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Advocacy in architecture : a case study of the Urban Design Center, Vancouver, B.C. 1970-1976 Tamaki, Marlene Gail 1991-11-25

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ADVOCACY IN ARCHITECTURE A Case Study of the URBAN DESIGN CENTRE Vancouver, B.C. 1970-1976 By MARLENE GAIL TAMAKI •A., University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus, 197 B.Arch, THe University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Architecture) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1991 © Marlene Gail Tamaki, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Bepartment of AtoAcTfeZTTOg^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The shift toward participatory, advocacy and social architecture and planning that occurred in the 1960's and 70's in North America was illustrated with the work of the Community Design Centers. These Community Design Centers provided architectural, planning and technical services to low income groups with an emphasis on user participation. The Community Desgin Center provided a model by which the professional, the student and the community could work together as a team on current issues within the community. This study examines the basic notions of the Community Design Centers in order to determine the principles at work in the model. The Urban Design Center of Vancouver, 1970-76 is used as a specific case study. iii Table of Contents Page Abstract Table of Contents List of Appendices List of Figures Acknowledgements ii iii v vi vxx INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose Methodology Study Organization Chapter One: 3 THE SETTING Modern Age Idealism Some Concerns with the Modern Age The Rise of the Professional ADVOCACY ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING America and the Movement of the 60's Metropolitanization and Suburbanization Freeways, and Urban Renewal Chapter Two 22 COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTRES American Roots Community Participation Funding Objectives An example - Community Design Center, San Francisco Characteristics of Community Design Center and other storefront professional services. VANCOUVER, B.C. - THE 1960'S Background Suburbia The Downtown Core Urban Renewal Freeways New politics for Vancouver Chapter Three 39 IV Chapter Four 56 THE URBAN DESIGN CENTRE - THE BEGINNING The Vancouver Inner City Service Project (VISP) Urban Design Centre - Inception Operating Philosophies Proposed Structure Objectives Founding Principles Funding and Personnel The Latter Years Chapter Five 76 CLIENTS AND PROJECTS Skeena Terrace Recreation Facility The Gastown Health Clinic The Richmond Playlot The Home Show Clinic The Layman's Home Improvement Guide Daycare and Other Research Paraplegic Group Homes Adanac Neighbourhood Planning Orchard Park Chapter Six 106 CONCLUSIONS Basic Principles The Principles and the Vancouver UDC Legacies A Natural Cycle The Role of the Professional The Role of the University Personal Rewards Lifespan THE 1990'S V List of Appendices All Appendices are taken from the City of Vancouver Archives, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Center, unless otherwise stated. Page One: List of San Francisco Community 134 Design Center Projects 1969 from H. Schubart files Two: Transportation Studies 137 Produced for the Urbanarium Three: Vancouver's Urban Design Centre 145 Chronology Four: List of UDC Projects 147 Five: List of UDC Participants 158 Six: Skeena Project Report by Tony Green 164 Seven: AIBC press release: 166 Saturday Morning Service Eight: Ray-Cam: Patterns & Concept Design 167 Nine: Design Game - Handicapped Home 172 vi List of Figures FIGURES: All figures are from the City of Vancouver Archives, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Center, unless otherwise stated. Page Fig.l Comparison 7 The Failure of Modern Architecture, Brolin 1976, p.9 Fig.2 Diagrams of Vancouver 41 Inner City & Old suburbs Hardwick 1974, p.12 & 13 Fig.3 Sketch Scheme Strathcona Urban Renewal 46 Vancouver Unlimited Gutstein, 1975 Fig.4 Floor Plan, Main floor 58 1895 Venables, now the Vancouver East Cultural Center First location of the UDC with the Vancouver Inner-City Service Project Fig.5 Tutorial J Description 65 Fig.6 1111 Commercial Drive 70 UDC office layout and future proposal Fig.7 Skeena Terrace Project Organizational 80 Diagram Fig.8 Playlot drawings 84 Fig.9&10 Home Show Clinic photos 87 Fig.11 Layman's Home Improvement Guide 91 Sample Pages Fig.l2&13 Daycare drawings 94 Fig.14&15 Adanac Sample patterns 99 Fig.16 Orchard Park 102 Fig.l7&18 Ray-Cam Schematic Design 116 Fig.19 Pine Street Clinic Floor Plan 118 Fig.20 Recycling the Profession 1965-1971 126 vii I wish to express my gratitude and thanks to all those who helped with this study particularily the people who were interviewed and graciously took the time to talk about this period in the history of Vancouver. I would like to thank my mentor, Prof. Ron Walkey, and Prof. Dino Rapanos who guided me through the development of the study. And, of course, special thanks to Mabel and Tom Tamaki, Danara and Daylan Healy and Graeme and Barbara Bristol for their support and patience. A very special rememberence to Wolfgang Gerson who encouraged and continually reminded me of the beauty in study, architecture, music and life. 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose During the 1960's and 70's there was a movement toward participatory, advocacy and social architecture. The work of the Community Design Centres throughout North America provided a model by which the professional, the student and the community could work together on current architectural and planning issues within the community. The purpose of this study is to discover the basic principles of the Community Design Centres with the Vancouver Urban Design Centre, 1970-76, as a specific case study. Methodology The information in this study is gathered from three primary sources: a review of books and articles written about the 1960's and 70's, in planning, architecture and political science; an examination of the personal files of Mr. Henry Schubart, founding member of the San Francisco Community Design Center and of the files of the Vancouver Urban Design Centre in the City of Vancouver Archives; and, a series interviews with participants listed in the bibliography. 2 Study Organization The study consists of six chapters. Chapter One sets the context, describing Modernist architectural and planning ideas and consequences and the trend toward advocacy and social architecture. Chapter Two describes the development of Community Design Centres in the United States with a particular look at the San Francisco experience. Chapter Three sets the context of Vancouver at the time of the operation of the Vancouver Urban Design Centre, with Chapter Four describing its specific history. Chapter Five describes nine representative projects of the UDC. Chapter Six draws conclusions on the principles on which the UDC was founded, and examines is successes, limitation and demise. 3 Chapter One THE SETTING Modern Age Idealism The study and practice of architecture involves a dedication to many things: the pursuit of the understanding of history and knowledge; the desire to enhance the evolution and development of humankind; and the love of form, beauty and art. The special medium for the architect has been the physical environment. The architect finds that in these dedications, work and study touches on all facets of human existence, from past to future, from the deep individual within to the ever expanding group without, from spaces and places of day to day life, to those of the world. There is an inherent belief and hope that the work done can and must help shape human development and, therefore, perhaps, destiny. These hopes can been clearly seen in the 20th century ideals and visions of what is known popularly as 'modern architecture'. The great modern architects of the early part of the century, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe and 4 Walter Gropius, Aldo Van Eyck, Louis Kahn were at the centre of the 'idealist tradition' in modern architecture. They shared the idea of Utopian vision (though not necessarily the same vision), social ideals such as humanitarian liberalism and an obligation to propose alternative visions to the existing social order. The new architecture that was to illustrate and move humanity along to alternative and higher social orders, was based on the machine age technology. The Industrial Revolution changed production dramatically from the labour intensive methods of the craftsman to rational technologies based on mechanization, standardization and repetition. This new technology was faster and more productive, and it was thought that society's physical, social and economic problems could finally be alleviated. This confidence in the new modern technologies that ushered in the 'Modern Age' was also reflected in architectural design and construction. Modern architecture embraced the new production. The 1928 Le Serrez Declaration, written by the group of architects who formed the Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, illustrates the thrust of the modern architecture: 'The most efficient method of production is that which arises from rationalization and standardization...The inescapable consequence of the development of the machine has led to industrial methods of production different and often opposed to those of the craftsmen. It is urgently necessary for architecture, henceforth to rely on the present realities of industrial technology, even though such an attitude must perforce 5 lead to products fundamentally different from those of past epoches'. To the architects, the modern building represented a revolution in architecture and, hence, a new architectural determinism. A. 0. Dean writes: 'Both [Frank Lloyd] Wright and Le Corbusier, while agreeing on little else, were convinced that a revolution in architecture, which deracinated the past and the accepted culture, would spearhead a Utopian social order. The new, rational, enlightened building environment would also be reflected in a reform of human nature.'...'We identified the new with the good, and hailed the New Man, the New Woman, the New Politics, the New History, the New Science; in short the New World. History we thought began and ended with ourselves and we expected the new to last forever, as if the will to change itself would remain forever' [quoting Mumford]. New was the ideal, new techniques, new planning, new building. New would produce the basic conditions for social and political health - clean cities with space, schools, and recreation available to every citizen. Some concerns with the Modern Age Rationalization and standardization brought a level of replication that necessitated the minimization of the individuality that was part of craftsman produced items. The craftsman might, for example make a few dozen similar bowls, from raw clay to finished glazing, each with slight differences. The mass produced items, exact reproductions of a prototype, would be produced by many hands, and 6 assembled by many others. Production was standardized, departmentalized and the process repeated with great rapidity and accuracy. The craftsman became merely another set of hands, who sold his time and his skill, but not the finished product. In architecture, the modernists embraced the new materials and systems that technology brought. Standardization was applied to form, creating an international style of building that was to be consistent throughout the world. In the belief that people's lives and behaviour could be decisively affected through changes in the physical surroundings, the modern architects negated cultural or human differences in built form, thus freeing humankind from these differences. This egalitarian approach to building, is demonstrated by the work, for example, of the De Stijl, early Dutch Modernists, who looked to man-made materials like concrete to eliminate the personal character of the craftsman that materials like brick, stone and wood would produce.^ By demonstrating truth with the 'honest', economical, and functional use of materials and structure, along with the rejection of ornament and other such manifestations of past traditions, architecture sought to be part of the natural evolutionary process that eliminates unnecessary or obsolete parts. The peoples of the world, it was thought, could shed their past differences and benefit from the harmony and providence of the new standardized and universal 7 I Yale University Art Gallery. The old art gallery is at the right Old and new in Sanaa, Yemen and an addition, by Louis Kahn in 1953, at the left. Old and new in Venice, Italy. Figure 1 Comparison The Failure of Modern Architecture, Brolin 1976, p.9 8 technologies. Modern architecture represented the new world order, devoid of stylistic, and historical continuity.^ The aims were lofty, but looking beyond the machine/technology aesthetic, and the somewhat sophisticated notions of form, function and truth, the results while true to their concept often lacked the richness of detail, visual variety, and comfort of the traditional, tending to be stark, coldly repetitious and banal in comparison^. Rise of the Professional A consequence of the organizational form of modern production was the concentration of wealth, information, and power and with a small group at the top of a pyramidal structure. The workers at the bottom served as efficient operators of machines, rather than artisans producing or even being knowledgeable of the whole making of the product. With mass production, this kind of knowledge was not necessary, and creativity was neither required nor desxred. The worker lost control of tools and materials (the means of production), of discretion over place and pace of work, as well as of the end product or its sale. According to Hatch in The Scope of Social Architecture, this change in the activities and the economic structure of • ft productxon led to alxenatxon. He says: 9 Society is fragmented into 'interests', an unavoidable effect of a competitive market in labour. Community is almost unknown; society is reduced to an aggregation of fearful and mutually suspicious individuals...Further, docile specialization at work has measurable negative effects on participation in family and community life. The number of roles we are comfortable playing shrinks, and with it the memory of what were formerly important human needs. This feeling of alienation comes not only from a change in activity, but also in the change in the size of jurisdictions. Improvements in transportation and communication were required to move goods greater distances more quickly. The interacting economies and markets necessitated greater organization and larger governments. Decisions on the development of the community moved from the realm of individuals and neighbourhoods to cities, states and countries. It also seemed to move beyond the abilities of the lay person to that of the professional. The increasingly complex technical developments and systems led to the exclusivity of the expert, and to the specialist. As a great deal of information, knowledge, and training was required to make the complex systems work, these systems became the sole jurisdiction of the expert. Statistics, scientific analysis, and master plans were used, allowing little or no involvement with those outside the professions. This professional dominance added to distancing the average citizen from contributing to decisions effecting the environment. 10 The professions and their experts, not only served the needs of the community, but also determined its needs.^ In the case of Architecture and Planning, laws and practises were formulated for large structures and global organizations as well as for dwellings^ and neighbourhoods. The lay person was largely excluded from this process as it was believed that the required expertise went beyond that of the ordinary citizen. Creating the environment moved from the duty of the individual as a natural part of everyday living, to the realm of the professional. Wide sweeping master plans, effecting large areas over many years, were conceived to regulate and direct development of the physical environment, with immediate consequences to the local communities having a lessor priority than the 'larger picture'. With this master plan frame of mind, professionals ran the risk of losing touch with the people their expertise was meant to serve.^ The early Modernist architects whose Utopian visions and grand plans included all of society, not only the rich, and all facets of life, from housing to monuments, by virtue of the well-meaning arrogance of their professionalism, did not serve to encourage another kind of egalitarianism, the ability of all to participate in the formation of one's environment. By the early 1950's, a reaction to the early modernists, spearheaded by a group formed in 1954, Team 10, had begun. Although very much modern architects, Team 10 questioned the 11 social program of the early Modernists that thought to serve humanity by providing the quantifiable, biological requirements with less emphasis on the behavioral and social aspects of architecture. Brolin writes of Team 10: 'Although the postwar generation respected the achievements of its predecessors in supplanting historical styles and in revolutionizing the technology of architecture, it was felt that the uniformity and anonymity of early modernism had been the cause of its social failure...The mistake of the early modernists had been to advocate essentially one program for all people in all situations; the technical question had been more important than the social one in determining architectural and planning solutions.'1^ The question then became, how does the architect and planner determine an architecture or a policy that is more suitable to the individual needs of specific communities? This led to the movement towards a more socially responsible architecture. ADVOCACY ARCHITECTURE and PLANNING 'The catchword 'advocacy' has come to symbolize the involvement of the typically middle class professional in the urban crises. The serious problems of urban blight and decay in the nation's slums beckon the architect. Personal commitment to bettering the socio-physical environment, feelings of guilt for the sorry state of urban affairs and paternalism for the ensnared population are all potential motivating forces.' M.B. Baker, AIA Journal, 197013 Young professionals from all disciplines became active in an advocacy role, fighting for the rights of the poor, and minority groups. Legal aid offices, free medical clinics, youth hostels, social service centers and Community Design 12 Centers proliferated in almost every major city in North America. America and the Movement of the 60's The social protests that exploded in the inner cities of most large American metropolises, during the 1960's were part of the 'Movement' to force change to self determination. Of this Goodman (1971) says: 'The growth of what is popularly called 'The Movement' is to a large extent a reaction against the bureaucratic and centralized control of these institutions - a control which is maintained by so-called 'progressive' city-planning techniques. These techniques have in fact been more conducive to maintaining profit-making environments and autocratic governments than to creating the more immediate and personally satisfying like condition which many people are seeking. In my view we can't wait for those who now rule to meet demands for this change - they simply have too much to lose by doing so. What people can do is begin this process of change themselves. It is a process which should both examine the cause of our present condition and pose new ways for building more humane places to live.' The Movement took place in a context when several grassroots and militant activities were causing a general upheaval in the civil society including 'the civil rights movement, the rise of women's liberation, the anti-war movement, student protests, together with more militant labour demands and the challenge of alternative cultures which were destroying the myth of a conflict-free, post-industrial society, and 13 shaking the basic mechanisms of social control.'14 The most spectacular events were the massive riots in the black ghettos.^ Discrimination and poverty were the background to these riots with police brutality, unemployment and housing issues, being the spark. Representatives of rioters asked for such things as better education, recreational facilities, local government reform, and protested the living conditions in the ghetto. What were the forces of urban development that led to this reaction? Metropolitanization and Suburbanization Industrialization and the concentration of capital, the means of production and labour, necessitated large centers of worker populations required for standardized and rationalized production. In these centres, metropolitan (dominant) cities, networks, markets, management, means of production, means of consumption, financial and communication organizations were concentrated.^^ Small, regional economies and agriculture at the periphery of these centres tended to be destroyed or reconstructed resulting in mass migration to cities. This urban-rural migration led to millions of blacks and poor coming to the cities. 14 At the same time, suburbanization was taking place. Suburbanization is the process of selective decentralization and spatial sprawl of population and activities within metropolitan areas.^' Usually, this selection involved residential neighbourhoods on the periphery of the centres, with the new suburban population having a higher social status, the middle and upper predominantly white income groups. This process of suburbanization led to the segregation of minorities, poor and unemployed in the inner cities.^ The suburbs were primarily composed of single family residences, with a house on a lot with a front and back yard. The appeal of suburban living centered around owning a home and land: a sense of independence; more time with family; easier socializing with compatible neighbours and at the same time greater privacy; and the delights of outdoor living. Home was the site of maximum freedom, for within its walls people could do what they want more easily than anywhere else.-^ These suburbs also attracted trade and service activities influencing merchants to move from the inner city areas to large shopping centers in the suburbs. Those who could afford to and whose social class (and racial heritage) would be allowed by the neighbourhood, moved out to these suburbs. The differences in 'environmental imagery' between the suburbs and the poorer inner city exacerbated the reciprocal distrust and 15 prejudices that often were seen as racial and class barriers. u Suburbanizatxon and the deteriorating inner city neighbourhoods led to two factors that were critical issues in the citizen Movement of the 60's. These were urban renewal and the freeways. Freeways, and Urban Renewal The suburbanization process was facilitated by major technological changes in transportation, primarily the highway systems. The suburbanites had to be able to move freely to the city to work and improved transportation systems allowed this easy access over a greater distance, usually by automobile. Team Ten and the early Modernists had always seen motion and mobility, particularly transportation systems and networks as a very important part of the new Modern environment. In the 1968 Team Ten Primer, the freeway is not only a functional element, it becomes the unifying image in the city and with this role a certain grandeur is expected: 'Today our most obvious failure is the lack of comprehensibility and identity in big cities, and the answer is surely a clear, large scale, road system-the 'Urban Motorway' lifted from an ameliorative function to a unifying function. In order to perform this unifying function all roads must be integrated into a system, but the backbone of this system must be the motorways, in the built up areas themselves, where their very size in relationship to other development makes them capable of doing the visual and symbolic 16 unifying job at the same time as they actually make the whole thing work. ^1 City engineers and planners certainly must have agreed, and the large, many-laned freeway systems connecting the suburbs to urban cores were planned. This necessitated expropriating swathes of land through existing poor inner city neighbourhoods. These neighbourhoods felt powerless to stop this construction in their communities. An even more destructive trend of urban development, however, was affecting these neighbourhoods: urban renewal. Urban Renewal Since the development of cities, the plight of the urban poor has been a concern to government for more than humanitarian reasons. Goodman illustrates this with a entry from the annual report of a leading philanthropic organization of 1856, calling for improved housing conditions or else the poor would 'overrun the city as thieves and beggars - endanger public peace and the security of property and life - tax the community for their support and entail upon it an inheritance of vice and pauperism.' 'Slumism', a word coined by Hubert H. Humphrey while talking to a conference of mayors in 1966 and defined as: 17 '...it is poverty; it is illiteracy; it is disease; it is discrimination; it is frustration; it is bitterness...It is a virus that spreads, that races like a malignancy through our cities, breeding disorder, disillusionment, and hate. We simply must declare war on this evil...' was a disease. Urban Renewal^ policies, following the medical metaphor, viewed the 'blight' of slum as a cancer that had to be cut out to be cured. This was in keeping with the Modernist architects analysis; new modern environment, new social order. Urban Renewal meant rebuilding of slum areas by levelling and constructing brand new and usually more expensive housing. It was hoped that the very poor would move away either by having improved personal economics, or by scattered relocation to other housing. Then the real 'urbanites' who were living in the suburbs would come back to the formerly blighted, but now renewed areas to make an elegant and urbane civilization in 9 R the central city. 3 Urban Renewal succeeded in destroying more housing than it produced and in the meantime, tore communities apart by breaking down intricate physical and social networks. This destruction, even with the most noble intents, benefited the slum landlords more than the tenants. Nor was urban renewal necessarily successful in 'unslumming the slums', as analyzed by Jane Jacobs,, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), who soundly denounced Urban Renewal schemes. 18 Citizens felt ignored, dictated to and helpless. Without the power that comes with wealth, the power of influence and information and under the 'intellectual imperialism' of bureaucratic experts - politicians, economists, administrators, engineers, planners and architects, it seemed that there was no room for communication except in the form of edict. The professionals had lost touch with the true consequences of their work, were destroying rather than strengthening neighbourhoods and were losing credibility amongst a wide spectrum of society. The Citizen Movement was sparked by these Urban Renewal schemes, and ordinary people in threatened neighbourhoods began vigorous organization and protest. It was during this time that advocacy architecture really took root. Young practitioners, believing in urban diversity, opposed to the destruction of the existing neighbourhoods by the Urban Renewal programs and freeway construction, began to work directly in the neighbourhoods under threat. As professionals, they mainly provided technical expertise, although they also helped to organize neighbourhood opposition, and to lobby on behalf of the local residents. Similar to the other professional grassroots advocacy offices, local neighbourhood planning and design offices, Community Development or Design Centers and Urban Design Centres, (CDC's and UDC's) were set up in 19 most major cities of the North America. 