about as useful to this Province aa the f i f t h wheel would be to a coach, and which, i f really built, w i l l not, for 50 years to come, pay for the grease upon the axles of i t s r o l l i n g stock ... The cost of i t s construction w i l l be money into the (20) hands of certain greedy people in the city of Victoria." These jAf(J(%m statements are evidence of the lack of any real basis for opposition arguments; in the face of public approval of an act which, with a l l i t s faults, was at least a temporary solution to the chaos caused by the tactics of the late administration, the opposition had to descend to thinly-veiled personal accusations. Yet despite these ministerial raptures, the Settlement Act was not satisfactory to the dominion government. Because of the great haste in the province, necessitating negotiations largely by telegraph, two slight misunderstandings arose. The British Columbia act altered the agreement by providing that the dominion government should build the Esquimalt and Nanaimo, instead of guaranteeing a private company to do so; the act also set the price of lands in the island railway belt at the usual one dollar per acre, while the dominion did not wish to set a (18) STANDARD, May 11, 1883, p. 2. (19) GUARDIAN, May 16, 1883, p. 2. (20) loc. c i t . , May 19, 1883, p. 2. Even this i s a mistake; i t was due more to Dunsmuir*s greediness for the coal lands. 20 (21) maximum price without the consent of the company. Because of these small errors the federal government could not r a t i f y the British Columbia act at the session of 1883, but sent Sir Alexander Campbell, minister of justice, to negotiate f u l l y with the provincial government. So that there would be as l i t t l e delay as possible, Campbell was to make preparations for the construction of the railway, for the completion of the graving dock, and for the selection of a new railway belt on the mainland, and he was also to settle the dispute over the residences of (22) judges. The dominion minister arrived at Victoria late in July, and at once set about his tasks. He persuaded the provincial government to consent to a change in the railway belt, due to the alteration in the route of the Canadian Pacific railway, and he instructed Sir Joseph Trutch to carry out the understanding at once. The affair of the judicial d i s t r i c t s had rea l l y been settled shortly before by the Supreme Court of Canada, but Campbell carried out the necessary duty of re-arranging the di s t r i c t s . A provincial Judicial District Act of 1879 had provided that supreme court judges be assigned to several d i s t r i c t s by the dominion secretary of state; but when Mr. Justice Gray was transferred to Ne\v Westminster in 1881, he refused to leave Victoria, claiming that the act of 1879 was ultra vires, (21) Sir J. A.-Macdonald on the negotiations between the dominion and British Columbia. Commons debates, May 25, 1883, p. 1393. (22) "Report of Sir Alexander Campbell, Minister of Justice, on his v i s i t to British Columbia." Canadian  Sessional Papers, 1884, no. 15, pp. 7-8. 21 (23) that a supreme court judge had jurisdiction a l l over the province. In (a) the 'Thrasher case', which tested the power of the provincial government to interfere with the B. C. Supreme Court, that body threw out the 1879 act; and the judges continued to reside in Victoria, despite the vigorous protests from mainland d i s t r i c t s . But in 1883 the Canadian Supreme Court decided in favor of the provincial acts, and Sir Alexander was able to induce the judges to take up their duties on the mainland. The case becomes more interesting when i t is remembered that Hon. G. A. Walkem, premier when the acts were passed, was now one of the litigants; whether his reluctance was due to a preference for the more comfortable l i f e in Victoria, i s uncertain—but certainly his prestige was not raised thereby. What was more important to the minister's mission was the execution of a provisional contract for the construction of the Esquimalt (24) and Nanaimo railway, with the Dunsmuir group. This contract was deposited with Sir Joseph Trutch, and would come into effect as soon as parliament and the local assembly would give the necessary legislative (25) authority; i n other words, there would be no delay, once the amended Settlement Act was passed. (23) J. H. Gray to the lieutenant-governor, Aug. 17, 1881. "Return ... correspondence between the Attorney-General and the Dominion Government and the Judges of the Supreme Court, relating to the appointment of a Judge of the Supreme Court, to reside within the District of New Westminster." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1882, p. 354. (a) Thrasher case; This case arose out of the suit of Sewell vs. the B.C. Towing Co. for recovery of damages received when the coal ship 'Thrasher' was lost as a result of the alleged mismanagement of the defendant. The Chief Justice returned a verdict for the defendant in June, 1881; but when the lieutenant-governor-in-council ordered a sitting of the f u l l court in Victoria for a further hearing, the chief justices ruled the recent provincial acts ultra vires. B. C. Law Reports, vol. 1, part 1, 1882, pp. 153-244. (24) "Report of Sir Alexander Campbell ..." Canadian Sessional Papers, 1884, no. 15, pp. 10-15. (25) "Memorandum of an arrangement made at Victoria, the twentieth day of August, 1883, relative to the various points remaining unsettled between the Government of the Dominion and that of the Province of British Columbia." ibid., p. 7. 22 The last 'bete noir' was also disposed of in Campbell's. instructions to Trutch to take over the graving dock for the dominion, • (26) even though the f i n a l settlement had not yet been made. (27) Finally on August 20th an agreement was signed by Campbell and Smithe, touching a l l the above points. The British Columbia govern-ment promised to amend the 1883 act, and a draft b i l l was drawn up to (28) incorporate the changes. The assent of the contractor was obtained to the clause providing that the province administer the Esquimalt and (29) Nanaimo railway lands u n t i l the completion of the road. The dominion government promised to take over the graving dock and to complete i t when parliamentary sanction was obtained, according to the original act of 1883, and the dominion also promised to open the mainland railway lands as soon as possible. Government supporters of course hailed the agreement as a (30) complete success of their policy: The Dominion and the province have shook (sic) hands for the f i r s t time since confederation, and peace reigns where there was formerly discontent and discord ... Without hesitation we say that no government could have done more than the present government have accomplished under most disadvantageous circumstances ... The motto of the late government was 'Stagnation*. ' That of the present government is 'Progress.'• The opposition, on the other hand, attempted to take advantage (26) Campbell to the governor-general, 25 Sept., 1883. "Report ..." Canadian Sessional Papers, 1884, no. 15, p. 5. (27) "Memorandum ..." ibid., pp. 7, 8. (28) Draft b i l l : "An Act relating ..." ibid., pp. 15-21. (29) ibid., p. 21. (30) COLONIST, Oct. 6, 1883, p. 2. Mr. Johns, in his thesis, pp. 35-36, quotes Robson to show that the government realized the settlement was not perfect; I admit that, but they were also highly satisfied that they had achieved a compromise at a l l . 23 (31) of the slight hitch by demanding an immediate election: The bungling p o l i t i c a l children at present in office are absolutely incompetent to deal with any question of moment to the Province, and hence we have a deadlock not only in the construction of the Graving Dock, but in every other work which should now be in active progress from Comox to Cariboo ... To the most casual observer it must be painfully apparent that the present Government, entrusted in an unfortunate moment with the reins of power, is no longer useful and the. day has come when it must account for i t s stewardship or acknowledge i t s inability. Just on the dawn of an era of prosperity the Government placed in office with a grand flourish of trumpets, has shown how utterly incapable i t is to follow in the well prepared and wise p o l i t i c a l course which had been marked. Failure has stamped the every course of the Government, and now, just when the Province should insist upon better terms and adhere tenaciously to her rights we find the James Bay quartette vacillating and oscillating, willing to yield everything, anxious to alienate their powers, and by tacit consent admitting their emptiness. Under such circumstances can there be any good reason why the electors should not have an opportunity of selecting ministers more capable of obeying the popular behest and advancing the interests of the country? It is apparent that this present quartette is imbecile p o l i t i c a l l y and useless practically. At least there was no lack of optimism in the Beaven group. That any news organ, mucji less that of Amor De Cosmos, one of the (32) late government's boodlers, should attempt to cast ridicule upon Smithe for not following in the 'well prepared and wise p o l i t i c a l course* of Beaven and Walkem, is nonsensical to say the least. The opposition apparently hoped, by forcing an election, to regain power; and this in the fact of an overwhelming satisfaction with the settlement.' True, their complaints that the province was giving up i t s rights had some foundation, but even then this condition of affa i r s was vastly preferable to the former chaos under Beaven.'. The f i n a l step in the negotiations came with the passage by (31) STANDARD, July 7, 1883, p. 2. (32) His 'missions' were the cause of a long dispute, and his expenses were never f u l l y paid. Although he is regarded by many as a hero because of his part in introducing responsible government and confederation, his later career was less pleasant, cf. Ross, Margaret, Amor De Cosmos, a British Columbia reformer TOhiversity of British Columbia thesis, 1931). 24 the legislature and the parliament of the amended Settlement Act on (33) (34) December 18th, 1883 and March 28th, 1884, respectively. The debates in the local legislature were as heated as those of the previous session, but few new arguments were advanced by either group. There was less talk of land give-aways, and more of the government's position in relation to the dominion. Hon. William Smithe, although in i l l health, opened the discussion with the flat statement (35) that the ministry was prepared to stand or f a l l by the b i l l . Hon. M. W. Tyrrwhit-Drake continued with a warning that, i f the negotiations were to f a l l with the dominion through British Columbia's failure to r a t i f y the settlement, "the dominion w i l l not in future consent to (36) equally favorable ones and we shall not be able to help ourselves." The f i r s t move of the opposition was to attack the provisional contract with the Dunsmuir group. Beaven, moving to have the contract (37) laid before the house, declared that the government was using high-handed (38) methods in keeping from the public the exact terms of the contract. The premier replied that the contract had been made in confidence, that (39) i t was s t i l l the property of the dominion government. In the meantime, any member of the legislature might read the contract, but i t would be (40) impossible to bring i t down as a sessional paper. Smithe begged Beaven to withdraw the motion, but that veteran refused. Finally the government (33) . B. C. Journals, Dec. 18, 1883, p. 23. (34) Commons Debates, Mar. 28, 1884, p. 1176. Journals of the Canadian Senate, Apr. 4, 1884, p. 252. (35) STANDARD, Dec. 13, 1883, p. 3. (36) loc. c i t . , Dec. 14, 1883, p. 3. (37) B. 0. Journals, Dec. 5, 1883, p. 11. (38) STANDARD, Dec. 7, 1883, p. 2. (39) Not to be executed u n t i l both governments passed the b i l l , v. supra, p. 22. (40) COLONIST, Dec. 6, 1883, p. 3. 25 wired for Campbell's permission and brought down the contract on (41) December 10th. If the government members had had clear consciences about the terms of the contract, they would not have made such strenuous efforts to prevent the publication of the document before the passage of the b i l l . True, the contract was confidential, but apparently i t was not d i f f i c u l t to obtain Ottawa's consent to i t s release; why make such a fuss? Either Robert Dunsmuir, not wishing public disapproval, asked Smithe to suppress the contract, or the government i t s e l f feared that i t s widespread condemnation would endanger the passage of the Settlement Act. Either supposition points to unfairness in the contract. Simeon Duck, soon to be minister of finance, but as yet •independent', blamed the British Columbia 'defeat' on the want of coherency among local politicians, who waste their strength in petty disputes instead of presenting a united front against the dominion. He condemned the government's 'peace policy': "The present government accused their predecessors of incapacity but what had they (the present government) (42) done?"—and he continued with the usual tirade against the surrender of lands and rights. Sectional interest was brought into the debate by the representatives of Nanaimo and Comox, William Raybould and William Dingwall. These men, both of whom had voted for the Smithe non-(43) confidence amendment of January, 1883, now stated that they were (44) instructed by their constituents to oppose the b i l l . The trouble was that (41) B. C. Journals, Dec. 10, 1883, p. 15. STANDARD, Dec. 11, 1883, p. 3. (42) loc. c i t . , Dec. 14, 1883, p. 2. (43) v. supra, p. (44) STANDARD, Dec. 14, 1883, p. 2. 26 the people of these d i s t r i c t s disliked the coal, monopoly given to Dunsmuir, even though they were gaining a railway; they fel t that their land was being sacrificed to benefit a private company. For some time after this, these two members supported the opposition group, and Dunsmuir, the other representative of Nanaimo, became increasingly (45) unpopular with the electors. With the exception of W. j . Armstrong of New Westminster, R. L. T. Galbraith of Kootenay, John Grant of Cassiar and Robert McLeese of Cariboo, a l l hardened opponents of the government, the mainland members supported the b i l l in order to get r i d of the graving dock expense: George Cowan of Cariboo, who had defeated A. E. B. Davie in the 1877 by-(46) election and had voted for Beaven in January, 1883, changed his allegiance on this b i l l ; and C. A. Semlin of Cache Creek, who had wavered from Beaven to Smithe, now came down temporarily on the government side of the fence. The vote on the second reading was carried 15 - 7 on the (47) following division: Yeas: Nays; Smithe Pooley Beaven Davie, A.E.B. Duck Armstrong Robson Davie, T. Galbraith Drake Orr Helgesen Martin McTavish Raybould Allen Cowan McLeese Wilson John Dingwall Semlin (45) A requisition, signed by over one half of the electors, called on him to resign at once. STANDARD, Nov. 29, 1883, p. 3. (46) v. supra, p. "<7. (47) B. C. Journals, Dec. 14, 1883, pp. 21-22. Attention should be given to Duck, who had spoken so harshly of the government. Dunsmuir and Grant did not vote. 27 But the Beaven group s t i l l did not give up. W. J. Armstrong proposed an amendment calling for an election on the issue of this (48) alteration of the terms of union. The brief debate brought out the strange instability of Duck. After having censured the government policy at only the previous sitting, he now f e l t that the defeat of the (49) b i l l would retard the province, and he threw a l l his weight against the amendment. His own statement that a majority of his constituents were in (50) favor of the b i l l betrays the reason for this about-face. At any rate, he was soon well on his way to being an ardent government supporter, even a cabinet minister. In the division on this amendment Grant at last- came forth from his hiding to vote with the opposition. Semlin and Dingwall were absent, but otherwise the vote was the same as for (51) the second reading. Thus after the act had been r a t i f i e d at Ottawa, the Settlement (52) B i l l became law. 47 Victoria, chapter 14 recited and r a t i f i e d the agreement of August 20th: the mainland railway grant was altered to suit the new location of the line; the province gave to the dominion 3,500,000 acres in the Peace River d i s t r i c t in l i e u of waste land in the Fraser Canyon belt; Canada gave to the company to be incorporated by British Columbia to build the Ssquimalt and Nanaimo railway a cash bonus of $750,000 as well as the land (including a l l mining rights) turned over by the Province; the dominion took over the graving dock, paying British Columbia $250,000 and the amount already spent on the dock; and the dominion promised to open (with a l l convenient speed) the mainland railway (48) B. C. Journals, Dec. 17, 1883, p. 22. (49) STANDARD, Dec. 18, 1883, p. 3. (50) ibid. (51) B. C. Journals, Dec. 17, 1883, p. 22. (52) B. C. Statutes, 1884, pp. 81-68. Appendix IV., pp. v i i i - x v . 88 lands for settlement. Naturally the opposition's criticism of this act was not unfounded, for the weak position of the British Columbia government made it inevitable that the dominion should reap the greatest gain. However the alteration of the mainland railway belt, though condemned by some, was quite justifiable; the route of the Canadian Pacific railway was to be changed, and i t was only reasonable that the land grant should follow/ the line. The grant of the Peace River block was quite another matter. Sir John A. Macdonald explained that the railway belt through the Fraser Canyon was largely mountainous and unfit for agricultural purposes, that much of the arable valley had been pre-empted, and that the terms of union provided that any deficiency in the lands lying along the railway should be made up by contiguous lands. "In order to make up the deficiency, and render i t an inducement for the Dominion Government to enter into the f u l l e s t , these arrangements for taking the graving dock off the hands of the British Columbia Government, i t was agreed to (53) supplement the land grant along the railway." This statement bears out (54) Gosnell's claim that the lands were given to the dominion as compensation for the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway and the graving dock, rather than for the wild lands of the Fraser Canyon. At the time, of course, the Pease River block was inaccessible from Br i t i s h Columbia and hence valueless. It was across the Rockies, and therefore more easily governed by the dominion in connection with the (53) Commons Debates, May 35, 1883, p. 1392. (54) Scholefield and Gosnell, A history of British Columbia, (Vancouver, 1913), part II, p. 129. 29 prairies. The members'of the local ministry were confident that they were (55) making a good bargain by exchanging this block for the Yale lands, and naturally gave l i t t l e thought to the future. Even the opposition's claims that the d i s t r i c t contained excellent farming land and could be (56) sold at cash for stock ranges, was probably insincere. Even i f the government had known the value of the lands, of what use would they have been without the settlement? Certainly the impoverished province could never have developed them. The grant of the coal lands on Vancouver Island to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company raised even stronger opposition, (57) especially among the local residents. They suspected, with a great deal of truth, that the Dunsmuir group was merely building the road in order (58) to get possession of the coal lands. In this case no one could plead ignorance of the value of the grant, for i t was at the time the only known coal bed in the province; but the railway was necessary to make i t accessible to markets, and the Dunsmuirs were the f i r s t to make a bona fide attempt to develop them. The.Clements company, incorporated in 1882, had received a larger grant, but had had no real financial backing, and had forfeited their privileges. The argument that the Dunsmuir company was granted a virtual monopoly of the coal of the province held good for only a few years, as important fields were later developed near the Crow's Nest Pass, and smaller ones in the Nicola valley, the Telkwa (55) Smithe, in the second reading debate. STANDARD, Dec. 13, 1883, p. 3. (56) loc. c i t . , June 25, 1883, p. 2. (57) v. supra, pp.25%2-£. (58) Mr. Joseph Roberts says that he has found no proof of this, but he is certain that i t i s true. 30 (59) d i s t r i c t , the Queen Charlotte Islandsland the Yukon. But aside from a l l that, the provincial government was prepared to go to any length to secure the building of the railway. It had been the bogy of dominion-provincial relations for so long that i t could not now be dropped, and i t certainly was of great benefit to the development of the island. Despite the claims of the opposition, the actions of Walkem had relieved the dominion of a l l responsibility for i t s construction; and the province could never borrow money to build the railway themselves; the only course l e f t was to give the land bonus, valuable though it was. Yet the government must have had a guilty conscience on the matter; for in 1884 a committee appointed to investigate the value of the lands, asked to be discharged; "... owing to the d i f f i c u l t y and probable' expense of obtaining the witnesses asked for and to the fact that the lands referred to have ceased to be provincial property, (we) consider that i t i s not desirable for the Province to incur the expense (60) of such inquiry." Yet the fact that the lands were no longer provincial property was the very reason for the investigation! There was greater unanimity on the dominion's taking over the graving dock. This work should never have been undertaken by the province in the f i r s t place, as i t was really a national responsibility, for use by the navy; this was evidenced by the dominion and imperial subsidies for construction. The cost was far beyond provincial resources, (59) Canada; Department of the Interior, Atlas of Canada (Ottawa, 191§;)> pp. 13-14. Canada; Department of the Interior, Map of the Dominion of Canada  indicating the main natural resources (Ottawa, 1930). (60) "Report ... value of the lands under the Settlement B i l l . " B. C. Journals, 1884, Appendix, p. 87. 31 even under competent direction, for the dominion spent on i t before i t s (61) opening in 1887 over one million dollars. Even i f the dock had been presented to the province as a gif t the local government could not have supported i t . Very seldom did the revenues exceed the maintenance cost, and these figures do not include the construction, 1920-1926, of a huge new dock, nor the maintenance of the dockyard for s t r i c t l y naval (62) purposes. Truly, this would have been a 'sink-hole' for provincial funds, for i t could never have been completed; and the money otherwise released for more v i t a l public works in opening up the province, would have been wasted. If the settlement with the dominion had failed at this time, any subsequent one would have set harsher terms, for the province would have been much weaker, and willing to accept any solution. The graving dock refund was the cause of an interesting development in New Westminster, where the opposition forces attempted to make p o l i t i c a l capital of the government's failure to keep i t s 'promise* to spend the dock refund on mainland public works. At a public s meeting held shortly after the agreement between Campbell and Smithe, W. J. Armstrong and W. N. Bole (elected 1886, a rabid opponent of the government) charged that the mainland would not get enough benefit from the refund, that the island would get some of that money as well as the (63) Esquimalt and Nanaimo expenditure. James Orr and Hon. John Robson, members for New Westminster d i s t r i c t , maintained that the cabinet had (61) Canada: Public Works report, Canadian Sessional Papers, 1888, no.9, p. cxiv. (62) Public Works department expenditure and revenue, Auditor-Generals reports, 1896-1930. Canadian Sessional Papers, 1896-1930, no. 1, (See index, heading 'Graving Docks', for exact paging - i t varies each year.) (63) COLONIST, Sept. 5, 1883, p. 2. 32 (64) definitely decided to spend the money on the mainland. This time the opposition had done the government a good turn, for they gave public expression to a policy which helped to gain mainland support for the b i l l . Yet Beaven was shrewd enough to turn even this against the ministry, and i n the debate on the amended act he maintained that the "purity of (65) Parliament had been infringed." This statement was probably quite true, for the Smithe government was never above a l l faults; but the late premier had been himself hardly blameless.' The f i n a l point in the b i l l was the section dealing with the mainland railway lands; the dominion here promised to offer them for sale 'with a l l convenient speed'. This was obviously an evasion, and gave rise to a long period of f r i c t i o n ; for the dominion naturally (66) found haste very inconvenient, and did not open the lands for many years. The general value of the Settlement Act has been a subject of controversy ever since the measure was passed. Its opponents claim, and rightfully, that British Columbia was forced into giving away valuable lands, in return for a short railway and the dominion's belated acceptance of responsibility for the graving dock. But on the other hand the province's own politicians were to blame for her weak position; they had pursued, under De Cosmos, Walkem and Beaven, a senseless policy of corruption and of t i l t i n g at Ottawa windmills, and they had bequeathed (67) to Smithe a legacy of debts and prejudices. Indeed, the dominion government and the Dunsmuir group would have been foolish not to take advantage of the golden opportunities offered. (64) COLUMBIAN, Sept. 8, 1883, p. 2. (65) STANDARD, Dec. 19, 1883, p. 2. (66) v. infra, p. LOf. (67) Miss Ormsby agrees. 33 On the other hand the settlement brought comparative prosperity to British Columbia; relieved of expenditures on the island railway and the graving dock, the government could now turn i t s attention to opening the valuable hinterlands of the province. The payrolls of the railway and the dock gave employment to a large number of men, and commerce and real estate improved both on the mainland and the island. British Columbia could not have held out against the dominion much longer; and in the inevitable settlement she undoubtedly would have received much sterner treatment. Indeed the province was fortunate, to escape her troubles so easily, for she certainly had been the enfant terrible of the dominion family; and now her sacrifice was small, compared with her gains. And yet the 'injustice' of the Settlement Act i s a strong point in the arguments of 'Better Terms' enthusiasts.' 34 CHAPTER III. The Smithe Ministry, 1885-1887. With the passage of the Settlement Act the Smithe government solved the major problem which had faced the province on the f a l l of Beaven; there remained the improvement of finances, the opening up of the hinterlands with roads and railways, and the restriction of Chinese labor. At the 1885 session several railways were incorporated, with the Columbia and Kootenay b i l l taking precedence. The opponents of the measure, while admitting the need of an outlet for the rich mining dist r i c t s , maintained that this b i l l did not give the province enough security against default by the company. However several amendments remedied matters; the land grant was cut in half, miners were given f u l l rights in the reserved area, and the company was to pay the cost of (1) surveys. The INLAND SENTINEL and a l l residents of the d i s t r i c t s concerned hailed with delight the prospect of the road, with increased markets and growth of settlement. Despite the protests of the GUARDIAN (2) that the b i l l was the forerunner of annexation by the United States, the b i l l was third reading passed on a non-party division, in which even (3) Beaven and Armstrong voted yea. (1) INLAND SENTINEL, A p r i l 12, 1885, p. 2. (2) GUARDIAN, A p r i l 14, 1885, p. 2. The Ainsworth brothers and Blasdel, the promoters, were San Francisco capitalists. This is an interesting example of the annexation bogey which had long been prominent in B. C., and which was used in the dominion f i e l d to defeat l i b e r a l trade theories. (5) B. C. Journals, Ap r i l 25, 1885, p. 69. 35 At least some government supporters benefitted from the act, for Theodore Davie and C. E. Pooley were appointed solici t o r s . However no suspicion of corruption can rest upon the Smithe party as a whole, (4) for many of i t s supporters voted against the b i l l . There is no doubt but that the company had the best of intentions, for Sir Alexander Campbell later had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining their consent to (5) amendments protecting the Canadian Pacific Railway. Yet when the dominion took the only possible course in disallowing the act because i t would provide American competition to the Canadian Pacific, the STANDARD maintained that the local government had been "snubbed for passing i t (6) against the w i l l of the people". The amendment was easily passed at (7) the 1884 session. But in the end the company failed to build the road, (8) and a new arrangement was necessary. (9) Two other acts, incorporating the boundary railways, met a less pleasant fate. When Sir Alexander Campbell told New Westminster residents that the b i l l s would be disallowed because the railways would divert trade to American roads from the-Canadian Pacific Railway, the COLUMBIAN maintained that the same objection applied to the Esquimalt and Nanaimo; but the COLONIST replied that the island railway was essential to the prosperity of the Canadian Pacific Railway; such modesty i s incredible.' An interesting point in this connection is John Grant's (4) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 25, 1883, p. 69. (5) INLAND SENTINEL, Aug. 16, 1883, p. 2. (6) STANDARD, Dec. 10, 1883, p. 2. (7) B. C. Journals, Jan. 15, 1884, p. 33. (8) v. infra, -gf.lU-lU-, #4. (9) "An Act to Incorporate the Fraser River Railway Company", 46 Viet., ch. 26. B.C. Statutes, 1883, pp. 103-106. "An Act to Incorporate the New Westminster Southern Railway Company", 46 Vict., ch. 27. loc. c i t . , pp. 107-111 36 (10) defence of the b i l l s . Although his name does not appear on the l i s t of the provisional directors, he probably had some financial connection with (11) the mainland; his later efforts to champion the cause of Vancouver were (12) also rather strange, for a Victoria citizen. Both parties were adept at laying charges of corruption. The Smithe group, following the age-old policy of resurrecting the mistakes of the past government, showed that Beaven had used the sinking fund, (13) and had even borrowed $60,000 without authority. Certainly the settlement was needed, for such tactics could not have continued long.' The 'Clemitson scandal' involved the suppression of sessional papers. The report of a committee to enquire into the dismissal in 1878 of the deputy superintendent of education had been (14) adopted and ordered printed by the Beaven government in 1882. The clerk of the house had been induced to change the wording to "read and received, (-15) ordered printed", and Hon. T. B. Humphreys, provincial secretary, had not (16) even printed i t in the sessional papers. That a government should go to such lengths to avoid the payment of a $250 claim seems odd, to say the least. But the new administration was not i t s e l f free from attack, for the 'Port Simpson grab' offered the opposition a golden opportunity (10) COLONIST, Mar. 22, 1883, p. 3. (11) v. infra, p. 5?. (12) He was originally from Cassiar, but moved to Victoria. (13) COLONIST, Mar. 14, 1883, p. 2. (14) Clemitson had been deputy superintendent of education; when the E l l i o t t government abolished that office in A p r i l 1878 they promised to pay him un t i l June. The Walkem government did not reimburse him. (15) It appears thus in B. C. Journals, Apr. 20, 1882, p. 32. (16) He also omitted the drydock report, which appeared in B. C. Journals, 1883, Appendix, pp. 47-72. 37 to raise the corruption cry. A reserve placed on these lands i n 1879 by the Walkem government to provide for a possible C. P. R. terminus had been l i f t e d by Smithe on March 30, 1883; but by an oversight this minute of (17) council had not been advertised in the GAZETTE un t i l May 10 (three days after the committee was appointed). The opposition charged that Mr. Ralph and Mr. Work, who applied for lands i n this reserve, were in the confidence of the government, but the committee exonerated Smithe (18) entirely. However in the budget debate of the next session, Beaven and Armstrong moved an amendment censuring the premier for his corruption in the a f f a i r . In the division which defeated the amendment Simeon Duck and C. A. Semlin again voted with the opposition, while William Dingwall of Comox and William Raybould of Nanaimo forgot the Settlement B i l l long (19) enough to support the government. The only other important event of the session was the budget debate. Despite the fact that the house had been adjourning from day to day awaiting the settlement terms from Ottawa, the estimates were not brought down un t i l May 8th, the very day that the railway and dock b i l l (20) was introduced. The budget was not startling, except for a slight (21) increase in c i v i l service salaries, which the necessities of the late government had cut to the bone. Finally on May 12, 1883 the legislature was prorogued after (22) the longest session since confederation. But the battle was not yet won, for the opposition seized upon the dominion's failure to r a t i f y the (17) "Report of Select Committee. Port Simpson Lands." B.C.- Journals, 1883 Appendix, p. 43. (18) ibid. (19) B. C. Journals, Feb. 12, 1884, p. 60. (20) loc. c i t . , May 8, 1883, p. 75. (21) "Report of C i v i l Service Committee." B. .C. Journals, 1883, Appendix, p. 23. (22) B. C. Journals, May 12, 1883, p. 92. 38 Settlement Act. They compared the local government to Micawber, who (23) was "forever waiting for something to turn up." The GUARDIAN ran the (24) gamut of abuse, in i t s demand for an election: ... These men in power are a real danger and hindrance to the country, and must be got r i d of by some means. We think i f the people were properly appealed to by men of even medium talent, that petitions could be obtained in every town and d i s t r i c t to His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, asking their immediated dismissal and the calling of a general election for the early f a l l , to provide intelligent men to replace them. The miners' strike at Wellington raised a more serious matter than such vain complaints. In August, after the failure of their demand for higher wages, the men stopped work. The real trouble arose when the attorney-general, at the request of Dunsmuir, sent a police squad to prevent riots, and when a Nanaimo meeting protested against this (25) government interference in protection of private interests. The COLUMBIAN maintained that Davie had acted without the knowledge of the (26) rest of the cabinet, and was therefore himself responsible. Although this a r t i c l e was a front page unsigned leader, the opposition papers attributed i t to Hon. John Robson, former editor of the COLUMBIAN, and at the time v i s i t i n g New Westminster in the company of Smithe. The GUARDIAN joyfully anticipated a s p l i t in the cabinet through this censure of one minister by another, and jumped at the opportunity to condemn the provincial (27) secretary: It may be well to remember that honest John Robson is beyond a l l public opinion. He has neither scruples, conscience or reputation ... he has completely enthralled the present Premier—no d i f f i c u l t thing to do—and is absolutely running the government himself. STANDARD, July 11, 1883, p. 2. GUARDIAN, July 18, 1883, p. 2. STANDARD, Oct. 4, 1883, p. 3. COLUMBIAN, Oct. 13, 1883, p. 1. GUARDIAN, Oct. 17, 1883, p. 2. (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) 39 Truly that was a golden age for journalism! There was a grain of truth in the statement that Smithe was not the real.leader; hut Robson was not the only strong man l e f t . In order to hasten the passing of the amended Settlement Act, the second session of the legislature met in December, 1883, instead of (28) in January. The speech from the throne was justifiably complacent in -> recording the increased land holding and commerce; but the STANDARD, as usual, reported that i t s •platitudes* were poorly received, and this opposition journal even went so far as to claim that the settlement had (29) been the work of the Walkem government.' Apart from the Settlement Act amendment, the attempts of the 1884 session to restrict Chinese immigration were most important. The Orientals had begun to arrive in British Columbia some years before to work on the C. P. R. and were s t i l l coming in such numbers that tha/ JJTZJIAJ ^ t j W ^ ^ the standard of l i v i n g of the province* British Columbia was the only place on the Pacific Coast where the Chinese could land at w i l l , and as early as 1882 the province asked the dominion for restrictive (30) legislation. When these resolutions failed the legislature proceeded to pass three acts of i t s own, regulating the Chinese population of British (31) (32) Columbia, preventing the immigration of Chinese, and preventing them (33) from acquiring crown lands. The second act was clearly beyond the power (34) of the province, and was promptly disallowed by the dominion. The (28) B. C. Journals, Dec. 3, 1883, p. 1. (29) STANDARD, Dec. 4, 1883, p. 2. (30) "Order i n Council on Chinese Immigration, Aug. 19, 1882." B.,C. Sessional Papers, 1883, p. .345. (31) 47 Vict., ch. 4. B. C. Statutes. 1884, pp. 7-10 (32) 47 Vict., ch. 3. loc. c i t . , pp. 5, 6. (33) 47 Vict., ch. 2. loc, c i t . , p. 3. (34) "Correspondence regarding the acts passed by the Legislature of the Province of British Columbia, during the session of 1884." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1885, p. 464. 40 attorney-general admitted that i t was ultra vires, but maintained that the (35) acts should be passed repeatedly u n t i l an impression was made on Ottawa. Dunsmuir, in his position as a large employer of Chinese, pleaded that cheap labor was essential for competition with American manufacturers, but he got l i t t l e support. Evidently the force of public opinion was stronger than the influence of big business, for government (36) members did not hesitate to chastise Dunsmuir on this occasion. Hon. Mr. Davie's hopes were partially realised during the same summer; for Ottawa, though s t i l l refusing to enact legislation at once, did send a royal commission to investigate Chinese conditions in the (37) province. Although the report was too pro-Chinese to suit B r i t i s h Columbia enthusiasts, i t led to a federal act, which placed a $50 tax on a l l Chinese entering Canada, and restricted the number to be carried on any (38) one ship. But this was not enough for the local members; at the 1885 session they re-enacted the disallowed prevention act, with an extra (39) exemption to Chinese temporarily absent at the time. This too was (40) disallowed. Henceforth Oriental immigration was limited only by the dominion act, and i t continued for many years to be a cause of bitterness, even of ri o t s . White citizens resented the competition of cheap Chinese labor, and feared the resultant lower standard of living . (35) STANDARD, Jan. 25, 1884, p. 3. (36) loc. c i t . , Jan. 22, 1884, p. 3. (37) "Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration." Canadian Sessional Papers, 1885, no. 54(a). (38) 48-49 Vict., chap. 71. Canadian Statutes, 1884-1885, pp. 207-212. (39) 48 Vict., ch. 13. B. C. Statutes, 1885, pp. 75-76. (40) "Return to an Address of the Legislative Assembly for copies of the following papers referring to an "Act to prevent the immigration of Chinese", 47 Vict., ch. 3, 1884, and ... 48 Vict., ch. 13, 1885." B. 0. Sessional Papers, 1885, pp. 351-354. 41 This unanimous sentiment extended even to the legislature, with the exception of Mr. Dunsmuir and other large employers. Yet shortly before the introduction of the Chinese b i l l s in the 1884 session, opinion had not been so solid; the government had quashed Raybould's amendment to the Coal Mines Act, excluding Chinese from remaining coal mining (41) positions. During the debate an interesting clash between Robson and Beaven gave a foretaste of opposition methods. The provincial secretary had bluntly accused Beaven of hiring Chinese on his Port Moody lands, whereupon the latter replied with insinuations (unproven) about Robson. When 'honest John* rose to the bait by losing his temper, Beaven was able (42) to complain of his unparliamentary language. Neither disputant was blameless, but the leader of the opposition was the shrewder; he deliberately led Robson on to lose his dignity in the house. P o l i t i c s were never monotonous in those cruder days, when a man (unhampered by the presence of lady members) spoke his mind, and when newspapers, seemingly unfettered by l i b e l laws, made free use of slanderous gossip. (43) The session of 1884 also saw the passing of a new land law which attempted to prevent undue speculation by limiting each man's purchase, and by requiring continuous occupation of pre-emptions. Although this was a direct blow to the lands administration of the late government, which had been notably corrupt, the act passed 17 - 1. Messrs. McLeese, Semlin, Raybould and Helgesen opposed certain sections (41) STANDARD, Jan. 16, 1884, p. 2. The amendment was withdrawn: B. C. Journals, Jan. 14, 1884, p. 32. (42) STANDARD, Jan. 16, 1884, p. 3. (43) 47 Vict., chap. 16. B. C. Statutes, 1884, pp. 61-97. 42 (44) of the b i l l , but voted for the second reading. The sole dissenting vote was that of Hon. Robert Beaven, to whom Edward Allen applied the phrase, (45) "Always and ever, no.'" The COLONIST seized the opportunity for a curtain (46) lecture: The leader of the opposition is determined to see no good in any measure that may emanate from the government affecting any subject upon which he may have previously legislated ... with the leader of the opposition there i s no improvement. If he does not retrograde he does not advance. However Beaven could hardly be expected to censure his own acts; he therefore put himself upon record as opposing the new act, which really was a step forward. But he did not gain much ground in his 'investigation' into the public accounts for the year ending June 30, 1883, True, the government was forced to admit an overdraft at the bank of $170,000; but this was explained as quite customary, in order to charge b i l l s to the period in (47) which they came due instead of to the ensuing year. At least the (48) creditors were paid, which had not been usual in the Beaven regime. Beaven also attempted to s t i r up the old mainland versus island resentment in his resolution for a committee to enquire into the (49) Robson statement that a l l dock money would be spent on the mainland. However this failed on a party division. The STANDARD attempted to distort the facts by accusing Theodore Davie and Drake of voting "to have (44) . B. C. Journals, Jan. 24, 1884, p. 41. (45) COLONIST, Jan. 26, 1884, p. 2. (46) ibid. (47) "Report of the select standing committee on public accounts." B. C. Journals, 1884, pp. 89-91 (minority report, p. 92). (48) STANDARD, Jan. 30, 1884, pp. 2, 3. The government had spent so much on the graving dock that Beaven had to use the sinking fund. (49) B. C. Journals, Feb. 5, 1884, p. 51. 43 (50) the Graving Dock refund expended exclusively on the Mainland". Such an act would of course have been base treachery on the part of the two loyal Victorians, but the opposition journal had deliberately misstated the question. True, an enquiry probably would have given proof that ,(51) Robson had made the statement, but that is no reason why the STANDARD should draw such erroneous conclusions. In the second session the government did not continue its (52) policy of railway encouragement; i t k i l l e d the Okanagan and Shuswap b i l l (53) after passing the second reading on a non-party division, it voted a (54) six-months' hoist to the Cariboo-Kamloops b i l l , and i t obtained the (55) withdrawal of the Similkameen and Thompson b i l l . Hon. John Robson began at this session his progressive education policy by passing a schools act amendment which more clearly defined teachers' qualifications and certification, and regulated the elections (56) of trustees. On the second reading Dingwall, McLeese, Semlin and Raybould voted with the government, while Simeon Duck, despite his approaching (57) entry into the cabinet, opposed the b i l l . Oddly enough, Duck also voted against the b i l l of indemnity which restored to ministers the (58) $400 sessional allowance as well as the regular salary. Immediately after the legislature had prorogued, Premier Smithe (50) STANDARD, Feb. 6, 1884, p. 2. (51) v. supra, p. 3{. (52) B. 0. Journals, Feb. 13, 1884, p. 68. (53) ibid., p. 67. (54) ibid. Also a non-party division. (55) loc. c i t . , Feb. 14, 1884, p. 70. (56) 47 Vict., ch. 27. B. C. Statutes, 1884, pp. 131-135. (57) B. C. Journals, Jan. 16, 1884, p. 34. (58) loc. c i t . , Feb. 15, 1884, p. 72. 47 Vict., ch. 13. B. C. Statutes, 1884, p. 59. 44 (59) le f t for. Ottawa on several matters of dominion-provincial importance. The question of the eastern boundary of British Columbia, made significant by the influx of railway workmen and miners into the Kicking Horse region, was referred to the imperial government; the crown lands west of Port Moody were returned to the province, as the government portion of the railway had stopped short of Burrard Inlet; the dominion government promised to restric t Chinese immigration, to send a magistrate to (60) Metlakahtla, and to consider the surveying of coastal banks in l i e u of (61) British Columbia's participation in the Halifax fishery award money. Despite these important accomplishments, the opposition at home protested; they said that the present government had condemned the 'missions' of Amor De Cosmos (which had cost far more, and had succeeded only in antagonizing the dominion government), yet it not sent the premier to Ottawa to write long-winded letters to Sir John A. Macdonald (62) which could as well have been sent from Victoria. But the GUARDIAN did strike a responsive chord when i t asserted that the real purpose of Smithe's v i s i t had been to consult with (63) Van Home about the C. P. R. extension to Burrard Inlet. There is no doubt but that a meeting between the two men resulted in a tentative agreement, for the premier in a letter written to Van Home shortly after (59) "Correspondence in connection with Mission of the Honourable William Smithe to Ottawa, relating to the Eastern Boundary of the Province, Chinese Immigration,-and other questions." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1885, pp. 1-14. (60) v. infra, p. 86, note (176). (61) Under the Washington Treaty of 1877 the U. S. was to pay Canada for the use of fishing privileges for 12 years because they had gotten superior value in fishing privileges by the 1871 treaty. (62) GUARDIAN, Jan. 17, 1885, p. 2. (63) loc. c i t . , Aug. 5, 1885, p. 2. 