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Eloquence and imagery : the function of Fra Angelico's frescoes in the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V Langdale, Glyn Allen 1990

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ELOQUENCE AND IMAGERY: THE FUNCTION OF FRA ANGELICA'S FRESCOES IN THE CHAPEL OF POPE NICHOLAS V By GLYN ALLAN LANGDALE B. A., Simon Fraser University, 1980; P. D. P. Cert. Simon Fraser University, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department fo Fine Arts) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1990 Copyright Glyn Allan Langdale, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of F i n e A r t s The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A p r i l , 1990  DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t i i F ra A n g e l i c o ' s f r e s c o c y c l e of the l i v e s and martyrdoms of SS. Stephen and Lawrence i n the Chapel of Ni c h o l a s V (1447-49) communicate i n a s t y l e which seems t o be r h e t o r i c a l i n the sense t h a t they employ numerous s t r a t e g i e s which appear t o aim at persuading viewers of the t r u t h of the i d e o l o g i c a l notions the frescoes convey. This f a c t encourages one t o consider the s p e c i f i c pressures which the context of the f r e s c o e s ' production may have exerted. Commissioned by a pope who had the t r a i n i n g of a p r o f e s s i o n a l humanist - and who, as a humanist, had i n t e r e s t i n the e f f i c a c y of r h e t o r i c - these frescoes convey t h e i r messages w i t h a persuasive p i c t o r i a l 'eloquence 1 which, i n some r e s p e c t s , corresponds t o or p l a y s o f f on humanist d e f i n i t i o n s of eloquence. The f o l l o w i n g study attempts t o e x p l a i n what messages these frescoes were meant to communicate, and how t h e i r manner of communication i s r h e t o r i c a l . The r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e becomes a method of conveying o l d ideas i n new ways, and may have made the messages more resonant i n the context i n which they were meant t o f u n c t i o n . A p a u c i t y of primary documentation on the frescoes makes t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Problems i n i d e n t i f y i n g the f r e s c o e s ' intended audience and working on the troublesome ground between the r h e t o r i c a l nature of i i i w r i t t e n and p i c t o r i a l t e x t s a l s o complicates t h i s ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Nevertheless, by c o n s i d e r i n g the problems and aims of N i c h o l a s V s p o n t i f i c a t e , and by c l o s e l y examining the s u b j e c t matter, o r g a n i z a t i o n , and expression of the f r e s c o e s , some i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e i r probable f u n c t i o n may be gained. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS V INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE - The T r a d i t i o n of Chapel Decoration; and the Representations of Church Fathers, Aquinas and SS. Stephen and Lawrence 16 CHAPTER TWO - Eloquence and P a i n t i n g : Humanist Conceptions of A r t and H i s t o r y 28 CHAPTER THREE - The Issues i n the N a r r a t i v e s and the R h e t o r i c a l S t y l e 44 CONCLUSION 82 ILLUSTRATIONS 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 V L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s and t h e i r Sources Figu r e 1: P a r t i a l view of the Chapel of Nich o l a s V, the V a t i c a n (Source: Eve Borsook, The  Mural P a i n t e r s of Tuscany). Figure 2: Diagram of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the d e c o r a t i o n i n the Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: A n t o n e l l a Greco, La Cappella d i N i c c o l o V d e l Beato  A n g e l i c o ) . Figure 3: Fra An g e l i c o , the Four E v a n g e l i s t s i n the v a u l t of the Chapel of Nich o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . Figure 4: Fra A n g e l i c o , St. Ambrose. The Chapel of Nich o l a s V (Source: The 'Meisters Gemalde 1 S e r i e s ) . F igure 5: Fra An g e l i c o , St. Augustine. The Chapel of Nic h o l a s V (Source: The 'Meisters Gemalde 1 S e r i e s ) . F igure 6: Fra An g e l i c o , St. Thomas Aquinas. The Chapel of Nic h o l a s V (Source: The 'Meisters Gemalde' S e r i e s ) . F i g u r e 7: Masolino, the E v a n g e l i s t s and the L a t i n Doctors of the Church. San Clemente, Rome (Source: Mario Salmi, Masaccio). Figure 8: Maso d i Banco, 'St. S y l v e s t e r C l o s i n g the Mouth of the Dragon and R e s u s c i t a t i n g Two Deceased Romans 1, c. 1340, B a r d i d i Vernio Chapel, Florence (Source: F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n Renaissance Art) . v i F i g u r e 9: Masolino, 'The Healing of the C r i p p l e and the R a i s i n g of Tabitha', Brancacci Chapel, Florence, 1424-1425 (Source: F r e d e r i c k H a r t t , H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t ) . F i g u r e 10: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'The O r d i n a t i o n of St. Stephen and St. Stephen D i s t r i b u t i n g Alms'. The Chapel of Ni c h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra  A n g e l i c o ) . Figure 11: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'The O r d i n a t i o n of St. Lawrence*. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . F i g u r e 12: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'The Annunciation', c. 1440-1460, Museo San Marco, Florence (Source: Michael Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y ) . F igure 13: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'Sixtus I I g i v i n g St. Lawrence the Treasures of the Church'. The Chapel of Nic h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . F i g u r e 14: F i l i p p o L i p p i , 'The Annunciation' c. 1440-1460, San Lorenzo, Florence (Source: Michael Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y ) . F igure 15: Fra A n g e l i c o , St. Stephen Preaching and D i s p u t i n g w i t h the Sanhedrin. The Chapel of Nic h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . F i g u r e 16: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'St. Lawrence G i v i n g Alms'. Chapel of N i c h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . Figure 17: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'The E x p u l s i o n and L a p i d a t i o n of St. Stephen'. The Chapel of Nic h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . Figure 18: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'St. Peter Preaching', from the L i n a i u o l i T r i p t y c h , Florence (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . v i i F i g ure 19: J u s t e l a Gand, St. Thomas Aquinas, from the studiolo of Federigo da M o n t a f e l t r o , Urbino (Source: Mme. 0. Chomentouskaya, 11 Le Comput D i g i t a l . H i s t o i r e d'un Geste dans l ' a r t de l a Renaissance I t a l i e n n e . " Gazette des Beaux-Arts 20 (1938): 157-172. Figu r e 20: Masolino, 'St. Catherine D i s p u t i n g ' , San Clemente, Rome (Source: Mme. 0. Chomentouskaya, "Le Comput D i g i t a l . H i s t o i r e d'un Geste dans l ' a r t de l a Renaissance I t a l i e n n e . " Gazette des Beaux-Arts 20 (1938): 157-172. 1 INTRODUCTION I t i s from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n t h a t t h i s t h e s i s would l i k e t o examine a p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between humanist i n t e r e s t s i n r h e t o r i c and the frescoes i n the chapel of Pope Nich o l a s V i n the V a t i c a n , which were pa i n t e d by Fra A n g e l i c o and h i s a s s i s t a n t s sometime between 1447 and 1449. 1 I would l i k e t o examine the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the genre of chapel d e c o r a t i o n was s l i g h t l y r e a d j u s t e d by the context of Nich o l a s V s cou r t , where, alongside t r a d i t i o n a l papal concerns, there was a l s o the humanistic i n t e r e s t s of Nic h o l a s V who, l i k e most humanists, promoted the eloquent communication of ideas and thus a l s o promoted humanist eloquence as a u s e f u l and e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n the context of i n s t i t u t i o n a l power. The fr e s c o e s , I would l i k e t o propose, represent an instance where the d e l i b e r a t i v e and demonstrative aspects of humanist r h e t o r i c found expression i n v i s u a l a r t . The m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the genre of chapel d e c o r a t i o n , which I s h a l l d e f i n e , are s u b t l e but See Creighton G i l b e r t , "Fra Angelico's Fresco Cycles i n Rome: Th e i r Number and Dates," Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r  Kunstcreschichte 38 (1975) : 245-265. See a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n of the dates i n John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Ang e l i c o (London: Phaidon, 1974), 212-213. The decorations i n t h i s chapel were only p a r t of more extensive f r e s c o decorations which Ni c h o l a s V had commissioned. This t h e s i s discusses only the c y c l e i n Nich o l a s V s chapel. 2 s i g n i f i c a n t , and may have engendered a v a r i e t y of responses from those who viewed them. The d e f i n i n g of these reworkings of t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s and formal arrangements f o r which I am arguing are d i f f i c u l t t o p i n p o i n t . I n v a r i a b l y there e x i s t other exceptions t o the conventions, and d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r e x p l a i n i n g these v a r i a t i o n s other than the ones I would l i k e t o promote. This study t h e r e f o r e proceeds along a t h i n border between p o s s i b i l i t y and p r o b a b i l i t y , though h o p e f u l l y keeping c l o s e r contact w i t h the l a t t e r . There are a number of problems. One d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the p r e c i s i o n w i t h which the s o c i a l context of the frescoes can be f i x e d , and t h i s i n c l u d e s not only the d e f i n i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and concerns of the patron, but the i d e n t i t y of the audience whom the frescoes addressed. 2 The decorations i n Nich o l a s V s chapel were o b v i o u s l y not meant t o be viewed by the p u b l i c (even though, l i k e p u b l i c images, they could serve d i d a c t i c ends). The only viewer who can be In the recent s t u d i e s by G a i l Geiger and P a t r i c i a Rubin [ G a i l L. Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel.  Renaissance A r t i n Rome (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edward Brothers, 1986) and P a t r i c i a Rubin, "The P r i v a t e Chapel of C a r d i n a l Alessandro Farnese i n the C a n c e l l e r i a , Rome," J o u r n a l of the  Warburcr and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 50 (1987): 82-112], both authors i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d accounts of the a c t i v i t y of the patrons, and both document humanist a c t i v i t y i n the r e s p e c t i v e c o u r t s of C a r d i n a l s O l i v i e r o Carafa and Alessandro Farnese. In the case of P a t r i c i a Rubin's study, though, the patrons' i n t e r e s t s and the common expectations of the humanist, c o u r t l y audience are argued as being the fundamental impetus behind the fre s c o e s ' i n n o v a t i o n s . T h i s , as opposed t o the patron d e s i r i n g t o present h i m s e l f as a c e r t a i n k i n d of i n d i v i d u a l t o others, which Geiger admits as c r u c i a l (pp. 142-146). 3 i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y i s Nicholas V h i m s e l f . However, i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t the frescoes were meant f o r a l a r g e r audience made up of the e c c l e s i a s t s and d i g n i t a r i e s v i s i t i n g the papal court. Since the audience f o r the frescoes was probably drawn from t h i s pool of i n d i v i d u a l s of high s o c i a l rank ( s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s ) , one might assume a degree of l i t e r a c y and e r u d i t i o n on the p a r t of the viewers. The a c t u a l degree of t h e i r e r u d i t i o n was r e l a t i v e ; 3 what was important was the pretense of i t t h a t humanism o f f e r e d members of m i d - f i f t e e n t h century c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . 4 S t i l l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o speculate on how these i n d i v i d u a l s might have responded t o the frescoes. I n t e n t i o n a l i t y , as i s o f t e n the case, i s a l s o a problematic i s s u e . The only contemporary document which r e f e r s t o these frescoes i s a b r i e f c o n t r a c t which, t e l l i n g though i t i s , s t i l l does not gi v e a very d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of what form these frescoes were t o take or what t h e i r f u n c t i o n was t o be. I t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o make claims regarding complex l e v e l s of i n t e n t . Yet I would l i k e t o This was t r u e even f o r humanists, d e s p i t e t h e i r c l a i m s . As Baxandall w r i t e s , "Not u n t i l the 143 0's and Lorenzo V a l l a ' s E l e g a n t i a e d i d the humanists s t a r t producing important new handbooks i n the image of t h e i r own pr e t e n s i o n s . " See Michael Baxandall, G i o t t o and the Orators:  Humanist observers of p a i n t i n g i n I t a l y and the d i s c o v e r y of  p i c t o r i a l composition 1350-1450 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1971), 3. 4 See E. H. Gombrich, "From the R e v i v a l of L e t t e r s t o the Reform of the A r t s : N i c c o l o N i c c o l i and F i l i p p o B r u n e l l e s c h i , " i n The Heritage of A p e l l e s : Studies i n the  A r t of the Renaissance, I t h a c a , New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press (1976), 93-94. 4 c l a i m t h a t , although the ideas which the frescoes communicate are not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n n o v a t i v e , the way i n which they communicate suggests a concern f o r eloquent p i c t o r i a l expression. One i s encouraged t o search f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n i n t e n t because of the r a t h e r s i n g u l a r s i t u a t i o n whereby a humanist - who, l i k e most humanists, worked on the f r i n g e s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l power 5 - found h i m s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n of great p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and supreme r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e (though at t h i s time n e i t h e r of these t h i n g s were very secure) . Ni c h o l a s V s example represents a r a r e instance where an i n d i v i d u a l of r a t h e r humble o r i g i n s who had not been t r a i n e d p r i m a r i l y as an e c c l e s i a s t , was suddenly i n a p o s i t i o n of great r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r power and was able t o commission major works of a r t . But can the reworkings of the chapel f r e s c o genre be d e f i n i t e l y t r a c e d t o the d e s i r e s of the patron? What d e c i s i o n s can be considered Fra Angelico's? I t i s q u i t e probable t h a t Fra A n g e l i c o , w e l l aware of the k i n d of audience h i s frescoes were going t o be viewed by, responded w i t h a v i r t u o s o d i s p l a y s k i l l and the employment of h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l modes of p i c t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and expression. Since the n o t i o n of c u l t u r a l progress was so p r e v a l e n t i n the w r i t i n g s of humanists, and s i n c e the p i c t o r i a l a r t s were John F. T i n k l e r , "Renaissance Humanism and the genera eloquentiaeRhetorica 5, no. 3 (Summer, 1987): 288-291. 5 seen t o progress alongside the r h e t o r i c a l a r t s , Fra A n g e l i c o might have f e l t o b l i g e d t o present f r e s h , r h e t o r i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o conventional problems. S u r e l y the aging master must have been aware t h a t t h i s was one of h i s l a s t major commissions (and i t was h i s most p r e s t i g i o u s up t o t h i s p o i n t ) , and may have f e l t pressured t o d i s p l a y h i s a b i l i t y i n pushing the l i m i t s of the genre - t o e x h i b i t h i s i n v e n z i o n e and h i s mastery of d i f f i c u l t a - without breaching the bounds of decorum.7 Could the Renaissance conception of a r t i s t i c progess, of which both Fra A n g e l i c o and h i s audience may have been cognizant of, been a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n determining the 'progressive' aspects of the frescoes? I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t the problem of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y w i l l be solved, but these p o s s i b i l i t i e s need to be kept i n mind. Another d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the d e f i n i n g of humanist notions of v i s u a l a r t , and how these might have a f f e c t e d a e s t h e t i c responses and/or a r t i s t i c p roduction. Humanists Aeneas S i l v i u s P i c c o l o m i n i had w r i t t e n : "...as long as eloquence f l o u r i s h e d , p a i n t i n g flourished...now we can see t h a t both these a r t s have reached p e r f e c t i o n . " See Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and Renasences i n Western A r t , (New York: Harper & Row Pub. 1972), 15-16. 7 An a r t i s t had t o n e g o t i a t e h i s way c a r e f u l l y t o avoid c r i t i c i s m . A r e t i n o , f o r example, c r i t i c i z e d Michelangelo s h a r p l y f o r h i s •Last Judgement' on the grounds t h a t he had made d i f f i c u l t a the subject of h i s a r t , and had overstepped the bounds of p r o p r i e t y . A r e t i n o had personal reasons f o r being upset w i t h Michelangelo, but the reasons f o r which he attacked him were seen as j u s t i f i e d . 8 The i s s u e i s discussed i n E. H. Gombrich, "The Renaissance Conception of A r t i s t i c Progress and i t s Consequences," i n Norm and Form. Studies i n the A r t of the  Renaissance (London: Phaidon Press, 1966), 1-10. 6 gave i n s t r u c t i o n i n L a t i n and mathematics, produced t e x t s , gave o r a t i o n s , organized l i b r a r i e s , and so on. Through these a c t i v i t i e s humanists molded, and responded t o , the needs and t a s t e s of c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . Humanists i n the employ of c o u r t s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s c ould adapt t h e i r l i t e r a r y and r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s t o many s i t u a t i o n s , but they were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r dependence on antique paradigms f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , guidance, and method. But how could these i n t e r e s t s , s l a v i s h l y dependent on ancient topoi, f i n d e xpression i n v i s u a l a r t ? Since humanists themselves d i d not produce t e x t s which can serve as d i r e c t and tru s t w o r t h y guides t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s u a l and l i t e r a r y a r t , t h e i r comments on p a i n t i n g must be used w i t h c a u t i o n . S t i l l , humanist assumptions on the power of eloquence may have encouraged p a i n t i n g t o l i v e up t o the On the p r o f e s s i o n a l nature of humanist a c t i v i t y see Paul Oskar K r i s t e l l e r , Studies i n Renaissance Thought and  L e t t e r s (Rome: E d i z i o n i d i s t o r i a e l e t t e r a t u r a , 1956), 553-583. See a l s o Charles Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism: The Inaugural Orations of Bartolommeo d e l l a Fonte." Studies i n the Renaissance 7 (1960): 90-147. But see a l s o Hans Baron's "Leonardo B r u n i : ' P r o f e s s i o n a l R h e t o r i c i a n ' or ' C i v i c Humanist'?" Past and Present 3 6 ( A p r i l , 1967): 21-37, where Baron claims t h a t K r i s t e l l e r ' s n o t i o n of humanists as 'pens f o r h i r e ' should be q u a l i f i e d , s i n c e many humanists a c t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d the l i f e of otium over p r o f e s s i o n a l posts. Tomasso P a r e n t u c e l l i (Nicholas V) hi m s e l f was best known f o r h i s e x p e r t i s e i n l i b r a r i a n s h i p . He had been the l i b r a r i a n a t at the Dominican Monastery of San Marco i n Florence i n the years Fra Angelico was de c o r a t i n g the monastic c e l l s . P a r e n t u c e l l i a l s o wrote a handbook, commissioned by Lorenzo de M e d i c i , on the proper o r g a n i z a t i o n and content of a c o u r t l y l i b r a r y . See D. Robathan, " L i b r a r i e s i n the Renaissance," i n The Medieval  L i b r a r y , e d i t e d by J.W. Thompson (Chicago: Chicago U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1939), 512-523 and 561-562. 7 r h e t o r i c a l power of the v i s u a l suggested by the Horacian dictum of ut pictura poesis. To a c e r t a i n extent, the problem p a r a l l e l s the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s e m i o t i c s t o v i s u a l a r t , whereby a methodology developed f o r the study of w r i t t e n language i s used t o evaluate p i c t u r e s . Since l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s and p i c t o r i a l signs are d i f f e r e n t i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways, the s e m i o t i c model had t o be modified f o r use w i t h v i s u a l images, and much of the l i t e r a t u r e on the s e m i o t i c s of images has been devoted t o the problems of these m o d i f i c a t i o n s . 1 0 Importantly f o r t h i s study, i t i s the r h e t o r i c a l nature of the image which the s e m i o t i c s of p i c t u r e s has found most workable, s i n c e a c l e a r p a r a l l e l can be found w i t h i n a c e r t a i n type of l a n g u a g e . 1 1 This t h e s i s , i n some ways, attempts to i d e n t i f y the r h e t o r i c a l nature of See Roland Barthes, "The R h e t o r i c of the Image," i n Image, Music. Text. T r a n s l a t e d by Stephen Heath. (New York: The Noonday Press, 1977), 32-51. The l i t e r a t u r e on the r h e t o r i c a l nature of images has become v a s t i n the past decade. E a r l y s t u d i e s i n c l u d e Jan Mukarovsky, "Art as a S e m i o l o g i c a l Fact," i n S t r u c t u r e , Sign, and Function, t r a n s l a t e d by John Burbank and Peter S t e i n e r (New Haven & London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978), 82-88 [ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1936] ; and Meyer Schapiro, "On Some Problems i n the Semiotics of V i s u a l A r t : F i e l d and V e h i c l e i n Image Signs," Semiotica 1 (1969): 223-242. For a more thorough account see Meyer Schapiro, Words and P i c t u r e s . The Hague: Mouton, 1973. See a l s o Michel Rio, "Images and Words," New L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r y 7, no. 3 (Spring, 1976): 505-512; and f o r a recent study see Norman Bryson, V i s i o n and P a i n t i n g . The Logic of  the Gaze. New Haven & London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988. 1 1 For a model study see Irene J. Winter, "Royal R h e t o r i c and the Development of H i s t o r i c a l N a r r a t i v e i n Neo-A s s y r i a n R e l i e f s , " Studies i n V i s u a l Communication 7, no. 2 (Spring, 1981): 2-38. 8 the f r e s c o e s i n Nicholas V s chapel, but t r i e s t o r e l a t e them t o the s p e c i f i c r h e t o r i c a l concerns which may have e x i s t e d i n Nich o l a s V s humanist papal c o u r t . Humanists d i d not concern themselves much w i t h the a r t of p a i n t i n g . 1 2 When they d i d , they c o n s i s t e n t l y remained w i t h i n the confines of antique l i t e r a r y genres such as the e k p h r a s i s . An ekphrasis strove t o de s c r i b e a p a i n t i n g w i t h an aim t o evoke the same f e e l i n g s t h a t viewing the p i c t u r e would have a r o u s e d . 1 3 The evoking of f e e l i n g s was one of the primary aims of r h e t o r i c , 1 4 and A l b e r t i expressed the op i n i o n t h a t "The i s t o r i a which m e r i t s both p r a i s e and admiration w i l l be so agreeably and p l e a s a n t l y a t t r a c t i v e t h a t i t w i l l capture the eye of whatever learned or unlearned person i s l o o k i n g at i t and move h i s s o u l . " 1 5 According t o A l b e r t i , i t would seem t h a t any k i n d of viewer should have expected an image, at l e a s t i n p a r t , t o please and move him or her emotionally, j u s t l i k e an eloquent o r a t i o n . Since no primary t e x t s are a v a i l a b l e t o t r a c e any c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of these fr e s c o e s , humanist t h e o r i e s 1 2 The exception would be Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , who had had the t r a i n i n g of an a r c h i t e c t as w e l l as a humanist education. 1 3 Svetlana L e o n t i e f A l p e r s , "Ekphrasis and A e s t h e t i c A t t i t u d e s i n V a s a r i ' s ' L i v e s 1 , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and  Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 23 (1960): 192. 