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The relationship of stress and depressed mood to maternal reactions Krech, Kathryn H. 1990

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF STRESS AND DEPRESSED MOOD TO MATERNAL  REACTIONS  By K a t h r y n H.  Krech  B.A., M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  1986  THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Psychology)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H ©February  1990  COLUMBIA  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Payc-Mo^-OGV  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  M  ftftcri  «2  I^^O  Abstract  Models o f p a r e n t i n g a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y The  domain has e v o l v e d  from a s i m p l e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r  b e h a v i o r p a r a d i g m t o one w h i c h c o n s i d e r s influences. depressed  Contextual variables,  such  systemic as l i f e  A l s o , r e s e a r c h e r s have noted  of measuring parent  s t r e s s and  cognition (i.e.,  the  perceptions)  in addition t o acquiring information regarding behavior.  The p r e s e n t  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d  d a i l y h a s s l e s , a n d by d e p r e s s e d affective,  importance and a f f e c t  parent  t o explore the  r o l e p l a y e d by t w o l e v e l s o f s t r e s s ; g l o b a l l i f e  child  - child  mood, a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e c e i v e much a t t e n t i o n i n  the l i t e r a t u r e .  maternal  complex.  e v e n t s and  mood, i n d e t e r m i n i n g  b e h a v i o r a l and c o g n i t i v e r e s p o n s e s  to  behavior. A c o m m u n i t y s a m p l e o f 66 s i n g l e m o t h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  the study.  Mothers read  12 d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c h i l d  e a c h embedded i n one o f t h r e e c o n t e x t s o f s t r e s s global  life  context).  event  behavior, (i.e.,  c o n t e x t , d a i l y h a s s l e s c o n t e x t , no s t r e s s  The s a m p l e was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s  (n=22)  on t h e b a s i s o f s c o r e s on a s t a n d a r d mood i n s t r u m e n t . t h o s e m o t h e r s who r e c e i v e d s c o r e s (i.e.,  depressed  i n t h e main  Only  i n t h e two extreme g r o u p s  mood a n d n o n d e p r e s s e d mood) w e r e i n c l u d e d  analyses.  A two-way repeated measures MANOVA r e v e a l e d  a main  e f f e c t f o r s t r e s s , but not f o r mood, when t h e BDI was used t o c r e a t e t h e groups.  When the CES-D was u t i l i z e d ,  e f f e c t f o r s t r e s s , and f o r mood, was d e t e c t e d .  a main  No  s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e s s by mood i n t e r a c t i o n was observed. Follow-up u n i v a r i a t e ANOVAS and m u l t i p l e comparision t e s t s revealed  t h a t t h e d a i l y h a s s l e s context  had a g r e a t e r  i n f l u e n c e on maternal responses t o c h i l d b e h a v i o r than d i d the g l o b a l l i f e events context.  That i s , mothers were more  a f f e c t i v e l y aroused, i n d i c a t e d a more i n t e n s e behavioral  r e a c t i o n and p e r c e i v e d  more d e v i a n t , other  anticipated  the c h i l d b e h a v i o r t o be  i n t h e d a i l y h a s s l e s c o n d i t i o n compared t o t h e  conditions.  In a d d i t i o n , mothers who r e p o r t e d more  depressed mood i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r a f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the c h i l d b e h a v i o r v i g n e t t e s than mothers who d i d not r e p o r t depressed mood.  The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d  e m p i r i c a l and a p p l i e d  implications.  i n terms o f  iv.  Table of Contents Page P r e l i m i n a r y Pages  i i  A.  Abstract  B.  Table of Contents  C.  L i s t of t a b l e s  vii  D.  Acknowledgement  viii  Chapter 1. A.  i i iv  Introduction  1  Review of the l i t e r a t u r e  1  1. The parent b e h a v i o r - c h i l d behavior  link  1  2. R e c i p r o c i t y of I n f l u e n c e  3  3. The parent p e r c e p t i o n s - p a r e n t 4. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g  behavior  parent behavior  link  & perceptions...  5. Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  5 7 8  6. Depressed mood and parent behavior  10  7. The depressed  mood-parent p e r c e p t i o n s l i n k  13  8. Environmental  conditions  15  9. S t r e s s  16  10. L e v e l s of s t r e s s 11. The s t r e s s - p a r e n t behavior  18 link  20  12. The s t r e s s - p a r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s l i n k  25  13. The r o l e of parent a f f e c t  26  V .  B.  Rationale  28  C.  Hypotheses  29  D.  Justification  Chapter 2.  f o r sample  30  Method  32  A.  Subjects  32  B.  Procedure  36  C.  Materials  37  1. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e package  37  2. The demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  38  3. The measures of depressed  mood  38  information  40  4. The c h i l d behavior  5. The i n d i c e s of s t r e s s  41  6. The d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior  41  7. The s t r e s s contexts  43  8. The dependent measures  45  9. The s t r e s s manipulation  check  47  vi.  Chapter 3.  Results  49  A.  P r e l i m i n a r y analyses  49  B.  Main a n a l y s e s  49  C.  Secondary analyses  58  1. The m a n i p u l a t i o n check  58  2. The  59  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses  3. The d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of parent b e h a v i o r  61  Chapter 4.  Discussion  63  Chapter 5.  References  72  Chapter 6.  Appendices  85  vii.  L i s t of Tables Page  1.  D e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the t o t a l sample  34  2.  C e l l means f o r MANOVA  (groups formed u s i n g BDI)....  51  3.  C e l l means f o r MANOVA  (groups formed u s i n g CES-D)..  53  4.  D e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the subsample  5.  C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of d e s c r i p t i v e information and maternal responses  6.  Descriptive information  55  60 f o r b e h a v i o r a l responses...  62  viii.  Acknowledgement  I would l i k e  t o take t h i s opportunity  gratitude to Charlotte  my  J o h n s t o n f o r h e r guidance and s u p p o r t  throughout t h i s project.  Thanks a r e a l s o extended t o t h e  members o f my c o m m i t t e e , A n i t a who c o n t r i b u t e d  t o express  D e L o n g i s a n d Dan P e r l m a n ,  greatly t o the completion of t h i s  t h r o u g h t h e i r u s e f u l comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s .  study  In addition  I w o u l d l i k e t o acknowledge Kim Behrenz f o r h e r c l e r i c a l assistance  during  the collection  of the data.  1  Parents f r e q u e n t l y seek the h e l p o f mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n response  to c h i l d behavioral d i f f i c u l t i e s  such as p e r c e i v e d c h i l d noncompliance, a g g r e s s i o n and/or a t t e n t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ( O f f o r d e t a l . , 1987; Yule, 1981). In r e c e n t years, t h e r e has been a movement t o understand such c h i l d behavior problems i n the context o f t h e f a m i l y (Bronfenbrenner,  1979; Mash, 1984; P e t e r s & McMahon, 1987;  Wahler, Leske & Rogers, 1979).  I t has been suggested  that  many c h i l d b e h a v i o r problems may be a t t r i b u t e d , a t l e a s t i n part, to dysfunctional parent-child  interactions  ( C h r i s t e n s e n , P h i l l i p s , Glasgow & Johnson, 1983; P a t t e r s o n , 1982).  In response  t o t h i s , much r e s e a r c h energy  devoted  t o e x p l o r i n g the r o l e o f parent b e h a v i o r i n  e l i c i t i n g or maintaining c h i l d  deviance.  The parent behavior - c h i l d behavior  relationship  C o n s i d e r a b l e evidence e x i s t s demonstrating behavior i s r e l a t e d t o c h i l d behavior. p s y c h o l o g i s t s s t r e s s the importance responsive behavior  has been  t h a t parent  Developmental  o f s e n s i t i v e and  (Ainsworth & B e l l ,  1974; Skinner, 1985)  and warm, s u p p o r t i v e c a r e - g i v i n g (Beckwith,  Chown, Kopp,  Parmelee, & M a r c i , 1976; Bradley, C a l d w e l l , & E l a r d o , 1979) f o r normal c h i l d development.  S i m i l a r l y , those who study  c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s have found evidence t o support the l i n k between p a r e n t i n g p r a c t i c e s and the development and maintenance o f c h i l d behavior problems.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  2  have l i n k e d c h i l d deviance disciplinary styles  t o p a r e n t a l power a s s e r t i v e  (Baumrind, 1971; Feshbech, 1974;  Hoffman, 1960, 1970; Olweus, 1980; S a l t z s t e i n , p a t t e r n o f p a r e n t i n g techniques negativeness,  and permissiveness  1976).  This  i s t y p i f i e d by commands, f o r aggression.  Other  r e s e a r c h e r s have u t i l i z e d s e q u e n t i a l a n a l y s i s o f observed mother and c h i l d behavior t o demonstrate t h a t i n a p p r o p r i a t e ( i . e . , vague) maternal noncompliance 1983;  commands tend t o i n c r e a s e c h i l d  ( C h r i s t e n s e n , P h i l l i p s , Glasgow & Johnson,  Patterson,  1982).  Using an o b s e r v a t i o n a l coding  system, Forehand and McMahon (1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t mothers of c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d , noncompliant c h i l d r e n a r e more l i k e l y t o issue i n e f f e c t i v e ,  lengthy, and vague commands i n mother-  c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s than the e f f e c t i v e ,  s h o r t , and p r e c i s e  commands used by n o n c l i n i c mothers with t h e i r  children.  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have been demonstrated u s i n g samples of c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . For i n s t a n c e , r e s e a r c h e r s have observed  t h a t mothers o f  unmedicated h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n use more d i r e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and a r e l e s s p o s i t i v e than mothers of normal c h i l d r e n i n mother-child Cunningham & Barkley, Childhood  i n t e r a c t i o n s (Campbell,  1979; Mash & Johnston,  1975;  1982).  a g g r e s s i o n has a l s o been l i n k e d t o maternal  hostility,  negativism,  and power-assertion  & P a t e r n i t e , 1978; Olweus, 1980).  (Loney, Langhorne  Such r e s e a r c h  t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between parent behavior behavior  problems.  suggests and c h i l d  3  Patterson link.  (1976) p r o v i d e s a conceptual b a s i s f o r t h i s  He d e s c r i b e s the " c o e r c i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s " i n which  d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s commonly f i n d themselves  embroiled.  He suggests t h a t these i n t e r a c t i o n s are maintained  as  d e v i a n t c h i l d behavior and maladaptive p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s are mutually r e i n f o r c e d .  For i n s t a n c e , the c h i l d l e a r n s t h a t i f  he throws a temper tantrum,  he i s l i k e l y t o be r e i n f o r c e d  parent a t t e n t i o n or withdrawal  by  of demand because h i s parents  have l e a r n e d t h a t they are rewarded by the t e r m i n a t i o n of the unpleasant tantrum c h i l d ' s demands.  i f they a t t e n d t o or g i v e i n t o t h e i r  P a t t e r s o n (1986) has o f f e r e d  empirical  evidence i n support of t h i s theory of c h i l d deviance.  In a  path a n a l y s i s of observed parent and c h i l d behavior, i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t poor p a r e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g and i n e p t accounted  discipline  f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a n c e i n v o l v e d  i n the development and maintenance of c h i l d deviance. t h e r e appears  t o be both e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l  f o r the l i n k between parent behavior and c h i l d  Thus,  support  behavior.  R e c i p r o c i t y of I n f l u e n c e I t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t  presumptions  r e g a r d i n g the d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of e f f e c t s i n p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s are l i k e l y t o be premature a t t h i s Patterson's  time.  (1986) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the p a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s i s i n keeping with the b i d i r e c t i o n a l model proposed by B e l l and Harper  (1977).  T h i s model r e p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l views, t h a t emphasized s o l e l y parent i n f l u e n c e , with a more comprehensive framework  4  f o r understanding p a r e n t - c h i l d exchanges.  B e l l and Harper  (1977) suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s a s s e r t r e c i p r o c a l patterns  o f i n f l u e n c e upon one another.  newer t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n has a l s o e m p i r i c a l support.  For i n s t a n c e ,  Barkley  (1979) found t h a t mothers o f h y p e r a c t i v e fewer negative stimulant  parenting  This  received  and Cunningham children displayed  s t r a t e g i e s when t h e i r c h i l d was on  m e d i c a t i o n than when the c h i l d was not medicated,  suggesting  t h a t the maternal behavior was, a t l e a s t i n p a r t ,  determined by d r u g - r e l a t e d  changes i n the c h i l d  Such evidence suggests t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l models  behavior. focussing  e x c l u s i v e l y on parent i n f l u e n c e may not o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t breadth t o e x p l a i n p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Bugental and Shennum (1984) have b u i l t upon t h i s model of r e c i p r o c i t y . behavioral  They suggest t h a t these p a r e n t - c h i l d  exchanges may be f a c i l i t a t e d by parent  perceptions  of the c h i l d .  That i s , the way i n which an  a d u l t r e a c t s t o the c h i l d ' s behavior may be a f u n c t i o n o f the b e l i e f s t h a t he/she holds about t h a t c h i l d ' s manageability.  Further,  these r e s e a r c h e r s  showed t h a t the  p a r e n t s o r a d u l t s a c t i n a way t h a t e l i c i t s c h i l d t h a t f u l f i l s the a d u l t b e l i e f s .  The evidence r e p o r t e d by  Bugental and Shennum (1984) supports the n o t i o n r e c i p r o c i t y theory perceptions.  a l s o has a p l a c e  In g e n e r a l ,  behavior  that  i n the domain o f parent  the b i d i r e c t i o n a l model has become  w i d e l y accepted and p r o v i d e s  a working framework f o r the  study o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  5  The parent p e r c e p t i o n s - parent behavior  relationship  U n l i k e the d i a g n o s i s of a d u l t psychopathology, assessment of c h i l d deviance  the  i s dependent more upon the  r e p o r t s of parents and other s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s than on the responses  of the t a r g e t i n d i v i d u a l .  s c a l e s have been developed c h i l d psychopathology  A v a r i e t y of r a t i n g  f o r the purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g  on the b a s i s of p a r e n t a l r e p o r t (e.g.,  Achenbach & Edelbrock,  1978;  1979).  t h a t much of the c l i n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n  I t i s apparent  of c h i l d r e n i s based  Conners, 1970;  on parent p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d  behavior, r a t h e r than observed to t h i s ,  Quay & Peterson,  c h i l d behavior.  In  response  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t has been focussed on  parent p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior.  For example, i n a  study comparing c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d and n o n r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n , G r i e s t , Forehand, Wells and McMahon (1980) found t h a t , compared t o o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d behavior,  maternal  p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior were b e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of c l i n i c and n o n c l i n i c s t a t u s .  That i s , i t was  the mothers'  p e r c e p t i o n s , r a t h e r than the behavior of the c h i l d as by o b j e c t i v e observers, t h a t determined c h i l d was  judged  whether or not the  r e f e r r e d f o r treatment.  Parent p e r c e p t i o n s may  have an impact,  not o n l y on the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d as p r o b l e m a t i c , but a l s o on the way  i n which parents i n t e r a c t with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  In the  p a r e n t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , the term p e r c e p t i o n r e f e r s t o the a d u l t ' s view of the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the c h i l d ' s and the extent t o which the c h i l d was  behavior  deemed t o have  6  executed 1985;  these b e h a v i o r s i n t e n t i o n a l l y  Middlebrook  & Forehand, 1986).  (Bauer & Twentyman, The n o t i o n of c a u s a l  a t t r i b u t i o n s , as o u t l i n e d by Weiner (1979), encompassed i n t h i s  i s therefore  definition.  R e c e n t l y , r e s e a r c h e r s have begun t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent p e r c e p t i o n s of the c h i l d parent b e h a v i o r .  Dix and Grusec  (1985) found support f o r  the n o t i o n t h a t p a r e n t s ' a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r c h i l d change w i t h the development of the c h i l d . p a r e n t s found c h i l d misbehavior  and  behavior  Specifically,  t o be more i n t e n t i o n a l ,  d i s p o s i t i o n a l and u p s e t t i n g with i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d age. a d d i t i o n , they found t h a t , although the s p e c i f i c chosen i n response  t o c h i l d behavior may  i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s and experiences, parent i n f l u e n c e the p r o b a b i l i t y and There i s a l s o evidence  action  be a f u n c t i o n of attributions  i n t e n s i t y of the  response.  i n the c h i l d abuse l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between parent p e r c e p t i o n s of the and abusive parent behavior.  Reid, Kavanagh and  (1987) used b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n techniques and r e p o r t s t o determine  of observed  b e h a v i o r and p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d b e h a v i o r .  parent  child  groups.  families,  p a r e n t s i n t h i s sample p e r c e i v e d more conduct  non-  Parent r e p o r t  of c h i l d b e h a v i o r d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between When compared with r a t i n g s of non-abusive  child  Baldwin  d i f f e r e n c e s between abusive and  abusive f a m i l i e s along the dimensions  their children.  In  abusive  problems i n  However, these r e s e a r c h e r s found  few  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h i l d or parent b e h a v i o r s of  7  these two groups as judged by p r o f e s s i o n a l observers.  independent  Larrance and Twentyman (1983) measured mothers  p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r c h i l d ' s behavior along Weiner's dimensions  o f s t a b i l i t y and l o c u s o f c o n t r o l  versus e x t e r n a l ) .  (internal  They found t h a t mothers w i t h a p r e v i o u s  h i s t o r y o f abusive behavior made d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s misbehavior c h i l d maltreatment.  than those with no h i s t o r y o f  Abusive mothers a t t r i b u t e d  their  c h i l d ' s good behavior t o u n s t a b l e and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and p e r c e i v e d t h e i r c h i l d ' s t r a n s g r e s s i o n s t o be caused by s t a b l e and i n t e r n a l sources.  The normal mothers i n d i c a t e d a  completely o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n o f responses  (e.g.,  internal,  stable a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r p o s i t i v e c h i l d behavior; e x t e r n a l , u n s t a b l e a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r negative c h i l d b e h a v i o r ) .  In a  s i m i l a r study, Bauer and Twentyman (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a t t r i b u t i o n s made by a sample o f abusive, n e g l e c t f u l and normal mothers and found t h a t the mothers who had demonstrated abusive parent behavior i n t h e p a s t were more apt t o i n t e r p r e t c h i l d behavior as malevolent o t h e r mothers.  