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Inuit place-names and main-land relationships, Pelly Bay, Northwest Territories Goehring, Brian 1990

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INUIT PLACE-NAMES AND MAN-LAND RELATIONSHIPS, PELLY BAY, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES By ELMER BRIAN GOEHRING B.Ed., The University of Saskatchewan, 1975 B.A. (Adv.), The University of Saskatchewan, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geography) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1990 © Brian Goehring, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G t o C g , ^ V\S* The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date (QCXQW * O . O DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t The I n u i t of P e l l y Bay, N.W.T. have been among the l a s t groups of n a t i v e people i n Canada t o experience c o n t a c t , and to s e t t l e i n a permanent community. In t h i s i s o l a t e d settlement the I n u i t c u l t u r e , although changing and c o n s t a n t l y adapting, remains s t r o n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l economy, based upon the h a r v e s t i n g of land-based r e s o u r c e s , continues to be a v i t a l p a r t of the c u l t u r e . The t h e s i s examines the nature and extent of t h i s man-land r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n the present-day context, and f o l l o w s the on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s of a l l members of t h i s community through one harvest year. P a r t i c u l a r emphasis i s p a i d t o the nature of the l o c a t i o n of such a c t i v i t i e s , and the methods by which I n u i t n a v i g a t e from p l a c e t o p l a c e . The t h e s i s d e t a i l s the l o c a t i o n and t r a n s l a t e d meaning of 307 I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names w i t h i n the P e l l y Bay land-use area, and demonstrates that an ordered and l o g i c a l p a t t e r n of o r g a n i s a t i o n of named p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s e x i s t s , a p e r c e p t i o n of landscape unique t o the l o c a l r e g i o n . The knowledge of these toponyms, combined with s e v e r a l supplemental techniques, forms a complete and f u n c t i o n a l system of n a v i g a t i o n which continues t o be used by the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay i n t h e i r y e a r l y c y c l e of on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s , Table of Contents i i i A b s t r a c t t i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 The O r a l T r a d i t i o n : Knowledge as Shared Text 5 Scope of the Study 10 Chapter Summaries 12 Fieldwork Techniques 14 Acknowledgements 19 Two S e t t i n g the Stage: A Background to P e l l y Bay and the Study Area 21 L o c a t i o n 21 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : The E x p l o r e r s 23 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : The Traders and M i s s i o n a r i e s 34 The Establishment and Growth of a Permanent Settlement 42 The Snowmobile R e v o l u t i o n 49 The Development of L o c a l Government 53 P e l l y Bay Today 54 Modern and T r a d i t i o n a l Economies 57 iv Three Uncovering the P e r c e p t i o n of Landscape: The Nature and Use of I n u i t P l a c e Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area .63 Phy s i o g r a p h i c Regions of the Study Area....67 P l a c e Names as I n d i c a t o r s of Landscape P e r c e p t i o n 72 The Philosophy of Naming Pl a c e 74 The O r i g i n s of Recorded I n u k t i t u t P l a c e Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area 76 A n a l y s i s of I n u k t i t u t Place Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area 78 D e s c r i p t i v e P l a c e Names 78 Pl a c e Names Which R e f l e c t Human L i v e d Experience 80 A n a l y s i s of the L o c a t i o n of Pla c e Names i n the Study Area 82 Man-Made Landmarks of the Study Area 94 Four Land-Use P a t t e r n s and N a v i g a t i o n a l S k i l l s . 1 0 2 Land-Use: S p r i n g ..104 Land-Use: Summer 115 Land-Use: F a l l and Winter 118 Pat t e r n s of On-The-Land T r a v e l 130 N a v i g a t i o n a l Techniques - B a s i c 141 N a v i g a t i o n a l Techniques - Supplemental.... 148 What To Do I f You Are Stranded, D i s o r i e n t e d , or L o s t : T r a d i t i o n a l Advice..156 V F i v e Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s . 171 P e l l y B a y I n u i t C u l t u r e T o d a y , A. B r i e f O v e r v i e w 174 Summary o f T h e s i s P r e c e p t s . . . . 177 C o n c l u s i o n . 180 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e T h e s i s 181 B i b l i o g r a p h y 184 A p p e n d i c e s 1 P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s , S u r f a c e E c o l o g y , a n d R e l a t e d Maps o f t h e S t u d y A r e a 202 2 B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n a n d D a t a P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e E n c l o s e d T o p o n y m i e s 2 1 0 3 P e l l y B a y M a p s h e e t T o p o n y m y . . . 2 1 9 4 H a r r i s o n I s l a n d s M a p s h e e t T o p o n y m y . . 2 6 1 5 P l a c e Names L i s t e d By C a t e g o r y 2 9 0 L i s t of Tables vi Number I Land-Use Information By Family 165 II L o c a t i o n and Dur a t i o n of Seasonal F a m i l y - U n i t Camps .168 L i s t of F i g u r e s Number 1 L o c a t i o n of the Study Area 20 2 P e l l y Bay and the Surrounding Area 62 3 D e s c r i p t i v e P l a c e Names 100 4 A s s o c i a t i v e P l a c e Names, 100 5 I n c i d e n t P l a c e Names 100 6 P o s s e s s i v e P l a c e Names 100 7 Commendatory P l a c e Names .101 8 A l l Named Places ... . 101 9 Man-Made Landmarks of the Study Area 101 10 L o c a t i o n of S p r i n g Camps 163 11 L o c a t i o n of Summer Camps 163 12 L o c a t i o n of F a l l Camps 163 13 Main I n t e r s e t t l e m e n t T r a i l s 163 14 T r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t D i r e c t i o n a l L o c a t o r s 164 15 Ph y s i o g r a p h i c Regions of the Study Area 203 v i i 16 Surface Geology of the Study Area 204 17 G l a c i o l o g y of the Study Area 205 18 E c o d i s t r i c t s of the Study Area 206 19 P e l l y Bay Mapsheet Toponymy Key 221 20 H a r r i s o n I s l a n d s Mapsheet Toponymy Key 263 21 P e l l y Bay Mapsheet: T r a n s l a t e d Place-Name Meanings ,. 22 H a r r i s o n I s l a n d s Mapsheet: T r a n s l a t e d Place-Name Meanings M C l ) INUIT PLACE-NAMES AND MAN-LAND RELATIONSHIPS, PELLY BAY, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n Imagine a landscape t h a t c o u l d be read l i k e a book, i n which the names of p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s a l l had r e a d i l y apparent meaning and h i s t o r y , understood by a l l . Imagine a language s u b t l e enough, yet superbly d e s c r i p t i v e , i n which even complex meanings c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y reduced to s i n g l e words, r i c h enough i n themselves t o e a s i l y convey such meaning. Imagine a l a r g e area i n h a b i t e d by a small mobile p o p u l a t i o n i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r with the whole, f o r whom a knowledge of the l a n d and i t s resources was synonymous with l i f e i t s e l f . Imagine a people who can c o l l e c t i v e l y remember back i n time t o when the world they moved i n t o was new, with a r i c h t r a d i t i o n of o r a l h i s t o r y of the changes of the nature of the occupation of the area, passed from g e n e r a t i o n t o ge n e r a t i o n . Such a landscape would have c o n s i d e r a b l e human meaning a t t a c h e d : such a landscape c o u l d be i n t i m a t e l y known t o i t s i n i t i a t e s , and read l i k e a t e x t . The t h e s i s argues that such a landscape e x i s t s , w i t h i n the immediate land-use area, and w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e memory of the I n u i t of the present-day settlement of P e l l y Bay, i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s of (2) Canada. The r e s e a r c h has focused upon examining the p e r c e p t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l environment as expressed i n commonly-used l o c a l I n u k t i t u t place-names, and attempts to p o r t r a y t h i s present-day world view as expressed by those who know i t b e s t , the e l d e r s of the se t t l e m e n t . The e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay are the present-day r e p o s i t o r s of the wisdom of t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . T h i s o r a l knowledge, b u i l t up through many generations of i n t i m a t e knowledge of the l o c a l landscape, r e p r e s e n t s the sum t o t a l of p r e v i o u s I n u i t land-use experience, and i n many ways can be c o n s i d e r e d the legacy of those who have l i v e d here before."Hunting and g a t h e r i n g people study the l i f e c y c l e s of p l a n t s and animals c a r e f u l l y . They i n t e r n a l i z e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about topography, seasonal changes, and mi n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . They p l a n t h e i r own movements i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n f o r m a t i o n they h o l d i n t h e i r mind about the world i n process around them... T h e i r plans are c e n t r a l t o an adaptive s t r a t e g y i n which c o n t r o l of i n f o r m a t i o n maximizes c o n t r o l over t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p between people and environment. U n l i k e food-producing people who must tra n s f o r m nature 'to make i t reproduce the way they want i t t o ' , hunters and gat h e r e r s ' l i v e more or l e s s with nature as a given' (Lee, . 1979: 117). Instead of attempting to c o n t r o l nature, they c o n c e n t r a t e on c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t . Thus they have developed h i g h l y <3) c o s t - e f f e c t i v e techniques f o r t h i n k i n g about t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the world they see i n process around them. The c a r r y i n g d e v i c e i s an e s s e n t i a l a r t i f a c t of hunting and g a t h e r i n g technology, but the technique of b e i n g a b l e to c a r r y the world around i n your head i s even more fundamental" ( R i d i n g t o n , 1990: 87) . The e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay c a r r y i n t h e i r heads a c l e a r and ordered r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r world, a c q u i r e d from t h e i r f a t h e r s and f o r e f a t h e r s , and r e f i n e d by a l i f e t i m e of a c t i v i t y on-the-land. I t i s through t h e i r eyes, through t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n , t h a t t h i s landscape i s to be best understood. T h e i r c o l l e c t i v e memory i s the key to the r e a d i n g of the t e x t of the landscape. The t h e s i s i s the r e c o r d i n g of t h a t t e x t , on paper, so t h a t others may read i t . Arguments i n the t h e s i s are arranged to support the f o l l o w i n g premises: 1. that the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay have r e t a i n e d , through the comparatively recent p e r i o d of c o n t a c t , a conceptual geographic framework of the topography of the r e g i o n that they i n h a b i t . 2, that t h i s unique p e r c e p t i o n of landscape c o n s t i t u t e s a h i g h l y developed p a t t e r n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which allows f o r an ordered and l o g i c a l knowledge of the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the land-use area, both l a n d and (4) s e a , 3 . t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e l o c a t i o n , p a t t e r n , a n d m e a n i n g o f t h e p l a c e - n a m e s t h a t a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e s o f t h i s l a n d s c a p e . 4. t h a t , w h i l e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r way o f " k n o w i n g o f t h e w o r l d " h a s b e e n a f f e c t e d b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s u c h i n f l u e n c e s a s r i f l e s , s n o w m o b i l e s , a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t s i t e , i t h a s a d a p t e d a n d c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t a s a c o h e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s p a t i a l p h e n o m e n a , a l o c a l i z e d b u t c o m p l e t e s y s t e m o f G e o g r a p h y , c a p a b l e o f b e i n g p a s s e d o r a l l y f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . T h i s k n o w l e d g e c o n s t i t u t e s , w i t h i n i t s e l f , a f u n c t i o n a l a n d c o m p l e t e s y s t e m o f n a v i g a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a . 5. t h a t t h i s s y s t e m o f n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l s , c o u p l e d w i t h i n t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l a n d s c a p e , i s u s e d b y t h e p r e s e n t - d a y I n u i t o f P e l l y B a y t o f o l l o w a v i t a l a n d v i b r a n t r o u n d o f s e a s o n a l l a n d - u s e a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e p r e m i s e s w i l l b e f o l l o w e d t h x " o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s i n t h e s t r e a m o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e p r i m a r y a r g u m e n t : t h a t a u n i q u e , f u n c t i o n a l , a n d p r e v i o u s l y u n d o c u m e n t e d s y s t e m o f t o p o g r a p h i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a e x i s t s fox- t h e I n u i t o f P e l l y B a y , N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . T h e t h e s i s d o c u m e n t s t h e (5) present-day p e r c e p t i o n of the land-use area, a p e r s p e c t i v e which i n v o l v e s aspects of m a t e r i a l technology that have been i n c o r p o r a t e d comparatively r e c e n t l y i n t o the l o c a l c u l t u r e , such as the use of f i r e a r m s , f i s h n ets, and snowmobiles i n h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . While these a d d i t i o n s , as w e l l as the establishment of a permanent settlement s i t e , r e f l e c t an a d a p t a t i o n t o e x t e r n a l l y imposed i n f l u e n c e s , the p e r c e p t i o n of the nature of the land-use area r e p r e s e n t s today the o r a l t r a d i t i o n s of a s o c i e t y t h a t s t i l l r e l i e s , t o a great extent, upon hunting and g a t h e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r sustenance. The O r a l T r a d i t i o n : Knowledge as Shared Text Ferdinand de Saussure, one of the founders of the modern study of l i n g u i s t i c s , has emphasized the primacy of o r a l speech as the very b a s i s of communication among human s o c i e t i e s . W r i t i n g , he concludes, i s a type of complement t o o r a l speech, and should not be thought of i n i t s e l f as a transformer of v e r b a l i z a t i o n (Saussure, 1959: 2 3 - 4 ) . Walter J . Ong, i n "Qrality and Literacy" s t a t e s "language i s so overwhelmingly o r a l t h a t of a l l of the many thousands of languages - perhaps tens of thousands - spoken i n the course of human h i s t o r y only <6) a r o u n d 106 h a v e e v e r b e e n c o m m i t t e d t o w r i t i n g t o a d e g r e e s u f f i c i e n t t o h a v e p r o d u c e d l i t e r a t u r e , a n d mast, h a v e n e v e r b e e n w r i t t e n a t a l l " ( O n g , 1982s 7 ) . M u n r o E . Edmonson , , a p r o m i n e n t r e c o r d e r o f f o ' i k l o r i c t r a d i t i o n ; , s t a t e s " O f t h e some 3 0 0 0 l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n t h a t e x i s t t o d a y o n l y some 78 h a v e a l i t e r a t u r e ( E d m o n s o n , :1.971s 3 2 3 , 3 3 2 ) . I t i s c l e a r t h a t much o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e human o c c u p a t i an o f t h e w o r 1 d h a s b e e n , a n d c:on t :i. n u e s i n many c a s e s t o b e , o f a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n . A p a r t o f t h e m a n d a t e o f o u r w e s t e r n s c h o l a r l y t r a d i t i o n h a s b e e n t o r e c o r d a n d p r e s e r v e t h i s o r a l h i s t o r y i n p r i n t . A t r a d i t i o n o f f i e l d w o r k i n o r a l s o c i e t i e s h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y many a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , , s o c i o l o g i s t s , e t h n o g r a p h e r s , g e o g r a p h e r s , a n d o t h e r s . I t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o l i s t a l l s u c h e n d e a v o r s f o r a l l s o c i e t i e s h e r e , b u t , f o r t h e s t u d y a r e a s u c h r e c o r d i n g s a s R a s m u s s e n ( 1 9 2 7 , 1 9 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) , B i r k e t - S m i t h ( 1 9 4 0 , 1 9 5 9 ) , v a n d e n S t e e n h o v e n ( 1 9 5 9 ) , B a l i k c i ( 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 7 0 ) , a n d P o n c i n s ( 1 9 8 5 ) , a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e r e c: o r d i n g o f t h i s o r a I t r a d i t i o n „ I n u i t p e r c e p t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e h a s b e e n s u r v e y e d b y s u c h a u t h o r s a s S t .e f a n n s o n ( 1 9 2 1 ) , B o a s ( 1 9 6 4 ) , F r e e m a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , B r i c e - B e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) , L o p e z ( 1 9 8 6 ) , a n d B r o d y ( 1 9 8 7 ) . I n u i t t o p o n y m y h a s b e e n r e c o r d e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s b y M u l l e r - W i 1 l e ( 1 9 8 7 , 1 9 8 3 a , 1983b) , , a n d b y R u n d s t r o m ( 1 9 9 0 ) . (7) Although the I n u k t i t u t s y l l a b i c alphabet was i n t r o d u c e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s d u r i n g the e a r l y years of t h i s century, t h e r e have been very few p u b l i c a t i o n s , with the exce p t i o n of church l i t e r a t u r e , i n A r v i l i n g m i u t I n u k t i t u t . E n g l i s h language education was begun s p o r a d i c a l l y by the m i s s i o n i n 1935, and has been continuous s i n c e the establishment of a school i n 1961. L i t e r a c y l e v e l s i n E n g l i s h among a d u l t s , however, s t i l l remain r e l a t i v e l y low compared t o the r e s t of the country. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s , both i n E n g l i s h and I n u k t i t u t , has been a f a c t of l i f e f o r the people of P e l l y Bay f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s , and many I n u i t a r e , i n the s t r i c t e s t sense of the word, l i t e r a t e now. However, with no l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , and with much of the t r a d i t i o n and c u l t u r e of the A r v i l i n g m i u t remaining unrecorded i n t e x t , P e l l y Bay may be c o n s i d e r e d as somewhat of an anomaly i n todays world: a c u l t u r e that i s p r i m a r i l y o r a l . As Walter Ong s t a t e s : "today primary o r a l c u l t u r e i n the s t r i c t sense h a r d l y e x i s t s , s i n c e every c u l t u r e knows of w r i t i n g and has some experience of i t s e f f e c t s . S t i l l , t o v a r y i n g degrees many c u l t u r e s and s u b c u l t u r e s , even i n a high-technology ambiance, p r e s e r v e much of the mind-set of primary o r a l i t y " (Ong, 1982: 11). I t i s one of the co n t e n t i o n s of the t h e s i s that the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay r e t a i n , t o t h i s day, such a p r i m a r i l y o r a l mind-set. The (8) focus of the study i s upon r e c o r d i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of landscape as expressed by the e l d e r s and a c t i v e l a n d - u s e r s . A l l f i e l d w o r k f o r the t h e s i s was conducted o r a l l y , i n the A r v i l i n g m i u t d i a l e c t of I n u k t i t u t , and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . There are some b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways i n which knowledge i s managed i n c u l t u r e s that are l i t e r a t e and c u l t u r e s that are o r a l . One d i f f e r e n c e i s the tendency of sentence s t r u c t u r e s i n o r a l s o c i e t i e s to be very d e s c r i p t i v e . Sentences i n o r a l c u l t u r e s tend to c a r r y a s u r p l u s of d e s c r i p t o r s , which f o r a l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y would seem e x c e s s i v e l y e x p r e s s i v e . " O r a l e x p r e s s i o n . . . c a r r i e s a l o a d of e p i t h e t s and other formulatory baggage which high l i t e r a c y r e j e c t s as cumbersome and t i r e l e s s l y redundant because of i t s a g g r e g a t i v e weight" (Ong, 1977: 188). Another tendency of o r a l c u l t u r e s i s to c o n c e n t r a t e e f f o r t and a t t e n t i o n upon nuance and i n t o n a t i o n as forms of e x p r e s s i o n , a process that can e a s i l y be overlooked or m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by those not i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r with the language, and which does not t r a n s l a t e e a s i l y i n t o p r i n t . O r a l s o c i e t i e s a l s o t y p i c a l l y i n v e s t great energy i n r e p e a t i n g over and over aga i n what has been l e a r n e d and passed down over the ages. While l i t e r a t e s o c i e t i e s r e c o r d t h e i r wisdom and move on to d i s c o v e r new forms, o r a l s o c i e t i e s t y p i c a l l y spend time p a s s i n g on the o l d (9) s t o r i e s and wisdom anew (Ong, 1982: 41). In a l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y we can "look up" a d e s i r e d p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n , and f i n d i t i n a t e x t i f needed. O r a l s o c i e t i e s do not study t e x t as we do: wisdom i s to be found and r e t a i n e d w i t h i n the mind, and can be r e l e a s e d only through the medium of speech (Ong, 1982: 31). In o r a l s o c i e t i e s l e a r n i n g i s accomplished by a program of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , with the i n i t i a t e s t y p i c a l l y watching, l i s t e n i n g , e x p e r i e n c i n g , mimicking, r e p e a t i n g , and f i n a l l y m a stering the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the tasks that they are expected t o l e a r n (Rundstrom, 1990, 163). Longer and more co m p l i c a t e d l e a r n i n g processes are accomplished with the use of mnemonics, a i d s to l e a r n i n g such as s t o r i e s , rhymes, and chants. U l t i m a t e wisdom, however, i s f o r people i n such a s o c i e t y to be found i n the minds of the e l d e r s , the r e p o s i t o r s of the l e a r n i n g of the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s . I t i s the r e c o r d i n g of that t e x t , the p e r c e p t i o n of the landscape that the e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay possess, expressed o r a l l y , t h a t the t h e s i s documents, The word " t e x t " comes from the root "to weave", In order to read the t e x t of landscape i n an o r a l s o c i e t y i t i s necessary to understand the context of the r o o t "to weave". There are c u l t u r a l c o nnotations i n v o l v e d : woven throughout the I n u i t p e r c e p t i o n of the landscape are the webs and strands of the many l a y e r s of t h e i r (10) c u l t u r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . P e r c e p t i o n of landscape i s i n e x t r i c a b l y a l l i e d with the nature of the I n u i t c u l t u r e i t s e l f . The t h e s i s has attempted both t o i n c o r p o r a t e the nature of the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of the A r v i l i n g m i u t , and to s y n t h e s i z e a concurrent r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the int e r w e a v i n g of I n u i t c u l t u r e and p e r c e p t i o n of landscape. In t r a n s l a t i o n from I n u k t i t u t , the I n u i t e l d e r s and respondents of P e l l y Bay have been w i l l i n g and a b l e , through t h i s work, t o share t h e i r o r a l knowledge of t h i s p e r c e p t i o n as the t e x t of the t h e s i s . Scope of the Study The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t , w i t h i n the main body of the t e x t , r e f e r s t o the methods and p a t t e r n s t h a t the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay apply to the use of t h e i r present-day t e r r i t o r y . Reference i s made t o on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s throughout the t h e s i s . These a c t i v i t i e s are not, however, r e s t r i c t e d t o the land, and are used w i t h i n the t e x t t o r e f e r t o h a r v e s t i n g of the reso u r c e s of the immediate environment, be they on land, open water, or s e a - i c e . Land-use a c t i v i t i e s which are documented l i k e w i s e r e f e r to both maritime and t e r r e s t r i a l r e s o u r c e s . Reference i s a l s o made t o two economies that f u n c t i o n s i d e - b y - s i d e i n contemporary n a t i v e communities; the (11) modern-day cash-based economy and the t r a d i t i o n a l h unting-and-gathering land-based economy. In many cases they a re p a r t of a continuum, with I n u i t working i n the cash economy i n order t o procure enough money t o enable them t o buy the equipment and s u p p l i e s necessary t o partake of the modern-day e q u i v a l e n t of the t r a d i t i o n a l economy. The t h e s i s focuses upon t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l economy, and i l l u s t r a t e s i t s nature and extent by e x p l o r i n g the methods used t o t r a v e l t o and harvest a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n the s e a s o n a l l y - d r i v e n round of on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s . I t pays p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o v a r i o u s methods i n v o l v e d i n n a v i g a t i n g from one area of la n d use t o another, and to and from the settlement i t s e l f . I n u i t methods of n a v i g a t i o n and on-the-land t r a v e l a re examined f o r a l l seasons, a l l types of weather, and a l l c o n d i t i o n s i n t u r n , and i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l . The second s e c t i o n , c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Appendix, i s a Gaz e t t e e r of I n u i t place-names, t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s , l o c a t i o n s , and o r i g i n s . 114 I n u i t place-names were l o c a t e d on two maps of the study area i n 1984 as a r e s u l t of a toponymy prepared by Father Frans Van de Velde, OMI,, the Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t i n P e l l y Bay from 1937 t o 1961. His work has been reexamined, i n some cases c l a r i f i e d , and extended. Through f i e l d w o r k , an a d d i t i o n a l 193 I n u i t place-names were added, g i v i n g a (12) t o t a l of 307 toponyms. The place-names comprise a gazeteer of the area that represents, as cl o s e l y as possible, the t o t a l number of named places currently used by active land-users of Pe l l y Bay. The translations are grouped broadly within two major areas: a) names which are ph y s i c a l l y descriptive. and b) those that r e f l e c t human l i v e d experience. They are used extensively within the text to portray the meaning of the named parts of the landscape understood by knowledgeable land-users of P e l l y Bay. Chapter Summaries Chapter Two presents the background of Pelly Bay and the study area. It includes a comprehensive h i s t o r i c a l analysis of Inuit-white contact from early explorers and the fur trade to the a r r i v a l of missionaries and the effects of m i l i t a r y DEW Line construction. It also describes the growth and development of the permanent settlement, and community l i f e as i t exists today. Chapter Three examines the nature, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and use of Inuit place-names i n the Pelly Bay area. It begins with a detailed physical description of the land and sea. This i s followed by discussion of the role of place-names as indicators of landscape perception, and a general review of the philosophy of naming place. The (13) etymologies of p l a c e names f o r the area are analyzed w i t h i n the framework of the g e n e r i c c a t e g o r i e s proposed i n "Names on the Globe", by Stewart (1975). A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the l o c a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , ' and p a t t e r n of the place-names f o r the study area f o l l o w s . The chapter concludes with an examination of the importance of v a r i o u s man-made landmarks, i n c l u d i n g inukshuks, i n the study area. Chapter Four i s concerned with the use of toponyms by the a c t i v e I n u i t land-users of P e l l y Bay i n t h e i r day-to-day l i v e s . I t analyzes a c t u a l l a n d use p a t t e r n s and n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l s p r a c t i c e d by a l l members of the settlement d u r i n g one harvest year: J u l y 1, 1987 to J u l y 1, 1988, as they f o l l o w t h e i r s e a s o n a l l y - d i c t a t e d rounds. T r a v e l p a t t e r n s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o day t r i p s , o vernight t r i p s , f a m i l y camping t r i p s , and i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l , and t h i s permits the study of b a s i c and supplemental n a v i g a t i o n a l techniques used by I n u i t a c t i v e on-the-land d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The chapter concludes with a s e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge, s t o r e d experience, and s t r a t e g i e s t o meet s e r i o u s t r o u b l e w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g on the tundra landscape. Chapter F i v e b r i n g s together the v a r i o u s strands of the t h e s i s argument, as a c o n c l u s i o n , and o f f e r s suggestions f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the study m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r study. (14) Fieldwork Techniques The f i e l d w o r k f o r the t h e s i s was c a r r i e d out i n and about the settlement of P e l l y Bay, N.W.T. i n June and J u l y , 1988. Many I n u i t are engaged i n on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h i s time, and some of the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted at campsites s c a t t e r e d about the bay, although a study o f f i c e was l o c a t e d w i t h i n the community i t s e l f , The author was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with the study area, having l i v e d the p r e v i o u s three years with h i s f a m i l y i n P e l l y Bay, and had spent time hunting, f i s h i n g , and t r a v e l l i n g with I n u i t . F i e l d techniques i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l methods of data c o l l e c t i o n . The f i r s t method u t i l i z e d was p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . As p a r t of the community of P e l l y Bay the author was ab l e t o r e c o r d much i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e t a k i n g p a r t i n many l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s both i n the settlement and out on-the-land. The author had access t o a snowmobile, an a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e , and a l l necessary equipment f o r extended excursions onto the surrounding landscape. I n u i t f r i e n d s and companions were w i l l i n g and ab l e t o i n t r o d u c e him to some of the mysteries of the land, and answered an unending s e r i e s of questions with u n v a r i a b l e good w i l l , The concern f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a "western b i a s " w i t h i n p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e s e a r c h has been taken (15) i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g both the f i e l d w o r k and c o m p i l a t i o n of the t h e s i s . I t has been suggested, by C l i f f o r d Geertz (1977), among oth e r s , that a r e s e a r c h e r must attempt t o set a s i d e h i s or her own pr e c o n c e p t i o n s , and view the experiences of the c u l t u r e t o be s t u d i e d from the p o i n t of view of t h e i r own i d e a s . Every e f f o r t was made t o i n c o r p o r a t e the p e r c e p t i o n of landscape from the I n u i t p o i n t of view, as seen through through I n u i t eyes, although the author r e c o g n i z e s the inherent l i m i t a t i o n s of such an attempt. The author assumes f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e r r o r s or d i s c r e p a n c i e s that may have r e s u l t e d from the d i f f i c u l t i e s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The main f i e l d w o r k technique i n v o l v e d i n the study was t o l o c a t e and i d e n t i f y toponyms on the maps. Residents of P e l l y Bay suggested that the bes t way to proceed was to focus upon the e l d e r s of the community. Consequently twelve of the e l d e r s , r a n g i n g i n age from 49 t o 77 years of age, agreed t o be i n v o l v e d i n the r e c o r d i n g of the toponyms that they knew. A l l were most knowledgeable of the named f e a t u r e s of the landscape, and were very i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c o r d i n g and p r e s e r v i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the b e n e f i t of f u t u r e l a n d - u s e r s . The r e c o r d i n g of t h e i r i n t i m a t e knowledge of the l o c a l landscape forms the c e n t r a l core of the data f o r the t h e s i s . C16) Each e l d e r was p r e s e n t e d w i t h copies of both maps of the study area at a s c a l e of 1:250,000, and i n v i t e d t o examine them, t a l k about p l a c e s and the land-use a s s o c i a t e d with those p l a c e s , and to p r o v i d e any p l a c e names t h a t they c o u l d f u r n i s h . The e l d e r s d i d t h i s alone, without the a s s i s t a n c e of other l a n d - u s e r s . The names were re c o r d e d on separate maps, so t h a t no e l d e r c o u l d see the work of o t h e r s , and they only saw the f i n a l products when a l l the e l d e r s were f i n i s h e d with the p r o j e c t . As a c o n t r o l f o r the v a l i d i t y of the o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t was determined that at l e a s t t h r e e e l d e r s should concur as to the exact name and l o c a t i o n of each toponym. In r e a l i t y t h e r e was a remarkable degree of agreement among the e l d e r s . Of the t o t a l of 193 toponyms r e c o r d e d t h e r e was i n i t i a l and u n a s s i s t e d agreement by at l e a s t t h r e e e l d e r s on the l o c a t i o n and naming of 191 of them. The toponymy records the names of the e l d e r s t h a t i d e n t i f i e d each of the p l a c e names so that t h e i r accuracy may be v e r i f i e d . Another technique used i n the f i e l d was to t a p e - r e c o r d i n t e r v i e w s with the e l d e r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of other c o h o r t s of a c t i v e l a n d - u s e r s . Because the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n speaks only I n u k t i t u t , a t r a n s l a t o r was h i r e d , and t h i s segment of the f i e l d w o r k i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s of t r a n s l a t e d questions and answers r e l a t i n g t o a l l aspects of l o c a l land-use (17) both present and p a s t , Many e l d e r s chose t h i s time t o r e c o r d i l l u s t r a t i v e s t o r i e s of l i f e on the l a n d i n t h e i r e a r l y days, as w e l l as t o pass on t r a d i t i o n a l a d v i c e r e l a t i n g t o present-day land-use. A t o t a l of f o r t y - f i v e hours of tape r e c o r d i n g s were made, and used as a r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of the t h e s i s . The f i n a l f i e l d w o r k technique employed a s u r v e y / q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The head of each f a m i l y i n P e l l y Bay was i n t e r v i e w e d about land-use a c t i v i t i e s by h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f and a l l f a m i l y members f o r the pr e v i o u s year, and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i l l e d out. