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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning strategy for public art, city of Vancouver Duncan, Alan Slater 1990

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PLANNING STRATEGY FOR PUBLIC ART CITY OF VANCOUVER by ALAN SLATER DUNCAN B.L.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1990 MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES A l a n S l a t e r Duncan, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s c o r p o r a t e s t r a t e g y f o r p u b l i c a r t p r o p o s e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e y e t i n c r e m e n t a l p r o c e s s t o a d d r e s s t h e most p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s now f a c i n g t h e C i t y o f Vancouver i n p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t . The s t r a t e g y , i n c l u d i n g i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i s d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c r e m e n t a l . The need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t emerged from d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p u b l i c a r t i s t s , a r t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c o n s u l t a n t s ; i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a u t h o r s o f r e c e n t e x e m p l a r y p u b l i c a r t p l a n s ; r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e and o t h e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e p o p u l a r c u l t u r e ; and my p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u b l i c a r t from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f p u b l i c a r t p r o d u c e r , p l a n n e r and u r b a n d e s i g n e r . The p r o p o s a l s a r e i n f o r m e d by a r e v i e w o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t , p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t . They a r e p r o p o s e d w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver and b u i l d upon the i n v e n t o r y and a n a l y s i s o f p r o c e s s e s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e w i t h i n t h e c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The s t r a t e g y recommends u p g r a d i n g t h e e x i s t i n g A r t i n P u b l i c P l a c e s Subcommittee i n t o a P u b l i c A r t Commission and t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h r e e new a d v i s o r y b o d i e s , a l l w i t h s t r o n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s u p p o r t , t o e n s u r e b r o a d e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c a r t w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g t h e b r e a d t h o f e x p e r t i s e t o d e a l w i t h a e s t h e t i c judgements, commemoration, ur b a n d e s i g n and o t h e r p u b l i c r e a l m i s s u e s i n V a n c o u v e r . I t a l s o recommends r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e c i v i c i i a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by d i s s o l v i n g t h e B oard o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n ; c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e u r b a n r e a l m d e s i g n f u n c t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n , the E n g i n e e r i n g Department and t h e P l a n n i n g Department i n t o a h o l i s t i c u r b a n d e s i g n group; c o n s o l i d a t i n g c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g and development f u n c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Community C e n t r e s i n t o the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department; and c r e a t i n g a new Department o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e p r i m a r i l y f o r park m a i n t e n a n c e and r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . The p r o p o s e d d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t i s a l l - i n c l u s i v e t o e n c o u r a g e r a t h e r t h a n l i m i t o r i n h i b i t the most c r e a t i v e , i n n o v a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s whether permanent or t e m p o r a r y , p h y s i c a l or e p h e m e r a l . The e n t i r e p r o c e s s i s p r o p o s e d t o be open t o wide community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t welcomes g r a s s - r o o t s i n i t i a t i v e s and promotes p r o j e c t development and management by e x i s t i n g V a n c o u v e r o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t . The i n h e r e n t f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h i s i n c r e m e n t a l s t r a t e g y a l l o w s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e community, c i v i c a s p i r a t i o n s , and t h e e v o l v i n g n a t u r e o f our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u b l i c a r t . I t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e development o f a common and e v o l v i n g v i s i o n i n V a n c o u v e r f o r a more humane c i t y t h r o u g h the media o f p u b l i c a r t . By p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e use o f a r t t o make p l a c e s p u b l i c , i t b e g i n s t o a l l o w us t o r e c a p t u r e t h e p u b l i c e s s e n c e o f u r b a n l i v i n g . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v PROLOGUE v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 P u r p o s e 1 1.2 S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n 4 1.3 The N a t u r e o f P u b l i c A r t 5 1.3.1 P u b l i c a r t p r i o r t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . . 5 1.3.2 E f f e c t o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n on p u b l i c a r t 7 1.3.3 The n a t u r e o f p u b l i c a r t i n Canada t o d a y . . . . 9 1.4 The R o l e o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the A r t s and C u l t u r e . . . 10 1.5 Why P u b l i c A r t i s a C o n c e r n o f P l a n n i n g 14 1.5.1 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g . . 19 1.5.2 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . . . 22 1.5.3 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f economic p l a n n i n g . . 26 1.5.4 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f open s p a c e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n 34 1.5.5 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f urba n d e s i g n . . . . 39 1.6 Summary 41 2.0 STATUS OF PLANNING FOR ART IN PUBLIC PLACES 44 2.1 Nominal D e f i n i t i o n o f P u b l i c A r t 44 2.1.1 The need t o d e f i n e p u b l i c a r t 46 2.1.2 I n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o d e f i n i t i o n 47 2.1.3 N o n - a r t forms o f p u b l i c a r t 50 2.1.4 S e m a n t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e f i n i n g p u b l i c a r t . . 51 2.1.5 I s s u e s i n d e f i n i t i o n 52 2.1.6 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p u b l i c a r t 54 2.1.6.1 P u b l i c a r t i s commissioned by an i n d i v i d u a l or grou p 54 2.1.6.2 P u b l i c a r t i s s i t e s p e c i f i c 62 2.1.6.3 P u b l i c a r t i s l o c a t e d i n a p u b l i c s p a c e . 65 2.1.6.4 P u b l i c a r t i s d i s p l a y e d i mmobile works . . 68 i v 2.1.6.5 P u b l i c a r t r e l a t e s t o t h e f u n c t i o n i t enhances 78 2.1.6.6 P u b l i c a r t i s p r o d u c e d f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s 80 2.1.6.7 P u b l i c a r t i s d e c o r a t i v e 87 2.1.6.8 P u b l i c a r t c o n v e y s messages r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s s p o n s o r s 89 2.1.6.9 P u b l i c a r t i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n 90 2.1.6.10 P u b l i c a r t can use humour 96 2.1.7 Summary 97 2.1.8 A n o m i n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t 100 2.2 E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c A r t P l a n n i n g 100 2.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t 100 2.2.2 E a r l y p u b l i c a r t i n Canada 102 2.2.3 C o n f e d e r a t i o n t o World War I (1867 - 1914) . . . I l l 2.2.4 The C i t y R a t i o n a l movement (Pre-WWI t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n ) 129 2.2.5 The G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n and W o r l d War I I 136 2.2.6 P o s t - W o r l d War I I 138 2.3 U n i q u e l y C a n a d i a n P u b l i c A r t 154 2.3.1 Commemorative works 154 2.3.2 S c a l e o f monuments 159 2.3.3 F o l k e x p r e s s i o n s 160 2.3.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l a r t 161 2.3.5 Summary 162 2.4 S t a t u s o f P u b l i c A r t P l a n n i n g i n Canada 163 2.4.1 P u b l i c a r t p l a n s and programmes 163 2.4.2 Government o f Canada programmes 168 2.4.3 P r o v i n c i a l programmes 170 2.4.4 M u n i c i p a l programmes 171 2.5 Summary 182 3.0 CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC ART PLANS 184 3.1 Contemporary S o u r c e s o f P u b l i c A r t 184 3.1.1 N o t - f o r - p r o f i t s e c t o r 185 3.1.2 S p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , s c u l p t u r e p a r k s and endowed o u t d o o r a r t w o r k s 185 3.1.3 P u b l i c s e c t o r 186 3.1.4 P r i v a t e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c t o r s 189 3.1.5 G r a f f i t i , p o l i t i c a l e f f i g i e s , p o s t e r s and o t h e r 'found' o b j e c t s or images 191 3.2 Exemplary P u b l i c A r t P l a n s 191 3.2.1 Exemplary p u b l i c a r t p l a n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 192 3.2.1.1 Background 192 3.2.1.2 Review 196 3.2.1.3 Summary 210 v 3.2.1.4 E v a l u a t i o n 213 3.2.2 Exemplary p u b l i c a r t p l a n s i n Canada 215 3.2.2.1 Background 216 3.2.2.2 Review 217 3.2.2.3 Summary 224 3.2.2.4 E v a l u a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . 224 3.2.3 Exemplary a r t p l a n s e l s e w h e r e ( E u r o p e , A s i a , A u s t r a l i a ) 225 3.3 Summary 226 4.0 PLANNING FOR PUBLIC ART IN VANCOUVER 228 4.1 The Need f o r P u b l i c A r t P l a n n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r 228 4.2 C u r r e n t P u b l i c A r t P o l i c y and R e g u l a t i o n . . . 