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Festival representation beyond words : the Stuttgart baptism of 1616 Thomsett, Andrea Irma Irene 1990

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FESTIVAL REPRESENTATION BEYOND WORDS: THE STUTTGART BAPTISM OF 1616 by ANDREA IRMA IRENE THOMSETT B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) Andrea Irma Irene Thomsett, 1990 i n October, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fi^ /h*-™ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^ g / ^ W //, /99Q . DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a S t u t t g a r t c o u r t f e s t i v a l i n a f a s c i n a t i n g book o f p r i n t s has r e c e i v e d no a r t h i s t o r i c a l a t t e n t i o n . The c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n o f German lands i n a complex and obscure time d e s c r i b e d by one h i s t o r i a n as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y b e r e f t o f "textbook f a c t s " , has not e l i c i t e d much s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t . In the seventeenth c e n t u r y b e f o r e c o n f e s s i o n a l d i s p u t e s w i t h i n the Holy Roman Empire of the German N a t i o n t u r n e d i n t o armed c o n f l i c t , s m a l l German t e r r i t o r i a l c o u r t s modelled themselves on and assumed the c o u r t l y s t y l e o f the l a r g e r European c o u r t s . The S t u t t g a r t baptism of 1616 p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g case study o f the use of a c o u r t l y s p e c t a c l e by a secondary c o u r t a t a time o f g r e a t i n s t a b i l i t y . The baptism f e s t i v a l s erved as a stage t o d i s p l a y an a l l i a n c e o f some German P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s t h a t h e l d a promise of i n t e r n a t i o n a l support f o r the P r o t e s t a n t cause. The Wurttemberg c o u r t commissioned len g t h y t e x t s and a l a r g e number o f engravings t o r e p r e s e n t the event. T h i s study w i l l address the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by p r i n t e d images t o the f e s t i v a l program. The key documents f o r t h i s study are the t e x t s which complement and a t times d i v e r g e from the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the v i s u a l and t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l w i l l s erve t o l o c a t e the f u n c t i o n o f the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a f e s t i v a l h e l d a t a time o f impending c o n f l i c t . The triumphal p r o c e s s i o n format of the i i i e n gravings d i s c l o s e s a s t r a t e g y o f d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f a powerful p a r l i a m e n t w h i l e i t serves t o a s s e r t the rank o f the c o u r t w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the German empire. The complex amalgams of imagery t h a t are i n t e r s p e r s e d i n the paper p r o c e s s i o n a l l u d e , I suggest, t o the problems p r e s e n t e d t o the Wurttemberg c o u r t by an uneasy a l l i a n c e o f P r o t e s t a n t c o u r t s w i t h i n the empire. The engravings served t o encode r e f e r e n c e s t o p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e s such as the s u r v i v a l o f the Holy Roman Empire, the r i g h t s o f P r o t e s t a n t t e r r i t o r i a l p r i n c e s t o form an a l l i a n c e and the hopes f o r o u t s i d e h e l p f o r the P r o t e s t a n t cause. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s v Acknowledgments v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 1. The paper p r o c e s s i o n : a t r i u m p h a l 23 e n t r y i n the c o n t e s t f o r a u t h o r i t y Chapter 2. P r i n c e l y v i r t u e and the "Kubelstechen" 44 Chapter 3. A grotesque t r a n s l a t i o n o f the empire 49 Chapter 4. The m i r r o r of a prudent e s t a t e 69 Chapter 5. A P r o t e s t a n t Venus? 81 C o n c l u s i o n 95 I l u s t r a t i o n s 97 B i b l i o g r a p h y 117 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e Page 1. S t u t t g a r t L u s t g a r t e n . S t u t t g a r t ; 1616. 97 2. F i r e w o r k s ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 98 3. Kubelstechen; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 99 4. Head B a l l e t ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 100 5. Arcimboldesques; a. Hunter; Saxony, 1596. b. T e r r a ; Munich, 1590's. 101 6. Mirror-maker B a l l e t ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 102 7. Germania and her C i r c l e s ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 103 8. Concord and D i s c o r d ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 104 9. Many-headed monsters; a. Seven-headed papal beast; c. 1530. b. S a t i r e on the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y ; 1556. 105 10. Schembart m i r r o r costume. Undated 106 11. Hungarian King; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 107 12. Venus and Cupid; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 108 13. Hungarians w i t h Turks 1 Heads; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 109 14. Hungarians w i t h a Moor's and Turks' heads; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 110 15. Venus; Strasbourg, 1494. I l l 16. The Babylonian Whore; Luther B i b l e 1534. 112 17. Commemorative medals f o r Reformation J u b i l e e of 1617. 113 18. E n g l i s h L a d i e s ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616. 114 19. T u r k i s h s o l d i e r w i t h c a p t i v e peasants; 1st h a l f of 16th century. 115 20. D r a c u l a ; Strasbourg, 1499. 116 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am inde b t e d t o Dr. Rose Marie San Juan who r e v e a l e d t o me the i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t o f the c o u r t l y f e s t i v a l i n e a r l y modern Europe. She g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d me w i t h comments and c r i t i c i s m i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s paper. Dr. Serge G u i l b a u t i n t r o d u c e d me t o a r t h i s t o r y and I am g r a t e f u l f o r having been h i s s tudent. I would l i k e t o thank David Thomsett who spent c o u n t l e s s hours improving h i s word p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s w h i l e t y p i n g f o r me. I d e d i c a t e t h i s paper t o the memory of Dr. B o r i s F i r c k s e r , an argumentative C e n t r a l European whose wide-ranging i n t e r e s t s and l i v e l y anecdotes i n s p i r e d me. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my pa r e n t s H e i n r i c h and Freda von Hahn f o r always l o o k i n g a f t e r me and f o r not l e t t i n g me f o r g e t my mother tongue. 1 INTRODUCTION When Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h of Wurttemberg had another son i n December o f 1615, an u n u s u a l l y l a v i s h program of entertainments was arranged and presented, t h r e e months l a t e r , t o a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d assembly of g u e s t s . The c o u r t subsequently commissioned t h r e e books c o m p r i s i n g more than f o u r hundred pages of t e x t and a book of more than e i g h t y engravings. The p u r p o r t e d reason f o r these f e s t i v i t i e s was the baptism o f the c h i l d , but none of the p r i n c e ' s o t h e r c h i l d r e n had been f e t e d i n t h i s l a v i s h manner, nor had f e s t i v a l books been produced f o r o t h e r baptisms. In t h i s study I want t o c o n s i d e r some of the weight c a r r i e d by the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s f e s t i v a l which took p l a c e a t the b e g i n n i n g of one o f the most t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d s i n C e n t r a l European h i s t o r y , the T h i r t y Years War. The l a v i s h e x penditure by a secondary c o u r t on numerous c o p p e r p l a t e engravings and l e n g t h y t e x t u a l accounts forms a p a r t of a system of c o s t l y c u l t u r a l patronage t h a t both o r i g i n a t e d from and r e i n f o r c e d the growth o f d u c a l power. By a m p l i f y i n g the impact of the f e s t i v a l , the book o f engravings performed a key f u n c t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l program of the e a r l y modern c o u r t . In the f e s t i v a l the r u l e r o f Wurttemberg c o u l d make m a n i f e s t h i s domination over p o l i t i c a l l i f e w i t h i n h i s s t a t e and the augmented power of h i s secondary c o u r t w i t h i n the empire. 2 V o l t a i r e ' s dictum t h a t the Holy Roman Empire was n e i t h e r h o l y , nor Roman nor an empire was a p p l i c a b l e l o n g b e f o r e he pronounced i t . The d i s s o l u t i o n o f the " h o l y " (the u n i v e r s a l church) by the Reformation enabled even m i d d l e - s i z e d p r i n c i p a l i t i e s l i k e t he duchy of Wurttemberg t o a s p i r e t o the s t a t u s o f the l a r g e c e n t r a l i z i n g monarchies o f Europe. In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg c o d i f i e d the r e l i g i o u s s t a t u s quo and gave t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r s w i t h i n the Empire the r i g h t t o impose e i t h e r C a t h o l i c i s m o r Lutheranism on t h e i r s u b j e c t s . P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s l i k e the dukes o f Wurttemberg were r e c o g n i z e d as the owners of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s they had s e i z e d d u r i n g the Reformation. Growth of t e r r i t o r i a l power became i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t i n P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c i p a l i t i e s where the r u l e r became the patr o n , defender and n u r t u r e r o f the church as w e l l as the owner of the l a n d h o l d i n g s o f the c h u r c h . 1 P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s by t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n church a f f a i r s a l s o became o v e r s e e r s o f e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l w e l f a r e ; u n i v e r s i t i e s f l o u r i s h e d i n P r o t e s t a n t areas where the d i g r e s s i o n from C a t h o l i c s c h o l a s t i c i s m opened new areas o f 2 study such as astronomy, p h i l o s o p h y and s t a t e c r a f t . U n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d nobles and burghers took j o b s i n the growing b u r e a u c r a t i c apparatus o f the Wurtttemberg c o u r t . As the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y o f the Empire d e c l i n e d , t e r r i t o r i a l p r i n c e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about t h e i r power and p l a c e . 3 T h i s new t e r r i t o r i a l s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e expressed i t s e l f not o n l y i n b u i l d i n g programs and defense p r o j e c t s but a l s o i n c o l l e c t i n g and a r t patronage. T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n towards v i s u a l d i s p l a y i s demonstrated i n the engraving of the " L u s t g a r t e n " , the expanded c o u r t complex t h a t appears as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the book of engravings devoted t o the baptism f e s t i v a l ( f i g . l ) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the "Lusthaus" o r entertainment house which dominated the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the c i t y s i g n a l l e d a new p r i o r i t y o f the d u c a l c o u r t away from i t s f e u d a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r defense t o one of d i s p l a y of grandeur. W i t h i n the w a l l s of the c i t y the p a s t o r s , burghers and l e s s e r s o c i a l o r d e r s had n o t h i n g t o g a i n from the e r e c t i o n of an o p u l e n t stage f o r an e v e r - e s c a l a t i n g show of c o u r t l y power. The r e s i d e n t s of the s m a l l medieval market town o f S t u t t g a r t and o f the many oth e r towns of Wurttemberg had no i n t e r e s t i n s u b s i d i z i n g the b a l l s , f e s t i v a l s and tournaments t h a t took 3 p l a c e i n t h e " L u s t g a r t e n " . The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f conspicuous consumption and c u l t u r a l patronage was beyond the means o f the s m a l l c o u r t ; t h i s e n t e r p r i s e r e q u i r e d ever g r e a t e r s u b s i d i e s from r e c a l c i t r a n t s u b j e c t s . The e s c a l a t i o n s i n p r i n c e l y s t y l e put g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r demands on the populace t h a t r e q u i r e d the l i f t i n g o f l o c a l p r i v i l e g e s i n o r d e r t o r e s t r u c t u r e the 4 t a x a t i o n system t o the b e n e f i t of the c o u r t . In 1593, the same year the Lusthaus was completed, Duke F r i e d r i c h acceded t o the throne. T h i s e a r l y a b s o l u t i s t p r i n c e 4 v i g o r o u s l y pursued the s h i f t i n o r i e n t a t i o n o f d u c a l power away from l o c a l f e u d a l government concerns. The Wurttemberg c o n s t i t u t i o n had p r o v i d e d f o r p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the towns w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y . T h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y body, t h a t a c t e d as a counterweight t o d u c a l power, was i g n o r e d by Duke F r i e d r i c h i n o r d e r t o suppress i t s a u t h o r i t y . H i s modernizing program was modelled on the more c e n t r a l i z e d and powerful c o u r t s he had v i s i t e d i n V a l o i s 5 . . . . France and Tudor England . In a d d i t i o n t o F r i e d r i c h ' s t a c t i c s o f e x c l u d i n g h i s l o c a l p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s from government he pursued an aggrandizement program i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u r t l y arena. t Duke F r i e d r i c h 1 s ambitions t o become a monarch o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e i n c l u d e d a p l e a d i n g and p a t h e t i c campaign t o be admitted i n t o the E n g l i s h Order o f the G a r t e r by E l i z a b e t h I. A v i s i t and e l e v e n y e a r s ' worth o f l e t t e r s and g i f t s t o the Queen d i d not. b r i n g the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s f o r the duke whom the Queen c a l l e d "Cousin Mompelgart" (a name d e r i v e d from one of h i s l a n d h o l d i n g s , the t i n y Wurttemberg-owned area of M o n t b e l i a r d w i t h i n the borders of F r a n c e ) . A f t e r the death of E l i z a b e t h I Duke F r i e d r i c h pursued h i s g o a l of admission t o the Order w i t h her s u c c e s s o r James I and was f i n a l l y accepted i n t o the Order i n 1603. 6 (Whether he a c h i e v e d the r e c o g n i t i o n he sought i s d o u b t f u l -King James i s s a i d t o have asked: "Who i s t h i s Mompelgart?") 5 Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h became the r u l e r o f Wurttemberg a t the death o f h i s f a t h e r F r i e d r i c h i n 1608. P a r t s o f Johann F r i e d r i c h ' s d i a r y , the Calendarium Domesticum. are s t i l l i n 7 e x i s t e n c e . In them he r e v e a l e s h i m s e l f t o be the s o r t of German p r i n c e who contented h i m s e l f w i t h the time-honoured p u r s u i t s of h u n t i n g and d r i n k i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t r u c t u r e s o f c o u r t l y ambition were i n p l a c e i n the showpiece c o u r t and h i s d i a r i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t he took the job of mo n a r c h i c a l d i s p l a y s e r i o u s l y . H i s agents i n Prague and Vienna kept him informed of the newest tournament games enjoyed a t those c o u r t s w h i l e an agent i n France sent him news Q of the l a t e s t f a s h i o n s i n c l o t h i n g . In the g r a n d i o s e f e s t i v a l staged f o r h i s 1609 wedding and seven y e a r s l a t e r f o r the baptism of one of h i s c h i l d r e n , Johann F r i e d r i c h c o n t i n u e d h i s f a t h e r ' s t a c t i c s o f c u l t u r a l d i s p l a y as a means t o d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f from h i s s u b j e c t s and t o e n f o r c e a new p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The 1616 baptism f u r t h e r a llowed f o r the p u r s u i t of an aggrandizement program on a n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . C l e a r l y i t was the presence o f the P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r F r e d e r i c k V and h i s E n g l i s h w i f e , the daughter of James I, r a t h e r than the baptism, t h a t made t h i s event worthy of a major c e l e b r a t i o n . The use of a " p r i v a t e " f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n such as a baptism f i t s i n t o an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u r t l y p r a c t i c e . The V a l o i s c o u r t had made e x t e n s i v e use of d y n a s t i c marriages t o employ the c u l t u r a l apparatus of the " f e t e " t o promote 6 c o n c i a l i a t o r y e f f o r t s d u r i n g the Wars of R e l i g i o n . In these French f e s t i v a l s the c o n f l i c t between w a r r i n g r e l i g i o u s f a c t i o n s was r e p l i c a t e d and performed i n a symbolic and f e s t i v e form. Such l a r g e r i s s u e s were a l s o addressed i n the 1616 S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l but i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t manner. The p r i v a t e d y n a s t i c o c c a s i o n of the S t u t t g a r t baptism f e s t i v a l s erved as a forum t o c e l e b r a t e and p u b l i c i z e a v i s i o n o f u n i t y o f what was i n a c t u a l i t y an uneasy a l l i a n c e o f P r o t e s t a n t f a c t i o n s . Wurttemberg was an arch-Lutheran s t r o n g h o l d ; i t s u n i v e r s i t y a t Tubingen was the main t r a i n i n g s c h o o l w i t h i n the empire f o r P r o t e s t a n t p a s t o r s . In the years f o l l o w i n g the 1555 T r e a t y of Augsburg which had been advantageous f o r Lutheran p r i n c e s Wurttemberg maintained a stance o f n e u t r a l i t y i n c o n f e s s i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . But the h i s t o r i a n R.J.W. Evans has p o i n t e d out t h a t i t i s a textbook f a c t (and almost the o n l y one t h a t can be s t a t e d about t h i s d i f f i c u l t p e r iod) t h a t a f t e r 1555 10 r e l i g i o u s squabbles grew. One major source o f c o n f l i c t o r i g i n a t e d i n the e x c l u s i o n of C a l v i n i s m from the 1555 a c c o r d ; C a l v i n i s t s became i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l i t a n t a f t e r t h i s s e t t l e m e n t i n which they had r e c e i v e d no guarantees. Towards the end of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c s launched a new o f f e n s i v e t o r e e s t a b l i s h a s i n g l e , u n i f i e d church i n the empire. C a t h o l i c p r i n c e s , i n s p i r e d by J e s u i t t e a c h e r s who were determined t o r o u t out the heresy of P r o t e s t a n t i s m , became a g g r e s s i v e defenders of the Church o f Rome. By 1608, p o s t - T r i d e n t i n e 7 f e r v o u r had caused the o c c u p a t i o n o f the f r e e i m p e r i a l c i t y of Donauworth by C a t h o l i c f o r c e s and the demand by C a t h o l i c s f o r the r e s t i t u t i o n o f c l o i s t e r s s e i z e d a f t e r 1552. I n c r e a s i n g C a t h o l i c m i l i t a n c y had convinced a number o f P r o t e s t a n t s t a t e s and f r e e c i t i e s w i t h i n the German empire of the need t o form a union f o r defense. The C a t h o l i c p r i n c e s responded by forming a league under the l e a d e r s h i p o f M a x i m i l i a n o f B a v a r i a . In the l a s t decade b e f o r e the outbreak o f the T h i r t y Years War, the P r o t e s t a n t Union and the C a t h o l i c League f a c e d o f f i n a m i s t r u s t f u l and expectant way; these defense unions promoted a war-readiness t h a t rushed toward w a r . 1 1 Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h of Wurttemberg j o i n e d t h i s union over the o b j e c t i o n s of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y assembly t h a t he had o n l y r e c e n t l y reconvened a f t e r the death of h i s f a t h e r . Any d e f e r e n c e the duke showed t o h i s p a r l i a m e n t was due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the t e r r i b l e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of the c o u r t ' s 12 t r e a s u r y . The c o u r t was too bankrupt t o borrow money and needed p a r l i a m e n t a r y guarantees t o f i n d c r e d i t o r s . The duke needed the f i n a n c i a l support o f h i s p a r l i a m e n t t o j o i n the P r o t e s t a n t Union but the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s f e a r e d t h a t t h i s u n i o n would l o a d f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l burdens on them and would e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o war. The union r e p r e s e n t e d a dangerous and r e b e l l i o u s a l l i a n c e t h a t t h r e a t e n e d the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the German empire whose i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e d a f i n a l c o u r t o f appeal i n i n t e r - e s t a t e d i s p u t e s . F u r t h e r , the staunch Lutherans of the Wurttemberg p a r l i a m e n t were v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o 8 j o i n i n t o a union w i t h C a l v i n i s t s w i t h whom d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s had reached a h i g h l e v e l o f acrimony. The P r o t e s t a n t Union however was under the C a l v i n i s t l e a d e r s h i p o f the E l e c t o r F r e d e r i c k V, r u l e r o f the P a l a t i n a t e . For a l o n g time the P a l a t i n a t e , a l a r g e c e n t r a l t e r r i t o r y w i t h i t s d u c a l s e a t i n H e i d e l b e r g had l e d the C a l v i n i s t s i n the empire t o work towards u n i t i n g a l l P r o t e s t a n t s . C h r i s t i a n o f A n h a l t , the main a d v i s o r o f the v e r y young F r e d e r i c k V, o r c h e s t r a t e d the f o r m a t i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t Union under P a l a t i n a t e l e a d e r s h i p . A n h a l t e x p l o i t e d the P r o t e s t a n t cause f o r the aggrandizement of the P a l a t i n a t e by a r r a n g i n g the marriage of F r e d e r i c k t o E l i z a b e t h S t u a r t , daughter of James I of England. The hope was t h a t t h i s marriage a l l i a n c e would secure the support o f England and 13 the Netherlands f o r the P r o t e s t a n t s i d e . In 1608 the m i l i t a n t P r o t e s t a n t s of the P a l a t i n a t e had succeeded a t the R e i c h s t a g , the i m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t , i n o r g a n i z i n g a union f o r defense. While emphasizing the maintenance of f i d e l i t y t o the i m p e r i a l f e d e r a t i o n some P r o t e s t a n t t e r r i t o r i e s agreed t o defend each other, t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a fund f o r t h i s purpose and t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r v i a a " s e c r e t 14 correspondence". While the C a t h o l i c League looked f o r support from Spain, the P r o t e s t a n t Union hoped t o encounter the i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l i t a n t C a t h o l i c Counter Reformation a l l i a n c e w i t h a i n t e r n a t i o n a l 9 P r o t e s t a n t b l o c . The P a l a t i n a t e marriage h e l d the promise of f u r t h e r i n g the cause of a Pan-European P r o t e s t a n t a x i s . Not l e a s t among the o b s t a c l e s t o forming a P r o t e s t a n t power b l o c were the i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s among German p r i n c e s o f the Holy Roman Empire o f the German Nation. Lutheran p r i n c e s f e a r e d the m i l i t a n c y of the C a l v i n i s t P a l a t i n a t e s who were ready t o take up arms a g a i n s t the emperor, w h i l e Lutheran p r i n c e s knew they had n o t h i n g t o g a i n and much t o l o s e i n an armed 15 c o n f r o n t a t i o n . The d i s u n i t y among German P r o t e s t a n t s dampened the w i l l i n g n e s s of the Reformed powers o u t s i d e the 16 empire t o support the P r o t e s t a n t Union. The marriage of the E n g l i s h k i n g ' s daughter t o the P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r appeared t o g i v e the P r o t e s t a n t cause i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t r e n g t h . Past the e a s t e r n reaches o f the Empire the P r o t e s t a n t s c o u l d l o o k t o the "dubious h e l p of a weird, barbarous C a l v i n i s t p r i n c e from 17 T r a n s y l v a n i a named Beth l e n Gabor". The P r o t e s t a n t Union sought f o r o u t s i d e support t h a t c o u l d r i v a l the s t r o n g e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c a x i s . The f e s t i v a l i n 1616 p r o v i d e d an i d e a l , and perhaps somewhat c o v e r t s e t t i n g f o r a meeting of those P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s who had j o i n e d the Union. The major success i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t p o l i t i c s t h a t the marriage of F r e d e r i c k V t o E l i z a b e t h S t u a r t r e p r e s e n t e d was t o be extended t o Wurttemberg by having F r e d e r i c k and E l i z a b e t h take the r o l e of godparents a t the baptism of the Wurttemberg p r i n c e l i n g . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l importance of the event i s i n d i c a t e d by the 10 extravagance o f the f e s t i v a l whose c o s t s f a r exceeded the means o f the c o u r t . I t i s known from government r e c o r d s t h a t the duchy a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d an e a r l y payout of i t s 18 share o f Union funds f o r 1616. While i t i s not known t o what exten t , i f any, o t h e r s t a t e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the event f i n a n c i a l l y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the l a v i s h n e s s o f the event was 19 beyond the means o f the s m a l l t e r r i t o r y . Many y e a r s l a t e r , the b a p t i s m a l c h i l d h i m s e l f wrote i n h i s memoirs: "The baptism was c a l l e d the Great Baptism because of the g r e a t number of people and the t o o - g r e a t expenses t h a t went i n t o i t , f o r c o s t l y p r o c e s s i o n s , tournaments, f i r e w o r k s and expensive p u b l i c a t i o n s . . . w h i c h we are s t i l l p a y i n g f o r today." The c o s t and v a r i e t y o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the f e s t i v a l d i s s e m i n a t e d a f t e r the event i t s e l f p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t the s p e c t a c l e was intended t o f u n c t i o n not o n l y w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y o f Wurttemberg and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g German d u c a l s t a t e s . Three t e x t s were produced and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e , language and content between these show an i n t e n t t o t a r g e t l o c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l audiences. While p u b l i s h i n g t e x t s o f c o u r t f e s t i v i t i e s was not new, the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the form of engravings was unprecedented and i n t r o d u c e d t o the Wurttemberg c o u r t d u r i n g the r e i g n o f Johann F r i e d r i c h (1608-1628) . The baptism engravings p r e s e n t a f a n t a s t i c and b a f f l i n g a r r a y o f images of costumed r i d e r s , pageant c a r s , g i a n t heads, g r o t t o s , the c o u r t l y s e t t i n g , f i r e w o r k s , impaled Turks, L a t i n mottos, a Maltese g a l l e y , e t c . 11 How d i d these images f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the d i v e r s e groups addressed by the t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ? The Reformation, which had empowered t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r s , had been f u e l e d by p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l which made unprecedented use o f v i s u a l imagery t o promote the d o c t r i n a l cause. The power of p r i n t had been t e s t e d by the Reformation and had shown i t s 21 e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a medium o f mass propaganda. The proven power of v i s u a l p e r s u a s i o n , i r o n i c a l l y unleashed by a movement wi t h i c o n o c l a s t i c aims, was e n l i s t e d f o r a v i s u a l show of power t h a t communicated the wealth, e d u c a t i o n and t a s t e of the t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r . " I t was the Reformation t h a t f i r s t drove the p o l i t i c i a n s and b u r e a u c r a t s of Europe t o s t r i v e f o r domination over the hears and minds of t h e i r s u b j e c t s f a r more t o t a l than any t h a t had been seen b e f o r e . " While the medium o f p r i n t had used l u r i d and s c a t o l o g i c a l images f o r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l commentary i n i l l u s t r a t e d broadsheets, t h i s absence of any standards o f decorum had proven an o b s t a c l e t o the s t a t u s of the p r i n t e d image among 23 the v i s u a l a r t s . The p r i n t e d image needed t o be made worthy as a medium of c o u r t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C h a r l e s T a l b o t l o c a t e s Durer's e x t e n s i v e use of p r i n t technology as the moment t h a t a l lowed the p r i n t e d image t o g a i n s t a t u r e t o become as a u t h o r i t a t i v e and as worthy a medium f o r the a r t i s t as 24 p a i n t i n g or s c u l p t u r e . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , i t would seem t h a t Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h r e a l i z e d t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t s were b e t t e r served by p r i n t s which c o u l d be w i d e l y 1 2 c i r c u l a t e d , than by p a i n t i n g s o r t a p e s t r i e s . The seventeenth c e n t u r y p a t r o n d i d not appear t o r e g a r d the m u l t i p l e p r i n t e d image i n low esteem, and i n f a c t , f o r the S t u t t g a r t c o u r t the p r i n t e d image h e l d advantages t h a t accrued from i t s v e r y l a c k o f uniqueness. As T a l b o t ' s a n a l y s i s o f p r i n t e d imagery s t a t e s : "... one supposes t h a t the p r i n t e d image c a r r i e d a c e r t a i n weight because of i t s p u b l i s h e d form, i m p l y i n g p u b l i c v e r i f i c a t i o n as f a r and wide as the c o p i e s were dis s e m i n a t e d . The tendency t o b e l i e v e what appears i n p r i n t s u r e l y a p p l i e d i n some degree t o the b e h o l d e r of a v i s u a l image, j u s t as i t always has t o r e a d e r s . " The p r o d u c t i o n of p r i n t s i n m u l t i p l e c o p i e s assured the Wurttemberg c o u r t t h a t these d e p i c t i o n s would have the widest p o s s i b l e impact. I r o n i c a l l y , a r t h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p which v a l o r i z e s the a u r a t i c q u a l i t i e s of the unique o b j e c t has tended t o i g n o r e the p r i n t e d image i n f a v o r of p a i n t i n g or s c u l p t u r e . Another hindrance t o a r t h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the v i s u a l imagery produced by a secondary c o u r t must be the e x t e n t t o which the canon o f noteworthy a r t o b j e c t s i s formulated i n accordance w i t h "triumphant" p e r i o d s of h i s t o r y . The p r o d u c t i o n o f the German Renaissance i s l i n k e d t o the v i g o u r o f f r e e i m p e r i a l c i t i e s as c e n t r e s of a r t s and c r a f t s p r o d u c t i o n . The economic s t r e n g t h and wealth of the c i t y was i n d e c l i n e by the end o f the s i x t e e n t h century. At t h a t time the growth i n s t a t u r e o f t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t e s , generated by the Reformation which empowered t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r s , e c l i p s e d the importance of the f r e e c i t y . The Reformation had p u l l e d German-speaking 13 Europe a p a r t along r e l i g i o u s l i n e s j u s t as o t h e r European peoples were s o l i d i f y i n g i n t o n a t i o n s . O u t s i d e t h e maritime powers w i t h experimental bourgeois regimes, most o f Europe found an e f f i c i e n t and s t a b l e model o f government i n 27 a b s o l u t i s m based on the French model. In the German empire, however, the many s m a l l domains adopted the c o u r t l y s t y l e o f a b s o l u t i s t regimes without a t t a i n i n g much s t a b i l i t y i n the p e r i o d o f the looming c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f the T h i r t y Years War. While the focus of a r t h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s h i f t s t o the l a r g e r ascendant regimes of n o r t h e r n Europe and France, C e n t r a l Europe i s r e l e g a t e d t o the p o s i t i o n of a minor s i d e show of incompetent i m i t a t i o n o f the dominant s t y l e s . S a c h e v e r e l l S i t w e l l ' s d i s c u s s i o n i n h i s German Baroque a r t (1928) e x e m p l i f i e s the d i s d a i n the a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of the t u r n of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y c a l l e d f o r t h when the s t y l e of the German Renaissance had e x p i r e d and the Baroque was not y e t i n p l a c e : "Both Durer and H o l b e i n were gone, and a p e r i o d of s t r a n g e d i s t o r t e d t a s t e was i n p r o g r e s s . . . t h e Augsburg goldsmiths were i n the midst of t h e i r m i c r o s c o p i c achievement; t h e r e were e l a b o r a t e woodcuts i n the Durer t r a d i t i o n s t i l l engraved and sold...some of the Ducal f a m i l i e s , t o judge by p o r t r a i t s , had by now a t t a i n e d through d y n a s t i c marriages a t r u l y p o r t e n t o u s p i t c h of u g l i n e s s . . . 1 1 Only i n r e c e n t years have e f f o r t s been made t o r e e v a l u a t e the 29 a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . a 1979 p u b l i c a t i o n , reproduces an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n o f the t e x t u a l and v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of two S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l s . 14 T h i s obscure b i b l i o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l was o f f e r e d as a c h a l l e n g e f o r f u r t h e r study of t h i s n e g l e c t e d e r a . The unusual wealth o f t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l was r e - i s s u e d i n o r d e r t o c o n t e x t u a l i z e the Wurttemberg p o e t r y of Georg Rudolf Weckherlin, whose s h o r t German c a r e e r s t i l l a f f o r d e d him a p l a c e i n German Baroque l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y as an i n n o v a t o r i n c o u r t l y p a n e g y r i c . The engravings produced f o r the S t u t t g a r t baptism f e s t i v a l were r e p r i n t e d i n a separate volume as an addendum t o the t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l . In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e the complex i n t e r s e c t i o n s between the program of m u l t i p l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and the aims o f the f e s t i v a l i t s e l f , I i n t e n d t o e x p l o r e the j u n c t i o n s and the d i s p a r i t i e s w i t h i n these h i s t o r i c a l fragments. T h i s study w i l l s e t out t o uncover how the v i s u a l m a t e r i a l f u n c t i o n e d as both a s e p a r a t e and a complementary element of the t e x t u a l commemorative program. What c o u l d the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f e r and what d i d i t o f f e r beyond the t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l ? d i d the engravings f u l f i l l the u s u a l f u n c t i o n of the c o u r t l y f e s t i v a l , which was t o b r i d g e d i f f e r e n c e s or t o d i s g u i s e o p p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o show power a t a time o f c r i s i s ? While the f e s t i v a l i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a s i n g l e s e t o f engravings, t h r e e t e x t s were commissioned by the c o u r t t o r e c o r d the event. Two t e x t s , w r i t t e n by Georg Rudolf Weckherlin, i n both German and E n g l i s h , have r e c e i v e d s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n because o f t h a t poet's i n n o v a t i o n o f 15 i n t r o d u c i n g i n t o German the l o f t y s t y l e t h a t European c o u r t s had adopted f o r v e r n a c u l a r p a n e g y r i c . H i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d account, c a l l e d Triumphal1 Shews i n E n g l i s h , f o c u s s e d on the e l a b o r a t e costumed p r o c e s s i o n s o f the "tournaments" i n which the duke and h i s p r i n c e l y guests performed c a r e f u l l y choreographed d i s p l a y s of horsemanship and f o o t combat. With s u s t a i n e d a r t i f i c i a l n a i v e t e , the poet con v e r t e d the r o y a l parade i n t o p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of m y t h o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l monarchs. A c c o r d i n g t o one l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n , W eckherlin saw pageants as symbols o f the h i g h l e v e l of German c u l t u r e t h a t , as such, c o u l d a c t t o guarantee her s a f e t y i n t r o u b l e d times: " I n s t e a d of p e r i l o u s a c t u a l i t y , i n s t e a d o f the p r i n c e l y couple who f e l t t h e i r r e l i g i o n and t h e i r domain were i n s e r i o u s danger, Weckherlin d e s c r i b e s a r u l i n g f a m i l y of demi-gods l i v i n g i n p e r f e c t s e c u r i t y i n a p u r e l y imaginary l a n d . " What t h i s h i s t o r i a n i d e n t i f i e d as an U t o p i a n v i s i o n was necessary f o r the c u l t u r a l show of power t h a t was intended t o p l a c e the secondary Wurttemberg c o u r t of the same l e v e l as the l a r g e r c e n t r a l i z e d European c o u r t s . The need t o speak t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u r t l y audience i n an e l e g a n t and e q u i v a l e n t v o i c e s i g n a l s the importance o f the "baptism" as a show of a l l i a n c e of the P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s who had come t o g e t h e r i n a f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n . In the s o p h i s t i c a t e d language o f Weckherlin's c o u r t l y p r a i s e , as w e l l as the l a v i s h g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the Wurttemberg c o u r t and i t s c o n f e d e r a t e s c o u l d , v i a c u l t u r a l patronage, a s s e r t 16 t h e i r power and worthiness as a l l i e s . (Perhaps t h e f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n program can be read as an answer t o James I's doubts about the s i t u a t i o n o f the German t e r r i t o r i a l p r i n c e s : "Tant de p e t i t s p r i n c e s n'y f o n t r i e n q u i v a i l l e " , he i s 31 . r e p o r t e d t o have sa i d . ) Weckherlm's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the f e s t i v a l pageantry i n both German and E n g l i s h was meant t o impress an i n t e r n a t i o n a l audience w i t h a s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o u r t l y s t y l e and w i t h an i d e a l i z e d image of P r o t e s t a n t u n i t y . Another t e x t was commissioned by the S t u t t g a r t c o u r t from a c o u r t s e c r e t a r y , Johann-Augustin Assum. T h i s account f o l l o w e d the o l d s t y l e o f German c o u r t l y p a n e g y r i c . The E n g l i s h n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h i s t o r i a n , W i l l i a m Brenchley Rye, a p t l y d e s c r i b e s the nature of the l e s s up-to-date s t y l e o f c o u r t l y w r i t i n g t h a t was superseded by Weckherlin. A 1605 court-commissioned t e x t c e l e b r a t e d another momentous i n t e r n a t i o n a l event f o r the Wurttemberg c o u r t , the i n v e s t i t u r e o f the duke i n t o the E n g l i s h Order of the G a r t e r . Rye d e s c r i b e s the book as "a most t e d i o u s and tiresome book t o c o n s u l t , b e i n g laden w i t h d i g r e s s i o n s on every c o n c e i v a b l e 32 s u b j e c t . A German n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h i s t o r i a n a p p l i e s a s i m i l a r judgment t o Assum's 1616 Baptism p a n e g y r i c . He s t a t e s : " I t would go too f a r i f I were t o e l a b o r a t e on t h i s p e c u l i a r t e x t . T h i s same p r e s e n t s w i t h i t s p o i n t e d learnedness, i t s l a b o r i o u s n e s s and i t s f a r - r e a c h i n g d e t a i l , a most s o r r y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . " 1 7 The l e n g t h y d i g r e s s i o n s i n Assum's t e x t i d e n t i f y i t as the work o f a " p o l y h i s t o r " . Anthony G r a f t o n most r e c e n t l y reexamined t h i s p e c u l i a r l y German phenomenon o f s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the p u r s u i t s o f humanism and 34 encyclopedism o r eloquence and e r u d i t i o n . These w r i t e r s generated the most len g t h y and t e d i o u s t r e a t i s e s packed w i t h a d i s p l a y o f e n c y c l o p e d i c knowledge. Assum's p e d a n t i c e x h i b i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g , a l b e i t i n a d r e a r y form, s e r v e d t o s e t the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l i n t o an a p p r o p r i a t e l y grand h i s t o r i c a l framework. H i s t e x t i s ornamented w i t h l e n g t h y enumerations o f a n t i q u e and more r e c e n t precedents f o r the pageantry as w e l l as excursuses on p a s t g r e a t events i n the h i s t o r y o f the house of Wurttemberg. Assum's e f f o r t s t o p l a c e the f e s t i v a l i n t o a g l o r i o u s c o n t e x t o f h i s t o r i c a l antecedents and t o p r a i s e the Wurttemberg dynasty p o i n t s t o a r u l e r l e g i t i m i z i n g purpose t h a t was addressed t o a Wurttemberg audience. The l o n g l i s t s o f names of the a r i s t o c r a t i c guests t h a t p o p ulate h i s d e s c r i p t i o n make c l e a r t h a t h i s t e x t was i ntended f o r a l o c a l German audience. A f u r t h e r document t h a t was not commissioned by the S t u t t g a r t c o u r t i s the handwritten account of the f e s t i v a l by the d i p l o m a t i c correspondent, P h i l i p p H a i n h o f e r . H i s account was commissioned by another German t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r , the Duke of Pommern-Stettin. H a i n h o f e r ' s account was not p u b l i s h e d , but a number o f c o p i e s are known t o have been c i r c u l a t e d ; among the r e c i p i e n t s were the p r i n c i p a l guests of the baptism, the 18 P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o an 1891 a n a l y s i s o f H a i n h o f e r ' s t e x t , the d i p l o m a t i c l e t t e r was meant t o g i v e an example f o r h i s p a t r o n of how such an important f e s t i v i t y was 3 6 t o be c e l e b r a t e d by a c o u r t . H a i n h o f e r ' s account g i v e s an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d e t a i l e d and v i v i d p i c t u r e of the c o u r t l y f e s t i v a l ; he d e s c r i b e s s e a t i n g arrangements, the v a l u e of g i f t s g i v e n , the contents o f the "Kunstkammer", the number of d i s h e s served, the p r e c i o u s gems adorning p r i n c e l y h a t s , the number of pages i n an entourage, e t c . , i n a t i r e l e s s assessment o f rank and s t a t u s f o r h i s p a t r o n . H i s i n d e l i c a t e a p p r a i s a l of the wealth of the h o s t and h i s guests l a i d bare the purpose of the event as a c o m p e t i t i v e show o f power and s o v e r e i g n majesty. Perhaps the most v a l u a b l e d e t a i l s i n H a i n h o f e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n are those t h a t draw a t t e n t i o n t o the extreme c a u t i o n w i t h which the Wurttemberg c o u r t wanted the symbolic elements o f the pageantry handled. H a i n h o f e r ' s account, i n a t l e a s t two i n s t a n c e s , commented on segments of the f e s t i v a l t h a t the commissioned t e x t s l e a v e out. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e and language o f the t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o n s t r u c t e d s p e c i f i c audiences. The q u e s t i o n o f audience seems more co m p l i c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the s e t o f engravings. I i n t e n d t o show t h a t these embraced d i f f e r e n t v i e w i n g p o s i t i o n s . By f o c u s s i n g on where the v i s u a l and the t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l are a t v a r i a n c e and where they a c t i n c o n c e r t , the d i f f i c u l t i e s the Wurttemberg c o u r t f a c e d w i t h a s p e c t a c l e o f majesty w i l l h o p e f u l l y be brought t o l i g h t . 19 Chapter One w i l l c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n s o f e x c l u s i o n and i n c l u s i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . How i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f e s t i v a l c o n s t r u c t e d by the t e x t s and by the engravings? T h i s examination w i l l d i s c l o s e t h a t the a b s o l u t i s t image the c o u r t propagated d i d not correspond t o the a c t u a l power o f the c o u r t . The s t r u c t u r e o f the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a tri u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format made v i s i b l e t he h i e r a r c h y o f the Wurttemberg c o u r t and the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e r r i t o r i a l c o u r t s . I w i l l suggest t h a t the e x c l u s i o n o f a l l but a c o u r t l y e l i t e from the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n served t o r e i n f o r c e d u c a l attempts t o e s t a b l i s h t he c o u r t as the s o l e l o c u s o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the r e t a r d a t o r y p a r l i a m e n t a r y government of the t e r r i t o r y . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the s u r p r i s i n g appearance of the "Kubelstechen", a p a i d performance by s t a b l e grooms, which seems c u r i o u s l y out of sync i n a program w i t h r u l e r -l e g i t i m i z i n g aims. The l a s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s w i l l focus on those engravings which seem t o stand out from the r e p e t i t i v e conventions o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a tri u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n . While the show of c o u r t l y i n v e n t i v e n e s s and n o v e l t y might have subsumed p o t e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c images, these nonetheless r e g i s t e r complex r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l content. My i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l f o cus on how c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s such as the s u r v i v a l o f the i d e a l o f the Holy Roman Empire, the r i g h t s o f c o r p o r a t e s o l i d a r i t y o f t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r s w i t h i n the s t i l l - v a l i d e s t a t i s t s t r u c t u r e o f the German Empire and the fo r m a t i o n o f 20 an i n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e were addressed i n a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which remained t r u e t o an all-encompassing e x p r e s s i o n of c o u r t l y power and m a g n i f i c e n c e . Attempting a h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the enigmatic v o c a b u l a r y of these images without guidance from the o t h e r forms o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or from documentary evidence of t h e i r r e c e p t i o n i s , of course, not without r i s k s . However, I w i l l argue t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s had the c a p a c i t y t o s e l e c t i v e l y address and c o n s t r u c t v i e w i n g audiences. 1. F. S i e b e r , V o l k und v o l k s t u m l i c h e M o t i v i k im Festwerke  des Barocks ( B e r l i n , 1960), p.X. 2. Propylaen W e l t q e s c h i c h t e B e r l i n , (1929-1933), p.358. 3. J.A. Vann, The Making of a S t a t e . Wurttemberg 1593-1793, p.29. 4. J.A. Vann, p.21. 5. J.A. Vann, p.54. 6. W.B. Rye, England as Seen bv F o r e i g n e r s (London, 1865), pp.IX-XCII. 7. Die Tagebucher des Herzogs Johann F r i e d r i c h von  Wurttemberg aus den Jahren 1615-1617. Ed. I.Hanack, (Goppingen, 1972). 8. I n g r i d Hanack's e d i t i o n of Johann F r i e d r i c k ' s d i a r y g i v e s an overview o f the duke's i n t e r e s t s i n the accoutrements of monarchical d i s p l a y . 9. F. Yates, The V a l o i s T a p e s t r i e s (London, 1959). 10. R.J.W. Evans, " C u l t u r e and Anarchy i n the Empire", C e n t r a l European H i s t o r y 18 (1985), p.19. 11. Propylaen W.. o p . c i t . , p.390. 21 12. W. Grube, Der S t u t t g a r t e r Landtag. 1457-1957 ( S t u t t g a r t , 1957), p.274-275. 13. J.W. Zophy, The Holy Roman Empire (London, 1978), p.160. 14. G. Benecke, Germany i n the T h i r t y Years War (London, 1978), p.10. 15. R. Krebs, Die P o l i t i s c h e P u b l i z i s t i k der J e s u i t e n und  i h r e r Gegner ( H a l l e , 1890), p.93. 16. A.A. van Schelven, "Der G e n e r a l s t a b des p o l i t i s c h e n C a l v i n i s m u s i n Z e n t r a l e u r o p a zu Beginn des d r e i s s i g j a h r i g e n K r i e g e s " , A r c h i v f u r  R e f o r m a t i o n s g e s c h i c h t e 35-36 (1938-1939), p.118. 17. H.A.L. F i s c h e r , A H i s t o r y of Europe, v o l . 1 . (Glasgow, 1960), p.621. 18. S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . p.509. 19. S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e , p.509. 20. S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . p.509. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 21. R. S c r i b n e r , Popular C u l t u r e and Popular Movements i n  Reformation Germany (London, 1987), p.277. 22. L. Stone, The Past and the Present R e v i s i t e d (London, 1987), p.100. 23. G.P. Tyson and S.S. Wagonheim, eds., P r i n t and C u l t u r e  i n the Renaissance (Newark, 1986), I n t r o d u c t i o n : P. 12. 24. C h a r l e s T a l b o t , " P r i n t s and the D e f i n i t i v e Image" i n P r i n t and C u l t u r e i n the Renaissance, pp.189-205. 25. C. T a l b o t , o p . c i t . , p.199. 26. H. Trevor-Roper, "The General C r i s i s i n the Seventeenth Century", C r i s i s i n Europe 1550-1650 (Anchor, 1967) p.74. 27. T h i s phenomenon i s analyzed by E . J . Hobsbawm, "The c r i s i s i n the Seventeenty Century", C r i s i s i n Europe  1550-1660 (Anchor, 1967), pp.5-63. 28. S a c h e v e r e l l S i t w e l l , German Baroque A r t (New York, 1928), p.14. 29. For example, a r e g i o n a l German r e v i s i o n i n a 1986 K a r l s r u h e e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g Die Renaissance im  deutschen Sudwesten zwischen Reformation und 22 d r e i s s i g j a h r i g e n n K r i e q o f f e r s a r e a p p r a i s a l of the v i s u a l a r t s of the pre-war e r a . 30. C u r t von Faber du Faur, German Baroque L i t e r a t u r e (New Haven, 1958), p.XX. 31. A.A. van Schelven, o p . c i t . , p.118. 32. W.B.Rye, England as Seen be F o r e i g n e r s (London, 1865). 33. A. von Oechelhauser, " P h i l i p p H a i n h o f e r s B e r i c h t uber d i e S t u t t g a r t e r K i n d t a u f e im Jahre 1616", Neue  H e i d e l b e r g e r Jahrbucher 1 (1891), p.273. 