than were  The r e s e a r c h e r s hypothesize t h a t t h i s  type  of f a u l t y a t t r i b u t i o n f o r c h i l d behavior may a i d i n t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n of family violence.  Thus, a l i n k between  parent p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior and parent behavior i s supported  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g parent behavior and p e r c e p t i o n s Given t h i s l i n k between parent and c h i l d behavior, and the r o l e t h a t parent p e r c e p t i o n s appear t o p l a y i n mediating  8  this link,  i t i s important t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h a t may be  r e l a t e d t o parent behavior and/or p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d behavior.  The l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t parent b e h a v i o r and  p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d behavior a r e a f f e c t e d by a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s t h a t may be c o n c e p t u a l l y grouped i n t o two broad areas:  p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f parents and  environmental  conditions.  Personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would  i n c l u d e v a r i a b l e s such as parent mood, age, p a r e n t i n g experience and c h i l d - r e a r i n g a t t i t u d e s .  Environmental  c o n d i t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o parent behavior might i n c l u d e l e v e l of e x t e r n a l s t r e s s , a v a i l a b l e s o c i a l support, and the p a r t i c u l a r parenting situation.  These two broad areas are  o b v i o u s l y o v e r l a p p i n g and nonindependent, but the d i s t i n c t i o n provides a useful h e u r i s t i c f o r conceptualizing the i n f l u e n c e s on parent p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r and parent b e h a v i o r . psychopathology,  In the present paper, parent s p e c i f i c a l l y depressed mood, and s t r e s s ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y d a i l y h a s s l e s and g l o b a l l i f e events, serve as the f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g these two broad  will areas.  P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , parent behavior and c h i l d Parent psychopathology  deviance  i s a personological variable  t h a t i s commonly a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y d y s f u n c t i o n and c h i l d b e h a v i o r problems.  Much o f the e m p i r i c a l study i n  t h i s area has been focussed on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g of p a r e n t s o f c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n .  For i n s t a n c e ,  Goodstein and Rowley (1961) showed t h a t mothers of d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i n g - o u t c h i l d r e n , d i s p l a y e d more  9  maladjustment on t h e MMPI than d i d mothers o f normal children.  S i m i l a r l y , P a t t e r s o n (1982) found t h a t mothers o f  s o c i a l l y - a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n demonstrated  h i g h e r MMPI  p r o f i l e s than mothers o f normal c h i l d r e n .  In a study  comparing f a m i l i e s o f h y p e r a c t i v e and normal c h i l d r e n , B e f e r a and B a r k l e y (1985) showed t h a t mothers o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e p r e s s i v e symptomatology than those o f normal c h i l d r e n . serve t o demonstrate  the l i n k between parent  These s t u d i e s characteristics  and c h i l d behavior w i t h i n f a m i l i e s o f c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d children. Other s t u d i e s i n t h i s area have focussed on the c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s o f parents e x h i b i t i n g some degree o f psychopathology.  L o b i t z and Johnson  w i t h i n t h e i r sample,  (1975) found  e l e v a t i o n s i n parent responses on  s e v e r a l MMPI s c a l e s were r e l a t e d t o both observed negativeness toward behavior.  parent  the c h i l d and t o observed c h i l d d e v i a n t  Others suggest t h a t mothers  psychopathology  that,  demonstrating  e x h i b i t parent behavior t h a t i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emotional detachment from the c h i l d , a d e n i a l o f c h i l d care concerns, low r a t e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , and a lack of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a r e c i p r o c a l mother-child relationship  (Baldwin, Cole & Baldwin,  Grunebaum, Weiss, Hartman & G a l l a n t , i n t h i s area demonstrates psychopathology  1982; Cohler,  1976).  Empirical  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent  and c h i l d deviance, and suggests t h a t  a s s o c i a t i o n i s mediated  study  by parent b e h a v i o r .  this  10  Depressed  mood and parent  Researchers  behavior  have begun t o r e c o g n i z e the need f o r  f u r t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h e type of parent  psychopathology  most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with parent and c h i l d problems.  The  e x i s t e n c e o f depressed mood, e s p e c i a l l y among mothers, has been r e p e a t e d l y i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor parent-child relationships Grunebaum, Weiss, Garner 1983;  & G a l l a n t , 1977; Cohn & T r o n i c k ,  Weissman, Paykel & Klerman, 1972).  r e s e a r c h methodologies impact  ( B i l l i n g s & Moos, 1983; Cohler,  have been u t i l i z e d t o assess t h e  o f depressed mood on parent First,  Two d i f f e r e n t  behavior.  there e x i s t s a c l u s t e r of studies that u t i l i z e  d e v i a n t c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n s and assess the degree o f depressed mood and/or p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t children.  i n t h e f a m i l i e s o f these  I t i s important t o note t h a t these s t u d i e s  i n v o l v e parents who vary along a continuum of d e p r e s s i v e symptomatology o r depressed mood, and may or may not e x h i b i t clinical  l e v e l s of depression.  Researchers  have found t h a t  mothers o f c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f depressed mood than mothers o f normal children  (Griest et a l . ,  G r i e s t & McMahon, 1981).  1980; R i c k a r d , Forehand, Wells, C o n s i s t e n t with the sex r a t i o i n  the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , depressed mood appears  t o be more  p r e v a l e n t among mothers than f a t h e r s of c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d children  (Cunningham, Benness & S i e g a l ,  1988).  In a r e c e n t  study, Cunningham and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1988) found t h a t mothers o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  11  h i g h e r l e v e l s o f depressed mood than d i d mothers o f normal children.  The f a t h e r s o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n had  d e p r e s s i o n s c o r e s t h a t were i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from those of p a r e n t s w i t h normal c h i l d r e n Webster-Stratton  (Cunningham e t a l . , 1988).  (1988) a l s o assessed d i f f e r e n c e s between  mothers and f a t h e r s o f conduct  d i s o r d e r e d c h i l d r e n i n terms  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between depressed mood and parent behavior.  She showed t h a t mothers who had h i g h e r d e p r e s s i o n  s c o r e s used more commands and c r i t i c i s m s when i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n than d i d those with low s c o r e s on t h e depression scale.  The p a r e n t i n g behavior d i s p l a y e d by  f a t h e r s was u n r e l a t e d t o s e l f - r e p o r t e d depressed  mood.  Such  s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between c h i l d deviance, maternal A second maternal child  behavior, and maternal  type o f study examining  depressed mood.  t h i s l i n k between  d e p r e s s i o n and c h i l d behavior focuses upon p a r e n t -  i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the f a m i l i e s o f c l i n i c a l l y - d e p r e s s e d  adults.  For i n s t a n c e , B i l l i n g and Moos (1983) showed t h a t  c h i l d r e n from f a m i l i e s with a depressed parent had s i g n i f i c a n t l y more behavior problems, as r e p o r t e d by p a r e n t s , than c h i l d r e n i n nondepressed homes. these r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t maternal a s s o c i a t e d with f a m i l y c o n f l i c t . colleagues  Moreover,  d e p r e s s i o n was  S i m i l a r l y , Hammen and her  (Hammen, Gordon, Burge, A d r i a n , J a e n i c k e &  H i r o t o , 1987) found maternal  a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r t o be  r e l a t e d t o t h e d i a g n o s i s of behavior problems, s c h o o l  12  problems and s o c i a l competence d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r children. Other  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have u t i l i z e d  methodological  second  s t r a t e g y t o examine t h e l i n k between  d e p r e s s i o n and parent behavior. Paykel  this  maternal  F o r example, Weissman and  (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e depressed mothers i n t h e i r  sample had d i f f i c u l t y communicating with t h e i r  children,  f e l t a l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n toward them, and expressed hostility  i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with them.  overt  Cohler et a l .  (1977) a l s o found t h a t emotional detachment, f e e l i n g s o f resentment, and t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f o v e r t h o s t i l i t y c h i l d r e n were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e parent demonstrated by depressed mothers.  towards  behavior  Some r e s e a r c h e r s suggest  t h a t depressed mothers are unable t o c o n t r o l t h e i r  children  because they l a c k a d a p t i v e a s s e r t i o n s k i l l s and tend t o a v o i d necessary c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s Kucynski, Radke-Yarrow & Welsh, 1987).  (Kochanska,  Through t h e use o f  b e h a v i o r a l coding systems, other r e s e a r c h e r s have been a b l e to  i d e n t i f y t h a t maternal  d e p r e s s i o n c o v a r i e s with t h e use  of n e g a t i v e commands and a v e r s i v e m o t h e r - c h i l d (Forehand,  interactions  Lautenschlager, Faust & Graziano, 1986;  P a t t e r s o n , 1982; Webster-Stratton  & Hammen, 1988).  More d e c i s i v e evidence r e g a r d i n g t h e impact of depressed mood on p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s has evolved out of  s t u d i e s i n which a depressed mood i s induced i n mothers  p r i o r to a behavioral observation session. and W i l l s  (1987) u t i l i z e d  Zekoski, O'Hara  t h e V e l t e n mood i n d u c t i o n  13  procedure Other  to elicit  a depressed  s t a t e i n a group o f mothers.  m o t h e r s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o one o f t w o c o n t r o l  conditions: group.  a e u p h o r i a - i n d u c t i o n group and a n o - i n d u c t i o n  During t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s e s s i o n , observers noted  that  i n f a n t s o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n - i n d u c e d m o t h e r s became d i s t r e s s e d and w e r e l e s s c o n t i n g e n t l y r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r m o t h e r s were c h i l d r e n i n t h e o t h e r groups.  than  Moreover, mothers i n t h e  d e p r e s s i o n - i n d u c t i o n group were r a t e d as l e s s a b l e t o e l i c i t positive  i n f a n t responses  conditions.  t h a n were mothers i n t h e c o n t r o l  These r e s u l t s suggest  mood d i s r u p t s m o t h e r - i n f a n t support  that maternal  interactions.  I n summary,  f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a t e r n a l  mood, p a r e n t b e h a v i o r and c h i l d d e v i a n c e literature.  depressed  depressed  exists  i n the  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e , however,  that,  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e mood i n d u c t i o n s t u d i e s , many o f the s t u d i e s involved are c o r r e l a t i o n a l such, t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y cannot is,  be d e t e r m i n e d .  i t i s u n c l e a r a t t h i s time whether maternal  causes  c h i l d behavior problems o r whether c h i l d  problems cause maternal The  i n n a t u r e , and, as  depressed  That  depression behavior  depression.  mood - p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d  behavior  relationship As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , p a r e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l a b e l l i n g process.  Given the f i n d i n g t h a t maternal  and r e f e r r a l  perceptions of  c h i l d b e h a v i o r a r e t h e b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r o f c l i n i c and nonclinic status (Griest et a l . ,  1980),  many r e s e a r c h e r s  14  have begun t o focus on t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e these perceptions.  In n o n c l i n i c f a m i l i e s , parent p e r c e p t i o n s  appear t o be p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b e h a v i o r e x h i b i t e d by t h e c h i l d  ( G r i e s t e t a l . , 1980).  Researchers have shown  t h a t w i t h i n c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s however, parent p e r c e p t i o n s a r e not based s o l e l y on t h e c h i l d ' s o v e r t behavior  (Brody & Forehand,  1986; F r i e d l a n d e r , Weiss &  Traylor,  1986; G r i e s t e t a l . , 1980).  Much a t t e n t i o n has  been g i v e n t o t h e search f o r other r e l e v a n t  influences.  Repeatedly, r e s e a r c h e r s have demonstrated  that a  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between maternal depressed mood and p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d behavior (Forehand e t a l . , 1986; Forehand,  W e l l s , McMahon, G r i e s t & Rogers,  W e l l s & Forehand,  1979; Rogers & Forehand,  1982; G r i e s t , 1983).  Some o f  t h i s r e s e a r c h has concluded t h a t maternal depressed mood i s the s o l e determinant o f parent p e r c e p t i o n s among c l i n i c f a m i l i e s and t h a t c h i l d b e h a v i o r f a i l s t o make any significant contribution Rogers,  (Forehand, Wells, McMahon, G r i e s t &  1982; G r i e s t e t a l . , 1979; Rogers & Forehand,  1983).  Other r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t i t i s a combination o f these two  f a c t o r s . t h a t determines parent p e r c e p t i o n s (Brody &  Forehand,  1986; G r i e s t e t a l . ,  1980).  In an attempt t o d i s c e r n t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f depressed mood and observed c h i l d b e h a v i o r t o maternal p e r c e p t i o n s o f a c h i l d as d e v i a n t , R i c k a r d e t a l . (1981) compared samples o f c l i n i c  referred deviant, c l i n i c  referred  non-deviant, and n o n c l i n i c c h i l d r e n and mothers on both home  15  o b s e r v a t i o n s and parent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  C h i l d r e n were  a s s i g n e d t o the c l i n i c d e v i a n t group when t h e i r b e h a v i o r was deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e by t r a i n e d independent  observers.  These r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t parents i n both c l i n i c p e r c e i v e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n as more maladjusted the n o n - c l i n i c groups. the c l i n i c non-deviant  groups  than parents i n  Among the c l i n i c samples, p a r e n t s i n group showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  d e p r e s s i o n than those i n the remaining two groups. D i f f e r e n c e s between the c l i n i c groups were a l s o found p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s observed.  i n the  Parents i n the C l i n i c  Deviant groups i s s u e d more vague, i n t e r r u p t e d commands than those i n the C l i n i c Non-deviant group. among c l i n i c  This implies that  r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s , t h e r e i s a subset o f parents  who may e r r o n e o u s l y p e r c e i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n as d e v i a n t and these b i a s e d p e r c e p t i o n s appear t o be r e l a t e d t o the presence  o f depressed mood.  T h i s study i l l u s t r a t e s  how  parent depressed mood may p l a y an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n determining perceptions of c h i l d Environmental  behavior.  c o n d i t i o n s , parent behavior and c h i l d  deviance  Systems theory would suggest t h a t f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g does not occur i n a s o c i a l vacuum.  Rather,  i t is  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t f a c t o r s i n the host environment t h a t i n f l u e n c e f a m i l y p r a c t i c e s and ways o f thinking  (Bronfenbrenner,  1979; P a t t e r s o n , 1983).  For  i n s t a n c e , r e s e a r c h e r s have demonstrated t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s , such as socioeconomic  s t a t u s (Anastasiow,  Hanes &  Hanes, 1982; Segal, 1985; Skinner, 1985) and the degree of  16  maternal  social  Wahler, 1980), evidence  support experienced  (Dumas & W a h l e r , 1 9 8 3 ;  are r e l a t e d t o parent behavior.  t o suggest  There i s  t h a t s t r e s s i s a key environmental  f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g p a r e n t b e h a v i o r and c h i l d d e v i a n c e ( G i l , 1970;  Hammen e t a l . ,  Sansbury, 1984;  1987; P a t t e r s o n , 1983; W a h l e r &  1988; W e b s t e r - S t r a t t o n ,  Wolfe,  Fairbank, K e l l y  S t r e s s as an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  1988; Weinraub & A n s u l ,  & Bradley,  1983).  variable  S t r e s s i s a v a r i a b l e t h a t has c a p t u r e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f researchers across several d i s c i p l i n e s . d i v e r s i t y o f t h e c o n t e x t s i n which concept  i t i s considered, the  has d e r i v e d a v a r i e t y o f meanings  DeLongis, clinical  Folkman & Gruen, 1985). psychology,  t h a t t a x an The  s t r e s s may be b e s t u n d e r s t o o d  as t h e  situational conditions  individual.  s t r e s s - c o p i n g model proposed  colleagues  (Lazarus,  As i t p e r t a i n s t o  experience associated with external,  Lazarus  As a r e s u l t o f t h e  (Coyne & D e L o n g i s ,  by L a z a r u s  and h i s  1986; F o l k m a n & L a z a r u s , 1 9 8 0 ;  & F o l k m a n , 1984; F o l k m a n , L a z a r u s ,  Dunkel-Schetter,  D e L o n g i s & G r u e n , 198 6) p r o v i d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r much o f the research i n t h i s area.  Identified  i n t h i s model a r e two  p r o c e s s e s , c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l and c o p i n g , t h a t a r e s a i d t o mediate environmental Cognitive appraisal encounter  s t r e s s and i t s impact  i n v o l v e s t h e way i n w h i c h  i s perceived.  that t h i s process  on w e l l - b e i n g .  Lazarus  and Folkman  a stressful (1984)  suggest  i s a key i n g r e d i e n t i n t h e r e c o v e r y o f  i n d i v i d u a l s subjected t o a t a x i n g environmental  event.  17  Coping i s a term t h a t r e f e r s t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e f f o r t s t o manage a s t r e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e .  These e f f o r t s may  c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r problem-focussed or b e h a v i o r a l  (based upon c o g n i t i v e  e f f o r t s to meet the demands of the  or emotion-focussed negative  be  (based upon attempts t o ease the  f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d with the s t r e s s o r )  Lazarus, 1980).  stressor)  (Folkman &  Although c a u s a l l i n k s have y e t t o  be  e m p i r i c a l l y demonstrated, on the b a s i s of c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data,  Folkman and  speculated  t h a t an  her c o l l e a g u e s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s a p p r a i s a l of the  event i n f l u e n c e s h i s / h e r c h o i c e t u r n a f f e c t s h i s / h e r l o n g - and bidirectional coping  and,  of coping short-term  1986) stressful  strategy.  This in  well-being.  i n f l u e n c e i s a l s o recognized.  p r o c e s s progresses,  altered.  (Folkman et a l . ,  A  That i s , as  c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l may  Such c a u s a l s p e c u l a t i o n i s i n t u i t i v e l y  the  be appealing  i n t e r e s t i n g l y , p a r a l l e l s the pathways commonly advanced  i n the area  of p a r e n t i n g .  