1. Jencks, Charles, Modern Movements in Architecture, Anchor Books, Garden City, New York, p.31 2. Conrads, U., Programs and Manifestos on 20th Century Architecture, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964 3. Dean, Andrea 0., The Architect and Society, Architecture/July 1989 4. Brolin, Brent, The Failure of Modern Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1976 p.54 5. ibid, p.57 6. Smithson, A., Team 10 Primer, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1968. An interesting description by Van Eyck: 'The slum is gone Behold the slum edging into the spirit, Again we have only to take a look at one of the new towns or a recent housing development to recognize to what extent the spirit has gone into hiding. Architects left no cracks and crevices this time. They expelled all sense of place. Fearful as they are of the wrong occasion, the unpremeditated even, the spontaneous act, unscheduled gaiety of violence, unpredictable danger around the corner. They made a flat surface of everything so that no microbes can survive the civic vacuum cleaner; turned a building into an additive sequence of pretty surfaces (I find it difficult to find words for those I saw in the United States) with nothing but emptiness on both sides. To think that such architects are given to talking devotedly about space whilst that are actually emasculating it into a void. 7. Hatch, R., The Scope of Social Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold Com New York, 1984, p.4-7 8. Ibid. p.7 Hatch makes it clear what is meant here is not 'the personal psychological sense of estrangement or anomie, but to describe a society - a congeries of institutions, ways of livelihood and means of life - in which human beings seem to be in the grip of events, unable to comprehend or control forces they have themselves put in motion. 20 9. Illich, I., Ideas in Progress, Disabling Professions, Burns & MacEachern Ltd., Don Mills, 1977 10. For example building code bylaws. 11. Goodman, R., Chpt.l, With a Little Help From the Experts, After the Planners, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1971 12. Brolin, 1976, op. cit. 13. Barker, Michael, Advocacy and the Architect, article in the AIA JOURNAL, JULY 1970. Barker was then Director of the American Institute of Architects' Urban Programs. 14. Castells, M., Chapt. 6, The Post-Industrial City and the Community Revolution: The Revolts of American Inner Cities in the 1960s, The City and the Grassroots, A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1983. Prof. Castells teaches City and Regional Planning at the University of California. 15. Castells statistics show that there were 329 important riots between 1964 and 1968 that took place in 257 American cities, and beyond the media's attention, the FBI estimated another 269 'race related disturbances' 1970-71. ibid. p.50 16. Castells, M., The Wild City, in The Urban Scene: Myths and Realities, edited by J. Feagin, Random House, New York, 1973. 17. Ibid., p. 44-46 18. Castells 1983, op. cit., p.66 19. Kurtz, S., Exurban Communities, Wasteland, Praeger Pub., New York, 1973 20. Castells 1973, op. cit., p.44 21. Team Ten Primer, op. cit., p.48: 22. Goodman 1971, op. cit., p.26 from 'Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor', Annual Report 1856. 23. Ibid, p.28 24. With the establishment of the The Federal Slum Clearance and Urban Renewal Program by Housing Act of 1949, the United States, officially recognized that the clearance and redevelopment of blighted areas was a national objective. Through this act funding was made available to governments and private enterprise to carry out renewal projects throughout the United States. These renewal projects typically entailed compilation of accurate base information (survey), community master plans, and execution of these plans. This required funding and legislative power to demolish, expropriate land, relocate citizens and demolish buildings. - Campbell, J., "Financial Aspects of Urban Renewal in the United States", .Renewal of Town and Village 2: Ten Special Reports from Five Continents, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague for the Congress of International Union of Local Authorities, 1965 Ibid, p.62 22 Chapter Two COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTERS American Roots Although the 1960's and early 1970's marked the peak period for community participation in planning and architecture with the Community Design Centre's, the tradition of socially active architects and planners had its roots in the early trade union organization in the United States. During the first quarter of this century, the increasing numbers of factory workers organized into powerful unions. These unions, while primarily interested in the working conditions of the members, began to realize that the total well-being of the worker and his family was as important. Housing Committees became part of the Unions' social program structure. ^ In the 1930's, President Roosevelt initiated the two programs Works Progress Administration and Public Works Administration^ essentially 'make work7 project funding necessitated by the post war recovery problems and the 23 economic Depression. These projects created work for many unemployed architects and technicians. The Housing Committees of the two most powerful unions in the United States, the Congress of Industrial Organization and the American Federation of Labour formed an alliance with the Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists and TechniciansJ. Together they formed interdisciplinary teams to develop and implement comprehensive social and physical planning schemes. The emphasis of their approach was to work from the perspective of the worker, not the bureaucrat. These early beginnings were instrumental in establishing a tradition of community participation and socially active planners and architects.^ In 1945 and 46, the Chelsea Development Plan-* in the upper east side of New York was developed through an office that was one of the first to work with the same methods as the later Community Design Centers. This office was located within the development neighbourhood and run with volunteer labour from professional architects and planners, educators and community workers. One of these young architects was Henry Schubart who later became a founder of the first CDC, ARCH, which was located in Harlem. Many long hours of volunteer work, involving participation of the neighbourhood residents resulted in a development plan that reflected not only the needs of development, but also of the community.** 24 This was not the usual method used for redevelopment at this time. It was in 1949, that Congress passed the bill that started Urban Renewal. This bill gave monies to cities to pay for condemning "blighted" private property and tear down buildings on it. The cities could then resell the land at a loss to real estate developers who would redevelop thus cleaning up the slums. This encouraged large tracts of land, suitable for mega projects. Community Participation By the early 1960's, Urban Renewal had clearly not met the needs of the poor inner city neighbourhood. It had not produced the promised housing^, had destroyed and displaced whole neighbourhoods. Political and social unrest (riots and demonstrations), and the cry for self-determination increased. Greater citizen participation was seen by both citizens and the advocacy professionals to be critical to the correcting of these problems with urban renewal. Citizen participation required organizational and technical expertise that was expensive. Through CDC's, expertise was available to poor communities and was provided by young architects and planners who offered their skills to the community. 25 The first of these CDC offices, The Architects Renewal Committee in Harlem (ARCH), began in 1964. It provided free architectural, planning, legal, and organizational services that the Harlem community could not otherwise afford. Richard Hatch, ARCH's first director saw its purpose not only as an educational and planning service, but also as: '...creating the "preconditions for architecture". Form-making should be based on a democratic design process in which the architect does not impose his white aesthetic on the black people, who are so tired of oppression in all its forms. If architecture really concerns the total environment, then architects ought to be helping to provide people with an opportunity to control that total environment and fashion it to express their like style, their aesthetic, their needs, desires, and aspirations. One of the first projects involved 20 students going to Harlem and developing a working philosophy to deal with the communities problems. The resulting 4 publications included information on tenant rights, government programs, planning activities, and housing in the community. Although originally a white organization, within 4 years, ARCH was completely run and staffed by blacks. The staff included architects, draughtsman, a planner, a lawyer and a community organizer and several volunteers in the various fields. This was quite typical of the diversity of the CDC teams. In 1968, ARCH helped the Citizen's Association for the East Harlem Triangle, successfully stop development of a small triangular piece of land slated for urban renewal in Harlem's Model City area. They received funds to develop their own plans for the area. ARCH's political role as 26 advocate took on more importance as its constituency enlarged from Harlem to all of the black poor people. The CDC idea spread and offices sprang up in major urban centers throughout the United States. Each stressed community participation and interdisciplinary teams of professionals to cover a wide range of needs. Each one had a different mix of involvement of the educational institutions, usually the University, the professional organizations such as the American Institute of Architects, the community organization such as Citizen's groups, and of volunteers from all over. Each one had a particular organization and modus operandi suited to the particular needs of their community. Of these CDC's, Vernon Williams, Director of CDC in the Community Services Department of the American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. wrote in 1971: 'Now, for the first time, the community had a voice, a professional voice which spoke to the technical needs of a particular community; a voice that listened and interpreted, and one that did not try to dictate to them. Armed with this newly found weapon, communities could speak authoritatively hand intelligently to the technical hodgepodge of the local planning authority. They could begin to define the mystical 'quality of life' as they saw it. They could begin to determine their own future'9. From the beginnings with ARCH in 1964, the CDC program grew rapidly. By 1971 a national organization of CDC's was set up to circulate information on projects, methods and 27 developments in other part of the country. The CDC movement had grown to over 7 0 centers in the United States and Canada.10 Funding Funding for the CDC's came from various sources. The majority of the funding during the early years was through the United States government's Office of Economic Opportunity (0E0) which had offices in most American cities, granting monies to local projects. This was made possible by the government's Economic Opportunity Act calling for 'maximum feasible participation of the poor' . Some offices were funded by local chapters of the American Institute of Architects (AIA), and from private foundations. Occasionally, clients were able to pay modest fees. Other government programs such as President Johnson's War on Poverty initiatives Model Cities Project, insisted on, as a condition of receiving, community participation. This helped create mechanisms for community participation. Under the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and although the program was administered by a Model Cities government paid staff, the enacting legislation called for 'widespread citizen participation'. Project plans had to be developed with and approved by a Project Area Committee, 28 representing a fair cross section of the residents in the 1 9 project area. ^ In Canada, the situation was similar, the primary government funding body being the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). Objectives The CDC's found themselves with several roles within the community, that of advocate, of educator, and of organizer for the citizens and for the architectural and planning professions. The AIA's CDC guidelines'"* written in 1971, illustrate well the range and direction of CDC activities. They were to perform all or any of: To act as a representative of the neighbourhood in obtaining action and or funds from local, state or federal government agencies under the many programs available; but unknown to the community. To serve as a spokesman for the neighbourhood in its dialogues with these agencies. To provide architectural or planning services of value to the community, both to individuals and the neighbourhood organizations. To furnish job training to young people who may later decide to enter one of the design professions as well as to students already enrolled in professional schools. To inform professionals in the problems of lower income neighbourhoods. Demonstrate to the residents of the these neighbourhoods the value of architecture and planning. 29 To indicate the active concern of the members of the design professions with social problems and promote better communications between diverse elements of our society. Within this general framework, each CDC worked out its own mandate, goals and operating procedures. All CDC's had an education and student worker component, either as direct credit towards a professional degree or post graduate research work; all had support from the professional association, through both volunteer work and funding; and all CDC's were committed to community participation. They offered professional service to those who could not afford it. An example - Community Design Center, San Francisco, Projects An example of how these objectives were put into practise can be seen by examining work done by the Community Design Center in San Francisco, California.^ The Community Design Center in San Francisco was established by the University of California Extension, Continuing Education in Environmental Design, in 1967. Its purpose, as stated in their first Newsletter^^, was to provide San Francisco's low income neighbourhood with free professional services in problems of design, planning and community 30 development. It also offered to professionals, opportunities to broaden their experience of critical urban problems while providing these needed services to the community. Henry Schubart was a founding member of this CDC. The CDC was funded under a Federal 0E0 Demonstration Grant and maintained a small full-time staff, including two architects and a planner. The main office was at 215 Haight Street, and by 1969, it had opened a second office in Chinatown to service the special needs of that community. The bulk of the Center's work was carried out by volunteers from several design professions. In addition, representatives from various communities in San Francisco, the AIA, the American Institute of Planners, and the University of California made up an Advisory Board that acted as liaison with the public and was responsible for policies on broad issues of community and professional concern. A review of a list of the San Francisco CDC projects illustrates the typical kind of work done by these Centers'^. Design projects varied in size from small park design and furniture design, to multi-unit housing projects. The smallest projects such as the mural painting and refurbishing the outside of a neighbourhood drop-in center, using volunteer youth labour and donated supplies, and 31 furniture design and construction involved the Center from concept to completion. The larger design projects were completed to the Schematic Design stage, to enable the neighbourhood client group to go after funding for seed capital and land costs. Several projects involved community planning proposals and recommendations. Technical advice was often required for housing projects, both in renovation and new construction as well as for the amenity planning and building. In some cases older housing projects had been built with no provision for recreational facilities, and these now had to be retrofitted. The CDC provided technical assistance to 'coalition communities' working with the Model Cities Program. The Model Cities program was aimed at coordinating existing programs and focussing them on specific neighbourhoods. The program operated over a period of 6 years with the first year was to be devoted to planning and the next five to implementation and continued planning. All plans had to have community participation in the development stages and 1 7 ratification at application for capital funds.' The CDC provided the expertise to facilitate community participation. The CDC also provided predesign and programming services. For instance, for the Chinatown Housing Committee, the CDC conducted a survey of existing conditions, both demographic 32 and physical. With this information, and the recommendations of the CDC for future needs, the Chinatown Housing Council had baseline information for future physical and social planning and funding applications. Community education was also part of the activities of the CDC. In an effort to demystify the financial and building code government procedures, a booklet was produced outlining the effect of recently legislated code and safety requirements. These requirements often meant an extra housing cost to the tenants and homeowner, which was not often clear. Professional education included a graduate level course offered through the CDC taught by a Professor from the Department of Architecture, University of California, Extension, San Francisco and the by Director of the CDC. This allowed students to participate in real community projects and get academic credit at the same time. It also provided a source of labour for the CDC. It can be seen that the San Francisco CDC was involved with a wide range of activities, from general research into political issues, government policy, neighbourhood conditions and housing problems to pre-design, programming and concept and schematic design architectural services. This included feasibility studies and recommendations, 33 technical assistance of both an architectural and planning nature, training programs for community participation, information publications for the lay community, and training for the design professional and graduate. In some instances, small projects were design/build. For a list of 1969 projects see Appendix One. The impetus of this work, while within the context of general good to society, was to bring the services of the profession to those who could not afford them. With funding available, a door was opened for inclusion of lower income people into the process of planning their physical environment. This was fundamental to the work done by the CDC's. Characteristics of the Community Design Center and other advocacy professional services. The Community Design Centre model followed similar models of Community Law Offices and Medical Clinics. These professional service operations were located within the community they served and usually had a storefront on the street, providing an easily accessible, welcoming presence. They had a broad base of clients. They provided professional services to those who could not afford them such as community advocacy groups. In the case of Community 34 Law office, a means test was often employed. The Community Design Centers also charged for their services if the client could afford it. Although all three were active in advocacy work on behalf of the poor, they were politically neutral. They had no power over government funding to implement programs and acted as agents only. The CDC's dealt specifically with physical projects and peripherally with social and developmental program implementation as they effected the physical environment. In these advocacy centers, professional education also played a part in the services provided. Graduates could work at such offices and clinics to obtain practical experience that was part of the articling, apprenticeship or internship requirement of the profession. Students in the later years of the program often worked during the summer or as volunteers. University involvement varied. Cases were used for analysis and study by the University in Medicine and to a lesser extent in Law. Architecture allowed tutorial and class work to be done in the Centers for credit and the faculty often did volunteer work. Most often this was at a graduate level. Community education also was an integral part of the work of these advocacy offices. The medical clinics did much work 35 on preventative care. Cornmunity Law Offices held legal information classes, and the CDC's provided general technical and procedural information and updates on development proceedings in the neighbourhood. Relationship to the profession was closely watched, especially in law and architecture. The legal profession did not want paraprofessionals practising law and the Architects had a similar concern with liability. The AIA arranged for liability insurance for the CDC as a group only if a licensed architect, with adequate professional liability insurance, was part of the staff. As the storefront offices dealt mostly with low-income groups, the competition with practising firms was watched, but did not cause any CDC to be closed. Funding for this storefront professional work came primarily from the government and from the professional associations. Most often they were set up as non-profit societies. In some cases the medical clinics were affiliated directly with a hospital and provided a training lab within the University program, itself. The CDC's were funded through Housing and Community Development programs. Later these storefront operations suffered from government funding attrition and a shift in attitude towards social services. The Community and Urban Design Centers suffered 36 the most due in part to the evolution and formalization of participation within the planning and development of the cities. The Centers that survived looked to other methods of funding, usually turning to entrepreneurial pursuits. 1. Goldberg, A.J., AFL-CIO Labour United, McGraw Hill Book, Co. Inc., Toronto, 1956 2. from Pencil Points, Vol.17:1, pp38-42, January, 1936 3. Reid, K., Some Words by Way of Clarification, Pencil Points, Vol.17:5, May 1936 4. This information came from an interview with Mr. Henry Schubart. Mr. Schubart was greatly influenced by the architects and planners, such as Catherine Bauer, who worked on those projects of the 1930's. He continued this community participation in New York in the 40's and later in San Francisco, where Schubart became one of the founding members of the Community Design Center in Berkeley. In 1968, he and his family moved to Salt Spring Island in British Columbia where he lives today. He and Dino Rapanos met when Rapanos was formulating the proposal for the Urban Design Centre. 5. The Chelsea Development Plan was initiated by the Regional Planning Association of New York as part of urban renewal initiatives. 6. Information from interview with H. Schubart, November 1988. 7. Goodman, R., After the Planners, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1971, p.62: 'While the 1949 urban renewal legislation authorized contruction of 810,000 public-housing units of a six-year period, by 1967, 18 years later, only one half had been built...400,000 homes, mostly those of lower-income people were demolished in urban-renewal areas. In these areas only 107,000 housing units were built, with the result that for every four homes destroyed, only one was built. Yet even of those built only 11,000 or less than three percent of those destroyed, were public housing for the poor.' 37 8. Cheney, R. H., ARCH: Black Advocates, Advocacy Planning, Progressive Architecture, September, 1968, p. 107 9. The CDC Story, Design Quarterly 1971, p.8. The entire edition was dedicated to the Community Development/Design Movement. 10. CDC News, Community Services Department, The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C, April, 1971 11. Mondale, Walter F., then Senior Senator from Minnesota, A Congressional View of Community Participation in the Planning Process, Design Quarterly, 1971, p. 6 12. A Model Cities Guide, A HUD Handbook, November 1967, US Department of Housing and Urban Development government publication, Washington, D.C. 13. Guide Lines for Community Design Centers, The American Institute of Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969 14. The San Francisco Community Design Center founded by H. Schubart, was prominent in the American CDC Conference that Rapanos attended in Berkley in 1969. This conference provided contact for the UDC and UBC with the North American network of CDC's. 15. L7.C. Extension Community Design Center Newsletter, John Bailey, Director of the CDC and editor, 1969 16. List taken from office records provided by H. Schubart. 