34. A. G r a f t o n , "The World o f the P o l y h i s t o r s : Humanism and Encyclopedism", C e n t r a l European H i s t o r y 18 (1985), pp.31-47. 35. A.V. Oechelhauser, o p . c i t . , p.272. 36. A.V. Oechelhauser, p.275. 23 CHAPTER 1 The Paper P r o c e s s i o n : A Triumphal E n t r y  i n the Contest For A u t h o r i t y T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l focus on the d e f i n i t i o n o f audiences by the the f e s t i v a l engravings. As o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the number and v a r i e t y of t e x t s produced t o commemorate the Baptism f e s t i v a l r e v e a l an i n t e n t t o t a r g e t v a r i e d audiences and the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n appears t o encode the same i n t e n t . H i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the c i r c u l a t i o n o f the t e x t s and engravings i s s c a n t . I t i s known t h a t books of engravings and p a n e g y r i c t e x t s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y produced as s o u v e n i r g i f t s f o r the most important g u e s t s . 1 Some evidence a l s o e x i s t s t h a t the engravings bound w i t h Assum's book were 2 a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e . By examining the form and c o n t e n t o f the v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n comparison w i t h the commissioned t e x t s , I w i l l o f f e r some s p e c u l a t i o n s on how the engravings presume p a r t i c u l a r audiences. The engravings are arranged i n a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format which served t o make v i s i b l e the h i e r a r c h y of the Wurttemberg c o u r t and t o d i s p l a y the rank of each p a r t i c i p a t i n g p r i n c e . Yet the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r i t e s o f the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n were a l t e r e d i n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n c e o n l y h i g h nobles appear i n an e x c l u s i v e pageant. T h i s image of a r i s t o c r a t i c e x c l u s i v i t y r e p r e s e n t e d the Wurttemberg c o u r t as a p e r f e c t 24 a b s o l u t i s t s t a t e t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l audience. On the l o c a l l e v e l , the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a f e s t i v a l i n which the lower e s t a t e s have no p l a c e , e i t h e r as p a r t i c i p a n t s o r o n l o o k e r s , conforms t o the d u c a l s t r a t e g y of e x c l u s i o n as a means t o amass power. T h i s image o f an e x c l u s i v e c o u r t f e s t i v i t y i s somewhat a t odds w i t h the commissioned t e x t s i n which a more complex s o c i a l f i e l d o f a c t i o n emerges. These d i s j u n c t i v e a s p e c t s o f the v i s u a l and t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l are the c r a c k s through which i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o c a t c h glimpses of the t e n s i o n s which beset the Wurttemberg c o u r t . In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l address the r o l e the f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s had i n a d v e r t i s i n g a n o t i o n o f the p e r f e c t a b s o l u t i s t c o u r t t h a t d i d not correspond t o i t s a c t u a l power. I hope t o show t h a t the image o f the f e s t i v a l w i t h i t s i m p l i c a t i o n of a b s o l u t e power of the c o u r t served t o d i s g u i s e o p p o s i t i o n s v i a a program of c u l t u r a l aggrandizement t h a t extended from the event i n t o i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n s of the c o u r t complex, one a t the b e g i n n i n g and one a t the end of the engravings book, a c t as v i s u a l c o n f i r m a t i o n of the grandeur of the c o u r t . T h e i r placement a t the o u t e r edges of the book a l l o w s them t o a c t as "frames" t h a t d e f i n e the s e t t i n g of the r e p r e s e n t e d pageantry. The f i r s t i l l u s t r a t i o n ( f i g . l ) , a view o f the c o u r t complex seen from w i t h i n the c o u r t gardens, i n t r o d u c e s the f e s t i v a l environment as ah empty stage. The c u b e - l i k e medieval c a s t l e i n the background i s the nucleus from which the d e c o r a t i v e 25 architecture, the tournament grounds, the sculpture gardens and botanical displays radiate. The orthogonals of Merian's engraving delineate the incremental expansion that had taken place since the l a t e sixteenth century to accommodate new c o l l e c t i n g , alchemical, sporting and c u l t u r a l pursuits of the duke. The engraving of the "Lustgarten" builds on the fame t h i s elegant court s e t t i n g had acquired amongst small German 3 t e r r i t o r i a l states. The a r c h i t e c t u r a l wonder of the new Lusthaus, shown as the foc a l element of a new representative court s t y l e , i r o n i c a l l y seems to be modelled on the c i v i c buildings of the bourgeois-corporate Netherlands; but, unlike i t s urban models, the bulk and height of t h i s b u i l d i n g stands apart from the t i g h t l y b u i l t walled town, i n a i r y Renaissance 4 parterres. The court i s represented as a large e x t e r i o r entertainment "room" where a new representative ducal s t y l e can be unfolded i n front of a sel e c t audience. This large e x t e r i o r space, as an extension of the private space of the ca s t l e , no doubt gave the court the means to define and control p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f e s t i v a l to an extent that an urban space could not have. In the f i n a l engraving ( f i g . 2 ) , the entertainment and recrea t i o n a l functions of the ducal amusement grounds are shown i n use. The old tournament grounds and the small old Lusthaus are the viewing stations for noble guests who are watching a spectacular fireworks. The courtly audience depicted i n the f i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n could not have been the 26 o n l y audience o f the fabulous p y r o t e c h n i c a l d i s p l a y shown emanating from the c o u r t grounds. Yet t h i s event and a l l the r e p r e s e n t e d pageantry are e n c l o s e d w i t h i n the c o u r t complex as entertainments staged f o r and by h i g h n o b l e s . The engravings p r e s e n t the e l e g a n t s e t t i n g s t h a t were made f o r the hoped-for s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy i n which the show of power t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d becomes the v e r y substance of the r u l e r ' s a u t h o r i t y . The f u l l page engravings o f the c o u r t s e t t i n g a c t as l o c a t o r s f o r the b u l k of the engravings which are l e s s e l a b o r a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h a t t h e i r backgrounds are l e f t blank. These framing elements p l a c e the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format of the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the serene and s e p a r a t e arena of the c o u r t complex. The e x c l u s i v e a r i s t o c r a t i c nature o f the pageantry t h a t the f e s t i v a l engravings p r e s e n t are a departure from e a r l i e r t r i u m p h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . As of the l a t e Middle Ages, the d e p i c t i o n o f t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n s became the most f r e q u e n t l y used m o t i f , next t o r e l i g i o u s themes, f o r the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of 5 . German r u l e r s . For the German i m p e r i a l c o u r t , and l a t e r , f o r t e r r i t o r i a l d u c a l c o u r t s , the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n formed the c e n t r a l element of c o u r t c e r e m o n i a l . 6 In these ceremonies, the presence of c i t y f a t h e r s , g u i l d members and c l e r g y , had a l e g a l i s t i c f u n c t i o n i n which the bond between v a r i o u s e s t a t e s and the r u l e r was made e v i d e n t and r e a f f i r m e d . In France and elsewhere the p r o c e s s i o n l o s t i t s v a l i d a t i n g f u n c t i o n i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l matters w i t h the growth of a b s o l u t i s m , but i n 27 those s t a t e s where the r i g h t s o f the e s t a t e s s t i l l h e l d s o v e r e i g n power i n check, the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n c o n t i n u e d 7 t o c o n f i r m the t i e s between s o c i a l s t r a t a . The s t a g i n g of t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n s i n German t e r r i t o r i e s was a p r i v i l e g e t e r r i t o r i a l dukes had t o usurp f o r themselves (the use of t h i s ceremonial as a r i g h t o f the secondary s o v e r e i g n s was o n l y c o d i f i e d by the Peace of W e s t p h a l i a ) . The format of the engravings makes e v i d e n t the Wurttemberg c o u r t ' s conversance w i t h t h i s s t r a t e g y of government, but omitted from the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the triumphal p r o c e s s i o n are images of the e s t a t e s t h a t do not form a p a r t of the d u c a l e n c l a v e . T h i s was not an a r b i t r a r y omission. The v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s i o n i s meant t o convey an i m p r e s s i o n o f an a b s o l u t i s t c o u r t powerful enough t o do away w i t h a c t s o f s u b j u g a t i o n by i t s s u b j e c t s , even i f i n the a c t u a l event those elements were r e t a i n e d . The demonstration of a c o n f i d e n t a l l - c o u r t l y t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n might d i s c l o s e one audience f o r the f e s t i v a l e n gravings. Were the primary r e c i p i e n t s o f the show of power the c o u r t i e r s and a d v i s o r s of the duke? I t was a f t e r a l l t h i s group, as the f e s t i v a l h i s t o r i a n Berns p o i n t s out, t h a t h e l d 9 the g r e a t e s t danger f o r the r u l e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Berns, the p r i n c e ' s f e a r of h i s o f f i c i a l s and h i s c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s was the most c o n s i s t e n t theme of German baroque drama; t h e r e the m o t i f s o f tyranny, r e g i c i d e , t r e a c h e r y and i n t r i g u e were 28 t i r e l e s s l y p l a y e d out. As a safeguard a g a i n s t such s t r i f e , the c o u r t ceremonial p r o v i d e d the means by which the duke and h i s s e l e c t e d c o u r t i e r s c o u l d make a show of mutual dependence and support. The pages of the f e s t i v a l book allowed the d e p i c t e d costume parade t o c o n f i r m the make-up o f the c o u r t l y r e t i n u e . T h i s f u n c t i o n o f the ceremonial i s g i v e n g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n i n the l e n g t h y f r i e z e - l i k e form o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t takes as i t s model the e a r l y 16th century woodcut s e r i e s Emperor M a x i m i l i a n I commissioned t o c e l e b r a t e h i m s e l f . While M a x i m i l i a n ' s i l l u s t r a t e d pageantry was not bound by a demand t o d e p i c t an a c t u a l event, h i s tr i u m p h a l paper p r o c e s s i o n s were emulated i n l a t e r event-based f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . And t h i s o v e r l y l o n g format, d e s c r i b e d by one a r t h i s t o r i a n as s a c r i f i c i n g impact by a s t u l t i f y i n g q u a n t i t y o f images " t h a t have no shore and no h o r i z o n " , n e v e r t h e l e s s proved u s e f u l t o t r a n s l a t e the week l o n g f e s t i v a l i n t o a Maximilianesque t r i u m p h a l e n t r y . 1 1 The core o f the engraving book i s a t r a d i t i o n a l band of images, t h a t u n l i k e M a x i m i l i a n ' s , f e a t u r e s o n l y costumed nobles p a r a d i n g a c r o s s e i g h t y pages w i t h blank backgrounds. The e l a b o r a t e pageantry o f c h i v a l r i c e x e r c i s e s are the elements of the f e s t i v a l t h a t a re the s u b j e c t o f almost a l l o f the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Introduced by ornamented t i t l e pages of coats-of-arms and the le n g t h y names o f h i g h - r a n k i n g a r i s t o c r a t s , the main noble p r e s e n t e r s are shown accompanied by numerous a t t e n d a n t s . Trumpeters, s a d d l e boys 2 9 and s e r v a n t s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e engravings; t h e i r number i n accordance w i t h the importance of the p r i n c e l y a c t o r i n each segment of the r e p r e s e n t e d parade. The p o r t r a y a l of a t t e n d a n t s i n o n l y s l i g h t l y v a r i e d poses over s e v e r a l p l a t e s u n d e r l i n e s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as s t a t u s - g i v e r s . What appears a t f i r s t t o be an unnecessary r e p e t i t i o n o f f i g u r e s has a f u n c t i o n i n emphasizing the r e l a t i v e importance o f each p r i n c e r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s r e l e n t l e s s d i s p l a y of rank i s a theme t h a t i s a l s o found i n Assum's commissioned poetry, where a l l the members o f each 12 p r i n c e ' s entourage are named f o r a German audience. The engravings a t l e a s t were e n l i v e n e d w i t h d e p i c t i o n s of costume and ornament i n o f f e r i n g r e c o r d s of each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h i e s of German t e r r i t o r i a l c o u r t s as w e l l as of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r a n k i n g w i t h i n each c o u r t . The v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are marked by the f u n c t i o n o f c o u r t f e s t i v a l s t o make e x p l i c i t the p l a c e of the c o u r t v i s - a - v i s the o u t s i d e world as w e l l as d e f i n i n g i t s i n n e r s t r u c t u r e . While the c o u r t - c e n t e r e d s u b j e c t of the engravings s e r v e d t o send the message t h a t the s t a t u s o f the duchy of Wurttemberg was equal t o t h a t of the r a n k i n g European c o u r t s , i t s c o u r t l y focus a l s o had a l o c a l dimension. The f e s t i v a l and i t s g r a p h i c commemoration form a p a r t of the p o l i t i c a l manoeuvres t h a t Wurttemberg dukes had u t i l i z e d a long what the American h i s t o r i a n James A l l e n Vann has c a l l e d "...the road t o s t r o n g , 30 a g g r e s s i v e c e n t r a l government (which) was f i l l e d w i t h loops 13 and t w i s t s . " T h i s "looped road" has been the s u b j e c t of 14 monographs by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s . These s t u d i e s p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f the duchy t h a t d i f f e r s markedly from the a b s o l u t i s t image the c o u r t p r e s e n t e d i n the f e s t i v a l book. In the fragmented Holy Roman Empire of the German Nat i o n , the southwestern area had the l a r g e s t number of f r e e i m p e r i a l c i t i e s and t h i s urban element i n f l u e n c e d the make-up o f the 15 l a r g e r t e r r i t o r i e s such as Wurttemberg. "The g r e a t e r urban d e n s i t y o f the German southwest l e n t a more bourgeois c h a r a c t e r t o t h a t p a r t of the empire than t o o t h e r r e g i o n s of i t . But middle c l a s s c u l t u r e and middle c l a s s v a l u e s were not c o n f i n e d t o the f r e e towns alone. The l a r g e s t duchy of Swabia, Wurttemberg, was a l s o t h e ^ o s t bourgeois t e r r i t o r y i n the Holy Roman Empire." While the burghers p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e i n g o v e r n i n g the towns, the "bourgeois" c h a r a c t e r of Wurttemberg must not be read as t h a t of a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s emancipatory c l a s s , r a t h e r as one t h a t sought t o p r e s e r v e i t s p r i v i l e g e s i n the e s t a t e 17 h i e r a r c h y . The l e a d e r s h i p of the towns was i n the hands of a p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , the "Ehrbaren" or n o t a b l e s . In the l a r g e r c i t i e s of S t u t t g a r t or Tubingen, the " E h r b a r k e i t " had as much a t stake i n the s t a t u s quo as the d u c a l f a m i l y . The " E h r b a r k e i t " o f the l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s had l a r g e l a n d h o l d i n g s and can not be seen i n any sense as advocates f o r 18 the lower e s t a t e s . The "Ehrbaren" ran the f i f t y - e i g h t "Aemter" o r b a s i c l o c a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t s o f the t e r r i t o r y which 31 were the i n s t i t u t i o n s by which d u c a l c o n t r o l was . . 19 a d m i n i s t e r e d . The n o t a b l e s , through the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers they h e l d i n t h e towns, were a b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t o a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r y . T h i s group d i d not so much r e p r e s e n t an economic c l a s s because t h e r e were wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n wealth among them, but r a t h e r i t r e p r e s e n t e d a p o l i t i c a l e l i t e whose p l a c e s i n the town m a g i s t r a c i e s a f f o r d e d them the r i g h t t o e x e r t p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y i n t h e i r l o c a l 20 areas as w e l l as on the t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l . These l o c a l " n o t a b l e s " p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s t a t e through t h e i r p o s i t i o n as the c o n s t i t u e n t members o f the "Landtag" o r t e r r i t o r i a l p a r l i a m e n t . While the Landtag, the p a r l i a m e n t a r y assembly of " n o t a b l e s " , was i n s t i t u t e d as a mechanism f o r t e r r i t o r i a l c o n t r o l , i t a c t e d as a counterweight t o d u c a l power. Throughout the s i x t e e n t h century, Wurttemberg dukes, empowered by the Reformation, had sought t o expand t h e i r sphere o f i n f l u e n c e . At the end of t h a t century, the r u l e of F r i e d r i c h I (1598-1608) was marked by an impetus t o i n c r e a s e d u c a l a u t h o r i t y . Duke F r i e d r i c h ' s e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a n d i n g army, t o expand t r a d e and p r o d u c t i o n , t o i n s t i t u t e a s c h o o l t o t r a i n a r i s t o c r a t s f o r c o u r t s e r v i c e , t o c a r r y on d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n P r o t e s t a n t s t a t e s and t o expand the d u c a l r o l e v i a a p r i v y c o u n c i l j o i n e d h i s c u l t u r a l patronage 32 t o promote a s t r o n g monarchy. He added t o h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s and adopted the l a v i s h c o u r t s t y l e he had observed i n h i s t r a v e l s . Among F r i e d r i c h ' s accomplishments was h i s i n d u c t i o n i n t o the Order o f the G a r t e r 21 - which a f t e r a l o n g campaign was f i n a l l y bestowed upon him. F r i e d r i c h ' s ambitious r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f d u c a l a u t h o r i t y i n v o l v e d d i s e n f r a n c h i s i n g the Landtag; he r u l e d without p a r l i a m e n t a r y i n p u t - fewer and fewer p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e s s i o n s took p l a c e d u r i n g h i s r e i g n - and he a s s i g n e d h i s p e r s o n a l 22 a d v i s o r s t o take over t h a t body's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . An extravagant c o u r t c u l t u r e gave e x p r e s s i o n t o F r i e d r i c h ' s new p o l i t i c a l system, a system based on what the h i s t o r i a n Jurgen von Kruedener has c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a " c h a r i s m a t i z a t i o n " of the d u c a l r o l e . The l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f g r e a t e r d u c a l s o v e r e i g n t y , a c c o r d i n g t o Kruedener, was t o be based on the p r o d u c t i o n o f a s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t t h a t was t o emanate from a d i s p l a y o f majesty a t c o u r t . Kruedener d e s c r i b e s t h i s s t r a t e g y as be i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l ; the i n d i c a t o r f o r t h i s b e i n g t h a t the duke had t o f a l l back on o l d e r c l a i m s t o a u t h o r i t y such as the unimpeachable nature o f h i s h i g h 2 3 o f f i c e and of h i s d y n a s t i c h e r i t a g e . During F r i e d r i c h ' s r e i g n , c o n f l i c t between the duke and h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s grew t o the p o i n t where the p a r l i a m e n t seemed 24 t o have been e c l i p s e d . But when F r i e d r i c h ' s sudden death brought Johann F r i e d r i c h t o power, the new duke f e l t he needed 33 p a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o v a l , e s p e c i a l l y i t s f i n a n c i a l support, t o s t e p i n t o the c o n f e s s i o n a l c o n f l i c t by j o i n i n g the P r o t e s t a n t 25 Union. In 1608 Johann F r i e d r i c h r e c a l l e d the Landtag and s t a t e d t h a t the g o a l o f h i s p o l i c i e s was t o be the r e s t o r a t i o n o f "the o l d , good-hearted, t r u s t i n g a f f e c t i o n " between r u l e r 2 6 and s u b j e c t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s Johann F r i e d r i c h pursued o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s t o b u t t r e s s d u c a l a u t h o r i t y . "About the same time he a l s o c l a i m e d the r i g h t o f a p p o i n t i n g a l l parsons and deacons: a new system was b e g i n n i n g . Probably f o r s i m i l a r reasons he p r e f e r r e d f o r e i g n e r s and noblemen as h i s o f f i c i a l s - a p o l i c y which was c o n t r a r y t o the t r e a t y o f Tubingen ( c o n s t i t u t i o n of 1514) - w h i l e h i t h e r t o most o f the d u c a l c o u n c i l l o r s and o f f i c i a l s had been from the ranks of the urban " E h r b a r k e i t " which a l s o dominated the E s t a t e s . " Nor d i d Johann F r i e d r i c h abandon h i s f a t h e r ' s c u l t u r a l patronage s t r a t e g i e s even i f the Landtag advocated a r e t u r n t o the o l d p a t r i a r c h a l r o l e of the duke. P a r l i a m e n t a r y d i s p l e a s u r e w i t h d u c a l programs i s r e c o r d e d i n the Landtag documents o f 1610: "When the excess and the f o r e i g n splendour and m a g n i f i c e n c e brought i n by s t r a n g e r s i s removed and t h i n g s a t c o u r t are d i r e c t e d i n the o l d , simple, y e t p r a i s e w o r t h y German manner so i t w i l l f o l l o w t h a t i n a s h o r t time the t r o u b l e s and debts w i l l end and a good supply o f money w i l l amass; such o l d Wurttembergian custom w i l l not be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the d u c a l r e p u t a t i o n , as the young or the misinformed, or those i n the s p e l l of f o r e i g n splendour or o t h e r well-meaning s o u l s might suppose; the duke's pre-eminence and r e p u t a t i o n does not r e s t on a l a r g e c o u r t r e t i n u e , outward ornament, and apparatus, which i s c a l l e d 'magnas p h a n t a s i a s ' i n h o l y s c r i p t u r e s , much r a t h e r on the duke's courage and manliness, s t e r n defense of the t r u e f a i t h and b e n e f i c i a l j u s t i c e , good p o l i c i e s both f o r the common f a t h e r l a n d and poor s u b j e c t s , and o t h e r eminent h e r o i c v i r t u e s and a t t r i b u t e s of which (the almighty be thanked) our now r e i g n i n g g r a c i o u s duke has no l a c k . J u s t as the Wurttemberg dukes of the l a s t 100 y e a r s have been h e l d i n h i g h esteem both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the empire without any s p e c i a l g r e a t apparatus." 3 4 T h i s document r e v e a l s t h a t d u c a l attempts a t " c h a r i s m a t i s i n g " were no mystery t o the " n o t a b l e s " ; d u c a l e f f o r t s a t assuming the s t y l e o f f o r e i g n c o u r t s were t r a n s p a r e n t as c o s t l y s t r a t e g i e s t o abrogate t h e i r r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s . The Landtag demanded a r e t u r n t o the o l d r o l e o f the duke, t h a t of the p a t r i a r c h who r u l e d by v i r t u e o f h i g h moral p r i n c i p l e s and h i s g u a r d i a n s h i p of Lutheran orthodoxy. The Landtag's admonitions d i d not h i n d e r Johann F r i e d r i c h ' s resumption of a l a v i s h c o u r t c u l t u r e ; the f e s t i v a l r e c o r d s from the 1616 Baptism f e s t i v a l a t t e s t t o t h i s . The duke seemed determined t o pursue h i s f a t h e r ' s p o l i c i e s of e l e v a t i n g h i s s t a t u r e by g a i n i n g esteem from o u t s i d e the t e r r i t o r y . The h i s t o r i a n Grube c i t e s t h a t i n the duke•s r e b u t t a l t o the Landtag•s r e p r o o f s , Johann F r i e d r i c h complained t h a t he was honored more 29 by f o r e i g n p o t e n t a t e s than by h i s own s u b j e c t s . The engravings r e p r e s e n t a l o f t y c o u r t s o c i e t y i n which s u b j e c t s p l a y no r o l e . The p r i n t e d images address the Landtag w i t h a d e n i a l of t h e i r demands f o r a v i r t u o u s p a t r i a r c h who i s c o n t e n t w i t h h i s p l a c e i n the l o c a l e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y . The v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a v o i d s the r e t a r d a t o r y e s t a t e s t r u c t u r e o f Wurttemberg and submits an image of a c o u r t t h a t i s i n t e n t on t a k i n g i t s p l a c e i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f c e n t r a l i z e d c o u r t s . To r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f as an equal t o the more powerful c o u r t s , the Wurttemberg c o u r t employed some a r t i s t s who, through t h e i r 35 ex p e r i e n c e of f o r e i g n c o u r t s , were proven i n the a r t s o f r u l e r g l o r i f i c a t i o n . The engraver Merian, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a r t s of the g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n o f the baptism f e s t i v a l had worked on a number o f r o y a l commissions i n France. H i s e a r l i e s t c l a i m t o fame was h i s work on the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the "Pompes funebres du Due C h a r l e s I I I de L o r r a i n e " of 30 . . 