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Early days of the Maritime fur trade, 1785-1794 Little, Margaret E. 1973

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"EARLY JAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRAPS, 1785-1794" Ma r g a r e t S a L i t t l e . U.B.C. LIBRARY CAT. m. U=Sfl7- fi3*fli: iStzl, Mai. « 6 ! . ^~ 1 ^ ~^  roEARLY DAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRADE. 1785-1794." By M a r g a r e t E. L i t t l e A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r the Degree o f M a s t e r o f A r t s . I n the Department o f HISTORY. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1934. "EARLY DAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRADE. 1785-1794." CHAPTER INDEX. Cha p t e r 1. "The D i s c o v e r y o f the N o r t h West C o a s t " . p a g e 1. a) The "Land o f B o i s t e r o u s Seas". b) The E a r l i e s t V i s i t o r s . c ) C a p t a i n Cook. Chapter 11. "The Opening o f the F u r Trade" Page 28, a) The New E n t e r p r i s e b) The Sea O t t e r . c) The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Chapter 111, "The E a r l y T r a d e r s " . (1785-1787) p a g e 43. Chapter 1V« "The B e n g a l F u r Company and the K i n g George's Sound Company." (1786-1789) Page 84. Ch a p t e r V* "The Nootka Sound C o n t r o v e r s y " * (1789-1790) Page 116. Chapter V I . "The American E n t r y " (1788-1790) Page 135. Chapter V l l . "The Changing Times" (1791) p a g e 156. Ch a p t e r V l l l . "The S p a n i a r d s and C a p t a i n George Vancouver" (1792-1794) page 182. Ch a p t e r I X . "The l a s t Three Y e a r s o f the E a r l y Trade" (1792-1794) p a g e 206. Appendix. 1. Appendix*. 11. Appendix. 111. Appendix. I V . Appendix. V.' Appendix. V I . Appendix. V l l . Page 260. Page 261. Page.263. Page 2 6 5 . 6 Page 267. Page 268. Page 270. B i b l i o g r a p h y Page 282. INDEX OF MAPS. 1. F r e n c h Map o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , c i r c a 1775. f o l l o w i n g page 2. 2. Map o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t b y C a p t a i n James Cook, s h o w i n g t h e t r a c k s o f t h e " D i s c o v e r y " and " R e s o l u t i o n " . f o l l o w i n g page 15, 3. P h o t o g r a p h o f C h i n e s e M e d a l l i o n D i s c o v e r e d i n N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and M e d a l l i o n l e f t b y C a p t a i n Cook a t N o o t k a . f o l l o w i n g page 26« 4. Modern Map o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . f o l l o w i n g page 2 9 8 5. l i n g u i s t i c S t o c k s o f t h e C o a s t I n d i a n s , f o l l o w i n g page 3 5 . 6. T r a c k o f t h e E x p e d i t i o n o f James S t r a n g e , f o l l o w i n g page 49« 7. Modern Map, s h o w i n g Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e C o a s t o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a * f o l l o w i n g page 60„ 3. C h a r t o f t h e N o r t h West C o a s t o f A m e r i c a , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f l a P e r o u s e . f o l l o w i n g page 6 7 0 9. C h a r t o f P a r t o f t h e N o r t h West C o a s t b y C a p t a i n James Hanna. f o l l o w i n g page 76. 10. G e n e r a l R o u t e s o f t h e F u r T r a d e r s t o t h e N o r t h West C o a s t . f o l l o w i n g page 85. 1 1 . Map o f C a p t a i n George D i x o n , s h o w i n g t h e t r a c k s o f t h e " K i n g G e o r g e " and "Queen C h a r l o t t e " , f o l l o w i n g page 92. 12. S k e t c h o f F r i e n d l y Cove i n N o o t k a Sound, f o l l o w i n g page 104. 13. Map o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , b y J o s e p h I n g r a h a m . f o l l o w i n g page 172. NOTE. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the footnote method advised hy Third Year H i s t o r i c a l Methods Seminar has been practised i n the following pages. The f u l l t i t l e of every work i s c i t e d on each quotation, instead of the usual "op.cit," abbreviation, following the f i r s t reference. The transient Stature of the fur traders 1 v i s i t s lends i t s e l f to much confusion, and the complete t i t l e of each authority i s given on a l l occasions f o r the sake of c l a r i t y . Hence the reader may see at a glance whether the information originates from the traders themselves, with reference to the exact expedition, or whether i t i s merely the statement or generalization of a secondary source. "EARLY DAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRADE, 1785-1794." Chapter 1. "THE DISCOVERY OF THE NORTH WEST COAST". The n o r t h west c o a s t o f A m e r i c a found no p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d maps o f a hundred and s i x t y y e a r s ago. I t was unknown and u n e x p l o r e d , m e r e l y the ""backside o f A m e r i c a " , and a s u b j e c t o f u n l i m i t e d scope f o r t h e I m a g i n a t i o n s o f c a r t o - g r a p h e r s . The e a r l y maps o f N o r t h A m e r i c a were s t r o n g l y c o l o u r e d by t h e hopes o f an e x i s t i n g w e s t e r n passage t o the O r i e n t . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y the German geographer Schoner p u b l i s h e d a map showing the c o n t i n e n t as a s e r i e s o f i s l a n d s , s e p a r a t e d by e a s i l y n a v i g a b l e passages l e a d i n g t o t h e South Seas. C o n s i d e r a b l e advances had been made by the m i d d l e o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and now f a i r l y a c c u r a t e maps e x i s t e d o f the e a s t c o a s t o f the N o r t h American c o n t i n e n t , from Hudson's Bay s o u t h t o C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , and on the west s i d e , f rom C e n t r a l A m e r i c a n o r t h t o C a l i f o r n i a . Here S p a n i s h e x p l o r a t i o n s ended, and h e r monopoly o f the P a c i f i c p r e v e n t e d o t h e r s h i p s from p e n e t r a t i n g , and c o n t i n u i n g the work where she had l e f t o f f . S p a i n c o n s i d e r e d the P a c i f i c Ocean more o r l e s s as a " S p a n i s h l a k e " t o w h i c h the entrance, o f any o t h e r n a t i o n was r e g a r d e d as i n t r u s i o n . Her c l a i m was based on the P a p a l B u l l o f 1493, i s s u e d by Pope A l e x a n d e r V I , w h i c h d i v i d e d the new w o r l d o f N o r t h and South A m e r i c a between S p a i n and P o r t u g a l , a s s i g n i n g s p h e r e s o f E x p l o r a t i o n t o each. The T r e a t y o f T o r d e s i l l a s , June 1494, s e t Page 2 a l i n e three hundred and seventy leagues west of Cape Verde as the boundary, to the apparent s a t i s f a c t i o n of both nations 0 although the d i v i s i o n was imme^sur/eably i n Spain's favour. Spain had explored and colonized on the P a c i f i c seabord i n Mexico and C a l i f o r n i a , but, resting,on her l a u r e l s , had made no further attempt at northern exploration u n t i l alarmed by rumors of Russian a c t i v i t i e s i n Alaska* beginning i n 1741, S i r Francis Drake, i n the famous voyage c f the "Golden Hind" round the world 0 v i s i t e d the Ca l i f o r n i a n coast i n 1577-9* He wintered i n Drake's Bay, and s a i l e d north to 48 g taking possession of the land f o r England under the t i t l e of New Albion. The English Government, however, made no e f f o r t to follow up his explorations, and the claims of discovery lapsed. The accounts which reached Europe of the Russian voyages to the new lands were of the vaguest nature, and added nothing to geographical knowledge. B e l l i n ' s chart ©f 1748 shows the northwest corner of the map inscribed "The Russians have come as f a r as t h i s i n 1741^ but they have been shipwrecked i n the shoals and drowned". The blank i n the coast l i n e i s f i l l e d i n by a dotted l i n e , running from north, south to the Bay of Aguilar i n C a l i f o r n i a , with the i n s c r i p t i o n "Probably America goes as f a r as t h i s " , while north of C a l i f o r n i a i s added the observation "Here the sea begins t© be very boistrous"»(1) So i t came about that i n 1775, the year of Captain Cook's eventful v i s i t to these unknown regions, a French map of North America was published B showing the north west coast as a gigantic peninsula, enclosing the "Sea or Bay of the West", a body ©f water which occupied more than h a l f of the present provinces of B r i t i s h Columbia and' (1) F.W.Howay and E.O.S.Scholefield " B r i t i s h Columbia".7 v o l * 1. S.J.Clarke Publishing Co. Vancouver, 1914.~^Page 11. F~R£LNCH MAP Or NORTH AMERICA, CJffCA /7T5 Page 3 0 Alberta. Yet i n f i f t e e n years' time the ownership of t h i s nebulous t e r r i t o r y was to be a major diplomatic question,, and an issue which narrowly avoided plunging Europe i n war. The north west coast escaped European notice so long because of i t s distance from Europe and i t s inaccessibility® It was l i t e r a l l y the other side of the world, separated, either by d i r e c t western or eastern route, by a continent and an ocean. At t h i s period no di r e c t route was possible, and to reach i t s shores ships had e4*feer- to s a i l we.sifc, circumnavigate the continent Sf South America, and make th e i r way north, past Central America, and the south western coast of North America. land explorations westward from the e x i s t i n g settlements i n North America was also checked by a double b a r r i e r of mountains, f i r s t the snow-capped and seemingly impassable Rockies, and at the seabord, the Coastal Range. The eastern sea route was even longer. Ships must s a i l around the South African continent, cross the Indian Ocean, thread t h e i r way east to the P a c i f i c , at which point they were s t i l l separated from t h e i r goal by a voyage which varied from six weeks to two months. There was no extra spur to search f o r a f i e l d of raw materials — t h e r e were r i c h e r and more accessible sources nearer home— the vast stretch of eastern North America and the West Indies offered more than could be expected from the western coast, and the raw material f o r which the north west coast was almost the unique source —'the sea otter p e l t — was as yet unsuspected. There was only one r e a l incentive towards explora- t i o n --the b e l i e f i n the Horth West Passage. The desire of the west f o r easy access to the east was of long standing, and hope Page 4. s t i l l f l o u r i s h e d that somewhere a navigable waterway to India must e x i s t . This mythical passage "became known as the S t r a i t s of Anian, and i n 1745 England passed an Act of Parliament o f f e r i n g the sum of twenty thousand pounds fo r i t s discovery, "but made only owners of private ships e l i g i b l e f o r the reward. Such a passage was desired, both to f u r n i s h a shorter route to the Orient, and as a means of avoiding the Spanish monopoly. The a c q u i s i t i o n of Canada i n 1763 made i t of increasing importance to England, and roused her to investigate the legend. The monopolies of the great j o i n t stock companies, the East India Company, and the South Sea Company made i t almost impossible f o r private enterprise to carry on such a search, i t was too severely handicapped. The East India Company was incorporated by Queen Elizabeth under the t i t l e of "The Governor and Company of Merchants of london, Trading i n the East Indies" i n 1599-1600. I t had a charter of monopolies which conferred the sole r i g h t of trading with the East Indies, — t h a t i s , with a l l countries l y i n g beyond the Cape of Good Hope, or the S t r a i t s of Magellan. The o r i g i n a l grant was f o r a period of f i f t e e n years, but renujed i n 1609, under James 1. " f o r ever", with the sole r e s t r i c t i o n that i t might be revoked on three years notice i f the trade should not prove p r o f i t a b l e to the realm. Unauthorized interlopers were l i a b l e to f o r f e i t of shipa and cargo, and by 1700 the company had a p r a c t i c a l monopoly of the Indian trade. Down to the middle of the nineteenth century the famous "East Indiamen" were preeminent among mercantile shipping. The South Sea Company was of a l a t e r o r i g i n . Formed i n 1711, i t s promoters were c h i e f l y wealthy merchants, who were granted a monopoly of trade with the west coast of America, from Cape Horn Page 5 0 to the frozen north, and three hundred leagues into the ocean, i n - eluding the islands of the P a c i f i c , After the "bursting of the South Sea Bubble i n 1720, the company continued to exist although i n a moribund condition, and kept i t s exclusive p r i v i l e g e s t i l l 1807, Between them they closed the sea to B r i t i s h enterprise and hindered exploration. The e a r l i e s t v i s i t o r s to the north west coast belong to the realm of legend. F i r s t , and perhaps the most probable, i s the expedition of the Chinese to North America, or Fusang as they c a l l e d i t , i n 500 A.D. Chinese state papers of the period have l a t e l y been brought to l i g h t which lend weight to the account of the expedition. An ancient Chinese medallion, dating from about t h i s century, has recently been discovered among a tr i b e of Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Indians, but with l e t t e r i n g so worn and old that i t cannot be properly deciphered. This curio i s at present i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., and i s believed by some to be a r e l i c of the Chinese v i s i t . The other apocryphal voyages are less convincing. The Portuguese,Lorenzo Ferrer de Maldonado, claimed that i n 1588 he crossed the North A t l a n t i c to Davis S t r a i t , and sa i l e d on through the S t r a i t of Anian u n t i l he reached the P a c i f i c . His story was widely believed at the time. The account of Juan de Fuca was published by Samuel Purchas i n "His Pilgrimes" i n 1625, although the actual journey was supposed to have been made i n 15928 — t h e length of the i n t e r v a l was suspicious i n i t s e l f . De Fuca, a Greek p i l o t , said he was sent by the Viceroy of New Spain to seek f o r the S t r a i t of Anian, and held that he s a i l e d up the coast u n t i l he f i n a l l y came to the S t r a i t , which was t h i r t y to f o r t y leagues wide at i t s opening. Neither the Spanish Archives, Page 6. nor the Archives of New Spain, show any record of h i s having been dispatched, a matter which coula hardly have been overlooked, had he s a i l e d tinder such authority. The story of De Fonte was not published u n t i l 1708, although h i s fabulous voyage was placed i n 1640. De Fonte claimed nothing less than that he had penetrated the north American continent from east to west by means of a chain of r i v e r s and lakes. The f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c explorations i n the north west were made by Vitus Bering, a Dane i n Russian service. Russia was the pioneer both i n the discovery and the fur trade of the coast. Early i n the eighteenth century, Bering, while o f f i c i a l l y mapping and determining the bounds of north eastern Asia and the Kamchatka peninsula, penetrated the s t r a i t named after him, but caught no glimpse of the continent to the east. Rumours of i t s existence were abroad, and i n consequence a second and mammo#th expedition was planned i n 1733. Due to the interference of the Bnpress Anne Ivanovna, i t aimed to serve such d i v e r s i f i e d interests that from the beginning i t was overwhelmingly handicapped. Preparations took eight years to complete, and i t was the fourth of June, 1741j before the i l l - f a t e d party s a i l e d from the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul i n Avatcha Bay, Kamchatka. It consisted of two ships, the "St. Peter" with a crew of seventy seven, commanded by Bering, and the "St. Paul" with seventy s i x , under Alexei C h i r i k o f f . The ships had been newly b u i l t f o r the expedition, and were both b r i g - rigged, ca r r i e d fourteen guns, and measured eighty by twenty by nine f e e t . (1) Almost immediately they were caught i n a storm and permanently separated. Bering continued alone, and sighted land i n Alaska, i n the region of Kadiak i s l a n d on the 16 th. of (1) F.A.Golder "Bering's Voyages" Published by American Geographical Society, New York, 1925. v o l . 1. Pase 34. Page 7. July, Scurvy early made i t s appearance among the crew. After charting part of the coast Bering wished to return, as winter was approaching and the health of the men seriously impaired. The sea council agreed to return to Avatcha, hut wished to do so by way of the American coast, Bering thought more favourable winds might be obtainable i n l a t i t u d e 49° or 50°, but allowed h i s opinions to be rejected without contradiction. (1) The "St, Peter" continued north and north west, following the coast u n t i l i t became entangled i n the chain of the Aleutian Islands, where t e r r i f i c storms were encountered, and the ship narrowly escaped being wrecked. Scurvy raged unchecked, and the misery and privations of the s a i l o r s were by t h i s time t e r r i b l e . F i n a l l y only eight men were capable of dragging themselves about, while the r e s t were "sick unto death". Water and provisions were almost exhausted, and no alternative offered to the fate of wintering i n these inhospitable parts to replenish them and give the sick a chance of l i f e . The i s l a n d nearest them at t h i s time — l a t e r known as Bering's Island, the farthest west of the Aleutian chain, was approached, and a camp prepared on i t s shores. The sick were, landed with the greatest d i f f i c u l t y , and amid the most gruesome scenes. Foxes mangled the dead before they could be bur/ied, and s n i f f e d at the l i v i n g and helpless. Some of the men complained of cold, others of hunger and t h i r s t , f o r the scurvy had so affected t h e i r mouths that t h e i r gums grew over t h e i r teeth l i k e sponges. They were f i n a l l y lodged i n roofed sandpits, and f o r a time the log of the "St. Peter" seems nothing but a record of deaths. Misfortunes increased. The "St, Peter" was wrecked because there were not s u f f i c i e n t able- ID F.A.Golder "Bering's Voyages" v o l . 11. Page 68 Page 8» "bodied men l e f t to haul her on shore, and on the 8th of December Bering died of scurvy. Slowly others began to recover t h e i r health, and by Christmas Day a few were able to hunt. S t e l l a r remarks on the number and fearlessness of the fur bearing animals of the v i c i n i t y , sea-lions, sea-cows, f u r seals and sea otters abounded, seyeral species of which were unknown to him. The survivors b u i l t a hooker from the wreck, which they c a l l e d the "St,: Peter" a f t e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l ship, and i n i t managed to escape from the i s l a n d . They started f o r Avatcha on August 13th 1742, with f o r t y s i x on board, only one of whom died on the way, lieutenant Sven Waxel i n h i s report of the expedition , says they wished to name the coast of America "New Russia", l i k e other European powers, but did not l i k e to do so without orders from the Admiralty College, (1) The "St, Paul" fared better. After separation C h i r i k o f f continued east, a r r i v i n g by the twenty si x t h of June i n l a t i t u d e 48°, where he just missed Bering, who was i n the same v i c i n i t y four days l a t e r . The continent was sighted on J u l y 15th i n l a t i t u d e 55* 2 l " on the west coast of the Archipelago Alexandria. A landing was made two days l a t e r i n the region of Sitka Sound, about l a t . 57° , when a party of ten were sent ashore f o r water. Nothing was heard of them again, or of a second boat dispatched i n search of them. Doubtless they were massacred by natives. The losses were serious, for C h i r i k o f f had no more boats, and his crew was now reduced to a point of danger, others being incapacitated by scurvy. I t made further geographic discoveries impossible, and the^St, Paul°'was obliged to return to Kamchatka, having l o s t i n a l l twenty two of her crew, (1) F.A.Golder "Bering's Voyages" v o l , 1. Page 281, Page 9. C h i r i k o f f , when he had recovered from his own attack of scurvy, made an attempt to f i n d Bering, "but without success. The exped- i t i o n of Bering and C h i r i k o f f had revealed the f u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the new continent, and although the Russian government made no e f f o r t to follow up t h e i r explorations, enterprising i n d i v i d u a l s did, i n search of the sea o t t e r . The Aleutian Islands were mapped and thoroughly exploited, and as the sea ott e r decreased the f u r seal rose i n commercial value. Soon new lands were opened i n the P r i b y l o f f Islands and i n Alaska. In 1799 the former ventures of Gregory SkeliSoff and other Siberian merchants were organized as the Russian American Company, imdersaogrant from the Emperor Paul, which gave i t control of the f u r trade of America and the Aleutian Islands. The Russian American Company, i n i t s organization, was rather l i k e the Hudson's Bay Company, and established i t s own posts and d i s t r i c t s i n the new t e r r i t o r i e s , responsible only to the c h i t f d i r e c t o r . Unfortunately the regu- la t i o n s governing i t were not always well applied, and the rule of the Company was, on the whole, sordid. Shortly before 1799, a Russian f o r t was b u i l t at Sitka Sound, under Baranoff, c a l l e d Archangel Gabrial. I t quickly became a centre of the new industry, injspite of the opposition of the natives, the warlike TElink&ts, who resented Russian i n t r u s i o n . Baranoff entered the Russian American Company, and became i t s greatest governor. At a much l a t e r date he began to fo s t e r schemes fo r acquiring C a l i f o r n i a and the Sandwich Islands f o r Russia. Spain, although c o n t r o l l i n g the sea routes to the north west, made no e f f o r t to continue her discoveries, u n t i l Page 10. aroused i n the l a t t e r part of the eighteenth century by rumours of Russian a c t i v i t i e s i n the north. The exact extent of these could not be ascertained, as Russia kept s i l e n t on the subject of her discoveries, and perhaps f o r t h i s reason Spain was a l l the more alarmed f o r the safety of her t e r r i t o r i e s . She claimed sole ownership of everything bordered by the North P a c i f i c Ocean, and f e l t that unless a vigorous p o l i c y of exploration and s e t t l e - ment on the north west coast was adopted, her pos i t i o n was precarious. Bucareli, the viceroy of New Spain was ordered to investigate by Madrid. He sent an expedition i n charge of Juan Perez to spy out the threatened regions i n 1774. The purpose of the voyage was to be kept secret, since i t was merely a rec- onnaissance, not a m i l i t a r y expedition, and Perez was to make no settlement. The most minute instructions were prepared. Perez was to reach the coast i n l a t . 60 c , and s a i l southward down i t , observing any foreign settlements, noting the best situations f o r future Spanish ones, and taking formal possession i n the name of Carlos 111. Friendly r e l a t i o n s were to be estab- l i s h e d with the natives, whose favour was to be won with the help of four chests of glass beads, and four hundred and s i x t y eight s t r i n g s . Perez was to report on the resources of the country, plant wooden crosses i n stone bases as v i s i b l e signs of ownership, and seal i t by reading a l e g a l and pius formula. The corvette "Santiago", one of the best ships of the C a l i f o r n i a servicejWas chosen f o r the expedition, and l e f t San Bias, January 25th 1774., with a crew of eighty eight, i n c l u - ding o f f i c e r s , regular crew, surgeon and chaplain. At Monteray Page 11. Fathers Crespl and Tomas de l a Pena joined the expedition as chaplains, and the di a r i e s kept hy them are valuable records of events. Estevan Martinez went as navigating o f f i c e r . Heavy storms, hardship and sickness delayed the ship, so that "by the 15th of &uly the "Santiago" was only i n la t i t u d e 51°. Contrary winds made i t doubtful i f 60°could be reached with safety, while the low water supply made i t imperative to land at an early date. Perez held a council, and began preparations f o r landing. The carpenters made a wooden cross, inscribed "I N R I' Carolus 111 Hispaniarum Rex — Ano de 1774". (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Carlos 111. King of the Spains — t h e year 1774) land was sighted on the 18th of July o f f the north end of the Queen Charlotte Islands. The Spaniards named the spot Santa Margarita Point, but were prevented by swift currents from making a landing although they t r i e d f o r several days. The Indians, who belonged to the Haida nation, soon appeared and quickly conquered t h e i r f i r s t shyness, r e c e i v i n g presents, and beginning to trade i n f i s h and fu r s . Some of the s a i l o r s bought cutsarks, but l a t e r repented of th e i r bargain, being much troubled with the vermin imported at the same time. I t i s the f i r s t record of f u r trade with the Indians of the north west coast. The weather did not improve, so Perez s a i l e d south- ward, anchoring on August 8th i n San lorenzo Harbour, a"C shaped roadstead", near Nootka Sound. He could not have entered the Sound, f o r i f he had he would have been safe i n a l l weathers. (1) As i t was he was again unable to land, and was driven out to sea by a storm, being obliged to s a c r i f i c e h i s anchor. Perez made no further e f f o r t at exploration, but with a crew weak from scurvy (1) Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d " B r i t i s h Columbia" v o l . 1. Page 41. Page 12. s a i l e d south along the coast to Monteray, which he reached on the 27th of August, and proceeded from there to San Bias hy the 2nd. of November. He had not planted a single cross, but had made a daring voyage. Perez was the f i r s t to v i s i t the present coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, and ascertain i t s general trend, although missing the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, as no mention i s made of i t i n the journals. Possession had not beenntaken, but Spain could claim the r i g h t of p r i o r discovery. The following year Bucareli sent another expedition, consisting of two ships and a despatch boat, the "San Carlos"• The "Santiago" was r e f i t t e d under naval lieutenant Don Bruno Heeeta, with Juan Perez as quartermaster. She was accompanied by the l i t t l e schooner "Sonora", who shortly a f t e r the s t a r t of the voyage came under the command of lieutenant Juan Francisco de Y Quadra. Quadra had joined the expedition because "even the l i g h t e s t undertaking would be noteworthy, both on account of i t s small s i z e , scanty crew, evident lack of necessaries, accumulation of r i s k s , and entire want of suitable q u a l i t i e s f o r such routes ". (1) I t was an accurate summary of the s i t u a t i o n , as subsequent events proved. A deeply r e l i g i o u s atmosphere pervaded the port at t h e i r departure, March 16th 1775. Before embarking a l l attended mass i n San Bias, and walked i n procession to the shore bearing the image of our lady Maria Santisima, and chanting the l i t a n y . The padres Benito de l a S i e r r a and Miguel de l a Campa accompanied the voyage. The r e l i g i o u s d e t a i l s had been better considered than the p r a c t i c a l ones. The ships proved d i f f i c u l t to steer, and l i t t l e care had been given to t h e i r o u t f i t t i n g . On the 8th (1) Bodega Y Quadra "Expeditions i n the Years 1775, 1779, Towards the West Coast of North America" Translation i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Page 2. Page 13. of A p r i l the bowsprit was found to be sprung i n the "Santiago" "we were t o l d that the condition of the spar was duly reported when i n port —heaven knows i f i t be true". (1) A cloud soon marked the s t a r t of the expedition. Don Miguel Marique, captain of the despatch boat, went insane, and became obsessed by the idea that someone wanted to k i l l him. He stalked the decks armed with s i x loaded p i s t o l s , gave orders highly coloured by h i s mental condition, and prepared to shoot anyone who did not carry them out. With considerable d i f f i c u l t y he was conveyed ashore. Quadra, much to h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n , was appointed captain of the "Sonora", #i?thtMaurelle second i n command, while h i s senior o f f i c e r was transferred to the "San Carlos". Hecate's instructions were to reach 65 l a t i t u d e , and survey and take possession of the coast. Adverse winds delayed progress, but a landing was made on the 14th of July at Point Gre n v i l l e , i n l a t . 47® 20" , when Hecate and three others erected a cross and took possession of the country. They were the f i r s t Europeans on the north west coast. The ships' v i s i t had a tr a g i c ending, f o r the same day a party of seven going ashore f o r water i n the "Sonora"'s only boat, were ambushed and k i l l e d within f u l l view of the "Sonora" which was powerless to help them. Quadra was l e f t with a crew of f i v e able-bodied men and a boy, besides four stricken with scurvy. The Indians t r i e d to attack the ship i n canoes, but were driven o f f . After the disaster Hecate wished to turn back, but was over ruled by the wishes of Quadra and Maurelle. Soon afterwards the vessels were separated by a storm. Hecate reached the neighbourhood of Nootka So^nd i n l a t . 49° 30° , where he sighted land and turned (1) Diary of Padre Benito de l a S i e r r a : Made on board the Frigate "Santiago" 1775. Translated by A.J.Baker, Mexico City, 1929. Copy i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Pa*e 8. Page 14. south, discovering the mouth of the Columbia River on h i s return voyage. Perez died i n the Santa Barbara Channel before reaching Mexico. Quadra and Maurelle went on, v a l i a n t l y t r y i n g to carry out t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . The attempt was "bo,th heroic and foolhardy". Seas swept i n soaking food and sleeping quarters, : and scurvy increased. The "Sonora" continued north, u n t i l Mount Edgecumbe was sighted on the Alaska coast. A landing was attempted i n the v i c i n i t y , but d i f f i c u l t i e s arose with the natives who wanted payment f o r the drinking water. Quadra fought h i s way to l a t . 58° before deciding to s a i l f o r San Bias, having reached a further point than any other explorer. Port Bucareli was named i n l a t . 55° 17° and fresh supplies of wood and water obtained. Quadra charted the coast from 58^ south to Monteray. The return voyage was one of t e r r i b l e hardship. The crew were so badly scurvy stricken that Quadra himself had to go a l o f t to manage the s a i l s . The t r i a l s show hi s strength and endurance at t h e i r best. Cheering the sick, encouraging the convalescing to help with navigating, Quadra f i n a l l y brought the completiy scurvy st r i c k e n ship to Monteray, almost by personal w i l l power, on October 6th. San Bias was reached on the 20th of November, after eight months' absence. A t h i r d expedition was made i n 1779, under Ignacio Arteaga i n the "Princesa", assisted by Bodega Y Quadra i n the "Favorita", with Maurelle second i n command. The "Favorita" was twice the size of the "Sonora", and Quadra made every e f f o r t to safeguard the health of the crew and prevent them from being unnecessarily exposed. The ships l e f t San Bias 17th of February amd reached Port Bucareli on May 4th, where they made an extended Page 15. stay. Maurelle was commissioned to chart i t s ports and hays, while close examination was made of the natural resources,native customs, f l o r a and fauna. From here Arteaga and Quadra s a i l e d North and explored f o r nearly a month, sighted Mount St. E l i a s , so named hy Bering i n 1741, and searched c a r e f u l l y f o r a passage to the A r c t i c . Their labours were unrewarded. Lieutenant Quiros took possession of Regla Island, and "by August 7 th they were forced by sickness and f a i l i n g provisions to turn back. They arrived at San Bias November 21, taking with them some Indian children who had been obtained with other things i n barter with the natives of Port Bucareli. The ships were met by the news that war had been declared between England and Spain, and that Spain was now a participant i n the American Revolutionary War. The Spanish voyages had shown the northern coastline and helped to disprove the legend of the S t r a i t s of Anian, but l e f t the deeply indented shore and maze of islands uncharted and unexplored. War now forced Spain to abandon her newly awakened i n t e r e s t s , and by the time she was again free to turn Her attentions to the northwest, Captain Cook and the fur traders who followed him had greatly complicated her task of annexation. In 1776 the B r i t i s h Admiralty sent a s c i e n t i f i c expedition to the north west coast of America under Captain James Cook, to v e r i f y or disprove the existence of the north westppassage 9 whose rumoured existence had given r i s e to so much controversy. The search was to be made from the P a c i f i c , seeking a way to the A t l a n t i c , instead of the usual method of working east to west from the A t l a n t i c coast. As a further stimulus the Act of Parliament of 1745, o f f e r i n g twenty thousand pounds f o r the discovery of?the  16 N o r t h west passage, c l a i m a b l e o n l y by owners o f p r i v a t e s h i p s who had d i s c o v e r e d a passage o p e n i n g i n t o Hudson's Bay, was amended and widened. The passage might be sought i n any d i r - e c t i o n o r p a r a l l e l above t h e 52°of n o r t h l a t i t u d e , and s h i p s o f t h e R o y a l Navy were i n c l u d e d among t h o s e e l i g i b l e . A f u r t h e r reward o f f i v e t housand pounds was o f f e r e d f o r any s h i p r e a c h i n g w i t h i n one degree o f the N o r t h P o l a . C a p t a i n Cook was a man e m i n e n t l y f i t t e d t o take charge o f s u c h a v e n t u r e , h a v i n g brought two p r e v i o u s e x p l o r i n g ex- p e d i t i o n s t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n , andf\received the G o l d Medal o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y f o r h i s p a p e r on the p r e v e n t i o n o f s c u r y y . When the voyage was f i r s t s u g g e s t e d Cook was on the p o i n t o f r e t i r e m e n t , h a v i n g been made C a p t a i n o f Greenwich H o s p i t a l , but he e a g e r l y a c c e p t e d the chance o f p r o l o n g i n g a s e a - f a r i n g l i f e . Two s h i p s were commissioned f o r the voyage, "H.M.S. R e s o l u t i o n " , and a s m a l l e r v e s s e l o f t h r e e hundred t o n s , " H.M.S. D i s c o v e r y " , u n d e r C a p t a i n C l e r k e , Cook's f o r m e r second - I l i e u t e n a n t . S e c r e t i n s t r u c t i o n s were i s s u e d by the A d m i r a l t y . Cook was t o make the c o a s t i n l a t i t u d e 45°, go n o r t h t o l a t i t u d e 65" o* f u r t h e r i f c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , and s e a r c h and e x p l o r e any r i v e r s and i n l e t s w hich might c o n c e i v a b l y l e a d towards Hudson's o r B a f f i n Bays. I f the passage were d i s c o v e r e d , o r even i f a p o s s i b i l i t y d e v e l o p e d , i t was t o be f o l l o w e d t o the b i t t e r end, even though i t n e c e s s i t a t e d d i v i d i n g the e x p e d i t - i o n , and s e n d i n g one o f the s m a l l e r s h i p s . S h o u l d i n v e s t i g - a t i o n s prove f r u i t l e s s , Cook was t o w i n t e r i n Kamchatka, p o s s - i b l y a t the h a r b o u r o f S t . P e t e r and S t . P a u l , and c o n t i n u e the s e a r c h n e x t y e a r , g o i n g n o r t h as f a r as p o s s i b l e , c h a r t - i n g , mapping, and t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f a l l ( I ) James Cook and James K i n g , " Voyage Round the World", N i c o l , London, 1784, Pages 374-377. Page 17 •unknown lands. Peaceful r e l a t i o n s were to be maintained with any European settlements encountered. The expedition l e f t Plymouth Sound on the 12th. of July, 1776, with a number of domestic animals, —cows and sheep,— and a v a r i e t y of European garden seeds f o r the purpose of stocking new islands, either f o r t h e i r own convenience, or the use of the inhabitants. The ships also c a r r i e d an extensive assortment of irom tools and tr i n k e t s f o r presents and trade i n the new countries. During the voyage to the Cape of Good Hope the e q u i t o r i a l heat opened the badly calked seams of the "Resolution" so that large quantities of water entered, completely r u i n i n g some of the spare s a i l s , but otherwise no casualties occured. At the Cape the livestock was considerably supplemented, u n t i l as lieutenant Rickman observed, "stored with these, the "Resolution" resembled the Ark, i n which a l l the animals that were to stock the earth c o l l e c t e d , and with t h e i r provender, they occupied no small part of the ship's storage. " (1) During the progress of the voyage a new group of islands were discovered i n the P a c i f i c , considerably north of New Zealand and the Friendly Islands, i n l a t i t u d e 20°north longitude 155° 30° west, which Cook named the Sandwich Islands after the E a r l of Sandwich. The Spaniards had probably discovered the Islands already, but knowledge of them had evidently been l o s t . Much valuable information concerning these and the southern islands was c o l l e c t e d . While i n these parts great care was taken to supply the crew d a i l y with p l e n t l y of scurvy grass and wild celery to b o i l with t h e i r soup. F i s h was substituted f o r s a l t meat when i t could be obtained,and spruce beer was brewed i n large quantities as "the l i q u o r was found (l)John Rickman "Journal of Captain Cook's l a s t Voyage" Newberry, London, 1781. Page 21. Page 18, so s a t i s f a c t o r y that i t seemed to s t r i k e at the very root of the scurvy, and l e f t not the l e a s t symptom of i t remaining about any man i n the ship", (1) The journey from the Sandwich Islands was cold and stormy, with showers of h a i l and displays of aurora borealis?. The coast of Oregon was sighted on March 7 1778 , i n l a t . 44° 36* W,, Cape Blanco bearing about eight or nine leagues north north east. I t was a change from the hospitable islands of the South Seas, "The land near shore was of moderate height, the h i l l s were covered with straight ta l l - trees of the f i r kind, and where they were but t h i n l y scattered the ground was covered with snow.".(2) The a r r i v a l was celebrated on the "Discovery" where "the gentlemen of the gunroom, dined on a fricassee of r a t s , which they accounted a venison feast, and i t was a high treat to the s a i l o r s , whenever they could be lucky enough to catch a number s u f f i c i e n t to make a meal", (3) The weather did not improve, snow and h a i l f e l l during the night, while heavy squalls and fog made i t impossible to follow the coast c l o s e l y . Captain Cook began the northward journey, naming Cape Poulweather, Cape Gregory and Cape Perpetua, Before he had gone f a r , a storm drove him back to l a t . 42 , and i t was the 22nd of March before he again sighted land i n l a t . 47°5" and named Cape F l a t t e r y i n l a t . 48° 22£" , having missed the mouth of the Columbia River. Search was made f o r the S t r a i t of Fuca, but "stormy weather l i k e some d i a b o l i c a l deamon" snatched the discovery from him, f o r c i n g him to seek safety i n open sea, and land was next seen at Breakers Point, Vancouver Island, i n (1) John Rickman "Journal of Captain Cook's l a s t Voyage" Page 59, (2) W.Ellis "Cook's Voyage?' G.Robinson, London, 1784. Page 184, (3) John Rickman "Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage " Potfe 232. Page 19. latitude 4 9 ° 15^. The "Resolution" anchored in an arm of the sea very near shore, and next morning with the help of the " "Discovery" sought suitable anchorage. Captain Cook discovered nearby "a convenient, snug cove, well suited to our purpose", and lieutenant King after recohoitering reported i t to be an excellent harbour. The ships moored in what became later famous as Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, the trading centre of the north- west coast. It was their f i r s t anchorage on the north American shore. s A l i t t l e later the Indians made a ceremonious appearance. Three laden canoes approached, directed by a fur clad orator with a rat t le in each hand which he used to some effect. The natives sang melodiously and flung handfuls of red dust or powder into the sea. The orator harangued and threw white feathers on the water. Then they withdrew to return later with more oratory and singing and largely increased numbers. The word "Haela1? was repeated frequently as the burden of the song. One of the chiefs attracted notice for his remarkable head dress of feathers and the extroardinary manner in which he was painted. In his hand he carried a large wooden ratt le carved li&e a b i r d , and his canoe was decorated by a bird's eye, and a b i l l of col losal s ize . (1) According to Nootka legend, the natives thought Cook's ships were salmon turned into a boat, and sent a woman doctor named Hahtsaik, who had power over a l l kinds of salmon, out to meet them in a canoe with three strong young men. She wore a red cedar bark cap and apron, and carried a whalebone ratt le in each hand. As they approached she sang, and then hailed the ship ca l l ing "Hello you, you spring salmon, hello you dog salmon, (1) Cook and King "Voyage Round the World" Page 635-7. Page 20. hell© coho salmon". Another canoe followed, with a second doctor, Wiwai, who spoke i n the same manner. Wiwai soon returned to the T i l l a g e Nanaimis of the Muchalats then put two heaver skins i n his canoe and set o f f with ten men to v i s i t the ship. Cook wanted him to come on board, offered him two black blankets and t r i e d to shake hands. Nanaimis, although d e c l i n i n g the i n v i t a t i o n , r e a l i z e d Cook was not an enchanted salmon, and taking the blankets gave him the beaver skins i n return. Maquinna, not to be outdone, also paid a v i s i t and exchanged presents. He received a f i n e gold braid hat and gave a sea otter skin. The natives then performed a wolf dance on the beach i n honour of the strangers. (1) Cook f i r s t named the place "King George's Sound", but soon changed i t to "Nootka" b e l i e v i n g i t to be the native name. A lengthy stay was made to make astronomical observations, secure fresh supplies of wood and water, and r e p a i r ships and r i g g i n g . Trade or rude form of "barter developed with the Indians, who i n return f o r oddments, such as knives, n a i l s , c h i s e l s , pieces of copper and t i n , hatchets, red c l o t h , brass buttons, pewter, and mirrors gave skins and r6bes of sea otter. Glass beads and l i n e n had no value i n t h e i r eyes. They prefe^ed iron to any other commodity, and appeared to be pe r f e c t l y f a m i l i a r with i t , using i t f o r arrow heads, although they had no means of procuring i t f o r themselves. Cook concluded that the metal had originated i n the Russian traders of Kamschatka, and s a t i s f i e d himself by c a r e f u l examination that d i r e c t trade had not taken place at the Sound. Other furs were offered, bear, wolf and lynx, as well as food supplies, game, f i s h , mussels, spring onions, large quantities of whale blubber, nearly twenty gallons of t r a i n o i l , and several (1) '•»-^ 0 fS{. 1py; ag5fyf« " » t i * Columbia" v o l 0 1. Page 21. bales of f i s h dried i n smoke, which tasted much l i k e red herrings. In some cases the Indians t r i e d to cheat them by f i l l i n g the bladders with water instead of o i l . The men eagerly bought the o i l to make sauce f o r t h e i r s a l t f i s h , "and no butter i n England was ever thought h a l f so good". The Indians also exhibited human skulls and hands s t i l l p a r tly covered with f l e s h , the f i r s t evidences of the cannibalism practised by the Kwakfaitl and Tsimshian tribes.(1) saying that i n general practise they were f a i r enough, and showed thei r chief propensity to thieve as the English were preparing to dep depart, when they bacame so covetous of the goods that they could not r e s i s t the temptation to carry o f f a l l that came i n t h e i r way. The Nootka Indians never stole anything f o r which they had no immediate use. They were content to procure a r t i c l e s which they knew they wanted, and Cook remarked that i t was fortunate f o r h i s expedition that they were attracted by "the single a r t i c l e s of our metals". l i n e n and such objects could be l e f t hanging ashore i n perfect safety. complete, during which time Indians c o l l e c t e d from a l l over the Sound to see the phenomena. They announced the i r a r r i v a l s by paddling three times round the ships, while a chief or person of note stood up and spoke i n a loud voice. New masts were set up with native assistance, and large quantities of spruce beer brewed. The English l e f t the coast with f i f t e e n hundred beaver and sea otter p e l t s , obtained f o r a mere song, according to Miss Agnes C. laut (2) Lieutenant Rickman observes that they had more than three hundred sea otter skins on board, besides others le s s valuabl (1) Diamond Jenness "Indians of Canada" F.A.Acland, Ottowa, 1932. P.338. Cook commented on the Indians' habits of trade, Preparations on the ships took four weeks to Page 22. f o x e s , racoons, w o l v e s , b e a r s , d e e r and s e v e r a l o t h e r w i l d a n i m a l s , b u t g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n w hether he r e f e r s t o t h e " D i s c o v e r y " a l o n e , o r to t h e e n t i r e e x p e d i t i o n . ( 1 ) The s h i p s f i n a l l y l e f t on A p r i l 26, 1778, and c o n t i n u e d up the c o a s t i n s e a r c h o f t h e n o r t h w e s t passage. Land was n o t s i g h t e d a g a i n t i l l l a t i t u d e 54*44', where Mount fidgecumbe, a l a r g e peak to the n o rthward, r e c e i v e d i t s name. Cook pass e d and named Cro s s Sound and Mount B'air- weather, but d i d not l a n d u n t i l he reached Kaye I s l a n d i n l a t - i t u d e 59*49'. Here he l e f t a b o t t l e w i t h a p a p e r b e a r i n g the names o f the s h i p s and date o f d i s c o v e r y , and two s i l v e r c o i n s d a t e d 1772. C o m p t r o l l e r Bay was named on the m a i n l a n d . The I n d i a n s , who soon appeared, seemed o f a more savage d i s p o s i t i o n , and n e a r l y succeeded i n c u t t i n g o f f two o f the s h i p s ' b o a t s . W ith g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y t h e n a t i v e s were f r i g h t e n e d o f f , b u t t h e y soon r e t u r n e d d i s p l a y i n g a w h i t e c l o a k as a symbol o f peace, and t r a d e i n f u r s was resumed. They were a d i f f e r e n t t y p e from the p e o p l e o f Nootka, and wore l i p ornaments and p a d d l e d i n s k i n canoes. A f t e r two days the s h i p s went on to P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound, where t h e y were much d i s a p p o i n t e d to f i n d no passage t o any o t h e r sea, a l t h o u g h e i g h t days were spent i n s e a r c h i n g . At f i r s t the I n d i a n s v i s i t e d them i n s m a l l numbers, s t r e w i n g w h i t e f e a t h e r s on t h e w a t e r and h o l d i n g up a w h i t e garment. The c h i e f was d r e s s e d i n sea o t t e r robes, and wore a cap l i k e t h o s e s een a t Nootka, d e c o r a t e d w i t h b l u e beads, f o r t r a d e any k i n d of* beads were h i g h l y esteemed, and were r e a d i l y exchanged, even (1) J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n Cook's L a s t Voyage t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean. Thought t o be w r i t t e n by l i e u t e n a n t John Hickman. Page 246. Page 23. f o r t h e i r f i n e s e a o t t e r s k i n s . P i e c e s o f i r o n were a l s o much i n demand, b u t s m a l l p i e c e s , l e s s t h a n n i n e o r t e n i n c h e s l o n g were r e j e c t e d . Soon t h e I n d i a n s grew b o l d e r , and even t r i e d t o p l u n d e r t h e " R e s o l u t i o n " . One n i g h t t h e y boarded h e r , and draw- i n g t h e i r k n i v e s made s i g n s t o the o f f i c e r o f the watch t o keep o f f , w h i l e t h e y began t o s e a r c h f o r p l u n d e r . When the r e s t o f the crew appeared w i t h drawn c u t l a s s e s t h e y s l i p p e d o f f t o t h e i r canoes w i t h e v e r y appearance o f i n d i f f e r e n c e . From here t h e e x p e d i t i o n went west, and e x p l o r e d Cook's R i v e r . The I n d i a n s were n o t seen f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , but pr o v e d t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound. The b o t a n i s t s made o b s e r v a t i o n s a t e v e r y p o r t o f c a l l , and c o l l e c t e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f w i l d c e l e r y and v e t c h f o r the use o f the ships'company. G r e a t c a r e was a l s o t a k e n r e g a r d i n g the c l e a n l i n e s s and v e n t i l a t i o n o f t h e s h i p s . Twice a week t h e y were a i r e d between decks w i t h f i r e s , and f i r e s were made i n i r o n p o t s a t t h e bottom o f the w e l l , t o ensure a pure atmosphere i n t h e l o w e r p a r t s o f t h e s h i p . S t r i c t a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the s h i p s ' c o p p e r s , w h i l e c a r e was t a k e n t o expose the crew as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e t o wet weather, and keep t h e i r hammocks and bed d i n g c l e a n and d r y . The s h i p s l e f t Cook's R i v e r o n t h e 6 t h . o f June 1778, p a s s e d t h e Shumagin I s l a n d s , where an I n d i a n messenger brougfht them a R u s s i a n note w h i c h no one on b o a r d c o u l d d e c i p h e r , and s a i l e d on to Oonalashka. They g a i n e d l a t - i t u d e s t e a d i l y , and the weather grew p i e r c i n g l y c o l d . I n 66" th e f r o s t s e t i n so t h a t t h e r u n n i n g r i g g i n g was l o a d e d w i t h i c e , and t h e i c e even formed a t t h e men's f i n g e r t i p s i f t h e y Page 24. e x p o s e d them f o r f i v e o r s i x m i n u t e s . A t 6 9 ° 4 6 ' N. " h o t v i c t u a l s f r o z e w h i l e we were a t t a b l e . " The s t a t e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s now made i t n e c e s s a r y t o s u b s t i t u t e s e a l i o n meat f o r o t h e r f o o d , b u t t h e move was n o t p o p u l a r . I c e b e r g s became common, a n d the " D i s c o v e r y " was n e a r l y w r e c k e d . Bad w e a t h e r a n d h e a v y s e a s i n c r e a s e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s , a nd i n 70*9' N. i t was d e c i d e d t o l e a v e t h e c o a s t f o r t h e s e a s o n a n d w i n t e r a t t h e S a n d w i c h I s l e s . On t h e i r r e t u r n t h e y met a R u s s i a n b a r g e o f t w e l v e o a r s , a n d were i n v i t e d t o v i s i t t h e R u s s i a n f a c t o r y a n d f o r t . T h e y d i d so, an d were w e l l e n t e r t a i n e d by t h e g o v e r n o r , who i t l a t e r t r a n s - p i r e d h a d s e n t them t h e m y s t e r i o u s message. The R u s s i a n s e a g e r l y b o u g h t a n y f u r s w h i c h t h e c r e w s were w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h , p a y i n g £ 5 . 