UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Advocacy in architecture : a case study of the Urban Design Center, Vancouver, B.C. 1970-1976 1991

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ADVOCACY I N A R C H I T E C T U R E A C a s e S t u d y o f t h e URBAN D E S I G N C E N T R E V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 7 6 B y MARLENE G A I L TAMAKI • A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , R e g i n a C a m p u s , 197 B . A r c h , T H e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED S T U D I E S I N A R C H I T E C T U R E i n T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1991 © M a r l e n e G a i l T a m a k i , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Bepartment of AtoAcTfeZTTOg^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T h e s h i f t t o w a r d p a r t i c i p a t o r y , a d v o c a c y a n d s o c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d p l a n n i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d 7 0 ' s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e w o r k o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r s . T h e s e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r s p r o v i d e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l , p l a n n i n g a n d t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s t o l o w i n c o m e g r o u p s w i t h a n e m p h a s i s o n u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e C o m m u n i t y D e s g i n C e n t e r p r o v i d e d a m o d e l b y w h i c h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e s t u d e n t a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y c o u l d w o r k t o g e t h e r a s a t e a m o n c u r r e n t i s s u e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e b a s i c n o t i o n s o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r i n c i p l e s a t w o r k i n t h e m o d e l . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 7 0 - 7 6 i s u s e d a s a s p e c i f i c c a s e s t u d y . i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s P a g e A b s t r a c t T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s L i s t o f A p p e n d i c e s L i s t o f F i g u r e s A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s i i i i i v v i vxx INTRODUCTION 1 P u r p o s e M e t h o d o l o g y S t u d y O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a p t e r O n e : 3 THE S E T T I N G M o d e r n A g e I d e a l i s m Some C o n c e r n s w i t h t h e M o d e r n A g e T h e R i s e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l ADVOCACY A R C H I T E C T U R E AND PLANNING A m e r i c a a n d t h e Movement o f t h e 6 0 ' s M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n a n d S u b u r b a n i z a t i o n F r e e w a y s , a n d U r b a n R e n e w a l C h a p t e r Two 22 COMMUNITY D E S I G N CENTRES A m e r i c a n R o o t s C o m m u n i t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n F u n d i n g O b j e c t i v e s A n e x a m p l e - C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r , S a n F r a n c i s c o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r a n d o t h e r s t o r e f r o n t p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s . V A N C O U V E R , B . C . - THE 1 9 6 0 ' S B a c k g r o u n d S u b u r b i a T h e Downtown C o r e U r b a n R e n e w a l F r e e w a y s New p o l i t i c s f o r V a n c o u v e r C h a p t e r T h r e e 39 IV C h a p t e r F o u r 56 T H E URBAN DESIGN CENTRE - THE BEGINNING T h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t ( V I S P ) U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e - I n c e p t i o n O p e r a t i n g P h i l o s o p h i e s P r o p o s e d S t r u c t u r e O b j e c t i v e s F o u n d i n g P r i n c i p l e s F u n d i n g a n d P e r s o n n e l T h e L a t t e r Y e a r s C h a p t e r F i v e 76 C L I E N T S AND P R O J E C T S S k e e n a T e r r a c e R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y T h e G a s t o w n H e a l t h C l i n i c T h e R i c h m o n d P l a y l o t T h e Home Show C l i n i c T h e L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e D a y c a r e a n d O t h e r R e s e a r c h P a r a p l e g i c G r o u p Homes A d a n a c N e i g h b o u r h o o d P l a n n i n g O r c h a r d P a r k C h a p t e r S i x 106 CONCLUSIONS B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s T h e P r i n c i p l e s a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r UDC L e g a c i e s A N a t u r a l C y c l e T h e R o l e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l T h e R o l e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y P e r s o n a l R e w a r d s L i f e s p a n THE 1 9 9 0 ' S V List of Appendices A l l Appendices are taken from the City of Vancouver Archives, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Center, unless otherwise stated. Page One: List of San Francisco Community 134 Design Center Projects 1969 from H. Schubart f i l e s Two: Transportation Studies 137 Produced for the Urbanarium Three: Vancouver's Urban Design Centre 145 Chronology Four: List of UDC Projects 147 Five: List of UDC Participants 158 Six: Skeena Project Report by Tony Green 164 Seven: AIBC press release: 166 Saturday Morning Service Eight: Ray-Cam: Patterns & Concept Design 167 Nine: Design Game - Handicapped Home 172 v i List of Figures FIGURES: A l l figures are from the City of Vancouver Archives, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Center, unless otherwise stated. Page Fi g . l Comparison 7 The Failure of Modern Architecture, Brolin 1976, p.9 Fig.2 Diagrams of Vancouver 41 Inner City & Old suburbs Hardwick 1974, p.12 & 13 Fig.3 Sketch Scheme Strathcona Urban Renewal 46 Vancouver Unlimited Gutstein, 1975 Fig.4 Floor Plan, Main floor 58 1895 Venables, now the Vancouver East Cultural Center First location of the UDC with the Vancouver Inner-City Service Project Fig.5 Tutorial J Description 65 Fig.6 1111 Commercial Drive 70 UDC office layout and future proposal Fig.7 Skeena Terrace Project Organizational 80 Diagram Fig.8 Playlot drawings 84 Fig.9&10 Home Show Clinic photos 87 Fig.11 Layman's Home Improvement Guide 91 Sample Pages Fig.l2&13 Daycare drawings 94 Fig.14&15 Adanac Sample patterns 99 Fig.16 Orchard Park 102 Fig.l7&18 Ray-Cam Schematic Design 116 Fig.19 Pine Street Clinic Floor Plan 118 Fig.20 Recycling the Profession 1965-1971 126 v i i I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e a n d t h a n k s t o a l l t h o s e who h e l p e d w i t h t h i s s t u d y p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h e p e o p l e who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d a n d g r a c i o u s l y t o o k t h e t i m e t o t a l k a b o u t t h i s p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f V a n c o u v e r . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my m e n t o r , P r o f . Ron W a l k e y , a n d P r o f . D i n o R a p a n o s who g u i d e d me t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s t u d y . A n d , o f c o u r s e , s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o M a b e l a n d Tom T a m a k i , D a n a r a a n d D a y l a n H e a l y a n d Graeme a n d B a r b a r a B r i s t o l f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t a n d p a t i e n c e . A v e r y s p e c i a l r e m e m b e r e n c e t o W o l f g a n g G e r s o n who e n c o u r a g e d a n d c o n t i n u a l l y r e m i n d e d me o f t h e b e a u t y i n s t u d y , a r c h i t e c t u r e , m u s i c a n d l i f e . 1 INTRODUCTION P u r p o s e D u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d 7 0 ' s t h e r e was a movement t o w a r d p a r t i c i p a t o r y , a d v o c a c y a n d s o c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e w o r k o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a p r o v i d e d a m o d e l b y w h i c h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e s t u d e n t a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y c o u l d w o r k t o g e t h e r o n c u r r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g i s s u e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d i s c o v e r t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e s w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e , 1 9 7 0 - 7 6 , a s a s p e c i f i c c a s e s t u d y . M e t h o d o l o g y T h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s g a t h e r e d f r o m t h r e e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s : a r e v i e w o f b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d 7 0 ' s , i n p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ; a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l f i l e s o f M r . H e n r y S c h u b a r t , f o u n d i n g member o f t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r a n d o f t h e f i l e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r A r c h i v e s ; a n d , a s e r i e s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s l i s t e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . 2 S t u d y O r g a n i z a t i o n T h e s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f s i x c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r One s e t s t h e c o n t e x t , d e s c r i b i n g M o d e r n i s t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g i d e a s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d t h e t r e n d t o w a r d a d v o c a c y a n d s o c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . C h a p t e r Two d e s c r i b e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l o o k a t t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o e x p e r i e n c e . C h a p t e r T h r e e s e t s t h e c o n t e x t o f V a n c o u v e r a t t h e t i m e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e , w i t h C h a p t e r F o u r d e s c r i b i n g i t s s p e c i f i c h i s t o r y . C h a p t e r F i v e d e s c r i b e s n i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o j e c t s o f t h e U D C . C h a p t e r S i x d r a w s c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h t h e UDC was f o u n d e d , a n d e x a m i n e s i s s u c c e s s e s , l i m i t a t i o n a n d d e m i s e . 3 Chapter One THE SETTING Modern Age Idealism The study and practice of architecture involves a dedication to many things: the pursuit of the understanding of history and knowledge; the desire to enhance the evolution and development of humankind; and the love of form, beauty and a r t . The special medium for the architect has been the physical environment. The architect finds that i n these dedications, work and study touches on a l l facets of human existence, from past to future, from the deep i n d i v i d u a l within to the ever expanding group without, from spaces and places of day to day l i f e , to those of the world. There i s an inherent b e l i e f and hope that the work done can and must help shape human development and, therefore, perhaps, destiny. These hopes can been c l e a r l y seen i n the 20th century ideals and v i s i o n s of what i s known popularly as 'modern architecture'. The great modern architects of the early part of the century, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe and 4 W a l t e r G r o p i u s , A l d o V a n E y c k , L o u i s K a h n w e r e a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e ' i d e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n ' i n m o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e y s h a r e d t h e i d e a o f U t o p i a n v i s i o n ( t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same v i s i o n ) , s o c i a l i d e a l s s u c h a s h u m a n i t a r i a n l i b e r a l i s m a n d a n o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e v i s i o n s t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . T h e new a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t was t o i l l u s t r a t e a n d move h u m a n i t y a l o n g t o a l t e r n a t i v e a n d h i g h e r s o c i a l o r d e r s , was b a s e d o n t h e m a c h i n e age t e c h n o l o g y . T h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n c h a n g e d p r o d u c t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m t h e l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e m e t h o d s o f t h e c r a f t s m a n t o r a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s b a s e d o n m e c h a n i z a t i o n , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a n d r e p e t i t i o n . T h i s new t e c h n o l o g y was f a s t e r a n d more p r o d u c t i v e , a n d i t was t h o u g h t t h a t s o c i e t y ' s p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s c o u l d f i n a l l y be a l l e v i a t e d . T h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e new m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g i e s t h a t u s h e r e d i n t h e ' M o d e r n A g e ' was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n . M o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e e m b r a c e d t h e new p r o d u c t i o n . T h e 1928 L e S e r r e z D e c l a r a t i o n , w r i t t e n b y t h e g r o u p o f a r c h i t e c t s who f o r m e d t h e C o n g r e s I n t e r n a t i o n a u x d ' A r c h i t e c t u r e M o d e r n e , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t h r u s t o f t h e m o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e : ' T h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t m e t h o d o f p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . . . T h e i n e s c a p a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a c h i n e h a s l e d t o i n d u s t r i a l m e t h o d s o f p r o d u c t i o n d i f f e r e n t a n d o f t e n o p p o s e d t o t h o s e o f t h e c r a f t s m e n . I t i s u r g e n t l y n e c e s s a r y f o r a r c h i t e c t u r e , h e n c e f o r t h t o r e l y o n t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y , e v e n t h o u g h s u c h a n a t t i t u d e m u s t p e r f o r c e 5 l e a d t o p r o d u c t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f p a s t e p o c h e s ' . T o t h e a r c h i t e c t s , t h e m o d e r n b u i l d i n g r e p r e s e n t e d a r e v o l u t i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d , h e n c e , a new a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t e r m i n i s m . A . 0 . Dean w r i t e s : ' B o t h [ F r a n k L l o y d ] W r i g h t a n d L e C o r b u s i e r , w h i l e a g r e e i n g o n l i t t l e e l s e , w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t a r e v o l u t i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , w h i c h d e r a c i n a t e d t h e p a s t a n d t h e a c c e p t e d c u l t u r e , w o u l d s p e a r h e a d a U t o p i a n s o c i a l o r d e r . T h e new, r a t i o n a l , e n l i g h t e n e d b u i l d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t w o u l d a l s o be r e f l e c t e d i n a r e f o r m o f human n a t u r e . ' . . . ' W e i d e n t i f i e d t h e new w i t h t h e g o o d , a n d h a i l e d t h e New M a n , t h e New Woman, t h e New P o l i t i c s , t h e New H i s t o r y , t h e New S c i e n c e ; i n s h o r t t h e New W o r l d . H i s t o r y we t h o u g h t b e g a n a n d e n d e d w i t h o u r s e l v e s a n d we e x p e c t e d t h e new t o l a s t f o r e v e r , a s i f t h e w i l l t o c h a n g e i t s e l f w o u l d r e m a i n f o r e v e r ' [ q u o t i n g M u m f o r d ] . New was t h e i d e a l , new t e c h n i q u e s , new p l a n n i n g , new b u i l d i n g . New w o u l d p r o d u c e t h e b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l h e a l t h - c l e a n c i t i e s w i t h s p a c e , s c h o o l s , a n d r e c r e a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y c i t i z e n . Some c o n c e r n s w i t h t h e M o d e r n A g e R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n b r o u g h t a l e v e l o f r e p l i c a t i o n t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h a t was p a r t o f c r a f t s m a n p r o d u c e d i t e m s . T h e c r a f t s m a n m i g h t , f o r e x a m p l e make a few d o z e n s i m i l a r b o w l s , f r o m r a w c l a y t o f i n i s h e d g l a z i n g , e a c h w i t h s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e mass p r o d u c e d i t e m s , e x a c t r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f a p r o t o t y p e , w o u l d be p r o d u c e d b y many h a n d s , a n d 6 a s s e m b l e d b y many o t h e r s . P r o d u c t i o n was s t a n d a r d i z e d , d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d a n d t h e p r o c e s s r e p e a t e d w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y a n d a c c u r a c y . T h e c r a f t s m a n became m e r e l y a n o t h e r s e t o f h a n d s , who s o l d h i s t i m e a n d h i s s k i l l , b u t n o t t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . I n a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e m o d e r n i s t s e m b r a c e d t h e new m a t e r i a l s a n d s y s t e m s t h a t t e c h n o l o g y b r o u g h t . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n was a p p l i e d t o f o r m , c r e a t i n g a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e o f b u i l d i n g t h a t was t o b e c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . I n t h e b e l i e f t h a t p e o p l e ' s l i v e s a n d b e h a v i o u r c o u l d be d e c i s i v e l y a f f e c t e d t h r o u g h c h a n g e s i n t h e p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e m o d e r n a r c h i t e c t s n e g a t e d c u l t u r a l o r human d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u i l t f o r m , t h u s f r e e i n g h u m a n k i n d f r o m t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s e g a l i t a r i a n a p p r o a c h t o b u i l d i n g , i s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e w o r k , f o r e x a m p l e , o f t h e De S t i j l , e a r l y D u t c h M o d e r n i s t s , who l o o k e d t o man-made m a t e r i a l s l i k e c o n c r e t e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c r a f t s m a n t h a t m a t e r i a l s l i k e b r i c k , s t o n e a n d wood w o u l d p r o d u c e . ^ By d e m o n s t r a t i n g t r u t h w i t h t h e ' h o n e s t ' , e c o n o m i c a l , a n d f u n c t i o n a l u s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d s t r u c t u r e , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e j e c t i o n o f o r n a m e n t a n d o t h e r s u c h m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p a s t t r a d i t i o n s , a r c h i t e c t u r e s o u g h t t o be p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s t h a t e l i m i n a t e s u n n e c e s s a r y o r o b s o l e t e p a r t s . T h e p e o p l e s o f t h e w o r l d , i t was t h o u g h t , c o u l d s h e d t h e i r p a s t d i f f e r e n c e s a n d b e n e f i t f r o m t h e h a r m o n y a n d p r o v i d e n c e o f t h e new s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d u n i v e r s a l 7 I Yale University Art Gallery. The old art gallery is at the right Old and new in Sanaa, Yemen and an addition, by Louis Kahn in 1953, at the left. Old and new in Venice, Italy. Figure 1 Comparison The Failure of Modern Architecture, B r o l i n 1976, p.9 8 t e c h n o l o g i e s . M o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e new w o r l d o r d e r , d e v o i d o f s t y l i s t i c , a n d h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . ^ T h e a i m s w e r e l o f t y , b u t l o o k i n g b e y o n d t h e m a c h i n e / t e c h n o l o g y a e s t h e t i c , a n d t h e somewhat s o p h i s t i c a t e d n o t i o n s o f f o r m , f u n c t i o n a n d t r u t h , t h e r e s u l t s w h i l e t r u e t o t h e i r c o n c e p t o f t e n l a c k e d t h e r i c h n e s s o f d e t a i l , v i s u a l v a r i e t y , a n d c o m f o r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , t e n d i n g t o be s t a r k , c o l d l y r e p e t i t i o u s a n d b a n a l i n c o m p a r i s o n ^ . R i s e o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l A c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m o f m o d e r n p r o d u c t i o n was t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h , i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d p o w e r a n d w i t h a s m a l l g r o u p a t t h e t o p o f a p y r a m i d a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e w o r k e r s a t t h e b o t t o m s e r v e d as e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t o r s o f m a c h i n e s , r a t h e r t h a n a r t i s a n s p r o d u c i n g o r e v e n b e i n g k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e w h o l e m a k i n g o f t h e p r o d u c t . W i t h mass p r o d u c t i o n , t h i s k i n d o f k n o w l e d g e was n o t n e c e s s a r y , a n d c r e a t i v i t y was n e i t h e r r e q u i r e d n o r d e s x r e d . T h e w o r k e r l o s t c o n t r o l o f t o o l s a n d m a t e r i a l s ( t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n ) , o f d i s c r e t i o n o v e r p l a c e a n d p a c e o f w o r k , a s w e l l a s o f t h e e n d p r o d u c t o r i t s s a l e . A c c o r d i n g t o H a t c h i n The Scope of Social Architecture, t h i s c h a n g e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f • ft p r o d u c t x o n l e d t o a l x e n a t x o n . He s a y s : 9 S o c i e t y i s f r a g m e n t e d i n t o ' i n t e r e s t s ' , a n u n a v o i d a b l e e f f e c t o f a c o m p e t i t i v e m a r k e t i n l a b o u r . C o m m u n i t y i s a l m o s t u n k n o w n ; s o c i e t y i s r e d u c e d t o a n a g g r e g a t i o n o f f e a r f u l a n d m u t u a l l y s u s p i c i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s . . . F u r t h e r , d o c i l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a t w o r k h a s m e a s u r a b l e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f a m i l y a n d c o m m u n i t y l i f e . T h e number o f r o l e s we a r e c o m f o r t a b l e p l a y i n g s h r i n k s , a n d w i t h i t t h e memory o f w h a t w e r e f o r m e r l y i m p o r t a n t human n e e d s . T h i s f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n comes n o t o n l y f r o m a c h a n g e i n a c t i v i t y , b u t a l s o i n t h e c h a n g e i n t h e s i z e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s . I m p r o v e m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n w e r e r e q u i r e d t o move g o o d s g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s m o r e q u i c k l y . T h e i n t e r a c t i n g e c o n o m i e s a n d m a r k e t s n e c e s s i t a t e d g r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l a r g e r g o v e r n m e n t s . D e c i s i o n s o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y moved f r o m t h e r e a l m o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o c i t i e s , s t a t e s a n d c o u n t r i e s . I t a l s o seemed t o move b e y o n d t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e l a y p e r s o n t o t h a t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x t e c h n i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a n d s y s t e m s l e d t o t h e e x c l u s i v i t y o f t h e e x p e r t , a n d t o t h e s p e c i a l i s t . A s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n , k n o w l e d g e , a n d t r a i n i n g was r e q u i r e d t o make t h e c o m p l e x s y s t e m s w o r k , t h e s e s y s t e m s b e c a m e t h e s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e e x p e r t . S t a t i s t i c s , s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s , a n d m a s t e r p l a n s w e r e u s e d , a l l o w i n g l i t t l e o r no i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . T h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l d o m i n a n c e a d d e d t o d i s t a n c i n g t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n f r o m c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d e c i s i o n s e f f e c t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 10 The professions and t h e i r experts, not only served the needs of the community, but also determined i t s needs.^ In the case of Architecture and Planning, laws and practises were formulated for large structures and global organizations as well as for d w e l l i n g s ^ and neighbourhoods. The lay person was l a r g e l y excluded from t h i s process as i t was believed that the required expertise went beyond that of the ordinary c i t i z e n . Creating the environment moved from the duty of the i n d i v i d u a l as a natural part of everyday l i v i n g , to the realm of the professional. Wide sweeping master plans, e f f e c t i n g large areas over many years, were conceived to regulate and d i r e c t development of the physical environment, with immediate consequences to the l o c a l communities having a lessor p r i o r i t y than the 'larger picture'. With t h i s master plan frame of mind, professionals ran the r i s k of l o s i n g touch with the people t h e i r expertise was meant to s e r v e . ^ The early Modernist architects whose Utopian v i s i o n s and grand plans included a l l of society, not only the r i c h , and a l l facets of l i f e , from housing to monuments, by v i r t u e of the well-meaning arrogance of t h e i r professionalism, did not serve to encourage another kind of egalitarianism, the a b i l i t y of a l l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the formation of one's environment. By the early 1950's, a reaction to the early modernists, spearheaded by a group formed i n 1954, Team 10, had begun. Although very much modern architects, Team 10 questioned the 11 s o c i a l p r o g r a m o f t h e e a r l y M o d e r n i s t s t h a t t h o u g h t t o s e r v e h u m a n i t y b y p r o v i d i n g t h e q u a n t i f i a b l e , b i o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h l e s s e m p h a s i s o n t h e b e h a v i o r a l a n d s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . B r o l i n w r i t e s o f Team 10 : ' A l t h o u g h t h e p o s t w a r g e n e r a t i o n r e s p e c t e d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n s u p p l a n t i n g h i s t o r i c a l s t y l e s a n d i n r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e u n i f o r m i t y a n d a n o n y m i t y o f e a r l y m o d e r n i s m h a d b e e n t h e c a u s e o f i t s s o c i a l f a i l u r e . . . T h e m i s t a k e o f t h e e a r l y m o d e r n i s t s h a d b e e n t o a d v o c a t e e s s e n t i a l l y one p r o g r a m f o r a l l p e o p l e i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s ; t h e t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n h a d b e e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e s o c i a l one i n d e t e r m i n i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g s o l u t i o n s . ' 1 ^ T h e q u e s t i o n t h e n b e c a m e , how d o e s t h e a r c h i t e c t a n d p l a n n e r d e t e r m i n e a n a r c h i t e c t u r e o r a p o l i c y t h a t i s more s u i t a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o f s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t i e s ? T h i s l e d t o t h e movement t o w a r d s a more s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e a r c h i t e c t u r e . ADVOCACY A R C H I T E C T U R E a n d PLANNING ' T h e c a t c h w o r d ' a d v o c a c y ' h a s come t o s y m b o l i z e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e t y p i c a l l y m i d d l e c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e u r b a n c r i s e s . T h e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s o f u r b a n b l i g h t a n d d e c a y i n t h e n a t i o n ' s s l u m s b e c k o n t h e a r c h i t e c t . P e r s o n a l c o m m i t m e n t t o b e t t e r i n g t h e s o c i o - p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t f o r t h e s o r r y s t a t e o f u r b a n a f f a i r s a n d p a t e r n a l i s m f o r t h e e n s n a r e d p o p u l a t i o n a r e a l l p o t e n t i a l m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s . ' M . B . B a k e r , AIA Journal, 1 9 7 0 1 3 Y o u n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s f r o m a l l d i s c i p l i n e s became a c t i v e i n a n a d v o c a c y r o l e , f i g h t i n g f o r t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p o o r , a n d m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . L e g a l a i d o f f i c e s , f r e e m e d i c a l c l i n i c s , y o u t h h o s t e l s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e c e n t e r s a n d C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n 12 Centers p r o l i f e r a t e d i n almost every major c i t y i n North America. America and the Movement of the 60's The s o c i a l protests that exploded i n the inner c i t i e s of most large American metropolises, during the 1960's were part of the 'Movement' to force change to s e l f determination. Of t h i s Goodman (1971) says: 'The growth of what i s popularly c a l l e d 'The Movement' i s to a large extent a reaction against the bureaucratic and centralized control of these i n s t i t u t i o n s - a control which i s maintained by so- c a l l e d 'progressive' city-planning techniques. These techniques have i n fact been more conducive to maintaining profit-making environments and autocratic governments than to creating the more immediate and personally s a t i s f y i n g l i k e condition which many people are seeking. In my view we can't wait for those who now rule to meet demands for t h i s change - they simply have too much to lose by doing so. What people can do i s begin t h i s process of change themselves. I t i s a process which should both examine the cause of our present condition and pose new ways for building more humane places to l i v e . ' The Movement took place i n a context when several grassroots and m i l i t a n t a c t i v i t i e s were causing a general upheaval i n the c i v i l society including 'the c i v i l r ights movement, the r i s e of women's l i b e r a t i o n , the anti-war movement, student protests, together with more m i l i t a n t labour demands and the challenge of alternative cultures which were destroying the myth of a c o n f l i c t - f r e e , p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l society, and 13 s h a k i n g t h e b a s i c m e c h a n i s m s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . ' 1 4 T h e m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r e v e n t s w e r e t h e m a s s i v e r i o t s i n t h e b l a c k g h e t t o s . ^ D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d p o v e r t y w e r e t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s e r i o t s w i t h p o l i c e b r u t a l i t y , u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d h o u s i n g i s s u e s , b e i n g t h e s p a r k . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f r i o t e r s a s k e d f o r s u c h t h i n g s a s b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e f o r m , a n d p r o t e s t e d t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e g h e t t o . What w e r e t h e f o r c e s o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t l e d t o t h i s r e a c t i o n ? M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n a n d S u b u r b a n i z a t i o n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l , t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d l a b o u r , n e c e s s i t a t e d l a r g e c e n t e r s o f w o r k e r p o p u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d r a t i o n a l i z e d p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e s e c e n t r e s , m e t r o p o l i t a n ( d o m i n a n t ) c i t i e s , n e t w o r k s , m a r k e t s , m a n a g e m e n t , means o f p r o d u c t i o n , means o f c o n s u m p t i o n , f i n a n c i a l a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d . ^ ^ S m a l l , r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s a n d a g r i c u l t u r e a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e s e c e n t r e s t e n d e d t o be d e s t r o y e d o r r e c o n s t r u c t e d r e s u l t i n g i n mass m i g r a t i o n t o c i t i e s . T h i s u r b a n - r u r a l m i g r a t i o n l e d t o m i l l i o n s o f b l a c k s a n d p o o r c o m i n g t o t h e c i t i e s . 14 A t t h e same t i m e , s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e . S u b u r b a n i z a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d s p a t i a l s p r a w l o f p o p u l a t i o n a n d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . ^ ' U s u a l l y , t h i s s e l e c t i o n i n v o l v e d r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o n t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e c e n t r e s , w i t h t h e new s u b u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n h a v i n g a h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s , t h e m i d d l e a n d u p p e r p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e i n c o m e g r o u p s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n l e d t o t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s , p o o r a n d u n e m p l o y e d i n t h e i n n e r c i t i e s . ^ T h e s u b u r b s w e r e p r i m a r i l y c o m p o s e d o f s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s , w i t h a h o u s e o n a l o t w i t h a f r o n t a n d b a c k y a r d . T h e a p p e a l o f s u b u r b a n l i v i n g c e n t e r e d a r o u n d o w n i n g a home a n d l a n d : a s e n s e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e ; more t i m e w i t h f a m i l y ; e a s i e r s o c i a l i z i n g w i t h c o m p a t i b l e n e i g h b o u r s a n d a t t h e same t i m e g r e a t e r p r i v a c y ; a n d t h e d e l i g h t s o f o u t d o o r l i v i n g . Home was t h e s i t e o f maximum f r e e d o m , f o r w i t h i n i t s w a l l s p e o p l e c o u l d do w h a t t h e y w a n t more e a s i l y t h a n a n y w h e r e e l s e . - ^ T h e s e s u b u r b s a l s o a t t r a c t e d t r a d e a n d s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c i n g m e r c h a n t s t o move f r o m t h e i n n e r c i t y a r e a s t o l a r g e s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s i n t h e s u b u r b s . T h o s e who c o u l d a f f o r d t o a n d whose s o c i a l c l a s s ( a n d r a c i a l h e r i t a g e ) w o u l d be a l l o w e d b y t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , m o v e d o u t t o t h e s e s u b u r b s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m a g e r y ' b e t w e e n t h e s u b u r b s a n d t h e p o o r e r i n n e r c i t y e x a c e r b a t e d t h e r e c i p r o c a l d i s t r u s t a n d 15 prejudices that often were seen as r a c i a l and class b a r r i e r s . u Suburbanizatxon and the deteriorating inner c i t y neighbourhoods led to two factors that were c r i t i c a l issues i n the c i t i z e n Movement of the 60's. These were urban renewal and the freeways. Freeways, and Urban Renewal The suburbanization process was f a c i l i t a t e d by major technological changes i n transportation, primarily the highway systems. The suburbanites had to be able to move f r e e l y to the c i t y to work and improved transportation systems allowed t h i s easy access over a greater distance, usually by automobile. Team Ten and the early Modernists had always seen motion and mobility, p a r t i c u l a r l y transportation systems and networks as a very important part of the new Modern environment. In the 1968 Team Ten Primer, the freeway i s not only a functional element, i t becomes the unifying image i n the c i t y and with t h i s role a c e r t a i n grandeur i s expected: 'Today our most obvious f a i l u r e i s the lack of comprehensibility and i d e n t i t y i n big c i t i e s , and the answer i s surely a c l e a r , large scale, road system-the 'Urban Motorway' l i f t e d from an ameliorative function to a unifying function. In order to perform t h i s unifying function a l l roads must be integrated into a system, but the backbone of t h i s system must be the motorways, i n the b u i l t up areas themselves, where t h e i r very size i n relationship to other development makes them capable of doing the v i s u a l and symbolic 16 u n i f y i n g job at the same time as they a c t u a l l y make the whole t h i n g work. ^ 1 C i t y engineers and planners c e r t a i n l y must have agreed, and the l a r g e , many-laned freeway systems connecting the suburbs t o urban cores were planned. This n e c e s s i t a t e d e x p r o p r i a t i n g swathes of land through e x i s t i n g poor i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods. These neighbourhoods f e l t powerless t o stop t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r communities. An even more d e s t r u c t i v e trend of urban development, however, was a f f e c t i n g these neighbourhoods: urban renewal. Urban Renewal Since the development of c i t i e s , the p l i g h t of the urban poor has been a concern t o government f o r more than humanitarian reasons. Goodman i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s w i t h a entry from the annual re p o r t of a l e a d i n g p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of 1856, c a l l i n g f o r improved housing c o n d i t i o n s or e l s e the poor would 'overrun the c i t y as t h i e v e s and beggars - endanger p u b l i c peace and the s e c u r i t y of property and l i f e - tax the community f o r t h e i r support and e n t a i l upon i t an i n h e r i t a n c e of v i c e and pauperism.' 'Slumism', a word coined by Hubert H. Humphrey w h i l e t a l k i n g t o a conference of mayors i n 1966 and define d as: 17 ' . . . i t i s p o v e r t y ; i t i s i l l i t e r a c y ; i t i s d i s e a s e ; i t i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; i t i s f r u s t r a t i o n ; i t i s b i t t e r n e s s . . . I t i s a v i r u s t h a t s p r e a d s , t h a t r a c e s l i k e a m a l i g n a n c y t h r o u g h o u r c i t i e s , b r e e d i n g d i s o r d e r , d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , a n d h a t e . We s i m p l y m u s t d e c l a r e w a r o n t h i s e v i l . . . ' was a d i s e a s e . U r b a n R e n e w a l ^ p o l i c i e s , f o l l o w i n g t h e m e d i c a l m e t a p h o r , v i e w e d t h e ' b l i g h t ' o f s l u m a s a c a n c e r t h a t h a d t o be c u t o u t t o be c u r e d . T h i s was i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e M o d e r n i s t a r c h i t e c t s a n a l y s i s ; new m o d e r n e n v i r o n m e n t , new s o c i a l o r d e r . U r b a n R e n e w a l m e a n t r e b u i l d i n g o f s l u m a r e a s b y l e v e l l i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i n g b r a n d new a n d u s u a l l y more e x p e n s i v e h o u s i n g . I t was h o p e d t h a t t h e v e r y p o o r w o u l d move away e i t h e r b y h a v i n g i m p r o v e d p e r s o n a l e c o n o m i c s , o r b y s c a t t e r e d r e l o c a t i o n t o o t h e r h o u s i n g . T h e n t h e r e a l ' u r b a n i t e s ' who w e r e l i v i n g i n t h e s u b u r b s w o u l d come b a c k t o t h e f o r m e r l y b l i g h t e d , b u t now r e n e w e d a r e a s t o make a n e l e g a n t a n d u r b a n e c i v i l i z a t i o n i n 9 R t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . 