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Use of the light rail or light rapid transit systems by individuals with severe visual impairments Svendsen, Kathryn Jane 1990

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USE OF THE LIGHT RAIL OR LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS BY INDIVIDUALS WITH SEVERE VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS by KATHRYN JANE SVENDSEN B.Ed, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1984 p. V.I., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1985 A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l Educat i on) F a c u l t y of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1990 ^ K a t h r y n J . Svendsen, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT This study investigated the relationship between use of Light Rapid or Light Rail (LRT) by persons with severe visual impairments and independence in orientation and mobility. Use of the LRT poses special problems to blind users and requires s k i l l in mobility. The premise of the study was that blind persons who felt confident in travelling independently were more likely to use the LRT than those who do not. The study also examined the d i f f i c u l t i e s blind persons experienced in LRT use. The subjects were 63 persons between the ages of 19 and 65 who responded to a survey questionnaire. Thirty five of these individuals were male and 25 were female. All the subjects were registered as legally blind with the C.N.I.B. The range of visual loss included total blindness, light perception, tunnel vision, central vision loss and low vision. The results Indicated that orientation and mobility training on the LRT system would resolve many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that users of the systems encountered. Modification of the systems by transit companies to make the systems more easily accessible to visually Impaired travellers are suggested. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF GRAPHS AND TABLES v DEDICATION v i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 I . The Problem 1 I I . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 I I I . O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y T r a i n i n g . 7 IV. H i s t o r y of the LRT System i n Western Canada 11 CHAPTER TWO: METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN . . . 16 I . The Method 16 I I . The Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 17 I I I . The S u b j e c t s 19 IV. Data A n a l y s i s 26 CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS 27 I. LRT Use 27 I I . Use of Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems 29 I I I . O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y T r a i n i n g . 30 IV. Reasons f o r U s i n g the LRT . . . . 31 V. D i f f i c u l t i e s W i th the LRT 32 V I . Comfort L e v e l s and I n f o r m a t i o n A c c e s s 33 V I I . LRT Non-Use 34 i v CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS 36 I. D i s c u s s i o n 36 I I . L i m i t a t i o n s 39 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 41 I. Summary 41 I I . Recommendations 42 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF TERMS 45 APPENDIX II LETTERS AND SURVEY 48 APPENDIX III FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLES OF TRANSPORTATION METHODS 57 APPENDIX IV ANECDOTAL COMMENTS ABOUT WHAT SUBJECTS LIKED ABOUT THE LRT 59 APPENDIX V ANECDOTAL COMMENTS ABOUT DIFFICULTIES SUBJECTS HAD WITH THE LRT 61 APPENDIX VI OTHER COMMENTS MADE BY SUBJECTS . . . . 64 REFERENCES 66 V Graphs I T a b l e s I. II . III . IV. V. VI . VII . V I I I . IX. X. XI. XII . XIII . XIV. LIST OF GRAPHS AND TABLES Page Number of Male and Female S u b j e c t s by Age and C i t y 20 D i s t r i b u t i o n , Number and Percentage of Responses 19 Types of V i s u a l Impairment of S u b j e c t s . . . 21 V i s u a l Impairment Compared to Age of Onset . 22 Reading Media Used by S u b j e c t s 24 Primary T r a v e l A i d s Used by S u b j e c t s . . . . 25 LRT Use Compared to Age of Subject 28 Frequency of LRT Use 29 How S u b j e c t s Use the LRT 29 LRT Users/Nonusers as R e l a t e d to Bus, T a x i , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Handicapped, and Family and F r i e n d s 30 M o b i l i t y T r a i n i n g of S u b j e c t s 31 S u b j e c t ' s Reasons f o r Usi n g the LRT 32 Comfort in Using the LRT, U n f a m i l i a r S t a t i o n s and New Routes I n v o l v i n g the LRT . 34 Ease of A c c e s s i n g Information . 34 Why S u b j e c t s Were Not Using the LRT 35 vl DEDICATION To the s u b j e c t s , t h e s i s committee members and my husband who a s s i s t e d , encouraged and supported me through each stage of t h i s p r o j e c t . CHAPTER ONE I N T R O D U C T I O N In today's urban soc ie ty , independence, among other things , means being able to work and maintain a soc ia l l i f e without depending on other people in order to travel from one place to another. For the v i s u a l l y impaired person, t h i s often means making use of publ i c t ransporta t ion . In the past ten years, the LRT (Light Rai l or Light Rapid T r a n s i t ) System has become an integral part of publ ic transportat ion systems. Th i s thes i s addresses the problems experienced by severely v i s u a l l y impaired persons in making use of Light Rai l or Light Rapid T r a n s i t . Thi s chapter w i l l Introduce the study, review the l i t e r a t u r e on or i en ta t ion and mobi l i ty and describe the use of Light Rapid and Light Rai l Trans i t Systems. I . THE PROBLEM Independence i s important to v i s u a l l y impaired people. The a b i l i t y to move about f r e e l y , safe ly and comfortably i s a prerequ i s i t e to soc ia l and f i n a n c i a l independence ( P a s s i n i , Dupre and Lang lo i s , 1986). Without the a b i l i t y to move about in one's environment independently, access to gainful employment, recreat ion and medical serv ices i s severely r e s t r i c t e d . Lack of independent mobi l i ty imposes severe l i m i t a t i o n s on a l l aspects of l i v i n g and may even 1 cause health problems (Welsh and Blasch, 1980). F u l l integrat ion into community l i f e i s not poss ible without i t (Resnick, 1983). Orientat ion and mobi l i ty ins truc t ion f a c i l i t a t e s independence by g iv ing the v i s u a l l y Impaired person the s k i l l s he needs to go where he wants, when he wants, without needing to depend on others (Welsh, 1980). In the urban environment, or i enta t ion and mobi l i ty s k i l l s include making use of a l l forms of publ i c t ransporta t ion . Publ i c t r a n s i t i s Important to people l i v i n g in urban areas. Without publ i c t r a n s i t , i t i s not poss ib le to travel within a c i t y unless one can drive a c a r . A b i l i t y to travel alone on publ i c transportat ion systems -inc luding the Light R a i l / R a p i d Trans i t (LRT) i s an important component of independence for v i s u a l l y impaired persons. Dependence on family and fr iends for transportat ion i s not always poss ib le or even feas ib le and does not allow the v i s u a l l y impaired person to be independent. Nor i s i t des irable to r e l y wholly on taxi service which i s very expensive compared to publ i c t r a n s i t . Use of publ i c t r a n s i t has become an important factor in the independence of v i s u a l l y impaired i n d i v i d u a l s . The development of LRT in the urban environment has made movement much f a s t e r . Travel from the o u t s k i r t s of the c i t y takes even less time than t r a v e l i n g the same distance by car (Edmonton Light Rai l Trans i t pamphlet). 2 LRT systems are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p u b l i c t r a n s i t system. Most bus r o u t e s connect with LRT systems. In c i t i e s where new s e c t i o n s of the LRT are b e i n g put i n t o o p e r a t i o n , the bus r o u t e s i n the surrounding area have been changed so that the LRT system and the bus system merge i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d whole. L e a r n i n g to use p u b l i c t r a n s i t Is p a r t of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y (O&M) i s the a b i l i t y t o o r i e n t o n e s e l f to the environment and move f r e e l y , s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h i n that environment ( H i l l and Ponder, 1976). F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems such as buses and how they operate i s an I n t e g r a l p a r t of O&M t r a i n i n g . In automated systems there i s no d r i v e r and few at t e n d a n t s from whom to o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e . Knowing the d i r e c t i o n or d e s t i n a t i o n of incoming t r a i n s sometimes p r e s e n t s problems. Lack of c l e a r markings of the area between the c a r s has r e s u l t e d in s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t s . M i l l e r (1983) I n d i c a t e d that subways ( s i m i l a r to LRT's because of s t a t i o n s e t c . ) can be dangerous f o r v i s u a l l y impaired persons. He noted three i n c i d e n t s where b l i n d t r a v e l e r s have f a l l e n onto the r a i l t r a c k s by s t e p p i n g i n t o the space between the c a r s . Jackson, Peck and Bentzen (1983) d i s c u s s some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that v i s u a l l y impaired people may experience while u s i n g p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as LRTs. In order f o r the v i s u a l l y impaired person to use the system s a f e l y , e f f i c i e n t l y and comfortably, they must be 3 completely f a m i l i a r with the layout of the platforms and where the cars stop, and d i r e c t i o n of oncoming t r a i n s . The hypothesis of t h i s thes is i s that use of the LRT is r e l a t e d to independent t r a v e l . Orientat ion and mobi l i ty t r a i n i n g prepares the severely v i s u a l l y Impaired indiv idual for independent t r a v e l . I I . DEFINITION OF TERMS The fo l lowing terms re la te to the v i s u a l l y impaired person, t h e i r travel techniques and the t r a n s i t system. Orientat ion and M o b i l i t y MOBILITY - The capac i ty , the readiness and the f a c i l i t y to move. The a b i l i t y to move within one's environment (Ponder and H i l l , 1976). ORIENTATION - The process of u t i l i z i n g the remaining senses in e s t a b l i s h i n g one's pos i t i on and r e l a t i o n s h i p to a l l other s i g n i f i c a n t objects in one's environment. C o l l e c t i o n and organizat ion of information concerning the environment and one's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t (Ponder and Hi 11, 1976). ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY TRAINING - The t r a i n i n g of a v i s u a l l y impaired person to use a l l h i s senses to or ient himself and learn to move about in the environment f r e e l y , safe ly and e f f i c i e n t l y , while knowing where he i s in space. 4 CANE TECHNIQUE - Use of a white cane to detect obstacles and drop o f f s (such as curbs and s t a i r s ) in one's path. WHITE CANE (long cane) - A lightweight cane of prescribed length which i s an obstacle detector and environmental sensor for the b l i n d pedestrian. They are t y p i c a l l y white, with a six inch red s t r i p e above the lower t i p , and are longer than an orthopedic cane (Bentzen, Jackson and Peck, 1981). DOG GUIDE - A dog which has been s p e c i a l l y trained to guide a b l i n d person through the environment. The dog i s trained to stop at steps and curbs and guide the b l i n d person around obstacles. SONIC GUIDE - A head mounted device used for the detection of obstacles. The distance from the obstacle can be judged by the sound waves that generate from the device and bounce back from the object. ROUTES - The path one travels to get from one place to another. SIGHTED GUIDE TECHNIQUE - The use of a sighted person as an aid for t r a v e l l i n g . The v i s u a l l y handicapped person grasps h i s guide's arm just above the elbow with a firm yet relaxed grip, and follows about a half step behind the guide. This allows s u f f i c i e n t time to 5 r e a c t to the guide's s t a r t i n g , s t o p p i n g , t u r n i n g or s t e p p i n g up or down CBentzen, Jackson and Peck, 1981). V i s u a l Impairments BLINDNESS - An i n a b i l i t y to see CCassin and Solomon, 1984). LEGAL BLINDNESS - A v i s u a l a c u i t y of 20/200 or l e s s i n the b e t t e r eye a f t e r best p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n or 20 degrees or l e s s remaining of one's v i s u a l f i e l d . 