1610. In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s Merian worked on the g l o r i f i c a t i o n programs of the young L o u i s X I I I and h i s mother Maria de M e d i c i s ; i n 1615, he produced two engravings t o commemorate the Bordeaux wedding o f L o u i s t o the Spanish 31 i n f a n t a . The secondary Wurttemberg c o u r t h i r e d a r t i s t s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h the s t y l e c u r r e n t i n the l a r g e r western European c o u r t s i n order t o address these c o u r t s . P a r t o f the w r i t t e n program f o r the Wurttemberg f e s t i v a l o f 1616 was l e f t t o Georg Rudolf Weckherlin, who had l e a r n e d the s t y l e and 32 manners of f o r e i g n c o u r t s i n h i s t r a v e l s . H i s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s allowed him t o address h i s Triumf t o E l i z a b e t h S t u a r t i n her mother tongue and t o compose v e r s e s i n French 33 and L a t i n . The p o l y g l o t nature of Weckherlin's p o e t r y and Merian's c o u r t l y work h i s t o r y p o i n t t o the Wurttemberg duke's s t r i v i n g s t o g i v e h i s c o u r t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l aura and importance. The v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an e x c l u s i v e a r i s t o c r a t i c pageant forms a p a r t of the same p r o j e c t t o p r e s e n t the Wurttemberg c o u r t as a modern a b s o l u t i s t s t a t e t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l audience. The t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n composed o n l y of h i g h nobles can be read as a single-minded campaign t o 36 p r e s e n t a powerful u n f e t t e r e d c o u r t i n which lower e s t a t e o r d e r s do not p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s campaign c o n t i n u e s i n the t e x t s where the poets l a y c l a i m t o an e l e v a t e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l l y d e f i n e d language and content i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t an e x c l u s i v e audience. The e l e g a n t t r i u m p h a l form o f the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and i t s c o u r t l y c o n t e n t s are m i r r o r e d i n Assum's i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s composition. Assum promotes the e r u d i t e and e x c l u s i v e nature o f h i s w r i t i n g by s e t t i n g up a most i n t e r e s t i n g c u l t u r a l d i v i s i o n : "And so d i d o rder and wish H i s Ducal Grace/ t h a t he, P h i l o p a t r i s (Assum's nom-de-plume)/ sh o u l d summarize a l l the memorable proceedings most d i l i g e n t l y i n h i g h German language/ n e v e r t h e l e s s not l i k e the common R e l a t i o n e H i s t o r i c a , as i n the weekly newsheets/ o r those t h a t the F r a n k f u r t s p r i n g and f a l l f a i r s b r i n g / Rather i n such manner o f i n v e n t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n : so t h a t a l l persons o f h i g h e s t a t e and gentlemen/ along w i t h the h i g h l y - p r a i s e d l a d i e s / be hereby enabled and s t i m u l a t e d t o a l i v e l y r e a d i n g / and the w o r l d l y - w i s e and l e a r n e d t o many •Dis c o u r s ' " . Assum's d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the audience of book f a i r t r a c t s and h i s e l e g a n t c o u r t l y book cannot h e l p t o gauge who the r e a d e r s of the t e x t a c t u a l l y were. As J o s e M a r a v a l l s t a t e d i n C u l t u r e of the Baroque: " . . . i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y the d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t the common people became aggravated p r e c i s e l y i n those works d e s t i n e d f o r widespread 35 consumption..." I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t Assum's contempt f o r p o p u l a r newsheets may come out o f d e s i r e of the c o u r t t o pre-empt the u n a u t h o r i z e d d i f f u s i o n of newspaper accounts o f 3 6 the f e s t i v a l . S i n c e we know l i t t l e o f how t h i s book was 37 c i r c u l a t e d , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s " R e l a t i o n " had o n l y a c o u r t l y r e a d e r s h i p . What i s c l e a r , though, i s t h a t the author emphasized t h a t t h e r e i s a cleavage between the c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n o f the c o u r t , such as h i s work, and the "common" books a v a i l a b l e a t the F r a n k f u r t f a i r s . Assum's advertisement f o r the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f h i s n a r r a t i o n t o those o f l e s s than e l e v a t e d s o c i a l o r i g i n s i s echoed i n h i s account o f how the c o u r t attempts t o c o n t r o l audiences. Assum's account made b r i e f mention o f o r g a n i z e d and s a n c t i o n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by non-nobles. In the ceremony h e l d t o g r e e t the most important H e i d e l b e r g guests a t the entrance t o the c i t y , Assum's account has "800 s e l e c t e d burghers b e a r i n g weapons" who are d e s c r i b e d as " j o y f u l l y s t a n d i n g 37 . . s e p a r a t e l y . " The j o y f u l burghers do not f i n d t h e i r p l a c e i n t o t h e engravings, nor do they appear i n Weckherlin's t e x t ; the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f such a demonstration o f f e a l t y may have been c o n s i d e r e d t o have been too outmoded t o be worthy of commemoration. While the a c t u a l event s t i l l used the tri u m p h a l e n t r y as a ceremony t o c o n f i r m t i e s between s o c i a l s t r a t a , t he v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s marked by an i n t e n t t o c o n s t r u c t a new s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a r i s t o c r a t i c image o f the c o u r t . The e x c l u s i o n o f the lower e s t a t e s from the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s m i r r o r s the e l e v a t e d c u l t u r a l h o r i z o n Assum c l a i m s f o r h i s t e x t . Both the t e x t s and the engravings c o n t a i n the i n t e n t t o speak i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 38 language, but t h i s language may be d i r e c t e d a t those s o c i a l s t r a t a i t aims t o exclude. U n l i k e Assum's po e t r y , the elegance and c o u r t l i n e s s o f Weckherlin's Triumf d i d not need t o be p r e f a c e d by c l a i m s t o e x c l u s i v i t y . The i n n o v a t i o n of French v e r s e form, which he i n t r o d u c e d i n t o German poetry, s u f f i c e d t o demonstrate the grandeur o f the genre. In Weckherlin, the new Wurttemberg c o u r t c u l t u r e had found a poet, who was capable of i n v e s t i n g the c o u r t l y pomp and magnificence of the f e s t i v i t i e s i n a f i t t i n g language. While Weckherlin's t e x t , l i k e the p r i n t s , f o c u s s e d on the e l a b o r a t e costumed p r o c e s s i o n s which he a r t f u l l y c o n v e r t e d i n t o a parade of m y t h o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l monarchs; the amazed c i t i z e n r y i s mentioned o n l y c u r s o r i l y . To observe the "gorgious o s t e n t a t i o n s " o f "our w o r t h i e s and k n i g h t s " : "The people runneth from a l l s i d e s t o the garden: t h e r e i s a s t r a n g e crowd: the s c a f f o l d s are f u l l : so are the t r e e s : the tops and windows of a l l houses and towr's thereabout are f i l l e d w i t h s p e c t a t o u r s . Ioy i s every where." Crowds l i n e the s e t t i n g of each event: "As soone as the beames of the sunne d i d g u i l d the toppes of the mountaines, the s c a f f o l d s i n the t i l t - g a r d e n were againe f i l l e d w i t h people. The m a g n i f i c e n c e had y e s t e r d a y so much d e l i g h t e d the eyes o f the s p e c t a t o u r s ; and n e v e r - s i l e n t Fame d i d thus t h i c k l e the eares, and i n t i c e the mind of those, t h a t e i t h e r by too much bu s i n e s s e , or too g r e a t an i d l e n e s s e had n e g l e c t e d so r a r e a s i g h t , t h a t now th'one as w e l l as t h ' o t h e r s t h r u s t e d i n t o the p l a c e , and waited t h e r e p a t i e n t l y f o r the midday." Weckherlin's crowds are no more than a p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g -backdrop t o the e x t e n s i v e l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d 39 U t o p i a n scenes o f heroes and gods, even t h e i r " i d l e n e s s e " was o n l y t o t h e i r own disadvantage. Assum's t e x t , however, g i v e s a p i c t u r e o f crowds t h a t need t o be c o n t r o l l e d . As the p r i n c e s , dukes and o t h e r nobles ( l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o rank) proceed by c a r r i a g e and horseback from the banquet i n the o l d S c h l o s s t o the new Lusthaus, t h e guards and a t t e n d a n t s who f o l l o w them have a hard time f e n d i n g o f f the d i s o r d e r l y crowd of common f o l k assembled i n the g a r d e n s . 4 0 These p a l a c e guards then proceeded i n t o the Lusthaus b a l l r o o m t o keep the middle of the room f r e e ( f o r the b a l l e t performance?). The tournament p r o c e s s i o n s seem t o have pr e s e n t e d crowd c o n t r o l problems as w e l l , a c c o r d i n g t o Assum: "Then one c o u l d c l e a r l y see, l o o k i n g down from the windows o f the c a s t l e , how the e r e c t e d hoardings on the r i g h t s i d e of the tournament grounds were taken up and f i l l e d w i t h thousands of men and women-folk, so t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d not be made i n keeping w i t h the p r o p r i e t y o f the s e s s i o n : s i n c e one had not e n l i s t e d the h e l p o f the guards and a t t e n d a n t s i n time t o f i l l the p r e s c r i b e d and d i s t i n c t p l a c e s f o r the noble knighthood, the l e a r n e d c l e r g y and persons of renown: and t o b a n i s h the d i s o r d e r l y heaped r a b b l e t o t h e i r s p e c i a l q u a r t e r s . " The nobles, each named i n order o f rank, are then shown t o proceed w i t h t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s , without harassment or displacement by the u n r u l y mob. Assum's g u i l e l e s s account of t h e " i n a b i l i t y " o f p a l a c e guards t o secure the r i g h t f u l p l a c e o f honor f o r the knighthood, the c l e r g y and the " n o t a b l e s " , which he d e l i v e r s from the h e i g h t s o f the c a s t l e , makes t r a n s p a r e n t how the f e s t i v a l was used t o d i s t i n g u i s h and d i s t a n c e c o u r t s o c i e t y from those groups immediately below i n 40 the e s t a t e o r d e r . T h i s s t r a t e g y served t o sever the pyramid of e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y by e l e v a t i n g the t i p of t h i s s t r u c t u r e : the duke and h i s c o u r t . By e x c l u d i n g the burgher e l i t e from t h e i r p l a c e i n the f e s t i v a l , t h i s e l i t e found i t s e l f abandoned t o the r a b b l e o f s u b j e c t s who s t r a i n e d t o see the s p e c t a c l e of a r i s t o c r a t i c m a g n i f i c e n c e . T h i s program o f e x c l u s i o n was not c o n f i n e d t o t h i s ceremonial o c c a s i o n but had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n o t h e r a r e a s . D i s p u t e s arose i n the 1610's about the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n . The Landtag saw t h i s path t o v e r t i c a l s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and c o u r t employment c l o s i n g and asked f o r access t o t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c "Collegium I l l u s t r e " , the s c h o o l f o r c o u r t i e r s , f o r i t s sons. Johann F r i e d r i c h r e p l i e d t h a t he would t e a r the "Collegium" down b e f o r e "peasant c h i l d r e n " were 42 admitted. In 1620, the duke r e l e a s e d a l l burghers from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as p a l a c e guards; from then on they were t o 43 a c t as n i g h t watchmen o u t s i d e the c o u r t b u i l d i n g s . The f e s t i v a l engravings, Weckherlin's p a n e g y r i c , and Assum's l e s s r i g o r o u s account are a l l marked by t h i s same impetus t o c o n s t r u c t an e x c l u s i v e c o u r t s o c i e t y . Looked a t i n t h i s l i g h t , the f e s t i v a l and i t s images d i s c l o s e a s t r a t e g y t o d i s e n f r a n c h i s e i t s powerful " E h r b a r k e i t " w h i l e a s s e r t i n g the rank o f the c o u r t w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the German Empire. The " n o t a b l e s " r e l e g a t e d t o the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mob as s p e c t a t o r s , are p a r a d o x i c a l l y , by t h i s a c t of e x c l u s i o n , 41 foregrounded as r e c i p i e n t s of the d i s p l a y of c o u r t l y m a g n i f i c e n c e . T h i s powerful p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , through t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p a r l i a m e n t , o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t impediment t o expansion of d u c a l power. In t h a t moment o f c o n f e s s i o n a l c o n f l i c t , the c o u r t s t r o v e t o a s s e r t i t s e l f as t h e s o l e l o c u s o f a u t h o r i t y and f o r e i g n p o l i c y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n v i a a program o f c u l t u r a l aggrandizement. T h i s c u l t u r a l program i s extended i n the t e x t u a l commissions o f t h e f e s t i v a l which i n s i s t on the s o c i a l l y e l e v a t e d nature of t h e i r medium of c o u r t l y d e s c r i p t i o n j u s t as the g r a p h i c medium submits an image o f an e x c l u s i v e a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i a l sphere. 1. These k i n d s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s appear i n l a r g e numbers i n German lands a f t e r the m i d - s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Lexikon  des Buchwesens. ed. Joachim K i r c h n e r , Bd. 1 ( S t u t t g a r t , 1952). 2. The authors sent a l e t t e r t o the c i t y of Lucerne o f f e r i n g t h e i r works f o r s a l e . S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . ed. L. Krapf and C. Wagenknecht (Tubingen, 1979), p.VII. 3. The S t u t t g a r t c i v i c h i s t o r i a n Otto B o r s t r e p o r t s t h a t e a r l y t r a v e l guides, r e p o r t s and p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s e u l o g i z e d the beauty and magnificence o f the Wurttemberg c o u r t . S t u t t g a r t . Die G e s c h i c h t e der S t a d t ( S t u t t g a r t , 1973), p.99. 4. 0. B o r s t , p.100. 5. K. T e n f e l d e , "Adventus, Zur h i s t o r i s c h e n I k o n o l o g i e " , H i s t o r i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t . Band 235 (1982), p.56. 6. K. T e n f e l d e , p.57. 7. K. T e n f e l d e , p.58. 42 8. K. T e n f e l d e , p.61. 9. J o r g Jochen Berns, "Der nackte Monarch und d i e nackte Wahrheit", Daphnis, v o l . 11 (1982), p.325. 10. J . Berns, p.325. 11. Georg Dehio, G e s c h i c h t e der deutschen Kunst ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 6 ) , p.21. 12. The guest l i s t s , p u b l i s h e d t w i c e d u r i n g the f e s t i v a l , a l s o were comprehensive i n d i c a t o r s of wealth and s t a t u s . Each p r i n c e l y guest i s l i s t e d f o l l o w e d by an i n v e n t o r y of h i s entourage, c a t a l o g u e d a c c o r d i n g t o rank g i v i n g exact numbers of nobles, c i v i l s e r v a n t s , l a c k e y s , cooks, t a i l o r s , and d r i v e r s . They f u r t h e r s erved Assum t o p o p u l a t e h i s p a n e g y r i c w i t h the names of a l l the a r i s t o c r a t i c a c t o r s . L. Krapf and C. Wagenknecht, S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e (Tubingen, 1979), p.478. 13. James A l l e n Vann, The Making of a S t a t e . Wurttemberg  1593-1793 ( C o r n e l l , 1984), p.57. 14. Vann, a l s o Walter Grube, Der S t u t t g a r t e r Landtag  1457-1957 ( S t u t t g a r t , 1957). 15. Helen P. L i e b e l , "The B o u r g e o i s i e i n Southwestern Germany, 1500-1789: A R i s i n g C l a s s ? " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l o f H i s t o r y . 10(1965), p.285. 16. H. L i e b e l , p.295. 17. 0. B o r s t , o p . c i t . , p.74. 18. O. B o r s t , pp.78-79. 19. J.A. Vann, o p . c i t . , p.58. 20. J.A. Vann, p.43. 21. W i l l i a m Brenchley Rye, England as seen by F o r e i g n e r s (London, 1865), p. IX-XCII. From the y e a r 1592 on, F r i e d r i c h sent l e t t e r s and ambassadors t o Queen E l i z a b e t h t o ask f o r h i s i n d u c t i o n i n t o the Order of the G a r t e r : a f t e r e l e v e n years h i s s o l i c i t a t i o n s bore r e s u l t s . Rye c h r o n i c l e s the l e n g t h y and stubborn s u p p l i c a t i o n s by t h i s secondary monarch. 22. E r n s t M u l l e r , K l e i n e G e s c h i c h t e Wurttembergs ( S t u t t g a r t , 1963), pp.124-125. 23. Jurgen von Kruedener, Die R o l l e des Hofes c i t e d i n I n g r i d L a u r i e n , 'Hofische' und 1 B u r g e r l i c h e 1 Elemente i n den 43 " G a i s t l i c h e n und W e l t l i c h e n G e d i c h t e n 1 Georg Rodolf  Weckherlins (1648) ( S t u t t g a r t , 1981), pp.23-24. 24. F.L. C a r s t e n , P r i n c e s and P a r l i a m e n t s i n Germany from the  F i f t e e n t h t o the E i g h t e e n t h Century (Oxford, 1959), p.47. 25. W. Grube, O p . c i t . , p.274. 26. W. Grube, p.275. 27. F.L. C a r s t e n , o p . c i t . , pp.51-52. 28. C i t e d i n I. L a u r i e n , o p . c i t . , p.24. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 29. W. Grube, o p . c i t . , p.275. 30. L. H. Wuthrich, Das druckgraphische Werk von Matthaus  Merian d. 'A' ( B a s e l , 1966), p.XI. 31. L.H. Wuthrich, p.XII. 32. I. L a u r i e n , o p . c i t . , p.26. 33. I . L a u r i e n , p.27. 34. Johann-Augustin Assum, Warhaffte r e l a t i o n . . . e t c . ( S t u t t g a r t , 1616) p . l . My t r a n s l a t i o n . 35. J . M a r a v a l l , C u l t u r e o f the Baroque (Minneapolis, 1986), p.93. 36. While weekly newspapers were p u b l i s h e d i n German t e r r i t o r i e s s i n c e 1609, (Johann F r i e d r i c h ' s d i a r y r e c o r d s h i s r e c e i p t of such p u b l i c a t i o n s ) concerns about the dangers t h a t t h i s medium h e l d f o r r u l e r s were not v o i c e d u n t i l mid-century. J . J . Berns i n "Der nackte Monarch und d i e nackte Wahrheit" (ftn.9) a n a l y s e s the debate about newspapers t h a t takes p l a c e i n the l a t e seventeenth century. 37. J.A. Assum, o p . c i t . , p.26. 38. G.R. Weckherlin, Triumpha11 Shews. p.17. r e p r i n t e d i n S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . o p . c i t . 39. G.R. Weckherlin, p.86. 40. J.A. Assum, o p . c i t . , p.28. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 41. J.A. Assum, p . l . 2nd p a r t . My t r a n s l a t i o n . 42. W. Grube, o p . c i t . , p.279. 43. O. B o r s t , o p . c i t . , p.113. CHAPTER 2 P r i n c e l y V i r t u e a n d t h e " K u b e l s t e c h e n " An a d v a n t a g e t h e t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h a d o v e r t h e v i s u a l medium a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e f e s t i v a l p r o g r a m was t h a t t h e c o u r t l y p o e t r y c o u l d d e c l a i m p r i n c e l y v i r t u e s i n a way t h e e n g r a v i n g s c o u l d n o t . B o t h t h e v i s u a l a n d t h e t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c e n t e r e d o n t h e t h e a t r i c a l c h i v a l r i c e x e r c i s e s p e r f o r m e d b y n o b l e a c t o r s . I n t h e t e x t s t h e n a r r a t i v e i m p a c t o f t h e s e d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s c o u l d b e r e p l i c a t e d t o u n d e r s c o r e a r i s t o c r a t i c v i r t u e s . I n t h e p r i n t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h e s e d i d a c t i c p l a y s w e r e t r a n s p o s e d i n t o t h e t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n f o r m a t t h a t s e r v e d , a s we h a v e s e e n , t o i n d i c a t e i n n e r a n d i n t e r - c o u r t r a n k w h i l e p r o m o t i n g a v i s i o n o f e x c l u s i v e a r i s t o c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y . The t e x t s e u l o g i z e d t h e v i r t u e s t h a t j u s t i f i e d a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e a n d a n d p r o c l a i m e d t h e q u a l i t i e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e h i g h n o b i l i t y a s l e g i t i m a t e r u l e r s . The p a r a d e o f l a v i s h l y c o s t u m e d n o b l e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e n g r a v i n g s c o u l d n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y b r i n g t h e r u l e r - l e g i t i m i z i n g c o n t e n t o f t h e c h i v a l r i c p l a y s t o l i f e . The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a n a l y z e d t h e p r o n o u n c e d a r i s t o c r a t i c a n d e x c l u s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c o m m e m o r a t i v e v i s u a l a n d t e x t u a l c o m m i s s i o n s b y t h e c o u r t a n d s p e c u l a t e d o n w h i c h a u d i e n c e s t h i s m a t e r i a l was i n t e n d e d t o a d d r e s s . T h i s s e g m e n t w i l l e x a m i n e t h e s i n g l e e n g r a v i n g i n t h e s e r i e s w h i c h f e a t u r e s n o n - n o b l e s . The g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n o f t h e " K u b e l s t e c h e n " 45 breaks rank w i t h the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format o f the s e r i e s and enjoys a prominence t h a t t h i s event i s not g i v e n i n the t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( f i g . 3 ) . Only Weckherlin's Triumphal1 Shews expands on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r German p r a c t i c e i n t h i s E n g l i s h v e r s i o n d e d i c a t e d t o the E n g l i s h p r i n c e s s . S e v e r a l paragraphs are devoted t o the e x p l a n a t i o n o f the "Kubelstechen": "...the p r i n c e s s E l e c t r i c e her highnesse, a l l t h 1 o t h e r P r i n c e s , Lords and L a d i e s went a f t e r d i n n e r againe i n t o the t i l t - g a r d e n , t h e r e t o e n t e r t a i n e t h e i r t o o - w o r t h i e s i g h t w i t h an o t h e r turney, or r a t h e r a darke shadow of a turney, r e p r e s e n t e d by tub-headed a d v e n t u r e r s . T ' i s a s p o r t , I never saw but i n Germanie, and t h e r e f o r e doe I not know,, how t o tearme i t . But t o s e t i t downe the b e s t I can, me t h i n k s t h a t even as one may see the unspotted sun s h i n e i n a f i l t h i e puddle, or upon a d u n g h i l l , so doeth appeare some r e f l e c t i o n , o f the worthinesse of l u s t r o u s c h i v a l r i e on those c o u n t e r f e i t r i d e r s . For they are commonly horsekeepers and groomes o f the s t a b l e s , t h a t b e i n g armed, as I w i l l t e l l you, hazard themselves t o get some manie f a l l s without money, or some money not without f a l l s . " The poet goes on t o d e s c r i b e how. the r i d e r s who are " b l u n t l y g a r n i s h e d " i n "bigge sacks, bombasted wi t h hay" are 2 " c o n s t r a i n e d t o f a l l down"; The unwieldy g r a c e l e s s r i d e r s stage a performance i n which: "...some went over, f l y i n g l i k e s h i t t l e c o c k s , t h a t have but two f e a t h e r s : and o t h e r s , t h a t had more s k i l l i n horsemanship, h i t t i n g t h e i r ennemies d i d push themselves downe: so t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g seene but tumbling downe, and g e t t i n g up t o tumble down a g a i n . " T h i s p a i d performance by s t a b l e boys i s b r i e f l y mentioned i n H a i n h o f e r ' s r e p o r t as an amusement t h a t provokes much l a u g h t e r . Weckherlin's E n g l i s h d e s c r i p t i o n makes c l e a r t h a t t h i s b u f f o o n e r y i s performed as a clumsy c o n t r a s t t o the noble tournament. The poets do not devote many words, i n the German 4 6 t e x t s , t o t h i s event which d i v e r g e s from the grandeur of the p r e c e d i n g pageantry. In the engravings t h i s doomed c o n t e s t of awkward and b u l k y r i d e r s i s f a i t h f u l l y d e p i c t e d i n a p r i n t which f e a t u r e s the h a t c h e d - i n t e r r a i n where t h i s performance ta k e s p l a c e . The d i s o r d e r and g r a c e l e s s n e s s o f t h i s b a t t l e i s a c t e d out i n an "earthbound" space, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the e t h e r e a l plane evoked by the blank h o r i z o n s of the noble parade. The f a c t t h a t t h i s scene o f f a l l e n and tumbling horsemen i s g i v e n a t t e n t i o n i n the g r a p h i c work p o i n t s t o i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n h i g h l i g h t i n g the l o f t y and u n a t t a i n a b l e nature of the a r i s t r o c r a t s 1 c h i v a l r i c d i s p l a y s . The "Kubelstechen", by i t s a n t i t h e s i s o f dynamic d i s a r r a y e n l i v e n s the r a t h e r u n i n s p i r i n g s u c c e s s i o n o f gods and heroes pr e s e n t e d i n the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format of the engravings. While t h i s p r o c e s s i o n arrangement o f the d e p i c t i o n s served w e l l t o d i s p l a y rank, the poet's t e x t s added another l a y e r o f meaning by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the " c a r t e l s " or c h a l l e n g e s , which were read out a t the f e s t i v a l b e f o r e each tournament d i s p l a y , i n t o t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . These v e r s e s (and sometimes songs) which are r e p r i n t e d i n Assum*s and Weckherlin's accounts, i d e n t i f y the k n i g h t l y a t t r i b u t e s shared by the p r e s e n t e r and h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l or h e r o i c a l t e r - e g o . T h i s was no mere p l a y - a c t i n g , as the f e s t i v a l h i s t o r i a n s Alewyn and S a l z l e p o i n t out: " I t i s no l e s s than the e x p r e s s i o n of a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c l a i m . In the f e s t i v a l , c o u r t l y s o c i e t y a t t a i n s i t s most v a l i d form. In the f e s t i v a l , i t r e p r e s e n t s t h a t which i t wants t o be, t h a t which i t 47 imagines t o be, and i n any case, t h a t which i t wants t o appear t o be. I t i s an impassioned demonstration, i n which t h i s s o c i e t y uses a l l the r h e t o r i c a l metaphors wi t h which i t l i k e s t o c e l e b r a t e i t s e l f , as a mask, and tb^en i t l i f t s t h i s masquerade t o the l e v e l of mythology." In t h e v i s u a l medium, a l l t h i s masquerade, even i n i t s d i s p l a y of wealth and i n v e n t i o n , remains j u s t t h a t , and does not f u l f i l l t he r e s i d u a l f u n c t i o n t h a t the o b s o l e t e c h i v a l r i c e x e r c i s e s d i s c l o s e i n the p o e t i c t e x t s . The poet p r o v i d e d the s t o r y , v i a the c a r t e l s , i n which the v i r t u e s o f the " k n i g h t s " were a c t e d out. The c a r t e l s were important because as one of Weckherlin's a s s e r t s : "The r e p u t a t i o n of a k n i g h t does not c o n s i s t i n outward shew, but i n t h a t h e e 5 i s a b l e t o performe and t o defend m e r r i l y and q u i e t l y . " The poet's s c r i p t allowed the p r i n c e l y a c t o r t o "performe or defend m e r r i l y and q u i e t l y " w i t h the assurance t h a t h i s a t t r i b u t e s (be they bravery, h u m i l i t y , c o n t i n e n c e , g e n e r o s i t y , etc.) would be expressed t o the audience. The tournament, having abandoned i t s medieval form o f combat as a t e s t o f the r u l e r ' s prowess, remains as an empty s h e l l of words which r e t a i n s an i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n . T h i s s h e l l now comprises v i r t u e s which are o n l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the formal 7 . noble r u l i n g c l a s s . These v i r t u e s belong s o l e l y t o an e l i t e whose p o s i t i o n i s beyond q u e s t i o n . The f e s t i v a l , where these a r i s t o c r a t i c a t t r i b u t e s are a c t e d out and c e l e b r a t e d , then c o n f i r m s the c l a i m s t o power of the noble e l i t e as the s o l e h o l d e r s o f h e r o i c and g o d - l i k e v i r t u e s . 