1 4 Spencer, "Ut R h e t o r i c a Pictura: A study i n Quattrocento Theory of P a i n t i n g , " 26-27. 1 5 Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , On P a i n t i n g , t r a n s . John R. Spencer (London and New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), 75. 9 such as those o u t l i n e d above are our only recourse towards a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e c e p t i o n . Another q u a l i t y of eloquence, as humanists d e f i n e d i t , was t h a t the medium was t o adapt i t s s t y l e t o the ch a r a c t e r of the a u d i e n c e . 1 6 The concept p a r a l l e l s the n o t i o n of decorum, but i t i s not e x a c t l y the same t h i n g , f o r decorum was more a question of appropriateness i n a p h y s i c a l context based on t y p o l o g i c a l models ( i . e . one type of d e c o r a t i o n was s u i t e d f o r the s t u d i o l o , another type f o r the bedroom), where eloquence sought t o modify the s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n so as t o persuade a d e f i n e d audience. I d e a l l y , the audience should be o b l i v i o u s t o the f a c t t h a t they are being convinced, and should f e e l as i f the message or meaning of the e x h o r t a t i o n , v e r b a l or p i c t o r i a l , was a r e s u l t of personal r e v e l a t i o n . 1 7 A r h e t o r i c a l medium should be s e l f -r e f l e x i v e i n a manner of speaking, and should endeavor t o have the viewer focus on the medium, thereby d i v e r t i n g h i s / h e r a t t e n t i o n s away from the i d e o l o g i c a l nature of the content. Thus eloquence considered audience as the fundamental component of context, s i n c e i t was the audience who were the o b j e c t s of the o r a t i o n . This i s not t o suggest 1 6 E l i z a b e t h Cropper, The I d e a l of P a i n t i n g . P i e t r o  Testa's Dusseldorf Notebook (Pr i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1984), 158. 1 7 Spencer w r i t e s t h a t i n both Ciceronean o r a t i o n and A l b e r t i a n p a i n t i n g the "educative r o l e i s of the g r e a t e s t importance and i n both i t i s concealed from the audience." See John R. Spencer, "Ut r h e t o r i c a pictura: A Study i n Quattrocento Theory of P a i n t i n g , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and  Courtauld I n s t i t u t e 20 (1957): 26. Perhaps Spencer's use of the word 'educative' i s somewhat naive. 10 t h a t the frescoes i n Nicholas V s chapel modified the genre of chapel d e c o r a t i o n t o the extent t h a t decorum was s a c r i f i c e d f o r the sake of eloquent a f f e c t . Quite the opposite i s t r u e and the decorations are a c t u a l l y q u i t e conventional i n many ways. The frescoes are evidence t h a t eloquence and decorum were not mutually e x c l u s i v e . Papal humanists claimed t h a t the expression of t h e o l o g i c a l ideas should be e l o q u e n t . 1 8 The o p i n i o n had been s t a t e d by St. Augustine and echoed by P e t r a r c h , f o r whom persuasive eloquence or demonstrative o r a t o r y ( e p i d e i c t i c ) was a more p r a c t i c a l form of communication than argumentation because i t sought t o a f f e c t the w i l l of a person i n s t e a d of the i n t e l l e c t . 1 9 This was thought t o be an Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel. 8. 1 9 I am not meaning t o enter i n t o the debate over the s u p e r i o r i t y of the w i l l or the i n t e l l e c t . However, f o r humanist and s c h o l a s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s on the t o p i c see Paul Oskar Kriste l l e r , "A Thomist C r i t i q u e of M a r s i l i o F i c i n o ' s Theory of the W i l l and I n t e l l e c t , " i n Harry Austryn Wolfson  J u b i l e e Volume. American Academy f o r Jewish Research, v o l . 2 (Jerusalem, 1965): 463-494. Argan expresses the idea t h a t Fra A n g e l i c o was able t o produce images which s t r u c k a balance between A l b e r t i a n Neoplatonism (which aimed to i n f l u e n c e the w i l l ) and Thomist a e s t h e t i c s (which aimed to i n f l u e n c e the i n t e l l e c t ) . See Argan, Fra A n g e l i c o and h i s  Times, 29. Since both Fra Angelico and N i c h o l a s V had spent much time i n both the F l o r e n t i n e N e o p l a t o n i s t and Dominican m i l i e u s , the s y n c r e t i c nature of the chapel frescoes should not be p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g . Geiger suggests t h a t the modern s c h o l a r l y emphasis on Neoplatonism has clouded the f a c t t h a t the c u r r e n t s of Neoplatonism and Thomism co-e x i s t e d i n quattrocento c e n t r a l I t a l y . See Geiger, Fra  F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 100. The frescoes i n N i c h o l a s V s chapel could a l s o be seen t o i n d i c a t e a symbiosis of these i n t e l l e c t u a l / t h e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t s . 11 e f f e c t i v e form f o r convincing people of the mysteries of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . 2 0 The e x p e c t a t i o n of the evocation of f e e l i n g s was complementary t o the b e l i e f s on the f u n c t i o n of a r t i s t i c images h e l d by the Dominican Observants, f o r whom a r e l i g i o u s image was meant t o serve devotion and be an a i d t o med i t a t i o n , and thus was t o a l t e r the viewer's p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e . 2 1 Since Fra A n g e l i c o - as a member of the Dominican Observant Order and i t ' s most prominent a r t i s t - was attuned t o these a r t i s t i c c u r r e n t s , t h i s aspect might a l s o have played a r o l e i n the evocative tenor of the frescoes i n Nich o l a s V s c h a p e l . 2 2 In both humanist t h e o r i e s of a r t and Dominican a e s t h e t i c s , however, there e x i s t e d a conception t h a t the engaging of the i n t e l l e c t was a l s o a good way t o i n t e r e s t c e r t a i n a u d i e n c e s . 2 3 In other words there was knowledge of the worth of both the d e l i b e r a t i v e and demostrative aspects z u C a r r o l l W i l l i a m W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t  Paradise: A l b e r t i , N i c h o l a s V and the Invention of Conscious  Urban Planning i n Rome 1447-1455 (London: Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974), 41-42. 2 1 Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 141. 2 2 Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel. 26. Pope-Hennessy a l s o s t r e s s e s the l i n k s between the communicative aspects of Fra Angelico's a r t w i t h Dominican t e n e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of Giovanni Dominici. Pope-Hennessy, Fra Ang e l i c o , 2. This idea i s a l s o put f o r t h by G i u l i o C a r l o Argan, Fra An g e l i c o and h i s Times (Lausanne: S k i r a , 1955), 14. 2 3 Umberto Eco, The A e s t h e t i c s of Thomas Aquinas, t r a n s . Hugh Bredin. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), 163-189. 12 of eloquence. • The appropriateness of the l e v e l s of d i d a c t i c i s m , or i n t e l l e c t u a l or emotional engagement was, as suggested above, determined by context. G e n e r a l l y speaking, images meant f o r the unlearned masses were i n s t r u c t i o n a l and aimed t o teach, impress, and move the viewer t o d e v o t i o n . 2 5 Images i n monastic s e t t i n g s , such as Fra A n g e l i c o ' s frescoes i n the c e l l s a t San Marco, were t o f u n c t i o n as a i d s t o devotion, w i t h no d i d a c t i c elements necessary. Images which were t o f u n c t i o n i n the context of a court where the audience was composed of learned i n d i v i d u a l s , should tend towards engagement of i n t e l l e c t . 2 6 However, codes f o r the decorum of r e l i g i o u s p i c t u r e s were s t r i c t , and Fra Angelico's f r e s c o e s , as would b e f i t a chapel, are r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e . 2 7 I t would have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s time t o i n c l u d e , f o r example, the more For a d i s c u s s i o n of the genera of Renaissance eloquence, as the humanists understood i t , see John F. T i n k l e r , "Renaissance Humanism and the genera eloquentiae," 279-309. 2 5 . Eve Borsook, The Mural P a i n t e r s of Tuscany from  Cimabue t o Andrea d e l Sarto (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1980), x x - x x i i . 2 6 Rubin, "The P r i v a t e Chapel of C a r d i n a l Alessandro Farnese i n the C a n c e l l e r i a , Rome," 112. 2 7 E. H. Gombrich, " I n t r o d u c t i o n : Aims and L i m i t s of Ico n o l o g y , " i n Symbolic Images. Studies i n the A r t of the  Renaissance I I (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1972), 7-8. For a b r i e f account of references concerning decorum i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r e a t i s e s of A l b e r t i and F i l a r e t e see Charles Rosenberg, " C o u r t l y Decorations and the 'Decorum' of I n t e r i o r Space," i n La Corte e l o Spazio: F e r r a r a Estense, v o l . 2, e d i t e d by Guiseppe Papagno and Amedeo Quodam (Rome: B u l z o n i E d i t o r e , 1982), 529-544. 13 b l a t a n t l y c l a s s i c a l and e r u d i t e references found i n l a t e r f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h century c h a p e l s . 2 8 Since the range f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the frescoes was r e l a t i v e l y narrow, inn o v a t i o n s must be looked f o r not only i n obvious places -such as i n the i n v e n t i o n of a scene - but a l s o i n the ways i n which t r a d i t i o n a l s u bjects are put i n new r e l a t i o n s t o one another, and how aspects of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n and expression are emphatically r h e t o r i c a l . In the f r e s c o e s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them a l l o w f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s between the past and present. Although d e p i c t i n g n a r r a t i v e scenes which proceed i n sequence, the viewer i s a l s o encouraged t o recognize more expansive meanings by observing c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s and correspondences between scenes, as w e l l as correspondences between the scenes and the context i n which they were d i s p l a y e d . This process r e q u i r e d a degree of e r u d i t i o n on the p a r t of the viewer (or provided an opportunity f o r the d i s p l a y of what the viewers considered e r u d i t i o n ) , and thus Such as the s i b y l s i n the chapel of C a r d i n a l O l i v i e r o Carafa i n Santa Maria sopra Minerva See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, e s p e c i a l l y p. 67 where Geiger claims t h a t the Carafa s i b y l s , p a i n t e d i n the l a t e 1480"s "present a new type of v a u l t f i g u r e . " (my emphasis), or the c l a s s i c a l l y i n s p i r e d m o t i f s i n the chapel of Alessandro Farnese (1546-7) . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the l a t t e r see Rubin, "The P r i v a t e Chapel of C a r d i n a l Alessandro Farnese i n the C a n c e l l e r i a , Rome," 82-112. See p. 89 where she w r i t e s : "In a chapel decorum demanded scenes p e r t a i n i n g t o r e l i g i o n , even i f they were not taken s o l e l y from the B i b l e or s a i n t s ' l i v e s . " Even i n the l a t e 1540's then, w i t h the wide acceptance of c l a s s i c a l imagery i n p a i n t i n g , chapel d e c o r a t i o n s t i l l maintained appropriate r e l i g i o u s reference. 14 engaged t h a t viewer both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and, perhaps, s o c i a l l y . The frescoes d e a l w i t h t o p i c s s i m i l a r t o those Roman, papal humanists d e a l t w i t h i n t h e i r o r a t i o n s and t r a c t s : Papal and P e t r i n e primacy, the importance of the sacraments, the v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y and martyrdom, and so on. More im p o r t a n t l y f o r t h i s study, the expression of these p r i n c i p l e s and d o c t r i n e s intended t o move and convince the viewer i n a manner which was promoted by humanists as an e f f e c t i v e way of communicating. The t h e o r e t i c a l b ridge t h a t allows d i s c u s s i o n along these l i n e s i s , as mentioned, the humanists' conception of eloquence or e p i d e i c t i c o r a t o r y . The humanists of Nicholas V s court probably d i d not a f f e c t the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n and expression of these frescoes d i r e c t l y , r a t h e r , humanist a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s tended t o c u l t i v a t e a r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e common t o the s t y l e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e i n the c o u r t l y c i r c l e s where they found employment. Therefore, i t may have been the v i s u a l e x pectations of the viewers, coloured by humanist s t y l i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l concerns, which were being addressed i n Ni c h o l a s V s chapel. The way the frescoes engage the viewer promotes a concept of communication which humanism i t s e l f promoted; one which i n c l u d e d a component of pleasure i n the r e c o g n i t i o n of a d i s p l a y of expressive a r t i s t i c s k i l l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i n g e n u i t y . 2 9 The p a i n t i n g s s t r i k e a balance between decorous 15 s u b j e c t matter, e f f e c t i v e expression, and i n t e l l e c t u a l engagement, and they addressed an audience t o whom Nicholas V may have wanted t o demonstrate the e f f i c a c y of humanist r h e t o r i c i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l context. In doing so, the f r e s c o e s a l s o promote a conception of the patron as a pope who embodies a r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l i d e a l s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h humanist values and methods. ^ 9 The d e s i r e f o r t h i s type of imagery was a r t i c u l a t e d i n the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h century by the humanist Paolo C o r t e s i i n h i s De C a r d i n a l a t u of ca. 1510: "Now i t should be understood t h a t the more e r u d i t e are the p a i n t i n g s i n a c a r d i n a l ' s chapel, the more e a s i l y the s o u l can be e x c i t e d by the admonishment of the eyes t o the i m i t a t i o n [imitatio] of a c t s , by l o o k i n g at [painted r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of] them." Text from Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 26. 16 CHAPTER ONE The Tradition of Chapel Decoration; and the Representations of the Church Fathers, Aquinas, and SS. Stephen & Lawrence The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l b r i e f l y c o n sider the non-n a r r a t i v e and n a r r a t i v e personae which were chosen f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Nicholas V s chapel. The choices are themselves evidence of how the decorations were meant t o f u n c t i o n , f o r they have s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the context of N i c h o l a s V s papal court. F i r s t , a b r i e f comment on how Ni c h o l a s V s chapel f i t s w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n of chapel types and the decorations which u s u a l l y embellished them. In mid-quattrocento I t a l y there were three main types of chapels. F i r s t , there were the f a m i l y chapels found i n the churches of the Mendicant Orders i n Florence. These chapels were s e p u l c h r a l and memorial, and were u s u a l l y r i c h l y decorated. The other types of chapels could be found i n r e s i d e n c e s , and these i n c l u d e d a p r i v a t e type of domestic chapel, which was normally small and f o r p r i v a t e devotions, and palace chapels, which were o f t e n l a r g e (such as the Scrovegni Chapel i n Padua), and thus provided space f o r c o u r t l y l i t u r g i c a l ceremonies. While i n the mid-quattrocento the s m a l l , p r i v a t e chapels were o f t e n 17 undecorated except f o r a d e v o t i o n a l image over the a l t a r - 3 , palace chapels were o f t e n r i c h l y decorated. The chapel of Nicholas V had i t s dimensions somewhat l i m i t e d by the f a b r i c of the V a t i c a n apartments t h a t N i c h o l a s V began renovating i n the l a t e 1440's [ f i g . 1 & 2 ] . 3 1 I t s s i z e (6.6m x 4.0m) r e l a t e s i t c l o s e l y t o the p r i v a t e chapel type, but i t s f u n c t i o n appears t o have been s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the palace c h a p e l . 3 2 The c l e a r e s t evidence t h a t t h i s was the case, aside from the f a c t t h a t the chapel was p a r t of the pope's p a l a t i a l V a t i c a n r e s i d e n c e , i s the chapel's d e c o r a t i o n which i s n a r r a t i v e and s p l e n d i d , and thus would seem to i n s i s t on an audience. ° The i n c l u s i o n of a d e v o t i o n a l image over the a l t a r was r e q u i r e d by an act of the Synod of T r i e r i n 1310. See Borsook, The Mural P a i n t e r s of Tuscany, x v i i i . See a l s o Bruce Cole, I t a l i a n A r t 1250-1550 (New York: Harper & Row, 1987), 40-42. 3 1 See Franz E h r l e and Herrmann Egger, "Der V a t i c a n i s c h e P a l a s t i n s e i n e r entwiklung b i s zur m i t t e des XV Jahrhunderts" i n S t u d i e documenti per l a S t o r i a Palazzo  A p o l o s t i c o Vaticano, v o l . 2 (1935), 93-114. See a l s o W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise. See e s p e c i a l l y Chap. 7, "The Papal Palace i n the V a t i c a n . " 3 2 For a d e s c r i p t i o n see A n t o n e l l a Greco, La Cappella  d i N i c c o l o V d e l Beato An g e l i c o (Rome: I s t i t u t o P o l i g r a f i c o e zecca d e l l o S t a t o , 1980), 18. S i m i l a r types of chapels could be found i n the Palace of the Popes i n Avignon. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t N i c h o l a s V d e s i r e d t o make sure Rome' s papal apartments lacked nothing the palace of the popes i n Avignon had. However, i t i s not r e a l l y necessary t o t r a v e l so f a r a f i e l d f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n s i n c e , as demonstrated, more l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s can be used t o e x p l a i n the v a r i o u s aspects of the chapel's type. See Robert Andre-M i c h e l , Avignon: Les Fresques du P a l a i s des Papes ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1926), 43-57; and S y l v a i n Gagniere, Le P a l a i s des Papes d'Avignon (Nancy: Caisse N a t i o n a l e des Monuments H i s t o r i q u e s , 1965), 40-51. Indeed, the n a r r a t i v e aspects and t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l content imply an audience t o whom the 'story' i s d i r e c t e d . Were the chapel t o f u n c t i o n simply as a locus f o r the pope's p r i v a t e devotions, Fra An g e l i c o might have been asked t o produce images s i m i l a r i n nature t o those found i n the monastic c e l l s at San Marco or other contexts where p r i v a t e devotion and prayer were the main purposes of the rooms. The chapel was probably shown, on some occasions, t o important e c c l e s i a s t s , c e r t a i n members of the papal c o u r t , and v i s i t i n g d i g n i t a r i e s and ambassadors. 3 3 Despite the f a c t t h a t chapel decorations could vary according t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n s p e c i f i c , l o c a l contexts, the genre was l i m i t e d i n i t s scope of su b j e c t s and formal arrangement. E s s e n t i a l l y , the decorations i n Ni c h o l a s V s chapel f i t w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n of the frescoed f a m i l y chapels (such as the Brancacci chapel) which were numerous i n the churches of Tuscany, and comply w i t h t h e i r conventions of subject matter and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Tuscan chapels were o f t e n decorated, as i s Ni c h o l a s V s chapel, w i t h f r e s c o c y c l e s showing the deeds of r e l i g i o u s personages. The v a u l t of Nicholas V s chapel i s decorated w i t h the f i g u r e s of the four E v a n g e l i s t s , who were t r a d i t i o n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of q u a d r i p a r t i t e v a u l t s [ f i g . 3 ] . Another f e a t u r e common to both Tuscan f a m i l y chapels and the J J One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t entourages was most c e r t a i n l y F r e d e r i c k I l l ' s , which v i s i t e d the papal court i n 1450 f o r F r e d e r i c k ' s coronation as Holy Roman Emperor. 19 chapel of N i c h o l a s V i s the i n c l u s i o n of exempla. In N i c h o l a s V s chapel, seven Church Fathers and St. Thomas Aquinas are shown standing i n f r o n t of e l a b o r a t e g o t h i c canopies [ f i g s . 4 - 6 ] . 3 4 At a b a s i c l e v e l , then, the mural decorations i n the chapel of N i c h o l a s V have much i n common w i t h chapel decorations found i n the churches of Tuscany (though, of course, examples e x i s t o utside Tuscany as w e l l ) . N evertheless, c e r t a i n themes are developed i n s p e c i f i c ways, and these help t o communicate key concepts s p e c i f i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n the context of N i c h o l a s V s humanist c o u r t . I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o c i t e an example of an e a r l i e r chapel which p a r a l l e l e d N i c h o l a s V s chapel i n a l l i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s i n g u l a r context makes the chapel, i n the f i n e d e t a i l s , a unique type. Thus the choices t h a t were made i n t h i s chapel, i n terms of the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t matter, may g i v e important c l u e s as t o the intended f u n c t i o n of the c y c l e . The example of the E v a n g e l i s t s and the Church Fathers can serve t o i l l u s t r a t e how the humanist context of N i c h o l a s V s c o u r t may have encouraged a p a r t i c u l a r reading of the images, and how some of the non-narrative decorations r e l a t e t o one another so as t o e s t a b l i s h one of the p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n s of the frescoes. Other exempla, B i b l i c a l personages and s a i n t s , are d e p i c t e d as busts i n o c t a f o i l s i n the s o f f i t s of the window. 20 In the v a u l t of Nich o l a s V's chapel the E v a n g e l i s t s are shown w i t h q u i l l s and books, thus confirming t h e i r a u t h o r i a l i d e n t i t i e s . The Church Fathers and St. Thomas Aquinas, a l s o c a r r y i n g books, occupy e i g h t encapsulations which extend upwards along two b a r r e l p r o j e c t i o n s about one metre t o e i t h e r s i d e of the v a u l t which c a r r i e s the images of the E v a n g e l i s t s . 3 5 The i n c l u s i o n of the Church Fathers and Aquinas i s i n d i c a t i v e of the p a t r i s t i c and Thomist i n t e r e s t s of the patron and the humanists of h i s cou r t . The Fathers and Aquinas could be regarded as exempla of orthodoxy, because i t was t o t h e i r w r i t i n g s t h a t papal humanists and Dominican the o l o g i a n s a l i k e had turned t o defend the papacy d u r i n g the c o n c i l i a r debates e a r l i e r i n the century, and they were a l s o a fundamental source of ideas f o r Nich o l a s Compare the v a u l t decorations by Masolino i n the Church of San Clemente i n Rome, where the E v a n g e l i s t s are shown w i t h the L a t i n Doctors of the Church [ f i g . 7 ] . Here, the Doctors of the Church are shown occupying the same space, and thus the same 'timeless' c e l e s t i a l space as the E v a n g e l i s t s . In Masolino's work here i s no h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the f i g u r e s , but s i n c e the f i g u r e s i n Fra An g e l i c o ' s frescoes are separated s p a t i a l l y , they can more e a s i l y be understood as occupying d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l realms. See the i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n by Louis Marin, "The I c o n i c Text and the Theory of Enunciation: Luca S i g n o r e l l i at Loreto ( c i r c a 1479-1484)," New L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y 14, no, 3 (Spring, 1983): 553-591. See e s p e c i a l l y s e c t i o n V: " E v a n g e l i s t s and Doctors: The Absent Voice and the W r i t i n g Mode of the Text," pp. 569-589. 3 6 See J e f f e r y A. Mirus, The Dominican Order and the  Defense of the Papacy i n the Renaissance. PhD. D i s s e r t a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. Tomasso P a r e n t u c e l l i had played an important r o l e i n the Cou n c i l of Florence. See the entry concerning him i n Joseph G i l l , P e r s o n a l i t i e s of the Co u n c i l  of Florence (New York: Barnes & Noble Inc, 1964). See a l s o Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 100. 