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e t a i l e d b a s i c f a m i l y data, and the methods, l o c a t i o n , d u r a t i o n , extent, and harvest of land-use a c t i v i t i e s . A l l of the f a m i l i e s i n the settlement responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a 100% r e t u r n r a t e . I t p r o v i d e d the d e t a i l e d documentation f o r land-use a c t i v i t y by a l l r e s i d e n t s of P e l l y Bay f o r the harvest year J u l y 1, 1987 to J u l y 1, 1988 (see Tables I and I I ) . Every e f f o r t was made t o operate a l o n g the a c c e p t a b l e l i n e s of community consensus developed w i t h i n the l o c a l government of P e l l y Bay. They i n c l u d e d p e r m i s s i o n from the Hamlet C o u n c i l p r i o r t o i n i t i a t i n g the study, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by C o u n c i l members i n the g a t h e r i n g of r e s e a r c h data, A p r e s e n t a t i o n was made to t h i s c o u n c i l b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g the r e s e a r c h , t o e x p l a i n the nature and extent of the data t o be c o l l e c t e d . S i m i l a r l y , the (18) e l d e r s of the community were asked f o r t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably t o the success of data c o l l e c t i o n . Father Joseph Meeus, the present p r i e s t t o the m i s s i o n , i s both 1 a g i f t e d l i n g u i s t i n I n u k t i t u t and a student of toponymy i n h i s own r i g h t , and he p r o v i d e d a c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n v e t t i n g the work as i t p r o g r e s s e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted under the auspices of N.W.T. S c i e n t i f i c Research L i c e n c e Number 8051-12-410-235, i s s u e d by the Science I n s t i t u t e of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , A p r i l 7, 1988. The p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d i n " E t h i c a l P r i n c i p l e s For The Conduct Of Research In The North", p u b l i s h e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n of  Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s For Northern Studies (1982) were adhered t o throughout the course of t h i s r e s e a r c h . (19) Acknowledgements The author wishes t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of the Northern S c i e n t i f i c T r a i n i n g Program of the Department of Indian and Northern Development f o r funding of the r e s e a r c h component of the t h e s i s . A f u r t h e r grant from the A r c t i c Science A s s i s t a n t Program made i t p o s s i b l e t o h i r e a t r a n s l a t o r / r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t d u r i n g the two months of f i e l d w o r k . The capable a s s i s t a n c e of Mr. E r i c Oogark, who served i n t h i s c a p a c i t y , i s very much a p p r e c i a t e d . I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge the i n v a l u a b l e academic a s s i s t a n c e of my a d v i s o r s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: P r o f e s s o r s J.K. Stager, J . Ross MacKay, and R.C. H a r r i s of the Department of Geography, and Robin R i d i n g t o n of the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y . They have had the p a t i e n c e t o bear with me t o the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s work. F i n a l l y , I wish t o pay t r i b u t e t o the generous a s s i s t a n c e of the primary respondents, the twelve e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay, N.W.T., who c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r s u b s t a n t i a l c o l l e c t i v e knowledge, l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e s , and memories t o t h i s r e c o r d i n g of land-use i n f o r m a t i o n and toponymies. I t i s t h e i r words, t r a n s l a t e d and re c o r d e d f o r the b e n e f i t of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , that f i l l these pages. 20 Astronomical S o c i e t y I s l a n d s (21) Chapter Two S e t t i n g The Stage: A Background to P e l l y Bay and the Study Area. L o c a t i o n The Hamlet of P e l l y Bay. i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s of Canada, i s l o c a t e d at L a t . 68,32 N., Long. 89,49 W., approximately 210 k i l o m e t e r s above the A r c t i c C i r c l e . I t i s 177 a i r k i l o m e t e r s southeast of Spence Bay, N.W.T., the nearest community, and 1312 a i r k i l o m e t e r s northeast of Y e l l o w k n i f e , the source of most settlement s u p p l i e s . P e l l y Bay i s very n e a r l y on the same l o n g i t u d e as Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o , a l b e i t approximately 2,350 k i l o m e t e r s northward. The settlement i s near the bottom of P e l l y Bay, one of two l a r g e bays at the southern reaches of the Gulf of B o o t h i a . The hamlet i s b u i l t on a rock and g r a v e l base between 5 and 20 meters above sea l e v e l on the south shore of the Kugajuk R i v e r , at the p o i n t where i t flows i n t o St. P e t e r s Bay, on the southwest s i d e of Simpson P e n i n s u l a (see F i g u r e s 1 and 2 ) . The present-day settlement i s at the s i t e of a (22) t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g camp used f o r many genera t i o n s d u r i n g summer and f a l l . The I n u k t i t u t name f o r P e l l y Bay i s "Arvilidjdark", which, a c c o r d i n g to Rasmussen, means "the l a n d of the great whales" (Rasmussen, 1927: 167"). T h i s name o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the bay, but i s now used t o desi g n a t e the settlement as w e l l . Those I n u i t who are descended from the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of the area on and surrounding the middle reaches of t h i s bay r e f e r t o themselves as "firvilingaiut", or "people of the bay where there are whales". The r e f e r e n c e t o whales i n the name dates from long ago, s i n c e whales of any type are now very seldom found i n the waters of P e l l y Bay. The e l d e r s r e c a l l only a very few occasions when whales were taken l o c a l l y , and r e l a t e t h a t , w i t h i n the memory of t h e i r parents and grandparents, t h i s has been t r u e f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s . However, the r e l a t i v e abundance of bleached whalebone on the shores suggests t h a t t h i s was not always the case. I t a l s o suggests that the I n u k t i t u t naming of f e a t u r e s i n the area dates back to a time, long ago, when whales were r e l a t i v e l y abundant. The study area i s bounded by L a t i t u d e s 68,00 N. to 70,00 N., and Longitudes 88.00 W. to 90,00 W. T h i s area i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the bounds of two topographic mapsheets at a s c a l e of 1:250,000; P e l l y Bay (57A), and H a r r i s o n I s l a n d s (57D), p u b l i s h e d by the Department of (23) Energy, Mines, and Resources, Canada (see F i g u r e s 19-22). I t corresponds to n e a r l y a l l of the land-use a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out p r e s e n t l y by the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. Although the settlement i s l o c a t e d towards the southern p a r t of the study area, most land use a c t i v i t i e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d on the bay, which occupies the c e n t r a l p a r t of t h i s a r e a . T r a v e l on the bay i s e a s i e r than o v e r l a n d t r a v e l at any time of the year, and / land-use p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t t h i s f a c t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y the I n u i t have been a c o a s t a l people (Bandi, 1969: 4-5). The c y c l e s of f r e e z i n g and thawing of the water bodies have always d i c t a t e d the rhythms of nomadic movements between l a n d and sea. The margins between water and l a n d have assumed p a r t i c u l a r importance as boundaries i n t h i s environment. In the past the s h o r e l i n e s of the bay, the i s l a n d s , the r i v e r s , and t o a c e r t a i n degree the l a k e s , have been the zones where a good deal of l i f e was l i v e d . Today, the s h o r e l i n e s are s t i l l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s f o r n a v i g a t i o n , and campsites. I t i s a l o n g the shores of P e l l y Bay, and of the waters d r a i n i n g i n t o i t , that the m a j o r i t y of i n t e r e s t w i l l be focused. H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : The E x p l o r e r s P e l l y Bay i s one of the most remote and i s o l a t e d (24) settlements i n the Canadian A r c t i c today. A l l other A r c t i c I n u i t settlements can be reached and r e s u p p l i e d a n n u a l l y by ocean t r a n s p o r t : P e l l y Bay can not (N.W.T., 1989b: 64). P e l l y Bay i t s e l f i s a dead end cul-de-sac at the end of P r i n c e Regent I n l e t and the G u l f of Boot h i a . There i s a constant year-round flow of m u l t i - y e a r pack i c e through t h i s area, with the gen e r a l movement from northwest to southeast (Stager, 1984: 29). Much of the i c e i s r e l e a s e d through Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , which p r e c l u d e s open-ocean entry from Foxe B a s i n . While i c e c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r from year t o year, the I n u i t of the area have l e a r n e d to i d e n t i f y the presence of a "Hina'aq", or floe-edge, as a permanent r e a l i t y t o the north of t h e i r homeland. The only European e x p l o r e r t o enter the area by sea, S i r John Ross, c o u l d not s a i l out agai n . In 1832, a f t e r s e v e r a l winters of b e i n g f r o z e n i n t o the i c e , he and h i s crew abandoned t h e i r ships and walked out of the area to u l t i m a t e rescue. The l e s s o n was l e a r n e d by experience: these i c e - f i l l e d waters were treacherous at b e s t , and d i d not l e a d t o a n a v i g a b l e northwest passage. While the a l l - w a t e r routes to most of the p o i n t s on the Canadian A r c t i c Mainland and A r c t i c I s l a n d s A r c h i p e l a g o have been p i o n e e r e d and l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d , P e l l y Bay has yet to r e c o r d the passage of a s i n g l e supply v e s s e l , and the waters of the bay have (25) not been c h a r t e d to t h i s day. As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of i c e c o n d i t i o n s P e l l y Bay has been almost completely cut o f f from the o u t s i d e world u n t i l very recent times. P r i o r to the n i n e t e e n t h century the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay r e l i e d t o t a l l y upon the resources of t h e i r immediate environment (Rasmussen, 1927: 168). T h e i r technology r e l i e d upon the raw m a t e r i a l s at hand; snow, i c e , bone, stone, a n t l e r , and animal s k i n s ( B a l i k c i , 1970: 3-22). By combining these m a t e r i a l s the A r v i l i n g m i u t I n u i t c r a f t e d s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s and equipment adapted t o s u r v i v a l i n t h e i r environment. The e f f i c i e n c y of some of t h i s technology i s unmatched to t h i s day. The i g l o o i s s t i l l the most e f f i c i e n t form of cold-weather tundra s h e l t e r , and c a r i b o u s k i n c l o t h i n g the warmest, l i g h t e s t , and d r i e s t a v a i l a b l e . " T h e i r warm-to-hot houses and e x c e l l e n t garments l e d V i l h a l m u r Stefannson to d e s c r i b e t h e i r p h y s i c a l environment somewhat d r a m a t i c a l l y as s u b t r o p i c a l or t r o p i c a l " (Oswalt, 1979: 71), The I n u i t - s t y l e s l e d , l e i s t e r ( f i s h - s p e a r ) , u l u , snow sh o v e l , and harpoon are very much i n evidence i n I n u i t communities today. However s p e c i a l i z e d , I n u i t technology d i d have l i m i t a t i o n s that became evident e s p e c i a l l y when new m a t e r i a l s of European o r i g i n began to f i l t e r s l o w l y i n t o the r e g i o n i n the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century. The advantages of wood, to a s o c i e t y t h a t had been beyond (26) the reach of even d r i f t w o o d , and of fo r g e d metal, were immediately r e c o g n i z e d by the A r v i l i n g m i u t ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 35). Once encountered, these were worked i n t o the m a t e r i a l technology, and a d e s i r e c r e a t e d f o r more (Oswalt, 1979: 57-8). P r i o r t o the a r r i v a l of a European presence i n the A r v i l i n g m i u t areas of the C e n t r a l A r c t i c t h e r e were l i n e s of con t a c t and communication, a l b e i t somewhat l i m i t e d , among the v a r i o u s I n u k t i t u t - s p e a k i n g peoples a l o n g the c o a s t a l r e g i o n s (Oswalt, 1979: 163). V i s i t i n g among I n u i t groups who shared the same t e r r i t o r y was a popular l o c a l form of r e c r e a t i o n , and many people were i n t e r r e l a t e d . News, s t o r i e s , and g o s s i p spread q u i c k l y from one end of the l o c a l c u l t u r e area to the other. The f a m i l i e s t h at l i v e d at the e x t r e m i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y q u i t e o f t e n shared ranges and c o n t a c t s with n e i g h b o r i n g groups of I n u i t , and, i n many cases q u i t e amicably exchanged news of the l a t e s t events. I n v e t e r a t e t r a v e l l e r s , small groups of I n u i t would o f t e n set out on longer t r i p s f o r adventure, t o v i s i t d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s , e x p l o r e new hunting areas, or to f i n d wives from an u n r e l a t e d gene p o o l . Many ethnographers have commented upon t h i s f a c e t of I n u i t l i f e . Oswalt has s t a t e d t hat "Northern Eskimos not only shared a common l i f e w a y but were a l s o great t r a v e l l e r s and l i v e d a l o n g c o a s t s that posed few b a r r i e r s to movement by boat or (27) dog team (Oswalt. 1979: 163). Rundstrom has noted "that I n u i t were i n v e t e r a t e t r a v e l e r s i s perhaps the most t y p i c a l image of t h i s m i g r a t o r y people (Rundstrom. 1990: 162), while Rasmussen, i n r e f e r r i n g t o the A r v i l i n g m i u t i n p a r t i c u l a r , mentions that "these hardy f o l k were not a f r a i d of making long journeys by sledge, b e i n g away sometimes f o r a whole y e a r . . . " (Rasmussen, 1927: 169-70). When strange s h i p s f i l l e d with white men with odd h a b i t s began to appear i n i s o l a t e d c o r n e r s of the a r c t i c , news spread e v e n t u a l l y to the f a r reaches of the I n u k t i t u t - s p e a k i n g world announcing t h e i r a r r i v a l . The A r v i l i n g m i u t of the P e l l y Bay area, f o r many ge n e r a t i o n s , have had e x t e n s i v e c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t with the A i v i l i n g m i u t of the Repulse Bay area on the northern coast of Hudson Bay (Rasmussen, 1927: 169, B a l i k c i , 1964: 41), A well-marked t r a v e l c o r r i d o r a c r o s s Rae Isthmus connected the two c u l t u r e s , and i n t e r m a r r i a g e between these groups was, and remains to t h i s day, a common p r a c t i c e ( B a l i k c i , 1970: 129). The A i v i l i n g m i u t of the Repulse Bay area were v i s i t e d by such e x p l o r e r s as C h r i s t o p h e r Middleton (1741-2), Wm. Parry (1821-22), John Rae (1846-7 and 1854), and Charles F r a n c i s H a l l (1866). By the l a t e 1820's, B r i t i s h whalers had begun to p e n e t r a t e t h i s area. In 1855 two A i v i l i n g m i u t I n u i t from the Repulse Bay area, Hannah ("Tookolito") and Joe ( " E i b e r b i n g " ) , were taken, e v i d e n t l y with t h e i r consent, (28) to England by the c a p t a i n of a whaling s h i p . During a two year's stay i n London they l e a r n e d to speak p a s s a b l e E n g l i s h , and to enjoy c e r t a i n E n g l i s h customs. They were t r e a t e d as c e l e b r i t i e s w h i le t h e r e , and, u n l i k e p r e v i o u s Inuks d i s p l a y e d b e f o r e the E n g l i s h audience, r e t u r n e d home a l i v e , i n the employ of the e x p l o r e r Charles F r a n c i s H a l l . Throughout the e a r l y years of European e x p l o r a t i o n i n the E a s t e r n A r c t i c , t h e i r presence, strange customs, and the nature of the technology they possessed was made known to the A r v i l i n g m i u t I n u i t of P e l l y Bay p r i m a r i l y by way of the A i v i l i n g m i u t of the Repulse Bay area. The P e l l y Bay-Repulse Bay t r a v e l c o r r i d o r was t h e r e f o r e the r o u t e over which the small b i t s and p i e c e s of " o u t s i d e " technology f i r s t entered the A r v i l i n g m i u t c u l t u r e ( B a l i k c i , 1970: 168). Among the e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay there e x i s t s t o r i e s of a "white man's" s h i p found f r o z e n i n , i n t a c t , but completely d e s e r t e d , i n Frozen S t r a i g h t , north of White I s l a n d , between Southampton I s l a n d and M e l v i l l e P e n i n s u l a . T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h i s event predates the A r v i l i n g m i u t d i s c o v e r y of the remnants of the Ross e x p e d i t i o n i n 1832, and i n d i c a t e s the (unrecorded) l o s s of an e a r l y whaling s h i p i n the area. Although Repulse Bay A i v i l i n g m i u t were the major b e n e f a c t o r s of t h i s p r o v i d e n t i a l f i n d of wood, metal, and other European m a t e r i a l s , a c e r t a i n amount found i t s way to the I n u i t (29) of P e l l y Bay. The P e l l y Bay people d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r own t r e a s u r e t r o v e of " o u t s i d e " raw m a t e r i a l s when they found the i n t a c t remains of S i r John Ross's s h i p , H.M.S. V i c t o r y , abandoned i n the i c e of the northern p a r t of Lord Mayor Bay i n the s p r i n g of 1832. T h i s was, i n the words of Jose Angutingungniq, an e l d e r of P e l l y Bay, d u r i n g the time when " h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s mother was s t i l l b e i n g packed" (recorded i n t e r v i e w , 1988). Van den Steenhoven mentions a 1957 i n t e r v i e w with an e l d e r , N i p t a j o k , who was the great-grandson of T u l l o r e a l i k , the Inuk f i t t e d with a wooden l e g by the c a r p e n t e r of the ' V i c t o r y ' (van den Steenhoven, 1959: 11), w h i l e L.A. Learmonth records a 1948 n a r r a t i v e by a P e l l y Bay man, Ohokto, of the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of the f i r s t meeting with members of the crew (Gedalof, n.d.: 67). Rasmussen, i n h i s ten days i n the P e l l y Bay area i n 1923, has managed to r e c o r d what i s perhaps the most complete account of the o r a l h i s t o r y of t h i s event (Rasmussen, 1927: 170-2). A c c o r d i n g to l o c a l l o r e , p a r t s of t h i s s h i p were salvaged and used immediately upon i t s d i s c o v e r y , while other p a r t s were hauled ashore to a nearby i s l a n d . The cache p r o v i d e d a ready s t o r e of wood and i r o n , and was v i s i t e d r e g u l a r l y f o r many y e a r s . Shipwrecks, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e d the f i r s t l a r g e - s c a l e source of " o u t s i d e " raw m a t e r i a l s -wood and metal p i e c e s that soon found t h e i r way i n t o the (30) t o o l s of n e a r l y every A r v i l i n g m i u t f a m i l y group (Rasmussen, 1927: 170, B a l i k c i , 1964: 45), In J u l y of 1845 the twin 370-ton ships H.M.S, Erebus and Terror were l a s t reported by an Aberdeen whaler to be s a i l i n g westward i n B a f f i n Bay. I t was to be the f i n a l and most ambitious attempt to chart a northwest passage across the top of North America, By t h i s time the s t i l l unknown p o r t i o n s of a northwest passage l a y to the north and eastward of the mouth of the Castor and P o l l u x R i v e r , which d r a i n s westward from t r a d i t i o n a l A r v i l i n g m i u t t e r r i t o r y . However, i n attempting to f o r c e t h i s remaining unknown passage, S i r John F r a n k l i n and a l l 129 members of h i s crews simply vanished i n t o the A r c t i c , The search f o r the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n brought many explorex-s and t h e i r p a r t i e s to the A r c t i c , and vast new areas were charted as a r e s u l t . The f i r s t European expl o r e r to enter the P e l l y Bay area, Dr. John Rae, was among the f i r s t of the a r c t i c e xplorers t o t r a v e l l i g h t i n the I n u i t f a s h i o n , using dogteams with l o c a l guides, and l i v i n g o f f the land. He reached the shores of P e l l y Bay from Repulse Bay i n the s p r i n g of 1854, and immediately discovered what the outside world had been eagerly w a i t i n g to hear - word of the f a t e of the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n (Rae, 1850). An Inuk named Inookpoozheejook described to Dr. Rae the f i n a l r e s t i n g p lace of t h i r t y - f i v e white men at the mouth of a (31) r i v e r ten to twelve days t r a v e l westwards al o n g the mainland c o a s t , i n an area now c a l l e d the mouth of the Back R i v e r . As p r o o f , Dr. Rae was p r e s e n t e d with a Royal Navy o f f i c e r ' s golden hat band. I t was too l a t e i n the season to v i s i t the s i t e , but Dr. Rae d i d manage to c o l l e c t other r e l i c s of the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n from the P e l l y Bay I n u i t : s i l v e r f o r k s and spoons wi t h o f f i c e r s c r e s t s , a g o l d watch, a s i l v e r p e n c i l case, a surgeons k n i f e , E n g l i s h c o i n s , and even one of ' S i r John F r a n k l i n ' s m i l i t a r y d e c o r a t i o n s (Berton, 1988: 266). The f a t e of at l e a s t p a r t of the l o s t e x p e d i t i o n was now determined, and with i t came a reward, to Dr. Rae, of ten thousand E n g l i s h pounds from Parliament, F o l l o w i n g up t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a second e x p l o r e r , the American, C h a r l e s F r a n c i s H a l l , a r r i v e d i n the P e l l y Bay area two years l a t e r , i n the s p r i n g of 1866. He too t r a v e l l e d o v e r l a n d i n the I n u i t mode. He was accompanied by two A i v i l i n g m i u t I n u i t , Hannah and Joe, from the Repulse Bay area, who served as guides and i n t e r p r e t e r s . These Inuks had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a two year stay i n London, and they t o l d many s t o r i e s to the P e l l y Bay people about the strange manners and customs of white people. Through the i n t e r p r e t e r s , C h a rles F r a n c i s H a l l gathered more i n f o r m a t i o n about the l a s t days of the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n , Many years b e f o r e , i t was r e p o r t e d , a group of I l u i l e r m i u t , who l i v e d on the west s i d e of (32) King W i l l i a m I s l a n d , came across a l a r g e group of white men, s t a r v i n g , and dragging a heavy boat overland. The I n u i t were n e a r l y s t a r v i n g themselves, and d i d not have the c a p a b i l i t y of f e e d i n g the white men. H a l l managed to o b t a i n , through t r a d e , more r e l i c s of the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n on t h i s v i s i t t o P e l l y Bay, They i n c l u d e d a spoon wi t h C r o z i e r s ' i n i t i a l s , a mahogany barometer case, and a p a i r of s c i s s o r s much p r i z e d by i t s owner. H a l l ' s guides, f e a r i n g the f i e r c e r e p u t a t i o n of the I l u i l e r m i u t , r e f u s e d t o t r a v e l to King W i l l i a m I s l a n d , and H a l l was f o r c e d to r e t u r n to Repulse Bay f o r the w i n t e r . A f t e r f o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of f a l s e l e a d s , which took him to the north end of M e l v i l l e P e n i n s u l a , H a l l r e t u r n e d to the P e l l y Bay area once again i n 1869, p a s s i n g through to King W i l l i a m I s l a n d , There he confirmed, from the l o c a l I n u i t , the s t o r i e s he had heard r e g a r d i n g the f a t e of the F r a n k l i n s u r v i v o r s . From them he l e a r n e d of the abandonment of the s h i p s , and the attempt to sledge o v e r l a n d t o the Back R i v e r . The I n u i t of the area plundered the abandoned s h i p s , and f o l l o w e d the sledge r o u t e p i c k i n g up what they c o u l d , Many of the items they found were of immense va l u e to them. Other items, such as papers and books, had no v a l u e and were l e f t t o the elements, Some t h i n g s were kept as c u r i o s i t i e s , and one s t o r y r e l a t e s how a youth (33) a c c i d e n t l y blew up an i g l o o a f t e r p l a c i n g a bag of b l a c k powder near the f i r e (Berton, 1988: 378). Charles F r a n c i s H a l l managed to gather an impressive t r o v e of F r a n k l i n a r t i f a c t s w h i le on King W i l l i a m I s l a n d , i n c l u d i n g bones of a s k e l e t o n l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d as Lie u t e n a n t Le V i s c o n t e of the Erebus. As he r e t u r n e d through the P e l l y Bay area, H a l l r e a l i z e d t h a t he had d i s c o v e r e d the f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n t o the F r a n k l i n search: t h e r e were no more s u r v i v o r s a l i v e (Nourse, 1979: 133). For the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay, the shipwreck d i s a s t e r s were viewed as a godsend of t r e a s u r e s . The salvage of abandoned European technology e f f e c t i v e l y p r o p e l l e d them from the stone age i n t o the i r o n age o v e r n i g h t . Iron and wood were q u i c k l y reworked i n t o the l o c a l technology, and these m a t e r i a l s , as w e l l as any usable or d e c o r a t i v e a r t i c l e s found nearby, soon spread throughout the c u l t u r e . The items r e c o v e r e d by Dr. Rae, Ch a r l e s F r a n c i s H a l l , and l a t e r v i s i t o r s , were merely a small p a r t of the European f l o t s a m t h a t c i r c u l a t e d throughout the area as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the search f o r a northwest passage. The passage of the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s Rae and H a l l p r o v i d e d entertainment v a l u e as the source of s t o r i e s t o l d i n camps f o r many years hence, but otherwise had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the A r v i l i n g m i u t of P e l l y Bay. The e x p l o r e r s passed through the area q u i c k l y , t r a v e l l e d (34) lightly, and did not carry trade goods, When they were gone, no more of their kind came back to Pelly Bay. Historical Perspective: The Traders And Missionaries The Inuit of Pelly Bay were left to their traditional isolated existence. Yet a desire had been created among them for European materials and trade goods. From their neighbors they learned of the existence of trading posts far to the south, where these materials could be obtained. Before the turn of the twentieth century several expeditions left the Pelly Bay area for the southern Keewatin to barter, either directly with the established posts, or with native middle men (Rasmussen, 1930: 26). The wants of the Arvilingmiut Inuit were relatively simple: they were not yet dependent upon . the new technology, but merely wanted those tools and materials that would enhance their traditional technology. For many years, however, the Pelly Bay Inuit were the poor "second-cousins" of the fur trade era. Their homeland was the only area of the Canadian Arctic inaccessible by sea, and they had to travel considerable distances overland to conduct their trading. The easiest exchanges were with the Inuit of the Repulse Bay area. (35) They had b e t t e r access to Hudson Bay whalers who, when the whale p o p u l a t i o n was d e c l i n i n g , t u r n e d to t r a d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o f i t margin. Repulse Bay people were a l s o much c l o s e r t o the e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g p o s t s i n the southern p a r t s of Hudson Bay, and they arranged a l l i a n c e s which allowed them to t r a v e l t h e r e on an annual b a s i s . Sometimes they would b a r t e r with the A r v i l i n g m i u t f o r "second g e n e r a t i o n " t r a d e goods, and used the proceeds to procure the l a t e s t technology ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 45). N e i t h e r the Hudson's Bay Company, nor any other t r a d i n g consortium, ever e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g post i n P e l l y Bay. For the A r v i l i n g m i u t the t r a d i t i o n a l round of land-use a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the land, d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y u n t i l the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i r e a r m s . Whatever s n i p p e t s of " o u t s i d e " technology t h a t had managed to enter the area p r e v i o u s l y merely served to make c e r t a i n p a r t s of the m a t e r i a l l i f e s t y l e more e f f i c i e n t , and perhaps e a s i e r . Wood, i r o n , and a few manufactured trade goods had, u n t i l t h i s time, been a b l e s s i n g , and were a p p r e c i a t e d . Even the few smooth-bore black-powder second-hand f i r e a r m s t h a t had been a c q u i r e d were s l o w - f i r i n g and i n a c c u r a t e , and b a r e l y more e f f i c i e n t than t r a d i t i o n a l methods of k i l l i n g game. T h e r e f o r e , l i f e had gone on much as b e f o r e , r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d and u n a l t e r e d , u n t i l the C36) i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new r i f l e d , a c c u r a t e , r e p e a t i n g f i r e a r m s . The f i r s t modern r e p e a t i n g r i f l e t o enter the area was p r e s e n t e d to N u l i a l u k by Roald Amundsen i n 1906 ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 45). Around 1915 Ubluriasuksuk managed to exchange a dog f o r a r i f l e from the Repulse Bay area, where a shortage of good dogs was i n e f f e c t . By 1919, however, with the opening of a t r a d i n g post at Repulse Bay, n e a r l y a l l A r v i l i n g m i u t hunters had a v a i l e d themselves of the o p p o r t u n i t y to a c q u i r e f i r e a r m s ( B a l i k c i , 1970: 168) . Modern r i f l e s a l lowed i n d i v i d u a l hunters to k i l l more animals at g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s and i n a l l seasons, and to i n c r e a s e i n d i v i d u a l k i l l - r a t i o s c o n s i d e r a b l y . Not only was h a r v e s t a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d , i t was extended beyond the l o c a l ecosystems c a p a c i t y to reproduce. For a decade or more f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of modern f i r e a r m s a d i s r u p t i o n of the ecology of l o c a l w i l d l i f e o c c u r r e d i n the P e l l y Bay area (Freeman, 1976, Treude, 1975, B a l i k c i , 1964) . I n u i t , who had long l i v e d with a concept of endless r e s o u r c e s , d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r numbers c o u l d be f i n i t e . " F o l l o w i n g the establishment of t r a d i n g posts on the m i g r a t i o n routes and the consequent g e n e r a l use of r i f l e s , the c a r i b o u m i g r a t i o n ceased i n the years between 1920 and 1939" ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 7 ) . The (37) once-common herds of musk-oxen were e a s i l y s l a u g h t e r e d and permanently e r a d i c a t e d from the area. During h i s v i s i t t o the P e l l y Bay area i n 1923, Rasmussen w r i t e s "the country round about i s famous among the Eskimos because i t i s the only r e g i o n where i t i s p r o f i t a b l e t o hunt m e t h o d i c a l l y the musk-ox..."