Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The value of the Tuxis program as directed to adolescent behavior Wilson, Gordon Sinclair 1934

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1934_A8 W5 V2.pdf [ 16.91MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098629.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098629-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098629-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098629-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098629-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098629-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098629-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098629-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098629.ris

Full Text

ArcvisiMint THE VALUE OP THE TUXIS PROGRAM AS DIRECTED TO ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR by Gordon S i n c l a i r Wilson -x- # -* A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department of P H I L O S O P H Y / • * * # The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1954 TABLE OP CONTENTS. A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OP ADOLESCENCE. CHAPTER I. - The Meaning and Significance of Adolescence. (1) The meaning of adolescence. (2) The importance attached to adolescence. (3) Where are the adolescents? (4) Growth i n bodily s i z e . (5) Development of physical and motor capacities. (6) Mental development during adolescence. (7) The growth of i n t e l l i g e n c e . CHAPTER I I . - Adolescent Interests. (1) Instincts and impulses. (2) The emotional l i f e of the adolescent. (3) Causes of emotional disturbances. (4) Adolescent i n t e r e s t s . (5) The role of interests i n adolescent behavior. (6) Moral and r e l i g i o u s development. CHAPTER I I I . - Adolescent Personality. (1) Personality - meaning and appraisal. (2) Adolescent personality and i t s problems. (3) Disturbances of adolescent personality. (4) Guidance and control of adolescent behavior. B. THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. CHAPTER IV. - The Origin and Spread of the Tuxis Movement - Present Status. (1) The early experiments i n Boys' Work. (2) Growth of the movement i n Canada. (3) The present status. (4) The Growth i n other places. C. THE TUXIS PROGRAM. CHAPTER V. - The Mentor - Aims and Objectives. (1) The c a l l f o r trained leaders. (2) Aims and objectives. (3) The popularity of the program. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued;) (4) The mentor - q u a l i t i e s required. (5) Preparation needed by leaders. (6) 'Where leaders f i n d help. ( 7 ) Factors which make f o r success. CHAPTER VI. - Organization of Tuxis or T r a i l Rangers' Program. (1) The belonging i n s t i n c t and the gang s p i r i t . (2) F i r s t organization of a camp or square. / (3) Re-organizing a Tuxis square. (4) Relation to other church groups. (5) Community conclaves and other a c t i v i t i e s . CHAPTER VII.- The Four-Fold Way. (1) The f o u r - f o l d challenge of adolescence. (2) The I n t e l l e c t u a l side - wisdom. (3) The Physical side - stature. (4) The Devotional side - favor with God. (5) The So c i a l side - favor with Man. (6) Suggested Code of I d e a l 3 . THE PROGRAM AT WORK - THE MENTOR'S PROBLEMS. CHAPTER VIII. (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 CHAPTER IX. (A (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (B (1 CHAPTER X. (1 (2 (3 - Creating a Boy's Program, What i s a program? Characteristics of a good program. What T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis programs offer. The Badge plan and successful use. Building up a group constitution. Observation Record. The Sunday and Mid-Week Sessions. The Sunday Session. Physical conditions. S p i r i t u a l conditions. S o c i a l conditions. Mental conditions. Typical programs. The Mid-Week Session. Use of r i t u a l . Personal Guidance. Charting. Vocational guidance. Sex. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER XI. - P r a c t i c a l Problems. (1) Keeping up attendance. (2) Developing group s p i r i t . (3) Getting cooperation of the home. (4) Getting cooperation of the school. (5) Getting cooperation of church leaders. (6) Good order. (7) Training i n worship. (8) Temperance. (9) Young People's organizations. (10) The place of recreation. (11) Danger of over-emphasizing one side of program. (12) Delinquency and i t s prevention. (13) Getting boys to j o i n church. CHAPTER XII. - Discovering and Training Leaders. (1) The art of boy leadership. (2) Where can we r e c r u i t leaders? (3) Appeals f o r leaders. (4) Leaders should ensure t h e i r successors. (5) Training f o r leaders. CHAPTER XIII. - A c t i v i t i e s Which Help To Foster The Tuxis S p i r i t . (1) Project work. (2) Father and Son r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (3) Badge work. (4) Camps. (5) Inter-group fellowship. (6) Finance campaign. (7) National a t h l e t i c contest. (8) World Brotherhood. (9) Boys' parliaments. (10) House system of- competition. RESULTS OF QUESTIONNAIRES TO ACTIVE MENTORS AND TUXIS BOYS BOTH PAST AND PRESENT. CHAPTER XIV. - What Do Tuxis Boys Say About The Program? CHAPTER XV. - Some Outstanding Achievements of Canadian Mentors. (1) Resume of work done with some groups. (2) Suggestions f o r improving the program -c r i t i c i s m s of present program. CHAPTER XVI. - Findings of Eleventh Older Boys' Parliament of B r i t i s h Columbia - The Future of the Movement i n Canada. LIST OP TABLES. Number of persons i n United States between ages thirteen and nineteen enrolled and not enrolled i n schools i n 1920. Adolescent population i n Canada, 1931, Males and Females. Adolescents attending P r o v i n c i a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d schools i n Canada i n 1931. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency. Number of groups of Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers by Provinces i n Canada at December 31,1919. Groups and enrolment by Provinces, July 1, 1922. Comparative enrolment of Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers i n Canada f o r 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926. Comparative enrolment of Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers i n Canada f o r 1928, 1929, and 1930. Enrolment of Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers i n Ontario, September, 1932. Enrolment i n the Maritimes, 1925 and 1932 compared. (Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger Groups). Boys of Tuxis or T r a i l Ranger age attending Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver, December, 1933. Also number of boys of these ages not attending any Sunday School. The age of f i r s t permanent impressions regarding sex. LIST OF TABLES (continued) Page * -XIII. The age of f i r s t proper sex i n s t r u c t i o n . 237 XIV. Attendance at Sunday School, Mid-Week meeting and Church, Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square, Vancouver, 1931 T32 and 1932-33. 275 XV. Members of Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square who joined the church 1931-32 and 1932-33. 276 XVI. Leaders developed from Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square, Vancouver, B.C. 284 XVII. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1923. 319 XVIII. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1924. 320 XIX. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1925. 320 XX. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1926. 321 XXI. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1927. 321 XXII. Winners In National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1928. 322 XXIII. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1929. 323 XXIV. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1930. 324 XXV. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1931. 325 XXVI. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1932. 325 XXVII. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1933. 326 XXVIII. Summary of Answers received from questionnaire sent to members of Ontario Fourth Older Boys' Parliament (1924) regarding vocations and church a f f i l i a t i o n s , etc., as at November, 1933. 333 - 1 -THE TUXIS PROGRAM AS DIRECTED TO ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR. A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OP ADOLESCENCE. CHAPTER I. The Meaning and Significance of Adolescence, Mr. Ellwood P. Cubberley i n the editor's i n t r o -duction to Mr. Fowler D. Brooks' volume, "The ^Psychology of Adolescence", writes,-"That period of physical maturation known as ado-lescence has been regarded commonly as a time when youth breaks with his past and develops Into a new person—when a "new s e l f " i s born. Those who believe that the b i r t h of a new s e l f i s one of the chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adolescence face the d i f f i c u l t task, however, of harmonizing such a popu l a r conception with the facts brought f o r t h within recent years as the r e s u l t of c a r e f u l s c i e n t i f i c observation and measurement. These facts do not support such a theory. Instead, we now know that the adolescent period, while marked by c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t and pronounced physical changes, 1. Riverside Press, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Cambridge, Massachusetts. - 2 -from the mental and personal points of view, i s very l a r g e l y only a maturing of i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s and habits of thinking and acting that have been developing since childhood. Even i n the matter of the emotional and v o l i t i o n a l changes and the development of personality t r a i t s which take place with adolescence, there now seems to be l i t t l e reason f o r b e l i e v -ing that what a youth becomes i s to any great degree inde-pendent of his own past environment and t r a i n i n g . While the s e l f that emerges at the close of the adolescent period i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from that which entered i t , that s e l f i s s t i l l very s i m i l a r i n i t s fundamental t r a i t s and habits to the s e l f that existed when the maturation period began. In other words, any correct account of adolescent development must consider the physical, mental, moral, s o c i a l and r e l i -gious development of the boy or g i r l from early childhood to manhood or womanhood as a continuous process. What takes place at adolescence i s l a r g e l y determined by what has taken place i n the t r a i n i n g of the youth before that period." This simply i l l u s t r a t e s the general point of view among i n v e s t i -gators, and a view which we are forced by the facts to accept-that development i s a continuous function throughout c h i l d -hood and into and through adolescence; that the youth nor-mally does not break with his past; that, i n f a c t , the roots of his present nature l i e deeply imbedded i n his past. - 3 - -1• The Meaning of Adolescence. Adolescence (from the La t i n verb, "adolescere", meaning to grow, to grow to maturity), refers to the period of growth extending approximately from ages twelve or t h i r -teen to twenty. The period r e a l l y closes with manhood and womanhood. During this time the reproductive functions ma-ture, but i t must not be supposed that adolescence i s chara-c t e r i z e d by this f a c t alone. Various physical, mental, and moral changes are taking place at the same time, and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s and coordinations are important f o r an ade-quate understanding of these years. By puberty i s meant the i n i t i a l stage of adoles-cence, the e a r l i e s t age at which the in d i v i d u a l i s capable of begetting or bearing o f f s p r i n g . Puberty, among g i r l s begins, on the average, about the thirteenth year, and, among boys, about the fourteenth year; but the time va r i e s . 2. The Importance Attached to Adolescence. People have always had some understanding of the importance of adolescence, and some appreciation of i t s s i g -n i f i c a n c e . Among primitive and savage peoples puberty r i t e s were almost u n i v e r s a l . The males of the t r i b e r e a l l y con-s i s t e d of four groups—the boys who had not arrived at puber-ty, and l i v e d with the women and g i r l s ; the unmarried youths; the mature men on whom rested the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of tribesmen; and the o l d men--the wise men—who directed the - 4 -a f f a i r s of the t r i b e . Primitive peoples i n the puberty r i t e s emphasized the break between childhood and youth. After the r i t e s the boy was a new person. This view has had wide acceptance. Close observation of children, however, gives l i t t l e ground fo r the b e l i e f ; c a r e f u l , unbiased observation and i n v e s t i -gation tend to c l e a r i t away e n t i r e l y . Two reasons account f o r t h i s b e l i e f i n abrupt changes at adolescence. 1. U n c r i t i c a l observation—the changes preceding and accompanying adolescence are not ob-served c a r e f u l l y . The c h i l d of eleven i s l i t t l e understood; he i s thought of as a c h i l d ; his true mental powers are underestimated i n comparison with those of older children, so that the difference between eleven and fourteen r e a l l y seems greater than i t i s . 2. Some of the emotional d i s t u r -bances at adolescence accentuate the new elements In the t o t a l physical-mental l i f e of the teen-age period. Preparing individuals to meet adequately the c i r -cumstances of l i f e has long been regarded as the important aim of education. Adolescence brings new experiences and new adjustments have to be made. Adolescent education then, l i k e a l l other education, seeks to provide such challenging conditions as lead to that integration of functions which ensures adequate adjustment to probable l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . It Is highly desirable that s i g n i f i c a n t features of l i f e , (the - 5 -project method enters here), be the s t i m u l i leading to the coordination of mental, physical, moral and other powers. 3. Where are the Adolescents? We have no accurate reports showing the number of ch i l d r e n of each age a c t u a l l y enrolled In, and r e a l l y attend-ing public, private and parochial schools. "According to the United States census, 7,300,000 persons between the ages of t h i r t e e n and nineteen years were attending school i n 1920, and 6,000,000 of these ages were not enrolled i n any school". TABLE I. No. of Persons In United States between ages 13 and 19  enrolled and not enrolled i n schools i n 1920. (Fourteenth census of United States, V o l . II. p.1045) Age Attending Not Attending Number Percent Number Percent 13 1,877,429 92.5 152,223 7.5 14 1,766,784 86.3 282,474 13.7 15 1,357,345 72.9 504,582 27.1 16 1,001,701 50.8 970,151 49.2 17 642,360 34.6 1,214,171 65.4 18 413,619 21.7 1,492,459 78.3 19 252,680 13.8 1,578,334 86.2 1. Brooks, Psychology of Adolescence. - 6 -Disregarding inaccuracies of parents' statements to census enumerators, and also inaccuracies i n school records due to f l o a t i n g of pupils who may e n r o l l at two or more schools i n the same year, and taking the figures of Table I. at t h e i r face value, we see that more and more adolescents leave school as they become older. This i s what we would expect. By the age of sixteen one-half of the youth are not enrolled i n any school. The numbers attending High School, however, have st e a d i l y increased during the past t h i r t y years. The s t a t i s t i c s f or Canada, (Tables I I . and III.) show a very s i m i l a r trend. According to the Dominion of Canada census, 482,396 adolescents were attending provln-c i a l l y controlled schools i n 1931, and the t o t a l population of such adolescents (13 to 19 years) at that time was 1,450,915 persons. It i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate how many of the remaining 968,519 adolescents were attending schools not p r b v i n c i a l l y controlled, and the 1931 census provides no d e f i n i t e s t a t i s t i c s regarding these. The general trend, however, i s the same as i n the case of the United States s t a t i s t i c s j namely, a sharp f a l l i n g - o f f of attendance a f t e r age sixteen has been reached. This i s caused, no doubt, by the fact that our so-called free education ends at "the f u l l age of f i f t e e n years". - 7 -TABLE I I . Adolescent Population In Canada, 1951. (Dominion of Canada Census 1931) i . - f Age Male Female T o t a l 13 103,089 100,375 203,464 14 105,156. 102,702 207,858 15 103,345 101,808 205,153 16 108,892 106,897 215,789 17 106,414 104,099 210,513 18 106,321 104,648 210,969 19 100,280 96,889 197,169 Totals 733,497 717,418 1,450,915 TABLE I I I . Adolescents Attending P r o y i n c i a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d Schools i n Canada In 1931. (Dominion of Canada Census, 1931) Age Elementary Secondary Totals 13 120,110 16,357 136,467 14 94,910 35,444 130,354 15 53,201 47,517 100,718 16 19,561 42,041 61,602 17 4,566 26,837 31,403 18 959 12,685 13,644 19 444 7,764 8,208 Totals 293,751 188,645 482,396 - 8 -Not only do we want to know how many of these young people are i n school, but we need to know whether the schools are adapting t h e i r c u r r i c u l a , methods of teaching, and con-t r o l to those who are enrolled. Approximately one-third of the adolescents attending school are retarded. This con-s t i t u t e s a serious problem expecially as about one-sixth of these adolescents are enrolled i n the elementary s c h o o l s — schools not primarily suited to the needs of adolescents.^ In 1920, approximately 700,000 adolescents were 2 reported as married; 600,000 of them were g i r l s . More than 3000 married boys and nearly 6000 married g i r l s had not reached the age of f i f t e e n ; while 1600 more boys and 1300 more g i r l s were f i f t e e n years old. We cannot blame a l l these adolescent marriages on the foreign element, for four-f i f t h s of these married children who were under sixteen years of age were white adolescents, two-thirds of them being native whites of native parentage. Both the number and proportion of marriages of children under sixteen years of age have increased since 1900 and 1910. 1. B u l l e t i n 1924, N 0. 38, United States Bureau of Education. 2. Fourteenth Census of the United States, Vol.11, p.1152. - 9 -The percentage of children of ages ten to f i f t e e n g a i n f u l l y employed i n United States decreased from \Q% i n 1890 and 1910 to Q.bf In 1920. 1 More than h a l f of these were i n agriculture; and the majority of these were foreign-horn and negroes. The e f f e c t of such employment upon the adolescent, has not been studied extensively enough to base 2 any conclusions as to i t s harmfulness or otherwise. Wooley found no differences which she could a t t r i b u t e to employ-ment. We have been unable to determine the number of feeble-minded and insane adolescents. Terman, Hollingworth, and others, estimate that two per cent of our population Is feeble-minded. I f this i s so, there are more than 250,000 feeble-minded adolescents i n the United States of whom ap-proximately 200,000 are not receiving any special t r a i n i n g suited to t h e i r needs. The increase In ins a n i t y emphasizes the importance of mental hygiene at home and at school dur-ing childhood. We do not know pre c i s e l y how many adolescents are delinquent or criminal. In 1922, f o r t y thousand of the s i x t y - f i v e thousand "pupils" i n i n d u s t r i a l schools for de-1. Fourteenth Census of the United States, Vol. IV. pp.874-1048. 2. An Experimental Study of Children. - 10 -linquents were learning some trade or other occupation; the majority of these were undoubtedly i n t h e i r teens. We have some s t a t i s t i c a l evidence to show that juvenile d e l i n -quency i n the United States i s not on the increase; but 2 Healy and Bronner, from t h e i r first-hand contact with juvenile delinquency, f i n d i t more prevalent throughout the United States during the post-war period. About three-fourths of these delinquents are boys. 4. Growth In B n d i l y Size. G i r l s grow more ra p i d l y from ages nine to t h i r -teen, and boys from ages twelve to sixteen than at other ages. G i r l s grow more slowly af t e r age thirteen, a t t a i n -ing maturity height at twenty, but with l i t t l e increase af t e r age seventeen. Boys a f t e r age sixteen grow more slowly and mature at twenty-two or twenty-three. Boys are usually t a l l e r , although g i r l s are usually t a l l e r at puberty. 1. United States Bureau of Education, B u l l e t i n , No. 2, 1924. 2. Healy and Bronner, "Delinquents and Criminals: Their Making and Unmaking, p. 202. 3. Baldwin, "Physical Growth of School Children from B i r t h to Maturity." - 11 G i r l s seem to make the greatest gains i n weight from eleven or twelve years to fourteen or f i f t e e n years of. age; and boys a year or two l a t e r . 1 Weight usually increases through adolescence but at a slower rate a f t e r the teans. Boys are heavier than g i r l s at most ages, except for two or three years from eleven or twelve to fourteen or f i f t e e n years; when g i r l s are heavier. The c h i l d i s growing fa s t e r i n height than i n head-g i r t h during the f i r s t sixteen years of h i s l i f e . During adolescence c e r t a i n changes are noticeable i n the shape of the face; the lower jaw, for example, becomes thicker, broader and more prominent. Growth curves f o r chest growth resemble those f o r height, but are much more l i k e those for weight. G i r l s exceed boys i n chest g i r t h during early adolescence, but the rate declines at f i f t e e n years, and boys soon sur-pass them. Reproductive organs develop r a p i d l y at puberty; growth of h a i r , development of the breasts and changes i n the voice. The brain grows more rapidl y during the f i r s t four years, more slowly the next four years, and then very slowly. At maturity i t i s less than four times as heavy as at b i r t h . 5. Development of Physical and Motor Capacities. Various c r i t e r i a have been employed to determine the 1. Baldwin op.c i t . p. 152. - 12 -beginnings of puberty of boys. The change from a-sexual to sexual l i f e i s accomplished i n a very short time, usually from six months to a year. Of 5000 boys, i t was found coun-tr y boys matured s i x months e a r l i e r than c i t y boys; the modal ages of the f i r s t sign of puberty being thirteen and one-half to fourteen.^ Great v a r i a b i l i t y , however, i s found. The median chronological age of maturation f o r g i r l s i s approximately thirteen and one-half to thirteen and three-quarters f o r American g i r l s , but the age at which puberty begins i n normal g i r l s also varies widely. Terman and Baldwin present e v i -dence ind i c a t i n g that children of superior mental a b i l i t y 2 probably mature somewhat e a r l i e r than those of less a b i l i t y . T a l l e r , heavier, and larger boys and g i r l s often mature e a r l i e r than smaller ones of the same chronological age. Muscular strength i s greatly modified by environ-mental conditions, such as exercise, n u t r i t i o n , r e s t , e t c . The most s i g n i f i c a n t thing about the development of muscular strength at adolescence i s that muscular power continues i t s rapid increase u n t i l the l a t e r ages of adolescence, e s p e c i a l l y 1. Baldwin op.c i t . p. 189. 2. Terman, Genetic Studies of Genius, Vol.1, pp. 205 f f . Baldwin, op.cit., pp. 188 f f . -I#-among boys.The boy of e i g h t e e n i s n e a r e r manhood i n h e i g h t t h a n i n s t r e n g t h . G i r l s have almost a t t a i n e d a d u l t s t r e n g t h a t s e v e n t e e n , but s t r e n g t h o f boys i n c r e a s e s f o u r or f i v e y e a r s l o n g e r . I t i s more a c c u r a t e t o p r e d i c t s t r e n g t h f rom w e i g h t t h a n from h e i g h t . E x e r c i s e a f f e c t s s t r e n g t h v e r y much, but i t p r o b a b l y has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on h e i g h t . The a d o l e s c e n t a l s o has g r e a t e r motor a b i l i t i e s . M o t or c a p a c i t i e s are much i n f l u e n c e d by t r a i n i n g . Our fund of i n f o r m a t i o n on motor developments i s v e r y i n a d e q u a t e . What i n f o r m a t i o n we h a v e , however, shows t h a t boys e x c e l i n speed o f motor r e a c t i o n s a t a l l a g e s . A l s o t h e r e i s no adequate knowledge about i n c r e a s i n g the a c c u r a c y of motor r e s p o n s e s . However, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t s t r e n g t h , speed and a c c u r a c y of motor responses w i l l improve, o r can be improved. Consequent-l y * a boy s h o u l d be a b l e t o p e r f o r m a g i v e n motor t a s k , f o r a g i v e n l e n g t h o f time,, w i t h l e s s l o s s of e f f i c i e n c y a t e i g h t e e n , t h a n a t ages tw e l v e j f o u r t e e n o r s i x t e e n . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t any development i s due j o i n t l y t o h e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . Growth i s not w h o l l y due t o the u n f o l d i n g of i n n a t e powers n o r i s i t w h o l l y the r e s u l t of the pressure, of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s upon an impotent s u b s t a n c e . I t i s the: r e s u l t of an i n t e r a c t i o n of two f a c t o r s . The growth of a p l a n t o r human germ r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u o u s s t i m u l a t i o n and sustenance from the e n v i r o n m e n t . A f l o w e r seed w i l l n o t grow w i t h o u t s o i l ; but s o i l w i l l n o t make a g r a i n o f sand grow i n t o a f l o w e r . The f i n a l p r o d u c t i n b o t h cases w i l l v a r y b o t h w i t h the o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r and the -14-subsequent c u l t i v a t i o n of the seed* H e r e d i t y d e t e r m i n e s the d i r e c t i o n and sets the l i m i t s of growth; environment must s u s t a i n , and may, i n v a r i o u s d e g a s e s , m o d i f y growth. I r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the growth of a p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l are more l i k e l y t o be caused by e n v i r o n m e n t a l t h a n by h e r e d i t y f a c t o r s , 6. M e n t a l Development D u r i n g A d o l e s c e n c e , There are many c o n f l i c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s on a d o l e s c e n t m e n t a l growth. What d a t a we have i n d i c a t e s t h a t the v a r i o u s sense organs are a l m o s t as s e n s i t i v e t o s t i m u l i by the age of t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s as t h e y e v e r w i l l be* E v i d e n t l y the deve-lopment of these c a p a c i t i e s I s l a r g e l y dependent upon i n n e r f a c t o r s la'cLer tiic.n e x p e r i e n c e »because at cny a^e t i e l i u i t of ruproveiner.t from p r a c t i c e i s soon r e v e a l e d . S e n s i t i v i t y t o p a i n d e c r e a s e s w i t h age p r o b a b l y u n t i l e i g h t e e n or n i n e t e e n y e a r s . I n g e n e r a l , i t seems t h a t such narrow f u n c t i o n s as the v a r i o u s s o r t s of s e n s i t i v i t i e s and s e n s o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s are almost f u l l y d e v e l o p e d by the time of p u b e r t y * I n such a f u n c t i o n as h a n d w r i t i n g , s k i l l i n c r e a s e s r e 1 1 on i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e * a l t h o u g h environment e x e r t s g r e a t i n f l u e n c e upon the course of t r a i n i n g . The power of s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n i s u n d o u b t e d l y g r e a t e r a t the c l o s e o f a d o l e s c e n c e t h a n a t the b e g i n n i n g . The o l d e r c h i l d has a w i d e r range of e x p e r i e n c e s , has a g r e a t e r s t o r e o f meanings t h a n he had when younger, so t h a t any o b j e c t t o w h i c h he a t t e n d s i s l i k e l y to be r i c h e r i n -15-meanings and a s s o c i a t i o n s . E x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e shows t h a t the y o u t h of e i g h t e e n can keep h i s a t t e n t i o n upon an o b j e c t l o n g e r and p r o b a b l y more i n t e n s e l y t h a n he c o u l d a t f o u r t e e n or t e n . P r e - a d o l e s c e n t p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l l i a s a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on a d o l e s c e n t b e h a v i o u r . The y o u t h of s i x t e e n or e i g h t e e n * who has been e i t h e r o v e r - i n d u l g e d , or n e g l e c t e d , or i n o t h e r ways p o o r l y p r e p a r e d t o meet l i f e ' s p r o b l e m s , i s not l i k e l y t o be as d o c i l e o r amenable t o c o n t r o l by h i s e l d e r s - as the e i g h t jcear o l d o r t h e c h i l d of t e n ; a n d , us a consequence* lie may not be as t r i l l i n g t o cooperate i n k e e p i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n , upon t h i n g s s p e c i f i e d hy o t h e r s . TV TI:.c Growth Of I n t e l l i g e n c e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e d a t a l e a d s us. t o b e l i e v e t h a t the curve v/hich b e s t r e p r e s e n t s n o r m a l m e n t a l growth d u r i n g the y e a r s f r o m e i g h t t o e i g h t e e n i s somewhat convex* with greater f l a t t e n i n g i n the l a t e teens. In general, i t may be stated that, although i n t e l l i g e n c e i t s e l f usually grows through adolescence, the rate of i t s growth, as nearly as we can determine i t by our imperfect measuring instruments, gen-e r a l l y decreases s t e a d i l y . A common view among psychologists i s that brighter individuals grow more r a p i d l y i n i n t e l l i g e n c e than do the d u l l e r ones. Direct evidence i s meager and inconclusive, but i t i s probably true. Brooks' conclusion i s , that, although individuals d i f f e r i n t h e i r rates of mental growth, the supe-r i o r i n d i v i d u a l s , on the average, probably grow more r a p i d l y than those of average or i n f e r i o r a b i l i t y . 1 The I.Q. (Intelligence Quotient), Is a f a i r l y safe basis of pr e d i c t i o n within the l i m i t s of four or f i v e points of a probable error. The r e a l l y stupid boy at twelve or fourteen w i l l not be one of the brighter boys at sixteen; neither w i l l the r e a l l y b r i l l i a n t boy at thirteen, barring accidents, and mental disease, be the d u l l a r d , or even the average youth a few years l a t e r . Some psychologists think that i n t e l l i g e n c e stops at sixteen, but Brooks thinks that, though the rate of growth decreases st e a d i l y , i t should not become inappreciable u n t i l eighteen or l a t e r . 1. Brooks - "Changes i n Mental T r a i t s with Age, Determined by Annual Retests, New York, 1921. 8. Physical and Mental Growth During Adolescence. Many people believe that mentally g i f t e d children are small and weak, and the superior i n t e l l e c t of the bright boy i s i n s t r i k i n g contrast with the superior physique of the boy of average i n t e l l i g e n c e . In general, however, physical t r a i t s are I n d i f f e r e n t l y related to mental t r a i t s . Prom evidence and examination between mental and physical t r a i t s , we f i n d such large c o e f f i c i e n t s of a l i e n a t i o n , that predic-ti n g mental or scholastic a b i l i t y from physical t r a i t s i s only a l i t t l e more accurate than guess work. Bright youths are no more l i k e l y to be s i c k l y or weak than are the d u l l e r ones. In f a c t the g i f t e d are probably somewhat better developed. We can only say that mentally g i f t e d children as a group are large and strong at the ages studied insofar as they have been measured. Early maturation has often been looked upon as an evidence of poor health. In the l i g h t of present knowledge, there seems to be l i t t l e reason f o r attaching any s i n i s t e r import to early pubescence. The normal age of pubescence i s not some one chronological age, but i s r e a l l y a range of three or more years. If pubescence does e f f e c t mental growth, i t s influence i s only temporary, since no evidence of i t i s seen at ages sixteen to tv/enty. Physical well-being plays an important role i n the development of personality. Every youth has a r i g h t to be healthy, well-developed and reasonably strong, and t h i s r i g h t should be conserved by a l l the agencies which aff e c t i t as they mould or shape h i s destiny--school, home, vocation, recreation, and the youth himself. -19-CHAPTER II. Adolescent Interests. The human being's native equipment includes reflexes (simple and comjilex and compound), emotions, and many loosely f i x e d , greatly modified tendencies known as i n s t i n c t s , as well a s the three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i v i n g protoplasm— s e n s i t i v i t y , conductivity,, and m a d i f l a b i l i t y -upon v/hich. awareness and learning depend. I. Instincts and Impulses. The hi s t o r y of psychology, even for the l a s t f i f t e e n or twenty yecrs, shows marked o",w:.eis iu the 'conception of lr.stii*ct» Present p^ycl u l e x i c a l tloug'at, inflveuced by psy-chiatry and the. recent developments i n c h i l d psycho logs'-, emphasizes the modification of Instinctive tendencies from e a r l i e s t infancy * and holds that at puberty, for example, E «.-.;; i n s t i n c t i v e tendencies, i f observable at i l l , o„re largely-submerged under the learned or acquired elements. Umphasis been shifted from the fixed character and unchanging power of i n s t i n c t s to the great p o s s i b i l i t i e s of re d i r e c t i n g and modifying them. Ulien the organism i s prepared or ready for some act, i t i s said to be i n a state of readiness. "Then a person i s about to cough or sneeze, some preparatory a c t i v i t i e s have already taken place which put him i n a state of readiness. Now the adjustments leading to the state of readiness give r i s e to sensations which, indeed, constitute the conscious impulse. We may then define an impulse as the sensations a r i s i n g from the bodily condition of the organism, when i t i s i n a state of readiness. A l l i n s t i n c t i v e tendencies involve impulses. According to James,"'" "Every i n s t i n c t i s an impulse. The impulsive character of Instinct i s important making them, as many psychologists believe, drives to action. Although human motives and impulsions are l a r g e l y derived from i n s t i n c t yet some of them are due to habit. There i s a very wide variance i n the c l a s s i f i c a -tions of i n s t i n c t s by psychologists. Some are too general, others f a r too broad. Gates' 2 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n seems as reason-able as any: 1. Responses to bodily or organic conditions. 2. Responses to objects or events i n the environment. 3. Responses to the presence or a c t i v i t i e s of other persons. 1. P r i n c i p l e s of Psych. Vol. I I . p. 383. 2. Psych, f o r Students of Education, p. 7 TH§ i n s t i n c t i v e responses to tiie organic needs of tire organism are the most d e f i n i t e , permanent, and f u l l y organ-ized of the chil d ' s innate equipment, They are present throughout l i f e and are u t i l i z e d to form habits i n the i n t e r -ests of general physical health. S o c i a l pressure operates to prevent physical combat. The adolescent i s less l i k e l y to engage i n f i s t i c u f f s than when he v/as ten or eleven years old. He has learned, to adjust himself to situations without resorting to much f i g h t -ing. Through close associations with other boys he has found a working basis for h i s companionship, and. has become habit-uated to the give and take which i t involves. The form i n which pugnacity manifests i t s e l f may be quite undesirable and require considerable redirection, yet the impulses undoubtedly contribute important elements to human character, such, for example, c s sggressiveneus and persistence. Accordingly, r e d i r e c t i o n and positive u t i l i z a -t i o n of these strong impulses are preferable to attempts at u e r e i n h i b i t i o n or prevention. Suitable substitute a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y vigorous, competitive, a t h l e t i c games are valuable: witness the results of the physical-education and a t h l e t i c programmes of t!e urban t.gencies succe s s f ' i l l y with boy's t^ngs. 1 I. 3ee TL.rci.sher, "The Gang;;. C h i l d , adolescent, and adult, a l l find, s a t i s f a c t i o n i n dominating people and things. Se l f - a s s e r t i o n i s an almost universal t r a i t among children, appearing very early, and per-s i s t i n g , with modifications, throughout l i f e . R i v a l r y and emulation may be regarded as forms of i t . Leadership and force of personality are b u i l t upon i t . S e l f - a s s e r t i o n and Independence are often said to be concomitants of matuVf^^ 1' and therefore, p e c u l i a r l y adolescent t r a i t s . That these ten-dencies normally do become stronger during the teens cannot be doubted by any one well acquainted with adolescent boys and g i r l s ; that sexual maturing i s a factor i n increasing t h e i r strength seems also to be unquestionably true; but we have no reason f o r believing that s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s a new t r a i t which appears at puberty. A l l the evidence i s to the contrary. We have data from observing children at various ages, e s p e c i a l l y from observing and re-observing the same group of children f o r several years, which indicate what thoughtful parents and teachers have known a l l along, v i z . , that s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s a childhood t r a i t whose modification and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t problem. Methods of control and methods of i n s t r u c t i o n adapted to younger children are not suited to adolescents. The s o c i a l &fhfr$h}4$$are l a r g e l y habits acquired through experience. On many matters adolescents care more f o r the approbation of associates of t h e i r own age, than they do fo r the approval of adults. Parents' views often carry le s s weight with adolescents, than do the opinions of t h e i r com-panions. The desire f o r s o c i a l approval manifests i t s e l f i n showing o f f , feats of daring, strength and s k i l l . Attention to clothes and personal appearance may he due to the desire f o r s o c i a l approval. Through s o c i a l approval and disapproval the group secures conformity to i t s manners and customs, and codes of conduct. Gregariousness i s e s s e n t i a l l y an impulse to he with other human beings. The stimulus of being l e f t alone or of being alone invokes i t . The in d i v i d u a l normally i s uneasy and r e s t l e s s when alone, seeks others, and once with them, ceases to be r e s t l e s s . But a c h i l d , adolescent, or adult may be lonely i n a group, i f he takes no part i n i t s a c t i v i -t i e s . Gregariousness brings adolescents into groups, but i t does not determine t h e i r a c t i v i t y once they are i n the group; that i s determined by other impulses and by learning. An important task of adolescent education i s to provide s u i t -able opportunities f o r membership i n clubs and other organized groups, and to give wise guidance to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , so that youth can have the advantages of group l o y a l t y without submer-ging his own i n d i v i d u a l i t y and power of independent thought and action--beneath group—determined behavior. At the one -24-extreme i s the y o u t h wLo i s a l o o f , s e l f - c e n t r e d , s o l i t a r y , and a n t i - s o c i a l i n h i s a t t i t u d e s ; a t t h e o t h e r , the y o u t h c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d by the crowd,, a c c e p t i n g a s t r u e * j u s t , , and r i g h t * w h a t e v e r the crowd t h i n k s i s t r u e , j u s t , and r i g h t , and d o i n g v e r y l i t t l e t h i n k i n g f o r h i m s e l f — a c r e a t u r e o f the crowd w i t h l i t t l e i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Between t h e s e e x t r e m e s i s th e y o u t h who i s s e n s i t i v e t o the. l i f e o f t h e g r o u p , i s i n sympathy w i t h i t s a c t i v i t i e s a n d w e l f a r e * f i n d s g r e a t s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n s o c i a l c o n t a c t s * b u t f o r m s h i s own r a t i o n a l o p i n -i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t o f g r o u p s u g g e s t i o n * and i s i n d i v i d u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . Here a g a i n , we see t h a t n a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s need d - i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l i n t h e s e r v i c e o f human v / e l f a r e * An i m p u l s e o r urge i s most c o n s p i c u o u s when i t i s n o t g i v e n immediate e x p r e s s i o n , when i t i s t h w a r t e d o r d e l a y e d . A p a r t i c u l a r i m p u l s e , s u c h as t o s n e e z e , may be i n t e r f e r e d w i t h by p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s o r by knowledge t h a t i t wou l d be s o c i a l l y o f f e n s i v e . E v e r y u r g e i s s u b j e c t t o r e s t r i c t i o n o r i n h i b i t i o n more or l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . The s o u r c e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e m a i n u r g e s may be g r o u p e d r o u g h l y as f o l l o w s : -( 1 ) O t h e r i n s i s t e n t but a n t a g o n i s t i c c r a v i n g s . (2) A c q u i r e d h a b i t s , i d e a l s , c o n v e n t i o n s , t a b o o s , (3) O b s t a c l e s i n the e n v i r o n m e n t , Ho m a t t e r how f a v o u r a b l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e * t he t h w a r t -i n g o f many p r i m a r y i m p u l s e s and wants w i l l be c o n s t a n t l y expe r i e n c e d . -25-\.!hat happens when an in s i s t e n t tendency, being i n readiness to act, i s by some circumstance not permitted to act? A general answer to t h i s question i s as follows:-'./henever the organism i s ready to act i n some way, for i t to act i s s a t i s f y i n g ; and furthermore, whenever the organism i s reads'" to act* f o r i t not to do so i s annoying, u s a t i s f y i n g state of a f f a i r s i s defined as one which the animal seeks and attempts to maintain; an annoying state of a f f a i r s i s one which the animal attempts to avoid or change,- to which i t reacts negatively. Both, are conditions v/hich demand a c t i v i t y and i f the conditions are novel* the re s u l t of the a c t i v i t y i s learning. In many instances, man's behaviour when tryi n g to s a t i s f y some strong impulse, i s l i k e that of the cat i n the puzzle box or maze. He t r i e s i n one way to secure the s a t i s -f y i n g and avoid the annoying state of a f f a i r s . He d i f f e r s from the cat by learning the "way out " of the l a t t e r or the "way to" the former more rapidl y and with better retention. He d i f f e r s , furthermore, i n h i s capacity to make certain •::ental adjustments to the perplexing s i t u a t i o n ; adjustments which.*- although involving ideas to a degree H u i t e beyond the capacity of the animal are nevertheless often'achieved by the same " t r i a l and error" process'that characterized the cat's escape from the box. Individuals d i f f e r greatly i n the degree to which they are annoyed by the thwarting of t h e i r wants as well as i n the character! stiqStypes of adjustments. Some people, we a l l knon from o b s e r v a t i o n j can maintain t h e i r poise i n the severes storm of deprivation and misfofctmne* while others are upset by the s l i g h t e s t s w i r l . Scattered between the two extremes are th the other i n d i v i d u a l s , representing every intermediate degree but most t h i c k l y clustered i n the middle of the group. The po s i t i o n which an in d i v i d u a l occupies i n the group, ranging foil the most to the least "unstable", of which the "neurotics 8' compose the former end, i s determined i n the main by o r i g i n a l nature, although disease, poisons, shocks, or hardships m&ypui one to a levelc-far lower than h i s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . Some adjustments Tendencies. (1) , .adjustment by surrender. The victim of t h i s -condition i s in the doubly desp-erate s t r a i t of being annoyed not only by deprivation of the o r i g i n a l craving, but by the f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y as well. (2) . Adjustment by d i r e c t attack. Many forms, of d i r e c t attack are wholesome and construcfive but others are unwholesome and destructive. The danger i s that the attack, stimulated by the emotion, may become, an unreasonable form of violence which leaves matters worse than they were» In most cases, however, the positive attack upon the causes of d i f f i c u l t y , e s p e c i a l l y when i t can be conducted calmly and i n t e l l i g e n t l y , i s the most wholesome and constructive of a l l forms of adjustment* -27-(3) . Adjustment by introversion or imagination* Introversion i s a kind of giving-up adjustment, yet i t i s not a complete surrender* It consists i n giving up the ends sought, but substituting for them an imaginary r e a l i z -ation* The c h i l d or adult who has been angered, instead of act u a l l y f i g h t i n g or admitting defeat, imagines himself i n f l i c t i n g dire punishment upon the offender* In the extreme form, the adult ''introvert" ( i . e . , a person subject to excess-ive day-dreaming ) at least when subject to confusion of fact and fancy, would be c l a s s i f i e d as abnormal or insaiae . Among these introversions are found the "Conquering Hero " and the "Suffering Hero"' types. (4) . Adjustment by Ra t i o n a l i z a t i o n . Rationalization i s a form of thinking or reasoning, that i s , of s i f t i n g data, i n which our personal cravings are selective factors which guarantee an agreeable conclusion, Ideally, reasoning i s the process of impartial manipulation of the evidence to achieve the l o g i c a l conclusion, however disastrous the resu l t may be to our desires. Rationalization means moxe or less complete blindness, to a l l evidence except what furthers our side of the case* In everyday l i f e t h i s i r r a t i o n a l process i s often so subtle as to$ leave us oblivious of i t s existence* It i s the basis of most forms of bias and prejudice. The r e a l motives often l i e deeper than those we give, and what i s equally s i g n i f i c a n t we often do not ourselves appreciate just what they are. The most effe c t i v e temptations are those which come i n disguise, Failure to secure mastery, s o c i a l approval, or to s a t i s f y other stong urges, may be p a r t l y averted by a form of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n called projection* There i s a universal impulsion to project the trouble to some other cause than our own deficiency* Massing a stroke in tennis, we look i n q u i r i n g l y at the racket* b a l l or -net. The clumsy carpenter accuses h i s t o o l s . If we f a l l i n an exam-ination,- the questions were unfair,, By projection we escape the annoyingness consequent upon the admission of our f a i l u r e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s , (5);. Adjustment by Substitute A c t i v i t i e s . The various forms of introversion and most of the forms of r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n were mental adjustments to the s i t -uations which interfered with or inhibited, the d i r e c t express-ion of native impulses. In one way or another some mental a c t i v i t y was substituted f o r overt action,. More active adjustments may also be made even when the substituted a c t i v i t y i s i n most respects quite, unlike the o r i g i n a l form. For example., a man who has been enraged but who does not dare give rein to h i s impulses to attack because of h i s fear of injury, or j a i l , or perhaps because he doesn't belie-ve in fi g h t i n g , may substitute an.attack with words or looks, or he may control himself f o r a long time but l a t e r vent h i s rage upon h i s wife or chi l d r e n . Substituted a c t i v i t i e s may be good or they may be bad;, some are. very bad indeed. That addiction -29-to alcohol, heroin, morphine or other drugs may be considered as compensations for thwarted desires, i s a growing b e l i e f . Of a l l the methods of adjustment to the thwarting of our fundamental impulsions, the substitutionof some wholesome but vigorous activity,while not the easiest to arrange, i s by far the best. For the f i g h t i n g , hunting, dominating impulses of youth, vigorous a t h l e t i c games may be substituted. When angered, instead of holding a grudge, or I n f l i c t i n g damage on the offender i n fancy, or working off the influences by verbal attack upon inoffensive persons, we might attack the woodpile. Uhen the l i v e s of men are deeply searched, great achievements- are sometimes found i n a c t i v i t i e s v/hich began as substitutes f o r some other interest that v/as thwarted. Some forms of "negativism" so prominent at the age of two, outbreaks of temper at six, bull y i n g at ten, smartness and. mischievousness at f i f t e e n , are t y p i c a l forms of behaviour acquired as means of s a t i s f y i n g fundamental cravings. Shyness, withdrawal, haughtiness, sulking, are often means toward similar ends. D i f f i c u l t i e s , too, lik e distaste for reading, or r j d i s a b i l i t i a s1'1 i n s p e l l i n g , may be traced j sometimes, to peculiar forms of motivation. In a l l f i e l d s of service to humanity, prevention i s preferred to cure, education to re-education. How sha l l v/e avoid developing undesirable^ habits which reduce both happiness and usefulness? One - thing uae may do i s to become fa m i l i a r with the ways that are f u t i l e or destructive on the one hand and constructive on the otke.r. 7/e should, then, understand as well as we may the tendencies to idle dreaming, s e l f - p i t y , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , etc., not only i n general, but also our p a r t i c u l a r s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s and the conditions under which undersirable reactions are most l i k e l y to occur. Vfe should understand the nature and rel a t i v e strength of our d-ifferent urges and the ways in which they may be realized in a manner s a t i s f y i n g to us and to society alike f. This discussion i s summarized, i n a quotation from V i l l i a m James's famous chapter on "IIab.it"'; " The h e l l to be endured hereafter* of wliich theology t e l l s , i s no worse than the h e l l we make, for ourselves in t h i s -world by habitually fashioning our characters i n the. wrong way ~~----The great thing, then, -is to make our nerv.ous systems our a l l y instead of our enemy » 7/e must make automatic and h a b i t u a l i as. early as possible.., as many useful actions as we can, and guard against the growing' into ways that are l i k e l y to' be disadvantageous to us,, as we should guard against the plague. 2. The Emotional L i f e of the .adolescent* The term, emotion, i s used loosely to refer to a wide variety of bodily and mental states. Impulses are commonly regarded as emotions, and many people, mean impulses when they speak of emotions* They confuse the two states through f a i l u r e to "observe the difference between "wanting to do something", and " f e e l i n g some way about something", V/oodworth's - 3 I ~ I d e f i n i t i o n i s u s e f u l * # Ke h o l d s t h a t , "an emotion i s a c o n s c i o u s s t i r r e d - u p s t a t e of the organism." The s t i r r e d - u p s t a t e of- the organism i n some s t r o n g emotion* such, as f e a r , g r i e f , or anger, i s a m a t t e r of common o b s e r v a t i o n . Many s i g n s o f the e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e are open t o e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n ; we note the tense m u s c l e s , h & r s h l o u d v o i c e , c l e n c h e d f i s t s , and heavy, hard b r e a t h i n g i n a n ger, and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of -other s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e has been accumulated showing t h a t f e a r , a n g e r , and o t h e r s i m i l a r s t a t e s i n v o l v e marked changes i n t h e i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n o f the organism. E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h c a t s and dogs, f o r example, have shown t h a t anger s t o p s the n o r m a l course o f the d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s e s . I n human b e i n g s -strong emotions l i k e w i s e produce marked i n t e r n a l changes. I n f e a r or anger the h e a r t b e a t s more r a p i d l y and w i t h g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h ; the l a r g e v e i n s of the t r u n k are c o n t r a c t e d , f o r c i n g b l o o d back to the h e a r t , r e s t r i c t i n g the amount w h i c h roaches the d i g e s t i v e and o t h e r i n t e r n a l organs o f ;he -irunk, and t h u s making l a r g e r amounts available f o r the s k e l e t a l m u s c l e s , b r a i n , lun&s,- and s k i n . Thus anger or f e a r d e c r e a s e s the a c t i v i t i e s of d i g e s t i o n a t the same time t h a t i t s t i m u l a t e s the nervous and g l a n d u l a r mechanisms t o a c t i v a t e h e a r t , l u n g s , l i v e r , and. s t r i p e d m u s c l e s ; and w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the s k e l e t a l muscles are I , ,/ooduorth, P s y c h o l o g y , p. 119, --32 ~ p r o v i d e d blood i u l a r g e r amounts aria r i c h e r i u f u e l f o r n u s c u l d r work a t the same tirae t h a t t h e i r s t r e n g t h and endurance a r e i n c r e a s e d * A s i d e from t h e i r use i n r a r e l y o c c u r r i n g e m e r g e n c i e s , the emotions' have a t l e a s t f o u r p o s s i b l e u t i l i t i e s , and one p o s s i b l e h a r m f u l e f f e c t . 1. They r e l i e v e the monotony of a h i g h l y p e r f e c t machine. 2. I n some cases t h e y may make p o s s i b l e g r e a t e r achievement. I t may be p e r f e c t l y t r u e , f o r example, t h a t Byron, Goethe, Poe and o t h e r $ g e n i u s e s produced m a s t e r p i e c e s under the s t r e s s of some g r e a t emotion* The v a s t m a j o r i t y of men, however, do not do t h e i r b e s t work when wrought up e m o t i o n a l l y . 3. S t r o n g emotion may h e l p t o break up a s t e r e o t y p e d e m o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e . 4* They g i v e q u a l i t y t o p e r s o n a l i t y . 5. T h e i r e f f e c t may be h a r m f u l . In the l o n g r u n , s t r o n g amotions may have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t upon h e a l t h , since, t h e y i n v o l v e e x c e s s i v e s t i m u l a t i o n of the v i s c e r a l f u n c t i o n s , i l l u s t r a t e d hy the well-known e f f e c t o f a n g e r , g r i e f , w o r r y , and e x c i t e m e n t upon the d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s e s * Many c o n d i t i o n s a i d the growing c h i l d t o secure s u i t -a b l e e m o t i o n a l balance or c o n t r o l . Two of them are as f o l l o w s I * Good g e n e r a l h e a l t h . The c h i l d who i s w e l l n o u r i s h e d , g e t s p l e n t y of s l e e p r e g u l a r i t y , and has adequate v i g o r o u s p l a y and o t h e r s u i t a b l e , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i s b e t t e r a b l e t o c o n t r o l h i s emotions t h a n i f he were under--33-n o u r i s h e d , t i r e d , u n o c c u p i e d , and i n poor g e n e r a l h e a l t h . 2. Avoidance of h i g h l y e x c i t i n g e v e n t s . Young c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be kept f r e e from the shock of t o o e x c i t i n g e v e n t s . I f the i n d i v i d u a l knows from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c e r t a i n e v e n t s are v e r y d i s t u r b i n g , he may w i s e l y a v o i d them on c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s . 3. Causes of Emotonal D i s t u r b a n c e s a t A d o l e s c e n c e . 1 A c c o r d i n g t o H e a l y j Groves"', and o t h e r s , the > f o l l o w i n g are the most common causes of e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and adolescence,; 1. The c h i l d ' s doubt of h i s own p a r e n t a g e . 2. The c h i l d ' s b e l i e f t h a t he has been d e c e i v e d l I f he f i n d s out t h a t h i s p a r e n t s have not been t r u t h f u l o r have not d e a l t f r a n k l y wijsh him, an e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e i s l i k e l y . 