45 the former's return to Victoria, speaks of a promise given at Montreal re'garding the disposal of the Port Moody lands, and speaks of Van (64) Home's expected v i s i t to settle the matter. The railway executive f i n a l l y came, negotiated with the local government, made preparations for (65) the extension to Goal Harbor, and named the new village Vancouver. Besides the pushing of the C. P. R. construction, the island railway was in progress, employing several hundred men, the drydock contract had been l e t , and agriculture was advancing due to the influx of settlers. The government had worked a great change in two years. Thus the important work had been done, and the legislature settled down to routine business. In the third session, opening January 12th, 1885, James Cunningham replaced ¥/. J. Armstrong for New Westminster (66) city. Armstrong no doubt saw that he had made a mistake in his recent (67) p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , and was only too willing to accept the secure position offered him as sheriff of New Westminster. The chief significance of the change was the fact that the opposition lost a strong man, and the government gained another supporter. The further weakening of the opposition by the illness of Hon. Robert Beaven helped to make the session less eventful than usual. The leader's lieutenant—Galbraith—lacked the a b i l i t y of Beaven, and (68) allowed the speech from the throne to pass with only mild criticism of (64) Smithe to Van Horne, May 23, 1884. "Correspondence relative to the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway." B. C. Sessional  Papers, 1885, p. 129. (65) v. infra, pp. ^ - f f , for a f u l l e r discussion of the p o l i t i c a l implications of the af f a i r . (66) B. C. Journals, Jan. 12, 1885, p. 4. (67) His entrance into the Beaven cabinet in 1883. v. supra, p. 1. (68) COLONIST, Jan. 15, 1885, p. 3. He was a mild-mannered man. 46 the government's policy. In the division on the Coal Mines Regulation Act, Galbraith (69) even voted with the government.* Raybould had introduced this b i l l to provide monthly inspection of mines and to allow the miners instead of the owners to select the fireman; in short, the b i l l promised better working conditions. Dunsmuir naturally opposed the measure, maintaining that the owners were perfectly competent; C. E. Pooley, s o l i c i t o r for the Esquimalt and Nanaimo, deplored the fact that the b i l l was taking (70) control from the mine owners. Evidently this 'back-stairs' influence prevailed, for the proposed six-months' hoist, moved by Theodore Davie (71) (who said he really favored the b i l l ) was carried easily. A l l the ministerialists except Cowan, who represented a mining d i s t r i c t , voted for (72) the motion, and Grant and Galbraith also supported i t . jfflx ^A$lMj( fl#x* m*x xw«v*x # M X m mx m ******* The debate on the Coal Harbor agreement disclosed charges of a nature even more serious; accusations of profiteering. As early as 1883 the GUARDIAN, with true home-town loyalty, complained of the •Coal Harbor Ring' which was even then trying to get the C. P. R. (73) extended beyond Port Moody; and a year later this same journal openly (74) named 'honest John' as leader of the group. The Port Moody GAZETTE put it even stronger: "Port Moody must be ... crushed i f possible in order (75) that a market might be created for the Provincial Secretary's land." (69) B. C. Journals, Jan. 28, 1885, p. 22. (70) COLONIST, Jan. 29, 1885, p. 2. (71) ibid. (72) B. C. Journals, Jan. 28, 1885, p. 22. (73) GUARDIAN, Feb. 17, 1883, p. 2. (74) loc. c i t . , Jan. 23, 1884, p. 2. (75) Port Moody GAZETTE, Nov. 15, 1884, p. 2. 47 (76) In 1884 Smithe had visited Van Home in Montreal, then the latter had concluded the arrangements in Victoria. The only published records of these negotiations give no grounds for suspicion, for they recount (77) merely the terms asked and decided upon. They begin only with Smithe's letters of protest at Van Home's delay in coming to British Columbia, and they leave a gap of the verbal discussions which took place during that v i s i t . Therefore they paint a very agreeable picture of the province cutting down the land grant to the railway from 11,000 to 6,000 acres, and of the pressure put upon the C. P. R. directors to accept these terms. But these records do not show whether the railway company or the provincial government took the f i r s t step in asking for the extension. We do know of course that i t was merely Ottawa's t h r i f t that had stopped the government section of the C(K'p^^B^at^ Port Moody, content to reach tidewater there. But as early as 1873 Marcus Smith, engineer-in-chief i n British Columbia for the company, had recommended Burrard Inlet (78) as the terminus. And in 1878 H. J. Cambie had included in his surveys (79) the extension to Coal Harbor. Smithe had touched upon the real reason for the extension: the terminus should never have been at Port Moody in the f i r s t place, (76) y_. supra, p. 4<f. (77) "Correspondence relative to the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1885, pp. 129-136. "Proposed agreement between the Government of British Columbia and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company." loc. c i t . , p. 385. (78) Canadian Pacific Railway Company: Report of progress on the  explorations and surveys up to January, 1874. (Ottawa, 1874), p. 195. (79) Canadian Pacific Railway Company: Reports and documents in  reference to the location of the line and a western terminal  harbour, 1878. (Ottawa, 1878), p. 35. This was made while they were considering the Bute Inlet route. 48 for navigation is dangerous up the inlet, especially at the Second Narrows, and there is no room on the shore for a large city. For the C. P. R. wanted not only a railway terminus, but a point of connection with their steamship service to the Orient; and they found near old Granville the ideal site for 'Vancouver'. But these facts do not absolve the government of a l l blame. Apart from the residents of Granville townsite, the railway company was i t s e l f to receive the greatest benefit from the change of terminus, and should have needed l i t t l e encouragement. Yet the provincial government was so anxious for the extension that i t calmly gave to the company 6,000 acres of land which were certain to be very valuable in a few years. The ministers argued that this grant had originally been set aside for (80) dominion railway purposes, that i t was no more than had been given to the C. P. R. a l l through the western provinces, and that the company needed help in financing their operations. But the other grants had included a great deal of agricultural and wild land, and this one contained the best part of a growing townsite. In short, the C. P. R. would have come to Goal Harbor eventually; why did the government meddle with land grants? This question points strong suspicion at several members and associates of the government, and especially at Robson. That worthy minister of the crown admitted in the house that he had for some time owned land at Coal Harbor, but he attempted to justify himself by maintaining that he had bought the lands before the terminus was settled, (80) It was part of the 40-mile belt relinquished by the dominion in May, 1884. Van Home to Smithe, Sept. 9, 1884. "Correspondence relative to the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway." B.C. Sessional Papers, 1885, p. 131. 49 (81) and with his own money. This was probably quite true, but he did not deny that his championship of the new terminus had been influenced by his holdings there. Yet no definite charges can be made against him, for, as we have seen, no complete o f f i c i a l records are available; we. can only wonder why the government was so anxious to make doubly sure of the inevitable extension that i t should give away almost the whole townsite. The debate on these terms was delayed to dispose of the embarrassing report submitted by the squatters' committee. This enquiry arose out of the claims of 19 settlers for the right to buy lots in the old Granville Townsite; these men had applied to purchase the lots after the reserve was l i f t e d in 1884, but the C. P. R. had ruled that they were not bona fide locatees, and not entitled to the land at the agreed price of $200. The report found that the squatters had been 'misled as to their right to locate' by the immigration agent; even the COLONIST admitted that i t would, i f accepted by the government, be regarded as the (82) defeat of the ministry. But George A. McTavish and James C. Cunningham rescued the government by moving to have the report referred back, (83) although the motion passed with a majority of only three. Duck, Grant and Raybould voted with the ministry: Duck on the path to the Treasury office, Grant apparently interested in Vancouver (the TIMES always supported the new terminus against the tirades of the COLONIST), and Raybould definitely in the government fold again. On the other hand, James Orr now entered the opposition ranks, for he was himself one of the squatters claiming compensation. The new report, although s t i l l (81) COLONIST, Feb. 21, 1885, p. 3. (82) loc. c i t . , Feb. 10, 1885, p. 2. (83) B. C. Journals, Feb. 11, 1885, p. 33. 50 recommending compensation for most of the settlers, yet saved the face (84) of the government by intimating forgery by some of the claimants. With this d i f f i c u l t matter settled and the government secure again, the house proceeded to a vote on the Coal Harbor agreement. One humane note entered into the debate when Hon. Robert Beaven, s t i l l in poor health, could not attend a night session. Despite Drake's offer to pair with him, Beaven wished to speak on the subject; so the house (85) adjourned to meet on Saturday afternoon. Evidently the sense of generosity had not been dulled by the animosity which Beaven could so easily arouse.**** *U ##Wm*X j$W#$ The agreement was r a t i f i e d by a majority of 16 - 7 on a division very similar to that referring the squatters' report back to the committee, the only exception being the return to government ranks (86) of Cowan, Dingwall and Wilson. Charles Wilson, a member of the committee, had naturally been against the reconsideration of the report; that over, he now resumed his party allegiance. Dingwall and Raybould apparently wished revenge on the mainland members for the passing of the Settlement Act. Galbraith was the acting leader of the opposition, and had to vote against the government. James Orr of New Westminster District, aside from his part in the squatters' claims, was in the same position as the Nanaimo and Comox members had been on the Settlement act: he opposed the huge land grant; but while they returned to support of Smithe, Orr did not—he became one of the government's most bitter c r i t i c s . (84) "Report ... claims to land proposed to be transferred to the Canadian Pacific Railway Syndicate." B. C. Journals, 1885, Appendix, p. 80. A later commission declared the document on which Greer based his claim to be a forgery. (85) COLONIST, Feb. 21, 1885, p. 3. (86) B. 0. Journals, Feb. 21, 1885, p. 43. 51 Very l i t t l e other business was done during this third session. The Similkameen and Thompson railway b i l l was withdrawn according to a rule established the year before that the government must assent to such (87) a measure before i t comes to the house; two other b i l l s , to incorporate the New Westminster Southern railway and the Fraser Valley railway (88) companies, were k i l l e d . A beginning was made in the redistribution of legislative seats by allowing an additional member each to Cowichan and New (89) Westminster d i s t r i c t . This l e f t the mainland s t i l l with one extra member in 27, hardly proportionate to the difference in population; island members were s t i l l too strong in the house and i n the councils of the government to permit any real change. The end of the session found the government s t i l l in a f a i r l y strong position despite the trouble caused by the Coal Harbor agreement. Indeed, the premier felt secure enough to take a new salaried member into the cabinet. Hon. M. W. Tyrrwhit-Drake, president of the council, had resigned his cabinet post the preceding October when he was (90) appointed dominion counsel i n the railway belt minerals dispute. Drake explained in the house (he s t i l l retained his seat) that he had only accepted the presidency temporarily and under great pressure; and now (87) COLONIST, Mar. 6, 1885, p. 2. (88) B. C. Journals, Mar. 7, 1885, pp. 71, 72. The New Westminster Southern was defeated on the speaker's casting vote. These b i l l s were turned down because they threatened to injure the Canadian Pacific Railway by providing American competition. (89) Constitution Amendment Act, 1885: 48 Vict., ch. 3. B. C. Statutes, 1885, p. 7. (90) STANDARD, Oct. 6, 1884, p. 2. B. C. claimed the timber and minerals in the 40-mile belt from the coast to the eastern boundary, and protested when the dominion government offered the lands for sale. 52 that the major problems had been disposed of he wished to withdraw from (91) the ministerial responsibility and to resume his private practice. But he did not mention the mineral dispute, nor the fact that he was (92) the C. P. R. counsel in the Coal Harbor negotiations. There was very l i t t l e criticism of Drake's action, no rumor of a cabinet s p l i t ; the most important question was, who would succeed him? The answer came only after the 1885 session, when Premier Smithe (93) appointed Simeon Duck as minister of finance and agriculture. This (94) addition relieved Hon. John Robson of a heavy burden and restored cabinet representation to Victoria. The policy was to balance the representation between island and mainland, with one member always from the capital city. It is interesting to note that Duck was preferred to Theodore Davie, the only other available Victoria member. But Duck's p o l i t i c a l sympathies had been doubtful ever since (95) 1882. Elected then as an independent, he had opposed most of the (96) important government measures; Smithe's non-confidence motion, the (97) (98) Settlement Act, the education act of 1884, and had voted for the appoint-ment of a committee to enquire into Robson's statement about the (99) expenditure of the dock money on the mainland. On the other hand, his (100) f i r s t act in the legislature was to nominate John A. Mara as speaker, (91) COLONIST, Jan. 15, 1885, p. 3. (92) "Return ... correspondence ... respecting the proposed extension of the railway from Port Moody to Coal Harbor and English Bay ..." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1886, p. 470. (93) COLONIST, Mar. 22, 1885, p. 2. (94) Robson had been minister of finance and agriculture and provincial secretary (which included education). (95) COLONIST, June 29, 1882, p. 3; he condemns Beaven's handling of the island railway. (96) v. supra, p. H. (97) v. supra, p. 25", but he voted for i t in the end. p. (98) v. supra, p. <f3. (99) v_. supra, p. H-i, B.C. Journals, Feb. 5, 1884, p. 51. (100) STANDARD, Jan. 26, 1883, p. 3. 53 In opposition to the Beaven government; and he had supported the Coal (101) Mines Regulation Act of 1885, the reconsideration of the squatters' (102) (103) report, and the Coal Harbor agreement. We must believe therefore that Duck's appointment was a matter of expediency and that his acceptance was one of self-interest. He was not as capable a minister as his predecessor, but whether or not he was merely a figurehead i s s t i l l uncertain. In the by-election the new minister was returned with the slim (104) majority of seven, only one third of the electors having voted. His opponent was R. T. Williams, government binder, who hitherto had taken very l i t t l e part in p o l i t i c s . The COLONIST deplored the fact that an honest man should have chosen such poor company, and wondered why some of the real opposition stalwarts—Hett, De Cosmos, or Humphreys—did (105) not stand. But when Williams was defeated, his binding business at (106) once f e l l off; the government patronage was transferred to Munroe Miller, who doubtless knew better than to oppose his benefactors. Surely this was party p o l i t i c s ! Despite the comparative barrenness of the third session, the year 1885 saw great progress in the province. The C. P. R. was finished to Port Moody, the Esquimalt and Nanaimo construction continued, and the graving dock pushed forward; the white population had increased by 50% to 30,000, with large settlements on government lands and with the discovery of a new gold f i e l d at Granite Creek. But these improvements (101) B. C. Journals, Jan. 28, 1885, p. 22. (102) v. supra, p. tt-tf. (103) v. supra, p/. 5"0, B.C. Journals, Feb. 21, 1885, p. 43. (104) COLONIST, Apr i l 16, 1885, p. 2. (105) loc. c i t . , A pril 11, 1885, p. 2. (106) Public Accounts, 1883-1887. B. C. Sessional Papers, 1884-1888. See "Legislation - Journals and Statutes Binding", also "Miscellaneous: Stationery." 54 were outside the p o l i t i c a l realm; hence the petty controversies. The fourth session was hardly more f r u i t f u l than the one before. The main feature of this last pre-election legislative meeting was Beaven's repeated attempts to get a non-confidence vote against the government, to discredit the ministry in the eyes of the electors. Beaven's f i r s t step was to move an amendment to the throne speech reply, censuring the government for not prohibiting Chinese js* (107) labor on the E/^nd N#/and on the dock. However, after an adjourned (108) debate, the amendment was defeated 1 8 - 6 . Beaven next asked for printed copies of the detailed accounts (109) for the last six months of 1885. This was an unreasonable request, for although the accounts for the f i s c a l year July 1, 1885 - June 30, 1886 would not be presented u n t i l the 1887 session, yet the pay sheets were available to the members at any time; the fact that the recent accounts (110) were printed for a few years following this, does not alter the p o i n t — and the practice was soon discontinued. What the opposition wanted was an opportunity to accuse the government of suppressing embarrassing facts. If Beaven wanted definite information placed before the house, he needed only to put a question upon the order paper. Next Beaven resurrected the Canadian Pacific Railway extension, (111) and asked for a l l papers on the matter. Here he really had some basis for accusations: for Smithe had made a new agreement with the Canadian Pacific Railway, promising that the British Columbia government would (107) B. C. Journals, Jan. 29, 1886, p. 7. (108) ibid. (109) loc. c i t . , Feb. 4, 1886, p. 13. (110) B. C. Journals, 1886-1896, passim. Mr. E.D. Barrow, M.L.A., i s authority for my judgement on the value of printing the recent accounts. (111) B. C. Journals, Feb. 5, 1886, p. 13. 55 indemnify the company for prior claims brought against the lands in the (112) grant. This agreement made a distinct alteration in the original one which the legislature had passed in 1885. Clause 9 of the f i r s t agreement, which read: "The grant shall also be subject to such rights, (113) i f any, as may legally exist in favour of third parties", was supplemented by the promise of indemnification. Smithe made this change on his own i n i t i a t i v e , in response (114) to the C. P. R. protests that they could not risk squatters' claims. (115) True, he believed that there were no legal claims against the land, but he had no power to commit the government without i t s consent to these indemnities. Yet when Galbraith moved an amendment to the motion for supply, an amendment which would have censured Smithe by refusing to r a t i f y the new agreement, the government members turned out in force to (116) defeat the opposition easily. On the same day that he called for the extension papers, Beaven moved for a return of a l l correspondence and orders in council (117) respecting the recent land sale at English Bay. The opposition maintained (112) "(draft?) Agreement between William Smithe, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Nov. 23, 1885." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1886, p. 469. This is signed by Smithe only, but i t must have been duly executed because the correspondence goes on about the bond. Probably the C. P. R. has the f i n a l agreement. (113) "Agreement between the Government of British Columbia and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Feb. 23, 1885." loc. c i t . , pp. 460, 461. This clause was the basis for the squatters' claims, as i t provided that a l l settlers should be allowed to purchase their land. (114) Van Home to Smithe, Mar. 13, 1885. loc. c i t . , p. 461. (115) B. C. Journals, Mar. 30, 1886. p. 71. (116) loc. c i t . , A p r i l 1, 1886, pp. 72, 73. Orr votes with the government; this is just after the incorporation of Vancouver. (117) loc. c i t . , Feb. 5, 1886, p. 14. 56 that this t e r r i t o r y was part of a naval reserve, that the lots had been sold i l l e g a l l y . In reply to Beaven's resolution of censure, Smithe (118) claimed to have obtained authority to survey and s e l l the land. The (119) legislative report does not print any such authorization, but i t does show that no definite records had been kept of the early naval reserves, that the lands considered as reserves had not been encroached upon, (120) apart from a 16-acre timber lease made hy Walkem in 1878. Thus Beaven had raised a point which was as embarrassing to the former government as to the present one, and he lost his resolution on the same division (121) as before. Considering the evidence available, i t is f a i r l y certain that the government had sold the lots quite legally; and i f Beaven wanted to arouse resentment against Smithe he failed, for Vancouver people were anxious to have the lots sold, and others were indifferent. But the leader of the opposition did strike home when he showed that James Cunningham was making great profits from government contracts. That astute member, a hardware dealer of New Westminster, had, since his election, supplied to the government goods worth $2,098.27— (118) COLONIST, Mar. 5, 1886, p, 2. (119) "Return ... for copies of a l l correspondence, Orders in Council, maps, and papers, between the Crown Colony Government, or the Provincial Government and the Admiralty, the Dominion Government, or any person in their behalf, i n respect to the Government or Naval Reserve at English Bay, together with a copy of the lease or license granted to Jeremiah Rogers, for the purpose of cutting timber on said reserve." B. C. Sessional  Papers, 1886, pp. 425-435. (120) Lieutenant-Governor to Rear-Admiral Seymour, Feb. 5, 1886. "Return ... correspondence ... in respect to the Government or Naval Reserve at English Bay ..." loc. c i t . , p. 433. (121) B. C. Journals, Mar. 4, 1886, p. 41. Orr voted with the government again because he was interested in the English Bay lots, and wanted Vancouver to expand; but he remained a bitter oppositionist on other questions. 57 (122) principally for the asylum and the new gaol erected in that city; such procedure was of course quite i l l e g a l and unnecessary. But Beaven had raised more trouble for his own party; a further return, requested by Theodore Davie, showed that every member of the opposition except the (123) leader himself and James Orr, had also accepted government contracts. These other transactions were a l l smaller, and concerned inland repairs and supplies; and in most cases the members were the only available local merchants or contractors. But there was no excuse for Cunningham; New Westminster was large enough and close enough to other c i t i e s to provide outside sources of supply; and apparently the culprit himself admitted his guilt, for he did not stand again for election. This time the opposition truly had embarrassed the government by showing up the dishonesty of one of i t s strong supporters. Like a l l experienced politicians, Beaven had chosen the psychological moment for his disclosures, the eve of an election; and as usual the 'victims'attempted to turn the tables, but this time they failed. Naturally, in a session which had time for such petty (122) "Return showing a l l correspondence and public business transactions between the Government of British Columbia ... and James Cunningham, Esq., M.P.P., since he was elected a member of this Assembly ..." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1886, pp. 439-440. There were intimations that Cunningham had been forced to resign from the Commons on a similar charge, but these were not proved. (123) "Return ... showing the public business transacted from the date of the last general election, between the Government of British Columbia, and R. L. T. Galbraith, Esq., M. P. P., or Galbraith Bros., of Kootenay; John Grant, Esq., M. P. P., or Callbreath, Grant and Cook, or Fletcher and Company, of Cassiar; and R. McLeese, Esq., M. P. P., of Cariboo, or any other member of the House ..." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1886, pp. 477-480. Mara, Helgesen and Semlin were included in the return. 58 obstructions, there was very l i t t l e constructive legislation. The usual ineffective resolutions to the dominion to open the mainland railway (124) (125) lands and to settle the Alaska boundary, were passed; the Victoria (126) (127) and Saanich railway was incorporated and given a subsidy, and a bonus (128) was authorized to encourage a smelting works. The incorporation of the c i t y of Vancouver raised a great deal of opposition from island members, who disliked the usurpation of their name; and we actually find Beaven and Theodore Davie agreeing on this (129) point. Robson's vehement defence of the b i l l roused the ire of his island colleagues, and one wonders why he was so anxious to have the (130) wishes of Van Home carried out. The b i l l was f i n a l l y passed, and the troubled emotions of the new city's residents subsided for a time. James Orr aroused more sectionalism when he introduced a resolution to have the provincial capital removed to the mainland. New Westminster citizens had never recovered from the change to Victoria in 1868, and Orr now maintained that a mainland site would be more central. This time he got very l i t t l e support; even Robson said that the resolution defeated Vancouver's own ends by causing bitterness in (131) Victoria, and' Wilson called i t "the emanation of a disordered intellect". (132) When the government introduced i t s f i r s t loan b i l l , the opposition had an excellent opportunity for citicism. They drew attention to the fact that the province was supposedly prosperous; what was the need (124 (125 (126 (127 (128 (129 (130 (131 (132 B. C. Journals, Feb. 17, 1886, p. 25. loc. c i t . , April 3, 1886, pp. 85, 86. 49 Vict., ch. 29. B. C. Statutes, 1886, pp. 145-149. 49 Vict., ch. 16. loc. c i t . , p. 55. 49 Vict., ch. 18. loc. c i t . , p. 59. COLONIST, B&r. 20, 1886, p. 1. B. C. Journals, April 2, 1886, p. 82. COLONIST, April 3, 1886, p. 1. 49 Vict., ch. 11. B. C. Statutes, 1886, pp. 31-33. 59 for this loan? The ministry, attempting to save i t s face, replied that this was intended to replace the overdraft system which had been used for so long. The truth was that, despite (or because of) the great increase in wealth and settlement in the province, the government was beginning to have large deficits each year. The growth of mining in the interior and of agriculture near the coast were important enough to demand many public works, yet not developed enough to pay for them. Consequently the provincial treasury, s t i l l low after the Yfelkem-Beaven chaos, was now drained dry. The loans increased each year, u n t i l in 1887 the debt had (133) risen to over $1,500,000. (134) On A p r i l 6th, 1886, the fourth parliament was dissolved. While the work of the last two sessions had been comparatively unimportant, that of the f i r s t two had wrought a great change in the province, a change which the opposition had maintained was against the wishes of the voters. Thus the approaching election was to be a test of the 'new deal' legislation, an opportunity for the opposition to regain strength. In victoria city the government candidates were Hon. Simeon (135) Duck, Theodore Davie, J. H. Turner, and Col. E. G. Prior; Drake did not stand. With the probable exception of Duck, this was a strong slate, practically sure of election. The opposition, on the other hand, put up (136) only one dangerous man, Beaven. The others, R. T. Williams, Councillor (137) Lipsett and Joseph YJriglesworth, were unknown in the p o l i t i c a l world, (133) "Public Accounts for the f i s c a l year "ended Je. 30, 1887 (shows the d e f i c i t s ) , B. C. Sessional Papers, 1888, p. 24. Public Accounts ... 1898, tables no. 1, 2; comparative statement of receipts and expenditures of B.C., 1871-1898. B. C. Sessional Papers, 1899, pp. 516(a), (b). (134) B. C. Journals, April 6, 1886, p. 92. (135) COLONIST, June 15, 1886, p. 2. (136) v. supra, p. S3-(137) COLONIST, June 15, 1886, p. 2. 60 and never did become prominent. This year the situation was further complicated by the action of the labor group. The COLONIST stated that the opposition had made an agreement with the workers whereby each group should nominate two candidates; when Beaven put up four followers, the workers nominated a $138) f u l l ticket also. Yet the TIMES accused the government of bringing out (139) the workers to split the opposition vote. It is indicative of the weakness of the labor group that the other parties used them merely as a buffer, without any realization that the workers might have some ideas of their own. This third party was of course defeated in the election, as was also the opposition. Beaven and Col. Prior tied at the head of the pol l , followed by Turner and Davie. Duck lost out by the same number (140) of votes as had been his majority the year before. The workers also put up two candidates in Nanaimo to oppose Dunsmuir and Raybould; but, although they did have a definite platform condemning the Esquimalt and Nanaimo give-away and the use of Chinese (141) labor, they were no more successful than in Victoria. In Victoria d i s t r i c t the government was also successful in (142) electing both of i t s nominees, R. F. John and G. ¥. Anderson. Hon. Thomas Basil Humphreys made his p o l i t i c a l reappearance in this d i s t r i c t , but was soundly defeated, despite his criticism of the governmental financial (143) policy. The ministry gained a supporter,in Esquimalt when D. W. Higgins, (138) COLONIST, June 17, 1886, p. 2. (139) TIMES, July 8, 1886. This was after the election. (140) COLONIST, July 8, 1886, p. 3. (141) ibid, p. 2. (142) ibid, (143) loc. c i t . , Feb. 11, 1886, p. 3. 61 editor of the COLONIST, defeated Hans Helgesen, one of the founders of (144) the TIMES. C. E. Pooley was of course returned to the other seat. The COLONIST had always been the o f f i c i a l organ of the Smithe group, and (145) even now after Higgins sold i t to E l l i s and Company, i t continued i t s strong editorials i n favor of the government. New Westminster d i s t r i c t returned but one government man, Hon. (146) John Robson; W. H. Ladner and James Orr were both oppositionists. In the city also, a Beaven man was elected: W. N. Bole, soon to become strong in the party'. Indeed the New Westminster correspondent of the Toronto GLOBE named him as the 'leading opponent of the government', completely overlooking poor Beaven; the COLONIST thereupon hailed Bole as the (147) 'new Moses'. The same proportion as before was maintained in Cariboo, (148) although Joseph Mason replaced Charles Wilson for the government. In Cassiar John Grant's two-to-one majority of 1888 was reduced to three, (149) over a dark horse opponent. In Kootenay Lt. Col. Baker, governmental supporter, was elected to the seat of R. L. T. Galbraith, who had declined (150) to stand. When a l l the returns were in, the government had obtained (151) l f seats in the 27, or approximately the same strength as before. (144) COLONIST, July 9, 1886, p. 2. (145) loc. c i t . , Oct. 20, 1886, p. 1. (146) loc. c i t . , July 10, 1886, p. 3. (147) loc. c i t . , July 16, 1886, p. 2. (148) loc. c i t . , July 11, 1886, p. 3. (149) loc. c i t . , Aug. 29, 1886, p. 2. (150) loc. c i t . , May 30, 1.886, p. 2. (151) For the o f f i c i a l l i s t of members, see B. C. Journals, 1886, p. xv. On Dec. 13, 1886, George Thomson was elected to replace Raybould, deceased. 62 The members divided as follows; Government Opposition Smithe Croft Beaven Davie, A.E.B. Allen Stenhouse . Rob son Anderson Ladner Prior John Orr Turner Mason Bole Davie, T. Cowan McLeese Pooley Dunsmuir Semlin Higgins Raybould Grant Martin Vernon Baker While enough new blood had been added to both parties to promise interesting debates in future, yet the government s t i l l had too large a majority to be defeated; in other words, they were entrenched behind the Settlement Act, and were not to be dislodged unt i l other issues had arisen. Despite their defeat in the election the opposition were not daunted. At the opening of the new parliament Beaven, lacking power to elect a speaker of his own group, nominated J. H. Turner to stand against (152) C. E. Pooley. However Turner, himself a strong ministerialist, declined the honor, and Beaven was l e f t to cast the sole dissenting vote against (153) Pooley. In the divisions on the reply address, the opposition fared no better. The most bitter debate was over the C. P. R. bonus, when W. N. Bole moved an amendment of censure on the government for i t s (154) failure to obtain ample security from the company. The injunctions of Port Moody property owners had delayed the extension to Vancouver, and the company had forfeited the bond. The opposition now claimed that this (152) B. C. Journals, Jan. 24, 1887, p. 1. (153) COLONIST, Jan. 25, 1887, p. 2. (154) B. 0. Journals, Feb. 1, 1887, p. 8. 63 bond was worthless, that the land grant should be cancelled. The debate was merely an attempt to discredit the government and to a i r sectional views; Beaven this time openly accused Robson of influencing the (155) (156) transaction because of personal interests. However the division was on straight party lines; even D. W. Higgins, who usually made a point of opposing Vancouver, f e l l into line on the vote. Beaven next introduced a petty claim that in the recent election (157) his name had deliberately been 'obliterated' from the ballot. The committee, appointed on a government motion, definitely stated that the line which in some cases showed through Beaven's name from the back of (158) the ballot, was "not the result of intention or design". The government was too strong to need to stoop to such obvious devices, and Beaven's weak position was made the more evident by his seizure upon such a t r i f l i n g detail. However the opposition did bring a really serious charge against Robson: that of election bribery. At his election meetings of the previous summer, he had asked the people to state, in order of preference, what public works they wanted, promising that the government would then carry out these works in order un t i l the appropriation was exhausted. He explained that, owing to the illness of his deputy, he had not been able to leave Victoria earlier to complete this routine; so he combined i t with his campaign meetings. The Orr-Ladner motion of (160) censure accused Robson of actually having the money paid out for the works, (155) Vancouver NEWS, Feb. 5, 1887, p. 2. (156) B. C. Journals, Feb. 1. 1887, p. 8. (157) COLONIST, Feb. 15, 1887, p. 1. (158) "Report of Select Committee. Conduct of Victoria City Election." B. C. Journals, 1887, Appendix, p. ix. (159) COLUMBIAN, June 26, 1886, p. 2. (160) B. C. Journals, Mar. 10, 1887, p. 43. 64 and a great furore arose. Even i f the provincial secretary was innocent of encroaching upon the powers of the chief commissioner and thereby bribing the voters, yet he must have stretched his conscience in thus attracting crowds to his election meetings. Despite the protest of the Maple Ridge council that Robson (161) had used no undue influence in that d i s t r i c t , and despite the claims of the COLONIST that the whole question arose merely out of the personal (162) animosity of Orr and Ladner, yet there is l i t t l e doubt that Robson deliberately made such election promises. The vote on the motion was, (163) of course, defeated on a straight 'party division. A similar motion censuring the whole government for using the annual supply as an (164) instrument of corruption, was also defeated. Bitter resentment in Vancouver was aroused by the declaration (165) of m a r t i a l law there to put down the anti-Chinese 'riots'. Although the residents of the new city claimed that the disturbances were not serious enough to warrant the expense of the special constables sent from the capital, yet the government's alarm was well-founded; for some time the citizens had been protesting against the presence of Oriental laborers, and the demonstration, i f not checked, probably would have gotten beyond control. The main result was an even wider gulf of enmity between Vancouver and Victoria, due to the supposed discrimination against the new terminus. It i s interesting to note that, in the division defeating Orr's motion for repeal of the martial law, D. W. Higgins did (161) COLUMBIAN, Mar. 26, 1887, p. 2. (correspondence) (162) COLONIST, Mar. 11, 1887, p. 4. (163) B. C. Journals, Mar. 10, 1887, p. 43. (164) loc. c i t . , Mar. 17, 1887, p. 49. (165) loc. c i t . , Feb. 28, 1887, pp. 32, 33. 50 Vict., ch. 33. B. C. Statutes, 1887, pp. 121-123. 65 not vote: he could not reconcile his hatred of Vancouver with his support of the government. The former editor of the COLONIST gave further evidence of his insularity when he moved a resolution urging that the dominion and imperial governments insert in every trans-Pacific mail contract a clause requiring the ships to c a l l at Victoria on both the inward and (166) outward trips. The trouble was that Vancouver had a much better port than Victoria, and that the new city was also the terminus of the C. P. R.—Victoria was becoming isolated, was losing trade and prestige. And despite Higgins' attempts to discredit her, Vancouver steadily forged ahead. (167) Besides the usual resolution of the Alaska boundary, the session did find time to incorporate and subsidize several railways. It urged the dominion to extend the Esquimalt and Nanaimo to the north (168) (169) end of the island, i t incorporated the Delta, the New Westminster (170) (171) Southern, and the Kootenay and Athabasca railways; and i t gave a land (172) (173) grant to the latter and a subsidy to the Shuswap and Okanagan. Bri t i s h Columbia had now entered the railway era, when much of her best land was given away, for lack of cash grants. It i s true that transportation was needed to open up the interior, but many of the railways built were unnecessary, and the future treasury was robbed of much-needed revenues. Even this year, the loan b i l l was increased to $1,000,000, as against (166) B. C. Journals, Mar. 8, 1887, p. 39. (167) loc. c i t . , Feb. 23, 1887, p. 28. (168) loc. c i t . , Feb. 24, 1887, p. 29. (169) 50 Vict., ch. 34. B. C. Statutes, 1887, pp. 127-130. (170) 50 Vict., ch. 36. loc. c i t . , pp. 137-142. (killed in 1885; v. supra, p. £T/. (171) 50 Vict., ch. 35. loc. c i t . , pp. 131-136. (172) 50 Vict., ch. 25. loc. c i t . , pp. 77,78. (173) 50 Vict., ch. 26. loc. c i t . , p. 79. 66 (174) $300,000 of the year before. But the Smithe period was over. The young premier, (age 45), who had been too i l l to sit in the house more than twice during the (175) session, died on March 28th. His health had been very poor during the previous summer, had revived after an autumn t r i p to the Kootenay, but had sunk again through the premier's overwork. During the past few weeks he had suffered intensely, but had carried on the affairs of state from his bed: he even received at his home a delegation of Fort Simpson (176) Indians. Hon William Smithe died as he had lived: neither b r i l l i a n t nor forceful, but f a i t h f u l and honest. The Smithe government's strongest claim to distinction was i t s passage of the Settlement Act and the consequent blessings of increased trade and industry. While the treasury had already begun to spend more than i t received, yet the province at least had hopes of progress to re-place the stagnation under Walkem and Beaven. True, the government was not always above suspicion, but p o l i t i c s , especially on the eve of a boom period, are a breeding ground of greed and corruption. Most of the charges made by the opposition members (themselves untrustworthy men) (174) 50 Vict., ch. 19. B. C. Statutes, 1887, pp. 51-55. (175) COLONIST, Mar. 29, 1887, p. 4. (176) There had been a dispute at Metlakahtla between the Indians belonging to the party of Reverend William Duncan, Anglican missionary, and those following Bishop Ridley, who took charge of the mission for the missionary board. Land troubles followed. A provincial commission failed to settle the riots, and f i n a l l y the Duncan party moved to Douglas Island. This particular delegation was of a different tribe, who had been aroused by the land claims of the Metlakahtlans to ask for larger reserves. "Report of Conferences between the provincial government and Indian delegates from Fort Simpson and the Naas River." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1887, p. 253. 67 were never definitely proved, and are therefore not to be taken too seriously. On the whole the Smithe government served the province well by providing for settlement, for railways, for sane administration. 68 CHAPTER IV. The A. E. B. Davie Ministry, 1887-1889. The A. E. B. Davie government, a continuation of the Smithe administration, formed a transition between the two phases of the period 1883-1898, a gradual change from reform ideals to mere place-holding. With the honest, cautious Davie as premier, the administration was assured of respectability and prestige, but with the aggressive Robson as real leader, it showed signs of the approaching decay. For Davie (1) was in very poor health, was even absent for the whole session of 1888; and Robson held the real power. The new cabinet was a direct successor of the old: Hon. A. E. B. Davie merely added the portfolio of premier to that of attorney-general, and Robson remained provincial secretary. Hon. F. C Vernon, the new chief commissioner of lands and works, had held that office under the (2) E l l i o t t government. Later Davie appointed J. H. Turner as minister of (3) finance and agriculture, and Robert Dunsmuir as president of the council. The summer and f a l l of this year were taken up with by-elections, of which the f i r s t was Yale, necessitated by the appointment of Vernon. The new minister was opposed by Thomas Roadley, but his constituents were (1) v. infra, p. #0, (2) Gosnell, R. E., Year book of British Columbia (Victoria, 1897), p. 148. (3) COLONIST, Aug. 9, 1887, p. 2. 69 (4) wise enough not to k i l l the goose that la i d the golden egg of patronage. There was more discussion over the Victoria by-election confirming the choice of J. H. Turner as minister of finance. The TIMES admitted that Turner was clever enough to hold the office, and (5) rejoiced that at last the island had i t s share of cabinet representation; but the editor could not refrain from a dig at his arch enemy, in intimating that D. W. Higgins had expected the portfolio, but was 'too (6) heavy a load to carry'. Higgins of course denied this statement, (7) claiming that he himself had recommended Turner for the office. There probably was a great deal of truth in the TIMES statement, for Higgins' paper had long been the subservient government organ, and he was not the type to let his good works pass unnoticed. However, he did not withdraw his support as a result of Turner's appointment. At the eleventh hour opposition to Turner developed in the person of Hon. T. B. Humphreys, professional p o l i t i c i a n par excellence. But despite the fact that this surprise nomination caught the government organisation napping, the COLONIST'S exhortation to Victoria citizens (8) to aid their own prosperity by supporting the minister was heeded by (9) a comfortable majority. In the Cowichan campaign to replace the former premier, there were three candidates: Sutton, a government supporter, Fry, a professed (4) The SENTINEL of A p r i l 23, 1887, p. 2, warned that an opposition representative v/ould be useless to Yale, while a cabinet minister would be a great advantage. B. C. Journals, Jan. 27, 1888, p. 3: Vernon's certificate of election. (5) TIMES, Aug. 9, 1887, p. 2. (6) loc. c i t . , A p r i l 4, 1887, p. 2. (7) COLONIST, Aug. 4,-1887, p. 2. (8) loc. c i t . , Aug. 29, 1887, p. 2. (9) loc. c i t . , Aug. 21, 1887, p. 4. 70 (10) government supporter, and Evans, an open oppositionist. The COLONIST, (11) after denouncing Fry for attempting to split the government vote, was much embarrassed at his election; but the editor retrieved himself by promising to support the new member 'as long as he is on the side of (12) good government' (in other words, as long as Fry votes with the administration). The Comox election, brought on by the resignation of A. M. (13) Stenhouse, opposition, to join the Mormon colony, was very hotly contested. Immediately after this announcement, and long before the election proclamation, Humphreys made i t known that he would stand again (14) as an oppositionist. The COLONIST, supporting William Dingwall, accused Stenhouse of duplicity in allowing Humphreys to canvass privately before the member's formal resignation. The imputation that Stenhouse used the Mormon faith (16) as a blind, was unfair, for he soon was elevated to the Aaronic (1?) Priesthood at the Cardston settlement. Unbecoming also was the COLONIST'S suggestion of a split in the opposition group, merely on the foundation of a STANDARD article condemning Beaven for not going to (18) Comox to campaign for Humphreys. The STANDARD by this time had ceased to be of any importance p o l i t i c a l l y and De Cosmos' brother, the editor, (19) probably was only sulking. (10) COLONIST, A p r i l 29, 1887, p. 2. (11) loc. c i t . , May 3, 1887, p. 2. (12) loc. c i t . , May 8, 1887, p. 2. (13) loc. c i t . , Oct. 16, 1887, p. 4. (14) loc. c i t . , Oct. 18, 1887, p. 2. (15) ibid. (16) loc. c i t . , Nov. 27, 1887, p. 2. (17) TIMES, Oct. 26, 1888, p. 2. The Mormons had f i r s t come there in 1887. Shortt and Doughty, eds., Canada and i t s provinces (Toronto, 1914), vol. VII, p. 537. (18) COLONIST, Nov. 5, 1887, p. 2. (19) Because the TIMES had supplanted the STANDARD as the opposition organ. 