17. Lindbloom. C, The Citizen's Guide to Urban Renewal, Chandler-Davis Publishers, West Trenton, N.J., 1968 38 Vancouver be 39 Chapter Three VANCOUVER, B.C. - THE 1960's Background Vancouver of the middle 1960's was following the political and social trends of the United States. The feelings of alienation and disenchantment with authority fueled by the media coverage of the Civil Rights Movement, and the protest to the War in Vietnam crossed American borders to Canada. American drafter dodgers were shielded, protest marches were held; political and social revolutionary issues were the topic of the day, especially in the universities. There was growing dissatisfaction with what was seen as unrepresentative politics. In Vancouver, this was brought to a head with the Great Freeway Debate1 of 1967 and eventually led to a brief change in civic government. The battle of freeways through the urban core fought earlier in the decade in the cities of Seattle and San Francisco, sensitized the Vancouver citizenry to the freeway issues. By the time Vancouver City Council and administration were ready to implement a similar system, the citizenry rose in 40 protest. What were the conditions that led to these activities of 1967? Suburbia Vancouver is well described as a 'core-ring' urban model city . The downtown peninsula, the industrial and port areas to the east, False Creek, Kitsilano, Strathcona, Fairview and Mount Pleasant comprise the inner city core of about 2 miles radius. The first quarter of the century marked the growth of the 'Old suburban' areas in a ring around the inner city. These included the residential neighbourhoods of West and North Vancouver, Grandview Hastings, Renfrew, Fraserview. Shaughnessey, Kerrisdale and West Point Grey. The communities across Burrard Inlet were connected to the mainland in 1938 by the construction of the Lion's Gate Bridge. At this time, Vancouver City Council adapted The Bartholemew Plan which was the first study to examine consolidation of traffic onto major arterial routes. Around these older, suburban areas was a peripheral ring of suburban development, many of which were pre-existing centers that were absorbed into the growing Vancouver-centered region (See Figure 2). Burnaby, Richmond, New 41 The Inner City Old Suburbs Figure 2 Diagrams of Vancouver Inner City & Old suburbs Hardwick 1974, p.12 & 13 42 Westminster, Delta and Surrey became the suburban, bedroom communities for Vancouver. As in the United States, the fasted rate of urban expansion was post war, due to population increases, housing shortages, more disposable income, and the automobile and suburban servicing possibilities^. By 1956 the population of Vancouver was 400,000 which more than doubled to 820,000 by I960.5 The Downtown Core The original downtown core suffered from some of same problems of deterioration, although not to the same degree, that had been witnessed, in the United States. As the traditional manufacturing and wholesaling activities of the original downtown core moved outward to the peripheral ring, the downtown area changed from manufacturing to business and management. The main, commercial area shifted westward to larger, new highrise office buildings and the older, six-storey warehouse buildings of the original downtown were under utilized or abandoned. It wasn't until the mid 1950's, during a slow down of national growth, that the old core began to really feel the effects of the suburban development. The movement of manufacturing and warehousing to modern facilities in the suburban areas and the development of shopping centers such 43 as Oakridge, Park Royal and Brentwood, within a few miles of the city center, 'were the final signal of the change from a buyer's to seller's market in foodstuffs and general merchandise, and were in part evidence of recognition of the coming of age of Vancouver's suburban structure'**. By 1960, the core no longer had the traditional centrality attributes that the retailer was looking for. Political (big business) interest in revitalization of the downtown rose and several proposals were put forth. Among these proposals were intervention of the City in land assembly for public and private urban renewal and a radical freeway system. Urban Renewal By the late 1940's, although the urban decay problems in Canada were not as severe, the Urban Renewal policies at work in the United States were also developing in Canada'. When the Urban Renewal wave hit Vancouver^, the Strathcona Neighbourhood was a natural choice and with the aid of Federal funds, the City of Vancouver embarked on a 20 year Urban Renewal Plan. Comprehensive redevelopment for Strathcona was planned, with the expropriation and clearance of all homes to be replaced with a combination of public housing (high rises and row housing), private development and new industrial uses, and a major freeway system. 44 Strathcona, located to the east of the downtown core, is one of the oldest residential neighbourhoods. Early residents were Anglo Saxon, but by 1930 it was clearly an ethnically mixed neighbourhood^. Throughout the growth and decline cycles of the downtown, Strathcona remained residential, although the repair and quality of buildings was often quite poor. In 1958, the City stopped allowing any redevelopment or home improvement permits to make way for demotion of homes to be replaced by public housing. Of this Hardwick says: 'The renewal policies were based upon a view of the neighbourhood that utilized physical planning criteria; in no way was the resident population consulted. In fact, the planners wrote in their report that the people would all be happy to be given new, clean accommodation. It was assumed that no one in his right mind would oppose urban renewal as it was seen in 1957. '10 The first two phases of the Strathcona Urban Renewal Scheme were completed between 1958 and 1968. The Scheme included levelling 6 blocks of homes for a 159 unit public housing project, McLean Park, an extension to it, a Senior Citizens home, and an extension to Strathcona school. It displaced 16,000 people and cleared 28 acres, mostly single family homes. In spite of considerable citizen opposition, 1963 Urban Renewal Project II was approved and clearing of land began in 1965. The second phase cleared 10 acres of homes, displacing 1,730 people." The 376 unit Raymur Place 45 Housing Project was built on some of this land. These first two Urban Renewal schemes brought strong opposition from the Strathcona residents and the Chinatown leaders who were not consulted when these plans were being made nor did their opposition influence council. Urban Renewal was destroying the existing community and threatening the viability of Chinatown. It was also felt that the expropriation of homes for $6000 was discriminatory, when the area was earmarked for high density development. Despite opposition, the third and final renewal proposal was planned, involving a connection of the Cassiar freeway and the Georgia viaduct through Chinatown on Carrall or Gore St. This sparked a renewed opposition among Strathcona residents to stop the bulldozing of their neighbourhood. By December, 1968, the residents had organized into the Strathcona Property Owners Association (SPOTA) whose purpose was to 'ensure that the people who live in the area would be fully informed and their interests and community will be protected'1^. SPOTA became an influential community organization and lobby group and successfully stopped the third part of the Urban Renewal Scheme. This action also 13 sparked the first serious look at Local Area Planning-1- . SPOTA was instrumental in developing actual renewal programs Image versus reality: above, an architect's sketch of what a 'renewed' Strathcona would look like. Below, a photograph of what it turned out to be. The federal government finally halted its funding for demolition-style urban renewal in 1969. Figure 3 Sketch Scheme Strathcona Urban Renewal Vancouver Unlimited Gutstein, 1975 47 rather than demolition and replacement to regenerate the area. Freeways The use of the automobile increased as the population and suburban development and increased. By 1959, there were over half a million vehicles registered in greater Vancouver. Public transit could not keep up with the transportation demand. The flexibility of the automobile made it the preferred method in any event and from the early part of the century freeways were seen to be the answer. In 1959, the Sutton-Brown Plan - Freeways with Rapid Transit - A Study on highway planning. Part II, the final report of seven submitted in 1959-59 to City Council, concluded that 'transportation deficiencies could only be solved efficiently and practically by construction of an entirely separate system of high speed facilities called freeways'^, illustrating the direction that Vancouver City Council was taking. The Second Narrows Bridge was opened in 1959 and discussions concerning a third crossing at First Narrows continued and still continue to this day. The idea was to link the North Shore to Downtown to the suburban communities to the south with a large express of asphalt. 48 In 1963 Phil Gaglardi, Minister of Highways and Transportation, announced that the province would pay one third of the cost of new highways and bridges in the Vancouver Metro Area, which had the effect of spurring on the freeway plans. In the same year, Larry Smith and Associates, real estate consultants from Seattle, Washington, in their report, An Economic Analysis for the Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One Preliminary Report^, recommended freeways through the Central Business District to encourage revitalization & growth. Pressure mounted to construct the downtown freeway link. The number of reports and studies recommending freeways steadily increased (see Appendix Two which illustrates the extent of these reports and studies1*5). Each report supported the need for freeways. Transportation planning and policy formation was being done on the basis of technical requirements and expertise, in the form of reports and studies by 'freeway' consultants. The whole freeway issue was presented as a technical issue, and the fundamental political question of the dominance of the private automobile was not questioned. In August of 1966, the firm of Parsons, Brinkerhoff, Quade and Douglas (BPQ&D), was commissioned to prepare yet another Vancouver Transportation Study^', essentially to integrate the planned Georgia Viaduct replacement with the proposed 49 freeway system and to connect this with a Burrard Inlet Crossing at Brockton Point. In October of 1967, this Vancouver Transportation Study, was submitted to City Council during a public meeting. Its recommendations including a freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown were adopted by Council. City Council's acceptance of the BPQ&D study finally brought the issue to a head and sparked The Great Freeway Debate of 1967. The freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown meant the division and destruction of both historic Vancouver neighbourhoods. Local Strathcona and Chinatown residents and merchants, people from all over the city, the Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC), and faculty and students from the University of British Columbia (UBC) joined forces to speak against the study, the planned freeway, its alignment, and the undemocratic process by which the planning of Vancouver was being done. No consultation with citizens groups had been done before reaching the freeway decision. The AIBC spoke out publicly against the BPQ&D study and the City Council for ratifying its conclusions. They criticized the entire planning philosophy and methods of the transportation system. The AIBC official statement as reported in the Vancouver Sun, Nov. 10, 1967 included: 'Studies for transportation on the Lower Mainland published over the last 10 years do not form a basis for decisions currently being made. The terms of 50 reference established have been too limited with the result that the basis for meaningful debate with regard to the Georgia Viaduct, the detrimental effect on Chinatown, and the effect of the Main and Venables is not possible. And in an earlier report, Vancouver Sun, 28 Oct 67, Mr. Rand Iredale, at that time executive Chairman of the AIBC, stated: 'Authorative planning by civic officials is not accepted in a democratic community. The terms of reference of the entire highway planning should be broadened in scope. 9 Not only was the study brought into question, and the non-participatory process, but also the incremental approach of implementation without ratification or even information about future ramifications. It was clear according to Hardwick: 'that the engineers and planners had obtained a small decision from Council, which they would use as a precedent for other minor decisions; cumulatively, this would have resulted in a freeway without any community or political input. This was such a clear case of non-partisan/expert elitist authoritarianism that the public became alarmed.'2 The University also played an active role in this Debate. University students led by a young architect and lecturer, 91 • Bud Wood"' , held a protest march the night after the Council decision was made, further publicizing and underlining the folly of the freeway. They draped Chinatown in black, holding a mock funeral for the neighbourhood. In November, City Council held another public information meeting at which more than 27 organizations submitted briefs. The majority of these were against the Freeway alignment through 51 Gastown and Chinatown. A third meeting was held. This joint protest of community, profession and university was successful. By December, City Council had rescinded its motion to adopt the recommendations of the BPQ&D Vancouver Transportation Study. It was at this time that several University professors became directly involved in city politics. New politics for Vancouver In the fall of 1967, the Vancouver Tomorrow Group was formed of business and professional people, including many faculty, to discuss the city's future. Out of this group, a challenge to the traditional Non Partisan Association stronghold on City Council was formed with TEAM, The Electors Action Movement. Many of the people actively opposed to the freeway joined TEAM. In December of 1968, Walter Hardwick from the Dept. of Geography was elected to City Council. Other UBC faculty over the next 4 years when TEAM was at its zenith, served on City Council. TEAM pushed for participation in the process of planning Vancouver, with representation in the form of the ward system which they failed to get passed.22 52 The political climate in the city at this time was expressed by W. Leithead in and article written in the Vancouver Sun, 25 Oct 67 'Vancouver's major difficulties of the future are not of a scientific or technological nature, rather they have largely to do with social philosophy and the will to organize for the general welfare. A wider and deeper dialogue is necessary to break the moral, political and economic bottlenecks to a better life for everyone.' 23 In 1968, the Social Planning Department was created in an effort to divide the city into local areas and coordinate social services. It was during this time of political and social change within Vancouver that the URBAN DESIGN CENTRE began. 1. To be discussed further in this chapter. 2. Hardwick, Walter, Vancouver - Canadian Cities, Collier-Macmillan Canada Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario, 1974 3. Pendakur, Setty, Cities, Citizens, & Freeways, UBC School of Community and Regional Planning Study, UBC, 1972, p. 4 Bartholemew Plan: Harland Bartholemew and Associates, A Plan for the City of Vancouver, City of Vancouver, Vancouver, 1929. This plan recommended consolidated planning of Vancouver and outlying regions which happened in 1929 with the districts of Vancouver, Point Grey and South Vancouver amalgamated as the City of Vancouver. This plan involved streets, transits, and zoning. The Plan was followed in establishing the physical development pattern for the City, and became the reference point for future considerations. Bartholemew updated it in 1947 to accommodate the increased use of the car. 4. Hardwick 1974, op. cit. 53 5. Morley, Alan, Vancouver From Milltown to Metropolis, Mitchell Press Ltd., Vancouver, 1974 Third Edition Chpt.19 6. Hardwick 1974, op. cit. Chpt. 3 7. CMHC Urban Renewal Policies developed in the late 1940's and 50's were also influenced by similar work in Great Britian. 8. Urban Renewal and the freeway construction in Vancouver was initiated more to revitalize the Downtown than to repair blighted areas as in the United States. 9. From The Strathcona Story, a pamphlet produced in 1976 by the Strathcona Property Owners and Tenants Association (SPOTA) describes this ethnicity as: 'The early residents of Strathcona were Angle-Saxon. However, the area soon became inhabited by large numbers of Italians and Jews, as well as Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Russians and Yugoslavs.' 'Compared to the Europeans, the Chinese were latecomers to Strathcona. There were some Chinese and Japanese living in the area in the 1930's, however it was not until after the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1947 that Strathcona became increasingly Chinese. The area served as a gateway for post-war Chinese immigrants. Housing prices were low and the area was adjacent to Chinatown.' 10. Hardwick 1974, op. cit. Chpt. 4 11. Gutstein, D., 'The Strathcona Urban Renewal Fight,' Vancouver Ltd., James Lorimer & Company, Toronto, 1975 12. The Strathcona Story, (ibid) 13. A Review of Local Area Planning, Vancouver Planning Department, 1977, p.2 14. Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning 1958-59, A Study on Highway Planning for the Metropolitan Area of the Lower Mainland of B.C., Part II, "Freeways with Rapid Transit", March, page 1, Pendakur, op. cit., 1972, p.4 15. Larry Smith and Associates, Real Estate Consultants, Seattle, Washington, An Economic Analysis for Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One, Preliminary Report, Vancouver, B.C., July 1963, page 81 54 Pendakur, op. cit., 1972, p.25 16. This work culminated in the Great Freeway Debate that was instrumental in changing the direction of transportation planning. 17. Pendakur, op. cit., 1972, p.34 18. Architects Protest, news article in The Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 10 NOV 1967 19. Freeway Consultant Hit In Architect's Statement, article in the Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 10 OCT 1967 20. Hardwick 1974, op. cit., Chpt. 4 21. Excerpts from interview with Mr. Wood, now Professor of Architecture with the School of Architecture, UBC. Interview was held in November of 1989. QUESTION: What led to the march in Chinatown against the Freeway? ANSWER: From each of us you're going to get an individual and perhaps an idiosyncratic version of that time. I was a young practising architect in the early 60's and thought I could change the profession. So I did a lot of shouting and to some degree in anger because the profession was being very conservative and stilted in its point of view in its responsibility to the society at large or the environment at large. Each was just after their own pound of flesh. And so at that time I was trying to be active in the profession. I developed the first the professional committee on housing, continued education and that kind of stuff. We had just bought the building on Pender Street. I had worked professionally quite closely with the Planning Department. I phoned one of the main planners and said, "Where's the freeway now?". The freeway had been kicking around for ten years and kept moving further east and north. He said, "Funny you should ask because it's right outside your window." I said, "You guys can't be serious." "It looks real this time". I was very depressed and I remember coming back to school and sitting around bemoaning this to my colleagues about the great stupidity that was about to happen. And they said, "Why don't we do something about it?" "Well, what?" "We call the students together and you just tell them what's happening and the implications of it". So late one dark fall afternoon we called the whole student body together in one of the big theatres 55 downstairs and I just told them what I knew. Everyone got wound up and that night, and they went out. We began talking to people that we knew in the academic community, Walter Hardwick, Setty Pendakur, Paul Tennant, and so it became a very strong academic thrust against which culminated actually in the organization TEAM. 22. Roy, Patricia, Vancouver, James Lorimer & Co. Pub. & the National Museum of Man, Toronto 1980. 23. 'Consult the Community', Leithead Urges Council, news article in the Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 25 OCT 1967 56 Chapter Four THE URBAN DESIGN CENTRE - THE BEGINNING The Vancouver Inner City Service Project (VISP) The Vancouver Inner City Service Project, (VISP) Inner-City Advocacy and Rehabilitation Program, was started in the summer of 1967 by clergymen from different faiths with the official backing and funding of the United Church. It began primarily as a summer student action project involving students from the faculties of social work, law, medicine, nursing, and education, with one fifth of the students from theology. The objectives of this project were to provide students in the service professions, with interdisciplinary learning experiences within a low income community, and at the same time, provide services the community needed and could not afford. This would also, it was hoped, increase public awareness of the inner city and general poverty problems'. VISP included projects such as School Canadiana, 57 an English language and orientation program, Legal Aid Services, Crises Intervention and Suicide Prevention Center, Connolly House Hostel, Feed-In, Now Bus, Think Indian, Co-op Housing Project. VISP became one of the co-applicants along with the AIBC and UBC School of Architecture for the funding from Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) for the Urban Design Centre in Vancouver. VISP felt that the urban design component was essential as much of the community work at this time, involved the urban renewal process, neighbourhood physical planning and housing issues. The Urban Design Center used the VISP as the administrative framework and source of client contacts during the initial years, and continually until VISP closed in Sept, 1972, as a information, community and professional resource. URBAN DESIGN CENTER - Inception In 1969, Dino Rapanos, lecturer at the School of Architecture UBC, became very interested in the Community Design/Development Centre(CDC) movement in the architectural profession the United States. He attended a conference held in San Francisco on Community Design Centers and was inspired to initiate a similar program in Vancouver. 58 Figure 4 Floor Plan, Main floor 1895 Venables now the Vancouver East Cultural Center First location of the UDC with the Vancouver Inner-City Service Project 59 Rapanos, registered as an architect with the AIBC in the spring of 1969, was lecturing at the UBC School of Architecture and completing a masters degree based on the changing urban community and urban renewal. He, in the capacity of faculty at the School of Architecture and as a professional on the Housing Committee of the AIBC, started the wheels in motion to organize an architectural and planning component to the well established VISP of which he was an executive board member. He interested a graduating student, Ron Yuen, in becoming a member of a VISP project during the summer of 1970. This first project involved the in False Creek community in redevelopment and community participation issues. Yuen, upon graduating, continued work at the VISP and became the first Director of the Urban Design Center. Although the Urban Design Center had not yet been assured full funding by CMHC, with the support of research grants, the School of Architecture and VISP, the UDC had a Director and Assistant, a student, office space in the same building as VISP, and projects underway by the early fall of 1970. By November, UDC had received two-year funding of $50,000 from CMHC. The following sections are taken from the proposal submitted to CMHC for funding. 60 Operating Philosophies In the funding application proposals developed in the spring of 1970, under Operating Philosophy of the Urban Design Centre (still referred to as a Community Design Centre), three points are made: first, that there must be communication between community planners and community people, in order to discover solutions to problems that the community defines as relevant; second, that in the efforts of self-development and participation in the renewal process, professional expertise must be made available to those who are presently disenfranchised, the poor; third, that in order for the planner or architect to be effective in the community, the community must have active participation in the process. The proposal states: '...the C.D.C. staff - professionals and students - are really working not so much on communicating their own set of ideas to the populace in order to gain acceptance, but on working for and with the populace in low income and low income areas. They exist to discover alternative solutions to the problems that the community people themselves define as relevant relevant enough to request the professional assistance if the C.D.C.'2 Included as an elaboration was the quote from W.L. Slayton, then executive vice-president of the AIA: 'Community Design Centres perform an important service in bringing professional expertise to citizens in their efforts towards self-development and participation in the renewal process. The democratization of this decision-making process in municipal governments (ie., the ultimate agents of community planning and development) is a significant change presaging the expanding role of the community as a client.' 61 A multi-disciplinary framework, of professional and community, was proposed in order to bring a variety of experience and knowledge to the urban architectural and planning problems. Proposed Structure To put this philosophy into practise, the CDC would be operated by three groups of people. First would be the architectural profession represented by registered architect volunteers who would work towards clinic planning and also towards the basic advocacy work that the centre must carry out in order to win community trust. The second would be the School of Architecture as a source of architectural student workers and faculty staff. The University would provide academic courses or tutorials based on work at the CDC. The third group would be students in summer service, academic field placement and as volunteers. These students could come from outside architectural study, either through VISP or School of Community and Regional planning. Student work could carry on, on a paid basis throughout the summer. These three groups would work together with the active leaders of low income neighbourhoods in which the UDC would find its focus of operation. In addition, a Board of Directors made up of professionals nominated in equal 62 numbers from UBC, the AIBC and VISP would oversee the selection of personnel and the work of the Centre, as well as setting policy and direction. Involvement with the UDC would be beneficial to all parties. The architectural profession would be able to fulfil its professional oath to 'uphold professional aims, and the art and science of architecture and thereby improve the environment' by working on areas of the environment where they have been unable previously to become operative.^ The University would be able to provide academic and practical training for young professionals that allowed study, analysis, and first hand experience in current problems that were seen to be tearing the cities and society apart. Students and professionals would have the opportunity to work with those people whose lives they were effecting in their professional practise. The community would be provided with technical services, research and information that they could not otherwise afford and would have opportunity to participate in making decisions about the changes that are to take place in their environment and society. 63 Objectives The main objectives as stated in the operating agreement with CMHC^ for the actual work to be performed were: To examine environmental needs of specific areas of the urban community which are ripe for rehabilitation; to co-operate with residents of these areas in this process of examination, and to act as agents, advocates, and brokers for proposals developed by the residents for presentation to various levels of government and its officials; to propose strategies for implementation of plans and to supervise delivery; to give assistance in the establishment and operation of neighbourhood development corporations. To establish a workshop in which architectural students and faculty can co-operate with professionals in the community, and with community residents with a view to bridging the gap which exists between academic endeavour, the realities of practice, and the needs of the community. To provide an advisory service to low-income families to assist these families, on request, with problems regarding housing, gardens, renovations, additions, maintenance, etc. Particular emphasis will be given to problems requiring submission to the Zoning Board of Appeal. The kinds of projects envisioned at the time were such things as: - investigating and analyzing present and potential urban development - acting as agents between community groups and city government - providing technical planning architectural services and ombudsman assistance to community groups - rendering assistance for establishing neighbourhood founded and neighbourhood-operated development corporation for housing, food co-ops, day-care as examples. 