3. Harsh or u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t . S e n s i t i v e c h i l d r e n may have an e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , i f t r e a t e d h a r s h l y or u n j u s t l y , or i f accused f a l s e l y . 4. Shame,- e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d s t o p a r e n t s , home, and t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n ; or speech d e f e c t s or p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s . 5. L o n e l i n e s s , homesickness, o r the f e e l i n g t h a t one i s m i s u n d e r s t o o d . 6. V a n i t y , accompanied by s e n s i t i v e n e s s . I n d i v i d u a l s who have an u n d u l y h i g h r e g a r d f o r t h e i r . own a b i l i t y and i m p o r t a n c e - - e s p e c i a l l y those who have been 1. The I n d i v i d u a l D e l i n q u e n t , p p . 356-357. 2. P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t , p p . 71-75. spoiled at home--often meet rebuffs In t h e i r associations with others. They cannot f i t themselves into the group so as to receive the approval to which they have been accustomed and which t h e i r vanity requires. As a r e s u l t , such an Indi-vidual e i t h e r : (1) struggles to r e t a i n h i s former pride; or (2) retreats within himself, concealing how deeply he Is hurt, even, i t may be, becoming quite timid. Many high-school and college youths meet t h i s problem. 7. Changes i n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . Young people during t h e i r adolescent years, e s p e c i a l l y college students, face the problem of harmonizing a wider and more accurate knowledge of science with t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . We need not be d i s -turbed by adolescent doubt i n r e l i g i o u s matters. The youth normally does a l o t of doubting. He r e a l l y i s revamping his whole outlook upon l i f e ; and the c r i t i c a l , questioning a t t i -tude, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the teens, normally extends to a l l s i g n i f i c a n t phases of l i f e — r e l i g i o n as well as morals. The great danger i s that snap judgments may be taken, and a narrow, dogmatic view become f i x e d to the exclusion of the truth. 8. The idea that one i s u n a t t r a c t i v e — g i r l s mostly. 9. Sex. In childhood, emotional c o n f l i c t s r elated to sex arise not so much over the physical side of sex i t s e l f , as from the mental; that i s , from c u r i o s i t y which i s stimulated i n so many ways by our c i v i l i z a t i o n , but i s often repressed by a s * - 32^-parents and teachers who make excessive and unnatural re-actions to harmless questions, treating the c h i l d who asks as i f h i s mere asking were e v i l . At adolescence, sex impulses may cause severe emotional c o n f l i c t s , i f wise and sympatheti-c a l l y given sex i n s t r u c t i o n has not prepared the youth to understand maturation, and take a wholesome attitude toward the various problems i t presents. 10. Unreasonable r e s t r i c t i o n s . Greater independence and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n as the c h i l d grows up necessitate greater freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . Sometimes, parental control i s unwisely increased at adolescence to overcome these p e r f e c t l y natural and desirable tendencies. Under such circumstances the youth often wins freedom only by an apparent repudiation of home and parents. A f f e c t i o n f o r parents and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , both strong tendencies, are thus i n c o n f l i c t . 11. Undisciplined impulses. Training i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l i s needed, so that the adolescent may not have too many undisciplined impulses, and thus be u n f i t t e d f o r r e l a t i v e l y calm s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . There i s serious danger that the widespread, easy-going, l a i s s e z - f a i r e parental control (often lack of con t r o l ) , which i s based upon a s u p e r f i c i a l l y popular "never thwart or repress" doctrine, i s not leading children to r e l i a n t , independent, integrated s e l f - c o n t r o l , but, instead, i s l e t t i n g them "grow up", the victims of t h e i r -36-own unguided, c o n f l i c t i n g i m p u l s e s . 4* A d o l e s c e n t I n t e r e s t s . The i n t e r e s t s of a d o l e s c e n t s have i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g s on problems of p r e d i c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o u r . The term 11 i n t e r e s t " i s used b o t h p o p u l a r l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y w i t h v a r i o u s meanings. Here, the t e r m w i l l be used t o connote the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Y/e tend t o g i v e a t t e n t i o n i f we are i n t e r e s t e d . T T h o r n d i k e ' s term f o r n a t i v e l i k e s , and. d i s l i k e s i s " o r i g i n a l s a t i s f i e r s and annoyers ". A c q u i r e d i n t e r e s t s are v e r y numerous, and are of the g r e a t e s t importance i n the l i f e of the y o u t h , r e s e m b l i n g m o d i f i e d , i n s t i n c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s i n t h i s r e s p e s t . They are b u i l t up by e x p e r i e n c e p p e r a t m g under the laws of e x e r c i s e ands e f f e c t , " and o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s of l e a r n i n g , somewhat as f o l l o w s : The c h i l d has a new e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s s a t i s f y i n g . I t r e c u r s many t i m e s and c o n t i n u e s t o be a g r e e a b l e . He becomes i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t s o r t of event 1. E d . P s c h . V o l . I..,Chap. 9. 2 . B r o o k s , op. c i t . , Chap. IX. or object. As he gets older, the situations which y i e l d s a t i s -f a c t i o n change; those which were objects of interest at an earlier, age cease to have any a t t r a c t i o n f o r him; whereas other objects, events, or a c t i v i t i e s which formerly held no interest f o r him may now be highly a t t r a c t i v e . Does in t e r e s t In an a c t i v i t y Indicate a b i l i t y to perform i t e f f e c t i v e l y ? How c l o s e l y are one's l i k e s related to his a b i l i t i e s ? On "a p r i o r i " grounds we would expect an i n d i v i d u a l to l i k e better the things he can do, and to have less i n t e r e s t i n those which he cannot do. We are not, of course, r e f e r r i n g to his i d l y wishing he could do a c e r t a i n sort of thing, or to his l i k i n g f o r an a c t i v i t y of which he has only s u p e r f i c i a l or erroneous notions. If he has some knowledge or f a m i l i a r i t y with i t , and has a b i l i t y or talent along that l i n e , then he i s l i k e l y to have some int e r e s t i n i t . At l e a s t , he would have more of a l i k i n g f o r i t than i f he had no talent f o r i t . The boy who has mathematical a b i l i t y i s l i k e l y to be interested i n mathematics, i f he has had suitable experience with i t ; the person having aptitude f o r music i s l i k e l y to be interested i n i t . Experimental Investigations tend to support the b e l i e f i n a f a i r l y close positive r e l a t i o n s h i p between intere s t and aptitude. Laboratory s t u d i e s , 1 however, have thus f a r re-1. Dashiell^and Hartman "An Experiment to Determine the Rela-- nn 0 n259 f f r e S t S - " t 0 A b i l i t i e s " . i n Psy. B u l l e t i n , Vol. 16, vealed l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between them, probably because of the narrow range of interests i n the a c t i v i t i e s by which d i f f e r -ences i n aptitudes have been determined. Thomdike 1 found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .89 between adults' estimates of t h e i r r e l a -tive a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e interests i n the studies of the elementary school, high school and college, and a corre-l a t i o n of .66 between the i r estimates of elementary school interests and a b i l i t y i n college work. These c o e f f i c i e n t s are based upon self-estimates of the reminiscent type, and are also subject to probable ift&^k%M^${ because the elements common to intere s t and a b i l i t y undoubtedly obscured somewhat the differences between them, so that each i n d i v i d u a l tended to estimate one and the same thing when attempting to e s t i -mate the two. The interests of adolescents are so numerous that no attempt could be made here to survey them a l l . Instead, l e t us select three main groups (recreational and s o c i a l , i n t e l -l e c t u a l and aesthetic, and vocational) as ind i c a t i v e of t h e i r range and si g n i f i c a n c e . Recreational and s o c i a l interests (including sex in t e r e s t s ) , normally are very strong during the teens, the l a t t e r being even stronger then than formerly. The prevalence of both i s indicated by the widespread p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n many 1."Early Interests, Their Permanence & Relation to A b i l i t i e s . " in."Schot>l & Society", Vol. 5, pp. 178-79. extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s at school, and i n many out-of-school organizations and a c t i v i t i e s . Children of a l l ages normally have strong i n t e r e s t i n a wide var i e t y of games and play a c t i v i t i e s . The types of a c t i v i t i e s which appeal most i n early childhood d i f f e r from those most preferred i n l a t e r childhood and adolescence. Younger children, f o r example, care mo3t f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n which team work or cooperation with others plays no role at a l l , whereas adolescents and some older pre-adolescents f i n d r i v a l r y and team work essential features of their most pre-ferred games. The t y p i c a l ten-or eleven- year-old enjoys immensely competitive a c t i v i t i e s involving i n d i v i d u a l feats of a t h l e t i c prowess and s k i l l . The boy who can run f a s t e s t , jump or throw farthest, or excel i n some other similar act i s highly regarded. Children of t h i s age are not given very much to team work although some of i t can be secured. Adolescence does not, however, i n and of i t s e l f bring about any sudden changes along these l i n e s . Nor,indeed,does adolescence eliminate the individual's in t e r e s t i n exhibiting his physical prowess, a tendency that pe r s i s t s throughout much of adult l i f e , being r e a d i l y observed i n games and stunts at community picnic s and other informal adult gatherings. . Interest i n cooperative games develops alongside of the e a r l i -er i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c play i n t e r e s t s , supplementing rather than, supplanting them. As children get older, the range of t h e i r - By-play and other recreational a c t i v i t i e s seems to decrease somewhat; at lea s t questionnaire data from several thousand children and adults indicate some narrowing of interests from childhood to adolescence and the early twenties. 1 Early adolescence and the years immediately preceding i t are the years where hoys take to gangs. 2 During t h i s time the boys' or g i r l s ' interests continue to widen so that they include more persons outside the family. So strong are these interests that the boy or g i r l i s influenced more than ever before by the opinions and standards of conduct of com-panions. Chums often have more influence than the father or mother. While g i r l s ' gangs are not so numerous as those of boys, yet g i r l s are powerfully influenced by t h e i r companions' ideas, b e l i e f s , and moral codes. The lure of adventure, strong In pre-adolescence, seems even stronger i n the teens. Many young adolescents f e e l that t h e i r home l i f e i s narrow, and t h e i r d a i l y existence too humdrum. They crave a change of surroundings. Probably most boys and an uncertain number of g i r l s f e e l at some time or other a strong desire to go about and see other places, to 1. Lehman and Michie, "Extreme V e r s a t i l i t y Versus Paucity of Play I terests", i n "Pedagogical seminary, Vol. 34, pp. 290-98. 2. See Puffer "The Boy and his Gang", or Thrasher, "The Gang". ft - ^ -be on the go. The wanderlust i s not, however, confined to adolescents; i t possesses those older and those who have not reached the teens. Development involves a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r -ests and desires. Other interests compete with the s p i r i t of adventure; society brings pressure to bear upon the i n d i v i d u -a l through i t s manners and customs, i t s standards and ways of looking at t h i n g s — i n short, through i t s organization of the circumstances of l i f e — s o that normally the wanderlust and the s p i r i t of adventure come to f i l l t h e i r s o c i a l l y accepted role i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s . Camping, hiking, and other similar a c t i v i t i e s are eagerly engaged i n both before and a f t e r adolescence, as well as during the teen3. The basic interests are derived p a r t l y from love of nature, p a r t l y from gregariousness and other s o c i a l tendencies, and p a r t l y from love of adventure or wan-derlust. Furthermore,, they give many urban adolescents an opportunity to escape the confinement, a r t i f i c i a l i t y , monotony, sordidness, irksomeness, or thwarting which c i t y l i f e means to so many of them. The Youth Movement i n Germany includes hiking tours to v i s i t Germany's forests and mountains, quiet v a l l e y s , deserted v a l l e y s , and s i l e n t , enchanted lakes. According to an observer writing i n the "Hamburger Nachrichten", "There i s no doubt that the o r i g i n a l impulse which l e d to this movement was the desire to get absolutely away from the stupe-f y i n g , every-day, noisy, nerve-wracking a c t i v i t y of the larger c i t i e s . The movement thus constituted a reform which blew l i k e a fresh wind over the ageing c i v i l i z a t i o n of i t s time." The s o c i a l interests of adolescence manifest them-selves i n the popularity of high-school clubs, dances, and other similar extra-curricular group a c t i v i t i e s , not to men-ti o n extra-school organizations such as Boy and G i r l Scouts, C.G.I.T., and T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys. Social organi-zations i n high school, l i k e other extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , are not necessarily of value. The majority of educators, however, believe that they either are or can be of value to high-school students. We have evidence from a few case studies i n d i c a t i n g the value of these a c t i v i t i e s i n resolving the adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s of c e r t a i n adolescents. We be-l i e v e that extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s can have posi t i v e value, but that wise discrimination i s needed to adapt them to i n d i v i d u a l needs. As a sample of the varied i n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic Interests of adolescents we have selected t h e i r reading pre-ferences f o r b r i e f consideration, and f o r two reasons: f i r s t , because of t h e i r importance; and second, because they have been studied quite extensively. Reading interests derive t h e i r Importance from the role which they may play i n the use of l e i s u r e time. I t i s important that children form a taste f o r reading excellent l i t e r a t u r e , since a mere l i k i n g f o r reading does not Insure the reading of desirable materials. By noting the books and magazines which boys and g i r l s l i k e at the beginning of the teens, and again a few years l a t e r , we may be able to discern the changes i n the q u a l i t i e s and cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r reading preferences. 1 Many persons believe that boys and g i r l s at the beginning of puberty have l i t t l e idea of what occupations they want to follow. Their b e l i e f i s not based upon close observation or the res u l t s of careful investigation, but Is derived from considerations of the fourteen-year-old's scant experience, inadequate information, and assumed lack of con-cern about occupations. Investigation of the vocational pre-ferences of junior and senior high-school students indicates that the vast majority of them have i n mind the occupations they think they want to follow. F r a n k l i n ' s 2 r e s u l t s show that less than two per cent of 1467 f i r s t year pupils i n the junior high schools In Baltimore had no choices, when asked what one occupation they would most prefer to go into on leaving school. 1. See Jordon, A.M., "Children's Interests i n Reading, 1926, also Terman and Lima, "Children's Reading", Chap. 5. 2. The Permanence of the Vocational Interests of Junior High School Pupils. Many "boys and g i r l s at adolescence are thinking se-r i o u s l y about what they want to do to earn a l i v i n g . Voca-t i o n a l counsellors usually f i n d high-school students quite eager to f i n d out about the occupations i n which they are i n -terested. Many a boy or g i r l who was i n c l i n e d to a p a r t i c u l a r vocation was nevertheless thinking of one or two others, and was try i n g to decide which one r e a l l y was the best to follow. This i s to be expected. McCracken"*" found the preferences of senior high school students more permanent than those of pupils i n the junior high school, as one would reasonably expect them to be; the percentages a f t e r a year were 56 per cent and 50 per cent respectively. Franklin presents evidence showing that the more i n t e l l i g e n t boys have the greater per-mancy of choice, whereas, among the g i r l s , with the exception of decile lowest i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , the brighter ones' choices are less permanent. 5. The Role of Interests i n Adolescent Development. Aside from t h e i r prognostic value i n educational and vocational guidance, interests may serve at l e a s t four important functions i n the development of the adolescent. 1. Interests serve an exploratory or "try-out" function. They lead to a c t i v i t y , to experience. The youth 1. McCracken & Lamb, "Occupational Information i n the Elementary School, Chap. 3. who i s interested i n an a c t i v i t y tends to engage i n i t . Thus his interest leads him to sample many a c t i v i t i e s and to ac-quire knowledge of them, often under circumstances favorable to t h e i r correct appraisal. 2. A wide range of wholesome interests tends to i n -sure breadth of experience and of personality. Under normal conditions the youth who has many wholesome Interests i 3 i n l i t t l e danger of developing a narrow, one-sided personality. The d e s i r a b i l i t y of b uilding up many useful interests and appreciations i s obvious. 3. A wealth of Interests f a c i l i t a t e s substitution i n case of thwarting and i s an aid to mental health. Thwart-ing and c o n f l i c t of desires are common causes of functional mental disorders. A wealth of desirable interests enables the youth, when thwarted, to turn more r e a d i l y and with less stress and s t r a i n from one i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t y to some other one. The youth with few interests i s l i k e l y to f i n d s u b s t i -tution a more d i f f i c u l t task. 4. Intense abiding Interests i n a few things are de-s i r a b l e f o r e f f i c i e n c y . The greatest achievement i s possible only when the i n d i v i d u a l has a strong abiding i n t e r e s t i n the task he i s performing. Intense e f f o r t f o r a long period of time i s required. In any l i n e of endeavor, an Individual i s l i k e l y to f i n d hard tasks which, i n and of themselves, are -more or less disagreeable. A strong i n t e r e s t i n his work w i l l help carry him over many irksome subsidiary tasks involved' i n i t . Without such in t e r e s t s , achievement i s won at a needless-l y great cost In s t r a i n and e f f o r t . Deep, abiding i n t e r e s t enables an i n d i v i d u a l to work not only v/ith less stress and s t r a i n , but also with greater absorption and concentration upon the task i n hand, being thus a prerequisite to greatest e f f i c i e n c y . Deep, abiding i n t e r e s t s , however, imply a b i l i t y to do the task. The means which are e f f e c t i v e i n b uilding up whole-some interests during the years following puberty are ob-viously none other than those v/hich are e f f i c a c i o u s during pre-adolescence and adult l i f e . They involve the laws and p r i n c i p l e s of learning. (Laws of E f f e c t , Readiness, Recall, e t c . ) . We should note, however, three general considerations. 1. Contact with a wide range of desirable a c t i v i t i e s . Genuine in t e r e s t depends upon experience of the s p e c i f i c things and a c t i v i t i e s . A broad program at school and out of school is. u s e f u l i n building up a wide range of i n t e r e s t s , 2. A c t i v i t i e s proportionate to c a p a c i t i e s . Since interests depend so much upon aptitude, i t follows that a second condition necessary for developing sound i n t e r e s t i s the arrangement of a c t i v i t i e s i n accordance with the a b i l i -t i e s of the youth who i s to have contacts with them. The youth can have no genuine i n t e r e s t f o r a subject i n school or for some other occupation or a c t i v i t y which i s f a r beyond h i s powers, although, of course, he may wish at times that he were successfully engaged i n i t . I f he i s working at congen-i a l tasks, which, with reasonable e f f o r t , he can successfully perform, he i s l i k e l y to have l i t t l e time or i n c l i n a t i o n to be concerned over things which are beyond his a b i l i t i e s . 3. The presence of conditions insuring s a t i s f a c t i o n . In tr y i n g to develop the adolescent's i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n things and a c t i v i t i e s , It i s highly important that his con-tacts he s a t i s f y i n g , so that he w i l l be i n c l i n e d toward them. Force or external compulsion i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n d i s l i k e . To Insure the development of wholesome inte r e s t s we must pro-vide the conditions under which the adolescent comes into s a t i s f y i n g contacts with a wide range of desirable a c t i v i t i e s which are proportionate to h i s capacities, and Into annoying contacts with undesirable or unsuitable a c t i v i t i e s . 6. Moral and Religious Development. While morality comes from the L a t i n word "Moralis", meaning manners, customs, or conduct, and implies behavior which i s i n accord with the standards of the group to which the i n d i v i d u a l belongs, yet mere conformity to such customs does not of i t s e l f s i g n i f y much about the moral character of the conforming i n d i v i d u a l . Conformity as such i s an inade-quate c r i t e r i o n , as are also, on the other hand, good inten-tions. Morality i s not simply a regulation of s o c i a l r e l a -• - 4 8 -1 a t i o n s — " a n e x t e r n a l code f o r the o r d e r l y conduct of l i f e " — a l t h o u g h i t does i n c l u d e a code w h i c h p o w e r f u l l y i n f l u e n c e s conduct. Y/e t h i n k of the i n d i v i d u a l of h i g h m o r a l c h a r a c t e r as one. whose conduct i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y f o r the common good. Any v i e w w h i c h omits t h i s c o n c e p t i o n l e a v e s out of account a most i n t i m a t e i m p o r t a n t element. The t a s k of home, s c h o o l , c h u r c h , and o t h e r a g e n c i e s d i r e c t l y concerned i n g u i d i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g y o u t h ' s m o r a l growth i s e f f e c t i v e l y performed o n l y i f a m o r a l code comes t o have a unique i m p e l l i n g a u t h o r -i t y i n s h a p i n g h i s i d e a l s and conduct--an a u t h o r i t y whose f o r c e comes from w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n from w i t h o u t . Mere c o n f o r m i t y t o e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of conduct codes, v a l u a b l e as i t i s , f a l l s s h o r t of b e i n g an adequate c r i t e r i o n of the development of m o r a l c h a r a c t e r . I t n e g l e c t s an important c o n d i t i o n i n the p e r s o n who i s b e i n g t r a i n e d ( t h a t i s , h i s m i n d - s e t , a t t i t u d e or p u r p o s e ) , s i n c e i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e t h a t impoptant law of l e a r n i n g , known as the lav/ of e f f e c t , o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . We r e c o g n i z e the f a c t t h a t i n b u i l d i n g up many h a b i t s and o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t elements o f m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , e x t e r n a l control and guidance are necessary; "but i f guidance and con-t r o l are wise, the youth w i l l be habituated not only i n mak-ing c e r t a i n responses, but also i n enjoying them or at l e a s t i n not being averse to making them. The trouble with constant external compulsion i s that the youth i s not learning s e l f -c o n t r o l . His own i n c l i n a t i o n s , passions and desires are regulated from without. T rue freedom he w i l l never have. His attitude toward what he does f o r the welfare of the group w i l l be at "best that of i n d i f f e r e n t or neutral com-pliance; and, at the worst, an active, open, personal, inner opposition with the lea s t conformity possible under the ex-i s t i n g r u l e s , customs, and public opinion which constitute the external.authority at the time. Laws, rul e s , regulations, and other forms of public opinion and s o c i a l taboos serve the purpose of acquainting the developing i n d i v i d u a l with group standards and of ensur-ing his action i n accordance with them. By the time he i s mature they should be unnecessary to secure r i g h t conduct, but f o r many adults they do seem necessary to prevent a n t i -s o c i a l behavior. Tne.accumulating mass of such formulated regulations and t h e i r apparent necessity are, i n some r e -spects, v a l i d evidence of the need of a more e f f e c t i v e type of moral t r a i n i n g f o r the increasingly complex l i f e of the times. According to D e w e y S moral character embraces the following psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) force or energy, (2) i n t e l l e c t u a l judgment, and (3) emotional respon-siveness. Driving force or energy i s that q u a l i t y of the In-di v i d u a l by virtue of which he overcomes obstacles and car-r i e s enterprises through to completion. I t i s an es s e n t i a l quality because the consummation of s o c i a l l y valuable pur-poses so often requires persistent endeavor i n the face of strong opposition. Not only Is energy necessary to secure overt action, hut i t must he properly directed as we l l . L i f e presents complex, i n t r i c a t e l y tangled situations, to which the best responses are not necessarily the simplest or the most obvious. Accordingly, the i n d i v i d u a l needs a keen i n -t e l l e c t , trained to analyze the complex conditions confront-ing him, and to evaluate a wide v a r i e t y of possible responses, so that he may know what are the most suitable ones ins a given s i t u a t i o n . In addition to these q u a l i t i e s , a t h i r d one i s e s s e n t i a l to ensure h i s making the response which h i s judgment t e l l s him i s appropriate. He must have an emotional responsiveness i n c l i n i n g him to do the things he knows are best and giving him a strong impulse to do them. A l l three 1. Moral P r i n c i p l e s i n Education. of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must be present f o r high moral character, and manifestly any appraisal of an individual's character must consider these three. The moral growth of adolescents involves the proportional development of these three q u a l i t i e s as part of personality. Present knowledge of the psychology of learning indicates that habits should be formed i n the way, (and as nearly as possible i n situations l i k e those), i n which they probably w i l l occur, since they w i l l then be better f i t t e d into the t o t a l dynamic organization of the individual's t r a i t s . Real, v i t a l a c t i v i t i e s are an important means. Both r e p e t i t i o n and the law of e f f e c t are to be used. Responses re s u l t i n g i n , or accompanied by, s a t i s f a c t i o n become more fir m l y connected with t h e i r s t i m u l i . Any program that f a i l s to u t i l i z e the law of e f f e c t i s to that extent wasteful and Ineffective. Training the youth i n ways of f i n d i n g accurate i n -formation on v i t a l questions, i n c o l l e c t i n g , s i f t i n g , and weighing evidence, i s desirable, but i t i s equally important to habituate him i n wanting to f i n d the truth and i n acting upon i t , once i t Is ascertained. Here again the best insur-ance that he can, w i l l want to, and r e a l l y w i l l f i n d and use the truth i n his conduct responses, (whether they r e l a t e to the larger problems of c i v i c l i f e or to the complex ones), - m -i s to provide as many situations as possible for such a c t i -v i t i e s , and arrange them so that the youth finds them s i g n i -f i c a n t , v i t a l , and s a t i s f y i n g . We want to emphasize the need of tr a i n i n g the adolescent to an open-minded, impartial search for the truth upon v i t a l questions. I f education Is to serve i t s high function of helping to bu i l d a new and so c i a l order, i t must lead people to desire, know, and love the truth, and to make i t the basis f o r u n s e l f i s h a c t i o n . An i d e a l i s defined by Gates'*" as,"an idea, plus an impulse to action". Ideals, l i k e habits, should be formed as often as practicable i n r e a l , v i t a l situations i n which the impulse to act may r e a l l y lead the adolescent to make the response which he f e e l s impelled to make. Ideals thus formed are l i k e l y to have a posit i v e e f f e c t upon conduct. V/hile the moral t r a i n i n g of the adolescent has as one object i n c l i n i n g the youth to right conduct, yet so s p e c i f i c Is learning that we can know l i t t l e about the strength of his i n c l i n a t i o n un-less i t be tested by giving i t an opportunity to lead him to some conduct response. Direct moral i n s t r u c t i o n can serve a usefu l func-tio n , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t clears up misconceptions and puts the youth i n such r e l a t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t features of situations 1. Gates "Psychology for Students of Education". -53-t h a t he not o n l y u n d e r s t a n d s them c l e a r l y , but has the r i g h t i m p u l s e s a r o u s e d . T-his i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . The a d o l e s c e n t i s s e n s i t i v e , i s u s u a l l y t i m i d about h i s f e e l i n g s and i m p u l s e s -a t l e a s t about d i s c u s s i n g or a c k n o w l e d g i n g them--and i s q u i t e l i k e l y t o r e s e n t crude a t t e m p t s t o m o r a l i z e . D i r e c t m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t enough. M o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s b u i l t up t h r o u g h m o r a l conduct as w e l l . An adequate program o f m o r a l t r a i n i n g must be: broad enough t o i n c l u d e not o n l y i n -r s t u c t i o n w h i c h g i v e s a d o l e s c e n t s a b e t t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a s p of i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l - m o r a l problems, but a l s o a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y l e a r n t o e n j o y d o i n g s o c i a l l y u s e f u l t h i n g s and a c t u a l l y get" enough p r a c t i c e t o become w e l l - h a b i t u a t e d t h e r e t o . McDougall i n h i s " S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y " , r e f e r s t o f o u r l e v e l s of human conduct w h i c h form a good background upon w h i c h t o study the problems of a d o l e s c e n t mental growth. ( 1 ) . I n s t i r f t i v e b e h a v i o u r , m o d i f i e d by the n a t u r a l , consequences of the a c t . The c h i l d soon l e a r n s not t o • s t r i k e h i s head a g a i n s t hot or sharp o b j e c t s , S i m i l a r l y , h i s d.iverse a c t i v i t i e s l e a d him £o s u i t h i s r e s p o n s e s t o many inanim a t e and animate o b j e c t s . (2) .Reward and punishment. A t the second l e v e l conduct i s governed l a r g e l y by e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f i n a scheme of rewards and. punishments a d m i n i s t e r e d by p a r e n t s and o t h e r s . Much o f the conduct of c h i l d h o o d i s upon t h i s l e v e l . ( 3 ) . S o c i a l a p p r o v a l and d i s a p p r o v a l , conduct i n --54 -f l u e n c e d by f o r c e of the o p i n i o n or s a n c t i o n s of the group t o w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g s , T h i s l e v e l of conduct i s supposed t o be e s p e c i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the gang ages. ( 4 ) . A l t r u i s m . The i m p e l l i n g f o r c e i s an i d e a l w h i c h , l e a d s the i n d i v i d u a l t o do what he t h i n k s i s r i g h t even though h i s f e l l o w s may d i s a p p r o v e of i t . The s a n c t i o n i s the r e a l -i z a t i o n t h a t a c e r t a i n conduct response s e r v e s the w e l f a r e of the group, or i s the r i g h t t h i n g t o do. Under the best d e v e l -opmental c o n d i t i o n s the l e v e l o f reward and punishment i s l a r g e l y outgrown as the c h i l d grows o l d e r , and h i s responses are m o s t l y upon the t h i r d and f o u r t h l e v e l s . S c h o o l and. home may w e l l seek t o p l a c e c o n t r o l as much as p o s s i b l e upon the t h i r d and f o u r t h l e v e l s . S u c c e s s -f u l t e a c h e r s and wise p a r e n t s employ a wide v a r i e t y of a p p e a l s so as t o s t i m u l a t e the best i m p u l s e s . Wide, i n t i m a t e know-ledge- of a d o l e s E e n t p e r s o n a l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h jjhe u n c o - o r d i n -a t e d c o n d i t i o n of many of the y o u t h ' s i m p u l s e s , and s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d , frank,, h o n e s t , s y m p a t h e t i c t r e a t m e n t are e s s e n t i a l . Sometimes, even i n v e r y tense, s i t u a t i o n s , p a r e n t or t e a c h e r may p o s s e s s enough s e l f - c o n t r o l and be q u i c k - w i t t e d enough t o arouse a good impulse i n p l a c e o f an u n d e s i r a b l e one. One of the most s e r i o u s h a n d i c a p s t o the moral t r a i n i n g of boys and g i r l s in. the t e e n s i s the q u e s t i o n a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e conduct of a d u l t s who n e v e r t h e l e s s are r e -s p e c t e d members of the community. I n h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c i d e a l -i sm the a d o l e s c e n t i s l i k e l y t o d e t e s t sham, d o u b l e - d e a l i n g , h y p o c r i s y , and o t h e r s i m i l a r c onduct. <5F - 53, -The chil d ' s f i r s t r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s are acquired. They are not inborn. He learns them from others. In f a c t , his e a r l i e s t ideas, b e l i e f s , etc., along a l l l i n e s , r e l i g i o n included, come from his experiences and from what he i s t o l d . The young c h i l d i s a b e l i e v e r ; at f i r s t he believes everything he i s t o l d . As some one: has said, at t h i s early age "the world of assertion and the v/orld of truth have not yet parted company." His ideas of God, heaven, Jesus, Holy Ghost, and various other r e l i g i o u s concepts are derived from others. He believes what parent, teacher, minister, or p r i e s t t e l l s him. His notions are crude r e p l i c a s of t h e i r statements, modified to be sure,'somewhat i n accordance with his state of language development. During the years before puberty the r e l i g i o u s as-pects of the child's l i f e are modified i n many ways. New r e l i g i o u s teachings and new ideas are a fa c t o r , of course, but even more s i g n i f i c a n t are his growing mental powers and his expanded and organized mass of experiences. Prom hi s increased mental a b i l i t y he has greater capacity f o r judg-ment and organization. I f his b e l i e f s , received upon autho-r i t y , c o n f l i c t In any way with his experience, and i f he notices the c o n f l i c t , the usual r e s u l t i s that authority loses some of i t s power over him. -56-D u r i n g c h i l d h o o d the most i m p o r t a n t changes r e l a t e t o the c h i l d ' s r e l i g i o u s i d e a s and t o the elements of w o r s h i p w hich make the s t o n g e s t a p p e a l , There may be some s l i g h t change i n the amount of p e r s o n a l a p p e a l made by h i s r e l i g i o u s n o t i o n s . We are- i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis i s needed upon the a p p r o p r i a t e elements of w o r s h i p and not m e r e l y upon the MMMMM^MM^§^0§ a c q u i s i t i o n of mere f a c t s and more i n f o r m a t i o n , l e s t r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n become c o l d l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and l o s e the g r e a t v a l u e w h i c h , t h r o u g h w o r s h i p , i t may have f o r the growing c h i l d . Many a d o l e s c e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those whose e a r l y r e -l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g has been dogmatic and d o c t r i n a l , have p e r -i o d s of r e l i g i o u s doubt. The y o u t h o f t e n r e b e l s a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y . H i s enhanced independence and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , c o u pled w i t h h i s g r e a t e r r e a s o n i n g power and h i s i n c r e a s e d fund of e x p e r i e n c e , l e a d him t o q u e s t i o n many t h i n g s w h i c h he p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d u n c r i t i c a l l y . P e r s i s t e n t , open-minded, s e r i o u s s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h has c a r r i e d many o l d e r h i g h -s c h o o l p u p i l s and many c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h such p e r i o d s o f doubt, and has e n a b l e d them to f i n d a s a t i s f y i n g r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . Through deeper, b r o a d e r e x p e r i e n c e s , many y o u t h s have come t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the realms o f f a i t h and those of s c i e n c e , and t o see t h a t d i f f e r e n t methods are a p p r o p r i a t e to e a c h ; and t h u s they a v o i d a n e e d l e s s * w a s t e f u l c o n f l i c t between s c i e n c e and t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o n . Under f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , r e l i g i o n o c c u p i e s a v e r y -57-important place i n the life , of the maturing boy or g i r l . It s a t i s f i e s h i s groping for a fundamental, synthesized understanding of the. whole realm of experience. It gives him a sense of values, a sense of personal relationships and obligations. It f a c i l i t a t e s the formation of high ideals of u n selfish service, It gives him help in attaining that s e l f - c o n t r o l and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e which characterize strong personality. It aids him in resolving many c o n f l i c t s of impulses and desires, and thus a s s i s t s him in att a i n i n g sound mental health. Praise, prayer, and other elements of -worship may enrich and deepen h i s l i f e , and add much to i t s wholesomeness and happiness. E e l i g i o n i n r e a l i t y involves personaldevotion to a Supreme Being, and can provide a unifying' force for a l l that i s highest and best in the youth ' s nature. -58-CHAPTER I I I . A d o l e s c e n t P e r s o n a l i t y . I n the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r we want t o l o o k a t the a d o l e s c e n t as a g o i n g c o n c e r n , as a l i v i n g b e i n g , and t o s t u d y h i s t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a i t s - - h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . The d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s " p e r s o n a l i t y " as " t h a t w hich c o n s t i t u t e s a p e r s o n " , A stude n t d e f i n e d p e r s o n a l i t y as,"the way a p e r s o n s t r i k e s you, as a t t r a c t i v e or u n a t t r a c t -ive and so on ". The two statements may be combined by d e f i n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y a s , " a l l t hose t r a i t s w h i c h have a s o c i a l i c s i g n i f a n c e , - w h i c h i n f l u e n c e or " s t r i k e " o t h e r p e o p l e . " T h i s i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r e l i m i n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s i n c e i t appears t h a t few, i f any, o b s e r v a b l e human t r a i t s are u t t e r l y w i t h o u t s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . P r o b a b l y a l l components of a pe r s o n ' s make-up i n f l u e n c e i n some degree t h a t w h i c h we c a l l the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . I A c c o r d i n g t o R o s a n o f f d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t i e s show a f o r t u n a t e c o m b i n a t i o n of t r a i t s . I n normal p e r s o n a l i t y are found a power o f i n h i b i t i o n , a r a t i o n a l balance ( w h i c h perhaps i s best d i s p l a y e d i n f o l l o w i n g a g u i d i n g l i n e or p r i n c i p l e of conduct t h r o u g h o u t l i f e ) , e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l or s t a b i l i t y and s u p e r i o r d u r a b i l i t y . I-."A Theory of P e r s o n a l i t y Based M a i n l y on P s y c h i a t r i c E x p e r i e n c e " , i n "Psych. BuHl., V o l . 17, pp. 28I-$9. -59-A broad, w e l l - b a l a n c e d , e f f e c t i v e , a d o l e s c e n t p e r s o n -a l i t y presupposes a happy, wholesome c h i l d h o o d , f i l l e d w i t h r e a l , v i t a l , e n g r o s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , many of them group a c t i v -i t i e s , t h r o u g h w h i c h the y o u t h becomes h a b i t u a t e d i n m e e t i n g a d e q u a t e l y a wide v a r i e t y of l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . I n the same manner, a d o l e s c e n t p e r s o n a l i t y becomes accustomed t o w i d e r and more complex s u r r o u n d i n g s ^ , r e a c t i o n systems become mo're f i r m l y f i x e d , and the y o u t h a t t a i n s manhood o r womanhood. 2. A d o l e s c e n t P e r s o n a l i t y and i t s Problems. Common causes of d e l i n q u e n c y a r e : bad companions, bad home c o n d i t i o n s , p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t or l a c k of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l , a d o l e s c e n t i n s t a b i l i t y and i m p u l s e s , e a r l y sex exp-e r i e n c e s , m e n t a l c o n f l i c t s , s o c i a l s u g g e s t i b i l i t y . P o v e r t y seems not t o be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r , s i n c e the economic l e v e l s of the- f a m i l i e s from which d e l i n q u e n t s come are d i s -t r i b u t e d v e r y much as f o r g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Such bad home i n f l u e n c e s as e x c e s s i v e q u a r r e l i n g , i m m o r a l i t y , and a l c o h o l -i s m , and. homes broken by d i v o r c e , d e s e r t i o n , or the d e a t h o f one or b o t h p a r e n t s , are d i r e c t l y c a u s a t i v e o f d e l i n q u e n c y , as we would e x p e c t . H e a l y and Br o n n e r found 7.6 p e r cent of t h e i r cases coming from good homes. By good homes t h e y mean those i n v/hich t h e r e were no u n f o r t u n a t e c o n d i t i o n s such as " p o v e r t y , g r e a t o v e r c r o w d i n g or v e r y i n s a n i t a r y s u r r o u n d i n g s , extreme p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t o r extreme l a c k of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l , o b s c e n i t y , immoEality.mother away w o r k i n g , o r m e n t a l l y d i s e a s e d parent i n the homel" Poor t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n , -60-e x c e s s i v e s t r e e t l i f e , and s c h o o l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n are a l s o c a u s a l f a c t o r s . Then, t o o , many u n e v a l u a t e d , I n t a n g i b l e elements a f f e c t the i d e a l s ^ a h d b e h a v i o u r of a d o l e s c e n t s . Hot the l e a s t o f these i s the g e n e r a l atmosphere O K s t a n d a r d s o f the commun-i t y or neighborhood i n r e s p e c t t o l a w - b r e a k i n g and the g e n e r a l moral code. TABLE IY. Causes of J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . ( C y r i l B u r t , "The Young D e l i n q u e n t l ' . ) 1 . D e f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e . 2 . S p e c i f i c i n s t i n c t s . 3. General e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y . 4. Morbid e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , m i l d r a t h e r t h a n g r a v e , gener-a t i n g or generated by s o - c a l l e d complexes. 5. A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of v i c e or c r i m e , 6 . I n t e l l e c t u a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , such as b a c k w a r d n e s s ^ or d u l l n e s s . 7. D e t r i m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s , such as a p a s s i o n f o r a d v e n t u r e , f o r the cinema, or f o r some p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l a c k of u p l i f t i n g p u r s u i t s . 8 . D e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , 9. A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of i n t e l l e c t u a l weakness, 1 0 . D e f e c t i v e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s - t h e absence of a f a t h e r , the presence of a step-mother. 1 1 . I n f l u e n c e s o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e the home--as bad s t r e e t companions, and l a c k or e x c e s s of f a c i l i t i e s f o r amusement. 1 2 . A f a m i l y h i s t o r y of temperamental d i s o r d e r — i n s a n i t y e t c . -61-13. A family, hist.ory of physical, weakness. 14. Poverty and i t s concomitants. 15. Physical i n f i r m i t y or weakness in the c h i l d himself. Heredity appears to operate, 'not directly, through the transmission of a criminal d i s p o s i t i o n as such, but rather i n d i r e c t l y , through such, constitutional, conditions as a d u l l or defective i n t e l l i g e n c e , an excitable and unbalanced temper-ament, or an over-development of some single primitive i n s t i n c t . Of environmental conditions, those obtaining outside the home are far less important than moral conditions, such as i l l d i s c i p l i n e , v i c e , and, most of a l l , the child's relations with his parents. Physical defects have barely h a l f the weight of psychological and environmental* Psychological factors, whether due to heredity or to environment •, are supreme' both i n number and strength over a l l the rest. The adolescent boy or g i r l does not possess f i x i t y and steadiness of character, In many respects he has been well-habituated i n routine, but many of h i s t r a i t s are not so stable because he i s s t i l l , immature. Herein l i e the p o s s i b i -l i t i e s of his developing a better personality. He often shows many contradictory t r a i t s i n confusing succession. He may be joyous and cheerful, unselfish, kind, or generous on one occasion, and be quite the reverse almost immediately thereafter. His c o n f l i c t i n g impulses may show at times i n inconsistent conduct responses. Parents and teachers need not be dismayed i f the -62-youth seems at times to be a veritable bundle of contradic-tions. Many impulses are pushing him along, some of these are contradictory, some (e.g. sex) are much stronger than ever before, and many of them have not yet been f u l l y understood and placed in t h e i r proper r e l a t i o n to others, As he revamps h i s outlook upon l i f e during the teens, and has further wise guidance and control* he w i l l come to i n h i b i t some of the c o n f l i c t i n g impulses and develop a more sa t i s f a c t o r y , consis-tent working basis for his powers. Every adolescent i s e n t i t l e d to form the habit of being industrious, of working hard at something u s e f u l . Whether he goes to school or enters industry, he needs to have work suited to his capacity, which he can perform with reasonably hard persistent e f f o r t . Having something to do which required Intense e f f o r t i s a developmental factor whose f u l l value very often i s not r e a l i z e d . Work Is one of the fundamental conditions of mental health. The adolescent i s also e n t i t l e d to wholesome, vigorous, engrossing recreational a c t i v i t i e s , both as preparation f o r the use of l e i s u r e time, but more p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e i r immediate s o c i a l i z i n g and recreational values. 3. Disturbances of Adolescent Personality. By disturbances of personality we mean those v a r i -ations from the normal organization of t r a i t s which i n t e r f e r e with i n d i v i d u a l s ' actual or poten t i a l effectiveness of adjust-ment. A lack of balance of t r a i t s e xists due to over-potency of some and the under-potency of others. S l i g h t variations may be of no sp e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , since the "normal" Is not a well-defined point or average of t r a i t s , but i s rather a central range within which the t r a i t s l i e . I f the strength of some important one l i e s f a r outside this central range and i s the actual or po t e n t i a l cause of s i g n i f i c a n t maladjustment, then the i n d i v i d u a l has a personality disturbance or mental -64-disorder. Slight variations should be observed, however, since they may become serious disturbing factors l a t e r on; Disturbances of personality e n t a i l an enormous loss to society, a great s o c i a l waste, since so much of i t i s unnecessary and would not occur i f we gave as much effective care to the minds of children and youth as we often give to t h e i r bodies. The prpportion of children, youth, and adults who have serious mental disorders i s r e l a t i v e l y small indeed; yet the annual cost i n money of maintaining public and private hospitals for the insane, sanitariums, rest cures, and numerous other i n s t i t u t i o n s for the treatment of mental disorders runs into the m i l l i o n s , and represents only a small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l costi The loss of time, the decreased effectiveness o f - e f f o r t , the positive harm often done to others, as well as the great amount of unhappiness r e s u l t i n g from abnormal deviations of personality, are an even greater s o c i a l cost. That serious mental disorders are costly i s recognized by a l l . That manyof them are preventable , i f treated i n time, i s the b e l i e f of p r a c t i t i o n e r s i h t h i s f i e l d . 4. Guidance and Control of Adolescent Behaviour. The control of adolescent behaviour obviously resolves i t s e l f into two problems: (I) that of securing effective and desirable responses, and (2) that of preventing of eliminating Ineffective or undesirable ones. The best way of securing a certain response i s to arrange the conditions so that making that response i s s a t i s f y i n g , and not making that response i s annoying. The most e f f i c i e n t method of preventing or eliminat--65-i n g u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r i s t o s u b s t i t u t e d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r i n i t s p l a c e . R e p e t i t i o n of the d e s i r e d response tends t o make i t h a b i t u a l , at the same time t h a t d i s u s e may operate t o weaken the tendency to'make the u n d e r s i r a b l e one. Of c o u r s e , d i s u s e does not n e c e s s a r i l y weaken the. tendency t o respond t o some i n s t i n c t i v e urge l i k e t h a t of sex. I n such cases e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l i s secured t h r o u g h the s u b s t i t u t i o n of o t h e r e n g r o s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c e r t a i n p o s s i b l e s u b l i m a t i o n s . C o n t r o l may be? s e c u r e d , a l t h o u g h l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n by s u b s t i t u t i o n , by u s i n g some form of punishment t o i n s u r e the i n h i b i t i o n of the u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r . Punishment, i f t h e r e i s t o be punishment, must be s w i f t and c e r t a i n . I t must be c e r t a i n , f o r a l l g a mbling on the r i s k s of a p o s s i b l e escape must be p r e c l u d e d . I t must be s w i f t , f o r the. a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n h i b i t i v e e f f e c t o f p a i n works, not by r e t r o s p e c t b u t upon the mental p r o c e s s t h a t i t - d i r e c t l y accompanies or i m m e d i a t e l y succeeds. I f punishment i s p o s t -poned t i l l the boy c o n f e s s e s or t i l l f a t h e r comes home, the r e s u l t i s t o make the boy d i s l i k e h i s f a t h e r and take g r e a t , care f o r the f u t u r e never t o own t o h i s misdeeds. Punishment, as a rule., p r o v e s f a r more e f f e c t i v e w i t h m i l d i m p u l s e s t h a n w i t h s t r o n g : as a mode of d e t e r r e n c e , i t i s l i k e a b l a s t of the wind w h i c h w i l l e x t i n g u i s h the f l i c k e r i n g t a p e r but may o n l y f a n the b u r n i n g c o a l t o h o t t e r f l a m e . Guidance i s a d e s i r a b l e means of c o n t r o l at a l l ages, but i t s use d u r i n g a d o l e s c e s c e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y impor-tant. Of course, the actual amount of guidance and d i r e c t i o n may decrease as the youth gets older and i s competent to give greater s e l f - d i r e c t i o n to h i s a f f a i r s . Under the best circumstances guidance i s a cooperative a f f a i r i n which the youth and his teachers or parents work together i n attaining s o c i a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y desired ends. F i n a l l y , we should remember that control or guidance has as i t s object the tra i n i n g of the c h i l d to be s e l f - d i r e c t e d and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d , a worker f o r the s o c i a l good, and that he w i l l best acquire these t r a i t s through actual p r a c t i c e . Wise and e f f e c t i v e parental control not only em-ploys both substitution and punishment, but also i s charac-t e r i z e d by evenness, firmness, f a i r n e s s , sympathetic under-standing, the absence of personal animosity or temper on the part of the parent, the presence and recognition of cer-t a i n underlying.principles of conduct to which the parent gives assent and seeks to have the c h i l d give r a t i o n a l assent, and adequate freedom f o r the child's i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . These p r i n c i p l e s of control have long been accepted by educators, but are frequently v i o l a t e d by parents. The p r i n c i p l e of freedom, f o r example, often causes much trouble, and great care i s needed to secure the wise application of i t . Youth needs a l l the freedom he can use wisely (or at least not harmfully), to the end that he may learn to d i r e c t h i s own a f f a i r s . Here, too, we f i n d extreme views. Youth, we are t o l d , i s mad with freedom and wants to t r y every sort of experience, e s p e c i a l l y those pro-scribed by the moral code. While we prefer some other way of stating the adolescent's love of freedom, yet there can be no doubt about hi s desire f o r greater l i b e r t y of action and f o r greater s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . To meet th i s alleged non-conformist tendency a d i v e r s i t y of remedies i s proposed. At the one extreme we meet the g l i b recommendation that a l l r e s t r a i n t s should be removed, since prescriptions and proscriptions are the cause of h i 3 shortcomings, h i s breaking the moral code and h i s disrespect f o r a u t h o r i t y — a most curious recommendation since i t i s analogous to abolishing the rules of an a t h l e t i c game i n order to prevent the players breaking them. At the other end we f i n d a stern insistence that the youth be given less freedom than during childhood, and that he be forced to give s t r i c t and unquestioned obedience to d i r e c -tions covering every d e t a i l of h i s l i f e — a s i f he could thus learn to be s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n the a f f a i r s of l i f e . We must remember that the boy or g i r l on the threshold of ado-lescence ha3 a f a u l t y and inadequate understanding of many important features of l i f e , and that he i s acquiring t h i s understanding at the very same time that he i s forming -68-s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l h a b i t s . He needs e x p e r i e n c e i n s e l f -c o n t r o l and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , but he a l s o needs wise guidance so t h a t he w i l l come t o r e c o g n i z e , accept,- and use, t h r o u g h h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and I d e a l s , the beat r u l e s of p l a y i n g the game c f l i # e . Only i n t h i s way can p a r e n t a l or o t h e r c o n t r o l meet the needs- of the a d o l e s c e n t . Sympathetic u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s e s s e n t i a l t o wise p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l of c h i l d r e n of a l l ages. A t ad o l e s c e n c e mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e s p e c t between p a r e n t and c h i l d are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . Such u n d e r s t a n d i n g comes l a r g e l y w i t h a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h the c h i l d , o b s e r v i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s , and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of them. Nor can p a r e n t s a f f o r d t o f o r g e t t h e i r own a d o l e s c e n c e ; i t w i l l g i v e some c l u e s t o s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n . Many, p a r e n t s f i n d t h e i r l i v e s so crowderd w i t h o t h e r more or l e s s e x a c t i n g demands t h a t t h e y have l i t t l e time t o know and understand t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h a t wholesome i n t i m a t e manner best s u i t e d t o g i v i n g them the b e s t guidance and con-t r o l . F a i l i n g t o be i n t o u c h w i t h the p u l s i n g eager l i f e o f y o u t h , p a r e n t s many tim e s leave them t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s , or nag them i n c e s s a n t l y , or use o t h e r e q u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e and u n s u i t a b l e 1 means of c o n t r o l . • •• Tnej. secoha'ar^ :-§cfeooT:;G-Q&'&Qx-nd- lt ;sel'f. raIm'Gst -excl-4 -''usiw'Iy1 -wrth Hh:e^:ed'ucat&6&-'d'£ % d 6lVs\3ent&,. '-and i s the s c h o o l a t t e n d e d by the m a j o r i t y ' of t h e a d o l e s c e n t s w h o go t o s c h o o l . P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s i n the guidance and' c o n t r o l of t h i s group depend Upon bo t h the aims- o f secondary e d u c a t i o n and the n a t u r e o f the a d o l e s c e n t * A u s e f u l f o r m u l a t i o n s e t s up seven o b j e c t i v e s -of e d u c a t i o n : ( i ) - h e a l t h ; (2) "command of fundamental p r o c e s s e s ; (3) w o r t h y home membership; (4) v o c a t i o n ; (5) c i t i z e n s h i p ; (6) worthy use of l e i s u r e ; and (7} e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r , The h i g h s c h o o l p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t ' r o l e i n a c h i e v i n g them. \ / h i l e the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l does much' towards a t t a i n i n g tl:e second one—command of fundament-a l processes.