(Rasmussen, 1931: 33), while B a l i k c i notes t h a t "the evidence assembled here suggests that the musk-ox i n t r a d i t i o n a l times was to be found i n many areas i n the N e t s i l i k country, with p o s s i b l y the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n s p r i n g on the west coast of Committee Bay, and a l s o west of P e l l y Bay i n the v a l l e y of Simpson Lake and the surrounding h i l l s " ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 8). F r . Van de Velde mentions f i v e areas which i n the past had an abundance of musk-oxen (Van de Velde, 1984). By 1964, however, B a l i k c i notes that " P r e s e n t l y , no musk-oxen are found i n the country of the N e t s i l i k " ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 8). As noted by B a l i k c i , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r i f l e s , as w e l l as concomitant m a t e r i a l technology such as f i s h nets, wooden boats, and s t e e l t r a p s , had e f f e c t s upon the l i f e s t y l e s of the I n u i t as w e l l . Hunting and f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , which had p r e v i o u s l y been c a r r i e d out l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the group e f f o r t s of an extended " i l a g i i t " , or extended f a m i l y group, now became much more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . Whereas p r e v i o u s l y c a r i b o u were hunted only at c e r t a i n times of year, and were d r i v e n by (38) c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to p a r t i c u l a r c r o s s i n g s to be h a r v e s t e d by hunters i n kayaks or h i d i n g behind "tallun" (man-like inukshuks), the s i t u a t i o n was changed so that " c a r i b o u h u n ting with r i f l e s was conducted i n d i v i d u a l l y " ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 46). Older p a t t e r n s of s u b s i s t e n c e , which were c a t e g o r i z e d by a somewhat u n p r e d i c t a b l e r e l i a n c e upon "aglu" (open-hole) s e a l i n g with harpoons i n the winter months, now tended to r e f l e c t an i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e upon food, obtained by the use of r i f l e s . As B a l i k c i has noted: "The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the r i f l e , . . b r o u g h t about the abandonment of numerous t r a d i t i o n a l techniques and a g e n e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of h u nting p r a c t i c e s . Contemporary (1964) P e l l y Bay economy i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d e s s e n t i a l l y by h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l r i f l e s e a l i n g , net f i s h i n g , and the absence of systematic t r a p p i n g with t r a p - l i n e s . The need f o r new r i f l e s and ammunition, canvas f o r t e n t s , imported c l o t h i n g , and a few imported f o o d s t u f f s e s t a b l i s h e d f i r m symbiotic l i n k s between the P e l l y Bay people and the Euro-Canadian economy" ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 60). The i n t r o d u c t i o n of modern r e p e a t i n g r i f l e s t o the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay thus marked the b e g i n n i n g of both a profound change i n the t r a d i t i o n a l man-land r e l a t i o n s h i p and the growth of a c e r t a i n degree of dependency upon " o u t s i d e " r e s o u r c e s . R i f l e s r e q u i r e d b u l l e t s , the a c q u i s i t i o n of b u l l e t s r e q u i r e d t r a d e , t r a de r e q u i r e d (39) marketable f u r s , and the a c q u i s i t i o n of f u r s r e q u i r e d s t e e l t r a p s . The demands of the f u r trade r e q u i r e d some change of l i f e - s t y l e . No longer was the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of land-use a c t i v i t y d i c t a t e d s o l e l y by the season-driven need to a c q u i r e , p r e s e r v e , and s t o r e food products and raw m a t e r i a l s : now t h i s process was c o m p l i c a t e d g r e a t l y by an economic c i r c l e t h a t i n c l u d e d the need to harvest t r a d e a b l e f u r s . Furs began to be a f a c t o r w i t h i n the l o c a l economy, and a d e s i r e f o r and, e v e n t u a l l y , a r e l i a n c e upon o u t s i d e resources was c r e a t e d . B u l l e t s , t r a p s , and s t e e l k n i v e s had become n e c e s s i t i e s , and new food products, such as f l o u r , sugar, and t e a , i n d i s p e n s a b l e s t a p l e s of the l o c a l l i f e s t y l e . The I n u i t of P e l l y Bay were soon dependent upon Euro-american t r a d e goods to complete the continuum of the evolved l o c a l economy. They were, however, among the l a s t n a t i v e groups i n North America to succumb to the a t t r a c t i o n s of the b a r t e r economy, and t h e i r i s o l a t i o n was a b u f f e r to i t s f u l l e f f e c t s . The dependence on t r a d e i n c r e a s e d with the opening of a Hudson's Bay Company t r a d i n g post at Repulse Bay i n 1919. P e l l y Bay I n u i t f o l l o w e d the l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d t r a v e l c o r r i d o r to t h i s post f o r many y e a r s , and t r a d e d f o r what had now become the n e c e s s i t i e s of d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . The v a r i o u s landmarks of t h i s t r a d e route became a mnemonic to the people of P e l l y Bay; the route (40) has been t r a v e l l e d so o f t e n by so many Inuks that i t i s f i x e d w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e memory of the m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s . Most o l d e r a d u l t I n u i t of P e l l y Bay can t r a v e r s e t h i s r o u te, even i n the darkest times of the year, v i r t u a l l y at w i l l . In 1935, a p p a r e n t l y at the behest of s e v e r a l l o c a l I n u i t who had converted t o C a t h o l i c i s m at the m i s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d at Repulse Bay, Father P i e r r e Henry, OMI., was sent t o the P e l l y Bay area to b u i l d a m i s s i o n outpost. Father Henry chose a s i t e which became the Hamlet of P e l l y Bay. His successor, Father Van de Velde, was the only other permanent white r e s i d e n t of the area u n t i l 1961. The stone church and the small r e s i d e n c e b u i l t by the p r i e s t s were the f i r s t permanent b u i l d i n g s around which the settlement developed i n l a t e r y e a r s . The Hudson Bay post which opened at F o r t Ross on Boothia P e n i n s u l a i n 1937 p r o v i d e d another t r a d i n g o u t l e t f o r the A r v i l i n g m i u t , and c o m p e t i t i o n to the t r a d e r s at Repulse Bay ( L y a l l , 1979: 105-6). For a decade or more, v i s i t s t o one of these posts were p a r t of the annual s p r i n g t i m e r i t u a l f o r most of the f a m i l i e s i n the area. C o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t u s c o u l d be obtained by nature of ones purchases and p o s s e s s i o n s . Expensive and l u x u r i o u s items l i k e hand-operated sewing machines, phonographs, and outboard motors f o r wooden boats were sledged l a b o r i o u s l y over the e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d e r o u t e s , (41) In 1947, i n response to l o c a l demand, the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n opened a small s t o r e i n the stone church, I n u i t came here to trade f o r what were now p e r c e i v e d to be n e c e s s i t i e s ; b u l l e t s , c o f f e e , t e a , sugar, f l o u r , tobacco, and b a k i n g powder, Within a short while t h i s b a s i c stock was expanded to i n c l u d e such l u x u r i e s as c l o t h , r a i s i n s , oatmeal, jam, b i s c u i t s , and a few manufactured goods such as k n i v e s , needles, and rubber boots, O c c a s i o n a l l y , orders of s p e c i a l items c o u l d be p l a c e d i n advance f o r d e l i v e r y a year l a t e r ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 50). Normally supply f o r the new t r a d i n g post i n v o l v e d an annual s p r i n g - t i m e dog-team t r i p t o Repulse Bay, although on s e v e r a l occasions the m i s s i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y managed to d i s p a t c h a small supply boat through the s e a - i c e to F o r t Ross and back. A l s o , to the general amazement of the g e n e r a l populace, a new source of r e s u p p l y , the a i r p l a n e ( i n I n u k t i t u t "tingmiuk", meaning " b i g b i r d " ) had begun to appear from the s k i e s . On August 3, 1937, the " F l y i n g Cross", owned by the d i o c e s e and p i l o t e d by Father Paul Shulte, OMI,, f i r s t landed at P e l l y Bay (Choque, 1985: 94). A i r p l a n e s began to v i s i t the area with i n c r e a s i n g r e g u l a r i t y over the next s e v e r a l decades. Although the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay had developed a penchant f o r the " o u t s i d e " m a t e r i a l s and foods found at the t r a d i n g p o s t s , t h e i r way of l i f e was not as (42) d i s r u p t e d by the f u r trade as n a t i v e groups elsewhere. The d e s i r e to obtain fox f u r s f o r trade d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the seasonal round of land-use a c t i v i t i e s . The primary focus remained on food gathering: i f an occasion to shoot or t r a p foxes presented i t s e l f d uring the course of such a c t i v i t i e s , i t was taken. Few hunters set up f u l l - t i m e t r a p l i n e s , i n s t e a d t r a p p i n g was regarded more as a p r o f i t a b l e s i d e l i n e ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 49). With no t r a d i n g post w i t h i n the P e l l y Bay area, trade goods were harder to obtain here than i n nearly any other area of the a r c t i c , and they were much more expensive. As a r e s u l t , the I n u i t continued to r e l y , u n t i l very r e c e n t l y , on the t r a d i t i o n a l resources. Without a t r a d i n g post the P e l l y Bay I n u i t were not part of the c r e d i t system, and avoided i t s inherent dependency. Hunting and f i s h i n g , not t r a p p i n g , remain t h e i r most important land-use a c t i v i t i e s . The Establishment And Growth Of A Permanent Settlement F o l l o w i n g the Second World War, the s t r a t e g i c importance of the a r c t i c began to assume m i l i t a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e . The emergence of a " c o l d war" between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. i n the 1950's emphasised the (43) c r i t i c a l importance of c o n t i n e n t a l a i r defences (Byers, 1986: 7 ) . Together with Canada, the U.S.A. formulated a North American A i r Defence (NORAD) agreement, p a r t of which c a l l e d f o r the b u i l d i n g of the D i s t a n t E a r l y Warning (DEW) L i n e radar defence. I t extended from Greenland, through B a f f i n I s l a n d , and a c r o s s the mainland coast of the Canadian A r c t i c t o A l a s k a , roughly at l a t i t u d e 68.00 no r t h . C o n s t r u c t i o n of the DEW L i n e s t a t i o n near P e l l y Bay began at a s i t e approximately 12 k i l o m e t e r s southeast of the m i s s i o n i n e a r l y 1955. Without the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e a l i f t supply, the m a t e r i a l s f o r the P e l l y Bay s i t e had to be flown i n by heavy a i r t r a n s p o r t . The advance crew landed on the shores of Barrow Lake V'TassGrdjua*ark", meaning "the b i g l a k e " , i n I n u k t i t u t , and now c a l l e d , l o c a l l y , DEW L i n e Lake), "and a c a t e r p i l l a r t r a c t o r was a i r d r o p p e d to b u i l d a l a n d i n g s t r i p . M a t e r i a l s and equipment were landed on t h i s s t r i p by C-130 Hercules t r a n s p o r t p l a n e s , and r e l a y e d by a new road to the top of a nearby mountain, where the radar s t a t i o n was assembled. Since few of the l o c a l I n u i t c o u l d speak E n g l i s h , and had no c o n s t r u c t i o n experience or s k i l l s , only one or two on o c c a s i o n were h i r e d as c a s u a l l a b o r e r s . They were p a i d i n cash, a phenomena h e r e t o f o r e unknown to the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. At f i r s t t h i s money was w o r t h l e s s , (44) because there was nowhere to spend i t , but the concept gained ready acceptance when the DEW L i n e opened a small PX s t o r e with s u b s i d i z e d p r i c e s . I t was the the DEW L i n e p r o j e c t t h at i n t r o d u c e d , i n a l i m i t e d way but f o r the f i r s t time, the cash economy to the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. Before 1955 the l o c a l I n u i t had encountered only a handful of white people p a s s i n g through the area; only two s u c c e s s i v e p r i e s t s had remained over the years to spend any time among them. Thus the a r r i v a l of a number of c o n s t r u c t i o n workers caused q u i t e a s t i r , and the DEW L i n e s i t e became, f o r a time, an a t t r a c t i o n , a g a t h e r i n g p l a c e , and the source of much l o c a l entertainment. Moreover, the p r o j e c t produced q u a n t i t i e s of usable waste. As p a c k i n g boxes, scrap lumber, metal, other c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , and even s u r p l u s food items were d i s p o s e d of, the nearby dump became a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . Wood, and other c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , allowed some people to b u i l d permanent "shanty" houses at the P e l l y Bay m i s s i o n s i t e (van den Steenhoven, 1959: 3). I t had become normal f o r the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay to congregate at the m i s s i o n f o r mid-winter Christmas r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , and again at E a s t e r , and at s e v e r a l other times a year they v i s i t e d the Church and Store. The m i s s i o n was the focus of l i f e on the bay, and i t was l o g i c a l t h a t some f a m i l i e s d e c i d e d to s e t t l e permanently at the m i s s i o n s i t e . By 1961 a small v i l l a g e e x i s t e d at (45) P e l l y Bay, complete with church, s t o r e , e l e c t r i c i t y ( p rovided by a small w i n d m i l l g e n e r a t o r ) , and r a d i o communications ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 50-1). By t h i s time, the f e d e r a l government, which had assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n u i t a f f a i r s , began to d e l i v e r a v a r i e t y of government b e n e f i t s and s e r v i c e s . As a r e s u l t , settlements were set up across the Canadian A r c t i c t o d e l i v e r these s e r v i c e s . The f i r s t government b u i l d i n g f o r P e l l y Bay a r r i v e d at the DEW L i n e a i r p o r t i n 1959. I t was t r a n s p o r t e d c r o s s - c o u n t r y by c a t - t r a i n , and e r e c t e d at the m i s s i o n s i t e i n time t o become the temporary h o s p i t a l and morgue f o r an outbreak of I n f l u e n z a . During the win t e r of 1959-60 s i x t e e n l o c a l people d i e d of the d i s e a s e ( B a l i k c i , 1964: 66). The emergency care p r o v i d e d by the h o s p i t a l , however, saved the l i v e s of many other l o c a l I n u i t . In the f a l l of 1961 the new government b u i l d i n g became a school and the f i r s t t eacher, Frank Gonda, o f f e r e d elementary education i n the E n g l i s h language. Up u n t i l then, the only l o c a l education c o n s i s t e d of s e v e r a l p r o m i s i n g l o c a l students having been sent t o the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n school at C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t . Soon other government s e r v i c e s , such as h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , d e n t a l care, and pensions were a v a i l a b l e at the new government b u i l d i n g , and more I n u i t began to l i v e permanently at the settlement s i t e . C46) The c r i t i c a l problem f o r the new a r r i v a l s was housing. Scrap houses were i n short supply and inadequate. People moved i n with t h e i r r e l a t i v e s , c r e a t i n g e x c e s s i v e crowding, or l i v e d i n t e n t s , t e n t frames, dugouts, or i g l o o s on the margins of the nascent community. There was no p r o v i s i o n f o r communal settlement s e r v i c e s : each f a m i l y had to haul i t s own water by hand or by dog-team, and sewage and garbage were dumped a d i s c r e e t d i s t a n c e away. There were l o n g l i n e s of dogs staked out around the s e t t l e m e n t . They g r e a t l y outnumbered the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s , and c r e a t e d s a n i t a t i o n problems. Very q u i c k l y the housing s i t u a t i o n i n P e l l y Bay became an emergency. F o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by the p r i e s t , i n which he d e s c r i b e d the poor l o c a l housing c o n d i t i o n s compared to other n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s , the government responded. In the l a t e w i n t e r of 1961 t h r e e housing k i t s were a i r f r e i g h t e d i n to the s e t t l e m e n t . Each k i t c o n t a i n e d the necessary c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s to b u i l d a small one-room i n s u l a t e d house, complete with an o i l furnace. These houses, f o l l o w e d by four more the next year, p r o v i d e d much-needed accommodations, and were regarded at the time as q u i t e l u x u r i o u s . Other a r c t i c I n u i t s ettlements found that government and other s e r v i c e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d on a r e g u l a r (47) year-round b a s i s , but P e l l y Bay m i s s i o n , without s e a l i f t or an a i r p o r t , r e l i e d upon the good w i l l of the l o c a l DEW L i n e s t a t i o n f o r the o c c a s i o n a l use of t h e i r a i r p o r t s e r v i c e s . T h i s was not r e a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y and, i n 1962-63, c o n s t r u c t i o n of a permanent runway at the P e l l y Bay m i s s i o n s i t e was begun with the a i d of donated s u r p l u s NORAD machinery, and b u i l t with l o c a l l a b o r . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a i r p o r t has become legendary among a r c t i c p i l o t s . Not only i s i t l o c a t e d between the steep c l i f f s of a mountain v a l l e y , i t runs u p h i l l towards the west. The remains of s e v e r a l crashed a i r c r a f t have been conv e r t e d i n t o storage s h e l t e r s around the settlement, much to the v i s u a l c h a g r i n of v i s i t i n g p i l o t s . Throughout the 1960's adequate housing f o r the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay continued t o be a problem. The l a s t of the l o c a l f a m i l i e s had moved permanently i n t o the settlement, and s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s a r r i v e d from Spence Bay and Repulse Bay. The i n f l u x , coupled with an i n c r e a s e i n the b i r t h r a t e , soon saw a l l a v a i l a b l e permanent housing packed t o c a p a c i t y . When two DEW L i n e s t a t i o n s near P e l l y Bay c l o s e d i n the mid-1960's, they p r o v i d e d , f o r a time, a welcome source of c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s f o r j e r r y - b u i l t s h e l t e r s i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t C o operative s t o r e . I t d i d not, however, serve to a l l e v i a t e a l l the housing problems. In 196.7 the government i n t r o d u c e d r e n t a l housing and (48) c o n s t r u c t e d t h i r t y - t w o , low-cost p u b l i c housing u n i t s . These u n i t s , c a l l e d "512's" ( i n t e r i o r a r ea: 512 sq. f t . ) , were a marked improvement over the p r e v i o u s matchbox (the l o c a l term) houses. They were assembled by o u t s i d e c o n t r a c t o r s to approved standards. F a m i l i e s that occupied the u n i t s were to pay a percentage (25% i n i t i a l l y ) of t h e i r income as r e n t . By t h i s time at l e a s t one person i n v i r t u a l l y every f a m i l y r e c e i v e d some cash payments d u r i n g the year, e i t h e r from f a m i l y allowances, old-age and other pensions, or wages from c a s u a l l a b o r . The p r o v i s i o n of t h i r t y - t w o houses, and the establishment of an i n s t a n t "planned s e t t l e m e n t " , d i d not a l l e v i a t e the housing c r i s i s i n P e l l y Bay. Even now housing supply has not kept pace with the demands of a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n . In 1988, f o r example, one of the o r i g i n a l "512"s" had over twenty f u l l - t i m e i n h a b i t a n t s . Adequate housing remains a c e n t r a l problem i n many northern n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g P e l l y Bay. In 1966, under the d i r e c t i o n of F r . Andre Goussaert, the f i r s t l o c a l l y - o w n e d s t o r e , the Coop, opened i t s doors f o r b u s i n e s s . The b u i l d i n g from the abandoned DEW L i n e s i t e at K e i t h Bay housed the f i r s t t r u l y commercial venture to be attempted i n P e l l y Bay. I t has proven t o be a long-term success. The Koomiut Eskimo Cooper a t i v e remains the primary source of o u t s i d e goods and s e r v i c e s (49) i n the s e t t l e m e n t , and i t has branched out to p r o v i d e a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s such as f u e l d e l i v e r y , runway maintenance, f r e i g h t d e l i v e r y , and t a x i s e r v i c e . I t extended c r e d i t to the I n u i t , which allowed, f o r the f i r s t time, the purchase of l a r g e r consumer items, such as the very f i r s t o n e - c y l i n d e r Bombardier snowmobiles i n 1967 . The Snowmobile R e v o l u t i o n The i n t r o d u c t i o n of snowmobiles (commonly c a l l e d s k i doo's, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r make), brought a major change t o the l i f e s t y l e s of the I n u i t ( P e l t o et a l , 1972, Smith, 1972, V i l l i e r s , 1969). The f i r s t snowmobile to be seen i n the settlement came from the DEW L i n e s i t e i n e a r l y 1966, and was met with much amazement. The very f i r s t order f o r such a r e v o l u t i o n a r y motorized v e h i c l e was p l a c e d by the m i s s i o n i t s e l f , and when i t a r r i v e d , was viewed with both i n t e r e s t and s u s p i c i o n . At that time the I n u i t were t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r with machinery. The technology of the snowmobile was an a l i e n concept, and e a r l y owners had many problems. A skidoo r e q u i r e d the owner to become f a m i l i a r with a whole new realm of technology; f u e l - o i l r a t i o s , small-engine mechanics, s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s , and the a b i l i t y t o d e s c r i b e and order p a r t s i n a f o r e i g n language. There (50) were no f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e p a i r nearby, and every Inuk had, by n e c e s s i t y , to become h i s own mechanic f o r these new " i r o n dogs". The snowmobile has now become a n e c e s s i t y f o r I n u i t . It has allowed the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay to h a r v e s t , from a c e n t r a l base, an area of l a n d equal t o , or i n many cases, g r e a t e r than t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . I f dog teams c o u l d average s i x t o e i g h t k i l o m e t e r s per hour, a snowmobile can e a s i l y t r a v e l at ten times that r a t e . Before the i n t r o d u c t i o n of snowmobiles t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s were measured i n " s l e e p s " , the number of overnight s t o p s . Now v i r t u a l l y any d e s t i n a t i o n frequented by P e l l y Bay I n u i t can be reached, by skidoo, i n one day. In the p a s t , a working dog team r e q u i r e d a major commitment of time and energy. Large q u a n t i t i e s of food had to be obtained and s t o r e d . Time was spent i n e x e r c i s i n g and t r a i n i n g the dogs, and r e p a i r i n g harnesses. The ownership of snowmobiles, power boats, a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s , and other modern technology a s s o c i a t e d with present-day I n u i t l a n d use a c t i v i t i e s i s no l e s s onerous of time and energy. Equipping a modern I n u i t hunter i s a very expensive p r o p o s i t i o n . A new snowmobile c o s t s approximately s i x thousand d o l l a r s (plus d e l i v e r y ) , and a f u l l - t i m e hunter can e a s i l y wear one out i n the course of a year. G a s o l i n e , at $5.00 a g a l l o n p l u s o i l , r i f l e s ($300 - $600 each), b u l l e t s at (51) $1.00 a p i e c e , t e n t s , s l e d s , and a l l of the other b a s i c equipment needed to go out on the l a n d today add up to a c o n s i d e r a b l e sum. A t r a d e - o f f of time and energy has to be made to harvest the landscape today. I n u i t who are best a b l e to a f f o r d the c o s t of t h i s technology are the s a l a r i e d employees, who, because of jobs are not w e l l s i t u a t e d to use t h i s equipment e f f e c t i v e l y , as they are l i m i t e d to h o l i d a y or weekend h a r v e s t i n g e x c u r s i o n s . As wage employment grows, a form of mutual interdependence, the dual economy (wages/hunting) has developed among f a m i l i e s and k i n groups. L o c a l h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s e x h i b i t concerns both of f i l l i n g of the job p r o p e r l y , and f o r the community w e l f a r e . The community consensus i s that at l e a s t one person from each household should h o l d a f u l l - t i m e j o b . T h i s person p r o v i d e s the money r e q u i r e d f o r the cash economy. But a f a m i l y i n P e l l y Bay, even with government s u b s i d i e s , cannot e x i s t e n t i r e l y i n the cash economy. In n e a r l y every f a m i l y group, one or more members are i n v o l v e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l economy as hunters - and fishermen. The wages earned p r o v i d e the money f o r the equipment and s u p p l i e s needed to go out on the landj the hunters and fishermen who are not employed i n jobs b r i n g home the h a r v e s t , T r a d i t i o n a l k i n s h i p s h a r i n g i n s u r e s that every Inuk has an adequate supply of country food. (52) Another aspect of of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change has emerged, i n which the ownership of expensive c a p i t a l items pass through t h r e e component stages of ownership. New items l i k e boats, outboard motors, skidoos, and a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s are purchased by the wage earners . They are used mainly on weekend or h o l i d a y e x c u r s i o n s , or l e n t t o f a m i l y members i n r e t u r n f o r country food. There comes a p o i n t , however, at which c o s t s of r e p a i r and upkeep become too onerous. At t h i s p o i n t , a new machine i s purchased by the wage earner, and the o l d one i s s o l d to a more a c t i v e l a n d user. These I n u i t have the time and m o t i v a t i o n to keep o l d e r machines running. For them, r e l i a b i l i t y i s not a major concern; i f the machine breaks down on the l a n d i t can be r e p a i r e d i n the f i e l d , or the owner can set up camp and wait f o r a s s i s t a n c e . The u s e f u l working l i f e of a machine can, with i n g e n u i t y , be extended f o r many y e a r s . U l t i m a t e l y v e h i c l e s reach the end of t h e i r working l i f e , and become a source of p a r t s . Many young a d u l t s , w e l l v e r s e d i n small engine mechanics, d r i v e v e h i c l e s that are a combination of two or t h r e e others abandoned by t h e i r owners. T h i s t r i c k l e - d o w n system has p e r m i t t e d n e a r l y every Inuk to own a snowmobile, r e g a r d l e s s of age or socioeconomic s t a t u s . (5 3) The Development of L o c a l Government Over the years P e l l y Bay has earned the r e p u t a t i o n of having a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e that works e f f e c t i v e l y . In e a r l y y e a r s , when the f e d e r a l government was c r e a t i n g the p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the settlement, a u t h o r i t y was v e s t e d i n a settlement manager brought i n from o u t s i d e . There were i n e v i t a b l e c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . For the l o c a l people, the primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the w e l f a r e of t h e i r community. They found i t d i f f i c u l t to understand the nature.of a r b i t r a r y a u t h o r i t y over t h e i r l i v e s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s by the government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . When r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were t r a n s f e r r e d from Ottawa to Y e l l o w k n i f e i n 1967, i t r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. A u t o c r a t i c settlement managers were r e p l a c e d by Northern S e r v i c e O f f i c e r s who were educated t o guide l o c a l n a t i v e s i n democratic p r a c t i c e s and procedures (Oswalt, 1979: 299, Duffy, 1988: 200). Committees were set up, f i r s t t o a d v i s e the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , but l a t e r t o assume l o c a l c o n t r o l . I t was a long term p o l i c y that met v a r y i n g degrees of success across the N.W.T, I t was, however, very s u c c e s s f u l i n P e l l y Bay. On A p r i l 1, 1973, P e l l y Bay became the f i r s t (54) settlement i n the C e n t r a l A r c t i c t o achieve Hamlet s t a t u s . The Hamlet C o u n c i l has guided l o c a l a f f a i r s e f f e c t i v e l y s i n c e that time, i n c o r p o r a t i n g a mixture of .learned democratic procedures with t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t consensus. In 1979 the Hamlet was one of the f i r s t i n the N.W.T, to de a l with the growing problem of a l c o h o l abuse by e n f o r c i n g a complete p r o h i b i t i o n , s t i l l i n e f f e c t . Through the many l o c a l bodies i n P e l l y Bay - the School Committee, the Coop Board of D i r e c t o r s , Church Committee(s), the Health Committee, the Land Claims S e c r e t a r i a t , the Hunters and Trappers A s s o c i a t i o n , Housing Committee, and ot h e r s , the Hamlet of P e l l y Bay i s now very much i n charge of i t s own a f f a i r s , P e l l y Bay Today P e l l y Bay i s one of the s m a l l e r settlements i n the Kitikmeot Region of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n as of J u l y , 1988, was 334, a l l but 11 of whom were I n u i t . There are 63 r e s i d e n c e s i n the settlement, each occupied by an immediate or extended f a m i l y . There are th r e e exceptions; the p r i e s t who l i v e s i n the church r e c t o r y , the nurse who l i v e s i n the n u r s i n g s t a t i o n , and the Coop manager, who l i v e s i n a house p r o v i d e d by the Koomiut Cooperative A s s o c i a t i o n . There are th r e e g e n e r a l (55) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of houses i n P e l l y Bay, r e l a t i n g t o ownership. F i v e u n i t s are owned and maintained by the Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s f o r t h e i r employees, p r i m a r i l y the t e a c h e r s . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of housing, 56 u n i t s , i s owned by the N.W.T. Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , and i s a l l o c a t e d as low-income p u b l i c housing. These b u i l d i n g s run the gamut from twenty year o l d "512'a" to modern two-story bungalows. Rent i s charged as a percentage of income. Many employees r e c e i v e a p a r t i a l housing subsidy as a c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r employment. The c o s t of upkeep, maintenance, and the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s to both types of government-owned housing u n i t s i s h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d . In recent years the Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s has i n s t i t u t e d a Home-ownership A s s i s t a n c e Program (H.A.P.) i n order to encourage a p r i v a t e housing market. The s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t i s given a loan to purchase the m a t e r i a l s f o r a house. Through a system known as "sweat e q u i t y " t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s p a i d t o c o n s t r u c t h i s or her own house. Once c o n s t r u c t e d , the owner must pay f u l l market p r i c e s f o r u t i l i t i e s , and m a i n t a i n the b u i l d i n g to a p p r o p r i a t e standards. A f t e r f i v e years the loan i s f o r g i v e n , and f u l l ownership of the b u i l d i n g i s turned over to the occupant. There are, at the moment, two p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d H.A.P. houses i n P e l l y Bay, but there are plans to b u i l d s e v e r a l more i n (56) the coming y e a r s . N o n - r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s i n P e l l y Bay are p r i m a r i l y d e d i c a t e d t o commercial and s e r v i c e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s . The P i e r r e Henry Community Center, a l a r g e , imposing, and c e n t r a l l y - l o c a t e d b u i l d i n g , i s the hub of much a c t i v i t y i n the settlement. T e r r i t o r i a l , r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l government o f f i c e s , as w e l l as Hamlet C o u n c i l Chambers, a gym, canteen, c o f f e e room, post o f f i c e , community r a d i o s t a t i o n , and common meeting area are l o c a t e d here. The Koomiut Cooperative A s s o c i a t i o n occupies s e v e r a l warehouses, a h o t e l , a garage, a managers r e s i d e n c e , and a small r e t a i l s t o r e . Apart from the Coop, s e v e r a l small b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s have begun i n the past few y e a r s . A small c o n f e c t i o n a r y and s k i d o o - p a r t s shop occupies one former house, and a c r a f t shop, c o n f e c t i o n a r y , and games h a l l another. The l o c a l Hunters and Trappers S o c i e t y maintains a small o f f i c e b u i l d i n g , from which they s e l l h u n t i ng and camping s u p p l i e s t o t h e i r members. The C a t h o l i c Church, Rectory, and s e v e r a l warehouses are i n t e r s p e r s e d among the r e s i d e n c e s . On a p o i n t of la n d behind the settlement can be found the o l d stone church b u i l t by Fathers Henry and Van de Velde, now used as a museum. Various l e v e l s of government are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many of the other b u i l d i n g s i n the community. These i n c l u d e the n u r s i n g s t a t i o n , s c h o o l , a i r p o r t t e r m i n a l , f u e l tank (57) farm, and e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t . Other permanent government f a c i l i t i e s , such as workshops, garages, and warehouses are d i s t r i b u t e d randomly, as are s e v e r a l p o r t a b l e t r a i l e r s used f o r telecommunications f a c i l i t i e s and v i s i t i n g R.C.M.P and N.W.T. W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e O f f i c e r s . A l l movement of goods and s e r v i c e s i n or out of P e l l y Bay i s by a i r . Scheduled s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d t o the east ( I q a l u i t ) and west (Yellowknife) by F i r s t A i r three days a week. Cha r t e r s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d by A d l a i r , Calm A i r , and N.W.T. A i r . Large and o v e r s i z e d cargos, as w e l l as the annual f u e l l i f t , are normally brought i n by N.W.T. A i r Hercules c h a r t e r s . Modern and T r a d i t i o n a l Economies For the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay the r e are e s s e n t i a l l y two separate economies i n o p e r a t i o n today. One s e c t o r , the modern wage economy, i s d r i v e n by cash income. There are between 32-35 f u l l - t i m e jobs a v a i l a b l e t o I n u i t . These are n e a r l y a l l a s s o c i a t e d with the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government ( l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , or t e r r i t o r i a l ) , or with the Coop. Many of these jobs i n c l u d e a northern b e n e f i t s package, with p r o v i s i o n s f o r settlement, t r a v e l , and i s o l a t e d - p o s t allowances, as w e l l as c e r t a i n housing s u b s i d i e s . However, c o n s i d e r i n g the high cost of l i v i n g (58) i n P e l l y Bay. t h e r e are many f u l l - t i m e jobs that would, i n comparison to l i v i n g standards i n the r e s t of the country, be c o n s i d e r e d as minimum wage employment, and r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e l y low standards of education of most a d u l t s i n the community. Part-t i m e and seasonal employment i s o f f e r e d to the r e s e r v e l a b o r p o o l at times, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the summer months. Most c o n t r a c t o r s adhere to a " l o c a l h i r e " p o l i c y . Make-work p r o j e c t s , such as an annual s p r i n g "hamlet clean-up d r i v e " , are a l s o u t i l i z e d to p r o v i d e c o n s t r u c t i v e employment. Unemployment Insurance b e n e f i t s , as i n other areas of Canada with high r a t e s of j o b l e s s n e s s , a l s o f i g u r e h i g h l y as a source of income i n P e l l y Bay. Very few of the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay venture o u t s i d e of the community f o r employment. Although t h e r e have been i n s t a n c e s i n which a l o c a l Inuk has accepted employ with a r e s o u r c e or e x p l o r a t i o n company, most have r e t u r n e d t o the settlement a f t e r r e a l i z i n g t h e i r immediate f i n a n c i a l goals of a skidoo, outboard motor, or boat. Very few I n u i t from P e l l y Bay have ever spent more than one season i n the employ of an o u t s i d e employer (Hobart, 1981) . For those with the i n c l i n a t i o n or t a l e n t , c a r v i n g , sewing, or the c r e a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l h a n d i c r a f t s can serve t o b r i n g i n some cash income. P e l l y Bay i s (59) e s p e c i a l l y noted f o r s m a l l , f i n e l y - c r a f t e d i v o r y c a r v i n g s , and a n i m a l - h a i r couchings. Some l o c a l a r t i s a n s p r e f e r t o s p e c i a l i z e i n one p a r t i c u l a r medium or genre, and are known f o r t h e i r f i n e soapstone b i r d s , chess s e t s , or w a l l hangings. Although a l o c a l attempt at e s t a b l i s h i n g an I n u i t p r i n t - m a k i n g c e n t e r f a i l e d a number of years ago, s e v e r a l l o c a l I n u i t have s o l d small p i e c e s of artwork on o c c a s i o n . Most a r t and c r a f t w o r k i s s o l d t o , and through, the l o c a l Coop s t o r e , although income from t h i s source tends to be q u i t e c y c l i c a l i n nature. The p r o d u c t i o n of I n u i t a r t and h a n d i c r a f t s p r o v i d e s , f o r some r e s i d e n t s of P e l l y Bay, a welcome cash-flow d i v i d e n d but i s g e n e r a l l y not r e l i e d upon as a secure source of year-round l i v e l i h o o d . Commercial hunting and f i s h i n g p r o v i d e s a source of o c c a s i o n a l income. Although an attempt was made s e v e r a l years ago to e s t a b l i s h a commercial a r c t i c char f i s h e r y i n the area, i t was abandoned due to lower than a n t i c i p a t e d stocks ( K r i s t o f f e r s o n , 1982). S e v e r a l fishermen, however, s t i l l r e t a i n commercial f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s , and s e l l f i s h l o c a l l y through the Coop. Hunting a c t i v i t i e s b r i n g i n some income, most of which comes from the s a l e of p o l a r bear f u r s at a u c t i o n . Commercial t r a p p i n g , as a source of income i s , i n the P e l l y Bay area, r e l a t i v e l y minimal. In the harvest year June 1987-88, a t o t a l of 59 t r a p s were set f o r fox, (60) r e s u l t i n g in 5 4 fox p e l t s . These traps were set and checked, for the most part, by young, unemployed males for incidental income. Other sources of cash revenue include pensions, family allowances, and welfare assistance. Although there had been in previous years an aversion to accepting welfare payments, th i s source of income has now become the norm among the young adults of the community, many of whom are r e l a t i v e l y uneducated, and f i n d l o c a l employment d i f f i c u l t to obtain. There i s , however, a second economy in P e l l y Bay, as in many other native communities, which functions alongside the cash economy. This i s the t r a d i t i o n a l Inuit one, which revolves around the c o l l e c t i n g and harvesting of l o c a l resources from the surrounding landscape. The value of the country food obtained by such excursions i s e s s e n t i a l l y uncalculable, as nearly every member of the P e l l y Bay community, at some time or other during the course of the year, i s involved i n on-the-land hunting and gathering a c t i v i t i e s . Hunters and fishermen bring large quantities of f i s h , fowl, and meat into the settlement. These a c t i v i t i e s are often supported by entire families, including the children. The basic diet of the majority of the inhabitants of Pelly Bay includes a large percentage of country food, both by choice and necessity. The nature of this (61) secondary economy, a v i t a l part of the present-day existence of the Arvilingmiut of Pelly Bay, and the various methods r e l a t i n g to the c u l t u r a l l y - l e a r n e d u t i l i z a t i o n of the surrounding landscape to provide these necessary resources, including the unique navigational s k i l l s involved, w i l l be considered in the following chapters, F i c r u r e 2 : P e l l y Bay and t h e S u r r o u n d i n g A r e a 62 P E L L Y BAY AND SURROUNDING A R E A NORTHWEST T E R R I T O R I E S , CANADA SCALE 1i«,300,000 km. I ' M 1 c». • Ai kn. o so loo :so 2co :so BRIAN GOCURING, DEP"T OP GEOGRAPHY, UBC. 1990. T 93 .v. — 1 -Chapter Three (63) Uncovering the P e r c e p t i o n of Landscape: The Nature and Use of I n u i t Place-Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area. I n t r o d u c t i o n To a person a r r i v i n g i n a tundra landscape f o r the f i r s t time the sense of p e r s p e c t i v e can be d i s o r i e n t i n g . By f a r the m a j o r i t y of humans i n t e r n a l i z e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r immediate environment by l o o k i n g t o markers of p l a c e i n the foreground of t h e i r v i s i o n . In most environments these near to mid-distance v i s u a l c l u e s p r o v i d e the markers by which p l a c e s , and the space between them, are l e a r n e d . For most people the l i v e d environment i s bounded by t r e e s , b u i l d i n g s , roads, boundaries, and fences. N a v i g a t i n g through t h i s environment i s a process of r e c o g n i z i n g and s p a t i a l l y r a t i o n a l i z i n g those o b j e c t s that are on the s u r f a c e of the e a r t h . The e a r t h i t s e l f , the s o i l and bedrock, i s covered up, and exposes i t s e l f r a r e l y . The f a r h o r i z o n , f o r most people, i s an a l i e n concept, hidden by the myriad of o b j e c t s which populate the foreground. The f o r e s t i s hidden by the t r e e s . One of the f i r s t t h i n g s that any v i s i t o r t o the (64) tundra r e g i o n s of the a r c t i c n o t i c e s i s a sense of v a s t spaciousness i n the p h y s i c a l environment. There i s an unimpeded view from h o r i z o n t o h o r i z o n , broken only by the outer s u r f a c e of the p l a n e t s c r u s t . There i s very l i t t l e foreground, and few middle d i s t a n c e f o c i upon which the eye can dwell f o r o r i e n t a t i o n . The f a r d i s t a n c e i s where one's v i s i o n tends t o s e t t l e , a c i r c u l a r plane which may, from h o r i z o n t o h o r i z o n , exceed f i f t y k i l o m e t e r s . Many v i s i t o r s experience an uneasiness at f i r s t with such a p e r c e p t i o n , and have d i f f i c u l t y i n n a v i g a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s easy f o r newcomers t o become l o s t i n the a r c t i c . To " o u t s i d e r s " f a m i l i a r with a world which holds a p l e t h o r a of v i s u a l c l u e s of a l l s i z e s , shapes, and c o l o r s the world of the a r c t i c o f f e r s , upon f i r s t g lance, a p a u c i t y of r e s o u r c e s . The dominant c o l o r s i n winter are b l a c k , white, and v a r i o u s g r a d a t i o n s between. In summer t h i s expands t o brown, with o c c a s i o n a l patches of green. One must look v e r y c l o s e l y indeed t o f i n d other c o l o r s . Dominant shapes are non-angular, with sea l e v e l and the h o r i z o n b e i n g the only t r u e c o n s t a n t s . D i s t a n c e s are d e c e i v i n g . Many a t r a v e l e r has mistaken a nearby rock f o r a mountain, a white fox f o r a p o l a r bear, or f l a t l a n d f o r the ocean, and experiences no embarrassment i n the t e l l i n g . Mirages are commonplace, and whole ranges of mountains can appear where there are (65) none. The r e g u l a r c y c l e of the passage of the sun, so f a m i l i a r t o those from southern c l i m e s as r i s i n g i n the east and s e t t i n g i n the west, i s absent as w e l l . Above the a r c t i c c i r c l e t h i s primary v i s u a l cue i s of l i t t l e import: i t c i r c l e s the h o r i z o n e n d l e s s l y d u r i n g the summer, and disappears e n t i r e l y d u r i n g mid-winter. Compasses do not p o i n t n o r t h i n t h i s area, but merely c i r c l e f e e b l y about the ro s e . They are as l i k e l y to i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of the nearest z i p p e r as they are the magnetic p o l e . D e t a i l e d topographic maps, fundamental n a v i g a t i o n a l icons i n other c l i m e s , are, i n many i n s t a n c e s , l i k e l y t o be of l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e on the tundra. Maps show s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s . During the wintertime these s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s are covered with a p r o t e c t i v e b l a n k e t of snow and i c e , which p r o v i d e t h e i r own s u r f a c e topography not shown on any map. The b r i l l i a n t b l u e of a lake on the map can be exceedingly d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e t o the r e a l i t y of a landscape covered i n white. The d i s t i n c t i v e shape of a prominent h i l l , as shown by a c a r e f u l l y drawn s e r i e s of contour l i n e s , i s e a s i l y camouflaged by a crown of wind-blown snow, T r a v e l l e r s , by experience, have l e a r n e d to be wary, or at the very l e a s t , c a u t i o u s , about passage through a r c t i c realms. S t o r i e s of d i s a s t e r by the u n i n i t i a t e d or unprepared are l e g i o n . The 'ou t s i d e ' p e r c e p t i o n of the (66) tundra r e g i o n s s t i l l , f o r the most p a r t , r e f l e c t s the adage that t h i s i s 'the l a n d that God gave C a i n ' . The area i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as "the barren l a n d s " , and i s c o n s i d e r e d by some to be d e s o l a t e . Yet, t o the people who have been born here, and have grown t o i n t e r n a l i z e t h i s environment as t h e i r own, there i s a d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s landscape. To the I n u i t , and those few o u t s i d e r s who have chosen t o make i t t h e i r home, the a r c t i c tundra i s a p r o v i d e n t i a l homeland, the c e n t e r of the p e r c e i v e d u n i v e r s e . V i l h j a l m u r Stefannson, a man w e l l v e r s e d i n i t s my s t e r i e s , has c a l l e d i t "the f r i e n d l y a r c t i c " , and i t i s a c e r t a i n t y t h a t most I n u i t would agree with t h i s p e r c e p t i o n (Stefannson, 1921). To the attuned Inuk t r a v e l l i n g on-the-land t h e r e are as many v i s u a l and t a c t i l e c l u e s d e f i n i n g p l a c e and l o c a t i o n as are p r o v i d e d i n any other p h y s i c a l environment. Knowledge of the a r c t i c landscape i s , to the i n i t i a t e , as complete a knowledge as can be found f o r any other landscape: i t i s only i n i t s p e r c e p t i o n that i t d i f f e r s , What to one person i s a bare rock i s l a n d , t o t a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from a hundred others l i k e i t , assumes meaning t o another whose grandmother was born i n a camp on i t s shores. The i s l a n d i s the same: the p e r c e p t i o n i s what d i f f e r s . T h i s chapter w i l l attempt to p o r t r a y the p e r c e p t i o n of the surrounding tundra environment from (67) the p e r s p e c t i v e of the a c t i v e land-users and e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay. P h y s i o g r a p h i c Regions of the Study Area The landscape of t h i s study l i e s between L a t i t u d e s 68.00 and 70.00 North, and Longitudes 88.00 to 92.00 West, i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s of Canada. The waters of P e l l y Bay are c e n t r a l t o t h i s area, and form the p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r much of the t r a v e l which connects the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . The settlement of P e l l y Bay, from which these t r a v e l p a t t e r n s now emanate, l i e s i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the study area, towards the bottom of the bay. The e n t i r e study area l i e s w i t h i n the bounds of two 1:250,000 topographic mapsheets: P e l l y Bay (57A), and H a r r i s o n I s l a n d s (57D), p u b l i s h e d by the Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources of the Government of Canada (see F i g u r e s 1, 19-22). By f a r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of the land-use a c t i v i t i e s conducted by the r e s i d e n t s of P e l l y Bay occur w i t h i n t h i s a r e a. The e n t i r e study area l i e s above the a r c t i c c i r c l e , and i s c o n s i d e r e d to be i n the tundra biome. The area i s i n a zone c h a r a c t e r i z e d by continuous permafrost. January temperatures average -35 C e l s i u s , a c o n d i t i o n which p l a c e s the study area i n or near the lowest mid-winter isotherm on the Canadian mainland. Surrounded C68) by waters laden with m u l t i - y e a r i c e f r o z e n f o r most of the year, and s u b j e c t to the c o n t i n e n t a l i t y of a mainland l o c a t i o n , P e l l y Bay i s c o n s i s t e n t l y one of the c o l d e s t p l a c e s i n North America. The area to the west and southwest of P e l l y Bay i s i n the Kazan Region of the Canadian S h i e l d , and i s p h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y p a r t of the Boothia P l a t e a u (see F i g u r e 15). The s u r f a c e rock i n the area i s Precambrian. There are some massive outcroppings of c r y s t a l l i n e basement rock, among the o l d e s t rock on the p l a n e t , and the s u r f i c i a l topography i s t y p i c a l of the Canadian S h i e l d ( F igure 16). The northern area i s a r o l l i n g , d i s s e c t e d , rocky uplands with pockets of t h i n moraine d e p o s i t s . Toward the south the s u r f a c e topography becomes s l i g h t l y l e s s rugged, with more g l a c i a l marine d e p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o a s t a l areas. There i s g e n e r a l l y an underdeveloped s u r f a c e drainage p a t t e r n , Between 10% and 20% of the s u r f a c e area i s covered with lakes and ponds, the m a j o r i t y of which are q u i t e shallow. R i v e r s and streams tend to f o l l o w bedrock f r a c t u r e s and form deeply entrenched v a l l e y s . Towards the southern p a r t s of the study area, and c l o s e r t o the coast where marine d e p o s i t s are t h i c k e r , d e n d r i t i c drainage occurs, c h a n n e l i n g meltwater i n t o P e l l y Bay through s e v e r a l l a r g e r r i v e r s , the most noteworthy b e i n g the Arrowsmith and the K e l l e t t . (69) The s h i e l d area has patchy s o i l and a low p r o d u c t i v i t y of p l a n t m a t e r i a l s (Figure 18). The bedrock exposures are devo i d of v e g e t a t i o n except f o r l i c h e n s , P r o t e c t e d wet s i t e s and s h e l t e r e d slopes support l i m i t e d growths of cover such as mosses, sedges, tus s o c k s , and t r a i l i n g shrubs. The mainland s h i e l d areas p r o v i d e enough h a b i t a t f o r small herds of b a r r e n - l a n d c a r i b o u . There are no l o c a l e s t a b l i s h e d m i g r a t i o n routes i n the study area; c a r i b o u graze those p a r t s of t h e i r range that have r e j u v e n a t e d slowly from past f o r a g i n g . There i s evidence t h a t t h e r e were m i g r a t i o n s i n the past,, but now s m a l l , wandering herds are the norm. Chances of s u c c e s s f u l c a r i b o u hunting g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e towards the southern p o r t i o n s of the area, i n the drainage b a s i n s of the Arrowsmith and K e l l e t t R i v e r systems. The c o a s t a l r e g i o n i s a prime h a b i t a t f o r migratory waterfowl and shore b i r d s d u r i n g the meltwater season. O f f s h o r e i s l a n d s , p r o t e c t e d from land-based p r e d a t o r s , o f f e r n e s t i n g s i t e s t o many s p e c i e s of b i r d s d u r i n g the summer months, and are ha r v e s t e d by l o c a l hunters. The s h o r e l i n e s toward the northern extremes of t h i s area are u t i l i z e d as m a t e r n i t y denning s i t e s by p o l a r bears d u r i n g mid-winter months. Raptors are t o be found among the steeper c l i f f s f a r t h e r i n l a n d . The o f f s h o r e and between-island areas of the s h i e l d r e g i o n p r o v i d e an i d e a l h a b i t a t f o r . r i n g e d and bearded s e a l s , once a (70) mainstay of the l o c a l w i n t e r economy, but now seldom hunted. The boundary of the Canadian S h i e l d passes a few k i l o m e t e r s t o the east of the settlement, and continues towards the bottom of Simpson P e n i n s u l a . The landscape to the east of t h i s d i v i s i o n i s c l a s s i f i e d as the Boothia P l a i n A r c t i c Lowlands (Figure 15). G e o l o g i c a l l y , i t i s u n d e r l a i n by O r d o v i c i a n and S i l u r i a n sediments. Marine f o s s i l s , i n c l u d i n g the e a r l i e s t l a n d p l a n t s , can be found i n the exposed sedimentary outcroppings of the area, and have long f a s c i n a t e d l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . T h i s homogeneous p h y s i o g r a p h i c comprises the n o r t h e a s t e r n h a l f of Simpson P e n i n s u l a , and i s c a l l e d "Ha'aktuk", meaning "the f l a t p a r t " , i n I n u k t i t u t . T h i s area i s q u i t e f l a t , e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o the Canadian S h i e l d , I t i s covered with marine o v e r l a p and f l u v i o g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s , p r i m a r i l y s o r t e d and unsorted g r a v e l s . R a i s e d beaches are common along the c o a s t a l reaches, and some are found s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s i n l a n d . Esker formations, running i n s e r i e s t o twenty k i l o m e t e r s or more, can be found at the northern end of the p e n i n s u l a . Smaller eskers and kame complexes are s c a t t e r e d throughout, as w e l l as s e v e r a l drumlins. G l a c i a l f l u t i n g s and s t r i a t i o n s are common, g e n e r a l l y t e n d i n g t o the northeast and southwest (Figure 17). The A r c t i c Lowlands Region i s d i v i d e d i n t o two (71) g e n e r a l areas: c o a s t a l p l a i n s and i n l a n d p l a i n s ( F igure 18)'. The c o a s t a l p l a i n s are n e a r l y l e v e l g r a v e l s u r f a c e s with numerous r a i s e d beaches, o v e r l y i n g f l a t sedimentary bedrock. R e l i e f i s low (up to 50 meters), with bedrock outcroppings r i s i n g i n p l a c e s to h e i g h t s of 100-150 meters. Less than 5% of the area i s covered with water, and what lakes t h e r e are tend to be s m a l l , i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , and o f t e n dry at the end of the meltwater season. The c o a s t a l area i s f l a t enough to a l l o w f o r v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d access by a l l t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s d u r i n g summer months, although few people pass t h i s way. The i n l a n d p l a i n s are u n d u l a t i n g with n o t i c e a b l y t h i c k e r marine g r a v e l d e p o s i t s with o c c a s i o n a l boulder f i e l d s and g l a c i a l e r r a t i c s . L o c a l r e l i e f r i s e s to 100 meters, i n t e r s p e r s e d with bedrock outcroppings up to 150 meters or more. Approximately 10% of the area i s covered with s m a l l lakes and ponds, which empty through p o o r l y developed, i r r e g u l a r drainage to both east and west. There are s e v e r a l l a r g e r lakes which l i n k t o form the watershed of the only major r i v e r of the area, the Kugajuk. The A r c t i c Lowlands are the most b a r r e n r e g i o n i n the P e l l y Bay land-use area. The g r a v e l s u r f a c e supports l i t t l e v e g e t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g the c o a s t . Some moss and l i c h e n can be found, with o c c a s i o n a l patches of (72) scrub sedges i n l o w - l y i n g marshy areas and alo n g stream beds. There i s a a small p o p u l a t i o n of b a r r e n - l a n d c a r i b o u . T h e i r numbers are a l s o kept low because of t h e i r c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the sett l e m e n t . In summer months the i n t e r i o r i s an important b r e e d i n g and n e s t i n g h a b i t a t f o r migratory waterfowl, The c o a s t a l margins become a p o l a r bear denning s i t e i n w i n t e r . Here the floe-edge i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o the lan d , and hunters search t h i s coast f o r male p o l a r bears d u r i n g l a t e w i n t e r . The o f f s h o r e area has both r i n g e d and bearded s e a l s , but fewer i n number than the s h i e l d e c o r e g i o n . T h i s e n t i r e r e g i o n has not been u t i l i z e d by the I n u i t as much as the Precambrian S h i e l d areas t o the south and west. Pla c e Names as I n d i c a t o r s of Landscape P e r c e p t i o n I n u i t have made t h e i r home i n the r e g i o n f o r c o u n t l e s s g e n e r a t i o n s . Consequently a l a r g e body of knowledge r e g a r d i n g every f a c e t of the l o c a l environment has been accumulated and passed down f o r the b e n e f i t of the present p o p u l a t i o n . Through i n t u i t i o n and experiment the I n u i t have l e a r n e d to e x p l o i t to the utmost the resou r c e s of t h e i r homeland. The land and i t s resources are w e l l known, and through t h i s knowledge has come the c u l t u r a l l y i n g r a i n e d p e r c e p t i o n of landscape that the (73) present-day land-users h o l d . T h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e has many f a c e t s . U n t i l v ery r e c e n t l y the accumulated knowledge of the e l d e r s was the e n t i r e economy of the A r v i l i n g m i u t . I t was the only t h i n g t h a t supported I n u i t l i f e . Every f a m i l y u n i t had to have a complete knowledge of every aspect of the s e a s o n a l l y - d i c t a t e d p a t t e r n s of movement, the sources of food, a p p r o p r i a t e h a r v e s t i n g techniques, the l o c a t i o n of raw m a t e r i a l s , a mastering of complex s k i l l s such as i g l o o - b u i l d i n g and sewing, as w e l l as the c u l t u r a l l y evolved s o c i a l mores and cosmology of s o c i e t y i t s e l f . For h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g peoples, R i d i n g t o n s t a t e s " a r t i f a c t s t h a t must be c a r r i e d from p l a c e t o p l a c e have a high c o s t i n that they compete with i n f a n t s , c l o t h i n g , and t r a i l food f o r the very l i m i t e d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the human body, For such people, techniques t h a t can be c a r r i e d i n the mind and implemented u s i n g l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e resources are f a r more co s t e f f e c t i v e than a r t i f a c t s t h a t must be c a r r i e d i n the hand" (Ridington, 1990: 86). Knowledge, combined with the l a b o r r e q u i r e d to b r i n g i t to f r u i t i o n , was l i f e . The concept of " p l a c e " assumes importance f o r a l l humans. L i v e d experience p r o v i d e s a h i e r a r c h y of known p l a c e s of g r e a t e r or l e s s import f o r ones l i f e . The p e r c e p t i o n of these p l a c e s v a r i e s i n d i v i d u a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y , and p l a c e s , over time, become known as (74) r e c o g n i z e d phenomena, with names that can be i d e n t i f i e d . For a p l a c e t o be named i t must have humanly p e r c e i v e d importance; i t f o l l o w s , then, that p e r c e p t i o n of an environment can be i n f e r r e d by examining the p l a c e s t h a t have been important enough to be named. The Philosophy of Naming Pl a c e A p l a c e must be c o n s i d e r e d a c u l t u r a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e e n t i t y , separate and d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from others w i t h i n the c u l t u r e realm, i n order t o be named. Once named, i t must be important enough to continue t o be r e f e r r e d to by i t s name. With repeated usage comes acceptance, and e v e n t u a l l y permanence. The etymology of p l a c e names, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r language of o r i g i n , allows f o r s i x r a t h e r broad g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s (Stewart, 1975). They r e f l e c t the s p e c i f i e r s of p l a c e names, not the g e n e r i c s , and assume that g e n e r i c t r a n s l a t i o n s ( i e : "Rio", "Kuug", "Cho", and "River") i n f e r c o n s i s t e n t meaning between languages. W i t h i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the f i r s t t h r e e d i v i s i o n s ( i e ; D e s c r i p t i v e , A s s o c i a t i v e , and I n c i d e n t names) are c o n s i d e r e d t o be "evolved" names, and are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with a long o r a l t r a d i t i o n . Thus they are found more o f t e n i n a b o r i g i n a l toponymies than i n European ( l i t e r a t e ) s o c i e t i e s . (75) D e s c r i p t i v e names express the obvious p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e , as, f o r example: Muddy R i v e r , Long Lake, or Rocky Mountains, Many d e s c r i p t i o n s emanate from the senses, with v i s u a l stimulus predominating. T h i s i s the most common o r i g i n f o r p l a c e names, e s p e c i a l l y i n an o r a l c u l t u r e , where sensed va l u e s are t r a n s m i t t e d with nuance and i n f l e c t i o n . Most a b o r i g i n a l p r e l i t e r a t e p l a c e names are d e s c r i p t i v e . A s s o c i a t i v e names are those which are l i n k e d with some o b j e c t , animal, or t h i n g . Examples i n c l u d e : M i l l Stream, Cache Creek, or Beaver Creek. The a t t r i b u t e of the q u a l i f i e r i s a s s o c i a t e d with the l o c a t i o n , and th e r e i s the inherent assumption t h a t there are (or were) beavers at "Beaver Creek". T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s q u i t e commonly found i n a b o r i g i n a l toponymies. I n c i d e n t names a r i s e from a memorable i n c i d e n t or event, o f t e n d a t a b l e , which happened at a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . For example, near the French town of Selongey on September 7, 1793, a s i x - y e a r - o l d boy named N i c o l a s Roth was k i l l e d and p a r t i a l l y eaten by a wolf. Ever s i n c e , the creek nearby has been c a l l e d Fontaine de Loup ("Spring of the Wolf") (Stewart, 1975: 106). I n c i d e n t names are f a i r l y r a r e i n European nomenclature, but many o r a l s o c i e t i e s were fond of such names. Other c l a s s e s of p l a c e names are a s s o c i a t e d more with the European t r a d i t i o n s of naming, and g e n e r a l l y not (76) found w i t h i n a b o r i g i n a l toponymies. For example, P o s s e s s i v e names that a r i s e from the long ownership or occupation of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e are wide-spread i n Euro-american nomenclature. Nomadic s o c i e t i e s do not have the the concept of ownership of la n d , and such names are r a r e . Commemorative names p r e s e r v e the memory of, or honor a person, p l a c e , or t h i n g worthy of r e c o g n i t i o n . Many of the E n g l i s h p l a c e names i n both the A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c are of t h i s type (eg: F r a n k l i n P o i n t , Queen Maude Land). A b o r i g i n a l toponymies r a r e l y employ t h i s format. Commendatory names d e l i b e r a t e l y c r e a t e a f a v o r a b l e image i n the mind of the l i s t e n e r or r e c e i v e r . E r i c the Red, f o r example, c o i n e d the name "Greenland" t o e n t i c e s e t t l e r s t o h i s newly found land, and modern housing developments promote f a v o r a b l e images by names such as "Oceanview E s t a t e s " . T h i s s o r t of name i s v ery seldom found i n a b o r i g i n a l toponymies. The O r i g i n s of Recorded I n u k t i t u t P l a c e Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area The I n u k t i t u t names maps of the P e l l y Bay area Father Frans Van de Velde, the maps i n 1984. P r i o r t o were on the mapsheets, and hat appear on the present-day were reco r d e d by one man, O.M.I,, and i n c o r p o r a t e d onto t h i s time, no I n u k t i t u t names none have been added s i n c e . (77) Father Van de Velde was the second Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t t o the P e l l y Bay m i s s i o n . From 1937 u n t i l 1961 he was the only non-Inuit r e s i d e n t on P e l l y Bay. He l i v e d on and from the l a n d l i k e h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and l e a r n e d t h e i r language f l u e n t l y w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g e x t e n s i v e l y throughout the r e g i o n . He c o l l e c t e d and compiled a l e x i c o n of 662 I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names from t h i s and other areas, t r a n s l a t e d t h e i r meanings, and r e c o r d e d such other i n f o r m a t i o n as was p r o v i d e d to him. Of the 662 p l a c e names l i s t e d by F r . Van de Velde, 312 were given o f f i c i a l s t a t u s i n 1984, and I n u k t i t u t names that appear on the two mapsheets of the study area r e s u l t from t h i s s i n g l e p r e v i o u s toponymy. The toponymy of the t h e s i s i s an e x t e n s i o n of the toponymic work of Father Van de Velde. The r e s e a r c h was a i d e d by the f a c t t h a t many I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names are s t i l l i n c u r r e n t use by the o l d e r , a c t i v e land-users of P e l l y Bay, and they c o n f i r m the accuracy, of Father Van de Velde's work t h i r t y years p r e v i o u s l y . I t was p o s s i b l e to v e r i f y o r i g i n s , and a f i n a l toponymy f o r 193 new names i n the the area was prepared (see Appendices 3 and 4). In a l l cases at l e a s t t h r e e e l d e r s independently confirmed the s i t e s and naming. There i s some urgency to r e c o r d t h i s knowledge, because the younger g e n e r a t i o n born i n permanent settlements are l o s i n g t h e i r language and l a n d - s k i l l s , and do not possess the knowledge of (78) t h e i r grandparents. A n a l y s i s of I n u k t i t u t P l a c e Names i n the P e l l y Bay Area The 307 I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names, and t h e i r meanings are l i s t e d , by category, i n Appendix 5. Of t h i s t o t a l , 58% (178) are d e s c r i p t i v e , 37% (114) are a s s o c i a t i v e , 3% (9) a r e - i n c i d e n t p l a c e names, wh i l e 1% (4) are p o s s e s s i v e , and only 2 commendatory. In a l l cases save one (HI42) the I n u k t i t u t names are c l e a r l y t r a n s l a t a b l e w i t h i n the l o c a l context of the p h y s i c a l appearance or some aspect of human l i v e d experience. F i g u r e s 21 and 22 i l l u s t r a t e these I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names and t h e i r t r a n s l a t e d meanings, w h i l e f i g u r e s 3 t o 8 show t h e i r r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s by named c l a s s . D e s c r i p t i v e P l a c e Names D e s c r i p t i v e p l a c e names which c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e the s a l i e n t p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of a p l a c e are the most common. Names such as "Amitsardjuaq" (Lake, meaning "the b i g , narrow l a k e ) , "Ichu'uaq" ( I s l a n d s , meaning "the two l i t t l e i s l a n d s at the end") , and "Ha"aktuk" ( P e n i n s u l a , meaning "the f l a t p a r t " ) are common throughout the study area. Most d e s c r i p t i v e names use a d j e c t i v e s and phrases (79) to q u a l i f y the noun, as i n "the two, l i t t l e i s l a n d s at the end". I n u k t i t u t i s a p o l y s y l l a b i c a g g l u t i n a t i n g language, i n which morphemes are combined without f u s i o n or morphophonemic change, and i n which each grammatical category i s t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e morpheme i n the r e s u l t i n g word. The a d d i t i o n of one or more a f f i x e s t o a base, i n t h i s case p h y s i o g r a p h i c g e n e r i c nouns such as " l a k e , r i v e r , or i s l a n d " , can convey a wealth of d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l and nuance to a p l a c e name. S l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s of the morphemes or i n t o n a t i o n can change the meaning of a word e n t i r e l y . For example, from the r o o t word "isuq" (meaning "mud"), we can d e r i v e the p l a c e names "Isuqtuq" (Lake, meaning " i t i s muddy"), "Isaqtaarjuk" (Lake, meaning "the only s m a l l , muddy one"), and "Isuqtunajuk" (Lake, meaning "the b i g one that i s muddy"). By the a d d i t i o n of phonemes a d e s c r i p t o r i n I n u k t i t u t can be m o d i f i e d t o convey a great d e a l of meaning, as i n "UJarasugjuarraardjuk" (Bay, meaning "the small one where t h e r e i s a p l a c e where t h e r e are b i g r o c k s " ) , or "Kuugarjuaraarjuk" (River, meaning "the l i t t l e , b i g , l i t t l e r i v e r " ) . Such a language can convey i n one word what i n other languages would r e q u i r e a sentence. In E n g l i s h a d e s c r i p t i o n such as "where there i s a w a t e r f a l l which f i s h cannot pass, and which resembles a c r e v i c e i n appearance" becomes, i n I n u k t i t u t , "Kit'niurvik". I n u k t i t u t , by i t s very nature, (80) i s a language that i s marvelously adapted t o the d e s c r i p t i o n of landscape. I t i s not unexpected, then, to f i n d that f u l l y 58% of the p l a c e names were found to be e n t i r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e of the p l a c e s (see F i g u r e 3.1). There are, i n t h i s category; 39 I s l a n d s , 33 Lakes, 17 R i v e r s , 17 P o i n t s , Capes, or P e n i n s u l a s , 12 Bays, 12 Mountains or H i l l s , 8 I n l e t s , and l e s s e r numbers of other p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s . 