232 4.2.1 E a r l y p u b l i c a r t p o l i c i e s 233 4.2.2 P u b l i c a r t p o l i c y p o s t - W o r l d War I I 236 4.2.3 C u r r e n t c i v i c p u b l i c a r t p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e 237 CITY COUNCIL 238 CITY CLERK'S DEPARTMENT 239 ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 240 FINANCE DEPARTMENT 246 FIRE DEPARTMENT 246 HEALTH DEPARTMENT 247 HOUSING AND PROPERTIES DEPARTMENT 247 LAW DEPARTMENT 247 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 248 BOARD OF PARKS AND RECREATION 248 PERMITS AND LICENSES DEPARTMENT 253 PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT 253 PLANNING DEPARTMENT 253 POLICE DEPARTMENT 259 SOCIAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT 2 59 4.2.4 O t h e r n o n - d e p a r t m e n t a l c i v i c b o d i e s 266 SPECIAL COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON THE ARTS . . . . 267 ART IN PUBLIC PLACES SUBCOMMITTEE 268 VANCOUVER CITY PLANNING COMMISSION 275 4.2.5 O t h e r a g e n c i e s or g r o u p s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e p u b l i c a r t 275 BC TRANSIT 275 CANADA MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION . . . 276 OTHERS 277 4.3 E x i s t i n g P u b l i c A r t 277 4.4 Summary 280 5.0 A PLANNING STRATEGY FOR PUBLIC ART: CITY OF VANCOUVER . 282 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 284 v i 5.2 S t r a t e g y R a t i o n a l e 286 5.3 A P r o p o s e d S t r a t e g y f o r P u b l i c A r t 290 5.3.1 The need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g . 290 5.3.2 C i t y C o u n c i l and p u b l i c a r t 292 5.3.2.1 G o a l s 293 5.3.2.2 P o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s 294 5.3.2.3 E l a b o r a t i o n o f C o u n c i l ' s i n i t i a t i v e s . . . 296 PUBLIC ART COMMISSION 297 FUNDING 30 3 DISSOLUTION OF THE BOARD OF PARKS AND RECREATION 314 CREATION OF ADVISORY BODIES 316 5.3.2.4 Summary . 328 5.3.3 D e p a r t m e n t a l i n i t i a t i v e s 328 CITY CLERK'S DEPARTMENT 329 ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 329 FINANCE DEPARTMENT 330 HEALTH DEPARTMENT 331 HOUSING AND PROPERTIES DEPARTMENT 3 32 LAW DEPARTMENT . . . . . 332 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 333 VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD 333 PERMITS AND LICENSES DEPARTMENT 3 34 PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT . . . . 334 PLANNING DEPARTMENT 334 SOCIAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT 340 5.3.4 C o n c l u s i o n 344 6.0 URBAN PLANNING IMPLICATIONS 346 6.1 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e P r o p o s e d S t r a t e g y 347 6.2 C o n c l u s i o n 351 BIBLIOGRAPHY 352 APPENDIX I 374 v i i PROLOGUE New R e f l e c t i o n s : An Urban F a n t a s y was t h e p r e m i e r e v e n t o f t h e 1983 W o r l d S t u d e n t Games, a s p e c t a c l e s t a g e d i n t h e h e a r t o f downtown Edmonton, A l b e r t a a f t e r a p e r i o d o f f r e n z i e d r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e downtown had s u b s i d e d . The f o l l o w i n g was r e p o r t e d i n The Edmonton B u l l e t by f e a t u r e w r i t e r Reg S i l v e s t e r : New R e f l e c t i o n s was, i n my mind, t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e new downtown Edmonton. I t was a s i g n a l t h a t t h e h o a r d i n g s a r e down, t h a t t h e new towers may be p r i m a r i l y o f m i r r o r s but good t h i n g s can be r e f l e c t e d i n t o them. Those o f us who were t h e r e were i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e new downtown, f o r c e d t o l o o k a t i t , t o g e t t o know i t . Our r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h b u i l d i n g s i s t i e d t o what we e x p e r i e n c e w i t h them, what memories t h e y t r i g g e r . Though t h a t huge s u n - s t a r i s now gone, I ' l l n e v e r a g a i n be a b l e t o walk p a s t S c o t i a P l a c e w i t h o u t s e e i n g i t . New R e f l e c t i o n s has g i v e n me t h e f i r s t p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e t o make t h i s r a z e d and r e b u i l t downtown my own. 1 I b e g i n w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u o t e because New R e f l e c t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d my t h i n k i n g on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c a r t i n t h e d e s i g n o f our c i t i e s . I t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o w e r f u l i m p a c t p u b l i c a r t c an have on our p e r c e p t i o n s o f p l a c e s w i t h i n our c i t i e s and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o them. I t i s from t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h p l a c e s a r e b u i l t . P l a c e s a r e imbued w i t h a u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r , d i s p o s i t i o n , s p e c i a l memories, o r , as S i l v e s t e r s u g g e s t s , we make them our own. I b e l i e v e t h a t New R e f l e c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n an u r b a n d e s i g n r e s p o n s e from t h e C i t y o f Edmonton 1 S i l v e s t e r , Reg, " S t r a i g h t t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e c i t y " , The  Edmonton B u l l e t , Edmonton AB, J u l y 22, 1983 w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s a r e a , now c a l l e d t h e R i c e - H o w a r d Way, becoming Edmonton's p r e m i e r b i s t r o , c a f e and e n t e r t a i n m e n t z o n e . I a l s o b e g i n w i t h S y l v e s t e r ' s q u o t e t o make c l e a r f r o m t h e o u t s e t my p a r t i c u l a r b i a s about p u b l i c a r t . I c o n s i d e r permanent works o n l y one a s p e c t o f p u b l i c a r t , one t h a t commands the most a t t e n t i o n by v i r t u e o f i t s permanence as a t a n g i b l e e l e m e n t i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m . The r e s i d u e o f s u c h e v e n t s as New R e f l e c t i o n s , I f e e l , can be much more p o w e r f u l , a l b e i t l e s s o b v i o u s , t o t h e c a s u a l o b s e r v e r . I t was somewhat i r o n i c t h a t I f o u n d m y s e l f i n 1987 b e i n g a s k e d by t h e C i t y o f Edmonton P l a n n i n g and B u i l d i n g Department t o p r e p a r e a p r o p o s a l f o r a c i t y p u b l i c a r t p l a n i n r e s p o n s e t o an a l d e r m a n i c r e q u e s t . T h i s i n t u r n s p u r r e d my i n t e r e s t i n t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c a r t i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g , u r b a n d e s i g n and c i t y b u i l d i n g i n g e n e r a l . My p u r p o s e i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p r o p o s e ways i n w h i c h a r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s can be e n c o u r a g e d and r e g u l a t e d t h r o u g h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r a t h e r t h a n ad hoc p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h . I b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h an a p p r o a c h can r e f l e c t community v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g c h a l l e n g i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f a r t i s t s r a t h e r t h a n s t i f l i n g c r e a t i v i t y by b e i n g o v e r l y r e g u l a t o r y . At the same t i m e , t h i s a p p r o a c h c a n i x guarantee and enhance the integrity of the places into which art is placed or incorporated for the appreciation, use and enjoyment of the public. x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o acknowledge and thank my committee f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s and a l l of the people who a s s i s t e d me i n so many ways i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . Good f r i e n d s p r o v i d e d good a d v i c e and s t r o n g s u p p o r t . M i c h a e l Gordon, b e s i d e s b e i n g on my committee, p r o v i d e d both. Among oth e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , Moura Quayle p r o v i d e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t t oo o b v i o u s f o r me t o have seen. Glen Braathen saved the e n t i r e t h e s i s on two d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s from d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o computer never-never l a n d . B e t t y J a r d i n e r e a s s u r e d me when I needed r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t I was on the r i g h t t r a c k . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o c e s s , I now have new c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s , such as E l o i s e MacMurray i n P o r t l a n d and Mary Lynn Reimer i n Toronto, and of c o u r s e , Bryan Newson. From our f i r s t t elephone c o n v e r s a t i o n w h i l e I was i n Edmonton i n 1988, we developed a m u t u a l l y - s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p which c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o both our un d e r s t a n d i n g s of p u b l i c a r t and thus s e r v e d t o i n f o r m my t h e s i s and, I hope, p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g i n the c i t y . I am e s p e c i a l l y f o r t u n a t e t h a t my f r i e n d s , both new and o l d , humoured me through the b l e a k e s t p e r i o d s and t h a t my r e c e n t work c o l l e a g u e s a t C i t y H a l l t o l e r a t e d my a l l - t o o - f r e q u e n t dark moods d u r i n g t h a t l o n g , hot summer spent on a computer r a t h e r than on the beach. Above a l l , I must express my g r e a t g r a t i t u t e t o Shelagh L i n d s e y , my a d v i s o r , mentor and f r i e n d . Without her u n f l a g g i n g s u p p o r t , sense o f academic r i g o u r and g r e a t wisdom, I don't b e l i e v e t h a t I would have been a b l e t o address the t o p i c t o the e x t e n t t h a t I was a b l e w i t h her c o u n t l e s s hours of c o u n s e l l i n g . I n the p r o c e s s , we both l e a r n e d about p u b l i c a r t and p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t . Beyond t h a t , I l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l about w r i t i n g and l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g as w e l l . I am extremely f o r t u n a t e and t h a n k f u l t h a t she gave so ge n e r o u s l y of her time , i n t e l l e c t , e x p e r i e n c e and enthusiasm. x i 1.0 INTRODUCTION T h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r s t a t e s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e t h e s i s , w h i c h i s t o d e v e l o p a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p u b l i c a r t p l a n f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , and i d e n t i f i e s s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g o f t h e t h e s i s . T h i s s e c t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e s o u r c e f o r so much o f c u r r e n t t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e i n p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g comes from p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . The e v o l v i n g n a t u r e o f p u b l i c a r t i s t h e n i n t r o d u c e d , f o c u s s i n g on t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t s p e r c e i v e d r o l e as a " p e r e n n i a l hot p o t a t o i n Canada" t o d a y . An o v e r v i e w o f m u n i c i p a l r o l e s i n the a r t s and c u l t u r e f o l l o w s , l e a d i n g i n t o an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e need f o r c i t i e s t o p l a n f o r p u b l i c a r t . 