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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of the eastern Fraser Valley since 1885 White, George Brooks 1937

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A HISTORY OF THE EASTERN FRASER VALLEY SINCE 1885. by GEORGE BROOKS WHITE, A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfilment o.f the requirements f o r the degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of History. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October 1st, 1937. TABLE UP CONTESTS Page Chapter 1 Introduction - A Summary of Events to 1885 1 Chapter 11 The Development of Transportation P a c i l i t i e s 9 River Steamers - Perries - Bridges -Praser Valley Line of B. C. E l e c t r i c Railway - Canadian National Railway -Great Northern Railway - Roads and Highways - Automotive Transportation. -Chapter 111 The Development of Agriculture 40 • Floods and Dyking - Pruit Growing -Dairying - Hop Growing - Dominion Experimental Farm - Other phases of Agriculture. Chapter 1Y Further Economic Development 79 Pishing - Lumbering - F r u i t Canneries -'.Pur Farming - Other industries. Chapter V The Sumas Reclamation Project 100 Chapter VI Land Settlement 122 Incorporation and Growth of Munici-p a l i t i e s - Indian Reserves - s o l d i e r Settlements, 1919 - Mennonite S e t t l e -ments . Chapter V l l The Development of So c i a l Institutions 133 Public Schools - Indian Schools -Churches - Hospitals - Fraser Valley Union Library Chapter V l l l Communications 143 B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company -B r i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation Ltd. Radio Station OEWK - Newspapers. Chapter 12 Conclusion 154 Bibliography 158 MAP OF 1EW WESTMINSTER Dfl PUBLISHED BY T H E S U P P BLUE PRINT CO  NEW WESTM1NSTEP.B.C.  SCALE.g.MtL-ES =.|.INCH, A HISTORY Off THE EASTERN ERASER VALLEY SINCE 1885. Chapter 1 Introduction - A Summary of Events to 1885. There are few regions more h o u n t i f u l l y endowed hy nature than that known aa the Lower Eraser Valley. Speaking i n gen-e r a l terms, i t stretches from the mouth of the r i v e r eastward to a natural c o n s t r i c t i o n , where l i e s the town of Hope. The v a l l e y then i a approximately 90 miles i n length, and varies i n width from 10 to 25 miles. Here i s an area of about 750, 000 acres, most of which i s r i c h l y f e r t i l e and suitable for mixed farming. The low-lying lands are composed of fine s i l t , brought down by the r i v e r during the course of countless ages. The higher lands or uplands, extending some distance back of the r i v e r on the south side, were o r i g i n a l l y clothed with a magnificent forest of evergreens and deciduous softwoods. When they have been cleared these uplands also provide a g r i -c u l t u r a l land. The climate of t h i s region i s as equable as can be found i n the temperate zones, seldom going above 90° i n the summer or below zero i n the winter. The r a i n f a l l aver-ages about 40 inches a year at the mouth of the r i v e r (Stevestonj and increases to an average of about 60 inches at (2) the eastern end of the valley\(Hope). Despite these many advantages, i t i s not to he supposed that nature was so beneficent as not to test thoroughly the mettle of those rugged pioneers who l a i d the foundations of new settlements nearly three-quarters of a century ago. Every year, during the freshet season, hundreds of acres of land were subject to flooding by the swollen r i v e r . During the years of greatest flooding, e.g., i n 1894 and 1936, the loss has been serious, continuous e f f o r t s have had to be made to confine the r i v e r by dykes. Hut even at the present time, these e f f o r t s cannot be said to have been e n t i r e l y successful. And, as i f to add i n s u l t to injury, the floods always brought i n t h e i r wake, for a few weeks, myriads of mosquitoes — a nuisance which can t r y the souls even of the stoutest. But when the major problem of flooding has been overcome, the minor problem of the mosquito w i l l have been l a r g e l y solved. In that portion of the v a l l e y l y i n g east of .New west-minster, which i s the area defined i n thi s thesis as the Eastern Praser Valley, there has been a noteworthy development since the completion of the Canadian p a c i f i c Railway. In order to preserve the continuity of the hist o r y of that devel-opment, i t w i l l be necessary to give a summary of the events which preceded the building of the 0. r . J * . P r i o r to the coming of the white man i n 1808, the Js'raser valley was inhabited by numerous t r i b e s of Indians, belonging to the Cowichan group of the S a l i s h l i n g u i s t i c stock. The most powerful of these tribes was the ii.wantlen, which occupied 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s Report, B. C. Depart-ment of Agriculture, 1936. (3J the v a l l e y from the north arm of the Praser, the t e r r i t o r y of the musgueama, to Meomen Island, where dwelt the Hatzics. The headquarters of the Kwantlen waa at Skaiametl, where the c i t y of Hew Westminster stands today. The l i f e of these early inhabitants must have been comparatively happy and well-ordered, even though i t was rudely simple. In the main, too, these people were peaceably disposed, but they suffered from frequent raids hy the more savage and war-like Xukeltaws of Seymour Harrows. auch was the condition of the Indians, when the f i r s t known party of white men, l e d by the i n t r e p i d Simon Praser, came into contact with them i n duly, 1808. Praser had success-f u l l y overcome the dangers and hardships of the descent of the r i v e r which now bears his name. He had reached the mouth of the north arm of the r i v e r , and having taken his bearings, had proved that t h i s r i v e r v/as not the legendary Columbia. Praser would no doubt have l i k e d to continue his work of exploration, but the h o s t i l i t y of the natives waa auch that he deemed i t wise to retrace hie steps with a l l possible speed. He had thus l i t t l e opportunity to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the v a l l e y , even from the point of view of a fur-trader. Praser returned to his headquarters at Port George, and i t was to be nearly two decades before a permanent settlement was made i n the Praser Valley. This settlement was made by the Hudson's Bay Company as a r e s u l t of a more vigorous policy of expansion, subsequent to amalgamation with the isor-westers i n 1821. i n an endeavour to (4) control the fur-trade of the P a c i f i c slope, the company sent a party, under the command of James McMillan, to b u i l d a post about 35 miles from the mouth of the r i v e r , This was named Port Langley, and thus, i n August, 1827, was established the f i r s t permanent white settlement i n the Praeer Valley. A l -though the trade i n furs proved quite successful f o r the f i r s t few years, the o f f i c e r s of the Hudson's Bay Company were not slow to u t i l i z e other resources i n order to show a greater pro-f i t , salmon was salted and cured, not only to be used as an addi t i o n a l a r t i c l e of food by the employees of the company, but also for export trade. The a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the s o i l did not f a i l to a t t r a c t attention, and i t was not long be-fore several patches of land near the f o r t were producing enough food-stuffs to supply the small community. After 1839, there was a considerable increase i n a g r i -c u l t u r a l products at Port langley, owing to the fact that the company was paying r e n t a l for the lease of the Alaskan "pan-handle" by means of farm produce. The company's farm at Lang-ley P r a i r i e , comprising at one time some 2250 acres, was famous throughout the v a l l e y . After the termination of the lease, with trade decreasing and settlement increasing, the p o l i c y of the company was, perforce, changed to meet the new conditions. In 1878 t h i s farm was subdivided into parcels of land of varying acreage, and placed on auction. Por p o l i t i c a l reasons, the Hudson's Bay Company, i n 1849, had transferred t h e i r headquarters from Port Vancouver on the Columbia to Port V i c t o r i a . As a r e s u l t of the settlement of (5) th© Oregon Boundary dispute i n 1846, the company waa forced to f i n d a new trade route between the i n t e r i o r f o r t s and V i c t o r i a . An overland route to Xamloops was found, Ports lale and Hope were b u i l t , and Port Langley became the point of transshipment for a l l supplies. Prom t h i a time on the importance of t h i s • h i s t o r i c post began to wane, although for the f i r s t few montha of 1858 i t saw a feverish, i f somewhat ephemeral, renewal of a c t i v i t y . In 1856 gold was discovered i n the g r a v e l l y bara of the Fraser Kiver and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . The news spread l i k e w i l d -f i r e , and early i n 1858 thousands of eager miners were making t h e i r way up the Praser Kiver. Port Langley at f i r s t v/aa the head of navigation for ateamers, but i n June, 1858, the Amer-ican steamer "Surprise" succeeded, with the aid of an Indian p i l o t , i n reaching Port Hope. I t meant the beginning of the end for Port Langley. James Douglas, a chief factor of the Hudaon's Bay company, took immediate stepa to cope with the s i t u a t i o n created by the a r r i v a l of thia gold-mad throng. He wished to e s t a b l i s h law and order, as well as to safeguard the intereats of hia company. The Imperial government moved with unwonted prompt-itude. Some of Douglas* actions were declared " u l t r a v i r e s " , and on Auguat 2, 1858, an act was pasaed creating the crown colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, un November 19th of the aame year, i n an h i s t o r i c ceremony at Port Langley, Jamea Douglaa waa i n -a t a i l e d aa governor of the colony. At the same time the trading p r i v i l e g e s of the Hudson's Bay Company were formally revoked. (6i upon the request of Governor Douglas for a m i l i t a r y force to maintain order i n the mining camps, a i r Mward Bulwer Lytton, B r i t i s h Colonial secretary, wisely sent out a special detach-ment of Koyal Engineers. The advance guard reached the coast i n time to take part i n the i n s t a l l a t i o n of Governor Douglas. The commander, Colonel K. 0. moody, arriv e d at V i c t o r i a on December 25, 1858, hearing credentials as Commissioner of Lands and works i n the new colony. Douglas, a f t e r his i n s t a l l a t i o n , had declared old Port Langley, or Derby, should be the c a p i t a l of the colony. Lots at t h i s s i t e had a c t u a l l y been sold by public auction at V i c t o r i a . Col. Moody, acting under his o f f i c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , promptly overruled Douglas' choice, and early the next year the present s i t e of Hew Westminster was chosen as being more suitable, P r i e t i o n n a t u r a l l y resulted, and r e l a t i o n s between Col. Moody and Governor Douglas were not always c o r d i a l . This l e d to the disbanding of the detachment of Koyal Engineers i n 1863, a f t e r they had assisted i n the building of the famous Cariboo Koad and i n other important public works. Most of the rank and f i l e had succumbed to the lure of the west; several took up land near Hew Westminster, and became honoured pioneers i n the land of t h e i r adoption. Among the thousands of adventurers searching for fame and fortune on the sandbars of the Praser, were many sturdy sons from the farms and towne of eastern Canada and united states. As they made t h e i r way up the v a l l e y , they could not have f a i l e d to notice the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the lush meadows and sloping h i l l s i d e s that stretched on either side of (7j the r i v e r , when the gold-fever had abated somewhat, many of these men returned to pre-empt land i n d i f f e r e n t sections of the v a l l e y . The Chilliwack and sumaa valleys attracted several i n 1862 and 1863, and i t was there, with the exception of the Hud-son's Bay Company's farm at Port Langley, that the f i r s t a t -tempts at systematic farming i n the Praser Valley were made. Pruit, vegetables, grain and hay were grown i n abundance, and with the introduction of c a t t l e , the dairy products of the Praser Valley began to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r present-day reputation. During the decade following the inception of the crown colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, other settlements were begun i n the v a l l e y — at Mud Bay i n surrey, at Mission, at Maple Kidge and at P i t t Meadows. On A p r i l 11, 1872, the newly-elected l e g i s l a t u r e of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia passed The municipality Act which repealed "The .:'Sorough Ordinance, 1865". As a r e s u l t , Chilliwack and Langley M u n i c i p a l i t i e s were incorporated on A p r i l 26, 1873, the f i r s t r u r a l municipalities i n B r i t i s h Col-umbia, maple itldge was incorporated on September 12, 1874, and Surrey on November 10, 1879. These four municipalities only i * were incorporated previous to the completion of the Canadian V / Thus by the year 1885, there were several small but vigor-ous settlements, most of which were near the r i v e r as providing the easiest means of transportation and communication. Grad-u a l l y also had been established the concomitants of Anglo-saxon c i v i l i z a t i o n , schools and churches had heen b u i l t , rioneer merchants had l a i d the foundations of future prosperity i n the p a c i f i c Kailway. (8) building of small general stores, postal f a c i l i t i e s had been established. Some i n d u s t r i a l development had also taken place to e x p l o i t the marvellous natural resources. Salmon canneries had heen established at several points on the r i v e r , and small saw-mills were cutting lumber for l o c a l needs. The completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Kailway inaugurated a new era of growth i n population and i n i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y . Prom that time on the progress of the Praser Valley has been remarkably steady and consistent, i t i s of that progress that t h i s thesis w i l l t r e a t . (9) Chapter U The "Development of Transportation F a c i l i t i e s . I t i s axiomatic that the progress of a d i s t r i c t such as the Fraser V a l l e y must depend to a great extent on the develop-ment of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The ^comparatively rapid settlement of the v a l l e y i s due to the fact that modern HE ans of transportation have heen available during the l a s t h a l f cen-tury. Waterways, of course, o f f e r the easiest means of t r a v e l i n a new country, and here was a r i v e r navigable throughout the length of the v a l l e y by the modern r i v e r steamer. The construc-t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway gave the settlements on the north side of the r i v e r an advantage i n transportation f a c i l i t i e s for some years, but the railway did not, by any means, displace the services of the r i v e r steamer on the north side. For l o c a l needs, horsedrawn vehicles were introduced at an early date i n the v a l l e y , and these have not been e n t i r e l y displaced even i n t h i s modern era of automotive transportation. Progress, however, since the beginning of the present cen-tury has been steady. The b u i l d i n g of roads and highways, the construction of railways, and the introduction of the automobile has meant that today no section of the v a l l e y i a more than two or three hours* 'journey from the c i t i e s of JSew Westminster and Vancouver. Even the aeroplane haa made i t a appearance. Though not yet eatablished as a public meana of t r a v e l throughout the v a l l e y , several privately-owned machines are i n uae, and C h i l l i -wack, Fort Langley and Hope have made some e f f o r t s at b u i l d i n g (10) a i r ports. There are few regions today that are hetter served hy modern means of transportation than the Eraser Valley. Kiver Steamers. Although sea-going ships frequently came up the r i v e r to Port Langley i n the early days of i t s occupation as a Hudson's Bay post, the r e a l era of the r i v e r steamer dates from the time of the Gold Kush. As previously stated, i t was then that the f i r s t steamer reached Hope. During the Gold Rush and the con-str u c t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway many a steamer churn-ed her way up the muddy praser. As settlement i n the v a l l e y i n -creased, there was enough steady business f o r two or three steamers, and t h i s continued t i l l the Praser Valley Line of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway was completed i n 1910. Pass-enger t r a f f i c on the r i v e r steamers p r a c t i c a l l y ceased from that time, although for several years a f t e r there waa enough freight f o r one boat. For more than h a l f a century these steam-era had served the v a l l e y w e l l , but were forced to give way to a speedier and more r e l i a b l e means of transportation. Neverthe-l e s s , the l i t t l e aettlements on or near the r i v e r viewed the pasaing of the sternwheeler with a meaaure of regret. For them, her a r r i v a l and departure waa not only a commercial necessity, but was also a s o c i a l event of some importance. I t waa a con-tact with the outside world which s a t i s f i e d i n some measure the gregarious i n s t i n c t s of those who l i v e i n lonely places. The t y p i c a l r i v e r steamer waa a aternwheeler, 100 or more feet i n length, 20 to 35 feet i n beam, of shallow draught and i n ; capable of a speed of about 12 knots an hour, when conditions became s t a b i l i z e d the regular run was from Hew Westminster to Chilliwack. But i n the 90»a and e a r l i e r , they got business where they could f i n d i t , and i t wasn't unusual to go as fa r as Hope i f the circumstances warranted i t . A service between Chilliwack and Vancouver was at one time given by the S. S. "Hamlin", but i t evidently proved an unsatisfactory run for i t was not long continued. 1 smaller steamers were sometimes used to supplement the regular schedule, auch a boat was the "Fairy Queen" which ran between Fort Langley and Hew Westminster, AS the round t r i p was made i n one day, thi s service was a great convenience for l o c a l people and i t was well patronized. 2 But the Hew Westminster - Chilliwaok run was the usual one. un the t r i p up r i v e r the boat l e f t at 8 a.m. and would arr i v e about 5 p.m., but thi s would depend on the number of c a l l s that were made. The boat would t i e up over night at Chilliwack Landing, about two miles west of the town, and leave the next morning at 7 a.m. The t r i p down the r i v e r was natur-a l l y of shorter duration, Hew Westminster being usually reached by 2 p.m. There were some thirty-odd regular ports of b a l l on the route, many of them with wharf accommodation. This accom-modation, however, was not a necessity, wherever a white f l a g was f l y i n g the boat would stop. The captain would drive her sharp nose into the mud bank and freight or passengers would 1. supplement to The Daily Columbian, December, 1903. 2. The Daily Columbian, July 13, 1891. (12) aoon be on board, service was the important consideration, and nothing was too large or too small. A c a l l would be made for a can of milk or crate of eggs just as r e a d i l y as for a ton of hay or a shipment of li v e s t o c k . A crew of a dozen or more husky and s k i l f u l deckhands was c a r r i e d on the boat. The gang plank generally used was not very wide, and i f the bank of the r i v e r was much above the l e v e l of the boat-deck, consid-erable s k i l l was necessary to navigate the swaying plank, Por the passenger the tedium of the journey was always r e l i e v e d by watching the loading and unloading of f r e i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f such fr e i g h t happened to be a refractory animal. But the deck-hands were usually equal to the occasion, though i t was not an unknown occurrence for a "greenhorn** to get an involuntary ducking i n the r i v e r , i n those days, any husky young fellow looking f o r work could usually get i t on the r i v e r steamers, but Indians and half-breeds were generally i n the majority. The f i r s t decade of the present century was the hey-day of the sternwheeler, for i t was then that a d a i l y service each way was given. The Canadian P a c i f i c Coast service was then operating the a. S. "Beaver", the namesake of the famous Hud-son's Bay Company's steamer. This boat was undoubtedly the f i n e s t of a long l i n e of r i v e r boats. She had been fabricated i n sections i n England and put. together on the Praser. In contrast to the usual r i v e r steamer, she had a s t e e l h u l l and drew les s than three feet of water, she was 140 feet long, of 36 foot beam and could make 14 knots an hour. She l e f t New Westminster on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, returning the (13) next day. Her competitor during most of thia period waa the "Kamona", a smaller, alower boat whoae schedule waa on a l t e r -nate daya to that of the "Beaver". The "Ramona's" successor waa the "Paystreak". with the completion, i n 1910, of the B. 0. IS. R. v a l l e y l i n e , the r i v e r steamer was outmoded. The "Beaver" continued to run t i l l about 1914, but within a few months the "Payatreak" waa withdrawn from the Chilliwack run, and began a d a i l y round-t r i p service between Hew Westminster and miaaion. 3 Although the fare for a round t r i p to Chilliwack waa the same on the B. C. H. K. aa on the boats - $>3 - the r i v e r boats handled f r e i g h t at a considerably lower rate than the railway, which came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Freight Kates Board. Por thi a reason, the boat continued to handle much hay, grain, f r u i t and c a t t l e , and, for a time, supplies for the construction of the Canadian national Railway. The l a s t of the aternwheelera to operate on the Praaer waa the S. S. "Skeena"; she had been b u i l t for use on the Stikine Kiver, but had been brought to the Praaer when the "Beaver" was bought by the P r o v i n c i a l government to be used on the Dadner fe r r y run. The "Skeena" waa operated by captain Charlea JS. Seymour, one of the beat-known figures on the r i v e r , with Mr. W. H. Hesbitt aa purser. Her regular schedule for yeara waa to Ladner and r e t u r n on Monday, to Chilliwack on Tuesday returning T h u r s d a y , and to mission and return on Friday. On Capt. Sey-mour's death i n 1928, she was t i e d up at a Hew Westminster wharf 3. The Daily Columbian, December 8, 1911. (14) fo r some months, The Board of Trade of that c i t y made e f f o r t s to have her put again into operation, hut to no a v a i l . A l -though she cost some $40,000 to b u i l d , she was sold f o r f1,000 i n December, 19E8, to mr. D. B a r t l e t t , manager of Owen's can-nery near lew Westminster.4 she was dismantled, t i e d up to the cannery wharf, and for some years served as a bunkhouse fo r cannery employees. Today her h u l l only i s again i n operation on the r i v e r , used by one of the o i l companies to carry t h e i r products. 5 i t i a a rather ignoble ending for the l a s t of a long l i n e of well-known r i v e r steamers, but there i s no place f o r aenti-ment i n the demanda of modern buaineas. Nevertheless, the re-sidents of the Praser Valley owe a debt of gratitude, alike to the boats and to t h e i r o f f i c e r s and crews. They provided a reasonably e f f i c i e n t means of transportation for over a h a l f century, and i n times of s p e c i a l stress, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the flooda of 1894, they did a magnificent work i n rescuing aettlera and t h e i r l i v e stock, and i n removing them to a place of safety. I t i a not too much to say that the early proaperity of the Praaer v a l l e y depended i n a large degree on the aervices rendered by the ubiquitoua aternwheeler. tferriea. Biaected aa i t i s by a great r i v e r , the Praaer valley needed aome means of communication between i t s north and aouth 4. The Chilliwack Progreaa, December 27, 1928— . reprinted from "The Vancouver Star". 5. Information supplied by Bar. W. H. Hesbitt. (15) ahores. A bridge i n the early daya waa out of the queation be-cause of the coat, and therefore f e r r i e s were operated aa the moat uaeful aubatitutea. The e a r l i e s t of theae bore the c r y p t i c name of ''% de K", and waa operated between Hew Westminster and Brownaville, just west of the aouthern end of the preaent bridge. This f e r r y af-forded a connection with the i a l e Road, b u i l t i n 1875, and was mainly used by the residenta of surrey and the Delta. The service given seemed to have been very unaatiafactory - i n fact i t waa "a mere apology f o r a f e r r y " . T h e route taken waa a lengthy diagonal one across and up the r i v e r , and the landing aecommodationa on both aidea of the r i v e r were ao poor that horaea and vehicles were aeldom c a r r i e d becauae of the r i s k . A f t e r months of a g i t a t i o n and protest, the c i t y of Hew weat-mineter b u i l t a new f e r r y at a coat of $25,000. On February 19, 1891, ahe made her f i r s t regular run serosa the r i v e r to South Weatminater. The new route was more d i r e c t , fares and freight ratea were merely nominal, and a dozen teama could be tranaported e a s i l y at one time. 7 The new f e r r y , named the "Surrey", waa a centre-wheeler, a huge wheel operating between two scow-like h u l i a . She did duty also aa a fire-boat, having powerful pumpa which were capable of projecting f i v e large atreama of water at one time. Although she waa not c a l l e d on often to f i g h t f i r e , ahe more than once demonstrated her uae-fulness i n that respect. The ^Surrey3; a f t e r some years of 6. E d i t o r i a l , The Daily Columbian, March 14, 1891. 7. Ibid. (16) service, was taken out of commission upon the completion of the bridge i n 1904. The next point at which a f e r r y service was maintained was at mission. The railway bridge there, b u i l t by the 0. £. ti., waa not open to vehicular t r a f f i c . Accordingly, i n the aummer of 1911, the government put a f e r r y into operation, and thus linked the municlpalitiea of Matsqui and Mission. This f e r r y service was maintained u n t i l 19E7, when the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment, af t e r repeated demands by the residents of the d i s t r i c t , had the 0. P. K. bridge planked and opened f o r t r a f f i c on July 1, 1927. Between Chilliwack and Harrison M i l l s a f e r r y aerviee waa maintained for aeveral years. I t was put into operation o r i g -i n a l l y i n f u l f i l l m e n t of a contract to carry the mail acroaa the r i v e r to the 0. P. it. I t waa maintained for some years by "Old Mac" MacDonald i n a canoe, when an occasional t r a v e l l e r sought passage acroaa the r i v e r and inquired of "Old mac" the fare, hia reply waa, "Pour h i t a , and you p u l l an oar yourself". But t h i s well-known old character l o a t hia l i f e i n an attempted eroasing about 1900. The succeaaor to thia canoe ferry waa the amall f e r r y ateamer "Minto'J a stern wheeler about 50 feet i n length. It waa operated by Captaina J e f f Harriaon and Bob Menten u n t i l July, 1908. Paasenger t r a f f i c had increaaed to such an extent that a r i v a l f e r r y , the "John P. Douglas", waa put into oper-ation early i n 1908. The ownera of t h i s boat bought out the "Minto" which waa taken o f f the run. In the following year the (17) "John P. Douglas- was burnt, and was replaced hy a new boat, the "Vedder". This f e r r y ran u n t i l the B. G. E. R. was com-pleted i n uctober, 1910, when passenger t r a f f i c became prac-t i c a l l y non-existent. The mail contract, however, was main-tained by Jack Henley i n a small gas-boat u n t i l 1914 when the government gave the contract for the mail to the B. C. E. R. The Koaedale-Agaaaiz f e r r y has been i n operation for near-l y 30 years and i s the only one which i s s t i l l maintained. The popularity of Harrison Hot springs as a health resort w i l l ensure the retention of th i s service unless a bridge i s b u i l t at or near th i s point on the Praser. In the e a r l i e s t days, a t r a v e l l e r who wished to cross the r i v e r at Agaasiz would have to take a chance on bribin g an Indian to take him across i n a canoe. About 1906 the vallance Bros, inaugurated a fe r r y service v/ith a rowboat and small scow, the rowboat soon giving way to a small gasoline launch. This service was maintained from 1907 to 1911 by Messrs. G i l l and Ryder of Rosedale v/ith an 8 h.p. gas boat and scow. Ar-rangements for transportation had to be made by telephone, however. The fare was 50 cents when the water v/as high, but .this, was reduced to 25 cents during the period of low water. Each passenger i n a horae-drawn vehicle waa charged the same fare. An automobile with four pasaengera was charged $2.50 o which i a about four times the t a r i f f today. service was maintained by private individuala under government contract 8. The B r i t i s h Columbian, August 22, 1910. (18) u n t i l 1922. At that time the government owned f e r r y , the "Sea-wolf" waa placed on the run. Thia "boat waa 60 feet long and waa powered hy two 35 h.p. enginea. T r a f f i c increaaed ao r a p i d l y that i n 1928 a bigger and more powerful boat, the "Eena w aupereeded the "Sea^Wolf". In 1931 a a t i l l l a r g e r boat, the "Agaaaiz"', waa put on the run, but a f t e r 18 montha, thia f e r r y waa put on the Ladder-Woodward* a Landing route. The "Eena M waa re-engined with Dieael motore and haa been i n ser-vice ateadily aince 1932. since that time i t haa been oper-ated by Meaara. Henley and Gartmell under a government charter. I t i s poaaible that l o c a l f e r r i e a might be eatabliahed at other points on the r i v e r . Residents have been agitating f o r some time for a f e r r y service between Port Langley and Maple Ridge and they are hopeful that the government w i l l accede to t h e i r request. Perries w i l l no doubt continue i n the future to serve aa a l i n k between the north and the aouth aides of the r i v e r , juat aa they have i n the paat. Bridgea* The need for a bridge at Hew Weatminster waa recognized fo r nearly a generation before the acheme was brought to com-pl e t i o n . The reasons why the bridge was conaidered a neces-s i t y were conciaely stated i n a l e t t e r sent to Ottawa i n 1895 asking for a aubaidy of $100,000.9 There i t was atated that there waa no t r a f f i c bridge between the mouth of the r i v e r and Spuzzum, 120 milea away; that moat of the population waa on 9. The D a i l y Columbian, December 24, 1895. (19) the south side of the r i v e r , while t h e i r natural markets o f Vancouver and Hew Westminster were on the north side; that the farmers of the v a l l e y suffered undue competition hy united States farmers bringing i n produce by water; and that the pre-sent f e r r y service was e n t i r e l y i n s u f f i c i e n t . The c i t i z e n s of Hew Westminster were so impressed with the value and need of improved communication with the other side of the r i v e r that they proposed that the c i t y alone should shoulder the great cost of the undertaking. For a decade previous to the construc-t i o n of the bridge innumerable news items, e d i t o r i a l s and l e t t e r s i n the l o c a l press r e f l e c t the public a g i t a t i o n on the proposal. Hearly every year some new scheme was put forward or some old one modified and revived, but in v a r i a b l y the negotia-tions came to nought because of f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The project f i r s t took d e f i n i t e shape i n 1896 with the proposal of Mr. C. H. "Wilkinson of London, England. He was the promoter of the White Pass Railway, and was also interested i n the Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and Eastern (V. V* and E.) Railway. But his proposals for a f i n a n c i a l guarantee were not entertained by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and the matter was dropped for the time being. The gradual growth of the c i t y and r u r a l muni-c i p a l i t i e s , coupled with persistent a g i t a t i o n by c i t y and muni-c i p a l councils, eventually secured for the project recognition as a public u t i l i t y by the p r o v i n c i a l government. But finances were not i n a very f l o u r i s h i n g condition at the time, and dur-ing 1900 and 1901 the province ca r r i e d on negotiations with the Dominion government, hoping to get a subsidy of 25°/o of the cost. ( 2 0 ) Ottawa, however, refused, considering the project purely a pro-v i n c i a l one, hut was w i l l i n g to subsidize a private company or-ganized f o r the purpose. 