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The Jesuits and science in eighteenth-century France : an analysis of scientific writings in the Journal… Laponce, Jean 1990

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T H E J E S U I T S A N D S C I E N C E I N E I G H T E E N T H - C E N T U R Y F R A N C E : A N A N A L Y S I S O F S C I E N T I F I C W R I T I N G S I N T H E J O U R N A L D E T R E V O U X By JEAN LAPONCE B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1990 (c\ Jean Laponce, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Despite voluminous research concerning French s o c i e t y during the eighteenth century the s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e s of the S o c i e t y of Jesus i n France during that period remain a r e l a t i v e l y neglected s u b j e c t . That o b s c u r i t y has been compounded by a h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g i n the impassioned polemics of the Enlightenment which d e p i c t s the J e s u i t s , with v a r y i n g degrees of emphasis, as a bastion of r e s i s t a n c e to i n t e l l e c t u a l progress of a l l s o r t s . Such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s - a l t e r n a t i n g between censure and neglect - are challenged i n t h i s t h e s i s . Through an a n a l y s i s of s c i e n t i f i c reviews i n the Journal de Trevoux - a monthly p e r i o d i c a l published by the J e s u i t s i n France between 1701 and 1762 - i t i s argued that the l a t t e r took a s e r i o u s and c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s d u r i n g the period i n question. The emphasis placed here on the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i s j u s t i f i e d by the importance of that e n t e r p r i s e to the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of i t s time, and by the wealth of evidence i t o f f e r s concerning J e s u i t a t t i t u d e s to s c i e n c e . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n are vast. Research has ther e f o r e been confined i n i t i a l l y to the question of how J e s u i t w r i t e r s responded to Newton's system of the world as described i n the P r i n c i p i a and i n multitudes of subsequent works by Newtonian authors. I t i s c l e a r that t h i s response evolved more or l e s s i n step with developments i n French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y . However, a i i i p e r s i s t e n t r e s i s t a n c e on the part of J e s u i t w r i t e r s to the t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological complexity of Newtonian science i s a l s o apparent. Such t h i n k i n g , i t i s argued here, owed much t o a c u l t u r e of r h e t o r i c cherished by the J e s u i t s which emphasized d i v e r s i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Given evidence of a r e s i s t a n c e on the part of the J e s u i t s t o one of the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of eighteenth century s c i e n c e , a f u r t h e r e f f o r t i s made here to d i s c e r n what the J e s u i t s considered to be the d e f i n i n g q u a l i t i e s of a v i b r a n t s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . In t h i s case an a n a l y s i s of d i v e r s e s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l reviews i d e n t i f i e s : a sustained enthusiasm f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y {outside the t h e o l o g i c a l domain); a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t s c i e n t i f i c progress was an e v o l u t i o n a r y as opposed to r e v o l u t i o n a r y process; and f i n a l l y , an emphasis on the importance of necessary s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r such progress to occur. Though d e f i n i t i v e conclusions are e l u s i v e at t h i s stage, on the b a s i s of such f i n d i n g s i t i s argued that the French J e s u i t s r e f l e c t e d a strong a f f i n i t y f o r Baconian ideas i n t h e i r approach to s c i e n c e . According to such an argument i t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e to c o n t e x t u a l i z e the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux w i t h i n a more general i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n . Such a c o n c l u s i o n supports one of the fundamental premises of t h i s t h e s i s - that J e s u i t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e during the eighteenth century must not be marginalized i n accounts of i v t h a t p e r i o d — and i t i l l u m i n a t e s an avenue f o r f u r t h e r r esearch. V CONTENTS Abstract i i Contents v Acknowledgements vi Introduction 1 1. The Journal de Trevoux, Science, and the Republic of Letters 18 2. The Jesuit Response to Newton 33 3 . The Conditions of Scientific Practice . . . . 77 Conclusion 106 Notes . 120 Bibliography 135 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis emerged from an earlier essay written for a graduate seminar conducted by Dr. Christopher Friedrichs. I wish to thank him for encouraging me to pursue the study of a subject of enduring personal fascination. As my thesis advisor Dr. Harvey Mitchell helped in every possible way to bring this project to fruition. I thank him for his perceptive comments about my work and for his generous intellectual guidance and friendship. My wife, Angela Schiwy, provided me with invaluable assistance throughout this project. Without her companionship this venture would have been considerably diminished. 1 INTRODUCTION Standing before the former J e s u i t seminary on the rue Pot-de-Fer d u r i n g one of h i s walks through P a r i s i n the e a r l y 1780s, L o u l s - S e b a s t i e n Mercier f e l t compelled to meditate on the v i c i s s i t u d e s of h i s t o r y . ( 1 ) Who would have b e l i e v e d , he l a t e r recorded i n the Tableau de P a r i s , t h a t t h i s former b a s t i o n of s u p e r s t i t i o n , narrovmindedness and i n t o l e r a n c e would one day be converted i n t o a temple of reason, c h a r i t y , and u n i v e r s a l g o o d w i l l by the freemasons. And he applauded the u l t i m a t e r e v e r s a l of f o r t u n e s , whereby e l a b o r a t e ceremonies to commemorate V o l t a i r e were staged i n the v e r y h a l l s which had once heard the p r a i s e s of F r a n c i s -X a v i e r . For Mercier the r e c e n t l y disbanded J e s u i t s had been the " o b s t i n a t e enemies of e n l i g h t e n e d p h i l o s o p h y " and " c o n s p i r a t o r s a g a i n s t the l i b e r t y and the d i g n i t y of man".(2) He p r e d i c t e d t h a t h e n c e f o r t h t h e i r name would s u r v i v e o n l y as a synonym f o r the a c t i o n s of a p e r s e c u t i n g author i t y . Such t h i n k i n g was commonplace at the time Merci e r wrote. His o p i n i o n s owed a great d e a l to an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n of French w r i t e r s and p o l e m i c i s t s whose a t t i t u d e s were g i v e n t h e i r d e f i n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n i n d'Alembert's Sur  l a D e s t r u c t i o n des Je'sultes en France. (3) P u b l i s h e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the J e s u i t s had been banned by the parlements of P a r i s and Rouen i n 1762, t h a t work por t r a y e d the S o c i e t y as an e n d l e s s l y ambitious "company of i n t r i g u e r s and f a n a t i c s " 2 intent on becoming "indispensable rather than useful."(4) As the most powerful of the monastic orders he viewed as the "scourge of states", the Jesuits were deemed to be the most dangerous.(5) Consequently they were the legitimate f i r s t targets of a l l attempts to reform the state and in the name of progress d'Alembert applauded their downfall. • • • D'Alembert's description of the Jesuits, echoed by Mercier some twenty years later, exemplifies an outlook which has been transmitted largely unquestioned in subsequent historical interpretations of the role played by the Jesuits in the development of eighteenth-century French culture. Studies of that period devoted to sci e n t i f i c affairs have frequently exhibited the further tendency of ignoring a Jesuit influence altogether. That example of scholarly neglect can be extended to include the relationship of the Catholic church as a whole to sci e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s during the Enlightenment.(6) Historical interpretations of this sort are open to challenge and no more so than in the case of the French Jesuits during the period in question. That much is clear i f one considers the implications of Daniel Mornet's widely accepted assertion that "the diffusion of new ideas was the capital problem" of the Enlightenment, and that journals and education were the two most powerful means to achieve such ends. (7) Until they were banished from France In the mid 1760s the Jesuits published one of the most influential 3 p e r i o d i c a l s of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y - the Memolres de  Trevoux, more p o p u l a r l y known as the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. T h i s monthly p e r i o d i c a l , which began p u b l i s h i n g i n 1701, sought t o keep i t s r e a d e r s h i p informed about developments i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s by means of book reviews and o c c a s i o n a l e d i t o r i a l s . I t c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked as one of the most important l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s of i t s time - i n terms of the q u a l i t y of i t s w r i t i n g , the scope of i t s i n t e r e s t s and the v e r y f a c t t h a t i t managed to p u b l i s h c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r more than s i x decades. (8) And, u n t i l i t s demise i n 1764, the S o c i e t y dominated e d u c a t i o n i n France d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . By 1750 i t operated j u s t over one hundred c o l l e g e s i n France a l o n e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the J e s u i t i n f l u e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a r g e urban c e n t r e s which were a nucleus f o r c u l t u r a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l developments. At l e a s t a q u a r t e r of the S o c i e t y ' s c o l l e g e s were l o c a t e d i n towns and c i t i e s with p o p u l a t i o n s of twenty thousand or more.(9) I t i s a l s o c l e a r from a review of an e x t e n s i v e body of J e s u i t p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, and from t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s both i n France and i n missions abroad d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , t h a t the French J e s u i t s took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e . ( 1 0 ) Perhaps more than any other segment of the C a t h o l i c Church, they r e c o g n i z e d the need to a f f e c t an accommodation with an emerging s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e I f the a u t h o r i t y of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e was to be preserved. Given the determining i n f l u e n c e of s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s on the 4 intellectual culture of the Enlightenment, and the prominent role played by the Jesuits in French society during that period, hov such an accommodation was attempted is therefore of more than passing historical interest. This obviously vast topic w i l l be addressed here only in part by means of an analysis of selected s c i e n t i f i c writings in the Journal de Trevoux. Dictated by the nature of such historical evidence, the emphasis of this study will be more spe c i f i c a l l y on the attitudes of Jesuits to science as opposed to their actual participation in practical s c i e n t i f i c endeavours. Following a brief discussion of the Journal de Trevoux's history and of its role in the context of eighteenth century French s c i e n t i f i c culture, an attempt w i l l be made to interpret the response of Jesuit reviewers to Newton's Prlnclpla. Bernard Cohen has described that work as "the climax of the Scientific Revolution"; while for Ernan McMullin i t marks "a turning point . . . in the history of science".(11, 12) Even i f one does not entirely accept such evaluations, there can be l i t t l e question of the Principla's fundamental Impact on the development of French s c i e n t i f i c attitudes during the eighteenth century.(13) As such i t offers an ideal focus for this study. Since the Jesuit response to Newton's "system of the world" was predominantly hostile, a further attempt will be made to detect evidence in the Journal de Trevoux of a more "positive" Jesuit vision of what sc i e n t i f i c activity should be. In this case an eclectic selection of reviews will be 5 examined. On the b a s i s of t h i s somewhat randomly gathered e v i d e n c e , the argument w i l l be made th a t the J e s u i t s developed a r e l a t i v e l y coherent concept of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s s c i e n t i f i c v i s i o n w i l l be seen to have been deeply I n f l u e n c e d by the humanist a t t i t u d e s a t the heart of J e s u i t c u l t u r e . I t w i l l a l s o be seen to have f r e q u e n t l y echoed the p r e v a i l i n g sentiments of the Academie des S c i e n c e s . I Robert Palmer's c l a s s i c study C a t h o l i c s and U n b e l i e v e r s  i n E i g h t e e n t h Century France, w r i t t e n f i f t y years ago, remains a l a r g e l y s i n g u l a r attempt to r e s t o r e the v o i c e of C a t h o l i c t h i n k e r s to the understanding of French Enlightenment thought.(14) As such i t has provided a p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . What makes Palmer p e r s u a s i v e , a p a r t from the scope of h i s r e s e a r c h i s the sense of balance g u i d i n g h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . While a r g u i n g t h a t the impact of C a t h o l i c t h i n k e r s on e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h s o c i e t y was s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e r e f o r e cannot be i g n o r e d , he i s e q u a l l y c a r e f u l not to o v e r s t a t e h i s case. He acknowledges t h a t the C a t h o l i c church i n t h i s p e r i o d g e n e r a l l y r e a c t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l developments, r a t h e r than i n i t i a t i n g them. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he c o n t i n u e s , such attempts were o f t e n worthy of s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the J e s u i t s . Palmer c i t e s the l a t t e r as the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y most ab l e of t h e i r f a i t h and maintains t h a t 6 of a l l C a t h o l i c a p o l o g i s t s they had perhaps the best chance of a c h i e v i n g a meaningful and l a s t i n g compromise between fundamental C a t h o l i c v a l u e s and the i n c r e a s i n g l y s e c u l a r c u l t u r e of the p e r i o d i n quest ion.(15) T h i s concern t o preserve the i n t e l l e c t u a l a u t h o r i t y of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e had guided the a c t i o n s of the J e s u i t s s i n c e t h e i r i n c e p t i o n . The t a c t i c a l advantage of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s was s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y by Juan Polanco, one of I g n a t i u s ' c l o s e s t c o l l a b o r a t o r s . He argued t h a t the J e s u i t s "could c a r r y no a u t h o r i t y without the s o r t of c u l t u r a l equipment the r e f i n e d p u b l i c expects and demands."(16) Polanco's remark n e a t l y e n c a p s u l a t e s the twin premises of the s t r a t e g y the J e s u i t s would employ i n t h e i r defence of C a t h o l i c i s m u n t i l the d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e i r order i n 1773. They would use i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l p r e s t i g e as a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and they would operate a c c o r d i n g t o a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y of c u l t i v a t i n g the p o l i t i c a l l y p owerful. Such s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s made I t e s s e n t i a l f o r the J e s u i t s t o Involve themselves i n s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e as the l a t t e r i n c r e a s i n g l y captured the imagination of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s i n Europe. And as an added i n c e n t i v e , i f indeed i t was necessary, they r a p i d l y l e a r n e d to a p p l y what s c i e n t i f i c a b i l i t i e s they possessed to f u r t h e r t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y ambitions. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e In China. There, the sometimes ou t s t a n d i n g 7 mathematical and a s t r o n o m i c a l s k i l l s of i n d i v i d u a l J e s u i t s were used to g a i n a p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s f o r the S o c i e t y a t the Chinese c o u r t . ( 1 7 ) II Both i n i t s day, and i n subsequent h i s t o r i c a l accounts, the a u t h e n t i c i t y of these accommodationist tendencies have been a matter of some c o n t r o v e r s y . Did the fundamental r e l i g i o u s commitments of the J e s u i t s by d e f i n i t i o n preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of an open-minded quest f o r knowledge on t h e i r p a r t ? And, i f i t were p o s s i b l e f o r the J e s u i t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s c i e n t i f i c mode, were they i n f a c t capable of doing so e f f e c t i v e l y ? For d'Alembert the answer to both q u e s t i o n s was n e g a t i v e . Much of h i s h o s t i l i t y t o the J e s u i t s , and to o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o u s groups i n g e n e r a l , stemmed from h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t "monastic o r d e r s " were incapable of p a r t i c i p a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y i n those a c t i v i t i e s most Important to s o c i a l progress.(18) T h i s was c e r t a i n l y t r u e , he f e l t , i n the case of s c i e n c e , because the l a t t e r demanded not only the a b i l i t y t o pursue ideas f r e e l y but a l s o a singleminded d e d i c a t i o n which was impossible f o r those whose primary commitment was to t h e i r f a i t h . ( T h i s a t t i t u d e had i n f a c t been the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the Academie des Sciences s i n c e i t was founded i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y . According to i t s r e g u l a t i o n s of 1699, J e s u i t s were d i s q u a l i f i e d from 8 membership because t h e i r b a s i c l o y a l t i e s were deemed incomp a t i b l e with p r i n c i p l e s of open and r a t i o n a l d i a l o g u e . ) Without conceding to d'Alembert, i t must n e v e r t h e l e s s be acknowledged t h a t c o n s e q u e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t e d from the J e s u i t s ' p o l i c y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a wide range of s e c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on the one hand, and m a i n t a i n i n g a high l e v e l of i n t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n e and adherence to fundamental r e l i g i o u s commitments on the other.(19) In order to understand those t e n s i o n s , i t i s necessary to examine the i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s which gave the J e s u i t s t h e i r i d e n t i t y and guided t h e i r behaviour. Three t e x t s , a l l d a t i n g from the s i x t e e n t h century, guided the conduct of the J e s u i t s d u r i n g the p e r i o d examined here. These works - the S p i r i t u a l Exercises,. the C o n s t i t u t i o n s of the S o c i e t y of Jesus and the R a t i o  Studiorum of 1599 - e s t a b l i s h e d the fundamental o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s of the S o c i e t y and were the source of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . ( 2 0 ) In essence they d e s c r i b e d : (a) a s p i r i t u a l p r a c t i c e which r e q u i r e d an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w o r l d l y a f f a i r s r a t h e r than contemplation and a s c e t i c withdrawal; (b) s t r i c t vows of poverty, c h a s t i t y , and obedience as w e l l as a f u r t h e r vow of obedience to the pope f o r a l l f u l l y p r o f e s s e d p r i e s t s ; (c) a moral d o c t r i n e which emphasized f r e e w i l l as w e l l as a f l e x i b l e and t o l e r a n t understanding of human nature; and (d) a pragmatic and h i g h l y e c l e c t i c approach to e d u c a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s which placed a s t r o n g emphasis on Aquinas i n matters 9 of theology, and A r i s t o t l e i n s e c u l a r a f f a i r s . In s h o r t , J e s u i t thought r e f l e c t e d a strong debt to the i n t e l l e c t u a l v alues of Renaissance humanism - with i t s s t r e s s on e t h i c a l and c u l t u r a l i d e a l s d e r i v e d from a n t i q u i t y - and to the moral and t h e o l o g i c a l preoccupations of p o s t - T r i d e n t i n e C a t h o l i c i s m . As a means of ensuring that these p r i n c i p l e s were adhered to I g n a t i u s set i n place a powerful c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to oversee i n c l o s e d e t a i l the a f f a i r s of the S o c i e t y which had become a c t i v e on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e i n very s h o r t order. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s which he e s t a b l i s h e d i n conjunction with h i s e a r l i e s t f o l l o w e r s provided the J e s u i t s with a number of strong advantages given the operating c o n d i t i o n s of eighteenth-century European s c i e n c e . The emphasis the S o c i e t y placed on education, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scope of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the close a s s o c i a t i o n i t maintained with r u l i n g e l i t e s , were advantageous i n an age when science was becoming i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and c e n t r a l i z e d i n much of Europe.(21) This was e s p e c i a l l y true i n the case of France where i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y were being brought under the d i r e c t i o n of the monarchy. Able to r e l y on t h e i r prominent and p e d a g o g i c a l l y advanced educational system f o r a l a r g e pool of r e c r u i t s , the French J e s u i t s had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g men from w i t h i n t h e i r own ranks 10 who possessed at least the basic mathematical and technical s k i l l s required by the science of the time. The French monarchy was not oblivious to the potential benefits of this source of technical expertise. Jesuit mathematicians and cartographers were recruited to serve as instructors at various royal schools of hydrography - a function the Society f u l f i l l e d until i t was abolished in France. The most notable such collaboration, however, occurred in the case of the French Jesuit mission to China.(22) Organized at the request of the Crown, this venture was calculated from i t s inception to promote French economic interests at the court in Peking, which was otherwise inaccessible to French representatives. It was also from the start intended to act in support of the Academie des Sciences.(23) In their semi-official capacity as observers and correspondents acting on behalf of the Academie, French Jesuit missionaries provided researchers in Paris with a wealth of s c i e n t i f i c information during the f i r s t half of the eighteenth century. Most of their work was in astronomy and cartography, but they also provided botanical, medical, technological and historical data. The astronomical observations conducted by Antoine Gaubil earned the praise of the Academie.(24) So did valuable information obtained by other missionaries concerning the manufacture of porcelain and Chinese smallpox inoculation techniques.(25) 11 P r a c t i c a l s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s by French J e s u i t s extended beyond such o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l . In the s l i g h t l y more than s i x t y years t h a t i t was e d i t e d by J e s u i t s , the J o u r n a l de Trevoux p u b l i s h e d somewhat over one hundred f i f t y r e p o r t s of a s t r o n o m i c a l and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s conducted by members of the S o c i e t y based a t c o l l e g e s i n France and i n missions abroad.(26) Denied e n t r y i n t o the Academie des Sciences, s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c t i v e J e s u i t s were n e v e r t h e l e s s a b l e to j o i n p r o v i n c i a l academies i n France as w e l l as f o r e i g n i n s t i t u t i o n s , n o t a b l y the Royal S o c i e t y . And while i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n has been paid to the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of J e s u i t pedagogy on the development of French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e , D a n i e l Roche has argued t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l l i k e l y r e v e a l a s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e . ( 2 7 ) Such s c i e n t i f i c p o t e n t i a l was o c c a s i o n a l l y compromised i n t h i s p e r i o d , however, by J e s u i t adherence to r e g u l a t i o n s out of touch with the c o n d i t i o n s of the world i n which they were meant t o be a p p l i e d . The l e g i s l a t i o n I g n a t i u s c r e a t e d or i n s p i r e d w hile he was a l i v e o s s i f i e d a f t e r h i s death. Generations of subsequent f o l l o w e r s r e f r a i n e d from amending h i s p r i n c i p l e s f o r f e a r of d i s t a n c i n g themselves from the a u t h o r i t a t i v e v i s i o n of a founding f a t h e r who, f o r them, had a c q u i r e d mythic p r o p o r t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of the S o c i e t y , while encouraging an i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s on the p a r t of i t s members, n e v e r t h e l e s s 12 a l s o d i d much to undermine t h e i r a b i l i t y to do so e f f e c t i v e l y . The vows taken by the J e s u i t s were an obvious source of d i f f i c u l t y . T h e i r combined e f f e c t was to s e t the S o c i e t y a p a r t from some of the most c h e r i s h e d assumptions and p r a c t i c e s of French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . In an age of pronounced G a l i l e a n sentiments the ultramontane l o y a l t i e s of the J e s u i t s , always a source of p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y , became a d i s t i n c t l i a b i l i t y i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s as w e l l . The t o t a l obedience I g n a t i u s had i n s i s t e d upon - he used the analogy of a corpse or an o l d man's s t a f f to d e s c r i b e the i d e a l compliance he e n v i s i o n e d - stood i n marked c o n t r a s t to an emerging i d e a l of the s c i e n t i s t as someone who was r e c e p t i v e t o a l l reasonable arguments. And the vow of p o v e r t y exacerbated f o r the J e s u i t s a problem which plagued most s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s : how to f i n a n c e r e s e a r c h i n an age when s c i e n c e was becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y expensive p u r s u i t . ( 2 8 ) That Antoine G a u b i l , s t a t i o n e d i n China, c o n s t a n t l y lamented an i n a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n t e c h n i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d (and expensive) s c i e n t i f i c equipment i s perhaps no s u r p r i s e g i v e n h i s d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n . ( 2 9 ) But there i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s were s c a r c e l y b e t t e r i n France. In h i s exhaustive study of J e s u i t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h a t country, D e l a t t r e has i d e n t i f i e d the vow of poverty, which compelled the S o c i e t y to o f f e r i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r f r e e , as a d i r e c t source of constant f i n a n c i a l 13 difficulties.(30) Those economic woes had a significant impact both on the science education provided at those colleges, and on the a b i l i t y of instructors to conduct their own research. Finally, although i t was not o f f i c i a l l y decreed in the same fashion as the vows required of a l l f u l l y professed Jesuits, the Society's traditional adherence to classical and humanist ideals further served to alienate i t from the tenor of s c i e n t i f i c culture in the eighteenth century. Certainly the order's continued devotion to Aristotelian and Ciceronian ethical and rhetorical values, and to a Latin l i t e r a r y education, were at best a public relations l i a b i l i t y in an age when the intellectual elites increasingly defined themselves in terms of a radical departure from the past. I l l A further consequence of the Jesuit adherence to Ignatian ideals occurred at the level of religious controversy. The confrontations with Protestantism which Ignatius had envisioned as the raison d'etre for his followers obviously had a dampening effect on the a b i l i t y of the Jesuits to communicate with Protestants. Yet despite an undisguised h o s t i l i t y to Protestantism, the French Jesuits maintained significant contacts with Protestant thinkers.(31) I r o n i c a l l y , i t was w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c church t h a t the J e s u i t s became embroiled i n a seemingly endless s e r i e s of t h e o l o g i c a l d i s p u t e s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r adherence to accommodationist p r a c t i c e s such as c a s u i s t r y and p r o b a b i l i s m . ( 3 2 ) Both of these d o c t r i n e s were intended to ease the sacrament of c o n f e s s i o n and to provide e a s i e r a c c e s s t o communion. T h i s i s not the p l a c e to r e c o r d the d e t a i l s of those c o n t r o v e r s i e s , which began as e a r l y as the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . What i s e s s e n t i a l i s to r e c o g n i z e the e x t e n t t o which they d i v e r t e d the e n e r g i e s of the S o c i e t y throughout i t s h i s t o r y and impinged upon i t s a b i l i t y to e x p l o r e new i n t e l l e c t u a l t e r r a i n . Rivka Feldhay has d e s c r i b e d the e f f e c t s of such i n t e r n a l c o n t r o v e r s y i n the case of the development of J e s u i t thought i n the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth centur i e s . (33) She argues t h a t i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y Spanish and I t a l i a n J e s u i t s marked a dramatic break with T h o m i s t i c t r a d i t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g "a new image of knowledge" which allowed " f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of h y p o t h e t i c a l e n t i t i e s " . ( 3 4 ) T h i s conceptual leap permitted them to keep pace with the fundamental q u a l i t y of the S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n - the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of mathematics as the b a s i s f o r s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Subsequently among the J e s u i t s t h i s developed i n t o a concept t h a t the u n b r i d l e d p u r s u i t of knowledge c o u l d serve as a means to s a l v a t i o n . By the mid-seventeenth century, however, Feldhay argues t h a t the J e s u i t s abandoned t h i s s p i r i t of t h e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n n o v a t i o n and r e t u r n e d to a more t r a d i t i o n a l e pistemology as a r e s u l t of acute pressure from c o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c Church. Consequently, she concludes t h a t " J e s u i t c u l t u r e . . . never developed i n t o a coherent system a n t i c i p a t i n g modern science".( 3 5 ) C o n d i t i o n s i n many ways s i m i l a r to those d e s c r i b e d by F e l d h a y occ u r r e d i n the case of the J e s u i t s i n France dur i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . During t h a t p e r i o d of i n t e l l e c t u a l ferment they found themselves s e v e r e l y a t t a c k e d from w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c Church on a t l e a s t two f r o n t s . The R i t e s C o n t r o v e r s y , which c e n t r e d on the accommodationist s t r a t e g i e s of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n China, began i n the 1690s and continued to smoulder even a f t e r a papal b u l l denouncing the J e s u i t p o s i t i o n was i s s u e d i n 1742. Of even gre a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of i t s impact on the S o c i e t y , and on French C a t h o l i c i s m g e n e r a l l y , was the p r o t r a c t e d d i s p u t e with Jansenism: a r i g o r i s t and a t times G a l i l e a n d o c t r i n e which s h a r p l y opposed the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c J e s u i t p r a c t i c e s . The need t o p r o t e c t themselves a g a i n s t charges of d o c t r i n a l e r r o r by t h e i r J a n s e n i s t c r i t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y impeded the a b i l i t y of the J e s u i t s i n France to give f r e e r e i n to the s o r t of bold and i n n o v a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e c u l a t i o n s Rivka Feldhay has i d e n t i f i e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the S o c i e t y i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . As an example of such c o n s t r a i n t s i t i s important t o remember t h a t u n t i l 1758 the h e l i o c e n t r i c 16 system was banned by the Church. While i t would be m i s l e a d i n g to r e p r e s e n t t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n as a burden to the S o c i e t y as a whole there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t i t a c t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t impediment to those J e s u i t s eager to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the s c i e n t i f i c l i f e of the e i g h t e e n t h century. Yet to have openly c h a l l e n g e d the Church's p o s i t i o n i n t h i s matter would c e r t a i n l y have i n v i t e d f u r t h e r a t t a c k s from c o n s e r v a t i v e f a c t i o n s eager to p o r t r a y the S o c i e t y as i r r e m e d i a b l y l a x i s t . Consequently, where the French J e s u i t s were anxious to attempt an accommodation with the i n t e l l e c t u a l developments d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n , s t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s tempered t h e i r response. • • • T h i s t r a d i t i o n of c o n t r o v e r s y and defense of I g n a t i a n p r i n c i p l e s forms the e s s e n t i a l background to the ideas expressed i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. Compelled by t h e i r n o t i o n s of e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n i n the s e r v i c e of God, French J e s u i t s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e c o g n i z e d the n e c e s s i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the emerging and i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l s c i e n t i f i c and l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e of t h e i r time. But t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c o n d i t i o n e d by a c o r r e s p o n d i n g need t o a v o i d compromising fundamental assumptions of I g n a t i a n s p i r i t u a l i t y as w e l l as p r e s e r v i n g the l e g i t i m a c y of the S o c i e t y i n the face of both s e c u l a r and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c r i t i c s . I t was i n t h i s f a s h i o n , sometimes embattled, sometimes o p t i m i s t i c and accommodating, t h a t the J e s u i t w r i t e r s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux attempted to 17 r e c o n c i l e d o c t r i n e s formulated i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y with the world of ideas i n the e i g h t e e n t h . 