21 V s humanists. ' Here, the Fathers and Aquinas serve as t y p o l o g i c a l forebears t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y of papal humanists, f o r whom the Fathers and Aquinas could serve as appr o p r i a t e exempla i n t h e i r l i v e s and work. The i n c l u s i o n of Aquinas i s of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y favored by Nich o l a s V who had r a i s e d the importance of the s a i n t by adding the s i n g i n g of the Creed t o h i s f e a s t day c e l e b r a t i o n s , an act which e f f e c t i v e l y made him a Doctor of the C h u r c h . 3 9 The i n c l u s i o n of Aquinas among the Fathers p a r a l l e l s t h i s i n i t i a t i v e . Aquinas i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the Church Fathers by the f a c t t h a t h i s Important pro-papal t e x t s produced dur i n g N i c h o l a s V s p o n t i f i c a t e , such as Juan de Torquemada's Summa de  E c c l e s i a which drew h e a v i l y upon the w r i t i n g of Aquinas, and P i e r o da Monte's Contra impucrnantes s e d i s a p o s t o l i c a e  a u c t o r i t a t e m , r e l i e d h e a v i l y on both Greek and L a t i n p a t r i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , the l a t t e r e s p e c i a l l y on John Chrysostom's New Testament Homilies and C y r i l of Al e x a n d r i a ' s Thesaurus. Ambrogio T r a v e r s a r i ' s knowledge of p a t r i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e , unequaled i n h i s time, made him one of the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e humanists of Nich o l a s V s cou r t . See Charles S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985), 167-170. The Fathers a l s o represented a l i n k w i t h the Ciceronean s t y l e which humanists so admired (and which the Fathers had a l s o emulated). John D'Amico, Renaissance  Humanism i n Papal Rome: Humanist and Churchmen on the Eve of the Reformation (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983), 12 6, notes t h a t "The p a t r i s t i c L a t i n w r i t e r s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h i s Roman i d e a l and o c c a s i o n a l l y c u l t i v a t e d a Ciceronean l i t e r a r y s t y l e i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . . . The humanists ...sought t o recapture the e t h i c a l and c u l t u r a l values of the Ciceronean o r a t o r by re s t u d y i n g ancient w r i t i n g s . " 3 9 John O'Malley, "The Feast of Thomas Aquinas i n Renaissance Rome: A Neglected Document and I t s Import," R i v i s t a d i s t o r i a d e l l a c h i e s a i n I t a l i a 35 (1981): 7. See a l s o Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 32-33, and S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 143. 22 book i s open and d i s p l a y i n g , i n h i g h l y abbreviated t e x t , the l i n e s from Proverbs w i t h which he opened h i s Summa contra  g e n t i l e s : "For my mouth s h a l l speak t r u t h and wickedness i s an abomination t o my l i p s . " 4 0 For those who could recognize the r e f e r e n c e s , the r e i t e r a t i o n of orthodoxy would have been c l e a r . 4 1 The word 'wickedness' can be read as 'heresy', and ' t r u t h 1 as 'orthodoxy 1. The informed viewer could have recognized the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the import of Aquinas's famous work and one of the messages of the chapel' s d e c o r a t i o n : the r e i t e r a t i o n of orthodox notions of papal primacy and the t r a d i t i o n a l duty of the p o n t i f f . The passage of a u t h o r i t y i n the frescoes begins w i t h God i m p l i c i t l y r e v e a l i n g His Word t o the E v a n g e l i s t s , whose t e x t s are i n t u r n s t u d i e d and e l u c i d a t e d upon by the w r i t i n g s of the Church Fathers and Aquinas. Humanist a c t i v i t y i n the papal court could here be understood as being contiguous w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n of t e x t u a l p roduction and exegesis. The humanists, u n l i k e the S c h o l a s t i c t h e o l o g i a n s of Rome, d i d not h o l d degrees and were sometimes suspect f o r t h e i r d e l v i n g i n t o r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s which some theologians 4 0 As quoted from Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa  Chapel, 93. The same i n s c r i p t i o n appears i n the scene of 'The Triumph of St. Thomas' i n the Carafa Chapel f r e s c o e s . 4 1 The d e p i c t i o n of Aquinas w i t h an open book had precedents. See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 91. S t i l l , these images were a l s o t o f u n c t i o n i n learned co n t e x t s , where the audience was made up of t h e o l o g i c a l l y learned Dominicans. 23 apparently considered t h e i r e x c l u s i v e domain. In defense the humanists c i t e d the examples of the Church Fathers and Aquinas who, the humanists claimed, had no degrees y e t had founded and developed orthodox C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . 4 3 Aquinas was p r a i s e d by humanists, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r h i s c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y v i r t u e s such as "order, c l a r i t y , and s i m p l i c i t y of e x p r e s s i o n . " 4 4 Further, the humanist A u r e l i o B r a n d o l i n i had argued t h a t the a b i l i t y t o teach was paramount f o r a th e o l o g i a n , and thus the r h e t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g of the humanists made them more e f f e c t i v e t h e o l o g i s t s . According t o the humanists, "The o r a t o r brought t o theology a breadth and communicability t h a t was l a c k i n g i n the doctores t h e o l o g i a e . »'45 i t was t h i s c l e a r , concise s t y l e which the humanists admired i n the w r i t i n g s of the Church F a t h e r s . 4 6 4 < ! D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome, 144-145. Scholars disagree on the extent of the supposed f r i c t i o n between the S c h o l a s t i c t heologians of Rome and the humanists. See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 8. However, i n the 1480's, Bartolommeo d e l l a Fonte, t o name one of many humanists, s t i l l f e l t i t necessary t o defend humanism from e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c r i t i c s . See Charles Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism: the Inaugural Orations of Bartolommeo d e l l a Fonte," 98. 4 3 D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome, 144-145. 4 4 O'Malley, "The Feast of Thomas Aquinas i n Renaissance Rome. A Neglected Document and i t s Import", 22-23. 4 5 D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome, 146-147. Although l a t e r i n date than the frescoes i n Nicholas V s chapel, B r a n d o l i n i ' s t e x t i s developed from the a t t i t u d e f i r s t promoted by P e t r a r c h , and l a t e r by Lorenzo V a l l a d u r i n g h i s tenure i n Nich o l a s V s c o u r t ; thus, these ideas are a p p l i c a b l e here. See Charles Trinkaus, In Our Image and  Likeness: Humanity and D i v i n i t y i n I t a l i a n Humanist Thought, 24 These exempla seem t o i n c l i n e the ch a r a c t e r of the chapel's non-narrative f i g u r a l d e c o r a t i o n towards the type of humanistic, s e c u l a r exempla which might be found i n a studiolo or l i b r a r y , such as the uomini famosi or buonl autori t h a t decorated c o u r t l y l i b r a r i e s l i k e N i c h o l a s V s . 4 7 The Fathers and Aquinas presented the c o u r t l y viewer w i t h an " i d e a l community" 4 8 of t h e o l o g i s t s who were the humanists' f a v o r i t e l i t e r a r y sources. Although c l e a r l y r e l i g i o u s i n nature and q u i t e t r a d i t i o n a l i n d e p i c t i o n , those exempla revered f o r t h e i r t e x t u a l production are given precedence. v o l . 2, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1970), 651-682. These pages are adapted from Charles Trinkaus, "Humanist T r e a t i s e s on the Status of the R e l i g i o u s : P e t r a r c h , S a l u t a t i , V a l l a " i n Studies i n the Renaissance XI (1964): 7-45. 4 6 See note 39 below. 4 7 A precedent i n Rome had already been s e t by C a r d i n a l Giordano O r s i n i . By 1447 O r s i n i ' s l i b r a r y a t h i s residence on Monte Giordano already had a completed c y c l e of uomini famosi. Even though the number of books i n the papal l i b r a r y i ncreased d r a m a t i c a l l y under the b i b l i o p h i l i c N i c h o l a s V, i t was s t i l l much sma l l e r than many p r i v a t e l i b r a r i e s i n Rome at the time. See the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n Robert Louis Mode's The Monte Giordano Famous Men Cycle of  C a r d i n a l Giordano O r s i n i and the 'Uomini Famosi' T r a d i t i o n  i n F i f t e e n t h Century I t a l i a n A r t (Ph.D D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1970), 1-21. The bi g g e s t l i b r a r y was probably C a r d i n a l Bessarion's. See Pearl Kibre, "The I n t e l l e c t u a l I n t e r e s t s R e f l e c t e d i n L i b r a r i e s of the 14th and 15th Cen t u r i e s , " J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas VII (1946): 261-262. For Nicholas V s own c o n t r i b u t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s i n books and l i b r a r i e s see the i n f o r m a t i v e a r t i c l e by Robathan, " L i b r a r i e s i n the Renaissance," 512-523 and 561-562. 4 8 The phrase i s borrowed from Luciano Cheles who uses i t t o r e f e r t o the uomini famosi i n Federigo da Mo n t a f e l t r o ' s studiolo i n Urbino. See Luciano Cheles, The  S t u d i o l o of Urbino: An Iconographic I n v e s t i g a t i o n , ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986), 39. 25 The arrangement of the E v a n g e l i s t s , Aquinas, and Church Fathers, and the i n t e r p l a y and concordances between these exempla and the humanist context of Nich o l a s V s c o u r t , make the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s d e c o r a t i o n v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r l earned viewers who could make the connection between the f i g u r e s i n the fr e s c o e s , t h e i r a c t i v i t y , and the endeavors of papal humanists who made careers of w r i t i n g and studying t h e o l o g i c a l t e x t s i n defense of r e l i g i o u s orthodoxy and papal primacy. This i s not t o pose the above as an i c o n o l o g i c a l f a c t , but merely t o s t a t e t h a t the f i g u r e s , t h e i r arrangement, and t h e i r contexts allowed f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of novel t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the exempla and the context which they were d i s p l a y e d . The same s o r t of appropriateness can be argued f o r the i n c l u s i o n of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence i n the n a r r a t i v e scenes of the chapel. They were, as martyrs, appropriate types f o r chapel d e c o r a t i o n . 4 9 A l s o , as martyrs whose r e l i c s were together i n Rome, they were f i t t i n g s u b j e c t s f o r a pope who was i n t e r e s t e d i n encouraging p i l g r i m s t o come t o Rome. 5 0 However, l i k e the Church Fathers and Aquinas, they In the e a r l y 1440's, some scenes from St. Stephen's l i f e had already been executed i n the chapel of the Assumption i n the Prato c a t h e d r a l . In f a c t , Fra An g e l i c o had been asked t o continue w i t h some other scenes from the s a i n t ' s l i f e i n the main chapel of the same c a t h e d r a l . Fra F i l i p p o L i p p i e v e n t u a l l y accepted the commission. The best known of the SS. Lawrence and Stephen c y c l e s was at San Lorenzo f u o r i l a Mura. 5 0 One of Nich o l a s V s e a r l y d e c i s i o n s as p o n t i f f was to d e c l a r e 1450 a J u b i l e e Year. 26 were p a r t i c u l a r l y apt characters f o r viewers i n the m i l i e u of a papal court where humanists d i r e c t e d much of t h e i r energy t o the defense of the papacy and the concept of Church h i e r a r c h y which sustained i t . Each of these two s a i n t s had been deacons and thus were p a r t of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y of the e a r l y C h u r c h . 5 1 The o f f i c e of the deaconate represented a c r u c i a l h i s t o r i c a l l i n k between contemporary Church h i e r a r c h y and a p o s t o l i c a u t h o r i t y , and the a u t h e n t i c i t y of such o f f i c e s l i k e the deaconate (and, i n f a c t , the papacy) was dependent on t h i s h i s t o r i c c o n n e c t i o n . 5 2 The f a c t t h a t St. Stephen was one of the seven o r i g i n a l deacons and St. Lawrence was one of the o r i g i n a l Roman deacons made them f i t t i n g p r o t a g o n i s t s f o r a papal chapel, s i n c e they were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v i r t u e of members of the Church h i e r a r c h y . St. Lawrence's appearance i s s i g n i f i c a n t because he was the most important of the Roman martyrs, whose death, Prudentius claimed, s i g n a l e d the end of paganism i n Rome and heralded i n the C h r i s t i a n e r a . 5 3 The presence of St. 5 1 St. Stephen was the patron s a i n t of deacons, and had been one of the o r i g i n a l seven deacons, as mentioned i n the New Testament. See Acts 6:1-6. 5 2 The a p o s t l e s ' appointment of the seven deacons and e l d e r s was "seen t o be a t h e o l o g i c a l a s s e r t i o n of the ' a p o s t o l i c i t y ' of these forms of m i n i s t r y i n the Church." See Frank Hawkins, "Orders and O r d i n a t i o n i n the New Testament," i n The Study of Liturcry, e d i t e d by Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright and Edward Yarnold (London: SPCK, 1978), 295. 5 3 Prudentius, Crowns of Martyrdom, t r a n s . H. J . Thompson (Cambridge, Mass. & London, 1953) Sec. I I , Book I I , 27 Lawrence i n the frescoes helps emphasize the importance of Rome and i t s long C h r i s t i a n h e r i t a g e . A l s o meaningful i s the f a c t t h a t the two s a i n t s are shown tonsured. This convention, u n h i s t o r i c a l as i t was, nevertheless served t o underscore the importance of the monastic orders ( i n t h i s case the Dominican) i n the defense of orthodoxy and hierarchy.The presence of SS. Stephen and Lawrence i s i n d i c a t i v e of a d e s i r e t o emphasize c e r t a i n t h i n g s about these martyrs, notably t h a t they are r e l a t e d t o the Church and i t s h i e r a r c h y i n a s p e c i f i c way: t h a t i s t h a t they were devoted servants w i l l i n g t o d i e f o r the Church t o which they belonged. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the h i s t o r i c a l exempla and the contemporary (understandable f o r those viewers knowledgeable enough t o t r a c e them) discussed above can be found i n more complex m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the n a r r a t i v e scenes of the l i v e s of SS. Stephen and Lawrence. Before these scenes are discussed though, an account w i l l be made of the humanists 1 conception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r h e t o r i c and p a i n t i n g , and the importance of h i s t o r y i n humanist methodology. Such an account w i l l h o p e f u l l y a l l o w f o r subsequent d i s c u s s i o n of how the r h e t o r i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s of humanists may have i n d i r e c t l y determined some aspects of how the frescoes present and express t h e i r messages. p. 109. See Rubin, "The P r i v a t e Chapel of C a r d i n a l Alessandro Farnese i n the C a n c e l l e r i a , Rome," 105-106. 28 CHAPTER TWO Eloquence and P a i n t i n g : Humanist Conceptions of A r t and H i s t o r y Eloquence, the prime v i r t u e of the s t u d i a h u m a n i t a t i s , was the a r t of the o r a t o r . 1 The humanist o r a t o r s t r o v e t o move h i s hearer by usi n g language which encouraged the l i s t e n e r t o v i s u a l i z e t h i n g s , people and e v e n t s . 2 A r e l i g i o u s event, such as the martyrdom of a s a i n t or the v i r g i n b i r t h , could e a s i l y be v i s u a l i z e d , and t h i s could move a l i s t e n e r more e f f e c t i v e l y than a complex metaphysical d i s c o u r s e on a b s t r a c t t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s regarding r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e . 3 The words t h a t humanists used t o de s c r i b e themselves as a group were, i n f a c t , orator and r h e t o r i c u s . See Baxanda l l , G i o t t o and the Orators, 1-2. John W. O'Malley, P r a i s e and Blame i n Renaissance Rome: R h e t o r i c , D o c t r i n e ,  and Reform i n the Sacred Orators of the Papal Court, c.  1450-1521 (Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), 5, w r i t e s , "A 'humanist' who made no p r o f e s s i o n of r h e t o r i c was no humanist at a l l . And r h e t o r i c , i n i t s c l a s s i c a l formation, meant o r a t o r y . . . i f we wish t o understand Humanism, we must study o r a t i o n s and o r a t o r y . " 2 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 3, w r i t e s t h a t "Both o r a t o r y and the a r t s . . . produced p i c t o r i a l images, and these images were meant t o induce devotion, v e n e r a t i o n , and p r a i s e . " 3 A u r e l i o B r a n d o l i n i had argued t h a t "humanist language made C h r i s t i a n teachings more appealing t o the b e l i e v e r . I t persuaded and moved the reader [or l i s t e n e r ] t o accept such d o c t r i n e s as the T r i n i t y and the V i r g i n B i r t h , 29 In both the ancient t e x t s humanists admired, and the o f t e n i m i t a t i v e t e x t s humanists produced, there e x i s t e d a convention of equating p a i n t i n g w i t h r h e t o r i c a l a r t . 4 This r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l i t e r a r y topos, found i t s most thorough expression i n A l b e r t i ' s De p i c t u r a of 143 6, which promoted a s t y l e of p a i n t i n g which p a r a l l e l e d the s t y l e of Ciceronean r h e t o r i c . 5 The humanist Aeneas S y l v i u s P i c c o l o m i n i wrote, These a r t s [eloquence and p a i n t i n g ] , l o v e each other w i t h mutual a f f e c t i o n . A mental g i f t (ingenium), and not a low but a high or supreme one, i s r e q u i r e d by eloquence as w e l l as p a i n t i n g . . . This t e x t i m p l i e s t h a t whatever respect p a i n t i n g enjoyed among humanists was determined by i t s degree or q u a l i t y of which reason cannot grasp." D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n  Papal Rome, 147. 4 Numerous c l a s s i c a l t e x t s c o n f l a t e d o r a t o r y and p a i n t i n g and/or poetry and p a i n t i n g . See, f o r example, the t e x t from P h i l o s t r a t u s ' s Prooemium 6 i n Michael Baxandall, "Bartholomaeus Facius on P a i n t i n g , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg  and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 27 (1964): 94. 5 John Spencer notes t h a t ; " E s s e n t i a l l y , the aims and means of the new p a i n t i n g envisaged by A l b e r t i i n h i s t r e a t i s e are s i m i l a r t o the aims and means of the r h e t o r i c advanced by C i c e r o . . . I n both A l b e r t i a n p a i n t i n g and Ciceronean o r a t o r y the aim i s t o please, t o move and to convince." John R. Spencer, "Ut Rhetorica P i c t u r a : A study i n Quattrocento Theory of P a i n t i n g , " 26-44. Spencer's t h e s i s i n t h i s a r t i c l e i s t h a t A l b e r t i ' s ' t r e a t i s e ' f o l l o w s the form of a Ciceronean o r a t i o n . This has been disputed by Edward Wright who claims the work f o l l o w s the s t r u c t u r e of a " c l a s s i c a l pedagogic manual f o l l o w i n g the ordo naturae." D. R. Edward Wright, " A l b e r t i ' s De P i c t u r a : I t s L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and Purpose," J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Courtauld  I n s t i t u t e s 47 (1984): 52-71. 6 Quoted from Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences, 15-16, who a l s o gives the o r i g i n a l L a t i n t e x t i n the footnote. 30 ingenium. Acs, the s k i l l of c r a f t or manual s k i l l , c ould c e r t a i n l y be admired, but the s k i l l of i n v e n t i o n (ingenium), or i n n o v a t i o n , brought g r e a t e r esteem. Ingenium r e f e r r e d t o the evidence - i n p a i n t i n g or i n the l i t e r a r y / v e r b a l a r t s -of the maker's a p t i t u d e i n communicating t o an audience. This respect f o r ingenium was formed by the gr e a t e r reverence f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l over manual a c t i v i t i e s : "a mental . . 7 g i f t , and not a low but a high and l o f t y one." For a f i f t e e n t h century humanist l i k e N i c h o l a s V, the r e c o g n i t i o n of ingenium may w e l l have been a fundamental p a r t of the a e s t h e t i c pleasure d e r i v e d from a work of a r t . This r e c o g n i t i o n or comprehension was i t s e l f an i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y . Aquinas had a l s o equated the engagement of the i n t e l l e c t w i t h a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e , 8 and Manuel Chrysoloras, i n a l e t t e r t o h i s brother, s i m i l a r l y d e f i n e d pleasure as the r e c o g n i t i o n of ingenium: And the beauties of statues and p a i n t i n g s are not an unworthy t h i n g t o behold; r a t h e r they do i n d i c a t e a c e r t a i n n o b i l i t y i n the i n t e l l e c t t h a t admires them...What i s the reason f o r t h i s ? I t i s t h a t we admire not so much the beauties of the bodies i n statues and p a i n t i n g s as the beauty of the mind of t h e i r maker. 7 Panofsky, Renaissance and Renascences, 15-16 8 Umberto Eco, The A e s t h e t i c s of Thomas Aquinas, 49-63. 9 Michael Baxandall, "Guarino, P i s a n e l l o and Manuel Chrysol o r a s , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Courtauld  I n s t i t u t e s 28 (1965): 198. 31 The informed beholder (and t h i s i s s u r e l y what the i n d i v i d u a l s who v i s i t e d N i c h o l a s V s chapel considered themselves t o be) "was i n a p o s i t i o n t o d i s t i n g u i s h between crude sensuous pleasure and some more complex and i n t e l l e c t u a l enjoyment o f f e r e d by a p a i n t i n g or s t a t u e . " 1 0 According t o Baxandall, the a b i l i t y t o be pleased by the r e c o g n i t i o n of. s k i l l was incongruous w i t h being pleased by matter and t h i s was " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the informed, as opposed t o the uninformed, b e h o l d e r . " 1 1 Here we have some i n d i c a t i o n of the kinds of pleasure humanists, and perhaps others v i s i t i n g N i c h o l a s V s chapel, might have had from a work of a r t . A good p a i n t i n g would d i s p l a y the a r t i s t ' s ingenium, and the r e c o g n i t i o n of t h a t ingenium c o u l d be p l e a s u r a b l e t o the viewer. However, i n d i v i d u a l s f a m i l i a r w i t h c o u r t l y i d e a l s were a l s o o b l i g e d t o d i s p l a y t h e i r e r u d i t i o n , and a work of a r t could e a s i l y provide an opportunity f o r t h i s , thus g i v i n g the viewers a k i n d of s o c i a l p l e a s u r e . 1 2 1 0 B a x a n d a l l , G i o t t o and the Orators, 60. 1 1 B a x a n d a l l , G i o t t o and the Orators, 62. However, Baxandall i s c o n s i d e r i n g a F l o r e n t i n e context. The problem w i t h o s t e n t a t i o u s d i s p l a y was much more p r e v a l e n t i n the r e p u b l i c a n atmosphere of Florence, and had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the a r t of Rome. See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa  Chapel, 38. Further, Gombrich has suggested t h a t one must not ov e r r a t e the p a r t i c u l a r i t y of humanist t a s t e s . See E. H. Gombrich, " A p o l l o n i o d i Giovanni: A F l o r e n t i n e cassone workshop seen through the eyes of a humanist poet," i n Norm  and Form. Studies i n the A r t of the Renaissance (London: Phaidon Press, 1966), 11-28. x* Such as the k i n d of c o u r t l y e r u d i t i o n d i s p l a y e d by the c h a r a c t e r s throughout C a s t i g l i o n e • s Book of the -32 Since these informed audiences apparently had l i m i t e d use f o r d i d a c t i c i s m i n a r t , then any work of a r t addressed t o them should c e r t a i n l y be a d i s p l a y of the a r t i s t ' s ingenium. I f i t were not, then the work of a r t would not be s u f f i c i e n t l y engaging t o viewers f o r whom the r e c o g n i t i o n of ingenium was a c r u c i a l a e s t h e t i c component. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t N i c h o l a s V would thus have wanted the p a i n t i n g s i n h i s chapel t o be a d i s p l a y of Fra Angelico's ingenium, and the c o n t r a c t f o r the frescoes i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s may have been the case. Fra A n g e l i c o and h i s a s s i s t a n t s were p a i d f o r t h e i r time and the m a t e r i a l s were s u p p l i e d f o r the a r t i s t s . The terms of the c o n t r a c t allowed time f o r the e x e r c i s e of the master p a i n t e r ' s ingenium. The annual r a t e s f o r the four-man workshop were: Fra Angelico 2 00 f l o r i n s Benozzo G o z z o l i 84 f l o r i n s Giovanni d e l l a Checha...l2 f l o r i n s Jacomo da P o l i 12 f l o r i n s 1 3 The payment of the a r t i s t f o r h i s time represented a s h i f t i n the norm of c o n t r a c t s . 