s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n and  That i s , c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l of a  parent p e r c e p t i o n r o l e i n the  of c h i l d  both p l a y an  intermediate  sequence and  are both s u b j e c t to the same b i a s e s .  the c h o i c e  of parent behavior may  perceptions  i n much the same way  be  event-behavior  i n f l u e n c e d by  foundation based.  1986).  Further, parent  that reaction to a  s t r e s s f u l event i s mediated by c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l Wolfe & M a t t a r o c c i a ,  behavior  T h i s model c o n s t i t u t e s  (LaRose, the  upon which contemporary views of s t r e s s are  18  Lazarus and h i s a s s o c i a t e s c o n s i d e r o n l y n e g a t i v e events t o be s t r e s s f u l .  These r e s e a r c h e r s suggest  that  p o s i t i v e l i f e events c o u n t e r a c t the f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s caused by n e g a t i v e l i f e events by a c t i n g as a type of buffer.  T h i s contemporary p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n c o n f l i c t  e a r l y work i n the s t r e s s l i t e r a t u r e t h a t adhered  with  t o the  n o t i o n t h a t any event, r e g a r d l e s s of i t s p e r c e i v e d desirability impact  ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) , a s s e r t e d a s t r e s s f u l  on the i n d i v i d u a l  (Holmes & Masuda, 1974).  evidence e x i s t s i n support of Lazarus' c l a i m . Selzer  Empirical  Vinokur  and  (1975) found t h a t only n e g a t i v e l i f e changes on the  Schedule  of Recent  Holmes, 1964)  Events  (SRE; Rahe, Meyer, Smith,  Kjaer &  were r e l a t e d t o s e l f - r e p o r t e d d e p r e s s i o n ,  a n x i e t y and t e n s i o n . these measures.  P o s i t i v e change c o u l d not be l i n k e d t o  More r e c e n t l y developed  L i f e Experience Survey 1978), have attempted a s k i n g respondents  s c a l e s , such as the  (LES; Sarason, Johnson & S i e g a l , t o circumvent t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y by  t o i n d i c a t e the v a l e n c e of d e s i r a b i l i t y  ( p o s i t i v e or negative) a s s o c i a t e d with experienced events. L e v e l s of s t r e s s - d a i l y h a s s l e s and g l o b a l l i f e  events  W i t h i n the context of e x t e r n a l s t r e s s o r s , two the c o n s t r u c t may  be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d .  First,  l e v e l s of  potent,  although presumably i n f r e q u e n t , events are assumed t o be r e l a t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u n c t i o n i n g .  Researchers  have  l i n k e d the experience of major l i f e trauma with a change i n health status.  Using r e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s , r e s e a r c h e r s  have found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e change and  myocardial  19  infarction  (Edwards, 1971;  sudden c a r d i a c death  Thoeorell  & Rahe, 1971)  (Rahe & L i n d , 1971).  study, Rahe (1968) d i v i d e d 2,500 naval r i s k and scores  low  prospective  o f f i c e r s i n t o high  r i s k i n d i v i d u a l s on the b a s i s of l i f e  f o r a p e r i o d of s i x months.  r i s k reported  change  Those i d e n t i f i e d as  more i l l n e s s e s each month f o l l o w i n g the  events assessment and the  In a  and  follow-up  had  one  t h i r d more i l l n e s s e s  p e r i o d than the low  r i s k group.  high  life  during  Holmes  and  Masuda (1974) proposed t h a t the r i s k of h e a l t h change i n c r e a s e d with i n c r e a s e d magnitude of l i f e c r i s e s .  These  authors concluded t h a t the g r e a t e r the l i f e change,  the  g r e a t e r the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y to disease  more severe the d i s e a s e  that i s incurred.  number of s c a l e s i n e x i s t e n c e l i f e events.  The  two  and  the  There are a  t h a t c l a i m to measure g l o b a l  S o c i a l Readjustment Rating  Holmes & Rahe, 1967)  and  the LES  Scale  (SRRS;  (Sarason et a l . , 1978)  are  of the more widely used i n d i c e s . Recently,  stress.  I t has  researchers  have i d e n t i f i e d a second l e v e l  been hypothesized t h a t r e l a t i v e l y minor  events of d a i l y l i v i n g a l s o have an impact on i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of f u n c t i o n i n g . provided  events, termed d a i l y h a s s l e s , h e a l t h outcomes and  1982;  an  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  support f o r the n o t i o n t h a t these small  l i f e events  of  have  life  are b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s of  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s than are major  (DeLongis, Coyne, Dakof, Folkman & Lazarus,  Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer & Lazarus, 1981;  Weinberger, Hiner & T i e r n e y ,  1987;  Monroe,  Z a r s k i , 1984).  For  1983;  20  instance, al.  u s i n g a middle-aged  community sample, DeLongis  (1982) found t h a t the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of d a i l y  hassles  reported  was  more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l  h e a l t h than were l i f e event s c o r e s .  Specifically,  high  l e v e l s of d a i l y s t r e s s were found t o be a s s o c i a t e d  with  h e a l t h problems such as f l u , headaches and (DeLongis, Folkman & Lazarus, 1988). al.  et  backaches  S i m i l a r l y , Kanner et  (1981) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between d a i l y  hassles  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  functioning.  DeLongis  et a l .  (1982) suggests t h a t h a s s l e s are more r e l e v a n t because are more proximal f o r the i n d i v i d u a l than the d i s t a l l i f e events.  These i n c l u d e :  Daily  Stress  ( B r a n t l e y , Waggoner, Jones & Rappaport,  Daily Hassles Scale  (DeLongis, Folkman & Lazarus,  Kanner e t a l . , 1981) (Zautra,  global  A number of s c a l e s have been developed t o  measure d a i l y h a s s l e s . Inventory  they  1988;  and Inventory of S t r e s s f u l L i f e  Guarnaccia & Dohrenwend, 1986).  of the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g  Events  T h i s b r i e f summary  the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s suggests  t h a t both g l o b a l l i f e events and d a i l y h a s s l e s p h y s i c a l and mental  1987),  a f f e c t both  health.  The s t r e s s - parent b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p The  l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t parent b e h a v i o r i s l i n k e d  t o the s t r e s s i n c u r r e d i n the f a m i l y ' s environment.  Most of  the s t u d i e s i n t h i s area o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s t r e s s through the use of g l o b a l l i f e event r a t i n g s c a l e s such as the SRRS and the LES.  For i n s t a n c e ,  conduct d i s o r d e r e d  u s i n g a sample of f a m i l i e s with  c h i l d r e n , Webster-Stratton  (1988) found  21  t h a t mothers who  r e p o r t e d high l e v e l s of n e g a t i v e  s t r e s s on the LES critical  life  i s s u e d more commands and used more  or n e g a t i v e p h y s i c a l b e h a v i o r s when i n t e r a c t i n g  with t h e i r c h i l d than nonstressed mothers.  In keeping  t h i s n o t i o n t h a t poor p a r e n t i n g i s l i n k e d t o s t r e s s , Webster-Stratton  environmental  (1985) found t h a t those parents  f a i l e d t o b e n e f i t from parent t r a i n i n g treatment  events than parents who  who  programs  r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of n e g a t i v e l i f e events and positive l i f e  with  fewer  were s u c c e s s f u l i n  therapy. F u r t h e r evidence  f o r the l i n k between  maladaptive  parent behavior and s t r e s s appears  i n the c h i l d abuse  literature.  Sandgrund, Green and  For i n s t a n c e , Gaines,  Power (1978) showed t h a t environmental w i t h harsher maternal  discipline,  stress i s associated  i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l abuse.  Using the SRRS, J u s t i c e and J u s t i c e  (197 6)  found t h a t  abusive parents had experienced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more change d u r i n g the 12 months p r i o r t o t h e i r abusive episode than d i d non-abusing parents over the same time p e r i o d . r e s e a r c h e r s suggest t h a t due t o the frequency of of  n e g a t i v e events among abusive parents, these  These occurrence individuals  have no o p p o r t u n i t y t o gather t h e i r r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e a c r i s i s arises.  Lahey, Conger, Atkeson  new  and T r i e b e r (1984)  found t h a t mothers with a h i s t o r y of abuse r e p o r t e d more s t r e s s - r e l a t e d symptoms of d e p r e s s i o n and e m o t i o n a l / p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s than c o n t r o l s .  These r e s e a r c h e r s h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t  22  the mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g  s t r e s s have a lower t h r e s h o l d f o r  c h i l d misbehavior and t h e r e f o r e  respond more  intensely.  There e x i s t popular models o f c h i l d abuse t h a t implicate  s t r e s s as the c a u s a l  maladaptive parent behavior. (Gil,  1970) maintains t h a t  e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l  agent i n the development o f The environmental s t r e s s model  f a c t o r s such as poverty, poor s t r a i n weaken p a r e n t a l  c o n t r o l and p r e c i p i t a t e f a m i l y v i o l e n c e . p r e s e n t s a more r e f i n e d v e r s i o n  Straus  o f t h i s model.  self(1980)  He o u t l i n e s  a s e r i e s o f mediating v a r i a b l e s t h a t are p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the t r a n s i t i o n o f s t r e s s t o v i o l e n c e  (eg. b a r r i e r s t o  a l t e r n a t i v e responses t o c o n f l i c t such as l e a v i n g the situation). implicate  Most o f the t h e o r i e s  o f c h i l d abuse t h a t  environmental f a c t o r s i d e n t i f y s t r e s s as t h e major  c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e i n the p r e c i p i t a t i o n or maintenance of family  violence.  Using a sample o f s i n g l e mothers, Weinraub and her colleagues  (Weinraub & Ansul, 1984; Weinraub & Wolf, 1983)  found t h a t d u r i n g who r e p o r t e d optimally,  behavioral  observation  periods,  more s t r e s s on the SRRS communicated  mothers less  demonstrated l e s s maternal nurturance and tended  t o have c h i l d r e n who were l e s s compliant than mothers who reported  lower l e v e l s o f l i f e event s t r e s s .  Longfellow,  Z e l k o w i t z and Saunders (1983) explored the mother - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a sample of mothers who r e p o r t e d h i g h o r low l e v e l s of s t r e s s i n t h e i r environment. who r e p o r t e d  h i g h l e v e l s of s t r e s s d e s c r i b e d  either Mothers  environments  23  t h a t were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of s t r e s s o r s t h a t o c c u r r e d a t both a g l o b a l and a d a i l y l e v e l .  However,  the authors d i d not i d e n t i f y or d i s c r i m i n a t e between these l e v e l s of s t r e s s .  Using a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the  T r a n s c u l t u r a l Code f o r the S o c i a l Behavior of C h i l d r e n (Whiting, 1968), these r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h l e v e l s of s t r e s s d i s p l a y e d nonnurturant, nonresponsive  and n e g a t i v e behavior i n t h e i r  with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  interactions  Given t h a t these r e s e a r c h e r s had  access t o d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , i t would have been i n t e r e s t i n g had they noted the d i f f e r e n t i a l versus d a i l y s t r e s s .  impact of g l o b a l  N e v e r t h e l e s s , such s t u d i e s are  v a l u a b l e i n t h a t they suggest t h a t s t r e s s has an impact f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g even w i t h i n normal  on  samples.  A number of t h e o r i e s have been proposed  t o account f o r  the l i n k between s t r e s s and parent behavior i n g e n e r a l . an analogue demonstrated  In  study with normal f a m i l i e s , Zussman (1980) t h a t competing  on parent b e h a v i o r .  c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y had an  impact  S p e c i f i c a l l y , he found t h a t when  p a r e n t s were asked t o a t t e n d to a t a s k and t o monitor  their  c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , they e x h i b i t e d a p a t t e r n of i n e f f e c t i v e "minimal" p a r e n t i n g .  That i s , when s t r e s s e d by  c o g n i t i v e demands, parents withdrew p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r s such as r e s p o n s i v e n e s s , support and s t i m u l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d n e g a t i v e responses such as i n t e r f e r e n c e , c r i t i c i s m punishment.  and  The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s t o a c t u a l  f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s i s obvious.  Wahler and Sansbury  (1988)  24  h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t a mother's c o e r c i v e i n t e r c h a n g e s w i t h her child  ( " f i g u r a l stimulus") and the s t r e s s f u l events i n other  areas of her l i f e skill  ("contextual stimulus") are r e l a t e d t o her  i n describing figure-context patterns  ("surveillance").  That i s , they suggest t h a t mothers  who  experience h i g h f i g u r a l and c o n t e x t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n demonstrate poor s u r v e i l l a n c e m o n i t o r i n g a b i l i t i e s . r e s e a r c h e r s emphasize the importance maternal  behavior.  These  of s e t t i n g events i n  P a t t e r s o n (1986) proposes  t h a t the  c o e r c i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s of d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s are exacerbated  by the experience of e x t r a f a m i l i a l  He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t i n e f f i c i e n t problem s o l v i n g m a i n t a i n t h i s maladaptive  cycle.  Support  p o s t u l a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from a study which maternal  stressors. skills  for this  ( P a t t e r s o n , 1983)  s t r e s s f u l encounters were c o r r e l a t e d  c o e r c i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s between parent and c h i l d . these t h e o r i e s o f f e r s a unique  with  Each of  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of s t r e s s as i t r e l a t e s t o c h i l d It  in  behavior.  i s p o s s i b l e t o see, however, t h a t the u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c i s  consistent across theories.  L i k e Lahey and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  (Lahey e t a l . , 1984), these r e s e a r c h e r s adhere t o the n o t i o n t h a t parent b e h a v i o r must be viewed from a systemic perspective. w i t h the c h i l d  E s s e n t i a l l y , environmental  c o n d i t i o n s compete  f o r a t t e n t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n t e r f e r e with  the a d u l t ' s c a p a c i t y t o parent.  I t i s apparent  that stress  and parent behavior are l i n k e d .  To date, however,  little  a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o an e v a l u a t i o n of the types of  25  s t r e s s , g l o b a l l i f e events versus d a i l y h a s s l e s , t h a t have the g r e a t e s t impact The  on parent  behavior.  s t r e s s - parent p e r c e p t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p There has a l s o been e m p i r i c a l work i n support of the  l i n k between s t r e s s and parent p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior.  In an analogue study, Middlebrook  and  Forehand  (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d the maternal p e r c e p t i o n s of deviance i n c h i l d b e h a v i o r as a f u n c t i o n of s t r e s s .  They d i s c o v e r e d  that i n written vignettes depicting neutral c h i l d  behavior  t h a t occurs under h i g h l y s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s , mothers r a t e the b e h a v i o r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e v i a n t than when the same b e h a v i o r occurs with a backdrop of low  stress.  There i s e m p i r i c a l evidence t o suggest t h a t mothers  who  r e p o r t h i g h l e v e l s of s t r e s s i n t h e i r l i v e s p e r c e i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be more d e v i a n t than non-stressed mothers. example, Webster-Stratton  (1988) found t h a t mothers  r e p o r t e d more n e g a t i v e l i f e  who  s t r e s s on the LES r a t e d t h e i r  c h i l d r e n as more d e v i a n t than l o w - s t r e s s e d mothers. and Greenberg  For  Crnic  (1985) measured the d a i l y h a s s l e s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h p a r e n t i n g and  found t h a t the frequency and  t h i s d a i l y s t r e s s was  i n t e n s i t y of  r e l a t e d t o parent r e p o r t of  i n t e r n a l i z i n g and e x t e r n a l i z i n g d i s o r d e r s on the Behavior C h e c k l i s t  (Achenbach & Edelbrock,  1983).  Child More  n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r s were r e p o r t e d by parents when r a t i n g s of d a i l y h a s s l e s were h i g h . found t h a t mothers who  F i n a l l y , Furey and Forehand  (1982)  were d i s t r e s s e d r e p o r t e d l e s s  s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Such f i n d i n g s  suggest  26  t h a t p a r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r may  be  linked  to  the s t r e s s o c c u r r i n g i n the f a m i l y system. The  Role of Parent  Affect  Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , emphasis has  been p l a c e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s to parent parent  p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior.  t r i p a r t i t e model of assessment L a n g , 1971; parent  with  & Bellack,  and  the  1981;  Mash & T e r d a l , 1 9 8 1 ) , a t h i r d c o m p o n e n t o f  f u n c t i o n i n g , parent  affect,  considered.  T h i s model a d v o c a t e s  s t r e s s e s the  importance  and  behavior  In keeping  (Herson  on  affective  should also multimodal  of sampling  be  assessment  and  behavioral, cognitive  responses.  Of t h e t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p a r e n t i n g  response,  a f f e c t a p p e a r s t o have r e c e i v e d t h e l e a s t e m p i r i c a l attention.  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a few  clinically useful  measures o f a f f e c t have r e c e n t l y been i n t r o d u c e d , instruments  t a p p i n g b e h a v i o r a l and  p a r e n t i n g f a r outnumber t h o s e (Linehan,  c o g n i t i v e dimensions  assessing parental  P a u l & Egan, 1983).  t h i s dimension  through  t h e use  Ruble,  manipulation  Grusec & Nixon,  instance,  & Twentyman, 1985;  LaRose e t a l . ,  i n a study of parent  attribution,  1986)  to  These r e s e a r c h e r s found  Dix, For  Dix et a l .  (1986) m e a s u r e d p a r e n t s ' a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o misconduct.  s t u d i e s tap  a r o u s a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some  (Bauer  1986;  Typically,  primarily  of simple s c a l e s designed  r e f l e c t the degree of emotional experimental  affect  T h i s domain remains  w i t h i n the realm of e m p i r i c a l study.  of  that parent  child affect  was  27  a s s o c i a t e d with the c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s t h a t the parent made for  the c h i l d b e h a v i o r .  S p e c i f i c a l l y , parents who  perceived  the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r t o be i n t e n t i o n a l and d e l i b e r a t e  also  r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e a f f e c t on t h r e e l i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s designed t o tap t h i s dimension.  I t i s evident that t h i s i s  a growing area but, t o date, r e s e a r c h i n parent b e h a v i o r c o g n i t i o n f a r exceeds the study of parent  and  affect.  A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n t o the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a d e a r t h of r e s e a r c h i n the area of a f f e c t l i e s w i t h i n the realm of c h i l d abuse where the assessment of emotion been c r i t i c a l  (Bauer & Twentyman, 1985;  al.,  W i t h i n t h i s domain, emotional  1983).  G i l , 1974;  has  Wolfe et  a r o u s a l has been  i m p l i c a t e d as a p r e c i p i t a n t of abusive episodes  ( G i l , 1974).  