18 CHAPTER 1 THE JOURNAL DE TREVOUX, SCIENCE, AND THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS The world of p u b l i s h i n g i n France a t the s t a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was an enormously v a r i e d , dynamic and I n f l u e n t i a l e n t e r p r i s e . What contemporaries l o o s e l y r e f e r r e d t o as the Re p u b l i c of L e t t e r s encompassed l i t e r a r y genres as d i v e r s e as almanacs, n a r r a t i v e s , p o l e m i c a l pamphlets, d e v o t i o n a l works, s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e s , t e c h n i c a l manuals and j o u r n a l s of a l l s o r t s , to c i t e o n l y a few examples. The audience f o r such l i t e r a t u r e was e q u a l l y d i v e r s e i n terms of i t s t a s t e s , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s and to a l e s s e r extent i t s s o c i a l o r i g i n s . ( 1 ) A s u s t a i n e d sense of c u r i o s i t y and a steady i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y animated t h i s v i b r a n t l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e . The popular a p p e t i t e f o r new i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d e d a s t r o n g and widespread i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n t i f i c i d e a s . As i n the case of p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s , s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y came t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y s a t i s f i e d by j o u r n a l s . Of a l l a v a i l a b l e forms of p u b l i c a t i o n , the l a t t e r proved to be, from the mid-seventeenth c e n t u r y on, the most e f f e c t i v e means of responding t o t h i s deepseated i n t e r e s t i n new developments.(2) The c o n n e c t i o n between j o u r n a l i s m and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c ideas i n France d u r i n g the ancl e n regime -e v i d e n t i n the v e r y o r i g i n s of j o u r n a l i s m i n t h a t country d u r i n g the 1630s - became e x p l i c i t with the establishment of 19 the J o u r n a l des Savants In the 1660s. i n t e n t on encouraging those e f f o r t s t h a t would r e f l e c t the g l o r y of the French s t a t e as w e l l as advance i t s economic i n t e r e s t s , C o l b e r t p r o v i d e d support f o r a j o u r n a l devoted l a r g e l y (though not e x c l u s i v e l y ) , t o the s c i e n c e s and the a p p l i e d a r t s . During the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the J o u r n a l des  Savants a c t e d as a s e m i - o f f i c i a l l i t e r a r y o u t l e t f o r the Academle des Sciences and throughout much of t h a t p e r i o d i t enjoyed the s t a t u s of being France's most i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l . More than any other p e r i o d i c a l i t i n s p i r e d the French J e s u i t s when at the s t a r t of the e i g h t e e n t h century they s e t out to p u b l i s h a j o u r n a l of t h e i r own.(3) I The J o u r n a l de Trevoux. which f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n January 1701, r e s u l t e d from an a l l i a n c e between L o u i s -Auguste de Bourbon, due du Maine, and the J e s u i t s i n France. Both shared an i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g a prominent p o s i t i o n i n the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s and i n promoting the i n t e r e s t s of the C a t h o l i c church. The l a t t e r they p e r c e i v e d to be t h r e a t e n e d from w i t h i n by Jansenism, and from without by the propaganda of French P r o t e s t a n t e x i l e s . ( 4 ) The patronage of the due du Maine was p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e t o the J e s u i t s , g i v e n h i s r a t h e r unique p o s i t i o n as s o v e r e i g n of the independent p r i n c i p a l i t y of Dombes, l o c a t e d near the c e n t r e of France. The p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t i e s enjoyed by the duke, whose s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n to the French king was 20 t h a t of a l e s s e r s o v e r e i g n to a g r e a t e r one, allowed him to e s t a b l i s h a p r i n t i n g press a t Trevoux, the c a p i t a l of Dombes, as w e l l as the d i s c r e t i o n to a c t as the s o l e censor of p u b l i c a t i o n s i n h i s domain.(5) The duke's i n v i t a t i o n to p u b l i s h a j o u r n a l i n h i s t e r r i t o r y eased a p o t e n t i a l l y awkward s i t u a t i o n . I t a f f o r d e d the J e s u i t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to bypass the c o n s i d e r a b l y more complex process of o b t a i n i n g a p r i v i l e g e from the French crown, and t h e r e f o r e enabled them to gain a prominent v o i c e i n French c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s with a minimum of p o l i t i c a l compromise. At the same time, the French government was spared the problems i t might have encountered had i t g i v e n an o f f i c i a l , as opposed to t a c i t , a p p r o v a l f o r t h a t J e s u i t venture. The subsequent h i s t o r y of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y organized a c c o r d i n g to two d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s . During the f i r s t , from 1701 u n t i l 1734, i t was w r i t t e n and e d i t e d i n P a r i s by J e s u i t s s t a t i o n e d a t the C o l l e g e L o u l s -le-Grand, but a c t u a l l y p r i n t e d a t Trevoux. Though from the s t a r t there was always an e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f , the d i r e c t i o n of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was f r e q u e n t l y determined by the i n t e r e s t s and concerns of i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n e d i t o r s and w r i t e r s . However, as a r e s u l t of having become embroiled, though o f t e n I n a d v e r t e n t l y , i n a s e r i e s of p o l e m i c a l d i s p u t e s -i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s which a t t r a c t e d the wrath of the Academie des Sciences - the J o u r n a l de Trevoux 21 t e m p o r a r i l y l o s t the support of the due du Maine i n 1731. Though the J e s u i t s were ab l e to continue p u b l i s h i n g , f o r a time a t Lyon, t h e i r p o s i t i o n remained h i g h l y p r e c a r i o u s u n t i l they managed to r e g a i n the duke's con f i d e n c e three years l a t e r . With h i s renewed support behind them, they were t h i s time a b l e to o b t a i n a p r i v i l e g e from the king a l l o w i n g them to p u b l i s h i n P a r i s . In 1734 a chastened and r e o r g a n i z e d J o u r n a l de Trevoux thus found i t s e l f i n the e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n of being able to operate f u l l y a t the c e n t e r of French c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s . During t h i s second stage of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux's h i s t o r y t i g h t e r e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l s were imposed. Such r e s t r u c t u r i n g and reshaping of e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s was not unusual, though the element of c o n t r o v e r s y was perhaps more e v i d e n t i n the case of the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux than i n o t h e r s . Both the Mercure and the J o u r n a l  des Savants underwent s i m i l a r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the e a r l y 1720s, f o r i n s t a n c e . In 1745 F r a n c o i s B e r t h i e r , o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d to be the most important s i n g l e i n f l u e n c e on the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f assumed the p o s i t i o n of e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f , remaining a t t h a t post u n t i l 1762.(6) Though he concerned h i m s e l f more with l i t e r a r y than s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s , B e r t h i e r n e v e r t h e l e s s openly s u b s c r i b e d to the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t there e x i s t e d no fundamental c o n f l i c t between s c i e n c e and C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . ( 7 ) The f i r s t , he argued, d e r i v e d i t s t r u t h s from the study of nature and the second from d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n . 22 How B e r t h l e r and subsequent e d i t o r s and reviewers of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux might have r e c o n c i l e d o f f i c i a l C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y s e c u l a r demands of the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y u n f o r t u n a t e l y remains a matter f o r c o n j e c t u r e . In 1762 an u n r e l a t e d s e r i e s of events i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l s c a n d a l , t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y and p o l i t i c a l s u s p i c i o n combined t o p r o v i d e l o n g - s t a n d i n g opponents of the J e s u i t s i n France with the means by which to persuade the parlements of Rouen and P a r i s to i s s u e e d i c t s condemning t h a t order. In 1764 L o u i s XV b e l a t e d l y extended these i n i t i a l I n j u n c t i o n s by p r o s c r i b i n g the J e s u i t s throughout h i s kingdom a l t o g e t h e r . Though the J o u r n a l de Trevoux would con t i n u e t o p u b l i s h under t h a t name u n t i l 1768 (and i n v a r i o u s g u i s e s u n t i l 1782), a f t e r 1762 i t was no longer d i r e c t e d by J e s u i t s and i t s s t a f f was i n c r e a s i n g l y composed of w r i t e r s r e c r u i t e d from o u t s i d e the order as w e l l . Cut a d r i f t from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which i t had developed, the J o u r n a l de Trevoux d e c l i n e d n o t i c e a b l y i n q u a l i t y and i n s t a t u r e . From the mid-1760s onward i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p r e s s i o n of J e s u i t o p i n i o n . II The J e s u i t s were the o n l y C a t h o l i c order i n France which attempted a v a r i e d and s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . They alone re c o g n i z e d the value of e xtending t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n t o v a r i o u s domains of the a r t s 23 and s c i e n c e s i n s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . At r o u g h l y the same time they launched the J o u r n a l de Trevoux they a l s o began to p u b l i s h the L e t t r e s E d l f l a n t e s et C u r l e u s e s , as w e l l as the D l c t l o n n a i r e de Trevoux. The f i r s t of these other ventures sought to promote J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s abroad by c a p i t a l i z i n g on a tremendous p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e . The second was intended to c o u n t e r a c t the p o p u l a r i t y of Bayle's e n c y c l o p e d i a . Such e f f o r t s were not n e c e s s a r i l y endorsed by the S o c i e t y as a whole, however. German members, i n p a r t i c u l a r , c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t what they p e r c e i v e d to be a t h e o l o g i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y r i s k y e n t e r p r i s e which would i n e v i t a b l y d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n away from more important s p i r i t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . ( 8 ) S i m i l a r r e s e r v a t i o n s must have been expressed by J e s u i t s i n France, but i n g e n e r a l a sense of enthusiasm f o r the J o u r n a l de Trevoux and other l i t e r a r y u n d ertakings appears to have been widespread. Two fundamental developments i n French r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s d u r i n g the seventeenth c e n t u r y provided a c r u c i a l i n c e n t i v e f o r the J e s u i t s to p u b l i s h a j o u r n a l of major importance. These were: (a) the c o n t r o v e r s y over J a n s e n i s t i d e a s ; and, (b) the r e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t of Nantes. In the f i r s t case the i n a b i l i t y of the J e s u i t s t o respond e f f e c t i v e l y to the r i d i c u l e they were s u b j e c t e d to by J a n s e n i s t p o l e m i c i s t s , most n o t a b l y P a s c a l , a l e r t e d them to the need to r e v i s e t h e i r approach to l i t e r a r y a f f a i r s . S c a r c e l y newcomers to the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s , the J e s u i t s 24 had i n f a c t enjoyed c o n s i d e r a b l e economic power i n t h a t realm as a r e s u l t of t h e i r a b i l i t y to a s s i g n l u c r a t i v e p r i n t i n g c o n t r a c t s f o r the textbooks and d e v o t i o n a l works they produced i n abundance.(9) However, such l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s l e f t them unprepared f o r the s t y l i s t i c demands of j o u r n a l i s m and polemics which found an a v i d audience i n F r a n c e . In the second case, the r e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t of Nantes, c r e a t e d a l a r g e and embittered French e x p a t r i a t e community.(10) T h i s community d i r e c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s t o polemics a g a i n s t both the a b s o l u t i s t regime which had t u r n e d on them and the C a t h o l i c church which had i n s p i r e d t h a t a t t a c k . French P r o t e s t a n t presses i n Holland proved to be e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e o u t l e t s f o r e x p a t r i a t e P r o t e s t a n t w r i t e r s . In f a c t , the constant stream of p u b l i c a t i o n s emanating from Holland enjoyed c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n F r a n c e . And i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l merit was r e c o g n i z e d even by the French government whose e f f o r t s to r e s t r i c t the t r a f f i c i n such books were t e p i d a t best. That the J e s u i t s were alarmed by t h i s obvious source of i n f l u e n c e f o r P r o t e s t a n t t h i n k e r s should come as no s u r p r i s e . ( 1 1 ) On a d i f f e r e n t note, whatever s u s p i c i o n s the French J e s u i t s might have harbored about c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s emanating from abroad, they were n e v e r t h e l e s s a l s o keen to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchange of i d e a s . They saw the J o u r n a l de Trevoux as an i d e a l means of a c h i e v i n g such ends. At one l e v e l t h i s i n t e r e s t o b v i o u s l y had 25 p r o p a g a n d i s t i c i n t e n t as i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l prominence c o u l d not f a i l t o impart an important measure of c r e d i b i l i t y . But l e s s s e l f - s e r v i n g motives on the p a r t of the French J e s u i t s are e v i d e n t as w e l l . L i k e many of t h e i r contemporaries, the w r i t e r s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux were anxious t o preserve a system of i n t e l l e c t u a l exchange which had t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x i s t e d i n Europe but was i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s r u p t e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by p e r s i s t e n t warfare and the growing use of the v e r n a c u l a r i n p u b l l s h i n g . ( 1 2 ) I f , f o r the J e s u i t s , t h i s d e s i r e d i d not extend to r e l i g i o u s matters, i t n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p l i e d to the a r t s , and even more so t o the s c i e n c e s . Throughout the p e r i o d d u r i n g which the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was p u b l i s h e d , an open exchange of i d e a s was w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as e s s e n t i a l t o s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s . The extent to which j o u r n a l s addressed t h i s need i s e v i d e n t i n the J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r y Antoine G a u b i l ' s correspondence from China. Charged with conducting important a s t r o n o m i c a l and other s c i e n t i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s , G a u b i l c l e a r l y f e l t h i m s e l f a t a s e r i o u s disadvantage because of h i s i n a b i l i t y t o keep a b r e a s t of c u r r e n t s c i e n t i f i c developments. His requests f o r the l a t e s t i s s u e s of European p u b l i c a t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t most o f t e n mentioned: the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, the J o u r n a l of L e i p z i g , and the proceedings of both the Academie des Sciences and the Royal S o c i e t y . ( 1 3 ) C u r i o u s l y , he does not appear to have taken an i n t e r e s t i n the J o u r n a l des Savants. 26 F i n a l l y , one should not r u l e out as a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r the p e r s o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l ambitions of many J e s u i t s whose i n t e r e s t s and o f t e n s u b s t a n t i a l achievements i n c u l t u r a l and p a r t i c u l a r l y s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s prompted them to seek a wider audience f o r t h e i r i d e a s . T h i s l a t t e r tendency has been a l l but overlooked i n accounts of J e s u i t a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y . Yet the e x t e n s i v e correspondence l e f t behind by a number of prominent French J e s u i t s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Antoine G a u b i l and L o u l s - B e r t r a n d C a s t e l among them, r e v e a l s t h a t the c a r e f u l f a s h i o n i n which they c u l t i v a t e d t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c c o n t a c t s owed more than a l i t t l e t o a d e s i r e to advance t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n s . ( 1 4 ) Both men gained e n t r y i n t o a number of s c i e n t i f i c academies, i n c l u d i n g the Royal S o c i e t y i n London. Such successes t e s t i f y not o n l y to a genuine a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r work but a l s o t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o make themselves known to. an i n t e r n a t i o n a l audience. Des p i t e the f a c t t h a t most reviews i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux were p u b l i s h e d anonymously, i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e f o r r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r s to make a name f o r themselves i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s . There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t such rewards acted as an i n c e n t i v e f o r J e s u i t w r i t e r s t o p u b l i s h , though with o c c a s i o n a l p e r n i c i o u s consequences. C a s t e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , took s t r o n g exception to B e r t h i e r ' s attempts to impose e d i t o r i a l g u i d e l i n e s on h i s s c i e n t i f i c w r i t i n g s when the l a t t e r assumed the p o s i t i o n of e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f i n the mid-1740s. The i n t e r e s t s of the 27 S o c i e t y a s i d e , C a s t e l saw such attempts as an Inexcusable a t t a c k on h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y and he chose t o r e t i r e r a t h e r than submit t o such treatment.(15) I I I At the time the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f i r s t appeared i n 1701 t h e r e a l r e a d y e x i s t e d c l e a r i f u n o f f i c i a l conventions g o v e r n i n g the v a r i o u s l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e s which comprised the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . In h i s c r i t i c a l h i s t o r y of j o u r n a l s w r i t t e n i n 1734 Camusat d e f i n e d a j o u r n a l as "a p e r i o d i c a l which appears r e g u l a r l y at a s p e c i f i e d date and which announces new books or new e d i t i o n s , g i v i n g an idea of t h e i r c o n t e n t s and s e r v i n g the purpose of p r e s e r v i n g new ideas i n the s c i e n c e s , i n s h o r t a work i n which one gathers a l l t h a t appears i n the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . " ( 1 6 ) In a d d i t i o n to such a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a j o u r n a l was expected t o r e f r a i n from e d i t o r i a l i z i n g . Instead i t was to appear to be r a t i o n a l , i m p a r t i a l , and s u c c i n c t . I f the a p p e t i t e f o r new knowledge appeared t o be i n s a t i a b l e on the p a r t of an a v i d r e a d e r s h i p of j o u r n a l s I t was n e v e r t h e l e s s an a p p e t i t e which expected t o be s a t i s f i e d q u i c k l y . ( 1 7 ) These j o u r n a l i s t i c standards had s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d the p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t s of the J o u r n a l des  Savants. T h e r e f o r e a work which concerned i t s e l f with s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s was e s p e c i a l l y l i a b l e to be s c r u t i n i z e d f o r i t s adherence t o proper form. In the preface to the f i r s t Issue of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux J e s u i t e d i t o r s o u t l i n e d a 28 s e t of p r i n c i p l e s which they assured readers would guide t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e . ( 1 8 ) F i r s t , they promised to provide e x t r a c t s f o r a l l s c i e n t i f i c works p u b l i s h e d i n Europe. I t i s important t o emphasize here t h a t as i n the case of the J o u r n a l des Savants s c i e n c e was g e n e r a l l y understood to i n c l u d e s u b j e c t s as d i v e r s e as: theology, numismatics, astronomy, mathematics, mechanics and what we would now term p h y s i c s , b i o l o g y and medicine. In keeping with recognized j o u r n a l i s t i c procedures of the time o n l y r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d works would be reviewed. (What c o n s t i t u t e d "new" was not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n p r a c t i c e , although i t seems to have meant a n y t h i n g p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n approximately a year of a review going t o press.) I n i t i a l l y authors were allowed to w r i t e summaries of t h e i r own but t h i s p r a c t i c e was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1712 i n order to improve j o u r n a l i s t i c s tandards. Second, the e d i t o r s pledged to keep t h e i r readers informed of events i n the major u n i v e r s i t i e s and academies of Europe, as w e l l as of c u r r e n t s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o v e r s i e s , p r o v i d e d these were of s u f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o merit p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . E u l o g i e s of famous s c i e n t i s t s were promised. These were intended to provide a s y n o p s i s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s achievement - as w e l l as more per s o n a l b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The e d i t o r s a l s o promised to help f a c i l i t a t e c o n t a c t s among s c i e n t i s t s by p u b l i s h i n g l e t t e r s and works i n progress and by m a i n t a i n i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l network of correspondents. Such i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n , 29 they argued, would be " i n f i n i t e l y u s e f u l to attempts to p e r f e c t the s c i e n c e s " .(19) T h i r d , the J e s u i t s promised t o remain n e u t r a l i n a l l matters d i s c u s s e d i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, a c t i n g merely as i m p a r t i a l agents i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge to the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . They would, however, be compelled t o abandon such n e u t r a l i t y i n the event of t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t "the F a i t h , proper v a l u e s , or the s t a t e ; i n which cases one i s never permitted t o remain n e u t r a l " . ( 2 0 ) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h i s b r i e f statement was the o n l y a l l u s i o n made to valu e s higher than s p e c i f i c a l l y j o u r n a l i s t i c ones. In the numerous reviews of s c i e n t i f i c I n t e r e s t examined f o r the purposes of t h i s study no b l a t a n t examples of c e n s o r s h i p were found. The arguments advanced by J e s u i t reviewers i n d i s c u s s i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s were i n f a c t r e l a t i v e l y commonplace i n French i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s of the time and should not be c o n s i d e r e d t o have emerged p r i m a r i l y from an adherence t o orthodox C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . What stands out i s the extent to which they c o n t a i n e d few obvious r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l or moral i n j u n c t i o n s . Before c o n s i d e r i n g how some of these s c i e n t i f i c arguments were developed by J e s u i t reviewers one f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r l i t e r a r y s t r a t e g y must be made. In h i s study of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f o r the year 1701 P i e r r e Retat has poi n t e d out as s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the J e s u i t s t i t l e d t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g venture Memolres i n s t e a d of J o u r n a l 30 a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r term came to be the more common usage.(21) Once again the p r e f a c e to the f i r s t i s s u e p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the importance of t h i s a p p a r e n t l y s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n . There i t i s s t a t e d t h a t "a w r i t e r who produces memoires i s p r o p e r l y c a l l e d an h i s t o r i a n " and i s consequently bound by even s t r i c t e r r u l e s of i m p a r t i a l i t y than a j o u r n a l i s t by v i r t u e of s t a n d i n g one rung above him, as i t were, i n the h i e r a r c h y of the Republic of L e t t e r s . ( 2 2 ) The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t the work p u b l i s h e d by the J e s u i t s was of h i s t o r i c a l Importance. Consequently i t would prove of s i g n i f i c a n c e to l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s who might want to r e c o r d the progress of the s c i e n c e s i n the e i g h t e e n t h century. Claims of t h i s s o r t were intended to emphasize the g r a v i t y of the J e s u i t ' s p r o j e c t , and to s e t i t a p a r t from other e n t e r p r i s e s competing f o r preeminence i n the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . ( 2 3 ) IV Such e v i d e n t concern f o r the s t a t u s of the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux on the p a r t of those who produced i t i n e v i t a b l y r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s as to i t s s u c c e s s . I f we measure the l a t t e r by l o n g e v i t y and the a b i l i t y to p u b l i s h on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s , both r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s i n an age abounding with s h o r t l i v e d l i t e r a r y ventures, then the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was unquestionably one of the most important p e r i o d i c a l s of i t s time. Success might a l s o be measured a c c o r d i n g to an a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of 31 prominent t h i n k e r s . In t h a t case the v e r d i c t would a g a i n be p o s i t i v e though i t would have t o be s t r e s s e d t h a t the r e a c t i o n s of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s i n French s o c i e t y were more o f t e n than not n e g a t i v e . T h i s undoubtedly had an unfavourable Impact on the J o u r n a l de Trevoux's p r e s t i g e In some q u a r t e r s . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t esteem f o r the J e s u i t defence of C a t h o l i c v a l u e s was heightened a t the same time among more c o n s e r v a t i v e segments of the l i t e r a r y p u b l i c . The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n of how many people a c t u a l l y read the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. and e s p e c i a l l y , how many read i t on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , i s the hardest t o answer. We can s a f e l y conclude t h a t i t was more than the f i f t y s u b s c r i b e r s V o l t a i r e s a r c a s t i c a l l y deemed to be the J e s u i t s ' t o t a l audience, ( d i d he i n c l u d e h i m s e l f i n t h a t number?), but we can o n l y guess a t a more r e a l i s t i c f i g u r e . ( 2 4 ) Recent s t u d i e s have suggested a r e a d e r s h i p approximately the same as t h a t of the J o u r n a l des Savants - which appeared weekly as opposed t o monthly as i n the case of the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux - t h a t i s t o say something on the order of one thousand s u b s c r i b e r s . ( 2 5 ) Again, t h a t f i g u r e i s p o t e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g because r e a d i n g rooms were an important o u t l e t f o r p e r i o d i c a l s d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and con s e q u e n t l y i t i s hard t o estimate how many readers were a c t u a l l y exposed t o the J o u r n a l de Trevoux on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 32 I f , f i n a l l y , we measure success a c c o r d i n g to e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and bear i n mind t h a t one of the fundamental motives f o r the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was t o e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n of I n f l u e n c e i n French i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s , then somewhat mixed c o n c l u s i o n s are i n order. On the one hand t h e r e i s l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t the French J e s u i t s achieved prominence In e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French s o c i e t y through the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, and t h a t they s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d the development of French c u l t u r e d u r i n g that p e r i o d as a r e s u l t . On the other hand, such success had i t s p r i c e , as i t compelled the J e s u i t s to p u b l i c l y defend matters of d o c t r i n e when a lower p r o f i l e might have permitted them g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l f l e x i b i l i t y . Perhaps d'Alembert deserves the l a s t word here. Commenting on the f a c t o r s which caused the d e s t r u c t i o n of the J e s u i t s i n France d u r i n g the mid 1760s, he c i t e d t h e i r j o u r n a l i s t i c ambitions as c o n t r i b u t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way t o t h e i r downfall.(26) The e d i t o r s and w r i t e r s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. he argued, had f e l t h i g h l y c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r I n t e l l e c t u a l and l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s . T h i s had l e d them t o c o n t e s t the ideas of the philosophes i n the arena of the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r them, he c o n t i n u e d , they f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the French p u b l i c read t o amuse i t s e l f , and gave i t s support t o the s i d e that made i t laugh the ha r d e s t . (27) And on t h a t s c o r e , he concluded, the J e s u i t s were no match f o r t h e i r opponents. He might w e l l have c i t e d P a s c a l ' s ghost. 33 CHAPTER 2 THE JESUIT RESPONSE TO NEWTON Of the numerous debates and c o n t r o v e r s i e s which animated the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s i n France d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , few were as enduring or as d i v e r s i f i e d i n t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s as the d i s c u s s i o n s which accompanied the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of Newtonian ideas i n the p e r i o d between r o u g h l y 1720 and 1750. During t h a t time Newtonian p h y s i c s was e s t a b l i s h e d as the predominant approach i n the exact s c i e n c e s . I t a l s o emerged as a fundamental source of I n s p i r a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r French t h i n k e r s i n t e n t upon a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s reforms. In both circumstances Newtonian ideas p r e v a i l e d o n l y a f t e r overcoming r e s i s t a n c e from more orthodox q u a r t e r s -hence the v i g o r o u s c h a r a c t e r of the arguments those ideas engendered. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the case of s p e c i f i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s . There an extended and o f t e n acrimonious debate between C a r t e s i a n s and t h e i r Newtonian c h a l l e n g e r s became the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e d u r i n g the approximately f o r t y -year p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n h e r e . ( l ) At the h e a r t of t h i s debate were c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the P r l n c l p l a . Newtonians, whether they f u l l y understood t h a t work or not, h a i l e d i t as an e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a l achievement. Newton's system of the world and the empirico-mathematlcal 34 method from which i t developed was f o r them an o u t s t a n d i n g example of man's a b i l i t y to g a i n a r a t i o n a l understanding of c r e a t i o n . C a r t e s i a n s , however, d i s c o u n t e d the a b i l i t y of Newton's complex mathematics to transcend the a b s t r a c t . More important, they d e p l o r e d the use i n the P r i n c l p i a of concepts such as a t t r a c t i o n a t a d i s t a n c e and c e l e s t i a l v o i d s , which they i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e t u r n to the o c c u l t p h y s i c s of an e a r l i e r age. T h i s c o n f l i c t of ideas was a t i t s most intense i n France d u r i n g the 1730s, but i t continued to embroil p h y s i c i s t s , and to capture the a t t e n t i o n of a r e a d i n g p u b l i c , u n t i l the l a t e 1750s i f not even beyond t h a t . Given i t s p r o f e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s , i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t the J o u r n a l de Trevoux should have p a r t i c i p a t e d In these debates. I t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n so doing i t acted i n a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e f a s h i o n s i d i n g f o r the most p a r t with those elements i n France determined to uphold the C a r t e s i a n s t a t u s quo. N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t r a r y to D a n i e l Mornet's a s s e r t i o n that "the pious J o u r n a l de Trevoux d i d not e v o l v e " i n response to the i n t e l l e c t u a l developments of I t s time, i t w i l l be shown here t h a t t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree such development d i d occur.(2) I t w i l l be f u r t h e r argued, however, t h a t t h i s e v o l u t i o n of thought was to some extent obscured by a c o n t i n u e d adherence, on the p a r t of J e s u i t s a c t i v e i n French s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s , t o the humanist values c e n t r a l to the c u l t u r e of t h e i r order. 35 I Some p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are necessary before attempting an a n a l y s i s of the r o l e played by the Journal de  Trevoux i n the debates over Newtonian p h y s i c s . F i r s t , an h i s t o r i c a l overview of the development of those debates i s r e q u i r e d t o provide a framework f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Second, the adherence to C a r t e s i a n physics by J e s u i t reviewers r e q u i r e s some c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n s o f a r as such b e l i e f s a p p a rently c o n t r a d i c t e d an o f f i c i a l a n t i p a t h y on the pa r t of the S o c i e t y to Descartes' philosophy. F i n a l l y , the degree t o which Lou i s Bertrand C a s t e l might have exerted an i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e on the e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux during h i s extended tenure as science e d i t o r r e q u i r e s d i s c u s s i o n . ( i ) The d e c i s i o n on the part of the Academie des Sciences t o admit Newton as a corresponding member i n 1699 provides a f i t t i n g s t a r t f o r a b r i e f chronology of the s c i e n t i f i c q u a r r e l of i n t e r e s t here.(3) Newton's admission to the Academie came i n r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s s k i l l s as a mathematician, not as a p h y s i c i s t . From the mid-1670s u n t i l 1715 Newton's r e p u t a t i o n i n France was tha t of a b r i l l i a n t mathematician and of a s k i l l e d instrument maker.(4) A p r e v a i l i n g s k e p t i c i s m concerning the a b i l i t y of mathematics t o d e s c r i b e nature r e a l i s t i c a l l y , however, and an i n a b i l i t y on the part of C o n t i n e n t a l p h y s i c i s t s to d u p l i c a t e c r u c i a l 36 r e s u l t s of Newton's experiments with l i g h t and c o l o u r , r e s u l t e d i n a ge n e r a l n e g l e c t of Newtonian p h y s i c s i n France.(5) When a French d e l e g a t i o n t o the Royal S o c i e t y was able t o witness Newton s u c c e s s f u l l y perform the p r e v i o u s l y c o n t e s t e d o p t i c a l experiments i n 1715, the l a t t e r ' s s c i e n t i f i c r e p u t a t i o n gained c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t u r e . ( 6 ) I t was s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h a t the debate over the s t a t u s of the P r i n c l p i a began i n e a r n e s t . No longer able to e s s e n t i a l l y ignore Newton's work i n p h y s i c s , French s c i e n t i s t s were f u r t h e r compelled to defend t h e i r C a r t e s i a n views i n the face o f : (a) a c o n v e r s i o n t o Newtonianism on the p a r t of the Dutch s c i e n t i f i c community which was l a r g e l y complete by the e a r l y 1720s; and, (b) a p e r s i s t e n t i n a b i l i t y of Descartes* system t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n a s t r o n o m i c a l phenomena - most n o t a b l y comets. O f f i c i a l l y a t l e a s t , French s c i e n t i s t s d u r i n g the 1720s f o l l o w e d the le a d of the Academie des Sciences i n p r e s e n t i n g a u n i t e d C a r t e s i a n f r o n t t o the Newtonian c h a l l e n g e from without.(7) The Academie's annual p r i z e went t o works d e f e n d i n g C a r t e s i a n d o c t r i n e i n 1727, 1728 and again i n 1730.(8) But t h i s facade began to crumble i n the f o l l o w i n g decade. Maupertuls' Discour sur l a f i g u r e des a s t r e s (1732) made him the f i r s t member of the Academie t o openly embrace Newtonian id e a s . ( 9 ) He i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d h i s co l l e a g u e A l e x i s C l a i r a u t , a mathematician soon t o achieve an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n , and V o l t a i r e , whose L e t t r e s 37 p h i l o s o p h l q u e s (1734) began a campaign to p o p u l a r i z e Newton t h a t would culminate i n the Elements de l a p h i l o s o p h i e de  Newton (1738). As a r e s u l t of such e f f o r t s the 1730s would prove to be the p i v o t a l decade f o r the spread of Newtonianism i n France. In 1737 Maupertuis' e x p e d i t i o n to Lapland a p p a r e n t l y confirmed Newton's p r e d i c t i o n of a f l a t t e n i n g a t the e a r t h ' s p o l e s thus removing a p r e v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t impediment to a more g e n e r a l acceptance of Newtonian theory. Though not moribund a t the end of the decade, C a r t e s i a n p h y s i c s was n e v e r t h e l e s s c l e a r l y on the d e c l i n e w i t h i n the French s c i e n t i f i c community. By mid-century or s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , i t i s s a f e t o say t h a t o f f i c i a l r e s i s t a n c e t o Newtonianism had l a r g e l y ceased i n France. When Bernard de F o n t e n e l l e , the f i r s t " p e r p e t u a l s e c r e t a r y " of the Academie des S c i e n c e s , and a l i f e l o n g supporter and p o p u l a r i z e r of an approach to p h y s i c s d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from Descartes, d i e d i n 1757, h i s s c i e n t i f i c views were l a r g e l y out of s t e p with those of the academy he had once r e p r e s e n t e d . I t would be wrong, however, to underestimate the c o n t i n u e d C a r t e s i a n I n f l u e n c e i n French s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s a f t e r mid-century, j u s t as i t would be mistaken to o v e r e s t i m a t e the extent of the Newtonian triumph a t t h a t t i me. And having drawn a r a t h e r sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between both approaches t o s c i e n c e i t i s important to note, i f o n l y i n p a s s i n g , t h a t s t r i c t adherents of e i t h e r system were r a r e , i f i n f a c t they e x i s t e d a t a l l . Henry Guerlac, f o r 38 example, has c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to an interchange of ideas between C a r t e s i a n s and Newtonians i n France throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . He has a l s o c i t e d the e x i s t e n c e of a number of i n t e r m e d i a r y f i g u r e s such as Malebranche who, he argues, helped pave the way f o r an eventual acceptance of Newtonianism.(10) ( i i ) S i m i l a r a m b i g u i t i e s manifested themselves i n the case of the support g i v e n by French J e s u i t s to C a r t e s i a n p h y s i c s . I t has o f t e n been quipped - one suspects o r i g i n a l l y by V o l t a i r e - t h a t d u r i n g the a n c i e n regime the J e s u i t s adhered to A r i s t o t l e i n o p p o s i t i o n to Descartes u n t i l the l a t t e r had l o s t most of h i s support. At t h a t p o i n t they are s a i d to have p i c k e d up h i s f a i l i n g standard to enter the f r a y a g a i n s t Newton.(11) Devoid of an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the h i s t o r i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s of i t s s u b j e c t t h i s p i t h y d i s m i s s a l of J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c acumen n e v e r t h e l e s s has the merit of i d e n t i f y i n g the d i f f i c u l t y with which the S o c i e t y came to accept C a r t e s l a n l s m . I t was p a r t i a l l y i n response to Descartes t h a t the n i n t h (1650), t w e l f t h (1682), and f o u r t e e n t h (1696) con g r e g a t i o n s of the S o c i e t y d r a f t e d r e g u l a t i o n s intended to r e s t r i c t the t e a c h i n g of "new o p i n i o n s " . ( 1 2 ) And a c t i n g at the i n s t i g a t i o n of French J e s u i t s the S o c i e t y implemented i t s most thorough response to C a r t e s i a n ideas a t i t s f i f t e e n t h g e n e r a l c o n g r e g a t i o n h e l d In 1706. There i t banned the t e a c h i n g of t h i r t y p r o p o s i t i o n s held by Descartes 39 and Malebranche. Nothing s h o r t of comprehensive/ t h i s e d i c t p r o h i b i t e d : (a) the d o c t r i n e of methodical doubt; (b) a r i g o r o u s l y q u a n t i t a t i v e p h y s i c s ; (c) any s u g g e s t i o n of l i m i t a t i o n s i n the omnipotence of God; (d) b e l i e f i n a r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n of body and s o u l and the r e l a t e d concept of animals as s o u l l e s s automata; and f i n a l l y , without having c o n s i d e r e d here numerous s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s on each of these major p o i n t s , (e) the d o c t r i n e of o c c a s i o n a l i s m i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C a r t e s i a n t h i n k i n g by Malebranche.(13) F a m i l i a r with a common s t r a t e g y f o r evading such proclamations, the authors of t h i s document concluded by denying the r i g h t of J e s u i t s t o t e a c h D e s c a r t e s ' system even as i f i t were nothing more than an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t hypothesis.(14) Never r e s c i n d e d , these r e s t r i c t i o n s were subsequently b u t t r e s s e d by o f f i c i a l d e c l a r a t i o n s of support f o r A r i s t o t e l i a n p h y s i c s made a t the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth g e n e r a l Congregations (1730 and 1751 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . ( 1 5 ) Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s response t o De s c a r t e s ' p h i l o s o p h y . Having managed t o c h a l l e n g e such fundamental p o i n t s of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e as t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , and the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l , t o c i t e o n l y two well-known examples, Descartes h a r d l y i n g r a t i a t e d h i m s e l f with Church a u t h o r i t i e s . More i n t r i g u i n g , however, the S o c i e t y i n France had c o m p e l l i n g p o l i t i c a l reasons f o r opposing Descartes' p h i l o s o p h y . Because of i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y the l a t t e r had q u i c k l y a t t r a c t e d the s u s p i c i o n s 40 of the Crown.(16) Such sentiments were encouraged when p o l i t i c a l l y u n r e l i a b l e elements, such as some J a n s e n i s t f a c t i o n s , showed a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n the new p h i l o s o p h y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y geared t o m a i n t a i n i n g an a l l i a n c e with the Crown, and i n need of p o l i t i c a l support a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y as a r e s u l t of t h e i r b a t t l e s with Jansenism and other h o s t i l e f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the Church, the French J e s u i t s would seem t o have had a s p e c i a l stake i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r f i r m o p p o s i t i o n t o C a r t e s l a n l s m . Hence, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s argument, the v e r y p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of d i s a p p r o v a l such as the p r o h i b i t i o n s d r a f t e d i n 1706. At t h a t time C a r t e s i a n i s m had a c h i e v e d widespread popular and even p o l i t i c a l support ( i . e . from the parlement of P a r i s ) , but i t continued to be deemed s u b v e r s i v e by r o y a l a u t h o r i t i e s . ( 1 7 ) On the face of i t then, J e s u i t o p p o s i t i o n t o Descartes i n France was s y s t e m a t i c and u n r e l e n t i n g . In p r a c t i c e , however, the S o c i e t y proved f a r more f l e x i b l e and w i l l i n g to accommodate i n t e l l e c t u a l change than i t s o f f i c i a l p o l i c i e s would i n d i c a t e . Even when they took d i r e c t a c t i o n to suppress C a r t e s i a n sympathizers among members of t h e i r o r d e r , a procedure which a p p a r e n t l y ceased e a r l y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , J e s u i t s u p e r i o r s proved remarkably l e n i e n t . The treatment accorded Yves Andre i n the f i r s t two decades of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y I l l u m i n a t i n g i n t h i s r e g a r d . Repeatedly reprimanded f o r h i s outspoken C a r t e s i a n views, s h u t t l e d between c o l l e g e s by 41 s u p e r i o r s eager to i s o l a t e him from p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s , and even b r i e f l y i n c a r c e r a t e d i n the B a s t i l l e ( i n 1721) as a r e s u l t of h i s enthusiasm f o r Malebranche, Andre n e v e r t h e l e s s managed to have a long and s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r as a mathematics and p h i l o s o p h y i n s t r u c t o r . ( 1 8 ) He a p p a r e n t l y a l s o r a r e l y l a c k e d the company of like-minded c o l l e a g u e s as C a r t e s i a n i d e a s , g i v e n a r e l i g i o u s t i n t by Malebranche, made Inroads i n the S o c i e t y . (19) Had Andrew's s u p e r i o r s s e r i o u s l y sought t o implement the s a n c t i o n s d r a f t e d a g a i n s t such t h i n k i n g i n 1706 they c o u l d e a s i l y have done so as h i s I n c l i n a t i o n s were w e l l known before he was permitted to take h i s solemn vows. T h i s r e l u c t a n c e of the S o c i e t y to take draconian measures a g a i n s t Andre', and others l i k e him, stemmed i n p a r t from the c o n d i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to which Descartes' works had been p l a c e d on the Index. These d i c t a t e d t h a t " u n t i l c o r r e c t e d " the p r o s c r i b e d m a t e r i a l c o u l d not be taught. That d i d not, however, prevent i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e f based on a d e c i s i o n of c o n s c i e n c e . The l e s s than onerous punishments meted out i n the above cases a l s o r e f l e c t a t r a d i t i o n a l tendency of J e s u i t s u p e r i o r s t o d e a l l e n i e n t l y with i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s s e n t e r s . C a r e f u l l y regimented o r g a n i z a t i o n s almost i n v a r i a b l y e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s a r i s i n g from the d i f f i c u l t y of r e c o n c i l i n g the behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l members with c o r p o r a t e demands. That tendency was exacerbated among the J e s u i t s by a l o n g s t a n d i n g need to r e c r u i t members who were 42 i n t e l l e c t u a l l y competent and capable of the i n d i v i d u a l courage and i n i t i a t i v e f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d by m i s s i o n a r y work. The S o c i e t y learned out of n e c e s s i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y In i t s t u r b u l e n t formative p e r i o d , the importance of accommodation i n a f f a i r s which d i d not d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e d o c t r i n e . ( 2 0 ) The q u e s t i o n i n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e f o r e , was to determine what e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e d such a c h a l l e n g e . In the case of D e s c a r t e s , the d e c i s i o n seems to have been made by the 1720s a t l e a s t t o a l l o w J e s u i t s to hold C a r t e s i a n o p i n i o n s i n matters of p h y s i c s and cosmology. Since Descartes had remained e v a s i v e about the q u e s t i o n of the e a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n , such a c o n c e s s i o n d i d not provoke a c o n f l i c t with Church d o c t r i n e . At the same time the French t h i n k e r ' s more t h e o l o g i c a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l s p e c u l a t i o n s remain censored. Such a d e c i s i o n seems to have s a t i s f i e d both the s c i e n t i f i c l e a n i n g s of a growing number of J e s u i t s , and the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of c o l l e g e s which i n c r e a s i n g l y e xperienced p r e s s u r e s t o adapt i n some measure to the p r e v a i l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l tendencies i n France. ( i i i ) The degree of i n t e l l e c t u a l l a t i t u d e permitted i n d i v i d u a l J e s u i t s becomes important here i n the context of the debate i n France between C a r t e s i a n s and Newtonians because of the prominent r o l e played i n t h a t debate by a s i n g l e J e s u i t : L o u i s Bertrand C a s t e l . Described i n h i s day as the "Don Quixote of Mathematics" by V o l t a i r e , and more r e c e n t l y as an "unregenerate c o n s e r v a t i v e " i n h i s s c i e n t i f i c 43 t h i n k i n g by Henry G u e r l a c , C a s t e l was a mathematics and p h y s i c s teacher a t L o u i s - l e - G r a n d and a frequent c o n t r i b u t o r t o the J o u r n a l de Trevoux between 1720 and 1745.(21)(22) A c t i n g i n the c a p a c i t y of what might be d e s c r i b e d as a s c i e n c e e d i t o r , he c o n t r i b u t e d almost 300 reviews and a n a l y s e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o numerous submissions to other j o u r n a l s , n o t a b l y the Mercure de France.(23) He a l s o p u b l i s h e d a number of books of h i s own. The T r a l t e de  physique sur l a pesanteur u n i v e r s e l l e des corps (1724) and the Mathematlque u n i v e r s e l l e abre'gee a 1'usage et a l a porte  de t o u t l e monde (1727, 1758) were h i s most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t s . Both works r e f l e c t e d l i f e l o n g concerns. The f i r s t attempted t o develop a theory of u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n compatible w i t h C a r t e s i a n p h y s i c s ; the second sought to p o p u l a r i z e the s t u d y of mathematics.(24) Dur i n g h i s day C a s t e l enjoyed a somewhat ambivalent s c i e n t i f i c r e p u t a t i o n . The l i f e l o n g anti-Newtonianism f o r which he i s now remembered made him a c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e . But t h a t was more f o r the f r e q u e n t l y p a s s i o n a t e and engaged tone of h i s w r i t i n g s than i t was f o r t h e i r c o n t e n t . C a s t e l ' s work i n p h y s i c s and mathematics, s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by D e s c a r t e s , (but not e n t i r e l y dependent on him), was s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l r e c e i v e d i n European s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s t o earn him memberships i n the Royal S o c i e t y and the academies of Bordeaux and Rouen. I t was more h i s e c l e c t i c I n t e r e s t s , and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to express an o p i n i o n on v i r t u a l l y any s u b j e c t (the p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e of mermen, 44 f o r i n s t a n c e ) which gained C a s t e l a c e r t a i n r e p u t a t i o n f o r e c c e n t r i c i t y . ( 2 5 ) In a posthumous assessment, the Academie des Sciences d e s c r i b e d him as a man whose genuine t a l e n t s had been marred by overconfidence and by the excesses of an u n b r i d l e d imagination.(26) Since the J o u r n a l de Trevoux expressed v e r y s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s i n the eloge i t accorded C a s t e l , the important q u e s t i o n here i s how t y p i c a l h i s s c i e n t i f i c outlook might have been f o r the J e s u i t s i n France g e n e r a l l y . ( 2 7 ) Based on the a t t i t u d e s expressed i n prominent s c i e n t i f i c works by other French J e s u i t s , n o t a b l y Regnault's attempts to r e c o n c i l e A r i s t o t e l i a n and C a r t e s i a n thought, i t would appear t h a t i n h i s more fundamental, anti-Newtonian concerns a t l e a s t , C a s t e l ' s t h i n k i n g was l a r g e l y t y p i c a l d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which he was most a c t i v e as a j o u r n a l i s t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o conceive t h a t had t h i s been otherwise, C a s t e l would have been allowed to maintain a prominent j o u r n a l i s t i c p o s i t i o n f o r as long as he d i d . In f a c t , when h i s determined o p p o s i t i o n to Newtonianism ceased to r e p r e s e n t the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, as i t a p p a r e n t l y d i d i n the mid-1740s when B e r t h i e r assumed the p o s i t i o n of e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f , C a s t e l was q u i c k l y f o r c e d i n t o r e t i r e m e n t . ( 2 8 ) The approach taken here, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be t o i n t e r p r e t r e c u r r i n g s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s i n the J o u r n a l  de Trevoux (those of C a s t e l and others) as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a more g e n e r a l e d i t o r i a l p o s i t i o n . 45 II The response of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Newtonian ideas i n France, and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of J e s u i t reviewers i n the ensuing debate between C a r t e s i a n s and Newtonians, d i v i d e s r a t h e r n e a t l y i n t o three d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s . In the f i r s t , between 1701 and 1720, reviews of Newtonian works are a t t e n t i v e but they do not r e f l e c t evidence of a s i n g u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r s u b j e c t . T h i s changes n o t i c e a b l y i n the second p e r i o d between 1720 and approximately 1745, d u r i n g C a s t e l ' s tenure as " s c i e n c e e d i t o r " . His reviews are w r i t t e n i n an engaged and, a t times, p o l e m i c a l s t y l e . They are a l s o much longer than those of the f i r s t p e r i o d , o f t e n r e a c h i n g lengths of f o r t y pages or more. The f i n a l p e r i o d , which f o l l o w s C a s t e l ' s f o r c e d r e t i r e m e n t i n 1745 and ends with the banishment of the J e s u i t s i n 1764, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the acceptance of a t l e a s t the major premises of Newtonian p h y s i c s . But t h i s change of a t t i t u d e was a p p a r e n t l y not complete among the J e s u i t s . A number of reviews i n d i c a t e a p e r s i s t e n c e of anti-Newtonian sentiments. Others are ambivalent as they attempt to compromise between Newtonian and C a r t e s i a n t h i n k i n g . But i n e i t h e r case the d e f e n s i v e posture adopted by the opponents of Newtonian ideas i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t from the c o n f i d e n t c r i t i c i s m of the preceding p e r i o d s . 46 ( i ) Two reviews, p u b l i s h e d i n 1710, of David Gregory's Astronomiae Physicae provide an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a r t to t h i s s u r v e y . A c l o s e d i s c i p l e of Newton, Gregory i s d e s c r i b e d as one of s e v e r a l " c l e v e r E n g l i s h mathematicians" i n t e n t on r e s t o r i n g the o c c u l t q u a l i t i e s t h a t Descartes "the g r e a t e s t of mathematicians" had banished from the n a t u r a l world (JT 1710, 2 53). The reviewer i s e s p e c i a l l y dubious of the Newtonian concepts of a t t r a c t i o n and of c e l e s t i a l motions i n a v o i d . And he i s e q u a l l y c r i t i c a l of the h e a v i l y mathematical c h a r a c t e r of Gregory's approach t o astronomy which he c o n s i d e r s to be both i n a c c e s s i b l e and of q u e s t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c a l m e r i t . Such c l a i m s were e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with the a t t i t u d e p r e v a l e n t i n the French s c i e n t i f i c community i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h century.(29) And they were repeated almost v e r b a t i m i n a review of a second e d i t i o n of the P r i n c i p i a y p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1718. There the reviewer concludes t h a t the r e p u t a t i o n of the work i n q u e s t i o n " i s s t e a d f a s t among mathematicians" but " c o n t r o v e r s i a l among p h y s i c i s t s , the m a j o r i t y of whom cannot r e c o n c i l e themselves with the idea of a t t r a c t i o n a c t i n g among b o d i e s " (JT 1718, 366). I r o n i c a l l y , i n l i g h t of the important c o n t r o v e r s i e s the P r i n c i p i a would subsequently engender t h i s s o l i t a r y review of t h a t work i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux remained b r i e f and l a r g e l y m a t t e r - o f - f a c t i n tone. 47 ( i i ) T h i s r e s t r a i n e d tenor was abandoned i n favour of a more p e r s o n a l and d i s p u t a t i v e s t y l e when C a s t e l assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s c i e n t i f i c reviews i n 1720. The l a t t e r ' s a r r i v a l a t the J o u r n a l de Trevoux c o i n c i d e d with the p u b l i c a t i o n of sGravesande's P h v s l c e s Elementa, the f i r s t of many important Newtonian works to emanate from H o l l a n d . I f C a s t e l ' s c a r e e r as " s c i e n t i f i c e d i t o r " of the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux thus began i n r a t h e r dramatic f a s h i o n , events d u r i n g the r o u g h l y q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y he occupied t h a t post proved no l e s s e x c i t i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the most a c t i v e p e r i o d of the debate between C a r t e s i a n s and Newtonians, C a s t e l engaged i n t u r n such l e a d i n g advocates of Newtonianism as sGravesande, Maupertuis, V o l t a i r e , C l a i r a u t and Musschenbroek. As members of the Academie des S c i e n c e s , C l a i r a u t and Maupertuis were accorded a r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r a i n e d treatment by C a s t e l . With other Newtonians, however, he gave f u l l vent to h i s s c i e n t i f i c c o n v i c t i o n s . Those c o n v i c t i o n s appear to have been w e l l formed by the time C a s t e l began h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c c a r e e r . In a review p u b l i s h e d i n 1739 he would argue t h a t " i n a time of c r i s i s and s t r i f e , such as t h a t c u r r e n t l y experienced i n the realm of p h y s i c s " i t was e s s e n t i a l t o "hold f i r m i n the saddle" (JT 1739, 2138). Hold f i r m C a s t e l c e r t a i n l y d i d . The a n t i -Newtonian sentiments he expressed i n the l a t e 1730s were no d i f f e r e n t from those of h i s e a r l i e s t reviews. Consequently i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw randomly upon h i s work i n an attempt 48 t o i d e n t i f y the predominant concerns of h i s anti-Newtonian s t a n c e . As one would expect t h e o l o g i c a l concerns manifested themselves i n C a s t e l ' s c r i t i c i s m of Newtonianism. However, they were r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t and c o n s i s t e d almost e n t i r e l y of commonplace arguments. Newton's concept of a u n i v e r s e i n need of o c c a s i o n a l r e p a i r was i n t e r p r e t e d as a c h a l l e n g e of God's omnipotence. The n o t i o n of space as a d i v i n e sensorium i n t u r n r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about the c omposition of matter i n the u n i v e r s e . I f God permeated space d i d a p o r t i o n of t h a t space c o n t a i n p a r t of God or a l l of Him? And d i d matter so i n f u s e d somehow acquire a c a p a c i t y f o r thought (JT 1744, 1024)7(30) Perhaps the most n o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C a s t e l ' s d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e o l o g i c a l Issues was t h a t they occurred o n l y i n response to c l a i m s of a r e l i g i o u s nature made by Newtonian authors. They appear not t o have been used as an independent source of c r i t i c i s m . N a t i o n a l i s t i c and h i s t o r i c arguments, though never developed e x t e n s i v e l y , were nonetheless more common i n C a s t e l ' s reviews than t h e o l o g i c a l ones. He r o u t i n e l y invoked d i f f e r e n c e s of n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r d i f f e r i n g approaches to p h y s i c s among the E n g l i s h and the French (JT 1743, 2590). And, i n more h o s t i l e f a s h i o n , he p l a y e d on the p o l i t i c a l r i v a l r y between both c o u n t r i e s , d e s c r i b i n g France as the l a s t b a s t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e to an otherwise triumphant E n g l i s h s c i e n t i f i c i n f l u e n c e i n 49 European a f f a i r s (JT 1738, 1672). (T h i s from a man who e v i d e n t l y took enormous p r i d e i n having been made a member of the Royal S o c i e t y ! ) ( 3 1 ) Somewhat i n the same v e i n C a s t e l argued from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t Newton's su c c e s s e s , such as they were, would have been i m p o s s i b l e had Descartes not preceded him (e.g. JT 1721, 1768). In a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s approach, Newton was f a u l t e d f o r having d i s t o r t e d the me c h a n i s t i c s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n of h i s predecessors through h i s r e v i v a l of o c c u l t q u a l i t i e s . He had done so, C a s t e l claimed, out of a desperate concern f o r p o s t e r i t y t h a t caused him to commit the "crime" of r e j e c t i n g D e s c artes' work "without having made the s l i g h t e s t attempt t o p e r f e c t i t " (JT 1744, 251). Unable t o be Desca r t e s , Newton went about t r y i n g to persuade o t h e r s t o abandon him l i k e the fox i n the f a b l e "who having l o s t h i s t a i l i n a f i g h t , sought to persuade the other foxes to g i v e t h e i r s up as w e l l " (JT 1739, 2132). More s u b s t a n t i a l t e c h n i c a l c r i t i c i s m s were not l a c k i n g , however. There C a s t e l tended t o adopt one of two approaches. In the f i r s t he would c l a i m t o have i d e n t i f i e d a c r u c i a l f law or s e t of flaws i n Newton's p h y s i c s which i n t u r n compromised h i s e n t i r e system. He argued, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t Newton had s i g n i f i c a n t l y overestimated the sun's mass and t h a t h i s account of p e r t u r b a t i o n s i n the lun a r o r b i t l o g i c a l l y i m p l i e d a c h a o t i c r a t h e r than a w e l l -r e g u l a t e d c e l e s t i a l system (JT 1743, 2626). In the second approach, C a s t e l departed from such b r i e f and easy 50 c r i t i c i s m s t o engage i n l e n g t h y and r e l a t i v e l y complex and t e c h n i c a l l y demanding d i s c u s s i o n s capable of p u t t i n g a l l but the most d e d i c a t e d r e a d e r s to sleep.(32) In e i t h e r case the intended r e s u l t was the same - to convince readers t h a t the Newtonian system was i n r e a l i t y a r a t h e r shaky i n t e l l e c t u a l e d i f i c e which d i d not bear up to c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y . Of the v a r i o u s c r i t i c a l approaches he employed, i t was i n h i s a t t a c k on Newton's methodology t h a t C a s t e l was a t h i s most committed. What Bernard Cohen has c a l l e d the "Newtonian s t y l e " was f o r him l i t t l e more than a source of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n f u s i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s s i m u l a t i o n . C a s t e l ' s attempts to "unmask" Newton by exposing the inadequacies of h i s method thus c o n s t i t u t e some of the most r e v e a l i n g passages i n h i s s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o Cohen, Newton's methods, e s p e c i a l l y as developed i n the P r i n c i p i a , c o n s i s t e d of c r e a t i n g " p u r e l y mathematical c o u n t e r p a r t s of s i m p l i f i e d and i d e a l i z e d p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d l a t e r be brought i n t o r e l a t i o n with the c o n d i t i o n s of r e a l i t y as r e v e a l e d by experiment and observation".