6 t o £ 7 . 9 a s k i n . (1) The c o u r s e was now s t e e r e d s o u t h w e s t f o r t h e S a n d w i c h I s l a n d s , a n d t h e v e s s e l s a n c h o r e d i n E a l e k a k o o a Bay, where d i s a s t e r o v e r t o o k them a few months l a t e r . On F e b r u a r y 14 t h . 1779 C a p t a i n Cook l o s t h i s l i f e i n a s k i r m i s h w i t h t h e n a t i v e s , a n d t h e e x p e d i t i o n h a d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h o u t t h e g r e a t commander, n o r t h t o t h e B e r i n g S ea i n a f i n a l s e a r c h f o r t h e n o r t h w e s t p a s s a g e . The r o u t e l a y p a s t t h e K a m c h a t k a n c o a s t . T he s h i p s a n c h o r e d i n A v a t c h a B a y and were k i n d l y r e c e i v e d b y t h e R u s s i a n s . From h e r e t h e y made t h e i r was" l a b o r i o u s l y t o 69° 34' n o r t h , where f u r t h e r p a s s a g e was b l o c k e d b y s o l i d i c e f i e l d s , a n d showed t h a t no n o r t h w e s t 1 p a s s a g e t o E u r o p e c o u l d e x i s t . C a p t a i n G i e r k e d e c i d e d t o ab a n d o n t h e f r u i t l e s s s e a r c h , a n d s a i l f o r E n g l a n d , c a l l i n g a t A v a t c h a B a y f i r s t f o r r e p a i r s . N e i t h e r o f t h e g r e a t l e a d e r s s u r v i v e d t h e v o y a g e . C a p t a i n C l e r k e ' s T h i r d (1) J o u r n a l o f Cook"s^Voyage, b y G e o r g e G i l b e r t (one o f c r e w o f H.M.S. R e s o l u t i o n ) . O r i g i n a l i n B r i t i s h Museum. W r i t t e n c o p y i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Page 166. Page 25. h e a l t h f i n a l l y "broke down, and on August 22 nd. 1779 he succumbed to consumption i n l a t i t u d e 53°7 1 n o r t h . C a p t a i n Gore assumed command, and put L i e u t e n a n t K i n g i n charge o f t h e " D i s c o v e r y " . The c o u r s e was.set down t h e c o a s t o f Kamchatka and the K u r i l e I s l a n d s , a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n c o a s t o f Japan, and from t h e n c e to t h e C h i n e s e c o a s t and the p o r t o f Macao. A t Macao the o f f i c e r s and men were r e q u i r e d t o g i v e up t h e i r d i a r i e s , so t h a t no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s h i p s might be p u b l i s h e d u n t i l t h e w i s h e s o f the A d m i r a l t y were known. The Chinese merchants amazed t h e s a i l o r s by o f f e r i n g l a r g e sums o f money f o r t h e f u r s c o l l e c t e d on the A m e r i c a n c o a s t . 'The men had had no i d e a o f t h e i r v a l u e , and d o i n g l i t t l e t o p r e s e r v e them, used th e s k i n s f o r c l o t h e s and b e d d i n g . Now one seaman s o l d h i s s t o c k f o r e i g h t hundred d o l l a r s , and a few prime s k i n s w h i c h happened t o be c l e a n and w e l l p r e s e r v e d , f o r a hundred and t wenty d o l l a r s each. Only a t h i r d o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u p p l y o f f u r s were now s u r v i v i n g , but t h e s e r e a l i z e d two t housand pounds s t e r l i n g . G reat e x c i t e m e n t p r e v a i l e d among the crew i n consequence, and t h e y were eager, a l m o s t t o t h e p o i n t o f mutiny, to r e t u r n t o Cook's R i v e r f o r more f u r s and make t h e i r f o r t u n e s . T h i s was not p o s s i b l e , but L i e u t e n a n t K i n g f u l l y s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h t h e scheme, and drew p u b l i c a t t e n - t i o n t o i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y i n h i s o f f i c i a l a c c o u n t o f the voyage. S e v e r a l o f the men who had s a i l e d w i t h Cook's e x p e d i t - i o n l a t e r p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n the a f f a i r s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . Among them, Vancouver, R o b e r t s , C o l n e t t , a n d H e r g e s t were midshipmen, P o r t l o c k was a m aster's mate, and Page 26. D i x o n an armourer. The voyage had not been s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s main o b j e c t - i v e , but g e o g r a p h i c a l knowledge had been g f e a t l y extended. Dur- i n g the whole f o u r y e a r s the " R e s o l u t i o n " had o n l y l o s t f i v e men by s i c k n e s s , t h r e e o f whom were i n a p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e o f h e a l t h when they l e f t E n g l a n d . The " D i s c o v e r y " had not l o s t a man. (1) A t a time when s c u r v y was t h e t e r r o r o f the o c e a n , i t was a tremendous achievement, due t o the s t r i c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f C a p t a i n Cook's r e g u l a t i o n s . The c h i e f p r e v e n t a t i v e s used were s a u e r k r a u t and p o r t a b l e soup, and the s e were so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t no o c c a s i o n arose f o r t e s t i n g the a n t i s c o r b u t i c s w i t h w h i c h t h e y were s u p p l i e d . The b a n e f u l e f f e c t s o f s a l t p r o - v i s i o n s were a v o i d e d by v a r y i n g them w i t h e v e r y p o s s i b l e sub- s t i t u t e - f i s h , w h i t e bear, sea h o r s e , and the l i k e . C a p t a i n Cook's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d i s c o v e r y o f the n o r t h west i s a b l y summarized by L i e u t e n a n t K i n g . " C a p t a i n Cook e x p l o r e d the w e s t e r n c o a s t o f A m e r i c a from 43"- 70° n o r t h , c o n t a i n i n g an e x t e n t o f t h r e e thousand f i v e hundred m i l e s , a s c e r t a i n i n g the p r o x i m i t y o f the two g r e a t c o n t i n e n t s o f A s i a and A m e r i c a : passed the S t r a i t s between them, and s u r v e y e d the c o a s t , on each s i d e , t o such a h e i g h t o f n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e as t o demon- s t r a t e the i m p r a c t i c a Z b i l i t y o f a passage i n t l a t hemisphere, from the A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c Ocean, e i t h e r by an E a s t e r n o r Western c o u r s e . " (2) An i n t e r e s t i n g bronze m e d a l l i o n was found d u r i n g the summer o f 1933, by an I n d i a n y o u t h on V i l l a g e I s l a n d , a t the e n t r a n c e t o Kyuquot Sounds, w h i c h has been i d e n t i f i e d as one o f (1) Cook and K i n g , "Voyage Round the World", I I I , 488. (2) I b i d , Page 50. —Photo by H . "Whittlesey, Victoria Studio. A B O V E are depicted the reverse and obverse sides of the medallion found at Kyuquot by Arthur Nicolaye, an Indian youth, and which has been identified as having been brought by Captain Cook, in 1778, when he discovered this country. It is regarded as the most valuable relic of our history. • Chinese In Old B.C. This Oriental talisman, with other Buddhist relies, teas found in a jar round which the roots of a centuries-old fallen tree had entwined in Northern B. C. This gives added color to the theory that Chinese, ages ago, paid long visits to Western America. Page 27 t h o s e s t r u c k t o commemorate Cook's second voyage o f 1772-5. On one s i d e t h e l i l c ^ i e s s o f George I I I c a n e a s i l y he seen, w i t h the e n g r a v e r s ' i n i t i a l s "B.F.", r e p r e s e n t i n g B o u l t o n and I ' o t h e r g i l l o f Birmingham, the d e s i g n e r s o f the m e d a l l i o n . The r e v e r s e shows two s h i p s and a p o r t i o n o f the l e g e n d , l e a v i n g no q u e s t i o n o f i t s i d e n t i t y . The m e d a l l i o n s were s t r u c k when Cook l e f t f o r h i s second voyage o f d i s c o v e r y t o the P a c i f i c , i n g o l d , s i l v e r , "bronze and b r a s s . They were l e f t w i t h the n a t i v e s as t e s t i m o n i a l s t h a t t h e E n g l i s h were t h e f i r s t d i s - c o v e r e r s o f the new l a n d s . There i s no r e c o r d t h a t any such t o k e n s were s t r u c k when Cook s t a r t e d on h i s t h i r d and l a s t v e n t u r e w i t h the " R e s o l u t i o n " and " D i s c o v e r y " . " I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e n t h a t a few o f t h e m e d a l l i o n s p r e v i o u s l y s t r u c k were b r o u g h t a l o n g by C a p t a i n Cook, and t h a t a t N o otka he s p a r i n g l y gave one o r two t o i m p o r t a n t n a t i v e c h i e f s , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a r r y i n g out t h e purpose f o r w h i c h he had them on h i s p r e v i o u s a d v e n t u r e i n t o t h e u n c h a r t e d seas o f the P a c i f i c . " (10 The r e l i c i s t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d to be d i s c o v e r e d on t h e n o r t h west c o a s t . (1) The " V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t " , J a n u a r y 21, 1934. P u b l i s h e d by t h e " C o l o n i s t " O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Pages 1-2. Page 28. C h a p t e r I I . "THE OPENING OP THE PUR TRADE". C a p t a i n Cook made t h e f i r s t e x t e n d e d s u r v e y o f t h e n o r t h west c o a s t , a n d g a v e t h e w o r l d d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e g i o n . The war b e t w e e n E n g l a n d , a n d P r a n c e and S p a i n , d e l a y e d t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e voyage u n t i l a f t e r t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s . I t s a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1784, marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new e r a , t h a t o f t h e w e s t e r n m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e . The e x p e d i t i o n h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e most d i s i n t e r e s t e d v i e w s , a n d i t s r e s u l t s were now f r e e l y o f f e r e d t o t h e wofcld, g i v i n g e v e r y n a t i o n e q u a l c h a n c e s t o p r o f i t b y t h e a d v a n c e i n s c i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e . The f u r m arket was d i s c o v e r e d by Cook's men, a n d L i e u t e n a n t K i n g gave a n e n t h u s i a s t i c a c c o u n t o f i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . V a l u a b l e f u r s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d o n t h e A m e r i c a n c o a s t f o r t r i f l e s - b e a d s , c l o t h , p i e c e s o f i r o n a n d c o p p e r - and s k i n s w h i c h sometimes d i d n o t c o s t t h e p u r c h a s e r s i x p e n c e s o l d i n C h i n a f o r a h u n d r e d d o l l a r s . U n d e r s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s v o y a g e s u n d e r t a k e n f o r p u r e l y commerc- i a l p u r p o s e s w o u l d p a y h a n d s o m e l y . The i d e a a p p e a l e d s t r o n g l y b o t h t o K i n g a n d t h e c rews o f t h e " R e s o l u t i o n " a n d " D i s c o v e r y " , a n d t h e y were o n l y t o o e a g e r t o engage i n s u c h a n e n t e r p r i s e . C i r c u m s t a n c e s made i t i m p o s s i b l e a t t h e t i m e , b u t K i n g recomm- ended t h a t t h e E a s t I n d i a Company s h o u l d e n t e r t h e f u r t r a d e , c o m b i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i t . Prom h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t s h i p s be s e n t i n p a i r s , o f a c e r t a i n t o n n a g e , Page 29. one o f two h u n d r e d , a n d t h e o t h e r o f a h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y t o n s . T h e s e c o u l d e a s i l y he a c q u i r e d a t C a n t o n , a n d m i g h t he o u t - f i t t e d i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s , a y e a r ' s pay, a n d t h e o r i g i n a l p r i c e o f t h e s h i p s f o r s i x t h o u s a n d p o u n d s . A r t i c l e s o f t r a d e were n o t e x p e n s i v e . E a c h s h i p was a d v i s e d t o talce f i v e t o n s o f unwrought i r o n , a f o r g e , a n d a n e x p e r t s m i t h a n d h i s a s s i s t a n t s c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g t h e a r t i c l e s most d e s i r e d hy t h e I n d i a n s a t t h e t i m e . I r o n was t h e o n l y s t a p l e commodity o f b a r t e r - t h e I n d i a n s were n o t e d f o r t h e i r c a p r i c i o u s n e s s - b u t K i n g recommended i n c l u d i n g i n t h e c a r g o a few g r o s s o f l a r g e - p o i n t e d c a s e k n a v e s , some b a l e s o f c o a r s e w o o l l e n c l o t h , ( l i n e n was f o r m e r l y r e f u s e d , b u t no r e a s o n was g i v e n ) , a n d a b a r r e l o r two o f c o p p e r a n d g l a s s t r i n k e t s . The v e s s e l s w o u l d s a i l w i t h t h e f i r s t s o u t h w e s t e r l y monsoon, a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A p r i l , a n d make t h e Shumagen I s l a n d s a n d Cook's R i v e r n e a r t h e end o f June, c o l l e c t i n g s k i n s a s t h e y went. Two h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y p e l t s , w o r t h a h u n d r e d d o l l a r s e a c h , s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t much d i f f i c u l t y . The s h i p s were t h e n t o e x p l o r e t h e r e g i o n f r o m l a t i t u d e 5 0 ° - 56°N., w h i c h Cook was p r e v e n t e d f r o m v i s i t i n g b y c o n t r a r y w i n d s , a n d a f t e r s p e n d i n g t h r e e months o n t h e c o a s t , r e t u r n t o C h i n a e a r l y i n O c t o b e r . The E a s t I n d i a Company p l a y e d b u t a s m a l l p a r t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . I n 1786 t h e y g r a n t e d James S t r a n g e l e a v e o f a b s e n c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f u r t r a d e a t h i s own e x p e n s e . I f t h e voyage was f i n a n c i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , t h e y were w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r p a r t i c - i p a t i o n i n t h e s e a o t t e r i n d u s t r y , b u t when i t f a i l e d t h e i r MAPhr VANCOUVER ' /SI AND SHOW/NG NO&TKA. HA&80UR & SOUND I QUATS/NO SO 49 *=>/KC/r/C C?C£AA/ Page 30. i n t e r e s t f l a g g e d . I n J u l y o f the same y e a r 1786, the "L a r k " , a s h i p owned hy the B a s t I n d i a Company, l e f t f o r t h e n o r t h west c o a s t , h u t was wrecked on the voyage. S t r a n g e ' s e x p e d i t - i o n had not r e t u r n e d a t t h i s t i m e , and t h e purpose o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company i n s e n d i n g a second s h i p so soon i s n o t known. The owners o f B a r k l e y ' s " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " were m o s t l y o f f i c i a l s o f the E a s t I n d i a Company, hut s h a r e h o l d e r s i n an u n o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . When t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s n e f a r i o u s v e n t u r e was d i s c o v e r e d t h e y were o b l i g e d t o d i s c l a i m B a r k l e y and s e l l t he " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " t o save t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . There i s no o t h e r r e c o r d o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company o r i t s a c t i v e employees t a k i n g any i n t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s o f t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h west. The c o a s t was soon crowded by s h i p s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r - p r i s e , e a g e r t o e x p l o i t t h i s new and s e e m i n g l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e mine o f w e a l t h . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e 1784 e d i t i o n o f Cook's "voyages was f a r r e a c h i n g b o t h i n Europe and A m e r i c a . I t was d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e a r l y E n g l i s h t r a d e r s such as Stra n g e , Meares, and the E t c h e s f i r m . I t s t i m u l a t e d the Russ- i a n s t o g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y i n A l a s k a , and i n s p i r e d the F r e n c h government t o send a s i m i l a r e x p l o r i n g and s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d i t - i o n t o the South P a c i f i c and t h e n o r t h west c o a s t t o c o l l e c t d a t a on the f u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the repoxfcb was r e a d w i t h i n t e r e s t , and t h e B o s t o n merchants l o s t no time i n e n t e r i n g the f i e l d . A f u r t h e r p l a n f o r p r o m o t i n g the f u r t r a d e and s e c u r - i n g i t f o r E n g l a n d was made i n 1789, by the C a r t o g r a p h e r A l e x a n d e r D a l r y m p l e , who w i s h e d t o u n i t e the o p e r a t i o n s o f the Page 31. E a s t I n d i a Company w i t h t h o s e o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company. D a l r y m p l e s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t some w a t e r communication must e x i s t between the w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n c o a s t s , e i t h e r by sounds: o r r i v e r s . He made much o f t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f Cook, D i x o n and B a r k l e y w h i c h seemed to f a v o r such a t h e o r y , f o r were i t c o r r e c t t h e companies might d e r i v e l a r g e p r o f i t s from combin- i n g . He thought C h i n a would make an e x c e l l e n t market f o r t h e i n l a n d f u r s c o l l e c t e d by t h e Hudson's Bay Company, and wanted the m a r i t i m e t r a d e r s to i n c l u d e s e a l s k i n s as w e l l as sea o t t e r i n t h e i r c a r g o e s , as t h e y were v a l u e d by t h e C h i n e s e . I t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e Hudson's Bay Company would get t h e i r f u r s c heaper by d o i n g away w i t h t r a d e r middlemen, and c o u l d s u p p l y the I n d i a n s w i t h more s t a p l e goods, c o a r s e w o o l l e n s and i r o n ware, i n s t e a d o f ammunition and s p i r i t s " t o t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n " . I n c i d e n t a l l y , w h i l e t h e Hudson's Bay Company c o n t r o l l e d the t r a d e , c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the M o t h e r C o u n t r y was a s s u r e d . O t h e r w i s e i t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e t r a d e r s might s e t t l e , become independent, and break away. D a l r y m p l e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a "coppered s h i p " be sent f r o m C h i n a t o the _ " n o r t h west c o a s t about J u l y 1, p o s s i b l y t o P o r t B u c a r e l l i (which he b e l i e v e d t o be i n l a t i t u d e 55°) to c o l l e c t the f u r s r e c e i v e d by the Hudson's Bay Company's a g e n t s . He broached t h e s u b j e c t to P o r t l o c k , but c o n t i n u e s , " C a p t a i n P o r t l o c k i s i n c l i n e d t o p r e f e r some p o r t t o t h e n o r t h w a r d , i n the sounds from Mount Edgecumbe t o C r o s s Sound o r between 57° and 58 4 n o r t h , from the abundance o f s e a - o t t e r s k i n s . " ( l ) A p p a r e n t l y he made l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n , f o r here the m a t t e r ended, and (1) A l e x a n d e r D a l r y m p l e , " P l a n f o r P r o m o t i n g the P u r Trade", Pub. 1789. P r i n t e d i n T. Long, "voyages and T r a v e l s " , Pub., Robinson, London, 1791. Page 30. Page 32. P o r t l o c k makes no reference to the scheme ei t h e r i n the i n t r o d - uction or journal of h i s voyage. The sea o t t e r i s one of the tragedies o f the f u r world. The h i s t o r y of the north west coast i s that of i t s pursuit and extermination. To the early navigators i t seemed that as great wealth was to he found i n furs as i n the s i l v e r mines of M e x i c o and P e r u , and consequently the sea otter, which abounded i n hundreds of thousands a century ago i s now p r a c t i c - a l l y e x t i n c t . Had an independent state arisen i n these early times i n the northwest, if'might f i t t i n g l y have chosen the sea o t t e r as i t s emblem." The sea o t t e r or K a l a n , c a l l e d "sea beaver" by the R u s s i a n s , i s a species of otter, but much l a r g e r than the fresh water variety, w e i g & i n g from s i x t y to e i g h t y pounds. I n i t s habits i t b e a r s more resemblance to the f u r s e a l . When f u l l y grown i t measures from three and a h a l f t o four feet i n length, and has a stumpy t a i l seven inches long. The p e l t alone often gives the erroneous impression of coming from an animal at l e a s t s i x feet i n length. When i t i s removed i n skinning i t i s cut only at the posteriors, and the body i s drawn forth, turning the skin inside out. I n t h i s shape i t i s s l i g h t l y stretched and a i r dried, and lengthens considerably during the process. The sea o t t e r frequents the sea washed rocks of bays and estuaries, b u t being very timid, r e a l l y prefers the neighbourhood of islands, where i t can get both :: food and shelter. I t l i v e s on f i s h , Crustacea and mollusks, and sleeps on the forests of k e l p and seaweed. I t i s not very Page 33. p r o l i f i c , h a v i n g hut one pup a t a t i m e . A l t h o u g h a marine a n i m a l , the sea o t t e r cannot b r e a t h e u n d e r water, and must come up e v e r y few minutes f o r a i r . Even i f i t a t t e m p t s t o s t a y down, gases form i n i t s body b r i n g i n g i t to the s u r f a c e , a s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e when t r y i n g to escape from h u n t e r s . P i e r c e storms d r i v e i t on shore to escape b e i n g smothered. The f u r i s v e r y b e a u t i f u l and o f g r e a t v a l u e . The c o l o u r v a r i e s , but i t i s g e n e r a l l y a r i c h ebony, showing s i l v e r when blown open, and s l i g h t l y t i n g e d w i t h brown on the u p p e r p a r t s o f the body. The head i s o c c a s i o n a l l y marked w i t h s i l v e r . I t was a f a v o r i t e f u r b o t h w i t h the Chinese mandarins and t h e H u s s i a n n o b i l i t y . T here were t h r e e d i f f e r e n t methods o f h u n t i n g the sea o t t e r - s t o r m h u n t i n g when the a n i m a l s were d r i v e n on s h o r e , s t i l l h u n t i n g i n f i n e weather, and l a t e r l o n g d i s t a n c e r i f l e s h o o t i n g t a u g h t the A l e u t s by t h e R u s s i a n s . Storm hunt- i n g was w i l d work, l i k e t h e v e r y i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e s t o r m s p i r i t i t s e l f . A t g r e a t r i s k o f l i f e t he h u n t e r s reached the r o c k s and h e a v i n g k e l p beds, and l e a p e d ashore c l u b i n nana, s l a y i n g the s l e e p i n g a n i m a l s l e f t and r i g h t i n hundreds. I n t h e H u s s i a n t e r r i t o r i e s o f the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , and the n o r t h e r n c o a s t , two t y p e s o f h u n t i n g b o a t s were used, - b i g - 4 r f e e d A a r k i e s " , h o l d i n g between twenty and t h i r t y men, and l i t t l e "kayaks" c a r r y i n g two o r t h r e e , mere c o c k l e s h e l l s , made o f o i l e d w a l r u s s k i n s t r e t c h e d o v e r a frame, o n l y k a y a k s o r canoes were used f o r s t i l l h u n t i n g on a c a l m sea, and equipment c o n s i s t e d o f bows, arrows and a s m a l l harpoon. Page 34. The l a t t e r had s e v e r a l fathoms o f s t r o n g l i n e a t t a c h e d , and i t s head was so n o t c h e d and "barbed t h a t onoe i t had e n t e r e d the f l e s h i t was almost i m p o s s i b l e to e x t r a c t i t . The arrows were bone p o i n t e d and s m a l l , w i t h a s i n g l e b a r b . The h u n t e r s formed a c i r c l e as soon as a round head appeared a t the s u r - f a c e , o r a bubble i n d i c a t e d i t was somewhere i n t h e v i c i n i t y . As soon as the s e a o t t e r bobbed up, i t was g r e e t e d by s h o u t s and weapons, and even i f t h e harpoons m i s s e d , was f o r c e d t o d i v e a g a i n b e f o r e g a i n i n g i t s b r e a t h . The a n i m a l had to come to the s u r f a c e f o r oxygen e v e r y f i f t e e n o r twenty m i n u t e s , and each time was f o r c e d down w i t h a s c a n t s u p p l y o f a i r u n t i l f i n a l l y i t became so f u l l o f gases from s u p p r e s s e d b r e a t h i n g t h a t i t cannot s i n k , and t h e h u n t e r s made t h e i r c a p t u r e . The s k i l l i n the chase c o n s i s t e d i n f o l l o w i n g i n the same l i n e as the s e a o t t e r took u n d e r w a t e r and k e e p i n g up w i t h h i s h i g h speed. The a n i m a l f r e q u e n t l y escaped, b u t i f c o r n e r e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h young, male and female f o u g h t w i t h f e r o c i o u s courage, t e a r i n g o u t harpoons and arrows w i t h t h e i r t e e t h , and even a t t a c k e d the canoes. The l o n g d i s t a n c e r i f l e s o f t h s R u s s i a n s were a l a t e r and d e a d l i e r development w h i c h s e a l e d the f a t e o f the sea o t t e r . The I n d i a n s shot s e a l s and s e a o t t e r on shore w i t h bows and a r r o w s . They h i d t h e m s e l v e s on l a n d w e a r i n g masks r e s e m b l i n g the d e s i r e d a n i m a l to s e r v e as decoys, c o v e r i n g t h e i r b o d i e s w i t h branches o f t r e e s . The masks were such e x c e l l e n t l i k e n e s s e s t h a t the v i c t i m s were f r e q u e n t l y d e c e i v e d , and came w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e a r r o w s . At one time the sea o t t e r e x i s t e d from Lower C a l i f o r n i a to t h e Page 35. B e r i n g Sea. Today i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y wiped o u t . Only n a t i v e A l e u t s are a l l o w e d t o hunt i t , and a w h i t e man may not k i l l one u n d e r p e n a l t y o f f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y remedies have come too l a t e , and even f u r f a r m i n g i s u s e l e s s , s i n c e the a n i m a l s do n o t t h r i v e i n c a p t i v i t y . ( 1 ) The r e g i o n o f t h e f u r t r a d e r s was an e x t e n s i v e one, r e a c h i n g from S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a n o r t h to t h e A l a s k a n p o r t s o f the R u s s i a n s . B r i t i s h Columbian h i s t o r y , and t h a t o f i t s n a t i v e t r i b e s , c o n cerns the r e g i o n between the mouth o f the C olumbia R i v e r to__the P o r t l a n d C a n a l . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o a s t l i n e changed c o n s i d e r a b l y as i t g a i n e d i n l a t i t u d e , from a smooth and u n i n d e n t e d s o u t h t o jagged f i o r d s , l a r g e i n l e t s and a maze o f i s l a n d s i n the n o r t h . The l a r g e s t group o f i s l a n d s l y i n g o f f t h e c o a s t were the Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n l a t i t u d e 54°, a happy h u n t i n g ground o f the f u r t r a d e r s . T h e i r advent began a new e r a i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbian I n d i a n s . There were s i x p r i n c i p a l t r i b e s on the c o a s t , t h r e e n o r t h e r n and t h r e e s o u t h e r n . I n the extreme n o r t h were the T l l n g i t ' - beyond them came the Eskimos, h a v i n g some o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but most r e s e m b l i n g r e g u l a r ' eskimo t r i b e s - f o l l o w e d by the T s i m s h i a n and H a i d a , t r i b e s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n c u l t u r e . I n t h e s o u t h were t h e K w a k i u t l , Nootkaj and S a l i s h t r i b e s . The t h r e e n o r t h e r n t r i b e s were grouped i n s t i l l l a r g e r u n i t s c a l l e d p h r a t r i e s , w h i c h employed a s p e c i a l h e r a l d ^ i c c r e s t , but t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were not p o p u l a r i n (1) Good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the sea o t t e r a p p e a r i n : S. Kewhouse, "The T r a p p e r s ' G u i d e f " The Oneida Community, W a l l i n g f o r d . , * G.' T.' 1867. / "-' Agnes C. L a u t ,-'•"> The Pur-Trade o f ' A m e r i c a " , M a c m i l l a n Co., New York, 1921. "BRIT/SH NORTH AMERICA. C.HILL TOUT PAGE ggg CONS TABLE, LONDON 1907. Page 36. the s o u t h . The Nootka, K w a k i u t l , and Coast S a l i s h r e c o g n i z e d no p h r a t r i c d i v i s i o n s , hut w i t h i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t r i b e s were numbers o f " g e n e o l o g i c a l f a m i l i e s " o r c l a n s . Among t h e K w a k i u t l p a r t i c u l a r l y , g r e a t r i v a l r y e x i s t e d between the head® o f t h e c l a n s . I t was shown s t r o n g l y i n the p o t l a t c h e s , i n w h i c h everyone who r e c e i v e d a g i f t , u n l e s s o f l o w e r s o c i a l s t a t u s , was o b l i g e d t o r e t u r n i t i n double q u a n t i t y . The t r i b e s i n common " p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c i v i l i z a t i o n w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r wooden houses, and o f dug out canoes, whose d r e s s was s c a n t y , who depended almost e n t i r e l y upon t h e sea f o r f o o d , who h e l d i n g r e a t r e g a r d t h o s e p e r s o n s who were o f pure descent and b e n e v o l e n t i n the d i s p o s a l o f p r o p e r t y , and who had a con- v e n t i o n a l i z e d g r o t e s q u e a r t . " (1) These wooden houses were p e c u l i a r t o the c o a s t , and v a r i e d s l i g h t l y i n d i f f e r e n t l o c - a l i t i e s . A l l had ona common f e a t u r e , and were b u i l t w i t h a s e p a r a t e i n n e r main framework and an o u t s i d e c o v e r i n g o r s h e l l . The framework l a s t e d f o r many y e a r s , but the I n d i a n s , who were a race o f t r a n s i e n t s , a n n u a l l y t o r e down the p l a n k s o f the o u t e r s h e l l and removes them f o r a s h o r t time t o o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s . I t was common f o r a t r i b e t o have s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s i t e s , and spend some p a r t o f the y e a r a t each, a h a b i t w h i c h caused c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o the t r a d e r s . Maquinna o f Nootka t h o u g h t n o t h i n g o f moving h i s v i l l a g e from F r i e n d l y Cove t o Tashees, i n the m i d d l e o f t h e l e n g t h y b a r t e r i n g o p e r - a t i o n s , and the t r a d e r s had t o f o l l o w o r go e l s e w h e r e . The c l o t h i n g o f t h e I n d i a n s was s i m p l e - i n summer (1) P l i n y E a r l e G-oddard, " I n d i a n s mf the Northwest C o a s t " , A m e r i c a n Museum P r e s s , New York, 19S4. Page 13. Page 37. the men f r e q u e n t l y d i s p e n s e d w i t h i t a l t o g e t h e r . I n w i n t e r , o r f o r c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s , t h e y wore garments and h a t s o f woven c e d a r f i b r e , o r robes, " c u t s a r k s " , made o f t h r e e sea o t t e r s k i n s , i n w h i c h the s i d e s o f two were sewn t o g e t h e r , and the; s i d e o f the t h i r d sewn to t h e ends o f t h e o t h e r s . The t o t a l l a c k o f f o o t w e a r was one o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f the c o a s t . The f o o d o f the n a t i v e s was s i m p l e - salmon was t h e c h i e f s t a p l e o f d i e t , a l o n g w i t h h a l i b u t , s t u r g e o n , and o o l - i c h a n o r " c a n d l e f i s h " , v a r i e d by game, t h e f l e s h o f s e a l s , p o r p o i s e s and sea o t t e r , b e r r i e s , r o o t s , seaweed and c l a m s . Clams were an i m p o r t a n t i t e m , s i n c e i t was always p o s s i b l e t o f a l l back on them, when o t h e r f o o d s u p p l i e s became e x h a u s t e d . The I n d i a n s were a p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e , but were good f i s h e r s , u n d e r s t o o d the d r y i n g o f f i s h , s t o r i n g o f o i l , making o f e l e m e n t a r y t o o l s , and had made c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s i n b a s k e t r y and a t ype o f c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d a r t , as w e l l as dev- e l o p i n g a fondness f o r m u s i c . As wood c a r v e r s , t h e Haidas were supreme, and were n o t e d f o r t h e i r enormous tote m p o l e s , many o f w h i c h a r e s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . The T l i n g i t were perhaps s u p e r i o r i n b a s k e t r y . The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n took the form o f a pyramid, w i t h the c h i e f a t t h e t o p , h a v i n g u n d e r him l e s s e r c h i e f s who a c t e d f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l g roups. The B r i t i s h C olumbian I n d i a n s were by no means d e m o c r a t i c , and r e c o g n i z e d t h r e e d i s t i n c t grades o f s o c i e t y , n o b l e s , commoners, and s l a v e s , o f whom the commoners made up t h e b u l k o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The s l a v e s were a l l o w e d to marry i n t h e i r own c l a s s o n l y , and Page 38. p o s s e s s e d no r i g h t s , "being m o s t l y p r i s o n e r s o f war who c o u l d he put to de a t h a t the whim o f the m a s t e r s . S l a v e r y was u n i v e r s a l l y p r a c t i s e d , and w e a l t h was the c r i t e r i o n on the c o a s t . Women had c o n s i d e r a b l e v o i c e i n m a t t e r s o f t r a d e and government, p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e Haidas o f t h e Queen Char- l o t t e I s l a n d s . I n t h a t r e g i o n no I n d i a n " da r e d c o n c l u d e a b a r g a i n w i t h o u t h i s w i f e ' s c o n s e n t ; i f he d i d the moment he went to h i s canoe he was sure to g e t a b e a t i n g . T h i s I have seen t o be the case more t h a n once, and t h e r e i s no mercy t o be e x p e c t e d w i t h o u t the i n t e r c e s s i o n o f some k i n d f e m a l e . " ( I ) T h e i r p o s i t i o n a t Nootka was not q u i t e so dominant, a l t h o u g h o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s owing allegiance to Maquinna were f r e q u e n t l y l e f t i n charge o f h i s f e m i n i n e r e l a t i o n s . S t r a n g e comments on the acuteness o f the Nootka women i n b a r g a i n i n g : " i n my m e r c a n t i l e c a p a c i t y I dreaded t h e s i g h t o f a woman: f o r when- ever they were p r e s e n t , they were s u r e t o p r e s i d e o v e r and d i r e c t a l l commercial t r a n s a c t i o n s , and as o f t e n as t h a t was the c a s e , I was o b l i g e d t o pay t h r e e t i m e s the p r i c e , f o r what i n t h e i r absence I c o u l d have p r o c u r e d f o r one t h i r d the v a l u e . " (2) Ornaments and customs v a r i e d w i t h t h e t r i b e s . Head d e f o r m a t i o n was p r a c t i s e d hy t h e ^ S a l i s h , where the head was f l a t t e n e d so t h a t i t s l o p e d backwards, and a l s o among the K w a k i u t l , who bougd the head so as t o decrease the d i a m e t e r and e l o n g a t e i t upward and backward, p r o d u c i n g the s u g a r loaof type. The H a i d a women and th o s e of' N o r f o l k Sound f a v o r e d l i p (1) John H o s k i n s , " N a r r a t i v e o f a Voyage to the N o r t h West otff A m e r i c a and-China", P e r f o r m e d i n the "Columbia R e d i v i a " , 1790-3. T r a n s c r i p t i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , 33. C. Page 56. (2) James S t r a n g e , " Commercial E x p e d i t i o n to the N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 32. Page 39. ornaments - l a r g e wooden d i s k s i n s e r t e d i n the l o w e r l i p , w i t h h i d e o u s r e s u l t s , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t a t N o r f o l k Sound i t s i g n i f i e d rank, w h i l e t h e f a s h i o n was open to a l l a t t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . D i x o n d e s c r i b e s the p r o c e s s a t P o r t M u l g r a v e : "an a p e r t u r e i s made i n t h e t h i c k p a r t o f t h e un d e r l i p , and I n c r e a s e d by degrees i n a l i n e p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e mouth and e q u a l l y l o n g . I n t h i s a p e r t u r e a p i e c e o f wood i s c o n s t a n t l y worn, h o l l o w e d out on each s i d e l i k e a spoon, but n ot so deep." (1) A t t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s he n o t i c e d one l i p p i e c e w h i c h appeared to be p e c u l i a r l y ornament- ed, and made s e v e r a l e f f o r t s t o buy i t , but t o e s , b a s i n s , a h a t c h e t , were a l l r e f u s e d . The o l d l a d y ' s f a n c y was f i n a l l y t a k e n by some b r i g h t b u t t o n s and she e a g e r l y made the exchange. " T h i s c u r i o u s l i p p i e c e measured t h r e e and s e v e n - e i g h t h s i n c h e s l o n g , and two and f i v e - e i g h t h s i n c h e s i n the w i d e s t p a r t ; i t was i n l a i d w i t h a s m a l l p e a r l y s h e l l , round w h i c h was a r i m o f copper." (2) The g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f l i f e was l o w . The I n d i a n s were i n f e s t e d w i t h v e r m i n , and t h e i r b o d i e s were so e n c r u s t e d w i t h p a i n t and d i r t t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l what t h e i r e x a c t c o l o u r was. T h e i r houses were i n - s a n i t a r y , and reeked o f r o t t i n g f i s h , the remains o f w h i c h were s t r e w n on the f l o o r . The H a i d a s were by f a r t h e f i e r c e s t and most w a r l i k e o f t h e B r i t i s h C olumbian I n d i a n s , and d i d not b e a r much resemblance to the o t h e r t r i b e s . T h e i r f a c e s were b r o a d w i t h p r o t u d i n g cheek bones, and t h e i r eyes had a m o n g o l i a n s l a n t . P o w e r f u l i n b u i l d , t h e y were t h e most advances and n o t a b l e (1) D i x o n , "Voyage Bound the World", Page 172. (2) I b i d , Page 208. Page 40. p e o p l e on the c o a s t . T h e i r language, t r a d i t i o n s , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s were d i s t i n c t . The H a i d a s were n o t t h e square wooden type w i t h brown s k i n s and b l a c k h a i r f o u n d e l s e w h e r e . T h e i r women were a l s o e x c e e d i n g l y s t r o n g , and b e t t e r l o o k i n g t h a n t h e average c o a s t I n d i a n , o f t e n h a v i n g ruddy cheeks. T a t o o i n g was more f a v o u r e d t h a n by the o t h e r t r i b e s , and t o o k p l a c e i n t h r e e s t a g e s , a t each o f w h i c h a p o t l a t c h was g i v e n , and a new name assumed.(1) The o t h e r t r i b e s , such as the .Nootka I n d i a n s , were s h o r t e r , f u l l e r i n the f i g u r e , and much more p h l e g m a t i c . Cook o b s e r v e d "a v e r y remarkable sameness o f e x p r e s s i o n seemed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e countenances o f the whole n a t i o n , a d u l l want o f e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h v e r y l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n b e i n g marked i n a l l o f them." The women, c l o s e l y resembled t h e men i n a p pearance. On t h e whole t h e y seemed t o be"a d o c i l e , c o u r t - eous, good matured p e o p l e , q u i c k i n r e s e n t i n g what t h e y l o o k upon as an i n s u l t o r i n j u r y , and l i k e most p a s s i o n a t e p e o p l e as soon i n f o r g e t t i n g i t . " (2) T h e i r c u r i o s i t y , l i k e most o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s seemed t o l i e dormant, and t h e y were much g i v e n t o p e t t y t h i e v i n g . Theory and p r a c t i c e o f government d i d not c o n c e r n them, and t h e y l a c k e d p o l i t i c a l a b i l i t y . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s c e n t r e d i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , ceremonies and f e s t - i v a l s w i t h r e l i g i o u s and t r a d i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The m e d i c i n e men, c l a i m i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l powers as a r e s u l t o f p r a y e r s and f a s t i n g s , were v e r y p o w e r f u l , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d by p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f d r e s s and appearance. R i t u a l i s m had a (1) Diamond Jenness, " I n d i a n s o f Canada", A. A c l a n d , P r i n t e r t o the K i n g , Ottawa, 1932, c f . chaps. 10 and 21. (2) Cook and King,'-• "Voyage" Round the World",'Pages 300-332. Page 4 1 . s t r o n g a p p e a l , and d i s e a s e was oured by f r i g h t e n i n g t h e e v i l s p i r i t s , a s s i s t e d by massage and s u c k i n g . The H a i d a , T l i n g i t , and T s i m s h i a n used a " s o u l c a t c h e r " o r bone tube ( g e n e r a l l y c a r v e d ) , f o r c a p t u r i n g the wandering s o u l s o f the s i c k and r e t u r n i n g them t o t h e i r b o d i e s . S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s f l o u r i s h e d among t h e west c o a s t I n d i a n s , thought to have o r i g i n a t e d among the K w a k i u t l s , and been adopted by the o t h e r s . The most h o r r i b l e o f t h e s e was t h e " C a n n i b a l S o c i e t y " , whose members l i t e r a l l y dismembered human c o r p s e s , and consumed p o r t i o n s o f t h e f l e s h . (1) Other forms o f c a n n i b a l i s m were p r a c t i s e d , such as d e v o u r i n g t h e hands and o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f enemies s l a i n i n b a t t l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Jenness, t h e c u l t u r e o f the west c o a s t was not a v i r i l e one, and "had a p p a r e n t l y r e a c h e d f u l l b l ossom a t the coming o f t h e w h i t e man, and was l a c k i n g i n f u r t h e r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r h e a l t h and v i g o r o u s growth." (2) Such were t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e n o r t h west c o a s t who were soon t o be e n g u l f e d i n such k e e n commercial r i v a l r y . They were more o r l e s s f r i e n d l y , but t r a d e was not a c c o m p l i s h - ed w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s o f l i f e and p r o p e r t y . The c o n s c i e n c e l e s s b a h a v i o r o f t h e t r a d e r s o f t e n a r o u s e d t h e n a t i v e s to a t t a c k , w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by r e p r i s a l s and bad b l o o d . The t r a d e r s t h e m s e l v e s were o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o u t - w i t t i n g each o t h e r and the n a t i v e s , and r e a p i n g r i c h rewards i n C h i n a . The b e s t f u r c e n t r e s l a y i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , Vancouver I s l a n d , the i s l a n d mazes o f f the m a i n l a n d , and t h e P r i n c e o f Wales A r c h i p e l a g o . The e a r l i e r v i s i t o r s g o t good f u r s a t Cook's H i v e r , P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound, and (1) Diamond Jenness, n I n d i a n s o f Canada", Page 338. (2) I b i d , Page 148. , . Page 42. N o r f o l k Sound, but even t h e n e n c o u n t e r e d H u s s i a n c o m p e t i t i o n , and f o u n d t h e a r e a was b e i n g w e l l d r a i n e d , and t h e I n d i a n s a f r a i d t o t r a d e w i t h s t r a n g e r s . The f u r s o f t h e R u s s i a n t r a d e r s r e s e r v e d f o r the Ch i n e s e market e n t e r e d by way o f K i a k h t a , a town on the b o r d e r between S i b e r i a and M o n g o l i a , and d i d not compete w i t h t h o s e o f t h e m a r i t i m e t r a d e r s , who t o o k t h e i r p e l t s d i r e c t t o t h e p o r t o f Macao i n C h i n a . Page 43. C h a p t e r I I I . "THE EARLY TRADERS". (1785-1788) . D u r i n g the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e f u r t r a d e - 1785-1787, a l l t h e s h i p s on the c o a s t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the e x p l o r i n g e x p e d i t i o n o f L a P e r o u s e were E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h some f l e w t h e f l a g s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s to a v o i d t h e m o n o p o l i e s o f t h e E n g l i s h j o i n t s t o c k companies and t h e i r s t r a n g l e h o l d on t r a d e . The B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y had made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s t o check the s p r e a d o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e n o r t h west c o a s t b e f o r e t h e o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n o f "Cook ,s Voyages" i n 1784. B o t h C a p t a i n Cook and C a p t a i n G i e r k e were i n s t r u c t e d "To demand from t h e o f f i c e r s and p e t t y o f f i c e r s , t h e l o g books and j o u r n a l s t h e y may have k e p t , and to s e a l them up f o r o u r i n s p e c t i o n ; and e n j o i n i n g them and t h e whole crew not t o d i v u l g e where t h e y have been, u n t i l t h e y have p e r m i s s i o n to do s o . " 2immerman l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t the j o u r n a l s had e i t h e r t o be s u r r e n d e r e d o r d e s t r o y e d , but he was m i s t a k e n . I t was m e r e l y a p r e c a u t i o n t o g u a r d a g a i n s t the f o r e s t a l l i n g o f t h e market, and p r e v e n t o t h e r v e r s i o n s c i r c u l a t i n g b e f o r e yhe a u t h o r i z e d one appeared. C a p t a i n Cook and C a p t a i n C l e r k e d i e d on t h e voyage, so t h a t t h e d u t y o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e o r d e r s d e v o l v e d upon C a p t a i n G-ore and C a p t a i n K i n g . As t h e s h i p s n e a r e d Macao, Page 44. d u r i n g November 1779, b o t h s h i p s ' companies were mustered on deck, where the c a p t a i n s r e a d the command, and u r g e d them t o comply w i t h i t . C a p t a i n K i n g t r i e d t o make i t as easy as p o s s i b l e f o r t h e men*. " I t o l d them t h a t any p a p e r s w h i c h t h e y were d e s i r o u s o f n o t h a v i n g s e n t t o t h e a d m i r a l t y , s h o u l d be s e a l e d up i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e , and k e p t i n my own c u s t o d y , t i l l t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f the b o a r d w i t h r e g a r d t o the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f the voyage, were f u l f i l l e d : a f t e r w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d be f a i t h f u l l y r e s t o r e d t o them." There seemed to be l i t t l e o b j e c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e men, and C a p t a i n K i n g r e c o r d e d w i t h g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n : " I am per s u a d e d t h a t e v e r y s c r a p o f paper, c o n t a i n i n g any t r a n s a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e voyage was g i v e n up." The e r r o r o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n was soon e v i d e n t , f o r w i t h i n s i x months o f t h e s h i p s ' r e t u r n t h e f i r s t s u r r e p t i o u s j o u r n a l appeared, and two more f o l l o w e d i n t h e next two y e a r s . They were the anojoymous (Hickman's) i n 1781, -Zimmerman's i n 1781, and E l l i s 9 i n 1782. Hickman's J o u r n a l was t h e f i r s t account o f f e r e d t o the i n t e r e s t e d w o r l d . H i s p u b l i s h e r , dewberry, was n o t a b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r r e p t i o u s e d i t i o n s , and the a u t h o r i t - i e s had'.been, f o r c e d t o i n t e r f e r e , p r e v i o u s l y and p r e v e n t him from f o r e s t a l l i n g t he market w i t h an u n l i c e n s e d v e r s i o n o f Cook's Second "voyage. Hickman's n a r r a t i v e was p u b l i s h e d a t London i n A p r i l 1781, and r e a d w i d e l y , b e i n g r e p r i n t e d a t D u b l i n w i t h i n a few months, and a l s o t r a n s l a t e d i n t o German. A p p a r e n t l y no s t e p s were t a k e n to r e s t r a i n uewberry o r check i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . Page 45 The second u n a u t h o r i z e d E n g l i s h account was t h a t o f W i l l i a m E l l i s , a s s i s t a n t s u r geon o f the " D i s c o v e r y 1 ' , w h i c h appeared i n 1782.. Me needed money, and so s o l d h i s n o t e s t o a b o o k s e l l e r f o r i l r t y g u i n e a s . I t was a d e a r b a r g a i n , i n as much as i t l o s t E l l i s t h e support o f S i r J o s e p h Banks: whose p r o t e g e he had f o r m e r l y been. On J a n u a r y 23, 1782., E l l i s r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r xrom Banks e x p r e s s i n g r e g r e t t h a t he had "engaged i n so imprudent a b u s i n e s s " and f e a r e d i n consequence " t h a t i t w i l l not i n f u t u r e be i n my power t o do what might have been done, had you f o l l o w e d my a d v i c e . " (1) The J o u r n a l was r e p r i n t e d i n London 1783, 1784 and 1785, d u r i n g w h i c h time t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f o f f i c i a l p r o t e s t . I t had a wide c i r c u l - a t i o n , and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r was p u b l i s h e d b o t h i n Prance and Germany. An e d i t i o n appeared i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 178 3, t h e work o f John L e d y a r d , an A m e r i c a n s a i l o r . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y I n t e r e s t i n g because i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t L e d y a r d s u r r e n d e r e d a l l h i s n o t e s i n o b e d i e n c e to the o f f i c i a l command, and wrote h i s v e r s i o n from memory, w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Hickman 1s j o u r n a l . I n many p l a c e s h i s account i s s i m p l y a " b a r e f a c e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n " o f the l a t t e r . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t v e r s i o n s , was t h a t o f n e i n r i c h Zimmerman, a German s a i l o r on b o a r d t h e " D i s c o v e r y " , w h i c h appeared i n 1781 a t Mannheim. I t i s n o t known whether t h i s was the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n , o r i f t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n b e l o n g e d t o Rickman. I t was c e r t a i n l y t h e f i r s t on the c o n t i n e n t . The German work was not as a c c u r a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e day to day n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e (1) P. W. Howay, "Zimmerman''s C a p t a i n Cook", The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , Hyerson P r e s s , T o r o n t o , Canada. P u b l i s h e d 1930. Page 8. Page 46. s h i p as R i c k m a n 1 s , and l a c k e d t h e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f E l l i s ' l a t e r j o u r n a l . I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , s e e i n g t h a t he had not t h e same f a c i l i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , and i s a l t o g e t h e r a remarkable achievement f o r a common s a i l o r . Zimmerman's book was p r i n t e d i n l e n g t h e n e d form a t B e r l i n (1) i n 1781, w i t h a p r e f a c e by a f e l l o w German, J . R. P o r s t e r , f o r m e r l y a n a t u r a l i s t on Cook's second voyage. A F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n a ppeared almost a t once, and a R u s s i a n one, t a k e n from t h a t , i n 1786. The R u s s i a n s made no attempt to t r a n s l a t e e i t h e r Rickman o r E l l i s , a l t h o u g h F r e n c h and German c o p i e s r e s p e c t - i v e l y were a v a i l a b l e . There seems l i t t l e doubt t h i s work f u r n i s h e d t h e i n c e n t i v e f o r the f i r s t p r o p osed v e n t u r e t o t h e n o r t h west c o a s t , t h a t o f W i l l i a m B o l t s , a n E n g l i s h m a n i n t h e s e r v i c e o f the Emperor, i n 1781. P r e p a r a t i o n s were made a t T r i e s t e on the A d r i a t i c , and two s h i p s were o u t f i t t e d , t h e " C o b e n z e l l " a n armed s h i p o f seven hundred t o n s , w i t h a t e n d e r o f f o r t y f i v e t o n s . The doub l e o b j e c t of" t h e e x p e d i t i o n was to make d i s c o v e r i e s and t r a d e f o r f u r s on the n o r t h west c o a s t o f A m e r i c a . Men o f h i g h s c i e n t i f i c knowledge had been engaged, w h i l e t h e European c e n t r e s were approached f o r a s a f e conduct f o r t h e v e s s e l s and a good r e c e p t i o n a t f o r e i g n c o u r t s . Then, u n e x p e c t e d l y , t h e e n t e r p r i s e was o v e r t h r o w n by a group o f " i n t e r e s t e d men t h e n i n power i n Vienna", (.2) and t h e s h i p s n e v e r s a i l e d . L i t t l e i s known, e i t h e r o f the n a t u r e o f t h i s i n t r i g u e , o r o f B o l t s h i m s e l f . From one so u r c e we h e a r o f (1) 2immerman Ts T h i r d Voyage o f C a p t a i n Cook. Pub. W.A.G. S k i n n e r , Government P r i n t e r , W e l l i n g t o n , 1926. Appendix, Page 47. (2) D i x o n , "A Voyage Round the World", G o u l d i n g , London, 1789, Page XX. .Page 47. him as "a w e l l i n f o r m e d man, l o n g employed i n t h e E a s t I n d i e s and B e n g a l , and who had a c q u i r e d i n s e v e r a l l o n g voyages a l l t h e knowledge n e c e s s a r y f o r managing w e l l an e x p e d i t i o n o f t h i s k i n d " , (1) w h i l e C a p t a i n P o r t l o c k comments " t h i s f e e b l e e f f o r t o f an impruaent man f a i l e d p r e m a t u r e l y , owing t o causes w h i c h have not y e t been s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l a i n e d . " (2) C a p t a i n James Hanna i n t h e "Sea O t t e r " ( o r "Harmon"), a s i x t y t o n b r i g w i t h a crew o f t h i r t y , s a i l e d from t h e T y p a on A p r i l 15, 1785. The passage was a rough one w i t h a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s g a l e s and r a i n , and i t was t n e second o f August b e f o r e stumps o f t r e e s were chanced on i n t h e ocean, i n d i c a t - i n g t h a t A m e r i c a was not f a r d i s t a n t . Hanna reached Nootka Sound f i v e days l a t e r , a t n i n e P. M., when i t was a l r e a d y d a r k . Almost i m m e d i a t e l y t h r e e n a t i v e canoes came o f f , and t h e crew, f e a r i n g t r o u b l e , armed a t once. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , however, i t was u n n e c e s s a r y , f o r the I n d i a n s " h o l l o w 1 d at a d i s t a n c e - 'Ivlaamook* - t h a t ' i s , a s k i n g t o t r a d e , and we soon got them a l o n g . " (3) Hanna was t h e f i r s t t r a d e r on the c o a s t , t h e p i o n e e r b o t h i n t h e f u r t r a d e , and as i t chanced, i n e x p e r i e n c i n g I n d i a n h o s t i l i t y . H i s s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e Nootkans had been w e l l grounded, f o r a few days l a t e r t h e y a t t e m p t e d to b o a r d th e v e s s e l i n b road d a y l i g h t , but were r e p u l s e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s l a u g h t e r , a f t e r w hich t h e y t r a d e d p e a c e f u l l y . Hanna c a l l e d a t o t h e r p o i n t s , but t h e a c c o u n t s o f h i s voyage a r e so meagre t h a t t h e e x a c t p l a c e s v i s i t e d a r e (1) E t i e n n e 'Karchand, "A Voyage Round the".World":, Straham;:: r . London, 1801." Page LXXX. (2) N a t h a n i e l P o r t l o c k , "A "Voyage Round t h e World", S t o c k d a l e and G o u l d i n g , London, 1789. Page- 2. (3) James Hanna, "Log o f t h e Sea O t t e r " 1785. O r i g i n a l i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Q u o t a t i o n i s l a s t e n t r y made, Aug. 9, 1785. Hence l o g i s o f l i m i t e d v a l u e , b e i n g no r e c o r d o f t ime p a s s e d on t h e c o a s t . Page: 48. u n c e r t a i n . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , he exchanged names w i t h C l e a s k i n a , . a c h i e f o f C l a y o q u o t Sound. The exchange o f names by the I n d i a n c h i e f s w i t h t h e i r v i s i t o r s was i n t e n d e d as a g r e a t compliment, and Meares mentions t h i s c h i e f under the name o f Hanna, as coming o f f to t h e " P e l i o e " i n company w i t h a n o t h e r c h i e f , Detooche, when he was p a s s i n g Ahousat i n June 1788.(1) Hanna l e f t i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f September, h a v i n g c o l l e c t e d f i v e hundred and s i x t y s k i n s , and a r r i v e d a t Macao i n t h e end o f December. D i x o n quotes t h e Chinese v a l u e s s e t on h i s p e l t s , w h i c h as a whole brought Hanna twenty thousand s i x hundred d o l l a r s . I t was an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f t h e r e t u r n s o b t a i n a b l e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the t r a d e . The Chinese d i v i d e d them i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s , and p r i c e d them a c c o r d i n g l y . ( 2 ) 140 prime s k i n s $60 175 2nd. §45 880 3 r d . !§30 65 4 t h . #15 50 5 t h . §10 500 whole s k i n s . "§20,000 240 f l i p s and p i e c e s , e s t i m a t e d a t 60 s k i n s , s o l d f o r #600. T o t a l - 560 s k i n s - s o l d f o r #20,600. The e x p e d i t i o n o f James Str a n g e r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y attempt o f the B a s t I n d i a Company t o i n v e s t i g a t e the ' p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the n o r t h west f u r t r a d e o f w h i c h t h e r e i s any d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The s u g g e s t i o n , coming i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e from L i e u t e n a n t K i n g and t h e c a r t o g r a p h e r D a l r y m p l e , met w i t h no response f rom t h e Company 1s g o v e r n o r s . James Str a n g e , o f the Madras E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the. E a s t I n d i a (1) John T. Walla ran, " B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e lTames"Government P r i n t i n g Bureau," Ottawa,'1909,:Page. .2.28,. .; . (2) George D i x o n , "A Voyage Round the World", L e t t e r Z L V I , p a f e ' ' 316 . Page 49 Company, was i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n f l u e n e e d by the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Cook's T h i r d "voyage to c o n s i d e r such a scheme d u r i n g a voyage to I n d i a . Ample l e i s u r e on b oard s h i p e n a b l e d him t o complete h i s p l a n s , w h i c h he s u b m i t t e d on l a n d i n g i n Bombay, t o a Mr. D a v i d S c o t t o f t h a t c i t y , who was d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d , and became t h e p a t r o n o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n . Meares spoke o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e as b e i n g "equipped under the d i r e c t i o n o f Mr. S c o t t , whose m e r c a n t i l e e x p e r i e n c e and s p i r i t - a r e acknowledged i n Europe as w e l l as I n d i a . " (1) The E a s t I n d i a Company g r a n t e d Strange temporary l e a v e o f absence, and seemed s e r i o u s l y to c o n s i d e r e s t a b l i s h i n g commercial i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e n o r t h ,west c o a s t , i f t h e f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s were s a t i s f a c t o r y . S t r a n g e threw h i m s e l f w h o l e h e a r t e d l y i n t o t h e under- t a k i n g , and i n v e s t e d h i s e n t i r e p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e t h e r e i n . Mr. S c o t t , " w i t h a l i b e r a l i t y p e c u l i a r t o h i m s e l f " adopted i t on a grand s c a l e , and put Strange a t i t s head. He r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s r i g h t o f p a t r onage i n naming t h e o f f i c e r s who were t o accompany him, on the ground t h a t i f Strange were t o work w i t h them he must f i n d them c o n g e n i a l . S t r a n g e ' s c h o i c e i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l men o f s c i e n c e , and f i v e f o r m e r l i e u t e n a n t s o f the B r i t i s h "Navy. Two s h i p s were o u t f i t t e d , t h e " C a p t a i n Cook", named i n the memory o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d n a v i g a t o r , o f t h r e e hundred and f i f t y t o n s b u r t h e n , commanded by C a p t a i n Henry L a u r i e , w i t h a crew o f s i x t y , accompanied by the "Experiment". The "Experiment", hew o f f t h e s t o c k s , , was about a hundred and f i f t y t o n s , and c a r r i e d a crew o f t h i r t y f i v e under C a p t a i n G u i s e . S t r a n g e went as s u p e r c a r g o on t h e (1) John Meares,"Voyages" made i n 1788 and 1789. J . W a l t e r , . London, 1790, Page 131.  Page 50. " C a p t a i n Cook", and i n h i s o p i n i o n b e t t e r v e s s e l s n e v e r went t o s e a . B o t h were "copper bottomed, and had two v e r y complete b o a t s " , were amply s u p p l i e d w i t h e v e r y s t o r e t h a t e i t h e r E n g l a n d o r I n d i a c o u l d p r o v i d e , and c a r r i e d the b e s t math- e m a t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e . The o b j e c t s o f t h e e x p e d i t - i o n were wide, to e s t a b l i s h a new b r a n c h o f commerce w i t h the w e s t e r n c o a s t o f A m e r i c a , d i s c o v e r y , and t o e x t e n d knowledge o f n a v i g a t i o n and s c i e n c e . The o u t f i t t i n g expenses were v e r y heavy, due to the enhanced p r i c e o f p r o v i s i o n s and n a v a l s t o r e s i n the E a s t , and the h i g h wages n e c e s s a r y f o r the crew. The s h i p s l e f t Bombay on the 8 t h . o f December 1785, i n t e n d i n g to d e f r a y expenses by g o i n g f i r s t t o C h i n a w i t h a cargo o f sandalwood and r i c h a r t i c l e s o f commerce, and t h e n on to N o o t ka. S t r a n g e p l a n n e d to s e c u r e these commodities f o r t h e C h i n e s e market on the. c o a s t o f M a l a b a r , a t t h e p o r t s o f Goa, Mangalore, T i l l e c h e r r y and C o c h i n , but t o h i s g r e a t r e g r e t , found on a r r i v a l t h a t the d e s i r e d goods c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d a t any o f them. I t was too l a t e to t u r n back f o r f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s , so S t r a n g e l e f t C a c h i n on the 1 s t . o f J a n u a r y 1785 f o r the n o r t h west c o a s t , w h i c h he i n t e n d e d t o make i n l a t i t u d e 40" 00' n o r t h . S i n c e t h e C h i n a t r i p was o f f , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s t o p a t B a t a v i a and s e c u r e s u p p l i e s . The s o j o u r n was a most u n c o m f o r t a b l e one - t h e D u t c h t r e a t e d them w i t h l i t t l e c o u r t e s y , and even r e f u s e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the passage and n a v i g a t i o n o f n e a r b y S t r a i t s . " I f the p r i v i l - ege o f b r e a t h i n g c o u l d here be b r o u g h t i n t o a c c o u n t , I am s u r e i t would not be o m i t t e d , such a r e the e x t o r t i o n s o f t h i s s e l f Page 51. i n t e r e s t e d n a t i o n . " (1) There was o n l y one i n n , government c o n t r o l l e d , but so u n h e a l t h y t h a t c e r t a i n apartments were p o p u l a r l y known as "Tavern S e p u l c h r e s " . S t r a n g e and s e v e r a l o f the o f f i c e r s went ashore i n o r d e r to h a s t e n b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s , and en- gaged rooms. While t h e p a r t y was a t d i n n e r the l a n d l o r d came i n , a s k e d the u s u a l q u e s t i o n s as t o whether the f o o d was t o t h e i r l i k i n g , and complimented them on t h e i r h e a l t h y appear- ance, s a y i n g i n D u t c h t h a t he hoped t h e y would l e a v e h i s house i n as good a case as t h e y came i n t o i t , but t h a t he "doubted i t e x c e e d i n g l y " . U n p e r t u r b e d by s u c h c r o a k i n g , Strange p a s s e d a c o m f o r t a b l e n i g h t , but h i s peace o f mind was s h o r t l i v e d . C o n v e r s i n g w i t h an E n g l i s h m a n who had been i n the. house a few weeks, he happened t o m e n t i o n t h a t he was o c c u p y i n g No. 18. "My gentleman s t a r t e d from me a t t h e m e n t i o n o f No. 18, and w i t h hands and eyes u p l i f t e d to Heaven, e n t r e a t e d t h a t I would no more t h i n k o f s l e e p i n g i n t h a t room. He i n f o r m e d me t h a t d u r i n g a r e s i d e n c e o f f i w weeks i n the house, he had seen no l e s s t h a n seven b o d i e s , dead o f p u t r i d f e v e r , c a r r i e d t o t h e i r g r a v e s out o f t h a t v e r y bed, on w h i c h I had l a s t n i g h t reposed, and t h a t i t had not he b e l i e v e d , been a i r e d i n a l l t h a t p e r i o d . " (2) Strange i m m e d i a t e l y f e l t "a t h o u s - and p a i n s and aches" and s e n t f o r t h e l a n d l o r d to r e p r o a c h him i n the b i t t e r e s t terms f o r the t r e a t m e n t he had r e c e i v e d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v e d t h a t Strange had been a l o t t e d No. 18 because i t had been f r e e from i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e f o r s i x o r e i g h t days, w h i l e i n many o f the o t h e r rooms i t was o n l y (1) James S t r a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n to t h e N o r t h West Coast o f America",,Records o f F o r t S t . George, Madras, Government P r e s s , 1928. Page 7. (2) I b i d , Page 7. Page 52. f o r t y e i g h t h o u r s . S t r a n g e r e f u s e d to spend a n o t h e r n i g h t i n the b e s t bed i n the house, and s l e p t f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s s t a y on the b i l l i a r d t a b l e . I t was o n l y h i s a n x i e t y t o speed d e p a r t u r e t h a t made him remain on s h o r e . A f t e r a t e n day v i s i t t h e s h i p s a t l a s t managed t o get u n d e r way, b u t the e f f e c t s o f B a t a v i a were soon f e l t . A lmost at once Strange and f i f t e e n seamen went down w i t h f e v e r , many o f them v e r y d a n g e r o u s l y i l l . F u r t h e r d i s a s t e r f o l l o w e d , and e i g h t days l a t e r - 1 7 t h . o f F e b r u a r y - b o t h s h i p s r a n aground n e a r Borneo, i n a r e g i o n i n f e s t e d w i t h p i r - a t e s . C a p t a i n G u i s e f e a r e d a t f i r s t t h a t t h e "Experiment" was l o s t t o s e r v i c e , but by making" a r a f t o f a l l t h e booms and s p a r s , and moving the guns and heavy s t o r e s onto t h i s , the s h i p was l i g h t e n e d and f r e e d a l i t t l e a f t e r m i d n i g h t . The danger showed the l o w morale o f the seamen - symptoms o f a l a r m and m u t i n y appeared, and i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e t a s pec- i a l watch t o g u a r d the b o a t s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v e d the "Experiment" to be i n a s e r i o u s s t a t e , w i t h - f i v e l a r g e h o l e s t h r o u g h h e r bottom i n the p l a n k s next the g a r b o a r d s t r e a k , w h i c h c o u l d o n l y be r e p a i r e d by l a n d i n g w i t h a s t o p o f s e v en o r e i g h t days, but no a l t e r n a t i v e o f f e r e d . D u r i n g t h e s t a y the l i v e s t o c k t a k e n a b o a r d a t B a t a v i a was g r e a t l y d e p l e t e d , b e i n g reduced to a few hogs, and some p o u l t r y w h i c h Strange p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r e d t o t a k e to A m e r i c a . St range's f e v e r was now so s e r i o u s t h a t f o r f o u r months he was u n a b le to make an e n t r y i n the l o g book, and t h e r e i s a gap between the 1 8 t h . o f J a nuary and t h e 2 0 t h . o f June. A f t e r twenty days on the Page 53. c o a s t o f Borneo th e "Experiment" was pronounced seaworthy, and the j o u r n e y a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c "began. S c u r v y "broke o u t , the s u p p l i e s o f s a u e r k r a u t , soup and malt p r o v e d i n a d e q u a t e , and hy t h e time N ootka was reached, a t h i r d o f t h e crew were c o n f i n e d , w i t h l i t t l e hope o f r e c o v e r y . The s h i p s made l a n d on the 2 4 t h . o f June, 1786, i n l a t i t u d e ' 4 8 * 4 4 ' n o r t h . Two canoes came o f f a l m o s t a t ohce, c o n t a i n i n g s i x o r e i g h t n a t i v e s , who approached the s h i p s w i t h l i t t l e h e s i t a t i o n . They had w i t h them h a l f a dozen s m a l l bream, some s a r d i n e s , and s i x bunches o f l e e k s , w h i c h S t r a n g e e a g e r l y bought f o r t h e i n v a l i d s , r e c o r d i n g : "no p u r - chase I a f t e r w a r d s made on t h e c o a s t a f f o r d e d me a l i k e s a t i s f a c t i o n . " D u r i n g the n i g h t the v e s s e l s s t o o d o f f s h o r e , and by morning many I n d i a n s had c o l l e c t e d . . As g u i d e s t o N o o tka t h e y p r o v e d f u t i l e , f o r none would i n d i c a t e any p a r t o f the c o a s t except t h a t o f h i s own r e s i d e n c e , and w i s h e d t h e e x p e d i t i o n t o a n c h o r t h e r e . By midday the canoes had i n c r e a s ed t o f i f t y , v a r y i n g i n occupants from two to t e n . The n a t i v e s o f f e r e d a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f f i s h f o r s a l e , salmon, cod, s k a t e , h a l i b u t , bream, t r o u t , h e r r i n g s , s a r d i n e s and f l a t f i s h , but t h e s u p p l y was i r r e g u l a r - one day t h e s h i p s were swamped w i t h f i s h , and the next none c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . S t r a n g e began e n q u i r i e s f o r sea o t t e r s k i n s , but o n l y s e c u r e d a few v e r y ragged specimens, and so s a i l e d s l o w l y up t h e c o a s t , a r r i v i n g a t N o o t k a Sound on the 2 7 t h . o f June. The I n d i a n s c o l l e c t e d i n l a r g e numbers, but. w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a few c h i e f s to whom St r a n g e w i s h e d t o show Page 54. some marks o f r e s p e c t and d i s t i n c t i o n , none were e v e r a l l o w e d up the s h i p s ' s i d e s . I t was f e l t t h a t hy so d o i n g much t r o u b l e was a v o i d e d , e i t h e r from q u a r r e l l i n g o r t h e f t , un the 6th. o f J u l y the s h i p s ' moorings were changed t o P r i e n d l y Cove, i n t h e hopes o f o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r s h e l t e r f o r t h e i n v a l i d s on shore, and Strange and the su r g e o n v i s i t e d the I n d i a n v i l l a g e to buy some s o r t o f a hut f o r t h e i r u s e . They were r e c e i v e d w i t h much f r i e n d l i n e s s , and g i v e n p r e s s i n g i n v i t a t i o n s t o e n t e r a l l houses. S t r a n g e was d e e p l y i m p r e s s - ed by t h e " b e a s t l y f i l t h i m whi c h t h e n a t i v e s o f t h i s p a r t o f the w o r l d pass t h e i r l i v e s . I d e c l a r e t h a t b e f o r e I was an eye w i t n e s s t o i t , I had a v e r y i m p e r f e c t c o n c e p t i o n o f the e x t e n t o f i t . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o move a s i n g l e s t e p w i t h o u t b e i n g up to the a n k l e s i n mud, f i s h g u t s and maggots, and t h i s i n c o n v e n i e n c e was a l i k e f e l t w i t h i n and w i t h o u t d o o r s . " f l ) S t r a n g e e x p l a i n e d he wi s h e d t o buy a hut f o r h i s s i c k , and was o f f e r e d any one he chose. The b a r g a i n was c o n c l u d e d f o r twenty f i v e c e n t s and the s h e l t e r was d u l y c l e a n e d and s e t i n o r d e r , b u t p r o v e d so i n s a n i t a r y t h a t a f t e r a few days t h e p a t i e n t s were moved to a t e n t some d i s t a n c e from t h e v i l l a g e , where t h e y s l o w l y r e c o v e r e d . W h i l e con- v a l e s c i n g , the s a i l o r s o c c u p i e d t h e i r t ime by g a r d e n i n g , i n the hopes t h a t i t might b e n e f i t f u t u r e v o y a g e r s , and p l a n t e d "a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f g a r d e n seeds." The sea o t t e r s - were much more d i f f i c u l t t o p r e s e r v e t h a n p r o c u r e . The I n d i a n s r e a d i l y t r a d e d them f o r axes, k n i v e s , c h i s e l s and swords, but s i n c e b o t h s k i n s and i n h a b i t - (1) James S t r a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e Worth West Coast o f Am e r i c a " , Page. 20. Page 55. a n t s swarmed w i t h v e r m i n , much l a b o u r had to he expended he- f o r e the p e l t s were f i t f o r s t o r a g e . Strange s a i d o f them, " I dreaded no l e s s t h e i r u t t e r l o s s t h a n t h e want o f them the f u r s seemed to me to he a s o r t o f s a n c t u a r y f o r the v e r m i n , t o w h i c h t h e y r e s o r t from p e r s e c u t i o n . I have a l s o seen t h e p r i v i l e g e o f e a t i n g the l i v e s t o c k o f a v e r y l o u s y head, the s u b j e c t o f much s e r i o u s a l t e r c a t i o n between t h r e e o f f o u r p e r s o n s ; whereas I a t no time p e r c e i v e d them to be o b j e c t s o f p u r s u i t o r c o n t e n t i o n when once t h e y had t a k e n r e f u g e i n t h e f u r . " (1) B e s i d e s t h u s t h i s the s k i n s abounded i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f f i l t h , w h i c h g r e a t l y c o m p l i c a t e d t h e t a s k o f d r e s s i n g . Strange worked on them e i g h t hours a day, and was o n l y on shore t h r e e t i m e s f o r b u s i n e s s purposes d u r - i n g a month's s t a y a t B o o t k a . He was g r a t i f i e d , however, t o f i n d t h a t h i s l a b o u r s won the a p p r o v a l o f t h e merchants o f Canton, and g r e a t l y enhanced t h e i r v a l u e . S t r a n g e had hoped t o make d e t a i l e d n o t e s on t h e I n d i a n s ' form o f government, but found h i s time f u l l y occup- i e d . He commented on t h e extreme a c c u r a c y o f C a p t a i n Cook's d e s c r i p t i o n s , w i t h w h i c h he a g r e e d i n e v e r y d e t a i l . The Hootkams w o r s h i p p e d S n k i t s u m , the God o f the Snow, whose image was k e p t i n the house o f Maquinna t h e c h i e f , b u t d e s p i t e an e l a b o r a t e d i s p l a y o f w o r s h i p , B n k i t s u m and the d e c o r a t e d c u r t a i n o f h i s s a n c t u a r y were s o l d w i t h o u t h e s i t a t - i o n when Str a n g e made an o f f e r f o r them. The I n d i a n women had c o n s i d e r a b l e ascendency o v e r t h e men, and the t r a d e r s , i n t h e i r m e r c a n t i l e c a p a c i t y , dreaded the s i g h t o f them. Whenever (1) James S t r a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n to the Worth West Coast o f A m e r i c a , Page 21. Page 56 p r e s e n t t h e y d i r e c t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s and asked t h r e e t i m e s t h e p r i c e f o r a r t i c l e s w h i c h i n t h e i r absence c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d f o r a t h i r d o f t h e v a l u e . Human hands and heads were f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d f o r s a l e , and S t r a n g e , a n x i o u s t o f i n d out what use t h e I n d i a n s put them tp,,one day i n t i m a t e d t h a t he d i d n o t know what to do w i t h such a r t i c l e s . A c h i e f , Clamata, s a i d t h e y were "good t o e a t " , and t o demonstrate the. f a c t " v e r y composedly put one o f t h e hands i n h i s mouth, and s t r i p p i n g i t t h r o u g h h i s t e e t h , t o r e o f f a c o n s i d e r a b l e p i e c e o f the f l e s h , w h i c h he i m m e d i a t e l y devoured, w i t h much apparent r e l i s h . " f l ) When S t r a n g e e x p r e s s e d h i s h o r r o r , Olamata sought t o appease him by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he would not eat a f r i e n d , but o n l y an enemy k i l l e d i n war, w h i c h was an a c t " a c c e p t a b l e i n the eyes o f Heaven." I t has s i n c e been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c a n n i b a l i s m was p r a c t i s e d by t h e t r i b e . The Nootkans were e x t r e m e l y f o n d o f music, an a t t r i b - u t e n o t i c e d by C a p t a i n Cook, and had most r e t e n t i v e memories. On one o c c a s i o n s e v e r a l l a r g e canoes v i s i t e d t h e s h i p s , f i l l e d w i t h n a t i v e s , who from t h e i r d r e s s and a t t e n d a n t s would appear t o be o f an upper c l a s s . Bach wore two o r t h r e e f i n e s e a o t t e r s k i n s w h i c h t h e t r a d e r s were v e r y d e s i r o u s o f b u y i n g , but t h e I n d i a n s seemed u n i m p r e s s e d by t h e d i s p l a y o f i r o n mongery, c o p p e r ware and beads. T h e i r a t t e n t i o n seemed t o be c o n s t a n t l y w a n d e r i n g t o t h e music o f t h e i r a t t e n d a n t s , t o w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s k e p t t i m e , by b e a t i n g two s h e l l s t o g e t h e r w i t h g r e a t p r e c i s i o n . ( S ) T h i s reminded S t r a n g e t h a t among (1) James S t r a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f America 1/ Page 27. (2) I t was o b s e r v e d by Dr. W. N. Sage on a r e c e n t v i s i t t o N o o t k a t h a t t h i s n a t i v e custom s t i l l p e r s i s t s , o n l y t h a t now the I n d i a n s s u b s t i t u t e boards f o r s h e l l s . Page 57. t h e v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s o f t r a d e were a number o f cymbals,which would s u b s t i t u t e w e l l f o r t h e s h e l l s , and be i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e music w h i c h was v e r y much on m a r t i a l l i n e s . The f i r s t c l a s h o f t h e cymbals was r e c e i v e d w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s o f r a p t u r e and d e l i g h t , and to demonstrate t h e i n s t r u m e n t s Strange com- posed a s o r t o f r i n g t i n g tune, w h i c h drew b u r s t s o f a p p l a u s e from h i s a u d i e n c e , and was encored a g a i n and a g a i n u n t i l p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e f o r c e d the p e r f o r m e r t o c e a s e . A f t e r i t had been p l a y e d h a l f a dozen t i m e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e I n d i a n s j o i n e d i n , and as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n i n an hour's time the n a t i v e s were c o m p l e t e l y s t r i p p e d o f t h e i r f u r s , each c o n t e n d i n g who s h o u l d be s e r v e d f i r s t . E v e r y p a i r o f cymbals b r o u g h t t h r e e , sometimes f o u r s k i n s , and as t h e r e s u l t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s spent a n i g h t o f harmony and g l e e on s h o r e . They r e t u r n e d next day w i t h more s k i n s , w h i c h t h e y would t r a d e o n l y f o r cymbals, and i n s i s t e d t h a t Strange p l a y a song b e f o r e t h e y would r e c e i v e them. Strange s t r u c k up t h e f i r s t t h a t came i n t o h i s head, b u t f a r from b e i n g a p p r e c i a t e d , i t was p r a c t i c a l l y " h i s s e d o f f t h e s t a g e " - A second and a t h i r d s u f f e r e d a l i k e jfTate, u n t i l he r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was h i s y e s t e r d a y ' s c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h was r e q u i r e d o f him, b u t , "had a l l t h e s e a o t t e r s k i n s o f Nootka been t h e p r i c e o f i t , I c o u l d not r e c o l l e c t a n o t e . " I t was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , see- i n g t h a t i t was s i m p l y a j i n g l e made up on t h e s p u r o f t h e moment, but i t had made a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n on t h e I n d i a n s , and t i r e d o f w a i t i n g , t h e y now s t r u c k i t up f o r t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g p r e c i s i o n o f time and t u n e . The melody Page 58. i m m e d i a t e l y came back t o Str a n g e , and he was a b l e t o j o i n i n . I n t h r e e days t h e r e was not a boy o r g i r l i n the v i l l a g e who c o u l d n o t s i n g i t , and a f t e r t h a t p e r i o d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e composer seldom bought a s k i n w i t h o u t b e i n g c a l l e d upon t o s i n g . The young surgeon o f t h e "Experiment", John Mackay, was l e f t b e h i n d a t Uootka to r e c o v e r f rom p u r p l e f e v e r , and persuade t h e I n d i a n s t o c o l l e c t f u r s a g a i n s t t h e i r r e t u r n i n th e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a t r i p w h i c h was n e v e r made. Expenses would be reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y i f s h i p s c o u l d b e g i n t r a d i n g a t once, i n s t e a d o f w a i t i n g f o r a f o r t n i g h t o r so w h i l e t h e n a t i v e s c o l l e c t e d s k i n s . Mackay was p l a c e d i n the f a m i l y o f Maquinna, to whom St r a n g e made many p r e s e n t s , and who, i n t h e pr e s e n c e o f E n k i t s u m , a s s u r e d him i n r e t u r n t h a t h i s " d o c t o r s h o u l d eat t h e c h o i c e s t f i s h t h e Sound produced", and s h o u l d be f o u n d on h i s r e t u r n "as f a t as a whale". Mackay was a l r e a d y g a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n by c u r i n g the scabby hands and l e g s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . Strange l e f t him some s i m p l e remedies, b u t n o t h i n g w h i c h even i n j u d i c i o u s l y a d m i n i s t e r e d c o u l d p r ove f a t a l , and a d v i s e d him not to t a k e s e r i o u s c a s e s . Mackay was a l s o i n s t r u c t e d to make n o t e s on t h e manners and customs o f t h e p e o p l e , and amply s u p p l i e d w i t h pen and p a p e r . The o n l y s u r v i v i n g l i v e s t o c k - a p a i r o f g o a t s - was g i v e n t o Mackay, as w e l l as generous q u a n t i t i e s o f European f o o d s . A t the I n d i a n s r e q u e s t he was s u p p l i e d w i t h a musket and p i s t o l s , as w e l l as a r e d coa t and cap f o r the purpose o f f r i g h t e n i n g the enemy. Strange r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e n a t i v e s have r i f l e s , Page 59. but t h i s w i s e r u l e was b r o k e n by l a t e r t r a d e r s . P r e p a r a t i o n s were now made t o l e a v e the Sound, a f t e r c o l l e c t i n g e v e r y s c r a p o f f u r i n the d i s t r i c t . D u r i n g the p r o c e s s s e v e r a l hundred words had been added t o C a p t a i n Cook's' v o c a b u l a r y , and t h i s s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n was v e r y p l e a s i n g t o S t r a n g e . The s h i p s g o t under way about midday on J u l y 2 8 t h . 1786, and were caught almost i m m e d i a t e l y i n a t h i c k f o g . They made t h e i r way s l o w l y up t h e c o a s t , b u t e n c o u n t e r e d no n a t i v e s u n t i l n o r t h o f 50°latitude. Here t h e y met a canoe c a r r y i n g f o u r men, who g r e a t e d them w i t h a song and harangue l i k e t h o s e o f Nootka, but u n d e r s t o o d o n l y a few words o f the Nootkan l a n g u a g e . They had two o l d and ragged sea o t t e r s k i n s , w h i c h Strange thought p r o p e r to buy, and showed e x t r a v a g a n t j o y o v e r the i r o n t h e y r e c e i v e d i n exchange. The s h i p s s t a y - ed the n i g h t i n the d i s t r i c t and made e v e r y e f f o r t to f i n d t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e , , but u n s u c c e s s f u l l y . They named and e x p l o r - ed Queen C h a r l o t t e I n l e t and Sound, and t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f i t " i n the name o f h i s B r i t t a n i c M a j e s t y " . I n one o f the bays, o p p o s i t e some o l d h u t s , Strange l e f t a mark o f h i s h a v i n g v i s i t e d and t a k e n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e C o a s t . A deep h o l e was c u t i n the body o f a l a r g e t r e e , i n w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d copper, i r o n and beads, b e s i d e s the names o f t h e s h i p s and date o f d i s c o v e r y . (1) T h e n C a p t a i n Cook" and t h e "Experiment" c o n t i n u e d n o r t h , but concluded*! t h a t t h e c o a s t between Nootka and. P r i n c e W i l l i a m s Sound was v e r y t h i n l y i n h a b i t e d , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e y were o f t e n n e a r shore t h e y saw no s i g n s o f I n d i a n s . A f t e r (1) James Str a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 32. r a g e 60. a stormy passage the e x p e d i t i o n reached Cape H i n c h i n b r o k e on Snug t h e 2 9 t h . o f August, and on the 3 0 t h . a n c h o r e d i n Busy C o r n e r Cove at P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound. So n a t i v e s appeared, so the l o n g boat was sent on a c r u i s e o f d i s c o v e r y . On t h e second day an o l d man v i s i t e d the; s h i p s , b u t w i t h g r e a t f e a r and t r e m b l i n g . He c o u l d not be i n d u c e d to come near, u n t i l o f f e r - ed a s t r i n g o f beads, when he p a d d l e d c l o s e enough to t a k e them on the end o f a s p e a r . Two young men came a l i t t l e l a t e r , one o f whom o f f e r e d f o r s a l e a d i r t y o l d o t t e r s k i n , a l s o showing g r e a t symptoms o f f e a r . The t r a d e r s bought i t , h o p i n g to encourage'them, but l i t t l e d e v e l o p e d . The l o n g boat r e t u r n e d a f t e r f o u r days, h a v i n g found n o t h i n g but p i l e s o f f i s h , f o r everywhere t h e p e o p l e d i s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e them - t h e y were g e t t i n g i n t o H u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y . D u r i n g the n e x t t h r e e o f f o u r days s e v e r a l canoes c o l l e c t e d , each c o n t a i n i n g from t e n t o f i f t e e n I n d i a n s , but t h e y had l i t t l e i n the way o f s k i n s . " I n t h e a r t i c l e o f f u r s , whether good o r bad t h e y were almost d e s t i t u t e compared w i t h o u r Nootka f r i e n d s . They appeared l i t t l e v e r s e d i n the a r t o f t r a f f i c , and n e v e r hes- i t a t e d a moment i n a c c e p t i n g any o f f e r t h a t was made to: them. They, as r e a d i l y c o n c l u d e d t h e ba:rga.in f o r one bead as t h e y would have f o r twenty. C o l o u r a l o n e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e v a l u e o f the o f f e r , and none o t h e r t h a n sky b l u e would have been r e c - e i v e d , a l t h o u g h the number o f f e r e d had been t e n t i m e s m u l t i p l - i e d . " f l ) The f a i l u r e o f t h e f u r s u p p l y a t P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound was a s e r i o u s m a t t e r to Strange - i t doomed the e x p e d i t i o n (1) James S t r a n g e , "Gommercial E x p e d i t i o n to t h e N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 37. CHARLOTTE- /SLANDS — — S3' QUEEN CHARLOTTE: ISLANDS AND THEIR DISTANCE F~ROM NOOTKA Page 61. t o f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e , and meant t h a t a second v e n t u r e c o u l d n ot p o s s i b l y he u n d e r t a k e n on t h e same s c a l e , as he had o r i g - i n a l l y p l a n n e d . The s k i n s from the good f u r c e n t r e s were not numerous enough t o j u s t i f y s u ch b i g s h i p s , w h i l e t h e p r o f i t s were swamped by heavy overhead expenses. A t the same t i m e , S t r a n g e a d m i t t e d t h a t by d i s m i s s i n g the " C a p t a i n Cook", and c u t t i n g down e v e r y s u p e r f L o u s expense, a s h i p o f the " E x p e r i m e n t " f s s i z e might r u n a p r o f i t a b l e t r a d e , b u t b u s i n e s s on such a s c a l e was beneath the scope o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company. S t r a n g e t o o k c o l d comfort i n the r e f l e c t i o n t h a t h i s f a i l u r e would p r e v e n t o t h e r s engaging i n the same l i n e o f commerce " u n t i l such t i m e as o u r f r e q u e n t i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the n a t i v e s o f t h i s c o n t i n e n t had t a u g h t them t o be p r e - p a r e d w i t h t h a t a r t i c l e o f t r a d e w h i c h t h e y now p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e o b j e c t o f o u r p u r s u i t , and w h i c h t h i s c o a s t would d o u b t l e s s s u p p l y i n no i n c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s . " (1) He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t l e a s t t h e s e a o t t e r t r a d e was too hazardous and undeveloped t o have any p o s s i b i l - i t i e s f o r h i s company. On t h e f i f t h o f September, 1786, a second s h i p a r r i v e d a t P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound, a hundred t o n screw, t h e "Sea O t t e r " , under C a p t a i n W i l l i a m T i p p i n g , who, by an odd chance, happened t o be a c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e o f C a p t a i n G u i s e o f t h e "Experiment". The "Sea O t t e r " had s a i l e d from B e n g a l as c o n s o r t t o t h e "Nootka", a two hundred t o n s h i p commanded by C a p t a i n John Meares, H. N., a l t h o u g h t h e s h i p s x o l l o w e d d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s . T i p p i n g had been i n s t r u c t e d t o s u r v e y (1) James S t r a n g e , "Commercial E x p e d i t i o n to the N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 37. Page 62. t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t o f Japan b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o P r i n c e W i l l i a m * s Sound, where he was to meet Meares, who had f i r s t gone t o Nootka. C a p t a i n T i p p i n g d i n e d on the " C a p t a i n Cook" t h a t n i g n t , but h i s resentment towards Strange f o r skimming t h e s u p p l y was so marked t h a t t h e meal was not a c o m f o r t a b l e one. T i p p i n g r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t b e s i d e s t r a d i n g a l l t h e way from Nootka, one o f S t r a n g e ' s s h i p s had a l r e a d y v i s i t e d Cook's R i v e r , and he weighed a n c h o r e a r l y next morning, d i s a p p e a r i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n o f Cook's R i v e r , a p p a r e n t l y i n a f r a n t i c a t t e m pt t o g e t t h e r e r i r s t . The "Sea O t t e r " was n e v e r h e a r d of a g a i n , so presumably was e i t h e r c u t o f f by n a t i v e s , o r wrecked on t h e way and l o s t w i t h a l l hands. S i n c e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d number o f f u r s were not f o r t h c o m i n g , S t r a n g e , who was a man o f undoubted d a r i n g and i n g e n u i t y , sought to c o u n t e r b a l a n c e i t by a n o t h e r commodity. An account had appeared i n "Coxe's ' R u s s i a n D i s c o v e r i e s ' " o f a Copper I s l a n d , i n l a t i t u d e 54'40' N. l o n g i t u d e 182°30' E., supposed t o be r i c h i n t h a t m e t a l , w h i c h was washed up by t h e s e a . S i n c e c o p p e r was i n h i g h demand i n C h i n a , t h e e x p e d i t i o n d e c i d e d t o t r y and s e c u r e a s h i p o f o r e . The " C a p t a i n Cook" was d i s p a t c h e d from P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound on t h i s m i s s i o n , w h i l e t h e "Experiment" went t o C h i n a w i t h t h e sea o t t e r s k i n s . S h o u l d the " C a p t a i n Cook" get n o t h i n g , L a u r i e was i n s t r u c t e d to t r y f o r a cargo i n C h i n a t o h e l p d e f r a y expenses. The "Experiment" a n c h o r e d i n Macao Roads on the 1 5 t h . o f November 1786, where t h e " C a p t a i n Cook" j o i n - ed h e r a month l a t e r , h a v i n g s t r i v e n v a i n l y f o r n e a r l y t h r e e Page 63. weeks a g a i n s t o p p o s i n g g a l e s t o make good t h e i r passage to . Copper I s l a n d . The s h a t t e r e d s t a t e o f t h e s a i l s and r i g g i n g , t h e extreme s i c k n e s s o f t h e ship£s company, and t h e reduced s t a t e o f p r o v i s i o n s f i n a l l y f o r c e d them t o abandon t h e quest and r e t u r n t o C h i n a . Strange c o l l e c t e d s i x hundred and f o u r s k i n s a l t o g e t h e r , w h i c h were s o l d a t Canton, A p r i l 4 t h , 1787, r e a l i z i n g t w e n t y f o u r thousand d o l l a r s - an average o f f o r t y d o l l a r s a s k i n . I t was not even enough t o pay t h e c o s t s o f t h e voyage. The cargo was c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : (1) prime s k i n s 55 2 nd. 134 3 r d . 142 4 t h . 63 I n h a l v e s 46 s m a l l p i e c e s 33 p i e c e s y e l l o w and i n f e r i o r 131 T o t a l 604 - s o l d f o r $24,000. S t r a n g e s u b m i t t e d t h e c h a r t and n a r r a t i v e o f t h e voyage t o t h e Honourable Ma^or G e n e r a l S i r A r c h i b a l d Campbell, K. B., Governo r i n C o u n c i l o f F o r t S t . George. Through t h e heavy l o s s e s he had i n c u r r e d by i n v e s t i n g n i s p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e i n t h e v e n t u r e , he was no?/ u n a b l e t o meet h i s f i n a n c i a l o b l i g - a t i o n s , and was o b l i g e d t o ask t h e B a s t I n d i a Company f o r some p e c u n i a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the term he had l o s t upon t h e u n f o r t u n a t e voyage. The C o u n c i l o f P o r t S t . George c o n s i d e r e d t h a t S t r a n g e had f u l l y d e s e r v e d i t , and f o r w a r d e d the a p p l i c a t - i o n t o t h e Court o f D i r e c t o r s i n London, but no f u r t h e r i n f o r m - a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t i s at p r e s e n t a v a i l a b l e as the r e c o r d s o f th e E a s t I n d i a Company a r e c l o s e d f o r so r e c e n t a d a t e . (1) George D i x o n , "A Voyage Hound t h e World", L e t t e r X L V I . Page 318. Page 64. Prance, at the time o f the pu b l i c a t i o n o f Cook*s t h i r d voyage, was enjoying a short period of peace, and view- ed the new discoveries with much i n t e r e s t . As a maritime power she f e l t i t her duty to contribute to the advance of science and increase the knowledge of the globe, and organized a s c i e n t i f i c expedition on l i n e s s i m i l a r to Captain Cook Ts. It was placed i n charge o f Jean-Francois Galaup de l a Perouse, a man of distinguished naval exploits and s c i e n t i f i c acquire- ments. Two f r i g a t e s were o u t f i t t e d , "La Boussole", commanded by La Perouse, and "L TAstrolabe" under De Langle, the second i n authority. The Government was enthusiastic over the prosp- ects, and caused seven hundred medals to be struck, one hundred of s i l v e r and bronze, and s i x hundred others o f d i f f e r - ent kinds of metals, which La Perouse was instructed to di s t r i b u t e wherever he touched. One side o f the medal bore the e f f i g y of the King of France, with the common i n s c r i p t i o n , while on the reverse was the legend - "Les Fregates du r o i de France, La Boussole et L 1Astrolabe, commandoes par M.M. de La Perouse et de Langle, p a r t i e s du Port de Brest en Juin 1785" - encircled by two o l i v e branches t i e d together by a ribband. The f r i g a t e s were to make s c i e n t i f i c and astronomical observat- ions and continue explorations i n the P a c i f i c a f t e r completing a survey o f the north west coast o f America. Special attention was to be given to the l a t t e r region between 49* and 57" because Captain Cook had been prevented by adverse winds from examining any point i n the d i s t r i c t except Nootka. Detailed information concerning the f u r trade was to be c o l l e c t e d . The French Government wished to be thoroughly acquainted with a l l Page 65. i t s a s p e c t s b e f o r e e n c o u r a g i n g F r e n c h t r a d i n g s h i p s t o e n t e r i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r n a t i o n s i n a t r a f f i c w h i c h might b e g i n w i t h g r e a t p r o f i t s , but end i n g r e a t e r l o s s e s . 'The v e n t u r e came t o a t r a g i c end, the s h i p s b e i n g wrecked i n 1V88 on t h e r e e f o f t h e M a n n i c o l o I s l a n d s i n t h e P a c i f i c , The s u r v i v i n g crew o f one s h i p were murdered by n a t i v e s . Some o f the men from t h e second made l a n d n e a r P a i o w on t h e I s l a n d and " b u i l t a s m a l l s h i p , i n w h i c h t h e y d i s a p p e a r e d , and were n e v e r h e a r d o f again.(1) i'he t h r e e y e a r s ' j o u r n a l o f L a P e r o u s e ' s e x p e d i t i o n was n o t l o s t , s i n c e s e c t i o n s had been sen t t o Europe a t e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y , and when d i s a s t e r o v e r t o o k t h e p a r t y most o f t h s r e c o r d s were a l r e a d y i n s a f e k e e p i n g . These were i n t e r e s t i n g , more p a r t i c u l a r l y as a t L a Pe r o u s e ' s f o r m e r r e q u e s t t h e y were not t u r n e d o v e r t o a l i t e r a r y man who might " s a c r i f i c e t o t h e t u r n i n g o f a phrase t h e p r o p e r word o r l a y a s i d e a l l n a u t - i c a l and a s t r o n o m i c a l d e t a i l s , and d e s i r o u s o f making o f i t an i n t e r e s t i n g romance, commit e r r o r s w h i c h w i l l p rove f a t a l t o my s u c c e s s o r s : but choose an e d i t o r v e r s e d i n math- e m a t i c a l knowledge, who may be c a p a b l e o f c a l c u l a t i n g , o f comb i n i n g my d a t a w i t h t h a t o f fo r m e r n a v i g a t o r s , o f c o r r e c t i n g e r r o r s w h i c h may have escaped me, and n o t commit o t h e r s him- s e l f . " (2) L a P e r o u s e ' s w i s h e s were c a r r i e d o u t , and h i s m a n u s c r i p t s came under t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f one f u l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e t a s k , H. L. A. M i l e t Mureau. Mureau was a B r i g a d i e r (1) Ref.: P e t e r D i l l o n , " D i s c o v e r y o f t h e F a t e o f L a Per o u s e " , H u r s t , Chance and Co., S t . P a u l ' s C hurch Y a r d , London, 1829, v o l s . I and I I . (2) J . F. G. de L a P e r o u s e , "A Voyage Round the World", v o l . 1 , J . Johnson, London, 1799.