64 Funding and Personnel The application to CMHC was successful, and the UDC received two year funding from CMHC and officially opened in fall of 1970. At that time it received salaries for a Director and Assistant plus administration and overhead. This was augmented by summer student grants under student employment programs, Opportunities for Youth (OFY) and Local initiatives Program (LIP). By the spring of 1972, the UDC had grown to 2 staff, 6 students and 8 L.I.P. workers. The staff, consisting of graduate architects, provided the overall continuity to the projects, as the students' term of work and volunteer commitment varied. As well, over the course of these first years, the School of Architecture offered 6 Urban Design Center design tutorials headed by Dino Rapanos (See Figure 5 for a Tutorial description). The students were under the direct supervision of Ron Yuen who was hired as a teaching assistant. The UDC shared office space with the Vancouver Inner City Service Project and in the case of work for community organizations drew their clientele from contacts with VISP. This association with VISP helped to sensitize both the students and the clients to the work of the UDC^. The prevalent prejudice against the elite professional and student parachuting into a community was counteracted by the 65 School of Architecture The University of British Columbia Academic Year 1972/73 Page 9 TUTORIAL J (ARCH 420, 421, 440, 441) - D. Rapanos and R. Yuen Spring & Fall URBAN DESIGN CENTRE Objective: To provide an opportunity for students to work on environmental problems that are current and with the people who are directly affected. Description •• "Architects and planners must become more deeply and passionately involved with the real issues that are tearing our cities and our society apart, and, in order to do so, they must learn first-hand what these problems are like and how to work with the people whose lives they are affecting and who should be making basic decisions about the changes that are to take place." The UDC will examine environmental needs of specific areas of the urban community which are ripe for rehabilitation. It will cooperate with residents of these areas in this process to act as agents and advocates for proposals developed by the residents and the UDC for presentation to various levels of government and its officials. It will propose strategies for implementation of plans and supervise delivery. The UDC will offer its services to individuals or service organizations who are unable to pay professional consultants but whose work is considered desirable within the community. The UDC will act as an advisory service to low-income families to assist, on request, with problems regarding housing, gardens, renonva-tions, additions, maintenance, etc. Particular emphasis will be given to problems requiring submission to the Zoning Board of Appeal. Method: The UDC is a field service and will desire to locate within the community it wishes to serve. Since the problems it will attempt to deal with are of a cross-disciplinary scope an intimate connection with the Inner-City Service Project has been established, with their many resource people (social workers, lawyers, doctors, theologians, etc.) prepared to work with the UDC. The problems to be dealt with will be decided on the basis of the requests for assistance as weighed by representatives of the UDC, Inner-City, the School of Architecture and the AIBC. Prerequisites: A desire to be effective in changing the physical environment with the people directly concsrned. Limitations: Limited to 6 students. Students with some particular ability, knowledge or experience useful to the UDC will be given preference. Figure 5 Tutorial J Description 66 continued presence of the permanent staff, the 'storefront' identity and location, and the operating philosophy of participation. As work was done, of course, the UDC's reputation grew and so did the requests for community based services. By 1972, the VISP had closed down, possibly due to the resignation of Max Beck, the project director, and the UDC had moved out on its own as an independent society. As an independent society, the connection to the University and profession was done mainly through the Board of Participants, although tutorial and course credit remained intact for another term. Several people from both the School of Architecture and the AIBC sat on this Board. After two years of operation, the UDC originators were experiencing 'burn out'. Ron Yuen stepped down as Director and was replaced by Tony Green who had been with the UDC since the beginning. Green and Yuen remained with the UDC until December of 1973. At this time, Jim LeMaistre took over as Director from Green. It was during the late fall and early spring of 1972-3 that the Centre, staff, students, volunteers and Board, began to seriously reexamine its goals and future directions. By this time, several projects had been completed and the nature of that work was fairly well-defined. The VISP, having closed down, no longer provided a clientele base. 67 UDC had to define its own directions. Several directions were discussed, such as more research and more involvement with government in policy-making. Some argued for radical political action such as land reform, while others felt that working for reform of the decision-making process in the city** was most important. The type of clientele that the UDC was providing services for, was questioned. Some felt that there was a danger that it was a squeezed middle class and not the poor as many of the small scale design projects involved homeowners who were not dealing with the basic questions of participation or even access to shelter. In the end, it was Rapanos who maintained that the projects of the UDC must come from the grassroots. The UDC would continue with projects as they had begun; it had been formed to satisfy a need within the community for technical services to enable communities to participate in a meaningful way. This need still existed. This self-examination was also an outcome of the continual search for funding. Several meetings and study workshops were held during these months. Up until now the Centre had been funded through government employment initiative programs and through CMHC, and to some extent by the University through the tutorial teaching. Additional funding was always being applied for, and this became a preoccupation. Some contracts for studies and reports had been awarded to UDC from the British Columbia Housing and 68 Management Commission (BCHMC). More emphasis would have to be placed on securing of private contracts as government funding was beginning to dry up and many of the original funding programs were stopped. By the end of the 15 months of operation the UDC had undertaken over 30 projects. In a report to CMHC, Yuen states that: 'the course of action of the UDC during the past year has been one of developing new methods of involving people in the planning process in order that citizens will gain confidence in their own abilities to act and act effectively to change their environment. This has been a full time and long term commitment'9. The UDC had provided stable professional involvement in community issues which was not naturally occurring due for the most part to the inability of these often loosely organized client groups to afford these services. At this point it was felt that the UDC should develop its research and publication activities and take on a proactive role in identifying developing trends and their potential problems. The UDC applied for additional funding from CMHC for 3 more years. The Latter Years At the end of 1973, Jim LeMaistre, a planning student graduate who had taken a course credit through the UDC in 69 the fall of 1971, stayed on after graduation, taking over the helm. The Urban Design Center had moved from the church at the corner of Venables St. and Victoria Ave.-^, to 1111 Commercial St. H in the summer of 1972 where it remained until October of 1976 when the office closed. The Center continued to have an active Urban Design Centre Society membership and Board of Directors. By 1974, the UDC was loosely set up as a workers coop, with the Board of Directors consisting of staff. Funding came from a variety of sources, including CMHC extended core funding, Local Initiatives Program and general contractsA. CMHC core funding continued through 1975, but was not renewed. The projects throughout these last years were more oriented towards planning and community organization than design. The School of Architecture no longer offered students the opportunity for design tutorial credit through the CDC for two reasons: the usefulness of the UDC as an academic experience was brought into question and funds would no longer be allocated for a teaching assistant in the UDC and student interest had shifted to another programs which offered credit for work in a traditional architect's office. During this time the UDC advertised its services as planning and development analysis, architectural programming and design, and social research and facilities. Under planning and development analysis, UDC offered site planning, land 70 SrKE ALLOIMBTT: ^111 • Phase II TT_ Figure 6 1111 Commercial Drive UDC office layout and future proposal 71 use and economic analysis, transportation and neighbourhood development studies; under architectural, services up to preliminary drawings (based on user participation) for funding approval, work and environment analysis, and space planning; research included neighbourhood analysis, housing feasibility studies, lay person booklets. By this time the staff had been broadened to include other disciplines and the 'architectural' component did not dominate. User participation had become 'working within an appropriate democratic process to involve as many of the potential users as possible - whether they be residents, workers or visitors'±J In addition to the change in staff, three trends in government funding also affected the kinds of projects that the UDC became involved with. One was that the provision of much needed day care facilities was surfacing as a major community issue. Minimal construction grants were given to non-profit parent associations for setting of daycare facilities. These costs did not allow for study, programming or design. The UDC provided this research and design service to many organizations. This work evolved into a proposal for a Day Care Manual which was never actually produced, although several reports were produced for the Childcare Federation. In recent years, however, a former worker at the UDC, Chuck Reif has been approached to finish this work. Another change was the introduction of 72 the 1972 Housing Act which established the non-profit and co-op housing programs. Under this act, societies could receive funding for housing projects. The UDC helped set up New Living Development^ consisting of potential tenants, acting as a planning and design resource group. The third change was the introduction of the Neighbourhood Improvement Grants as part of the Urban Renewal incentives. These grants available to low income residents for upgrading of the existing residence. Monies were minimal and did not make allowance for design and technical consultation fees. Many of the small design projects came from individuals applying for this grant money. When core funding stopped in 1976, the UDC had two directions to consider to continue operation. It could evolve fully into a self-supporting, entrepreneurial business as did some of the CDC's in the States.x5 It could become a housing resource group assisting societies achieve housing projects. When the driving force behind the group at the time, Director Jim LeMaistre, decided to take a full-time job at the Surrey Planning Department administering the Neighbourhood Improvement Program^ grants for the area, the UDC closed its doors. (See Appendix Three for UDC Chronology). The Urban Design Centre evolved from part of a social service project, to a separate program, to a society, to a 73 workers co-op. Although originally funded solely by government grants, at its close the UDC was receiving contracts for specific work. During the course of its existence it brought together three critical elements of the urban environmental situation, the Community, the University and the Profession. Over 21 students participated in the UDC design tutorials, many more were employed or worked there as volunteers. Members of the community, the University and the profession volunteered time either at the Center itself or on the Board (See Appendix Five for a list of participants). The UDC completed over 160 projects. 1. VISP's intent was to assist the new patterns of welfare-income support and service delivery that were forming with an emphasis on rehabilitation. Its basic outline was: aimed at root causes of dependency; based out of Gastown and Skid Road; coordinated with local citizen's groups and other area social agencies and workers; involved with professionals outside the area of Social Work (doctors, lawyers, architects); heavily based on research and education. The issues were basic welfare payment recipient information, job potential, health care. The intent was to break the constant cycle of dependency on welfare, and VISP involved to emphasis comprehensive, preventative work. Jan. 26, 1970, description pamphlet from Vol.1, File 11, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Centre, City of Vancouver Archives 2. Proposal for a Model Community Design Centre, April 22, 1970, submitted to the Honourable Robert Andras, Minister without Portfolio Responsible for Housing, Government of Canada. This proposal was based in part on the Guidelines for Community Design Centres, The American Institute of 74 Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969. City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1, File 9. 3. A Bulletin published by the American Institute of Architects Concerning Advocacy Planning and Community Design Centres. No date. Probably 1969. City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1 File 2. 4. from Article 9 of the Bylaws of the Architectural Institute of British Columbia. This Article is the professional oath for architects. 5. This application was prepared by Max Beck and Dino Rapanos. The description of the UDC's purposes and work was adapted from the Guidelines for Community Design Centers distributed by the American CDC network that Rapanos was part of from the conference in 1969. Vancouver City Archives, Vol.1 File 6, Contract with CMHC for funding 6. The UDC was in close proximity to and much influenced by the Legal Aid group headed at that time by Mike Harcourt. 7. The actual work done by the UDC is discussed in Chapter 4, and Appendix Four. 8. Supporting the movement to the Ward System in Civic elections. 9. Ron Yuen in an Application for Funding Under Part V "Housing Research and Community Planning" to CMHC, Jan 1972, City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1, No.6 10. now the Vancouver East Cultural Centre. 11. now the La Quena Restaurant, a restaurant whose profits go to Central American relief efforts and is run by volunteers. 12. In the Nov.1973-April 1974 statement submitted to CMHC, 32% of the funding came from CMHC, 40% from LIP, 28% from contracts, membership fees, and publication sales. 13. UDC Pamphlet by Jim LeMaistre, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 9, Vancouver City Archives 14. New Living Development Company Limited, was formed by some members of the UDC and other persons 'to attain a physical and social environment more conducive to their desires and needs on a non-profit basis' as quoted from the company application to the provincial government. This company was formed primarily to develop low-income housing. The UDC was officially a member of the NLD. NLD served as a resource for several co-operative housing projects, in conjunction with UDC staff. Comerio, Mary, Community Design: Idealism and Entrepreneurship, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 1984 Vol. 1 Comerio's article, Inside Chinatown's Tiny Apartments, in the AIA Journal, April 1983 describes an example of entrepreneurial activity with the Asian Neighbourhood Design CDC which has developed furniture for the small Single Room Occupancy dwellings in Chinatown. This program was part of the Urban renewal movement that encouraged renovation. 76 Chapter Five THE URBAN DESIGN CENTER - CLIENTS AND PROJECTS During the six years of operation, the UDC's clientele and the projects were very similar to those of the San Francisco Community Design Centre. Clients were usually community groups or societies, but also included individuals. Work included research, self-help publications, feasibility studies, building and renovation design, and park and community planning. The majority of the jobs were small design projects. In the larger community planning jobs, the UDC often also performed a role as client organizer, facilitator, and representative. The general format of work within the UDC was to assign an individual or small group to a project and make them responsible for its development. All participants in the UDC program were kept informed of each project's progress by weekly meetings held at the office. Yuen and Green acted as overseers and usually made the initial client contacts, and also provided continuity as students left the Centre. As well Yuen supervised the student work. 77 For a complete listing of the The Urban Design Centre's projects see Appendix Four. The following eight projects are a representative sampling to indicate the scope and type of work undertaken by the UDC and will be discussed in more detail. 1. SKEENA TERRACE RECREATION FACILITY - an early project involving mixed client group, and the anticipated result was a building 2. THE GASTOWN HEALTH CLINIC - an office renovation, with a mixed client group 3. RICHMOND PLAYLOT - small project for a well organized client group 4. HOME SHOW CLINIC - one time, outreach service offered to individuals 5. LAYMAN'S HOME IMPROVEMENT GUIDE - public education publication project for the individual tenant or homeowner 6. DAYCARE AND OTHER RESEARCH - UDC developed expertise 7. PARAPLEGIC GROUP HOMES - long term project that evolved over 4 years 8. ADANAC PLANNING - long term community planning 9. ORCHARD PARK - last large community planning project 78 1. Skeena Terrace Recreation Facility One of the first projects, the Skeena Terrace Recreation Facility, was described by Rapanos, in his .Report to the Profession* in late 1971, as being one of the UDC's most complex and difficult. In this project, the UDC was to assist the client group, residents of the Skeena Terrace Housing Project represented by the Skeena Terrace Project Committee, in obtaining a multi-purpose, recreation facility for the community. The project required identification of the user group, identification of needs, and, in fact, identification of a client group; development of a program; and discussions with various governments for land and funds . The UDC was called in initially to provide free professional architectural services to the Skeena Terrace Committee. In a note about the introduction to this project Tony Green illustrates the spirit and enthusiasm of those early days: 'September 29 - NOTES * Marie Booth has seven children. Her husband, Sid, is unemployed. One of her boys is epileptic and hyper-nervous; he can't go to school like other kids. Marie lives in Skeena Terrace, in a maisonette with three bedrooms. She is president of the Skeena Terrace Tenant's Association. She is articulate, intelligent, overburdened, handsome, probably with different surrounding she would meet the middle class ideal of "respectable", even "respected". She is trying to do something for herself and others like her - a small bit of the urban poor of Vancouver. We're going to help her.* 79 The role of 'free, architectural services' expanded. The UDC found itself according to Rapanos: 'not only helping to define the architectural problem on the basis of citizen participation, but was soon involved in helping to maintain the identity of the citizen group, providing backup information for public presentations, exploring methods of financing and trying to hold the committee together, and representing community wishes.'5 This project lasted several months, going through many configurations of program requirements, locations, and schematic building design. It was resolved when the Skeena Committee decided to accept an offer from the School Board to modify a proposed gymnasium addition to the school for a Neighbourhood recreation facility. At the end of the project, the UDC felt they had failed because the user did not have an important say in the final product. Rapanos reports, 'The effort of self-help and involvement was resolved by the civic authorities and the project placed in the hands of the established departments.'*' This project did, however, provide valuable experience for all involved. The UDC discovered what it was like to put its philosophies into practice. It revealed the volatile nature of community groups and the need for ground rules of representation. It initiated the students into the vagaries of politics as in the end the community accepted an offer from the City which did not include any of the work done with the UDC. It illustrated how difficult it was to orchestrate community participation in design, thus 80 action pjg^ THE <SO/S5NMi^TS •' FEOBSM-UREAM AfTvNRS PC8T- ANCRA'S CMHO PPCVINQAL-•MUNICIf*UAFf/°<eS €-ecHMC, CcNSUUT THE £=7 ©ECU PS - TD WcVUDB i^QSYCNfe IN THE STTA EUNRtSE A9='p|. eeuL>w ecus. CHURCH QROufS SCHCCC i PF&-SCHCCU VCUTH SRDUF5 e Atf CWCES we CAN THINK- or € ESCH eraxtp HAS A NUMBER CF €MALU «j«Tvi=e5 or • •SITE ^PPcisiTles •ActNiTies« services J • FlHANClMSi/0Pl5B»«TCNS • >*WAIMl'ST1W/VA= STRUCTUB& BUDGrETlNGi- CAFTTAU URBAN DEaSM OEKTRE AU/ QRCUPS WILL KWCUl WHAT acer OF ceasicws ARE BSW<S MACE . A CIRCULATlNe FACT/ctfNICN SWEET.•• "WIS IS WHAT W0 TEU-' THE Aifwc7pmes we (•flSRDWi. AT CME BK5, M^TWGr Cft MEETIMGS OF •• o DE3SN (AgCHI lfcLTMieAL-) Bqep "FINANCE BRIEF " ADMINI STTRiCTNE STPUCTUES BWS= TtiBM :  1 ^ TT-m TED CfEN Figure 7 Skeena Terrace Project Organizational Diagram 81 identifying the need for developing methods of community participation. (See Figure 7 for a organizational diagram of the Skeena Terrace Project and Appendix Six for a copy of a report by Tony Green). 2. The Gastown Health Clinic The development of the Gastown Health Clinic for the Downtown Community Health Society (DCHS) is fairly typical of early UDC design projects and illustrates the application of UDC's operating philosophies. Yuen, Director, was approached in late 1970 by the Downtown Clergy Association to participate in the development of a clinic. Two students were assigned to the project and participated in all the meetings of the Society (DCHS) which was formed to sponsor the project. Various individuals and groups were interviewed in order to establish objectives and requirements of the Society. Concurrently, a building was being located by the Society's building committee. UDC was asked to carry out initial architectural and cost studies. Based on the information of the interviews, the students prepared a sketch plan and asked the advice of several professionals in the community, engineers, architects and contractors in order to prepare the cost estimate. The estimate and plans were taken to the Society and much discussion ensued. Conflicts of requirements and objectives 82 surfaced and the overall program was redefined. The plan and work done by the UDC became the focal point for resolution of many issues. A description of this project in a 20 year retrospective interview with Monty Wood, student at the UDC on this project, illustrates well the tone of this project and of the work of the UDC. 'The Downtown Eastside clinic is actually what I did for my thesis project for Dino [Rapanos] and Ron [Yuen]. We spent the whole term designing, involving, and participating with, Mae Gutteridge, the Carrall Street Health Unit, a planner, some people from First United Church, and some nuns from St. Paul's (because we were going to move into the Seamen's Mission). We had a corner, a site, a room and it was basically just tossing up some partitions and a sink. There wasn't actually a lot of design to it. I thought there was a tremendous amount of design. I worked my little buns off on that one and actually at the end of term we actually had a design. Dino even introduced us to various places. He marched us into DW Thompson [engineering firm] to ask about plumbing runs and how to do that. They said, "This is how you do it. 1/8"/foot, etc." Because the run was so long, what were we going to do about an exposed pipe running the length of this large gymnasium hall. At the end of term I wrote a report stating what the design was and that it was agreed upon by these various parties. ...You really found that you wound up in the middle of a war, not a war, but you became sort of the battlefield for every other group. This is what is great about it, plans-on-paper is actually a vehicle through which the various factions were able to negotiate. And so, for instance, when we laid it out in such a way, we felt that the doctor should do thus and so and his sanctuary should form this way. Now we have a stream of people coming in. Mae Gutteridge, the way she sets her place up, she wants to see people turning the knob on the door before they walk in. Now that's Mae Gutteridge, very hands on, very 'I'm-in-charge-around-here', Mae Gutteridge. On the other hand we were of a slightly different persuasion, a different dynamic. We thought that we should get them through the door before they get inspected. There were those sort of things that had to be resolved. We did do the plan and then I got a little grant through Ron and I went out and built it. Ron Yuen and 83 an OFY [Opportunities For Youth] grant, we went out and with the help from some CYC [Company of Young Canadians] people. We actually hired about 8 guys off the road and I ran a construction crew. We built this thing. It was great and it worked. And then Mae Gutteridge came in, got a chain saw and cut some holes in the door and the walls so she could see people turning the door knob. Oh well, it worked. That was for me a first piece of prime fulfillment after three years of talking. From there instead of being just the Downtown Medical Clinic, it turned into DERA. It was set up as a non-profit society. The society was run under First United Church and jointly boarded by Mae Gutteridge and the Anglican Church. At some point the Health Department made sure that the Salvation Army were kept at bay. They didn't get their foot in the door on that thing, because 3 and 4 parties was getting too messy. Then Mae Gutteridge decided that it wasn't enough of her own space so she moved out. Then it turned into the DERA. It did have a continuity and it's still alive today. This project, typically, involved a mixed client group and involved a great deal of time at the beginning. It was not simply architectural design, but also became an organizing tool, fund-raising, and eventually an employment scheme. 