1 4 U s u a l l y , a r t i s t s were p a i d f o r set p i e c e s ; a c e r t a i n , prearranged amount f o r an a l t a r p i e c e C o u r t i e r . See Baldaser Castiglione, The Book of the  C o u r t i e r , t r a n s . Charles S. S i n g l e t o n (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1959). 1 3 Baxandall, Painting; and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983) , 19-20. Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y , 19-20. 33 or, i n the extreme case of Borso D'Este, by the square fo o t of p a i n t e d a r e a . 1 5 N i c h o l a s V s g e n e r o s i t y w i t h time and m a t e r i a l s could be l i n k e d t o the pope's d e s i r e t o be thought of as a c e r t a i n type of patron, s i n c e t h i s a t t i t u d e towards patronage c l o s e l y f o l l o w s A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l who embodies the v i r t u e of magnificence; a v i r t u e which was, at t h i s time, c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r u l e r s . A r i s t o t l e had s t a t e d : Moreover, he [the magnificent man] w i l l spend g l a d l y and generously because p r e c i s e reckoning of cost i s p e t t y . He w i l l c o n sider how he can achieve the f i n e s t and most appropriate r e s u l t r a t h e r than how much i t w i l l c o s t and how i t can be done most cheaply. The r i c h d e c o r a t i o n of the chapel, seemingly incongruous w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t ingenium or s k i l l was a more important t h i n g f o r learned viewers, could a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the theory of m a g n i f i c e n c e , 1 7 s i n c e A r i s t o t l e suggested t h a t a 1 5 B a x a n d a l l , P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y , 1. Baxandall's f i r s t chapter "The Conditions of Trade", pp. 1-27, i s a h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n of c o n t r a c t s and what kinds of t h i n g s they s i g n i f i e d . See a l s o Charles Hope, " A r t i s t s , Patrons, and A d v i s o r s i n the I t a l i a n Renaissance, i n Patronage i n the Renaissance, e d i t e d by Stephen Orgel and Guy F. L y t l e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981). 1 6 A r i s t o t l e , The Nicomachean E t h i c s , t r a n s . J.A.K. Thomson (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1978), 150. 1 7 See A. D. Fraser J e n k i n s , "Cosimo de' Medici's Patronage of A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Theory of Magnificence," J o u r n a l of the Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 33 (1970): 162-170. 34 magnificent man should " f u r n i s h h i s house i n a way s u i t a b l e t o h i s w e a l t h . " 1 8 N i c h o l a s V s p a l a t i a l papal apartments, i n c l u d i n g h i s chapels, l i b r a r y , and studiolo, were conceived of as the residence of a pope embodying magnificence, "the crown of v i r t u e s . " 1 9 , S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the A r i s t o t e l e a n concept of magnificence was a l s o taken up by Aquinas i n h i s Summa  t h e o l o q i c a . 2 0 The l i n e was echoed by one of Ni c h o l a s V s humanists, Lapo da C o n s t i g l i o n c h i o , who wrote t h a t "...the l i f e of a p o s t o l i c poverty was now past and t h a t c u l t i v a t i o n of splendor and magnificence had become the app r o p r i a t e way to g a i n men's a l l e g i a n c e . " 2 1 Perhaps one aspect of the nature of Fra Angelico's ingenium can be f i x e d a l i t t l e more s p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r he was famous f o r being able t o communicate i n a c e r t a i n way. One of the words the f i f t e e n t h century humanist C r i s t o f o r o Aristotle, The Nicomachean E t h i c s , 151. 1 9 Aristotle, The Nicomachean E t h i c s , 155. A r i s t o t l e a l s o w r i t e s t h a t "...the t r u l y magnanimous man must be good. I t would seem t h a t the magnanimous man i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by greatness i n every v i r t u e . " Aristotle, The Nicomachean  E t h i c s , 154. This aspect of Nicholas V s v i r t u e s w i l l be discussed i n chapter three. 2 0 Aquinas, however, says t h a t great t h i n g s should be done most e s p e c i a l l y f o r God (Summa t h e o l o q i c a I I - I I 134. 1-2). See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 38, and note 102 on page 44. The immediate prototype f o r N i c h o l a s V as a magnificent patron was no doubt Cosimo de' M e d i c i , f o r whom Nic h o l a s V had worked f o r i n the years of Cosimo's l a v i s h a r c h i t e c t u r a l patronage. See Jenkins, "Cosimo de' Med i c i ' s Patronage of A r c h i t e c t u r e . " 2 1 Stinger, The Renaissance i n Rome, 28. 35 Landino used t o de s c r i b e Fra Angelico's a r t was 'devoto'. 'Devotus' was a s t y l e of preaching. ...The f o u r t h s t y l e i s more devout (devotus) and i s l i k e the sermons of the s a i n t s which are read i n church. I t i s the most e a s i l y understood and i s good f o r e d i f y i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g the people... The f a t h e r s and the holy doctors of the Church... kept t h i s s t y l e . 2 This element of Fra Angelico's ingenium could have been recognized and appreciated because the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 'devotus' s t y l e c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the Ciceronean r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e which the humanists admired and promoted. Since Roman papal humanists wrote and spoke on r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s , t h e i r o r a t o r y was, e s s e n t i a l l y , preaching. Eloquence, though, as humanists a c t u a l l y used i t , was not meant f o r popular communication, as preaching o f t e n was. Eloquent o r a t i o n s were s t u f f of the co u r t , where ceremonial occasions gave opportunity f o r t h e i r expression. J This conception of c o u r t l y eloquence seems t o have been s t r o n g l y connected w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n of high c u l t u r e and " Baxan d a l l , P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y , 150. See a l s o Baxandall, " A l b e r t i and C r i s t o f o r o Landino: The P r a c t i c a l C r i t i c i s m of P a i n t i n g " i n Problemi a t t u a l i d i sc i e n z a e d i c u l t u r a quaderno n. 2 09 [Convegno i n t e r n a z i o n a l e i n d e t t o n e l quinto centenario d i Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , Rome, 1972] (Rome: Accademia naz i o n a l e d e i L i n c e i , 1974): 151-152. 2 3 Trinkaus quotes Bartollomeo d e l l a Fonte: "The mastery of these a r t s [rhetoric/eloquence] must be sought f o r the sake of speaking e f f e c t i v e l y i n p u b l i c assemblies and meetings and f o r c a r r y i n g out the f u n c t i o n s of ambassadors of p r i n c e s and c i t i e s . " Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism," 99. 36 c i v i l i z a t i o n . An eloquent i n d i v i d u a l was, the humanists claimed, s u p e r i o r t o other men, and eloquence was a road "to the h i g h e s t peaks of r e f i n e d humanity." 2 4 One can e a s i l y see, w i t h promises such as these, how humanists constructed the t a s t e s of t h e i r c o u r t l y patrons, who were very much i n t e r e s t e d i n being s u p e r i o r . H i s t o r y could a l s o help i n d i v i d u a l s become b e t t e r and more r e f i n e d human beings. In d e l l a Fonte's O r a t i o n i n  P r a i s e of H i s t o r y , h i s t o r i c a l exempla move people t o v i r t u e : For h i s t o r y confers the g r e a t e s t u t i l i t y on a l l . I t deters the wicked from crime by the f e a r of infamy, and i t i n s p i r e s the good t o v i r t u e by the d e s i r e f o r e t e r n a l p r a i s e ; by reading i t p r i v a t e men are eager t o i m i t a t e the examples of t h e i r ancestors...Kings and p r i n c e s themselves are i n s p i r e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c t i o n s f o r the sake of a c q u i r i n g immortal g l o r y through h i s t o r i a n s . H i s t o r i c a l exempla were t o be spoken about w i t h eloquence or w r i t t e n w i t h high r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l ; 2 6 t h i s made them more a l i v e and co n v i n c i n g , and thus more i n s p i r i n g . Humanists p r a i s e d patrons, and hidden among a l l t h e i r e x o r t a t i o n s i s a p l e a f o r sponsorship, s i n c e the magnificence of an i n d i v i d u a l , h i s praiseworthy p l a c e i n h i s t o r y , was assured by patronage. Indeed, N i c h o l a s V was Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism," 99. Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism," 104. Trinkaus, "A Humanist's Image of Humanism," 101. 37 most o f t e n p r a i s e d by both h i s biographers and l a t e r humanists, not f o r h i s r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e s , but f o r h i s a c t i v i t y as a patron. Humanists seemed keenly aware t h a t the t e x t s they produced were h i s t o r i c a l documents, and t h a t b u i l d i n g s , p a i n t i n g s , and other p r o j e c t s were the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the patron's v i r t u e which would assure the s u r v i v a l of t h a t patron's name i n h i s t o r y . Patrons a l s o seemed aware of the h i s t o r i c a l b e n e f i t of having humanists compose f l a t t e r i n g encomia of t h e i r p r i n c e l y v i r t u e s . Humanists promoted the n o t i o n t h a t the remnants of the antique - whether t e x t s , b u i l d i n g s , or works of a r t -provided evidence of the greatness of past men, and h i s t o r i c a l greatness could be f i x e d by contemporary patrons by t h e i r i m i t a t i o n of these exempla. Humanist o r a t i o n s on h i s t o r i c a l exempla a l s o aimed t o p o r t r a y these persons as r e a l people who were a c t i v e i n the r e a l world, as opposed to those which seemed t o e x i s t i n a realm temporally and h i s t o r i c a l l y separate from e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , the n a r r a t i v e scenes i n N i c h o l a s V s chapel attempt t o p o r t r a y SS. Stephen and Lawrence as h i s t o r i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s . In the n a r r a t i v e scenes events are d e p i c t e d as s e q u e n t i a l , and thus the p r o t a g o n i s t s are more c o n v i n c i n g l y portrayed as h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s . Frequently, hagiographic n a r r a t i v e c y c l e s telescoped events by d e p i c t i n g the main f i g u r e two times i n one p i c t o r i a l space. An e a r l y example, Maso d i Banco 1s "St. S y l v e s t e r C l o s i n g the Mouth of the Dragon and R e s u s c i t a t i n g Two Dead Romans" of 1340 [ f i g . 38 8 ] , ' demonstrates t h i s c l e a r l y . In Masolino's "Healing of the C r i p p l e and the R a i s i n g of Tabitha" [ f i g . 9] i n the Brancacci chapel, St. Peter appears t w i c e , occupying the same p i c t o r i a l s p a c e . 2 8 Although Masaccio's work d i s p l a y s a more c o n v i n c i n g l y i l l u s i o n i s t i c d e p i c t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r e and space, the t e l e s c o p i n g of temporal events i n one scene was s t i l l not considered problematic i n 1425. Even i n the 1450's, Fra F i l l i p o L i p p i could d e p i c t St. Stephen four times i n a s i n g l e p i c t o r i a l s p a c e . 2 9 In the chapel of N i c h o l a s V most of the scenes from the l i v e s of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence are more d e f i n i t e l y d i v i d e d . An attempt has been made t o separate the p r o g r e s s i v e elements of the s t o r y by p l a c i n g a v e r t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l element between s c e n e s . 3 0 This discourages the This work i s i n the B a r d i d i Vernio Chapel i n Sta. Croce, Florence. For a r e l e v e n t d i s c u s s i o n see John White, The B i r t h and R e b i r t h of P i c t o r i a l Space (London: Faber & Faber, 1967), 88-90. 2 8 St. Peter appears three times i n the scene of the 'Tribute Money", a l s o i n the Brancacci Chapel. 2 9 The c y c l e i s found i n the main chapel of the Prato c a t h e d r a l and was p a i n t e d between 1452-1466. 3 0 This i s done, of course, where the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the chapel does not provide separations. To a great extent, the chapel's a r c h i t e c t u r e has determined the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n of scenes. The four s e c t i o n s of the v a u l t which the e v a n g e l i s t s occupy, f o r example, or the l u n e t t e s which c o n t a i n the scenes from St. Stephen's l i f e are a l l examples of s t r u c t u r a l ' f i e l d s ' o f f e r e d by the chapel's a r c h i t e c t u r e . P a i n t e r s sometimes worked w i t h these f i e l d s and sometimes created t h e i r own trompe 1'oiel a r c h i t e c t o n i c d i v i s i o n s . See Sven Sandstrom's Levels of U n r e a l i t y : Studies  i n S t r u c t u r e and Function i n I t a l i a n Mural Paintincr During;  the Renaissance (Uppsala: Almquist & W i k s e l l s B o k t r y c k e r i , 1963) . 39 p e r c e p t i o n of temporal and s p a t i a l s i m u l t a n e i t y . St. Stephen does something i n one space at one moment, then he does something e l s e i n another space at another moment. Time and space are ordered i n t o a p r o g r e s s i v e n a r r a t i v e by rendering time a t o m i s t i c a l l y , and o r g a n i z i n g i t s moments i n t o a sequence. S e q u e n t i a l i t y supercedes s i m u l t a n e i t y , and thus the deeds and martyrdoms of the s a i n t s move i n t o the domain of h i s t o r y . Decidedly u n l i k e the r e l i g i o u s images executed i n the maniera greca (which G i o t t o had transcended) w i t h t h e i r s u b j e c t s f l o a t i n g i n g i l d e d , t i m e l e s s v o i d s , these f i g u r e s enact t h e i r l i v e s i n c o n v i n c i n g l y i l l u s i o n i s t i c spaces (the s i g n i f i c a n c e of which w i l l be d i s cussed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n chapter t h r e e ) , and w i t h i n the order of n a r r a t e d time. The viewer was i n v i t e d t o experience h i s t o r y i n a ' h i s t o r i c a l 1 way, by seeing the events d e p i c t e d as an extension of h i s or her own w o r l d . 3 1 These t h i n g s f a c i l i t a t e d the engagement of the viewer and brought "the beholder i n t o c l o s e r communion w i t h the s u b j e c t . " 3 2 Another aspect of the frescoes which tends t o encourage p e r c e p t i o n of the events d e p i c t e d as h i s t o r i c a l i s the l a c k of any c e l e s t i a l f i g u r e s such as angels or C h r i s t . 3 1 See Yves Bonnefoy, "Time and Timelessness i n Quattrocento P a i n t i n g , " i n Callicrram. Essays i n New A r t  H i s t o r y from France, e d i t e d by Norman Bryson (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), 8-26. In the same volume see J u l i a K r i s t e v a , " G i o t t o ' s Joy,", p a r t i c u l a r l y the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d 'Narration and the Norm'. K r i s t e v a f s i n t e n t i n t h i s a r t i c l e i s t o consider the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of c o l o u r . 3 2 Borsook, The Mural P a i n t e r s of Tuscany, xxx. 40 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i n scenes of the martyrdoms of e i t h e r SS. Stephen or Lawrence, C h r i s t appears i n the sky, h i s gesture c o n f i r m i n g t h e i r s a i n t h o o d . 3 3 However, C h r i s t does not appear i n e i t h e r of the martyrdom scenes i n N i c h o l a s V s chapel. The absence of supernatural personages i n these s p e c i f i c n a r r a t i v e c y c l e s , along w i t h the d e p i c t i o n of i l l u s i o n i s t i c space and s e q u e n t i a l , ' h i s t o r i c ' time, could a l s o be r e l a t e d i n some way t o Nicholas V s d e s i r e t o g i v e " h i s t o r i c a l credence t o the m a r t y r s . " 3 4 N i c h o l a s V had commissioned Antonio A g l i t o w r i t e a " h u m a n i s t i c a l l y r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n martyrs," because fabulous events o f t e n seemed i m p l a u s i b l e t o learned readers and undermined the h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y of the martyrs and t h e i r deeds. Thus the absence of these types of f i g u r e s may be an attempt t o make the n a r r a t i v e p a r t s of the c y c l e more p a l a t a b l e t o c e r t a i n kinds of viewers. As i n the scene of St. Stephen's martyrdom i n the Prato c a t h e d r a l , 3 4 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 171. 3 5 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 171. The problem had been a r t i c u l a t e d by Sant' Antonino as w e l l , who had w r i t t e n t h a t "precocious images" should be avoided, as w e l l as " t h i n g s t h a t are curious and i l l - a d a p t e d t o e x c i t e devotion, but tend on the c o n t r a r y t o promote la u g h t e r and v a n i t y . " See John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Ancrelico, 2. Sant' Antonino's suggestions, r a t h e r than being a c a l l f o r h i s t o r i c i s m , i s more an echo of St. Bernard's i n v e c t i v e a g a i n s t " r i d i c u l o u s monsters" and "those l o u t i s h apes", and so on, from chapter 12 of h i s Apologia ad Guillelmum; See Umberto Eco, A r t and Beauty i n the Middle Ages, t r a n s l a t e d by Hugh Bredin (New Haven & London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press) , 7-8. At any r a t e , t h i s would not have a p p l i e d t o the f i g u r e of C h r i s t i n the scenes discussed here. 41 Supplementary evidence t h a t these i s s u e s were cu r r e n t can be found by c o n s i d e r i n g the case of St. Peter. The p e r c e p t i o n of St. Peter underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change l a r g e l y due t o the e f f o r t s of N i c h o l a s V*s papal humanists, who promoted a n o t i o n of Peter, "not so much as an a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e of monarchical governance, but r a t h e r as the h i s t o r i c a l a p o s t l e . " 3 6 H i s t o r y , not myth, became the proof-t e s t of the contemporary. I t was the h i s t o r i c a l l y r e coverable St. Peter, r a t h e r than the mythic personage, who reached through the events of h i s t o r y - c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and s e q u e n t i a l l y arranged - t o the contemporary papacy, passing on the keys of a p o s t o l i c a u t h o r i t y . 3 7 The s t r e s s i n g of the h i s t o r i c a l i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than the mythic personage opened up p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a c t u a l i m i t a t i o n of exempla by contemporary i n d i v i d u a l s . When h i s t o r i c a l f a c t r eplaced mythic event, the viewer was i n v i t e d t o admire the a c t i v e persons of the past and i m i t a t e them i n the present. N i c h o l a s V and h i s humanists a l s o seemed i n t e n t on purging c u l t u r e of i t s h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r s or myths. Vegio's De rebus a n t i q u i s memorabilius B a s i l i c a e S. P i e t r o Romae contains a d i g r e s s i o n on the h i s t o r i a n : 3 6 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance In Rome, 170. 3 7 N i c h o l a s V s court was not the f i r s t p l a c e where h i s t o r y was used i n t h i s way, f o r the h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e c e r t a i n l y appears as a c r u c i a l theme i n Leonardo B r u n i 1 s Laudatio F l o r e n t i n a e U r b i s . See Marvin Anderson, "Laurentius V a l l a (1407-1457): Renaissance C r i t i c and B i b l i c a l Theologian," Concordia T h e o l o g i c a l Monthly 39 (1968): 15. See a l s o B e a t r i c e R. Reynolds, " L a t i n H i s t o r i o g r a p h y : A Survey 1400-1600," Studies i n the Renaissance 2 (1955): 8-9. 42 He [the h i s t o r i a n ] must be w e l l - v e r s e d i n the s t u d i a h u m a n i t a t i s , be acquainted w i t h human mores, and be a t t e n t i v e t o source m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t t o l o c a t i n g the time and place of events - and ...[defend] the a u t h o r i t y of the h i s t o r i a n a g a i n s t the claims of the theol o g i a n s and c a n o n i s t s . 3 8 Vegio demanded humanist background because he b e l i e v e d t h a t only a humanist had the i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s t o r i g o r o u s l y analyze h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s (which, i n such a case as Lorenzo V a l l a ' s exposure of the Donation of Constantine, was probably t r u e ) . The r e s u l t of t h i s c l a i m of e x p e r t i s e s h i f t e d the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y upon the the humanist, "against the claims of theol o g i a n s and c a n o n i s t s . " 3 9 Despite t h i s apparent c l a i m t o h i s t o r i c a l v e r a c i t y , humanists were more concerned w i t h e f f e c t than exactness. The aim of eloquence was never p r e c i s i o n , but the peruasion of the l i s t e n e r . This aspect of eloquence can be used t o e x p l a i n the obvious h i s t o r i c a l i n a c c u r a c i e s i n the chapel f r e s c o e s , such as St. Stephen being ordained i n a q u a s i -Roman s e t t i n g , or SS. Stephen and Lawrence being tonsured, of S i x t u s I I being i n f u l l , Renaissance p o n t i f i c a l s . Potent communication of ideas and themes was c l e a r l y more c r u c i a l than h i s t o r i c a l accuracy. 3 8 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance In Rome, 179. 3 9 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance In Rome, 179. 43 The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the events i n the frescoes as t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s t o r i c a l or 1 r e a l 1 time i s one of the c e n t r a l r h e t o r i c a l aspects of the c y c l e . When combined w i t h c o n v i n c i n g i l l u s i o n i s t i c space (discussed below), the time and space of the f i g u r e s represented i n the frescoes seems n a t u r a l and r e a l . N a r r a t i o n i t s e l f i m p l i e s being, and the n a r r a t i v e time expressed i n these works engages the viewer i n a d i s c o u r s e between h i s t o r y and h i s / h e r own r e a l i t y . The landscape and a r c h i t e c t u r e of many of the scenes a l s o corresponds t o s t r u c t u r e s and spaces a mid-quattrocento viewer would have found f a m i l i a r and so would have p a r a l l e l e d the r e a l i t y he or she experienced. The to p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s of landscape and a r c h i t e c t u r e , and h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e content, become the v e r i f i e r s of the t r u t h of the s c e n e . 4 0 The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 4 0 See Irene Winter, "Royal R h e t o r i c and the Development of H i s t o r i c a l N a r r a t i v e i n Neo-Assyrian R e l i e f s , " 2-3. 44 CHAPTER THREE The Issues i n the N a r r a t i v e s and R h e t o r i c a l S t y l e The major themes of the chapel frescoes which I w i l l d e a l w i t h i n t h i s chapter are papal and P e t r i n e primacy, the [papal] v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y and martyrdom, and the importance of eloquence. Why would these i s s u e s , taken up i n the fre s c o e s , need t o be communicated t o our h y p o t h e t i c a l audience of d i g n i t a r i e s , ambassadors, and e c c l e s i a s t s ? Eloquent r e i t e r a t i o n s of papal v i r t u e s and the pope's n a t u r a l r i g h t t o u n i v e r s a l r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y were made necessary by the the f a c t t h a t these very assumptions had been s t r o n g l y contested by c o n c i l i a r i s t s throughout the previous century. As an i n s t i t u t i o n , the papacy was by no means secure and, on the eve of Nicholas V s e l e c t i o n , i t s t i l l s t r u g g l e d w i t h i t s c r e d i b i l i t y due t o ongoing schism. 1 The e l e c t i o n of Nicholas V, the f i r s t pope who had had a career as a p r o f e s s i o n a l humanist 2, could be taken as evidence t h a t the Church h i e r a r c h y recognized the value of t r a i n i n g t h a t l e d t o a p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the f a c t o r s 1 However, Nicholas moved q u i c k l y t o ne g o t i a t e the r e s i g n a t i o n of the l a s t of the antipopes, F e l i x I I . F e l i x accepted N i c h o l a s ' s o f f e r of a red hat. 2 A number of biographies of Tomasso P a r e n t u c c e l l i e x i s t . The most a c c e s s i b l e account of the major events i n Nichol a s V s p r e - p o n t i f i c a l l i f e i s Ludwig F r e i h e r r von Pastor, The H i s t o r y of the Popes, v o l . 2, e d i t e d by F. I . Antobus (London: Kegan Pau l , Trench, Trubner & Co., 7th ed. 1949), 3-313. 