1 0 About t h i s time Mr. John Hendry of Hew Westminster, keenly interested i n various railway projects i n the province, made propositions to both governments i n the name of auch a company. But popular sentiment waa strongly i n favour of conatruction aa a public work; and aa such i t waa f i n a l l y undertaken by the Dunsmuir government, the necessary finances being taken care of by a loan. Bucceaa had at l a s t crowned the e f f o r t s of the c i t y and v a l l e y . I t i s true that the c i t y waa fortunate i n having a f r i e n d at court i n the per-aon of the Hon. Richard mcBride, a highly-popular native son. He had been elected aa member for Dewdney, had become for a short time Minister of Mines i n the Dunsmuir ministry, and very f i t t i n g l y waa head of the government which completed the project, nevertheless, the undertaking had the unanimous en-doraement of the members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i a l a t u r e , and thus waa not the product of party politics. 1"'' The same could hardly be aaid of the new bridge under construction at the present time ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The government wisely decided to spare no expenae i n the construction of the bridge, which waa to be a combined railway and t r a f f i c atructure of maaonry and a t e e l . Mr. J . A. I». Waddell, of the firm of Waddell and Hedrick, Kanaaa City, MO., and one of the moat eminent bridge engineera on the continent, 1 0 . (Joanell, K.E., "B.C. - s i x t y Years of Progreaa" i t . 1 1 , p.1 6 8 . 1 1 . Supplement to the Daily Columbian, December, 1 9 0 3 . (21 j was engaged to design and supervise the construction of the bridge. The contract for the sub-structure v/as given to the f i r m of Messrs. Armstrong, Morrison and Balfour of Vancouver, while that of the superstructure went to the Dominion Bridge Company of Montreal. The substructure was begun i n August 1902, and gave em-ployment to several hundred men for over a year. The l a y i n g of the l a s t stone i n the l a s t p i e r took place on October 24, 1903. The depth of water on the north side presented an ex-ceedingly d i f f i c u l t engineering problem i n the b u i l d i n g of the p i e r s . This was solved by the use of caissons of timber which were f i l l e d with cement and sunk for nearly 40 feet into the r i v e r a i l t . Masonry waa then b u i l t on top of the cement to the required height. The f i v e piera i n ahallow water on the south side reat on cedar p i l e a driven 100 feet into the r i v e r bed. The aubatructure completed, work on the auperatructure progreased rapidly, ateel was fabricated i n Lachine, Quebec, and brought to the aouth bank of the r i v e r over the tracks of the Great northern Railway. From thence i t waa taken up the f i n i s h e d approach to the bridge proper, and placed i n poaition by a huge t r a v e l l i n g crane, un November, 11, 1903, the main span, 380 fee»t i n length and weighing 800 tons, was aucceaafully floated into poaition. In March of the following year the laat apan - the spread apan on the north ahore - waa placed i n poaition, and the work waa v i r t u a l l y complete. The t o t a l coat waa a l i g h t l y over $1,000,000, but i t was a magnificent piece of v/ork, and at that time waa conaidered one I 22 j of the heat bridges on the continent. There were aeveral novel features i n the new structure. The "Y" span at the north end afforded a double railway approach, one from the east and the other from the west. As the main span waa 380 feet i n width, there was no obstruction to the free passage of tuga and booms of loga. The awing apan of 361 feet allowed two paasages of 160 feet each for the larger boats. Thiaapan ia operated by e l e c t r i c i t y ao apeedily that very l i t t l e delay i a eauaed to vehicular t r a f f i c . The roadway, Including the approaches, i a 2850 feet long and 16 feet wide, which at the time waa consid-12 ered "ample to accommodate general t r a f f i c . " The amount of material uaed i n the bridge waa immenae. Por the concrete i n the piera i t waa neceasary to use over 12,000 barrels of cement, 6000 cubic yards of sand, 1650 cubic yarda of gravel and 7800 cubic yards of crushed rock. The cement came from the united States, but the sand and gravel was obtained from Port i l e l l s , and the crushed rock from the P i t t Hiver quarries, stone for the maaonry waa brought from JSielaon Island, about 70 milea from Vancouver. It required 223 care to transport the ateel from the eaat. A tremendoua amount of lumber, a l l of the beat quali t y , waa used, i n the bottom of the piera 1,125,000 l i n e a l feet of f i r waa uaed, while 785,000 l i n e a l feet of the same material waa uaed i n the t r e s t l e ap-proaches. Clear cedar p i l e a - 65,000 l i n e a l feet - were uaed 12. Supplement to the Daily Columbian, December, 1903. (23) i n the southern piera and approach, while approximately the same amount waa uaed i n cribbing work on the north bank. On July 23, 1904, the bridge, with appropriate ceremoniea, waa formally opened to t r a f f i c by the lieutenant-governor of the province, S i r Henri Joly de Lotbiniere. One of the feat-urea of the opening waa the proceaaion of r i v e r steamera and tuga - about 40 i n number - through the draw apan. They were y e sse / loaded with pasaengera, and each A ;aa i t paaaed through the draw, saluted the bridge with a long blaat of the whistle• Thia proceaaion waa repeated at night, thia time the boats being g a i l y decorated with l i g h t s and Japanese lanterna. Tolla were charged for the f i r s t few yeara, but these were removed i n March, 1910, by the McBride government. Heed-less to aay, the premier had popular approval f o r hia act. Benefita of the long-awaited structure to the farmers of the v a l l e y were immediate and apparent. In addition, the G . - H . H. which for years had i t a terminus at South Westminster, then had aeeeaa to the c i t i e s of Hew Westminater and Vancouver. Por the p r i v i l e g e of using the bridge this railway, paya an annual re n t a l of |20,000. 1 4 In 1910, the B* 0. 1. R. alao made uae of the bridge for i t s Praaer Valley l i n e , and within 13. Prom information contained i n the Supplement to the Columbian, December, 1903 and i n issue of July 23, 1904* 14. Howay, P. 1. - A Hiatory of B. C; from the E a r l i e s t Times, Vol* H , page 529. (24j a few years the Canadian national trains were using the bridge and the G. 1. it. right-of-way into Vancouver. The general growth of the v a l l e y and the increase i n t r a f f i c have f u l l y j u s t i f i e d the construction of the bridge, but few would have been so rash as to f o r e t e l l the need for a new t r a f f i c bridge i n 30 years. The development of automobile t r a f f i c has been t o t a l l y unexpected. The passage of two b i g trucks or buses on the 16 foot roadway i a not unattended by danger, while the t r a f f i c jams which have occurred on holidaya have proved that the present structure i a inadequate to carry comfortably the i n f l u x of cars on peak days. Accordingly the pattuUo govern-ment propoaed the conatruction of a new t r a f f i c bridge just west of the preaent one. A great deal of acrimonious diseussion took place aa to the wisdom and neceaaity of a new bridge. Ex-pert engineering opinion d i f f e r e d aa to the f e a a i b i l i t y of widening the roadway on the present bridge. The government at any rate went forward with i t a plans, and work on the new bridge waa commenced i n the summer of 1935. Thia i a to cost approximately $3,500,000 and ahould prove adequate for future needa as i t i a wide enough to carry four lanea of t r a f f i c . It i a expected to be completed i n uctober, 1937. There haa been a bridge acroaa the Praaer Kiver at mission since 1892. It waa erected by the 0. r, R. primarily as a r a i l -way bridge i n order to connect a branch l i n e with the 6. Is. K. at Abbotaford. This bridge was a wooden one and stood for about 13 years. It was replaced by another wooden bridge which (25) lasted a comparatively short, time. About 1902 the present s t e e l bridge was erected. Although considerable t r a f f i c went through the branch l i n e i n the early days, i t gradually de-creased with the opening up of other l i n e s of communication with the south. Accordingly the residents of the d i s t r i c t petitioned for many years to have the bridge planked and thus made accessible for vehicular t r a f f i c . In 1927 the government acceded to this request and today t h i s offers an alternative route for t r a f f i c , although the approaches to the bridge are not wide enough to permit two ears to pass, nor is the road connecting Mission C i t y and Abbotsford at the present time i n very good condition. Eraser Valley l i n e ' of B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway. With the bridge across the Eraser assured i t was not long before the residents of the v a l l e y asked the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment to undertake the construction of a railway or an e l e c t r i c 15 tram l i n e through the v a l l e y to Chilliwack. This did not materialize, but l a t e r the B. 0. E. R. proposed such a railway. In 1906 the municipalities on the south side of the r i v e r -Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas and Chilliwack - passed bylaws which authorized the Vancouver Power Company, a subsidiary of the B. C. E. R., to operate l i g h t , heat, power and tramway systems i n those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Shortly after, several survey parties were placed i n the f i e l d to determine the best route for an e l e c t r i c railway. Plans and estimates were prepared, 15. The Daily Columbian, September 3, 1903. (26) and i n due course contracts were l e t for the construction of power l i n e s and of the railway. On August 6, 1907, the f i r s t sod i n t h i s important project was turned by Mr.*R. H. Sperling, general manager of the company, and work on the f i r s t section from flew Westminster to Oloverdale was immediately begun. This was completed and i n operation i n about 18 months. Meanwhile the contract f o r the section from Oloverdale to Abbotsford had been l e t and work had started. This was completed early i n the spring of 1910. The contract f o r the l a s t section across Sumas p r a i r i e to Chilliwack waa held up for a time because the route hinged on the much-mooted Sumas Reclamation scheme. A plan presented by P. R. Glover, manager of the company, for the com-plete reclamation of the Sumaa area waa turned down by the com-pany' a Board of Directors i n London, England* 1 6 The contract f o r the laat section waa then l e t . The right-of-way waa projected from Abbotaford to Huntingdon, adjacent to the int e r n a t i o n a l boundary l i n e at Sumaa, Wash.; from that point i t akirted the aouthern ahore of Sumaa Lake and continued round the base of Vedder Mountain; thence i n a north-eaaterly d i r e c t i o n to Chilliwack. The autumn of 1910 aaw the bui l d i n g of atationa at Chilliwack and way points. On October 3, 1910, the inaugural t r a i n of three g a i l y -decorated coachea l e f t Hew Westmineter at 10 a.m., bearing a large party of notablea headed by Lieutenant-Governor Pateraon and premier McBride. In addition to B. C. E. R. o f f i c i a l a , 16. Prom Government Report of Sumas Dyking Commission, December, 1926. (27) there were the l o c a l representatives of the federal and pro-v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s , the mayors and aldermen of JUew Westminster and Vancouver, members of the Boards of Trade of both c i t i e s , and p u b l i c i t y commissioners of both. The t r a i n crew i n charge consisted of the senior men on the Interurban l i n e s - Conductor A. B. Clark, Motorman Arthur Brooks and Brakeman Bruce Walker. A l l along the l i n e the residents turned out to cheer and welcome the t r a i n . Stops were made at several points to allow the party time to inspect the company's sub-stations. The t r a i n arrived i n Chilliwack shortly before 3 p.m., nor was the gaiety of the occasion marred by the fact that, for the l a s t part of the journey, one of the company's steam locomotives had to be re-quisitioned. A storm the previous evening had caused a tree to f a l l across the power-lines at Vedder Mountaini Chilliwack residents, l e d by a brass band, turned out en masse to meet the t r a i n with wild acclaim. The party-soon de-trained, and Premier McBride, bareheaded, performed the custom-ary ceremony of d r i v i n g the l a s t spike t r u l y and w e l l . Mayor Munro of Chilliwack then presented Mr. R, H. Sperling of the B. C. E. R. with an address of appreciation and welcome, to which Mr. Sperling suitably r e p l i e d . The v i s i t i n g party, along with 150 i n v i t e d guests, then repaired to the h a l l of St. Thomas' Church, where a sumptuous repast had been l a i d . The return journey was begun at 5 p.m., t h i s time under e l e c t r i c a l power, the break i n the l i n e having been repaired. The long-awaited day of r a i l communication with the outside world had become a r e a l i t y . The l i t t l e c i t y at the eastern terminus of ( 2 8 ) one of the longest e l e c t r i c a l interurban l i n e s i n the world 17 hailed i t aa "the greatest day i n the history of Chilliwack." The following day the regular achedule waa put into ef-fect with three traina d a i l y each way. Paaaenger and baggage traina l e f t the terminals at 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. d a i l y , and a apecial milk t r a i n at 7 a.m. The fare charged waa $ 1 . 8 5 f o r a single, and § 3 . 0 0 f o r a return t i c k e t . The t r i p at f i r s t took three and a h a l f hours, owing to the unballasted aection of the road around Vedder Mountain, but thia waa reduced i n a few months to the normal running time of three houra. The company had announced that i t waa w i l l i n g to give a service which would meet conditions, and waa not long i n giving evidence of i t a a i n c e r i t y . There was a heavy fr e i g h t and paaa-enger t r a f f i c on the new l i n e from the very f i r a t . within a month, Mr. Purvia, who had been appointed manager of the i n t e r -urban l i n e s , acceded to a request from v a l l e y farmera for a l o c a l t r a i n on Priday, which waa market-day i n lew Westminater. Thia t r a i n l e f t Huntingdon at 7 a.m. and returning arrived at 5 . 3 0 p.m. In December of that year, a regular freight achedule waa put into operation, and, within a few months, an average of 1 5 carloada of f r e i g h t were a r r i v i n g d a i l y i n Hew Weatminster Gn June 4 , 1 9 1 1 , a new schedule went into e f f e c t which provided for three passenger traina d a i l y each way i n addition to the milk t r a i n . The average d a i l y number of paaaengera car r i e d on 1 7 . The Chilliwack Progreaa, October 5 , 1 9 1 0 . 1 8 . The B r i t i s h Columbian, March 4 , 1 9 1 1 . t 29) the l i n e during the month of May, 1913, waa 900, the greatest number being 1 5 0 0 . 1 9 For nearly two decadea the interurban l i n e waa an import-ant factor i n the tranaportation f a c i l i t i e s of the v a l l e y . .During that time the Canadian northern had been b u i l t , and had **cut i n * to aome extent on the t r a f f i c . But with improvement i n the automobile and highwaya came the greateat competition to the railwaya. Juat aa the railway superseded the r i v e r ateamer, so haa the automobile v i r t u a l l y eclipsed the e l e c t r i c railway. A compariaon with former days showa c l e a r l y the trend, of the times. When the l i n e waa completed, the company maintained atation agenta at s i x pointa between the termini - Oloverdale, Langley P r a i r i e , milner, Abbotaford, Huntingdon and sardia. Within the la a t few years these have a l l been withdrawn with the exception of the agent at Abbotaford. The milk t r a i n haa continued i t s achedule, but the pasaenger-train achedule has been reduced from a maximum of four to three traina d a i l y . Furthermore, where three-car and four-car trains were uaual, today one coach only leavea the terminua, and that one i a never crowded aa the tr a i n a of old were. It aeema p l a i n that the "march of time- haa relegated the e l e c t r i c railway to the back-ground aa the c h i e f factor i n the valley's tranaportation syatema. Canadian national Hallway. ' The orgy of railway building i n the pre-war period gave the 19. The B r i t i a h Columbian, June 1, 1911 (30) Fraser v a l l e y s t i l l another l i n e of communication. Even "before the residents of Chilliwack had seen the consummation of t h e i r desires i n the building of the B. C. E. R., Mr. Mann had an-nounced that progress was being made on the Canadian Northern Railway and that the l i n e between Chilliwack and Vancouver O A would be i n operation i n a year's time. This might be taken, at l e a s t , to r e f l e c t the general s p i r i t of optimism which pre-v a i l e d at the time, even i f i t does not betray a lack of judg-ment on Mr. Mann's part. For those were the days of spacious outlook and unbounded enthusiasm, which were not always coupled with sound common sense and good judgment. The plans of the Canadian Northern Railway indicate t h i s . The s i t e for the terminus was to be Port Mann on the south bank of the r i v e r about two miles east of lew Westminster. Tenders were c a l l e d i n September, 1910, for clearing the 2000 acre t r a c t for the townsite, and l o t s there were soon s e l l i n g at i n f l a t e d prices. Extravagant claims were made as to the ultimate importance of t h i s "Liverpool of the P a c i f i c " . A Vancouver newspaper, strangely enough, prophesied that i t was "soon to become a 21 serious r i v a l to the growth of Vancouver". A magazine a r t i c l e l a t e r claimed that "the opinion expressed by many experts that Port Mann w i l l rapidly become one of the largest c i t i e s on the 22 Coast seems to be amply j u s t i f i e d " . But these dreams were never even remotely r e a l i z e d . The l o g i c a l decision to extend 20. The Daily Columbian, June 13, 1910. 21. I n d u s t r i a l "Supplement to the Vancouver World, Sept. 21, 1910. 22. The B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, March, 1912. (31) the l i n e to tidewater at Vancouver would have caused the c o l -lapse of the o r i g i n a l plans, even i f the pre-war depression hadn't ended them. Anyone viewing Port Mann today would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the boom-talk which was evidenced i n 1910 and 1911. Moreover the actual construction of the railway did not keep pace with the estimated rate. Bad weather during the winter months and d i f f i c u l t y i n getting supplies caused delays. It was not t i l l May 24, 1915 that a tri-weekly l o c a l service between Hope and Port Mann was inaugurated. 2 3 Trains going east l e f t on Monday, Wednesday and Priday and returned the next day. The subsequent consolidation Of the l i n e as part of the Canadian national Railways has given a regular service to some of the older settlements near the r i v e r , which the r i g h t -of-way follows rather c l o s e l y . At the present time there i s a hi-weekly l o c a l t r a i n between Vancouver and Boston Bar. The C. I. K., being a transcontinental l i n e , has not had to depend on l o c a l t r a f f i c as does, the B. C. is. H., but i t suffers to-day from the same competition of motor buses and trucks. Great northern Railway. The G. 1. R., because i t i s a connecting l i n k between the Lower Mainland and the united states, haa played an important part i n the development of the Praaer valley. I t haa had an i n t e r e s t i n g hiatory. The f i r s t section to 23. The Chilliwack Progreaa, May 27, 1915. (32) be b u i l t waa between South Westminster and Blaine. I t waa chartered as the Hew Westminster Southern Railway, and waa one of the f i r a t railways i n the province conatructed aft e r the G. P; R. The promoters were a group of very enterprising busi-ness- and professional men of Hew Westminster. The f i r s t charter f o r the road was granted i n 1883, but owing to finan-c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e a thia waa allowed to lapse. The idea waa then aponaored by the Board of Trade of Hew westminater, and an application for a charter i n 1887 was granted by the pro-v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Thia waa turned over i n 1888 to a direc-E4 torate composed of those men who had bought stock. But pre-liminary plans were beset with many obstacles, f i n a n c i a l and otherwise, under the charter of the G. P. R. no railway waa allowed to run aouth of i t s l i n e to connect with an American ayatem. This d i f f i c u l t y was removed aa a re s u l t of agi t a t i o n i n Manitoba over the same monopoly clause. Financial d i f f i -c u l t i e s which threatened at f i r a t , were also overcome and the road successfully completed. I t i a one of the very few r a i l -ways v/hich did not receive a grant of aome sort of government aasiatance. The road was opened i n 1891, and the uaual opening cere-monies took the novel form of a railway "wedding". Traina l e f t South Westminater and Blaine ao aa to arrive at the boun-dary l i n e at the same time. They approached each other u n t i l only a yard or ao separated them, and the presidenta of both 24. The D a i l y Columbian, February 14, 1891. E5. Roway, F. W., op. c i t . , Vol. TL., p.449. (33) the Hew Westminster Southern and the Amerioan l i n e together l a i d the l a s t r a i l and drove the l a s t spikes at the actual boundary. 2 6 A tri-weekly service was begun and was operated for many years i n connection with the f e r r y at Hew Westminster, when the bridge was b u i l t , t h i s l i n e was amalgamated with the V. W. & X. l i n e which had been b u i l t between Hew Westminster 27 and Vancouver, and thus became part of the (J. H. K. system. The o r i g i n a l l i n e passed through Port KeHs and Oloverdale, but i n 1908 a new l i n e was l a i d along the sea-shore. This i s the l i n e i n operation today, and i t has assisted i n the develop-ment of the sea-side resorts on semiahmoo Bay, as w e l l as i n maintaining r a i l communication with the c i t i e s of the p a c i f i c states. Hoads and Highways. Both the north and the south sides of the v a l l e y are served today by splendid highways - the former by the Lougheed Highway, and the l a t t e r by the Yale Road and p a c i f i c Highway. There are also several important "feeders" and connecting roads - the Scott, Mciellan, and Townline Roads on the south side, and the old Dewdney Trunk Road on the north side. In addition there are hundreds of miles of gravel roads. In the f i r s t h a l f of the period under review, there seems to have been l i t t l e systematic planning for road-building. 26. The Daily Columbian, February 14, 1891. 27. Grosnell, H. is., op. c i t . , pages 167, 168. (34) Often roada were merely evolved from foot and pack t r a i l a into earth roada aa aettlement demanded, and conaequently did not follow the beat or ahorteat route. F i n a n c i a l arrangementa too were haphazard. Funda f o r roada were allocated to e l e c t o r a l CO d i s t r i c t s , each of which waa i n charge of a superintendent. These i n turn employed reaident aettlera to do any necessary work, which aeemed to eonaiat mainly i n dumping gravel at the worst apota. During the laat decade of the nineteenth century, l e t t e r s and e d i t o r i a l s i n the v a l l e y newspapers complain with a good deal of aaperity about the condition even of the Yale Road during the winter montha. i n cert a i n atretchea acroaa the Langley P r a i r i e i t was characterized as "an impaaaable d i t c h . . . 29 ...an example of aheer neglect". I t i a not d i f f i c u l t , then, to imagine the atate of the ••feeder- roada during the wet weather. About 1908, however, owing to the u.se of automobiles, the Department of Public Worka began a ayatematic conatruction of trunk roada suited to motor t r a f f i c . At thia time the pro-vince waa i n a f a i r l y prosperoua condition. For aeveral yeara 6 i r Richard MCBride'a government had a c t u a l l y produced aur-pluaes. This proaperity waa r e f l e c t e d i n the road-building pro-gram which was i n i t i a t e d . A review of conditiona i n 1910 states that -more work i s being done on the roads of the v a l l e y t h i s 30 year than ever before-. Many milea of new road were b u i l t i n 28. Manual of Pr o v i n c i a l information, 1930, p.204. 29. The Daily Oolumbian, December 26, 1890. 30. Ibid, July 26, 1910. (35) the municipalities that year, and i n addition many more miles were widened, graded, gravelled and otherwise improved. As an example of the work done, the government spent i n Dewdney alone $100,000 for roads and $35,437 for b r i d g e s . 3 1 i'he incorporated municipalities had to bear n a t u r a l l y a greater proportion of the costs, miring the next year or two, work continued apace. It was at t h i s time that the present route of the P a c i f i c High-way through Surrey was located, and on August 1, 1911 the new section of the road from Pry's Corner to the inte r n a t i o n a l boundary l i n e was opened for t r a f f i c . As a r e s u l t of the po l i c y of retrenchment during the war years, very l i t t l e more work than necessary repairs was done On the roads. Motor t r a f f i c , however, wast increasing r a p i d l y , end to cope with the problem of good roads the Department of public Works effected a r a d i c a l change i n organization. The province was divided into eight d i s t r i c t s with a permanent s t a f f i n each which consisted of a d i s t r i c t engineer, assistants, and general foremen. These were augmented during the season by l o c a l fore-men and gangs of labourers engaged on a daily-wage basis. During the post-war period, improvement of the main a r t e r i e s of t r a f f i c has been f a i r l y steady. In 19£4 a decision was made to use the Yale Koad and the Praser Canyon route for the trans-p r o v i n c i a l highway. Increasing motor t r a f f i c made permanent, hard-surfaced roads a necessity. Although the cost of road-building i n i . C. has always been high compared with that of other provinces, improved machinery and s c i e n t i f i c methods, have 31. The Daily Columbian, July 26, 1910. 1 (36j put the main highways today i n splendid condition. The, improvement to the Yale Road haa heen car r i e d on over several yeara. Aa a r e s u l t of the completion of the sumaa Reclamation scheme, the h i l l y and dangeroua aection of the road over vedder Mountain v/as eliminated hy the conatruction of a road across Sumaa P r a i r i e . In 1928 a new road across the p r a i r i e waa aurveyed and located. This took a more d i r e c t route "between the vedder Drainage Canal and Abbotaford and ef-fected a aaving of nearly f i v e miles, within the next year or two a aection of aeveral miles from Vedder Canal to Chilliwack waa paved with concrete, uther seetiona were widened, atraight-ened and hard-surfaced. The l a s t aection to be ao treated was the new road acroaa the p r a i r i e . Thia waa completed during the aummer of 1935. The Yale Road i s now paved or hard-aurfaced aa f a r aa Koaedale, about aeven miles eaat of Chilliwack. Por many yeara the main road on the north aide of the r i v e r waa the Dewdney Trunk Road. Thia linked up lew Weatminater and Dewdney. Although t r a f f i c on the north aide haa never been as heavy aa that on the aouth aide, a g i t a t i o n f o r improvement hae been constant. As a r e s u l t the Hon. id. S. Lougheed, Miniater of Public Worka i n the Tolmie government, announced i n 1928 a modern road for the north side. The aection between Port 32 Goguitlam and Port Haney waa to be e n t i r e l y relocated. Con-struction of t h i a road, now known as the Lougheed Highway, has heen car r i e d on since that announcement. I t i a now hard-surfaced 32. The B r i t i s h Columbian, December 5, 1928. (37) as far aa Deroche, 13 milea eaat of Mission City, and i s a good match for the Xale Koad. From the part of the highway between Deroche and Agaaaiz one can obtain a magnificent view of the r i v e r and v a l l e y . With the increaaing popularity of the H a r r i -son Hot springe Hotel, the eventual hard-surfacing of t h i s section seems aaaured. When that i a done, the round t r i p up one aide and down on the other should prove highly popular to thoae who are unacquainted with the beauty and reaourcea of the Fraser valley. Automotive Tranaportation. The continuoua improvement and increasing uae of the auto^ mobile haa revolutionized the commercial, economic and even the a o c i a l l i f e of the reaidente of the v a l l e y . In the early daya of the centu.ry, i t waa probably an all-day taak for the farmer to take a load of grain, hay, or f r u i t to the r i v e r landing for the ateamer to d e l i v e r to the c i t y marketa. The e l e c t r i c and steam railways cut that time to two or three houra, and there-by improved the economic p o s i t i o n of the farmer. But that time today would enable a truck to reach the c i t i e s , even i f i t came from the eaatern end of the v a l l e y , ^uick delivery ia an ad-vantage to the producer as well as to the consumer of dairy producta and farm produce. And today i t i a no uncommon occur-rence for reaidenta of the v a l l e y , even as f a r eaat ae C h i l l i -wack, to come to Vancouver i n an evening to enjoy an outatanding c u l t u r a l or dramatic preaentation or a aporting event. It means that r u r a l reaidenta can enjoy today urban advantagea that were undreamed of even a quarter century ago. (38) Indicative not only of the motor-car of an e a r l i e r gen-eration hut also of the condition of the roada i a th i s newa item publiahed i n the Chilliwack Progreaa of November 2, 1910, under the caption of "Fast Motor Driving." H. Hooper of Vancouver...made a record t r i p from thia c i t y to Abbotaford yesterday.... He made the t r i p i n two houra and 10 minutea. This time i a authentic, i t being telegraphed back to Chilliwack on hia a r r i v a l at Abbots-ford. The t r i p i a a most remarkable one con-sidering the state of the roada....Acroaa the sumas P r a i r i e , i n placea, the axle of the car dragged through the mud and the water. such a t r i p could eaaily be made today i n leas than h a l f an houri The increaae i n the number of motor-cara i n the l a a t few yeara haa been almoat i n c r e d i b l e . The r e g i a t r a t i o n and l i -censing of motor-cara i n B. 0. began i n 1907, when 175 were re-giatered. By 1909 these had increased to 504. But the next two decadea showed an amazing growth, i n 1919 the number was 21,350, while i n 1930, the year of higheat r e g i a t r a t i o n , l i -cencea were iaaued to 98,938 motor-vehiclea. 3 3 At a conaerva-t i v e eatimate, at l e a s t two-thirda of these vehicles are re-gistered i n the towns and c i t i e s of the Lower Mainland. Keeping pace with the number of privately-owned cara was the number of commercial vehicles. The B. C. is). E., through i t s subsidiary, the B. C. Motor Tranaportation Co., waa early i n the f i e l d of automotive tranaportation. i n May, 1926, they inaugurated the Rapid Tranait aervice to Chilliwack with two 33. Canada xear Book, 1937. 139) e e p e c i a l l y - b u i l t , 28-paaaenger Fageol coaches. At that time four round t r i p a per day were made, hut that 8chedule has heen reduced at preaent (1936) to three. Preliminary to inaugurating thia aervice the company had purchaeed the atage l i n e of G. L , Hamre, which had heen operated between JS'ew ?/eetminater and Ab-botaford. The company also bought out the f r e i g h t l i n e of H. A. Thornton, which waa operated on the same route, and eata-34 bliahed the Praaer Valley Freight Line. The B. C.,E. R. evidently decided that i f there waa to be competition to the e l e c t r i c l i n e , they would provide i t themaelves. This they have aucceeded i n doing aa f a r aa paaaenger aervice i a concerned, but i n the freight trucking aervice they have alwaya had several competitors. The' number and mechanical excellence of motor vehicles w i l l l i k e l y continue to increaae. There doea not appear to be any aerious r i v a l to the dominant poaition auch vehicles now hold i n the f i e l d of tranaportation. 