1.1 P u r p o s e The c i t y t h a t does not s u p p o r t t h e i m a g i n a t i o n i s a dead e n v i r o n m e n t . Any t h e o r y o f t h e c i t y t h a t o m i t s f e e l i n g s , symbols, memories, dreams, myths, and a l l t h e s u b t l e e n e r g i e s t h a t go i n t o the e x p r e s s i v e d i m e n s i o n i g n o r e s t h e most human r e g i o n o f urb a n l i f e . . . . . E x p r e s s i v e v i t a l i t y depends on how a p l a c e engages t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . 2 The C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , l i k e many c i t i e s a c r o s s Canada, has r e c o g n i s e d t h e need t o a d d r e s s p u b l i c a r t t h r o u g h p u b l i c p o l i c y but t o d a t e e f f o r t s have been r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . Renowned f o r t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f i t s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , V a n c o u v e r has had v i r t u a l l y no commitment t o p u b l i c a r t e i t h e r i n f o r m u l a t i n g g o a l s 2 J o h n s o n , Don R o b e r t ( S e n i o r L e a d e r , New York S o c i e t y f o r E t h i c a l C u l t u r e ) , The C i t y and C h i l d r e n ; Towards t h e B l i s s o f t h e  Sense ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) , 1989 Making C i t i e s L i v a b l e C o n f e r e n c e , V e n i c e , I t a l y , J u l y 1989, p. 4 1 f o r t h e c i t y o r i n i n t r o d u c i n g p o l i c i e s t o g u i d e what a r t i s l o c a t e d or o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e urb a n e n v i r o n m e n t . Many o f t h e e x i s t i n g p u b l i c a r t w o r k s , o f t e n l a c k l u s t r e or i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y s i t e d , r e f l e c t t h i s l a c k o f c o r p o r a t e commitment t o t h e h i g h e s t q u a l i t y o f p u b l i c a r t . As n o t e d by Peggy Imredy i n A G u i d e t o  S c u l p t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r ; The a r t i n a c i t y r e f l e c t s t h e c u l t u r e o f t h a t c i t y , you can see t h a t Vancouver does not have much c u l t u r e . 3 V a n c o u v e r needs t o d e v e l o p a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o r p o r a t e s t r a t e g y t o p r o v i d e , e n c o u r a g e , r e q u i r e , and r e g u l a t e p u b l i c a r t i n a way t h a t w i l l e n s u r e t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r o f p u b l i c a r t i s r e a l i s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . Development and r e d e v e l o p m e n t schemes on a m a s s i v e s c a l e w i l l t r a n s f o r m t h e c i t y i n t h e next d e c a d e s ; w i t h o u t c l e a r g o a l s and c o m p r e h e n s i v e p o l i c i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t i n t o t h e s e p r o j e c t s may be l o s t or p o o r l y r e a l i s e d . T h e r e i s n ' t even a p o l i c y t h a t would r e q u i r e a p u b l i c a r t component i n t h e p r o p o s e d e x p a n s i o n o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C i t y H a l l . A r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s can be e n c o u r a g e d and r e g u l a t e d i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o r e f l e c t community v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h o u t s t i f l i n g t h e c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e a r t i s t o r d e s i g n e r . The i n t e g r i t y o f t h e p l a c e s i n t o which a r t i s p l a c e d o r i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n , use and enjoyment o f t h e p u b l i c - a p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p l a n n e r - can be g u a r a n t e e d . 3 Imredy, Peggy, A G u i d e t o S c u l p t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r , V a n c o u v e r BC, 1980, I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 T h i s c an be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o r p o r a t e s t r a t e g y f o r p u b l i c a r t . By c o r p o r a t e s t r a t e g y , I mean an i n c l u s i v e p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h t o p u b l i c a r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t w i l l a d d r e s s p u b l i c a r t g o a l s i n terms o f c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , urban d e s i g n , park enhancement, e d u c a t i o n , c i v i c p r i d e , and economic s t i m u l a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s ways i n which p u b l i c a r t can enhance the c i t y and i n which t h e c i t y c a n e n c o u r a g e and r e g u l a t e p u b l i c a r t o f t h e h i g h e s t c a l i b r e w h i l e m a x i m i s i n g c i v i c and d o n a t e d r e s o u r c e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t o a d d r e s s a l l o f the b a c k g r o u n d i s s u e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h . W h i l e some forms o f p u b l i c a r t may f a l l o u t s i d e t h e p u r v i e w o f p l a n n i n g and e l u d e r e g u l a t i o n , many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c a r t can be i d e n t i f i e d , e n c o u r a g e d , r e g u l a t e d and o t h e r w i s e p l a n n e d f o r c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t h e r t h a n on an ad hoc, s i t e - b y - s i t e b a s i s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r o p o s e changes i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a l l forms o f p u b l i c a r t i n t h e c i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e changes w i t h i n t h e c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l f a l l w i t h i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o f P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , and E n g i n e e r i n g , and th e B o a r d o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n , v i r t u a l l y a l l c o u l d be a f f e c t e d . A c o r p o r a t e a r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s s t r a t e g y f o r t h e C i t y o f Va n c o u v e r would p r o v i d e an i n c l u s i v e framework f o r d e c i s i o n -making w h i c h would u l t i m a t e l y i n c r e a s e t h e o v e r a l l l i v a b i l i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c i t y . I t w i l l a c h i e v e t h i s t h r o u g h t h e 3 i n t e g r a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n t o t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , e n g e n d e r i n g p u b l i c awareness and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a r t s , and s t i m u l a t i n g a r t s and a r t s - r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e c i t y , i n c l u d i n g t o u r i s m . The prominence o f V a n c o u v e r ' s r o l e i n t h e P a c i f i c Rim community and as the p r e m i e r c i t y o f w e s t e r n Canada w i l l be enhanced. A common v i s i o n needs t o be e n u n c i a t e d , e s p o u s e d and promoted t o r e a l i s e c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s f o r t h e v i s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c i t y . 1.2 S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n Due t o t h e v e r y b r o a d n a t u r e o f t h e p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t t o p i c , t h e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e s i s r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g v a r y w i d e l y , from The C a n a d i a n E n c y c l o p e d i a t o t h e N a t i o n a l I n q u i r e r and from c o u n t e r c u l t u r e j o u r n a l s s u c h a s N o i s e and S t e p t o a c a d e m i c d i s s e r t a t i o n s . C o n c e p t i o n s o f p u b l i c a r t a r e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g . Thus, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e l y h e a v i l y on a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by co n t e m p o r a r y p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n p o p u l a r , p l a n n i n g o r a r t j o u r n a l s and c a t a l o g u e s . Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was drawn from c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n s f o r p u b l i c a r t and c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e who wrote t h o s e p l a n s or a r e c h a r g e d w i t h i m p l e m e n t i n g them. The p r e s e n t t e n s e i s used about t h e a c t i v i t i e s , p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e and employment o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s c i t e d i n t h e t h e s i s b a s e d on t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e . I have, t o t h e b e s t o f my a b i l i t y , made e v e r y r e a s o n a b l e a t t e m p t t o keep t h e s t a t u s o f t h e s e p e o p l e c u r r e n t t o t h e d a t e o f t h e s i s p u b l i c a t i o n . T h i s 4 also applies to the policies, regulations and amendments to those cited in this thesis. 