3 U r b a n R e n e w a l s u c c e e d e d i n d e s t r o y i n g more h o u s i n g t h a n i t p r o d u c e d a n d i n t h e m e a n t i m e , t o r e c o m m u n i t i e s a p a r t b y b r e a k i n g down i n t r i c a t e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . T h i s d e s t r u c t i o n , e v e n w i t h t h e m o s t n o b l e i n t e n t s , b e n e f i t e d t h e s l u m l a n d l o r d s more t h a n t h e t e n a n t s . N o r was u r b a n r e n e w a l n e c e s s a r i l y s u c c e s s f u l i n ' u n s l u m m i n g t h e s l u m s ' , a s a n a l y z e d b y J a n e J a c o b s , , i n The Death and Life of Great American C i t i e s ( 1 9 6 1 ) , who s o u n d l y d e n o u n c e d U r b a n R e n e w a l s c h e m e s . 18 C i t i z e n s f e l t i g n o r e d , d i c t a t e d t o a n d h e l p l e s s . W i t h o u t t h e p o w e r t h a t comes w i t h w e a l t h , t h e power o f i n f l u e n c e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a n d u n d e r t h e ' i n t e l l e c t u a l i m p e r i a l i s m ' o f b u r e a u c r a t i c e x p e r t s - p o l i t i c i a n s , e c o n o m i s t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e n g i n e e r s , p l a n n e r s a n d a r c h i t e c t s , i t s eemed t h a t t h e r e was no r o o m f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x c e p t i n t h e f o r m o f e d i c t . T h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a d l o s t t o u c h w i t h t h e t r u e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r w o r k , w e r e d e s t r o y i n g r a t h e r t h a n s t r e n g t h e n i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a n d w e r e l o s i n g c r e d i b i l i t y a m o n g s t a w i d e s p e c t r u m o f s o c i e t y . T h e C i t i z e n Movement was s p a r k e d b y t h e s e U r b a n R e n e w a l s c h e m e s , a n d o r d i n a r y p e o p l e i n t h r e a t e n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b e g a n v i g o r o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p r o t e s t . I t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t a d v o c a c y a r c h i t e c t u r e r e a l l y t o o k r o o t . Y o u n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s , b e l i e v i n g i n u r b a n d i v e r s i t y , o p p o s e d t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b y t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l p r o g r a m s a n d f r e e w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n , b e g a n t o w o r k d i r e c t l y i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s u n d e r t h r e a t . A s p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e y m a i n l y p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , a l t h o u g h t h e y a l s o h e l p e d t o o r g a n i z e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o p p o s i t i o n , a n d t o l o b b y o n b e h a l f o f t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . S i m i l a r t o t h e o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l g r a s s r o o t s a d v o c a c y o f f i c e s , l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n o f f i c e s , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t o r D e s i g n C e n t e r s a n d U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e s , ( C D C ' s a n d U D C ' s ) w e r e s e t up i n 19 most major c i t i e s of the North America. 1. Jencks, Charles, Modern Movements in Architecture, Anchor Books, Garden City, New York, p.31 2. Conrads, U., Programs and Manifestos on 20th Century Architecture, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1964 3. Dean, Andrea 0., The Architect and Society, Architecture/July 1989 4. Brolin, Brent, The Failure of Modern Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1976 p.54 5. ibid, p.57 6. Smithson, A., Team 10 Primer, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1968. An interesting description by Van Eyck: 'The slum i s gone Behold the slum edging into the s p i r i t , Again we have only to take a look at one of the new towns or a recent housing development to recognize to what extent the s p i r i t has gone into hiding. Architects l e f t no cracks and crevices this time. They expelled a l l sense of place. Fearful as they are of the wrong occasion, the unpremeditated even, the spontaneous act, unscheduled gaiety of violence, unpredictable danger around the corner. They made a fl a t surface of everything so that no microbes can survive the civi c vacuum cleaner; turned a building into an additive sequence of pretty surfaces (I find i t d i f f i c u l t to find words for those I saw in the United States) with nothing but emptiness on both sides. To think that such architects are given to talking devotedly about space whilst that are actually emasculating i t into a void. 7. Hatch, R., The Scope of Social Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold Com New York, 1984, p.4-7 8. Ibid. p.7 Hatch makes i t clear what i s meant here i s not 'the personal psychological sense of estrangement or anomie, but to describe a society - a congeries of institutions, ways of livelihood and means of l i f e - in which human beings seem to be in the grip of events, unable to comprehend or control forces they have themselves put in motion. 20 9. I l l i c h , I., Ideas in Progress, Disabling Professions, Burns & MacEachern Ltd., Don Mills, 1977 10. For example building code bylaws. 11. Goodman, R., Chpt.l, With a L i t t l e Help From the Experts, After the Planners, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1971 12. Brolin, 1976, op. c i t . 13. Barker, Michael, Advocacy and the Architect, a r t i c l e in the AIA JOURNAL, JULY 1970. Barker was then Director of the American Institute of Architects' Urban Programs. 14. Castells, M., Chapt. 6, The Post-Industrial City and the Community Revolution: The Revolts of American Inner Cities in the 1960s, The City and the Grassroots, A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1983. Prof. Castells teaches City and Regional Planning at the University of California. 15. Castells statistics show that there were 329 important riots between 1964 and 1968 that took place in 257 American c i t i e s , and beyond the media's attention, the FBI estimated another 269 'race related disturbances' 1970-71. ibid. p.50 16. Castells, M., The Wild City, in The Urban Scene: Myths and R e a l i t i e s , edited by J. Feagin, Random House, New York, 1973. 17. Ibid., p. 44-46 18. Castells 1983, op. c i t . , p.66 19. Kurtz, S., Exurban Communities, Wasteland, Praeger Pub., New York, 1973 20. Castells 1973, op. c i t . , p.44 21. Team Ten Primer, op. c i t . , p.48: 22. Goodman 1971, op. c i t . , p.26 from 'Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor', Annual Report 1856. 23. Ibid, p.28 24. With the establishment of the The Federal Slum Clearance and Urban Renewal Program by Housing Act of 1 9 4 9 , the United States, o f f i c i a l l y recognized that the clearance and redevelopment of blighted areas was a national objective. Through t h i s act funding was made available to governments and private enterprise to carry out renewal projects throughout the United States. These renewal projects t y p i c a l l y entailed compilation of accurate base information (survey), community master plans, and execution of these plans. This required funding and l e g i s l a t i v e power to demolish, expropriate land, relocate c i t i z e n s and demolish buildings. - Campbell, J., "Financial Aspects of Urban Renewal i n the United States", .Renewal of Town and Village 2: Ten Special Reports from Five Continents, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague for the Congress of International Union of Local Authorities, 1965 Ibid, p.62 22 Chapter Two COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTERS American Roots Although the 1960's and early 1970's marked the peak period for community participation in planning and architecture with the Community Design Centre's, the tradition of socially active architects and planners had i t s roots in the early trade union organization in the United States. During the f i r s t quarter of this century, the increasing numbers of factory workers organized into powerful unions. These unions, while primarily interested in the working conditions of the members, began to realize that the total well-being of the worker and his family was as important. Housing Committees became part of the Unions' social program structure. ̂ In the 1930's, President Roosevelt initiated the two programs Works Progress Administration and Public Works Administration^ essentially 'make work7 project funding necessitated by the post war recovery problems and the 23 e c o n o m i c D e p r e s s i o n . T h e s e p r o j e c t s c r e a t e d w o r k f o r many u n e m p l o y e d a r c h i t e c t s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s . T h e H o u s i n g C o m m i t t e e s o f t h e two m o s t p o w e r f u l u n i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e C o n g r e s s o f I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r f o r m e d a n a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f A r c h i t e c t s , E n g i n e e r s , C h e m i s t s a n d T e c h n i c i a n s J . T o g e t h e r t h e y f o r m e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y t e a m s t o d e v e l o p a n d i m p l e m e n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e s o c i a l a n d p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g s c h e m e s . T h e e m p h a s i s o f t h e i r a p p r o a c h was t o w o r k f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e w o r k e r , n o t t h e b u r e a u c r a t . T h e s e e a r l y b e g i n n i n g s w e r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a t r a d i t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d s o c i a l l y a c t i v e p l a n n e r s a n d a r c h i t e c t s . ^ I n 1945 a n d 4 6 , t h e C h e l s e a D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n - * i n t h e u p p e r e a s t s i d e o f New Y o r k was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a n o f f i c e t h a t was one o f t h e f i r s t t o w o r k w i t h t h e same m e t h o d s a s t h e l a t e r C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r s . T h i s o f f i c e was l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d a n d r u n w i t h v o l u n t e e r l a b o u r f r o m p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t s a n d p l a n n e r s , e d u c a t o r s a n d c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r s . One o f t h e s e y o u n g a r c h i t e c t s was H e n r y S c h u b a r t who l a t e r became a f o u n d e r o f t h e f i r s t C D C , A R C H , w h i c h was l o c a t e d i n H a r l e m . Many l o n g h o u r s o f v o l u n t e e r w o r k , i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s r e s u l t e d i n a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n t h a t r e f l e c t e d n o t o n l y t h e n e e d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t a l s o o f t h e communi ty .** 24 T h i s was n o t t h e u s u a l m e t h o d u s e d f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h i s t i m e . I t was i n 1 9 4 9 , t h a t C o n g r e s s p a s s e d t h e b i l l t h a t s t a r t e d U r b a n R e n e w a l . T h i s b i l l g a v e m o n i e s t o c i t i e s t o p a y f o r c o n d e m n i n g " b l i g h t e d " p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d t e a r down b u i l d i n g s o n i t . T h e c i t i e s c o u l d t h e n r e s e l l t h e l a n d a t a l o s s t o r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s who w o u l d r e d e v e l o p t h u s c l e a n i n g u p t h e s l u m s . T h i s e n c o u r a g e d l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d , s u i t a b l e f o r mega p r o j e c t s . C o m m u n i t y P a r t i c i p a t i o n B y t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , U r b a n R e n e w a l h a d c l e a r l y n o t met t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o o r i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I t h a d n o t p r o d u c e d t h e p r o m i s e d h o u s i n g ^ , h a d d e s t r o y e d a n d d i s p l a c e d w h o l e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . P o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l u n r e s t ( r i o t s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ) , a n d t h e c r y f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . G r e a t e r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s e e n b y b o t h c i t i z e n s a n d t h e a d v o c a c y p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o be c r i t i c a l t o t h e c o r r e c t i n g o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s w i t h u r b a n r e n e w a l . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t h a t was e x p e n s i v e . T h r o u g h C D C ' s , e x p e r t i s e was a v a i l a b l e t o p o o r c o m m u n i t i e s a n d was p r o v i d e d b y y o u n g a r c h i t e c t s a n d p l a n n e r s who o f f e r e d t h e i r s k i l l s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . 25 The f i r s t of these CDC offices, The Architects Renewal Committee in Harlem (ARCH), began in 1964. It provided free architectural, planning, legal, and organizational services that the Harlem community could not otherwise afford. Richard Hatch, ARCH's f i r s t director saw i t s purpose not only as an educational and planning service, but also as: '...creating the "preconditions for architecture". Form-making should be based on a democratic design process in which the architect does not impose his white aesthetic on the black people, who are so tired of oppression in a l l i t s forms. If architecture really concerns the total environment, then architects ought to be helping to provide people with an opportunity to control that total environment and fashion i t to express their like style, their aesthetic, their needs, desires, and aspirations. One of the f i r s t projects involved 20 students going to Harlem and developing a working philosophy to deal with the communities problems. The resulting 4 publications included information on tenant rights, government programs, planning a c t i v i t i e s , and housing in the community. Although originally a white organization, within 4 years, ARCH was completely run and staffed by blacks. The staff included architects, draughtsman, a planner, a lawyer and a community organizer and several volunteers in the various f i e l d s . This was quite typical of the diversity of the CDC teams. In 1968, ARCH helped the Citizen's Association for the East Harlem Triangle, successfully stop development of a small triangular piece of land slated for urban renewal in Harlem's Model City area. They received funds to develop their own plans for the area. ARCH's p o l i t i c a l role as 26 advocate took on more importance as i t s constituency enlarged from Harlem to a l l of the black poor people. The CDC idea spread and offices sprang up in major urban centers throughout the United States. Each stressed community participation and interdisciplinary teams of professionals to cover a wide range of needs. Each one had a different mix of involvement of the educational institutions, usually the University, the professional organizations such as the American Institute of Architects, the community organization such as Citizen's groups, and of volunteers from a l l over. Each one had a particular organization and modus operandi suited to the particular needs of their community. Of these CDC's, Vernon Williams, Director of CDC in the Community Services Department of the American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C. wrote in 1971: 'Now, for the f i r s t time, the community had a voice, a professional voice which spoke to the technical needs of a particular community; a voice that listened and interpreted, and one that did not try to dictate to them. Armed with this newly found weapon, communities could speak authoritatively hand intelligently to the technical hodgepodge of the local planning authority. They could begin to define the mystical 'quality of l i f e ' as they saw i t . They could begin to determine their own future' 9. From the beginnings with ARCH in 1964, the CDC program grew rapidly. By 1971 a national organization of CDC's was set up to circulate information on projects, methods and 27 d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y . The CDC movement h a d g r o w n t o o v e r 7 0 c e n t e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a . 1 0 F u n d i n g F u n d i n g f o r t h e C D C ' s came f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e f u n d i n g d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s was t h r o u g h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t ' s O f f i c e o f E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t y (0E0 ) w h i c h h a d o f f i c e s i n m o s t A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , g r a n t i n g m o n i e s t o l o c a l p r o j e c t s . T h i s was made p o s s i b l e b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t y A c t c a l l i n g f o r 'max imum f e a s i b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p o o r ' . Some o f f i c e s w e r e f u n d e d by l o c a l c h a p t e r s o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s ( A I A ) , a n d f r o m p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , c l i e n t s w e r e a b l e t o p a y m o d e s t f e e s . O t h e r g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s s u c h a s P r e s i d e n t J o h n s o n ' s War on P o v e r t y i n i t i a t i v e s M o d e l C i t i e s P r o j e c t , i n s i s t e d o n , a s a c o n d i t i o n o f r e c e i v i n g , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s h e l p e d c r e a t e m e c h a n i s m s f o r c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . U n d e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t ( H U D ) , a n d a l t h o u g h t h e p r o g r a m was a d m i n i s t e r e d b y a M o d e l C i t i e s g o v e r n m e n t p a i d s t a f f , t h e e n a c t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c a l l e d f o r ' w i d e s p r e a d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' . P r o j e c t p l a n s h a d t o be d e v e l o p e d w i t h a n d a p p r o v e d b y a P r o j e c t A r e a C o m m i t t e e , 28 r e p r e s e n t i n g a f a i r c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e 1 9 p r o j e c t a r e a . ^ I n C a n a d a , t h e s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r , t h e p r i m a r y g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g b o d y b e i n g t h e C a n a d a M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ( C M H C ) . O b j e c t i v e s T h e C D C ' s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h s e v e r a l r o l e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h a t o f a d v o c a t e , o f e d u c a t o r , a n d o f o r g a n i z e r f o r t h e c i t i z e n s a n d f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n s . T h e A I A ' s CDC g u i d e l i n e s ' " * w r i t t e n i n 1 9 7 1 , i l l u s t r a t e w e l l t h e r a n g e a n d d i r e c t i o n o f CDC a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y w e r e t o p e r f o r m a l l o r a n y o f : T o a c t a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n o b t a i n i n g a c t i o n a n d o r f u n d s f r o m l o c a l , s t a t e o r f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s u n d e r t h e many p r o g r a m s a v a i l a b l e ; b u t unknown t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . T o s e r v e a s a s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n i t s d i a l o g u e s w i t h t h e s e a g e n c i e s . T o p r o v i d e a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s o f v a l u e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , b o t h t o i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T o f u r n i s h j o b t r a i n i n g t o y o u n g p e o p l e who may l a t e r d e c i d e t o e n t e r one o f t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n s a s w e l l a s t o s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . T o i n f o r m p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f l o w e r i n c o m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . D e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h e v a l u e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d p l a n n i n g . 29 To indicate the active concern of the members of the design professions with social problems and promote better communications between diverse elements of our society. Within this general framework, each CDC worked out i t s own mandate, goals and operating procedures. A l l CDC's had an education and student worker component, either as direct credit towards a professional degree or post graduate research work; a l l had support from the professional association, through both volunteer work and funding; and a l l CDC's were committed to community participation. They offered professional service to those who could not afford i t . An example - Community Design Center, San Francisco, Projects An example of how these objectives were put into practise can be seen by examining work done by the Community Design Center in San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a . ^ The Community Design Center in San Francisco was established by the University of California Extension, Continuing Education in Environmental Design, in 1967. Its purpose, as stated in their f i r s t Newsletter^^, was to provide San Francisco's low income neighbourhood with free professional services in problems of design, planning and community 30 d e v e l o p m e n t . I t a l s o o f f e r e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b r o a d e n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i t i c a l u r b a n p r o b l e m s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g t h e s e n e e d e d s e r v i c e s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . H e n r y S c h u b a r t was a f o u n d i n g member o f t h i s C D C . T h e CDC was f u n d e d u n d e r a F e d e r a l 0 E 0 D e m o n s t r a t i o n G r a n t a n d m a i n t a i n e d a s m a l l f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g two a r c h i t e c t s a n d a p l a n n e r . T h e m a i n o f f i c e was a t 215 H a i g h t S t r e e t , a n d b y 1 9 6 9 , i t h a d o p e n e d a s e c o n d o f f i c e i n C h i n a t o w n t o s e r v i c e t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f t h a t c o m m u n i t y . T h e b u l k o f t h e C e n t e r ' s w o r k was c a r r i e d o u t b y v o l u n t e e r s f r o m s e v e r a l d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s i n S a n F r a n c i s c o , t h e A I A , t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a made up a n A d v i s o r y B o a r d t h a t a c t e d a s l i a i s o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c a n d was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c i e s o n b r o a d i s s u e s o f c o m m u n i t y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n . A r e v i e w o f a l i s t o f t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o CDC p r o j e c t s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t y p i c a l k i n d o f w o r k d o n e b y t h e s e C e n t e r s ' ^ . D e s i g n p r o j e c t s v a r i e d i n s i z e f r o m s m a l l p a r k d e s i g n a n d f u r n i t u r e d e s i g n , t o m u l t i - u n i t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . T h e s m a l l e s t p r o j e c t s s u c h a s t h e m u r a l p a i n t i n g a n d r e f u r b i s h i n g t h e o u t s i d e o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d d r o p - i n c e n t e r , u s i n g v o l u n t e e r y o u t h l a b o u r a n d d o n a t e d s u p p l i e s , a n d 31 furniture design and construction involved the Center from concept to completion. The larger design projects were completed to the Schematic Design stage, to enable the neighbourhood client group to go after funding for seed capital and land costs. Several projects involved community planning proposals and recommendations. Technical advice was often required for housing projects, both in renovation and new construction as well as for the amenity planning and building. In some cases older housing projects had been built with no provision for recreational f a c i l i t i e s , and these now had to be retrofitted. The CDC provided technical assistance to 'coalition communities' working with the Model Cities Program. The Model Cities program was aimed at coordinating existing programs and focussing them on specific neighbourhoods. The program operated over a period of 6 years with the f i r s t year was to be devoted to planning and the next five to implementation and continued planning. A l l plans had to have community participation in the development stages and 1 7 r a t i f i c a t i o n at application for capital funds.' The CDC provided the expertise to f a c i l i t a t e community participation. The CDC also provided predesign and programming services. For instance, for the Chinatown Housing Committee, the CDC conducted a survey of existing conditions, both demographic 32 a n d p h y s i c a l . W i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e CDC f o r f u t u r e n e e d s , t h e C h i n a t o w n H o u s i n g C o u n c i l h a d b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u t u r e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a n d f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . C o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n was a l s o p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C D C . I n a n e f f o r t t o d e m y s t i f y t h e f i n a n c i a l a n d b u i l d i n g c o d e g o v e r n m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , a b o o k l e t was p r o d u c e d o u t l i n i n g t h e e f f e c t o f r e c e n t l y l e g i s l a t e d c o d e a n d s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t e n meant a n e x t r a h o u s i n g c o s t t o t h e t e n a n t s a n d homeowner , w h i c h was n o t o f t e n c l e a r . P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e d a g r a d u a t e l e v e l c o u r s e o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e CDC t a u g h t b y a P r o f e s s o r f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , E x t e n s i o n , S a n F r a n c i s c o a n d t h e b y D i r e c t o r o f t h e C D C . T h i s a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a l c o m m u n i t y p r o j e c t s a n d g e t a c a d e m i c c r e d i t a t t h e same t i m e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d a s o u r c e o f l a b o u r f o r t h e C D C . I t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o CDC was i n v o l v e d w i t h a w i d e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s , f r o m g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h i n t o p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y , n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o n d i t i o n s a n d h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s t o p r e - d e s i g n , p r o g r a m m i n g a n d c o n c e p t a n d s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s i n c l u d e d f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , 33 t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f b o t h a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g n a t u r e , t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y , a n d t r a i n i n g f o r t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d g r a d u a t e . I n some i n s t a n c e s , s m a l l p r o j e c t s w e r e d e s i g n / b u i l d . F o r a l i s t o f 1969 p r o j e c t s s e e A p p e n d i x O n e . T h e i m p e t u s o f t h i s w o r k , w h i l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f g e n e r a l g o o d t o s o c i e t y , was t o b r i n g t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o t h o s e who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t h e m . W i t h f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e , a d o o r was o p e n e d f o r i n c l u s i o n o f l o w e r i n c o m e p e o p l e i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s was f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e w o r k d o n e b y t h e C D C ' s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r a n d o t h e r a d v o c a c y p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s . T h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e m o d e l f o l l o w e d s i m i l a r m o d e l s o f C o m m u n i t y Law O f f i c e s a n d M e d i c a l C l i n i c s . T h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t h e y s e r v e d a n d u s u a l l y h a d a s t o r e f r o n t o n t h e s t r e e t , p r o v i d i n g a n e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , w e l c o m i n g p r e s e n c e . T h e y h a d a b r o a d b a s e o f c l i e n t s . T h e y p r o v i d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h o s e who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t h e m s u c h a s c o m m u n i t y a d v o c a c y g r o u p s . I n t h e c a s e o f C o m m u n i t y 34 Law o f f i c e , a means t e s t was o f t e n e m p l o y e d . T h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r s a l s o c h a r g e d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s i f t h e c l i e n t c o u l d a f f o r d i t . A l t h o u g h a l l t h r e e w e r e a c t i v e i n a d v o c a c y w o r k o n b e h a l f o f t h e p o o r , t h e y w e r e p o l i t i c a l l y n e u t r a l . T h e y h a d no p o w e r o v e r g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g t o i m p l e m e n t p r o g r a m s a n d a c t e d a s a g e n t s o n l y . T h e C D C ' s d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t s a n d p e r i p h e r a l l y w i t h s o c i a l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s t h e y e f f e c t e d t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e s e a d v o c a c y c e n t e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t i n t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . G r a d u a t e s c o u l d w o r k a t s u c h o f f i c e s a n d c l i n i c s t o o b t a i n p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t was p a r t o f t h e a r t i c l i n g , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r i n t e r n s h i p r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n . S t u d e n t s i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f t h e p r o g r a m o f t e n w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e summer o r a s v o l u n t e e r s . U n i v e r s i t y i n v o l v e m e n t v a r i e d . C a s e s w e r e u s e d f o r a n a l y s i s a n d s t u d y b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n M e d i c i n e a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n L a w . A r c h i t e c t u r e a l l o w e d t u t o r i a l a n d c l a s s w o r k t o be d o n e i n t h e C e n t e r s f o r c r e d i t a n d t h e f a c u l t y o f t e n d i d v o l u n t e e r w o r k . M o s t o f t e n t h i s was a t a g r a d u a t e l e v e l . C o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n a l s o was a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e w o r k o f t h e s e a d v o c a c y o f f i c e s . T h e m e d i c a l c l i n i c s d i d much w o r k 35 o n p r e v e n t a t i v e c a r e . Cornmunity Law O f f i c e s h e l d l e g a l i n f o r m a t i o n c l a s s e s , a n d t h e C D C ' s p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l t e c h n i c a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d u p d a t e s o n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . R e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n was c l o s e l y w a t c h e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a w a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e . T h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n d i d n o t w a n t p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s p r a c t i s i n g l a w a n d t h e A r c h i t e c t s h a d a s i m i l a r c o n c e r n w i t h l i a b i l i t y . T h e A I A a r r a n g e d f o r l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e f o r t h e CDC a s a g r o u p o n l y i f a l i c e n s e d a r c h i t e c t , w i t h a d e q u a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e , was p a r t o f t h e s t a f f . A s t h e s t o r e f r o n t o f f i c e s d e a l t m o s t l y w i t h l o w - i n c o m e g r o u p s , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h p r a c t i s i n g f i r m s was w a t c h e d , b u t d i d n o t c a u s e a n y CDC t o be c l o s e d . F u n d i n g f o r t h i s s t o r e f r o n t p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k came p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d f r o m t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . M o s t o f t e n t h e y w e r e s e t up a s n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t i e s . I n some c a s e s t h e m e d i c a l c l i n i c s w e r e a f f i l i a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h a h o s p i t a l a n d p r o v i d e d a t r a i n i n g l a b w i t h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m , i t s e l f . T h e C D C ' s w e r e f u n d e d t h r o u g h H o u s i n g a n d C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s . L a t e r t h e s e s t o r e f r o n t o p e r a t i o n s s u f f e r e d f r o m g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g a t t r i t i o n a n d a s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h e C o m m u n i t y a n d U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r s s u f f e r e d 36 the most due in part to the evolution and formalization of participation within the planning and development of the c i t i e s . The Centers that survived looked to other methods of funding, usually turning to entrepreneurial pursuits. 1. Goldberg, A.J., AFL-CIO Labour United, McGraw H i l l Book, Co. Inc., Toronto, 1956 2. from Pencil Points, Vol.17:1, pp38-42, January, 1936 3. Reid, K., Some Words by Way of Clarification, Pencil Points, Vol.17:5, May 1936 4. This information came from an interview with Mr. Henry Schubart. Mr. Schubart was greatly influenced by the architects and planners, such as Catherine Bauer, who worked on those projects of the 1930's. He continued this community participation in New York in the 40's and later in San Francisco, where Schubart became one of the founding members of the Community Design Center in Berkeley. In 1968, he and his family moved to Salt Spring Island in British Columbia where he lives today. He and Dino Rapanos met when Rapanos was formulating the proposal for the Urban Design Centre. 5. The Chelsea Development Plan was initiated by the Regional Planning Association of New York as part of urban renewal i n i t i a t i v e s . 6. Information from interview with H. Schubart, November 1988. 7. Goodman, R., After the Planners, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1971, p.62: 'While the 1949 urban renewal legislation authorized contruction of 810,000 public-housing units of a six- year period, by 1967, 18 years later, only one half had been built...400,000 homes, mostly those of lower- income people were demolished in urban-renewal areas. In these areas only 107,000 housing units were built, with the result that for every four homes destroyed, only one was built. Yet even of those built only 11,000 or less than three percent of those destroyed, were public housing for the poor.' 37 8. Cheney, R. H., ARCH: Black Advocates, Advocacy Planning, Progressive Architecture, September, 1968, p. 107 9. The CDC Story, Design Quarterly 1971, p.8. The entire edition was dedicated to the Community Development/Design Movement. 10. CDC News, Community Services Department, The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C, Apr i l , 1971 11. Mondale, Walter F., then Senior Senator from Minnesota, A Congressional View of Community Participation in the Planning Process, Design Quarterly, 1971, p. 6 12. A Model Cities Guide, A HUD Handbook, November 1967, US Department of Housing and Urban Development government publication, Washington, D.C. 13. Guide Lines for Community Design Centers, The American Institute of Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969 14. The San Francisco Community Design Center founded by H. Schubart, was prominent in the American CDC Conference that Rapanos attended in Berkley in 1969. This conference provided contact for the UDC and UBC with the North American network of CDC's. 15. L7.C. Extension Community Design Center Newsletter, John Bailey, Director of the CDC and editor, 1969 16. Li s t taken from office records provided by H. Schubart. 17. Lindbloom. C , The Citizen's Guide to Urban Renewal, Chandler-Davis Publishers, West Trenton, N.J., 1968 38 Vancouver be 39 C h a p t e r T h r e e V A N C O U V E R , B . C . - THE 1960's B a c k g r o u n d V a n c o u v e r o f t h e m i d d l e 1960's was f o l l o w i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l t r e n d s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n a n d d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h a u t h o r i t y f u e l e d b y t h e m e d i a c o v e r a g e o f t h e C i v i l R i g h t s M o v e m e n t , a n d t h e p r o t e s t t o t h e War i n V i e t n a m c r o s s e d A m e r i c a n b o r d e r s t o C a n a d a . A m e r i c a n d r a f t e r d o d g e r s w e r e s h i e l d e d , p r o t e s t m a r c h e s w e r e h e l d ; p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y i s s u e s w e r e t h e t o p i c o f t h e d a y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e r e was g r o w i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h w h a t was s e e n a s u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c s . I n V a n c o u v e r , t h i s was b r o u g h t t o a h e a d w i t h t h e G r e a t F r e e w a y D e b a t e 1 o f 1967 a n d e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o a b r i e f c h a n g e i n c i v i c g o v e r n m e n t . T h e b a t t l e o f f r e e w a y s t h r o u g h t h e u r b a n c o r e f o u g h t e a r l i e r i n t h e d e c a d e i n t h e c i t i e s o f S e a t t l e a n d S a n F r a n c i s c o , s e n s i t i z e d t h e V a n c o u v e r c i t i z e n r y t o t h e f r e e w a y i s s u e s . B y t h e t i m e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e r e r e a d y t o i m p l e m e n t a s i m i l a r s y s t e m , t h e c i t i z e n r y r o s e i n 40 protest. What were the conditions that led to these ac t i v i t i e s of 1967? Suburbia Vancouver is well described as a 'core-ring' urban model city . The downtown peninsula, the industrial and port areas to the east, False Creek, Kitsilano, Strathcona, Fairview and Mount Pleasant comprise the inner city core of about 2 miles radius. The f i r s t quarter of the century marked the growth of the 'Old suburban' areas in a ring around the inner city. These included the residential neighbourhoods of West and North Vancouver, Grandview Hastings, Renfrew, Fraserview. Shaughnessey, Kerrisdale and West Point Grey. The communities across Burrard Inlet were connected to the mainland in 1938 by the construction of the Lion's Gate Bridge. At this time, Vancouver City Council adapted The Bartholemew Plan which was the f i r s t study to examine consolidation of t r a f f i c onto major arte r i a l routes. Around these older, suburban areas was a peripheral ring of suburban development, many of which were pre-existing centers that were absorbed into the growing Vancouver- centered region (See Figure 2). Burnaby, Richmond, New 41 The Inner City Old Suburbs Figure 2 Diagrams of Vancouver Inner City & Old suburbs Hardwick 1974, p.12 & 13 42 W e s t m i n s t e r , D e l t a a n d S u r r e y became t h e s u b u r b a n , b e d r o o m c o m m u n i t i e s f o r V a n c o u v e r . A s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e f a s t e d r a t e o f u r b a n e x p a n s i o n was p o s t w a r , d u e t o p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s , more d i s p o s a b l e i n c o m e , a n d t h e a u t o m o b i l e a n d s u b u r b a n s e r v i c i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s ^ . B y 1956 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r was 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h i c h more t h a n d o u b l e d t o 8 2 0 , 0 0 0 b y I 9 6 0 . 