90% of the d e s c r i p t i v e named p l a c e s are d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e by water. The p a t t e r n of s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the names i s not separate from other types of p l a c e names because t h e r e are no c a t e g o r i e s i n I n u i t p e r c e p t i o n of named p l a c e : a l l toponyms are e q u a l l y p e r c e i v e d be they p h y s i c a l or e x p e r i e n t i a l . Thus a l o c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the p h y s i c a l p l a c e names, by themselves, i s of l i t t l e v a l u e , but w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t o t a l p a t t e r n of a l l named p l a c e s i n the study area. P l a c e Names Which R e f l e c t Human L i v e d Experience Apart from those names that d e s c r i b e the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l landscape, most other names r e f l e c t v a r i o u s aspects of human l i v e d experience. They r e l y upon a c u l t u r a l l y dependent view of the landscape where s i g n i f i c a n t human a c t i v i t i e s have taken p l a c e . Newcomers (81) to a landscape see only space, not h i s t o r i c a l l y meaningful p l a c e . S p a t i a l h i s t o r y , f o r any group of people occupying a new area, begins i n the act of naming. By naming, space i s transformed i n t o p l a c e . P l a c e , i n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , i s space with a human memory. E s t a b l i s h e d p l a c e names become c u l t u r a l i c o n s of landscape, and immovable p h y s i c a l markers on the s u r f a c e of the l a n d upon which l i f e i s l i v e d . Humans have an inherent need t o exp l o r e , to know and understand the p h y s i c a l world around them. To know the world i n d e t a i l means p r e s e r v i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r s i n memory. C u l t u r a l l y c o n f e r r e d p l a c e names are mnemons to t h i s end. There are 129 p l a c e names i n the study, 42% of the toponyms, which rep r e s e n t the human l i v e d h i s t o r y of the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. In t h i s category are 40 Lakes, 39 I s l a n d s , 10 H i l l s and Mountains, 8 R i v e r s , 7 P o i n t s , Capes, and P e n i n s u l a s , 5 C a r i b o u C r o s s i n g s , and numerous other s p e c i a l s i t e s . Of these, 92 (71%) are d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e by water, w h i l e 37 (29%) are i n l a n d s i t e s . The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these names i s shown i n f i g u r e s 4 t o 7. The l o c a t i o n s do not r e v e a l a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s i n c e the I n u i t do not d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r p l a c e names by g e n e r i c type. As a r e s u l t , the a n a l y s i s of l o c a t i o n of a l l p l a c e names w i l l be taken t o g e t h e r . (82) A n a l y s i s of the L o c a t i o n of P l a c e Names i n the. Study Area F i g u r e 8 shows the l o c a t i o n of a l l of the p l a c e names c o l l e c t e d by t h i s study. In a l l cases the toponyms f o l l o w the p a t t e r n of s p e c i f i e r s , which i d e n t i f y the p a r t i c u l a r s of a p l a c e , a p p l i e d to a g e n e r i c topographic f e a t u r e . In most cases these g e n e r i c s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s commonly r e c o g n i z e d the world over, and r e q u i r e no s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l acquaintance to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . These g e n e r i c f e a t u r e s , i n the order of frequency of t h e i r b e i n g named, are : I s l a n d s 78 Lakes 73 R i v e r s 25 Capes, P o i n t s , P e n i n s u l a s 24 Mountains, H i l l s 22 Bays 17 I n l e t s 8 C l i f f s 8 R i v e r J u n c t i o n s and Bends 6 S t r a i g h t s , Channels 5 V a l l e y s 5 Rapids, F a l l s 4 R i v e r Mouths 4 Narrows 4 (83) G l a c i e r s 2 Isthmuses 2 Passes 2 Creek 1 Rock 1 Thermal S p r i n g , 1 Underwater Shoal 1 In s e v e r a l cases, however, the g e n e r i c s are l o c a l l y s p e c i f i c , and are not u s u a l l y found i n other geographic r e g i o n s . S i t e s of t h i s nature i n c l u d e ; C a r i b o u C r o s s i n g s 5 General Areas 3 Rock Outcroppings 2 Rock Terr a c e 1 T a l l u n Inukshuks 1 Area of Y e a r l y Ice Buildup 1 F l o e Edge 1 In s e v e r a l p l a c e names where the g e n e r i c name i s used f o r a p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c a l phenomena i t may have a l o c a l meaning t h a t d i f f e r s from the r e c o g n i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "Akkulzk" (Bay, Sea, meaning " s a l t water"), r e f e r s i n t h i s study s p e c i f i c a l l y to the waters of Committee Bay, although i s used to d e s i g n a t e any body of s a l t water. "HaTaktuk" ( P e n i n s u l a , meaning "the f l a t p a r t " ) , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e r e f e r s t o Simpson P e n i n s u l a , but i t can d e s c r i b e any f l a t area, "ttaalguk" ( I s l a n d , (84) meaning "the f l a t i s l a n d " ) i s a g e n e r i c name f o r any f l a t , f e a t u r e l e s s i s l a n d . Many names throughout the I n u i t world, are g e n e r i c , and are found i n many l o c a t i o n s . I t does not s i g n i f y , however, a l a c k of ima g i n a t i o n i n naming p r a c t i c e s , but i l l u s t r a t e s the p o i n t t h a t . p l a c e names have t o be examined i n the context of t h e i r surroundings. The t r a n s l a t i o n of p l a c e names poses a danger to the l o s s of o r i g i n a l meanings, or to having meanings a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t when the o r i g i n a l language i s without w r i t i n g , f o r the s u b t l e i n f e r e n t i a l nuances of an o r a l c u l t u r e do not l e n d themselves e a s i l y t o s c r i p t . P l a c e names, which together form f o r the host c u l t u r e a coherent s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the world around them, are e a s i l y s t r i p p e d of t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l meaning when t r a n s l a t e d and viewed a n a l y t i c a l l y by another c u l t u r e . As a r e s u l t we must be c a r e f u l to examine p l a c e names i n the t o t a l context of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s one to another. F i g u r e s 21 and 22 i n c l u d e p h o n e t i c e q u i v a l e n c i e s of the o r i g i n a l I n u k t i t u t p l a c e names and a comprehensive t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e i r meanings; they comprise the mental maps of an experienced Inuk l a n d user of the area. On the map of a l l named p l a c e s (Figure 8), s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s of l o c a t i o n are immediately obvious. There i s a r a t h e r even c l u s t e r i n g of p l a c e names about the margins (85) of P e l l y Bay. T h i s i s to be expected, because b e f o r e the establishment of the permanent settlement of P e l l y Bay, the A r v i l i n g m i u t spent most of the year l i v i n g on the sea i c e of the bay. During the e i g h t months or so when the sea i c e was f r o z e n the bay became the stage upon which l i f e was p l a y e d out, and t h e r e were s t r i c t taboos a g a i n s t the use of l a n d animals. The bounds of the bay, v i s i b l e from a l l p l a c e s on i t , were the landmarks of l o c a t i o n , and the remain so today. The preeminent landmark i s the h i g h e s t i s l a n d peak, "Korvigdjuak" (meaning "the b i g chamber p o t " ) , c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , and v i s i b l e on a c l e a r day from n e a r l y a l l p a r t s of the bay. The other major landmarks are the peaks of the "Tasserjub Hingait" (Mountains, meaning "the mountains by T a s s e r d j u a ' a r k " ) . T h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e shapes can be seen framed a g a i n s t the h o r i z o n from a great d i s t a n c e , and p r o v i d e the v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e t o the lower e a s t e r n bounds of the bay. The h i g h e s t of the peaks i s today topped with the l a r g e white geodesic dome of a DEW L i n e s i t e , v i s i b l e from f a r out i n the bay. An important d i s t i n c t i o n must be made r e g a r d i n g the s a l t - w a t e r s h o r e l i n e as a seasonal d i v i s i o n of p e r c e p t u a l r e a l i t i e s . Many e l d e r s p o i n t e d out t h a t , although the A r v i l i n g m i u t were a maritime people who l i v e d from the r e s o u r c e s of the sea f o r a goodly p a r t of the year, they d i d not have a t r a d i t i o n of t r a v e l l i n g on ( 8 6 ) the water. Open water was, until recent years, generally avoided. Use of the bay for travel was primarily restricted to the time of the year when the sea ice was frozen. In past years there were cultural taboos relating to a separation of maritime and terrestrial resources that emphasized the seasonal difference in the sea surface. During l i f e on the sea ice, land animals were not harvested, while, during the brief summer months when the camps were located on land, the waters of the bay were avoided (Balikci, 1970: 55). The primary determinant here was the presence or absence of sea-ice. It has only been since the arrival of missionaries and wooden boats that the taboos have been replaced and open water navigation introduced among the people of Pelly Bay. The elders s t i l l relate stories from li v i n g memory of the f i r s t open water crossings of the bay in boats. Most names date from a time before contact, and the perspective of the maritime features of the landscape reflect the frozen, and not the open water surface. We must view the surface of the bay essentially as a snow covered plain, easily traversed between named places. The. Inuit heartily welcome the arrival of winter. Summertime brings hordes of insect and a severe restriction of surface travel. Freeze-up permits freedom of movement over the entire landscape, not the least being over the surface of the bay that is so central to (87) t h e i r l i v e s . Apart from the margin between sea and land, the bay has an important boundary to the north, the "Hina* aqn (Floe Edge). The f l o e edge c o i n c i d e s roughly with a l i n e drawn between the northern t i p of Simpson P e n i n s u l a and the northern reaches of the A s t r o n o m i c a l S o c i e t y I s l a n d s , and i s marked by a jumbled mass of moving i c e that d e f i n e s the northernmost l i m i t of s u r f a c e sea i c e t r a v e l . M u l t i - y e a r i c e , p i l e d a long the f l o e edge by powerful s o u t h e a s t e r l y c u r r e n t s i n the G u l f of Boothia, forms a b a r r i e r between the s e a - i c e and the open water p o l y n n i a commonly found here. T h i s i c e i s a r r e s t e d i n i t s movement by the northern t i p of Simpson P e n i n s u l a ("Nuvakhilit Huvua", meaning "the p o i n t by Nuvakbilif) to form an "2V<i" (meaning "where the i c e b u i l d s up") , impassable at any time of the year. In summer months the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two p a r t s of the "Nina*aq" are r e v e r s e d , with the open waters of the bay b l o c k e d by moving i c e t o the n o r t h . T r a v e l l e r s need be extremely c a u t i o u s and v i g i l a n t i n t h i s area at a l l times of the year, as the i c e s h i f t s q u i c k l y and u n p r e d i c t a b l y . I t i s a b i o l o g i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e area with s e a l s , p o l a r bears, b i r d s , and, o c c a s i o n a l l y , whales and walrus found a l o n g the margins. Many p o l a r bears are taken near here and a s u r v i v a l c a b i n l o c a t e d on "Puktuja*aituq" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the p l a c e to go hunting", and r e f e r r i n g (88) s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p o l a r bears) has been e r e c t e d i n recent years by the P e l l y Bay Hunters and Trappers S o c i e t y f o r the use of i t s members i n the v i c i n i t y , Many of the n o n - d e s c r i p t i v e p l a c e names on the bay r e f e r t o i t s primary harvest at the time of naming, s e a l s . Such p l a c e names as "Avakhtaguik" ( I s l a n d s , meaning "a p l a c e to knock on baby s e a l heads"), "Ikughiktuk" ( I s l a n d , meaning "tough s e a l i n t e s t i n e " ) , "Uglara'ardjuq" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the small p l a c e where male s e a l s f i g h t " ) , and "Atiqsilirvik" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the p l a c e t o begin hunting f o r s e a l s at t h e i r b r e a t h i n g holes i n the f a l l " ) , are examples. The i s l a n d s of the bay harbour l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s of m i g r a t i n g b i r d s i n the summer. The h a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o them are i l l u s t r a t e d by such p l a c e names as: "Mitikhiuvik" ( I s l a n d s , meaning " p l a c e t o hunt e i d e r ducks"), "Gtirliaqtuq" ( I s l a n d , meaning "where th e r e are q u i r l i a q s " - a type of b i r d ) , and "Irnztarniq" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the p l a c e of the b i r t h of many b i r d s " ) , Other human usage of the bay i s r e f l e c t e d i n such p l a c e names as: "Iglulik" ( I s l a n d , meaning " p l a c e where the r e are i g l o o s " ) , "Igluligaarjuk" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the small p l a c e where t h e r e are i g l o o s " ) , and "Qanisiurvik" ( I s l a n d , meaning " p l a c e to c a r r y t h i n g s ahead t o when moving camp"). The r e l i a n c e upon a good source of d r i n k i n g water while l i v i n g on the s a l t water C89) bay has r e s u l t e d i n a number of p l a c e names d e d i c a t e d to i t s sources, among them: "Imilik" (Lake, meaning "a p l a c e to d r i n k water" - two o c c u r r e n c e s ) , "Imiq" (Lake, meaning " f r e s h water"), and "Imargba*auq" (Lakes, meaning "s m a l l water to d r i n k " ) . Land t r a v e l i n t h i s area i s g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n n a t u r a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d c o r r i d o r s . The two primary c o r r i d o r s , as shown by the obvious c l u s t e r i n g s of p l a c e names on f i g u r e 8, are along the K e l l e t t ( i n I n u k t i t u t "Kuug", meaning " b i g r i v e r " ) and "Kugajuk" (meaning " l i t t l e r i v e r " ) r i v e r s . These r i v e r s were and are important sources of f i s h d u r i n g the summer and f a l l . On these shores food was harvested, p r e s e r v e d , and s t o r e d f o r the w i n t e r . During the m e l t i n g seasons the m a j o r i t y of the A r v i l i n g m i u t would l o c a t e t h e i r camps al o n g the banks of these r i v e r s , at l o c a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d i n the numerous p l a c e names recorded. Such names as "Higbikturvik" (Narrows, meaning "a p l a c e to snag f i s h with a hook"), "Naulingniarvik" (Narrows, meaning "the p l a c e to throw the f i s h s p e a r " ) , and "Havibilikturvik" (part of the r i v e r , meaning "the p l a c e to c a t c h s c a l y f i s h " ) r i c h l y i l l u s t r a t e the usage of these p l a c e s . During the summer months, while the e l d e r s and the very young remained at the c o a s t a l or r i v e r s i d e f i s h camps, the a b l e bodied a d u l t s would walk i n l a n d t o hunt. (90) The p l a c e names fan out from the summer camps f o l l o w i n g n a t u r a l t r a v e l c o r r i d o r s , and decrease i n number outwards. One of the primary l a n d a c t i v i t i e s was the h a r v e s t i n g of c a r i b o u . Many of the i n l a n d s i t e s r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o c a r i b o u hunting, and are r e p r e s e n t e d by such p l a c e names as: "Nadlut" (Lake, meaning " c a r i b o u c r o s s i n g " ) , "Utatkrevikdjua'ark" (Pass, meaning "the l a r g e r p l a c e where one can very w e l l wait f o r c a r i b o u to c r o s s " ) , "Nalluq" (Lake, meaning "pla c e of a c a r i b o u c r o s s i n g " ) , and "Tallun" (Inukshuks, meaning "that which to hide behind while hunting c a r i b o u " ) . During e a r l y summer many I n u i t moved from the s e a - i c e to c o a s t a l areas as a p r e l i m i n a r y move to the r i v e r systems. As a r e s u l t t h e r e are numerous c o a s t a l margins which, although occupied f o r only a short time each year, were named. Examples of these p l a c e s i n c l u d e : "Tupikturvik" (Point, meaning "a t e n t s i t e " ) , "Tuapagiktug" ( I s l a n d , meaning " i t has e x c e l l e n t g r a v e l f o r camping"), and "Ujaratza'a" (Point, meaning "where the r e are rocks f o r h o l d i n g down a t e n t " ) . Other groupings of p l a c e names can be found a l o n g the two major c o r r i d o r s of t r a v e l between the A r v i l i n g m i u t and n e i g h b o r i n g I n u i t (Figures 8 and 13). To the southeast were the A i v i l i n g m i u t of the Repulse Bay area. R e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h i s group have always been, and remain, q u i t e s t r o n g and amicable. The t r a v e l route i n (91) t h i s d i r e c t i o n l e d to e x t e n s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n with the I n u i t of Repulse Bay, and the f i r s t c o ntact with whalers and t r a d e r s . T h i s was a l s o the route that the m i s s i o n a r i e s and the f i r s t t r a d e goods f o l l o w e d i n to the A r v i l i n g m i u t h e a r t l a n d . Various p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s c o r r i d o r are r e a d i l y evident from the grouping of p l a c e names between the K e l l e t t R i v e r and the shores of Committee Bay. Most I n u i t of P e l l y Bay are i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r with the named s i g n p o s t s a l o n g the ove r l a n d t r a i l between P e l l y Bay and Repulse Bay. In the opposite d i r e c t i o n l i v e d the S i n i m i u t (whose name means "those who l i v e at the end of the l a n d " ) , toward the upper reaches of P e l l y Bay and the mainland of Boothia P e n i n s u l a . I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between A r v i l i n g m i u t and S i n i m i u t have g e n e r a l l y been q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , and t r a v e l through the c o r r i d o r frequent. The opening of Hudson's Bay Company t r a d i n g p o s t s at F o r t Ross, Gjoa Haven, and, e v e n t u a l l y , at Spence Bay l o n g b e f o r e such f a c i l i t i e s a r r i v e d i n P e l l y Bay a l s o encouraged t r a v e l a l o n g t h i s c o r r i d o r . The grouping of p l a c e names alo n g H a l k e t t I n l e t and towards the settlement of Spence Bay r e f l e c t s the importance of t h i s t r a v e l c o r r i d o r . F i n a l l y , t h e r e are a number of s c a t t e r e d p l a c e names i n the study area which must be examined not f o r p a t t e r n but f o r o r i g i n . S e v e r a l p l a c e names r e f e r to the sources (92) of raw m a t e r i a l s necessary t o the p r e - c o n t a c t A r v i l i n g m i u t c u l t u r e complex. Examples i n c l u d e ; "Kaijuutitsaq" (meaning "where we get t h i n g s t o make t o o l s " ) , "Hillitiksarvik" (Bay, meaning " p l a c e to get the proper stone f o r sharpening u t e n s i l s " ) , and "Utkhiutkaq" ( I s l a n d , meaning " p l a c e where there i s soapstone"). Other p l a c e r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s employed i n o b t a i n i n g raw m a t e r i a l s or food, such as: "Haviarark" ( I s l a n d , meaning "where you have to cut out b l o c k s of snow from the tops of p o l a r bear m a t e r n i t y dens t o get at them"), "Ichuaktuvik" (Bay, meaning "the p l a c e t o look through windows", and r e f e r r i n g to a s p e c i f i c type of s e a l h u n t i n g t e c h n i q u e ) , "Pualatalik" ( H i l l , meaning "where a m i t t e n has been l e f t " , and r e f e r r i n g t o a p l a c e where good "mannerk", f i r e - s t a r t i n g moss, may be found), and "Iviuktuk" (Lake, meaning "where t h e r e i s good mud f o r p u t t i n g on s l e d r u n n e r s " ) . I t must be assumed t h a t , over the course of many generat i o n s of I n u i t land-use and occupancy, every area and every c o n c e i v a b l e source of raw m a t e r i a l s was ex p l o r e d . The p l a c e s that best f u r n i s h e d these resources are those that have been named. Two p l a c e names i n p a r t i c u l a r , however, f a l l o u t s i d e any ge n e r a l p a t t e r n . These p o s s e s s i v e names, "Ukivak" ( I s l a n d s , meaning "the ones where they spend the w i n t e r " ) , and "Taunertat" ( H i l l s , meaning "where t h e r e (93) are Tuunit t h i n g s " ) r e f e r t o a people who occupied the landscape p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the I n u i t , the "Tuunit" (meaning, i n I n u k t i t u t , "the people who were here b e f o r e u s " ) , a people we r e f e r to today as the Dorset C u l t u r e . Although these are the only two named s i t e s whose etymology r e f e r s to the presence of "Tuunit", t h e r e are at l e a s t ten other s i t e s i n the study area where e l d e r s r e c o g n i z e the presence of a r t i f a c t s and man-made s t r u c t u r e s separate from and p r e d a t i n g t h e i r own (Figure 9). L o c a l l o r e has i t t h a t the "Tuunit" i n t h i s area c o h a b i t e d ranges with the I n u i t f o r many y e a r s , and that they were among the l a s t of t h e i r people to disappear (Rasmussen, 1927: 221, B a l i k c i , 1970: 211-2). S t o r i e s of i n t e r a c t i o n , both peaceable and otherwise, are s t i l l recounted by the e l d e r s , and one s i t e i n p a r t i c u l a r , "Tinuardjuq" (Bay, meaning "the end of the l i t t l e bay by T i n u r a t " ) , i s recounted as a s i t e of e x t e n s i v e c o n t i n u a l c o n t a c t . While s e v e r a l of the Dorset C u l t u r e s i t e s have been excavated by F r . Guy M a r i e - R o u s s e l i e r e (1965), others s t i l l remain t o be examined. Man-made Landmarks of the Study Area ( 9 4 ) A s i d e from the n a t u r a l p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s of the area t h a t are named, th e r e are a number of man-made s t r u c t u r e s which serve t o d e f i n e and i d e n t i f y a p l a c e (see F i g u r e 9 ) . By f a r the o l d e s t of I n u i t o r i g i n are the numerous inukshuks, p i l l a r s of rock p i l e d i n t o columns, which dot the landscape. The inukshuks are b a s i c a l l y of two types: i n d i v i d u a l and grouped, and repr e s e n t d i f f e r i n g usages. I n d i v i d u a l inukshuks, of which there are f a r too many to map and i d e n t i f y , were b u i l t t o serve a v a r i e t y of purposes, The most common f u n c t i o n was to serve as t r a i l markers f o r summertime t r i p s i n l a n d . As a hunting p a r t y walked along, c e r t a i n p l a c e s were marked with s i g n s of t h e i r passage, o f t e n on prominent h i l l t o p s or r i d g e s w i t h i n s i g h t of each other. These markers, rocks stacked one on the other, were meant to show the way t r a v e l l e d . Often i n d i v i d u a l s or members of a f a m i l y u n i t would develop d i s t i n c t i v e b u i l d i n g p a t t e r n s so that t h e i r markers c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d from o t h e r s . By f o l l o w i n g these man-made landmarks over otherwise u n e v e n t f u l t e r r a i n , l a t e r p a r t i e s of i n l a n d t r e k k e r s c o u l d c a t c h up with t r a i l b l a z e r s , and a l l c o u l d e a s i l y r e t r a c e t h e i r steps back to the base camp. They a l s o served t o mark caches of t o o l s , equipment, and food. (95) Other i n d i v i d u a l inukshuks were used to accentuate or i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l p l a c e s . They were g e n e r a l l y b u i l t at or near s i t e s t h a t were i n h a b i t e d f o r s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s of time, and normally assumed the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c human-like format. Many of these inukshuks appear to i d e n t i f y one p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e as b e i n g d i s t i n c t from others nearby, In many i s l a n d groups one peak or r i d g e has been p e r s o n a l i z e d with a s o l i t a r y inukshuk, with s i m i l a r occurrences a l o n g r i v e r s , beaches, and headlands. Although s i g n i f y i n g importance as a p l a c e , many of the s i t e s are not s p e c i f i c a l l y named, and probably r e f l e c t o c c a s i o n a l usage. The o r i g i n s of many other s o l i t a r y inukshuks are not c l e a r l y understood, even by the I n u i t of the area. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d they r e f l e c t the d e s i r e of an Inuk, or perhaps a "Tuunuk", at one time to commemorate h i s or her presence at a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e by p i l i n g rock upon rock as a memorial of passage (Rundstrom, 1990: 164). To the present day I n u i t most s o l i t a r y inukshuks have very l i t t l e meaning per se: they are simply t h e r e , and are as i f they have always been. One s i t e , the f l a t g r a v e l p l a i n of "Tinuardjuq" (Bay, meaning "the end of the l i t t l e bay by Tinurat"), however, i s remarkable f o r the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l inukshuks. There are over a hundred inukshuks i n an area of t h r e e or f o u r square k i l o m e t e r s . They are (96) not a l i g n e d i n rows, as they would be i f they were "Tallun", meant to d r i v e c a r i b o u to a c r o s s i n g , but are arranged' haphazardly across the landscape. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r area i s r i c h i n c u l t u r a l meaning f o r the I n u i t . I t has been, and remains a popular s p r i n g t i m e s e a l camp l o c a t i o n , and garbage from many generations can be found strewn across the tundra. T h i s was reputed to be a "Tuunit" campsite. S e v e r a l depressions i n the rock s u r f a c e are r e f e r r e d t o as "Tuunit" f o o t p r i n t s . Two l a r g e rock pylons, and a s t r i a t i o n i n the s u r f a c e of the rock between them, are s a i d t o be the s i t e of a game of s t r e n g t h t hat the "Tuunit" p r a c t i c e d here, c a r r y i n g a l a r g e rounded rock as f a r as they c o u l d . The rock i t s e l f was moved to P e l l y Bay a number of years ago. Here, too, i s the l o c a t i o n of a s t o r y of c o n f l i c t between I n u i t and "Tuunit": e v i d e n t l y a number of "Tuunit" were k i l l e d , and afterwards speared i n the kidneys to make sure t h a t they were dead. The inukshuks t h a t adorn t h i s s i t e are, j u d g i n g by t h e i r e x t e n s i v e l i c h e n cover, q u i t e o l d indeed. However, i f they once had any purpose other than d e c o r a t i o n , i t has been long s i n c e f o r g o t t e n . There are at l e a s t s i x l o c a t i o n s i n the study area where the second type of inukshuks, l o c a l l y named "Tallun", occur. They are l a r g e , man-like inukshuks arranged i n long r e g u l a r rows, and were used to d r i v e m i g r a t i n g c a r i b o u to a narrow choke p o i n t where they ( 9 7 ) c o u l d be ha r v e s t e d i n q u a n t i t y (Stefannson, 1921: 401, Arima, 1975). T h e i r b u i l d i n g was o b v i o u s l y d e l i b e r a t e , and r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e group e f f o r t t o use and main t a i n . S e v e r a l "Tallan" were arranged t o d r i v e c a r i b o u t o water c r o s s i n g s , where they c o u l d be speared by w a i t i n g kayakmen. Others were s i t e d t o channel c a r i b o u t o a narrow pass or choke p o i n t where hunters i n h i d i n g c o u l d e f f e c t t h e i r s l a u g h t e r . These "Taf/an" are, j u d g i n g by the growth of l i c h e n cover, of great age, and have not been used w i t h i n l i v i n g human memory, Other man-made markers of p l a c e are of more recent o r i g i n . There are the remains of at l e a s t twelve Roman C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s s h r i n e s d o t t e d about the landscape Csee F i g u r e 9), They were e r e c t e d by Fathers Henri and Van de Velde between 1935 and 1961. For the most p a r t they c o n s i s t of rock and mortar bases approximately two meters t a l l , upon which are mounted a box open on one s i d e c o n t a i n i n g a r e l i g i o u s s t a t u e or symbol, and supplanted with a c r o s s . Although at one time r e l i g i o u s l y maintained, t h e i r upkeep has d e t e r i o r a t e d somewhat i n recent y e a r s . The a r t i f a c t s from s e v e r a l have been brought f o r saf e k e e p i n g i n t o the settlement by passer s by, and i t i s only those s h r i n e s near town that e x i s t i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. The one r e l i g i o u s landmark of exception i s the l a r g e c r o s s , over twenty meters i n height and b u i l t of d i s c a r d e d o i l drums, that adorns the (98) top of the h i l l a c ross from the settlement, T h i s prominent landmark can be seen from a great d i s t a n c e . In the mid 1980's, under a grant from the T e r r i t o r i a l Government, a number of small s u r v i v a l cabins were c o n s t r u c t e d i n P e l l y Bay, and subsequently towed by skidoo t o v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the land-use area (see F i g u r e 9 ) . F i v e cabins are i n o c c a s i o n a l use today, but maintenance has been r a t h e r e r r a t i c . The cabins at "Puktuja'aituq" ( I s l a n d ) , used by p o l a r bear hunters, and at "Matsuq" (River Bend) on the K e l l e t t R i v e r , used by f a l l fishermen, see the most c o n s i s t e n t usage. The r e s t are e s s e n t i a l l y abandoned, but are u s e f u l as landmarks, or i n case of emergencies. Other man-made landmarks i n the study area i n c l u d e the two abandoned DEW l i n e s i t e s at Simpson Lake and K e i t h Bay. Over the years usable p o r t i o n s of t h i s tundra f l o t s a m were removed t o the se t t l e m e n t s , but many of the o r i g i n a l DEW l i n e b u i l d i n g s remain i n p l a c e , and are o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t e d . Both the present-day settlement of P e l l y Bay and the nearby a c t i v e DEW l i n e s i t e r e p r e s e n t the most obvious man-made f e a t u r e s of the landscape w i t h i n the study area today. Both may be d e t e c t e d from a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e away, the DEW l i n e because of i t s l o c a t i o n atop the high e s t p o i n t of land, and the settlement by the network of t r a i l s l e a d i n g to i t . Both p l a c e s have permanent, (99) year-round, and w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s t h a t operate day and n i g h t . Both a i r p o r t s have powerful r o t a t i n g s t r o b e - l i g h t beacons to guide incoming a i r c r a f t , v i s i b l e f o r many k i l o m e t e r s . I t i s these l i g h t s , c i r c l i n g i n the sky and on the bottoms of the c l o u d cover which, d u r i n g a l l but b r i g h t d a y l i g h t , now form the preeminent landmarks of p l a c e f o r the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. 