34. The B r i t i a h Columbian, A p r i l 27, 1926 (40) Chapter 111 The Development of Agriculture It waa the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o a a i h i l i t i e a of the Praaer valley which f i r a t attracted permanent aettlera there; i t haa heen the inoreaaing development of theae p o a a i h i l i t i e a which haa l a i d the foundation for the proaperity of the v a l l e y . An equable climate and f e r t i l e a o i l provided i n i t i a l advantages o f which the pioneers were not slow to take advantage. In the courae of time the growth of two c i t i e a at the front door of the v a l l e y provided the farmers with an excellent opportunity f o r the sale of a g r i c u l t u r a l producta, but wider marketa have been by no meana neglected. Se t t l e r s i n the va l l e y , however, have had to face c e r t a i n handicaps and diaadvantagea. Compared with other d i s t r i c t s i n Western Canada, the price of land haa been high; the coat of clearing land, too, i a exceaaive. Por theae reaaona an i n i t i a l outlay of considerable c a p i t a l waa almost a neceaaity. products have had to compete i n moat casea with thoae of the older and more fully-developed atatea of the p a c i f i c Coast. Certain of the low-lying, and therefore r i c h e s t , aectiona of the v a l l e y have had to be dyked to prevent the ravagea wrought by the r i v e r during the annual freaheta. During a tour of the v a l l e y today, however, one i a impreaaed by i t a fundamental proaperity. Modern, substantial homea, barns and a i l o a are to be aeen on every hand. Luah pasturea provide auatenance f o r pure-bred herds of c a t t l e , flocka of aheep and (41) droves of swine. Well-cultivated f i e l d s , orchards and nurseries are unmistakeable evidence of careful attention to the science of a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s not without reason that the v a l l e y has become one of the richest and most productive farming areas of Canada. Floods and Dyking *"*" The annual freshet of the Fraser, with i t s attendant de-struction, has always been a major problem for the Fraser "Val-ley farmer. In the early settlement this problem was aggra-vated by the fact that the date, as well as the maximum height, of the freshet has been uncertain, weather conditions i n the upper reaches of the Fraser during the winter and spring months are the main determining factors for these uncertainties. In 1876, aft e r more than a decade of settlement, the highest freshet then on record occurred about the beginning of July. In 1882 t h i s height v/as surpassed about the middle of June by 13 inches as measured on the gauge at Mission City, the stan-dard for measuring the height of flood waters. In 1894 occurred the greatest flood that has ever been re-corded i n the v a l l e y . Induced by a very hot s p e l l i n the i n -t e r i o r , the waters began to r i s e on May 19th, and thereafter rose at ah average rate of two feet per day, reaching the maximum . height on June 6. un thi s date, the water at Mission at high tide reached a height nearly three and one-half feet above the record of 1882. During t h i s flood period at least eight l i v e s 1. Information i n this section v/as l a r g e l y obtained from the report of the Special Dyking Commission, 1934, and from Mr. Bruce Dixon. (42) were l o a t , and tremendous devastation occurred to crops, l i v e -stock, dykes, bridges and roada. The right-of-way and t e l e -graph l i n e a of the C. P. R. were damaged to auch an extent that communication with the East by theae meana waa interrupted for aeveral daya. Sumas P r a i r i e waa flooded to a height of over 15 feet. River ateamers, which did valiant aervice i n reacuing aet t l e r s and live-atock, found no d i f f i c u l t y i n ateaming from Chilliwack to Huntingdon. The waters receded alowly and there were very few farmers who found i t poaaible to aow aecond cropa that year. Aaaiatance waa f r e e l y given to the reaidenta of the atricken v a l l e y from private as well aa governmental aourcea, but i t took conaiderable time to repair the ravages of the "Big Flood". L u l l e d into falae aecurity by the hope and b e l i e f that high water only came once i n a decade or ao, the aettlera were caught unprepared by the freahet of 1896. In that year the maximum height of the flood did not quite reach that of 1882, and i t waa somewhat l a t e r than uaual, the maximum being reached on July 16. It did demonatrate very convincingly, however, the necesaity for a comprehenaive ayatem of dykea and drainage i f the cropa on the low-lying landa were to be aecure from annual devaatation. Imring the eucceeding yeara many miles of dykea have heen constructed, and theae have given reaaonably good protection to important low-lying sections. Hot u n t i l the aummer of 1936 did theae dykea undergo a very aevere t e s t i n g . In that year the height of the flood waa exceeded only by that of 1894. A audden heat wave in the i n -(43) t e r i o r of the province during the l a s t week i n May resulted i n an abnormal run-off of water. With the advantage of frequent reports from the upper country, the Dominion Water Power and Hydrometric Bureau at Vancouver was able to forewarn the De-partment of Dykes, which i n turn waa able to paaa on the warn-ing to reaidenta of the v a l l e y . During the f i r a t week i n June, the waters roae u n t i l a mark of 22.61 feet waa regiatered on the Miasion gauge on June 9th. Thia wa8 a t i l l conaiderably under the all-time high mark of 25.75 feet, regiatered i n 1894. Owing to the warning, the main dykea were maintained intact by department o f f i c i a l a and volunteer workers. Considerable dam-age reaulted, however, from breaka at Agaaaiz, where about 5000 acres were flooded, and at Dewdney, where about 2000 acres B u f -fered from inundation. Several small private dykea gave way under the s t r a i n . In the main, the dykea proved that they were s u f f i c i e n t l y atrong to withatand the freaheta of a l l but those of extraordinary yeara. with further atrengthening of the dykea at atrategic pointa, there i s reason to hope that the farmera of the v a l l e y may be asaured, i n the future, of reaaon-able security againat the ravagea of flood watera. Before the preaent ayatem of dykea waa eonatructed, there were aeveral low-lying aectiona of the v a l l e y which were alwaya 2 subject to flooding during the freahet seaaon. The f i r s t of theae, from the eaatern end of the valley, waa the f l a t s at Agaaaiz, comprising an area of nearly 5500 acres. The next 2. Gosnell, K.'E.f B. C. Year Book, 1897, p. 276 et aeq. (44) point of danger was at Chilliwack, where nearly 22,000 acres were subject to flooding, hut only during the highest freshets. The t h i r d area was that of Sumas P r a i r i e , comprising almost 30,000 acres, nearly a l l of which was subject to flooding every year. Hext was Sicomen Island, a comparatively small area. A l i t t l e further west, at Dewdney, there was an area of over 5000 acres that suffered; while across the r i v e r , on the south side, were the Mataqui f l a t s , comprising 10,000 acres. The most westerly danger point was the P i t t River Plats, an area of over 8500 acres, l y i n g i n the eastern angle formed by the confluence of the P i t t and Praser Rivers. Since .1894, a l l of these areas, and others as well, have been protected by the construction of about 120 miles of dykes. Only 15 miles, or about 12f$, of the t o t a l have been financed without government assistance. The cost of the construction and maintenance of these dyking areas has been a serious finan-c i a l drain on the government and on the v a l l e y farmers. The f i r s t money for dyking purposes was authorized by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n the Acts of 1894 and 1897. The Act of 1898 established the c a p i t a l indebtedness of each area and provided for the payment of annual assessments by each d i s -t r i c t . In that year also the f i r s t Inspector of Dykes was ap-pointed. Minor adjustments to the Act were made i n succeeding years, a l l of which were consolidated i n the Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1905. Thia act cancelled the t o t a l charges 3. Report of Special Dyking Commiaaion, 1934, p.4. (45) against each d i s t r i c t , established new and reduced charges in t h e i r stead, and provided for the repayment of those r e -duced c a p i t a l charges to the government i n 40 years by the 4 c o l l e c t i o n of annual assessments. Provision was also made for the cost of maintenance to be advanced by the Minister of Pinance. In 1912, when a considerable number of renewals and replacements of equipment had to be undertaken, an amend-ment to the section dealing with maintenance made i t possible for the Minister of Pinance, with the approval of the Lieu t -enant-Governor- in- Council, to advance monies for such work of an extensive character and to extend repayment over a term of years at 5fb. Though r e a l l y c a p i t a l i n nature, these advances are treated as deferred maintenance accounts, and annuities thereon each year are included i n the maintenance levy. The years of the depression following 1929 placed a heavy burden on the farming i n t e r e s t s , and y i e l d i n g to consid-erable pressure, the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1933 postponed the annual payments on a l l c a p i t a l accounts, carrying the i n -s u f f i c i e n c y over to the end of the redemption period. Thia postponement haa been continued each year since. In 1934, a s p e c i a l Hiking Commiaaion waa authorized by the non. A. Wella Cray, Miniater of Lands. Thia commiaaion waa inatructed to make a thorough survey of the problems of each d i a t r i c t and to present t h e i r recommendationa. In a l l , 16 d i s t r i e t a made repreaentations to the commiaaion, and each 4. Report of sp e c i a l uyking Commiaaion, 1934. p. 2 et aeq. (46} asked for a reduction i n assessments. The commissioners f e l t , however, that the d i s t r i c t s were able to carry the charges, hut recommended leniency i n the c o l l e c t i o n of assessments u n t i l the price of dairy products had improved. 5 As most of the reclaimed land was useful f o r dairying, the commissioners f e l t that the slump i n prices during the depression was the crux of the whole matter. For the purposes of administration, the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment recognizes three d i f f e r e n t classes of dyking and drainage d i s t r i c t s . 6 Those of the f i r s t class have heen assisted by the government as to both c a p i t a l expenditure and maintenance, i n thia class are the dyking d i a t r i c t a of Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, P i t t Meadowa f l , P i t t Meadows #2, and Matequl. The second class of d i a t r i c t a , for which the government haa advanced funds for c a p i t a l expenditure only includes Chilliwack, Dewdney, Sumaa, Mataqui Drainage f l , and Maple Ridge Drainage f 2 . In the di a -t r i c t a of theae f i r a t two classea, the coat of maintenance i a borne e n t i r e l y by landownera, but they are under the adminir atration of the Department of Dykea. The t h i r d class of d i a t r i c t a i n which, generally speaking, the government haa no f i n a n c i a l intereat includea West Langley, Agaaaiz, South Westminater, north P i t t Meadowa, surrey and West nieoraen. The l a s t two d i a t r i c t a are exceptiona inasmuch aa the government i a f i n a n c i a l l y intereated i n both. A loan waa made to Surrey i n 1922 through the Land settlement Board, of which 5. Report of Special Dyking Commiaaion, 1934, p. 121 et aeq. 6. Ibid, p . l . (47) $16,000 s t i l l remained outstanding i n 1934. In the d i s t r i c t of West Hicomen, the government guaranteed a bond issue of $87,000 i n 1918. The onerous duties i n connection with the administration of dyking areas f a l l s on the shoulders of the Inspector of Dykea. Although a government appointee, he i a primarily re-aponaible to the landownera themaelvea and always acta i n eloae co-operation with committeea aet up by the ratepayera of each d i a t r i c t . not only doea he aet and c o l l e c t the aaaeasmenta from each d i a t r i c t , but he alao i a concerned with the dyking and drainage of the landa under hia j u r i a d i c t i o n . Since 1921, theae duties have been very capably diacharged by Mr. Bruce Dixon, 0. is. Mr. Dixon haa his o f f i c e i n the Courthouae at Hew westminater, i n order to be near the scene of hia a o t i v i -t i e a . He acted aa chairman of the Special Dyking Commiaaion, 1934. The construction of the many miles of dykea i n the valley has preaented many engineering and f i n a n c i a l problema, but i t haa meant the reclamation of nearly 150 aquare miles of land that waa auitable for intensive c u l t i v a t i o n or for dairying. Following the order of eaat to west i n the moat aerioua danger pointa, we f i n d that the northern h a l f of the Agaaaiz f l a t a was dyked i n 1885 when the C. P. H. embankment waa con-atructed. In 1920, an area of aome 1300 acres known aa Hammer-aley f r a i r i e waa reclaimed aa areal eatate venture. A part of the C. r. fi. grade waa uaed aa a dyke with a amall apur dyke f i l l i n g the gap between the railway and .Kent Mountain. Thia (48) dyke, i n which a flood-box waa conatructed, croaaea a alough which forma a natural drainage f o r the area. Thia p a r t i c u l a r t r a c t of land haa never been conatituted aa a dyking area, the reclamation being apparently for the purpoae of making the land more aalea/ble. The Chilliwack d i a t r i c t stands i n a claaa by i t a e l f from an economic point of view. The flooda of 1876 and 1882 had ahown the dangers of flooding, but no dyke was started t i l l 1898. This dyke was completed i n 1903 at a coat of nearly $300,000. However, there were no great areaa of waste land, and the number of acres to be reclaimed (about 20,000), i n proportion to the coat of reclamation, made the project an economically sound one from the beginning. The coat of the whole acheme waa approximately $15 per acre. By the Aet of 1905, t h i a waa reduced to $10 an acre. Thia d i a t r i c t haa been ao favoured by nature that the dyking asaessmenta have never heen burdenaome. In 1918 the administration of the d i a t r i c t waa tranaferred from the Inapector o f Dykes to the municipality i t a e l f . The work which waa done to protect the 30,000 acres on Sumas P r a i r i e haa culminated i n the Sumaa Dyking Scheme. Aa a project of major importance, a aubaequent chapter haa been devoted to i t . The West licomen D i a t r i c t , which includes the islan d of Hlcomen, waa unreclaimed for some yeara owing to the great 7. See Chapter y, p.100. (49) cost. In 1911 the d i s t r i c t v/as organized under a board of com-missioners, and the contract for construction of a dyke was l e t i n December 1912. The commissioners found i t necessary to take over an uncompleted job from the contractors, f i n a l l y f i n i s h i n g i t i n 1915 at a cost of $95,000, toward which the government had made a grant of $10,000. The commissioners had the usual d i f f i c u l t i e s , and i n 1917 the government placed the admini-s t r a t i o n i n the hands of the Land settlement Board; In Octo-ober 1930, the administration was transferred to the Inspector of Dykes. At that time the construction of a new highway pro-vided the d i s t r i c t with a p r a c t i c a l l y new dyke. As the s o i l i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i s extremely porous, seepage and erosion of the r i v e r banks are constant threats to be guarded against. The Dewdney d i s t r i c t , l i k e that of Agaaaiz, waa divided by the 0. P. K. embankment. The northern half, which includes Eatzie P r a i r i e , was reclaimed i n 1893 by using the right-of-way of the railway and putting i n a flood-gate at Eatzie slough. This waa waahed out i n 1894. Nothing further waa done u n t i l 1909 when, aa a r e s u l t of private enterpri8e, the d i s t r i c t waa organized under a board of commiaaionera. Information aa to the actual cost of the v/ork propoaed i a lacking, but l i t i g a t i o n and other expenaes involved the d i a t r i c t i n a t o t a l f i n a l cost of over $200,000. The reault haa been that the government has had to come to the assistance of the d i s t r i c t at varioua timea, and i n A p r i l 1929, the Inspector of Dykea took over the ad-miniatration of a f f a i r s . The lands of t h i a d i a t r i c t may be c l a a a i f i e d aa among the hetter lands of the v a l l e y , p r a c t i c a l l y (50} a l l of i t "being i d e a l for dairying and a considerable portion of i t "being suitable for intensive c u l t i v a t i o n , i n the freshet of 1936, the alough road gave way under the preaaure of flood waters, and nearly 2000 acrea l y i n g outside of the 0. P. ft. embankment were flooded, causing eonaiderable damage. Gn the south aide of the r i v e r , opposite miasion Oity, Il e a the f e r t i l e Matequi P r a i r i e , an area of over 10,000 acrea. The reclamation of t h i a section of the v a l l e y aeeraa to have been among the f i r s t to have been aerioualy eonaidered. In 1878, a 8 records ahow, the l e g i a l a t u r e gave i s l l i a Luther Derby authority to reclaim cer t a i n landa i n thia d i s t r i c t , and i n return he obtained a grant of some 6,000 acrea of land. Thia project met with f a i l u r e aa a reault of the flood of 1882. I t waa brought to the fore again a f t e r the aummer of 1894, and i n 1896 the d i a t r i c t waa organized under a board of commisaionera. The f a i l u r e of the dyke i n 1896 l e d to the conatruction of a new one at an estimated coat of $106,000. Some 4000 acres i n th i s d i a t r i c t have been organized aince 1919 into a Drainage D i s t r i c t , aa natural drainage there waa interfered with by the construction of dykea. Maintenance eosta i n this d i a t r i c t have alwaya been heavy owing to the neceaaity of providing pumping apparatus to carry o f f water not only during the freshet aeaaon, but alao during the months of heavieat p r e c i p i t a t i o n . In the early daya a l l the landa conatituting the f l o o d -p l a i n through which the P i t t Kiver flowed were known aa the P i t t Kiver Meadowa. Gradually, with the development and or-ganization of this region, d i f f e r e n t areaa became grouped under (51) d i s t i n c t i v e names. In chronological order, the dyking areas of Maple Ridge, Coquitlam, P i t t Meadows f l , and P i t t Meadows #2 were organized. Theae four d i s t r i c t s have had almost i d e n t i c a l experiences, "both phyaieal and f i n a n c i a l , i n connection with t h e i r dyking projects. Or i g i n a l conatruction costs, aa well aa maintenance costs, have heen high. At the preaent time there i s a t o t a l of 34.34 milea of dykes i n these d i a t r i c t a , 8 and they have asaiated materially i n the reclamation of valuable farming landa. Proximity to c i t y markets give them an advantageous poaition. I t i a unfortunate that the recent depreaaion yeara have i n t e r f e r e d with what promised to he a healthy development i n t h i a section of the v a l l e y . A unique problem i n dyking and drainage has been faced by the municipality of Surrey, aince ite organization aa a dyking d i s t r i c t i n 1911. It waa not the r i v e r watera but t i d a l watera which caused the flooding of low-lying landa. Dams had to be constructed acroaa the nicomekl and Serpentine Hivera at the E l g i n Road i n order to prevent destruction, These dams are f i t t e d with flood-gates which were designed to operate auto-matically with the t i d e s . They have proved very aatiafactory unleaa there are extremely high tidea and winda. Such a con-junction of the elements occurred i n the winter of 1933, and as a r e s u l t waves washed over the road which served aa a dyke. Thia municipality haa an additional problem because much of i t aervea aa a natural aump for a aurrounding area of approximately 8. Report of Special Dyking Commiaaion, 1934, pp. 6, 13, 18, £2. (52) 100 square miles. Aa a reault of continuoua c l e a r i n g of f o r -eated areas on the up-lying landa, the run-off of water haa heen considerably accelerated. Thia formerly took f i v e or aix daya, but today i t takea only a few houra. The r i v e r s can no longer comfortably carry away the run-off water and the re-aultant ailting-^up of the beda of the Mcomekl and serpentine Rivera necessitates conaiderable dredging. In addition, water remaina for a conaiderable portion of the year on low-lying land such aa that at Fry"a Corner. A problem has been created which w i l l require apecial consideration i n the near future. Fruit-Growing. For many years the growing of f r u i t was the moat important phase of a g r i c u l t u r a l industry i n the Fraaer Valley. The v a r i e t i e s of f r u i t s grown i n north temperate climatic regiona could be eaaily grown there. Exhibitions of JBritiah Columbia f r u i t i n the united Statea, Great B r i t a i n and eastern Canadian provinces attracted general attention becauae of the aize, colour and qua l i t y . pioneer growers, nevertheless, faced c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e a . Lack of shipping and tranaportation f a c i l i t i e s , the cost of cl e a r i n g and reclaiming land, and the lack of good marketa were aerioua handicaps. Because of theae conditions i n the early daya, much f r u i t was l e f t to rot on the ground. But with im-provement of conditions and extension of the industry came also a rapid increase i n f r u i t pests and fungous diseases, which aeemed to thrive p a r t i c u l a r l y well i n the damp Coaat climate. Only the vigilance of the H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch of the p r o v i n c i a l (53J Department of Agriculture prevented the development of a a e r i -oua aituation. The Department of Agriculture can he credited very l a r g e l y with the expanaion of agriculture i n the va l l e y . Thia depart-ment was f i r a t organized i n 1890 with the Mon. J . H. Turner as the f i r a t cabinet miniater. 9 To him goea a great deal of cr e d i t for generoua a i d i n educational and co-operative work. The or-ganization of F r u i t Growers' Aaaociatione and Farmers* Inatitutes waa a feature of hia regime. During 1905 - 1909, with Capt. Tatlow aa minister, the p o l i c y and work of the department waa altered, and more attention waa given to making commercial ex-hi b i t i o n s of f r u i t and i n pressing for better freight ratea. In 1909 the department waa reorganized into branches, each of which was placed under the aupervision of q u a l i f i e d experts. This p o l i c y has been continued and further developed under suc-ceeding ministers, p a r t i c u l a r l y under W. J . Bowser, .trice E l l i s o n and E. D. Barrow; The p r a i r i e s early proved to be a natural market for B r i -t i s h Columbia f r u i t , and the settlement of the p r a i r i e provinces greatly stimulated the fruit-growing industry, shortly a f t e r the completion of the Canadian p a c i f i c Railway amall shipmenta of f r u i t from the Fraaer valley were made to Winnipeg, but i t waa not u n t i l the 1890'a that regular shipmenta of f r u i t were made hy expreaa."*"0 Theae ahipments inereaaed ateadily. In 9. Goanell, is. is., B. C. Year Book, 1911/1914, p.233 10. Ibid, p.235. (54) 1904 the shipments of f r u i t from Eraser Valley points through the Canadian j f a c i f i c Railway were as followe Office Ho. of packages Weight Abbotaford 439 11,198 l b s . Agaaaiz 117 1,674 l b s . Chilliwack 6,363 134,84£ l b a . Hammond 12,619 299,336 l b s . Haney 3,116 72,789 lba. Misaion 13,576 333,876 l b s . Westminster Junction 464 11,935 lba. It haa been imposaible to follow these s t a t i s t i c a i n subsequent yeara, for the figurea since 1912 include vegetables with f r u i t . The development of the fruit-growing industry i n the Lower Mainland during the la a t quarter century i s indicated by the following figures, showing cars of f r u i t produced i n 1913 and i n 1935. (1913)is the e a r l i e a t year i n which comparable figures are given. 1935 haa been taken rather than 1936, as weather condltiona i n the l a t t e r year were responsible for very poor y i e l d of amall f r u i t a . ) Cars of F r u i t Produced i n Lower Mainland 1915 and 1935. x 1915 1935 Apples 17.0 cara 89.8 cara. Cherries 2.9 cara 7.3 cara Peara 2.9 cara 7.5 cars Plums and rrunes 13.3 cara 63.8 cars Strawberriea 11.7 cara 440.4 cars Raapberriea 30.1 cara 94.8 cara Blackberriea 13.0 cara 30.4 cara' Loganberriea) 46.5 cara Bush-fruits) 2.4 cars 22.4 cars Baaia - Minimum weight per car: Applea and peara,15 tona balance, 10 tona 11. Pamphlet: "Land and Agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia", 1904, p. 45. 12. Pamphleta: A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1914, Victoria,p.30 Ibid, 1935, p.16. I 55) with the development of the ukanagan Valley as an apple-producing region, the fruit-growers of the Praser Valley have ceased to he p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n that phase of h o r t i -culture. Although a good deal of experimental work was done i n the early days i n regard to most suitable v a r i e t i e s , i t was soon apparent that apples from the i n t e r i o r v alleys of B r i t i s h Columbia surpassed those grown at the coast i n s i z e , colouring and flavour, AS a re s u l t many of the older orchards have been neglected. The trend i n horticulture has been towards a high degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as ce r t a i n d i s t r i c t s were proved to be es-p e c i a l l y adapted for growing cert a i n kinde of f r u i t s , with a strongly competitive market the aim has been to eliminate v a r i e t i e s which were f a i l u r e s and to improve e x i s t i n g v a r i e t i e s . Aa a re s u l t of t h i s policy, the Chilliwack d i s t r i c t i a apeeial-i z i n g i n cherries while the bench lands of Misaion and maple iiidge are well-adapted to the growing of 8trawberriea and ra8p-berriea. A aouthern expoaure and l i g h t , well-drained a o i l give to theae l a t t e r d i a t r i c t a the di a t i n o t advantage of being able to market t h e i r cropa at least a week e a r l i e r than other aectiona of the va l l e y . The o l d adage about the early b i r d getting the worm applies p a r t i c u l a r l y to the grower of atraw-berriea. The c u l t i v a t i o n of the atrawberry plant i n the Fraser Valley began about 1880, but these were mainly for domestic consumption, when i t waa discovered that i t was poasible to ahip to the p r a i r i e market, aeveral v a r i e t i e s were t r i e d out. ( 5 6 ) The Magoon soon proved i t s superiority as a shipper, and con-tinued the favourite for some time, l/uring the l a s t few years, i t has heen superseded hy a new variety, the B r i t i s h Sovereign. The l a t t e r has become very popular owing to i t s superior flavour, and i t i s quite the equal of the magoon as a shipper. Imring the war, the price of strawberries rose to the un-heard-of figure of 20p a pound. The resultant increase of acre-age planted to strawberries during the post-war period was noticeable. But the lav/ of supply and demand soon brought the price down, and the average price during recent years haa only been about one-third of the peak price, within the l a s t decade increasing market8, improved ahipping f a c i l i t i e s , and co-oper-ative marketing have tended to increaae the acreage. The l a t e a t development i n marketing haa been the discovery of a apeeial process for preaerving berriea. This haa resulted i n heavy shipmenta of processed berriea i n barrela to the jam faetoriea of the B r i t i s h l a l e s . In thia proceaa, the berries are treated to a aolution of sulphur dioxide gas (SOg), calcium powder being added to harden the ber r i e a . une gallon of solu-t i o n to two gallons of water are uaed i n a barrel containing 350 pounds of berriea. lo longer does the grower auffer from the vagariea of l o c a l canners, when he haa to diapoae of aurplua be r r i e s . In 1935, a good crop year, approximately 50fo of the t o t a l crop of 4404 tona of atrawberriea was manufactured, l e a r l y one quarter of these manufactured berriea, v i z . , 538 tons, were proceaaed i n SOg. Growers received aix or aeven cents 157) 13 per pound on the B r i t i s h market f o r these berries. A noticeable feature of l a t e years i n the strawberry i n -dustry has been the remarkable increase i n the number of Jap-anese growers. At l e a s t 80$ of the berry-growers i n the Maple Ridge D i s t r i c t are now J a p a n e s e . I t i s probably due to the fact that the Japanese are more w i l l i n g to undertake the .arduous task of clearing and c u l t i v a t i n g the bench lands. Then, too, the problem of getting experienced pickers for a short season has always been a d i f f i c u l t one. The Japanese growers, usually with large f a m i l i e s , undertake the work of picking as a family project. The children early become inured to, and adept i n , the back-breaking work. The white grower today confines his attention mainly to the growing of raspberries, loganberries, blackberries and rhubarb, though even here he i s faced with the prospect of serious competition from the Japanese. The following table indicates the development of the small f r u i t s industry since 1920, by showing the acreage of each i n ' a two-year period. Theae figures are supplied by the H o r t i -c u l t u r a l Branch of the Department of Agriculture, and apply to the whole Fraser Valley. Mr. W. H. Robertaon, P r o v i n c i a l H o r t i -c u l t u r i a t , i a authority for the statement that the section of the v a l l e y eaat of Hew Weatminater producea approximately 90% of the t o t a l . 13. Report of Dept. of Agriculture for 1935. p.15. 14. Prom 1936 Survey by Department of Agriculture, on Praaer Valley Berry Acreage. (58) Table of Berry and Hhubarb Acreage 15 Surveys of 1920 to 1956. Variety 1980 1922 1924 1926 1928 1950 1952 1954 1956 Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Acrea Straw-berriea itaap-berriea Logan-berriea Black-berriea fied Gurranta Black Curranta SoOae-berriea Jtihubarb il47§ 868§ 1Q2§ 204 52§ a 1807 8" 1747 2 7 l | 253§ 2g| 7 0 i i 39i 8 5 37 3 1 96i 3 1 8 1273| 1846| 47?| 1 9 3 l | 28 i u | 1235| 1 2 9 l | 4 5 5 ^ 1 3 7 i i «* 11 24 110 37: 1880|| 998^ 334§ 139§ 28§ "I 36." 116. IE 198| T2 288|| 1 4 9 9 § esojl 245| l O S j f 7 3 l l 33| 355§ 1416 , 1 860ig 340 84 52| 365§ 2 1 0 3 | 3 1 0 3 7 Q 3 3 3 | 1 3 4 | 2 9 § 92| 5 3 3 ? 2454 1094| 329§, 123 38| 2 3 l | 96| 653^ Dairying. At an early date, pioneer aettlera eatablished the fact that the Praaer Valley offered i d e a l conditions for the dairy farm. A mild climate, good water, and nutritioua graaaea are prime factora i n suecesaful dairying and here waa a v a l l e y that offered them a l l . As early aa 1868 the Chadsey Brothers, pioneer aettlera i n the 1 6 Sumaa d i a t r i c t , had put the industry on a commercial baaia. They put t h e i r butter i n hermetically aealed t i n a , tranaported i t to the Cariboo, and did a t h r i v i n g buainess with the luxury-hungry miners of that d i a t r i c t . Prom that day the value of the 15. Prom reporta of b i e n n i a l aurveya made by H o r t i -c u l t u r a l Branch, B. C. Department of Agriculture. 16. Howay, P. W. - A Hiatory of B. C. from the E a r l i e a t Time a, V.0I1. U., p. 593. (59) dairy products produced i n the v a l l e y has increased amazingly, though mainly since the beginning of the present century, i t was estimated that i n 1893 the Chilliwack, Sumas, and Popeum d i s t r i c t s produced 98,796 pounds of butter, but p r a c t i c a l l y a l l 17 of t h i s waa "dairy 1* butter, i . e . , i t waa made on the farms. Por some yeara settlement waa too sparae and the c o l l e c t i o n of milk too d i f f i c u l t , to enaure the succeaaful operation of creameries. The f i r s t creamery i n the v a l l e y waa the Menbank Creamery at Sardia, near Chilliwack. Thia well-known creamery, which be-gan operating i n July 1896, waa the outgrowth of a private ven-ture by A. C. Wella, one of the pioneer aettlera of the C h i l l i -wack Valley, who had been making butter and eheeae on hia farm aince about 1890. In 1896 the Menbank Creamery Company l i m i t e d waa incorporated aa a cooperative concern with A. C. Wella aa the f i r a t preaident. After aix montha* operation, the f i r a t report .showed that the t o t a l quantity of milk and cream re-ceived waa 474,824 pounds from which 26,790 pounda of butter was made. A f t e r deducting a l l charges, $4,851*04 was r e a l i z e d , with butter bringing an average price of 19.66 cents per pound. 1 Thia creamery was believed to be one of the f i r a t i n Weatern Canada to make payment to i t a patrona on the baais of butter-fat content aa determined by the Babcock teater. The following table w i l l give an i n d i c a t i o n of the growth of thia creamery 17. English, K. Is., Problema of a Specialized Area -The Praaer valley, Part IV of The Dairy Induatry i n Canada, p.218. 18i Chilliwack Progreaa, January 20, 1897. (60; since i t began operating. 19 production of Butter at Menbank Creamery. Year rounds of Butter Average Price .rer round (net io patrons) 1897 53,605 20 cents 1900 107,615 (not given) 1905 181,083 27.5 cents. 1908 244,412 33 cents jsdenbank creamery continued operating t i l l 1925 when the new u t i l i t y plant at sardis was b u i l t , but the output of manufactured products dropped considerably i n l a t e r years. £n 1902, the Chilliwack Creamery, which served the jsaat Chilliwack d i s t r i c t , was established. This was also a co-opera-t i v e concern, and soon surpassed Edenbank i n output, i n 1906, the Chilliwack Creamery led the province i n production of butter with 248,313 pounds while Edenbank was t h i r d with 216,160 pounds. These creameries handled moat of the milk produced i n the C h i l l i -wack valley, for d i f f i c u l t i e s i n rapid tranaportation prevented much f l u i d milk from being ahipped to the coaat c i t i e s . Smaller creameriea operating i n the Praaer Valley i n 1906, with production figures were aa followa: Sumaa, 40,192 pounda; Abbotaford, 15,000 pounda; Surrey, 18,700 pounda. The creamery at Sew weatminster waa handling the milk produced i n nearby municipalities, aa tranaportation f a c i l i t i e a by boat made, that poasible. The p r e v a i l i n g r e t a i l price of butter i n that year varied from 35 cents to 45 c e n t s . 2 1 19. Table compiled from figures given i n B.C. Government Bulle t i n a l o . 10: "Land and Agriculture i n B.C.'r 1904 and 1909. 20. The Daily Columbian, Oct. 28, 1907. 