71 But the action of the opposition in accusing Turner of disloyalty was s t r i c t l y dishonorable. The TIMES printed a testimonial signed by Turner in November, 1886, which had been given to the Indian Missionary Duncan to aid him in moving his settlement to Alaska, "... (20) a refuge ... from grievous wrongs." This matter had nothing to do with the Comox election, and very l i t t l e to do with Turner's acceptance of office, as the letter had been written long before; i t s publication was an unscrupulous attempt to discredit the new administration, which failed in the long run. However the election, held after long delays and loud protests by the opposition, who had hoped for a surprise contest, resulted in an opposition victory; Humphreys was at last a member of the legislature (21) again, by virtue of a vote of 85 - 68. Thus the stage was set for the session of 1888; a period of l i t t l e legislation and of shabby obstruction tactics which were mainly directed by Humphreys himself. The early weeks of the new year saw s t i l l another vacancy, caused by the resignation of Col. Prior, Victoria city, who went to the house of commons. This time an opposition split threatened, when (22) W. A. Robertson was set aside in favor of R. T. Williams. However Robertson's last-minute withdrawal was not enough to defeat the government candidate, Simeon Duck. That remarkable personage, who had once sold (23) (24) himself for a cabinet position, was now returned by a large majority; (25) but he was no greater success than before. (20) TIMES, Oct. 12, 1887, p. 2. v. supra, p. 66, note 176. (21) COLONIST, Jan. 4, 1888, p. 4. (22) loc. c i t . , Jan. 8, 1888, p. 2. (23) v^ supra, p. 52.. (24) COLONIST, Jan. 26, 1888, p. 4. The vote was 607 - 365, a majority of 242. (25) v. infra, pp. fi-ft 72 The assembly opened without the premier, who was in California for his health. Hon. John Robson assumed the duties of leader and Theodore Davie joined the executive council as temporary (26) attorney-general, without salary. The session was to be particularly barren of useful legislation, largely due to the wasteful obstruction manoeuvres of the opposition. After the usual ineffective censure amendments to the (37) address, Humphreys began his campaign of attack by accusing the (28) government of i l l e g a l expenditure. As the accounts committee majority report showed, the sum involved was only $700, and was used in an emergency case, to permit a report on the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway (29) Company in order to hasten the incorporation act. Grant and Beaven maintained in a minority report that the expenditure was i l l e g a l in every (30) (31) way, and they later moved a resolution of censure. While this a f f a i r may have been based on the principle of legislative control of expenditures, there certainly was no excuse for Humphreys* personal attack on the loyalty of Hon. Robert Dunsmuir. Immediately after the opening of the session he gave notice of a motion accusing the president of the council of wishing annexation to the United (26) COLONIST, Jan. 8, 1888, p. 2. (27) Censuring high agricultural taxation, high interest on the million dollar loan, the ministerial blunder causing the railway belt minerals dispute, the failure to pass Raybould's b i l l protecting coal miners, and the failure to send a representative to the Quebec inter-provincial conference. B. C. Journals, Feb. 8, 9, 1888, pp. 9-11. (28) loc. c i t . , Feb. 13, 1888, p. 15. (29) "Second report of the Select Standing Committee on Public Accounts." B.C. Journals, 1888, Appendix, pp. lxxxi, l x x x i i . (30) "Second minority report ..." loc. c i t . , p. l x x x i i i . (31) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 10, 1888, p. 80. Negatived. 73 (32) States, thereby enriching the Dunsmuir group. Humphreys knew he could not substantiate his charges, and asked leave to withdraw the motion; but the government was determined to expose him, and demanded an invest-(33) igation. When Humphreys f i n a l l y did bring up his motion, Davie carried an amendment asking for a committee to enquire into the statements of (34) the member for Comox. But Humphreys did not see f i t to appear before the committee when called, with the petty excuse that the prefix (35.) •Honorable* had been omitted from the letter requesting his presence. (36) Consequently the committee asked to be discharged, and the a f f a i r was dropped. Humphreys,', motive^was personal spite rather than civ i c loyalty. In the Comox election he had accused Dunsmuir of unfairly demanding from him the payment of a loan, which charge had proven (37) false, and now he was determined to harass the member for Nanaimo out of the house. He may even have intended to use the motion as an instrument of blackmail, but there i s no evidence to show this. Although Hon. Mr. Humphreys was at times too malicious even (38) for the opposition, yet he was not the only member to attack the government. Beaven, in asking for the authority under which Robson acted (32) COLONIST, Jan. 29, 1888, p. 2. (33) loc. c i t . , Feb. 11, 1888, p. 2. (34) B. C. Journals, Feb. 20, 1888, pp. 26, 27. (35) COLONIST, Feb. 23, 1888, p. 1. The t i t l e had been specially conferred for l i f e on those who had held i t before confederation. (36) "Report of Select Committee. Charges against Hon. Mr, Dunsmuir." B. C. Journals, 1888, Appendix, p. c i . (37) COLONIST, Jan. 28, 1888, p. 2. (38) He c r i t i c i z e d Bole's county courts b i l l , and was subjected to the severe- condemnation of the member for New Westminster city, who could always hold his own in personal attacks, loc. c i t . , Feb. 29, 1888, p. 4. 74 as premier and Theodore Davie as attorney-general, claimed that the administration was unconstitutional, and even repeated the disloyalty (39) accusations against Turner and Dunsmuir. Strange to state, the return gave only the lieutenant-governor's approval of the Davie appointment, (40) gave no authority for Robson»s assumption of the leadership; but (41) Beaven's motion of censure failed 15 - 7, on a straight party vote. When the opposition leader moved for a return on the papers and the correspondence with A. E. B. Davie on the postponement of the session opening in 1888, Robson carried an amendment calling for the papers on (42) (43) a similar postponement in 1880; the return was brought down shortly after, but is not printed in the Sessional Papers. However we must not judge the government too harshly on such slim evidence, as the premier was probably too i l l to give Robson the formal authority to assume what was undoubtedly his righ t f u l position as leader; and the reason for the postponement of the legislature's meeting to February was to see i f Davie could return; when he did not, the session was called earlier. Beaven also resurrected the Turner letter, but Col. Baker carried an amendment to the effect that the finance minister had been returned in a by-election since the time of the letter, that his seat (44) therefore was not prejudiced. The crux of the opposition argument was (39) COLONIST, Feb. 22, 1888, p. 1. (40) "Return ... copies of the Orders in Council under which the Honourable John Robson acts as Premier, and the Honourable Theodore Davie represents the Attorney-General's Department; together with copies of the public notice that the Statute requires should be given when the powers and duties of an Executive Councillor are assigned and transferred to another member of the Council." B.C. Sessional Papers, 1888, p. 325. (41) B. C. Journals, Mar. 8, 1888, pp. 49, 50. (Fry with the government.) (42) loc. c i t . , Mar. 19, 1888, p. 58. (43) loc. c i t . , Mar. 26, 1888, p. 66. (44) loc. c i t . , Feb. 23, 1888. pp. 33, 34. 75 that the legislature had resolved that the Indians had been wilfully-misled; yet here was a minister of the crown saying that they had been (45) grievously oppressed.' Of course this was another tempest in a teapot, as Turner had merely asked that Duncan be given the usual courtesies in his v i s i t to the United States. It i s worthy of note that Fry, of whose allegiance the COLONIST had been fearful, here made his maiden speech, administering a sound drubbing to Hon. Mr. Humphreys for his obstructionist (46) tactics. The. motion to enter the committee of supply gave rise to more censure amendments, which were less important. Robert McLeese attempted to condemn the government for not protecting the interests of miners on (47) Indian reserves, but Col. Baker replied that the mining committee had . (48) already considered the matter and would consult the dominion government. Humphreys proposed an amendment censuring the ministers for not bonussing (49) artesian wells, which even Orr opposed. Semlin's motion condemning the failure to carry out the exchange of lands in Peace River for the present railway belt, had some foundation; but even i t was defeated on a (50) straight party division. Other than this petty bickering, there was very l i t t l e accomplished at the session. The Granville squatters' claims were (51) f i n a l l y settled by submission to arbitration, but Samuel Greer's (52) petition for compensation was ruled out of order. One measure that did (45) B. C. Journals, Feb. 23, 1888, pp. 33, 34. (46) COLONIST, Feb. 24, 1888, p. 1. (47) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 10, 1888, p. 81. (48) COLONIST, A p r i l 11, 1888, p. 1. (49) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 12, 1888, p. 85. (50) loc. c i t . , A p r i l 26, 1888, p. 111. (51) 51 Vict., ch. 14. B. C. Statutes, 1888, pp. 37-41. (52) B. C. Journals, April 10, 1888, p. 79. 76 denote some progress was the school act which compelled Victoria, New Westminster, Vancouver and Nanaimo to pay one third of their teachers' (53) salaries. But this step toward equalisation of school costs was (54) vigorously opposed, and Victoria and Nanaimo even refused to pay. However the courts decided that the tax was constitutional, and the (55) ci t i e s were forced to contribute their share. Even railway matters were quiet this year. The only dispute was over the land grant to the new Kootenay company; D. W. Higgins and his paper opposed this subsidy to a group which had not f u l f i l l e d i t s (56) (57) promises of six years before, but the measure passed easily. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo was given a right-of-way for the construction of a (58) branch to Beecher Bay, and the Crow's Nest and Kootenay Lake company (59) was incorporated. Finally after one of the longest sessions of Its career, the legislature prorogued. Humphreys and Beaven had done their best to discredit the cabinet, but had succeeded only in making themselves ridiculous. In the words of the COLONIST: "Hairsplitting, meaningless technicalities, bluster and braggadocio, these were the weapons of the (60) 'stalwart' portion of the opposition." Shortly after the close of the session R. F. John resigned his seat in Victoria d i s t r i c t to become warden of the provincial gaol. He had never been important in the house, and his brother had recently been (53) 51 Vict., ch. 32. B. C. Statutes, 1888, pp. 99-102. (54) FREE PRESS, July 30, 1889, p. 2. (55) COLONIST, Jan. 30, 1890, p. 2. (56) loc. c i t . , April 4, 1888, p. 4 (correspondence). (57) B. C. Journals, April 26, 1888, p. 115. (58) 51 Vict., ch. 28. B. C. Statutes, 1888, pp. 87-88. (59) 51 Vict., ch. 27. loc. c i t . , pp. 85-86. (60) " COLONIST, April 29, 1888, p. 2. 77 involved in an unsavory court case which brought against Robson (61) accusations of deliberate miscarriage of justice; probably this resignation was the easiest way out of the d i f f i c u l t y . James Tolmie, government supporter, was elected to replace John, defeating Mcllmoyle, (62) (63) a former member. In a leader entitled "Money Again Wins," the TIMES charged that the government had bribed the constituents by threatening to cut the d i s t r i c t ' s appropriations unless Tolmie were elected. The ministerial supporters had, of course, used the old cry of a solid government representation for best results, which was subtle bribery; but nothing came of the matter. In Cariboo McLeese resigned to stand for the Commons, and was (64) defeated by Frank Barnard. I. B. Nason, government, was elected to the (65) provincial seat, defeating A. Barlow of Quesnel. The only other disturbance of the year centered around Simeon Duck, who seems to have had a penchant for getting himself into d i f f i c u l t situations. John Grant, mayor of Victoria, member for Cassiar and publisher of the TIMES, conceived the notion that Duck had not time (66) to f u l f i l l the dual position of member for Victoria and city treasurer. Duck, despite the fact that he no longer had the leisure to serve on (67) legislative committees, was loth to give up either position. Finally (68) the city dismissed him as treasurer, and he was free to pursue his duties (61) The Radford - John rape t r i a l . TIMES, May 19, 1887, p. 2. The TIMES retracted the statement, but the GUARDIAN did not, and Robson got $1,000 damages. (62) COLONIST,- July 1, 1888, p. 2. (63) TIMES, July 3, 1888, p. 2. (64) loc. c i t . , Nov. 28, 1888, p. 2. v. infra, p. (65) loc. c i t . , Nov. 14, 1888, p. 2. B. C. Journals, Jan. 31, 1889, p. 2: certificate of election. (66) TIMES, Dec. 28, 1888, p. 2. (67) COLONIST, Feb. 7, 1889, p. 3; he asked to be removed from the quartz development committee. (68) TIMES, Feb. 14, 1889, p. 2. 78 in the assembly. The real trouble was that he had voteH for the 1888 (69) school act, which imposed the much-maligned tax: and then as city treasurer, he had to refuse the paymentJ Apart from the lack of time, he had no right to expect to represent two opposing groups; he should voluntarily have resigned one of the positions. The stormy, barren year of 1888 faded into the more productive session of 1889; perhaps the more pleasant tone of the meetings was due to the influence of the returned premier. However, the opposition members had not altogether given up their obstruction ideas. Beaven moved a vote of censure on the government for not carrying out the (70) recommendations of a select committee, after having adopted i t s report. The reports referred to, those of the committees enquiring into the claims of Reverend George Ditcham, of the Gold brothers, and of Samuel Greer, (71) had recommended that these claims to Coal Harbor lands be settled, but the government had not done so. (72) In the debate, ministerialists rehashed the Clemitson scandal and put forth the weak argument that the committees had only recommended (73) that the settlement of the claims be considered. Of course the government was not legally bound to compensate the claimants, but the committees had in each case demonstrated that the men were bona fide locatees holding (69) TIMES, Jan. 2, 1889, p. 2. No division i s recorded in the journals. (70) B. C. Journals, Feb. 28, 1889, p. 30. (71) "Report of select committee appointed to enquire into the claims of the Rev. George Ditcham to certain land in the v i c i n i t y of Coal Harbor." B. C. Journals, 1888, Appendix, p. lxix. "Report of select committee. Claims of Louis and Edward Gold to certain land ..." loc. c i t . , p. cxix. "Report of select committee. Claim of Samuel Greer to certain lands at English Bay." loc. c i t . , p. c x i i i . (72) v. supra, p. 3.fe. (73) COLONIST, Mar. 2, 1889, p. 2. 79 (74) undeniable rights to the land. However Heaven's censure motion failed when Martin carried, 1 7 - 7 , an amendment to the effect that there was no instance of failure to carry out the recommendations of an adopted (75) report. The opposition had a sound basis for criticism in this case, but they were defeated by sheer force of numbers. J.f ftM'f ''jfflt f.HT'frj; The Granville lots were brought up again when Mr. Orr moved for a committee to investigate the 1870 survey and the subsequent disposition of the lands; but Simeon Duck justified his existence as a government supporter by carrying an amendment to the effect that the (76) government should consider the matter; an easy way of shelving i t . But Orr successfully revived i t when he moved for a committee to enquire into (77) the ownership of certain designated lots in the township of Granville. This resolution was carried without a division; yet there is no further record of the matter; not even of the presentation of the report.' It is unfair to decide any question on circumstantial evidence, but the government's evasions on this question of the Granville lots certainly point to a guilty conscience. Beaven attempted to expose a government split when he moved to substitute D. W. Higgins for Theodore Davie on the public accounts committee.. He professed great sympathy for the publisher who had formerly been on the committee, but had been dropped this session. But Higgins (74) Reports ... B. C. Journals, 1888; The Greer report was referred back to the committee and the clause which asserted the val i d i t y of Preston's pre-emption was deleted. But the committee maintained that Greer's claim was bona fide, and should be settled. B. C. Journals, 1888, Appendix, p. c x x i i i . (75) B. C. Journals, Feb. 28, 1889, p. 30. (76) loc. c i t . , Mar. 8, 1889, p. 37. (77) loc. c i t . , Mar. 20, 1889, p. 52. 80 himself defeated the l i t t l e game by maintaining that he was not hurt by the omission of his name; Davie, not to be outdone, offered to resign (78) in favor of Higgins, and even voted for Beaven's unsuccessful motion. Unlike the previous session, that of 1889 produced much valuable legislation. The Columbia and Kootenay railway scheme, which (79) had failed in 1887, was revived this year in the form of a huge land grant to aid in the construction of a railway from Nelson to the (80) Columbia River. Despite the violent opposition of Mr. Higgins, who saw possible harm to his pet scheme of the Canadian Western, the subsidy (81) passed with only three dissenting votes; Semlin, Beaven, and Orr. The railway was completed in 1891, and with a steamer line on Kootenay lake and the Columbia River, i t made possible the development of the (82) valuable Kootenay mining region. The Canadian Western Central Railway was a reincarnation of the original C. P. R. Bute Inlet route; i t was to connect the Esquimalt and Nanaimo directly with the eastern boundary of the province and thus (83) to give Victoria a transcontinental outlet. But i f Higgins succeeded temporarily in this, he failed in two other measures; the extension of the (84) Esquimalt and Nanaimo to the northern end of the island, and the very reasonable proposal of an act defining a railway policy for the province (85) which was ruled out of order. (78) B. C. Journals, Mar. 1, 1889, p. 3. (79) Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . , vol. II., p. 448. (80) 52 Vict., ch. 21, ch. 35. B. C. Statutes, 1889, pp. 121-124, 255-258. (81) B. C. Journals, Mar. 29, 1889, p. 72. (82) Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . , vol. II., p. 448. (83) 52 Vict., ch. 34. B. C. Statutes, 1889, pp. 245-254. (84) COLONIST, Mar. 19, 1889, p. 4. (85) B. C. Journals, Mar. 25, 1889, p. 59. 81 Finally after passing several minor acts, the house prorogued (86) on A p r i l 6th. The NEY/S-ADVERTISER, which had strenuously opposed the Canadian Western as an attempt to injure the C. P. R. and thereby Vancouver, waxed sarcastic: "The members concluded their labours by singing 'God save the Queen'; their constituents w i l l reverently respond, (87) •and British Columbia."" Shortly after the close of the session, the COLONIST began a significant discussion on the advisability of exchanging Peace River lands for the mountain section of the C. P. R. belt. Two years before (88) the cabinet had proposed this exchange, and now the COLONIST came out (89) strongly in favor of i t s execution. But an opponent of the idea appeared— none other than Higgins himself—who entered into a long correspondence (90) with the editor of his own former paper; his strongest argument was that the Peace River lands were too valuable to be given away thus. At the next session Beaven asked Robson i f the rumored exchange would be carried out; the new premier replied that no decision had yet been made, that (91) the newspaper discussion had been a surprise to the government. Of course there never was any exchange; Robson probably had inspired the public debate to sound out the opinion of the electors, and then had (86) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 6, 1889, p. 81. (87) NEWS-ADVERTISER, April 6, 1889, p. 4. (88()) Copy of a Report of a Committee of the Honourable the Executive Council, ... the 17th day of December, 1887, "Return ... copies of a l l Orders in Council, letters, and correspondence between this Government and the Government of the Dominion of Canada, ... in relation to the proposed exchange of lands in the Peace River country for the lands known as the Railway Belt on the Mainland of the Province." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1890, p. 401. (89) COLONIST, May 7, 1889, p. 2. (90) loc. c i t . , May 19, 1889, p. 3. (91) TIMES, Mar. 7, 1890, p. 3. 82 withdrawn the proposition. Although there is no definite evidence for this supposition, the fact that the COLONIST used so much space to deny statements of i t s patron and ideal, i s very suspicious. In 1889 the government lost two of i t s most prominent members. (92) The sudden death of Hon. Robert Dunsmuir on A p r i l 12th came only a week (93) after he had taken part in a legislative debate. Although his vast wealth had given him more power in business and in the house than many approved, yet his canny Scotch methods were of great use to the legislature. His successor in the Nanaimo seat, Andrew Haslam, an (94) influential saw-mill operator, was also a government supporter. But the greatest blow came on August 1st, when the premier succumbed to consumption. Although he had been fighting the disease for years, he had stuck manfully to his post. Months before, the TIMES (95) had paid him a significant compliment: The opposition invariably receives courteous attention from the attorney-general, which is one of the features which distinguish this session from last. At that time the honourable gentleman was absent in California. Of the government members he always relies most on reason and the merits of his case and least on the brute force of a majority which is always ready when the government wish to use.them. That is the keynote of Davie's success against the rising opposition, and of Robson's/^S^SBte: Davie was a quiet, cautious man, whose integrity was never questioned; Robson, much more b r i l l i a n t as a debater and tactician, was too intolerant, and never free from corruption accusations. With the death of Davie, the Smithe line began to lose i t s 'strangle hold' on British Columbia p o l i t i c s . (92) COLONIST, A p r i l 13, 1889, p. 2. (93) loc. c i t . , April 6, 1889, p. 1. (94) FREE.PRESS, June 8, 1889, p . 2. (95) TIMES, Feb. 23, 1889, p. 2. 83 CHAPTER V. The Robson Ministry, 1889-1892. Immediately after the death of Hon. A. E. B. Davie, the lieutenant-governor called upon Hon. John Robson to form a ministry. As Robson had been a member of the cabinet since 1883, and had acted as premier in the absence of Davie, he was the logical successor. He retained the portfolios of provincial secretary and minister of mines, while Hon. F. G. Vernon returned as chief commissioner of lands and works, and Hon. J. H. Turner as minister of finance and agriculture. The new members were Theodore Davie as attorney-general and C. E. (1) Pooley as president of the council. The TIMES editor, although he had given due praise to the (2) late premier, now turned his spleen against the new government: By an unfortunate train of circumstances, including two deaths, the Provincial Secretary has inherited a position which he could not have acquired i n any other way than by having i t 'thrust upon him'... John Robson i s now in a position to do great harm, and his continuance in power for even one session ... w i l l unquestion-ably prove a great disaster to the province. (3) Nor was Theodore Davie given any better treatment: A worse selection than Theo Davie for the important office of Attorney General could not be made. His only claim upon the position is that he was the brother of the late premier. Excepting that he is a lawyer by profession he has none of the qualifications that the chief law officer of the crown should possess. He is a trading politician and a vindictive partisan. (1) COLONIST, Aug. 4, 1889, p. 2. (2) TIMES, Aug. 5, 1889, p. 2. For the early career of Robson, v. supra, p^:. I.I..:, (3) TIMES, Aug. 5, 1889, p. 2. 84 True, Davie was an aggressive debater and made many enemies (including John Grant); but he was also a b r i l l i a n t lawyer and an able politician, and was the natural choice for the position. The late premier had not deliberately crossed the opposition, and his memory was revered: but both Robson and Theodore Davie had frequently done so, and they were accused of a l l manner of sins. Because most of the cabinet members were carried over from the former government, only two by-elections were necessary: Victoria city, to r a t i f y the appointment of Davie, and Lillooet' to replace the late premier. The post of president of the council paid no salary and therefore did not entail an election.. (4) The new attorney-general was opposed by Dr. G. L. Milne, who (5) was to be more successful at the next year's general election. Davie's platform was unqualified support of the Canadian Western railway, even i f i t meant an increased land grant. This had nothing to do with his qualifications for the cabinet position, and was deliberately chosen to gain the support of the Victoria citizens who hoped to benefit by the railway; in other words, he placed Victoria's interests and his own before those of the province at large. By so doing, he pledged the government to a ruinous and useless grant, and aroused mainland opposition. Dr. Milne did not dare to oppose the railway, but he reasonably assumed (6) that the matter had already been settled. However Davie gained his (?) immediate objective; he was returned with a comfortable majority. (8) In Lillooet A. W. Smith, government, easily defeated John Saul. (4) COLONIST, Aug. 9, 1889, p. 2. (5) v. infra, p. St?\, (6) TIMES, Aug. 7, 1889, p. 2. (7) COLONIST, Aug. 22, 1889, p. 1. (8) loc. c i t . , Sept. 24, 1889, p. 2. 85 Neither man had had legislative experience, both were popular; but the (9) electors again heeded the COLONIST cry for a united front, and the Robson party won. The attitude of the NEWS-ADVERTISER is interesting in this case; when the TIMES twitted the Lillooet citizens about the number of 'good things' they were to enjoy for having been so loyal to the government, the Vancouver daily remarked that the opposition i t s e l f . (10) was not above making election promises. The election in New Westminster city to replace W. N. Bole, (ID who had accepted a judgeship, swelled the ranks of the government; for both candidates were Robson men, and Bole had been an oppositionist. In the contest, which was necessarily fought on personal issues, Thomas (12) Cunningham defeated U. E. Corbould by a small majority. He was a (13) brother of James Cunningham, who had represented Westminster d i s t r i c t from 1884 to 1886. The New Westminster TRUTH and the TIMES, unable to forgive the Royal City's desertion from the opposition cause, sought the answer in a bribery charge. In 1888 the government had voted $10,000 for a new court house in New Westminster, but had delayed construction to allow the erection of a $45,000 asylum in 1889. The opposition charged that this had been done deliberately in order to bribe the electors when (14) necessary, with the promise of completion of the court house. This may have been so, but the citizens knew they would get the building soon anyway; probably a more powerful motive for the change of p o l i t i c s was a (9) COLONIST, Sept. 6, 1889, p. 2. (10) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Sept. 26, 1889, p. 4. (11) Kerr, J. B., Biographical Dictionary of Well-Known  British Columbians, (Vancouver, 1890) p. 107. (12) COLONIST, Nov. 26, 1889, p. 1. (13) Says his nephew, Dr. J. H. White; the Cunninghams married twin sisters. (14) TIMES, Nov. 20, 1889, p. 2. 86 desire to be in the good graces of the government when the much-heralded redistribution was made. The year 1890 formed the focal point of r-the Robson administr-ation; at this session a definite railway policy was inaugurated, the redistribution was effected, and the general election resulted in the appearance, of a new party, largely opposed to the government. No longer was the Smithe line the party'of reform; i t s men had been in power long enough to give cause for genuine opposition, and the Beaven group discarded i t s petty obstruction tactics in favor of definite demands for improvement in the education system, in the administration of public works, (15) and i n lawyers' qualifications. More than once during this session the government got i t s e l f into d i f f i c u l t i e s . The new recruit, Thomas Cunningham, revived the Greer case by calling an 'anti-Chinese' meeting in New Westminster, to (16) test the attitude of his constituents. He was a strong protagonist of Greer's claim, yet he did not dare to oppose the government on the question. In the end i t was James Orr who moved for a committee to (17) ascertain what action the executive had taken on the report of 1888. (18) The committee, composed of four government supporters and one oppositionist, stated.that Vernon refused to give the cabinet's reasons for not acting on the 1888 report; therefore they found no reasons why Greer was not (19) entitled to the land, and recommended that the claim be settled. This (15) TIMES, Mar. 84, 1890, p. 2. (16) loc. c i t . , Mar. 3, 1890, p. 1. (17) B. C. Journals, Mar. 4, 1890, p. 47. (18) ibid. (19) "Report of Select Committee appointed to ascertain what action the government has taken respecting the Reports of the 'Select Committee appointed to enquire into the claim of Samuel Greer to certain land in the v i c i n i t y of English Bay', adopted on the 27th day of A p r i l , 1888." B.C. Journals, 1890, Appendix, pp. xix-xx. 87 (20) document was received and ordered printed, but was later ruled out of (21) order. Cunningham countered with a definite question why the 1888 report was not carried out. This time, Vernon gave a lengthy answer, to the effect that the cabinet had considered the claim and had decided (22) that i t was unfounded. The government f i n a l l y disposed of the question by rushing through the Quieting T i t l e s Act, which provided that claimants might (23) ' petition the Supreme Court for investigation of their t i t l e s ; in other words, the executive shifted the responsibility elsewhere, and considered themselves free of this delicate matter. Greer undoubtedly was a public nuisance, and he never did get compensation; but there must have been some justice in his claim when legislative committees repeatedly favored i t s settlement. The whole a f f a i r hints at C. P. R. (24) influence on the government. (25) The public accounts report also f e l l foul of the government. Turner and Davie moved that the report, which made vague insinuations against the attorney-general and the provincial secretary, be referred back to the committee; the motion was carried 17 - 5 on a straight party division, in which.even the three ministerialist members of the (26) committee (Duek, Mason and Martin) voted yea. The opposition of course made much of the fact that the committee had condemned government corruption, while Davie attempted to show that the three men had not (20) B. C. Journals, Mar. 17, 1890, p. 65. (21) loc. c i t . , Mar. 24, 1890, p. 71. (22) loc. c i t . , Mar. 27, 1890, pp. 90-91. (23) 53 Vict., ch. 38, sec. 2. B. C. Statutes, 1890, pp. 151-159. (24) The C. P. R. wanted the land, and got i t , for the English Bay extension (which was never b u i l t ) . (25) B. C. Journals, 1890, Appendix, pp. lxxxix-xc. (26) B. C. Journals, April 14, 1890, p. 104. Grant and Beaven were the other members. 88 realized the nature of the insinuations made in the report, that Beaven 127) had deliberately inveigled them into signing i t . In the end, of course, (28) a second majority report cleared the good name of the government, and apparently a l l was well. There is no evidence to prove which report was correct, but i t does seem odd that three such veteran legislators as Duck, Mason and Martin should not have realized the significance of the document which they f i r s t signed. The education system came in for a great deal of pre-election criticism at this session. Beaven accused Robson of making the department a p o l i t i c a l machine by wrongfully using his power to obtain (29) the cancellation of teachers' certificates. A committee investigated the case of J. N. Muir who had been dismissed for insubordination, and found that the cancellation of his certificate had been the only (30) possible course. There is l i t t l e doubt that the matter was purely departmental; Muir had taken no part in p o l i t i c s , had conducted an insolent correspondence with the superintendent of education that quite unfitted him for further service. And like Sam Greer Muir ruined his own cause by his continued vindictiveness in circulating libellous (31) dodgers among the teachers of the province. The Legal Professions Amendment Act showed a direct change in Davie's policy. At the previous session D. W. Higgins had proposed (27) TIMES, Apr i l 15, 1890, p. 2. (28) "Second report of the select standing committee on public accounts." B. C. Journals, 1890, Appendix, p. cxlv. Grant and Beaven in the minority report would not alter the original statements, loc. c i t . , p. c x l v i i . (29) COLONIST, Jan. 29, 1890, p. 1. (30) "Report of Select Committee. Public School matters." B. C. Journals, 1890, Appendix, pp. 1-xviii. Final report ... loc. c i t . , p. x c v i i . (31) "Final report ..." loc. c i t . , pp. cxii-cxiv. 89 to abolish the twelve months' residence requirement for practising lawyers, (38) but the speaker's casting vote had defeated the motion. Now, in 1890, the attorney-general himself revived the amendment which he had opposed (33) in 1889. The point was that the new b i l l would allow lawyers from other provinces to begin practice in British Columbia without having to establish a one-year residence; the legal profession had up to this time been a 'close corporation', and had strongly opposed any attempts to break the monopoly. Although the second reading of the amendment b i l l passed with-(34) out a division, Beaven could not resist the opportunity for criticism offered by Davie's application of the term 'foreigners' to lawyers from other provinces. This was a petty pre-election manoeuvre intended to discredit Davie among laymen, which served only to make Beaven himself ridiculous. At this session too, railway policy was greatly improved by (35) the passing of the British Columbia Railway Act, which laid down a definite form of incorporation and rules of operation to be followed by a l l railway b i l l s . This act was a decided step forward, as it would prevent favoritism in railway b i l l s and would save the legislators a great deal of time otherwise wasted in f r u i t l e s s debates on incorporation: terms. When the government changed the cash subsidy given in 1887 (36) to the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway to a guarantee of interest, the opposition raised a great cry of election bribery; they claimed that only the year before the cabinet had refused to consider the guarantee, that (33) B. C. Journals, Feb. 13, 1889, p. 15. (33) TIMES, Jan. 35, 1890, p. 2. (34) COLONIST, Feb. 1, 1890, p. 1. (35) 53 Vict., ch. 39. B. C. Statutes, 1890, pp. 161-213. (36) 53 Vict., ch. 42. loc. c i t . , pp. 285-336. 90 (37) now the alteration was made only to gain votes. That may have been quite true, but the change of premiers may also have influenced the cabinet decision. At any rate the road was completed in 1892, and gave C. P. R. (38) connection to a f e r t i l e d i s t r i c t round Vernon. The Columbia and Kootenay Railway, which was to be part of the C. P. R. system, (Revelstoke to the Lower Kootenay River) was given (39) (40) a new land grant, and Harry Abbott promised immediate construction. (41) However i t was only partly completed and under different arrangements. Abbott was also a director of the Ashcroft and Cariboo Railway, (42) which was intended to be the C. P. R. 's reply to the Canadian Western. (43) It was included in the companies benefitting by the Railways Aid Act, the others being the Crow's Nest and Kootenay Lake Railway, the Okanagan and Kootenay Railway, and the C. P. R. (a branch from Farwell—now Revelstoke—to the Lower Kootenay River.) Although the b i l l was passed (44) without a division, the clause which granted to the railway companies a mine royalty on a l l ores shipped from mines in the land grants, was (45) greatly c r i t i c i z e d during the election campaign. It was repealed in 1891. The great event of the 1890 session which dwarfed a l l others was the Redistribution Act. At that time the house was composed of (46) §7 members: 14 from the mainland and 13 from the island, and the representation was out of a l l proportion to population. Residents of (37 (38 (39 (40 (41 (42 (43 (44 (45 (46 NEV/S-ADVERTISER, Mar. 27, 1890, p. 4. Howay and Scholefield, op_. c i t . , p. 451 53 Vict., ch. 41. B. C. Statutes, 1890, pp. 221-224. COLONIST, Mar. 28, 1890, p. 1. Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . , v. 2, p. 451. TIMES, Feb. 26, 1890, p. 2. 53 Vict., ch. 40. B. C. Statutes, 1890", pp. 215-220. B. C. Journals, A p r i l 17, 1890, pp. 118-119. 54 Vict., ch. 43, B. C. Statutes, 1891, p. 289. v. supra, p. J/. 91 the lower mainland, who considered themselves p a r t i c u l a r l y wronged, began i n the f a l l of 1889 a deliberate move to get every voter on the (47) (48) l i s t , and the island soon followed s u i t . Vancouver c i t i z e n s , determined to bring on the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n measure at once, formed a .Mainland Association "to assist the l e g i s l a t u r e i n giving proper (49) representation to a l l parts of the Country." New Westminster set up a similar body, and the two worked together to elaborate a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y (50) of action and to organize the whole lower mainland. But, alas, the administration would not be forced into introducing the measure at once. James Orr's resolution that the act be brought forward at once was e a s i l y defeated on a straight party (51) d i v i s i o n . The TIMES i n t i m a t e d that the government had already (52) formulated i t s policy, but that i t had not yet converted the caucus. This may have been true, but p o l i t i c a l strategy was more probably the r e a l cause of the delay; for Robson and every other p o l i t i c i a n knew that i f such a controversial measure were brought down too early the house would never f i n i s h i t s regular business. (53) F i n a l l y on A p r i l 15th Robson introduced the b i l l ; Beaven's attempt to delay the second reading by a fortnight f a i l e d on a party (54) d i v i s i o n (with the exception of Cunningham, whose 'loyalty' to his (55) d i s t r i c t forced him to oppose the government.) The new Constitution Act (47) FREE PRESS, Oct. 22, 1889, p. 2. (48) l o c . c i t . , Oct. 25, 1889, p. 2. (49) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Jan. 19, 1890, p. 4. (50) loc. c i t . , Jan. 25, 1890, p. 4. COLUMBIAN, Feb. 17, 1890, p. 2. (51) B. C. Journals, Jan. 30, 1890, p. 11. (52) TIMES, Jan. 31, 1890, p. 3. (53) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 15, 1890, p. 111. (54) i b i d . (55) 53 V i c t . , ch. 7. B.C. Statutes, 1890, pp. 29-38. 92 made no change i n the balance of power: i t gave to Vancouver c i t y two members, (Vancouver had formerly been included i n New Westminster d i s t r i c t ) and to Kootenay an extra representative; but i t also gave another member to Nanaimo and created the new d i s t r i c t s of Alberni and the Gulf Islands. Naturally the measure raised a storm of abuse on the mainland. The NEWS-ADVERTISER, which up to t h i s time had been s t r i c t l y independent, (the most reasonable of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia papers, except i n i t s war with the COLONIST) now turned v i o l e n t l y against Robson, (56) claiming that he had ruined his own p o l i t i c a l career. The COLUMBIAN, which had always been a strong government advocate, was most b i t t e r (57) against the 'island sectionalism' which controlled the cabinet. The COLONIST, of course, supported the b i l l l o y a l l y j- and (58) generously repeated a l l the government's excuses. The Nanaimo FREE PRESS (59) was even jubilant at the extra representation given that d i s t r i c t . The attitude of the TIMES i s most amusing; at f i r s t the b i l l was 'a puerile (60) (61) creature', but soon i t was the necessary temporary measure. In the house, Robson attempted to j u s t i f y his position by explaining that a complete reorganisation was impossible u n t i l a f t e r the 1891 census, and that the present b i l l was the result of a cabinet compromise. He realized that h i s own constituency was e n t i t l e d to more (62) consideration, but he could not force his opinion upon his colleagues. '(56) NEWS-ADVERTISER, A p r i l 25, 1890, p. 4. (57) COLUMBIAN, A p r i l 16, 1890, p. 2. (58) COLONIST, A p r i l 20, 1890, p. 2. (59) FREE PRESS, A p r i l 16, 1890, p. 2. (60) TIMES, A p r i l 16, 1890, p. 2. (61) l o c . c i t . , A p r i l 19, 1890, p. 4. (62) COLONIST, A p r i l 19, 1890, p. 3. 93 (63) The COLUMBIAN thought that the compromise had a l l been on one side, while the NEWS-ADVERTISER attributed the arrangement to fear of the (64) coming election. Beaven claimed that the b i l l had been patched up so that i t would pass the house, and blamed Robson for not carrying his views i n (65) the cabinet. But Turner quashed this argument by showing that i t was unnecessary for a premier to carry his own opinion to the extremity of (66) resigning. The opposition had always condemned Robson for his high-handed methods, and now they cr i t i c i z e d him for giving in.' Some of the members found decision d i f f i c u l t ; Cunningham, torn between loyalty to his constituents (with the election only a few weeks away) and to his leader, pleaded with Robson not to force him to (67) vote against the government on the b i l l . John Grant, representative of Cassiar and mayor of Victoria, thought that Vancouver city, New (68) ?festminster city, and Yale should each have an additional member. But when Davie bluntly asked him and Beaven whether or not they favored increased representation of the mainland over the island, they did not (69) answer. Grant had given notice of a non-confidence motion on the redistribution measure and on several other government 'failures', but (70) he did not appear on the appointed day; when he did put the motion i t (71) was defeated 16 - 4, with Mr. Cunningham absent. (63 (64 (65 (66 (67 (68 (69 (70 (71 COLUMBIAN, Ap r i l 22, 1890, p. 2. NEWS-ADVERTISER, Ap r i l 19, 1890', p. 4. COLONIST, A p r i l 20j 1890, p. 3. ibid. loc. c i t . , A p r i l 23, 1890, p. 3. EOc. c i t . , A pril 19, 1890, p. 4. loc. c i t . , A pril 20, 1890, p. 3. loc. c i t . , A p r i l 22, 1890, p. 3. B. C. Journals, April 22, 1890, p. 123. 94 The redistribution b i l l passed of course, with a majority (72) of 10. Apart from Cunningham's opposition, the division was on :. straight party lines. Grant, s t i l l on the fence, was absent. The b i l l of course was a temporary measure. Robson was quite right in saying that there could be no radical change until after the census, for the ten-year-old figures would have been useless. The whole question wqs p o l i t i c a l dynamite, forced upon the government just before the election by the insistence of the mainland voters. Every cabinet member except Robson was at heart an island man, and none of these would allow any concessions to the mainland u n t i l s t a t i s t i c a l re-turns made i t absolutely necessary. If only they had not created the two unnecessary island seats, they would have saved themselves much grief. For the lower mainland was in arms. The Mainland Association immediately sent a strong delegation headed by i t s president, Mayor J. C. Brown of New Westminster, to the capital to protest against the (73) act. But naturally the deputation accomplished nothing, for the session was now over. And, oddly enough, when the premier asked Mayor Brown for an alternative distribution system, that worthy replied that (74) i t was not his place to dictate to the government.' Yet the reckoning day was at hand. The mainlanders brought out a third party with 'fair distribution' as i t s cry. In New Westminster d i s t r i c t the premier was the only government man returned; (75) the others were T. E. Kitchen and James Punch, independents. The other (72) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 18, 1890, p. 121. (73) COLONIST, A p r i l 25, 1890, p. 3. (74) ibid. (75) loc. c i t . , June 14, 1890, p. 1. -'dUS 95 candidates were newcomers to p o l i t i c s , while Kitchen was reeve of (76) Chilliwack and Punch, reeve of Surrey, was a prominent member of the (77) Mainland Association. But strange to re l a t e , i t was the much-maligned (78) Robson himself who headed the poll.' Evidently his strong personality and h i s 'good works' were enough to overcome the d i s t r i b u t i o n obstacle. Yet Robson must have feared defeat, for he ran and was elected (79) i n Cariboo as well. This practice, even then, was uncommon enough to attract comment. The main problem was, which seat would he retain? He chose the harder course i n resigning from New Westminster d i s t r i c t , (80) when he knew i t would be impossible to elect another supporter there. In h i s place was returned C. B. Sword, independent, who had barely lost (81) out at the regular election. Indeed the government did not put up a man of i t s own, but supported, of a l l persons, William Ladner, who had (82) been a strong oppositionist. In New Westminster c i t y , Mayor Brown defeated Thomas (83) Cunningham. Brown's main plank was of course his a c t i v i t y i n the Mainland Association, and he made the most of poor Cunningham's indecision (84) i n the house. Vancouver also returned a straight independent t i c k e t of (85) Cotton and Horne. Francis L. Carter-Cotton, editor and publisher of the NEWS-ADVERTISER, was the recognized prophet of the mainland (76) Chilliwack PROGRESS, A p r i l 16, 1891, p. 1. (77) COLONIST, A p r i l 25, 1890, p. 3. (78) l o c . c i t . , June 14, 1890, p. 1. (79) B. C. Journals, 1891, p. xv. (80) TIMES, Oct. 10, 1890, p. 4. (81) COLONIST, Nov. 9, 1890, p. 1. (82) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Oct. 24, 1890, p. 4. (83) COLONIST, June 14, 1890, p. 1. (84) Says Dr. White, who heard him at an election meeting. (85) B. 0. Journals, 1891, p. xv. 96 independents. Apparently Horne was not persona grata with the Mainland Association group, for the NEWS-ADVERTISER spoke of him as representing 'the City Hall clique and Robson', and intimated that he (86) called himself an independent merely to gain votes. It is interesting to note that James Orr, the stout oppositionist whose every thought had been for the interests of his beloved terminus (even to the point of ridiculous obstruction), and Sam Greer, who regarded "our present stop-jack Premier as unworthy of public confidence, and the instigator of (87) (88) injustice to the city," both lost their deposits. Surely the l a i r d o' Kitsilano had in mind a more personal injustice.' Other independents elected were: J. C. Keith in Nanaimo city, (89) by acclamation, and Thomas Forster in Nanaimo d i s t r i c t ; these men worked in the house with their mainland brethren, but were concerned (90) with labor problems rather than with redistribution. C. C. McKenzie, elected also in the d i s t r i c t as an oppositionist, ran as a farmer's (91) nominee; but he was really more interested in personal revenge against (92) the education department. In Victoria city the government put up a mediocre slate of (93) Turner, Duck, Captain John Irving, and William Dalby. Turner, the only (94) strong one of the four, was elected; Duck could hardly expect to succeed after his recent meanderings, and Captain Irving (of the Canadian Pacific (86) NEWS-ADVERTISER, June 14, 1890, p. 4. He soon joined the government. (87) loc. c i t . , May 15, 1890, p. 4. This his election card.' (88) B. C. Sessional Papers, 1891, p. 313. (89) COLONIST, June 14, 1890, p. 1. (90) FREE PRESS, Fay 31, 1890, p. 4. (91) ibid. (92) v. infra, pp. /0|-/cu. He revived the Muir case. (93) COLONIST, May 10, 1890, p. 2. (94) B. C. Journals, 1891, p. xv., 97 Havigation Company) and Dalby were new to the p o l i t i c a l arena. Charles Wilson perturbed the government stalwarts not a l i t t l e when, just (95) (96) f a i l i n g to get their nomination, he ran as an independent. Wilson had formerly supported the government as member for Cariboo, and had been prominent in the recent formation of a liberal-conservative association (98) in Victoria. His excuse that the nomination meeting was contrary to (99) the constitution of that association was puerile; for the candidates were nominated as government supporters, not as party men. Perhaps i f Wilson had succeeded at the nomination, his conscience might not have been so sharp. -It is significant too that his b i l l for the consolidation (100) of the statutes had not yet been paid by the government; )£&MfXjt/i£ )(jflt tytWflK fX&flyt&P However it transpired that Wilson was on two voters' l i s t s , at Cariboo and at Victoria, and he was therefore disqualified. The opposition did well at the Victoria p o l l , winning three out of the four seats; John Grant, Hon. Robert Beaven (101) and Dr. G. L. Milne were the successful ones. Theodore Davie 'deserted' his old constituencyvof Victoria c i t y to be elected in Cowichan v/ith Henry Croft, also a government (102) supporter. Davie's explanation was logical; one cabinet member from Victoria was enough. But Turner was the newer man; why did he_ not change? Cowichan, which did not put up a single opposition nor independent (95) COLONIST, May 10, 1890, p. 2. (96) loc. c i t . , May 22, 1890, p. 8. (97) v. supra, p. U, (98) COLONIST, May 22, 1890, p. 8. (99) ibid. (100) "Return ... copies of a l l Orders in Council, letters, and documents relating to the consolidation of the Statutes of 1888, and payment of the commissioners therefore." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1890, pp. 735, 739, 748. (101) COLONIST, June 14, 1890, p. 1. (102) B. C. Journals, 1891, p. xv. 98 (103i) candidate, was a much safer r i s k for the attorney-general who so easily made enemies. (104) In Esquimalt only one oppositionist (Helgesen) was nominated, (105) and Higgins and Pooley were easily returned. The new Islands and Alberni d i s t r i c t s , duly grateful for favors received, elected John P. (106) Booth and Thomas Fletcher, ministerialists. When the smoke had died down, i t was seen that Robson was s t i l l in control, but on a less sure foundation than before. The new (107) members divided as follows: Government: Turner Pooley Higgins Davie Croft Hall Mason l a ; Rogers Robson Vernon Mart in Eberts Anderson Hunter Booth Fletcher Baker Stoddart Smith Independent; Sword Kitchen Punch Kellie Keith Brown Forster Cotton Horne Opposition: Grant Beaven Milne Semlin McKenzie 19 9 5 The administration s t i l l had a majority over both the other groups, but i t was much slimmer than before; Robson would have more d i f f i c u l t y in overriding the opposition by force of numbers. An anti-climax to the heated campaign was the death of Hon. (103) COLONIST, June 3, 1890, p. 5. Humphreys was i l l ; TT. infra, p. ff. (104) COLONIST, June 3, 1890, p. 5. (105) B. C. Journals, 1891, p. xv. (106) ibid. (107) This is my own arrangement; i t is d i f f i c u l t to label the independents, as many of them were against the government on redistribution, others gradually went to the opposition; this i s how they usually voted in the 1891 session. (a)v. infra, p. the similarity of the names Mason and Nason is confusing. 99 (108) T. B. Humphreys. He had been i l l for some time, and had seldom attended the recent session; therefore he had not taken part i n the election, which was the less acrimonious for his absence. (109) In December Joseph Mason of Cariboo passed away; he was replaced by I. B. Nason, who had represented the d i s t r i c t in 1889 • (110) and 1890, and the party standing was unchanged. At the new parliament the greatest interest centred round the independents and their future a f f i l i a t i o n s . In the debate on the address they proved that they were a solid body; Thomas Forster spoke for the whole group in saying that the independents would take no part (111) in unnecessary debates, thereby leaving the opposition to carry the weight of the criticism. Dr. Milne attempted to lure the new men into the opposition fold when he moved an amendment to the address censuring the government (112) for passing the royalty clause. Condemnation of this part of the Railway Aid Act had been a strong point among the independents; Beaven knew that he could not yet make an issue of redistribution, and there-fore he used this bait to trap Cotton and his followers. Theipgfi^y met and decided to vote against the amendment, for although they wanted reneal of the obnoxious clause, they believed the government would (113) do i t in due time. This fact of the members making a solemn concerted decision shows that, at f i r s t at least, they were a solid group. The oppositionists, realizing that they had forced the newcomers into the (108) TIMES, Aug. 26, 1890,- p. 8. (109) loc. c i t . , Dec. 2, 1890, p. 8. (110) B. C. Journals, Jan. 26, 1891, p. 10. (111) COLONIST, Jan. 21, 1891, p. 3. (112) B. C. Journals, Jan. 21, 1891, p. 5. v. supra, p. 70. (113} JSEWS-ADYERTISER, Jan. 23, 1891, p. 4. 100 arms of the government, attempted to withdraw the amendment, but leave was refused. The censure failed 2 2 - 5 , on a straight government-(114) independent coalition versus opposition division: Coalition Opposition Smith Sword Semlin Robson Kit chen Grant Davie Cotton McKenzie Eberts Kellie ° Milne Stoddart Horne Beaven Booth Brown Pooley Forster b Turner Keith Martin - — Croft 8 Hunter Rogers Anderson Fletcher 14 But the independents were not willing to merge with the government. Most of them supported Beaven's unsuccessful resolution (115) for an eight-hour day on provincial works, and Keith asked for an enquiry (116) on the Wellington strike. The Dunsmuirs may have been good business men, but they never could handle their employees. In May, 1890, the men struck for shorter (11?) hours, and in July the company proceeded to evict them from their homes. The a f f a i r developed into a f i r s t - c l a s s war with organised labor, and the (114) B. C. Journals, Jan. 22, 1891, p. 5. The coalition grouping i s my own. Punch does not appear i n the house for some time. (115) Boc. c i t . , Jan. 27, 1891, p. 13. Sword, Kitchen, Kellie, Horne, Brown voted against i t , but Forster, Cotton, Boothe Keith and Brown debated for i t . COLONIST, Jan. 24, 1891, p. 2. (116) loc. c i t . , Feb. 10, 1891, p. 2. (117) FREE PRESS, July 22, 1890, p. 4. 101 troops were again sent in: this time on the requisition of three (118) Victoria justices of the peace. The opposition of course made po l i t i c a l capital of this interference, and of the so-called 'intimidation' of the t r i a l prosecution, as carried on by Davie and (119) Pooley. In the midst of the committee's deliberations, fresh riots broke out, culminating in an attack on the funeral procession of a (120) (121) strike-breaker. Neither the report originally called for, nor the one (122) now required on the new disturbance, made any definite statements of a p o l i t i c a l nature, and the aff a i r dropped. Keith's part in this enquiry and Brown's introduction of a (123) mechanic's l i e n b i l l , were both part of the independent program to aid (124) (125) the laborer. The new law, which was passed without a single division, gave the employee assurance that his f u l l wages would be paid. It is interesting to note that neither of the other parties dared to oppose the b i l l , for labor was represented at last in the house. If the independents brought a change in legislative methods, at least the oppositionists were not idle. C. 0. McKenzie revived the (126) Muir case in his motion for a return on the 1890 teachers' examination. This resurrection again made education affairs a p o l i t i c a l football, but (127) it was defeated easily, most of the independents voting with the government. (118) FREE PRESS, Aug. 6, 1890, p. 4. (119) TIMES, Oct. 2, 1890, p. 4. (120) COLONIST, Mar. 17, 1891, p. 2. (121) "Report of Select Committee. Wellington Strike." B. C. Journals, 1891, Appendix, p. c c x i i . (122) "Report ... Attack on Funeral Procession of E l l i c e Roberts." loc. c i t . , p. lxv. (123) B. C. Journals, Jan. 22, 1891, p. 7. (124) 54 Vict., ch. 23. B. C. Statutes, 1891, pp. 85-94. (125) B. C. Journals, .1891, passim. (126) loc. cit.., Jan. 23, 1891, p. 8. (127) loc. c i t . , Feb. 9, 1891, p. 28. A l l except Kellie, Forster and Keith. 102 But McKenzie's motive was personal also; he had been dismissed as (128) superintendent of education in 1884 when he aspired to the Bar, and he merely used the Muir case as a means of revenge on Robson and on his own successor, S. D. Pope. It was very unfortunate that the education department should have been the scene of so many petty disputes, especially when Robson was doing his best to modernize the system. Beaven also caused much governmental apprehension with his l i b e l amendment b i l l . In 1889 Higgins had attempted to change the law (129) which required the offending publisher to prove his innocence, but (130) Dunsmuir had carried a six-months hoist to the 'monstrous b i l l ' . Then (131) in 1891 Theodore Davie and Beaven each introduced amendment b i l l s ; (132) Beaven's, similar to Higgins', was defeated 17 - 13, despite the support of a l l newspapers. Davie's b i l l , which was much harder on the publisher, would have given the defendant no opportunity to avoid (133) prosecution by apologizing; but when it met the committee of the whole, (134) it was l i b e r a l l y amended. The newspapers of course had supported the Beaven b i l l , as they resented the hardships placed upon them; "As matters stand at present i t is simply dangerous to discuss with any degree of particularity, subjects of public interest, to expose wrong-doing, or seek to elevate the tone (128) Provincial Secretary to McKenzie, Mar. 13, 1884. "Return ... copies of a l l correspondence between the Government ... and 4C. C. McKenzie, Esq., ex-Superintendent of Education, in reference to the dismissal of the aforesaid C. C. McKenzie, ..." B. 0. Sessional Papers, 1885, p. 345. (129) COLONIST, Mar. 12, 1889, p. 2. (130) loc. c i t . , A pril 3, 1889, p. 1. (131) B. C. Journals, Feb. 5, 1891, p. 22. (132) loc. c i t . , Feb. 10, 1891, p. 30. Most of the independents, except Horne, supported i t with the opposition. (133) COLONIST, Feb. 7, 1891, p. 6. (134) B. C. Journals, Feb. 20, 1891, pp. 44-45. 103 (135f), of public and private morality." Yet the strange part of the whole af f a i r is that the newspapers had always managed to be so malicious; on the very same page which uttered the above complaint, appeared a direct inference that the teachers were under Robson's p o l i t i c a l control (136) when they approved of daily marking. Indeed journalistic slanders, which were often beyond a l l reason, were a daily feature of the period. The assessment b i l l , which exempted C. P. R. property from (137) taxation, also raised strong opposition from the Beaven camp. Although (138) Semlin's amendment protesting against this clause was defeated 21 - 3, (139) yet the government dropped the b i l l and passed a new one without the (140) obnoxious provision. Beaven also chose this year to revive his anti;-Chinese amendments. Early in the session he proposed that such a clause be (141) included i n a l l franchise b i l l s , but Speaker Higgins ruled the (142) resolution out of order. Thereupon the opposition leader proceeded to move an anti-Chinese amendment to every private franchise b i l l that (143) (144) came up, with only one success. In the other cases, the independents (145) divided: Cotton at f i r s t was the only one to support the amendments, (146) but soon Kitchen, Kellie, Brown and Reith also turned. Probably this was Heaven's real objective. (135) TIMES, fer. 6, 1889, p. 2. (136) ibid. (137) COLONIST, Feb. 13, 1891, p. 2. (138) B. C. Journals, Mar. 13, 1891, p. 78. Independents a l l with the government. (139) loc. c i t . , Mar. 5, 1891, p. 63. (140) 54 Vict., ch. 45. B. 0. Statutes, 1891, pp. 379-382. (141) B. C. Journals, Jan. 22, 1891, p. 7. (142) loc. c i t . , Jan. 26, 1891, p. 7. (143) loc. c i t . , passim. (144) B. C. Dyking and Improvement Company, loc. c i t . , Apr. 18, 1891, p. 145. (no division) (145) loc. c i t . , Feb. 5, 1891, p. 23. (146) loc. c i t . , fer. 9, 1891, p, 69. 104 (147) Col. Baker, who heartily approved of Oriental competition, asked for a court judgement on the constitutionality of the anti-Chinese clauses, but withdrew his motion after Beaven had moved an amendment to the effect that Chinese should be excluded from the (148) province.. The independent resolution asking the dominion to raise the (149) Chinese head tax to #200 was also unsuccessful. The government i t s e l f was no laggard in proposing new legislation. The mineral b i l l , while i t made no radical changes, made more understandable the procedure to be followed by the (150) prospector. But the payment of the commission responsible for the drafting of the b i l l was another matter. Messrs. Cotton and Sword joined Beaven in opposing the remuneration of a member of the (151) legislature (Kellie), as a violation of the independence of parliament. Robson of course had to face accusations of bribing the independent member, but he explained that Kellie was a practical miner and an invaluable member of the commission; Hunter claimed that they had told Kellie they could not pay him, and that therefore this special compen-(152) sat ion act was quite legal. Undoubtedly this a f f a i r was quite above board, for Kellie had suffered heavy expenses during the three months of the commission's sittings, and certainly deserved payment. At any rate Kellie did not hesitate to vote against his (14V) COLONIST, Feb. 20, 1891, p. 2. (148) B. C. Journals, Feb. 19, 1891, pp. 40-41. (149) loc. c i t . , Feb. 25, 1891, p. 53. Yeas: opposition, some independents, Stoddart and Fletcher. Nays; government, Sword and Kitchen. (150) 54 Vict., ch. 25. B. C. Statutes, 1891, pp. 97-139. (151) B. C. Journals, April 7, 1891, p. 115. COLONIST, A p r i l 10, 1891, p. 2. (152) ibid. 105 (153) benefactors on the repeal of the Coal Mines Regulation Act, annulling the measure which had placed restrictions on Chinese working under-(154) ground. The new school b i l l may sincerely have been intended as an advance, but i t proved otherwise. The clause which provided that of the seven city trustees, three should be appointed by the government (155) and four by the city council was carrying the centralization too far. It led to another dispute in Victoria, that city which never seemed to be able to carry out government acts; one of the government appointees (156) resigned when he did not get a free hand. At the next session the (157) clause was repealed, and a l l was temporarily serene again. The new land act was a further attempt to prevent (158) speculation in crown grants, by allowing only bona fide settlers to purchase. It was the logical sequel to the withdrawal of crown lands (159) from sale during the previous summer. 1891 was another great year for railways: 11 new railway (160) m companies and four tramway companies were incorporated. Several of the new companies were unnecessary ones, on the lower mainland; but the (161) Nelson and Fort Sheppard, and the Crow's Nest and Kootenay Lake (16S) extension both opened up rich mining d i s t r i c t s . The growth of the (153 (154 (155 (156 (157 (158 (159 (160 (161 (162 B. C. Journals, April 14, 1891, p. 1S8. COLONIST, April 15, 1891, p, -2. K i l l e d in Committee of the whole, loc. c i t . , A p r i l 17, 1891, p. 143. 54 Vict., ch. 40, sec. 22. B. C. Statutes, 1891, p. 309. TIMES, Nov. 3, 1891, p. 4. 55 Vict., ch. 40, sec. 4. B. C. Statutes, 1892, p. 233. 54 Vict., ch. 15. B. B. Statutes, 1891, pp. 49-54. B. C. Gazette, July 31, 1890, p. 667. 54 Vict., chaps. 52-64, 68-71. B. C. Statutes, 1891, pp. 439-509, 5 2 5 - 5 4 8 . ^ ^ 54 Vict., ch. 58. AB. <^ TT Statutoo, 1891, pp. 467-470. 54 Vict., ch. 56. loc. c i t . , pp. 461-462. 106 interior was also evidenced in the incorporation of two telephone (163) (164) companies; the Kootenay Lake and the Vernon and Nelson. Interior (165) residents were further gladdened by the repeal of the royalty clause, when the government saw the error of i t s ways (or perhaps when the fear of an independent-opposition coalition opened i t s eyes.) But the budget was less satisfactory; Mr. Turner's refreshing briefness did not conceal the fact that he expected a deficit of (166) $150,000, and the NEWS-ADVERTISER was promptly ready with suggestions (167) of a new taxation system and more efficient collection. It is interesting to note, however, that the COLTMBIAN, stout independent organ, succumbed to sectionalism in i t s satisfaction at the increase i n (168) the appropriations for New Westminster, and in i t s excuses for the (169) decreased revenue. Turner did receive wide support on his proposal to borrow 6700,000 in order to consolidate the public debt—although Cotton (170) disapproved of the method of borrowing. Finally the session closed A p r i l 20th, after a tense but (171) f r u i t f u l session in which the government, although forced to alter i t s policy, had been sustained throughout. As the NEWS-ADVERTISER put i t , (172) " O f f i c i a l inertia is yielding to popular pressure." After a very quiet recess the legislature opened again upon (163) 54 Vict., ch. 65. B. C. Statutes, 1891, pp. 511-516. (164) 54 Vict., ch. 67. loc. c i t . , pp. 519-524. (165) 54 Vict., ch. 34. loc. c i t . , p. 289. (166) Estimates, 1891-1892. B. C. Sessional Papers, 1891, pp. 441-442. (167) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Mar. 31, 1891, p. 4. (168) COLUMBIAN, Mar. 28, 1891, p. 2. (169) loc. c i t . , A p r i l 4, 1891, p. 2. (170) COLONIST, Apr i l 12, 1891, p. 2. (171) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 20, 1891, p. 150. (172) NEWS-ADVERTISER, April 21, .1891, p. 4. 107 a stormy session. The government in 1890 seemed to have reached the limit in concessions to the other parties, for the speech from the (173) throne indicated l i t t l e new legislation other than amendments. To (174) this the independents, pledged to reform made vehement objections. The independents thought the time had come for the realisation of their Utopian redistribution. Despite the fact that the 1891 census returns would not be complete for some months, C. B. Sword proposed an amendment to the motion for supply, demanding (175) redistribution. In the division which defeated the amendment 18 - 11, J. W. Horne of Vancouver was the only independent who voted with the (176) administration. John Grant and Thomas Forster of Nanaimo were absent. Kitchen and Brown asked for a committee to investigate the (177) cancellation of J. D. McLeod's teaching certificate, but Robson (178) objected to the inclusion of C. C. McKenzie on the committee. However his amendment substituting the name of R. H. Hall, government, was (179) (180) declared out of order, and the original motion was defeated. In the end a reasonable committee of three government men and two independents (181) was appointed. The majority report found McLeod guilty of insubordination in (182) his dispute over the marking of certain Latin papers; even the minority report of Cotton and Kitchen blamed the teacher, but i t also suggested (173 (174 (175 (176 (177 (178 (179 (180 (181 (182 B. C. Journals, Jan. 28, 1892, pp. 1-2. COLONIST, Feb. 2, 1892, p. 8. B. C. Journals, April 20, 1892, p. 128. ibid. loc. c i t . , Feb. 3, 1892, p. 7. loc. c i t . , Feb. 3, 1892, p. 8. ibid. ibid. loc. c i t . , Feb. 8, 1892, p. 10. "Report of Select Committee. Cancellation of certificate of J.P. McLeod." B. C. Journals, 1892, Appendix pp. cxxv-cxxvi. 108 irregularities in the education department, and thought that McLeod (183) should have been suspended only temporarily. In this case the independents probably did not use the cancellation for p o l i t i c a l ends, but it i s indeed unfortunate that educational matters should so constantly have been aired in the house; for questions of departmental discipline should be settled by the officers responsible, not by politicians who have l i t t l e knowledge of the facts concerned. The government's land policy was another problem which seemed always to bring corruption accusations. During the recess, the TIMES had launched a broadside against Vernon for his mishandling of the Port Simpson lands, accusing him of attempting to give grants i l l e g a l l y to (184) his friends. Despite the fact that the chief commissioner won a l i b e l (185) suit against the TIMES for these statements, the matter was not (186) settled; Beaven, f a i l i n g to get a committee of investigation, got a (18V) f u l l return of the correspondence. This evidence shows that, as the TIMES had stated, a group of men had been refused grants to land at Port Simpson on the basis of previous, but incomplete applications by F. Barnard, R. Cunningham, and J. Davies. After many protests, Vernon had held an investigation in his own office, and had refused the grants (188) to either group; s t i l l later, he withdrew the land altogether from sale. Undoubtedly there was some irregularity; even i f Vernon had not deliberately done anything i l l e g a l , then he had neglected to check the (183) "Minority report ..." B. C. Journals, 1892, Appendix, pp. cxxvii-c x x v i i i . (184) TIMES, July 21, 1891, p. 5. (185) loc. c i t . , Oct. 1, 1891, p. 4. (186) B. C. Jounnals, Feb. 24, 1892, p. 30. Horne with the government, Cotton absent. (18V) "Port Simpson land disputel Correspondence." B. C. Sessional  Papers, 1892, pp. 1-31. (188) "Port Simpson ..." ibid. 109 f i r s t applications; in other words, the lands department was either corrupt or inefficient. Residents of the Nelson di s t r i c t were highly indignant at Vernon's action in reserving the Slocan Lake lands, ostensibly to (189) protect them from speculators. Kellie, far from being a bribed slave (190) (191) of the government, moved for a return on the transactions i n this matter; but the independents were disappointed when the documents confirmed the (192) action of the government. The new land act made a further attempt to hinder speculation by prohibiting the sale of unsurveyed lands, but allowing pre-emption (193) by settlers; and by reserving townsite lands. The usual resolution asking for the opening of the dominion (194) railway lands was introduced this time by the independents. At last there was some action, for Robson announced that the minister of the (195) interior had promised to open a l l lands in the Kamloops agency. B i l l s 61 and 62, which proposed to develop British Columbia's deep-sea fisheries by giving a land grant to a commercial company to (196) bring fishermen-colonists to settle on the coast, also roused the ire of the independents and the opposition. They maintained that the terms of the b i l l were too vague; that the company would get the grant and (189) TIMES, Jan. 23, 1892, p. 4. (190) v. supra, p. /Of. (191) B. C. Journals, Feb. 10, 1892, p. 12. (192) "Return ... correspondence ... relative to the reserve placed on certain lands at or near Slocan Lake, or to the refusal of the application of any person or persons to take up land at or near Slocan Lake, or to the allowance of any such applications." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1892, pp. 623-636. (193) 55 Vict., ch. 2. B. C. Statutes, 1892, pp. 73-78.. (194) B. C. Journals, Mar. 9, 1892, p. 46. v. supra, p. 3*. (195) COLONIST, Mar. 10, 1892, p. 6. (196) loc. c i t . , Mar. 22, 1892, p. 4. 110 (197) (198) never f u l f i l l i t s obligations. The b i l l s passed easily, but when Gladstone came into power in Britain the imperial support was withdrawn (199) and the scheme dropped; therefore we do not know how i t would have worked out, whether it was really a bona fide proposal. Railway development was relatively quiet this year; the Canadian Northern Railway (the new transcontinental) combined with (200) the Canadian Ifestern, getting the land grant of the latter; the Kaslo (201) (202) and Slocan and the Nelson and Fort Sheppard obtained grants, and (203) several others were incorporated. Kellie's b i l l , which proposed a (204) (205) general railway b i l l for a l l private franchises, was again defeated. The great event of the session was the Kennedy l i b e l case. It arose out of a leader in the COLUMBIAN of March 17th, entitled "Outrageous Presumption." Speaking of Davie's action in appearing before the private b i l l s committee to strangle the Twin Cities b i l l , the ar t i c l e called i t : "a scandal and an outrage on free institutions and pure government ...; and the acme of rottenness and impudence was reached on Tuesday last, when the Private B i l l s Committee reported to the House that they had decided not to grant the petition of the Twin (206()-Cities Railway and Telephone Company." Robson and Davie carried a motion that the Kennedy brothers be called before the house on March 29th to account for their actions; (197 (198 (199 (200 (201 (202 (203 (204 (205 (206 NEWS-ADVERTISER, April 6, 1892, p. 4. B. C. Journals, A p r i l 4, 1892, pp. 90-91. Scholefield and Gosnell, op. c i t . , part II., p. 140. 55 Vict., ch. 36. B. C. Statutes, 1892, pp. 219-222. 55 Vict., ch. 37. loc. c i t . , pp. 223-225. 55 Vict., ch. 38. loc. c i t . , pp. 227-229. 55 Vict., chs. 48, 52, 66. loc. c i t . , pp. 293-306, 323-327, 431-434. COLONISTi Feb. 24, 1892, p. 4. B. C. Journals, A p r i l 12, 1892, p. 120. COLUMBIAN, Mar. 17, 1892, p. 2. I l l the Sword-Kitchen amendment for a select committee to investigate the (207) matter was defeated 21 - 8. In the debate J. G. Brown of New Westminster was the only member to attempt a defence of the editors, (208) while Beaven contented himself with condemning the summons as irregular, the government, before it went too far in i t s prosecution, had the sympathy of the majority, regardless of party. Yet even so early as this the COLONIST thought that the legislature should ignore the a f f a i r , (209) rather than make an example of the Kennedys. The editors, determined to defend the dignity of the press (210) against the 'honor' of the house, did not appear on March 29th; then the government solemnly appointed a select committee, after having denied (211) one only a week before. The next step of the government was to f o r t i f y i t s position behind a hasty Legislative Assembly Privileges Act, giving i t s e l f (212) power to imprison the l i b e l l e r s . But the Kennedys were not daunted by "the Attorney General's iron-clad, brass-mounted and steel-shod press gag act, ... which was suggested by the embarrassment of the government (213) in dealing with the recent COLUMBIAN case." Thus when the'committee recommended that the house proceed against the offenders, Davie had a basis for his motion to c a l l the (207) B. C. Journals, Mar. 22, 1892, p. 70. (208) COLONIST, Mar. 23, 1892, p. 6. (209) loc. c i t . , Mar. 26, 1892, p. 4. (210) COLUMBIAN, Mar. 25, 1892, p. 2. (211) B. 0. Journals, Mar. 29, 1892, p. 79. The vote was 19 - 11, the government losing the support of Sword, Kitchen, Cotton, Kellie, Brown, Forster and Keith. (212) 55 Vict., ch. 28. B. C. Statutes, 1892, pp. 81-84. (213) COLUMBIAN, Apr i l 8, 1892, p. 2. 112 (215) men before the house on Ap r i l 12th. Messrs. Kennedy, forewarned, were not at home to callers on (216) the day that the o f f i c i a l summons arrived, but the speaker's warrant (217) f i n a l l y did bring them to the bar of the house. There their only excuse for their conduct was that the legislature was over-stepping i t s (218) powers, that the Legislative Privileges Act was not retroactive. They (219) were handed over to the custody of the sergeant-at-arms for the (220) remainder of the session. But the house prorogued the next day, and the prisoners were free. The whole a f f a i r formed another step on the downward path of the Smithe dynasty; for, although the COLUMBIAN was undoubtedly a bitter and unfair c r i t i c of the government and deserved to be punished, yet the administration only turned the tables on i t s e l f . If Robson had not allowed his personal spleen to carry the matter beyond a point of privilege in the house, the Kennedys probably would have quieted down. No doubt the opposition and independents had a hand in advising the editors' refusal to appear; i f so, i t was a superb p o l i t i c a l move which earned rich gains. At the end of May Col. James Baker became minister of education and immigration. Just what his qualifications were, tfitffrjflac MJf a Cambridge M. A., a military career and the authorship of a popular (221) volume entitled "Turkey in Europe", was not made clear; probably the (215) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 9, 1892, p. 104. Sword's motion for the adjournment of the debate was negatived. (216) COLUMBIAN, Ap r i l 11, 1892, p. 2. (217) COLONIST, A p r i l 21, 1892, p. 1. (218) B. 0. Journals, A p r i l 21, 1892, pp. 139-140. (219) loc. c i t . , April 22, 1892, p. 142. (220) loc. c i t . , April 23, 1892, p. 152. (221) COLONIST, May 22, 1892, p. 4. 113 facts that he had loyally supported the government and that Robson lacked a more suitable alternative, were more important in governing his appointment. The COLUMBIAN, ever caustic, remarked: "It seems almost too bad that a Bureau of War could not be tacked on to the (222) honourable gent's (sic) duties and t i t l e s . " His greatest claim to fame in the house was the following priceless ditty, recited during the (223) budget debate of 1890: ... The history of the opposition reminds me forcibly of the well known song about the l i t t l e nigger boys, for at the last general election They went 'to the country' to look for their fate, And when they came back They found they were eight. (a) Then a member for Cariboo—weighing twenty eleven, He went to the country—and then there were seven. (b) New Westminster city they next tried to f i x , And when they came back, WhyJ then they were sixi Now by logical sequence i f they go on to strive They may come to this House with the number of five. And what is far worse, Sir, the future in store May leave them a total of the number of four. And I think I may say, Sir (between you and me), That this rule of reduction might bring them to three. (c) And 'a young man from the country' w i l l look very blue If he comes to this House to make one out of two. And only to think, Sir, why, oh gracious Heaven.' If nothing's lef t of them but good Mr. Beaven.' If such i s the case, Sir, I venture to say (d) He'll give up in disgust and leave nothing but ...'MAY'. COLUMBIAN, May 30, 1892, p. 2. COLONIST, Mar. 22, 1890, p. 3. McLeese, who resigned to run for the Commons. Bole, who resigned to take a judgeship. Probably Grant, or Semlin. Beaven was always quoting May's work on parliamentary procedure. (222) (223) (a) (h) (c) (a) 114 But this addition to the cabinet could not compensate for the loss of the premier; Hon. John Robson died of blood poisoning in (224) London on June 29th. A real B. 0. pioneer, Robson had been prominent in p o l i t i c s since his arrival in 1859. There is no doubt that, in the words of his arch enemy, George Kennedy, he had been "the most experienced, astute and able politician and parliamentarian in the Provincial Assembly and (225) the ablest debater." Yet we must not allow obituary eulogies to obscure the fact that his administration began the decay of the Smithe dynasty, and that he himself was not beyond the reach of his opponents' corruption accusations. His period of office had seen many advances in legislation and in the opening up of the province, but these were largely due to the advent of the new opposition group in 1890, rather than to his own reform ideals. (226) The TIMES statement has so far proven true; "^ The Honourable John Robson (when he came into power) would see to i t that the future historian of British Columbia, i f he judged his actions aright, would not have i t in his power to pronounce upon Honest John Macaulay's epigrammatic judgement on the great Duke of Marlborough— that he was a man who was at once 'rich and infamous''." And that is just the d i f f i c u l t y ; undoubtedly many of the rumors about him were merely the result of deliberate oppositionist l i e s , but there exists as yet no evidence to clear him of the great majority of suspicions which seem to be well grounded. At any rate, famous or infamous, his name w i l l not soon be forgotten. (224) COLONIST, June 30, 1892, p. 1. (225) COLUMBIAN, June 30, 1892, p. 2. (226) TIMES, Oct. 4, 1890, p. 4. 115 CHAPTER VI. The Theodore Davie Ministry, 1892-1895. Under Robson the Smithe dynasty had turned into the slippery path of decay; under Theodore Davie, instead of climbing back to the highroad, i t only gathered momentum in i t s downward journey. The late premier had at least been the r i g h t f u l leader of his party, but his successor was ca l l e d only a f t e r other men had refused the honor. Por even the WORLD, staunch government organ, ad-(1) mitted that Hon. C. E. Pooley had declined to form a ministry. (2) The TIMES suggestion that Pooler's withdrawal was due not to his reluctance to leave the practice of law, but to Davie's r e f u s a l to co-operate, i s based on circumstantial evidence only; but i t i s quite p l a u s i b l e , when Davie's aggressive char-acter i s considered. Pooley would have made an honest, cau-tious leader, but he would not have been strong enough to maintain control; probably, l i k e A. E. B. Davie, he would have been premier in name only, and the course of events would not have been changed. At any rate Theodore Davie became premier, and he continued i n o f f i c e even a f t e r a general el e c t i o n , despite (1) WORLD, July 2, 1892, p. 2. (2) TIMES, July 2, 1892, p. 4. 116 (3) the prediction of the TIMES: We f e e l that the accession of Mr. Theodore Davie to the leadership of a government in B r i t i s h Columbia i s a pub-l i c calamity, a disgrace to the i n t e l l i g e n c e of our people. As a p o l i t i c i a n and as a minister he has been a conspicuous f a i l u r e . The position to which he had already attained was achieved by a ferocious p e r t i n a c i t y rather than a b i l i t y ; by scheming and inheritance and not by pro-motion. His spurs have not been won--they have been torn by intrigue from the feet of the dead, while better men have been forced to stand aside. In no sense i s he a 'leader'...He was a dangerous man as Attorney-General; he w i l l , as Premier, be s t i l l more powerful for e v i l . The only s i l v e r l i n i n g to the cloud that we can discern i s the general election two years hence. The present House may condone the election of Mr. Theodore Davie as F i r s t Minister, but the people of. the province w i l l never be g u i l t y of such stupendous f o l l y . Like most news a r t i c l e s of that day, t h i s d i a t r i b e was a gross exaggeration based upon a slim foundation of truth: Theodore Davie did have a great deal of that 'ferocious p e r t i n a c i t y ' which the TIMES editor condemned, and he pro-bably was not above using sly scheming to gain personal ad-vancement. But the s l u r on his a b i l i t y as a lawyer and a p o l i t i c i a n i s inexcusable, for he proved strong enough to force upon the province the parliament buildings c o n s t r u c t i o n — a very d i f f i c u l t task—and his government was returned at the next election with a working majority. In a word, Theodore Davie was not the i d e a l premier, nor was he the perfect v i l l a i n . The cabinet personnel remained the same as before, with Davie as premier, attorney-general and temporary pro-(4) v i n e i a l secretary. Only a few months before a f i f t h minister (3) TIMES, July 4, 1892, p. 4. (4) B. C. Gazette, July 7, 1892, pp. 719-720. 117 (5) had been necessary in order to d i s t r i b u t e the executive bur-den, but now four men were enough. Perhaps a f i f t h could not be found, for i n September the p r o v i n c i a l secretary's duties (6) were transferred to Col. Baker. The only by-election, that i n Cariboo to replace the late premier, was won by Dr. Watt of V i c t o r i a , a govern-(7) ment supporter. The recess was very quiet, the only disturbance centering round the smallpox epidemic i n V i c t o r i a and Vancou-ver. Party p o l i t i c s held a minor role in the dispute, for the V i c t o r i a council under Hon. Robert Beaven as mayor, staunchly opposed government control of the disease; and Dr. Milne, opp-o s i t i o n i s t municipal health o f f i c e r of V i c t o r i a , was dismissed by the government for f a i l u r e to co-operate with the p r o v i n c i a l (8) health o f f i c e r , Dr. J. C. Davie—brother of the premier. However the government control proved e f f i c i e n t , the epidemic was stamped out, and the indignation subsided. Even the session of 1893 promised to be peaceful. (9) The throne speech, which forecast school and labor reforms and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , went unchallenged; Beaven, i t s sole c r i t i c , had no r e a l basis for his scoldings, and the independents were (10) s i l e n t . (5) V' supra, p.1112. (6) B. C. Gazette, Sept. 8, 1892, p. 989. (7) iTIMES, Oct. 12, 1892, p. 4. (8) C O L O N I S T , July 20, 1892, p. 4. (9) B. C. Journals, Jan. 26, 1893, pp. 1, 2. d o ) C O L O N I S T, Jan. 3 1 , 1893, p. 4. 118 When the b i l l s themselves were introduced the government's opponents had l i t t l e more to say. The school b i l l , which gave f u l l l o c a l control of education to the c i t y (11) trustees, was well received; and the independents a c t u a l l y (12) (13) congratulated Col. Baker on the labor disputes b i l l . The (14) public health act, which provided for a centralized health control over the whole province, was opposed only by J. C. Brown and the COLUMBIAN, as an infringement upon municipal (15) rights; otherwise i t was very popular. But these three acts were not measures of p o l i c y ; the school and labor b i l l s c a r r i e d out ideas which had long been advocated by the opposition and the independents, and the government could claim no r e a l c r e d i t for them; and the health act was the re s u l t of the recent smallpox epidemic, which had demonstrated to everyone the need fo r e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l . Although the opposition had less need now for petty obstruction devices, yet these were not wanting. Beaven had revived the Kennedy case i n the charge that the speaker and every member of the house were l i a b l e to action for damages as a result of their ' i l l e g a l * action of the pre-(16) vious session. When Davie presented a copy of the opinion (11) 56 V i c t . , ch. 41. B. C. Statutes, 1893, pp. 89-92. (12) COLONIST, Feb. 8, 1893, p. 6. ~ (13) 56 V i c t . , eh. 21. B. C. Statutes, 1893, pp. 97-108. (14) 56 V i c t . , ch.15. l o c . c i t . , pp. 47-74. (15) COLUMBIAN, Mar. 2, 1893, p. 2. (16) COLONIST, Feb. 16, 1893, p. 6. 119 (17) - given by Dr. Bourinot of Ottawa, in which that authority on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law suggested that B r i t i s h Columbia's l e g i s -l a t i o n must be amended so as to give the l e g i s l a t u r e power to punish offenders against the orders of the house, the oppo-s i t i o n i s t s c r i t i c i z e d the attorney-general for spending $100 on an outside opinion and then passing the special act before (18) that opinion was received. Even the budget debate was a tame a f f a i r . Although i t lasted for several days, yet the opposition had few r e a l c r i t i c i s m s to make; they kept wandering from the points at (19) issue to the more l i v e one of the new parliament buildings. But such calm could not l a s t . The premier brought upon his head the fury of a l l mainland residents when he i n -troduced a b i l l providing for the erection of new parliament (20) buildings i n V i c t o r i a . In the debates on the b i l l the sec-t i o n a l character of the house was demonstrated. The main-landers claimed of course that i t was a scheme to keep the &17) "Return...copy of the opinion given by Dr. J. G.Bourinot, as to the powers and p r i v i l e g e s of the Leg-i s l a t i v e Assembly." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1893, p. 569. S i r John Bourinot, from 1880 u n t i l his death i n 1902 the chief clerk of the Canadian House of Commons, i s s t i l l regarded as a foremost authority on Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law and h i s t o r y . He published several books on parliamentary procedure and government i n Canada; he was the f i r s t secretary (1882) and l a t e r the president (1892) of the Royal Society of Canada. (18) TIMES, Feb. 27, 1893, p. 4. The opinion was dated A p r i l 9th, and eould not reach V i c t o r i a for a week; the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly Powers Act was passed on A p r i l 8. (19) COLONIST, Mar. 14, 1893, p. 4. (20) 56 V i c t . , ch. 34. B. C. Statutes, 1893, 'pp. 161-162. 120 c a p i t a l on the is l a n d instead of removing i t to i t s l o g i c a l (21) location i n the centre of commerce and industry; SSmlin voiced the arguments of many members when he stated that the -b i l l would mean a large increase i n taxation at a time when (22) the people could i l l a f f ord to pay, and G. B. Martin, soon to be a cabinet minister, protested that the money should be (23) spent i n opening up the province. Even J . W. Horne of Van-couver, erstwhile independent who had joined the government ranks, condemned the b i l l as premature; new o f f i c e s f or the lands and works department and the r e g i s t r y records would (24) have been s u f f i c i e n t . The government denied the expediency charge with the statement that the c a p i t a l would never be moved, that any •anchorage 1 was therefore unnecessary. I t was merely a 'business proposition^, the replacement of old buildings which were unheatable f i r e - t r a p s ; moreover, the annual carrying charges on the $600,000 expenditure could be met out of the (25) current revenue without any increase i n taxation. And here we have the amazing spectacle of b i t t e r oppositionists sup-porting the government for sectional reasons; even Beaven, although he admitted that he had condemned Turner's d e f i c i t s , now maintained that the province could e a s i l y a f f o r d the new buildings, and denied that an el e c t i o n should be held on the (21) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Mar. 26, 1893, p. 4. (22) COLONIST, Mar. 21, 1893, p. 6. (23) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 22, 1893, p. 6. (24) TbTd. (25) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 21, 1893, p. 6. 121 (26) issue. (27) d i v i s i o n : The b i l l passed i t s second reading on the following Yeas gays Grant Punch K e l l i e Milne Beaven Smith Watt Baker Davie Vernon Sberts Booth H a l l Nason Pooley Turner Croft Hunter Rogers Anderson Fletcher Porster Keith Stoddart Martin Semlin McKenzie Sword Kitchen Cotton Horne Brown 21 11 The c i t i z e n s of Vancouver and New Westminster, who had se c r e t l y hoped some day to get the c a p i t a l , held mass meetings to protest against the outrage, but with no e f f e c t ; the b i l l had already passed. Even the WORLD condemned the (29) government's action, and the Vernon NEWS aptly wondered why the administration suddenly found the country r i c h enough to support the new project, when i t could not af f o r d to bui l d (30) much-needed roads to open up the mining d i s t r i c t s . But the Vancouver PEOPLE'S JOURNAL, i n a parody of an auction sale advertisement, gave the best expression to the mainland (31) f e e l i n g : (26) COLONIST, Mar. 22, 1893, p. 6. (27) B. C. Journals, Mar. 21, 1893, pp. 79-80. K e l l i e and Nason of the i n t e r i o r stand by the government, but Stoddart and Martin oppose the b i l l . The is l a n d oppo-s i t i o n i s t s also vote for i t . (28) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Mar. 19, 1893, p. 4. (29) WORLD, Mar. 9, 1893, p. 4. (30) Vernon News, Mar. 23, 1893, p. 4. (31) Vancouver PEOPLE'S JOURNAL, Mar. 25, 1893, p. 1. (28) 122 DESIRABLE INVESTMENT! To be sold by auction not l a t e r than A p r i l 1st, 1893, at VICTORIA, B. C.f i n l i q u i d a t i o n for a b i l l of sale for #600,000 As a Going Concern, a l l that portion of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, known as T H E M A I N L A N D Situated opposite and east of Vancou-ver Island, and separated from i t by the Gulf of Georgia; together with a l l the l i v e stock, consisting of men, women and c h i l d r e n . Descriptive P a r t i c u l a r s This property offers a rare opportunity to gentle-men with s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l knowledge to explain that s t e a l i n g i s no robbery, and that bribery i s not corruption, and that the people on t h i s property merely exist to promote the mat-e r i a l i nterests of the landlord. Any intending purchaser w i l l meet no opposition in c o l l e c t i n g the extreme rack rents. These have l a t e l y been raised and arrangements have been made at our establishment at St. James1 Bay to s t i l l further increase them, when they w i l l reach about f i f t y - t h r e e d o l l a r s per head; but such i s the d i s c i p l i n e i n which the tenants have been kept, that they re-ceived the announcement cheerfully, and are determined to work hard to supply t h e i r masters with the needful. We canfeissure the future owners that they need have no apprehension that the s l i g h t e s t resistance w i l l be met with to any treatment they may choose to impose. The people have been so thoroughly trained in unquestioned submission, 123 the idea of resistance w i l l never occur to them. More-over, t h i s property i s capable of great improvement, and might be made to pay much better than i t does at present by a comparatively small expenditure on roads, bridges, wharves, etc. Anything not s u f f i c i e n t l y understood i n t h i s advertisement, or of a 'nebulous* nature, w i l l be ex-plained by dropping a post-card to the vendors at St. James' Bay. No auction fees. A lump sum charged on the whole l o t . Private proposals w i l l be received by Knavey, Vera-non and Company, (Unlimited) Vendors. This agitation might have died down, had i t not (32) been aggravated by Davie's delay of the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l . The opposition of course made a great deal of the fact that the throne speech had d e f i n i t e l y recognized the need of a new measure, that the government was now going back; on i t s (33) promise, and they discarded the excuse of mistakes i n the do> minion census as a b l i n d for Davie's fear of l o s i n g his (34) 'pocket borough' supporters. The government papers had very few arguments to ad> vance; merely that the census returns for B r i t i s h Columbia were inaccurate, and could not yet be used as a basis of re-(35) d i s t r i b u t i o n , and that the delay was only for a year. The Nanaimo PREE PRESS, representing one of the much-maligned pocket boroughs, claimed that the measure was not necessary (32) COLONIST, Mar. 31, 1893, p. 8. (33) TIMES, A p r i l 1, 1893, p. 4. (34) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Apr. 2, 1893, p. 4. It turned out l a t e r that Davie's excuse was very t h i n . v. i n f r a , p. 128 (35) COLONIST, Mar. 31, 1893, p. 8. 