20/200 i n d i c a t e s that what a normally s i g h t e d person can see at 200 f e e t , the l e g a l l y b l i n d person can see at 20 f e e t with the same degree of c l a r i t y . CENTRAL VISION - The d e t e c t i o n of movement or o b j e c t s i n our d i r e c t l i n e of v i s i o n . The c e n t r a l v i s i o n Is the v i s i o n we use to see f i n e d e t a i l and f o r r e a d i n g . TUNNEL VISION - Loss of p e r i p h e r a l f i e l d with the r e t e n t i o n of some degree of c e n t r a l f i e l d ( C a s s i n and Solomon, 1984). PERIPHERAL VISION - The d e t e c t i o n of movement of o b j e c t s not i n the d i r e c t l i n e of v i s i o n . O b j e c t s may not be seen with great c l a r i t y i n the p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n . LIGHT PERCEPTION - The a b i l i t y to d e t e c t the presence or absence of l i g h t . LOW VISION - When impairment i n the v i s u a l system i n t e r f e r e s with normal d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g (Bentzen, Jackson and Peck, 1981). In t h i s document, a l l the s u b j e c t s with low v i s i o n are l e g a l l y b l i n d . 6 T r a n s i t LRT - L i g h t R a p i d or L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t - i n C a l g a r y the system i s known as the C - T r a i n , i n Edmonton as the LRT and i n Vancouver as the S k y t r a i n . INFORMATION SYSTEMS - Announcements, maps and s i g n s u sed by t r a n s i t systems t o i n f o r m the p u b l i c about the system's use. SIGNAGE - A l l maps and s i g n s i n p r i n t e d form. I I I . ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY TRAINING O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g i s the i n s t r u c t i o n v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d p e o p l e r e c e i v e from a q u a l i f i e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r t o l e a r n how t o t r a v e l s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t h r o u g h the environment. T h i s t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e s l e a r n i n g how t o use one's r e m a i n i n g v i s i o n t o look f o r c l u e s and landmarks t h a t i n d i c a t e where one i s i n the environment. I t may a l s o i n c l u d e l e a r n i n g t o use v a r i o u s m o b i l i t y a i d s such as m onoculars t o e n a b l e the v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d p e r s o n t o see s i g n s and t r a f f i c l i g h t s b e t t e r . Use of the w h i t e cane may be taught so t h a t the b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n can d e t e c t o b s t a c l e s i n h i s l i n e of t r a v e l . The use of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s taught so t h a t the v i s u a l l y I mpaired p e r s o n can make use of t h i s system s a f e l y and c o n f i d e n t l y . 7 Many v i s u a l l y impaired people r e c e i v e some type of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . Blasch and Welsh (1980) i n d i c a t e that the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r formal o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e to a l l v i s u a l l y impaired persons. T r a i n i n g Procedures Formal i n s t r u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y begins indoors. The need and depth of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g d i f f e r s a c c o r d i n g to the degree of v i s i o n an i n d i v i d u a l has. The use of the "long" or "white" cane i s taught to t o t a l l y b l i n d persons. The cane i s used as an o b s t a c l e d e t e c t o r . Some i n d i v i d u a l s with l i m i t e d v i s i o n may not r e q u i r e a cane and those with some v i s i o n are taught to use t h e i r v i s i o n to a s s i s t them i n t r a v e l . T r a i n i n g f o r these i n d i v i d u a l s may a l s o Include use of a monocular Indoors and outdoors, route t r a i n i n g , use of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and d e v e l o p i n g awareness of when a s s i s t a n c e may be needed. V i s u a l s k i l l s to be developed i n c l u d e l o o k i n g f o r c l u e s i n the environment such as shapes and shadows which can help to i d e n t i f y s t a i r s and curbs, where to l o c a t e s t r e e t l i g h t s , walk/don't walk s i g n a l s and t r a f f i c l i g h t s (Anna B r a d f i e l d , personal communication). The s i g h t e d guide technique i s u s u a l l y the f i r s t stage of t r a i n i n g f o r the t o t a l l y b l i n d person. T h i s technique enables the v i s u a l l y impaired person to r e c e i v e s i g h t e d a s s i s t a n c e i n a comfortable, s a f e manner. In many 8 environments such as up and down s t a i r s , through doors, i n e l e v a t o r s and narrow passages, s i g h t e d guide technique i s used as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to independent t r a v e l . The use of the cane begins with indoor m o b i l i t y . It i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g to use the touch and diagonal cane techniques. B l i n d persons l e a r n how to navigate s t a i r s , doors, e l e v a t o r s , e s c a l a t o r s , and crowded environments. Outdoor t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e s i n s t r u c t i o n with the cane to I d e n t i f y roadways, sidewalks, roads without sidewalks, and s t r e e t c r o s s i n g s on both low and high t r a f f i c s t r e e t s (Ponder and H i l l , 1976). The s i g h t e d guide technique i s sometimes taught c o n c u r r e n t l y with long cane. The sequence in which these s k i l l s are taught i s determined by the needs of I n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . The m o b i l i t y s k i l l s that are e a s i e s t to a c q u i r e are Introduced f i r s t ; complex s k i l l s f o l l o w i n order to a l l o w the student to experience s u c c e s s . M o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g i s p r e s e n t e d i n an o r g a n i z e d and l o g i c a l manner (Crouse, 1980). Cane techniques are u s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d and p r a c t i c e d u n t i l the m o b i l i t y student i s able to t r a v e l s a f e l y a l o n e . The student becomes comfortable with cane technique b e f o r e route t r a i n i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d (Pete Wurzburger, personal communication). O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y s k i l l s or t r a v e l t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e s p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s and each s k i l l and technique must be taught and p r a c t i c e d . By the time the m o b i l i t y student Is competent 9 in a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l , he wi11 have a l s o l e a r n e d to be independent in at l e a s t one simple r o u t e . Use of P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Bus and LRT t r a i n i n g are important components of t r a v e l t r a i n i n g . M o b i l i t y s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be taught the l o c a t i o n of bus s t o p s , w e l l - d e f i n e d r o u t e s from t h e i r homes to the bus stop and a w e l l - d e f i n e d route from a bus stop to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . M o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g on L i g h t R a i l / R a p i d T r a n s i t systems i s complex. Chew and Manzer (1986) i n d i c a t e d that s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n on the use of the LRT i s r e q u i r e d i n order to use the system e f f i c i e n t l y , s a f e l y and c o m f o r t a b l y . The i n d i v i d u a l must know the l o c a t i o n of the s t a t i o n , and be f a m i l i a r with i t ' s l a y o u t . The d i r e c t i o n s i n which t r a i n s are t r a v e l i n g and the l o c a t i o n of the open doors are e s s e n t i a l . For example, t r a i n doors do not open d i r e c t l y in f r o n t of b l i n d persons as o f t e n happens with bus t r a v e l (Chew and Manzer, 1986). The a b i l i t y to l o c a t e the d e s i r e d stop and r e o r i e n t o n e s e l f a f t e r g e t t i n g o f f the LRT must a l s o be taught (Jackson, Peck and Bentzen, 1983). B l i n d and v i s u a l l y impaired t r a v e l e r s s h o u l d a l s o know how to seek a s s i s t a n c e i f i t i s r e q u i r e d , how to p r o t e c t themselves from o v e r z e a l o u s s i g h t e d h e l p e r s and how to r e o r i e n t themselves i f they s h o u l d become l o s t (Ponder and H i l l , 1976). 10 It i s a sad f a c t that the m a j o r i t y of v i s u a l l y impaired a d u l t s have not r e c e i v e d a complete course of m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 School-aged c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n at s c h o o l . Some school d i s t r i c t s have teac h e r s of the v i s u a l l y impaired, who a l s o are c e r t i f i e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r s . Other school d i s t r i c t s c o n t r a c t with p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t o r s to p r o v i d e students with m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . There has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on independent LRT system use. It i s hoped that the present study w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the knowledge of the use of L i g h t R a i l / R a p i d T r a n s i t by persons with severe v i s u a l impairments and an understanding of the problems they encounter. LRT systems need t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to make LRT t r a v e l e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to these i n d i v i d u a l s . IV. HISTORY OF THE LRT SYSTEM IN WESTERN CANADA The LRT, f o r m a l l y known as L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t ( A l b e r t a ) or L i g h t Rapid T r a n s i t ( B r i t i s h Columbia) has . been i n o p e r a t i o n i n Western Canada s i n c e 1978. P l a n n i n g f o r the system was underway f o r at l e a s t a decade. 1 I n the Vancouver area, approximately 260 C.N.I.B. c l i e n t s r e c e i v e o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n i n a year. Many of these c l i e n t s are repeat c l i e n t s . Four m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r s c a r r y out t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n . There are approximately 5000 r e g i s t e r e d v i s u a l l y impaired people l i v i n g i n t h i s area (Jay Wadsworth, personal commun i cat i on). 11 The f i r s t system to go into operation was in Edmonton, which opened a 7.2 kilometre track in 1978. The system had three ground level s ta t ions and two underground s t a t i o n s . In 1981 a 2.2 kilometre extension was completed. This s ta t ion was ground l e v e l . The t h i r d extension to be completed on t h i s system was 0.9 ki lometres long. Two downtown s ta t ions were b u i l t underground. Present ly , the South LRT extension i s being constructed, with the opening date of the f i r s t s ta t ion in September of 1989 and the second s ta t ion In August, 1992. This addi t ion cons i s t s of an addi t iona l 2.5 ki lometres of t rack , with both s ta t ions underground. Once these extensions are completed, Edmonton w i l l have a tota l of 10 s ta t ions in s e r v i c e , 12.8 ki lometres of t rack . In Calgary, a long term project i s planned with an LRT system eventual ly to consist of 6 l i n e s . It i s to be a r a d i a l system, which i s centered at the downtown core . At present, three of these l ines are in operat ion. In 1981 a 12.5 kilometre track was opened to service the southern port ion of Calgary. A l l s ta t ions are at ground l e v e l . In 1985, the Northeast l ine was opened. This extension i s 9.8 ki lometres long. It runs from the northeast sect ion of Calgary, to the downtown core . The t h i r d l ine to be completed was the Northwest l ine - 5.5 ki lometres of t rack , from the Univers i ty of Calgary, to the downtown core . To date, Calgary has 19 s ta t ions in s e r v i c e , a tota l of 27.8 ki lometres of t rack . 