21. Ibid. (61) From 1910 on, two important factors changed the dairying industry In the Fraser Valley. One was the tremendous growth i n population of the coast c i t i e s . The other was the "building of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway to Chilliwack i n ueto-22 ber, 1910. The following table shows the growth i n population. 1891 1901 1911 1921 1951 Vancouver 13,709 29,432 120,847 163,220. 246,593 Sew westminater 6,678 6,499 13,199 14,495 17,524 The sardia atation of the B. C. E. K. waa only a few yarda from the Edenbank Creamery, and from the beginning a "milk a p e c i a l " l e f t Chilliwack at 6.15 p.m. -arriving i n Vancouver a-bout three houra l a t e r . Thia changed the entire operation of handling milk. From the manufacture of butter, the two cream-eriea immediately turned t h e i r attention to the a e l l i n g of whole milk and cream i n Vancouver. Thia gave better returna to the producer. In 1911 the average pricea received by the farmer f o r varioua products handled by the Edenbank Creamery on the baaia of butter-fat content waa estimated aa follows: sour cream, 32.8 eenta per pound; aweet cream 37.7 centa per pound; aweet 23 milk 44.6 centa per pound; butter 30 cents per pound. In 1912, the average price of butter-fat i n cream waa 38 centa per pound, 24 while that of milk had increased to 60 centa per pound. ' .wiring the war yeara, deapite a temporary decline i n urban population, 22. seventh Cenaua of Canada, 1931, vol. XI, pp.8,9. 23. The Chilliwack rrogreas, march 20, 1912. 24. Ibid, march 12, 1913. (62) the production ana the price of milk increased. The dairy farmers of the v a l l e y early r e a l i z e d that some form of co-operative marketing was highly desirable. The f i r s t attempt at thia waa made i n 1910, when the Fraser Valley milk and Orearn Shippera* Aaaociation waa formed. As there waa a comparatively email number of producera intereated i n thia aa-sociation, e f f o r t a were made to atrengthen i t . The Fraaer Valley milk jeroducers' Aaaociation (ff. V. M. P. A.) waa accord-ingly incorporated i n 1913, but waa not a c t u a l l y organized and operating u n t i l February, 1917. It haa thus recently completed 20 yeara of operationa. The record of growth during thia period haa been l i t t l e ahort of phenomenal. In December 1917, the membership numbered 847; ten yeara l a t e r i t was 2703 while at the end of December 1936, there were 4191 membera. These f i g -urea represent the number of share-holdera i n the Association, but at preaent (1937) there are 2290 active ahippera. The area of operationa, known to the trade as the "milk-shed" of Vancou-ver, extends from l o r t h Bend to the P a c i f i c Ocean. According to the report o f Mr. A. H. Mercer, general mana-ger of the aaaociation, given at a general meeting i n February 1937, approximately $55,000,000 haa been paid out i n returns to membera during the 20 yeara of the aaaociation'a exiatence. During that period 81,230,000 pounda of butterfat haa been handled, for which the farmera have received an average price of 5l£ oenta per pound. 2 6 The higheat price for butterfat, 25. English, K. £>., op.cit., p. 227. 26. Vancouver Daily Province, Feb. 26, 1937. I 63} 1.05 d o l l a r s per pound, was paid i n the c l o s i n g months of 1918, while the price In 1934 reached the lowest point, about 27 cents per pound. In 1916, before the organization of the association, near-l y 2,000,000 pounds of butterfat were produced, for which the farmer was paid 46 cents a pound; The consumer paid 11 cents per quart for milk and 40 cents per pound for butter. In 1928, the production of butterfat had increased to 6,000,000 pounds, the producer getting 60 cents per pound butterfat while the consumer paid p r a c t i c a l l y the same price for milk and butter. This remarkable achievement was the r e s u l t of a reduction i n the cost of marketing and handling, and shows what co-operation can do. Despite the growth of the association, the road was not a l l p l a i n s a i l i n g . Although some economies were effected i n 1919 by a reorganization, prices slumped immediately following the war. The average price per pound of butter-fat to the pro-ducer dropped from 76 cents to 49.3 c e n t s . 2 7 Production was increasing, and some producers began s e l l i n g to the f l u i d mar-ket independently of the association. The if. V. M. p. A. was thus forced to turn considerable milk into the lower-priced manufactured products. In 1917 the association sold 80% of i t s product aa f l u i d milk and cream, but i n 1927 only 43> waa thua 28 aold. The independent producers were quite evidently taking advantage of the r e l a t i v e l y stable price of f l u i d milk to market 27. Engliah, K. i i . , op.cit., p.232. 28. Ibid, p.234. 164) t h e i r produce at the higher rates. As a r e s u l t of some agi t a t i o n , the p r o v i n c i a l government set up i n 1928 the Milk Inquiry Commission to study and report on the whole problem of marketing* After a thorough investigation, the commission brought out i t s report containing 63 recommenda-tions concerning the production and marketing of milk, but "the core of the report dealt with the a l l o c a t i o n of the s e l l i n g price of the t o t a l product among the various producers." 2 9 A f t e r some months of e f f o r t on the part of co-operative producers and opposition by the independents the government passed the Dairy Products Sales Adjustment Act, which brought the s e l l i n g of milk under control on January 1, 1930. Later i n the same year there was a $2,000,000 merger of milk d i s t r i b u t i n g i n t e r e s t s . This took the name of Associated Dairies and the P. V*. M. P. A. held preferred stock y i e l d i n g 7 % , i n t e r e s t . Control of the marketing of milk was short l i v e d . The i n -dependents, numbering nearly 600, organized themselves into the Independent Milk Producers* Co-operative Association, and agitated for repeal of the l e g i s l a t i o n . In 1931 the Sales Adjustment Act was ruled ultaa v i r e s by Mr. Justice Murphy. The p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1934 passed the B. C. natural Products Marketing Act. In February 1935 the B. C. Lower Mainland Dairy Board was formed, under which a l l producers were to r e g i s t e r and procure a licence to s e l l milk. The Independents fought this l e g i s l a t i o n and secured a Supreme Court injunction against the Dairy Products 29. English, K. iS., op.cit., p.236 (65) Board. The whole ieaue has heen very much beclouded when i n August 1937 the B. Q. Court of Appeal declared the p r o v i n c i a l Marketing Act i n t r a v i r e s , and the government extended the term of the Dairy Products Board. But only a small number of pro-ducers, even of the P. V". M. p. A., registered with the Board by September 3, 1937 even though threatened with dire penalties for f a i l u r e by Chairman W. J. Park. The end of the struggle i s not i n eight. The Independents are determined to fi g h t compulsory marketing i n any form, and up to the time of writing (Sept. 1937) they have made good t h e i r stand. The danger would appear to be a long f o o l i s h f i g h t i n which both sides might lose whatever advantages they have a l -ready won. The production of milk varies greatly with the seasons. During the summer, the d a i l y production handled by the P. V. M* P. A. amounts to 5,000 10-gallons cans, but during the winter this drops to 2500 cans. This output i s handled by three main plants, one i n Vancouver, one at Delaire about two miles south-east of Abbotaford, and the u t i l i t y plant at sardis, near Chilliwack. The normal d a i l y conaumption of f l u i d milk i s 1000 cana, hand-led by the Vancouver plant. The plant at Delaire handlea also 1000 cana d a i l y . Thia means that the u t i l i t y plant at sardia muat be prepared to handle the aurplua of from 500 to 3000 cana da i l y , according to the aeaaon. Thia u t i l i t y plant was b u i l t i n 1925, and ranks aa the largeat 8 i n g l e creamery plant i n Canada. Butter and cheeae are the main manufactured products. The yearly output of the former (66) i a nearly 2,500,000 pounds. The cheese i a Cheddar and i a put up i n 5,10, 25, 40 and 80 pound moulds, nearly h a l f a m i l l i o n pounda are manufactured yearly, and moat of i t i s aold on the l o c a l market. In addition about 2,000,000 pounda of milk powder are produced annually. Thia finda a ready market on the p r a i r i e and aome of i t goea even to the old country. In recent yeara s c i e n t i f i c reaearch haa made i t poaaible to recover by-producta from what waa formerly waste material. Thia ia p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the dairying induatry. une of theae hy-producta i a cheese whey. Thia makea a very aatiafactory poul try food a f t e r i t haa heen dried. The necessary equipment for th i a i a aomewhat expenaive, and the Sardis plant ahipa a l l i t a available aupply to Dynden, Washington. Caaein whey, which i a a non-edible by-product, i a now uaed i n a variety of waya. I t i s a baae for glue and painta, and i t i a r e a d i l y manufactured into buttons, knife-handles and other s i m i l a r producta. Manu-facturers of ply-wooda have contracted for a large aupply of thia product for uae as adheaives and i t i a probable that other uaea may be found for i t . In addition to theae by-producta near l y 50,000 pounda of semi-aolids are recovered yearly from butter milk and akim milk. Thia dough-like aubatance resulta when 757<» of the moiature i a evaporated, and haa been found very a a t i a -factory aa a poultry food. There i a very l i t t l e waste i n the modern creamery. The plant at Delaire waa purchaaed i n 1925 from the Paci-f i c Milk Company and i a uaed aolely for the purpoae of canning evaporated milk which i a aold under the o r i g i n a l trade name. (67) The normal d a i l y output of t h i a plant i a 1000 cases, each con-taining 48 one pound t i n a . owing to a novel and improved method of aealing the cana i n a vacuum, the milk w i l l keep almost inde-f i n i t e l y . The dairy farmers of the Fraser Valley have shown themselves to he thoroughly progressive. Hot only do they recognize the im-portance of pure-bred stock of the best milking atraina, but they have alao recognized the importance of eradicating bovine tuber-culoaia. In 1925 the federal government enacted l e g i a l a t i o n which made i t poaaible for d i a t r i c t a or municipalitiea to become tuberculosia-free areas through t e s t i n g by government veterinary inspectora. Almost immediately the Praaer v a l l e y aa an area applied for auch a teat. The f i r s t teat showed nearly 10°/o, or 4,000 animals, were reactors. Theae animala were alaughtered but the ownera received aome meaaure of compenaation from the federal government, subsequent testa have been made, and each haa ahown a marked decreaae i n the number of reactors. The * 30 following table shows the figures. Bovine Tuberculoaia Teata i n Praaer valley. Year uattle Tested Keactora. rercent of Keactora. 1926 46,174 3,643 7.9?b 1927 46,191 515 1.1% 1928 46,480 351 tt.76 1929 50,603 188 0.37 1932 66,746 407 0.6 1936 11,571 24 incomplete According to regulationa, when the percentage of c a t t l e infected with tuberculoaia i n any area does not exceed one-half 30. Pamphlet: "Bovine Tuberculoaia'", Dept. of A g r i -culture, 1936, p.17. (68) of one per cent (p.5), the veterinary Director General s h a l l de-clare such to he an "accredited area" for a period of three years, and when the i n f e c t i o n does not exceed two-tenths of one per cent (0i2) i t s h a l l be declared an accredited area for a period of s i x years. Any area not quite up to these standards i s known as a " r e s t r i c t e d area". The test which i s being ca r r i e d on at the present time, (1937), i s l i k e l y , from known re s u l t s , to show a percentage of reactors of less than one-half of one per cent. The purity of Vancouver's milk supply i s well safe-guarded. There i s no single industry i n the Fraser Valley that equals i n importance that of dairying. The herds of Molsteins, Ayrehires, Jerseys and Guernseys to be found there are already i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y famous. Any success which has attended the co-operative marketing scheme i s due to the homogeneity of the area. There are few other areas where conditions are so ide a l for dairying. Accurate figures as to production and t o t a l value of dairy products previous to 1910 are d i f f i c u l t to pro-cure, but the following figures, i n ten-year periods, show the wonderful development i n the dairying i n d u s t r y . 3 1 These figures are for the whole va l l e y , but for the section east of Sew West-minster the figures would be approximately 85^ 0 of the t o t a l . Year So. of Dairy Cattle founds Creamery Butter value Dairy products 1912 1922 1932 12,500 24,700 55,000 825,000 1,134,500 2,608,500 $2,760,000 $4,878,000 $5,115,000 31. From information supplied by Mr. H. Kive, Dairy Comissioner for a. o. 169; In spite of thia growth there i a ample room for expansion of the dairying induatry i n the Fraser Valley. B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1936 Imported dairy producta to a t o t a l value of $2,549,160. 3 2 Hop Growing. The climate and a o i l of the eastern end of the Fraser v a l -ley i a admirably auited to the production of a splendid quality of hopa. At quite an early date these hopa had established an excellent reputation among the brewera of Great B r i t a i n . 3 3 That reputation has been maintained for almost a half-century. The f i r a t attempt to grow hops i n t h i s province appeara to have been made at Aldergrove about 1884 by Mr. John Broe.^4 He had come to the Fraaer Valley by way of the p a c i f i c Ooaat atatea, and t r a v e l l i n g up the old Whatcom T r a i l , took up land at Aider-grove. Having decided to try out the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of hop-growing, he purehaaed a aupply of root atoeks from Puyallup, Washington. For a period of 14 yeara, Mr. Broe grew hopa, dried them in a small k i l n , baled them, and hauled them over the rough roada_, to .lew Westminster, i n order to ship them to his market. It was from this pioneer plantation that the early growers i n Chilliwack and Agaaaiz got t h e i r aupply of root atoeka. The e a r l i e s t of theae growers i n the Chilliwack Valley waa Theophilua irumvill, who planted i n 1891 fiv e acrea of hopa at s a r d i a . 3 ^ In 1894, Mr. H. Hulbert, who had learned his trade 32. A g r i c u l t u r a l s t a t i a t i c a report, 1936, B. C. Dept. of Agriculture. 33. e d i t o r i a l , Daily Columbian, isew Westminster, may 19,1894 34. Daily Province, Vancouver, uct. 28, 1933. 35. The Chilliwack progress, march 28, 1891. 170; l a the hop-fields of Kent, arrived i n the Chilliwack valley, and determined to pursue his trade there. He purchased 50 aeres of land at Sardia from Mr. A. S. vedder, one of the pioneer s e t t l e r s , and "built a well-equipped drying k i l n . Aa a reault of growing unauitahle v a r i e t i e a , Mr. Hulhert at f i r a t exper-ienced aome d i f f i c u l t i e a . when thia waa r e c t i f i e d , Mr. Hulhert had no d i f f i c u l t y i n diapoaing of hia cropa at a good p r i c e . In 1912 hia f i e l d a produced a bumper crop of from one and one-quarter to one and one-half tona per acre, nearly double the average y i e l d . In 1903 the is. 0. Horat Hop Company of San jjranoiaco bought out the Dumvill holdings i n Sardia, and increaaed the acreage to 250. An equal area was planted by thia company at Agaaaiz, where plantinga had f i r a t been made i n 1892. By 1913 the acreage at both Sardia and Agaaaiz had been increaaed to 600 acrea. iso great increase i n acreage waa made u n t i l land on sumaa p r a i r i e waa available. The Canadian Hop Company made extenaive plantinga at that time on reclaimed land, which haa aince proved i t s f e r t i l i t y . The John I. Haas Company haa be-come, within the l a s t few years, one of the moat important producers. The following table of hop production i n B r i t i a h Columbia, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of which i a from the Chilliwack and Agaaaiz d i a t r i c t a , w i l l indicate the growth of the induatry. (71) 36 Hop Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Acres Y i e l d Price Total Year i n crop per acre Total Y i e l d per pound value MMMWMWB •MHWHMMHMHHMtfRH W W — — W i l l i II' • —~^M~»W^—— M III fTM~W W i l l i r ~ «l HI I —I III • PH I^VaVMm 1913 611 1699 pounds 1,038,089 pounds 30 cents #311,427 1917 333(a) 810 269,730 50 $134,865 1923 507 1972 999,804 40 $399,922 1928 1049(bj 922 967,178 26 $251,466 1933 984 1502 1,447,425 33 $491,220 1936 1062 1509 1,602,800 32 $512,900 (a) small crop owing to very l a t e spring. (b) increase due to completion of sumas Reclamation project. One of the features of the hop-growing industry has always been the i n f l u x of hop-pickers during the la t e f a l l . In early days, t h i s picking was always done by families of Indians who came from far and near. Expert pickers made reasonably good wages during the three weeka or ao of picking. But i t was no doubt the s o c i a l , rather than the f i n a n c i a l , opportunities which attracted them to the val l e y during hop-picking time. . not an evening went by without t h e i r engaging i n long drawn-out gamea of chance, accompanied by rhythmic chanting and beating of tom-toma. Por many years they had almoat a monopoly on hop-picking, but the years of depreaaion broke this monopoly with the introduction of white people and Chinese. Experience haa proved that the growing of hopa i n the Praaer valley i a a pr o f i t a b l e venttire. with improved v a r i e t i e a 36. Table compiled from annual b u l l e t i n s of A g r i c u l t u r a l . s t a t i a t i e a Keporta, Dept. of Agriculture. (72) of hopa, more aatisfactory apraya for inaect control, and hetter methods of c u l t i v a t i o n , the outlook for the future i s "bright. There i a no doubt that hop-growing haa "become an established i n -duatry i n the eastern end of the v a l l e y . Dominion experimental Farm, Agaaaiz. The .experimental Farm at Agaaaiz, situated on the north side of the main highway and the Canadian r a c i f i c railway r i g h t -of-way, i s one of twenty-aix farms operated by the Federal Government., It i s an important l i n k i n one of the largeat and moat comprehensive chains of experimental farina to be found anywhere i n the world. The Agasaiz farm i s one of fi v e o r i g i n a l farms established i n 1887, and l i k e the others i t s c h i e f pur-poae i8 to conduct experimenta and researches bearing on the 37 a g r i c u l t u r a l induatry of the province. The property consista of 1400'acres, 300, of which have been, or can be, brought under c u l t i v a t i o n . The' remainder i s mountain or bench-land, which waa purchaaed to preaerve the fine growth of timber on i t , and alao to test the p o a a i b i l i t y of aetting out orchards on the mountain alopea, where the s i t u a t i o n other-wise made i t impoasible to make use of the land. The l a t e Mr. T. A. Sharp waa the f i r a t superintendent, holding the position from 1888 to 1911. During t h i s time a apecialty was made of horticulture by testing a l l kinda of f r u i t s and vegetablea, aa well aa nut and ornamental trees and 37. B u l l e t i n : A Guide to .experimental Farma and Stations: Ottawa, 1912, p.156. (73) shrubbery. Theae early plantinga have reaulted i n the farm being at the preaent time one of the beauty apota of the Praaer Valley, i t i s a fine memorial to the work of mr. sharp. The lawna and ahrubbery form a d e l i g h t f u l setting for the buildinga. In the flower garden rosea, bulba, perennials and nearly 100 v a r i e t i e s of annuals give a profusion of bloom from early apring to winter. In 1911, with the appointment of Mr. p. h. Moore, the fundamental p o l i c y of the work waa changed. It had been proved by t h i a time that other aectiona of the province were more favourably aituated for the production of eertain kinds of f r u i t than was the Praaer Valley. Accordingly, though the valuable h o r t i c u l t u r a l work waa continued, the main project be-came dairy farming, a l i n e of work i n which l i t t l e had been done experimentally, but which had become one of the c h i e f i n -duatriea of the v a l l e y . Prom the herd of pure-bred Holsteins atarted i n 1912 with the purchase of three cowa and augmented i n 1915 by the pur-chaae of three heifera, much valuable information about the im-portance of good si r e s haa been aecured. The fine foundation animals cost about $1600, but i n 1924 one h e i f e r c a l f alone was sold for $2000. The herd now numbera between 60 and 70 animals, and every member, with the exception of one a i r e , has been "bred and raised on the farm. Xn 1922, Agaaaiz segis May jscho made a world's record when ahe produced 30,886 pounda of 38 milk and 1345 pounda of butter fat i n one year. Six yeara 38. B u l l e t i n : The Organization, Achievements and Preaent work of the iixpejmental Parma, Ottawa, 1924. p.284. (74) l a t e r , Agaaaiz Pi e t j e Inka S y l v i a made a record of 29,012 pounda of milk, and 1257 pounda of butter f a t . Theae combined recorda gave t h i s Agaaaiz herd the d i s t i n c t i o n of being the only one i n the world, of any breed, to raise and develop two cowa, each with recorda of producing over 1250 pounda of butter 39 fat i n one year. Thia herd waa also one of the f i r s t i n Canada to q u a l i f y aa an accredited herd, when te s t i n g for tuber-culoaia was i n i t i a t e d by the Federal Government. The entire re-cord of the herd i s a splendid tribute to the excellence of the v a l l e y for dairying purposes. A conaiderable part of the milk which i s produced i a used for experimental work i n cheese-making, aeveral v a r i e t i e a of prime qua l i t y being manufactured, skim-milk i s uaed i n r a i s i n g calve a, pigs and poultry. In addition to the herd of Molatein c a t t l e , the farm specializes i n Clydesdale horses, Dorset Horned sheep, and York-shire awine. Many of the i n d i v i d u a l animala have won highest awarda i n p r o v i n c i a l and international atock f a i r s . The poultry induatry of the v a l l e y has received conaider-able impetua and valuable p u b l i c i t y as a r e s u l t of the egg-laying conteata which atarted i n 1920. Theae have been of i n -estimable value to the poultry raisera of the v a l l e y . It waa here, i n 1926, that the world-famoua U. B. C. hen no.6 aet a then world's record of 351 egga i n 365 days. Thia record haa aince been twice surpassed, once i n 1930 by no Drone 5 H, owned by w. whiting of port S e l l s , B.C., and i n 1933 by Dereen, owned 39. Kecorda of W. K. Hicka, Superintendent, Agassiz, 1935, 1936. (75) by m. H. Kuttledge of sardia, &. C. Each of theae hens pro-duced 357 egga i n 365 daya, a marvelloua record. Aa a re s u l t , the poultrymen of the val l e y have been c a l l e d upon to f i l l ordera for egga and atock worth many thousanda of d o l l a r a . Although the aucceases i n animal husbandry have been the more spectular, the work i n f i e l d husbandry haa not been neg-lecte d . During the aummer, forage cropa and cereals of many va r i e t i e s are grown under d i f f e r e n t conditiona for experimental purposes. Teats on the many crops are carr i e d out with varioua f e r t i l i z e r a . In th i a way the quality and value of commercial f e r t i l i z e r a have been thoroughly teated, and much valuable data adduced. Orop-rotation on the four-year jilan i a prac-t i s e d . One of the l a t e s t piecea of experimental work i a i n con-nection with raspberriea. Aa these are aubjeet to several d i -aeaaea aa well as w i n t e r - k i l l i n g , the aim haa been to f i n d new and hardier v a r i e t i e s , some success haa attended the ef f o r t a of those working i n thi s f i e l d . since 1916, Mi*. W. E. Hieka haa been the auperintendent of the farm, and the aucceases which have attended the varioua venturea have been l a r g e l y h i s . The motto of a l l the experi-mental farms i n Canada i a "Service to the Canadian Farmer". The aervice of the Agaaaiz farm to the a g r i c u l t u r i e t a of the Fraaer valley for almost h a l f a century i s unqueationed. uther rhaaee o f Agriculture. In addition to the products and industries already de-acribed, there are many of minor importance which, nevertheleaa, i 76} have added to the a g r i c u l t u r a l wealth of the va l l e y . Many of theae have heen contributing t h e i r ahare for some time, while aome are comparatively new. stock-raiaing haa always been carried on auceeasfully. In the pre-automobile era, horaea of both l i g h t and draught breeda were i n constant demand, and many fine animals were bred and raised i n the v a l l e y . There were few farmers who did not raise a few sheep and pigs, but not often did they go into thia buaineaa extensively. The r a i a i n g of poultry, too, i n the early daya waa uaually a aide-line, but i n recent yeara there haa been a remarkable development i n thi s phaae of agriculture. This has been mainly the r e s u l t of the egg-laying contests conducted by the Experi-mental Farm at Agaaaiz. The production of egga and the value of stock has increased greatly i n recent yeara. In an e f f o r t to aolve marketing problema, the poultrymen of the valley, i n 1919, formed a joint stock company under the name of the B. 0. Poultrymen'a Go-operative Exchange. The producers received satiafactory returns t i l l 1924 when i n -creased production resulted i n lowered prieea. Several membera of the Exchange began to ahip independently i n the hope of getting better returna. Following a meeting of the membera, i t waa decided that the Exchange ahould go into l i q u i d a t i o n . Thia waa put through with only a al i g h t losa to the membera. In 1929 another attempt at organizing the poultrymen of the v a l l e y waa made. The B. 0. Egg and Poultry pool waa formed, and i n conjunction with aimllar o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the p r a i r i e provinces, (77) a p r o f i t a b l e business was carried on for two years. Then the depression caused prices to go s t e a d i l y lower, many became d i s -couraged and withdrew, and early i n 1932 t h i s organization was also forced to go into l i q u i d a t i o n . It would seem as though co-operative marketing of egga, as of other producta, i a an i d e a l which breaka down i n actual p r a c t i c e . Another profitable aide-line for the farmer i s the keeping of a p i a r i e s . Clover and fire-weed are abundant and produce an excellent brand of honey. In 1935, 1180 apiariea produced 502,150 pounds of honey which aold at an average price of 15p 40 per pound. In t h i s phaae of agriculture Surrey haa taken the lead. Root cropa of a l l klnda grow abundantly i n the f e r t i l e a o i l of the v a l l e y , but theae i n moat casea are uaed i n the feeding of stock, potatoes have become an important crop, and with the i n f l u x of o r i e n t a l s , t h i s induatry haa been gradually paaaing into t h e i r handa. Kecent event8 have ahown that the aituation l a fraught with d i f f i c u l t y . One of the new cropa i s tobacco. Thia was f i r a t grown on the reclaimed land of Sumas p r a i r i e , and acreage waa gradually being extended. An unlooked-for diaaater i n the floods of 1935 occurred, however, and the crop of 264,000 pounda i n 1934 waa reduced to a mere 16,000 pounda i n 1935. This induatry ia recovering, however. The 1936 crop waa 123,000 pounda from 124 acres or 990 pounds per acre, one of the best y i e l d s on record. 40. A g r i c u l t u r a l s t a t i s t i c s Keport, 1935. (78} This year (1937} the t o t a l acreage waa over 400 acrea, with more growers than ever hefore hut each with a amaller acreage.^" Instead of the growers attempting to market t h e i r producta i n the face of atrong competition, the whole crop for the laat two years haa heen cured here and aold to eastern intereata, a plan which promiaea much hetter returns to the growera. This chapter would he incomplete i f no mention were made of the important part played hy the F a l l F a i r a i n thia record of development. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l centrea of population i n the v a l l e y have organized, at some time or other, a F a l l F'air. Chilliwack haa the honour of having heen the f i r a t to inaugurate an annual f a i r . Thia was f i r s t held i n 1874. Other munici-p a l i t i e s followed s u i t , hut not for some years l a t e r . Aa a resul t of the improvement i n transportation f a c i l i t i e a , the tendency recently haa heen towar&a conaolidation of some of the amaller f a i r a . i n many caaes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n early daya, there waa not any great number or variety of exhibits, but there waa a d e f i n i t e educational value i n them for the farmer. The d i s t r i c t f a i r s were uaually held late i n August, and became merely prelimin-ariea to the annual p r o v i n c i a l Exhibition at jsfew westminater, which waa sponsored by the Koyal A g r i c u l t u r a l and Indu s t r i a l Society. I t waa there that healthy r i v a l r y among the munici-p a l i t i e a of the v a l l e y always brought f o r t h a magnificent d i s -play of l i v e stock and produce. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to over-eatimate the important of the f a l l f a i r a i n r a i s i n g and main-taining the atandard of excellence now expected of Fraser valley producta. 41. From information aupplied by Mr. C.E.W.Clarke, D i a t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t , Abbotaford,£.0. (79) Chapter 1Y Further Economic Development Although primarily an a g r i c u l t u r a l region, the'Fraser Valley i s r i c h l y endowed with at lea s t two other sources of wealth, v i z . , timber and salmon. In addition therefore to the development which was connected d i r e c t l y with agriculture, the legitimate exploitation of these other resources has assisted i n no small measure i n promoting the prosperity of the whole galley. Geologically, the v a l l e y apparently holds no future f o r the mining i n t e r e s t s . Undoubtedly there are some heavily min-er a l i z e d areas throughout the d i s t r i c t , but these are either of low-grade ore content, or the cost of developing them i s pr o h i b i t i v e . Gold-bearing and silver-bearing quartz, coal, copper-iron ore and petroleum have a l l been found. Ever since the 1890'a a good deal of desultory prospecting haa been car-r i e d on. As an example of that, the lev/ Weatminater Hegiatry o f f i c e recorded the following claims i n the year 1902. 1 Thia l i a t of claima i a a good i n d i c a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n of the min-er a l i z e d areaa. The claima were aa follows: Sumaa and v i c i n i t y - - -23 Stave River - - - - - - -18 Harrison Lake - - - - - -10 Chilliwack- - - 9 VYhonnock- - - - - - - - - 9 P i t t Lake _7 76 1. Seventeenth Annual Report of Mew Westminater Board of Trade. Supplement, Daily Columbian, December, 1903. C80J The only area i n ?/hieh mining has aided the economic devel-opment of the v a l l e y i s the Mount Baker mining region. Thia l i e a just south of Chilliwack, mainly i n the United States. The main development haa taken place i n that country, although some mines have heen worked- on the Canadian side of the l i n e . Thia region was only accessible from the north, and a f t e r some a g i -tat i o n by the merchants of Chilliwack, the government i n 1901 2 _ b u i l t a road leading to the mines. i t waa by means of thia road that the monthly clean-up of gold waa brought to Chilliwack 3 for shipment. A l l supplies and foodstuffs were taken i n the same way. As a r e s u l t , the merchants and farmers have p r o f i t e d for over 30 years because of a fortunate proximity to the Mount Baker mines. Fishing. Ever since the founding of Fort Langley, the salmon-fishing industry has had an important place i n the valley'a economic existence. The Hudson'a Bay Company, i n the early years of Fort Langley, r e a l i z e d handsome p r o f i t a from the sale of salted aalmon to the Orient and the Hawaiian Islands. Upon the with-drawal of the company this trade disappeared. It waa not u n t i l 1870, a f t e r some experiments i n the can-ning of salmon, that the f i r s t salmon cannery was b u i l t at A n n i e s v i l l e , j u s t across from lew Westminster.^ In t h i s cannery £. The Chilliwack Progress, July 3, 1901. 3. Ibid, January 12, 1922. 4. Manual of p r o v i n c i a l Information, 1930, p.128, (81) the cans were made by hand on wooden cylinders, and the f i s h were cooked i n the cans by b o i l i n g i n large wooden vats. Thia method proved so successful that by 1882 there were 13 canner-ies on the Fraser River with an annual output of 250,000 cases. By 1901, the number of canneries had increased to 48. 5 These plants were a l l established between Eew Westminster and the mouth of the r i v e r . Although there are s i x species of salmon that are used com-mercially, the most important one has been the soekeye. This f i s h has always commanded the highest price because of i t s un-surpassed flavour and colour. Ita l i f e - c y c l e i s only 4 years, and t h i s fact resulted i n an exceptionally big run every fourth year. The growth of thia industry i s shown by the following-table giving the soekeye pack i n the "big run" years. soekeye pack on the Fraser River. Year no. of cases Year no. of cases 148 poundsj 148 pounds J 1885 89,617 1913 719,769 .1889 303,875 1917 123,614 1893 457,797 1921 35,900 1897 860,459 1925 31,523 1901 974,911 1929 60,363 1905 837,489 1933 43,745 1909 542,248 . 