3. The Richmond Playlot The Richmond Playlot project, a 2 month project, is representative of the many playlot projects undertaken by the UDC. Yuen was approached by a neighbourhood organization, the Dutch and Laurelwood Creative Park Group, to help design a playlot and park for the neighbourhood. Other groups became involved and the citizen's participation group became the Neighbourhood Council. A first year 84 Figure 8 Playlot drawings 85 student, John Lewis, was assigned to this project and it is obvious from his Tutorial Report** that the experience of working with a passionate group of neighbourhood residents was both exhilarating and frightening. The student quickly realized that the clients had done their homework on parks, knew what they wanted and expected him to go away and, with the his technical expertise, draw it up. The UDC, committed to participatory design, insisted that the community be part of the design process. The resulting drawings were 'a plan and a scheme that was a good synthesis of all our raps together, had some exciting suggestions for constructions g and still left room for the ultimate design in the field' . The playground was to be built by the community, the first stage being the playlot and then a larger park. The plans were well received by the Parks Board and the project proceeded as planned. 4. Home Show Clinic Services for the individual homeowner, aside from the occasional renovation, were not emphasized, with two notable exceptions. One was the booth at the Feb. 1971 Home Show Clinic and the other was the publication of Layman's Home Improvement Guide. 86 The Home Show Clinic was a joint venture between the UDC and AIBC to offer free advice on matters such as basic house planning and siting, house renovation, financing, code and by-law requirements. A booth was rented at Home Show, an annual weekend exhibition of products and services directed at the homeowner and builder. Manufacturers, distributors and retailers are the primary exhibitors with a patronage of mostly middle class homeowners. The Home Show Clinic booth consisted of a display area showing photos of the Vancouver City environment and some of its issues, a consultation area and a 'express yourself games area (See Figures 9& 10). The booth was manned by both UDC staff and students, and AIBC members. It proved to be a very instructive endeavour both from the point of view of the participants, and from the services offered. The UDC, working towards ideals of public participation in the creative growth of Vancouver, felt that involving people at the personal level of their own home, would awaken interest in larger issues. The UDC evaluation of the Home Show Clinic booth according to the public response (over 113 clients were served) and the kinds of advice given seems to bear this out. People not only were interested in changing their immediate environment, but also in some larger neighbourhood issues. Figure 9&10 Home Show Clinic photos 89 The UDC stressed participation in its operations and tried to convey this message in the booth. The interest showed by the public led to a recognition that having a way to participate on a community level was important. Several people expressed interest but didn't know 'where to sign up'. The UDC was not engaged in direct political or social organization, but realized that collecting, formulating and publishing information about the city and ways to become directly involved with its planning was important. The AIBC/UDC both received favourable publicity from this project. They found that there was a certain amount of trepidation towards the profession, what it does and what it costs. The architect was primarily seen as the expert in aesthetics and many questions came from people who just didn't like the look of something. Some larger planning issues were discussed for certain neighbourhoods and some teachers dropped by to see if lectures could be given to highschool students. This Home Show Clinic resulted in the AIBC instituting a free Saturday morning advisory (See Appendix Seven) service to deal with architectural, usually housing, problems on a free basis. This service helps the client decide on what course of action to take and to select an architect if required. It is still part of the AIBC program today. 90 From the work done at the Home Show Clinic, it was felt that the UDC could be most effective working on projects that involved community groups rather than individual house renovations. The Home Show revealed, however, a great need for self-help building information for the homeowner. The Layman's Home Improvement Guide was the result. 5. The Layman's Home Improvement Guide (LHIG) The nature of the consultations given at the Home Show Clinic led the UDC to consider and eventually produce a hand book for the do-it-yourself house renovation. Many of the people asking for help had only a little money, lots of ideas and little or no technical expertise. Similar to many of the publications being put out by other CDC'sx^ at the time, the Layman's Home Improvement Guide^ provided information on the principles of house renovation, law requirements and procedures, financing and securing contractors, and basic structural information. The Guide was not directed to community or collective action groups interested in upgrading the physical aesthetic or social well-being of neighbourhoods. The philosophy behind the LHIG was that information and procedures pertinent to renovation work and home improvement should be demystified and made accessible to the individual homeowner. It moved WES & EDW WM& ff\ZfAf{Zb BT: THE Uf^BAW DCJIGW CEMT^E 1?72 18?J VEMBLE3 VANCOUVER Figure 11 Layman's Home Improvement Guide Sample Pages 92 the UDC from a position as reactive consultant (waiting to be approached), to active advisor-^. This project was started in the spring of 1972 and continued until 1974. The LHIG, formed part of the funding from CMHC, both for continued work on the books and for publishing. It was sold for 50 cents per section and was available to UDC clients, The Better Business Bureau, Consumer Affairs, CMHC, and some building suppliers. Section I, Permits Codes and City Hall, explained the permit process Section II, The Cost of Improvements was a very comprehensive analysis of structure, products and materials that are part of a renovation. Section III, The Cost of Borrowing explained financing. This was one of the larger projects for the UDC. It sparked interest in the community to produce similar booklets. City Hall now publishes a comprehensive list of documents about its processes and services. When approached to support the LHIG's Part III, VanCity Credit Union refused, but complimented the UDC on their efforts and expressing that they had also been trying to publish such an information pamphletXJ. These booklets were very comprehensive. A fourth Section was proposed on Choosing a House, but this was not completed. As a follow-up to the distribution of the LHIG, it was proposed to set up both a feedback system and clinics in various neighbourhoods. Although given some research and 93 recoinmendations were produced, this part of the project never received funding. 6. Daycare and other research During these early years, substantial amount of effort went into research. The UDC believing in the right of the individual to participate in the physical planning of the environment, took every opportunity to become part of action groups involved with this issue. These included such committees and groups as the Community Development Committee, Community Congress for Economic Change, National Anti-Poverty Organization, Neighbourhood Government, Greater Vancouver Regional District, United Housing Foundation, and various neighbourhood planning councils. Research areas included the civic electoral reform, the ward system, freeway and transportation issues, neighbourhood planning, non-profit housing, daycare, and special needs housing. The daycare research became a major part of the work done in the later years of the UDC. When government funding became available for daycare, UDC did design work for societies for renovations and new centres. This led to research such as evaluation of pre-fabricated units designs for the Childcare Federation. Several reports were produced by the UDC, 94 UKcVil CT&CH OJFWT-IU1C9UEKCIW. Wi*. APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE fim*- utr IT*, K ».ofc --ft>i*i, or. OP PLVHOCD -t) <.'lfl.^^<LtC.TJ-*t4-e>** . m-«iMcw* + STIUJCA *,KH* 40* .kt-Bt/HK ' B*t>S - ecuK -=WL>Jf-s £•(•4 rilAvE - |=o -...IFrl_ IT it'l.T, - Jo.*" TT.VV(»M> isy° *4fc«" i*Jn Beit. /«*r»K tr.-^f^jrtf, *7 !.+> K»JT 6T. tup coocn newts '30 I jlATTC c-Xtie. *!*> x fc**/#o *ncn5 OF ttYWftu nc 4.-n«.-s ID Uc *TW*A — G* ir,**» *|OS'° ±iucneo«euooD tNt 1 ED OlKZcU US/1 WrSl M'tBTCB t,f( Cd, IJiATT KTUMTfc PAIR WAV 1371 Figure 12&13 Daycare drawings 95 96 including a comprehensive paper, Concerning the Provision of Pre-Fabricated Day-Care Units on Temporary Sited in the City of Vancouver, by Charles Rief and Mary-Louise Hart1^. This report contained design concerns as produced in work session of the Design Committee, of the Child Care Federation, which were illustrated by the use of patterns. 'Patterns'13 was the primary method of participation in design. This process is described in The Remaking of Orchard Park Proposal, Nov, 1974,^: 'The main tool to be used in the design-involvement process will be "patterns" and the research behind the derivation of patterns. A pattern is a PROBLEM-SOLUTION statement about an isolated design component (an entryway, a staircase, a patio, etc.) The pattern format includes a problem statement, a discussion of the problem, a proposed solution and a graphic illustration. The prime value of these patterns is that are visible and understandable in themselves. They can be examined, discussed and evaluated by all parties involved in the project. A catalogue of approved patterns then becomes the basis for all design work, and the results can be checked against the objectives for all design work, and the results can be checked against the objectives set out in the patterns. This makes the design process accountable to all agencies and the public (Tenants and the neighbourhood). Pattern catalogues have already been used as guidelines to False Creek development and in the planning and design of Champlain Place. Applicable patterns from these catalogues can be combined with new ones defined at Orchard Park. This complete set of pattern guidelines would then be presented to the tenant groups and agency representatives for examination, revision and approval. The end of this stage would mark a confirmation of the work to date, and of directions and priorities to follow preparation of comprehensive plans.' See Appendix Eight for an example of patterns used in the RayCam Community Centre project. Patterns proved to be the 97 most useful way to document the design decisions of the mixed groups. In the case of the RayCam Community Centre, these patterns were refined and produced the concept drawings for the building. This project was passed on to a registered architect for completion. 7. Paraplegic Group Homes Another project that involved research and pattern design was the Handicapped Group Homes. This project began when a women in a wheel chair approached the UDC for assistance in finding a suitable house for herself and four handicapped friends for a group home. The UDC took on the problem, conducting research with various groups that had been involved in handicapped housing. Drawing these groups together took some time, and in the meantime, the original client became too ill to live in a group home. Although the UDC seemed to have lost its client, a design for a group home continued, with people representing the user in a design game. See Appendix Nine for a sample of the Design Game.17 The UDC developed a prototype design, with financial analysis and began in effect to develop and organize a group and a solution to a general societal problem. 98 In the second summer, the project was revitalized due in part to support from Wolfgang Gerson of the School of Architecture, and a new proposal was made to CMHC for the construction of a group home as a pilot project. A lot was found, designs created and a group including two paraplegic persons were to be hired to help build their own home. In the end, funding was not given for the building, but only for an advisory housing placement service. The UDC, primarily by Monty Wood, continued with the Group Home project for over 5 years. He continued to work with the Handicapped Resource Centre, which was an information centre specializing in housing run for and by physically disabled persons. Although a group home was never actually designed and built through the UDC, the Handicapped Resource Centre eventually did build several group homes which it still operates today. The UDC was instrumental in starting the Handicapped Resource Centre and was one of the founders of the group home movement in Vancouver. 8. Adanac Neighbourhood Planning Like the Skeena Terrace Project, the Adanac Neighbourhood Planning project involved a number of different groups. Originally approached by the Hastings Sunrise Council in 1971 to assist in planning the Adanac area, the Adanac Planning Advisory Committee became the client and consisted 99 /PANAC IS KPT AN [SLA^D. mmeamxo mjo/s EEIHS- cm CTF tpch ITS SUEROJNCWSS . TfiB ADWC AfE»< HAS &*KR13SS ~JD iKiEssfwncv CN /sil- aces . Atv (^vrrCfn<|Ctel fbw fvowt out? SKS -fc> anotiTev will mcrzaee- commwmGfim. At ite. mwc tine-, a tock of ddwfisi/L of an arsg leads t> less cp etetfny-Trie /dare- ares hc& skxig kttmdanes -to pwicle it Lurth idevrrtj, S5me mcr& Commumaybo^ " briars' flrs irt«{ •fo in^ofe fc w'rfio fA<r> y«sfc of "fitc- risjs^'^- StmrK. canmwAj •fc-tfie nortL and nest. THUS" t? lKTei5R«qB "WB /WC AR6^ K/fTH rtS ^•frcVICe PIPfXT, g^FS, CPVICXIS POT1B5 EgTUJeSJ rff#C >ND "W6 -SURfJCUNPINe COMMUN IT/ fCP- BIOClES .AND PEcesirWlS. JZ-f^cE ccMMUMny R»CIUTIBS -THAT se^ve -THB HAsrojas-(• PKXICE ptRe=r /access FCR £AAenseM=y VEHICLES w+iaj -mees. Figure 14&15 Adanac Sample patterns WINDOWS TO THE STREET 100 WNteKS Or MAJOR We- bum •» MUCH TIWT ITS inrcsaar, TO twe" FWcy. ir * ttcuse- » nticr veR/ euse TO THE- sireET/THeN rr WLC- te IHFCSSEtg. At THE &MUETWB, n E NecESSMry rtn THC FS3re?rT "To fW "Trier srcsf. c^tttetB CLOSE la me SIKEST, rvr ICrST 5' ABOVE fwse THE ft-"*. CF- THr? House AT LB»ST PRIVA1E WD pen ucusg rav IM INS ACJWG/^BV H*5 A MIMIMW !AWfD OP 35 pr 52-4 fT AS A pouqpte, THIS CtxiLD ee ATOnED ITT Al^ WW SKfllB muty KfB, cWrTWrriNO .v«r. ITOAIlf MM NEW HOUSB H*5 A >W5D CP IIOOSBFT. MINIMUM . IN cue Piece 4 ExcuiwMe GK-fOPT Of\Q*R4S6; „„, ^5.,, LOCATE WRP CM ANf <> ace CF THE? HCU=S - — 3 SENIORS HAVE: OUTDOORS J TOO Apartments °n» otter multiple dwellings often hove no outdoor space +hn+ " of much use. Balconies ore tiny , terraces +00, and garden ore arc indrs+in gulshable from the arourd. Terraces and t>< C« ovoid belnn l) having plants 0 c)havina o minim depth of 6 tea s)baleOni«. con e "stuck • j|J tut loot be I 1 half-In, half-out of the buildlno fat lea.t So7. under Cover , "Too) NB. '• The seniors muet have th. option of hoV.nj o fee. of lonJ belonging to eoch unit. The property would *>« divided into Individual plots onol common areo3. If o per.on a»»i «••«'• plot, It u-ould be included in common property. IDENTIFIABLE FRcKT EHTf^NCE fOOTtft. UEcO TO rJJBUJ ThCTR. OVUM Fporr EZr* -HtrtVHB Dews is TO rea, LOST 4 aS^ET or feNSMRE THTO THE rmtT ENTOCe OT BVEW PlrTtRofr f=RCM ITS NBlStlBpWS. M*te SMHS TWfT rw«y /«M> 3tt5,TET .FKCM TweW»nHEl? IS oeWW THESE, AND THAT,WHEN rSrTO'aw^ THE uur, «or MCCE w a* rmiT CCDR3 HS(E(£. OUTDOOR. rWACy " A snwncil SCH AS A 'ZEieo uti-UhE , rr's na^ss«fy TO ewsufc. »w /*JD vice VETCSV oiriBiwce-use ST £HS ^ IWU- w *R*crirW or PI-EWSWT. so, fw A tnree EUW 5 iff cu -me rrorerrry UNE, »C WIUCOAJS hoyiEw wwicMB m« cue HOUSET Httcny CN1D A reieificuws wo .OUCWED; EWLD EV<j: WCRe THAW cue nm, rtjets SEUSED 10 O^jeEN WNCCW5. LWE Wi CTWK dace) LINEAR OPEN SPACE People won't use major open spaces ihat hc»v» Utile diversity and are hard io <y*t i& Open spoca« shoulW lon^ and fti'n so ++iat more peop/e can /ire af (or near) fne eerfge. People of di f f erent aye different things in parks Cpf-y to do ff* JifT, football. walk, IJ b• p]o ess "fer +hin^s to happan. But rHiey should t.ap^=n near eacK otfier so thdf people con see variety <?f events. TVa variety of recreaf/ontil opacas Can be connected b.1 1 pedeairian p)Q"fti5 ^ or can be a part of _ the f>airia. 101 of in addition to the Hastings Sunrise Council, were representatives from each block, from The Frog Hollow Community Centre, and from the Parks Board, the School Board, the Social and City Planning Departments. The project went well into 1974 when it was resolved by City Council accepting part of the recommendations of the UDC. The UDC set up a planning centre in the community and produced several proposals, and reports. It became a political issue, and the UDC was amazed when the citizens did not defend the patterns and proposals they had developed at the beginning. It was an issue of low-cost housing versus single family neighbourhood. When the final count was in, the neighbourhood seemed to prefer to loose some of the low-income families than to change the nature of the land use from single family. In So Needs A Freeway, Report to the Hastings Sunrise Action 1 ft Council on the Cassiar Street Connector, June 25, 1973, the UDC proposed an alternate routing for a connector tunnel. This was a very comprehensive study including cost comparisons, again wrestling with the problem of the freeway system through Vancouver. This work contributed to stopping the freeway plans in the area until 1989, when the construction on Cassiar Connector started. 102 Figure 16 Orchard Park 103 9. Orchard Park Orchard Park (Figure 16) was one of the last planning projects of the UDC. The UDC was to recommend ways of improving the Orchard Park housing project that was experiencing both social and physical problems. This project illustrates the evolution of the work of the UDC from the early days. It was funded by British Columbia Housing and Management Corporation (BCHMC) and CMHC, and therefore followed the more traditional form of professional consultant. The terms of reference, however, required tenant participation and ratification of final proposal. The UDC had a mobile bus, The Yellow Bus Office, which moved from area to area to encourage the tenants to participate in the recommendations. A final report was produced in July of 1975 that essentially recommended up-grading rather than redevelopment. Examination of this report shows that although the idea of pattern generation was still used, it is much more of a planning report, with more statistics and analysis, than those produced in the early years of the UDC. The element of generation, and execution by the community itself of the project was somewhat lost, as the final outcome was that the report was given to the BCMHC staff to use when planning the improvement program. The community had a part in the recommendations, but the final implementation plan was up to 'others'. 104 1. Information taken from City of Vancouver, Urban Design Centre, Add.MSS 989, Vol. 17, Files 1-84 2. Rapanos, Dino, .Report to the Profession: The Vancouver Urban Design Clinic, 1972. As the AIBC, was a party in the agreement with CMHC for UDC funding, progress reports were periodically required by the profession and the AIBC Housing Committee, from the Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 4, Vancouver City Archives 3. Government bodies involved: Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs Canada Mortgage and Housing Vancouver Parks Board Vancouver School Board Vancouver City and Social Planning Departments Ministry of Municipal Affairs Vancouver City Council 4. Green, Tony, Sept. 29, notes, City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 7 5. Rapanos 1972 op. cit. 6. Ibid. p. 3 7. Interview November 23, 1989: Mr. Wood was a student and then worker at the UDC in 1971 through to 1974. He remained part of the UDC as a member of the Society until late 1975. 8. Lewis, A., Richmond Park/Playlot May, 1971, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 7 9. Ibid 10. For example, the Community Design Center published, Repairs Rehabilitation & Rent, The Cost of Housing Improvements, University of California Extension, Community Design Center, May 1969. 11. Charles Rief was the main author of the Layman's Home Improvement Guide. It was based on a book on 'How to Repair Your VW. 12. Rief, C, The Urban Centre as a Bias Disseminator, Sept., 1972, personal files of Dino Rapanos 13. Letter from VanCity to Chuck Rief of the Urban Design Centre, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 10 No.7 105 14. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 5 No.l, Childcare Federation. Jan, 1973 15. These patterns were most likely based on the work being done at that time by Christopher Alexander in Berkeley. At this time his pattern language method was used to plan False Creek south. 16. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 14 No.1, Orchard Park 17. Wood, M., The Urban Design Centre and the Paraplegic Group Home Problem, Aug. 31 1971, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 7 No.3 18. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 9 No.7, Adanac - Freeway 106 Chapter Six CONCLUSIONS Basic Principles Examination of Community Design/Development Centers in generalx, of the San Francisco Community Design Center, of the Vancouver Design Center in particular and their objectives, operating philosophies, structure and activities identifies three basic principles concerning the role of the individual in the physical environment, the role of the professional and the role for education of the professional. The first, from which the other two follow, and most important of these principles is: EVERY PERSON HAS THE RIGHT AND THE RESPONSIBILITY TO ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN THE EVOLUTION OF HIS/HER PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. In pre-modern societies, evolution of the environment was based on traditions that evolved over generations and were passed on from generation to generation. Methods of 107 physical planning and building were part of everyday 2 activity involving everyone in the usually small community6. In the modern democratic society, while the technology brought much of the realm of planning and building into the hands of experts, idealistically, each person retained the right to an equal say in the development of the environment through the political, legislative and administrative processes of government. Elected officials and civil servants were charged with the duty to serve the needs and wishes of their constituents. But, did they in fact represent the needs and wishes of all segments of society, even the poor? The conditions of the urban poor seemed to indicate that the system of democratic participation was not altogether successful. Two factors that inhibited the ability of every individual to actively participate in the development of the physical environment were the large jurisdictions that decisions effected, and the complexity of the information and knowledge required to make informed decisions. As technology interconnected groups more easily and more quickly, governments began representing regions that had consolidated larger numbers of people over greater areas. Planning encompassed regions and cities, with neighbourhoods being a lower priority. The information required was often complicated and hard to access, especially difficult for the 108 poorJ. Although the democratic ideal provided a way for all to participate through the act of voting, in reality, segments of the population were unheard and therefore overruled. Those that suffered this disenfranchisement were most often the poor. Without the clout of money, there was far less access to political influence, to information, to organizing and mobilizing opposition, and to lobbying. In addition, the complexity of the modern political, technical, planning and building systems required a level of expertise often best acquired through extensive education. Access to this education was far more easily accomplished in the upper and middle economic levels. Without this education, it was difficult to know the complexities of the problems much less participate in the solutions. Participation in the democratic system became difficult, expensive and time consuming, luxuries that the poor could not afford. This first principle was clearly evidenced in the CDC's operating method, user participation. The traditional client/architect relationship often meant little or no contact with the end user. In the case of the poor, this could be particularly disastrous when, the homogeneity of the modern architecture and the elitism of the process did not allow for cultural and social differences. Barker writes: 'The architecture of public housing is a poignant example; here the architect is working for a board of commission and usually is quite removed from both 109 physical and culturally, from the real clients — the eventual residents. Add to this the growing evidence that those who typically serve on housing boards and commissions rarely understand or identify with the needs of the poor for housing, and the results are often a case of the "blind leading the blind". Working towards universal participation in the development of the built environment was not strictly an architectural issue. Because it was of a social and political nature as well as of a physical nature, advocacy architects aligned themselves closely with planners, urban sociologists and with community organizers. The boundaries between one discipline and another overlapped, and the architect often was involved in community organizing and advocacy planning. User participation was not merely a consultative process. The user's needs and ideas were paramount and the architect's role was not to impose ideas or ideals, but to problem solve, to facilitate the user's wishes. This most often meant providing the technical expertise and information to the community in such a way that they could reach an informed decision, and could act upon that decision. Organization of user groups, distribution of knowledge and information, forums and workshops for discussion were part of user participation. CDC's were located in the communities affected by the proposed policies and projects of outside clients and governments. If a community had not organized into a viable action group, the CDC would help with this organization. Part of this organization involved 110 providing research into the background of issues and facilitating access to government and bureaucratic information. The communities were kept informed of the development issues and programs slated for their neighbourhood. Study sessions, workshops, group meetings were held to educate, formulate positions, and prepare briefs and proposals. The CDC's provided technical information and assistance and as Dean says, 'In the spirit of egalitarianism, architects forswore their roles as social engineers and esthetic poohbahs and tried to demystify their craft and make it more easily accessible to ordinary citizens'.5 Dolores Hayden states of the advocacy architects, that 'their major innovation was developing ways to involve users in the design process. This role of the design professional