1.3 The Nature of Public Art Public art should contribute to humanizing our citi e s by representing the supremely human qualities of joy, compassion, and understanding. The task of the urban artist is to transpose the l i f e of the community, in a l l i t s dimensions, into a significant and beneficent whole.4 1.3.1 Public art prior to the industrial revolution Art in public places has played significant roles in virtually a l l human cultures since before the dawn of history. Most of what we know of the earliest civilisations has been gleaned from artifacts unearthed by archeologists on every continent. These artifacts, ranging in complexity from the crude carvings of heads on the Easter Islands to the elaborate frescoes and pavements of Pompeii and the statuary of the Egyptian pharaohs or the Chinese emperors, begin to t e l l us who these people were and how they lived. They t e l l us about their family lives, social structures, governance, religious beliefs and practices, and the functioning of their economies. They provide an indication of the equally important but otherwise unrecorded rituals, celebrations and religious observances that were associated with these artifacts. It is also apparent that public art played an important role in many of these civilisations as religious icons, to communicate 4 Crowhurst Lennard, Suzanne, quoted in Public Art Competitions (brochure), City of Halifax, Halifax NS, February 1989 5 w i t h t h e s p i r i t s or gods, t o r e i n f o r c e t h e p r e s e n c e o f government, as symbols o f s t a t u s or s o c i a l r a n k , and f o r documentary p u r p o s e s . 5 In p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s , p u b l i c a r t was p r e s c r i b e d by c o n v e n t i o n , t r a d i t i o n , or p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s i m p e r a t i v e s . In more ad v a n c e d c u l t u r e s , such as the G r e e k s , Minoans, P e r s i a n s , M e d i e v a l E u r o p e a n s , A z t e c s and Mayans, p u b l i c a r t f o r m s f l o u r i s h e d and a t t a i n e d h i g h l e v e l s o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . The c r e a t i o n and s i t i n g o f t h e s e permanent works, however, i s b e l i e v e d t o have s t i l l a d h e r e d t o t h e r i g i d or r i t u a l i s e d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e community. They would have s h a r e d some or a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : t h e y were e l i t i s t r a t h e r t h a n p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s ; heads o f government would have them c r e a t e d t o g l o r i f y t h e s t a t e or t h e m s e l v e s as i t s l e a d e r s ; r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s would have them c r e a t e d t o g l o r i f y t h e gods o r t h e m s e l v e s as l i n k s t o t h e gods; the w e a l t h y would have them c r e a t e d t o p r o j e c t t h e i r economic s t a t u s and l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ; s i t i n g and s u b j e c t m a t t e r would be d e t e r m i n e d by p r e c e d e n c e , custom or r e l i g i o u s d i c t a t e s ; and, t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e a r t i s t was not a m a t t e r o f c o n s e q u e n c e . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n e x a m i n i n g r e c e n t d i r e c t i o n s i n p u b l i c a r t t o compare t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h t h o s e o f modern and c o n t e m p o r a r y p u b l i c a r t p r o j e c t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e 5 V a s t o k a s , J o a n M. ( P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y ) , Indian Art, The C a n a d i a n E n c y c l o p e d i a (Second E d i t i o n ) , H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , Edmonton AB, 1988, p. 1052 6 s e c o n d c h a p t e r i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f p u b l i c a r t and i n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c a r t , p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g and p l a n n i n g i t s e l f r e v e a l s t h a t some o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and m o t i v a t i o n s a r e s t i l l c u r r e n t . The n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e s e i n a c o n t e m p o r a r y , d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y have become i n c e n t i v e s f o r p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g t o d a y . 1.3.2 E f f e c t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n on p u b l i c a r t P r i o r t o e x a m i n i n g s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s o f t h e development o f p u b l i c a r t and p l a n n i n g i n d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n 2.2, t h e r o l e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n c h a n g i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n must be acknowledged. The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe, and i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , s i g n a l l e d p e r h a p s t h e most d r a m a t i c change i n t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . I t d i s l o c a t e d masses o f — p e o p l e i n t o a c o m p l e t e l y new m i l i e u : the b u r g e o n i n g i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . E n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and even m o r a l d e g r a d a t i o n i n t h e s e new c i t i e s r a i s e d s e r i o u s q u a l i t y o f l i f e c o n c e r n s . T h e s e c o n c e r n s , p r i m a r i l y f o r h e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n and a d e s i r e f o r o r d e r l y d e v e l o p m e n t , spawned the b e g i n n i n g s o f c i t y p l a n n i n g . The newly c r e a t e d u r b a n s o c i e t y a l s o p r e s e n t e d a d i f f e r e n t mandate f o r a r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . In N o r t h A m e r i c a p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g t r a d i t i o n i s a r e c e n t phenomenon. T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n i t s 7 b r o a d e s t s e n s e u n t i l t h e advent o f the C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement, whi c h r e p r e s e n t e d a c u l m i n a t i o n i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f t h e l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n , m u n i c i p a l improvement and c i v i c d e s i g n movements. I n t e r e s t i n p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t a t t h a t t i m e a p p e a r s t o have begun f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y became i n c r e a s i n g l y s e c u l a r and t h e r e f o r e v iewed p u b l i c a r t l e s s as a v e h i c l e t o g l o r i f y God; 2. i n c r e a s e d p r o s p e r i t y p e r m i t t e d th e emergence o f a l a r g e s o p h i s t i c a t e d , urbane and e d u c a t e d m i d d l e c l a s s ; 3 . i n c r e a s i n g a f f l u e n c e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a v e l , e s p e c i a l l y t o E urope, g e n e r a t e d an i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o and i n t e r e s t i n a r t s , c u l t u r e and u r b a n b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ; and, 4. t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances expanded the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p u b l i c a r t . As a r e s u l t , t h e m o t i v a t i o n s and forms o f e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c a r t began t o change d r a m a t i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . I t began t o e x h i b i t new c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. i t r e f l e c t e d t h e d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s and i d e a l s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y s u c h as g l o r i f y i n g t h e f a l l e n d e f e n d e r s o f t h e s t a t e r a t h e r t h a n t h e s t a t e i t s e l f ; 2. i t was viewed as b e i n g an u r b a n a m e n i t y ; 3 . i t was i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g p r o v i d e d by a w i d e r segment o f t h e community i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l , e t h n i c o r c i v i c improvement g r o u p s , p r i v a t e b e n e f a c t o r s and c o r p o r a t i o n s ; 4. a r t i n g e n e r a l began t o be l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ; and, 5. a new r o l e f o r p u b l i c a r t , ' a r t f o r a r t ' s own s a k e ' , was g a i n i n g c u r r e n c y . 8 1.3.3 The n a t u r e o f p u b l i c a r t i n Canada t o d a y A r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s r e p r e s e n t s an o n - g o i n g s t a t e m e n t o f our s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . I t p r o v i d e s a p h y s i c a l r e c o r d o f e v o l v i n g community v a l u e s and d e f i n e s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a c i t y , r e v e a l i n g and r e f l e c t i n g t h e c u l t u r e s c o m p r i s i n g and a s s e r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h a t c i t y , i n ways t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e s t r e e t s c a p e a l o n e c a n n o t . In Canada, however, i t seems t h a t a r t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s has o c c u r r e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y w i t h o u t a c o - o r d i n a t e d p r o c e s s o r o v e r a l l v i s i o n . I t has a p p e a r e d from a d i s p a r a t e a r r a y o f a c t o r s : p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s , community g r o u p s , s o c i e t i e s , p o l i t i c i a n s , b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , d e v e l o p e r s and many o t h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . R e g u l a t i o n t e n d s t o be s p o r a d i c and t o o o f t e n b l a t a n t l y i g n o r e d i n f a v o u r o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y . In s p i t e o f b e i n g i n s p i r e d by t h e b e s t m o t i v e s , th e r e s u l t has o f t e n been a n t a g o n i s m from members o f t h e community, a l i e n a t i o n o f members o f t h e a r t s community, the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f i n f e r i o r works, t h e c h o i c e o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g s , l o n g - t e r m m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s and an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number of o t h e r c o n c e r n s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . Bronwyn D r a i n i e , c u l t u r e c r i t i c f o r The  G l o b e and M a i l , e x p r e s s e s t h i s p u b l i c n e g a t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e p u b l i c a r t c o n t r o v e r s i e s : Whether i t ' s s i z e ( " I t ' s a b u i l d i n g " ) o r l o c a t i o n ("Not i n our p ark you d o n ' t ! " ) or j u s t p l a i n a e s t h e t i c s ("My f i v e - y e a r - o l d c o u l d do b e t t e r ! " ) , p u b l i c a r t , w i t h a 9 h i s t o r y d a t i n g back beyond the S p h i n x , i s a p e r e n n i a l h o t p o t a t o i n Canada. 