Wolfe and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1983) t e s t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s by measuring the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s of abusive and  non-  abusive mothers t o s t r e s s f u l and n o n - s t r e s s f u l scenes c h i l d behavior.  of  Using measures such as s k i n conductance  response magnitude and h e a r t r a t e , these r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t abusive mothers d i s p l a y e d more emotional  arousal in  response  t o s t r e s s f u l c h i l d behavior scenes than  mothers.  T h i s r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i s t e n t with G i l ' s  non-abusive (1974)  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t abusive mothers experience a heightened emotional  s e n s i t i v i t y to s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s ,  m a g n i f i e s t h e i r r i s k f o r involvement In  sum,  i t i s proposed  which  i n abuse.  t h a t the a f f e c t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l  and c o g n i t i v e domains of p a r e n t i n g should a l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h a t each appears  t o o f f e r a unique  contribution to  28  understanding  parent  functioning.  These dimensions  m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e however, and, a r e b e s t viewed combination  Specifically,  parent-child  i t has been suggested  (cognitive dimension),  t h e y may  that i f parents  negative  which  l i k e l i h o o d o f an i n t e n s e b e h a v i o r a l r e s p o n s e  this of  (Dix & Grusec,  perceive  intentional  experience  a r o u s a l ( a f f e c t i v e dimension)  and  interactions.  t h e i r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r t o be d e v i a n t a n d  dimension)  in  t o o f f e r a p o s s i b l e model f o r t h e c r e a t i o n  maintenance of maladaptive  emotional  are not  increases the (behavioral  1985; LaRose e t a l . ,  1986).  In  s t u d y , dependent measures were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t  t h e components o f t h i s  each  pathway.  Rationale In  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  there exists considerable  c o r r e l a t i o n a l data t o suggest  t h a t depressed  mood and  s t r e s s are r e l a t e d t o parent perceptions of c h i l d  behavior,  emotional  r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s b e h a v i o r , and b e h a v i o r a l  responses  to the behavior.  Through t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  manipulation of the stress variable, attempted causal  the present  study  t o t e s t one p o s s i b l e p a t h w a y o f i n f l u e n c e ;  impact  cognitions.  life  o f s t r e s s on p a r e n t a f f e c t ,  behavior  the  and  F u r t h e r , p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o  s p e c i f y t h e t y p e o f s t r e s s t h a t i s most l i k e l y role i n parenting.  to play a  The' p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a d d r e s s e d  this  q u e s t i o n by i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h r e e l e v e l s o f s t r e s s i n t o t h e design  (i.e.,  global  life  e v e n t s , d a i l y h a s s l e s , a n d no  29  stress).  Each o f these s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s was e v a l u a t e d i n  r e l a t i o n t o the three parenting u t i l i z e d as a between s u b j e c t s t h i s study.  domains.  Depressed mood was  classification variable i n  That i s , mothers were d i v i d e d i n groups o f  r e l a t i v e l y high and r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s o f depressed mood. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allowed f o r the examination of t h e e f f e c t s o f maternal depressed mood on t h e t h r e e parenting  response.  condition,  domains o f  In a d d i t i o n , i n t h e no s t r e s s  i t was p o s s i b l e t o compare the r e l a t i o n s h i p found  between depressed mood and the p a r e n t i n g  v a r i a b l e s with the  c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s .  F i n a l l y , the  d e s i g n a l s o allowed f o r the d e t e c t i o n o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between maternal l i f e  s t r e s s and  depressed mood.  Hypotheses On the b a s i s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s the  f o l l o w i n g p r e d i c t i o n s were made f o r the present study: 1) Mothers would p e r c e i v e deviant  the c h i l d behavior t o be more  and i n t e n t i o n a l , would r e p o r t g r e a t e r  arousal,  and more intense  behavioral  emotional  r e a c t i o n s when t h e  c h i l d b e h a v i o r was presented i n t h e context o f major events or d a i l y h a s s l e s condition.  Further,  than i n the no s t r e s s c o n t r o l  because d a i l y h a s s l e s  events, i t was p o s t u l a t e d a l l three  life  a r e more proximal  t h a t mothers would score  h i g h e r on  s c a l e s f o l l o w i n g the d a i l y h a s s l e s v i g n e t t e s  f o l l o w i n g g l o b a l l i f e event  vignettes.  than  30  2) A c r o s s s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s ,  mothers f a l l i n g i n t o the  low  (depressed) mood category would demonstrate h i g h e r s c o r e s a l l t h r e e p a r e n t i n g measures ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e , cognitive)  than would mothers i n the h i g h  on  behavioral,  (non-depressed)  mood category. 3) S p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s ,  or  d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s a c r o s s the t h r e e dependent measures were not made.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r sample A sample of s i n g l e mothers p a r t i c i p a t e d Canadian census t r a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t  from 1971  number of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d 714,000.  This  i s an  increase  i n t h i s study.  of over 50%.  t o 1981  the  from 480,000 to Female-headed  f a m i l i e s made up the bulk of these s i n g l e parent  families  (590,000 were females, 124,000 were males) (Davids,  1986).  In g e n e r a l , s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s u t i l i z e s o c i a l  services  more than t r a d i t i o n a l two  1976).  The  problems faced  by  parent f a m i l i e s  lone parents appear compounded when  t h a t parent i s female.  This  t o economic r e a l i t i e s .  The  father  (Ferri,  i n Canada i n 1981  was  i s l i k e l y to be p r i m a r i l y average s a l a r y of a $23,000.  For  a r e c e n t U.S.  study  (Garfinkel  single  females,  average hovers around $14,000 (Davids, 1986).  due  the  According  & McLanahan, 1986), about  h a l f of the  s i n g l e mothers i n t h a t country are dependent  w e l f a r e and  use  services.  a disproportionate  Brown and  Harris  to  share of mental  (1978) i n d i c a t e t h a t  on  health  l a c k of  an  31  i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p with a husband and having c h i l d r e n under 14 l i v i n g a t home a c t as r i s k f a c t o r s f o r maternal depression.  In s h o r t , t h i s p o p u l a t i o n appears t o e x p e r i e n c e  a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of environmental s t r e s s o r s and+ mental h e a l t h problems & Teasdale,  (Brown & H a r r i s ,  1978;  Campbell,  Cope  1983).  F u r t h e r , the c h i l d r e n who f a m i l i e s may  are r a i s e d i n s i n g l e parent  a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a t r i s k f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l  difficulties.  Researchers suggest t h a t youngsters from  s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who  have  experienced t h e i r p a r e n t s ' d i v o r c e , e x h i b i t more noncompliance,  a g g r e s s i o n , and maladaptive b e h a v i o r a t both  home and s c h o o l than c h i l d r e n from i n t a c t f a m i l i e s , a t l e a s t w i t h i n two years of the d i v o r c e Cowen, 1981; Cox  & Cox,  1977;  F e l n e r , S t o l b e r g & Cowen, 1975; H e t h e r i n g t o n ,  1978;  Hodges, Buchsbaum & T i e r n e y , 1983;  McDermott, 1970;  Regan, 1966).  (Felner, G i n t e r , Boike &  Schoette & C a n t w e l l , 1980;  I t i s apparent t h a t c h i l d r e n from  Kalter,  Tuckman & single  parent f a m i l i e s are l i k e l y t o come i n t o c o n t a c t with mental health professionals.  Given t h a t s i n g l e mothers are  v u l n e r a b l e t o both d e p r e s s i o n and s t r e s s , and t h a t c h i l d r e n are l i k e l y t o pose b e h a v i o r problems,  their  the use of a  sample of s i n g l e mothers i n c r e a s e s the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of t h i s study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among maternal depressed mood, l i f e  s t r e s s and c h i l d behavior d i s o r d e r s .  32  Method  Subjects P a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n e d o f t h e study through i n f o r m a t i o n sheets posted  i n p u b l i c p l a c e s throughout the Lower  Mainland  (e.g., community c e n t e r s , laundromats, women c e n t e r s , h e a l t h centers, l i b r a r i e s , boards).  day care f a c i l i t i e s and campus b u l l e t i n  In a d d i t i o n , a w r i t t e n n o t i c e appeared i n t h e  "Parent A d v i s o r y " column of a l o c a l newspaper and i n a monthly n e w s l e t t e r f o r the B i g Brothers o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n t e r e s t e d s i n g l e mothers were asked t o c o n t a c t t h e P a r e n t i n g Lab i n the Psychology  Department a t The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia t o r e c e i v e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the study.  C a l l e r s were p r o v i d e d with a r a t i o n a l e and overview  of t h e study. the i n i t i a l study.  B a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n gathered  telephone  c o n t a c t determined e l i g i b i l i t y  during f o r the  The mothers were r e q u i r e d t o be s i n g l e parents  over  18 years o f age and t o have a t l e a s t one elementary s c h o o l aged c h i l d  i n the home ( i . e . ,  with l i v e - i n p a r t n e r s  5 - 12 years o l d ) .  Mothers  (or r e l a t i v e s ) with whom they have  shared p a r e n t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r more than were not asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study. e x c l u s i o n a r y c r i t e r i a was designed  6 months  This  t o r e s t r i c t t h e sample t o  f u n c t i o n a l l y s i n g l e mothers. A t o t a l o f 66 s i n g l e mothers r e t u r n e d questionnaires.  completed  T h i s i s an 81% r a t e o f r e t u r n .  Sample  33  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e r i v e d from the General  Information  Sheet and a summary of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n may found  i n Table 1.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the  low average socioeconomic  status.  be  relatively  T h i s score t r a n s l a t e s to  l e v e l 4 of 5 on the H o l l i n g s h e a d Index of S o c i a l  Status  ( H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1975), where a score of 1 r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h social status.  A l s o note t h a t mean s c o r e s on the Conners'  Parent R a t i n g S c a l e expressed  (Goyette, Conners & U l r i c h ,  as standard scores and  1978)  are  i n d i c a t e t h a t the mothers  i n t h i s sample p e r c e i v e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be more p r o b l e m a t i c than average i n t h a t mean s c o r e s approximately  fell  one h a l f of a standard d e v i a t i o n above the  normative mean on a l l f i v e of the s c a l e s on t h i s Finally,  i t i s important  to r e c o g n i z e t h a t these mothers  r e p o r t h i g h l e v e l s of s t r e s s over the past year of 4.64  instrument.  on a s c a l e from 0 t o 6).  ( i . e . , mean  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t h i s sample are c o n s i s t e n t with d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t s of s i n g l e mothers i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (Davids, 1986;  Tuckman &  Regan, 1966). Mothers were assigned to groups on the b a s i s of r e p o r t e d mood ( i . e . , depressed  self-  mood, nondepressed mood).  a n a l y s i s of power u s i n g t a b l e s i n Cohen (1977),  An  indicated  t h a t , assuming a medium e f f e c t s i z e between groups (depressed/nondepressed),  47 s u b j e c t s per c e l l would be  r e q u i r e d t o d e t e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 2/3 if  one  existed.  unreasonable  of the  However, a t o t a l of 94 s u b j e c t s was  time  seen as  g i v e n the f i n a n c i a l and time c o n s t r a i n t s of  34  Table 1 D e s c r i p t i v e Information f o r the T o t a l Sample (n=66)  Variable  Mean (SD)  35. 56 ' 6.37)  Maternal age  30.36  '16.96)  Number o f c h i l d r e n  1.85  ; 1.03)  Age o f t a r g e t  8 . 06 ' 2.35)  Socioeconomic  status  child  Number years s i n g l e parent  6 .26 { 3.81)  BDI  9. 18 ( 8.04) 33 . 89 (10.61)  CES-D S t r e s s - p a s t year  4 . 64 ( 1.29)  S t r e s s - p a s t month  3.73  S t r e s s - p a s t day  2.21 { 1.78)  ( 1.58)  CPRS conduct  problems  l e a r n i n g problems somatic problems  . 77 [ 1.54) . 94 ( 1.82) 1. 01 ( 2.15)  i n a t t e n t i o n problems  .35 ( 1.09)  a n x i e t y problems  . 52 ( 1-48)  35  Table 1 D e s c r i p t i v e Information  (Continued)  Variable  Marital  Percent  status  never married  28.80  separated  19.70  widowed  1.50  divorced  50.00  married Sex o f t a r g e t  0.00 child  male  65.20  female  34.80  Sought Psych  services - self  Sought Psych s e r v i c e s - c h i l d  63.60 27.30  36  t h i s study.  I n s t e a d , power was  i n c r e a s e d by m a x i m i z i n g  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e g r o u p s so as t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i z e on t h e b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s d i m e n s i o n . median s p l i t  procedure,  the  effect  In c o n t r a s t to a  groups were d i s t i n g u i s h e d  i n c l u d i n g i n the formal data a n a l y s i s only those  by who  p r o v i d e d e x t r e m e s c o r e s on a s t a n d a r d mood i n v e n t o r y . is, of  o n l y m o t h e r s w i t h s c o r e s i n t h e u p p e r and t h e 66 p e r s o n  sample were c o n s i d e r e d  lower  (n=22).  investigation,  Middlebrook  significant  and  Forehand  (1986) f o u n d  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s u s i n g 10 m o t h e r s o f r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n and  10 m o t h e r s o f n o n c l i n i c  Given t h a t t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s found  thirds  In a  w i t h a s i m i l a r design t o the proposed  That  study  clinicchildren.  an n o f 10 t o  be  s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s across conditions, confidence be p l a c e d i n t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t  w i t h an n o f  may  22.  Procedure If  the information gathered  i n the i n i t i a l  telephone  c o n t a c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m o t h e r was  eligible  study,  a brief description  she was  g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s and  e a c h o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o be c o m p l e t e d . i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y had to  p a c k a g e was  t a k e n t o be  time.  The  of  M o t h e r s were  the r i g h t to refuse t o p a r t i c i p a t e  w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e s t u d y a t any  completed  f o r the  or  r e c e i p t of a  i n d i c a t i v e of consent  for  participation. The  e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e package took a p p r o x i m a t e l y  minutes t o complete.  M o t h e r s were asked  to set aside  one  45  37  hour f o r t h e t a s k .  In order t o minimize t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  u n c o n t r o l l e d environmental s t r e s s d u r i n g t h e t a s k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l l mothers were asked t o f i l l  out t h e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d u r i n g a q u i e t time a t home (e.g., a f t e r the c h i l d ( r e n ) ' s bedtime).  In a d d i t i o n , b a s e l i n e s t r e s s  levels  were a t t a i n e d by having mothers i n d i c a t e t h e degree o f s t r e s s experienced over the p a s t year, month and day. F o l l o w i n g t a s k completion they were asked t o note any events t h a t arose and t o r e c o r d the l e v e l o f s t r e s s t h a t these events evoked.  Mothers were asked t o r e t u r n  completed  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n an unmarked envelope so t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y c o u l d be maintained. was  T h i s unmarked  envelope  e n c l o s e d i n an envelope t h a t i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t ' s name  and address.  The names and addresses were kept s e p a r a t e  from t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and were used t o m a i l a w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n o f the study, a thank-you payment o f f i v e d o l l a r s t o each  note, and  participant.  Materials The q u e s t i o n n a i r e package. package c o n t a i n i n g :  an e x p l a n a t o r y cover l e t t e r  A), a General Information Sheet Depression Inventory  Each mother r e c e i v e d a  (Appendix  (Appendix  Index  B), t h e Beck  C), The Center f o r  E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s - Depression s c a l e Conners'  (Appendix  (Appendix  D), a  Parent R a t i n g S c a l e (Appendix E ) , t h e L i f e S t r e s s  (Appendix  reaction section  F ) , I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r completing t h e mother (Appendix G), the 12 v i g n e t t e s ( g l o b a l  life  38  event c o n t e x t - Appendix H, d a i l y h a s s l e s context - Appendix I, no s t r e s s context - Appendix J ) , each f o l l o w e d by t h e mother r e a c t i o n s c a l e s (Appendix M a n i p u l a t i o n Check (Appendix (Appendix  M).  checks  i n c l u d i n g t h e measures o f  P a r t i c i p a n t s then read each c h i l d  v i g n e t t e , presented completed  L ) , and t h e Recent S t r e s s Index  Mothers were asked t o f i r s t complete t h e  background i n f o r m a t i o n forms, depression.  K) and a S t r e s s  behavior  i n a random order a c r o s s s u b j e c t s , and  the dependent measures and s t r e s s  f o r each v i g n e t t e .  manipulation  The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the dependent  v a r i a b l e s was counterbalanced  a c r o s s mothers t o c o n t r o l f o r  p o s s i b l e order e f f e c t s .  The demographic i n f o r m a t i o n .  On the General  Information Sheet, mothers were asked t o i n d i c a t e : age,  o c c u p a t i o n , education, m a r i t a l h i s t o r y  their  (single,  separated, widowed, d i v o r c e d ) , number o f c h i l d r e n , age(s) of child(ren),  sex o f t a r g e t c h i l d , t h e number o f years as a  s i n g l e parent and, whether o r not they have sought  help f o r  c h i l d o r maternal  B).  p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems (Appendix  This  data was used t o d e s c r i b e t h e sample and t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s t h a t c o v a r i e d with mood.  The measures of depressed mood.  In keeping with the  l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e area, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck e t a l . , 1961) was u t i l i z e d t o a s s i g n mothers t o mood groups  (Appendix  C).  T h i s 21-item  instrument has been used  39  to  assess t h e s e v e r i t y o f depressed mood i n both  clinical  and n o n c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s (Hollon & K e n d a l l , 1980; Krantz & Hammen, 1979; O l i v e r & Burkham, 1979).  Respondents a r e  asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e degree t o which they e x p e r i e n c e each of  t h e symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n .  The instrument i s s c o r e d by  adding t h e responses g i v e n a c r o s s items.  Higher s c o r e s  correspond t o g r e a t e r s e v e r i t y o f depressed mood. has demonstrated  good r e l i a b i l i t y  Fischer,  In terms o f r e l i a b i l i t y ,  1987).  and v a l i d i t y  (Corcoran &  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i s has good i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y half r e l i a b i l i t i e s 1961;  range from  (split-  .53 t o .93) (Beck e t a l . ,  Weckowitz, Muir & Cropely, 1967) and good t e s t - r e t e s t  reliability  (.78 i n a n o n - c l i n i c a l sample over one week)  ( O l i v e r & Burkham, 1979). demonstrated  Concurrent v a l i d i t y has a l s o been  i n t h a t t h i s instrument c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y with  b e h a v i o r a l measures o f d e p r e s s i o n ( W i l l i a m s , Barlow 1972)  The BDI  and with c l i n i c a l  judgement  (Beck e t a l . ,  & Argas,  1961).  