in the process leads to the second principle of the CDC's: THOSE INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS HAVE A PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TO FACILITATE THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT AND RESPONSIBILITY of all members of society to actively participate in the evolution of their physical environment. The occupation of 'professional' means the use of specialized knowledge and skills for the benefit of the > 7 . society'. The architect is expected to have the knowledge Ill and skills concerning how buildings and spaces are planned and constructed and also of what is appropriate historically, functionally and aesthetically. How can the architect provide the best professional service to the society? For the socially responsible architect, the practise of architecture meant more than working for and satisfying the wishes of the clients who controlled the financing. In the case of the CDC's, it meant working for the user and the community. By providing a method for the user and for those in the neighbourhood affected by the project, to participate in the process, the architect was fulfilling part of his professional obligation. The services of the profession of architecture although not part of recognized basic rights such as with jurisprudence, the right to legal counsel, and in some countries, the right to medicine and primary health care, should be available to those who need them. This goes to the heart of the question of democratization of the environment. Should only those who can afford it be allowed the services of the design professional? In the exercise of the right of the individual to participate in the physical environment, the services of the design professional are necessary. The Community Design Centre brought professional services to those who could not afford it. 112 If the architectural practitioner has a social responsibility to the democratization of the environment and to the community, then part of his training must include the experience of working within the community. The third conviction, then, of the CDC's was that: PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN ARCHITECTURE MUST INCLUDE WORK IN THE COMMUNITY, WITH THE UNIVERSITY, THE PROFESSION AND THE COMMUNITY WORKING TOGETHER ON REAL ISSUES. Architectural education involves several years of formal learning including technical study and the development of creative and artistic talents. Within the program of the professional degree, along with abstract problems that illustrate and teach the technical and creative concepts of structure, form and space design, study must be a linked to the real problems of society. The success of the professional in working within the community for the user at a grass roots level, depends also on attitude and social/communication skills. This experience is rarely available in a traditional classroom or tutorial setting. The CDC's provided a vehicle for students and professionals in training usually at the most energetic and idealistic time in their careers to work within the communities. The Universities, recognizing the value of this experience, often funded these Centers which in essence became urban laboratories. This was important to creating socially 113 responsible architects with experience working with all economic classes. THE PRINCIPLES AND THE VANCOUVER UDC That the UDC followed these principles is illustrated by the projects, clientele and methods used throughout its 6 years of operation. In order to exercise the right to an active role in the development of the environment, the user must have access to certain information and technical expertise. The UDC's aimed at fulfilling its professional responsibility to facilitate this involvement with its projects focused on providing service to groups and individuals unlikely to have this access through traditional means due mainly to lack of funds and/or organization. Although the UDC did not restrict itself to poor or low income clients, it did target this group by providing free services. Clients, who were in most cases the user group, included tenant, special needs and neighbourhood organizations, non-profit and co-operative housing societies, and daycare groups. Work for the most part concentrated on the 'front end' part of a project, the understanding, developing, organizing and presenting of users' program requirements and desired solutions. 114 The UDC's methods were based on user participation in all phases of the project, providing information and technical expertise to allow the user clients to determine for themselves the solution or resolution to a problem. Throughout its seven years of practise, the participation of those affected by the project was always paramount. The Urban Design Centre fulfilled its contractual agreement with CMHC, to examine environmental needs in renewal areas and assist residents with their participation, to provide a workshop to bridge the academic-community gap, and to provide an advisory service for low-income families. It drew together the profession, the educational institution and the community to work towards common goals. The UDC's impressive body of work, itself, is a testament to its success. What were some of the legacies and achievements of the Urban Design Centre? Legacies The work of the Urban Design Centres resulted in a number of effects on the Profession, the University, and the Community: The Architectural Institute of British Columbia, by being one of the three sponsoring agencies supported the Urban 115 Design Centre. It also provided an outlet for socially minded professionals to become directly involved with the community through volunteer work within the profession. Several architects served on the Board of Directors, and some did volunteer work at the Centre although the AIBC did not support the UDC financially as was the case with the AIA and some state professional organizations. The AIBC however, did jointly sponsor and produce with the UDC the Home Show Booth, which was well received by the attending public and illustrated the need for such a service. The Saturday Morning Advisory service provided through the AIBC offices was initiated and is still in operation twenty years later, providing free information to the general public. The School of Architecture, under the direction of Henry Elder was developing unique methods of education in an attempt to expand the bounds of imagination and creativity in the student.^ The Urban Design Center was one of the first of several experimental activities. The School continues to create 'urban laboratory' situations within the professional degree curriculum. These include in situ ateliers, The Introductory Workshop usually conducted within a community on a project designed around a specific community concern, and the Studies Abroad Program. The tutorials of the Urban Design Centre were an early part of the tradition of taking training outside the classroom. 116 Figure 17&18 Ray-Cam Schematic Design 117 118 Figure 19 Pine Street Clinic Floor Plan 119 Some of the UDC's design work that was constructed, is still in existence today, such as the RayCam Community Centre and the Pine Street Clinic; much of it such as the playlots, community upgrading plans and daycare proposals were built and have since been rebuilt or changed. Some of this work served as the beginnings of projects that continued to evolve for example the work with the handicapped associations. Perhaps, however, the most lasting effect of the UDC within the community was with the careers of students that have been influenced by their experience at the UDC. For example, Ron Yuen continues to use a 'gaming' method of user participation in his design of low-cost housing. His successful architectural practise has completed several social housing projects, especially in the Downtown Eastside. This work is a direct outgrowth of his work with the UDC. Similarly, Doug Campbell and Tom Moore, in their practise in Victoria which grew of an association formed during the UDC Deep Cove project, use the patterns and participation methods first developed through the UDCX^. Charles Rief has continued with daycare design work, and Jim LeMaistre went on to administrate the Neighbourhood Improvement Program in Crescent Beach and Bridgeview in Surrey and several Local Area Planning programs in the area. He continues as a planner for the Municipality of Delta. Nette Pereboom worked for CMHC as a housing advocate and after becoming registered as an architect, she continued study in construction law and presently acts as legal 120 counsel for several architects, co-ops and low-income housing societies. Monty Wood continued to work with the handicapped group home programs. Each of these people attest to the profound influence the The Urban Design Centre experience had on their professional attitudes, practise and lives. Although not a direct legacy solely of the Urban Design Centre, the service that it provided within the community was instrumental in formulating planning process patterns that have continued. Communities were calling for more participation and the UDC provided expertise and personpower to help organize and lobby this demand. Local Area Planning became a standard process of Vancouver city planning. The UDC helped citizens propose and implement alternatives to urban removal in the urban renewal process, making it possible, for instance, for neighbourhood groups to plan and execute their own park and recreation facilities plans and programs. It helped the community formulate the opposition to the freeway systems through the downtown core and connector neighbourhoods. The UDC was instrumental in initiating the idea of group home living for handicapped persons, criteria for daycare facilities, and with for example, The Layman's Home Improvement Guide, an education service for the lay public. It illustrated the value in consultation and participation of people whose lives are affected by changes, but who do not pay for them. The Urban 121 Design Centre exhibited the need for such services and once the community recognized it, other resource groups, such as the Terra Housing Consultants Ltd. which now develops non profit housing in Vancouver, sprang up to fill the need illustrated by the UDC. The Urban Design Centre completed many successful projects, seemed to fulfilled its objectives, lived up to its philosophies. Its participants still believe in its founding principles. Why then, did it close its doors? A Natural Cycle At its inception, the Urban Design Centre was formed in response to the need of the low income community that was being served by the VISP social services project active in the neighbourhood at the time. The Vancouver Inner-City Service Project required architectural services, to assist its low-income clients in having a voice in the changes that were occurring to their physical environment, through urban renewal and redevelopment. The UDC evolved from part of the Vancouver Inner City Service Project to a separate Society with a storefront office, and at its close had become a workers co-operative, with the Board of Directors and the staff one and the same. 122 This evolution was due to a number of factors. Although the original client base was established through the VISP, by the time VISP ceased in September of 1972 and the UDC had moved to its own storefront location, the UDC had an extensive and diverse project list (See Appendix Four). At this point, UDC's review of work and goals revealed a wide range of projects and expectations requiring skills and expertise that included community organization, action facilitating, lobbying; architectural programming, schematic and working drawings; and planning analysis, research compilation and report writing. Many projects such as the Paraplegic Group Homes and the Adanac Planning required extended involvement over several years. The UDC was forced to evolve. The long term commitment and the type of expertise required often went beyond the ability of student labour in 3 month tutorials to provide. The purposes of architectural education for both faculty and student by necessity were secondary to the UDC projects. Student involvement through the University lessened 1973, although students often continued as employees after their school term. Consideration was given to expanding the work of the UDC to include a more complete architectural service by attempting to incorporate liability coverage through the University of British Columbia. This was refused, and it seemed unlikely that students would gain experience directed 123 to more traditional architectural services through the UDC model. This change in student involvement along with the desire of the older staff to earn more money than was available through the funding structure of the UDC, resulted in the final change. Around the time when the School of Architecture official involvement ceased and both Ron Yuen and Tony Green resigned and the UDC shifted directions under the leadership of Jim LeMaistre, to primarily a planning service, with the architectural component secondary . At this time, although still receiving core funding from CMHC, the UDC became a workers co-op. The formation of the Urban Design Center was, as were the CDC's throughout North America, very much a product of the political, economic and social climate of the late 1960's. The political mood for social reform was ripe; specific civic planning problems such as urban renewal and freeway invasions were arousing public interest in participation; the growing problems of housing shortages and poverty conditions were becoming too obvious to ignore; unemployment even among young professionals was high; and, the citizens had an increasing distrust of the architectural and planning professional elite. It was a time for action, a conviction that was shared simultaneously by the Profession, the University and the Community. The 124 governments, in an effort to find solutions to the civic unrest, supported action by funding participation programs such as VISP and UDC. The Urban Design Centre was a project designed to address these issues. The work of the Centre reached a peak about the third year of operation. By this time some of the early projects were completed and the original issues had more or less been addressed. The freeway plans had been postponed; the urban renewal schemes had been changed to neighbourhood improvement policies; Local Area Planning was introduced, and the employment situation had improved. Issues of housing shortages and accessibility were being addressed by the new co-operative and non-profit government housing funding initiatives. The Urban Design Centre's projects moved to other issues such as child care facility design. The Urban Design Centre's energies initially came from the community's participation desire that was a reaction to the frustration of having no real input into community planning. As this frustration was alleviated and the fight for the process turned into the actual process itself, the hard work of community participation began. The UDC found itself in a position of offering services that competed more and more with traditional planning and architectural firms, for example, the Orchard Park project. At this point, with the immediate goals for the most part accomplished, and the 125 conditions and needs changing, the natural cycle would be to either finish or radically change. The nature of the Urban Design Centre, its history, is players, and its projects led to a natural, though not painless, end. What were the specific factors and influences that affected the Urban Design Centre's close? The role of the Profession The AIBC became publicly involved with the protests of the late 1960's against the freeway planning, and supported the formation of the Urban Design Centre. This support and interest was similar to that of the AIA in the United States, however, unlike the AIA, did not include funding and did not remain strong. The AIA Urban Planning and Design Committee presently represents the AIA's CDC's concerns^ and still supports over 60 CDC's. Without the backing of the profession, the appeal of the Urban Design Centre was further limited to a special type of aspirant whose interest tended more towards social/political issues than to the traditional architectural pursuits. 126 RECYCLING THE PROFESSION -1965 - 1971 Figure 20 Recycling the Profession 1965-1971 127 The role of the University The late sixties and early seventies saw a time of opportunity for academic support of intervention in community issues. The civic government had a brief change from the traditional Non-Partisan Party dominance with the election of The Elector's Action Movement (TEAM) aldermen, a number of whom were academic prof essionalsx^. By 1978, perhaps as with the UDC, because the impact had been made and the original purposes achieved, many of these aldermen left Council, and the NPA regained control. Having won some battles, the University seemed to retreat to its position of academic and apolitical overview and theoretical activity. By the mid 1970's, student interest in the Urban Design Centre's kind of practical experience was far overshadowed by the interest in working in a traditional architectural office. As the issues of the 1960's became less dominant, student and faculty interest also dropped. It was felt that the training for the student could be more carefully supervised and directed with other Tutorial models. By 1974, as University spending was tightened, support for a teaching assistantship was withdrawn and with that the credit for work stopped. This was a major change for the Urban Design Centre in staff and funding. 128 Personal rewards Students became involved with the Urban Design Centre for many reasons. Some wanted a break from the regular routine of school; some wanted more drawing and design work than they were getting at school; some wanted to build up architectural basic skills; some were totally disenchanted with the 'system' and wanted to finish school away from school; some saw it as a stepping stone in an architectural career, and some wanted to work with real people on real projects. Most, however, wanted to improve the situation of those less fortunate, through the practise of their chosen profession. With this would come a certain amount of personal reward. Whatever the reasons, they often discovered that they were unprepared for the work involved. It is difficult to develop skills and at the same time be expected by the client to be an 'expert' at these skills. The clients did not differentiate between student and staff, but usually referred to the UDC representatives as the 'architects'. This lack of experience often led to frustration. From the project reports and notes, the idealism and naivety of the early days is very evident. The poor and underprivileged were seen as special and somehow better and the notion of citizen participation was noble cause. Imagine the feelings 129 of discouragement and even betrayal, when it was found that these clients were as political and manipulative as any client group. This was the case with the Skeena project. This kind of community action and organizing work was time consuming, often frustrating, somewhat frightening, and almost always underfinanced. Rewards had to include those of a personal and altruistic nature. If there is a feeling that progress is not being made, then this personal satisfaction will suffer. Unfortunately, progress could not always be measured in concrete terms as projects often did not go further than the planning stages. In addition, projects often continued after the student had left the UDC. Some students felt that they had been ill-prepared both for the work within the UDC or in a more traditional office. While the experience was beneficial, the personal rewards were not always experienced. To successfully maintain a practise such as that of the Urban Design Centre, a clear vision of objectives and philosophies is required and by nature involves a commitment to certain ideals. Often this vision is wrapped up with the commitment and personality of a few people who become key to the survival of the group. The UDC clearly is a case in point. The interest and energy of the founding participants became more complex, the UDC struggled for direction. Student involvement while providing a source of semi-130 experienced personpower, does not lend itself to the continuity. Consistent clarity of purpose and direction is required to allow the leaders to change and yet have the function remain consistent. Lifespan Although the Urban Design Center saw itself as a proactive group, it was formed as a reaction to specific conditions of the time and as such had a natural, finite lifespan. Funding was a key issue. Core funding was provided by CMHC, and as perceived needs changed, and as governments and political agendas changed, this funding was stopped. CDC's in other places, however, continued to evolve, focusing more on entrepreneurial directions relying less on government and foundation monies-1- . It would seem that if the need is strong enough to direct an evolutionary change, then the energy and impetus will be there to make that change. If on the other hand circumstances for all parties involved become more complex and diverse, or are more or less resolved, an evolution can not be forced. Maintaining the CDC model required a commitment to a common goal by the three partners, the profession, the professional education institution, and the community. This was a fragile alliance at best. Each had its own agenda and 131 reason for existence. The nature of CDC advocacy work required a great deal of time and effort. When the momentum of work generated began to overshadow the expectations and aims of the separate parts, the parts withdrew support. At this point, a self-sustaining entity would have to have been formed or a natural death would occur. The Urban Design Center believed that planning of the environment should involve each member of the society. It provided a vehicle to harness young idealism and enthusiasm in the work of combatting urban problems. It brought together the University, the Profession and the community to work toward common goals. It was a way for the socially minded architect to practise advocacy architecture. The demise of the UDC cannot be seen as a failure of the model to follow its principles and fulfill its objectives but as an indication that the original objectives were met. The three basic principles found in this study are still important today. Problems of the urban poor especially in housing inadequacy, of participatory planning, of making professional architectural and planning services available to those who are disenfranchized through the lack of those services have not been eliminated. Perhaps an opportunity for the profession, the university and community to work together in a way similar to that of the Urban Design Centre of the 1970's will be part of the 1990's. 132 1. Based on the Guidelines for Community Design Centers, The American Institute of Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969 and the American Institute of Architect's bulletin, A Bulletin Published by the American Institute of Architects Concerning the Advocacy Planning and Community Design Centers, circa 1969. Copies found in the UDC files, City of Vancouver Archives. Much of the UDC's original funding proposal was taken directly from these papers. 2. An example of this can be seen in the traditional village organization and building on the island of Bali. The male comes of age at the birth of his first child. One of the responsibilities of this 'coming of age' is participation in the direction and the continuation of the traditions community. This includes design traditions, village planning and changes to do with the modern society. This right/responsibility was passed on from generation to generation, along with strong traditions guiding its process, form and function. - interview, Oct 1987, with Robi Sularto, architect in Bali. 3. For example, charging for copies of studies on which decisions are based. If one is poor, this is an obstacle. 4. Barker 1970, op. cit. 5. Dean 1989, op. cit. 6. Hayden, D., from a lecture given at the Chinese Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China., 1980. Social Responsibility and the American Landscape: Notes on Advocacy Architecture, Advocacy Planning, Environmental Psychology , Environmental History and Environmental Design 7. Reeck, Darrell, Ethics for the Professions, Augsburg Press, Minneapolis, 1982. See Hughes, E.C., Men and Their Work, The Free Press, Glencoe, 111., 1958, for a broader discussion of the professions. 8. In The American Institute of Architects Policy Regarding Community Design Centers, Appendix B, taken from the The Association for Community Design, Inc., Operations and Policy Manual, 1989, states that: 133 'The AIA supports Community Design Centers and encourages members and components to do community service using Community Design Centers as a vehicle. 'The AIA's formal involvement and policy on community design centers was an outgrowth of the 1969 convention resolution supporting CDC's and establishing the Task Force on Professional Responsibility to Society. One of the task force programs approved and funded by the AIA Board was the program to assist CDC's and encourage creation of new Centers. 9. From an interview with Henry Elder, 10. Campbell and Moore did a joint graduating thesis, in April of 1972, called, Designing For Themselves, which involved two groups of high school students designing their own schools. 11. ACD Operations and Policy Manual, op. cit. 12. Some TEAM legacies include the Granville Mall and traffic barriers in the West End, and the False Creek south housing project in an effort to 'scrap the old NPA policy of growth for growth's sake which led to black towers and concrete ... to development that must enhance our natural setting' -Morley, Alan, Vancouver From Milltown to Metropolis, Mitchell Press, Vancouver, 1974 p. 246 13. Comerio, Mary, 'Community Design: Idealism and Entrepreneurship', Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 1984 Vol. 1 APPENDIX ONE 134 COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTER PROJECTS (October, 1969 to present) CENTRAL CITY 1. Hospitality House, Remodeling for expanded facilities. Design, working drawings and contract negotiations. Completed. CHINATOWN 1. International Hotel. Technical assistance to United Filipino Association for renovation and management of hotel. Completed. 2. Proposed sites for mini-park program to submit to S.F. Recreation and Park Department. 3. Asian Housing Area Development. A non-profit housing development corporation. AHAD has selected attorney, housing consultant and architect for their first Section 236 project, rehabilitation of a 42-unit apartment house. On-going. 4. Child Care Center. Feasibility study and cost estimates completed. 5. Furniture prototypes designed and built. On display at Chinatown Field Office. Instruction handbook on how to make furniture will be ready for distribution in December. 6. Utilizing the Neighborhood Summer Youth Program, selected furniture designs were used by the Chinatown-North Beach Youth Council to make furniture for the Council's use. 7. Open space design for Ping Yuen Public Housing project. Coordinated activities with Chinatown-North Beach Youth Council, Better Parks and Recreation Committee in China town, and the San Francisco Housing Authority. 8. Redesign of Chinese Playground for Better Parks and Recreation Committee in Chinatown. 