12 While A l b e r t a ' s LRT systems run at or below ground l e v e l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia's system i s an e l e v a t e d , automated system. C o n s t r u c t i o n on t h i s computer-driven system began in May, 1981 and the system was Inaugurated i n December, 1985 with 22 k i l o m e t r e s of t r a c k and 15 s t a t i o n s . T h i s system operates from downtown Vancouver, through Burnaby and New Westminster. An a d d i t i o n a l 3.1 k i l o m e t r e s of t r a c k Is due to be completed i n 1990. T h i s w i l l g i v e the Lower Mainland of B.C. a t o t a l of 17 s t a t i o n s , s e r v i n g four d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s are bei n g planned to connect Richmond and Coquitlam to Vancouver. Both A l b e r t a and B.C. have b a r r i e r f r e e , p r o o f - o f payment f a r e c o l l e c t i o n systems. P e r i o d i c a l l y a t r a n s i t worker w i l l request the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r i d e r ' s bus t i c k e t . F i n e s are given to v i o l a t o r s . Passengers may purchase t h e i r t i c k e t s from t i c k e t d i s p e n s e r s / v a l i d a t o r s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the s t a t i o n s or c a r r y a monthly pass. The t r a i n s used i n Edmonton's LRT system and C a l g a r y ' s C - T r a i n were made i n Germany. They are powered by e l e c t r i c i t y which i s accessed by overhead w i r e s . They have a s e c t i o n of wal1 i n the middle of the car which can bend l i k e an a c c o r d i a n , a l l o w i n g the car to move more e a s i l y around c o r n e r s . They a l s o have e n c l o s e d d r i v e r ' s cabs at both ends. Passengers gain access to the c a r s by pushing a button l o c a t e d to the s i d e of the door. From the i n s i d e , the button i s l o c a t e d on a po l e in the center of the 13 doorway. The door button i s l o c a t e d about f i v e f e e t from the f l o o r . Some of the p o l e s have been adapted f o r wheelchair u s e r s by bending the p o l e below the door button so that the lower p o r t i o n of the p o l e Is l o c a t e d to one s i d e of the doorway. The upper p o r t i o n of the door p o l e remains i n the c e n t r e of the doorway. There are 8 doors per c a r ; four on each s i d e of the c a r . A l l doors are i n d i v i d u a l l y operated, with a l o c k i n g system c o n t r o l l e d by the d r i v e r which e l i m i n a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of someone opening the door on the wrong s i d e of the c a r . Vancouver's system, c a l l e d the S k y t r a i n , i s operated from a c e n t r a l computer c e n t e r . There are no d r i v e r s on these v e h i c l e s . The power supply i s l o c a t e d on the s i d e of the v e h i c l e , below p l a t f o r m l e v e l . These high v o l t a g e w i r e s are kept as f a r away from the p u b l i c as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , the l i n e s are always found on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the t r a c k s , away from the p l a t f o r m . Passengers gain access to S k y t r a i n by pushing a button l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r e of each set of double doors. These doors s l i d e open. I n s i d e , the buttons which open the doors are l o c a t e d at hand h e i g h t , on each of four p o l e s , b eside the doors. Doors are l o c a t e d on both s i d e s of the c a r , with a t o t a l of e i g h t doors per two-car t r a i n . Only the doors on the p l a t f o r m s i d e of the car w i l l open. The o t h e r s remain locked. Before doors c l o s e , there i s a warning tone. 1 4 D i f f e r e n t methods are used by the L i g h t R a i l / R a p i d T r a n s i t systems to p r o v i d e t r a n s i t u s e r s with Information about how to use the system. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s : d i r e c t i o n s of the incoming t r a i n s , route i n f o r m a t i o n , which s t a t i o n the t r a i n i s a r r i v i n g at and which p l a t f o r m to use. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d ln a number of ways. Some companies use a u d i t o r y announcements and a v a r i e t y of s i g n s , well l i t maps p l a c e d behind g l a s s , I l l u m i n a t e d s i g n s and f l a s h i n g L i g h t E m i t t i n g Diode (LED) s i g n s . The present study w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between use of LRT systems by s e v e r e l y v i s u a l l y Impaired a d u l t s and independence in o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y . Chapter Two w i l l d e s c r i b e the methodology employed and the s u b j e c t s of the study. 15 CHAPTER TWO  METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN T h i s chapter e x p l a i n s the method that was used to conduct the study and how i t was designed. I. THE METHOD A survey was conducted among v i s u a l l y impaired r e s i d e n t s of Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver. One hundred and f i f t y s u rveys were sent out to a random sample of f i f t y people i n each c i t y . O f f i c e s of the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d in each c i t y sent the author's survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e to r e g i s t e r e d , l e g a l l y b l i n d i n d i v i d u a l s , between the ages of 19 and 65 l i v i n g in t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . S i x t y three responses were o b t a i n e d . The re s e a r c h e r had no access t o c o n f i d e n t i a l r e c o r d s . The sample was randomized by having the C.N.I.B. number t h e i r c l i e n t s who were between the ages of 19 and 65. Then, 150 numbers (50 f o r each c i t y ) were chosen from a t a b l e of random numbers. The surveys were sent to those i n d i v i d u a l s whose numbers were chosen from the t a b l e . The surveys were p r i n t e d i n large p r i n t , although some s u b j e c t respondents would need a s s i s t a n c e r e a d i n g the p r i n t . The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of b r a i l l e r e a d e r s , lar g e p r i n t r e a d e r s , and nonreaders. (Regular p r i n t r e a d e r s presumably used v i s i o n a i d s . ) 16 The survey instrument was developed and r e f i n e d with the a s s i s t a n c e of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and b l i n d a d u l t s . Three o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and one b l i n d person a s s i s t e d i n the development of the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s were requested t o complete the survey and r e t u r n i t l n the en c l o s e d , stamped envelope. The surveys were m a i l e d i n e a r l y to mid-December. A f o l l o w up l e t t e r was a l s o sent (see Appendix I I ) . No names were used and correspondence was handled by three j u r i s d i c t i o n s of the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d . None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were known to the r e s e a r c h e r . I I . THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE The q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix II) c o n s i s t e d of two s e c t i o n s , S e c t i o n 1 - Research Data; S e c t i o n 2 - Subject Data. There were nineteen q u e s t i o n s i n S e c t i o n 1 and seven q u e s t i o n s i n S e c t i o n 2. S u b j e c t s were asked to answer only those q u e s t i o n s which p e r t a i n e d to them. S e c t i o n 1 c o n s i s t e d of three p a r t s . P a r t 1 encompassed q u e s t i o n s 1 to 9, d e a l i n g with method of t r a v e l - s i g h t e d guide, long cane, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cane, dog guide as w e l l as secondary t r a v e l a i d s such as a d i s t a n c e monocular or e l e c t r o n i c t r a v e l a i d . Questions r e g a r d i n g use of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - buses, t a x i s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the handicapped, the LRT and f a m i l y and f r i e n d s were i n c l u d e d . L a s t l y , the s u b j e c t s were asked i f they had 17 formal o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g and i f they d i d , d i d i t i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n on the LRT. Pa r t 2 of the r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s 10-17. Only those I n d i v i d u a l s who used the LRT, no matter how i n f r e q u e n t l y , were asked to respond t o t h i s s e c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n s examined whether the s u b j e c t s used the LRT system alone, with a s s i s t a n c e when needed or only with the a s s i s t a n c e of a s i g h t e d person. The i n s t a n c e s in which the s u b j e c t s used the LRT and how comfortable they were u s i n g i t , how comfortable they were i n u n f a m i l i a r s t a t i o n s and i n u s i n g new r o u t e s as w e l l as the ease with which they c o u l d access the i n f o r m a t i o n systems - e.g. maps and s i g n s , were examined. Questions were a l s o p r o v i d e d i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a t e any d i f f i c u l t i e s they encountered, as well as what they l i k e d about the LRT. Pa r t 3 of the r e s e a r c h s e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of two q u e s t i o n s <18 and 19) which were to be answered by those i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d not use the LRT, i n order t o i d e n t i f y reasons f o r non-use such as lack of t r a i n i n g , l t d i d not go where they wanted, the system was too d i f f i c u l t to access or bad e x p e r i e n c e s i n i t s use. S e c t i o n 2 - Subject Data, sought i n f o r m a t i o n about s u b j e c t s age, the age of onset of t h e i r v i s u a l impairment, the medium they used t o read, degree of v i s u a l impairment, a d d i t i o n a l handicaps and J u r i s d i c t i o n i n which they r e s i d e d . 18 I I I . THE SUBJECTS A t o t a l of 143 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d - 44.1 percent were r e t u r n e d <150 were sent, but 7 were not r e c e i v e d ) . Nineteen of 46 (41.3 pe r c e n t ) surveys were r e t u r n e d from C a l g a r y , 23 of 48 (47.9 percent) surveys were r e t u r n e d from Edmonton, and 21 of 49 (43.8 p e r c e n t ) surveys were r e t u r n e d from Vancouver. Table I shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n and responses to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the three c i t i e s . T able I: D i s t r i b u t i o n . Number and Percentage of Responses T o t a l Surveys Reaching Surveys C i t y P a r t i c i p a n t s Answered Percent Mal es Percent Females Calgary 46 19 Edmonton 48 23 Vancouver 49 21 57.9 60.9 47.6 42.1 39.1 52.4 T o t a l 143 63 55.6 44.4 T h i r t y f i v e (55.6 pe r c e n t ) of the respondents were male and 28 (44.4 pe r c e n t ) of the respondents were female. The 30-39 year age group was the l a r g e s t age grouping, f o l l o w e d by the 60-65 year group and the 40-49 year age group. The f o u r t h l a r g e s t group was the 50 59 year group. The s m a l l e s t age group r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample was the 19-29 year group. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of ages f o r the e n t i r e respondent group i s presented i n Graph I. 19 Graph 1 Numbers of Female and Male Subjects, in the Response Group, Broken Down by Age a n d Ci ty Age Range (years) Calgary H i Edmonton DUD Vancouver Types of Visual Impairments Subjects indicated degree of v isual impairment from 5 categor ies . These were: a) t o t a l l y b l i n d , b) l ight percept ion, c) tunnel v i s i o n , d) peripheral v i s i o n only and e) general low v i s i o n . There were 9 t o t a l l y b l i n d subjects (14.5 percent) , 3 subjects (4.8 percent) with l ight perception only , 16 subjects (25.4 percent) with tunnel v i s i o n , 7 subjects (11.1 percent) with a central v i s i o n loss and 27 subjects (43.5 percent) who c l a s s i f i e d the i r v i s i o n as low v i s i o n . The largest category was low v i s i o n ; ind iv idua l s with l ight perception only , comprised the smallest category. Table II Indicates the number and percent of types of v i sual impairments of respondents. Table l i t Types of Visual Impairments of Subjects Impairment Calgary Edmonton Vancouver Total Percent T o t a l l y B l i n d 3 1 5 9 14.5 Light Perception 2 0 1 3 4.8 Tunnel V i s i o n 5 6 5 16 25.4 Peripheral V i s ion only 2 4 1 7 11.1 Low V i s i o n 7 12 8 27 43.5 T o t a l s : 19 23 20 62* *The number of subjects do not agree with the previous tota l of subjects , as one subject (1.6 percent) from the Vancouver area d id not complete the question on h i s v isual impairment. Aae of Onset Twenty eight subjects or 44.4 percent were v i s u a l l y impaired at b i r t h . Congenital bl indness was the largest 21 category. Most advent i t ious ly b l inded subjects became v i s u a l l y impaired in adulthood. Twenty f ive subjects (39.7 percent) were b l inded af ter the age of 19. Eight subjects (12.7 percent) were b l inded between the ages of 6 and 18. The fewest number of subjects were b l inded in ear ly childhood (one to f ive years ) . Only 2 subjects lost the ir v i s i o n at t h i s age. Of the three c i t y centres , the Calgary group had the largest percentage of people with congenital v isual impairments at b i r t h . The Vancouver group had the largest percentage of age of onset in adulthood. There was no p a r t i c u l a r pattern of types of v isual impairments at p a r t i c u l a r ages of onset. Table III shows the types of v isual impairment and age of onset data . Table I I I : Visual Impairment Compared to Aae of Onset Age of Visual Degree of 1 Number of Impairment Onset Visual Impairment Subjects Percent at b i r t h t o t a l l y b l i n d 4 14.2 1ight percept ion 1 3.6 tunnel v i s i o n 8 28.6 peripheral vison only 1 3.6 low vison 14 50.0 1 - 5 years tota l 1y b l i n d 1 50.0 low vison 1 50.0 6 - 1 8 years tunnel v i s i o n 2 25.0 peripheral vison only 3 37.5 low vison 3 37.5 adu1thood t o t a l l y b l i n d 3 12.0 1ight perception 2 8.0 tunnel v i s i o n 6 24.0 peripheral vison only 3 12.0 low vison 11 44.0 22 A d d i t i o n a l Handicaps Twenty two s u b j e c t s <34.9 per c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d that they had other handicaps. These handicaps were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , speech impairment, h e a r i n g l o s s , r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y and o t h e r . If the s u b j e c t chose the category of "other", they were requested to i n d i c a t e what the d i s a b i l i t y was. Ten i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d having a p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g v i s u a l l y Impaired. Two s u b j e c t s had a speech impairment and s i x r e p o r t e d h e a r i n g l o s s . One of these I n d i v i d u a l s was pro f o u n d l y deaf. F i v e s u b j e c t s had r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and seven i n d i c a t e d d i s a b i l i t i e s in the "other" category. Of the 22 s u b j e c t s with a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , 5 had 2 handicaps i n a d d i t i o n t o v i s u a l impairment, one had three a d d i t i o n a l handicaps and one i n d i v i d u a l had four a d d i t i o n a l handicaps. Reading Media, It was important to know the r e a d i n g media of s u b j e c t s . Methods of r e a d i n g were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : b r a i l l e , l a r g e p r i n t , r e g u l a r p r i n t , audio tape ( c a s s e t t e ) and o t h e r . Some s u b j e c t s used a combination of these media to access i n f o r m a t i o n . Eleven s u b j e c t s (17.5 percent) used b r a i l l e , and 28 (44.4 percent) used lar g e p r i n t . Twenty s u b j e c t s or 31.7 percent used r e g u l a r p r i n t , 17 (27.0 per c e n t ) used audio tapes and 10 s u b j e c t s (15.9 perc e n t ) used other means. Seventeen s u b j e c t s used a 23 combination of two r e a d i n g media, and two s u b j e c t s used 4 d i f f e r e n t m edia. 2 Four s u b j e c t s (6.56 percent) i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not read. Table IV i n d i c a t e s the method of r e a d i n g employed. Table IV; Reading Media Used bv S u b j e c t s Reading Media Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l # % # % # % # % B r a i 1 l e 6 31 .6 1 4.3 4 19.0 11 17 .5 Large P r i n t 9 47 .4 11 47.8 8 38.1 28 44 .4 Regular P r i n t 7 36 .8 8 34.8 5 23.8 20 31 .7 Tape 7 36 .8 4 17.4 6 28.6 17 27 .0 Other (inapprop.) 1 5 .3 2 8.7 3 14.3 6 9 .5 Other (nonreader) 1 5 .3 1 4.3 2 9.5 4 6 .3 Other responses i n c l u d e d under "other" was that s u b j e c t s read with the a i d of m a g n i f i e r s , s p e c i a l g l a s s e s , g l a s s e s or i n d i c a t e d that they c o u l d not read small p r i n t . These respondents d i d not i n d i c a t e whether they read r e g u l a r p r i n t or lar g e p r i n t . M obl1itv Techniques The t r a v e l a i d s the s u b j e c t s used was examined. S i x persons (9.5 percent) I n d i c a t e d that they used a s i g h t e d guide as t h e i r primary method of t r a v e l . S i x (9.5 p e r c e n t ) used a white cane with touch technique. Ten (15.9 p e r c e n t ) used the cane f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o n l y . Four persons (6.4 p e r c e n t ) used a dog guide and 28 people (44.4 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not use an a i d at a l l . Nine 2 S i x of the s u b j e c t s that answered with the category of "other" chose t h i s category i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y , or d i d not i n d i c a t e what the other r e a d i n g medium was. 24 respondents (14.3 percent) answered in the "other" c a t e g o r y . Answers in t h i s category were to be accompanied with t h e i r primary t r a v e l a i d . Other responses i n d i c a t e d use of "handibus, f a m i l y d r i v e s me, r i d e s i n c a r s " . Table V shows the types of t r a v e l a i d s used in each of the 3 c i t i e s . T able V; Primary T r a v e l A i d s Used Bv S u b j e c t s A i d Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l Percent S i g h t e d Guide 3 1 2 6 9.5 White Cane 3 1 2 6 9.5 ID Cane 4 3 3 10 15.9 Dog Guide 1 1 2 4 6.4 No A i d 6 14 8 28 44.4 Other 2 3 4 9 14.3 T o t a l s : 19 23 21 63 100.0 Of the 26 i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d use a t r a v e l a i d , (category "other" was not Included) 10 persons (38.5 p e r c e n t ) used only one a i d . Four persons i n d i c a t e d that they used d i s t a n c e monoculars and one I n d i v i d u a l used an e l e c t r o n i c t r a v e l a i d . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l used a s o n i c guide. Eleven respondents (42.3 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d that they used other secondary a i d s . Items that were i n c l u d e d were t r i p l e b i f o c a l g l a s s e s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cane, cane and s i g h t e d guide. Vancouver had the h i g h e s t percentage (80.9) of people who used only one type of t r a v e l a i d . Calgary had the h i g h e s t percentage (33.3) of people who used more than one t r a v e l a i d . Two i n d i v i d u a l s d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s quest i o n . 25 I n d i v i d u a l s who i n d i c a t e d they had other handicaps b e s i d e s a v i s i o n l o s s used many types of t r a v e l a i d s such as cane, s i g h t e d guide, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cane. Personal a s s i s t a n c e , r i d e s in c a r s , f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s , scope and handibus were a l s o l i s t e d as modes of t r a v e l . These forms of a s s i s t a n c e i n d i c a t e that those i n d i v i d u a l s are dependent on o t h e r s . IV. DATA ANALYSIS A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used to measure s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c r i t i c a l value f o r c h i was taken at the .05 l e v e l . The chi - s q u a r e t e s t was used i n the comparison of the LRT and other methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n the comparison of LRT use and p r i o r o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n , and to compare d i f f e r e n c e s i n comfort l e v e l s in LRT use between those s u b j e c t s who had r e c e i v e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g and those who d i d not. D e s c r i p t i v e data are pre s e n t e d on the s u b j e c t ' s use of t r a v e l a i d s , frequency of LRT use, o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g and reasons f o r u s i n g or not u s i n g the LRT. The r e s u l t s are pre s e n t e d i n frequency t a b l e s . 26 CHAPTER THREE RESULTS. T h i s study demonstrated that independent t r a v e l e r s make use of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , I n c l u d i n g the LRT. The data demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between: 1. LRT Use and Age of Subject 2. LRT Use and Bus Use. I. LRT USE T h i r t y e i g h t s u b j e c t s were LRT u s e r s : 6 (15.8 per c e n t ) used i t 5 days per week, 6 (15.8 percent) used l t 2 - 4 days per week, 2 persons used l t at l e a s t 1 day per week and 24 (63.1 percent) used i t l e s s than one day per week. Twenty f i v e s u b j e c t s d i d not use LRT systems. Twenty (52.6 percent) of the LRT-using s u b j e c t s were In the 20-39 year age grouping. The remaining 18 (47.4 percent) were i n the 40-65 year age range. T h i s i s in c o n t r a s t to the non-users. S i x (25 percent) of the nonusers were i n the 20-39 year age group and 18 (75 per c e n t ) were i n the 40-65 year age group. S i g n i f i c a n t l y more s u b j e c t s in the 20-39 age range made use of the LRT. The age at which the s u b j e c t a c q u i r e d a v i s u a l l o s s was not s i g n i f i c a n t , w h i l e age was a 27 s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in LRT use. Table VI compares the age of the s u b j e c t with LRT use. Table VI; LRT Use Compared to Aae of Subject LRT Use Yes No Ch i-square Age: 20-39 40-65 20 18 6 18 4.69 <.05* * S t a t i s t l e a l 1y s i g n i f i c a n t at = .05 l e v e l . In C a l g a r y , 12 (63.2 pe r c e n t ) s u b j e c t s used the LRT system i n f r e q u e n t l y - l e s s than one day per week. Three s u b j e c t s (15.8 percent) used the system at l e a s t one day per week or more; 4 persons (21.0 percent) d i d not use the system at a l 1 . In Edmonton, 12 s u b j e c t s used the system. Three s u b j e c t s used the system at l e a s t once a week, 9 s u b j e c t s used the system i n f r e q u e n t l y and almost h a l f (47.8 percent or 11 persons) d i d not use the LRT system. The s i t u a t i o n was much the same in Vancouver as i t was in Edmonton. Ten of twenty one respondents (47.6 pe r c e n t ) d i d not use S k y t r a i n . E i g h t persons (38.1 pe r c e n t ) used the system a minimum of once a week and 3 persons used i t l e s s than once a week. Table VII shows the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of LRT use f o r C a l g a r y , Edmonton and Vancouver. 28 Table V I I : Frequency of LRT Use Frequency Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s Percent 5 days/week 1 2 3 6 9.5 2-4 days/week 1 1 4 6 9.5 1 day/week 1 0 1 2 3.2 < 1 day/week 12 9 3 24 38.1 never 4 11 10 25 39.7 T o t a l s : 19 23 21 63 100.0 Twenty one s u b j e c t s (55.3 percent) r e p o r t e d that they used the system alone without a s s i s t a n c e ; 7 s u b j e c t s <18.4 percent) used the system with a s s i s t a n c e when needed; 3 people used the system only with the a s s i s t a n c e of a s i g h t e d person. Seven respondents <18.4 percent) d i d not answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . The reasons why they d i d not answer are unknown. Table VIII shows the number of respondents who used the system independently and with a s s i s t a n c e . Table V I I I : How S u b j e c t s Use the LRT Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l Percent no a s s i s t . 9 7 5 21 55.3 a s s i s t , when needed 2 2 3 7 18.4 only with a s s i s t . 1 0 2 3 7.9 no response 3 3 1 7 18.4 T o t a l s : 15 12 11 38 100.0 I I . USE OF OTHER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS A l l LRT u s e r s made use of the bus system. The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e that LRT use and bus use are r e l a t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between use of t a x i s , handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . 29 S u b j e c t s were as l i k e l y to make use of these other methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n whether or not they used the LRT. Table IX compares LRT use to bus, t a x i , handicapped t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ( f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) . The f i g u r e s are r e p o r t e d i n terms of LRT Users and LRT Nonusers and whether or not they used the other methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Handicapped. and Fami1v and F r i e n d s Yes LRT Use No Chi--square Bus Use: Yes No 38 0 16 9 16.4 <.05* Taxi Use: Yes No 25 13 14 10 .4 >.05 Handicapped T r a n s p o r t . : Yes No 9 27 7 18 .06 >.05 Family & F r i e n d s Yes No 31 7 21 4 .04 >.05 ^ S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at = .05 l e v e l . The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of the other methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be found i n Appendix I I I . I I I . ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY TRAINING Of s i x t y three respondents to the survey, 21 (33.3 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d that they had r e c e i v e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . F o r t y two respondents (66.7 percent) i n d i c a t e d that they had not. Table X shows the number of respondents who r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g . 30 Table X: M o b i l i t y T r a i n i n g of S u b j e c t s C i t y T r a i n i n g Not Received T r a i n i n g Received Percentage R e c e i v i n g T r a i n i n g Calgary Edmonton Vancouver 14 15 13 5 8 8 26.3 39.1 38.1 T o t a l : 42 21 33.3 No s u b j e c t had r e c e i v e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g on the LRT. One i n d i v i d u a l i n d i c a t e d that he would be g e t t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n soon. S i x t e e n of 38 LRT u s e r s (42.1 percent) and 8 LRT nonusers had r e c e i v e d p r i o r o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n . S u b j e c t s used the LRT f o r many d i f f e r e n t reasons. Twenty one subects gave two or more reasons f o r u s i n g the LRT. F i v e (13.1 pe r c e n t ) used l t f o r going to work; 16 (42.1 p e r c e n t ) f o r shopping; 25 (65.8 pe r c e n t ) f o r r e c r e a t i o n or v i s i t i n g ; 8 i n d i v i d u a l s (21.0 pe r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d they used the LRT f o r d o c t o r ' s appointments, u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s , going to church, bank or C.N.I.B. Table XI shows reasons f o r the use of LRT. S u b j e c t s were requested to I n d i c a t e what they l i k e d about the LRT system in t h e i r c i t y . (Comments are l i s t e d i n Appendix IV.) The most common r e p l y was that LRT systems are f a s t . S u b j e c t s a l s o r e p o r t e d they l i k e d the IV. REASONS FOR USING THE LRT 31 Table XI; S u b j e c t s ' Reasons f o r Using the LRT Percent Reason Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l of 38 going to work 2 1 2 5 13.1 going shopping 9 2 5 16 42.1 r e c r e a t i o n or v i s i t i n g 8 8 9 25 65.8 other 5 2 1 8 21.0 T o t a l : 24(n=15) 13(n=12) 17(n=ll) 54(n=38) o r a l announcements at each s t a t i o n , c o u r t esy of the p e r s o n n e l , frequent and r e l i a b l e s e r v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e that i s a v a i l a b l e i f r e q u i r e d , and the LRT's a c c e s s i b i l i t y . V. DIFFICULTIES WITH THE LRT S u b j e c t s were asked to s t a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s they e x p e r i e n c e d with the LRT systems. These d i f f i c u l t i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o 2 c a t e g o r i e s : s t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s and t r a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . S t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s Included: knowing d e s t i n a t i o n s of t r a i n s coming i n t o the s t a t i o n , dim or no l i g h t i n g f o r s t a i r w e l l s , i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of some s t a t i o n s , i n a b i l i t y to read s i g n s with f l a s h i n g LED readouts , o b s t a c l e s on the p l a t f o r m s , and s t a t i o n l a y o u t . D i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d to the t r a i n i n c l u d e d : wrong s t a t i o n announcements or lack of announcements, u n c l e a r announcements, f i n d i n g t r a i n doors and door buttons, the t r a i n door opening where there was no p l a t f o r m , and d i f f i c u l t i e s with the post i n the ce n t r e of the door ( e s p e c i a l l y when the p o l e s have been adapted f o r wheelchair a c c e s s ) . Spaces between the c a r s can be mistaken f o r door 32 opening and the doors c l o s e too q u i c k l y . (See Appendix V f o r a complete l i s t of anecdotal comments on subjects'' d i f f i c u l t i e s with the LRT t r a i n s and s t a t i o n s . ) VI. COMFORT LEVELS AND INFORMATION ACCESS The four remaining q u e s t i o n s f o r LRT u s e r s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the survey d e a l t with t h e i r comfort i n u s i n g the LRT, t h e i r comfort ln u s i n g u n f a m i l i a r s t a t i o n s , t h e i r comfort i n u s i n g new r o u t e s i n v o l v i n g the LRT and how easy the i n f o r m a t i o n systems were to acc e s s . T h i r t y one s u b j e c t s responded to the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g "comfort in u s i n g the LRT". S u b j e c t s were asked whether they f e l t comfortable u s i n g u n f a m i l i a r LRT s t a t i o n s or new r o u t e s i n v o l v i n g the LRT. S i x t e e n s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable u s i n g u n f a m i l i a r s t a t i o n s and 15 s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d that they were "uncomfortable" or "very uncomfortable" u s i n g new r o u t e s . F i f t y percent of those who answered the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the ease with which they c o u l d access i n f o r m a t i o n systems i n d i c a t e d that i t was easy, w h i l e 50 percent i n d i c a t e d that i t was d i f f i c u l t or very d i f f i c u l t . The responses to these q u e s t i o n s can be seen i n Table XII and X I I I . 33 Table X I I ; Comfort i n Using the LRT. U n f a m i l i a r S t a t i o n s and New Routes I n v o l v i n g the LRT Cal . Edm. Van . T o t a l Percent LRT Use: very com. 3 6 3 12 38.7 comfortable 6 1 5 12 38.7 uncomfortable 2 2 2 6 19.4 very uncom. 1 0 0 1 3.2 Unfami 1 i a r very com. 0 0 1 1 3.2 Stat i o n s : comfortable 5 6 3 14 45.2 uncomfortable 5 2 5 11 35.5 very uncom. 3 1 1 5 16.1 New Routes: very com. 1 0 1 2 6.9 comfortable 5 6 1 12 41.4 uncomfortable 4 2 7 13 44.8 very uncom. 2 0 0 2 6.9 Table X I I I : Ease of A c c e s s i n g Informat ion Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l Percent very easy 0 0 0 0 0.0 easy 6 4 4 14 50.0 d i f f i c u l t 4 2 3 9 32.1 very d i f f i c u l t 2 2 1 5 17.9 T o t a l s * : 12 8 8 28 100.0 *Three responses were not r e c e i v e d from C a l g a r y , four from Edmonton and two from Vancouver. One person from Vancouver i n d i c a t e d that t h i s q u e s t i o n was not a p p l i c a b l e to them. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e p o r t e d l e v e l of comfort with LRT use and p r i o r o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . V I I . LRT NON-USE S u b j e c t s who d i d not use the LRT were asked why they d i d not use i t and i f they had t r i e d to use i t . T h i r t e e n of these s u b j e c t s <52.0 per c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d that they d i d not use the LRT because i t d i d not go where they wanted to 34 go. The remaining 12 people (48.0 percent) d i d not use the LRT because i t was e i t h e r too d i f f i c u l t to use or they had not r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n on i t ' s use. Other reasons i n c l u d e d b e i n g d r i v e n by f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s , they l i v e d in a h o s p i t a l , lack of need, or u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of the LRT in the area of the c i t y where they l i v e d . Three s u b j e c t s (12.0 percent) i n d i c a t e d that they found the LRT too d i f f i c u l t to use. They found the bus e a s i e r t o use or they had a n e a r - a c c i d e n t on the LRT. Reasons f o r non-use of the LRT can be found i n Table XIV. Table XIV; Whv S u b j e c t s Were Not Using the LRT Reason Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l too d i f f i c u l t 0 1 2 3 no i n s t r u c t i o n 2 0 0 2 bad experience 0 0 0 0 doesn't go where you want to go 1 8 4 13 other 1 2 4 7 T o t a l 4 11 10 25 35 CHAPTER FOUR  DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS I. DISCUSSION LRT Use The m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s in t h i s study used the LRT, however, most LRT u s e r s used the system i n f r e q u e n t l y . An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g of the study was that the m a j o r i t y of LRT u s e r s were i n the 19-39 age category. S u b j e c t s i n t h i s age range were more l i k e l y to have had access to o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g as p a r t of t h e i r e d ucation and been encouraged t o develop an independent l i f e s t y l e . O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g has only been a v a i l a b l e to b l i n d persons d u r i n g the l a s t 20 ye a r s . It has been i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d as an e s s e n t i a l component of the education and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of b l i n d persons. The age at which v i s u a l impairment o c c u r r e d d i d not a f f e c t use of the LRT system. J u s t as many s u b j e c t s who were b l i n d e d i n c h i l d h o o d made use of the system as s u b j e c t s who were b l i n d e d i n adulthood. Persons who become v i s u a l l y impaired i n t h e i r teens or adulthood have v i s u a l memories of c i t y s t r e e t s and other concepts r e l a t e d to t r a v e l - f o r example, they can v i s u a l i z e an i n t e r s e c t i o n . A d v e n t i t i o u s l y b l i n d e d people tend to f i n d outdoor t r a v e l e a s i e r than i n d i v i d u a l s who were b l i n d at b i r t h or very e a r l y in l i f e . The m a j o r i t y of 36 people who used the LRT had e i t h e r low v i s i o n or tunnel v i s i o n . Of the 5 b l i n d LRT-using s u b j e c t s , 4 had p r e v i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . Only 1 s u b j e c t that d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g used the LRT. Most LRT u s e r s t r a v e l e d independently. They n e i t h e r needed t o be accompanied or r e q u i r e d a s s i s t a n c e w h ile t r a v e l i n g . More than h a l f , or 54.5 pe r c e n t , of s u b j e c t s with a secondary handicap a l s o made use of the LRT. Seven of these s u b j e c t s used the LRT i n f r e q u e n t l y ( l e s s than one day per week) while 5 s u b j e c t s used i t 2 or more days per week. Secondary handicaps r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study d i d not seem to a f f e c t independent t r a v e l . Use of Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Methods LRT u s e r s used other forms of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as c i t y buses. A l l the LRT u s e r s i n t h i s sample rode the bus, s u g g e s t i n g that LRT u s e r s are independent. The reasons p r o v i d e d by respondents f o r LRT use i n d i c a t e the independence of those respondents who used the LRT f o r going to work, shopping, r e c r e a t i o n and other personal reasons. S u b j e c t s who d i d not use e i t h e r the LRT or the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Handicapped r e l i e d on f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f o r t r a v e l . There were 5 s u b j e c t s who d i d not make use of any mode of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 3 7 Ten s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d that they used both the LRT and the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Handicapped. Most of these s u b j e c t s d i d not have a d d i t i o n a l handicaps. F u r t h e r study i s necessary to determine why they a l s o used the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the Handicapped. D i f f i c u l t i e s with the LRT Almost 50 percent of the LRT u s e r s r e p o r t e d some d i f f i c u l t i e s with the systems. The d i f f i c u l t i e s s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d concerned access to i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t r a i n d e s t i n a t i o n s and s t a t i o n announcements. I t i s important f o r t r a n s i t companies to c o n s i d e r other means of making in f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , such as o r a l announcements of Incoming t r a i n s . Information about t r a i n schedules and d e s t i n a t i o n s of t r a i n s i s a v a i l a b l e only in p r i n t at the present time. F i f t y percent of the s u b j e c t s f e l t that the LRT systems p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t Information f o r convenient use, and 50 percent f e l t that i n f o r m a t i o n was not a c c e s s i b l e . The s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d that Information was a c c e s s i b l e were ab l e to read p r i n t . Only one p r i n t reader found i n f o r m a t i o n d i f f i c u l t to access and t h i s s u b j e c t reads b r a i l l e and uses audio tapes, s u g g e s t i n g a more severe v i s u a l impairment than the other p r i n t r e a d e r s . Three of the i n d i v i d u a l s who were s a t i s f i e d used b r a i l l e or audio tape. One t h i r d of the u n s a t i s f i e d c o u l d not access p r i n t . 