5 T h e Downtown C o r e T h e o r i g i n a l downtown c o r e s u f f e r e d f r o m some o f same p r o b l e m s o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h n o t t o t h e same d e g r e e , t h a t h a d b e e n w i t n e s s e d , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d w h o l e s a l i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l downtown c o r e moved o u t w a r d t o t h e p e r i p h e r a l r i n g , t h e downtown a r e a c h a n g e d f r o m m a n u f a c t u r i n g t o b u s i n e s s a n d m a n a g e m e n t . T h e m a i n , c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s h i f t e d w e s t w a r d t o l a r g e r , new h i g h r i s e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e o l d e r , s i x - s t o r e y w a r e h o u s e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e o r i g i n a l downtown w e r e u n d e r u t i l i z e d o r a b a n d o n e d . I t w a s n ' t u n t i l t h e m i d 1 9 5 0 ' s , d u r i n g a s l o w down o f n a t i o n a l g r o w t h , t h a t t h e o l d c o r e b e g a n t o r e a l l y f e e l t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e movement o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d w a r e h o u s i n g t o m o d e r n f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s s u c h 43 as Oakridge, Park Royal and Brentwood, within a few miles of the city center, 'were the fi n a l signal of the change from a buyer's to seller's market in foodstuffs and general merchandise, and were in part evidence of recognition of the coming of age of Vancouver's suburban structure'**. By 1960, the core no longer had the traditional centrality attributes that the retailer was looking for. P o l i t i c a l (big business) interest in revitalization of the downtown rose and several proposals were put forth. Among these proposals were intervention of the City in land assembly for public and private urban renewal and a radical freeway system. Urban Renewal By the late 1940's, although the urban decay problems in Canada were not as severe, the Urban Renewal policies at work in the United States were also developing in Canada'. When the Urban Renewal wave hit Vancouver^, the Strathcona Neighbourhood was a natural choice and with the aid of Federal funds, the City of Vancouver embarked on a 20 year Urban Renewal Plan. Comprehensive redevelopment for Strathcona was planned, with the expropriation and clearance of a l l homes to be replaced with a combination of public housing (high rises and row housing), private development and new industrial uses, and a major freeway system. 44 Strathcona, located to the east of the downtown core, i s one of the oldest residential neighbourhoods. Early residents were Anglo Saxon, but by 1930 i t was clearly an ethnically mixed neighbourhood^. Throughout the growth and decline cycles of the downtown, Strathcona remained residential, although the repair and quality of buildings was often quite poor. In 1958, the City stopped allowing any redevelopment or home improvement permits to make way for demotion of homes to be replaced by public housing. Of this Hardwick says: 'The renewal policies were based upon a view of the neighbourhood that util i z e d physical planning c r i t e r i a ; in no way was the resident population consulted. In fact, the planners wrote in their report that the people would a l l be happy to be given new, clean accommodation. It was assumed that no one in his right mind would oppose urban renewal as i t was seen in 1957. ' 1 0 The f i r s t two phases of the Strathcona Urban Renewal Scheme were completed between 1958 and 1968. The Scheme included levelling 6 blocks of homes for a 159 unit public housing project, McLean Park, an extension to i t , a Senior Citizens home, and an extension to Strathcona school. It displaced 16,000 people and cleared 28 acres, mostly single family homes. In spite of considerable citizen opposition, 1963 Urban Renewal Project II was approved and clearing of land began in 1965. The second phase cleared 10 acres of homes, displacing 1,730 people." The 376 unit Raymur Place 45 Housing Project was b u i l t o n some o f t h i s l a n d . T h e s e f i r s t two U r b a n R e n e w a l s chemes b r o u g h t s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e C h i n a t o w n l e a d e r s who w e r e n o t c o n s u l t e d when t h e s e p l a n s w e r e b e i n g made n o r d i d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i n f l u e n c e c o u n c i l . U r b a n R e n e w a l was d e s t r o y i n g t h e e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t y a n d t h r e a t e n i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y o f C h i n a t o w n . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f homes f o r $6000 was d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , when t h e a r e a was e a r m a r k e d f o r h i g h d e n s i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . D e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n , t h e t h i r d a n d f i n a l r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l was p l a n n e d , i n v o l v i n g a c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e C a s s i a r f r e e w a y a n d t h e G e o r g i a v i a d u c t t h r o u g h C h i n a t o w n on C a r r a l l o r G o r e S t . T h i s s p a r k e d a r e n e w e d o p p o s i t i o n among S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s t o s t o p t h e b u l l d o z i n g o f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . By D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 , t h e r e s i d e n t s h a d o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h e S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n (SPOTA) whose p u r p o s e was t o ' e n s u r e t h a t t h e p e o p l e who l i v e i n t h e a r e a w o u l d be f u l l y i n f o r m e d a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d c o m m u n i t y w i l l be p r o t e c t e d ' 1 ^ . SPOTA became a n i n f l u e n t i a l c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l o b b y g r o u p a n d s u c c e s s f u l l y s t o p p e d t h e t h i r d p a r t o f t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l S c h e m e . T h i s a c t i o n a l s o 13 s p a r k e d t h e f i r s t s e r i o u s l o o k a t L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g - 1 - . S P O T A was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g a c t u a l r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s Image versus reality: above, an architect's sketch of what a 'renewed' Strathcona would look like. Below, a photograph of what it turned out to be. The federal government finally halted its funding for demolition-style urban renewal in 1969. F i g u r e 3 S k e t c h Scheme S t r a t h c o n a U r b a n R e n e w a l Vancouver Unlimited G u t s t e i n , 1975 47 r a t h e r t h a n d e m o l i t i o n a n d r e p l a c e m e n t t o r e g e n e r a t e t h e a r e a . F r e e w a y s T h e u s e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n c r e a s e d as t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d s u b u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n c r e a s e d . By 1 9 5 9 , t h e r e w e r e o v e r h a l f a m i l l i o n v e h i c l e s r e g i s t e r e d i n g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . P u b l i c t r a n s i t c o u l d n o t k e e p up w i t h t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e m a n d . T h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e made i t t h e p r e f e r r e d m e t h o d i n a n y e v e n t a n d f r o m t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y f r e e w a y s w e r e s e e n t o be t h e a n s w e r . I n 1 9 5 9 , t h e S u t t o n - B r o w n P l a n - Freeways with Rapid Transit - A Study on highway planning. P a r t I I , t h e f i n a l r e p o r t o f s e v e n s u b m i t t e d i n 1959-59 t o C i t y C o u n c i l , c o n c l u d e d t h a t ' t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e f i c i e n c i e s c o u l d o n l y be s o l v e d e f f i c i e n t l y a n d p r a c t i c a l l y b y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e s y s t e m o f h i g h s p e e d f a c i l i t i e s c a l l e d f r e e w a y s ' ^ , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l was t a k i n g . T h e S e c o n d N a r r o w s B r i d g e was o p e n e d i n 1959 a n d d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a t h i r d c r o s s i n g a t F i r s t N a r r o w s c o n t i n u e d a n d s t i l l c o n t i n u e t o t h i s d a y . T h e i d e a was t o l i n k t h e N o r t h S h o r e t o Downtown t o t h e s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s t o t h e s o u t h w i t h a l a r g e e x p r e s s o f a s p h a l t . 48 I n 1963 P h i l G a g l a r d i , M i n i s t e r o f H i g h w a y s a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e w o u l d p a y one t h i r d o f t h e c o s t o f new h i g h w a y s a n d b r i d g e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r M e t r o A r e a , w h i c h h a d t h e e f f e c t o f s p u r r i n g o n t h e f r e e w a y p l a n s . I n t h e same y e a r , L a r r y S m i t h a n d A s s o c i a t e s , r e a l e s t a t e c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , i n t h e i r r e p o r t , An Economic Analysis for the Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One Preliminary Report^, r ecommended f r e e w a y s t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t t o e n c o u r a g e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n & g r o w t h . P r e s s u r e m o u n t e d t o c o n s t r u c t t h e downtown f r e e w a y l i n k . T h e number o f r e p o r t s a n d s t u d i e s r e c o m m e n d i n g f r e e w a y s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x Two w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s e r e p o r t s a n d s t u d i e s 1 * 5 ) . E a c h r e p o r t s u p p o r t e d t h e n e e d f o r f r e e w a y s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n was b e i n g d o n e o n t h e b a s i s o f t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d e x p e r t i s e , i n t h e f o r m o f r e p o r t s a n d s t u d i e s b y ' f r e e w a y ' c o n s u l t a n t s . T h e w h o l e f r e e w a y i s s u e was p r e s e n t e d a s a t e c h n i c a l i s s u e , a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e was n o t q u e s t i o n e d . I n A u g u s t o f 1 9 6 6 , t h e f i r m o f P a r s o n s , B r i n k e r h o f f , Quade a n d D o u g l a s ( B P Q & D ) , was c o m m i s s i o n e d t o p r e p a r e y e t a n o t h e r Vancouver Transportation Study^', e s s e n t i a l l y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e p l a n n e d G e o r g i a V i a d u c t r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d 49 freeway system and to connect this with a Burrard Inlet Crossing at Brockton Point. In October of 1967, this Vancouver Transportation Study, was submitted to City Council during a public meeting. Its recommendations including a freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown were adopted by Council. City Council's acceptance of the BPQ&D study f i n a l l y brought the issue to a head and sparked The Great Freeway Debate of 1967. The freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown meant the division and destruction of both historic Vancouver neighbourhoods. Local Strathcona and Chinatown residents and merchants, people from a l l over the city, the Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC), and faculty and students from the University of British Columbia (UBC) joined forces to speak against the study, the planned freeway, i t s alignment, and the undemocratic process by which the planning of Vancouver was being done. No consultation with citizens groups had been done before reaching the freeway decision. The AIBC spoke out publicly against the BPQ&D study and the City Council for ratifying i t s conclusions. They c r i t i c i z e d the entire planning philosophy and methods of the transportation system. The AIBC o f f i c i a l statement as reported in the Vancouver Sun, Nov. 10, 1967 included: 'Studies for transportation on the Lower Mainland published over the last 10 years do not form a basis for decisions currently being made. The terms of 50 r e f e r e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d h a v e b e e n t o o l i m i t e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r m e a n i n g f u l d e b a t e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e G e o r g i a V i a d u c t , t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o n C h i n a t o w n , a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e M a i n a n d V e n a b l e s i s n o t p o s s i b l e . A n d i n a n e a r l i e r r e p o r t , Vancouver Sun, 28 O c t 6 7 , M r . R a n d I r e d a l e , a t t h a t t i m e e x e c u t i v e C h a i r m a n o f t h e A I B C , s t a t e d : ' A u t h o r a t i v e p l a n n i n g b y c i v i c o f f i c i a l s i s n o t a c c e p t e d i n a d e m o c r a t i c c o m m u n i t y . T h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e e n t i r e h i g h w a y p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e b r o a d e n e d i n s c o p e . 9 N o t o n l y was t h e s t u d y b r o u g h t i n t o q u e s t i o n , a n d t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s , b u t a l s o t h e i n c r e m e n t a l a p p r o a c h o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t r a t i f i c a t i o n o r e v e n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f u t u r e r a m i f i c a t i o n s . I t was c l e a r a c c o r d i n g t o H a r d w i c k : ' t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r s a n d p l a n n e r s h a d o b t a i n e d a s m a l l d e c i s i o n f r o m C o u n c i l , w h i c h t h e y w o u l d u s e a s a p r e c e d e n t f o r o t h e r m i n o r d e c i s i o n s ; c u m u l a t i v e l y , t h i s w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n a f r e e w a y w i t h o u t a n y c o m m u n i t y o r p o l i t i c a l i n p u t . T h i s was s u c h a c l e a r c a s e o f n o n - p a r t i s a n / e x p e r t e l i t i s t a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m t h a t t h e p u b l i c became a l a r m e d . ' 2 T h e U n i v e r s i t y a l s o p l a y e d a n a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s D e b a t e . U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s l e d b y a y o u n g a r c h i t e c t a n d l e c t u r e r , 91 • B u d Wood"' , h e l d a p r o t e s t m a r c h t h e n i g h t a f t e r t h e C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n was m a d e , f u r t h e r p u b l i c i z i n g a n d u n d e r l i n i n g t h e f o l l y o f t h e f r e e w a y . T h e y d r a p e d C h i n a t o w n i n b l a c k , h o l d i n g a mock f u n e r a l f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I n N o v e m b e r , C i t y C o u n c i l h e l d a n o t h e r p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g a t w h i c h m o r e t h a n 27 o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u b m i t t e d b r i e f s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e w e r e a g a i n s t t h e F r e e w a y a l i g n m e n t t h r o u g h 51 G a s t o w n a n d C h i n a t o w n . A t h i r d m e e t i n g was h e l d . T h i s j o i n t p r o t e s t o f c o m m u n i t y , p r o f e s s i o n a n d u n i v e r s i t y was s u c c e s s f u l . By D e c e m b e r , C i t y C o u n c i l h a d r e s c i n d e d i t s m o t i o n t o a d o p t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e BPQ&D Vancouver Transportation Study. I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t s e v e r a l U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s became d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n c i t y p o l i t i c s . New p o l i t i c s f o r V a n c o u v e r I n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 6 7 , t h e V a n c o u v e r T o m o r r o w G r o u p was f o r m e d o f b u s i n e s s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g many f a c u l t y , t o d i s c u s s t h e c i t y ' s f u t u r e . O u t o f t h i s g r o u p , a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Non P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n s t r o n g h o l d o n C i t y C o u n c i l was f o r m e d w i t h T E A M , T h e E l e c t o r s A c t i o n M o v e m e n t . Many o f t h e p e o p l e a c t i v e l y o p p o s e d t o t h e f r e e w a y j o i n e d T E A M . I n D e c e m b e r o f 1 9 6 8 , W a l t e r H a r d w i c k f r o m t h e D e p t . o f G e o g r a p h y was e l e c t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l . O t h e r UBC f a c u l t y o v e r t h e n e x t 4 y e a r s when T E A M was a t i t s z e n i t h , s e r v e d o n C i t y C o u n c i l . T E A M p u s h e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g V a n c o u v e r , w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t h e w a r d s y s t e m w h i c h t h e y f a i l e d t o g e t p a s s e d . 2 2 52 The p o l i t i c a l climate in the city at this time was expressed by W. Leithead in and article written in the Vancouver Sun, 25 Oct 67 'Vancouver's major d i f f i c u l t i e s of the future are not of a sc i e n t i f i c or technological nature, rather they have largely to do with social philosophy and the w i l l to organize for the general welfare. A wider and deeper dialogue i s necessary to break the moral, p o l i t i c a l and economic bottlenecks to a better l i f e for everyone.' 2 3 In 1968, the Social Planning Department was created in an effort to divide the city into local areas and coordinate social services. It was during this time of p o l i t i c a l and social change within Vancouver that the URBAN DESIGN CENTRE began. 1. To be discussed further in this chapter. 2. Hardwick, Walter, Vancouver - Canadian Cities, C o l l i e r -Macmillan Canada Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario, 1974 3. Pendakur, Setty, Cities, Citizens, & Freeways, UBC School of Community and Regional Planning Study, UBC, 1972, p. 4 Bartholemew Plan: Harland Bartholemew and Associates, A Plan for the City of Vancouver, City of Vancouver, Vancouver, 1929. This plan recommended consolidated planning of Vancouver and outlying regions which happened in 1929 with the d i s t r i c t s of Vancouver, Point Grey and South Vancouver amalgamated as the City of Vancouver. This plan involved streets, transits, and zoning. The Plan was followed in establishing the physical development pattern for the City, and became the reference point for future considerations. Bartholemew updated i t in 1947 to accommodate the increased use of the car. 4. Hardwick 1974, op. c i t . 53 5. Morley, Alan, Vancouver From Milltown to Metropolis, Mitchell Press Ltd., Vancouver, 1974 Third Edition Chpt.19 6. Hardwick 1974, op. c i t . Chpt. 3 7. CMHC Urban Renewal Policies developed in the late 1940's and 50's were also influenced by similar work in Great Britian. 8. Urban Renewal and the freeway construction in Vancouver was initiated more to revitalize the Downtown than to repair blighted areas as in the United States. 9. From The Strathcona Story, a pamphlet produced in 1976 by the Strathcona Property Owners and Tenants Association (SPOTA) describes this ethnicity as: 'The early residents of Strathcona were Angle-Saxon. However, the area soon became inhabited by large numbers of Italians and Jews, as well as Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Russians and Yugoslavs.' 'Compared to the Europeans, the Chinese were latecomers to Strathcona. There were some Chinese and Japanese liv i n g in the area in the 1930's, however i t was not un t i l after the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1947 that Strathcona became increasingly Chinese. The area served as a gateway for post-war Chinese immigrants. Housing prices were low and the area was adjacent to Chinatown.' 10. Hardwick 1974, op. c i t . Chpt. 4 11. Gutstein, D., 'The Strathcona Urban Renewal Fight,' Vancouver Ltd., James Lorimer & Company, Toronto, 1975 12. The Strathcona Story, (ibid) 13. A Review of Local Area Planning, Vancouver Planning Department, 1977, p.2 14. Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning 1958-59, A Study on Highway Planning for the Metropolitan Area of the Lower Mainland of B.C., Part II, "Freeways with Rapid Transit", March, page 1, Pendakur, op. c i t . , 1972, p.4 15. Larry Smith and Associates, Real Estate Consultants, Seattle, Washington, An Economic Analysis for Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One, Preliminary Report, Vancouver, B.C., July 1963, page 81 54 Pendakur, op. c i t . , 1972, p.25 16. This work culminated in the Great Freeway Debate that was instrumental in changing the direction of transportation planning. 17. Pendakur, op. c i t . , 1972, p.34 18. Architects Protest, news article in The Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 10 NOV 1967 19. Freeway Consultant Hit In Architect's Statement, a r t i c l e in the Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 10 OCT 1967 20. Hardwick 1974, op. c i t . , Chpt. 4 21. Excerpts from interview with Mr. Wood, now Professor of Architecture with the School of Architecture, UBC. Interview was held in November of 1989. QUESTION: What led to the march in Chinatown against the Freeway? ANSWER: From each of us you're going to get an individual and perhaps an idiosyncratic version of that time. I was a young practising architect in the early 60's and thought I could change the profession. So I did a lot of shouting and to some degree in anger because the profession was being very conservative and s t i l t e d in i t s point of view in i t s responsibility to the society at large or the environment at large. Each was just after their own pound of flesh. And so at that time I was trying to be active in the profession. I developed the f i r s t the professional committee on housing, continued education and that kind of stuff. We had just bought the building on Pender Street. I had worked professionally quite closely with the Planning Department. I phoned one of the main planners and said, "Where's the freeway now?". The freeway had been kicking around for ten years and kept moving further east and north. He said, "Funny you should ask because i t ' s right outside your window." I said, "You guys can't be serious." "It looks real this time". I was very depressed and I remember coming back to school and si t t i n g around bemoaning this to my colleagues about the great stupidity that was about to happen. And they said, "Why don't we do something about i t ? " "Well, what?" "We c a l l the students together and you just t e l l them what's happening and the implications of i t " . So late one dark f a l l afternoon we called the whole student body together in one of the big theatres 55 downstairs and I just told them what I knew. Everyone got wound up and that night, and they went out. We began talking to people that we knew in the academic community, Walter Hardwick, Setty Pendakur, Paul Tennant, and so i t became a very strong academic thrust against which culminated actually in the organization TEAM. 22. Roy, Patricia, Vancouver, James Lorimer & Co. Pub. & the National Museum of Man, Toronto 1980. 23. 'Consult the Community', Leithead Urges Council, news artic l e in the Vancouver Sun, published by Pacific Press, 25 OCT 1967 56 Chapter Four THE URBAN DESIGN CENTRE - THE BEGINNING The Vancouver Inner City Service Project (VISP) The Vancouver Inner City Service Project, (VISP) Inner-City Advocacy and Rehabilitation Program, was started in the summer of 1967 by clergymen from different faiths with the o f f i c i a l backing and funding of the United Church. It began primarily as a summer student action project involving students from the faculties of social work, law, medicine, nursing, and education, with one f i f t h of the students from theology. The objectives of this project were to provide students in the service professions, with interdisciplinary learning experiences within a low income community, and at the same time, provide services the community needed and could not afford. This would also, i t was hoped, increase public awareness of the inner city and general poverty problems'. VISP included projects such as School Canadiana, 57 an English language and orientation program, Legal Aid Services, Crises Intervention and Suicide Prevention Center, Connolly House Hostel, Feed-In, Now Bus, Think Indian, Co-op Housing Project. VISP became one of the co-applicants along with the AIBC and UBC School of Architecture for the funding from Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) for the Urban Design Centre in Vancouver. VISP f e l t that the urban design component was essential as much of the community work at this time, involved the urban renewal process, neighbourhood physical planning and housing issues. The Urban Design Center used the VISP as the administrative framework and source of client contacts during the i n i t i a l years, and continually u n t i l VISP closed in Sept, 1972, as a information, community and professional resource. URBAN DESIGN CENTER - Inception In 1969, Dino Rapanos, lecturer at the School of Architecture UBC, became very interested in the Community Design/Development Centre(CDC) movement in the architectural profession the United States. He attended a conference held in San Francisco on Community Design Centers and was inspired to i n i t i a t e a similar program in Vancouver. 58 Figure 4 Floor Plan, Main floor 1895 Venables now the Vancouver East Cultural Center First location of the UDC with the Vancouver Inner-City Service Project 59 R a p a n o s , r e g i s t e r e d as a n a r c h i t e c t w i t h t h e A I B C i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 6 9 , was l e c t u r i n g a t t h e UBC S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d c o m p l e t i n g a m a s t e r s d e g r e e b a s e d o n t h e c h a n g i n g u r b a n c o m m u n i t y a n d u r b a n r e n e w a l . H e , i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f f a c u l t y a t t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l o n t h e H o u s i n g C o m m i t t e e o f t h e A I B C , s t a r t e d t h e w h e e l s i n m o t i o n t o o r g a n i z e a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g c o m p o n e n t t o t h e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d V I S P o f w h i c h he was a n e x e c u t i v e b o a r d member . He i n t e r e s t e d a g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t , R o n Y u e n , i n b e c o m i n g a member o f a V I S P p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1 9 7 0 . T h i s f i r s t p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d t h e i n F a l s e C r e e k c o m m u n i t y i n r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s u e s . Y u e n , u p o n g r a d u a t i n g , c o n t i n u e d w o r k a t t h e V I S P a n d became t h e f i r s t D i r e c t o r o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r . A l t h o u g h t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r h a d n o t y e t b e e n a s s u r e d f u l l f u n d i n g b y CMHC, w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f r e s e a r c h g r a n t s , t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d V I S P , t h e UDC h a d a D i r e c t o r a n d A s s i s t a n t , a s t u d e n t , o f f i c e s p a c e i n t h e same b u i l d i n g a s V I S P , a n d p r o j e c t s u n d e r w a y b y t h e e a r l y f a l l o f 1 9 7 0 . By N o v e m b e r , UDC h a d r e c e i v e d t w o - y e a r f u n d i n g o f $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 f r o m CMHC. T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e p r o p o s a l s u b m i t t e d t o CMHC f o r f u n d i n g . 60 O p e r a t i n g P h i l o s o p h i e s I n t h e f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n p r o p o s a l s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 0 , u n d e r Operating Philosophy o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ( s t i l l r e f e r r e d t o a s a C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e ) , t h r e e p o i n t s a r e made: f i r s t , t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n e r s a n d c o m m u n i t y p e o p l e , i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y d e f i n e s a s r e l e v a n t ; s e c o n d , t h a t i n t h e e f f o r t s o f s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e m u s t be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e who a r e p r e s e n t l y d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d , t h e p o o r ; t h i r d , t h a t i n o r d e r f o r t h e p l a n n e r o r a r c h i t e c t t o b e e f f e c t i v e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e c o m m u n i t y m u s t h a v e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h e p r o p o s a l s t a t e s : ' . . . t h e C . D . C . s t a f f - p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d s t u d e n t s - a r e r e a l l y w o r k i n g n o t s o much o n c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h e i r own s e t o f i d e a s t o t h e p o p u l a c e i n o r d e r t o g a i n a c c e p t a n c e , b u t o n w o r k i n g f o r a n d w i t h t h e p o p u l a c e i n l o w i n c o m e a n d l o w i n c o m e a r e a s . T h e y e x i s t t o d i s c o v e r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s d e f i n e a s r e l e v a n t r e l e v a n t e n o u g h t o r e q u e s t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i f t h e C . D . C . ' 2 I n c l u d e d a s a n e l a b o r a t i o n was t h e q u o t e f r o m W . L . S l a y t o n , t h e n e x e c u t i v e v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A I A : ' C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e s p e r f o r m a n i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e i n b r i n g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e t o c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o w a r d s s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . T h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s ( i e . , t h e u l t i m a t e a g e n t s o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t ) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e p r e s a g i n g t h e e x p a n d i n g r o l e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a s a c l i e n t . ' 61 A m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y f r a m e w o r k , o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d c o m m u n i t y , was p r o p o s e d i n o r d e r t o b r i n g a v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e t o t h e u r b a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s . P r o p o s e d S t r u c t u r e T o p u t t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n t o p r a c t i s e , t h e CDC w o u l d b e o p e r a t e d b y t h r e e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . F i r s t w o u l d be t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n r e p r e s e n t e d b y r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t v o l u n t e e r s who w o u l d w o r k t o w a r d s c l i n i c p l a n n i n g a n d a l s o t o w a r d s t h e b a s i c a d v o c a c y w o r k t h a t t h e c e n t r e m u s t c a r r y o u t i n o r d e r t o w i n c o m m u n i t y t r u s t . T h e s e c o n d w o u l d b e t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a s a s o u r c e o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t u d e n t w o r k e r s a n d f a c u l t y s t a f f . T h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d p r o v i d e a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s o r t u t o r i a l s b a s e d o n w o r k a t t h e C D C . T h e t h i r d g r o u p w o u l d be s t u d e n t s i n summer s e r v i c e , a c a d e m i c f i e l d p l a c e m e n t a n d a s v o l u n t e e r s . T h e s e s t u d e n t s c o u l d come f r o m o u t s i d e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t u d y , e i t h e r t h r o u g h V I S P o r S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . S t u d e n t w o r k c o u l d c a r r y o n , o n a p a i d b a s i s t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer. T h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s w o u l d w o r k t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a c t i v e l e a d e r s o f l o w i n c o m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n w h i c h t h e UDC w o u l d f i n d i t s f o c u s o f o p e r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s made up o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s n o m i n a t e d i n e q u a l 62 n u m b e r s f r o m U B C , t h e A I B C a n d V I S P w o u l d o v e r s e e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l a n d t h e w o r k o f t h e C e n t r e , a s w e l l a s s e t t i n g p o l i c y a n d d i r e c t i o n . I n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e UDC w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l t o a l l p a r t i e s . T h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n w o u l d be a b l e t o f u l f i l i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l o a t h t o ' u p h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l a i m s , a n d t h e a r t a n d s c i e n c e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e r e b y i m p r o v e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ' b y w o r k i n g o n a r e a s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h e r e t h e y h a v e b e e n u n a b l e p r e v i o u s l y t o become o p e r a t i v e . ^ T h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d b e a b l e t o p r o v i d e a c a d e m i c a n d p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r y o u n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a t a l l o w e d s t u d y , a n a l y s i s , a n d f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s t h a t w e r e s e e n t o be t e a r i n g t h e c i t i e s a n d s o c i e t y a p a r t . S t u d e n t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o u l d h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r k w i t h t h o s e p e o p l e whose l i v e s t h e y w e r e e f f e c t i n g i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i s e . T h e c o m m u n i t y w o u l d b e p r o v i d e d w i t h t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , r e s e a r c h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d a n d w o u l d h a v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e c h a n g e s t h a t a r e t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s o c i e t y . 63 O b j e c t i v e s T h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e s a s s t a t e d i n t h e o p e r a t i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h CMHC^ f o r t h e a c t u a l w o r k t o be p e r f o r m e d w e r e : T o e x a m i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l n e e d s o f s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f t h e u r b a n c o m m u n i t y w h i c h a r e r i p e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e a r e a s i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d t o a c t a s a g e n t s , a d v o c a t e s , a n d b r o k e r s f o r p r o p o s a l s d e v e l o p e d b y t h e r e s i d e n t s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d i t s o f f i c i a l s ; t o p r o p o s e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p l a n s a n d t o s u p e r v i s e d e l i v e r y ; t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s . T o e s t a b l i s h a w o r k s h o p i n w h i c h a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y c a n c o - o p e r a t e w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d w i t h c o m m u n i t y r e s i d e n t s w i t h a v i e w t o b r i d g i n g t h e g a p w h i c h e x i s t s b e t w e e n a c a d e m i c e n d e a v o u r , t h e r e a l i t i e s o f p r a c t i c e , a n d t h e n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . T o p r o v i d e a n a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e t o l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s t o a s s i s t t h e s e f a m i l i e s , o n r e q u e s t , w i t h p r o b l e m s r e g a r d i n g h o u s i n g , g a r d e n s , r e n o v a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s , m a i n t e n a n c e , e t c . P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s w i l l b e g i v e n t o p r o b l e m s r e q u i r i n g s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Z o n i n g B o a r d o f A p p e a l . T h e k i n d s o f p r o j e c t s e n v i s i o n e d a t t h e t i m e w e r e s u c h t h i n g s a s : - i n v e s t i g a t i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g p r e s e n t a n d p o t e n t i a l u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t - a c t i n g a s a g e n t s b e t w e e n c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d c i t y g o v e r n m e n t - p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s a n d ombudsman a s s i s t a n c e t o c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s - r e n d e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o u n d e d a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d - o p e r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n f o r h o u s i n g , f o o d c o - o p s , d a y - c a r e a s e x a m p l e s . 