45 i n the equation of humanism, the k i n d of c u l t u r a l input i t o f f e r e d , and t h e o l o g y . 3 The need f o r some k i n d of c u l t u r a l program t o r e s t r u c t u r e the papacy d e r i v e d from the v i c i s s i t u d e s the papacy s u f f e r e d i n the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . 4 The e a r l y quattrocento papacy, shorn of much of i t s temporal power and f i n a n c i a l resources, and deprived of a secure, permanent home, needed t o r e - e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f p h y s i c a l l y i n Rome, and i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n the minds of the p r i n c e s and despots who wielded such f i n a n c i a l and m i l i t a r y power. 5 N i c h o l a s V may a l s o have been J Knowledge of humanism began t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d , d u r i n g N i c h o l a s V s p o n t i f i c a t e , i n t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the i d e a l pope. D'Amico, speaking of Giannozzo Manetti's biography of N i c h o l a s V, observes t h a t Manetti "presented the pope as the i d e a l humanist c l e r i c . Manetti envisioned a c l e r g y whose education incorporated the new humanist c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n a l theology." See D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism  i n Papal Rome, 120. 4 M a r t i n V (1417-1431) and Eugenius IV (1431-1447) had l e d p e r i p a t e t i c terms and they had been c o n t i n u a l l y preoccupied w i t h the challenges of the C o u n c i l s of Basel and Constance. See Charles S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 1, 158. See a l s o Leona C. Gabel, "The F i r s t R e v i v a l of Rome: 1420-1484," i n The Renaissance Reconsidered Symposium. Smith  College Studies i n A r t H i s t o r y 44 (1964): 113-25, and Denys Hay, Europe i n the Fourteenth and F i f t e e n t h Centuries (London: Longman's, 1966), 291. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n c i l i a r debates and the papacy f o r t h i s p e r i o d see Joachim W. S t e i b e r , Pope Eugenius IV, the C o u n c i l of B a s e l , and the  Secular and E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A u t h o r i t i e s i n the Empire: The  C o n f l i c t over Supreme A u t h o r i t y and Power i n the Church (Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1978). 5 The papacy had l o s t much of i t s temporal power over the Romagna by t h i s time. One of N i c h o l a s V s g r e a t e s t d i p l o m a t i c v i c t o r i e s was the formation of the Lega I t a l i c a , which sought t o u n i f y the s t a t e s of the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a . Since N i c h o l a s V was one of the i n s t i g a t o r s of t h i s pact, the papacy thus presented i t s e l f as the u n i f y i n g e n t i t y of these s t a t e s and the p r i n c e s who r u l e d them. See W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 159. S t i l l , some p r i n c e s , 46 conscious of i n f l u e n c i n g e c c l e s i a s t s who had taken c o n c i l i a r stances. The papacy needed t o draw these i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the Church. N i c h o l a s V s challenge was immense: t o r e a f f i r m orthodox ideas of papal a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n a developing p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l framework where power and i n f l u e n c e were i n c r e a s i n g l y r e l i a n t upon the t o o l s of humanism wielded i n the c o u r t l y s e t t i n g . 6 Although humanists had been employed by the papacy i n the l a t e f o urteenth and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h century, i t i s i n the decade l e a d i n g up t o the e l e c t i o n of N i c h o l a s V, and the r e t u r n of the papacy to Rome, t h a t humanism began t o e f f e c t u a l l y serve the c u l t u r a l ( r a t h e r than j u s t t h e o l o g i c a l ) hegemony of the papacy. 7 l i k e Sigismondo Ma l a t e s t a , remained a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the papacy, which l e d e v e n t u a l l y t o h i s excommunication by Pope Pius I I . 6 For a general d i s c u s s i o n , see Chapter 11 i n Lauro Martines's Power and Imagination: C i t y States i n Renaissance  I t a l y (New York: Knopf, 1979), 191-217. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , of N i c h o l a s V, John B. Toews, i n h i s "Formative Forces i n the P o n t i f i c a t e of N i c h o l a s V,11 C a t h o l i c H i s t o r i c a l Review 54 (1968-9) 283, w r i t e s : "Culture was one of s e v e r a l expedients h o l d i n g some promise f o r an e f f e c t i v e papal r e s t o r a t i o n , and so must be viewed from the standpoint of h i s o v e r a l l involvement as a pope. The p o n t i f f ' s patronage of c u l t u r e , s i n c e r e and extravagant as i t may have been, was at heart an e f f o r t t o place c u l t u r e i n the s e r v i c e of the Church." 7 D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome, 117. D'Amico w r i t e s t h a t "The f i r s t , t e n t a t i v e , expression of a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Curia Romana and the papacy and the new humanist c u l t u r e came from the Florence-born humanist Lapo da C a s t i g l i o n c h i o (1405-1438)". D'Amico's reference i s t o Lapo's short t r e a t i s e Dialogus super  e x c e l l e n c i a e t d i g n i t a t e Curiae Romanae. See a l s o Charles Trinkaus, In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and D i v i n i t y  i n I t a l i a n Humanist Thought, v o l . 2, 556. For a s u c c i n c t 47 Papal humanism, w i t h i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o theology, papalism and r e l i g i o n , had a unique cha r a c t e r and d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , 8 such as papal and P e t r i n e primacy, and the v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y , martyrdom and eloquence. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s t r a c e the t o p i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the frescoes and the t e x t s of papal humanists, and a l s o compare t h e i r methods of d e a l i n g w i t h those t o p i c s . This i s not t o suggest t h a t these frescoes were adapted from humanist t e x t s , but, r a t h e r , t h a t the method and s t y l e which humanists used t o argue t h i n g s seems s i m i l a r t o the ways i n which the frescoes argue t h e i r p o i n t s . I n s i g h t i n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v i r t u e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the frescoes ( c h a r i t y , martyrdom and eloquence) may be obtained by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t e x t s which humanists produced s i n c e , i n N i c h o l i n e encomia these same v i r t u e s are cur r e n t themes. Even though t o p i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between the frescoes and humanist t e x t s , i t should be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t the medium of f r e s c o p a i n t i n g imparted ideas d i f f e r e n t l y than w r i t t e n t e x t s or o r a t i o n s , s i n c e images are consumed w i t h the sense of s i g h t r a t h e r t h a t the sense of hearing. This may seem the obvious d i f f e r e n c e but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t because v i s u a l images have the p o t e n t i a l i t y t o engage the viewer e x i s t e n t i a l l y i n a way t h a t the word cannot. The account of Lapo's argument see Leona C . Gabel, "The F i r s t R e v i v a l of Rome: 1420-1484," 22. 8 D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome. See e s p e c i a l l y P a r t I I , Chap 5, "The Idiom of Roman Humanism," 115. 48 f o l l o w i n g chapter r e a l l y has two o b j e c t i v e s , t o t r a c e some of the main themes of the frescoes and t o examine how these themes are communicated i n a r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e . A comment should be made about the problem of hy p o t h e c i z i n g on the more emotive aspects of the fre s c o e s . Any c l a i m presupposing an emotional response on behalf of the f i f t e e n t h century viewer i s problematic because such responses are c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c . Yet p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l and perceptualist/phenomenological approaches can help e x p l a i n how some aspects of the p i c t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the frescoes might have worked. 9 Though i t may be impossible t o a c c u r a t e l y r e c l a i m something l i k e a p s y c h o l o g i c a l response from h i s t o r y , the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l response i s j u s t i f i e d because p s y c h o l o g i c a l manipulation was one of the c r u c i a l aspects of r h e t o r i c . Since we l a c k documentation which records t h i s type of response, the t e x t of the frescoes must serve as evidence of r h e t o r i c a l i n t e n t . For a recent d i s c u s s i o n see the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o David Freedberg, The Power of Images. Studies i n the H i s t o r y  and Theory of Response (Chicago & London: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1989), x i x - x x v . See a l s o J u l i a K r i s t e v a , " G i o t t o ' s Joy," i n C a l l i q r a m . Essays i n New A r t H i s t o r y from France, e d i t e d by Norman Bryson (New York & Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), 27-52. 49 Papal and P e t r i n e Primacy St. Peter's primacy among the a p o s t l e s , as w e l l as h i s h i s t o r i c connection t o the o f f i c e of the papacy, was c e n t r a l t o the no t i o n of i n h e r i t e d papal a u t h o r i t y . 1 0 During the e a r l y f i f t e e n t h century the concept of the primacy of St. Peter was challenged by c o n c i l i a r i s t s as a way t o undermine the concept of papal sovereignty w i t h i n the C h u r c h . 1 1 E a r l y i n h i s p o n t i f i c a t e , N i c h o l a s V had attempted t o re-emphasize the connection between St. Peter and the contemporary papacy by moving the papal residence from the Lateran t o the V a t i c a n , which was connected t o St. Peter's b a s i l i c a where the r e l i c s of the a p o s t l e l a y . 1 2 He a l s o brought the P e t r i n e cathedra, the symbol of i n h e r i t e d a u t h o r i t y , from the Lateran t o St. P e t e r ' s . 1 3 The move made 1 0 Defenses of St. Peter's p o s i t i o n began w i t h the well-known passage from Matthew 16:18-19. 1 1 See John A.F. Thompson, Popes and P r i n c e s , 1417- 1517. P o l i t i c s and P o l i t y i n the Late Medieval Church (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1980), 12-13. 1 2 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 264. The Lateran had developed ponderous, i m p e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which the papacy d e s i r e d t o downplay at t h i s time. N i c h o l a s V s l e a v i n g of the Lateran was a l s o an abandonment of the Constantutum C o n s t a n t i n i , 'The Donation of Constantine', which had been the fundamental l e g a l document j u s t i f y i n g papal temporal power i n the Romagna si n c e the days of the e a r l y Church, and which had been exposed as a for g e r y by Lorenzo V a l l a i n h i s De Falso  C r e d i t a et Ementita C o n s t a n t i n i Donatione Daclamatio of 1439. See West f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 4, and S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 248, who a l s o mentions on 50 e x p l i c i t , t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y and t y p o l o g i c a l l y , the connections between the papacy and St. Peter, and i n doing so s t r e s s e d the p r i e s t l y and a p o s t o l i c , r a t h e r than i m p e r i a l , nature of the p a p a c y . 1 4 By such a c t s , Nicholas V st r o v e t o r e a s s e r t P e t r i n e primacy aga i n s t c o n c i l i a r i s t c h a l l e n g e s . These i n i t i a t i v e s were supplemented by papal humanists who attempted t o accentuate, through t e x t u a l and h i s t o r i c a l exegesis and the composing of t h e o l o g i c a l t r a c t s , new v a l i d a t i o n s of papal a u t h o r i t y . 1 5 p. 250: "In the l a t e r middle ages c r i t i c s of the Church's m a t e r i a l wealth came t o focus on the Donation as a source of the Church's c o r r u p t i o n . " See a l s o Marvin Anderson, "Laurentius V a l l a (1407-1457): Renaissance C r i t i c and B i b l i c a l Theologian," Concordia T h e o l o g i c a l Monthly 39 (1968): 19. 1 4 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise. 19-20. The s h i f t was from a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n of the power of the papacy t o a more t h e o l o g i c a l and a p o s t o l i c denotation, and t h i s s h i f t was a l s o demonstrated i n a c r u c i a l document signed j u s t a few years before Ni c h o l a s V became pope, the b u l l Laetentur C o e l i . which was promulgated and r a t i f i e d by both the Roman and Eastern Churches at the Co u n c i l of Florence. A c r u c i a l aspect of the b u l l was t h a t i t de f i n e d and a r t i c u l a t e d the nature and powers of the papacy i n a way very d i f f e r e n t from the way t h a t the b u l l Unam Sanctam had done. Unam Sanctam had been promulgated i n 1302 by Boniface and, u n t i l the d r a f t i n g of Laetentur C o e l i , had operated as the p r i n c i p l e document a r t i c u l a t i n g the nature of the papacy. See W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 125. Unam Sanctam had s t r e s s e d both the s p i r i t u a l and temporal nature of the papacy w h i l e Laetentur C o e l i s t r e s s e d the s p i r i t u a l and made no reference t o the temporal [compare the a n t i - p a p a l c o n c i l i a r b u l l Haec Sancta of 1415; see S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 159]. Ni c h o l a s V's s h i f t from the Lateran t o the V a t i c a n p a r a l l e l e d the s h i f t i n the emphasis of the two b u l l s ; from a concern w i t h the temporal powers of the papacy t o i t s s p i r i t u a l and a p o s t o l i c m i s s i o n . 1 5 One of the most i n f l u e n t i a l t e x t s was Juan de Torquemada's Summa de E c c l e s i a of 1449, which argued s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t the c o n c i l i a r i s t n o t i o n t h a t the ap o s t l e s had been equals. See Thompson, Popes and P r i n c e s , 12-13. See a l s o S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 163-164, who 51 There was a l s o a d e s i r e t o a l t e r the papacy's i n f l u e n c e from being r e l i g i o u s t o more broadly s o c i e t a l . Since N i c h o l a s V s d e s i r e was t o s t a b i l i z e the papacy's p o s i t i o n i n Rome, he turned much of h i s a t t e n t i o n s t o the c i t y . N i c h o l a s V s patronage of a r t i s t i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g the r e p a i r i n g of the c i t y w a l l s , an aquaduct, and h i s renovations on the C a p i t o l i n e ) , as w e l l as h i s p o l i t i c a l involvement, s t r e s s e d the papacy's c i v i c c o n c e r n s . 1 6 Here too humanists had d e c i s i v e i n p u t . The strong connection of the papacy w i t h the c i t y of Rome was a r t i c u l a t e d by humanists who b e l i e v e d t h a t Rome represented c u l t u r a l primacy. The c u l t u r a l primacy of the ancient Romans was based on t h e i r s o c i a l l y o r d e r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , and N i c h o l a s V wanted t o reform Rome's p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and thereby make the c i t y more s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l l y . 1 7 A t e x t which c l e a r l y l a i d out connections between Roman c u l t u r e and the o f f i c e of the papacy was Lorenzo V a l l a ' s O r a t i o i n p r i n c i p i o s u i s t u d i i . 1 8 The t r a c t encouraged the papacy's a c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n w o r l d l y a f f a i r s . Furthermore, V a l l a ' s " a s s e r t i o n s were embedded i n h i s theory of language dis c u s s e s Torquemada's r e l i a n c e upon Aquinas. See a l s o W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 20. 1 6 See W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 52-62, 123-127. 1 7 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 52-62 1 8 The essay dates from 1455 but summates and c l a r i f i e s ideas which had been developing i n N i c h o l a s V s p o n t i f i c a t e from i t s f i r s t years. 52 as the means of c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n . " 1 9 For N i c h o l a s V and h i s humanists, the idea of c u l t u r a l primacy being l i n k e d t o the primacy of the L a t i n language must s u r e l y have been an a t t r a c t i v e concept, s i n c e the L a t i n language was e x a c t l y what N i c h o l a s V and other humanists were i n t e r e s t e d i n . Given these n o t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r why Nicho l a s V might have wanted t o accentuate the papacy's h i s t o r i c and a p o s t o l i c l i n k s t o St. Peter and e a r l y Rome i n h i s chapel f r e s c o e s . Not only d i d these a c t i o n s s h i f t the accentuation of the papacy's o f f i c e towards the a p o s t o l i c and s p i r i t u a l , but they a l s o emphasized the papacy's long h i s t o r i c a l l i n k w i t h Rome i t s e l f , thus p a r t a k i n g of the c i t y ' s antique h e r i t a g e . The f r e s c o of the O r d i n a t i o n of St. Stephen can be seen t o operate i n a way which p a r a l l e l s these i n i t i a t i v e s [ f i g . 10]. The ciborium at which Peter stands i n the f r e s c o could be meant t o correspond w i t h the ciborium over the tomb at the t r a n s e p t c r o s s i n g i n St. Peter's b a s i l i c a , 2 0 thereby c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t i n g these ( p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l 2 1 ) a c t i o n s of St. P e t e r w i t h the a c t u a l locus of h i s r e l i c s . 1 9 D'Amico, Renaissance Humanism i n Papal Rome, 118-119. 2 0 Support f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s as St. Peter's i s given i n Richard Krautheimer, "Fra A n g e l i c o and - perhaps - A l b e r t i , " i n Studies i n Medieval and Renaissance  Painting; i n Honour of M i l l a r d Meiss, e d i t e d by I r v i n g L a v i n and John Plummer (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977), 290-296. The type of ciborium shown i n the fr e s c o e s , w i t h s l e n d e r columns and surmounted by a pyramid, was i n f a c t s i m i l a r t o the type i n St. Peter's at t h i s time. 53 The connection w i t h the contemporary papacy i s made c l e a r by l o o k i n g below the O r d i n a t i o n of St. Stephen scene t o the f r e s c o showing the O r d i n a t i o n of St. Lawrence, where S i x t u s I I , w i t h the features of Nicho l a s V, i s shown g i v i n g the c h a l i c e t o St. Lawrence [ f i g . I I ] . 2 2 Through t h i s v i s u a l connection the ancestry of Nicholas V s a u t h o r i t y i s thus presented as having a p o s t o l i c r o o t s w i t h St. Peter and the other a p o s t l e s who are i n the O r d i n a t i o n of St. Stephen scene. In p r e s e n t i n g the o r d i n a t i o n scenes as pendants, the frescoes u t i l i z e p i c t o r i a l i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y as a method of encouraging the viewer t o assent t o the h i s t o r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the papacy's r i g h t t o power. 2 3 I t i s important t o note t h a t i t i s not immediately obvious t h a t the two o r d i n a t i o n scenes are pendants (the s c a l e of the mural space i s d i f f e r e n t , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space has a d i f f e r e n t emphasis, e t c . ) . This s u b t l t y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r h e t o r i c a l nature of the p a i r i n g , because the viewer 'comes upon' or 'discovers' the i n t e r t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a ' n a t u r a l ' way. The ' t r u t h ' of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s St. Stephen was never i n Rome. His o r d i n a t i o n i n t o the deaconate took p l a c e i n Jerusalem. 2 2 Besides h i s coinage and these f r e s c o e s , N i c h o l a s V s l i k e n e s s can be found i n h i s tomb e f f i g y , as w e l l as i n a small s t a t u e on the Vagnucci r e l i q u a r y i n Cortona. 2 3 For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n see Wendy S t e i n e r , " I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i n P a i n t i n g , " American J o u r n a l of Semiotics 3, no. 4 (1985): 57-67. 54 t h e r e f o r e p e r c e i v e d as being p a r t of the o b j e c t i v e world of the v i e w e r . 2 4 C e n t r a l i s the concept of h i e r a r c h y . Any h i e r a r c h y r e q u i r e s something t o occupy each p o s i t i o n i n c l u d i n g the top, and thus the no t i o n of h i e r a r c h y f o r t i f i e s the concept of papal and P e t r i n e p r i m a c y . 2 5 The i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t i n g s of Dionysus the pseudo-Areopagite were c r u c i a l documents j u s t i f y i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c h i e r a r c h y . 2 6 Dionysus's w r i t i n g s proposed t h a t there was a h i e r a r c h y i n heaven and t h a t an anagogical h i e r a r c h y should e x i s t on ea r t h as a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i v i n e o r d e r . 2 7 The Church, of a l l e a r t h l y Norman Bryson, Word and Image: French P a i n t i n g of  the ancien Regime (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981) , 12 w r i t e s t h a t , " P e r s p e c t i v e , besides being a technique f o r re c o r d i n g a c e r t a i n o p t i c a l phenomenon, i s a l s o a technique f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a p a t t e r n which at once arouses our w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e l i e v e . " and on p. 15, w r i t e s : "Because the 'sub t l e ' meanings are hard t o p r i s e out, they are valued over those meanings which, as i t were, f a l l i n t o the hand of t h e i r own accord; and because the meanings are discovered i n a n e u t r a l t e r r i t o r y , amidst the innocent, perspective-based s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , they seem immaculate." 2 5 Humanist t e x t s l i k e Juan de Torquemada's Summa de  E c c l e s i a . which was dedicated t o Nich o l a s V and was supported by extensive p a t r i s t i c and s c h o l a s t i c c i t a t i o n s , s t r o n g l y sanctioned papal primacy w i t h i n the Church's h i e r a r c h y . See S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 164. S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 164. For an e x c e l l e n t account of Dionysus' concepts see Georges Duby, The Age of the Cathedrals: A r t and S o c i e t y 980-1420, t r a n s l a t e d by E. Levieux and B. Thompson (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1981). See e s p e c i a l l y the chapter e n t i t l e d "God i s L i g h t " , 97-135. 2 7 See O'Malley, P r a i s e and Blame i n Renaissance Rome, 10, where he notes a l s o t h a t : "The papal court was a r e f l e c t i o n of the heavenly c o u r t , and the papal l i t u r g i e s were a r e f l e c t i o n and image of the heavenly l i t u r g i e s . " 55 i n s t i t u t i o n s , should most c l o s e l y m i r r o r the heavenly h i e r a r c h y . 2 8 The c e l e s t i a l and e a r t h l y h i e r a t i c concordance e s t a b l i s h e d a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l support f o r the concept of the pope as vicarus Christi, and j u s t i f i e d h i s primacy w i t h i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l context. In the scene of St. Stephen's o r d i n a t i o n , St. Peter • TO alone performs the mass w h i l e the others look o n . " The image d i f f e r e n t i a t e s St. Peter and i m p l i e s he has the a u t h o r i t y t o confer the o f f i c e on St. Stephen w h i l e the others do not, thus e s t a b l i s h i n g the sense of St. Peter's primacy among the a p o s t l e s . S i m i l a r l y , the scene of St. Lawrence's o r d i n a t i o n presents the contemporary p o n t i f f as being a t the head of a h i e r a t i c s c a l e , a l b e i t a more f i n e l y a r t i c u l a t e d one. Behind S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V and St. Lawrence i s a s e m i - c i r c l e of e i g h t e c c l e s i a s t s who h o l d l i t u r g i c a l o b j e c t s and who are h i e r a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another by t h e i r dress. The vestments and t i a r a of S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V, as w e l l as the f a c t he i s seated, c l e a r l y d e f i n e him as the highest ranking person of the These ideas are considered by John McManamon, who d i s c u s s e s o r a t i o n s of the papal court which p o r t r a y the pope as the necessary head of the m y s t i c a l body of the Church, which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the medieval 'mirror of p r i n c e s ' theory. See John M. McManamon, "The I d e a l Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court," Archivum H i s t o r i a e  P o n t i f i c i a e 14 (1979): 38-42. 