38 In C a l g a r y , three d i f f e r e n t l i n e s make use of the same p l a t f o r m i n the downtown area. B l i n d LRT patrons have no way of knowing which t r a i n p u l l i n g Into the s t a t i o n w i l l take them to t h e i r d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n u n l e s s they ask someone. S t a t i o n announcements of incoming t r a i n s c o u l d remedy t h i s . In systems l i k e Vancouver and Edmonton, where there i s p r e s e n t l y only one l i n e , these announcements would be u s e f u l so that LRT u s e r s would know which d i r e c t i o n the incoming t r a i n was going. Vancouver's S k y t r a i n uses LED s i g n s to announce the a r r i v a l of t r a i n s i n t o i t s s t a t i o n s . These are h e l p f u l to some I n d i v i d u a l s , but many s u b j e c t s c o u l d not use them. These s u b j e c t s found the s i g n s too d i f f i c u l t to read because the words moved or the s i g n s were too s m a l l . A u d i b l e announcements would make inf o r m a t i o n more a c c e s s i b l e . I I . LIMITATIONS Due to the small sample, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e the sample p o p u l a t i o n was. No t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n demographics were a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r , except f o r the approximate number of v i s u a l l y s impaired persons r e g i s t e r e d with the C.N.I.B. in each c i t y . Those persons who are r e g i s t e r e d with the C.N.I.B. are r e g i s t e r e d v o l u n t a r i l y . Not a l l l e g a l l y b l i n d people are r e g i s t e r e d with t h i s agency. The author requested that s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study be randomly chosen from those 39 r e g i s t e r e d v i s u a l l y impaired i n d i v i d u a l s by the method d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2. It would have been i n t e r e s t i n g to know the employment s t a t u s of LRT u s e r s - as well as more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about the extent of t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . Some of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e terms may a l s o have been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . For example, in the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the need f o r a s s i s t a n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e that some persons i n t e r p r e t e d answer "b> alone (with s i g h t e d a s s i s t a n c e at your request when needed)" to mean needing a s i g h t e d person to accompany them. T h i s answer was intended to i n d i c a t e that the s u b j e c t only r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e i n order to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about such t h i n g s as the d e s t i n a t i o n of the incoming t r a i n . A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n was the small number of t o t a l l y b l i n d LRT u s e r s i n the sample. Although 5 of the 9 t o t a l l y , b l i n d s u b j e c t s were LRT u s e r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that they are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l l y b l i n d group in g e n e r a l . It w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to see i f LRT use w i l l i n c r e a s e with more i n t e n s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y I n s t r u c t i o n i n LRT use. 40 CHAPTER FIVE S U M M A R Y A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S I . SUMMARY V i s u a l l y impaired people are making use of the LRT systems. The m a j o r i t y of these people have some s i g h t . Those who used the LRT were impressed with i t s frequent and r e l i a b l e s e r v i c e , the on-board t r a i n announcements of the next s t a t i o n , the courtesy of the personnel and the LRT's a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Reported d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l u d e d knowing which t r a i n was p u l l i n g i n t o the s t a t i o n , the i n c o r r e c t , absent or u n c l e a r announcements of upcoming s t a t i o n s , p o l e s in the ce n t r e of the doorway ( e s p e c i a l l y when adapted f o r wheelchair u s e ) , s t a t i o n l a y o u t s and m i s t a k i n g the spaces between c a r s f o r doorways. Many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s LRT-uslng s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d were r e l a t e d to t h e i r not having r e c e i v e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . Only a small percentage of v i s u a l l y impaired people who p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s study i n d i c a t e d that they had r e c e i v e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n . None had r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n on the LRT. Only one i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e d that he would be r e c e i v i n g t h i s t r a i n i n g . O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y I n s t r u c t i o n in LRT use, s t a t i o n and p l a t f o r m l a y o u t , car de s i g n , knowledge about a v a i l a b l e a s s i s t a n c e , use of maps, and p l a t f o r m recovery 41 would enable the b l i n d person to use the LRT system with fewer d i f f i c u l t i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s . A p p r o p r i a t e o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g w i l l prevent deaths or i n j u r i e s from f a l l i n g onto the t r a c k s between the c a r s . M o d i f i e d cane techniques or s o l u t i o n s such as checking f o r the f l o o r of the car bef o r e b o a r d i n g must be taught. More t r a v e l e r s s hould probably employ canes i f they have d i f f i c u l t y v i s u a l l y d e t e c t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the car doorway and the between-car space. O r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g can Increase the comfort l e v e l of v i s u a l l y Impaired LRT patrons by d e c r e a s i n g the number of d i f f i c u l t i e s that the LRT us e r s had. Use of LRT systems s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g - these systems are complex, noisy and present s p e c i a l problems to b l i n d t r a v e l e r s . Age of onset of b l i n d n e s s and degree of v i s u a l impairment were not determinant f a c t o r s in LRT use i n t h i s study. However, the d e s i r e and a b i l i t y to t r a v e l independently emerged as an important determinant of LRT use. I I . RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s recommendations f o r both o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y i n s t r u c t o r s and t r a n s i t companies. 42 T r a n s i t Companies 1 . An a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n f o r p o l e s in the ce n t r e of t r a i n doorways sh o u l d be found, e s p e c i a l l y f o r p o l e s that have been adapted f o r wheelchair use. 2. A u d i b l e announcements sh o u l d be made on s t a t i o n p l a t f o r m s should be made to I n d i c a t e which t r a i n i s coming i n t o the s t a t i o n . Some systems p r o v i d e LED d i s p l a y s , and a l l t r a i n s are marked, but many v i s u a l l y impaired people cannot make use of these media. 3. Ensure that a l l on-board t r a i n announcements are c l e a r and c o r r e c t . 4. Use signage i n l a r g e , c l e a r l e t t e r s with high c o n t r a s t c o l o r s , so more of the v i s u a l l y impaired p o p u l a t i o n that a ccess large p r i n t can make use of them, (see Bentzen, Jackson and Peck, 1981). O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y T r a i n i n g 1. V i s u a l l y impaired people r e q u i r e o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g on the LRT to enable them to overcome some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s they are encountering on the system such as: f i g u r i n g out the s t a t i o n , f i n d i n g e l e v a t o r s and l o c a t i n g the buttons to open the LRT doors. 43 Adapted cane techniques s h o u l d be taught to Increase s a f e t y in LRT s t a t i o n s - to prevent them f a l l i n g from p l a t f o r m s and other dangers. V i s u a l l y impaired people who might mistake the between car space f o r a t r a i n doorway sh o u l d use a white cane and use i t to check f o r the f l o o r of the t r a i n b e f o r e b o a r d i n g . 44 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARC - The p a t t e r n that the cane t i p makes when the touch technique i s be i n g used. ( 2 ) BLINDNESS - An i n a b i l i t y to see. <3> CANE - see LONG CANE CANE TECHNIQUE - Use of a white cane to de t e c t o b s t a c l e s and drop o f f s (such as curbs and s t a i r s ) in one's path. CENTRAL VISION - The d e t e c t i o n of movement or o b j e c t s ln our d i r e c t l i n e of v i s i o n . C e n t r a l v i s i o n i s the v i s i o n we use to see f i n e d e t a i l and f o r r e a d i n g . CONGENITAL - Present at b i r t h . DOG GUIDE - A dog used by a b l i n d person, f o r the purposes of m o b i l i t y . The dog i s t r a i n e d to stop at s t a i r s and curbs and guide the b l i n d person around o b s t a c l e s . ELECTRONIC TRAVEL AID - An e l e c t r o n i c d e v i ce f o r the purpose of a s s i s t i n g the v i s u a l l y impaired person with m o b i l i t y . These d e v i c e s d e t e c t o b s t a c l e s and/or drop o f f s ( c u r b s ) . INFORMATION SYSTEMS - Announcements, maps and s i g n s used by T r a n s i t systems to inform the p u b l i c about the system's use. LEGAL BLINDNESS - A v i s u a l a c u i t y of 20 /200 or l e s s i n the b e t t e r ey a f t e r best p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n or 20 degrees or l e s s remaining of one's v i s u a l f i e l d . 20 /200 i n d i c a t e s that what a normally s i g h t e d person can see at 200 f e e t , the l e g a l l y b l i n d person can see at 20 f e e t with the same degree of c l a r i t y . LIGHT PERCEPTION - The a b i l i t y to detec t the presence or absence of l i g h t . LIGHT PROJECTION - A b i l i t y to determine the d i r e c t i o n of a l i g h t source. S l i g h t l y b e t t e r a c u i t y than l i g h t p e r c e p t i o n . (3) LONG CANE - A l i g h t w e i g h t cane of p r e s c r i b e d length which i s an o b s t a c l e d e t e c t o r and environmental sensor f o r the b l i n d p e d e s t r i a n . They are t y p i c a l l y white, with a s i x inch r e d s t r i p e above the lower t i p , and are longer than an or t h o p e d i c cane. (1) 4 5 LOW VISION - When impairment in the v i s u a l system i n t e r f e r e s with normal d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . < 1 > LRT - L i g h t Rapid T r a n s i t or L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t - i n Calgary the system i s known as the C - T r a i n , i n Edmonton as the LRT and in Vancouver as the S k y t r a i n . MOBILITY - The c a p a c i t y , the r e a d i n e s s and the f a c i l i t y to move. The a b i l i t y to move w i t h i n one's environment. (2) MOBILITY INSTRUCTOR - A person who has r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n t e a c h i n g the v i s u a l l y impaired o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y s k i l l s . MONOCULAR - Distanc e viewing d e v i c e s i m i l a r to b i n o c u l a r s , but f o r use with one eye at a time. ORIENTATION - The pro c e s s of u t i l i z i n g the remaining senses in e s t a b l i s h i n g one's p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p to a l l other s i g n i f i c a n t o b j e c t s i n one's environment. C o l l e c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the environment and one's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t . <2> ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY TRAINING - The t r a i n i n g of a v i s u a l l y Impaired person to use a l l h i s senses to o r i e n t h i m s e l f and le a r n to move about i n the environment f r e e l y , s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , w h i l e knowing where he i s In space. PARTIALLY SIGHTED - Having a v i s u a l a c u