6 Thus, c o n t r a r y t o C r o w h u r s t L e n n a r d ' s s u p p o s i t i o n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t not a l l p u b l i c a r t i n Canada i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h u m a n i s i n g our c i t i e s nor i s i t a l l g a l v a n i s i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e community. The f a i l u r e o f p u b l i c a r t t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s r e f l e c t s t h e l a c k o f p r o p e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . 1.4 The R o l e o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e A r t s and C u l t u r e . . . i n i t s a r t s a community f i n d s t h e most p r o f o u n d and f a i t h f u l e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s t r u e n a t u r e , and t h a t f o r t h i s r e a s o n - f i r s t among o t h e r s - t h e community i s under an o b l i g a t i o n t o see t h a t t h e a r t s do not d i e , but f l o u r i s h . 7 C i t i e s a c r o s s Canada a r e r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g and t h e r o l e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e a r t s . R i c h a r d G i l b e r t , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , f e e l s t h i s has r e s u l t e d f r o m "one o f t h e most p r o f o u n d and i m p o r t a n t changes i n Canada i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y . . . t h e community's a c c e p t a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s l i f e . " 8 M o n t r e a l has a d o p t e d a c u l t u r a l p o l i c y d e velopment p l a n " b u i l t on the p r i n c i p l e s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o and l e a d e r s h i p f r o m m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e c o h e r e n c e between c u l t u r e , economic development, c i t y p l a n n i n g 6 D r a i n i e , Bronwyn ( c u l t u r e c r i t i c f o r t h e G l o b e and M a i l ) , " A r t A t t a c k " , S a t u r d a y N i g h t , T o r o n t o ON, J a n u a r y 1989, p. 45 7 Woodcock, George, S t r a n g e B e d f e l l o w s : The S t a t e and t h e  A r t s i n Canada, D o u g l a s and M c l n t y r e , V a n c o u v e r BC, 1985, p. 11 8 " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the A r t s " , A r t s B u l l e t i n , C a n a d i a n C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A r t s , X I I : 1 , Ottawa ON, F a l l 1987, p. 11 10 and community l i f e . " 9 T o r o n t o mayor A r t E g g l e t o n i s q u o t e d as s a y i n g "The a r t s a r e not a c o s t t o t h e community, but an i n v e s t m e n t ; not a l u x u r y , but a n e c e s s i t y ; not s o m e t h i n g f o r a narrow e l i t e but v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f l i f e h e r e . " 1 0 The b a s i c p r e m i s e o f a C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r document n o t a p p r o v e d by C i t y C o u n c i l , C u l t u r a l D i r e c t i o n s f o r V a n c o u v e r : A  P o l i c y G u i d e f o r t h e 1990s, was t h a t t h e c i t y " s h o u l d n o t o n l y c o n t i n u e but s h o u l d i n c r e a s e i t s s u p p o r t f o r t h e a r t s , b e c a u s e t h e a r t s a r e v a l u a b l e t o u r b a n l i f e , a e s t h e t i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y . " 1 1 Tom Hendry, a T o r o n t o - b a s e d p l a y w r i g h t , t h e a t r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and a r t c o n s u l t a n t , e l o q u e n t l y s t a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c a l government and t h e a r t s and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e r o l e o f p l a n n i n g : I t i s p r o p e r l y the b u s i n e s s o f a C i t y government t o e n s u r e t h a t what we have we w i l l keep, t h a t what we do not have and need we w i l l a c q u i r e , and t h a t t h e e n t i r e a r t s / c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f our s o c i e t y w i l l be e n a b l e d t o d e v e l o p i n t o a more p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f our b a s i c g o a l o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . 1 2 9 i b i d , p. 3 1 0 Hendry, Tom, C u l t u r a l C a p i t a l : The C a r e and F e e d i n g o f  T o r o n t o ' s A r t i s t i c A s s e t s , T o r o n t o A r t s C o u n c i l , T o r o n t o ON, 1985, f r o n t i s p i e c e 1 1 C u l t u r a l D i r e c t i o n s f o r V a n c o u v e r : A P o l i c y G u i d e f o r  t h e 1990s, Van c o u v e r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, V a n c o u v e r BC, O c t o b e r 1987, p. i 1 2 Hendry, Tom, C u l t u r a l C a p i t a l : The C a r e and F e e d i n g o f  T o r o n t o ' s A r t i s t i c A s s e t s , T o r o n t o A r t s C o u n c i l , T o r o n t o ON, 1985, p. 41 11 The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f why l o c a l governments s h o u l d c r e a t e t h e i r own p o l i c i e s i s a d a p t e d from a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e C i t y o f Ottawa by t h e Mayor's A d v i s o r y Group on A r t s and C u l t u r e i n September, 1980. 1 3 The c i t y has h i s t o r i c a l l y been and c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e s o c i a l u n i t most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i g o r o u s a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . The c i t y i s where the a r t i s t most o f t e n works, i n i t s c o l l e c t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , each w i t h i t s s p e c i a l ambience and f l o w o f l i f e . W h i l e s u p p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a r t s f r o m b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s o u r c e s , the c i t y i s much more t a n g i b l e and r e a l t o t h e a r t i s t as an immediate and v i s i b l e e n v i r o n m e n t o f p e o p l e , p l a c e s and t h i n g s . In t h e f a c e o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f p l a c e l e s s n e s s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s a t i o n , t h e r e i s more t h a n e v e r a r o l e f o r r e g i o n a l i s m and l o c a l i s m i n t h e panorama o f modern i n t e r n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e . The c u l t u r a l m o s a i c e n s u r e d by t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e s p i r i t o f p l a c e i n t h e a r t s r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e b e s t hopes f o r a humane f u t u r e o f our c i t i e s . L o c a l a r t s g r o u p s have t h e i r r o o t s i n t h e i r community. They employ p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e i r immediate a r e a , spend t h e i r b u d g e t s l o c a l l y and draw most o f t h e i r a u d i e n c e s from t h e i r e n v i r o n s . By d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g members o f t h e community e i t h e r as v o l u n t e e r s o r as p r o f e s s i o n a l s , as a c t o r s , a r t i s t s , d a n c e r s , m u s i c i a n s and 1 3 Henighan, Tom, "Why S h o u l d R e g i o n a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments S u p p o r t th e A r t s ? " P r o p o s a l s f o r Development o f A r t s  and C u l t u r e i n t h e Q t t a w a - C a r l e t o n R e g i o n , Mayor's A d v i s o r y G r o u p on A r t s and C u l t u r e , Ottawa ON, September 1980, p. 7-12 12 so on, t h e y h e l p t o d e m o c r a t i s e th e a r t s and t o c r e a t e i n f o r m e d and c u l t u r a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a u d i e n c e s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . They s t i m u l a t e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a r t s a t a b r o a d l e v e l (compared t o n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ) and p r o v i d e a h e a l t h y d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c t e c h n i q u e s and p r a c t i c e s . W h i l e n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s e t s t a n d a r d s o f e x c e l l e n c e t o w h i c h l o c a l g r o u p s might a s p i r e , t h e y never f u l f i l l t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l a r t s community - t o e x p r e s s th e a r t i s t i c s p i r i t o f p l a c e by g i v i n g f r e e r e i n t o the i m a g i n a t i o n and t a l e n t o f l o c a l c r e a t o r s and p e r f o r m e r s . The r e p o r t n o t e s t h a t a r t and c u l t u r e a r e not c a s u a l l u x u r i e s o f e x i s t e n c e but r a t h e r a r e t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f c i v i l i s e d l i f e : A r t i s most o f t e n a r e c o r d o f t h i n g s s e e n p r o f o u n d l y , known c o n c r e t e l y , and done i m a g i n a t i v e l y and c o m p l e t e l y . I t p u r g e s our f e a r s and d i s g u s t , s h a p e s and r e v e a l s our l o v e o f t h i s w o r l d i n a l l i t s c o m p l e x i t y , and p o i n t s t o i d e a l s and v a l u e s someday t o be r e a l i z e d . A r t may be a s o l i t a r y voyage o f s e l f -d i s c o v e r y , or t h e s h a r e d e x c i t e m e n t o f p e r f o r m e r and a u d i e n c e , o r even j u s t a g r e a t d e a l o f f u n , but i t n ever a l t o g e t h e r i r r e l e v a n t , even a t i t s most s e l f -i n d u l g e n t . 1 4 I t i s f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h a t a r t and c u l t u r e a r e e s s e n t i a l t o e v e r y community and s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d as a s e r i o u s p r i o r i t y by c o m m u n i t i e s f o r t h e sake o f t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s . M u n i c i p a l s u p p o r t f o r and encouragement o f t h e l o c a l a r t s and a r t i s t s i m p r o v e s t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r a l m o s t a l l c i t i z e n s by f u r t h e r i n g t h a t a l m o s t i n d e f i n a b l e and i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y o f community s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . i b i d , p. 10 13 1.5 Why P u b l i c A r t i s a C o n c e r n o f P l a n n i n g We do not i n t h i s age b u i l d many o u t s t a n d i n g c a t h e d r a l s , p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s , town h a l l s , p a l a c e s ; i n t h e main we have t o c o n c e n t r a t e on humbler m a t e r i a l . . . T h e p l a n n e r must see t o i t t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f b e a u t y i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r l i v i n g i s not f o r g o t t e n . 