-'-yet p u p i l s e n t e r i n g j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l are f a r from having-adequate p r o f i c i e n c y even a l o n g t h i s l i n e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l l phases of secondary e d u c a t i o n are means f o r g u i d i n g and d i r e c t i n g a d o l e s c e n t development a l o n g these seven l i n e s . Methods of t e a c h i n g s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w i l l c h a l l e n g e each yout h ' s b e s t e f f o r t , and s t i m u l a t e h i s development a l o n g l i n e s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t ; t h a t w i l l throw him more and more upon h i s own r e s o u r c e s , i n f i n d i n g m a t e r i a l on problems of s u b j e c t m a t t e r of e v e r y s o r t , i n a p p r a i s i n g i t c r i t i c a l l y , i n c o n i n g t o h i s 07/n c o n c l u s i o n s , and i n d e f e n d i n g them. TJach p u p i l should, have i n s t r u c t i o n s u i t e d t o h i s own needs, b u t , a t the same t i m e , he must be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e l p --70-Ing himself more than ever before. The adolescent g a i n f u l l y employed needs opportunities f o r self-improvement such as are offered i n continuation schools, night high schools, night courses for technical workers, etc*, He also needs wholesome recreational f a c i l i -t i e s , including the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s which h i s adolescent nature craves, as well as suitable a t h l e t i c games and sports. We have already emphasized the need, of a program of wholesome, engrossing recreational and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s for a l l adolescents. Y7e need only add that the parties, dances, games, and other similar a f f a i r s i n which adolescents participate require enough supervision to insure t h e i r whole-sdmeness. Parents, even more than the school, have the im-portant duty of guarding the physical and moral welfare of their adolescent boys and g i r l s in respect of late hours, unchaperoned s o c i a l functions* and the character and influence of associates. Control of adolescent behaviour in respect to d e l i n -quency presents the two obvious problems of preventing yuuth from becoming delinquent, and of reforming those who- do. Yfe need to know, therefore, what precautions are Effe c t i v e preventives, and what procedures are valuable for information. Attempts at reforming juvenile delinquents have been variously rewarded. Y/hereas Healy and Bronner estimate that about t h r e e - f i f t h s of the delinquents treated in i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Chicago revert back to t h e i r former habits; Burt, quoting -71-f r o m the a n n u a l r e p o r t of the B o r s t a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n London, E n g l a n d , shows t h a t , "out o f s i x hundred B o r s t a l o f f e n d e r s who have now been a t l i b e r t y f o r two y e a r s or more, s e v e n t y -f i v e p e r cent o f . t h e boys and e i g h t y - f i v e per cent of the g i r l s have not some i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the law s i n c e t h e i r d i s c h a r g e . " P r e v e n t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y among a d o l e s c e n t s i n v o l v e s wise e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t b e f o r e a d o l e s c e n c e , because i t s i n c i d e n c e i s so o f t e n found, at an e a r l y age. C h i l d r e n and y o u t h need a f a i r and decent chance f o r such a l a r g e amount of v i g o r o u s , h e a l t h f u l , w e l l - d i r e c t e d , i n t e r e s t i n g group a c t i v i t i e s as w i l l occupy t h e i r spare t i m e , and g i v e them, t h a t r e c r e a t i o n and a c t i v i t y v/hich t h e i r growing minds and b o d i e s demand. Our c i t i e s and. towns are not y e t e f f e c t i v e l y planned and o r g a n i z e d as s u i t a b l e d w e l l i n g p l a c e s f o r many, many boys and g i r l s . An eminent a u t h o r i t y on c i t y p l a n n i n g may not have been f a r wrong when he s a i d t h a t " m e t r o p o l i t a n growth i s more and more of worse and worse." - 81 -B. THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. CHAPTER IV. The Origin and Spread of the Tuxis Movement - Present Status. !• The History of the Early Experiment The c r e d i t f o r introducing the program known as the Canadian Standard E f f i c i e n c y Training, (C.S.E.T.) or as the T r a i l Ranger-Tuxis Program, i s without doubt due to Mr. Taylor Statten of Toronto, Ontario. Since the Idea was f i r s t presented by Mr. Statten there have been many men who have given of t h e i r best and to whom great c r e d i t i s due. But the place occupied by these men In t h e i r splendid con-t r i b u t i o n must never l e t us forget the great debt which mentors and Canadian boyhood owe to Mr. Taylor Statten. Unquestionably he has earned f o r himself a place among "The Makers of Canada", f o r what more worthy work can be shown by any Canadian than t h i s program originated by Mr. S t a t t e n — that of building C h r i s t i a n character and c i t i z e n s h i p In the youth of Canada? To appreciate the early h i s t o r y of the movement we - 82 -must turn to Mr. Taylor Statten's account, which forms the introduction to the Mentor's Manual on Canadian Standard E f f i c i e n c y Training, published i n 1919, by the Committee on C.S.E.T. of the National Council of the Y.M.C.A. of Canada, with the approval and endorsation of the Canadian National Advisory Committee f o r cooperation i n Boys' Work. The early development of the Canadian Standard E f f i c i e n c y Training took place i n the Boys 1 Department of the Toronto Central Young Mens' Ch r i s t i a n Association. Boys 1 work i n that Association p r i o r to 1902 consisted l a r g e l y of gymnasium classes, swimming i n s t r u c t i o n and a r e l i g i o u s e f f o r t centred i n "the Friday night meeting". P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s were of the large or mass nature. No thought had been given to d i v i d i n g the member-ship into small congenial groups under volunteer leader-ship. From the f a l l of 1902 u n t i l the spring of 1905, ex-periments with small groups were conducted among the Employed Boys. The a c t i v i t y consisted almost e n t i r e l y of gymnasium work and Bible study. In June, 1905, while conducting a week's "gypsy t r i p " between Toronto and Hamilton, the Secretary of the Boys' Department (Taylor-Statten?) had the opportunity to try out with the boys a place of work that had made an im-pression on him, but with which he had not had as a volunteer worker with boys, an opportunity to experiment. I t was - 83 -known as "The Woodcraft Indians" program and had been pre-pared hy Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton. During the Boys' Work Secretary's boyhood days Mr. Thompson-Seton spent consider-able time i n that section of the country between Toronto and Hamilton i n which the Secretary l i v e d . Some of the a r t i c l e s i n "Wild Animals I Have Known" were written on the farm ad-joining the Boys' Work Secretary's home v i l l a g e . Quite n a t u r a l l y , Mr. Seton was the object of considerable hero-worship on the part of the v i l l a g e boys. The only books taken on that "gypsy t r i p " through t h i s t e r r i t o r y , were the Bible and "The Birchbark B o l l " , by Ernest Thompson-Seton, which explained how to organize a t r i b e of "Woodcraft Indians" and conduct the Woodcraft t e s t s . I t was soon discovered that the "Indian Idea", when applied hy a leader who had not been schooled to a keen appreciation of the virtues of the noble Red Race, was more apt to produce "howling savages" than respectable Canadian c i t i z e n s ; but the requirements f o r passing the tests and the idea of an appropriate recognition made such an i n d e l i b l e impression on the leader, that, while the "Woodcraft Indian" organization was never effected, the p r i n c i p l e s underlying i t were incorporated i n much of the a c t i v i t y of the Toronto Central Boys' Department during the following years. A l -though i t was not u n t i l two years l a t e r , when the Tuxis - 84 -system was investigated, that the C.S.E.T. began to take d e f i n i t e form, recognition must be-given to Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton f o r making ready the s o i l i n which the seeds of Mr. Harvey L. Smith's Tuxis System afterwards found a place f o r steady growth. Between the spring of 1905 and the summer of 1907, many Bible Study groups were organized and the Toronto Cen-t r a l Association succeeded i n winning the trophy coveted by a l l the Y.M.C.A.'s In North America--the Dan McDonald cup f o r competition i n Bible Study. I t was awarded by the International Committee to the Association having the largest number of boys pass the Bible Study Examinations. During the summer of 1907, ten c a r e f u l l y selected older boys,accompanied by Mr. A. Wallace Porgie and the Boys' Work Secretary, attended the S i l v e r Bay, N.Y., older Boys' Conference, and there heard Mr. Walter M. Wood, then General Secretary of the Chicago Central Y.M.C.A, now of Philadelphia, give a ta l k on "The Pour-Pold Development of Boys". He took as h i s text Luke 2:52—"Jesus increased i n Wisdom and Stature and i n Favor with God and Man". The Toronto delegates became so impressed with th i s presentation that i t was agreed to recommend, that when a boy entered the Boys' Department he should be interviewed and have Mr. Wood's address outlined to him. - 85 An organization f o r boys which had been developed by Mr. M. D. Crackel, Secretary of the West Side Boys' De-partment, Cleveland, also impressed the delegation. I t was known as "The Order of the Triangle". I t was based on the three-fold development of the Y.M.C.A.—Spirit, Mind, and Body. Tests were outlined and badges given f o r meeting the requirements of such t e s t s . During the following season, an attempt was made to harmonize these two plans, v i z . : "The Pour-Fold Develop-ment" and "The Order of the Triangle", with the Bible Study Groups i n what was c a l l e d the "Honour System", and recogni-tions i n the form of pennants were given to winning groups. The Knights of King Arthur, the Brotherhood of David, and l a t e r the Knights of St. Paul, each contributed towards the development of the program. It was during the season of 1907-08 that the Tuxis System, which was being developed by the l a t e Harvey L. Smith, of Brooklyn Central Y.M.C.A., was investigated. I t seemed to be nearer the type of organization f o r which the Toronto Association was groping than any other which had been investigated, but i t did not contain the group plan and cert a i n other elements which were deemed e s s e n t i a l . However, some changes were made and small badges were pre-pared which were to he given f o r passing the various t e s t s , and a plan of organization was worked out which was the be-- 86 -ginning of what l a t e r became known as the Canadian Standard E f f i c i e n c y Tests. During the summer of 1908, the preliminary l i t e r -ature of the Boy Scout Movement was received by the Boys• Work Secretary. I t had been sent to him by Mr. A. E. Coch-rane, the Physical Director of Upper Canada College, who on a t r i p to England had come i n contact with i t . The merits of t h i s movement were soon recognized, and i t was decided to place emphasis f o r the coming season on the organization of Boy Scout troops. Some good men were secured f o r Scout Masters and several troops were formed. Before long I t was discovered that the other troops throughout the c i t y that were not connected with the Y.M.C.A. were getting along better than those i n the Association. The cause was soon discovered. Because of the gymnasium equipment, the swim-ming pool and the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n In physical education, em-phasis was placed on Physical Work to such an extent, that the average boy had l i t t l e time f o r Scouting A c t i v i t i e s . Those who recognized i n the Scout Movement a better a l l -round program than the Y.M.C.A. was providing, t r i e d to ef f e c t some changes i n the Y.M.C.A. organization but without success. The Scout Masters became discouraged, and f i n a l l y those troops which survived l e f t the Y.M.C.A. and took up quarters of t h e i r own outside the Association b u i l d i n g . - 87 -During the next three years, further experiments were conducted along the l i n e of the Tuxis System, but many changes and modifications were made through the splendid influence of the Boy Scout Movement. Mr. Edgar M. Robinson, who had developed a remarkable work among the boys of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, and had l a t e r become Boys' Work Secretary of the International Y.M.C.A. Committee, c o n t r i -buted many suggestions. He advocated close cooperation with the churches and Sunday Schools and the making of a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the courses of t r a i n i n g f o r younger boys and older boys. His suggestion that the younger boys should be known as "Path Finders" resulted, no doubt, i n the adoption of the name " T r a i l Rangers" ten years l a t e r . He recommended that a study should be made of the organizations which had been developed i n the Philadelphia Central Y.M.C.A. Boys' Department. A most p r o f i t a b l e v i s i t was made to Philadelphia, and not a l i t t l e of the development of the C.S.E.T. during the following years was due to the p r a c t i c a l suggestions and h e l p f u l i n s p i r a t i o n of Mr. John L. Alexander, the Boys' Work Secretary i n Philadelphia. Among the features i n the C.S.E.T. Program contributed by Mr. Alexander i s the name "Mentor", used to designate the adult leader of a Tuxis Square or T r a i l Ranger's Camp. A chapter of "The Order of the Triangle", a type of work which had been developed by Mr. A. Wallace Forgie - 88 In the Ottawa Boys' Department, was organized i n the Toronto Central Association and found to meet the needs of older boys who were leaders. Many suggestions f o r the older boys' program were gleaned from this organization. A course of study during the summer of 1911, i n "The Physical Education of Boys", under Dr. Burdick, Director of Physical Education f o r the City of Baltimore, resulted i n an adaptation of the Physical Tests, as conducted i n the playgrounds of Baltimore, to our Canadian conditions. The bronze bars f o r meeting the requirements of the tests were suggested by Dr. Burdick, and he also assisted with the designs f o r the bars which were used f o r the tests i n the C.S.E.T. A summer session spent under the i n s p i r a t i o n of Dr. Winfield Scott H a l l , of Northwestern University, l e f t no room f o r doubt as to the wisdom of incorporating Sex Edu-cation into any course of t r a i n i n g f o r boys, and contact with Dr. William Byron Porbush made a l a s t i n g impression as to the need of emphasizing the home i n a l l work with teen age boys. Close intimate contact f o r many years with Mr. C.J. Atkinson, Superintendent of the Broadview Boys' In s t i t u t e i n Toronto, a leader i n the Boys' Brigade Movement and l a t e r d i r e c t o r of "The Federated Boys' Clubs of America", made i t - 89 -impossible to lose sight of the needs of "the under-privi-leged boy", and consequently the C.S.E.T. i s as well adapted to help the more unfortunate type of boy as i t i s to a s s i s t the boys who are showered with p r i v i l e g e s . In the f a l l of 1910, Mr. Prank H.T.Ritchie, Boys' Work Secretary of the Canadian Section of the International Y.M.C.A. Committee, i n v i t e d the Ontario Sunday School Asso-c i a t i o n to j o i n with the Y.M.C.A. i n an Older Boys' Confer-ence, which was held i n Ottawa during the Christmas holidays. Mr. R i t c h i e was a staunch advocate of close cooperation between the Y.M.C.A. and the Sunday Schools, and thi s con-ference resulted i n the formation of a Joint Committee f o r promotion of future Older Boys' Conferences. Five repre-sentatives were elected from the Ontario and Quebec Committee of the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Associations. The f i r s t con-ferences,under these j o i n t auspices, were held during the Christmas holidays of 1911 i n O r i l l i a and Sherbrooke. The design on the conference badge suggested the Church and the Y.M.C.A., linked together i n reaching the hoys of Canada. In the summer of 1911, a most successful Summer Training Camp was held f o r the boys of the Canadian West. This was promoted by Mr. Charles R. Sayre, the Western Cen-t r a l Secretary of the Y.M.C.A., but representatives were i n v i t e d from Sunday Schools as well as the Y.M.C.A.'s. The 90 -Y.M.C.A. had been conducting both summer and winter Boys' Conferences since 1906, but these of 1911 were the f i r s t to which Sunday School representatives were i n v i t e d . enlarging the scope of the Tests, the Y.M.C.A. National Boys' Work Committee, under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. R.G.Dingman, authorized the organization of a "Canadian Standard E f f i c i e n c y Tests Committee". Mr. H.H.Love of Toronto, accepted the chairmanship of t h i s committee, and soon interested a group of prominent young business men, who carr i e d on experiments and gathered a considerable volume of information. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was divided as follows: Recognizing to some extent the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of H.H. Love, Chairman, Geo. G. Dunning, Secretary, Wisdom Standard Henry H. Mason, chairman E.S.Caswell T.A.Silverthorn Physical Standard E.H.Gurney, chairman Fred J . Smith B. Douglas Ralph A. Burns Douglas Eby H.A.Sherrard Religious Standard R.B.Bond, chairman H.W.Mesnard Norman McEachern F.L.Farewell R.G.Dingman Service Standard G.G.Dunning, chairman J. Robert Page F. McEachern - 91 -The f i r s t set of bronze badges were struck i n 1912 and bore the i n s c r i p t i o n , "Y.M.C.A. Standard E f f i c i e n c y Tests." However, acting on the suggestion of Mr. John L. Alexander, who had recently accepted the Secretaryship of the Secondary D i v i s i o n of the International Sunday School Association, the l e t t e r s "Y.M.C.A". were eliminated and new dies were made, i n order that the tests might be used by Sunday School classes having no connection with a Y.M.C.A. At a meeting of the Association of Y.M.C.A. Boys' Work Secretaries of North America, held at Detroit In Sep-tember, 1913, i t was decided to introduce something s i m i l a r to the C.S.E.T. Into the United States. Subsequent meetings were held i n Cleveland In February and A p r i l , 1914. The Secretary of the Canadian Committee was i n v i t e d to present the Canadian plan at these gatherings, which were the f i r s t attempts at a -unified standard Boys' Work program i n the United States. During the f a l l of 1913, Mr. Alexander and the Boys' Work Secretary of the National Council of the Y.M.C.A.'s conducted a series of Older Boys' Conferences i n Vancouver, Calgary, Saskatoon and Winnipeg. While on t h i s t r i p , the beginnings were made f o r a partnership plan of promotion of the C.S.E.T. between the International Sunday School Associ-ation and the National Council of the Y.M.C.A.fs. When i t - 92 -was discovered that such a partnership would exclude the Canadian denominational Sunday School Boards from o f f i c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the promotion of the C.S.E.T., the National Council of the Y.M.C.A. undertook the organization of a body on which a l l the Sunday School Boards would be o f f i c -i a l l y represented. This decision was arrived at by the Boys' Work Committee of the National Council at a meeting i n January, 1914. The r e s u l t was the organization of the National Advisory Committee f o r Co-operation i n Boys' Work, on July 10, 1914. While i t i s true that the C.S.E.T. had i t s b i r t h i n the Y.M.C.A., nevertheless, I t i s to no small extent the outcome of the experience of the following organizations and owes considerable to each of them. They are named i n the order i n which they chronologically made t h e i r f i r s t contribution to the development of what Is now the o f f i c i a l program of the Sunday School Boards of the Protestant Churches i n Canada and the Canadian Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Associations. 1. "The Woodcraft Indians" - Ernest Thompson-Seton. 2. "The Pour-Fold Development f o r Boys" -Walter M. Wood. 3. "The Order of the Triangle" - M. D. Crackel. 4. "The Knights of King Arthur" -Wm. Byron Forbush. - 93 -5. "The Brotherhood of David" - Wm. Byron Forbush. 6. "The Knights of St. Paul" - William Jamleson. 7. "The Tuxis System" - Harvey L. Smith 8. fhe Boy Scout Movement - S i r Robert Baden-Powell. 9. The Philadelphia Y.M.C.A. Boys' Work Department -John L. Alexander. 10. "The Order of the Triangle" - A. Wallace Porgie. 11. The Physical Tests f o r Baltimore Boys -Dr. Burdick. 12. The Organized Sunday School Class -John L. Alexander. 13. "The Woodcraft League of America" -Ernest Thompson-Seton. With the organization of the National Advisory Committee f o r Co-operation i n Boys' Work, the C.S.E.T. emerged from an undeveloped, inadequate attempt to est a b l i s h a course of t r a i n i n g f o r the boys of Canada through the Y.M.C.A., to a Movement fraught with undreamed of p o s s i b i l i -t i e s . As a purely Y.M.C.A. program, It would have been re-s t r i c t e d to the f i f t e e n to twenty thousand boys who are mem-bers of the Canadian Associations. But as the program of the Canadian Protestant Sunday School Boards and the Y.M.C.A. combined, i t i s now estimated to have a f i e l d of operation covering over three hundred thousand teen-age boys (estimated i n 1919). For several years the leaders of the Sunday School - 94 -Boards of the Canadian Churches had been f e e l i n g concerned, because of the large number of boys who were dropping out of the Sunday School during the teen-age period. They had conducted surveys and had made studies which revealed a need f o r some type of work which would a t t r a c t and hold these boys. Various e f f o r t s were made throughout the country, some with considerable success. The organized class move-ment with mid-week a c t i v i t i e s interested great numbers of older boys and t h e i r leaders. In almost every c i t y and town one or two r e a l l y successful Church or Sunday School organizations of boys could be found. Each year the number was increasing, but the national Sunday School leaders were not s a t i s f i e d . They f e l t the need of a standard type of organization f o r the entire country which would be based upon t h e i r studies i n boy psychology and r e l i g i o u s education. Reverend J.C.Robertson and Reverend C.A.Myers, of the Pres-byterian Sabbath School Board, and Reverend P.L.Farewell, Educational Secretary of the Board of Sunday Schools of the Methodist Church, and Reverend A.R.Hiltz, General Secretary of the Sunday School Commission of the Church of England, were each making studies and conducting experiments and were the f i r s t to recognize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the C.S.E.T. as a Sunday School program. They entered e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y into the task of enlarging i t to s u i t t h e i r needs. - 9 5 -During the summer of 1914, days which lengthened into weeks were spent hy the Sunday School and Y.M.C.A. leaders i n the preparation of an enlarged edition of the C.S.E.T. handbook. E s p e c i a l l y the contribution made by Reverend C.A.Myers at th i s time and during the next f i v e years was most generous. His experience with boys* work i n the Sunday School, coupled with h i s t r a i n i n g as a r e l i g i o u s educator, q u a l i f i e d him f o r the splendid assistance he gave i n f o s t e r i n g and nurturing the program through Its various stages of growth. H.H.Horne, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy, New York University, gave two summer courses of lectures on "The Religious Education of Boys" to those who were prepar-ing the handbook, and also made many suggestions which were invaluable. R.G.Dingmore of Toronto, Chairman of the Boys* Work Committee of the National Y.M.C.A. Council, has since the inception of the movement given i t c a r e f u l thought, and has guided i t through many d i f f i c u l t i e s . The development of Boys 1 Work In Canada owes much to him f o r his u n s e l f i s h , constant and valuable service. From 1914 to 1917, the C.S.E.T. wa3 promoted almost exclusively through Boys' Work Conferences held dur-ing the F a l l months of each year, and through summer Train-ing Camps. Worthy of special mention i s the "Coast to Coast Tour" of 1916, where f o r the f i r s t time the country was - 96 linked together i n a great national e f f o r t f o r the boys of Canada* The experience of these three years demonstrated the need of something more than a course of t r a i n i n g . Lea-ders everywhere were experimenting with various types of organizations. The name did not appeal to some; others wanted an i n i t i a t i o n ceremony. In f a c t , they wanted the cold, hard curriculum garbed i n more at t r a c t i v e clothing. I t was agreed that any development along t h i s l i n e should contain as much of the Canadian backwoods atmosphere as possible. Consequently, during the summer of 1917, a group of about twenty s p e c i a l i s t s i n Boys» Work from Halifax, St.John, Ottawa, Toronto, London, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver, were brought together f o r two weeks i n Algonquin Park with Mr. P h i l i p D. Pagans, the Executive Secretary of The Woodcraft League of America. This organization had been developed by Mr. Ernest Thompson-Seton f o r the purpose of teaching woodcraft to boys, and was no doubt the r e s u l t of h i s own boyhood among the h i l l s and valleys of the Don River, near Toronto. As the r e s u l t of this pilgrimage to the North Woods, recommendations were made which l e d to Major A. Wallace Porgle being engaged by the C.S.E.T. Committee to prepare two manuals, one f o r boys twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, the other f o r older boys. These were to take the place of - 97 -"The C.S.E.T. L i t t l e Red Handbook", which had run into eight editions t o t a l l i n g forty-two thousand copies. In January, 1918, Major Porgie commenced the organ-i z a t i o n of a General Committee of over two hundred Boys• Workers throughout Canada, to gather up the experience of the previous f i v e years. The task of preparing these manu-als r a l l i e d the services of those eminently f i t t e d f o r such work. The E d i t o r i a l Committee consisted of Mr. H.H.Love, Toronto, who had been the f i r s t Chairman of the C.S.E.T. Committee, Mr. James Edmund Jones, Toronto, founder and president of "The Aura Lee Club", and Mr. J.C.Kirkwood, Toronto, an authority In the publishing business. Major Porgie became the Secretary of t h i s Committee. While each member made valuable contributions, special mention should be made of the splendid work of Mr. James Edmund Jones, whose l i f e has been la r g e l y given to boys and who generously expended a great amount of valuable time and energy i n the preparation of the manuals. As a r e s u l t of the many conferences, committee meetings, retreats and questionnaires i n s t i t u t e d by Major Porgie, a mass of Information and material was gathered and correlated. The manuscript f o r the T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys' was ready about the end of September, 1918. Major - 98 -Forgie then returned to France, and the task of supervising the publishing of the manuals f e l l to Mr. Gordon K. H i g n e l l , a well known Boys' Worker from ?/innipeg. Just as the press work f o r the Tuxis Boys' Manual was completed, Mr. H i g n e l l contracted pneumonia, and passed away i n Winnipeg on October 21, 1918. The boys of Canada are greatly indebted to him f o r h i s u n s e l f i s h and t i r e l e s s e f f o r t s on t h e i r behalf dur-ing the l a s t weeks of his l i f e . Mr. W.H.Vaughan of Toronto, then took up the work of completing the publishing of the T r a i l Rangers* Manual. In the three-year period from 1918 to 1921, s i g n i -f i c a n t advances were made i n the promotion of the program, and I t was getting i t s grip powerfully upon the adolescent boyhood of the churches. In 1921,, there were close to twenty-five thousand T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys i n Canada, which was an advance of f o r t y percent over the year 1920. In one province the numbers increased two and h a l f times i n that year. In -1920, the names of the various Advisory Commit-tees f o r Cooperation i n Boys' Work were changed to Boys' Work Boards and during the l a t t e r part of 1920 and early i n 1921 the National Boys' Work Board, and the various provin-c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n boards with i t , assumed the f i n a n c i a l re-s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the leadership of t h e i r work which had been - 99 -car r i e d by the National Council of the Y.M.C.A.'s; the Y.M.C.A., however, remains an a c t i v e l y co-operating unit i n the various boards. At a meeting of the National Advisory Committee on June 23, 1919, Mr. Statten reported that Mr. Sovereign, Mr. Porgie and himself had addressed a great many gatherings of soldiers i n England, Prance, Belgium and Germany, outl i n i n g the C.S.E.Training, and appealing to the Overseas men to take up the mentorship of groups on t h e i r return. About three thousand men handed i n t h e i r names, the majority of them giving t h e i r church a f f i l i a t i o n . Mr. Statten urged that a vigorous campaign should be launched to r e l a t e these men to groups of boys before September 1st. Dr. Hayward reported that out of the f i r s t l i s t sent to the o f f i c e , he was i n correspondence with about f i f t y men and that several had asked f o r a correspondence course on Boys' Work. Mr. Langford, Mr. Myers, Mr. H i l t z each reported that they were i n touch with a number of these prospective leaders i n t h e i r respective churches. 2. Growth of the Movement i n Canada. The following tabulation shows the numbers of places, groups and boys i n the provinces as at December 31, 1919. - 100 -TABLE V. Number of Groups and Boys by Provinces As at December 31, 1919. Province No. of Tuxis T r a i l Rangers Total Boys I >laces Groups Boys Groups Boys ' Enrolment rroup s Boys B. -e. 18 44 459 58 635 102 1094 A l t a . 16 30 358 33 393 63 751 Man. 15 77 972 71 857 148 1829 Sask. .11 55 535 50 479 105 1014 Ontario 91 193 2279 270 3198 463 5477 Quebec 14 33 371 52 568 85 939 New Brunswic kl8 48 604 25 291 73 895 Nova Scotia 29 71 781 22 225 93 1006 P. E. I. 11 14 165 9 101 23 266 - Totals 223 565 6524 590 6747 1155 13271 The number of groups i n 1920 had increased to 1474 and the t o t a l enrolment to 18,823, while t h i s report also showed a great increase i n mentors i n t r a i n i n g and summer camps, there being f o r t y - f o u r classes held with an enrolment of 856 mentors, and eight summer t r a i n i n g camps with an en-rolment of 470. The s t a t i s t i c s f o r the year 1923 were as follows: - 101 -TABLE VI. Groups and Enrolment by Provinces, July 1, 1922. Mar. Que . Ont. Man. Sask. &lta. 3.C. rotal Training Courses 2 15 5 1 2 1 26 No. of D i s t r i c t Boards 17 3 30 18 8 2 4 82 Boys' Leaders Con-ferences 12 1 9 7 14 8 - 51 Enrolment 1439 90 1936 546 708 362 - 5081 Boys' Camps 3 1 15 9 4 17 3 52 Enrolment 180 34 1550 641 180 750 60 3325 Leadership Camps 3 1 17 1 1 2 1 16 Enrolment 25 10 398 82 65 80 40 700 No. of Groups 275 41 1358 330 213 244 165 2608 Enrolment 3300 480 L6200 3651 2331 2813 1650 30424 No. of C.S.E.T. Communities 109 10 253 92 101 119 31 715 Prom the minutes of-the annual meeting of the Na-t i o n a l Boys' Work Board of A p r i l 30, 1924, we glean the following: "The Boys' Parliament idea i s f u l l of p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; through i t our Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g i s v i s u a l i z e d . - 102 -It i s our greatest project i n teaching C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n s h i p to boys that we have yet conceived. Through the Parliaments our courses of t r a i n i n g are being enriched. Because of the work i n these Parliaments we can confidently say that the Tuxis Boys' and T r a i l Rangers' Programs are ac t u a l l y growing out of Canadian s o i l . Parliaments were started t h i s year i n Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia, and we confidently hope that Quebec and the Maritime Provinces w i l l i n i t i a t e t h e i r Parliaments next December, so that the entire country w i l l then be covered. The question of a National Boys' Parliament i s con-stantly before us, and we f e e l that such a gathering should, be held i n Ottawa during the Christmas holidays of 1925. This would help to create a Canadian consciousness and im-press the public with the national aspect of our work." "Mr Porgie has discovered i n Alberta a great many boys who are l i v i n g lonely l i v e s i n out-of-the-way places. He believes that there must be many thousands of these boys throughout Canada, and as the wireless telegraphy and wire-le s s telephone w i l l reach a very great number of them, Mr. Porgie has undertaken to adapt our Tuxis Boy and T r a i l Rangers' program to meet t h e i r needs." The s t a t i s t i c a l report of the National Boys' Work Board of A p r i l 1, 1925, showed a decrease i n the t o t a l enrol-- 103 ment to 27222, due to a decrease i n the provinces of Quebec, Manitoba and the Maritimes. The other provinces a l l showed an increase, B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y , showing a steady increase over the years, to a t o t a l of 2486 boys engaged i n C.S.E.T. on A p r i l 1, 1925. On Thursday, January 14, 1926, representatives of the Boy Scouts Association and the National Boys' Work Board met at Church House, Toronto, i n an e f f o r t to f i n d some common ground f o r cooperation between the two movements. I t was agreed "that the Boards, ( i . e . P r o v i n c i a l Boards), should meet the same evening every month, f i r s t separately f o r one hour, and then j o i n t l y f o r one hour, laying a l l th e i r plans f o r promotion and so f o r t h before the jo i n t Boards." On motion of R.G.Dingman of the Boys' Work Board, seconded by John A. S t i l e s of the Boy Scouts' Association, i t was agreed, "That i n our leadership t r a i n i n g camps and courses, recipro-c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n be encouraged." - 104 -TABLE VII. ; The comparative enrolment report as at A p r i l 1, 192.3, 1924, 1925, and 1926, i s as follows: Mar. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta, • B.C. Total T r a i l Ranger 1923 130 65 360 271 155 154 95 906 Camps 1924 142 45 415 320 187 177 82 1368 1925 93 45 419 271 205 188 108 1329 1926 88 - - 544 250 261 192 141 1496 T r a i l Ranger 1923 1300 925 4300 3006 1951 1486 1117 14065 En r o l l e d 1924 1420 559 4617 3500 2130 179^ 1127 15100 1925 1074 559 5031 3086 2341 2 0 7 4 1340 15510 1926 — - - 5964 2710 2460 2246 i 1691 - — Tuxis Squares 1923 140 60 338 210 77 100 43 968 1924 174 31 375 240 91 127 81 1119 1925 68 31 394 210 117 136 79 1035 1926 102 — 378 165 161 110 95 1011 Tuxis Boys 1923 1400 875 4100 2050 976 1059' 866 11326 En r o l l e d 1924 1740 506 4968 2400 1155 1209' 1158 13136 1925 796 506 4910 2050 1331 1362! 1146 12101 1926 — - - 4856 1650 1663 1181 1186 Tota l Number 1923 270 125 755 481 232 254i 132 2254 of Groups 1924 316 76 790 560 278 304 163 2487 1925 161 76 813 481 322 324; 187 2364 1926 210 - 922 436 352 302 1 236 2458 Total 1923 2700 1800 8400 5056 2927 2545' 1983 25411 Enrolment 1924 3160 1065 9585 5900 3085 3118: 2285 28398 1925 1167 1065 9941 5136 3994 3 433 2486 27222 1926 2538 10820 4360 4130 3 427' 2877 2,8152 - 105 -The t o t a l enrolment as at A p r i l 1, 1927 was shown at 28,693 boys not counting Quebec, where no Boys' Work Sec-retary has been employed since 1914. The year 1927 i n Boys' Work as related to the Na-t i o n a l Boys' Work Board, was a period of adjustment. Since the inception of the National Boys' Work Board, Mr. Taylor Statten had been General S e c r e t a r y — i n f a c t i t was he who was l a r g e l y responsible f o r bringing i t into being; and dur-ing the years 1925 and 1926, he found i t necessary to give more and more time to his Boys' and G i r l s ' camps, which were developing very r a p i d l y . In 1927 the pressure became so great, that he considered i t wise to sever h i s connection e n t i r e l y as Executive Secretary of the Board. He continued, however, as Honorary Secretary rendering much help and advice. For two years previous to May, 1927, Mr. Wallace Forgie had been associated with Mr. Statten as assistant; but when he received a c a l l to give his l i f e to the boys of India, he believed he should go. He went as Y.M.C.A. secre-tary to Madras, India. The enrolment f o r the year ending A p r i l 1, 1928, was 27,264, with losses shown i n Ontario, Quebec, and B r i t i s h Columbia. The report on A p r i l 1, 1929, showed an Increase to 27,921 boys i n Canada, but with a f u r -ther drop i n the same three provinces. The following excerpt from the report i s s i g n i f i c a n t : "Reverend E.K.McLean, Gen-- 106 -e r a l Secretary of Religious Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, has, f o r several years, been responsible f o r the boys' work i n that province; but on July 1st of l a s t year, (1928), Mr. Prank P i d l e r became t h e i r f i r s t boys' work secretary. Prank was a Winnipeg boy, a graduate of the University of Manitoba, a T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis Boy, Premier of a Boys' Parliament of Manitoba, and well trained f o r his task. Reports from men and boys alike indicate that h i s leadership i s being e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y accepted. B r i t i s h Columbia i s one of our most d i f f i c u l t f i e l d s to cover as i t i s widely separated by both mountain and sea, but d i f f i c u l t i e s are things upon which Prank thr i v e s , so we are confidently looking f o r splendid r e s u l t s . " The s t a t i s t i c a l report f o r 1929-30, given on A p r i l 1, 1930, follows: - 107 -TABLE VIII. Report by Provinces Mar. Ont. Que. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Total T r a i l Ranger 1928 151 486 214 258 178 130 1417 Groups 1929 170 500 213 246 209 127 1465 1930 180 521 189 226 184 151 1451 Enrolment 1928 1751 6885 2119 3281 2033 1521 17590 T r a i l Rangersl929 1954 6366 2197 .3396 2307 1410 17630 1930 1950 6862 1919 2642 2139 1583 17095 Tuxis Groups 1928 114 301 106 114 112 81 828 1929 127 278 116 118 ' 304 79 822 1930 124 274 104 128 88 83 801 Enrolment 1928 1386 3478 1037 1412 1255 1106 9674 Tuxis 1929 1551 3898 1232 1449 1350 1011 10291 1930 1540 3562 1184 1586 977 1095 9944 Number of 1928 ' 265 787 320 372 290 211 2245 Groups .1929 297 778 329 364 . a3 206 2287 1930 304 795 293 354 272 234 2252 Enrolment 1928 3137 10363 3156 4693 3238 2627 27264 Total 1929 3505 10264 3429 4845 3457 2421 27921 1930 3490 10424 3103 4228 3116 2678 27039 - 108 -If we follow c l o s e l y the trend i n the above figures since 1919, we w i l l see that the T r a i l Ranger-Tuxis program has just about held i t s own i n numbers of boys who share i n the program. Actually there has been a steady increase i n re s u l t s as the program has found favor i n more and more of the smaller communities even though there has been a 3 l i g h t f a l l i n g - o f f i n large centres of population. Reasons f o r th i s apparent loss of favor In the large centres are many, but the chief of these seem to be: (1) the a c t i v i t y i n the buil d i n g of church gymnasia i n large centres; t h i s generally has the e f f e c t of an increased a c t i v i t y i n the physical side of the program to the r e l a t i v e d i s a f f e c t i o n f o r the other three sides of the program, c h i e f l y the devotional side; (2) the f a c t that these, and many other groups, though carrying on the T r a i l Ranger-Tuxis program i n the main, do not r e g i s t e r with the Pr o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Board of the Religious Education Council; (3) the f i n a n c i a l and other support that i s accorded the Boy Scouts by l o c a l and provin-c i a l governments and organizations, while T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis groups are supposed to be f i n a n c i a l l y self-supporting; and (4) the d i f f i c u l t y i n many centres of obtaining capable and e f f i c i e n t leadership. I t must be said, i n a l l f a i r n e s s , that the boys are s t i l l as keen as ever f o r the program, i f e f f i c i e n t and wi3e leadership i s forthcoming. The program allows plenty of e l a s t i c i t y to varying situations, there - 109 -being no d e f i n i t e hard and f a s t program l a i d down, so long as the boys are being trained i n Ch r i s t i a n ideals of c i t i z e n -ship. The program which i s to be followed, i s l e f t to the decision of the group and the mentor working together, and i t i s obviously better so. 5. The Present Status. The present status of the movement, i n 1933, i s very d i f f i c u l t to determine, f o r we must not only take the figures which show the actual numbers i n groups which are registered with the Pr o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards, but we must allow f o r unnumbered hundreds of groups of boys who are actually p a r t i -cipating i n a program very s i m i l a r , ( i f not exactly s i m i l a r ) , to the program of T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis boys. That there are many such groups i s well known, and why they do not re g i s t e r with the Pr o v i n c i a l o f f i c e i s hard to discover, f o r there i s no r e g i s t r a t i o n fee of any kind. That these groups do ex i s t i s shown by the action taken this year by the B r i t i s h Columbia Boys' Work Board, which has opened the door of the Older Boys' Parliament to candidates from these groups on the same basis as f o r Tuxis groups, only asking that they r e g i s t e r . Formerly they had no status with regard to the annual Boys' Parliament. In Quebec, where there has been no f u l l time Boys' Work Board f o r the past eight years, the progress of Boys' - 110 -work In the Churches has depended e n t i r e l y on the lay help of volunteer committees. This accounts f o r the absence of Quebec returns i n the tabulations already given i n t h i s chapter. But we get the r e a l picture of the s i t u a t i o n by quoting the following extract from a l e t t e r from Mr. H.C. Cross, Executive Secretary of the Y.M.C.A. at Montreal. The l e t t e r i s dated November 1, 1933. "It i s quite evident that organized C.S.E.T. work i n the Province of Quebec i s at a low ebb. I do not think that quite indicates the true s i t u a t i o n , however, with r e f e r -ence to Boys' Work i n general i n the Province. Many of the churches have organized Boys' Work, with a ce r t a i n amount of midweek a c t i v i t y ; the Y.M.C.A. does some very e f f e c t i v e work, and the Boy Scouts are very strong indeed. I t i s the co-operative Church Boys' Work that seems to have l o s t i t s v i t a l i t y , c h i e f l y because of the lack of professional leader-ship." The Movement, however, i s s t i l l very s trong and active i n the Maritlmes, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia. No complete figures are a v a i l -able since 1930, (except i n Ontario and the Maritlmes), but It i s safe to say, that i n a l l provinces, except Quebec, the Movement has l o s t none of Its v i t a l i t y and appeal. - I l l -TABLE IX. Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers Ontario, September 1, 1932, No. of T r a i l Ranger Camps 561 No. of Tuxis Squares 293 Total No. of Groups 854 T r a i l Rangers Enrolled 7,019 Tuxis Boys Enrolled 4,478 Total 11,497 In addition there were 225 Sunday School classes i n Ontario, and eight T r a i l Ranger Camps and four Tuxis Squares from Quebec registered with the Ontario Boys' Work Board. TABLE X. Enrolment i n the Maritlmes. No. of Groups 1925 1932 Tuxis 96 141 T r a i l Ranger 71 105 Total 167 246 Boys f Conferences 14 16 No. present 700 850 - 112 -Much more might he accomplished, however, i f more leaders who are e f f i c i e n t l y trained could be found. The need today, as ever, i s f o r men who have high Ideals to en-l i s t f o r the leadership of boys, to the undoubted benefit of both p a r t i e s . The challenge s t i l l goes out f o r leaders who w i l l lead the youth of today into a higher l i f e of Ch r i s t i a n fellowship and service. 4. The Spread to Other Places. In closing t h i s chapter, l e t us not forget the growth of the movement i n other parts of the B r i t i s h Empire and i n other countries. The movement has a fi r m footing i n the United States though under a d i f f e r e n t name, and there are also many differences i n the program. The movement has also found i t s way i n a small fashion into Mexico, England, Portuguese West A f r i c a , South A f r i c a , and A u s t r a l i a . Also there are many groups of foreign boys registered here i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y Japanese and Chinese; also groups that have a very mixed n a t i o n a l i t y . The T r a i l Ranger-Tuxis movement i s not confined to any one race or creed. In the February, 1929, i3sue of the "Canadian Mentor" a very f i n e a r t i c l e Is written by Mr. Frank F i d l e r , at that time Secretary of the B r i t i s h Columbia Boys' Work Board, describing the a c t i v i t i e s of the "Rising Sun" Japan-ese Tuxis Square from the Japanese United Church, Vancouver. - 113 -This Square i s s t i l l active and a T r a i l Ranger Camp of nine-teen hoys i s also very a c t i v e . Another story "by the same author appears i n the September, 1929, issue; t h i s time i t i s a r e a l mountain-top experience with a Chinese group from V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, the Knights C h r i s t i a n Tuxis Square. These a r t i c l e s are very i n s p i r i n g and well worth reading. In the issue of "The Canadian Mentor" of March, 1930, we f i n d a l e t t e r from Mr. A. Wallace Porgie, of Madras, India. Madras, January 16, 1930. n Dear D.R. Poole 1: We used so much of your material at the school, Mentor's Books, Songs, Group Games, etc., and drew so la r g e l y on Boys' Work Board experience i n tryin g to set up plans f o r work with Sunday School groups In the Ch r i s t i a n Churches of Travancore, that the students f e l t indebted to you and wished to have me send th i s r e solution unanimously passed. Wallace Porgie. 'Resolved that the Students of the Travancore and Cochin Y.M.C.A. School f o r Workers with Boys, send to the National 1. Note: D.R.Poole Is Secretary of the National Boys' Work Board. - 114 Boys' Work Board of Canada, greetings and hearty wishes f o r the New Year.".. This l e t t e r i s followed by a very i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i -c l e written by Mr. Wallace Forgie f o r the May, 1933, issue of the"Mentor". In i t he talks about India. In t h i s same issue of the "Mentor", there Is also a very informative l e t t e r from E l l i o t t Sidney Murrain, who writes of the T r a i l Ranger-Tuxis Movement In Portuguese West A f r i c a . In picturesque phraeseology he d e t a i l s the very splendid growth of the movement there to over 1500 boys, together with t h e i r summer camps, out-of-door a c t i v i t i e s , bible-study program and boys' Parliament. The report i s headed, "Report of the Young Men's Union, Tuxis and T r a i l Rangers at Hualondo, Angola, Portuguese West A f r i c a " , and signed, E l l i o t t Sidney Murrain, Missao Evangelica de Hualonda, Caixa Postal 39 V i l l a S i l v a Porto, Bie Angola, Portuguese West A f r i c a . - 115 -C. THE TUXIS PROGRAM. CHAPTER V. The Mentor The Aims and Objectives of the Program. !• The C a l l f o r Trained Leaders. "The days i n which we l i v e are doubtless more s i g -n i f i c a n t i n the h i s t o r y of humanity's progress than any pre-vious period the world has ever known. Building on the r i c h heritage which the past has handed down, having passed through the c r i s i s i n which the very foundations of c i v i l i -zation were shaken, we f i n d ourselves l i v i n g i n an era of reconstruction and readjustment. Those who l i v e twenty or t h i r t y years hence w i l l t e l l better than we can now whether or not we are worthy of the high p r i v i l e g e s we enjoy." 1 W i l l the r i s i n g generation be l e d to advance to la r g e r con-quests? Or w i l l t h e i r energies and enthusiasm be f r i t t e r e d away on minor things? The resources of Canada are unlimited. Who would dare estimate her resources twenty, f o r t y , o r a hundred years 1. National Boys' Work Board of the Religious Education Council of Canada 1929 i n "Creative Leadership." - 116 -hence? Sh a l l we take these magnificent resources as a matter of course? Can we now see that material things alone can never make a nation great? Is not this the opportunity to plant In the l i v e s of growing boys the ideals of high Chris-t i a n c i t i z e n s h i p ? If we fan now the spark of truth and r i g h t that glows within each one, i t w i l l be found that In the testing time It has become a flame consuming a l l that i s base and low and pu r i f y i n g those forces that can make a land l i k e ours t r u l y and permanently great. Our growing boys are among the nation's greatest assets. To win them now i n t h i s Impressionable, responsive, and, i n many cases the most neglected period of t h e i r develop-ment,means to send them f o r t h with high purposes well equipped f o r the tasks which they w i l l be c a l l e d upon to perform. Every Canadian boy should be guided to develop a strong, healthy body. Other nations have g l o r i e d i n the vigor of t h e i r youth, but the opportunity f o r developing rugged, v i r i l e c i t i z e n s here i s unequalled. Everything i n our atmosphere c a l l s out f o r mastery and control. Working In cooperation, parents, teachers, and leaders of growing boys may do much to e s t a b l i s h habits, standards and ideals from which succeeding generations may climb to r i c h e r , f u l l e r manhood. Right habits come through r i g i d , thoughtful, d a i l y d i s c i p l i n e which leaders may i n s p i r e . - 117 -Every Canadian boy should be challenged to c u l t i -vate habits of clear thinking. % a t opportunities there are to explore the vast expanses of knowledge today.' Boys of today may e a s i l y accumulate more facts than Socrates, Plato, or A r i s t o t l e ever knew. But w i l l they learn to think clearly? Happy are the boys who are wise enough to see th e i r need of increasing wisdom now. Favored are the men who are p r i v i l e g e d to i n s p i r e them to greater achievements. Every Canadian boy should be challenged to strengthen the moral and s p i r i t u a l Ideals of the Nation. A stream can never r i s e higher than Its source. A nation can never be-come morally and s p i r i t u a l l y greater than i t s c i t i z e n s make possible by t h e i r standards of l i f e . Young people of Canada have these matters l a r g e l y within t h e i r control and may de-termine the d i r e c t i o n of the stream and the trend of i t s currents. It would be.easy to d r i f t into mediocrity and Canada's contribution to the world's welfare and progress might be quite commonplace. It w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to create a "public conscience" that w i l l make i t easy f o r the worthier and true ideals to p r e v a i l ; and harder f o r the base elements of l i f e to endure. Canadian boys should go out into l i f e ever ready to serve and help others. In t h i s new land with i t s boundless material resources, i t should not be d i f f i c u l t f o r the major-- 118 -i t y to make a l i v i n g . Our movement inspires them i n the making of a " L i f e " . We lay foundations now that w i l l hear f r u i t i n years to come. They e s t a b l i s h habits and attitudes that w i l l be all-determining i n future years. What a challenge opens to .the boys who i n these s i g n i f i c a n t years to be must assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l e a d e r s h i p M a n y of t h e i r older brothers gave t h e i r l i v e s i n a great cause. The coming years w i l l also demand heroism, courage, l o y a l t y to Christ I f His world i s to go forward to higher and better things, Ours may be the joy, as leaders, to win them f o r that higher service and to send them f o r t h equipped with noble purposes determined to make the world a l i t t l e better because they have l i v e d . 