In  p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the BDI s c o r e s f o r mothers o f c l i n i c r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n have ranged Forehand, In  from 7 t o 13.5 (Brody &  1986; G r i e s t e t a l . ,  1979; G r i e s t e t a l . ,  1980).  many s t u d i e s o f maternal mood, the BDI has been the  s o l e instrument used t o assess depressed mood (eg., G r i e s t et  al.,  1979; G r i e s t e t a l . ,  Hammen, 1988). developed  1980; W e b s t e r - S t r a t t o n &  However, s i n c e t h i s measure was p r i m a r i l y  f o r use with c l i n i c a l l y - d e p r e s s e d p o p u l a t i o n s , a  second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e Center f o r E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s - Depression s c a l e  (CES-D; R a d l o f f , 1977) was a l s o  completed  40  by mothers (Appendix D). i s designed  The CES-D i s a 20-item s c a l e t h a t  t o measure the a f f e c t i v e component of d e p r e s s i o n  w i t h i n a normal p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s instrument  has a good  e m p i r i c a l base and i s easy t o a d m i n i s t e r and score & F i s c h e r , 1987).  S p l i t - h a l f and Spearman-Brown  reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .77 t o .92 i n d i c a t i n g good consistency  ( R a d l o f f , 1977).  (Corcoran  internal  T e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s up t o  e i g h t weeks are moderate (.57)  ( R a d l o f f , 1977).  The CES-D  c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y with other d e p r e s s i o n and mood scales  ( C r a i g & Van Natta,  discriminant v a l i d i t y  ( R a d l o f f , 1977; Weissman, Kleber,  Ruben, W i l l i a m s & Thompson, psychometric  1976) and d i s p l a y s h i g h  1977).  Given  i t s solid  p r o p e r t i e s and s e n s i t i v i t y w i t h i n the g e n e r a l  p o p u l a t i o n , the CES-D was used t o supplement the BDI i n the assessment of depressed mood.  The  c h i l d behavior  information.  Mothers completed a  s t a n d a r d i z e d c h i l d r a t i n g s c a l e , the Conners Parent Scale  Rating  (Goyette e t a l . , 1978) t o assess p e r c e p t i o n s of  behavior problems such as h y p e r a c t i v i t y , a n x i e t y , l e a r n i n g problems, somatic problems and conduct d i s o r d e r . Respondents were asked  t o i n d i c a t e , on the 4-point s c a l e  p r o v i d e d , the degree t o which t h e i r c h i l d e x h i b i t s each of the symptoms  listed  (Appendix E ) .  The data gathered  in this  manner p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about each mother's p e r c e p t i o n of her own  child.  41  The  i n d i c e s of s t r e s s .  P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o  i n d i c a t e t h e average l e v e l of s t r e s s they had  experienced  w i t h i n t h e past year, month and day (Appendix F ) . a f t e r completing  the task, s u b j e c t s r a t e d , on a 7-point  s c a l e , t h e l e v e l of s t r e s s provoked by any events d u r i n g completion  that  of the package of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  M) .  arose  (Appendix  *  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior.  Twelve  d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior were presented w r i t t e n form. and  Also,  Forehand  to subjects i n  In a study with a s i m i l a r design,  Middlebrook  (1986) found t h a t u s i n g c h i l d b e h a v i o r s  were e i t h e r b l a t a n t l y d e v i a n t or b l a t a n t l y  appropriate  produced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n maternal across s t r e s s conditions.  that  perceptions  However, when the c h i l d  behaviors  were ambiguous; t h a t i s , not c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e , maternal s t r e s s manipulation.  p e r c e p t i o n s were a f f e c t e d by the  Therefore,  i n t h i s study,  only  ambiguous d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior were used as stimuli. Middlebrook and Forehand d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h i l d behavior  (1986) u t i l i z e d two ambiguous t h a t were r e p e a t e d l y p a i r e d  with c o n t e x t s of v a r y i n g s t r e s s l e v e l s . increases internal v a l i d i t y  T h i s method  i n t h a t confounds are u n l i k e l y  t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s t i m u l i because i d e n t i c a l are u t i l i z e d across the s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s .  scenes  However,  e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y may s u f f e r because g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s  42  l i m i t e d and the r e l i a b i l i t y o f responses may be d i m i n i s h e d by t h e r e p e t i t i v e nature o f the s t i m u l i .  In response t o  these l a t t e r concerns, t h e p r e s e n t study u t i l i z e d  different,  but e q u i v a l e n t , scenes of c h i l d b e h a v i o r a c r o s s t h e s t r e s s conditions. T h i s e q u i v a l e n c e was achieved u s i n g a p i l o t study (Appendix N).  The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r were  d e r i v e d from m a t e r i a l s u t i l i z e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s who focus on p a r e n t i n g  (e.g., Dix & Grusec, 1985; Gordon, Jones  & Nowicki, 1979; Grusec, Dix & M i l l s ,  1982).  Thirty  female  undergraduates were asked t o read 2 0 c h i l d b e h a v i o r d e s c r i p t i o n s and t o r a t e the degree of ambiguity and s t r e s s i m p l i e d i n each of them.  Specifically,  i n d i c a t e on L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s ,  they were asked t o  "How s t r e s s f u l you found the  c h i l d b e h a v i o r t o be", "How much you t h i n k the c h i l d a c t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y t o annoy h i s mother", "How sure you a r e about this rating"  ( i . e . , ambiguity) and "How much of a problem  you t h i n k t h i s c h i l d behavior i s " .  Based on these r a t i n g s ,  the 12 d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t were r a t e d as being most equivalent,  i n terms of ambiguity and s t r e s s , were chosen  f o r t h e study.  The mean s t r e s s s c o r e a c r o s s v i g n e t t e s  chosen, on a s c a l e from 0 (none) t o 6 ( l o t s ) , was 2.19. Mean s c o r e s ranged from 2.03 t o 3.86.  The mean ambiguity  score a c r o s s v i g n e t t e s chosen on a s c a l e from 0 (very sure) t o 6 (not sure) was 2.20. 2. 66.  Mean s c o r e s ranged from 1.86 t o  43  The  s t r e s s contexts.  S t r e s s was the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t  v a r i a b l e manipulated i n the present study.  Three l e v e l s o f  s t r e s s were c o n s i d e r e d :  (GLE), d a i l y  hassles  g l o b a l l i f e events  (DH) and no s t r e s s  (NO) c o n t e x t s .  Each d e s c r i p t i o n  of ambiguous c h i l d behavior was randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of these s t r e s s l e v e l s , c r e a t i n g stress level.  12 v i g n e t t e s ,  four o f each  S u b j e c t s were asked t o imagine themselves i n  the p o s i t i o n o f t h e mother i n each o f these v i g n e t t e s complete t h e r a t i n g s from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e .  Each  p a r t i c i p a n t was presented with four v i g n e t t e s condition  (i.e.,  (GLE/DH/NO) f o r a t o t a l of 12 v i g n e t t e s ) .  In the GLE v i g n e t t e s ,  the ambiguous c h i l d  behavior  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f major s t r e s s o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d the  s t o r y mother over t h e past year for  i n each  four c h i l d behavior scenes i n each o f t h r e e  stress conditions  followed  and t o  (Appendix H).  To c o n t r o l  t h e presence o f d a i l y events, a statement i n d i c a t i n g the  absence o f d a i l y s t r e s s accompanied t h e GLE v i g n e t t e s . order t o c r e a t e  t h e impression of great  life  In  s t r e s s , the  s t o r y mother endured f i v e g l o b a l l i f e events of moderate s e v e r i t y over t h e past year. thinking that  i n t h i s area  implied  vignettes. were d e r i v e d  (Vinokur & S e l z e r ,  1975), only  a n e g a t i v e change were i n c l u d e d  events  i n the  The g l o b a l l i f e s t r e s s o r s used i n t h i s study from the LES (Sarason e t a l . , 1978) and were  equated with r e s p e c t procedure.  In keeping with contemporary  First,  t o i n t e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g  the LES forms o f 30 mothers of c l i n i c -  r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n were reviewed and t h e most  frequently  44  endorsed items were i d e n t i f i e d . received  n e g a t i v e and approximately e q u i v a l e n t  r a t i n g s were s e l e c t e d . GLE  Of these, 20 items t h a t  By combining f i v e of these items, a  n a r r a t i v e was formed.  were c r e a t e d  stress  A s e r i e s o f 12 GLE d e s c r i p t i o n s  i n t h i s manner.  Then, as a p a r t o f the  aforementioned p i l o t study, undergraduate female students r a t e d these 12 b r i e f n a r r a t i v e s and  negativity.  global The  life  i n terms o f s t r e s s f u l n e s s  Of these 12, the four most  equivalent  event d e s c r i p t i o n s were chosen f o r the study.  mean s t r e s s r a t i n g a c r o s s the v i g n e t t e s  chosen, on a  s c a l e from 0 (no s t r e s s ) t o 6 (a l o t o f s t r e s s ) , was 4.40. Mean s c o r e s ranged from 4.24 t o 4.66.  Mean n e g a t i v i t y  s c o r e s ranged from 4.24 t o 5.00, on a s c a l e from 0 p o s i t i v e ) t o 6 (very n e g a t i v e ) , score o f 4.52.  By using  (very  and produced an average  the i n f o r m a t i o n  c o l l e c t e d i n the  p i l o t study i n t h i s way, i t was p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t GLE narratives  t h a t were approximately  In the DH c o n d i t i o n ,  equivalent.  the c h i l d ' s behavior was d e t a i l e d  f o l l o w i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of a s e r i e s of d a i l y h a s s l e s the  s t o r y mother i n c u r r e d  (Appendix I ) .  that  over the course of the day  To c o n t r o l f o r the presence o f g l o b a l  events, a statement i n d i c a t i n g the l a c k o f n e g a t i v e  life global  l i f e events over the past year accompanied the d a i l y  hassles  descriptions.  from  the  The d a i l y h a s s l e s  revised version  & Lazarus, 1988).  chosen were d e r i v e d  of The Hassles Scale  (DeLongis, Folkman  In an attempt t o q u a n t i f y  d a i l y s t r e s s , the mothers d e p i c t e d  a h i g h l e v e l of  experienced f i v e  hassles,  45  of moderate s e v e r i t y , on the day being d e s c r i b e d .  Again,  the degree o f s t r e s s evoked by these scenes, and t h e n e g a t i v i t y inherent  i n them, was assessed and equated with  the h e l p o f undergraduate p i l o t data.  The mean s t r e s s  r a t i n g f o r t h e v i g n e t t e s chosen, on a s c a l e from 0 (no s t r e s s ) t o 6 (a l o t o f s t r e s s ) , was 3.52, with a range o f 3.03  t o 3.76.  The mean n e g a t i v i t y score  f o r the v i g n e t t e s  chosen, on a s c a l e from 0 (very p o s i t i v e ) t o 6 (very negative),  was 3.74, with a range of 3.48 t o 4.03.  noteworthy t h a t ,  i n general,  It is  these undergraduate females  r a t e d t h e d a i l y h a s s l e s as somewhat l e s s s t r e s s f u l and l e s s negative  than the g l o b a l l i f e events  described.  In t h e No S t r e s s c o n d i t i o n , the c h i l d behavior was accompanied by two statements; one i n d i c a t i n g t h e absence of s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l l i f e events and one d e s c r i b i n g freedom from d a i l y  The  hassles.  dependent measures.  model o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  According  t o the t r i p a r t i t e  functioning, there are three  aspects  of responding t h a t may be assessed: a f f e c t , behavior and cognition  (Hersen & B e l l a c k , 1981).  maternal a f f e c t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l  In the present  study,  and c o g n i t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o  the c h i l d b e h a v i o r d e p i c t e d were q u a n t i f i e d through t h e use of s i x L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s response).  ( i . e . , two per domain o f  The p r e s e n t a t i o n  a c r o s s mothers and followed  o f these was counterbalanced each o f the 12 v i g n e t t e s .  46  The two q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a f f e c t i v e response were designed t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about maternal  emotional  r e a c t i o n s t o the c h i l d behavior scenes i n each o f t h e t h r e e stress conditions.  F i r s t , mothers were asked t o i n d i c a t e  the i n t e n s i t y o f emotional upset they would f e e l t o the c h i l d behavior d e p i c t e d .  i n response  The anchor p o i n t s on t h i s  s c a l e were "not u p s e t t i n g " t o "very u p s e t t i n g . "  Second,  mothers were t o estimate the d u r a t i o n of the upset "not a f f e c t e d " t o "very a f f e c t e d " ) .  (from  These two s c a l e s were  s i m i l a r t o those used when e v a l u a t i n g the emotional r e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with ambiguous c h i l d b e h a v i o r i n s t u d i e s of both normal and abusive parents 1985;  LaRose e t a l . ,  (Dix & Grusec,  1986).  The two q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g b e h a v i o r a l response were designed t o measure the a n t i c i p a t e d maternal i n s t r u m e n t a l r e a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the c h i l d behavior.  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n  assessed the degree t o which mothers were i n s p i r e d t o a c t i n response t o the c h i l d behavior.  Anchor p o i n t s read  " u n l i k e l y t o d i s c i p l i n e " and "very l i k e l y t o respond."  The  second q u e s t i o n was designed t o tap the i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s anticipated reaction.  Mothers were asked t o i n d i c a t e the  s t r e n g t h of t h e i r r e a c t i o n response").  (from "no response" t o " i n t e n s e  T h i s l a t t e r dimension  has been deemed r e l e v a n t  by a number of r e s e a r c h e r s (Bauer & Twentyman, Jones  & Nowicki,  1979).  1985; Gordon,  A t h i r d component, designed t o  y i e l d q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n only, was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the b e h a v i o r a l measure.  Mothers were asked t o choose,  from a  47  l i s t o f s i x b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t i n g responses, the item t h a t would most c l o s e l y matched t h e i r immediate c h i l d behavior depicted.  response t o the  I f none of the c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d  were a p p l i c a b l e , mothers were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e s c r i b e another response.  Only one response was p e r m i t t e d  f o r each v i g n e t t e . Maternal p e r c e p t i o n of c h i l d b e h a v i o r was  the c o n s t r u c t  used t o r e p r e s e n t the c o g n i t i v e dimension of p a r e n t a l response.  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n , d e r i v e d from the study by  Middlebrook and Forehand  (1986), assessed the degree t o  which the c h i l d behavior was  seen as d e v i a n t .  read "not a problem" and "a b i g problem." Forehand  Anchor  points  Middlebrook  (1986) showed t h a t t h i s dimension was  and  s e n s i t i v e to  changes i n the i n t e n s i t y of environmental s t r e s s .  That i s ,  mothers r a t e d the c h i l d r e n as more d e v i a n t i n h i g h s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s as opposed  to nonstressful contexts.  The  second  q u e s t i o n measured the degree t o which mothers b e l i e v e d the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r was  deliberate.  that  T h i s s c a l e tapped the  a t t r i b u t i o n s made by mothers i n response t o c h i l d b e h a v i o r in stress/no stress conditions.  The s c a l e was  anchored  the statements "not on purpose" and "very much on  by  purpose."  S i m i l a r measures have been used i n s t u d i e s of p a r e n t i n g by Dix and Grusec  (1983), Bauer and Twentyman (1985) and  Larrance and Twentyman  (1983).  The s t r e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n check.  A f t e r each v i g n e t t e ,  mothers answered t h r e e q u e s t i o n s about the n a r r a t i v e t h a t  48  they j u s t read. of s u b j e c t i v e rating scale.  First,  t h e y were a s k e d t o r e c o r d  stress associated This  with  the level  t h e s c e n e on a 7 - p o i n t  r a t i n g measured whether t h e v i g n e t t e s  t h a t w e r e i n t e n d e d t o be s t r e s s f u l a c t u a l l y e x e r t e d i n f l u e n c e on m o t h e r s a n d w h e t h e r No S t r e s s perceived  as n o n - s t r e s s f u l .  indicate,  on t h e 7 - p o i n t s c a l e p r o v i d e d ,  the  the  proximity  dimension.  functioning considered  This  t h e degree t o which  question  i f they  was d e s i g n e d t o t a p  That i s , events p e r c e i v e d  t h a n more d i s t a l successful  were  Second, mothers were asked t o  more p r o x i m a l s h o u l d h a v e a g r e a t e r  be  conditions  events would a f f e c t t h e i r d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g  happened " i n r e a l l i f e . "  this  events.  t o be  i m p a c t on d a i l y The m a n i p u l a t i o n  i f r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e DH  would  scenes  t o have a g r e a t e r  i m p a c t on d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g t h a n t h e GLE  events.  p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d t o r a t e , on a 7-  point K) .  Finally,  scale, the realism  of the events described  (Appendix  49  Results  Preliminary  Analyses  As an i n i t i a l  step  i n data a n a l y s i s , a s e r i e s o f  c a l c u l a t i o n s were performed t o produce summary  scores.  Because two q u e s t i o n s were used t o assess maternal i n each o f t h r e e cognitive),  areas  reactions  ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l and  i t was decided t h a t i f s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between responses w i t h i n each domain, then t h e two scores would be c o l l a p s e d  i n further  analyses.  Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the two q u e s t i o n s  within  each domain produced responses t h a t were p o s i t i v e l y and significantly correlated .853,  p <.05 ; b e h a v i o r a l  ( i . e . , a f f e c t i v e responses r = responses r = .662, p_ <.05;  c o g n i t i v e responses r = .756, p_ <.05) and the scores domains were summed f o r f u r t h e r Summary scores stress conditions. four vignettes  within  analyses.  were a l s o produced w i t h i n each of the Since p i l o t data had i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  w i t h i n each c o n d i t i o n were comparable i n  terms of s t r e s s , negativeness and r e a l i s m ; responses were summed across  t h e four v i g n e t t e s  i n each s t r e s s  condition.  Main A n a l y s e s Mothers were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups based on scores on t h e BDI.  A three-way s p l i t o f these scores  lower t h i r d c o n s i s t i n g of 22 scores  yielded a  of f i v e and under  50  (nondepressed mood (NM)) s c o r e s of 11 and  over  and  an upper t h i r d c o n s i s t i n g of  (depressed mood (DM)).  Only  responses of these 44 mothers were used i n the  22  the  primary  analyses. A two-way repeated measures M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s Variance NO)  was  (MANOVA) was  conducted.  the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t  (NM,DM) was  Stress context  Of  (GLE,  DH,  independent v a r i a b l e , mood  the between-subjects grouping f a c t o r and  the  dependent v a r i a b l e s were maternal summary s c o r e s f o r affective  (Aff), behavioral  responses to the  (Beh)  and  cognitive  c h i l d behavior v i g n e t t e s .  i n d i c a t e d more a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l , p e r c e p t i o n s of the  intense  (Cog)  Higher s c o r e s response  c h i l d behavior as d e v i a n t .  and  The  cell  means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table 2. s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r s t r e s s context p<.001), but revealed  not mood group  (F(6,37) = 14.05,  (F(3,40) = 2.04,  through t h i s a n a l y s i s .  