1 5 The a r t s a r e c l e a r l y a c o n c e r n o f p l a n n i n g . Edmonton, f o r example, was t y p i c a l o f many C a n a d i a n c i t i e s i n t h a t a l t h o u g h v a r i o u s c i v i c p o l i c i e s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h e d e s i r e f o r p u b l i c a r t i n t h e c i t y and t h e downtown i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p o l i c i e s were t o o g e n e r a l and d i d not i m p l y o b l i g a t i o n or p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r p u b l i c a r t . L i k e many c i t i e s , Edmonton has a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t p r o j e c t s , r a n g i n g from the e a r l i e s t (1929) commemorative s t a t u a r y t o r e c e n t a r t - i n - a r c h i t e c t u r e works. These p r o j e c t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e c i t y d e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f c i v i c p o l i c i e s and programmes t o e n c o u r a g e them. Due t o a l a c k o f c o h e r e n t p l a n n i n g , t h e y t e n d t o be d i s t r i b u t e d u n e v e n l y a c r o s s t h e c i t y . Most a r e l o c a t e d on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a campus o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h government b u i l d i n g s or f a c i l i t i e s and, more r e c e n t l y , w i t h th e West Edmonton M a l l . Many r e s u l t e d f r o m s p e c i a l a n n i v e r s a r i e s or e v e n t s , s u c h as Canada's C e n t e n n i a l and t h e 1983 U n i v e r s i a d e , r a t h e r t h a n from d e l i b e r a t e i n c o r p o r a t i o n 1 5 P i c k e t t , S t a n l e y H., "What does a Town P l a n n e r d o ? " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, V:2, Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, Ottawa ON, 1955, p. 4 14 i n t o c i t y - b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h i s l a c k o f v i s i o n has l o n g been a c o n c e r n o f t h e c i t y : The a r t i s t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b o t h th e a r t s c r e a t o r and t h e a r t s a p p r e c i a t o r a r e many i n Edmonton but f o r t h e most p a r t , l i t t l e p l a n n i n g has been done i n r e l a t i o n t o them. The C i t y , a l t h o u g h s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e a r t s , has never f o r m a l i z e d a c l e a r r o l e t o p l a y . The d e velopment o f a p o l i c y o f t h e a r t s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h a t r o l e . 1 ^ The r e p o r t g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c i t y s h o u l d assume t h e r o l e o f f a c i l i t a t o r , w o r k i n g w i t h th e a r t s community t o c r e a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s and e n v i r o n m e n t i n w hich the a r t s can f l o u r i s h t h e n and i n t h e f u t u r e . P l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t i s one method t o r e a l i s e t h i s g o a l . S h o u k r y Roweis, p r o f e s s o r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ' s S c h o o l o f P l a n n i n g , c o n s i d e r s p l a n n i n g t o be d e l i b e r a t e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n by a s o c i e t y , the a c t i v i t y o f making c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n c e s . C o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n "means s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s whose c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e o b j e c t s o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . . . a c h i e v e d by t r a d i t i o n a l / c u l t u r a l c o n s e n s u s , by e l e c t e d government t h r o u g h t a x e s , s u b s i d i e s , and p u b l i c s p e n d i n g , o r by d i c t a t o r i a l d e c i s i o n s . " 1 7 The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a subway system would be an example. In c o n t r a s t , he f e e l s t h a t b u s i n e s s d e c i s i o n s o f r e a l e s t a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e not t h e m s e l v e s the o b j e c t s o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n 1 6 Towards an A r t s P o l i c y , Edmonton P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Department, Edmonton AB, 1983 1 7 Quoted by G e r e c k e , Kent, "The h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n c i t y p l a n n i n g " , C i t y Magazine, T o r o n t o ON, Summer 1976, p. 22 15 and t h e r e f o r e do not c o n s t i t u t e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . R o w e i s ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n terms o f a s u b s t a n t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about p u b l i c works and p u b l i c p r o j e c t s t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s one t h a t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g and t h e d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . A l t h o u g h Roweis exempts the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f growth t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l o f p r i v a t e or c o r p o r a t e p r o j e c t s from h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e p u b l i c c o n t r o l s which d e t e r m i n e the c o r p o r a t e d e c i s i o n s do r e p r e s e n t c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . P u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g i n t h i s l i g h t does impact upon the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . P l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a were o r i g i n a l l y l i m i t e d t o common f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as r o a d s , sewerage, and o t h e r u t i l i t i e s or c o n c e r n s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e . F o r example, t h e 1925 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Town  P l a n n i n g A c t was a s i m p l e e n a b l i n g a c t p e r m i t t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e c o m p r e h e n s i v e development c o n t r o l m a s t e r p l a n n i n g , z o n i n g and r u d i m e n t a r y p u b l i c r e a l m p r o v i s i o n s . 1 8 They have i n c r e a s i n g l y become more complex and i n t e r v e n t i o n a l i n an a t t e m p t by government t o e n s u r e t h a t the p r i v a t e s e c t o r assumes a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f u r b a n a m e n i t i e s . The p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h a m e n i t i e s seems t o i n c r e a s i n g l y be beyond t h e a b i l i t y o f government a l o n e . A m e n i t i e s i n c l u d e u r b a n p l a z a s , b i c y c l e s t o r a g e and showers f o r employees, day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , 1 8 Simpson, M i c h a e l , Thomas Adams and t h e Modern Movement;  B r i t a i n , Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1900-1940, A l e x a n d r i n e P r e s s , M a n s e l l UK, 1985, p. 109 16 s t r e e t t r e e s and f o u n t a i n s , c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , e n t r a n c e s t o l i g h t r a i l t r a n s i t s t a t i o n s , and, p u b l i c a r t . O b j e c t (b) o f t h e P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n i s "To advance t h e s t u d y and p r a c t i c e o f community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and k i n d r e d s u b j e c t s and o f a r t s and s c i e n c e s a p p l i e d t o them". 1 9 W h i l e t h e two c o n c e p t s , p u b l i c a r t and p l a n n i n g , may seem a n t i t h e t i c a l , t h e r e has been a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two d a t i n g back a t l e a s t a c e n t u r y . S e c t i o n 2.2 documents the h i s t o r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the emergence o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n n i n g i n Canada as a d i s t i n c t p r o f e s s i o n and p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t . I t d i s c u s s e s t h e c h a n g i n g e s s e n c e o f b o t h p l a n n i n g and p u b l i c a r t t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . R e c e n t p l a n n i n g documents from t h r e e c i t i e s , r e c o g n i s e d as b e i n g e x e m p l a r y , a r e r e v i e w e d i n S e c t i o n 3.2.1 t o g l e a n e l e m e n t s e s s e n t i a l i n c o n t e m p o r a r y p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g t h a t may be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a c o r p o r a t e s t r a t e g y f o r p u b l i c a r t f o r V a n c o u v e r . One o f t h e s e , S e a t t l e ' s p l a n n i n g s t u d y A r t w o r k / N e t w o r k, makes the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a r t i s t s have a f u n d a m e n t a l r o l e i n c i t y p l a n n i n g : As t h e downtown changes and as an i n c r e a s i n g number o f b u i l d i n g s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a s t y l e c o n c e r n e d more w i t h f i l l i n g z o n i n g e n v e l o p e s than i n c r e a t i n g a C e r t i f i e d under th e S o c i e t i e s A c t on J u l y 28, 1988 17 c o h e s i v e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e , t h e r o l e o f a r t i n t h e c i t y t a k e s on i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e . 2 0 C o n v e r s e l y , p l a n n e r s c o u l d have a v i t a l r o l e i n p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f p e r m i t p r o c e s s i n g , i n community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n r e s p o n d i n g t o p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s . P l a n n e r R o n a l d F l e m i n g , a u t h o r and a d v o c a t e o f i n t e g r a t i n g p u b l i c a r t and u r b a n d e s i g n , f e e l s t h a t p l a n n e r s a r e i n u n i q u e p o s i t i o n t o "put some b a l a n c e back i n t o p u b l i c a r t " . 