(33) T h i s , the "outstanding achievement" of the P r i n c i p i a , r e presented "a c l e a r l y thought out procedure f o r combining new methods with the r e s u l t s of experiment and o b s e r v a t i o n i n a way t h a t has been more or l e s s f o l l o w e d by exact s c i e n t i s t s ever since."(34) For Newton the s t a t u s of e m p i r i c a l checks was p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . Any "law which [did] not a p p l y to the world of 51 o b s e r v a t i o n and experiment c o u l d have no r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . n ( 3 5 ) I t was e x a c t l y t h i s i n t e r p l a y of mathematics and experiment t h a t C a s t e l a t t a c k e d : "Newtonianism a l t e r n a t e s , with s c a r c e l y any pause i n the middle, from experiment and o b s e r v a t i o n t o mathematics and from mathematics back to experiment and o b s e r v a t i o n , t h i s would not be p r o b l e m a t i c p r o v i d i n g t h a t i t d i d not exclude p h y s i c s which must h o l d the middle ground, borrowing from these two extremes" (JT 1739, 2439). T h i s emphasis on adhering to a methodological middle ground - q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y A r i s t o t e l i a n i n s p i r i t -and of a v o i d i n g an e x c e s s i v e attachment to any s i n g l e method, pervades a l l of C a s t e l ' s d i s c u s s i o n s of Newtonian p h y s i c s . In h i s c r i t i c i s m of the f i r s t of Newton's two m e t h o d o l o g i c a l extremes, i t i s important to c l a r i f y t h a t C a s t e l d i d not deny the value of experimental s c i e n c e a l t o g e t h e r . He reminded h i s readers t h a t A r i s t o t l e had performed experiments - something adherents of both Descartes and Newton were prone to overlook (JT 1739, 16). His o b j e c t i o n , i n s t e a d , was to what he c o n s i d e r e d to be the needless i n t r i c a c y of Newtonian experiments. These made a mockery of t r a d i t i o n a l methods based on "the simple, easy, n a i v e , o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t nature p r o v i d e s i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , to a l l minds" (JT 1721, 1766-7). A c c o r d i n g to him " r a r e and ingenious experiments" - which he deemed to be a " p e c u l i a r l y E n g l i s h a b i l i t y " - were conducted under the f a l s e assumption 52 t h a t nature's deepest s e c r e t s c o u l d be obtained by s u b j e c t i n g her to t o r t u r e (JT_ 1721, 49). Such methods, i n f a c t , o n l y served to d i s f i g u r e her. C a s t e l was even more v o c i f e r o u s i n h i s o p p o s i t i o n to the s t a t u s accorded mathematics i n the Newtonian system. Echoing the sentiments of e a r l i e r reviewers i n the J o u r n a l  de Trevoux, he i n s i s t e d t h a t "what i s t r u e mathematically i s n ' t so p h y s i c a l l y " (JT 1743, 2619). The h i s t o r y of astronomy alone p r o v i d e d ample proof of nature's a b i l i t y t o evade any d e f i n i t i v e mathematical d e f i n i t i o n . Although t h e r e c o u l d e x i s t o n l y a s i n g l e p h y s i c a l l y t r u e system of the world (which C a s t e l does not s p e c i f y ) there were, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , " t h r e e , a hundred, a thousand which were a s t r o n o m i c a l l y and mathematically c o r r e c t " 1735, 332). The most obvious reason f o r C a s t e l ' s h o s t i l i t y was the t e c h n i c a l i n t r i c a c y of the mathematics Newton and h i s f o l l o w e r s employed. The l a t t e r had turned the study of nature i n t o a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d e n t e r p r i s e which excluded a l l but the most h i g h l y t r a i n e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s . "There are so few people who have the time or the i n c l i n a t i o n t o take the t r o u b l e t o become mathematicians and have consequently renounced p h y s i c s i n s t e a d " , C a s t e l complained i n 1739 (JT 1739, 2131). Newton's approach had made p h y s i c s " u n i n t e l l i g i b l e f o r a simple p h y s i c i s t " through the use of a mathematics which "served p r i m a r i l y t o smother, obscure, and even d e s t r o y the genuine p r i n c i p l e s of p h y s i c s and mechanics" (J_T 1743, 2585). One c o u l d quote s i m i l a r 53 r e f e r e n c e s a t l e n g t h . Though C a s t e l d i d not t h i n k of h i m s e l f as a "simple p h y s i c i s t " , h i s defence of t h a t a p p a r e n t l y endangered s p e c i e s was u n f l a g g i n g throughout h i s car e e r . ( 3 6 ) For C a s t e l the motive f o r Newton's mathematically i n t i m i d a t i n g approach t o s c i e n c e was s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d : "an o p i n i o n which would be h e l d t o be r i d i c u l o u s i f s t a t e d i n simple p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms becomes admired and r e s p e c t e d when i t i s cloaked i n a grand mathematical system" (JT 1739, 216). What g a l l e d him was t h a t t h i s attempt a t i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s s i m u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y succeeded i n a t t r a c t i n g support from i n d i v i d u a l s who c l e a r l y had l i m i t e d mathematical a b i l i t i e s . He a t t r i b u t e d t h i s success i n p a r t t o the con f i d e n c e with which Newtonians expressed t h e i r c l a i m s . Whereas Descartes had been s a t i s f i e d to propose "simple o p i n i o n s " , Newton and h i s f o l l o w e r s expressed an assurance t h a t was a l t o g e t h e r "too imperious, too proud and even v e r y dangerous t o the f u t u r e of s c i e n c e " (JT 1744, 257). Some thought of Newton as having l i b e r a t e d p h y s i c s from the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i f l i n g domination of C a r t e s i a n s and s c h o l a s t i c s , but f o r C a s t e l he was a l i b e r a t o r i n the manner of Cromwell. The l a t t e r had de s t r o y e d the moral t r a d i t i o n s of a people under the pretence of f r e e i n g them. Newton, i n t u r n , had broken the bonds which had f o r m a l l y l i n k e d nature i n an o r g a n i c and f l e x i b l e whole and r e p l a c e d them with r i g i d mathematical laws intended more to "enslave nature than render i t i t s l i b e r t y " (JT 1743, 2978-9). 54 What C a s t e l wanted t o preserve In the face of t h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c h a l l e n g e , which was r a p i d l y resembling an o nslaught by the mid-1730s, was a concept of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e as a v i b r a n t and d i v e r s i f i e d e n t e r p r i s e . He d i d not p r e c l u d e a r o l e f o r mathematics and experiments, but he a l s o i n s i s t e d upon the p o t e n t i a l advantages of h y p o t h e t i c a l and a n a l o g i c a l reasoning.(37) He a l s o i n s i s t e d t h a t any d e f i n i t i v e understanding of nature might elude any i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t i e s a l t o g e t h e r . In o p p o s i t i o n t o a Newtonian method which he f e l t reduced p h y s i c s to the study of weight, and n o t h i n g more, C a s t e l wanted n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r s t o study e v e r y t h i n g : form, matter, movement, q u a n t i t i e s and q u a l i t i e s (JT 1721, 1783-4). Throughout h i s c a r e e r C a s t e l mounted a s p i r i t e d defence of the use of i m a g i n a t i o n and analogy i n s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . They were f o r him the l i f e b l o o d of p h y s i c s which was i n essence "a c o n j e c t u r a l and h y p o t h e t i c a l " e n t e r p r i s e (JT 1739, 2130). The i m a g i n a t i v e and i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t s of p o e t r y , he argued, were the most f e r t i l e source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the more l i t e r a l understanding of nature which ensued from d i s c o v e r i e s i n s c i e n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between poets and n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r s , he continued, was a t r o o t a m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l one. Since poets, l i k e prophets, d i d not always understand what God had r e v e a l e d to them, i t was the n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h e r ' s task to e x p l a i n t h e i r v i s i o n s . And s i n c e new t r u t h s were always p a i n f u l to the eyes, and f r e q u e n t l y a source of c o n t r o v e r s y , poets c o u l d r e t u r n the 55 f a v o u r . Men, l i k e D escartes, who had an enormous t a l e n t f o r d i s c o v e r i e s c o u l d be taught how to express themselves p o e t i c a l l y i n order to a v o i d c o n t r o v e r s y (JT 1733, 1758-60). As f o r the hypotheses which Newton presumed t o have d i s p e n s e d w i t h , C a s t e l d e s c r i b e d them as c r u c i a l t o the p r o c e s s of awakening the s c i e n t i f i c i m a g i n a t i o n . P r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e y d i d not grow out of c o n t r o l , they were l i k e "the dawn which precedes the day" a l l o w i n g e a r l y glimpses of emerging t r u t h (JT 1721, 1765). T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of language as both a t o o l of d i s c o v e r y and as a means of p e r s u a s i o n helps t o e x p l a i n C a s t e l ' s p a r t i c u l a r l y p o i n t e d response to V o l t a i r e ' s e f f o r t s to p o p u l a r i z e Newtonianism. C a s t e l b e l i e v e d "nothing b e t t e r proved the d e c i s i v e impact of language and the s u p e r i o r i t y of a man who c o u l d manipulate i t " than the r e c e p t i o n accorded V o l t a i r e ' s Elements de l a  p h i l o s o p h i c de Newton when i t appeared i n 1738 (JT 1738, 1673). In a passage s a t i r i z i n g the a p p e t i t e f o r n o v e l t i e s i n the R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s , C a s t e l d e s c r i b e d P a r i s i a n r e a d e r s r i o t i n g i n the s t r e e t s while attempting to be the f i r s t t o o b t a i n - though not n e c e s s a r i l y read - V o l t a i r e ' s new book (JT 1738, 1672). But behind t h i s offhanded d i s m i s s a l of i n t e l l e c t u a l f addishness l a y a genuine a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the p o t e n t i a l long-term impact of V o l t a i r e ' s approach. Of a l l the prominent Newtonians who emerged d u r i n g C a s t e l ' s c a r e e r as a j o u r n a l i s t , V o l t a i r e was the o n l y one who combined an i n t e r e s t i n mathematical and 56 e x p e r i m e n t a l p h y s i c s w i t h a r i c h p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , and he f u l l y expected him "to produce a r e v o l u t i o n i n favour of Newtonianism" (JT 1744, 1007). That C a s t e l d e p lored the consequences of such a r e v o l u t i o n In s c i e n c e i s v e i l e s t a b l i s h e d . But he a l s o lamented the vays i n which language was being made to serve s c i e n c e . There was a d i s t i n c t l y s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y to C a s t e l ' s understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and the study of nature which V o l t a i r e ' s approach seemed to d i s r e g a r d a l t o g e t h e r . The word of God had produced C r e a t i o n , and the word of man, he f e l t , was capable of making him partake of something " e x t r a o r d i n a r y , unique and d i v i n e " when i t captured the essence of t h a t c r e a t i o n (JT 1733, 1762). V o l t a i r e , i n c o n t r a s t , merely served the i n t e r e s t s of a narrow, q u a n t i f i e d , and dogmatic understanding of nature. However, as C a s t e l p r e d i c t e d , along with other p o p u l a r i z e r s such as du C h a t e l e t and A l g h o r e t i , V o l t a i r e gave Newton's ideas a dimension of a c c e s s i b i l i t y which had been e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n the work of i n d i v i d u a l s such as sGravesande, Musschenbroek and Maupertuis. T h i s was a l l t h a t was needed t o ensure t h e i r widespread s u c c e s s . When C a s t e l r e t i r e d from the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n the mid-1740s Newtonian p h y s i c s were c l e a r l y on the ascendant i n France. ( i i i ) The extent of t h i s ascendancy i s r a t h e r d r a m a t i c a l l y e v i d e n t i n two reviews of Sigorgne's i n f l u e n t i a l 57 I n s t i t u t i o n s Nevtonlennes which appeared i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux i n 1747.(38) A f t e r a q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y of s t e a d f a s t antl-Newtonianisro, these reviews (by Guillaume F r a n c o i s B e r t h i e r ) r e f e r i n e a r n e s t t o the " i l l u s t r i o u s Newton" (JT. 1747, 2199). And the l a t t e r ' s d o c t r i n e s are acknowledged t o have gained the acceptance of the m a j o r i t y of the European s c i e n t i f i c community. T h i s r e v e r s a l of o p i n i o n i s e v i d e n t a t every l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . In the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t a n c e , B e r t h i e r emphasizes t h a t Newton developed h i s concepts of a t t r a c t i o n and c e l e s t i a l v o i d s a f t e r an exhaustive o b s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r e , hence th e y m e r i t r e s p e c t . Furthermore, he adds "t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n Newton's system which might c o n t r a d i c t the o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s of the C r e a t o r " (JT 1747, 2217). (He a l s o c a r e f u l l y r e a s s u r e s h i s audience t h a t Newton, l i k e D e s c a r t e s , i s not an E p i c u r e a n - i n d i c a t i n g a p e r s i s t e n c e of t h e o l o g i c a l concerns about matter theory) (J_T 1747, 2210). And o n l y two or three years a f t e r C a s t e l ' s f o r c e d d e p a r t u r e , hypotheses are d e s c r i b e d as "nothing more than f i c t i o n s " and the n e c e s s i t y of mathematical r i g o r i n p h y s i c s i s taken as a g i v e n ( 0 1 1747, 2200). To an important degree t h i s change i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux's a t t i t u d e t o Newtonianism can be a t t r i b u t e d t o new e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s implemented by B e r t h i e r when he assumed the p o s i t i o n of e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f i n 1745. He was i n t e n t on c o n c e n t r a t i n g the e n e r g i e s of J e s u i t w r i t e r s a g a i n s t a growing t i d e of d e i s t and even a t h e i s t sentiment. Convinced 58 t h a t s c i e n c e and r e l i g i o n c o u l d c o e x i s t comfortably, he t h e r e f o r e sought t o a v o i d becoming embroiled i n needless c o n t r o v e r s i e s . ( 3 9 ) S t r a t e g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of another s o r t appear to have f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n i t s response to the I n s t i t u t i o n s Nevtonlennes. I t s author was a p r o f e s s o r of p h i l o s o p h y a t the Sorbonne and the f i r s t t o teach Newtonian p h y s i c s a t an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was both a b a s t i o n of orthodox C a t h o l i c t h i n k i n g and a r i v a l of the J e s u i t s i n the f i e l d of education.(40) Although the case a g a i n s t Newton had a p p a r e n t l y never been deeply rooted i n t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the J e s u i t s , they n e v e r t h e l e s s appear to have welcomed the o p p o r t u n i t y to f o l l o w the l e a d of the Sorbonne when they r e v e r s e d t h e i r long h e l d o p p o s i t i o n to h i s "system of the world". There i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the French J e s u i t s c a r e f u l l y monitored the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s (of which the Sorbonne was p a r t ) . In 1753 the Sorbonne censored c e r t a i n passages i n the f o u r t h volume of Buffon's H i s t o i r e N a t u r e l l e f o r c o n t r a d i c t i n g Church d o c t r i n e i n matters r e l a t i n g t o the C r e a t i o n and the i m m o r t a l i t y of the s o u l . The J o u r n a l de Tre^voux. u n t i l then u n r e s e r v e d l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about Buffon's work gave the Sorbonne's i n j u n c t i o n s a prominent d i s c u s s i o n when i t reviewed the volume i n q u e s t i o n . I t a l s o applauded Buffon's humble response to such c r i t i c i s m . He was deemed to have g i v e n " p h i l o s o p h e r s an e x c e l l e n t example of submission" 59 which i n t u r n c o u l d o n l y make h i s s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g "the more sound and s o l i d " (JT 1753, 2817). Any d e f i n i t i v e assessment from such l i m i t e d evidence i s , of course, i m p o s s i b l e . The i n d i c a t i o n s are n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t r i g u i n g i n s o f a r as they suggest an important i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t of the Sorbonne on J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g . ( 4 1 ) Whatever i t s i n s p i r a t i o n the support f o r Newtonian p h y s i c s e v i d e n t i n the response to Sigorgne's t e x t proved l a s t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g year another review argued t h a t Newton's s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g would have to be accepted by a l l those who p r a c t i c e d p h y s i c s . Such was a l r e a d y the case i n England, H o l l a n d , Germany and I t a l y , the reviewer s t a t e d . And while he conceded t h a t such widespread acceptance d i d not c o n s t i t u t e a d e f i n i t i v e proof, i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s h i g h l y c o m p e l l i n g . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , he claimed, the use of the word a t t r a c t i o n c o u l d o n l y be r e p e l l e n t to those who had not taken the time to c o n s i d e r Newton's arguments c a r e f u l l y (JT 1748, 2750-1). Yet i t would be m i s l e a d i n g to suggest t h a t such t h i n k i n g was u n c o n d i t i o n a l or even t h a t i t represented o f f i c i a l p o l i c y on the p a r t of the S o c i e t y i n France. What i s c l e a r from a c a s u a l survey of s c i e n t i f i c reviews p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux a f t e r mid-century i s t h a t o p i n i o n s on the s u b j e c t of Newtonianism d i f f e r e d r a t h e r s h a r p l y among French J e s u i t s . ( 4 2 ) In h i s Amusement physique sur l e systeme Newtonien (1760), d'Hautecour, a prominent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of what 60 might be d e s c r i b e d as a " c o n s e r v a t i v e " f a c t i o n , puts forward arguments made more than f a m i l i a r by C a s t e l . Newtonianism, w i t h i t s c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e of a t t r a c t i o n , i s d e p i c t e d as I n v u l n e r a b l e when behind the battlements of i t s mathematics, but l i k e l y t o f a r e l e s s w e l l when l u r e d away from such f o r m i d a b l e defences (JT 1760, 1482). And, much l i k e C a s t e l , Hautecour uses arguments t h a t are dense but leavened by the o c c a s i o n a l gulp intended to d r i v e home the message t h a t a t t r a c t i o n i s a dubious concept a t best (JT 1761, 1675-81). The response of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux to d'Hautecour's arguments i s one of g e n t l e s k e p t i c i s m . A reviewer i d e n t i f i e s him as one of a s m a l l group of t h i n k e r s f o r whom the triumph of a mathematical p h y s i c s remains pr o b l e m a t i c . A f t e r summarizing the reasons why such s k e p t i c s r e f u s e to a c c e p t the concept of a t t r a c t i o n , the reviewer concludes w i t h the e q u i v o c a l q u e s t i o n : ". . . i s i t not to be d e s i r e d t h a t f o r once c l e a r and p r e c i s e arguments be put forward capable of e f f e c t i v e l y r e f u t i n g the preconceived o p i n i o n s used to r e j e c t ( a t t r a c t i o n ] " (JT 1760, 1480-1). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o estimate how e x t e n s i v e the i n f l u e n c e of t h i n k e r s such as d'Hautecour was among French J e s u i t s i n the 1750s and e a r l y 1760s. The apparent c a u t i o n of the response to h i s work i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux would seem to suggest t h a t i t was not i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The dominant tendency of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, however, i n the f i n a l y e a r s i n which i t was p u b l i s h e d by J e s u i t s , was e s s e n t i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e t o Newtonian p h y s i c s . T h i s i s best e v i d e n t i n 61 reviews accorded works by two members of the S o c i e t y i n France who d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves by t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Appointed d i r e c t o r of the r o y a l marine o b s e r v a t o r y by L o u i s XV i n 1749, Pezenas made a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to F r e n c h s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e by t r a n s l a t i n g a number of i n f l u e n t i a l E n g l i s h s c i e n t i f i c t e x t s . ( 4 3 ) Notably, h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of MacLaurin and D e s a g u i l i e r s (both prominent Nevtonians) made the most advanced E n g l i s h t h i n k i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t a l p h y s i c s a v a i l a b l e to a wide audience. The J o u r n a l de Trevoux e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d h i s Cour de  physique (from a work by D e s a g u i l i e r s ) as a " r i c h source" of s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and proof t h a t not a l l E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e " f r i v o l o u s " (JT 1752, 967). Even more prominent i n h i s support f o r Newtonian p h y s i c s , P a u l i a n r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f o r two s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e s : the D i c t l o n n a l r e de physique (1759) and the T r a i t e de palx entre  D e s c a r t e s et Newton (1764). A p h y s i c s i n s t r u c t o r at the J e s u i t c o l l e g e a t Avignon, P a u l i a n d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f an " a b s o l u t e p a r t i s a n " of Newton (JT 1765, 113-4). I f the review of h i s D i c t l o n n a l r e de Physique i s an accurate i n d i c a t i o n , h i s s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e . There the reviewer a d v i s e d f o l l o w e r s of Newton t h a t they would "be p l e a s e d t o see h i s system e x p l a i n e d c l e a r l y on every page" (JT 1759, 1856). Those opposed to Newtonian p h y s i c s , on the other hand, would f i n d " p l e n t y to d i s a g r e e with and any 62 number of t h i n g s t o keep [them] i n a bad mood" (JT 1759, 1856). In h i s l a t e r work P a u l i a n argued u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n favour "of a c c e p t i n g the Copernican system" and he s i m i l a r l y d e c l a r e d h i s support f o r the concept of a t t r a c t i o n between c e l e s t i a l bodies (JT 1765, 113 - 4 ) . Though h a r d l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y d a r i n g f o r the time, P a u l i a n ' s a s s e r t i o n s , c i t e d w i t h a p p r o v a l by the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, n e v e r t h e l e s s r e f l e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t e v o l u t i o n i n the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s of the French J e s u i t s over a p e r i o d of r o u g h l y f i f t y y e a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note, however, t h a t while t h i s c o n v e r s i o n to Newtonian t h i n k i n g on the p a r t of a t l e a s t a prominent element of the S o c i e t y i n France was s i n c e r e , i t was not a t the same time s l a v i s h . Both Pezenas and P a u l i a n d i d not h e s i t a t e to express r e s e r v a t i o n s about g i v e n aspects of Newton's p h y s i c s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , these o b j e c t i o n s seem t o have focused l a r g e l y on the l a t t e r ' s account of micromatter - the a t t r a c t i o n between s m a l l p a r t i c l e s , the process of f e r m e n t a t i o n , e t c . I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s dimension of Newtonian p h y s i c s which Roger Boscovich, the most eminent J e s u i t s c i e n t i s t of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y and a p p a r e n t l y an e a r l y convert to Newtonianism, chal l e n g e d throughout h i s c a r e e r . And i n a r e c e n t assessment of t h i s q u e s t i o n , A. Rupert H a l l has argued t h a t the success of the Newtonian t r a d i t i o n occurred a t the l e v e l of "macroscopic k i n e t i c s " r a t h e r than a t the " m i c r o s c o p i c l e v e l " where "Newton enjoyed a temporary and i l l u s o r y success only".(44) 63 I I I S u b s t a n t i a l as i t was, the development of J e s u i t t h i n k i n g e v i d e n t i n a comparison of P a u l i a n with C a s t e l n e v e r t h e l e s s maintained a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of c o n t i n u i t y as w e l l . Throughout the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n here, f o r i n s t a n c e , J e s u i t w r i t e r s i n s i s t e d on an e v o l u t i o n a r y , as opposed t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o g r e s s . In L ' o r l g l n e ancienne de l a physique n o u v e l l e (1735) Regnault sought to e s t a b l i s h the debt owed by modern p h y s i c s ( r e p r e s e n t e d by Descartes) to t h i n k e r s of a n t i q u i t y and i n p a r t i c u l a r A r i s t o t l e . P a u l i a n ' s T r a l t e de Paix entre  Descartes e t Newton attempted, i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , to emphasize the h i s t o r i c a l importance of D e s c a r t e s . A f u r t h e r element of c o n t i n u i t y i s e v i d e n t i n the ongoing attachment t o an e c l e c t i c v i s i o n of s c i e n c e . The l a t t e r tendency t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r e s i s t a n c e to the emphasis on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n which i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . C a s t e l s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d Musschenbroek 1s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the e d u c a t i o n of f u t u r e p h y s i c i s t s be g i v e n a narrow focus i n order to hasten s c i e n t i f i c p r ogress (JT 1739, 2114-5). For Regnault the domain of p h y s i c s remained all-encompassing. In a d d i t i o n to the s t u d y of o p t i c s , dynamics and c e l e s t i a l mechanics, which a l s o occupied sGravesande and Musschenbroek, i t i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s as d i v e r s e as earthquakes, the o r i g i n of the N i l e , anatomy, c r y s t a l l o g r a p h y and the causes of d i s e a s e s (JT 1730, 441). Although more r e s t r i c t e d i n scope, P a u l i a n ' s 64 D l c t i o n n a l r e de physique r e t a i n e d much of t h i s e c l e c t i c tendency. I t d e s c r i b e d "the mechanisms" of p l a n t s and animals as "worthy of the a t t e n t i o n of a p h y s i c i s t " (JT 1762, 1161). C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s e c l e c t i c tendency, i t appears t h a t the French J e s u i t s never f u l l y r e c o n c i l e d themselves to the mathematical c o m p l e x i t y of Newtonian p h y s i c s . C a s t e l ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o what he d e s c r i b e d as a narrow and o b f u s c a t o r y approach to the study of nature has been w e l l documented here. He was undoubtedly the reviewer who cautioned i n 1739 t h a t medicine was "threatened with the prospect of d e g e n e r a t i n g i n t o massive t e x t s based on anatomical experiments and a l g e b r a i c formulas, a n a l y s i s , i n f i n i t e s s i m a l s and v a r i o u s s o r t s of c a l c u l u s . . . but . . . a l l the mathematics i n the world w i l l never cure a c h e s t a i l m e n t " (^T 1739, 2132-3). With l e s s r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h even P a u l i a n , a s e l f - p r o f e s s e d Newtonian, agreed t h a t the P r i n c i p i a c o u l d have w e l l a f f o r d e d to have been w r i t t e n i n a l e s s mathematical s t y l e (JT 1765, 118). Yet d e s p i t e t h e i r apparent r e l u c t a n c e t o accept i t s Importance i n s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , i t would be wrong to assume t h a t the J e s u i t a t t i t u d e t o mathematics d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e . Two d i s c o u r s e s "on the e x c e l l e n c e and u t i l i t y of mathematics", d e l i v e r e d as opening day addresses to students a t the J e s u i t c o l l e g e a t Caen i n 1711 and 1717, provide i n t r i g u i n g glimpses of a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t tendency.(45) Each of these p a n e g y r i c s , the f i r s t by Aubert and the second by R o u i l l e , r e c e i v e d an e n t h u s i a s t i c response from the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. In the case of Aubert, readers were assured t h a t h i s d i s c o u r s e "destroyed the most common o b j e c t i o n made a g a i n s t the study of mathematics", t h a t i t " d e s s i c a t e d the s p i r i t " , and t h a t I t encouraged "an a r i d and u n c i v i l i z e d s t y l e " (JT 1711, 1491). S i m i l a r remarks were made i n 1717 i n regard t o R o u i l l e who repeated many of Aubert's c l a i m s . Since the review accorded R o u i l l e ' s address was r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e and made frequent use of d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t h i s argument i n some d e t a i l here. A c c o r d i n g t o him mathematics was "the s u r e s t of the s c i e n c e s i n i t s p r i n c i p l e s . . . the most i n t r i g u i n g i n i t s scope . . . and the most u s e f u l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s " (JT 1717, 485). Though i n i t i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to p e n e t r a t e , i t c o u l d provide e n t r y i n t o "an enchanted realm where one c o u l d t a s t e the pure pl e a s u r e which always accompanies c o n v i n c i n g t r u t h s " (JT 1717, 490). For a J e s u i t the degree of c e r t a i n t y t h a t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to mathematical r e a s o n i n g was a p o t e n t i a l l y thorny i s s u e . T h e r e f o r e R o u i l l e was c a r e f u l t o emphasize, a l b e i t somewhat p e r f u n c t o r i l y , t h a t r e l i g i o u s t r u t h s superseded a l l others and t h a t r a t i o n a l knowledge was i n f e r i o r t o d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d by the Church (JT 1717, 485-6). Apart from t h i s b r i e f a s i d e R o u i l l e was u n c o n d i t i o n a l i n h i s p r a i s e of mathematics. He d e s c r i b e d i t as l o g i c a l and p r e c i s e In i t s methods and hence able t o cou n t e r a c t the 66 i n f l u e n c e of the passions which f o r him were the source of a l l e r r o r . R o u i l l e c o n s e q u e n t l y opposed mathematics t o r h e t o r i c and eloquence as a means of demonstrating the t r u t h . The former appealed t o reason, he claimed, while the l a t t e r aroused the v e r y source of man's p r e j u d i c e s and c o n f u s i o n (JT 1717, 496). The importance of a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y sound approach to the quest f o r knowledge was c r u c i a l , R o u i l l e continued, because a c c o r d i n g t o him man's c u r i o s i t y was as i n s a t i a b l e as h i s d e s i r e t o d i s c o v e r the t r u t h . Only mathematics was as c o n c e p t u a l l y boundless as man's c u r i o s i t y and onl y i t c o u l d p r o v i d e the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t man craved. Of a l l the human s c i e n c e s i t was t h e r e f o r e the most worthy of study. U l t i m a t e l y , R o u i l l e concluded, i t was the source of a l l forms of s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y which " l i k e so many streams g a t h e r [ e d l t h e i r s t r e n g t h from t h i s u n i v e r s a l s c i e n c e and r e t u r n t e d ] to become l o s t i n i t " (JT 1717, 495). I t would seem i r o n i c t h a t t h i s address - which one hopes f o r a l l i t s r h e t o r i c a l b r i l l i a n c e l e f t i t s audience w i l d l y e n t h u s i a s t i c - was d e l i v e r e d a year before the P r i n c i p i a was reviewed i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux and only t h r e e years b e f o r e C a s t e l would begin h i s s u s t a i n e d a t t a c k s on the complexity of Newtonian mathematics. Yet i f one look s f u r t h e r , many of the apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n outlook between Aubert and R o u i l l e on the one hand, and t h i n k e r s such as C a s t e l on the other, prove to be l a r g e l y i l l u s o r y . 67 Aubert was a committed C a r t e s i a n and a l i f e l o n g opponent of Nevtonianism. His understanding of a mathematical s c i e n c e , i t would seem, f e l l f a r s h o r t of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r i g o r demanded by E n g l i s h and Dutch e x p e r i m e n t a l p h y s i c i s t s of the e a r l y 1720s. In f a c t i t was C a s t e l , not Aubert, who developed an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n as an advocate of mathematics education.