There was  interaction in this analysis.  Univariate  p>.10), no  (Aff F(2,84) = 40.32, p_<.001; Beh  p_<.001; Cog  F(2,84) = 18.60, p_<.001).  the Tukey method and  two  ( i . e . , GLE  stress conditions  s c o r e s than the  and  DH)  dependent  F(2,84) = 19.07,  Further,  comparisons  revealed  elicited  no s t r e s s c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n  a l l t h r e e dependent measures.  s t r e s s by mood  Multiple  were c a l c u l a t e d using  the  that  DH  the  higher  ( i . e . , NO)  on  condition  produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r scores than the GLE a c r o s s a l l measures.  was  t e s t s showed  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r s t r e s s on each of the variables  A  condition  For the mothers i n t h i s sample, i t  51  Table 2 C e l l Means f o r MANOVA ( g r o u p s f o r m e d u s i n g BDI s c o r e s )  Stress Group  DH  Context GLE  NO  D e p r e s s e d Mood Affective  22.82  (2.22)  19.41  (1.65)  13.50  (1.69)  Behavioral  22.55  (1.74)  18.59  (1.91)  16.32  (1.92)  Cognitive  18.32  (2.17)  15.14  (2.12)  13.50  (2.09)  Affective  17.41  (1.55)  15.09  (1.74)  8.77  (1.06)  Behavioral  19.86  (1.74)  18.05  (1.63)  13.00  (1.46)  Cognitive  14.86  (1.64)  12.82  (1.83)  9.04  (1.56)  N o n d e p r e s s e d Mood  52  appears t h a t d a i l y h a s s l e s were more r e l a t e d t o the i n t e n s i t y of response  f o l l o w i n g c h i l d b e h a v i o r than were the  more d i s t a l g l o b a l l i f e events.  That i s , i n the  DH  c o n d i t i o n mothers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were more a f f e c t i v e l y aroused by the c h i l d behavior, t h a t they would respond more s e v e r e l y t o t h i s behavior and t h a t they p e r c e i v e d the b e h a v i o r t o be more d e v i a n t and p u r p o s e f u l than i n the other stress contexts. S i n c e the BDI was clinical  samples,  designed t o be a p p l i e d w i t h i n  the p r e s e n t study a l s o r e l i e d upon an  instrument designed f o r use with community samples, D.  the  In t h i s sample, the c o r r e l a t i o n between CES-D and  s c o r e s was  .74  (p<.05).  As with the BDI,  D were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups.  The  BDI  s c o r e s on the  2 2 mothers  CES-  CES-  who  r e c e i v e d s c o r e s i n the lower t h i r d of the sample, s c o r e s below 28, were i d e n t i f i e d as the nondepressed group and those who  mood  scored i n the upper t h i r d ,  (NM)  s c o r e s above  37, became the depressed mood (DM)  group.  A two-way  repeated measures MANOVA conducted  u s i n g these two  groups  produced  d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s than those a t t a i n e d u s i n g  BDI  scores.  The means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table  3. In t h i s a n a l y s i s , main e f f e c t s f o r both s t r e s s = 13.81, p<.001) and mood (F(3,40) = 5.47, significant.  p<.003) were  No s t r e s s by mood i n t e r a c t i o n was  t h i s a n a l y s i s of the data.  (F(6,37)  detected i n  In terms of the s t r e s s  effect,  53  Table 3 C e l l Means f o r MANOVA ( g r o u p s f o r m e d u s i n g CES-D  Stress Group  DH  scores)  Context GLE  NO  D e p r e s s e d Mood Affective  23.18  (2.06)  19.32  (1.75)  15.18  (1.60)  Behavioral  23.27  (1.77)  20.64  (1.87)  17.86  (1.84)  Cognitive  18.41  (2.04)  16.27  (2.19)  14.36  (2.12)  Affective  16.59 (1.69)  12.32  (1.29)  7.23  (0.76)  Behavioral  19.55 (1.94)  15.59  (1.90)  13.32  (1.57)  Cognitive  16.09  12.41  (1.72)  9.32  (1.26)  N o n d e p r e s s e d Mood  (1.87)  54  u n i v a r i a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e  was  s i g n i f i c a n t a c r o s s the t h r e e dependent measures ( A f f F(2,84) = 38.37, p<.001; Beh F(2,84) = 14.99, p_<.001; Cog F(2,84) = 13.55, p_<.001).  Follow-up m u l t i p l e comparisons  revealed  t h a t the responses t o c h i l d behavior were more i n t e n s e i n the two  s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s than when the behavior o c c u r r e d i n  a s t r e s s - f r e e context.  Again, the d a i l y h a s s l e s c o n d i t i o n  s t i m u l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r responses a c r o s s the measures. In t h i s a n a l y s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r mood was detected.  U n i v a r i a t e t - t e s t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t  between NM  and DM groups on the a f f e c t i v e s c o r e s ( A f f  F ( l , 4 2 ) = 13.99, p_<.001).  There was  differences  a trend for behavioral  s c o r e s t o d i f f e r between groups (Beh F ( l , 4 2 ) = 3.85,  p<.06),  but s c o r e s on the measure of maternal c o g n i t i v e  response  were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  2.45,  p_<.12).  (Cog F(l,42) =  Across a l l dependent v a r i a b l e s , mothers i n the  group had h i g h e r scores than those i n the NM  (n=44), i t was  4.  utilized  deemed necessary t o  i d e n t i f y t h i s subsample i n terms of b a s i c information.  DM  group.  S i n c e o n l y t w o - t h i r d s of the t o t a l sample was i n the main a n a l y s e s  also  A summary of t h i s data may  descriptive be found i n Table  I t i s apparent t h a t demographic composition of t h i s  subgroup i s c o n s i s t e n t with t h a t of the l a r g e r sample of 66 respondents. Given the s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of CES-D mood on mother responses, t - t e s t s were conducted  t o determine  whether or  55  Table 4 D e s c r i p t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e Subsample  Mean (SD)  Variable  M a t e r n a l age Socioeconomic  status  35.77  ' 7.14)  30.39  '18.41)  Number o f c h i l d r e n  1.86  Age o f t a r g e t  8 . 16 ' 2.28)  child  Number y e a r s s i n g l e p a r e n t  [ 1.07)  6 .23 [ 3.67)  BDI  10.23  ( 9.28)  CES-D  35 . 09 [12.77)  Stress - past  year  4 . 59 ( 1.32)  Stress - past  month  3 . 52 ( 1.68)  S t r e s s - p a s t day  2 .32 ( 1.86)  CPRS conduct learning somatic  problems problems problems  inattention anxiety  problems  problems  .90  C 1-61)  1.27  ( 2.02)  1.42  ( 2.39)  . 29 ( 1.18) .73  ( 1.65)  (n=44)  56  Table 4 D e s c r i p t i v e Information  (Continued)  Variable  Marital  Percent  status  never married  27.30  separated  15.90  widowed  2.3 0  divorced  54.50  married  00.00  Sex o f t a r g e t  child  male  68.20  female  31.80  Sought Psych s e r v i c e s - s e l f  63.60  Sought Psych  25.00  services - child  57  not demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v a r i e d with mood assignment.  group  Three v a r i a b l e s , socioeconomic s t a t u s  ( t (42)  2.88,  p_<.006), number o f years a s i n g l e mother (t (42) = -  3.51,  p<.001) and l e v e l of s t r e s s over the p a s t year  ( t (42)  =-2.69, p_<.01), showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e NM and DM groups.  A M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f Covariance  (MANCOVA), u s i n g SES, number of years a s i n g l e parent and year s t r e s s as c o v a r i a t e s , was performed  i n order t o  determine whether o r not these v a r i a b l e s a s s e r t e d an i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d .  Although t h i s  analysis  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c o v a r i a t e s d i d not a l t e r the r e s u l t s  from  those found i n t h e MANOVA, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e complete  c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e MANCOVA r e s u l t s because the  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample s i z e produced system  ( i . e . , Greenhouse-Geiser  were o u t s i d e o f the meaningful second attempt t o determine  instability  i n the  c o r r e c t i o n named v a l u e s t h a t range).  Therefore, i n a  i f t h e mood e f f e c t s d e t e c t e d  were t h e r e s u l t o f these p o t e n t i a l l y confounding  variables,  separate MANOVAs were conducted u s i n g each of these v a r i a b l e s as a between groups  factor.  S i g n i f i c a n t between  group e f f e c t s were not d e t e c t e d f o r any of these a n a l y s e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t these demographic v a r i a b l e s d i d not have a significant  impact on the p a r e n t i n g responses.  I t appears  t h a t maternal mood e f f e c t s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o group d i f f e r e n c e s on the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  =  58  Secondary Analyses The  m a n i p u l a t i o n check.  each v i g n e t t e served f i r s t question  Three questions  that  followed  as the s t r e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n check.  asked mothers t o i n d i c a t e , on a s c a l e from 0  to 6, the l e v e l of s t r e s s t h a t would be evoked by the depicted. subjects hassles  The  events  m a n i p u l a t i o n would be seen as s u c c e s s f u l i f  reported contexts  condition.  The  t h a t the g l o b a l l i f e events and were more s t r e s s f u l than the no  daily stress  A one-way repeated measures a n a l y s i s of  variance  (ANOVA) demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n response to t h i s question  across  conditions  (F(2,86) = 51.3,  p_<.001).  M u l t i p l e comparisons confirmed t h a t the amount of  perceived  stress differed  and  and  between s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s  no s t r e s s (NO)  perceived  vignettes.  No  s t r e s s were detected  (GLE  DH)  significant differences in  between the GLE  and  DH  conditions. The  second q u e s t i o n  was  to which the events p o r t r a y e d in  relation  designed to assess the would be p e r c e i v e d  t o the c h i l d behavior.  The  degree  as proximal  m a n i p u l a t i o n would  be seen as s u c c e s s f u l i f d a i l y h a s s l e s were p e r c e i v e d more proximal than g l o b a l l i f e events and contexts.  A one-way ANOVA i n d i c a t e d a  d i f f e r e n c e across  conditions  occurred  between the s t r e s s  (GLE  and  contexts  r a t h e r than between the two  be  stress  significant  (F(2,86) = 49.7,  However, m u l t i p l e comparisons r e v e a l e d  That i s , s t r e s s contexts  no  to  p<.001).  that t h i s difference  DH)  and  no s t r e s s  (NO)  stress conditions.  of both types were seen as having a  59  g r e a t e r impact on d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g than the no s t r e s s condition. Question  t h r e e asked p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r a t e t h e l e v e l o f  r e a l i s m p e r c e i v e d t o be i n h e r e n t i n each o f t h e v i g n e t t e s . A one-way ANOVA showed t h a t the t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y with r e s p e c t t o p e r c e i v e d r e a l i s m . D e s c r i p t i v e l y , on a s c a l e from 0 (not a t a l l ) t o 6 (very) the mean s c o r e s f o r GLE, DH and NO c o n d i t i o n s were 3.1, 3.6 and  3.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses.  Descriptive information  was c o r r e l a t e d with mothers' a f f e c t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l and c o g n i t i v e responses summed across a l l s c e n a r i o s i n order t o determine which v a r i a b l e s were a s s o c i a t e d with  maternal  p e r c e p t i o n s o f , and responses t o , c h i l d behavior. c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e presented calculated,  i n Table 5.  These  Of 27 c o r r e l a t i o n s  f i v e were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  These  v a r i a b l e s were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t domains of response.  In t h e a f f e c t i v e domain, s e v e r i t y o f responses  were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o maternal somatic  perceptions of c h i l d  problems on the Conners Parent R a t i n g S c a l e and t o  the l e v e l o f p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s i n the year and month p r i o r t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e completion.  No d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o b e h a v i o r a l responses. of g r e a t e r deviance  i n the c h i l d behavior  Perceptions  scenes were  p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f somatic  s t a t u s o f the  60  Table 5 Correlational  A n a l y s i s of D e s c r i p t i v e Information and  Maternal Responses  Maternal Response Aff  Beh  Cog  Socioeconomic s t a t u s  -.13  -.14  -.08  Number o f c h i l d r e n  -.10  -.06  - . 07  Variable  . 28*  . 12  . 09  S t r e s s - past month  .25*  . 05  . 16  S t r e s s - past day  . 15  . 06  . 31*  conduct problems  .25  . 16  . 19  somatic problems  . 34*  .21  . 27*  i n a t t e n t i o n problems  . 18  . 03  . 10  a n x i e t y problems  .20  .1  . 14  S t r e s s - past  year  CPRS  *P<.05  61  child  and w i t h  questionnaire  the level  of stress  completion.  The d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s addition  to reporting  behaviorally  response.  of parent behavior.  In  t h e degree t o which they would  to the c h i l d  a l s o asked t o describe behavioral  i n t h e day o f  behavior depicted,  their A list  anticipated  respond  mothers were  immediate  o f s i x common  parenting  r e s p o n s e s was p r o v i d e d and m o t h e r s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o c h o o s e the  one b e h a v i o r t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t e d what t h e y w o u l d do  first  i n reaction  information  to the c h i l d  behavior.  i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 6.  This  descriptive  62  Table 6 D e s c r i p t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n f o r B e h a v i o r a l Responses  Stress Behavioral  not respond  Response  at a l l  ignore the behavior  DH  Context  GLE  2.78'  6.58%  5 .48%  4.63  6 . 58  6 .85  reason w i t h the c h i l d  34.26  t a k e away p r i v i l e g e s  12.96  reprimand the c h i l d  23.15  16 .23  yell  22.22  11.84  at/spank the c h i l d  NO  49. 12 9 . 65  58 .90 3 . 65 18 .72 6 . 39  Discussion  The p r e s e n t study was designed t o assess whether o r not s t r e s s and mood i n f l u e n c e mothers' a f f e c t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l and/or c o g n i t i v e responses t o c h i l d b e h a v i o r .  The r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d suggest t h a t both l i f e s t r e s s and maternal mood are important f o r understanding p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s .  In terms of  s t r e s s , mothers i n d i c a t e d a more severe b e h a v i o r a l response, and p e r c e i v e d the c h i l d behavior t o be more u p s e t t i n g , p r o b l e m a t i c and i n t e n t i o n a l ,  i n the GLE and DH c o n d i t i o n s  than i n the NO s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n .  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with  p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h a t under s t r e s s f u l c o n d i t i o n s mothers respond with "minimal p a r e n t i n g " (Zussman, 1980) and p e r c e i v e c h i l d behavior t o be more d e v i a n t than when the same behavior occurs i n a context of low s t r e s s  (Middlebrook & Forehand,  1986).  Further, within  s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s , d a i l y h a s s l e s were a s s o c i a t e d with s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r scores than were g l o b a l l i f e a c r o s s the dependent measures.  events  T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n keeping  with the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , although d a i l y h a s s l e s may be p e r c e i v e d as r e l a t i v e l y minor i n comparison  t o major  life  s t r e s s o r s , these s t r e s s f u l events t h a t occur on a d a i l y , frequent b a s i s have a g r e a t e r impact  on p a r e n t a l responses  than the major, perhaps more d i s t a l ,  global l i f e  events.  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a main e f f e c t f o r s t r e s s are meaningful  o n l y i f the s t r e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l .  64  An a n a l y s i s of mothers' r a t i n g s on the f i r s t  q u e s t i o n of the  m a n i p u l a t i o n check showed t h a t the two s t r e s s c o n d i t i o n s (GLE and DH) than the NO  were p e r c e i v e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s t r e s s f u l stress condition.  However, no  d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r c e i v e d s t r e s s was s t r e s s c o n t e x t s (GLE vs. DH). study, female undergraduates  significant  found between the  Interestingly,  i n the p i l o t  had r a t e d the GLE  more s t r e s s f u l than the DH n a r r a t i v e s .  Based  i n f o r m a t i o n from mothers and undergraduate  two  n a r r a t i v e s as on  this  females, i t  appears u n l i k e l y t h a t d a i l y h a s s l e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r maternal response s c o r e s simply due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e v e l of s t r e s s i n h e r e n t i n the GLE  and DH  S i n c e mothers f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h the two terms of s t r e s s l e v e l , r a t h e r than s e v e r i t y , two types of s t r e s s In  descriptions.  conditions in  one c o u l d argue t h a t p r o x i m i t y , i s the key d i s t i n c t i o n between these  (DeLongis et a l . ,  t h i s study we attempted  1982).  to t e s t t h i s hypothesis  through the use of a second q u e s t i o n i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n check.  The q u e s t i o n , "How  much would these events  the way  you went about your d a i l y r o u t i n e ? " was  address the i s s u e of p r o x i m i t y .  affect  designed t o  However, no d i f f e r e n c e s  were d e t e c t e d between the two s t r e s s c o n t e x t s (GLE v s . on t h i s dimension and evidence was  DH)  not found t o support the  n o t i o n t h a t d a i l y h a s s l e s were p e r c e i v e d t o be more proximal to  the m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n than were g l o b a l  events.  life  In order t o b e t t e r understand t h e i r mechanisms of  i n f l u e n c e , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o c l a r i f y  the  65  dimension  on which the GLE and DH c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r .  In  t h i s study, r a t h e r than d i s m i s s i n g the p r o x i m i t y h y p o t h e s i s however, one c o u l d e n t e r t a i n other p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o e x p l a i n the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the m a n i p u l a t i o n check question.  F o r i n s t a n c e , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a t t r i b u t e the  f a i l u r e t o d e t e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t o wording difficulties  i n t h i s question.  For example, many mothers  noted t h a t i t was u n c l e a r from the way t h i s q u e s t i o n was presented whether they were being asked t o comment on the l i f e events o r the c h i l d behavior d e s c r i b e d . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  to c h i l d  behavior  were a l s o d e t e c t e d between groups of mothers d i v i d e d on the b a s i s o f mood.  T h i s concurs with p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s t h a t  show t h a t mothers who f e e l more depressed  p e r c e i v e more  b e h a v i o r problems i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n than non-depressed mothers (Forehand & Forehand, 1983).  e t a l . , 1982; G r i e s t e t a l . , 1979; Rogers In t h i s study, mothers e x p e r i e n c i n g a  depressed mood a t the time of q u e s t i o n n a i r e completion r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g more upset by the c h i l d b e h a v i o r  than  mothers who r e p o r t e d a r e l a t i v e l y nondepressed mood.  In  a d d i t i o n , although t h e r e was a t r e n d f o r these groups t o differ  i n the s e v e r i t y of t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l responses  t o the  c h i l d behavior, no between group d i f f e r e n c e was e v i d e n t on the c o g n i t i v e s c a l e a s s e s s i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d  behavior.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s dependent measures was not p r e d i c t e d but i s c o n s i s t e n t with other r e c e n t f i n d i n g s t h a t suggest t h a t d i s t o r t e d c o g n i t i o n s may not be the f a c t o r  mediating  66  between depressed mood and p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d (Conrad & Hammen, 1989; Johnston, 1989).  