- Page 4. Page 66. G e n e r a l o f t h e Corps o f E n g i n e e r s , a D i r e c t o r o f F o r t i f i c a t - i o n s , a member o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly, and a F e l l o w o f s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s o f P a r i s . L a P e r o u s e T s i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n o r t h west c o a s t were t o appr o a c h from t h e South P a c i f i c , make l a n d i n l a t i t u d e 36"30", and c o n t i n u e n o r t h w a r d s r e c o n n o i t e r i n g a s he went. C a r e f u l watch was t o he k e p t f o r a g u l f o r r i v e r w h i c h might l e a d t o Hudson's Bay - i n s p i t e o f Cook's s u r v e y b e l i e f i n t h e North West Passage was not dead, ( l ) Jo o f f e n c e was t o be g i v e n t o S p a i n , but t h e e x a c t e x t e n t o f h e r c o l o n i z a t i o n must be a s c e r t a i n e d , and whether o r n o t she had s e t t l e d a t Los Remedios and P o r t B u c a r e l l i . The e x p e d i t i o n was t o go n o r t h t o Mount S t . E l i a s , (the 60 t h . p a r a l l e l ) , but need n o t make a f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound and Cook's R i v e r . I n s t e a d a c o u r s e was t o be shaped f o r t h e Shumagen I s l a n d s and t h e A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , c o n t i n u i n g t o A v a t c h a i n Kamchatka f o r p r o v i s i o n s , and from t h e n c e t o t h e K u r i l e I s l a n d s and Japan. L a Perpuse had, a t t h e same t i m e , a u t h o r i t y t o make any changes he tho u g h t n e c e s s a r y i n t h e p l a n s . M i n u t e d a t a was r e q u i r e d on t h e f u r t r a d e - i n what l a t i t u d e f u r s might be p r o c u r e d - t h e q u a l i t y , the a r t i c l e s most d e s i r e d i n t r a d e , and what s k i n s "have most easy, c e r t a i n and l u c r a t i v e s a l e i n t h e two E m p i r e s o f C h i n a and Japan." A specimen cargo o f sea o t t e r s k i n s was t o be c o l l e c t e d and s o l d i n C h i n a f o r e a s t e r n m e r c h a n d i s e . The e x p e d i t i o n was c l o s e l y m o d e l l e d on t h a t o f C a p t a i n Cook, and c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t was a r o u s e d i n E n g l a n d . S i r (1) J . F. G. de L a P e r o u s e , "A Voyage Round t h e World", I 74. (2) I b i d , " i , &9. Page 67. Joseph Banks, h e a r i n g t h a t d i f f i c u l t y had been e x p e r i e n c e d i n o b t a i n i n g a d i p p i n g compass, l e n t L a Perouse t h e o r i g i n a l one u s e d by C a p t a i n C o o k . ( l ) The s h i p s c a r r i e d a l a r g e l i b r a r y o f a l l v a r i e t y o f s c i e n t i f i c books, among them "Cook's Voyages" i n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h , "Hawksworth 1s C o l l e c t i o n " , D a l r y m p l e 1 s " H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n o f Voyages", Coxe's " H u s s i a n D i s c o v e r i e s " , and M u l l e r "Voyage o f t h e R u s s i a n s " . The o t h e r t e x t s r e f e r r e d to such s u b j e c t s as astronomy, n a v i g a t i o n , n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . The s c i e n t i s t s hoped to make advances i n p h y s i c s , z o o l o g y , m i n e r o l o g y , anatomy, p h y s i o l o g y , botany and a n a l y s i s o f a t m o s p h e r i c a i r . Merchandise v a l u e d at. 58,365 l i v r e s (2) was t a k e n on t h e voyage f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r e s e n t s and b a r t e r . The c h i e f items werer b a r and p l a t e i r o n , s h eet copper, t o o l s , (hammers, wedges, saws, e t c . ) , e i g h t e e n hundred d r i n k i n g g l a s s e s w i t h f e e t , o n l y s i x hundred m i r r o r s , combs, n e e d l e s , p i n s , d i s h e s and p e w t e r ware, c o l o u r e d f e a t h e r s , j e w e l r y , t i n s e l s , s i l k r i b b o n s , and c l o t h ( s e r g e s , k n i t t i n g s and f l a n n e l s ) . B e s i d e s t h e s e L a P e r o u s e c a r r i e d d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s , and t h e seeds o f most common f r u i t t r e e s , v e g e t a b l e s and h e r b s . Mureau c r i t i c i z e d t h e a t t e m p t , q u e s t i o n i n g t h e use o f s u p p l y i n g n a t i v e s w i t h a r t i c l e s w h i c h t h e y knew n e i t h e r how t o a p p l y , p r e s e r v e , not? p e r p e t u a t e , and c o n s i d e r e d i t . more p r a c t i c a l t o t r y and make an o r d e r l y c o l o n y b e f o r e a p o l i s h e d p e o p l e . "Can t h e b e n e f i t d e r i v e d from a new f a r i n a c e o u s p l a n t o r a new r r u i t , o r even t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s , be compared to the sum o f e v i l w h i c h t h e s e p e o p l e w i l l f i n d t o r e s u l t from t h e a d o p t i o n o f European customs and manners? (1) J . F. G. de L a Perouse, "A Voyage Round t h e World", I , 449. (2) I b i d , I , 319. /SO /40 /30 <oO SO 4-0 CHART OF THE NORTH WEST COAST O r AMERICA, AGREEABLY TO THE DISCOVER I ES OF L.A PEROUSSE IN THE YEARS/78 G AND 1787 Page 68. — • a t p r e s e n t i t can n o t . " (1) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a s a contem- p o r a r y o p i n i o n , b e i n g made a few y e a r s a f t e r t h e l o s s o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n . L a Perouse s a i l e d from B r e s t on t h e i i r s t o f .august, 1785, a f t e r e v e r y p r e c a u t i o n had been t a k e n t o p r e s e r v e the h e a l t h o f t h e crews, The s h i p s c a r r i e d l a r g e s t o c k s o f p r e - v e n t a t i v e s and a n t i s c o r b u t i c s , f r e s h p r o v i s i o n s were t a k e n a t e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y , and s c r u p u l o u s c l e a n l i n e s s was o b s e r v e d on b o a r d . Gape Horn was rounded w i t h o u t mishap, and t h e s h i p s l e f t t h e H a w a i i a n I s l a n d s , June 1, 1786, f o r the n o r t h west c o a s t , h a v i n g o b t a i n e d a t h r e e week s u p p l y o f f o o d . L a Perouse r e v e r s e d h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , and i n s t e a d o f r e a c h i n g t h e shore i n t h e t h i r t y s i x t h p a r a l l e l , k e p t out t o sea, and f i r s t made l a n d i n t h e s i x t i e t h p a r a l l e l . T h i c k and c o n t i n u o u s f o g s were en c o u n t e r e d by the 9 t h . o f June, about 34° n o r t h , and L a Perouse became a n x i o u s about s c u r v y . B v e r y e f f o r t was made t o keep t h e men warm and d r y , e x t r a c l o t h e s were g i v e n o u t , b o o t s and f l a n n e l underwear, w h i l e s t o v e s f i l l e d w i t h b u r n i n g c o a l s were p l a c e d u n d e r t h e h a l f deck and between t h e decks, wherever the p e o p l e s l e p t . The measures proved v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , and not a s i n g l e case o c c u r r e d . The s h i p s were unique i n one r e s p e c t - t h e y ground a l l t h e i r own f l o u r w i t h a m i l l s e t up on b o a r d . The p u r s e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t k i l n d r i e d c o r n k e p t much b e t t e r t h a n f l o u r o r b i s c u i t , and hence s e n t a b o a r d a n immense q u a n t i t y o f i t , w i t h two m i l l s t o n e s , t w e n t y f o u r i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r and f o u r and a h a l f i n c h e s t h i c k . I t r e q u i r e d f o u r men to put and keep them (1) L a P e r o u s e , "Voyage Round th© World, I , 446. Page 69. i n m o t i o n , but L a Perouse had been a s s u r e d t h e i r s i z e was f u l l y adequate f o r a s h i p ' s company such as h i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y when t h e m i l l was s e t up the b a k e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t - i n g g r a i n was o n l y broken, not ground, and t h a t a mere twenty f i v e pounds o f bad f l o u r r e s u l t e d from t h e whole day's l a b o u r o f f o u r men, r e l i e v e d e v e r y h a l f h our. The s i t u a t i o n was s e r i o u s , as c o r n formed n e a r l y h a l f the s t o r e o f p r o v i s i o n s . The i n v e n t i v e g e n i u s o f de L a n g l e came to t h e r e s c u e , and a s s i s t e d by one o f t h e crew, an o x - m i l l e r ' s boy, he managed t o adapt t h e movements o f a w i n d m i l l t o t h e m i l l s t o n e s . Now o p e r a t e d by t h e s i m p l e t u r n i n g o f a h a n d l e , i t p r o v e d so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t two hundred pounds o f e x c e l l e n t f l o u r were ground d a i l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y L a Perouse does n o t g i v e h i s o p i n i o n o f the e xperiment, whether o r not he c o n s i d e r e d i t p r e f e r a b l e t o c a r r y i n g t h e u s u a l s u p p l i e s o f f l o u r and b i s c u i t - d o u b t l e s s due t o t h e u n t i m e l y e n d i n g o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n . The s h i p s r a n n o r t h u n t i l t h e y were i n s i g h t o f Mount S t . E l i a s , i n l a t i t u d e 59"41'. Then, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e l o n g boat was s e n t a s h o r e t o r e c o n n o i t r e , and named t h e cove i t v i s i t e d a f t e r t h e commanding o f f i c e r , de Monts Bay. S a i l i n g a l i t t l e , s o u t h , f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s were made i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f B e h r i n g Bay, a l t h o u g h i t s a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n c o u l d n o t be l o c a t e d , and L a P erouse c o n c l u d e d t h a t C a p t a i n Cook must have been d e c e i v e d by t h e appearance o f t h a s h o r e . Mount P a i r w e a t h e r was s i g h t e d o n t h e 2nd. o f J u l y , more t o t h e s o u t h , and t h e same day a new p o r t was d i s c o v e r e d i n l a t i t u d e 58 3' n o r t h , l o n g i t u d e 139" 50' west o f P a r i s , c h r i s t e n e d " P o r t des Page 70 P f a n c a i s . " " T h i s p o r t has n e v e r been d i s c o v e r e d by any o t h e r n a v i g a t o r : I t i s s i t u a t e d t h i r t y t h r e e l e a g u e s t o t h e n o r t h west o f t h a t o f L o s Remedios, t h e extreme boundary o f S p a n i s h n a v i g a t o r s , about two hundred and t w e n t y f o u r l e a g u e s from Mootka, and a hundred from P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound. I had thought t h a t i f t h e F r e n c h Government had e n t e r t a i n e d i d e a s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g f a c t o r i e s i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e A m e r i c a n c o a s t , no o t h e r c o u l d p r e t e n d t o t h e s m a l l e s t r i g h t o f o p p o s i n g the p r o j e c t . " (1) I n t h e c o l d l i g h t o f r e a s o n , however, L a Perouse d i d not f a v o u r the f o u n d i n g o f such a p o s t . He saw too many s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s i n t h e way, and he o u t l i n e d t h e s e i n h i s memoir on t h e f u r t r a d e . There was the immense d i s t a n c e from Europe, th e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e commercial r e t u r n s from C h i n a , and t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f S p a n i s h , R u s s i a n s and E n g l i s h on t h e c o a s t . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h e F r e n c h E a s t I n d i a Company would o b j e c t t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f i t s p r i v i l e g e s o f t r a d i n g w i t h the Chinese markets, t o t h e s e a d v e n t u r e r s , "The expenses o f t h e equipment w o u l d a l s o be so c o n s i d e r a b l e t h a t t h e mere s a l e o f f u r s would n o t be s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d e m n i f y a company l i k e t h a t o f Hudson's Bay, i f t h e i r s h i p s were o b l i g e d , t o r e t u r n t o Europe i n b a l l a s t . I t would be a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be f r e i g h t e d back by t h e F r e n c h E a s t I n d i a Company a t a p r i c e o f tonnage agreed upon i n Europe, as w e l l as a l l o w them i n t e r e s t f o r t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r f u r s , and to make use o f them i n the p u r c h a s e o f i t s c a r g o e s . " (2) L a P erouse d i d not c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t s w a r r a n t e d th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f such a company, o r t h a t i f formed i t c o u l d e v e r come t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement (1) L a Perouse, "Voyage Bound t h e World", I I , 85. (2) I b i d , I I I , 311, "Memoir on the F u r T r a d e . " Page 71. w i t h t h e F r e n c h B a s t I n d i a Company. On t h e whole he viewed the m a t t e r much more from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f a l a r g e o r g a n i z e d company - p o s s i b l y w i t h government b a c k i n g , t h a n as a s p e c u l a t - i v e f i e l d f o r s m a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , and hence not encourag- i n g . There were a l s o d i p l o m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o sway h i s judgment. S p a i n would u n d o u b t e d l y v i e w as u s u r p a t i o n any a t t e mpt o f F r ance t o e s t a b l i s h a f a c t o r y on t h e n o r t h west c o a s t , and L a Perouse thought i t f o o l i s h t o endanger European r e l a t i o n s and F r a n c e ' s S p a n i s h a l l i a n c e f o r so s m a l l a m a t t e r . I f t h e F r e n c h Government d e c i d e d t o e n t e r the. sea o t t e r t r a d e d e s p i t e t h e s e d e t e r e n t s , L a Perouse s u g g e s t e f i t h a t i t would be w i s e not to g r a n t t h e t r a d e to one e x c l u s i v e company, but s u g g e s t s a l l o w i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e to some commercial town o f s e n d i n g t h r e e e x p e d i t i o n s o f two. s h i p s a n n u a l l y . At P o r t des F r a n c a i s and f i f t y l e a g u e s a l o n g the shore L a Perouse e s t i m a t e d t e n thousand sea o t t e r might be c o l l e c t e d a n n u a l l y . The I n d i a n s o f P o r t des F r a n c a i s appeared a l m o s t a t once, and made s i g n s o f f r i e n d s h i p by waving and hanging up w h i t e c l o a k s and d i f f e r e n t s k i n s . The n a t i v e s d e s i r e d i r o n above e v e r y t h i n g , and would t a k e beads o n l y as a measure t o c o n c l u d e a b a r g a i n , never as t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i s . The F r e n c h t r a d e d i r o n f o r f i s h , sea o t t e r s k i n s , and s m a l l a r t i c l e s o f n a t i v e d r e s s . The I n d i a n s s u r p r i s e d them by t h e i r a c u t e b a r g a i n i n g , and a b i l i t y t o make an exchange i n t h e i r own f a v o u r - t h e y were f i n a l l y persuaded t o a c c e p t p l a t e s and p e w t e r p o t s , but s t i l l chose i r o n i f t h e r e was an a l t e r n a t i v e . The I n d i a n c h i e f became a r e g u l a r n u i s a n c e , by c a l l i n g d a i l y a t t h e s h i p Page 7 a . and e x p e c t i n g a p r e s e n t t o be g i v e n him e v e r y few h o u r s . The F r e n c h made a temporary e s t a b l i s h m e n t on a n i s l a n d i n t h e bay o f P o r t des F r a n c a i s where t h e y s e t up a n o b s e r v a t o r y , and d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e i n sea o t t e r s k i n s f o r h a t c h e t s , k n i v e s , and b a r i r o n . The p i l f e r i n g of' the I n d i a n s caused L a Perouse s e r i o u s annoyance, but a l t h o u g h p u n i s h i n g the t h i e v e s when d e t e c t e d , he made no e f f o r t t o r e c l a i m t h e goods, " i n o r d e r t o a v o i d e v e r y q u a r r e l t h a t might be a t t e n d e d W i t h m e l a n c h o l y consequences." As a r e s u l t t h e d a r i n g and i n s o l e n c e o f the t h i e v i n g i n c r e a s e d , c u l m i n a t i n g i n an e p i s o d e w h i c h brought a s e r i o u s l o s s t o the F r e n c h . One n i g h t when t h e s c i e n t i s t s were s l e e p i n g by t h e o b s e r v a t o r y , the I n d i a n s " t r a v e r s e d a v e r y t h i c k wood, w h i c h was t o t a l l y i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e day, and g l i d e d upon t h e i r b e l l i e s l i k e a d d e r s , a l m o s t w i t h o u t s t i r r i n g a l e a f , t h e y c o n t r i v e d , i n s p i t e o f o u r s e n t i n a l s , t o c&.rrj o f f some o f o u r e f f e c t s . They had the a d d r e s s to i n t r o d u c e themselves i n t o t h e t e n t where M e s s r s . de L a u r i s t o n and Darpaud, who were th& g u a r d o f t h e o b s e r v a t o r y , s l e p t . They took away a musket, ornamented w i t h s i l v e r , as w e l l a s t h e c l o t h e s o f two o f f i c e r s , who by way o f p r e c a u t i o n had p l a c e d them u n d e r t h e i r b o l s t e r . They were u n p e r c e i v e d by a guard o f t w e l v e s o l d i e r s , and t h e y n e v e r once wakened t h e two o f f i c e r s . " (1) Among o t h e r t h i n g s l o s t was t h e o r i g i n a l memorandum book i n w h i c h a l l a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s had been made s i n c e t h e a r r i v a l a t P o r t des F r a n c a i s . A f t e r t h i s i n c i d - ent i t was judged i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e t h e camp any l o n g e r . P o r t des F r a n c a i s was e l a b o r a t e l y s u r v e y e d and mapped, (1) L a Perouse, "Voyage Round t h e World", I I , 92. Page 73. and w h i l e t h e e x p e d i t i o n was so engaged the I n d i a n c h i e f came aboard, and o f f e r e d t o s e l l t h e i s l a n d on w h i c h t h e o b s e r v a t - o r y had been s t a n d i n g . L a Perouse a c c e p t e d the o f f e r , and the purchase was completed for- s e v e r a l e l l s o f r e d c l o t h , h a t c h e t s , k n i v e s , b a r i r o n and n a i l s . Formal p o s s e s s i o n was t h e n t a k e n w i t h customary f o r m a l i t i e s , and a b o t t l e c o n t a i n i n g a s u i t a b l e i n s c r i p t i o n and a medal were b u r i e d a t t h e f o o t o f a r o c k . So f a r a l l had gone w e l l , and t h e F r e n c h were c o n s i d e r i n g them t h e most f o r t u n a t e o f n a v i g a t o r s " i n h a v i n g a r r i v e d so g r e a t a d i s t a n c e from Europe w i t h o u t a s i n g l e p e r s o n s i c k , o r one man o f t h e two s h i p s ' companies a f f e c t e d w i t h s c u r v y , " (1) when the v e n t u r e was marred by a t r a g i c i n c i d e n t . The p i n n a c e s o f b o t h t h e " A s t r o l a b e " and " B o u s s o l e " were wrecked w h i l e a t t e m p t - i n g a l a n d i n g a t a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e bay, and f o u r t e e n p e r s o n s were drowned. L a P e r o u s e p r o l o n g e d t h e s t a y a t P o r t des F r a n c a i s o v e r two weeks i n the hopes o f o b t a i n i n g a t l e a s t t h e i r b o d i e s , but w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s , and t h e e n f o r c e d w a i t n e c e s s i t a t e d a change o f p l a n s . U n l e s s he c o u l d r e a c h Monteray between t h e 16-15 o f September, and make t h e t r a d e winds, i t meant t h a t a y e a r must be l o s t b e f o r e he c o u l d p r o c e e d t o C h i n a and t h e r e c o n n o i t r i n g o f t h e Japanese and Kamschatka c o a s t s . I f t h i s was t o be a v o i d e d , t h e r e was o n l y £ime t o r u n s t r a i g h t down t h e A m e r i c a n c o a s t , d e t e r m i n i n g i t s d i r e c t i o n , but making no attempt t o l a n d , and h e a d i n g s t r a i g h t f o r Monteray. L a Perouse p l a n n e d t o s e l l t h e s k i n s o b t a i n e d i n C h i n a f o r t h e s o l e b e n e f i t o f t h e s a i l o r s . The p e l t s were m o s t l y sea o t t e r , but had some v a r i a t i o n s , as P o r t des F r a n c a i s (1) L a Pero u s e , "Voyage Round t h e World", V, 97. Page 74. abounded i n f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s , marten, g r e y s q u i r r e l , brown and b l a c k bear, C a n a d i a n l y n x , ermine, beaver, C a n a d i a n marmot, and r e d f o x . The I n d i a n s o f f e r e d most v a r i e t i e s f o r t r a d e , but o n l y i n h a b i t e d P o r t des F r a n c a i s a t t h e f a v o u r a b l e season, and ne v e r spent a w i n t e r t h e r e . On t h e whole L a Perouse c o n s i d e r e d them "as rude and b a r b a r o u s a s t h e i r s o i l i s r o c k y and b a r r e n . " P r o g r e s s down t h e c o a s t was s l o w owing t o bad f o g s , making e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e neig h b o u r h o o d o f 55', where Cook had been d r i v e n o f f shore by storm, q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e . By t h e 2 5 t h . o f August t h e s h i p s were o f f Nootka Sound, b u t e n c o u n t e r e d more f o g banks, and d i d n o t r e a c h Monteray u n t i l t h e 1 2 t h . o f September. They were p i l o t e d i n w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Don E s t i v a n M a r t i n e z , whose s h i p s l a y i n t h e h a r b o u r , and who had been i n f o r m e d b o t h by t h e v i c e r o y o f Mexico and t h e Governor o f t h e P r e s i d e n c y o f t h e F r e n c h ^ p r o b a b l e a r r i v a l . L a P e r o u s e ' s comments on t h e n o r t h west c o a s t l i n e a r e vague and h u r r i e d , but h i s map i s s u r p r i s i n g l y a c c u r a t e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m e a t h i s d i s p o s a l . The S p a n i a r d s , b o t h G o v e r n o r and p r i e s t s , made t h e F r e n c h v e r y welcome, and showed them g r e a t h o s p i t a l i t y . L a Perouse made a n i n t e r e s t i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e d u r i n g h i a s t a y a t Monteray - t h e S p a n i s h commissary M. "Vincent Vassadre y Vega, who had brought o r d e r s t o t h e Go v e r n o r t o c o l l e c t a l l t h e sea o t t e r s k i n s o f h i s t e n m i s s i o n s and f o u r p r e s i d e n c i e s , as t h e government had r e s e r v e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s i t s e x c l u s i v e t r a d e . Vega was "a young man o f g r e a t m e r i t and g e n i u s " , t h e n l e a v i n g by one o f t h e Monteray s h i p s f o r Canton, to c o n c l u d e a commercial Page 75 t r e a t y r e l a t i v e t o sea o t t e r s k i n s . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t about two t h o u s a n d were a n n u a l l y g a t h e r e d , w h i c h t h e S p a n i a r d s t h o u g h t c o u l d e a s i l y he i n c r e a s e d t o t h r e e t h o u s a n d when t h e C h i n e s e markets r e q u i r e d L a Perouse b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was o n l y s i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f C o o k I s "Voyages" t h a t t h e Span- i a r d s had r e a l i z e d t h e v a l u e o f sea o t t e r s k i n s as a r t i c l e s o f commerce. T h i s was not t h e c a s e , however, f o r D a l r y m p l e mentions t h a t t r a d e had been opened as e a r l y a s 1777, two hund- r e d b e i n g s e n t to C h i n a i n t h a t y e a r . The s k i n s were sen t t o Lima, and brought from P e r u to M a n i l a , t r a d e no l o n g e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h A c a p u l c o . (1) K i n g ' s r e p o r t may nave i n c r e a s e d the t r a d e , but i t was by no means r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s b e g i n n i n g . The S p a n i s h e x p l o r e r s wanted t h e l a n d , and aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g "New S p a i n " by c o l o n i z a t i o n and C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n . The f u r t r a d e had n e v e r f u r n i s h e d a n i n c e n t i v e f o r e x p l o r a t i o n , and even i n t h e i r l a t e r s e t t l e m e n t s a t Nootka, no e f f o r t was made t o c o l l e c t t h e sea o t t e r s . The s k i n s w h i c h came t o hand a t Monteray, m o s t l y c o l l e c t e d by t h e p r i e s t s , were s e n t t o C h i n a , b u t t h a t was t h e e x t e n t o f S p a n i s h e n t e r p r i s e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t between 1785 - 1795 i t was o n l y the- odd t r a d e r who mentioned t h e e x i s t e n c e o f S p a n i s h f u r s i n C h i n a - i n somewhat d i s p a r a g - i n g t o n e s - w h i l e none r e c o r d e d m e e t i n g a S p a n i s h s h i p i n t h e w a t e r s o f t h e O r i e n t . The F r e n c h c o n s i d e r e d t h e s k i n s o f Monteray and t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s a l i t t l e i n f e r i o r t o t h o s e o f t h e n o r t h . y L a Perouse l e f t M o n t e r e y on t h e 2 4 t h . o f September, and r eached Macao i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a n u a r y 1788, where he (1) A l e x a n d e r D a l r y m p l e , " P l a n f o r P r o m o t i n g t h e F u r Trade',', Page 27. Page 76. was r e c e i v e d w i t h much c o u r t e s y by t h e P o r t u g e s e g o v e r n o r , and p e r m i t t e d t o a n c h o r i n t h e Typha. He e x p e r i e n c e d a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l l i n g t h e p e l t s , w h i c h numbered s i x hundred, as t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e P o r t u g e s e had f i r s t t o be o b t a i n e d . Tne f u r s r e a l i z e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount, w h i c h D i x o n quotes as t e n t h o u sand d o l l a r s , (1)) a l t h o u g h Harchand adds a n e x t r a f o u r hundred. (2) T h i s sum was d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e s o l d i e r s and s a i l o r s o f t h e f r i g a t e s w i t h o u t t h e o f f i c e r s s h a r i i i g i n any manner w h a t s o e v e r . The s h i p s next v i s i t e d M a n i l l a , and went from t h e r e to t h e E a s t e r n c o a s t o f T ^ r t a r y and Kamschatka. While i n Kamschatka, L a P erouse v i s i t e d t h e g r a v e o f C a p t a i n G i e r k e , t h e companion o f C a p t a i n Cook, and l e f t a n i n s c r i p t i o n i n c o p p e r . L a P e r o u s e was c u t s h o r t i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s , and nence o n l y an u n f i n i s n e d j o u r n a l and some h u r r i e d r e p o r t s s u r v i v e d . Much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n was l o s t t o t h e w o r l d when t h e e x p e d i t i o n met i t s u n t i m e l y end on t h e r e e f o f M a n n i c o l o I s l a n d e a r l y i n 1788. C a p t a i n James Hanna came i n t h e wake o f S t r a n g e and L a P e r o u s e , a r r i v i n g a few weeks l a t e r i n August, 1786, on h i s second t r i p . The s h i p t h i s t i m e was a hundred and t w e n t y t o n snow, a l s o c a l l e d t h e "Sea O t t e r " , but c a r r y i n g o n l y a crew o f t h i r t y , t h e same s i z e as nad f o r m e r l y been r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s m a l l e r v e s s e l . The u n d e r t a k i n g was a s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l f a i l - u r e , f o r f u r s u p p l i e s were t e m p o r a r i l y e xhausted, and o n l y a hundred s k i n s and t h r e e hundred p i e c e s were c o l l e c t e d , r e a l i z - i n g e i g h t thousand d o l l a r s . . I t was a chance e v e r y t r a d e r had to t a k e - b e i n g f o r e s t a l l e d by a r i v a l and f i n d i n g n o t h i n g s (1) D i x o n , "Voyage Hound t h e World", Appendix, Page '618. (2) Marchand, "A Voyage Hound the World", Page U L X I I I - . g i v e s the f i g u r e as L2083. CHftflT OF PRRT Of THE NOOTH Vriesr ^OftST flheft^ft CBfiTt»r> ? R n e & HftWMFv >* snova "seft-OTTeR" n&t> Page 77 but t n e p i c k i n g s l e f t - w i t h consequent d i s a s t e r f o r h i s v e n t - u r e . Hanna was f o r c e d hy s c u r v y t o spend two weeks a t Nootka, where he met Mackay, and o f f e r e d him a passage home - w h i c h was r e f u s e d . A f t e r w a r d s he t r a c e d t h e c o a s t l i n e n o r t h t o 53* , hut w i t h s m a l l r e t u r n s , Hanna named sounds, i s l a n d s and hays as he went, c h i e f o f w h i c h were Cox's I s l a n d , Cape Cox, Lance's I s l a n d s , Lane's Bay, F i t z h u g h Sound and S m i t h I n l e t . H i s c h a r t i s crude and i n c o r r e c t , hut i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n one r e s p e c t . "Lane's Bay" was a d m i t t e d l y named a f t e r Henry Lane, E s q u i r e , o f Canton. (1) John Henry Cox and W i l l i a m P i t z h u g h were o u t s t a n d i n g merchants and f i n a n c i a l men o f the same c e n t r e , and t h e y were a l l members o f t h e company w h i c h put up t h e money f o r Meares' e n t e r p r i s e s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f Cox's name t w i c e on t h e c h a r t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r by h i s prom- i n e n c e . There i s no known case i n t h s whole m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e where a m a s t e r was a l s o s o l e owner. The m a s t e r was f r e q u e n t l y m e r e l y t h e master, o c c a s i o n a l l y he was a l s o a p a r t owner, but he n e v e r made t r i p s w h o l e l y i n h i s omi i n t e r e s t . Hence i t i s p r o b a b l e from t h e naming o f t h e most prominent p o i n t s i n h i s c h a r t - i f Hanna resem b l e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s at a l l - t h a t i t was Cox, Lane and P i t z h u g h who were h i s f i n a n c i a l b a c k e r s . Hanna l e f t t h e c o a s t on t h e f i r s t o f O c t o b e r 1786, and r e a c h e d Macao on t h e e i g h t h o f t h e f o l l o w - i n g F e b r u a r y , where undaunted by the f a i l u r e o f t h e second voyage, he began to make arrangements f o r a t h i r d . The f u r (1) H. H. B a n c r o f t , " H i s t o r y o f t h e Northwest C o a s t s , v o l . X X V I I , A. L. B a n c r o f t and Co., San F r a n c i s c o , 1884. Page 174. (2) L e t t e r r e c e i v e d f rom Judge F. W. Howay, New Westminster, B. C , January 18, 1934. Page 78. s a l e was completed on March 17, 1787, and showed a drop i n p r i c e o v e r t h e y e a r b e f o r e - whi c h was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g a s an e x t r a t w e l v e hundred s k i n s had been thrown on the market by S t r a n g e and L a P e r o u s e . 100 sea o t t e r s k i n s f 50 300 p i e c e s | 10 $ 8,000 The t h i r d voyage was n e v e r made, f o r Hanna d i e d s u d d e n l y and v e r y u n e x p e c t e d l y , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s . The " L a r k " , a B r i t i s h snow o f B e n g a l , l e f t Macao f o r the n o r t h west c o a s t i n J u l y 1786 und e r C a p t a i n P e t e r s . She was two hund red and t w e l v e t o n s b u r t h e n , w i t h a crew o f s e v e n t y . The B a s t I n d i a Compnay had t h e monopoly o f t r a d e i n Ch i n a , and hence as t h e " L a r k " , an E n g l i s h s h i p , was f i r s t t o c a l l a t Kamchatka t o ar r a n g e t r a d e between the two l a n d s , i t f o l l o w s she must have b e l o n g e d t o the E a s t I n d i a Company. (1) The r e c o r d s o f t h e v e s s e l a r e meagre i n t h e extreme. There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t P e t e r s was a n y t h i n g but an o r d i n a r y employ- ee o f t h e Company, m e r e l y the m a s t e r o f t h e v e s s e l . W h i l e a Yankee shipowner might be g l a d t o have h i s c a p t a i n i n t e r e s t e d w i t h him i n the v e n t u r e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a r i c h c o n c e r n l i k e t he B a s t I n d i a Compnay wo u l d be t a n g l e d up i n p a r t n e r s h i p o r co-ownership w i t h i t s s e r v a n t . The e x p e d i t i o n had a f a t a l e n d i n g , f o r t h e " L a r k " was wrecked on Copper I s l a n d , and o n l y two o f the crew s u r v i v e d . These were a Po r t u g u e s e and a B e l g i a n negro, who were o b l i g e d t o w i n t e r on Copper I s l a n d , b e f o r e b e i n g u l t i m a t e l y r e s c u e d by a R u s s i a n v e s s e l w h i c h t o o k (1) P.W.Howay, " T r a d i n g V e s s e l s i n the M a r i t i m e P u r Trade", P r o c e e d i n g s . o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, Ottawa, 1930. Page 114. L e t t e r from Judge P.W.Howay, New Wes t m i n s t e r , B.C., J a n u a r y 18, 1934. Page 79. them t o N i j e n a i , Kamchatka. (1) C a p t a i n C h a r l e s B a r k l e y a r r i v e d i n 1787, Tooth th e f i r s t E n g l i s h m a n t o come d i r e c t l y from Europe, and t h e f i r s t to f l y f a l s e c o l o u r s t o a v o i d p r o c u r i n g a l i c e n s e from th e E a s t I n d i a Company. H i s s h i p , t h e "Loudoun" - f o u r hundred t o n s , s h i p r i g g e d , and mounting twenty guns - s a i l e d from Ostend as t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " u n d e r t h e A u s t r i a n f l a g . Ostend was a t t h i s t i me p a r t o f t h e A u s t r i a n N e t h e r l a n d s , and r e m a i n - ed so u n t i l t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . The camouflage was p u r e l y n o m i n a l , as t h e s h i p ' s l o g was s t i l l k e p t i n t h e name o f t h e "Loudoun" (2)) The v e s s e l was a f o r m e r E a s t Indiaman, and B a r k l e y h i m s e l f had been brought up i n t h e s e a - s e r v i c e o f the E a s t I n d i a Company. The e n t e r p r i s e was p a r t l y h i s own, f o r he had i n v e s t e d t h r e e thousand pounds i n i t . A t t h e time o f s a i l i n g B a r k l e y was o n l y t wenty f i v e , and had j u s t m a r r i e d M i s s P r a n c e s Hornby T r e v o r , a g i r l o f seventeen, who accompan- i e d him on t h e voyage, and was the f i r s t w h i t e woman t o v i s i t t h e n o r t h ?/est c o a s t . She de s c r i b e s ^ e r husband a s "a man o f exuberant s p i r i t s and f o n d o f company and show when on s h o r e , but a g r e a t m a r t i n e t on b o a r d , " (3) The j o u r n e y round Cape Horn was a v e r y h a r d one, and t e r r i b l e storms made p r o g r e s s s l o w . C a p t a i n B a r k l e y t o o k r h u m a t i c f e v e r and h i s c o n d i t i o n became so c r i t i c a l t h a t f o r s e v e r a l weeks i t was f e a r e d he might n o t r e c o v e r , a s s k i l l e d (1) Marchand, "A Voyage Round t h e World", Page LXXXIV. (2) C h a r l e s B a r k l e y , "Log o f t h e Loudoun" ( " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " ) . O r i g i n a l i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o lumbia. (3) P r ances B a r k l e y , " D i a r y " , T r a n s c r i p t i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Page 2. Page 80. m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d . M r s . B a r k l e y got l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e , even from t h e f i r s t and second o f f i c e r s - Henry P o l g e r and W i l l i a m M i l l e r , who t o o k t h e C a p t a i n ' s c o n d i t i o n v e r y c a l m l y , and p r e s s e d h e r i n s t e a d w i t h t h e i r amorous a t t e n t i o n s . She blamed Mr. M i l l e r most h e a v i l y , , s i n c e he was a f o r m e r l i e u t e n a n t o f t h e B r i t i s h . N a v y , and hence "Should have had more honour." B e i n g b l e s s e d w i t h a s t r o n g c o n s t i t u t i o n , B a r k l e y r e c o v e r e d , and shaped t h e s h i p ' s c o u r s e f o r B r a z i l , where he c o u l d r e g a i n h i s h e a l t h and o b t a i n more p r o v i s i o n s . At f i r s t t h e P o r t u g e s e governor was not a t a l l f r i e n d l y , b e i n g s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e w a r l i k e appearance o f t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " and h e r t wenty guns, but more f r i e n d l y r e l - a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d l a t e r , and c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l i n t e r - c o u r s e t o o k p l a c e . The B a r k l e y s l i v e d on shore f o r a few days, and M r s . B a r k l e y was chaperoned t o t h e o f f i c i a l r e c e p t - i o n by Mr. M i l l e r , who " c u t q u i t e a dash, w i t h his. sword by h i s s i d e , and h i s n a v a l u n i f o r m . " I n r e t u r n C a p t a i n B a r k l e y gave a v e r y p i c t u r e s q u e f e t e on b o a r d s h i p , d r e s s i n g h e r w i t h t h e f l a g s o f a l l n a t i o n s , and when t h e v i s i t o r s a r r i v e d , he manned t h e y a r d s and f i r e d s a l u t e s . At t h e Sandwich I s l a n d s Mrs. B a r k l e y engaged a maid, "Winnee", who accompanied h e r t o the n o r t h west c o a s t , and was the f i r s t r e p u t e d H a w a i i a n woman t o do s o . Winnee became v e r y a t t a c h e d t o h e r m i s t r e s s , and l a t e r went w i t h h e r to C h i n a . The " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " a r r i v e d a t Nootka i n June 1787, and o b t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f sea o t t e r s k i n s t h r o u g h Mackay's a s s i s t a n c e , i n r e t u r n f o r w h i c h B a r k l e y o f f e r e d him a passage Page 81. t o C h i n a . Mackay waa q u i t e r e a d y to l e a v e t h e Sound, f o r h i s p o s i t i o n had n o t l a t e l y been one o f p r e s t i g e . As soon as C a p t a i n Hanna l e f t t h e n a t i v e s had s t r i p p e d him o f h i s c l o t h e s and f o r c e d him t o conform t o " t h e i r mode of* d r e s s and f i l t h - i n e s s o f manners." As i t chanced, Mackay p r o v e d q u i t e a d a p t - a b l e , and soon earned th e r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g t h e s l o v e n l i e s t and f i l t h i e s t o f them a l l . I n o t h e r ways he made good use o f h i s t i me among t h e I n d i a n s , m a s t e r e d t h e i r l a nguage, c o l l e c t e d f u r s , and d i d s u f f i c i e n t e x p l o r i n g t o c o n v i n c e h i m s e l f t h a t Nootka Sound was n o t p a r t o f the c o n t i n e n t , b u t b e l o n g e d t o a c h a i n o f d e t a c h e d i s l a n d s . A t t h e t i m e o f B a r k l e y " s a r r i v a l , however, i t appeared t h a t he had had enough, and, e a g e r l y a c c e p t i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f escape, was h e a r d o f no more i n c o a s t h i s t o r y . Prom Nootka t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " moved, g r a d u a l l y s o u t h from bay t o bay, t r a d i n g as she went, and B a r k l e y Sound, Cape B e a l e , P r ances and Hornby Peaks r e c e i v e d t h e i r names. B a r k l e y " s m a j o r d i s c o v e r y was the l o s t S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, w h i c h he named a f t e r the m y t h i c a l v o y a g e r . S i n c e t h e e x p e d i t - i o n was a p u r e l y m e r c a n t i l e one, any g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s he made had t o be s u p p r e s s e d , and hence the d i s c o v e r y o f the S t r a i t was n o t r e c o r d e d i n t h e l o g o f the s h i p . Meares l a t e r o b t a i n e d B a r k l e y ' s c h a r t s , and t r i e d t o c l a i m t h e c r e d i t f o r h i s d i s c o v e r y . The voyage was marred bgt one unhappy i n c i d e n t , s h o r t l y a f t e r e n t e r i n g t h e S t r a i t o f Juan de Puca, when a b o a t ' s crew u n d e r Mr. M i l l e r were k i l l e d by the n a t i v e s , n e a r M a r t y r ' s P o i n t , where a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t had f o r m e r l y b e f a l l e n Bodega Y Quadra. No f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s were made, and Page 82. C a p t a i n B a r k l e y s a i l e d f o r Macao w i t h h i s cargo o f e i g h t hundred sea o t t e r s k i n s , w h i c h r e a l i z e d t h i r t y thousand d o l l a r s , t h e l a r g e s t r e t u r n s y e t r e c e i v e d from a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e . A f t e r t h i s B a r k l e y had p l a n n e d t o go t o E n g l a n d hy a n o t h e r - s h i p , hut u n e x p e c t e d t r o u b l e s a r o s e w i t h t h e owners o f t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " . The l a t t e r were s u p e r cargoes i n C h i n a i n t h e s e r v i c e s o f the E a s t I n d i a Company, and s e v e r a l o f them were d i r e c t o r s i n E n g l a n d . On t h e s h i p ' s a r r i v a l i n C h i n a "the owners t h e r e found t h e y were not w a r r a n t e d i n t r a d i n g to C h i n a b e i n g w e l l known and f o r what purpose, so t h e y found t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h f e a r o f l o s i n g t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s o b l i g - . ed t o s e l l t h e s h i p and t o a v o i d worse consequences." (1) I t was q u i t e pe.rmissable f o r Meares t o e x p l o r e and t r a d e , because h i s was a " c o u n t r y s h i p namely a t r a d i n g s h i p from p o r t t o poact i n t h e I n d i a n s e a s . The company's s e r v a n t s c o u l d have p r o p e r t y i n h e r , but t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " was a o t u a l l y a s h i p by w h i c h t h e Company's c h a r t e r was not a l l o w e d t o go from C h i n a t o Eurd>pe." (2) The owners o f t h e s h i p i n s i s t e d t h a t she be s o l d , and r e f u s e d even to pay B a r k l e y h i s s a l a r y . B a r k l e y was o b l i g e d t o do so, and sued f o r damages, but was o n l y awarded the r e t u r n o f h i s i n v e s t e d money. Fu r t h e r m o r e , he was o b l i g e d under p e n a l t y o f a heavy f i n e , f i v e thousand pounds, to t u r n o v e r t o t h e Company a l l h i s p a p e r s , c h a r t s and j o u r n a l s t h a t t h e y might be w i t h h e l d from p u b l i c a t i o n f o r a c e r t a i n t i m e , as i t was t h o u g h t t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e f u r t r a d e t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s . Then i n s t e a d o f r e s t o r i n g t h e p a p e r s t o B a r k l e y , t h e owners (1) P r a n c e s B a r k l e y , " D i a r y " , T r a n s c r i p t , Page 6. (2) I b i d , Page 6. Page 83 o f t h e " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " gave them, o r more l i k e l y s o l d them, t o Meares and o t h e r s , who t r i e d t o c l a i m c r e d i t f o r B a r k l e y ' s d i s c o v e r i e s . C a p t a i n and Mrs. B a r k l e y soon r e t u r n e d t o England, hut a l t e r e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r c e d t h e l a t t e r t o d i s - pense w i t h Winnee's s e r v i c e s . Winnee was t e r r i b l y d i s t r e s s e d , and soon f e l l s e r i o u s l y i l l . I n 1788 C a p t a i n Meares p r o m i s e d t o t a k e h e r back t o t h e H a w i i a n I s l a n d s , b u t she d i e d on t h e . way and was b u r i e d at s e a . B a r k l e y d i d n o t attempt a n o t h e r voyage u n t i l 1791, when he v i s i t e d m a i n l y i n t h e w a t e r s o f A l a s k a . Page 84. Chapter IV. "THE BENGAL FUR COMPANY AID THE KING GEORGE'S SOUND COMPANY." (1786-1789) In January 1786, two ships flying the English flag wore outfitted at Caloutta by a set of gentlemen calling them- selves the Bengal far Society, (1) and placed in charge of Lieutenant John Meares, late of the Royal Navy. They were the "JSootJca" of two hundred tons, and the "Sea Otter" of one hun- dred, the latter under Lieutenant William Tipping R.N. The vessels did not sai l together, each having commissions to fu l - f i l before starting for the north west coast. The "Sea Otter" left in February laden with opium for Malacca, for which she received three thousand rupees, and then set her course for Prince William's Sound, the appointed meeting place. Tipping arrived f irst , hut found Strange already at anchor in the Sound, having taken the cream of a very poor trade. The account which Tipping gave Strange of the activities and plans of the expedition varied widely from that of Meares - and in this instance MeareSf; story is more probably correct* Tipping was doubtless trying to discourage Strange from v is i t - ing Nootka, i f he Had not already done so, by tel l ing him that Meares was already there. The "Sea Otter" oame to an untimely i . end, and St range's record of the meeting is the last news ever heard of that ship. Tipping weighed anchor early next morning, (1) Dixon, "Voyage Round the World", Page 318. Page 85. and setting out in the apparent direction of cook * s River, was heard of no more* The'^ootka" did not sa i l unti l the second of March 1786, after conveying the Paymaster general of the King's Forces and his suite to Madras, a trip which brought in another three thousand rupees. Meares carried provisions for eighteen months, and a orew of forty Europeans and ten laaoars. There was no carpenter on hoard - Meares said i t was impossible to obtain one - and the deficiency was felt at every part of the voyage. Throughout his career Meares* ships were character- ized by the severe outbrealcs of scurvy - pointing at negligence amounting to criminal carelessness on the part of the command- er. Since Cook's investigations great advances had been made in the use of preventatives and antisoorbutios, with which Meares, as a naval man must have been familiar. Yet after seven weeks, in which several ports had been visited where i t was possible to obtain fresh provisions, scurvy had already broken out on the "Nootka", and the boatswain was the f irst victim, "an irreparable loss". There would seem to be ample foundation for Dixon's later oharge that the supply of anti- scorbutics was inadequate - indeed, one might almost say i t was a chronic condition of his every undertaking. The "Nootka" touched at the Russian Islands and Onalaska on her way to Prince William's Sound, and anchored at Cape Douglas, near Cook's River. They traded with the Indians, and obtained a few sea otter furs, in the ratio of a pound of unwrought iron for a skin. In this vicinity a party of  Page 86 Russians passed the Englishmen, leaving Cook's River to winter at the Island of Kodiak. It was now so lat® i n the year that Meares determined to pass the winter months at Prince William's Sound, anchoring at Snug Corner Cove. The natives told them that a ship with two masts had left only a few days before, which Meares concluded must have been the "Sea Otter" leaving early, but i t is more probable that the description belonged to Strange's "Experiment". As usual, complaints were made of the pilfering of the natives, who even went to the extent of taking in their teeth a nail which stood out a l i t t l e way from the wood in either boat or ship, and pulling i t out. Meares finally taught them a lesson by firing cannons along the water, and this threatening demonstration had the desired effect. Trade was once more resumed on what the captain called "a moderate basis", and sixty fine sea otter skins were traded for a small quantity of large spike nails. An effort was then made to conciliate the chiefs by presenting them with strings of beads. Beads were very popular in the north, at Prince William's Sound, and Cook's River, but were hardly accepted at Nootka. Preparations for winter were at once begun on the "Nootka". Meares intended to cover the vessel with spars, and close i t in a l l round, but only "one half from aft, forward was completed when heavy fal ls of snow made i t impossible to get any more wood from the shore. In anticipation of native attack the ship was boarded and netted a l l round, ten feet Page 87. above the gunwhale, and could well hope to resist a sally, although the ice forming a l l round gave the Indians an advant- age. Fortunately, however, the situation did not arise. Fresh salmon and ducks were obtained up to the end of Ootober, but after that with the rapidly fall ing temperature the supply soon failed. Winter had come in earnest." "!Phe stupendous mountains which met our eye on every side, were now white with snow to the very edge of the water, while the natives had no other means of support but the whale fish and blubber which they had prepared for their winter provisions." (1) The snow was soon as deep on the ice as i t was on the shore, and dur- ing November and December the thermometer hovered between £0* - 28s F. The sun rose no higher than the sixth meridian, and at high noon gave only a faint glimmering light* The mountains "forbade almost a sight of the sky, and oast their nocturnal shadows over us in the midst of day, the land was impenetrable from the depth of snow, so that we were excluded from a l l hopes of any recreation, support, or comfort, except, what could be found in the ship and in ourselves." (2) Discomforts increased as the winter advanced and the decks proved incap- able of resisting the intense cold of January, despite the large fires which burned twenty out of twenty four hours, and the lower parts were an inch and a half thlok in hoar frost* A temporary stove was constructed out of one of the forges, in an effort to keep fires going day and night, until the sick complained that excessive smoke was the real cause of their i l lness. By the end of January there were four dead, with (1) John Meares, "Voyages", J . Walter, London, 1790. Page AVI. (2) Ibid, Page XVII. Page 88. twenty three others including the surgeon, confined to bed in a vary grave condition* The Indians blamed the scurvy on the absence of whale o i l and blubber in the traders* diet. In February the death to l l rose to eight, while the sick numbered thirty, and the crew gave up hope. The thermometer seemed pegged at 15" F. The surgeon and the pilot died, but hope r e v l vived a l i t t l e when a few of the more strong minded recovered through drinking pine juice - a remedy so nauseating that many preferred death. Only three men were able to tend the sick - Meares, the first officer, and a seaman, and their task was complicated by the great deficiency of provisions. Cordials, wine and sugar were exhausted, and there only remained biscuit, rice and a l i t t l e flour to prepare for the sufferers. Beef and pork the crew refused to eat, and finally the two remain- ing goats were ki l led to make broth. In a l l , twenty three died, and Meares gives a gruesome picture of their burials. » — Too often did I find myself called to assist in perform- ing the dreadful office of dragging the dead bodies across the ice to a shallow sepulchre which our own hands had hewn out for them on the shore. The sledge on which we fetched the (1) wood was their hearse, and the chasms in the ice their grave." The terrible winter dragged on, and not unti l May did the temperature begin to rise. The men revived a l i t t l e when i t was possible to get fresh fowl again from the natives. Unexpected deliverance was at hand, and on the 17 of May 1787, the Indians arrived with the news that two ships had anchored in another part of the Sound. Meares could (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page XX. Page 89 liardly believe i t , but i t waa verified on the 19th., by the arrival of Captain Dixon of the "Queen Charlotte" and a boat's crew. They were welcomed as guardian angels by the sick, who had feared they would never leave. The new ships were English, under the leadership of Captain Portlock, who commanded the larger of the two, the "King George". They were licensed by the East India Company, and were lawfully traders, not pirat- ical adventurers l ike Meares. Despite the salvation which Portloclc and Dixon undoubtedly brought the "flootka", strong feeling arose between Dixon and Meares at their meetings, which found outlet in. the famous Dixon - Meares Controversy, follow- ing the publication of Meares "Voyages" in 1790. Dixon and Meares disagreed fundamentally on the facts concerning the meeting and the assistance rendered - what one stated the other denied. Meares* reputation for integrity and veracity was not high, either among his contemporaries or later historians. In the words of Judge Howay - "this gentleman* s tendencjcesoto distort the truth justify the student in doubting any import- ant and uncorroborated statement made by Meares — - even Maquinna dubbed him 'Aitaaita Meares* - 'the lying Meares".' (1) Dixon was an able navigator - praised as such by Mozino in his Hoticlas de Mitka , and Milet Mureau when editing La Perouse's voyage - whose honour and accuracy have never been questioned by any except Meares. In regards to the controversy Meares was undoubtedly in the wrong. Meares was an Englishman on an unlicensed ship f ly- ing British colours - hence a barefaced poacher operating an (1) JP. W. Howay, ''The Dixon Meares Controversy1', "The Canadian Historical Studies", Kyerson Press, Toronto, 1929, Page 8. Page 90 i l legal venture. Portlock and Dixon were licensed, and law- fully in trade - hampered by a l l the restrictions of the paths of virtue. Apparently Meares was given a l l the assist- ance that means permitted as regards food and repairs, includ- ing two of their sailors to make sufficient hands for the navigation of his vessel. Meares on his side expressed no graditude, but oomplained bitterly of the wages asked by the seamen. In return Portlock required Meares to take a bond that he would do no further trading on the coast, but return to China at onoe. Meares accepted this