124 u n t i l the next year anyway, when the general election would (36) he held. The WORLD, which had heen independent enough to oppose the parliament buildings b i l l , now returned to the government f o l d with a long di s s e r t a t i o n upon the oensus err-(37) ors, and the need of readjusting the f i g u r e s . In the house, Cotton and Keith moved a non-confidence vote censuring the government for neglecting to bring down a re d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l ; of course'they had no hope of defeating the administration, but they did wish an opportunity to place t h e i r protest upon record. The most i n t e r e s t i n g feature of the debate was John Grant's defence of the delay. He said that two years before he would have supported Cotton?s motion, but not now; the independents had voted with the government to get patronage, but now they were sei z i n g a flimsy excuse (38) to defeat the ministry, and he refused to a s s i s t them. This change of heart i s rather astonishing in one who had never been backward in moving s i m i l a r censures; perhaps Grant re-sented the growing power of the 'independent' o p p o s i t i o n i s t s . (39) But the defeat of Cotton's motion did not end the matter, for the old Mainland Association of 1890 was revived. Even before the opening of the session, Messrs. Brown and Cotton had c a l l e d a public meeting in Vancouver to demand re-(40) d i s t r i b u t i o n , and now they formed the Constitutional League. (36) Nanaimo PREE PRESS, A p r i l 1, 1893, p. 4. (37) WORLD, A p r i l 10, 1893, p. 4. (38) COLONIST, A p r i l 8, 1893, p. 6. (39) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 7, 1893, p. 117. (40) WORLD, Jan. 28, 1893, p. 3. 125 At another mass meeting in Vancouver, Reverend G. R. Maxwell read the manifesto demanding just representation, con-demning the government's extravagance, and intimating separ-(41) ation: Serious as i t i s to contemplate the erection of the Mainland into a self-governing Province of the Dominion, l e t every man consider whether i t he or not "by far l e s s serious than remaining as at present, u n t i l the 36,000 people of the Island l e g i s l a t e the 60,000 people of the Mainland into f i n a n c i a l r u i n . As a d i s t i n c t Province the Mainland would have f a i r representation, impartial l e g i s -l a t i o n , the f u l l benefit of her own revenue applied i n opening up the country and a progress which would eclipse the past both i n volume and r a p i d i t y . The meeting passed a resolution organising the Constitutional (42) League " f o r the purpose of defending our p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s " , and named a committee to act with similar bodies from other parts of the province. The c e n t r a l committee, l e d by General Twigge and William Templeton, d i s t r i b u t e d copies of the manifesto throughout the mainland constituencies and organised comm-it t e e s to secure signatures for a p e t i t i o n to the governor-general, asking him to veto the parliament buildings b i l l . Thomas E. Kitchen of Chilliwack did a good missionary work (with expenses paid) by carrying the p e t i t i o n s to the i n t e r -(43) i o r d i s t r i c t s . Then the premier, not to be outdone, himself i n -vaded the enemy's camp. He toured the mainland attempting to (41) HEWS-ADVERTISER, A p r i l 16, 1893, p. 1. (42) i b i d . (43) l o c . c i t . , Sept. 24, 1893, p. 1. Prom Twigge's account given at the Kamloops convention. 1S6 (44) explain the government's conduct, but the newspaper reports (45) are so contradictory that we cannot judge of his success. The death of I. B. Nason, who had suffered from (46) cancer f o r years, necessitated a by-election in Cariboo, and thi s was to be a test of the government's strength. Davie of course extended his tour to this t e r r i t o r y , and Kitchen and (47) Brown followed him. The TIMES charged that Davie favored Denis Murphy (now the Hon. Mr. Justice Murphy) rather than (48) William Adams, because the l a t t e r had said that, had he been i n the house, he would have voted against the parliament (49) buildings i f the government majority were not imperilled^ (50) But Adams, the winner, proved very amenable to party d i s c i p l i n e once he entered the l e g i s l a t u r e . The opposition made great c a p i t a l of the charge that Davie was bribing the i n t e r i o r newspapers. The INLAND (51) SENTINEL of Kamloops changed hands i n November, and became a strong government supporter. The former editor, Hugh McCutcheon, stood as an opposition candidate in the 1894 e-l e c t i o n , and made open accusations against Davie of backing (52) the three Vancouver men who had purchased the paper. The (44) WORLD, July 7, 1893, p. 2. (45) loc . c i t . , May 11, 1893, p. 4, c a l l s the New Westminster meeting~a triumph; NEWS-ADVERTISER, May 11, 1893, p. 4, says that Davie attempted an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . (46) COLONIST, May 28, 1893, p. 4. (47) l o c . c i t . , Oct. 1, 1893, p. 4. (48) TIMES7~Uct. 12, 1893, p. 4. YE HORNET, Sept. 25, 1893, p. 6. (49) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Sepjb. 5, 1893, p. 4. (50) COLONIST, Oct. 5, 1893, p. 1. (51) INLAND SENTINEL, Nov. 4, 1893, p. 4. (52) Loc. . c i t . , July 6, 1894, p. 3. 127 (53) Vernon NEWS also was forced to deny hints of Davie co n t r o l , claiming to he s t r i c t l y independent. While there i s no di r e c t evidence against the premier, yet in view of the sudden change in tone of the two papers, i t i s quite probable that the charges were true; i f so Davie was merely following out a general practice of the d a y — f o r i t was an extraordinary jour-nal indeed that did not have some personal i n t e r e s t in p o l i t i c a l The Constitutional League's agitation was to reach a climax at the Kamloops convention, to be attended by rep-(54) resentatives from every mainland constituency; but i t v/as more of an anti-climax. For by thi s time the people had come to see the f o l l y of the p e t i t i o n to the governor-general; and even the NEWS-ADVERTISER had repudiated the desire for sep-aration, substituting the aim of thorough organisation at the (55) coming e l e c t i o n . The meeting i t s e l f was unimportant, with very few (56) delegates--a 'non-representative convention'; even C h i l l i -wack, stronghold of Thomas Kitchen, refused to send anyone to (57) Kamloops. At the convention a committee met i n camera to formulate several harmless resolutions demanding r e d i s t r i -bution and condemning Davie's sectionalism, eliminating se-(58) cession altogether; then the open meeting passed these (53) Vernon NEWS, Nov. 16, 1893, p. 4. (54) TIMES, Aug. 31, 1893, p. 4. (55) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Sept. 24, 1893, p. 1 (56) COLONIST, Oct. 12, 1893, p. 4. (57) ?/ORLD, Oct. 9, 1893, p. 4. (58) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Oct. 13, 1893, p. 4. 128 (59) without debate, and the Constitutional League was no more. The mainlanders c e r t a i n l y had a sound basis for t h e i r indignation; there r e a l l y was no need f o r the huge ex-penditure on the parliament buildings at that time, other than Davie's own determination to keep the c a p i t a l on the isl a n d ; for even i f there were no immediate danger of i t s re-moval, he knew that sooner or l a t e r the more t h i c k l y popu-lated and prosperous mainland would demand the erection of a (60) new seat, of government in a more ce n t r a l l o c a t i o n . True, the old buildings were crowded'and d i f f i c u l t to heat; but even apart from the c a p i t a l 'anchorage', a gradual expenditure on new o f f i c e s for the lands and works and other important de-partments would have f i l l e d the b i l l . For i t was impracti-cable to attempt to house the whole p r o v i n c i a l administration under one roof, and the new building was soon too small. The r e d i s t r i b u t i o n withdrawal was also u n f a i r . The (61) census figures were wrong, of course, but the readjustment made only a very small difference; and i t took the govern-ment an amazingly long time to discover that the f a u l t s were so serious. The most curious thing i s why Davie even (59) Y/ORLD, Oct. 11, 1893, p. 4. (60) Dr. R. ID• Reid confirms t h i s theory. (61) "Papers r e l a t i n g to the population of B r i t i s h Columbia.." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1892, pp. 411-415. These show an under-estimation i n the 1891 census of V i c t o r i a ' s population; and this i s long before the 1893 session I The revised returns add only about 6,000 to the t o t a l population of the province: "Return...results of the revised census..." i b i d . , 1894, pp. 1587-1589. 129 promised the h i l l at this session; for although an a l t e r a t i o n in the representation does not automatically e n t a i l a general e l e c t i o n , yet i t i s of l i t t l e use without; and the house would not dissolve u n t i l 18941 But the fact remains that the (62) throne speech did recognise the need for r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , and that the government calmly withheld the measure upon a petty excuse. It seems almost certain that the representatives of the smaller constituencies, who would he eliminated under the new system, had refused to support the b i l l , and that Davie concluded that a year's postponement would allow the buildings agitat i o n to die down and would give him firmer backing. Yes, Twigge, Maxwell, Brown and Kitchen had a good foundation of indignation to work upon, but they misjudged the temper of the people and went too far in t h e i r secession talk; thus they l o s t the sympathy of the very men they pro-fessed to be helping, and the following dwindled away. Every revolutionary movement i s led by a group of 'radicals' whose ideas are f a r beyond those of t h e i r d i s c i p l e s ; in some cases these leaders are able to sway the whole group and to force out the moderates; in others they f a i l and must drop out of s i g h t . In t h i s mainland 'separation', movement the organisers did not gain t h e i r avowed objective, for the governor-general took no action on the p e t i t i o n s , and the mainland did not secede; but the group did perfect a p o l i t i c a l organisation which stood them in good stead the next year, and they united (62) B. 0. Journals, Jan. 26, 1893, p. 2. 130 the three-year-old 'independent' party with the regular o p p o s i t i o n i s t s . Indeed the r e a l goal of the leaders probably was to gain support for a new opposition party, to oust the govern-ment. Even here they did not succeed, for they put the island more s o l i d l y behind Davie, and they also alienated many mo-derate 'conservative' mainlanders by t h e i r inflammatory t a l k ; (63) they gained very few seats in 1894. With such an agitation just passed and with a gen-e r a l e l e c t i o n just ahead, members could not hope for a quiet session i n 1894. Although the opposition (Beavenites and independents) made l i f c t l e r e a l c r i t i c i s m of the throne (64) speech, yet they soon began t h e i r pre-election censure motions Cotton f i r s t attacked Hon. C. E. Pooley for appear-ing in court against the government in a dispute over the (65) island railway belt mines. Pooley had for years been counsel for the Esquimault and Nanaimo Railway Company, and was merely carrying out part of his duties; he had been elected twice since his appointment as l e g a l advisor, and did not f e e l himself to be in any way a t r a i t o r to the government; his post as president of the council paid no salary, and he did (66) not even accept t r a v e l l i n g expenses. The oppositionists in (67) thus attacking a man whose i n t e g r i t y was as yet unquestioned; (63) v. i n f r a , p. 142. (64) COLONIST, Jan. 23, 1894, p. 4. (65) l o c . c i t . , Feb. 6, 1894, p. 6. (66) Toe. cTf., Feb. 21, 1894, p. 7. (67) But he got into trouble l a t e r ; v. i n f r a , p. 169. 131 true, they had a technical basis for t h e i r accusations, but they could not yet prove to the electors that Pooley was corrupt. But, determined to injure the cabinet i n some way, Beaven moved a resolution of censure against Col. Baker f o r his part i n the promotion of the Cranbrook Estate, a 1500-acre (68) townsite i n the east Kootenay. The p r o v i n c i a l secretary, while in England, had di s t r i b u t e d copies of a prospectus in which his name appeared as a vendor, with a l l his o f f i c i a l (69) t i t l e s . By some unknown means the TIMES had obtained a copy and had printed i t in f u l l , although the o r i g i n a l was p l a i n l y (70) marked " f o r private d i s t r i b u t i o n only". While Col. Baker's reputation was not untarnished, yet no blame should be attached to him i n t h i s case; he had a perfect right to use his t i t l e s on the prospectus as an evidence of the good f a i t h of the company. Premier Davie was the next man favored with the attention of the 'muckrakers'. He had agreed to give to the Hakusp and Slocan Railway Company a grant of $25,000 per mile, which the opposition claimed was $7,500 per mile more (71) than the construction would cost; the inference was that the government members were to share the difference. Long and heated debates brought no r e s u l t , u n t i l Thomas Forster l e t (68) B. C. Journals, Feb. 8, 1894, p. 32. (69) COLONIST, Feb. 9, 1894, p. 3. (70) TIMES, Jan. 29, 1894, p. 3. (71) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Mar. 15, 1894, p. 4. 132 s l i p a d i r e c t accusation that Davie was a memher of the eom-(72) pany. The premier at once moved for a royal commission to (73) investigate the truth of the statement, and was soon exon-erated of a l l blame. Yet there must have been some truth in (74). the charges, for the grant was reduced to $17,500 per mile. The next discussion arose out of alleged misstate-ments i n a government report, which had claimed that the votes polled for government candidates in the 1890 e l e c t i o n had equalled those cast for the opposition and independent (75) candidates combined. Kitchen and Sword moved a resolution regretting t h i s false statement and showed that the govern-ment's figures were based on the votes polled for the inde-pendents who had since, joined the government; in r e a l i t y (76) there was a Majority against the government of 3,938. Aft e r a long discussion as to the r i g h t f u l places of J . W. Horne, J . M. K e l l i e and James Punch the resolution was de-feated, but not before both sides had indulged in a great deal of strong language; Horne claimed that he had l e f t the (77) independents because of the bumptiousness of J . C. Brown, (78) and K e l l i e put his reason even more f o r c e f u l l y . But Kitchen had not yet f i n i s h e d . He introduced a non-confidence amendment to the motion to enter the supply (72) TIMES, A p r i l 7, 1894, p. 3. (73) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 9, 1894, pp. 146-148. (74) 57 V i c t . , ch. 43. B.C. Statutes, 1894, pp. 233-234.(75) "Reply to B r i t i s h Columbia's Defamers." B. C. Sess-i o n a l Papers, 1894, pp. 167-168. (76) B. C. Journals, Feb. 5, 1894, p. 24. (77) COLONIST, Feb. 6, 1894, p. 7. (78) l o c . c i t . , Feb. 7, 1894, p. 6. 133 committee, censuring the government for attempting to con-(79) ceal the state of the p r o v i n c i a l finances. He charged that the expenditure had greatly exceeded the revenue, and that many payments had heen made by spe c i a l warrant which were not provided f o r i n the supply resolutions; furthermore, the ex-penditure planned for the coming year would necessitate and. increase of taxation, which f a c t , he said, the cabinet did (80) not intend to reveal u n t i l a f t e r the general e l e c t i o n . The government quashed discussion by the simple expedient of making no reply to the motion, and Beaven, wait-ing for a cabinet member to defend the ministry, was pre-(81) vented from speaking by the ringing of the d i v i s i o n b e l l ; the amendment was of course defeated, with Grant s t i l l supporting (82) the government. But the greatest struggle was yet to come, the supply obstruction. When the government attempted to rush (83) the votes through, the opposition delayed them at every turn, (84) u n t i l the climax was reached in a 23-hour a l l - n i g h t s i t t i n g . The immediate cause of the disturbance was Kitchen's objection to resolution 9 which provided for the salary of a separate (85) minister of education, when that p o r t f o l i o was held by Gol. ((79) B. 0. Journals, Feb. 20, 1894, pp. 44, 45. (80) TIMES, Feb. 22, 1894, p. 4. (81) i b i d . (82) B T T . Journals, Feb. 21, 1894, p. 46. But they did reply when Beaven moved a vote of censure on the same question; and Grant actually defended the government. COLONIST, Feb. 28, 1894, p. 7. (83) loc . c i t . , Feb. 25, 1894, p. 4. (84) THa. (85) B. C. Journals, Feb. 23, 1894, p. 63. 134 Baker. Kitchen claimed that i f another minister was necess^ ary, one should he appointed; i f not, the vote should not be passed. A dispute arose with acting chairman R. H. H a l l as to Kitchen's right to the f l o o r , but i t was soon s e t t l e d when (86) G. B. Martingreturned to the chair, and the vote was passed. The government refused to adjourn u n t i l a l l the votes had (87) been put through, thereby cutt i n g short the discussions. Despite a l l the time wasted on these pre-election bickerings, much valuable l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted at this session. The growing influence of agriculture was recognised, through the influence of Hon. J. H. Turner, by an act for the (88) regulation of the department of agriculture, and an act to en-(89) courage co-operative dairying. An important measure fo r h i s -torians was that establishing the l e g i s l a t i v e l i b r a r y and (90) bureau of s t a t i s t i c s , which l a t e r expanded into the excellent p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y and archives, our storehouse of materials on l o c a l h i s t o r y . The l e g i s l a t u r e did not take any important steps i n the transportation f i e l d , but i t gave a larger graibib to the (91) New Westminster bridge, allowed the Kaslo and Slocan company ( 9 2 ) to use a narrov/ guage l i n e , gave the Nelson and Port Sheppard (93) company an extension of time, consolidated the various acts (86) COLONIST, Peb. 25, 1894, p. 4. (87) B. C. Journals, Feb. 23, 1894, p. 63. (88) 57 V i c t . , ch 1. B. C. Statutes, 1894, pp. 3-5. (89) 57 V i c t . , ch 11. l o c . c i t . , pp. 35-38. (90) 57 V i c t . , ch. 27. T 5 c . cTTf., pp. 137-139. (91) 57 V i c t . , ch. 16. Toe. c i T . , pp. 73-76. (92) 57 V i c t . , ch. 41. H e . c T t . , pp. 219-220. (93) 57 V i c t . , ch. 42 . Toe . "cTfc ., pp. 221-222. 135 concerning the Crow's Nest and Kootenay Lake company under (94) the t i t l e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern, made the Ashcroft and Cariboo company (a Canadian P a c i f i c branch) the Cariboo (95) company under amended conditions, and incorporated a few new (96) companies. But the piece de resistance was the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n (97) b i l l , introduced early i n the session. The new act retained the old number of s e a t s — 3 3 — b u t re-arranged the d i s t r i c t s so that the mainland had 19 members and the isl a n d 14, divided several large d i s t r i c t s into r i d i n g s , and gave an extra member each to Vancouver, West Kootenay and New Westminster d i s t r i c t . This made the regional representation as nearly equal as poss-i b l e , and the old mainland versus i s l a n d question was at l a s t buried. There was no great a g i t a t i o n against t h i s b i l l as there had been i n 1890, for the simple reason that i t met the needs of the province as nearly as possible; and apparently Davie had been able to override the demands of his 'pocket borough' supporters. The opposition did make mild accusations of gerry-mandering in the choice of d i s t r i c t s to be divided (98) into ridings and i n the undue representation given to r u r a l (99) d i s t r i c t s , but on the whole the b i l l was well received. At (94) 57 V i c t . , ch. 53. B. C. Statutes, 1894, pp. 305-313. (95) 57 V i c t . , ch. 55. l o c . c i t . , pp. 319-325. (96) 57 V i c t . , chs. 56-59, 63, 64. l o c . c_it., pp. 327-359, 373-396. (97) 57 V i c t . , ch. 26. l o c . c i t . , pp. 115-135. (98) TIMES, Peb. 17, 1894, p. 2. (99) Nanaimo PREE PRESS, Peb. 19, 1894, p. 4. 136 l a s t the Davie government had done something to counteract the indignation of the previous year, and to gain favor with the voters'. I f the new measure was governed hy s e l f i s h motives i t was successful, for the ministry was returned at the gen-e r a l e l e c t i o n which followed immediately. Yet the Smithe dynasty was at l a s t s t r i c t l y on the defensive against oppo-s i t i o n charges of extravagance and corruption, and the party machine, though temporarily renewed hy thi s p o l l i n g , showed serious signs of the inevitable breakdown. I f the a c t i v i t i e s of the Constitutional League and of a few members of the i n -dependent section of the new opposition c o a l i t i o n had not aroused such antagonism among the more moderate electors, probably the government would have had a much smaller major-i t y . Davie had^live, well-controlled organisation, while the opposition had not even a r e a l leader; i n other words the administration won the ele c t i o n by virtue of i t s p o l i t i c a l s k i l l , not because of a whole-hearted approval of i t s actions i n o f f i c e . Yet the resu l t of the mainland separation movement ^ showed c l e a r l y i n the fact that a l l the opposition candidates were elected in the d i s t r i c t s where the Constitutional League organisation had been perfected, with not a single represen-tative from the isl a n d ; they sent a s o l i d slate from the lower mainland and several members from the i n t e r i o r mining d i s t r i c t s . In Eew Westminster d i s t r i c t , which had been d i -vided into four r i d i n g s , i n t e r e s t centred mainly round the contest at Chilliwack. Kitchen was unpopular because of his injury to l o c a l interests by continued snarling at the gov-(100) eminent, and he probably would have been defeated had not a s p l i t occurred i n the government ranks. Donald McGillvray, (101) selected by a majority o f one to oppose Kitchen, was l a t e r (102) forced to r e t i r e as candidate i n favor of Samuel Cawley, reeve o f the municipality. As a r e s u l t , Kitchen was returned (103) with a majority of 22. In Dewdney C. B. Sword was more fortunate. The government, lacking a l o c a l man, put up Dr. lefevre of Van-? couver; the candidate was a good man, but an outsider could not hope to turn the farmers against Sword, who was one o f them-(104) selves. Sword headed the p o l l by a comfortable margin. An old-time resident, Thomas Ki d d , also c a r r i e d Richmond for the opposition. Charles S. Douglas, the govern-ment candidate, had been a member of the Manitoba l e g i s l a t u r e (105) and was a c o u n c i l l o r of South Vancouver, but Kidd gained a (106) large majority. I t was the opposition who 'imported' a candidate i n Delta, where Thomas Forster of Nanaimo e a s i l y defeated the (100) COLONIST, Feb. 8, 1894, p. 4. (101) Chilliwack PROGRESS, A p r i l 18, 1894, p. 4. (102) loc» c i t . , A p r i l 25, 1894, p. 4. (103) "GemmiTlT J» A., The Canadian parliamentary companion, (Ottawa, 1897), p. 379 . : "'" • ' (:104) i b i d . (105) M E D , May 22, 1894, p. 4. (106) Gemmill, ojo. c i t . , p. 380. 138 (107) s i t t i n g member, James Punch. In this case the natural a n t i -pathy to an outsider was overcome by hatred of the government, and by the fact that Porster had been a much more active mem-ber of the l e g i s l a t u r e than Punch. Moreover the successful candidate had, despite his island associations, opposed the (108) parliament buildings b i l l ; thus he had endeared himself to the mainlanders and injured his prospects on the island;•probably this was the r e a l reason for his move to Delta. The main feature of the contest i n New Westminster c i t y was the retirement from p o l i t i c s of J. C. Brown by re-quest of the po s t - o f f i c e department, of which he was an em* ployee. His friends of course charged that Davie had used his influence at Ottawa to obtain the postmaster-general's order (109) that employees could not hold public o f f i c e ; hut this was a general rule for the whole dominion. I f Brown had had f a i t h in his p o l i t i c a l future, he would have resigned from the c i v i l service, f o r he probably would have been re-elected. But the opposition was well r i d of him, for he was a loud-mouthed mediocrity who demanded the centre of the stage and who could (110) not work with his colleagues. In his stead J. B. Kennedy, (107) Gemmill, 0£. c i t . , p. 379. (108) v. supra, p. 121. (109) E d l O T S T , A p r i l . 24, 1894, p. 4. (110) Dr. Reid, who l a t e r worked with Brown on the New west-minster c i t y council, says that Brown had a r e a l l y cre-ative mind, but was a poor administrator; he admits that Brown was a vi r u l e n t debater. I have found no ev-idence of any creative work that Brown accomplished i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d other than the Mainland Association and the Constitutional league, which are hardly to his cr e d i t -139 (111) prominent saw-mill operator (no r e l a t i o n the proprietors of (112) the COLUMBIAN), narrowly defeated David Cu r t i s , the mayor who (113) had refused to c a l l a secession meeting in 1893. In Vancouver c i t y the opposition again returned t h e i r f u l l t i c k e t of Adolphus Williams, Robert MacPherson and P. L. (114) Carter-Cotton, e a s i l y defeating the government t i c k e t of Mayor Anderson, Capt. Tatlow and E. Odium (who replaced J. W. (115) Horne). Samuel Greer also stood, but was never a factor in (116) the campaign. During the election Cotton, usually exempt from corruption charges, was imprisoned for refusing to disclose to his judgement c r e d i t o r the names of the persons who had pur-(117) chased $20,000-of stock in the NEWS-ADVERTISER. Although t h i s pointed to the fact that^his paper was subsidized by the opp^ o s i t i o n , yet i t did l i t t l e harm to Cotton's cause; Vancouver, antagonized by the V i c t o r i a clique, had long been an opposi-tion stronghold. The i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s , although i n the long run p r e f e r r i n g the government candidates, yet elected a few (111) Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 133. (112) Gemmill, op_. c i t . , p. 380. His majority was 20. (113) ' COLUMBIAN:;.. Mar. 21, 1893, p. 2. (114) Gemmill, op. c i t . , p. 380. (115) COLONIST, June~T4, 1894, p. 4. (116) Gemmill, 0 £ . c i t . , p. §80. (117) COLONIST, June~T, 1894, p. 4. The creditors of the NEWS-ADVERTISER had obtained a judgement against the firm, and wished to know who the backer of the paper was. Dr. Reid says that i t was common knowledge that the Canadian P a c i f i c was the r e a l owner of the NEWS-ADVERTISER; in that case the matter had no p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 140 o p p o s i t i o n i s t s . The administration ca r r i e d East and West Kootenay, r e - e l e c t i n g C o l . Baker (opposed by N i c o l a i Sehou, (118) (119) reeve of Burnaby) and J. M. K e l l i e ; but in the south r i d i n g J. P. Hume of Nelson, with a platform opposing the Nakusp and (120) (121) Slocan railway scheme, defeated G. 0. Buchanan of Kaslo. The only cabinet defeat was i n East Yale, where Donald Graham e-(122) liminated Hon. P. G. Vernon; i n North Yale Martin e a s i l y de-(123) (124) feated McCutcheon, former editor of the Vernon NEWS. 0. A. Semlin, opposition veteran, was returned for West Yale, and J. P. Prentice, new r e c r u i t , won for the opposition in East (125) L i l l o o e t . The administration c a r r i e d a l l the other i n t e r i o r (126) seats: Cariboo, Cassiar, and L i l l o o e t West. The i s l a n d , g r a t e f u l for the parliament buildings (127) and anxious f o r the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c railway, went s o l i d l y for the government. Por the f i r s t since he had been elected' in 1871 Hon. Robert Beaven was defeated i n V i c t o r i a c i t y , eraen (128) l o s i n g his deposit; the successful candidates were R. P. (129) RIthe£, Hon. J. H. Turner, H. D. Helmcken and John Braden, (130) nominees of the V i c t o r i a P o l i t i c a l Association. J. P. Booth ^ -(118) C O L O N I S T , June 27, 1894, p. 4. (119) Gemmill, op. c i t . , p." 379 . (120) T I M E S , A p r i l "2T7 1894, p. 4. (121) Gemmill, op. c i t . , p. 379. (122) i b i d . (123) Tbid. (124) v. supra, p. 126. (125) Gemmill, op. c i t . , p. 380. (126) i b i d . (127) v T T n f r a , pp. 153-154. (128) C O L O N I S T, July 8, 1894, p. i . (129) Gemmill, op. c i t . , p. 380. (130) C O L O N I S T, —MarcH —22, 1894, p. 5. 141 won In V i c t o r i a North and D. M. Eberts, soon to be attorney-(131) general, i n the south r i d i n g , while four others were elected by acclamation: Hon. Theodore Davie and J. M. Mutter in Cowichan-Alberni and Hon. C. E. Pooley and Hon. D. W. Higgins (132) in Esquimault. In Comox there was much discussion as to the r e a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of Mr. Scharschmidt, opponent of Joseph Hunter; both sides claimed that Scharschmidt, who c a l l e d himself a (133) government supporter, was r e a l l y an oppositionist i n disguise. (134) However the victory of Hunter put an end to the necessity for such dispute. Thomas Keith, the s i t t i n g member for Nanaimo c i t y who had worked so hard for the rights of laborers and for Chinese r e s t r i c t i o n , was narrowly defeated by James McGregor, While John Bryden and Dr. V/. W. Walkem were victo r i o u s in the (135) north and south r i d i n g s . When the results were a l l i n , i t was seen the the opposition had gained a few seats, but that Davie s t i l l had a (136) good working majority of nine: (131) v. i n f r a , p. 149. (132) "gemmill, op. c i t . , p. 379. (133) Courtenay NEWS, June 20, 1894, p. 2. (134) Gemmill, o£. c i t . , p. 380. (135) i b i d . (136) As before, this i s my own arrangement; i t i s based t h i s time upon Gemmill, op. c i t . , pp. 379-380. Dr. Walkem opposed the government i n 1897, but re-turned in 1898; Higgins and K e l l i e d e f i n i t e l y joined the opposition a f t e r the session of 1897. Kitchen died i n 1897 and was replaced by Adam S. Veddar, also opposition. 142 Government Opposition Adams Mc Gregor Kitchen Rogers Bryden Porster Irving Walkem Sword Davie Rithet Hume Mutter Turner Prentice Hunter Helmcken Kennedy Pooley Braden Kidd Higgins Booth Williams Baker Eberts McPhersoh K e l l i e Martin Cotton Smith Graham Semlin 21 12 There were several protests against the election r e s u l t s , the most important being i n East L i l l o o e t and i n Chilliwack. J. D. Prentice, winner in the former constituency, was charged v/ith allowing his agents to use 'undue influence' (137) i n the campaign—in other words, bribery; by a compromise, Prentice kept his seat during the 1895 session, a f t e r which (138) he was. defeated at a by-election by D. A. Stoddart; thus the government gained another supporter. In Chilliwack i t was the successful candidate, Kitchen, w„o lodged complaint. A ba l l o t box had been tampered with, and Kitchen claimed that some Cawley supporter had com-mitted the offense; hut he soon dropped the charge f o r lack (139) of evidence. Then he brought action against the returning L.VV o f f i c e , Mr. Paisley, for alleged i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the voters' (137) COLUMBIAN, Sept. 4, 1894, p. 2. (138) WORLD, June 4, 1895, p. 4. (139) PROGRESS, July 18, 1894, p. 2. (140) 143 l i s t ; he took the ease to court at Mission Cit y instead of at (140) home, and won $250 i n damages, hut the supreme court reversed (141) the decision. But even yet Kitchen was not s a t i s f i e d , f o r at the new session he made an unsuccessful attempt to get a com-(142) mittee of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . This a f f a i r i s t y p i c a l of Kitchen's pettiness; he often pursued a s i m i l a r course i n the house, and he never had any r e a l contribution to make for the province's welfare. Since the defeat of Beaven, the opposition lacked even a nominal leader; therefore the members met i n Vancouver (143) and elected Semlin. Undoubtedly most persons expected Cotton to be chosen, but Semlin was probably a compromise selection, more able to bind together the i n t e r i o r and coast members. The only other event of the recess was the el e c t i o n (144) by acclamation of George Bohun Martin, North Yale, a f t e r his appointment as c h i e f commissioner of lands and works, re-(145) placing P. G. Vernon. But there was not long to wait, for the f i r s t session (146) of the new parliament was c a l l e d together in November. The government gave as i t s reason the necessity for large expen-ditures on account of the recent disastrous flood in the (147) Praser Valley, but the opposition saw the early meeting as a (140) PROGRESS, Oct. 3, 1894, p. 2. (141) l o c . c i t . , Nov. 7, 1894, p. 3. (142) COLONIST, Dec. 7, 1894, p. 6. u^L^L^ (143) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Sept. 11, 1894, p. 4 (144) COLONIST, Oct. 18, 1894, p. 4. ^ (145) l o c . c i t . , Oct. 7, 1894, p . 4. (146) BT"C ."Journals, Nov. 2>2, 1894, p. &. (147) COLONIST., Sept. 28, 1894, p. 4. 144 mere excuse to r e f i l l the treasury, emptied by needless ex-(148) travagance; both theories were p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t . The throne speech, which stressed the recent de-(149) pression and forecast several minor b i l l s , e l i c i t e d l i t t l e r e a l debate; Semlin ranted again on the Nakusp and Slocan a f f a i r , and Forster and Prentice on the d e f i c i t , but there was (150) no other c r i t i c i s m . Immediately aft e r t h i s Semlin returned to the fray with a motion f o r the correspondence on the Nakusp and Slocan (151) railway, but he f a i l e d . The road had by this time been com-pleted, but opposition to the grant given to the company had not yet died down. The V i c t o r i a PROVINCE, a new journal based on the l i n e s of the scholarly English magazines, but i n r e a l i t y as v i n d i c t i v e as the old MAINLAND GUARDIAN or TRUTH had been, (152) said of the agreement: . . . i f i t prove unsuccessful B r i t i s h Columbia stands the loss, and i f successful somebody else takes the p r o f i t . Seldom has the old but fascinating game of "heads I win, t a i l s you lose," been played to better advantage than i n the instance of the Nakusp and Slocan Railway. And indeed there must have been something to conceal, f o r Davie and Vernon pleaded that the l e t t e r s were c o n f i d e n t i a l (153) and should not be published; and the motion was defeated by (154) the government's mechanical majority. (148) TIMES, Sept. 7, 1894, p. 4. (149) B. C. Journals, Nov. 12, 1894, p. 1. (150) COLONIST, Nov. 16, 1894, p. 6. (151) B. C. Journals, Dec. 3, 1894, pp. 21, 22. (152) PROVINCE, Dec. 8, 1894, p. 575. (153) COLONIST, Dec. 4, 1894, p. 6. (154) B. C. Journals, Dec. 3, 1894, p. 22. 145 The budget, too, brought trouble to the government. Poor Turner sees to have developed the unfortunate habit of overestimating the revenue, and then of paying for government services by s p e c i a l warrant. In the past nine months these (155) had amounted to $188, 524.71, causing an alarming s i t u a t i o n . (156) However a $2,000,000 loan act, passed a f t e r much g l e e f u l c r i -(157) tieism by the opposition, eased the worry somewhat; but i t added another row of bricks to the province's wall of debt. Of course this was a d i f f i c u l t period of world-wide depression, and the government had been forced to expend a great deal i n flood r e l i e f ; but the fact remains that even in good times Turner could not balance the budget; probably he might have been able to lower the d e f i c i t even no?/, had he kept a close hand on the purse s t r i n g s . The parliament buildings contract was brought into the debates when a select committee reported that the a r c h i -tect had permitted the cheapening of construction i n some (158) p a r t i c u l a r s and had ordered exgra expenditures i n others. Davie, incensed at t h i s charge, moved that the report be re-(159) ferred back to the committee, although prorogation was soon due. Realizing that the committee would not have time to (155) "Statement of s p e c i a l warrants...between the 1st March, 1894, and the 30th November, 1894..." B. 0. Sessional  Papers, 1894-5, pp. 583-584. (156) 58 V i c t . , ch. 35. B.C. Statutes, 1895, pp. 137-138. (157) COLONIST, Jan. 10, 1895, p. 6. (158) l o c . c i t . , Peb. 15, 1895, p. 3. B. 0. Journals, Peb. 8, 1895, p. 108: the report was received and ordered printed, but I do not f i n d i t in the hound volumes. (159) B. C. Journals, Peb. 14, 1895, p. 123. 146 take further evidence, he l a t e r moved that i t s members be constituted a royal commission; the resolution c a r r i e d only (160) on the speaker's casting vote. Although many minor acts were passed which tended to improve the la?/s of mining, agriculture and commerce, the . (161) only important one was that establishing a bureau of mines. In the transportation f i e l d no new companies were incorporated, but the Columbia and Kootenay railway, by t h i s (162) time controlled by the Canadian P a c i f i c , was given an exten-(163) sion of time. A heated debate arose over the b i l l proposing to grant a s i m i l a r p r i v i l e g e to the Red Mountain railway, which would have connected T r a i l Creek with the Spokane and (164) Northern Railway. Although the l i n e was to be b u i l t without (165) any government aid whatever, the house threw out the b i l l on the grounds that the road would divert Kootenay ores from (166) Canadian smelters to American ones. The truth was that, owing to the Canadian P a c i f i c ' s r e f u s a l to open up these d i s t r i c t s , (167) the American outlet was necessary; but the corporation s t i l l had enough friends i n the house t c prevent e f f e c t i v e com-p e t i t i o n . However the Canadian Western charter was again (160) B. C. Journals, Peb. 20, 1895, p. 144. (161) 58 V i c t . , ch. 3. B. C. Statutes, 1895, pp. 9-11. (162) Sage, W. N., MSSW (163) 58 V i c t . , ch. 60. B. C Statutes, 1895, pp. 269-270. (164) TIMES, Jan. 3, 1895, p. 4. (165) B. C. Journals, Jan. 22, 1895, p. 83. (166) TIMES, Jan. 22, 1895, p. 4. (167) Bescoby, Isabel, Some s o c i a l aspects of the American  mining advance into Cariboo and Kootenay (U. B. C. thesis, 1935), p. 44. 147 (168) extended, despite mainland objections that the scheme was im-(169) (170) p r a c t i c a l . But the friends of the project were now so strong, and the i s l a n d electors so expectant, that the extension re-quest could not be denied. Immediately a f t e r the close of the session the ex-pected happened; Premier Davie resigned to accept the c h i e f (171) justiceship made vacant by the death of Begbie. The news-papers of both parties had been predicting this move for some (172) time, and i t i s certain that Davie d e l i b e r a t e l y waited u n t i l (173) the session's business was completed. Gosnell attempts to explain t h i s move on the grounds that the new c h i e f j u s t i c e needed a more stable income and that his health was poor; but Davie's own brother had stuck to his post through much greater pain, and at a time when his resignation would have (174) done l i t t l e harm to the government cause. However, despite the fact that one i s led to sus-pect that Theodore Davie had deserted his decaying party, (175) there i s as usual no d e f i n i t e foundation for such a b e l i e f . We can only regret that he decided to resign at attime when no strong successor was a v a i l a b l e , and when the government was (168) 58 V i c t . , ch. 4. B. 0. Statutes, 1895, pp. 13-14. (169) COLONIST, Peb. 16, 1895, p. 6. (170) 52 V i c t . , ch. 34. B. C. Statutes, 1889, p. 245: Rithet, Earle, Barnard, P r i o r and Senator Seid were directors of the o r i g i n a l company and s t i l l held stock. (171) COLONIST, Peb. 23, 1895, p. 4. (172) TIMES, Peb. 9, 1895, p. 4. (173) S c h o l e f i e l d and Gosnell, ojo. c i t . , part I I , p. 143. Gosnell was Davie's private secretary. (174) v. 3upra, p. 82 . (175) Dr. Reid says that Davie was a born fig h t e r and loved nothing better than a good 'scrap 1, but that the chief justiceship i s the goal of every good lawyer. 148 being b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i z e d for actions which were la r g e l y the re s u l t of Davie's own impulsive and domineering q u a l i t i e s . And yet we must remember that Davie's government had done i t s part in developing the province; that the premier had been a clever p o l i t i c i a n and a strong leader; and, f i n a l l y , (176) that he had been only once accused of personal dishonesty, which i s more than can be said of most of the other prominent p o l i t i c i a n s of the period. For this r e l a t i v e l y clean record, at l e a s t , his name should be long sung. (176) v. supra, p. 131. 149 CHAPTER VII. The Turner Ministry, 1895-1898. When Davie's impending resignation became known, men wondered who would succeed him. Pooley had refused be-fore and Higgins probably would accept, but could not hold the mainland members; there was l e f t only J. H. Turner, minister of finance; and he was the lieutenant-governor's choice. The cabinet was the same as before, with the addi-( 1 ) tion of D. M. Eberts as attorney-general, who was returned by (2) acclamation. The TIMES, which had so strongly c r i t i c i z e d other cabinets, was f a i r l y kind to Turner; although he lacked the necessary aggressiveness and o r i g i n a l i t y of a good leader, "nevertheless, we believe that Mr. Turner i s actuated by one (3) f e e l i n g , the wellfare ( s i c ) of the province." Shortly a f t e r his appointment, Turner l e f t for England to f l o a t the p r o v i n c i a l loan; although the NEWS-ADVERTISER could not r e f r a i n from an attempt to hinder his ( 4 ) mission by a r t i c l e s condemning the huge debt, yet the t r i p was successful. Nevertheless the keynote of the 1896 session was f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . Even the speech from the throne ( 1 ) B. C. Gazette, Mar. 7, 1895, p. 1 7 1 . (E) COLONIST, alar. 17, 1895, p. 4. ( 3 ) TIMES, Mar. 4, 1895, p. 4. ( 4 ) Weekly NEWS-ADVERTISER, A p r i l 17, 1895, p. 4. 150 (5) a d m i t t e d t h a t the revenue had f a l l e n f a r below the e s t i m a t e s , and the o p p o s i t i o n members were not slow t o s e i z e upon t h i s (6) o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r i t i c i s m . The f i r s t attempt made by the government to remedy the s i t u a t i o n was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s c h o o l l a n d s b i l l , w h i c h proposed t o p r o v i d e a fund f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p urposes by (7) the s a l e o f p u b l i c l a n d s . As the o p p o s i t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y (8) p o i n t e d o u t , the s c h o o l fund was m e r e l y a b l i n d t o f i l l the t r e a s u r y . A f t e r l o n g debates and many amendments the govern-(9) ment wi t h d r e w the b i l l and s u b s t i t u t e d an amendment t o the (10) l a n d a c t w h i c h opened up the unsurveyed l a n d s , c l o s e d s i n c e (11) the a c t o f 1892. The o p p o s i t i o n o f c o u r s e condemned t h i s r e -v e r s a l o f p o l i c y v/hich would b r i n g a r e t u r n t o the o l d l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n ; C o t t o n t h r e a t e n e d t o keep the house i n s e s s i o n (12) as l o n g as n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t the b i l l from p a s s i n g , but he (13) (14) f a i l e d . The a c t r a i s e d g r e a t i n d i g n a t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s w h i c h had a l r e a d y s u f f e r e d s p o l i a t i o n a t the hands (15) o f s p e c u l a t o r s ; T u r n e r , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e v e n t f i n a n c i a l (.5) B. 0. J o u r n a l s , J a n . 23, 1896, p. 1. (6) COLONIST, J a n . 28, 1896, p. 6; S e m l i n i n the a d d r e s s d e b a t e . (7) ; l o c . c i t . , Peb. 12, 1896, p. 6. (8) UNEWS-ADVERTISER, Peb. 18, 1896, p. 4. (9) B. C. J o u r n a l s , A p r i l 7, 1896, p. 123. (10) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 28, 1896, p. 96. (11) 5lT"VicT7, c h . 25, s e c . 5. B. C. S t a t u t e s , 1892, p. 74. They c o u l d be s o l d a t a u c t i o n upon the a u t h o r i t y o f the c a b i n e t . (12) COLONIST, A p r i l 14, 1896, p. 6; t h i s i s j u s t b e f o r e p r o r o g a t i o n . (13) B. C. J o u r n a l s , A p r i l 16, 1896, p. 148. (14) 59 V i c t . , c h . 28. B. C. S t a t u t e s , 1896, pp. 97-102. (15) Golden ERA, Mar. 7, 1896, p. 2. 151 ru i n , was l o s i n g what l i t t l e support he did command. But this addition to the p r o v i n c i a l revenue was not enough; the assessment h i l l increased the rates of r e a l es-tate, personal property and income taxes, and added a royalty (16) on mines and minerals. Apparently the ordinary taxes were accepted, hut the Kootenay rose i n arms against the mineral tax; the c i t i z e n s there claimed that the free miners, on whom the province's prosperity depended, were being hampered just (17) (18) when they should be helped. In the end t h i s tax was reduced, and the miners, ?