9. Assisting tenants who have been displaced by Code Enforce ment to find new housing; disseminating information to tenants on City's rent supplement program. 10. CCDC, together with clients of Self-Help for the Elderly, are working with family associations in Chinatown to secure suitable units for the San Francisco Housing Authority's Section 23 program. -1-HAIGHT-FILLMORE 1. Housing Survey for Harriet Tubman Community Educational Project. 2. Duboce Park. Worked with residents to improve park facilities. 3. Sacred Heart Church. Feasibility study for rehabilitation of 6 apartment units for purchase by tenants. HUNTERS POINT 1. Training program for citizen participation in Model Cities program. MISSION DISTRICT 1. Proposed sites for mini-park program for submission to S.F. Recreation and Park Department. 2. Office renovations for Horizons Unlimited. 3. Street improvements for Utah Block Association. 4. Model Cities' Planning Training Workshops for the Mission Coalition's Planning Committee. 5. Kitchen remodeling for Centro Latino breakfast program. SOUTH OF MARKET 1. Assisted Ad Hoc community coalition in South of Market area to find mini-park sites. 2. Housing and tenant surveys in Yerba Buena project area for T.O.O.R. 3. Long-range neighborhood planning for South of Market community groups. 4. A plan for 2,000 units of new and rehabilitated housing and community facilities for T.O.O.R. WESTERN ADDITION 1. Design and plan of offices for W.A.P.A.C. 2. Design and plan of offices for W.A.Y. WESTERN ADDITION (CONT'D) 3. Remodeling for Watoto Wausi Nursery School. 4. Planning Conmunlty Development'Training Program for-W.A-P.ACC. 5. Audrey L. Smith Day Care Center. Consulting with client on construction costs for new day care center. GENERAL 1. Staff participation on The Citizen's Housing Task Force for the Workable Program. 2. A.I.A. Task Force. 3. Fort Funston Re-Use (recreation) for Pacific Recreation, Inc. 4. Feasibility study for renovation of Senior Citizen's Center in Golden Gate Park. 5. Housing development & feasibility study for San Francisco State Married Students. 6. Designed and constructed display panels and decor for Council on Foundations, Inc. RESEARCH 1. South of Market Area Planning Bulletin. 2. Haight-Ashbury Field Team. 3. Census Data Gathering. 4. Rent Surtax Proposal for funding low cost housing. 5. Survey of Public Housing in San Francisco. TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 137 APPENDIX TWO 1925 Process Town Planning Commission established 1927 Plan onstruction 1946 Report 1947 Plan The Bartholemew Plan adopted by Vancouver City Council in 1928 First look at consolidation of traffic onto major arterial routes. Lions t Gate Bridge constructed. Bartholemew, Hasland & Associates A Preliminary Report on Transit The Bartholemew Plan revisited 1951 Report 1952 Report September: 1953 1954 July: November: Report Prov, 1955 June: Bland and Spence Sales Report: recommendations to establish Planning Department Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning established W.A.C. Bennett Govtt. elected. Hon. Phillip A. Gaglardi becomes Highways Minister First Narrows Bridge Company states that it is prepared to build a second bridge parallel to the existing Lions Gate Bridge. Cost $12 million. Committee on Burrard Inlet Crossings established with representation from Citj- of Vancouver, District of North Van., District of West Van., First Narrows Bridge Co. (owners of Lions Gate Bridge) & the Burrard Inlet Bridge & Tunnel Company (Second Narrows railroad combination bridge) Planning Department established Government announces that it is likely that the government, not the Bridge Co. will build the new bridge. Cost $20 million. Report on the Burrard Inlet Crossings Municipal: A report on Burrard Inle Crossings: Technical Committee of Committee on Burrard Inlet Crossings: recommended building of 2 new bridges by 1976 A Study on Highway Planning for Metropolitan Vancouver, March; by the Technical Committee for MHPC Premier Bennett announces that a bridge at Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium Study 1956 Construction Design Study 1958 Study 1959 Plans Study Plan Report Second Narrows will be built before a second one at First Narrows. West Vancouverites continue to push for a new bridge at First Narrows. Fraser River Crossings Study, by Tech. Com. for Metropolitan Highway Planning, commissioned by the B.C. Minister of Public Works, the City of Vancouver, North and West Vancouver, and Burnaby. Province purchases Lions Gate Bridge The Oak Street Bridge Province hires Swan Wooster to design a new four lane bridge at Second Narrows. Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning Surveys commissions: A Study on Highway Planning for the Metropolitan Area of the Lower Mainland of B.C. Deas Island Tunnel Public meeting in West Vancouver. Phil Gaglardi promises to recommend immediate start on Engineering plan for new First Narrows Crossing. A Study on Highway Planning Part 2, for the Metropolitan Freeways Committee with Rapid Transit, prepared by the Technical Committee. Recommended more lanes at First Narrows and was against a waterfront route for GBD distributor for outer route. The Second Narrows Bridge was constructed The Sutton-Brown Plan Freeways with Rapid Transit - A Study on Highway Planning, final report of seven submitted from '58-59 ttransportation deficiencies could only be solved efficiently and practically by construction an entirely separate system of high speed facilities called freeways. This was the basis for studies to 1972 Rapid Transit Plan Report prepared by the Foundation of Canadian Engineering Corporation Ltd. (FENCO) for special committee appointed by the Premier stated that the New First Narrows Crossing would be needed in the near future. Preference given to Brockton Point location. Ten days after FENCO report on new First Narrows Crossing stating a $40 million cost, Bennett and Gaglardi says that the new bridge is not needed until 1968. 1960 Upper Levels Highway through the North Shore constructed. rRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Qrbanarium 1961 1962 139 December: Freeway to the United States Border Annacis Island Bridge Port Mann Bridge W.E.P. Duncan & BC Research Council is commissioned by B.C. Dept. of Highways for study, Rail Rapid Transit for Metropolitan Vancouver. Study tended to reinforce the freeway concept because it did not see rail as attracting more passenger that buses & therefore would still require freeways. Projected that there was no need until 1980. Idea was not looked at again until 1970ts. FENCO proposes that a new bridge could be built with private financing for $50 million to be recovered through a toll. Province was not interested. 1963 Burnaby Freeway January: Phil Gaglardi announces that the province will pay one third of the cost on new highways and bridge in the Vancouver Metro Area. Larry Smith & Associate, Real Estate Consultants, Seattle, Wash.: An Economic Analysis for Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One Preliminary Report, for the City of Vancouver, recommended freeways through GBD to encourage revitalization & growth. Proposal Christiani & Nielson of Canada: Burrard Inlet Tunnel Crossing: a Comprehensive Proposal, for handling traffic across the Burrard Inlet. Wilbur Smith - Standford Research Institute Review of Transportation Plans commissioned by the Dept. of Highways & City of Vancouver, reinforced the need for freeways. First plan in many years to be presented to public. Public meeting in Q.E. Theatre. Report Redevelopment In Downtown Vancouver, Report No. 5, July 1964. 1964 Plan lan; 1965 January; Phillips, Barrett and Partners and Wilbur mith and Associated, Study Sea Island Access Study Plan Downtown core Plan: Project 200 favoured Burrard inlet waterfront route for freeway. Report Provincial Gov't, commissions FENCO to prepare report on best location, size, & type of crossing for First Narrows. TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 140 1966 Report July: Report January 17: 1967 January 17: October: November: December 7: Trans-Canada Highway route through metropolitan Vancouver and Burrard Inlet Crossing Bennett kills latest Third Crossing Scheme as too expensive, cost $109 million (after much political wrangling) Burrard Inlet Crossing Evaluation, June; Final report from FENCO recommending 8 lane bridge at Brockton Point connecting to a GBD waterfront expressway. N.D. Lea report to the Minister of Highways evaluation of 15 alternative schemes. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Schemes for the First Narrows Crossing. Board of Administration, City of Vancouver Report to Chairman and Members of Civic Development Committee, Georgia Viaduct Replacement, A Recommendation. Joint Technical Committee of the Intermunicipal Committee, Report on Burrard Inlet Crossing, review of FENCO and N.D. Lea Reports considered two crossing schemes: 1. A 6 lane bridge parallel to the Lions Gate Bridge at Prospect Point 2. A 6 lane tunnel at Brockton Point: recommended the tunnel with a waterfront distributor bypass. More political wrangling between the municipal, provincial and federal governments over who should pay how much for a third crossing. Federal Government accepted financial responsibility for Burrard Inlet Crossing. Authority delegated to National Harbours Board. Vancouver Transportation Study, submitted to City Council during a public hearing. Recommendations adopted by City Council including a freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown. Second Public information meeting on Vancouver Transit Studies. More than 27 organizations submitted formal briefs. Most opposed the freeway alignment through Gastown & Chinatown. Transport conclusions accepted in principle. Vancouver Transportation Studies Public Meeting at Eric Hamber Secondary School. 800 seat hall Filled to capacity. Vancouver Tomorrow Group formed to discuss citizen participation in urban issues. PRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium 1966 - 1970 1968 January: 141 Study February: March; Summer: June: June: August: San Francisco Freeway Revolt halts construction of Embarcadero Freeway. City Council rescinded its motion to adopt the VTS recommendations and authorized further study, see quote from Board of Administration ????? Parsons, Brinkerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Vancouver Transportation Study, commissioned in August 1966: to integrate the planned Georgia Viaduct replacement with the proposed freeway system and to connect this up with the Burrard Inlet Crossing at Brockton Point. TEAM formed (The Electors Action Movement) ten months before the next civic election. Many of the people actively involved in opposing the freeway join TEAM and in December Walter Hardwick is elected to City Council. Vancouver Tomorrow Conference held. Vancouver Tomorrow joins with others to form Citizens Council on Civic Development. N.D. Lea for B.C. Dept. of Highways report on the Transcanada Highway Cassiar Street Link, concluded that a properly designed freeway solution which could connect to the Vancouver Freeway system was the best alternative. Phillips, Barrett, Hillier, Jones and Partners, Georgia Viaduct Replacement Preliminary Engineering Report Vancouver Part 1; The Issues (???????) N.D. Lea: An Appraisal for the City of Vancouver of Transportation Systems & Routes connecting the Brockton Point Crossing to Provincial Highways 401 & 499. Conclusions accepted in principle by Vancouver Cit)' Council. Project 200: Vancouver Waterfront Development, Grosvenor Liang National Harbours Board commissioned the consortium of Swan Wooster, GBA to act as consultant for preparing engineering designs for the third crossing. 1969 Transportation and Planning in the City Core Area, Feb., 1969 Citizens Council of Civic Development (CCDC, formerly the Vancouver Tomorrow Group); Burrard Inlet Crossing Vancouver Approaches Brief presented Vancouver City Council. Swan Wooster - GBA reports submitted to municipalities, Notes on the Burrard Inlet nRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium 142 1970 March: September: October: 1971 February: December: 1972 January: March 15: March 17: September: Crossing Project, City of Vancouver Approache Final Examination of Alternative Alignments, March 21 & North Shore Approaches, Final Examination of Alternatives, February Swann Wooster Eng. Co., Burrard Inlet Crossing Project: City of Vancouver Approaches, summary of the final examination of alternative alignments presented to CityCouncil. Swan Wooster Eng. Co., The Burrard Inlet Crossing - A report to the National Harbours Board ND Lea & Associated, Transit Travel in the Year 2000 in Metro Vancouver, for the BC Dept. of Highways: called for both rapid transit & development of the Freeway Network DeLeuw Cather of Canada, Greater Vancouver Area Rapid Transit Study for Greater Vancouver Regional District. Board of Trade Transportation think-in entitled "How Will Vancouver Move?". proposals for widening Point Grey Road turned down by Vancouver City Council. CCCD sponsored a citizens forum called "The Case for and against that Third Crossing of Burrard Inlet." Vancouver City Council votes 6 to 5 for Vancouver participation in the Third Crossing. Also voted not to hold plebiscite on the issue and not to hold a public meeting hearing despite formal requests by 16 community groups and organizations. Knight Street Bridge New Georgia Viaduct opened Citizens Co-ordinating Committee for Public Transit sponsored public meetings at the QE Playhouse to discuss the issue of plebiscite on the Third Crossing. 800 seat theatre filled to capacity Public Hearing in Vancouver on Third Crossing at Eric Hamber School. 60 briefs submitted, most against Third Crossing. Special Council Meeting on the Third Crossing NDP elected and withdraws from $200 mil.Third Crossing Project W.H. McCreerj'; A Rapid Transit Crossing for Burrard Inlet S. Muilreheim (This writing is totally TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 143 1973 1974 1976 1978 1980 1981 1983 197? 1984 1985 illegible), Feasibility Study of Ferry Mass Transit Across Burrard Inlet. T.E. Parkinson: A Preliminary Study of Light Rapid Transit in Vancouver, B.C. Wilbur Smith & Associates: Downtown Transit Concepts GVRD Transportation and Transmission of Diseases Committee: Transportation for a Livable Region: Report of the Committee Waterfront Planning Study: Stage 1,2,3,4 Warnett Kennedy, Vancouver Tomorrow A Search for Greatness Arthur Erickson Architects; Granville Waterfront Interchange: a Planning Study for • the downtown Vancouver transportation terminal BC Bureau of Transit Services: Draft memorandum on transit service planning to compliment the downtown peninsula plans of the City of Vancouver. Vancouver Engineering Department Report on Transportation GVRD Rapid Transit Projectl979-81 Report GVRD Transit Staff Group: Greater Vancouver Transit System: Directions for transit in the 19801s a Conceptual Plan Marathon Realty Co., Waterfront Center, Vancouver Urban Transit Monstrosity (Your writing is the shits): Proposal for the integrated committee transit system for the lower mainland. Vancouver City Manager: An overall Planning context for ALRT development Urban Transit Authority: Advances light Rapid Transit: the system for Greater Vancouver Automated Light Rapid Transit and Regional Transportation in the GVRD 1986-1976 Seabus BC Place Development Plan Cambie Street Bridge Pacific Blvd completed for Expo ALRT constructed for Expo 86 1986 Fraser Bridge completed Burrard Street Viaduct and waterfront road Alberni Street connector Cassiar Street Connector Main St. Viaduct 145 APPENDIX THREE UDC CHRONOLOGY 1967 Summer - Vancouver Inner-City Service Project (VISP) begins - 'the summer of action'. 1969 Winter - Dino Rapanos attends conference on Community Design Centers in Berkeley. Decides to initiate one in Vancouver. 1970 Spring - Vancouver Inner-city Service Project applies to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) to fund a Community Design Centre. 1970 Summer - Ron Yuen hired by the Vancouver Inner City Service Project to add a design component to the services offered. 1970 Fall - Urban Design Centre applies for funding and sets up office at 1895 Venables St. Ron Yuen designated as Director, and Tony Green as Assistant Director. This is finalized when funding is secured. First Urban Design Centre School of Architecture tutorial offered led by Prof. Dino Rapanos with Ron Yuen as teaching assistant and Tom Moore as the first student. 1970 Dec. - Agreement signed for $50,000, representing 2 years UDC funding from CMHC, under Section 32 (g) of the National Housing Act 1954. 1971 Feb. - Urban Design Centre/AIBC Clinic booth at the Home Show 1971 Spring - 7 tutorial students New Living Development, non profit housing society organized. 1971 Summer - 4 students hired 1971 Fall - 4 tutorial students 1972 Spring - 6 tutorial students and 8 people funded by the Local Initiatives Program (LIP) 1972 Summer - 8 LIP July - UDC becomes a non-profit society. 1972 Sept - Vancouver Inner City Service Project stops 146 UDC moves to 1111 Commercial Drive. UDC workshop to examine goals and future. 3 students, 1 summer worker, and 8 LIP UDC secures interim core funding. 1973 Spring -1973 July - Tony Green becomes Director. Green had been with the UDC as Assistant Director since Jan 71 and resigns Jan 74. 197 3 Fall - Urban Design Tutorial offered with Donald Gutstein as fculty for the School of Architecture. 6 students participate. 1973 Oct - Funding received from CMHC $15,300 for 6 months 1973 Dec - Ron Yuen and Tony Green resign from the UDC. 1974 Jan - Jim LeMaistre becomes Director. LeMaistre had been with the UDC since the fall '71. Last School of Architecture UDC tutorial offered. 2 students. 1974 Sept - Core funding received from CMHC $24,000 under the Part V, Section 36(g) Community Resource Organization Program. 1975 Sept - CMHC core funding stops. UDC becomes self-sufficient following the worker's co-op model. 1976 Oct UDC office closes. 147 APPENDIX FOUR UDC PROJECTS 1970 Skeena Terrace Community Centre First Project Approached by one individual. Had to organize client group. Ran into representative problems. First project using patterns to participatory design to develop program and physical needs. Project became political as it solidified and eventually was taken over by the civic government departments. UDC took on a facilitating role. Organized and led meetings, did some small spin-off projects, 'paint-ins', office plans, furniture design, fun-fair. Inter-Institutional Policy Simulator - HPS Computer model of Vancouver. Made contact as it was felt it would effect Local Planning. No particular project came from this. Inner-City Hostel 199 6th Ave. & 2196 Columbia Design Drawings 1971 Crises Centre Program for requirements for larger premises. Prepared program and design drawings for at least 2 locations but property was never secured. Spin-off of office design. Problem with client not taking services of UDC seriously and made continual change requests. Kitsilano Info Centre Kits Area Council Neighbourhood Services. Fix up facade to make centre more identifiable. Inner-City Services Project - new office Offices of UDC and other VISP groups. Preparation for reorganization and change of VISP project to a collection of independent services. This participated UDC move to 1111 Commercial St. 148 RayCam Recreation Community Centre -Programming, Participatory design leading to Schematic Design drawings. Project eventually built and is still in use today. Richmond Playlot Design/build of outdoor play area. Participatory design process with organized community. Activity Centre Stride Ave. Public Housing Clarified Program and organization. No architectural work was required from UDC. ATTACK: Project Reaching Out Adventure Playlot - advise on site preparation and preliminary design Little Mountain Playlot Design/build of playlot. 50 teens were organized and paid to build this. Deep Cove - development was put on hold while the community decided what it wanted. An image file was developed. Tom Moore eventually did some design/build work in the area Home Show Booth Booth to offer free advice concerning building and planning. Very successful, over 110 people served with follow up on some. Precipitated Layman's Home Improvement Guide. Wilson House - renovation Capilano Stadium - Gallery extension of stadium. UDC was responsible for ensuring community needs were met and to advise on space modifications necessary; acted as representative to the various official funding parties. Project not completed due to lack of funds. Strathcona Property Owners & Tenants Association -Kitchener School Playlot - design Metro Council Office - renovation Vancouver Indian Centre 1855 Vine St. Renovations to Centre. Spin-off - Float Design for parade. Community Law Offices - furniture design and office layout. Little Mountain Housing Renovations - renovations of units within housing project. 149 Parker Ave. Daycare - assess suitability of location, costs to renovate, preparation of Building Permit and Development Permit. Client chose another location. West End Social Program - UDC attended meetings and provided a facilitator's role. Helped prepare a brief on a hotel expansion in the area. Became involved when asked to assist in implementing recommendations as a result of the questionnaire. Vancouver Resource Society for the Disabled - Handicapped Housing Group. Helped organize the group home model for handicapped living. Developed participatory design game. Original client not helped, but basic concepts for group homes developed. Indian Offices Building, Merritt, B.C. - renovation 1972 Coast Floating Homes Association & False Creek Community Marina - planning project, promote legitimacy in liveaboards. Produced booklet of plan of marina and information about liveaboards for association. Fraserview Killarney Playground Hum Park - Redesign of playground with organization of mothers who were not satisfied with the proposed city design. Brock Elementary School Playlot - design Manuel House Renovation - wanted renovation. Ignored zoning considerations. Typical recipient of Layman's Home Improvement Guide. MPA Boarding House Renovations - several locations & designs Grandview Elementary Learning Assistance Centre Play Tower Drawings provided. New Living Development Company - incorporated August 1972. Jim and Nancy LeMaistre. Set up to do work for pay in housing development. Was refused core CMHC funding. Formed with staff of UDC and applied for and got some co-op and planning jobs. This company would have evolved into the present housing resource groups if it had continued. 150 Fairview Co-op Land Schemes - Several neighbourhood issues were dealt with. New Living Development Company was involved in organizing to develop housing alternatives for low-income people, and to develop the neighbourhood plan in general. Initial problem defining and proposals. A major report was done resulting in interim controls on redevelopment until an economic feasibility study could be completed. Local Area Planning applied for. Rupert Park Playground - adventure playground designed with neighbourhood committee and children from Begbie School. Village St. Sacrement - feasibility study for the Federation de Franco-Colombiens for a 'village' in a location which is the focus for Vancouver's Francophone population. Vancouver and District Public Housing Tenants Association -office renovation. Project not completed due to lack of funds. Mount Pleasant Info Centre - Floor plan and rough cost estimates. Hastings Townsite Residents' Association - Technical report prepared for Hastings Townsite Resident's Association to oppose an application by Westroc Industries air emissions. Permit was granted despite report and resident opposition. Greater Vancouver Regional District Planning Department -advisory and analysis on decentralization of local government (the Ward System) and Local Area Planning. David Robinson Layman's Home Improvement Guide - Three part booklet for distribution. Permits, Codes and City Hall; Cost of Improvements; Cost of Borrowing. CMHC funding for printing. Excellent product. Project Contact - programming, plan, basic furniture and electrical layout. Third Crossing Burrard Inlet - opposition to the construction of a third crossing of Burrard Inlet and general freeway plans. Newspaper articles, briefs, cost analysis, counter proposals, public meeting presentations. To date, freeway system still not completed. Burrard Food Co-op - Shelving design and floor plan. Drawings to satisfy Health Inspector. Downtown Community Health Clinic - Detox centre. Defining of goals, programming, schematics and building cost estimates, ending in a feasibility study. SPEC - Canadian Scientific and Environmental Control Society - office space proposal and display - mobile unit Community Radio - design of sound room Brant Villas Tenants Association - investigate structural and systems. Prepared report Richmond Drop-In Centre - Richmond United Church proposal for decoration 'peoples purple steeple centre' UBC Acadia Park Daycare - design Grandview United Church Youth Hostel Vancouver Inner City Service Project - offices Manual House - drawings for house extension BC Hydro - UDC proposed a public involvement program to develop structure and process to allow for participation. Adanac Neighbourhood Plan - Planning for housing on vacant land in the area with Hastings Sunrise Action Council with resource assistance from the UDC. Area was divided into two parts, north and south. Developed criteria for homes, including alternatives in construction, financing and recreational facilities which led to an overall plan. Produced booklet with Pattern Language format. A resident's plan for the south part and some principles for Adanac North were adapted. Block 80 Dawson School Site - Area plan locating recreational facilities. Two abandoned school buildings were slated for redevelopment. Sketches of buildings were done to be used by a concerned group of people in search for other cultural and educational groups to use the buildings. 152 1973 Fraserview Info Centre - For report on Community Development possibilities. Drawings for info centre in different locations, one being the Bay Mall. Fraserview/Killarney Champlain Heights Feasibility Study -feasibility on land banking and leasing program. Wheelchair Access to King Edward Gym - design for the Canadian Paraplegic Association 401/Cassiar Street Pedestrian Crosswalk - Traffic count and brief preparation for presentation to City Council to get a safer crossing for at the intersection of Cassiar Street and the 401 Highway. Satisfactory traffic safety devices were installed. Grandview Information Centre - Reorganization of office space and rough estimates. Vancouver Co-operative Radio - urban affairs research and programming community radio. FP18 Project - New Living Development Company Champlain Place; develop housing with Barry Downs OFY Program - office plan. Brant Villas Tenants Association - report on structures, vent, air systems Hastings-Townsite Waterfront Park - booklet produced with schematics. Vernon Downtown Improvement Project - proposal presented. Thunderbird Island - proposal for recreational facility based on participation. Southill Childcare - licensing drawings. Some representation and appeal hearings. Spin-off worked on storefronts of neighbouring buildings. Amore Modular Home Co-operative - New Living Development. Provided organizing, planning and architectural assistance in the development stages. Received a start-up grant of $2000 from CHMC. Burnaby Housing Co-op - Helped set up. Church of Christ Burnaby Daycare Centre - design 153 Mae Gutteridge Workshop/St. James Service - feasibility of converting floors for a hostel. Brian Sakamoto, Sydney Portner. Project carried on for 3 years. Scottlodge - sundeck Vancouver Opportunities Program - office plan Springridge Co-op Association - Victoria - Took a housing resource role. Assisting in the formation of co-op in site planning and feasibility study. Scheme involved moving several houses from one plot of Provincial land in Oak Bay to another plot in the Fernwood neighbourhood. A secondary project which the coop began was a house dismantling scheme with the intention of recycling the materials. Kits House - feasibility; determine program; designs and cost estimates. A Woman's Place - consult on renovations with fire escape. Mental Patients' Association - evaluation and reno drawings for several houses. Cool-Aide - renovation Mount Pleasant Daycare -Design for daycare within prefabricated units (trailer). Child Care Federation - early work with forming the federation of BC and designing early Day Care facilities. Brief prepared critiquing proposed prefabricated design Child Care Design Guidebook - produced comprehensive design and requirements document as a Daycare facility model. Lonsdale Creek Daycare Centre - design West Vancouver Daycare - consultation and schematic design work Squamish Indian Band Playlot - designs for outdoor playlot at daycare centre Maplewood Community Facility - budgeting and design of space. Kitsilano Area Child Care Society - design assistance for prototype for prefabricated building. 