2. Aims and Main Objectives. The word "Tuxis" i s made up of f i v e l e t t e r s , each having a very s i g n i f i c a n t meaning: "T" stands f o r Training, the l a s t l e t t e r "S", f o r Service - "Training f o r Service". "X" placed In the centre denotes the Greek l e t t e r " c h i " , the f i r s t l e t t e r i n the Greek word "Christos" or Christ, which indicates that the program i s Christ-centred. The "U" and " I " suggest our s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the attitude of brother-l i n e s s and u n s e l f i s h n e s s — t h e "Help the Other Fellow S p i r i t " . You w i l l notice that "You" comes before " I " . So we get the basic Idea of the Tuxis program—"Training f o r Service; - 119 -Christ the centre, You and I on either side with no one but Christ between Us." It i s said that the Tuxis Program i s a plan of t r a i n i n g i n Canadian Citizenship. It i s that and more. It i s t r a i n i n g i n Canadian C h r i s t i a n Citizenship. The entire program i s Christ-centred. It Is based on the B i b l i c a l record of the growth and development of Jesus Christ, who, when He was the age of Tuxis Boys, Luke, the physician, t e l l s us "Increased i n wisdom and stature and i n favor with God and man." The four terms, "wisdom" f o r I n t e l l e c t u a l , "stature" f o r Physical, " i n favor with God", f o r Devotional or E e l i g i o u s , and " i n favor with man" f o r S o c i a l , have deter-mined the Idea and i d e a l around which the f o u r - f o l d Tuxis program has been developed. 1. Our ta3k i s more than to prepare boys f o r l i f e . " L i f e " does not begin when a person leaves school or college or s tarts to earn money. " L i f e " i s here and now f o r a l l of us and the use we make of the present determines Very l a r g e l y the a b i l i t y we s h a l l have to embrace future opportunities. Our task, therefore, i s to get within the world i n which these experiences of boys are being worked out and to help them there. The best way to prepare a boy to be a r e a l man Is to help him to be a r e a l boy a l l along the l i n e . Let h i s d a i l y l i f e be enriched. Let i t be f i l l e d with worth-while interests and a c t i v i t i e s . - 120 -2. We must do more than merely transfer knowledge. There are great p r i n c i p l e s , narratives and wonderfully i n -s p i r i n g portions of scripture, without knowledge of which an indi v i d u a l ' s experience i s impoverished indeed. The leader's task i s to awaken such an Interest i n the experiences re-corded i n the B i b l e , that hoys w i l l know how and where to go as they f e e l the need of help—-such help as came to the men of insight through whom God has spoken to the human race. 3. We must do more than merely t e l l boys how to be good. We do not begin to r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s at our disposal when we load boys with a score or more of "dont's". To the boys these are blank cartridges—mostly noise I Cer-t a i n l y we are not t r a i n i n g boys to be s e l f - d i r e c t i n g and self-determining through autocratic control and constant re-pression. True obedience comes not by one person Imposing h i s w i l l on another, but by a true leader i n s p i r i n g and s t i r r i n g those worthy motives, which, through repeated ex-pression, become dominant i n the person he desires to help grow. When leaders comprehend the far-reaching character of t h e i r task they see that i t involves the r e a l i z a t i o n of the best In the above theories and much more: Education i s l i f e - s h a r i n g . We are engaged In a progressive process. I t goes on continuously, whether recog-- 121--nized or not. Youth clamours f o r d i r e c t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p — not always and perhaps not often audible, but a l l the more Impressively f o r the one who i s able to see what may be ac-complished In the process of mutual life-enrichment when an older person consecrates h i s powers to God and to youth. Education means the broadening of one's outlook. I t means leading one out to an understanding and an experi-ence of an ever r i c h e r l i f e . I t means creating desires that w i l l lead to worth-while and s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g , exalting worthy standards as against unworthy. I t means f o r leaders that the C h r i s t - l i f e i s so revealed i n a l l i t s breadth and beauty, i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and far-reaching appeal that boys w i l l f e e l drawn to i t and w i l l commit themselves to the quest of a l l that i s highest and best. I t means that boys discover something of the significance of t h e i r l a t e n t capacities and welcome the opportunity to invest t h e i r l i v e s i n an essen-t i a l l y C h r i s t i a n cause. This purpose i s all-comprehensive and challenges our best. It takes us at once into the realm that Is dynamic and l i f e - g i v i n g . I t makes the leader a sharer with the Master i n the "Greater works" which He declares His followers w i l l do. - 122 -3. The Popularity of the Program, The merited popularity of the T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys' Program i s due mainly to the following f a c t s : 1. I t i s primarily a movement and not a program. It does not seek to i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e boys, nor to i n t e r f e r e i n any way with the boys' l o y a l t y to home, school and church. It aims to supplement i n p a r t i c u l a r the work of these three primary s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , 2. I t provides a program of a c t i v i t i e s that appeals to the spontaneous play interests of boys from twelve to fourteen and from f i f t e e n to eighteen years of age. 3. Its p r i n c i p l e s of organization are such as to place the task of self-government progressively i n the hands of the boys themselves, thus giving them practice i n leader-ship. Training f o r s p e c i f i c leadership i s emphasized par-t i c u l a r l y by the Tuxis Boys' program. 4. I t appeals strongly to the best type of men who volunteer t h e i r services as mentors and members of various committees. Thus boys who otherwise would be deprived of the companionship of men, enjoy a r i c h e r s o c i a l inheritance. Such a program teaches men t h e i r personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r boys. 5. Its emphasis upon c i v i c knowledge and a c t i v i t y as well as community l o y a l t y stimulates i n t e l l i g e n t and e f f i -- 123 -cient patriotism, and thus makes better c i t i z e n s . This em-phasis comes only a f t e r l o y a l t y to home, church and public school has been f i r m l y established. 6. It covers such a wide range of interests and i s so e a s i l y adapted to l o c a l conditions that i t i s usually successful i n pre-empting the l e i s u r e time of boys. Through i t , boys are saved from the demoralizing influences of many forms of commercialized amusement. 7. To be a T r a i l Ranger or-Tuxis Boy involves l i v i n g up to a c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e , simple code of p r a c t i c a l e t h i c s . The moral and r e l i g i o u s obligations, however, are as broad as the teaching of the church to which i t belongs. Through them v i r t u e becomes natural and i n t e r e s t i n g , and moral standards are enforced. Loyalty to what i s best i n family t r a d i t i o n s and public school ideals and the teachings of the church become the cornerstone of the boy's character. 8. This program discovers capacities f o r leadership and t r a i n s boys i n the art of d i r e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of others. Thus i t prepares f o r c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a government of the people, by the people and f o r the people and f o r r e l i g i o u s leadership. 9. Throughout the program but p a r t i c u l a r l y In the honor badge system, boys discover vocational i n t e r e s t s , and acquire valuable pre-vocational knowledge and s k i l l . - 124 -10, In stimulating boys to compete against worthy standards as well as against i n d i v i d u a l s , there i s a tendency to elevate the whole moral and r e l i g i o u s l i f e ; attention i s f i x e d upon proper ideals and e f f o r t to a t t a i n those ideals i s taken f o r granted, 11. The widespread popularity of scouting, p a r t i c u l a r -l y i n the United States, has seemingly blinded many adult leaders to the f a c t that t h i s program, which i s avowedly a system of t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p through play or l e i s u r e -time a c t i v i t i e s , cannot and should not be permitted to take the place of other programs, such as those of t r a i n i n g i n r e l i g i o n . I t i s not Intended to be a^substitute f o r the plans which represent the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the church fo r her boys. Its leaders do not make any such sweeping claims f o r i t . I t i s intended merely to supplement the work of the church. "A church, or home, or school that does noth-ing f o r boys or g i r l s beyond t r a i n i n g them i n scouting i s f a l l i n g f a r short of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and merits the vigor-ous c r i t i c i s m of those who are primarily interested i n the complete, four-square, s p i r i t u a l welfare of the coming gener-a t i o n . " 1 1. Norman E. Richardson, "The Religious Education of Adolescents, 1919, p. 62. - 125 This danger has been avoided i n the T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis Boys' program i n Canada which emphasize the r e l i -gious aspect of the boy's t r a i n i n g i n a way that v i t a l i z e s his entire f o u r - f o l d nature. Its standards are suggested by the phrase: "Jesus Increased i n wisdom and stature and i n favor with God and m a n . T h e hearty cooperation of the denominational leaders i n developing these programs and i n -corporating them into the regular work of the church gives large promise of future success. 4. The Mentor - Qua l i t i e s Required. The e f f i c i e n t leader of boys should be constantly on the a l e r t , endeavoring to develop those q u a l i t i e s which make f o r more e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g . Such a leader must be a walking encyclopedia of information on work-a-day topics which engage the adolescent boy's attention. The Inter-national Council of Religious Education has issued i n i t s series of basic materials i n the Ch r i s t i a n Quest Programme a pamphlet e n t i t l e d "Qualities of an E f f e c t i v e Leader." In i t s t h i r t y pages there are presented many suggestions which those who desire to follow t h i s theme further w i l l do well to consider. In t h i s study, we mention only a few of the outstanding q u a l i t i e s desired f o r successful leaders. 1. Luke 2: 52 - 126 -1. High Personal Ideals, Boys are quick to discern the genuine and to d i s -cover the f a l s e . What we are speaks much more loudly than anything we can say. The Ideals that dominate the leader are sure to Impress the members of the group. Example goes a long way i f we are to succeed i n the guiding and moulding of these young l i v e s through a period when they are unstable, and doubts a s s a i l them on every hand. Boys have a r i g h t to expect t h e i r leaders to be consistent, ambitious, energetic, and dependable, 2. A Li k i n g For Boys. Boys' Work makes vigorous demands when i t i s pro-perly done. Older persons who want to make Investments of t h e i r influence i n youthful l i v e s must be ready f o r s a c r i -f i c e . I t i s much easier to get into Tuxis work than to get out of i t . This i s true, not only because of the lack of w i l l i n g leaders i n most d i s t r i c t s , but also because once a man takes hold of a group of boys he finds i t next to im-possible to bring himself to t e l l the boys he i s q u i t t i n g . He f e e l s l i k e a q u i t t e r , and knows that he i s going to de-capitate a part of himself. This means a t r u l y u n s e l f i s h attitude towards growing, boys i s indispensable. He who has and who cul t i v a t e s t h i s attitude w i l l f i n d himself remaining youthful, retaining a mind that i s free and a heart that i s - 127 -l i g h t . The writer defies anyone who once gets " i n " with a group of Tuxis boys to say that he i s not r e a l l y enjoying himself to the f u l l ; he w i l l be t i r e d , no doubt of that; he w i l l have periods of doubt and despondency; but he w i l l also have periods of wild exhilaration, times when he would not consider f o r a moment that h i s influence i s f o r naught. 3. Understanding. Next comes a b i l i t y to understand boys, t h e i r needs and aspirations. This requires good judgment that sees things from the boy's point of view and get3 them to see r e a l i t i e s through the eyes of more mature experience. This involves f a i t h i n b o y s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the u n l i k e l y l a d — sensitiveness that h i s powers and p o s s i b i l i t i e s may be recognized, and s k i l l that h i s best may be drawn out. Leaders, i n order to do t h i s , must be companions of boys, be "pals" with them, so that they may confide i n each other. 4. V i t a l i t y . "Pep" i s the keynote of the boy's existence. The leader who i s able to produce new ideas and to provide the t h r i l l of fresh suggestions w i l l f i n d h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and his usefulness increasing. A leader must c u l t i v a t e his energy and spend i t on the boys' behalf. I t i s not a lazy l i f e , t h i s mentoring l i f e . - 128 -5. Adaptability. The leader who i s determined to follow stereotyped programs and methods i s doomed to disappointment. One who i s prepared to move forward as circumstances demand, and to contribute to group decisions rather than to impose his own w i l l upon others, i s sure to f i n d happier response and to come out with an experience of l i v i n g with others not l i m i -ted to the few hours spent with h i s boys. If a program won't work, the mentor must be prepared to scrap i t , and examine i t to f i n d out why i t didn't work. Most probably, the reason w i l l be found i n the f a c t that i t i s the mentor's own program, and the boys have not had any, or at best very l i t t l e , part i n the program. 6. Patience. It does require patience to wrestle with I n d i f f e r -ence, ignorance and s e l f - w i l l . I t does require patience to cope with the thoughtlessness, i n s t a b i l i t y and immaturity of youth. But the rewards of patience are very great, and the f r u i t s of persistence are garnered by those who are able to see through to the end from the beginning. Many are the heartaches and disappointments, but the rewards come also, and when they do come, the gloom i s a l l d i s p e l l e d and the sun breaks through i n a l l i t s radiance and' glory. - 129 -7. A Sense of Humour. Boys are normally light-hearted and cheerful. Their leaders must likewise be bright and responsive. Boys l i k e to have t h e i r jokes appreciated. They respond to the one who can put over on them a r e a l l y good one, and who In-s i s t s that when humour i s Indulged In i t must be clean, wholesome and good. 8. A Sense of Wonder. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not always found In l i s t s of basic q u a l i t i e s of leaders, but i t means the possession of a vague something without which a leader i s bereft of much that interests youth. I t i s the difference between being stale and being a t t r a c t i v e and l i v e . I t represents the margin between the s t a t i c and the dynamic personality. I t distinguishes between the all-wise person who seems to know everything but i n r e a l i t y misses much i n l i f e , and the learner who i s prepared to go with others through the process of discovery to experience the joy of exploration and eventually the sense of achievement. One assumes that i n the c u l t i v a t i o n of these g i f t s others are not to be overlooked. As by-products of these es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s there w i l l arise an eagerness f o r hard tasks, a b i l i t y to express one's s e l f c l e a r l y i n public and i n private, a b i l i t y to size up boys both younger and older, - 130 -readiness to learn from the c r i t i c i s m s that come d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , — a l l these along with meekness, economy, industry, and evidences of e f f o r t to keep i n good health and to conserve the talents and powers entrusted by a kind and gracious Providence. Eternal v i g i l a n c e i s the price of successful leadership. Constant determination to make the most of one's talents and opportunities makes possible the maximum contribution to the welfare and growth of others. 5. The Preparation Leaders Need. The leader's success i s to a large degree In pro-portion to the preparation made f o r h i s peculiar work. He must keep f i t , even as he teaches his boya to keep f i t . Time also i s needed and e f f o r t required f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of devotional attitudes. We cannot be conductors of s p i r i t -u al energy unless we have been i n touch with the sources of that power ourselves. Direct preparation f o r teaching i s also needed. So supremely Important i s t h i s task that we should at any cost secure the time necessary f o r preparation and go to our appointments with material well mastered. Preparation should be systematic, thorough, pur-poseful and p r a c t i c a l . Time should be set apart each week, or better each day, sacred to the purpose i n hand. One - 131 -never knows i n approaching a group of boys what questions they may ask or what problems they may r a i s e . I t i s essen-t i a l therefore that the leader who i s to be successful should have a broad knowledge of the subject with which the program deals. In the l a s t analysis, the values we desire to a t t a i n w i l l be impossible unless everything i s f i t t e d i n to the actual experience of the members of the group. It i s t h e i r l i v e s we desire to develop and t h e i r problems we seek to help them solve. A leader should face h i s group Sunday or week-day with his plan well i n hand. In the f i r s t few moments the attention i s won or l o s t , gained or scattered. The successful leader w i l l also see that the clo s i n g moments of the group are well ordered. However f a r the discussion may wander, he w i l l be prepared to bring them back to the main point of Issue and see that no h a l f impressions are ca r r i e d away. 6. Where Leaders Find Help. F i r s t - c l a s s leaders are constantly on the look-out f o r help. So overwhelming are the, tasks with which they f i n d themselves confronted that even the most s k i l f u l are time and again made conscious of t h e i r own l i m i t a t i o n s . Such progress has been made i n boys 1 work that there i s available now a great volume of experience which a few years ago d i d not e x i s t , much of which i s indispensable i f leaders - 132 -are to f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n and work out successfully the pro-blems they have i n hand. Mentor's forums i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s are extreme-l y b e n e f i c i a l to i n d i v i d u a l mentors. Here the interchange of Ideas and problems, many of which are common to a l l , and the solutions found workable i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, are def i n -i t e l y u p l i f t i n g . Leaders are given new heart f o r t h e i r work, and go back to th e i r groups with new Ideas, new en-thusiasm f o r t h e i r tasks and new determination to lead t h e i r groups i n the l i f e of service. Besides the regular t r a i n i n g classes, a lending l i b r a r y has recently been established by the Religious Edu-cation Council of B r i t i s h Columbia i n Vancouver. I t i s just a beginning, but many volumes and pamphlets here on loan are of d i s t i n c t advantage to mentors. Lending p r i v i -leges are given f o r a small sum yearly and a l l mentors i n the province may share these benefits. 7. Factors Which Make For Success. There i s a measure of truth i n the statement that leaders are born, not made, but there Is also abundant evidence that people with some native a b i l i t y become better teachers by systematic t r a i n i n g and by c a r e f u l l y regarding the factors which make f o r success. Some of these are: 133 -1. Leaders succeed who give themselves i n t e l l i -gently and whole-heartedly to the splendid tasks which they undertake. 2. Leaders succeed who develop a wholesome s p i r i t of team play. Never do anything f o r boys that they can do f o r themselves. Never do anything yourself that you can get the group to do f o r you. 3. Successful leaders develop hearty cooperation with other groups i n the department or i n the Sunday School. 4. Successful leaders i n s p i r e r e g u l a r i t y , punctual-i t y and p r e c i s i o n i n the conduct of group a c t i v i t y . 5. Successful leaders help to work out balanced programs. Boys want to know that they are not working b l i n d l y , and that t h e i r objectives are worth r e a l i z i n g . If they have i n t h e i r hands a program which they have helped to make, projected at l e a s t three months forward and f i t t i n g into the other months of the year, there i s established an attitude which makes f o r continuity and permanency from the s t a r t . 6. Leaders succeed by simple f r i e n d l i n e s s with the members of the group. This i s the indispensable element that makes f o r success. Boys want to know that t h e i r leader Is human, and that he can enter with r e a l zest into t h e i r ordinary experiences. The leader does not exalt himself - 134 -upon a pedestal or set himself apart. He mingles with the boys and gets to know them so well that they w i l l be glad to work with him, because they have learned to understand and to love him. They w i l l do t h e i r best to accomplish the big things he expects them to carry through. It i s no easy task to give leadership to boys today. Our conditions are very d i f f e r e n t from those which obtained In any previous generation. But we have a wonder-f u l generation of youth with which to work, and p o s s i b i l i -t i e s latent i n them are i n f i n i t e . ( i - 135 -CHAPTER VI. Organization of Tuxis or T r a i l Rangers' Program. "One of the best things i n the world to be i s a boy; i t requires no experience, though i t needs some prac-t i c e to be a good one. The disadvantage of the p o s i t i o n i s that It does not l a s t long enough; i t i s soon over; just as you get used to being a boy, you have to be something else, with a good deal more work to do and not h a l f so much fun. And yet every boy i s anxious to be a man, and i s very un-,easy with the r e s t r i c t i o n s that are put upon him as a boy—-— w l " Henry A. Shute writes that while rummaging an old closet i n a shed chamber of his father's house, he unearthed a boy's record of his d a i l y experiences. This record i s presented i n hook form as, "A Real Diary of a Real Boy." Throughout t h i s diary the unconvential a c t i v i t i e s of hoys are reported. The account pictures genuine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of very active hoys. I t cannot f a i l to appeal strongly to o adults to he more sympathetic with boys. 1. Warner, CD., "Being a Boy", pp 1-21. 2. Merlam, Junius L. "Child L i f e and the Curriculum." - 136 -1. The Belonging Instinct and the Gang S p i r i t , At about the age of eleven, as early as nine i n some cases and as l a t e as twelve i n others, coincidently with the sudden upturn i n his curve of growth, the boy he-gins to play not as an i n d i v i d u a l against other i n d i v i d u a l s , but as a member of a team against other teams. He plays f o o t b a l l , basketball, hockey; h i s baseball takes the form of sides; h i s major in t e r e s t i s i n the team games. "The hoy begins, at about the same time or a l i t t l e l a t e r , to f e e l more strongly than before the necessity of meeting c e r t a i n other boys every d a y — t o play the game, i f favored by surroundings and good play t r a d i t i o n s , but any-way to meet, f o r purposes which seem to him sufficient"" 1' His l i f e i s now i n t h i s companionship; i t has become hi s m i l i e u , his s o c i a l complement, h i s world, as necessary to him as a mother i s to a l i t t l e c h i l d . This r e l a t i o n per-vades h i s l i f e and everything he does. His paramount desire now i s to belong: to l i v e and act, succeed or f a i l — t o suf-f e r i f need h e — n o t as an i n d i v i d u a l but as a member of a s o c i a l whole made up of boys of h i s own age; and the effects of t h i s new desire are seen i n everything he does. 1. Joseph Lee, "Play In Education", 1921. - 137 -The belonging i n s t i n c t during the period we are considering has other manifestations besides team games. Often a set of boys w i l l meet day a f t e r day when there i s no game to he played and very l i t t l e else to do, sometimes they simply meet and hang around, t h e i r object being appar-ently to do nothing at a l l and do i t together; sometimes, on the other hand, they f i n d a great deal to do of a s u f f i -c i e n t l y strenuous sort, not always i n accordance with the laws and usages of c i v i l i z e d society. In short, hoys during the age of l o y a l t y , and e s p e c i a l l y between the ages of twelve and sixteen, are prone to form the gang, of whose adventures and e v i l deeds we hear so much,—the drove, pack, " o r i g i n a l boys' club'!, f i r s t expression of enduring member-ship outside the family, o r i g i n a l c e l l of a society of equals. Prom the foregoing we see that i t Is the most natu-r a l thing In the world f o r adolescents to organize. H.ow can we make use of thi s tendency? In general i t should be said that the method of developing the s p i r i t of membership by using the gang i t s e l f as a natural unit of development, i s not an easy one, although i t i s being successfully prac-t i c e d by the Boy Scouts and Church Clubs such as T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Eoys. The soul of the gang i s i n i t s i n -dependence. Its aim i s above a l l to be i t s e l f , the authen-- 138 -t i c outcome of the actual s o c i a l s p i r i t of i t s members, not the offspring of a foreign w i l l . I t i s as wild as a pack of wolves and almost as hard to tame. And i t cannot be caught by any lukewarm morality. Stories of the good boy who died, demands f o r the passive virtues of patience, resignation, blameless behavior, do not appeal to i t . I t Is p o s i t i v e , masculine, demands rough work, w i l l submit to no s p i r i t l e s s heroic than i t s own. Dr. Gulick has pointed out that the c a l l most successful In bringing young men into the church has been the c a l l f o r missionaries. They w i l l not come purely to receive: but ask them to give, even t h e i r l i v e s , and they recognize a demand that i s worth attending to. The method of broadening the gang i s by treating i t as the gang i t s e l f has already treated the i n d i v i d u a l : by making i t part of some more in c l u s i v e organization, subject-ing i t to the regulation and c r i t i c i s m of a larger whole: Boys' Clubs are b u i l t up upon t h i s p r i n c i p l e , making the gang rather than the i n d i v i d u a l boy the unit of organization, but bringing many gangs together into a larger l o y a l t y . Though the boy has but one gang, his membership i n that does not. prevent h i s belonging to other more i n c l u s i v e bodies.. Gang members can be as p a t r i o t i c , and can f e e l as 3trong a l o y a l t y to t h e i r home or to t h e i r school as anybody. And i n general the r e l a t i o n of the smaller units of membership - 139 -to the larger ones i s that of mutual support rather than of antagonism. "I wish we had the Scotch word n l e a l w - - l o y a l and happy—the noblest word I think i n any language", writes 1 ., Joseph Lee . "The Land of the Le a l , the true V a l h a l l a , home of the happy warriors of a l l nations and of a l l f a i t h s , the land where true foemen meet, and see that each i s work-ing f o r the one true cause: that i s the heaven that i s worth attaining, and such i s the l o y a l t y we must learn to teach." 1. Lee, J . op.cit. p. 278. - 140 -TABLE XI. Boys of Tuxis or T r a i l Ranger Age Attending Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, December, 1933. Also Number of Tuxis Boys and T r a i l Rangers, and Number Not Attending Any Sunday School. Total No. of Boys ages 12-14 ( T r a i l Ranger age) 484 " » » « » 15-18 (Tuxis age) 205 w " n n belonging to a T r a i l Ranger Camp 67 " " " " " " Tuxis Square 18 " " n " ages 12-14 Not Attending Sunday School 181 tt ti n n it 1 5 . I 8 " « «• H 7 Total No, of boys both groups ages 12-18 689 " " " T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Members 85 " n Not Attending any Sunday School 298 (Note: This shows conclusively the need f o r e f f i c i e n t leadership. At l e a s t h a l f of these boys would l i k e to be T r a i l Rangers or Tuxis Boys, and many displayed keen Interest i n the program when i t wa3 explained to them. The writer i s a teacher at thi s school .and i n -tends to st a r t a Tuxis "feeder" club, the object of which w i l l be to demonstrate to these boys what active membership i n a Tuxis Square means. When ready, these boys w i l l be encouraged to become members of Tuxis Squares i n t h e i r own churches.) - 141 -2. F i r s t Organization of a T r a i l Ranger Camp  or a Tuxis Square. The f i r s t step i s to f i n d the boys. Generally t h i s i s easy; f o r i n every neighborhood or church area, there are any number of boys who belong to no group except-ing, of course, t h e i r own gangs, and attend no Sunday School regularly. (See Table X.) It i s necessary to get acquainted with a few of these boys, say two or three f o r the s t a r t , i n v i t e them to your home and make friends with them; question them cautious-l y as to t h e i r habits and in t e r e s t s ; q u i e t l y sound them out a3 to the p o s s i b i l i t y of forming an organization of t h e i r fellows i n the d i s t r i c t ; t e l l them something about the Tuxis program and get th e i r reactions to i t . Get t h e i r confidence, and they w i l l get you the members of your Tuxis Square or T r a i l Ranger Camp. Encourage them to bring t h e i r friends to your home regularly, f i n d i n g a night that i s suitable and keep that free. When the nucleus of your club has been b u i l t up s u f f i c i e n t l y to warrant further organization, have a "bun feed", either i n your home or i n the church gymnasium, or other suitable place. Send out word by your charter "members" that any of t h e i r friends or pals they can bring out w i l l be welcome. At thi s meeting explain i n d e t a i l the - 142 Tuxis (or T r a i l Ranger) movement, what i t means to the boys to have a l l four sides of t h e i r nature developed evenly, the benefits to be derived from walking with Christ i n un-s e l f i s h devotion not only to Him but to others. Put i t up to them; l e t them discuss i t thoroughly and ask any ques-tions about the program; then ask i f they are ready to t r y i t out. I f they are, as they l i k e l y w i l l be by that time, arrange f o r your f i r s t meeting at which they w i l l e l e c t t h e i r o f f i c e r s and perfect t h e i r organization, with the assistance of the minister or the superintendent of the Sunday School, i f thought advisable. At t h i s f i r s t r e a l meeting as a Square (or Camp), the program might be as follows: (a) Prayer f o r the success of the undertaking. (b) Motion by one of the members that the leader act as chairman u n t i l the regular o f f i c e r s have been elected. (c) Appointment of a temporary secretary to keep minutes u n t i l the e l e c t i o n of a permanent secretary. (d) Before c a l l i n g f o r nominations of o f f i c e r s , the leader should explain the ideals of the Movement and also how to vote. Not friendship, but r e l i a b i l i t y , modesty, punctuality, good nature, earnestness, willingness to work and good character should be considered i n those they e l e c t . - 143 -(e) Nominations f o r the following o f f i c e r s w i l l then take place: T r a i l Rangers Tuxis Boys President Chief Ranger Pretor Vice President Sub-Chief Deputy Secretary T a l l y Scriptor Treasurer —• Cache Comptor Leader : Mentor Mentor (f) E l e c t i o n , one o f f i c e at a time—encourage at l e a s t two or three nominations, and vote by secret b a l l o t * This i s good t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p and submitting to the r u l e of the majority. Scrutineers w i l l be named to count the b a l l o t s and announce the r e s u l t . (g) I n s t a l l a t i o n of new o f f i c e r s w i l l follow. The Mentor or Minister, or both may c a l l them to the f r o n t , explain to each the duties of h i s o f f i c e , * welcome him with a handshake, o f f e r a b r i e f prayer f o r guidance and then introduce any boys who may be strangers. (h) New o f f i c e r s might reply i n short speeches, which, though h a l t i n g , w i l l perform l a s t i n g service to a l l concerned. See 1. "Creative Leadership". - 144 -( i ) Business w i l l then be continued, according to a written order, that the mentor w i l l provide f o r the new presiding o f f i c e r . This w i l l merely be an "agenda" f o r the meeting. I t w i l l mention: time and place of the next regu-l a r meeting; a c t i v i t i e s to be carried on by the Square, (or Camp); report of program committee who has arranged a tentative program, i n consultation with the mentor,for a few weeks i n advance; additional business and adjournment. The next meeting may be announced as i n i t i a t i o n night, when any new members or a l l the Square would go through the i n i t -i a t i o n ceremony. This method of organization has been t r i e d out by the writer, who has found i t to be very e f f e c t i v e . In one Square the membership increased from nine i n i t i a l l y to t h i r t y - f i v e by the end of the year's work, and continued to increase the following year. The Square should, as soon as possible, formulate a consti t u t i o n f o r the conduct of meet-ings. Also the writer recommends the house system of com-p e t i t i o n and t h i s w i l l be explained more f u l l y l a t e r i n this work. 3. Re-Organizing a Tuxis Square. Obviously, after the Square has been i n operation one or more years, the organization f o r the year's work w i l l be somewhat d i f f e r e n t . I f a constitution has been - 145 formulated the previous year, or In the past, the problem i s solved without more ado; f o r the club constitution would state the procedure on reorganization a sim i l a r procedure to the following: The opening date i n September, when no-minations only w i l l he receivedj the following week, elec-t i o n of o f f i c e r s and committees; the following week, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of o f f i c e r s at a l i t t l e get-together supper; the i n i t i a t i o n of new members the next week, etc. The con-s t i t u t i o n w i l l be read and explained at the f i r s t meeting, f o r the benefit of new members, and copies presented to a l l new members on th e i r i n i t i a t i o n . If there i s no constitution f o r the group, a l l these things w i l l have to be decided at the f i r s t re-organ-i z a t i o n meeting of the Square, c a l l e d by the Mentor or l a s t year's praetor, either by phoning a l l the members or sending them a card of i n v i t a t i o n . New members may he received as before and the nomination and el e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s and com-mittees, i n s t a l l a t i o n of o f f i c e r s and i n i t i a t i o n may be carried out as outlined above. Boys l i k e t h i s l i t t l e taste of r i t u a l so mentors should encourage i t . Regarding the i n i t i a t i o n ceremony i t s e l f , which proves such a poser f o r some mentors, while f o r many i t has been the cause of i n f i n i t e amusement and a strong bond binding the boys to th e i r group, the following ideas may be - 146 -h e l p f u l : The i n i t i a t i o n n a t u r a l l y f a l l s Into two parts, the humorous part and the serious part of the r i t u a l i n which pledges are taken. (a) The Humorous Features: This i s a general and harmless modification of the idea so f a m i l i a r i n lodge c i r c l e s of " r i d i n g the goat". It Is a good idea to tal k among boys previously of the "goat". Hefer to the special way i n which he i s being fed and groomed so as to make him f r i s k y and dangerous. Cautious references w i l l be made to the place where he i s stabled and to the way i n which those who are set aside to the dangerous task of caring f o r him have to guard themselves whenever they go to give him rations of n a i l s , dynamite and gasoline. Occasional references should be made to the awful depredation by thi s wild beast upon those who have been i n i t i a t e d previously and i n other places. For t h i s part of the I n i t i a t i o n i t i s usually best to bring the boys In one at a time. The Mentor, If a l l the boys are to be i n i t i a t e d , w i l l need to i n i t i a t e the o f f i c e r s i n a quiet way himself, explaining the whole performance and then have them ready to carry the others through. (b) Even more important i s the serious r i t u a l con-taining the pledge taking. These are given i n the printed - 147 -I n i t i a t i o n ceremony, which should he provided i n s u f f i c i e n t copies f o r a l l talcing part. I t i s well f o r the Praetor and Mentor at lea3t to memorize t h e i r parts so as to be able to r e c i t e them without r e f e r r i n g to the printed form and without any searching f o r t h e i r cue. As the Mentor has more to say I t Is very advisable that he should memorize his parts. The giving and taking of the pledges becomes much more impressive when the Mentor at l e a s t does h i s part from memory. 4. Relation to Other Groups i n the Church. The organized Sunday School Class, (where more than one exists i n the church or church school), becomes a part of a Department and plans to carry through cert a i n phases of i t s work j o i n t l y with other classes. Very de-cided advantages arise through such cooperation and many things can be done that a smaller group cannot do alone. The Boys' Department may cooperate i n many a c t i v i t i e s with the G i r l s ' Department. They may j o i n t l y plan cer t a i n wor-ship services. They may share i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the church or out-of-doors. They may take up service projects i n which they have become interested and do much bigger things together. The Boys' Department may make very decided contributions to the l i f e of the congregation, and f i n d many projects to do that are well worth while. They may - 148 -j o i n i n a c t i v i t i e s with other groups i n the d i s t r i c t or community. They may become f a m i l i a r with the larger enter-prises of t h e i r church or of the Boys' Movement p r o v i n c i a l l y and n a t i o n a l l y , and thus become a unit which r a p i d l y r e a l i -zes i t s larger p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n a great cause. 5. Community Conclave and Other A c t i v i t i e s * There are many community a c t i v i t i e s i n which Boys' Groups w i l l wish to share, carrying these out as community enterprizes at d i f f e r e n t seasons of the year. These may include: 1. Team game leagues. 2. A t h l e t i c meets. The purpose of the National A t h l e t i c Meet i s to encourage mass p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s by a l l average boys, and at the same time give the exceptional athlete c r e d i t f o r his performance. These meets are organized on a group rather than on an i n d i v i d u a l basis, that they may have greater character building value by eliminating many of the features which develop selfishness i n the star athlete. The National A t h l e t i c Contests are growing i n popularity and thousands of Canadian boys are annually p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n them. Practice i n these a t h l e t i c events should have a place i n the program of the group every week from A p r i l 1st to the time of the meet. - 149 -3. Community Conclave, When a number of groups come together f o r a j o i n t gathering. The purpose of such gathering may be a debate, an a t h l e t i c or aquatic contest, a sp e c i a l address or a series of addresses, a treasure hunt, a hike or a campcraft t r i p , competition i n groups games, or a Father and Son Supper. The manner i n which such groups are to be linked to each other w i l l vary according to the purpose and the fre.quency of th e i r coming together. Most groups w i l l meet only occasionally. In auch cases i t i s not wise to set up a permanent corps of o f f i c e r s . On the other hand, the regular Grand Camp, or Conclave, Is an im-portant feature of successful work In any church, Y.M.C.A. or community. These require a regular set of o f f i c e r s , to serve a season or a s i x months' period, c o n s t i t u t i o n and rules of procedure, dues, etc., as an ordinary club. 4. The Three C's Campaign. This i s a spec i a l campaign organized f o r the pur-pose of bringing before boys the ideals of the Three C's Movement which stands f o r Clean Speech, Clean "Sports and Clean Relationships. A campaign may he promoted f o r a l l hoys i n a town or community. This i s done by means of pledge cards, buttons and l o c a l p u b l i c i t y . The pledge states: "I hereby propose to throw my weight, whether i t be an ounce or a ton, i n favour of Clean Speech, Clean L i v i n g and Clean A t h l e t i c s . " - 150 -5. The Father and Son Movement. It i s the purpose of t h i s movement to a s s i s t i n h e l p f u l l y r e l a t i n g fathers and sons to each other. The popularity of the movement i s an in d i c a t i o n of i t s value. A Father and Son Week i s a splendid means of cap-turing the imagination of a community f o r boys' work. Such a week w i l l include sermons In the churches, banquets on a certain evening, an evening set apart at which fathers w i l l attend the group meetings of t h e i r sons, another f o r a • - - < quiet time at home, and perhaps a Saturday afternoon f o r games, hikes or observation t r i p s . Father and Son r e l a t i o n -ships are not stressed to the exclusion of other members of the family. In t h i s regard Brooks has the following to say*: "A domineering father, too, may be so cold and f e a r - i n s p i r -ing that the pre-adolescent boy does not have the a f f e c t i o n f o r him that he normally should and would have. Then, too, a busy father often sees so l i t t l e of h i s son, and has no time f o r that companionship which i s worth so much to the boy—a companionship which gives the father a sympathetic understanding of h i s son and provides the boy with a d e s i r -1. Brooks - "Psychology of Adolescence", p. 229. - 151 -able outlet f o r his a f f e c t i o n . Such companionship of father and son leaves ample room f o r friendship and association with other boysj i t lays a good foundation f o r that mutual tr u s t , respect and sympathetic understanding which are so valuable as the boy grows older and has to meet the many problems of adolescence—especially those r e l a t i n g to sex emotions and impulses, and the prevention of too early f i x -ation of a f f e c t i o n upon some one of the opposite sex." 6. Boys' Parliaments. Older Boys' Parliaments have been held i n every Province except Quebec. They are no longer considered an experiment, as they have proved t h e i r value as one of the f i n e s t projects f o r democratic control and expression on the part of our older boys associated with Protestant Sunday Schools and Y.M.C.A.'s i n Canada. D i f f e r e n t systems are'used i n d i f f e r e n t Provinces, but on the whole B r i t i s h Parliamentary procedure i s used and an e l e c t i o n system s i m i l a r to the regular P r o v i n c i a l elec-t i o n system i s i n vogue. Boys are c a r e f u l l y selected by ind i v i d u a l groups or l o c a l churches and Y.M.C.A.'s to o f f e r themselves as candidates. The system i s s i m i l a r to the municipal council system. The Parliaments place t h e i r primary emphasis on tr a i n i n g i n C h r i s t i a n Citizenship, facing the entire enter-prize with a r e a l conviction that the ideals and s p i r i t of - 152 -Jesus should be made operative i n a l l l i f e . Parliament makes provision f o r the following things of value: (1) Training i n Public Speaking and Debate. (2) Knowledge of Parliamentary Procedure. (3) Knowledge of Rules of Debate. (4) Knowledge of many c r i t i c a l problems facing the youth of the world i n h i s generation. (5) Acceptance of d e f i n i t e Leadership i n many enterprises. (5) Careful analysis of present day In s t i t u t i o n s and a wholesome relat i o n s h i p to them. (7) Contacts with many men prominent i n Canadian L i f e . (8) Conferences with Leaders associated with d i f f e r e n t C h r i s t i a n I n s t i t u t i o n s . (9) Fellowship with selected boys covering a wide area and of many d i f f e r e n t races. (10) The acceptance with other boys of d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r big tasks. 7. The National Premiers' Conference. Every two years a conference of P r o v i n c i a l Premiers i s held i n some part of Canada. To this a few adults who are clos e l y associated with boy l i f e are invited. - 153 -At t h i s Conference v i t a l problems related to the work of the various P r o v i n c i a l Parliaments are discussed and many-other Issues faced. These gatherings w i l l do much to create a wholesome national s p i r i t i n Canada. 7. The Boys' Work Boards - Their Purposes, Function, and Relationships. The National Boys 1 Work Board ex i s t s f o r the stim-u l a t i o n and promotion of Boys' Work i n the churches through-out a l l Canada. This Board employs a Secretary known as the National Boys' Work Secretary, who gives leadership i n developing progressive methods, In the creation of necessary l i t e r a t u r e f o r the benefit of the f i e l d as a whole and through personal v i s i t a t i o n of the provinces. In the provinces there are P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards s i m i l a r l y organized which t ake r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work within t h e i r bounds. These Boards determine a l l matters of p o l i c y and work out plans f o r the promotion and supervision of everything that i s to be done cooperatively i n Boys' work, as conferences, camps, Boys' Parliaments, etc., and the stimulation of interest i n a l l features of the boys' program of the churches. Boys' Work Boards are also set up i n d i s t r i c t s consisting of one or two counties or a number of contiguous • communities. Here the task of the board i s l a r g e l y to - 154 -arrange f o r and promote a c t i v i t i e s of an inter-group nature, and to develop fellowship of competitive and cooperative e f f o r t among the groups within the d i s t r i c t . This i s done through the organization of a t h l e t i c leagues, debating leagues, d i s t r i c t boys' camps, conferences, father and son meetings, also by giving assistance i n establishing new groups and stimulating i n t e r e s t i n a l l phases of the program being promoted by the National and Pr o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards. In many cases Community Boys• Work Boards are organized to give d i r e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of inter-group a c t i v i t y , In a si m i l a r way to the plan suggested for the d i s t r i c t boards. In no case does any of these boards in t e r f e r e with the independence of the l o c a l group i n the working out and d i r e c t i o n of i t s program. Each group determines i t s own program and also what inter-group a c t i v i t i e s i t s h a l l adopt. 9» The Hl-Y Clubs. The name Hi-Y Club i s an abbreviation of the words High School and Y.M.C.A. The International Statement of Purpose i s , "To create, maintain and extend throughout the school and community high standards of C h r i s t i a n character." The entire resources and personnel of the National Council of Young Men's Chri s t i a n Association i s available f o r ser-- 155 -vice to organized clubs. Where there are l o c a l or community Young Men's Ch r i s t i a n Associations, the secretaries employed are equally ready to serve and should be c a l l e d on when organization i s contemplated or assistance needed. A new organization of a somewhat si m i l a r nature has been started at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, c h i e f l y through the e f f o r t s of Mr. Cameron Gorrle, Premier of the Older Boys' Parliament i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1931, and assisted by Mr. Wilson McDuffee, Minister of Devotional A f f a i r s i n the same Cabinet of 1931. This organization i s c a l l e d the University Y.M.C.A. and has as Its aim the pro-motion of C h r i s t i a n standards of character. This organ-i z a t i o n develops the service side of C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n s h i p by v o l u n t a r i l y a s s i s t i n g the bewildered Freshmen i n the se l e c t i o n of courses, and i n rendering any other aid which seems to he necessary. They carry on a comprehensive pro-gram of educational lectures and service work throughout t h e i r student years. 10. Employed Boys' Brotherhood. Vast resources of p o t e n t i a l leadership are repre-sented by the working boys of any nation. They w i l l respond to present leadership which recognizes and can help them with problems which are peculiar to them as workers. Often high school boys who work i n spare time to put themselves - 156 through school or to help f i n a n c i a l l y at home, are cl o s e l y akin In outlook and need to f u l l - t i m e working boys'. For either or both types the "Employed Boys' Bro-therhood" i s a he l p f u l form of organization. This "Brother-hood" i s simply a group of working boys who unite i n a com-mon purpose and organize to carry i t out. The purpose i s stated i n seven objectives and the season's program so de-vised hy leader and boys together as to help achieve those objectives, ^he seven objectives are: (1) Physical f i t n e s s (2) R e l i g i o n (3) Brotherhood (4) Vocation (5) Family and Community (6) Education (7) Recreation A l o c a l brotherhood may he sponsored by a church school, a service club, Interested employer, or Y.M.C.A. - 157 -CHAPTER VII. The Four-Fold Way. 1. The Four-Fold Challenge of Adolescence. Adolescence presents a f o u r - f o l d challenge. I t i s said of Jesus that: "He advanced i n wisdom and stature and i n favor with God and man". (Luke 2:52). His education proceeded along four l i n e s a l l combining to produce a symmetrical character. Mental powers unfold r a p i d l y during these years. Imagination, memory, attention, s k i l l , reason respond read-i l y to the influences of education. Ph y s i c a l l y , t h i s Is a c r i t i c a l era of development. Permanent health habits are achieved or the opportunity of r e a l i z i n g permanent health i s l o s t . The power to play i s likewise an achievement that i s now possible. Sex organs mature and sex differences are established. Religious changes are now made with r e l a t i v e ease and permanency. Rel i g i o n i s a matter of spontaneous i n t e r -est. Some personal attitude toward God and the Church w i l l be assumed. Religious b e l i e f s and sentiments are natural and i n e v i t a b l e . Careless indifference and studied h o s t i l i t y or intimate companionship and t r u s t f u l obedience may become - 158 -a permanent part of l i f e . The r e l i g i o u s preferences that are b u i l t up during childhood as a r e s u l t of the influences of others are eit h e r r a t i f i e d and personally appropriated or rejected as unworthy. The power to discover f o r oneself the s p i r i t u a l messages of the Bible and the soul-renewing value of prayer and worship i s r e a l i z e d during adolescence. Fundamental mistakes of l o y a l t y can be corrected, through conversion, without the losses which s i m i l a r experiences i n l a t e r years e n t a i l . A philosophy of l i f e which puts Jesus at the centre can be formed with as great clearness and s i n c e r i t y as one that exalts s e l f to the place of su-preme regard. Adolescence offers a supreme challenge to the r e l i g i o u s educator. From the standpoint of moral and s o c i a l education, adolescence i s important because conscience, which has been forming gradually during childhood, now begins to function; the opinions of one's peers are taken with increased serious-ness; the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of independent moral s e l f - d i r e c t i o n i s taken up; personal ideals become more and more v i v i d ; there i s p a r t i c u l a r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to the influence of chums, and heroes, the adoree and the f r i e n d . S o c i a l relationships are now of conscious v i t a l concern. How to .act with s o c i a l ease and strength i s the inescapable problem of adolescence. The approval or disapproval of others i s sure to be taken to - 159 -heart. One's own ways of acting are compared with those of others who are near at hand. I t i s p a i n f u l l y annoying to be odd. It i s highly s a t i s f y i n g to be popular. Many psy-chological forces are at work that make youth morally p l a s t i c . The formation of character i s the inevitable re-s u l t of adolescent experience. The basis of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s are now l a i d . The physical changes, the i n t e l l e c t u a l outreaching, the s o c i a l stress, and the r e l i g i o u s c r i s e s , altogether cause t h i s to be a most unstable, misunderstood and yet hopeful period. The youth now needs the sympathy, under-standing and respect of adults as never before. The Psalmist said even of God: "Thy gentleness hath made me great." The quiet, comparatively s t o l i d years of childhood are over and the time f o r corporal punishment, scolding and nagging Is past. The adolescent i s not only ripening but hardening into the character which i s to be h i s f o r l i f e . The time has come to make the t r a n s i t i o n from management by an adult to that of self-management. In t h i s period when the youth i s never calm, the one who i s leading him must always be calm. We can never aff o r d to be disquieted when he i s . E s p e c i a l l y must we keep hopeful when he i s i n despair. At this age, when we are perpetually being annoyed by the superlatives, the shallow-- 160 -ness, the moods, the unrestraint and the secretiveness of youth, we must t r y , as Puffer reminds us, not only to remem-ber how we ourselves once acted, but how we once f e l t . I t seems in c r e d i b l e , but i t i s so, that we once had the same impulses. I f we have forgotten, our parents haven't. Now when, as Le Baron Briggs w i t t i l y says, "The adolescent wants to behave l i k e a c h i l d and be treated l i k e a gentleman", we have to be prompt with our forgiveness of the sudden f i c k l e tendencies, f o r i f we do not forgive him when he i s sorry, then he w i l l soon not be sorry and w i l l not care to be forgiven. Next to t r u s t In God, perhaps the chief v i r t u e c a l l e d f o r i n parents and teachers and leaders, i s a sense of humor. Next i n commonness to the mistake of supposing that the members of our p a r t i c u l a r group are ex-ceptionally b r i l l i a n t , i s that of supposing that they are exceptionally d i f f i c u l t . The chances are that they are neither. The f a c t i s that a l l children of parts during this period are at times anti-domestic, "Agin' the Govern-ment", f o r g e t f u l of t h e i r duty to t h e i r parents, unappreci-ative of teachers, and sometimes apparently d u l l i n a f f e c t i o n . I t i s also the time f o r renewed hopefulness. They never were as near the watershed that leads over to manli-ness as now. They are also just about to become most en-joyable, f o r the f i r s t time i n t h e i r l i v e s becoming capable - 161 -of being comrades on a l e v e l with t h e i r parents, teachers and leaders. The c h i l d i s too busy discovering himself to appreciate the s a c r i f i c e s that others are making In h i s behalf, but youth gradually becomes appreciative and com-panionable. I f treated with the respect which Is h i s due, he enters r e a d i l y into the joys and sorrows of h i s leader. 