100 F i g u r e 3: D e s c r i p t i v e P l a c e Names i F i q u r e 4: A s s o c i a t i v e P l a c e Names Harrison I s l a n d s - 4 'Harrison I s l a n d s F i g u r e 5: I n c i d e n t P l a c e Names F i g u r e 6: P o s s e s s i v e P l a c e Names Harrison Islands Harrison I s l a n d s 101 Figure 7; Commendatory Place Names Figure 8 ; A l l Named Places £isure_9: Man-Made Landmarks of the. Study Area Harrison Islands IKey to Synbols~ INUKSHUKS * ' •::: ';• V> \ I!jit'": 11 SURVIVAL CABINS - RELIGIOUS SHRINES t (102) C h a p t e r F o u r L a n d - U s e P a t t e r n s a n d N a v i g a t i o n a l S k i l l s I n t r o d u c t i o n H a r v e s t i n g o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e r e m a i n s , f o r t h e I n u i t o f P e l l y B a y , a v i t a l a c t i v i t y . N e a r l y e v e r y f a m i l y s p e n d s p a r t o f t h e y e a r l i v i n g o n t h e l a n d , c a m p i n g w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s i n f a v o r i t e l o c a t i o n s , On c l e a r d a y s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r h u n t e r s c a n b e s e e n l e a v i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , a n d r e t u r n i n g i n t h e e v e n i n g w i t h l o a d s o f c o u n t r y f o o d . A s k i d o o o r a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e a w a i t s a t n e a r l y e v e r y d o o r s t e p , a n d b o a t s a b o u n d i n t h e s m a l l h a r b o r , r e a d y t o t r a n s p o r t t h e i r o w n e r s t o t h e h a r v e s t b e y o n d t h e e d g e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n a n I n u i t c o m m u n i t y t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e i s a m a j o r t h e m e o f d a y t o d a y l i f e , T h e p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e o f t h e t u n d r a e c o s y s t e m j u s t m e t e r s b e y o n d t h e b u i l d i n g s i s a n i n e s c a p a b l e r e a l i t y . B u i l d i n g s a r e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , n o t b u i l t on t h e g r o u n d b u t , d u e t o t h e p e r m a f r o s t , a b o v e . T h e s e t t l e m e n t a p p e a r s t o p e r c h a b o v e t h e l a n d s c a p e , n o t p a r t o f i t b u t m e r e l y a n a l i e n a b e r r a t i o n . T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t t o b l e n d w i t h t h e (103) e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e v a s t n e s a o f t h e A r c t i c , s e t t l e m e n t s a p p e a r a s s m a l l a n d i s o l a t e d c e n t e r s o f human h a b i t a t i o n o v e r s h a d o w e d b y t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . F r o m a d i s t a n c e i t i s e a s y t o d e t e c t s u c h a c o m m u n i t y , f r o m w i t h i n , h o w e v e r , t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i s o u t w a r d , t o t h e l a n d i t s e l f . T h e I n u i t o f P e l l y B a y d o u s e a n d h a r v e s t t h e l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s a r o u n d t h e m on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s . M u c h o f t h e f o o d c o n s u m e d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t i s c o u n t r y f o o d , n o t o n l y b y n e c e s s i t y , b u t o f c h o i c e . C u l t u r a l t i e s n o t o n l y t o l a n d f o o d b u t t o t h e l a n d a r e s t r o n g . K n o w l e d g e a b l e l a n d u s e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s "Inumiaruitu: " t h e r e a l I n u i t " . W h i l e t h e r e a r e t w o m u t u a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t e c o n o m i e s i n o p e r a t i o n i n P e l l y B a y t o d a y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a n d t h e m o d e r n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o n e i s v i e w e d l o c a l l y a s b e i n g t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t o f t h e t w o . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m o d e r n w a g e e c o n o m y i s p e r c e i v e d a s n e c e s s a r y , a n i m p o r t e d " o u t s i d e " c o n c e p t a c c e p t e d o n l y f o r t h e t a n g i b l e r e w a r d s t h a t i t c a n b r i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m y , h o w e v e r , a l s o p r o d u c e s f o r I n u i t v i t a l . i n t a n g i b l e r e a f f i r m a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l s e l f : a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f l o n g t r a d i t i o n , a d i r e c t l i n k t o g e n e r a t i o n s p a s t , a t i e w i t h t h e l a n d , a n d a n i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t o f i d e n t i t y , To u s e t h e l a n d w i s e l y a n d w e l l i s t o b e a n d t o f e e l "Inumiaruzt". (104) This chapter w i l l explore the nature of land-use patterns for the Inuit of Pelly Bay for one year: July 1, 1987 to July 1, 1988. It w i l l examine the c l i m a t i c a l l y - d r i v e n cycle of harvest a c t i v i t i e s from season to season for each family group that u t i l i z e d the landscape during this time. The location and duration of occupation sites on the land w i l l be examined, and the patterns r e l a t i n g to land-use evaluated. The nature of the navigational s k i l l s required by Inuit to i d e n t i f y and t r a v e l between these s i t e s w i l l be examined in considex-able d e t a i l . Land-Use: Spring Table I i l l u s t r a t e s the land-use a c t i v i t i e s of each of the 48 families active on the land between July 1, 1987 and July 1, 1988, Table II l i s t s the location and duration of family group camps during the year, while Figures 10 to 12 show th e i r r e l a t i v e locations. A l l data was c o l l e c t e d from the family heads during fieldwork conducted in Pelly Bay in June and July of 1988. As indicated by the tables, Springtime i s by far the most popular time for on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s . While springtime i s a r e l a t i v e term used in this part of the world to refer to the warmer months afte r the passage of the worst of winter and before the complete melting of (105) t h e s e a i c e , i t g e n e r a l l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e m o n t h s o f May a n d J u n e . D u r i n g t h e d a r k a n d c o l d m o n t h s o f m i d w i n t e r I n u i t s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e i n d o o r s . T r a v e l i s d i f f i c u l t , a n d o n - t h e - l a n d a c t i v i t i e s l i m i t e d . W i n t e r s n o w , a s i n t h e p a s t , a r e s t i l l l o n g a n d p h y s i c a l l y a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d r a i n i n g . A f t e r m o n t h s o f i n a c t i v i t y , t h e c o m i n g o f s p r i n g t i m e i s e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e d . W i t h t h e l e n g t h e n i n g o f d a y l i g h t comes t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e s . F r o m D e c e m b e r t o M a r c h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s h o v e r a b o u t - 40 C . , a n d t h e w i n d s a r e s t r o n g , c o l d , a n d p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r o m t h e n o r t h w e s t q u a r t e r . F o r much o f t h i s t i m e t h e a r e a a r o u n d P e l l y B a y i s g r i p p e d i n t e m p e r a t u r e s l o w e r t h a n m o s t o t h e r p l a c e s on t h e c o n t i n e n t . T h e w a r m e r t e m p e r a t u r e s o f s p r i n g a r e r e l a t i v e : a f t e r h a v i n g e n d u r e d many m o n t h s o f m i n u s - 4 0 C , a d a y t i m e t e m p e r a t u r e o f - 20 C . i s b a l m y i n c o m p a r i s o n . A f t e r m o n t h s o f b i t i n g w i n t e r w i n d s ( i n I n u k t i t u t "Uanaq", m e a n i n g " t h e s t r o n g one t h a t i s c o l d " ) , t h e a r r i v a l o f "Nighiq" ( " t h e w a r m w i n d f r o m t h e l a n d " ) h e r a l d s t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e l o n g a w a i t e d p a s s a g e o f s e a s o n s . F o l l o w i n g m o n t h s o f n e a r a n d t o t a l d a r k n e s s C'Ublttiq", m e a n i n g " b l a c k n e s s " ) , d a y l i g h t i n c r e a s e s q u i c k l y a s i t a p p r o a c h e s "Arviktuk" - 24 h o u r d a y l i g h t . A s t h e s u n c i r c l e s f o r l o n g e r a n d l o n g e r e a c h d a y i t s i n c r e a s i n g p o w e r c a n b e f e l t . T r a v e l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s (106) b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e f o r d r i v e r s a n d p a s s e n g e r s a l i k e . G o g g l e s o r s u n g l a s s e s m u s t b e w o r n t o l i m i t t h e i n c o m i n g r a d i a t i o n , a n d t o p r e v e n t s n o w b l i n d n e s s . E x p o s e d f a c e s q u i c k l y b e c o m e s u n b u r n e d , e x c e p t f o r t h e p r o t e c t e d a r e a s a r o u n d t h e e y e s , p r o d u c i n g a r a c c o o n - l i k e c o u n t e n a n c e among a c t i v e l a n d - u s e r s . S p r i n g i s t h e t i m e o f r e b i r t h , o f t h e a w a k e n i n g o f l i f e a f t e r t h e l o n g , c o l d w i n t e r m o n t h s . By t h e e n d o f A p r i l t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f P e l l y B a y i s a h u b b u b o f a c t i v i t y a s I n u i t p r e p a r e f o r t h e u p c o m i n g t r a v e l s . S k i d o o s a r e o v e r h a u l e d , s l e d s b u i l t o r r e b u i l t , t e n t s r e p a i r e d , a n d c a r i b o u s k i n s h u n g o u t t o d r y . T h e f i r s t c l e a r , s u n n y d a y s o p e n w i t h t h e s o u n d s o f s n o w m o b i l e e n g i n e s s t a r t i n g , w a r m i n g u p , a n d s t r a i n i n g o n t o t h e s e a i c e w i t h s l e d s l o a d e d t o o v e r c a p a c i t y . T r a i l s b r a n c h o u t f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t , b e c o m i n g w i d e r a n d m o r e c o m p a c t e d a s a s t i m e g o e s o n , u n t i l t h e y r e s e m b l e r o a d s . S e e m i n g l y e n d l e s s t r a f f i c m o v e s a l o n g t h e s e t u n d r a h i g h w a y s b o t h d a y a n d n i g h t , a s p e o p l e , s u p p l i e s , a n d m a c h i n e s a r e f e r r i e d b a c k a n d f o r t h t o t h e c a m p s . On f r i d a y a f t e r n o o n s t h e s t o r e i s p a c k e d t o t h e r a f t e r s w i t h p e o p l e p u r c h a s i n g s u p p l i e s ; on t h e w e e k e n d s t h e t o w n i s e m p t y . T h o s e e m p l o y e e s who c a n , t a k e h o l i d a y s ; t h o s e who c a n ' t , o f t e n do a n y w a y . M o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t t h e i r i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s o r s a r e o u t on t h e l a n d a s w e l l . A (107) survey taken on Tuesday, June 7, 1988 found t h a t , of those employees who should have been at work, fewer than h a l f were even i n the sett l e m e n t . The l o c a l school f enrolment decreases d r a m a t i c a l l y , and on f a i r weather days i t i s not uncommon f o r teachers t o outnumber students. Camps s p r i n g up along the margins of the bay, i n d i v i d u a l t e n t s i n some l o c a t i o n s , c l u s t e r s i n ot h e r s , People t r a n s f e r , g y p s y - l i k e , between encampments. C h i l d r e n disappear f o r days at a time among t h e i r v a r i o u s r e l a t i v e s , and can be seen h a p p i l y p l a y i n g o u t s i d e at four i n the morning. Time becomes endless and lo s e s a l l meaning beyond that which nature d i c t a t e s . Family members eat, s l e e p , or e n t e r t a i n themselves when they f e e l l i k e i t . Hunters hunt and fishermen f i s h f o r one e n t i r e day, or two, or three without end, V i s i t s c o n tinue unabated f o r as long as p l e a s u r e d i c t a t e s , f u e l e d by endless cups of t e a , A warm f e e l i n g pervades the e n t i r e s c a t t e r e d assemblage: the winter i s over and the long-awaited s p r i n g i s here. Springtime i n the A r c t i c i s a time of freedoms. A f t e r the darkness of winter one i s f r e e to see and expl o r e the world of l i g h t a gain. A f t e r the long indoor confinement the world out-of-doors once again beckons, and becomes the f i e l d upon which l i f e i s p l a y e d . The c o l d of winte r , the i n s e c t s of summer, and the low (108) clouds and freezing rains of f a l l do not make the outdoors unpleasant in the spring. Nor do the melting season b a r r i e r s of bog, mud, fast-flowing r i v e r s , and f l o a t i n g masses of sea-ice l i m i t surface passage. The ultimate freedom of springtime for the Inuit i s that of surface movement, v i r t u a l l y unlimited. At thi s time of the year the landscape i s covered with a hard s h e l l of wind-packed snow, cemented by the rays of the nascent sunshine. Travel i s possible everywhere on thi s surface. Barriers are frozen: tundra mounds are f i l l e d i n , r i v e r s become highways, and the sea-ice surface becomes a f l a t , featureless conduit between one spot of a c t i v i t y and the next. Also, unlike any other season, surface t r a v e l in the springtime can be undertaken in r e l a t i v e comfort, especially for passengers r i d i n g on the sleds. For family units as a whole the primary a c t i v i t y in springtime i s the erection and occupation of campsites. Each family group loads as much equipment as can f i t onto a sled and proceeds to the chosen s i t e . Some families return to t r a d i t i o n a l s i t e s year a f t e r year, othex-s select new sit e s every spring, and yet others j o i n with extended family members or close fx _iends at group s i t e s . Movement between sites i s quite f l u i d , as individuals go fx-om camp to camp and r e l a t i v e to r e l a t i v e . Eating and sleeping arrangements are of no concern, as common protocol dictates that anyone i s (109) w i l l i n g and a b l e to share a n y t h i n g with anyone at any time. V i s i t o r s move f r e e l y from camp to camp, from te n t to t e n t , g i v i n g and s h a r i n g as the need or d e s i r e a r i s e s . In a l l camps the s i l e n c e i s broken many times a day by the a r r i v a l of v i s i t o r s or the shout of "teatuit*tae", meaning "the t e a i s ready", upon which a l l who are awake or otherwise not occupied converge upon a p a r t i c u l a r tent f o r mugs of tea l a c e d with sugar, and help themselves to the f a r e spread f o r them by the matron of the f a m i l y . T h i s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s p i l o t b i s c u i t s , b u t t e r , jam, canned meat (Coop luncheon meat i n p a r t i c u l a r ) , c o o k i e s , stews, soups, and p i l e s of raw, f r o z e n , or d r i e d c a r i b o u , f i s h , and s e a l meat. The p l e a s u r e of the host i s i n the g i v i n g , and momentary st a t u s i s c o n f e r r e d by the act of v i s i t o r s v i s i b l y e n j o y i n g the h o s p i t a l i t y . In the I n u i t world i t i s as good, or b e t t e r , to g i v e as to r e c e i v e . Table II l i s t s the l o c a t i o n and d u r a t i o n of the camps of s p r i n g , 1988, w hile F i g u r e 10 shows t h e i r l o c a t i o n . As i s r e a d i l y apparent from F i g u r e 10, a l l camps were al o n g the shores of P e l l y Bay, save one. A l l s i t e s are s i m i l a r i n that they have a f l a t , g r a v e l - c o v e r e d s u r f a c e w e l l s u i t e d to camping. Most, i f not a l l , e x h i b i t signs of p r e v i o u s occupation r a n g i n g from l a s t years pampers t o a n c i e n t t e n t r i n g s . The s i t e s are u s u a l l y east or southeastward f a c i n g , with a n a t u r a l b a r r i e r to the (110) northwest to provide some protection from the "uanaq" ("prevailing northwest wind") should a spring storm blow up. A l l are d i r e c t l y accessible by sea-ice. The largest encampment was at "Akulliq" (Point, meaning "the one that i s between the two parts of the sea"), During several v i s i t s in the spring of 1988, upwards of forty people were recorded at t h i s s i t e . It is a favorable s i t e , protected by a series of low h i l l s , well endowed with gravel and a small freshwater stream, and faces an area of the bay populated with seals. A nearby h i l l , "Nasersurvik" (meaning "a high place to look out over the surrounding countryside"), provides an excellent place to scan the bay for seals basking in the sun beside t h e i r breathing holes or by cracks in the ic e . On June 10, 1988, eleven seals were spotted from thi s location, three of whom were harvested by residents of t h i s camp by the close of the day. The campsite has been used for many years, judging by the amount of ancient and modern garbage strewn about. Seal and caribou bones abound, and form a thick carpet that crunches underfoot. An Inuit game that u t i l i z e s various seal backbone vertebrae i s popular, as a l l of the pieces required can be picked up in a matter of minutes. Several pieces of bleached whalebone were observed here, as well as a human s k u l l and bones. Two other larger s i t e s existed in the same general ( I l l ) a r e a i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 8 , F o u r f a m i l y g r o u p s s p e n t v a r y i n g p e r i o d s a t "Tinnipppajak" ( B a y , m e a n i n g " t h e o n e t h a t t e n d s t o h a v e a t i d e " ) , j u s t n o r t h o f "Akulliq". "7inaardjuk" ( B a y , m e a n i n g " t h e e n d o f t h e l i t t l e b a y b y T i n u r a t " , a n d a l s o r e f e r r i n g t o t i d a l a c t i o n ) was a l s o o c c u p i e d , a t v a r i o u s t i m e s , b y f i v e f a m i l y g r o u p s , f o u r o f whom a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d , B o t h s i t e s h a v e g r a v e l b e a c h e s , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m n o r t h w e s t w i n d s , f r e s h w a t e r s t r e a m s , a n d a g o o d v i e w o f t h e b a y . F i v e s i t e s a r o u n d t h e m a r g i n s o f t h e b a y w e r e u s e d b y g r o u p s o f t w o f a m i l i e s who c h o s e t o camp t o g e t h e r . I n a l l i n s t a n c e s t h e o c c u p a n t s w e r e e i t h e r members o f a n e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , o r t h e f a m i l y h e a d s w e r e g o o d f r i e n d s a n d h u n t i n g p a r t n e r s . Two m a i n l a n d c o a s t a l s i t e s , "Kivikiktaq" ( C a p e , m e a n i n g " i t l o o k s l i k e a n a n i m a l o n a p i e c e o f i c e j u s t b i g e n o u g h t o s u p p o r t i t , t i p p i n g s l i g h t l y " ) a n d "Ujarasagjuarraarjuk" ( B a y , m e a n i n g " t h e s m a l l b a y w h e r e t h e r e i s a p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e a r e b i g r o c k s " ) , h a v e t h e same f a v o r a b l e q u a l i t i e s a s o t h e r m o r e p o p u l o u s c a m p s , b u t h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f f e w e r p e o p l e c o m p e t i n g f o r r e s o u r c e s , T h r e e o f t h e s m a l l e r camps w e r e s i t u a t e d o n i s l a n d s h o r e s : "Kighiktajuaq" ( I s l a n d , m e a n i n g " t h e b i g , i m p o s i n g i s l a n d " ) , o c c u p i e d b y o n e f a m i l y f o r 45 d a y s a n d v i s i t e d b y a n o t h e r f o r o n l y a s h o r t t i m e , "Tuapagiktug" ( I s l a n d , m e a n i n g " i t h a s e x c e l l e n t g r a v e l f o r c a m p i n g o n " ) , o c c u p i e d b y a f a t h e r , (112) son, and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and "Iglalik" ( I s l a n d , meaning "p l a c e where there are i g l o o s " ) , near to the settlement and f a v o r e d by "commuters" who wished to l i v e on the land. A l l of these i s l a n d l o c a t i o n s are f a v o r a b l e s i t e s w e l l used i n the p a s t , but tend t o s u f f e r from a l a c k of f r e s h water, e s p e c i a l l y l a t e r i n the s p r i n g when the snow on the land has melted. Seventeen s i t e s i n the P e l l y Bay area were occupied by only one f a m i l y or p a r t y i n the s p r i n g of 1988, They are s c a t t e r e d about the margins of the bay, and were occupied from one day to twenty. F i v e of the s i t e s were along the western margins of the bay, i n t e r s p e r s e d among the l a r g e r camps, and w i t h i n easy v i s i t i n g d i s t a n c e . Three s i t e s were reco r d e d on the i s l a n d s across from the settle m e n t , and one across the r i v e r . These l a t t e r four s i t e s were fa v o r e d by the e l d e r l y , o c c a s i o n a l weekend use r s , and "commuters", as a l l are w i t h i n an hours d r i v e of P e l l y Bay. Other s i t e s r e f l e c t e d the t e r r i t o r i a l p r e f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l hunters and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , f o r whom the harvest was more important than the s o c i a l i z a t i o n . One f a m i l y spent a short time i n l a n d at "ffitingura'ak" (meaning "where there are two mountains that used t o f i t together") on the K e l l e t t R i v e r hunting c a r i b o u . The primary harvest a c t i v i t y d u r i n g s p r i n g camping i s s e a l hunting. R e c e n t l y the p r i c e of a s e a l p e l t has (113) declined dramatically. With no f i n a n c i a l incentive the harvest has declined, to the l e v e l of personal consumption only. In the spring of 1988 a t o t a l of 161 k i l l s were recorded. There are two patterns of seal hunting. In the f i r s t , i n dividual hunters spot seals basking near a breathing hole or crack in the ice, and stalk close enough to effect a k i l l . Many hunters use a white canvas b l i n d to conceal themselves u n t i l u n t i l they are within range, Others crawl along on the ice and mimic the actions of a seal u n t i l they are within e f f e c t i v e k i l l i n g distance. Care must be taken to k i l l the seal with a single shot, as one muscle spasm can f l i p them into the breathing hole. Many seals are wounded and l o s t . The second pattern of seal hunting, the group hunt, i s usually more successful. Whole family groups converge on the ice and attempt to locate a l l of the breathing holes that an individual seal uses. Although some holes are open at the surface, many are covered and found only afte r much prodding with harpoon shafts. Once most of the breathing holes in an area are located., one person is stationed at each with a ready harpoon, while the children are dispatched to other holes to frighten the seal away i f i t should surface. Seals must breathe every twenty minutes or so, and i t i s only a matter of time before i t surfaces at one hole or another. If the seal (114) i s c a u g h t t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y g r o u p moves on t o a n e a r b y a r e a t o b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s a g a i n . S e a l h u n t i n g b y u s i n g s e a l h o o k s o r l a r g e - m e s h s e a l n e t s , a r e r a r e l y , i f e v e r , u s e d i n t h i s r e g i o n . T h e o t h e r m a j o r s p r i n g t i m e h a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t y i s c a r i b o u h u n t i n g . D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 8 , 145 c a r i b o u w e r e t a k e n , m o s t w i t h i n a n h o u r o r t w o ' s s n o w m o b i l e d r i v e f r o m e n c a m p m e n t s . T h e r e a r e no m a j o r c a r i b o u m i g r a t i o n r o u t e s t h r o u g h t h e P e l l y B a y a r e a , a n d a l l h u n t i n g i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e s m a l l h e r d s t h a t w a n d e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . T h e s e h e r d s n o r m a l l y n u m b e r t w e n t y o r l e s s , a n d t h e i r w h e r e a b o u t s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . T h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r t h e c h a n c e o f k i l l i n g c a r i b o u i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e a h u n t e r s p e n d s i n s e a r c h o f g a m e . A s m o s t h u n t i n g e x c u r s i o n s d u r i n g t h e y e a r b o t h b e g i n a n d e n d a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t , t h e n u m b e r s o f game a n i m a l s d e c l i n e n e a r b y . T h u s m o v i n g t o e x t e r n a l b a s e camp l o c a t i o n s i n s p r i n g t i m e i n c r e a s e s t h e c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h o s e a r e a s l e s s f r e q u e n t e d b y c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d d a y t i m e a n d w e e k e n d h u n t e r s , I n c i d e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s a t s p r i n g camps i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s a s i c e - f i s h i n g a n d b i r d h u n t i n g . Camps a r e o f t e n l o c a t e d n e a r i n l a n d l a k e s w h e r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o j i g f o r l a k e t r o u t a n d l a n d - l o c k e d c h a r . I n t h e l a t e s p r i n g i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o j i g a t c r a c k s i n t h e s e a i c e f o r (115) s c u l p i n , c o d , a n d o t h e r s a l t - w a t e r f i s h . O c c a s i o n a l l y n e t s a r e s e t a c r o s s o p e n w a t e r p a s s a g e s t h a t o p e n up a t t h e v e r y e n d o f t h e s e a s o n . T h e a r e a i s v i s i t e d b y m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l , a n d d u c k s , g e e s e , c r a n e s , a n d s w a n s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y t a k e n t o p r o v i d e a w e l c o m e c h a n g e o f d i e t . P t a r m i g a n , a n a r e a y e a r - r o u n d r e s i d e n t , a r e s h o t b y y o u n g e r camp members a r m e d w i t h s m a l l - c a l i b r e r i f l e s a n d s h o t g u n s . A s s p r i n g p r o g r e s s e s i n t o s u m m e r , s u r f a c e t r a v e l b e g i n s t o b e e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . I n l a t e s p r i n g t r a v e l i s l i m i t e d t o l a t e e v e n i n g a n d e a r l y m o r n i n g h o u r s w h e n t h e m e l t i n g s e a - i c e s u r f a c e h a s h a d a c h a n c e t o f r e e z e a b i t . E v e n t u a l l y , h o w e v e r , s e a - i c e t r a v e l b e c o m e s i m p o s s i b l e , a n d t h e r e i s a s c r a m b l e t o r e t u r n p e o p l e , e q u i p m e n t , a n d m a c h i n e r y t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t . Some f a m i l i e s m i s j u d g e t h e l a s t p o s s i b l e moment t o l e a v e s p r i n g camps a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y a r e s t r a n d e d , t o b e r e s c u e d b y b o a t when t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t o p e n w a t e r , L a n d - U s e ; Summer Summer b e g i n s when t h e s e a - i c e h a s m e l t e d e n o u g h f o r o p e n w a t e r n a v i g a t i o n . T h i s g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s t o w a r d t h e m i d d l e t o l a t t e r p a r t s o f J u l y , w i t h t h e e a r l i e s t r e c o r d e d d a t e b e i n g J u l y 15 a n d t h e l a t e s t A u g u s t 25 ( A l l e n , 1 9 7 7 : 6 ) , M a n y e l d e r s r e l a t e s t o r i e s o f t i m e s . (116) when the bay d i d not melt at a l l . The i c e cover normally reforms i n October, with September 21 b e i n g the e a r l i e s t date recorded, and November 1 the l a t e s t ( A l l e n , 1977: 11). Complete f r e e z e - o v e r of the bay i n f a l l normally f o l l o w s w i t h i n a few days of the f i r s t i c e cover. The northern end of P e l l y Bay i s b l o c k e d year-round by permanent i c e at the "Hina'aq" (Floe Edge), and n o r t h e r l y winds can d r i v e l a r g e masses of i c e i n t o the bay at any time d u r i n g the short summer. U n l i k e s p r i n g t i m e , summer camping excursions are r e l a t i v e l y short and l e s s common. Of f o r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s , only f i f t e e n spent any time at a summer camp, of which ten went only f o r the weekend. Of the f i v e f a m i l i e s t h a t stayed out longer, two were at "Qatairrurj uaq" ( C l i f f ) , a f i f t e e n minute boat r i d e a cross the r i v e r from the settlement, and were e s s e n t i a l l y commuters, Thus only three f a m i l i e s from P e l l y Bay spent more than a week at summer camps: two along the coast at "Ikaaqtalik" (Point) and "Atanirsliq" ( I n l e t ) , and one at an i n l a n d l a k e , "Isuqtuq" (see F i g u r e 11). It f o l l o w s that n e a r l y a l l other land-use a c t i v i t i e s i n summertime o r i g i n a t e from the settlement i t s e l f . T h i r t y - f i v e of the f o r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s (73%) owned and operated a boat d u r i n g the summer of 1987, with f o u r f a m i l i e s having more than one. The boats are from twelve (117) to twenty-eight feet, and propelled by outboard motors. These boats were used for, or as part of, nearly a l l summertime harvesting excursions, The most common land-use a c t i v i t y in Pelly Bay during summer i s shooting seals from open boats. Unless the seal i s k i l l e d i n s t a n t l y there i s a danger of i t submerging. Even i f k i l l e d outright, seals begin to sink immediately, and a hunter must harpoon i t quickly. A t o t a l of 488 seals taken in the summer of 1987. Because there i s no market demand for the pe l t s , furs and meat were solely for personal consumption, and represent a considerable amount of country produce for the community. Boats are also used for net f i s h i n g . Thirty-four families (70%) pa r t i c i p a t e d in thi s a c t i v i t y in the summer of 1987. Nets must be checked at least once a day, so most a c t i v i t y takes place close to the settlement. There are short summer and f a l l runs of char in the Kugajuk River and many nets are set at this time. Returns, however, tend to be diminishing due to overfishing. Unlike the past, summer f i s h i n g has not been r e l i e d upon as a source of winter food for several years. Overland t r a v e l in summertime has increased since the introduction of a l l - t e r r a i n vehicles. Three and four-wheeled cross-country motorcycles seem ideal for (118) tundra t r a v e l . Forty-two of the f o r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s i n P e l l y Bay owned at l e a s t one such v e h i c l e i n 1987, and ten f a m i l i e s had more than one, f o r a t o t a l of 55 i n the community. Most A.T.V.'s can c a r r y cargo, and a l l can be used to p u l l a s l e d or c a r t . They can be loaded onto a boat and t r a n s p o r t e d to c o a s t a l s i t e s to forage i n l a n d , i n c r e a s i n g the range of i n t e r i o r hunting and f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In the summer of 1987, 27 f a m i l i e s (56%) used A.T.V.'s f o r i n t e r i o r f i s h i n g and t r i p s , and t h i s i s the primary reason that as many c a r i b o u (260) were brought i n t o the community i n summer as i n w i n t e r . Other a n c i l l a r y summer a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the set t l e m e n t . These i n c l u d e the hunting of small game such as r a b b i t s and ptarmigan, mainly by younger teenagers and a d u l t s , and rod- a n d - r e e l f i s h i n g , as w e l l as "kakivak" ( f i s h spear) f i s h i n g at the remnants of "sapputat" (stone f i s h weirs) d u r i n g the summer char run. As w e l l , many of the women and c h i l d r e n engage i n b e r r y - p i c k i n g i n the l a t e summer. Land-Use; F a l l and Winter With the coming of the f i r s t snows P e l l y Bay once again becomes a h i v e of a c t i v i t y . Boats and outboard motors are s t o r e d , and snowmobiles uncovered and overhauled. Every f a m i l y owns at l e a s t one, with some (119) families having as many as three snowmobiles. The forty-eight families of Pell y Bay owned a t o t a l of s i x t y - f i v e operational snowmobiles in 1988. There were s t i l l 15 active dog teams of various sizes in the community, but th e i r use i s primarily r e c r e a t i o n a l . The primary land-use a c t i v i t y of the f a l l i s f i s h i n g . As soon as the f i r s t snows allow for surface t r a v e l , families depart for the f i s h i n g camps. There i s some urgency to t h i s , as f i s h nets must be set as close as possible to f i r s t freezing to insure a bountiful catch. This f a l l f i s h i n g provides the indispensable store of country food for the winter, upon which the Inuit have r e l i e d for generations. Fish - raw, frozen, dried, and cooked, continues to be a major part of the wintertime diet of the people of Pell y Bay. Almost a l l of i t i s obtained in the two week period aft e r f i r s t freeze-up, and nearly a l l from one source: the "Huug" (Kellett) River. The "Kuug" (meaning "the big river") has played a v i t a l part in the l i v e s of the l o c a l Inuit for a very long time. There i s evidence that the previous inhabitants, the "Tuunit" (Dorset Culture), camped and fished along the margins of t h i s r i v e r (Mary-Rousseliere, 1964). Traces of camps both ancient and modern dot the shores, with the accumulated refuse of generations p i l e d high at prime s i t e s . Forty (120) f a m i l i e s (83% of respondents) r e p o r t e d the use of t h i s r i v e r f o r f a l l f i s h i n g i n 1987. Of the remaining f a m i l i e s i n P e l l y Bay four went f a l l f i s h i n g elsewhere, and one went to another l o c a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the "Huug" (see F i g u r e 12). Only three f a m i l i e s i n P e l l y Bay d i d not r e p o r t i n t e n s i v e f a l l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n 1987. The importance of f a l l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s at the "Huug" i s r e f l e c t e d i n the p l