(46) R o u i l l e ' s case i s s i m i l a r . Prominent i n J e s u i t a f f a i r s , he was remembered i n an eloge p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux, which he e d i t e d f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d d u r i n g the 1730s, f o r the h i g h q u a l i t y of h i s work as a t h e o l o g i a n and h i s t o r i a n as w e l l as f o r h i s e f f o r t s as a teacher i n the humanities and p h i l o s o p h y (JT 1741, 312-3). Mathematics, i t would appear, occupied r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e of h i s time and i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t h i s work i n t h a t f i e l d approached the l e v e l r e q u i r e d by Newtonian s c i e n c e . As f o r C a s t e l , he hoped to make the study of mathematics easy and a c c e s s i b l e . ( 4 7 ) For him ". . . a l l s c i e n c e s , a l l systems, i n c l u d i n g the most profound t h i n k i n g , had t h e i r o r i g i n s i n common sense . . . " (JT_ 1729, 1590-1). He sought, t h e r e f o r e , to arouse the n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s of h i s r e a d e r s which he f e l t were a l l too o f t e n s t i f l e d by the n e e d l e s s r i g o r of most mathematical systems. What C a s t e l p r e s e r v e s of Aubert and R o u i l l e * s p a n e g y r i c s i s an enthusiasm f o r h i s s u b j e c t and a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t mathematics sho u l d be an o b j e c t of widespread p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 68 Those who argued i n s t e a d t h a t mathematics e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be dispensed with a l t o g e t h e r , or a t l e a s t r e l e g a t e d a d i s t i n c t l y i n f e r i o r p e d a g o g i c a l s t a t u s , appear t o have r e c e i v e d no support from the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. The author who suggested i n the mld-1730s t h a t mathematics should o n l y be taught to a d u l t s who had a l r e a d y mastered the humanities, vas s a r c a s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as having " s t o l e n n o t h i n g from P l a t o or any of the other A n c i e n t s " (J_T 1734, 664). And when a t mid-century proponents of the l i f e s c i e n c e s were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c a l i n t h e i r a t t a c k s on mathematics and the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s i n g e n e r a l , reviewers i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux attempted t o d e f i n e the middle ground between the r i v a l s c i e n t i f i c t e n d e n c i e s . S a v e r i e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , was applauded i n 1750 f o r h i s attempt to counter Pluche's c r i t i c i s m s of mathematics and p h y s i c s . While the reviewer acknowledged t h a t the work of many mathematicians was obscure and of more than dubious s o c i a l v a l u e , he n e v e r t h e l e s s d e p l o r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t "a w r i t e r as esteemed as Pluche would i n s p i r e a contempt among young people f o r p h i l o s o p h y and f o r the exact s c i e n c e s " (JT 1753, 1163). Thus when In response t o Sigorgne's I n s t i t u t i o n s  Newtonlennes the J o u r n a l de Trevoux argued i n 1747 t h a t h e n c e f o r t h i t would be necessary f o r a l l s e r i o u s p h y s i c i s t s t o immerse themselves i n mathematics, a q u a l i f i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h a t remark i s r e q u i r e d (JT 1747, 2222). Such an a t t i t u d e d i d not r e p r e s e n t a d i s t i n c t break with the 69 t h i n k i n g of men such as Aubert, R o u i l l e or C a s t e l . Instead of e v o l v i n g toward an acceptance of g r e a t e r complexity, the J e s u i t a t t i t u d e t o mathematics remained h i g h l y p r a c t i c a l i n c h a r a c t e r throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As such i t was o r i e n t e d t o r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n astronomy, hydrography, cartography, the b u i l d i n g of f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , o p t i c s , mechanics and h y d r a u l i c s , t o l i s t j u s t some of the t o p i c s d e s c r i b e d i n a J e s u i t mathematics t e x t p u b l i s h e d i n 1761 (JT 1761, 2615). I V T h i s a v e r s i o n i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux to the use of t h e o r e t i c a l mathematics i n s c i e n c e and to an i n c r e a s i n g degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y , c o i n c i d e d w i t h an adherence on the p a r t of the J e s u i t s t o i d e a l s of r h e t o r i c which c l a s h e d d i r e c t l y with many of the b a s i c premises of Newtonian s c i e n c e . R h e t o r i c , with i t s standards of eloquence, wide l e a r n i n g and attachment t o the v i t a a c t l v a was a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of Renaissance humanist c u l t u r e . As such i t proved to be a fundamental In f l u e n c e on J e s u i t a f f a i r s throughout the e a r l y modern p e r i o d . C e n t r a l t o the S o c i e t y ' s p e d agogical program, r h e t o r i c i n a more ge n e r a l way pro v i d e d a c u l t u r a l model a c c o r d i n g t o which the J e s u i t s o r i e n t e d much of t h e i r conduct and from which they 70 developed many of t h e i r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l , e t h i c a l and s o c i a l i d e a l s . ( 4 8 ) J e s u i t r h e t o r i c a l c u l t u r e developed from three fundamental c l a s s i c a l sources - A r i s t o t l e , C i c e r o and Q u i n t i l l i a n (JT 1737, 1916). (But most n o t a b l y C i c e r o , d e s c r i b e d as "the f a t h e r of eloquence" by the J o u r n a l de  Tre'voux i n 1745) (JT 1745, 1162). As d e r i v e d from these t h r e e t h i n k e r s r h e t o r i c pretended to a much broader I n f l u e n c e than would seem i m p l i e d by i t s d e f i n i t i o n as the s t u d y and p r a c t i c e of e f f e c t i v e communication. Instead i t r e f l e c t e d a profound i n t e r e s t and concern with a l l aspects of human experience.(49) C o n s i s t e n t with such c l a i m s the r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n q u e s t i o n took a l l forms of knowledge to be i n i t s domain.(50) For A r i s t o t l e breadth of knowledge and the a b i l i t y t o l a y down g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d the educated man. S i m i l a r l y C i c e r o and Q u i n t i l l i a n drew a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n between eloquence, wide l e a r n i n g and e x t e n s i v e p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . ( 5 1 ) A c c o r d i n g to t h i s t r a d i t i o n , r h e t o r i c became the animating p r i n c i p l e of a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s because i t enabled the e f f e c t i v e communication of t h e i r i n s i g h t s . The J o u r n a l de Tre'voux r f o r i n s t a n c e , d e s c r i b e d C i c e r o as a man to whom p h i l s o p h y had become inde b t e d because he had "dusted i t o f f " and g i v e n i t a " c o u r t l y s t y l e which made i t worthy of the honnetes people of Rome" (J_T_ 1722, 660-1). 71 As e n v i s i o n e d by A r i s t o t l e , C i c e r o and Q u l n t i l l l a n , r h e t o r i c a t t a c h e d s p e c i a l importance to e t h i c s s i n c e , as Q u i n t i l l i a n argued "no man can speak v e i l who i s not good h i m s e l f . " ( 5 2 ) T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of e p i d e i c t i c r h e t o r i c which c o n s i s t e d of a t t r i b u t i n g p r a i s e or blame. D e r i v e d l a r g e l y from C i c e r o , t h i s approach was i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o s e r m o n i z i n g and was h i g h l y favoured by the J e s u i t s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i v e t o the needs of s o c i e t y , r h e t o r i c as p r a c t i c e d and taught by C i c e r o and Q u i n t i l l i a n a l s o became e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d with the v i t a a c t i v a . ( 5 3 ) The l a t t e r concept i d e a l i z e d a l i f e e n r i c h e d by a f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s . In 1719 the J o u r n a l de Trevoux p r a i s e d Q u i n t i l l i a n f o r being "a good c i t i z e n " who always put "the honnete homme ahead of the man of mere knowledge or t a l e n t " , and who sought to t r a i n o r a t o r s " i n order to g i v e to the r e p u b l i c a new breed of p h i l o s o p h e r f u l l y occupied with the p u b l i c good and not w i t h h i m s e l f , i n s h o r t a r e a l man of s t a t e " (JT 1719, 566-77) . As p r a c t i c e d by the J e s u i t s r h e t o r i c r e t a i n e d an emphasis, which had emerged i n C i c e r o ' s day, on emotional a p p e a l . O r i g i n a l l y r h e t o r i c had e n v i s i o n e d three b a s i c g o a l s : t o move, to teach and to please an audience. Although the l a t t e r two were never abandoned a l t o g e t h e r , encouraged by C i c e r o and Q u i n t i l l i a n emotion gained over reason as an instrument of persuasion.(54) The J o u r n a l de Trevoux a p p r o v i n g l y c i t e d a prominent J e s u i t o r a t o r (Poree) who had argued t h a t : "the p e r f e c t o r a t o r was one who co u l d t e a c h , p l e a s e and move an audience. I t was a duty to i n s t r u c t , a requirement t o p l e a s e , but a n e c e s s i t y t o move the emotions" (JT, 1737, 1919). With the emphasis on emotional p e r s u a s i o n a predominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the J e s u i t s ' r h e t o r i c a l approach, i t f o l l o w s t h a t i m a g i n a t i v e appeals were f o r them a h i g h l y recommended p r a c t i c e . In o p p o s i t i o n t o the tendency of those i n the l a t e seventeenth and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s who c o n s i d e r e d an au s t e r e s t y l e t o convey a u t h e n t i c i t y , the J e s u i t s promoted " a m p l i f i c a t i o n " . As developed by prominent J e s u i t t h i n k e r s such as Jouvancy and Pomey, t h i s i n v o l v e d not o n l y l e n g t h e n i n g an address (or w r i t t e n work) but a l s o e m b e l l i s h i n g i t wit h v i v i d l y rendered d e t a i l s intended to heig h t e n i t s i m a g i n a t i v e e f f e c t . ( 5 5 ) Emotional and im a g i n a t i v e uses of language, together with a t a s t e f o r t h e a t r i c a l d i s p l a y , remained a trademark of the J e s u i t s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s Baroque s e n s i b i l i t y can be c o n t r a s t e d with an i d e a l of s c i e n t i f i c language which emerged i n roughly the same p e r i o d . As d e s c r i b e d by Thomas Spra t , the l a t t e r favoured "a c l o s e , naked, n a t u r a l way of speaking" and p r e f e r r e d "the language of a r t i s a n s , countrymen and merchants" t o t h a t of "wits and s c h o l a r s " . ( 5 6 ) As they grouped i n t o academies, p r a c t i t i o n e r s of s c i e n c e sought to develop methods of communication which avoided c o n f r o n t a t i o n . R h e t o r i c with 73 i t s emphasis on d i s p u t a t i o n and i t s e p i d e i c t i c s t y l e found i t s e l f i n c r e a s i n g l y a t odds with an i d e a l of a s c i e n t i f i c language aimed a t a c h i e v i n g , a g a i n i n the words of Sprat, "mathematical p l a i n n e s s " . ( 5 7 ) In s h o r t the " a m p l i f i e d " s t y l e of a Jouvancy c l a s h e d d i r e c t l y with Locke's recommendation t h a t " f i g u r a t i v e speech" be avoided a t a l l c o s t s when see k i n g "dry t r u t h and r e a l knowledge".(58) R e c o g n i t i o n must be g i v e n , however, t o the f a c t t h a t t h i s c o n f l i c t of " s c i e n t i f i c " and r h e t o r i c a l language v a l u e s was not e n t i r e l y p o l a r i z e d . J u s t as Arnauld, i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , came t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n a f a l l e n world an em b e l l i s h e d language was necessary to convey r e l i g i o u s t r u t h s , so s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s such as Sprat conceded a degree of m e r i t to r h e t o r i c i n the i n t e r e s t s of e f f e c t i v e communication.(59) The q u a r r e l between p h i l o s o p h y and r h e t o r i c had been one of p r i o r i t y , so too t h a t between s c i e n c e and r h e t o r i c was, i n many cases, one of degree. Adherents of r h e t o r i c found a t t i t u d e s such as Locke's o b j e c t i o n a b l e not o n l y because of t h e i r s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language, but a l s o because of what were p e r c e i v e d t o be the onerous s o c i a l consequences of such methods. The new s c i e n t i f i c mind seemed to be best e x e m p l i f i e d by the mathematician, who was w i d e l y c a r i a c a t u r e d as s o c i a l l y i n e p t , withdrawn and q u i t e i n c a p a b l e of a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e . In an attempt t o defend such i n d i v i d u a l s , the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1759 n e v e r t h e l e s s f e l t compelled to agree t h a t t h e i r judgement i n 74 b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s was g e n e r a l l y mediocre. And i t f u r t h e r conceded t h a t " f o r a h a n d f u l of men with wit, such as F o n t e n e l l e and Malebranche, who e x h i b i t e d a v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n but were n e v e r t h e l e s s capable of mastering the e x a c t s c i e n c e s , one c o u l d f i n d one hundred mathematicians who . . . were s c a r c e l y s e n s i t i v e t o works of t a s t e " (JT 1759, 508-9). In essence the argument f a v o r i n g r h e t o r i c over mathematics on the b a s i s of i t s s u p e r i o r s o c i a l m e r i t s , was r o o t e d i n a more ge n e r a l humanist tendency t o d i s c o u n t the p u r s u i t of those forms of knowledge which d i d not address the fundamental q u e s t i o n of how to l i v e . ( 6 0 ) T h i s c o n f l i c t of v a l u e s was r e f l e c t e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y France i n the o p p o s i t i o n mounted a g a i n s t Newtonian p h y s i c s . Where Copernicus had argued t h a t mathematics was w r i t t e n f o r mathematicians, and G a l i l e o had b l u n t l y d e c l a r e d t h a t the language of nature was mathematics, i t was not u n t i l the r i s e of Newtonian s c i e n c e t h a t the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such c l a i m s became apparent. U n l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , i n c l u d i n g Descartes, Newton's use of mathematics t o d e s c r i b e nature, remained l a r g e l y impenetrable to a l l but a s m a l l c i r c l e of mathematical p h y s i c i s t s . As C a s t e l had observed i n h i s f i r s t important review f o r the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. and as he would repeat i n c e s s a n t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the P r l n c l p l a "began where o r d i n a r y mathematics ended, t h e r e f o r e how c o u l d i t be a c c e s s i b l e to the average person?" (J_T 1721, 1762). 75 Newton and his followers were apparently absolutely indifferent to this d i f f i c u l t y . Consequently they were commiting what Cicero had deemed to be the "cardinal sin" of oratory (and hence of a l l social intercourse): "to depart from the language of everyday l i f e and the usage approved by the sense of the community".(61) Or as a letter published by the Journal de Trevoux put i t in 1754: "Cicero cries out to us that . . . in matters of eloquence, the worst mistake is not to be accessible to a l l " (JJT 1754, 2728). Invariably, therefore, s c i e n t i f i c reviews in the Journal de Trevoux placed a heavy emphasis on the accessibility of the works they discussed. The importance of a clear and approachable style was something of a litany on the part of Jesuit reviewers, especially where mathematics and Newtonian physics were concerned. Castel's efforts to popularize mathematics education were a prominent part of his work as a journalist and s c i e n t i f i c writer. He hoped that a familiarity with mathematics could be obtained in the context of a pedagogical style which emphasized a playful use of the imagination - in imitation of nature where f r u i t were produced after trees had flowered luxuriantly (JT 1729, 720). In a similar vein, Rabuel derided "great mathematicians who considered i t degrading to be i n t e l l i g i b l e " (JT 1730, 1207). He produced an introductory text which the Journal de Trevoux praised for i t s "order and c l a r i t y " (JT 1730, 1208). The importance of maintaining a clear and accessible style, consistently 76 emphasized by J e s u i t r e v i e w e r s , was extended t o a l l aspects of s c i e n c e . Buffon was r o u t i n e l y applauded f o r h i s " c l e a r , d e t a i l e d and w e l l - w r i t t e n " d e s c r i p t i o n s of nature, and f o r having avoided the e x c e s s i v e r i g o r which served o n l y to s t u l t i f y the n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y of readers (JT_ 1749, 2377). In a h i g h l y r e v e a l i n g passage, which does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r t o Newton, but which n e v e r t h e l e s s n e a t l y e n c a p s u l a t e s the J e s u i t emphasis on a c c e s s i b i l i t y , C a s t e l argues t h a t " i n matters of r e l i g i o n i t i s a fundamental r u l e t h a t what i s not f o r everyone i s i n f a c t f o r no one" (JT 1735, 330). He goes on to d e s c r i b e a scene i n which a m u l t i t u d e c o n f r o n t s a handful of i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . On the one s i d e : " m i s s i o n a r i e s , a p o s t l e s , the prophets and at t h e i r head Jesus C h r i s t l e a d i n g the people" (JT 1735, 330). On the other s i d e , "contemptuous and contemptible i n t u r n " a m i s e r a b l e group comprised of Bayle, Toland, Hobbes, Locke and a handful of others (JT 1735, 330). Although Newton was not named as one of those p a r i a h s , the response to h i s works i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. even a f t e r the P r i n c i p i a achieved acceptance i n i t s pages, cannot be p r o p e r l y understood u n l e s s the p h i l o s o p h i c i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of Newtonianism and the t r a d i t i o n of r h e t o r i c i n J e s u i t c u l t u r e i s taken i n t o account. CHAPTER 3 THE CONDITIONS OF SCIENTIFIC PRACTICE L a r g e l y c o n f r o n t e d thus f a r with J e s u i t t h i n k i n g about what s c i e n c e ought not t o be, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether members of t h a t order otherwise a s s e r t e d a more p o s i t i v e v i s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . An a n a l y s i s of s l i g h t l y over two hundred reviews p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de Tre'voux, devoted p r i m a r i l y but not e x c l u s i v e l y t o s c i e n t i f i c s u b j e c t s , makes i t p o s s i b l e t o provide a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l answer t o t h i s question.(1) Such evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t J e s u i t authors and reviewers g e n e r a l l y shared a number of Important assumptions c o n c e r n i n g : (a) the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r the development of a s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e , and (b) the fundamental importance of human c u r i o s i t y to a l l quests f o r knowledge. D i s c u s s i o n s of these i s s u e s r e c u r r e g u l a r l y i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux over a long p e r i o d of time. Reconstructed here, i n broad o u t l i n e , t h e y do much t o i l l u m i n a t e J e s u i t a t t i t u d e s to s c i e n c e d u r i n g the a n c l e n regime. I One of the consequences of the o r g a n i z i n g tendency which p r e v a i l e d i n European s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a widespread I n t e r e s t i n understanding the c o n d i t i o n s which best encouraged s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . Two reviews, p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l 78 de Trevoux i n 1734 and 1735 r e s p e c t i v e l y , provide an i n t r i g u i n g i n s i g h t i n t o J e s u i t t h i n k i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t and most i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s e s a l e t t e r i n v h i c h P a r x e n i n , a J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r y s t a t i o n e d i n China, attempts t o e x p l a i n the backward s t a t e of s c i e n c e i n t h a t c o u n t r y to Dourtous de Mairan, p e r p e t u a l s e c r e t a r y of the Academie des S c i e n c e s (JJT 1734, 1214-24). The second a l s o examines the w r i t i n g s of a J e s u i t , i n t h i s case Regnault's L ' O r i q l n e  anclenne de l a physique n o u v e l l e , i n which the author compares the s c i e n t i f i c achievements of h i s day with those of A n t i q u i t y ( H 1735, 1680-96). Ac c o r d i n g to P a r r e n l n Chinese s c i e n c e was deeply a f f e c t e d by a p e r v a s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l s t a g n a t i o n which dis c o u r a g e d or prevented o u t r i g h t the growth of those c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r the development of a v i b r a n t s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . The Chinese, he argued, were thwarted i n t e l l e c t u a l l y by a well-entrenched s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l system which devoted i t s e n e r g i e s t o p r e s e r v i n g the s t a t u s quo and consequently suppressed i n t e l l e c t u a l i n n o v a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the Chinese d i d not have the b e n e f i t of being i n f l u e n c e d by neighbouring c u l t u r e s whose i n t e l l e c t u a l achievements were s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced to a c t as a spur to s c i e n t i f i c progress i n China. T h i s problem was compounded by the f a c t t h a t the Chinese had long h e l d f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s i n contempt and had t h e r e f o r e d i s d a i n e d to adopt c u l t u r a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s from abroad. P a r r e n i n , who owed h i s p o s i t i o n a t the Chinese c o u r t to h i s s u p e r i o r 79 s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s , f e l t t h a t t h i s a v e r s i o n to f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s extended t o European s c i e n c e as w e l l . Though the Chinese were a t times d a z z l e d by the s c i e n t i f i c c a p a b i l i t i e s of J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r i e s they shoved no i n d i c a t i o n of adopting t h e i r methods. The development of s c i e n c e i n China had a l s o been hampered, P a r r e n i n argued, by an e d u c a t i o n a l system which p l a c e d undue emphasis on the study of h i s t o r y , law, e t h i c s and grammar a t the expense of s u b j e c t s which might b e t t e r arouse the c u r i o s i t y of students about nature i n g e n e r a l . What the Chinese lacked as a r e s u l t was a c e r t a i n shrewdness and the " r e s t l e s s u n c e r t a i n t y " which f o r P a r r e n i n were the animating p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c progress (JT 1734, 1218). The Chinese a l s o p l a c e d undue emphasis on p r a c t i c a l i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y showed no encouragement f o r the p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s which seemed to l i e behind c o n c e p t u a l breakthroughs In s c i e n c e . P a r r e n l n ' s a n a l y s i s was subsequently r e f e r r e d to on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. A J e s u i t r e v i e w e r , i n 1759, f o r i n s t a n c e , p r a i s e d Montucla, the author of a w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d h i s t o r y of mathematics, f o r having made prominent use of arguments v e r y s i m i l a r to those of P a r r e n i n i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the development of mathematics i n China (JT 1759, 2508-9). And when i n t h a t same year the J o u r n a l de Trevoux reviewed a new e d i t i o n of the correspondence between the J e s u i t m i s s i o n a r y and de Mairan, i t accorded the l e t t e r on Chinese s c i e n c e 80 almost the same degree of a t t e n t i o n as i t had i n 1734 (JT 1759, 2266-71). Undoubtedly P a r r e n l n ' s l e t t e r owed a f a i r measure of i t s success t o a s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of European r e a d e r s i n matters r e l a t i n g t o China. And i n t h a t v e i n the p o p u l a r i t y of h i s ideas c o u l d not have been hampered f o r having f l a t t e r e d assumptions about European c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . Beyond such e x p l a n a t i o n s , however, there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t , w e l l a f t e r i t was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , P a r r e n l n ' s account continued to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n because i t remained a p e r s u a s i v e response t o q u e s t i o n s concerning the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s on s c i e n t i f i c p rogress.(2) Even i f one i s not predisposed to accept p e r j o r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of J e s u i t i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t r a n s i g e n c e d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , many of P a r r e n l n ' s c l a i m s come as something of a s u r p r i s e . The b e l i e f t h a t i n s a t i a b l y c u r i o u s minds w i l l i n g (and a b l e ) t o engage i n pure s p e c u l a t i o n were an e s s e n t i a l aspect of a v i b r a n t s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e would seem incongruous on the p a r t of a man pledged t o accept the a u t h o r i t y of h i s s u p e r i o r s without q u e s t i o n . More s u r p r i s i n g , perhaps, i s P a r r e n l n ' s a t t a c k on the Chinese system of e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i t was not u n l i k e the humanistic program of the J e s u i t s - which a l s o emphasized the study of languages and l i t e r a t u r e . I r o n i c a l l y , n o n - J e s u i t French c r i t i c s r o u t i n e l y condemned the pedagogical approach of the R a t i o Studlorum i n terms 81 very similar to those employed by Parrenin in his letter to de Mairan.(3) Indeed Parrenln's remarks suggest a recognition of sorts that the humanist emphasis of Jesuit education vas misplaced in the context of a s c i e n t i f i c culture. It would be deceptive, of course, to place an undue emphasis on so oblique a reference. More direct support for such an argument, however, is available in a letter written in 1754 by Parrenln's colleague, Antoine Gaubil.(4) Referring to a nephew who had recently become a member of the Society, Gaubll hoped that his relative would make the special effort to meet men of s c i e n t i f i c repute. He was aware from his own experience that those educated in Jesuit colleges: "rarely had contact with scientists and that the majority were content to know literature, philosophy and theology, but were l i t t l e inclined to take the trouble to learn at least the basic mathematics required in physics, as well as natural history etc."(5). As in the case of the panygerics to mathematics delivered by Aubert and Rouille, however, such remarks should not be taken as a direct attack on the essentially humanist pedagogical principles of the Ratio Studiorum. Rather, they are better interpreted as something of a c a l l for a return to Its basic principles. There mathematics and physics were accorded an important status in the curriculum. To judge from most accounts such original intentions did not f u l l y translate into practice in many of the Society's 82 c o l l e g e s , both i n France and i n other c o u n t r i e s . For s c i e n t i f i c a l l y minded J e s u i t s such as G a u b i l , t h i s was c l e a r l y a matter of some concern. Such a s e n s i t i v i t y t o shortcomings i n J e s u i t c u l t u r e vas i t s e l f p a r t of a l a r g e r i n t e r e s t among members of the S o c i e t y i n understanding the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s . Though somehwat l e s s i n t r i g u i n g than P a r r e n l n ' s s p e c u l a t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d , the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux's review of Regnault's L ' O r i g l n e anclenne de l a  physique n o u v e l l e n e v e r t h e l e s s a l l o w s a f u r t h e r glimpse a t a J e s u i t response to t h i s q u e s t i o n . Attempting t o e x p l a i n the dramatic i n c r e a s e i n knowledge which d i s t i n g u i s h e d the s c i e n c e of h i s day from t h a t of A n t i q u i t y , Regnault i d e n t i f i e d a t l e a s t f i v e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of modern s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e which he f e l t e nabled i t t o f l o u r i s h . A c c o r d i n g to him the study of nature had been g r e a t l y encouraged and f a c i l i t a t e d by: (a) an attachment t o methods d e r i v e d from the p r i n c i p l e s of geometry; (b) the c a r e f u l use of o b s e r v a t i o n and experiments; (c) the i n v e n t i o n of instruments such as the microscope, t e l e s c o p e and pneumatic pump; (d) the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of Academies; and f i n a l l y , (e) the p u b l i c a t i o n of j o u r n a l s and the t r a n s a c t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ( J ^ 1735, 1680-96). N o t i c e should be taken, i f o n l y i n p a s s i n g , of Regnault's acknowledgement of the importance of mathematics, which he deemed t o have g i v e n modern n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y a 83 sense of order and c l a r i t y a l t o g e t h e r l a c k i n g i n A n t i q u i t y (JT 1735, 1690-1). Such r e c o g n i t i o n , from a staunch defender of C a r t e s i a n ideas and a prominent f i g u r e i n the s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s of h i s o r d e r , lends weight to the a s s e r t i o n t h a t i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to Nevtonianism, the J e s u i t s d i d not d isparage the use of mathematics a l t o g e t h e r . Though he emphasized methodological developments, Regnault i s more i n t e r e s t i n g here f o r the a t t e n t i o n he devoted t o s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . His enthusiasm f o r the range and pace of s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s i n the modern p e r i o d - which d i d not extend t o Newtonian p h y s i c s - was underscored by an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s which produced those achievements. He c l e a r l y a ccepted t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l growth was c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the e f f e c t i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n of new i d e a s . Hence the need f o r academies and j o u r n a l s . The l a t t e r Regnault d e s c r i b e d as a " u n i v e r s a l and p o r t a b l e l i b r a r y " capable of e f f i c i e n t l y a l e r t i n g r eaders who a t a glance c o u l d inform themselves of a l l new and u s e f u l d i s c o v e r i e s (JT 1735, 1695). I t i s no s u r p r i s e , of course, to f i n d r e f e r e n c e s of t h i s s o r t d i s c u s s e d with app r o v a l by J e s u i t r e v i e w e r s . One of the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was to a c t as an i n t e r m e d i a r y i n the exchange of i d e a s , s c i e n t i f i c or otherwise.(6) Nor i s i t suggested here t h a t Regnault's ideas were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by any p a r t i c u l a r o r i g i n a l i t y . His d i s c u s s i o n of modern s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e was i n f a c t r a t h e r commonplace f o r h i s day. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t i s 84 perhaps the ease with which he could accommodate such thinking - within the larger context of an attempt to describe modern physics as a consequence of intellectual evolution, not revolution - that is most instructive. II As Jesuits, both Parrenin and Regnault were thoroughly immersed in a humanist tradition which exalted the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of individual achievement. Yet their analyses of s c i e n t i f i c culture were relatively devoid of emphasis on the potential contributions of men of genius. In neither of their discussions is there evidence of the hero worship embodied in Pope's famous couplet - according to which Newton's brilliance alone sufficed to illuminate nature's darkest secrets. Instead, their accounts subordinated individual genius to social and cultural conditions as a factor in s c i e n t i f i c progress.