2 9 The B i b l i c a l account of t h i s event has a l l the a p o s t l e s c o n f e r r i n g the deaconate by the l a y i n g on of hands. Some e a r l i e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d e p i c t the l a y i n g on of hands, but St. Peter i s u s u a l l y i n a prominent p o s i t i o n . 56 group and emphasizes h i s r e g a l i t y . u The other e c c l e s i a s t s seem t o be arranged so t h a t the t r i o behind the pope (at the l e f t ) are of a hig h order, owing t o t h e i r l u x u r i a n t copes. The p a i r of f i g u r e s i n the blue gowns seem t o be of the next lowest rank of Churchmen, and the three at the r i g h t , w i t h t h e i r p l a i n , p l e a t e d gowns, appear t o occupy the lowest end of the s c a l e . 3 1 These scenes a l s o emphasize the h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of the sacraments. 3 2 The d e p i c t i o n of St. Stephen r e c e i v i n g the c h a l i c e from St. Peter, i n c o n t r a s t t o the B i b l i c a l account where the l a y i n g on of hands conferred the deaconate, r e v e a l s an i n t e n t i o n a l emphasis on contemporary sacramental S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V s headdress i s l i t u r g i c a l l y i n c o r r e c t . C o l i n E i s l e r e x p l a i n s a s i m i l a r i d i o s y n c r a c y i n a p o r t r a i t s t atue of Nich o l a s V on the Vagnucci r e l i q u a r y : The pope i s shown wearing a t i a r a r a t h e r than a m i t r e . This i s not the c o r r e c t a t t i r e s i n c e , i n c e l e b r a t i n g the mass, the pope should wear the vestments proper t o a bishop, the t i a r a not being a l i t u r g i c a l headdress but a symbol of h i s supreme o f f i c e and j u r i s d i c t i o n . C o l i n E i s l e r , "The Golden C h r i s t of Cortona and the Man of Sorrows i n I t a l y , " A r t B u l l e t i n 51, no. 2 (June, 1969): 110. 3 1 For a b r i e f account of the types of vestments worn i n the O r d i n a t i o n of St. Lawrence scene see C y r i l E. Pocknee, L i t u r g i c a l Vesture (London: Mowbray & Co., 1960), 44-45, P l a t e X. 3 2 N i c h o l a s V adhered s t r i c t l y t o orthodox conceptions of the sacraments. See S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 150. On p. 47 S t i n g e r w r i t e s t h a t N i c h o l a s V had a new v e r s i o n of the L i b e r caeremoniarum made, and " t h i s handbook t o the l i t u r g i e s and ceremonies of the papal court preserved s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n a l t e r e d the p r a c t i c e s of the 13th and 14th c e n t u r i e s , and thus was c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n purpose." 57 p r a c t i c e . In the scene of St. Lawrence's o r d i n a t i o n , the unprecedented d i s p l a y of l i t u r g i c a l implements lends even more contemporaneity t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the mass. Here too, the sacraments are understood as being contemporary m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the p r a c t i c e s of the e a r l y a p o s t o l i c Church. The i l l u s i o n i s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g s of the o r d i n a t i o n scenes p l a y dual r h e t o r i c a l r o l e s . On the one hand, the use of contemporary s t y l e s and types of a r c h i t e c t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g the 'Roman' c i t y s c a p e i n the scene of St. Stephen d i s t r i b u t i n g alms) provides p a r t i c u l a r i t y f o r the scenes and v e r i f y t h e i r r e a l i t y f o r the v i e w e r s . 3 3 On the other hand, t h e i r c o nvincing p e r s p e c t i v e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y symmetrical and deep i n the St. Lawrence scene) work to engage the viewer by p r e s e n t i n g the p i c t o r i a l space as an extension of the viewers r e a l s p a c e . 3 4 The scene of St. Lawrence's o r d i n a t i o n , centered on one of the chapel w a l l s , roughly square i n shape, and fl a n k e d by the chapel's two windows, i s the most ' i c o n i c ' and l e a s t n a r r a t i v e of the chapel scenes (though the scene of St. Lawrence d i s t r i b u t i n g alms i s s i m i l a r l y s t a t i c and symmetrical). The viewer i s 3 3 See Winter, "Royal R h e t o r i c and the Development of H i s t o r i c a l N a r r a t i v e i n Neo-Assyrian R e l i e f s , " 2, where she w r i t e s " . . . t o p o g r a p h i c a l features and s i g n a t u r e elements of dress, headgear, or a s s o c i a t e d goods - [are] c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d t o provide the ' p a r t i c u l a r i t y ' of the p l a c e and moment." The vesture and l i t u r g i c a l implements mentioned above a l s o p l a y t h i s r o l e . 3 4 Norman Bryson, V i s i o n and P a i n t i n g . The Looric of  the Gaze, 106. 58 compelled t o take up a centered p o s i t i o n before i t . The gaze i s f i x e d a t t h i s moment of c e n t e r i n g , where the space and gaze of the viewer c o i n c i d e s w i t h the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p i c t u r e . This moment of perceptual alignment anchors the viewer's a t t e n t i o n s , and o r c h e s t r a t e s h i s or her viewing i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from the way the n a r r a t i v e scenes manipulate the p a t t e r n of l o o k i n g . The formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the o r d i n a t i o n of St. Lawrence f r e s c o focusses the a t t e n t i o n on the f i g u r e s of St. S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V and St. Lawrence. But t h i s f i x i n g of the gaze i s s t i l l only momentary; the l u r e of the n a r r a t i v e encourages the viewer t o disengage from the image which c a p t i v a t e s the a t t e n t i o n and continue t o view the c y c l e ' s other scenes. St. Lawrence kneels before the seated f i g u r e of S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V. The ceremony of o r d i n a t i o n i n c l u d e s a mass and S t. Lawrence r a i s e s both h i s hands t o r e c e i v e the c h a l i c e . While t h i s i s going on they look i n t o each others' eyes. I t would be tempting t o a t t a c h the term devotus t o t h i s s c e n e , 3 5 but t h i s would be guesswork. A comparison t o a contemporaneous work by Fra Ange l i c o - h i s Annunciation f r e s c o i n the Museo San Marco [ f i g . 12] - does, however, help j u s t i f y the use of the term 'humiliatio' or •submission', which was one of the 'Five Laudable Conditions of the Blessed V i r g i n ' . 3 6 In each of the two p a i n t i n g s a 3 5 See pages 35-36. 3 6 Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h Century I t a l y , 51 59 f i g u r e kneels i n f r o n t of another f i g u r e , and i n each the two f i g u r e s look i n t o each others' eyes. Baxandall has c o n v i n c i n g l y argued t h a t the emotion Mary's pose and gesture was meant t o represent and e l i c i t was one of submission. St. Lawrence's submission, a p p r o p r i a t e l y , i s t o the pope, the a u t h o r i t y of the Roman Church. In h i s acceptance of the c h a l i c e and thus h i s acceptance of h i s pla c e i n the hi e r a r c h y of the Church, St. Lawrence a l s o sanctions the a u t h o r i t y of the p o n t i f f . Thus, the e l i c i t i n g of the emotional a t t i t u d e of submission f i t s w e l l w i t h the subject of the fr e s c o e s . I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , t h i s time w i t h a common type of r e l i g i o u s image, i s thereby used t o giv e meaning and r h e t o r i c a l s t r e n g t h t o the s c e n e . 3 8 In the o r d i n a t i o n scene the gaze by which the two f i g u r e s h o l d one another i s i n d i c a t i v e , as i t i s i n Fra Ange l i c o ' s Annunciation scene, of s i g n i f i c a n t s p i r i t u a l communication - a s o r t of sacra conversazione. The t e n s i o n created by the solemn gazes of the f i g u r e s i s augmented by the m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n e d gazes of the others t h a t surround Baxandall, Paintincr and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y , 51-56. See a l s o W i l l i a m Hood, "S a i n t Dominic's Manners of Praying: Gestures i n Fra Angelico's C e l l Frescoes at S. Marco," 198-199, where he notes t h a t St. Dominic's De modo orandi " r e s t s on the c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d n o t i o n t h a t s p e c i f i c s t a t e s of m y s t i c a l consciousness can be st i m u l a t e d by d e l i b e r a t e l y assuming b o d i l y postures." 3 8 As Baxandall w r i t e s : "...the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y experience of a p a i n t i n g was not the p a i n t i n g we see now so much as a marriage between the p a i n t i n g and the beholder's previous v i s u a l i z i n g a c t i v i t y on the same matter." Baxan d a l l , Paintincr and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h Century  I t a l y . 45. 60 them. I n c o n t r a s t , the i n t e n t , r e c i p r o c a l gazes of the two haloed s a i n t s seems a l l the more profound. The scene of St. S i x t u s g i v i n g S t. Lawrence the tr e a s u r e s of the Church i s s i m i l a r l y dramatic [ f i g . 13]. As the s o l d i e r s knock on the door, the sense of urgency i s suggested by the f u r t i v e glance of the f i g u r e c a r r y i n g the jumbled stack of metalware. Even the two p u t t i over the doorway a c t as empathetic s i g n i f i e r s s i n c e they r e g i s t e r t h e i r concern as they look at the two groups of f i g u r e s . As St. Lawrence g e n u f l e c t s before the standing f i g u r e of S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V, the two look at each other, and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t communication i s made more obvious by the a c t i v i t y of the busy, d i s t r a c t e d f i g u r e s behind them. 3 9 Despite t h i s , the emotion of h u m i l i a t i o (submission) i s not the only, or even the most predominant, a f f e c t i o n promoted i n t h i s scene. Again, a category of annunciation scene helps t o i d e n t i f y one of the emotive f u n c t i o n s . Behind and t o the l e f t of S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V, a tonsured f i g u r e i n a r u s t - c o l o u r e d robe tu r n s h i s head t o look behind him, k n i t s h i s brow and, w h i l e p o i n t i n g w i t h one hand, he s l i g h t l y r a i s e s and opens h i s other. This f i g u r e i s r e a c t i n g t o the Roman s o l d i e r s who are banging on the door and who have come t o take S i x t u s I I t o h i s martyrdom. 3 9 S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V b l e s s e s S t. Lawrence w i t h a gesture which i s e x a c t l y l i k e the b l e s s i n g gesture used by C h r i s t i n the small l u n e t t e above the door the Roman s o l d i e r s are knocking on. This c l e a r l y presents the pope as being the i n h e r i t o r of C h r i s t ' s a u t h o r i t y , the vicarus C h r i s t i , as w e l l as a typus C h r i s t i . 61 Another of the 'Five Laudable Conditions of the Blessed V i r g i n ' was conturbatio or ' d i s q u i e t ' . 4 0 Another contemporaneous scene of the annunciation, t h i s time by F i l i p p o L i p p i , serves t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a t t i t u d e [ f i g . 14]. The c h i a s t i c pose and the s l i g h t l y r a i s e d and open hand i n d i c a t e s t h a t the V i r g i n i s d i s t u r b e d . 4 1 The s i m i l a r pose and gesture of the f i g u r e i n the scene of the g i v i n g of the t r e a s u r e s of the Church suggests t h a t he too s i g n i f i e s and expresses conturbatio. Obviously, t h i s s t a t e of being i s q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s i d e r i n g what i s happening. In each of the two scenes j u s t discussed the p o s t u r a l and g e s t u r a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of mental c o n d i t i o n s c o d i f i e d i n the genre of annunciation scenes has been u t i l i z e d t o heighten the drama of the scenes i n N i c h o l a s V s chapel. Fra A n g e l i c o ' s experience w i t h t h i s genre aided i n the expression of the themes and messages of the f r e s c o e s . Other ' i n t e r t e x t u a l • f i g u r e s which could be found i n other types of conventional d e v o t i o n a l images are present i n the chapel f r e s c o e s . For example, i n the scene of St. Stephen d i s t r i b u t i n g alms, a man i n a green cape places h i s hands i n an a t t i t u d e of prayer [ f i g . 10], reminiscent of numerous such devotion f i g u r e s i n other types of p a i n t i n g s . In the scene of St. Stephen preaching, two women r a i s e t h e i r 4 0 Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y , 51. 4 1 As conturbatio suggests, being r e l a t e d t o turbare (to d i s t u r b ) or L. turbatio (disturbance, d i s o r d e r ) from whence our ' t u r b i d ' and 'perturb'. 62 hands i n gestures s i g n i f y i n g worship or devotion [ f i g . 15]. In the scene of St. Lawrence d i s t r i b u t i n g alms a f i g u r e on the r i g h t r a i s e s h i s hands i n an a t t i t u d e of prayer, w h i l e on the l e f t s i d e of the scene a mother holds a c h i l d i n a manner s t r o n g l y reminiscent of a Madonna and C h i l d grouping, thus echoing a well-known d e v o t i o n a l motif [ f i g . 16]. Other gestures and poses p l a y r o l e s i n c o n t r a s t i n g the s t a t e s of i n d i v i d u a l s or f u r t h e r i n g the n a r r a t i v e . St. Stephen's p r a y i n g gesture and pose during h i s martyrdom i s s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the v i o l e n t gestures of h i s executioners [ f i g . 17]. S i m i l a r l y , i n the scene of h i s e x p u l s i o n , h i s g r a c e f u l movement i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the v i o l e n t movement of those who push h i m . 4 2 The d i s p u t a t i o n scene, w i t h i t s quick sequence of gestures which a c c e l e r a t e the n a r r a t i v e , imparts the heat of the debate and heightens the drama of the a l t e r c a t i o n [ f i g . 1 5 ] . The r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y of gestures and poses i n the c y c l e suggests a d e s i r e f o r r h e t o r i c a l r i c h n e s s . The r h e t o r i c a l s t r e n g t h of the use of i n t e r t e x t u a l references l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the conventional poses and gestures communicate dramatic moments c l e a r l y , but are v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r being used i n somewhat novel s i t u a t i o n s . Conventions are e x p l o i t e d f o r c l a r i t y , but are made v i b r a n t by t h e i r new contexts. R h e t o r i c a l s o worked w i t h i n 4 2 Pose and gesture was evidence of the moral q u a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . See Jean-Claude Schmitt, "The E t h i c s of Gesture," i n Fragments f o r a H i s t o r y of the Human Body, Par t I I (New York: Zone Press, 1989), 130. conventions, but good r h e t o r i t i c i a n s used them i n i n n o v a t i v e ways. The V i r t u e of C h a r i t y The two almsgiving scenes [ f i g s . 10 & 16] promote the no t i o n of the c h a r i t a b l e nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Church which, e s p e c i a l l y i n the St. Lawrence scene, s t r o n g l y l i n k s t h a t c h a r i t y w i t h the p o n t i f f . The v i r t u e should be understood as love f o r humankind (the g r e a t e s t of a l l C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s 4 3 ) of which g e n e r o s i t y i s only one e x p r e s s i o n . 4 4 In both the scenes of almsgiving the Church i s i m p l i e d as being the source of the c h a r i t y w h i l e the two s a i n t s are merely the a c t i v e arms of a benevolent i n s t i t u t i o n . I t was St. Stephen's duty t o d i s t r i b u t e alms t o widows. 4 5 St. Lawrence, a l s o a deacon, had a s i m i l a r duty. The i n c l u s i o n of the B i b l i c a l scene of St. Stephen g i v i n g 4 J I C o r i n t h i a n s 13. 4 4 One of Nicholas V s biographers, Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , mentions t h a t Nicholas V o f t e n c a r r i e d a bag of coins about w i t h him from which he would d i s t r i b u t e papal l a r g e s s e . This was a c t u a l l y an ancient topos f o r d e s c r i b i n g the generous person. See Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , Renaissance  P r i n c e s , Popes and P r e l a t e s , t r a n s l a t e d W. George and E. Waters (New York & London, 1963), 51. See a l s o Pastor, The  H i s t o r y of the Popes, v o l . 2, 2 00. 4 5 Indeed, i t was the reason the deaconate was invented. See Acts 6:1-5. The widows were, i n f a c t , t o be served food. For a b r i e f account of St. Stephen see the 'Stephen' entry i n Ronald Brownrigg»s Who's Who i n the New  Testament (New York: H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston, 1971), 423-4. 64 alms i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t c h a r i t y , i n the form of al m s g i v i n g , was an a c t i v i t y of the e a r l y , a p o s t o l i c Church. The scene of St. Lawrence d i s t r i b u t i n g alms a l s o p l a y s s t r o n g l y on the n o t i o n t h a t the Church i s the source of c h a r i t a b l e benevolence s i n c e , l i k e St. Stephen, St. Lawrence d i s t r i b u t e s the alms from the p o r t a l of a church. However, the scene i s more s p e c i f i c s i n c e the a d j o i n i n g scene shows S i x t u s I I (again w i t h the visage of N i c h o l a s V and wearing a Renaissance t i a r a and f u l l p o n t i f i c a l s ) g i v i n g St. Lawrence the Church t r e a s u r e s t o be given t o the poor [ f i g . 16], The source of the l a r g e s s e i s thus S i x t u s I I / N i c h o l a s V; the pope and the head of the h i e r a r c h y of the Church, and i t i s h i s g e n e r o s i t y and love f o r humanity which these a c t i o n s express. N i c h o l a s V may have wanted the v i r t u e s of l i b e r a l i t y and c h a r i t y t o accrue t o h i m s e l f f o r a number of reasons. D i s p l a y s of Church g e n e r o s i t y may have p a r t i a l l y been a s t r a t e g y t o a t t r a c t the donations of the pious. The s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a l i t y of the pope i n making 1450 an Anno Santo, and generating the plenary indulgences t h a t go along w i t h such a year, was c e r t a i n l y rewarded by the v a s t amounts of money t h a t the p i l g r i m s donated to the C h u r c h . 4 6 4 6 John B. Toews, "Formative Forces i n the P o n t i f i c a t e of N i c h o l a s V 1447-1455," 279. Not a l l the money was through donation. As Toews notes on page 281: " A n t i c i p a t i n g a mass consumption of food during the j u b i l e e , the c u r i a r a i s e d the food t a x . " This c a l l s t o mind St. Bernard's doubts about the f u n c t i o n of opulent v i s u a l a r t . Quoting St.Bernard, Umberto Eco w r i t e s : "Can i t be, he [St.Bernard] goes on t o ask, t h a t these r i c h e s are meant t o draw r i c h e s a f t e r them, to 65 A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Church as a source of c h a r i t y may a l s o have had a p r a c t i c a l , popular message. Giuseppe B r i p p i , a poet i n Nicholas V s co u r t , urged the p o n t i f f t o support the poor, "because the love of the c i t i z e n s i s the best defense of a r u l e r . " 4 7 N i c h o l a s V was h i m s e l f perhaps t r y i n g t o embody the g e n e r o s i t y of the scenes of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence by founding the papal almshouse near the German Campo Santo, a p u b l i c gesture which might have served t o d e f l e c t any popular d i s c o n t e n t w i t h N i c h o l a s V s presence i n Rome. The d e s i r e t o equate the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y w i t h the papacy was so great t h a t N i c h o l a s V promoted h i m s e l f as "an exemplum of c h a r i t y . " 4 9 W e s t f a l l claims t h a t N i c h o l a s V saw the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y as n e c e s s a r i l y a c t i v e r a t h e r than s t i m u l a t e f i n a n c i a l donations t o the Church?" Umberto Eco, A r t and Beauty i n the Middle Acres, 7. 4 7 B r i p p i ' s e x h o r t a t i o n echoes e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s on the nature of the p e r f e c t p r i n c e , but c e r t a i n l y the advice was p e r t i n e n t t o a pope whose predecessor, Eugenius IV, had been d r i v e n from Rome by a r e b e l l i o u s populous. See Pastor, H i s t o r y of the Popes, 235. 4 8 Pastor, H i s t o r y of the Popes, 20. Nic h o l a s V was a great patron of the Germans i n Rome who composed the l a r g e s t f o r e i g n community i n the c i t y , and one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l . See the in f o r m a t i v e volume by C l i f f o r d W. Maas, The German Community i n Renaissance Rome 1378-1523, e d i t e d by Peter Herde (Freib u r g : Romische Q u a r t a l s c h r i f t f u r C h r i s t l i c h e Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte. Supplement t o volume 39, 1981). 4 9 Westfall, In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 162. W e s t f a l l w r i t e s of Nicho l a s V s throne i n St. P e t e r ' s : "From t h i s d i g n i f i e d seat at the head of the Church the pope was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the a f f a i r s of the world. He was an exemplum of c h a r i t y . " I t i s perhaps understandable t h a t the head of the h i e r a r c h y of the Church should most embody the most important of the v i r t u e s . 66 contemplative. u C i t i n g works l i k e Torquemada's P o e n i t e n t i a , W e s t f a l l argues t h a t the v i r t u e of papal c h a r i t y was a potent weapon i n the b a t t l e against s i n , s p e c i f i c a l l y the s i n of s u p e r b i a . 5 1 "Superbia caused the e x p u l s i o n from the garden c h a r i t y made i t p o s s i b l e f o r mankind t o r e t u r n t o p a r a d i s e . " 5 2 As the primary exemplum of c h a r i t y f o r C h r i s t i a n s , N i c h o l a s V s a c t i v e , p r i e s t l y r o l e d e f i n e s him as being not only a vicarus C h r i s t i but a typus C h r i s t i as w e l l , and the e x e r c i s i n g of h i s v i r t u e leads t o the o r d e r i n g and s a l v a t i o n of s o c i e t y . 5 3 I f order i s the r e s u l t of N i c h o l a s V s v i t a l v i r t u e of c h a r i t y , even the s t a b l e , symmetrical o r d e r i n g of the church 'nave' i n the scene of St. Lawrence g i v i n g alms can be seen t o be an outcome of i t . 5 4 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 162. In t h i s r e s p e c t , though, Nic h o l a s V was not u n l i k e other humanists who promoted the a c t i v e , r a t h e r than the contemplative C h r i s t i a n l i f e . See Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s  Carafa Chapel, 51. N a t u r a l l y , they were p r a i s i n g t h e i r own e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d of theology. 5 1 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 160. 5 2 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 160. 5 3 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 164. In W e s t f a l l ' s words, "Only through the e x e r c i s e of h i s virtu i n the world can the pope b r i n g order t o the Church." W e s t f a l l a l s o notes the p a r a l l e l between c h i v a l r i c notions of the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y and i t s a c t i v e r o l e i n governance, and g i ves the example of N i c h o l a s V s d i p l o m a t i c v i c t o r y i n the formation of the Lecra I t a l i c a . D e s c r i b i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n s of the accord, W e s t f a l l w r i t e s t h a t "The e n t i r e a f f a i r was a d i s p l a y of c h i v a l r y . Knights w i t h t h e i r l o v e s e t on God were conquering l u s t s ; order was being e s t a b l i s h e d ; c h a r i t y was vanquishing superbia." W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t  P aradise, 159. 67 The scenes i n N i c h o l a s V s chapel are a r c h i t e c t u a l l y ordered t o a degree uncommon f o r the time. V i r t u a l l y every scene i s dominated by a r c h i t e c t u r e , e i t h e r i n t e r i o r s or facades. The only scene w i t h any a p p r e c i a b l e amount of landscape, St. Stephen's e x p u l s i o n and martyrdom, i s b i s e c t e d by a long, sweeping s e c t i o n of c i t y w a l l which i s a v i r t u o s o d i s p l a y of Fra Angelico's s k i l l i n rendering c o n v i n c i n g , dramatic p e r s p e c t i v e . These d i s p l a y s of Fra A n g e l i c o ' s s k i l l i n handling p e r s p e c t i v a l problems are so v a r i e d t h a t the c y c l e , at times, seems l i k e a s e r i e s of lessons on p e r s p e c t i v e . The views i n c l u d e cramped i n t e r i o r s ( d i s p u t a t i o n scene), b a s i l i c a - l i k e i n t e r i o r s (both d i r e c t and s i d e l o n g ) , c i v i c views, o b l i q u e views (preaching scene), and the c i t y w a l l mentioned above. The types of a r c h i t e c t u r e a l s o vary from e c c l e s i a s t i c t o c i v i c and 'antique' t y p e s . 