1936 165,561 In the "big run" years the pack was mainly aockeye, but i n the o f f yeara a greater percentage of the pack consisted of springs, chums (dog salmon), eohoes, pinks and ateelhea.de. 5. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information, 1930, p.129. 6. Fisheriea S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, Ottawa, 1929,p.252. Figures previous to 1902 are t o t a l cases, as species were not separated, but they were p r a c t i c a l l y a l l soekeye. (82j There haa heen a serioua depletion i n the annual aalmon run during the laat quarter century. The l a s t b i g soekeye run was i n 1913. In that year, during the construction of the Can-adian northern Railway, the r i v e r was blocked at Hell's Gate by a huge s l i d e of rock. As a resu l t few salmon reached the head-waters of the Fraser to spawn. It was a disaster of major im-portance to the salmon f i s h i n g industry on the Fraser. The de-ple t i o n , however, was aggravated by the practice of United States fishermen using traps and purse-seines i n the Gulf of Georgia, while the r i v e r f i s h i n g was done by g i l l net. In spite of numerous representations made to the federal government at "Wash-ington, D. C , the practice of using traps was continued u n t i l 1935. Recent years have proved that co-operation between Canada and the united States i s necessary i f the salmon f i s h i n g i n -dustry i s to be saved. After many years of negotiation, a treaty waa r a t i f i e d i n 1930 by both countries whereby the Inter-national p a c i f i c Salmon -Fisheries Commiaaion, with three mem-bers from each country, was given.joint control and operation of the salmon f i s h e r i e s i n the Fraser River area and i n con-7 tiguoua mainland and is l a n d waters.' Unfortunately t h i a com-miaaion has not yet begun to function owing to the d i l a t o r i -neaa that'has characterized the united Statea Federal Govern-ment i n a l l negotiations over this matter, although the Can-adian commissioners have been appointed for some time, the 8 United States has f a i l e d to appoint t h e i r s . 7. Manual of Pr o v i n c i a l Information, 1930, pp.129,130. 8. Information supplied by Major J . A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for B. C. (83) In an attempt to maintain the soekeye run i n the Fraser River* the Dominion Government placed increased r e s t r i c t i o n s on f i s h i n g . In addition hatcheries have heen operated for almost the whole period under review. Seven hatcheries i n a l l were operated on the Fraser River watershed, four of them being on the Lower Fraser. The f i r s t of these hatcheries, located at Don Accord near Slew Westminster, was established i n 1884. The Harrison Lake Hatchery was opened i n 1905, and during the war additional hatcheries were established at Cultus Lake (1916) and at P i t t Lake (1917). Bon Accord had heen closed i n 1915. The average annual release of soekeye f r y , estimated over the 9 period of t h e i r operation, was as follows: Bon Accord- - - - 6,180,572 Harrison Lake - - 14,525,100 Cultus Lake - - - 4,815,581 P i t t Lake - * - - 5,483,926 Considerable c r i t i c i s m arose during post war years con-cerning the need of hatcheries i n th i s province. There appear-ed to be no evidence to show that the benefits derived j u s t i -f i e d the annual expenditure of approximately $100,000 on them. Accordingly the B i o l o g i c a l Board of Canada, which i s the s c i e n t i f i c research branch of the Federal Department of Fisher-ie s , was asked to conduct an investigation into the salmon-hatching methods as practised i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Thia branch then took over the Cultua Lake hatchery for a ten-year period to conduct the necessary experiments. The report of this board 9. Information supplied by Major J . A. Motherwell. (84) was made l a s t year, and as a r e s u l t of the recommendations therein, the department decided to close a l l salmon hatcheries 10 in the province as from 1936. Cultus Lake hatchery, however, was to remain open t i l l the end of 1937 to complete necessary investigation. whether the work of the hatcheries waa p a r t i a l -l y responsible or not, e f f o r t s to restore the salmon run have had some measure of success, for the soekeye pack i n 1936 was 11 the biggest since 1914, P a r t i c u l a r l y i n early days the salmon-canning industry was one of great importance to the s e t t l e r s of the v a l l e y , De-spite the location of the canneries, the section of the r i v e r above Sew Westminster was a favoured spot for soekeye f i s h i n g . An early government b u l l e t i n on Maple Kidge Municipality re^ > corda the fact that "the aalmon f i s h i n g industry employs a great part of the population i n the summer time." Some of the fineat soekeye fiahing on. the r i v e r was to be found be-tween Port Langley and Whonnock. Some record catches have been made there, as many aa 25,000 f i s h at one cast being made. At that date many fishermen made t h e i r headquarters at Port Lahg-13 ley during the aalmon run. 1 Figures showing the number of re-aidenta purchaaing fiahing licences i n the early daya are d i f -f i c u l t to obtain, but i n 1901, a record year, at least 197 l i -10. Information supplied by Major J . A. Motherwell. 11. See Table of Soekeye Pack, supra, p- 81. 12. land and Agriculture i n B. C , 1903, p.86. 13. B r i t i s h Columbian, flew Weatminater, Sept.17,1910. (85) cences were purchased hy residents of the v a l l e y between Browns-v i l l e and Harrison R i v e r . 1 4 Of these 30 were residents of Fort langley and an equal number were from Whonnock. The average number of licences over a term of years would be nearly 200, ac-i/., cording to Mr. R. W. McLeod, Supervisor of Fisheries at Hew Westminster. No doubt as a r e s u l t of the record catch l a s t year, nearly 300 licences were taken out t h i s year by residents of the Fraser Valley l i v i n g east of new Westminster. A resident is a B r i t i s h subject with at least s i x months* residence i n the 15 v a l l e y . Only such persons can get a licence to f i s h between the bridges at lew Westminster and Mission. Any fisherman l i v i n g below the bridge cannot obtain a license to f i s h above. As a r e s u l t , f i s h i n g between the bridges ia r e s t r i c t e d to bona fide residents of that atretch of the r i v e r . To fishermen on both sections of the r i v e r , operations are r e s t r i c t e d to the five daya beginning 6 a.m. Monday to 6 a.m. Saturday. From r e l i a b l e aources, i t i s learned that the aockeye run waa a God-aend to the a e t t l e r a along the r i v e r . Although theae farmera had no d i f f i c u l t y i n growing a good deal of t h e i r food, they depended on the f i a h i n g to provide them with aome ready caah. It was a poor year when they did not make $500 or $600 for t h e i r summer's work. The canneries used to aend a acow 14. Thia information obtained from old Register of lieencea i n o f f i c e of Superviaor.of Fisheries, lew Westminater, B. C. 15. Japanese may take out lieeneea, i f they are natur-a l i z e d B r i t i a h subjecta. Their quota, however, has been r e s t r i c t e d to 400 lieencea aince 1922 (Duff Commiaaion). P r a c t i c a l l y a l l Japanese f i s h e r -men l i v e at Steveston. (86) up the r i v e r each day for the catch. I f the run was a good one, each fisherman was r e s t r i c t e d to a quota, and he did not need to he out more than tv/o or three days to get his quota. But ' whatever the number of days he was away, i t generally devolved on the women and children to do the farm work during his ab-sence. Getting i n the crop of hay or potatoes was the l o t of the pioneer women, i f t h e i r men-folk were f i s h i n g . Despite the serious depletion i n the 30ckeye run, the re-turns are just as remunerative today, i f not more so, than i n the days of the big runs. Then the fisherman paid $10 f o r his 16 licence, but since the year 1922, these have cost only $1. In e a r l i e r years too, the canneries paid the fishermen very 17 l i t t l e . In 1901 i t was 10 and five-eights cents per f i s h . Por the l a s t 20 years, the canneries have paid from 50 cents to 60 cents a f i s h . It i s unsafe to make any predictions as to the future of the salmon-fishing industry. The catch of 1936 has raised hopes that some measure of restoration has come but i t i s too 18 early as yet to accept i t as f a c t . But whatever the future holds, i t i s evident that the l o t of the pioneer farmer i n the Praser Valley would have been a much more d i f f i c u l t one i f he 16. Heport of B. 0. Fisheries Commission, 1922, p.19. 17. Annual Fisheries Heport for 1901, Ottawa, p.XXXVl. 18. Vancouver Daily Province, Sept. 22, 1937. The only figures available are for the whole province. The soekeye pack for 1937 was 318,637 cases; i n 1936 i t was 403,717 cases. (87) had not heen able to depend on the r i c h annual harvest from the r i v e r to supplement the harvest from his f i e l d s . Lumbering. It i s d i f f i c u l t now to estimate what the quantity of mar-ketable timber i n the Fraser Valley was, previous to settlement there. A conservative estimate would be at least SO b i l l i o n 19 feet 5. M. Much of t h i s consisted of valuable stands of Douglas f i r , red cedar and hemlock, the most r e a d i l y access-i b l e ..of which have long since disappeared. One of the l a s t of these great stands was the famous "Green Timbers," about f i v e miles east of B"ew Westminster. Through i t ran the P a c i f i c Highway. Despite strenuous e f f o r t s to save thia stand as a permanent scenic a t t r a c t i o n , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of i t has been logged o f f during the l a a t decade (1927 - 1937), Poreat f i r e s and land clearing operations have alao taken t o l l of a great deal of valuable timber, but the government p o l i c y i n recent years with regard to reforestation arouaea some hope that the v a l l e y w i l l not he e n t i r e l y denuded of i t a forest wealth. The lumbering industry i n the Fraser Valley haa been under the control of the federal government. When B r i t i s h Columbia joined the confederation i n 1871, the province agreed to give a s t r i p of land 20 miles on each side of the railway, i n eon-19. Canada and Its Provinces, Vol, 22, p.507ff: Mr. A. C. Flumerfelt, Chief Forester for B.C., estimated (1914) t o t a l stand of lumber i n railv/ay b e l t as 40 to 50 b i l l i o n feet. (88) si&eration for the "building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Hallway. Thia a t r i p , 40 miles wide, extended from the Alberta boundary on the east to a l i n e running just east of Uew Westminster (Scott Road and north Road), and the eastern shore of the north arm of Burrard I n l e t . The Railway Bel t was conveyed to the Dominion i n 1883, and was so administered u n t i l Auguat 1, 1930 when i t was returned to the province. A l l the timber on unalienated land i n the Railway B e l t could be acquired under licence or under permit, mainly the former. Dominion timber licences were sold by auction, the holding value of the timber being r e a l i z e d by way of a cash bonus at the time of sale instead of an annual r e n t a l aa i n the p r o v i n c i a l system. West of Yale there was an annual r e n t a l of f i v e centa per acre, and a .-/royalty on a l l cut timber of 20 50: .centa per M feet B. M. This was cheaper than the system of l i c e n s i n g by the province, and together with the fact that timber berths i n the railway belt were e a s i l y accessible and close.to the railway, i t i s easy to understand why they had the preference from an investor's point of view. Exact figures aa to the cut of lumber i n the Railway Belt are not available. Early records are for lumber on which royalty was collected, and are for the whole b e l t , not any one aection. The i n c l u s i o n or exclusion of various forms of forest producta such aa ahingle bolta, poles, p i l i n g , fence posts, t i e s , cordwood, etc., for which other standards of measurement 20. In 1919, the rental was increased to 10 cents per acre, and the royalty to one doTLar per M. (89) than hoard feet are used, complicates the compilation of s t a t i s -t i c s . Different methods of sc a l i n g the cut were used at d i f f e r -21 ent times. The following table, compiled from various sources, is as accurate as i t i s possible to make i t , and indicates the steady growth of the lumbering industry. Revenue and Out of Lumber i n lew Westminster Section  (Railway Belt) 1885 - 1930 Conversion Factors: 1 cord - 500 b.f.; 1 l i n e a l foot - 5 b.f. Year calendar 1885 F i s c a l 1889-90 F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l F i s c a l 1894-95 1889-1900 1904-5 1909-10 1914-15 1919-20 1924-25 1929-30 Revenue ) 45,845.09 24,927.18 27,688.54 71,079.27 126,351.23 89,277.34 128,137.72 330,670.46 298,737.18 iiumber cut M.b.f. 6.748(a) 16,684 10,042 29,684 21,368 93,858 ' 67,642 86,073 186.697(b) 184.215(c) Shingle BOlta cords 356 881 7,282 15,454 33,680 47,400 30,204 20,192 Poles. Piling Lineal feet 40,261 117,425 125,360 203,454 2,143,378 (a) Lumber cut and revenue up to and including 1910 i s from entire Railway Belt. Mr. E. Walmsley, Crown Timber Agent at lev/ Westminster for nearly 25 years, estimates the cut i n the Fraser Valley as 40$ of the t o t a l . Figures for year 1915 et seq.. are for lew Westminster Di v i s i o n , extending as far east aa 1 Horth Bend. (b) Cut i a for calendar year 1925, (c) Cut i a for calendar year 1929 - transfer of Railway Belt on August 1, 1930 21. Whitford, H. 1. and Craig, R. D., Forests of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ottawa, 1918. Annual Reports of Timber and Grazing Lands Branch, Department of Inte r i o r , i n Sessional papers. Old ledger containing Department of Interior*a Scalers' Returna 1925-1930. (90) When the transfer of the Railway Belt was made-in 1930, the hulk of the marketable timber had been taken o f f . I t was estimated that the province had acquired s i x b i l l i o n feet of standing timber, i n addition to the mining, land and f i s h e r i e s r i g h t s . Revenues i n dues, fees and leases were worth nearly 22 $500,000 a year. It haa been impossible to get exact figures for the lumber cut i n recent years, since they are not segra-gated from the t o t a l figures f o r the whole coaat d i a t r i c t . There are a t i l l aix or seven m i l l s operating i n the v a l l e y , but they are small. The standa of accessible timber are mainly a-round the Harrison Lake and i n the Chilliwack River d i s t r i c t s . To the farmer and rancher of the valley, these great stands of timber were a detriment rather than an asset. He wanted the land for crops and as there was very l i t t l e sale for timber u n t i l about 1910, he was forced to burn i t up. M i l l i o n s of feet of the f i n e s t f i r , cedar and hemlock were thus destroyed. Some of i t was used for f u e l , and i f there was a small m i l l near-by he could get his lumber for house or barn. But i n the main i t waa simply an added d i f f i c u l t y i n cle a r i n g the land. Only a few were able to p r o f i t from the sale of timber on t h e i r pro-perty, and they were fortunate enough to be near a sawmill, or were able to save t h e i r atanda u n t i l a l a t e date. With the conatruction of the B. C. E l e c t r i c Railway i n 1910 there was an increased a c t i v i t y i n lumbering. In Langley alone at thia 22. B r i t i s h Columbian, August 6, 1930. (91) time there were s i x m i l l s operating, with an estimated cut of 23 700,000 feet h.m. a month. l o t only was i t much easier to ship lumber to tidewater, but the m i l l s near the railway were able to i n s t a l l e l e c t r i c power to run t h e i r machinery. One of the features of the lumbering industry i n the early days was the number of small m i l l s operating under permit. These would be set up i n a good stand of timber and remain i n operation f o r a few years or u n t i l such time as the lack of timber made i t necessary to move. These m i l l s were mainly cutting f o r l o c a l trade. One of the f i r s t of these i n the eastern end of the v a l l e y was operated by Messrs. 0. L. and H . G . Street and R . E . Barker i n the Sumas d i a t r i c t . I t waa begun about 1892 and continued for over 10 yeara, cutting about 24 3,000 feet d a i l y . About the same time there was a m i l l i n Langley operated by the Murray Brothers. une of the largest m i l l s i n the B r i t i s h Empire i s aituated within the former Railway B e l t . Thia i s known aa the Fraser M i l l s , about 2 miles eaat of new Westminster. It haa a t o t a l frontage of nearly one mile, and haa a capacity of 350,000 25 feet at a single a h i f t . Loga from the Praaer Valley were uaed extenaively about twenty f i v e yeara ago but i n recent yeara p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the loga come from Vancouver Island. The lumbering induatry haa played a most important part i n the economic l i f e of the Valley. It haa not benefitted the 23. B r i t i s h Columbian, September 16, 1910. 24. Information by Mr. C. L. Street, Chilliwack. f 25. Vancouver Morning Sun, March 31, 1925. (92) aettlera aa d i r e c t l y aa haa the fiahing induatry, hut i t has offered steady employment to a large number of men. With a p o l i c y of reforeatation much can be done to maintain t h i s i n -duatry aa a permanent one though the o r i g i n a l forest has now l a r g e l y disappeared. F r u i t Canneries. The establishment of f r u i t canneries at several centres was a l o g i c a l development of the fruit-growing industry. Pion-eers of the Chilliwack Valley are unanimous i n the opinion that a large quantity of f r u i t rotted every season because of lack of f a c i l i t i e s to market i t . The f i r s t attempt to cope . with t h i s problem v/as made at Chilliwack i n 1891. 2 6 The ; Fraser Yalley F r u i t Canning Company operated a plant i n that year under the management of G. Melhuish. In the f i r s t aeaaon, inspite of a comparatively poor crop, 1000 cases of f r u i t s and 27 vegetables were put down. These included jams, j e l l i e s , canned f r u i t and garden products. An exhibit of these products was made up and shown at f a i r s i n eastern Canadian c i t i e s , where i t won very favourable p r a i s e i Thia cannery waa operated for three years, and.though the manager claimed that i t waa 28 closed because the farmers v/ere sending i n f e r i o r f r u i t , the l i k e l i h o o d i s that there waa n o t ' a u f f i c i e n t surplus f r u i t to keep' the plant i n operation. Much1 of the f r u i t at that time was being shipped by steamer to the V i c t o r i a market. 26. Chilliwack progress, A p r i l 16, 1891. 27. Ibid, October 8, 1891. 28. See E d i t o r i a l , Ibid, A p r i l 25, 1894. (93) The next venture i n Chilliwack was begun by the Chilliwack Canning and preserving Company about 1908. It too l a s t e d about four years, p r o f i t i n g by mistakes made e a r l i e r i n putting down' f r u i t s and vegetables which were not re a d i l y saleable, t h i s company had an es p e c i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y year i n 1910. Five tons of assorted f r u i t s were handled d a i l y , mainly cherries, straw-berries, raspberries and blackberries. In addition a carload o f white beans and five tons of rhubarb were handled, and a con-siderable quantity of apple cider manufactured. In a l l , over IS,000 cases of f r u i t were put down that year by a s t a f f of 29 15 employees. The canning of f r u i t i a no longer of major importance since transportation f a c i l i t i e s offered by the railways have improved. As a general thing, the canneries get only surplus f r u i t a f t e r the P r a i r i e and Coast markets have been supplied. Fresh f r u i t , shipped i n es p e c i a l l y r e f r i g e r a t e d ears, reach even the Winnipeg market i n good condition, and n a t u r a l l y com-mands a better price than canned f r u i t . There i s one small 30 canning plant today at Sardia, but the l a t e s t development i s the factory for canning corn operated by the Broder Canning Company "of Hew Westminster. As the .centre of the small f r u i t s d i s t r i c t , Mission has probably been most active i n the f r u i t canning industry. In 29. B r i t i s h Columbia, September 3, 1910. 30. Operated by Mr, H. W. Storey. In 1936 his output was three and one-half tons of f r u i t and s i x tons of vegetables. (94) 1911 the f i r s t cannery there was established by-the Kootenay Jam Company. The pack consisted mainly of jams and j e l l i e s , and the f r u i t handled included 15 tons of strawberries, 20 tona of raapberries, 45 tona of rhubarb, 5 tons of gooseberries, and 51 5 tons of currants. This plant was l a t e r bought by the King-Beach Manufacturing Company, and considerably enlarged. It waa operated very successfully for some years, i t s products being marketed under the well-known trade name of "K-B", Aboxit 1928j t h i s plant v/as operated by the Farmers' Canning Company, but the f a m i l i a r "K-B" trade name was retained. At present t h i s plant i a being operated by the Canadian Canners (Western) l i m i t e d , a nationwide organization, whose products go on the market v/ith t fAylmer" as a trade-name. The present pack of f r u i t s and vegetables i n thi s plant amounta to over 100,000 casea annually. Other canning establishments of this d i s t r i c t include a jam factory operated by the P a c i f i c Co-operative Union; the Hortheote Brothers jam factory; the plant of the Associated Berry Growers at Hatzic; a processing plant of the Praser Yalley F r u i t Growers which ships processed berriea to Great B r i t a i n ; and the plant of the Dewdney -Rhubarb Aaaociation v/ith an annual output of 45 carloada Of rhubarb. F r u i t growers who l i v e i n sections of the v a l l e y near Uew Westminster make use of the canning establishments i n that c i t y . 31. B r i t i s h Columbian, Sept. 11, 1911. 32. From information supplied by Board of Trade, Mission, B.C. ( 9 5 ) Th.ua the history of the f r u i t canning establishments cover p r a c t i c a l l y the whole period of development during the l a s t half-century. It i s legitimate to aaeume that such canneries w i l l he as necessary to the fruit-growers i n the future aa they have heen i n the past. Fur-Farming. A valuable addition to the i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y of the v a l -ley during the post-war period i s the increasing number of those who are going i n for fur-farming. It affords, too, a most i n t e r e s t i n g commentary on the economic fluctuations which have taken place since the founding of Fort Langley i n 1827 by the Hudson's Bay Company. The t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y of the company was the control of the fur trade, hut i t i s a matter of record that t h i s trade at Fort Langley soon became of minor importance. It was from the f i s h e r i e s and the farm that the greatest p r o f i t s were made. Through the years these ind-ustries have retained t h e i r pride of place. Almost a century later", furs have again become a source of l i v e l i h o o d , a l b e i t i n a manner that would never have heen conceived of by the chief traders of old F'ort Langley. The succeaa of the fox-farms i n Prince Edward Island has probably le d to this development, for i t i s a noteworthy fact that aome of the pioneers i n t h i a new v a l l e y induatry were men who had come to B r i t i a h Columbia from Canada's amallest pro-vince. Although the climate of the Fraser Valley was thought 33. Prom information l a r g e l y supplied by Mr.-C H. Robertaon, Rosedale, B.C. (96) at f i r s t to be not so suitable as that of the colder eastern provinces i n producing good fur, some experienced fur-farmers now claim that the reverse of this i s true, Qold winter climates tend to produce a thick but coarse fur. Animals raised i n the more temperate, moist climate of the coast regions have a fi n e r and g l o s s i e r coat. Though t h i s claim may not as yet have been incontrovertibly proved, i t i s true that fur-farms i n the v a l -l e y are increasing i n numbers, and the present demand for furs far exceeds the supply. There have been f a i l u r e s of course i n t h i s new industry, but mainly i n the ranks of those who went into i t on a large scale with a great deal of c a p i t a l spent on equipment. Those who took i t up as a si d e l i n e to other forms of farming have been able to p r o f i t from mistakes that were made at f i r s t i Fox-farming was evidently the f i r s t phase of t h i s industry but ex-periments have been made with other animals, notably mink, rabbits, muskrats and raccoons. E f f o r t s to raise the l a t t e r three have so far been unsuccessful and most of the present day farms go i n for r a i s i n g foxes or mink. I t i s more d i f f i c u l t to raise the former, hut of eourse the successful breeder makes greater p r o f i t s with foxes than with mink. Pelts from mink bring ten d o l l a r s to t h i r t y d o l l a r s according to size and con-d i t i o n . A good pair of mink for breeding purposes w i l l bring 100 d o l l a r s or more, and the present day demand for foundation stock i s brisk. With foxes there i s more v a r i a b i l i t y i n color and i n marking. Consequently there i s more range i n the price (97) of fox p e l t s , 35 d o l l a r s to 100 dollars or more for superior specimens. A good p a i r of foxes for breeding purposes would bring up to 500 dollars on the present market. Most of the pelts obtained i n the v a l l e y go to the Vancouver market. Mr. C. H. Robertson, of Rosedale, was probably.the pioneer i n fox-farming i n the Chilliwack Valley. He began operations on a small scale i n 1924. He has been quite successful as a breeder of foxes but i s f i r m l y of the opinion that fur-farming as a s i d e - l i n e to dairying i s the i d e a l plan. Undoubtedly there i s a bright future i n t h i s industry f o r those with the necessary patience and i n t e l l i g e n c e to handle such animals as the fox and mink. There are fur farms today at Laidlaw, Rosedale, Sardia, Oloverdale, Kilga r d and on the Paci-f i c Highway i n Surrey. The industry has already shown consider-able expansion. Other Industries. Por many years Clayhum on account of i t s bri c k and t i l e factory haa been an important i n d u s t r i a l centre. This plant began operationa about 1907, and has made very s a t i s f a c t o r y progress since that time. The company c h i e f l y manufactures building brick, f i r e brick, v i t r i f i e d aewer pipe and drainage t i l e . The company, the Clayburn Company Limited, haa ample de-poaita of high-grade f i r e clay i n Sumas Mountain. After operating for over 20 yeara at Clayburn, the company planned i n 1928 an important program of e x t e n s i o n . 3 4 In 1919 34. B r i t i s h Columbian, Oct. 9, 1928. (98) they had taken over a plant at Kilgard, which had heen closed' down during the war. K i l g a r d proved to he more accessible to the clay deposits, and the plans of the company c a l l for u l t i -mate concentration of the plant at Kilgard. At the present time both plants are i n operation. A brick and t i l e plant has also been i n operation i n Port Haney for the l a s t 30 years. Clayburn and Haney bricks have been used i n many of the largest buildings i n Vancouver and the lower mainland. Brick and t i l e products from theae Praaer Valley planta have e s t a b l i s h ed a aound reputation, both as to price and quality, among the contractors of the lower mainland. A comparatively new industry has been established by the Western Peat Company and i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of what can. be accomplished along new l i n e s by i n i t i a t i v e and enterprise. This company's f i r a t plant i s to be found on the P a c i f i c Highway at the intersection of the Hjorth Hoad, i n close proximity to the peat landa. Here the peat i s dried, cut, and bound ready for market. It i s extensively uaed by poultrymen throughout the whole P a c i f i c northwest, nearly 70^ of the t o t a l output being so used. I t i a put on the f l o o r of poultry houaea fo r acratehing purpoaes and has been found much superior to atraw for that purpose. Aaparagua growers i n C a l i f o r n i a use i t ex-tensively i n shipping. 3^ Por t h i s purpose the peat i s cut into alaba one-half inch i n thickness. The slaba are soaked i n water and used as a baae for the bundles of fresh asparagus. 35. Vancouver Daily Province, August 22, 1936. (99) The asparagus i s then pre-cooled and can he sa f e l y shipped p r a c t i c a l l y anywhere. The' manager of the company, Mr. E. E. Carnoross, estimates that they have enough peat land adjoining the P a c i f i c Highway for fi v e years cutting and an additional area on Lulu Island which w i l l l a s t f o r 30 years. The .industrial development of the Praser Valley i s not confined merely to those plants which have heen mentioned i n t h i s chapter, and which are located i n the area eaat of lew Westminster. Within the immediate environa of that c i t y are many m i l l a and fa c t o r i e s , many of which depend on the Praser Valley for t h e i r raw materials. Among theae are paper m i l l a , lumber m i l l a , box fa c t o r i e s , creameries, breweries and abattoirs. Por some years a t i r e manufacturing plant was located at Port Coquitlam. The transcontinental railways maintain t h e i r re-pair, shops and roundhouses i n the v a l l e y - the Canadian P a c i f i c at Port Coquitlam and the Canadian national at the o r i g i n a l terminus of the l i n e , Port Mann. A l l these have added t h e i r quota to the record of i n d u s t r i a l development i n the Praser Valley. A panoramic view of Sumas r r a i r i e a f t e r reclamation, August £8, 1927. (100) Chapter V The Sumaa Reclamation p r o j e c t . 