2 1 S i n c e t h e y u n d e r s t a n d c o n t e x t , F l e m i n g b e l i e v e s p l a n n e r s make the b e s t a d v o c a t e s f o r p u b l i c s p a c e : P l a n n e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t i v e , p r a g m a t i c t y p e s and t h e y ' r e more l i k e l y t h a n a r t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h e p u b l i c has c e r t a i n r i g h t s i n p u b l i c a r t . 2 W h i l e m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c a r t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e l e g a t e d t o P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r c r a f t s and programming c o n c e r n s , t h e a r t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h b r o a d e r d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and even e c o n o m i c development p l a n n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c a r t i s a u n i q u e a s p e c t o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g , p a r k s p l a n n i n g , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , economic p l a n n i n g and u r b a n d e s i g n . 2 0 H e r s h f i e l d , J i m and L a r r y Rouch, A r t w o r k / N e t w o r k , A  P l a n n i n g Study f o r S e a t t l e : A r t i n t h e C i v i c C o n t e x t , S e a t t l e A r t s Commission, S e a t t l e WA, 1984, p. 6 2 1 Quoted by Knack, Ruth E c k d i s h , " P a i n t i n g t h e town Red and g r e e n and b l u e and y e l l o w and....", P l a n n i n g , A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o I L , May 1988, p. 20 2 2 i b i d 18 1.5.1 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g George Woodcock, one o f Canada's most i n f l u e n t i a l a u t h o r s on c u l t u r e , has c o n s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t c u l t u r e i s a l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n . He r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e "most s t r i k i n g w o r l d d e v e lopment as t h e second m i l l e n n i u m draws near i t s end i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y o f p e o p l e s t o see t h e m s e l v e s i n c u l t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n i n p o l i t i c a l t e r m s . " 2 3 What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s on p u b l i c a r t and p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g i n V a n c o u v e r ? P u b l i c a r t f o r m s , by t h e i r v e r y p u b l i c n e s s , have t h e a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t c u l t u r a l awareness and i n d o i n g s o , c r e a t e a new, h y b r i d c u l t u r e t h a t i s d i s t i n c t i v e t o V a n c o u v e r . T h i s n o t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d w e l l i n t h e Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission's V a n c o u v e r ' s F u t u r e : Toward t h e Next M i l l i o n ( 1 9 8 9 ) : T h i s b e a u t i f u l c i t y c o u l d r e a l i z e i t s g r e a t n e s s a s a c r o s s r o a d s o f many p o w e r f u l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s . ...The i d e a o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new c u l t u r e , a new way o f l o o k i n g a t t h e w o r l d i s t h a t o f an amalgam o f a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s from beyond V a n c o u v e r ' s b o r d e r s b u t w i t h t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e i m p r i n t o f a new sy m b o l i s m . And i f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f our a r t i s t s happens t o echo the views o f many p e o p l e a t a c e r t a i n moment i n h i s t o r y , t h e y w i l l be seen on t h e w o r l d ' s s t a g e and w i l l be r e c o g n i s e d as c o n v e y i n g t h e s p i r i t o f our t i m e . ...Through a r t l i e s a p a t h o f c u l t u r a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s t h e v a l u e and i m p o r t a n c e o f o t h e r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e paves t h e way f o r r e s p e c t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a c c e p t a n c e on t h e one hand and p r i d e , a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and a commitment t o t h e new s o c i e t y on the o t h e r . 2 3 Woodcock, George, " R i d i n g t o t h e M i l l e n n i u m , o r t h e A r t o f B e i n g C a n a d i a n " , A r t s B u l l e t i n , C a n a d i a n C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A r t s , XIV:2, Ottawa ON, May 1990, p. 2 19 No one t y p i f i e s t h e q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s c u l t u r a l c o n c i l i a t i o n b e t t e r t han t h e a r t i s t . 2 4 The f o r e g o i n g i s an o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s b u t s u g g e s t s an i m p o r t a n c e f o r p u b l i c a r t p l a n n i n g as a f o r m o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g . To what deg r e e i s t h i s c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g or a c c e p t a n c e or p r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c a r t i n t h e c i t y ? P u b l i c a r t i s o f t e n d o n a t e d t o a c i t y . Sometimes t h e s e d o n a t i o n s a r e from a n o t h e r c i t y o r c o u n t r y , g i v e n i n t h e s p i r i t o f f r i e n d s h i p as symbols o f g o o d w i l l . An example i s P l a y g r o u n d o f  t h e Gods, a s c u l p t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f 40 t o 50 l o g s i n Burnaby M o u n t a i n P a r k . The s c u l p t u r e i s the c r e a t i o n o f M a t z u r i Toko, a c a r v e r f r o m Burnaby's s i s t e r c i t y o f K u s h i r o i n J a p a n . 2 5 Whether c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s or works by c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t i s t s , t h e y s e r v e t o remind us o f our r o l e i n t h e g l o b a l community, r e v e a l i n g b o t h our c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and s i m i l a r i t i e s . As s u c h , t h e y p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C o n v e r s e l y , c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e due t o p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s towards th e donor, donor e x p e c t a t i o n o f s i t i n g o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s o r s e n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d g e n e r a t e i l l w i l l . 2 4 "Report on A r t s and C u l t u r e " , V a n c o u v e r ' s F u t u r e : Toward  t h e Next M i l l i o n (1989), Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, V a n c o u v e r BC, June 28, 1989, p. 5 2 5 I n f o r m a t i o n Burnaby, XV:4, Burnaby BC, November 1989, 20 C l e a r p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s would a l l e v i a t e t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s and c o u l d p o s s i b l y g a r n e r s p e c i f i c i t e m s t h a t a c i t y i d e n t i f i e d f o r i t s enhancement. Some c i t i e s make s p e c i a l r e q u e s t s f o r d o n a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s or l o c a t i o n s . An example i s t h e C i t y o f P o r t l a n d which r e q u e s t e d temple b e l l s from i t s s i s t e r c i t i e s i n J a p a n and Ko r e a f o r a s p e c i f i c i n s t a l l a t i o n as p a r t o f a l a r g e r sound s c u l p t u r e by composer R o b e r t Coburn a t t h e i r new c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e . S i m i l a r n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e underway w i t h V a n c o u v e r ' s s i s t e r c i t i e s t o s e c u r e peace b e l l s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d p e a c e g a r d e n a t S e a f o r t h P a r k . G i v e n t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e s t o p u b l i c a r t , who s h o u l d assume t h e r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r i n c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g ? W h i l e Vancouver i s r a t h e r u n i q u e i n h a v i n g s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f who assume c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n C o u n c i l ' s terms o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e o f c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r s has been q u e s t i o n e d . Ruth E c k d i s h Knack warned t h a t p l a n n e r s a r e l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t as a r t i s t s and a r t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s become more i n v o l v e d i n community p l a n n i n g : ' C u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g ' seems t o be a growth a r e a t o d a y ( a l t h o u g h t h e seed was p l a n t e d y e a r s ago by t h e l a t e H a r v e y P e r l o f f ) . Yet C h i c a g o ' s r e c e n t c u l t u r a l p l a n wasn't p r e p a r e d by a p l a n n e r ; nor i s t h e new one b e i n g done f o r L o w e l l , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . 2 6 T h e r e i s ' o b v i o u s l y a need f o r community p l a n n e r s w i t h i n t e r e s t 2 6 Knack, Ruth E c k d i s h , and b l u e and y e l l o w and...", A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o I L , May " P a i n t i n g t h e town Red and g r e e n P l a n n i n g , A m e r i c a n P l a n n i n g 1988, p. 20 21 and a base o f e x p e r t i s e i n t h e a r t s and c u l t u r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g . 1.5.2 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g P u b l i c a r t can s e r v e as a u s e f u l t o o l i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g whether by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h r o u g h community g r o u p s and o r g a n i s a t i o n s , and even by t h e d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d i n s o c i e t y by u s i n g i t as an a g e n t o f s o c i a l change. One i s r a r e l y a s k e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b u i l d i n g t o change one's mind about some i d e a or i s s u e , t o a l t e r one's p e r c e p t i o n s . That has always been my q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a r t : D i d i t change my mind a b o u t s o m e t h i n g ? 