64 F u n d i n g a n d P e r s o n n e l T h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o CMHC was s u c c e s s f u l , a n d t h e UDC r e c e i v e d two y e a r f u n d i n g f r o m CMHC a n d o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d i n f a l l o f 1 9 7 0 . A t t h a t t i m e i t r e c e i v e d s a l a r i e s f o r a D i r e c t o r a n d A s s i s t a n t p l u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d o v e r h e a d . T h i s was a u g m e n t e d b y summer s t u d e n t g r a n t s u n d e r s t u d e n t e m p l o y m e n t p r o g r a m s , O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Y o u t h (OFY) a n d L o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s P r o g r a m ( L I P ) . By t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 2 , t h e UDC h a d g r o w n t o 2 s t a f f , 6 s t u d e n t s a n d 8 L . I . P . w o r k e r s . T h e s t a f f , c o n s i s t i n g o f g r a d u a t e a r c h i t e c t s , p r o v i d e d t h e o v e r a l l c o n t i n u i t y t o t h e p r o j e c t s , a s t h e s t u d e n t s ' t e r m o f w o r k a n d v o l u n t e e r c o m m i t m e n t v a r i e d . A s w e l l , o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e f i r s t y e a r s , t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e o f f e r e d 6 U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r d e s i g n t u t o r i a l s h e a d e d b y D i n o R a p a n o s (See F i g u r e 5 f o r a T u t o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n ) . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e u n d e r t h e d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f Ron Y u e n who was h i r e d a s a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t . T h e UDC s h a r e d o f f i c e s p a c e w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t a n d i n t h e c a s e o f w o r k f o r c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d r e w t h e i r c l i e n t e l e f r o m c o n t a c t s w i t h V I S P . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h V I S P h e l p e d t o s e n s i t i z e b o t h t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e c l i e n t s t o t h e w o r k o f t h e U D C ^ . T h e p r e v a l e n t p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h e e l i t e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s t u d e n t p a r a c h u t i n g i n t o a c o m m u n i t y was c o u n t e r a c t e d b y t h e 65 School of Architecture The University of British Columbia Academic Year 1972/73 Page 9 TUTORIAL J (ARCH 420, 421, 440, 441) - D. Rapanos and R. Yuen Spring & F a l l URBAN DESIGN CENTRE Objective: To provide an opportunity for students to work on environmental problems that are current and with the people who are directly affected. Description • "Architects and planners must become more deeply and passionately involved with the real issues that are tearing our cities and our society apart, and, in order to do so, they must learn first-hand what these problems are like and how to work with the people whose lives they are affecting and who should be making basic decisions about the changes that are to take place." The UDC wil l examine environmental needs of specific areas of the urban community which are ripe for rehabilitation. It will cooperate with residents of these areas in this process to act as agents and advocates for proposals developed by the residents and the UDC for presentation to various levels of government and i t s o f f i c i a l s . It wil l propose strategies for implementation of plans and supervise delivery. The UDC w i l l offer its services to individuals or service organizations who are unable to pay professional consultants but whose work is considered desirable within the community. The UDC wil l act as an advisory service to low-income families to assist, on request, with problems regarding housing, gardens, renonva- tions, additions, maintenance, etc. Particular emphasis will be given to problems requiring submission to the Zoning Board of Appeal. Method: The UDC is a fi e l d service and will desire to locate within the community i t wishes to serve. Since the problems i t wil l attempt to deal with are of a cross-disciplinary scope an intimate connection with the Inner-City Service Project has been established, with their many resource people (social workers, lawyers, doctors, theologians, etc.) prepared to work with the UDC. The problems to be dealt with will be decided on the basis of the requests for assistance as weighed by representatives of the UDC, Inner-City, the School of Architecture and the AIBC. Prerequisites: A desire to be effective in changing the physical environment with the people directly concsrned. Limitations: Limited to 6 students. Students with some particular ability, knowledge or experience useful to the UDC will be given preference. F i g u r e 5 T u t o r i a l J D e s c r i p t i o n 66 c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e o f t h e p e r m a n e n t s t a f f , t h e ' s t o r e f r o n t ' i d e n t i t y a n d l o c a t i o n , a n d t h e o p e r a t i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s w o r k was d o n e , o f c o u r s e , t h e U D C ' s r e p u t a t i o n g r e w a n d s o d i d t h e r e q u e s t s f o r c o m m u n i t y b a s e d s e r v i c e s . B y 1 9 7 2 , t h e V I S P h a d c l o s e d down, p o s s i b l y d u e t o t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f Max B e c k , t h e p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r , a n d t h e UDC h a d moved o u t o n i t s own a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t y . A s a n i n d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t y , t h e c o n n e c t i o n t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d p r o f e s s i o n was d o n e m a i n l y t h r o u g h t h e B o a r d o f P a r t i c i p a n t s , a l t h o u g h t u t o r i a l a n d c o u r s e c r e d i t r e m a i n e d i n t a c t f o r a n o t h e r t e r m . S e v e r a l p e o p l e f r o m b o t h t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e A I B C s a t o n t h i s B o a r d . A f t e r two y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e UDC o r i g i n a t o r s w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g ' b u r n o u t ' . Ron Y u e n s t e p p e d down a s D i r e c t o r a n d was r e p l a c e d b y T o n y G r e e n who h a d b e e n w i t h t h e UDC s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g . G r e e n a n d Y u e n r e m a i n e d w i t h t h e UDC u n t i l D e c e m b e r o f 1 9 7 3 . A t t h i s t i m e , J i m L e M a i s t r e t o o k o v e r a s D i r e c t o r f r o m G r e e n . I t was d u r i n g t h e l a t e f a l l a n d e a r l y s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 2 - 3 t h a t t h e C e n t r e , s t a f f , s t u d e n t s , v o l u n t e e r s a n d B o a r d , b e g a n t o s e r i o u s l y r e e x a m i n e i t s g o a l s a n d f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . By t h i s t i m e , s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t w o r k was f a i r l y w e l l - d e f i n e d . T h e V I S P , h a v i n g c l o s e d d o w n , no l o n g e r p r o v i d e d a c l i e n t e l e b a s e . 67 UDC h a d t o d e f i n e i t s own d i r e c t i o n s . S e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s w e r e d i s c u s s e d , s u c h a s more r e s e a r c h a n d m o r e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h g o v e r n m e n t i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g . Some a r g u e d f o r r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s u c h a s l a n d r e f o r m , w h i l e o t h e r s f e l t t h a t w o r k i n g f o r r e f o r m o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e c i t y * * was m o s t i m p o r t a n t . T h e t y p e o f c l i e n t e l e t h a t t h e UDC was p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r , was q u e s t i o n e d . Some f e l t t h a t t h e r e was a d a n g e r t h a t i t was a s q u e e z e d m i d d l e c l a s s a n d n o t t h e p o o r a s many o f t h e s m a l l s c a l e d e s i g n p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d homeowners who w e r e n o t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r e v e n a c c e s s t o s h e l t e r . I n t h e e n d , i t was R a p a n o s who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s o f t h e UDC m u s t come f r o m t h e g r a s s r o o t s . T h e UDC w o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h p r o j e c t s a s t h e y h a d b e g u n ; i t h a d b e e n f o r m e d t o s a t i s f y a n e e d w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s t o e n a b l e c o m m u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a m e a n i n g f u l w a y . T h i s n e e d s t i l l e x i s t e d . T h i s s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n was a l s o a n o u t c o m e o f t h e c o n t i n u a l s e a r c h f o r f u n d i n g . S e v e r a l m e e t i n g s a n d s t u d y w o r k s h o p s w e r e h e l d d u r i n g t h e s e m o n t h s . Up u n t i l now t h e C e n t r e h a d b e e n f u n d e d t h r o u g h g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y m e n t i n i t i a t i v e p r o g r a m s a n d t h r o u g h CMHC, a n d t o some e x t e n t b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y t h r o u g h t h e t u t o r i a l t e a c h i n g . A d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g was a l w a y s b e i n g a p p l i e d f o r , a n d t h i s became a p r e o c c u p a t i o n . Some c o n t r a c t s f o r s t u d i e s a n d r e p o r t s h a d b e e n a w a r d e d t o UDC f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H o u s i n g a n d 68 Management Commission (BCHMC). More emphasis would have to be placed on securing of private contracts as government funding was beginning to dry up and many of the original funding programs were stopped. By the end of the 15 months of operation the UDC had undertaken over 30 projects. In a report to CMHC, Yuen states that: 'the course of action of the UDC during the past year has been one of developing new methods of involving people in the planning process in order that citizens w i l l gain confidence in their own a b i l i t i e s to act and act effectively to change their environment. This has been a f u l l time and long term commitment'9. The UDC had provided stable professional involvement in community issues which was not naturally occurring due for the most part to the inability of these often loosely organized client groups to afford these services. At this point i t was f e l t that the UDC should develop i t s research and publication activities and take on a proactive role in identifying developing trends and their potential problems. The UDC applied for additional funding from CMHC for 3 more years. The Latter Years At the end of 1973, Jim LeMaistre, a planning student graduate who had taken a course credit through the UDC in 69 the f a l l of 1971, stayed on after graduation, taking over the helm. The Urban Design Center had moved from the church at the corner of Venables St. and Victoria Ave.-^, to 1111 Commercial St. H in the summer of 1972 where i t remained unt i l October of 1976 when the office closed. The Center continued to have an active Urban Design Centre Society membership and Board of Directors. By 1974, the UDC was loosely set up as a workers coop, with the Board of Directors consisting of staff. Funding came from a variety of sources, including CMHC extended core funding, Local Initiatives Program and general c o n t r a c t s A . CMHC core funding continued through 1975, but was not renewed. The projects throughout these last years were more oriented towards planning and community organization than design. The School of Architecture no longer offered students the opportunity for design tutorial credit through the CDC for two reasons: the usefulness of the UDC as an academic experience was brought into question and funds would no longer be allocated for a teaching assistant in the UDC and student interest had shifted to another programs which offered credit for work in a traditional architect's office. During this time the UDC advertised i t s services as planning and development analysis, architectural programming and design, and social research and f a c i l i t i e s . Under planning and development analysis, UDC offered site planning, land 70 S r K E ALLOIMBTT: 1̂1 • Phase II TT_ F i g u r e 6 1111 C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e UDC o f f i c e l a y o u t a n d f u t u r e p r o p o s a l 71 u s e a n d e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t s t u d i e s ; u n d e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l , s e r v i c e s up t o p r e l i m i n a r y d r a w i n g s ( b a s e d o n u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) f o r f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l , w o r k a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a n a l y s i s , a n d s p a c e p l a n n i n g ; r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d a n a l y s i s , h o u s i n g f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , l a y p e r s o n b o o k l e t s . By t h i s t i m e t h e s t a f f h a d b e e n b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s a n d t h e ' a r c h i t e c t u r a l ' c o m p o n e n t d i d n o t d o m i n a t e . U s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d become ' w o r k i n g w i t h i n a n a p p r o p r i a t e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s t o i n v o l v e a s many o f t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a s p o s s i b l e - w h e t h e r t h e y be r e s i d e n t s , w o r k e r s o r v i s i t o r s ' ± J I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c h a n g e i n s t a f f , t h r e e t r e n d s i n g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e k i n d s o f p r o j e c t s t h a t t h e UDC became i n v o l v e d w i t h . One was t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f much n e e d e d d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s was s u r f a c i n g a s a m a j o r c o m m u n i t y i s s u e . M i n i m a l c o n s t r u c t i o n g r a n t s w e r e g i v e n t o n o n - p r o f i t p a r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r s e t t i n g o f d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h e s e c o s t s d i d n o t a l l o w f o r s t u d y , p r o g r a m m i n g o r d e s i g n . T h e UDC p r o v i d e d t h i s r e s e a r c h a n d d e s i g n s e r v i c e t o many o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s w o r k e v o l v e d i n t o a p r o p o s a l f o r a Day C a r e M a n u a l w h i c h was n e v e r a c t u a l l y p r o d u c e d , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l r e p o r t s w e r e p r o d u c e d f o r t h e C h i l d c a r e F e d e r a t i o n . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , h o w e v e r , a f o r m e r w o r k e r a t t h e U D C , C h u c k R e i f h a s b e e n a p p r o a c h e d t o f i n i s h t h i s w o r k . A n o t h e r c h a n g e was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f 72 t h e 1972 H o u s i n g A c t w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e n o n - p r o f i t a n d c o - o p h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . U n d e r t h i s a c t , s o c i e t i e s c o u l d r e c e i v e f u n d i n g f o r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . T h e UDC h e l p e d s e t up New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t ^ c o n s i s t i n g o f p o t e n t i a l t e n a n t s , a c t i n g a s a p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n r e s o u r c e g r o u p . T h e t h i r d c h a n g e was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d I m p r o v e m e n t G r a n t s a s p a r t o f t h e U r b a n R e n e w a l i n c e n t i v e s . T h e s e g r a n t s a v a i l a b l e t o l o w i n c o m e r e s i d e n t s f o r u p g r a d i n g o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n c e . M o n i e s w e r e m i n i m a l a n d d i d n o t make a l l o w a n c e f o r d e s i g n a n d t e c h n i c a l c o n s u l t a t i o n f e e s . Many o f t h e s m a l l d e s i g n p r o j e c t s came f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s a p p l y i n g f o r t h i s g r a n t m o n e y . When c o r e f u n d i n g s t o p p e d i n 1 9 7 6 , t h e UDC h a d two d i r e c t i o n s t o c o n s i d e r t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n . I t c o u l d e v o l v e f u l l y i n t o a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l b u s i n e s s a s d i d some o f t h e C D C ' s i n t h e S t a t e s . x 5 I t c o u l d become a h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p a s s i s t i n g s o c i e t i e s a c h i e v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . When t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e g r o u p a t t h e t i m e , D i r e c t o r J i m L e M a i s t r e , d e c i d e d t o t a k e a f u l l - t i m e j o b a t t h e S u r r e y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d I m p r o v e m e n t P r o g r a m ^ g r a n t s f o r t h e a r e a , t h e UDC c l o s e d i t s d o o r s . (See A p p e n d i x T h r e e f o r UDC C h r o n o l o g y ) . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e e v o l v e d f r o m p a r t o f a s o c i a l s e r v i c e p r o j e c t , t o a s e p a r a t e p r o g r a m , t o a s o c i e t y , t o a 73 workers co-op. Although o r i g i n a l l y funded s o l e l y by government grants, at i t s close the UDC was receiving contracts for s p e c i f i c work. During the course of i t s existence i t brought together three c r i t i c a l elements of the urban environmental s i t u a t i o n , the Community, the University and the Profession. Over 21 students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the UDC design t u t o r i a l s , many more were employed or worked there as volunteers. Members of the community, the University and the profession volunteered time either at the Center i t s e l f or on the Board (See Appendix Five for a l i s t of p a r t i c i p a n t s ) . The UDC completed over 160 projects. 1. VISP's intent was to a s s i s t the new patterns of welfare-income support and service delivery that were forming with an emphasis on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Its basic outline was: aimed at root causes of dependency; based out of Gastown and Skid Road; coordinated with l o c a l c i t i z e n ' s groups and other area s o c i a l agencies and workers; involved with professionals outside the area of Social Work (doctors, lawyers, a r c h i t e c t s ) ; heavily based on research and education. The issues were basic welfare payment recipient information, job p o t e n t i a l , health care. The intent was to break the constant cycle of dependency on welfare, and VISP involved to emphasis comprehensive, preventative work. Jan. 26, 1970, description pamphlet from Vol.1, F i l e 11, Add.MSS 989, Urban Design Centre, C i t y of Vancouver Archives 2. Proposal for a Model Community Design Centre, A p r i l 22, 1970, submitted to the Honourable Robert Andras, Minister without P o r t f o l i o Responsible for Housing, Government of Canada. This proposal was based i n part on the Guidelines for Community Design Centres, The American In s t i t u t e of 74 Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969. City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1, F i l e 9. 3. A Bulletin published by the American Institute of Architects Concerning Advocacy Planning and Community Design Centres. No date. Probably 1969. City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1 F i l e 2. 4. from Article 9 of the Bylaws of the Architectural Institute of British Columbia. This Article i s the professional oath for architects. 5. This application was prepared by Max Beck and Dino Rapanos. The description of the UDC's purposes and work was adapted from the Guidelines for Community Design Centers distributed by the American CDC network that Rapanos was part of from the conference in 1969. Vancouver City Archives, Vol.1 Fil e 6, Contract with CMHC for funding 6. The UDC was in close proximity to and much influenced by the Legal Aid group headed at that time by Mike Harcourt. 7. The actual work done by the UDC is discussed in Chapter 4, and Appendix Four. 8. Supporting the movement to the Ward System in Civic elections. 9. Ron Yuen in an Application for Funding Under Part V "Housing Research and Community Planning" to CMHC, Jan 1972, City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol.1, No.6 10. now the Vancouver East Cultural Centre. 11. now the La Quena Restaurant, a restaurant whose profits go to Central American re l i e f efforts and is run by volunteers. 12. In the Nov.1973-April 1974 statement submitted to CMHC, 32% of the funding came from CMHC, 40% from LIP, 28% from contracts, membership fees, and publication sales. 13. UDC Pamphlet by Jim LeMaistre, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 9, Vancouver City Archives 14. New Living Development Company Limited, was formed by some members of the UDC and other persons 'to attain a p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t more c o n d u c i v e t o t h e i r d e s i r e s a n d n e e d s o n a n o n - p r o f i t b a s i s ' a s q u o t e d f r o m t h e company a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s company was f o r m e d p r i m a r i l y t o d e v e l o p l o w - i n c o m e h o u s i n g . T h e UDC was o f f i c i a l l y a member o f t h e N L D . NLD s e r v e d a s a r e s o u r c e f o r s e v e r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h UDC s t a f f . C o m e r i o , M a r y , Community Design: Idealism and Entrepreneurship, J o u r n a l o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h 1984 V o l . 1 C o m e r i o ' s a r t i c l e , Inside Chinatown's Tiny Apartments, i n t h e A I A J o u r n a l , A p r i l 1983 d e s c r i b e s a n e x a m p l e o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y w i t h t h e A s i a n N e i g h b o u r h o o d D e s i g n CDC w h i c h h a s d e v e l o p e d f u r n i t u r e f o r t h e s m a l l S i n g l e Room O c c u p a n c y d w e l l i n g s i n C h i n a t o w n . T h i s p r o g r a m was p a r t o f t h e U r b a n r e n e w a l movement t h a t e n c o u r a g e d r e n o v a t i o n . 76 C h a p t e r F i v e THE URBAN D E S I G N CENTER - C L I E N T S AND P R O J E C T S D u r i n g t h e s i x y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e U D C ' s c l i e n t e l e a n d t h e p r o j e c t s w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e . C l i e n t s w e r e u s u a l l y c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s o r s o c i e t i e s , b u t a l s o i n c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Work i n c l u d e d r e s e a r c h , s e l f - h e l p p u b l i c a t i o n s , f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , b u i l d i n g a n d r e n o v a t i o n d e s i g n , a n d p a r k a n d c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e j o b s w e r e s m a l l d e s i g n p r o j e c t s . I n t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g j o b s , t h e UDC o f t e n a l s o p e r f o r m e d a r o l e a s c l i e n t o r g a n i z e r , f a c i l i t a t o r , a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . T h e g e n e r a l f o r m a t o f w o r k w i t h i n t h e UDC was t o a s s i g n a n i n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l g r o u p t o a p r o j e c t a n d make t h e m r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e UDC p r o g r a m w e r e k e p t i n f o r m e d o f e a c h p r o j e c t ' s p r o g r e s s b y w e e k l y m e e t i n g s h e l d a t t h e o f f i c e . Y u e n a n d G r e e n a c t e d a s o v e r s e e r s a n d u s u a l l y made t h e i n i t i a l c l i e n t c o n t a c t s , a n d a l s o p r o v i d e d c o n t i n u i t y a s s t u d e n t s l e f t t h e C e n t r e . A s w e l l Y u e n s u p e r v i s e d t h e s t u d e n t w o r k . 77 F o r a c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g o f t h e T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ' s p r o j e c t s s e e A p p e n d i x F o u r . T h e f o l l o w i n g e i g h t p r o j e c t s a r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h e s c o p e a n d t y p e o f w o r k u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e UDC a n d w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n m o r e d e t a i l . 1 . S K E E N A T E R R A C E R E C R E A T I O N F A C I L I T Y - a n e a r l y p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g m i x e d c l i e n t g r o u p , a n d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t was a b u i l d i n g 2 . THE GASTOWN H E A L T H C L I N I C - a n o f f i c e r e n o v a t i o n , w i t h a m i x e d c l i e n t g r o u p 3 . RICHMOND P L A Y L O T - s m a l l p r o j e c t f o r a w e l l o r g a n i z e d c l i e n t g r o u p 4 . HOME SHOW C L I N I C - one t i m e , o u t r e a c h s e r v i c e o f f e r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s 5 . L A Y M A N ' S HOME IMPROVEMENT GUIDE - p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n p r o j e c t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t o r homeowner 6. DAYCARE AND OTHER RESEARCH - UDC d e v e l o p e d e x p e r t i s e 7 . P A R A P L E G I C GROUP HOMES - l o n g t e r m p r o j e c t t h a t e v o l v e d o v e r 4 y e a r s 8 . ADANAC PLANNING - l o n g t e r m c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g 9 . ORCHARD PARK - l a s t l a r g e c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t 78 1. Skeena Terrace Recreation F a c i l i t y One of the f i r s t p r o j e c t s , the Skeena Terrace Recreation F a c i l i t y , was described by Rapanos, i n h i s .Report t o the Profession* i n l a t e 1971, as being one of the UDC's most complex and d i f f i c u l t . In t h i s p r o j e c t , the UDC was t o a s s i s t the c l i e n t group, r e s i d e n t s of the Skeena Terrace Housing P r o j e c t represented by the Skeena Terrace P r o j e c t Committee, i n o b t a i n i n g a multi-purpose, r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y f o r the community. The p r o j e c t r e q u i r e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the user group, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of needs, and, i n f a c t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a c l i e n t group; development of a program; and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s governments f o r land and funds . The UDC was c a l l e d i n i n i t i a l l y t o provide f r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s t o the Skeena Terrace Committee. In a note about the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s p r o j e c t Tony Green i l l u s t r a t e s the s p i r i t and enthusiasm of those e a r l y days: 'September 29 - NOTES * Marie Booth has seven c h i l d r e n . Her husband, S i d , i s unemployed. One of her boys i s e p i l e p t i c and hyper- nervous; he can't go t o school l i k e other k i d s . Marie l i v e s i n Skeena Terrace, i n a maisonette w i t h three bedrooms. She i s president of the Skeena Terrace Tenant's A s s o c i a t i o n . She i s a r t i c u l a t e , i n t e l l i g e n t , overburdened, handsome, probably w i t h d i f f e r e n t surrounding she would meet the middle c l a s s i d e a l of "resp e c t a b l e " , even "respected". She i s t r y i n g t o do something f o r h e r s e l f and others l i k e her - a small b i t of the urban poor of Vancouver. We're going t o help her.* 79 T h e r o l e o f ' f r e e , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ' e x p a n d e d . T h e UDC f o u n d i t s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o R a p a n o s : ' n o t o n l y h e l p i n g t o d e f i n e t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o b l e m o n t h e b a s i s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b u t was s o o n i n v o l v e d i n h e l p i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e c i t i z e n g r o u p , p r o v i d i n g b a c k u p i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , e x p l o r i n g m e t h o d s o f f i n a n c i n g a n d t r y i n g t o h o l d t h e c o m m i t t e e t o g e t h e r , a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m m u n i t y w i s h e s . ' 5 T h i s p r o j e c t l a s t e d s e v e r a l m o n t h s , g o i n g t h r o u g h many c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s , l o c a t i o n s , a n d s c h e m a t i c b u i l d i n g d e s i g n . I t was r e s o l v e d when t h e S k e e n a C o m m i t t e e d e c i d e d t o a c c e p t a n o f f e r f r o m t h e S c h o o l B o a r d t o m o d i f y a p r o p o s e d g y m n a s i u m a d d i t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l f o r a N e i g h b o u r h o o d r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y . A t t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e c t , t h e UDC f e l t t h e y h a d f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e u s e r d i d n o t h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t s a y i n t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . R a p a n o s r e p o r t s , ' T h e e f f o r t o f s e l f - h e l p a n d i n v o l v e m e n t was r e s o l v e d b y t h e c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s a n d t h e p r o j e c t p l a c e d i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d d e p a r t m e n t s . ' * ' T h i s p r o j e c t d i d , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l i n v o l v e d . T h e UDC d i s c o v e r e d w h a t i t was l i k e t o p u t i t s p h i l o s o p h i e s i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t r e v e a l e d t h e v o l a t i l e n a t u r e o f c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d t h e n e e d f o r g r o u n d r u l e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i n i t i a t e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e v a g a r i e s o f p o l i t i c s a s i n t h e e n d t h e c o m m u n i t y a c c e p t e d a n o f f e r f r o m t h e C i t y w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e a n y o f t h e w o r k d o n e w i t h t h e U D C . I t i l l u s t r a t e d how d i f f i c u l t i t was t o o r c h e s t r a t e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e s i g n , t h u s 80 a c t i o n p j g ^ THE <SO/S5NMî TS •' F E O B S M - UREAM AfTvNRS PC8T- ANCRA'S CMHO PPCVINQAL- •MUNICIf*UAFf/°<eS €- ecHMC, CcNSUUT THE £=7 ©ECU PS - TD WcVUDB i^QSYCNfe IN THE STTA EUNRtSE A9='p|. eeuL>w ecus. CHURCH QROufS SCHCCC i PF&-SCHCCU VCUTH SRDUF5 e Atf CWCES we CAN THINK- or € ESCH eraxtp HAS A NUMBER CF €MALU «j«Tvi=e5 or • •SITE ^PPcisiTles •ActNiTies« s e rv i ce s J • FlHANClMSi/0Pl5B»«TCNS • >*WAIMl'ST1W/VA= STRUCTUB& BUDGrETlNGi- CAFTTAU URBAN DEaSM OEKTRE AU/ QRCUPS WILL KWCUl WHAT acer OF ceasicws ARE BSW<S MACE . A CIRCULATlNe FACT/ctfNICN SWEET.•• "WIS IS WHAT W0 TEU- ' THE Aifwc7pmes we (•flSRDWi. AT CME BK5, M^TWGr Cft MEETIMGS OF • o DE3SN (AgCHI lfcLTMieAL-) Bqep "FINANCE BRIEF " ADMINI STTRiCTNE STPUCTUES BWS= TtiBM : 1 ^ TT- m TED C f E N F i g u r e 7 S k e e n a T e r r a c e P r o j e c t O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D i a g r a m 81 i d e n t i f y i n g t h e n e e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g m e t h o d s o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (See F i g u r e 7 f o r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i a g r a m o f t h e S k e e n a T e r r a c e P r o j e c t a n d A p p e n d i x S i x f o r a c o p y o f a r e p o r t b y T o n y G r e e n ) . 2 . T h e G a s t o w n H e a l t h C l i n i c T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e G a s t o w n H e a l t h C l i n i c f o r t h e Downtown C o m m u n i t y H e a l t h S o c i e t y (DCHS) i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f e a r l y UDC d e s i g n p r o j e c t s a n d i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f U D C ' s o p e r a t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s . Y u e n , D i r e c t o r , was a p p r o a c h e d i n l a t e 1970 b y t h e Downtown C l e r g y A s s o c i a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c l i n i c . Two s t u d e n t s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e p r o j e c t a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e S o c i e t y (DCHS) w h i c h was f o r m e d t o s p o n s o r t h e p r o j e c t . V a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e S o c i e t y . C o n c u r r e n t l y , a b u i l d i n g was b e i n g l o c a t e d b y t h e S o c i e t y ' s b u i l d i n g c o m m i t t e e . UDC was a s k e d t o c a r r y o u t i n i t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d c o s t s t u d i e s . B a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e d a s k e t c h p l a n a n d a s k e d t h e a d v i c e o f s e v e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , e n g i n e e r s , a r c h i t e c t s a n d c o n t r a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e t h e c o s t e s t i m a t e . T h e e s t i m a t e a n d p l a n s w e r e t a k e n t o t h e S o c i e t y a n d much d i s c u s s i o n e n s u e d . C o n f l i c t s o f r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d o b j e c t i v e s 82 s u r f a c e d a n d t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r a m was r e d e f i n e d . T h e p l a n a n d w o r k d o n e b y t h e UDC became t h e f o c a l p o i n t f o r r e s o l u t i o n o f many i s s u e s . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t i n a 20 y e a r r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w w i t h M o n t y W o o d , s t u d e n t a t t h e UDC o n t h i s p r o j e c t , i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l t h e t o n e o f t h i s p r o j e c t a n d o f t h e w o r k o f t h e U D C . ' T h e Downtown E a s t s i d e c l i n i c i s a c t u a l l y w h a t I d i d f o r my t h e s i s p r o j e c t f o r D i n o [ R a p a n o s ] a n d R o n [ Y u e n ] . We s p e n t t h e w h o l e t e r m d e s i g n i n g , i n v o l v i n g , a n d p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h , Mae G u t t e r i d g e , t h e C a r r a l l S t r e e t H e a l t h U n i t , a p l a n n e r , some p e o p l e f r o m F i r s t U n i t e d C h u r c h , a n d some nuns f r o m S t . P a u l ' s ( b e c a u s e we w e r e g o i n g t o move i n t o t h e S e a m e n ' s M i s s i o n ) . We h a d a c o r n e r , a s i t e , a r o o m a n d i t was b a s i c a l l y j u s t t o s s i n g u p some p a r t i t i o n s a n d a s i n k . T h e r e w a s n ' t a c t u a l l y a l o t o f d e s i g n t o i t . I t h o u g h t t h e r e was a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f d e s i g n . I w o r k e d my l i t t l e b u n s o f f o n t h a t one a n d a c t u a l l y a t t h e e n d o f t e r m we a c t u a l l y h a d a d e s i g n . D i n o e v e n i n t r o d u c e d u s t o v a r i o u s p l a c e s . He m a r c h e d u s i n t o DW T h o m p s o n [ e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m ] t o a s k a b o u t p l u m b i n g r u n s a n d how t o d o t h a t . T h e y s a i d , " T h i s i s how y o u do i t . 1 / 8 " / f o o t , e t c . " B e c a u s e t h e r u n was s o l o n g , w h a t w e r e we g o i n g t o do a b o u t a n e x p o s e d p i p e r u n n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h i s l a r g e g y m n a s i u m h a l l . A t t h e e n d o f t e r m I w r o t e a r e p o r t s t a t i n g w h a t t h e d e s i g n was a n d t h a t i t was a g r e e d u p o n b y t h e s e v a r i o u s p a r t i e s . . . . Y o u r e a l l y f o u n d t h a t y o u wound up i n t h e m i d d l e o f a w a r , n o t a w a r , b u t y o u became s o r t o f t h e b a t t l e f i e l d f o r e v e r y o t h e r g r o u p . T h i s i s w h a t i s g r e a t a b o u t i t , p l a n s - o n - p a p e r i s a c t u a l l y a v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s f a c t i o n s w e r e a b l e t o n e g o t i a t e . A n d s o , f o r i n s t a n c e , when we l a i d i t o u t i n s u c h a w a y , we f e l t t h a t t h e d o c t o r s h o u l d d o t h u s a n d s o a n d h i s s a n c t u a r y s h o u l d f o r m t h i s w a y . Now we h a v e a s t r e a m o f p e o p l e c o m i n g i n . Mae G u t t e r i d g e , t h e way s h e s e t s h e r p l a c e u p , s h e w a n t s t o s e e p e o p l e t u r n i n g t h e k n o b on t h e d o o r b e f o r e t h e y w a l k i n . Now t h a t ' s Mae G u t t e r i d g e , v e r y h a n d s o n , v e r y ' I ' m - i n - c h a r g e - a r o u n d - h e r e ' , Mae G u t t e r i d g e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d we w e r e o f a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s u a s i o n , a d i f f e r e n t d y n a m i c . We t h o u g h t t h a t we s h o u l d g e t t h e m t h r o u g h t h e d o o r b e f o r e t h e y g e t i n s p e c t e d . T h e r e w e r e t h o s e s o r t o f t h i n g s t h a t h a d t o be r e s o l v e d . We d i d d o t h e p l a n a n d t h e n I g o t a l i t t l e g r a n t t h r o u g h R o n a n d I went o u t a n d b u i l t i t . R o n Y u e n a n d 83 an OFY [Opportunities For Youth] grant, we went out and with the help from some CYC [Company of Young Canadians] people. We actually hired about 8 guys off the road and I ran a construction crew. We b u i l t t h i s thing. I t was great and i t worked. And then Mae Gutteridge came i n , got a chain saw and cut some holes i n the door and the walls so she could see people turning the door knob. Oh well, i t worked. That was for me a f i r s t piece of prime f u l f i l l m e n t a f t e r three years of t a l k i n g . From there instead of being just the Downtown Medical C l i n i c , i t turned into DERA. I t was set up as a non-profit society. The society was run under F i r s t United Church and j o i n t l y boarded by Mae Gutteridge and the Anglican Church. At some point the Health Department made sure that the Salvation Army were kept at bay. They didn't get t h e i r foot i n the door on that thing, because 3 and 4 parties was getting too messy. Then Mae Gutteridge decided that i t wasn't enough of her own space so she moved out. Then i t turned into the DERA. It did have a continuity and i t ' s s t i l l a l i v e today. This project, t y p i c a l l y , involved a mixed c l i e n t group and involved a great deal of time at the beginning. I t was not simply a r c h i t e c t u r a l design, but also became an organizing t o o l , fund-raising, and eventually an employment scheme. 3. The Richmond Playlot The Richmond Pla y l o t project, a 2 month project, i s representative of the many pl a y l o t projects undertaken by the UDC. Yuen was approached by a neighbourhood organization, the Dutch and Laurelwood Creative Park Group, to help design a p l a y l o t and park for the neighbourhood. Other groups became involved and the c i t i z e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n group became the Neighbourhood Council. A f i r s t year 84 F i g u r e 8 P l a y l o t d r a w i n g s 85 s t u d e n t , J o h n L e w i s , was a s s i g n e d t o t h i s p r o j e c t a n d i t i s o b v i o u s f r o m h i s T u t o r i a l Report** t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h a p a s s i o n a t e g r o u p o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s was b o t h e x h i l a r a t i n g a n d f r i g h t e n i n g . T h e s t u d e n t q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e c l i e n t s h a d d o n e t h e i r homework o n p a r k s , knew w h a t t h e y w a n t e d a n d e x p e c t e d h i m t o go away a n d , w i t h t h e h i s t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , d r a w i t u p . T h e U D C , c o m m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e s i g n , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y b e p a r t o f t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . T h e r e s u l t i n g d r a w i n g s w e r e ' a p l a n a n d a scheme t h a t was a g o o d s y n t h e s i s o f a l l o u r r a p s t o g e t h e r , h a d some e x c i t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n s g a n d s t i l l l e f t r o o m f o r t h e u l t i m a t e d e s i g n i n t h e f i e l d ' . T h e p l a y g r o u n d was t o be b u i l t b y t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e f i r s t s t a g e b e i n g t h e p l a y l o t a n d t h e n a l a r g e r p a r k . T h e p l a n s w e r e w e l l r e c e i v e d b y t h e P a r k s B o a r d a n d t h e p r o j e c t p r o c e e d e d a s p l a n n e d . 