5 5 This i d e a l of the r u l e r who b r i n g s order was a convention. Aquinas had a l s o d e a l t w i t h i t . "For Thomas [Aquinas] the world was nothing i f not ordered. The mark of wisdom, d i v i n e or human, was t o be able t o produce order; i t was thus the g i f t most needed by the r u l e r . These ideas had c l a s s i c a l and p a t r i s t i c e q u i v a l e n t s and were e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a humanistic world view. They were congenial t o a court where order and harmony were p o s t u l a t e d as d e s i r a b l e and r e a l i z a b l e g o a l s . " Quoted from O'Malley, "The Feast of Thomas Aquinas i n Renaissance Rome. A Neglected Document and i t s Import," 23. 5 5 In the scene of St. Stephen preaching, the •palazzo' i n the background, w i t h i t s t h r e e - s t o r e y , b l o c k l i k e appearance, i s reminiscent of the Palazzo M e d i c i , and Krautheimer has suggested t h a t the 'modernity' of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements i n the o r d i n a t i o n of St. Stephen scene r e f l e c t s A l b e r t i ' s i n f l u e n c e s . A number of s c h o l a r s have discussed Fra A n g e l i c o ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l spaces and attempted t o r e l a t e them to a r c h i t e c t u r a l production of the time. See Krautheimer, "Fra A n g e l i c o and - perhaps - A l b e r t i , " 290-296. 68 These d i s p l a y s of ingenium i n the s o l v i n g of complex p e r s p e c t i v a l problems, and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a r i e d s t y l e s and types of a r c h i t e c t u r e , could a l s o have been admired by viewers. On a very p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , the emphasis on p e r s p e c t i v a l depth enhances the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the frescoes because the chapel i t s e l f i s so s m a l l . By covering the w a l l s w i t h images which have deep, emphatic p e r s p e c t i v e s , the t i n y chapel's space i s i l l u s i o n i s t i c a l l y enlarged and thereby made more v i s u a l l y s p e c t a c u l a r . Thus, along w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l engagement of the viewer and the p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g of ' h i s t o r i c ' space, the i l l u s i o n i s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e a l s o responds t o the very p r a c i t i c a l aspect of o r g a n i z i n g 'stages' on the mural surfaces of a room w i t h l i m i t e d spaces. The predominence of o b l i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the Stephen c y c l e , which occupies the l u n e t t e s high on the w a l l , address t h e i r spaces t o a viewer near the centre of the c h a p e l . 5 6 The f a c t t h a t the s a i n t s stand at the p o r t a l s of church s t r u c t u r e s i n each of the almsgiving scenes i s a l s o important because Nic h o l a s V seemed conscious of the manifold s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of a r c h i t e c t u r e , both as impressive v i s u a l s t i m u l i and how the patronage of a r c h i t e c t u r e d e f i n e d 3 6 K r i s t e v a notes t h a t i n G i o t t o ' s frescoes i n Padua: " . . . G i o t t o avoids f r o n t a l s e t t i n g s as w e l l as v a n i s h i n g p o i n t s : c o n f l i c t i n g o blique l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the c e n t r a l viewpoint i s not i n any f r e s c o , but r a t h e r i n the space of the b u i l d i n g where the p a i n t e r or viewer i s standing." K r i s t e v a , " G i o t t o ' s Joy," 43. 69 him as a magnificent patron. ' For N i c h o l a s V, a r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s o r d e r i n g nature seems t o have been r e l a t e d t o c h a r i t y . Of the papal palace and St. Peter's b a s i l i c a W e s t f a l l w r i t e s t h a t these a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g s "would provide f i g u r e s which revealed t h a t the d o c t r i n e of c h a r i t y d i r e c t e d the governor of the C h u r c h." 5 8 A r c h i t e c t u r e was the v i s i b l e expression of the c h a r i t a b l e order N i c h o l a s V r u l e d over, and was a l s o a l o n g - l a s t i n g messenger of d o c t r i n e t o the masses who saw i t . I t i s worthwhile t o r e c a l l the 'death-bed o r a t i o n ' w i t h which N i c h o l a s V addressed the c a r d i n a l s . We want your graces t o know and t o under-stand t h a t there were two main reasons f o r our b u i l d i n g s . . . . the throngs of a l l other [unlearned] p e o p l e s . . . t h e i r assent, supported as i t i s on a weak foundation, g r a d u a l l y c o l l a p s e s i n the course of time, u n t i l i t f a l l s back t o nothing, unless they are moved by c e r t a i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i g h t s . But when t h a t v u l g a r b e l i e f founded on d o c t r i n e s of learned men i s c o n t i n u a l l y confirmed and d a i l y corroborated by great b u i l d i n g s , which are perpetual monuments and e t e r n a l t e s t i m o n i e s seemingly made by God, i t i s f o r e v e r conveyed t o those, both present and f u t u r e , who behold such admirable c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 9 5 ' Although, f o r the most p a r t , N i c h o l a s V f o l l o w e d the c o n s e r v a t i v e l i n e on a r c h i t e c t u r a l patronage recommended by Giovanni Dominici, t o renovate o l d churches r a t h e r than b u i l d new ones. See J e n k i n s , "Cosimo de' M e d i c i ' s Patronage of A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Theory of Magnificence," 162. 5 8 W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 164. W e s t f a l l , In t h i s Most P e r f e c t Paradise, 33. 70 In t h i s t e x t , N i c h o l a s V s concern f o r the continued f a i t h of the masses i s i n d i c a t i v e of h i s c h a r i t y . But i t a l s o r e v e a l s h i s view t h a t the power of the v i s u a l should be used t o i n d o c t r i n a t e the masses. A r c h i t e c t u r e , a medium of high r h e t o r i c a l content, was o b v i o u s l y seen as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n i n f l u e n c i n g people. The presence of the b a s i l i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the scenes of almsgiving may be seen as a p i c t o r i a l r e i t e r a t i o n of the d o c t r i n a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n of church s t r u c t u r e s . They too represent the c h a r i t a b l e order created and p r e s i d e d over by N i c h o l a s V. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , as patron of a r c h i t e c t u r e , N i c h o l a s V was compared t o the B i b l i c a l exempla, Solomon, by h i s humanist biographer M a n e t t i . Solomon, as the b u i l d e r of the Temple, served as the prototype f o r the p o r t r a i t of N i c h o l a s V as b u i l d e r . Manetti wrote t h a t , N i c h o l a s magnanimously and courageously i m i t a t e d Solomon, King of Jerusalem, the w i s e s t man of a l l men who have e x i s t e d or w i l l a t any time, i n s p i r e d not only by the o r a c l e of A p o l l o as i t i s w r i t t e n of Socrates, but by the w i l l of the omnipotent God. 6 0 The a s s o c i a t i o n of these conceptions w i t h the frescoes r e q u i r e d an understanding of these s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of a r c h i t e c t u r e , and i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o argue t h a t f i f t e e n t h century viewers, even learned ones, would have made these kinds of connections. The v i s u a l medium presents 6 0 This t e x t i s from a t r a n s l a t i o n generously s u p p l i e d t o me by Dr. Deborah Pincus. 71 conceptions of order - i n t h i s case through the a r c h i t e c t u a l l y ordered spaces of the chapel frescoes - which the viewer would have apprehended but not n e c e s s a r i l y comprehended. At t h i s l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a t i o n , one i s reminded of the constant r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n medieval and Renaissance C h r i s t i a n a r t , of paradise as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y ordered space, and h e l l as ' a r c h i t e c t u r e l e s s ' . 6 1 The V i r t u e of Martyrdom The f a c t t h a t S i x t u s I I , St. Stephen, and St. Lawrence were a l l martyrs, compels a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the theme of martyrdom. 6 2 St. Stephen was the f i r s t martyr or protomartyr and St. Lawrence was one of the e a r l y Roman martyrs. St. Stephen's p o s i t i o n as protomartyr was n a t u r a l l y one of great importance and, s i m i l a r l y , St. Lawrence was considered Rome's most important p o s t - a p o s t o l i c m a r t y r . 6 3 The two 6 1 K r i s t e v a makes the i n t e r e s t i n g o bservation (speaking of G i o t t o ' s Last Judgement i n the Arena Chapel) t h a t : "The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of H e l l would be the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e d i s s o l u t i o n as w e l l as the c o l l a p s e or a r c h i t e c t u r e and the disappearance of c o l o u r . " K r i s t e v a , " G i o t t o ' s Joy," 31. K r i s t e v a ' s i n f e r e n c e t h a t n a r r a t i v e i s l i n k e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r e i s r e l e v a n t t o the frescoes i n N i c h o l a s V's chapel as w e l l . 6 2 St. Stephen and St. Lawrence were considered 'brother martyrs' because t h e i r r e l i c s l a y together i n the church of San Lorenzo fuori la mura. St. Stephen had been martyred i n Jerusalem but h i s r e l i c s had been brought t o Rome from Constantinople sometime i n the s i x t h century. As the legend goes, when St. Stephen's body was brought t o San Lorenzo, St. Lawrence was found t o have moved over t o make room f o r h i s f e l l o w deacon martyr. 72 s a i n t s c o u l d t h e r e f o r e , because of t h e i r prominence, be s a i d t o exemplify the v i r t u e of martyrdom. I t has already been demonstrated how the o r d i n a t i o n frescoes l i n k e d the contemporary papacy w i t h St. Peter, Rome's most prominent martyr. The moving of the Holy See from the Lateran a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a t o p o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d o m i c i l e of the pope, the cathedra, and the r e l i c s of the martyred St. Peter. Topographical i s s u e s , as they r e l a t e d t o the ho l y s i t e s where the r e l i c s of the martyrs l a y (and, sometimes, where c e r t a i n events took p l a c e , l i k e the martyrdom of St. Peter f o r example 6 4 ) , were a l s o d e a l t w i t h by h u m a n i s t s . 6 5 The purpose of emphasizing these geographical s i t e s was p r i m a r i l y f o r the p i l g r i m s , who could g a i n more immediate contact w i t h the martyrs through v i s i t i n g these s i t e s , s i n c e the s i t e provided a t a n g i b l e , p h y s i c a l , and h i s t o r i c l i n k t o the deeds of the martyrs. A pl a c e was an i d e a l k i n d of l i n k w i t h the past because, u n l i k e people and events which had passed away and had t o be reproduced i n t e x t s and images, places were e t e r n a l . 6 6 For the p i l g r i m s , the c i t y of Rome became "a 6 3 The i n v e n t i o n of the s a i n t took p l a c e i n 1447, the same year the frescoes were begun. This a c t , i n s t i g a t e d by Nic h o l a s V, served t o promote and e l e v a t e St. Lawrence as an important C h r i s t i a n martyr. 6 4 See J . M. Huskinson, "The C r u c i f i x i o n of St. Peter: A 15th Century Topographical Problem," J o u r n a l of the  Warburo: and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 32 (1969) : 135-161. 6 5 F l a v i o Biondo's Roma i n s t a u r a t a i s the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d t e x t . See S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 170. 73 v a s t r e p o s i t o r y of sacred r e l i c s . " 6 7 N i c h o l a s V s proclamation of 1450 as a J u b i l e e year and h i s renovations of the important Roman b a s i l i c a s was a promotion of the pil g r i m a g e and the ve n e r a t i o n of Roman martyrs. This may a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the quasi-Roman s e t t i n g i n which the scenes from the l i f e of St. Stephen are enacted. The scene of almsgiving has, i n the background, the types of towers t h a t could be found i n f i f t e e n t h century Rome. S i m i l a r l y , the c i t y s c a p e i n the preaching scene has a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms which a l l o w the viewer t o pl a c e the a c t i o n i n a Roman s e t t i n g , s i n c e these forms are suggestive of f i f t e e n t h century I t a l i a n s t r u c t u r e s . The events from St. Stephen's l i f e , which a c t u a l l y occurred i n Jerusalem, are shown as being enacted i n a gen e r i c , but quasi-quattrocento c i v i c space. By not i n c l u d i n g d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l signs i d e n t i f y i n g the c i t y as e i t h e r Jerusalem or Rome, the frescoes avoid the b l a t a n t l y u n h i s t o r i c a l , but, by i m p l i c a t i o n , the viewer i s i n v i t e d t o c o n s t r u c t , t y p o l o g i c a l l y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jerusalem and Rome. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was, indeed, a l i t e r a r y and t h e o l o g i c a l commonplace. The f i n a l scenes of e x p u l s i o n and martyrdom augment t h i s . Although i t was t r a d i t i o n a l t o d e p i c t St. Stephen being stoned o u t s i d e the w a l l s of Jerusalem, the 6 6 See Peter Brown, The C u l t of the S a i n t s : I t s R i s e  and Function i n L a t i n C h r i s t i a n i t y (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1981) and P a t r i c k J . Geary, Furta Sacra:  Thefts of R e l i c s i n the C e n t r a l Middle Ages ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978). 6 7 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 33. 74 monumentality of the w a l l i n the chapel scene c o u l d a l s o have been perceiv e d as a s e c t i o n of Rome's A u r e l i a n w a l l s . I f so, an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p could emerge, s i n c e St. Stephen's r e l i c s were kept i n San Lorenzo f u o r i l a Mura. The l o c a l i t y of the r e l i c s c o uld thus be seen t o ( f a l s e l y ) mark the s i t e of h i s martyrdom. But, even i n a more general way, the frescoes s u b t l y promote Rome as a c i t y f u l l of pl a c e s where s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i g i o u s events happened. The humanists of Nich o l a s V s court attempted t o connect the v i r t u e of martyrdom w i t h the contemporary p o n t i f f . N i c h o l a s V s 'martyrdom' was the "incessant cares and constant cares and a n x i e t i e s he had borne i n c a r i n g f o r h i s f l o c k . " 6 8 The no t i o n of Nich o l a s V s 'martyrdom' was promoted i n biographies by Michele Canesi and Giannozzo M a n e t t i . Canesi a s s e r t e d t h a t N i c h o l a s V "possessed a l l the s p i r i t u a l values - f a i t h , p i e t y , s i n c e r e l o v e , r e l i g i o n , c h a r i t y , h o l i n e s s , and martyrdom - acclaimed i n S i x t u s , Urban, S y l v e s t e r , Gregory, Bernard, and the other Fathers of the C h u r c h . " 6 9 Manetti's account of Nich o l a s V s l i f e was "a h i g h l y hagiographic account of the pope's l i f e , f i l l e d w i t h 6 8 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 173. S t i n g e r notes t h a t martyrdom i s a key theme i n Nicho l a s V s chapel. He w r i t e s t h a t , "Martyrdom as a key v i r t u e of C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r s h i p and as a primary source of Rome's sacredness found prominent expression, too, i n the f r e s c o c y c l e s Fra An g e l i c o p a i n t e d i n Nich o l a s V s small p r i v a t e chapel i n the V a t i c a n . " L a t e r , on page 177, S t i n g e r w r i t e s t h a t the theme of martyrdom was so important t h a t i t became "a l e i t m o t i v of the r e s t o r e d Roman papacy." S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 173. 75 the k i n d of m i r a b i l i a present i n the l i v e s of the e a r l y s a i n t s . " 7 0 N i c h o l a s V, by d e p i c t i n g h i m s e l f as S i x t u s I I , i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h an e a r l y Roman martyr and pope. Here too, then, the subject matter and ideas expressed i n the frescoes prove extensive t o the a c t i v i t y of Nich o l a s V s humanists. More imp o r t a n t l y , though, i s the f a c t t h a t the f r e s c o e s p l a y a r o l e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a p o r t r a i t of an i d e a l pope, and p o r t r a y i n g Nicholas V i n t h a t r o l e . The v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y and martyrdom are suggested as being a c t i v e through the person of Nich o l a s V, thus God's grace works through him t o produce order and harmony through the v i r t u e of c h a r i t y , and s a l v a t i o n through the v i r t u e of martyrdom. Obviously, i t i s the p o r t r a i t of Ni c h o l a s V as S i x t u s I I which a l l o w s these notions t o be perpetuated i n the fre s c o e s . The p o r t r a i t c ould be expl a i n e d by an e x h o r t a t i o n of A l b e r t i ' s , where he suggested the i n c l u s i o n of a w e l l -known f i g u r e t o a t t r a c t the eye of the v i e w e r . 7 1 A l b e r t i recognized t h i s as an e f f e c t i v e r h e t o r i c a l element, whereby the viewer d i s c o v e r s the p o r t r a i t of an i n d i v i d u a l who i s contemporary (and q u i t e p o s s i b l y i n the chapel w i t h the viewer!) w i t h the viewer's world. The t r u t h of the ideas and connections i l l u s t r a t e d i n the scenes, and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n as an extension of the r e a l world i s thus augmented. 7 0 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 173. 7 1 See Geiger's comment on t h i s A l b e r t i a n passage i n Geiger, F i l i p p i n o L i p p i ' s Carafa Chapel, 139. 76 Eloquence The scenes of St. Stephen preaching and d i s p u t i n g w i t h the Sanhedrin work together as a testament t o the v i r t u o u s n e s s of eloquence [ f i g . 15]. This ' v i r t u e ' - a d e c i d e d l y humanist r a t h e r than C h r i s t i a n one - l i k e the v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y and martyrdom, was s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h N i c h o l a s V. Numerous t e x t s from N i c h o l a s V s r e i g n t e s t i f y t o the importance of t h i s a b i l i t y , and suggest how i t r e l a t e d t o the p o r t r a i t of the i d e a l pope. For humanists, eloquence was the preeminent v i r t u e ( j u s t as c h a r i t y was the preeminent C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e ) and these two scenes e s p e c i a l l y magnify these events from St. Stephen's l i f e where St. Stephen, as o r a t o r and martyr, i s presented as a s y n c r e t i c exemplum of both humanist and r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e . 7 2 That St. Stephen i s speaking t o h i s audience i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s gesture; one which, i n the preaching scene, shows him counting o f f p o i n t s on h i s f i n g e r s . 7 3 The proper 7 2 D'Amico w r i t e s of the humanists' Ciceronean i d e a l s : " R hetoric of eloquence not only expressed humanitas but a l s o came t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t ; the p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of humanitas was the o r a t o r , the man who spoke and wrote e l e g a n t l y and thus was t r u l y human." D'Amico, Renaissance  Humanism i n Papal Rome, 124. For a c o l l e c t i o n of essays on eloquence see Renaissance Eloquence, e d i t e d by James J . Murphy (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1983). 7 3 An i n t e r e s t i n g comparison i s Fra A n g e l i c o ' s e a r l i e r panel of St. Peter preaching from the p r e d e l l a of the L i n a i u o l i T r i p t y c h [ f i g . 18] St. Peter simply assumes an 77 use of gesture d u r i n g o r a t i o n was considered important t o the humanists of the m i d - f i f t e e n t h century. P a r i s de G r a s s i s v had "harsh words f o r those preachers who d i d not know the d i f f e r e n c e between gestures proper t o an o r a t o r and those proper t o an a c t o r . " 7 4 The concern f o r gesture was a re j u v e n a t i o n of chironomic notions c o d i f i e d i n a n t i q u i t y and preserved f o r the Renaissance i n volumes on r h e t o r i c and r h e t o r i c a l gesture l i k e Q u i n t i l i a n ' s I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a , a work which c a r r i e d a great deal of i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 7 5 The gestures made w h i l e speaking were not t o be o v e r l y t h e a t r i c a l , but were t o be appropriate and d i g n i f i e d . 7 6 Gesture a l s o i n d i c a t e d the e t h i c a l s t a t e of an i n d i v i d u a l , and was regarded "as the outward (foris) p h y s i c a l expression of the inward (intus) s o u l . " 7 7 orant pose. The e f f e c t s of h i s words on the women who s i t before him are s i m i l a r t o the r e a c t i o n s of the women l i s t e n i n g t o St. Stephen. 7 4 O'Malley, P r a i s e and Blame i n Renaissance Rome, 28. Baxandall notes the d i f f e r e n c e s between sacred and profane gesture i n P a i n t i n g and Experience, 70. An i n t e r e s t i n g hypothesis on the source of Fra Angelico's gestures i s given i n William Hood's " S a i n t Dominic's Manners of Praying: Gestures i n Fra Angelico's C e l l Frescoes as San Marco," A r t B u l l e t i n 68 (June, 1986): 195-206. 7 5 Cheles, The S t u d i o l o of Urbino: An Iconographic  I n v e s t i g a t i o n f 41. 7 6 See Quintilian, I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a , t r a n s l a t e d by H. E. B u t l e r (London: W i l l i a m Heineman, 1920), Bk. I , x i 12-17. 7 7 Jean-Claude Schmitt, "The E t h i c s of Gesture," i n Fragments f o r a H i s t o r y of the Human Body. P a r t I I (New York: Zone Press, 1989), 130. 78 These r u l e s extended t o preachers as w e l l . In the scene, St. Stephen counts o f f h i s p o i n t s on h i s f i n g e r s . This counting gesture was meant t o s i g n i f y the systematic reasoning of St. Stephen's argument, which passed through l o g i c a l stages of d i v i s i o n and s u b d i v i s i o n . 7 9 R h e t o r i c was not i m p r o v i s a t i o n , but a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d o r c h e s t r a of movements ( i n c l u d i n g many f o r m a l i t i e s ) which moved i n e v i t a b l y and l o g i c a l l y t o a c o n c l u s i o n . The gesture, then, could imply t h a t S t. Stephen i s an preacher who has reached an advanced p o s i t i o n i n h i s mastery of r h e t o r i c a l a r t . Another aspect of eloquence i s emphasized i n the scene of S t. Stephen d i s p u t i n g w i t h the S a n h e d r i n . 8 0 At the l e f t / a Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience i n F i f t e e n t h  Century I t a l y . 64 w r i t e s : "An I t a l i a n preacher could t o u r northern Europe s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e a c h i n g . . . g e t t i n g h i s e f f e c t l a r g e l y through gesture... The problem was always, where t o draw the l i n e ; Thomas Waley's mid-fourteenth-century De modo  componendi sermones urged, ' . . . l e t the preacher be very c a r e f u l not t o throw h i s body about w i t h u n r e s t r a i n e d movement - now suddenly l i f t i n g up h i s head h i g h , now j e r k i n g i t suddenly down...'" 7 9 Cheles, The S t u d i o l o of Urbino: An Iconographic  I n v e s t i g a t i o n . 41. Cheles speaks of t h i s gesture i n reference t o the f i g u r e s of Duns Scotus and Aquinas i n the s t u d i o l o of Federigo da M o n t e f e l t r o [see f i g . 19]. See a l s o Caroline Elam, 'Studioli1 and Renaissance Court Patronage (London: M.A. Report, Courtauld I n s t i t u t e of A r t , May, 1970), 23. For an account of t h i s gesture i n Renaissance a r t see Mme. O. Chomentouskaja, "Le Comput D i g i t a l . H i s t o i r e d'un Geste dans l ' a r t de l a Renaissance I t a l i e n n e , " Gazette  des Beaux-Arts 20 (1938): 157-172. Angelico could w e l l have seen t h i s gesture i n Masolino's c y c l e of S a i n t Catherine of A l e x a n d r i a i n the B a s i l i c a of San Clemente i n Rome. S a i n t Catherine i s a l s o shown us i n g the gesture i n a d i s p u t a t i o n scene [ f i g . 20]. 