154 Pooh Corner Daycare - design of under 3 daycare. 1974 Cat's Meow Daycare - renovation of old house to standards of Health Inspector. North Shore Neighbourhood House - prefabricated building designs for constructing by a high school class. Aldergrove Daycare - detailed drawings for round daycare. Grandview Terrace Daycare Centre - plans, final drawings Trimble Daycare - design temporary structure. Kitchener School Playground - plan design The LeFaux House - drawings for day care licensing Lynn Valley United Church Daycare - schematic design drawings for new structure. Drafting class to be involved. Queens Avenue United Church Neighbourhood Daycare -renovation and rough cost estimates; also playground area and equipment. St. Michael's Daycare - floorplan of existing building for licensing Valley Child Care Committee - design for a circular pre-fab daycare centre B.C. Association of Non-Status Indians - preschool consultation China Creek Park King's Gate Mall Analysis Variety Centre - design 155 Chimo Terrace Recreation Project - Wall Street Neighbourhood Park. The planning and design of recreation facilities on two plots of nearby vacant land and two street ends adjacent to the public housing project. The area was to be used by tenants of the Chimo Terrace housing project and the neighbourhood. Contract was made between the Department of Housing and Chimo Tenants Association to develop the park program and design. UDC helped with the community participation -Opportunities For Youth program funded the building of the park. Women's Health Collective - plan, final drawings Strathcona Community Centre - feasibility expansion study, report, drawings, cost estimates. La Federation Des Franco-Colombiens - office and workshop renovation. Client absconded with funds halfway through and as a result project dragged on for 2 years. Eastend Co-op Storetfront - tenant package Columbia Junior College - report and drawing for improvements on buildings and grounds. Vancouver District Public Housing Tenants Association -briefs and report writing for non-profit society. Work included conducting a workshop for Camp Alexander -Design a Housing Development. Preliminary programming for a Skills Development Facility including job training on the development of the development. Pine Street Clinic - Clinic was running out of a trailer. Renovation for permanent location done. Clinic still in operation. Grandview Woodlands Info Centre - office at 1126 Commercial St.; plans, construction schedule and materials Tribal Village Youth Hostel - Feasibility study on a former warehouse. Development and mortgage applications. Produced handbook. Job passed on to architect. Daycare Design Service Book - Basic Daycare information and a review and commentary on Child Care Design. High quality advisory document. Fairview Residents Association and Community Action Society (FRACAS) - economic feasibility study. Aided community group in its planning needs. Paid by Sussex Group for study. 156 Chilliwack Seniors Housing Project - New Living Development. Site planning and schematic design of duplex for proposal submission. Hastings United Church Daycare - Plans West Point Grey Daycare - design consultation BC Association of Non-Status Indians - drawings and assistance in selection of pre-fabricated unit. The Lefeaux House/Lagoon Drive House Daycare - renovations for licensing. White Rock Preschool - outdoor play area, shed and equipment. Drawings and rough costing. Marpole Daycare (Shannon Daycare Society) - 3 daycare schematic designs. Architect did final drawings. Mandarin Daycare - bidding and budget from inspection report. Burrard Indian Reserve Daycare and Remedial Reading - plans and materials list. Fairview Hodson House Daycare -cost estimate. Civic Employees Daycare - redesign of standard trailer design. Richmond Daycare - adapting existing drawings. Marpole/Oakridge Community Centre/Daycare - renovations Under Three Hastings Sunrise Daycare - preliminary investigations. Columbia Junior College - SP plan Skills Development Complex - SP plan Access to Farrington Court - new access to housing project. Proposal turned down as out of mandate of funding agency. Adanac Housing Co-op - preliminary planning for 160 units. Co-op formed. Through New Living Development. Played role of housing resource group. Architect took over after preliminary work done. Farrington Court - property access; project rejected by CMHC because it did not create new housing, just improved existing housing 157 1975 Coast Foundation Society - renovation drawings to Building Permit Hastings Sunrise Community Resources Board Office - study of building and cost analysis Strathcona Community Resources Board - Feasibility Study -$240 Orchard Park -Report on redesign , upgrading and general improvement. Involved community meetings. Took the form of a newsletter and final 69 page planning report. Community Foundation Society - renovation drawings, paid work Marpole Oakridge Daycare - design REACH Community Health Clinic - report and schematic designs for renovating two buildings for clinic. New School - landscape addition, NIP application 1976 International Society of the Handicapped (ISOTH) - site planning, site evaluation, predesign and preliminary patterns. St. Francis Xavier Church - report on cost and feasibility of waterproofing church. Frog Hollow Info Centre - Playground Uprising Breads - plan Hastings Sunrise Office - plan Sask. Housing Corporation Cooperative Building Booklet - A Guide through the process. Excellent 88 page document. 7th and Kaslo Park - playground/park design Capitol Hill Child Care - playground design Nasaika Coop - produced a pattern book for the co-op APPENDIX FIVE URBAN DESIGN CENTRE Board Members Staff, students & volunteers Inception: BOARD OF PARTICIPANTS David Adair Reg Bickford Nora Curry Darryl Foreman Wolfgang Gerson Roland Hennessey Margaret Mitchell Tom Moore 1970: Fall BOARD OF PARTICIPANTS David Adair Reg Bickford Marie Booth John Chislett Nora Curry Darryl Foreman Wolfgang Gerson Roland Hennessey Margaret Mitchell Tom Moore Dino Rapanos STAFF: Ron Yuen STUDENTS: Tom Moore 1971: BOARD OF PARTICIPANTS Tony Bearman Reg Bickford Marie Booth John Chislett Nora Curry Darryl Foreman Wolfgang Gerson Roland Hennessey Tom Moore Dino Rapanos Ron Walkey STAFF, STUDENTS & VOLUNTEERS: Ron Yuen - Director Tony Green - Assistant Director Jim Booi George Brown Doug Campbell Gordon Davies Carston Jensen Donald Gutstein Brian Hart Terry Hartwig - volunteer Jim LeMaistre John Lewis D.A. Martin Tom Moore Bill Munsie Mo Van Nostrand Chuck Rief - volunteer H. Ross John Saville Gerry Stewart - volunteer Monty Wood 1972 BOARD OF DIRECTOR'S as registered under the Society's Act. David Adair - Sociologist Reg Bickford - architect Nora Curry - Community Development Worker Darryl Foreman - architect Wolfgang Gerson - Professor, School of Architecture Roily Hennesey - Social Worker Tom Moore - Builder Margaret Mitchell - Community Development Worker Marie Booth - Skeena Tenants Association honourary Board member STAFF, STUDENTS & VOLUNTEERS: Ron Yuen - Director Tony Green - Assistant Director Judy Aldritt Charles Bowm Jim Booi Marie Booth George Brown John Browner Rick Clark Wayne Clarke Mike Claque Blair Dalin Robert Dunbar Henry Elder Jim LeMaistre Nancy LeMaistre Alberta Levitan Phil Lyons Terry Lyster Ben McAfee - student Haroutin Mardirussian Terry Morris Mark Osborne Clayton Petrich - student Philip Pratt - student Charles Rief David Robinson John Rule - student John Saville - student John Talbot Mike Thayer - student David Todd Dave Whetter Monty Wood 1973 BOARD OF PARTICIPANTS Mark Bostwick Sandra Currie Nora Curry Robert Dill Darryl Foreman Wolfgang Gerson Don Gutstein Jim LeMaistre Alberta Levitan Phil Lyons Margaret Mitchell Nette Pereboom Dino Rapanos Shane Simpson Mo Van Nostrand Ron Walkey 161 Beginning of 1973, also Tom Moore and Marie Booth Students, Staff, Volunteers and Members of the Urban Design Society: Ron Yuen - Director Tony Green - Director after July Anthony Bearman Mark Bostwick Cher Calliou Pat Canning David Easton Glynne Evans Cathy Goldney Mary Louise Hart Henry Hawthorne Gary Honegger Laurie Hurwitz Suzanne Huzel Ann Jarrell Donald Loucks Phil Lyons Bernard Malanych Tom Moore Doug Nickels Mo Van Nostrand Gavin Perryman Sydney Portner Charles Rief Bud Sakamoto Sid Sawyer John Saville Shale Simpson Craig Strand David Todd Wayne Wai Monty Wood Henning Wulff 1974 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mary Louise Hart Jim LeMaistre Sydney Portner Judith Prygiel Chuck Reif GENERAL MEMBERS, STAFF & VOLUNTEERS Jim LeMaistre - Director P.Feindel - office coordinator Larry Chan Sandra Currie Tony Green Barb Hansen Ron Hansen Tom Hansen Henry Hawthorne Laurie Hurwitz Marie Louise Hart Jim LeMaistre Phil Lyons Margaret Mitchell Tom Moore Nette Pereboom Sydney Portner Judith Prygiel Chuck Rief Andy Rosen S. Sawyer Craig Strand J. Terjevirding Mo Van Nostrand 1975 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Jim LeMaistre Sydney Portner Shane Simpson OTHER ACTIVE MEMBERS: Chuck Reif Nette Pereboom Monty Wood 1976 - 1978 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Jim LeMaistre Syd Portner Chuck Rief Shane Simpson Margaret Sigurgeirson OTHER MEMBERS: Susan Link Alberta Levitan Larry Martin Nathan Edelson Sandra Currie Terry Howorth 164 APPENDIX SIX REPORT on the SKEENA TERRACE PROJECT By Tony Green Late spring 1971 SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS: We should have been more aware of the weakness of the Skeena Terrace Tenant's Association right from the start; we should have insisted they broaden their base of support before going any further ( that should have happened before they went to City Council).. As observation by Dave Adair -"the group seems to be very effective at lobbying with various levels of government; they are not effective at organizing and becoming representative". A lot of time was spent talking about two things: involving the community in the design process; and creating a viable community government. It remained as rhetoric, never coming closer to reality than a few enthusiastic conversations with Marie [Marie Booth - President of Skeena Terrace Tenant's Association]. I think it could be useful to devise a "community design" game that could be cheaply reproduced and easily understood. The essentials of such a game would be to provide an understanding amongst the community that they are making the  decisions - and to provide for the architect as explicit a composite picture as possible of the needs and criteria of the populace. Various other devices were talked about, such as a film to create am image of the area derived from the observations of the people, use of video as an informational and analytical tool, the "charrette" method of involving people. At any time, I at least was expecting to involve the vast  majority of the people in the neighbourhood. This now appears to have been a faint a hope, never very close to reality. Milton Kotter, in "Neighbourhood Government", is satisfied to have even a small percentage of the people involved. I suppose that could be satisfactory as long as there is no structural impediment to any citizen's participation. In other words, as long as people are given the opportunity to take part, it does not seem to matter whether they do or not. Be that as it may, the slow, indeed, leisurely approach the UDC took to "getting people involved" was brought to a sudden halt be the intervention of Social Planning in the guise of Maurice Egan. We would have been more useful to 165 have urged the Steering Group to move more quickly in organizing their forces. the "coffee party" and other informal meetings that were held suffered from being unstructured - the conversation usually was too loose, didn't fit anywhere My reluctance to structure these things came from a feeling that if we were to present too much of a formulated idea, it could have two negative effects. a) the people would be turned off with our professional zeal and dictatorial stance, or b) the ideas presented might be uncritically accepted with an ossified result. In retrospect, a more positive approach -one of providing stimulation, not necessarily direction might have produced results. People enjoy image games (or so I believe) and should be given them to play with. Further consideration of the Pattern Language and its tenets - particularly that one states a proposition then argues its validity in order to establish a decision. Much more research could be done on the subject of collective decision -making and the dynamic qualities of groups, in order for the UDC to help groups participate in the design process. In summary, the Skeena experience has: a) provided some citizens with opportunities to assert themselves and increase their self-esteem as individuals; b) taught the UDC about City Hall and about citizens groups - in particular, it has provided us with insights into personalities and the power structure; c) created a partial fulfillment of a long-term dream in Vancouver's East End; at least the people got something out of their effort and they got it rather quickly (I am assuming that the project under the gym will go ahead on the basis of some Federal monies being plugged in) d) kept me off the streets for 6 months. HoHo Tony Green 167 APPENDIX EIGHT A COMMUNITY FACILITY FOR RAYMUR PLACE The Problem Raymur Place is unpopular,even with the former government: Mr. Dan Campbell, former Minister of Municipal Affairs, has said that "Raymur Place Housing i Project is a monument to poor public housing planning and should never have . been built".Mrs Grace McCarthy, too, has called public housing to date ln Vancouver a " disaster". We don't know the minds of the new government, yet. The 376 units of Raymur Place house a total of \&oO people, Including 700 children and 150 pensioners, in a setting bordered by two heavily travelled main arteries, railroad tracks, and skid road. No family should have to live in this environment; we at Raymur have no choice. We do not have access to spaces usually available to families in single homes, such as recreation rooms, back yards, or enough space in the home for personal pursuits. Our financial condition prevents us from taking part in the social and recreational opportunities available in the city. The costs of programmes (fees, equipment and supplies), of babysitting and of transportation effectively prohibit our participa tion. We at Raymur are put into a nearly-hopeless position. We need space in which we can create our own solutions. Our proposal is to build social and recreational "living space" for the families and senior citizens at Raymur which we can share with our friends and neighbours in the surrounding area. Background: Facilities in the Area A number of buildings, programmes and services already exist, are under construction, or are planned for the area. They serve (or will serve) a variety of programmed needs for a variety of age groups, but they have limitations in meeting our needs at Raymur. The facilities in the area are: Gibbs Boys' Club, 700 East Pender Street has limited facilities and programmes aimed primarily at boys aged 7 - 13. Kiwassa Neighbourhood Services, 800 Vernon Drive has limited and overloaded facilities and programmes primarily for younger children. Pender YWCA, 375 East Pender focuses on the needs of the Chinese population in the area, apparently has an uncertain future. Vancouver East Recreation Programme, 1001 Cotton Drive (in Britan nia School) provides some decentralized programmes, mainly, for children. The programmes take the form of organized, scheduled events. The summer parks programme is aimed at children 6 to 12 years. Strathcona Neighbourhood Services Centre (open September 1972), 500 East Pender Street. Recreationally this will be a replica of the Vancouver East Recreation Programme. It will, to some extent, serve the needs of McLean Park residents because of its closeness to that project. Generally, however, the programmes are too scheduled, organized and formalized to appeal to many young people, and most of our elementary age children at Raymur go to Seymour School. Britannia Community Services Centre (1973 - 74?), 1001 Cotton Drive. This large complex will provide a wide range of recreation programmes and other services for 30,000 people in the east end of the City. The only linkage between Raymur and Britannia is Venables Street, a major truck route not conducive to walking. No direct bus links exist and the distance is generally too great, especially for mothers with younger children and no means of private transportation. SPACE*/ USB ESSENTIAL CHA!^CTBRlSnC5 im EASEMENT^1 (3AMES 6MCJJ AS EASKBtEALL, pAt^lNTONl, PCDG5-169 size GHAIRS 4 H16J( CERUN© fOp. frMU GAMes; ficaz smfpoe, TDWtTHSWP ROLLef?-SKADMe/ rlApP WAUS; WINRDW 4 tCDR "TO OOCISIPE- PLAY AR5A, E^/ IAA1KTEHM^C&; s<AF^VlSiai AND ' VI6WIMG FROM ANOIHEK LEVkL; PlVlSieiB INIDTMD; CCWCT; ee&y Access To HAY BSUipMENT; ftS&lPLY A fCCTW S[A<5e> ecuMPF^oop WALLS. "THE- UVIN© SPECK- EVENTS. MEgDN©S. 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Hence the idea of participatory design for a handicapped group home. The basic idea of participatory design is to involve handi capped people in the total design process of a group home from the initial stages to finished design. lie feel this is the only way an individual's personal as well as group needs may be satisfied in such a group home. Many design criteria, such as counter heights, etc., are well documented, but the design of a group home is a far more involved process than just choosing suitable dimensions and accessories. The design of a group home involves four basic areas: 1. Physical design 2. Social design 3. Financial design A. Home management To involve handicapped persons in the design of a group home we have devised a design game. It is a medium for communication and it encou rages people to become aware of and express their personal spatial and social needs. It acts as a primer for interaction between participants and an awareness" and expression of a group's spatial and social needs can be communicated. In volvement in the game will promote in-depth discussion of relevant issues per taining to the group home concept and decisions and conclusions will be made in a rational manner. A "ROUGH" OUTLINE OF EVENTS FOR THE SELF-DESIGN PROCESS  OR MONTY WOOD'S 'SITKHER OF '72' The game is described as follows: - the game 'board' itself is a model plan of a group home. - the rooms have no doors, no windows, etc. and may be thought as spatial components which fit together to form the physical spatial framework of the home. - each spatial component (bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchen, etc.) in the phy sical framework contains various sub-components (accessories, furniture, etc.) 1. Board handout to each participating individual - BATHROOM -- introduction to space (awareness of their own personal space) - personal design solutions (layouts) - document every decision 2. Divide into groups (5 people) and constructively citiclze each individual's personal design, i.e. provide helpful feedback. 173 3. Hand out another board of the bathroom -redesign or revise initial personal design to satisfaction - documentation of reasons a necessity - hope for a range of bathroom sizes (eg. 10' x 10', 8' x 8', or what?) 4. Divide into groups (5 people) - arbitrary or self-chosen - prefer the latter. Hand out another board and ... - devise a composite plan of the bathroom for five people - constant referral to reference board ... social discussions and rele vant social problems should surface. - documentation, documentation, documentation. - printout of decisions made and conclusions reached (eg. what is an optimum size bathroom for five handicaps? what accessories (sinks, etc.) should go into a bathroom? proximity to other parts of the house? is the bathroom a full bathroom or a half-bathroom? etc.) 5. Three-dimensional mock-up of the group bathroom (two if there are two groups). - made from cardboard - documentation on video of the people using the space they have designed, and comments. 6. Discussion of video - a review - decisions and revisions of the bathroom design if any. 7. Repeat Step 5 for the revised design. 8. Discussion of video - a review - decisions and revisions - final conclusions about bathrooms 9. Document on final layout (two-dimensional plan) all decisions and conclu sions ... physical, social and also financial (note: architect will act as consultant when costs become a factor in design) *** END OF BATHROOM *** 10. The KITCHEN is the next spatial component to be discussed. - begin with a discussion period on social and home management issues. - determine things like who does the cooking? how many people will do the cooking? who buys the food? (operational structure of the kitchen) what kind of storage facilities? are there special diets? etc. (note: the diningroom will have to be discussed in conjunction with the kitchen ... what type of eating facilities? etc.) screening from kitchen? - once the operational structure of the kitchen/diningroom has been de termined and documented, decisions as to what sub-components (accessories) will be needed to satisfy the demands of the operational structure (sto rage, number of stoves, etc.) - specifications of accessories should be determined, i.e. height of counters storage facilities, which way the doors swing on a fridge, etc. 174 11. Once the sub-components have been determined*, - cut out the components - draw the kitchen @ 1" = l'-O" from the main reference board - use the same groups that were established in Step 4 and determine a satisfactory layout for the kitchen - remember to document all ideas and decisions on the board itself - constant referral back to the main reference board is a necessity to put the kitchen in some context (the home)i social implications should arise ... screening between kitchen/diningroom, etc. 12. On completion of a satisfactory plan (group satsifaction), three dimen sional mock-ups of the kitchen are constructed;, document on video the use and discussions of the space. 13. Discussion of video - a review - decisions and revisions if any. 14. Repeat Steps 12 and 13 for the revised design. 15. Document on final layout (note: this space may be totally different from the space utilized from the reference board; that's great!) - all decisions and conclusions ... physical, social, financial *** END OF KITCHEN/DININGROOM *** 16. The BEDROOM is the next spatial component to be discussed. - start with group discussion as to home management and social decisions, i.e. what does one do in a bedroom, watch T.V., entertain, etc.? what and how will individual's personal habits affect the rest of the house? relations with each other? privacy? - hand out individual boards for.personal design solutions after discus sions as to relation to hallways, outdoors, bathrooms, furniture, storage, optimal size of a bedroom, costs - constant referral back to the main referance board is a necessity to ensure meaningful social and management decisions. - documentation of decisions and conclusions (final) ... remember to docu ment personal solutions. 17. Discussion on the LIVING ROOM - reference back to the main board for relevant social discussions as to size, location, access to outdoors, furniture, activities, etc. - relationships with diningroom, entrance, etc. - cutouts and design solution with documentation 1C. Discussions on STUDY - need: office work, co-op business, library, semi-private space, extra bedroom, etc., size, access to outdoors, location etc. DOCUMENTATION 19. Discussions on UTILITY, STORAGE, & HOBBY SPACES - the need: activities in house, house industry; location, size 175 20. Discussions on OUTDOOR SPACE. - purposes: gardening, sunning, etc., carports 21. Prepare summary sheets for handing out to all the participants - these sheets should include all conclusions for each room (physical, social, finance, home management). 22. LOCATIONAL STUDY - determination of criteria as to the location of such a home - note: possibility of apartment floor - documentation 23. SYNTHESIS OF A HOME - use clay as a medium for communication: provide a piece of plywood, (scaled to the size of a theoretical lot; eg. 60' x 120') and mark setback regulations on the board; that will leave the total allowable buildable area. - using the clay arrive at an optimum (satisfactory) plan for the house conforming to the criteria arrived at through the previous study ... note: documentation is important, use slides and record each signifi cant change during the process. - scaling may be a problem so provide some scaling device (ruler, grid for projection). 24. On completion of a satisfactory design, transfer the layout to paper and compare to original social design (criteria) and room sizes ... understand reasons for change and document. -note rooms and their sizes cn the plan - note doors, windows> etc. - note permanent fixtures - cupboards, sinks, etc. 25. Feasibility Study - bring in a consultant to do a cost analysis to see if the design is economically feasible (economic feasibility will be determined by the maximum rent the people can pay on a D.P.A., mortgage interest rates, living costs act as determinants) 26. If the design is not feasible, minor revisions should be attempted as long as the desired quality is retained. If minor revisions are not pos sible, the home should be redesigned, i.e. repeat Steps 23, 24, 25. 27. The total cost per month per person should be computed and the possibility is there for comparison with daily costs of living in an institution. 28. CONCLUSIONS -should be written up for each of the four areas of design - suggestions as to improvements that might be made on the self-design methodology - suggestions that might be made for the group home concept NOTE: Very little has been mentioned of FINANCIAL DESIGN in this programme. Financial design should begin at the beginning of the programme and con tinue parallel to it. At each phase of the programme, financial input would be implicit and possibly act as a design determinant. 

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