a c e names. As F i g u r e 8 shows, th e r e i s an i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of named p l a c e s a l o n g the r i v e r . Nearly every h i l l , v a l l e y , bend, and shore has a name i n I n u k t i t u t , and f a m i l i e s r e t u r n year a f t e r year t o fav o r e d campsites. Each f a m i l y has a s p e c i a l s i t e t o f i s h on the fr o z e n r i v e r , staked out over g e n e r a t i o n s . Most I n u i t know where the f a m i l i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y camp and f i s h , and re s p e c t the boundaries. The a c t u a l work begins when the f i r s t brave fishermen demonstrate that the i c e i s saf e to stand on. Salt-water s e a - i c e w i l l support the weight of a man when i t i s i n the nature of 10-15 centimeters i n t h i c k n e s s , and I n u i t are g e n e r a l l y q u i t e adept at gaging i t s r e l a t i v e s a f e t y . Fresh water i c e , e s p e c i a l l y on the s u r f a c e of a moving r i v e r , i s c o n s i d e r a b l y harder to asse s s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y e r r o r s of judgement are made i n the hurry to b e gin f i s h i n g . Fresh water i c e i n c r e a s e s i n t h i c k n e s s very q u i c k l y , and the sooner the work i s begun the l e s s (121) ice must be chopped through, and the easier i t becomes. A series of holes must be chopped in the i c e , and a guide rope passed from hole to hole for each net. In most cases t h i s rope i s passed from one long pole to another under the water, u n t i l the entire length of the net i s strung. Some Inuit, however, make use of an ingenious "ice-walker" which, with practice, can be manoeuvred upside-down under the ice surface from the s t a r t i n g hole to the f i n a l hole without having to surface. Once the guide ropes are strung the nets are hung, and the Inuit await t h e i r catch. Inuit b u i l d ice boxes in which to cache the f i s h . Large chunks of ice a meter or two in length and a meter or so in height are chopped from the surface of the r i v e r and placed on edge to form rectangular walls. This box i s then covered with an ice top. Once caught, the f i s h are flash-frozen and deposited whole. The ice boxes protect the cache from most scavengers, with the occasional exception of barren-land g r i z z l y or polar bears. These f i s h storage containers are l e f t in place a l l winter and v i s i t e d by t h e i r owners when the need ari s e s . The f a l l camps are, l i k e t h e i r spring counterparts, a l i v e with warmth and cheer. Once the hard work of s e t t i n g the nets and erecting the ice-boxes i s over, there i s time for an endless c i r c l e of v i s i t i n g , C122) i n t e r r u p t e d once or twice a day f o r the checking of the nets, The average stay f o r f a m i l i e s at the K e l l e t t R i v e r camps i n the f a l l of 1987 was 1 week (7,6 days), with the shortest being one day, and the longest 34, During t h i s time a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the population of P e l l y Bay could be found encamped here. U n l i k e springtime, f a l l weather can be q u i t e uncomfortable, with f r e e z i n g r a i n , s l e e t , and snow. The nights are dark, and the temperatures i n c r e a s i n g l y c o l d e r . I t i s not the c o l d , however, that worries the harvesters along the banks of the "Haug", but the r e t u r n of unseasonably warm weather. This can be a d i s a s t e r f o r the fishermen. Sudden warming can cause the r i v e r to break up and flow again, and nets and caches are q u i c k l y swept out to the bay, and are almost impossible to recover. Once the f a l l char run i s over, the l o s s by m e l t i n g cannot be replaced, and the stocks of a v a i l a b l e f i s h can be s e r i o u s l y depleted ( K r i s t o f f e r s o n , 1982). As w e l l , sudden warming can leave the camps stranded, i s o l a t e d from the community, as both overland and water t r a v e l are impossible during t h i s time. With too much i c e f o r boats, not enough snow f o r snowmobiles, and s e v e r a l i n t e r v e n i n g r i v e r s f l o w i n g with meltwater and i c e , the only option f o r f a m i l i e s i s to remain i n place u n t i l freeze-up returns again. The other major a c t i v i t y of the f a l l and e a r l y winter (123) i s c a r i b o u hunting. In the months of October and November the c a r i b o u are considered to be i n t h e i r prime, both f o r t h e i r meat and f o r t h e i r s k i n s , which do not shed i f c o l l e c t e d at t h i s time of the year. The rut i s over ( t h i s gives a bad t a s t e to the males), the warbles and i n s e c t s of summer are no longer a problem f o r the c a r i b o u , and t h e i r stomachs bulge w i t h "tunnuk" ( b e l l y f a t ) , much p r i z e d by I n u i t . The c a r i b o u of the P e l l y Bay region are found i n small herds s c a t t e r e d throughout the various ranges. Because the regenerative c a p a c i t y of the ecosystem i s l i m i t e d , and slow, c a r i b o u that have grazed one area may not r e t u r n f o r years, and must c o n s t a n t l y search f o r f r e s h pastures to forage. Therefore they are not to be found i n any p a r t i c u l a r area at s p e c i f i c times of the year, although g e n e r a l l y they are found i n l a r g e r concentrations i n the southern and western p o r t i o n s of the s h i e l d country. The f l a t areas of the northern i n t e r i o r part of "Ha'aktuk" (Simpson Peninsula) are nearly devoid of a l l w i l d l i f e , i n c l u d i n g c a r i b o u . Most c a r i b o u hunting i s accomplished by day t r i p s from the community. T y p i c a l l y , an i n d i v i d u a l hunter or two hunting partners w i l l choose a general area to examine, often a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with hunters who have been s u c c e s s f u l i n previous days. They leave the settlement e a r l y i n the morning by skidoo, p u l l i n g a (124) s l e d c o n t a i n i n g an a b s o l u t e minimum of equipment, i n c l u d i n g spare p a r t s , g a s o l i n e , o i l , a camp stove, a snow k n i f e , grub box, b u l l e t s , and a few c a r i b o u s k i n s , the whole wrapped i n an o l d tent or canvas t a r p . The hunters are u s u a l l y dressed i n c a r i b o u - s k i n c l o t h i n g , and c a r r y t h e i r r i f l e s l u n g over t h e i r shoulder. The r i f l e s are commonly of small c a l i b r e and high v e l o c i t y , r a n g i n g i n bore s i z e from .17 to .243 mm., and equipped with a t e l e s c o p i c s i g h t . Two gen e r a l s t r a t e g i e s of hunting are used i n combination, the f i r s t b e i n g to examine the c o u n t r y s i d e q u i c k l y by t r a v e l i n g from high p o i n t to high p o i n t . At these "Nasersurviks" ("high p l a c e s to look out over the surrounding c o u n t r y s i d e " ) the hunters pause t o survey the landscape, On a c l e a r day i t i s p o s s i b l e to scan an area of a hundred or more square k i l o m e t e r s with the use of t e l e s c o p e s and b i n o c u l a r s . Most hunters have developed a p r a c t i c e d eye f o r s p o t t i n g game on the tundra landscape. I f c a r i b o u are s i g h t e d the hunt proceeds i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n , i f not i t proceeds to the next vantage p o i n t . The second s t r a t e g y i n v o l v e s t r a c k i n g the quarry. A f t e r s e v e r a l hours of moving across the landscape the hunters are almost c e r t a i n to f i n d the t r a c k s of p a s s i n g animals. The hard snow s u r f a c e holds a r e c o r d of a l l that moves across i t , a r e c o r d that can be read by those C125) v e r s e d i n i t s language. By e x a m i n i n g t r a c k s c l o s e l y t h e h u n t e r s can d e t e r m i n e what a n i m a l s have p a s s e d , t h e i r numbers, speed, d i r e c t i o n of movement, g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n , and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , when t h e y have pas s e d . P r o m i s i n g l e a d s can be f o l l o w e d t o t h e i r s o u r c e , as a h u n t e r on a snowmobile has t h e c r u c i a l advantage of speed. Once s i g h t e d c a r i b o u a r e g e n e r a l l y q u i t e easy t o k i l l . Many of t h e herds t h a t a r e l o c a t e d f a r t h e r away from t h e s e t t l e m e n t have not y e t l e a r n e d t o have a f e a r of man and h i s machines, and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g r a z e as t h o s e around a r e f e l l e d by h u n t e r s b u l l e t s . Even i f t h e h e r d i s alarmed i n t o f l i g h t , t h ey a r e no match i n speed compared t o a modern snowmobile. Those herds t h a t a r e i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y s t a r t l e d more e a s i l y i n t o f l i g h t , can be f o l l o w e d u n t i l t h e y t i r e , and t h e n h a r v e s t e d . There i s a g e n e r a l tendency, however, t o a v o i d k i l l i n g c a r i b o u t h a t have been ru n a g r e a t d e a l , as t h i s tends t o make t h e i r meat l e s s p a l a t a b l e . Once k i l l e d , the c a r i b o u a r e s k i n n e d and g u t t e d i m m e d i a t e l y . The I n u i t of P e l l y Bay have d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r way of d o i n g t h i s , d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t of p e o p l e from o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s . Cuts a r e made around t h e a n k l e s , t r a c e d down the l e g s , and j o i n e d t o a m i d r i f f c u t from tongue t o t a i l . The hands a r e t h e n (126) worked i n t o the space between the inner and outer s k i n , and with a s e r i e s of s l i c i n g movements beginning at the e x t r e m i t i e s and working towards the back, the s k i n i s loosened. This procedure a l s o serves to keep the hands warm i n the sub-zero temperatures. The head i s then severed, and the e n t i r e s k i n p u l l e d o f f at the t a i l . G u t t i n g i s accomplished with a quick s l i c e through one side of the b e l l y at the base of the lowest r i b , a severing at the rectum, another at the base of the diaphragm, and a r o l l i n g of the carcass i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n to s p i l l the contents of the bowels. The v i t a l organs above the diaphragm are g e n e r a l l y l e f t i n to be eaten l a t e r . The carcass i s then commonly cut i n t o f i v e p i e c e s : the two hind quarters d i s j o i n t e d at the top of the femur, the two f r o n t quarters (not connected by bones to the t o r s o , and thus e a s i l y severed), and the main body. An experienced hunter can s k i n , gut, and dismember a c a r i b o u i n t h i s fashion i n under f i v e minutes. A f t e r the hunt the carcass i s securely lashed to the s l e d , and the hunters e i t h e r continue the hunt or r e t u r n home. Most f a l l and winter c a r i b o u hunts i n the P e l l y Bay are of one, or at the most, two days d u r a t i o n . To the l o c a l p erception c a r i b o u appear to be p l e n t i f u l . Many of the elders b e l i e v e that t h e i r numbers have grown i n recent decades, and that they are now to be found i n (127) ranges f a r t h e r north than i n pre v i o u s y e a r s . In the f a l l and winter of 1987-88 a t o t a l of 260 c a r i b o u were k i l l e d i n the P e l l y Bay area. When added t o the 145 c a r i b o u k i l l e d i n s p r i n g , and the 260 i n summer, t h i s produces a t o t a l h arvest of 665 f o r the year, an average of two c a r i b o u per person per year. Other land-use a c t i v i t i e s f o r the f a l l and winter of 1987-88 i n c l u d e s e a l , wolf and p o l a r bear hunting. Seal hunting through the sea i c e was once the mainstay of the l o c a l wintertime economy, but i s g e n e r a l l y not p r a c t i c e d today. T h i s type of hunting i n v o l v e s l o c a t i n g an "agios" ( s e a l b r e a t h i n g hole) on the i c e , and then w a i t i n g with a harpoon u n t i l the s e a l chooses t o s u r f a c e at that p a r t i c u l a r h o l e . As a s e a l breathes only once every twenty minutes or so, and can have upwards of a dozen i n d i v i d u a l b r e a t h i n g h o l e s , the wait can o f t e n be a l o n g one. Many I n u i t today do not have the d e s i r e or p a t i e n c e f o r t h i s type of hunt. Only 12 hunters r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n wint e r s e a l i n g , k i l l i n g 32 s e a l s between them. Wolf hunting can be q u i t e a remunerative occupation. Wolf f u r , e s p e c i a l l y the long guard h a i r s of the back, i s the p r e f e r r e d cold-weather parka hood t r i m among I n u i t , and i s much p r i z e d f o r i t s a b i l i t y to shed condensation while c o n t i n u i n g to p r o v i d e warmth. A hunter can c o n f e r much s t a t u s upon h i m s e l f and members (128) of h i s f a m i l y by p r o v i d i n g them with such t r i m . He can a l s o p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n t o the f a m i l i e s income, as a prime wolf s k i n i s worth between $300 $400 at a u c t i o n . A r c t i c wolves, however, are wary c r e a t u r e s , and are n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c k . A s p e c i a l type of knowledge and d e d i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r wolf hunting, and the s u c c e s s f u l hunter must be prepared to spend a great d e a l of time at i t . Wolf hunting i s normally l i m i t e d t o those hunters that have the e x p e r t i s e and time r e q u i r e d to t r a c k an animal f o r days on end, and to b r i n g the chase t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n . Of the ten hunters that engaged i n wolf hunting d u r i n g the wint e r of 1987-88, seven c l a s s i f i e d themselves as f u l l time hunters (with no wage income from j o b s ) , one worked h a l f - t i m e , and the other two were f u l l - t i m e employees. Between them they managed to k i l l 21 wolves. P o l a r bear h u n t i n g i s a r a t h e r s p e c i a l type of land-use a c t i v i t y . While the harvest of other game i n the P e l l y Bay area i s l i m i t e d only to need, the hunting of p o l a r bear i s s t r i c t l y managed and c o n t r o l l e d by the T e r r i t o r i a l Department of Renewable Resources, A quota system, based on p o p u l a t i o n surveys, has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each I n u i t settlement near p o l a r bear ranges. The quota f o r P e l l y Bay i n 1987-88 was set at 12 bears, however a b i t of t r a d i n g between communities i s (129) allowed. I f one community i s under i t s a l l o t m e n t near the end of the season i t can t r a n s f e r tags to another. In l a t e 1987 one p o l a r bear t a g from Spence Bay was t r a n s f e r r e d t o P e l l y Bay, T h i r t e e n p o l a r bears were a l l o t t e d as a quota, and t h i r t e e n bears were taken. There are two g e n e r a l areas used f o r p o l a r bear hunting i n the P e l l y Bay area, both along the margins of the "Hina'aq" ( f l o e edge) to the n o r t h . The l e s s u t i l i z e d area i s to the east of "Ha*aktuk" (Simpson P e n i n s u l a ) , w hile most hunters p r e f e r the area toward the north end of P e l l y Bay. The Hunters and Trappers A s s o c i a t i o n has e r e c t e d a small c a b i n here f o r the use of i t s members. The northern and western f r i n g e s of t h i s t e r r i t o r y are shared with hunters from the nearby community of Spence Bay. Various techniques and s t r a t e g i e s are used i n p o l a r bear hunting. The s i m p l e s t i n v o l v e s s e t t i n g up camp near the f l o e edge and w a i t i n g u n t i l an i n q u i s i t i v e p o l a r bear a r r i v e s nearby. Other s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e t r a c k i n g , s p o t t i n g with t e l e s c o p e s and b i n o c u l a r s , and s e t t i n g b a i t . When encountered, the hunters must be c a r e f u l not to damage the hide unduly i n the k i l l i n g , as t h i s lowers the v a l u e . A prime q u a l i t y p o l a r bear s k i n can be s o l d f o r $1,500 or more. Trapping i s of minor importance i n the P e l l y Bay a r e a . I t i s g e n e r a l l y only conducted by teenagers and C130) young a d u l t s i n search of pocket money, and i n areas r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e to the community. In the winter of 1987-88 f i f t e e n I n u i t set f i f t y - n i n e traps f o r white fox, with a t o t a l r e t u r n of f i f t y - f o u r p e l t s . In the s p r i n g auctions of 1988 the average p r i c e f o r a white fox was between $15-20. Patterns of On-The-Land Tr a v e l On-the-land t r a v e l p a tterns f o r the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay f a l l i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : 1) day t r i p s beginning and ending at the settlement, 2) overnight t r i p s of s e v e r a l day's d u r a t i o n , 3) f a m i l y camping t r i p s , and 4) i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l . They w i l l be examined here i n turn , By f a r the l a r g e s t percentage of on-the-land t r a v e l i n t h i s area involves day t r i p s . Be i t by boat, snowmobile, or A.T.V. the b a s i c premise i s the same: l e a v i n g the settlement very e a r l y i n the morning and a r r i v i n g back l a t e at night i n order to maximize time on-the-land. These types of t r i p s are most common during the summer, f a l l , and w i n t e r . The most frequent type of day t r i p i s wintertime c a r i b o u hunting. On days, e s p e c i a l l y weekends, that break c l e a r and show promise of good weather, hunters throughout the settlement, p a r t i c u l a r l y those whose (131) l a r d e r s are beginning to near d e p l e t i o n , awake e a r l y and ready themselves f o r the days hunting. Preparations begin w i t h the l o a d i n g of a small s l e d with a minimum of equipment, f u e l , and s u p p l i e s . T r a v e l l i n g on the tundra, e s p e c i a l l y on a powerful machine capable of maintaining highway speeds f o r hours and many ki l o m e t e r s away from the nearest source of help, combined with the use of high-powered r i f l e s , flammable f u e l s , and a temperature many degrees below f r e e z i n g , i s a dangerous occupation. Nearly every hunter who leaves the settlement knows of someone who has experienced problems while on the land, and, perhaps, someone who has died as a r e s u l t . Machinery breaks with alarming frequency at extremely c o l d temperatures, seemingly s o l i d i c e can break up under one's path even i n midwinter, and accidents occur at any moment. A hunter must be prepared to d e a l , by hi m s e l f , with a l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s . There i s , however, a l s o a need to keep one's equipment to a minimum, and each hunter must balance these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n h i s own way, A hunter learns from every t r i p how to be b e t t e r prepared f o r the next, and each develops a personal s t y l e . Some hunters c a r r y the absolute minimum of s u p p l i e s : a snow k n i f e , c a r i b o u s k i n , a few t o o l s , and spare g a s o l i n e . Others add camp stoves, t e n t s , spare p a r t s , s l e e p i n g bags, grub boxes, unbreakable thermoses of tea or c o f f e e , and prepared lunches to t h e i r k i t . A (132) few c a r r y C.B. r a d i o s . A l l , however, leave the community with what they consider an absolute minimum of baggage. A c t i v e hunters spend a great deal of time t a l k i n g "shop" with other a c t i v e hunters. There i s a constant trade of banter as to who got what, when, where, and how. Hunters l e a r n from each others successes and mistakes and, over the course of time, have a r e l a t i v e l y good idea of where to go to maximise t h e i r hunting p o t e n t i a l , Communication a l s o serves to inform hunters as to who i s l i k e l y to be i n a p a r t i c u l a r area at any given time, so that d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s can be avoided. This word of mouth i s a l s o u s e f u l i n a l e r t i n g the community to the approximate whereabouts of any hunter who f a i l s to r e t u r n to the settlement w i t h i n an appropriate time. Before l e a v i n g the settlement, most hunters have a general area of d e s t i n a t i o n i n mind, Most hunters on day t r i p s p r e f e r to hunt by themselves, although some leave the settlement with hunting p a r t n e r s . I t i s very r a r e f o r more than two hunters to j o i n together f o r one-day ca r i b o u hunts. The hunters proceed to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e hunting areas with as much haste as p o s s i b l e , often along t r a i l s l a i d out by those who have passed i n the days or weeks before. On a r r i v i n g at a p a r t i c u l a r area the most common hunting s t r a t e g y i s to cover as much area i n as l i t t l e time as i s p o s s i b l e , a l l the while (133) l o o k i n g f o r t r a c e s o f c a r i b o u , s t o p p i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y a t h i g h e r v a n t a g e p o i n t s t o s c a n t h e h o r i z o n w i t h a t e l e s c o p e o r b i n o c u l a r s . A s c a r i b o u t e n d t o b e f o u n d i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l h e r d s , t h e c h a n c e s o f e n c o u n t e r i n g t h e m i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e s p e e d o f m o v e m e n t . G i v e n t h a t a s n o w m o b i l e c a n m a i n t a i n , o n a g o o d s u r f a c e , a s p e e d o f 5 0 - 6 0 k i l o m e t e r s a n h o u r f o r many h o u r s o n e n d , t h e c h a n c e s o f f i n d i n g c a r i b o u a r e d e f i n i t e l y i n t h e h u n t e r s f a v o r . A l t h o u g h i t h a s b e e n f o u n d i m p o s s i b l e t o d o c u m e n t t h e l o c a t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e 2 6 0 c a r i b o u k i l l s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 8 7 - 8 8 , a s e v e n t h e h u n t e r s d o n o t k n o w t h e i r e x a c t l o c a t i o n s , i t h a s b e e n p o s s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e t h e g e n e r a l a r e a s f a v o r e d f o r s u c h h u n t s . T h e o n l y a r e a s n o t u t i l i s e d f o r c a r i b o u h u n t i n g w e r e t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f "Ha"aktuk" (S i m p s o n P e n i n s u l a ) , t h e m a i n l a n d n o r t h o f H a l k e t t I n l e t , a n d t h e o f f s h o r e i s l a n d s , H u n t e r s t r a v e r s e d m o s t o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a t o n e t i m e o r a n o t h e r i n s e a r c h o f c a r i b o u , s p r e a d i n g o u t f r o m t h e m a i n t r a i l s ( s e e F i g u r e 1 3 ) . F a v o r e d a r e a s w e r e t o t h e s o u t h a n d e a s t o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t , a n d a c r o s s t h e b a y t o t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h o f t h e m a i n t r a i l t o G j o a H a v e n . A s m i d w i n t e r t r i p s a r e l i m i t e d e s s e n t i a l l y t o t h e s h o r t h o u r s o f d a y l i g h t , m o s t c a r i b o u w e r e o b t a i n e d w i t h i n a 2 - 3 h o u r ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 - 6 0 k i l o m e t e r s i n r a d i u s ) d r i v e f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t . (134) M o s t p a r t s o f t h e l a n d s c a p e w i t h i n t h i s a r e a w e r e a n d a r e c o m b e d r a t h e r t h o r o u g h l y b y c a r i b o u h u n t e r s i n a n y g i v e n w i n t e r . C a r i b o u h u n t e r s a r e a l s o o p p o r t u n i s t s on t h e l o o k o u t f o r o t h e r t y p e s o f q u a r r y a s w e l l . A l t h o u g h w i n t e r t i m e w i l d l i f e i s l i m i t e d i n t h i s a r e a , i f t h e o c c a s i o n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f , h u n t e r s c a n h a r v e s t r a b b i t s , p t a r m i g a n , f o x e s , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y w o l v e s on e x c u r s i o n s w h o s e p r i m a r y f o c u s b e g i n s w i t h c a r i b o u . W h i l e h u n t i n g , t h e h u n t e r s m i n d - s e t f o c u s e s i n t e n t l y o n t h e l a n d s c a p e - a n d w h a t e v e r comes a l o n g i s f a i r g a m e . D a y t i m e s e a l h u n t i n g f r o m o p e n b o a t s i n t h e s u m m e r t i m e p r e s e n t s a c o n t r a s t t o w i n t e r t i m e c a r i b o u h u n t i n g . N o t o n l y i s t h e f o c u s o f a c t i v i t y ( t h e s e a r a t h e r t h a n t h e l a n d ) d i f f e r e n t , b u t t h e t i m e f r a m e ( 2 4 - h o u r d a y l i g h t a s o p p o s e d t o a f e w h o u r s o f t w i l i g h t ) a n d s e n s e o f u r g e n c y ( m i l d , e v e n w a r m w e a t h e r a s o p p o s e d t o f r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s ) a r e p o l e s a p a r t . I n t h e s u m m e r t i m e t h e r e i s no n e e d t o l e a v e e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d h u r r y home a t n i g h t : o n e c a n l e a v e w h e n e v e r o n e p l e a s e s a n d r e t u r n w h e n r e a d y . S e a l h u n t i n g c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f d a y t r i p s . H o w e v e r , i n t h e 2 4 - h o u r - a - d a y d a y l i g h t o f a n a r c t i c summer t h i s c a n b e s o m e w h a t m i s l e a d i n g : a one d a y ' s t r i p may mean h u n t i n g s e a l s f o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s c o n t i n u a l l y . Two d a y s o f s e a l h u n t i n g a r e n o t u n u s u a l , t h e o n l y l i m i t a t i o n s b e i n g c o n c e r n o v e r (135) the s p o i l a g e of meat, a l a c k of freeboard as seals are loaded aboard, running out of b u l l e t s , and a d e s i r e to sleep, Open-water t r a v e l patterns f o r summertime s e a l hunting are concentrated, f o r the most p a r t , along the leeward side of the i s l a n d s on the eastern p o r t i o n of the bay, i n waters pr o t e c t e d from swells and i c e . Almost a l l a c t i v i t y proceeds northwards from the settlement, threading between the s e a l - r i c h waters of these i s l a n d s . The waters between i s l a n d s tend to be r a t h e r calm, the i s l a n d s make good spots to stop f o r t e a , and there are many s h e l t e r e d refuges i n which to wait out a storm. The western p o r t i o n s of the bay are v i s i t e d by boat only during periods of great calm, r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n the summertime, and even then with t r e p i d a t i o n . Waves of a s i z e capable of swamping a small boat can blow up i n the open waters of the bay very q u i c k l y , and the I n u i t are a l l w e l l aware of the f a c t that they can not swim. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s n e i t h e r t h i s , nor the wearing of l i f e j a c k e t s i s of much comfort: the i c e - f i l l e d waters of the bay are so c o l d that a human w i l l freeze to death before he or she w i l l drown. Thus the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay are co n d i t i o n e d to be somewhat cautious about open-water t r a v e l , and normally stay as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to the shores. During the summer season many I n u i t now t r a v e l (136) o v e r l a n d f o r day t r i p s on a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s . The extent and d u r a t i o n of these t r i p s , however, i s somewhat l i m i t e d by the topography, as marshes, s u r f a c e water, c l i f f s , l a k e s , and r i v e r s a l l present b a r r i e r s t o s u r f a c e t r a v e l . S e v e r a l w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r a i l s do e x i s t , b u i l t up over the years by passage over the summer tundra s u r f a c e , along n a t u r a l l y - d e f i n e d c o r r i d o r s of e a s i e s t access. The main t r a i l proceeds eastwards from the community f o r approximately f i v e k i l o m e t e r s , and then f o r k s i n t o two. The southern t r a i l proceeds over a g r a v e l l y p l a i n , and e v e n t u a l l y t o the DEW L i n e s t a t i o n . From here i t i s p o s s i b l e to t r a v e l a l o n g the margins of "Tasserdjua'ark" (Barrow, or DEW Lin e Lake), and to the f l a t p l a i n s t o the east and southeast. I t g e n e r a l l y takes between 2-3 hours to d r i v e from the settlement t o the DEW L i n e a l o n g t h i s r o u t e . The other f o r k passes over the "QI1iarusiq" R i v e r at a shallows, and proceeds to the i n t e r i o r of "Ha'aktuk" (Simpson P e n i n s u l a ) . T h i s area i s an e l e v a t e d g r a v e l p l a i n with low r e l i e f , p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d t o A.T.V. t r a v e l . The only r e a l l i m i t a t i o n s here are the shallow s u r f a c e lakes and the numerous r i v e r s . T h i s area i s where many of the summertime c a r i b o u hunts are c a r r i e d out . On many occasions a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s are c a r r i e d by boat t o areas where they can be o f f l o a d e d f o r overland (137) use. During the summer of 1987 a small herd of c a r i b o u was stranded by meltwater on "Kighiktajuaq" ( I s l a n d ) , and s e v e r a l hunters used A.T.V.'s to t r a v e l the i s l a n d i n search of them. S e v e r a l hunters and fishermen went ove r l a n d from the bay to "Isuqtuq" and "Zsuqtunajuk" Lakes south of the set t l e m e n t . Others exp l o r e d the r a i s e d beaches along the e a s t e r n margins of "Ha'aktuk" (Simpson P e n i n s u l a ) , which a l l o w ready access t o ov e r l a n d t r a v e l , but h o l d l i t t l e i n the way of h a r v e s t a b l e r e s o u r c e s . D e l i b e r a t e l y planned overnight excursions are conducted, f o r the most p a r t , by those hunters who are engaged f u l l - t i m e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l economy. In 1987-88 t h i s segment of the p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of nine i n d i v i d u a l s . These f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l hunters are best a b l e t o e x p l o i t the windows of o p p o r t u n i t y that present themselves d u r i n g the course of a harvest year. I f those o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e q u i r e more than a day or two to meet, i t i s t h i s group of la n d - u s e r s , not t i e d to settlement j o b s , who w i l l be there f i r s t . Most t r a v e l by p r o f e s s i o n a l hunters i s multi-purpose i n t h a t they are w i l l i n g and ab l e t o harvest n e a r l y a n y t h i n g that they encounter. T h e i r s l e d s are loaded with enough food and equipment to a l l o w f o r extended f o r a y s of s e v e r a l days. Many form p a r t n e r s h i p s with other f u l l - t i m e hunters. For them, land-use a c t i v i t i e s (138) are not l i m i t e d by the time c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by wage employment. They are e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e to roam about at w i l l , nomads of the tundra today. These hunters normally use p a r t s of the l o c a l land-use area that are beyond the reach of s i n g l e - d a y settlement-based h a r v e s t e r s . They have the freedom to set up camps at the p e r i p h e r i e s , and to operate from these advance bases. By doing so they have access to ecosystems e s s e n t i a l l y u n a l t e r e d by the passage of other h a r v e s t e r s , and have f a r g r e a t e r chances of success. Family camps i n s p r i n g are n e a r l y a l l l o c a t e d about the margins of of P e l l y Bay (Figure 10). Many of the l a r g e r camps are a l o n g the main t r a i l between P e l l y Bay and Spence Bay (Figure 13). By the middle of A p r i l t h i s t r a i l i s w e l l d e f i n e d , a major highway on the i c e . Smaller t r a i l s have t h e i r t e n d r i l s at the i n d i v i d u a l camps, and funnel towards the apex at the community. These t r a i l s t h a t develop from c o n t i n u e d usage become the c o n d u i t s a l o n g which the t r a f f i c of s p r i n g t i m e i s funneled. T r a v e l t o summer camps by boat i s n e a r l y always d i r e c t and l i m i t e d t o p e r i o d s of calm weather. Most (66%) summertime camping excursions are l i m i t e d t o weekends only. In summer of 1988 the longest summer camping e x c u r s i o n was of two weeks d u r a t i o n . • Most f a l l f a m i l y camps are l o c a t e d along the K e l l e t t (139) R i v e r . In 1987, 40 of the 43 f a m i l i e s i n P e l l y Bay came here f o r f a l l f i s h i n g (see F i g u r e 12). An ov e r l a n d t r a i l r unning d i r e c t l y south of the settlement t o the mouth of t h i s r i v e r i s l a i d down immediately f o l l o w i n g freeze-up, and sees a great d e a l of usage d u r i n g the short f i s h i n g season. Over the wint e r t h i s t r a i l i s kept open by v i r t u e of passage to and from the caches of f i s h l e f t on the r i v e r i c e . As t h i s i s a primary wintertime t r a i l , many hunters u t i l i z e i t f o r qu i c k passage to areas where they can begin t h e i r h u nting a c t i v i t i e s . I n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l i s l i m i t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the warm, long days of s p r i n g t i m e . The only exceptions d u r i n g the study p e r i o d were fo u r t r i p s t o Spence Bay and back d u r i n g the Christmas h o l i d a y s , and two t o Spence Bay and back by p o l a r bear hunters i n l a t e w i n t e r . During the sp r i n g t i m e , o v e r l a n d t r a v e l i s q u i t e frequent between the settlements of Repulse Bay, P e l l y Bay, Spence Bay, and Gjoa Haven. I n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l i n t h i s area normally does not proceed beyond these communities. For the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l to Spence Bay i s the most frequent, with 19 r e t u r n t r i p s i n 1987-88. Other i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l i n c l u d e d 12 r e t u r n t r i p s t o Repulse Bay, 8 to Gjoa Haven overland, and 4 t o Gjoa Haven v i a Spence Bay. A l l of these settlements can be reached