1 She project of reclaiming and draining the landa of the Sumas p r a i r i e area from the flood waters of the Praaer River waa one which challenged the attention of farmers, engineers and financiers aince the 1870'e. Probably no other project i n the hiatory of the province haa excited ao much a g i t a t i o n for so long a period of time, scarcely a year went by during that period that did not ahow a record of much time, money and energy spent on the project, i n common with many auch d i f f i c u l t enter-priaea, the early history of the plan i a strewn with f a i l u r e a and abortive attempta to get the work started, i t was not u n t i l 1919 that the p r o v i n c i a l government, through the Land settlement Board, took hold of the work, with the completion of the pro-ject i n 1926 came the r e a l i z a t i o n of the long-deferred hopes of the farmers of the valley, and the addition of aome 30,000 f e r -t i l e acrea to the a g r i c u l t u r a l reaoureea of the Praaer Valley and of the province. The e a r l i e s t record of t h i s acheme goea back to 1875 or 1876 when aome conaideration of i t waa given hy the la t e l i e u t -enant-governor, the Honorable Mgar Dewdney, who had previously 1. Information f o r thia chapter waa mainly obtained from a special report for the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s -lature prepared i n December, 1926, by the Land settlement Board acting aa Dyking Commiasionera for the sumaa Drainage, Dyking, and Development D i a t r i e t . In addition private paper a of iion.Js.D. Barrow were uaed. Mr. Bruce Dixon, Dyking i n -spector, alao kindly supplied information. made a survey of the whole d i s t r i c t . The matter appears to have f i r s t taken on d e f i n i t e form i n 1878 when the p r o v i n c i a l government through the "Sumaa Dyking Act, 1878" authorized E l l i s Luther Derby to carry out the work of dyking and draining cer-t a i n lands i n the Chilliwack, sumas and Matsqui d i s t r i c t s . In return Derby was to receive c e r t a i n taxing p r i v i l e g e s on lands which were to be benefitted and which had previously been crown granted, and also a grant of some 45,000 acres of government lands i n Chilliwack and sumaa. There are amendments to the above-mentioned act, dated 1879, 1883, -1885 and 1888, which fact would indicate that the scheme waa a t i l l of l i v e l y intereat but there i s no record of Derby or of anyone elae having a c t u a l l y commenced construction during that decade. About the year 1890, the problem of draining the area be-came greatly complicated as a reault of one of nature's pranks. The Vedder River, which previously had followed the preaent Luck-a-kuck channel through sardia, changed i t s course from Vedder'a crossing, and flowing northwesterly, emptied into sumaa Lake. Thia proved to be a mixed blessing, for the a i l t l n g action made more f e r t i l e the lake bed a o i l a even though the d i f f i c u l t y of reclaiming the sumaa area was materially increased. The next step waa the organization of two eompaniea to re-claim sumaa, one i n 1891 and the other one year l a t e r . The former accomplished nothing, but the l a t t e r incorporated aa the sumaa Reclamation Company, appeared to have been the f i r s t to have a c t u a l l y done aome conatruction work. The p r i n c i p a l (102) shareholders i n t h i s company were G. A. Holland, H. S. aaaon, J. A . iiumsden,. and jjumsden. They were given the right to d i vert the Vedder to Its old channel, hut any work which was done at that time was subsequently abandoned. In 1893 the d i s t r i c t was organized under the "Drainage, Dyking and i r r i g a t i o n Act", and Donald McGillivray, J . L.' Atkinson, w. A. Maher, and Asa Ackerman were appointed as Com-missioners. Their f i r s t important act was to enter into an agreement with Messrs. Keefer and Smith, engineers, to carry out; a survey and make plans for the reclamation. Theae engin-eers had done work fo r previous companies and /were already i n poaaesaion of considerable information. Their survey was com-pleted early i n 1894, and on p e t i t i o n of the eommisaioners, the "Sumaa Dyking Act, 1894" was passed by the l e g i s l a t u r e , giving the eommisaioners authority to carry on work undertaken by pre-vious oompaniea. They endeavoured to finance the undertaking by aaking the government to guarantee bonds to the extent of $340,000. The government would not accede to this request, but did agree to guarantee the interest on bonds up to $18,000, which amount had already been expended on surveys and prelim-inary work. The commiaaionera got into further f i n a n c i a l d i f -f i c u l t i e s , and became involved i n a law auit with Keefer and Smith, aa a r e s u l t of which a receiver waa appointed by the court. The "Dyking Debenture Act, 1897" provided f o r the pur-chaae by the p r o v i n c i a l government of the D i a t r i c t of Sumaa bonda amounting to $18,000, and i n this way the f i n a n c i a l af-f a i r s of the d i a t r i c t were atraightened out. (103.) Among the l a t e r development projects, the f i r s t of which there i s d e f i n i t e o f f i c i a l record, i s that of Messrs. Lewis and H i l l , of Seattle, who, i n 1905, made surveys and prepared completed plans. A new hoard of commissioners was appointed and at a meeting of property owners on September 17, 1906, the proposed plans and estimates were passed hy a vote of 103 i n favour, 53 against. The commissioners then addressed a memor-i a l to the federal government, requesting that a l l crown lands be made subject to assessment. As thi s condition was consid-ered e s s e n t i a l to the success of the plan, the r e f u s a l of the Department of the Int e r i o r at Ottawa to accede to the request caused the abandonment of the plan. In May 1908, F. H. Glover, manager of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Kailway, appeared before the eommisaioners with plana prepared by J. Francis Lebaron and associate engineers. The railway company at that time waa conatructing i t a Fraaer:-Valley l i n e , and waa extremely desirous of encouraging the development of the Sumaa lands. However, the London Board of the company did not approve of the undertaking, and i t waa therefore dropped. The Dominion stock and Bond Corporation, Ltd. of Vancouver waa the next concern to attempt the project. In October 1910, the property ownera approved of the acheme by the nece3aary majority vote, and an agreement was drawn up between the com-miaaioners and the corporation. This company did not proceed with conatruetion work within a reaaonable time, and when the commiaaioners refu8ed an extension of time, they dropped t h e i r plan. (104) In A p r i l 1911, L. M. Rice and Company of Seattle, com-menced negotiations with the commissioners, miring the sum-mer the company carr i e d out surveys, prepared plans, and en-tered into an agreement with the commissioners. But i t was not t i l l January, 1913 that the land owners r a t i f i e d the plans and agreement hy a vote of 104 i n favour to 37 against. This company had trouble i n financing t h e i r plans and never a c t u a l l y made a s t a r t atconstruction, war intervened and though the company was granted an extension each year t i l l 1916, the long hoped-for f u l f i l l m e n t of dreams waa once more deferred. In Auguat and September 1917, aeveral eopiea of a p e t i t i o n were c i r c u l a t e d throughout the d i a t r i c t for the aignaturea of landownera. Those who poaaesaed 87-|$ of the value of the land agreed to aign. Thia p e t i t i o n gave the description and bounda of a l l landa i n the d i a t r i c t , and requested:that the Land Set-tlement Board be appointed aa commiaaioners to carry out the drainage and dyking of the d i a t r i c t . It also contained the as-sessed value, acreage and description of the property belonging to each signatory, together with his address and date of sign-ing. The l a s t meeting of the old Dyking Commiaaioners waa held on October 1, 1917, a f t e r which a l l papers, agreementa, maps, etc. pertaining to the Sumaa project together with unpaid l i -a b i l i t i e s to the amount of $13,365.79, were turned over to the Land Settlement Board. A month l a t e r , the owners appointed an advisory board of the Sumas Dyking D i a t r i c t , the membera of which were R. U'. S. Creaawell, W. ffooka, J. L. Atkinson, (105) A. Campbell, W. T. Blatehford and C. E. Eckert. On February 4, 1918, order-in-council Ho. 1369, approving of the resignations of the commissioners and appointing the land Settlement Board to f i l l the vacancy caused by such r e s i g -nations, was passed. A preliminary meeting of the .Board was held on A p r i l 18, 1918, at whioh several engineers and associates submitted plans and estimates for the proposed reclamation works. However, the commissioners were given authority to carry out an independent invest i g a t i o n of the scheme at an estimated cost of $10,000. H. C. Brice and W. C. Smith were appointed engineers to carry out th i s preliminary inve s t i g a t i o n . A l l available information that could be secured as a r e s u l t of previous surveys waa placed at the disposal of the board'a engineers. In February 1919, the engineers submitted a preliminary re-port which waa placed before a meeting oompoaed of the members of the Land Settlement Board and of the Sumaa D i a t r i c t Adviaory Board. After c a r e f u l conaideration, thia meeting inatructed the engineera to carry on the work and complete the plana and apecificationa f o r the work. About t h i a time H. 0. Brice died, and Mr. F. H. S i n c l a i r , C. B., was appointed to act i n conjunction with Mr. Smith. The plan referr e d to above waa known as the Brice-Smith plan. But a f t e r Mr. S i n c l a i r ' s appointment a decided difference of opinion arose between the two engineers and when the f i n a l report was submitted i n A p r i l 1919, i t took the form of two d i s t i n c t plana and estimates; one, the Brice-Smith plan, apon-(106) sored by Mr. Smith, and the other, commonly referred to there-a f t e r aa the S i n c l a i r plan, presented by Mr. S i n c l a i r . On July 15, 1919, the protagonists of each plan appeared before a s p e c i a l meeting held i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Buildings i n V i c t o r i a . Members of the p r o v i n c i a l government, the Land Set-tlement Board and the Advisory Board were preaent. Each engineer explained his own plan and estimates i n d e t a i l . Aa a r e s u l t , a consulting engineer, Mr. G. E. Cartwright, C. E., of Vancouver, waa appointed to study both plans with a view to recommending the more suitable one. Xn October of that year, Mr. Cartwright made hia report i n which he favoured Mr. S i n c l a i r ' a plan. Ac-cordingly Mr. S i n c l a i r was formally appointed aa engineer of the Sumaa Dyking D i s t r i c t on October 28, 1919. un November 24, 1919, a meeting of the property owners waa held at Huntingdon, B. C , to hear the report of the engineera and to record t h e i r vote on the whole project. At thia meeting, the minutea ahow that the Honourable John Oliver outlined the poaition of the p r o v i n c i a l government i n regard to the whole project, the f o l -lowing worda being eapeeially emphaaized: "The p r o v i n c i a l government i a taking no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whatever for t h i s scheme, understand that c l e a r l y " . Mr. Cartwright made a report explain-ing his reasons for p r e f e r r i n g the S i n c l a i r plan. He waa f o l -lowed by Mr. S i n c l a i r , who explained his plana and eatimatea, and gave a figure of fl,500,000 as the coat of the project. A b a l l o t waa then taken by the property ownera aa to the advis-a b i l i t y of the reclamation of the d i a t r i e t . The result of t h i a vote showed that thoae owning 8670 of the aaaeaaed value of the (107) land were i n favour of proceeding with the plan. Advertisements c a l l i n g for tenders for the project (earth and "bridge contract) were inserted i n the press on January 22, 1920, the time l i m i t for receipt of tenders "being set for' Febru-ary 25 of the same year, seven tenders were received by the commissioners before the expiry of the time l i m i t , vf these, three tenders, submitted by Jones and Kant, Kex McArthur Company, and iiomas and McDonald Company, were not considered as conditions Of instructions to bidders had not been observed, and the neces-sary c e r t i f i e d cheque for bjo of the b i d did not accompany the tender. The other bids were as follows; Engineer's estimate for units covered by contract - 980,244.95 1. northern Construction Company - - - - - - - - -©1,527,657.00 -alternative 5% on f1,271,859.00. 2* p a c i f i c Construction Company- - - - - - - - $1,525,819*62 -cost plus lOfo only. 3. Foundation Company of B. C. Ltd.- - - - - - - 950,186.37 -cost plus 10°/o only. 4. Marsh Bourne Construction Co. - - - - - - - - -fl,182.062.99 -alternative plus 5> As a l l of these bids were considerably higher than the engineer's estimate, and as some firms had agreed to revise t h e i r figures, i t was decided to ask each of the four firms to submit a revised tender, which was to be i n by March 18, 1920. The figures i n the revised tenders, however, were the same as the o r i g i n a l s , with the one exception that the northern Con-st r u c t i o n Company had reduced t h e i r b i d by approximately $300,000. In addition to the above contract, the engineer also sub-mitted a l i s t under the heading "Contracts to L e t " as follows: (108) Dama and Plant - - - - - - -§285,000.00 Ditching - - - - - 60,000.00 Kight-of-way 24,000.00 Fencing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 22,730.56 Extra Work - - - - - - - - - 30,000.00 Engineering- - - - - - - - - 98,024.49 Total $519,755.05 This t o t a l of $519,755.05, added to the earth work contract eatimate of $980.244.95 made tip the engineer 1 a estimate of $1,500,000 aa placed hefore the property owners the previous November. After careful consideration of the tenders, the commission-ers f e l t that they had no alternative hut to recommend that the tender of the lowest straight u n i t bidder, that of the Marsh Bourne Construction Company, be accepted. Before doing ao, however, i t waa thought advisable to c a l l another meeting of the owners. This was duly held at Huntingdon, B. C , on March 27, 1920. The minutes of thia meeting ahow that approximately 80% of the property ownera were preaent, and that a vote taken re-aulted In a deciaion to carry out the contract by 102 for, and 6 against. Thia was done despite the fact that Mr. S i n c l a i r ' s o r i g i n a l estimate of $1,500,000 had been increased by $300,000. AS there was some question of the v a l i d i t y of the commia-aionere' actiona., i n view of the number of previoua enactmenta concerning the same project, i t waa considered advisable to draft enabling l e g i s l a t i o n to clear up any doubts on the mat-t e r . Accordingly, the Legislature passed the "Sumas Drainage, Dyking and Development D i s t r i c t . A c t " on A p r i l 17, 1920. By (109) th i s act, a l l former plans, surveys, contracts, etc. were an-nulled; the appointment of the Land Settlement Board as Dyking Commissioners was r a t i f i e d ; a l l acts of the Board i n connection with contracts were validated; and provisions made for the f i n -ancing of the project and for preparation of assessment r o l l s . The Land Settlement Board was re-organized i n A p r i l 19E0, and became a one-man board with Col. &. D. Davies as sole member. The board's status as Dyking Commissioners for the Sumaa Dyking D i s t r i c t waa not altered by thia f a c t . The contract with the Marah Construction Company, Limited, (Mr. Bourne had withdrawn from the o r i g i n a l company) was signed on A p r i l 29, 1920* Thia provided for the completion and de-l i v e r y of the work on or before the 30th day of June, 1922, and alao provided for extra work, not covered by the tender but done under the order of the engineer, to be paid for at actual coat plua 10$>. Mr. S i n c l a i r waa appointed as chief engineer of the project as from the date of the signing of the contract. Construction work was a c t u a l l y begun on August 30th, 1920, when a.dragline excavator commenced work on the MeGillivray interception d i t c h . The contractors aoon found themaelves i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s over the purchaae o f plant and equip-ment. In November the engineer complained that arrangements i n regard to the commencement of work on the largeet aingle unit, i . e . , the Tedder dykes and canal, were unsatisfactory. The con-tractors were given t i l l January 1, 1921 to make adeqiiate pro-v i s i o n of machinery, f a i l i n g which t h e i r contract waa to be cancelled. Clio) Reorganization of the Marsh Construction Company took place i n January of 1921. Mr. J. R. Duncan became president of the firm and undertook personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the financing and general management of the company. Improvement i n conditions followed. Equipment was borrowed from an American construction company on a p r o f i t - s h a r i n g basis. An e l e c t r i c power l i n e was b u i l t across the p r a i r i e to supply power and l i g h t for the machines, and also to supply the pumping plants when i n s t a l l e d . On June 21, a communication was received by the commission-ers from Mr. Duncan, claiming i n a b i l i t y to proceed with the work through lack of funds. The Land settlement .Board then took over a l l f i n a n c i a l arrangements, and for the next two years paid a l l approved b i l l s on the strength of the monthly progress estimates, some c r i t i c i s m was directed the board for t h i s pro-cedure but i t must be pointed out that time was of paramount importance, for property owners had made strong representations to the board to complete the Vedder River canal before the flood period of 1922. The contractors were therefore retained i n order to carry forward the work as speedily as possible. The board was secured against possible monetary loss, since they had f u l l control of a l l machinery, equipment, and monthly pro-gress estimates. The 20-inch electric.,-.auction dredge "Colonel Tobin- was leased from the Puget sound Bridge and Dredging Company of Seattle, and during September and October exceedingly rapid progress was made on the canal project by this dredge. During the l a s t two months of the year the work was seriously hampered (in) by severe weather conditions. The engineer and the board made representations to the contractors regarding additional equip-ment to hasten the work, and i n March two additional suction dredges, the "Kobaon" and the "King Edward" were secured. J3y A p r i l 7th, 1922 the complete diversion of the vedder Kiver into the canal had been attained. In May the McGillivray Creek pumphouse was completed. This formed a protection for the East P r a i r i e section, i . e . , a l l lands east of the vedder Canal. This section contains near-l y 8000 acres, a large proportion of which had always been sub-ject to annual flooding. The high water of 1922 was held back, however, and the lands i n t h i s area have been available for cropping since that time. The dykes to protect the West P r a i r i e section were also p r a c t i c a l l y completed before high water, but the problem of damming up Sumas Kiver was s t i l l incomplete when an early and exceptionally high freshet i n May destroyed construction work costing nearly §>50,000. The West P r a i r i e section was flooded as usual that year. During the summer the building of the permanent main dam and pumping station for the West P r a i r i e section v/as carried out on a cost basis by the Marsh Construction Company. Mr. G. P. Moe, assistant engineer to Mr. S i n c l a i r , designed and superin-tended a l l construction work on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r cnntract. The main pumping station, one of the largest of i t s kind i n Canada, has four large pumps with a combined capacity of 1000 cubic feet of water per second, or over 450,000 gallons per minute. (112) During the winter of 1922-23 the work on the main dam waa puahed forward aa rapi d l y aa poaeible. The necesaity of ruahing the work added materially to the cost aa compared with o r i g i n a l estimates, hut i t was f e l t that no expense should he spared i n the e f f o r t to keep out the 1923 high water. The dam across the sumaa Kiver was cloaed on March 29, thua completing the west P r a i r i e protection system i n ample time. This section of the dyking ayatem stood up well under the pressure of the 1923 high water. The reclamation of sumaa Lake and the proper drainage of the whole area s t i l l remained to he completed. The f i r s t pump-ing unit waa ready for uae at the end of June, and pumping was a c t u a l l y begun on July 4. At t h i a time the eommisaioners decided to terminate i f pos-s i b l e the contract with the Marsh Construction Company aa a l l the large units under the contract had been completed. The amaller units that remained to be done had been aub-let to the northern Construction Company. Accordingly the eommisaioners took over as completed the p r i n c i p a l unita from the contractors. The units affected by thia arrangement included the following: the McGillivray Creek interception Ditch; Vedder Canal and East and west vedder Dykes and protection work i n connection therewith; north and south Vedder Dykes; eraser Kiver Dyke; A t c h e l i t z Dyke; Vedder seepage Ditch and Barrage Dyke; Sumaa Kiver Dyke, etc. un a l l but one of the above mentioned units the yardage and consequent co.st was very greatly i n excess of the engineer's o r i g i n a l estimate. (113) A reorganization of the engineering s t a f f which took place about th i s time resulted i n Mr. P. i l . S i n c l a i r "being r e l i e v e d of his duties as c h i e f engineer, and Mr. G. £. Moe being ap-pointed i n his place. During the remainder of 1923, work on the minor units waa continued by the northern Construction Company. The engineering a t a f f c a r r i e d out a contour aurvey of the whole d i s t r i c t for assessment purposes. Grass aeed waa sowed on a l l the fi n i s h e d dykes and the fencing of dykes and canals was c a r r i e d out under separate contract. By agreement dated August 8, 1923, between the Federal 2 Government aa vendor and the p r o v i n c i a l Government aa purchaaer, the "lake Landa" were turned over to the province. B r i e f l y the conditions of sale were aa follows: 1. A nominal aum of ijpl.OO to be paid. 2. That the landa a h a l l be e f f e c t i v e l y reclaimed. 3. That when reclaimed they a h a l l be offered for sale on f a i r and equitable terms. 4. That the Comptroller of water Highta of the pro-vince s h a l l c e r t i f y aa to t h e i r having been e f f e c t -i v e l y reclaimed. 5. That the necessary aurveya ahall be c a r r i e d out at the expense of the purchaser. 6. That the province of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l assume complete r e s p o n a i b i l i t y i n connection with the terms of the agreement. 2. The "Lake Landa" were owned by the Federal Government becauae they were i n the railway u e l t . (114) A schedule of lands, approximately 12,120 acres, was attached to the agreement. During the spring of 1924, some 600 acres of the lake mar-gin a l lands were plowed and seeded to various crops, and about 6000 acres of lake bottom land were seeded to timothy. The l a s t of the water remaining i n the sumas basin was pumped out on June 26, 1924. The dykes stood the high water of that year without damage though there was some seepage which resulted .in a small amount of damage to crops. However, i n the main the crops that year turned out very well considering that none of the land had ever before been broken up. Oats and wheat on the marginal lands ran h a l f a ton of grain to the acre. F i r s t crops on the lake bed proper were not a success aa the ground waa not properly dried out and the s o i l appeared to be lacking to some extent i n nitrogen* An unforeseen and unfortunate contingency arose a few months a f t e r the lake bottom was drained when i t was found that a dense coating of willow aeed p r a c t i c a l l y a l l over the former lake bed began to sprout and grow up. This growth of willowa, f l o u r i s h i n g i n a remarkable manner under i d e a l eonditiona of growth, choked out moat of the timothy and preaented for 8ome time a problem with which i t waa most d i f f i c u l t and expenaive to cope. some l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e a alao arose during 1924 to haraaa the eommiaaionera. There arose the problem of terminating the contract with the Marah Construction Company. The company made claims for extra work done i n dredging i n the apring o f 1922, while the eommiaaionera made counter-claima for non-obaervance (115) of the terms of the contract and for.work not completed accord-ing to contract. These matters were f i n a l l y s e t t l e d hy agree-ment i n .November 1925 when both of the parties agreed to drop th e i r respective claims. Mr. S i n c l a i r , after his dismissal, alao i n s t i t u t e d l e g a l proceedings against the commissioners, claiming $60,000 i n payment of plans and information which he alleged had heen uaed hy the commiaaioners and which properly were hia personal property, when this suit came to t r i a l i n February 1925, Mr. S i n c l a i r was awarded the sum of $55,000 by the court. The Board commenced appeal proceedings, however, and eventually Mr. S i n c l a i r agreed to a e t t l e his claims for #21,500. The transfer of crown lands to the province was completed on A p r i l 1, 1925 when the Oomptroiler of Water Rights granted the c e r t i f i c a t e which was required according to the terms of agreement. The t i t l e waa obtained from the federal government i n July, 1925. In May, a writ againat the Land settlement Board and the Dyking Commissioners waa issued by the Municipality of Sumas, acting on behalf of the Sumas landowners, asking for an account-ing and an inquiry into the whole of the reclamation work. AS a r e s u l t of t h i s writ, the p r o v i n c i a l government considered i t advisable to place the whole matter before the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee of the Legislature during the winter aession of 1925. After lengthy hearings at which a l l interested parties were pre-aent, the "sumaa Drainage, Dyking and Development D i a t r i c t Act Amendment Act, 1925" was drawn up. The main provisions were as follows: (1X6 J 1. Authority to transfer crown lands' to eommisaioners . ... and conditions o f t r a n s f e r . 8. Repayment of expenditures made by province on devel-opment of lake lands. 3. Provision f o r s e c u r i t i e s of monies borrowed for a l l purposes at Sumaa. 4. Granting power to commissioners to improve and dispose of lands. 5. Providing method for levying of taxes and v a l i d a t i o n of asseasraent r o l l . 6. Validation of a l l acts of the commissioners * 7. Provision for appointment of Inspector of Dykes as Dyking Oommiasioner i n place of the Land S e t t l e -ment Board. This act was passed by the l e g i s l a t i i r e on December 19,1925, and i n accordance with the above section, Mr. Bruce Dixon, In-spector of Dykea, took over aa from March 10, 1926, the duties of Dyking Commissioner for the Sumas Drainage, Dyking and Devel-opment D i s t r i c t . Mr. Moe's work having been completed, he l e f t the aervice of the d i s t r i c t . In accordance with the act, a Court of Reviaion was held during 1925. There were upwards of 125 objections heard and dealt with by the Court of Revision and the Assessment R o l l waa amended i n accordance with the court's r u l i n g s . 12 complainants appealed to the County Court Judge against these r u l i n g s . Two of theae were upheld by the judge; one waa allowed i n part and (117) the rest dismissed. The basis of thia assessment r o l l aa amended by the Court of Revision and by the County Court judge waa the d i v i s i o n of the land into 10 c l a s a i f i c a t i o n a , " A " to i n c l u a i v e , each claas bearing i t a own proportion of the cost for c a p i t a l and maintenance according to benefita derived. Benefits derived were based on the elevation of the land as regards bush, with the exception of WK", which waa aubject to tax for drainage only. The act authorized l e v i e s on c a p i t a l account againat the marginal landa at the f u l l c a p i t a l coat per acre but at i n -creasing rates of i n t e r e s t , v i z . , 2°/o for the f i r s t year and i n -creasing at the rate of i of 1% per year u n t i l the normal rate of 5%tfo would have been reached, then c a p i t a l i z i n g u n s a t i s f i e d intereat chargea and increaaing the levy to accommodate the greater debt aa well aa ainking funda requirementa. Iieviea for 1926 and 1927 were made under the authority of the 1925 Amendment Act, but the preaent oommiaaioner reviewed the assessment structure just p r i o r to the spring session of 1928 and pointed out the severity of the chargea. A study of s t a t i s t i c s compiled by the Department of Agriculture of the University of B. C. from actual farms surveys over a period of years... i n the Chilliwack d i s t r i c t , together with the findings of a commission which had investigated United States reclam-ation services indicated that the greatest eonatruction charge which an acre at sumaa could bear waa $43.53. From thia the figure of $50.00 per acre was a r b i t r a r i l y adopted. Accordingly (118) the "Sumaa Drainage, Dyking and Development D i a t r i c t R e l i e f Act, 1928" waa enacted. The following table gives the construc-t i o n charges which were affected hy that act, and hy amendments passed i n 1929 and i n 1936. Construction Charges per acre Class-i f i c a t i o n P r i o r to 1928 R e l i e f Act 1928 Amendment 1929 Amendment • 1936 B - #153.96 $50.00 $50.00 $30.00 C 136.85 50.00 50.00 30.00 D 119.75 50.00 30.00 25.00 E 76.98 50.00 30.00 25.00 if 61.58 50.00 30.00 25.00 G 41.05 30.00 30.00 25.00 H 25.66 20.00 20.00 20.00 I 15.40 15.00 10.00 10.00 J. 10.26 10.26 5.00 5,00 K 5.99 5.99 5.00 5.00 This act however l i m i t e d the acreage to he made subject to r e l i e f to an 80 acre holding. I t provided that i f the funda ari a i n g out of the aale of the Lake area and the reduced con-atruction chargea were not s u f f i c i e n t to meet the indehtednesa of the d i s t r i c t that the f u l l amount of the i n s u f f i c i e n c y should be chargeable to and repaid out of the Consolidated Revenue Ji'und of the province. 3. "A" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was the lake bottom land against which no construction charge waa l e v i e d . (119) An amendment aet 1929 repealed the R e l i e f Act of 1928 and extended the r e l i e f which i t had provided hy deleting the 80 acre l i m i t a t i o n . The l a s t mentioned enactment i s the l a t e s t authority concerning the indebtedness upon private lands. In addition i t provides for intere s t at the rate of 5|$> per annum,4 and for the retirement of the debt on January 1, 1969. Levies for the years 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931 and 1933 were on the above basis. An Amendment Act 1933 postponed the levy on t h i s account for 1932, and a s i m i l a r amendment i n 1935 pro-vided for a postponement of the 1934 c a p i t a l levy. These post-ponements have been continued each year up to the present (1937). An Amendment Act 1930 provided for the levying of mainten-ance assessments against these lands at a d e f i n i t e rate per acre. These rates i n the case of "A'' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n amount to $2.00 per acre per year, for "B" and "C" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s they are $1.10 per acre per year, for HD" to "G" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to 55^ per year, f o r "H", M I " and " J " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s they are 27-§-j£ per acre per year. The commissioners f e l t that t h i s system was unsatisfactory as they were required to meet maintenance re-quirements, which were always far from d e f i n i t e , from these set l e v i e s . Accordingly, at the l a s t session of the l e g i s l a t u r e (1936), an amendment was passed which gave the commissioner power to levy annually whatever assessments were necessary for the purpose of maintenance. 4. This was reduced to 4-|$ at the 1936 session of the l e g i s l a t u r e . statutes'of B r i t i s h Columbia,1936 (Second session) 1 Edward V l l l c . l l . (120) The t o t a l indebtedness of the Sumas Dyking D i s t r i c t to the Land Settlement Board as shown by the books of the Dyking Commissioners as at March 10, 1926 was $3,716,277.85. Items which t o t a l l e d f851,616,28 were not i n the engineer's estimates at a l l , one item of $540,811.26 being accumulation of i n t e r e s t at 5-§$> per annum. There i s no question that the engineer greatly underestimated the amount of yardage necessary i n the project. Increased costs i n this respect were over h a l f a m i l l i o n more than the estimate. Bridges which were estimated at $13,619 cost $26,683, p r a c t i c a l l y double. The greatest spread, however, as between estimated and actual costs occurred i n the item "Dama and Plant", where the estimate was $285,000 and the actual cost $793,997.58, more than h a l f a m i l l i o n on thia one item alone.. There i a no doubt that the engineer had based his estimates on i n s u f f i c i e n t data. Subsequent events proved t h i s conclusively. However i t was necessary to b u i l d a plant which would take care of maximum floods without trouble and which would stand up to the work perhaps for centuries. Aa a res u l t of the excessive cost of the scheme over the estimated cost, severe c r i t i c i s m v/as l e v e l l e d at the government, and considerable misunderstanding arose and perhaps s t i l l exists regarding the P r o v i n c i a l Government's relationahip to the pro-je c t . The late Premier u l i v e r , during whose regime the work was c a r r i e d out, p e r s i s t e n t l y maintained his stand that the re-l a t i o n s h i p was simply that of mortgagor and mortgagee, and that the d i s t r i c t must pay every cent of i t a debt. (121} Looking over the project a f t e r a decade since i t s reclama-t i o n , there i s no doubt of the b e n e f i c i a l effects which th i s reclamation work has had on the Fraser Valley. Twenty years ago there lay an 8000 acre area of mud and water too shallow for navigation and probably too deep for the comfort of the duck hunters who were the only ones to get even a few days use of i t . Xn addition i t was probably the f i n e s t breeding ground i n the whole Dominion of Canada for mosquitoes. Today there exists as f i n e a stretch of farming country as the eye could wish to see; with excellent s o i l , ample water supply for a l l purposes, a splendid system of drainage, close to tranaportation and only 50 miles from an urban community of nearly 300,000 people. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to conceive of any farm lands i n l o r t h America more favourably situated. (122) Chapter VI Land settlement The r i c h landa of the Eraser Valley have attracted s e t t l e r s for the l a s t 50 years. The price of land haa heen comparatively high. 1 Thia has to some extent retarded settlement, hut i t has also attracted only the most progressive of the newcomers. In 1907, a government b u l l e t i n records the price- of unimproved land i n the Praaer valley at from f i v e dollara to twenty dollara per acre, while reclaimed (dyked) land sold at from 40 dollars to 150 dollars per acre. Three years l a t e r , during the pre-war "boom" period, these prices had considerably increased, un-improved land was then s e l l i n g at from 10 dol l a r s to 50 dol l a r s per acre while reclaimed land ranged from 50 do l l a r s to 250 do l -l a r s . 3 i n Sardis, i n 1910, a aection of A. C. Wella' farm, cut o f f by the B r i t i a h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway right-of-way, was sold i n acre l o t s at a top price of 600 dol l a r s per acre. This was of course w e l l - c u l t i v a t e d land auitable for r e a i d e n t i a l pro-perty. In 1927 two l o t a i n the heart of Sardia, containing one and one-quarter acrea, was bought for a church aite at a price 4 of 1000 d o l l a r a . In 1912, farm landa i n Dewdney auitable for 1. I t ia d i f f i c u l t to make eompariaona with prieea of land i n si m i l a r areas i n Eastern Canada. In 1833, the Canada Company sold 100-acre parcels of land i n the "Huron Tract" at an average price of aeven s h i l -l i n g s s i x pence per acre. See Innea, m. Q., An 'Economic History of Canada, p.157 2. B. C. B u l l e t i n Ho. 10: Land and Agriculture i n B. C , 1907,ed.p.88 3. Ibid, 1910,ed.p.94. 