4 . Home Show C l i n i c S e r v i c e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l homeowner , a s i d e f r o m t h e o c c a s i o n a l r e n o v a t i o n , w e r e n o t e m p h a s i z e d , w i t h two n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s . One was t h e b o o t h a t t h e F e b . 1971 Home Show C l i n i c a n d t h e o t h e r was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Layman's Home Improvement Guide. 86 T h e Home Show C l i n i c was a j o i n t v e n t u r e b e t w e e n t h e UDC a n d A I B C t o o f f e r f r e e a d v i c e o n m a t t e r s s u c h a s b a s i c h o u s e p l a n n i n g a n d s i t i n g , h o u s e r e n o v a t i o n , f i n a n c i n g , c o d e a n d b y - l a w r e q u i r e m e n t s . A b o o t h was r e n t e d a t Home Show, a n a n n u a l w e e k e n d e x h i b i t i o n o f p r o d u c t s a n d s e r v i c e s d i r e c t e d a t t h e homeowner a n d b u i l d e r . M a n u f a c t u r e r s , d i s t r i b u t o r s a n d r e t a i l e r s a r e t h e p r i m a r y e x h i b i t o r s w i t h a p a t r o n a g e o f m o s t l y m i d d l e c l a s s h o m e o w n e r s . T h e Home Show C l i n i c b o o t h c o n s i s t e d o f a d i s p l a y a r e a s h o w i n g p h o t o s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d some o f i t s i s s u e s , a c o n s u l t a t i o n a r e a a n d a ' e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f games a r e a (See F i g u r e s 9& 1 0 ) . T h e b o o t h was manned b y b o t h UDC s t a f f a n d s t u d e n t s , a n d A I B C m e m b e r s . I t p r o v e d t o b e a v e r y i n s t r u c t i v e e n d e a v o u r b o t h f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , a n d f r o m t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d . T h e U D C , w o r k i n g t o w a r d s i d e a l s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c r e a t i v e g r o w t h o f V a n c o u v e r , f e l t t h a t i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e a t t h e p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f t h e i r own home, w o u l d awaken i n t e r e s t i n l a r g e r i s s u e s . T h e UDC e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Home Show C l i n i c b o o t h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e ( o v e r 113 c l i e n t s w e r e s e r v e d ) a n d t h e k i n d s o f a d v i c e g i v e n seems t o b e a r t h i s o u t . P e o p l e n o t o n l y w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c h a n g i n g t h e i r i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t a l s o i n some l a r g e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s s u e s . F i g u r e 9&10 Home Show C l i n i c p h o t o s  89 T h e UDC s t r e s s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s o p e r a t i o n s a n d t r i e d t o c o n v e y t h i s m e s s a g e i n t h e b o o t h . T h e i n t e r e s t showed b y t h e p u b l i c l e d t o a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t h a v i n g a way t o p a r t i c i p a t e o n a c o m m u n i t y l e v e l was i m p o r t a n t . S e v e r a l p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t b u t d i d n ' t know ' w h e r e t o s i g n u p ' . T h e UDC was n o t e n g a g e d i n d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l l e c t i n g , f o r m u l a t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c i t y a n d ways t o become d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h i t s p l a n n i n g was i m p o r t a n t . T h e A I B C / U D C b o t h r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c i t y f r o m t h i s p r o j e c t . T h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a c e r t a i n amount o f t r e p i d a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e p r o f e s s i o n , w h a t i t d o e s a n d w h a t i t c o s t s . T h e a r c h i t e c t was p r i m a r i l y s e e n a s t h e e x p e r t i n a e s t h e t i c s a n d many q u e s t i o n s came f r o m p e o p l e who j u s t d i d n ' t l i k e t h e l o o k o f s o m e t h i n g . Some l a r g e r p l a n n i n g i s s u e s w e r e d i s c u s s e d f o r c e r t a i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a n d some t e a c h e r s d r o p p e d b y t o s e e i f l e c t u r e s c o u l d be g i v e n t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h i s Home Show C l i n i c r e s u l t e d i n t h e A I B C i n s t i t u t i n g a f r e e S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g a d v i s o r y (See A p p e n d i x S e v e n ) s e r v i c e t o d e a l w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l , u s u a l l y h o u s i n g , p r o b l e m s o n a f r e e b a s i s . T h i s s e r v i c e h e l p s t h e c l i e n t d e c i d e o n w h a t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o t a k e a n d t o s e l e c t a n a r c h i t e c t i f r e q u i r e d . I t i s s t i l l p a r t o f t h e A I B C p r o g r a m t o d a y . 90 F r o m t h e w o r k d o n e a t t h e Home Show C l i n i c , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e UDC c o u l d be m o s t e f f e c t i v e w o r k i n g o n p r o j e c t s t h a t i n v o l v e d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e r e n o v a t i o n s . T h e Home Show r e v e a l e d , h o w e v e r , a g r e a t n e e d f o r s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e homeowner . The Layman's Home Improvement Guide was t h e r e s u l t . 5 . T h e L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e ( L H I G ) T h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n s g i v e n a t t h e Home Show C l i n i c l e d t h e UDC t o c o n s i d e r a n d e v e n t u a l l y p r o d u c e a h a n d b o o k f o r t h e d o - i t - y o u r s e l f h o u s e r e n o v a t i o n . Many o f t h e p e o p l e a s k i n g f o r h e l p h a d o n l y a l i t t l e m o n e y , l o t s o f i d e a s a n d l i t t l e o r no t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . S i m i l a r t o many o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s b e i n g p u t o u t b y o t h e r C D C ' s x ^ a t t h e t i m e , t h e Layman's Home Improvement Guide^ p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f h o u s e r e n o v a t i o n , l a w r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , f i n a n c i n g a n d s e c u r i n g c o n t r a c t o r s , a n d b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e G u i d e was n o t d i r e c t e d t o c o m m u n i t y o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n u p g r a d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l a e s t h e t i c o r s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h e p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e L H I G was t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d p r o c e d u r e s p e r t i n e n t t o r e n o v a t i o n w o r k a n d home i m p r o v e m e n t s h o u l d b e d e m y s t i f i e d a n d made a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l homeowner . I t moved WES & EDW WM& ff\ZfAf{Zb BT : THE Uf̂ BAW DCJIGW CEMT^E 1?72 18?J VEMBLE3 VANCOUVER F i g u r e 11 L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e S a m p l e P a g e s 92 t h e UDC f r o m a p o s i t i o n a s reactive c o n s u l t a n t ( w a i t i n g t o b e a p p r o a c h e d ) , t o active a d v i s o r - ^ . T h i s p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1972 a n d c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1 9 7 4 . T h e L H I G , f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e f u n d i n g f r o m CMHC, b o t h f o r c o n t i n u e d w o r k o n t h e b o o k s a n d f o r p u b l i s h i n g . I t was s o l d f o r 50 c e n t s p e r s e c t i o n a n d was a v a i l a b l e t o UDC c l i e n t s , T h e B e t t e r B u s i n e s s B u r e a u , C o n s u m e r A f f a i r s , CMHC, a n d some b u i l d i n g s u p p l i e r s . S e c t i o n I , P e r m i t s C o d e s a n d C i t y H a l l , e x p l a i n e d t h e p e r m i t p r o c e s s S e c t i o n I I , T h e C o s t o f I m p r o v e m e n t s was a v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f s t r u c t u r e , p r o d u c t s a n d m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e p a r t o f a r e n o v a t i o n . S e c t i o n I I I , T h e C o s t o f B o r r o w i n g e x p l a i n e d f i n a n c i n g . T h i s was one o f t h e l a r g e r p r o j e c t s f o r t h e U D C . I t s p a r k e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t o p r o d u c e s i m i l a r b o o k l e t s . C i t y H a l l now p u b l i s h e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t o f d o c u m e n t s a b o u t i t s p r o c e s s e s a n d s e r v i c e s . When a p p r o a c h e d t o s u p p o r t t h e L H I G ' s P a r t I I I , V a n C i t y C r e d i t U n i o n r e f u s e d , b u t c o m p l i m e n t e d t h e UDC o n t h e i r e f f o r t s a n d e x p r e s s i n g t h a t t h e y h a d a l s o b e e n t r y i n g t o p u b l i s h s u c h a n i n f o r m a t i o n p a m p h l e t X J . T h e s e b o o k l e t s w e r e v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e . A f o u r t h S e c t i o n was p r o p o s e d o n C h o o s i n g a H o u s e , b u t t h i s was n o t c o m p l e t e d . A s a f o l l o w - u p t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e L H I G , i t was p r o p o s e d t o s e t up b o t h a f e e d b a c k s y s t e m a n d c l i n i c s i n v a r i o u s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . A l t h o u g h g i v e n some r e s e a r c h a n d 93 r e c o i n m e n d a t i o n s w e r e p r o d u c e d , t h i s p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t n e v e r r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g . 6. D a y c a r e a n d o t h e r r e s e a r c h D u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s , s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f e f f o r t w e n t i n t o r e s e a r c h . T h e UDC b e l i e v i n g i n t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t o o k e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o become p a r t o f a c t i o n g r o u p s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s i s s u e . T h e s e i n c l u d e d s u c h c o m m i t t e e s a n d g r o u p s a s t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , C o m m u n i t y C o n g r e s s f o r E c o n o m i c C h a n g e , N a t i o n a l A n t i - P o v e r t y O r g a n i z a t i o n , N e i g h b o u r h o o d G o v e r n m e n t , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , U n i t e d H o u s i n g F o u n d a t i o n , a n d v a r i o u s n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g c o u n c i l s . R e s e a r c h a r e a s i n c l u d e d t h e c i v i c e l e c t o r a l r e f o r m , t h e w a r d s y s t e m , f r e e w a y a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s s u e s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n n i n g , n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g , d a y c a r e , a n d s p e c i a l n e e d s h o u s i n g . T h e d a y c a r e r e s e a r c h became a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e w o r k d o n e i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f t h e U D C . When g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g became a v a i l a b l e f o r d a y c a r e , UDC d i d d e s i g n w o r k f o r s o c i e t i e s f o r r e n o v a t i o n s a n d new c e n t r e s . T h i s l e d t o r e s e a r c h s u c h a s e v a l u a t i o n o f p r e - f a b r i c a t e d u n i t s d e s i g n s f o r t h e C h i l d c a r e F e d e r a t i o n . S e v e r a l r e p o r t s w e r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e U D C , 94 UKcVil CT&CH OJFWT- IU1C9UEKCIW. W i * . APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE fim*- u t r IT*, K ».ofc - -ft>i*i, o r . OP PLVHOCD -t) <.'lfl.^^<LtC.TJ-*t4-e>** . m-«iMcw* + STIUJCA * , K H * 40* .kt- Bt/HK ' B*t>S - e c u K -=WL>Jf-s £•(•4 r i l A v E - |=o -...IFrl_ IT it'l.T, - Jo.*" TT.VV (»M> i s y ° *4fc«" i * J n Beit. / « * r » K tr.-^f^jrtf, *7 !.+> K»JT 6T. tu p coocn n e w t s ' 3 0 I j lATTC c-Xtie. *!*> x fc**/#o *ncn5 OF ttYWftu nc 4.-n«.-s ID Uc *TW*A — G * ir,**» *|OS'° ±iucneo«euooD tNt 1 E D OlKZcU US/1 WrSl M'tBTCB t,f( Cd, IJiATT KTUMTfc PAIR WAV 1371 F i g u r e 12&13 D a y c a r e d r a w i n g s 95 96 i n c l u d i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a p e r , Concerning the Provision of Pre-Fabricated Day-Care Units on Temporary Sited in the City of Vancouver, b y C h a r l e s R i e f a n d M a r y - L o u i s e H a r t 1 ^ . T h i s r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d d e s i g n c o n c e r n s a s p r o d u c e d i n w o r k s e s s i o n o f t h e D e s i g n C o m m i t t e e , o f t h e C h i l d C a r e F e d e r a t i o n , w h i c h w e r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e u s e o f p a t t e r n s . ' P a t t e r n s ' 1 3 was t h e p r i m a r y m e t h o d o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e s i g n . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n The Remaking of Orchard Park Proposal, Nov, 1974,^: ' T h e m a i n t o o l t o be u s e d i n t h e d e s i g n - i n v o l v e m e n t p r o c e s s w i l l be " p a t t e r n s " a n d t h e r e s e a r c h b e h i n d t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s . A p a t t e r n i s a P R O B L E M - S O L U T I O N s t a t e m e n t a b o u t a n i s o l a t e d d e s i g n c o m p o n e n t ( a n e n t r y w a y , a s t a i r c a s e , a p a t i o , e t c . ) T h e p a t t e r n f o r m a t i n c l u d e s a p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m , a p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n a n d a g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n . T h e p r i m e v a l u e o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s i s t h a t a r e v i s i b l e a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y c a n be e x a m i n e d , d i s c u s s e d a n d e v a l u a t e d b y a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . A c a t a l o g u e o f a p p r o v e d p a t t e r n s t h e n becomes t h e b a s i s f o r a l l d e s i g n w o r k , a n d t h e r e s u l t s c a n be c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r a l l d e s i g n w o r k , a n d t h e r e s u l t s c a n b e c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t i n t h e p a t t e r n s . T h i s makes t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s a c c o u n t a b l e t o a l l a g e n c i e s a n d t h e p u b l i c ( T e n a n t s a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ) . P a t t e r n c a t a l o g u e s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n u s e d a s g u i d e l i n e s t o F a l s e C r e e k d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n o f C h a m p l a i n P l a c e . A p p l i c a b l e p a t t e r n s f r o m t h e s e c a t a l o g u e s c a n be c o m b i n e d w i t h new o n e s d e f i n e d a t O r c h a r d P a r k . T h i s c o m p l e t e s e t o f p a t t e r n g u i d e l i n e s w o u l d t h e n be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e t e n a n t g r o u p s a n d a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , r e v i s i o n a n d a p p r o v a l . T h e e n d o f t h i s s t a g e w o u l d m a r k a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e w o r k t o d a t e , a n d o f d i r e c t i o n s a n d p r i o r i t i e s t o f o l l o w p r e p a r a t i o n o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s . ' S e e A p p e n d i x E i g h t f o r a n e x a m p l e o f p a t t e r n s u s e d i n t h e RayCam C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e p r o j e c t . P a t t e r n s p r o v e d t o b e t h e 97 m o s t u s e f u l way t o d o c u m e n t t h e d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s o f t h e m i x e d g r o u p s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e RayCam C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , t h e s e p a t t e r n s w e r e r e f i n e d a n d p r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t d r a w i n g s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g . T h i s p r o j e c t was p a s s e d o n t o a r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t f o r c o m p l e t i o n . 7 . P a r a p l e g i c G r o u p Homes A n o t h e r p r o j e c t t h a t i n v o l v e d r e s e a r c h a n d p a t t e r n d e s i g n was t h e H a n d i c a p p e d G r o u p Homes . T h i s p r o j e c t b e g a n when a women i n a w h e e l c h a i r a p p r o a c h e d t h e UDC f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e h o u s e f o r h e r s e l f a n d f o u r h a n d i c a p p e d f r i e n d s f o r a g r o u p home. T h e UDC t o o k o n t h e p r o b l e m , c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h v a r i o u s g r o u p s t h a t h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n h a n d i c a p p e d h o u s i n g . D r a w i n g t h e s e g r o u p s t o g e t h e r t o o k some t i m e , a n d i n t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e o r i g i n a l c l i e n t became t o o i l l t o l i v e i n a g r o u p home. A l t h o u g h t h e UDC seemed t o h a v e l o s t i t s c l i e n t , a d e s i g n f o r a g r o u p home c o n t i n u e d , w i t h p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e u s e r i n a d e s i g n game. See A p p e n d i x N i n e f o r a s a m p l e o f t h e D e s i g n G a m e . 1 7 T h e UDC d e v e l o p e d a p r o t o t y p e d e s i g n , w i t h f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s a n d b e g a n i n e f f e c t t o d e v e l o p a n d o r g a n i z e a g r o u p a n d a s o l u t i o n t o a g e n e r a l s o c i e t a l p r o b l e m . 98 In the second summer, the project was revitalized due in part to support from Wolfgang Gerson of the School of Architecture, and a new proposal was made to CMHC for the construction of a group home as a pilot project. A lot was found, designs created and a group including two paraplegic persons were to be hired to help build their own home. In the end, funding was not given for the building, but only for an advisory housing placement service. The UDC, primarily by Monty Wood, continued with the Group Home project for over 5 years. He continued to work with the Handicapped Resource Centre, which was an information centre specializing in housing run for and by physically disabled persons. Although a group home was never actually designed and built through the UDC, the Handicapped Resource Centre eventually did build several group homes which i t s t i l l operates today. The UDC was instrumental in starting the Handicapped Resource Centre and was one of the founders of the group home movement in Vancouver. 8. Adanac Neighbourhood Planning Like the Skeena Terrace Project, the Adanac Neighbourhood Planning project involved a number of different groups. Originally approached by the Hastings Sunrise Council in 1971 to assist in planning the Adanac area, the Adanac Planning Advisory Committee became the client and consisted 99 /PANAC IS KPT AN [SL D. mmeamxo mjo/s EEIHS- cm CTF tpch ITS SUEROJNCWSS . TfiB A D W C A f E » < HAS &*KR13SS ~JD iKiEssfwncv CN /sil- a c e s . Atv (^vrrCfn<|Ctel fbw fvowt out? SKS -fc> anotiTev will mcrzaee- commwmGfim. At ite. mwc tine-, a tock of ddwfisi/L of an arsg leads t> less c p etetfny- Trie /dare- ares hc& skxig kttmdanes -to pwicle it Lurth idevrrtj, S5me mcr& Commumaybo^ " briars' flrs i r t«{ •fo in^ofe fc w'rfio fA<r> y«sfc of "fitc- risjs^'^- StmrK. canmwAj •fc-tfie nortL and nest. THUS" t ? lKTei5R«qB "WB / W C AR6^ K/fTH rtS •̂frcVICe PIPfXT, ĝ FS, CPVICXIS POT1B5 EgTUJeSJ r f f # C >ND "W6 -SURfJCUNPINe COMMUN IT/ fCP- BIOClES .AND PEcesirWlS. JZ-f^cE ccMMUMny R»CIUTIBS -THAT s e ^ v e -THB HAsrojas- (• PKXICE ptRe=r /access FCR £AAenseM=y VEHICLES w+iaj -mees. F i g u r e 14&15 A d a n a c S a m p l e p a t t e r n s WINDOWS TO THE STREET 100 WNteKS Or MAJOR We- bum •» MUCH TIWT ITS inrcsaar, TO twe" FWcy. ir * ttcuse- » nticr veR/ euse T O T H E - sireET/THeN rr WLC- te IHFCSSEtg. At THE &MUETWB, n E NecESSMry rtn T H C FS3re?rT "To f W "Trier srcsf. c^tttetB CLOSE la me S I K E S T , rvr ICrST 5 ' ABOVE fwse THE ft-"*. CF- THr? House A T L B » S T PRIVA1E W D pen ucusg rav IM I N S A C J W G / ^ B V H*5 A MIMIMW !AWfD OP 3 5 pr 52-4 fT AS A pouqpte, THIS CtxiLD ee ATOnED ITT A l^ WW SKfllB muty K f B , c W r T W r r i N O .v«r. ITOAIlf MM NEW HOUSB H*5 A >W5D CP IOOSBFT. MINIMUM . IN cue Piece 4 ExcuiwMe GK-fOPT Of\Q*R4S6; „ „ , ^ 5 . , , LOCATE WRP CM ANf <> ace C F THE? HCU=S - — 3 SENIORS HAVE: OUTDOORS J TOO Apartments °n» o t t e r multiple dwellings often hove no outdoor space +hn+ " o f much use . B a l con i e s ore tiny , terraces +00, and garden ore arc indrs+in gulshable from the arourd. T e r r a c e s and t>< C « ovo id be lnn l) having plants 0 c)hav ina o minim d e p t h o f 6 tea s ) b a l e O n i « . con e "stuck • j|J tut loot be I 1 h a l f - I n , h a l f - o u t o f the bui ld lno fat l e a . t So7 . under Cover , "Too) NB. '• T h e s e n i o r s m u e t have t h . o p t i o n o f h o V . n j o f e e . o f l o n J b e l o n g i n g t o e o c h u n i t . T h e p r o p e r t y w o u l d *>« d i v i d e d into I n d i v i d u a l p l o t s onol c o m m o n a r e o 3 . I f o p e r . o n a » » i «••«'• p l o t , It u-ould be i n c l u d e d in c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . IDENTIFIABLE FRcKT EHTf̂ NCE fOOTtft. UEcO TO rJJBUJ ThCTR. OVUM Fporr EZr* -HtrtVHB Dews is T O rea, LOST 4 aS^ET o r feNSMRE THTO T H E rmtT ENTOCe OT B V E W PlrTtRofr f=RCM ITS NBlStlBpWS. M*te SMHS TWfT rw«y /«M> 3tt5,TET .FKCM TweW»nHEl? IS o e W W THESE, AND THAT,WHEN rSrTO'aw^ T H E uur, «or MCCE w a * rmiT CCDR3 HS(E(£. O U T D O O R . r W A C y " A snwncil SCH AS A 'ZEieo uti-UhE , rr's na^ss«fy T O ewsufc. » w / * J D vice V E T C S V oiriBiwce-use S T £ H S ^ I W U - w * R * c r i r W or PI-EWSWT. so, fw A tnree E U W 5 iff cu -me rrorerrry U N E , » C WIUCOAJS hoyiEw wwicMB m « cue HOUSET Httcny CN1D A reieificuws wo .OUCWED; EWLD EV<j: WCRe THAW cue nm, r t j e t s SEUSED 10 O^jeEN WNCCW5. L W E Wi CTWK dace) LINEAR OPEN SPACE People w o n ' t use m a j o r open s p a c e s ihat hc»v» Utile diversity and are hard io <y*t i& Open s p o c a « shoulW l o n ^ and fti'n so ++iat m o r e p e o p / e can /ire a f (or near) fne eerfge. P e o p l e o f di f f e r e n t aye different th ings in parks Cpf-y to d o ff* J i f T , football. walk, IJ b • p]o e s s "fer +hin^s to h a p p a n . But rHiey should t.ap^=n near eacK otfier so thdf people c o n see variety <?f events. TVa v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a f / o n t i l o p a c a s C a n b e c o n n e c t e d b.1 1 pedeairian p)Q"fti5 ^ or c a n b e a part of _ the f>airia. 101 of in addition to the Hastings Sunrise Council, were representatives from each block, from The Frog Hollow Community Centre, and from the Parks Board, the School Board, the Social and City Planning Departments. The project went well into 1974 when i t was resolved by City Council accepting part of the recommendations of the UDC. The UDC set up a planning centre in the community and produced several proposals, and reports. It became a p o l i t i c a l issue, and the UDC was amazed when the citizens did not defend the patterns and proposals they had developed at the beginning. It was an issue of low-cost housing versus single family neighbourhood. When the fi n a l count was in, the neighbourhood seemed to prefer to loose some of the low-income families than to change the nature of the land use from single family. In So Needs A Freeway, Report to the Hastings Sunrise Action 1 ft Council on the Cassiar Street Connector, June 25, 1973, the UDC proposed an alternate routing for a connector tunnel. This was a very comprehensive study including cost comparisons, again wrestling with the problem of the freeway system through Vancouver. This work contributed to stopping the freeway plans in the area until 1989, when the construction on Cassiar Connector started. 102 F i g u r e 16 O r c h a r d P a r k 103 9. Orchard Park Orchard Park (Figure 16) was one of the last planning projects of the UDC. The UDC was to recommend ways of improving the Orchard Park housing project that was experiencing both social and physical problems. This project illustrates the evolution of the work of the UDC from the early days. It was funded by British Columbia Housing and Management Corporation (BCHMC) and CMHC, and therefore followed the more traditional form of professional consultant. The terms of reference, however, required tenant participation and ratification of fi n a l proposal. The UDC had a mobile bus, The Yellow Bus Office, which moved from area to area to encourage the tenants to participate in the recommendations. A fin a l report was produced in July of 1975 that essentially recommended up-grading rather than redevelopment. Examination of this report shows that although the idea of pattern generation was s t i l l used, i t is much more of a planning report, with more statistics and analysis, than those produced in the early years of the UDC. The element of generation, and execution by the community i t s e l f of the project was somewhat lost, as the f i n a l outcome was that the report was given to the BCMHC staff to use when planning the improvement program. The community had a part in the recommendations, but the fi n a l implementation plan was up to 'others'. 104 1. Information taken from City of Vancouver, Urban Design Centre, Add.MSS 989, Vol. 17, Files 1-84 2. Rapanos, Dino, .Report to the Profession: The Vancouver Urban Design Clinic, 1972. As the AIBC, was a party in the agreement with CMHC for UDC funding, progress reports were periodically required by the profession and the AIBC Housing Committee, from the Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 4, Vancouver City Archives 3. Government bodies involved: Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs Canada Mortgage and Housing Vancouver Parks Board Vancouver School Board Vancouver City and Social Planning Departments Ministry of Municipal Affairs Vancouver City Council 4. Green, Tony, Sept. 29, notes, City of Vancouver Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 7 5. Rapanos 1972 op. c i t . 6. Ibid. p. 3 7. Interview November 23, 1989: Mr. Wood was a student and then worker at the UDC in 1971 through to 1974. He remained part of the UDC as a member of the Society un t i l late 1975. 8. Lewis, A., Richmond Park/Playlot May, 1971, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 1 No. 7 9. Ibid 10. For example, the Community Design Center published, Repairs Rehabilitation & Rent, The Cost of Housing Improvements, University of California Extension, Community Design Center, May 1969. 11. Charles Rief was the main author of the Layman's Home Improvement Guide. It was based on a book on 'How to Repair Your VW. 12. Rief, C , The Urban Centre as a Bias Disseminator, Sept., 1972, personal f i l e s of Dino Rapanos 13. Letter from VanCity to Chuck Rief of the Urban Design Centre, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 10 No.7 105 14. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 5 No.l, Childcare Federation. Jan, 1973 15. These patterns were most lik e l y based on the work being done at that time by Christopher Alexander in Berkeley. At this time his pattern language method was used to plan False Creek south. 16. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 14 No.1, Orchard Park 17. Wood, M., The Urban Design Centre and the Paraplegic Group Home Problem, Aug. 31 1971, Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 7 No.3 18. Vancouver City Archives, Urban Design Centre, Vol. 9 No.7, Adanac - Freeway 106 C h a p t e r S i x CONCLUSIONS B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s E x a m i n a t i o n o f C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n / D e v e l o p m e n t C e n t e r s i n g e n e r a l x , o f t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t e r , o f t h e V a n c o u v e r D e s i g n C e n t e r i n p a r t i c u l a r a n d t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , o p e r a t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s , s t r u c t u r e a n d a c t i v i t i e s i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t h e r o l e f o r e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h e f i r s t , f r o m w h i c h t h e o t h e r two f o l l o w , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i s : E V E R Y PERSON HAS THE RIGHT AND THE R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y TO A C T I V E L Y P A R T I C I P A T E IN THE E V O L U T I O N OF H I S / H E R P H Y S I C A L E N V I R O N M E N T . I n p r e - m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s , e v o l u t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t was b a s e d o n t r a d i t i o n s t h a t e v o l v e d o v e r g e n e r a t i o n s a n d w e r e p a s s e d o n f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . M e t h o d s o f 107 p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g a n d b u i l d i n g w e r e p a r t o f e v e r y d a y 2 a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g e v e r y o n e i n t h e u s u a l l y s m a l l c o m m u n i t y 6 . I n t h e m o d e r n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , w h i l e t h e t e c h n o l o g y b r o u g h t much o f t h e r e a l m o f p l a n n i n g a n d b u i l d i n g i n t o t h e h a n d s o f e x p e r t s , i d e a l i s t i c a l l y , e a c h p e r s o n r e t a i n e d t h e r i g h t t o a n e q u a l s a y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l , l e g i s l a t i v e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f g o v e r n m e n t . E l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s a n d c i v i l s e r v a n t s w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d u t y t o s e r v e t h e n e e d s a n d w i s h e s o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . B u t , d i d t h e y i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t t h e n e e d s a n d w i s h e s o f a l l s e g m e n t s o f s o c i e t y , e v e n t h e p o o r ? T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e u r b a n p o o r seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s y s t e m o f d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was n o t a l t o g e t h e r s u c c e s s f u l . Two f a c t o r s t h a t i n h i b i t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t w e r e t h e l a r g e j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h a t d e c i s i o n s e f f e c t e d , a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e d t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s . A s t e c h n o l o g y i n t e r c o n n e c t e d g r o u p s more e a s i l y a n d m o r e q u i c k l y , g o v e r n m e n t s b e g a n r e p r e s e n t i n g r e g i o n s t h a t h a d c o n s o l i d a t e d l a r g e r n u m b e r s o f p e o p l e o v e r g r e a t e r a r e a s . P l a n n i n g e n c o m p a s s e d r e g i o n s a n d c i t i e s , w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b e i n g a l o w e r p r i o r i t y . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d was o f t e n c o m p l i c a t e d a n d h a r d t o a c c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e 108 p o o r J . A l t h o u g h t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l p r o v i d e d a way f o r a l l t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h t h e a c t o f v o t i n g , i n r e a l i t y , s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w e r e u n h e a r d a n d t h e r e f o r e o v e r r u l e d . T h o s e t h a t s u f f e r e d t h i s d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t w e r e m o s t o f t e n t h e p o o r . W i t h o u t t h e c l o u t o f m o n e y , t h e r e was f a r l e s s a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , t o i n f o r m a t i o n , t o o r g a n i z i n g a n d m o b i l i z i n g o p p o s i t i o n , a n d t o l o b b y i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e m o d e r n p o l i t i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , p l a n n i n g a n d b u i l d i n g s y s t e m s r e q u i r e d a l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e o f t e n b e s t a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n . A c c e s s t o t h i s e d u c a t i o n was f a r more e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e u p p e r a n d m i d d l e e c o n o m i c l e v e l s . W i t h o u t t h i s e d u c a t i o n , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o know t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e p r o b l e m s much l e s s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s o l u t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m became d i f f i c u l t , e x p e n s i v e a n d t i m e c o n s u m i n g , l u x u r i e s t h a t t h e p o o r c o u l d n o t a f f o r d . T h i s f i r s t p r i n c i p l e was c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e d i n t h e C D C ' s o p e r a t i n g m e t h o d , u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l c l i e n t / a r c h i t e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e n meant l i t t l e o r no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e e n d u s e r . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p o o r , t h i s c o u l d b e p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s a s t r o u s w h e n , t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e m o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e e l i t i s m o f t h e p r o c e s s d i d n o t a l l o w f o r c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . B a r k e r w r i t e s : ' T h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s a p o i g n a n t e x a m p l e ; h e r e t h e a r c h i t e c t i s w o r k i n g f o r a b o a r d o f c o m m i s s i o n a n d u s u a l l y i s q u i t e r e m o v e d f r o m b o t h 109 p h y s i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l l y , f r o m t h e r e a l c l i e n t s — t h e e v e n t u a l r e s i d e n t s . A d d t o t h i s t h e g r o w i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h o s e who t y p i c a l l y s e r v e o n h o u s i n g b o a r d s a n d c o m m i s s i o n s r a r e l y u n d e r s t a n d o r i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o o r f o r h o u s i n g , a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n a c a s e o f t h e " b l i n d l e a d i n g t h e b l i n d " . W o r k i n g t o w a r d s u n i v e r s a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t was n o t s t r i c t l y a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l i s s u e . B e c a u s e i t was o f a s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e a s w e l l a s o f a p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , a d v o c a c y a r c h i t e c t s a l i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e l y w i t h p l a n n e r s , u r b a n s o c i o l o g i s t s a n d w i t h c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z e r s . T h e b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n one d i s c i p l i n e a n d a n o t h e r o v e r l a p p e d , a n d t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t e n was i n v o l v e d i n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z i n g a n d a d v o c a c y p l a n n i n g . U s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was n o t m e r e l y a c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h e u s e r ' s n e e d s a n d i d e a s w e r e p a r a m o u n t a n d t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s r o l e was n o t t o i m p o s e i d e a s o r i d e a l s , b u t t o p r o b l e m s o l v e , t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e u s e r ' s w i s h e s . T h i s m o s t o f t e n m e a n t p r o v i d i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e a c h a n i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n , a n d c o u l d a c t u p o n t h a t d e c i s i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f u s e r g r o u p s , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r u m s a n d w o r k s h o p s f o r d i s c u s s i o n w e r e p a r t o f u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C D C ' s w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r o p o s e d p o l i c i e s a n d p r o j e c t s o f o u t s i d e c l i e n t s a n d g o v e r n m e n t s . I f a c o m m u n i t y h a d n o t o r g a n i z e d i n t o a v i a b l e a c t i o n g r o u p , t h e CDC w o u l d h e l p w i t h t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . P a r t o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d 110 p r o v i d i n g r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f i s s u e s a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g a c c e s s t o g o v e r n m e n t a n d b u r e a u c r a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e k e p t i n f o r m e d o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e s a n d p r o g r a m s s l a t e d f o r t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . S t u d y s e s s i o n s , w o r k s h o p s , g r o u p m e e t i n g s w e r e h e l d t o e d u c a t e , f o r m u l a t e p o s i t i o n s , a n d p r e p a r e b r i e f s a n d p r o p o s a l s . T h e C D C ' s p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a s s i s t a n c e a n d a s Dean s a y s , ' I n t h e s p i r i t o f e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , a r c h i t e c t s f o r s w o r e t h e i r r o l e s a s s o c i a l e n g i n e e r s a n d e s t h e t i c p o o h b a h s a n d t r i e d t o d e m y s t i f y t h e i r c r a f t a n d make i t more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s ' . 