oondition - but did not keep i t , on the ground that Portlock simply took advant- age of his helplessness to rid himself of a competitor. He kept carefully in the background that he was a thief caught in the act - a lawful seizure - who had been given his free- dom on promising to offend no further. Hiehol, a seaman of the "King George" records "Captain Portlock could have made a fa ir prize of him (Meares) as he had no charter and was trad- ing in our limits; but he was satisfied with his bond not to trade on our coast." (1) In extracting this bond Portlock was actually exceeding his powers. Beresford, the supercargo of the "Queen Charlotte", and aauthor of Dixon's "Voyage" said that the devastating effects of scurvy on the "Hootka" was partly due to an over use of spirits . Meares hotly denied i t , but Beresford1 s testimony is supported by Mohol in his "Voyages". Meares traded profitably down the coast, and after a month at the Sandwich Islands reached Macao on the 20th. of (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Page 11. Page 91. October 1787. The expedition had been a financial failure - only three hundred and f i f ty seven sea otter skins had been secured - and these through making the most of every opportun- ity. Meares sold his cargo at Canton on April 4th. 1788 for fourteen thousand, seven hundred and two dollars - amazingly good returns considering what the venture had undergone, and immediately began preparations for a second voyage. (1) Meares was daring, original and enterprising, and his audacity where his own interests were concerned was unbounded. Yet the "Lying Meares" was undoubtedly the "stormy petrcfl." of the coast, and i l l Peeling and discord seemed to follow inevitably in his wake. Dixon's report of the sale of Meares* furs is inter- esting because of its inaccuracy. The cargo was apparently sold in five lots, and Meares* final returns are quoted at #14, 842 instead of $14,702. It is generally believed that, with the exception of the introduction, Dixon* s "Voyage" was the work of the supercargo, William Beresford. The "voyage" was written in letter form, and his init ia ls , "w. B." appear at the close of a l l accounts. Beresford*s records of former fur sales, where i t is possible to check the figures, have been quite correct. Were i t not for the unfortunate Dixon - Meares Controversy, the incident would be dismissed as a mere slip of calculation. Even so the chances are a l l in favour of i ts being a genuine accident. Beresford had no motive in falsifying the returns, while i t seems unlikely that a man of Dixon's standing, so universally well spoken of, would have il̂ cDlxon;::"y6yagexBx>und the World", Page 319. Fur sale quoted in Appendix | V to thesis. Page 9E. demeanoured himself to that extent. Mad Dixon wished to do so, i t is more probable that i t would have been done for a worth while amount, not a tr i f l ing sum running under a hundred pounds. Perhaps the strongest proof that the deception was not intentional, l ies in the faot that a l l the figures for Meares1 supposed transactions are given - the number of furs, and the price of each, making i t possible to check the quot- ations for the entire sale in about fifteen minutes. A course open to such easy detection would hardly have been followed had the error been deliberate;: even although the act were inspired by the most petty of motives. The "King George*s Sound company" was organized in May 1785 by Richard Cadman Etches, his brothers John and William, and other merchants, to engage in the fur trade of the north west coast. The company was noteworthy in that i t had conformed to the f a l l regulations, and wad licensed both by the South Sea Company and the East India Company. The furs were to be sold in China by the supercargoes of the East India Company, and an agreement had been made to freight the vessels back to England with tea from Canton. They bought and outfitted two ships - the "King George" of three hundred and twenty tons, and a snow of two hundred, the "Queen Charlotte'.' The venture was placed in charge of Captain Nathaniel Portlock, while Captain George Dixon commanded the "Queen Charlotte" - both men had previously visited the coast with Captain Cook: on his third voyage. The expedition set out under exalted auspices - the  Page 93 "King George" was christened! by the Secretary of the Treas- ury, and carried several gentlemen's sons whom Portlock was to initiate into seafaring l i f e * Great care was taken to lay In an adequate store of antiscorbutics, and Dixon records with pride that on a voyage lasting over three years, the "Queen Charlotte" out of a crew of thirty three lost only one man. When this record is compared with that of Meares and the "tfoot&a" there seems conclusive evidence that Meares did not take proper precautions for health preservation. Dixon took great pains to acknowledge his indebtedness to other navigators when employing their charts to compile his own, while Mears made ful l use of the work of his predecessors, but ignored the sources, and tried to pass off the result as his own unaided effort - even to the extent - as in the case of Barkley - of claiming their discoveries. The ships left England on the second of September 1785, doubled Cape Horn, called at the Sandwich Islands for fresh provisions, and then made straight for Cook's River, arriving on the 16th. of July, at the Barren Islands. During the voyage the armourer's forge had been set up on deck, and articles had been made both for the ship's use and "toes" for future trade, i'hese toes were long, flat pieces of iron, resembling a oarpenter's plane, only narrower, and were much valued by the Indians. Almost at once the English encountered the Russians, who had a temporary trading headquarters on Kodiak Island, made of boats la id on their beam ends with skins drawn fore Page 94. and aft* Their relations with the natives were such that they never slept without arms ready loaded hy their sides. (1) From Kodiak, parties left for various points - that which encountered the British ships was from Cook's River, twenty five strong. Dixon was not impressed hy the skins, which were green and not very plentiful. Courtesies were exchanged with the Russians. The English vessels entered Cook's River, and a small trade with the Indians developed - salmon was sold for heads, and ahout twenty sea otter skins and a few marmot cutsarks were collected. Some of the marmot cloaks contain- ed as many as a hundred skins, hut the supply was soon exhausted, so Portlock then made for Prince William's Sound* Such had storms were encountered hy the time they reached Montague Island that i t was judged wiser to run south rather than continue* Portlock fe l l i l l , so Dixon took the leaai with instructions to go south to Cross Sound, Cape Edgecombe, and thence to Nootka, where they planned to winter and build a sloop about sixty or seventy tons. The gales continued - Dixon missed Cross Sound - and the ships were caught in a great tempest outside Nootka. After vainly trying to enter the Sound for several days the attempt was abandoned, and the ships left the coast for the season, to winter at the Sandwich Islands - the "Paradise of the Pacific''. Portlock and Dixon returned to the north west coast in the middle of March 1787, and reached Montague Island on the 23rd. of A p r i l . A few Indian canoes visited them, but (1) Dixon, "Voyage Round the World", Page 60. Page 95. had no xurs - i t was concluded they had been trading from the green and yellow heads which they wore - so Dixon was sent in the long boat to reconnoitre. Meanwhile Portlock had the "King George" hauled on shore for purposes of scrap- ing and graving, and large quantities of spruce beer were brewed. Dixon was much interested in the Indians1 report of a vessel in the vicinity of Snug Corner Cove, and finally discovered Meares and the unfortunate "Nootka"* Considerable difficulty was experienced in trading with the inhabitants, as the only ertioles readily accepted were green and red beads and toes. Hatchets, howels, saws, brass pans, adzes, pewter basins and t i n kettles were refused even for fish - and these articles formed Portlock*s chief cargo. Dixon cites an incident which took place when his long boat was returning to the ship, showing how impossible i t was even to give the Indians useful objects - let alone fa ir value for their furs. "Some canoes joined us, and one of the Indians had a few sea-otter skins which he offered to se l l . Happening to cast his eyes on a frying pan, which my people in the long boat had to dress their victuals with, he requested to have i t in barter* Accordingly i t was offered him, but he absolutely refused to take i t entire, and desired us to break off the handle, whioh he seemed to regard as a thing of inestimable value, and rejected the bottom part with contempt." (1) Portlock was greatly mortified to hear of Meares' existence, and to learn that there were other ships on the (1) Dixon, "Voyage Bounc" the World", Page 156. Page 96. ooast engaged in the fur trade. It was news to him, and he mentally reduced his goal of four thousand skins to one thous- and between the two ships. Meares arrived a l i t t l e later in the long boat of the "Hootka", and received due assistance. Meares also gave Portlock to understand that he was expecting a ship to arrive at King George's Sound early in June. Port- look concluded that i f such were the case the "Queen Charlotte" and tne "King George^ had better separate - the latter stay- ing in and about Prince William's Sound, and the former mak- ing straight for Nootka. His resolution was strengthened by the fact that the season was already far advanced, so the "Queen Charlotte" set sai l in due course - May 15th., and made her way slowly down the coast. Portlock stayed some weeks in the vicinity of Montague Island, doing a fa ir trade. In the beginning of August the ship was spring-cleaned, well aired with fires and sprinkled with vinegar, after which she left Prince William's Sound for the season. The "King George" made one stop only, when she anchored near Cross Sound, and accomplished a certain amount of business with the Indians. The skins obtained here were of a poorer grade since the Indiana did not take the same care in drying and stretching their skins as those of Prince William's Sound and Cook's River. Traces of La Perouse's expedition were discovered, for the natives produced a carp- enter's adze made in a new fashion, with the letter "33" and the fleur de l i s on i t , and described the arrival of two ships, each with three masts. The tribe was badly marked with Page 97. smallpox, which Portloolc concluded must have been brought by the Spaniards in 1775. He left the coast for the Sandwich Islands 24th. of August 1787, commenting that the fur trade would become a very valuable and lucrative branch of commerce i f established on a proper foundation, such as could easily be done by the government or the East India Company. The ''Queen Charlotte™ after leaving Prince William's Sound,madê her f irst stop at Port Mufcgrave. A few furs were obtained, but from the beads and iron articles own- ed by the natives i t was obvious that they were not the f irst traders. Ten days were spent in collecting these pelts - chiefly owing to the extremely slow mode of trade practised by the Indians, deliberately aimed at spinning out the traff ic . A canoe containing four or five Indians would draw alongside the vessel, and wait for perhaps an hour before giving any sign that they had anything to se l l . Finally by significant movements and shrugs they endeavoured to hint that they had something very precious, but before showing i t , wished to see what would be given in exchange. If this manouuver brought no results, the cargo would finally be produced - after much deliberation - i t usually proved to be a few tr i f l ing pieces of old sea otter. Even then the bargain was not concluded for some time, so that frequently the whole day was wasted in picking up tr i f l e s . Dixon extimated the inhabitants at about seventy, and noted that their favorite articles were toes and pewter basins. They would trade beads and objects of small value, but would take only the deep blue and small Page 98. green. The Indiana, as elsewhere, were so >- E.no rusted with paint and dirt , that their real features were obsoured. To satisfy their curiosity, the traders finally bribed one woman to wash her face, and were much surprised by the handsome countenance disclosed by the process. The Indians of Fort Mulgreve ohewed a plant - a species of tobacco, generally mixing i t f irst with lime, or resine from the inner rind of the pine tree. Norfolk Sound'was the next port of c a l l . Here the natives seemed much more l ively, and produced some excellent sea otter. Toes were greatly desired, but only those from eight to fourteen inches were accepted. The demand varied greatly at the different ports - here pewter basins were very popular, while hatchets, howels, buckles and rings were easily traded. Beads were regarded with suoh contempt that they were hardly received even as presents. The "Queen Charlotte" v is i t - ed Port Banks, but saw no inhabitants and sailed on, reaching the Queen Charlotte Islands, which Dixon so named after his ships, and anchored off Cloak Bay on the 4th. of July 1787. They were the f irst traders in the region, and were visited by about ten Indian canoes, carrying roughly a hundred and twenty people. Dixon was much struck by their beautiful beaver cloaks, and other furs. At f irst the Haidas were too much occupied by studying the vessel to trade, although shown toes, adzes, hatchets, howels, t in kettles and pans. Once trade began, i t went fast and furiously - making, in the words of Dixon, "a scene which beggered description". Some of the Page 99. Indians even threw their furs on hoard i f there was no one to attend to them, hut care was taken to see that a l l received payment - largely in the form of toes. In half an hour three hundred f irst grade sea otter skins had been collected. The cloaks or outsarks "generally consisted of three good sea otter skins, one of which was out in two pieces, and afterwards sewn together 90 that they formed a square. They were loosely tied about the shoulders with small leather strings fastened on each side." (1) The "Queen Charlotte" followed the Island south, naming Hippa island, and remarking on the savage and brutal strain noticeable even in the singing of the Haida people. The sailors received the impression that had they landed on the fortified Hippa they would have been ki l led immediately. Lip ornaments were as popular among the women as they had been at Port Mulgrave and Norfolk Sound, only in these plaoes they signified rank, while in the Queen Charlotte Islands they were worn indiscriminately. The natives were skilled and daring robbers, and on one occasion when trade had been completed, tried to engage the attention of the sailors by selling halibut while some canoes paddled astern and tried to retrieve the furs by spearing them through the cabin portholes. When detected they paddled off with appar- ent unoonoern. The traders could make no headway with the language, for the natives were not communicative and treated attempts to speak i t with sarcastic laughter or silent con- tempt. (1) Dixon, "Voyage Hound the World", Page 201. Pago 100. The voyage had been commercially a very successful one - one thousand eight hundred and twenty one sea otter skins had been obtained at the Queen Charlotte Islands alone. The ship was now headed xor Nootka Sound, and on the way encountered two ships also belonging to the "King George's Sound Company", which had left England in September 1786« They were the "Prince of Wales" under Captain Oolnett", and the "Princess Royal" a f i fty ton sloop with a orew of fifteen under Captain Duncan, and had with them Mr. John Etches, brother of Richard Cadman fitches, the moving spirit of the enterprise. The surgeon of the "Prince of Wales" was Archibald Menzies, later the famous botanist of Vancouver's expedition. The newcomers had already spent a month at Nootka, but with l i t t l e results in the way of furs, since Captain sarkley had secured the best by the time they arrived. Supplies being low, they obtained wine, tobacco and portable soup from the latter, for which Dixon later made payment in China* (1) Dixon had been from England twenty three months and so could not offer much in the way of extra stores him- self, but gave them a puncheon of molasses, a hogshead and a name38 cask of Sandwich island pork, what trade they wanted, and a copy of his charts. (2) Comparison of notes showed that i t was useless for the "Queen Charlotte" to go to Nootka, or for .Captains Oolnett and Duncan to go to Prince William's Sound. Dixon advised the latter to explore the north east shore of the Queen Charlottes and then left for China via the Sandwich islands. (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", "Dixon's Remarks", . Page £9 . (2) Ibid, Page 28. Page 101. The ships had obtained between them two thousand five hundred and f i f ty two skins - the largest cargo yet rec- orded, which realized f i f ty four thousand eight hundred and f i f ty seven dollars. Dixon remarks that this sale shows the extreme fluctuations of the Chinese market, as two hundred of the skins ought to have fetched f ifty dollars each, and the remainder in proportion. The supercargo of the East India Company were blamed as well for the way they conducted the sale - as licensed ships Portlock and Dixon were not permitted to dispose of the skins themselves. By this method Portlock Bays they received twenty dollars apiece for two thousand of their best furs, which i f properly handled would have brought eighty or ninety each - the current rate at the time. (1) Portlock 1s estimate runs higher than Dixon's, but in spite of the loss and disappointment - which must have been consider- able - Portlock comments on the fur trade "so far from being a losing branch of commerce, i t is perhaps the most profitable and lucrative that the enterprising merchant can possibly engage in ." (2) The King George's Sound Company had not made large fortunes, but were the gainers by several thousand pounds. After meeting in Macao early in 1788, Portlock and Dixon went home to England. Portlock mentions meeting Captain Barkley and the "Imperial Eagle" - at this time under Portug- ese oolours. (!) The "Imperial Eagle" had previously worn the Austrian flag - but i t is quite possible that Barkley changed, (1) Hathaniel Portlock, "A Voyage Round the World, 1785-8", Randal, London, 1789, Page 370. (£) Ibid, Page 371. (3) Ibid, Page 368. Page 10S since Portugese shipping received preferential duties at Macao• The "Prince of Wales'' and the "Princess Royal" had not come straight from England. On their way they stopped at Staten's Land and founded a factory for the purpose of collect- ing seal skins and o i l , before proceeding to Hootka Sound. Scurvy obtained a strong hold during the voyage, and the ships suffered much more heavily than Dixon and Portlock had before them. Finding trade worthless at Nootka. where the "Imperial Eagle" had already secured most of the furs, the ships were leaving for Prince William's Sound, when a chance meeting with Dixon showed the fut i l i ty of this, and made them visit the Queen Charlotte Islands instead. Colnett and Duncan wintered at the Sandwich Islands, and returned to the coast in the spring of 1788. Here the vessels separated, the "Prince of Wales" going north to Prince William's Sound, while the "Princess Royal" visited Nootka and the Queen Char- lotte Islands, as well as a group of islands eastward off the mainland shore, later named "Princess Royal Islands" after the sloop. While in these inner channels off the main- land, Duncan had a narrow escape, for the natives attacked the tiny vessel - the smallest yet to vis it the north west coast - and were only driven off with difficulty* He sailed southward in the beginning of August, enoountered Meares near Ahousat, and left for China via the Sandwich Islands, where he met Colnett on August 17, 1788. Duncan l e f t for England almost immediately after reaching China, but the "Princess Page 103. Royal "and Colnetfremained. The Bast India Company charter- ed the "Prince of Wales" to load teas, and the ship returned immediately to England, carrying Duncan and two young Haw- aiiana as passengers. Early in 1788 Meares made a second voyage, ffought with serious international consequences. He intended to est- ablish a factory at Nootka; and build a small vessel for trad- ing on the coast - as Portlock and Dixon had planned to do in the winter of 1786-7. Two ships were outfitted by John Henry Cox and Company, merchants of Canton, (1) the "Felice" of two hundred and thirty tons with a orew of fifty, and the ^Iphigenia" of two hundred, the latter under Captain Douglas with a crew of forty. They were ostensibly the property of the Portugese company, Juan Cavalho and his firm, and flew the Portugese flag to avoid the English license duties.(2) Cavalho had actually no share in the undertaking, which was an entirely British enterprise. Meares commanded the exped- it ion and was a joint proprietor. Chinamen were included in the crew for purposes of economy, since they lived on fish and rice and asked low wages, but they were mainly handicraft men, not sailors. Meares regarded the experiment as highly satisfactory, and quoted the number of Chinamen engaged as f i f ty . (30) If this was so, they outnumbered the whites, since the total of both ships1 crews was only ninety. This was the f irst employment of Chinese by Europeans on the British Columbia coast. (1) George Vancouver, "Voyage to the North Pacific Ocean", Edwards, London, 1798. Page 404. (S) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Pages £, 5-6. (3) Meares, "Voyages", Page 3. Page 104. Both ships were copper bottomed, and built to stand the rigours of the north west coast - after the last exper- ience Meares was taking fewer chances, and provided warm clothing for the crew, both European and Chinese* He records that large supplies of antiscorbutics were included, but sub- sequent events leave i t open to question. Each ship carried a five months supply of water, and allowed every person a gallon a day. A considerable amount of livestock was includ- ed in the cargo, with the idea of stocking islands for future use - six cows, three bulls, four calves, goats, turkeys, rabbits and pigeons. During the trip Meares meant to restore the Atooian Prince, Tianna, to his native Sandwich Islands, from whence he had taken him to China in 1787* The ships left on the 2End. of January 1788, and encountered bad weather at once. The Chinese crew became very seasick, the rolling so upset the cattle that most of them had to be ki l led, and by the 2nd. of February scurvy had broken out seriously on the "Iphigenia"* "The carpenter, two of the quarter masters, and some of the seamen were already i l l - others discovered symptoms which were truly alarming, their legs swelling and their gums beooming putrid? (1) - and a l l this after only eleven days at sea. Circumstances sugg- est that general oonditions on both ships left something to be desired, for while Meares makes no specific mention of scurvy on the "Felice", he speaks of " a small mutiny" which was quelled "by gentle means". Douglas sought to check scurvy by substituting spruce beer for spirits and resorting (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 23.  Page 105 to oranges and antiscorbutics. Meares reached Nootka on the 13th. of May, 1788, and returned another wanderer to his home - the Indian Comekela, a brother of Maquinna, who had been taken to China by an earl- ier expedition. Comekela1s appearance excited high admiration - he was garbed in a "scarlet regimental coat, decorated with brass buttons, a military hat set off with a flaunting (1) cockade, decent linens, and other appendages of European dressy and his return was celebrated by a great feast of whale blubber and o i l . Maquinna and Callicum were absent from Nootka when the ships arrived, but returned a few days later, esoorted by twelve war canoes, each holding an average of eighteen people. Most of the Indians wore "most beautiful sea otter robes, reaching from neck to ankle", and sang as they paddled. It was a visit of state, and hence the hair of the natives "was powdered with the white down of birds, and their faces be- daubed with red and black ochre in the form of a shark's jaw, and a kind of spiral l ine, which rendered their appearance very savage The chief was distinguished by a high cap, pointed at the crown, and ornamented on top with a small tuft of feathers." (2) Meares made presents of copper and iron to the chiefs, who in return threw their sea otter robes at his feet. They were given blankets, and went off, apparently well satisfied. Meares set about establishing a base for future trading, and purchased a piece of territory from Maquinna on which his factory could be built . Maquinna readily granted i t , (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 109. (2) Ibid, Page 112. Page 106. and received copper, iron and other articles, including a pair of pistols. Meares is the f irst trader recorded to have supplied firearms to the natives - Dixon and Portlock refused to do so. (1) Maquinna promised to assist the work in every way, and gave his protection to the party left at Nootka. Captain Ingraoam makes an interesting comment in connection with the later dispute regarding the sale of Nootka. In his journal for September 1792 he asserts that Maquinna made "a declaration that he never sold any lands whatever to Mr. Meares or any other person except Captain Kendriok, whom he acknowledged to he the proprietor of lands around Mawhinna. Captain Magee and Mr. Howell witnessed this — declaration. If Mr. Meares did purchase the land he mentions no doubt a man of his penetration knowing the laws of his country had a deed drawn at the time —— 11 (2) The fact that Meares never produced nor mentioned any suoh document is conclusive evidence that none existed* The Indiana were employed in the erection of the building, which was finally finished on the 28th. of May, 1788. Meares described i t : "The house was sufficiently spacious to contain a l l the party intended to be left in the Sound - on the ground floor there was ample room for the coopers, sai l makers and other artisans to work in bad weather, and a large room was also set apart for the stores and provisions, and the armourer's shop was attached to one end of the building and oommunioated with i t . The upper story was divided into an eating room and ohambers for the party, on the whole, our (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy","Dixon's Remarks", Page 35. (2) Ibid, Page 7. . . . Page 107. house, though i t was not built to satisfy a lover of archit- ectural beauty, was admirably well calculated for the purpose to which i t was destined, and appeared to be a structure of uncommon magnifloenoe to the natives of King George's Sound. A strong breastwork was thrown up round the house, enclosing a considerable area of ground, which with one piece of cannon, placed in such a manner as to command the cove and village of Nootka, formed a fortification sufficient to secure the party from any intrusion. Without the breastwork, was laid the keel of a vessel 40-50 tons which was now to be built agree- able to our former determination." (1) The fur trade had not been allowed to suffer through building activities, and a hundred and forty sea otter pelts were collected. On his arrival Meares had set a prioe for every kind of fur. but this did not suit the natives' instincts for bargaining, and they tried every means in their power to alter the agreement. The Indians much preferred to trade by giving presents, rather than common barter, and the chiefs used to send Meares a message whenever they were prepared to make such a present. Meares took what he was prepared to give in return, and want on shore, where the skins were la id at his feet with much ceremony and noise. Everyone gathered to see the spectacle, and dead silence followed to see what return would be made. It was not an ideal method of traffic from the traders1 point of view, who had no previous inkling of the amount or value of the chief's "present". The fashion for European dress had begun since the (1) Meares, "Voyages", Pages 115-116. Page 108. return of Comekela, and a bargain could now be fixed by a bat or shoe. A spirit of mutiny s t i l l pervaded the crew of the "Felice" under the leadership of the boatswain. Meares sought to discredit him in the eyes of his fellows by degrad- ing him to serve before the mast, and hoped that the discont- ent would thus die a natural death. Meares began preparations for a trading trip south, planning to leave a party on shore to complete the new vessel, while he collected the furs taken by the Indians during the summer months. Meares left on the 11th. of June, after visiting Maquinna, and intimating that they would return in about four months. Maquinna was given a suit of clothes covered with buttons and promised that when they finally quitted the coast "he should enter into fu l l possess- ion of the house and a l l the goods and chattels thereunto belonging." (1) The "Iphigenla" was already north, covering the coast from Cook's River to Nootka, while Meares and the "Felloe" went south. Meares visited Wiokananish and his village, which was almost three times the size of the Nootka one, and did a considerable trade, securing a hundred and f i f ty sea otter skins. The articles chiefly in demand were brass hilted swords, copper tea kettles, pistols, muskets, and powder. Meares had no scruples in supplying the Indians with firearms. As a whole he considered the Indians of Wiokananish Sound much more uncivilized than the Nootkans, but far superior in sagacity and activity. The "Felice" continued down the coast, trading and exploring as she went. In this latter capacity (1) Meares, "voyages", Page 130. Pag© 109 Meares deliberately tried to claim the discoveries of Barkley, not only of Juan de Fuca Strait, but also on the island, saying, "We endeavoured to keep in with the shore as much as possible, in order to have a perfect view of the land. This was an object of particular anxiety as the part of the coast along which we were now sailing had not been seen by Captain Cook, and we know of no other navigator said to have been this way except Maurelle, — and his chart convinced us he had never seen this part of the coast." (1) Yet while making such a statement he was in possession of Barkley1s own chart, (2) and when preparing his map drew freely upon the work of Barkley, Laurie and Guise, Duncan, Portlock and Dixon, without any acknowledgement. (3) Meares entered the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and took possession in the name of tne King of England. The ship returned to Nootka on July 26, 1788, having made excellent progress and collected many skins, and found the new vessel well advanced. The long delayed mutiny on the "Felice" finally oame to a head, but was at once quelled. The eight ringleaders were given the choice of continuing in irons, or being landed among the savages. They chose the latter, so Meares turned them over to the tender mercies of Maquinna, who made - and treated them as - domestic slaves with a l l that coast slavery implied. Meares considered this a humane way in which to "settle the affair without bloodshed." Meares met the "Princess Royal" about the 16th. of August 1788, making for Port Cox in Wiokananish Sound. In (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 152. (2) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Page 8. (3) Ibid, Page 15. Pago 110. Meares opinion she had done an extremely good trade, and "there is reason to believe that this l i t t l e vessel accomplish- ed more for her owners than any ship that ever sailed to the North West Coast of America." (1) Meares now returned to Friendly Cove, where the "Iphigenia" arrived on the 27th. of August, having covered the American coast from Cook's Bivor to King George's Sound. Captain Douglas had gone straight north, towards Alaska, and passed the Barren Islands at Cook's Bivor on June 17, 1788* Be anchored in Cook's River, whore almost at once he was visited hy a number of native canoes, a l l manned by "ticket men". They immediately showed the tokens as pass- ports of good usage. The Russians sold these tickets to the Indians at exhorbitant prices, asserting that they Would protect the people from i l l treatment from any strangers who might vis i t the ooast. The "licence" was encouraged by exor- cising "great oruelty on such natives as were not provided with these instruments of safety, so that the poor people were very happy to purchase them on any terms." (2) The particular Indians in the canoes were so poverty stricken that they had not a rag of fur between them. Trade was slow - the Indians were afraid to barter for fear of the Russians, and Douglas got only fish, for beads, and five sea otter skins, purchased for two feet of broad bar iron each. At the Indians' request he sent the long boat higher up the rivor on a trading expedition where business could be transacted unobserved. The results of this (1) Mearos, "Voyages", Page 200. (2) Ibid, Page 307. Page 111. trip were disappointing, and the "Iphigenia" moved on to Snug Corner Cove in Prince William's Sound. Luck again deserted them, for a tree on shore revealed the inscription. " J . Etches of the "Prince of Wales", May 9th. 1788 and John Hutohins", showing that the ship had preceded them hy ten days, AS a result Douglas only obtained one sea otter skin and "five seal skins for the rigging. 1 1 (1) The "Ipha'genia" continued trading south along the coast, with more success, until rejoining the "Felice" in Friendly Cove. At Nootka work on the new schooner was progressing fast. The season for leaving the west coast approached, but the year had been a satisfactory one, and a very valuable cargo of furs collected which should be marketed as soon as possible. Hence Meares planned to take the pelts to China himself in the ''Felice", while leaving the "Iphigenia" and the schooner to carry on the trade. The "Felice'' was then made ready for sea, and the mutineers - with the exception of the boatswain - were allowed on board. Meares presented Maquinna with a musket and a l i t t l e ammunition, (2) as well as a few blankets. The vogue for articles of European dress was gain- ing, and Callioium commissioned Meares to bring back to him shoes, stockings and a hat. His friends did likewise, and the goods were duly delivered by the "Argonaut" in 1789. On the 16 of September, 1788, a new sai l appeared on the horizon, which proved to be the sloop ''Washington" from Boston, under Captain Robert Gray. It marked the f irst Amer- ican participation in the fur trade. Gray had no idea that (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 316. (2) Ibid, Page 216. - Page 112 other competitors were already in the field, and was greatly surprised to see the ship in the stocks. "He appeared, how- ever, to he very sanguine in the superior advantages which his countrymen from New England might reap from this track of trade, and was big with many mighty projects, in which we under understood he was protected hy the American Congress." (1) The launching of the new ship took place three days later - at 12 o'clock on the 20th. of September 1788, a proc- eedure at which the ceremony of other dockyards was s tr ic t ly observed. "As soon as the tide was at its proper height, the English ensign was displayed on shore at the house, and on board the new vessel, which at the proper moment was named the "North-West America", as being the f irst bottom ever built and launched in this part of the globe." (2) the Indians and Americans watched the ceremony with great interest. In actual fact, the ship entered the water with such velocity that she nearly went out of the harbour - since Meares, being unaccustomed to such matters, had forgotten to put an anchor and cable oh board to pull her up. Meares left almost immed- iately for China, and a l i t t l e later Douglas sailed with the "Iphigenia" and "North West America" to winter at the Sandwich Islands. Gray wintered and traded at Nootka, where he was joined by his companion and commander, Captain Kendrick, of the "Columbia". They wil l be fully discussed later. In the autumn of 1788 a reorganization of interests took place in China, shortly after Meares1 return, between the agent of the merchants in England, (The King George's Sound (1) Meares, ''Vftyages", Page 220. (2) Ibid, Page 220. Page 113. Company) and the agent of the merchants in India*n (1) form- ing a Joint stock company to carry on the fur trade and elim- inate injurious competition. It was known as the "Associated Merchants trading to the North West Coast of America, and consisted of: John Meares, John Henry Cox, Richard Caiman Etches, John Etches, William Etches, William STtzhugh, Henry Lane, and Daniel Beale. (2) Meares acted as the spokesman throughout. The East India Company and the South Sea Comp- any derived no further revenue from the enterprise, for the firm took the name of Juan Cawalho, and the ships flew the Portuguese flag. Meares gives his own explanation for sa i l - ing under false colours, in his memorial — "In order to evade the excessive high port charges demanded hy the Chinese from a l l other European nations except the Portugese, he and his associates had obtained the name of Juan Cawalho to their firm, although he had no actual connection in their stock. Cawalho, though by birth a Portuguese, had been naturalized at Bombay, and had resided there many years under the protect- ion of the East India Company, and had carried on an extens- ive trade from thence to their various settlements in that part of the world. The intimacy subsisting between Cawalho and the Governor of Macao had been the principal cause of their forming this nominal connection, and Cawalho had in consequence obtained his permission that the two ships above mentioned, in case i t should be found convenient to do so, should be allowed to navigate under, or claim any advantages granted to the Portuguese flag." (3) Certain tar i f f advantages (l)Meares, "Voyages", Page 106. ( S l ^ 1 ^ » n D l a w n r t K e 8 J W 9 , Controversy" Introduction. Page 3. (3)John Meares, 'Memorial*, Appendix:Howay and Scholefiild, "British Columbia", I, Page 6 of "Memorial". Page 114. may undoubtedly nave been gained by this deception, but i t was merely an excuse to camouflage the real reason - to avoid the expense of licenses required of a l l independent British traders in those regions. At the same time Meares asserted that the ships of the Etches brothers - the "Prince of Wales" and the "Princess Royal", carried licenses from the English joint stock compan- ies which did not expire t i l l 1790. Colnett •* a evidence support- ed Meares, for he stated that the King George's Sound Company held a license from the South Sea Company "good for five years after September 1st. 1786, for trading in the South Sea and other parts of America*" (1) Hence the "Princess Royal", when she returned to America in 1789 as the property of the "Associated Merchants", was s t i l l a legal trader. Colnett's trading license for the "Prince of Wales" was also valid, one of Meares principal reasons for enlisting his services. The "Prince of Wales" was not considered f i t for another voyage to the north west coast, having damaged her keel, and so was freighted to England with teas by the East India Company. Another vessel, the "Argonaut", was bought"by the new company to take her place. Colnett saw no disadvantage to his permit in the change of ships - had there been, he suggested i t would have been completely remedied by renaming the new vessel "Prince of Wales" (2) but i t was considered unnecessary* The Spanish Viceroy alone questioned the legality of the transfer. This explains why, although Meares and the "Associated Merchants" (1) W. R. Manning, "The Nootka Sound Controversy", American Historical Association, Armual Report 1904, Washington, Government Press, Page 296. (2) Ibid, Page 296. Page 115. owned four trading ships on the north west coast during the season 1789, half flew the English flag and half the Portug- uese - two were authorized, and two were poaching. Captain Colnett was given charge of a l l the concerns of the company, and received instructions from Daniel Beale in i ts name before leaving Macao. He was ordered to build a substantial house as soon as the ship reached Nootka. The second ship, the veteran "Princess Royal", was placed under Captain Hudson, and both sailed early in the year. Meares believed that the best passage was obtained by leaving in March, but for some reason i t was the middle of April before Colnett was able to start. Page 116 Chapter V. "THE NOOTKA SOUND CONTROVERSY." (1789-1790) The peace and tranquility of the north wesv coast was soon to he rudely disturbed, and hy 1789 there were indic- ations that Russia, Spain and Britain, a l l aimed to occupy and trade at Nootka Sound* Spain sent an expedition north in 1788 under Martinez and Haro, who visited the Russian settle- ments in Alaska, and learnt that Cusmiok only awaited the arrival of four frigates from Siberia to establish a trading post at Nootka Sound. Martinez was much perturbed by this news, and persuaded Florez, the Viceroy of New Spain, to fore- stal l the move by making a Spanish settlement there immediate- l y . Florez was sufficiently impressed to send two ships from San Bias on February 17, 1789, the "Prinoesa" and "San Carlis", having orders to make a permanent base, under the command of Martinez with Haro as his assistant. Careful instructions were given regarding the chance meeting of British, Russian or American ships. The British were to be convinced by explanatory argument of Spain's prior and superior claim to the locality. The Russians, f irst reminded of the strong friendship existing between the two countries, were to be finally cajoled by the news that in case of trouble Spain could rely on the assistance of her French a l ly . The Americans were simply to be informed that Spain was opening up her Page 117. territory north to Prince William's Sound, and that troops, colonists and missionaries were on the point of arriving. If any of the intruders, unquelled Toy such arguments, attempted to make a settlement, Martinez was to "repel force hy force", and "endeavour to prevent as far as possible their inter- course and commerce with the natives." (1) Florez regarded the Americans as more dangerous rivals than the Russians or even the English. As the great commercial nation of the American continent he saw the immense value to them of an outlet on the western coast* and express- ed himself: "We ought not to be surprised that the English colonies of America, being now an independent Republic, should carry out the design of finding a safe port on the Pacific and of attempting to sustain i t by crossing the Immense country of the continent above our possessions of Texas, New Mexico, and California." (2) As proof of his suspicions he mentioned the American ship "Columbia" of Boston, who was known to have called at Juan Fernandez Islands earlier in the year, and continued towards the north west coast in 1788, with a small companion vessel, the "Washington", somwehere in the offing. Spanish anxiety was increased by the fact that their real destination and intentions were unknown, since the Spanish Governor of the Islands, Bias Gonzales, had allowed them to depart without ascertaining. For this offence he was cash- iered by the Captain-General of Chile, whose action in the matter was upheld by the Viceroy of Peru. Spain s t i l l clung to her claim that the Treaty of (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy1', cf. Martinez1 Instructions, Page 304. (2) Ibid, Page 302. Page 118. Tordesillas, 1494, Had given Her sovereignty over the entire American continent west of the line set hy that agreement, and strove to exclude a l l other nations as interlopers. The Nootka Sound Controversy, although developing between Spain and England, not America, as Florez had seemed to anticipate, was in reality a struggle for the freedom of the seas. It was "a decisive conflict between two great colonial principles, of which England and Spain were the exponents." (1) England upheld that discovery without colonization did not constitute ownership, and that such land belonged to the nation who f irst settled and developed i t , end won her point. The Spanish expedition entered Friendly Cove on the 5th. of May 1789, and found two foreign vessels at anchor - the "Iphlgenia" of Captain Douglas, and the American "Columbia" - Captain Kendriek. Captain Gray and the "Washington", meeting Martinez a l i t t l e earlier as she was leaving the Sound, had paused for friendly intercourse. To the American officers who went aboard, Martinez represented himself as an explorer, sent from Cadiz with two other ships to explore the coast. He also told them he had been north to Bering Straits, and showed a northern skin canoe lashed to his quarter as a proof. Martinez asked some searching quest- ions concerning the ships already in the Cove, and remarked, on hearing of the "Iphigenia", that "she would make a good prize." Th® only explanation for Martinez* curious l ies was that he wished to put the American traders entirely off their guard, and by assuming an unofficial guise, ascertain the (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 284. Page 119. true motive of their activity at Nootka. There is BO positive evidence that Meares1 house was s t i l l standing when Martinez arrived. The Americans, Gray and Ingraham, wrote three years later that no trace of i t remained, and that Captain Douglas had pulled i t down in 1788 before leaving for the Sandwich Islands, taking the boards with him, and giving the roof to Captain Kendrick who used i t for firewood. The strong Spanish bias of the American captains detracts from the value of their testimony, but there is indirect evidence in their favour, unwittingly supplied by Meares himself. It is an extract from the log of the "Iphigenla" of May 88 nd. 1789, made two days after Captain Douglas'' return from the Sandwich Islands, and two weeks before Martinez arrived on the scene. "(We) sent some sails on shore and erected a tent to put our empty casks in ." (1) Manning argues With seeming logic that i f the house had s t i l l been standing i t would naturally have been used for this purpose instead of a mere pitched tent. The case is strength- ened by the fact that nowhere in the journal for 1789 is any reference made to the house, and that even in his "Memorial", Meares makes no definite statement that his house was s t i l l standing* Thus i t may safely be concluded that however disposed of, the house had gone by May 1789, and there were no evidences to indicate that Meares intended to form a pere- manent establishment* Hence Martinez was perfectly justified in taking possession of Nootka. Captain Douglas tried to represent to the Spaniards (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 313. Page 1£0. that the "Iphigenla" was a Portuguese ship, following Meares1 policy for the past season. He carried a passport hearing the signatures of the governor and captain general of Macao, saying i t was a Portuguese vessel, under the command of Francisco Josef Viena, "also a subject of the same crown." The real oaptain was represented as an English supercargo. Haswell records that when the "Washington" reached Nootka, both the "Felice" and the "Iphigenie" were flying Portuguese colours, while Duncan tel ls the same story of Meares when he met the "'Felice" off Nootka. She was under the Portuguese flag, and posed as coming from Lisbon under the command of Don Antonio Pedro Mannella. (1) Douglas explained the presence of the "Iphigenla" in the Sound, saying that he was awaiting essential supplies from China. Martinez acoepted this story, but was by no means blind to the dual nationality of the ship. Friendly relations continued for a few days until perusal of the Portuguese instructions revealed a clause where- by the captain was ordered i f accosted by Russian, Spanish or English ships to defend his ship, and i f superior to the attacking vessel to capture and take her as a prize to Macao. The Spanish authorities took violent exception to this - although i t was probably an error of interpretation - and Martinez seized the "Iphigenla", struck the Portuguese flag, and flew the Spanish in its place. The officers and crew of the "Iphigenla" were con- fined, some in the "Princesa" and the rest on the "San Carl is". Martinez having made his prize, found that he could not spare (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", cf. Duncan's Letter, Page 112. Pago 121. sufficient men to send her to San Bias, and so released her after twelve days, in exchange for a h i l l upon Cavalho, ths supposed Portuguese owner, promising to pay as ransom the fa ir value of the ship and cargo i f the Viceroy ruled that Martinez had been within his rights to make the capture. A farewell dinner was given on hoard $he "Prineesa", after which the "Iphigenla" left the Sound, supposedly for China, hut running north after midnight instead. Douglas had only between sixty and seventy sea otters on board but raised the number to about seven hundred during the voyage. Hence i t is fairly obvious that the ship's supplies of food and trad- ing articles cannot have been diminished to the extent claimed by Meares in his "Memorial". The "Uorth West America" had been absent on a cruise when the Spaniards arrived, and returned to Nootka on the 8th. of June, quite unaware of the progress of events in her absence* On hearing the vessel belonged to the firm of Cavalho, Martinez seized her, and renamed her "Gertrudis", after his wife. Being a small ship she could be sailed with a limited crew, which the Spaniards were able to supply, and was sent south on a trading expedition under David Coolidge of the "Washington". Meanwhile no time was lost in forming an estabfe lishment at Nootka - far more elaborate than.that of Meares. Hog Island was fortified and garrisoned, while on shore barracks, a workshop and a bakery were built , Formal possess - ion was taken on June 24, 1789, in the "Name of the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost and his Majesty the Page 128. King, Don Carlos III, and for the service of God and the good and prosperity of his vassala." (1) It was accompanied hy much impressivejpomp and ceremony. Captain Hudson and the "Princess Royal" arrived on the 15th. of June, and was met hy Martinez, Kendrick and Funter (late captain of the "north West America"). Martinez permitted her to take on wood and water and depart in peace, as well as presenting Hudson with a "circular letter to a l l Spanish vessels to allow him to pass on his way unmolested, (2) In so doing Martinez was perhaps too lenient. His instructions ordered him "to prevent intercourse and commerce with the natives" and quite justified him in seizing both the "Iphigenla" and the "North West America", as the only avail- able method of asserting authority. Captain Hudson's commiss- ion; said that the voyage was one of discovery, which possibly explains why Martinez allowed the "Princess Royal1' to leave - and mentioned its exploratory aims in his circular. Martinez' friendly attitude to the American ships was perfectly