4. information supplied by Hev. J. H. White, D.D., Sardis, B.C. (123) dairying were purchased at 90 dollars per acre. The cost of clearing t h i s land, which was not heavily timbered, averaged 5 250 dollars an acre. Farmers i n the v a l l e y were nearly always faced with a heavy expenditure for clearing. There are s t i l l available for settlement thousands of acres of c u l t i v a b l e land. The v a l l e y needs s e t t l e r s who are not a-f r a i d of hard work. no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y of land settlement (un-less the s o l d i e r settlements could be so considered) has ever been undertaken by the p r o v i n c i a l or federal government. It has been suggested that such a scheme could he well undertaken at the present time to r e l i e v e conditions among the farmers of the drought-stricken areas of Saskatchewan, Such a p o l i c y would contribute to the general prosperity of the valley and of the whole province, neither the p r o v i n c i a l nor the federal govern-ment has taken o f f i c i a l action as yet, but the suggestion i a worthy of serious consideration. Incorporation and Growth of municipalities ?»hen the Canadian p a c i f i c Railway was completed i n 1885, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Chilliwack, Langley, Maple Ridge and Sur-rey had already been incorporated under the Municipality Act, 1872. This act was amended at various times and i n 1896 general l e g i s l a t i o n was passed consolidating these amendments. As a r e s u l t , the Municipal Clauses Act, the Municipal Elections Act, 5. Information supplied hy Mr. B a s i l Gardom, Manager of Independent Milk Producers' Co-operative Assoc-i a t i o n . 6, See E d i t o r i a l , Vancouver Daily Province, Sept.13, 1937. (124) rt and the Municipal Incorporation Act were passed. These confer extensive powers of l o c a l self-government upon the municipalities and adequately conserve a l l corporate r i g h t s , powers, and l i -a b i l i t i e s . This system v/as l a r g e l y founded on the experience of other provinces but modifications were made to su i t l o c a l con-ditions . Three classes of municipalities have heen developed: urban, d i s t r i c t (rural) and v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . An urban munici-p a l i t y may be formed by a community of not less than 100 male B r i t i s h subjects, provided that owners of more than h a l f the value of the land are pe t i t i o n e r s . In the' case of d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the requirements are s i m i l a r except that only 30 resident male B r i t i s h subjects are necessary as pe t i t i o n e r s . T i l l a g e municipalities may he formed where the number of r e s i d -ents do not exceed 1000, but a l l provisions of the Municipal Act do not apply; T i l l a g e s are not permitted to • incurs' deben-ture indebtedness; they have no duties i n police administration, 3 or, as a municipality i n school matters, Under t h i s system, the incorporation of the d i s t r i c t mun-o i c i p a l i t i e s of the Fraser T a l l e y has been a notable development." The only considerable areas i n the v a l l e y not so organized at the present time are the d i s t r i c t s of Dewdney and Mcomen. The dates of incorporation, given i n the following table, are i n -dicative of the growth of the various areas. 7. Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1896, - 59 V i c t o r i a , 0 37, 0 38, C 39. 8. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information, 1930, pp.46, 47. 9. Statutes of B. C , 1920, Vi l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act, 10 George V, 0 65. (125) Date of Incorporation, Area and Population  of Praser Valley M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Municipality D i s t r i c t of Date of 1 0  Incorporation Area 1 1 i n Acres Population (1931) 12 Chilliwack A p r i l 26, 1873 65,000 5,802 Coquit1am July 25, 1891 37,120 4,871 Praser M i l l s March 25, 1913 390 616 Kent January 1, 1895 47,360 1,207 Langley A p r i l £6, 1873 75,907 5,557 Maple Kidge September 12, 1874 45,000 4,932 Matsqui November 21, 1892 54,145 3,835 Mission June 2, 1892 52,000 2,279 P i t t . Meadows A p r i l 1, 1914 14,000 832 Sumas January 5* 1892 34,000 1,812 Surrey .November 10, 1879 76,000 8,388 City of Chilliwack Port Coquitlam V i l l a g e of Ahbotsford Hope Mission February 21, 1908 March 7, 1913 February 22, 1924 A p r i l 6, 1929 January 8, 1923 1,040 6,200 160 1,200 821 2,461 1,312 510 374 1,314 The growth i n population during the l a s t h a l f century has been steady. The following tables have heen prepared i n an at-10. Information supplied hy o f f i c e of Inspector of Mu n i c i p a l i t i e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 11. Annual Heport of Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 1935 12* Seventh Census of Canada, Ottawa, 1931, Vol.II, p. 104 (126) tempt to ahow the characteriatiea as well as the number of the people who have heen attracted to the urban and r u r a l communities of the Praaer. Valley. I1? Growth i n population of Praser Valley. 1886 - 1931. 1886 189.6 1906 1916 1921 1931 3,300 9,500 13,300 .26,400 37,000 49,000 Population C l a s s i f i e d by Sex: Canadian born, B r i t i s h born, and 14 foreign born, 1931. Canadian Born B r i t i s h Born Foreign Born Male Female Male Female Male Female 15,400 12,800 6,800 ' 4,900 5,600 3,500 Population c l a s s i f i e d according to p r i n c i p a l r a c i a l origins,1931." B r i t i s h races- - 33,200 European races - - - 11,100 A s i a t i c races- - - - 4,050 Indiana- - - - - - - - 1,470 Unspecified- - - - - 180 These tables prove that the population of the Fraser Valley i a predominantly of the Anglo-Saxon race, and that the majority of theae are Canadian born. It i a such stock which has b u i l t up the v a l l e y . •*-13. Figures for 1931 are approximately correct because for the f i r s t time the census was taken according to arranged d i v i s i o n s . Census d i v i s i o n 4(a) i s the Fraser Valley as far east as Keefers. Population for 1921 v/as estimated on that basis by Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, and i s also approximately cor-rect. Previous censuses v/ere taken by e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s , the boundaries of v/hich changed with every census. The foregoing estimates previous to 1920 were baaed on school population as being a r e l i a b l e index. The r a t i o i n 1921 was 1:5.5, and thi s r a t i o was used in the above table. 14. Seventh Census of Canada, 1931, Ottawa, 1931, Vol.11, pp.246,247. 15 .Ibid, pp. 484, et sea.. * r T.T-o. ~T~he. ra.i~/'t> o -f / '• 5~ w s 06 1 n e. d 11 t~h<s-Th& school j? o f> u.1 *.+-ioh *fez.^^h tri ''c 1 f>il i-ty, *S Jive-* i i * . « * » u *.l T f c f i o r t *f B.C. Schools f o r 11 ZO - \CIX\) IV a S com M e /> :LLUi-'*» of ii) & rn u,n't c rp <*.( ity a. S ^'i/<?n ' ^  ^1 e S e / e n f A 4\J<°.r 0, j <s. o f ff, & r-^-f-',D<, o ^ & 1 y h r inn * ,'c t £ cl 11 t le $ ( S i t / ) ^ , ^. / l b ' ] w « 5 Then C a.1 c i^l ^ -h U w j I \ S-.S (^here,dlr<2, ho S o / g CZ. 0 n d <*~ c ^ d in. T'n e_ u. n — \ C 1 j) ^  ( ,- f - ^ Df F r a s e r (s/]i\l&) 4. h A t~ ajf" 1 o % f o /-> Ci ^  W e r e d 1 S, j) r o -j>o i b H arte. (y h i f h , In ft? €• Iqtt&r^ Jf> t~ o h A~b\^ du.^, -j-o Th& j-cmi- that | i j ^ r e s indu.de. iir^ /'», w 4 f £ S S c h o o l J3 o£> u.1 aj~, o h s Q ^ j i . n ^ jz - I 3<-f^ we^ e £<d a i t l <of~e. ^ ^ s e.iLa.^rtl^j j>e>s&lbl<zj a*d. T ^ e a-- "B- W. (127) Indian" He serve aT When B r i t i s h Columbia entered confederation i n 1871, pro-v i s i o n was made for the native races who are wards of the Dom-inion of Canada. Reserves of s u f f i c i e n t extent to enable the Indians to make an independent l i v i n g were conveyed by the pro-vince to the Dominion. These are held i n v i o l a t e for them by the o f f i c i a l s of the Indian Department. The'land i a subdivided into plots which Indians may hold and own i n severalty, but no property belonging to the reserve may he 3 0 l d without permission of the federal government, nor can reserve properties be seized for d e b t . 1 6 Indians are not necessarily confined to the reserves. They may move about and seek employment where they can fin d i t . T h e Indians of the Fraser Valley own some r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l lands and engage i n mixed farming a f t e r a fashion. During the fi s h i n g season, however, the majority of them i s employed i n that industry; p a r t i c u l a r l y was t h i s so pri o r to 1900. women worked i n the canneries, cutting and cleaning f i s h , while the men were employed i n the boats. In the autumn there was a gen-e r a l migration to the hop-fields of Sardis and Agaaaiz. U n t i l recent years, Indiana had almost a monopoly i n the work of picking hops. These two industries, f i s h i n g and hop-picking, provided remunerative employment during the summer months for a majority of the Indians of the v a l l e y . There are 62 reservea located i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . Most of these have frontage on the Fraser River or i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , 16. Gosnell, R. E., B. C. Year Book, 1897, p.175. (128) several being on islands. These reserves contain 21,395 acres 17 of land, about 10°i> of which are under c u l t i v a t i o n . The t o t a l value of r e a l and personal property belonging to the Indians of the v a l l e y i s nearly 1,000,000 d o l l a r s . 1 8 Soldier Settlements, 1919. Paced with the problem of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g demobilized s o l -diers , the federal government established the Soldier s e t t l e -ment Board of Canada early i n 1918. The Soldier Settlement Act of 1917 was described as "An Act to a s s i s t returned s o l - . diers i n s e t t l i n g upon the land and to increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production." Under th i s act loans up to 2,500 dol l a r s were granted to a s s i s t i n the re-establishment of returned men. In 1919, an amendment to the act provided for a loan up to 5,000 doll a r s to purchase land, the s e t t l e r paying 10% of the pur-chase pri c e . In addition the s e t t l e r might he advanced up to 2,000 dollars for l i v e - s t o c k and equipment, and 1,000 dollars 19 for permanent improvements. A l l loans bore inter e s t at 5%. D i s t r i c t boards were setup for the purpose of passing on a l l applicants for loans to purchase land, stock and equipment. A g r i c u l t u r a l experts were appointed to advise and siipervise s e t t l e r s . Special concessions i n the way of transportation rates, allowances while t r a i n i n g , and courses for solders' wives were given these s e t t l e r s and i n Canada nearly 25,000 17. Information supplied by Indian Agent's O f f i c e , lew Westminster, B.C. 18. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l information, 1930. p.78. 19. Heport of Soldier Settlement Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1921, p.27 et seq. (129) loans were granted. In B r i t i s h Columbia, a favoured l o c a t i o n for settlement was the Fraser Valley. There were 802 se t t l e r s who purchased farms under this scheme, mainly i n the municipalities of C h i l l i -wack, Surrey, Langley and Mataqui. The average size of these farms was 29.4 acres and the average price paid for land was „ 0 A r. a _ SO 92.45 dol l a r s per acre. This i n f l u x of so l d i e r s e t t l e r s to the v a l l e y did not mean that new t e r r i t o r y was opened up, for a l l purchases of land were r e s t r i c t e d to those farms v/hich had been p a r t i a l l y under c u l t i v a t i o n . Soldier s e t t l e r s however were encouraged to clear new acreage for c u l t i v a t i o n , and i n 1920 an increase of about 25$ i n land under c u l t i v a t i o n v/as made. It would have been too much to expect that a l l these s o l -dier s e t t l e r s would be successful. Death and recurring sickness due to war d i s a b i l i t i e s removed some of them. Poor crops and adverse market conditions discouraged others, while there were a good many who were unf i t t e d , a f t e r t h e i r war-time experiences, for the hard t o i l necessary to make a success of farming. Ad-justments had to he made i n disposing of the farms which reverted to the Soldier Settlement Board. Some v/ere sold to c i v i l i a n pur-chasers. Some v/ere taken over by B r i t i s h families under a scheme of Empire settlement by which, during 1926 and 1927, nearly three thousand B r i t i s h families were brought to Canada under the aus-pices of the Canadian and B r i t i s h goyernmenta. 20. Heport of Soldier Settlement Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1921, p.134. (130) The l a t e s t information concerning the loans made i n the Fraser Yalley show that there are 364 of the 80£ o r i g i n a l s o l -d i e r s e t t l e r s who are s t i l l i n possession of t h e i r farms. Of 21 these approximately 20$> have repaid t h e i r loans, i n f u l l . This average i s somev/hat hetter than the Dominion average v/hich go i s lZ°/b. C i v i l i a n purchasers have taken 312 of the holdings, while B r i t i s h families have taken 54. There are 72 parcels of land which are leased pending resale. These figures are con-sidered quite s a t i s f a c t o r y hy the o f f i c i a l s i n charge. During recent years the government has adopted a'policy of reasonahle leniency i n the matter of recovery of the loans, and since 1933 has offered a d o l l a r for d o l l a r bonus on payments for ar-rears or on any instalment due hetv/een 1933 and 1938. This l e g i s l a t i o n applies to a l l s e t t l e r s , soldiers and c i v i l i a n s a l i k e , who were indebted i n respect of any contract made p r i o r to January 1st, 1933. The government re a l i z e s that any fore-closure proceedings on the sole ground of i n a b i l i t y to pay would merely mean a s h i f t i n g of the problem to some other department of the government. The whole p o l i c y of s o l d i e r settlement was a great human experiment for which a s a t i s f a c t o r y measure of success can he claimed. Many of the o r i g i n a l s o l d i e r s e t t l e r s i n the Fraser Yalley have not only made good on t h e i r farms, hut have also played an important part i n the l i f e of t h e i r communities. 21. Information supplied by Mr. G. Johnston, Asst. Super-intendent, Soldier Settlement Board, Yancouver, B.C. 22. Eleventh Report of Soldier Settlement Board of Canada. Ottawa, 1936, p.3. 23. Ibid, p.4. ('131J Mennonlte Settlements. Recent settlements by Menn.onite's afford an example of com-munity settlement which has been rare i n the history of the Eraser Valley. These people belong to a re l i g i o u s body who l e f t Russia i n the l a s t decades of the nineteenth century because they were refused exemption from m i l i t a r y service. Many c o l -onies were subsequently established i n various sections of United states, i n untario, and i n the p r a i r i e provinces. During the summer of 1927, Abram Buhr, a lawyer, and P. H. ITeufeld, a teacher, both of Winnipeg, v i s i t e d the Fraser Valley to investigate a t r a c t of land at Yarrow which had heen offered for settlement. These men were very favourably impressed with the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the val l e y . They reported thus to t h e i r compatriots. Several families moved to Yarrow the 24 f i r s t year, and the settlement soon increased. The l a s t of-f i c i a l census (1931) gave the number of Mennonites i n the v a l l e y as 849, nearly 80^ of whom were at Yarrow. Since that time the number has increased and i t i s now estimated that there are at least 2000, with the greatest number s t i l l i n Chilliwack munici-p a l i t y . These people have adjusted themselves to the economic l i f e of the v a l l e y with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . They w i l l accept work of any kind. The only complaint against them i s that they are too ready to undercut wages, some of the younger generation are entering the professions. They are an industrious people and 24. information supplied hy Rev. Mr. Heufeld, Yarrow, B.C. (132) w i l l no doubt make a d e f i n i t e contribution to the material pro-gress of the v a l l e y . (133) Chapter 'Vll!. The Development of S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . Public schools. 1 The development of educational f a c i l i t i e s i n the Fraser Valley has s t e a d i l y kept pace with settlement. Indeed, there i s probably no more accurate index of the time and place of settlement than the record of the building of school-houses. In the main, these schools have been the t r a d i t i o n a l one-roomed schools of r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , though many of them soon expanded p into graded schools. The next step was to become a "superior" school, and then a high school. The f i r s t high school i n the v a l l e y was opened i n C h i l l i -wack i n 1903 with an enrolment of 32 pupils. The increase i n high schools has been e s p e c i a l l y marked i n the post-war period. This has been a general feature i n the growth of educational f a c i l i t i e s since 1919. The l a t e s t annual report (65th..): shows that i n the v a l l e y there are 11 high schools, containing 55 d i v i -sions and having an enrolment of 1623 pu p i l s . Following C h i l l i -wack, the order and date of t h e i r establishment i a as follows: Agassiz (1915), Matsqui (1916)* Mission (1916), Langley (1919), Surrey (1919;, Maple Ridge (1920), Mt. Lehman (1922J, Sumas -Abbotaford (1922), Port Coquitlam (1922; and Dewdney (1929). 1. s t a t i a t i c a i n th i a aection v/ere obtained from 15th, 25th, 35th, 45th, 55th, and 65th Annual Reporta on 33. C. Schools. 2, A "superior" achool i a an elementary achool contain-ing one or more grades of high school. (134) The modern trend i n educational administration here, as elsewhere, i s towards consolidation of school d i s t r i c t s and the establishment of junior high schools. An experiment which should prove of considerable value was begun i n 1935, when the school administrations of matsqui, Sumas, and Abhotsford Dis-t r i c t s and Abhotsford V i l l a g e consented to unite to form an ex-perimental area under the control of a direct o r appointed by the Department of Education. This area v/as to he administered, by the department for three years, with the ex i s t i n g trustees retained as an advisory board. A si m i l a r organization i n the Peace Kiver Block has proved successful and the success of the present experiment might help to solve some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by r u r a l school boards. To increase, or even to maintain, the e f f i c i e n c y of the school system without increasing the bud-get i s a problem which has had to be faced since 1929. With low prices f o r dairy and farm produce, i t has been a d i f f i c u l t time for r u r a l achool boards. They w i l l no doubt watch the ex-periment at Abhotsford c a r e f u l l y . The following table i a appended to ahow the growth of the achool ayatema i n the v a l l e y for a period of 50 yeara• School Enrolment 1886 - 1936. Year ending June 30 ao. of schools l o . of Diviaiona Total Enrolment 1886 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 16 50 69 106 121 129 16 55 77 177 252 329 1,731 2,420 4,811 7,228 10,625 604 3. Includea high achool enrolment. E a r l y figures are only approximately correct owing to face that schools v/ere not l i s t e d hy mu n i c i p a l i t i e s . (135) Indian schools. There are two r e s i d e n t i a l Indian schools i n the Eraser Valley that have done, and are doing, good work i n educating Indian children. They are St. Mary's Mission at Mission, and Coqualeetza Residential school at Sardis, near Chilliwack. These schools e n r o l l hoys and g i r l s from 6 to 16 years of age from the near-by reserves. In general, the p o l i c y of these schools i s to give academic t r a i n i n g to a l l pupils for h a l f - a -day while i n the other half-day the boys learn farming, carpen-t r y and other l i k e pursuits. At the same time, the g i r l s are taught cooking, sev/ing and general housework. Of late years, the government, by means of frequent medical inspections, has very wisely paid p a r t i c u l a r attention to the health of a l l pupils. These schools were o r i g i n a l l y established under church auspices, hut they and other s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s are now main-tained by the Federal Government by means of a per capita grant. St. Mary's Mission, one of the oldest i n B r i t i s h Columbia was established i n the I860'a hy Father Fouquet, O.M.I. The f i r s t buildings were erected on what i s now the right-of-way of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, but i n 1885 the present school, convent and church was moved to the s i t e near Mission on which i t now atanda. 4 There was accommodation fo r about 130 pupila, usually about equally divided between the a e x e a . This attend-ance was f a i r l y well maintained for some years, but i n 1936 an 4. Pamphlet published hy Municipal Council, Mission, 19E8 (136) additional building increased the accommodation by 50 pupils. The enrolment at the end of June, 1937 was: boys - 76; g i r l s - 99. Coqualeetza was developed from an Indian day school which was organized i n 1880 hy Rev. C. M. and Mrs. Tate, pioneer Methodist missionaries. This school was established on the Squihala Reserve near Chilliwack landing, but i n 1886 i t was moved .to i t s present s i t e at Sardis and soon developed into a r e s i d e n t i a l school. In 1891 this home was destroyed by f i r e and two years l a t e r was replaced by a brick building accommod-ating 100 pupila. By means of several small outbuildings used as boys' dormitories, Coqualeetza' had an average attendance of 150 or more for many years. In 1924 the old building was con-demned and demolished. I t was replaced by the present fine 6 brick b u i l d i n g on the same s i t e * The enrolment at t h i s school i n June, 1937, was: boys - 126; g i r l s - 107. 7 There i s no doubt that Indian children have received ex-ce l l e n t t r a i n i n g i n theae r e s i d e n t i a l schools, but a d i f f i c u l t y has always existed i n t h e i r adjustment, aft e r graduation, to home conditions on the reserves. So doubt many of them have reverted too e a s i l y to the general squalor around them. On the other hand, there have been a few outstanding characters trained i n these schools who have done much for t h e i r people. 5. Information aupplied by Indian Agent'a Office, lew Westminster, B.C. 6. Information aupplied by Rev. G. H. Raley, D.D., . former P r i n c i p a l of Coqualeetza. 7. Information from Indian Agent's Of f i c e , Hew Westminster, B.C. (137) Churches. Religious denominations were not long i n following up s e t t l e -ment i n the Eraser Valley, and t h e i r record of expansion i s one that p a r a l l e l s closely.the growth of settlement. Though there were very few church buildings erected p r i o r to 1885, divine service was held more or less r e g u l a r l y wherever there were a few who could gather together. Sometimes this was i n a home, hut frequently, too, school buildings were used for worship. The early annual reports of the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia con-tained t h i s information t i l l 1898, and show that i n 1886 there were seven out of 16 school buildings used f o r divine worship. Ten years l a t e r 20 out of 50 schools were so used, and others were used for Sunday Schools. E a r l y records of the churches are somewhat incomplete. Even the denominational year books f a i l to give exact information because returns were not always sent i n . The following records of the Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist Churches for the years 1886, 1911, and ,1936 give a picture of the growth of the churches during a period of 50 years. The Anglican church i n 1886 was represented by churches at Chilliwack and Maple Ridge, both of which were among the f i r s t churches i n the v a l l e y . l o record of the number of members i n either of these i s av a i l a b l e . By 1911 the number of churches had increased to 15 with approximately 2000 members and 750 communicants. In 1936 there were 26 churches with a t o t a l mem-g bership of 5205 including communicants. 8. Information obtained at Synod Office, Diocese of flew Westminster. (138) The Presbyterian Church i n 1887 had churches at Chilliwack and Port Langley, with 63 families and 47 communicants on the r o l l as members; By 1911 there were 9 pastoral charges with 30 other preaching places. There were 550 families as members and 510 communicants.' In 1925, the year of union with the Methodist and Congregational Churches, there were 13 pastoral charges and 20 other mission f i e l d s . Families as members numbered 960 with 9 1035 communicants. The Methodist Church i n 1886 had four pastoral charges of which one was Indian. In addition there were 20 preaching places of which five were Indian. The t o t a l membership at that time was 266,of which 97 were Indians. By 1911 there were 12 pastoral charges v/ith 26 preaching places. The membership t o t a l was nearly 1000. In 1925 there were 17 pastoral charges and 31 preaching appointments with a t o t a l membership of 1200.1° When the union of the churches took place i n 1925, only the most suitable churches were used for pastoral charges. As a re s u l t , the United Church i n 1936 had 22 pastoral charges of which one i a Japanese and one Indian. There were 58 preaching places of v/hich 10 were Japanese and two Indian. There was a t o t a l membership of 2561,. of which 125 were Japanese and 66 Indian.11 The devoted labours of the pioneer ministers have not gone unrewarded. In spite of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n transportation and of 9. s t a t i s t i c s compiled from Minutes of General Assembly, 1888, 1911, 1925. 10. Information aupplied hy Rev. J. H. White D.D., former Supt. o i Methodiat Miasions for B.C. 11. Ibid. (139) f i n a n c i a l worries, they l a i d the foundations for the churches of today. Hospitals. ..The c i t y of Chilliwack and the villages of Ahhotsford and Mission now boast small but well-equipped hospitals. These give adequate service to the residents of the eastern h a l f of the v a l l e y , while the c i t y hospitals of lew Westminster and Vancouver accommodate residents of neighboring m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . There i s no doubt that i n time these municipalities w i l l make provision for t h e i r own hospital services. Langley has a l -ready considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of such service, but no de-f i n i t e steps to that end have been taken yet. The Chilliwack General Hospital was the f i r s t to operate. It was o f f i c i a l l y ^ o p e n e d on February 12, 1912. The idea of a hospital had originated some years before i n the minds of several p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , and a fund was started for the purpose of building and equipping a ho s p i t a l . A s i t e was presented and various means taken to raise funds. The o r i g i n a l unit was b u i l t at a cost of $10,000 and opened free of debt. 1 2 There was accommodation for 13 patients, but i n two years* time a new wing, which doubled the accommodation, was added. In 1924 a nurses' home was b u i l t and an X-ray machine and other 13 equipment added. The accommodation i s for 28 beds. The s t a f f comprises a matron and fiv e or six nurses. This hospital has f u l f i l l e d a l o n g - f e l t want. 12. The Chilliwack Progress, March 6, 1912. 13. Ibid. May 8, 1924. (140J 14 The Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford General Hospital and the 15 Mission Memorial Hospital are s i m i l a r i n many respects. They were both b u i l t by public subscription shortly after' the war, and are both out of debt. They are both well-equipped f o r s u r g i c a l cases and for emergencies. The Mission Memorial Hos-p i t a l i s somewhat larger than the Abhotsford Hospital, having accommodation for 21 patients aa against 17 for the l a t t e r . A l l three hospitals are staffed by graduate nurses only. Eraser Yalley Union Library. Library f a c i l i t i e a i n the Eraser v a l l e y communities had been p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent previoua to 1930. By a atroke of good fortune auch f a c i l i t i e a were given them i n that year. Aa a reault of a survey conducted by the p r o v i n c i a l government through 'it's Library Commission, assisted by the professional body of l i b r a r i a n s , the Fraser Y a l l e y was chosen as one of three regions i n l o r t h America to he used as a testing-ground fo r a new idea i n r u r a l l i b r a r i e s . The Carnegie Corporation of lew York had placed $100,000 at the diapoaal of the B. C. Library Commission ao that the acheme might be t r i e d out for fiv e yeara. I t waa hoped that, by the end of the period, the 16 l i b r a r y would be adopted by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e a . The aervice waa i n i t i a t e d On March 1, 1930, under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. Helen Stewart of the Library Commission. Chilliwack was chosen as the main depot and d i s t r i b u t i n g centre 14. Information re Abhotsford Hospital from the Matron, Miss Archibald. 15. Information re Mission Hospital from J . L. English, Druggist, Missions iG* The Chilliwack progress, December 12,1929; March 13,1930 (141) for the 20,000 hooks which were to he maintained. A truck with a capacity of over 800 hooks v/as f i t t e d up as a t r a v e l l i n g l i -brary. It made a complete round t r i p , down one side of the v a l l e y and up the other about every two weeks. In addition to the main depot at Chilliwack, branch l i -b raries were maintained at Abhotsford, Langley, Cloverdale, Ladner, Haney and Mission. These v/ere open to the public from 15 to 27 hours per week and 1000 or more books were kept on the shelves. Three sub-branches - at Hope, White Rock, and Port Coquitlam - were open from four to eight hours a week. Deposit stations with 100 to 200 volumes were maintained at eight d i f f e r e n t centres. In addition 22 school l i b r a r i e s were assisted and there were 55 or more points of c a l l for the l i -brary van. Custodians of the branch and sub-branch l i b r a r i e s were paid, but i n a l l other places the work was ca r r i e d on hy voluntary labour. This program was carried out very successfully. People from i s o l a t e d sections quite cheerfully walked miles and waited hours i n order not to miss an opportunity for an exchange of books. In September 1932, a f t e r two years operation, 15,637 adults and 700 school children had registered as members. During the f i r s t s i x months of 1932, these members had borrowed 130,137 17 -volumes. .Library assistants noted a rapid turn-over of v o l -umes and a preference for n o n - f i c t i o n rather than f i c t i o n i n the reading tastes of various sections of the v a l l e y . 17. Vancouver Daily Province, Bovember 27, 1932. (142j The municipalities took over the l i b r a r y on October 1,1934, as the o r i g i n a l grant of $100,000 had been expended before the five-year term was up. A board of management, consisting of representatives of the various municipalities and school d i s -t r i c t s within the l i b r a r y area, was elected i n order to carry on the work. Each municipality i s assessed on a basis of 35pJ per capita t o t a l population, but the method of r a i s i n g the re-spective quotas i s a matter o f municipal j u r i s d i c t i o n . The annual report for the year ending December 31, 1936 was very encouraging. A t o t a l of 3322 new volumes was added at a cost of §3501. There were 133 l i b r a r y agencies which i n -cluded school l i b r a r i e s and book-van stops. Kegistration of active readers increased by 3365 over the previous year, bring-ing the t o t a l to 19,330. The t o t a l c i r c u l a t i o n of books a-mounted to 225,555 volumes, giving an average c i r c u l a t i o n of 11.6 volumes per member for the year.- 1 , 8 The compactness of the valley, together v/ith i t s system of good highv/ays were factors i n the choice whereby residents were provided v/ith l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s for fi v e years at no ex-pense. The results have j u s t i f i e d that choice, and there can be but l i t t l e doubt but that the people w i l l maintain a ser-vice which they lacked for so many years. 