w i t h i n one good day's t r a v e l time from P e l l y (140) Bay . I n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l g e n e r a l l y proceeds a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d c o r r i d o r s (see F i g u r e 13). More o f t e n than not these v i s i t s are by e n t i r e f a m i l i e s , with the f a m i l y head on a skidoo p u l l i n g a long s l e d behind. In the sp r i n g t i m e these s l e d s normally have a l a r g e box at t a c h e d f o r the f a m i l y members to r i d e i n . Some are q u i t e e l a b o r a t e , with p a r t i a l or complete c o v e r i n g s , p l e x i g l a s s windows, and even small h e a t e r s . T r a v e l on the l a n d at t h i s time of year i s a q u i t e c o n v i v i a l a f f a i r , with s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s o f t e n t r a v e l l i n g t o gether, and frequent stops f o r tea and v i s i t s with other f a m i l i e s p a s s i n g by. During the very e a r l y s p r i n g , as hunters begin to t r a v e l f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r a f i e l d , the hunting t r a i l s of the v a r i o u s settlements begin to o v e r l a p . As these t r a i l s tend t o f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l paths a l o n g l i n e s of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , and e v e n t u a l l y funnel back to the community of o r i g i n , the procedure f o r the f i r s t i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l l e r s of the season i s t o f o l l o w the t r a i l s from the home community u n t i l they i n t e r s e c t those of the next, and f o l l o w these to t h e i r source. As the f i r s t v i s i t o r s of the season have, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , passed through many times b e f o r e , the c o r r i d o r s tend t o f o l l o w the same t r a i l s from year t o year. L a t e r t r a v e l l e r s merely have t o f o l l o w these (141) t r a i l s l a i d o u t on t h e s n o w a n d t h e s e a - i c e t o a r r i v e a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c h o i c e . E v e n , t h e p a s s a g e o f a s p r i n g s t o r m w i l l n o t c o m p l e t e l y e r a s e a w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r a i l o n c e l a i d d o w n , a n d t h e m a i n t r a i l s s o o n b e c o m e u n m i s t a k a b l e t o t h e i n i t i a t e d . C h i l d r e n , a f t e r p a s s a g e o f t h e s e t r a i l s w i t h f a m i l y e x c u r s i o n s , come t o i n t e r n a l i z e t h e v a r i o u s s e g m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d l a n d m a r k s on t h e w a y , a n d a r e a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e m w h e n t h e y a r e o l d e n o u g h t o d r i v e t h e i r own v e h i c l e s . I t i s a r a r e I n u k , o f a n y a g e , who h a s n o t t r a v e l l e d o v e r l a n d t o s e v e r a l o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y . N a v i g a t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e s - B a s i c T h e b a s i c t e c h n i q u e f o r s u r f a c e t r a v e l i n t h i s a r e a d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t i m e i s t o f o l l o w a t r a i l . T h e h a r d - p a c k e d s n o w s u r f a c e r e t a i n s a n i m a g e o f a l l t h a t p a s s e s o v e r i t , a n d c a n b e r e a d , b y t h o s e v e r s e d i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , l i k e a b o o k . A f r e s h t r a c k i s i n c i s e d c l e a n a n d c l e a r i n t h e c r u s t . D i r e c t i o n o f movement c a n b e r e a d e i t h e r b y t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r i n t , o r b y t h e way i t d i s t u r b s t h e s a s t r u g i , T h e s e r i p p l e s i n t h e s n o w f o r m i n p a r a l l e l r i d g e s a l i g n e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d , w h i c h i n t h i s a r e a i s f r o m t h e n o r t h w e s t q u a r t e r . T h e p e a k e d e d g e s f a c e away f r o m t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d , M o v e m e n t t o w a r d t h e g r a i n w i l l c r u m b l e (142) the l e a d i n g edges inward, w h i l e movement with the g r a i n w i l l produce a downward compaction. Movement by a s o l i t a r y passage w i l l produce a surface that produces small c r y s t a l growth w i t h i n hours, and has a grainy appearance. Repeated passage produces a more p o l i s h e d t e x t u r e . A f t e r s e v e r a l days the t r a c k s tend to widen, as the powder "sugar" snow beneath the c r u s t a l l a y e r r e a d j u s t s to i s o s t a s y , and the d i s t u r b e d c r u s t once again thickens and hardens i n contact with the a i r . Surface-blown snow f i l l s i n the t r a c k s , l e a v i n g a record e s p e c i a l l y of the f i r s t such wind as i t attempts to reduce surface f r i c t i o n . I f the t r a c k i s not d i s t u r b e d by f u r t h e r surface passage i t w i l l tend to be eroded along the s o f t e r s i d e s , producing e v e n t u a l l y a small r a i s e d imprint of the o r i g i n a l i n reverse. By the end of the winter i t i s not unusual to f i n d small p i l l a r s of crus t e d snow s e v e r a l centimeters high, each topped with a small p r i n t or dropping. The hunters who venture onto the surrounding landscape a f t e r the f i r s t s n o w f a l l are g e n e r a l l y those more experienced land-users w e l l versed i n the l o c a t i o n of l o c a l landmarks. They f o l l o w the n a t u r a l c o r r i d o r s of previous seasons, both from l o c a t i o n a l memory and by no t i n g the imprint produced upon the permafrost surface by continued disturbance. Over many years of passage the main t r a i l s can be i d e n t i f i e d i n summer by t h e i r (143) d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s to the surrounding c o u n t r y s i d e : they are e i t h e r more l u s h l y carpeted by mosses as a r e s u l t of compacted snows l a s t i n g l a t e r i n the melt, or they l a c k v e g e t a t i o n cover and are scarr e d by f l u v i a l erosion as a r e s u l t of the surface disturbance of the a c t i v e l a y e r above the permafrost base. More and more often today the main t r a i l s can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d by the presence of human d e b r i s , as p i l e s of garbage, used p a r t s , and d e r e l i c t machinery become the markers of place and passage, inukshuks of the i n d u s t r i a l age. Subsequent land-users need only f o l l o w , along the main t r a i l s at l e a s t , the t r a c k s i n the snow of t h e i r predecessors. Over time, and with c o n t i n u a l passage these t r a i l s grow wider, more compacted, and smoother. They a f f o r d i n c r e a s i n g l y f a s t e r t r a v e l as the season progresses, and become the c o r r i d o r s along which much of the l o c a l t r a f f i c passes to and from areas of harvest. A f t e r a week or two of snow cover these t r a i l s already lead to most areas of i n t e r e s t i n the winter season to come. I t i s knowing which t r a i l s to f o l l o w , however, that i s of importance. Many land-users f o l l o w the t r a i l s only to a p o i n t , and then branch o f f to explore the surrounding t e r r i t o r y . Short-cuts abound, as do separate t r a i l s to i n d i v i d u a l areas of i n t e r e s t . There are t r a i l s between t r a i l s , and t r a i l s l e f t by those who are merely (144) j o y - r i d i n g about the c o u n t r y s i d e . As the w i n t e r progresses p a r t s of c e r t a i n t r a i l s become o b l i t e r a t e d by snow cover w h i l e others, months o l d , appear r e l a t i v e l y f r e s h . Even f o l l o w i n g a d i s t i n c t and o b v i o u s l y w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r a i l , a t r a v e l l e r needs to know and be r e a s s u r e d t h a t he or she i s on the r i g h t t r a c k and going to the r i g h t p l a c e . Even the best of t r a i l s can be obscured q u i c k l y i n a storm. In the w i n t e r , s u r f a c e n a v i g a t i o n d u r i n g c l e a r weather i n v o l v e s a knowledge of the landscape on two l e v e l s : a b s t r a c t and s p e c i f i c , On the a b s t r a c t l e v e l , b e s i d e s an understanding of where w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r a i l s are l i k e l y t o appear, i s a general knowledge of the o u t l i n e of the c o n f i n e s of P e l l y Bay. The e l d e r s express t h i s as a " r u l e of thumb", that i s : i f you h o l d up your r i g h t hand, palm inward, the f i n g e r s r e p r e s e n t the mainland and Boothia P e n i n s u l a , the thumb Simpson P e n i n s u l a , and the open space between, the water s u r f a c e of the bay. I t i s f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r i n i t i a t e s of t h i s knowledge to get l o s t on the bay as, given enough time, t r a v e l e r s on the sea i c e must e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e at e i t h e r the shore or the f l o e edge. For s p e c i f i c n a v i g a t i o n from p l a c e to p l a c e on the bay i t s e l f d i r e c t i o n s are given and used i n the form of r e c o g n i s e d l o c a l landmarks. By f o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of such landmarks, and keeping the c o r r e c t s p a t i a l (145) a l i g n m e n t b e t w e e n t h e m , a c c u r a t e n a v i g a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . D i r e c t l i n e o f s i g h t b e t w e e n l a n d m a r k s i s o f p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P r e c i s e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d v a r i a b l e s o f " d e a d r e c k o n i n g " , t i m e a n d d i s t a n c e , w e r e , u n t i l i n t r o d u c e d b y c o n t a c t , o f l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D i s t a n c e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r m s o f " s l e e p s " , t h e n u m b e r o f o v e r n i g h t s t o p s n e c e s s a r y t o a r r i v e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e , T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n s l e e p s c o u l d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y d e p e n d i n g u p o n t r a v e l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . What m a t t e r e d m o s t was a r r i v i n g a t a n d p a s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s l a n d m a r k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e j o u r n e y . T h e s e s t a t i o n s on t h e way w e r e t h e t r u e m e a s u r e s o f t h e s t a g e s o f t r a v e l . A s e a - i c e t r i p f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f P e l l y B a y t o "Akul2iq" ( P o i n t , m e a n i n g " t h e one t h a t i s b e t w e e n t h e t w o p a r t s o f t h e s e a " , a common s p r i n g s e a l camp) w o u l d , f o r e x a m p l e , r e q u i r e t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s : - u p o n l e a v i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t t r a v e l on t h e s e a - i c e k e e p i n g t h e c l i f f s o f "Qatairrurjuaq" ( " t h e o n l y p l a c e w h e r e t h e r e a r e b i g r o c k s t h a t h a v e f a l l e n f r o m t h e c l i f f " ) t o l a n d w a r d , a n d p a s s i n g b e t w e e n t h e s e c l i f f s a n d "Simik" ( I s l a n d , m e a n i n g " t h e p l u g i n t h e c h a n n e l " ) . t u r n i n g n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e s e c l i f f s a n d p a s s i n g o n t o t h e o p e n s e a - i c e b e t w e e n "Haalguq" ( I s l a n d , m e a n i n g " t h e f l a t i s l a n d " ) a n d "Tal2inguvik" ( I s l a n d , m e a n i n g " i f y o u w a n t a ' s h o u l d e r " , a n d r e f e r r i n g t o a n a r g u m e n t o v e r t h e s h a r i n g o f game a t o n e t i m e ) , (146) - at t h i s p o i n t a general d i r e c t i o n of s t r a i g h t sea-ice surface t r a v e l would be p l o t t e d across the bay. Horizon landmarks on both sides of the bay give a general i n d i c a t i o n of d i r e c t i o n , but there i s , at t h i s p o i n t , no d i s c e r n i b l e landmark to aim towards. Experienced t r a v e l e r s w i l l f e e l the d i r e c t i o n of the wind on t h e i r cheek and note the p r e v a i l i n g alignment of the wind-blown s a s t r u g i on the i c e surface, and attempt to keep these r e l a t i v e l y constant during the passage. - duri n g the passage over the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of the bay the low shores of "Sennerak" ("the other side") w i l l appear c l o s e r and c l o s e r . Upon passage of "Kiniktuq" ( H i l l , meaning "the one that i s higher than the others around i t " ) , i f i t can be sig h t e d to landward, or somewhere around the middle of the passage, the i s l a n d s of "Qikiktak" (meaning "the two b i g i s l a n d s of the group") w i l l come i n t o view on the "Sennerak" s i d e . - s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , from the lower shores of the f a r s i d e , the d i s t i n c t i v e peak of "Nasersurvik" ( H i l l , meaning "a high place to look out f o r game") w i l l appear, as an aiming p o i n t . - by s t e e r i n g to the r i g h t of t h i s p o i n t , and passing between "Qikiqtanajuk" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the b i g i s l a n d of the group") and "Pigiulariut" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the place to f i n d b i r d s eggs"), and keeping the preeminent landmark of the bay, "Korvigdjuak" ( I s l a n d , meaning "the (147) b i g chamber pot") o p p o s i t e , one w i l l be abl e t o see "Tikiranajuk" (Point, meaning "the b i g p o i n t " ) , beyond which l i e s the d e s t i n a t i o n , "Qkulliq'1 . There i s a need, t h e r e f o r e , f o r land-users to be f a m i l i a r with the landmarks of p l a c e that d e f i n e t h e i r passage over the landscape, on or o f f the network of t r a i l s . These landmarks, f o r the study area around the settlement of P e l l y Bay, are the named p l a c e s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three of the t h e s i s . The essence of n a v i g a t i o n f o r the I n u i t of t h i s area i s the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y these markers of p l a c e , and to understand t h e i r s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s one to another. By knowing the landmarks the land becomes known. To a person i n a c i t y the markers of p l a c e are p r i m a r i l y man-made s t r u c t u r e s : d i r e c t i o n s are given as "go t o the 7-11 and t u r n l e f t " . In r u r a l areas a combination of n a t u r a l and man-made landmarks i s the norm, as i n " f o l l o w Highway 37, t u r n at the b r i d g e and f o l l o w the creek", In much of Canada most p l a c e s r e c o g n i s a b l e as such have been o f f i c i a l l y named and rec o r d e d on mapsheets a v a i l a b l e to those who choose t o use them. I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n of the t h e s i s that t h e r e e x i s t s among the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay a s i m i l a r arrangement of landmark r e c o g n i t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a way of knowing and a r r a n g i n g i n l o g i c a l order of the surrounding landscape. T h i s l o c a l o r d e r i n g of the world (148) e x i s t s , a l b e i t i n the I n u k t i t u t language, and i s a con c r e t e p e r c e p t u a l r e a l i t y f o r the land-users of P e l l y Bay. I t has simply not been documented f o r t h i s area b e f o r e . F i g u r e s 21 and 22 serve to show the l o c a t i o n and t r a n s l a t e d meaning of the named p l a c e s that would be r e c o g n i s a b l e t o a knowledgeable lan d user i n the study area. These p l a c e s a l s o serve to d e l i n e a t e those areas that are used by the I n u i t of P e l l y Bay. I f a p l a c e i s named, and i f the name i s perpetuated, then i t f o l l o w s t h a t i t must be as a r e s u l t of continuous usage. These p l a c e s , t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with accepted names, the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y them, and the knowledge of t h e i r s p a t i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e the means whereby the I n u i t can e f f e c t i v e l y f o l l o w the p h y s i c a l and mental t r a i l s t h a t l i n k the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of t h e i r immediate s u r f a c e environment i n t o a whole. N a v i g a t i o n a l Techniques: Supplemental F o l l o w i n g a t r a i l , or making one's own while n a v i g a t i n g by r e f e r e n c e t o named and r e c o g n i z e d landmarks i s a technique that works w e l l f o r I n u i t when weather c o n d i t i o n s are c l e a r , and v i s i b i l i t y i s u n l i m i t e d . There are many occ a s i o n s , however, when t h i s i s not the s i t u a t i o n . Storms, fog, wind-blown snow, (149) r a i n , darkness, and white-outs can and do occur, and anyone t r a v e l l i n g i n tundra regions must be prepared to dea l with them. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the supplemental techniques used t o navigate d u r i n g such times when c o n d i t i o n s are l e s s than p e r f e c t . Humans have r e l i e d upon n a v i g a t i o n by landmark r e c o g n i t i o n f o r most of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e upon t h i s p l a n e t . T h i s technique has d i s t i n c t l i m i t a t i o n s , however, when a d i r e c t l i n e of s i g h t can not be maintained between r e c o g n i z a b l e landmarks. When out of s i g h t of landmarks some other constant must be sought i n order t o maintain a c o n s i s t e n t b e a r i n g of t r a v e l . In some c u l t u r e s the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s of the sun, moon, and s t a r s were used i n t h i s r e gard. Above the a r c t i c c i r c l e , however, t h i s i s simply not f e a s i b l e f o r most of the year. During the mid-winter there i s 24 hour-a-day darkness, and long d i s t a n c e t r a v e l i s simply not done. During the summertime the sun c i r c l e s e n d l e s s l y around the h o r i z o n , o b s c u r i n g the s t a r s . During the s p r i n g and autumn the d a i l y v a r i a t i o n s are extreme, and of l i t t l e use f o r n a v i g a t i o n without p r e c i s e means of measurement, None of the e l d e r s c o u l d r e c a l l h e a r i n g any s t o r i e s r e l a t i n g t o the use of the s t a r s , sun, or moon i n r e f e r e n c e t o n a v i g a t i o n . In other c u l t u r e s the magnetic f o r c e s of the earth were d i s c o v e r e d , and used as c a r d i n a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s (150) f o r n a v i g a t i o n . Compasses point toward the north magnetic pole, c r e a t i n g a usable and convenient constant f o r most areas the p l a n e t . However, as the north magnetic pole i s l o c a t e d so c l o s e to the area, compasses do not work here. They merely c i r c l e about a i m l e s s l y , and are as l i k e l y to point to the nearest piece of metal as they are to the d i r e c t i o n of the magnetic pole. In the absence of c e l e s t i a l or compass bearings the I n u i t have had to r e l y upon other constants f o r a sense of d i r e c t i o n . These they found i n the l o c a t i o n s of the open sea and the d i r e c t i o n s of the p r e v a i l i n g winds (see Figure 14). The primary environmental constant i n t h i s area i s the presence, f o r most of the year, of a p r e v a i l i n g c o l d and dry wind from the northwest quarter. This wind, blowing from the p e r p e t u a l l y ice-covered margins of the A r c t i c Ocean, i s c a l l e d "Uanaq", meaning "the strongest wind", i n I n u k t i t u t . "Uanaq" i s the wind that blows f o r most of the days of the year that surface n a v i g a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , the c a r d i n a l l o c a t o r , and the c r i t i c a l element of the p h y s i c a l environment. In t h i s environment temperature i s l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t to outdoor comfort. I t i s "Uanaq" alone that produces the coldness and discomfort of win t e r . Other winds b r i n g warm a i r , other winds can not freeze. In the I n u i t pantheon of elements "Uanaq" i s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , the (151) one environmental constant, I t determines whether hunting or f i s h i n g can take p l a c e , whether one w i l l experience comfort or discomfort, or whether one w i l l , i n e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances, l i v e or d i e . In the a r c t i c environment the concept of " f e l t c o l d " i s of c r i t i c a l importance f o r human l i f e . "Uanaq" i s , f o r the I n u i t , the source of t h i s c o l d . "Uanaq", the northwest wind, i s the one element that any t r a v e l l e r i n these realms should be aware of at a l l times. In most cases, d u r i n g those times of the year when surface t r a v e l i s conducted, i t i s impossible not to n o t i c e i t s presence, as i t s b i t i n g coldness can be i n s t a n t l y f e l t on any exposed s k i n , and can freeze the surface i n a matter of minutes. Even i n i t s absence i t i s known by the marks i t leaves upon the landscape. The wind-blown s a s t r u g i a l i g n themselves at r i g h t angles to the f o r c e of "Uanaq", and every obstacle that protrudes from the surface i s smoothly molded over with a covering of snow whose sharp-edged peaks i n d i c a t e i t s d i r e c t i o n . These surface f e a t u r e s , ubiquitous i n the wintertime, are constants i n themselves, omnipresent markers of d i r e c t i o n produced by the primary l o c a t o r of d i r e c t i o n , the p r e v a i l i n g wind. There are other winds whose presence and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are recognized by the I n u i t elders of P e l l y Bay. "Pinganaq" (the west wind) can be (152) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from "Uanaq" (the northwest wind) by i t s l a c k of b i t t e r " b i t e " on exposed s k i n , even though t h e y can b o t h f l o w from t h e same g e n e r a l quadrant d u r i n g t h e same t i m e s of y e a r . "Pinganaq" i s a l a n d wind, "Uanaq" i s a s e a - i c e wind, and t h e r e i n l i e s t h e i r e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e . "Kananuq" (the e a s t wind) i s t h e o p p o s i t e t o "Pinganaq" (the west w i n d ) , i n t h a t i t f l o w s from t h e sea, and c a r r i e s t h e essence of t h e sea w i t h i t , y e t i t i s not b i t t e r l y c o l d . I t s f l o w i s r e l a t i v e l y uncommon i n w i n t e r , and i s more a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e cal m e r p e r i o d s of summer. Both "Pinganaq" and "Kananuq" a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r a i n s of summer and f a l l . "Nighiq" (the s o u t h wind) i s t h e m o r t a l enemy of "Uanaq" (the nort h w e s t w i n d ) , f o r when i t b e g i n s t o blow i t undoes t h e work of "Uanaq". "Nighiq" i s t h e o n l y t r u e warm wind t h a t t h e I n u i t of t h i s a r e a know, and i t s p r e s e n c e h e r a l d s t h e coming of s p r i n g . I t i s a t r u e l a n d b r e e z e , c a r r y i n g w i t h i t the f r a g r a n c e of ar e a s i n l a n d and f a r t o t h e s o u t h . I t i s vi e w e d as a d e s t r o y e r of snow and i c e , i t s d r y n e s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r e a t d e a l of t h e m e l t i n g of t h e s p r i n g . "Nighiq" i s viewed as b e n e v o l e n t , as i t does not b r i n g snow, c o l d , stormy weather, or r a i n . "Nighiq", t o g e t h e r w i t h "Kananuq", a r e t h e h a r b i n g e r s of good weather. F o r t h e I n u i t of t h i s a r e a , t h e wind jLs_ t h e weather. The n a t u r e of t h e wind, not t h e t e m p e r a t u r e , d e t e r m i n e s (153) whether outdoor a c t i v i t i e s can or cannot t a k e p l a c e . A storm i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e wind, w h i l e good weather i s c h a r a c t e z - i z e d by i t s absence. The e l d e r s s t i l l make some r e f e r e n c e s today t o "Narssuk", t h e g i a n t baby weather god of o l d , master of t h e winds. He was r e p u t e d t o be a w i c k e d s p i r i t who d e t e s t e d mankind and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , had t o be k e p t t i e d up. Whenever h i s bonds became l o o s e n e d he r e l e a s e d storms upon th e l a n d . As t h i s was u n p r e d i c t a b l e , and as he was a baby whose temperament c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d , t h e t i m i n g and s e v e r i t y of t h e s e i l l winds was t o t a l l y a m a t t e r of chance. They c o u l d blow up a t any t i m e , i n any s i t u a t i o n - , and i n any season. As t h e causes were vi e w e d as b e i n g t o t a l l y random, th e weather i t s e l f was c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e . Even t o t h i s day t h e I n u i t have few r u l e s of thumb c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e d i c t i o n of weather. Most h u n t e r s embarking on a day's l a n d - u s e e x c u r s i o n merely l o o k out t h e window or t e s t t h e wind. I f i t i s c l e a r and r e l a t i v e l y calm t h e y d e p a r t , but a r e p r e p a r e d f o r a l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s , as t h e y know t h a t t h e wind and weather can change q u i c k l y a t any t ime . Even though winds a r e such a c r u c i a l p a r t of I n u i t l a n d - u s e a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y a r e not g e n e r a l l y used as d i r e c t i o n s i n and of t h e m s e l v e s . D i r e c t i o n s a r e g i v e n , i n t h i s a r e a , by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o n s t a n t s of t h e sea (154) and t h e l a n d . A d u l t l a n d - u s e r s have a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n i n g of t h e r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s of water and l a n d i n t h e v i c i n i t y , To t h e n o r t h of t h e bay i s t h e "Hina' aq", t h e y e a r - r o u n d open-water f l o e edge, and t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as "himut" (or "kimut"*) , meaning "towards the Hina'aq". T r a v e l i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as "himuareartunga", or " t r a v e l l i n g i n the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e Hina'aq", The d i r e c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o south i s r e f e r r e d t o as "tigvamut", meaning " t o t h e i n l a n d " , or as "nimvamut", which means "the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n of t h a t one would f o l l o w t o t h e Hina'aq". The d i r e c t i o n i n t o t h e f a c e of t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i nd, "Uanaq", however, i s r e f e r r e d t o as "ualiarmut", meaning " i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of "Uanaq" (the northwe s t w i n d ) " . The o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ( s o u t h e a s t ) does not have i t s own name but i s r e f e r r e d t o as "uliarvamut", meaning " t h a t which i s o p p o s i t e t o ualiarmut (the northwest wind) " . These d i r e c t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o remember f o r t h e p e r s o n s e t t i n g out t o t r a v e l on t h e l a n d . At t h e s t a r t of a t r i p a t r a v e l e r would be a d v i s e d t o f e e l and remember t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind on an exposed cheek. T h i s can be used as a c o n s t a n t i f t h e v i s i b i l i t y d e t e r i o r a t e s . I f t h e wind i s kept on t h e same cheek one can be somewhat a s s u r e d t h a t he i s c o n t i n u i n g t o t r a v e l i n t h e same g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y C155) a r r i v e a t a r e c o g n i z a b l e landmark on t h e way. Without t h e p r e s e n c e of such an e x t e r n a l i n d i c a t o r t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l tendency, e s p e c i a l l y i n s e v e r e storms or i n cases of w h i t e - o u t , t o t r a v e l i n c i r c l e s . ' I t i s a l s o a d v i s e d t o compare th e a l i g n m e n t of t h e p a r a l l e l r i d g e s of t h e s a s t r u g i i n t h e snow t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t r a v e l . F o r l o n g t r i p s on s e a - i c e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t i m e s of reduced v i s i b i l i t y or when out of s i g h t of l a n d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a n g l e of c o n t a c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e passage. T h i s method a l s o can be of use f o r open-water t r a v e l i n t h e summertime, w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e waves p r o v i d i n g a c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t i m e s of h i g h seas or heavy f o g . I f a s e v e r e storm blows up and o b l i t e r a t e s b o t h t h e t r a i l and t h e v i s i b i l i t y of nearby landmarks, t h e d i r e c t i o n of the wind and t h e s a s t r u g i can be used t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t v e c t o r a l o n g a s t r a i g h t l i n e f o r a t i m e , but i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t would p r o b a b l y be a d v i s a b l e t o s t o p and s e t up camp u n t i l t h e storm blows o v e r . Knowing when t o p r o c e e d , knowing when t o s t o p , and e s p e c i a l l y , knowing t h e margins of s a f e t y between t h e two i s t h e mark of a seasoned t r a v e l l e r i n t h e s e r e a l m s . Knowing th e d i f f e r e n c e s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n : m i s t a k e s can be f a t a l . (156) What To Do I f You Are S t r a n d e d , D i s o r i e n t e d , Or L o s t : T r a d i t i o n a l A d v i c e . A t r a v e l e r l e a v i n g an a r c t i c community would be a d v i s e d t o be p r e p a r e d f o r a l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s . The a r c t i c can be a dangerous p l a c e . I f t h e unexpected o c c u r s h e l p can be hours or days away, i f i t i s a v a i l a b l e a t a l l . I n u i t who v e n t u r e onto t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e a r e p r e p a r e d f o r i t s e x i g e n c i e s ; t h e y b e s t know what t o e x p e c t . Over th e g e n e r a t i o n s a body of e x p e r i e n c e c o v e r i n g a l l c o n c e i v a b l e s i t u a t i o n s has been amassed. Every h u n t e r i n a s m a l l I n u i t s e t t l e m e n t hears e v e n t u a l l y of t h e f o r t u n e s or m i s f o r t u n e s of o t h e r h u n t e r s . Every h u n t e r l e a r n s from every e x c u r s i o n onto t h e l a n d how t o make the next s a f e r and more c o m f o r t a b l e . Every l a n d - u s e r spends a g r e a t d e a l of t i m e t a l k i n g t o o t h e r l a n d - u s e r s about a c t i v i t i e s on t h e l a n d , and t h e y a l l share t h e b e n e f i t s of d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e i r e l d e r s . T h i s s e c t i o n of t h e t h e s i s i s meant t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f summary of t h i s a d v i s e from t h e e l d e r s of P e l l y Bay as t o what t o do i f you a r e s t r a n d e d , d i s o r i e n t e d , or l o s t on t h e l a n d . The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t p i e c e of a d v i c e i s t o be p r e p a r e d b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y f o r t h e e n t i r e spectrum of e v e n t u a l i t i e s t h a t c o u l d o c c u r . P h y s i c a l l y , t h i s means c a r r y i n g w i t h you, or on y o u r s l e d , a l l of t h e f o o d and (157) e q u i p m e n t n e c e s s a r y t o f u n c t i o n a s a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t e n t i t y . P r i o r t o c o n t a c t t h i s was t h e c a s e w i t h e v e r y s i n g l e j o u r n e y : i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r g e t a n y t h i n g a s I n u i t c a r r i e d t h e i r e n t i r e s t o c k o f w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e m a t a l l t i m e s w h e n t r a v e l l i n g . T o d a y t h e s e p o s s e s s i o n s h a v e g r o w n h e a v i e r , b u l k i e r , f a r m o r e c o m p l e x . T h e b a s i c e q u i p m e n t t o d a y c o n s i s t s o f a p i e c e o f m a c h i n e r y , a s n o w m o b i l e , b o a t , o r p e r h a p s a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e , a n d some p l a c e t o c a r r y a b i t o f c a r g o . T h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g , h e a t , a n d s h e l t e r m u s t b e m e t . H o w e v e r , a d d e d t o t h i s a r e o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s e q u a l l y a s b a s i c : a w o r k i n g r i f l e a n d a m m u n i t i o n ( f o r b o t h h a r v e s t i n g a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m p r e d a t o r s ) , g a s o l i n e , o i l , t o o l s , s p a r e p a r t s , a n d e i t h e r a n u n b r e a k a b l e t h e r m o s f i l l e d w i t h l i q u i d s o r t h e k i t n e c e s s a r y t o b o i l w a t e r , a s d e h y d r a t i o n c a n i n i t s e l f b e a p r o b l e m . A d d t o t h i s a s m a l l m e d i c a l k i t , h a r v e s t i n g t o o l s , s p a r e r o p e , a f e w n e e d l e s a n d some t h r e a d , a n d m a t c h e s o r a l i g h t e r , a n d o n e i s p h y s i c a l l y p r e p a r e d t o g o o u t on t h e l a n d . T h e l a c k o r l o s s o f e v e n o n e o f t h e s e i t e m s c o u l d l e a d t o d i s a s t e r . M e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , A l a n d - u s e r n e e d s t o h a v e t h e k n o w l e d g e t o d e a l w i t h a l l o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t p r e s e n t s . A l l e v e n t u a l i t i e s m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e h u n t e r m u s t h a v e t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o (158) r e p a i r a broken-down v e h i c l e or any p i e c e of equipment, t h e means and i m a g i n a t i o n t