Rather,  behavior  Krech, Habich & McBride,  i t appears t h a t mood congruent  affective  p r o c e s s i n g o r b e h a v i o r a l response s t y l e may be t h e key f a c t o r u n i t i n g p a r e n t a l depressed mood and p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d problems ( J o u r i l e s , Murphy & O'Leary, 1989; Kochanska, Kuczynski & Maguire,  1989).  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study was t h e f a c t r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d depending  that  upon whether the BDI o r the CES-  D was used t o e s t a b l i s h mood l e v e l .  Although  highly  c o r r e l a t e d , these two instruments appear t o measure d i f f e r e n t aspects o f mood or d e p r e s s i o n .  The BDI was  designed f o r use p r i m a r i l y among c l i n i c a l l y individuals.  depressed  In the domain of p a r e n t i n g r e s e a r c h , d e s p i t e  the f a c t t h a t mean scores seldom reach c l i n i c a l  l e v e l s of  d e p r e s s i o n , mood has been assessed almost e x c l u s i v e l y with use o f t h e BDI.  The present r e s u l t s suggest t h a t , w i t h i n  such n o n c l i n i c a l samples,  mood may be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y or  s e n s i t i v e l y d e f i n e d u s i n g the CES-D. magnify  t h e importance  the sample b e i n g In  T h i s f i n d i n g serves t o  of s e l e c t i n g measures a p p r o p r i a t e t o  addressed.  t h e p r e s e n t study, a s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e s s by mood  i n t e r a c t i o n was not d e t e c t e d .  That i s , r a t i n g s by depressed  mood mothers were not i n f l a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a c r o s s s t r e s s contexts.  I t was concluded t h a t the main e f f e c t s  independently. analogue  operated  However i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t due t o i t s  nature, the d e s i g n may not have been s e n s i t i v e  67  enough t o d e t e c t  this interaction.  The  use  of a  clinically  depressed p o p u l a t i o n and/or a more n a t u r a l i s t i c s t r e s s m a n i p u l a t i o n may  increase  the p r o b a b i l i t y of w i t n e s s i n g a  s t r e s s by mood i n t e r a c t i o n . The  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses i n d i c a t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between responses on the and  c o g n i t i v e measures and  cognitive  Of note i s the  responses to the  c o r r e l a t e d with r e p o r t s  behavioral  variables.  i n number and  s m a l l t o moderate magnitude, s p e c u l a t i v e offered.  significant  affective,  d e s c r i p t i v e subject  Although these c o r r e l a t i o n s were few  be  a few  were of  interpretation  may  f i n d i n g t h a t both a f f e c t i v e  and  c h i l d behavior were p o s i t i v e l y  of recent l i f e s t r e s s .  Although  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n both normal and c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d p o p u l a t i o n s have demonstrated t h a t high s t r e s s with i n f l a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d deviance Greenberg, 1985; the  been made i n the  demonstrated a s s o c i a t i o n b e h a v i o r i n the Wolf, 1983;  The  lab  (Crnic &  s t r e s s and  maternal a f f e c t i v e  literature.  In a d d i t i o n ,  between high s t r e s s and  (Weinraub & Ansul, 1984;  Whiting, 1968)  correlational  was  not  parent  observed i n t h i s  analysis.  descriptive analysis  interesting results.  terms of s e v e r i t y , no  the  Weinraub &  conducted f o r the  response q u e s t i o n s asking f o r s p e c i f i c parent yielded  associated  Webster-Stratton, 1988), l i t t l e mention of  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e  response has  is  low  behavioral reactions  I f ranked s u b j e c t i v e l y  to high, the b e h a v i o r a l  in  c h o i c e s read:  response, ignore the behavior, reason with the c h i l d ,  68  take away p r i v i l e g e s , reprimand the c h i l d , spank the c h i l d . provided  Based on t h i s ranking,  and  most of the mothers  r e l a t i v e l y m i l d suggestions f o r how  they would  respond b e h a v i o r a l l y t o the c h i l d behavior w i t h the c h i l d ) .  y e l l at or  (i.e.,  In the d a i l y h a s s l e s c o n d i t i o n , however,  more severe parent r e a c t i o n s were o f f e r e d as a response more f r e q u e n t l y It  i s notable  reason  first  ( i . e . , y e l l at or spank the  that t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e information  child).  is  c o n s i s t e n t with f i n d i n g s from the other dependent measures t h a t show more i n t e n s e r e a c t i o n s i n the DH A l i m i t a t i o n of the present nature.  i s i t s analogue  Although t h i s type of study o f f e r s c o n t r o l over  threats to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , i n the  research  condition.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of new  validity  and  i s a necessary f i r s t  l i n e s of r e s e a r c h ,  i s often s a c r i f i c e d .  The  present  external  study attempted  t o a c h i e v e some degree of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y by u s i n g responses of " r e a l " s i n g l e mothers. made to c r e a t e  step  Further,  the  an e f f o r t  was  scenes of c h i l d behavior t h a t would be deemed  r e a l i s t i c by respondents.  Both undergraduate females  and  the sample of s i n g l e mothers r a t e d the c h i l d b e h a v i o r  and  s t r e s s n a r r a t i v e s as r e a l i s t i c .  For the mothers i n t h i s  sample, the mean r a t i n g was  on a s c a l e from 0 (not at  all)  to 6 (very).  present  One  3.23  f a c e t of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y t h a t  the  study does not address, however, i s whether or  not  the responses provided  on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  mirror  actual  responses t o c h i l d behavior under c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e s t r e s s . An a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t the r e s u l t s are c o n f i n e d  to  69  the responses o f s i n g l e mothers.  Since these mothers  experience unique s t r e s s o r s and l i f e s t y l e s , should  not be g e n e r a l i z e d  likely  the outcome  t o two-parent f a m i l i e s without  r e p l i c a t i o n of t h e study. Any  d i s c u s s i o n of i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  this  study  must be undertaken with the above l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind. However, two c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e worthy o f note.  First,  of c o n t e x t u a l  t h i s study p r o v i d e s  v a r i a b l e s i n parenting.  experimental design, of mood.  support f o r t h e importance Using the present  c a u s a l i t y cannot be i m p l i e d  i n t h e case  However, no other demographic v a r i a b l e measured  appeared t o account f o r between group d i f f e r e n c e s .  Also,  the r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t with the model suggesting  that  p a r e n t a l mood e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e on r e a c t i o n s t o c h i l d behavior.  This conclusion  i s c o n s i s t e n t with other  studies  t h a t suggest t h a t mood i s c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o maternal r e a c t i o n s t o c h i l d behavior  (Zekoski,  O'Hara & W i l l s , 1 9 8 7 ) .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t c l i n i c i a n s assess parent mood and c o n s i d e r mood management as a p o s s i b l e adjunct t o behavioral  parent t r a i n i n g i n t h a t t h i s component may o f f e r  a useful, approach f o r changing a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l response t o c h i l d behavior.  Since  s t r e s s i s manipulated i n  t h i s analogue study, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o note c a u s a l i t y . is,  That  the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e that s t r e s s  i n f l u e n c e s maternal response t o c h i l d b e h a v i o r .  This  i m p l i e s t h a t by changing environmental s t r e s s mothers' responses may a l s o be a l t e r e d .  Further,  since  negative  70  c o r r e l a t i o n s between these v a r i a b l e s and success i n parent t r a i n i n g have a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d ( G r i e s t & Forehand, 1982;  Packard,  Horn, Ialongo  & Greenberg, 1987, Webster-  S t r a t t o n , 1985), recommendations f o r c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e may be forwarded.  The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a s t r e s s management  component i n t o b e h a v i o r a l parent t r a i n i n g programs appears warranted. Secondly,  the present study i n t r o d u c e s t o the p a r e n t i n g  domain the idea t h a t s t r e s s should be c o n s i d e r e d as a m u l t i l e v e l c o n s t r u c t ( i . e . , GLE and DH l e v e l s ) , area o f s t r e s s and coping al.,  1981).  (DeLongis  as i t i s i n the  e t a l . , 1982; Kanner e t  F u r t h e r , the r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with the  i d e a t h a t d a i l y h a s s l e s have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on maternal  functioning.  applied contexts. r e s u l t s suggest  T h i s may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  For i n s t a n c e , i n terms o f assessment, the  t h a t i t may be wise t o i n c l u d e a measure  such as The H a s s l e s S c a l e 1988)  (DeLongis,  Folkman & Lazarus,  i n assessment packages used f o r parents seeking h e l p  with c h i l d management.  T h i s would f a c i l i t a t e the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f parents who are e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h of d a i l y s t r e s s and would thereby  levels  i n d i c a t e when a treatment  program t h a t i n c l u d e s a d a i l y h a s s l e s management component might be b e n e f i c i a l .  However, more r e s e a r c h i n the area o f  c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s o f p a r e n t i n g i s necessary  before  changes i n s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y can be c o n f i d e n t l y implemented. E m p i r i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n s from the present study proceed  i n t h r e e main d i r e c t i o n s .  First,  should  external v a l i d i t y  71  concerns should be addressed  through attempts t o i n c r e a s e  the r e a l i s m o f t h e s t r e s s manipulation materials. videotaped  and t h e s t i m u l u s  T h i s might be achieved through t h e use o f v i g n e t t e s , c h i l d confederates,  a c t u a l t a s k demands.  " r e a l " c h i l d r e n or  A second and r e l a t e d s u g g e s t i o n f o r  f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e s e x p l o r i n g whether o r not t h e p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n response t o t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n are r e f l e c t i v e and/or p r e d i c t i v e of a c t u a l parent behavior  and c o g n i t i o n .  affect,  O b s e r v a t i o n a l or c o r r e l a t i o n a l  designs would best f a c i l i t a t e t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , v a r i a b l e s that w i l l  f u r t h e r our understanding o f  p a r e n t i n g , such as e t h n i c i t y , might r e p l a c e depressed as t h e between s u b j e c t s v a r i a b l e i n t h i s  design.  In sum, t h i s study demonstrated t h a t l i f e an impact on maternal specifically,  mood  stress exerts  r e a c t i o n s t o c h i l d behavior.  More  a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f d a i l y h a s s l e s and  g l o b a l l i f e events was d e t e c t e d .  C o n s i s t e n t with  prior  r e s e a r c h , mood a l s o played a r o l e , but, i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  only  when t h e community-derived CES-D i s used t o d e f i n e the construct.  Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s h e l p f u l i n improving our  understanding  o f the p a r t played by these p e r s o n o l o g i c a l and  environmental  v a r i a b l e s i n the m o t h e r - c h i l d  interaction.  72  References Achenbach, T. M. & Edelbrock, C. S. (1978). The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d psychopathology: A review and a n a l y s i s of e m p i r i c a l e f f o r t s . Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1275-1301. Ainsworth, M. D. S. & B e l l , S. M. (1974). M o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n and the development of competence. In K. C o n n o l l y & J . Bruner (Eds.), The growth of competence. 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Unpublished paper, Harvard University. Wolfe, D. A., Fairbank, J . A., K e l l y , J . A. & Bradlyn, A. S. (1983). C h i l d abusive p a r e n t s ' p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses t o s t r e s s f u l and n o n - s t r e s s f u l b e h a v i o r i n c h i l d r e n . B e h a v i o r a l Assessment, 5(363), 371. Yule, W. (1981). The epidemiology of c h i l d psychopathology. In B. B. Lahey and A. E. Kazdin (Eds.). Advances i n c l i n i c a l c h i l d psychology, ( V o l . 4, pp. 1-51). New York: Plenum. Z a r s k i , J . (1984). H a s s l e s and h e a l t h : H e a l t h Psychology, 3(3), 243-251.  A replication.  Zautra, A. J . Guarnaccia, C. A. & Dohrenwend B. P. (1986). Measuring s m a l l l i f e events. American J o u r n a l of Community Psychology, 14.(6), 629-655. Zekoski, E. M., O'Hara, M. W. & W i l l s , K. E. (1987). The e f f e c t s of maternal mood on m o t h e r - i n f a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . J o u r n a l of Abnormal C h i l d Psychology, 15(3), 361-378. Zussman, J . V. (1980). S i t u a t i o n a l determinants of p a r e n t a l behavior: E f f e c t s of competing c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y . C h i l d Development, 51, 792-800.  86  Appendix B General I n f o r m a t i o n  Sheet  Mother's Age: Mother's  Occupation:  Highest L e v e l o f Education r e c e i v e d : M a r i t a l H i s t o r y : never married separated widowed divorced married Number o f C h i l d r e n : Age(s) and sex(es) of C h i l d r e n : Number o f Years as a s i n g l e parent: Have you ever sought p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p f o r your c h i l d o r f o r your own p e r s o n a l problems? I f yes, p l e a s e d e s c r i b e briefly.  Thank you.  Appendix C Beck Depression  Inventory  Please read each item c a r e f u l l y a l l the way through and then choose the answer t h a t f i t s you b e s t a t the p r e s e n t time. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. Please answer as h o n e s t l y as you can. Your responses are s t r i c t l y confidential. C i r c l e your answer f o r each item. Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n and h e l p . '0) '1) 2a) '2b) 3)  I do not f e e l sad. I f e e l blue or sad. I am b l u e or sad a l l the time and I can't snap out of i t . I am so sad or unhappy t h a t i t i s very p a i n f u l . I am so sad or unhappy t h a t I can't stand i t .  ;o)  I am not p a r t i c u l a r l y p e s s i m i s t i c or d i s c o u r a g e d about the f u t u r e . 1) I f e e l discouraged about the f u t u r e . ^2a) I f e e l I have nothing t o look forward t o . ;2b) I f e e l t h a t I won't ever get over my t r o u b l e s . 3) I f e e l t h a t the f u t u r e i s hopeless and t h a t t h i n g s cannot improve. 0) 1) [2a)  I do not f e e l l i k e a f a i l u r e . I f e e l I have f a i l e d more than the average person. I f e e l I have accomplished very l i t t l e t h a t i s worthwhile or t h a t means anything. 2b) As I look back on my l i f e a l l I can see i s a l o t of failure. '3) I f e e l I am a complete f a i l u r e as a person. 0) la) lb) 2) ^3)  I I I I I  am not p a r t i c u l a r l y dissatisfied, f e e l bored most of the time. don't enjoy t h i n g s the way I used t o . don't get s a t i s f a c t i o n out of anything anymore. am d i s s a t i s f i e d with e v e r y t h i n g .  ;o) 1) ;2a) ]2b) 3)  I I I I I  don't f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y g u i l t y . f e e l bad or unworthy a good p a r t of the time. feel quite guilty. f e e l bad or unworthy p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the time f e e l as though I am very bad or w o r t h l e s s .  0) 1)  I don't I have me. '2) I feel '3a) I f e e l 3b) I want  f e e l I am being punished. a f e e l i n g t h a t something bad may I am being punished or w i l l be I deserve t o be punished. t o be punished.  now.  happen t o punished.  88  0) la) lb) 2) 3)  I I I I I  don't f e e l d i s a p p o i n t e d i n myself, am d i s a p p o i n t e d i n m y s e l f , don't l i k e myself. am d i s g u s t e d w i t h m y s e l f . hate myself.  0) 1)  I d o n ' t f e e l I am a n y w o r s e t h a n a n y o n e e l s e . I am v e r y c r i t i c a l o f m y s e l f f o r my w e a k n e s s e s o r mistakes. 2a) I b l a m e m y s e l f f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t g o e s w r o n g . 2b) I f e e l I h a v e many b a d f a u l t s . 0) 1) 2a) 2b) 2c) 3)  I don't have any t h o u g h t s o f harming m y s e l f . I have t h o u g h t s o f harming m y s e l f b u t I would n o t c a r r y them o u t . I f e e l I w o u l d be b e t t e r o f f d e a d . I have d e f i n i t e p l a n s about c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e . I f e e l my f a m i l y w o u l d be b e t t e r o f f i f I w e r e d e a d . I would k i l l myself i f I c o u l d .  0) 1) 2) 3)  I d o n ' t c r y a n y more t h a n u s u a l . I c r y more now t h a n I u s e d t o . I c r y a l l t h e t i m e now. I c a n ' t s t o p i t . I u s e d t o be a b l e t o c r y b u t now I c a n ' t c r y a t a l l e v e n t h o u g h I want t o .  0) 1)  I am no more i r r i t a t e d now t h a n I e v e r was. I g e t a n n o y e d o r i r r i t a t e d more e a s i l y t h a n I u s e d to. I f e e l i r r i t a t e d a l l the time. I don't g e t i r r i t a t e d a t a l l a t t h e t h i n g s t h a t used t o i r r i t a t e me.  2) 3) 0) 1) 2) 3) 0) 1) 2) 3) 0) 1) 2) 3)  I have n o t l o s t i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e . I am l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r p e o p l e now t h a n I u s e d t o be. I h a v e l o s t most o f my i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e a n d h a v e l i t t l e f e e l i n g f o r them. I h a v e l o s t a l l my i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e a n d d o n ' t c a r e a b o u t them a t a l l . I make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t a s w e l l a s e v e r . I am l e s s s u r e o f m y s e l f now a n d t r y t o p u t o f f making d e c i s i o n s . I c a n ' t make d e c i s i o n s a n y more w i t h o u t h e l p . I c a n ' t make a n y d e c i s i o n s a t a l l a n y more. I don't f e e l I l o o k any worse t h a n I used t o . I am w o r r i e d t h a t I am l o o k i n g o l d o r u n a t t r a c t i v e . I f e e l t h a t t h e r e a r e p e r m a n e n t c h a n g e s i n my a p p e a r a n c e a n d t h e y make me l o o k u n a t t r a c t i v e . I f e e l t h a t I am u g l y o r r e p u l s i v e l o o k i n g .  89  15. (0) (la) (lb) (2) (3) 16. (0) (1) (2) (3)  I can work about as w e l l as b e f o r e . I t takes e x t r a e f f o r t t o get s t a r t e d a t doing something. I don't work as w e l l as I used t o . I have t o push myself very hard t o do a n y t h i n g . I can't do any work a t a l l . I can s l e e p as w e l l as u s u a l . I wake up more t i r e d i n the morning than I used t o . I wake up 1-2 hours e a r l i e r than u s u a l and f i n d i t hard t o get back t o s l e e p . I wake up e a r l y every day and can't g e t more than 5 hours s l e e p .  17. (0) (1) (2) (3)  I I I I  18. (0) (1) (2) (3)  My a p p e t i t e i s no worse than u s u a l . My a p p e t i t e i s not as good as i t used t o be. My a p p e t i t e i s much worse now. I have no a p p e t i t e a t a l l any more.  19. (0) (1) (2) (3)  I I I I  2 0.(0) (1)  I am no more concerned about my h e a l t h than u s u a l . I am concerned about aches and p a i n s o r upset stomach o r c o n s t i p a t i o n o r other unpleasant f e e l i n g s i n my body. I am so concerned with how I f e e l o r what I f e e l t h a t i t ' s hard t o t h i n k o f much e l s e . I am completely absorbed i n what I f e e l .  (2) (3) 21.(0) (1) (2) (3)  don't get any more t i r e d than u s u a l . get t i r e d more e a s i l y than I used t o . get t i r e d from doing a n y t h i n g . get too t i r e d t o do a n y t h i n g .  haven't l o s t much weight, i f any, l a t e l y . have l o s t more than 5 pounds. have l o s t more than 10 pounds. have l o s t more than 15 pounds.  I have not n o t i c e d any r e c e n t changes i n my i n t e r e s t i n sex. I am l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n sex than I used t o be. I am much l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n sex now. I have l o s t i n t e r e s t i n sex completely.  