2. The I n t e l l e c t u a l Side - Jesus Increased  i n Wisdom. The s o c i a l experiences that are grouped around one's school, bring a wealth of ideas of s o c i a l conduct which greatly enrich those gleaned from the home. The stan-dards and practices of many homes are r e f l e c t e d i n behavior of class-mates and school-mates. The groupings do not re-f l e c t the d i s p a r i t y with respect to age which i s found i n one's family. Mass movements are r e a d i l y started. Notions of equality and of s l i g h t s u p e r i o r i t y grow out of the grad-ing system and voluntary organizations or a c t i v i t i e s . Lead-ership based upon superior knowledge or wider p r a c t i c a l ex-perience i s recognized. A broader and more i n t e l l i g e n t sympathy with those who d i f f e r i n matters of r e l i g i o u s be-l i e f and s o c i a l standing Is inculcated. S o c i a l development through contacts that are established i n school are second i n importance to those i n the home. Our schools and colleges undoubtedly f u r n i s h the - 162 -best and most complete t r a i n i n g . Any kind of supplementary t r a i n i n g i s , i n any event, only "second best", and, i n the long run, usually proves to be inadequate. The values of schooling do not a l l l i e i n the mas-tery of a p a r t i c u l a r set of studies. The a b i l i t y to study things through and to ar r i v e at s a t i s f a c t o r y conclusions, and to solve d i f f i c u l t problems i s i n i t s e l f worth a l l the time and e f f o r t of many years i n school. It pays to stay i n school even at a s a c r i f i c e . Every Tuxis Boy who i s now employed who i s able to return to school, should be encour-aged, by a l l means, to do so. If a Tuxis Boy finds i t impossible to stay i n school because of economic conditions, he should take ad-vantage of other opportunities such as the night classes^, i n schools, the extension departments of u n i v e r s i t i e s , courses offered by thoroughly good trade schools, business colleges and correspondence schools. I t must not be sup-posed that simply because a boy has been deprived of regular school work, hi s mind must remain undeveloped forever. The world i t s e l f i s a un i v e r s i t y , the struggle to get on i n the world i s a great educator. There i s abundant opportunity f o r every boy to gain a thorough t r a i n i n g . Whether he se-cures i t or not, w i l l depend upon how much " g r i t " and pur-pose he puts into his e f f o r t s . - 163 -For a Tuxis Boy, the most important consideration i s to be c e r t a i n that he keeps a l i v e mentally. There i s something to be learned from every f r i e n d , every book, every t r i p i n the out-of-doors or to some new place, and from every event i n the day's a c t i v i t i e s . The men, i n most cases, who have made valuable permanent contributions to the world's l i f e have been trained men who were mentally a l i v e . 2. The Physical Side — Jesu3 Increased i n Stature, One of the most e f f e c t i v e methods of g i v i n g proper -guidance to the conduct of adolescent boys and g i r l s i s that of helping them to become interested i n wholesome forms of play, and of properly supervising t h e i r leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . To grow up with vulgar, untrained play i n t e r -ests or with the habit of spending l e i s u r e time i n idleness, i s to become l i m i t e d i n moral and s o c i a l development. Suitable forms of play may be as educative, though i n a d i f f e r e n t way, as are c a r e f u l l y selected courses of study. "The craving f o r amusement i s as fundamental and i r r e s i s t i b l e as the craving f o r food".*'" No parent or teach-er who looks upon play as "a more or less permissible s i n " 1 1. Lee "Play i n Education." - 164 -can hope to understand adolescent l i f e i n i t s natural r i c h -ness and f u l l n e s s . Play i s a "natural, r i g h t and b e a u t i f u l expression of the human s p i r i t . " * It i s a wholesome means of self-discovery. It awakens a s p i r i t of optimism, l o y a l t y , cooperation and competition which are fundamental i n the building of character. Properly supervised a c t i v i t i e s dur-ing l e i s u r e time can yield., enlarged capacity f o r team-work, sensitive appreciation of j u s t i c e and f a i r play, c h i v a l r y , perseverance, and heroic devotion. The f o l l y of tr y i n g to guide the moral unfolding of adolescent young people through the wholesale repression of t h e i r play i n s t i n c t s i s becoming widely recognized. Any church or school or home that does nothing towards the guid--ance of these splendid, God-given play impulses, except to offe r solemn warnings concerning questionable amusements, merits both unpopularity and active h o s t i l i t y on the part of boys and g i r l s of t h i s age. Commercialized, profession-a l i z e d and demoralized forms of amusement have m u l t i p l i e d with phenomenal r a p i d i t y , l a r g e l y because th i s whole area of adolescent human nature has been either ignored, or put under the ban of suspicion by parents, teachers and preach-ers. The abundant Ch r i s t i a n l i f e during these years includes 1. Lee "Play i n Education." - 165 -vigorous play experiences. A boy or- g i r l may worship God In sports almost as e f f e c t i v e l y as through channels which are thought of as s t r i c t l y r e l i g i o u s . In learning to "play the game" f a i r l y and i n "Clean Sport, Clean L i v i n g and Clean Speech", he i s g l o r i f y i n g and worshipping God. I t Is the part of wisdom to help young people to make r i g h t choices rather than merely to point out the dangers of wrong choices. Through play, young people can learn to govern themselves. The control of muscular movements i s one of the primary lessons which athletes have to lear n . Play teaches whole-heartedness. The careless or i n d i f f e r e n t player i s despised. The best forms of play require s e l f -control, keen i n t e r e s t , sustained attention, accurate know-ledge, obedience to the leader, and group l o y a l t y , as well as physical f i t n e s s . Whole areas of one's moral nature are re a l i z e d when play ideals are high. To make oneself con- . form to such Ideals during leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s has a two-fold value. Through pre-occupation of time and strength, i t shuts out e v i l influences. It also gives one practice In elevating forms of self-government and other forms of s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . Such experiences are v i t a l l y educative. The shameful t r i c k e r y adopted by some workers i n using a temporary or s u p e r f i c i a l play program as the means of b a i t i n g young people—drawing them within the range of - 166 -the influence of leaders whose sole motive i s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l or i n s t i t u t i o n a l — s t a n d s exposed and condemned i n the l i g h t of the true purpose of play. There are both legitimate and i l l e g i t i m a t e methods of r e c r u i t i n g a church or a church school. Play i s not merely a r e c r u i t i n g device. The church should supervise a program of play because of the physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and even r e l i g i o u s benefits that It brings to adolescent young people. A suitable program of play, properly administered, w i l l be the most e f f e c t i v e means of i n t e r e s t i n g I r r e l i g i o u s young people i n what the church i s doing. It w i l l touch the entire community. But that program should not be so modified as to serve t h i s pur-pose alone. I t should b u i l d up those already i n the church, as well as bring outsiders into the f o l d . Another mistake i s apt to grow out of a tendency to put a low value upon play. In making out the time sche-dule f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of a l o c a l church f o r a given season, often the dates f o r the most important events or a c t i v i t i e s are given f i r s t consideration. The a f f a i r s that are thought to be of l e s s importance are crowded aside altogether, or are placed at disadvantageous dates or locations. Sometimes the only choice involves d i r e c t competition with r e l i g i o u s services which are looked upon as absolutely e s s e n t i a l to the s p i r i t u a l l i f e of the church. Sometimes the Church - 167 -Board l a more concerned about renting the gymnasium than giving any time to t h e i r own groups of boys and g i r l s . How many churches make absolutely no provision f o r a clear evening devoted to the s o c i a l or recreational a c t i v i t i e s of the young people 1 And how often the seasonal programs of the d i f f e r e n t churches i n a community make I t impossible to carry out a cooperative program of recreation. I f the church has a d e f i n i t e r e a p o n a i b i l i t y f o r the play l i f e of i t s young people, i t should provide suitable times and places In i t s schedule of dates and Its plans f o r the use of the church plant and gymnasium. The one who has the immediate charge of adolescent young people should guard against the danger of t h e i r over-drawing t h e i r hank account of physical energy. He should, also, t r y to continue a somewhat steady regimen of food, exercise, sleep f o r these unsteady s p i r i t s i n order to esta-b l i s h a good con s t i t u t i o n and save them from becoming phy-s i c a l l y bankrupt. The old adage "Nine hours of sleep and a clean conscience", i s not a had one. The dependence of physical growth and development upon a c t i v i t y , whether work or play, i s absolute. The d i f -ference between an athlete and an i n v a l i d may be the d i f f e r -ence between the res u l t s of a c t i v i t y and i n a c t i v i t y . Physi-c a l well-being depends d i r e c t l y upon the c i r c u l a t i o n of the - 168 -blood, action of the lungs, the ready digestion of food, and a b i l i t y to throw off a l l waste material. A l l of these physical processes are stimulated by wholesome physical a c t i v i t i e s . H e a l t h — t h a t primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n — t h a t boon which i s of even greater Importance than an education, can be b u i l t up and sustained only by keeping those v i t a l organs f i t to do their work. When they become i r r e g u l a r and un-r e l i a b l e , health i s endangered. Health may become a permanent possession through the building up of habits which s t a b i l i z e and regulate the actions of the v i t a l physical organs. There are -desirable habits of breathing, personal carriage, eating, sleeping, recreation, bathing, excretion, which can be fastened upon l i f e and most e a s i l y and securely during adolescence. The matter i s worthy of the most serious and painstaking con-sideration. There i s much p r a c t i c a l wisdom In the "K Y B 0" adage, keep your bowels open. Sex consciousness i s n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the play a c t i v i t i e s of adolescents. Boys and g i r l s should be permitted to play together frequently as groups while they are of T r a i l Ranger age. Where the form of organization i n the church school or the organized c l a s s , can be preserved as the group unites f o r play purposes, t h i s should be done and provision should be made f o r i n t e r - c l a s s games and - 169 -other recreational a c t i v i t i e s . These inter-sex r e l a t i o n -ships w i l l n a t u r a l l y become more intense and. s p e c i a l i z e d as young people advance towards adulthood. A play program which does not make provision f o r t h i s sex aspect of s o c i a l development i s both f a u l t y and harmful. 3. The Religious Side - Jesus Increased i n Favor  With God. "The most important education", says J . Sherman Wallace, " i s that which f i t s the student f o r s p i r i t u a l ser-v i c e . He who adds something to the s p i r i t u a l forces of the world adds the highest value to l i f e . • As high as s p i r i t i s above matter, as high as the soul i s above the body, as high as conduct i s above thought, as high as character i s above i n t e l l i g e n c e , as high as motive i s above method, so high are the s p i r i t u a l values of l i f e above material wealth or i n t e l l e c t u a l worth. The education that i s worthy must not only f i t i t s students to produce things of material worth and to rai s e the standard of i n t e l l i g e n c e , but i t must also f i t them to he makers of l i f e ' s i d e a l s , moulders of noble character, leaders of c i v i l i z a t i o n s , and shapers of human d e s t i n i e s . " It i s because r e l i g i o n i s the highest, the most sacred element within one's own l i f e that It should decide what are to be the standards of one's conduct. Before ado-- 170 -lescence, young people have l i t t l e experience i n moral s e l f -d l r e c t l o n . To disobey t h e i r elders i s to do what i s wrongj to obey them i s to do what i s r i g h t . The element that i s most sacred i s without rather than within. But t h i s moral dependence Is outgrown afte r the f i r s t dozen years. Adolescents f e e l free to express t h e i r own opinions of what i s r i g h t or wrong conduct, and to go ahead on the basis of those opinions. They take up the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own behavior. Being thus conscious-l y amenable to themselves, they n a t u r a l l y t r y to f i n d within themselves something that they can t i e up to. Religion i s , or should he, t h i s something. They should recognize the supremacy of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s interests over a l l others. To t r y to r e a l i z e the i d e a l i s a universal adoles-cent endeavor. That i s , r e l i g i o n i s now natural. Boys and g i r l s of t h i s age who are i r r e l i g i o u s are unnatural and un-comfortable. They sense the f a c t that something i s wrong. At the dawn of early adolescence, the c h i l d i s supremely interested i n doing r e l i g i o u s things. At sixteen, r e l i g i o u s experiences a f f e c t h i s emotions. p a r t i c u l a r l y . At nineteen, or l a t e r , h i s r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t centres i n b e l i e f s , doc-t r i n e s , theology, and creeds. Directing various kinds of s o c i a l service a c t i v i -t i e s that are supported by r e l i g i o u s motives, i s an e f f e c t i v e - 171 -way of t r a i n i n g middle adolescent young people i n r e l i g i o n . I f r e l i g i o u s ideals are maintained and f i n d expression i n such forms of service as giving material r e l i e f i n cases of absolute poverty, providing elevating types of recreation, awakening i n t e r e s t i n self-improvement, caring f o r childr e n or other dependents, and various forms of c i v i c or community betterment, these ideals tend to become permanent and con-t r o l l i n g factors i n conduct. If these young people never know the joy of such experiences, they cannot enter f u l l y into t h e i r r e l i g i o u s inheritance. Their r e l i g i o n must have a human tang, and t h e i r s o c i a l relationships must have a r e l i g i o u s tang. Religion i s weakened and r e s t r i c t e d by the absence of s o c i a l Imagination. 4. The Social Side - Jesus Increased i n Favor  With Man. 1. The Social Purpose of our Task. "The people of a l l the earth must be taught to hate uncleanness and to f i g h t I t to the death, and to love sunlight and seek I t at a l l costs. The people of so-called c i v i l i z e d lands must be so taught that hopeless poverty and c i t y slums are no longer possible to them. They must be so taught that the discovery of ways and means of bettering the environment and r a i s i n g the standard of inheritance f o r the children of the world, s h a l l have as great a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r keen minds as the explorations and inventions of the - 172 -material world have held i n the past. They must be so taught that, freed from Ignorance, poverty and sup e r s t i t i o n , they w i l l seek God, f i n d i n g i n Him that s a t i s f a c t i o n which, despite a l l t h e i r seeking a f t e r things they have f a i l e d to f i n d . The people must be taught to hate the sword, to put i t out of t h e i r thinking as a means of growth. They must be taught to s e t t l e differences i n reasonable discussion around a table before, not a f t e r , countless crosses l i n e a thousand h i l l s i d e s , and starvation stalks through desolate c i t i e s . They must be taught how to frame some sort of strong i n v i n c i b l e union against those who, i n self-seeking greed determine to destroy l i f e and a l l that l i f e holds dear." 2. The Boy i n the Community. When a boy Is born he becomes a member of a s o c i a l group—the family. Throughout h i s l i f e he remains a member of society; he cannot l i v e to himself. But although t h i s i s unavoidably so, boys are not born aware of i t . Like every-thing else i t has to be "learned". Apparently there are some boys who never learn i t ; they remain " i n d i v i d u a l i s t s " to the end. Others, however, do learn gradually to he s o c i a l l y minded, In other words, to he aware, not only of t h e i r own needs, hut also awake to the p o s s i b i l i t y of and necessity f o r considering others. - 175 -Richness and abundance of l i f e f o r socially-growing hoys (and leaders too), comes through the increase of know-ledge, the acceptance of C h r i s t i a n attitudes, and the de-velopment of s k i l l i n so l i v i n g i n the community as to give p r a c t i c a l expression to those attitudes or purposes. So, with regard to t h e i r own community, to help boys discover and know the truth, to help them see and avoid prejudices while t h e i r attitudes are taking shape, and to encourage them, and I f necessary to set the stage so as to make i t possible f o r them to practise the good l i f e , are the high p r i v i l e g e s of the leader. "It i s well to keep i n mind the d e s i r a b i l i t y of expanding the meaning of the word community. Too often i t means merely our own l i t t l e centre where we l i v e . In rea-l i t y , however, i t i s common i n t e r e s t s , fellowships, commu-nion with other human s p i r i t s that makes a community. L i t t l e souls l i m i t t h e i r communion. Great souls, l i k e Jesus, are u n i v e r s a l . Let us desire earnestly to help boys become great souls, to think of themselves progressively as members of wider and wider c i r c l e s so that the e s s e n t i a l , even though unconsciously adopted meaning of community i s as wide as the world i t s e l f . Our true community includes a l l the brotherly sons of God, the Universal Father.""** 1. Creative Leadership, published by The National Boys' Work Board of Canada, 1929. - 174 -If s o c i a l service i s to r e s u l t i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n and strengthening of the r e l i g i o u s l i f e i t should be prac-t i c a l ; suited to the temperament, capacities and resources of the one who i s to render i t ; proceed along permanently constructive and s c i e n t i f i c l i n e s ; stimulate a s o c i a l con-sciousness that transcends a single l o c a l church or denomin-ation and includes the whole community. Some encouraging results should be i n evidence before the e f f o r t s sink down on to the plane of d u l l , hopeless drudgery. The idea of achieving immortality through service rendered to an i n s t i -t ution which abides through the c e n t u r i e s — t h e custodian of the personal influence of the saints of former generations— makes a powerful appeal to the middle adolescent mind. As with c i t i z e n s h i p i n general, the best place to prepare f o r world brotherhood i s In the l o c a l community. Finding out how the other h a l f l i v e s — n o t i n India or the South Seas--but i n your own community, i s one of the f i r s t steps. The Tuxis Boy who cannot be a brother to the Chinese or colored boy i n h i s own community cannot hope to make "world brotherhood" more than a pious pla t i t u d e . The boy who cannot overcome race antipathies i n h i s own personal r e l a t i o n s , and finds i t necessary to resort to such epithets as "chink", "dago", and "y i d " , i s not l i k e l y to play much of a part i n overcoming those national misunderstandings v/hich - 175 -a f r u i t f u l cause of race hatred and war. 5. "^Suggested Code of Ideals f o r Tuxis Boys. AIM - To increase i n wisdom and stature and i n favor with God and man, with Christ as my i d e a l . PURPOSE - To serve to the best of my a b i l i t y , my God, my country, and my fellowmen. 1. Morning Devotions.- I s h a l l commence the day with devotional exercises, seeking power and strength to face my day's program squarely, inspired to do what i s r i g h t and resolved to do my best to follow the teachings of C h r i s t . 2. Health.- I s h a l l respect my physical needs, cleansing my body both inside and out. 3. Habits and Work.- I s h a l l he regular i n a l l my habits and punctual i n my d a i l y duties, seeking to do my work thoroughly with a desire to f i n d my l i f e ' s task and to do and know i t w e l l . 4. Ideal of Conduct.- My Ideal of conduct s h a l l he to see the viewpoint of others, to think before I speak, to he sure of my convictions, to act with-out fear, and to smile even though i t hurts. Prom "The Canadian Mentor", Nov. 1924. - 176 -5. Friends and Companions*- I s h a l l mix w i l l i n g l y with a l l my fellowmen, and s h a l l seek each day someone who knows more than I, i n order that I may grow i n wisdom. 6. Attitude Towards Opposite Sex.- I w i l l s t r i v e to be ever noble i n thought, amiable i n word, courteous i n action, and to l i v e a l i f e of pur-est chastity. 7. 'Money Questions.- I s h a l l give r e a l value and service f o r the money I receive, and expect the same i n return f o r the money I spend. 8. Recreation.- I s h a l l take an i n t e r e s t i n sport and s h a l l honor the game I play, remembering that he who plays the game straight and hard wins even when he loses. 9. Reading.- I s h a l l spend a portion of each day reading some good book or l i t e r a t u r e which w i l l improve my mind and help me to enjoy a more abundant l i f e . 10. Others.- I s h a l l s t r i v e to overcome my s e l f i s h -ness by creating a desire to help others to enjoy l i f e , and by foregoing some of my own wants and desires, I s h a l l make I t easier to be contented and happy myself. - 177 -11. Evening Devotions.- I s h a l l close my day's a c t i v i t i e s with devotional exercises r e f l e c t i n g over the day's events, seeking guidance and i n -s p i r a t i o n f o r the morrow. - 178 -D. THE PROGRAM AT WORK - THE MENTOR'S PROBLEMS. CHAPTER VIII. Creating A Boys' Program. 1» What i s a Program? "Where i n your time-table do you teach r e l i g i o n ? " I asked a veteran schoolmaster. "We teach i t a l l day long", he answered. "We teach i t i n arithmetic by accuracy. We teach i t i n geography by breadth of mind. We teach i t i n astronomy by reverence. We teach i t on the playground by f a i r play. We teach i t hy kindness to animals, by courtesy to servants, hy good manners to one another, hy truthfulness i n a l l things. We teach the members of the school, In work and i n play, that they are members of one another. We teach them to b u i l d the Church of Christ out of the actual r e l a -tions i n which they stand to t h e i r teachers and th e i r school fellows. I do not want r e l i g i o n brought into this school from the outside. What we have of i t we grow ourselves."* 1. L. P. Jacks - 179 -A program has been defined as "Primarily a method hy which boys through p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n purposeful a c t i v i t y under C h r i s t i a n Leadership develop those q u a l i t i e s of cha-racter necessary to C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g . " Various methods have been employed i n the construc-t i o n of programs. Sometimes, leaders have thought out what they believe would he good f o r boys, made i t as a t t r a c t i v e as possible, secured the speakers f o r s p e c i a l occasions, printed a l i t t l e f o l d e r and announced i t as the program f o r th e i r hoys' groups. I t i s not surprising that disappoint-ment follows such procedure eventually. Other groups have taken the programs supplied and suggested by t h e i r parent organizations, denominational, p r o v i n c i a l or national, and have followed these rather too r i g i d l y . This also i s the cause of considerable disappoint-ment. The tendency i n the development of our Canadian work i s towards a f r e e r , creative program designed to help boys follow and expand t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , u n t i l they pro-vide an all-round program of a c t i v i t i e s f o r the week-by-week group meetings. It i s the f i r m conviction of those who advocate th i s plan that hoys w i l l become more Interested as they are given opportunity to choose from a f a i r l y wide range of p r a c t i c a l and purposeful suggestions, things they - 180 -w i l l do i n t h e i r group, and that, i n the process, character w i l l he developed through a c t i v i t y rather than merely by the leader t e l l i n g the hoys what to do or what he thinks i s r i g h t . In the long run, i t MUST BE THE BOYS' PROGRAM and not the MENTOR'S, i f the greatest achievement i s to be registered. I t i s well to r e c a l l here what leaders should return to ponder repeatedly,—the three primary aims of hoy's leader: 1. To help boys to secure r i g h t KNOWLEDGE i n doing the things they need- to do, or i n which they are interested. 2. To help boys to develop the r i g h t IDEALS In the things they are doing. J 3. To help hoys to CONDUCT themselves properly i n a l l the things they do. These three simple statements contain the key to our entire approach to boys' work. Indeed, when we guide and i n s p i r e the aims, attitudes, and purposes which moti-vate hoys' l i v e s , we can determine the knowledge they seek, the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s they engage i n , and can with some accuracy know the conduct that i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t . 2. The Characteristics of a Good Program. Here l e t us quote "Creative Leadership", a p u b l i -cation of the National Boys' Vfork Board of Canada. - 181 -(1) It deals with, actual l i f e situations of r e a l hoys, taking into account t h e i r ages, school standing and general conditions of l i f e . (2) I t should help hoys to solve r e a l problems as they a r i s e . The most h e l p f u l leader i s one who, having gone over the t r a i l a l i t t l e before the hoys who are follow-ing him, i s able from h i s more mature experience, to help them avoid p i t f a l l s , detours and wrong roads. (3) I t must arise out of the interests of hoys, spontaneously or by pos i t i v e suggestion. The badge booklets of the T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis Programs are of great value here. The program suggestions issued annually are designed to open up new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . When leaders and members of the group become conversant with these the problem w i l l he not "What can we f i n d to do?", but, "How can we f i n d time fo r a l l the i n t e r e s t i n g things,we want to do"? (4) It should he f l e x i b l e , 30 that i f new situations a r i s e , they may he incorporated to add new l i f e and f r e s h i n t e r e s t . I t should he varied so that boys can never say, "the same old stunts are on again tonight." (5) It should be balanced, not over-emphasizing any one l i n e of i n t e r e s t , hut dealing with a l l phases of a boy's developing experience, so f a r as time permits. (6) I t should be orderly, so that a l l may f e e l that - 182 -progress i s made at every meeting and from week to week. I t should he creative giving scope to the o r i g i n a l i t y of constituent members and the group as a whole. I t should ^ e purposeful, a l l a c t i v i t i e s consciously yet unobtrusively leading toward d e f i n i t e goals. A set program c a r e f u l l y prepared by the leader i n advance may contain many factors which he believes w i l l he int e r e s t i n g to the group, and i t may hold the members inta c t f o r a time. But often the leader w i l l f i n d himself putting over h i s program i n the face of restlessness, impatience, i r r i t a t i o n and non cooperation i n greater or les s degree. What i s happening i s that the hoys are not getting a chance to grow and to develop t h e i r own interests and the f i r s t e s s e n t i a l purpose of the e f f o r t f a i l s . On the other hand i f the program i s l e f t too free, the boys are thrown wholly on t h e i r own resources, and the leader becomes either a spectator or a consulting member, the dangers are equally great. Not a l l boys are s u f f i c i e n t l y mature to see through and carry forward the desired object-ives. Not a l l groups have i n them the type of lads who w i l l exercise the necessary i n i t i a t i v e , patience and " s t i c k - t o -i t - i v e n e s s " , to carry through to the end. Between these two extremes the successful leader stands, and renders h i s supreme service to the group. He - 183 -doe3 not do anything f o r them which they can do f o r them-selves. He does not plunge them into deep waters and leave them to sink or swim. He i s never at a loss f o r o r i g i n a l and happy suggestions. He i s ready to s i t down with them and work through a program i n which a l l may have a part. This involves a thorough understanding of the pur-poses of the group. It involves a d e f i n i t e d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as between the leader and the members of the group. It means a r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s which are. open to a l i v e and interested group. 3. What T r a i l Hanger and Tuxis Programs Offer. The programs f o r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys are crowded with worth while things to do. In t h e i r progres-sive development hundreds of leaders and thousands of hoys have shared, so that i t may he truly, claimed that no worth-while a c t i v i t y for hoys of these ages has been overlooked, but that on the other hand, hundreds of suggestions have arisen which hoys otherwise would not have been in s p i r e d to follow through. These programs have been set f o r t h as on the basis of Luke 2:52 - "Jesus increased In wisdom and stature, and i n favor with God and man." The following table b r i e f l y shows the major d i v i s i o n s under the four as-pects of the program of developmentt - 184 -1. I n t e l l e c t u a l . 1. School or Supplementary Training. 2. Woodcraft. 3. Arts, Crafts and Hobbies. 4. Public Speaking and Current Events. 5. Home Reading. 6. Sex Education. 2. Physical. 1. Health Education. 2. Campcraft. 3. Team Games. 4. Group Games. 5. Aquatics. 6. A t h l e t i c s . 3. Devotional. 1. Church Worship. 2. Church School. 3. Church Relationships. 4. Bible Study. 5. Morning Watch. 6. Nature, Music, Arts and Poetry. 4. S o c i a l . 1. Home Relationships. 2. Community R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . - 185 -3. Vocational Guidance. 4. Leadership and Special Training, 5. Makers of Canada. 6. World Service and Brotherhood, The program f o r Tuxis Boys has been arranged with the l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s under the headings, Home, School and Work, Church and Community. This has been done to give recognition to the enlarging experience of senior boys. Tuxis boys are encouraged to look f o r the i n t e l l e c -t u a l , p hysical, s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l values i n every a c t i -v i t y and to seek opportunity f o r the use of a l l t h e i r deve-loping powers i n every r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i f e . Boys have a vari e t y of i n t e r e s t s , and each i n t e r -est may be made the s t a r t i n g point of a long chain of a c t i -v i t i e s . The things that boys l i k e to do are r e a l and serious to them. When beys are interested and serious about an a c t i v i t y , a l l t h e i r f o u r f o l d nature may be brought Into play, and studying an a c t i v i t y from the f o u r f o l d point of view w i l l help make i t a s t a r t i n g point f o r a well-balanced program. When things come up that cannot be taken care of by the group, l e t them learn how to a v a i l themselves of outside help. L i b r a r i e s , schools, business i n s t i t u t i o n s , and other organizations, with t h e i r equipment and experi-- 186 ence, are a l l w i l l i n g to show hoys how they are done. Men and women, s p e c i a l i s t s along various l i n e s of a c t i v i t y , are glad to come In occasionally and help the boys along the l i n e of t h e i r s p e c i a l t y . A wide v a r i e t y w i l l thus he afforded and the mentor w i l l he free to give h i s time to the hoys rather than to these detailed matters of program a c t i v i t i e s . The building of the program w i l l he greatly f a c i -l i t a t e d hy a careful survey of the f i e l d of program possi-b i l i t i e s . Let the program committee go through the l i s t of suggested a c t i v i t i e s as set f o r t h i n the Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger Badge Books and i n the booklet "Tuxis Program Sug-gestions"; put down i n black and white the things that look practicable i n the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , and use them as a back-ground of se l e c t i o n i n planning the program f o r a month or a quarter as may be desired. Some very successful mentors working democratically with t h e i r groups, hy a careful s e l e c t i o n of program p o s s i b i l i t i e s , b u i l d t h e i r programs f o r three months ahead, place them i n typewritten form on the wall of the meeting-places, and the groups, thus com-mitted o f f i c i a l l y , f i n d wonderful zest i n working out the d e t a i l s of t h e i r planning and i n carrying the programs through as f u l l y as possible o r i g i n a l l y outlined. - 187 -While methods and materials must ever have an Important place In any e f f e c t i v e program f o r boy3, we must never l e t them becloud our v i s i o n of the r e a l goal--the highest welfare and the most complete development of the hoy himself. We must not lose i n mechanics the r e a l mean-ing of our service. Let our goal he highly conceived i n terms of the s p i r i t u a l and the r e l i g i o u s , i n terms of cha-racter and r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and work purposefully and f a i t h f u l l y toward i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . 4. The Badge Plan and i t s Successful Use. Badges are used as indicated i n the Badge Books fo r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys to secure many of the character-building values which we desire to awaken through the interests kindled. The long l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i n d i -cates a wide v a r i e t y of things which boys may h e l p f u l l y do. The requirements indicated are intended to repre-sent a f a i r average f o r hoys, and to set a standard by which a hoy may measure his progress. The small s i l k square to he used on his crest Is awarded as a recognition of h i s achievement or progress i n that p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of a c t i v i t y . In the badge work f o r Tuxis Boys there are three grades of requirements f o r each badge--white honors repre-senting an average standard, blue honors representing a - 188 -f a i r l y good standard, and red honors representing an ex-ceptionally good standard. These three grades of badges have been arranged so that there w i l l be a r e a l challenge for those boys i n the group who have already reached ave-rage attainments, and so that hoys may be enabled to mark th e i r progress i n any given a c t i v i t y . In a t h l e t i c s , skating and many of the physical a c t i v i t i e s the boy's a b i l i t y may ac t u a l l y be measured, while i n many of the other a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a i n i n g Is the only thing which the various grades of badges w i l l indicate. Along with the advantages which are obvious i n the use of badges, there are cert a i n dangers which should not be overlooked. The reward of honor should be merely the sign of the r e a l thing, and should be so understood and f e l t hy a l l . The more surely and f u l l y i t i s the mere sign, with the r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t In the r e a l thing, the more surely we are bu i l d i n g the character we wish. I f , however, the reward or honor i s the thing p r i n c i p a l l y i n mind, we are i n grave danger of doing harm where we meant good. The important thing to watch, then, i s where the s a t i s f a c t i o n i s located. Very early i n the season, when the f a l l work Is getting under way, the wise Mentor w i l l bring up the matter of badges with his boys and explain to them what the plan - 189 -i s . He w i l l show them pictures of the badges In the man-uals, samples of the badges themselves, a crest with some badges attached to i t , and preferably a cre3t on the swea-ter either of himself or one of the boys. In th i s way he w i l l challenge the members of h i s group with the many i n -teres t i n g f i e l d s of in t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y that the badges open up. He w i l l then have the boys themselves decide upon the f i r s t badge they w i l l go out to win. He w i l l hot he f l u s t e r e d by the fa c t that the l i s t of badges i s long, remembering that the l i s t i s l i k e a walk around the world, i t i s done hy taking one step at a time rather than a l l of them. The wise leader takes one step at a time, and finds that the next step i s easier and more in t e r e s t i n g on that account. Having planned i n the group i t s e l f which i s to be the f i r s t badge taken up, arrangements are then made to provide i n s t r u c t i o n i n i t i f necessary. If an outside leader i s necessary, possible persons w i l l he discussed and a l i s t of two or three decided upon, who w i l l be i n -v i t e d i n turn. Invitations f o r such work are usually apt to he received favorably i f the hoys extend them i n person. Individual badges may be worked up by hoys hy themselves, fo r example, the Health badge, the Home Reading badge, etc. - 190 -After the i n s t r u c t i o n has been given or the tests f o r the badges are given and put on the records by the Mentor, apply f o r badges to the P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards on application forms supplied free hy these Boards. As soon as the badges a r r i v e , arrangements w i l l he made to have them presented p u b l i c l y so that parents end other mem-bers of the school may get an idea of the work that the group i s doing, 5. Building up a Group Constitution. One of the f i n e s t projects f o r a Tuxis Boys' Square i s the b u i l d i n g up of Its own constitution and by-laws f o r the government of the Square In i t s meetings. This i s a project which w i l l occupy considerable time and thought, but there i s no project which w i l l provide more enthusiasm and value. I t i s a highly educational project, giving valuable t r a i n i n g i n c i v i c s and parliamentary proce-dure, and" t r a i n i n g i n r e a l c i t i z e n s h i p . The following Constitution, f i r s t prepared hy the Arts Club of St. Marks Anglican Church, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, i s shown here i n a very revised form which has been adopted by the Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square of Crosby United Church, Vancouver. This w i l l he found to be a very workable constitution, and one which has given great Impetus to the Tuxis work at Crosby United. The Constitution - 191 -follows i n d e t a i l : THE CONSTITUTION, RULES AND REGULATIONS of the KLA-HOW-YA TUXIS SQUARE of CROSBY UNITED CHURCH Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Name K H Y'S (Kla-How-Ya-s) House Names...Kitsies, Handys, Yahoos, Spooks. Motto Keeping Him your Saviour. Symbol Colors Maroon and Black. AIM - To increase In wisdom and stature, and i n favor with God and man, with Christ as our i d e a l . PURPOSE - 1. To serve to the best of my a b i l i t y , my God, my country, and my fellowmen. 2. To f o s t e r clean speech, clean sports and clean l i v i n g . 3. To develop our education through badge work. HOUSES - The Square s h a l l he divided into four houses with the President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasur-er, acting as house-masters i n order of the l e t t e r s i n the name. Each house s h a l l have a maximum of twelve members. The house system w i l l he f o r the purpose of competition within the square f o r points. - 192 -The losing two houses at the end of the square year w i l l treat the winning two houses to a theatre party, or a dance a f t e r the banquet. COMPOSITION -1. Honorary Members: Persons to whom the Square desires to give s p e c i a l recognition. 2. Inactive Members: Those who have been active members and are unable to attend r e g u l a r l y . 3. Active Members: Those who are In good standing. A temporary non-attending status s h a l l he granted at the d i s c r e t i o n of the executive on request. POINTS - The Honorary President w i l l act as recorder of points and w i l l report such at each business meeting. MEETINGS - Mid-week meetings s h a l l be held every Thursday evening commencing promptly at 7 p.m., and Sunday meetings w i l l he held every Sunday, (except during July and August), commencing promptly at 10:15 a.m. Executive Committee meetings w i l l he cal l e d monthly by the President. Standing Com-mittees and House Committees should meet regul a r l y as occasion demands. OFFICERS -1. Honorary President (Mentor) 2. Honorary Members 3. Director (Past President) 4. President 5. Vice-President 6. Secretary 7. Treasurer - :193 -The Executive s h a l l consist of the Honorary President, Director, President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer and the Chairmen of the three standing committees: (1) A t h l e t i c - Program; (2) Finance - Membership; (3) Service - Social ROUTINE - The Square Year s h a l l date from the second Thursday i n September, with elections being held that evening. Nominations w i l l be held on the f i r s t Thursday of September. The Square Year s h a l l end on the t h i r d Thursday i n June. ELECTIONS - The o f f i c e r s s h a l l he elected from the Square as a whole hy secret b a l l o t . Each house w i l l e l e c t one member f o r each of the three standing committees. Each standing committee w i l l e l e c t i t s own chairman. The House Committee w i l l consist of a chairman (an o f f i c e r Of the square) and three members one on each of the standing committees. No member may hold the same o f f i c e f o r more than two years successively. R e t i r i n g P r e s i -dents w i l l become Directors f o r one year. Honorary President and Honorary Members s h a l l be appointed hy t he Executive Committee annually. FINANCES - Fees f o r active members s h a l l he Two Dollars (|2.00) per annum payable i n advance instalments of not less than f i f t y cents each. Otherwise fees s h a l l he twenty-five cents per month payable i n advance. Fees f o r inactive members s h a l l he h a l f the fees respectively as f o r active members. - 194 -A l l cheques s h a l l be signed by the President and Treasurer, Expenditures of over Two Dollars ($2.00) must he approved by the Square i n open meeting. Expenditures under t h i s sum s h a l l require only the approval of every member of the Executive. The Treasurer must report a l l expenditures to the Square weekly. Any sp e c i a l committee authorized to handle funds f o r the Square s h a l l be required to turn i n a complete f i n a n c i a l statement. MEMBERSHIP -1. Membership of the Square s h a l l he l i m i t e d to fort y - e i g h t (48) active members, ten (10) Honorary Members, and inactive members unlimited. 2. The minimum age f o r a l l active members must he f i f t e e n years. 3. The Executive Committee s h a l l decide on new members with the approval of the Square as a whole• 4. Each active member i s expected to keep up a standard of at l e a s t s i x t y per cent attendance. 5. Any member who arrives at a meeting a f t e r f i v e minutes from the opening s h a l l he marked as absent. 6. A l l members s h a l l be a l l o t t e d to houses on acceptance. If the house responsible f o r the new member i s up to f u l l strength, he w i l l he assigned to a house by the Executive or hy drawing l o t s . 7. A l l members are expected to make every e f f o r t to attend church at l e a s t one session on Sunday. - 195 POINTS FOR HOUSE SYSTEM -1. A bonus of 100 points to st a r t the year out (that i s a bonus of 100 for each house). 2. For payment of fees, that i s every month f i r s t houses to have a l l members paid up, with the following points i n respect to order of payment. (1)15 (2)10 (3)6 and (4)2 points. 3. -1 point for each member of each house absent from meetings (except In cases of sickness proven). 4. +1 point f o r every member of each house attending church. 5. +5 or +3 or +2 f o r a member winning a badge. (5 for Red Honors, 3 for Blue, 2 fo r White) 6. +3 f o r bringing a new member approved hy the Executive. 7. -5 for unsportmanslike conduct, swearing, smoking i n building, etc. 8. Group Games (1st) +3 ; (2nd) +2; (3) +1. 9. Team Games winner +2 loser 0. Tie +1 Default -2. 10. 10 points maximum for winning debates, etc. and taking active part. The opposite side graded according to a b i l i t y shown. 11. Interruptions i n meeting -1. 12. ^ringing decorations, pictures, e t c . f o r club room +1 or i n proportion to t h e i r excellence. - 196 -DUTIES OF OFFICERS, CHAIRMEN AND COMMITTEE MEN. A l l o f f i c e r s , Chairmen, and committees, th e i r duties being described below are re-sponsible to see that t h e i r work i s carr i e d out promptly, thoroughly and e f f i c i e n t l y . I f they are unable to do so they should r e-sign from t h e i r positions. A l l o f f i c e r s , Chairman and committees elected by the Square, s h a l l he subject to dismissal on a motion by the majority of the Square. The President i s responsible f o r the orderly conduction of a l l Square meetings and the success of committees and a c t i v i t i e s , acting also as Chairman of the F i r s t House. The Vice-President i s responsible f o r keeping the attendance record and w i l l a s s i s t the President i n checking up, substituting f o r him when absent, also acting as Chair-man of the Second House. The Secretary i s responsible f o r the minutes and correspondence, notices, etc., also acting as Chairman of the Third House. The Treasurer i s responsible f o r a l l c o l l e c t i o n s and payments of the Square funds and the issuing of f i n a n c i a l reports, also acting as Chairman of the Fourth House. 1. Athletic-Program chairman and committee are responsible f o r the organization of a l l teams, procuring of managers, coaches, e l e c t i o n of captains f o r such. They s h a l l arrange programs, speakers, discussions and newspaper reports. 2. The Finance-Membership chairman and com-mittee are responsible f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of fees, sale of a r t i c l e s , such as badges, crests, pins, etc. They s h a l l be responsible f o r regular attendance, absent i n q u i r i e s , the canvassing of new members. - 197 -3. The Service-Social chairman and committee are responsible f o r the promoting of service work by the Square, by offe r i n g suggestions as to expenditures and a c t i v i t i e s . They s h a l l arrange f o r v i s i t a t i o n of sick members. They s h a l l organize and promote s o c i a l a c t i -v i t i e s such as hikes, pa r t i e s , pep meetings, dances, banquets, orchestra, glee club, minstrels, and conduct the sale of t i c k e t s f o r such. AGENDA - The President and Honorary President (Mentor) w i l l he responsible f o r the drawing up of the agenda of each meeting. Unless they are n o t i f i e d of pending busi-ness p r i o r to the meeting, such business need not necessarily be dealt with at the meeting. EQUIPMENT - Equipment of the Square supplied to mem-bers s h a l l he the property of the Square at a l l times. AMENDMENTS - Amendments to the Constitution, Rules and Regulations etc. w i l l he considered at a l l times; but must he presented to the Secretary i n writing. PROGRAM FOR MID-WEEK MEETING. 7:00 - 7:05 Opening Ceremony followed hy P.M. Lord's Prayer. 7:05 - 7:20 Meeting turned over to the Mentor f o r Devotional Topic and Discussion. Occasionally th i s may he taken hy one of the members. Short Prayer either by Mentor but preferably hy one of the boys taking t h e i r regular turn. - 198 -7:20 - 7:30 Business Meeting. 1. R o l l C a l l . 2. -Reading and adoption of minutes. 3. Reports of Committees. 4. C o l l e c t i o n of dues by-finance-member ship com-mitteemen i n each house, 5. B i l l s and Correspondence. 6. Treasurer's Report (monthly). 7. Any other business and announcement s. 7:30 - 8:00 Project Work. 1. Once a month an outside speaker. 2. Other weeks group work on badges such as Entertainer, Public Speaking, Group Games, Arts and Nature, etc. 8:00 Friendship C i r c l e - Mizpah Benediction. 8:00 - 9:00 Gymnasium - Mat work, Bar work, Rings, Trapeze, Setting-up Exercises, Group Games, Wrestling, Boxing, - House Competitions wherever possible. 9:00 - 10:00 Basketball teams pr a c t i s e . Schedule of House team games. PROGRAM FOR SUNDAY MEETING. 10:15 A.M. 1. Hymn (either sung or recited) 2. Prayer. 3. Bible discussion. 4. Any Necessary Business. 5. Dismiss to Attend Church Service. - 199 6, An Observation Record - To Study Procedure. This scale i s to help observers break up the pro-cesses of group work into parts and make estimates of the qua l i t y of each part. The phases to he studied are under-l i n e d at the centre of the page. The scales on the l e f t help describe the methods used. Use the scales on the ri g h t to observe and record what qual i t y of work i s being accomplished by the method used. An observer w i l l s i t quietly through a group session with these scales before him, then make up his report on the group, by marking the p o s i t i o n which i n h i s opinion most nearly represents what i s being done i n the group. - 200 -GROUP DATE Whose Purposes are to he seen i n the work of the group? (Prom outside the group)) (Prom within the group) PURPOSES How clear i s t h i s purpose? none apparent, vague. very clear. What are the a c t i v i t i e s of the group b u i l t around? (fixed subject ( matter (predetermined (actual l i f e *( s i t u a t i o n ACTIVITIES How s i g n i f i c a n t are the a c t i v i t i e s ? t r i v i a l ? doubtful? _things that "really matter? What does the group most resemble? THE  GROUP ORGANIZATION a school "class"?-' (an informal "(independent ("club"? How much group conscious-ness i s there? very l i t t l e ? some? _very strong? How i s the group controlled? THE GROUP CONTROL "by the author-i t y or personality of the leader? cooperative and responsible s e l f control? How e f f e c t i v e l y i s the group controlled? random? f a i r ? thorough? - 201 -What kind of purpose ; THE How e f f e c t i v e l y i s this seems to be dominant? GROUP 1 purposiveness expressed PURPOSIVENESS! i n action? s e l f i s h : ; "getting". • h i t and miss: i n e f f e c t i v e . u n s e l f i s h : ; unsatisfying: "giving". ; annoying. with r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . What does the leader • THE GROUP - How well does he seem to try to do In the group : SESSION : he succeeding? session? ; : AIM ; poorly? indoctrinate"? medium? stimulate i n d i v i d u a l and free choi se? ; very well? Y&iat method i s followed ; : THE GROUP : How e f f e c t i v e l y i s the i n the group session? ; • SESSION method followed out? METHOD '. lecture? ; poorly? guided d i s - ! medium? cussion to free con- ; elusion? ; very well? Who ac t u a l l y shares i n ; ' THE GROUP ' What i s the qu a l i t y of the group session? ' SESSION p a r t i c i p a t i o n as shown PARTICIPATION ' , i n thoughtfulness and the leader (cooperative s p i r i t ? only? 1 low? a l l ? medium? : high? - 202 - . To What extent i s the ; RELATIONSHIPS How e f f e c t i v e i s i t s work related to other « integration with: phases of l i f e ? ! (a)Home "on i t s own"? « none wholly (b)Church f u l l y : integrated? none wholly ! (c)School I none wholly ! (d)Community | none wholly Recorded by If mentors would l i k e to know what they are accomplishing, they should get an unbiased outsider to f i l l i n th i s observa-t i o n record. - 203 -CHAPTER IX. The Sunday and Mid-Week Sessions. A. THE SUNDAY SESSION. It i s almost impossible to over-estimate the im-portance of Sunday Sessions of boys' groups. I t Is the su-preme opportunity that we have f o r establishing the deeper relationships so e s s e n t i a l to s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g . I t i s the one hour of the week when the church may claim the un-divided attention and l o y a l t y of her youth. On week-days we have to enter Into competition, at l e a s t to a c e r t a i n extent, with a score of other i n t e r e s t s . On Sunday, i t i s our r i g h t and duty to do what we can to bring to bear upon the young, impressionable l i v e s within our reach the s p i r i t -ual r e a l i t i e s which the church interprets and represents. How important i t i s that a l l conditions be r i g h t I It i s worth putting f o r t h r e a l i n t e l l i g e n t e f f o r t to see that everything i s i n order. I t i s worth study and prepar-ation that, as stewards of an important t r u s t , we may he able to make the most of our opportunities. 1. We Should See That Physical Conditions are Right. This i s p a r t l y a matter of the leader being on hand - 204 -at l e a s t a quarter of an hour before the session opens, to see that the class-room i s i n order, maps, blackboard and other helps available, and to welcome the members of the group as they come. I t i s a l 3 0 a matter f o r cooperation between the leaders, the Sunday School a u t h o r i t i e s , and the responsible hoards of the church. We should not expect boys, who are accustomed to such favorable conditions as they now have i n the public schools, to respond to a n t i -quated and disorderly conditions on Sunday. I t i s f o r leaders who see the importance of t h e i r task, to help c u l t i -vate public opinion within the congregation and community that favorable conditions may he established. Leaders may well claim through t h e i r teachers' meetings and conferences the r i g h t to uninterrupted teaching periods. Not a moment of the teaching time should be l o s t , unless important con-cerns demand immediate attention. 2. We Should See That S p i r i t u a l Conditions Are Right. Boys must somehow he made to f e e l that they are in church, and that i t i s indeed a place apart. The atmos-phere has very much to do with imparting true and worthy impressions. The worship period of the department, or of the school as a whole where necessary, should not he regard-ed as a series of opening exercises, but as a means of bringing boys to an attitude of reverence and expectancy, - 2 0 5 -that w i l l enable them to experience with s a t i s f a c t i o n the benefits that should follow from worship and study, 3, Mental Conditions Mu3t Be Right, Boys with whom we deal i n Sunday School are usu-a l l y on the a l e r t mentally. It i s f o r the leader to s t i r up the indolent and to d i r e c t the thoughts of a l l so that they w i l l actually do something, that t h e i r thinking may he conclusive, leading to action and to the formation of d e f i -n i t e l i f e purposes. Jesus never gave any encouragement to i d l e r s as he met them. Leaders today follow His example when they s t i r boys to mental e f f o r t that they may he quick to comprehend the depth and breadth of application of His gospel. 