18. Annual Report of Fraser Yalley Union Library, December 31, 1936. (143) Chapter T i l l C o mmun ica t i o a s The Fraser V a l l e y waa p a r t i c u l a r l y fortunate i n having telegraph communication with the outside world at a very early date.. This was due to the fact that the famous overland t e l e -graph l i n e was b u i l t through Chilliwack i n the 1860's, aa part of the aystem that was to connect Europe and l o r t h America. The succeaaful completion of the A t l a n t i c cable i n 1866 r e s u l t -ed i n the overland route being abandoned. However, the section of the l i n e i n B r i t i s h Columbia was taken over by the provin-c i a l government i n 1871, and was operated aa a commercial telegraph l i n e ; 1 John T. McCutcheon, one of Chilliwack 1a pioneers, was the telegraph operator at that point for some years. Following the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, the government l i n e west of Ashcroft was absorbed by the r a i l -way company. Sections of the l i n e were r e b u i l t and improved and have formed part of the C. P. R. telegraph aystem since 2 that time. Chilliwack has thus been i n telegraphic communi-cation with outside points almoat since the inception of set-tlement there* Other centres of settlement i n the v a l l e y were not ao fortunate. I t was n o t ' u n t i l 1891 that the reeve of langley was able to convey greetings to the f i r a t c i t i z e n a of Chilliwack and of Vancouver by way of i n i t i a t i n g telegraphic 1. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information, 1950, p.214 2. Ibid, p. 215. £144) 3 service there. Many communities never enjoyed such service, for the introduction of the long-distance telephone, some five or s i x years l a t e r , relegated the telegraph to a p o s i t i o n of secondary importance. B r i t i s h Columbia 'Telephone Company. In 189 6 the f i r s t telephone l i n e s were l a i d i n the v a l l e y , and on A p r i l 6 of that year Chilliwack was connected with Van-couver and Hew ?/estminster. " This l i n e was b u i l t by the new Westminster and Burrard Inlet Telephone Company, one of the pioneers i n the province. At t h i s date, i t was expected that connections would be made at the following placea; Sumas, Ab-hotsford, Aldergrove, langley P r a i r i e and Port Langley. Thus was the f i r s t step taken i n b u i l d i n g up a system which today covers the whole v a l l e y with a network of wires. In 1903 the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e granted permission for several companies i n the province to amalgamate with the Hew Westminster and Burrard Inlet Telephone Company i n order to protect t h e i r inv'estments and the better to meet the growing 5 demands for extension of service. In the next year the B r i -t i s h Columbia Telephone Company came into existence. This company has been responsible for most of the exten-sions of telephone service throughout the Praser Valley, but there have been three independently-owned companies which have 3. Chilliwack Progress, June 4, 1891. 4. Ibid, A p r i l 8, 1896. 5. Gosnell, H. £., B.C. Year Book 1911/14, "p.303. (145) been absorbed into the senior system. The f i r s t of these companies to he formed was the C h i l l i -wack Telephone Company Limited, which began operations on A p r i l 1, 1908 with a directory containing 107 names.6 There were at th i s time a few business phones i n Chilliwack which had been operated by the B. C. Telephone Company for long-distance c a l l s , but these were taken over hy the l o c a l company at' the time of i t s organization. For ten years the Chilliwack Company exper-ienced a steady growth i n business, but received a severe set-back at the time of the 1917 " s i l v e r thaw". So many poles and so much wire were brought down at that time, that the company was forced p r a c t i c a l l y to rebuild t h e i r entire l i n e s of communi-cation. In 1928 the company was bought out by the B. C. Telephone Company. $70,000 was spent the next year i n building a new ex-change and i n i n s t a l l i n g automatic equipment. The two other independently-owned systems i n the v a l l e y were those of the Mission City Telephone Company, Ltd., and the Huntingdon Kural Telephone Co. The former had been i n operation since 1909, and at the time of being taken over by the B. C. Telephone Company i n December, 1929, was giving service to 384 subscribers. The l a t t e r system, serving the Sumas area, was taken over on August 1, 1931, thus unifying the l i n e s for the 7 whole v a l l e y , One of the greatest periods of expansion occurred during 6. From information supplied by Mr. P. H. Wilson, Manager of Chilliwack Exchange, and formerly manager of Chilliwack Telephone Company, Limited. 7. Information supplied by Mr. H. F. Pullen, P u b l i c i t y Director, B. 0. Telephone Company. (146) the "boom" period of 1910, when exchanges were put i n at Agaaaiz, Milner, Hammond and other centrea. These gave l o c a l aervice as well as long-distance connections to the coast c i t i e s and intermediate points. The p o l i c y of the company has heen to extend the service as widely as possible, and there are few points that are without telephone service today. Moreover, the company i s s t e a d i l y improving service and equipment. Aldergrove, Chilliwack, Ham-mond and Hope exchanges have automatic equipment today, and i t i s the intention of the company to i n s t a l l such equipment i n the v a l l e y exchanges whenever i t i s necessary to improve the 9 service. British~~Columbia power Corporation Limited. The topography of the north side of the Eraser Yalley haa provided i d e a l conditions for the development of hydro-electric power. Eaat of P i t t Meadowa the mountains r i s e quite abruptly from the r i v e r to a height of over 3000 feet, n e s t l i n g i n the valleys l i e Alouette (named: L i l l o o e t on early maps) and Stave Lakes, the l a t e r draining into the Praser by the Stave Kiver.. Alouette l i e s at an elevation of 482 feet and the Stave at 340 feet. The drop from Stave P a l l a plant at the southern end of the lake to the new plant at Kuskin i a about 130 f e e t . 1 0 During the l a a t 35 yeara, the growth of the coaat c i t i e a and the Praaer Yalley haa made i t necessary to u t i l i z e these reaourcea of water 8. The B r i t i s h Columbian. Hew Westminster, August 22, 1910; October 26, 19l6. 9. Information supplied by Mr. H. P. Pullen, P u b l i c i t y Director, B. C. Telephone Co. 10. Prom small descriptive pamphlet, Alouette Power Devel-opment, published 1928, by B. C. E. R. Co. l t d . (147 j power. These projects have very materially assisted i n the development of the entire Lower Mainland. The f i r s t piece of work was begun i n 1902 on the Coquitlam-Buntzen power plants by the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Kailway Company. This whole project was not completed t i l l 1914, as a l -most continuous enlargement of the plant was necessary. 1 1 When finished, t h i s project consisted of two power houses on the north arm of Burrard Inlet about 15 miles from Vancouver. The water supply for these two power houses comes from Lake Coquit-lam by means of a tunnel 13,200 feet long. The combined capac-i t y of these two plants i s 64,000 horsepower. About 1911, an important competitor, the Western Canada « 12 Power Companyj entered the l o c a l f i e l d . A fine power station was b u i l t at Stave P a l l s . I t was placed i n operation on Jan-uary 1, 1912, the company s e l l i n g e l e c t r i c a l energy i n bulk to the B. C. E l e c t r i c Hallway Company and to the c i t y of B e l l i n g -ham. The depression following the "boom" years l e f t the western Canada Power Company i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The war years added i n no small measure to these d i f f i c u l t i e s . Paced with the prospect of expansion immediately a f t e r the war, the B. C. E l e c t r i c Railway Company was forced to look for a power supply greater than that contracted for with the West-ern Canada Power Company. The l o g i c a l source of such a supply was the Stave Kiver, the more so as the B. C. E l e c t r i c Kailway 11. V i l s t r u p , A., "Early History of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Power*System i n the Lower Mainland of B. C", a pamphlet containing an address given March 20,1936. 12. Ibid. (148j Company held water rights on Alouette Lake, the best develop-ment of which would he through Stave Lake and Kiver. The natural solution of the whole problem l a y i n the pur-chase of the Western Canada Power Company. This was according-l y done, the new management becoming ef f e c t i v e on January 1,1921, under the name of the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation Limited. This consummation added 39,000 horsepower to the capacity of the old company, but plans were immediately l a i d to improve the plant. The construction of a new dam to provide greater hydraulic operating head, the rebuilding of e x i s t i n g generators to provide greater capacity, and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of new gener-ators - a l l thia waa completed by 1925 and raiaed the capacity of the plant to 79,000 horaepower. Concurrently with the work at stave F a l l s , construction waa begun on the Alouette Lake project. This lake lay i n a narrow v a l l e y west of Stave Lake and elevated 140 feet above i t . The project comprised the b u i l d i n g of a dam at the south end of the lake, and the driving of a diversion tunnel at the north end of the lake so as to connect with ,Stave Lake. This tunnel i s 3600 feet long, 15 feet i n diameter, and connects with a power plant on the west side of Stave Lake about 11 milea above the F a l l a . Thia new plant completed i n 1928 pro-vides an additional 12,500 horaepower of e l e c t r i c a l energy. The most i n t e r e s t i n g feature of the plant i s that i t i a com-p l e t e l y automatic i n operation. Thia was desirable because of the i s o l a t i o n of the plant and i n addition i t waa designed (149) 13 to carry a steady load. I t i s operated from Stave F a l l s . The l a t e s t and f i n a l step i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the Stave-Alouette project was the construction, during 1929-1930, of the plant at Ruskin, three and a h a l f miles below stave : F a l l s . Here a single huge generator, one of the largest on the 14 continent, produces 47,000 horsepower. Ultimately four such units w i l l be i n s t a l l e d , the second of v/hich i s expected to be in operation next year (1938),^ The construction of the Ruskin plant offered several eng-ineering d i f f i c u l t i e s not the l e a s t of which was the diversion of the Stave River from i t s natural channel to allow the found-ations of the dam to be l a i d . This was successfully accom-plished by means of a huge wooden flume, 36 feet wide and'12 feet high. The power house i t s e l f embodies a l l the" most modern features of hydro-electric engineering. Ultimately, with the completion of the Bridge River plans, the Ruskin plant w i l l ac-commodate the heavy peak-load periods. Radio Station C H W K 1 6 ,' i The progressive l i t t l e c i t y of Chilliwack has the only radio broadcasting station i n the Fraser Valley, Station GHWK, which began operating i n the summer of 1927. The guiding s p i r i t 13. Pamphlet: "The Power System of the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation, Limited* " published by B. C. P. R. ' Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 1932. -14. Souvenir booklet on Ruskin Power Development, 1930 15. Information supplied by P u b l i c i t y Bureau, B r i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation Limited. 16.Information supplied by Mr. Casey Wells, manager Station CHWK. (150) i n t h i s project was Mr. Casey Wells, the grandson of one of Chilliwack's e a r l i e s t and most respected pioneers. In company with Mr..Jack Menzies, a Chilliwack merchant, Mr. Wells organized the Chilliwack Broadcasting Company, Limited. With an assigned frequency of 1210 k i l o c y c l e s , they began t h e i r e f f o r t s i n a very modest way. The equipment was a five-watt ship's transmitter, and the station was "on the a i r " for the noon hour only. The s t a t i o n gradually grew, however, as i t f i l l e d a r e a l need i n the eastern end of the v a l l e y . Vancouver stations were too weak at that time to give good reception up the v a l l e y . In 1930 the power input v/as stepped up to 100 watts, and the broad-casting frequency changed to 665 k i l o c y c l e s . The station was on the a i r then for f i v e or s i x hours d a i l y , and employed l o c a l talent i n some of i t s programs. In 1933 several changes i n organization took place. Mr. Menzies sold out his interests i n the company to Mr. Ronald Wells, who thus became joint owner with his brother. In that year too the s t a t i o n agreed to handle the programs of the Canadian Radio Commission, and were assigned the present f r e -quency of 780 k i l o c y c l e s . The s t a t i o n now carries about 85c/o of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's network programs, being on the a i r d a i l y f o r 11 hours. By some freak of radio reception, t h i s comparatively weak station has been heard at times at the four corners of the continent, and even as far as A u s t r a l i a . Letters i n the o f f i c e t e s t i f y to these facta -. A highlight i n the l i f e of t h i s young station occurred during the storm of January, 1935. Heavy snowfall f o r three (151) weeks was followed by r a i n f a l l on January 21st. Freezing ground temperatures caused a heavy coating of ice to form on a l l ex-posed surfaces, P o l l s and wires snapped under the weight and by n i g h t f a l l a l l power, telephone and telegraph services were suspended. The eastern end of the v a l l e y was completely i s o -lated f o r eight days. A small emergency battery operated transmitter v/as assem-bled by the s t a f f of GHWET and by noon Thursday, January 24, con-tact v/ith Vancouver had been re-established, Mr. J e f f Bradford 17 acting as wireless operator. This was soon replaced by more complete equipment owned by Mr. E a r l Streeter, a l o c a l short-wave amateur. This equipment was placed i n the o f f i c e of the Chilliwack Telephone exchange and operated by the company's emergency power plant. Mr. Streeter did yeoman service i n handling important messages u n t i l the power service was restored on January 28, "Ham" radio operators a l l over the province, and indeed, i n many parts of the continent, did invaluable service i n r e l a ying messages during that week. In l i e u of t h e i r usual broadcasts the s t a f f of ,CHWK gather-ed news items from a l l possible sources, typed them fo r the mimeograph machine, and di s t r i b u t e d l e a f l e t s d a i l y i n the l o c a l stores. I t was a fine example of public service under most unusual circumstances. 17. Souvenir booklet issued by CH1K, January, 1935. (152) Newspapers. J o u r n a l i s t i c enterpriae i n the Fraser Yalley haa heen con-fined to the publication of weekly newapapera which cater to l o c a l auhacrihers. The d a i l y papers published i n Vancouver and the weekly issue of the B r i t i s h Columbian (lew Westminster) have always had a good c i r c u l a t i o n i n the Fraser Valley. In early daya these papers were.always a day or two l a t e , hut recent im-provement i n transportation f a c i l i t i e s have ensured delivery of the papers on the date of publication. The f i r s t newspaper of the v a l l e y v/as the Chilliwack Pro-gress, founded on A p r i l 16, 1891 by the late W. T. Jackman. Though there have been timea when emergency measurea have heen necessary, the Progress boasts an unbroken record of continuous 18 publication. During the flood of 1894, raised planking had to be put i n the ahop to permit the a t a f f to work. / During the " s i l v e r thaw" of 1917, gasoline engines v/ere used to set the presa owing to lack of power service, while i n 1933 for the aame reaaon, one iasue of the newspaper was printed i n Sew West-minster. The storm of January, 1935 struck so suddenly that the record was maintained only by pr i n t i n g a much-reduced paper on the old hand-operated machines. The Progreaa has been i n several hands since i t s e s t a b l i s h -ment, hut for the l a s t 12 years i t has been under the able d i r e c t i o n of Mr. C: A. Barber. Several times he has won the 18. E d i t o r i a l , Chilliwack Progress, January 24, 1935. (153) cup presented annually by the Canadian weekly .Newspaper Associ-ation for the best Canadian weekly with a c i r c u l a t i o n of 1000-2000. Other newspapers published at present, with the dates of 19 t h e i r establishment, are as follows: Fraser Yalley Record (1908j published at Mission., Maple Ridge and P i t t Meadows Gazette (1919) published at Port Haney. Abhotsford, Sumas and Matsqui Hews (1922) published at Abhotsford. Surrey Gazette (1923) published at White Rock. Coquitlam Herald, published at port Coquitlam. There have been other v a l l e y newspapers published at v a r i -ous times hut they l i e today, among many others i n the "hone-yard" of B r i t i s h Columbia's j o u r n a l i s t i c e f f o r t s . With the competition from the c i t y newspapers, i t would seem u n l i k e l y that there w i l l be many more attempts to publish l o c a l weeklies throughout the va l l e y . 19. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information, 1930, pp.290-291 (154) Chapter IX Conclusion The changes which have heen wrought i n the Eraser Valley v/ith the passage of more than a h a l f century have heen l i t t l e short of marvellous. Few areas i n Canada have seen such rapid growth. The development from a few small settlements and i s o -l a t e d homes i n the forest to the compact, homogeneous d i s t r i c t of today i a one which has heen compassed l a r g e l y within the l i f e t i m e of many who are s t i l l carrying on t h e i r work of gain-ing a l i v e l i h o o d from the s o i l . During that period the v a l l e y has heen kni t together hy four great railway ayetems and two important highwaya. The r i v e r haa heen apanned hy three great hridgea, the l a s t of which i a just heing completed. A l l the modern conveniencea have heen made available to residents of the v a l l e y . They enjoy most of the advantages of urban l i f e with the freedom of r u r a l l i f e . Sot only has nature been kind to those who would wrest a l i v e l i h o o d from the resources of th i s region, but ahe haa also provided them with the meana of recreation and aport. Lakes and r i v e r a abound i n game f i a h , v/hile the v/ily pheaaant and duck provide aport for the hunter. There i a no need to leave the confines of the v a l l e y to enjoy a pleaaant vacation, whether i t be at the seaaide or at pictureaque mountain lake. In the municipality of Surrey are the wide aandy beaches of Semiahmoo Bay, where the summer re-sorts of Crescent and White Rock have heen developed within the (155) l a s t three decades. Indeed the l a t t e r i s more than a summer r e -sort now, hoasting a permanent population of 1200 residents. At the other end of the v a l l e y , cultus Lake has become an a t t r a c -tiv e spot for those who prefer mountain scenery and fresh-water bathing. This area was acquired i n 1923, when the people of the c i t y and municipality of Chilliwack voted overwhelmingly i n favour of a bylaw whereby 63 acres of choice camping property was purchased from the Dominion Government and certain timber i n t e r e s t s . 1 In 1925 the Dominion Government made' a formal grant of the park s i t e and foreshore of Cultus Lake to the town-ship and c i t y of C h i l l i w a c k . 2 More than passing mention should be given to the i n t e r -n a t i o n a l l y known health resort at Harrison Hot Springs, near Agassiz. Here, at the southern end of Harrison Lake, are. two hot springs which gush from s o l i d rock. One of these predomin-ates i n sulphur at a temperature of 155°F., and the other, i n potash at 130°F. The therapeutic value of these springs i s un-doubted, even the Indians having recognized from e a r l i e s t times t h e i r health-giving q u a l i t i e s . The f i r s t record of t h e i r d i s -covery by white men i s contained i n the V i c t o r i a Gazette of December 30, 1858. 3 About 1885, the well-known St. A l i c e Hotel was constructed 1. Chilliwack Progress, Spet. 6, 1923. 2. B. C. Gazette, 1925, pp. 849; 1342. 3. Vancouver Daily Province, August 2, 1925. (156) on a s i t e immediately adjacent to the springe. For 35 years th i s hostelry attracted guests from a l l over the continent. Even as early as 1890, the l i s t of guests showed that many came from the coast c i t i e s of Seattle, Taeoma and San Francisco, while others came from the c i t i e s of Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Hamilton.^ In July, 1920 a f i r e razed the old hotel to the ground, fortunately without loss of l i f e . I t was not t i l l ahout five years l a t e r , that a syndicate hought the s i t e and hegan the erection of the handsome brick hotel which now occupies the s i t e of the old St. A l i c e Hotel. One of the d i s t i n c t i v e features of the present structure i s a large natatorum where one may bathe i n the waters from the hot springs. The Harrison Hot Springs Hotel i s a decided a t t r a c t i o n for a l l v i s i t o r s to the v a l l e y . In concluding the record of this most considerable r u r a l area i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t may he pointed out that there have been three major periods or cycles of growth. The f i r s t was i n the decade following the construction of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. Then came the period of prosperity and the boom-time which culminated shortly before the war, and which witnessed the building of two railways and the general extension of the modern conveniences of e l e c t r i c i t y and the telephone. The post-war period has seen the improvement of highways and devel-opment of automotive transportation, along with a fresh i n f l u x of population. 4. Daily Columbian, Mew Westminster, Sept. 18, 1890. (157) What does the future hold for the Eraser Yalley? It would scarcely he a hold prediction to say that the future development w i l l he even greater than that of the past. The pioneers have "built well, and one can r e a d i l y v i s u a l i z e the whole area from Hope to the sea f i l l e d with a contented and prosperous people. (158) Bibliography A Primary Sources Government Heporta and Publications* (a) ' P r o v i n c i a l (published at V i c t o r i a , B. C.) B, C. Gazette. Statutes of B. C., 187S, 1896, 1903, 1920, 1929, 1936. Annual Heport of Dept. of Agriculture 1935, 1936. A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s Report, Department of A g r i -culture, 1914, 1916, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1929, 1933, 1935, 1936. Survey of Berry Acreage i n Praser Valley 1920 - 1936 by H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch, Department of Agriculture. Report of Special Dyking Commission, 1934. Heport of Land Settlement Board on Sumas Reclam-ation Project, 1926* Land and Agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n Bo, 10. ed. of 1903, 1904, 1907, 1909, 1910. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information, 1930 ed. Handbook of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n l o . 23, 1913 ed. Fisheries of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n Ho. 16, 1903. Mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n Bo. 19, 1904. Timber Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n Bo.15, 1903, Annual Reports on the Public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Gosnell, R. Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. of 1897, 1903, 1911/14. (159) 1. Government Reports and .publications, (cont.} (b) Federal (published at Ottawa, Ont.) Annual Heport of F i s h e r i e s , Department of Marine and F i s h e r i e s , 1890 - 1936. Heport of B r i t i s h Columbia Fisheries commission, 1922. Annual Heport of Timber and Grazing Lands Branch, Department of the I n t e r i o r i n sessional papers, Vols. XIX, XXIV, XXIX, XL, XLV, L I , L711. and Annual Departmental Reports, Vols 3 (1924-5); Vol. 2 1929 - 1930, The Organization, Aehievementa and Present Work of the Experimental Farms, 1924. A Guide to Experimental Farma and Stations, 1912* Report of Soldier Settlement Board of Canada, 1921, 1936. Seventh Oenaua of Canada, Vol. H , 1931 Canada Year Book, 1937, Registers of Pishing Licences (1901 - 1909) Ledger, Department of i n t e r i o r Scalers * Returns 1925 - 1930. Ledger, Revenuea from o f f i c e of Crown Timber Agent, J5Jew Westminster, B. C. 11. Pamphlets. (a) Government Bovine Tuberculoaia, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 1936, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada* V i c t o r i a , 1934. JSew Westminster Land Recording Division, Bul-l e t i n So. 27 (Land Series), V i c t o r i a , 1934. (160) I I . Pamphlets, (cent.) (a) Government (eont.) Sumas Reclaimed Lands, V i c t o r i a , n.d. The Soldier settlement Board, Its Present Work and Administration, Ottawa, 1926. (b) Private Published by B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, Limited. Alouette power Development, 1928. Early History of B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Power System i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936. Ruskin power Development, 1930. The Power System of the B r i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation, Limited, 1932. Pamphlets published hy Municipal Councils of 1. Langley (1919) 4. Mission (1928) 2. Maple Ridge (1919). 5. Sumas (1919) 3. Matsqui (1919) 6. Surrey (1919) Souvenir Booklet of Praser Valley storm and Ploods, issued by Radio station OHWX, January, 1935. I I I . Periodicals and newspapers. The B r i t i s h Columbian, Hew Westminster, B. C , (published as The Daily Columbian previous to July 25,1910) The Chilliwack progress, Chilliwack, B. C. The Vancouver Daily province, Vancouver, B.u . The Vancouver Daily sun, Vancouver, B. C. The Vancouver Morning Sun, Vancouver, B.C. The Vancouver Daily World, Vancouver, B. C. (161) 111. Periodicals and .Newspapers, (cont.j Special editions - Centennial E d i t i o n , The B r i t i s h Columbian, Hovember 27, 1912. Supplement to The Daily Columbian, December 1903. B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine, March, 1912 western Keeorder, I l l u s t r a t e d Supplement, A p r i l , 1928. B. C. Lumberman - The o f f i c i a l organ of the lumbering inte r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I T . Private papers. Barrow, Bon. E. D. Cameron, Miss K. -Beufeld, Kev.- - -walmsley, Mr.E..- -correspondence from Mr. Bruce Dixon re sumas Reclamation pro-ject, June 5, 1935. Annual Keport of Praser Valley Union Library, 1936. papers r e l a t i v e to Mennonite Settlements. A map of B r i t i s h Columbia Kailway Belt, r o r t Moody and Yale Sheet, Department of I n t e r i o r , uttawa, 1913. V. Personal interviews. Archibald, Miss B. - Matron of Abbotaford Hospital, July, 1937. Barrow, Hon. E. D. - former Minister of Agriculture, July, 1935. Bowman, Mr.O.- - - - millowner, sardis, August, 1937. Carncross, M T . E. E. Manager, Western Peat Co., Sew Westminster, August, 1937. Clarke, Mr.G.E.W.- - B.S.A., - D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t , Abhotsford, September, 1937. Currie, c. C - - - - formerly connected with B. c. . Egg Pool, Sardis, August, 1937. Dynes, Miss L. M.- - secretary, Indian Agent's O f f i c e , Sew Westminster, August, 1937. (162} Personal Interviews, (cont.; Dixon, jar.- isruee - - - inspector of Dykes/ lew West-minster, August, 1936, 1937. Evans', Mr. C. H. - - - pioneer dairyman, Sardis, July, 1936, August, 1937. Gardom, Mr. 'Basils - - Manager, Independent Milk Pro-ducers* Co-operative Association, Vancouver, August, 1937. G i l c h r i s t , Mr. R.. S. - Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , V i c t o r i a , August, 1935. Mr. C« Hacker, ^ - - - P u b l i c i t y Bureau, B r i t i s h Col-umbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, Limited, Vancouver, August, 1937. 'Johnston, Mr. G. - - - Assistant Superintendent Soldier Settlement Board, Vancouver, August, 1937. Lamb, Dr. Eaye - - - - P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , V i c t o r i a , August, 1935. Lynch, Mr. T. - - - - former accountant, Crown Timber Agent, Sew Westminster, August, 1937. McLeod, Mr. R. W.- - - Supervisor of Fisheries, lew Westminster, August, 1937. Mercer, Mr. A. H.- - - Manager, Fraser Valley Milk Pror-ducers" Association, Vancouver, A p r i l , 1937. Motherwell, Major, J.A.Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver, July, 1937. Munro, Mr. J.B., M.S.A.Deputy Minister of Agriculture, V i c t o r i a , August, 1935. Menten, Capt. R. C - - formerly i n charge Harrison Ferry, lew Westminster, July, 1936. Sesbitt, Mr* Wr. H. - - former purser on river'boats, Sew Westminster, July, 1936. Plaxton, Mr. W. T. - - pioneer family of Fort Langley, Sew Westminster, August, 1937. Pullen, Mr. S. P. — > r- Director P u b l i c i t y Department, B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company, Vancouver, August, 1937. (163) V* Personal Interviews, (cont.) Haley, Rev. G. H. - - - former p r i n c i p a l of Coqualeetza Residential Indian School, Van-couver, August, 1937. Rohertson, Mr. W. H. — B.S.A., - P r o v i n c i a l H o r t i c u l t u r -i s t , V i c t o r i a , August, 1935. St. C l a i r , Mr. "R. C. - Chief Inspector of Porests, Vancouver, August, 1937 Street, Mr. C. L. - - - pioneer millowner, Chilliwack,' August, 1937. Walmsley, Mr. P.- - - - former Crown Timber Agent, lew Westminster, August, 1937. Wells, Mr. C. Casey - Manager, Radio Station CHWK, Chilliwack, August, 1937. White, Mr. E. W.,B.S.A. D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t , V i c -t o r i a , August, 1935, 1936, 1937. White, Rev. .'U. fl., D.D. Former Superintendent of Method-i s t Missions, Sardis, 1935, 1936, 1937. Wilson, Mr. P. C. - - - former station agent on Fraser Valley l i n e , B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company, li m i t e d , Hew Westminster, August, 1936. Wilson, Mr. P. H. - - - Manager, Chilliwack Telephone Exchange, Chilliwack, July,1936. B Secondary Sources. 1. General , Bancroft, H. H. - B r i t i s h Columbia, san Francisco History Co.,1887 Useful for background of early history. Begg, Alexander C.C., - History of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto, Briggs, 1894. E a r l y background - l i t t l e de-t a i l e d information about special regions. (164) General. (cont.) Boam, Henry, J, (compiled) - B r i t i s h Columbia, Its History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources, london, Eng. S e l l s Ltd., 1912. Well-bound and i l l u s t r a t e d -t o p i c a l treatment with i n t e r -esting biographical information of i n d u s t r i a l concerns i n the province. Howay, P. W., -The Early History of the Praser River Mines, Archives of B. C. Memoir No. VI. V i c t o r i a , 1926. O f f i c i a l correspondence - neces-sary for a proper study of an in t e r e s t i n g period. Howay, P. W. and Scholefield, E.O.S.,-British Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present. Vancouver, S;J.Clarke Publishing Co.,1914. The standard work on the h i s -tory of B r i t i s h Columbia up to 1913. Invaluable for reference. Howay, P. W. - The, Making of a Province, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1928 / Of l i t t l e use for detailed work. Innes M. Q« : - -kn Economic History of Canada. Toronto, ' Ryerson Press, 1935. Contains important information for making a comparative study of regions. Morton, James - Honest John Oliver. Toronto, J. M. Dent and Sons, 1933. Farming experiences i n the early days of the Fraser Valley, pro-bably not over-drawn. Uelson, Denys - Port Langley 1827 - 1927, A Century of Settlement. Vancouver, Art Histor-i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Association of Vancouver, 1927. Short history of Fort Langley. Interesting hut does not pre-tend to be the whole story. Sage, W. E. - S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto, University Press, 1930. Invaluable contribution con-cerning the formative period i n B r i t i s h Columbia's history. (165) 1.. General, (cont.) Scholefield, E.O.S. and Gosnell R. E. - B r i t i s h Col-umbia Sixty Years of Progress. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i -c a l Association, 1913. Gosnell's section ( f a r t II) contains valuable information on economic and i n d u s t r i a l topics. Shortt, A. and Doughty A. G. (eds.) - Canada and Its Pro-vinces. Vols. 21* 22. The P a c i f i c Province. Toronto, T. and A. Con-stable, 1914. Section on "Lumber Resources" i s c l e a r concise statement of government lumbering p o l i c y up to 1914. Wright, E. W. - Marine History of the P a c i f i c Northwest Portland, Lewis and Dryden^ 1895. A h i s t o r y of early sea-going ships on our coast that would prove useful f o r reference. L i t t l e information on r i v e r steamers. 11. Monographs, Innes, H. A. (ed.) - The Dairy Industry i n Canada. sections hy Ruddiclr, J. A* Drummond, W. M. English, R. E. Lattimer, J. E., Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1937. Section IV deals with the dev-elopment of the dairy industry in the Praser Valley. Careful analysis of marketing problems hut shows lack of background i n early history of the v a l l e y . Whitford, H. I. and Craig, R. D- - Forests of B r i t i s h Columbia. Commission of Conservation, Canada. Ottawa, 1918. This government publication i s absolutely e s s e n t i a l for a . study of one of the most im-portant industries i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 

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