i t y of 20/70 or l e s s in the b e t t e r eye a f t e r best p o s s i b l e c o r r e c t i o n , and b e i n g able to use r e s i d u a l v i s i o n as the p r i n c i p a l channel of l e a r n i n g . A person who i s at l e a s t able to count f i n g e r s . <2> PERIPHERAL VISION - The d e t e c t i o n of movement or o b j e c t s which are not i n the d i r e c t l i n e of v i s i o n . O b j e c t s may not be seen with great c l a r i t y i n the p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n . RESIDUAL VISION - The remaining v i s i o n a v i s u a l l y impaired person has. ROUTES - The path one t r a v e l s to get from one p l a c e to another. SIGHTED GUIDE TECHNIQUE - The use of a s i g h t e d person as an a i d f o r t r a v e l l i n g . The v i s u a l l y handicapped person grasps h i s guide's arm j u s t above the elbow with a f i r m yet r e l a x e d g r i p , and f o l l o w s about a h a l f step behind the guide. T h i s a l l o w s s u f f i c i e n t time to r e a c t to the guide's s t a r t i n g , s t o p p i n g , t u r n i n g or s t e p p i n g up or down. <1> 4 6 SIGNAGE - A l 1 maps and s i g n s i n p r i n t e d form. SONIC GUIDE - A head mounted de v i c e used f o r the d e t e c t i o n of o b s t a c l e s . The d i s t a n c e from the o b s t a c l e can be judged by the sound waves that generate from the dev i c e and bounce back from the o b j e c t . TUNNEL VISION - Loss of the p e r i p h e r a l v i s u a l f i e l d s with the r e t e n t i o n of some degree of c e n t r a l f i e l d . (3) VISUALLY IMPAIRED - One who has l o s t much or a l l of h i s v i s i o n . G l o s s a r y terms have been taken from one of the sources below, or w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s g l o s s a r y . Those terms which have been taken from other sources are f o l l o w e d by a number c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the text from which i t was taken. C D Bentzen, B. L., Jackson, R. M. and Peck, A. F. (August 1981) S o l u t i o n s f o r Problems of V i s u a l l y Impaired Users of R a i l Rapid T r a n s i t . V o l . 1 of Improving  communications with the V i s u a l l y Impaired in R a i l Rapid T r a n s i t Systems. Washington. D.C.: U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (2) H i l l , E v e r e t t and Ponder, P u r v i s . O r i e n t a t i o n and  M o b i l i t y Techniques New York: American Foundation f o r the B l i n d , 1976. (3) C a s s i n , Barbara and S h e i l a Solomon. D i c t i o n a r y of Eve  Termlnology• G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a : T r i a d P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1984. 47 APPENDIX II LETTERS AND SURVEY The l e t t e r s and survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e were sent out i n large p r i n t so that a g r e a t e r number of the v i s u a l l y impaired p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d read i t without a s s i s t a n c e . It was known that even though the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent i n larg e p r i n t , some i n d i v i d u a l s would s t i l l r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e to read i t . 48 Dear Sir/Madam: I am co n d u c t i n g a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t on t r a n s i t and the v i s u a l l y impaired, e n t i t l e d , "Use of the L i g h t R a i l or L i g h t Rapid T r a n s i t Systems by I n d i v i d u a l s with Severe V i s u a l Impairments". Your a s s i s t a n c e i n completing t h i s p r o j e c t i s very important. T h i s study i s b e i n g conducted in Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver. Information gleaned from t h i s study w i l l be forwarded to each of the t r a n s i t companies where the study i s b e i n g conducted, as they are i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s u l t s . With c o n t i n u i n g expansion of these systems, your input may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r improving the new a d d i t i o n s . Very l i t t l e Information has been gathered on how u s e f u l the l i g h t r a i l / l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system <LRT, C-Train and S k y t r a i n ) i s f o r the v i s u a l l y impaired. T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w i l l t h e r e f o r e answer the f o l l o w i n g quest i o n s : 1. Do the v i s u a l l y Impaired use l i g h t r a i l / l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t ? Why or why not? 2 . What l e v e l of o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g was r e c e i v e d by those i n d i v i d u a l s u s i n g th r a p i d r a i l system? My q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r co n d u c t i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h are as f o l l o w s : I am a c e r t i f i e d teacher of the v i s u a l l y impaired and a c e r t i f i e d o r i e n t a t i o n and m o b i l i t y I n s t r u c t o r . The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be r e p o r t e d in a t h e s i s and given t o the t r a n s i t companies i n Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver. 49 USE OF THE LIGHT RAIL OR LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS BY INDIVIDUALS WITH SEVERE VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS Thank you very much f o r t a k i n g the time to complete t h i s survey. Your a s s i s t a n c e l n completing t h i s r e s e a r c h i s very important. If you wish to answer in some other format than p r i n t , ( b r a i l l e or t a p e ) , f e e l f r e e t o do so, but p l e a s e r e t u r n t h i s survey form together with your answers. Your answers are anonymous. Again, thank you very much f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . 51 LIGHT RAIL/LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT SUPVRY DIRECTIONS: Please complete a l l of the f o l l o w i n g items or qu e s t i o n by checking the a p p r o p r i a t e response and/or w r i t i n g in one or more words. SECTION 1; RESEARCH DATA 1. What Is your PRIMARY method of t r a v e l ? ( p l e a s e mark only one) a) s i g h t e d guide b) white cane with touch technique c) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cane only d) dog guide e) no a i d used f ) other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) In combination with the above t r a v e l methods, do you p r e s e n t l y use: a) a d i s t a n c e monocular lens b) an e l e c t r o n i c t r a v e l a i d (p l e a s e s p e c i f y what type) c) other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) d) no other a i d s used How o f t e n do you use the buses: a) 5 days per week or more b) 2 to 4 days per week c) 1 day per week d) l e s s than one day per week e) never How o f t e n do you use the LRT: a) 5 days per week or more b) 2 to 4 days per week c) 1 day per week d) l e s s than one day per week e) never How o f t e n do you use t a x i ' s : a) 5 days per week or more b) 2 to 4 days per week c) 1 day per week d) l e s s than one day per week e) never How o f t e n do you use t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r the handicapped: a) 5 days per week or more b) 2 to 4 days per week c) 1 day per week d) l e s s than one day per week e) never 52 7. How often do you r e l y on f r i ends or family for transportat i on: a) 5 days per week or more b> 2 to 4 days per week c) 1 day per week d> less than one day per week e) never 8. Were you given formal t r a i n i n g in or i enta t ion and mobi1ity? a) yes b) no If you USE the LRT, please answer the questions 10 to 17. If you DO NOT use the LRT, please answer questions 18 and 19. 10. Do you use the LRT: a) alone (with no s ighted assistance) b) alone (with s igthed assistance at your request when needed) c) only with the assistance of a s ighted person 11. In what instances do you use the LRT? Check a l l that are appropriate . a) going to work b) going shopping c) for recreat ion d) going v i s i t i n g e) other (please speci fy) 12. What do you l i k e about using the LRT? 13. Have you every had any d i f f i c u l t i e s in useing the LRT system in your c i t y ? If so, please describe the problem below. 14. How comfortable are you using the LRT? a) very comfortable b) comfortable c) uncomfortable d) very uncomfortable 15. How comfortable are you us ing unfami l iar s tat ions? a) very comfortable b) comfortable c) uncomfortable d) very uncomfortable 53 16. How comfortable are you using new routes involving the LRT? a) very comfortable b> comfortable c) uncomfortable d) very uncomfortable 17. How easy are the information systems to access? a) very easy b) easy c) d i f f i c u l t d) very d i f f i c u l t Please answer the questions in Section 2. Please answer questions 18 and 19 i f you DO NOT use the LRT. 18. If you do not use the LRT in your c i t y , i s i t because: a) you f i n d the system too d i f f i c u l t to use b> you have not received any instruction In how to use i t c) you have had a bad experience on the LRT d) i t does not go where you wish to go e) other (please specify) 19. If you answered (a) above, please describe the d i f f i c u l t i e s you have encountered. Please answer the questions in Section 2. 54 SECTION 2; SUBJECT DATA 1 • I live in: _ a) Calgary b) Edmonton _ c) Vancouver 2. I am: a) male b) female At what age did your visual impairment occur: a) at birth b) 1 - 5 years c) 6 - 18 years d) in adulthood 4. Are you: a) a brai l l e reader b) a large print reader c) a regular print reader d) a tape reader e) other (please specify) 5. To what degree are you visually impaired: a) totally blind b) perceiving light only c) tunnel vision d) peripheral vision only e) low vision If you have any other additional handicaps, mark whichever ones describe you. a) physical disability b) speech impairment c) hearing loss d) reading disability e) other (please specify) What age group do you f i t ln? a) 19 to 29 years b) 30 to 39 years c) 40 to 49 years d) 50 to 59 years e) 60 to 65 years 55 APPENDIX I I I FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION TABLES OF TRANSPORTATION METHODS i Bus Use Amona LRT Users and Nonusers Frequency Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s U N U N U N U N C 5 days/week 5 2 7 4 8 3 20 9 29 2-4 days/week 4 0 1 1 2 1 7 2 9 1 day/week 2 0 0 0 1 1 3 1 4 < 1 day/week 4 0 4 3 0 1 8 4 12 never 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 9 9 T o t a l s : 15 4 12 11 11 10 38 25 63 Freauencv of : LRT Use Frequency Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s 5 days/week 1 2 3 6 2-4 days/week 1 1 4 6 1 day/week 1 0 1 2 < 1 day/week 12 9 3 24 never 4 11 10 25 T o t a l s : 19 23 21 63 Taxi Use Amona LRT Users and Nonusers Frequency Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s u N U N U N U N 5 days/week 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 2-4 days/week 3 1 0 1 0 0 3 2 5 1 day/week 1 0 0 1 3 0 4 1 5 < 1 day/week 6 1 8 5 4 3 1 8 9 27 never 5 1 4 3 4 6 13 10 23 T o t a l s * : 15 4 12 11 11 9 38 24 *0ne respondent from Vancouver d i d not answer t h i s quest i o n . 