/ho agreed that they had a right to pay some-(19) thing into the exchequer, were placated. Turner's budget speech was a model apology for the fact that the revenue was $262,000 less than he had estimated, and that the expenditure ran $430,000 more than the votes had (20) provided. The depression had caused a decline i n land sales and a great deal of delinquency in the payment of taxes, while the parliament buildings and the new loan accounted for the increased expenditure; Turner, explaining these, promised a reduction of administrative and teaching s a l a r i e s , and a higher (21) revenue from the increased taxation. As the opposition (22) showed, there was no bona fide endeavor to stop the leakages; the small reduction i n s a l a r i e s would be a mere \lrop in the (16) COLONIST, Mar. 4, 1896, p. 6. (17) Golden EPA., Peb. 29, 1896, p. 2. (18) 59 V i c t . , ch 46. B. 0. Statutes, 1896, pp. 371-376. (19) COLONIST, Mar. 20, 1896, p. 6. (20) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 28, 1896, p. 6. (21) TBTd. (22) TIMES, March 28, 1896, p. 4. 152 bucket', and would work a hardship on those who could afford i t l e a s t . Even this e f f o r t was not wholly sincere, for instead of automatically cutting the ministers' s a l a r i e s , the e s t i -mates repeated the usual sum; i n the Committee of Supply Col, Baker half-heartedly suggested a reduction, but allowed the (23) government followers to carry the usual vote. Such posing demonstrates the incapacity of the Turner administration for r e a l l y e f f i c i e n t control of expenditure; when they would act thus openly over a r e l a t i v e l y small matter, what would they do i n camera? Despite the time that was taken up with attempts to remedy the province's f i n a n c i a l condition, much useful l e g i s -l a t i o n also was passed. The premier, i f he was not an e x c e l l -ent f i n a n c i e r , at least was a valuable f r i e n d of a g r i c u l t u r e ; th i s year he passed an act to encourage dairying by paying a (24) bonus on butter from accredited creameries. Although the mea-sure gave no help to i s o l a t e d farmers who could not reach these plants, yet i t was at least a step in the right direc-tion . In railway matters too, Turner did good work. His government extended the charter of the B r i t i s h Columbia Sou-(25) thern railway and gave a land grant to the Columbia and Wes-(26) tern company, which was eventually to give Canadian P a c i f i c (23) B. C. Journals, Mar. 30, 1896, p. 99. (24) 59 V i c t . , ch 17. B. 0. Statutes, 1896, pp. 61-64. (25) 59 V i c t . , ch 4. 16s). c i t . , p. 1?. (26) 59 V i c t . , ch 8. To<[. cT|., pp. 23-26. 153 connection to the T r a i l Creek area. But Turner's greatest service to. the province was in his refusal to give to the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c railway the exorbitant subsidy which the pro-moters demanded. Turner admitted that at the l a s t general election Davie had promised to secure the construction of the road; but he affirmed that the late premier had expected the company to present a p r a c t i c a l scheme, not a request for a chump cash grant of $4,000,000: "My Government i s f u l l y a l i v e to the importance of the building of this railway through the i n t e r i o r part of this Province as part of a transcontinental system, but rny Government i s not prepared to go so far even for t h i s presumen benefit as to seriously a f f e c t the f i n a n c i a l (27) position of the Province for a great number of years to come." This proposition, when i t was originated as the Canadian Western to connect the islan d with a transcontinental (28) system, probably was quite sincere, though never p r a c t i c a l . But i t had become a p o l i t i c a l football which proved d i f f i c u l t to carry and harder to pass, f o r the mainlanders resented i t and the islanders demanded i t . The new group, composed of London and Montreal f i n a n c i e r s , wished to assume the rights (29) and obligations of the l o c a l company; but Turner's r e f u s a l was (27) Turner to Bodwell, Mar. 5, 189 6. "Return...correspon-dence... in r e l a t i o n to the proposed construction of the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c Railway..." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1896, pp. 855-856. (28) v. supra, p.80. (29) Proposed contract between the Province of B r i t i s h Colum-bia and She B r i t i s h P a c i f i c Railway Company. "Return... correspondence...in r e l a t i o n to the proposed construc-tion of the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c Railway..." B. C. Sessional  Papers, 1896, p. 837. 154 timely, for they probably were more interested i n land spec-ulation up the island-than i n a c t u a l l y building the railway. In 1898 the government extended the old Canadian Western (30) charter for six years; but of course the road was never b u i l t , fo r Turner's r e f u s a l had saved the province from an exorbitant expenditure on an impossible scheme. Although McKenzie and Mann revived i t years l a t e r , they did not carry i t out; f i n -a l l y the Canadian P a c i f i c ended a l l such fancies by purchasing (31) the Esquimault and Nanaimo l i n e i n 1905. Despite his repeated budget f a i l u r e s , Turner re-mained i n power u n t i l a f t e r the election of 1898; and in the session of 1897 he was suecess_ful i n passing several new railway subsidies, and other controversial acts. Yet the opposition members were by no means s i l e n t . Although he had few r e a l c r i t i c i s m s to make of the speech from the throne, Semlin did express regret that no mention (32) had been made of a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l ; and MacPherson of Van-couver seized the opportunity to accuse G. B. Martin of corr-(33) uption i n the lands department. He even suggested that a want-of-confidence motion would be i n order, but he did not assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of moving i t himself. However l a t e r he did move a resolution s t a t i n g that the c h i e f commissioner of lands and works should not have power to s e l l lands on the (30) 60 V i c t . , ch. 34. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 319-320. (31) Sage, W. N., MSS. More re sonabl  grants were voted i n 1897 and 1898; v. i n f r a , pp. 11,1, Hi. (32) COLONIST, Peb. T l , 1897, p. 8. (33) l o c . c i t . , Peb. h2, 189 7, p. 4. 155 (34) sea coast which might be needed fo r f i s h i n g stations. A f t e r an adjournment of the debate the speaker ruled the resolution out of order because i t was equivalent to an amendment to the (35) land act. But the opposition had gained a temporary a l l y i n the person of Dr. W. W. Walkem, member for South Nanaimo, who turned 'independent'. He proceeded to ask embarrassing ques-tions of the government, and began his campaign against Col. Baker; Walkem accused the p r o v i n c i a l secretary of using the excuse of p r o v i n c i a l business i n Ottawa to 'hawk' the B r i t i s h (35) Columbia Southern charter round the eastern f i n a n c i a l houses. Co l . Baker of course denied t h i s claim, and proved a suitable match f o r the wily doctor; as usual, his genius turned to (37) 'poetry': Here l i e s William Wymond Walkem, Why, manl the women he'd out-talk 'em, I f he passed to realms above, Farewell to amity and love; But i f he's gone to a lower l e v e l I can't congratulate the devil'. But Walkem was not yet f i n i s h e d ; he moved for a de-t a i l e d statement on the t r a v e l l i n g expenses of a l l the mini-(38) sters and attempted to show that the amounts charged to the p r o v i n c i a l treasury were excessive. But very l i t t l e came of (34) B. C. Journals, Peb. 15, 1897, p. 11. This refers to his previous c r i t i c i s m of Martin's action i n s e l l i n g to an alleged favori t e a piece of land which had formerly been leased only. (35) l o c . c i t . , Peb. 17, 1897, p. 19. (36) COLONIST?, Peb. 19, 1897, p. 6. (37) i b i d . (38) B. C. Journals, Mar. 9, 1897, p. 50. 156 the matter except further oppositionist gossip, for the (39) returns showed that the allowances were very reasonable and that the ministers had received no money for the time spent upon private business. A. W. Williams of Vancouver, not to be outdone, accused even Lieutenant-Sovernor Dewdney of corruption; he infe r r e d that, because Dewdney was a d i r e c t o r of the Columbia and Western, he had influenced the government to accept worthless bonds from A. P. Heinze, and to give the company a (40) huge grant. This of course was utter nonsense, and made very l i t t l e impression on the more i n t e l l i g e n t e l e c t o r s . But the accusation was, nevertheless, good ele c t i o n material. Dr. Walkem returned to the fray with a complaint that the Vancouver WORLD had been extravagantly reimbursed f o r (41) (4E) i t s issue of tax sale advertisements. However, the return showed that the charge had indeed been very moderate, and (39) "Return...detailed statement of the t r a v e l l i n g expenses of Ministers on duty..." B. C. Sessional Papers, 1897, p. 635. Eberts' expenses for fare and 90 days i n London were only $1, 324. (40) TIMES, A p r i l 2, 1897, p. 3. In 1896 the company had obtained a charter and land grant on condition that they deposit with the government a $50,000 bond within s i x months. As Heinze could not at once get f i r s t mort-gage bonds on the company, he gave his personal bond; a f t e r the required time had elapsed, he did make the deposit, and no harm resulted. (41) COLONIST, Peb. 17, 1897, p. 6. (42) "Return...(1) correspondence between...the Treasury De-partment, and the manager of the Vancouver World news-paper, r e l a t i v e to the advertising of the P r o v i n c i a l tax sale i n the D i s t r i c t of lev/ Westminster. (*2) Return showing the space occupied...; the number of i n s e r t i o n s . , and the rate per l i n e . . . " B. C. Sessional Papers, 1897, pp. 489-492. 157 another opposition manoeuvre was checkmated. This series of objections reached i t s climax i n the Semlin-Hume non-confidence amendment to the supply motion, condemning the increasing d e f i c i t s and taxation, and the mis-(43) management of the lands and works department. A f t e r a twe-day debate which covered everything that the government had (44) done and had omitted to do, the amendment was lost,.17-10. Of course Semlin had not expected to defeat the ministry on t h i s motion; he had merelyv/wished another opportunity to un-loose the oppositionist c r i t i c i s m s and petty accusations. But these charges, while admittedly serious, did not occupy the whole time of the l e g i s l a t u r e . The government introduced an act for the regulation and incorporation of (45) companies, hut the indignation of the opposition and of a l l the mining d i s t r i c t s forced the elimination of the clause re-quiring that no company should undertake business i n the pro-(46) vinee u n t i l 10% of i t s c a p i t a l had been paid up. This clause would have worked great hardship on the mining companies, who usually had to get a charter before they could a t t r a c t i n -vestors . The opposition made possible another good statute by t h e i r demand for a general water a c t . When the government brought down a b i l l which provided against the monopolization (43) B. 0. Journals, A p r i l 6, 1897, p. 91. (44) l o c . c i t . , A p r i l 7, 1897, p. 92. (45) Toe. c i T . , Peb. 15, 1897, p. 13. (46) OUTOHTsT, May 4, 1897, p. 6. 60 V i c t . , ch. 2. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 5-55. 158 of water rights and preserved for municipal corporations the (47) right to use water at reasonable rates, the opposition mem-(48) bers were h e a r t i l y i n accord. But they were less tractable during the budget de-(49) bate. Despite Turner's usual high estimate of revenue the gentlemen to the l e f t of Mr. Speaker condemned the continued d e f i c i t s and maintained that any r e a l jump in revenue which might have resulted from the mining a c t i v i t y had been wasted (50) by the government's extravagance. Cotton revived his tirades against the mortgage tax with which he and his colleagues had (51) already 'entertained' the members several times that session. The government's majority naturally ensured the passing of (52$ the supply b i l l , but not without long debates on the items for s a l a r i e s i n the education department and i n the agent-(53) general's london o f f i c e . The b i l l providing a further loan of $100,000 for (54) the furnishing of the parliament buildings roused more cau-s t i c remarks from the oppositionists, but i t passed with a (55) large majority on a straight party vote; sectional f e e l i n g seems to have disappeared from .this question. (47) 60 V i c t . , ch. 45. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 391-443. (48) COLONIST, Mar. 17, l 8 9 l , p. 6. (49) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 27, 189 7, p. 4. (50) Toe. cTT., A p r i l 7, 1897, p. 6. (51) Toe, c i t . , Mar. 26, 1897, p. 6. l o c . c i t . , Feb. 23, T897 , p . 6 . (52) B. C. Journals, May 7, 1897, p. 168. (53) l o c . c i t . , A p r i l 8, 9, 1897, pp. 95, 108. P. G. Vernon, former c h i e f commissioner, was the agent-general at th i s time. (54) 60 V i c t . , ch. 32. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 315-316. (55) B. C. Journals, May 6, 1897, p. 156. 159 But the r e a l i n t e r e s t of the session centered round the railway h i l l s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Southern grant of 1894 became the subject of b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m by opposition supporters and journals. The background of the dispute was t h i s : i n 1887 C o l . Baker had discovered r i c h coal beds i n the Crow's Nest Pass d i s t r i c t near what i s now Pernie and had or-ganised the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company. In 1888 his friends had incorporated the Crow's Nest and Kootenay lake Railway (56) (57) Company and i n 1890 had obtained a land grant. In 1891 the company changed i t s name to the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern and got authority to bui l d extensions to the Columbia River and to (58) the coast, but received no land grant; and the next year minor changes divided the railway into three sections, of which the (59) coast l i n e was section ( c ) . In 1894 a l l these acts were con-solidated and a land grant given, which by mistake included (60) section ( c ) ; and i n 1896 the company obtained a further ex-(61) tension of time. When l o c a l opponents of the company lodged a com-p l a i n t with the dominion minister of railways against the huge (62) grant of 20,000 acres per mile f o r the coast extension, the (56) 51 V i c t . , ch. 44. B. 0. Statutes, 1888, pp. 285-291. The directors included Peter and William Pernie and Valentine Baker, son of Co l . Baker. (57) 53 V i c t . , chs. 41, 63. l o c . c i t . , 1890, pp. 221-224, 371-372. (58) 54 V i c t . , ch. 56. l o c . c i t . 1891, pp. 461-462. (59) 56 V i c t . , ch. 36. Toe. cTjEi.,1893, pp. 171-172. (60) 57 V i c t . , chs.39, BT7 loc . c i t . , 1894, pp. 213-214, 305-313. (61) 59 V i c t . , ch. 53. l o c . c i t . , 1896, p. 409. (62) COLONIST, Jan. 8, 189T, p. 4. 160 members of the l e g i s l a t u r e f i n a l l y r e a l i s e d what they had done. At the 1897 session the government passed an act to correct (63] the 'ambiguity' of the 1894 statute, but not without a great many oppositionist inferences that the extension of the grant (64) had been quite deliberate. The point of the controversy was antagonism toward C o l . Baker, who naturally stood to p r o f i t from the success of the railway company; Dr. Walkem and the other oppositionists asserted that he had used his influence i n the cabinet to ob-t a i n this outrageous grant. Yet despite the fact that the (65) good colonel was a f a i r target for corruption accusations, he seems to have been innocent this time; for he had started his coal and railway negotiations before his appointment to the ministry, and whenever the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern charters came up i n the house he always announced his connection with the company and refrained from voting — that i s more than any of the other members had ever done. There i s very l i t t l e doubt but that the c l e r i c a l error of 1894 was unintentional, for the preamble to the act i s d i s t i n c t l y contradictory to the idea of a grant for the western section. Therefore the 1897 act passed without any d i f f i c u l t y , although the oppositionist accusations were not quieted thereby. Eventually the Canadian P a c i f i c took over (63) 60 V i c t . , ch. 33. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 317-318. (64) TIMES, Jan. 4, 1897, p. 4 . _ _ ^ ^ u ^ . (65) Information from Prances Matheson,^ She says that Baker was dishonest in his dealings with the Indians when he bought th e i r land for the Cranbrook Estate. 161 the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern charter and b u i l t a railway (66) from Leth.brid.ge to Kootenay Landing, and the miners at l a s t obtained a Canadian outlet for t h e i r ores. But the Kootenay, r i c h as i t was, had temporarily to take second place to the Yukon;; for the Klondike rush was now reaching i t s height and the whole P a c i f i c coast was aflame with gold fever. This was r e f l e c t e d in the demands for a railway to open an all-Canadian route to the Yukon, r e s u l t i n g (67) i n the passing of the Cassiar Central Railway Aid b i l l . The opposition of course condemned the huge land lease given the company, and maintained that the railway was unnecessary; the TIMES headed i t s e d i t o r i a l s on the subject, "The Cassiar (68) Outrage." However the b i l l passed by a large majority, with even Cotton, who during 189 7 seemed f r i e n d l y to the govern-(69) ment, voting for i t . But the b i l l which roused the r e a l controversy was that which proposed a loan of |2,500,000 fo r a i d to railways from Bute Inlet to Quesnel, from Penticton to Boundary Creek, and from Vancouver to Chilliwack. The Bute Inlet l i n e was a r e v i v a l of the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c scheme which the premier had (70) turned down the year before, but t h i s time the grant was to be more reasonable. The Chilliwack and Boundary Creek l i n e s (66) COLONIST, A p r i l 1, 1897, p. 4. l o c . c i t . , Pec. 8, 1898; the Canadian P a c i f i c accepted the railway from the con-tractors on Dec. 7. (67) 60 V i c t . , ch. 35. B. C. Statutes, 1897, pp. 321-325. (68) TIMES, A p r i l 29, 1897, p. 2. (69) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 23, 1897, p. 130. (70) v. supra, p. 155 . The new act did not actually name the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c ; i t merely granted aid to 6ny com-pany which would b u i l d the road. 162 were to form part of a profeeted railway from V i c t o r i a to the Kootenay country, designed to give coast merchants the benefit of the mining trade. Ho one dared to c r i t i c i z e the opening up of the country, but the opposition did maintain that t h i s b i l l was merely a disguised g i f t to the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c for the Bute Inlet railway, and to P. A. Heinze of T r a i l for the Columbia (71) and Western. The TIMES editor, with his pen ever ready f o r r i d i c u l e , c a l l e d i t "An act to place i n the pockets of Aug-usts Heinze, the Lieutenant Governor and their associates i n (72) the Columbia and Western Railway Company, the sum of $400,000." This antagonism to Heinze was r e f l e c t e d in Sword's successful amendment providing that i f the Columbia and West-ern company took up the subsidy for the l i n e from Penticton to Boundary Creek, i t should f o r f e i t the land grant which i t (73) had obtained i n 1896 for the same l i n e . The cause of t h i s controversy was the r i v a l r y between the Columbia and Western and the Victoria', Vancouver and Eastern Railway and navigation company, whose backers included several l i b e r a l s and oppo-s i t i o n i s t s . The l a t t e r company had a charter to b u i l d a r a i l -way from the Kootenay to the coast and a f e r r y l i n e to Vic-t o r i a , and most electors of the coast constituencies preferred th i s l i n e , which would give them more certa i n connection with the Kootenay than would the shorter Columbia and Western l i n e . (71) NEWS-ADVERTISER, A p r i l 3, 1897, p. 4. (72) TIMES, A p r i l 6, 1897, p. 4. (73) COLONIST, May 5, 1897, p. 2. v. supra, p. 152. 163 (74) As a result of t h e i r lobbying Turner passed an amendment to the b i l l which promised a continuous l i n e from V i c t o r i a to the Columbia River by providing for the construction of the r a i l -way from Hope to Princeton, and from Boundary Creek to the (75) Columbia. (76) Eventually of course the b i l l passed, but the r a i l -way was not yet assured. The B r i t i s h P a c i f i c , an impossible scheme from the beginning, never was b u i l t . Despite the re-peated claims of the COLONIST that this l i n e would bring a r i c h Cariboo trade to V i c t o r i a , the company-oiever succeeded in getting enough c a p i t a l . The Cariboo mines had declined and (77) the railway would not serve the a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s . But the history of the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c grants i s a good example of the value of having influence with /the government; R. P. Rithet, one of the leading promoters, was a\ member of the leg-i s l a t u r e and a strong Turner supporter, and as the Victorians thought t h i s railway would help t h e i r business, therefore the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c was favored. The Coast-Kootenay l i n e was supported by residents of both V i c t o r i a and the lower mainland ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the south side of the Praser, which had not even Canadian P a c i f i c (74) C010NIST, A p r i l 10, 1897, p. 2. A delegation of those interested i n the V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and Eastern which met the government included J. G. Mclagan and Dr. C a r r o l l , government supporters. (75) l o o . c i t . , A p r i l 20, 1897, p. 6. The amendment i s not given i n the Journals, as the house was in Committee of the Whole on the b i l l . (76) B. C. Journals, A p r i l 22, 1897, p. 127. (77) B. C1. MINING JOURNAL (Ashcroft), May 1, 1897, p. 2. 164 connection with the coast); therefore i t also got the pro-v i n c i a l subsidy. But neither of the r i v a l companies succeeded i n getting a dominion grant, and the western portion was not b u i l t u n t i l decades l a t e r . The reason for the f a i l u r e at Ottawa was that the two companies were so b i t t e r against each other that the disgusted dominion members refused to give a (78) subsidy f o r the l i n e at a l l . Even the sale of the p r o v i n c i a l charter of the V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and Eastern to Messrs. (79). McKenzie and Mann did not hurry the construction of the coast section. But the Canadian P a c i f i c acquired the Columbia and (80) western charter i n 1898, and by 1902 had extended the Crow's Uest Pass railway westward through the Kootenay as far as Mi 4-(81) way i n the Boundary Creek d i s t r i c t . Shortly a f t e r prorogation the government's p o l i c y was tested at the Chilliwack by-election. Thomas E. Kitchen, veteran and b i t t e r oppositionist, had been too i l l to attend (82) (83) the l a s t session more than twice, and he passed away i n A p r i l . But despite the fact that the Chilliwack electors were ex-(84) pec ted to be g r a t e f u l f o r the railway b i l l just passed, they elected Adam S. Vedder, opposition, instead of Charles T. (85) Higginson, government. This was an indica t i o n of how the (78) COLONIST, May 7, 189 7, p. 4. (79) TIMES, Oct. 8, 1897, p. 4. (80) COLONIST, Peb. 16, 1898, p. 1. (81) Innes, Harold A., A history of the Canadian P a c i f i c  Railway (Toronto, 1923}, pp. 139, 140. z (8.2) COLONIST, Peb. 23, 1897, p. 4. (83) B. C. Journals. A p r i l 5, 1897, p. 90. (84) WORLD, A p r i l 30, 1897, p. 4. (85) Chilliwack PROGRESS, May 12, 189 7, p. 1. 165 regular p o l l s would go a year l a t e r ; no Amount of favors re-ceived could overcome the accusations of corruption and i n -e f f i c i e n c y hurled at the government hy the o p p o s i t i o n i s t s . During the early summer rumor had i t that Turner would dismiss Martin and Baker because of t h e i r unpopularity with the government supporters, and that he was looking f o r (86) new cabinet material. But the premier denied any such i n -tentions, and made no changes. He would have been much better o f f without those two ministers, f o r they c e r t a i n l y were the butt of a l l the abuse which the opposition journals could muster; but there i s as yet no basis f o r the supposition that Turner wished to get r i d of them. The opposition began of course to organise f o r the el e c t i o n of 1898, and i n July Semlin issued an o f f i c i a l oppo-s i t i o n platform promising: f a i r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , reorganisation of the c i v i l service, e f f i c i e n t supervision of necessary pub-l i c works, discouragement of Oriental immigration, repeal of the mortgage tax, removal of the law requiring mine employees to purchase free miner's licences, and government control of (87) railways. But a new element had entered into the p r o v i n c i a l opposition: the l i b e r a l party. At the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l l i b e r a l ^ convention ever held i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the delegates a-(88) greed to oppose the Turner government, although they voted (86) TIMES, July 20, 1897, p. 4. (87) l o c . c i t . , July 23, 1897, p. 4. (88) Toe. c i T . , Oct. 9, 1897, p. 4. 166 a resolution to introduce dominion party l i n e s at the next (89) e l e c t i o n . These two decisions, although they may appear so, are not contradictory: although the l i b e r a l s intended to o-ppose the government, they expected to combine with the many conservative followers of Semlin and Cotton. The l i b e r a l s did (90) not appoint an o f f i c i a l leader, and th e i r platform was very l i k e that of Semlin. The only other important o f f i c i a l event of the recess was the appointment of Senator T. R. Mclnnes, l i b e r a l of New Westminster, to the post of lieutenant-governor at the con-(91) elusion of Dewdney's term. William Templeman, publisher of the TIMES, and long a prominent l i b e r a l of the province, (92) accepted the vacant senatorship. But before the 1898 session Turner had l o s t two followers and gained another; P. W. Higgins and J. M. K e l l i e went over;: to the opposition and Dr. Walkem, weary of the c h i l l s of 'independence 1, returned to the government f o l d . Higgins, who for years past had been one 6*f the strongest forces behind the government, had even during the 1897 session begun to show his hand when he exercised his r i g h t to leave the speaker's chair and debate against the Cassiar Railway (93) b i l l . Of course this action may have been dictated by his reluctance to see the Kootenay passed over, for he had several (89) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Oct. 9, 1897, 4. (90) TIMES, Nov. 18, 1897, p. 8. (91) l o c . c i t . , Nov. 8, 1897, p. 4. (9£) ThTa. (93) COLONIST, A p r i l 29, 1897, p. 6. 167 (94) minigg in t e r e s t s i n the Fairview d i s t r i c t . But i n June, 1897, he d e f i n i t e l y announced in an interview at Nelson that he (95) could no longer support the government, and even the opposi-(96) t i o n i s t s expected him to resign as speaker. But t h i s he did not do u n t i l the middle of the 1898 session, when J. P. Booth (97) was chosen to f i l l the vacant chair. I t was generally supp-osed that Higgins had desired a cabinet post and, being re-fused, had withdrawn his support. There i s no evidence to to prove t h i s , but probably the rumor was quite well founded. Another new r e c r u i t for the opposition was J. M. K e l l i e of Revelstoke. O r i g i n a l l y of the Cotton independent group and l a t e r an opponent of Robson, he had turned to the government; i n the 1897 session he had voted with Turner, and had even gone so fa r as to say that the opposition had no (98) p o l i c y at a l l . But when John D. Sibbald was made gold commissioner (99) at Revelstoke, K e l l i e turned d e f i n i t e l y to the opposition. He gave as his reason that t h i s appointment had been made without his advice or knowledge, but some of the more unking government supporters suggested that K e l l i e himself had ex-pected the p o s i t i o n . Again there i s no evidence to confirm this theory except the fact that during the 1897 session K e l l i e denied, i n answer to Dr. Walkem's question, that he had (94) TIMES";- Sept. 2, 1897, p. 4. (95) COLONIST, June 23, 1897, p. 4. (96) TIMES, June 26, 1897, p. 4. (97) B. C. Journals, Mar. 9, 1898, p. 49. . (98) COLONIST, A p r i l 8, 1897, p. 6. (99) Revelstoke HERALD, Dec. 18, 1897, p. 1. (a) sdMXLvni'J' f\ %vJifL 2*>wv " yV^^M^j iesur&+£Xj. - « A ^ cfa^aZLiffuJ. ^<yy-U>l. SZl± 168 (100) ever applied for the post. At any rate he was now a f u l l -fledged oppositionist, and became known as 'the Revelstoke mugwump'; R. P. Rithet defined a mugwump as a f e r r y boat which wears i t s e l f out crossing the r i v e r from side to side (101) and getting nowhere. P. L. Oarter-Ootton also was c r i t i c i z e d for his sudden zeal i n the opposition cause. During the 1897 session he had been quite moderate, and the COLONIST accused him of having angled for the f i f t h p o r t f o l i o , which had not been (102) f i l l e d f o r several years. It i s quite true that he had de-(103) (104) fended the 'ambiguity act' and the Cassiar Central railway, but i t does not seem possible that Cotton could have desired to unite with Turner. Even though he may have resented the growing power of the l i b e r a l s i n the opposition group, surely p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s meant more to him than dominion connec-t i o n s . At any rate he recovered from the singular attack of moderation. The government r e c r u i t was none other than Dr. William Wymond Walkem, l a t e leader and sole member of the independent party of 1897. He had been a b i t t e r and most en-t e r t a i n i n g opponent of the ministry i n 1897, a f t e r announcing (105) his new status i n the address debate; he had i n i t i a t e d the (100) COLONIST, Peb. 18, 1897, p. 6. (101) l o c . c i t . , Mar. 9, 1898, p. 6. (102) Toe. cTf;., A p r i l 8, 1898, p. 4. (103) IlfS-lDTERTISER, Peb. 17, 1897, p. 4. v. supra, pp. 159-160. (104) l o c . c i t . , July 24, 1897, p. 4; an e d i t o r i a l denies Higgins' charges against the wasteful land grant. (105) TIMES, Peb. 12, 1897, p. 2 . 169 charges against the Vancouver WORLD'S advertisement of the (106) tax sales and his newspaper, the Wellington ENTERPRISE, had taken up the challenge issued hy the COLONIST to the oppo-(107) s i t i o n press, to show the incompetency of the government. But i n 1898 the good doctor once more favored the government with his support: he seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious to praise (108) James Dunsmuir, government candidate i n Comox, and he b i t t e r l y (109 ) condemned the opposition's obstruction methods. He even accused Higgins of expecting to be premier i f the opposition (110) should win' the coming e l e c t i o n . Probably the oppositionist charges that Dr. Walkem had been subsidised by the Dunsmuirs were true; c e r t a i n l y he gave no v a l i d reason for his change, and we can only assume the worst. l i k e most pre-election sessions, that of 1898 did very l i t t l e r e a l business. Even the awesome splendor of the new parliament buildings which were occupied that year for (111) the f i r s t time f a i l e d to subdue the oppositionist scandal-mongers . Although the newspapers had f o r some time been charging Baker and Martin with corruption, yet the oppos-i t i o n i s t s did not introduce these accusations into the house. But they did attack Turner ana Pooley for having allowed t h e i r (106) v. supra, p. 156. (107) Wellington ENTERPRISE, June,18, 1897, p. 4. (108) l o c . c i t . , July 15, 1898, p. 4. (109) Toe. cTt., Mar. 18, 1898, p. 4. (110) UOTONIBT, A p r i l 2, 1898, p. 6. (111) l o c . c i t . , Peb. 11, 1898, p. 4. 170 names (with o f f i c i a l t i t l e s ) to he included in the d i r e c t -orates of the Dawson Ci t y (Klondike) and Dominion Trading Corporation (Limited) and of the Klondike and Columbian Gold F i e l d s (Limited). The TIMES had begun this campaign during (112) (113) the recess, and a l l the COLONIST'S excuses could not quiet the public clamor. Robert MacPherson of Vancouver introduced an amendment to the reply address censuring the ministers' action, but Speaker Higgins ruled t h i s out of order on the ground that the house should not discuss a matter which i s (114) the subject of l i t i g a t i o n . For Turner had i n s t i t u t e d l i b e l (115) s u i t s against the TIMES and the PROVINCE; i t i s not known whether his desire was to punish the editors or to prevent discussion of the question u n t i l a f t e r the ele c t i o n ; but i n any ease the move, l i k e that of Robson against the COLUMBIAN (116) in 1892, did him more harm than good. For the oppositionists raised the point again and again in the house, despite the (117) fact that they were each time ruled out of order. The mere action of the two ministers i n joi n i n g the companies was not dishonest, for few members of the leg-i s l a t u r e are ever free from commercial connections; the point was that these two companies had been floated i n London and were considered fraudulent. Although the charge cannot be (112) TIMES, August 30, 1897, p. 4. (113) COLONIST, Dec. 5, 1897, p. 4. (114) B. C. Journals, Feb. 17, 1898, pp. 13-14. (115) Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d , op. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 502. (116) v. supra, p. 112. (117) B". C. Journals, Feb. 24, A p r i l 29, 1898, pp. 27, 138. 171 substantiated, i t i s quite probable that Turner and Pooley accepted a fee for the use of t h e i r names; but even i f t h i s was not the case, the rumors were plausible enough to turn many former supporters against the government * At t h i s session the main opposition device was ob-s t r u c t i o n . In the address debate Semlin and Williams de-(118) manded a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l , but the government showed no signs of introducing one. When Turner made the routine motion • (119) to grant a supply to Her Majesty, Sword and his colleagues attempted to prevent i t s passing u n t i l the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l (120) was brought down• And when the premier moved that the house resolve i t s e l f into .. Committee of the Whole to consider the (121) supply motion, the oppositionists forced a long debate. Their point was that once the government obtained the supply, (122) i t would give scant j u s t i c e to.the needs of the country. This was quite l o g i c a l , but the oppositionists' crude methods did not add to t h e i r p restige. After the estimates had been presented, Hume and Porster moved a non-confidence amendment to the motion to enter the Committee of Supply, censuring the government's ex-travagance and i n e f f i c i e n c y ; although i t f a i l e d , the ministry had a close c a l l . With every member present except Irving, (118) B. C. Journals, Peb. 23, 1898, p. 22. (119) l o c . c i t . , Jan. 4, 1898, p. 42. This motion precedes by several days that which puts the house i n Committee of Supply. (120) COLONIST, Mar. 5, 1898, p. 5. (121) B. C. Journals, Mar..8, 1898, p. 46. (122) TIMES, Mar. 16, 1898, p. 4. 172 , (123) the d i v i s i o n went on straight party l i n e s : Yeas Nays Sword Kennedy Hume Forster MacPherson Kidd Vedder Graham Semlin Cotton K e l l i e Higgins Williams Huff Smith Mutter Helmcken Baker Turner Martin Rithet Adams Walkem Pooley Eberts Br yden Rogers Hunter Braden Stoddart McGregor 13 18 Whentthe government did see f i t to o f f e r the re-d i s t r i b u t i o n b i l l , an even greater storm arose. The framers of the act increased the membership of the house to 38 and attempted to do j u s t i c e to the growing d i s t r i c t s by giving two more members to the Kootenays, one to Vancouver, and one (124) to Cassiar. The oppositionists r i g h t l y maintained that there were s t i l l to many 'rotten boroughs*; Higgins was here-forced to defend the government for permitting his t h i n l y populated constituency, Esquimault, to retain both of i t s (125) members. And a f t e r much b i t t e r debate the government had to withdraw the clause which had removed the residence q u a l i -f i c a t i o n f o r Cassiar voters. Government supporters defended t h i s clause as necessary to take care of the expected i n f l u x (123) B. C. Journals, March 31, 1898, p. 85. (124) 61 V i c t . , ch. 38. B. C. Statutes, 1898, pp. 187-197. (125) COLONIST, A p r i l 23, 1898, p. 7. (126) TIMES, A p r i l 28, 1898, p. 4. This was done i n the Committee of the Whole, and i s therefore not recorded in the Journals. (126) 173 (127) of miners to Cassiar, "but they gave way before oppositionist predictions of wholesale importation of voters for el e c t i o n management purposes. V/hile the house was in Committee of the Whole on the b i l l the members had to endure a record 25-hour s i t t i n g . While many l e g i s l a t o r s slept at t h e i r desks (and many had gone home to bed) the oppositionists obstructed the b i l l with wearisome droning and personal attacks against the ministry. The various government supporters who spelled o f f chairman McGregoro did t h e i r best, by unfair t a c t i c s , to stop the de-bate; and f i n a l l y Dr, Walkem refused to put K e l l i e * s motion that V/alkem leave the c h a i r . When Speaker Booth, on an appeal from J. B. Kennedy, supported the temporary chairman's action, the whole opposition group except K e l l i e and Higgins withdrew (128) from the house in protest. Afte r many further adjournments (129) of the debate the b i l l f i n a l l y emerged i n i t s f i n a l form. The oppositionists were c a r e f u l to carry out their; platform demands by reviving the anti-mortgage tax resolution, , (130) but t h i s f a i l e d again -- on a straight party d i v i s i o n , 16-12. (127) Cassiar i s just south of the Yukon. (128) ' TIMES, A p r i l 28, 1898, p. 3. B. C. Journals, A p r i l 28, 1898, p. 136. Probably K e l l i e was sleeping by this time; he had taken part in the obstruction before t h i s . Higgins favored the b i l l . (129) l o c . c i t . , May 12, 1898, p. 161. (130) Toe*. cTt., Peb. 28, 1898, pp. 35-36. Under the tax-ation system then in force, a property owner had to pay taxes on the f u l l value of his property and on the mortgage as w e l l . Cotton argued that t h i s double taxation we^ s unjust; the government re p l i e d that i f the c r e d i t o r had to pay the tax, he would simply raise the inte r e s t rate and the debtor would be no better o f f . 174 A s i m i l a r - d i v i s i o n voted down Cotton's motion that mine em-ployees should not he required to take out free miners' l i -(131) oences. But the government f o r e s t a l l e d the antagonism-of the farmers hy passing an act setting up mutual c r e d i t associations (132) which would provide 'cheap money' for the a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . Although Turner had always encouraged agricul t u r e , he probably introduced this b i l l as a pre-election o f f e r i n g to the farming d i s t r i c t s . As the Klondike rush was s t i l l strong enough to o f f e r an excuse for northern railways, a new subsidy b i l l re-enacted the grants of 1897 — which had not yet been taken up — and a new $2,500:y000 loan f o r a l i n e from the northern coast v i a the Stikine River to T e s l i n Lake ( i n the Yukon) and substituted cash for the land grant held by the Columbia and (133) Western for a railway westward from Robson to Boundary Creek. Naturally the opposition abused this b i l l ; K e l l i e and others maintained that the grant to the Yukon railway was f o o l i s h , (134) for this was r e a l l y a project for the dominion to handle. Even Joseph Hunter, firm government supporter, h a i l e d the b i l l (135) as a scheme to plunder the country. It i s much easier to judge the worth of such a pro-ject a f t e r several decades have passed, and therefore we are (131) . B. C. Journals, Mar. 17, 1898, p. 63. (132) 61 V i c t . , ch. 2. B. C. Statutes, 1898, pp. 5-17. (133) 61 V i c t . , ch. 30. l o c . c i t . , ppl 153-156. The Robson-Boundary Creek railway was part of the Columbia and Western charter acquired by the Canadian P a c i f i c . (134) COLONIST, May 11, 1898, p. 6. (135) i b i d . He had large mining interests in the Cariboo. 175 apt to condemn It too strongly. Yet despite the d e f i n i t e pre-(136) ele c t i o n announcements of Turner, the Yukon l i n e was not "built, and never would have paid; for once the Klondike rush had died down, the great need f o r the railway was over. The public men of that day must be given their due for th e i r attempts to put B r i t i s h Columbia i n a p o s i t i o n to compete with the United States for the Klondike trade, but one wonders i f they did not in this case overstep themselves. (137) The seventh parliament was dissolved on June 7, a f t e r four years of stormy debates and controversial l e g i s -l a t i o n . For some months past both parties had been preparing for the e l e c t i o n . The government expected support because of * i t s railway acts and i t s aid to farmers, while the opposition-i s t s condemned the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the government's i n e f f i -ciency and corruption. Turner's doom was for e t o l d when many of his followers ran as independent candidates; they feared the unpopularity of 'Turnerism', but they intended to support that p o l i c y i f i t proved successful. In V i c t o r i a c i t y Premier Turner, H. D. Helmcken, (138) Richard H a l l and A. B. McPhillips c a r r i e d the government (139) banner to s u c c e s s a g a i n s t the opposition candidates, C o l . (140) Gregory, G. Belyea and ex-Alderman Alexander Stewart. (136) COLONIST, May 20, 1898, p. 6. WORLD, June 22, 1898, p. 4; a Turner advertisement. (137) B. C. Gazette, June 9, 1898, p. 1180. (138) COLONIST, June 19, 1898, p. 6. (139) Magurn, A r n o t t ; J . , The parliamentary guide and work of  general reference, 1898-1899 I Ottawa, 1898), p. 247. (140) TIMES, June 14, 1898, p. 4. 176 Hon. Robert Beaven came up for this nomination, but was (141) dropped because of his pose as an independent. The govern-ment also c a r r i e d V i c t o r i a South and North, where Hon. D. M. Eberts and Speaker Booth defeated J . Stuart Yates and T. W. (142) Paterson. In Esquimault Hon. G. E. Pooley and William P. Bullen won for the ministry, defeating D. W. Higgins and W. H. (143) Hayward, opposition, and Dennis Harris, independent opposition; (144) but Higgins replaced Bullen a f t e r a recount, and Turner l o s t a supporter. In Comox James Dunsmuir, son of the late Hon. Robert Dunsmuir, replaced Joseph Hunter as government candi-(145) date; he defeated M. J . McAllen by a large majority. John Bryden also c a r r i e d Nanaimo North f o r the ministry with a com-fortable margin over Walter J . G. H e l l i e r , and in Cowichan (146) William R. Robertson defeated William Herd. When a protest forced him into a by-election i n December, Robertson defeated Colon B. Sword, who had resigned from his po s i t i o n as secre-tary to Premier Semlin to contest the seat for the new govern-(147) ment. But in the other islan d constituencies Turner was less fortunate. Ralph Smith, oppositionist, caused the f i e r y (141) TIMES, June 14, 1898, p. 4. (142) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. Eberts had a majority of 26, Booth one of 15. (143) i b i d . COLONIST, June 29, 1898, p. 4. (144) TUBS, Nov. 12, 1898, p. 4. (145) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (146) i b i d . %o4^tL*^ (147) TocT c i t . , Dec. 29, 1898, p. 4. -MoBrido defeated I#ord"Tn the v&£ef- contest i n Dewdney. 177 (148) Dr. Walkem to lose his deposit in Nanaimo South, and Dr. R. E. (149) McKechnie defeated A. McGregor i n Nanaimo C i t y hy 678 to 170. In A l b e r n i A. W. N e i l l obtained a small majority over the (150) s i t t i n g government supporter, George A. Huff. He was also re-(151) turned i n the by-election brought on by a p e t i t i o n . In the lower mainland d i s t r i c t s , which for years had gone s o l i d l y opposition, the government, with stronger can-didates, managed to capture New Westminster City and Dewdney. In New Westminster Alexander Henderson, prominent young l i b e r a l (152) (153) lawyer, defeated J. C. Brown by a small majority. Brown was so confident of re-election that he neglected his own con-(154) stituency to tour the province for his opposition colleagues, and forgot about Westminster's anxiety for the V i c t o r i a , Van-couver and Eastern railway. (155) In Dewdney Richard McBride won over Whetham, who had replaced Sword in an opposition s p l i t . Just why Sword, who was one of the most prominent opposition members, should have been ousted from the candidacy, has not appeared; but c e r t a i n l y that action, coupled with McBride's a b i l i t y , aarried (156) the constituency f o r Turner. (148) TIMES, July 11, 1898, p. 8. (149) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (150) i b i d . (151) "DUES, Dec. 16, 1898, p. 4. (152) COLONIST, May 10, 1898, p. 4. (153) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (154) TIMES, July TIT 1898, p. 4. (155) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (156) Dewdney Ts north of the Praser and had Canadian P a c i f i c connection with the coast: i t therefore was not i n -terested i n the Coast-Xootenay railway. 178 However the rest of 'the lower mainland remained true to the opposition cause. Turner, who had taken the pre-caution of running in Chilliwack as well as in V i c t o r i a , did not succeed i n the v a l l e y centre; Charles W. Munro was elected (157) hy a good-sized majority. A. S. Vedder, who had promised his oppositionist hackers i n 1897 that he intended only to f i n i s h out Kitchen's term, now ran again; hut when the l i b e r a l and o p p o s i t i o n i s t support was transferred to Munro, Vedder got (158) only 80 votes. Vancouver C i t y , scene of operations of 'Fighting Joe' Martin, was bound to enjoy a s p i r i t e d campaign. Despite (159) some early coolness on the part of the older oppositionists who saw themselves about to be supplanted, Martin soon was accepted as the storm centre of the l o c a l group. S t i l l a young man i n 1898, Martin had but recently come to B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r supporting and then leaving, i n 1891, the Greenway government i n Manitoba; he had been elected to the commons in 1893, but had been defeated i n the 1896 general (160) e l e c t i o n . But even th i s unpromising background did not pre^-vent him from winning even further notoriety i n B r i t i s h Co-lumbia. At f i r s t Martin was uncertain where to place his va-luable support; but just as the election campaign was begin-ning, he apparently saw that the government was doomed; at (157) Magurn, op_. c i t . , p. 247. (158) Information from A. H. Mercer. Vedder i s not l i s t e d i n Magurn, op. c i t . (159) COLUMBIAN, l a y TT7 1898, p. 2. (160) l o c . c i t . , Aug. 22, 1898, p. 2. 