consist- ent with his orders, since they oarried"letters from the Spanish minister in the United States, recommending the attention of the authorities of his nation on the Pacific coasts." (3) On examining the Americans' papers Martinez found their object was not colonization, but to circumnavigate the globe. There was no reason for preventing this,as there (1) Howay and Soholefield, "British Columbia", I, 139-143. (2) Manning, "The Nootka Sound Controversy", Pages 328-329. (3) c; F . Newcombe, "First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island", Cullin,-Victoria, B. C , 1914. Page 33. Page 183 was nothing in their instructions derogatory to Spanish rights, hut he forbade them in the name of Carlos III, to return either to the seas or coast without a special permit, since Spain had prohibited navigation hy any foreign power on the American shores. She Americans were very useful to Martinez, both in his dealings with the English and the Indians, and he beoame so friendly with the Americans, that the English accused them of being in league. As the "Princess Royal" sailed out, she passed the "Argonaut" entering - July 8nd. - which was also met by Martinez, vainly hoping i t was his expected supply ship "Aranzazu". Hudson had left a letter for Colnett, which re- assured him completely as to the friendliness of the Spaniards, and he allowed his ship to be towed into the harbour regardless of the warnings of Captain Funter of the "north West America", alias "Gertrudis". The "Argonaut" carried a l l the necessary equipment for founding a trading post, as well as material for another sloop and twenty nine Chinamen of the artisan class who were to begin the future colony of the trading post - Port Pi t t . Meares also planned to internationalize the population s t i l l further by importing wives for these Chinese from the Sandwich Islands. Colnett wished to leave the next day, but Martinez vacillated, and finally demanded his papers. A bitter dispute arose over some tr i f l ing matter concerning them, reaching a climax where Martinez arrested Colnett and seized the "Argonaut", sending her as a prize to San Bias. Some of the English were sent with her, and the rest later in Page 124. the "Aranzazu". The ''Argonaut" was ready for the voyage to San Bias on July 13th., when just as she was sailing, the "Princess Royal" came in sight. Captain Hudson had found himself in the vicinity, and so stopped off at Nootka Sound to see i f a l l was well with the "Argonaut". Leaving' his ship he visited the "Prinoesa", where he was at once made prisoner, and ordered to direct the "Princess Royal" to enter the Nootkan trap. The Spaniards were prepared to capture her hy force i f this failed, and realizing the hopelessness of the situation, Hudson ordered the ship to surrender. Both the English vessels were sent as prizes to Mexico, a voyage on which their crews experienced great discomfort, Colnett being looked a l l night in his cabin without water, while the men were confined and kept in irons. (1) The ships arrived in August 1789. Florez recalled Martinez the same year, February 2nd, 1789, but the order did not arrive until after the disturbances and before the news of his exploits had reached Europe. Martinez arrived in San Bias, December 6th. (2) 1789, and the f irst Spanish settlement at Nootka was deserted. Florez supported Martinez in his actions, but he was succeeded in October 1789 by Hevilla Gigedo, and the handling of the affair devolved on the new Viceroy. Gigedo, in spite of Florea' letters, did not consider the matter of much importance, and assumed the attitude that Martinez had insufficient ground for making the captures. Yet he was sufficiently interested in Nootka to wish to reoocupy i t , and (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 145. (2) W. N. Sage, "The Spanish Explorers of the British Columbian Coast", Canadian Historical Review, December 1931. Page 394. Page 125. selected Lieutenant Erancisco KLijsa of the Spanish Navy to carry i t out, giving him three ships, the frigate "Conception? the "San Carlos" and the sloop "Prinoesa Real", alias "Princess Royal". His instructions included the exploration of the "coasts, islands, and parts up,to 68°, Cook's River, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca'1* Eliza arrived on the 5th. of April 1790, and began both tasks at once, establishing a mil- itary post at Nootka, and sending Lieutenant Fidalgo on the "Filipino" to explore the shore line from 57° south. Weather oonditions prevented Fidalgo from completely fu l f i l l ing his instructions, but he visited the Russians of Cook Inlet, and took possession of Prince William's Sound. Failing supplies, and continuation of unfavourable winds then forced him to return to Monteray. Revilla Gigedo expected advice from Spain regarding the English ships, but none oame, so in May 1790 he ordered them to be released and returned to Colnett on his own author- i ty . It was a practical repudiation of Martinez' actions. The English sailors s t i l l confined in Mexico were freed as well, although the majority had reached Macao at an earlier date. Gigedo stated that his action was one of "pure gener- osity", but forbade Colnett to visit the Spanish American coasts again either for trade or settlement. At Colnett's earnest request this was later modified to places under the control of Spain. Colnett left Mexico in the "Argonaut" late in 1790. He missed the "Princess Royal" at Hootka, and only obtained possession at the Sandwich Islands in March 1791, and Page 126. the "North West America11 was also regained about this time. Eliza sent Manual Quimper to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the "Princess Heal" in May 1790. He set.fa out on the 31st., making slow and careful progress, exploring both north and south shores, and taking formal possession in the south. Eliza continued his explorations along the southern coast, when a bad storm prevented him from returning to Nootka, so he made for Monteray, and arrived on the 2nd. of September 1790. Eliza must have passed the freed "Argonaut" on the way, with the order for the surrender of the "Princess Royal". Colnett was greatly incensed on finding she was not at "Nootka, and accused the Spanish of tricking him. The diplomatic side of the Nootka Sound Controversy must be considered briefly, since the actual discussions and incidents have l i t t l e direct connection with the fur trade* The f irst information of the course of events reached England indirectly on January 4th. 1790, through Anthony Merry, the British ambassador at Madrid, who sent an account of a confuse ed rumour in Madrid to the effect that an English ship had been captured by a Spanish man-of-war at Nootka, and sent as a prize to Mexico* The matter was not investigated* The f irst important intimation arrived in the form of a protest from the Marquis del Campo, February 10, 1790, against British Invasion of Spanish territory, and suggested that such intruders should be punished* The Marquis of Leeds repl- ied brusquely that in the f irst place the vessel so seized must be restored, and then investigation would be made when Page 127. information concerning a l l circumstances of the affair had been gathered. The Spanish diplomats had not expected such an attitude, and disliked the tone of the British reply. Immed- iate preparations were made for war; for i t was thought that Pitt desired to humble Spain. ELoridablanea, the Prime Minister of Spain made every effort to preserve the outward appearance of peace, and keep Merry in ignorance of his plans. Spain would not agree to the British demand of "sat- isfaction before discussion", and sent another note in a sim- i l a r tone in March, expressing the hope that British subjects would now be requested to respeot Spanish rights, and that i t . would "not be necessary to enter into discussions regarding the indubitable rights of the Spanish Crown." (1) So far i t was only known that one ship had been captured. The Spanish authorities were in ful l possession of the facts, but for some unknown reason had not made them public. Then, l ike a thunderbolt, Meares arrived in London in April 1790, and pre- sented his famous memorial to a government whose previous information depended only on vague rumours, and possessed no clear idea of the facts. The Memorialv,was a document "more useful to s t i r the public mind to war with Spain than as a statement of facts. Exaggerated, contradictory, intention- (2) al ly false, i t exists today a complete proof of his mendacity'.1 It was written in the expectation of exacting large money payments from Spain, and the case against the Spaniards was twisted with the deliberate intention of arousing a rampant war spirit in the general public. At a cabinet meeting (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 149. (2) Ibid, I, 149. Page 128. following the presentation of the document, Apri l 30, 1790, the government resolved to demand "an immediate and adequate satisfaction for the outrages committed hy M. de Martinez", (1) and advised the king to prepare for war. Plans were begun, hut kept secret unti l the middle of May, when information concerning the affairs of Nootka was sent to Parliament hy the king, stressing that no satisfaction had been given, and that Spain claimed the right to exclude a l l nations from the waters and territory of that part of the world* The king added that as steps were being taken in Spain towards war, he felt bound to ask Commons for supplies to do likewise. The idea was popular, and Parliament voted a million pounds to "enable his Majesty to aot as the exigency of affairs might require", and preparations were speedily got underway* Great Britain informed her al l ies of the Triple Alliance, Holland and Prussia of her need, and asked for aid with gratifying results* Holland sent ten ships, while Prussia promised to stand by her agreement should war occur. Spain was not so fortunate. She was al l ied with Prance, but although the French king was willing to help her, the French minister said that the tone of the Assembly made i t advisable to keep peace* Seeing l i t t l e possibility of aid, Spain began to change her diplomatic attitude, but made one last effort to get help, and sent a circular letter to the courts of Europe, asking for assistance on the ground that Great Britain was trying to force a quarrel while Spain wish- ed to maintain peace* The general European situation did not (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 376. Page 129 favour war, and matters became less belligerent in tone. Britain declared that she had every desire to reach a peaceful agreement, but stated that "no negotiations to that end could be undertaken until the vessels were restored, Meares indemnif- ied, and satisfaction given for the insult to the British flag." (1) Pitt forced Spain to choose between war and abandon- ing her claim to sovereignty. War seemed imminent. Both fleets lay in readiness, as well as the Dutch ships, which were prepared to assist Great Britain whenever she should so desire. Matters dragged on until September, Spain began to realize the seriousness of her isolation, while the people of England began to complain at the length of negotiations and the uncertainty. In July Floridablanca had signed an agree- ment to restore Meares1 ships, indemnify the owner, and give satisfaction for injury, While Fitzherbert signed a counter declaration for England, accepting the indemnity and apology. Further abortive efforts were made, but ho agreement was reached, until October 2, 1790, Pitt "sent a ten day ultimatum together with two drafts for the Convention of which the Spanish ministry might take i ts choice" - the only difference c being that one of them provided for the definite demarkatlon of Spanish territory. (2) Floridablanoe procrastinated try- ing to obtain a few small concessions - the Spanish considered the British demands preposterous - no greater surrender could be required as the result of a disastrous war." (3) No avenue (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 152. (2) Lennox Mil ls , "The Real Significance of the Nootka Sound Incident", Canadian Historical Review, 1925, VI, 118. (3) Ibid, VI, 118. Page 130. of evasion opened, and he was forced to agree. The Nootka Sound Convention was signed on the 28th. of October 1790. By i ts articles Meares1 lands were restored, and reparation for his loses promised. The freedom of the Pacific was assured to both British and Spanish shipping, while at Nootka and elsewhere "both should have free access and carry on their commerce without molestation wherever either power should form a settlement." (1) The Convention was approved in England, hut bitterly attacked in Spain. Jjloridablanca's f a l l from power in 1792, after fifteen years of service, is attributed to his signing i t . (2) The Convention left the north west coast in the nature of a no-man ?-s land, claimable only by settlement, while Spain had renounced - for the f irst time in history - her claim to exclusive sovereignty of the coasts and waters of the Pacific Oceans. Captain George Vancouver was sent from England to receive the property and buildings at Nootka. Spain paid Meares a large compensation - $210,000 - "a very l iberal allowance, and far exceeded any actual loss." (3) Meares reached this figure by his usual methods of exaggeration, such as assuming that the "Argonaut" would have collected two thousand skins worth a hundred dollars each - a feat never accomplished in coast history in such a period by a ship her size. Dixon further points out that the price of a l l such skins since 1785 was only about twenty nine dollars. (4) Meares further estimated that the "Iphigenla", ''Princess Royal" 41). Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 119. (2) Ibid, Page 459. (3) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 156. (4) Ibid, I, 156. Page 131. and "north West America" would have secured a thousand skins apiece, although the combined cargoes of the "Felice" and "Iphigenla" for the previous season had only produced seven hundred and f i f ty pelts, sold, Meares stated, for f i fty dollars a skin. Meares had Hsinged the King of Spain's beard" as effectively as ever i t was done by Sir Francis Drake - the oontrast lying merely in the methods - mendacity versus bravado. So ended the Hootka Sound Controversy - which when i t f irst opened was regarded as "the insignificant quarrel of two obscure sea captains" - a mere "fight for the cat skins of Hootka", and at its climax nearly precipitated European war. The settlement determined the subsequent positions of England and Spain on the north west coast, broke the Spanish monopoly, and provided a future factor of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. The incident marked the end of the f irst era in the Maritime Fur Trade, in which i t reached its peak. Furs were plentiful, traders were sufficiently scarce to make barter profitable, and no great Ingenuity was required in selecting articles of trade. Iron, copper, firearms and powder were the most desired commodities. The metals either came in bars or sheets, or made into articles such as kettles, swords, and a variety of tools. Beads were more valued in the north, but soon brought l i t t l e but fish in any distr ict . Pewter ware, blankets and mirrors were highly popular, and by 1788 the vogue for articles of European dress had begun. The fur trade, although mainly sea otter, was Page 132. exclusively so only a snort time. Fur seal was soon included, as well as beaver, river otter, marten, marmot, and practic- al ly every animal found on the coast. Meares, in his "orders to Captain Douglas" gives an idea of the relative value of these furs. (1) Black beaver fetched from ten to twelve dollars, river otter between four and five. Black marten were valuable, brown were not. Small hurst skins were worth collecting, since they brought between ten and fifteen dollars a hundred. Oil was a prized commodity, fetching a price of forty five pounds starling a ton. Whale bone had a certain market. No skin approached the sea. otter in value, but beaver and fox - particularly black fox - always brought good returns. The price of the latter was not quoted. Ginseng was included in the trade. Some traders made a practice of setting a price for every kind of fur when they arrived, and remained adamant, despite the wiles of the Indians who were notorious barterers. As was later said of the natives, "the modern Hebrew could teach them nothing in the art of bargaining." (2) Great care was taken over the skins and their preservation. Meares* instructions to Douglas and Colnett on the subject were explicit; "Furs must be classified and packed in chests, let them be smoked and carefully put in, with heavy weights over them, so that when they are produced at market, they may bear such appearance as wil l enhance their value." (3) Samples of each quality had to be put in separate boxes, and every skin, (1) Meares, "Voyages", Appendix II, "Orders to Captain - Douglas. ,? (2) Marohand, "A Voyage Round the World", Page 192. (3) Meares, Tvbyages", Appendix II, "Orders to Captain Douglas." Page 133 piece, and t a i l numbered and registered. The Chinese rated the sea otters under eight or nine denominations of proport- ionate worth, concerning which, according* to Meares, "they would never suffer us to intrude an opinion." (1) Unsatisfactory conditions in China increased the difficulties of the traders. The Chinese were said to regard the power of Great Britain with much apprehension, and the regulations concerning foreign vessels certainly did not tend to encourage them. A l l European shipping oame under the Hong merchants, one of whom was put in charge of each ship at Canton. Every trading operation of the ship depended on his pleasure, and was arranged to his personal advantage. The Hong merchants were heavily taxed by the Mandarins and higher officials , and paid these taxes with what they collected from the Europeans. They were not security for each other. A l l ships on their f irst arrival had to pay a certain "measurement? which was calculated by their tonnage, before they were allowed to trade. The sum was collected by the Hoppo, (or Viceroy) of Canton, and within a few years had been much augmented. An East Indiaman, for instance, paid from eight hundred to twelve hundred pounds. The ships were barred from entering Canton, and had to remain at Macao, fourteen miles away. They were obliged to send their goods ashore on Chinese boats, and contin- ual robberies were committed, on the cargoes on their way to Canton, for which there was no redress. Bribery and corruption was rife among the off icials . An additional burden was placed on licensed ships, for they were not permitted to bargain for (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 243. Page 134 their own cargoes, and the sale was conducted by the super- cargo of the East India Company. Portlock and Dixon observed that by this method they received twenty dollars apiece for two thousand of their best furs, which i f properly handled would have brought eighty or ninety each, —•- the current rate at the time. (1) In spite of this, they commented on the fur trade: "So far from being a losing branch of commerce, i t is perhaps the most profitable and lucrative employ that the enterprising merchant can possibly engage in ." (2) (1) Portlock, "A Voyage Hound the World, 1765-.1788V, Page 370. (2) ibid, Page 371. Page 135. Chapter VI.. "THE AMERICAN ENTRY." (1788-1790) The New Englanders entered the field under very- favourable circumstances. Unhampered by monopolies, they found a rich supply of furs, and returned to a country enjoy- ing peace, and anxious to build up a merchant marine. The city of Boston early got control of the trade, and managed to maintain the lead in spite of competition. Massachusetts depended almost entirely upon her marine commerce, and pros- pered or flagged according as i t waxed or waned. In 1784 she was seeking substitutes for the protected trade of colonial days, for without fresh outlets she could no longer maintain her former dominant position among the States of America. Her seamen had to compete with the English, Spots and Dutch in the Baltic and Indies, and hoped that new markets and sources of supply might be found in the Pacific. Commerce and the struggle for existence oooupied them entirely, and Emerson wrote "Prom 1790 to 1820 there was not a book, a speech, a conversation, or a thought in the State." (1) The Chinese market was discovered in 1784, when the "Empress of China" from New York, carrying Major Samuel Shaw as supercargo, anchored at Macao. Prom then on America imported her own teas and silks direct, and depended no more on the Dutch and British. Major Shaw was given the honorary t i t l e of American Consul at Canton, and returned with Captain Magee in the "Hope" (1) S. E . Morison, "Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783- 1860", Houghton Miff l in Co., Boston, 1921. Page 42. Pago 136. of Now York In 1786, and established the first American commercial house in China. America was sadly lacking in suitable commodities with which to compote in the China trade, for the Canton market required either money or purely Eastern articles such as edible birds 1 nests, opium, and sharks1 fins. The New Englanders had nothing to offer exoopt ginseng, and that in limited quantities, until the discovery of the sea otter, and, although less important, of the sandalwood of Hawaii* The "Columbia" was the f irst ship to return to Boston after v is i t - ing the north west coast, and her arrival, on August 9, 1790, opened the sea otter trade to the enterprising Boston merchants, and gave them access to Oriental wealth. The furs and sandal- wood were mere "middlemen" to the American traders, - commod- ities of exchange for the teas and textiles of China. Japan took no part in the commerce* She was a hermit nation - isolated and closed to the foreigner since 1640, and remained so until 1867, when an opening was forced by Commodore Perry of the American Navy. Hence China was the sole market for the sea otter, and Canton the only port at which i t might be traded* The western people wore regarded as the "Pan Kwae" - the foreign devils, with whom i t was wise to have as l i t t l e intercourse as possible. Japan was barred in a practical sense as well as a theoretical one, for in 1791 Captain Kondrick of the "Washington" with Captain Douglas in the "Grace" of New York, ventured into a southern Japanese harbour in the hope of selling sea otter. Nothing came of i t , however, for Page 137. the natives were unenthusiastic and seemed to nave no use for the fur, so no business was done. Despite this the Chinese developed a husiness proo- eedure so complicated and involved, that the confused trader was glad to shift the responsibility to the Boston Mercantile Agencies which sprang up at Canton. The f irst of these - Shaw and Randall - was founded in 1786, and took entire charge of the sale for which i t exacted seven and a half per cent on the return lading. In later days competition reduced this to two and a half per oent of which the supercargo received one. Business at Canton was necessarily expensive. Fees, expenses, and repairs absorbed nearly half the proceeds of the "Columbia"1 & f irst sale - with a total cost of over ten thousand dollars. Even the cleverest captain knowing the business by heart, seldom brought i t below six thousand. Yet the growing western demand for oriental goods made the trade increase by leaps and bounds*, while the value of American imports rose steadily. Wages were not high, and masters and mates of trading ships received only twenty to twenty five dollars monthly wages. The officers treatment was more generous - doubtless with the idea of removing the temptation for private smuggling, and they were usually allowed one half to five tons cargo space on the return voyage for private enterprise in Chinese goods, as well as a commission varying from one to eight per cent on the net proceeds of the venture. (1) The Mew England fur traders made their f irst appear- ance on the north west coast in 1788, having left Boston the :(1) Morison, r"Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860", Pages 76-77. Pago 138. previous year. Here again the influence of Cook's Third Voyage may he traced, for the Boston merchants hoped that the furs desorihod hy King would furnish the desired commodity for the China trade. The expedition was organized hy Joseph Barroll for purposes of "trade and discovery". His f irst associates considered the speculation too risky, and f e l l out of the agreement, hut in the summer of 1787 Barroll was join- ed hy five other men, Samuel Brown, Charles Bui finch, John Derby, Crowell Hatch, and John M. Pintard. They financed i t privately, by fourteen shares of thirty fivo hundred dollars. Two ships wero purchased, the "Columbia Rodiviva" of two hun- dred and twelve tons under Captain John Kondriok who had charge of the expedition, with the "Washington" a ninoty ton sloop as consort under Captain Robert Gray. Kondriok was "an old experienced navigator", but does not seom to have been quite the man for such an undertaking. The owners had no intention of allowing the voyage to pass unnoticed or uncommem- orated, and caused several hundred medals to be struck and sent with the vessels. On one side was "the sloop, encircled with theirs and the commanders' name: on the other the name of the owners, encircled with 'Fitted at Boston, North America for the Pacbfic Ocean 1787'". (1) A few silver ones wore prepared for special distribution, one of which was sent to General Washington who "returned polite thanks" and ffwished the undertaking a l l success." The expedition was no ordinary private venture, but was "provided with sea letters by the Federal Qovornmont, agroeablo to a resolution of Congress, with (1) John Ho skins, "Narrative of a Voyage to the North West Coast, of America, (Performed in the ship "Columbia Rodiviva") Transcript in Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. Pages 2-3. Page 139 passports from the State of Massachusetts and letters from the Spanish Minister in the United States, recommending the attention of the authorities of his nation on the Pacific coasts." (1) Great celebrations were held on board the night the ships left , but the atmosphere of camaraderie was short l ived. Kendrick was forty seven at the time of sailing, and was not an easy man to get on with, possessing a violent and uncontroll- ed temper. He assaulted Haswell, his second officer before the expedition had gone very far, and took an early opportun- ity to transfer him to the "Washington". According to Haswell, Kendrick was always fighting with his officers, and certainly in the course of the voyage Roberts, the surgeon, and Woodruffe the f irst mate, also left the ship. Gray was fifteen years junior to the commander, but beyond this and the fact that he came from Rhode Island of good New England pioneer stock, l i t t l e is known of his l i f e before the turbulent years on the north west coast. Haswell, although himself an American, was the son of a British naval officer. (2) Kendrick had a di l i tory nature, and even when started was uncertain whether he would round the Horn at once, rather favouring a plan of wintering on the near side. His officers so opposed the idea that he consented to make the passage. Weather conditions were trying, and the ships encountered in rapid succession intense frost, thaw, snow, hail and heavy seas. While actually making the Horn they were caught in a (1) Newcombe, "The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island", Page 33. . (2) Robert Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World, 1787-9", Transcript in Provincial Arohives, Victoria, B.C. , Page 32. Pag© 140 terrif ic storm, ana lost sight of each other until both arriv- ed in Nootka Sound. The "Washington" sighted the coast of Hew Albion on the 2nd. of August 1788, in latitude 41° 28* H . , and met native canoes a few days later. The crew landed for the f irst time about 45"33*, to replenish necessary supplies of wood and water, with tragic consequences. The natives mad© a treacherous attack, k i l l ing a black boy, and wounding others - apparently without provocation - and the place was commemorated by the name "Murderers* Bay". A number of Indians were encountered in the vicinity of 48* 5* who welcomed them with the usual ceremonies of paddling round the ships, singing and whooping. The chiefs were only too eager to come aboard, but had no sea otter skins, and few of any others. Ho skins concluded "Beyond a doubt some other Engliah ships must have visited here this season for they plainly articulated several English names* " (1) . The native demands were consider- ed extravagant, and consequently l i t t l e trade resulted* Some nice furs had been acquired in their journey up the coast, in exchange for knives, axes and adzes, although the Indians would have much preferred copper. More of the inhabitants appeared on the morning of the 30th. of August, 1788, coming from Clayoquot Sound with large quantities of furs, but ''greatly to our mortification there was nothing in our vessel excepting muskets would purch- ase one of them, and we had barely enough for our defence. Copper was a l l their cry, and we had none of it*" (2) The latter item was an unfortunate omission in the cargo, but (1) Robert Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World 1787-9", Transcript in Provincial Archives, Victoria, B .C. , Page 32. Page 141 apparently the Americans were not prepared to take the firm stand of Barkley, Dixon and Portlock in refusing to supply firearms to the Indians. Wiokananish and his brother visited the ship, clad in European fashion, and spoke of Captains Meares, Barkley "Hannah11 (sie) "Dunkin" (sio) and Douglas. After a short stay the "Washington" set sai l for Nootka, but ran into a terri f ic gale* The ship, now sadly scurvy-stricken, entered the Sound on the 16th. of September, having met one of the English ships outside who guided them in . At Friendly Gove Gray made the acquaintance of Meares and Douglas, and learnt to his regret that the "Columbia" had not yet arrived. He had not expected to find Nootka such a center of activity, but was interested in the "North West America" which was within three days of launching. Speaking of the undertaking, Gray said that Meares "first built a tolerably strong garrison and then went to work building a small schooner about thirty tons, while Captain Meares cruised the coast collecting skins. We found this vessel nearly completed." (1) Meares was already preparing to leave for Macao, and did his best to discourage the Americans from staying on the coast, talking vaguely of the dangers and savage disposition of the Indians, and the poor condition of the fur trade. He said he had only collect- ed f i f ty skins that season, but Gray was not deceived, and fully realized that Meares was trying to r id himself of a competitor. At the same time Meares was not unfriendly, the officers dined with one another, and Meares lent Gray his (1) Haswell, Transcript, Page 36. Page 142 blacksmith to repair the damage done to his rudder irons in Murderers? Harbour, Hpskins was very poorly impressed by the English captain, and wrote "this Mr. Meares behaved him- self scandalously, and by no means l ike a gentleman, a character he dares to assume." (1) Certainly he played a nasty trick on them when he le f t . Meares offered to take any letters to China that Gray might wish to send, and the latter eagerly seized the chance to write to his owners. Gray then helped to tow Meares out of the harbour, but found on his return that Meares was not as sincere as he sounded. There were his letters lying on the table, enclosed by a note, in which Meares apologized for returning them, saying he "was not certain to what part of India he should go and therefore could not ensure delivery of them." Meares feared they contained further information for the Boston traders which must be disadvantag- eous to his company, and had devised the ruse because he knew, had he refused to carry letters, his officers and crew would have been prevailed upon to do so. The trick angered the Americans a l l the more because they had had to give Meares1 vessels extra provisions to enable them to reach the Sandwich Islands, so poorly were they fitted with supplies, although having plenty of the principal articles of trade - copper and iron. Captain Kendrick and the "Columbia" arrived on the 23rd., having called at the Juan Fernandez Islands for repairs, where they were very well received hy the Spanish Governor. Scurvy had claimed two victims during the voyage, while others (l)Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 4. Page 143 of the crew were in an advanced state. Kendrick immediately assumed control, hut felt he could "do nothing unti l these Englishmen have left the place", and so did a l l in his power to speed Douglas" departure, lending him carpenters, workmen, provisions and naval stores. The "Iphigenla", or "Yagene" as Haswell records i t , finally sailed on the 26th. of October, 1788, and the Americans began preparations for winter. There is some evidence that another American ship visited the coast during 1788, the "ELeanore" of Hew York, a hundred and ninety ton brig under Captain Simon Metcalfe. John Bolt in his log of the "Union" mentioned Metcalfe at Macao, buying a companion vessel for his ship after returning from the north west coast. He gave the command of his consort - the "Fair American" - to his eldest son, and since the latter ship was known to be at Nootka in 1789, i t would follow that the "ELeanore" must have been on the coast alone in 1788. (1) There is no other known record of the voyage. The Americans made/scathing comments on Meares* methods of trading, although later inoidents would suggest that the whole community l ived in "glass houses". Hoskins spoke of Meares as arriving at a native village and securing " a l l the fish and o i l to be found, giving them in return a small piece of copper far less valuable than the provisions they had taken by force* and leave the poor harmless wretches unprovided for a long and vigorous winter. — They would often send their boat from the snow in chase of the canoes and bring them to by (1) F.W. Howay, "Trading vessels in the Maritime Fur Trade 1785- 1794". The-Koyal Society of Canada, Section 2, 1930. Published at Ottawa, Page 116. Page 144, firing musket balls at them (for the native canoes were far swifter than those of European build) and! then rob them of their fish." (1) The story relies purely on Haswell's account, but thetie is no reason to suppose that he was less dependable in his evidence than any other trader. Kendrick was leisurely in his movements, and rather unstable in his ideas. He occupied the winter at Nootka, first by trying to sloop-rig the "Washington" - an attempt which had to be given up since neither the required cordage duck nor blocks were available. He next started to build a house on shore, but soon abandoned i t , and finally found occupation on board by constructing a huge brick chimney where the mizzen mast stood. His officers did not favour the plan, as Kendrick had already a good brass stove on board, and the new addition was a serious fire hazard. Kendrick could not be dissuaded however, and in due course the chimney was completed, The general forebodings were apparently justified for a few days later the "Columbia" did catch fire, and the "Washington" had to come to her assistance. The oonflagation was dangerous, being in the vicinity of the magazine, but fortunately oame under control before large damage had been done. During the winter the weather was rainy and disagree- able, and the crews depended on fowling and hunting for their principal amusements. Various disputes arose between the two ships, chiefly because Kendrick would not allow the "Washington" to shift its anchor without his express permission. Kendrick was altogether a ourious character. In the spring of 1789 the (1) Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World", Transcript, Page 41. Page 145 "Washington" was sent on several small cruises, the f irst of these being to the south. Gray left on the 4th. of March for Clayoouot, where he obtained a few skins. The ilatives in this district struck him as better proportioned and stouter than the Nootkans, although resembling them in custom. The Indians -+ demanded copper and muskets for their furs, and sometimes refused to sell i f denied them. Gray made no express state- ment that these guns were ever withheld - except when the "supply was so limited that they had barely enough for them- selves." Gray continued down the coast line until he oame to the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. On returning to Nootka he found a l l was s t i l l well, but that l i t t l e had been done to f i t the "Columbia" for sea. Captain Douglas had arrived from the Sandwich Islands with the "Iphigenla" and ths "North West America", and the latter vessel was almost immed- iately sent on a cruise under Captain Funter. The "Washington" left Nootka on the 1st. of May 1789 for another trip - this time to the north, and encountered Martinez as he left the Sound. The meeting has already been described - the Spaniard's friendly attitude, and eagerness to know what ships were anchored in the Sound. Kendrick was provided with letters from the Spanish minister to America, which saved his vessels from capture in the f irst instance. He showed considerable diplomacy in his later relations with "Martinez, trying to disguise his" trading activities. Martinez was not deceived but friendship suited him for the moment." (1) Officially the American ships were (1) F.W. Howay, "John Kendrick and his Sons", Oregon Historical Society, December 1922. Pages £77-302. Page 146. on a voyage of exploration and discovery, and when the "Washington" left for her northern trip Kendrick explained i t as necessary "to get pipe and barrel staves." Kendrick had his two sons on board the "Columbia", John, an officer, and Solomon a sailor before the mast. John Kendrick now adopted the Roman Catholic faith and entered Spanish service on the "Prinoesa", where he was welcomed because he was a good pilot and well educated. The "Washington" reached 55° 43* of northern latitude v" but was finally caught in so severe a storm that Gray judged i t wiser to return to Nootka for repairs before the "Columbia" le f t . Gray was much struck by the l i p ornaments worn by the women in these parts, and also in the Queen Charlotte Islands,-4 which they visited on the return voyage. Gray named them after his ship "Washington's Island", and did a tremendous trade in furs. In one instance two hundred sea otter skins were traded for a single chisel - a curious record in a log which rates Meares so severely in i ts earlier pages for not giving the Indians fair value for their furs. By the time the Americans left the Indians were practically stripped of their pelts. The "Washington" arrived at Nootka in July 1789, with a very profitable cargo. The Spaniards had been busy in his absence, and Gray was much surprised to find Hog Island fort- i f ied. Haswell comments briefly on the seizure of Captain Douglas* ships "on what pretence we know not." (1) Ho skins recorded such severe measures were adopted "on account of some indignities offered the Spanish flag." (2) (01) Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World 1787-9", Transcript, Page66. (2) Ho skins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America 1790- 93. Transcript, Page 5. Page 147. Kendriok ordered the "Columbia" and the "Washington" to Clayoquot, and on their arrival changed ships, rand sent Gray with the collected skins to China to make sure of an early market. The cargo was consigned to Messieurs Shaw and Randal. It is unknown why this exchange was made - i t might have been a whim, for according to Haswell, Kendriok "scarcely 1- knew his own mind and was always thinking of changes." (1) Kendrick, having la in inert at Nootka for the past ten months, now set off in the "Washington", revisited the Queen Charlotte Islands, and then made for the Sandwich Islands en route for Macao. He had a good eye for the possibilities of trade, and while at the latter islands was so much struck by the sandal- wood that he left three men to collect i t against his return, as well as any pearls which might come their way. The "Washington" reached Macao in the middle of January 1790, and here Kendriok was seized with such a violent fever that he was unable to return at once to the north west coast. Gray wrote to Joseph Barrell from Canton on December 18th. 1789, giving a statement of his cargo:- 700 skins 300 pieoes Sold in January 1790 - #21,400. He was preparing to take on teas for Boston, and admitted that the results of the voyage would be below the company's 2 expectations. The sa^e of the "Columbians furs was completed in January 1790 for $21,400 - but over ten thousand of this i l ) ff.W. Howay, "Captains Gray and Kendriok - The Barrell Letters", Washington Historical Quarterly, October 1921, Page 260. (2) Letter of Robert Gray to Joseph Barrell, Esquire, and Company. Written at Canton, December 18, 1789. Appendix: Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript. Page 148. was absorbed by commission and the harbour charges of Macao. Gray left immediately for Boston, entirely disregarding Kendriok,1 s instructions to vis i t him first and receive his final orders. The "Columbia" fired the federal salute of thirteen guns in Boston harbour on the 9th. of August, 1790, as the first American ship to circumnavigate the world. Kendrick wrote from Macao on "February 6th. 1790, asking for instructions, and enquiring whether he was to sel l the "Washington", load her with tea for America, or go baok to the north west coast. During his short visit to the Queen Charlotte Islands he had seoured a remarkable cargo, which he quoted as:- (1) 3S0 skins 60 garments 150 pieces Kendrick finally sold the furs, and prepared the "Washington" for another trip to the regions of the sea otter. The officers of the "Columbia" blamed his dilatory conduct very much, the length of time- he took to round the Horn, his oversight in not cruising the coast and letting excellent opportunities slip of making large fortunes both for himself and his owners. Concerning the time Kendrick took to arrive, Gray wrote from Nootka Sound, July 13th. 1789: i *»—I had the good luck to part company the first day of April —-• which enabled me to make the best of my way along, and I made the coast six weeks sooner by being alone. " (2) Kendrick was even accused of planning to cheat the owners out of everything. Hoskins thought (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript. Appendix: Letter to lohn Kendrick to Messers Gray and Howe. Written at Macao, February 6th. 1790. (2) Ibid. Appendix: Letter of Robert Gray, written at Nootka Sound, July 13,1789. Page 149. this latter judgment rather severe as no evidenoe of knavery had ever been exposed, and added "the man was by no means oalculated for the charge of such an expedition, hut a better man might have done worse." (1) As a commander of the vent- ure Kendrick had proved a failure, hut he did much better when captaining the small schooner. He was a man of l i t t l e education, kind hearted, but whimsical and vacillating, dictatorial and jealous of his authority. It was his un- certain actions and leisurely movements which prevented him from making a success of his undertaking as he should. Simon Metcalfe with the "Eleanore" and the newly purchased "Fair American", a twenty six ton schooner owned hy a trading company in New York, commanded by his son Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, returned to the coast in 1789, but their exact movements are not known. The "Fair American" left Macao on June 5th. 1789, and reaohed Unalaska on July 17th. Such aoourate details are not available for the "Eleanore", but in a l l probability she also sailed early in June. She was seen f irst in the neighbourhood of the Queen Charlotte Islands in September, and the following month Martinez sighted her off Nootka, but Metcalfe very wisely refused to come within hailing distance. The "Fair American" was not so fortunate, possibly due to the Inexperience of her commander - then only eighteen - and the size of her crew which numbered five in a l l . The ship had originally been a pleasure boat, lengthened at China, and her gunwhale (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 6. Page 150 was not a foot higher than: the double canoes of the Sandwich Island natives. She presented a striking contrast to the "Eleanore" which mounted ten guns, and supported a crew of f i f ty five - ten Amerioans and forty five Chinese. The "Pair American" sailed south and reached Hootka in distress, where she was detained for a short time by Martinez. Martinez seized the ship, and sent her to San Bias for the Governor to deal with. Revilla-Glgedo freed her, because the Americans had caused no inconvenience to Spain, nor interfered with Spanish settlements. The expense of detaining the crew seemed unnecessary under such circumstances, so the Governor finally allowed the "Pair American" to proceed. When releas- ed she made for the Sandwich Islands, wintering in the vicinity of the "Eleanore" and in so doing final disaster overtook the "Pair American". Captain George Vancouver recorded the incident, as described to him by John Young, boatswain of the "Eleanore", who had been forceably detained by the natives for fear he would spread news of the massacre and bring punishment on them, and Isaac Davis the mate of the "Pair American", sole survivor of the disaster. Young was a middle aged man of forty four, coming from Liverpool, while Davis, a native of Milford, was eight years younger. The trouble between the Amerioans and the Hawaiians began in February 1790, when a boat was stolon from the "Eleanore" with one of the crow in i t . Mot calf o offored a reward for their return, but tinly learnt that the former had Page 151. "bean destroyed and the latter k i l l ed . He then demanded the hones of the man, which were finally surrendered along with the stem and stern of the hoat. Trade continued, and the natives, believing peace was restored demanded the reward. Metcalfe promised they should have i t , and loaded the "Eleanore"'s guns with musket balls and nails. One side of the ship was then "tabooed" - in order to collect a l l the canoes on the starboard side next the shore - the ports were l i fted, and the guns let loose on the native craft. Consider- able slaughter resulted, particularly from the guns between decks which were nearly on a level with the canoes, TYoung estimated that about a hundred were ki l led and many wounded. After this - as Metcalfe considered it - adequate revenge, he sailed for Owhyhee, where he had previously anchored. On the 17th. of March 1790 Young received per- mission to spend a night on shore, on the understanding that he return next day. When he wished to So so he was refused a canoe, and told they were a l l "taboo". That evening he learnt that the "Fair American" had been captured, and young Metcalfe and the crew murdered. The native king, Tomaahmaah, was afraid to let Young go back to the "Eleanore" for fear he would take the news, and consequently Metcalfe's wrath would be vented on the local inhabitants. At the same time Tomaahmaah took the law into his own hands, and made the offending chieftain, Tamaahmbotoo, surrender the captured ship, which he kept in case Metcalfe ever returned to Owhyhee. Tamaahmaah heard the mate, Isaac Davis, was s t i l l Page 152 alive, and took him to his own quarters, where he was treat- ed with a l l possible kindness. Davis then gave his account of the capture of the schooner. Tamaahmootoo and his followers came to the "Pair American" when i t was nearly becalmed, made presents to young Metcalfe, and gained his confidence sufficiently to be allow© ed to board the vessel. The numbers made Davis uneasy, but Thomas Metcalfe would take no warning. The natives told him the "Eleanore" was only a l i t t l e to the westward, and that he would see his father before night. A few minutes later Tamaahmootoo seized and threw the youthful commander over- hoard, and he was seen no more. Davis snatched a pistol and tried to shoot the chief, but i t missed fire and he also was flung into the sea. Being a strong swimmer Davis escaped for a short time, in spite of the murderous blows aimed at him by the natives1 paddles, but finally, weak from loss of blood, he was dragged into a large double canoe. There was no available weapon with which to k i l l him, so the Hawaiians held Davis with his throat across the rafter that united the two canoes, and jumped on his neck and shoulders, intending to end his l i f e in that fashion. In spite of such treatment Davis continued to l ive, until one of the islanders began to pity him, and later took him under his care when the boat reached shore. Davis returned with Tamaahmootoo under his special protection, but neither Davis nor Young had since been allowed to leave the island for fear that retribution would follow. Even when "Vancouver arrived he was only Page 163 permitted to see one at a time, while the other was held as hostage for his return. Vancouver considered Metcalfe senior guilty of great negligence in allowing a craft of such inexperienced leadership and minature crew near the natives, to whom i t would appear an easy and valuable prize. A spirit of rest- lessness was abroad among the Hawaiian chiefs - Tianna was among the most unruly. He made one plan to seize the "Princess Royal", arguing that i f the Spaniards had taken her from the English he did not see why he should not take her from the Spaniards. Tianna also contemplated capturing the "Eleanore", making the seizure at the time when her sails were being furled. According to his scheme sufficient of the crew would be spared to navigate her, and she would prove a valuable aid in achieving his ambition - the conquest of the rest of the islands. Tamaahaah heard of the plan, and he forbad i t entirely, even turning Hanna 1 s men off the "Eleanore" when they arrived to put i t into execution. (1) The last ship to appear on the north west coast in 1789 was the British "Mercury" of London, a hundred and fifty two ton snow, owned and commanded hy John Henry Cox. The ship stopped at Unalaska for a fortnight during October and November of that year, on her way to China, but does not seem to have traded. Soon after reaohing the Pacific she changed her name to "Gustav^us III", and sailed under Swedish colours. The "Eleanore" was known to have returned to the coast in 1790, and the unsupported testimony of John Meares (1) George Vancouver, "A Voyage of Disoovery", Edwards, London, 1798, II, 135-145. Page 154. indicated that the British "Mercury" - now definitely "Gustavus III" - paid a second v i s i t . Two new American vessels arrived, the "Grace ", an eighty five ton schooner, under William Douglas, formerly of the "Iphigenla". Douglas was both owner and master, although curiously enough a second schooner, the "Polly" was also recorded as having Douglas for commander. It is possible Douglas may have been merely the owner, not the captain, or else that the two ships were the same under different names. (1) The f irst voyage of the "Columbia" had, like many pioneering enterprises, been a financial failure, hut the men gave such stirring