62 57 Use Of Handicapped T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Among LRT Users and Nonusers Frequency Cal 1 gary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s U N U N U N U N C 5 days/week 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 2-4 days/week 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 day/week 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 < 1 day/week 1 0 2 1 3 2 6 3 9 never 12 2 9 9 6 7 27 18 45 T o t a l s * : 15 4 12 10 10 10 36 25 61 * One respondent from Edmonton and one from Vancouver d i d not complete t h i s q u e s t i o n . Use of F a m i l v / F r i e n d s For T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Among LRT Users and Nonusers Frequency Calgary Edmonton Vancouver T o t a l s U N U N U N U N C 5 days/week 4 2 2 3 3 2 9 7 16 2-4 days/week 4 0 3 3 2 5 9 8 17 1 day/week 4 0 0 2 4 0 8 2 10 < 1 day/week 1 1 3 1 1 2 5 4 9 never 2 1 4 2 1 1 7 4 11 T o t a l s : 15 4 12 11 11 10 28 25 63 58 ANECDOTAL COMMENTS ABOUT WHAT SUBJECTS LIKED ABOUT THE LRT T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s the comments of the s u b j e c t s in f u l l , r e g a r d i n g the t h i n g s they l i k e d about the LRT. Subject Comment #2 - quick #3 - the i n t e r v a l s between t r a i n s are u s u a l l y frequent - i n t e r i o r s are u s u a l l y c l e a n and maintained - u s u a l l y a minimum amount of time to t r a v e l from N.E. to C.B.D. #6 - f a s t - announcing st o p s #8 - you can hear over the speaker where you are #9 - qu i c k e r #12 - f a s t e r than bus If a v a i l a b l e #16 - convenience, courtesy of personnel - a s s i s t a n c e #17 - easy t o use and the l e a s t expensive #18 - i t ' s very quick #22 - acce s s a b i 1 1 t y #33 - f a s t , e f f i c i e n t , a l l s t o p s are announced #34 - c u t s down on downtown t r a f f i c * - more d i r e c t - f a s t e r #36 - i t i s quick #38 - i t i s frequent and r e l i a b l e s e r v i c e - a l s o It i s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of our home #39 - i t i s quick and i t doesn't have too many stops #40 - f a s t and convenient 59 #43 - convenient - new experience #46 - the LRT i s f a s t e r and more d i r e c t #48 - i t ' s f a s t #53 - from here to there #54 - i t i s f a s t and s a f e #58 - i t ' s quick #59 - i t gets me there f a s t e r downtown #63 - i t i s f a s t #64 - i t i s quick t r a n s p o r t a t i o n #66 - i t i s a very convenient way to t r a v e l a great d i s t a n c e i n a quick format #67 - you get to p l a c e s f a s t e r #68 - i t ' s quick #69 - speed and frequency #70 - once I'm at the LRT s t a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s qu i c k e r than u s i n g the bus 60 APPENDIX V ANECDOTAL COMMENTS ABOUT DIFFICULTIES SUBJECTS HAD VITH THE LRT T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s the comments of the s u b j e c t s in f u l l , r e g a r d i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s they have with the LRT. Subject Comment #3 - o c c a s i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s with p r o j e c t i n g r a i l i n g which houses button to a c t i v a t e door. The r a i l s ( p o s t s ) were adapted f o r wheelchair access - but act as an encumberance f o r the v i s u a l l y impaired ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t a l l y b l i n d ) . - lack of announcements on e x t e r i o r of t r a i n at each s t a t i o n to announce d i r e c t i o n of t r a i n . #6 - I caught my f i n g e r in the hinge of the door and l o s t the end o f f my f i n g e r and n a i l . #7 - I am f u l l y aware of the system as i t took i t ' s c u r r e n t form and the lack of c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l l y handicapped i n i t ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . The t r a i n s move at a very r a p i d speed, and are h a r d l y conducive to the l e s s e r mobile person. The ramps are dangerous enough not to be undertaken by the v i s u a l l y impaired u n l e s s a guide of some s o r t i s p r e s e n t . The s t a t i o n s have more s t a i r s which are time consuming and dangerous f o r us to handle! #9 - t r y to f i n d the door from the o u t s i d e . #16 - caught i n doors twice - due to s h o v i n g of crowd. No I n j u r y . #17 - I get on the wrong t r a i n or miss the d e s i r e d t r a i n sometimes. #22 - the p o l e i n the cen t e r of door i s a problem f o r me. I cannot see i t very well and have walked i n t o i t on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . A l s o spaces between the c a r s ( o u t s i d e where j o i n e d t ogether) can be mistaken f o r a door opening. I have almost f a l l e n (down onto t r a c k s ) . #24 - Too hard to f i n d the button to p r e s s and open the door (not well enough marked). - Wheelchair a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s an o b s t a c l e to the b l i n d person. #34 - f i g u r i n g out the s t a t i o n . - f i g u r i n g out where e l e v a t o r s a r e . 61 - one doesn't Vancouver. d i s a b l e d . have e l e v a t o r G r a n v i l l e S t . in I t ' s c e n t e r c i t y i n a c c e s s i b l e f o r #40 - sometimes o v e r r i d e my d e s t i n a t i o n , due to daydreaming. #46 - s t a i r s descending i n t o the s t a t i o n - they are t e r r i b l y dim, with e i t h e r no l i g h t or very l i t t l e overhead l i g h t i n g . - small p r i n t on the time schedules, which I am unable to read. #48 - the Columbia S t a t i o n i n New Westminster i s awkward to manage, having to go down a l o t of s t a i r s b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the e l e v a t o r or e s c a l a t o r . As a matter of f a c t , most of the s t a t i o n s I have used are not designed very wel 1 . #51 - Eye c o o r d i n a t i o n problems seem to become aggravated. The above problem has been with me about 40 y e a r s . The problem, i t seems to me, became evident a f t e r an almost f a t a l car a c c i d e n t . The same problem grew worse a f t e r coma shock treatments and vast doses of t r a n q u i 1 i z e r s . #56 - I f i n d the bus e a s i e r to r i d e when I have t o . - I have double v i s i o n a l o t so I have to be c a r e f u l . #58 - only t r o u b l e i s r e a d i n g s i g n s that have a broken d i g i t a l readout (LED) Instead of a s t r a i g h t l i n e type. #59 - at f i r s t i t was d i f f i c u l t knowing which d i r e c t i o n the t r a i n was going, so I d i d n ' t know what s i d e of the p l a t f o r m to s t a n d on. #60 - Makes me very nervous. - Nearly f e l l when l t s t a r t e d to speed up. #64 - Yes. Just In the sense that I need someone to t e l l me which t r a i n i t i s . If no one i s on the p l a t f o r m , I have no idea which t r a i n i t i s . #66 - doors c l o s e too q u i c k l y f o r me. - do not announce s t a t i o n s very c l e a r l y . - s t a t i o n s t o p s have o b s t a c l e s on them sometimes. #69 - f i n d the door and the door b u t t o n . - knowing which one of the t r a i n s t h i s one i s . / 62 - knowing which stop we have arrived at. Sometimes the announcer gives the wrong station and do not announce. - one time the door arrived at a place wheretherewas no platform. Driver notified him i n t i me. - one time didn't know which stop we have arrived at so had to hold the door open in order to get attention of the driver. #70 - Yes. My d i f f i cu l ty is I never know what train I am on unless I ask someone on the platform. 63 APPENDIX VI OTHER COMMENTS MADE BY SUBJECTS T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s comments made by the s u b j e c t s , to the r e s e a r c h e r which were not connected with any p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . Comments have been e d i t e d so that the i n d i v i d u a l may not be i d e n t i f i e d . Subject Comment #3 - c i t y of Calgary has approached C.N.I.B. and HETCO (Handicapped and E l d e r l y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Committee) r e . some a d a p t a t i o n s f o r the v i s u a l l y Impaired - but more a d a p t a t i o n s c o u l d take p l a c e . #5 - the running l i g h t s i g n s are hard to read on buses ( d e s t i n a t i o n ) . #7 - I am in a unique p o s i t i o n , as I do not work o u t s i d e my home, thus r e q u i r e the T r a n s i t System, in any form, f o r l e s s than perhaps o t h e r s i n my v i s u a l impairment s i t u a t i o n s . I a l s o have a husband who works s h i f t work and most appointments I make ( i . e . d o c t o r s e t c . ) can be accommodated a c c o r d i n g to h i s s h i f t s . My husband has no p h y s i c a l impairment of any k i n d and has always been a v a i l a b l e to d r i v e me. Most o r g a n i z a t i o n s I belong to a l s o are aware of my v i s u a l impairment and u s u a l l y share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d r i v i n g me about. I a l s o have a s i s t e r and s i s t e r - i n - l a w in town who are very good, under emergency circumstances, i n h e l p i n g me out. My c h i l d r e n are only 13 and 10 years so are not d r i v e r s as y e t . P e r s o n a l l y I f i n d the T r a n s i t system, whether bus or LRT very d i f f i c u l t , so I t r y to a v o i d use of e i t h e r . A c t u a l l y , I'd be very f r i g h t e n e d of the LRT because of the aforementioned l i a b i l i t i e s (see Appendix V f o r the l i a b i l i t e s mentioned). If at t h i s stage I were f o r c e d to use e i t h e r system, I'm sure I would adapt, but I would have t o be very c a u t i o u s and wary with the systems. Part of my m i s g i v i n g s are borne out of a h a t r e d f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n that goes back to High School days, when I was r e q u i r e d to use i t on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . So perhaps I am more p r e j u d i c e d than those who r e a l l y need a p u b l i c system. 6 4 #8 - I f i n d that I have to r i d e the t r a n s i t buses more because the LRT i s u s u a l l y out of my way. I have a l s o had a number of problems u s i n g the t r a n s i t system. #29 - have always had t r o u b l e o r g a n i z i n g time with Handi-Dart - c a l l e d a r r i v a l time and they don't show up. #46 - In Edmonton, the LRT system c o n s i s t s of only one l i n e . The LRT begins i n a l a r g e community in northeast Edmonton and t r a v e l s d i r e c t l y i n t o the downtown c o r e . There are only nine s t o p s between the b e g i n n i n g of the route and i t s completion. So, i n a c t u a l f a c t , our system Is extremely easy to use. The only problems I do have are the s t a i r s descending i n t o the s t a t i o n - they are t e r r i b l y dim, with e i t h e r no l i g h t or very l i t t l e overhead l i g h t i n g . The other problem e x i s t s because of the small p r i n t on the time schedules, which I am unable to read. 65 REFERENCES Bentzen, B. L., Jackson, R. M. and Peck, A. F. (1981) S o l u t i o n s f o r Problems of V i s u a l l y Impaired Users of Raj 1 Rapid TransitT V o l . 1 of Improving communications with the V i s u a l l y Impaired in R a i l Rapid T r a n s i t Systems. Washington. D.C: U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C a s s i n , B. and Solomon, S. (1984). Melvin L. Rubin, MD. (ed.) D i c t i o n a r y of Eve Terminology G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a : T r i a d P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1984. Commissioners'' Report to Community S e r v i c e s Committee. Calgary A l b e r t a , J u l y 29, 1986. Chew, Kathryn and Manzer, Dave. (1986). L i g h t R a i l or L i g h t Rapid T r a n s i t in Western Canada: A Lesson P l a n n i n g A i d . Paper pr e s e n t e d at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference "The V i s u a l l y Impaired T r a v e l e r in Mass T r a n s i t : Issues in O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . Crouse, R. (1980). A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Aspects. In: Foundat ions  of O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y . R. Welsh and B. B l a s c h ( e d s . ) , New York: American Foundation f o r the B l i n d , p. 549-563. Edmonton L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t pamphlet. C i t y of Edmonton, undated. Fact Sheet: E x i s t i n g LRT. Edmonton T r a n s i t . A p r i l 1986 H u b b ell, John A. L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t f o r Calgary - Emphasis on Why LRT? LRT P r e s e n t a t i o n Notes. Calgary T r a n s i t , undated. Jackson, R.M., Peck, A.F., Bentzen, B.L. (1983). V i s u a l l y Handicapped T r a v e l e r s i n the Rapid R a i l T r a n s i t Environment. Journal of V i s u a l Impairment. 77(3), p. 469-475. L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t : Edmonton A l b e r t a . Edmonton T r a n s i t , A p r i l 15, 1988. L i g h t R a i l T r a n s i t (LRT) in C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a . Calgary T r a n s i t , undated. M i l l e r , G. (1983). Subway Sa f e t y in New York C i t y . Journal of V i s u a l Impairment. 77(3), p. 474-475. 66 P a s s i n i , R., Dupre, A., and L a n g l o i s , C. (1986). S p a t i a l M o b i l i t y of the V i s u a l l y Handicapped A c t i v e Person: A D e s c r i p t i v e Study. Journal of V i s u a l Impairment. 80(8), p. 904-907. Ponder, P u r v i s and H i l l , E v e r e t t . (1976). O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y Techniques. New York: American Foundation f o r the B l i n d . Resnick, R. (1983). An E x p l o r a t o r y Study of the L i f e s t y l e s of C o n g e n i t a l l y B l i n d A d u l t s . Journal of V i s u a l Impairment. 77(3), 476-481. Welsh, R i c h a r d L. (1980). P s y c h o s o c i a l Dimensions. In: Foundations of O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y . R. Welsh and B. B l a s c h ( E d s . ) , New York: American Foundation f o r the B l i n d , p. 225-264. Welsh, R i c h a r d L. and B l a s c h , Bruce B. (1980). Foundations  of O r i e n t a t i o n and M o b i l i t y . New York: American Foundation f o r the B l i n d , p. 1-2. 67 

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