5 D o l o r e s H a y d e n s t a t e s o f t h e a d v o c a c y a r c h i t e c t s , t h a t ' t h e i r m a j o r i n n o v a t i o n was d e v e l o p i n g ways t o i n v o l v e u s e r s i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . T h i s r o l e o f t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e p r o c e s s l e a d s t o t h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e o f t h e C D C ' s : THOSE I N V O L V E D I N THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS HAVE A P R O F E S S I O N A L AND S O C I A L R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y TO F A C I L I T A T E THE E X E R C I S E OF THE R I G H T AND R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y o f a l l members o f s o c i e t y t o a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e o c c u p a t i o n o f ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' means t h e u s e o f s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e > 7 . s o c i e t y ' . T h e a r c h i t e c t i s e x p e c t e d t o h a v e t h e k n o w l e d g e I l l a n d s k i l l s c o n c e r n i n g how b u i l d i n g s a n d s p a c e s a r e p l a n n e d a n d c o n s t r u c t e d a n d a l s o o f w h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e h i s t o r i c a l l y , f u n c t i o n a l l y a n d a e s t h e t i c a l l y . How c a n t h e a r c h i t e c t p r o v i d e t h e b e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e t o t h e s o c i e t y ? F o r t h e s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e a r c h i t e c t , t h e p r a c t i s e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e meant more t h a n w o r k i n g f o r a n d s a t i s f y i n g t h e w i s h e s o f t h e c l i e n t s who c o n t r o l l e d t h e f i n a n c i n g . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e C D C ' s , i t meant w o r k i n g f o r t h e u s e r a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y . By p r o v i d i n g a m e t h o d f o r t h e u s e r a n d f o r t h o s e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r o j e c t , t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e a r c h i t e c t was f u l f i l l i n g p a r t o f h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n . T h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r e a l t h o u g h n o t p a r t o f r e c o g n i z e d b a s i c r i g h t s s u c h a s w i t h j u r i s p r u d e n c e , t h e r i g h t t o l e g a l c o u n s e l , a n d i n some c o u n t r i e s , t h e r i g h t t o m e d i c i n e a n d p r i m a r y h e a l t h c a r e , s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e who n e e d t h e m . T h i s g o e s t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . S h o u l d o n l y t h o s e who c a n a f f o r d i t b e a l l o w e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l ? I n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e r i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n a l a r e n e c e s s a r y . T h e C o m m u n i t y D e s i g n C e n t r e b r o u g h t p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h o s e who c o u l d n o t a f f o r d i t . 112 I f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r h a s a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e n p a r t o f h i s t r a i n i n g m u s t i n c l u d e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e t h i r d c o n v i c t i o n , t h e n , o f t h e C D C ' s was t h a t : P R O F E S S I O N A L T R A I N I N G IN A R C H I T E C T U R E MUST I N C L U D E WORK I N THE COMMUNITY, WITH THE U N I V E R S I T Y , THE P R O F E S S I O N AND T H E COMMUNITY WORKING TOGETHER ON R E A L I S S U E S . A r c h i t e c t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s s e v e r a l y e a r s o f f o r m a l l e a r n i n g i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l s t u d y a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r e a t i v e a n d a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s . W i t h i n t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e g r e e , a l o n g w i t h a b s t r a c t p r o b l e m s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e a n d t e a c h t h e t e c h n i c a l a n d c r e a t i v e c o n c e p t s o f s t r u c t u r e , f o r m a n d s p a c e d e s i g n , s t u d y mus t b e a l i n k e d t o t h e r e a l p r o b l e m s o f s o c i e t y . T h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i n w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e u s e r a t a g r a s s r o o t s l e v e l , d e p e n d s a l s o o n a t t i t u d e a n d s o c i a l / c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e i n a t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m o r t u t o r i a l s e t t i n g . T h e C D C ' s p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e f o r s t u d e n t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t r a i n i n g u s u a l l y a t t h e m o s t e n e r g e t i c a n d i d e a l i s t i c t i m e i n t h e i r c a r e e r s t o w o r k w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e U n i v e r s i t i e s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , o f t e n f u n d e d t h e s e C e n t e r s w h i c h i n e s s e n c e became u r b a n l a b o r a t o r i e s . T h i s was i m p o r t a n t t o c r e a t i n g s o c i a l l y 113 r e s p o n s i b l e a r c h i t e c t s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g w i t h a l l e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s . T H E P R I N C I P L E S AND THE VANCOUVER UDC T h a t t h e UDC f o l l o w e d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e p r o j e c t s , c l i e n t e l e a n d m e t h o d s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t i t s 6 y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e x e r c i s e t h e r i g h t t o a n a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e u s e r m u s t h a v e a c c e s s t o c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . T h e U D C ' s a i m e d a t f u l f i l l i n g i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h i t s p r o j e c t s f o c u s e d o n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e t o g r o u p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s u n l i k e l y t o h a v e t h i s a c c e s s t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l means d u e m a i n l y t o l a c k o f f u n d s a n d / o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e UDC d i d n o t r e s t r i c t i t s e l f t o p o o r o r l o w i n c o m e c l i e n t s , i t d i d t a r g e t t h i s g r o u p b y p r o v i d i n g f r e e s e r v i c e s . C l i e n t s , who w e r e i n m o s t c a s e s t h e u s e r g r o u p , i n c l u d e d t e n a n t , s p e c i a l n e e d s a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o n - p r o f i t a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g s o c i e t i e s , a n d d a y c a r e g r o u p s . Work f o r t h e m o s t p a r t c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e ' f r o n t e n d ' p a r t o f a p r o j e c t , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , o r g a n i z i n g a n d p r e s e n t i n g o f u s e r s ' p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d d e s i r e d s o l u t i o n s . 114 T h e U D C ' s m e t h o d s w e r e b a s e d o n u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t , p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t o a l l o w t h e u s e r c l i e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e f o r t h e m s e l v e s t h e s o l u t i o n o r r e s o l u t i o n t o a p r o b l e m . T h r o u g h o u t i t s s e v e n y e a r s o f p r a c t i s e , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h o s e a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r o j e c t was a l w a y s p a r a m o u n t . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e f u l f i l l e d i t s c o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h CMHC, t o e x a m i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l n e e d s i n r e n e w a l a r e a s a n d a s s i s t r e s i d e n t s w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e a w o r k s h o p t o b r i d g e t h e a c a d e m i c - c o m m u n i t y g a p , a n d t o p r o v i d e a n a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e f o r l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . I t d r e w t o g e t h e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y t o w o r k t o w a r d s common g o a l s . T h e U D C ' s i m p r e s s i v e b o d y o f w o r k , i t s e l f , i s a t e s t a m e n t t o i t s s u c c e s s . What w e r e some o f t h e l e g a c i e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ? L e g a c i e s T h e w o r k o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e s r e s u l t e d i n a number o f e f f e c t s o n t h e P r o f e s s i o n , t h e U n i v e r s i t y , a n d t h e C o m m u n i t y : T h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b y b e i n g one o f t h e t h r e e s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s s u p p o r t e d t h e U r b a n 115 D e s i g n C e n t r e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d a n o u t l e t f o r s o c i a l l y m i n d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o become d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y t h r o u g h v o l u n t e e r w o r k w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n . S e v e r a l a r c h i t e c t s s e r v e d o n t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , a n d some d i d v o l u n t e e r w o r k a t t h e C e n t r e a l t h o u g h t h e A I B C d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e UDC f i n a n c i a l l y a s was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e A I A a n d some s t a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e A I B C h o w e v e r , d i d j o i n t l y s p o n s o r a n d p r o d u c e w i t h t h e UDC t h e Home Show B o o t h , w h i c h was w e l l r e c e i v e d b y t h e a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c a n d i l l u s t r a t e d t h e n e e d f o r s u c h a s e r v i c e . T h e Saturday Morning Advisory s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e A I B C o f f i c e s was i n i t i a t e d a n d i s s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r , p r o v i d i n g f r e e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f H e n r y E l d e r was d e v e l o p i n g u n i q u e m e t h o d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n a n a t t e m p t t o e x p a n d t h e b o u n d s o f i m a g i n a t i o n a n d c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e s t u d e n t . ^ T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r was one o f t h e f i r s t o f s e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e S c h o o l c o n t i n u e s t o c r e a t e ' u r b a n l a b o r a t o r y ' s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e g r e e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e s e i n c l u d e in situ a t e l i e r s , T h e I n t r o d u c t o r y W o r k s h o p u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y o n a p r o j e c t d e s i g n e d a r o u n d a s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t y c o n c e r n , a n d t h e S t u d i e s A b r o a d P r o g r a m . T h e t u t o r i a l s o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e w e r e a n e a r l y p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t a k i n g t r a i n i n g o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . 116 Figure 17&18 Ray-Cam Schematic Design 117 118 F i g u r e 19 P i n e S t r e e t C l i n i c F l o o r P l a n 119 Some o f t h e U D C ' s d e s i g n w o r k t h a t was c o n s t r u c t e d , i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e t o d a y , s u c h a s t h e RayCam C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e a n d t h e P i n e S t r e e t C l i n i c ; much o f i t s u c h a s t h e p l a y l o t s , c o m m u n i t y u p g r a d i n g p l a n s a n d d a y c a r e p r o p o s a l s w e r e b u i l t a n d h a v e s i n c e b e e n r e b u i l t o r c h a n g e d . Some o f t h i s w o r k s e r v e d a s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f p r o j e c t s t h a t c o n t i n u e d t o e v o l v e f o r e x a m p l e t h e w o r k w i t h t h e h a n d i c a p p e d a s s o c i a t i o n s . P e r h a p s , h o w e v e r , t h e m o s t l a s t i n g e f f e c t o f t h e UDC w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y was w i t h t h e c a r e e r s o f s t u d e n t s t h a t h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e U D C . F o r e x a m p l e , Ron Y u e n c o n t i n u e s t o u s e a ' g a m i n g ' m e t h o d o f u s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i s d e s i g n o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g . H i s s u c c e s s f u l a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i s e h a s c o m p l e t e d s e v e r a l s o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e . T h i s w o r k i s a d i r e c t o u t g r o w t h o f h i s w o r k w i t h t h e U D C . S i m i l a r l y , Doug C a m p b e l l a n d Tom M o o r e , i n t h e i r p r a c t i s e i n V i c t o r i a w h i c h g r e w o f a n a s s o c i a t i o n f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e UDC Deep C o v e p r o j e c t , u s e t h e p a t t e r n s a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n m e t h o d s f i r s t d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e U D C X ^ . C h a r l e s R i e f h a s c o n t i n u e d w i t h d a y c a r e d e s i g n w o r k , a n d J i m L e M a i s t r e went o n t o a d m i n i s t r a t e t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d I m p r o v e m e n t P r o g r a m i n C r e s c e n t B e a c h a n d B r i d g e v i e w i n S u r r e y a n d s e v e r a l L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s i n t h e a r e a . He c o n t i n u e s a s a p l a n n e r f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a . N e t t e P e r e b o o m w o r k e d f o r CMHC a s a h o u s i n g a d v o c a t e a n d a f t e r b e c o m i n g r e g i s t e r e d as a n a r c h i t e c t , s h e c o n t i n u e d s t u d y i n c o n s t r u c t i o n l a w a n d p r e s e n t l y a c t s a s l e g a l 120 c o u n s e l f o r s e v e r a l a r c h i t e c t s , c o - o p s a n d l o w - i n c o m e h o u s i n g s o c i e t i e s . M o n t y Wood c o n t i n u e d t o w o r k w i t h t h e h a n d i c a p p e d g r o u p home p r o g r a m s . E a c h o f t h e s e p e o p l e a t t e s t t o t h e p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e t h e T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e e x p e r i e n c e h a d o n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , p r a c t i s e a n d l i v e s . A l t h o u g h n o t a d i r e c t l e g a c y s o l e l y o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e , t h e s e r v i c e t h a t i t p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p a t t e r n s t h a t h a v e c o n t i n u e d . C o m m u n i t i e s w e r e c a l l i n g f o r m o r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d t h e UDC p r o v i d e d e x p e r t i s e a n d p e r s o n p o w e r t o h e l p o r g a n i z e a n d l o b b y t h i s d e m a n d . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g became a s t a n d a r d p r o c e s s o f V a n c o u v e r c i t y p l a n n i n g . T h e UDC h e l p e d c i t i z e n s p r o p o s e a n d i m p l e m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s t o u r b a n r e m o v a l i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s , m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d g r o u p s t o p l a n a n d e x e c u t e t h e i r own p a r k a n d r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p l a n s a n d p r o g r a m s . I t h e l p e d t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r m u l a t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e f r e e w a y s y s t e m s t h r o u g h t h e downtown c o r e a n d c o n n e c t o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h e UDC was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n i t i a t i n g t h e i d e a o f g r o u p home l i v i n g f o r h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s , c r i t e r i a f o r d a y c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , a n d w i t h f o r e x a m p l e , T h e L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e , a n e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e f o r t h e l a y p u b l i c . I t i l l u s t r a t e d t h e v a l u e i n c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p e o p l e whose l i v e s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s , b u t who do n o t p a y f o r t h e m . T h e U r b a n 121 D e s i g n C e n t r e e x h i b i t e d t h e n e e d f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s a n d o n c e t h e c o m m u n i t y r e c o g n i z e d i t , o t h e r r e s o u r c e g r o u p s , s u c h a s t h e T e r r a H o u s i n g C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . w h i c h now d e v e l o p s n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , s p r a n g up t o f i l l t h e n e e d i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e U D C . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e c o m p l e t e d many s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s , s e e m e d t o f u l f i l l e d i t s o b j e c t i v e s , l i v e d up t o i t s p h i l o s o p h i e s . I t s p a r t i c i p a n t s s t i l l b e l i e v e i n i t s f o u n d i n g p r i n c i p l e s . Why t h e n , d i d i t c l o s e i t s d o o r s ? A N a t u r a l C y c l e A t i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e was f o r m e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e n e e d o f t h e l o w i n c o m e c o m m u n i t y t h a t was b e i n g s e r v e d b y t h e V I S P s o c i a l s e r v i c e s p r o j e c t a c t i v e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d a t t h e t i m e . T h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r - C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t r e q u i r e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s , t o a s s i s t i t s l o w - i n c o m e c l i e n t s i n h a v i n g a v o i c e i n t h e c h a n g e s t h a t w e r e o c c u r r i n g t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h r o u g h u r b a n r e n e w a l a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e UDC e v o l v e d f r o m p a r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t t o a s e p a r a t e S o c i e t y w i t h a s t o r e f r o n t o f f i c e , a n d a t i t s c l o s e h a d become a w o r k e r s c o - o p e r a t i v e , w i t h t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a n d t h e s t a f f one a n d t h e same . 122 This evolution was due to a number of factors. Although the original client base was established through the VISP, by the time VISP ceased in September of 1972 and the UDC had moved to i t s own storefront location, the UDC had an extensive and diverse project l i s t (See Appendix Four). At this point, UDC's review of work and goals revealed a wide range of projects and expectations requiring s k i l l s and expertise that included community organization, action f a c i l i t a t i n g , lobbying; architectural programming, schematic and working drawings; and planning analysis, research compilation and report writing. Many projects such as the Paraplegic Group Homes and the Adanac Planning required extended involvement over several years. The UDC was forced to evolve. The long term commitment and the type of expertise required often went beyond the a b i l i t y of student labour in 3 month tutorials to provide. The purposes of architectural education for both faculty and student by necessity were secondary to the UDC projects. Student involvement through the University lessened 1973, although students often continued as employees after their school term. Consideration was given to expanding the work of the UDC to include a more complete architectural service by attempting to incorporate l i a b i l i t y coverage through the University of British Columbia. This was refused, and i t seemed unlikely that students would gain experience directed 123 t o m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h t h e UDC m o d e l . T h i s c h a n g e i n s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t a l o n g w i t h t h e d e s i r e o f t h e o l d e r s t a f f t o e a r n more money t h a n was a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e f u n d i n g s t r u c t u r e o f t h e U D C , r e s u l t e d i n t h e f i n a l c h a n g e . A r o u n d t h e t i m e when t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e o f f i c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t c e a s e d a n d b o t h R o n Y u e n a n d T o n y G r e e n r e s i g n e d a n d t h e UDC s h i f t e d d i r e c t i o n s u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f J i m L e M a i s t r e , t o p r i m a r i l y a p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e , w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s e c o n d a r y . A t t h i s t i m e , a l t h o u g h s t i l l r e c e i v i n g c o r e f u n d i n g f r o m CMHC, t h e UDC became a w o r k e r s c o - o p . T h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r w a s , a s w e r e t h e C D C ' s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a , v e r y much a p r o d u c t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s . T h e p o l i t i c a l mood f o r s o c i a l r e f o r m was r i p e ; s p e c i f i c c i v i c p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s s u c h a s u r b a n r e n e w a l a n d f r e e w a y i n v a s i o n s w e r e a r o u s i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e g r o w i n g p r o b l e m s o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s a n d p o v e r t y c o n d i t i o n s w e r e b e c o m i n g t o o o b v i o u s t o i g n o r e ; u n e m p l o y m e n t e v e n among y o u n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s was h i g h ; a n d , t h e c i t i z e n s h a d a n i n c r e a s i n g d i s t r u s t o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e l i t e . I t was a t i m e f o r a c t i o n , a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t was s h a r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b y t h e P r o f e s s i o n , t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e C o m m u n i t y . T h e 124 g o v e r n m e n t s , i n a n e f f o r t t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o t h e c i v i c u n r e s t , s u p p o r t e d a c t i o n b y f u n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s s u c h a s V I S P a n d U D C . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e was a p r o j e c t d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s . T h e w o r k o f t h e C e n t r e r e a c h e d a p e a k a b o u t t h e t h i r d y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . By t h i s t i m e some o f t h e e a r l y p r o j e c t s w e r e c o m p l e t e d a n d t h e o r i g i n a l i s s u e s h a d more o r l e s s b e e n a d d r e s s e d . T h e f r e e w a y p l a n s h a d b e e n p o s t p o n e d ; t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l s chemes h a d b e e n c h a n g e d t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d i m p r o v e m e n t p o l i c i e s ; L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g was i n t r o d u c e d , a n d t h e e m p l o y m e n t s i t u a t i o n h a d i m p r o v e d . I s s u e s o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y w e r e b e i n g a d d r e s s e d b y t h e new c o - o p e r a t i v e a n d n o n - p r o f i t g o v e r n m e n t h o u s i n g f u n d i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ' s p r o j e c t s m o v e d t o o t h e r i s s u e s s u c h a s c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t y d e s i g n . T h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ' s e n e r g i e s i n i t i a l l y came f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s i r e t h a t was a r e a c t i o n t o t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f h a v i n g no r e a l i n p u t i n t o c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . A s t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n was a l l e v i a t e d a n d t h e f i g h t f o r t h e p r o c e s s t u r n e d i n t o t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f , t h e h a r d w o r k o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e g a n . T h e UDC f o u n d i t s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n o f o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t c o m p e t e d m o r e a n d m o r e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e O r c h a r d P a r k p r o j e c t . A t t h i s p o i n t , w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e g o a l s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t a c c o m p l i s h e d , a n d t h e 125 conditions and needs changing, the natural cycle would be to either finish or radically change. The nature of the Urban Design Centre, i t s history, is players, and i t s projects led to a natural, though not painless, end. What were the specific factors and influences that affected the Urban Design Centre's close? The role of the Profession The AIBC became publicly involved with the protests of the late 1960's against the freeway planning, and supported the formation of the Urban Design Centre. This support and interest was similar to that of the AIA in the United States, however, unlike the AIA, did not include funding and did not remain strong. The AIA Urban Planning and Design Committee presently represents the AIA's CDC's concerns^ and s t i l l supports over 60 CDC's. Without the backing of the profession, the appeal of the Urban Design Centre was further limited to a special type of aspirant whose interest tended more towards social/political issues than to the traditional architectural pursuits. 126 RECYCLING THE PROFESSION - 1965 - 1971 Figure 20 Recycling the Profession 1965-1971 127 T h e r o l e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y T h e l a t e s i x t i e s a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s saw a t i m e o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c a d e m i c s u p p o r t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y i s s u e s . T h e c i v i c g o v e r n m e n t h a d a b r i e f c h a n g e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l N o n - P a r t i s a n P a r t y d o m i n a n c e w i t h t h e e l e c t i o n o f T h e E l e c t o r ' s A c t i o n Movement (TEAM) a l d e r m e n , a number o f whom w e r e a c a d e m i c p r o f e s s i o n a l s x ^ . By 1 9 7 8 , p e r h a p s a s w i t h t h e U D C , b e c a u s e t h e i m p a c t h a d b e e n made a n d t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e s a c h i e v e d , many o f t h e s e a l d e r m e n l e f t C o u n c i l , a n d t h e NPA r e g a i n e d c o n t r o l . H a v i n g won some b a t t l e s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y seemed t o r e t r e a t t o i t s p o s i t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a n d a p o l i t i c a l o v e r v i e w a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y . B y t h e m i d 1 9 7 0 ' s , s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e ' s k i n d o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was f a r o v e r s h a d o w e d b y t h e i n t e r e s t i n w o r k i n g i n a t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l o f f i c e . A s t h e i s s u e s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s became l e s s d o m i n a n t , s t u d e n t a n d f a c u l t y i n t e r e s t a l s o d r o p p e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t c o u l d be m o r e c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d a n d d i r e c t e d w i t h o t h e r T u t o r i a l m o d e l s . B y 1 9 7 4 , a s U n i v e r s i t y s p e n d i n g was t i g h t e n e d , s u p p o r t f o r a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p was w i t h d r a w n a n d w i t h t h a t t h e c r e d i t f o r w o r k s t o p p e d . T h i s was a m a j o r c h a n g e f o r t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e i n s t a f f a n d f u n d i n g . 128 P e r s o n a l r e w a r d s S t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e f o r many r e a s o n s . Some w a n t e d a b r e a k f r o m t h e r e g u l a r r o u t i n e o f s c h o o l ; some w a n t e d more d r a w i n g a n d d e s i g n w o r k t h a n t h e y w e r e g e t t i n g a t s c h o o l ; some w a n t e d t o b u i l d up a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a s i c s k i l l s ; some w e r e t o t a l l y d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h t h e ' s y s t e m ' a n d w a n t e d t o f i n i s h s c h o o l away f r o m s c h o o l ; some saw i t a s a s t e p p i n g s t o n e i n a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c a r e e r , a n d some w a n t e d t o w o r k w i t h r e a l p e o p l e o n r e a l p r o j e c t s . M o s t , h o w e v e r , w a n t e d t o i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h o s e l e s s f o r t u n a t e , t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i s e o f t h e i r c h o s e n p r o f e s s i o n . W i t h t h i s w o u l d come a c e r t a i n amount o f p e r s o n a l r e w a r d . W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n s , t h e y o f t e n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e y w e r e u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e w o r k i n v o l v e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s a n d a t t h e same t i m e b e e x p e c t e d b y t h e c l i e n t t o b e a n ' e x p e r t ' a t t h e s e s k i l l s . T h e c l i e n t s d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n s t u d e n t a n d s t a f f , b u t u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e UDC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a s t h e ' a r c h i t e c t s ' . T h i s l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t e n l e d t o f r u s t r a t i o n . F r o m t h e p r o j e c t r e p o r t s a n d n o t e s , t h e i d e a l i s m a n d n a i v e t y o f t h e e a r l y d a y s i s v e r y e v i d e n t . T h e p o o r a n d u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d w e r e s e e n a s s p e c i a l a n d somehow b e t t e r a n d t h e n o t i o n o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was n o b l e c a u s e . I m a g i n e t h e f e e l i n g s 129 o f d i s c o u r a g e m e n t a n d e v e n b e t r a y a l , when i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e s e c l i e n t s w e r e a s p o l i t i c a l a n d m a n i p u l a t i v e a s a n y c l i e n t g r o u p . T h i s was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e S k e e n a p r o j e c t . T h i s k i n d o f c o m m u n i t y a c t i o n a n d o r g a n i z i n g w o r k was t i m e c o n s u m i n g , o f t e n f r u s t r a t i n g , somewhat f r i g h t e n i n g , a n d a l m o s t a l w a y s u n d e r f i n a n c e d . R e w a r d s h a d t o i n c l u d e t h o s e o f a p e r s o n a l a n d a l t r u i s t i c n a t u r e . I f t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g t h a t p r o g r e s s i s n o t b e i n g m a d e , t h e n t h i s p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l s u f f e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o g r e s s c o u l d n o t a l w a y s be m e a s u r e d i n c o n c r e t e t e r m s a s p r o j e c t s o f t e n d i d n o t go f u r t h e r t h a n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e s . I n a d d i t i o n , p r o j e c t s o f t e n c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t h a d l e f t t h e U D C . Some s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n i l l - p r e p a r e d b o t h f o r t h e w o r k w i t h i n t h e UDC o r i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l o f f i c e . W h i l e t h e e x p e r i e n c e was b e n e f i c i a l , t h e p e r s o n a l r e w a r d s w e r e n o t a l w a y s e x p e r i e n c e d . T o s u c c e s s f u l l y m a i n t a i n a p r a c t i s e s u c h a s t h a t o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t r e , a c l e a r v i s i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s a n d p h i l o s o p h i e s i s r e q u i r e d a n d b y n a t u r e i n v o l v e s a c o m m i t m e n t t o c e r t a i n i d e a l s . O f t e n t h i s v i s i o n i s w r a p p e d up w i t h t h e c o m m i t m e n t a n d p e r s o n a l i t y o f a few p e o p l e who become k e y t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e g r o u p . T h e UDC c l e a r l y i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . T h e i n t e r e s t a n d e n e r g y o f t h e f o u n d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s became m o r e c o m p l e x , t h e UDC s t r u g g l e d f o r d i r e c t i o n . S t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s o u r c e o f s e m i - 130 e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n p o w e r , d o e s n o t l e n d i t s e l f t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y . C o n s i s t e n t c l a r i t y o f p u r p o s e a n d d i r e c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o a l l o w t h e l e a d e r s t o c h a n g e a n d y e t h a v e t h e f u n c t i o n r e m a i n c o n s i s t e n t . L i f e s p a n A l t h o u g h t h e U r b a n D e s i g n C e n t e r saw i t s e l f a s a p r o a c t i v e g r o u p , i t was f o r m e d as a r e a c t i o n t o s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t i m e a n d a s s u c h h a d a n a t u r a l , f i n i t e l i f e s p a n . F u n d i n g was a k e y i s s u e . C o r e f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d b y CMHC, a n d a s p e r c e i v e d n e e d s c h a n g e d , a n d as g o v e r n m e n t s a n d p o l i t i c a l a g e n d a s c h a n g e d , t h i s f u n d i n g was s t o p p e d . C D C ' s i n o t h e r p l a c e s , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u e d t o e v o l v e , f o c u s i n g m o r e o n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d i r e c t i o n s r e l y i n g l e s s o n g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o u n d a t i o n monies - 1 - . I t w o u l d seem t h a t i f t h e n e e d i s s t r o n g e n o u g h t o d i r e c t a n e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e , t h e n t h e e n e r g y a n d i m p e t u s w i l l be t h e r e t o make t h a t c h a n g e . I f o n t h e o t h e r h a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d become m o r e c o m p l e x a n d d i v e r s e , o r a r e more o r l e s s r e s o l v e d , a n e v o l u t i o n c a n n o t be f o r c e d . M a i n t a i n i n g t h e CDC m o d e l r e q u i r e d a c o m m i t m e n t t o a common g o a l b y t h e t h r e e p a r t n e r s , t h e p r o f e s s i o n , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n , a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h i s was a f r a g i l e a l l i a n c e a t b e s t . E a c h h a d i t s own a g e n d a a n d 131 reason for existence. The nature of CDC advocacy work required a great deal of time and effort. When the momentum of work generated began to overshadow the expectations and aims of the separate parts, the parts withdrew support. At this point, a self-sustaining entity would have to have been formed or a natural death would occur. The Urban Design Center believed that planning of the environment should involve each member of the society. It provided a vehicle to harness young idealism and enthusiasm in the work of combatting urban problems. It brought together the University, the Profession and the community to work toward common goals. It was a way for the socially minded architect to practise advocacy architecture. The demise of the UDC cannot be seen as a failure of the model to follow i t s principles and f u l f i l l i t s objectives but as an indication that the original objectives were met. The three basic principles found in this study are s t i l l important today. Problems of the urban poor especially in housing inadequacy, of participatory planning, of making professional architectural and planning services available to those who are disenfranchized through the lack of those services have not been eliminated. Perhaps an opportunity for the profession, the university and community to work together in a way similar to that of the Urban Design Centre of the 1970's w i l l be part of the 1990's. 132 1. Based on the Guidelines for Community Design Centers, The American Institute of Architects Task Force on Equal Opportunities, April 1969 and the American Institute of Architect's bulletin, A Bulletin Published by the American Institute of Architects Concerning the Advocacy Planning and Community Design Centers, circa 1969. Copies found in the UDC f i l e s , City of Vancouver Archives. Much of the UDC's original funding proposal was taken directly from these papers. 2. An example of this can be seen in the traditional village organization and building on the island of Bali. The male comes of age at the birth of his f i r s t child. One of the responsibilities of this 'coming of age' i s participation in the direction and the continuation of the traditions community. This includes design traditions, village planning and changes to do with the modern society. This right/responsibility was passed on from generation to generation, along with strong traditions guiding i t s process, form and function. - interview, Oct 1987, with Robi Sularto, architect in Bali. 3. For example, charging for copies of studies on which decisions are based. If one i s poor, this i s an obstacle. 4. Barker 1970, op. c i t . 5. Dean 1989, op. c i t . 6. Hayden, D., from a lecture given at the Chinese Academy of Building Research, Beijing, China., 1980. Social Responsibility and the American Landscape: Notes on Advocacy Architecture, Advocacy Planning, Environmental Psychology , Environmental History and Environmental Design 7. Reeck, Darrell, Ethics for the Professions, Augsburg Press, Minneapolis, 1982. See Hughes, E.C., Men and Their Work, The Free Press, Glencoe, 111., 1958, for a broader discussion of the professions. 8. In The American Institute of Architects Policy Regarding Community Design Centers, Appendix B, taken from the The Association for Community Design, Inc., Operations and Policy Manual, 1989, states that: 133 'The AIA supports Community Design Centers and encourages members and components to do community service using Community Design Centers as a vehicle. 'The AIA's formal involvement and policy on community design centers was an outgrowth of the 1969 convention resolution supporting CDC's and establishing the Task Force on Professional Responsibility to Society. One of the task force programs approved and funded by the AIA Board was the program to assist CDC's and encourage creation of new Centers. 9. From an interview with Henry Elder, 10. Campbell and Moore did a joint graduating thesis, in April of 1972, called, Designing For Themselves, which involved two groups of high school students designing their own schools. 11. ACD Operations and Policy Manual, op. c i t . 12. Some TEAM legacies include the Granville Mall and t r a f f i c barriers in the West End, and the False Creek south housing project in an effort to 'scrap the old NPA policy of growth for growth's sake which led to black towers and concrete ... to development that must enhance our natural setting' -Morley, Alan, Vancouver From Milltown to Metropolis, Mitchell Press, Vancouver, 1974 p. 246 13. Comerio, Mary, 'Community Design: Idealism and Entrepreneurship', Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 1984 Vol. 1 APPENDIX ONE 134 COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTER PROJECTS (October, 1969 to present) CENTRAL CITY 1. H o s p i t a l i t y House, Remodeling f o r expanded f a c i l i t i e s . Design, working drawings and c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s . Completed. CHINATOWN 1. I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o t e l . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to United F i l i p i n o A s s o c i a t i o n f o r renovation and management of h o t e l . Completed. 2. Proposed s i t e s f o r mini-park program to submit to S.F. Recreation and Park Department. 3. Asian Housing Area Development. A n o n - p r o f i t housing development c o r p o r a t i o n . AHAD has s e l e c t e d a t t o r n e y , housing co n s u l t a n t and a r c h i t e c t f o r t h e i r f i r s t S e c t i o n 236 p r o j e c t , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a 42-unit apartment house. On-going. 4. C h i l d Care Center. F e a s i b i l i t y study and cost estimates completed. 5. F u r n i t u r e prototypes designed and b u i l t . On d i s p l a y at Chinatown F i e l d O f f i c e . I n s t r u c t i o n handbook on how t o make f u r n i t u r e w i l l be ready f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n December. 6. U t i l i z i n g the Neighborhood Summer Youth Program, s e l e c t e d f u r n i t u r e designs were used by the Chinatown-North Beach Youth C o u n c i l to make f u r n i t u r e f o r the C o u n c i l ' s use. 7. Open space design f o r Ping Yuen P u b l i c Housing p r o j e c t . Coordinated a c t i v i t i e s w i t h Chinatown-North Beach Youth C o u n c i l , B e t t e r Parks and Recreation Committee i n China- town, and the San F r a n c i s c o Housing A u t h o r i t y . 8. Redesign of Chinese Playground f o r B e t t e r Parks and Recreation Committee i n Chinatown. 9. A s s i s t i n g tenants who have been d i s p l a c e d by Code Enforce- ment to f i n d new housing; diss e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to tenants on C i t y ' s rent supplement program. 10. CCDC, together w i t h c l i e n t s of S e l f - H e l p f o r the E l d e r l y , are working w i t h f a m i l y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Chinatown to secure s u i t a b l e u n i t s f o r the San F r a n c i s c o Housing A u t h o r i t y ' s S e c t i o n 23 program. - 1 - HAIGHT-FILLMORE 1. Housing Survey fo r Ha r r i e t Tubman Community Educat ional P ro jec t . 2. Duboce Park. Worked with res idents to improve park f a c i l i t i e s . 3. Sacred Heart Church. F e a s i b i l i t y study for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of 6 apartment un i ts fo r purchase by tenants. HUNTERS POINT 1. T ra in ing program for c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Model C i t i e s program. MISSION DISTRICT 1. Proposed s i t e s for mini-park program for submission to S.F. Recreat ion and Park Department. 2. O f f i c e renovations fo r Horizons Un l imi ted . 3. S t reet improvements fo r Utah Block A s s o c i a t i o n . 4. Model C i t i e s ' P lanning T ra in ing Workshops for the Miss ion C o a l i t i o n ' s Planning Committee. 5. K i tchen remodeling for Centro Lat ino breakfast program. SOUTH OF MARKET 1. Ass i s t ed Ad Hoc community c o a l i t i o n i n South of Market area to f i n d mini-park s i t e s . 2. Housing and tenant surveys i n Yerba Buena pro jec t area fo r T .O.O.R. 3. Long-range neighborhood planning for South of Market community groups. 4. A p lan fo r 2,000 uni ts of new and r e h a b i l i t a t e d housing and community f a c i l i t i e s for T.O.O.R. WESTERN ADDITION 1. Design and plan of o f f i c e s fo r W.A.P.A.C. 2. Design and p lan of o f f i c e s fo r W.A.Y. WESTERN ADDITION (CONT'D) 3. Remodeling for Watoto Wausi Nursery School . 4. P lanning Conmunlty Development'Training P r o g r a m f o r - W . A - P . A C C . 5. Audrey L . Smith Day Care Center . Consul t ing wi th c l i e n t on c o n s t r u c t i o n costs for new day care center . GENERAL 1. S t a f f p a r t i c i p a t i o n on The C i t i z e n ' s Housing Task Force for the Workable Program. 2. A . I . A . Task Force . 3. For t Funston Re-Use ( recreat ion) for P a c i f i c Recrea t ion , Inc . 4. F e a s i b i l i t y study for renovat ion of Senior C i t i z e n ' s Center i n Golden Gate Park. 5. Housing development & f e a s i b i l i t y study for San Franc i sco State M a r r i e d Students . 6. Designed and constructed d i s p l a y panels and decor for C o u n c i l on Foundations, Inc . RESEARCH 1. South of Market Area P lanning B u l l e t i n . 2. Haight-Ashbury F i e l d Team. 3. Census Data Gather ing . 4. Rent Surtax Proposal for funding low cost hous ing . 5. Survey of P u b l i c Housing i n San F r a n c i s c o . TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 137 APPENDIX TWO 1925 Process Town Planning Commission established 1927 Plan onstruction 1946 Report 1947 Plan The Bartholemew Plan adopted by Vancouver City Council in 1928 First look at consolidation of traffic onto major arterial routes. Lions t Gate Bridge constructed. Bartholemew, Hasland & Associates A Preliminary Report on Transit The Bartholemew Plan revisited 1951 Report 1952 Report September: 1953 1954 July: November: Report Prov, 1955 June: Bland and Spence Sales Report: recommendations to establish Planning Department Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning established W.A.C. Bennett Govtt. elected. Hon. Phillip A. Gaglardi becomes Highways Minister First Narrows Bridge Company states that it is prepared to build a second bridge parallel to the existing Lions Gate Bridge. Cost $12 million. Committee on Burrard Inlet Crossings established with representation from Citj- of Vancouver, District of North Van., District of West Van., First Narrows Bridge Co. (owners of Lions Gate Bridge) & the Burrard Inlet Bridge & Tunnel Company (Second Narrows railroad combination bridge) Planning Department established Government announces that it is likely that the government, not the Bridge Co. will build the new bridge. Cost $20 million. Report on the Burrard Inlet Crossings Municipal: A report on Burrard Inle Crossings: Technical Committee of Committee on Burrard Inlet Crossings: recommended building of 2 new bridges by 1976 A Study on Highway Planning for Metropolitan Vancouver, March; by the Technical Committee for M H P C Premier Bennett announces that a bridge at Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium Study 1956 Construction Design Study 1958 Study 1959 Plans Study Plan Report Second Narrows will be built before a second one at First Narrows. West Vancouverites continue to push for a new bridge at First Narrows. Fraser River Crossings Study, by Tech. Com. for Metropolitan Highway Planning, commissioned by the B.C. Minister of Public Works, the City of Vancouver, North and West Vancouver, and Burnaby. Province purchases Lions Gate Bridge The Oak Street Bridge Province hires Swan Wooster to design a new four lane bridge at Second Narrows. Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning Surveys commissions: A Study on Highway Planning for the Metropolitan Area of the Lower Mainland of B.C. Deas Island Tunnel Public meeting in West Vancouver. Phil Gaglardi promises to recommend immediate start on Engineering plan for new First Narrows Crossing. A Study on Highway Planning Part 2, for the Metropolitan Freeways Committee with Rapid Transit, prepared by the Technical Committee. Recommended more lanes at First Narrows and was against a waterfront route for GBD distributor for outer route. The Second Narrows Bridge was constructed The Sutton-Brown Plan Freeways with Rapid Transit - A Study on Highway Planning, final report of seven submitted from '58-59 ttransportation deficiencies could only be solved efficiently and practically by construction an entirely separate system of high speed facilities called freeways. This was the basis for studies to 1972 Rapid Transit Plan Report prepared by the Foundation of Canadian Engineering Corporation Ltd. (FENCO) for special committee appointed by the Premier stated that the New First Narrows Crossing would be needed in the near future. Preference given to Brockton Point location. Ten days after F E N C O report on new First Narrows Crossing stating a $40 million cost, Bennett and Gaglardi says that the new bridge is not needed until 1968. 1960 Upper Levels Highway through the North Shore constructed. rRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Qrbanarium 1961 1962 139 December: Freeway to the United States Border Annacis Island Bridge Port Mann Bridge W.E.P. Duncan & BC Research Council is commissioned by B.C. Dept. of Highways for study, Rail Rapid Transit for Metropolitan Vancouver. Study tended to reinforce the freeway concept because it did not see rail as attracting more passenger that buses & therefore would still require freeways. Projected that there was no need until 1980. Idea was not looked at again until 1970ts. FENCO proposes that a new bridge could be built with private financing for $50 million to be recovered through a toll. Province was not interested. 1963 Burnaby Freeway January: Phil Gaglardi announces that the province will pay one third of the cost on new highways and bridge in the Vancouver Metro Area. Larry Smith & Associate, Real Estate Consultants, Seattle, Wash.: An Economic Analysis for Central Business District Redevelopment Phase One Preliminary Report, for the City of Vancouver, recommended freeways through GBD to encourage revitalization & growth. Proposal Christiani & Nielson of Canada: Burrard Inlet Tunnel Crossing: a Comprehensive Proposal, for handling traffic across the Burrard Inlet. Wilbur Smith - Standford Research Institute Review of Transportation Plans commissioned by the Dept. of Highways & City of Vancouver, reinforced the need for freeways. First plan in many years to be presented to public. Public meeting in Q.E. Theatre. Report Redevelopment In Downtown Vancouver, Report No. 5, July 1964. 1964 Plan lan; 1965 January; Phillips, Barrett and Partners and Wilbur mith and Associated, Study Sea Island Access Study Plan Downtown core Plan: Project 200 favoured Burrard inlet waterfront route for freeway. Report Provincial Gov't, commissions FENCO to prepare report on best location, size, & type of crossing for First Narrows. TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 140 1966 Report July: Report January 17: 1967 January 17: October: November: December 7: Trans-Canada Highway route through metropolitan Vancouver and Burrard Inlet Crossing Bennett kills latest Third Crossing Scheme as too expensive, cost $109 million (after much political wrangling) Burrard Inlet Crossing Evaluation, June; Final report from F E N C O recommending 8 lane bridge at Brockton Point connecting to a GBD waterfront expressway. N.D. Lea report to the Minister of Highways evaluation of 15 alternative schemes. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Schemes for the First Narrows Crossing. Board of Administration, City of Vancouver Report to Chairman and Members of Civic Development Committee, Georgia Viaduct Replacement, A Recommendation. Joint Technical Committee of the Intermunicipal Committee, Report on Burrard Inlet Crossing, review of F E N C O and N.D. Lea Reports considered two crossing schemes: 1. A 6 lane bridge parallel to the Lions Gate Bridge at Prospect Point 2. A 6 lane tunnel at Brockton Point: recommended the tunnel with a waterfront distributor bypass. More political wrangling between the municipal, provincial and federal governments over who should pay how much for a third crossing. Federal Government accepted financial responsibility for Burrard Inlet Crossing. Authority delegated to National Harbours Board. Vancouver Transportation Study, submitted to City Council during a public hearing. Recommendations adopted by City Council including a freeway link through Chinatown and Gastown. Second Public information meeting on Vancouver Transit Studies. More than 27 organizations submitted formal briefs. Most opposed the freeway alignment through Gastown & Chinatown. Transport conclusions accepted in principle. Vancouver Transportation Studies Public Meeting at Eric Hamber Secondary School. 800 seat hall Filled to capacity. Vancouver Tomorrow Group formed to discuss citizen participation in urban issues. PRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium 1966 - 1970 1968 January: 141 Study February: March; Summer: June: June: August: San Francisco Freeway Revolt halts construction of Embarcadero Freeway. City Council rescinded its motion to adopt the V T S recommendations and authorized further study, see quote from Board of Administration ????? Parsons, Brinkerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Vancouver Transportation Study, commissioned in August 1966: to integrate the planned Georgia Viaduct replacement with the proposed freeway system and to connect this up with the Burrard Inlet Crossing at Brockton Point. T E A M formed (The Electors Action Movement) ten months before the next civic election. Many of the people actively involved in opposing the freeway join T E A M and in December Walter Hardwick is elected to City Council. Vancouver Tomorrow Conference held. Vancouver Tomorrow joins with others to form Citizens Council on Civic Development. N.D. Lea for B.C. Dept. of Highways report on the Transcanada Highway Cassiar Street Link, concluded that a properly designed freeway solution which could connect to the Vancouver Freeway system was the best alternative. Phillips, Barrett, Hillier, Jones and Partners, Georgia Viaduct Replacement Preliminary Engineering Report Vancouver Part 1; The Issues (???????) N.D. Lea: An Appraisal for the City of Vancouver of Transportation Systems & Routes connecting the Brockton Point Crossing to Provincial Highways 401 & 499. Conclusions accepted in principle by Vancouver Cit)' Council. Project 200: Vancouver Waterfront Development, Grosvenor Liang National Harbours Board commissioned the consortium of Swan Wooster, GBA to act as consultant for preparing engineering designs for the third crossing. 1969 Transportation and Planning in the City Core Area, Feb., 1969 Citizens Council of Civic Development (CCDC, formerly the Vancouver Tomorrow Group); Burrard Inlet Crossing Vancouver Approaches Brief presented Vancouver City Council. Swan Wooster - GBA reports submitted to municipalities, Notes on the Burrard Inlet n RANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Jrbanarium 142 1970 March: September: October: 1971 February: December: 1972 January: March 15: March 17: September: Crossing Project, City of Vancouver Approache Final Examination of Alternative Alignments, March 21 & North Shore Approaches, Final Examination of Alternatives, February Swann Wooster Eng. Co., Burrard Inlet Crossing Project: City of Vancouver Approaches, summary of the final examination of alternative alignments presented to CityCouncil. Swan Wooster Eng. Co., The Burrard Inlet Crossing - A report to the National Harbours Board ND Lea & Associated, Transit Travel in the Year 2000 in Metro Vancouver, for the BC Dept. of Highways: called for both rapid transit & development of the Freeway Network DeLeuw Cather of Canada, Greater Vancouver Area Rapid Transit Study for Greater Vancouver Regional District. Board of Trade Transportation think-in entitled "How Will Vancouver Move?". proposals for widening Point Grey Road turned down by Vancouver City Council. CCCD sponsored a citizens forum called "The Case for and against that Third Crossing of Burrard Inlet." Vancouver City Council votes 6 to 5 for Vancouver participation in the Third Crossing. Also voted not to hold plebiscite on the issue and not to hold a public meeting hearing despite formal requests by 16 community groups and organizations. Knight Street Bridge New Georgia Viaduct opened Citizens Co-ordinating Committee for Public Transit sponsored public meetings at the QE Playhouse to discuss the issue of plebiscite on the Third Crossing. 800 seat theatre filled to capacity Public Hearing in Vancouver on Third Crossing at Eric Hamber School. 60 briefs submitted, most against Third Crossing. Special Council Meeting on the Third Crossing NDP elected and withdraws from $200 mil.Third Crossing Project W.H. McCreerj'; A Rapid Transit Crossing for Burrard Inlet S. Muilreheim (This writing is totally TRANSPORTATION Downtown Vancouver Urbanarium 143 1973 1974 1976 1978 1980 1981 1983 197? 1984 1985 illegible), Feasibility Study of Ferry Mass Transit Across Burrard Inlet. T . E . Parkinson: A Preliminary Study of Light Rapid Transit in Vancouver, B.C. Wilbur Smith & Associates: Downtown Transit Concepts GVRD Transportation and Transmission of Diseases Committee: Transportation for a Livable Region: Report of the Committee Waterfront Planning Study: Stage 1,2,3,4 Warnett Kennedy, Vancouver Tomorrow A Search for Greatness Arthur Erickson Architects; Granville Waterfront Interchange: a Planning Study for • the downtown Vancouver transportation terminal BC Bureau of Transit Services: Draft memorandum on transit service planning to compliment the downtown peninsula plans of the City of Vancouver. Vancouver Engineering Department Report on Transportation GVRD Rapid Transit Projectl979-81 Report GVRD Transit Staff Group: Greater Vancouver Transit System: Directions for transit in the 19801s a Conceptual Plan Marathon Realty Co., Waterfront Center, Vancouver Urban Transit Monstrosity (Your writing is the shits): Proposal for the integrated committee transit system for the lower mainland. Vancouver City Manager: An overall Planning context for ALRT development Urban Transit Authority: Advances light Rapid Transit: the system for Greater Vancouver Automated Light Rapid Transit and Regional Transportation in the GVRD 1986-1976 Seabus BC Place Development Plan Cambie Street Bridge Pacific Blvd completed for Expo A L R T constructed for Expo 86 1986 Fraser Bridge completed Burrard Street Viaduct and waterfront road Alberni Street connector Cassiar Street Connector Main St. Viaduct 145 APPENDIX THREE UDC CHRONOLOGY 1967 Summer - Vancouver Inner-City Service Project (VISP) begins - 'the summer of action'. 1969 Winter - Dino Rapanos attends conference on Community Design Centers in Berkeley. Decides to ini t i a t e one in Vancouver. 1970 Spring - Vancouver Inner-city Service Project applies to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) to fund a Community Design Centre. 1970 Summer - Ron Yuen hired by the Vancouver Inner City Service Project to add a design component to the services offered. 1970 F a l l - Urban Design Centre applies for funding and sets up office at 1895 Venables St. Ron Yuen designated as Director, and Tony Green as Assistant Director. This is finalized when funding is secured. First Urban Design Centre School of Architecture tutorial offered led by Prof. Dino Rapanos with Ron Yuen as teaching assistant and Tom Moore as the f i r s t student. 1970 Dec. - Agreement signed for $50,000, representing 2 years UDC funding from CMHC, under Section 32 (g) of the National Housing Act 1954. 1971 Feb. - Urban Design Centre/AIBC Clinic booth at the Home Show 1971 Spring - 7 tutorial students New Living Development, non profit housing society organized. 1971 Summer - 4 students hired 1971 F a l l - 4 tutorial students 1972 Spring - 6 tutorial students and 8 people funded by the Local Initiatives Program (LIP) 1972 Summer - 8 LIP July - UDC becomes a non-profit society. 1972 Sept - Vancouver Inner City Service Project stops 146 UDC moves t o 1111 C o m m e r c i a l D r i v e . UDC w o r k s h o p t o e x a m i n e g o a l s a n d f u t u r e . 3 s t u d e n t s , 1 summer w o r k e r , a n d 8 L I P UDC s e c u r e s i n t e r i m c o r e f u n d i n g . 1973 S p r i n g - 1973 J u l y - T o n y G r e e n becomes D i r e c t o r . G r e e n h a d b e e n w i t h t h e UDC as A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s i n c e J a n 71 a n d r e s i g n s J a n 7 4 . 197 3 F a l l - U r b a n D e s i g n T u t o r i a l o f f e r e d w i t h D o n a l d G u t s t e i n a s f c u l t y f o r t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e . 6 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e . 1973 O c t - F u n d i n g r e c e i v e d f r o m CMHC $ 1 5 , 3 0 0 f o r 6 months 1973 Dec - Ron Y u e n a n d T o n y G r e e n r e s i g n f r o m t h e U D C . 1974 J a n - J i m L e M a i s t r e becomes D i r e c t o r . L e M a i s t r e h a d b e e n w i t h t h e UDC s i n c e t h e f a l l ' 7 1 . L a s t S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e UDC t u t o r i a l o f f e r e d . 2 s t u d e n t s . 1974 S e p t - C o r e f u n d i n g r e c e i v e d f r o m CMHC $ 2 4 , 0 0 0 u n d e r t h e P a r t V , S e c t i o n 36(g ) C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e O r g a n i z a t i o n P r o g r a m . 1975 S e p t - CMHC c o r e f u n d i n g s t o p s . UDC becomes s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t f o l l o w i n g t h e w o r k e r ' s c o - o p m o d e l . 1976 O c t UDC o f f i c e c l o s e s . 147 APPENDIX FOUR UDC PROJECTS 1970 Skeena Terrace Community Centre First Project Approached by one individual. Had to organize client group. Ran into representative problems. First project using patterns to participatory design to develop program and physical needs. Project became p o l i t i c a l as i t solidified and eventually was taken over by the civic government departments. UDC took on a f a c i l i t a t i n g role. Organized and led meetings, did some small spin-off projects, 'paint-ins', office plans, furniture design, fun-fair. Inter-Institutional Policy Simulator - HPS Computer model of Vancouver. Made contact as i t was f e l t i t would effect Local Planning. No particular project came from this. Inner-City Hostel 199 6th Ave. & 2196 Columbia Design Drawings 1971 Crises Centre Program for requirements for larger premises. Prepared program and design drawings for at least 2 locations but property was never secured. Spin-off of office design. Problem with client not taking services of UDC seriously and made continual change requests. Kitsilano Info Centre Kits Area Council Neighbourhood Services. Fix up facade to make centre more identifiable. Inner-City Services Project - new office Offices of UDC and other VISP groups. Preparation for reorganization and change of VISP project to a collection of independent services. This participated UDC move to 1111 Commercial St. 148 RayCam R e c r e a t i o n C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e - P r o g r a m m i n g , P a r t i c i p a t o r y d e s i g n l e a d i n g t o S c h e m a t i c D e s i g n d r a w i n g s . P r o j e c t e v e n t u a l l y b u i l t a n d i s s t i l l i n u s e t o d a y . R i c h m o n d P l a y l o t D e s i g n / b u i l d o f o u t d o o r p l a y a r e a . P a r t i c i p a t o r y d e s i g n p r o c e s s w i t h o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y . A c t i v i t y C e n t r e S t r i d e A v e . P u b l i c H o u s i n g C l a r i f i e d P r o g r a m a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . No a r c h i t e c t u r a l w o r k was r e q u i r e d f r o m U D C . A T T A C K : P r o j e c t R e a c h i n g O u t A d v e n t u r e P l a y l o t - a d v i s e o n s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P l a y l o t D e s i g n / b u i l d o f p l a y l o t . 50 t e e n s w e r e o r g a n i z e d a n d p a i d t o b u i l d t h i s . Deep C o v e - d e v e l o p m e n t was p u t on h o l d w h i l e t h e c o m m u n i t y d e c i d e d w h a t i t w a n t e d . A n i m a g e f i l e was d e v e l o p e d . Tom M o o r e e v e n t u a l l y d i d some d e s i g n / b u i l d w o r k i n t h e a r e a Home Show B o o t h B o o t h t o o f f e r f r e e a d v i c e c o n c e r n i n g b u i l d i n g a n d p l a n n i n g . V e r y s u c c e s s f u l , o v e r 110 p e o p l e s e r v e d w i t h f o l l o w up o n some. P r e c i p i t a t e d L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e . W i l s o n H o u s e - r e n o v a t i o n C a p i l a n o S t a d i u m - G a l l e r y e x t e n s i o n o f s t a d i u m . UDC was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g c o m m u n i t y n e e d s w e r e met a n d t o a d v i s e o n s p a c e m o d i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y ; a c t e d a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l f u n d i n g p a r t i e s . P r o j e c t n o t c o m p l e t e d d u e t o l a c k o f f u n d s . S t r a t h c o n a P r o p e r t y Owners & T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n - K i t c h e n e r S c h o o l P l a y l o t - d e s i g n M e t r o C o u n c i l O f f i c e - r e n o v a t i o n V a n c o u v e r I n d i a n C e n t r e 1855 V i n e S t . R e n o v a t i o n s t o C e n t r e . S p i n - o f f - F l o a t D e s i g n f o r p a r a d e . C o m m u n i t y Law O f f i c e s - f u r n i t u r e d e s i g n a n d o f f i c e l a y o u t . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g R e n o v a t i o n s - r e n o v a t i o n s o f u n i t s w i t h i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . 149 P a r k e r A v e . D a y c a r e - a s s e s s s u i t a b i l i t y o f l o c a t i o n , c o s t s t o r e n o v a t e , p r e p a r a t i o n o f B u i l d i n g P e r m i t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t . C l i e n t c h o s e a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n . W e s t E n d S o c i a l P r o g r a m - UDC a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g s a n d p r o v i d e d a f a c i l i t a t o r ' s r o l e . H e l p e d p r e p a r e a b r i e f o n a h o t e l e x p a n s i o n i n t h e a r e a . Became i n v o l v e d when a s k e d t o a s s i s t i n i m p l e m e n t i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . V a n c o u v e r R e s o u r c e S o c i e t y f o r t h e D i s a b l e d - H a n d i c a p p e d H o u s i n g G r o u p . H e l p e d o r g a n i z e t h e g r o u p home m o d e l f o r h a n d i c a p p e d l i v i n g . D e v e l o p e d p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e s i g n game. O r i g i n a l c l i e n t n o t h e l p e d , b u t b a s i c c o n c e p t s f o r g r o u p homes d e v e l o p e d . I n d i a n O f f i c e s B u i l d i n g , M e r r i t t , B . C . - r e n o v a t i o n 1972 C o a s t F l o a t i n g Homes A s s o c i a t i o n & F a l s e C r e e k C o m m u n i t y M a r i n a - p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t , p r o m o t e l e g i t i m a c y i n l i v e a b o a r d s . P r o d u c e d b o o k l e t o f p l a n o f m a r i n a a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t l i v e a b o a r d s f o r a s s o c i a t i o n . F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y P l a y g r o u n d Hum P a r k - R e d e s i g n o f p l a y g r o u n d w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m o t h e r s who w e r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d c i t y d e s i g n . B r o c k E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P l a y l o t - d e s i g n M a n u e l H o u s e R e n o v a t i o n - w a n t e d r e n o v a t i o n . I g n o r e d z o n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T y p i c a l r e c i p i e n t o f L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e . MPA B o a r d i n g H o u s e R e n o v a t i o n s - s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s & d e s i g n s G r a n d v i e w E l e m e n t a r y L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e C e n t r e P l a y T o w e r D r a w i n g s p r o v i d e d . New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t Company - i n c o r p o r a t e d A u g u s t 1 9 7 2 . J i m a n d N a n c y L e M a i s t r e . S e t up t o do w o r k f o r p a y i n h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . Was r e f u s e d c o r e CMHC f u n d i n g . F o r m e d w i t h s t a f f o f UDC a n d a p p l i e d f o r a n d g o t some c o - o p a n d p l a n n i n g j o b s . T h i s company w o u l d h a v e e v o l v e d i n t o t h e p r e s e n t h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p s i f i t h a d c o n t i n u e d . 150 F a i r v i e w C o - o p L a n d Schemes - S e v e r a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s s u e s w e r e d e a l t w i t h . New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t Company was i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g t o d e v e l o p h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r l o w - i n c o m e p e o p l e , a n d t o d e v e l o p t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d p l a n i n g e n e r a l . I n i t i a l p r o b l e m d e f i n i n g a n d p r o p o s a l s . A m a j o r r e p o r t was d o n e r e s u l t i n g i n i n t e r i m c o n t r o l s on r e d e v e l o p m e n t u n t i l a n e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y c o u l d be c o m p l e t e d . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g a p p l i e d f o r . R u p e r t P a r k P l a y g r o u n d - a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d d e s i g n e d w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d c o m m i t t e e a n d c h i l d r e n f r o m B e g b i e S c h o o l . V i l l a g e S t . S a c r e m e n t - f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y f o r t h e F e d e r a t i o n de F r a n c o - C o l o m b i e n s f o r a ' v i l l a g e ' i n a l o c a t i o n w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s F r a n c o p h o n e p o p u l a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r a n d D i s t r i c t P u b l i c H o u s i n g T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n - o f f i c e r e n o v a t i o n . P r o j e c t n o t c o m p l e t e d due t o l a c k o f f u n d s . M o u n t P l e a s a n t I n f o C e n t r e - F l o o r p l a n a n d r o u g h c o s t e s t i m a t e s . H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e R e s i d e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n - T e c h n i c a l r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r H a s t i n g s T o w n s i t e R e s i d e n t ' s A s s o c i a t i o n t o o p p o s e a n a p p l i c a t i o n by W e s t r o c I n d u s t r i e s a i r e m i s s i o n s . P e r m i t was g r a n t e d d e s p i t e r e p o r t a n d r e s i d e n t o p p o s i t i o n . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t - a d v i s o r y a n d a n a l y s i s o n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t ( t h e W a r d S y s t e m ) a n d L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g . D a v i d R o b i n s o n L a y m a n ' s Home I m p r o v e m e n t G u i d e - T h r e e p a r t b o o k l e t f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . P e r m i t s , C o d e s a n d C i t y H a l l ; C o s t o f I m p r o v e m e n t s ; C o s t o f B o r r o w i n g . CMHC f u n d i n g f o r p r i n t i n g . E x c e l l e n t p r o d u c t . P r o j e c t C o n t a c t - p r o g r a m m i n g , p l a n , b a s i c f u r n i t u r e a n d e l e c t r i c a l l a y o u t . T h i r d C r o s s i n g B u r r a r d I n l e t - o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t h i r d c r o s s i n g o f B u r r a r d I n l e t a n d g e n e r a l f r e e w a y p l a n s . N e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s , b r i e f s , c o s t a n a l y s i s , c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T o d a t e , f r e e w a y s y s t e m s t i l l n o t c o m p l e t e d . B u r r a r d F o o d C o - o p - S h e l v i n g d e s i g n a n d f l o o r p l a n . D r a w i n g s t o s a t i s f y H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r . Downtown C o m m u n i t y H e a l t h C l i n i c - D e t o x c e n t r e . D e f i n i n g o f g o a l s , p r o g r a m m i n g , s c h e m a t i c s a n d b u i l d i n g c o s t e s t i m a t e s , e n d i n g i n a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . S P E C - C a n a d i a n S c i e n t i f i c a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y - o f f i c e s p a c e p r o p o s a l a n d d i s p l a y - m o b i l e u n i t C o m m u n i t y R a d i o - d e s i g n o f s o u n d room B r a n t V i l l a s T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n - i n v e s t i g a t e s t r u c t u r a l a n d s y s t e m s . P r e p a r e d r e p o r t R i c h m o n d D r o p - I n C e n t r e - R i c h m o n d U n i t e d C h u r c h p r o p o s a l f o r d e c o r a t i o n ' p e o p l e s p u r p l e s t e e p l e c e n t r e ' UBC A c a d i a P a r k D a y c a r e - d e s i g n G r a n d v i e w U n i t e d C h u r c h Y o u t h H o s t e l V a n c o u v e r I n n e r C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t - o f f i c e s M a n u a l H o u s e - d r a w i n g s f o r h o u s e e x t e n s i o n BC H y d r o - UDC p r o p o s e d a p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t p r o g r a m t o d e v e l o p s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o c e s s t o a l l o w f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d a n a c N e i g h b o u r h o o d P l a n - P l a n n i n g f o r h o u s i n g o n v a c a n t l a n d i n t h e a r e a w i t h H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e A c t i o n C o u n c i l w i t h r e s o u r c e a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e U D C . A r e a was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , n o r t h a n d s o u t h . D e v e l o p e d c r i t e r i a f o r h o m e s , i n c l u d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , f i n a n c i n g a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h l e d t o a n o v e r a l l p l a n . P r o d u c e d b o o k l e t w i t h Pattern Language f o r m a t . A r e s i d e n t ' s p l a n f o r t h e s o u t h p a r t a n d some p r i n c i p l e s f o r A d a n a c N o r t h w e r e a d a p t e d . B l o c k 80 Dawson S c h o o l S i t e - A r e a p l a n l o c a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Two a b a n d o n e d s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s w e r e s l a t e d f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . S k e t c h e s o f b u i l d i n g s w e r e d o n e t o be u s e d b y a c o n c e r n e d g r o u p o f p e o p l e i n s e a r c h f o r o t h e r c u l t u r a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p s t o u s e t h e b u i l d i n g s . 152 1973 F r a s e r v i e w I n f o C e n t r e - F o r r e p o r t on C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . D r a w i n g s f o r i n f o c e n t r e i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , one b e i n g t h e Bay M a l l . F r a s e r v i e w / K i l l a r n e y C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y - f e a s i b i l i t y on l a n d b a n k i n g a n d l e a s i n g p r o g r a m . W h e e l c h a i r A c c e s s t o K i n g E d w a r d Gym - d e s i g n f o r t h e C a n a d i a n P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n 4 0 1 / C a s s i a r S t r e e t P e d e s t r i a n C r o s s w a l k - T r a f f i c c o u n t a n d b r i e f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l t o g e t a s a f e r c r o s s i n g f o r a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f C a s s i a r S t r e e t a n d t h e 401 H i g h w a y . S a t i s f a c t o r y t r a f f i c s a f e t y d e v i c e s w e r e i n s t a l l e d . G r a n d v i e w I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e - R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e s p a c e a n d r o u g h e s t i m a t e s . V a n c o u v e r C o - o p e r a t i v e R a d i o - u r b a n a f f a i r s r e s e a r c h a n d p r o g r a m m i n g c o m m u n i t y r a d i o . FP18 P r o j e c t - New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t Company C h a m p l a i n P l a c e ; d e v e l o p h o u s i n g w i t h B a r r y Downs OFY P r o g r a m - o f f i c e p l a n . B r a n t V i l l a s T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n - r e p o r t o n s t r u c t u r e s , v e n t , a i r s y s t e m s H a s t i n g s - T o w n s i t e W a t e r f r o n t P a r k - b o o k l e t p r o d u c e d w i t h s c h e m a t i c s . V e r n o n Downtown I m p r o v e m e n t P r o j e c t - p r o p o s a l p r e s e n t e d . T h u n d e r b i r d I s l a n d - p r o p o s a l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y b a s e d o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S o u t h i l l C h i l d c a r e - l i c e n s i n g d r a w i n g s . Some r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d a p p e a l h e a r i n g s . S p i n - o f f w o r k e d o n s t o r e f r o n t s o f n e i g h b o u r i n g b u i l d i n g s . A m o r e M o d u l a r Home C o - o p e r a t i v e - New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . P r o v i d e d o r g a n i z i n g , p l a n n i n g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e s . R e c e i v e d a s t a r t - u p g r a n t o f $2000 f r o m CHMC. B u r n a b y H o u s i n g C o - o p - H e l p e d s e t u p . C h u r c h o f C h r i s t B u r n a b y D a y c a r e C e n t r e - d e s i g n 153 Mae G u t t e r i d g e W o r k s h o p / S t . James S e r v i c e - f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o n v e r t i n g f l o o r s f o r a h o s t e l . B r i a n S a k a m o t o , S y d n e y P o r t n e r . P r o j e c t c a r r i e d on f o r 3 y e a r s . S c o t t l o d g e - s u n d e c k V a n c o u v e r O p p o r t u n i t i e s P r o g r a m - o f f i c e p l a n S p r i n g r i d g e C o - o p A s s o c i a t i o n - V i c t o r i a - T o o k a h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e r o l e . A s s i s t i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c o - o p i n s i t e p l a n n i n g a n d f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . Scheme i n v o l v e d m o v i n g s e v e r a l h o u s e s f r o m one p l o t o f P r o v i n c i a l l a n d i n Oak B a y t o a n o t h e r p l o t i n t h e F e r n w o o d n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A s e c o n d a r y p r o j e c t w h i c h t h e c o o p b e g a n was a h o u s e d i s m a n t l i n g scheme w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r e c y c l i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s . K i t s House - f e a s i b i l i t y ; d e t e r m i n e p r o g r a m ; d e s i g n s a n d c o s t e s t i m a t e s . A Woman's P l a c e - c o n s u l t on r e n o v a t i o n s w i t h f i r e e s c a p e . M e n t a l P a t i e n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n - e v a l u a t i o n a n d r e n o d r a w i n g s f o r s e v e r a l h o u s e s . C o o l - A i d e - r e n o v a t i o n M o u n t P l e a s a n t D a y c a r e - D e s i g n f o r d a y c a r e w i t h i n p r e f a b r i c a t e d u n i t s ( t r a i l e r ) . C h i l d C a r e F e d e r a t i o n - e a r l y w o r k w i t h f o r m i n g t h e f e d e r a t i o n o f BC a n d d e s i g n i n g e a r l y Day C a r e f a c i l i t i e s . B r i e f p r e p a r e d c r i t i q u i n g p r o p o s e d p r e f a b r i c a t e d d e s i g n C h i l d C a r e D e s i g n G u i d e b o o k - p r o d u c e d c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e s i g n a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s d o c u m e n t a s a D a y c a r e f a c i l i t y m o d e l . L o n s d a l e C r e e k D a y c a r e C e n t r e - d e s i g n W e s t V a n c o u v e r D a y c a r e - c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n w o r k S q u a m i s h I n d i a n B a n d P l a y l o t - d e s i g n s f o r o u t d o o r p l a y l o t a t d a y c a r e c e n t r e M a p l e w o o d C o m m u n i t y F a c i l i t y - b u d g e t i n g a n d d e s i g n o f s p a c e . K i t s i l a n o A r e a C h i l d C a r e S o c i e t y - d e s i g n a s s i s t a n c e f o r p r o t o t y p e f o r p r e f a b r i c a t e d b u i l d i n g . 