90  Appendix D CES-D Using t h e s c a l e below, i n d i c a t e the number which b e s t d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n you f e l t o r behaved t h i s way—DURING THE PAST WEEK. 1 = R a r e l y o r none o f the time ( l e s s than 1 day) 2 = Some o r a l i t t l e o f the time (1-2 days) 3 = O c c a s i o n a l l y o r a moderate amount o f time (3-4 days) 4 = Most o r a l l o f the time (5-7 days) DURING THE PAST WEEK: 1. I was bothered by t h i n g s t h a t u s u a l l y don't bother me. 2.  I d i d not f e e l l i k e e a t i n g ; my a p p e t i t e was poor.  3.  I f e l t t h a t I c o u l d not shake o f f t h e blues with help  even  from my f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s .  4.  I f e l t t h a t I was j u s t as good as other  people.  5.  I had t r o u b l e keeping my mind on what I was doing.  6.  I felt  7.  I f e l t that everything  8.  I f e l t hopeful  9.  I thought my l i f e  10.  I felt  depressed. I d i d was an e f f o r t .  about the f u t u r e . had been a f a i l u r e .  fearful.  11. My s l e e p was r e s t l e s s . 12.  I was happy.  13.  I t a l k e d l e s s than u s u a l .  14.  I felt  15.  People were u n f r i e n d l y .  16.  I enjoyed  17.  I had c r y i n g  18.  I f e l t sad.  19.  I f e l t t h a t people d i s l i k e d me.  20.  I c o u l d not g e t "going".  lonely.  life. spells.  91  Appendix E Conners Parent R a t i n g S c a l e Please answer a l l q u e s t i o n s . Beside each item below, i n d i c a t e the degree of the problem by a check mark. not a t all Picks at things ( n a i l s , f i n g e r s , hair, clothing). Sassy t o grown-ups. Problems with making or keeping friends. Excitable, impulsive. Wants t o run t h i n g s . Sucks or chews (thumb; c l o t h i n g ; blankets). C r i e s e a s i l y or o f t e n . C a r r i e s a c h i p on h i s shoulder. Daydreams. D i f f i c u l t y in learning. R e s t l e s s i n the "squirmy" sense. F e a r f u l (of new s i t u a t i o n s ; new people or p l a c e s ; going to s c h o o l ) . R e s t l e s s , always up and on the go. Destructive. T e l l s l i e s or s t o r i e s t h a t a r e n ' t true. Shy. Gets i n t o more t r o u b l e than others same age. Speaks d i f f e r e n t l y from others same age (baby t a l k ; s t u t t e r i n g ; hard t o understand). Denies mistakes or blames o t h e r s . Quarrelsome. Pouts and s u l k s . Steals. D i s o b e d i e n t or obeys r e s e n t f u l l y . Worries more than other (about being alone; i l l n e s s or death). F a i l s to f i n i s h things. Feelings e a s i l y hurt. B u l l i e s others. Unable t o stop a r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y . Cruel. C h i l d i s h or immature (wants help he shouldn't need; c l i n g s ; needs constant r e a s s u r a n c e ) . D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y or a t t e n t i o n span a problem.  just a little  pretty much  very much  92  not a t all Headaches. Mood c h a n g e s q u i c k l y a n d drastically. Doesn't l i k e o r doesn't f o l l o w rules or restrictions. Fights constantly. Doesn't g e t along w i l l w i t h brothers or s i s t e r s . Easily frustrated i n efforts. Disturbs other c h i l d r e n . B a s i c a l l y an u n h a p p y c h i l d . Problems w i t h e a t i n g (poor a p p e t i t e ; up b e t w e e n b i t e s ) . Stomach aches. Problems w i t h sleep (can't f a l l a s l e e p ; up t o o e a r l y ; up i n the n i g h t ) . O t h e r aches and p a i n s . V o m i t i n g o r nausea. Feel cheated i n family c i r c l e . B o a s t s and b r a g s . L e t s s e l f be p u s h e d a r o u n d . Bowel problems ( f r e q u e n t l y l o o s e ; irregular habits; constipation)  just a little  pretty much  very much  Appendix F L i f e S t r e s s Index L i f e s t r e s s m i g h t be d e f i n e d a s b a d t h i n g s t h a t h a p p e n i n y o u r l i f e o r a s how s t r e s s e d y o u f e e l b e c a u s e o f t h e s e b a d t h i n g s i n your l i f e . R e f l e c t o n t h e p a s t y e a r , month a n d day. C i r c l e t h e number t h a t b e s t r e p r e s e n t s how much l i f e s t r e s s you have e x p e r i e n c e d over each o f t h e s e p e r i o d s . Life  stress  experienced,  a) o v e r t h e p a s t 0 none  1  b) o v e r t h e p a s t 0 none  c)  year: 2  3 some  4  5  6 lots  month:  1  2  3 some  4  5  6 lots  1  2  3 some  4  5  6 lots  today:  0 none  0  Thank y o u .  Appendix  G  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i n g the mother r e a c t i o n  section  On t h e n e x t p a g e s y o u w i l l f i n d 12 d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g m o t h e r s and c h i l d r e n . You a r e a s k e d t o i m a g i n e t h a t y o u a r e t h e m o t h e r , and i s t h e c h i l d , i n each d e s c r i p t i o n . Y o u r t a s k i s t o r a t e how y o u w o u l d r e s p o n d t o t h i s b e h a v i o r . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s may n o t be t y p i c a l o f y o u r f a m i l y , p l e a s e s t r e t c h y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n and t r y t o p u t y o u r s e l f i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n d i c a t e y o u r r e s p o n s e s , w i t h an X, on t h e s c a l e s p r o v i d e d . T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s . P l e a s e be a s h o n e s t a s you can i n i n d i c a t i n g y o u r r e a c t i o n s .  95  Appendix H G l o b a l L i f e Event Context SITUATION # 1 Over the past year your grandmother f e l l and broke her h i p , your dog was h i t by a c a r and k i l l e d i n s t a n t l y , the lunchtime e x e r c i s e c l a s s you r e g u l a r l y attended at work was c a n c e l l e d , you had t o borrow $5000 f o r a downpayment on a c a r , and you ate a l o t of f a s t food and ended up g a i n i n g s e v e r a l e x t r a pounds. Today you went through your usual r o u t i n e and ran a few errands. Things went along okay. Nothing out of the o r d i n a r y happened. L a t e r on the same day, your c h i l d p u l l s the cookie j a r o f f of the s h e l f and breaks i t . She y e l l s f o r you to come and c l e a n up the broken p i e c e s .  SITUATION # 2 Over the past year your nephew d i e d i n a f r e a k c a r a c c i d e n t , your parents moved t o another c i t y so your f a m i l y got t o g e t h e r l e s s than u s u a l , you were f o r c e d t o put i n longer hours a t work, your bank f o r e c l o s e d on a loan because they d i d n ' t r e c e i v e the payment you sent, your neighbourhood got r e a l l y rundown. Today t h i n g s went along as u s u a l . Nothing out of the o r d i n a r y happened as you went through your d a i l y r o u t i n e . I t was j u s t the same as any other average day. L a t e r on the same day, you t e l l your c h i l d t o p l a y i n an adjacent room while you e n t e r t a i n a few f r i e n d s . One of your guests comments on her n o i s y p l a y .  96  SITUATION #3 Over the p a s t year you r e c e i v e d your d i v o r c e papers i n the m a i l , you stopped going f o r your r e g u l a r swim because the p o o l was c l o s e d f o r major r e p a i r s , your o f f i c e a t work was moved t o a damp basement w i t h no windows, you had t o borrow $2500 from your p a r e n t s t o pay f o r new f u r n i t u r e , you f e l l down the s t a i r s , t w i s t e d your ankle, and had t o use c r u t c h e s f o r some time. Today was j u s t l i k e any other day. You woke up, r a n a few errands, and went through the u s u a l d a i l y r o u t i n e . Things went along okay. Nothing unusual happened. L a t e r on the same day, you are l o o k i n g forward t o a q u i e t l e i s u r e l y d i n n e r . Throughout the meal your c h i l d squirms i n her c h a i r and b a r e l y touches the food on her p l a t e .  SITUATION # 4 Over the p a s t year your s i s t e r had t o make a d e c i s i o n about having an a b o r t i o n , you went out l e s s because your f a v o u r i t e g i r l f r i e n d moved away, you had a s e r i e s of disagreements w i t h your s u p e r v i s o r a t work and i t almost c o s t you your job, you had money problems because your l a n d l o r d d e c i d e d t o r a i s e the monthly r e n t , and you went through a p e r i o d i n which you f e l t t i r e d a l l the time and s l e p t much more than usual. Today t h i n g s went along okay. Things were n e i t h e r r e a l l y good nor r e a l l y bad. You went through the same r o u t i n e t h a t you do every o t h e r day. Nothing out of the o r d i n a r y happened. L a t e r on the same day, w h i l e you are e n t e r t a i n i n g guests, your c h i l d comes t o you a second time t o ask what time d i n n e r w i l l be served. You know the meal won't be ready f o r at l e a s t another h a l f hour.  97  Appendix I Daily Hassles  Context  SITUATION # 5 Over t h e p a s t y e a r n o t h i n g major happened i n your w e r e s t i l l a t t h e same j o b , a n d , o t h e r t h a n a f e w c o m p l a i n t s , y o u r h e a l t h was g o o d . Your s o c i a l l i f a b o u t t h e same a s a l w a y s . The p a s t y e a r h a s b e e n s i m i l a r t o other years.  life. minor e was very  You  Today y o u r p a r e n t s c a l l e d t o c o m p l a i n t h a t t h e y d o n ' t s e e enough o f y o u , you d i d n ' t have t i m e f o r y o u r u s u a l m o r n i n g w a l k , y o u w e r e g i v e n an u n r e a l i s t i c amount o f w o r k t o do on y o u r j o b , y o u f o u n d o u t t h a t a summer c o u r s e y o u w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c o s t s more t h a n y o u w a n t e d t o p a y , a n d y o u b u r n e d a m e a l b e c a u s e t h e t i m e r on t h e s t o v e d i d n ' t w o r k . L a t e r o n t h e same d a y , y o u t e l l y o u r c h i l d t o come a n d c l e a n up t h e t o y s s h e l e f t on t h e k i t c h e n f l o o r . She y e l l s f r o m t h e TV room, " I n a m i n u t e ! "  SITUATION # 6 Over t h e p a s t y e a r n o t h i n g o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y happened i n your l i f e . You s t a y e d a t t h e same j o b , made a b o u t t h e same amount o f money a n d went o u t w i t h t h e same f r i e n d s a s u s u a l . Y o u r h e a l t h was g e n e r a l l y g o o d . The p a s t y e a r h a s b e e n v e r y s i m i l a r t o other years. T o d a y y o u r n e i g h b o u r s p l a y e d t h e i r s t e r e o much t o o l o u d , y o u g o t a p a r k i n g t i c k e t even though you were i n y o u r r e g u l a r s p a c e , some o f y o u r f e l l o w w o r k e r s went o u t f o r l u n c h b u t n e g l e c t e d t o i n v i t e y o u a l o n g , y o u l o s t a $20 b i l l w h i l e y o u were s h o p p i n g , and your c a r s t a r t e d making s t r a n g e n o i s e s . L a t e r on t h e same d a y , y o u r c h i l d comes home f r o m s c h o o l i n a v e r y grumpy mood. You n o t i c e a b r u i s e on h e r f a c e a n d a s k h e r what happened. She s a y s , "Oh, n o t h i n g " .  98  SITUATION #7 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r t h i n g s h a v e gone a l o n g j u s t l i k e a n y other year. You s t a y e d w i t h t h e same j o b a n d w e n t o u t w i t h t h e same g r o u p o f f r i e n d s . Everyone i n y o u r f a m i l y has been quite healthy. N o t h i n g major happened i n y o u r l i f e . T o d a y y o u r s i s t e r c a l l e d t o s a y s h e c o u l d n ' t do y o u t h e f a v o u r she had p r o m i s e d , you had t o a t t e n d a s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g h o n o u r i n g a co-worker t h a t you d i s l i k e , you were a s s i g n e d a t e d i o u s p r o j e c t a t work, y o u went t o a t r a v e l agent t o book a t r i p b u t found t h a t t h e v a c a t i o n y o u had i n m i n d c o s t s more t h a n y o u want t o s p e n d , y o u f e l t l i k e y o u w e r e c o m i n g down w i t h a c o l d . L a t e r on t h e same d a y , y o u r c h i l d comes i n f o r d i n n e r s t i l l w e a r i n g h e r good d r e s s t h a t ' s o n l y f o r s c h o o l . You n o t i c e a p a t c h o f d i r t on t h e s l e e v e .  SITUATION # 8 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r y o u h e l d t h e same p o s i t i o n a t w o r k , h a d o n l y a few m i n o r a i l m e n t s , a n d went o u t a b o u t t h e same amount a s a l w a y s . Y o u r money s i t u a t i o n was a b o u t t h e same as i n o t h e r y e a r s . N o t h i n g m a j o r h a p p e n e d i n y o u r l i f e . T o d a y y o u r b r o t h e r c a l l e d y o u a n d was u p s e t a b o u t a b r o k e n r e l a t i o n s h i p , you missed a meeting o f your church group t h a t you wanted t o a t t e n d , your s u p e r v i s o r y e l l e d a t you i n f r o n t o f y o u r c o - w o r k e r s , y o u h a d t o r e t u r n some o f y o u r g r o c e r i e s t o t h e s h e l v e s b e c a u s e y o u l e n t some o f y o u r c o u p o n s t o a f r i e n d , and y o u r h a i r d r y e r e x p l o d e d and t h e o u t l e t i n f r o n t o f t h e b a t h r o o m m i r r o r no l o n g e r w o r k s . L a t e r o n t h e same d a y , y o u s t u m b l e o v e r y o u r c h i l d ' s t o y s i n the h a l l w a y . A h a l f hour e a r l i e r you t o l d h e r t o p u t h e r t o y s away a n d now s h e i s w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n .  99  Appendix  J  No S t r e s s C o n t e x t SITUATION # 9 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r t h i n g s s t a y e d p r e t t y much t h e same a s i n o t h e r y e a r s . You s t a y e d a t t h e same j o b a n d v i s i t e d w i t h t h e same f r i e n d s . Y o u r h e a l t h was g e n e r a l l y g o o d . Nothing major happened i n your l i f e . T o d a y y o u w e n t t h r o u g h t h e same r o u t i n e a s m o s t o t h e r d a y s . E v e r y t h i n g went o k a y . N o t h i n g o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y came up. T h i n g s were n e i t h e r r e a l l y good n o r r e a l l y b a d . L a t e r o n t h e same d a y , y o u r c h i l d h a s a s n a c k a t t h e k i t c h e n t a b l e a n d s t a r t s p l a y i n g w i t h h e r g l a s s o f m i l k . She k n o c k s t h e g l a s s o v e r , s p i l l i n g m i l k on t h e t a b l e a n d f l o o r .  SITUATION # 10 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r t h i n g s h a v e gone a l o n g a s a l w a y s . Your h e a l t h was g e n e r a l l y g o o d , y o u went o u t a s much a s u s u a l a n d y o u s t a y e d w i t h y o u r same j o b . The p a s t y e a r h a s b e e n v e r y similar t o other years. T o d a y y o u w e n t t h r o u g h y o u r d a i l y r o u t i n e and r a n a few errands. T h e r e w e r e no u n e x p e c t e d e v e n t s . T h i n g s were p r e t t y much l i k e a n y o t h e r d a y . L a t e r on t h e same d a y , when i t ' s t i m e f o r y o u r c h i l d t o t a k e h e r c o u g h s y r u p , s h e jumps o f f h e r c h a i r a n d r u n s down t h e h a l l away f r o m y o u and t h e m e d i c i n e .  SITUATION # 11 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r y o u went t h r o u g h no m a j o r c h a n g e s . You w e r e s t i l l a t t h e same j o b , made a b o u t t h e same amount o f money a n d k e p t t h e same f r i e n d s . O t h e r t h a n a few m i n o r c o m p l a i n t s , y o u r h e a l t h was g o o d . I t was an a v e r a g e y e a r . Today t h i n g s went f a i r l y s m o o t h l y . Y o u d i d t h e same t h i n g s y o u do e v e r y d a y a n d n o t h i n g o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y h a p p e n e d . You d i d n ' t g e t a n y g o o d news b u t n o t h i n g b a d came up e i t h e r . L a t e r on t h e same d a y , y o u d e c i d e i t ' s t i m e t o t r i m y o u r child's hair. You w e r e n ' t h a p p y w i t h t h e b a r b e r l a s t t i m e so y o u d e c i d e t o t r y i t y o u r s e l f . Your c h i l d keeps i n s i s t i n g t h a t he w a n t s t h e b a r b e r t o do i t .  SITUATION # 12 O v e r t h e p a s t y e a r y o u h a v e done t h e same t h i n g s y o u h a v e done m o s t o t h e r y e a r s . You k e p t t h e same j o b a n d v i s i t e d w i t h t h e same f r i e n d s . Your h e a l t h , and t h e h e a l t h o f t h o s e a r o u n d y o u , was g e n e r a l l y g o o d . I t was a t y p i c a l y e a r . T o d a y n o t h i n g o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y o c c u r r e d . You went t h r o u g h y o u r d a i l y r o u t i n e w i t h o u t any u n e x p e c t e d happenings. I t was a p r e t t y a v e r a g e d a y . L a t e r o n t h e same d a y , y o u a r e b u s y i n t h e k i t c h e n a n d h a v e two p i l e s o f d i s h e s i n y o u r h a n d s when y o u t u r n t o s e e y o u r c h i l d ' s p e t mouse s c u r r y i n g a c r o s s t h e f l o o r . I t startles you and you a l m o s t drop t h e d i s h e s .  101  Appendix K Mother R e a c t i o n S c a l e s IMAGINE THAT YOU ARE THE MOTHER, AND IS THE CHILD, IN THE DESCRIPTION. PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS BY CIRCLING THE NUMBER THAT BEST REFLECTS HOW YOU WOULD RESPOND TO THE CHILD BEHAVIOR. ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS.  THERE  a) HOW UPSETTING WOULD YOU FIND THIS CHILD BEHAVIOR? 0 not upsetting  somewhat upsetting  very upsetting  b) HOW LONG WOULD YOUR MOOD BE AFFECTED BY THIS BEHAVIOR? 0 not affected  affected f o r an hour  affected for more than a day  c) HOW LIKELY WOULD YOU BE TO DISCIPLINE YOUR CHILD FOR THIS BEHAVIOR? 0 unlikely to respond  1  2  3 maybe respond  4  5  6 very likely to respond  d) HOW INTENSE WOULD YOUR RESPONSE TO THIS CHILD BEHAVIOR BE? no response  moderate response  intense response  e) WHICH ONE OF THE FOLLOWING THINGS WOULD YOU DO FIRST IN RESPONSE TO THIS CHILD BEHAVIOR? send the c h i l d t o h i s room o r take away p r i v i l e g e not respond a t a l l ignore the behavior y e l l a t o r spank the c h i l d reason w i t h the c h i l d reprimand t h e c h i l d other  f) HOW MUCH OF A PROBLEM DO YOU THINK THIS CHILD BEHAVIOR IS? 0 not a problem  1  2  3 somewhat o f a problem  4  5  6 a big problem  g) HOW MUCH DO YOU THINK THE CHILD ACTED THIS WAY ON PURPOSE? not on purpose  somewhat on purpose  very much on purpose  Appendix  L  S t r e s s M a n i p u l a t i o n Check Think back t o the d e s c r i p t i o n of the year, and of the day, p r i o r t o the c h i l d behavior. With t h i s i n mind, p l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g questions by c i r c l i n g a number on the scale. How much s t r e s s would you f e e l i f the t h i n g s d e s c r i b e d i n the s i t u a t i o n a c t u a l l y happened t o you? 0 none  1  2  3 some  4  5.  6  lots  How much would these events a f f e c t the way you went about your d a i l y r o u t i n e ? 0 not a t all How  1  2  3 somewhat  4  l i k e l y are such events t o happen i n your  0 not a t likely  1  2  3 somewhat likely  4  5  6  lots  life? 5  6  very likely  Appendix Recent S t r e s s  M  Index  W h i l e you were f i l l i n g o u t t h e forms, d i d a n y t h i n g happen t o increase your f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s (eg., your c h i l d s t a r t e d t o c r y , y o u g o t a d i s t u r b i n g phone c a l l e t c . ) ? I f y e s , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e e v e n t b r i e f l y and show how s t r e s s f u l i t was on the s c a l e provided. No Yes  (Please d e s c r i b e t h e event)  0 1 not a t all stressful  2  3 somewhat stressful  4  5  6 very stressful  Thank y o u .  105  Appendix N Pilot  Study  A) F o r e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r y o u r e a d , i n d i c a t e on t h e answer form p r o v i d e d : a) how s t r e s s f u l  you found  none  b)  how much y o u t h i n k h i s mother:  not deliberate  t h e c h i l d b e h a v i o r t o be:  some  d)  lots  t h e c h i l d a c t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y t o annoy  somewhat deliberate  c) how s u r e y o u a r e a b o u t t h i s  very sure  please  definitely deliberate  r a t i n g (b)  fairly sure  not sure  how much o f a p r o b l e m y o u t h i n k t h i s c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r i s :  not a problem  somewhat problematic  very problematic  106  B) F o r e a c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f l i f e t h e answer form p r o v i d e d :  e v e n t s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e on  a) how much s t r e s s y o u w o u l d f e e l happened t o you:  no stress  b)  some stress  how n e g a t i v e y o u f o u n d  very positive  c) how l i k e l y life:  not a t a l l likely  i f these things a c t u a l l y  the l i f e  neutral  i ti s that  a l o t of stress  events  t o be:  very negative  t h e s e e v e n t s would happen i n r e a l  somewhat likely  very likely  

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