48 The a l l e g o r i c a l s c r i p t s convey the " i n n e r q u a l i t i e s " t h a t mark the r u l e r and t h a t speak t o the r o l e o f the duke t h a t the Landtag sought. In the f e s t i v a l , and i n i t s t e x t u a l documentation, the duke c o u l d a c t out r o l e s which a l l e g o r i c a l l y r e v e a l him t o be a j u s t , brave, and wise defender o f the f a i t h and the f a t h e r l a n d , a l b e i t i n a v e h i c l e the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s found w a s t e f u l and f o r e i g n . While the t e x t s imbued the k n i g h t l y p r e t e n s e s w i t h a c o n f i r m a t i o n of the moral c l a i m s t o power o f the c o u r t , the l e g i t i m i z i n g v i r t u e s o f the e l i t e c o u l d not be adequately underscored i n the engravings. Here, the d e p i c t i o n of the "Kubelstechen" i s c a l l e d i n t o p l a y w i t h a l l the might of the r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e o f a n t i t h e s i s , t o r i d i c u l e the n o t i o n o f f i n d i n g k n i g h t l y a t t r i b u t e s o u t s i d e the ranks of the c o u r t n o b i l i t y . 1. G.R. Weckherlin, T r i u m p h a l l Shews, p.162, r e p r i n t e d i n S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . o p . c i t . 2. G.R. Weckherlin, o p . c i t . , p.163. 3. G.R. Weckherlin, o p . c i t . , p.163. 4. R i c h a r d Alewyn and K a r l S a l z l e , Das g r o s s e W e l t t h e a t e r (Hamburg, 1959), p.16. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 5. G.R. Weckherlin, o p . c i t . , p.78. 6. I n g r i d L a u r i e n , 'Hofische' und 1 B u r g e r l i c h e 1 Elemente i n  den ' G a i s t l i c h e n u. W e l t l i c h e n G e d i c h t e n 1 Georg Rodolf  Weckherlins (1648) ( S t u t t g a r t , 1981), p.30. 7. I . L a u r i e n , o p . c i t . , p.30 CHAPTER 3 A Grotesque T r a n s l a t i o n Of The Empire The b a n a l i l l u s t r a t i v e q u a l i t y o f the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n format, f o r a l l i t s uses i n the e x p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , c o u l d not f u l f i l l an i n t e n t t h a t was s t a t e d i n Assum's t e x t . The p a n e g y r i c t e x t promised t o enable and s t i m u l a t e a l i v e l y d i s c o u r s e among those o f e l e v a t e d s o c i a l s t a n d i n g and l e a r n i n g . 1 The i n t e n t to. provoke and c h a l l e n g e l e a r n e d d i s c u s s i o n f o r a s o c i a l e l i t e t h a t Assum expressed i s r e p l i c a t e d i n the symbolic t a b l e a u x which are i n t e r s p e r s e d i n what would otherwise be an e s s e n t i a l l y t e d i o u s r e p r e s e n t e d parade. Int o the standard s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n i n g f u n c t i o n o f the t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n are i n s e r t e d complex and v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g elements which address the s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n o f the f e s t i v a l . These are the most e y e - c a t c h i n g engravings o f the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; here n o v e l t y and i n n o v a t i o n are f r e e l y deployed t o evoke wonder and amazement i n what has been shown t o be a r a t h e r d i v e r s e audience. But these c h a l l e n g i n g images do not "speak" on t h e i r own and the t e x t s do not make them "speak" e i t h e r . U n l i k e t h e i r antecedents, the i l l u s t r a t e d broadsheets, where t e x t and image a c t e d i n c o n c e r t t o produce meaning f o r wide and even i l l i t e r a t e audiences, the c o u r t l y v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s have no e x p l a n a t o r y c a p t i o n s . These segments of the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n remain l o c k e d i n a language t h a t was not a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l but a s e l e c t audience t h a t was c l o s e t o i t s c o u r t l y producers. 50 These e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s u g g e s t i v e y e t d e l i b e r a t e l y obscure elements o f the f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n encode an i n t e n t t o exclude; t h a t a l s o makes t h i s m a t e r i a l dangerous t e r r i t o r y f o r a r t h i s t o r i c a l study. The v i s u a l medium i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y accommodate m u l t i p l e s i g n s and symbols extends an i n v i t a t i o n f o r i c o n o g r a p h i c excess. My e f f o r t s t o access these assemblages o f v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r i e s must stand as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l . In e x p l i c a t i n g the m u l t i p l e metaphors o f the p r i n t s I hope t h a t my a n a l y s i s w i l l not s t r a y beyond the c i rcumstances i n and f o r which these images were i n v e n t e d and the audiences they addressed. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l focus on the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the "head" b a l l e t which appears i n the second f u l l - p a g e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the g r a p h i c work ( f i g . 4 ) . T h i s performance was staged on the f i r s t evening of the f e s t i v a l and must have had a key f u n c t i o n as a t hematic i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the f e s t i v a l program. The p i c t o r i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h i s s trange dance f e a t u r e s the combinatory form of the grotesque t o p r e s e n t a most i n t r i g u i n g image. I w i l l propose t h a t the g i a n t head d e p i c t i o n can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a p o c a l y p t i c R o s i c r u c i a n t e x t s t h a t emerged i n the y e a r s b e f o r e the T h i r t y Years War. T h i s n a r r a t i v e base f o r the b i z a r r e head b a l l e t i n i t s c h i l i a s t i c s t o r y l i n e seems t o take up the theme of a never-performed masque intended as p a r t o f the 1613 f e s t i v i t i e s h e l d i n honor o f the P a l a t i n a t e marriage i n London. 51 The S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l , w h i l e b i l l e d as a baptism, does not pay hommage t o t h i s event i n the engravings. A l l the i n n o v a t i v e s k i l l s o f the f e s t i v a l d e s i g n e r s went i n t o an awesome b a l l e t which c e l e b r a t e d the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f e s t i v a l , the v i s i t o f the E l e c t o r F r e d e r i c k o f t h e P a l a t i n a t e and h i s w i f e , P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h . A c c o r d i n g t o the poet Weckherlin, i t was the E n g l i s h p r i n c e s s whose " b l e s s e d 2 presence was the c h i e f cause of the shews." The b a l l e t found a s u i t a b l e theme f o r t h i s important s t a t e v i s i t . Four g i a n t heads appeared i n the Lusthaus b a l l r o o m and, a c c o r d i n g t o Weckherlin"s account, each e x p e l l e d t h r e e 3 dancers, a l l i n d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l costumes. Only H a i n h o f e r ' s r e p o r t t e l l s who each of the twelve dancers was; Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h of Wurttemberg appeared as the "blacke moore" w h i l e h i s c o u r t i e r s r e p r e s e n t e d the e l e v e n o t h e r " n a t i o n s " . A c c o r d i n g t o Weckherlin, these were an Englishman f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a "Scottishman", an "Irishman", a "Frenchman", a "High-Dutchman", a "Laponian", a "Spaniard", an " I t a l i a n " , a " P o l o n i a n " , a "blacke a moore", a "Turke" and an 4 . . " I n d i a n , or Americaine". Each performed h i s own dance which the o t h e r s c o p i e d i n t u r n , u n t i l a l l were f i n a l l y dancing the 5 . . same way. T h i s p a r a b l e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n addressed "the cause of the shews", the presence o f the P a l a t i n e E l e c t o r F r e d e r i c k V and h i s w i f e E l i z a b e t h and c e l e b r a t e d more than j u s t a meeting of German P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s . The f e s t i v a l , w i t h James I daughter i n attendance, 52 h e l d the hope of overcoming the o v e r r i d i n g problem t h a t f a c e d those who wished t o oppose the might o f the C a t h o l i c a x i s , which was the welding of the numerous enemies of the Habsburgs i n t o a coherent r i v a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l a l l i a n c e . 6 The E n g l i s h King James I s t i l l seemed t o be promoting a P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e when he agreed t o the 1613 marriage of h i s daughter E l i z a b e t h t o the l e a d e r o f the P r o t e s t a n t Union o f German p r i n c e s , F r e d e r i c k V. L a v i s h f e s t i v i t i e s took p l a c e from London t o H e i d e l b e r g t o c e l e b r a t e "the union o f the 7 Thames and the Rhine". The S t u t t g a r t baptism p r o v i d e d a forum t o extend and c o n f i r m t h i s d y n a s t i c a l l i a n c e t o Wurttemberg and t o the member s t a t e s o f the German P r o t e s t a n t Union. A s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the baptism ceremony w r i t t e n by an anonymous Wurttemberg r e p o r t e r t e l l s t h a t the g E n g l i s h p r i n c e s s was l e d i n t o the church " l i k e a b r i d e " " T h i s emphasis on the b r i d e - l i k e s t a t u s of E l i z a b e t h S t u a r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the baptism and the many marriage f e s t i v a l s had an analogous purpose. A c c o r d i n g t o the German f e s t i v a l h i s t o r i a n Berns, the o c c a s i o n - s p e c i f i c elements of a f e s t i v a l and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e d ever new but f u n c t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r symbolic m a t e r i a l f o r the d i d a c t i c and demonstrative 9 purposes o f each d y n a s t i c event. A r e c e n t study by David Norbrook, "'The Masque of T r u t h ' : Court Entertainments and I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t P o l i t i c s i n the E a r l y S t u a r t P e r i o d " p r e s e n t s evidence t h a t a masque w i t h 53 such a " f u n c t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y " t o the g i a n t head b a l l e t was t o have been p r e s e n t e d a t one of the London marriage f e s t i v i t i e s . 1 0 Norbrook examines the i n t e r e s t i n g case o f a masque, composed f o r the wedding, t h a t never was performed, even though i t s d e s c r i p t i o n was p r i n t e d i n a French commemorative pamphlet. The theme o f t h i s suppressed masque, as Norbrook p o i n t s out, may have been p i c k e d up i n the G i a n t 1 1 Head B a l l e t h e l d a t the S t u t t g a r t 'baptism 1. "The Masque of T r u t h " would have been, had i t been performed, one o f the most s p e c t a c u l a r entertainments y e t staged a t the E n g l i s h c o u r t , and o f a s c a l e and grandeur f a r s u r p a s s i n g t h a t o f the S t u t t g a r t b a l l e t . Norbrook o f f e r s a summary of the never-performed s p e c t a c l e 1 2 from i t s f i c t i t i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n i n the French t e x t . The masque begins w i t h muses s i n g i n g the p r a i s e s of King James, the muses then l e a d A t l a s t o England where h i s globe opens t o r e v e a l Europe and her f i v e daughters (France, Spain, Germany, I t a l y , G r e e c e ) ; each has t h r e e pages and a l l are i n n a t i o n a l costume. They are f o l l o w e d by the Ocean, h i s w i f e the Mediterranean, and by the c h i e f r i v e r s of Europe. The p r i n c e s o f Europe appear and dance w i t h the d a u g h t e r s / p r i n c e s s e s . The same procedure takes p l a c e w i t h A s i a and A f r i c a and t h e i r daughters. The muses then c a l l on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l assemblage t o abandon t h e i r q u a r r e l s , t o l o o k t o King James and i m i t a t e h i s z e a l f o r the t r u e r e l i g i o n . "The masque ends w i t h one more s p e c t a c u l a r e f f e c t : " The globe s p l i t s i n two 54 and d i s a p p e a r s , l e a v i n g behind i t a p a r a d i s e guarded by an angel b e a r i n g a f l a m i n g sword, w i t h a s k u l l a t h i s f e e t . T r u t h i n v i t e s the queens and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s t o overcome t h e i r f e a r of death w i t h repentance and f a i t h and e n t e r P a r a d i s e . A t l a s and the Muses l e a d the n a t i o n s i n t o P a r a d i s e and the sword and s k u l l v a n i s h ; then the gates of P a r a d i s e c l o s e 13 behxnd them. A c c o r d i n g t o Norbrook, t h i s masque breaks from the o l d p a n e g y r i c topos of England as a 'world d i v i d e d from the world', and addresses the marriage as the b a s i s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m a t i o n and not j u s t as a d y n a s t i c union. The r e l i g i o u s z e a l o t r y i m p l i c i t i n the a p o c a l y p t i c end t o the masque "goes beyond the c a u t i o n o f o f f i c i a l pronouncements on the match. And the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y mighty powers l i k e Spain and France bowing down b e f o r e B r i t a i n and the P a l a t i n a t e i s h a r d l y t a c t f u l i n the 14 c o n t e x t o f European diplomacy." The m i l i t a n t P r o t e s t a n t message i n the masque was p r o b l e m a t i c t o James whose g o a l i t was t o pursue a pragmatic f o r e i g n p o l i c y t h a t responded t o changes i n the European balance of 15 . . . power. In f a c t , James regarded r e l i g i o u s enthusiasm as a dangerous f o r c e t h a t might p r e s e n t a p o l i t i c a l t h r e a t t o h i s 16 a u t h o r i t y . Norbrook e x p l o r e s evidence t h a t p o i n t s t o the c o l l a p s e o f the p o l i c y o f rapprochement w i t h European P r o t e s t a n t i s m t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h the death of P r i n c e Henry 55 s h o r t l y b e f o r e the marriage of h i s s i s t e r E l i z a b e t h t o the P a l a t i n a t e E l e c t o r . I r o n i c a l l y , the E n g l i s h wedding was taken as a s i g n of James' s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the anti-Habsburg cause of the P a l a t i n a t e p r i n c e ; h i s ambivalence towards the c o n f e s s i o n a l i s s u e d i d not become e v i d e n t u n t i l i t was too l a t e and F r e d e r i c k V had a l r e a d y embarked on the i l l - f a t e d Bohemian adventure. At the 1616 "baptism", the marriage of the Rhine and the Thames s t i l l was a cause f o r c e l e b r a t i o n f o r those P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s t h a t the m i l i t a n t C a l v i n i s t s of the P a l a t i n a t e had managed t o 17 e n l i s t i n t o a union f o r defense. The c e n t r a l m o t i f of the meeting was p r e s e n t e d i n the b a l l e t on the f i r s t evening of the f e s t i v a l ; t h i s performance i s t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k e d t o the too f e r v e n t E n g l i s h masque. Norbrook c h a r a c t e r i z e s the S t u t t g a r t b a l l e t t h i s way: "...though l e s s o v e r t l y r e l i g i o u s i n tone, i t s symbolism, and the g e n e r a l o c c a s i o n would s u r e l y have r e c a l l e d t o ( P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h ) the dance of the many 18 n a t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y planned f o r her wedding f e s t i v i t i e s " The "Masque o f T r u t h " , even i f never performed, may w e l l have been known t o the Wurttemberg d e s i g n e r s of the f e s t i v a l from i t s French t e x u a l d e s c r i p t i o n . The i n v e n t i o n o f a t h e m a t i c a l l y s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n c o u l d a l s o have addressed the knowledgeable e l i t e Assum's t e x t claimed as the w o r l d l y - wise r e c i p i e n t s o f h i s German p a n e g y r i c . The s i m i l a r i t y of the o c c a s i o n of the wedding and the baptism allowed f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of the same theme, but i n keeping w i t h the need f o r n o v e l t y ( t h a t 56 Berns i d e n t i f i e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o u r t l y f e s t i v a l p r a c t i c e ) , a new form was found. T h i s new symbolism i m p l i e d , c o n t r a r y t o Norbrook's a n a l y s i s , the v e r y same a p o c a l y p t i c moment t h a t was c o n t a i n e d i n the suppressed masque. To l o c a t e the source of the a p o c a l y p t i c moment i m p l i e d i n the b a l l e t , the commissioned t e x t s o f Assum and Weckherlin o f f e r no i n t e r p r e t i v e guidance. Berns ana l y z e s t h i s f r u s t r a t i n g q u a l i t y of c o u r t l y r e p o r t a g e : i t s r e p e t i t i o n o f the 19 u n i n t e r p r e t e d s i g n . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f e s t i v a l i s c a r r i e d out without commentary; the s i g n system i n use i s not made a c c e s s i b l e by the a b s o l u t i s t c o u r t , when, i n the process o f s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of i t s c l a i m s t o power, i t foregrounds a shock e f f e c t t h a t i s designed t o numb the audience. The complex o f m u l t i p l e a l l e g o r i e s t h a t r e p l a c e d the r u l e r - v a l i d a t i n g s a c r e d ceremonial s u b o r d i n a t e d communication p o t e n t i a l t o a p a r a l y z i n g show of magnificence. The l e s s e r mechanism o f symbol t r a n s m i s s i o n c o u l d , however, not be abandoned by the secondary e a r l y a b s o l u t i s t c o u r t of Wurttemberg - i n c o n t r a s t w i t h James' I c o u r t , which had suppressed "The Masque of T r u t h " i n f a v o r of masques which 2 0 emphasized mystery and ceremony. The "baptism" f e s t i v a l , h e l d a t a moment of c r i s i s , s t i l l u t i l i z e d a r e p e r t o i r e of a l l e g o r i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t addressed the hopes and f e a r s of the c o u r t and i t s s u b j e c t s . 57 A key t o some of the f e s t i v a l symbolism can perhaps be found i n the w i d e l y - c i r c u l a t e d m i l l e n a r i a n t r a c t s a t t r i b u t e d t o the Wurttemberg t h e o l o g i a n Johann V a l e n t i n Andreae. The h i s t o r i a n R.J.W. Evans d e s c r i b e s these " R o s i c r u c i a n " t r a c t s as a " s trange corpus of w r i t i n g s c l a i m i n g t o o f f e r u n i v e r s a l enlightenment through the medium of s e c r e t wisdom, w i t h p l e n t y 21 o f c h i l i a s t i c i n t i m a t i o n s " . Frances Yates study o f these t e x t s (The R o s i c r u c i a n Enlightenment) connects the appearance o f the R o s i c r u c i a n pamphlets t o the hopes r a i s e d by the 22 supposed a l l i a n c e o f England and German P r o t e s t a n t s . Y a t e s 1 r e a d i n g o f these e s o t e r i c t e x t s has been b i t i n g l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r her too a v i d h y p o t h e s i z i n g about the t r a n s m i s s i o n of h ermetic thought v i a symbol, a l l u s i o n and supposed p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s throughout Europe which f i n a l l y , i n her a n a l y s i s , had r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n the i n i t i a l stages of the s c i e n t i f i c 23 r e v o l u t i o n . The R o s i c u c i a n t e x t s , a c c o r d i n g t o the evidence she p resented, arose out of the E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e on P a l a t i n a t e c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e and came t o form a p a r t o f P a l a t i n a t e propaganda campaigns a g a i n s t Habsburg power. Her a n a l y s i s has been too a l l u s i v e and i n d i r e c t t o c onvince o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s . The c o n n e c t i o n o f these t e x t s t o the t u r m o i l of the pre-war years i s much l e s s i n doubt. A l e s s f a r - r e a c h i n g a n a l y s i s by the German h i s t o r i a n R i c h a r d van Dulmen does not go beyond the t e r r i t o r y o f Wurttemberg where 24 the presumed author Andreae wrote the t r a c t s . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s r e a d i n g these hermetic t e x t s promoted a second P r o t e s t a n t r e f o r m a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g an i r e n i c a l t e r n a t i v e t o the deep 58 d i v i s i o n s among C a l v i n i s t s and Lutherans. The e a r l i e s t R o s i c r u c i a n m a n i f e s t o s which appeared around 1605, the Fama and the C o n f e s s i o , f o r e t e l l , i n a powerful and p r o p h e t i c a p o c a l y p t i c tone t h a t a g r e a t r e f o r m a t i o n i s a t hand which 25 w i l l s i g n a l the r e t u r n t o the s t a t e o f Adam i n P a r a d i s e . The s u b t e x t of the p r o p h e c i e s i s a c a l l f o r a second P r o t e s t a n t r e f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l b r i n g f o r t h the m i l l e n i u m . The Fama. which i s the core o f the R o s i c r u c i a n myth, c a l l e d 2 6 f o r t h a l o t o f i n t e r e s t from a l l s o c i a l l e v e l s . The passage o f the Fama t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o the g i a n t head b a l l e t i s found i n the e x p l i c a t i o n of the R o s i c r u c i a n credo where P r o t e s t a n t f e r v o u r and e x p r e s s i o n s o f a l l e g i a n c e t o the Empire are tempered w i t h i n t i m a t i o n s of g r e a t change: "In P o l i t i a we acknowledge the Roman Empire and Quartam Monarcham f o r our C h r i s t i a n head, a l b e i t we know what a l t e r a t i o n s be a t hand, and would f a i n impart the same w i t h 27 a l l our h e a r t s t o o t h e r godly l e a r n e d men..." The acceptance of the t h e o r y of the f o u r monarchies, pronounced i n the R o s i c r u c i a n manifesto r e f e r s t o the medieval i d e a o f the " t r a n s l a t i o n " of the Roman Empire t o Germany, from which the Holy Roman Empire o f the German N a t i o n took i t s name. The r e v e l a t i o n i n the book o f D a n i e l t h a t p r o p h e s i e d t h a t the world would be r e i g n e d over by a t o t a l o f f o u r monarchies or empires u n t i l the Apocalypse, was c o d i f i e d i n medieval s c h o l a r s h i p where the monarchies were i d e n t i f i e d as the Babylonian, the P e r s i a n , the Greek and 59 f i n a l l y , t he Roman. Charlemagne's r e i g n , whose "Roman" endorsement s i g n i f i e d t he t r a n s f e r o f the f i n a l empire onto German s o i l , was the b a s i s o f the co n t i n u e d a u t h o r i t y o f the 29 t h e o r y . The b e l i e f t h a t the world would end w i t h t h e f a l l o f t he f o u r t h empire c a r r i e d weight i n t o the seventeenth c e n t u r y and beyond; not o n l y as a h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c fundamental, . . 