179 any rate, he p u b l i c l y announced his a f f i l i a t i o n with the opposition, and denounced those weak-minded souls who were (161) parading as independents. The next step was his nomination on the opposition slate along with Cotton, C. E. T i s d a l l and Robert MacPherson. These men faced the ' c i t i z e n s ' t i c h e t * of Mayor Garden, Dr. J . T. C a r r o l l , W. J. Bowser and ex-Alderman W. S. MacDonald, who r e a l l y were government candidates, but who sought th i s t i t l e so as to avoid bcbame for the accusations against 'Turneriam'. The only one of the four who ever held any extensive role i n l a t e r p o l i t i c s WQS W. J. Bowser, a f t e r -wards premier of the province; Dr. C a r r o l l ' s main plank was the government grant f o r the Coast-Kootenay l i n e — he was a (162) di r e c t o r of the V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and Eastern. Such a slate could not hope to overcome the fact that Vancouver had for years returned opposition candidates, and that they were now more anxious than ever for a change of government. The f u l l opposition t i c k e t obtained a huge major--.. (163) i t y . In Richmond Mr. McQueen, a Vancouver alderman who (164) also posed as an independent l o s t by two to one to Thomas (165) Kidd, the s i t t i n g oppositionist members. In the Delta John (161) TIMES, May 30, 1898, p. 4; notice that this was but a week before the opposition nomination. (162) NEWS-ADVERTISER, July 7, 1898, p. 4. (163) Magurn, 0£. c i t . , p. 247. Martin had the lowest vote of the four oppositionists, but had 500 more than Garden, the top government candidate. (164) NEWS-ADVERTISER, June 2, 1898, p. 2. (165) Magurn, op_. c i t . , p. 247. 180 Oliver, also a future premier, was mentioned to replace Forster (166) as opposition candidate; but he withdrew, and Forster had no (167) trouble in defeating Henry D. Benson. Most of the i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s also turned against the government, but Price E l l i s o n , prominent resident of (168) Vernon, c a r r i e d Yale East f o r Turner. The electors of t M s (169) d i s t r i c t were so gr a t e f u l for the Ponticton-Boundary railway that they rejected Donald Graham, the i r representative for several years. Despite the many corruption accusations leveled (170) against him, Co l . Baker managed to defeat William B a i l l i e , ed-(171) i t o r of the Fort Steele PROSPECTOR, by a narrow majority i n (17E) South-East Kootenay. A. W. Smith, government incumbent, was (173) again the winner i n L i l l o o e t West over E. S. Peters. In North-(174) East Kootenay W. G. Neilson, popular lumber m i l l manager, de-(175) feated W. C. Wells, l i b e r a l oppositionist who demanded that (176) the Yukon railways be l e f t to the dominion government. And apparently the withdrawal of the famous 'Cassiar clause' from (177) the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n act gave Turner l i t t l e trouble i n that (166) Hew Westminster SUN, May 11, 1898, p. 2. (167) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (168) i b i d . (169) Vernon NEWS, June 2, 1898, p. 4. (170) Fort Steele PROSPECTOR, June 11, 1898, p. 1; June 18, 1898, p. 1. (171) EAST KOOTENAY MINER (Golden), June 10, 1898, p. 2. (172) Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. (173) i b i d . (174) TIMES, July 5, 1898, p. 8. (175) Magurn, op. c i t .k p. 247. The vote was 169 to 148. (176) Golden ERA, Tune 10, 1898, p. 2. (177) v. supra, p . 172 . 181 constituency, f o r the popularity of the Cassiar Central r a i l -way grant did away with the necessity to ship i n 'voters'. At any rate HcTavish, independent oppositionist, lagged far (178) behind C l i f f o r d and Irving. But the opposition carried a l l the other c o n s t i t -uencies. Hon. G. B. Martin's misdeeds caught him up i n Yale (179) North when he l o s t to P. J. Deane, activeu young editor of (180) the Inland SENTINEL; Deane had replaced Hugh McCutcheon as (181) oppositionist candidate. When Martin demanded a recount, Deane's election was sustained by the t a n t a l i z i n g majority of (182) four. (183) Semlin won an easy v i c t o r y in Yale West over John J . McKay, B r i t i s h Columbia Express Company bookkeeper put up (184) by the. p r o v i n c i a l Turner organisation; and i n Revelstoke K e l l i e ' s change of allegiance was popular enough to bring him (185) a comfortable win over William White. J. P. Hume won a (186) narrow v i c t o r y over A. S. Parwell in Nelson, and J. D. (187) Prentice again defeated D. A. Stoddart in East L i l l o o e t . New oppositionist members were returned i n Rossland, where James (188) (189) M. Martin e a s i l y defeated John McKane, independent government, (178 (179 (180 (181 (182 (183 (184 (185 (186 gurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. Kamloops STANDARD, July 14, 1898, p. 1. TIMES, A p r i l 14, 1898, p. 4. Kamloops STANDARD, Jan. 13, 1898, p. 4. TIMES, July 13, 1898, p. 4. Magurn, op. c i t . , p. 247. TIMES, June T 3 7 1898, p. 4. Magurn, OJD. c i t . , p. 247 . i b i d . His majority was 15. (187) i b i d . His majority was 19. (188) TDTCT. His majority was 180. (189) IFfossland LEADER, June 22, 1898, p. 1. 182 (190) and i n Slocan, where Robert F. Green, independent opposition, (191) earned a majority of 100 over J . L. Retallack. In Cariboo Hans Helgesen, who had been an oppositionist member for Es-(192) quimault before 1886, and Major-General J . C. Kinchant narr-owly defeated Joseph Hunter and S.A. Rogers; they obtained (193) larger majorities as a resu l t of a recount. Thus the days of the Turner government were num-(194) bered. The newly-elected members were d i s t r i b u t e d as follows Government Turner Helmcken H a l l McPhillips Eberts Booth Pooley Bullen Henderson McBride E l l i s o n Dunsmuir Robertson Bryden Neilson Smith C l i f f o r d Irving Opposition Munro Forster Kidd Semlin Deane N e i l l Smith Cotton MacPherson McKechnie Martin, Jos. T i s d a l l Helgesen Kinchant Hume K e l l i e Martin, J . J . Green Prentice Smith 18 20 The oppositionists c a l l e d at once upon Turner to (195) resign, but he was j u s t i f i e d i n retaining o f f i c e as he did; (196) for the Cassiar votes were not yet i n , and the res u l t s of the (190) Kaslo KOOTENAIAN, June 11, 1898, p. 2. (191) l o c . c i t . , July 16, 1898, p. 1. (192) Appendix I, p. i . (193) TIMES, July 14, 1898, p. 4. (194) My own arrangement, based upon statements of the i n d i -vidual candidates; the next few years saw many changes. Bullen and Prentice resigned on elec t i o n p e t i t i o n s . (195) TIMES, July 18, 1898, p. 4. (196) The Cassiar election took place much l a t e r ; the result was announced August 10, a few days a f t e r the dismissal. COLONIST, Aug. 10, 1898, p. 5. 183 many election protests might e a s i l y change the groupings. However Lieutenant-Governor Mclnnes took i t upon himself to (197) dismiss the ministry and to c a l l upon Hon. Robert Beaven. Just why Beaven, who had neither seat i n the house nor friends among i t s members — he had even been defeated i n the V i c t o r i a mayoralty race of 1897 a f t e r several terms i n (198) o f f i c e — should have been selected for this task, has not been made known; at any rate Beaven could get no supporters, (199) and C. A. Semlin became the new premier. Semlin had no trouble in fusing the d i f f e r e n t sec-tions of the opposition party'; his cabinet included Joseph Martin as attorney-general, Cotton as minister of finance and (200) (201) agricultu r e , and Dr. McKechnie as president of the council; (202) J. P. Hume became p r o v i n c i a l secretary and minister of mines, (203) and Semlin himself took over the lands department. Thus ended the Smithe dynasty — that continuous chain of governments which had held power since 1883 under William Smithe, A. E. B. Davie, John Robson, Theodore Davie, and J. H. Turner. The TIMES, among many other things, had (197) TIMES, Aug. 8, 1898, p. 4. (198) NEWS-ADVERTISER, Jan. 15, 1897, p. 4. (199) TIMES, Aug. 13, 1898, p. 4. B. C. Gazette, August 15, 1898, p. 1673. (200) TIMES, Aug. 15, 1898, p. 1. B. 0. Gazette, August 15, 1898, p. 1673. (201) TIMES, Aug. 18, 1898, p. 4. B. 0. Gazette, August 20, 1898, p. 1723. (202) TIMES, Aug. 20, 1898, p. 4. B. C. Gazette, August 20, 1898, p. 1723. (203) TIMES, Aug. 15, 1898, p. 1. B. C. Gazette, August 15, 1898, p. 1673. ; 184 (£04) said of the l a s t of these premiers: "...he i s a somewhat weak, very good-natured, domestic sort of man; an excellent merchant, but very far from a f i n a n c i a l genius; a pleasant enough man, but not exactly the kind of person l i k e l y to win his way to the front i n p o l i t i c s in any other colony than B r i t i s h Columbia, where the conditions have heen made so very peculiar." The editor did not explain just why he considered the conditions here to be so peculiar, but he did characterize Turner very well; when Theodore Davie resigned in 1895 the government had no strong man to replace him; and under Turner i t f a i l e d lamentably. However Semlin fared no better. Joseph Martin showed his true colors when his enmity f o r Cotton forced him to re-sign from the ministry. Then Semlin was defeated in the house in 1900, and the lieutenant-governor c a l l e d Martin, much to the disgust of the members. However the new premier l o s t the election and was followed by James Dunsmuir with a c o a l i t i o n ministry, l a r g e l y anti-Martin, and including Richard McBride as minister of mines. But when Dunsmuir appointed J. C. Brown, former anti-Robson stalwart, to the cabinet i n 1901, McBride fesigned and became leader of the opposition. The next year Dunsmuir, who had never been r e a l l y fond of p o l i t i c s , resigned, and C o l . P r i o r continued his administration, with only a very small majority i n the house. But he too foundered upon the rocks of government contracts with a company over which he (204) TIMES, May 25,1898, p. 4. 185 held control, and Richard McBride was c a l l e d to the premier-ship on June 1st, 1903. Although McBride's followers num-bered many l i b e r a l s as well as conservatives, the new premier determined to form a conservative administration, as being in the best interests of s t a b i l i t y ; at l a s t dominion party l i n e s had d e f i n i t e l y entered the p r o v i n c i a l field'. Naturally McBride was greatly c r i t i c i s e d for i g -noring the services of his l i b e r a l followers, and he courted defeat; but he pursued the only course open to him in founding a party based upon party rather than upon personal t i e s . The province had since 1898 suffered greatly under the constant changes of government which were due mainly to the lack of any r e a l party p o l i c i e s , and McBride took the only step poss-i b l e to prevent absolute chaos. Although in l a t e r years the party system has not proven so b e n e f i c i a l , yet i t i s s t i l l doubtful whether the old system which was followed from 1871 to 1903 was any better; c e r t a i n l y there were more serious c r i s e s i n that period than there have been since. 186 CHAPTER VIII. Dominion Parties i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia's early p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s i n the dominion f i e l d were governed by the attitudes of the fed-e r a l p a r t i e s during the 'fight Canada' period. Alexander MacZenzie, premier of Canada from 1873 to 1878, roused the belligerence not only of Walkem's followers, but of the whole province, by his r e f u s a l to make railway concessions; J. A. Macdonald made peace with the l o c a l leaders and won B r i t i s h Columbia's support u n t i l the l i b e r a l landslide of 1896. But the l o c a l representatives c a l l e d themselves 'independent conservatives'; in other words, they supported the government, not as true blue party men, but as the grate-f u l recipients of past favors; they were for B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t and for party second. Yet as early as 1887, the l i b e r a l s entered the l o c a l f i e l d . They held an organisation meeting in V i c t o r i a (1) and put forward a candidate of the i r own, Capt. McCallum. Even before t h i s the COLOFIST had seen the approaching danger and had urged that a conservative convention be held to supp-ort two o f f i c i a l candidates and thus prevent a l i b e r a l from (2) s p l i t t i n g the vote; but the idea was refected, and f i v e (1) COLONIST, Peb. 24, 1887, p. 2. (2) l o c . c i t . , Jan. 19, 1887, p. 2. 187 conservatives stood for the two V i c t o r i a seats: E. Crowe Baker, Noah Shakespeare, W. A. Robertson, Hon. Thomas B a s i l (3) Humphreys (the i r r e p r e s s i b l e ) , and Mayor P e l l . The f i r s t (4) two, the successful candidates, received the blessing of the r e a l conservatives; the COLONIST was e s p e c i a l l y b i t t e r against Humphreys, even publishing on e l e c t i o n day huge headlines de-(5) nouncing him as a Chinese agent. In Vancouver d i s t r i c t ( a l l of the isla n d outside of V i c t o r i a ) D. W. Gordon, the s i t t i n g member, defeated J. P. (6) Planta, also a conservative. The Settlement Act was s t i l l a l i v e issue i n t h i s constituency, for Gordon's v i c t o r y was attributed to his opposition to the b i l l , and to Dunsmuir's (7) control of Planta. John A. Mara, late speaker of the l e g i s -l a t u r e , was elected by acclamation i n Yale to replace P. J. (8) Barnard, who had declined to run, and i n Cariboo James Reid (9) was re-elected. In New Westminster Donald ChishofLm, l i b e r a l -(10) conservative backed hy the MAINLAND GUARDIAN, defeated T. J. (11) Trapp, independent, and t h i s despite the COLUMBIAN'S charges (12) that Chishothm was a saloon-keeper. Apart from the winner's (3). GOLONIST, Jan. 28, 1887, p. 2. (4) loc . c i t . , Mar. 8, 1887, p. 1. (5) Toe. cTE., Mar. 7, 1887, p. 1. ( 6) Toe. c iT . , Mar. 23, 1887, p. 4. (7) ' flMESTTSar. 24, 1887, p. 2. (8) COLONIST, Peb. 16, 1887, p. 2. (9) loc . c i t . , Mar. 23, 1887, p. 4. (10) MAINLAND GUARDIAN, Peb. 23, 1887, p. 2. (11) Gosnell, R. E., The year book of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897 ( V i c t o r i a , 1897), p. 132. (12) COLUMBIAN, Peb. 18, 1887, p. 2. 188 personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , which r e a l l y were excellent, he was aided hy a s p l i t among his opponents. A moral reform con-vention had chosen Donald McGillvray, dropping Trapp; hut that estimable gentlemanc. remained i n the f i e l d , even a f t e r another meeting again chose McGillvray. At the eleventh hour the (13) l a t t e r r e t i r e d , but Trapp probably l o s t many votes by his greed. I t i s worthy of notice that t h i s was a 'moral reform' group, not a l i b e r a l party; i t s members opposed Chisholm be-cause of his occupation, not because of his p o l i t i c s . An i n t e r e s t i n g feature of this campaign was the fact that the B r i t i s h Columbia elections were held some time a f t e r ifche eastern ones, and that the TIMES and the COLONIST each (14) claimed v i c t o r y for i t s own party — the former being l i b e r a l and the l a t t e r conservative. F i n a l l y however, i t was estab-li s h e d that Macdonald had swept the country; and B r i t i s h Columbia, never ( i n those days at least) averse to choosing the most favorable side, sent to Ottawa a s o l i d contingent of government supporters. Soon a f t e r t h i s Noah Shakespeare resigned to accept (15) the postmastership of V i c t o r i a — Canadian p o l i t i c s were indeed unfortunate i n the loss of such an h i s t o r i c combination of names'. Col. E. G. P r i o r , M. P. P., was elected by acclamation to the vacant seat a f t e r De Cosmos refused to accept a (13) COLUMBIAN, Feb. 21, 1887, p. 2. (14) TIMES, Feb. 23, 1887, p. 1. COLONIST, Feb. 23, 1887, p. 1. (15) l o c . c i t . , Dec. 22, 1887, p. 2. 189 (16) r e q u i s i t i o n to oppose him. The next opening was i n Cariboo, when James Reid resigned to accept the senatorship vacated by Lieutenant-(17) Governor Nelson. Prank S. Barnard, Macdonald 1s o f f i c i a l con-servative candidate, defeated McLeese and Rogers, who had (18) s p l i t the opposition vote. In the 1889 session of-parliament the B r i t i s h Columbia members made several demands, including one for more (19) regular mail service to the northern section of the province. And C o l . P r i o r raised the old question of the trans-Pacific steamers c a l l i n g at V i c t o r i a ; but naturally he did not re-(20) ceive the support of the mainland members, and his plea f a i l e d , The COLONIST now departed temporarily from i t s abject admir-ation of the government, and also castigated E. C. Baker, who (21) had not seen f i t to attend the session. Probably the good conservatives foresaw the r e s i g -nation of Baker, for they set about organising themselves as (22) a party, despite the assertion of the COLONIST that eastern party questions and labels could not he applied i n B r i t i s h (23) Columbia. However the organisation was not needed, for Thomas (16) COLONIST, Jan. 24, 1888, p. 2. (17) TIMES, Oct. 5, 1888, p. 2. (18) l o c . c i t . , Nov. 28, 1888, p. 2. (19) l o g . c i T . , Mar. 9, 1889, p. 2. (20) c7n~0NIS"r", A p r i l 28, 1889, p. 2. Commons Debates, A p r i l 22, 1889, pp. 1427-1434. : (21) COLONIST, A p r i l 28, 1889, p. 2. (22) TIMES, Sept. 18, 1889, p. 2. (23) COLONIST, Sept. 3, 1889, p. 2. 190 Barle, independent 1, was elected by acclamation to replace (24) Baker. The TIMES did i t s best to arouse opposition by demand-ing that Earle take a stand on the imperial government's re-quest that the dominion repeal the Chinese r e s t r i c t i o n act i n (25) order to improve empire relations with China, but the ruse was unsuccessful. An election was necessary the next year i n Hew (26) Westminster to replace Donald Chisholm, deceased. G. E. Corbould, conservative supported by TRUTH (successor to the GUARDIAH), defeated William Ladner, r e t i r e d p r o v i n c i a l opp-(27) o s i t i o n i s t , and Townsend, free-trader. At the 1891 general election dominion issues en-tered more strongly into the B r i t i s h Columbia campaign. The main issue was r e c i p r o c i t y , against which p o l i c y the conser-vatives raised the l o y a l t y cry (intimating economic union with the United States as a resu l t of rec i p r o c i t y ) . A TIMES a r t i c l e i l l u s t r a t e s the l o c a l attitude, in which party names are not yet generally used, but dominion p o l i c i e s are more (28) important than before: It should seem that a generous but independent support of the government ought to be relegated to the limbo of obsolete p o l i t i c a l slogans. We would not have B r i t i s h Columbia represented hy men with whom party i s a f e t i c h ( s i c ) ; but there are certain s p e c i f i c features in the p o l i c i e s of a l l parties that must either be supported by (24) C010HIST, Oct. 29, 1889, p. 2. (25) TIMES, Oct. 7, 1889, p. 2. (26) COLUMBIAN, A p r i l 5, 1890, p. 2. (27) NEWS-ADVERTISER, June 20, 1890, p. 4. (28) TIMES, Peb. 3, 1891, p. 4. 191 a l l the power at one's command or else be abandoned a l -together. Now, r e c i p r o c i t y w i l l either be a good thing for B r i t i s h Columbia or i t w i l l not. The conservative motto was: "The Old Flag, The Old Policy, The Old Leader," and cartoons represented Macdonald waving a Canadian standard, being borne on the shoulders of a farmer (29) and an i n d u s t r i a l worker; a l l i n an attempt to show the na-t i o n a l character of the party, and to cast r e f l e c t i o n on the r e c i p r o c i t y theory. In the P a c i f i c province, which s t i l l knew very l i t t l e of federal p o l i c i e s , this slogan was successful; every (30) one of the s i t t i n g members v/as re-elected, Gordon i n Vancouver (31) D i s t r i c t and Mara in Yale by acclamation. In V i c t o r i a C o l . P r i o r and Sarle were opposed by William Templeman of the TIMES and Y/illiam Marchant, both r e a l l y l i b e r a l s but posing as i n -(32) dependents; t h i s move shows the unpopularity of tho l i b e r a l platform. In New Westminster Capt. Scoullar, also an inde-(33) pendent free-trader, fared no better against the p r o t e c t i o n i s t (34) member, G. E. Corbould. The cockade of v i c t o r y headed the column of election results i n the COLONIST, "...The government (35) (was) sustained and the country safe". Dominion p o l i t i c a l matters were then forgotten for several months, except for the formation i n New Westminster (29) COLONIST, Mar. 5, 1891, p. 1. (30) Gosnell, op. c i t • , p./3^. (31) fOLONIST, Feb. 20, 1891, p. 1. Templeman soon was re-garded as one of the l i b e r a l leaders i n the province. (32) l o c . c i t . , Peb. 20, 1891, p. 1. (33) lew V/esTminster LEDGER, Peb. 27 , 1891, p. 2. (34) COLONIST, Mar. 6, 1891, p. 1. (35) I b i d . 192 (36) of a l i b e r a l association to organise for the next e l e c t i o n ; a prominent member of the committee appointed to draft a pro-v i n c i a l platform (note that they s t i l l stressed matters i n -volving the province instead of accepting the dominion planks) (37) was Mr. F. W. Howay, then a young lawyer and to-day one of the greatest authorities on B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y . But when the death of D. W. Gordon i n the spring of (38) 1893 l e f t a vacancy in Vancouver d i s t r i c t , the l i b e r a l s of the (39) is l a n d were not yet ready to put up a candidate, and Andrew Haslam, former M. P. P. fo r Nanaimo, was elected by acclam-(40) a t i o n . When another general election was drawing near, B r i t i s h Columbia was included on the speaking tours of such (41) (42) eastern p o l i t i c i a n s as Poster and Angers, Tupper, and Laurier, a l l s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e i r respective p o l i c i e s . The l o c a l voters caught the fever of the approaching contest, and began to organise afresh; the conservatives in (43) (44) Vancouver, another l i b e r a l executive for the whole province, (45) and even a young men's l i b e r a l club in V i c t o r i a . Candidates were nominated and began to s o l i c i t votes i n nearly every d i s t r i c t , and thi s time the federal labels were f r e e l y used. (36 (37 (38 (39 (40 (41 (42 (43 (44 (45 LEDGER, Nov. 15, 1891, p. 2. TIMES, Jan. 16, 1892, p. 4. COLONIST, Peb. 21, 1893, p. 1. TIMES, A p r i l 22, 1893, p. 4. Gosnell, op. c i t . , p. 132. COLONIST."Nov. 1, 1893, p. 8. l o c . c i t . , Dec. 11, 1894, p. 4. inirfS-lDTERTISER, Aug. 6, 1894, p TIMES, Feb. 4, 1895, p. 4. l o c . c i t . , Mar. 2, 1895, p. 4. 193 But the campaigners were disappointed. The Manitoba schools question had so disturbed the government that (46) another session was necessary, and the election was delayed u n t i l the next year. Yet the dominion's p o l i c y was p a r t i a l l y tested i n V i c t o r i a , when Co l . Pri o r ' s appointment to the cabinet as (47) c o n t r o l l e r of inland revenue necessitated a by-election. Although B r i t i s h Columbia had long been demanding represen-t s ) tation i n the government, yet t h i s selection of P r i o r was probably more a matter of expediency than a recognition either of B r i t i s h Columbia's claim or of P r i o r ' s 'exceptional' worth; for the conservative government, since the death of s i r John A. Macdonald and the astounding disclosures of cabinet corr-(49) uption, had s t e a d i l y been l o s i n g ground, and was ready to take this easy method of holding B r i t i s h Columbia's support. The contest was a sharp one, with the l i b e r a l s (50) a c t u a l l y claiming that P r i o r did not hold cabinet rank, and shouting bribery accusations; the TIMES, whose manager, (51) William Templeman, was the l i b e r a l candidate, even attempted the old t r i c k of displaying headlines on the day of the e l -ection to the e f f e c t that Laurier had been c a l l e d i n by the (46) TIMES, A p r i l 84, 1895, p. 4. (47) COLONIST, Dec. 17, 1895, p. 8. (48) Senator MacDonald asks for i t i n the senate. COLONIST, June 26, 1895, p. 4. (49) Skelton, 0. D., The day of S i r W i l f r i d Laurier (Toronto, 1916), pp. 153-155. (50) TIMES, Dec. 17, 1895, p. 4. (51) COLONIST, Jan. 5, 1896, p. 4. 194 ( 5 2 ) governor-general, which was a deliberate falsehood'. Despite general opposition to the Bowell government, P r i o r was e a s i l y (53) returned, f o r V i c t o r i a c i t i z e n s were not displeased at having i n t h e i r midst a cabinet minister. The new parliamentary sessionywas almost e n t i r e l y occupied with the Manitoba schools question. This dispute had arisen out of the establishment by the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment of non-sectarian education, replacing the separate schools provided under the terms of confederation. The Cath-o l i c s of course roused themselves against t h i s act; but court cases f a i l e d , and the onus was l e f t on the dominion government to decide whether or not i t would pass s p e c i a l leg-i s l a t i o n to r e l i e v e the s i t u a t i o n . The Bowell administration introduced in 1896 a remedial b i l l r estoring Catholic schools, but l a u r i e r , true to his b e l i e f i n p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , talked (54) (55) i t out of the house; he demanded instead a compromise. On th i s note of f a i l u r e , then, parliament was dissolved'. And B r i t i s h Columbia joined i n the general indi g -nation against the conservatives' weakness, by e l e c t i n g four l i b e r a l s . The only two conservatives returned were Pr i o r and Earle i n V i c t o r i a , and even they had only a very narrow (56) majority over Templeman and Milne, l i b e r a l s . ' V i c t o r i a ' s a t t -itude was due to the fact that the government's plan to give (52) TIMES, Jan. 6, 1896, p. 4. (53) COLONIST, Jan. 7, 1896, p. 4. (54) l o c . c i t . , A p r i l 17, 1896, p. 4. (55) Skelton, op. c i t . , p. 166. (56) TIMES, June 24""T"1896, p. 2. 195 a large grant to the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c railway had been blocked (57) by the l i b e r a l s ; though long disputes on free trade and pro-v i n c i a l r i g h t s raged i n the columns of the COLONIST and the TIMES, yet in the end the r e a l issue was l o c a l only. Elsewhere i t seemed rather to he conservative dissensions than federal p o l i c i e s that won for the l i b e r a l s . In Vancouver D i s t r i c t Andrew Haslam was again nominated by the (58) Nanaimo conservatives, but not u n t i l a f t e r James Haggart had (59) already accepted the nomination of the Wellington conservatives This s p l i t was r e a l l y due to sectional jealousy, for the 'Nanaimo ring ' was determined to prevent the extension of the (60) Esquimault and Nanaimo railway the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c scheme, l e s t the trade centre be moved further up the i s l a n d . At any rate this dispute proved fortunate for W. W. B. Mclnnes, l i b -(61) e r a l , who led the p o l l . In Burrard too, Reverend George Maxwell of Consti-(62) t u t i o n a l league fame, defeated G. H. Cowan and W. J. Bowser. The trouble here was within the conservative association i t -s e l f , f o r a public meeting chose Cowan and dropped Bowser:; (63) but the executive reversed the decision, and the conservative vote was s p l i t again. (57) TIMES, June 15, 1896, p. 4. (58) Nanaimo PREE PRESS, May 18, 1896, p. 4. (59) COLONIST, Hay 3, 1896, p. 4. (60) Union NEWS, June 2, 1896, p. 4. (61) Gemmill, Canadian parliamentary companion, 1897, pp. (Ottawa, 1897), pp. 193-204. (62) ^Gemmill, op. c i t . , pp. 193-204. (63) TIMES, May 23"""T896, p. 4. 196 Even the New Westminster government followers had t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , for t h e i r f i r s t candidate, T. G. Atkinson, (64) withdrew, withdrew to he replaced to E. Hutcherson; then hy (65) some means Richard McBride became the o f f i c i a l nominee to (66) oppose Aulay Morrison, l i b e r a l (now Chief Justice of B r i t i s h Columbia). While McBride was the only conservative candidate in the f i e l d , yet the many nominations undoubtedly caused hard feelings, and he could not receive the vigorous support en-(67) joyed by his successful opponent. In Yale-Cariboo, Hewitt Bostock was an easy v i c t o r (68) over John A. Mara. Bostock, a wealthy f i n a n c i a l man of Vic-t o r i a , had perfected a good organisation through the subsid-(69) i s a t i o n of newspapers, and had been campaigning vigorously i n (70) the i n t e r i o r for a year. On the other hand, Mara was a poor representative, and had done l i t t l e for his d i s t r i c t ; i t v/as probably these facts more than the p o l i c i e s of his government that caused his defeat. Though the B r i t i s h Columbia elections may seem to have been fought on l o c a l issues, yet they were representative (64) COLUMBIAN, May 7, 1896, p. £. (65) loc . c i t . , June 6, 1896, p. £. (66) TIMES, Mar. £0, 1896, p. 4. (67) Gemmill, op. c i t . , pp. 193-204. (68) j b i d . His majority was 400. (69) He admitted that he had started the PROVINCE: an i n t e r -view with the MINING RECORD, quoted i n the Golden ERA, August 1, 1896, p. £. Also, the INLAND SENTINEL changed hands and p o l i t i c s , becoming his slave. INLAND SENTINEL, March 6, 1896, p. 2. (70) l o c . c i t . , June 16, 1896, p. 2. 19-7 of campaigns a l l over Canada; f o r the dominion was weary of the stodginess and corruption of the party which had been i n power for 18 years, and the people were ready for a change. The dispute over Manitoba's r i g h t s , while i t followed the "bines of s i m i l a r election arguments in Quebec and Ontario, was pro-bably more of a p o l i t i c a l f o o t b a l l than a sincere issue. When B r i t i s h Columbia's dominion p o l i t i c a l a f f i l -i a t i o n s were so uncertain, there was l i t t l e use of bringing them into p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . But by the end of the period treated i n this thesis a d e f i n i t e a l t e r a t i o n had taken place; in many constituencies the Turner government was regarded as a conservative administration, and the l i b e r a l s began to or-ganise for opposition purposes. The l i b e r a l convention of (71) 1897, c a l l e d p r i m a r i l y to prepare for the 1898 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , decided to oppose the government and formulated a platform to be used the next summer; and at least one member of the party was expelled f o r his r e f u s a l to work against his (7£) government f r i e n d s . Turner saw the danger i n th i s move, and denounced (73) the attempt to introduce dominion party l i n e s : It i s therefore requested that voters, whether l i b e r a l or Conservative, should either support or oppose the present government as B r i t i s h Columbians and from no other con-s i d e r a t i o n . As a government we have never taken any part (71) v. supra, p. 165. (72) Tnformation from the person concerned. (73) COIOIIST, May 6, 1898, p. 4. Copy of a l e t t e r from Turner to A. J. McLellan, Chairman of the Committee, Pro-v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Association, V i c t o r i a , May 3, 1898. This was the government organisation. 198 or expressed any views which could he construed as iden-t i f y i n g us with either one party or the other. As a government, probably they had not; but as i n -dividuals, Turner and Pooley at least were known to be strong conservatives. The whole government slat e for Vancouver in 1898 was conservative: W. J. Bowser, l a t e r premier, Dr. C a r r o l l Mayor Garden and W. S. MacDonald; and i t was Richard McBride, Turner candidate for Dewdney who organised the f i r s t o f f i c i a l conservative government i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The only prom-inent l i b e r a l s supporting the government were Alexander Henderson of New Westminster, J. C. Mclagan of the Vancouver WORLD, and D. A. Stoddart of L i l l o o e t . The opposition group was more evenly divided; K e l l i e , (74) (75) Porster, MacPherson, Kidd, Ralph Smith, Hume, J. B. Kennedy, Dr. McKechnie, C. W. Munro", A. S. Vedder and Joseph Martin were a l l l i b e r a l s . Senator Templeman, publisher of the chief opposition journal, the TIMES, was one of the most prominent l i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Hewitt Bostock, l i b e r a l member of parliament, used his newspapers to defeat Turner, and Reverend George Maxwell, federal member for Burrard, received his early p o l i t i c a l experience i n the oppositionist Consti-t u t i o n a l League. But there were also many conservative oppositionists: Cotton, Gf. E. T i s d a l l and A. W. Williams of Vancouver, C. B. (74) Kidd did not take much interest in dominion p o l i t i c s u n t i l several years l a t e r ; information from J. V/. M i l l e r . (75) He was the husband of the late Mary E l l e n Smith, pioneer woman member and prominent l i b e r a l . She entered p o l i t i c s a f t e r her husband's death. 199 Sword and Donald Graham. Most of these men had been prominent in p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s before the l i b e r a l a c t i v i t i e s began, and they resented the new group which was attempting to seize power by defeating Turner. This may be the cause behind many of the party s p l i t s in the period 1898 to 1903, and the-reason why dominion l i n e s were not sooner introduced. In review, the years from 1887 to 1898 saw B r i t i s h Columbia i n a state of t r a n s i t i o n from extreme localism to re a l importance in dominion p o l i t i e s . Although the a l t e r a t i o n was not e n t i r e l y effected u n t i l some years l a t e r , a good be-ginning had been made; dominion party organisations had been formed and federal labels used, and the conservatives in the i r weakness had seen the need of support from the P a c i f i c pro-vince; and f i n a l l y , dominion a f f i l i a t i o n s had to a small ex-tent played a part in the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1898. Truly, the way was well paved for Richard McBride's introduction i n 1903 of dominion party l i n e s . 200 CHAPTER IX, Character i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia Parties, 1883-1898. The history of B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i e s between 1883 and 1898 i s lar g e l y the story of the Smithe 'dynasty'. This group took o f f i c e as the resu l t of i t s promises to end the chaos caused by G. A. Walkem and Robert Beaven, and i t was highly successful. It brought about a settlement with the dominion which was as equitable as possible under the circum-stances, i t restored the c r e d i t and prestige of the province, and i t did i t s best to keep abreast of the remarkable devel-opment taking place in the hinterland d i s t r i c t s where mining and agriculture were becoming increasingly important. In short, the Smithe dynasty was an important f a c t o r - i n the growth of B r i t i s h Columbia, for i t s strength and r e l a t i v e e-f f i c i e n c y made possible many much-needed reforms. The reason for the strength of the 'party was at f i r s t a natural revulsion against the mistakes of the late govern-ment, but i t was l a t e r based upon the control of Robson. There i s l i t t l e doubt but that Robson was the outstanding man of the whole period, for he was the r e a l leader even in the min i s t r i e s of Smithe and A. E. B. Davie. But he was not as corrupt as i s the usual party 'boss* — the Smithe dynasty was s t i l l too fresh from i t s purity crusade to jump at once into SOI wholesale g r a f t . And Smithe and A. E. B. Davie, although r e a l l y only figureheads in the government, were not men l i k e l y to permit flagrant dishonesty to he practised i n t h e i r names. But aft e r the death of Robson in 1892 the party lacked a true statesman. Theodore Davie was a strong and shrewd p o l i t i c i a n , but under his leadership the government be-gan to lose caste. This was p a r t l y the natural r e s u l t of i t s long period of p^er, s i m i l a r to the one which had ruined even the remains of S i r John A. Macdonald's great government, and p a r t l y also of the fact that there was no sober-minded person strong enough to check Davie's impulses. And i n the Turner regime there was not even a strong leader; i f the adminis-t r a t i o n was corrupt, i t c e r t a i n l y did not prevent the electors from bel i e v i n g most of the l i b e l l o u s tales c i r c u l a t e d by the o p p o s i t i o n i s t s . Thus the Smithe dynasty followed tha course of most groups which enjoy a long period of power; i t began as a re-form party' which c a r r i e d out most of ifcs promises, and i t ended as a broken-down administration accused of a l l manner of wrongs. I t began with a strong leader and ended with a weak one. It had been i n o f f i c e too long — the province was indeed ready for a change. The history of the opposition groups was almost the reverse. In the days of Smithe and A. E. B. Davie there was l i t t l e to c r i t i c i z e , and Beaven's past record in power took the s t i n g from most of his attacks. The *party^ which had no 202-r e a l p o l i c y to substitute for that of the government, spent i t s time searching out Robson's many mistakes; though i t caused much embarrassment to the administration, i t did not prove that Beaven's followers were the men to rule the des-t i n i e s of the province. However when the Smithe dynasty began to decline the opposition became stronger i n t a c t i c s as well as i n num-bers. The defeat of Beaven, who had always been a destruct-ive gather than a constructive c r i t i c , made way for the more popular men, Semlin, Cotton, and Sword. Under these men (for Semlin, l i k e Turner, was not a strong leader), the opp-o s i t i o n began to propound theories designed to bring about more e f f i c i e n t administration; and the l i b e r a l r e c r u i t s brought more new p o l i c i e s . Unlike the government group, the opposition never had a r e a l l y eutstanding leader. Beaven was a master of par-liamentary t a c t i c s , hut he did l i t t l e to raise the standard of the party; Semlin was a pleasant, honest man, but never a strong force; and Cotton and Sword, although they were good p o l i t i c i a n s , were never the power behind the scenes that Robson had been. Furthermore, the oppositionists did not raise t h e i r prestige by the i r constant carping at every move of the government; even many of th e i r accusations against Turner, Baker and Martin i n the c l o s i n g days of the Smithe dynasty were not f u l l y proven. 203 In t h i s the change of governments in 1898 d i f f e r e d from that of 1882-1883: Smithe had received an undeniable mandate from the electors to reform a chaotic administration, while Semlin and Cotton assumed power on the basis of a small and doubtful majority over a government which, i n spite of i t s many f a u l t s , had usually t r i e d to work for the good of the province. The Smithe dynasty was one of the strongest parties'' which th i s province has ever known; and i t should be remem-bered rather for the great work i t did in governing B r i t i s h Columbia during her f i r s t period of 'growing pains' than for the errors i t s members may have committed. The introduction to this thesis stated that B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c a l groups )t£JL% JflgJG^parties, with l i v e organisations and d i s c i p l i n e ; the following chapters, a chronicle of p o l i t i c a l events from 1883 to 1898 in the pro-v i n c i a l and dominion f i e l d s , attempted to show the basis for this theory. Yet they told also of many exceptions to the general statement, exceptions which were too numerous to prove a hard and fast r u l e . The account demonstrated that p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s were based often on personal and sectional l i n e s rather than on p a r t y . t i e s : Simeon Duck turned to the government side when he saw a cabinet p o s i t i o n in sight, and James Orr went over to the opposition when the government 'donated' Vancouver to the Canadian P a c i f i c ; C.C. McKenzie and Samuel Greer opposed the Smithe dynasty as a revenge for fancied wrongs; 204 a f t e r 1893 the lower mainland opposed and the whole island supported the government as a result of the parliament build-ings h i l l and the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c promotion. J. M . K e l l i e and Hon. D. W. Higgins l e f t the government ranks ostensibly in protest against Turners p o l i c y , hut probably because t h e i r personal ambitions had not been g r a t i f i e d ; and Dr. W. V / . Walkem, o r i g i n a l l y a government supporter, soon returned to the f o l d a f t e r a year of Baker-baiting — doubtless this l a s t change was the r e s u l t of Dunsmuir influence. Besides sectional and personal f e e l i n g s , business interests played a part in B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s very sim-i l a r to the role which they assume i n a l l countries. The Canadian P a c i f i c company at f i r s t held a strong influence over the government in the days of the Vancouver extension* The Dunsmuir family, which controlled the Esquimault and Nanaimo railway and the is l a n d coal mines, probably retained i t s ]ower u n t i l the end of the Smithe dynasty; for Robert Dunsmuir, founder of the family fortune, was a strong member of the gov-ernment u n t i l his death i n 1889; and many of the is l a n d rep-resentatives, including Pooley and Dr. Walkem, undoubtedly owed allegiance to the firm. R. P. Rithet and H. D. Helmcken protected the interests of the B r i t i s h P a c i f i c company, and Col . Baker helped the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern. The accus-ations against Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney and the Columbia and Western were rather far-fetched, but no doubt t h i s Kootenay company did have influence i n the government. , In other words, a man's purse as well as his head governed his p o l i t i c s . 205 A p o l i t i c a l party cannot thrive upon words and deeds alone: i t must have an organisation to work up support through-out the country. Although we do not hear that there were many l o c a l clubs devoted to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , yet i t i s quite obvious to any observer that each party had i t s 'stalwarts' in the various constituencies, men who d i s t r i b u t e d the patronage and who kept a close watch upon party a f f a i r s . The only approaches to a r e a l organisation were the P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Association of V i c t o r i a which supported the government, and the l i b e r a l associations which opposed i t . There never was a f u l l p r o v i n c i a l convention of either party: leaders were chosen and platforms arranged hy the caucuses concerned. In dominion party a f f a i r s , however, there Amany organisations and l o c a l conventions. But B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c i a n s , i f they did not organise c l o s e l y , were yet masters of the age-old art of news-paper propaganda. The bibliography of this study shows that almost every newspaper i n the province took some part i n pol-i t i c s ; i n many cases one journal naturally opposed i t s l o c a l r i v a l , but in many more the editor was inspired hy party sugg-estions. The COLONIST, the WORLD and the Nanaimo PREE PRESS were outstanding apologists for the Smithe dynasty; while the TIMES, published by William Templeman, the PROVINCE, owned by Bostock, the COLUMBIAN, influenced but probably not owned by J. C. Brown, were b i t t e r c r i t i c s . £ior did the editors hesitate to take a personal part i n p o l i t i c s : Dr. Walkem of the Welling-ton ENTERPRISE was member for Nanaimo South, P. J. Deane of 206 the INLAID SENTINEL defeated G. B, Martin, and William B a i l l i e of the f o r t Steele PROSPECTOR ran against C o l . Baker in 1898. In the majority of cases the government journals were also conservative i n dominion p o l i t i c s ; hut the WORLD and the NEWS-ADVERTISER followed th e i r publishers i n reversing t h e i r support. The former paper, a f t e r c a l l i n g Reverend G. R. (1) Maxwell a notoriety seeker because of his Constitutional League a c t i v i t i e s in 1893, fi r m l y supported him i n the dominion (2) election only three years l a t e r ; and the manager, J. C. McLagan, delegate to the l i b e r a l convention of 1897, refused to serve on the committee appointed to draft the platform which was to include opposition to Turner. In short, most of the p o l i t i c i a n s of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1883 to 1898 were members of de f i n i t e fi&&fiffl  f o r or against the p r o v i n c i a l government, and l a t e r for or against the dominion government. Although the two sets of organisations were separate, yet t h e i r memberships overlapped; a l l of these groups followed the regular party d i s c i p l i n e and enjoyed the favors extended to f a i t h f u l party supporters. Who, then, s h a l l say that Richard McBride 'introduced party p o l i t i c s ' to B r i t i s h Columbia? fl) WORLD, June 12, 1894, p. 4. (2) l o c . c i t . , May 16, 1896, p. 4. i APPENDIX I. (1) Members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1882-1898. (A) Fourth Parliament, 1882-1886. Constituency Seats Cariboo 3 Cassiar 1 Comox 1 Cowichan 1 Esquimault 2 Kootenay 1 L i l l o o e t 2 Nanaimo 2 New Westminster C i t y . . . . . 1 New Westminster D i s t r i c t . 2 V i c t o r i a C i t y 4 V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 2 Yale 3 Representative ' George Cowan. Charles Wilson. Robert McLeese. John Grant. William M. Dingwall. William Smithe. Hans Helgesen. G. E. Pooley (vice J. R. Hett, unseated). R. L. T. Galbraith. A. E. B. Davie. Edward A l l e n . Robert Dunsmuir. William Raybould. W. U. Armstrong (resigned A p r i l 8, 1884) . Jas. Cunningham (elected A p r i l 23, 1884, vice Armstrong). John Robson. James Orr. Robert Beaven. Theodore Davie. Simeon Duck. M. W. Tyrrwhit-Drake. George A. McTavish. R. P. John. Charles A. Semlin. John A. Mara. Preston Bennett (died August, 1882) . G. B. Martin (vice Bennett). (1) Gosnell, R. E., Yearbook of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897 ( V i c t o r i a , 1897), pp. 115-116; with many necessary cor-rections from B. C. Journals and. newspapers. (B)' F i f t h Parliament, 1686-1890. Constituency Seats. Representative Cariboo. 3 J . Mason. Robert McLeese (resigned 1888). George Cowan. I. B. Nason (vice McLeese, De-• cember, 1888) . Cassiar.... 1 John Grant. Comox 1 A. M. Stenhouse (resigned 1887) T. B. Humphreys (vice Stenhouse bled August, 1891TT7 Cowichan 2 William Smithe (died 1887). Henry Croft. Henry Fry (vice Smithe, 1887). Esquimault 2 C. E. Pooley. D. W. Higgins. Kootenay 1 L t . C o l . James Baker. L i l l o o e t 2 A. E. B. Davie (died Aug. 1889) E. A l l e n (died Mar. 1890). tA. W. Smith (vice Davie). Nanaimo 2 Robert Dunsmuir (died 1889). Wm Raybould (died 1886). Geo. Thomson (vice Raybould, Jan. 6, 1887"J""r~ A. Haslam (vice Dunsmuir). New ?