154 P o o h C o r n e r D a y c a r e - d e s i g n o f u n d e r 3 d a y c a r e . 1974 C a t ' s Meow D a y c a r e - r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d h o u s e t o s t a n d a r d s o f H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r . N o r t h S h o r e N e i g h b o u r h o o d House - p r e f a b r i c a t e d b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g by a h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s . A l d e r g r o v e D a y c a r e - d e t a i l e d d r a w i n g s f o r r o u n d d a y c a r e . G r a n d v i e w T e r r a c e D a y c a r e C e n t r e - p l a n s , f i n a l d r a w i n g s T r i m b l e D a y c a r e - d e s i g n t e m p o r a r y s t r u c t u r e . K i t c h e n e r S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d - p l a n d e s i g n T h e L e F a u x House - d r a w i n g s f o r d a y c a r e l i c e n s i n g L y n n V a l l e y U n i t e d C h u r c h D a y c a r e - s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n d r a w i n g s f o r new s t r u c t u r e . D r a f t i n g c l a s s t o b e i n v o l v e d . Q u e e n s A v e n u e U n i t e d C h u r c h N e i g h b o u r h o o d D a y c a r e - r e n o v a t i o n a n d r o u g h c o s t e s t i m a t e s ; a l s o p l a y g r o u n d a r e a a n d e q u i p m e n t . S t . M i c h a e l ' s D a y c a r e - f l o o r p l a n o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g f o r l i c e n s i n g V a l l e y C h i l d C a r e C o m m i t t e e - d e s i g n f o r a c i r c u l a r p r e - f a b d a y c a r e c e n t r e B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n o f N o n - S t a t u s I n d i a n s - p r e s c h o o l c o n s u l t a t i o n C h i n a C r e e k P a r k K i n g ' s G a t e M a l l A n a l y s i s V a r i e t y C e n t r e - d e s i g n 155 C h i m o T e r r a c e R e c r e a t i o n P r o j e c t - W a l l S t r e e t N e i g h b o u r h o o d P a r k . T h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o n two p l o t s o f n e a r b y v a c a n t l a n d a n d two s t r e e t e n d s a d j a c e n t t o t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . T h e a r e a was t o be u s e d b y t e n a n t s o f t h e C h i m o T e r r a c e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . C o n t r a c t was made b e t w e e n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d C h i m o T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e p a r k p r o g r a m a n d d e s i g n . UDC h e l p e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n - O p p o r t u n i t i e s F o r Y o u t h p r o g r a m f u n d e d t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e p a r k . Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e - p l a n , f i n a l d r a w i n g s S t r a t h c o n a C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e - f e a s i b i l i t y e x p a n s i o n s t u d y , r e p o r t , d r a w i n g s , c o s t e s t i m a t e s . L a F e d e r a t i o n Des F r a n c o - C o l o m b i e n s - o f f i c e a n d w o r k s h o p r e n o v a t i o n . C l i e n t a b s c o n d e d w i t h f u n d s h a l f w a y t h r o u g h a n d as a r e s u l t p r o j e c t d r a g g e d on f o r 2 y e a r s . E a s t e n d C o - o p S t o r e t f r o n t - t e n a n t p a c k a g e C o l u m b i a J u n i o r C o l l e g e - r e p o r t a n d d r a w i n g f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s on b u i l d i n g s a n d g r o u n d s . V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t P u b l i c H o u s i n g T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n - b r i e f s a n d r e p o r t w r i t i n g f o r n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y . Work i n c l u d e d c o n d u c t i n g a w o r k s h o p f o r Camp A l e x a n d e r - D e s i g n a H o u s i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . P r e l i m i n a r y p r o g r a m m i n g f o r a S k i l l s D e v e l o p m e n t F a c i l i t y i n c l u d i n g j o b t r a i n i n g o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . P i n e S t r e e t C l i n i c - C l i n i c was r u n n i n g o u t o f a t r a i l e r . R e n o v a t i o n f o r p e r m a n e n t l o c a t i o n d o n e . C l i n i c s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n . G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d s I n f o C e n t r e - o f f i c e a t 1126 C o m m e r c i a l S t . ; p l a n s , c o n s t r u c t i o n s c h e d u l e a n d m a t e r i a l s T r i b a l V i l l a g e Y o u t h H o s t e l - F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y o n a f o r m e r w a r e h o u s e . D e v e l o p m e n t a n d m o r t g a g e a p p l i c a t i o n s . P r o d u c e d h a n d b o o k . J o b p a s s e d on t o a r c h i t e c t . D a y c a r e D e s i g n S e r v i c e B o o k - B a s i c D a y c a r e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a r e v i e w a n d c o m m e n t a r y on C h i l d C a r e D e s i g n . H i g h q u a l i t y a d v i s o r y d o c u m e n t . F a i r v i e w R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n a n d C o m m u n i t y A c t i o n S o c i e t y (FRACAS) - e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . A i d e d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p i n i t s p l a n n i n g n e e d s . P a i d b y S u s s e x G r o u p f o r s t u d y . 156 C h i l l i w a c k S e n i o r s H o u s i n g P r o j e c t - New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . S i t e p l a n n i n g a n d s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n o f d u p l e x f o r p r o p o s a l s u b m i s s i o n . H a s t i n g s U n i t e d C h u r c h D a y c a r e - P l a n s W e s t P o i n t G r e y D a y c a r e - d e s i g n c o n s u l t a t i o n BC A s s o c i a t i o n o f N o n - S t a t u s I n d i a n s - d r a w i n g s a n d a s s i s t a n c e i n s e l e c t i o n o f p r e - f a b r i c a t e d u n i t . T h e L e f e a u x H o u s e / L a g o o n D r i v e House D a y c a r e - r e n o v a t i o n s f o r l i c e n s i n g . W h i t e R o c k P r e s c h o o l - o u t d o o r p l a y a r e a , s h e d a n d e q u i p m e n t . D r a w i n g s a n d r o u g h c o s t i n g . M a r p o l e D a y c a r e ( S h a n n o n D a y c a r e S o c i e t y ) - 3 d a y c a r e s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n s . A r c h i t e c t d i d f i n a l d r a w i n g s . M a n d a r i n D a y c a r e - b i d d i n g a n d b u d g e t f r o m i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t . B u r r a r d I n d i a n R e s e r v e D a y c a r e a n d R e m e d i a l R e a d i n g - p l a n s a n d m a t e r i a l s l i s t . F a i r v i e w H o d s o n House D a y c a r e - c o s t e s t i m a t e . C i v i c E m p l o y e e s D a y c a r e - r e d e s i g n o f s t a n d a r d t r a i l e r d e s i g n . R i c h m o n d D a y c a r e - a d a p t i n g e x i s t i n g d r a w i n g s . M a r p o l e / O a k r i d g e C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e / D a y c a r e - r e n o v a t i o n s U n d e r T h r e e H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e D a y c a r e - p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . C o l u m b i a J u n i o r C o l l e g e - SP p l a n S k i l l s D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p l e x - SP p l a n A c c e s s t o F a r r i n g t o n C o u r t - new a c c e s s t o h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . P r o p o s a l t u r n e d down as o u t o f m a n d a t e o f f u n d i n g a g e n c y . A d a n a c H o u s i n g C o - o p - p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g f o r 160 u n i t s . C o - o p f o r m e d . T h r o u g h New L i v i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . P l a y e d r o l e o f h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e g r o u p . A r c h i t e c t t o o k o v e r a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y w o r k d o n e . F a r r i n g t o n C o u r t - p r o p e r t y a c c e s s ; p r o j e c t r e j e c t e d b y CMHC b e c a u s e i t d i d n o t c r e a t e new h o u s i n g , j u s t i m p r o v e d e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g 157 1975 C o a s t F o u n d a t i o n S o c i e t y - r e n o v a t i o n d r a w i n g s t o B u i l d i n g P e r m i t H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d O f f i c e - s t u d y o f b u i l d i n g a n d c o s t a n a l y s i s S t r a t h c o n a C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d - F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y - $240 O r c h a r d P a r k - R e p o r t on r e d e s i g n , u p g r a d i n g a n d g e n e r a l i m p r o v e m e n t . I n v o l v e d c o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s . T o o k t h e f o r m o f a n e w s l e t t e r a n d f i n a l 69 p a g e p l a n n i n g r e p o r t . C o m m u n i t y F o u n d a t i o n S o c i e t y - r e n o v a t i o n d r a w i n g s , p a i d w o r k M a r p o l e O a k r i d g e D a y c a r e - d e s i g n REACH C o m m u n i t y H e a l t h C l i n i c - r e p o r t a n d s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n s f o r r e n o v a t i n g two b u i l d i n g s f o r c l i n i c . New S c h o o l - l a n d s c a p e a d d i t i o n , NIP a p p l i c a t i o n 1976 I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f t h e H a n d i c a p p e d ( ISOTH) - s i t e p l a n n i n g , s i t e e v a l u a t i o n , p r e d e s i g n a n d p r e l i m i n a r y p a t t e r n s . S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r C h u r c h - r e p o r t on c o s t a n d f e a s i b i l i t y o f w a t e r p r o o f i n g c h u r c h . F r o g H o l l o w I n f o C e n t r e - P l a y g r o u n d U p r i s i n g B r e a d s - p l a n H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e O f f i c e - p l a n S a s k . H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n C o o p e r a t i v e B u i l d i n g B o o k l e t - A G u i d e t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s . E x c e l l e n t 88 p a g e d o c u m e n t . 7 t h a n d K a s l o P a r k - p l a y g r o u n d / p a r k d e s i g n C a p i t o l H i l l C h i l d C a r e - p l a y g r o u n d d e s i g n N a s a i k a C o o p - p r o d u c e d a p a t t e r n b o o k f o r t h e c o - o p A P P E N D I X F I V E URBAN D E S I G N CENTRE B o a r d Members S t a f f , s t u d e n t s & v o l u n t e e r s I n c e p t i o n : BOARD OF P A R T I C I P A N T S D a v i d A d a i r R e g B i c k f o r d N o r a C u r r y D a r r y l F o r e m a n W o l f g a n g G e r s o n R o l a n d H e n n e s s e y M a r g a r e t M i t c h e l l Tom M o o r e 1970 : F a l l BOARD OF P A R T I C I P A N T S D a v i d A d a i r R e g B i c k f o r d M a r i e B o o t h J o h n C h i s l e t t N o r a C u r r y D a r r y l F o r e m a n W o l f g a n g G e r s o n R o l a n d H e n n e s s e y M a r g a r e t M i t c h e l l Tom M o o r e D i n o R a p a n o s S T A F F : Ron Y u e n S T U D E N T S : Tom M o o r e 1 9 7 1 : BOARD OF P A R T I C I P A N T S T o n y B e a r m a n R e g B i c k f o r d M a r i e B o o t h J o h n C h i s l e t t N o r a C u r r y D a r r y l F o r e m a n W o l f g a n g G e r s o n R o l a n d H e n n e s s e y Tom M o o r e D i n o R a p a n o s Ron W a l k e y S T A F F , STUDENTS & V O L U N T E E R S : Ron Y u e n - D i r e c t o r T o n y G r e e n - A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r J i m B o o i G e o r g e Brown Doug C a m p b e l l G o r d o n D a v i e s C a r s t o n J e n s e n D o n a l d G u t s t e i n B r i a n H a r t T e r r y H a r t w i g - v o l u n t e e r J i m L e M a i s t r e J o h n L e w i s D . A . M a r t i n Tom M o o r e B i l l M u n s i e Mo V a n N o s t r a n d C h u c k R i e f - v o l u n t e e r H . R o s s J o h n S a v i l l e G e r r y S t e w a r t - v o l u n t e e r M o n t y Wood 1972 BOARD OF D I R E C T O R ' S as r e g i s t e r e d u n d e r t h e S o c i e t y ' s A c t . D a v i d A d a i r - S o c i o l o g i s t R e g B i c k f o r d - a r c h i t e c t N o r a C u r r y - C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r D a r r y l F o r e m a n - a r c h i t e c t W o l f g a n g G e r s o n - P r o f e s s o r , S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e R o i l y H e n n e s e y - S o c i a l W o r k e r Tom M o o r e - B u i l d e r M a r g a r e t M i t c h e l l - C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r M a r i e B o o t h - S k e e n a T e n a n t s A s s o c i a t i o n h o n o u r a r y B o a r d member S T A F F , STUDENTS & V O L U N T E E R S : R o n Y u e n - D i r e c t o r T o n y G r e e n - A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r J u d y A l d r i t t C h a r l e s Bowm J i m B o o i M a r i e B o o t h G e o r g e B r o w n J o h n B r o w n e r R i c k C l a r k Wayne C l a r k e M i k e C l a q u e B l a i r D a l i n R o b e r t D u n b a r H e n r y E l d e r J i m L e M a i s t r e N a n c y L e M a i s t r e A l b e r t a L e v i t a n P h i l L y o n s T e r r y L y s t e r B e n M c A f e e - s t u d e n t H a r o u t i n M a r d i r u s s i a n T e r r y M o r r i s M a r k O s b o r n e C l a y t o n P e t r i c h - s t u d e n t P h i l i p P r a t t - s t u d e n t C h a r l e s R i e f D a v i d R o b i n s o n J o h n R u l e - s t u d e n t J o h n S a v i l l e - s t u d e n t J o h n T a l b o t M i k e T h a y e r - s t u d e n t D a v i d T o d d D a v e W h e t t e r M o n t y Wood 1973 BOARD OF P A R T I C I P A N T S M a r k B o s t w i c k S a n d r a C u r r i e N o r a C u r r y R o b e r t D i l l D a r r y l F o r e m a n W o l f g a n g G e r s o n Don G u t s t e i n J i m L e M a i s t r e A l b e r t a L e v i t a n P h i l L y o n s M a r g a r e t M i t c h e l l N e t t e P e r e b o o m D i n o R a p a n o s S h a n e S i m p s o n Mo V a n N o s t r a n d Ron W a l k e y 161 B e g i n n i n g o f 1973 , a l s o Tom M o o r e a n d M a r i e B o o t h S t u d e n t s , S t a f f , V o l u n t e e r s a n d Members o f t h e U r b a n D e s i g n S o c i e t y : Ron Y u e n - D i r e c t o r T o n y G r e e n - D i r e c t o r a f t e r J u l y A n t h o n y B e a r m a n M a r k B o s t w i c k C h e r C a l l i o u P a t C a n n i n g D a v i d E a s t o n G l y n n e E v a n s C a t h y G o l d n e y M a r y L o u i s e H a r t H e n r y H a w t h o r n e G a r y H o n e g g e r L a u r i e H u r w i t z S u z a n n e H u z e l A n n J a r r e l l D o n a l d L o u c k s P h i l L y o n s B e r n a r d M a l a n y c h Tom M o o r e Doug N i c k e l s Mo V a n N o s t r a n d G a v i n P e r r y m a n S y d n e y P o r t n e r C h a r l e s R i e f B u d S a k a m o t o S i d S a w y e r J o h n S a v i l l e S h a l e S i m p s o n C r a i g S t r a n d D a v i d T o d d Wayne W a i M o n t y Wood H e n n i n g W u l f f 1974 BOARD OF DIRECTORS M a r y L o u i s e H a r t J i m L e M a i s t r e S y d n e y P o r t n e r J u d i t h P r y g i e l C h u c k R e i f GENERAL MEMBERS, S T A F F & VOLUNTEERS J i m L e M a i s t r e - D i r e c t o r P . F e i n d e l - o f f i c e c o o r d i n a t o r L a r r y C h a n S a n d r a C u r r i e T o n y G r e e n B a r b H a n s e n Ron H a n s e n Tom H a n s e n H e n r y H a w t h o r n e L a u r i e H u r w i t z M a r i e L o u i s e H a r t J i m L e M a i s t r e P h i l L y o n s M a r g a r e t M i t c h e l l Tom M o o r e N e t t e P e r e b o o m S y d n e y P o r t n e r J u d i t h P r y g i e l C h u c k R i e f A n d y R o s e n S . S a w y e r C r a i g S t r a n d J . T e r j e v i r d i n g Mo V a n N o s t r a n d 1975 BOARD OF DIRECTORS J i m L e M a i s t r e S y d n e y P o r t n e r S h a n e S i m p s o n OTHER A C T I V E MEMBERS: C h u c k R e i f N e t t e P e r e b o o m M o n t y Wood 1976 - 1978 BOARD OF DIRECTORS J i m L e M a i s t r e S y d P o r t n e r C h u c k R i e f S h a n e S i m p s o n M a r g a r e t S i g u r g e i r s o n OTHER MEMBERS: S u s a n L i n k A l b e r t a L e v i t a n L a r r y M a r t i n N a t h a n E d e l s o n S a n d r a C u r r i e T e r r y H o w o r t h 164 APPENDIX S I X REPORT on t h e SKEENA TERRACE P R O J E C T By T o n y G r e e n L a t e s p r i n g 1971 SOME CONCLUDING THOUGHTS: We s h o u l d h a v e b e e n more aware o f t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e S k e e n a T e r r a c e T e n a n t ' s A s s o c i a t i o n r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t ; we s h o u l d h a v e i n s i s t e d t h e y b r o a d e n t h e i r b a s e o f s u p p o r t b e f o r e g o i n g a n y f u r t h e r ( t h a t s h o u l d h a v e h a p p e n e d b e f o r e t h e y went t o C i t y C o u n c i l ) . . A s o b s e r v a t i o n b y Dave A d a i r - " the g r o u p seems t o be v e r y e f f e c t i v e a t l o b b y i n g w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t ; t h e y a r e n o t e f f e c t i v e a t o r g a n i z i n g a n d b e c o m i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " . A l o t o f t i m e was s p e n t t a l k i n g a b o u t two t h i n g s : i n v o l v i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s ; a n d c r e a t i n g a v i a b l e c o m m u n i t y g o v e r n m e n t . I t r e m a i n e d as r h e t o r i c , n e v e r c o m i n g c l o s e r t o r e a l i t y t h a n a few e n t h u s i a s t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h M a r i e [ M a r i e B o o t h - P r e s i d e n t o f S k e e n a T e r r a c e T e n a n t ' s A s s o c i a t i o n ] . I t h i n k i t c o u l d be u s e f u l t o d e v i s e a "communi ty d e s i g n " game t h a t c o u l d be c h e a p l y r e p r o d u c e d a n d e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . T h e e s s e n t i a l s o f s u c h a game w o u l d be t o p r o v i d e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a m o n g s t t h e c o m m u n i t y t h a t t h e y a r e m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n s - a n d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t a s e x p l i c i t a c o m p o s i t e p i c t u r e a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e n e e d s a n d c r i t e r i a o f t h e p o p u l a c e . V a r i o u s o t h e r d e v i c e s w e r e t a l k e d a b o u t , s u c h as a f i l m t o c r e a t e am i m a g e o f t h e a r e a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e , u s e o f v i d e o as a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l a n d a n a l y t i c a l t o o l , t h e " c h a r r e t t e " m e t h o d o f i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e . A t a n y t i m e , I a t l e a s t was e x p e c t i n g t o i n v o l v e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h i s now a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a f a i n t a h o p e , n e v e r v e r y c l o s e t o r e a l i t y . M i l t o n K o t t e r , i n " N e i g h b o u r h o o d G o v e r n m e n t " , i s s a t i s f i e d t o h a v e e v e n a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . I s u p p o s e t h a t c o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r y a s l o n g as t h e r e i s no s t r u c t u r a l i m p e d i m e n t t o a n y c i t i z e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a s l o n g as p e o p l e a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t , i t d o e s n o t seem t o m a t t e r w h e t h e r t h e y do o r n o t . Be t h a t a s i t may , t h e s l o w , i n d e e d , l e i s u r e l y a p p r o a c h t h e UDC t o o k t o " g e t t i n g p e o p l e i n v o l v e d " was b r o u g h t t o a s u d d e n h a l t be t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i n t h e g u i s e o f M a u r i c e E g a n . We w o u l d h a v e b e e n more u s e f u l t o 165 h a v e u r g e d t h e S t e e r i n g G r o u p t o move more q u i c k l y i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r f o r c e s . t h e " c o f f e e p a r t y " a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g s t h a t w e r e h e l d s u f f e r e d f r o m b e i n g u n s t r u c t u r e d - t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n u s u a l l y was t o o l o o s e , d i d n ' t f i t a n y w h e r e My r e l u c t a n c e t o s t r u c t u r e t h e s e t h i n g s came f r o m a f e e l i n g t h a t i f we w e r e t o p r e s e n t t o o much o f a f o r m u l a t e d i d e a , i t c o u l d h a v e two n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . a) t h e p e o p l e w o u l d be t u r n e d o f f w i t h o u r p r o f e s s i o n a l z e a l a n d d i c t a t o r i a l s t a n c e , o r b) t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d m i g h t be u n c r i t i c a l l y a c c e p t e d w i t h a n o s s i f i e d r e s u l t . I n r e t r o s p e c t , a more p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h - one o f p r o v i d i n g s t i m u l a t i o n , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t i o n m i g h t h a v e p r o d u c e d r e s u l t s . P e o p l e e n j o y i m a g e games ( o r s o I b e l i e v e ) a n d s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e m t o p l a y w i t h . F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e P a t t e r n L a n g u a g e a n d i t s t e n e t s - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t one s t a t e s a p r o p o s i t i o n t h e n a r g u e s i t s v a l i d i t y i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a d e c i s i o n . Much more r e s e a r c h c o u l d be d o n e on t h e s u b j e c t o f c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a n d t h e d y n a m i c q u a l i t i e s o f g r o u p s , i n o r d e r f o r t h e UDC t o h e l p g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . I n summary , t h e S k e e n a e x p e r i e n c e h a s : a) p r o v i d e d some c i t i z e n s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s a n d i n c r e a s e t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m a s i n d i v i d u a l s ; b) t a u g h t t h e UDC a b o u t C i t y H a l l a n d a b o u t c i t i z e n s g r o u p s - i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t has p r o v i d e d us w i t h i n s i g h t s i n t o p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d t h e power s t r u c t u r e ; c ) c r e a t e d a p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f a l o n g - t e r m d r e a m i n V a n c o u v e r ' s E a s t E n d ; a t l e a s t t h e p e o p l e g o t s o m e t h i n g o u t o f t h e i r e f f o r t a n d t h e y g o t i t r a t h e r q u i c k l y ( I am a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t u n d e r t h e gym w i l l go a h e a d on t h e b a s i s o f some F e d e r a l m o n i e s b e i n g p l u g g e d i n ) d) k e p t me o f f t h e s t r e e t s f o r 6 m o n t h s . HoHo T o n y G r e e n 167 A P P E N D I X E I G H T A COMMUNITY FACILITY FOR RAYMUR PLACE The Problem Raymur Place i s unpopular,even with the former government: Mr. Dan Campbell, former M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s , has said that "Raymur Place Housing i Project i s a monument to poor p u b l i c housing planning and should never have . been b u i l t " . M r s Grace McCarthy, too, has c a l l e d p u b l i c housing to date l n Vancouver a " d i s a s t e r " . We don't know the minds of the new government, yet. The 376 units of Raymur Place house a t o t a l of \&oO people, Including 700 c h i l d r e n and 150 pensioners, i n a s e t t i n g bordered by two heavily t r a v e l l e d main a r t e r i e s , r a i l r o a d tracks, and s k i d road. No family should have to l i v e i n t h i s environment; we at Raymur have no choice. We do not have access to spaces usually a v a i l a b l e to f a m i l i e s i n s i n g l e homes, such as r e c r e a t i o n rooms, back yards, or enough space i n the home fo r personal p u r s u i t s . Our f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n prevents us from taking part i n the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y . The costs of programmes (fees, equipment and s u p p l i e s ) , of b a b y s i t t i n g and of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y p r o h i b i t our p a r t i c i p a - t i o n . We at Raymur are put i n t o a nearly-hopeless p o s i t i o n . We need space i n which we can create our own s o l u t i o n s . Our proposal i s to b u i l d s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l " l i v i n g space" f o r the fa m i l i e s and senior c i t i z e n s at Raymur which we can share with our friends and neighbours i n the surrounding area. Background: F a c i l i t i e s i n the Area A number of b u i l d i n g s , programmes and s e r v i c e s already e x i s t , are under construction, or are planned f o r the area. They serve (or w i l l serve) a v a r i e t y of programmed needs f o r a v a r i e t y of age groups, but they have l i m i t a t i o n s i n meeting our needs at Raymur. The f a c i l i t i e s i n the area are: Gibbs Boys' Club, 700 East Pender Street has l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s and programmes aimed p r i m a r i l y at boys aged 7 - 13. Kiwassa Neighbourhood Services, 800 Vernon Drive has l i m i t e d and overloaded f a c i l i t i e s and programmes p r i m a r i l y f o r younger c h i l d r e n . Pender YWCA, 375 East Pender focuses on the needs of the Chinese population i n the area, apparently has an uncertain future. Vancouver East Recreation Programme, 1001 Cotton Drive ( i n B r i t a n - n i a School) provides some decentralized programmes, mainly, for c h i l d r e n . The programmes take the form of organized, scheduled events. The summer parks programme i s aimed at c h i l d r e n 6 to 12 years. Strathcona Neighbourhood Services Centre (open September 1972), 500 East Pender Street. Recreationally t h i s w i l l be a r e p l i c a of the Vancouver East Recreation Programme. It w i l l , to some extent, serve the needs of McLean Park residents because of i t s closeness to that p r o j e c t . Generally, however, the programmes are too scheduled, organized and formalized to appeal to many young people, and most of our elementary age c h i l d r e n at Raymur go to Seymour School. B r i t a n n i a Community Services Centre (1973 - 74?), 1001 Cotton Drive. This large complex w i l l provide a wide range of r e c r e a t i o n programmes and other services for 30,000 people i n the east end of the C i t y . The only linkage between Raymur and B r i t a n n i a i s Venables Street, a major truck route not conducive to walking. No d i r e c t bus l i n k s e x i s t and the distance i s generally too great, e s p e c i a l l y f o r mothers with younger c h i l d r e n and no means of p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . SPACE*/ USB ESSENTIAL CHA!^CTBRlSnC5 im EASEMENT^ 1 (3AMES 6MCJJ A S E A S K B t E A L L , p A t ^ l N T O N l , PCDG5- 169 s ize GHAIRS 4 H16J( CERUN© fOp. frMU GAMes; ficaz smfpoe, TDWtTHSWP ROLLef?- SKADMe/ rlApP WAUS; WINRDW 4 tCDR "TO OOCISIPE- PLAY AR5A, E ^ / IAA1KTEHM̂ C&; s<AF^VlSiai A N D ' VI6WIMG FROM ANOIHEK LEVkL; PlVlSieiB INIDTMD; CCWCT; ee&y Access To HAY BSUipMENT; ftS&lPLY A f C C T W S[A<5e> ecuMPF^oop WALLS. "THE- UVIN© S P E C K - EVENTS. MEgDN©S. PBCBPTJCMS C L A S S E S , <5^1HLPJN©^ vwnttw sir^A5e 4 Knotty AEK5fr3JT; 50FF floop; IN A RDUeit £6flAAFB WITH G W ^ M , rTCMS; THINGS; eiGtuomtf To / c c o M M c m r e CEfTTPAL- LCUMSB/ ^ C K 5^; ML£TlNe PLACE (INPC^MAL) •2oo I5CK3. | 0 $ - V5CO SWSA©&~ l o o 0?Mf7 C«A|RS; SfeLf= -OpEKMBp <=N4CK fCCOS * A COUNTER. 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Hence the i d e a of p a r t i c i p a t o r y design f o r a handicapped group home. The b a s i c i d e a of p a r t i c i p a t o r y design i s to i n v o l v e h a n d i - capped people i n the t o t a l design process of a group home from the i n i t i a l stages to f i n i s h e d design. lie f e e l t h i s i s the only way an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l as w e l l as group needs may be s a t i s f i e d i n such a group home. Many design c r i t e r i a , such as counter h e i g h t s , e t c . , are w e l l documented, but the design of a group home i s a f a r more i n v o l v e d process than j u s t choosing s u i t a b l e dimensions and a c c e s s o r i e s . The design of a group home i n v o l v e s f o u r b a s i c areas: 1. P h y s i c a l design 2. S o c i a l design 3. F i n a n c i a l design A. Home management To i n v o l v e handicapped persons i n the design of a group home we have devised a design game. I t i s a medium f o r communication and i t encou- rages people to become aware of and express t h e i r p e r s o n a l s p a t i a l and s o c i a l needs. I t a c t s as a primer f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r t i c i p a n t s and an awareness" and e x p r e s s i o n of a group's s p a t i a l and s o c i a l needs can be communicated. I n - volvement i n the game w i l l promote in-depth d i s c u s s i o n of r e l e v a n t i s s u e s per- t a i n i n g t o the group home concept and d e c i s i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be made i n a r a t i o n a l manner. A "ROUGH" OUTLINE OF EVENTS FOR THE SELF-DESIGN PROCESS OR MONTY WOOD'S 'SITKHER OF '72' The game i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : - the game 'board' i t s e l f i s a model plan of a group home. - the rooms have no doors, no windows, e t c . and may be thought as s p a t i a l components which f i t together to form the p h y s i c a l s p a t i a l framework of the home. - each s p a t i a l component (bedrooms, bathrooms, k i t c h e n , etc.) i n the phy- s i c a l framework contains v a r i o u s sub-components ( a c c e s s o r i e s , f u r n i t u r e , e tc.) 1. Board handout t o each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l - BATHROOM - - i n t r o d u c t i o n to space (awareness of t h e i r own p e r s o n a l space) - p e r s o n a l design s o l u t i o n s ( l a y o u t s ) - document every d e c i s i o n 2. D i v i d e i n t o groups (5 people) and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c i t i c l z e each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l d e s i g n , i . e . provide h e l p f u l feedback. 173 3. Hand out another board of the bathroom - r e d e s i g n or r e v i s e i n i t i a l persona l design to s a t i s f a c t i o n - documentation of reasons a n e c e s s i t y - hope f o r a range of bathroom s i z e s (eg. 10' x 1 0 ' , 8' x 8', or what?) 4. D iv ide i n t o groups (5 people) - a r b i t r a r y or s e l f - c h o s e n - p r e f e r the l a t t e r . Hand out another board and . . . - dev ise a composite p lan of the bathroom fo r f i v e people - constant r e f e r r a l to re fe rence board . . . s o c i a l d i s c u s s i o n s and r e l e - vant s o c i a l problems should s u r f a c e . - documentation, documentation, documentation. - p r i n t o u t of d e c i s i o n s made and conc lus ions reached (eg. what i s an optimum s i z e bathroom fo r f i v e handicaps? what a c c e s s o r i e s ( s i n k s , e t c . ) should go in to a bathroom? proximi ty to other par ts of the house? i s the bathroom a f u l l bathroom or a hal f -bathroom? e t c . ) 5. Three-d imensiona l mock-up of the group bathroom (two i f there are two groups) . - made from cardboard - documentation on video of the people using the space they have designed, and comments. 6. D i s c u s s i o n of v ideo - a review - d e c i s i o n s and r e v i s i o n s of the bathroom design i f any. 7. Repeat Step 5 f o r the r e v i s e d d e s i g n . 8. D i s c u s s i o n of v ideo - a review - d e c i s i o n s and r e v i s i o n s - f i n a l conc lus ions about bathrooms 9. Document on f i n a l layout ( two-dimensional plan) a l l d e c i s i o n s and c o n c l u - s ions . . . p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and a l s o f i n a n c i a l (note: a r c h i t e c t w i l l act as consu l tan t when costs become a f a c t o r i n design) * * * END OF BATHROOM * * * 10. The KITCHEN i s the next s p a t i a l component to be d i s c u s s e d . - begin wi th a d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d on s o c i a l and home management i s s u e s . - determine th ings l i k e who does the cooking? how many people w i l l do the cooking? who buys the food? (opera t iona l s t r u c t u r e of the k i tchen) what k i n d of s torage f a c i l i t i e s ? are there s p e c i a l d i e t s ? e t c . (note: the diningroom w i l l have to be d iscussed i n con junct ion wi th the k i t chen . . . what type of ea t ing f a c i l i t i e s ? e t c . ) screen ing from k i tchen? - once the o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the k i tchen /d in ingroom has been de- termined and documented, d e c i s i o n s as to what sub-components (accessor ies ) w i l l be needed to s a t i s f y the demands of the o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( s t o - rage , number of s t o v e s , e t c . ) - s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of a c c e s s o r i e s should be determined, i . e . height of counters storage f a c i l i t i e s , which way the doors swing on a f r i d g e , e t c . 174 11. Once the sub-components have been determined*, - cut out the components - draw the k i t c h e n @ 1" = l ' - O " from the main re fe rence board - use the same groups that were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Step 4 and determine a s a t i s f a c t o r y layout fo r the k i t chen - remember to document a l l ideas and d e c i s i o n s on the board i t s e l f - constant r e f e r r a l back to the main re ference board i s a n e c e s s i t y to put the k i t c h e n i n some context (the home)i s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s should a r i s e . . . screen ing between k i t chen /d in ingroom, e t c . 12. On complet ion of a s a t i s f a c t o r y p lan (group s a t s i f a c t i o n ) , three dimen- s i o n a l mock-ups of the k i t c h e n are constructed;, document on v ideo the use and d i s c u s s i o n s of the space. 13. D i s c u s s i o n of v ideo - a review - d e c i s i o n s and r e v i s i o n s i f any. 14. Repeat Steps 12 and 13 fo r the r e v i s e d des ign . 15. Document on f i n a l layout (note: t h i s space may be t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the space u t i l i z e d from the re ference board; t h a t ' s g rea t ! ) - a l l d e c i s i o n s and conc lus ions . . . p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , f i n a n c i a l * * * END OF KITCHEN/DININGROOM * * * 16. The BEDROOM i s the next s p a t i a l component to be d i s c u s s e d . - s t a r t wi th group d i s c u s s i o n as to home management and s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s , i . e . what does one do i n a bedroom, watch T . V . , e n t e r t a i n , e t c . ? what and how w i l l i n d i v i d u a l ' s persona l hab i ts a f f e c t the r e s t of the house? r e l a t i o n s wi th each other? pr ivacy? - hand out i n d i v i d u a l boards f o r . p e r s o n a l design s o l u t i o n s a f t e r d i s c u s - s ions as to r e l a t i o n to h a l l w a y s , outdoors , bathrooms, f u r n i t u r e , s to rage , opt imal s i z e of a bedroom, costs - constant r e f e r r a l back to the main re ferance board i s a n e c e s s i t y to ensure meaningful s o c i a l and management d e c i s i o n s . - documentation of d e c i s i o n s and conc lus ions ( f i n a l ) . . . remember to docu- ment persona l s o l u t i o n s . 17. D i s c u s s i o n on the LIVING ROOM - re fe rence back to the main board f o r re levant s o c i a l d i s c u s s i o n s as to s i z e , l o c a t i o n , access to outdoors , f u r n i t u r e , a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . - r e l a t i o n s h i p s with din ingroom, ent rance , e t c . - cutouts and design s o l u t i o n wi th documentation 1C. D iscuss ions on STUDY - need: o f f i c e work, co-op b u s i n e s s , l i b r a r y , s e m i - p r i v a t e space, extra bedroom, e t c . , s i z e , access to outdoors , l o c a t i o n e t c . DOCUMENTATION 19. D iscuss ions on UTILITY, STORAGE, & HOBBY SPACES - the need: a c t i v i t i e s i n house, house indust ry ; l o c a t i o n , s i z e 175 20. D i s c u s s i o n s on OUTDOOR SPACE. - purposes: gardening, sunning , e t c . , carpor ts 21. Prepare summary sheets fo r handing out to a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s - these sheets should i n c l u d e a l l conc lus ions f o r each room ( p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , f i n a n c e , home management). 22. LOCATIONAL STUDY - determinat ion of c r i t e r i a as to the l o c a t i o n of such a home - note: p o s s i b i l i t y of apartment f l o o r - documentation 23. SYNTHESIS OF A HOME - use c l a y as a medium f o r communication: provide a p iece of plywood, (sca led to the s i z e of a t h e o r e t i c a l l o t ; eg . 60' x 120') and mark setback r e g u l a t i o n s on the board ; that w i l l leave the t o t a l a l lowable b u i l d a b l e a rea . - us ing the c l a y a r r i v e at an optimum ( s a t i s f a c t o r y ) p lan f o r the house conforming to the c r i t e r i a a r r i v e d at through the prev ious study . . . no te : documentation i s important , use s l i d e s and record each s i g n i f i - cant change dur ing the p r o c e s s . - s c a l i n g may be a problem so prov ide some s c a l i n g dev ice ( r u l e r , g r i d f o r p r o j e c t i o n ) . 24. On complet ion of a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e s i g n , t r a n s f e r the layout to paper and compare to o r i g i n a l s o c i a l des ign ( c r i t e r i a ) and room s i z e s . . . understand reasons f o r change and document. -note rooms and t h e i r s i z e s cn the p lan - note doors , windows> e t c . - note permanent f i x t u r e s - cupboards, s i n k s , e t c . 25. F e a s i b i l i t y Study - b r i n g i n a consul tant to do a cost a n a l y s i s to see i f the design i s economical ly f e a s i b l e (economic f e a s i b i l i t y w i l l be determined by the maximum rent the people can pay on a D . P . A . , mortgage i n t e r e s t r a t e s , l i v i n g costs act as determinants) 26. I f the design i s not f e a s i b l e , minor r e v i s i o n s should be attempted as long as the d e s i r e d q u a l i t y i s r e t a i n e d . I f minor r e v i s i o n s are not p o s - s i b l e , the home should be redes igned , i . e . repeat Steps 23, 24, 25. 27. The t o t a l cost per month per person should be computed and the p o s s i b i l i t y i s there f o r comparison wi th d a i l y costs of l i v i n g i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . 28. CONCLUSIONS - s h o u l d be w r i t t e n up f o r each of the four areas of des ign - suggest ions as to improvements that might be made on the s e l f - d e s i g n methodology - suggest ions that might be made f o r the group home concept NOTE: Very l i t t l e has been mentioned of FINANCIAL DESIGN i n t h i s programme. F i n a n c i a l design should begin at the beginning of the programme and con- t i n u e p a r a l l e l to i t . At each phase of the programme, f i n a n c i a l input would be i m p l i c i t and p o s s i b l y act as a design determinant .

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