30 but a l s o as a p o l i t i c a l source o f s t r e n g t h . In c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e g a l t r e a t i s e s the b e l i e f i n the Go d - w i l l e d s u r v i v a l o f the Roman empire s h i n e s through as a f i r s t - c l a s s i d e o l o g i c a l weapon a g a i n s t i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l enemies of the German empire. D a n i e l ' s prophecy was always r e c a l l e d as evidence t h a t the Roman-German empire c o u l d not 31 f a l l b e f o r e the end of the world. Even Luther, w h i l e r e j e c t i n g t he Roman " t r a n s l a t i o n " t h e o r y as a v a l i d a t i o n o f pa p a l a u t h o r i t y , c i t e d D a n i e l ' s r e v e l a t i o n as empowering evidence f o r the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f the e c l i p s e o f the 32 German-Roman empire by the Turks. In the s i x t e e n t h century, German h i s t o r y t e a c h e r s c o n f i n e d themselves t o a p o l i t i c a l n a r r a t i v e o f the f o r t u n e s o f the 33 f o u r b i b l i c a l monarchies. The t h e o r y o f the " t r a n s l a t i o n " o f t he Roman empire t o the German empire formed the underpinnings o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and the l e g a l system. Even as the P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s were o r g a n i z i n g themselves i n t o a union t o defend themselves a g a i n s t t h e i r C a t h o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t s , they make i t c l e a r t h a t they d i d not have the 60 g o a l o f b r e a k i n g up the empire, as r e v e a l e d by the preamble t o the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Union: "In view o f the urgent n e c e s s i t y , we, the undersigned E l e c t o r s and E s t a t e s of the Holy Roman Empire, much l e s s t o damage but much more t o s t r e n g t h e n and uphold peace and u n i t y i n the Holy Empire, as d e d i c a t e d and obedient E s t a t e s o f the Empire of the German Na t i o n , our b e l oved f a t h e r l a n d , i n o r d e r t o advance the common w e l l - b e i n g , our l a n d and people and a l s o those E s t a t e s who w i l l i n f u t u r e j o i n us t o f u r t h e r peace, o r d e r and p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e name o f God the Almighty, have one and a l l r e a p e d the p r e s e n t amicable and c o n f i d e n t i a l agreement... Continued a l l e g i a n c e t o the p r e c e p t s of empire and emperor was a l s o a b a s i c demand of the r e l u c t a n t Wurttemberg Landtag members when f a c e d w i t h Johann F r i e d r i c h ' s d e c i s i o n t o j o i n 35 the P r o t e s t a n t Union. The appearance of the f o u r g i a n t heads a t the "baptism" f e s t i v a l must have v e r y r e a d i l y evoked the i d e a o f the f o u r world monarchies as i t was embodied by the f o u r g i g a n t i c and m o n a r c h i c a l physiognomies. The g i a n t e f f i g i e s were a v i s u a l a f f i r m a t i o n of the i d e a of i m p e r i a l a l l e g i a n c e t o which H a i n h o f e r ' s commentary on the performance o f f e r s c o r r o b o r a t i o n . The i m p e r i a l theme of the b a l l e t i s s p e l l e d out a t the end of the " n a t i o n s " dance: "they made, i n dancing, an F and an E, a P and an 0, by t h a t a l l u d i n g t o the p r i n c e and p r i n c e s s 1 names and t o the i m p e r i a l o r b . " 3 6 But t h i s i s not a s t a t i c image of a f f i r m a t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l w orld view. The monstrous heads cannot " c o n t a i n " a new e x p e r i e n t i a l world. These pregnant, y e t b o d i l e s s , e f f i g i e s are u n l i k e the limbed g i a n t puppets t h a t 61 t r a d i t i o n a l l y appear a t po p u l a r and c o u r t l y f e s t v a l s . The heads t h a t r e v e a l t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , the n a t i o n s , have more i n common w i t h the form o f the l lArcimboldesque , ,, an engraving w i t h g r e a t c u r r e n c y i n German lands around 1600, which was i n s p i r e d by Arcimboldo's strange a l l e g o r i c a l 38 p o r t r a i t s o f Rudolf I I . These grotesque d e p i c t i o n s o f heads made up o f symbolic elements had many i m i t a t o r s ( f i g . 5 ) . Warncke's study o f German grotesques a t t r i b u t e s the pr e v a l e n c e o f the grotesque a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the seventeenth c e n t u r y t o the a b i l i t y o f t h i s form t o meld d i v e r s e s i g n s : "Under the mantle o f the grotesque, l e g i t i m i z e d by an t i q u e precedents, were u n i t e d the most d i v e r s e aims, and w i t h t h a t , a l l the e x p r e s s i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f monsters, fabulous c r e a t u r e s and mongrels t h a t had been i n v e n t e d over the c e n t u r i e s . The grotesque rescued whole image worlds, through a l t e r a t i o n and a b s o r b t i o n , out of the upheaval brought about by the s e c u l a r i s a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l thought. When we see the grotesque c l e a r l y r e v e a l i t s e l f as a means t o overcome c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n a seemingly u n c e r t a i n world, then the power of tha^| form l i e s i n i t s power t o t r a n s f o r m by s y n t h e s i s . " T h i s impulse t o s y n t h e s i z e new s e c u l a r knowledge i s demonstrated i n the d e p i c t i o n o f the grotesque heads out o f which the " n a t i o n s " emerge as s i g n s o f a new ex p e r i e n c e o f phenonema t h a t cannot e a s i l y be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s about the world. The s t e a d f a s t l o y a l t y t o r e v e a l e d knowledge, r e p r e s e n t e d by the heads, breaks i n t o an image of change, as the twelve n a t i o n s a re r e l e a s e d t o p r e s e n t an expanded cosmos of h i s t o r y and geography. 62 I t i s the i n t e g r a t i v e i n t e n t o f the "grotesque" form of the b a l l e t t h a t p o i n t s t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h R o s i c r u c i a n i d e a s . These t r a c t s , which achieved an immediate and e x t e n s i v e resonance, e x h i b i t an a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y t r e n d , as the h i s t o r i a n R.J.W. Evans observed. The " o c c u l t i z i n g p u r i t a n i s m " o f Andreae's U t o p i a n t e x t s m a n i f e s t s a r e l i g i o u s enthusiasm t h a t went w i t h "an uncomfortable stance towards l e a r n i n g , b l e n d i n g moral f e r v o r w i t h c o n t i n u i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l commitment t o a s p e c t s o f the Renaissance t r a d i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the r e j e c t i o n o f dogmatism."40 The c a l l f o r a s p i r i t u a l r e f o r m a t i o n which would combine d i s p a r a t e elements o f orthodoxy and m y s t i c i s m came out of the profound c r i s i s t h a t shook the e a r l y modern P r o t e s t a n t t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t e . I t i s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of an "end" t h a t emerges immediately b e f o r e the T h i r t y Years War t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d van Dulmen's a n a l y s i s , Andreae's t r a c t s bear witness t o . The m i l l e n a r i a n v i s i o n s come out of an awareness of b e i n g a t the end o f C h r i s t i a n u n i v e r s a l i s m , of the end of the u n i t y o f p o l i t i c s and r e l i g i o n and o f the end of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a lance o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the empire and the emperor.41 I t would not be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Andreae's c h i l i a s t i c c a l l s f o r a new and b e t t e r P r o t e s t a n t world order would make an appearance i n the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l b a l l e t . The l e a r n e d f a m i l y o f t h e o l o g i a n s Andreae was born i n t o had c o n n e c t i o n s t o the Wurttemberg c o u r t ; h i s f a t h e r , a p a s t o r , was on f r i e n d l y terms w i t h Duke F r i e d r i c h , whose i n t e r e s t s i n alchemy he 63 shared, and i n 1601, when Andreae's f a t h e r d i e d , Duke F r i e d r i c h g r a n t e d the job of c o u r t apothecary t o h i s mother.42 There can be no doubt t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s would have been f a m i l i a r t o the d e s i g n e r s of the S t u t t g a r t c o u r t f e s t i v a l . H i s t r a c t s p r o v i d e d a n a t i v e and c u r r e n t n a r r a t i v e t h a t c o u l d r e p l a y the a p o c a l y p t i c theme o f the suppressed E n g l i s h masque - complete w i t h i t s v i s i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l harmony. The Fama and o t h e r R o s i c r u c i a n t r a c t s which Andreae c a l l e d " l u d i b r i u m " , o r games f o r the c u r i o u s , were not w r i t t e n as t h e o r e t i c a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s , but i n s t e a d used the d e v i c e s o f dreams, f a b l e s and emblematic imagery t o convey a C h r i s t i a n U t o p i a n message 43 i n the form of a r i d d l e . In the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the b a l l e t , the P r o t e s t a n t f e r v o u r of the R o s i c r u c i a n t r a c t s i s not r e p l i c a t e d but o n l y a l l u d e d t o -u n l i k e the suppressed E n g l i s h masque's open m a n i f e s t a t i o n of King James' r o l e f o r the " t r u e r e l i g i o n " . Both Assum's and Weckherlin's accounts make c l e a r t h a t F r e d e r i c k and E l i z a b e t h are b e i n g honored by the b a l l e t , but o n l y H a i n h o f e r ' s account o f the b a l l e t o f f e r s who the e a r t h l y promoters o f the m i l l e n i u m might be i n h i s " p r i v a t e " d e s c r i p t i o n o f the dance where the P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r ' s i n i t i a l s and the i m p e r i a l orb were c o n s e c u t i v e l y "signed". The symbols o f t h i s dance r e c a l l Jane Newman's summation o f the hopes r a i s e d by the English-German marriage a l l i a n c e : "In a b e t t e r , P r o t e s t a n t world, the Tudors and t h e i r v a s s a l s would o f f s e t , perhaps even 44 r e p l a c e , the Habsburgs as guarantors of the European peace." 64 The s t r a t e g y of "replacement" of the C a t h o l i c - H a b s b u r g domination o f the Holy Roman Empire o f the German N a t i o n o n l y became v i r u l e n t w i t h the P a l a t i n e e l e c t o r ' s acceptance of the Bohemian crown i n 1619 - and i t was a move the Union of P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s on the whole opposed as b e i n g too 45 dangerous. The i d e a of a P r o t e s t a n t empire may be an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f what the wedding promised t o the P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r s , but as David Norbrook has shown i t was not the message the Jacobean c o u r t wanted t o send out, a t l e a s t i n England. The Wurttemberg head b a l l e t remains "headless" i n i t s v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r much the same reasons. A P r o t e s t a n t empire under the P a l a t i n a t e E l e c t o r would have been an unacceptable cause f o r the Landtag t o r a l l y around. The p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s had made i t c l e a r t h a t even i f Wurttemberg's union w i t h o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c i p a l i t i e s was unavoidable, then under no circumstances would they t o l e r a t e an a l l i a n c e w i t h C a l v i n i s t s 45 . . . o r o t h e r s e c t a r i a n s . The Union, w i t h i t s P a l a t i n a t e l e a d e r , r e p r e s e n t e d j u s t such an a l l i a n c e . For the f e s t i v a l the R o s i c r u c i a n t r a c t s p r o v i d e d a r e l i g i o u s n a r r a t i v e framework which s t o o d o u t s i d e the s i g n i f i c a n t f r i c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d between the Reformed c o n f e s s i o n s i n Germany. The pansophic o program o f R o s i c r u c i a n i s m i s perhaps b e s t understood as a r e a c t i o n t o the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n s of Germany s i n c e the Reformation, e s p e c i a l l y the d i s p u t e s between 47 C a l v i n i s t s and Lutherans. The vague Ut o p i a n r i d d l e s were 65 encoded i n t o the f e s t i v a l s i g n system without c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the many o p p o s i t i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e Wurttemberg. The f e s t i v a l , a t l e a s t i n i t s o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e p l i c a t e d a l l the c o n c i l i a t o r y n o n - s p e c i f i c i t y o f the u n i v e r s a l i s t p u z z l e s of R o s i c r u c i a n i s m , w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g them i n an a w e - i n s p i r i n g form t h a t must have generated amazement i n any audience and i n v i s u a l symbols t h a t must have been a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o an e x c l u s i v e audience. The v i s u a l medium allowed the complex problems o f i m p e r i a l a l l e g i a n c e and r e b e l l i o u s P r o t e s t a n t u n i f i c a t i o n t o be accommodated i n an a l l u s i v e and non-committal manner. 1. J o h a n n - V a l e n t i n Assum, Warhaffte r e l a t i o n e t c . ( S t u t t g a r t , 1616), p . l . 2. G.R. Weckherlin, T r i u m p h a l l Shews, o p . c i t . , p . l . 3. G.R. Weckherlin, o p . c i t . , p.9. 4. G.R. Weckherlin, pp.10-11. 5. G.R. Weckherlin, p.11. 6. G. Parker and L.M. Smith, the General C r i s i s o f the  Seventeenth Century (London, 1978), p.67. 7. F. Yates, The R o s i c r u c i a n Enlightenment (London, 1972), ch. 1. 8. S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . o p . c i t . , p.313. 9. J . J . Berns, "Die F e s t k u l t u r der deutschen Hofe zwischen 1518 und 1730", Germanisch Romanische M o n a t s s c h r i f t 65 (1984), p.300. 10. David Norbrook, "'The Masque of T r u t h 1 : Court Entertainments and I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t P o l i t i c s i n 66 the E a r l y S t u a r t P e r i o d " , The Seventeenth Century. v o l . 1 , no.2 ( J u l y 1986), pp.81-110. 11. D. Norbrook, o p . c i t . , p.98. 12. D. Norbrook, pp.82-83. 13. D. Norbrook, p.83. 14. D. Norbrook, p.89. 15. D. Norbrook, p.88. 16. D. Norbrook, p.100. 17. C l a u s - P e t e r Clasen, The P a l a t i n a t e i n European H i s t o r y .  1555-1618 (Oxford, 1963), p.5. 18. D. Norbrook, o p . c i t . , p.98. 19. J . J . Berns, "Der nackte Monarch und d i e nackte Wahrheit", Daphnis. v o l . 1 1 (1982), p.342. 20. D. Norbrook, o p . c i t . , p.83 c i t e s t h i s p r e f e r e n c e o f the Jacobean c o u r t . 21. R.J.W. Evans, " C u l t u r e and Anarchy i n the Empire, 1540-1680, C e n t r a l European H i s t o r y , v o l . 1 8 , no.1 (1985), p.21. 22. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , pp.30-34. 23 B. V i c k e r s , "Frances Yates and the W r i t i n g o f H i s t o r y " , J o u r n a l o f Modern H i s t o r y . 51 (1979), pp.287-316. A l s o R.J.W. Evans' review o f The R o s i c r u c i a n Enlightenment. The H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l . XVI, 4 (1973), pp.865-868. 24. R i c h a r d van Dulmen, Die U t o p i e e i n e r c h r i s t l i c h e n  G e s e l l s c h a f t . Johann V a l e n t i n Andreae (1586-1654) T e i l 1 ( S t u t t g a r t - B a d C a n n s t a t t 1978). 25. R. van Dulmen, p.82. 26. R. van Dulmen, o p . c i t . The e a r l y R o s i c r u c i a n pamphlets e l i c i t e d much w r i t t e n response, n e a r l y two hundred such documents are s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . 27. Fama F r a t e r n i t a s . a t t r i b u t e d t o J.V. Andreae, c i t e d i n F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.53. 28. J.W. Swain, "The Theory o f the Four Monarchies", C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y 35 (1940), p . l . 29. Gertrude Lubbe-Wolff, "Die Bedeutung der Lehre von den 67 v i e r W e l t r e i g h e n f u r das S t a a t s r e c h t des Romischen Rei c h s " , s t a a t 23 (1984), p.370. A l s o : Werner Goez, T r a n s l a t i o I m p e r i i (Tubingen, 1958). Goez' book t r a c e s t he i d e a o f the t r a n s f e r o f the f o u r t h empire i n German p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s from medieval t o e a r l y modern times. And: Notker Hammerstein "'Imperium Romanum cum onmibus s u i s q u a l i t a t i b u s ad Germanos e s t t r a n s l a t u m ' Das v i e r t e W e l t r e i c h i n der Lehre der R e i c h s j u r i s t e n " i n J . Kunisch, ed., Neue s t u d i e n zur f r u h n e u z e i t l i c h e n  R e i c h s g e s c h i c h t e ( B e r l i n , 1987). 30. G. Lubbe-wolff, o p . c i t . p.371. 31. G. Lubbe-Wolff, p.371. 32. G. Lubbe-Wolff, p.372. 33. A. G r a f t o n , "The World o f the P o l y h i s t o r s , " C e n t r a l  European H i s t o r y 18 (1985), p.37. 34. In G. Benecke, Germany i n the T h i r t y Years War (London, 1978), p.9. 35. W. Grube, o p . c i t . , p.275. The s u r v i v a l o f the empire h e l d g r e a t importance f o r members of the lower e s t a t e s because the i m p e r i a l c o u r t a c t e d as the f i n a l c o u r t o f appeal i n d i s p u t e s w i t h the t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r . P e t e r B l i c k l e examines the pre v a l e n c e o f l e g a l r e c o u r s e i n i n t e r - e s t a t e d i s p u t e s i n German t e r r i t o r i e s i n "Peasant R e s i s t a n c e i n Sixteenth-and Seventeenth-Century Germany i n a European Context", R e l i g i o n . P o l i t i c s and S o c i a l  P r o t e s t . B l i c k l e , Rublack, Schulze, eds. (1984). 36. P. Ha i n h o f e r i n S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e , o p . c i t . , p.331. 37. The urban Nuremberg Schembartlauf, as w e l l as f e s t i v a l s a t the Habsburg c o u r t f e a t u r e d " g i a n t s " . 38. C-.P. Warncke, Die ornamentale Groteske i n Deiuschland 1500-1650 ( B e r l i n , 1979) pp.77-78. 39. C P . Warncke, o p . c i t . , p.78. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 40. R.J.W. Evans, p.22. 41. R i c h a r d van Dulmen, o p . c i t . , p.15. 42. R. van Dulmen, pp.95-96. 43. R. van Dulmen, p.93. 44. Jane 0. Newman, "Marriages o f Convenience: P a t t e r n s o f A l l i a n c e i n H e i d e l b e r g P o l i t i c s and O p i t z ' s P o e t i c s " , 68 MLN 100 (1985), p.547. 45. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.19. 46. W. Grube, o p . c i t . , p.275. 47. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.98. The c o n c i l i a t o r y aims o f R o s i c r u c i a n i s m are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n L.W. F o r s t e r , Georg  Rudolf Weckherlin. Zur Kenntnis s e i n e s Lebens i n England ( B a s e l , 1944), pp.81-83. 69 CHAPTER 4  The M i r r o r Of A Prudent E s t a t e In the p r e v i o u s chapter I have suggested t h a t the g i a n t head b a l l e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n put forward a r a t h e r a t t e n u a t e d n o t i o n of i m p e r i a l a l l e g i a n c e . The i l l u s t r a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s o f a b a l l e t t h a t was performed i n immediate s u c c e s s i o n p r e s e n t s , I propose, an e f f o r t t o come t o g r i p s w i t h a c o r o l l a r y problem. T h i s second b a l l e t ( f i g . 6 ) , a g a i n performed by the Wurttemberg duke and h i s c o u r t i e r s , t h i s time as Nuremberg mirror-makers, can be seen t o address the dangers pre s e n t e d by the u n i f i c a t i o n agreements between P r o t e s t a n t powers w i t h i n the Empire. The form a t i o n o f t h i s a l l i a n c e l e f t t he c a u t i o u s Wurttemberg c o u r t open t o a c c u s a t i o n s o f r e b e l l i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y the s t i l l - v a l i d medieval e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y o f the empire allowed t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e r s t o l e g i t i m a t e l y stand t o g e t h e r as an e s t a t e i n i n t e r n a l i m p e r i a l c o n f l i c t s . The d e p i c t i o n o f the c o u r t l y r e t i n u e i n the assumed r o l e s o f another e s t a t e , even i f the l a v i s h costumes remained t r u e t o the d i s p l a y o f c o u r t l y grandeur, depended on a c o n t r a s t between appearance and a c t u a l i t y t h a t c o u l d o n l y be v i s u a l l y pronounced. A solemn e v o c a t i o n o f the e s t a t e s t r u c t u r e t h a t I suggest the mirror-maker b a l l e t r e p r e s e n t s may have been o f f e r e d t o ward o f f any charges of s e d i t i o u s n e s s from o t h e r German t e r r i t o r i e s as w e l l as from l o c a l p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s . In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l examine how the Wurttemberg c o u r t s t r o v e 70 t o g i v e a l e g i t i m a t e and p l a c a t i n g image t o i t s a l l i a n c e w i t h the a g g r e s s i v e l y a n t i - C a t h o l i c P a l a t i n a t e s . That the Wurttemberg c o u r t wanted t o approach the i s s u e s of dangerous a l l i a n c e w i t h g r e a t c a u t i o n i s brought out i n d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of another segment of the f e s t i v a l . The f a c t t h a t the court-commissioned v i s u a l and t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l i s n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t from H a i n h o f e r ' s " p r i v a t e " account about t h i s p a r t of the pageant demonstrates t h a t the c o u r t intended t o modulate the use o f p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s p o l e m i c a l imagery i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The d i s c r e p a n t d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Duke of Baden's tournament e n t r y ( f i g . 7 ) p r e s e n t evidence f o r how c a r e f u l l y the Wurttemberg c o u r t wanted c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s o f p o l i t i c s and r e l i g i o n handled i n the v i s u a l and t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i s c a u t i o n i s manifested i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Empress Germania f o l l o w e d by her t e n " c i r c l e s " o r n a t i o n s i n an a n a c h r o n i s t i c v i s i o n t h a t d i d not r e f l e c t the t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s or the a c t u a l c o n f e s s i o n a l power b l o c s w i t h i n the post-Reformation empire. In the engravings Germania's " c i r c l e s " are shown h o l d i n g m i r r o r s , an emblematic r e f e r e n c e l t o " P r u d e n t i a " o r "the r e c o g n i t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " . The a l l e g o r i c a l duo of "Concord" and " D i s c o r d " , a f a m i l i a r d e v i c e o f f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n German t e r r i t o r i e s f o l l o w s the 2 c i r c l e s ( f i g . 8 ) . The commissioned t e x t s do not e l a b o r a t e on the i d e n t i t y of these symbolic f i g u r e s ; " D i s c o r d " i s i d e n t i f i e d g e n e r i c a l l y as a "monster" o r as a " h e l l i s h 71 p e a c e - d i s t u r b e r " . Only the d i p l o m a t i c correspondence o f Ha i n h o f e r i s forthcoming i n d e s c r i b i n g the "monstrum" as b e i n g made up o f f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a "Spaniard, a J e s u i t , a 3 Capuchin, e t c . who are d i s q u i e t i n g Germany". A c c o r d i n g t o Hai n h o f e r the e v i l o f the bound S p a n i s h - C a t h o l i c monster i s ac t e d out by a horned boy dre s s e d as a b l a c k d e v i l who emerges from under the monster's f e e t and runs o f f . The monster i s g i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n t o the g r e a t e s t f e a r o f the P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s and t h a t i s t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f the Spanish King P h i l i p I I and C a t h o l i c f o r c e s would combine t o impose a new C a t h o l i c u n i v e r s a l monarchy. Only Hainhofer, whose account was d i r e c t e d a t a s m a l l audience of P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s , "made the obvious i n f e r e n c e t h a t (the monster) r e p r e s e n t e d the m i l i t a n t f o r c e s o f the 4 Counter-Reformation." The c o u r t commissioned accounts as w e l l as the engravings take a f a r more c a u t i o u s approach. The g r a p h i c d e p i c t i o n o f the "monster" i s c l o s e t o Weckherlin's d e s c r i p t i o n : " h i s shape b e i n g l i k e a man, but ha v i n g i n f i n i t e 5 f a c e s , armes and l e g g ' s " . The s h o r t t u n i c the monster wears i s perhaps c a s s o c k - l i k e but the h i g h hats o f the monster do not i n s i s t on i t s c l e r i c a l s t a t u s . Under the s i g n o f " P r u d e n t i a " the f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n m a i n t a i n s a n e u t r a l tone w h i l e u t i l i z i n g the e n e m y - i d e n t i f y i n g p r o p a g a n d i s t i c t o o l a t t he a c t u a l event. 72 Robert S c r i b n e r * s a n a l y s i s of how p o p u l a r broadsheets and p o p u l a r p r o c e s s i o n a l propaganda were used t o f u r t h e r the cause of the Reformation can be a p p l i e d t o the s a t a n i c a l nature of the C a t h o l i c monster t h a t was p r e s e n t e d t o the f e s t i v a l a u d i e n c e . 