4. Social Conditions Must Be Right. There should he a congenial homogeneous group that f e e l s i t s unity and r e a l i z e s that much can he accomplished through the fellowship of t h i s hour. This means that the group should he graded c a r e f u l l y from the standpoint of age, school standing and common i n t e r e s t . The group must f e e l or learn to f e e l that they can do things together. Both In the matter of studies undertaken and service pro-jects planned they should r e a l i z e that they are sharing i n common enterprises, working together i n search of truth, f o r - 206 -the solu t i o n of problems and f o r h e l p f u l a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l do much to k n i t a group together. Wise leaders see to i t that the odds are'not against them as they s t r i v e to develop a harmonious group. I t i s an exceedingly s i g n i f i c a n t task we are c a l l e d to do on Sunday. We ought not to lose hoys from the Sunday sessions when they come to early or middle adolescence. I t may he h e l p f u l therefore I f we consider reasons why boys do leave the church school. Sometime ago interested workers conducted a very careful study of thi s problem, interviewing hoys who had l e f t Sunday School, to discover the reasons and to govern themselves accordingly. Out of a dozen or more r e a l reasons these few may he selected and w i l l repay our careful thought* 1. They leave because the lessons are not i n t e r e s t -ing. Lessons are often chosen by older people who do not understand or appreciate a hoy's point of view. Teachers not conversant with the l i f e s ituations that boys face f a i l to make th e i r teaching v i t a l and r e a l . I f lessons i n Sun-day School have a "grip" and a "punch" they w i l l hold hoys, but lessons chosen and taught by teachers not thoroughly prepared are soon regarded as uninteresting and boys just do not attend. 2. The interest of hoys f l a g s when worship services - 207 -f a i l * Boys have frequently expressed the opinion that wor-ship services should not he the same every Sunday; that t h e i r school 3hould not go on operating year aft e r year as i t d i d years ago; that the superintendent or teacher should not he continually reminding them how long he has been on the job. What they want i s some opportunity to share i n the conduct of the school. They would introduce and would competently help i n the sel e c t i o n and use of hymns, varied orders of service- t and spe c i a l features that would help to sustain i n t e r e s t . 3. Boys leave when they are not sure that they are wanted. I t i s very easy f o r a church school to get into a ru t , and equally easy to keep out of ruts, i f leaders are a l i v e . I f hoys are absent someone ought to l e t them know that they are missed. If new members come or are introduced hy the boys they should be most h e a r t i l y welcomed. I f the attendance becomes i r r e g u l a r , some concern should he shown. Boys want i n t h e i r Sunday School a warm atmosphere, that w i l l challenge interest and sustain i n t e r e s t hy i t s f r i e n d -l i n e s s . 4, Boys leave when chums quit. The importance of companionships at thi s age must he remembered. Boys have t h e i r s p e c i a l friends i n school, sport, s o c i a l and other re l a t i o n s h i p s ; when they come to t h e i r Sunday School they - 208 -want to f e e l that they are with r e a l chums, and the group must c u l t i v a t e the fellowship. When the Sunday School cuts across l o y a l t i e s already established, the tendency of i n -dividuals i s to go with the stronger p u l l . Sometimes i t i s g i r l s that keep hoys away, or boys that keep g i r l s away. They want to go out together at the hour when the Sunday School i s meeting. The only solution seems to be to make the intermediate and senior departments f o r boy3 and g i r l s so i n t e r e s t i n g , that the church and i t s school become to them a r e a l centre, where they l i k e to gather, and where they f e e l happy and at home. By placing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f i c leadership on key boys and g i r l s , the whole group may be anchored. 5. Lack of d i s c i p l i n e causes many boys to leave. I t soon becomes known when a Sunday School i s disorderly. It may be l a i d down as a fundamental p r i n c i p l e that boys of Intermediate and Senior age prefer order to confusion, and that the r e a l cause of disorder may he traced to lead-ers, who do not know how to get order. Some do not approach t h e i r problem i n the r i g h t way. Some have not e n l i s t e d the cooperation of t h e i r boys. Some have not applied the most elementary p r i n c i p l e s of d i s c i p l i n e i n l i f e . There are many other reasons presented hy boys, which they themselves, a f t e r careful scrutiny w i l l regard - 209 -as mere excuses. Resulting from our work with hoys i n Canada i n recent years, there are hundreds of boys who w i l l he quite old before they w i l l f e e l that they have outgrown the Sunday School. They have gone happily along from one department to the next, and from t h e i r places as members of groups to he leaders of others who come af t e r them. They have recognized that the Sunday School may he pre-eminently worth while, a great power f o r good that they may help to make mightier. I t has offered them opportunities f o r service that are proving of immeasurable value, as l i f e unfolds. We do well to hear, and heed, and help to guide them at every stage of th e i r development. Their interests and energies may lead to re s u l t s that w i l l make f o r the permanent power of the school, and progress i n the Kingdom of C h r i s t . 5. Typical Program f o r Sunday. T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis groups have a d e f i n i t e re-s p o n s i b i l i t y i n connection with the worship and opening session of the school. They should p a r t i c i p a t e reverently and contribute to the worship program when asked. 1. Opening Session of the School - boys' groups j o i n with whole department where possible. 2. Worship service f o r the department. 3. The Class Lesson Period (30 minutes). The Chief Ranger - 210 -or Praetor may preside: without loss of time, he conducts the opening ceremony, asks f o r r o l l c a l l and o f f e r i n g and makes necessary announcements. Not more than f i v e minutes of a period, already too brief,should he used thus, before he asks the mentor to take charge of the lesson study and discussion. Periodicals should not he d i s t r i b u t e d u n t i l the close of the period. 4. Closing session of the department. This i s not always included i n the program, and i t i s not so important that the group come from i t s classroom to p a r t i c i p a t e . This can be arranged i n consultation with the superintendent. B. THE MID-WEEK SESSION. The introduction of week-day a c t i v i t i e s i n hundreds of hoys' groups i n churches across Canada has resulted i n added inter e s t i n the Sunday School. These have registered as a very decided influence i n the character-development of thousands of growing boys. I t has meant the c o r r e l a t i o n of Sunday teaching with d a i l y l i f e , and has helped those who have par t i c i p a t e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s , to see how e s s e n t i a l a clear understanding and application of C h r i s t i a n i t y i s f o r growing health. There are s i x fundamental reasons f o r considering and carrying out a thorough, comprehensive week-day program: - 211 -1. To E s t a b l i s h New Contacts. If we can have only the short periods at our disposal on Sundays with occasional other opportunities to know our boys we miss a great deal. The leader's influence can be greatly increased i f there are Introduced regular, purposeful gatherings to supplement the Sunday associations. Indeed, the experience of many shows that mid-week a c t i v i t i e s are usually instrumental i n providing points of contact and i l l u s t r a t i o n s through l i f e -s i t u a t i o n s , that make Sunday teaching much more v i t a l and r e a l . One must admit that the questionnaire method has i t s defects, yet at the same time i t ha3 p o s s i b i l i t i e s of no mean order. Perhaps a leader would be unwise to r e l y wholly on the questionnaire i n tryi n g to discover something of what h i s hoys are thinking, hut many leaders are f i n d i n g - i t extremely u s e f u l . Certainly, i t can he regarded as one method of approach. Here are answers of a group of older hoys, at a p r o v i n c i a l camp, to four questions. The answers provoke a b i t of thought. Question - What would you l i k e to accomplish within the next ten years? Answers - Master mechanics, and become an e l e c t r i c a l engin-eer; Become a good Ch r i s t i a n ; Find a r e a l l i f e partner; Achieve happiness; Own one of the largest and best farms i n the province; Set up a - 212 -home of my ownj Become a major league b a l l player; Get established i n a good posit i o n ; Get a un i v e r s i t y education; Become a leader i n boys' work; Be an influence f o r good i n the community. Question - What were the most important influences i n your l i f e up to f i f t e e n years of age? Answers - Home t r a i n i n g ; The hoys' group; Church; Study of the l i f e of Christ; My mother's trust i n me; Nature; School; The minister; My companions; Heading. Question - What are the most important influences i n your l i f e now? Answers - The community; Church; Home; My g i r l f r i e n d ; My place of residence; Sports; School; Tuxis group; Books; Advice of older f o l k s ; F i n a n c i a l status of my parents. Question - In your opinion, what three men are the most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the world? Answers - The Prince of Wales i s mentioned four times, and Lindbergh f i v e times. King George; Babe Ruth; Baldwin and the l o c a l minister are mentioned twice, and the following are mentioned once: Lloyd George, Premier MacKenzie King, Henry Ford, - 213 -Baden-Powell, Edison, Coolidge, Chang-Kai-Shek, Mussolini, Ghandi, G.B.Shaw. My father, my school teacher, our Tuxis leader, and Christ Himself. 2. To Strengthen A l l Sides of a Boy's Development. "Jesus increased i n wisdom and stature, and i n favor with God and man". His church today cannot do less than to take a healthy interest i n a l l phases of a boy's growth. The C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n must be an "all-round" man, whose i n t e r -ests r e l a t e to the growing c i r c l e of experience. The time to root these diverse i n t e r e s t s , and to s t a r t them growing i s during the period of adolescence. Week-day a c t i v i t i e s are needed to provide opportunities f o r many of these i n -te r e s t s . 3. To Develop Personal Friendships. What our world needs keenly i s friendship on a high plane. The church may, under favorable conditions, give opportunities f o r hoys to get to know hoys better, f o r g i r l s to get to know g i r l s better, and not infrequently f o r older boys to get to know older g i r l s (and v i c e versa), and to enjoy j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s . I f the church does not o f f e r such opportunities, we need not be surprised i f counter influences and less desirable associations hold sway, and m i l i t a t e against the effectiveness of a l l that f o r which the church stands. - 214 -4,. To Do For and With Boys What no Other Agencies are Doing. The church need never attempt to supplant the home or the school, or to do the things that these other great i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t to do. The study of boys Individually and as groups w i l l almost Invariably reveal untouched areas of desirable t r a i n i n g . Week-day a c t i v i t i e s are intended to o f f s e t t h i s lack and to ensure that growing boys w i l l not go forward handicapped because some things were overlooked In t h e i r youth. 5. To Give Opportunity f o r A c t i v i t y and Expression that Boys Need. We "learn to do hy doing". It i s surely d e s i r a b l e that boys should learn to conduct business meetings i n a small group where each knows the others well; that they should p a r t i c i p a t e i n debates, pub-l i c speaking and l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s , when they are young; that they should discuss frankly l i f e ' s serious and often perplexing problems; that they should study and pray and serve together. A l l these a c t i v i t i e s and expressional opportunities are designed to develop the best i n boys, and to combat the theory of a purely passive r e l i g i o n . Many of these a c t i v i t i e s cannot be shared unless week-day gatherings provide opportunity f o r them. 6. To Help to Interpret Jesus' Way as the Highest and Best Way of L i f e . There i s no question - 215 -as to Jesus' appeal to boys when that appeal i s made prac-t i c a l as He Himself made i t . Through mid-week a c t i v i t i e s , hoys may discover the r e a l i t y of r e l i g i o n as a sustaining and d i r e c t i n g power In every day experience. If they do not have such opportunity, the danger i s that they may go forward into l i f e thinking of r e l i g i o n as related only to one compartment of experience, not a r u l i n g , dynamic, i n -sp i r i n g force related to a l l . No one would seek to discount the importance of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , physical and s o c i a l sides of the church's program with boys, hut i t i s evident that the Devotional Period should at lea s t occupy the pos i t i o n of the Prime Minister i n h i s Cabinet - " F i r s t among equals". I f we f a i l here, we f a i l everywhere. There are many things that should be taken Into consideration i n preparing and conducting the Devotional Period i n a hoys' group. Probably the f i r s t i s Atmosphere, or surrounding conditions. Are the conditions favorable to undivided attention and earnest thought f o r the subject i n hand? In thi s regard,the Physical part of the program should not come before the Devotional i n time. The boys are i n no state mentally to give sustained attention a f t e r play-ing games. If at a l l possible, place the Devotional Period at the beginning and have the games l a s t . - 216 -In the second place the Mood of the boys should he considered. Sometimes hoys are not i n the proper mood f o r a serious discussion. More often than not some l i t t l e b r e a k — a short story p o s s i b l y — w i l l bring them to a receptive frame of mind. Do not attempt to b a i t hoys. Leaders must get to the place where they include "bean-feeds" etc., and physical work i n t h e i r program because such things are good and wholesome and worth-while i n themselves. When hoys r e a l i z e that deception i s being practised the leader's stock always slumps badly. Again, the opening ceremony, eithe r the group 1s own or the one supplied by the Boy3 1 Work Board, generally gets the hoys into that receptive, attentive frame of mind. The speaker or discussion leader must be one whose word carries weight. His l i f e must display the q u a l i t i e s of which he speaks. Boys sense i n s i n c e r i t y more quickly than do adults. The speaker or mentor may not he f l u e n t , but i t i s e s s e n t i a l that he he sincere. Practice and preparation w i l l a s s i s t him In h i s handling of the subject, but nothing w i l l take the place of honesty of b e l i e f and purpose. E v i -dent earnestness i s much more to be desired than a g l i b tongue. Needless to say, the subject must he i n t e r e s t i n g and one i n which the hoys have had a share i n choosing. This - 217 -subject must also be of some permanent value, suited to the ages and conditions of the hoys, and r e l a t e d to t h e i r gener-a l program of l i f e . Very seldom w i l l hoys choose t h e i r own course, hut by suggesting alternatives the leader assures himself of two important things: that the boys share i n the choice, and that the study eventually chosen i s of r e a l value. The method of presentation should be varied. Some leaders recommend the question-and-answer method; some the lecture method; some the project method; and some the discussion method. It i s to the mentor's advantage i n avoiding boredom and monotony not to use the same method more than three times successively. Also v a r i e t y i s recom-mended i n the matter of speakers. This brings us to another matter of importance— having members of the group take part i n the devotional program, and occasionally getting i n d i v i d u a l members to lead. The a p p l ication of the question-and-answer and pro-ject methods accomplishes this to a c e r t a i n extent--it breaks the i c e . To get the group taking part, a good sug-gestion i s to appoint a Devotional Committee, with which the Mentor acts i n an advisory capacity, to recommend alterna-t i v e study courses to the group and to take a special respon-s i b i l i t y i n conducting the studies. A schedule i n which an - 218 -outsider leads i n one Devotional Period, a member of the Committee the next, and the Mentor the t h i r d , i s often a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of providing variety, and giving the group members the t r a i n i n g which i s found i n preparing and leading these studies. Sometimes a study or a story can be dramatized and the entire group take part. Objectives should he frequently reviewed. What are we s t r i v i n g f o r i n the Devotional Period? Some Mentors f e e l very strongly that i t i s simply to teach the B i b l e . Is i t not rather to introduce hoys to Jesus, to show them and t r y to persuade them to adopt His way of l i f e , In a l l of which Bible teachings w i l l , of course, play a very, very important part? Groups should r e t a i n the same organization f o r both Sunday and mid-week meetings. The same leader should he i n charge of and r e t a i n oversight of the regular group meetings held twice a week. I t has been found h e l p f u l i n view of extra demands placed upon leaders and the necessity of t r a i n i n g new leaders continuously, to have, so f a r as possible, an associate leader In each group. The two lead-ers work out t h e i r r e s p o n s i h i l i t i e s i n such harmony, that i f both cannot he present, the one who takes charge pre-serves the continuity. Each knows the hoys so well that they follow h i s lead without the s l i g h t e s t l o s s . - 219 -Parents i n p a r t i c u l a r , and adult o f f i c i a l s of church and community organizations generally, need to be kept f a m i l i a r with the advance and the significance of work with hoys. It i s a good plan, p a r t i c u l a r l y with hoys twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, to send a l e t t e r to parents at the beginning of the season o u t l i n i n g the purposes of our work, ind i c a t i n g i n d e t a i l the plans under way and earnestly i n -v i t i n g cooperation. It Is i n the interests of the cause that through church announcements, public addresses, news items i n the press, and i n scores of other ways that versa-t i l e leaders w i l l devise, churches and communities should he awakened, and made to r e a l i z e how important these tasks are. The Use of R i t u a l . The use of r i t u a l and ceremonies has a very d e f i -n i t e though l i m i t e d value. Boys l i k e the solemnity of the r i t u a l i f not overdone, and i t s value i n provoking thought i n the boys can not be overestimated; also symbolic "peak-performance" r i t u a l s leave behind i n the hoys' minds an impression that i s very d i f f i c u l t to erase. This experience i s not only f e l t but seen; and as the eye enters into the learning process aiding the ear, these two greatest forces of learning stamp an i n d e l i b l e impression on the hoys' senses, that i s quite often imprinted there f o r l i f e . Boys - 220 -of these ages are impressionable, and who can say what thoughts and Ideals such simple lesson r i t u a l s w i l l s t a r t i n t h e i r minds? What far-reaching effects w i l l he f e l t ? But, once again, don't t r y to do too much of i t . The f o l -lowing r i t u a l s and ceremonies have t h e i r regular places i n the program, but even they should he varied as hoys w i l l t i r e of them over a long period: (1) The Opening Ceremony provided by the Boy3.' Work Board f o r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys. This should be thoroughly explained at l e a s t once a year hy the mentor, so the hoys w i l l understand and grasp Its symbolism. How-ever, i f hoys should become t i r e d of t h i s ceremony, encour-age them to make up another of t h e i r own as a group project. The following steps might he followed i n thus building up a new opening ceremony: a. Make i t a part of t h e i r worship. h. It should f i t i n with the aims of the work— what are we here for? c. Where w i l l we get materials to express these aims? - Bible, manuals, hymns, poetry, our own ideas. d. What s h a l l we accept and what s h a l l we r e j e c t -we must learn to discriminate. e. There must he team-work and cooperation. - 221 -(2) I n s t a l l a t i o n of O f f i c e r s . There i s no cere-mony supplied hy the Boys' Work Board except what i s suggest-ed i n "Creative Leadership", hut there are hints enough here f o r mentors to b u i l d up a very impressive ceremony. We must impress on the new o f f i c e r s a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and this can he done he3t hy the ceremony of taking the o a t h — something s i m i l a r to the guard- changing ceremony i n the army. (3) I n i t i a t i o n . Here again the plan supplied hy the Boys' Work Board may grow s t a l e . Mentors w i l l f i n d boys keen to help here i n combining the serious with the comic i n i n i t i a t i o n . Some very valuable and novel ideas on thi s l i n e w i l l be found i n "The Canadian Mentor" of January 1925 issue, i n an a r t i c l e by Reverend E.R.Fairbairn, of St.John's, Newfoundland. t (4) The Friendship C i r c l e and The Mizpah Benediction. This method of closing the ses-sion i s invaluable. Boys r e a d i l y adjust themselves to the habit of coming together into fellowship before leaving the games, etc. f o r home. The group should not just dismiss Independently, hut he c a l l e d together, i n a c i r c l e , arms over each other's shoulders, and sing or repeat a verse of some good vesper such as "Abide with Me"; then a l l repeat the benediction: "May the Lord watch between thee and me, while we are absent the one from the other". This may he - 222 -varied with a short word of prayer hy the mentor or some memher of the group. Before closing t h i s chapter i t may he of value to suggest "some Healthy Signs i n a Boys' Group". It Is a healthy sign 1. When every hoy i s i n his place f o r the opening ceremony. 2. When not a week passes without a new memher being added. 3. When a rainy or stormy day does not decrease the regular attendance. 4. When the average attendance of the group i s never less than eighty percent of the member-ship, and most boys know a l l about the pro-gram f o r the session. 5. When one hears of members of the group gradu-ating into the church as members or into leadership of younger groups. 6. When the boys give sure evidence of wanting to make the group "bigger and better", and are w i l l i n g to do personal work to achieve th i s r e s u l t . 7. When the boys speak with pride of "our group" and i t i s no longer just "the group" i n t h e i r estimation. 8. When a l i v e mid-week meeting i s carried on. 9. When the hoys give constant proof of being interested i n the "other fellow". 10. When most boys i n the group are working zealously on badges. 11. When the hoys and mentor together plan the program and r e a l i n t e r e s t Is shown. - 223 -CHAPTER X. Personal Guidance. The task of the adult leader of adolescent young people i s to guide rather than to govern. His perilous hut important p r i v i l e g e i s that of the progressive trans-ference of authority from himself to them. This transfer i s l e s s dangerous i n those homes and churches where I n t e l l i -gent provision has heen made f o r i t . There i s the necessity of f i l l i n g the treasure house during the years of f u l l n e s s f o r the years of famine that are to follow. The c h i l d should hy t h i s time he In possession of a treasure house of good habits, of family t r a d i t i o n s , of group l o y a l t i e s , of high ideals that have heen c r y s t a l l i z e d hy hooks and the l i v e s of great men, and hy the Inspiration of l i v i n g and dead heroes. Out of t h i s , h is own treasure house, his l i f e , should he fed as he sta r t s on h i s pilgrimage into maturity. The guiding p r i n c i p l e s of action during these years should he not so much the judgment of the adult lead-er as the ri g h t s of others. So long as the young person Is not making himself a nuisance to the rest of the family or group, a good many acts may he permitted which cannot pos-s i b l y do any harm except to himself, and which, perhaps, - 224 w i l l hardly do that so long as they teaoh him the wiser way. "The thoroughly worthy emphasis that has prevailed, i n the hoys' work, upon the group as such, i n the l a s t few years, has caused many leaders to lose sight of the hoys as i n d i v i d u a l s . We have thought of Johnny or B i l l as f i n e fellows i f they f i t t e d pleasantly and constructively into the small s o c i a l u n i t we c a l l the group. But i f Johnny i s an odd s t i c k , shy and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , we have not thought highly of him. And i f B i l l was i n c l i n e d to rough things up i n the group meetings, and not consider the c a r e f u l l y plan-ned r i t u a l with any great seriousness, or perhaps with actual opposition, many of us have l e t him, and Johnny too, gradually d r i f t away from the church and have merely thought of them as hoys who didn't f i t i n . "Granted that i t i s more comfortable to have, always, a group of e a s i l y adjusted hoys, has not the time come f o r us to include i n our ambitions f o r hoys and our dealings with them, more d e f i n i t e plans,for the development of s k i l l and understanding of the processes that are neces-sary f o r society to take advantage of the p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y , the very uniqueness of the hoy who i s n ' t l i k e the rest? Some very valuable people are not e a s i l y adjusted s o c i a l l y , but that i s no reason why the r e s t of us should he only - 225 interested i n hanging them or o s t r a c i s i n g them". We may also delude ourselves hy thinking that the e a s i l y adjusted hoy who i s entering whole-heartedly into the program i s getting a l l he needs. The hoy who i s d i f f i c u l t to handle and the boy who r e a d i l y " f i t s i n " , both need f r i e n d l y counsel and p r a c t i c a l guidance as an aid i n the choice of l i f e work, the s e l e c t i o n of suitable studies, or i n matters pertaining to health, morals or r e l i g i o u s ques-tions. The wise leader aims not only to prevent or solve problems i n these areas hut, also, to lead hoys toward hew experiences which w i l l greatly enrich t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e c e r t a i n areas In which personal guidance may he studied, because the fundamental problem i n a hoy's l i f e may be i n a d i f f e r e n t area than i s apparent on tile surface. Because i t i s so d i f f i c u l t to determine p a r t i c u l a r needs immediately, the leader should have a personal interview of a general nature with each hoy very soon a f t e r the organization of the group. I t i s im-portant that such interviews should he occasions of mutual sharing. The boy should not he t o l d , hut should be helped to make his own decisions i n the l i g h t of knowledge, ex-perience and f a i t h . 1. Creative Leadership, p. 118. - 226 -While some leaders may have s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l to ask the kind of questions that w i l l draw out the hoy's best thought, many f i n d i t necessary to use some technical device. For Tuxis Boys t h i s i s c a l l e d "Charting", 1. Charting. Boys of Tuxis age ( f i f t e e n years and over) can appreciate charts. At high school they have discovered t h e i r usefulness i n s c i e n t i f i c and mathematical demonstra-ti o n s . They have learned them so that one notes t h e i r i n -te r e s t , f o r example, i n magazine a r t i c l e s so i l l u s t r a t e d , i n which they grasp points graphically presented f a r more c l e a r l y than I f they were to ponder through long paragraphs attempting to present the same facts without a chart. But can hoys he charted ;thus? Is i t possible to put on paper a curve or a graph, or any series of l i n e s that can i n any way measure hi s powers or h i s personality? No attempt i s made to do t h i s hy mentors who understand the purpose of our church program f o r hoys. Charting i s one of the d i s t i n c t i v e features of the Tuxis plan and one of i t s most valuable assets. I t does not f a i l at the outset by advocating some unnatural, unpop-u l a r , or mechanical fad or device. Let us see, f i r s t , what Charting i s not. - 227 -Charting i s not f o r younger hoys, under f i f t e e n . In the early stages of the movement, i t was suggested f o r a l l , hut careful perusal of the new manuals f o r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys, into which the experience of some two hun-dred boys" workers, from Halifax to V i c t o r i a has been put, shows that a system of credits i s advised f o r younger lads to meet t h e i r needs at thi s stage, and to lay foundations fo r the l a t e r , and s t i l l more'important period when a "chart-ing interview" may be t h e i r introduction to a broader, s t i l l more a t t r a c t i v e program, adapted to their enlarging interests and a b i l i t y . Charting i s not an examination. Boys are not as-signed marks f o r th e i r attainments i n each standard. The Mentor's eye i s on the past only i n so f a r as i t may he necessary to give p r a c t i c a l , d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n as to pre-sent needs and future p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Charting i s not l i k e a stock-judging contest. A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and stock breeders have been very successful i n t h e i r projects during recent years,in producing higher grade vegetables, grains, poultry, horses, c a t t l e , etc. We may learn many things from these men, and i t w i l l be a brighter day f o r Canada when parents, teachers and Ch r i s t i a n workers generally, recognize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of hoys and g i r l s as c l e a r l y as some men i n every province have recog-- 228 nized that higher grade stock may be developed hy ca r e f u l recognition of nature's laws. But when a hoy i s charted, he i s not being judged hy an expert. The chart which he ca r r i e s away i s not a prize card, except i n t h i s — t h a t i n his circum-stances, i t may prove one of his most valuable possessions, because i t spurs him to d e f i n i t e , i n t e l l i g e n t , purposeful e f f o r t towards complete C h r i s t i a n character. Charting i s primarily and only a personal interview. I t i s an opportunity f o r a thoughtful, large-hearted earnest man, sympathetic to hoys and interested In t h e i r advancement, to meet with them Individually under most favorable condi-tions, and to lead them to l i f e decisions of inestimable value. Boys do not,run away from such an interview hut w i l l come hack again and again to t h e i r f r i e n d . Mentors w i l l not forget these relationships once established, because, when properly directed, they open great v i s t a s — m a g n i f i c e n t ave-nues of s e r v i c e — t o those who i n l a t e r days, often not f a r distant, may he leaders i n mighty enterprises, and always powers f o r good where they are. Charting jLs a personal interview d e f i n i t e l y d i r e c -ted. A study of the i l l u s t r a t i o n (copies can he obtained from the Boys' Work Boards i n every province) indicates the subjects, i n order, as the hoy and h i s ' f r i e n d consider them together. There are the four phases of h i s development to - 229 -be considered. Under each one there are the items which should concern a hoy of t h i s age. Each should have a copy of the badge hook or manual i n hand as the interview proceeds, and most hoys appreciate the opportunity of making t h e i r own records on the blank card. The chart shows that on the basis of the hoy's experience during the preceding twelve months, he i s "long" on some points and "short" on others. As these are revealed the Mentor's opportunity comes, not to preach or lecture the boy, hut wisely to counsel and i n -spire him at each point where the need i s shown. Encourage-ment i s needed to spur him on to remedy these defects and so be f u l l y developed on a l l four sides of h i s l i v i n g . It i s safe to say that most hoys are "lop-sided" when t h e i r i n i t i a l charting interview takes place. They have not considered, because they have not heen led to con-sider, many of the elements that enter Into a fully-rounded l i f e . Hence the opportunity to root new interests begins at t h i s point. I f the Mentor has had some personal experi-ence,-say i n woodcraft, campcraft, mid-week Bible discussions, or community service, to take hut one item i n each of the four programs—let these he opened up i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way and the boy w i l l want to follow the lead. He w i l l go out to square himself with a bigger i d e a l i n a l l phases of h i s l i f e than he had dreamed of before. 230 -If the Mentor has thought through l i f e ' s problems fo r himself, he can render an almost invaluable service to the hoy i n the matter of his " s p i r i t u a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He w i l l show him that l i f e cannot be divided into separate com-partments, hut that i t i s a unity and that the human person-a l i t y may grow to he (Indeed i 3 po t e n t i a l l y ) l i k e the Divine. There w i l l c e r t a i n l y arise the opportunity to present to the hoy a very r e a l and personal Jesus. That, of course, i s the key purpose of a l l our e f f o r t s , and the charting interview, i f i t n a t u r a l l y leads to the hoy's determination to know more intimately the L i v i n g C h r i s t , and to follow His way of l i f e , has heen more than worth while. Charting requires time and thought, but i t amply j u s t i f i e s the investment of both. I t occupies, as a r u l e , two hours or more, hut what better investment of that time could be made? Mentors I These boys w i l l be leaders i n many spheres almost before you r e a l i z e i t - - f o r how quickly the years speed p a s t i What more valuable p a t r i o t i c service can you render than to point them now to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of Canadian C h r i s t i a n Citizenship? You w i l l frequently f e e l the magnitude of the task and the Insufficiency of yourselves In i t , but t r y i t againJ Your reward w i l l appear i n days to come, I f indeed you do not see i t very soon, as youths come - 231 -back again to seek your counsel, and to t e l l you how a prac-t i c a l word of yours has been f r u i t f u l i n t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s abundantly worth while f o r both. 2. Vocations. Many hoys at adolescence are thinking seriously about what they want to do to earn a l i v i n g . Very few face-tious answers are given to the vocational preference question-naires. Vocational counsellors usually f i n d high school students quite eager to f i n d out about the occupations i n which they are interested. In personal Interviews with each of the one hundred thirty-seven pupils of a class entering junior high school, Brooks enquired about t h e i r vocational ambitions. A l l but four (ninety-seven per cent) had prefer-ences. In every case serious, interested responses were made; frequently, the pupil i n turn asked many questions to secure additional information. The l i f e - c a r e e r motive i s often a powerful one, representing a dominant purpose. I t may be a v i t a l , organ-i z i n g p r i n c i p l e i n certa i n phases of development of person-a l i t y . Boys often eagerly seek Information along l i n e s of the occupations they want to follow. Accordingly, the pro-blems of providing suitable vocational information and i n t i -mate vocational contacts are of great importance i n adoles-cent 'guidance and control. The chief value of 'such inform-- 232 -ation and contact l i e s , however, i n f a c i l i t a t i n g wise voca-t i o n a l choice. There i s no greater service which a leader may render to a boy than to help him see the great needs of the world f o r service, and to help him answer f o r himself the question—"How can I, such as I am i n a b i l i t y , health, charac-ter and opportunity, f i n d my best place f o r service, and use that place f o r my own betterment and that of humanity?" Dr. V a l i e t says, "A man's vocation i s not merely his means of securing a l i v e l i h o o d , but i t i s h i s moat ef f e c -t i v e means of rendering to aociety the l i f e which every man owes to hia kind". Another educator aays "A vocational guidance guide l a one who helps people f i n d themselve3. Vocational guidance i s the Science of thia aelf-discovery." In conaidering the choice of a l i f e work, the leader ahould help the hoy to study and become f a m i l i a r with occupations which appear to him intereating. He ahould also help him to study himaelf and hia own apecial aptitudea and a h i l i t i e 8 . He ahould further help the hoy to arrange i n t e r -viewa with men engaged i n the occupationa i n which the hoy i a p a r t i c u l a r l y intereated, that he may know something of the opportunitiea and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the occupation. He ahould conatantly keep before the hoy that the true meaning of vocation i a , "a c a l l i n g " . I t i s a a p i r i t u a l enterpriae, - 233 -a channel through which he can render hie best service to society. A very h e l p f u l s e l f - a n a l y s i s blank ha3 heen pre-pared hy the National Council of the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Associations which should he studied hy any leader who i s attempting f r i e n d l y vocational guidance. Probably the most h e l p f u l hook written to meet t h i s need i s , "The Find Your-s e l f Idea", hy C.C.Robinson. Above a l l , the leader should impress on the boy that the choice of a vocation i s a s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r , a c a l -l i n g to service. Extraneous considerations such as salary, power, fame, etc., should he subtracted e n t i r e l y , I f possible, out of the boy's thoughts, leaving room f o r the one leading thought or Idea—SERVICE. In choosing a vocation the hoy's every motive should he directed not Inwardly f i r s t to s e l f , but outward to others. Here i s the supreme test of the e f f i c a c y of the Tuxis Program—"Training f o r Service, Christ the Centrej You and I on either side; no one hut Christ be-tween us". I f wealth, power, fame, follow a f t e r thus choos-ing service f i r s t , (and there i s no reason why they shouldn't) he w i l l he a better man for the choice, and w i l l he so much better placed to carry out u n s e l f i s h service projects. Re-member, then; SERVICE FIRST, material things afterwards; f o r only i n t h i s way can we carry out the high s p i r i t u a l pur-- 234 -pose and so f u l f i l the divine teachings of C h r i s t . 3. Sex. Many adults of' the present generation are suf f e r -ing from the effects of certa i n customs and t r a d i t i o n s of the past which have brought about various h o s t i l e or per-verse attitudes towards sex. In what we sometimes c a l l the "vulgar" attitude, sex Is looked upon as an object of semi-ohscene jest and spoken of with a "smirk". On the other hand there i s the "prudish" at t i t u d e , r e s u l t i n g from re-s t r a i n t and repression of f e e l i n g s , which tends to conceal-ment and denial and often to hypocrisy. I t i s as unwhole-some as r i b a l d r y , though i n a d i f f e r e n t way. Unless leaders accept the facts of sex as normal and decent, unless they look upon reproduction and a l l that goes with i t as clean and f i n e and capable.of enlarging the meanings and the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of l i f e , we can hardly hope to impress upon hoys a wholesome and s a t i s f y i n g a t t i t u d e . Next i n importance to the leader's attitude i s hi s method. Much of the sex education i n the past has heen u n s c i e n t i f i c and harmful. The appeal has often heen to fear. Boys have heen t o l d of the t e r r i b l e r e s u l t s of sex i r r e g u l a -r i t i e s u n t i l , In many cases, nervous disorders have been set up with serious r e s u l t s . There, are a few important rules which every leader should consider: - 235 -• 1. His approach to sex education should he natural and unembarrassed. 2. His approach should he s c i e n t i f i c . 3. Sex education should he progressive. "Sex education i s f a r more than merely giving children the facts of existence, or warning youth of the dangers of disease. I t includes the entire f i e l d of morals, of health, of manners, and of s o c i a l and r a c i a l responsibi-l i t y . In other words, a l l education which has to do with the development of character and (healthful l i v i n g , may be considered a part of sex education. It i s well to remember that the undisciplined, self-indulgent c h i l d of today has an excellent chance of becoming the dissipated youth of to-morrow, even i n spite of the most ca r e f u l b i o l o g i c a l teach-ing. Therefore, we do not hold that t e l l i n g children the * truth concerning sex w i l l alone insure ideal morals, hut do maintain that i t i s a f a r step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , and one which every mother must take before she can f e e l that she has done her part i n the safeguarding of her boys and girls."""• 1. Dr. Lee A. Stone, "Sex Searchlights and Sane Sex E t h i c s " . - 236 -TABLE XII. The Age of F i r s t Permanent Impressions Regarding Sex. 1 Age No. of Boys 4 - 5 16 6 - 7 108 8 - 9 140 10 - 11 193 12 - 13 139 14 - 15 41 The average age at which 637 men received t h e i r f i r s t sex impressions was 9.6 years. 1. Stone op.ci t . p. 372. - 237 -TABLE XIII. The Age of F i r s t Proper Sex Instruction. 1 Lgj 3 No. of Boys 6 - 7 7 8 - 9 7 10 - 11 32 12 13 93 14 - 15 225 16 - 17 209 18 - 19 105 20 - 21 38 22 - 23 6 24 25 5 The average age at which 727 men received i n s t r u c t i o n from wholesome sources was 15.6 years. Sex i n s t r u c t i o n has a purely p r a c t i c a l aim, and should be s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d hy t h i s aim. Its purpose i s to impart such knowledge of sex at each period of the child's l i f e , as may he necessary to preserve health, develop r i g h t thinking and control conduct. 1. Stone op.cit. p. 372. - 238 -Thus l i m i t e d by i t s aim, sex i n s t r u c t i o n must d i f f e r i n one important respect from other s c i e n t i f i c i n -st r u c t i o n , i n that i t must not seek to create i n t e r e s t and awaken c u r i o s i t y i n the subject with which i t deals, hut merely to s a t i s f y the c u r i o s i t y which spontaneously arises i n the child ' s mind hy answering h i s questions t r u t h f u l l y , but only so completely as may he necessary to give proper guidance to his conduct, both hygienic and e t h i c a l . "The purely s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n must be r e i n -forced as strongly as possible by e t h i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , with due regard to the maturity of those taught. Among the means of i n d i r e c t e t h i c a l i n s t r u c -t i o n f o r t h i s purpose, the most e f f e c t i v e i s good l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s of immense consequence that during the adolescent years the p u p i l s ' minds he saturated with the great master-pieces, both i n poetry and prose, which deal with romantic love i n i t s purest forms." The value of physical exercise, e s p e c i a l l y i n the form of play and a t h l e t i c sport, i n i t s bearing on the con-t r o l of the sex i n s t i n c t , i s well known. A well-rounded program i n physical education includes a wide variety of 1."Canadian Mentor". Vol. 2, p. 15. - 239 -a c t i v i t i e s , c a l i s t h e n i c s , s p e c i a l corrective exercises, and games; i t helps to keep the adolescent's time f u l l y occupied, draws h i s attention away from himself, and diverts or sub-limates the sex impulses which normally become so strong during the teens. - 240 -CHAPTER XI. P r a c t i c a l Problems To Be Paced By Boys' Leaders.-with suggested solutions. Many so-called problems of mentors are not r e a l problems at a l l , hut merely personal problems of Individual mentors, depending on the.attitude, s i n c e r i t y , personality, preparation, hoys' cooperation i n program building or d r i v -ing power ("pep"). Generally speaking, when such problems as poor attendance, lack of group s p i r i t , lack of-home, church, or school cooperation, lack of d i s c i p l i n e , a r i s e , the f a u l t i s i n the mentor. He lacks the necessary energy or personality to "put over" the program; or he has not troubled to get the sympathy of the leaders i n the church, school, or community; or he i s attempting to "put over" h i s own program and so s t i f l i n g the intere s t and i n i t i a t i v e of h i s boys; or he just doesn't take the trouble to f i n d out what each hoy can do,and enquire as to h i s absence. These problems then, are i n d i v i d u a l and personal problems, and when they present themselves, i t i s time f o r the mentor to check up on himself to f i n d the trouble. But, supposing these d i f f i c u l t i e s do - 241 -ar i s e , how w i l l the mentor set out to remedy them? Let us discuss each of the above problems b r i e f l y : 1. Keeping Up Attendance. The wise leader keeps close tab on the attendance records of his group. At the f i r s t sign of f a l l i n g off on the part of in d i v i d u a l s , he should be on the a l e r t . F i r s t , he should endeavor to d i s -cover the cause of the sagging attendance. Is i t loss of interest? Is the program i n t e r e s t i n g , that i s , i s i t the hoys' own program? How i s the group s p i r i t ? Ave there causes outside the group that are taking t h e i r attention? Do parents and others know what the group i s trying to do? After having discovered the cause, then proceed to remedy i t . How? NOT "stunts", or whirlwind membership campaigns, or rewards, etc.; BUT, get i n touch with the boys, and t h e i r parents, i f necessary. Get the executive o f f i c e r s to work and interview every delinquent. Send out reminders of meetings frequently by mail. Try the. personal touch hy c a l l i n g at the boy's home or better s t i l l , i n v i t e him to your home f o r a good quiet chat. Find out what he can do that he has not heen asked to do; and make sure he i s given the opportunity. Go over your program again; see where i t i s f a u l t y and put "pep" and o r i g i n a l i t y into i t . Get suggestions from the delinquent hoys as to what they would l i k e to see i n the program, and i f possible, inculcate - 242 -i t . One word of warning, however, i s needed. Some of these boys come to the group only f o r the physical part of the program. Do not be persuaded hy them to give over the other sides of the program and make i t primarily an a t h l e t i c organization. I f they are hoys of t h i s kind, wise guidance i s needed to show them that they need the I n t e l l e c t u a l , S o c i a l and Religious just as much as the Physical, i n order to f u l f i l t h e i r destinies and become worthy c i t i z e n s . Again, i f we make Boys' group meetings worth while hy the things that happen, and hy the way i n which they f e e l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the program, we may he f a i r l y c e r t a i n that the hoys w i l l attend. If we make f r i e n d l i n e s s count and develop l o y a l t y to the group, they w i l l choose to attend the group meetings i n preference to other engage-ments • 2. Developing Group S p i r i t : This i s that vague Intangible something which cannot be defined hut i s so neces-sary to the well-being of the group. C a l l i t "esprit-de-corps'*, or l o y a l t y , or pride In the group, or what-you-will, i t i s a most necessary adjunct f o r the smooth-working pro-gress of a group toward a d e f i n i t e aim. Let us f i r s t study b r i e f l y the elements that might he present that tend to wreck t h i s group s p i r i t . The boys may not have a clear understanding of the aims of the Tuxis - 243 program, and the values accruing to them from i t , or they may not f e e l that they are a part of a great national and international movement. Again, the leader may he an auto-crat and i n s i s t on l e c t u r i n g . The boys may be forced to take part i n the leader's "home-made" programs, and f e e l t h e i r share to he small indeed. There may he cliques that are determined to wreck the benefits which the majority desire to have, and so allowing a s p i r i t of "back-biting", restlessness and disorder. The remedies here can he stated i n four words: Enthusiasm, Loyalty, Interest and Reverence. The leader has a large part to play i n the development of group s p i r i t . By h i s wise d i r e c t i o n and leadership, i t w i l l he found that his s p i r i t i s contagious, and that they w i l l stand together  with him and with each other to accomplish the aims which they a l l must be made to see are worth while. Let the lead-er he enthusiastic, as though the program were a game and the boys w i l l he behind him. Let him show no favors to any, but treat them a l l a l i k e i n a kindly, f a t h e r l y s p i r i t , and l o y a l t y w i l l be developed. Let the leader put into the pro-grams what the hoys are interested i n , giving them the major part of the work of carrying them out, and Interest w i l l never be lacking. - 244 -But suppose there i s a clique of boys who are determined to wreck the group s p i r i t , what w i l l the mentor do? Do I hear someone say,"Throw them out?" Certainly not. Give these unruly hoys something to do. Give them responsi-b i l i t y , and show them that you have f a i t h i n them, and they w i l l measure up to your estimate of them. Let them get up a "stunt", take part i n a program, organize a s o c i a l , or a hike, anything that has r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and your problem i s forever solved. Keep them .busy i n work they enjoy and hoys w i l l not be problem cases. 3. Getting Cooperation of the Home: The Home existed before most of our s o c i a l organizations, and we must never forget that our e f f o r t s f o r character development are supplementary to the Home. The Home i s the primary unit i n society, and we have no r i g h t to attempt to supplant I t . Clearly, however, we have a magnificent p r i v i l e g e , so f a r as hundreds of hoys are concerned, to do what many homes are not doing, and what many parents simply cannot begin to do. Mentors must keep parents of today informed of what they are t r y i n g to do f o r t h e i r boys. Cooperation of the home makes the work of mentors that much more simple and c e r t a i n l y more e f f e c t i v e . It may he well to write a l e t t e r to each hoy's father at the beginning of the season, - 245 -c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g purposes and procedure of the group. The Father and Son Banquet i s an opportunity of which f u l l advantage should be taken. Meet the fathers, t a l k to them about t h e i r hoys and arrange f o r other opportunities f o r cooperation. Have a father's night f a i r l y often at the regular group meeting, get the cooperation and help of fathers i n dramatics, minstrel troupes, gymnastic displays, finance campaigns, etc. Sometimes i t Is possible to get a fathers' group organized where trained leaders f i n d oppor-tunity to inform fathers as to the best educational methods of procedure i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r boys. Most parents w i l l respond to the e f f o r t s of the l o c a l mentor as they r e a l i z e that, aft e r a l l , t h i s i s a part of a great movement f o r developing the hoys of the nation fo r higher c i t i z e n s h i p and f o r consistent C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g . I t i s worth a l l the e f f o r t i t requires to secure the parents' help, and It may even mean as much to them as i t does to t h e i r boy. 4» Securing Cooperation of the School: The leader of boys has a splendid opportunity of "working with the boy" through keeping i n touch with him i n h i s school l i f e . While a hoy i s at school he is. giving p r a c t i c a l l y his ; entire work-ing, thinking and playing time to the interests centreing around school. School i s h i s world. School i s his l i f e . - 246 -The mentor must know thi s world i n which the boy l i v e s - i f he i s to have any worthwhile part i n leading the hoy into true l i f e . Although school work i s the most important part of school l i f e , i t alone w i l l tend to make the boy»s develop-# ment too one-sided. In order to obtain that four-square development f o r which Tuxis stands, he must r e l a t e himself-d e f i n i t e l y i n an active manner to the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s . The range of school a c t i v i t i e s i s wide, and i s con-stantly Increasing. The problem as f a r as the average boy i s concerned i s a matter of choice. Here, again, the mentor can help i n guiding the hoy to a r i g h t choice, and he should acquaint himself with the hoy's school a c t i v i t i e s i n order to avoid a duplication of them i n the mid-week a c t i v i t i e s of the group. A hoy should he advised to confine himself to no more than two e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , one selected from a t h l e t i c s , one selected from the group of other a c t i v i t i e s such as music, dramatics, oratory, debating, radio, etc. To these the hoy should bring a whole-hearted inter e s t In order that he may gain from tthem not only recreation but also the physical, moral and s o c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r future c i t i z e n s h i p . - 247 -What ahould he the attitude of the hoy to h i s teachers? F r i c t i o n between teacher and p u p i l , i n nearly a l l cases arises from misunderatanding, and haa frequently cauaed a hoy to leave achool before completing h i s course. Never before has the re l a t i o n s h i p between p u p i l and teacher heen so democratic, ao mutually b e n e f i c i a l aa i t i a at present i n our achool3. The hoy ahould regard hia p r i n c i p a l and teachera aa hia heat guidea i n the t r a i n i n g period of l i f e . The hoy who relate8 himaelf properly to the rules of hia achool w i l l learn that i n aociety the greate3t f r e e -dom i a poaslhle only under well-administered l e g i s l a t i o n . It i a of utmoat importance that the leadera make clear to elementary and high school teachera and author-i t i e a that our voluntary movement 13 not intended to com-pete with or c o n f l i c t with the school. We should make I t clear that we are ready to do our part whole-heartedly and i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n the "team game" of l i f e . We are concerned not with achool houra, hut with l e i s u r e time a c t i v l t i e a of boys. Most boys have some: many have too much. We should do our utmost to cooperate with the schools i n that we do not take hoys away from t h e i r studies, and we should aim to teach c i t i z e n s h i p i n such points as a r r i v i n g at school on time, getting assignments prepared on time, keeping up a high standard of work, etc. - 248 -We should not i n s i s t on hoys attending group meetings during the time of t h e i r examinations. At these times, i f necessary, the group meetings should he cancelled, or scheduled e a r l i e r so as to leave the evenings free f o r study or r e s t . A splendid way to secure -cooperation i n the schools i s through teachers who may he e n l i s t e d f o r church work with boys. Some may think i t so much l i k e t h e i r regular duty that they w i l l want to avoid i t , but scores of teachers have found i t not irksome, hut a key to r e a l success through the better mutual understandings which these more informal re-lationships have ins p i r e d . 