accounts of the easy fortunes to be acquired in furs that the owners were induced to refit the ship once more under Captain Gray. Hoskins, the author of one log of the "Columbia", was more partial to Kendrick than Gray in his comments, and observed on the reappointment of the latter "I must do the credit to say, although Gray cruised the coast more and appeared to he more persevering to obtain skins, yet his principles were no better, his abil it ies less, and his knowledge of the coast from his former voyage, circumscribed within very narrow limits." (£) On her second voyage the "Columbia " carried the frame of a f i fty ton vessel which was to be built on the coast. New faces were seen among her owners, Joseph Barrell, Samuel Brown and Crowell Hatch remained, but Charles Bulfinch, John Derby and (1) F.W. Howay, "Trading vessels in the Maritime Fur Trade, 1785-1794", Page 1E0. (2) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 7. Page 155. John M. Pintard had gone, and there appeared instead Thomas Bulfinoh, Robert Gray (now a captain owner), Davenport, and McLean. The "Columbia" sailed from Boston on the 27th. of September 1790. She experienced such violent storms while rounding the Horn that she was nearly wrecked, but in spite of these oonditions, i t was the 20th. of May 1791 before scurvy made its appearance. At that date there was only one outbreak, although six more followed in the next eight days. By the 16th. of June the "Columbia" was at the entrance of Clayoquot Sound, where fresh supplies were easily obtainable. Gray learnt from the natives that Kendriok had not yet re- visited the coast. Page 156 Chapter VII. "THE CHANGING TIMES." (1791) In the fur trade i t se l f great changes were taking place. Competitors doubled and trebled, and crossed and re- crossed each other so often that they assumed almost a kal- eidoscopic aspect, making i t impossible to keep track of them. Many of the traders now sailed from their native lands, England, France and the United States, collected their furs in one or two seasons, sold them in China, and returned with freight or oriental cargo. Some s t i l l operated from China, and a very few from Calcutta and Bengal. Nootka was very much the rendez vous of the captains and presented an animated scene, but/the fur trade was no longer a matter of trinkets and scrap iron, and variety and articles of real value were demanded. The natives were hard to satisfy. They rejected copper sheets as being too thick or too thin, and refused to look at goods which had entranced them on a former v i s i t . From 1791 on the traders began to winter on the coast, instead of sailing for the Sandwich Islands. Nootka Sound or Clayoquot Sound were usually selected for this purpose, and no ships sheltered in the Columbia before 1794. The price demand- ed by the Indians for their furs was rising rapidly7 Kendriok commented on i t , and by 1793 Roberts had to pay forty toes for a prime skin* which Dixon and Gray had formerly secured for Page 157. toe each. The source of supply for the individual trader was more uncertain than ever, from the many rivals in the field, and the Indians* increasing antagonism. Captain Gray, returned to the coast in June 1791, and made an early stop at Clayoquot to enable the sick to recover their health. Wiokananish and many of the Indians oame aboard, some of them wearing as many as four sea otter skins. The Americans were delighted and immediately showed the natives their articles of trade, but the latter seemed indifferent, expecting to receive them as presents. Members of the crew went on shore gathering large quantities of nettles, hogweed and other greens which proved excellent anti- scorbutics, and were "eaten with avidity by a l l hands." The general health of the crew was somewhat impaired by the long voyage, seven of whom were in an advanced state of scurvy. Hoskins attributed their condition to "our scanty supply of antisoorbutics, to an improper use of what we had, and to the small attention paid by the commander to the preservation of the health of his people." (1) Gray was blamed for refusing to stop at islands in both the southern and northern tropics where the necessary fresh supplies could have been obtained. It is quite possible that Gray went to the opposite extreme to Kendrick and was inclined to he too much on the go, yet in justice to him i t must he remembered that the outbreak was not nearly as serious as had taken place on other ships during a period - such as any of Meares, where the commander insisted every health precaution had been taken. Moreover, the last (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page £8. Page 158. voyage had been a financial failure, and one can easily under- stand that he might he anxious to cut down on time with an idea of curtailing expense. On the whole, Hoskins' judgment is perhaps rather prejudiced. For two days the Indians refused to trade their skins, and then could only he persuaded to part with twenty two. Gray sent a present consisting of potatoes, onions and seeds, to Tootoocheettieus, a brother of Wichananish, and the chief was greatly pleased hy the novelty. The Americans bought two deer to make soup for the invalids, and while engaged with these and other occupations, the Sandwich Island boy, Ottoo, ran away with the Indians. He was reclaimed hut not without difficulty. Gray had by this time collected a l l the available furs in the neighbourhood, amounting to a hundred and twelve sea otter skins, twenty five pieces, and thirty seven tai ls - hut the sum was far short of Hoskins1 expectat- ions. The Indians of Clayoquot would hardly accept iron even as a gift, and asked chiefly for copper and clothing. A sheet of copper was purchased for four skins, and clothing in similar ratio. Small articles such as knives, buttons, fish hooks and gimlets only brought sea otter tai ls , or fish and vegetables. Gray next went to Hope Bay in Chiokleset Sound, and then sailed from place to place trading whenever possible. He was reoeived with much hospitality at Opswis village, where the natives roasted clams in his honour, and welcomed him with the refain: "Wak ush Tiyee awinna" - "Welcome, Travelling Chief". Yet while this was going on, some of the crew noticed Page 159. other Indians at the hack of the house arming, and sharpening daggers and spears, The Amerioans wished to avoid a rupture i f i t were possible, and immediately returned to the ship, preparing to seize their weapons at any moment i f required. The occasion fortunately did not arise. Hoskins commented on the multitude of dogs of the fox breed which abounded at these villages. Iron was more valued in Ghickleset Sound than at Glayoquot. The "Columbians next ports of cal l were Company's Bay and Hittenat, where at the latter centre Gray made the acquaintance of the chief Cassaoan and secured valuable furs. Prom here he went to Tootoooh's Island on the eastern side of the entrance to the Straits of Juan de Pucar,. and turning north again made a second cal l at Mttenat. It was not as success- ful as the f irst , for Cassaoan exasperated Gray hy suddenly deciding he did not wish to sell the skins, and carried them off, although offered considerably more than he had originally asked. The first news of Captain Kendrick was obtained at the Queen Charlotte Islands, where the natives reported that he had called, first: in a ship of one mast, later in one with two. Prom this i t was concluded that Kendriok had achieved his ambition and altered the rigging of the "Washington" to make her a brig. Kendrick's f irst visit of 1789 had not been a peaceful one, for serious trouble broke out between the Americans and a chief, Koyah, while the former were anchored in Houston Stewart Channel. Kendrick had been much troubled by the thieving of the Haidas, and the climax oame when the Page 160. natives stole some personal clothing he had left out to dry. He determined to teach them a lesson, and seizing Koyah and another chief, he mounted a gun, and placed a leg of each chief in i t , threatening to blow them to pieces unless the linens were at once restored. In due course some were return- ed and Kendriok extracted payment in skins for the rest. Then before freeing the two chiefs he made the Indians bring a l l their remaining furs, and took them paying the price which had formerly been asked for them. Revenge was s t i l l uppermost in Koyah1s mind when Kendriok returned in 1791, although two years had elapsed between the oalls. It was natural enough, since following his punishment Koyah had no longer been regarded as a head chief. Koyah watched his opportunity, and on one occasion when the HaIdas were on board in large numbers they managed to get the keys of the arms chest, and capture the "Washington" for about an hour before being finally driven off with consid- erable slaughter. The Americans hastened the retreat hy chasing them in armed boats, k i l l ing a l l who came within range. In spite of his relations with Kendrick, Koyah showed no hesitation in coming on board the "Columbia" when she appeared a few weeks later. Gray was disappointed in finding no furs and although Koyah promised that more would be collected, did not stay long. Hoskins described the latter as ''l ittle, dimunitive and savage looking a fellow as ever trod." The "Columbia" continued northward, and on the 23rd. Page 161. of July 1791 met the "Hope" of Boston, under Captain Ingraham, an ocoasion celebrated by much mutual oheering. Gray made a lucky find at his next port of ca l l , the village of Tooschcondolth, obtaining forty nine sea otter skins, twenty four pieces of sea otter and thirteen sea otter tai ls for a pile of chisels. On reaching the north of the Island, Gray determined to go no further for one season, and turned west along the north shore. In this vicinity Caswell, the; second mate, and a small party were ambushed when they went on shore to fish. In latitude 55*18* north and longitude 132*20* west Gray named Brown Sound, and while exploring its arms encountered another of his countrymen, Captain Crowell, with the "Hancock" of Boston. The "Hancock" was a hundred and fifty seven ton brig, owned by Crowell and Creighton. She left Boston during November 1790, but did not come direct, stopping at Staten Island on the way to k i l l seals, and later, after a stormy passage round Cape Horn, at the Sandwich Islands, where the Hawaiians made an unsuccessful attempt to capture her. While at the Islands Crowell obtain- ed some forty sea-otter skins, which the natives said Captain Metoalfe.*s sailors had stolen and sold to them. The "Hancock" reached the north west coast on the 14th. of July 1791, and when they arrived set up the frame of a long boat and sloop and rigged i t . The new ship was not launched with- out a struggle, as the natives chose to oppose i t , and several of them were ki l led in the resulting skirmish. The ship - its name is unknown - was then sent to cruise the north end Page 162. of the Queen Charlotte Islands under a Mr. Anderson, Between them Crowell and Gray soon drained Brown's Sound of furs, and began to consider their next moves. The French captain Marchand anchored outside Cloak Bay at the north of the Islands with his ship "La Solide" from August 21-27 1791, and saw a brig between a hundred and fifty and two hundred tons with a twelve ton tender in the offing, hut did not communicate. There is l i t t l e doubt they were the "Hancock" and her newly completed assistant. Nothing is known about this latter vessel beyond these casual notes. It had only recently been brought to Hoskins*; attention that the "Washington Islands" of the Americans, so named by Captain Gray in 1789, were previously discovered and oalled the Queen Charlotte Islands by Captain George Dixon in 1787. He commented whimsically: "It is therefore my most sincere wish and hope that the amiable Queen of the one country and the illustrious President of the other may long live to enjoy these small honours which is in the power of the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other to bestow." (1) On the 28th. of August 1791 Gray passed Nootka, hut did not enter, being bound for Clayoquot where he had deter- mined to winter, and in which locality the Indians reported Kendrick was already anchored. The information proved correct, and Kendrick visited then that evening - to Hoskins* great joy - "nothing can equal the pleasure I received on meeting with my old friend, or our mutual professions of happiness." (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 83. Page 163. Kendriok had missed the l a s t season having been detained i n China hy the sale o f his f u r s . A series o f mis- fortunes followed, and he experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n r e f i t t i n g and reprovisioning the "Washington", due to the unfriendliness of the Portuguese Governor. It was March 1791 when the "Washington" f i n a l l y l e f t , s a i l i n g i n dompany with Captain William Douglas i n the "Grace" of Hew York, who had spent the previous season on the coast. The ships parted company near Japan, each captain s e l e c t i n g h i s own course f o r the rest o f the voyage. Douglas died the following autumn as the "Grace" returned to China, and was succeeded hy R. D. Coolidge, formerly master o f the "Gertrudis" (the "North West America" under Spanish colours). On reaching the coast Kendrick made straight f o r the Queen Charlotte Islands, where Koyah nearly oaptured the "Washington", and s a i l e d from there to Nootka. Kendrick went lip the Sound to Mawinna, passed the Spanish settlement and explored the Tashees River, and Ahaleset Sound, which l a y between Chickleset and Nootka Sounds. Kendrick obtained many skins and also purchas- ed a considerable area of land at Nootka Sound f o r muskets, iron, oopper and clothing, (l) He then spent about a month equipping the "Washington" f o r China, and she s a i l e d on the 25th. o f September 1791. The "Columbia" v i s i t e d the southern parts o f the Island during the e a r l i e r days o f September, but finding the weather very had decided to return to Clayoquot Sound and winter i n Cfiickseleoutsee Cove. She anchored there on the (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 95. Page 164. 20th. of September, and immediately sent men ashore to clear land where the frame of tithe new ship carried by the "Columbia" could be set up. The crew out trees to build a fort, and in nine days a house thirty six feet by eighteen was erected. In the lower story the logs were piled horizontally with their ends let into each other, and their seams f i l l ed with a mortar of clay and burnt shell, The upper part was framed and covered with boards obtained from the Indians. On a l l sides were loopholes for musketry, and two ports were left in front for cannon. Inside was a brick fireplace built in sufficient proportions to serve both for cooking and warmth, and a forge, where daily work might be done for the new ship, fhen completed the house was named "Port Defiance" and put in charge of Haswell with twenty men under him. A plentiful supply of ammunition was provided, and the fort was stocked with four cannon, forty muskets, several blunderbusses, pistols, and a quantity of powder. The new ship, to be known as the "Adventurer" was well under way. The Indians made one unsuccessful attempt to seize Gray - thought to be due to Tootiscposettie wishing to avenge the threats and personal abduction which Gray had practised on him earlier, to enforce the return of Ottoo, the Sandwich Island hoy who had taken refuge with his tribe. Otherwise the winter passed without a r i f t , and relations between the two peoples were apparently of the most friendly nature. Li t t le trading was done, hut i t was a slack time. The Americans celebrated Christmas day in royal Page 165 fashion. They decorated the Port, the "Columbia", and the vessel in the stocks with spruce bows, interspersed with the various flowers, of the season, and held a big dinner on board, consisting of geese, ducks and teals in large quantities, with a double allowance of grog. The Indian chiefs and their ladies were invited, but the women refused to come on hoard, and remaining in their canoes were fed there. The first of January 1792 was also celebrated in appropriate style. The natives began to collect in larger numbers, and would take l i t t l e but muskets and ammunition for their furs, even when offered copper and clothing. Relations became increasingly amicable. The Amerioans were called in to doctor Yeklan, a son of Wiokananish, and Hoskins even spent a few days with Wiokananish at the village of Dpitsitah. Despite this friendly guise, the Indians were hatching a great con- spiracy which involved the capture of the "Columbia" and the murder of a l l the traders. The savages tried to maintain the best possible terms with Gray until the last minute, explaining the warlike atmosphere as preparations for an expedition against some neighbouring tribe. The plot was discovered through the savages sudden and suspicious friend- ship for Ottoo. Gray made Ottoo confess what was in the wind, and he admitted the natives had questioned him regard- ing the watch, and tried to bribe him to wet the priming of the Amerioans1 guns. If the plot succeeded, they said he should be given plenty of skins and made a great chief. Gray thought i t best to finish graving the ship as Page 166, soon as possible, and then ship and fort eould cooperate in their defence. Ammunition was given to a l l , and the ship hauled on shore, jHoskins gives an excellent description of the evening's work. "It was a most beautiful starry night. We had got the bottom of the ship scraped and nearly burnt whan the natives gave a most dismal whoop. This was between one and two of clock in the morning. The people who belonged to the fort flew to their arms, and those who belonged to the ship were by no means behind them. In less than five minutes every man was to his quarters with arms and ammunit- ion ready for action. Never did men keep a sharper look out, or appeared more determined to be conquered by death alone. We continued to hear the most dreadful shrieks or whoops t i l l day began to dawn. They appeared to be in two parties, the one sounded from towards the bank where the ship had laid, the other in the gap opposite the Port. I suppose those shrieks or whoops must have been the order for retreat. The Chiefs were frequently called to by name, telling them we were ready for them and to come on, but were always answered by a dismal whoop. Ho doubt with me i t has been long in agitation with them to take us, and the fetching of the sick chief aboard waa a manoeuvre to see what lookout we kept of nights." (1) The "Columbia" was graved and launched by nine o'clock and everything of value taken on board. A few Indians appeared, fearfully offering fish for sale, which Hoskins diagnosed as an attempt to ascertain the exact positions of (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the Horth West Coast of America", Transcript, Pages 131-132. Page 167. the fort and ship. A barricade of, trees was thrown up round the house, which was left with that sole protection, while a l l the men boarded the ship. The fort was unmolested, and next morning two chiefs oame to try and make peace - but Gray would not listen, and ordered them away on pain of death. This behaviour outraged Hoskins* business instincts, since i t cut off further possibilities of trade, which after a l l was the purpose for which the ship had come. The "Adventure" was launched on the 23rd. of February 1792. Gray commemorated the event by rechristening Chicksclecutsee "Adventure Cove". Clayoquot Sound offered a surprising varietyt of skins - bears, wolves, foxes, rein, fallow and moose deers, land otters, racoons, brown minks, martins, beavers, wild cats, gray rabbits, and large gray and small brown squirrels. (1) Gray had secured a fa ir cargo, and the ships left on the 25th. of March 1792 - hut the Indians were not forgiven. Gray was furious over their attempt to capture the ships, and promised the natives "powder and shot" when he reached the village. John Boit records his revenge in his private log of the "Columbia", setting the date as two days later - the 27-th. of March. Gray order- ed Boit to take three well manned and well armed boats, and completely destroy the village of Opitsatah. "It was a command I was in no way tenacious of, and am grieved to think Captain Gray should let his passions go so far. This village was about half a mile in diameter, and contained upwards of two hundred houses, generally well built for Indians. Every (1) Hoskins, "Toyage &o the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 142. Page 168. dooa? that you entered was. i n resemblance to a human o r beast's head, the passage being through the mouth, besides whieh there was much more rude carved work about the dwellings which was by no means inelegant. This f i n e v i l l a g e , the work of ages, was i n a short time t o t a l l y destroyed." (1) The number of trading ships on the north west coast was increasing rapidly, and many v i s i t e d i n 1791 concerning whom records are of the scantiest. The "Eleanore" and Captain Metcalfe returned f o r the t h i r d season running, and the Indians of Skincuttle Inlet Queen Charlotte Islands, show- ed Captain Ingraham of the "Hope" buckles on the 26th. o f July engraved "Eleanor Metcalfe", which they said had been l e f t behind. (2) William Douglas and his in t e r e s t s were well represented. The "Grace", commanded by himself has already been mentioned. He also bought the "Fairy" a B r i t i s h snow of Calcutta, described as "a fast s a i l i n g vessel, with part of the proceeds of the f i r s t cargo of the "Grace", and gave her command to William Rogers. The "Fairy " spent the season c o l l e c t i n g furs, and returned to Canton on the 11th. o f December 1791, from whence she was charted with teas f o r Boston hy Ingraham, Rogers and Coolidge f o r t h e i r respective companies. The " F e l i c e " was reported to have l e f t Macao on the 4th. o f May 1791 f o r the north west coast, hut her movements are unknown, u n t i l sighted again i n 1792. Historians have reason to lament the absence of Meares as a p u b l i c i t y agent (1) F.W. Howay, "John Boit's Log o f the "Columbia" 1790-93", Quarterly of.the Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society, December 1921, Page 303. (2) Joseph Ingraham, "Voyage of the Brigantine Hope 1790-92", Transcription i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Page 58. Page 169. f o r the ships of h i s company. The B r i t i s h snow "Mercury" returned f o r the t h i r d time under Swedish oolours as "Gustavus III", s t i l l owned hy John Henry Cox, and commanded hy Thomas Barnett. It i s possible that the "Venus", a hmndred and ten ton b r i g o f London, under William Hervey, was also i n these parts, hut the evidence rests s o l e l y upon an ambiguous state - mant i n Ingraham 1s Journal. (1) The Napoleonic wars stopped French endeavours to enter the f u r trade, and secure land on the western coast to make up f o r l o s s on the eastern. Only four French traders v i s i t e d the coast during the whole era of the sea otter, and the f i r s t of these, Btienne Marchand and "La Solide", a r r i v e d i n 1791. French enterprise had also been checked hy lack o f d e f i n i t e information concerning the trade i n the years follow- ing the p u b l i c a t i o n of Cook's Third Voyage. La Perouse and his expedition had disappeared, (2) while the Etches Brothers kept s i l e n t regarding the f i n a n c i a l returns of t h e i r ships. Captain Marchand met Portlock by chance i n 1790 i n the Road of St. Helena when he waa returning from Bengal, and Portlock r e a d i l y gave him a l l the desired information about the sea o t t e r industry. Marchand returned to Marsailles where he interviewed the House of Baux, who were much interested i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing a new channel of trade and nav- igation, and b u i l t and equipped the "Solide" a ship of three hundred tons. She ca r r i e d a crew of f i f t y , composed of eleven o f f i c e r s and t h i r t y mine men. Pierre Masse and Prosper Chanel (1) Howay, "Trading Vessels i n the Maritime Fur Trade 1785-94" loo . c i t . , Pages 120-123. (2) Supra, p. 65. Page 170. were the second captains. The ship was well armed, being equipped with four; four pound guns, two nine pound howilzers and four swivels, as well as numerous small arms. A l l was ready by June 1790, but the dispute over Nootka Sound caused the s a i l i n g to he postponed u n t i l the following December. The "Solide" reached the northowest coast eight months l a t e r - 7th. of August 1791, and anchored at Sitka, having set a remarkable health record. There had been only one s l i g h t attack of scurvy on hoard, and t h i s was so mild that the man had never been o f f duty, due to the scrupulous cleanliness observed and the p l e n t i f u l supply of antiscorb- u t i c s oarried. The l a t t e r consisted of cab/bages, carrots, turnips, celery, s o r r e l , p i c k l e d or preserved i n vinegar. Water was always avai l a b l e f o r drinking as well as any other beverage and a spec i a l l i q u i d was given out almost daily, made of fermented wort and sugar, which had proved a valuable a n t i - scorbutic i n the times o f Oook and La Perouse. The natives of Sitka were not allowed on board the "Solide", hut were made to trade from t h e i r canoes. Small knives and coloured beads they hardly accepted, even as g i f t s , and desired European clothes above a l l . F i r s t q u a l i t y sea o t t e r skins could only be obtained f o r the l a t t e r . A number of other skins were exchanged f o r basins (preferably copper), t i n pans, i r o n pots, daggers, lances, halherts, pikes, n a i l s . Marchand concluded that the Americans must have v i s i t e d f a i r l y recently, as the Indians had numerous European a r t i c l e s and one man wore a p a i r of Massachusetts coppers as ear rings. Page 171. Altogether he secured ahout two hundred skins, mostly sea o t t e r and hear. In the i n t e r v a l s the Sitka Indians went inland to c o l l e c t furs from other t r i b e s by exchanging European goods - Marchand oommented - "no doubt making the strangers pay dearly f o r brokerage and commission", f o r i n the art of bargaining "the modern Hebrew could teach them l i t t l e " . The "Solide" c a r r i e d special f u r r i e r s , who were employed i n examin- ing a l l skins, heating them free from dust and vermin, and dressing them while they were s t i l l fresh, to secure t h e i r preservation u n t i l the ship's a r r i v a l i n China. In t h e i r opinion the sea o t t e r f u r was best when the animal was k i l l e d i n March, A p r i l o r May. Marchand l e f t Sitka on the 21st. o f August, having been held up hy contrary winds, and made f o r the Queen Charlottes Islands anchoring near Cloak Bay. The natives brought a few furs, hut better trade resulted when the long boat was sent to Cox's Channel. The Haidas wanted muskets and powder, hut Chanel peremptorily refused, and the savages f i n a l l y accepted jackets, trousers, k e t t l e s , basins, daggers. By the 27 o f the months the f u r supply was exhausted, and the "Solide" moved on. A few days before leaving Marchand sighted the "Hancock" and her twelve ton tender, but made no e f f o r t to get into touch with them. The "Solide" followed the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, passed Hippa Island, and entered Rennel's S t r a i t . Trade was not good - Marchand blamed the English f o r having preceded him - hut the Americans were the r e a l c u l p r i t s . He decided i t was not worth while continuing Page 172. to Cape- St. James, and. made instead f o r Barkley Sound, a r r i v - ing on the 7th. o f September. Ho better suocess followed, and the French concluded that the f u r supply was everywhere exhausted. They l e f t f o r the Sandwich Islands l a t e r i n September, and a f t e r a short pause made Macao on the 25th. o f November. The leading merchants o f Boston were not slow to r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the north west trade. Men l i k e Thomas Handasyd Perkins were no amateurs i n the merohantlle business. In Perkins 1 case h i s grandfather, Thomas Handasyd Peck, had been the leading f u r exporter of the d i s t r i c t , while at h i s father's death h i s mother had ca r r i e d on the f u r business so successfully that foreign l e t t e r s were often address- ed "Elizabeth Perkins, Esquire". Raised i n t h i s atmosphere and with such a heredity i t was not surp r i s i n g that young Perkins should be a c t i v e l y interested i n the sea o t t e r t r a f f i c . In 1790 Perkins and h i s brother-in-law Captain James Magee bought the "Hope", a seventy ton brig, and sent her to the north west coast under Joseph Ingraham, the former mate o f the "Columbia" on her f i r s t voyage. The "Hope" l e f t Boston on the 17th. o f September 1790, and a f t e r c a l l i n g at the Hawaiian Islands reached the Ojueen Charlotte Islands on the 29th. o f June 1791. Ingraham anchored i n a sound on the northern coast, which he c a l l e d Magee Sound a f t e r one o f h i s owners, and named i t s second arm Port Perkins. The "Hope" ca r r i e d a few domestic animals with which to stock convenient points, and l e f t two sows and a boar, as well as l e t t e r s sealed PORT I N W U M YOOWO\ F R E D e R ^ / PORT PORT noNTG,<>nP*< /{ cut-in w h . « u A f t ' s HARBOUR. PORT vicftH PORT STORO>»T- X > i * « P P o & T n * V HOP OF mthftftHftM \N -V\rtE WftVfrftfrmNE. "HOPE" Of QtLTQW nqO'lTia. Page 173 up i n a b o t t l e and fastened to the bough of a tree, giving an account of the "Hope's" a r r i v a l and the naming of the sound. Ingraham s a i l e d along the island, but met no natives u n t i l the 10th. o f July 1791. The Indians i n v i t e d them to v i s i t t h e i r v i l l a g e , but on the "Hope's" approaohing only produced two skins, f o r which they asked exhorbitant p r i c e s . Ingraham displayed his a r t i c l e s , but made l i t t l e impression, f o r the savages said they had had plenty of such goods from Captains Douglas and Barrett. The l a t t e r name i s probable a corruption o f Barnett, master of the B r i t i s h snow "Gustavus I I I " . These traders had already supplied the savages with blue jackets and trousers, compared with which Ingraham*s s i m i l - i a r o fferings seemed i n s i g n i f i c a n t , and he only secured about twenty skins at a very high p r i c e . Ingraham 1s Yankee ingenuity came to the rescue, and he devised the novel idea o f making the Indians i r o n c o l l a r s . The forge was set up i n July 12th., and the smithoinstructed to make the c o l l a r s o f three twisted $ron rods about the thickness o f a man's finger. They were patterned on a clumsy necklace Ingraham had seen one o f the women wearing, and took tb;e savages* fancy tremendously. When f i n i s h e d they weighed between f i v e and seven pounds, but the Indians eagerly bought them f o r three o f t h e i r best skins, and preferred the shackles to anything else on board. Ingraham enlarged on the scheme, and completed h i s jewelry sets with heavy dron rings and bracelets weighing about a pound, which proved much more popular than the polished copper ones previously offered. Pag© 174. Kowe, the c h i e f o f the d i s t r i c t , and h i s t r i h e l i v e d i n a highly f o r t i f i e d palisade, which, l i k e others found at the Queen Charlotte Islands, bora strong resemblance to the Hew Zealand Hippas. Hew Indians soon appeared, whom Kowe warned Ingraham were "bad" •- simply - i t appeared, because they did not belong to h i s t r i b e . These savages, knowing noth- ing o f the c o l l a r s , r e a d i l y accepted blue jackets and trousers f o r t h e i r furs, u n t i l at the l a s t minute the ohief espied one, and would take nothing else f o r h i s l a s t three skins. Kowe repeatedly urged Ingraham to seize the furs and drive the v i s i t o r s away, but such counsels were ignored. On the 15th. o f July the Indians reported that a strange ship was i n the o f f i n g , and the "Hope" prepared to f l y i n case i t should prove to be a Spaniard. The happenings at Hootka o f the previous season had created a nervous atmosphere. The ship passed by, but two days l a t e r Ingraham encountered a fellow Bostonian - Captain Crowell o f the "Hancock", mnd a week a f t e r that the "Columbia". Considerable r i v a l r y existed between the Boston merchants, and Haswell o f the "Columbia" brought l e t t e r s f o r the "Hope" s t r i c t l y against h i s owners* orders. (1) Ingraham s a i l e d slowly down the east coast, and while c a l l i n g at Ucah's Harbour received the news of Metcalfe's v i s i t . The ship i t s e l f was a centre of industry. The smith worked hard at i r o n c o l l a r s , while others made blue c l o t h garments and decorated them with curiously arranged buttons. By the beginning o f August plans f o r wintering were being (1) Ingraham, "Voyage o f the Brigantine "Hope" 1790-1792", Transcript, Page 55. Page 175 serio u s l y considered, and the idea o f passing i t on the coast was not received with favour. The "Hope" made a short v i s i t to Koyah 1s Inlet i n the south east, hut returned l a t e at night to the o l d anchorage at Dean's v i l l a g e . The cove at night made a tremendous impression on Ingraham, and although h i s description errs rather i n the pathetic f a l l a c y i t helps to give the background of the sea o t t e r t r a f f i c . "There was something sublime i n entering t h i s dreary port at t h i s hour of the night. The surrounding high mountains threw an addit- ional gloom over the face o f the deep whose vast silence was at times interrupted by the hollow surge of the sea on the surrounding rocky shores o r the gamboling of immense whales."(1) The demand f o r i r o n c o l l a r s continued, but since they took a considerable time to make - f i v e was considered a good day's work f o r the smith - the price was f i x e d at three good skins. Ingraham f e l t i t must be maintained, and when a canoe a r r i v e d with a man and woman who had one good said two small and i n - d i f f e r e n t furs, he gave them "a saucepan of more i n t r i n s i c value than three c o l l a r s " rather than lower the standard. Ingraham upheld Marchand i n h i s views of the Indians' bargaining a b i l i t i e s , and s a i d that on some occasions Ucah even undertook the sale o f the v i s i t i n g Indians' furs, o r some o f them at l e a s t , f o r "they leave no means untried to obtain the best p r i c e f o r t h e i r goods." Another chief, Cummashawaa, would not allow h i s v i l l a g e to trade u n t i l Ingraham had made him a present, and would accept nothing l e s s than a c o l l a r . His people were l i t t l e behind him, and Ingraham (1) Ingraham, "Voyage o f the Brigantine "Hope" 1790-1792", Transcript, Page 65. Page 176 described them as having the most mercantile s p i r i t o f any- encountered on the Island, as they refused to part with a single s k i n u n t i l convinced that the maximum price had been offered. The "Hope" secured an excellent cargo o f a hundred and seventy s i x skins, which was remarkable as several other ships had already v i s i t e d that season. The Indians of the d i s t r i c t seemed much subdued, while Koyah had a newly made scar from a musket b a l l , and refused to say how he had received i t . Ingraham correotly concluded that they had been d i s c i p l - ined hy some ship, but did not hear the d e t a i l s o f Kendriok's massacre, u n t i l some time l a t e r . The natives seldom admitted they sold t h e i r furs, but a f t e r t r y i n g to drive impossible bargains would throw them on the deck, with the word "Imgliish- tong" - " I ' l l give i t to you". Such skins i n v a r i a b l y proved the dearest by the time the return present was made. Among other a r t i c l e s the "Hope" c a r r i e d some feather- ed caps and cloaks - o r i g i n a l l y presents from the Hawaiians. At f i r s t the natives seemed "vastly enamoured" and a cap and two cloaks were sold f o r f i v e excellent skins - but on r e f l e c t - ion repented of the bargain and wished to revoke the agreement. The traders would have none o f i t though, on the grounds that i t would begin a bad p o l i c y . By the 15th. o f August the "Hope" had eight hundred and f i f t y skins on board, which made i t quite unnecessary to winter on the coast. Instead the Americans planned to c o l l e c t furs t i l l the end of the season, and then make str a i g h t f o r the Sandwich Islands and China. Their trading a r t i c l e s needed replenishing, p a r t i c u l a r l y Page 177 clothing and cloth, now of the. f i r s t importance. Provisions were also running short, although the crew varied t h e i r s a l t "beef occasionally hy hear and geese obtained from the Indians. Trade was hastened, and f o r t y two o f the l a s t furs were bought simply f o r unwrought iron, allowing the length o f the s k i n f o r each. The i r o n wrought would have brought double the amount of furs, but Ingraham wished to leave the coast as soon as possible. Halations with the Indians were becoming more strained, and at the end o f August when the traders were pack- ing furs, and f i l l i n g up wijrh wood and water, several attempts were made to surprise them i n the night. The "Hope" weighed anchor at 4 A.M. on th 29th. of August 1791, and f i r e d a gun as she l e f t . A canoe came o f f with a few o f the chiefs anxious to do l a s t minute business, a f t e r which they said good bye f o r the season, and requested that Ingraham bring many i r o n c o l l a r s when he returned. The "Hope" had done much better than the "Columbia" on her f i r s t voyage, who had only eight hundred skins and was away from Boston twenty f i v e months. Ingraham had not been away a year, and had a cargo of:- (1) 1400 sea o t t e r skins 300 sables beavers and wolverine. He had f a r surpassed most o f the; ships on the coast i n 1791. The "Columbia" when l a s t seen had only s i x hundred - some o f them poor specimens. The "Hancockr could only muster betweem f i v e and s i x hundred. These ships had spent most of t h e i r time c r u i s i n g about, as had the "Hope" at f i r s t . Ingraham soon (1) Ingraham, "A Voyage o f the Brigantine JHope* 1790-1792", - Transcript, Page 155. Page 178 abandoned this method, finding he did a much better trade by- staying in one plaoey as so much time was lost between ports while cruising. Cummashawa Inlet was very well adapted for this purpose, since i t lay within easy reach of three tribes, and not a day went by without trade. The Indians preferred trading with a stationary ship, since i t permitted them to take longer over their bargaining. Ingraham reported that many edible weeds were found in the Queen Charlotte Islands, dook, wild celery, wild peas, lambs1 quarter and samphire. The samphire they pickled in vinegar and found very good. Ingraham himself was quite a naturalist, and collected the seeds of new and interesting plants which he sent to Boston. The "Hope"breached Macao on the S9th. of November 1791, where she met the "Solide", and Ingraham heard for the f irst time of the calamity which had befallen the Canton fur market. Shortly afterwards he met R. D. Coolidge of the "Grace" who had the same tale. The Chinese had placed au unexpected check on the trade in 1791, when they forbade a l l introduction of furs into the southern ports of the empire, particularly that of sea otter. China was at war with Russia at the time, and thought that by closing the market they would injure that nation, for they seemed to have the idea that a l l fur ships were in some way connected with the Russians. Marchand of the "Solide" was one of the f irst to encounter this obstacle in the autumn of 1791. The embargo prevented him from trading at Canton, and he could not go to the port of Whampoa where manipulation Page 179 might have been possible, since h i s vessel, although only- three hundred tons, would have been charged a thousand d o l l a r s i n duties. It was an exhorbitant figure because the trade was small, and Marchand remarks "The Chinese Government s t i l l seem to be ignorant that the augmentation of duties does not promote the increase o f produce." (1) According to h i s own account he gave up a l l idea o f s e l l i n g o r smuggling the furs, and l e f t f o r the I s l e o f Prance. Ingraham says he was i n - formed that t h i s was not the case, and that they were fin a l l y - smuggled ashore through the int e r e s t s o f the padres. By the beginning o f December 1791, the sea o t t e r was a glut on the market, and the p r i c e f e l l alarmingly. The "Grace" (Captain Coolidge ), the "Hancock (Captain Crowell), the "Gustavus III (Captain Barnett) and the "Hope" (Captain Ingraham) were a l l at Lark's Bay (otherwise known as D i r t y Butter Bay) t r y i n g to c l e a r t h e i r cargoes. They estimated that with what Marchand had l e f t , there must be eleven thousand sea o t t e r on the market at the moment, and the value dropped i n proportion. A few days l a t e r Captains Kendrick and Bogeias arri v e d to swell the gathering. Ingraham t r i e d to s e l l his furs f i r s t through a Mr. Mc I n t i r e o f Macao, but soon d i s - covered that h i s int e r e s t s were being placed very much second to those o f the "Grace", since Mc I n t i r e was the agent and administrator o f the estate o f the l a t e Captain Douglas. Both of Douglas 1 ships, the "Grace" and the "aSairy" had arr i v e d with handsome cargoes, but the unsettled s i t u a t i o n o f h i s a f f a i r s at the time o f h i s death prevented h i s friends from (1) Marchand, "A V<byage Bound the World", Page 71. Page 180. reaping much of the p r o f i t . E f f o r t s were made to smuggle small quantities o f furs to Whiampoa. The f i r s t cargo, a hundred and f i f t y skins o f Captain Coolidge, sold f a i r l y successfully, so Ingraham and Coolidge joined f o r a second venture, bought a boat, and sent m hundred skins each i n charge o f the person who had disposed o f them before. The ruse was unsuccessful and the furs barely escaped seizure by the Chinese mandarins, so the venture was abandoned as too r i s k y . Conditions had not improved by the following year, and Gray o f the "Columbia" wrote to h i s owners i n Boston, August, 1792, "We have a tolerable cargo of furs aboard, and are i n hopes to get a few more. Captain Ingraham of the "Hope" informs us furs are prohibited i n China under very severe penalties: that although we may smuggle the skins, they w i l l fetch only from f i f t e e n to twenty f i v e d o l l a r s . " (1) A further l e t t e r from Whampoa, December 22, 1792, indicated that the s i t u a t i o n had not been exaggerated. " Skins are very low - — no s e l l i n g them f o r cash, indeed we could not get the ship seoured unless we would agree to take goods i n pay. At t h i s time i t ' s impossible to say the amount our skins w i l l fetch, but I don't expect they w i l l exceed f o r t y thousand d o l l a r s . This i s a small price f o r our q u a l i t y of furs, but there are a great many at market and many more expected, the very best skins at r e t a i l w i l l not fetch more than t h i r t y d o l l a r s , and at wholesale from s i x to twenty f i v e d o l l a r s . — (1) Hoskins, "The Narrative o f a Voyage to the North West Coast - o f Amerioa 1790-3 ", Transcript, Appendix: L e t t e r to Joseph B a r r e l l from ship "Columbia" from Hoskins and Gray, August 12, 1792. Page 181 We expect to s a i l f o r Boston i n about a month." (1) Here i n f o r information ceases, and i t i s even uncertain how long the Chinese embargo l a s t e d . Apparently i t was possible f o r the East India Company to s e l l sea o t t e r i n the summer of 1796, as t h e i r representative disposed o f the "Ruby's" cargo, but only at a low price, and a f t e r three month's s t a l l i n g . The delay cost the "Ruby" ££83 16s. i n food and wages, and her captain, worrying over the l o s s to h i s owners, savagely recorded he was sick o f being put o f f " t i l l tomorrow, tomorrow! tomorrow! damnation! " (£) (1) Hoskins, "The Narrative o f a Voyage to the North West Coast o f America 1790-3", Transcript, Appendix: L e t t e r from "Columbia" at Whampoa ££ December 179E to Joseph B a r r e l l . (£) Charles Bishop, "Voyage o f the "Ruby1 to the Coast of America, 1794-6 ", Original i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C , Page £73. Page 182. Chapter VIII. "THE SPANIARDS AND CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER." (1792-1795) The second Spanish settlement continued a f t e r the Nootka Sound Convention o f 1790, hut the Spanish confidence i n t h e i r right o f occupation had gone. They f e l t that i t was only a question o f time before they would he forced to vac- ate, and began to send valuable a r t i c l e s back to C a l i f o r n i a . Re v i l l a Gigedo, the viceroy o f New Spain, was much i n t e r e s t - ed i n the survey o f the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca begun by Manuel Quimper i n 1790, since i t had caused considerable comment from geographers. The following year he instructed E l i s a to f i n i s h the work, and accordingly on the 5th. o f May 1791 E l i s a l e f t Nootka i n command o f the packet "San Carlos", accomanied by Jose Maria Narvaez with the schooner "Santa Saturnina" o r "Horcasitas". The o r i g i n a l plan was to examine the coast from 60" , south to the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, enter and completely survey i t . Contrary winds prevented the ships from going north, so the survey was begun instead at 48°, and the vessels entered the S t r a i t on the 27th. o f May. The f i r s t work centred about Haro S t r a i t and the Gulf o f Georgia, and occupied them u n t i l the 7th. o f August, when scurvy and f a i l i n g provisions necessitated returning to Nootka. E l i s a dad considerable work on Rosario S t r a i t , and mapped the coast Page 183 l i n e of the mainland from Bellingham Bay to Boundary Bay, (1) Attention was not confined to one side o f the Gulf, and the coastline o f Vancouver Island was traced from Cape Lazo to Kanaimo. The work between Qualioum Beach and Nanaimo was done with much accuracy, E l i s a had discovered the inland waterway running north from the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, but had not been able to explore i t , and the connecting arm between the S t r a i t of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound remained uncharted- u n t i l the advent of George Vancouver. E l i s a had accomplished a voyage of great h i s t o r i c a l importance, but due to the d e f i c - iency of i t s records has not received adequate recognition. On h i s return to Nootka E l i s a wrote to the Viceroy reporting his discoveries "Assuring yo$rr Excellency that i f the passage to the ocean exists, which foreig n nations are so eagerly seeking on t h i s coast, i t seems ibb me that i t cannot be anywhere else than through t h i s great channel." (2) The Viceroy ordered that t h i s region be immediately surveyed, and preparations began to f i t two schooners f o r the purpose. In 1789 Spain equipped two corvettes "Desoubierta" (Discovery) and "Atrevida" (Audacious) f o r a " p o l i t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c " expedition under Don Alejandro Malespina. The "Atrevida" was commended by Don Jose Bustamente y Guera, an" I t a l i a n of distinguished family i n the services o f Spain. It was the Spanish equivalent to Cook's Third Voyage, and the (1) For a detailed discussion cf., W. N. Sage, "Spanish Explorers o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast, Canadian Histor- i c a l Review, XII, 395-397. (2) "The Voyage Made by the Schooners ' S u t i l and Mexicana 1 i n the year 1792." Printed by order o f the King, Royal P r i n t i n g Office, Madrid, 1802. Translated by G.F. Barwich. October 1911, II, 2. Page 184. enterprise o f La Perouse, aiming at s c i e n t i f i c discovery and inve s t i g a t i o n o f the north west passage legend. The ships s a i l e d from Cadiz on July 30th. 1789 and followed the usual route round Cape Horn. They l e f t Acapulco on the 1st. of May 1791, and made straight f o r the Alaskan coast, surveying from Port Mulgrave to Prince William Sound. The search f o r the S t r a i t of Anian was thorough, hut necessarily vain. Bad storms damaged the mast o f the "Desouhierta", so a f t e r s e t t i n g up an observatory on land, and making some notes on the natives, the expedition headed south f o r Nootka, a r r i v i n g on the 13th.. of August. Here they charted the port and made another obser- vatory, leaving f o r Mexico i n the end o f the month, " f i n i s h i n g an expedition which established the bearings o f the northern coast of New Spain with greater exactness than a l l previous voyages combined." (1) B e v i l l a Gigedo was determined to leave no stone unturned i n d i s p e l l i n g the legends concerning the north west coast and to show i t s true o u t l i n e . He next ordered a survey from Port Bucareli to Nootka to " v e r i f y the potentous d i s - coveries of Admiral Fonte." Lieutenant Jacinto Caamano was selected f o r the task, and l e f t San Bias on the £0th. o f March 1792 with the f r i g a t e "Aranzazu". He reached Nootka on the 14th. of May, and a f t e r r e f i t t i n g the ship made at once f o r Bucareli, examining the coast as he went. It was the 12th. o f June when Caamano came to Bucareli, where the most important part of h i s work began. He made a very detailed map o f the sound, much o f which was based on the explorations o f two (1) Sage, "Spanish Explorers o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast", - l o c . c i t . , Page 398. Page 185. p i l o t s . These were sent with a launch and boat "well armed and with twenty days provisions to examine the inner channels which could not be explored i n 1779."