6 Reformation propaganda, a c c o r d i n g t o S c r i b n e r , reduced complex p o l i t i c a l and c o n f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s i n t o a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between good and e v i l t h a t was expressed i n e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d symbols, i n v e r y m a t e r i a l ways o r i n terms o f c l e r i c a l persons. While the " D i s c o r d " monster seems t o have taken such a r o l e a t the f e s t i v a l , h i s i d e n t i t y i s f a r more obscure i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . H i s many-headedness s t i l l r e c a l l s Reformation propaganda "monsters" where t h e i r monstrous s t a t u s was taken t o be a v i s i b l e s i g n o f s i n t h a t 7 a c t e d as a warning from God. Many-headed popes and many-headed Luthers were a common d e v i c e o f c o n f e s s i o n a l p o l e m i c a l imagery i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( f i g . 9 ) . In the f e s t i v a l engraving of the monster, the d e s a c r a l i z i n g i n t e n t o f s a t a n i c , s c a t o l o g i c a l or b e s t i a l imagery o f the broadsheets i s d e l e t e d , even i f i t s s a t a n i c n ature was a c t e d out i n the a c t u a l event. The m u l t i - l i m b e d but innocuous l o o k i n g monster i s shown be i n g l e d away by an e q u a l l y composite female "Concord" b e a r i n g i m p e r i a l d e v i c e s ; the use o f the f a m i l i a r p o l e m i c a l image o f the monster i s defused by t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n . I f the purpose of propaganda, as S c r i b n e r s t a t e s , was t o i n c i t e people t o d i r e c t a c t i o n r a t h e r than t o j u s t change o p i n i o n s , such imagery had no p l a c e i n the 73 S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l . The Wurttemberg c o u r t d i d not i n t e n d t o make any c a l l t o a c t i o n on c o n f e s s i o n a l matters. The c o u r t wanted t o r e p r e s e n t the Union as a s t r i c t l y d e f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e 9 which would p r o t e c t P r o t e s t a n t i n t e r e s t s . I t was the d e f e n s i v e c h a r a c t e r o f the Union t h a t Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h emphasized t o h i s p a r l i a m e n t . 1 0 While the C a l v i n i s t P a l a t i n a t e had d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s e l f by i t s m i l i t a n t and a g g r e s s i v e a n t i - C a t h o l i c p o l i c i e s , the Wurttemberg c o u r t s t r o v e t o p r e s e n t an appeasing image of t h i s a l l i a n c e . The h i s t o r i a n C l a s e n f i n d s the c o n t r a s t between the P a l a t i n a t e and o t h e r German p r i n c e s e x p r e s s i n g i t s e l f i n the " s t e r e o t y p e d formulas which c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r i n the d i p l o m a t i c 11 correspondence". While the P a l a t i n e s c o n t i n u a l l y speak of the "advancement of the g l o r y o f God and of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h i s Church," the o t h e r German P r o t e s t a n t s never cease t o emphasize the "steady maintenance and n u t u r i n g o f the beloved peace, q u i e t , and u n i t y o f our beloved F a t h e r l a n d the German 12 . . . n a t i o n . " To b r i d g e these c o n f l i c t i n g m i s s i o n statements the f e s t i v a l engravings p r e s e n t a t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e f o r a l l P r o t e s t a n t p r i n c e s and s u b j e c t s t o r a l l y around. The i s s u e o f c o n f e s s i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the German Empire was too c o n t e n t i o u s t o be c l e a r l y e nunciated i n the f e s t i v a l books; i n i t s p l a c e the medieval c o n c e p t i o n o f the Empire as a h i e r a r c h y of e s t a t e s was c a l l e d upon. The p r i n c e s c o u l d o n l y r i g h t f u l l y s tand t o g e t h e r as an e s t a t e , as they had i n the p a s t , t o defend t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a g a i n s t those o f the Emperor, thereby 74 b y p a s s i n g a charge o f r e b e l l i o n t o which the f o r m a t i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t Union came p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e . The n o t i o n o f the e s t a t e s as the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of the Empire i s , I suggest, a l l u d e d t o i n the engraving f o l l o w i n g t h a t d e p i c t i n g the g i a n t head b a l l e t . The second theme-setting b a l l e t performance by the Wurttemberg duke and h i s c o u r t i e r s g i v e s g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n t o the h i e r a r c h i c a l e s t a t e s t r u c t u r e of "Germania". The w r i t t e n accounts have the g i a n t heads " v a n i s h " t o be r e p l a c e d by a d a z z l i n g m i r r o r e d shop t h a t moves i n t o the b a l l r o o m . Assum expresses s u r p r i s e t h a t a " p r i n c e l y " dance d i d not f o l l o w , i n s t e a d twelve dancers, the duke and h i s c o u r t i e r s , appear i n costumes Assum i d e n t i f i e s as those of Nuremberg mirror-makers. The emblematic s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the m i r r o r s of " P r u d e n t i a " i s eminently a p p l i c a b l e t o the f r e e i m p e r i a l c i t y of Nuremberg which had been an important m e r c a n t i l e c e n t r e s i n c e the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The c i t y had j o i n e d the P r o t e s t a n t Union i n 1610 w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h a l o n g - s t a n d i n g gulden diplomacy which i n v o l v e d c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i m p e r i a l c o f f e r s w h i l e s e c r e t l y 13 sending money t o P r o t e s t a n t powers. Nuremberg had the r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g the most " d i s t i n g u i s h e d " c i t y o f the empire even though i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the house of Habsburg had c o o l e d markedly a f t e r the c o n f e s s i o n a l s w i t c h o f 1524. Nuremberg, where a l l the i m p e r i a l i n s i g n i a and the s a c r e d o b j e c t s o f the empire were s t o r e d , a l s o was the most favoured 14 s i t e f o r i m p e r i a l s o j o u r n s . The c i t y o f Durer and Hans 75 Sachs was seen as a r e p o s i t o r y o f "Germanness" t h a t stood f o r the o p p o s i t e of the " f o r e i g n " Western European c u l t u r e o f d u c a l r e s i d e n c e s . 1 5 The costumes and the shop of the mirror-makers of the S t u t t g a r t b a l l e t found an u n d i s p u t a b l y German model i n the f e s t i v a l books which d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d the "Nuremberg Schembartlauf". The u r b a n - a r t i s a n a l "Schembart" c a r n i v a l was s a i d t o have begun i n the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y as a p r i v i l e g e granted t o the b u t c h e r s ' g u i l d as a reward f o r t h e i r l o y a l t y t o the C o u n c i l of the c i t y i n a r e b e l l i o n by f r a c t i o u s c i t i z e n s . 1 6 Over time the r i g h t s t o the costumed and masked dance of the butchers were bought up by the p a t r i c i a n c l a s s , the members of the o l i g a r c h y o f f o u r hundred f a m i l i e s t h a t governed the c i t y and i t s v a s t r u r a l h o l d i n g s . The l a s t year o f the Schembartlauf was 1539. The c o u n c i l a b o l i s h e d the f e s t i v a l t h a t y e a r when c e l e b r a n t s used the o c c a s i o n o f the dance t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the c h i e f Lutheran p r e l a t e ' s i n j u n c t i o n o f the c e l e b r a t i o n of C a r n i v a l . From s h o r t l y b e f o r e a b o l i t i o n u n t i l w e l l i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Schembart books c o p i e d and reproduced images and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the costumes and events which recorded the h i s t o r y o f the 17 f e s t i v a l most l i k e l y w i t h the a i d of o l d e r manuscripts. The "Schembart" h i s t o r i a n , H.-U. R o l l e r , i d e n t i f i e s the impulse t h a t generated these books w e l l a f t e r the demise o f the p r a c t i c e as a f o l k l o r i s t i c one t h a t emerged out o f the widening c u l t u r a l h o r i z o n s of the Renaissance. The books 76 served p a t r i c i a n i n t e r e s t s of s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n which the grandeur of an indigenous German p a s t c o u l d be c e l e b r a t e d . The wealth of documentation found i n the "Schembartbucher" has o f f e r e d an u n u s u a l l y r i c h documentation, d e s p i t e i t s b e l a t e d nature, o f p o p u l a r f e s t i v a l forms. Because o f the d e a r t h o f g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p o p u l a r f e s t i v a l s the Schembartlauf has e l i c i t e d much a t t e n t i o n as a documentation o f the e v o l u t i o n o f f e s t i v a l form from i t s c o r p o r a t e - a g r a r i a n o r i g i n s t o a f i n a l phase of p a t r i c i a n d i s p l a y . The Schembartlauf has served as a paradigm o f the s h i f t o f f e s t i v a l p r a c t i c e from i t s r i t u a l i s t i c and p a r t i c i p a t o r y f u n c t i o n s t o t h a t of a c o n t r o l l e d " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " , d e s p i t e 18 the d i f f i c u l t y p r e s e n t e d by the d a t i n g of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The m i r r o r d e c o r a t i o n s o f the duke's and c o u r t i e r s ' costumes and the mirror-makers shop l i n k the S t u t t g a r t b a l l e t t o the Nuremberg Schembartlauf r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In e a r l y v e r s i o n s of the f e s t i v a l t r e e s decorated w i t h m i r r o r s were c a r r i e d i n a p r o c e s s i o n ; i n l a t e r v e r s i o n s costumes were adorned w i t h m i r r o r s ( f i g . 1 0 ) . The shop of the mirrormakers i s a l s o a r e c r e a t i o n o f a Nuremberg c a r n i v a l form; the "Kramladen", a s o r t o f g e n e r a l s t o r e , was used as a pageant s l e d i n the 1512 19 c a r n i v a l . The a n t i q u a r i a n removal of the Schembartlauf m o t i f s t o the c o n f i n e s o f the c o u r t b a l l r o o m marks y e t another s h i f t i n 77 f e s t i v a l p r a c t i c e . As the S t u t t g a r t h i s t o r i a n Otto B o r s t has remarked: " I t i s noteworthy t h a t , as renewed p r o h i b i t i o n s o f c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s were on the i n c r e a s e , t h e 2 g o u r t ' s e f f o r t s t o conform t o these e d i c t s d i m i n i s h e d . " As P r o t e s t a n t towns e n f o r c e d the s u p p r e s s i o n o f the C a r n i v a l the S t u t t g a r t c o u r t used the model of the h i s t o r i c Schembartlauf as a source f o r an a r i s t o c r a t i c d i s p l a y of c o u r t l y s k i l l . What had begun as a r i t u a l i s t i c s t r e e t f e s t i v i t y was transformed i n the S t u t t g a r t b a l l e t i n t o a rehearsed and c o n t r o l l e d performance of measured movements by the duke and h i s c o u r t i e r s . The u n d i s p u t a b l y "German" Schembartlauf may have been u t i l i z e d i n response t o the Landtag's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the new " f o r e i g n " showiness and refinements of the c o u r t . The p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s wished f o r a c o u r t t h a t was based on, as they s a i d , "the o l d , simple, y e t p r a i s e w o r t h y German manner." The urban Schembartlauf theme of the c o u r t b a l l e t , even though i t was a l t e r e d i n t o a d e l i c a t e performance o f dancing s k i l l , c o u l d be read as a s i g n o f the subsumption of an urban form by a newly dominant c o u r t c u l t u r e . The p l a c e accorded t o the m i r r o r maker b a l l e t as an a d j u n c t t o the t h e m e - s e t t i n g g i a n t head b a l l e t and as an i n t r o d u c t o r y element o f the f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p o i n t s t o the c e n t r a l i t y of i t s "urban-estate" theme. The importance of the g u i l d - a r t i s a n costume o f the duke and h i s c o u r t i e r s l i e s i n the s t r a n g e d u a l i s m of a b s o l u t i s m and of the c o n s e r v a t i o n of 78 the e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y t h a t e x i s t e d i n German lands b e f o r e the T h i r t y Years War. I n g r i d L a u r i e n ' s 1981 s o c i a l - h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Weckherlin's E n g l i s h and German c a r e e r s addresses t h i s i s s u e . The c o n s t i t u t i o n of the German empire was q u i t e u n l i k e t h a t of o t h e r Western European s t a t e s : "Germany i n the e a r l y modern p e r i o d p r e s e n t s on one and the same l e v e l the i n t e r e s t i n g drama of the r i g o r o u s enforcement of the two c o n f l i c t i n g and a n t i t h e t i c a l b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f the epoch: the e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y p r i n c i p l e won out i n the upper l e v e l o f the empire, the m o n a r c h i c a l p r i n c i p l e , under the s i g n of a b s o l u t i s m was r e a l i z e d i n the important areas of the second l e v e l , the t e r r i t o r i e s . . . German c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y s i n c e tljie M i d d l e Ages was d e f i n e d by the f a c t o f b i f u r c a t i o n . " T h i s d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of the German empire allowed t e r r i t o r i a l dukes t o band t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t o t h e r dukes, or even th e emperor, where the s o v e r e i g n t y of the e s t a t e o r d e r 22 was endangered by a t t a c k s a g a i n s t the P r o t e s t a n t c o n f e s s i o n . German P r o t e s t a n t i s m h e l d no a n t i - a b s o l u t i s t t e n d e n c i e s y e t t e r r i t o r i a l dukes d i d not adhere t o an a n t i - e s t a t e p o l i c y on 23 a l l l e v e l s . The P r o t e s t a n t Union pre s e n t e d i t s e l f as an a l l i a n c e t h a t guaranteed the t r i u m v i r a t e of t e r r i t o r i a l r u l e , 24 P r o t e s t a n t i s m and e s t a t e p r i v i l e g e . L a u r i e n s t a t e s t h a t i t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t Weckherlin i n the Triumf c a l l s the duke and the e s t a t e s p r o t e c t o r s of "Teutschland" i n one and the same b r e a t h . He i n t e r p r e t e d the p o s i t i o n of the duke as a member of an e s t a t e of the empire and so c o u l d c e l e b r a t e the t e r r i t o r i a l dukes as the p r o t e c t o r s of those v e r y p r i v i l e g e s which these dukes were c u r t a i l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r i e s . ^ 79 The g r a p h i c , and f e s t i v e , t r i b u t e t o the Nurembergers then i s g i v e n such prominence because i t c o n t a i n s a c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y - even i n the pronounced a r i s t o c r a t i c t o t a l i t y o f the f e s t i v a l . In the r e t a r d a t o r y e s t a t i s t s t r u c t u r e of the empire the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a dangerous a l l i a n c e w i t h the P a l a t i n a t e which d i d not appeal t o the Wurttemberg e s t a t e s c o u l d be found, b y p a s s i n g charges o f r e b e l l i o u s n e s s or d o c t r i n a l compromise. 1. S. Henkel and A. Schone, Emblemata ( S t u t t g a r t : 1967), p.1350. 2. F. S i e b e r , V o l k und v o l k s t u m l i c h e M o t i v i k im Festwerk  des Barocks ( B e r l i n : 1960), p.139. 3. P. H a i n h o f e r i n S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . o p . c i t . , p.333. 4. D. Norbrook, o p . c i t . , p.98. 5. G.R. Weckherlin i n S t u t t g a r t e r H o f f e s t e . o p . c i t . , p.60. 6. R. S c r i b n e r , Popular C u l t u r e and Popular Movements i n  Reformation Germany (London, 1987), p.295. 7. C. Andersson, "Popular Imagery i n German Reformation Broadsheets". P r i n t and C u l t u r e i n the Renaissance (Newark, 1986), p l 2 9 . 8. R. S c r i b n e r , p.299. 9. C P . Clasen, The P a l a t i n a t e i n European H i s t o r y .  1555-1618. (Oxford, 1966), p.4. 10. I . L a u r i e n , o p . c i t . , p.50. 11. C P . C l a s e n , p.5. 12. C P . C l a s e n , p.5. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 13. J.W. Zophy, The Holy Roman Empire. A d i c t i o n a r y handbook 80 (Co n n e c t i c u t , 1980), p.340. 14. B.-M. Baumunk, "Hauptstadt-aber wo l i e g t s i e ? " , Die Z e i t , no. 29, 20 J u l y 1990, p.17. 15. B.-M. Baumunk. o p . c i t . 16. H.-U.Roller, Der Nurnberger Schembartlauf. (Tubingen, 1965), R o l l e r f i n d s the h i s t o r i c a l documentation too f r a i l t o make a s s e r t a t i o n s about the o r i g i n s o f the Schembartlauf. p.22. 17. H.-U. R o l l e r , p.13. 18. Most r e c e n t l y : Samuel K i n s e r , " P r e s e n t a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n : C a r n i v a l a t Nuremberg, 1450-1550", R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s 13, Winter 1986, pp.1-41. K i n s e r ' s i n t e r t e x u a l a n a l y s i s uses t e x t s by two well-known a r t i s a n - p o e t s t o analyze the " s h i f t s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t h a t l e d t o the end of the Schembartlauf. 19. H.-U. R o l l e r , p.125. 20. 0. B o r s t , o p . c i t . , p.110. 21. Gerhard O e s t r e i c h , "Die v e r f a s s u n g s p o l i t i s c h e S i t u a t i o n der Monarchie i n Deutschland vom 16. b i s 18. J a h r hundert" c i t e d i n I. L a u r i e n , p.52. 22. I . L a u r i e n , p.52. 23. I . L a u r i e n , p.52. 24. I . L a u r i e n , p.52. 25. I . L a u r i e n , p.52. 81 CHAPTER 5  A P r o t e s t a n t Venus? In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l suggest an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r one of the most m u l t i - l a y e r e d and c o m p e l l i n g segments of the book of p r i n t s . I have attempted t o show t h a t the Wurttemberg c o u r t t r e a t e d p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s w i t h g r e a t c a u t i o n and r e t i c e n c e . While the f e s t i v a l must have had the aim of b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a consensus o f the u n i t e d P r o t e s t a n t r u l e r s , the Wurttemberg c o u r t t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n what the h i s t o r i a n Walter Grube c a l l e d a stance of "armed n e u t r a l i t y " . The v i s u a l medium t h a t l e f t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s open was i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o e n c l o s e such an ambiguous p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the standard i n v e n t i v e extravagance of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of c o u r t l y m a g n i f i c e n c e . The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f symbols and a l l u s i o n s i n the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e d an i d e a l c over f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f a t e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e t h a t would on l y be a c c e s s i b l e t o a l i m i t e d audience. The v i s u a l medium, I suggest, c o u l d be made t o c a r r y a l l u s i v e and e l u s i v e p o l e m i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d not be e n t r u s t e d t o the t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I want t o e x p l o r e some p o s s i b l e t e x t u a l and v i s u a l sources t h a t may e x p l i c a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an enigmatic c o m p i l a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s which appear t o be encoded i n a segment of the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The commissioned t e x t s do not o f f e r more than 82 a t r i t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the strange amalgam o f images pre s e n t e d i n the g r a p h i c medium. I contend t h a t the c o m p e l l i n g v i s u a l elements of t h i s s e c t i o n of the engravings i n v i t e d some contemporaries t o "read" a d i s c o u r s e d e r i v e d from an i r e n i c R o s i c r u c i a n p a r a b l e t h a t was pronounced i n a p r e e x i s t i n g and a l l u s i v e v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r y . The v i s u a l medium, I suggest, couched r e f e r e n c e s t o a s t r o n g e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e i n a form t h a t was s t i l l expedient t o promote an image of n e u t r a l i t y f o r the Wurttemberg c o u r t . Perhaps the most impenetrable images o f the engravings s e r i e s are those p o r t r a y i n g the tournament p r o c e s s i o n by the Wurttemberg duke's p r i v y c o u n c i l l o r . T h i s opaque assemblage of images mixes c l a s s i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l elements i n t o a v e r y s t r a n g e c o n c o c t i o n . A dead Hungarian k i n g i s shown i n a V e n e t i a n boat p r o p e l l e d by s e a - c r e a t u r e s , f o l l o w e d by perfume-egg throwers w i t h T u r k i s h s w o r d s ( f i g . 1 1 ) . Another s e a - f l o a t f o l l o w s w i t h Venus, t h i s Venus, a c c o r d i n g t o the m y s t i f y i n g s t o r y i n Assum's and Weckherlin's t e x t s , who i s a l s o the k i n g ' s daughter, i s preceded by a bound Cupid and i s f o l l o w e d by sword-bearing angels and a draped " s o u l o f C u p i d " ( f i g . 1 2 ) . The p r o c e s s i o n c o n t i n u e s w i t h Hungarian s o l d i e r s c a r r y i n g g h o u l i s h t r o p h i e s : severed Turks' heads impaled on s t a k e s ( f i g . 1 3 ) . The f i r s t s o l d i e r c a r r i e s the head o f a Moorish p r i n c e impaled on a s c i m i t a r ( f i g . 1 4 ) . 83 The t e x t s o f f e r a p r o s a i c d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s sequence o f the pageantry; the n a r r a t i v e framework o f f e r e d by the poets t e l l s t h a t the Venus/daughter had f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h the Moorish p r i n c e who then was executed by beheading. Weckherlin's t e x t conveys t h i s p l o t as a s c e n a r i o of a c h i v a l r i c romance performed w i t h i n the tournament pageantry. What i s remarkable about t h i s sequence i n the t e x t s and the engravings i s t h a t i t c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the c o r e o f the most well-known R o s i c r u c i a n t r a c t : The Chemical Wedding o f C h r i s t i a n Rosenkreuz. 1 A p l a y w i t h i n t h a t complex and a l l u s i v e n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i b e s a c o u r t l y marriage f e s t i v a l w i t n essed by the n a r r a t o r , Rosenkreuz. The wedding p l a y a c t s as a microcosmic summary of the s u r f e i t of emblematic imagery 2 and events of the t o t a l n a r r a t i v e . In t h i s c o u r t l y drama i n t e r l u d e of the "Chemical Wedding", an o l d k i n g r e c e i v e s news of a l a n d d e v a s t a t e d by a Moorish k i n g . Only one daughter of the l o c a l dynasty s u r v i v e s the a s s a u l t . T h i s s u r v i v i n g p r i n c e s s who was t o marry the o l d k i n g ' s son escapes but i s l u r e d back by the Moor. The o l d k i n g and h i s army f r e e the p r i n c e s s ; the k i n g r e t u r n s her kingdom t o her and vows t o marry her t o h i s son. The p r i n c e s s behaves b a d l y ; once a g a i n f a l l s under the sway of the Moor and hands her kingdom t o him. The Moor imprisons the p r i n c e s s and another b a t t l e w i t h the Moor ensues u n t i l she i s f r e e d by the k i n g ' s son. The Moor i s beheaded, the b r i d e i s f r e e d and sent t o the c o u r t preacher. The e v i l c o u r t preacher misuses h i s power and i s banished from the kingdom. The s t o r y ends w i t h the wedding. 84 T h i s s k e l e t a l summation o f the p l a y w i t h i n the "Chemical Wedding" r e p r e s e n t s an e l a b o r a t e a l l e g o r y t h a t a t f i r s t p a r a l l e l s O l d Testament t e a c h i n g s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f God t o h i s people. A f t e r Satan d e s t r o y s God's people, God sends h i s son t o f r e e them. The temptation o f Satan (the Moor) remains so g r e a t t h a t they succumb a g a i n . Only through the t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n o f Satan by the son o f God can the church be r e e s t a b l i s h e d . When the Roman church misuses i t s power i t i s r e p l a c e d . F i n a l l y t he marriage t h a t God d e s i r e d between the church and C h r i s t can take p l a c e i n the 3 Reformation. The f a i t h l e s s Venus/bride o f the R o s i c r u c i a n s t o r y , the poets t e x t s and the engraving can be seen t o r e p r e s e n t a metaphor f o r the reformed church. The v i s u a l metaphor o f Venus as a dangerous temptress r e l i e s on a p i c t o r i a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t was a l r e a d y i n use i n the pre-Reformation e r a ; i n a 1494 woodcut i n S e b a s t i a n Brant's N a r r e n s c h i f f Venus subjugates by the power o f l o v e . ( f i g . 1 5 ) . Reformation propaganda r e - u t i l i z e d t h i s f a m i l i a r r h e t o r i c i n a t t a c k s on the church o f Rome; Cranach, f o r example, reworked the d e v i c e o f the s e d u c t i v e temptress t o i l l u s t r a t e L u t her's B i b l e o f 1534 ( f i g . 1 6 ) . The Roman church i s shown as the Babylonian whore who has taken the p l a c e o f C h r i s t i n the church and has made men s u b s e r v i e n t . 85 The Venus of the S t u t t g a r t baptism i s a "redeemed" v e r s i o n of the "whorish" type; t h a t the redemption of Venus i s e f f e c t e d by a Lutheran Reformation (as i n the R o s i c r u c i a n parable) may be g i v e n a v i s u a l i n d i c a t o r by the swans who precede her i n the a r t i f i c i a l water. Swans had been used as an emblematic a l l u s i o n t o Luther s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y and became a w i d e l y used m o t i f i n commemorative medals 4 f o r the Reformation J u b i l e e of 1617 ( f i g . 