5. Securing Cooperation of Church Leaders; In some churches hoys* groups are handicapped hy the attitude of l o c a l church leaders and o f f i c e r s . This Is surprising and disappointing to workers with hoys who take up t h e i r tasks with enthusiasm, conviction, and ade-quate preparation to enable them to do a work of far-reaching s i g n i f i c a n c e . S t i l l , t h e r e i s something to he said on the other side. Boys are sometimes destructive and thoughtless and It i s no wonder that Church Boards get impatient. Boys must be taught to care f o r church equipment as i f i t were t h e i r own, which, i n i t s e l f , i s valuable t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n -- 249 -ship. Where t h i s i s done more harmony w i l l r e s u l t , 6. Keeping Good Order i n a Group. This again, Is a leader's personal i n d i v i d u a l problem, hingeing almost altogether on the hoy's i n t e r e s t and the leader's personality. I f a leader does not know and understand boys i n general, and h i s own hoys i n p a r t i c -u l a r , he i s prone to make g l a r i n g blunders In d i s c i p l i n e , either from being too autocratic and i r r i t a b l e when things don't move as smoothly as he would wish, or from being too easy-going so that the group-meeting i s v e r i t a b l y a rough-house. When boys become unruly In a group, the leader would do well to take an inventory of himself, h i s methods, his program and other conditions before blaming i t on the hoys. Sometimes, disorder i s caused from other f a c t o r s . A group that i s not homogeneous provides frequent causes fo r disorder. Cliques ari s e and mischief enters because the purposes of the group are not centred on the same things. Groups should not contain too great d i s p a r i t y i n ages, i n -t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and congeniality. The more nearly these factors meet i n the i n d i v i d u a l s of the group the more l i k e l y one i s to f i n d them working harmoniously together. Every leader should study and ponder often the laws of learning and d i s c i p l i n e : - 250 -The Law of Exercise. (a) A hoy learns what he practises. Hahit enters here and emphasis should be on the "he". (h) A hoy learns what he practises i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The Law of E f f e c t . A hoy practises that which i s s a t i s f y i n g and avoids or tends not to practise that which i s annoying. The Law of Readiness. (a) I t i s s a t i s f y i n g to practise that which we are ready to do and annoying to practise that which we are not ready to do. (h) If we have reason f o r doing a thing we are more ready. (c) Readiness, or desire, i s not best pro-duced by coercion, hut by (1) p o s i t i v e suggestion (2) cooperation (3) f a i t h (4) approval - 251 -Again, we would repeat,' give the unruly ones some-thing to do that they are interested i n , and have f a i t h i n them. They w i l l measure up. 7. Training In Worship. The opportunities f o r t r a i n i n g hoys i n worship arise very d e f i n i t e l y i n the Intermediate and Senior depart-ments. T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis groups may he guided In such a way that they may render a very large contrihution In t h i s sphere. There are certain obstacles to reverent worship, which may require attention i n a group before r e a l progress i n devotions may be made. The external conditions are very important. Most people f i n d d i f f i c u l t y In establishing r i g h t attitudes f o r worship In disorderly, uncomfortable, or poorly ven t i l a t e d rooms. Boys quickly detect whether worship ser-vices have heen planned, or whether they are just haphazard, according to the chance suggestions of the moment. If wor-ship services are made formal and s t i f f we scarcely dare ex-pect a complete response, hut i f they are v i t a l and true to l i f e , they may f i x abiding impressions. We r e f e r to the sum t o t a l of those experiences which we organize f o r the r e l i g i o u s education of youth as our program. Worship should he a v i t a l part of our program. - 252 -I t i s not possible to compare i t i n importance with the several a c t i v i t i e s which go to make up our program, f o r i t i s not something d i s t i n c t from our recreation and play, our study and our service a c t i v i t i e s . Rather i t i s the emotional emphasis i n a more complete r e l i g i o u s experience. It i s the v i t a l i z i n g element i n our t o t a l program, growing out of and leading into a l l of the other a c t i v i t i e s . A study of our present programs of r e l i g i o u s education reveals f a u l t s i n most of them with regard to worship. I. Worship i s too many times viewed as an a c t i v i t y quite d i s t i n c t from the a c t i v i t i e s of study, of service, and of play engaged i n hy the group. '*'he materials of the worship program are many times selected and arranged without any reference to the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s i n which the group are engaging at the time. Worship themes and orders of service are selected by adult leaders without reference to the needs and interests of the p a r t i c u l a r group. I I . In many programs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n denominational l o c a l church programs, worship i s almost t o t a l l y ignored. I I I . Many leaders of youth do not know the meaning of wor-ship, Its nature and function i n the r e l i g i o u s development of youthj they do not themselves know how to worship. IV. In an attempt to get away from adult forms of worship, - 255 -some leaders have swung to the opposite uneducational extreme, and have t r i e d to in t e r e s t young people hy using devices and methods designed f o r children. There i s no challenge or stimulus f o r youth i n children's worship. V. In many instances the worship service i n the Church School i s referred to as opening exercises. Genuine worship under such conditions as generally attend opening exercises i s impossible. VI. Par too many adult leaders monopolize the leadership of adolescent worship services. Those cases are rare where ample opportunities are provided f o r p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and cooperation. VII. Materials of worship are often used which make worship p r a c t i c a l l y impossible, and, i n f a c t , a c t u a l l y b u i l d up attitudes of irreverence and stimulate un-Christian purposes and i d e a l s . Materials of Worship 1. Music. In worship, emotions are aroused, purposes and attitudes developed.and created, and feel i n g s s t i r r e d with the struggle f o r expression. There i s a f e l t need on the part of the worshippers f o r a language of worship to express t h e i r r e l i g i o u s feelings and aspirations. As no other e l e -ment In worship, music provides t h i s moat necessary vehicle - 254 -of expression. Music not only expresses emotions and a t t i -tudes but also creates them. Music, therefore, may he either a good thing or a had thing. We should note three types of music f o r worship: (a) HYMNS - hymns should he majestic, simple, and a r t i s t i c ; b e a u t i f u l , l y r i c a l and l i t e r a r y , and the imagery suggested should he wholesome and Chr i s t i a n ; suited i n thought and meaning to the in t e r e s t s , needs and capacities of youth; stimulate the l o f t i e s t ideals and noblest purposes i n young people; suited i n s p i r i t and meaning to the occasion i n which they are used. (h) INSTRUMENTAL - Stringed instruments are best here. The v i o l i n lends i t s e l f to the inter p r e t a t i o n of worship music, (c) VOCAL NUMBERS - G e n e r a l l y a d i s t r a c t i n g factor i n ado-lescent worship and should he used sparingly. 2. Prayer. Prayer i s the heart of worship. I t i s the person-a l approach to God, entering into as close fellowship with God as the soul i s capable. C h r i s t i a n prayer involves the conception of God as Father, who knows whereof we are made, who shares our nature and Interests, and who rules by co-operation, not hy fear. When we relate ourselves to Him i n prayer and share His purposes f o r our l i v e s , we f i n d our - 255 -pers o n a l i t i e s released and freed f o r enlarged l i v i n g . Prayer has greatest value f o r adolescents when i t prepares them to meet the challenge of l i f e and when i t s answers are wrought out i n vigorous a c t i v i t y . Emphasis on personal r e l i g i o n and the deeper meanings of l i f e i s charac-t e r i s t i c of adolescent prayers. Prayer should not only re-veal God to adolescents, but should help them to be related to God's plan f o r establishing the kingdom. The prayers used i n the worship service should he d e f i n i t e l y thought out or written out. Boys of the junior high school age i n pa r t i c u l a r need t r a i n i n g before they can engage i n extempore prayer with any degree of naturalness. With some i t may he best at f i r s t f o r them to memorize the prayer to he given. R e a l i t y i n prayer i s the object, and every e f f o r t should be made to at t a i n t h i s . The prayers should b u i l d around the central theme of the service. Group prayers, repeated or sung, have p a r t i c u l a r meaning f o r adolescents, e s p e c i a l l y intermediates and seniors. With encouragement by the Mentor, boys of Tuxis age can be l e d over t h e i r shyness of leading prayer i n the group. At f i r s t following the Mentor's example and talks on prayer, hoys are l e d to the point where the Mentor can ask f o r volunteers to take turns i n leading prayer. The hoys are encouraged hy the success of these few hoys, (and - 256 -the Mentor hy coaching must see that these f i r s t ventures are a success) and the habit grows. Soon the whole group is w i l l i n g to share the experience. 3. Scripture and E x t r a - B i b l i c a l L i t e r a t u r e . Select c a r e f u l l y a theme f o r each service and see that i t i s developed well within the time l i m i t set. S U Ch. themes as Gratitude, Loyalty, F a i t h , Good-will, Joy, Conse-cration, Brotherllness, Comradeship, Courage, etc. always offer wide ranges of choice i n the se l e c t i o n of the parts. 4. Stories and Talks. 5. Symbolism. Signs and symbols can he made powerful factors i n giving r e a l i t y and meaning to great emotions and id e a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n work with adolescents. There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of using many of the signs and symbols which have grown out of C h r i s t i a n i t y without v i o l a t i n g the t r a d i -tions of Protestantism. Masterpieces of painting and sculp-ture contribute greatly to the creation of a "potential worship s i t u a t i o n " . 6. Offering. Because one of the acts of "summing-up", i t should be attended hy a l l the dignity and beauty which characterize the other elements i n the program. - 257 8. Temperance Education - A Challenge to Good  L i v i n g . Whenever the word "Temperance" i s used today, almost always the thought of al c o h o l i c beverages arises i n our minds. Perhaps t h i s i s because so much p u b l i c i t y has heen, and i s being given to the harmful effects of alcohol on the human system. Again, perhaps i t i s on account of the f a r c i c a l attempts at r e s t r a i n i n g the growth of the li q u o r habit e s p e c i a l l y i n the United States of America. Certain i t i s that t h i s problem of temperance i n the consumption of l i q u o r i s a major problem i n the educa-t i o n of the youth of today. Yet i t i s not the only connota-ti o n of the term temperance. I t i s v i t a l l y necessary to teach temperance i n other things as well j such things, f o r instance, as pleasure, the use of tobacco, the use of l e i s u r e time, eating, etc. In f a c t , one might better say,- l e t us have temperance i n a l l things rather than single out the question f o r our undivided attention. In passing then, l e t us remember aa mentors, that i t i a our duty to l a y the fa c t s proven hy medical science before the boys of our groupa, not only aa to e v i l effecta of alcohol, hut aa to any other i n -temperate practices. But, as alcohol i s recognized as the greateat outlet f o r intemperance, not only hy the public, hut by governmenta today who are endeavoring to f i n d a u i t -- 258 -able methods of control, we w i l l discuss i t more i n d e t a i l here. During the past few years the laws concerning the sale of a l c o h o l i c l i q u o r i n the various provinces of Canada have changed to a considerable extent. In nearly every province, i t Is now p e r f e c t l y l e g a l to buy and s e l l l i q u o r under certain governmental r e s t r i c t i o n s . This renewed a v a i l a b i l i t y of' i n t o x i c a t i n g drink has emphasized the neces-s i t y f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the teen-age hoy, to come to a d e f i n i t e conclusion as to h i s attitude toward alcohol. In order that the hoy may come to an i n t e l l i g e n t conclusion, i t i s necessary that he should know the fa c t s about alcohol and i t s effects on the in d i v i d u a l and on society. The subject should he presented i n a l l Its aspects and i n an absolutely unbiased form, (for do not the fa c t s speak f o r themselves?) and allow the hoys to judge f o r themselves. Most boys are, or desire to.be, athletes of note. Bring before t h e i r minds the thousands of stories of ath-l e t e s who f a i l e d on account of drink; of the many f o o t b a l l and baseball coaches l i k e Knute Rockne and Connie Mack, who have frankly said, "that old man booze has put more men out of the game, than a l l the referees put together"; of the big employers of labor l i k e Henry Pordj who w i l l not have - 259 -an employee on hie s t a f f who drinks l i q u o r i n any form; and l e t these facts speak f o r themselves. Put i t up to the boys that they have a choice to make and a very serious one. On one side there i s the choice (of a clean, healthy, a l e r t body and mind, prepared to meet a l l situations sanely and with unclouded v i s i o n , the athlete who g l o r i e s i n h i s strength, vigor and perfect timing, the man who forges ahead In business and s o c i a l l i f e unhampered hy an unhealthiness which he i s powerless to shake o f f . On the other hand, the athlete who finds himself unable to keep up i n the race, whose stamina and v i r i l i t y are sapped, and eventually has to give i n to "old man booze" and had habits of t r a i n i n g , - the man who i s "beaten at the s t a r t " not only i n a t h l e t i c s hut i n business and s o c i a l l i f e as well. Not only should the boy know of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , physical and moral harm to the i n d i v i d u a l , which are i n e v i -tably associated with the taking of alcohol as a beverage, hut he should also know of the harmful effects of i t s use upon society as a whole. Alcohol i s even more damaging to . society than to the i n d i v i d u a l . Homes are wrecked by i t ; sorrow and shame become the l o t of friends and r e l a t i v e s of those addicted to drink; crime of a l l kinds i s associated with drink; poverty and pauperism are inevitable accompani-ments of the general use of alcohol. The l i v e s of those f o r - 2 6 0 whom we care and the l i f e of our community and nation, can never r i s e to the heights of i d e a l manhood and womanhood, where the use of alc o h o l i c l i q u o r i a at a l l general. Excellent material f o r the teaching of temperance can always be procured from the Supply Depot of the National or P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Board, or from the headquarters o f f i c e of any of the denominations. 9. Linking Up With the Young People's Organizations. " I t just aeema impoasible to make a Young People'a Society 'go' i n our church", said a young woman whoae face no l e 8 a than her voice expressed discouragement. She con-t i n u e d , "It's hard to understand, too, f o r we have a good C.G.I.T. organization and three enthusiastic groups of Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger hoys". T h a t same story might be t o l d by many a di s t r a c t e d Y.P.S. worker, eapecially i n churches i n the large towna and c i t i e s . And what i a the reason? Why do not g i r l a and hoys from our C.G.I.T. and C.S.E.T. groupa more n a t u r a l l y graduate Into the Young People'a Societies, and into other forms of a c t i v i t y i n our churches. Probably no single ana-wer can he given, but one reason f o r the f a i l u r e of young men and young women to work together more enthuaiaatically, i a doubtless that they have not learned to work together - 261 -during t h e i r teens. In a town or c i t y In which the g i r l s and hoys are divided among two or three High Schools, or i n which t h e i r places of employment are widely separated, these "teen-agers" may see very l i t t l e of one another during the week. Indeed, even I f teen-age g i r l s and hoys do happen to attend the same school, i t does not necessarily follow that they w i l l come to know and appreciate one another, f o r i n many schools today i t i s an offence against the regulations f o r hoys and g i r l s to t a l k together i n the corridors or class-rooms. In our Sunday Schools, too, g i r l s and hoys may look at one another i n a frankly interested way across the school-room, but often no opportunity i s given f o r t h e i r meeting. If then, i n addition to a l l t h i s , we carry on a c t i v i t i e s f o r our g i r l s and hoys on week nights quite with-out r e l a t i o n , the one group to the other, we w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y secure the lamentable r e s u l t of making l a t e r co-operation between young men and women d i f f i c u l t . There i s no doubt that teen-age g i r l s and boys are interested i n one another. They ought to he. But the present tendency i n our large schools, both secular and r e l i g i o u s , Is to i s o l a t e the groups and make t h e i r associ-ation together appear almost improper. This seems both un-natural and unfortunate. By the time our Tuxis hoy has he-- 262 -come eighteen or twenty, he has very l i k e l y formed f r i e n d -ships which do not draw him n a t u r a l l y into the young people's group of h i s own church. Not only i s he not interested i n the young women who come to the Y.P.S. hut he i s unaccus-tomed to working with them and i s self-conscious i n t h e i r presence. But i t i s not alone f o r the sake of making co-operation possible between young men and women i n the years to he that j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s ought to he promoted f o r boys and g i r l s . Such a c t i v i t i e s should prove to have present as well as future value. There i s a c e r t a i n graciousness and refinement which boys may learn from g i r l s , while themselves contributing something of robustness and v i r i l i t y . I t would seem, therefore, to he a good thing i f i n many of our church-es experiments In cooperation could he carried out, the res u l t s of which should be made available to a wide c i r c l e of workers with g i r l s and hoys. Experience would seem to show that where the two groups have not been accustomed to working together i t i s best to begin with the sharing of part rather than the whole of any evening's program. Even a f u l l evening given over to a party or s o c i a l may f a l l f l a t unless the boys and g i r l s have previously become acquainted by easy stages. - 263 -Th© writer hopes that the following solution may-help solve the problem i n other churches as i t has i n the one he attends. The writer i s mentor of' a group of f o r t y -odd Tuxis hoys and finds t h i s boy and g i r l s o c i a l problem p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent i n t h i s church. A great deal of credit f o r thi s success i s due to our minister, who went r i g h t to the root of the matter, and organized two Young People's Soc i e t i e s , where before there was only one and that one not very active, e s p e c i a l l y as f a r as the young men were concerned. These two Young People's Societies are designated as Junior. Young People and Senior Young People, the f i r s t ranging i n ages from sixteen-twenty years and the second from twenty-one years up. This new group, the Junior Young People, meets every second Sunday before church at 5:30 p.m. f o r a supper meeting where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of program, serving, washing-up, etc. are shared hy both sexes. They l a t e r attend the evening service. During the week they are a l l o t t e d hy the gymnasium committee two a f t e r -noons f o r badminton and v o l l e y - h a l l , etc., i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e together quite n a t u r a l l y and enjoyably. They put on other s o c i a l functions together occasionally, such as hikes, camping t r i p s , t h e a t r i c a l s , etc. Such an organ-i z a t i o n w i l l continue n a t u r a l l y when the age of twenty i s reached, and i t i s nothing hut expected that they then he-- 264 -come the Senior Young People which i s the organization now e x i s t i n g i n most churches. This ensures success and contin-u i t y i n the Young People's S o c i e t i e s . It i s perhaps unnecessary to point out that t h i s Junior Young People's Society i s composed l a r g e l y of members of the Senior C.G.I.T. and Tuxis groups, so that n a t u r a l l y such cooperation as has been mentioned above i s just as noticeable between these groups. I f the Tuxis group puts on an I n s t a l l a t i o n Banquet or a Father and Son Banquet or a Minstrel Show, they n a t u r a l l y ask the g i r l s from the Senior C.G.I.T. to serve at the banquet or take part i n the orchestra or minstrel troupe. This has heen done very successfully, the g i r l s blacking-up as well, to the amuse-ment of a l l concerned. And when the Mother and Daughter Banquet comes around, the hoys are asked to serve i n the same s p i r i t of cooperation. The G i r l s and Boys have held separate group Sunday School up t i l l l a t e l y , when the Tuxis group expressed a desire to meet with the Senior g i r l s . This has heen s a t i s f a c t o r i l y arranged, the g i r l s proving just as w i l l i n g as the hoys. 10. The Place of Recreation i n the Program. It i s the supreme seriousness of play that gives i t i t s educational importance. Education, as we have a l l - 265 -learned, i s not simply a matter of accumulating knowledge: we are now learning the further truth, which Proehel taught, that i t i s not even a matter of acquiring power, of t r a i n -ing the muscles and the mind. We aim to develop power; we t r a i n the muscles and the mind; but we are no longer content unless these serve as avenues to something deeper. The question i s not of learning, nor yet of power, but of charac-te r . If the lesson has struck home, the r e s u l t i s not merely more knowledge or more i n t e l l i g e n c e , hut more hoy or g i r l — more of a person there f o r a l l purposes. I f h i s arithmetic has t r u l y reached him, he w i l l play better f o o t b a l l ; I f h i s f o o t b a l l has heen the r e a l thing, he w i l l do better at Arithmetic. This i s the test of a true educational experi-ence—that I t leaves a larger personality behind. An exercise to have t h i s educational e f f e c t must possess the q u a l i t y of complete enlistment. I t i s with the core of being, the central and pervading essence, as with the subordinate f a c u l t i e s : the soul, l i k e the muscles, grows hy action; i t creates i t s e l f hy s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , by putting i t s e l f f o r t h i n overt deeds and into concrete form. It i s only what you put the whole of yourself Into, that w i l l give you a greater s e l f i n return. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the true educational experi-ence i s possessed by play and, to the f u l l extent, by play - 266 -alone. It l a only i n M s play that the child'a whole power ia c a l l e d f o r t h , that he geta himaelf e n t i r e l y i n t o what he does. Or rather, i n play he puts more than himaelf into i t , more than was actually there, or would ever have existed, i f c a l l e d f o r hy a le s s powerful enchanter. Play i s l i k e a chemical reaction; i n i t the child's nature leaps out to-ward i t a own and takes poaaession. Play seen from.the inside, as the c h i l d sees i t , i s the moat aeriou3 thing i n l i f e . Seen from the outside, as a natural phenomenon, i t s importance corresponds. Nature Is as much i n earneat i n t h i a matter as i s the c h i l d . Her purpose as declared i n the child's play i n s t i n c t s i s the most serious purpose she has i n h i s behalf. It includes, indeed, the whole intention with which she brought him f o r t h , namely, to make a man of him. "Play trains f o r L i f e . The process may he seen, as well as cause and e f f e c t i n nature ever can he seen, hy any one who w i l l watch a c h i l d at play. There you see Man the Maker taking shape before your very eyes through b u i l d -ing blocks, mechanical toys, and the making of mud pies and palaces, Man the Poet born In the chanting and dancing gamea, Man the Nurturer growing through play with d o l l s and pets and planta and younger children, Man the S c i e n t i s t evolved i n plays of imitation, of exploring, c o l l e c t i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , - 267 -Man the Hunter developed i n the chasing games, Man the F i g h t e r — t h e Hercules of our nature, addressed to obstacles as such, whose joy i s i n the cussedness of things—wrought i n the hundred games of contest, and Man the C i t i z e n i n the great team games."* The leader's task i s to endeavor to fo s t e r clean sport and to make such conduct natural. Play i s not to be thought of as a b a i t to draw hoys to the group or church. In the end t h i s w i l l defeat the r e a l purpose of the group meeting. The rules of the game are to be regarded as mu-tu a l agreements, the s p i r i t or l e t t e r of which one should no sooner t r y to evade or break than one would any other agreement between gentlemen. The stealing of advantage i n sport i s to he regarded In the same way as s t e a l i n g of any other kind. V i s i t i n g teams are the honored guests of the home team. No course of conduct i s to he pursued which would seem ungentlemanly or dishonorable I f known to one's opponents or the p u b l i c . No advantages are to he sought over others i n the game except those i n which sup e r i o r i t y of s k i l l can he shown. Advantage should not be taken of the l a x i t y of o f f i c i a l s i n interpreting and enforcing the r u l e s . 1. Joseph Lee - "Play i n Education", p. 10. -, 268 -Decisions of o f f i c i a l s are to be abided by, even when they seem u n f a i r . Unfair means are not to he used even when employed hy opponents. Good points i n others should be appreciated and suitable recognition given. In short, hoys should he trained to play the game f a i r l y , l o s i n g cheer-f u l l y when they cannot win honestly, and winning with he-coming modesty after showing the opponents every possible degree of sportmanship possible. Better never to win than to win hy u n f a i r means. 11. Danger of Over-Emphasizing One Side of  Program. It i s a f a i r l y common state to f i n d play, or the physical side of our program, more i n demand than the other three sides, i . e . Devotional, I n t e l l e c t u a l , and S o c i a l . This condition may ex i s t f o r a b r i e f period hut the remedy i s education. When a mentor discovers that h i s group has a tendency to hurry through the "meeting part" of t h e i r program, (which Includes the Devotional, Social and I n t e l -l e c t u a l sides), so that they can rush on to the part that to them r e a l l y matters, what i s the matter?. What i s he going to do to remedy this defect, f o r defect i t i s ? In the f i r s t place, as we pointed out just above when discussing the place of Recreation, play i s natural, a body-builder and a t r a i n i n g f o r L i f e . But also we pointed - 269 -out that a boy plays a better game If h i s other work, such as Arithmetic, and home chores, and praise of the Creator i s f i r s t well done. What hoys need i s wise guidance to show them that L i f e i s not a l l play, though play t r a i n s f o r L i f e i f synchronized and given proper timing to Include other necessary features of a well-rounded l i f e . Too many former Tuxis groups are s l i p p i n g back into just hoys' clubs with t h e i r main objectives as play and recreation, and perhaps a l i t t l e of the I n t e l l e c t u a l , (for they sometimes put on amateur dramatics), and S o c i a l , (for they generally use a portion of t h e i r funds f o r r e l i e f of those i n d i s t r e s s ) . But t h e i r main purpose i s A t h l e t i c , and they object to any form of r e l i g i o u s devotions. It Is not so much the hoys' f a u l t as the leaders' f a u l t . Boys may s l i p into t h i s state through lack of leadership or through poor leadership. The remedy i s r e a l l y too obvious to be dealt with at length here. B r i e f l y stated i t rests with the Mentor, who i f he r e a l l y wishes to see these hoys carry on the four-f o l d program, w i l l q u i e t l y and j u d i c i o u s l y i n s e r t h i s per-sonality into the discussion. He w i l l show the advantages of a well-rounded l i f e , the r e a l purpose of man i n l i v i n g at a l l , and give the boys a glimpse of the higher l i f e through C h r i s t i a n service and fellowship. The writer took - 270 -over such a group and a f t e r two meetings of careful d i s -cussion and thorough in v e s t i g a t i o n , he asked the assembled hoys to express t h e i r desire hy voting on i t . The r e s u l t -ing vote was unanimously i n favor of the Tuxis program and no doubt of purpose has existed since. In f a c t , the group has more than doubled i t s membership since that decision was made and followed out. 11. Delinquency and Its Prevention. Some adolescent young people endowed with excep-t i o n a l vigor and precoclousness do not y i e l d r e a d i l y to the influences which should be adequate to keep them within the bounds of good conduct. The play s p i r i t seems to have gone wild. They are abnormally s e l f - w i l l e d . They may be l i v i n g i n a world of baseless romance. An overpowering desire to know the world sets prudence aside. With the passions of maturity and the s e l f - r e s t r a i n t of childhood, the vigor of a man and the judgment of a boy, they are ripe f o r any course of conduct which suggests i t s e l f to them. Such boys or g i r l s may d r i f t into one of a number of d i f f e r e n t courses. They may play truant constantly or drop hack of t h e i r grade i n schoolj they may run away from home; they may, at home or elsewhere, become dissipated. In any case, they are l i k e l y to enter Into many changes, perhaps f a l l i n g i n one school a f t e r another or i n one posi-- 271 -t i o n a f t e r another. They show a discouraging lack of a p t i -tude f o r anything i n p a r t i c u l a r within the ordinary range of adolescent behavior. Of these delinquents who appear In court, f i f t y -one percent of the boys are there f o r v i o l a t i o n of property r i g h t s , and eighty-one percent of the g i r l s are c l a s s i f i e d as i n c o r r i g i b l e , d i s o r d e r l y and immoral. More than two-thirds of a l l delinquent hoys are from twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, and t h i r t y - e i g h t percent of a l l g i r l s are from sixteen to eighteen. Signs of waywardness appear l a t e r i n g i r l s than boys. Going to work may mean that the hoy w i l l s e t t l e down, but with g i r l s i t may mean the beginning of temptation. In round numbers nine-tenths of the d e l i n -quent g i r l s and three-fourths of the delinquent boys come from the homes of the poor. It appears that thirty-one per-cent of the g i r l s did not have normal parental control. The primary need of these delinquents then, seems to be a home and good parents. When a working man finds h i s son r e s t l e s s or un-successful i n school, he usually cuts the matter short by putting him to work. The work chosen, however, should be selected c h i e f l y f o r i t s educative rather than i t s f i n a n c i a l Interest. I t i s to he thought of as another kind of school. The youth s t i l l needs an education, and to put him i n t o a - 272 -b l i n d - a l l e y occupation w i l l not only stop his education hut take away his courage. The prodigal usually returns. One of many i n -fluences may bring him back. The time when he has used up his resources i s apt to he coincident with the time when his new-found friends desert him, and his new-found experi-ences p a l l upon him. Sometimes sickness of body or soul brings him back home. Again, h i s experiences may have d i s -covered f o r him new purposes, which he hastens to return to f u l f i l l . I t i s perhaps fortunate that during adolescence a l l hoys and many g i r l s tend to turn from t h e i r mothers to t h e i r fathers.. Men, because of t h e i r broader d a i l y experi-ence, are supposed to look at things i n a lar g e r way, and the father who appreciates h i s p r i v i l e g e , ought at thi s time to be i n a po s i t i o n to he trusted and depended Upon as never before. There are some manifestations during t h i s period, usually considered t r y i n g , that may he Interpreted as r e a l l y what we l i k e to c a l l "good signs". The youth i s garrulous. But t h i s means that he i s co n f i d e n t i a l . No matter i f the boy bores you dreadfully with his f o o t b a l l l i n g o , he thankful that he trusts you so as to want to t e l l you his secrets. Never shut that door. - 273 • The youth i s not studious. Mayhe he i s protecting his health while growing, maybe not. The main point i s not "what i s he getting out of school," hut, "what i s he getting out of l i f e ? " L i f e i s more important than school. The youth has such crude moral conceptions. Crude, hut strong. And d i d you ever notice how true he i s to the few conceptions that he has succeeded i n mastering? The work Is not to he judged t i l l sundown. Be s a t i s f i e d with your.own mood before you t r y i t on the c h i l d . Take more time to get into the r i g h t mood than you do to act. Most things are better decided over night and not on the spur of the moment. I t i s a task well worth a l l i t costs. The price of saving a prodigal may he the r e a l t e s t of the adult leader's character. 12. Getting Boys to Take Up Church Membership. At t h i s time when there i s an i n s t i n c t i v e desire to belong to s o c i a l groups, the psychological foundation of church membership i s provided. No hoy or g i r l should pass through the period of early adolescence without having the p r i v i l e g e of s a t i s f y i n g t h i s natural desire to unite with the church. The high s p i r i t u a l ideas of the church are not a h a r r i e r now as they w i l l he I f membership i s deferred u n t i l adulthood s h a l l have heen reached. I t i s a d e f i n i t e - 274 -part of the adult leader's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to awaken and strengthen the desire f o r fellowship within an organized group of followers of Jesus C h r i s t . Give such explanations of the.common b e l i e f s , ceremonials and practices of t h i s holy I n s t i t u t i o n as w i l l make membership within i t meaningful, h e l p f u l , j o y f u l . These hoys and g i r l s should now begin to grow into the com-mon b e l i e f s and practices of the church rather than he per-mitted to form a r b i t r a r y b e l i e f s and attitudes which w i l l greatly increase the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r j o i n -ing the church i n l a t e r years. I t i s of special advantage that this desire to i d e n t i f y oneself with the organized forms of C h r i s t i a n i t y have the hearty approval of parents. In those cases where parents object, i t w i l l usually he found that they do not f u l l y understand the advantages that w i l l come to t h e i r c h i l d i f he takes this Important step. - 275 -TABLE XIV. Attendance at Church, Sunday School and Mid-Week Meetings - Boys of Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square -i n 1931-32, and i n 1932-33. (Crosby United Church, Vancouver, B.C.) 1. Sunday School Attendance. No. of Sunday Meet-ings. 40 No. of Mid-week Meet-ings. 42 Year 1931 - 32. Active Mem-bers. 25 Active Mem-bers 25 Sundays 44 Memher J 25 Year 1952 -55. Average Attend-ance. 15.5 Percent Attend-ance. 62. No. of Sunday Meet-ings 42 2. Mid-Week Meetings. Average Attend-ance. 18.2 Attend-ance. 12 Percent Attend-ance 72.8 No. of Mid-Week Meet-ings 42 5• Church Attendance• Percent 48 Active Mem-bers. 52 Active Mem-bers. 52 Sunday 3 Members 44 52 Average Attend-ance. 22.6 Average Attend-ance. 25.2 Attend-ance. 18.5 Percent Attend-ance. 70.62 Percent Attend-ance. 78.75 Percent 57.31 t - 276 -TABLE XV. Church Membership - Members of Kla Tuxis Square Who Joined the Church 1931 and 1932. -How-Ya Year No. of Boys i n Group. No. Already Members. No. Who Joined Church. 1931 - 32 25 5 4 1932 - 33 32 9 8 E a r l y adolescent l o y a l t y to the church school and the church, to parents and other members of the family, to the public school, and to the play group directed by leaders who are themselves l o y a l to Christ and His Church, constitute the best preparation f o r the year3 of storm and stress which follow immediately. A balanced program of a c t i v i t i e s leads i n the d i r e c t i o n of a balanced character. Leisure-time occupations should be consistent with and re-enforce the lessons included i n the program of formal re-l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s the one who, himself, i s l i v i n g the f u l l e r l i f e who can appreciate the personal q u a l i t i e s of a hero l i k e Paul or Moses or E l i j a h . In developing along the l i n e s of the f o u r f o l d standard, i t w i l l he d i s -covered that body helps mind no less than mind helps body; that r e l i g i o n helps both as well as p u r i f i e s and strengthens - 277 -the s o c i a l nature. This f u l l e r l i f e comes as the r e s u l t of youth's endeavor to r e a l i z e the Ideal. Imagination i s active. Present attainments do not s a t i s f y . There, i s an inevitable up-reaching and out-reaching that i s s a t i s f i e d only hy a sense of the expansion of l i f e . I t i s the time of " s t r i k -i n g l y pure idealism". There i s genuine i n t e r e s t i n v i c t o r y over weaknesses or discovery through new and enlarging ex-perience. I t i s not only the body hut also the s p i r i t that i s r e s t l e s s and eager to grow. Y/ith Saint Augustine, the early adolescent can t r u l y say: "Thou hast made us f o r Thyself and our hearts are re s t l e s s t i l l they rest i n Thee". Religion i s now personal. L i f e takes on i t s natural r i c h -ness and f u l l n e s s only when I t comes into v i t a l possession of the truths that have nourished the l i v e s of heroes and sain t s . So appeal often to your hoys, Mentor, to j o i n the Church's great army f o r three reasons: Enlistment - Leadership - Stewardship. - 278 -CHAPTER XII. Discovering and Training Leaders. A Leader has heen defined as a person who sees a l i t t l e more quickly, a l i t t l e more c l e a r l y and a l i t t l e further than the ordinary person. To f i n d leaders f o r hoys' work i s a problem not confined to a few places or to any p a r t i c u l a r type of church. Wherever the value of boy l i f e has heen recognized to any degree, whether i n r u r a l commu-n i t i e s , v i l l a g e s , towns or c i t i e s , the task of f i n d i n g and developing leadership has turned out to be most d i f f i c u l t and urgent. Undoubtedly earnestness, zeal, C h r i s t i a n charac-ter and personal desire to help are Important considerations, and when we f i n d a man with these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s we do well to e n l i s t him. But today there are other essentials exceed-ingly Important, the recognition of which enables us to make»a new approach to men on behalf of boys. 1. The Art of Boy Leadership. Every man who i s facing the challenge to lead a group of hoys, and every man already engaged i n t h i s charac-te r - b u i l d i n g enterprize, may with p r o f i t give consideration to some of the many factors involved i n carrying on such a - 279 -task successfully. I t i s impossible f o r a person to become a good workman i n a s i t u a t i o n where he works against h i s own d e s i r e s — t h e r e f o r e , to he successful, a man must want to be a group leader. He must believe the opportunity that boy leadership offers i s important enough and rewarding enough to challenge him to throw himself into the task with whole-hearted enthusiasm. To become a successful boy leader c a l l s f o r practice at the job. A leader learns by practice just as boys do. We sometimes hear of men who are natural leaders of hoys, hut they are simply men who have heen w i l l -ing to consecrate t h e i r powers to this most rewarding f i e l d of service and, having done t h i s , have learned by practice how to lead successfully. C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g i s shared l i v i n g . One of the most s t r i k i n g facts i n the record of the l i f e of Jesus i s the way i n which He shared to the very l i m i t a l l that He was and had with a l l whom He found w i l l i n g to share with Him. So i t must he with the leader of hoys, he must share a l l that he i s and a l l that he knows, In order to help the hoys i n the group i n t h e i r struggle f o r C h r i s t i a n character. Sharing with hoys In a l l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s and experiences should be sharply distinguished from the common practice of "doing things f o r hoy3". The f i r s t law of learning i s exercise, and the leader must constantly r e c a l l - 280 that a hoy learns what he himself practices. What hoys most commonly p r a c t i c e — a n d therefore learn--from the leader who does things f o r them i s selfishness. Sharing l i f e with hoys w i l l involve entering into every i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y of the group i n a f r i e n d l y , sympathetic s p i r i t . I t w i l l mean leading out i n many l i n e s of a c t i v i t y i n order to help boys see t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and then p a t i e n t l y coaching and guiding the members of the group as they seek to l e a r n — hy practice--how they may best do these things f o r themselves. To he successful, a leader must have a genuine in t e r e s t i n boy l i f e . He must prove hy h i s actions that hi s primary Interest i s i n the well-being of the hoys them-selves rather than i n anything external, no. matter how f i n e i t may be. He w i l l have many opportunities to make hoys happier, to help them understand better and to bring them around to a new idea through some a c t i v i t y i n which they are interested. The leader must win the confidence of the hoys hy deserving t h e i r confidences and by showing h i s confidence i n them. Every method the leader uses with the group should reveal to the hoys h i s confidence i n them and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to meet the s i t u a t i o n being faced. This must be true whether the s i t u a t i o n i s one of d i s c i p l i n e , one of decision about a disputed point, or.one of group government. The group leader who would win confidence must conduct him-r - 281 -s e l f i n a s p i r i t of sympathetic, tolerant helpfulness, so that h i s actions and methods constantly deserve hoy c o n f i -dences. By t h i s means, the hoys w i l l read the evidence of his regard f o r them i n his actions and open up yet deeper reaches into t h e i r s p i r i t s f o r his helpfulness. As suggested ahove, the actual sharing of experi-ence with hoys i s the best way to become intimately acquain-ted with them. Hikes, debates, s t o r y - t e l l i n g , discussions, contests, parties, and many other shared experiences are necessary i n order to e s t a b l i s h mutual confidence and under-standing. The enriching presence of a leader who i 3 t o l e r -ant and sympathetic w i l l often determine whether these a c t i -v i t i e s w i l l contribute to the building of strong C h r i s t i a n character rather than he destructive of such character. When hoys decide to have a b r i e f responsive period of worship at the opening of t h e i r meetings, they usually ask t h e i r leader to prepare these and conduct them f o r them. The leader who believes i n and knows how to share experi-ences with hoys w i l l not accede r e a d i l y to such a request, but w i l l assure the group of h i s readiness to help them plan and carry on such periods, and take his turn with the others of the group i n the a c t i v i t y . S i m i l a r l y , i n the deciding upon a course of Bible Study, the planning of a hike, or any other a c t i v i t y , he w i l l he ready to share f u l l y - 282 with them, hut h i s int e r e s t i n the best development of t h e i r character w i l l prevent him from doing everything f o r them. 2. Where Can We Recruit Leaders? Some of the most successful leaders are those who have heen "hand picked". Some person has been on the look-out, has discovered capacities and Interests along these l i n e s , has gone afte r such a one with a very d e f i n i t e appeal f o r a s p e c i f i c task. Many ministers and successful super-intendents f i n d t h e i r boys' leaders i n this way. When the contacts thus established are properly developed there are great p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r securing new r e c r u i t s i n t h i s plan, perhaps none better. Boys themselves who need leaders may he encouraged to look at the problem, ta l k i t over with t h e i r minister, superintendent and other responsible persons, consider the requirements of the group, and i n due time interview the prospective leader presenting with the approval of the group and the responsible o f f i c i a l s of the congregation, a pressing appeal f o r help and leadership. Men who could have refused other c a l l s have surrendered to a d i r e c t c a l l from boys and have been conspicuously successful. Boys' leaders may he secured hy cooperation with Young Men's classes i n the Church School. Where a Bible - 283 -Class or a Young Men's Group i s developing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , one of the best tests of i t s e f f i c i e n c y i s t t h e a b i l i t y of the group to produce capable volunteer leaders f o r boys coming a f t e r them. Someone needs to present frequently the challenge to leadership i n i t s broadest aspects. Once mem-bers of the group have responded and discovered the joy of such service,they may he used as emissaries to the group fo r the enlistment of others. Leadership Training Classes properly announced and capably conducted w i l l undoubtedly c a l l f o r t h some i n -terested persons who may not be reached i n other ways. When they have taken a t r a i n i n g course, the Boys' Committee should be on the a l e r t to f i n d a place to use them. But the surest way to secure a steady stream of leaders from any church Is to grow them. Get them young enough when they can enjoy a junior program. Let them graduate to the T r a i l Ranger program spending three years i n i t . Let t h e i r advance to Tuxis he regarded as a r e a l promotion, and during t h e i r Tuxis experience remind them frequently hy both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t appeal of the reason-able expectation that many of them should become leaders. It w i l l he found that the response w i l l not he disappointing. Very often such r e c r u i t s at seventeen or eighteen years of age w i l l constitute a s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g class or the i n d i v i d -- 284 ... uals may become associate mentors, advancing with t h e i r growing experience to positions of influence and power where leadership capacities are revealed. TABLE XVI. Leaders Developed From Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square, Vancouver, In Years 1931 - 32 and 1932 -33. Year ifo. Active Members. No.Teach-ing Junior Classes i n Sunday School. Associate Mentors. Secretary of Sunday School. Assistant Secretary of Sunday School. 1931-32 25 4 2 1932-33 32 5 5 1 1 In a congregation where the C h r i s t i a n motives of service are being s t e a d i l y and consistently developed, and where the significance of work among boys i s made known, there should he l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n providing enough young men year hy year to give leadership to a l l the hoys that the congregation can reach, so that beginning at the Junior age, nine years, every lad w i l l have a man or an older per-son to guide him and to help him with h i s problems. - 285 3. Appeals f o r Leaders. The importance of hoys' work i s recognized more f u l l y today than i t ever has been. When capable young men are c a l l e d upon to render t h i s p a t r i o t i c , C h r i s t i a n service i n the most responsive, most Impressionable and often the most neglected period i n the l i f e of hoysj they should he made to f e e l that i t i s a r e a l p r i v i l e g e and honor, that i t i s a pressing duty, and that It behooves one who i s ca l l e d to these high tasks to give serious consideration to the obligations r e s t i n g on him ere he refuse. Young men as they are brought face to face with these opportunities should he l e d to see how much i t may mean to t h e i r own development. I t i s not merely that they may "keep young" hy contact with boys, and that they may kindle new interests i n t h e i r own experience, hut they may also enjoy a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n through service that w i l l give new motives and fresh i n s p i r a t i o n f o r d a i l y l i f e . Some men as they are appealed to f o r leadership In t h i s realm need to be convinced that there i s a c o n t r i -bution which they can make which i s quite d i s t i n c t i v e . The way to strengthen t h i s conviction i s not merely to talk i t out with them and t e l l them what you believe they can dp, hut to i n v i t e them to put the matter to the test hy seizing s p e c i f i c , a t t r a c t i v e and t y p i c a l opportunities. Be sure - 286 -that conditions are r i g h t so that they may be able to make the most of them. If the experience j u s t i f i e s further ac-ti o n one may he sure such a leader w i l l enter upon larger tasks with zest. In seeking f o r leaders, do not f r i g h t e n the pro-spective leaders hy too much d e t a i l . For one, who i s unin-i t i a t e d i n the various a c t i v i t i e s of the program, to be t o l d about charting, the high idealism, and a l l the multitudinous d e t a i l s of program-building, etc., the prospectus seems too abstract and foreign and the candidate f o r leadership shies at i t . He says he i s no expert and he hasn't time f o r that program and a leader i s l o s t . Rather approach him as a f r i e n d who i s determined to do a good deed. T e l l him you have a class of boys studying the Bible and they need a man to lead them on Sunday. T e l l him the hoys are coming to see him and that they need a leader who w i l l make that Bible Study so r e a l and l i v i n g that he (the leader) w i l l go with the fellows into t h e i r l i v e s , meet them through the week and he one i n a l l the hoys' i n t e r e s t s . Then ask him i f he w i l l lead them i n the Jesus way, and nine out of ten men w i l l accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 4. Leaders Should Insure Their Successor. Leaders .' What would happen to your Camp or Square - 287 i f something should remove you from the leadership of It? You have no doubt taken steps to insure a continued f i n a n -c i a l support f o r your family i n case of your death or d i s -ablement. What have you done to insure continued leader-ship f o r your group i n case you should he unable to con-tinue as Its Mentor? In Boy Scout work i t has heen found that a cert a i n number of new troops that are formed do not r e g i s t e r f o r the second year; of these f a l l i n g to continue ninety-five percent of the f a i l u r e s occur because the scout-master i s unable to continue i n his work; t h i r t y - f i v e percent of these abandonments occur within the f i r s t s i x months. Would the percentages be any better i n Tuxis work? Often a Camp or Square starts well, i t s future seems assured; the hoys are keenly Interested. Then some-thing happens; the Mentor moves away, takes i l l , gets transferred to night work or f o r some other reason i s un-able to continue. For a while the hoys keep coming; they bring t h e i r dues, f i l l out t h e i r Health cards and discuss Badges, contests and debates; t h e i r warm allegiance to a great i d e a l of l i f e i s s t i l l strong, and they hope that someone w i l l he found to help them carry on In t h e i r enter-p r i s e . Then the work breaks up and leaves but a wreck be-hind,—another Mentor has f a i l e d to insure the permanence - 288 -of h i s own cause. You can Insure continuous leadership i n your work hy seeing to i t that, through a permanent committee of older boys and men, i t i s linked up to the Sunday School and Church. No worth while enterprise should centre around one man. When a vacancy i s l i k e l y to occur, you can have the hoys themselves s t i r up the committee or the o f f i c e r s of the school, and demand the appointment of a successor at once. Get other men interested i n your work. Have them attend as reg u l a r l y as they can. Give them d e f i n i t e r e-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; ask one to judge a debate, another to take on an a t h l e t i c contest or coach a basketball team, or to evaluate some product of handicraft, or judge a c o l l e c t i o n , etc. Some man who has heen used In t h i s way would perhaps he w i l l i n g and able to step Into your work i f you should be compelled'to leave I t . Use your older hoys and young men constantly. Out of your experience with them you w i l l quickly discover several who show unmistakable signs of leadership. Put more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon them. The future of our whole cause Is i n the hands of these untrained but i n s p i r i n g youths. Use your older boys as associate leaders to younger groups. Train them f o r leadership and give them the benefit - 289 -of your experience. ' 5. Training f o r Leaders. It i s hoped that leaders who see the v i t a l neces-s i t y of thorough t r a i n i n g , w i l l take on themselves the re-s p o n s i b i l i t y of taking the necessary steps to see that groups i n the community are brought together f o r the d i s -cussion and study of the problems and material which are e s s e n t i a l i n trained leadership. In the l a r g e r centres and i n a number of smaller communities there i s a l o c a l Boys' Work Board, i n cooperation with the P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Board, which arranges such i n s t r u c t i o n generally once a year. Wherever i t i s possible f o r several Mentors to come together to discuss t h e i r problems, or to take up the study of p r i n c i p l e s and methods of work with hoys, they should by a l l means take advantage of t h i s opportunity. r Such Mentors' Forums are arranged p e r i o d i c a l l y by the l o c a l Boys' Work Board. There has heen a vast increase i n the number of community t r a i n i n g classes, summer and winter t r a i n i n g schools i n recent years, and these are a l l recog--nized as most e f f e c t i v e ways to provide t r a i n i n g . I t i s hoped that some such agency w i l l be available i n every com-munity. - 290 -There are three outstanding requirements i n the leader's t r a i n i n g : (1) A knowledge of approved methods and p r i n c i p l e s of hoys' work. (2) A clear-cut understanding of hoy l i f e , and of laws underlying t h e i r growth and development. (3) D e f i n i t e knowledge, and i f possible, f i r s t hand ex-perience with the program, Sunday and mid-week, which the group i s to use. Excellent courses of t r a i n i n g are now available along a l l these l i n e s . The inter e s t i n the whole f i e l d of leadership t r a i n i n g i n r e l i g i o u s education has greatly i n -creased i n recent years, but of course there i s s t i l l great need f o r more t r a i n i n g both Intensively and exten-s i v e l y . That i s to say, we need i n Canada hundreds of leaders, and the leaders we have w i l l greatly benefit hy more t r a i n i n g . How can t h i s he obtained? (a) By l o c a l church or community classes as described above. (b) In Standard Schools organized hy the Boys' Work Boards of the Religious Education Council. Regular assignments, tests and examinations are given, and one may qu a l i f y f o r leadership t r a i n i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s and diplomas issued hy his own denomination through the Religious Educa-- 291 -t i o n Council of Canada. (c) At Summer Schools and Training Camps. Follow-ing c a r e f u l l y planned programs, members of these schools and camps are guided hy experienced men, who have s p e c i a l -ized along these l i n e s , to the best that has been revealed i n the programs and methods of working with hoys. They confer with each other, and t h i s interchange of experience means added in t e r e s t and increased e f f i c i e n c y . (d) By