8 0 The scene of the d i s p u t a t i o n d e p i c t s a s p e c i f i c moment i n Stephen's l i f e which i s recorded i n Acts 6:1-15 and 7:1-60. The p a i r of Jews who make p o i n t s t o be answered 79 two men make p o i n t s w i t h emphatic gestures. The e l d e r of the Sanhedrin, seated on a canopied d a i s and seeking a response, t u r n s a hand towards St. Stephen. The s a i n t ' s r e p l y i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s r a i s e d arm, which i s reminiscent of the i m p e r i a l a d l o c u t i o . Here, St. Stephen's eloquence i s a l s o shown t o be adaptable t o argumentative d i s c o u r s e , and thus the e r i s t i c proto-martyr i s portrayed as being doubly v i r t u o u s i n terms of h i s o r a t o r i a l s k i l l s s i n c e he demonstrates h i s a b i l i t y t o speak i n the contentious, j u d i c i a l language of d i s p u t a t i o n , as w e l l as be i n s p i r i n g as a preacher. St. Stephen's f o r e n s i c a p t i t u d e s thus g i v e him even g r e a t e r breadth s i n c e , as Q u i n t i l i a n mentions; "...no one can be c a l l e d a p e r f e c t o r a t o r unless he be an expert debater," 8 1 and St. Stephen i s c l e a r l y i m p l i e d as being t h i s as w e l l . As mentioned, the v i r t u e of eloquence was a l s o an a t t r i b u t e which Nic h o l a s V s humanists attempted t o r e l a t e t o the p o n t i f f . 8 2 Indeed, Nic h o l a s V was recorded as being t o Stephen can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the members of the 'Synagogue of Freedom' who disputed u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h Stephen and who conspired t o bear f a l s e witness against Stephen i n the court of the Sanhedrin [Acts 6:8-15]. The gesture of the high p r i e s t corresponds t o the question he puts t o Stephen i n the book of Acts [Acts 7:1] a f t e r hearing the a c c u s a t i o n s , " I s t h i s t r u e ? " 8 1 Q u i n t i l i a n , I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a , Bk. VI, i v , 1-5. 8 2 S t i n g e r , The Renaissance i n Rome, 84. Da B i s t i c c i g i v e s a d e t a i l e d and laudatory account of P a r e n t u c c e l l i 1 s a b i l i t i e s as a s c h o l a r , diplomat and o r a t o r . N i c h o l a s V s knowledge was presented as being encyclopaedic i n nature: "He knew the works both of the modern and the ancient d o c t o r s , and there were few Greek and L a t i n w r i t e r s whose works he had not s t u d i e d . He knew the B i b l e by heart, and 80 e l e c t e d t o the c h a i r of St. Peter l a r g e l y due t o h i s e x c e l l e n t O r a t o r i o de eliqendo P o n t i f i c e (Oration Concerning the E l e c t i o n of the P o p e ) . 8 3 Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i records t h a t , The o r a t i o n was spoken w i t h great d i g n i t y and eloquence, and gave such great s a t i s f a c t i o n t o a l l the C o l l e g e and the others present t h a t i t moved the c a r d i n a l s t o make him Pope . . . h i s r e p u t a t i o n was g r e a t l y augmented by t h i s noble o r a t i o n . " 8 4 N i c h o l a s V emphasized the s k i l l of eloquence as being a c r u c i a l a t t r i b u t e of the i d e a l Renaissance pope, 8 5 and used h i s c i t a t i o n s t hereof were always c o r r e c t . " Stinger, The  Renaissance i n Rome. 33. S t i n g e r c i t e s many of da B i s t i c c i ' s comments on Nic h o l a s V s o r a t o r i a l a p t i t u d e s . For example, i n d i s p u t a t i o n s i n defense of the Church at the c o u n c i l of Fer r a r a / F l o r e n c e , "He would c o n s t a n t l y be found i n the p l a c e above named h o l d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , or about the Pope's c o u r t , conversing and arguing, f o r he was a very ardent d i a l e c t i c i a n [p.35]; and, "In a l l these d i s p u t a t i o n s Messer Tomasso found h i m s e l f on the s i d e of the L a t i n s . He was amongst the leaders and the highest i n esteem w i t h both f a c t i o n s , through the u n i v e r s a l knowledge he possessed of the Holy S c r i p t u r e s , and of the doctors, ancient and modern." [p.36]. 8 3 John M. McManamon. "The I d e a l Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court", 9. But more probably, as Stinger w r i t e s , " . . . [ N i c h o l a s V s ] e l e c t i o n came about because of s e n s i t i v e r i v a l r y between the Colonna and O r s i n i . . . t o break the deadlocked conclave, Bernardi proposed P a r e n t u c c e l l i , who besides h i s n e u t r a l i t y i n Roman and I t a l i a n p o l i t i c s a l s o had the v i r t u e of being a staunch a n t i c o n c i l i a r i s t . . . " The Renaissance i n Rome, 84. 8 4 Vespasiano da B i s t i c c i , Renaissance P r i n c e s , Popes  and P r e l a t e s . 43. See a l s o McManamon, "The I d e a l Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court", 9:10:15. 8 5 McManamon w r i t e s , "Hence, the general p o r t r a i t of the i d e a l pope i s of one outstanding i n v i r t u e and wisdom. 81 the f r e s c o e s i n h i s chapel as one of the v e h i c l e s by which the idea of the power of eloquence could be developed and tr a n s m i t t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the scenes impart the important concept t h a t eloquence i s an e f f e c t i v e instrument i n theology. Given the apparent need f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of humanist methods i n t h e o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , these scenes could a l s o be seen as advertisements f o r the t h e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of humanists. Furthermore, eloquence had an important r o l e t o p l a y i n the r i t e s of the Church which Ni c h o l a s V, throughout h i s o f f i c e , d e s i r e d t o em b e l l i s h . O'Malley w r i t e s t h a t preaching was something t h a t "must be seen i n i t s l i t u r g i c a l context, the i n t e r missarum solemnia." 8 6 I f the chapel of Ni c h o l a s V functioned as the locus f o r these more p r i v a t e , c o u r t l y masses or cappelle pontificie - even though i t i s q u i t e s mall f o r these - the presence of frescoes which attempt t o a s s o c i a t e the v i r t u e of eloquence w i t h the pope may have had meaning i n terms of the l i t u r g i e s which took p l a c e there. St. Stephen's eloquence i s r e g i s t e r e d by the responses of those he speaks t o . The viewer can e a s i l y p e r c e i v e t h a t eloquence has a v a r i e t y of powerful a f f e c t s on people. At t h i s v ery moment of pe r c e p t i o n , of course, i t i s the r h e t o r i c a l power of the v i s u a l which s l y l y a s s e r t s i t s e l f . H is v i r t u e i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t e d t o a c t i v e works of c h a r i t y , w h i l e an eloquence t o persuade h i s f e l l o w men t o peace and concord and a moral l i f e i s the hallmark of h i s wisdom." McManamon, "The I d e a l Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court", 38. 8 6 O'Malley, P r a i s e and Blame i n Renaissance Rome, 8. 82 CONCLUSION This study has attempted t o d e f i n e some of the circumstances surrounding the production of the frescoes i n the chapel of Nich o l a s V - as w e l l as evaluate t h e i r content, o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s t y l e - w i t h the i n t e n t of proposing a probable theory of t h e i r f u n c t i o n . Two l e v e l s of content have emerged as r e l e v a n t : the content which i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as subject matter, and the content which i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d s t y l e . The personae of the f r e s c o e s , and the themes of papal primacy, c h a r i t y , martyrdom and eloquence can be designated subject matter. The mural and p i c t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f r e s c o e s , and the types of v i s u a l s t r a t e g i e s used t o engage the viewer may be taken as being some aspects of s t y l e . Both are c a r r i e r s of meaning, even though the meaning t h a t s t y l e c a r r i e s may not always be very obvious. A r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p d e a l i n g w i t h humanism and v i s u a l a r t , w i t h the exception of t h a t of Michael Baxandall and a few others, has l a r g e l y concentrated on humanism's i n f l u e n c e on p a i n t i n g at the l e v e l of subject matter. I have attempted t o argue t h a t humanist r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e found a p a r a l l e l expression i n a c y c l e of frescoes produced f o r a humanist pope. I would l i k e t o suggest t h a t , at one l e v e l , the s t y l e of these fresoces meant t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n of the papacy was i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t i v a t i n g a c u l t u r a l diplomacy which could be used w i t h those who might not be 83 q u i t e convinced of the i d e a l s and i d e o l o g i e s t h a t the papacy was s t r u c t u r e d upon. The employment of eloquence and an eloquent s t y l e i n p a i n t i n g aimed to use the r h e t o r i c a l as a means of persuasion whereby the audience assented t o the • t r u t h s ' i m p l i e d by the subject matter content. A number of i s s u e s could s t i l l be considered f o r f u r t h e r study. For example, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Fra A n g e l i c o ' s devotus s t y l e (and h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a ' s a i n t l y ' p a i n t e r ) , aside from i t s h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l nature, may have mediated the expression of some of the l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l ideas the frescoes communicate, l i k e the suggestion of eloquence as a s a i n t l y v i r t u e . Terms such as ' r h e t o r i c ' and 'eloquence' could a l s o be d e f i n e d more c l o s e l y w i t h i n the s p e c i f i c context of Nicholas V s c o u r t , and the way i n which r h e t o r i c served the p a r t i c u l a r needs of i n s t i t u t i o n s at t h i s time might a l s o be an element which could engage f u r t h e r study on the s u b j e c t . 84 F i g u r e 1: P a r t i a l view of the Chapel of N i c h o l a s V, the V a t i c a n (Source: Eve Borsook, The Mural P a i n t e r s of Tuscany). 85 A B R D R F G \ H 1 S M O 0 Key A - S t . Leo the Great B - S t . J o h n Chrysostom C - S t . Stephen's O r d i n a t i o n , A l m s g i v i n g . D - O r d i n a t i o n o f Lawrence E - S t . Gregory the G r e a t F - S t . A n a s t a s i u s G - P r e a c h i n g of S t e p h e n , d i s p u t a t i o n H - S t . Lawrence r e c e i v i n g Church's t r e a s u r e s I - S t . Lawrence d i s t r i b u t i n g t r e a s u r e s L - S t . Ambrogio M - S t . Thomas Aquinus N - E x p u l s i o n & s t o n i n g o f S t e p h e n 0 - S t . Lawrence b e f o r e V a l e r i a n u s , martyrdom P - S t . A g o s t i n o Q - S t . Boneventura R - Windows S - e n t r a n c e T - a c t u a l e ntrance F i g u r e 2: Diagram of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the d e c o r a t i o n In the Chapel of N i c h o l a s V (Source: A n t o n e l l a Greco, La C a p p e l l a d l N l c c o l o V d e l Beato A n o e l l c o ) . Figure 3 : Fra Angel i c o , the Four E v a n g e l i s t s i n the v a u l t of the Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . 87 F i q u r e 4: [ l e f t ! F r a A n g e l i c o , S t . Ambrose. The C h a p e l o f N i c h o l a s V ( S o u r c e : The ' M e i s t e r s Gemalde S e r i e s ) . F i q u r e 5: [ r i g h t ] F r a A n g e l i c o , S t . A u g u s t i n e . The C h a p e l o f N i c h o l a s V ( S o u r c e : The ' M e i s t e r s Gemalde' S e r i e s ) . 88 Figure 6: Fra A n g e l i c o , St. Thomas Aquinas. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: The 'Meisters Gemalde' Ser i e s ) . Figure 7: Masolino, the E v a n g e l i s t s and the L a t i n Doctors of the Church. San Clemente, Rome (Source: Mario Salmi, Magaccjp). 9 0 Figure 8: Maso d i Banco, 'St. Sy l v e s t e r C l o s i n g the Mouth of the Dragon and R e s u s c i t a t i n g Two Deceased Romans', c. 1340, Bardi d i Vernio Chapel, Florence (Source: Frederick H a r t t , H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n Renaissance Ar_t) . Florence, 1424-1425 (Source: Frederick H a r t t , H i s t o r y of I t a l i a n Renaissance A r t ) . 91 Figure 10: Fra Angelico, 'The Ordination of St. Stephen and St. Stephen D i s t r i b u t i n g Alms'. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . F i g u r e 11: F r a A n g e l i c o , "The O r d i n a t i o n of S t . Lawrence 1. The Chapel of N i c h o l a s V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . 93 Figure 12: Fra Angelico, 'The Annunciation', c. 1440-1460, Museo San Marco, Florence (Source: Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy). Figure 13: Fra Angelico, 'Sixtus I I g i v i n g St. Lawrence the Treasures of the Church'. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . 95 F i g u r e 14: F i l i p p o L i p p i , 'The Annunciation' c. 1440-1460, San Lorenzo, F l o r e n c e (Source: Michael Baxandall, P a i n t i n g and Experience In F i f t e e n t h Century I t a l y ) . 96 Figure 15: Fra A n g e l i c o , St. Stephen Preaching and Di s p u t i n g with the Sanhedrin. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . 97 Figure 16: Fra Angelico, 'St. Lawrence Givi n g Alms'. Chapel of Nicholas V (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n a e l i c o ) . Figure 17: Fra A n g e l i c o , 'The E x p u l s i o n and L a p i d a t i o n of St. Stephen'. The Chapel of Nicholas V (Source John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico). Fra Angelico, 'St. Peter Preaching', from the L i n a i u o l i T r i p t y c h , Florence (Source: John Pope-Hennessy, Fra A n g e l i c o ) . 100 F i g u r e 19: J u s t e l a Gand, S t . Thomas A q u i n a s , from the s t u d i o l o of F e d e r i g o da M o n t e f e l t r o , U r b i n o (Source: Mme. O. Chomentouskaya, "Le Comput D i g i t a l " ) . F i g u r e 20; M a s o l i n o , ' St. C a t h e r i n e D i s p u t i n g ' , San Clemente, Rome (Source: Mme. 0. Chomentouskaya, "Le Comput D i g i t a l " ) . I 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY WORKS CITED Pa r t I : Books Andre-Michel, Robert. Avignon: Les Fresques du  P a l a i s des papes. P a r i s : L i b r a r i e Armand C o l i n , 1926. Argan, G i u l i o C a r l o . Fra Angelico and h i s Times. Tr a n s l a t e d by James Emmons. Lausanne: S k i r a , 1955. A r i s t o t l e , The Nicomachean E t h i c s . Trans, by J . A. K. Thomson. Harmondsworth: Penquin Books, 1978. Baxandall, Michael. 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In C a l l i g r a m . Essays i n New A r t H i s t o r y from France. E d i t e d by Norman Bryson. New York & Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988. Marin, L o u i s . "The I c o n i c Text and the Theory of Enunciation: Luca S i g n o r e l l i a t Loreto ( c i r c a 1479-1484)." New L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y 14, no. 3 (Spring, 1983), 553-591. McManamon, John M. "The I d e a l Renaissance Pope: Funeral Oratory from the Papal Court." Archivum h i s t o r i a e p o n t i f i c i a e 14 (1976): 9-70. Mukarovsky, Jan. "Art as a S e m i o l o g i c a l Fact." In S t r u c t u r e , Sign, and Function. T r a n s l a t e d by John Burbank and Peter S t e i n e r . New Haven & London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978. O'Malley, John. "The Feast of Thomas Aquinas i n Renaissance Rome: A Neglected Document and i t s Import." R i v i s t a d i s t o r i a d e l l a c h i e s a  i n I t a l i a 35 (1981): 1-27. 108 Reynolds, B e a t r i c e R. 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"Humanist T r e a t i s e s on the Status of the R e l i g i o u s : P e t r a r c h , S a l u t a t i , V a l l a . " Studies i n the Renaissance 11 (1964) 7-45. Winter, Irene J . "Royal R h e t o r i c and the Development of H i s t o r i c a l N a r r a t i v e i n Neo-Assyrian R e l i e f s . " Studies i n V i s u a l Communication 7, no. 2 (Spring, 1981): 2-38. Wright, R. Edward. " A l b e r t i ' s De Pictura: I t s L i t e r a r y S t r u c t u r e and Purpose." J o u r n a l of  the Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 47 (1984): 52-71. 110 WORKS CONSULTED Par t I : Monographs on Fra Ange l i c o Argan, G u i l i o C a r l o . Fra An g e l i c o , a B i b l i o - g r a p h i c a l and C r i t i c a l Study. T r a n s l a t e d by James Emmons. Geneva: S k i r a , 1955. B a l d i n i , U. L'Opera Completa d e l l 1 A n g e l i c o . M i l a n , 1970. Bazi n , Germaine. Fra A n g e l i c o . T r a n s l a t e d by Marc Loge. London: Hyperion Press, 1949. B e i s s e l , Stephan. Fra Giovanni A n g e l i c o da  F i e s o l e . s e i n Leben und s e i n Werke. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1905. Bering, Kunibert. Fra A n g e l i c o : M i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r  M y s t i k e r oder Maler der Renaissance? Essen: Die Blau Eule, 1984. Douglas, Langton. Fra Ang e l i c o . London, 1900. F a l l i n i , Giovanni. I I Beato A n g e l i c o . Rome: Danesi i n v i a Margutta E d i t o r e , 1945. F a l l a n i , Giovanni. V i t a e opere d i f r a Giovanni  A n g e l i c o . F i r e n z e : Sansoni, 1984. F a l l a n i , Giovanni. I I Beato A n g e l i c o . La C a p e l l a  d i N i c c o l o V. Rome, 1955. F r o s a l , Sergio. L 1 A n g e l i c o . F i r e n z e : L i b r e r i a E d i t r i c e , 1963. Hausenstein, Wilhelm. Fra A n g e l i c o . T r a n s l a t e d by Agnes Blake. London: Methuen Books, 1928. Ll o y d , Christopher. Fra Ang e l i c o . Oxford and New York: Phaidon Press, 1979. Mason, James. Fra Ang e l i c o . New York: F.A. Stokes, 1908. O r l a n d i , Stephan. I I Beato A n g e l i c o . Florence, 1964. I l l P a p i n i , Roberto. Fra Giovanni A n g e l i c o . Bologna, 1925. Pope-Hennessy, John. Fra An g e l i c o . London: Phaidon Press, 1974. Salmi, Mario. I I Beato An g e l i c o . 1958. Schneider, Edouard. Fra An g e l i c o da F i e s o l e . P a r i s : A l b i n Michael E d i t e u r , 1933. Schot t m u l l e r , F. Fra Ang e l i c o da F i e s o l e . S t u t t g a r t & B e r l i n : A n s a l t V e r l a g , 1924. Smart, A l i s t a i r . Fra A n g e l i c o . London: Knowledge Press, 1960. St a l e y , John E. Fra An g e l i c o . London: G. Newnes L t d . , 1906. Par t I I : Books and A r t i c l e s on Nicho l a s V, h i s P o n t i f i c a t e , and h i s B u i l d i n g P r o j e c t s Burroughs, Charles. Conditions of B u i l d i n g i n Rome  and the Papal States i n the m i d - f i f t e e n t h  Century. Warburg I n s i t u t e , 1978. Burroughs, Charles. 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" P r o f i l o d i un papa umanista: Tommaso P a r e n t u c e l l i . " S t u d i s u l l a c u l t u r a  d e l Rinascimento (1968): 69-121. W e s t f a l l , C a r r o l l W i l l i a m . " B i b l i c a l Typology i n the V i t a N i c o l a i V by Gianozzo M a n e t t i . " i n Proceedings f o r the F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Congress f o r Neo-Latin Studies (Aug. 2 3-28, 1971). W e s t f a l l , C a r r o l l W i l l i a m . " A l b e r t i and the V a t i c a n Palace Type." J o u r n a l of the  S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s 33 (1974): 101-121. Pa r t I I I : Books and A r t i c l e s : Humanists and Humanism Baron, Hans."Franciscan Poverty and C i v i c Wealth i n Humanistic Thought." Speculum 13 (1938): 1-37. Baron, Hans. "Towards a More P o s i t i v e E v a l u a t i o n of the F i f t e e n t h Century Renaissance." J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas 4 (1943): 24. Cosenza, Mario E m i l i o . B i o g r a p h i c a l and B i b - l i o g r a p h i c D i c t i o n a r y of the I t a l i a n  Humanists and of the World of C l a s s i c a l  S c h o l a r s h i p i n I t a l y 1300-1800. 6 V o l s . Boston: 1962-67. G i l b e r t , Neal W. "The E a r l y I t a l i a n Humanists and D i s p u t a t i o n . " In Renaissance Studies  i n Honour of Hans Baron. E d i t e d by Anthony Molho and John Tedeschi. Dekalb, 111.: North I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press (1971): 201. Gilmore, Myron P i p e r . Humanists and J u r i s t s . Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. Gray, Hanna. "Renaissance Humanism: The P u r s u i t of Eloquence." J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of  Ideas 24 (1964): 497-514. Grendler, Paul F. "The Concept of Humanism i n Cinquecento I t a l y . " In Studies i n Honour of  Hans Baron. E d i t e d by Molho & Tedeschi. Dekalb, 111.: North I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press (1971): 445. 114 Kohl, Benjamin G. and W i t t , Ronald G. The E a r t h l y Republic: I t a l i a n Humanists on  Government and S o c i e t y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1978. Martines, Lauro. The S o c i a l World of the F l o r e n t i n e Humanists 1390-1460. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Mazzocco, Angelo. Biondo F l a v i o and the A n t i q u a r i a n T r a d i t i o n . Ph.D D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o i r n i a a t Berkeley, 1973. O'Malley, John W " G i l e s of V i t e r b o on Church and Reform: A Study i n Renaissance Thought." In Studies i n Medieval and Reformation  Thought No. 5 Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1968. O'Malley, John W. "Preaching f o r the Popes." i n The P u r s u i t of Hol i n e s s i n Late Medieval  and Renaissance R e l i g i o n : Papers from the  U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Conference. Studies i n  Medieval and Reformation Thought No. 10. E d i t e d by Charles Trinkaus and Heiko Oberman. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1968. O'Malley, John W. "Some Renaissance Panegyrics of Aquinus." Renaissance Q u a r t e r l y 27 (1974): 174-92. S t i n g e r , Charles L. Humanism and the Church Fathers. Ambrogio T r a v e r s a r i (1389-1439)  and C h r i s t i a n A n t i q u i t y i n the I t a l i a n  Renaissance. Albany: State U n i v e r s i t y of New York Press, 1977. Trinkaus, Charles Edward. "A Humanist's Image of Humanism: the Inaugural Orations of Bartolomeo d e l l a Fonte." Studies i n the  Renaissance 7 (1960): 90-147. Webb, Diana. "Eloquence and Education: A Humanist Approach t o Hagiography." J o u r n a l of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y 31 no. 1 (Jan. 1980): 19-39. Weiss, Roberto. "Biondo F l a v i o archeologo." S t u d i romaqnoli 14 (1963): 355-341. Weiss, Roberto. The Renaissance Discovery  of C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y . Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1964. 115 Wessinger, Herbert. "Ideas of H i s t o r y During the Renaissance." J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of  Ideas VI (1945): 415. W e s t f a l l , C a r r o l l W i l l i a m . " S o c i e t y , Beauty and the Humanist A r c h i t e c t i n A l b e r t i ' s de re aedificatoria." Studies i n the Renaissance 16 (1969): 61-79. Part IV: Books and A r t i c l e s : Papal and Church H i s t o r y Baraclough, Geoffrey. The Medieval Papacy. New York: Harcourt, Brace, World, 1969. Betteson, Henry. Documents of the C h r i s t i a n  Church. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Black, Anthony. Monarchy and Community: P o l i t i c a l  Ideas i n the L a t e r C o n c i l i a r Controversy  1430-1450. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1970. Black, Anthony J . "The C o u n c i l of Basel and the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l . " In C o u n c i l s and  Assemblies. E d i t e d by G.J. Cuming and Derek Baker. 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Columbia: The U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. Partner , Peter D. "Camera Papae: Problems of Papal Finance i n the La t e r Middle Ages." J o u r n a l of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y 4 (1952-53): 55-68. Partne r , Peter D. The Papal State Under M a r t i n V. London, 1958. R i c h e n t a l , U l r i c h . " C h r o n i c l e of the Co u n c i l of Constance 1414-1418." In The C o u n c i l  of Constance. E d i t e d by J.H. Mundy and K.M. Woody. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Records of C i v i l i z a t i o n S e r i e s No. 63. Setton, Kenneth M. Papacy and the Levant  1204-1571. 2 V o l s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : The American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1976-1978. Thurston, Herbert S.J. The Holy Year of  J u b i l e e : An Account of the H i s t o r y  and Ceremonial of the Roman J u b i l e e . London: Sands, 1900. Tierney, B r i a n . Foundations of the C o n c i l i a r  Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. Trame, Richard H. Roderigo Sanchez de Arevalo  (1404-1470): Spanish Diplomat and Cham- pio n of the Papacy. Washington: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958. Calender of the E n t r i e s i n the Papal R e g i s t e r s  R e l a t i n g t o Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d :  Papal L e t t e r s V o l . X A.D. 1447-1455. Prepared by J.A. Tremlow. London: His Majesty's S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1915. Decrees and Acts of the Co u n c i l of Ba s e l . [This p u b l i c a t i o n i s i n L a t i n , d a t i n g from 1512; M i c r o f i l m R2060 UBC, n.p., n.d.]. Decrees and Act of the C o u n c i l of Constance  1414-1418. Munster: H e i n r i c h Finke, 1896. 

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