(1) and capes, shoals, i s l e t s and roadsteads were accurately charted. The task was f i n i s h e d by the 11th. of June, and the "Aranzazu" s a i l e d south, surveying and exploring, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t i t u d e 54°50'. Oaameno condemned Colnett 1 s maps o f c e r t a i n parts of the coast as being "inaccurate, and no f r i e n d to humanity." (2) On August 1, the Spaniards landed i n the v i c i n i t y o f Bank's Island, and claimed the country with t h e i r usual ceremonies, and buried a recording document near the anchorage. The Indians did not wish them to explore the i s l a n d channels and t r i e d to deter them with t a l e s o f huge monsters, which l i f t i n g t h e i r whole bodies out o f the water, attacked and ate craws. The natives captured two o f the Spanish, but through the interest of a f r i e n d l y ohief and his son, they were rest o r - ed. By the f i r s t of the following month the ship had reached the Scott Islands, and s i x days l a t e r anchored at Nootka. Caamano had obtained a f a i r l y accurate map o f the shore l i n e , but his ship was too large to penetrate the i n t r i c a t e and d i f f i c u l t passages to any extent. Much had happened at Nootka during t h e i r absence. The two schooners - the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" - selected to explore the channel between Vancouver Island and the mainland, a r r i v e d at Nootka on May 13th., having l e f t Acapulco early i n (1) "A Voyage made by the Schooners ' S u t i l and Mexicana' i n . the Fear 1792," Page CXXIII. (2) Ibid, Page CXXVII. Page 186. March. They were purposely small to allow them to navigate shallow waterways, and tha "Mexicana" had just been completed at the Department o f San Bias. They were t h e o r e t i c a l l y ade- quate, hut i n r e a l i t y t o t a l l y unsatisfactory from the s t a r t . The ships measured f i f t y feet three inohes i n length and t h i r t e e n feet ten inches broad, and each c a r r i e d a crew o f seventeen, armed with one three pound swivel gun, four falcons, eighteen muskets, twenty four p i s t o l s and eighteen sabres. (1) They were de f e c t i v e l y made, being too narrow and hence unstable, and had i n s u f f i c i e n t room to carry proper supplies o f wood an! - water. The " S u t i l " was commanded by D i o n i s i o Galiano, with one lieutenant Seoundino Salamanca, while Cayetano Valdes, with Juan Vernaei as sole lieutenant, directed the "Mexicana." Neither ship had a doctor, but the l a t t e r c a r r i e d an a r t i s t , Joseph Cordero. The rigging varied, the former being b r i g - rigged, and the "Mexicana" schooner-rigged. At Nootka they found three Spanish ships, the f r i g a t e "Conception", the "Gertrudis", and the b r i g "La A c t i v a " . E l i s a was": s t i l l commander o f the provisional establishment, but Don Juan Bodega Y Quadra, who had arrived shortly before on the "Gertrudis", now took precedence over him. This ship "Gertrudis" was a Spanish f r i g a t e o f t h i r t y s i x guns, under Alfonso de Torres, and had no r e l a t i o n to the "North West America" which was renamed "Gertrudis " while i n Spanish possession. Quadra had a special mission to f u l f i l - he was the Spanish repres- entative appointed to meet the B r i t i s h commissioner, Captain George Vancouver, and put the terms o f the Nootka Sound (1) "A Voyage made by the Schooners ' S u t i l 1 and 'Mexicana 1 i n the Year 179£", PII, 20. Page 187 Convention into e f f e c t . Relations between Spanish and Indians were very c o r d i a l , and most intimate between Maquinna and Quadra, the former dining d a i l y at the Spaniard's table. On the 26th. o f May, while the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" were s t i l l st Nootka, the second French trading ship to v i s i t the coast a r r i v e d at the Sound. "La Plavia", under Captain Magon, was very large, being about s i x hundred tons, and had s a i l e d from Port l ' O r i e n t . She flew the new Frenoh national f l a g - the t r i c o l o u r - which was seen at Nootka f o r the f i r s t time. Magon gave h i s purpose ostensively as searching f o r La Perouse, - Galiano and Yaldez added "This point seemed to us to be very secondary seeing the route they had taken" - and Magon admitted he had trading goods as w e l l . Haswell met him at Massat i n the following August, and heard he had done quite a good trade at Nootka, exchanging sea o t t e r skins f o r i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r . Liquor was ouriously absent i n the north west trade, and "La P l a v i a " i s one o f the rare instances of a ship with such a commodity as the p r i n c i p a l stock i n trade. Magon v i s i t e d Kamschatka i n September 1792, but returned immediately to Nootka, instead o f making the usual c a l l at Canton. The crews of the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" were increas- ed from seventeen to twenty four, numbering among them the surgeon o f the "AranzazuV The ships l e f t Nootka on the 2nd. o f June, but were driven baek by storms of rain, and did not f i n a l l y set s a i l u n t i l June 5. Galiano made straight f o r the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, and c a l l e d at Neah Bay, where Lieuten- ant Don Salvado Fidalgo was establishing a post. He had been Page 188 sent to do so on the "Prinoesa" from San Bias, as the Spanish a u t h o r i t i e s were considering making t h e i r headquarters at Neah Bay i f forced to vacate Nootka. Fidalgo had cleared ground already, and Galiano and valdez regarded the scheme very favourably, saying the spot was healthy and f e r t i l e , and the natives f r i e n d l y . In spite o f t h i s Pidalgo would not allow the Indians to purchase firearms, and even objected to t h e i r owning knives. Fortunately t h e i r c h i e f demand was f o r blankets and European clothing, and not f o r metals. The Span- iards made i t a custom to f i r e a gun at sunset, a f t e r which no native might approach the f o r t o r ships under any pretext. Tetacus, one o f the chiefs o f the d i s t r i c t , gave much useful information to Galiano and valdez, concerning the B r i t i s h and Spanish captains who had already v i s i t e d the coast, and t o l d them that there were two large ships even then i n the S t r a i t . These l a t e r proved to be the "Discovery" and the "Chatham", but t h i s news made the Spaniards decide to concentrate on E l i s a 1 s Boca de Ploridablanca, and explore the inland waterway. Galiano charted Boundary Bay with great care, and on the 13th. o f June the Spanish ships met Lieutenant William Bobert Broughton with the "Chatham" o f f Point Boberts. The encounter was a most amiable one, and a f t e r o f f e r i n g assistance and exchanging information each continued on t h e i r course. The " S u t i l " and "Mexioaca " made t h e i r way out to sea, just missing the mouth o f the Fraser, and explored some of the g u l f islands near Vancouver Island. The Indians were frequently enoountered, who supplied them witft oolichan f i s h and dogs 1 h a i r blankets. Page 189. A f t e r anchoring two days i n Best Bay, Gabnola Island, Galiano and Valdez crossed the Gulf o f Georgia to Point Grey, "Punta Langara" as i t was ca l l e d , and sighted i t on the 20th. o$ June. They anchored o f f Point Grey, and explored some of the low l y i n g land, expecting to f i n d a large r i v e r mouth some- where i n the neighbourhood, from the; strong current and almost fresh water o f the v i c i n i t y . On the morning o f the 21st. the Spaniards met Captain George Vancouver o f f Spanish Banks, Point Grey. There i s a discrepancy i n dates between the Spanish and English accounts, being given as the 21st. o f June i n the former, and the 22 nd. i n the l a t t e r . In t h i s instance the Spaniards are correct, since Vancouver had crossed the i n t e r - national boundary l i n e without subtracting a day from h i s calendar. Galiano was surprised to f i n d that Vancouver had discovered no suoh r i v e r as he had been convinced existed. The expeditions then worked together from June 24 to July 13. At the time o f the disturbance at Nootka the B r i t i s h government was equipping an expedition to the north west coast to continue Captain Cook's survey, under Henry Roberts former- l y one o f Cook's men. George Vancouver, the secong i n command, had s a i l e d with Cook as a midshipman. The strained r e l a t i o n s with Spain caused preparations to be suspended u n t i l a f t e r the Nootka Sound Convention, and by t h i s time Boberts was otherwise engaged. Vancouver was placed i n command, with two ships, the "Discovery " a new sloop of three hundred and f i f t y tons, and an armed tender "Chatham" o f a hundred and t h i r t y f i v e tons. The l a t t e r vessel was i n command o f Lieutenant Page 190. William Kobert Brougliton with a crew of f o r t y f i v e , while the "Discovery" c a r r i e d a hundred. Vancouver was authorized to receive Meares 1 lands according to- the Nootka Sound Convention, and instructed to explore the coast l i n e from 30° to 60° north i n great d e t a i l . The exact number and extent o f a l l European settlements i n t h i s region were to he recorded, with the dates of t h e i r founding, and careful note made o f any water ways or water communication which might prove a l i n k with eastern Canada o r the A t l a n t i c seaboard. Meares had done hi s best to keep a l i v e b e l i e f i n the fabled North West passage, to the extent that Dixon, i n . h i s "Further Remarks" expressed surprise that Meares had not l i s t e d h i s f a i l u r e to discover i t i n h i s claims against Spain, and receive compensation f o r the twenty thousand pounds reward which Spanish interference had prevent- ed him from earning. Despite Captain Cook's survey, f a i t h i n the S t r a i t o f Anian had not yet died. Vancouver was cautioned not to give any offence to the Spaniards. The ships l e f t England on the 1st. of A p r i l 1791, and went by way o f the Cape o f Good Hope and the Hawaiian Islands. A transport ship the "Daedalus" was to follow under Lieutenant Hergest. By A p r i l 1792. they were i n l a t i t u d e 46° 19* north. The ships continued north up the coast, but missed the estuarybf the Columbia, one o f the p r i n c i p a l r i v e r s o f the west, and i t s discovery was made a few months l a t e r by Captain Gray, who named i t "Columbia" a f t e r h i s ship. On the 29th. o f A p r i l , Vancouver met Captain Gray and the "Columbia" i n l a t - itude 47'38* N. Gray was amazed when shown the track on Meares* Page 191. map, that he was reputed to have made e a r l i e r i n the "Washington1; Gray assured the o f f i c e r s he had only penetrated f i f t y miles into the S t r a i t s , i n an east south east d i r e c t i o n . The nat- ives had given him to understand there was an opening to the northward, hut ha had not v i s i t e d i t , and l e f t the S t r a i t hy the way he had come. (1) Dixon never had any f a i t h i n the Meares 1 map showing the (supposed) track o f the "Washington" i n 1789, s a i l i n g from the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca up the east coast o f Vancouver Island, hy a channel o f "magnificant distances", which brought Gray out to the north o f the Queen Charlottes. He challenged the chart as soon as i t appeared "I strongly suspect i t never was taken from any actual survey, but has been introduced into your chart merely as a pretty variable to f i l l up a blank; I cannot think o f anything i t resembles ao much as the mound of a good housewife,1 s butter pat." (2) Meares claimed the story was given to him i n China, by a Mr. N e v i l l e o f the East India Company, who was returning to England on the "C h e s t e r f i e i d " .- i n a l a t e r version i t was the "Duke of Buccleugh". While i n Macao N e v i l l e encountered Kendrick, from whom he secured the d e t a i l s . I t i s hardly credible that any r e a l navigator - as Meages undoubtedly was - could have accepted such a statement without charts and the observed l a t i t u d e s and longitudes. Meares not only accepted i t , but added to i t , and i n the opin- ion o f Judge Howay "a strong case can be made out i n support of (1) George Vancouver, "Discovery o f the North P a c i f i c Ocean and Round the World ", Edwards, London, 1798, Page 214. (2) Howay,'"Dixon-Meares Controversy", "Dixon's Remarks", Page 40. . „ Page 19S. the view that Meares invented the whole story." (1) Nowhere did Kendrick or Gray ever make any such claim. T r i v i a l as the incident may seem, i t bore f r u i t of international consequ- ence, and was l a t e r r e l i e d upon to strengthen the American side i n the Oregon Boundary dispute, and figured i n the evid- ence l a i d before the German Emperor i n the? dispute as to San Juan Island. (2) Vancouver learned from Gray that the entrance to the S t r a i t was about eight leagues distant, and reached i t soon afterward. Captain Gray continued south along the present coast o f Washington, and on the 12th. o f May, 1792, discovered the mouth of the Columbia River which he named a f t e r h i s ship, the "Columbia". John Boit, the f i f t h mate, (aged seventeen ), describes the incident:- we "saw an appear- ance of a spacious harbour abreast the ship, hauled out wind f o r i t , observed two sand bars making o f f , with a passage between them to a fine r i v e r . Out pinnace and sent her i n ahead and followed with the ship under short s a i l The r i v e r to the North East as f a r as eye could reach, and water f i t to drink as f a r down as the Babat the entrance. We d i r - ected our course up t h i s noble r i v e r i n search o f a vill a g e . " ( 3 ) The Columbia River, one o f the largest i n western America, had f i n a l l y been put on the map. Vancouver, meanwhile, entered the S t r a i t , and steering to the east along the southern shore, proceeded to make a careful survey o f the great inland sea. On (1) Howay, "The Dixon-Meares Controversy", Page 13. (2) Newcombe, "The P i r s t Circumnavigation o f Vancouver Island? Page 29. (3) Howay, "John Bolt's Log o f the .'Columbia1 1790-93", lo o . c i t . , Page •_ Page 193. the 30th. o f A p r i l the ships anchored o f f Hew Dungeness, and then explored Admiralty Inlet and Puget Sound. Prom there they s a i l e d north, passed Whitby Island and the Haro A r c h i p e l - ago, and following the continental coast, saw Bellingham Bay and Lummi Island and entered the southern end o f the Gulf o f Georgia. Vancouver next surveyed Semlahmoo and Boundary Bays, Point Boberts and Point Grey, and the entrance to Burrard Inlet, but missed the mouth o f the Fraser, although he noticed both the current at sea and the low swampy f l a t s of the v i c - i n i t y . The western shore o f the Gulf o f Georgia - so c a l l e d by Vancouver a f t e r George I I I - was then followed, and Jervis Inlet received i t s name. Returning to Point Grey on the 22nd. of June 1792, Vancouver met the two Spanish vessels, the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana". Their captains, Don Galiano and Don Valdez, had both previously commanded f r i g a t e s i n the Spanish navy. Vancouver was a l i t t l e m o r t i f i e d to f i n d that he was not the f i r s t to explore the shores of the Gulf of Georgia, although he had entered the S t r a i t s o f Juan de Fuca f i v e days e a r l i e r than the Spaniards. In a sense the meeting was a h i s t o r i c occasion, s i g n i f y i n g the r i s e of the new B r i t i s h power, and the close o f the Spanish era. The serviceable B r i t i s h vessels stood i n marked contrast to the l i t t l e Spanish ships, the inadequacy o f which amazed Vancouver. "Their appearance just allowed room f o r sleeping places on each side with a table i n the intermediate space, at which four persons, with some d i f f i c u l t y could s i t , and were i n a l l other respects the most i l l - o a l c u l a t e d and u n f i t vessels that could possibly Page 194. "be imagined f o r such an expedition." (1) In t h i s connection i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Galiano and Valdez considered the "Chatham" "very ill-shaped", although the "Discovery" was "a ship f i t t e d f o r the object o f her voyage". The Spaniards informed Vancouver that Quadra was waiting at Nootka to restore the disputed t e r r i t o r y to the B r i t i s h representat- i v e . The " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" were r e a l l y part o f the s c i e n t i f i c expedition of Malespina hut they had s a i l e d from Acapulco before the schooners. Relations between the two expeditions were very t f r i e n d l y , and the p a r t i e s worked together u n t i l the 13th. of July. At every point small boats were sent ashore i n charge o f Vancouver, Broughton, Mudge, Puget, Baker, Whidby and Johnson, and much minute and valuable d e t a i l was oollected. Valdez and Galiano l e f t Vancouver at Desolation Sound, "begging leave to decline accompanying them further as the; powers they possessed i n t h e i r miserable vessels were unequal to a co- operation with the English, and being apprehensive t h e i r attendance would only retard progress." On parting Vancouver and Galiano exchanged copies o f t h e i r charts, and s a i l e d with mutual expressions o f good w i l l . The Spaniards had done most valuable work, and c a r r - ied out t h e i r instructions e x c e l l e n t l y . They obtained l i t t l e recognition however, t h e i r achievements being overshadowed by the greater glory o f the B r i t i s h enterprise. The " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" were at San Bias on the 23rd. o f November that same year, and returned from there to Apapulco. I t i s (1) Vancouver, "Voyage o f Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean", . , Page 313. Page 195 i n t e r e s t i n g to note that both Galiano and Valdez commanded Spanish ships of the l i n e , f i g h t i n g against the English i n the Bat t l e o f Trafalgar, October 21, 1805, Galiano the "Bahama" with seventy four guns, and Valdez the "Neptune" having eighty four. The B r i t s h captured both f r i g a t e s , but only .the "Bahama" ar r i v e d s a f e l y at G i b r a l t a r as a p r i z e . The "Neptuno" was wrecked i n a gale at the close o f action between Rota and Catolina, and many l i v e s were l o s t . (1) The voyage o f the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" was the l a s t exploring expedition of the Spanish on the coast, and the only one whose r e s u l t s were published by the Spanish Government at the time. Malaspina 1 s name was omitted from the journals at the date of publicatioui because he was under considerable shadow i n Spain. Malaspina l e f t Nootka 25th. of September 1791, and a f t e r c a l l i n g at Monteray, crossed the P a c i f i c . A f t e r a long voyage he returned to Cadiz by way of Cape Horn, but d i d not reach port u n t i l l a t e i n September 1794. the Spanish Government became suspicious o f hia, and he was imprisoned at Corunna f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons u n t i l 1803, when Napoloen secured h i s freedom. Malespina, then banished from Spain, went to Milan, where he was offered - and refused - an important p o s i t i o n by the I t a l i a n Government. He died s i x years l a t e r at Lunigiano. The account of Malaspina 1 s voyage was edited hjt an o f f i c e r o f the navy, and published nearly a century l a t e r - 1885 - at Madrid. On the 12th. o f July 1792, Johnson and Swayne re- turned from an exploring expedition, and reported to Vancouver (1) Walbran, " B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Names", Page 196. Page 196 that the channel to the northward l e d to the ocean. It was not u n t i l t h i s point that Galiano decided the B r i t i s h ships had better proceed alone. The expeditions separated next day, but i t was the f i f t h o f August before Vancouver entered Fitzhugh o r as i t was afterwards known - Queen Charlotte Sound. The next day the "Discovery" grounded on a shoal of sunken rooks. For a time the situation! o f the ship was precarious, but fortunately the r i s i n g tide l i f t e d her o f f , "without having received the l e a s t apparent i n j u r y . " On the evening o f the seventh a s i m i l a r incident b e f e l l the "Chatham" amd a heavy fog caused much anxiety, although happily no i l l consequences followed, the "Chatham" being also free'd by th© t i d e . Vancouver then made for Nootka, and anchored at Friendly Cove on August 28th. 1792. Galiano and Valdez a r r i v e d two days l a t e r , having s a f e l y navigated the d i f f i c u l t passages between Vancouver Island and the mainland. The Spaniards only stayed long enough to examine t h e i r ships 1 bottoms, and l e f t to map the coast from the S t r a i t o f Juan <fe Fuca to Monteray. An i n t e r e s t i n g , although highly botanical, account of the expedition appears i n Menzies 1 Journal of Vancouver's voyage, and throws some in t e r e s t i n g side l i g h t s on Vancouver's own character. The account covers the whole duration o f the voyage. Archibald Menzies was a Scottish botanist, explorer and t r a v e l l e r , the former surgeon o f the "Prince o f Wales" on her voyage to the north west coast. He was appointed by the B r i t i s h Government as n a t u r a l i s t on the "Discovery". He was l a t e r c a l l e d upon to extend medical services, owing to the Page 197. sickness o f the "Discovery's" surgeon, and Vancouver spoke highly of h i s work i n t h i s connection. S i r Joseph Banks gave Menzies h i s instructions, which were b r i e f l y to investigate the whole natural h i s t o r y of the countries which he v i s i t e d . Vancouver was asked to give him every assistance as h i s work was "materially connected with some of the most important objects o f the expedition." Banks rather anticipated despotic behaviour on the part o f the commander, and he wrote to Manzies, (August 10,1791), "How Captain Vancouver w i l l behave to you i s more than I can guess, unless I was to judge by h i s conduct toward me - which was not such as I am used to receive from persons i n h i s s i t u a t i o n — as i t would be highly imprudent i n him to throw any obstacles i n the way o f your duty, I trust he w i l l have too much good sense to obstruct i t . " (1) At f i r s t Vancouver and Menzies were on good terms, and Vancouver permitted him to erect a glass frame f o r h i s plants upon the quarter deck as Banks had wished. Trouble began when the captain demanded Menzies 1 journals, and the l a t t e r refused, on the grounds that by h i s instructions Banks and the Admiralty had to give t h e i r consent before he could surrender them. Menzies was much handicapped by an a r b i t r a r y act o f Vancouver, who took the man tending the botanical plants, and placed him before the mast. As a r e s u l t Menzies l o s t many o f h i s best specimens, and on complaining he was arrested f o r "insolence and contempt". Vancouver's personal work was excellent, but i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows him to have been a somewhat peremptory commander. I t may p a r t l y have C P . (1) Ueweombe, "Menzies ' Journal o f Vancouver's Voyage", - W;H. C u l l i n , V i c t o r i a , B. C , 19E3, Page X. Page 198. been explained by h i s poor health at the time. Nootka, when Vancouver arrived, presented an animat- ed scene, and several ships rode at anchor. "His Catholic Majesty's b r i g "Active 1 bearing the broad pendant o f S£nor Don Juan Francisco de l a Bodega y Quadra, commandant o f the Marine establishment o f San Bias and C a l i f o r n i a " , and new commandant of Port San Lorenzo de Nutka, was among them. The B r i t i s h store ship "Daedalus" had arr i v e d safely, and l a y beside the "Three Brothers", a small merchant man of London, commanded by Alder, a former lieutenant of the Royal Navy. Lieutenant Richard Hergest, the o f f i c e r i n charge o f the "Daedalus" had been murdered at Woahoo i n the Sandwich Islands, and Lieutenant James Hanson was appointed i n h i s place. The Spanish and English saluted each other's flags with an equal number of guns, following which Vancouver c a l l e d upon Bodega y Quadra, and was received with great h o s p i t a l i t y . The two great colonizing powers of the P a c i f i c seaboard had met, and Quadra observed with sorrow " t h i s meant so much to Spain". Early next morning an unfortunate incident occured. Maquinna, the c h i e f o f Nootka Sound, t r i e d to v i s i t the ships about daybreak, and the guard f a i l i n g to recognize h i s rank, turned him away. Maquinna i n oonsequence was deeply insulted, and made no secret o f h i s disapproval o f the change o f owner- ship. Quadra wHnt out o f h i s way to soothe the chief, t r y i n g to explain i t was a l l a mistake, and that the English would treat him and h i s subjects just as well as the Spaniards. Vancouver was much struck by the way the Spanish had gained the Page 199 good w i l l and confidence o f the people. Quadra was noted up and down the coast f o r h i s h o s p i t a l i t y , and entertained the English r o y a l l y . A deadlock ensued on the question o f surrendering the t e r r i t o r y . Quadra maintained that the agreement implied only part of the beach o f Friendly Cove and a small piece o f land* behind i t . Vancouver claimed the whole port. Quadra supported h i s stand hy c i t i n g the arguments o f the Nootka Sound Controversy, 1790, while Vancouver i n s i s t e d that the faots d i d not concern the commissioners, whose duty was s o l e l y to execute the provisions o f the treaty. In t h e i r private capacities the two men were i n complete accordance, i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l positions they could agree on nothing. Vancouver f i n a l l y offered to regard Nootka as a "Spanish Port", and asked "permission" to carry on the necessary a c t i v i t i e s on shore, while he wrote to London reporting the re s u l t o f the Conference, and asking f o r further i n s t r u c t i o n s . Both leaders then pre- pared to s a i l south f o r the winter, and Quadra l e f t f i r s t on the "Active", September E l , 1792, having given a farewell dinner to the English the night before. Vancouver was much impressed by the extent o f the settlement at Friendly Cove, which included a hospit a l , o f f i c e r s ' quarters, barracks, storehouses and other buildings. Agriculture and farming was practised on a considerable scale, and there was an abundant supply o f poultry, black c a t t l e and pigs. Had i t not been f o r the Nootka Sound Convention, the Spanish Government f u l l y intended to make a permanent settlement. Page SOO. On October 13th. 1792, the English ships s a i l e d f o r the Sandwich Islands, carrying with them two Hawaiian g i r l s whom they were returning to t h e i r native land, having been taken from the Islands by Captain Baker o f the "Jenny". ®h@ "Daedalus" was detailed to examine Gray Ts Harbour, while the "Discovery" and "Chatham" surveyed the Columbia. The l a t t e r undertaking was not successful, due to unfavourable weather, - which resulted i n the l o s s o f one small boat and i t s crew. The three ships met at Monteray, where Bodega y Quadra showed them every kindness before they f i n a l l y l e f t f o r the Sandwich Islands. A f t e r an uneventful winter, Vancouver s a i l e d f o r Nootka on the 30th. o f March 1793. Lieutenant Broughton had l e f t previously f o r England with dispatches from Vancouver and Lieutenant Peter Puget received the command o f the "Chatham". The "Daedalus" also s a i l e d some time before, f o r Port Jackson (Sidney) i n New South Wales. The "Discovery" made the north west coast i n l a t i t u d e 41" , and during t h e i r landing Mr. Menzies discovered a Spanish cross on a h i l l , where Quadra had taken possession i n 1775. Proceeding to Nootka, the ship arr i v e d on the 20th. of May, but found that the "Chatham" had sa i l e d two days before, having been i n port since the middle of A p r i l . Changes had taken place at Nootka, and the Spanish now had an imposing f o r t on Hog Island, boasting eleven nine pound guns. Senor Don Bamon Saavedra a r r i v e d with the "San Carlos" shortly a f t e r Vancouver, with orders to r e l i e v e Pidalgo, the governor o f the f o r t , and the l a t t e r announced his w i l l - ingness to forward dispatches to England f o r Vancouver a f t e r he Page 801 reached San Bias. Fidalgo's o f f e r was gladly accepted. Vancouver waited four days at Nootka, and then con- cluded h i s time would he more p r o f i t a b l y spent i n continuing the survey near Calvert Island, where he had l e f t o f f the previous year. S a i l i n g north he met the "Chatham" i n Queen Charlotte Sound, and the ships continued the task together - curiously enough working i n the exact l o c a l i t y where Alexander Mackenzie, a r r i v e d "from Canada" the following month. Besides careful surveying, Vancouver took de t a i l e d notes o f the appearance and habits of the Siwash Indians o f the d i s t r i c t . The ships kept north, and Vancouver named Port Essington i n the l a t i t u d e of the Skeena Kiver, although he missed the r i v e r i t s e l f . In l a t i t u d e 54° 45* he reported the discovery o f a large opening which was marked on Camaano's chart as De Fonte's S t r a i t . It was l a t e r known as the Portland Canal. Serious trouble arose with the Indians i n Behrn Canal, who under the guise of trade surrounded the small boats, and i n - c i t e d hy an o l d woman t r i e d to seize everything movable. Vancouver had f i n a l l y to f i r e on them to save h i s s a i l o r s 1 l i v e s - and did not do so u n t i l two o f the l a t t e r had been severely wounded. The expedition turned south i n l a t i t u d e 56°, and examined the western shore o f the Queen Charlotte* Islands i n d e t a i l , before anchoring at Nootka on the 5th. o f October 1793. A f t e r a three day pause Vancouver l e f t f o r Monteray, a l i t t l e disappointed that the "Daedalus" had not returned from Port Jackson, but l u c k i l y encountered her on the voyage. Their Page 202 treatment at Monteray was very d i f f e r e n t from that o f the previous year. Quadra was no longer i n control, and the new commandant Senor A r r i l l a g a i n s i s t e d on the supervision o f t h e i r every a c t i o n hy a Spanish o f f i c e r while on shore. Every one was obliged to return to the ships at sundown, and even the observer was not exempt from t h i s r u l e . Vancouver was also requested to make a l l possible speed with h i s preparations, and he indignantly l e f t the C a l i f o r n i a n coast at the e a r l i e s t opportunity. The f i r s t three months of 1794 were spent chart- ing the Sandwich Islands and the "Discovery" and the "Chatham" did not s a i l f o r the north west coast u n t i l the middle of March. The "Daedulus" had previously set o f f on a second v i s i t to A u s t r a l i a . Vancouver reached the north west coast i n l a t i t u d e 55°and s a i l i n g on, reached Cook's River on A p r i l 12. The work centered round t h i s area, including Prince William's Sound and the coast of Alaska. This ended Vancouver's survey of the north west coast. It was f i n i s h e d by the end o f August, i n commemoration of which he named the l a s t point o f c a l l Point Completion - a touoh t y p i c a l o f Vancouver. Once more Vanoouver made f o r Nootka, and found that Brigadier General Don Jose Manuel Alava had just a r r i v e d as new Governor, on the "Prinoessa". This change had been caused by the death of Bodega y Quadra at San Bias i n the. previous March - news which was received with the deepest regret by the English expedition who s i n c e r e l y admired him. Alava was expecting the necessary instructions and credentials to terminate the Nootka negotiations, Page 203. so Vancouver waited at Friendly Cove, hoping that English despatches would a r r i v e hy the same ship, as he had had no communications f o r two years. Six weeks were spent i n d a l l y - ing and making small repairs, a f t e r which Vancouver decided i t was useless to stay longer, and the "Discovery" and the "Chatham" weighed anchor on the 16th. o f October 1794. They a r r i v e d i n London i n October of the following year. Vancouver began preparing his Journal f o r the press, but died just before the completion o f h i s task at the "Star and Garter" Inn, Surrey, - May 10, 1798 - and the work was fi n i s h e d by h i s brother. At the time of h i s death Vancouver was not quite f o r t y one, and had been selected f o r the leadership of t h i s important enter- pr i s e at the age of t h i r t y four. He j u s t i f i e d h i s appointment, although the actual surrender o f Nootka had not taken place. The survey o f the north west coast alone was a most excellent and valuable piece o f work. The Nootka d i f f i c u l t y was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d by a Convention i n Madrid, held on the 11th. o f January 1794. The agreement reached provided that commissioners o f both nations should meet as soon as possible at the l o c a t i o n of the former B r i t i s h buildings, and exchange declarations and counter dec- l a r a t i o n s . The former was a f u l l r e s t o r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h property seized i n A p r i l 1789, and the l a t t e r a formal acknow- ledgment that the r e s t o r a t i o n was complete and s a t i s f a c t o r y . "Then the B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s h a l l u n f u r l the B r i t i s h f l a g over the land thms restored as a sign of possession, and a f t e r these fo r m a l i t i e s the o f f i c e r s o f the two crowns s h a l l r e t i r e t h e i r Page £04 people respectively from the said port of Nootka. And t h e i r said majesties have furthermore agreed that the subjects o f both nations s h a l l he free to frequent the sa i d port as may he convenient, and to erect there temporary buildings f o r t h e i r accommodation during t h e i r residence on such occasions. But neither o f the two p a r t i e s s h a l l make i n said port any permanent establishment, or claim there any r i g h t o f sover- eignty or t e r r i t o r i a l dominion to the exclusion of the other. And t h e i r said majesties w i l l a i d each other to maintain t h e i r subjects i n free access to the s a i d port o f Nootka against whatever other nation may attempt to e s t a b l i s h there any sovereignty or dominion." (l) It ended the l a s t controversy between England and Spain on the. north west coast. Lieutenant Cosmo Bertodano was appointed as Spanish commissioner, and Lieutenant Thomas Pierce, of the Marines, was named as the English representative. Bertodano s a i l e d from Sah Bias i n charge of the "Activa", accompanied by Pierce, on the; 13th. o f January 1795. The "Activa" c a l l e d at Monteray, where General Alva, who had apparently wintered i n C a l i f o r n i a , came aboard. The ship reached Nootka on the ££nd, of March, and the r e s t i t u t i o n took place next day - March £3, 1795. The Spanish dismantled the f o r t on Hog Island, (known to them by the more poetic name o f San Miguel), and the ordinance was transferred, part on board the "Activa", and the rest on the-, "San Carlos". Lieutenant Pierce and the Spanish a u t h o r i t i e s were p e r f e c t l y s a t i s f i e d with the ful f i l m e n t o f t h e i r commiss- ions, and General Alva ordered h i s troops to embark. The (1) Bancroft, "History o f the North West Coast", v o l . I, - - 1543-1800, pp. 300-301. Page 205. place was then deserted hy a l l Europeans, and hefore the following year Maquinna and h i s t r i b e had moved t h e i r v i l l a g e to the s i t e o f the abandoned Spanish f o r t . Page 206. Chapter IX. "THE LAST THREE YEARS OP THE EARLY TRADE." (1792-1794) In spite o f r i s i n g prices the sea o t t e r trade was at i t s peak, and 1792"was a record year f o r the number o f vessels v i s i t i n g the coast. John Boit, i n h i s "Log o f the 1Columbia 1", gives the l a s t account o f the ship and her con- sort the "Adventure", a f t e r the launching o f the l a t t e r i n February 1792, and t h e i r departure from Clickselecutsee Cove (1) on the 25th. o f March. The "Adventure", a sloop of about f o r t y f i v e tons, was the t h i r d vessel to be b u i l t on the north . west shore, and Robert Haswell was appointed master. The ships spent the season trading up and down the coast. The "Columbia" s a i l e d f o r the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, and a f t e r passing a few days continued south, meeting Vancouver on the way. A serious f i g h t took place i n May between the "Columbia" and the natives o f Buena Esperanza Sound (Nasparti Sound). The Indians a r r i v e d at Nootka on the 3rd. of June to complain to Quadra o f the treatment they had received. The g u i l t was f i x e d on Gray because o f t h e i r indications that the ship's captain iquinted,,© noted c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f that trader. The Indians said the vessel had attacked them, k i l l i n g seven and wounding others, and took a l l t h e i r furs by force because they had been unwilling to accept the price offered. Apparently (1) Clickselecutsee Cove was i n Clayoquot Sound. Page 207. when no s a t i s f a c t o r y rate o f exchange could he reached, the Europeans resorted to high handed methods. Considerable f r i c t i o n had ar i s e n between Captain Gray and h i s supercargo John Hoskins. Hoskins f i n a l l y wrote to h i s owners from Nootka Sound, August 21, 1792, saying h i s p o s i t i o n was unbearable, since Gray accused him o f keeping a spy, both upon the vessel's trade and the o f f i c e r s 1 domestic l i f e * Every obstacle was placed i n the way o f keeping the ship.'s books - Gray dismissed the matter saying the "hooks were of no use nor myself (Hoskins) neither" and objected to the l a t t e r 1 s method of accounting. Hoskins r e p l i e d i t was the system employed by Joseph B a r r e l l , which brought the re- joinder: "Bamn Jo B a r r e l l he does not know how to keep books o r anything else, except h i s damn mean ways, o f sett i n g h is damn clerks to overlook people and the l i k e . " No doubt Hoskins made the most of hi s case, but even so h i s p o s i t i o n must have been a most uncomfortable one. (l) The "Columbia" l a t e r made f o r the southern shores of. the Queen Charlotte Islands, where on the 24th. o f August 1792 she met Haswell. Gray and Haswell took the opportunity to grave the "Adventure", as Gray planned to s e l l her to the Spaniards on the return to Nootka. The Spanish purchase was completed on the 28th. of September 1792, and the following day the "Adventure" s a i l e d f o r Acapulco under Spanish colours. Gray received seventy two prime sea o t t e r skins i n payment, and l e f t f o r China by way of the Sandwich Islands. The "Columbia" sold her furs to the Hong merchants f o r ninety ( l ) P . W. Howay, "Second Voyage o f the Columbia", Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . XXIV, 1923, Pages-141-147. Page 208. thousand d o l l a r s , and took on a cargo of teas with a small proportion of sugar and China porcelain. Gray reached Boston on the 25th. o f July 1793, and neither he nor the "Columbia" v i s i t e d the north west coast again. An English squadron under Captain William Brown arr i v e d early i n the season, consisting of the "Butterworth", the "Jackal" and the "Prince Lee Boo". Brown, or his company, did not intend to r i s k everything on the uncertainties of the fur t r a f f i c , and intended to combine the fur trade with s e a l - ing and whale f i s h i n g o f f the South American coast. It i s quite l i k e l y that the ships came out by way of Cape Horn and that Brown made some sort of temporary establishment at Staten 1s Land (1) to serve as a base f o r further operations. (2) The "Butterworth " was formerly a French f r i g a t e o f t h i r t y guns which had been captured, and now s a i l e d from London as a B r i t i s h ship of three hundred and ninety two tons commanded by William Brown. (3) The "Jackal" was a B r i t i s h (1) Staten's Land, now c a l l e d Staten Island, i s o f f the east- e m point of T i e r r a del Puego, on the dir e c t route around Cape Horn. (2) Ralph S. Kuykendall, "A North West Trader at the Hawaiian Islands", Oregon H i s t o r i a a l Quarterly, v o l . XXIV, Eage 112. (3) The logs o f these ships are not known to be i n existence, and consequently the movements o f the squadron are rather elusive. The three vessels were under the leadership o f Captain Brown, who f o r the seasons 1792 and 15*93 s a i l e d on the "Butterworth". At the end o f t h i s time the "Butterworth wsaat to England, and u n t i l 1799 returned no more to the sea o t t e r regions. Captain Brown did not accompany her, but l e f t with the "Jackal"(of which he ass- umed command) and the "Prince Lee-Boo" f o r Macao, and re- turned to the north west coast i n 1794 with both vessels. Captain Brown and Captain Gordon of the "Prince Lee Boo" were both k i l l e d at the Sandwich Islands, by natives, the 1st. o f January 1795, a f t e r which.the ships continued to China. They did not return to the north west coast, and further record i s l o s t . Page 209. schooner, also of London, with Alexander Stewart as master. Ingraham o f the "Hope" describes t h i s curious ship which he encountered i n the middle o f July o f f the Queen Charlotte Islands. The "Jackal" flew the English colours and "showed a t i e r of ports fore and a f t , the greater part o f which were false , o r only painted, yet they made a good appearance, and at a distance we thought f o r some time she was a King's cutter o r tender to some man o f war." (1) Stewart had been < on the coast before,as second mate to Captain Duncan o f the "Princess Royal", and remembered the occasion when the nat- ives had t r i e d to seize the ship i n the inner channels o f the i s l a n d maze. Duncan, according to Stewart, was now employ- ed by the North West Company of London, to endeavour to f i n d a north west passage. Stewart had no doubts of h i s success, but Ingraham was not so o p t i m i s t i c . The "Prince Lee Boo" was a small sloop between t h i r t y and f o r t y tons. Ingraham gives her master as Sharp, and John Boit i n the Log o f the "Columbia" as Gordon. (2) The "Butterworth", "Jackal" and "Prince Lee Boo" a l l belonged to a company o f London merchants, "the p r i n c i p a l o f which was Alderman Curtis", and claimed to have a grant from the B r i t i s h government to make a settlement o r rather e s t a b l i s h a factory on some part of the coast. They are not recorded as being l i c e n s e d by the East India Company. Ingraham met the "Butterworth" and the "Jackal" (1) Joseph Ingraham, "voyage of the 'Hope'", Transcription i n P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C.,.Page 178. (2) John Boit, "A New "Log o f the Columbia 1", Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, Vol. XII, 1921, Page 46. Entry f o r 11 August 1792. Page 210. again on the 7th. of August 1792, and Brown complained b i t t e r - l y o f the fierceness o f the natives of Clayoquot, who had attacked h i s boats with small arms, k i l l i n g one man and wounding two others very badly. Mr. Lamb of the "Margaret", an American ship encountered next day, had a very d i f f e r e n t version o f the a f f a i r . According to h i s t a l e the English had landed at Wiokananish*'s v i l l a g e to rob the Indians, and a c t u a l l y cut several skins o f f the Indians 1 backs. When the inhabitants t r i e d to defend themselves they were f i r e d upon, but nothing daunted, the warriors t r i e d to follow the whale boats i n t h e i r canoes. Captain Magee, anxious to keep the peace, fared a cannon shot between them. This act caused a l a t e r coolness between the "Butterworth" and the "Margaret", since the former f i n u l y believed the cannon had been aimed at them, and not between t h e i r ship and the natives. The Indians exhaulted i n t h e i r success i n d r i v i n g the E n g l i s h o f f , but the l a t t e r took ample revenge. Soon a f t e r the "Butter- worth" cleared the port she f e l l i n with some f i s h i n g canoes and Captain Brown seized t h e i r occupants, causing them to be whipped unmercifully by the Sandwich Islanders he had on board and then flung into the sea. The English ship "Jenny" was astern under Captain Baker, and ended the tragedy by f i r - ing at the drowning natives. A garbled account reached Wiokananish shortly afterwards, but he believed the Indians had merely been detained on board, and besought Maquinna to intercede with Quadra to get them released. Quadra's sym- pathies were at once roused, but i t was too l a t e to do anything. Page 211. Quadra was helpless, f o r d i s c i p l i n i n g the traders was a task too herculean f o r the waning power of Spain. The Brown squadron were not f i n a n c i a l l y successful during t h i s f i r s t season. Vancouver noted an English merchant b r i g "The Three Brothers", on h i s f i r s t v i s i t to Nootka, commanded hy Lieutenant William Alder o f the Royal Navy. Alder was engaged i n building a small tender at Nootka for trading operations, while Bodega y Quadra gave permission and a l l assistance to the undertaking. As consort to h i s ship, Alder had a few months l a t e r the "Prince William Henry", a B r i t i s h schooner o f London, with Ewen as master. These ships were l i c e n s e d by the East India Company to enable them to trade i n China, and chanced seizure by the South Sea Company while c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r f u r s . The "Prince William Henry" only a r r i v e d at the end of the season, October 11, 1792, and intended to winter on the coast. It i s more than probable she did so, but the d e t a i l s are not known. The B r i t i s h b r i g "Venus" payed a second and authen- t i c v i s i t , and met the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" on the 9th. of August 1792. She had s a i l e d from Bengal under the same master, Captain Henry Shepard, and c a r r i e d a small crew. "The Brig had only twenty two men, mostly negroes o f Jalo, wretch- edly clad, and very slow f o r work on board. Nevertheless nothing could be more simple and better arranged than the work of that ship, which happened to have a very graceful - appearance. A l l round on the gunwales a net was drawn about Page 212. two yards high, to prevent surprise hy the Indians, and had some swivel guns and four cannons well placed." (1) The ship anchored, and the natives paddled out to trade, exchanging i n the r a t i o o f two skins for. a sheet of copper weighing four- teen pounds. Despite h i s " t h r i f t and economy" Shepard com- plained that his p r o f i t s were miserably small. The exchange r a t i o o f copper had f a l l e n , and prices o f skins rose i n proportion to the increased consumption and competition o f buyers. Maquinna said he had bought copper from Captain Meares i n 1788 at ten skins per sheet, while now a sheet weighing twelve and a h a l f pounds only brought one skin o f prime q u a l i t y . Valdez found i n trading with the Indians o f Juan de Fuca S t r a i t i n 1792 that they would not take two sheets o f copper weighing twenty f i v e pounds f o r three skins of ordinary size and q u a l i t y . The traders object- ed, on the grounds that such prices involved them i n serious l o s s e s . The "Pheonix ", another B r i t i s h b r i g from Bengal, made her f i r s t appearance, under Captain Hugh Moore. Nothing i s known of her movements, and no known record e x i s t s . Judge?. P. W. Howay terms her "a mystery ship o f the trade", with a story yet to be constructed. A three masted B r i t i s h schooner, the "Jenny" a seventy eight ton vessel o f B r i s t o l , was also on the coast. She belonged to Sidenham Teast, a wealthy ship- owner o f that port, and c a r r i e d James Baker as master. The "Jenny" l e f t B r i s t o l on June 18, 1791, and reached the north west shore about a year l a t e r . S a i l i n g up the coast, she (1) "Voyage of the 1 S u t i l 1 and "Mexicana 1", Typescript, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , B. C , II, 103. Page 213 v i s i t e d Murderer's Harbour, which Baker not r e a l i z i n g i t had been named before c a l l e d "Port Sidenham". Baker secured a few skins, and was much impressed by the savage d i s p o s i t i o n o f the natives, who threatened to k i l l and eat the crew i f they same ashore. Vancouver stated there was no foundation f o r the tal e s spread hy the American traders that t h e i r English r i v a l s brought natives from the Sandwich Islands and sold them to the coast Indians f o r fun. Vancouver admitted that the s t o r i e s were so p l a u s i b l y t o l d that he believed them on f i r s t hearing, e s p e c i a l l y i n connection with Captain Baker o f the "Jenny", who was reputed to have had two young g i r l s on board, and sold them i n t h i s manner. Just at t h i s time the "Jenny" turned up at Nootka -,October 7, 1792, with the two g i r l s , aged f i f t e e n and nineteen on board. Baker requested Vancouver to return them to the Sandwich Islands, as he saw no prospect of v i s i t - ing that v i c i n i t y i n the near future, and claimed that he had s a i l e d without knowing they were on board. The g i r l s said they had v i s i t e d the ship with several o f t h e i r countrywomen,and that while the others had been permitted to return, they had been f o r c i b l y detained below. Vancouver restored the g i r l s to t h e i r home a few weeks l a t e r , but made no e f f o r t to excuse Baker f o r his conduct. Broughton met the "Jenny" i n November, i n Baker's Bay, (1) whioh was named a f t e r the captain. She had had a bad season, c o l l e c t i n g only three hundred and f i f t y skins i n a l l , hut the want of sucoess was due l a r g e l y to the poor (1) Baker's Bay i s at the mouth of the Columbia River. Page 214. q u a l i t y o f her trading goods. The "Jenny" was l i c e n s e d hy the South Sea Company to enable her to trade i n t h e i r preserves, and took her furs hack to England to s e l l . Mr, Teast was not daunted by her f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e , changed the "Jenny" from a schooner to a ship, and p r o f i t i n g hy experience, sent her hack i n September with a more suitable cargo. A l l the vessels f l y i n g the Portuguese f l a g i n 1792 were believed to have been B r i t i s h . They were the "Penis and St. Joseph", the "Police", the "Plorinda", and the "Iphigenla". The "Penis and St. Joseph" was a b r i g from Macao, under a master named by Vancouver as John de Bams Andre de, and others, Joseph Andrew Tobar. She c a r r i e d Robert Du f f i n as supercargo, who had formerly s a i l e d with the " P e l i c e " and the "Argonaut". A f t e r spending the season i n trade she s a i l e d far China October 1, 1792, having secured a cargo o f about two hundred skins, (1) accompanied by L i e u t - enant Mudge bearing despatches from Vancouver. L i t t l e i s known of the snow "Iphigenia", save that she was commanded by Captain Viana, according to Captain Vancouver. Menzies l i s t - ed t h i s same oaptain i n charge o f the "Pelice Adventurer", and Judge Howay suggests they may have confused the same ship.(2) The "Florinda", also from Macao, was commanded ei t h e r by William Coles (Ingraham) or Thomas Cole (Haswell). The ship waj f i r s t seen on the coast on July 12 1792, when Haswell des- cribed her as "The most miserable-1'.thing that ever was formed i n imitation of the Ark". Vancouver did not l i s t the "Pelice (l')E. S, Meany, "idtfew Vancouver Journal""'Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, vol VI, 1915. Page 50. (2)Howay, " Trading.Vessels i n the Maritime Pur Brade", 1775-1784," Page 125. Page 215. " A d v e n t u r e r " among the v e s s e l s lie n o t i c e d on the c o a s t , hut h e r name appears i n M e n z i e S i ; J o u r n a l . I l ) The S p a n i a r d s v a l d e z and G a l l i a n o m e n t i o n the s h i p as b e i n g at Nootka on June 4, 1792, w i t h a cargo o f f i v e hundred s k i n s . The " F e l i c e A d v e n t u r e r " had l e f t Macao on the 4 t h . o f May, 1791, and made f o r P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound, but h e r e she l o s t a number