(7) Asked by de Mairan whether the backward condition of science in China might be attributed to an Intellectual deficiency on the part of the Chinese, and in particular to a lack of geniuses among them, Parrenin was quick to reject such an explanation. In support of his question de Mairan had argued that "fate and the vicissitudes of nature . . . might not have produced in China any of those extraordinary intellects which blazed t r a i l s for subsequent generations" JT 1734, 1219). Such men had certainly existed, Parrenin responded, but the work of such "inventive s p i r i t s " had 85 developed i n a s o c i e t y so r e s i s t a n t t o change and so unresponsive t o new ideas t h a t i t had f a l l e n on barren ground. Given a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t w i s t , a s i m i l a r e x p l a n a t i o n was o f f e r e d by the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1759 as p a r t of a d e s c r i p t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the Dark Ages. "Genius", the anonymous reviewer of Montucla's h i s t o r y of mathematics argued, " e x i s t s i n a l l times, even i n the middle of t h i s dark n i g h t . . . there were men worthy of being awarded a p l a c e In the h i s t o r y of the a r t s and s c i e n c e s " (JT 1759, 505-6). He then c i t e s Boethlus and Bede as two examples of such achievement. But i t i s a l s o c l e a r from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t , d e p r i v e d of a s u i t a b l e h i s t o r i c a l stage upon which to a c t - t h a t i s to say without the proper s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l support - the achievements of such men were d e s t i n e d t o f a l l f a r s h o r t of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . The degree t o which o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s r e q u i r e d a s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l environment, f o l l o w i n g what appears to have been the p r e v a i l i n g J e s u i t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s e v i d e n t elsewhere i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. In the review devoted to Regnault's study of p h y s i c s , the J e s u i t Athanius K i r c h e r i s presented as "one of those geniuses nature so r a r e l y produces, as i f she f e a r e d having her m y s t e r i e s too w e l l understood" (JT 1735, 456). "What", i t i s asked, " d i d t h i s c e l e b r a t e d German l a c k i n order t o achieve such an understanding?" (JT 1735, 456). On a p e r s o n a l l e v e l a p p a r e n t l y v e r y l i t t l e . He 66 i s d e s c r i b e d i n glowing terms as v i g o r o u s , v i s e , p r o d i g i o u s l y w e l l - r e a d , knowledgeable about chemistry, mathematics and the a r t s and imbued with a love f o r experiments as w e l l as a keen d e s i r e t o d i s c o v e r the t r u t h . But the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w i n g him t o f u l l y expand upon these a b i l i t i e s are by no means n e g l e c t e d . K i r c h e r i s r e c o g n i z e d t o have b e n e f i t t e d d e e p l y from an i n t e r n a t i o n a l network of c o n t a c t s with l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s . And, having obtained the favour of p r i n c e s , the c o s t s of h i s experiments and t r a v e l s were f u l l y s u b s i d i z e d -h a r d l y an impediment t o d e v e l o p i n g h i s a b i l i t i e s (J_T 1735, 456). T h i s s u s t a i n e d emphasis on s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n J e s u i t d i s c u s s i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c genius was c o n s i s t e n t throughout the p e r i o d i n which the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was p u b l i s h e d by the S o c i e t y . Any d e f i n i t i o n of genius must gr a p p l e i n some f a s h i o n with the i s s u e of whether e x c e p t i o n a l l y t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s are e i t h e r fundamentally a phenomenom of nature or a product of e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the J e s u i t s r e c o g n i z e d genius as a phenomenon of nature. Indeed the examples c i t e d thus f a r abound with such d e s c r i p t i o n s . U n l i k e l a t e r Romantic t h i n k i n g on the s u b j e c t , however, the J e s u i t s c o n c e i v e d study t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r genius t o come i n t o i t s own. (8) And i n the case of s c i e n t i f i c genius, a h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d support network was r e q u i r e d as w e l l . 87 A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g r a i n e d i n attempts t o d e f i n e genius concerns the degree to which such a concept i m p l i e s o r i g i n a l i t y , and beyond t h a t the extent to which a genius ought to be seen as d i s t i n c t from s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . T h i n k i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n s h i f t e d over the course of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Although there was no c l e a r consensus, the tendency was g e n e r a l l y toward an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on both o r i g i n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . ( 9 ) In t h e i r response to t h i s q u e s t i o n the J e s u i t s adhered r a t h e r c l o s e l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g , t o a concept which i r o n i c a l l y was g i v e n apt e x p r e s s i o n by H e l v e t i u s In De 1 ' E s p r i t (1758). For him "genius always i m p l i e l d ] i n v e n t i o n , but i n v e n t i o n , however, d i d not always imply g e n i u s " . (10) "To o b t a i n the t i t l e of a man of g e n i u s " , H e l v e t i u s c o n tinued, " i t was necessary t h a t i n v e n t i o n p e r t a i n t o t h a t which was u s e f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g f o r humanity."(11) For the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, F o n t e n e l l e was the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y example of such a man. J e s u i t reviewers e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d h i s mastery of l i t e r a t u r e , eloquence, and s t y l e which they saw as the source of h i s g e n i u s . In t u r n h i s o r i g i n a l i t y , a c c o r d i n g to a review p u b l i s h e d i n 1761, l a y i n h i s a b i l i t y t o a p p l y such t a l e n t s t o the e'loges he awarded prominent s c i e n t i s t s , and the s u c c i n c t and h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e syntheses of s c i e n t i f i c works which he wrote f o r the Academie (JT 1761, 1276). 88 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i d e a l Newton might be taken as something of a counterexample to F o n t e n e l l e . Staunch opponents such as C a s t e l had no qualms about a c c o r d i n g Newton the s t a t u s of a mathematical genius. But such a c c o l a d e s were q u a l i f i e d i n s o f a r as he manifested those s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n a manner e s s e n t i a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o a broad p u b l i c . As f o r o r i g i n a l i t y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t even J e s u i t s such as P a u l i a n , who adopted Newton's method i n p h y s i c s , never f u l l y r e c o n c i l e d themselves t o the degree of h i s i n n o v a t i o n s . The J e s u i t concept of genius, a p p a r e n t l y d i d not accommodate r a d i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y . On the q u e s t i o n of o r i g i n a l i t y as a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of genius, i t i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n t t h a t J e s u i t t h i n k i n g i n t h i s r e g a rd d i d not a l l o w such q u a l i t i e s an easy e x i s t e n c e i n the domain of t h e o l o g y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , no s p e c i f i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c examples were found to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , and a d i s c u s s i o n of Rousseau i n the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux w i l l have t o serve instead.(12) In a d i s c u s s i o n of the Savoyard V i c a r i t i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l genius and t h e o l o g y i s not always a comfortable one. The nature of genius i s t o innovate and t o be n o u r i s h e d by t h a t which i s new and s i n g u l a r . Theology, by c o n t r a s t , i s founded on r e v e l a t i o n which cannot be open t o I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t c o n s i s t s i n s t e a d of M a r e p o s i t o r y of c e r t a i n knowledge which suppresses the search f o r new d i s c o v e r i e s " (JT 1765, 987). Elsewhere, i n a review a t t a c k i n g f r e e t h i n k e r s , the J o u r n a l de Trevoux provided an 89 expanded v e r s i o n of such an argument. C l a i m i n g t h a t h e n c e f o r t h i t would be necessary "to e i t h e r renounce the g l o r y of being o r i g i n a l , or to compromise the honor of r e l i g i o n " i t concluded t h a t while " c r e a t i v e geniuses were always o r i g i n a l " i t was p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t o " w r i t e i n favour of r e l i g i o n without being a g e n i u s " (JJT 1761, 966). The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t to a l l o w genius to venture i n t o the realm of t h e o l o g y was to c o u r t d i s a s t e r . I l l Whatever the balance of i t s m e r i t s and shortcomings, f o r the J e s u i t s ' genius was of c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e as an i n f l u e n c e upon s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e than was a more u n i v e r s a l human i n s t i n c t of c u r i o s i t y . References t o the importance of c u r i o s i t y abound i n J e s u i t d i s c u s s i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y . ( 1 3 ) Regnault's c l a i m t h a t nature was "a bottomless p i t " capable of f o r e v e r e x c i t i n g a sense of c u r i o s i t y which was i t s e l f " l i m i t l e s s " i s a t y p i c a l example of an a t t i t u d e found throughout the J o u r n a l de Trevoux (JT 1735, 860). When the J o u r n a l de  Tre'voux a d v e r t i s e d i t s e l f i n 1701 as a banquet t a b l e where people with the most w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g t a s t e s c o u l d f i n d enough t o s a t i s f y t h e i r a p p e t i t e s , i t was making use of a popular c u l i n a r y metaphor a c c o r d i n g t o which the a p p e t i t e f o r new knowledge, the trademark of the c u r i o u s , was understood to be the d r i v i n g f o r c e i n the a r t s and the s c i e n c e s . ( 1 4 ) The sense of c u r i o s i t y was g e n e r a l l y 90 understood t o be a c a p a c i t y a v a i l a b l e t o most people as opposed t o being the e x c l u s i v e a t t r i b u t e of an i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e . L i k e genius, however, c u r i o s i t y needed to be nou r i s h e d by e d u c a t i o n and i t c o u l d o n l y be s u s t a i n e d i n a s t i m u l a t i n g environment. As P a r r e n l n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of c o n d i t i o n s i n China made c l e a r , t h i s c r u c i a l i n c e n t i v e t o seek new knowledge c o u l d f l o u r i s h o n l y i n the context of a s o c i e t y which encouraged i t p r o p e r l y . As a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the s o u l ' s need t o know, c u r i o s i t y a c t e d t o overcome the body's i n c l i n a t i o n t o av o i d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the a c t of d i s c o v e r i n g . ( 1 5 ) Yet, a c c o r d i n g t o the p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f the balance between these tendencies was a d e l i c a t e one. Consequently i t was e s s e n t i a l t o avoid monotony and e x c e s s i v e complexity i n s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . In h i s E n t r e t i e n s physique d ' A r l s t e et d'Eudoxe (1729), (a h i g h l y popular work t h a t was p u b l i s h e d i n seven e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s e v e r a l European languages by 1751), Regnault p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of such t h i n k i n g . "Our s o u l " h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r Eudoxe argues "which i s n a t u r a l l y c u r i o u s and seeks happiness, l i k e s simple p e r c e p t i o n s because they do not make l e a r n i n g awkward and tires o m e ; and v a r i e d p e r c e p t i o n s because they are l i k e myriad sources of p l e a s u r e which never c a r r y w i t h them the f a t i g u e of u n i f o r m i t y " (JT 1730, 453). Thus Buffon was subsequently p r a i s e d by the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1749 f o r r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the s c i e n c e s " c o u l d not be presented i n a 91 d i d a c t i c f a s h i o n nor obscured by complex p r e c e p t s , methods and o b s e r v a t i o n s . " Such an approach "was the scourge of b r i g h t minds, the r u i n of e d u c a t i o n " and consequently a l l would be b e t t e r o f f i f pedagogues " i n t e r e s t e d themselves more i n our n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y " (J_T 1749, 1854-1856). I f there was g e n e r a l agreement i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t c u r i o s i t y was " n a t u r a l " , i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s d e f i n e d i n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ways. Naive as i t was, simple c h i l d l i k e c u r i o s i t y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y taken to be the purest e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t s t a t e of mind. However, d u r i n g the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s a c c o r d i n g to Hans Blumenberg, there began to emerge a more " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s " c u r i o s i t y which g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d the o l d e r "naive" view.(16) As a r e s u l t of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n the " c u r i e u x " began to take on "the p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t y of the s c h o l a r , who (was] c h a r a c t e r i z e d more by the m e t h o d i c a l l y secured or a t t a i n a b l e p o s s e s s i o n of knowledge than by the elemental need f o r knowledge."(17) I f one does not d i s c r i m i n a t e too s t r i c t l y the J e s u i t understanding of c u r i o s i t y g e n e r a l l y leaned t o the " n a i v e " . T h e i r frequent c r i t i c i s m of Nevtonianism, not o n l y f o r i t s complexity but a l s o f o r i t s apparent i n d i f f e r e n c e t o e x p l a i n i n g phenomena ( s a t i s f y i n g c u r i o s i t y ) i s perhaps the most prominent example of such t h i n k i n g . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between a methodical and a naive c u r i o s i t y was r e f l e c t e d i n what D a n i e l Roche has i d e n t i f i e d as an important theme i n experimental p h y s i c s d u r i n g the 92 e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : a c o n t i n u i n g o s c i l l a t i o n between a sense of w o r l d l y d i s t r a c t i o n on the one hand, and a more r i g o r o u s and e m p i r i c a l u t i l i t a r i a n i s m on the other.(18) The J e s u i t approach to c u r i o s i t y , a c c o r d i n g to such a scheme, can be drawn from two reviews i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. The f i r s t was devoted to Maupertius' L e t t r e sur l e progres  des s c i e n c e s (1752), and the second, p u b l i s h e d i n 1745, d i s c u s s e d an a u c t i o n e e r ' s catalogue of three c a b i n e t s of c u r i o s i t i e s . In h i s l e t t e r , which Blumenberg has d e s c r i b e d as an almost u n p a r a l l e l e d "catalogue of c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t could s t i m u l t e c u r i o s i t y " , Maupertuis s e t out to o u t l i n e a complete r e s e a r c h agenda f o r a s c i e n t i f i c academy.(19) To name o n l y a few of h i s proposed ve n t u r e s , h i s h i g h l y ambitious program comprised: voyages of geographic d i s c o v e r y ; medical r e s e a r c h to be conducted on c r i m i n a l s ; p l a n s t o p e r f e c t astronomy; attempts to improve s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h equipment; and the study of the o r i g i n s of language (JT 1752, 1751-9). Maupertuis a l s o i n c l u d e d plans f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l e g e of s c i e n c e s whose a f f a i r s would be conducted e n t i r e l y i n L a t i n - r e v e a l i n g the p e r s i s t e n c e of t h i s i d e a l i n l e a d i n g s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s a t mid-century. R e a c t i o n t o t h i s grandiose scheme of organized c u r i o s i t y by the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was p r e d i c t a b l y l a r g e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . One c o u l d not read t h i s l e t t e r , the review concluded, "without s e n s i n g how much the patronage of a powerful p r i n c e c o u l d extend the v i s i o n of a g r e a t p h y s i c i s t 93 and e n l a r g e the i m a g i n a t i o n of a severe mathematician" (JT 1752, 1760). N e v e r t h e l e s s , some r e v e a l i n g e x c e p t i o n s were taken to Maupertuis' p r o p o s a l s . P a s s i n g r a t h e r l i g h t l y over the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t medical r e s e a r c h be conducted on c r i m i n a l s a l r e a d y sentenced to death the reviewer balked a t the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t p h y s i c i a n s l i m i t t h e i r p r a c t i c e t o a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d s p e c i a l t y . In a remark vaguely r e m i n i s c e n t of C a s t e l ' s o b j e c t i o n to a s u g g e s t i o n by Musschenbroek t h a t the s t u d y of p h y s i c s ought to be h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d from the s t a r t , he d i s m i s s e d Maupertuis' s i m i l a r concept as i m p r a c t i c a l (JT 1752, 1758).(20) In so doing he remained c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a g e n e r a l tendency on the p a r t of J e s u i t w r i t e r s t o r e s i s t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n favour of a more e c l e c t i c approach to s c i e n c e . An o b j e c t i o n was a l s o made t o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t r a d i c a l breeding experiments be performed with animals. To tamper with the n a t u r a l order i n t h i s f a s h i o n was deemed l i k e l y t o be more p r e j u d i c i a l t o n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y than of b e n e f i t to s c i e n t i f i c progress (JT 1752, 1758). Such grandiose schemes a s i d e organized c u r i o s i t y of q u i t e another s o r t was p r a c t i c e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h century by i n d i v i d u a l s who maintained c a b i n e t s of c u r i o s i t i e s i n t h e i r homes.(21) The e c l e c t i c range of these c o l l e c t i o n s i s i n d i c a t e d i n a review p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1745. In a f a s c i n a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s phenomenon - as p a r t of a review of an a u c t i o n e e r ' s catalogue of three such 94 c a b i n e t s - the f o l l o w i n g types are l i s t e d : a n a t o m i c a l , c h e m i c a l , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l , and those devoted to instruments, b o t t l e d animals, m i n e r a l s , i n s e c t s , p l a n t s , p h y s i c s , math, s e a s h e l l s , and books (JT 1745, 647). "Nothing", the reviewer s t a t e s , " i s b e t t e r s u i t e d to develop a t a s t e f o r the f i n e a r t s and the b e l l e s l e t t r e s than frequent exposure, and i f p o s s i b l e the exhaustive study, of the contents of c a b i n e t s of c u r i o s i t i e s , which a u s t e r e s c i e n t i s t s are prone to d i s m i s s as p r e c i o u s t r i v i a l i t i e s " (JT_ 1745, 620). The t a s t e f o r n a t u r a l beauty and f o r a r t i s an honest one, he c o n t i n u e s , and i t l i e s a t the h e a r t of a t r u e understanding of the wonder of God's c r e a t i o n : "Anything . . . t h a t God c r e a t e d , m e r i t s t h a t man admire i t , r e s e a r c h i t and study i t . I t i s a mark of f i n e t a s t e t o know how to esteem e v e r y t h i n g and i t i s p e r f e c t t a s t e t o know how to a p p r e c i a t e e v e r y t h i n g " (JT 1745, 621). Questions of t a s t e and a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e are c r u c i a l i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . C u r i o s i t y i s f i r s t aroused by t h a t which i s v i s u a l l y b e a u t i f u l . Since i t i s argued nature always a l l i e s with the good, and the t r u e with t h a t which i s b e a u t i f u l , what begins as a love f o r p a i n t i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , can culminate i n the study of p h y s i c s (JT_ 1745, 630,624). And l e s t one q u e s t i o n the e r u d i t i o n of those who develop a p a s s i o n f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of c u r i o s i t i e s , i t i s pointed out t h a t such i n d i v i d u a l s almost i n v a r i a b l y have l a r g e l i b r a r i e s (JT_ 1745, 624). 95 C o n t i n u i n g i n t h i s v e i n the reviewer argues t h a t s c i e n t i s t s have e r r e d b a d l y i n d i s m i s s i n g the sense of wonder which t y p i f i e s the c u r i o u s p u b l i c . In doing so they have a l i e n a t e d themselves from an audience which, while eager f o r new knowledge, has become disenchanted with the ponderous t r e a t i s e s the s c i e n t i f i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t has taken t o c h u r n i n g out (J_T_ 1745, 622). What the reviewer hopes f o r , f i n a l l y - and h i s hopes r e f l e c t much t h a t i s c e n t r a l to the J e s u i t a t t i t u d e t o s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y - i s an understanding of the importance of c u r i o s i t y t o the growth of knowledge. He i n s i s t s t h a t the a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n which f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the r e i g n of L o u i s XIV, (the " c e n t u r y of f l o w e r s " ) , can o n l y e n r i c h the p r a c t i c a l s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s of the age of L o u i s XV (the "century of f r u i t " ) (21 1745, 626). In a t r u l y h e a l t h y system of knowledge, the reviewer concludes, o n l y the cr o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n which can occur between both tendencies w i l l t r u l y advance a human understanding of the n a t u r a l world. IV There i s l i t t l e reason t o q u e s t i o n the s i n c e r i t y of J e s u i t w r i t e r s and reviewers i n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r a i s a l s of c u r i o s i t y as a source of m o t i v a t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e . Yet t h a t enthusiasm was not u n q u a l i f i e d . Sworn t o defend C a t h o l i c orthodoxy, the J e s u i t s found themselves h e i r t o an e s s e n t i a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n t r a d i t i o n which c o e x i s t e d u n e a s i l y with i d e a l s 96 of u n r e s t r i c t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l I n q u i r y . The r i g h t of i n d i v i d u a l s t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e o l o g i c a l matters was, n a t u r a l l y , the most acute concern. A statement made i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux i n 1760 r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the B i b l e n e a t l y e x e m p l i f i e s the J e s u i t response t o t h i s i s s u e . R e c o g n i z i n g the r i g h t of the educated t o study the B i b l e i n depth, and t h a t of more simple s o u l s t o read i t i n a "modest and p e a c e f u l " f a s h i o n , the reviewer n e v e r t h e l e s s u n e q u i v o c a l l y a s s e r t s t h a t : ". . . s a c r e d t e x t s must never be examined or e x p l a i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l i n c l i n a t i o n s : the Church i s t h e i r o n l y l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r p r e t e r " (JT 1760, 2477). Such i n t r a n s i g e n c e was l e s s obvious i n the case of s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y . There the evidence i n d i c a t e s a more ambivalent response. Reviewing the I n s t i t u t i o n s Newtoniennes i n 1747 B e r t h i e r p r a i s e d Sigorgne f o r not having l i m i t e d h i m s e l f to "the q u e s t i o n s necessary f o r s e m i n a r i a n s " ; and f o r having r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t was "not i n d e c e n t f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c s t o study the wondrous mechanism of the u n i v e r s e i n depth" (JT 1747, 2448-9). Such e f f o r t s , he c o n t i n u e d , were f u l l y capable of " i n s p i r i n g v e n e r a t i o n and a sense of g r a t i t u d e f o r the C r e a t o r " (JT 1747, 2448-9). Whatever the s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l b e n e f i t s of s t u d y i n g the "wondrous mechanism of the u n i v e r s e i n depth", the J e s u i t s responded q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y to Maupertuis' s u g g e s t i o n t h a t animals be s t u d i e d i n order to d e t e c t t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r thought. In t h a t i n s t a n c e the J o u r n a l de 97 Trevoux made i t c l e a r t h a t : " i n p h i l o s o p h y i t i s as e s s e n t i a l t o know where t o sto p , as i t i s to know j u s t how f a r one can go" (JT 1756, 2081). As th e y d i d elsewhere, the J e s u i t s upheld an i d e a l of r e s t r a i n t and adherence t o the golden mean i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s . D e s c a r t e s , as "the f a t h e r of modern p h i l o s o p h y " had c r e a t e d "a v e r y g r e a t s c a n d a l " a c c o r d i n g t o the J o u r n a l  de Trevoux i n 1760, because of h i s l a c k of moderation and p h i l o s o p h i c I m p a r t i a l i t y (JT 1760, 135). Modern t h i n k e r s , another review concurred with Maupertuis, were o v e r r e a c t i n g t o a p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d d u r i n g which p h i l o s o p h y had been kept w i t h i n narrow c o n s t r a i n t s . Eager to t e a r down a l l b a r r i e r s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e c u l a t i o n they were f o r g e t t i n g how to ma i n t a i n themselves " i n the t r u e c e n t r e , i n the e q u i t a b l e middle where t r u t h was immutably l o c a t e d " (JT 1756, 2086). To judge from the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. i n the case of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e t h i s "true c e n t r e " i m p l i e d two fundamental assumptions. F i r s t t h a t a r e s p e c t f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n was an e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a f o r a l l forms of I n t e l l e c t u a l i n q u i r y . Second, and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h a t i n the event of a c o n f l i c t , matters of reason should always be subordinated t o those of r e v e l a t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d by the Church. Attempts t o r e c o n c i l e new s c i e n t i f i c ideas with p r e v i o u s l y accepted b e l i e f s were a p e r e n n i a l concern of the French J e s u i t s d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E s s e n t i a l l y sympathetic t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s , the 98 l a t t e r nonetheless I n s i s t e d t h a t such developments needed to be understood as e v o l u t i o n a r y r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n c h a r a c t e r . Hence, (again f o l l o w i n g a s u g g e s t i o n from M a u p e r t u i s ) , while the i n s i g h t s of a few b r i l l i a n t i n d i v i d u a l s might w e l l c r e a t e a ferment of new i d e a s , many of these would prove t o be dead ends, thus i n d i c a t i n g how o f t e n " a n c i e n t systems and common o p i n i o n s were what remained the b e s t " (JT 1756, 2087). Ther e f o r e J e s u i t w r i t e r s and reviewers c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t e d abrupt d e p a r t u r e s from e s t a b l i s h e d l e a r n i n g . The more important concern, however, was to prevent what the J e s u i t s p e r c e i v e d as a fundamentally h e a l t h y I n s t i n c t from d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a c h a l l e n g e to the a u t h o r i t y of the Church. Since f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c i e n t i f i c knowledge c o u l d no longer be d i r e c t l y s u bordinated t o theology, the obvious a l t e r n a t i v e was t o draw as c l e a r a d i s t i n c t i o n as p o s s i b l e between matters of reason and those of r e v e l a t i o n . Thus the c l a i m t h a t : " I t i s not g i v e n to man to seek out the depths of God's e x i s t e n c e , i t i s enough f o r man to know t h a t there i s no manifest c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the mysteries and reason, between D i v i n e t r u t h s and the n a t u r a l knowledge of the human mind" (JT 1762, 718-9). Wisdom d e r i v e d from S c r i p t u r e was p r e d i c t a b l y accorded e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l preeminence a c c o r d i n g to t h i s scheme s i n c e the b e n e f i t s i t promised were " v a s t l y s u p e r i o r to mere human knowledge" (JT 1754, 622-3). I t was c a r e f u l l y emphasized, however, t h a t there was a "very r e a l 99 d i s t i n c t i o n between t h a t which was above reason and t h a t which c o n t r a d i c t e d reason" (21 1762, 718). How e x a c t l y reason and r e v e l a t i o n were d i s t i n c t was a p p a r e n t l y not e n t i r e l y c l e a r to the J e s u i t s themselves. In two separate reviews p u b l i s h e d i n the mid-1750s the J o u r n a l  de Trevoux adopted seemingly q u i t e d i s t i n c t arguments i n re g a r d t o t h i s i s s u e . In the f i r s t i t h e l d t h a t "pure reason (and! a d u t i f u l c o nscience were the judges one had to c o n s u l t " i n q u e s t i o n s concerning the t r u t h s of r e l i g i o n and t h e s t r e n g t h of i t s p r o o f s (JT 1755, 1115-6). In the second i t argued t h a t m y s t e r i e s such as the T r i n i t y should be accepted "as an a c t of f a i t h i n r e v e l a t i o n , without a t t e m p t i n g or e x p l a i n a matter beyond a l l comprehension t o human reason" (21 1757, 2246-7). O c c a s i o n a l l y nature was deemed to be e q u a l l y beyond the ken of reason. And i n t h i s case the Church c o u l d not p l a y the r o l e of i n t e r m e d i a r y between t h a t which c o u l d be known and the v a s t r e g i o n s of the unknowable beyond t h a t . When Maupertuis attempted t o e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s of animal s p e c i e s , he ventured i n t o a realm of s p e c u l a t i o n fraught w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y s e r i o u s t h e o l o g i c a l consequences. The J o u r n a l de Trevoux. otherwise e n t h u s i a s t i c about h i s wideranging c u r i o s i t y , sounded a warning. "Nature, l i k e r e l i g i o n , has i t s m y s t e r i e s " , the review intoned, "they are r e e f s known by the shipwrecks of a l l the p h i l o s o p h e r s who dared t o approach them" (JJ_ 1756, 2084). Instead i t recommended t h a t those s t u d y i n g nature c o n f i n e t h e i r 100 a t t e n t i o n s t o "the marvels of nature r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to man's senses and the instruments a t h i s d i s p o s a l . " These, the review concluded, ought to prove more than s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y man's c u r i o s i t y (JT_ 1756, 2084-5). Beyond warnings of t h i s s o r t , however, which occurred r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t the J o u r n a l de Trevoux took an i n t e r e s t i n s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t i n g s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s apparent r e s t r a i n t , i f i t can be d e s c r i b e d as such, c o n t r a s t s with d i s c u s s i o n s of r e l i g i o n i n which J e s u i t w r i t e r s tended t o be r a t h e r l e s s c i r c u m s p e c t . T h e i r d e n u n c i a t i o n s of t o l e r a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , were f r e q u e n t l y v o c i f e r o u s and c e r t a i n l y never ambiguous.(22) In t h a t c o n t e x t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r an account of G a l i l e o ' s t r i a l p u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l de  Tre'voux i n 1759, as p a r t of a review of Montucla's h i s t o r y of mathematics. That t r i a l was i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, and remains t o t h i s day, the most wi d e l y known example of J e s u i t involvement with s c i e n c e . And then, as now, the r e p u t a t i o n of the S o c i e t y gained l i t t l e from most accounts of t h a t e p i s o d e . The a t t i t u d e of the reviewer i n t h i s case was n o t i c e a b l y d e f e n s i v e . C a r e f u l t o emphasize the r a t h e r g e n t l e p h y s i c a l treatment accorded G a l i l e o , he a l s o took p a i n s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t any d e c l a r a t i o n of heresy i n t h i s a f f a i r had been made by minor o f f i c i a l s of the Church only. Three or four years a f t e r the o r i g i n a l i n j u n c t i o n , the reviewer argued, the Church permitted the f a i t h f u l to 101 support the Copernlcan system as a h y p o t h e s i s . And, a f t e r a l l , "what was a system, i f not a h y p o t h e s i s ? " (J_T 1759, 2523). Was i t r e a l l y necessary f o r modern w r i t e r s to harp i n c e s s a n t l y on t h i s episode and t o render i t " h o r r i b l y o d i o u s " , the reviewer asked (JT 1759, 2524). Eager to e s t a b l i s h a precedent f o r the way i n which the Church had responded t o G a l i l e o , he c i t e d the manner i n which the Church F a t h e r s had censored Origen. The l a t t e r ' s m e t a p h o r i c a l B i b l i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were i n some cases q u i t e j u s t i f i e d , but the e a r l y Church had q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous i m p l i c a t i o n s and had responded a c c o r d i n g l y (JT 1759, 2520-1). T h i s d i d not p r e c l u d e Origen's o p i n i o n s from being d i s c u s s e d a g a i n at a l e s s s e n s i t i v e time. Likewise with G a l i l e o , who had been censored d u r i n g a p e r i o d of p a r t i c u l a r l y acute r e l i g i o u s t e n s i o n s i n Europe. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the reviewer concluded, the h i s t o r y of p h i l o s o p h y taught " t h a t i n the p r o g r e s s of s c i e n c e , as i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , one had to expect c e r t a i n i n c o n v e n i e n c e s " ( J T 1 7 5 9 , 2520-1). One of the i n t r i g u i n g a s p e c t s of t h i s account i s t h a t i t acknowledged the degree t o which, even i n regard to q u e s t i o n s of d o c t r i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the d e c i s i o n s of the Church were guided by temporal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to i t s argument G a l i l e o was not i n t r i n s i c a l l y mistaken. Rather h i s i d e a s , and to a l e s s e r extent those of Origen, were wrong o n l y i n the context of q u i t e s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c 102 c i r c u m s t a n c e s . What "i n c o n v e n i e n c e s " s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s might encounter would seem t h e r e f o r e to have been d e l i b e r a t e l y reduced to a pragmatic l e v e l . V E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s of t h i s s o r t , t o s h i f t the f o c u s here somewhat, are the s u b j e c t of C a r l o Ginzburg's s t u d y : "High and Low: The Theme of Forbidden Knowledge In the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s " . There Ginzburg argues t h a t as a r e s u l t of a m i s t r a n s l a t i o n , an e p i s t l e by S t . P a u l intended to condemn moral p r i d e came to be understood i n medieval C h r i s t i a n i t y as an i n j u n c t i o n " a g a i n s t any attempt t o overcome the boundaries of human i n t e l l e c t " . ( 2 3 ) These boundaries were understood to p r o t e c t not o n l y the s e c r e t s of God but those of nature and p o l i t i c a l power as w e l l . The renewed i n t e r e s t i n t e x t u a l e x i g e s i s d u r i n g the Renaissance l e d , however, to a r e l n t e r p r e t a t l o n of t h i s P a u l i n e e p i s t l e and consequently to a r e a p p r a i s a l of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of seeking knowledge. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the b a r r i e r s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i n q u i r y d i d not come down i n u n i s o n . One s i g n i f i c a n t example c i t e d by Ginzburg concerns the I t a l i a n J e s u i t S f o r z a P a l l a v i c i n o . In the i n t e r e s t s of s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s , he encouraged attempts t o p e n e t r a t e the s e c r e t s of nature. But he a l s o warned s h a r p l y a g a i n s t any s i m i l a r e f f o r t s t o understand e i t h e r God's w i l l or the workings of p o l i t i c a l power. (24) (For 103 P o l l a v i c l n o , s c i e n c e was an a c t i v i t y open to a l l , "even to a r t i s t s and p e a s a n t s " ) ( 2 5 ) . F o l l o w i n g Ginzburg, as a r e s u l t of t h i s change i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the word " c u r i o s i t y " a c q u i r e d a powerful new meaning i n the l a t e seventeenth c e n t u r y . He i d e n t i f i e s emblematic l i t e r a t u r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , as having made e x t e n s i v e use of " c u r i o s i t y " as a m o t i f . A c c o r d i n g t o him t h i s p i c t o r i a l genre evolved d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n from warnings a g a i n s t a c q u i r i n g " h i g h " knowledge, ( d e p i c t e d by w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d v i s u a l symbols such as Icarus f a l l i n g from the s k i e s ) , t o e x h o r t a t i o n s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y encouraging the s e a r c h f o r knowledge ( o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as the a s c e n t of a mountain by a man seeking t r u t h ) ( 2 6 ) . Ginzburg's argument Is of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t here because of a d i s c o u r s e w r i t t e n by a J e s u i t which won the p r i z e f o r eloquence awarded by the Academie F r a n c h i s e i n 1755 (IT 1755, 2479-93). T h i s work by Antoine Guenard was w r i t t e n i n response to the q u e s t i o n "Of what does the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p i r i t c o n s i s t i n regard to the e x p r e s s i o n : Non p l u s sapere quam o p o r t e t sapere? ( S t . P a u l , Romans, XII 3 ) " . Although s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n wording than the P a u l i n e e p i s t l e d i s c u s s e d by Ginzburg, i t s fundamental i n t e n t was the same: t o c a u t i o n a g a i n s t moral p r i d e and p e r s o n a l c o n c e i t . I t a l s o used the word sapere which, a c c o r d i n g t o Ginzburg, had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n the L a t i n west as " t o know" i n s t e a d of "to be wise". (27) T h e r e f o r e i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t the e p i s t l e 104 d i s c u s s e d by Guenard r e t a i n e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y at l e a s t the aura of an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t c u r i o s i t y and the quest f o r knowledge. To the c h a g r i n of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux Guenard began h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h i l o s o p h i c s p i r i t w i t h an a t t a c k on A r i s t o t l e ' s i n f l u e n c e i n the h i s t o r y of p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by p r a i s e f o r Descartes whose "courage and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r i d e " caused a "happy and memorable r e v o l u t i o n i n the s c i e n c e s " (JT 1755, 2484). As the f a t h e r of " p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g " Descartes, u n l i k e A r i s t o t l e , taught t h a t i t was not enough t o b e l i e v e - one had to t h i n k as w e l l (JT 1755, 2483). Yet even Guenard accepted the need t o impose l i m i t s on the p h i l o s o p h i c s p i r i t . For him there were two realms from which i t ought t o be banned e n t i r e l y . P r e d i c t a b l y one of those was the mys t e r i e s of r e l i g i o n . The other was works of t a s t e . In the case of the f i r s t Guenard advised p h i l o s o p h e r s t o d i r e c t t h e i r i n q u i r i e s around those t r u t h s which d e f i e d r a t i o n a l understanding. When confronted d i r e c t l y w i t h the fundamental t r u t h s of C a t h o l i c i s m they should cover t h e i r eyes, l i k e the common people "and adore without s e e i n g , p l a c i n g themselves d i r e c t l y i n the hands of f a i t h " (JT 1755, 2492). In the case of the a r t s , Guenard f e l t t h a t the r a t i o n a l , mathematical approach which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p h i l o s o p h i c s p i r i t was the "scourge" of such p u r s u i t s (JT 1755, 2488-9). He d i s t i n g u i s h e d between a r t i s t i c genius 105 "the flower of the i m a g i n a t i o n " and o b s e r v a t i o n a l genius "the s o l i d f r u i t of reason" (21 1755, 2487). The l a t t e r , u s e f u l as i t was i n the s c i e n c e s , had a t e r r i b l e e f f e c t on the a r t s and p a r t i c u l a r l y on eloquence which i t " s t r i p p e d of a l l i t s ornaments" and l e f t " c o l o r l e s s , without grace and almost without l i f e " (JT 1755, 2489). With the e x c e p t i o n of Guenard's remarks concerning A r i s t o t l e , to which i t took s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n , the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux was e n t h u s i a s t i c i n i t s response to h i s d i s c o u r s e . On balance t h i s should not be s u r p r i s i n g . Aside from Guenard's departure from an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o g r e s s which emphasized the debt of modern t h i n k e r s to t h e i r c l a s s i c a l predecessors (and i n p a r t i c u l a r A r i s t o t l e ) h i s o p i n i o n s seem r e l a t i v e l y t y p i c a l of a t l e a s t those French J e s u i t s prominent i n c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r s . He was e n t h u s i a s t i c about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n t e l l e c t u a l i n q u i r y - which he d e f i n e d i n a f a s h i o n compatible with commonly accepted p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e a t mid-century. But he n e v e r t h e l e s s r e t a i n e d an a v e r s i o n to the prospect t h a t such a r a t i o n a l approach might negate a l t o g e t h e r an i n t u i t i v e and a e s t h e t i c understanding of the world. Furthermore, he l e f t no doubt t h a t although i n q u i r i n g minds ought t o be g i v e n a wide l a t i t u d e , they n e v e r t h e l e s s should not be allowed to venture unescorted i n t o the t h e o l o g i c a l domain. 106 CONCLUSION When Roger Boscovich - the J e s u i t whose s c i e n t i f i c work d'Membert f r e e l y acknowledged merited the h i g h e s t a c c l a i m -t r a v e l l e d from Rome t o P a r i s i n 1759, he made a p o i n t of v i s i t i n g a number of J e s u i t c o l l e g e s a l o n g h i s r o u t e . A c c o r d i n g t o a modern biography, when he stayed a t Sens he was p r o u d l y shown t h a t c o l l e g e ' s c o l l e c t i o n of r e l i c s . ( 1 ) As a v e r s e t o " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " b e l i e f s as any of the Enlightenment t h i n k e r s with whom he r e g u l a r l y corresponded, B o s c o v i c h a p p a r e n t l y p o l i t e l y , but f i r m l y , suggested to h i s host t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n of bones i n q u e s t i o n be thrown away.(2) Although t h i s i n c i d e n t might have t r a n s p i r e d l a r g e l y as r e p o r t e d , a c e r t a i n s u s p i c i o n l i n g e r s t h a t Boscovich's b i o g r a p h e r s t r e t c h e d the t r u t h somewhat i n order to render her s u b j e c t i n the most f a v o u r a b l e ( i . e . modern) l i g h t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s e r v e s to make an important p o i n t . C o n t r a r y t o i t s r e p u t a t i o n , d u r i n g the a n c i e n regime the S o c i e t y was never homogenous. In p r a c t i c e i t always counted among i t s members men of q u i t e w i d e l y v a r y i n g temperaments and I n t e l l e c t u a l t e n d e n c i e s . Once t h i s i s conceded, i t i s r e a d i l y apparent that g r e a t e r r e s e a r c h than has been p o s s i b l e here w i l l be r e q u i r e d before any r e a s o n a b l y comprehensive c o n c l u s i o n s can be developed concerning a t t i t u d e s to s c i e n c e among the Fre n c h J e s u i t s d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Based on the 107 evidence of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. however, more narrowly d e f i n e d c o n c l u s i o n s are p o s s i b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , an attempt w i l l be made to s i t u a t e the s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e examined here w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a c u r r e n t h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which emphasizes an important Baconian i n f l u e n c e on the development of modern s c i e n c e . I R e c e n t l y , some h i s t o r i a n s have argued t h a t developments i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s d u r i n g the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s must be understood a c c o r d i n g to a h i s t o r i c a l model which d e s c r i b e s the c o e x i s t e n c e of mathematical and non-mathematical approaches. These i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v a r y i n t h e i r s p e c i f i c s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , they r e f l e c t a g e n e r a l consensus t h a t F r a n c i s Bacon was the predominant i n f l u e n c e on the r i s e of an e x p e r i m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d , non-mathematical s c i e n t i f i c method. H a l l has r e f e r r e d t o "Nevtonianism" and "Baconianism" as the f o u n d a t i o n s of modern s c i e n c e . ( 3 ) And Thomas Kuhn has d i s t i n g u i s h e d between " c l a s s i c a l " and "experimental" approaches t o s c i e n c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n question. ( 4 ) The f i r s t - which i n c l u d e d astronomy, harmonics, o p t i c s and mathematics - he d e s c r i b e s as becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y mathematical, t h e o r e t i c a l and hence, i n a c c e s s i b l e . He d e f i n e s the second approach as Baconian: " a f t e r i t s p r i n c i p a l p u b l i c i s t " . ( 5 ) There mathematics and theory were d i s p a r a g e d i n favour of the use of experiments, many of 108 these q u i t e complex and r e l y i n g upon t e c h n i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment. Arguments of t h i s s o r t are immediately s u g g e s t i v e i n the case of the French J e s u i t s , g i v e n t h e i r p r e v a i l i n g h o s t i l i t y t o the use of complex mathematics and the o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g toward t h a t which was p r a c t i c a l and a c c e s s i b l e . They a c q u i r e f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t here i n the l i g h t of evidence of a h i g h esteem f o r Bacon i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. V a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as " i l l u s t r i o u s " (JT 1702, 353), a "wise m a g i s t r a t e " (J_T 1751, 709), and a man whose "simple but s o l i d p r o o f s " were evidence of h i s "great genius and wide l e a r n i n g " (JT 1756, 302, 325), Bacon was accorded s p e c i a l p r a i s e f o r having s u c c e s s f u l l y balanced a l i f e of the mind with p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e t o the s t a t e . In 1756, when the l e v e l of i r r e l i g i o u s sentiment i n French s o c i e t y was a cause of g r e a t concern t o the J e s u i t s , readers were reminded t h a t the E n g l i s h C h a n c e l l o r (not remembered by h i s t o r i a n s as a g r e a t s u p p o r t e r of C a t h o l i c i s m ) had been a man of deep r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s (IX 1756, 313). Though extended d i s c u s s i o n s of Bacon's s c i e n t i f i c methods are not i n evidence i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, a review p u b l i s h e d i n 1702 deemed a l l of h i s works t o be worthy of the h i g h e s t regard (JT 1702), w h i l e i n 1756 he was r e p r e s e n t e d as the "advocate of s c i e n t i s t s " and the " r e s t o r e r of the s c i e n c e s " (JT 1756, 299). And f i n a l l y , without having exhausted the number of such examples, when a J e s u i t reviewer attempted to r e f u t e 109 H e l v e t i u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a s s i o n s , he turned to no l e s s an a u t h o r i t y than Bacon t o do so (J_T_ 1758, 2831-2). F u r t h e r evidence of a powerful a f f i n i t y between the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s of the French J e s u i t s and those of Bacon i s by no means l a c k i n g . T h i s i s perhaps most s t r i k i n g In the case of Bacon's i n t e r e s t i n r h e t o r i c and the Important i n f l u e n c e the l a t t e r played i n the development of h i s s c i e n t i f i c thought. Deeply concerned about t r a n s m i t t i n g knowledge - and not i n c i d e n t a l l y e q u a l l y devoted t o a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r - Bacon was s e n s i t i v e t o the importance of e f f e c t i v e communication.(6) He thus promoted r h e t o r i c as the best means t o impart the new l e a r n i n g t o a wide audience. Paolo R o s s i has argued t h a t such an approach had a f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Bacon i n s o f a r as c r u c i a l a spects of h i s s c i e n t i f i c thought - such as h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of l o g i c - "were t r a n s p l a n t e d from the f i e l d of r h e t o r i c " . ( 7 ) Bacon's debt t o v a l u e s of r h e t o r i c i s e v i d e n t elsewhere i n h i s s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g , and a g a i n i n ways v e r y s i m i l a r i n ways a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French J e s u i t c u l t u r e . In t r u e C i c e r o n i a n f a s h i o n , he proclaimed t o have taken " a l l knowledge t o be [ h i s ] p r o v i n c e " . ( 8 ) F u r t h e r , he r e j e c t e d the use of mathematics, a c c o r d i n g t o Blumenberg, i n favour of a mastery of nature achieved "by means of the word".(9) F i n a l l y , he e n v i s i o n e d a c u l t u r e of r h e t o r i c based on an i n t e r p l a y of i n d i v i d u a l w i l l , r e l i g i o n and e t h i c s . ( 1 0 ) 110 P r e d i c t a b l y , Bacon's d e s i r e t h a t knowledge be wi d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d e n t a i l e d an i n s i s t e n c e on h i s p a r t t h a t i t remain a c c e s s i b l e . On t h i s s u b j e c t h i s t h i n k i n g a n t i c i p a t e d a t t i t u d e s l a t e r expressed i n the J o u r n a l de Tre'voux. P l a c i n g l i t t l e emphasis on "the acuteness and s t r e n g t h of w i t s " he b e l i e v e d i n s t e a d , a c c o r d i n g t o H a l l , t h a t "having one's f o o t on the r i g h t path t o knowledge was more important than a g r e a t i n t e l l e c t " . ( 1 1 ) As In the case of the J e s u i t s , Bacon's enthusiasm f o r new knowledge was tempered by a r e c o g n i t i o n of a need f o r e p l s t e m o l o g i c a l r e s t r a i n t s . He argued t h a t s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y ought t o be c o n f i n e d t o t h a t which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the mastery of n a t u r e . (12) (A mastery t h a t the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux accepted i n 1746 as a fundamental purpose of man as r e v e a l e d by S c r i p t u r e ) (JT 1746, 1748). For Bacon such t h i n k i n g was undoubtedly motivated p r i m a r i l y by u t i l i t a r i a n c o n c e r n s . For the J e s u i t s , on the other hand, such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s enjoyed the advantage of cir c u m v e n t i n g any t h e o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n more t h e o r e t i c a l , and hence more s p e c u l a t i v e , approaches to s c i e n c e . F u r t h e r r e s e r v a t i o n s on Bacon's p a r t i n regard t o the u n b r i d l e d p u r s u i t of knowledge c o i n c i d e d c l o s e l y with J e s u i t p e d a g o g i c a l I d e a l s . In 1752 the J o u r n a l de Trevoux a p p r o v i n g l y c i t e d Bacon - "a knowledgeable man i n a l l a r e a s " - f o r having argued t h a t f o r the sake of t h e i r students e d u c a t o r s ought t o a v o i d "premature d o c t r i n e s and those p r e c i o u s s u c c e s s e s which had . . . more s p a r k l e than I l l substance" (JT 1751, 2473). The i n t e l l e c t u a l c a u t i o n of many of the J e s u i t s vhose ideas have been examined here undoubtedly owed much to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as t e a c h e r s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s not new. N e v e r t h e l e s s i t emphasizes a f a c t o r which has perhaps been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r e s s e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s about the development of J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g . One f i n a l and important s i m i l a r i t y between Bacon's approach t o s c i e n c e and a t t i t u d e s on t h a t s u b j e c t among French J e s u i t s deserves mention here. In both cases c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e was a t t a c h e d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of knowledge a c c o r d i n g to h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . H a l l d e s c r i b e s Bacon's method as one i n which n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ("the c o m p i l a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e Information") preceded n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y ("the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of phenomena").(13) J e s u i t r e viewers applauded what they c o n s i d e r e d to be a triumph of Baconian i d e a l s when such an approach was r o u t i n e l y extended i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y to i n c l u d e , as Bacon had hoped, a l l branches of the a r t s and s c i e n c e s (JT 1759, 491). The emphasis J e s u i t w r i t e r s p l a c e d on i n t e l l e c t u a l e v o l u t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e on t r a d i t i o n , was echoed i n p a r t by the E n g l i s h C h a n c e l l o r ' s a d v i c e t h a t a l l such h i s t o r i e s attempt to t r a c e t h e i r s u b j e c t to i t s o r i g i n s . Only i n t h i s f a s h i o n , one reviewer commented, c o u l d readers t r u l y comprehend a s u b j e c t (JT 1759, 493-4). I t should be c l a r i f i e d , however, t h a t i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y 112 i n t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o a Greco-Roman h e r i t a g e , the J e s u i t s q u i t e e c l i p s e d any s i m i l a r a d m i r a t i o n on Bacon's p a r t . The l a t t e r hoped to r e c a p t u r e what amounted to no more than fragments of past knowledge t h a t remained u s a b l e . The J e s u i t s , on the other hand, were i n t e n t on p r e s e r v i n g what remained f o r them s u b s t a n t i a l s o c i a l and e t h i c a l i d e a l s i n h e r i t e d from a n t i q u i t y . II T h i s r a t h e r minor caveat begets a more important one. Without d e t r a c t i n g from e x t e n s i v e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n outlook the degree to which s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s expressed by French J e s u i t s i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux, and elsewhere, were d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Bacon remains to be c l a r i f i e d . O b v i o u s l y , based on the evidence presented here, some such i n f l u e n c e e x i s t e d . But i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t J e s u i t w r i t e r s p u b l i c l y applauded Bacon - who was g e n e r a l l y esteemed by Enlightenment t h i n k e r s - as a means of l e g i t i m i z i n g t h e i r own compatible, but independently d e r i v e d , s c i e n t i f i c b e l i e f s . That such p a r a l l e l i n t e l l e c t u a l development might have occurred would seem e n t i r e l y p l a u s i b l e g i v e n the commonality of the c u l t u r a l assumptions u n d e r l y i n g Bacon's t h i n k i n g and t h a t of the J e s u i t s . Whatever the case, the c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s d i s c u s s e d here s h o u l d not obscure a l e s s e r number of d i f f e r e n c e s . The most n o t i c e a b l e of these occurs i n regard to mathematics. J e s u i t 113 t h i n k e r s were undoubtedly sympathetic t o the Intent of Bacon's a s s e r t i o n , d e s c r i b e d by Kuhn, t h a t "complex, a b s t r a c t and mathematical" systems c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e "to e i t h e r the understanding or c o n t r o l of nature".(14) But they c l e a r l y d i d not a s c r i b e t o the l a r g e l y complete d i s m i s s a l of mathematics t h a t Bacon proposed. L i k e w i s e , i t i s not a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r t o what extent French J e s u i t s accepted Bacon's recommendation to pursue experiments r e l e n t l e s s l y . C a s t e l ' s remarks on the s u b j e c t (see above page 49) would suggest a c e r t a i n r e l u c t a n c e to " t w i s t the l i o n ' s t a i l " as Bacon put i t . In t h i s case, however, there i s reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t was more the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y narrow and mathematically r i g o r o u s approach of the Dutch Newtonian p h y s i c i s t s which aroused C a s t e l ' s i r e , than any adherence t o a Baconian program f o r i n t e r r o g a t i n g n a t u r e . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i f a w r i t e r f o r the J o u r n a l de Trevoux had been c a l l e d upon to i d e n t i f y the s t a t u s of h i s order i n the context of the two t r a d i t i o n s i n s c i e n c e i d e n t i f i e d by Kuhn et a l . , one suspects he would have attempted to d e f i n e a golden mean between Baconian and Newtonian t e n d e n c i e s . Such A r i s t o t e l i a n manoevering n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i t i s more p l a u s i b l e t o plac e the French J e s u i t s much c l o s e r t o Bacon than t o Newton i n s c i e n t i f i c o u t l o o k . 114 H I Those q u a l i f i c a t i o n s d u l y noted, i t remains here to d i s c u s s the I m p l i c a t i o n s of a s c r i b i n g a d i s t i n c t l y Baconian c h a r a c t e r t o the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s of the French J e s u i t s d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F i r s t , i t i s hoped t h a t such an attempt w i l l emphasize the S o c i e t y ' s importance to f u t u r e s t u d i e s of s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e i n France d u r i n g the p e r i o d examined here. By framing q u e s t i o n s about J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s i n a h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c argument of c u r r e n t and s u s t a i n a b l e i n t e r e s t , the high degree of m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d d i s c u s s i o n s of the J e s u i t s i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y France ought i n some measure to be c o u n t e r a c t e d . Second, the c o r r e l a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s attempted here helps i d e n t i f y a J e s u i t i n f l u e n c e i n s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s which might be otherwise overlooked. Thomas Kuhn has argued t h a t one of the important c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by Baconians to the development of modern s c i e n c e was the w i l l i n g n e s s (and indeed eagerness) of such p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o study s u b j e c t s otherwise n e g l e c t e d by adherents of the " c l a s s i c a l " s c i e n c e s . ( 1 5 ) As the l a t t e r approach became i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g o r o u s and mathematical i n i t s methods, i t came to exclude those s c i e n t i f i c problems such as e l e c t r i c i t y , magnetism and v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of chemistry, which r e s i s t e d q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . I t thus f e l l t o the Baconians, a t l e a s t u n t i l the nineteenth cen t u r y , t o advance the understanding of those s u b j e c t s . 115 Such c l a i m s appear to be of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to any d i s c u s s i o n of J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . John H e i l b r o n has argued t h a t the C a t h o l i c Church, and the S o c i e t y e s p e c i a l l y , made "the s i n g l e most important c o n t r i b u t i o n " to the study of e x p e r i m e n t al p h y s i c s i n the seventeenth century.(16) "Knowledge about e l e c t r i c i t y " , he s t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , was "kept a l i v e [ d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d ) by J e s u i t polymaths".(17) I f , as he f u r t h e r argues, "the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the S o c i e t y d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y " i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t he i d e n t i f i e s t h a t d e c l i n e as r e l a t i v e . ( 1 8 ) An i n c r e a s e d s c i e n t i f i c output from w e l l funded academies, r a t h e r than any s h i f t i n the S o c i e t y ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l p r i o r i t i e s would seem t o best e x p l a i n such a t r e n d . The J o u r n a l de Trevoux provides s u b s t a n t i a l evidence, on the p a r t of the French J e s u i t s at l e a s t , of a s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h century i n s u b j e c t s Kuhn i d e n t i f i e s as Baconian. For some s c h o l a r s ' t h a t i n t e r e s t has appeared i n r e t r o s p e c t as e x c e s s i v e l y e c l e c t i c . Not i n d i f f e r e n t to a s u b s t a n t i a l s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n from the S o c i e t y , -though a g a i n l a r g e l y with r e s p e c t to the seventeenth c e n t u r y , W i l l i a m Ashworth, f o r i n s t a n c e , suggests t h a t the J e s u i t approach to s c i e n c e was marred by i t s e x c e s s i v e e c l e c t i c i s m and l a c k of a g u i d i n g t h e o r e t i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . ( 1 9 ) Donald S c h i e r makes s i m i l a r a c c u s a t i o n s throughout h i s biography of C a s t e l . ( 2 0 ) In many instances i t i s hard t o q u a r r e l with such a s s e r t i o n s . The c u l t u r e of 116 c u r i o s i t y the J e s u i t s so e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y promoted undoubtedly o f t e n served to condone a s t a t e of i n t e l l e c t u a l ferment d i s t i n g u i s h e d more f o r i t s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y than f o r I t s a c u i t y . But f o l l o w i n g Kuhn's account i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o c l a i m , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t h a t such tendencies more than o c c a s i o n a l l y served to v e n t i l a t e , as i t were, a s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e i n danger of becoming e x c e s s i v e l y r i g o r o u s , narrow, and i n a c c e s s i b l e . Or, to remain more f a i t h f u l t o Kuhn's argument, those tendencies gave l i f e to an a l t e r n a t e s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n whose accomplishments have f o r too long been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , a p o i n t of c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s i n o r d e r . Having i d e n t i f i e d an unmistakable a f f i n i t y f o r Baconian ideas among the w r i t e r s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux f i t i s necessary to d e s c r i b e how such an empathy d i f f e r e d , i f at a l l , from s i m i l a r sentiments e v i d e n t i n French i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s g e n e r a l l y . Indeed many of those i n France who applauded Bacon were determined opponents of the J e s u i t s . In h i s D i s c o u r s p r e l l m l n a l r e de 1'Encyclopedic d'Alembert, f o r one, d e s c r i b e d the E n g l i s h C h a n c e l l o r as "the g r e a t e s t , the most u n i v e r s a l , and the most eloquent of a l l p h i l o s o p h e r s . " ( 2 1 ) For many of the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s of the Enlightenment, Bacon's s c i e n t i f i c v i s i o n became a source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r a t t a c k s on " r o y a l a b s o l u t i s m , Church a u t h o r i t y , and the f e u d a l order."(22) The divergence of such b e l i e f s from the fundamental v a l u e s which the J o u r n a l de Trevoux was pledged to defend 117 c o u l d s c a r c e l y be more e x p l i c i t . Why then the common d e v o t i o n to Bacon? Aside from the manner i n which each s i d e r e a d Bacon f o r i t s own purposes, and may have proceeded to misread him i n the p r o c e s s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t h i s ideas were indeed used to j u s t i f y two q u i t e d i s t i n c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The " r a d i c a l ' ' c r i t i c of s c h o l a s t i c i s m and the man who, i n V o l t a i r e ' s words, had put i n p l a c e the s c a f f o l d i n g used t o b u i l d the new p h i l o s o p h y was i n s t e a d , f o r the J e s u i t s , a champion of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a humanist c u l t u r e i n t e n t upon u n r a v e l l i n g the m ysteries of the n a t u r a l world.(23) J u s t as the o s t e n s i b l y s i n g u l a r Newtonian approach has proved i n h i n d s i g h t to n u r ture q u i t e d i s p a r a t e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s , so i t would seem d i d the Baconian i n the context of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s . In t h i s l i g h t the famous q u a r r e l between the J o u r n a l de Trevoux and the e d i t o r s of the E n c y c l o p e d i c takes on new meaning. O s t e n s i b l y a d i s p u t e over a c c u s a t i o n s of p l a g i a r i s m l e v e l l e d by a J e s u i t r e v i e w e r , i t might a l s o be understood as a f i g h t to e s t a b l i s h f i r s t c l a i m to Bacon's leg a c y . IV The a f f i l i a t i o n between French J e s u i t s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, and a more widely p r e v a l e n t Baconian approach d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , demonstrates the importance of c o n t e x t u a l l z i n g the S o c i e t y ' s s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s i f these are t o be p r o p e r l y understood. 118 While emphasis on context i s c r u c i a l t o any h i s t o r i c a l endeavour, i t i s e s p e c i a l l y warranted i n the case of the J e s u i t s i n France, and p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the Enlightenment. A t r a d i t i o n of s c h o l a r s h i p which has overl o o k e d , i f not d e n i g r a t e d , the S o c i e t y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s i n t h a t p e r i o d , has r e s u l t e d i n an undeserved m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of i t s s u b j e c t . Only by r e i n t e g r a t i n g the French J e s u i t s i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c ontext i n which they operated w i l l a balanced understanding of t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s be r e a l i z e d . As a means of a c h i e v i n g such an assessment, the me t h o d o l o g i c a l approach employed here i s f a r from exhausted. How the s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n s expressed i n the Jo u r n a l de  Trevoux compared with those of other J e s u i t s remains to be r e s o l v e d . And s y s t e m a t i c comparisons of those o p i n i o n s with o t h e r s o b t a i n i n g elsewhere i n the C a t h o l i c Church, and beyond t h a t i n French s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , have yet to be made. A fundamental purpose of t h i s study has been to e s t a b l i s h t h a t such e f f o r t s are warranted. Undoubtedly, f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these questions w i l l i d e n t i f y v a r y i n g degrees of r e s i s t a n c e on the part of the S o c i e t y to s c i e n t i f i c and other i n t e l l e c t u a l developments. The t r a n s i t i o n i n t o modernity, which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n , oftentimes posed acute c h a l l e n g e s f o r the J e s u i t s . Devoted t o an i d e a l of a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s , but a l s o pledged to defend 119 C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e , and i n a l e s s d e f i n e d way a humanist c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , the S o c i e t y on more than one o c c a s i o n r e c o n c i l e d those ambitions by adopting an a u t h o r i t a r i a n p o s t u r e . But as a r e a d i n g of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux makes unmistakably c l e a r , i n s c i e n t i f i c , as i n other a f f a i r s , the S o c i e t y c o u l d a l s o a c t i n an accommodating and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y v i b r a n t f a s h i o n . During the a n c l e n regime the J e s u i t s i n France were something more than the "company of f a n a t i c s and i n t r i g u e r s " d e p l o r e d by d'Alembert, or the p e r s e c u t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s of M e r c i e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . 120 MOTES INTRODUCTION (1) L o u i s - S e b a s t l e n M e r c i e r , Tableau de Par I s f Tome I I , n o u v e l l e e d i t i o n o r i g i n a l e , c o r i g e e et augmente (Amsterdam, 1782), pp. 274-249. (2) M e r c i e r , p. 249. (3) Jean l e Rond d'Alembert, "Sur l a d e s t r u c t i o n des J e s u i t e s en France," Oeuvres completes, tome deuxieme l e r p a r t i e (Geneva: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1967). (4) d'Alembert, p. 71. T r a n s l a t i o n my own. (5) d'Alembert, p. 55. (6) See f o r i n s t a n c e : Jean Ehrard, L'idee de nature  en France dans l a premiere mottle du XVIIIe s i e c l e , v o l s . 1-2 ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1963), and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , v o l . 1, The Ri s e  of Modern Paganism and v o l . 2, The Science of Freedom (1969). (7) D a n i e l Mornet, Les O r l q l n e s i n t e l l e c t u e l l e s de l a r e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e (1715-1787), 2eme e d i t i o n ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1934), p. 19, p. 159. (8) For a h i s t o r y of the J o u r n a l de TreVoux see: Gustave Dumas, H i s t o l r e du " J o u r n a l de Trevoux" ( P a r i s : B o i v i n , 1936) and the i n t r o d u c t o r y essay i n : P. C. Sommervogel, Table methodlque des memolres de Trevoux (Geneva: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1969). For h i s t o r i e s of the J e s u i t s see: J . C. H. A v e l i n g , The J e s u i t s (London: Blond & B r i g g s , 1981); W i l l i a m V. Bangert, A H i s t o r y of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, ed. George E. Ganss ( S t . L o u i s : I n s t i t u t e of J e s u i t Sources, 1972); Rene F u l o p - M i l l e r , The Power and Se c r e t of the J e s u i t s , t r a n s . F. S. F l i n t and D. F. T a i t (London: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1930). The e d i t i o n of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux c o n s u l t e d here: Memolres pour 1 ' h i s t o l r e des s c i e n c e s e t des beaux-arts, January 1701-Dec. 1767 (Geneva: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1969). H e n c e f o r t h c i t a t i o n s from the Memolres w i l l appear p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i n the t e x t as JT_, followed by year and page number. Where page numbers are u n a v a i l a b l e , as i n the case of p r e f a c e s , the c i t a t i o n w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the notes. A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s are my own. 121 (9) L. W. B. B r o c k l l s s , French Higher E d u c a t i o n In  the Seventeenth and E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s : A C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1987), pp. 22-23. For J e s u i t e d u c a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o B r o c k l i s s , see F r a n c o i s de D a l n v i l l e , L ' e d u c a t i o n des J e s u l t e s (XVIe-XVIIIe s l e c l e s ) ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1978). (10) In a d d i t i o n t o the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. see: L e t t r e s e d l f i a n t e s et c u r l e u s e s e c r l t e s par des  m i s s i o n n a l r e s de l a Compaqnie de Jesus ( P a r i s : Imprimerie de Bethune, 1832) and Antoine G a u b i l , Correspondance de Pekln  1722-1759. ed. Rene Simon (Geneva: L l b r a i r i e Droz, 1970). (11) Bernard Cohen, "The P r l n c l p i a f U n i v e r s a l G r a v i t a t i o n , and the Newtonian S t y l e , i n R e l a t i o n to the Newtonian R e v o l u t i o n i n S c i e n c e , " i n Zev B e c h l e r , ed., Contemporary Newtonian Research, S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of Modern S c i e n c e , v o l . 9 (D. R e i d e l Dordrecht, 1982), p. 21. (12) Ernan McMullin, "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Newton's Pr i n c l p i a f o r E m p i r i c i s m " i n Religion,. Science and  Worldvlew: Essays i n Honor of Richard S. W e s t f a l l . ed. Margaret J . O s i e r and Paul Lawrence Farber (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985), p. 33. (13) For a study of the impact of Newtonian ideas i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y France, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the P r i n c l p i a see: P i e r r e Brunet, L ' I n t r o d u c t i o n des t h e o r i e s  de Newton en France au XVIIIe s i e c l e , I: avant 1738 ( P a r i s : A. Blanchard, 1931) and Henry Guerlac, Newton on the  C o n t i n e n t . ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981). (14) R. R. Palmer, C a t h o l i c s and U n b e l i e v e r s i n  E i g h t e e n t h Century France. 2d ed. (New York: Cooper Square P u b l i s h e r s , 1961). (15) I b i d . , pp. 17-22. (16) Juan Polanco to Diego Laynez (Ml, Epp. 1, 519-526), p. 523, as quoted i n Aldo S c a g l i o n e , The L i b e r a l A r t s  and the J e s u i t C o l l e g e System (Amsterdam: John Benjamins P u b l i s h i n g , 1986), p. 53. (17) See: L e t t r e s e d l f i a n t e s et c u r l e u s e s and G a u b i l , op. c i t . (18) d'Alembert, op. c i t . , pp. 105-106. (19) One of the most acute c r i s e s r e s u l t i n g from such t e n s i o n s occurred i n the s i x t e e n t h century as elements w i t h i n the S o c i e t y devoted to v i s i o n s of an a s c e t i c and contemplative s p i r i t u a l i t y r e s i s t e d p o l i c i e s which emphasized a w o r l d l y m i s s i o n f o r the J e s u i t s . For 122 d i c u s s i o n s f o r these and r e l a t e d Issues see, f o r i n s t a n c e : A v e l i n g , The J e s u i t s , pp. 198-200 and Bangert, A H i s t o r y of  the S o c i e t y of Jesus, pp. 100-104. (20) I g n a t i u s L o y o l a , The S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s , v l t h  an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Robert Gleason. S.J.. t r a n s . Anthony M o t t o l a (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Image Books, 1964) and L o y a l a , The C o n s t i t u t i o n s of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, t r a n s , and commentary George E. Ganss, S.J. ( S t . L o u i s : I n s t i t u t e of J e s u i t Sources, 1970). For the a d i s c u s s i o n of the R a t i o  Studiorum see A l l a n P. F a r r e l l , The J e s u i t Code of L i b e r a l  E d u c a t i o n : Development and Scope of the " R a t i o Studlorum" (Milwaukee: Bruce P u b l i s h i n g , 1938). (21) See: Roger Hahn, The Anatomy of a S c i e n t i f i c  I n s t i t u t i o n : The P a r i s Academy of Sciences 1666-1803 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971) and James E. M c C l e l l a n I I I , Science Reorganized: S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t i e s  i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985), i n t r o . and pp. 1-40, 109-198. (22) The s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s of the French J e s u i t s i n China have y e t t o be p r o p e r l y s t u d i e d . G a u b i l * s Correspondance de Pekin a l l o w s a f a s c i n a t i n g glimpse i n t o such a c t i v i t i e s . For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a French J e s u i t who preceded G a u b i l i n China see: Mme. Yves de Thomaz de B o s s i e r r e , F r a n c o i s X a v i e r D e n t r e c o l l e s et  l ' a p p o r t de l a Chine a 1'Europe du XVIIIe s i e c l e ( P a r i s : B e l l e s L e t t r e s , 1982). (23) The degree t o which t h i s constant d r a i n of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d personnel undermined the a b i l i t y of the French J e s u i t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n France remains to be r e s o l v e d . (24) Alexandre P l n g r e , "Sur l a l o n g i t u d e et l a l a t i t u d e de P e k i n , " H i s t o i r e de 1'Academie Royale des  S c i e n c e s , avec l e s Memoires de Matheroatlque et de Physique  1699-1790. P a r i s . 1702-1797, 92 v o l s . , (1764), pp. 152-154. H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Memoires de 1'Academie Royale. (25) For p o r c e l a i n see: Rene Reaumur "Idee generale des d i f f e r e n t e s manleres dont on peut f a i r e l a p o r c e l a i n e et q u e l l e s sont l e s v e r i t a b l e s matieres de c e l l e de l a Chine," i n Memoires de 1*Academie Royale (1727), pp. 185-203. For smallpox see: C h a r l e s - M a r i e de l a Condamine, "Memoire sur 1 ' i n o c u l a t i o n de l a p e t i t e v e r o l e , " Memoires de  1*Academie Royale (1754), p. 86. (26) T h i s number was d e r i v e d by counting e n t r i e s i n Sommervogel 1s Table Methodlque. The a c t u a l f i g u r e may be h i g h e r . 123 (27) D a n i e l Roche, Le s i e c l e des lumieres en  p r o v i n c e , Tome I ( P a r i s : Bcole des hautes etudes en s c i e n c e s s o c i a l e s , Mouton E d i t e u r , 1978), p. 327 f f . (28) For a d i s c u s s i o n of the S o c i e t y ' s vows and t h e i r impact on J e s u i t a c t i v i t i e s see the commentary by George E. Ganss, S.J. i n The C o n s t i t u t i o n s of the S o c i e t y of Jesus, pp. 41-80. (29) G a u b i l , Correspondance de Pe k i n . pp. 292, 357, 427, 551-552, 633-634. (30) P i e r r e D e l a t t r e , ed., Les E t a b l i s s e m e n t s des  J e s u i t e s en France depuis quatre s l e c l e s . v o l . 3 (Enghien, 1949-1957), p. 1228. (31) G a u b i l , f o r i n s t a n c e , corresponded r e g u l a r l y and wi t h e v i d e n t enthusiasm with the Royal S o c i e t y i n London. See: G a u b i l , Correspondance, pp. 692-697, 812-3, 855. (32) For a d i s c u s s i o n of c a s u i s t r y see: A l b e r t R. Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin, The Abuse of C a s u i s t r y : A  H i s t o r y of Moral Reasoning ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1988). (33) Rivka Feldhay, "Knowledge and S a l v a t i o n i n J e s u i t C u l t u r e , " Science i n Context 1 (September 1987): 195-213. (34) I b i d . , p. 195. (35) I b i d . , p. 211. CHAPTER 1 (1) See Eugene H a t i n , B i b l i o g r a p h i c h i s t o r l q u e et  c r i t i q u e de l a presse pe'rlodlque f r a n c a l s e f Tome I ( P a r i s : F i r m i n D i d o t , 1866); Genevieve Bo Heme et alj.., L i v r e et  S o c i e t e dans l a France au XVIIIe s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Mouton et Co., 1965); and, Claude B e l l a n g e r , ed., H i s t o i r e gene'rale de  l a p r e sse f r a n c h i s e ( P a r i s : Presses u n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1969). (2) For a d i s c u s s i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c press s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s see: David A. Kronick , A H i s t o r y of S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l P e r i o d i c a l s : The O r i g i n s and Development of the  S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n o l o g i c a l Press 1665-1790 (New York: Scarecrow P r e s s , 1962). 124 (3) For a d i s c u s s i o n of the J o u r n a l des Savants see: B e l l a n g e r , op. c i t . , pp. 124-137, 199-207, and H a t i n , op. c i t . , pp. 28-32. (4) For g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s of the J o u r n a l de Trevoux see: Gustave Dumas, H i s t o l r e and Sommervogel, Table  Methodique. For more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s see: E. Dubois, "The Exchange of Ideas Between England and France as R e f l e c t e d i n Learned J o u r n a l s of the L a t e r Seventeenth and E a r l y E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , " H i s t o r y of European Ideas, v o l . 7, no. 1 (1986): 33-46; P i e r r e R etat, "Rhe'torique de l ' a r t i c l e de j o u r n a l : Les Memolres de Trevoux 1734," i n Etudes sur l a presse au XVIIIe s i e c l e . no. 3 (Lyon: Presses U n i v e r s i t a l r e s de Lyon, 1978); Jean Ehrard and Jacques Roger, "Deux p e r i o d i q u e s f r a n c a i s du 18e s i e c l e : 'Le J o u r n a l des savants' et 'Les Memolres de Trevoux'," i n Bolleme e t a l . , L l v r e et  Societe' dans l a France du XVIIIe s i e c l e ( P a r i s : Mouton, 1965). (5) Dumas, p. 8. (6) T h i s p e r i o d i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux's h i s t o r y i s d i s c u s s e d i n : John Pappas, B e r t h i e r ' s J o u r n a l de Trevoux  and the P h i l o s o p h e s . S t u d i e s on V o l t a i r e and the Eighteenth Century v o l . I l l , ed. Theodore Besterman (Geneva, I n s t i t u t e t Musee V o l t a i r e , 1957), pp. 13-63. (7) Pappas, pp. 49-51. (8) P i e r r e Re'tat, "Memolres pour 1 ' h i s t o l r e des s c i e n c e s e t des beaux-arts: s i g n i f i c a t i o n d'un t i t r e et d'une e n t r e p r i s e j o u r n a l i s t i q u e , " Dix-Hultleme S i e c l e 8 (1976): 167. (9) Henri-Jean M a r t i n , L i v r e s , pouvoirs et s o c i e t e a  P a r i s au XVIIe s i e c l e 1598-1701. Tome 1 (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1969), p. 459. (10) See: B e l l a n g e r , pp. 143-157. (11) I b i d . (12) John L. Greenberg, "Mathematical P h y s i c s i n Eig h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y France," I s l s 77 no. 286 (March 1986): 62-63. (13) G a u b i l , Correspondance, p. 336, a l s o pp. 240, 375. (14) G a u b i l corresponded w i d e l y with prominent s c i e n t i f i c f i g u r e s i n France, England and Russia ( i . e . De Mairan, Mortimer, B i r c h , D e l i s l e ) . For an " i n s i d e " look at C a s t e l ' s e f f o r t s t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o s i t i o n at the Jou r n a l  de Trevoux see: Jean Sgard and F r a n c h i s e Weil, "Les 125 Anecdotes i n e d i t e s des Memolres de Trevoux (1720-1744)," In Dix-Hultleme S i e c l e , no. 8 ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a m i e r F r e r e s , 1976), pp. 193-204. (15) Donald S c h i e r , L o u i s Bertrand C a s t e l : A n t l - Nevtonlan S c i e n t i s t (Cedar Rapids: Torch P r e s s , 1941), pp. 44-45. (16) Quoted i n P i e r r e R etat, "Memolres," p. 169. (17) Retat, "Rhetorique de l ' a r t i c l e de J o u r n a l , " pp. 88-89. (18) J o u r n a l de Trevoux (January-February 1701): unpaginated p r e f a c e . (19) I b i d . (20) I b i d . (21) P i e r r e Re'tat, "Memoires," pp. 170-2. (22) J o u r n a l de Trevoux (January-February 1701): unpaginated p r e f a c e . (23) P i e r r e Retat, "Memoires," pp. 172-174. (24) V o l t a i r e , " R e l a t i o n de l a maladie, de l a c o n f e s s i o n , de l a mort, et de l ' a p p a r i t i o n du J e s u i t e B e r t h i e r , " quoted i n Dumas, op. c i t . , p. 163. (25) Ehrard and Roger, "Deux p e r i o d i q u e s f r a n c a i s , " p. 37. E h r a r d and Roger argue t h a t the J o u r n a l des Savants appealed more s t r o n g l y to the n o b i l i t y of the robe while the J o u r n a l de Trevoux's audience was comprised more h e a v i l y of "gens du monde," p. 37. (26) d'Alembert, Sur l a D e s t r u c t i o n , pp. 48-49. (27) I b i d . , p. 49. CHAPTER 2 (1) For d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s debate, i n a d d i t i o n to Brunet, op. c i t . , and Guerlac, op. c i t . , see: Henry G u e r l a c , "Where the Statue Stood: Divergent L o y a l t i e s to Newton i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century," i n Essays and Papers In  the H i s t o r y of Modern Science ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins 126 U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) and A. Rupert H a l l , "Newton—The E i g h t e e n t h Century's Marble Image," V i s t a s i n Astronomy 22 (1979): 405-12. (2) Mornet, Les O r l a i n e s l n t e l l e c t u e l l e s de l a  r e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e , p. 169. (3) Brunet, L ' I n t r o d u c t i o n des t h e o r i e s de Newton, p. 8. (4) G u e r l a c , Newton on the C o n t i n e n t , p. 43. (5) Derek G j e r t s o n , "Newton's Success," i n Let Newton  Be!. ed. John F a u v e l e t a l . (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988), p. 25. (6) Greenberg, "Mathematical P h y s i c s i n E i g h t e e n t h -Century France," p. 69. (7) I b i d . , pp. 68-70. Greenberg suggests " p r e c o c i o u s , i f d i s c r e t e " support f o r Newtonian c e l e s t i a l mechanics among members of the French s c i e n t i f i c community as e a r l y as 1720. (8) Brunet, pp. 146-150. (9) Thomas Hank i n s , Science and the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985), p. 35. (10) G u e r l a c , Newton, pp. 53-60. (11) Even accounts which acknowledge an important J e s u i t c o n t r i b u t i o n to e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y French c u l t u r e are prone t o repeat t h i s . In h i s study of French higher e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r o c k l i s s , op. c i t . , argues: " I f Newton f i n a l l y triumphed i n France i t was p r o b a b l y over the corpse of the J e s u i t Order, the same Order, of course, t h a t had o n l y b e l a t e d l y embraced vortex t h e o r y " (p. 366). (12) John H e i l b r o n , E l e c t r i c i t y i n the 17th and 18th  C e n t u r i e s : A Study of E a r l y Modern P h y s i c s (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1979): 36 f f . H e i l b r o n argues t h a t the r e p e t i t i o n of these I n j u n c t i o n s " t e s t i f i e s t o t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s " and that even the J e s u i t (Honore F a b r i ) r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a c i n g D e s c a r t e s on the Index may have harboured C a r t e s i a n sympathies. Though somewhat more e q u i v o c a l i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e Gaston S o r t a i s a l s o suggests a moderate sympathy f o r Descartes on F a b r i ' s p a r t . 127 (13) Gaston S o r t a i s , M L e C a r t e s l a n l s m e chez l e s J e s u i t e s f r a n c a i s au XVIIe et au XVIIIe s i e c l e " i n A r c h i v e s  de P h i l o s o p h i e . no. 6 (1929): 37-40. (14) I b i d . , p. 40-41. (15) W i l l i a m V. Bangert, A H i s t o r y of the S o c i e t y of  J e s u s f p. 285. (16) Trevor M c C l a u g h lin, "Censorship and Defenders of the C a r t e s i a n F a i t h i n Mid-Seventeenth Century France," J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas XL (Oct.-Dec. 1979): 565. (17) I b i d . , p. 569. (18) S o r t a i s , p. 21-35. (19) I b i d . , p. 21. (20) T h i s i s s u e i s d i s c u s s e d i n v a r i o u s passages i n : A v e l i n g , The J e s u i t s , PP- 26, 108, 203. (21) V o l t a i r e , Oeuvres completes, ed. Moland, XXXIV, p. 437, quoted i n S c h i e r , L o u i s Bertrand C a s t e l , A n t i - Newtonian P h y s i c i s t , p. 38. T r a n s l a t i o n my own. (22) Henry Gue r l a c , "Where the Statue Stood," p. 133. (23) For a l i s t of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by C a s t e l see S c h i e r , pp. 208-214. (24) The T r a l t e de l a pesanteur u n i v e r s e l l e , d i s c u s s e d by S c h i e r , pp. 61-109 and the Mathematique  U n i v e r s e l l e , pp. 113-132. (25) S c h i e r , p. 17. In an otherwise e x c e l l e n t study S c h i e r tends to l a p s e i n t o m i l d sarcasm i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of C a s t e l ' s a d m i t t e d l y f e r t i l e i m a g i n a t i o n argues t h a t : "A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of C a s t e l ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n a year's time cannot f a i l t o remind one of Lewis C a r r o l l ' s t a l k of 'shoes and s h i p s and s e a l i n g wax, of cabbages and k i n g s ' , " p. 30. Elsewhere (p. 6) he d e s c r i b e s C a s t e l ' s thought as a "stream of c o n j e c t u r e . " (26) Memolres de 1'Academie Royale (1777): 105. (27) J o u r n a l de Trevoux ( A p r i l 1757): 1100-1118. (28) For a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i s p u t e between C a s t e l and B e r t h i e r see S c h i e r , op. c i t . , pp. 44-47 and Pappas, op. c i t . , pp. 24-27. Both authors a t t r i b u t e a l a r g e part of t h i s d i s p u t e t o C a s t e l ' s f r i e n d s h i p with Montesquieu, whose S p i r i t of the Laws B e r t h i e r had a t t a c k e d . But Pappas makes 128 the f u r t h e r p o i n t t h a t B e r t h i e r a l s o wanted to reduce the l e v e l of s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o v e r s y i n the J o u r n a l de T r e V o u x . (29) See: Brunet, op. c i t . , pp. 1-80. (30) A c c o r d i n g t o S c h i e r , when C a s t e l presented h i s own account of the mechanism of nature ( i n the T r a i t e de  pesanteur u n i v e r s e l l e ) he was: "determined to show them t h a t the world i s more than a machine; he wants t o preserve the f r e e w i l l , not o n l y of man, but a l s o of God . . . and prevent Him from being enslaved by the mathematical working out of the n a t u r a l laws He had Himself c r e a t e d " (p. 69 f f . ) . Such concerns, e n t i r e l y expected of a J e s u i t , are n e v e r t h e l e s s r a r e l y o v e r t l y expressed i n C a s t e l ' s reviews i n the J o u r n a l de Trevoux. (31) S c h i e r , op. c i t . , suggests t h a t C a s t e l accepted the o f f e r of membership i n the Royal S o c i e t y p u r e l y f o r reasons of p e r s o n a l p r e s t i g e and t h a t he was too p a t r i o t i c t o have s e r i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d to a f o r e i g n academy. At any r a t e h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the Royal S o c i e t y appear t o have been p e r f u n c t o r y (p. 22). (32) S c h i e r , op. c i t . , p. 95. (33) Bernard Cohen, The Newtonian R e v o l u t i o n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), p.37. For an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Newton see: Zev B e c h l e r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : Some Issues of Newtonian H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , 1 1 i n Contemporary Newtonian Research, ed. Zev B e c h l e r , S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of Modern Scien c e , v o l . 9 (Dordrecht, Neth.: D. R e i d e l P u b l i s h i n g , 1982), p. 3 f f . (34) Cohen, Newtonian R e v o l u t i o n , p. 16. (35) I b i d . , p. 7. (36) For a s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n of C a s t e l see: J o u r n a l  de Trevoux (1743): 2586. (37) S c h i e r , op. c i t . , d i s c u s s e s C a s t e l ' s use of analogy, pp. 98-103. (38) J o u r n a l de Trevoux (Nov. 1747): 2198-2222; J o u r n a l de Trevoux (Dec. 1747): 2448-2472. (39) Pappas, B e r t h i e r , pp. 26-27, 48-54. (40) L. W. B. B r o c k l i s s , " A r i s t o t l e , Descartes and the New S c i e n c e : N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s , 1600-1740," Annals of Science 38 (1981): 60 ( f o o t n o t e 103). 129 (41) R i v a l s i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n , the Sorbonne and the J e s u i t s i n France experienced s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s a t b e s t . Given the former's i n f l u e n c e , however, and the d e s i r e of the J e s u i t s under B e r t h i e r t o a v o i d needless c o n t r o v e r s y , i t i s not unreasonable to suppose t h a t the J o u r n a l de  Trevoux would have attempted t o p u b l i c l y r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f whenever p o s s i b l e with an otherwise p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous opponent. (42) Such d i v e r g e n c e s of o p i n i o n were c o n s i s t e n t with sentiments o b t a i n i n g i n French s c i e n t i f i c l i f e g e n e r a l l y i n the 1750s and e a r l y 1760s. Newton's "triumph" over D e s c a r t e s was by no means complete a t mid-century. And, to f u r t h e r compound the debate, a s c i e n t i f i c approach opposed to mathematical p h y s i c s o r i g i n a t i n g i n the l i f e s c i e n c e s , gained c o n s i d e r a b l e momentum i n the same p e r i o d . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the l a t t e r phenomenon see: Colm Kie r n a n , The  Enlightenment and Science i n Eighteenth-Century France, 2d ed., S t u d i e s on V o l t a i r e and the E i g h t e e n t h Century, v o l . LIXa, ed. Theodore Besterman (Banbury: V o l t a i r e Foundation, 1973). (43) F r a n c o i s de D a i n v l l l e , L'Educatlon des J e s u i t e s  (XVI-XVIII s i e c l e ) . p. 321. (44) A. Rupert H a l l , The R e v o l u t i o n i n Science (1500- 1750) (Burnt M i l l , Essex: Longman Group L t d . , 1983), p. 17. (45) J o u r n a l de Trevoux (August 1711): 1490-1491; J o u r n a l de TreVoux (March 1717): 484-496. (46) S o r t a i s , op. c i t . , p. 6. (47) For an extended d i s c u s s i o n of C a s t e l ' s ambitions as an educator, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of mathematics see: S c h i e r , op. c i t . , pp. 113-132. (48) T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of r h e t o r i c f o l l o w s arguments made by: B r i a n V i c k e r s , In Defence of R h e t o r i c (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1988), and V i c k e r s , "The Royal S o c i e t y and E n g l i s h Prose S t y l e : A Reassessment," In R h e t o r i c and the  P u r s u i t of T r u t h : Papers Read at a C l a r k L i b r a r y Seminar 8  March 1980. ed. B r i a n V i c k e r s and Nancy Struever (Los Angeles: W i l l i a m Andrews C l a r k Memorial L i b r a r y , 1985), pp. 3. A l s o u s e f u l : Peter France, R h e t o r i c and T r u t h i n  France (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1972), pp. 3-33, 37-39, 68-81. Although not used d i r e c t l y here, f o r an exhaustive account of r h e t o r i c ( e s p e c i a l l y i n a p o l i t i c a l context) i n France between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment see: Marc F u m a r o l i , L'Age de 1'eloquence: r h e t o r l q u e et "res 130 l l t e r a r l a " de l a r e n a i s s a n c e au s e u l l de l'epogue c l a s s l q u e (Geneva: L l b r a r i e Droz, 1980). An overview of the arguments presented i n the above can be found i n Marc F u m a r o l i , " R h e t o r i c , P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y : From I t a l i a n C i c e r o n i a n i s m to French C l a s s i c i s m , " t r a n s . Ruth B. York, i n Renaissance Eloquence: S t u d i e s i n  the Theory and P r a c t i c e of Renaissance R h e t o r i c , ed. James Murphy ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1983). (49) V l c k e r s , Defence of R h e t o r i c , p. 23. (50) I b i d . , p. 166. (51) I b i d . , pp. 166-7. (52) Q u i n t i l l i a n , Loeb e d i t i o n , ed. H. E. B u t l e r , v o l . II.XV.34, (London, 1920), quoted i n France, op. c i t . , p. 8. (53) V i c k e r s , p. 8. (54) V i c k e r s , p. 282. (55) France, p. 21. (56) Thomas Sprat's H i s t o r y of the Royal S o c i e t y (1667), quoted i n France, p. 38. (57) I b i d . (58) John Locke's Essay Concerning Human  Understanding, Peter N i d d i t c h E d i t i o n (Oxford, 1975), p. 504, quoted i n V i c k e r s , op. c i t . , p. 199. In a review of a c o l l e c t i o n of Locke's works p u b l i s h e d i n 1712, The J o u r n a l de Trevoux expressed impatience with Locke's f u l m i n a t i o n s a g a i n s t r h e t o r i c : " . . . he appears angry a t a l l those who employ r h e t o r i c and a r t i f i c e t o persuade, a l l the while abandoning himself t o a declamatory s t y l e . . . " ( J o u r n a l de Trevoux, J u l y 1712, p. 1175). (59) France, p. 28. (60) V i c k e r s , op. c i t . , p. 182. (61) C i c e r o ' s De Oratore (3.51.197), quoted i n V i c k e r s , op. c i t . , p. 2. 131 CHAPTER 3 (1) P. C. Sommervogel's Table methodiaue was l n d i s p e n s i b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d . (2) In an address to the Sorbonne d e l i v e r e d i n 1750 Turgot repeated ideas v e r y s i m i l a r t o those of P a r r e n i n . ( T r a n s l a t e d i n E n g l i s h as: "On the Progress of the Human Mind".) Acknowledging the r a p i d development of Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n i n i t s e a r l i e s t s t a g e s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s argued t h a t such i n i t i a l p rogress withered under the accumulated weight of s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s t r a i n t s imposed by a s u c c e s s i o n of powerful emperors. However, P a r r e n i n would not have f o l l o w e d Turgot's enthusiasm f o r ambition and s e l f -i n t e r e s t as i n s t i n c t s capable of m o t i v a t i n g human pr o g r e s s . P a r r e n l n ' s concept of c u r i o s i t y would appear t o have been l a r g e l y d e v o i d of such l e s s " e x a l t e d " motives. (3) For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s a t t i t u d e see: Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , v o l . 2 The  S c i e n c e of Freedom pp. 497-516. For a u s e f u l counterargument see L. w. B. B r o c k l i s s , French Higher  E d u c a t i o n i n the Seventeenth and E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , pp. 444-454 f f . B r o c k l i s s emphasizes the extent to which e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y French c o l l e g e s , i n c l u d i n g those of the J e s u i t s , played a d e f i n i t i v e r o l e i n s h a r i n g the s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l assumptions of the r u l i n g e l i t e . (4) Antoine G a u b i l , Correspondance de P e k i n . pp. 792-793. (5) I b i d . , pp. 792-793. (6) See above, pp. 27-28. (7) See B r o c k l i s s , op. c i t . , p. 107. According to him " . . . the J e s u i t s and other Renaissance e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s f o l l o w e d P l u t a r c h i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t environment was f a r more important than h e r e d i t y i n determining moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l development; they always p l a c e d a l i m i t e d emphasis a t b e s t on n a t u r a l g i f t s . " (8) See: Remy G. S a i s s e l i n , "Genius," i n The Rule of  Reason and the Ruses of the Heart: A P h i l o s o p h i c a l  D i c t i o n a r y of C l a s s i c a l French C r i t i c i s m . C r i t i c s , and  A e s t h e t i c Issues ( C l e v e l a n d : The Press of Case Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y , 1970), pp. 89-96. (9) I b i d . , pp. 91-96. (10) H e l v e t i u s ' De 1 ' e s p r i t (1758), p. 389, quoted i n S a i s s e l i n , op. c i t . , p. 93. T r a n s l a t i o n my own. 132 (11) I b i d . (12) J o u r n a l de Trevoux ( A p r i l 1765): 969-970. (13) See above, pp. 63, 76. (14) R e t a t , "Memoires pour 1 ' h i s t o l r e " , p. 181. (15) Hans Blumenberg, The L e g i t i m a c y of the Modern  Age, t r a n s . Robert M. Wallace (Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1983), p. 332. (16) I b i d . , p. 237. (17) I b i d . , p. 397. (18) D a n i e l Roche, Le s i e c l e des lumleres en  p r o v i n c e : academies et academlclens p r o v i n c l a u x , 1680-1789, Tome 1 ( P a r i s : E c o l e des Hautes etudes en s c i e n c e s s o c i a l e s , Mouton E d i t e u r , 1978), p. 372. (19) Blumenberg, p. 109. (20) For C a s t e l see: above p. 60. (21) For a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e played by the a r i s t o c r a t i c " c u r i e u x " i n the development of s c i e n c e see:, Alphonse Dupront, " L i v r e e t C u l t u r e dans l a S o c i e t e F r a n c a i s e du 18e s i e c l e , " i n L i v r e et Societe' dans l a France  du XVIIIe s i e c l e . pp. 223-226. Dupront suggests the important r o l e of the a r i s t o c r a t i c , p a t r i c i a n or "haut b o u r g e o i s " c o l l e c t o r s has been w r o n g f u l l y n e g l e c t e d as an i n f l u e n c e upon the development of French s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . (22) The J o u r n a l de Trevoux appears to have viewed appeals f o r r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a t i o n as l i t t l e more than t h i n l y v e i l e d a t t a c k s on C a t h o l i c i s m and papal a u t h o r i t y . In r e g a r d to Locke's arguments of t h i s type see J o u r n a l de  Trevoux (1712): 1168-9. (23) C a r l o Ginzburg, "High and Low: The Theme of For b i d d e n Knowledge i n the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s , " Past and Present 73 (November 1976): 30. (24) I b i d . , p. 37. (25) I b i d . , p. 37. (26) I b i d . , p. 41. (27) Ginzburg, p. 28. 133 CONCLUSION (1) E l i z a b e t h H i l l , " B i o g r a p h i c a l Essay" In Roger  Joseph B o s c o v i c h , S.J., F.R.S., 1711-1787 : S t u d i e s of His  L i f e and Work on the 250th A n n i v e r s a r y of His B i r t h , ed. L a n c e l o t Lav Whyte (London: George A l l e n and Unvin, 1961), pp. 17-101. (2) H i l l , p. 55. (3) A. Rupert H a l l , The R e v o l u t i o n i n S c i e n c e , pp. 16-19. (4) Thomas S. Kuhn, "Mathematical versus Experimental T r a d i t i o n s i n the Development of P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e , " i n The  E s s e n t i a l T e n s i o n : S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s i n S c i e n t i f i c T r a d i t i o n  and Change (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1977), pp. 31-65. For an I n t r i g u i n g c r i t i q u e of Kuhn see: Antonio Perez-Ramos, F r a n c i s Bacon's Idea of Science and the Maker's  Knowledge T r a d i t i o n (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), pp. 36-41. (5) Kuhn, p. 42. (6) See f o r i n s t a n c e : K a r l Wallace, F r a n c i s Bacon on  Communication and R h e t o r i c or the A r t of A p p l y i n g Reason to  Imagination f o r the B e t t e r Moving of the W i l l (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1943), pp. 1-50. (7) Paolo R o s s i , F r a n c i s Bacon: From Magic to  S c i e n c e , t r a n s . Sacha R a b i n o v i t c h (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1968), p. 192. (8) F r a n c i s Bacon's L e t t e r s and L i f e , VIII.109, quoted i n John C. B r i g g s , F r a n c i s Bacon and the R h e t o r i c of  Nature (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989), p. 5. (9) Hans Blumenberg, The L e g i t i m a c y of the Modern  Age , P• 386. (10) Wallace, op. c i t . p. 31. (11) H a l l , The R e v o l u t i o n i n S c i e n c e , p. 193. (12) Blumenberg, p. 239. (13) H a l l , p. 193. (14) Kuhn, p. 48. 134 (15) Kuhn, pp. 46-47. (16) J . L. H e i l b r o n , E l e c t r i c i t y i n the 17th and 18th  C e n t u r i e s , p. 2. (17) H e i l b r o n , p. 101. (18) H e i l b r o n , p. 101. (19) W i l l i a m B. 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