Individual Study. The course consists of; Unit I. - "Creative Leadership", Unit I I . - "Materials and Methods of Bible Study", Unit I I I . - "Studies i n Boy L i f e " , a l l of which can be obtained from your p r o v i n c i a l Boys 1 Work Board. F u l l information regarding textbooks, t e s t s , and methods of carrying on t r a i n i n g work may he obtained from your Denominational Headquarters, or The National or Pro-v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards. - 292 -CHAPTER XIII. A c t i v i t i e s Which Help To Foster The Tuxis S p i r i t , 1. Project Work. (a) I f Jesus Were Mentor of Your Group. I f He were the leader of your group what would His plan he f o r the coming spring and summer? He was once the leader of a class of young men. There were twelve In the group, and i t was a year-round group, not just from Octoher to May or from September to June. His group d i d not disband f o r the summer. He was t h e i r leader f o r twelve f u l l months of the year. If He l e d your group He would keep i n touch with each member a l l summer through. He would see that the group, as many as possible, continued to meet each week. And He would correspond with those with whom He could not communicate. What l e t t e r s He would write I What l e t t e r s , frank and open, He would receive, and how He.would prize them and how the group would prize His i Perhaps He would plan s p e c i a l and additional group events f o r the summer months. He would understand, you see, that many of the group would have more l e i s u r e time during the summer than during the winter. He would - 293 -have the group plan with Him t h e i r use of the l e i s u r e hours of summer. They would t a l k about the strengthening of t h e i r physical reserve through wholesome a c t i v i t i e s , and the d r i n k i n g - i n of the sun and a i r through l i f e i n the out-of-doors. He might warn them of the greater temptation which summer and i t s l e i s u r e and the greater unrestrained freedom sometimes brings. They would ta l k about and plan to strengthen t h e i r moral reserve. He would have them worship i n God's f i r s t temple, the groves of trees. He would have them look up at the stars. They would grow i n s p i r i t . They would spend many an evening round t h e i r own carapfire facing t h e i r future squarely. He would introduce them to reading f o r summer l e i s u r e , and to birds and nature l o r e . As a group and i n d i v i d u a l l y they would plan to use t h e i r summer l e i s u r e i n part at le a s t i n the service of others. In short, if,. Jesus were i n your place, wouldn't He be Mentor—a wise counsellor and g u i d e — o f your group and i t s i n d i v i d u a l members always. But He cannot he that. It's your j o b — and yet He can he—through you. What a challenge J Jesus leading your boys through you this summer. But a f t e r a l l , projects w i l l be found to f i t into the winter session of the program much better than i n the - 294 -spring or summer. And here i s where the hoys have to guide the Mentor to a very great extent. What projects w i l l the group undertake? The Mentor may suggest hut i t w i l l he f a t a l to the success of the group i f he i n s i s t s . •, on h i s own pet theories. I t i s the hoys' program; l e t them decide. The following l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s i s f a r from com-plete, but a l l I t requires i s a s t a r t and many ideas w i l l occur growing out of them. F i r s t , • remember that i t may he necessary to have some of these projects running at the same t i m e — a l l the better—because groups of boys haven't a l l the same i n t e r e s t s , and i t would be p r a c t i c a l l y im-possible to get the f u l l group working on any one project at the same time. Get the idea started and the boys look a f t e r the re s t themselves. Badge Work i s the f i n e s t project of any and the easiest to handle, at the same time being the one where the greatest number of the group are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same work at the same time. Such badges as Public Speaking, Entertainer, parts of Makers of Canada, Indian L i f e , and others lend themselves admirably to group project work. Let us put next such projects as handwork, f r e t -work, woodwork, basketwork, leatherwork, wood-carving, metal work, etc. Here, a l l that i s necessary Is f o r the - 2 9 5 -Mentor, or better s t i l l , one of the group, to take some in s t r u c t i o n f i r s t and present i t to the group of workers. This i s a most i n t r i g u i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g method of spend-ing the project period. . Its value i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i s very great and i t enters the service f i e l d also, f o r i t i s pos-s i b l e to go f a r t h e r and s e l l such a r t i c l e s as are made, turning over the money thus raised to some needy cause. I t also provides a means of keeping unemployed hoys out of mischief, supplies a hohhy and to a certain extent a l i v e -lihood. Next l e t us consider dramatics and the l i k e . Nothing gives a group more pleasure than to prepare f o r a minstrel show. Divide your group into sections as follows: Orchestra, i n t e r l o c u t o r and the end men, chorus, s o l o i s t s and quartette, and those taking part i n the s k i t s or farces or the play attached to the show. After the organ-i z a t i o n have no one i d l e j give every boy a job; have them meet i n separate rooms during the l a s t t h i r t y minutes of your meeting. Do not l e t the show he spoiled by everyone hearing the jokes. These should not he heard t i l l the dress rehearsal. They can then he appreciated and enjoyed hy the r e s t of the show. The laughs w i l l be genuine and not forced. Some groups make this a yearly a f f a i r and have a r e a l time, . - 296 -Space does not permit thorough discussion here hut what about the various service projects? How about that club room you are using? Would i t stand decorating, . painting, cupboards, etc.? Or are there some other rooms i n the church that need attention? Or are the chairs needing some repairs? Do you know any people i n the d i s -t r i c t who need help? Are there any old or sick people who need hoys to cut wood, run errands, do.odd jobs? How many unemployed men are there i n your d i s t r i c t ? Why not sta r t and operate a reading room i n your club-room f o r these men? In the spring meet outside and t r a i n f o r the National A t h l e t i c Contest, hikes, p i c n i c s , study of nature, trees and shrubs, birds, etc. These are only a few of the many suggestions that come to our minds i f we meditate awhile, hut they should help to solve the s t a r t i n g pro-blem. Others w i l l follow without any e f f o r t on the Men-tor's part. Let the hoys' many inte r e s t s have f u l l range and you w i l l never have d u l l project periods. I I . Father and Son Relationships. The Father and Son idea originated i n the Provi-dence, Rhode Island, Young Men'3 C h r i s t i a n Association at a supper held f o r fathers and sons, on Wednesday, May 26, 1909. The man who conceived the idea was B.M.Russell, then - 297 -the Boys' Work Secretary of the Association. He r e a l i z e d the need of better fellowship between fathers and sons. He also knew the drawing power of a good supper, and three hundred fathers and sons responded to the i n v i t a t i o n . The program carr i e d out that night has continued to he followed i n many ways, u n t i l the present time. The idea has been taken up hy many organizations i n a l l parts of the world, and i s used by l o c a l churches, Rotary and other service clubs, Boy Scout organizations, Y.M.C.A.'s have used i t perhaps more widely than any others. Materials have heen issued annually f o r a number of years j o i n t l y hy the International Council of R e l i g i o u s Education and the National Council of the Young Men's Chr i s t i a n Association. The general purpose of the Father and Son idea i s usually stated to include such matters as the following: 1. To keep a l i v e the very best i n Canadian home l i f e f o r the growing hoy. 2. To help fathers to have a deeper respect f o r t h e i r sons and an appreciation and sympathetic fellowship with them. 3. To help sons have a deeper respect and appreciation f o r t h e i r fathers, f o r t h e i r homes, for t h e i r p r i v i l e g e of c i t i z e n s h i p , and f o r world r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . - 298 -4. To lead both fathers and sons to experience C h r i s t i a n fellowship In the home and i n the community, to le ad them to recognize, the Church and Sunday School aa necessary to the f i n e s t development of t h e i r character, and to help them cooperate i n the work and support of the church's program i n extending and making e f f e c t i v e .the teachings of Jesus Chri3t In s o c i a l and economic l i f e . 5. To advance the cause of world peace hy creating among fathers and aona of. the world a s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n brother-hood. The hoy problem i s being overshadowed by the more serious problem of keeping a l i v e the t r a d i t i o n s and ideals of the home. Many fathers are so huay making a l i v i n g that they are f a i l i n g to make a l i f e , e ither f o r themselves or f o r their, hoys. Ins t i t u t i o n s are r e l i e v i n g the home from much r e s p b n s i h i l i t y that God intended should he borne hy the parents. Business s t r a i n and competition are robbing hoys of the fellowship of t h e i r fathers. Boys s t i l l have need of parents. One of the values of the Father and Son observance i s that i t brings fathers and sons into closer relationahlp and understanding. Fatherhood ahould he a man'a vocation; hia bu3ineaa should he hi s avocation. He i s i n bu8iness because he desires to be a better father. Every boy has - 299 -the r i g h t to the companionship of his father. "Let fathers remember",., says Christopher Bannister, "they once were son3, and sons learn t h e i r fathers once were hoys, and i t w i l l he easier f o r both." Another value of the observance i s partnership of the father and son i n the f i n e art of l i v i n g . The boy has the r i g h t to expect that his father w i l l t r a i n him i n those s k i l l s which make l i f e worth while, i n sportmanship, i n business procedure, i n r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s , and i n the development of ri g h t attitudes and the best personal stan-dards. The church and Sunday school, focussing attention f o r one week upon the hoy and h i s father, soon discover the potential_ly_pf both f o r service. Boys are tomorrow's deacons, elders, stewards, trustees, superintendents of Sunday schools, teachers, treasurers and preachers. A program of t r a i n i n g f o r these responsible positions should begin during the time of youth and not he put off u n t i l maturity. The church must adopt the role of s t r a t e g i s t and cease playing the ro l e of the opportunist. Father and Son a c t i v i t i e s open the way f o r doing t h i s . One of the purposes of the Father and Son obser-vance i s to lead both fathers and sons to recognize the church and Sunday school as necessary i n the f i n e s t develop-- 300 -ment of t h e i r character, and to cooperate i n the work and support of the church i n extending and making e f f e c t i v e i n everyday l i f e the teachings of Jesus C h r i s t . Therefore, the church must take early and adequate account of t h i s idea. It should be a d e f i n i t e part of the program. A banquet i s usually the outstanding event i n Father and Son Week. I t should also lead up to the Father and Son service held i n the church on Sunday morning follow-ing the banquet. Boisterous conduct need not he permitted at a father and son banquet. I t surely does not add to the program, and may he avoided by a proper seating of men and hoys at the tables. It i s unwise to have hoys s i t together or men s i t together. Such procedure defeats the very pur-pose of the gathering. Men and hoys should alternate i n the seating. Noise makers seriously i n t e r f e r e with the speaking part of the program. The same amount of money spent i n providing music, a good song leader, and a t t r a c -t i v e decorations i s better. The professional entertainer i s usually an unneces-sary annex. Many banquets have been turned into mere vaudeville performances by the introduction of magicians, tap dancers, and musical teams. I t should he an occasion of fellowship and not a show. I t should he worthy of the - 301 -"best. Such s u p e r f i c i a l entertainment i s an affront to the i n t e l l i g e n c e of both hoys and men. There should be fun, of course, hut there should he a serious and purpose-f u l tone to the program. To d e l i v e r an address acceptable to boys from ten to twenty and to men from twenty-one to s i x t y years of age i s a challenge. To accept such a challenge i s a s e r i -ous thing, demanding the speaker's very best e f f o r t . Boys want straight talk, without any camouflage. A ringing, manly message, void of slang and cheapness, i s c a l l e d f o r . These speeches should not be so long as to he boring to the youngest or older members present. Fathers need to have attention c a l l e d to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as fathers, pals, advisers, and as interpreters of l i f e to t h e i r own sons. This must he done f e a r l e s s l y yet sympathetically, without weakening the po s i t i o n of any father i n the eyes of h i s son. As a follow-up of the banquet and Father's night at the group meeting and the Father and Son Church service, discussion groups and parents' forums might he formed, i f thought practicable, to discuss means of increasing t h i s fellowship, not only between fathers and sons, hut between mothers and daughters as well, and among a l l the members of the family. Let us stress s o l i d family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . - 302 -I I I . Badge Work. Adolescence i s a time of increased s o c i a l sensi-tiveness. Among ce r t a i n types of individuals t h i s natural sensitiveness becomes excessive and leads to shyness, d i f -fidence, p a i n f u l self-awareness, morbid fear, a shrinking from s o c i a l contacts, exaggerated notions of the importance of t r i f l i n g f a u l t s and mistakes, embarrassment on occasions that c a l l f o r self-confidence, or t i m i d i t y i n the presence of s o c i a l opportunities. The r e s u l t i s that gradually the power of communication or of self-expression i s l o s t . The mind closes i n upon i t s e l f . Its windows become darkened. It feeds upon i t s e l f instead of upon the thoughts of others. Incidents that should he forgotten, constantly torment and annoy. A mental condition r e s u l t s which causes them to he misunderstood. This leads to s t i l l further embarrassment and h e s i t a t i o n i n meeting others. Before these conditions reach an advanced stage membership In a s o c i a l group, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i -v i t i e s , the discovery of friends or companions, and the establishment of intimate personal r e l a t i o n s with a hero or adore'e are of inestimable value. Sympathy and encourage-ment, together with sincere appreciation go a long way to-ward l i f t i n g the adolescent mind out of this p i t f a l l . - 303 -Approachability, conversational power and s o c i a l ease may be d i f f i c u l t lessons f o r t h i s type of i n d i v i d u a l to learn, but they are learned through objective interests and s e l f -expression supported hy a s o c i a l motive and i n a proper s o c i a l environment. We must keep open the channels of expression and communication. The value of active interest In woodcraft, the making of c o l l e c t i o n s of various kinds, exercises that develop the power of observation and appreciation, handi-c r a f t , a rt and i n d u s t r i a l c r a f t s can hardly he overestima-ted. To achieve power of expression through practice i n the use of oral English Is one of the most wholesome and stimulating means of mental development during these years. The badge program of T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys serves t h i s purpose. If we imagine that simply because we have the colored pictures of b e a u t i f u l s i l k Honor badges i n the Tuxis Boys' Manual and Badge hook, the hoys are going to stay awake nights working to pass the t e s t s , we are greatly mistaken. We may f i n d an.occasional hoy who w i l l look up the requirements f o r a cert a i n badge and d i l i g e n t l y prepare to meet them, and when he Is ready, request his Mentor to. arrange f o r an examination. There are very few of such hoys. - 304 -In order to get the most out of the Tuxis Boys 1 Program, we s h a l l need to promote an in t e r e s t In securing Honor Badges. How to go about i t i s the question. Choose one of the Badges that the majority of the boys would l i k e to win. Take f o r instance the Bird Badge: (1) Secure a Sweater Crest with a sample badge, or get some popular memher of your group to show h i s crest. (2) Have the most competent man available give a t a l k on Birds, showing how to meet the requirements of the B i r d Badge. (3) Plan early morning and evening f i e l d work with the boys. Borrow a s u f f i c i e n t number of f i e l d glasses and B i r d Books. (4) Have each of the hoys keep a l i s t of the birds i d e n t i -f i e d . (5) Secure, i f possible, phonograph records of imitations of the notes of wild b i r d s . (6) As a group, meet i n some convenient place suitable for the b u i l d i n g of b i r d houses. At l e a s t commence the houses working together and these may he f i n i s h e d , each hoy work-ing alone i n h i s own home. This general plan applies to each of the badges. Plan d e f i n i t e l y and set aside a c e r t a i n time f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and also f o r passing the t e s t s . See to i t that your most - 305 -popular boys are the f i r s t to wear the Sweater Crest and make i t possible f o r them to win some of the A t h l e t i c badges before going aft e r the others. The Entertainer badge, the Public Speaking badge, the Makers of Canada badge, the Group Games badge, Indian L i f e badge and many others lend themselves admirably to group work. Also many of the A t h l e t i c badges are simply matters f o r group arrangement as to time, place and judges. You w i l l f i n d the boys as keen as a razor-edge once you get them interested. Keep a wall chart showing badges won, putting on t h i s chart red, blue or white stars opposite the names of the boys on the l e f t , and the names of the badges on the top of the chart, showing the Honor which is won. This w i l l be studied very e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y every time the boyA meet; and keen competition w i l l r e s u l t . Have regular programs of speeches and stunts i n the project part of your program. Vary these with debates, and handicraft work etc., and encourage boys to work on ind i v i d u a l badges such as T h r i f t , Citizenship, Health, World Brotherhood, Art, Trees and Shrubs, Co l l e c t o r , Hobbles and the many others which give them a wide range f o r t h e i r , i nterests and a c t i v i t i e s . Keep a record of what each boy/ Is doing i n the Badge Record Book which has a page f o r each hoy. Each boy should be working on four or f i v e - 306 -badges, at once, and here i s the mentor's opportunity to guide. Encourage him to he four-square, se l e c t i n g badges from a l l four sides of the l i f e he i s attempting to widen. May I give a summary of what my own group i s doing i n Badge Work. (Crosby United Church, Kla-How-Ya Tuxis Square, of Vancouver, B.C.) Interest In badge work i n t h i s Square i s progressing very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The group at present has thirty-two active members and f i f t e e n other Inactive and honorary members. Too l a r g e — do I hear you say'—no, we don't think so. And when I t e l l you there i s only one mentor, myself, don't p i t y me; at f i r s t I couldn't get any help, hut now, I don't want any, with the exception of the older hoys who have graduated from the program, and who share a c e r t a i n amount of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with me. I started the group i n badge work i n easy stages; by that I mean, we took to the throwing, jumping and run-ning badges f i r s t . We staged a f i e l d day, i n preparation f o r the National A t h l e t i c Contests, and Incidentally we won our badges. Many of these practices were held, the boys being well coached, and then v/e took t h e i r times and distances and checked the tests f o r badges. This gave them a good s t a r t . Next the program committee met and made the program include badge work. At f i r s t we took volunteers, - 307 -boys that were sure of themselves, and made cer t a i n the r e s u l t would he good. Then the others were so keen to work on t h e i r Entertainer and Public Speaking Badges that the committee had to a l l o t time i n proportion to each mem-her. It was a very short step from there to get the hoys working on the i n d i v i d u a l badges alone and f o r them-selves. A s p i r i t of f r i e n d l y r i v a l r y now exists among them as to which w i l l he the f i r s t to win the "Beaver Crest". This "beaver crest" i s something you won't f i n d In the l a t e s t Tuxis handbooks, and I, f o r one, do not know the reason, unless i t was on account of lack of Interest i n badge work by groups throughout Canada. I fancy that i s the r e a l reason. In the o r i g i n a l plan of Tuxis badge work encourage-ment was given to boys to be four-square, and that i s our chief aim. When a hoy won two badges i n each of the four sections, he was presented hy the Square with a watch-fob bearing the Y.M.C.A. emblem on i t j when he won three badges i n each section he was e l i g i b l e f o r the wreath i n yellow which en c i r c l e d the crest; and when he won four badges i n each section, t h i s crest and wreath were surmounted by a small beaver, i n yellow also, which was placed on top of the crest . This would, as you see, he a very high standard - 308 -of achievement, as there are only f i v e hadges altogether i n the r e l i g i o u s section. I t i s a p i t y this system has heen discontinued and I would l i k e to see i t re-inaugurated. My group follows this system i n the main with one exception. That i s , the Square presents the crest to the memher after he has either won one badge In each section, or f i v e hadges i n any sections. The other awards, v i z . the wreath and the heaver, we have arranged to get made here i n Vancouver as we need them. They are very simply made and a l l one needs i s a copy, which we are fortunate i n having. In the two years I have heen with the group, one boy has won sixteen hadges and two others fourteen each, and there are several others with f i v e or si x , or more each. During the year 1931-32 there were only f o r t y - s i x hadges won In the square of twenty-five active members, whereas the following year, September 1932-33, there were one hundred t h i r t y - f i v e hadges won In a Square of t h i r t y -two active members. The great v a r i e t y of hadges also shows the keen i n t e r e s t i n thi s project, there being twelve d i f -ferent kinds of badges won i n the I n t e l l e c t u a l section, nine kinds i n the Physical section, four kinds i n the De-votional section and seven kinds i n the Social section. In conclusion, l e t me say that, i f the badge pro-gram Is well handled In the Tuxis meetings, program d i f f i -- 309 -c u l t i e s immediately take wing and vanish. Boys must he allowed and encouraged to develop t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , so that they may learn; what better way i s there of - achieving t h i s than i n developing deep abiding i n t e r e s t i n the badge pro-gram? It Is your duty and p r i v i l e g e , Mr, Mentor, to show the way; the hoys w i l l follow gladly. Get the Mentor's Crest yourself, wear i t and on i t put the badges f o r which you, yourself, have q u a l i f i e d . This w i l l give incentive to the hoys, e s p e c i a l l y i f you have earned some hadges which they would very much l i k e to win. Take the time to check requirements with the individuals who come td you and don't neglect to keep s t r i c t account of t h e i r progress In the Badge Record. Arrange to present hadges p u b l i c l y , i f possible. IV. Camps fo r Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger Boys, The summer camp part of the T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis programs offers the most highly concentrated character-building values of a l l the Boys' work season. Ministers > and l a y leaders of hoys are learning that we may stimulate boys to l i v e i n the Jesus way hy associating with them i n the most congenial of a l l environment, i n the most enjoyable of a l l a c t i v i t i e s — c a m p i n the out-of-doors. What can be done hy way of promotion i s i l l u s t r a t e d - 310 -In the record achieved hy an Ontario church which succeeded i n getting f i f t y out of a possible f i f t y - f i v e hoys to camp. This was done by s t a r t i n g to t a l k and think of camp early i n the spring. Boys set up hank accounts with the group treasurer i n order to save the money f o r camp. The Sunday school Superintendent showed the school camp lantern s l i d e s . The minister preached about i t , and what i s more important, he l e d the way, by going to camp himself. When these hoys came hack aft e r the week under canvas, a memher of the church declared that he could l i t e r a l l y " f e e l " the difference i n the atmosphere, of the Sunday school session and church service. In the l a s t analysis, the values derived at camp depend upon tent leaders. The greatest character growth comes i n the informal contacts which are induced hy the Individual friendships which the leader makes with the hoys. The man who mentors a tent group to the extent of giving them leadership i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by day and sleeping i n the same tent hy night, i s In the most favorable possible p o s i t i o n to influence attitude and action. When organizing a camp have a f i r s t class leader i n charge of each tent of hoys. - 311 -V. Inter-Group Fellowship. Groups should not l i v e of and f o r themselves. If they do not attempt a c t i v i t i e s and associations outside of t h e i r own square, hoys become very narrow and s e l f -centred. Plan d e f i n i t e relationships with other groups i n the church, and also outside of the church. The mentor should encourage the boys to i n v i t e another square to th e i r group mid-week meeting occasionally. The program can he taken j o i n t l y or by either square as arranged beforehand. I t i s also h e l p f u l to plan a surprise night on another square, (of course the-mentor of the square you are v i s i t i n g must be n o t i f i e d ) , and go prepared to take charge of the meeting from f i r s t to l a s t . The other group w i l l more than l i k e l y return the v i s i t . Another suggestion i s to d r i l l up an I n i t i a t i o n team and go to other groups to put on an i n i t i a t i o n cere-mony f o r them, when askedj or d r i l l up a debating team and have f r i e n d l y r i v a l r y with other groups. There are many ways that might he mentioned i n which Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger groups could develop fellow-ship i n t h e i r work, not the l e a s t of these being v i s i t s to groups of Tuxis hoys of other nations, such as we have here i n Vancouver. Then of course there are the regular Tuxis Conclaves and Community Council meetings which get - 312 -groups more or less acquainted. Mr. Mentor, why not give your boys the basic Idea of service, by s t a r t i n g i t at home, r i g h t i n the p a r a l l e l groups of boys who carry on the same program? VI. The Finance Campaign of the R.E.Council. The s e l l i n g of the bonds of the P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Board i s not so d i f f i c u l t i n a community i n which T r a i l Ranger and Tuxis groups are operating successfully. But i t i s surprising the res u l t s one can get In d i s t r i c t s where the program does not figur e very prominently. I t requires r e a l salesmanship a b i l i t y to carry out the plan of the campaign. The degree of success obtained i n bond s e l l i n g depends upon the thoroughness with which everybody does his part. The members of the older Boys' Parliaments can accomplish wonders i n galvanizing others into l i f e and i n s e l l i n g bonds themselves. Parliaments have undertaken the task of r a i s i n g various amounts f o r the p r o v i n c i a l work. The members f e e l that this i s t h e i r job and that i t Is no small task. The mentors i n a l l parts of each province and the c i t y hoards are indispensable i n such an e f f o r t . Boys should he given an opportunity to hear a demonstration t a l k by the best stock or bond salesman that can he obtained. Organize the campaign i n your d i s t r i c t - 313 -or l o c a l church at a "pep" meeting or a "bean feed". Have the premier of the Older Boys 1 Parliament, or a Cabinet Member, or your own l o c a l member, give a t a l k showing the needs of the P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Board. Let him t e l l the hoys what the money i s f o r and what the Boys 1 Work Board i s doing In the Province. Then l e t them hear a t a l k on "how to s e l l bonds" hy an able salesman, who w i l l com-plete h i s remarks by act u a l l y s e l l i n g a bond to some one present. This person who i s being sold w i l l make the sales-man give h i s complete " l i n e " before- he Is sold, thus show-ing the hoys the approach. Boys w i l l not s e l l bonds hy going to doors with an apologetic, "you wouldn't l i k e to buy a bond, would you?"; they are simply courting a r e f u s a l . Send them out armed with data on the work and teach them to be p o s i t i v e i n t h e i r remarks. One l a s t point—encourage as many hoys as can afford i t to buy a share themselves before going out to s e l l others. It i s good t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p and service, i f they share with others. I t also gives them a share i n th e i r own program. VII. National A t h l e t i c Contest. The standards i n the s i x events (60 yd. potato race, 50-75-100 yd. dash, 6-8-10 pound shot put, baseball - 314 -throw f o r distance, running high jump, and running broad jump), v/hich now constitute the competition known as the National A t h l e t i c Contest,, have, a long and i n t e r e s t i n g h i s t o r y . They were h u i l t up hy careful consideration of the r e s u l t s of t r i a l s with boys of a l l ages, and represent a f a i r l y high standard.of achievement i n sport at the ages and weights mentioned i n the f i v e d i f f e r e n t classes. The early standards were taken from the Hexathlon tests deve-loped over a period of years hy the Y.M.C.A. i n both United States and Canada. Then under the very splendid guidance of Mr. Crocker these tests were revised from time to time as dictated hy our Canadian t r i a l s . I t i s generally ac-cepted today that the standards used are the f i n e s t of t h e i r kind. The emphasis i s placed upon having every i n -d i v i d u a l hoy p a r t i c i p a t e rather than developing star groups. Purpose - To make i t possible f o r groups to compete i n a National A t h l e t i c Contest, and to provide an opportu-n i t y f o r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys to q u a l i f y f o r hadges i n running, jumping and throwing. Entry Forms - an entry form showing the names of a l l e l i g i b l e members must be sent to the P r o v i n c i a l Secre-tary not l a t e r than A p r i l 15th of each year. Returns - o f f i c i a l scoring forms with the re s u l t s of the contest must he sent i n to the Pr o v i n c i a l Secretary - 315 -on or before the date set, (about July 15th of each year). Returns received l a t e r than that date cannot he included i n the p r o v i n c i a l and national contests. Championships - P r o v i n c i a l championship squares and camps w i l l he decided by the re s u l t s of the tournament held i n each community or d i s t r i c t of the provinces, Nation-a l championship to be decided by the highest square* and camp i n the Dominion of Canada. Who May Compete - any Sunday school class which is organized on the C.S.E.T. basis as a T r a i l Ranger camp or a Tuxis square, and which has a registered Mentor. Such groups must have at le a s t s i x competitors, and a l l e l i g i b l e members should compete i n every event, as any missed w i l l count zero and w i l l reduce the average of the group. Y.M.C.A. groups taking the C.S.E.T* program, and duly registered and approved as T r a i l Rangers camps and Tuxis squares by the l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Boards may also compete. Conditions of Entrance - a l l r e g u l a r l y i n i t i a t e d members of groups who have attended f i v e Sundays and f i v e mid-week meetings i n the two months immediately preceding A p r i l 10th w i l l be e l i g i b l e f o r the contest* In view of the "three-quarter" basis of scoring, no exception of any kind w i l l he made f o r any reason whatso-- 316 -ever. A twenty-five percent allowance i s made to a l l groups and a l l exceptions must come within t h i s , i . e . ; the f a c t that a hoy was p h y s i c a l l y unable to compete, moved away from the d i s t r i c t a f t e r date of entry, was disabled during the contest, or f o r any other reason was unable to compete, would not have any weight with the committee i n determining the standing of the group. Individuals may compete hy payment of a small fee. Events - the events to he i d e n t i c a l with those required f o r the running, jumping and throwing hadges, v i z . sp r i n t , potato race,- running high jump, running broad jump, shot put and throwing the baseball f o r distance. This plan w i l l give every hoy a chance to q u a l i f y f o r a l l three a t h l e t i c hadges. Scoring - the scoring to be on the basis of the tables i n the Badge Books" f o r T r a i l Rangers and Tuxis Boys. For computing the scores of the group, the scores of three quarters of a l l e l i g i b l e members w i l l he taken; i n other words, the scores of the less s k i l l e d members w i l l not he included when computing the group average. I f there-is a group of eight, the six high scores w i l l be taken, aggre-gated, and divided by s i x ; the average being the score of the group. I f there are s i x hoys, f i v e w i l l he counted, as follows: 7 - 5 ; 8 - 6 ; 9 - 7 ; 1 0 - 8 ; 11 - 8; 12 -- 317 13 - 10; 14 - 11; 15 - 11; 16 - 12; 17 - 13; 18 - 14; 1 9 - 1 5 ; 20 - 15 and so on. The competition we now know as the National Ath-l e t i c Contests came into being at f i r s t as an indoor track meet. It was so recommended In the meeting of the National Advisory Committee f o r Cooperation i n Boys' Work on July 4th 1919. 'i'he dates of the f i r s t meet were set hy t h i s commit-tee on January 20, 1920. The Gordon Hi g n e l l Memorial Trophy was accepted on February 26, 1920 and was at f i r s t given f o r the Tuxis Square scoring highest i n the season's work i n a l l four sides of the program. At the same meeting i t was provided that there would he established perpetual trophies i n the form of shield s , one f o r each province and one national s h i e l d f o r annual competition In the Tuxis Boys' Indoor A t h l e t i c Meet. On May 2, 1922, at a meeting of P r o v i n c i a l Boys' Work Secretaries, i t was agreed aft e r a conference with Mr. Crocker, to substitute an outdoor contest f o r the i n -door contest. I t was arranged to he held either the l a s t week i n May or the f i r s t week i n June, and that i t should he promoted na t i o n a l l y . It was recommended that material be gathered f o r a table f o r the Running Broad Jump s i m i l a r to the tables f o r the other events. Each of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretaries was requested to get records from one hundred - 318 -boys i n each of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h i s to he done during the summer. In the minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Nation-a l Boys' Work Board of A p r i l 30th, 1924, we f i n d the f i r s t mention of the winners of these shields and other awards: "The National A t h l e t i c Contest of 1923 wa3 handled hy Mr. Howard Crocker and^ met with much greater success than any previous year. There were over three thousand competitors and considerable experience was gained which has heen taken advantage of i n making plans f o r the 1924 contest. The "Resurgams" Tuxis Square of Medicine Hat, -Alberta, won the Tuxis Contest, and the "Black Knights" T r a i l Ranger Camp of Minnedosa, Manitoba, won the T r a i l Ranger section of the Contest. "The Committee drew up the Rules and Regulations f o r the 1924 contest on the basis of the experience of the past years, and a f t e r consultation with representatives i n the various provinces issued the rules and regulations which are being used very extensively. "The Committee recommends that hoys making Red Honor standing In each event In the National Contest be granted some sp e c i a l recognition. 1 1 Two hoys were success-f u l i n attaining red Honors i n every event. The winners In 1924 were the "Vies" Tuxis Square - 319 -of Sutherland Avenue Mission, Winnipeg, and the "Black Knights" T r a i l Ranger Camp of Minnedosa, Manitoba again. No Red Honor Boys were shown i n thi s year. Detailed r e s u l t s , where obtainable, follow: TABLE XVII. Winners i n National A t h l e t i c Contest, 1923. TUXIS BOYS Average 1. Resurgams Medicine Hat, Alberta 483.3 2. Alphas B e l l e v i l l e , Ont. 461.2 3. Pottawamles Winnipeg, Man. 457.3 4. Panthers O r i l l i a , Ont. 447. 5. Excelsiors Vancouver, B.C. 420 6. Blazers Regina, Sask. 412.5 7. Meteors London, Ont. 408 8. Live Wires London, Ont. 402 TRAIL RANGERS 1. Black Knights Minnedosa, Man. 466.3 2. WIngfoots London, Ont. 463 3. Beavers Toronto, Ont. 461 4. I.T.B. Niagara P a l l s , Ont. 428 5. Apex B e l l e v i l l e , Ont. 414.7 6. Tigers E a r l Grey, Sask. 390.4 TABLE XVIII. - 320 -Winners i n 1924. TUXIS BOYS 1. Vice Sutherland Ave. Mission, Winnipeg, Man. TRAIL RANGERS 1. Black Knights Minnedosa, Man. TABLE XIX. Winners i n 1925. TUXIS BOYS 1. Vies Winnipeg, Man. 1. Beavers TRAIL RANGERS Toronto, Ont. - 321 -TABLE XX. Winners i n 1926. TUXIS BOYS . A v e r a g e 1. Vimy Scarboro, Calgary 552.2 2. Olympics S t e l l a Ave., Winnipeg 546.2 3. Beavers Woodgreen, Toronto 530.3 4. Vies Sutherland Ave., Winnipeg 517 TRAIL RANGER 1. Excels P i l o t Mound, Man. 501 2. Zulus Teulon, Man. 496.3 3. Pathfinders St. James, Winnipeg, Man. 481.6 4. I.T.C. Ru s s e l l , Man. 479.7 TABLE XXI. Winners i n 1927. TUXIS BOYS 1. Dynamos St. Giles U. Hamilton, Ont. 524 2. Olympics Winnipeg, Man. 507 3. K. of S.T. Newdale, Man. 502 4. Upstreamers Bridgetown, N.S. 487 5. A l e r t Beavers Bridgewater, N.S, 486 - 322 -TABLE XXI. continued. TRAIL RANGERS. Average 1. Pirates S t e l l a Ave. Mission 513 Winnipeg 2. Zulus Teulon United, Teulon, Man. 500.4 3. Ameeks Edmundson United, N.B. 500 • 4. Pathfinders St. James Church of Ch r i s t , 487 Man. 5. Royal Oaks St. Andrews, B e l l e v i l l e , Ont. 484 TABLE XXII. Winners i n 1928. TUXIS BOYS 1.. Olympics S t e l l a Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 550 2. A l e r t Beavers Bridgewater, N.S. 531 3. Knights of Square Table Newdale, Man. 515 4. Emmanuel Baptist Winnipeg, Man. 505 5. Sioux Winnipeg, Man. . 501 6. United Church, Minnedosa, Man. 50,0 TRAIL RANGERS 1. Pathfinders Winnipeg, Man. 501 2. Greyhounds St. Thomas, Ont. 497 3. Owls Moncton, N.B. 493 - 323 -TABLE XXII. continued. 4. Panthers Port Hope, Ont. 490 5. Beavers Toronto, Ont. 482 6. Newdale Newdale, Man. 479 TABLE XXIII. Winners i n 1929. TUXIS BOYS 1. Ale r t Beavers Bridgewater, N.S. 533 2. King birds St. John, N.B. 520 3. Owls Moncton, N.B. 510 4. Eagles Moncton, N.B. 505 5. P i l o t s Fort William, Ont. . 497 6. Panthers Winnipeg, Man. 479 TRAIL RANGERS 1. Ahmeks St. John, N.B. 511 2. Marathons Winnipeg, Man. 504 3. Falcons Winnipeg, Man. 503 4. T.R.'s Fredericton, N.B. 495 5. Fl a s h l i g h t Hamilton, Ont. 493 6. Senecas Dauphin, Man. 479 7. Beavers Coquitlam, B.C. 476 - 324 -TABLE XXIV. Winners i n 1930. TUXIS BOYS Averag 1. Ramblers Roland, Man. 586 2. Orols Moncton,' N.B. 574 3. A l e r t Beavers Bridgewater, N.S. 547 4. Excelsiors B a t t l e f o r d , Sask. 535 5. Rascals Brandon, Man. 534 6. Kingbirds St. John, N.B. 533 7. Panthers Winnipeg, Man. 533 8. Tusklah Ryerson United, Vancouver,B.C. 520 9. Tuxidors V i c t o r i a , B.C. 487 10. Live Wires Grandview United, 485 Vancouver, B.C. TRAIL RANGERS 1. Tigers - Montreal, Que. 561 2. Falcons Winnipeg, Man. 523 3. Holland Luseland, Sask. 513 4. Ahmeks St. John, N.B. 508 - 325 -TABLE XXV. Winners i n 1931. Average 1. Crescents TUXIS BOYS Calgary, A l t a . 1. Falcons TRAIL RANGERS Winnipeg, Man. TABLE XXVI. Winners .in 1932. 1. Live Wires 2. Japanese 3. Beavers 4. Beavers 5. Rovers TRAIL RANGERS VIneland St., Ont. Cumberland, B.C. Bale Verte, N.B. Gi l b e r t Plains, Man. Glenboro, Man. 498 493 493 491 491 1. Tri-Mus 2. Crescents 3. Vikings TUXIS BOYS Bridgetown, N.S. Calgary, A l t a . Clayburn, B.C. 4. Knights of Honor Montreal, Que. 536 532 524 507 - 326 TABLE XXVI. continued. Average 5. Hustlers Ladner, B.C. 503 6. Y.P.S. Hampstead, Que. 503 TABLE XXVII. Winners i n 1933. TUXIS BOYS • 1. Kla-How-Ya Crosby United, Vancouver B.C. 2. Vikings 3. Beavers 4. Kerrobert 5. F i r s t Presbyterian Clayburn, B.C. North Lonsdale, North Vancouver, B.C. Kerrobert, Sask. Montreal, Que. 599.1 598.4 561.3 547.04 521.3 6. Trl-Mus Bridgetown, N.S, 521 TRAIL RANGERS 1. Tsolum Beavers Courtney, B.C. 2. Beavers G i l b e r t Plains, Man. 3. Junior Eagles Brandon, Man. 4. Beavers Bale Verte, N.B. 512.1 511.5 502.6 492 - 327 -TABLE XXVII. continued. 5. Monarchs Brandon, Man. 487.7 6. Lightning Japanese, Vancouver, B.C. 485.1 7. Hustlers Port Haney, B.C. 484.2 We could not possibly leave t h i s subject without paying tribute to the work done hy Mr. Crocker i n organi-zing t h i s contest. Mr. J.H.Crocker of the' University of Western Ontario has acted as chairman of the Contest Com-mittee since i t s inception, and has done a tremendous amount of work i n b u i l d i n g up the standards now generally accepted as the f i n e s t possible. A great deal of cre d i t i s due to Mr. Crocker f o r h i s very estimable contribution to the youth of Canada generally and the Tuxis program p a r t i c u l a r l y . . VII. World Brotherhood. Through the Tuxis program boys are taught to re-gard t h e i r fellows i n other countries as equals i n every way. In these days of s t r a i n and rumors of s t r i f e , Mentors have a wonderful opportunity to implant the idea of the Brotherhood of Nations. I f wars are to he outlawed and nations to l e a r n to a r b i t r a t e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , a great deal Is dependent on the youth of today. • - 328 -Boys should he given talks on hoys of other nations so as to learn to know them better. If there are hoys of d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n your town or c i t y they should be welcomed into Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger groups, f o r i n t h i s way boys learn to appreciate them In t h e i r associations with them. Much valuable work can he done along this l i n e , and the challenge of today i s f o r the nations and peoples of the world to know each other better. I f nations would seek to know one another through the peaceful medium of the council table, most of the pettiness and suspiciousness would be banished. Our hope i s with the younger generation. IX. Tuxis Older Boys' Parliaments. The f i r s t Boys' Parliament ever held i n Canada was held i n Toronto during the Christmas holidays of 1917 and i t s members comprised representatives from various communi-t i e s throughout Ontario. Joe McCully, now Headmaster of Pickering College, v/as the premier of t h i s f i r s t Boys' Parliament and the guiding s p i r i t was Taylor Statten. This experiment was considered of such value that the idea spread r a p i d l y and during the next few years Pro-v i n c i a l Parliaments were i n i t i a t e d i n every part of Canada. There was much i n common In respect to the objectives of these d i f f e r e n t Parliaments, but the methods they employed - 329 f o r reaching these objectives, and the type of organization and procedure during parliamentary sessions were widely d i f f e r e n t , thus providing splendid opportunity f o r study and research In a phase of development In boys' work which increasingly become more valuable. In i t s early stages i t attracted a great deal of attention and the p u b l i c i t y given to i t hy newspapers and other mediums, while greatly appreciated, provided many problems to those behind the scenes and more deeply i n t e r -ested i n the Ch r i s t i a n character development of youth. Representatives of r e l i g i o u s and educational i n -s t i t u t i o n s , not only i n Canada and the United States, but i n other countries as well, studied these parliaments and were unanimous i n t h e i r verdict that, because of the re-s p o n s i b i l i t y c a r r i e d hy boys demanding i n i t i a t i v e , resource-fulness and study on t h e i r part, they provided a s i t u a t i o n r a r e l y found f o r sound educational and character develop-ment. Following several years experimentation each pro-v i n c i a l parliament r e a l i z e d the necessity of closer co-operation and more d e f i n i t e cohesion with the plans and work of other parliaments, consequently, during the pro-v i n c i a l sessions of 1926 arrangements were made whereby the premiers of each province came together i n a national - 330 -gathering during the summer of 1927. This f i r s t national premiers' conference was held at Camp Ahmek, Algonquin Park, at which time i t was agreed to hold a si m i l a r gather-ing every two years. At Camp Ahmek i n 1927 two things stand out: (1) That the trend of our hoys 1 parliaments should he away from l e g i s l a t i o n and toward education. (2) It was agreed that the parliaments must not i n any way curb t h e i r members from expressing themselves according to t h e i r convictions on questions Involving moral issues and current p o l i t i c a l problems. At Jasper Park i n 1929, those present probed much more i n d e t a i l Into p r a c t i c a l l y every phase of work associ-ated with the d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c i a l parliaments. The follow-ing summary, which was reached the l a s t day of the confer-ence, sets f o r t h very concisely vdaat these premiers con-sidered the purpose of parliament: "We, the members of the Premiers' Conference, agree that the following should he the objective of the various P r o v i n c i a l Parliaments: "Complete C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g among hoys". This to he considered as a general objective, which In more speci-f i e d terms would include: (1) To know and accept Jesus as the Master of our - 351 -l i f e . (2) Giving leadership to Tuxis and T r a i l Ranger Movement. (3) Giving leadership to other groups. (4) A s s i s t i n g i n discovering and tr a i n i n g leaders. (5) Learning how to discover motives f o r doing things. (6) To study and act upon v i t a l issues confronting hoys. (7) An agency to stimulate growth i n Ch r i s t i a n character. (8) Developing a cooperative and tolerant s p i r i t . (9) Our share i n financing our work. (10) Learning to think as a group. (11) Helping to develop a Movement consciousness. (12) Developing self-confidence. (13) Giving t r a i n i n g i n Parliamentary procedure, public speaking, and rules of debate." The l a s t conference was held at Camp Beausoleil, Georgian Bay, i n the summer of 1931 and restates and re-affirms many things studied i n the former premiers' Confer-ences according to the following: 1. "The purpose of our several Boys' Parliaments should be: - 332 -(1) To strengthen and deepen the l i v e s of those members who have accepted the challenge of Jesus as He l i v e d . (2) To help them he e f f e c t i v e in. challenging and winning the Youth of Canada to the cause of C h r i s t . (3) To give i n t e l l i g e n t leadership i n the form-ation and execution of plans among youth f o r the es t a b l i s h -ment of Ch r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . I I . I t was f e l t hy the premiers from each province that greater care should be exercised i n the s e l e c t i o n of members f o r parliaments, and many suggestions were made to ensure t h i s among them. It was agreed that any candidate accepting nomination should subscribe to something l i k e the following: "Believing that Jesus has revealed l i f e at i t s highest and best both f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and society and that the central purpose of the Boys 1 Parliament i s to develop such l i f e , my acceptance of the nomination as a candidate f o r the Parliament Is an expression of the dedi-cation of my l i f e to that end." Our hoys' parliaments over a period of years have done much to develop, as the roster w i l l show, many of the f i n e s t young, men i n our country who are already beginning - 333 -to give b i g leadership along various l i n e s . One wonders i f from t h e i r ranks there w i l l not come many young men, who are not only trained i n parliamentary procedure and public speaking, but also those who have strong, s t e r l i n g , Chris-t i a n q u a l i t i e s e s s e n t i a l to meet the p r a c t i c a l needs of a disentegrated world. TABLE XXVIII. Summary of Answers Received Prom Questionnaire Sent to Members of The Fourth Ontario Older Boys 1 Parliament - Taken November,1933. N.B. The Fourth Ontario Older Boys' Parliament was held i n December, 1924. Average age of the t h i r t y - f i v e : 26.8 years. Occupations: 5 farmers, 4 teachers, 3 private secre-t a r i e s , 3 hoys' work secretaries, 2 students, 2 unemployed, 1 each of clerk, customs attorney, druggist, gold r e f i n e r , a p i a n i s t , medical doctor, insurance man, buttermaker, reporter, minister, salesman, p u b l i c i t y manager, lawyer, sales manager, banker, u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r . Do you l i k e your work? Yes, unanimously. Married? 13. If so, how many young hopefuls? Grand t o t a l of 10. Did you become acquainted with the wife or the g i r l f r i e n d through church l i f e ? 10 did, hut not a l l of the married ten. Teach a Sunday School Class? 8. A l l classes of hoys. - 334 -TABLE XXVIII. continued. T r a i l Ranger or Tuxis mentor? 5. Connected with Young People's work? 18. As an o f f i c e r ? 11. ^ What are your other church r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? 2 choir members, 3 ushers, 6 elders and deacons, 2 student ministers, 1 Sunday School Superinten- , dent and 1 Sunday School Secretary. Have you attended a camp since parliament days? Yes, 19. A hoys' conference? Yes, 21. Memher (past or present) of l o c a l hoys' work hoard? 15. Memher (past or present) of mentors' club? 5. Vilhat are your clubs or lodges? 5 Masons, 1 Orangeman, 1 Forester, 3 Kiwanis, 2 Lions, 1 Board of Trade memher, 2 f r a t e r n i t y men, 1 debating and 2 a t h l e t i c club members, 1 Royal I n s t i t u t e of International A f f a i r s . Chief i n t e r e s t s and hobbies? Sports 4, hoys 4, music 3, reading 3, flowers 2, mechanics 2, writing 2, bee keeping, debating, chemistry, world a f f a i r s , family, out-of-doors, 1 each. Church connections? Pentecostal Assembly 1, Church of Christ 1, Presbyterian 3, Baptist 3," TJnited-27. Own a car? 17. Radio? 20. Books? 26. Typewriter? 7. Vote on the premiership of Canada: Bennett 9, King 9, Woodsworth 7, Buck 0. Roosevelt a success or f a i l u r e ? F a i l u r e 3, Success 13, hut nearly a l l answers q u a l i f i e d . - 335 -TABLE XXVIII. continued. Has Ghandi or Mussolini made greater contribution to the world? Mussolini 16, Gharidi 10. What i s your f a v o r i t e game? Hockey 13, baseball 9, basketball'4, tennis 3, f o o t b a l l 2, badminton 2, lacrosse 1. Happy to have been a'member of the hoys' parliament? Unanimously yes. As the stage i s being set i n the various provinces f o r the 1933 sessions i t would be well f o r us to consider what r e s p o n s i b i l i t y we have as mentors f o r the success of the gatherings t h i s year. The following suggestions are offered: (1) We should take an active i n t e r e s t i n the plans and developments f o r t h i s year. The intere s t of the boys can generally he measured by the enthusiasm of the mentor. Pass on to the hoys information regarding nominations, elections, voting, etc. Go to the second mile i n seeing that groups i n surrounding towns are informed. (2) It i s important that an e f f o r t be made to educate the adult members of the congregation, the teen-age hoys and others as to the r e a l purpose of the parliament. A great deal of c r i t i c i s m of the parliament at the present time Is due to inadequate knowledge as to i t s aims, Ideals and purpose. - 336 -(3) Voters' L i s t s . I t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to make cer-t a i n that every hoy whose name i s on the voters' l i s t meets the requirements i n f u l l covering those who may vote, and to see that the voters' l i s t s are sent to the Pro v i n c i a l Returning O f f i c e r . At times there has been considerable confusion and i l l f e e l i n g caused through the mentor not v e r i f y i n g the names of the voters. (4) Each group should he encouraged to nominate a candidate. The hoys w i l l take f a r more in t e r e s t i n the elections and parliament i f they have a candidate In the f i e l d f o r e l e c t i o n . In towns or c i t i e s where there are two or more groups, nominations are often made at Tuxis conclaves, the hoys coming together f o r supper, sing-song, stunts, physical competitions, etc., d e f i n i t e statement regarding purpose of parliament, information as to voting, elections, etc., and short addresses hy the r e t i r i n g parliamentarians and the nomination of the 1933 candidates. Where towns are close together groups could assemble from d i f f e r e n t points. (5) I t i s the mentor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to see that the elections are conducted s t r i c t l y according to regulations. In group meetings p r i o r to the e l e c t i o n , i t would be well to acquaint the hoys with the correct procedure. Every hoy should also be encouraged to exercise his franchise. - 337 -(6) Mentors should do everything they can to a s s i s t the elected members upon t h e i r return from parliament to put across the work f o r which they commit themselves during parliament. Too often the enthusiasm of the returning memher i s squashed through the lack of cooperation or i n -difference of leaders and mentors i n hi s d i s t r i c t . Invite the member to speak to the group, possibly a spe c i a l ser-vice could he arranged following the church service, when a report could he given to the congregation. Some churches go farther and give over the whole service to the hoys a week or two af t e r the members of parliament return. At th i s service they get the premier or one of h i s cabinet and the l o c a l memher to speak on the l e g i s l a t i o n passed at the session of parliament. X. The House System of Competition. As a means of developing the competitive s p i r i t i n a group, the house system has no equal. It develops a s p i r i t of f r i e n d l y r i v a l r y among units of the same group, while at the same time the aims and objectives of the group as a whole are furthered and strengthened. This r i v a l r y i s excellent t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p and i s a safe outlet f o r the hoy's innate tendency towards pugnacity. Here i s a b r i e f statement of the house system and i t s operation. - 338 -It i s best to have four houses; f o r with only two or three the r i v a l r y becomes exaggerated, and there i 3 great danger that instead of unifying the group as a whole, two or three houses w i l l present a d i s t i n c t cleavage and the system suffers irreparable harm. The mentor can deve-lop the i l l u s t r a t i o n of a pack of.cards, a unit i n i t s e l f hut divided Into four d i s t i n c t s uits or houses each with i t s r u l i n g o f f i c i a l s . Point out that one or two suits could not take the place of the f u l l pack. They must work together and to do so must stand together, but each must have i t s own in d i v i d u a l share i n the building of the whole. The o f f i c e r s of the square are elected from the square at large, It being understood that the p