/estminster City 1 W. N. Bole (resigned 1889). T. Cunningham (vice Bole). New Westminster D i s t r i c t . 3 John Robson. W. H. Ladner. James Orr. V i c t o r i a C i t y 4 Robert Beaven. E. G. P r i o r (resigned 1887). J. H. Turner. Theodore Davie. S. Duck (vice P r i o r , Jan. 1888) V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 2 1. F. John ( resigned Je., 1888) G.- W. Anderson. Jas. Tolmie (vice John, 1888). Yale 3 C. A. Semlin. P. G. Vernon. G. B. Martin. i i i (C) Sixth Parliament, 1890-1894. Constituency Cariboo * 3 Cassiar 1 Comox 1 Cowichan 2 Esquimault 2 Kootenay 2 L i l l o o e t 2 Nanaimo D i s t r i c t 2 Nanaimo C i t y 1 New Westminster C i t y 1 New Westminster D i s t r i c t . 3 V i c t o r i a C i t y 4 V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 2 Yale.... 3 Vancouver City 2 Alberni 1 The Islands 1 J.Mason (died Dec., 1890). J . Robson (died Je. 29, 1892). S. A. Rogers. I. B. Nason (vice Mason; elec-ted Jan. 23, 1891; died Aug., 1893) . Dr. Watt (vice Robson). Wm. Adams (vice Nason). R. H. H a l l . — Joseph Hunter. Theodore Davie. Henry C r o f t . C. E. Pooley. D. W. Higgins. (E) L t . Col. Jas. Baker. (W) J. M. K e l l i e . D. A. Stoddart. A. W. Smith. Thos. Forster. C. C. McKenzie. T. Keith. Jas. C. Brown. John Robson (resigned 1890). Thomas E. Kitchen. James Punch. C. B. Sword (vice Robson, 1890). John Grant. Robert Beaven. Dr. G. L. Milne. J. H. Turner. D. M. Eberts. G. W. Anderson. Forbes George Vernon. George Bohun Martin. Charles A. Semlin. F. 3D. Carter-Cotton. J. W. Horne. Thomas Fletcher. J. P. Booth. i v (D) Seventh Parliament, 1894-1898. Constituency Seats Cariboo 2 Cassiar 1 Comox 1 Cowichan-Alberni 2 Esquimault 2 Kootenay 3 L i l l o o e t 2 Nanaimo D i s t r i c t 2 Nanaimo C i t y . 1 New V/estminster City 1 New Westminster D i s t r i c t . 4 V i c t o r i a City 4 V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t 2 Yale 3 Vancouver City 3 Representative S. A. Rogers. William Adams. John I r v i n g . Joseph Hunter. T. Davie (resigned Mar. 1895) Major Mutter. Huff (vice Davie) . Pooley. G. A. C. E • D. W. (E) (W) (S) (E) Higgins. L t . C o l . Jas. Baker. J. M. K e l l i e . J. Pred Hume. J . D. Prentice (resigned on election p e t i t i o n and was defeated). D. A. Stoddart (vice Prentice). CW) A. W. Smith. (N) John Bryden. (3) Dr. W. W. Walkem. James McGregor. J. B. Kennedy. (Dewdney) C. B. Sword. (Delta) Thomas Forster. (Richmond) Thomas Kidd. (Chilliwack) T. E. Kitchen (died 1897). A. S. Veddar (vice Kitchen). R. P. Rithet. J. H. Turner. H. D. Helmcken. John Braden. D. M. Eberts. J. P. Booth. G. B. Martin. Donald Graham. C. A. Semlin. W. Williams. Robert McPherson. P. L. Carter-Cotton. (S) (N) (N) (E) (W) A. V APPENDIX I I . (1) Administration Members, 1885-1896. Name P o r t f o l i o Prom To Cause Wm. Smithe... Premier, Chief. 29 Jan/83 29 Mar/87 Died. Commissioner.. Lands & Works. A.E.B. Davie. Attorney-gen * 1. " " Death of Smithe. John Robson.. P r o v i n c i a l Sec-retary, F i n -ance & Agr i -culture M.W.T. Drake. President of. council Simeon Duck.. Finance & Agr i -culture (Rob-. son remains as 21 Mftr/85 15 0ct/86 Defeated, p r o v i n c i a l sec r e t a r y ) . . . . . . . 8 Dec/84 Resigned, A.E.B. Davie. Premier & Att- 1 Apr/87 1 Aug/89 Died. orney-General. John Robson.. P r o v i n c i a l Sec-retary, Pin- " " Death of ance & A g r i - Davie, culture F. G. Vernon. Lands & Works.. " " " R. Dunsmuir.. President of... 8 Aiig/87 12 Apr/89 Died. Council....... J.H. Turner.. Finance & A g r i -culture (Rob-son remains as " 1 Aug/89 Death of p r o v i n c i a l sec Davie, retary) Ml, (1) Gosnell, op. cit.,,, pft fl-n. v i Name P o r t f o l i o Prom To " Cause John Robson.. Premier, Pro- 3 Aug/89 29 Jun/92 Died, y i n c i a l Sec-retary & Mines F.G. Vernon.. Lands & Works.. " " Death of Robson. J.H. Turner.. Finance & A g r i -culture " " " C.B. Pooley.. President of... council " " " T. Davie Attorney-gen 11. " •" " T. Davie..... Premier, Attor- 2 Jul/92 4 Mar/95 Resigned, ney-general & temporary Pro-v i n c i a l Secre-tary F. G. Vernon.. Lands & Works.. " Jtil/94 Defeated. J.H. Turner.. Finance & A g r i - 11 4 Mar/95 Resignation cu l t u r e . . . . . . . of Davie. Jas. Baker... Education & Im- 28 May/92' " " migration P r o v i n c i a l Sec- 7 Sep/92 " " retary C E . Pooley.. President of... 2 Jul/92 " Council....... G. B. Martin.. Lands & Works.. 0ct/94 " " J.H. Turner.. Premier, Finance 4 Mar/95 8 Aug/98 Ministry & Agriculture. dismissed. D.M. Eberts.. Attorney-gen*1. " " " Jas. Baker... P r o v i n c i a l Sec-retary, Mines, " " " Education and. Immigration... G.B. Martin.. Lands & Works.. n " " C E . Pooley.. President of... " . " " Council v i i APPENDIX I I I . (1) B. 0. Representatives to the Commons, 1882-1901. 1882-1887 Cariboo: James Reid. New Westminster: J. A. R. Homer. Vancouver (Island) d i s t r i c t : D. W. Gordon. V i c t o r i a (2): E. Crowe Baker, Noah Shakespeare. Yale: P. J. Barnard. 1887-1891 Cariboo: James Reid (appointed senator). P. S. Barnard (vice Reid). New Westminster: Donald Chisholm (died). G. E. Corbould (vice Chisholm). Vancouver d i s t r i c t : D. W. Gordon. V i c t o r i a (2): N. Shakespeare((appointed postmaster). E. Crowe Baker (resigned). Col. E. G. P r i o r (vice Shakespeare). Thos. Earle (vice Baker). Yale: John A. Mara. 1891-1896 Cariboo: P. S. Barnard. New Westminster: G. E. Corbould. Vancouver d i s t r i c t : D. W. Gordon. V i c t o r i a (2): C o l . E. G. P r i o r . Thomas E a r l e . Yale: John A. Mara. 1896-1901 Yale-Cariboo: Hewitt Bostock. New Westminster: Aulay Morrison. Vancouver d i s t r i c t : - W. W. B. Mclnnes. V i c t o r i a (2): C o l . E. G. P r i o r . Thomas E a r l e . Burrard: George R. Maxwell. (1) Gosnell, op. c i t . , p. UZ-v i i i APPENDIX IV. The Settlement Act, 1884. 47 Vic., chap. 14: An Act Relating to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock, and Railway Lands of the Province. Whereas negotiations between the Governments of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia have been recently pending, r e l a t i v e to de-lays i n the commencement and construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and r e l a t i v e to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock, and the Railway Lands of the Province: And whereas for the purpose of s e t t l i n g a l l exist-ing disputes and d i f f i c u l t i e s between the two Governments, i t hath been agreed as follows:-(a) The Legislature of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be i n v i t e d to amend the Act No. 11 of 1880, i n t i t u l e d "An Act to authorize the grant of certain Public Lands on the Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia to the Government of the Dominion of Canada for Canadian P a c i f i c Railway purposes," so that the same ex-tent of land on each side of the l i n e of Railway through B r i -t i s h Columbia, wherever f i n a l l y s e t t l e d , s h a l l be granted to the Dominion Government in l i e u of the lands conveyed by that Ac t . (b) The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l ob-tain the authority of the Legislature to grant to the Govern-ment of Canada a portion of the lands set f o r t h and described in the Act No. 15 of 1882, I n t i t u l e d "An Act to incorporate the Vancouver Land and Railway Company," namely, that portion of the said lands therein described, commencing at the Southern boundary thereof and extending to a l i n e running East and West, half-way between Comox and Seymour Narrows; and also a further portion of the lands conveyed hy the said Act to the northward of and contiguous to that portion of the said lands l a s t hereinbefore s p e c i f i e d , equal i n extent to the lands within the l i m i t s thereof which may have been a l i e n -ated from the Crown by Crown grants, pre-emption or otherwise. (c) The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l obtain the authority of the Legislature to convey to the Government of Canada three and one-half m i l l i o n s of acres of land in the Peace River d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n one rectangular i x block, East of the Rocky Mountains, and adjoining the North-West T e r r i t o r y of Canada. (d) The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l pro-cure the incorporation, by Act of t h e i r Legislature, of 3er-tain persons, to he designated by the Government of Canada, for the construction of the railway from Esquimault to Nanaimo. (e) The Government of Canada s h a l l , upon the adop-tion hy the Legislature of B r i t i s h Columbia of the terms of th i s agreement, seek the sanction of Parliament to enable them to contribute to the construction of a railway from Esquimault to Nanaimo the sum of $750,000, and they agree to hand over to the contractors who may build such railway the lands which are or may be placed in t h e i r hands for that pur-pose by B r i t i s h Columbia; and they agree to take security, to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Government of that Province, for the construction and completion of such railway on or before the 10th day of June, 1887; such construction to commence forth-with. (f) The lands on Vancouver Island to be so con-veyed s h a l l , except as to coal and other minerals, and also except as to timber lands as hereinafter mentioned, be open for four years from the passing of t h i s Act to actual s e t t l e r s , for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, at the rate of one d o l l a r an acre, to the extent of 160 acres to each such actual s e t t l e r ; and in any grants to s e t t l e r s the right to cut timber for railway purposes and rights of way for the railway, and stations, and workshops, s h a l l be reserved. In the meantime, and u n t i l the railway from Esquimault to Nanaimo s h a l l have been completed, the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be the agents of the Government of Canada for administering, for the purposes of settlement, the lands i n t h i s subsection mentioned; and f o r such purposes the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia may make and issue, subject as aforesaid, pre-emption records to actual s e t t l e r s , of the said lands. A l l moneys received by the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n respect of such adminis-t r a t i o n s h a l l be paid, as received, into the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia, to the c r e d i t of the Receiver-General of Canada; and such moneys, less expenses incurred ( i f any), s h a l l , upon the completion of the railway to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Dominion Government, be paid over to the railway contractors. (g) The Government of Canada s h a l l forthwith take over and seektthe authority of Parliament to purchase and complete, and s h a l l , upon the completion thereof, operate as a Dominion work, the Dry Dock at Esquimault; and s h a l l be en-t i t l e d to and have conveyed to them a l l the lands, approaches, and plant belonging thereto, together with the Imperial app-ropriat i o n therefor, and s h a l l pay to the Province as the price thereof the sum of $£50,000, and s h a l l further pay to X the Province whatever amounts s h a l l have heen expended hy the P r o v i n c i a l Government which remain due, up to the time of the passing of t h i s Act, for work or material supplied by the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia since the 27th day of June, 1882. " (h) The Government of Canada s h a l l , with a l l con-venient speed, o f f e r for sale the lands within the railway belt upon the Mainland, on l i v e r a l terms to actual s e t t l e r s ; and ( i ) S h a l l give persons who have squatted on any of the said lands within the railway belt on the Mainland, p r i o r to the passing of t h i s Act, and who have made substantial im-provements thereon, a p r i o r right of purchasing the lands so improved, at the rates charged to s e t t l e r s generally. (k) This agreement i s to be taken by the Province in f u l l of a l l claims up to this date by the Province against the Dominion, i n respect of delays in the commencement and construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, and in respect of the non-construction of the Esquimault and Nanaimo Railway, and s h a l l be taken by the Dominion Government in s a t i s f a c t i o n of a l l claims for add i t i o n a l lands under the Terms of Union, but s h a l l not be binding unless and u n t i l the same s h a l l have been r a t i f i e d by the Parliament of Canada and the Legislature of B r i t i s h Columbia. And whereas i t i s expedient that the said agreement should be r a t i f i e d , and that provision should be made to carry out the terms thereof: Therefore Her Majesty,- by and with the advice and consent of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i -t i s h Columbia, enacts as follows:-1. The hereinbefore r e c i t e d agreement s h a l l be and i s hereby r a t i f i e d and adopted. 2. Section 1 of the Act of the Legislature of B r i t i s h Columbia, No. 11 of 1880, i n t i t u l e d "An Act to auth-orize the grant of cer t a i n public lands on the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia to the Government of the Dominion of Canada for Canadian P a c i f i c Railway purposes," i s hereby amended so as to read as follows:-Prom and a f t e r the passing of t h i s Act there s h a l l be, and there i s hereby granted to the Dominion Government for the purpose of constructing and to aid in the cons.truction of the portion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway on the main-land of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n trust, to be appropriated as the Dominion Government may deem advisable, the public lands a-long the l i n e of the railway beforementioned, wherever i t may x i "be f i n a l l y located, to a width of twenty miles on each side of the said l i n e as provided i n the Order in Council, section 11, admitting the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia into Confeder-ation; but nothing i n t h i s section contained s h a l l prejudice the r i g h t of the Province to receive and be paid by the Dom-ihion Government the sum of $100,000 per annum, in h a l f -yearly payments in advance, i n consideration of the lands so conveyed, as provided in Section 11 of the Terms of Union: Provided always that the l i n e of Railway before referred to. s h a l l be one continuous l i n e of railway only, connecting the seaboard of B r i t i s h Columbia with the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way, now under construction on the East of the Rocky Moun-tains . 3. There i 3 hereby granted to the Dominion Govern-ment, for the purpose of constructing, and to aid i n the con-struction of a railway between Esquimault and Nanaimo, and in trust to be appropriated as they may deem advisable (but save as i s hereinafter excepted) a l l that piece or parcel of land situate in Vancouver Island, described as follows:-Bounded on the South by a straight l i n e drawn from the head of Saanich I n l e t to Muir Creek on the S t r a i t s of Fuca; On the West by a straight l i n e drawn from Muir Creek aforesaid to Crown Mountain; On the North by a straight l i n e drawn from Crown Mountain to Seymour Narrows; and On the East by the Coast l i n e of Vancouver Island to the point of commencement; and including a l l coal, coal o i l j ores, stones, clay, marble, s l a t e , mines, minerals, and substances whatsoever thereupon, therein, and thereunder. •4. There i s excepted out of the tract of land granted by the preceding section a l l that portion thereof l y i n g to the northward of a l i n e running East and West half-way between the mouth of the Courtenay River (Comox D i s t r i c t ) and Seymour Narrows. 5. Provided always that the Government of Canada s h a l l be e n t i t l e d out of such excepted tract to lands equal in extent to those alienated up to the date of t h i s Act by Crown grant, pre-emption, or otherwise, within the l i m i t s of the grant mentioned in section 3 of this Act. 6. The grant mentioned in section 3 of this Act s h a l l not include any lands now held under Crown grant, lease, agreement for sale, or other alienation by the Crown, nor s h a l l i t include Indian reserves, or settlements, nor Naval or M i l i t a r y reserves. x i i 7 * There i s hereby g r a n t e d to the Dominion Govern-ment t h r e e and a h a l f m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a n d i n t h a t p o r t i o n o f the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia l y i n g E a s t o f the Rocky Mountains and a d j o i n i n g the North-West T e r r i t o r y o f Canada, t o be l o c a t e d by the Dominion i n one r e c t a n g u l a r b l o c k . 8. F o r the purpose o f f a c i l i t a t i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the R a i l w a y between E s q u i m a u l t and Nanaimo, i t i s hereby e n a c t e d t h a t such p e r s o n s , h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d the "company", as may be named by the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l , w i t h a l l such o t h e r p e r s o n s and c o r p o r a t i o n s as s h a l l become s h a r e -h o l d e r s i n the company, s h a l l be and are hereby c o n s t i t u t e d a body c o r p o r a t e and p o l i t i c by the name o f "The E s q u i m a u l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y Gompany." 9. The company, and t h e i r agents and s e r v a n t s , s h a l l l a y o u t , c o n s t r u c t , e q u i p , m a i n t a i n , and work a c o n t i n -uous double or s i n g l e t r a c k s t e e l r a i l w a y o f the gauge o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , and a l s o a t e l e g r a p h l i n e , w i t h t h e p r o p e r a p p u r t e n a n c e s , from a p o i n t a t o r near the harbour o f e s q u i m a u l t i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, t o a p o r t o r p l a c e a t o r near Nanaimo on the e a s t e r n c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , w i t h power t o e x t e n d the main l i n e t o Comox and V i c t o r i a , and t o con-s t r u c t branches t o s e t t l e m e n t s on the e a s t c o a s t , and a l s o t o e x t e n d the s a i d r a i l w a y by f e r r y communications t o the main-l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, and t h e r e to connect o r amalgamate w i t h any r a i l w a y l i n e i n o p e r a t i o n o r c o u r s e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . " The company s h a l l a l s o have power and a u t h o r i t y to b u i l d , own, and o p e r a t e steam and o t h e r v e s s e l s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s a i d r a i l w a y , on and o v er the bays, g u l f s , and i n l a n d w a t e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 10. The company may a c c e p t and r e c e i v e from the Government o f Canada any l e a s e , g r a n t , of conveyance o f l a n d s , by way o f s u b s i d y o r o t h e r w i s e , i n a i d o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s a i d r a i l w a y , and may e n t e r i n t o any c o n t r a c t w i t h the s a i d Government f o r o r r e s p e c t i n g the use, o c c u p a t i o n , mort-gage o r s a l e o f the s a i d l a n d s , o r any p a r t t h e r e o f , on such c o n d i t i o n s as may be agreed upon between the Government and the company. 11. The c a p i t a l s t o c k o f the company s h a l l be t h r e e m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s , and s h a l l be d i v i d e d i n t o s h a r e s o f one hundred d o l l a r s each, but may be i n c r e a s e d fom time t o time hy the v o t e o f the m a j o r i t y i n v a l u e o f the s h a r e h o l d e r s p r e s e n t i n p e r s o n o r r e p r e s e n t e d hy p r o x y , a t any m e e t ings s p e c i a l l y c a l l e d f o r the p urpose, to an amount not e x c e e d i n g f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 12. The p e r s o n s t o be named as a f o r e s a i d by the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l s h a l l be and are hereby c o n s t i -t u t e d a board o f p r o v i s i o n a l d i r e c t o r s o f the company, and x i i i s h a l l hold o f f i c e as such u n t i l other directors s h a l l he elected under the provisions of this Act, and s h a l l have power to f i l l any vacancies that may occur in the said hoard; to open stock hooks at V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, or any other c i t y in Canada; procure subscriptions, and receive pay-ments on stock subscribed. 13. When and so soon as one half of the c a p i t a l stock s h a l l have been subscribed, and one-tenth of the amount thereof paid into any chartered Band, either at V i c t o r i a or San Francisco, or p a r t l y i n each, the pr o v i s i o n a l directors may order a meeting of shareholders to be c a l l e d at V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, at such time as they think proper, giving at least three weeks notice thereof in one or more news-papers published in the City of V i c t o r i a , and by a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r mailed to each shareholder, at which meeting the shareholders present i n person, or by proxy, s h a l l elect f i v e directors q u a l i f i e d as hereinafter provided, who s h a l l hold o f f i c e u n t i l the f i r s t Wednesday i n October in the year f o l l -owing t h e i r e l e c t i o n . 14. On the s^id f i r s t Wednesday in October, and on the same .day i n each year thereafter, at the City of V i c t o r i a , or at such other place as s h a l l be fixed by the by-laws of the company, there s h a l l be held a general meeting of the shareholders for receiving the report of the directors tran-sacting the business of the company, general or special, and el e c t i n g the directors thereof; and public notice of such annual meeting and election, s h a l l he published for one month before the day of meeting in one or more newspapers i n the Cit y of V i c t o r i a , and by c i r c u l a r l e t t e r mailed to each share-holder at least one month p r i o r thereto. The election of directors s h a l l be by b a l l o t , and a l l shareholders may vote by proxy. 15. Three of the Directors s h a l l form a quorum for the transaction of business, and the. Board may employ one or more of t h e i r number as paid Director or Directors, provided that no person s h a l l be elected Director unless he owns at leas t fiwenty-five shares of the stock of the company on which c a l l s have been paid. 16. Ho c a l l s h a l l be made f o r more than ten per centum at any one .time on the amount subscribed, nor s h a l l more than f i f t y per centum of the stock be c a l l e d up in any one year. 17. The Consolidated Railway Act, eighteen hundred and seventy-^nine (1879) of Canada, s h a l l , so f a r as i t s pro-visions are applicable to the undertaking and are not incon-r s i s t e n t with or contrary to the provisions of t h i s Act, apply to the said railway, and s h a l l be read with and form part of thi s Act. x i v 18. The words "Superior Court," "Clerks of the Peace," "Registry O f f i c e s , " "Clerk of Court," as used in the said Consolidated Railway Act, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine (1879), s h a l l , for the purposes of t h i s Act, he read and construed in the same sense and meaning as i s provided by the Act passed by this Legislature t h i r t y - e i g h t (38) V i c t o r i a , chapter thirteen (13), section three (3). 19. Sections f i v e (5) and six (6) of the said l a s t mentioned Act s h a l l be read with and form part of t h i s Act. 20. The said railway l i n e from Esquimault to Nanaimo s h a l l be commenced forthwith and completed on or before the 10th day of June, 1887. 21. The Railway, with i t s workshops, stations, and other necessary buildings and r o l l i n g stock, and also the c a p i t a l sotck of the Railroad Company, s h a l l be exempt from P r o v i n c i a l and Municipal taxation u n t i l the expiration of ten years from the completion of the r a i l r o a d . 22. The lands to be acquired by the company from the Dominion Government for the construction of the railway s h a l l not be subject to taxation, unless and u n t i l the same are used by the company for other than r a i l r o a d purposes, or leased, occupied, sold, or alienated. 23. The company s h a l l be governed by subsection (f) of the hereinbefore r e c i t e d agreement, and each bona fide squatter who has continuously occupied, and improved any of the lands within the tract of land to he acquired by the com-pany from the Dominion Government for a period of one year p r i o r to the f i r s t day of January, 1883, s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to a grant of the freehold of the surface rights of the said squatted land, to the extent of 160 acres to each squatter, at the rate of one d o l l a r an acre. 24. The company s h a l l at a l l times e l l coals got-ten from the lands that may be acquired by them from the Dominion Government.to any Canadian Railway Company having the terminus of i t s railway on the seaboard of B r i t i s h Colum-bia, and to the Imperial, Dominion, and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , at the same rates as may be charged to any Railway Company owning or operating any Railway in the United States, or to any foreign customer whatsoever. 25. A l l lands acquired hy the company from the Dominion Government under this Act containigg belts of timber f i t for m i l l i n g purposes s h a l l be sold at a price to be here-a f t e r fixed by the Government of the Dominion or by the com-pany hereby incorporated. XV £6. The ex i s t i n g rights ( i f any) of any persons or corporations i n any of the lands so to he acquired hy the com-pany s h a l l hot he affected hy t h i s act, nor s h a l l I t af f e c t M i l i t a r y or Naval Reserves. 27. The said Esquimault and Nanaimo Railway Com-pany s h a l l he bound hy any contract or agreement for the con-struction of the Railway from Esquimault to Nanaimo which s h a l l be entered into hy and between the persons so the be incor-porated as aforesaid, and Her Majesty.represented by the Min-i s t e r of Railways and Canals, and s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to the f u l l benefit of such contract or agreement, which s h a l l he construed and operate i n l i k e manner as i f such company had been a party thereto in l i e u of such persons, and the document had been duly executed hy such company under t h e i r corporate s e a l . 28. The Railways to be constructed by the company in pursuance of t h i s Act s h a l l be the property of the company. 29. The Act of 1883, chapter 14, i n t i t u l e d "An Act r e l a t i n g to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock, and the Railway Lands of the Province," i s hereby repealed. xv i APPENDIX V. ( 1 ) An Example of P o l i t i o a l Tactions, 1898. TURNER'S GREAT VAUDEVILLE AND VARIETY SHOW. ONE -- NIGHT — ONLY Benefit for Archie McGregor. At the Nanaimo Opera House, Thursday, June 30, 1898, under the management of the Hon. D. M. Eberts, com-mencing at 8 p.m. The following d e l i g h t f u l program w i l l be rendered: Recitation by Archie McGregor, "Why I am a Govern-ment Candidate," written e s p e c i a l l y for thi s occasion by Messrs. Simpson and Simpson. Song and dance, by Hon. D. M. Eberts, of V i c t o r i a , i n character selections from ''The Mikado", (a) Song, by B. P i l l b o x , the great V i c t o r i a Virtuoso, "Paradise A l l e y " , (b) Note: the audience are requested to jo i n in the chorus. Address by Mr. A. E. McPhillips of V i c t o r i a , Defence of the Golden Twins, (c) Note: This address w i l l be as short as poss-i b l e , and the audience are requested not to leave the h a l l during the performance. (1) NEWS-ADVERTISER, July 8, 1898, p. 2. Copy of a dodger d i s t r i b u t e d by opposition supporters just before a government meeting to be held in the interes t of A. McGregor, government candidate i n Nanaimo. This practice does not appear to have been general, but the dodger demonstrates the type of gossip indulged i n by both p a r t i e s . x v i i During the evening Dr. W. W. Walkem w i l l appear i n his inimitable Lightning Change Act, i n character as 'Dr. J e k y l l and Mr. Hyde'. Everybody i s strongly advised to see this act, as the doctor i s , beyond doubt, the ablest l i v i n g exponent of thi s great character, (d) The Evening's entertainment w i l l conclude with a great Tight Rope Performance by a l l the members of-the troupe. Note: The Programme i s l i a b l e to be changed at any time during the performance without further notice, (e) No Admission Pee w i l l be charged. I f the present Government i s returned to power at the ensuing el e c t i o n , the taxpayers w i l l be a3ked to pay a l l expenses. (a) Refers to the agita t i o n against Chinese labor, and the opposition c r i t i c i s m s that the government would do nothing to stop the Orientals. (b) Refers to J . P i l l i n g , who was the song leader at a l l V i c t o r i a government meetings. This was the only case I found during the period of t h i s thesis where enter-tainment was provided at p o l i t i c a l meetings. (c) Refers to the action of Turner and Pooley i n allowing t h e i r names to be used on the directorates of the Klondyke companies. (d) Refers to Walkem's return to government ranks i n 1898 a f t e r having been a b i t t e r opponent in 1897. But K e l l i e , who returned to the opposition f o l d , was his equal and perhaps his superior in such Lightning Changes. (e) Probably refers to a government meeting at Chilliwack where Joseph Martin^ and Cotton had been in v i t e d to speak; but Turner occupied more than his share of the time and Martin was cut short, and Cotton eliminated altogether. x v i i i BIBLIOGRAPHY (NOTE: The government correspondence and documents for t h i s period are not available in the p r o v i n c i a l archives, as they have not yet been transferred from the department o f f i c e s . Therefore I have had to r e l y l a r g e l y upon news-papers, which are unreliable at best.) ( A i ) Reports and Government Publications. B r i t i s h Columbia; L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly: Journals, 1882-1898. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r . Although "the debates are not printed, these records give authoritative references for motions and d i v i s i o n s . -B r i t i s h Columbia; L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly: Sessional Papers, 1883-1898. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r . The o f f i c i a l reports (including detailed public accounts) and returns. B r i t i s h Columbia; L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly: Statutes, 1882-1898. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r . The acts passed by the l e g i s l a t u r e . ' B r i t i s h Columbia: Memorandum respecting the claims of B r i t i s h  Columbia for better terms. V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n -ter, 1914. : Recites B r i t i s h Columbia's complaints against the Settlement Act. Miss Ormsby says that i t was un-doubtedly written by Gosnell. Canada; Commons: Debates, 1883-1898. Ottawa, McLean, Roger and Co., The debates are printed i n f u l l . Those of 1883-1884 and of 1895-1896 were used i n p a r t i c u l a r . Canada; Commons: Sessional Papers, 1884, 1885, 1896-1930. Ottawa, McLean, Roger and Co. Papers on the Settlement Act and graving dock revenues, i n the auditor-general's reports. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company: Reports of progress ( t i t l e - v a r i e s ) , 1874, 1877-1880. Ottawa, McLean, Roger and Co. Reports of Sandford Fleming on the work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. x i x Great B r i t a i n and Ireland; Parliament: "Order i n Council re-specting the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 16th May, 1871." (Printed in Statutes of Canada, 1872) Ottawa, Queen's Prin t e r , 1872. The terms of union between B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. (B) General Books. ... B r i t i s h Columbia, p i c t o r i a l and biographical. Vancouver, ~~ S. J. Clarke Publishing Cofra 1914, 2 v o l s . This seems to be a de luxe edition of Howay and Sc h o l e f i e l d . Burke, Edmund, Works, v o l . I I . London, P. & C. Rivington, 1803. A keen analysis of the party system, as applicable in 1890 as when f i r s t written i n 1770. Coutlee, Louis William, Digest of eases determined i n the supreme court of_Canada, 1875 to 20 October, 1903. Toronto, Carswell Co.,.1904. For the decision on the Thrasher case. Dafoe, J . W., Laurier: a study i n Canadian p o l i t i c s . Toronto, Thos. A l l e n , 1922. A brief but sound comment on Laurier's climb to power. Garvin, J. L., ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14 th e d i t i o n . ( A r t i c l e by E. J. Passant, "Government") New York, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1929. A b r i e f section on the parliamentary executive, showing the necessity of the party system. Gemmill, J. A., The Canadian parliamentary companion, 1897 (annual). Ottawa, J . Durie and Son, 189 7. Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l election results in f u l l d e t a i l . Gibbon, John Murray, Steel of empire. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1935. Very much pro-Canadian P a c i f i c . A h e l p f u l railway map. Gosnell, R. E., The year book of B r i t i s h Columbia and manual  of provTncial information, 169 7, 1911. B i c t o r i a , Queen's and King's P r i n t e r s , 1897, 1911. Tables of ministers, members and o f f i c i a l s since confederation; but very inaccurate. X X Howay, F. W., B r i t i s h Columbia, the making of a province. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1928. B r i e f but sound. Howay, P. W., and Schol e f i e l d , E. 0. S., B r i t i s h Columbia  from the e a r l i e s t times to the present. 4 v o l s . Vancouver, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1914. Undoubtedly the best history of B r i t i s h Columbia; but has not space for a detailed study of the po-l i t i c a l development. Innis, Harold A., A history of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Toronto, McClealand and Stewart, 1923. Bri e f on the western section. Irving, P. AE., ed., B r i t i s h Columbia law reports, v o l . I, part I . V i c t o r i a , Queen's Prin t e r , 1893. Background of the Thrasher case. 'Kerr, J. B., Biographical dictionary of well-known B r i t i s h  Columbians. Vancouver, Kerr and Begg, 1890. The usual eulogies on a l l who could a f f o r d to pay for them. Leacock, Stephen, Elements of p o l i t i c a l science. San Francisco, Houghton, M i f f l i n Co., 1906 (revised e d i t i o n , 1921). A b r i e f chapter on party government, Magurn, Arnott J., The parliamentary guide and work of general  reference, 1698-1899. Ottawa, Jas. Hope and Sons, 1898. Successor to Gemmill. Marriott, S i r J. A. R., The mechanism of the modern state, v o l . I I . Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1927. An ex-c e l l e n t chapter on party organisations and how they work. Parker, C. V7., ed., Who's who in Western Canada, v o l . I. Vancouver, Canadian Press Association Ltd., 1911. Very l i t t l e new biographical material. S c h o l e f i e l d , E. 0. S., and Gosnell, R. E., A history of  B r i t i s h Columbia, part I I . Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1913. Gosnell was a j o u r n a l i s t , not an h i s t o r i a n ; he was private secretary to Theodore Davie and therefore biassed. Seligman, E. R. A., ed., Encyclopaedia of the s o c i a l sciences, v o l . XI, pp. 590-594 ( a r t i c l e by Arthur N. Holcombe, '^Parties, P o l i t i c a l Theory"). New York, MacMillan Co., 1933. A good d e f i n i t i o n of a po-l i t i c a l party. xx i Shortt, Adam, and Doughty, Arthur G., eds., Canada and i t s provinces, v o l . XXI. (Section hy p. w. Howay, " P o l i t i c a l history, 1891-1913") Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Co., 1914. A c l e a r hut b r i e f outline of the period. --Skelton, Oscar D., The day of S i r W i l f r i d j u r i e r . (G. M. Wrong and H. H. langton, eds., "Chronicles of Canada", v o l . XXX) Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Co., 1916. An excellent study, e s p e c i a l l y as i t gives the events of Laurier's day rather than an exclusive biography. A cle a r and sound account of the Man-itoba schools dispute. W i l l i s o n , J. S., S i r W i l f r i d Laurier and the l i b e r a l party, v o l . I I " Toronto, G. N. Morang and Co., 1903. More d e t a i l than Skelton, but rather confusing to the general reader. (C) Newspaper and P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s . Dobie, Edith, "Some aspects of party history i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1903" ( P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, v o l . I, no. 2, 193E, pp. 235-251) . •Gosnell, R. E., "Prime ministers of B r i t i s h Columbia" (Vancouver Daily Province, 1921, passim). Keenleyside, Hugh L., " B r i t i s h Columbia — annexation or con-federation?" (Report of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  Association, 1928, pp. 34-40) ! Morse, Anson D., "The place of party in the p o l i t i c a l sys-tem" (B. J. James, ed., Annals of the American  Academy, Nov., 1891, pp. 300-308) . Sage, Walter N., "The c r i t i c a l period of B r i t i s h Columbia history" ( P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, v o l . I, no. 4, 1932, pp. 424-443). ; U n d e r h i l l , Prank H., "The party system i n Canada" (Papers and  Proceedings of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Association, v o l . IV, 1932, pp. 201-212). x x i i (D) Theses. (These are a l l these" submitted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the degree of Master of Arts in the Department of History of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.) Bescoby, Isabel, Some s o c i a l aspects of the American mining advance into Cariboo and Kootenay"" Submitted. 1935. -Johns, Harold P e r c i v a l , B r i t i s h Columbia's campaign for better terms, 1871-1907. Submitted 1935. Johnson, Arthur J., The history of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way Company i n B r i t i s h Columbia to 1886. Submitted 1936. ' ~~ " Ormsby, Margaret A., A study of the Okanagan Valley of  B r i t i s h Columbia. Submitted 1931. Roberts, Joseph, The origins of the Esquimault and Hanaimo  railway" To be submitted 1937. -Ross, Margaret, Amor De Cosmos, a B r i t i s h Columbia reformer. Submi tted 1931. ' ~ Thrupp, S y l v i a L., A history of the Cranbrook d i s t r i c t i n  East Kootenay. Submitted 1929. (E) Manuscript. Sage, Walter N., Railway building and the American mining advance into southern B r i t i s h Columbia; being two chapters of a projected' volume, The history of  Canadian-American r e l a t i o n s : the~Pacific Slope, by P. W. Howay and W. N. Sage. x x i i i (F) Newspaper F i l e s . Unless otherwise stated, these f i l e s are i n the P r o v i n c i a l Library, V i c t o r i a . Asheroft: The B r i t i s h Columbia Mining Journal (weekly), May 9, 1895-1898. Government supporter; conservative. Brooklyn: The Brooklyn News (Weekly), July 9-Nov. IE, 1898 (incomplete) P o l i t i c s unknown. "Chilliwack: The Chilliwack Progress (Weekly), A p r i l 16, 1891-1898. Government; conservative. Cloverdale: The Surrey Times (weekly), A p r i l 5 - Oct. £5, 1895. " Opposition; conservative. Cranbrook: The Cranbrook Herald (weekly), A p r i l 5 - Dec. 29, 1898. Government (Baker). Courtenay: The Courtenay News (weekly), Jan. 4, 1893 - Oct. 10, 1894. Government; conservative. Pairview: The Advance (weekly), A p r i l 26 ? August 15, 1894. Removed to Midway. Gov e rnme n t; 1iberalat i v e . The Fort'Steele Prospector (weekly), 1897 - 1898. Opposition. Golden: The East Kootenay Miner (weekly), June 26, 1897 - 1898. Government; edited by D. M. Rae, dismissed by Bostock from tjjre ERA. The Golden Era (weekly), May 6, 1893 - 1898. Government to 1897, then opposition; l i b e r a l . Greenwood: The Boundary Creek Times (weekly), 1897 - 1898. Opposition; l i b e r a l . xxiy vKamloops: The Inland Sentinel (weekly), July 31, 1884 - 1898. P r o v i n c i a l allegiance varies; opposition and l i b -e r a l a f t e r 1896. The Kamloops Standard '(/weekly), July 22, 1897 - 1898. Government; conservative. Kaslo: B r i t i s h Columbia flews (weekly), July 9, 1897,- 1898. Government; conservative. The Kaslo Claim (weekly), May 12, 1893 - A p r i l 25, 1896 {followed by the KOOTENAIAN). Opposition; l i b e r a l . The Kootenaian (weekly), May 2, 1896 - 1898. "Opposition; l i b e r a l . Lardo: The Lardo Reporter (weekly), July 24, 1893. (One number only ava i l a b l e , no. 8) P o l i t i c s unknown. L i l l o o e t : The L i l l o o e t Prospector (weekly), July 14 - Dec. 30, 1898. Government. Midway:-The Advance (weekly), Aug. 15, 1894 - 1898 (removed from Pairview). Government; l i b e r a l . Opposition from A p r i l , 1898. Moyie C i t y : The Moyie C i t y Leader (weekly), A p r i l 23 - Dec. 10, 1898. ~~' Government. Nakusp: The Nakusp Ledge (weekly), Oct. 5, 1893 3 Dec. 20, 1894 (removed to New Denver). Government; conservative. - Nanaimo :• The Nanaimo Courier ( d a i l y ) , D e c 21, 1888 - July 31, 1889. Government. , The Nanaimo Pree Press (weekly to 1889, then d a i l y ) , 1883-' I B W ; Government; conservative. The Nanaimo Mail (weekly), Peb. 15 - Dee. 29, 1896. Government. The Nanaimo Review (weekly), A p r i l 17, 1897 - 1898. Opposition; l i b e r a l . XXV Nelson: The Miner (weekly), Aug. 19, 1893 - 1896. Government; l i b e r a l . The Tribune (weekly), Jan. 5, 1892,- Dec. 29, 1894. n~89"5, 1896 missing) Opposition; l i b e r a l . New Denver: The Sedge (weekly), Dec. 20, 1894 - Dec. 1895 (removed from H~Jakusp) . Government; conservative. '^ew Westminster: B r i t i s h Columbia Commonwealth (weekly), A p r i l 27 - Deo. 24, 1 Q 9 2 # . Government. , The B r i t i s h Columbian (semi-weekly), 1883 - July 31, 1886. Government; conservative. .The Daily B r i t i s h Columbian, August 4, 1886 - 1898 ( t i t l e v a r i e s ) . ! Government u n t i l 1890, independent to 1893, then opposition. Conservative, then l i b e r a l . The Fraser Valley Champion (weekly), Jan. 4 - Sept. 12, 1896 Government; conservative. Mainland Guardian (semi-weekly), 1883 - Aug. 21, 1889. Opposition; conservative. The Morning ledger ( d a i l y ) , Jan. 4 - Dec. 6, 1891 (follows TRUTH) . Government; l i b e r a l . The P a c i f i c Canadian (weekly), Sept. 16, 1893 - May 19, 1894 (followed by the NEWSl. Government. The New Westminster Daily Sun, A p r i l 9 - June 30, 1898. Government; conservative. The Truth ( d a i l y ) , Sept. 5, 1889 - Jan. 3, 1891. Opposition, then government. Port Moody: The Port Moody Gazette (weekly), Dec. 22, 1883 - May 14, 188 lbbY (incomplete). Violent opposition to Robson. 'Revelstoke: The Kootenay Mail (weekly), A p r i l 14, 1894 - 1898. ^on-partisan to 1898, then opposition; conservative to 1896, then l i b e r a l . The Kootenay Star (weekly), 1890 - 1894. uon-partisan. The Revelstoke Herald (semi-weekly), Jan. 18, 1897 - 1898. Government; conservative. XXV Rossland: The Rossland Evening Record (tri-weekly), 1897 - 1898. Government. Rossland Leader ( d a i l y ) , June 22 - Nov. 1, 1898. Opposition. y The Rossland Miner (weekly), Mar. 23 - Dec. 21, 1895 (1896 missing), 1897 -> 1898. Opposition. The Mining Review (weekly), Jan. 6 - A p r i l 24, 1897. Opposition. S i l v e r t o n : The Silverton S ilvertonian (weekly), Jan. 1 -Dec. 17, 1898. Government (favors Green, Independent government candidate) . Slocan C i t y : Slocan City News (weekly), Jan. 23, 1897 - July 23, 1898. Government. The Slocan Pioneer (weekly), May 1 - Dec. 25, 1897. Opposition. T r a i l Creek: The T r a i l Creek News (weekly), 1896- 1898. government; l i b e r a l . Trout Lake: Trout Lake Topic (weekly), Oct. 21, 1897 - 1898. Opposition. Union ( l a t e r incorporated as Cumberland): The Weekly News, Oct. 16, 1894 - 1897. (Follows Courtenay News) Government; conservative. Vancouver: - The Daily News-Advertiser, Mar. 31, 1887 - 1898. Amalgamates the ADVERTISER and the NEWS. Independent, then opposition 1893; conservative. The People's Journal (weekly), Feb. 18 - June 3, 1893. Labor. The Vancouver Daily Advertiser, May 11, 1886 - Mar. 31, 1887 (fallowed by the MS-ADVERTISER) . Government. The Vancouver News ( d a i l y ) , July 23, 1886 - Mar. 31, 1887 (followed by NEWS-ADVERTISER). Government. The Vancouver Daily World, Sept. 21, 1888 - 1898. ~ Government; l i b e r a l . *e Hornet (weekly), July 1, Oct. 2, 1893. F i l e in the l i b r a r y of Dr. R. 1. Reid. Opposition. xxv i Vernon: The Vernon Hews (weekly), 1891 - 1898. Government; conservative. V i c t o r i a : Daily B r i t i s h Colonist. 1882 - 1898. Government; conservative; anti-Vancouver. The Daily Evening- Post. 1883 - May 7, 1887. Government} conservative. The V i c t o r i a Province (weekly), Mar. 3, 1894 - 1896. Removed to Vancouver, 1898. Opposition; l i b e r a l . The V i c t o r i a Daily Standard. 1882- Augl 4, 1888. Opposition. The V i c t o r i a Daily Times. June 9, 1884 - 1898. Opposition; l i b e r a l . /Wellington: The Enterprise (weekly), 1895 - 1898. P o l i t i c s varies with Dr. Walkem. Yale: ~~ The Inland Sentinel (weekly), 1883 - May 29, 1884 (removed to Kamloops). Kb Not interested in p r o v i n c i a l parties at th i s time, except as they favored the d i s t r i c t . x x v i i (G) Interviews and Correspondence. E. P. Barrow, M. L. A., Chilliwack; customs of the l e g i s l a t u r e . C. P. Cotton, Vancouver, son of P. L. Carter-Cotton: incidents of his father's career. Judge J . A . Porin, Vancouver, resident of B r i t i s h Columbia since 1889, long a prominent l i b e r a l and secretary of the Constitutional League of 1893: r e c o l l e c t i o n s from personal knowledge. His Honor P. W. Howay, LL.B., LL.D., P.R.S.C., long resident of the province and prominent i n early l i b e r a l a c t i v i t i e s : r e c o l l e c t i o n s from personal acquaintance and research. Prances M. Matheson, research i n the history of the East Kootenay. A. H. Mercer, Vancouver, resident of Chilliwack 189E - 1930 and a c t i v e l y interested in p o l i t i c s from 1896. J. W. M i l l e r , Eburne, resident of Richmond since 188E and a c t i v e l y interested i n p o l i t i c s from 1896. B. A. McKelvie. V i c t o r i a , publisher of the COLONIST, and author of several hooks and a r t i c l e s on B r i t i s h Columbia hist o r y . Margaret A. Ormsby. preparing a doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n on the rel a t i o n s between B r i t i s h Columbia and the domin-ion, 1870 - 1886. R. L. Reid. LL.D., K.C., P.R.S.C., long resident of the pro-vince and active in p o l i t i c s . S. H. Shannon, Cloverdale, native son of B r i t i s h Columbia and long prominent in the conservative party. Reverend J. H. White. D.D., Sardis, long resident of the province and personally acquainted with a l l of the premiers and with many of the p o l i t i c i a n s treated in t h i s t h e s i s . 

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