1 7 ) . In t h e engraving, the " P r o t e s t a n t " Venus i s f o l l o w e d by the p h a l l i c "Anima C u p i d i n i " whose s l e e p m i r r o r s the i m m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the bound c u p i d . T h i s p i c t o r i a l d e n i a l of s e x u a l i t y conforms t o the R o s i c r u c i a n f a b l e i n which Cupid r e p r e s e n t s " c r e a t i v e , n a t u r a l l o v e (that) i s unable t o comprehend the ( s t o r y of 5 S a l v a t i o n ) and remains unmoved by the p a i n s o f redemption". The p u r i t a n i c a l credo i m p l i c i t i n the R o s i c r u c i a n s t o r y as a P r o t e s t a n t t r a c t i s not o n l y a r e j e c t i o n o f the "Babylonian whore" of the Church of Rome, but a l s o speaks t o the r e j e c t i o n o f the s e x u a l power t h a t Reformation polemic a t t r i b u t e d t o the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . R e l i g i o u s p a s s i o n s were aroused, a c c o r d i n g t o Robert S c r i b n e r ' s a n a l y s i s , by what was p e r c e i v e d t o be the se x u a l p r e d a t o r i n e s s of the p r i e s t h o o d . S c r i b n e r l o c a t e s the p e r c e p t i o n of e x c e s s i v e powers of the c l e r g y i n the r u l e s of sex u a l conduct t h a t p e r m i t t e d p r i e s t s behaviour denied t o the l a i t y , i n the power p r i e s t s e x e r c i s e d i n the c o n f e s s i o n a l i n e n q u i r i e s i n t o s e x u a l s i n s and i n the c l e r g y ' s r o l e as 6 marriage c o u n s e l l o r s and b r o k e r s . A g a i n s t t h i s image o f C a t h o l i c s e x u a l i n c o n t i n e n c e the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y produced a 86 " s t r o n g l y m o r a l i s e d cosmos, i n which d i s o r d e r was seen as the r e s u l t o f human weakness and s i n f u l n e s s " . In the engraving of the " P r o t e s t a n t " Venus i n her redeemed s t a t e , she i s d r e s s e d i n E n g l i s h f a s h i o n (the f a n c o l l a r and low-cut b o d i c e are i d e n t i f i e d as E n g l i s h d r e s s i n another engraving i n the s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g " E n g l i s h l a d i e s " , f i g . 1 8 ) . T h i s costume i s perhaps meant t o pay t r i b u t e t o E l i z a b e t h S t u a r t "the c h i e f e cause of the shews" as the h e i r t o E l i z a b e t h I, the " V i r g i n Queen" and defender o f the P r o t e s t a n t church. Frances Y a t e s 1 study of the E l i z a b e t h a n c u l t examined how the P e t r a r c a n theme of the "Triumph o f C h a s t i t y " was e x p l o i t e d as an a n t i - p a p a l symbol. Yates suggests t h a t : " i f we f o l l o w the r e l e n t l e s s argument of the E l i z a b e t h symbolism t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , we may b e g i n t o see t h i s Chaste Lady as a Pure Church, the o p p o s i t e o f an unreformed Whore of Babylon". I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t Frances Yates was not f a m i l i a r w i t h the S t u t t g a r t baptism engravings where t h i s theme i s a p p a r e n t l y p i c k e d up. In Yates' The R o s i c r u c i a n Enlightenment her r e a d i n g o f the "Chemical Wedding" does not touch on the Reformation a l l e g o r y of the t r a c t ; i n her a n a l y s i s : "The main events i n the 'Wedding' e v i d e n t l y r e f l e c t o r i n some way r e f e r t o ceremonies and r i t u a l s connected w i t h the o r d e r s of g c h i v a l r y . " For Yates the c o u r t l y content of the R o s i c r u c i a n p a r a b l e i s pre-eminent; her s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the c o u r t l y a r c h i t e c t u r e and 87 ceremonial of the story show the influence of English culture on the Wurttemberg author Andreae i s too tenuous. In Yates Anglocentric analysis, i t i s Andreae's supposed attendance at the F r i e d r i c h I Garter induction ceremony presided over by an English embassy i n Wurrtemberg and the p o s s i b i l i t y of Andreae's f a m i l i a r i t y with what she termed as the "Jacobean" renaissance at the Heidelberg court that i n s p i r e the settings 9 of the "Chemical Wedding". (Even Yates has to cast doubt on the l o c a t i o n of the c a s t l e of the story i n Heidelberg because the f i c t i t i o u s one i s on a sea-shore - the sea-motif of the Stuttgart pageant vehicles also alludes to a seaside s e t t i n g ) . The English costume of the redeemed Venus of the engraving may have offered corroboration for Yates' ruminations about 10 English a l l u s i o n s i n the Rosicrucian t r a c t . The Reformation allegory of the play ,however, eluded her analysis and she interpreted the text as an impenetrable c h i v a l r i c - a l c h e m i c a l t a l e whose or i g i n s were thoroughly English. Yates' reads the "microcosmic" play within the fable as an "extremely simple p l o t about a king, a Moor, and a princess", punctuated by B i b l i c a l emblems. Studies of the "Chemical Wedding" that came a f t e r Yates" The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (1972) put forward the B i b l i c a l and 12 Reformation allegory as the i n t e r p r e t i v e key. The German h i s t o r i a n Richard van Dulmen locates the work firml y on German s o i l ; he characterizes Rosicrucianism as a p a r t i c u l a r early seventeenth century reaction of a group of Lutheran 88 Wurttemberg s c h o l a r s t o the c r i s e s they p e r c e i v e d i n the s t a t e r e g i m e n t a t i o n o f the church, i n the dangers posed by Roman C a t h o l i c i s m on the p o l i t i c a l f r o n t and i n the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o u t s i d e the i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g which c h a l l e n g e d the s c h o l a s t i c r i g i d i t y o f s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The d e l i b e r a t e l y m y s t i f y i n g and enigmatic t e x t s promoted an e g a l i t a r i a n C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y where the growth of s e c u l a r l e a r n i n g would be coupled w i t h an i n t e r n a l i z e d p i e t i s t i c p r a c t i c e . The u t i l i t y o f t h i s U t o p i a n su b t e x t of the R o s i c r u c i a n t e x t s f o r the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l i s t h a t i t developed a r e l i g i o u s - p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t stood o u t s i d e the d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s the t e r r i t o r i a l church was 13 engaged i n w i t h C a t h o l i c s and C a l v i n i s t s . While Wurttemberg R o s i c r u c i a n i s m r e f l e c t s disenchantment w i t h the r e s u l t s o f the c e n t u r y - o l d Reformation as expressed by a group o f "bourgeois" s c h o l a r s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the proposed reforms s t i l l m i r r o r Luther's i d e a s about the separateness o f the saCred and s e c u l a r spheres. In the d e s i r e d "second Reformation", the w o r l d l y o r d e r would be l e f t i n t a c t : n e i t h e r church, nor s t a t e , nor the e s t a t e h i e r a r c h y , 14 nor the p o l i t i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n were c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . While Andreae sought f o r change, t h i s change would o n l y be 15 sought f o r i n a C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g and m o r a l i t y . The R o s i c r u c i a n c a l l s f o r a p i e t i s t i c r e v i v a l i n Wurttemberg d i d not p l a y a major r o l e i n the p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p p o s i t i o n t o a b s o l u t i s t r u l e , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h P u r i t a n i s m , the E n g l i s h 89 seventeenth-century v e r s i o n of p i e t i s m , as Mary Fulbrook's comparative study has shown. In her P i e t y and P o l i t i c s .  R e l i g i o n and the R i s e o f A b s o l u t i s m i n England. Wurttemberg.  and P r u s s i a (1983), she examined how the p i e t i s t a f t e r l i f e o f Andreae's R o s i c r u c i a n pamphlets came t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d and t o l e r a t e d w i t h i n the Wurttemberg t e r r i t o r i a l c h u r c h . 1 6 In the 1616 f e s t i v a l the R o s i c r u c i a n n a r r a t i v e base cannot be read as an i n c o r p o r a t i o n of an o p p o s i t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e . The i r e n i c P r o t e s t a n t framework of the R o s i c r u c i a n t e x t s may have spoken t o the Wurttemberg e s t a t e s concept of the d u c a l r o l e which understood the l e g i t i m a c y of the r u l e r not i n h i s g o d l i k e q u a l i t i e s , but r a t h e r i n h i s C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e and defense of the t r u e f a i t h . Perhaps the R o s i c r u c i a n p a r a b l e w i t h i t s a l l u s i o n s t o C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e may have a c t e d as a response t o the p i c t u r e of the C h r i s t i a n p a t r i a r c h t h a t the s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l Wurttemberg e s t a t e s h e l d up i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o l a v i s h d u c a l s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i s s u e o f the defense of the t r u e f a i t h t h a t the a l l e g o r y o f t h e redeemed Venus and the beheaded Moor i n t r o d u c e s i s f u r t h e r o v e r l a i d w i t h imagery t h a t does not occur i n the R o s i c r u c i a n p a r a b l e but which i s a l s o based i n the c o n f e s s i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The b a f f l i n g b l e n d of Hungarians, Turks, a V e n e t i a n boat and the E n g l i s h - d r e s s e d Venus, I suggest, c o n t a i n a p o l e m i c a l i n t e n t behind a veneer o f c o u r t l y e x o t i c i s m . These are not random c h o i c e s o f accompaniment f o r 90 an a l l e g o r i c a l Reformed church. The V e n e t i a n boat and the Hungarian k i n g are i n the same m e t a p h o r i c a l boat as the E n g l i s h Venus. The a n t i - p a p a l V e n e t i a n r e p u b l i c and the C a l v i n i s m of the e a s t e r n reaches o f the Habsburg empire are a l l u d e d t o as a l l i e s o f the P r o t e s t a n t cause i n the Hungarian i d e n t i t y of the k i n g i n the gondola. The t e x t s p l a c e the Hungarian rescue of the Venus i n t o a foggy h i s t o r i c a l p a s t t h a t d i s g u i s e s any contemporary import t o t h e i r presence. The Hungarian s o l d i e r s c a r r y the Moor's head o f the R o s i c r u c i a n f a b l e but a l s o c a r r y the impaled heads of twelve Turks. The g h o u l i s h t r o p h i e s the Hungarians are c a r r y i n g are u n l i k e any a n t i - T u r k i s h propaganda images c u r r e n t a t the time. Rudolf I I had e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o i t e d the theme of v i c t o r y over the Turks f o r p e r s o n a l propaganda of h i s r o l e as Hungarian k i n g but the many p a i n t i n g s and t a p e s t r i e s commissioned f o r h i s p r i v a t e rooms and the medals he had made u t i l i z e d a b l a n d imagery of 17 c a p t u r e d T u r k i s h weapons and a r t i f a c t s . A r i c h l y i l l u s t r a t e d Hungarian a r t h i s t o r i c a l monograph e n t i t l e d "Let  us g i r d o u r s e l v e s w i t h the sword a g a i n s t the heathen" a n a l y s e s a n t i - T u r k i s h imagery c u r r e n t i n s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r y C e n t r a l Europe; i t o f f e r s no models f o r the gruesome 18 t r o p h i e s p o r t r a y e d i n the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l . Only broadsheets w i t h an a n t i - T u r k i s h theme made use of images of i m p a l i n g - and then i t i s the Turks who are the impalers ( f i g . 1 9 ) . The gory impaled heads of the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l may be connected t o e a r l i e r pamphlet imagery o f the D r a c u l a s t o r y . The d r e a d f u l deeds of V l a d the Impaler were among the 91 most p o p u l a r broadsheet woodcuts i n c i r c u l a t i o n i n f i f t e e n t h 19 c e n t u r y Germany ( f i g . 2 0 ) . The Hungarian impalers o f the S t u t t g a r t f e s t i v a l may, by making a p i c t o r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h T r a n s y l v a n i a and i t s gruesome h i s t o r y , be r e f e r r i n g t o a more contemporary concern. The Hungarian kingdom o f the e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r y was no l o n g e r s o v e r e i g n and u n i t e d . I t c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e p a r t s ; the T u r k i s h o c c u p i e d area, the Habsburg r u l e d area and a t h i r d area r u l e d by a T u r k i s h 20 v a s s a l , B e t h l e n Gabor. The Habsburg area, which was almost e n t i r e l y P r o t e s t a n t was a c e n t r e of c o n f l i c t w i t h the emperor 21 i n the f i r s t decade of the seventeenth c e n t u r y . But i t was the T r a n s y l v a n i a n r u l e r , the C a l v i n i s t T u r k i s h v a s s a l , who was the most important Hungarian f i g u r e i n the pre-war y e a r s 22 because he promised t o advance the C a l v i n i s t cause. In the-f a c e o f E n g l i s h and N e t h e r l a n d i s h r e l u c t a n c e , as the h i s t o r i a n van Schelven has p o i n t e d out, B e t h l e n Gabor o f f e r e d a g r e a t and f i n a l hope t o m o b i l i z e a pan-European P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e ; even i f h i s l a t e r p o l i t i c s d i d not c o n s i s t e n t l y conform t o h i s r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n . The strange phenomenon o f a C a l v i n i s t a l l y who i s a l s o a T u r k i s h v a s s a l l e d van Schelven t o q u e s t i o n how such a r u l e r c o u l d have had enough p r e s t i g e t o even be c o n s i d e r e d as a c a t a l y s t t o u n i f y a l l P r o t e s t a n t Europe. The hopes B e t h l e n Gabor embodied were brought t o the f o r e as o t h e r e f f o r t s t o u n i f y a g a i n s t the C a t h o l i c a x i s met w i t h f a i l u r e . Perhaps t h i s s trange a l l y o f the P a l a t i n a t e cause i s g i v e n c r e d i b i l i t y i n the engravings v i a the gory heads o f vanquished 92 Turks which serve t o deny h i s s t a t u s as l i e g e s u b j e c t of the S u l t a n . By u t i l i z i n g the images of impaled heads B e t h l e n Gabor's T r a n s y l v a n i a n h e r i t a g e i s r e c a l l e d and the famous c r u e l t y of D r a c u l a becomes a p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e o f an a l l y . The n o t i o n o f a Hungarian a l l y t o the P r o t e s t a n t cause i s not mentioned i n the commissioned t e x t s . The poets' commentaries do not go beyond what i s r e p r e s e n t e d ; i n s t e a d , the a l l e g o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s are removed i n t o a c o u r t l y nether world o f h e r o i c a c t i o n s by h i s t o r i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s . The engravings are r e l e a s e d i n t o a separate f i e l d o f a c t i o n where contemporary p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s a l l u s i o n s are t h e r e t o be read. These re a d i n g s are, however, detached from c o u r t a u t h o r s h i p ; the " r e a d a b i l i t y " of the symbolic commentary of the g r a p h i c work i s a c c e s s i b l e t o those c l o s e t o the "author", the Wurttemberg c o u r t , but t h i s author had a b d i c a t e d a r o l e as i n t e r p r e t e r of the imagery and any d i r e c t p o l e m i c a l i n t e n t was subsumed by grandeur and i n n o v a t i o n i n the form and wealth of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . By m a i n t a i n i n g an a l l e g o r i c a l tone the f e s t i v a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s avoided c o n f l i c t - r i d d e n i s s u e s o f r e l i g i o n and a l l i a n c e t h a t might have f u e l e d f u r t h e r d i s s e n t both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the t e r r i t o r y w h i l e a l l o w i n g the g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o d i s s e m i n a t e an ambiguous bundle of a l l u s i o n s f o r the P r o t e s t a n t Union t o r a l l y around. The e q u i v o c a l v i s u a l language o f the Venus n a r r a t i v e was u t i l i z e d , I 93 suggest, t o a l l u d e t o the hopes o f a P r o t e s t a n t renewal without naming any dangerous and r e b e l l i o u s a l l i a n c e s t h a t might have brought i t about. 1. Joh. V a l e n t i n Andreae, Fama F r a t e r n i t a s (1614). C o n f e s s i o F r a t e r n i t a t i s (1615), Chymische H o c h z e i t .  C h r i s t i a n i Rosencreutz, Anno 1459 (1616), e d i t e d by R i c h a r d van Dulmen ( S t u t t g a r t , 1973). The t e x t o f the "Chemical Wedding" was w r i t t e n i n 1605 o r 1606 and p u b l i s h e d i n 1616 i n Strasbourg, p.9. 2. J.W. Montgomery, Cross and C r u c i b l e . Johann V a l e n t i n  Andreae (1586-1654) Phoenix of the t h e o l o g i a n s (The Hague, 1973), p.276. 3. Montgomery, a l s o R. van Dulmen, Die U t o p i e e i n e r  c h r i s t l i c h e n g e s e l l s c h a f t . T e i l l ( S t u t t g a r t , 1978), o f f e r t h i s r e a d i n g of the Reformation a l l e g o r y . 4'. R.W. S c r i b n e r , Popular C u l t u r e and Popular Movements i n  Reformation Germany (London, 1987), pp.342-344. 5. J.W. Montgomery, o p , c i t . , p.411. 6. R.W. S c r i b n e r , o p . c i t . , pp.246-250. 7. Frances Yates, A s t r a e a . The I m p e r i a l Theme i n the  Si x t e e n t h " C e n t u r y (Penguin, 1977), p.114. 8. F. Yates, The R o s i c r u c i a n Enlightenment, o p . c i t . , p.68. 9. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.68. 10. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.67. 11. F. Yates, o p . c i t . , p.63. 12. J.W. Montgomery, a l s o R. van Dulmen, see notes 2 and 3. 13. R. van Dulmen, op. c i t . , p.47. 14. R. van Dulmen, op. c i t . , p.203. 15. R. van Dulmen, op. c i t . , p.203. 94 16. Mary Fulbrook, P i e t y and P o l i t i c s (Cambridge, 1983). 17. K a r l V o c e l k a , Habsburqische Hochzeiten 1550-1600 (Vienna, 1976). 18. G a l a v i c s Geza, Kossunk Kardot Az Poganv E l l e n (Budapest, 1986). 19. G r i g o r N a d r i s , "A F a n t a s t i c Attempt o f D r a c u l a t o Conquer England" Comparative L i t e r a t u r e S t u d i e s (3), 1966, p. 374, A l s o : D i e t e r Harmening, Der Anfanq von D r a c u l a . Zur G e s c h i c h t e  von G e s c h i c h t e n (Wurzburg, 1983). 20. G a l a v i c s Geza, o p . c i t . , p.161. 21. Kalman Benda, "Le D r o i t de R e s i s t a n c e de l a B u l l e d'Or h o n g r o i s e e t l e c a l v i n i s m e " i n Noblesse f r a n c a i s e  Noblesse h o n g r o i s e . B e l a Kopeci and Eva H. B a l a z s , eds. (Budapest/Paris, 1981). 22. A.A. van Schelven, "Der G e n e r a l s t a b des p o l i t i s c h e n C a l v i n i s m u s i n Z e n t r a l - e u r o p a zu Beginn des D r e i s s i g j a h r i g e n K r i e g e s " , A r c h i v f u r  R e f o r m a t i o n s g e s c h i c h t e 35-36, 1938-1939, pp.117-141. 95 CONCLUSION In the h i g h l y p o l i t i c i z e d c u l t u r e o f the e a r l y modern p e r i o d , a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n s e t i n motion i n an unprecedented manner the accumulation of power by the c o u r t . The f e s t i v a l w i t h i t s extravagant use of a l l c u l t u r a l forms was perhaps the consummate means by which an e a r l y a b s o l u t i s t c o u r t c o u l d not on l y r e p r e s e n t but a l s o formulate i t s a u t h o r i t y . The baptism f e s t i v a l p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g case study of the use of t h i s c u l t u r a l s t r a t e g y by a secondary German t e r r i t o r i a l c o u r t . Conversance w i t h the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p e r t o i r e o f c o u r t l y m a g n i f i c e n c e enabled a c u l t u r a l d i s p l a y designed t o a d v e r t i s e and implement the a c c r e t i o n o f power by the minor c o u r t on the l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The m u l t i - l e v e l rank e x p l i c a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f the f e s t i v a l was progr a m m a t i c a l l y heightened by i t s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o a v i s u a l medium. V i a the e x t e n s i v e use of the p r i n t medium the secondary c o u r t c o u l d r e l e a s e the e f f e c t s o f the event from the domination of the immediate and the l o c a l . In a d d i t i o n t o s o c i a l s t a t u s e x p l i c a t i n g f u n c t i o n s , the v i s u a l medium extended the c o n v e n t i o n a l use of the f e s t i v a l as an instrument t o encounter p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o u r t l y s p e c t a c l e d i s s e m i n a t e d a show of s t r e n g t h t h a t masked a l e s s than p e r f e c t P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e a t a time o f impending c o n f e s s i o n a l c o n f l i c t . Some o f the most 96 e y e - c a t c h i n g images, as I have suggested, a l l u d e t o the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s t a b i l i t i e s brought about by the p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s c r i s i s . In the engravings the hopes and f e a r s r a i s e d by a p o t e n t i a l l y r e b e l l i o u s a l l i a n c e c o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d i n a symbolic form t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y addressed the l o c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l spheres of a c t i o n . Mediated by the h i e r a r c h i c a l l y d e f i n e d language o f c o u r t l y g l o r i f i c a t i o n , the c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s of a dangerous P r o t e s t a n t a l l i a n c e were v i s u a l l y expounded and i n a sense overcome by a show o f v i r t u o s i t y and i n v e n t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d by j o i n i n g a p o t e n t i a l r e b e l l i o n were sublimated i n a c o n f i d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o u r t l y e l e v a t i o n and elegance t h a t p r e c l u d e d c o a r s e p o l e m i c a l content. I f the problems f a c e d by the Wurttemberg c o u r t i n j o i n i n g the P r o t e s t a n t Union would have been more d i r e c t l y addressed, perhaps the P a l a t i n a t e r u l e r would not have taken the dangerous st e p of a c c e p t i n g the Bohemian crown i n 1619. The P a l a t i n a t e s must have had an i n f l a t e d sense o f P r o t e s t a n t s o l i d a r i t y when F r e d e r i c k V p r e c i p i t a t e d an empire-wide armed c o n f l i c t when he took the s i d e of the Bohemian r e b e l s . N e i t h e r the P r o t e s t a n t Union nor the E n g l i s h k i n g came t o h i s a i d when he was e x p e l l e d by C a t h o l i c f o r c e s ; Duke Johann F r i e d r i c h t r i e d t o d e c l a r e n e u t r a l i t y but Wurttemberg was soon overrun by i m p e r i a l t r o o p s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f Wurttemberg t h a t had numbered 450,000 a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the c e n t u r y was reduced t o 90,000 by the end of the T h i r t y Years War. M. Merian. 98 C O V T J t A E C r a DES K/KSTLKHES FfWOTlCKS 50 BE f DES NE/GEBORXEXr/N'GEN" PRJVTZEN" FR1DERICHEN HERTTOG 2 7 F i g u r e 2. Fireworks; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. F i g u r e 3. Kubelstechen; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. o F i g u r e 5. Arcimboldesques: H a. Hunter. Saxony, 1576, e t c h i n g . H e i n r i c h Goding. b. T e r r a . Munich, 1590's, e t c h i n g . Unknown master. F i g u r e 8. Concord and D i s c o r d ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. £ Jywfihettbnbrtg pabfittr ©fftnbarung j|db«nm»CciftlOM'. s.Cap. © < f c a a » i i A n6M | i b c n r « » b n g t i c * GVann. thai bex g f l a l i vnb tnamt* Wu "Job ami** gifcbcn bat ir in m r an btt m t n * gtflat Du>t< fiton vngtlti^n tw »b' l*bfn^< rx» pabflw* gtUobi t > « warm all grf ntm M M ZMcblatxmba gaffltu^ cnlcvf l)cu«Vi gartbg pfintmwa fcaaibtamis^wwiLfUnmf IStx ui jt vcrfrifif<$« junsj £ > a » tb*cr «a« aim ptu6*l grirufe 3i*NIK txc Ywpfl m oiNfii?* ra^ fc>a« <Ukfe bwrtl^ btu4> tu<uvMT 2Uk* v u im mtatgm f.-r 31Kb | a fea i baa cttKT pnw pJ^  C-tai M* Ni« iEjiangc't f\i|> jlfl vonbtm boftwn onbammn v«f<^*n/wib<dEct vfi trrf nracn ibwi bet aad) aatt\6w<n mimj 2*b<m t*$ bAffbrn M M I fd^ ianb 3 par pallium n«fe a muu im Y'«mi,^pfrt p<i4 /^fiiff« »d<Bc«»b«nfi £' anb wfc Urn ?,unt4Tn<$ rmi rn *nfl t ) i f l < # a i l < » twnn|i<t>Polct4.mbm *. a * rbwi fntrfvnfl am i<JMi*i> nnbffl fctiu baa ftoaa (butin bj< gfcfeubai t > « * bap (bum tiblidj mmb grbwtxn POu bcmo**mbt* S3mtn munb gt ibaataf lo* g«5il gmnb. F i g u r e 9. Many-headed monsters: a. Seven-headed p a p a l b e a s t ; c. 153 0, woodcut b. S a t i r e on the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y ; 1556, t r i c k woodcut. 106 F i g u r e 10. Schembart m i r r o r costume, manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n F i g u r e 11. Hungarian King; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. H o -0 F i g u r e 12. Venus and Cupid; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. F i g u r e 13. T u r k i s h T r o p h i e s ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. F i g u r e 15. Venus; S e b a s t i a n Brant's Ship of F o o l s , 1494, woodcut. F i g u r e 16. The B a b y l o n i a n Whore; Luther B i b l e 1534. F i g u r e 17. Commemorative medals f o r Reformation J u b i l e e o f 1617. H F i g u r e 18. E n g l i s h L a d i e s ; S t u t t g a r t , 1616, engraving. H H 115 Itm'f fatitf full mt m *to flrmiffmi fcctfc crjtf rJcftnttctfe fr/!»:fat» *en b a n *fl&« a>5* F i g u r e 20. 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