2 7 The f o l l o w i n g examples from a v a r i e t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s i l l u s t r a t e ways i n which p u b l i c a r t i n v a r i o u s forms c a n be u s e d t o change one's mind about some i d e a or i s s u e , i . e . , t o foment s o c i a l change. B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d B a l t i m o r e ' s p e r c e n t f o r a r t programme 2 8 was c o n s i d e r e d t o be so s u c c e s s f u l and w e l l a c c e p t e d t h a t a l m o s t t e n y e a r s a f t e r i t s i n c e p t i o n , B a l t i m o r e mayor S c h a e f e r spoke e l o q u e n t l y o f t h e need f o r a r t i n t h e p u b l i c r e a l m as a l i f e f o r c e i n c i t i e s : 2 7 James Wines q u o t e d by Muschamp, H e r b e r t , " I n t e r v i e w w i t h S I T E " , S I T E , R i z z o l i I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , New York NY, 1989, p. 31 2 8 R e f e r t o S e c t i o n s 2.4.1 and 3.1.3. 22 I t i s a r t i n t h e form o f s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g s , m o s a i c s , f o u n t a i n s , and t h e l i k e , t h a t t u r n s s t e r i l e new b u i l d i n g s i n t o l i v i n g t h i n g s t h a t a t t r a c t p e o p l e . P e o p l e , i n t u r n , a r e what a c i t y needs t o l i v e . . . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a r t i n a r c h i t e c t u r e a p p r o a c h c a n p r e v e n t our c i t i e s from becoming mausoleums. 2 9 New York, New York Over t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s , s c u l p t u r e s have been c r e a t e d i n some o f New Y o r k ' s most t r o u b l e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s - d e r e l i c t and e m b a t t l e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e Bronx, B r o o k l y n and Queens - as a r e s u l t o f b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a r t programmes. A f t e r y e a r s o f a r t i s t s t r y i n g t o r e a c h i n t o t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y a r e a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s i n some c a s e s where t h e s c u l p t u r e s become a symbol o f , or even seem t o be a b l e t o impose, c i v i l i t y and an ele m e n t o f c u l t u r e where none seemed a b l e t o e x i s t b e f o r e . In t h e s e p r e c a r i o u s New York n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , f a r from i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t h e Whitney Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , where t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t depends v e r y much on t h e e s t h e t i c o f shock, shock i s a f a c t o f d a i l y l i f e and many p e o p l e want a r t t h a t c an h e a l . 3 0 P o r t l a n d , Oregon Two m u r a l s were p a i n t e d on a b u i l d i n g on N o r t h e a s t L u t h e r K i n g J r . B o u l e v a r d i n P o r t l a n d , Oregon. P a r t o f t h e A l b i n a N e i g h b o u r h o o d M u r a l s P r o j e c t , the m u r a l s r e p r e s e n t t h e b l a c k man's h i s t o r y from h i s r o o t s t h e p r e s e n t day w i t h e d u c a t i o n b e i n g 2 9 K r e i s b e r g , L u i s a , L o c a l Government and t h e A r t s , A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l f o r t h e A r t s , New York NY, 1978, p. 51 3 0 B r e n s o n , M i c h a e l , " S c u l p t u r e f o r T r o u b l e d P l a c e s " , A r t s and L e i s u r e , The New York Times, New York NY, O c t o b e r 15, 1989, p. 42 23 a p r o m i n e n t theme i n the m u r a l s . They were c o n c e i v e d by a r e a a r t i s t I s a a c Shamsud-Din t o c r e a t e symbols o f p r i d e f o r t h e community and t o employ a r e a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s and young p e o p l e . One o f t h e a r t i s t s , C h a r l o t t e L e w i s , commented: " T h i s i s r e a l l y c r a c k a l l e y and we're t r y i n g t o i n s p i r e p e o p l e t o go i n a n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n " . 3 1 Shamsud-Din, who hopes t o r a i s e f u n d s t o p a i n t a dozen more m u r a l s a l o n g K i n g B o u l e v a r d , f e e l s t h a t a r t u s e d t h i s way "can be a moving, p o s s i b l y a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e , f o r p e o p l e . " 3 2 T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o More t h a n 400 p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n T o r o n t o ' s P e o p l e ' s F e s t i v a l  o f t h e A r t s on J u l y 22, 1989 t o p r o t e s t the p r o p o s e d b a l l e t and o p e r a house on l a n d o r i g i n a l l y s l a t e d f o r a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . " E v e r y o n e s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o t h i n k about a s o c i e t y t h a t b u i l d s a $ 5 0 0 - m i l l i o n - p l u s SkyDome, p r o j e c t s a $ 3 0 0 - m i l l i o n - p l u s B a l l e t O pera House, and r e a d i e s b i l l i o n s f o r an O l y m p i c s and a b i m i l l e n n i a l w o r l d ' s f a i r - w h i l e 100,000 p e o p l e a month use f o o d banks and p e r h a p s 20,000 a r e h o m e l e s s . " 3 3 S p o n s o r e d by B r e a d Not C i r c u s e s C o a l i t i o n , t h e f e s t i v a l was a l s o a c e l e b r a t i o n o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , t h e f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f c u l t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s t o f i g h t f o r p o p u l a r c u l t u r e a g a i n s t c o r p o r a t e c u l t u r e . I t i n c l u d e d 3 1 D u l k e n , D i a n e , " M u r a l s b r i n g symbol o f p r i d e t o K i n g B l v d . " , The O r e g o n i a n , P o r t l a n d OR, November 8, 1989 3 2 i b i d 3 3 S a l u t i n , R i c k , "Send i n the Frowns", T o r o n t o L i f e , T o r o n t o ON, December 1989, p. 23 a p l a n n i n g workshop f o r t h e o p e r a h a l l s i t e by t h e C a n a d i a n A r c h i t e c t s , D e s i g n e r s and P l a n n e r s f o r S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and Women P l a n T o r o n t o . T h e i r p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e s i t e were t h e c r e a t i o n o f a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g , adequate d a y c a r e , w e l l - p a y i n g and s o c i a l l y u s e f u l j o b s , c l e a n and s a f e c o m m u n i t i e s , and a v i b r a n t and a c t i v e c u l t u r a l l i f e . P e r f o r m a n c e s from the gazebo on t h e lawn o f Queen's Park e x p r e s s e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l message " w i t h o u t t h e u s u a l heavy-handed r h e t o r i c . " 3 4 V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C olumbia The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Noncommercial C u l t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r i s a c o l l e c t i v e o f a r t i s t s "committed t o f a c i l i t a t i n g a c r i t i c a l a w areness o f c u l t u r e and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e . One o f i t s c o n t i n u i n g mandates i s t o r e c l a i m a p o r t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e f o r commentary from i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . " 3 5 P r o j e c t s have i n c l u d e d A d v e r s e P r a c t i c e s , a c o n s e c u t i v e e x h i b i t i o n c r e a t e d f o r and p r e s e n t e d i n a bus s h e l t e r a d v e r t i s i n g d i s p l a y c a s e , and U rban S u b j e c t s , f i v e i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n c o m m e r c i a l s t o r e f r o n t s l i t and a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c 24-hours-a-day t h a t " c r i t i c a l l y engage w i t h and a r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d by t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n downtown V a n c o u v e r . " 3 6 3 4 S h a p c o t t , M i c h a e l , " L e t Them E a t O p e r a " , F u s e , T o r o n t o ON, F a l l 1989, p. 8 3 5 Weaving, J i l , Urban S u b j e c t s ( e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e ) , V a n c o u v e r A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Noncommercial C u l t u r e , V a n c o u v e r BC, 1988 3 6 i b i d 25 1.5.3 P u b l i c a r t as a s t r a t e g y o f economic p l a n n i n g The A r t s a r e c l e a r l y no l o n g e r a f r i l l , but a p r o v e n economic a s s e t f o r a t t r a c t i n g b u s i n e s s and t o u r i s m t o our C i t y and P r o v i n c e . 3 7 T h e r e i s an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n c i t i e s a c r o s s Canada i n t h e economic b e n e f i t s o f t h e a r t s and o t h e r c u l t u r a l a m e n i t i e s . As t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o a r t s g r o u p s i n c r e a s e s and as a r t s g r o u p s c o n t i n u e t o r e l y on t h e v a g a r i e s o f f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s , t h e y a r e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e y must be more d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f t h e i r v a l u e t o s o c i e t y a e s t h e t i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n but even moreso as economic s t i m u l a t o r s t o t h e l o c a l e c o n omies. C a n a d i a n s know l i t t l e about th e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a r t s c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y or t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t o our c i t i e s . A r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c i t i e s ; t h e f i v e l a r g e s t c i t i e s i n Canada i n 1983 ( T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l , V a n c o u v e r , Edmonton and Ottawa) a c c o u n t e d f o r l e s s t h a n 35% o f t h e n a t i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n but n e a r l y 70% o f a l l a r t s i n d u s t r y a c t i v i t y . 3 8 3 7 " R e p o r t on A r t s and C u l t u r e " , V a n c o u v e r ' s F u t u r e Toward  The Next M i l l i o n , Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, V a n c o u v e r BC, June 28, 1989, p. 5 3 8 C h a r t r a n d , H a r r y H., "The A r t s and L o c a l Government i n t h e P ost-Modern Economy", R e s e a r c h and E v a l u a t i o n , Canada C o u n c i l , Ottawa ON, May 1987, p. 3 26 B o t h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and p o l i t i c i a n s know v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t t h e economic impact o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s so p l a n n i n g